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Caesar-augusta







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CAESAR-AUGUSTA, colonia, originally named Salduba, a city of Hispania Tarraconensis, and the capital of the Edetani, nowZaragoza, in Aragon, situate on the Ebro. At the close of his war with the Cantabri, Augustus invested it with colonial right and privileges, for veteran soldiers from three legions. The coins of this colony are Latin imperial, in small, middle and large brass, bearing on their respective obverses, portraits of Augustus, Agrippa, Livia, Caius and Lucius Caesares, Tiberius, Julia and Tiberius, Germanicus, Tiberius and Germanicus, Nero and Druso Caesares, Agrippina Senior and Caligula; the legends being C. C. A. and COL. CAESAR-AVGVSTA.

[Obs. – The coins having C. A. with a laurel crown, given by Vaillant, and after him by Florez, to his Roman colony in Spain and by Pellerin, to Caesarea Augusta in Palestine, belong to Caesarea Panias.- See Caesarea Philippi].

Among other types the following claim notice for the historical interest and extreme rarity.

Augustus.- Obv. – AVGVSTO DIVI F. Three standards between the words LEG. IV. LEG. VI. LEG. X.

Rev.- C. C. A. TIB. FLAVO PRAEF. GERM. L. IVVENT. LVPERCO, IIVIR.- Colonia Caesar-Augusta, Tiberio Flavo, Praefecto Germanici, Lucio Juventio Luperco, Duumviris.- Engraved in Vaillant, Col. i. p. 15.

This Large Brass, first edited by Seguin, was doubtless struck by the three legions stationed in the garrison town of Caesar-Augusta. Whence these veterans derived the right of coinage is a question unresolved. According to Vaillant, “these military standards allude to the origin of the colony. The type of the cultivator and his oxen at plough, and that of the legionary ensigns are respectively symbols of the civil and of the military portion of the colonists. The names of the legions inscribed in the obverse indicate those whence the veterans sent to Caesar-Augusta were drafted.” The interpretation by Vaillant, and adopted also by Florez, of the abbreviation PRAEF. GERM. as Praefectus Germanorum (Prefect of a German Cohort) is scouted by Eckhel (iv. 475 et. Sec.), who considers that the Tiberius Flavus, named on the obverse of this coin, is presented there as Praefectus Germanici, in allusion to Germanicus Caesar, the son of Drusus.- See DUUMVIR.

Augustus.- Obv.- AVGVSTVS DIVI F. Laureated head of the emperor.

Rev.- Q. STATIO. M. FABRICIO IIVIR. CAESAR AVGVSTA. Priest guiding two oxen yoked to a plough.

[This large Brass in engraved in Akerman. Coins of Spain, p. 72, pl. viii. No 13].

Caius and Lucius Caesares.- Obv.- AVG. C. CAES. COS. DESIG. L. CAES. COS. DES. Augustus holding the simpulum, stands between Caius and Lucius, his adopted grandsons; all three are clothed in the toga, and each stands on a cippus.

Rev.- (Names of duumvirs) CAESAR AVGVSTA. Vexillum placed on a cippus, between two military ensigns.

[This rare large Brass in engraved in Vaillant. Colonies, i. p. 20]

Tiberius.- Obv.- TI. CAESAR DIVI AVG F. AVGVSTVS PON. MAX. TR. POT. XXXIII. Tiberius wearing the toga, is seated on the curule chair, holding in his right hand a patera, and in his left the hasta.

Rev.- C. CA. L VETTIACVS M. CATO IIVIR.- A vexillum and two military ensigns, between which we read LEG. IV. LEG. VI. LEG. X.

[Endeavours having proved fruitless to procure a cast from some authentic specimen of this very rare and remarkably interesting product of the Roman-Hispanian coinage, the subjoined cut has been copied from a print in the Médailles de Christine, engraved by Bartolo, whose drawings of numismatic types are usualy accurate]

The vexillum, or cavalry standard, and the two other military ensigns, typified on the above reverse, refer to the veterans sent as a reinforcement to the colony, from the Fourth, Sixth, and Tenth Legions, whose respective designation stand on this coin as unmistakeably conspicuous, as do the names of the two duumvirs who cuased it to be minted.

On the Obverse of this large brass, the Roman authorities of Caesar-Augusta represent the emperor seated; and the record of the 33rd tribunitian power teaches us (says Vaillant, I, p. 70), that the people of this colony erected statues to Tiberius, on the occasion of Sejanus having been put to death. The Senate itself, indeed, according to Dion Cassius, set the example of public rejoicing when that event occurred; and the day of that bad minister’s execution was celebrated as festus dies, by all the magistrates and pontiffs, with unprecedented exultation, throughout all parts of the Roman world.- Amongst the Spanish colonies who congratulated Tiberius, and raised statues to his honour, on this occasion, Caesar-Augusta was the foremost.

The Following is another proof in confirmation of the above mentioned fact:- On the obverse of a very large brass, dedicated by this colony to Tiberius, appear the name and titles of that emperor, accompanied by the same date of the tribunitian power (xxxiii); the type is an equestrian figure of Tiberius, placed on a plinth. The reverse type is a legionary eagle and two standards, together with the colonial initials C. CA. (Colonia Caesar-Augusta); and the same names of M. Cato and L. Vettiacus, as duumvirs. The statue relates to the congratulatory honours paid to this unworthy emperor, who never thought of surrendering Sejanus to retributive justice, until his own personal safety was endangered by continuing that infamous minister in his service.- Engraved in p. 69 of Vaillant, in Col.

Obv.- TI. CAESAR DIVI AVG. F. AVGVSTVS.- Laureated head of Tiberius.

Rev.- C. CA. A bull, with infulated head, for sacrifice.- [See Akerman, Coins of Hispania, p. 74, plate viii. Fig. 8].

Tiberius and Julia.- Obv. TI. CAESAR DIVI AVGVSTI. F. AVGVSTVS. Laureated head of Tiberius.

Rev.- IVLIA AVGVSTA C. CA. Figure of Julia seated, as Piety, veiled and wearing the stola, holding a patera and the hasta.- large brass, rare. Engraved in Akerman, Coins of Hispania, p. 75, plate viii. Fig. 7.

Besides the types above described, the coins of Caesar-Augusta exhibit the winged lightning (fulmen alatum), as in Augustus. Also the figures of Nero and Drusus Caesares, sons of Germanicus, are represented in the toga; seated opposite each other and joining hands.