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Aes Grave
Aes Rude
The Age of Gallienus
Alexander Tetradrachms
Ancient Coin Collecting 101
Ancient Coin Prices 101
Ancient Coin Dates
Ancient Coin Lesson Plans
Ancient Coins & Modern Fakes
Ancient Counterfeits
Ancient Glass
Ancient Oil Lamps
Ancient Weapons
Ancient Wages and Prices
Ancient Weights and Scales
Anonymous Folles
Anonymous Follis
Anonymous Class A Folles
Antioch Officinae
Armenian Numismatics Page
Byzantine Denominations
A Cabinet of Greek Coins
Caesarean and Actian Eras
Campgates of Constantine
A Case of Counterfeits
Byzantine Christian Themes
Clashed Dies
Coins of Pontius Pilate
Conditions of Manufacture
Corinth Coins and Cults
Countermarked in Late Antiquity
Danubian Celts
Damnatio Coinage
Damnatio Memoriae
Denarii of Otho
Diameter 101
Die Alignment 101
Dictionary of Roman Coins
Doug Smith's Ancient Coins
Edict on Prices
ERIC - Rarity Tables
Etruscan Alphabet
The Evolving Ancient Coin Market
Facing Portrait of Augustus
Fel Temp Reparatio
Fertility Pregnancy and Childbirth
Friend or Foe
The Gallic Empire
Gallienus Zoo
Greek Alphabet
Greek Coins
Greek Dates
Greek Coin Denominations
Greek Mythology Link
Greek Numismatic Dictionary
Hellenistic Names & their Meanings
Hasmonean Dynasty
Helvetica's ID Help Page
The Hexastyle Temple of Caligula
Historia Numorum
Horse Harnesses
Identifying Ancient Metal Arrowheads
Illustrated Ancient Coin Glossary
Important Collection Auctions
Islamic Rulers and Dynasties
Julian II: The Beard and the Bull
Julius Caesar - The Funeral Speech
Kushan Coins
People in the Bible Who Issued Coins
Imperial Mints of Philip the Arab
Later Roman Coinage
Latin Plurals
Latin Pronunciation
Library of Ancient Coinage
Life in Ancient Rome
List of Kings of Judea
Malloy Weapons
Maps of the Ancient World
Military Belts
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Museum Collections Available Online
Nabataean Alphabet
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The [Not] Cuirassed Elephant
Not in RIC
Numismatic Bulgarian
Numismatic Excellence Award
Numismatic French
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Parthian Coins
Patina 101
Paleo-Hebrew Alphabet
Phoenician Alphabet
Pi-Style Athens Tetradrachms
Pricing and Grading Roman Coins
Reading Judean Coins
Representations of Alexander the Great
Roman Coin Attribution 101
Roman Militaria
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Rome and China
Satyrs and Nymphs
Serdi Celts
The Sign that Changed the World
Silver Content of Parthian Drachms
Star of Bethlehem Coins
Statuary Coins
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum
Syracusian Folles
Taras Drachms with Owl Left
The Temple Tax
The Temple Tax Hoard
Test Cut
Travels of Paul
Tribute Penny
Tribute Penny Debate Continued (2015)
Tribute Penny Debate Revisited (2006)
Tyrian Shekels
Uncleaned Ancient Coins 101
Venus Cloacina
What I Like About Ancient Coins
Who was Trajan Decius
Widow's Mite

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Metal Work

Used with permission from "Artifacts of Ancient Civilizations" by Alex G. Malloy

Copper has been worked since the beginning of the prehistoric period. We have found a variety of pins, arrowheads, and small personal accouterments from this time, and it was not long until these gave way to chisels, axes, needles, and larger tools. The copper was shaped by hammering.

During the Bronze Age an expansion was made to making vessels and statues of deities. Bronze was found in Egypt during the 3rd Dynasty. Beautiful bronze animals, pins, and finials from Luristan and Amlash in the 8th century B.C. can be found in the marketplace. Bronze kouros and animals are among the archaic bronze made in Greece. From the 6th-4th century B.C., Etuscan bronzes were made in the forms of various figures, including warriors, gods, and goddesses. The Greco-Roman vessels were beautiful, and a fine degree of artistic ability is revealed in these works. Roman bronze figures are highly sought after, and can fetch handsome prices for top quality.

The vast pantheon of Egyptian gods and goddesses were made during the Late Dynastic period. All were cast by the "lost wax" process. These bronzes were carefully detailed, and often  traces of gilding. Osiris, Harpokrates, and Isis were among the popular subjects. Cats, Apis bulls, hawks, ibises, and pharohs were also widely made.

Smaller bronze artifacts were also made. Bronze clothing ornaments, arrowheads, swords, daggers, buckles, fibulas, hair ornaments, and amulets were all among the items manufactured from Europe to Western Asia and Egypt in the early Bronze Age and down through the Roman period. These utilitarian objects were made by casting or hammering.

Lead was used only sparingly, but was utilized in Greco-Roman times for weights, seal impressions, and sling bullets. Iron was used from the Iron Age on, but has come down to us sparingly. Iron deteriorates when exposed to air, and we therefore find little of it today. Iron was mainly used to make weapons and tools.

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