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Almgren, O. Studien über nordeuropäische Fibelformen. (Liepzig, 1923).

In German: Studies of northern European fibula forms.

PDF available online

Table of Contents

Preface (with museum and bibliographical references) ... iii

Introduction... 1
   - Spatial and temporal limitation of the task.
   - Development of the Roman fibulae from the Le Tene fibulae.
   - Division of Northern European fibulae of Roman times.

Group I: Bow Fibulae with one-piece construction, includes La Tene fibula, Early bent-foot fibula, Schüssel fibula, Eingliederige fibula, Nauheimer fibula and Soldiers fibula ... 7

Group II: Bow Fibulae with two-piece construction and spring pin ... 11

Group III: Augen fibula (Eye fibula) ... 21

Group IV: Kraftig profilierte (highly profiled) fibulae ... 34

Group V: Fibulae created by the flattening or disappearance of the more powerful profile of Group IV ... 48

Group VI: Bent-foot fibula (Umgeschlagenem Fuss fibula) and their next developments ... 71

Group VII: Two-branched crossbow brooches with high needle holder ... 90

Plate Fibula ... 99

Specifically Roman provincial fibula forms, which occur only sporadically in Northern Europe ... 106

Summary of the results ... 113
   - Roman era. Development of the various fibula forms. Where are they fabricated? Overview of its history of origin and development. Local differences.
Forging with
wire and stamped sheets.
Early Byzantine period. Early Roman period. Some features of Gothic culture. Local differences in northern European areas. The later provincial-Roman fibula forms probably with increasing Germanic influence.

Lists of sources to illuminate the dissemination of various forms of fibula ... 132
List of northern European finds that shed light on the timing of the various fibula forms ... 213
III. Overview of the brooches and coins of the large Moor find ... 234
IV. Overview of the fibulae of the Pyrmotic Well find ... 235
V. Review of the find combinations in which the fibula forms of Groups I-V are available


(Note: Labels below do not all match the original labels. Some are modified to match the names used on this website)

Group I. Early bow fibula  - one piece construction...7

Group B1: Bow fibula, one-piece construction, spring tendon (wire connecting two ends of the spring) below the spring.
Fig. 1, 3, 4 , 5: La Tene fibula
Fig. 2, 6, 7, 8, 9: Early bent-foot fibula
Fig. 9: Cap fibula (Schüsselfibeln)
Fig. 10 - 13: Eingliederige fibula (wide foot fibula)
Fig. 14: Eingliederige fibula variety
Fig. 15 - 16: Soldiers fibula (legionary fibula, Roma provincial Le Tene derived wire fibula)

Group B2: Bow fibula, one-piece construction, tendon (wire connecting two ends of the spring) above the spring, held by spring hook.
Fig. 17, 18, 19, 20: Late Nauheimer Fibula (Roman Provincial)
Fig. 21: Small group B2 silver Roman provincial bow fibula
Fig, 22: Large group B2 bronze Roman provincial bow fibula

Group II: Bow fibulae with two-piece construction and spring pin...11

Group III: Augen (eye) fibulae ... 21

Group IV: Kraftig profilierte (highly profiled) fibulae ... 34

Group V: Fibulae created by the flattening or disappearance of the more powerful profile of Group IV ... 48

Group VI: Umgeschlagenem Fuss (folded foot) fibulae and their next developments ... 71

Group VII: Two-branched crossbow brooches with long parallel pin catch (high needle holder) ... 90

Plate Fibula (Disk Brooches) ... 99

Specifically Roman provincial fibula forms, which occur only sporadically in Northern Europe ... 106

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