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XXI

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Alexander III The Great, Macedonian Kingdom, 336 - 323 B.C.

Alexander III the Great is arguably the most famous man of antiquity. Born into Macedonian royalty, his genius and charisma led the Macedonian army across three continents, creating an empire that covered most of the then known world, from Greece to India. He was regarded by many in the lands he conquered as god, and his fame grew even greater after his premature death at about the age of 33. His reign marks the beginning of the Hellenistic Age, a time when almost every aspect of human civilization flourished. His coinage is highly complex, struck in more than 100 cities on three continents and spanning more than 250 years. The standards are the silver tetradrachms depicting Heracles, the ancient world's mythic hero, and Zeus, king of the Olympian gods, and the gold staters depicting Athena, goddess of wisdom and warfare, and Nike, goddess of victory. Other denominations in silver and gold were also struck, along with several different bronze types and denominations.


References

Price, M. J. The Coinage of in the Name of Alexander the Great and Philip Arrhidaeus. A British Museum Catalogue. Two volumes. Zurich and London: The Swiss Numismatic Society in association with the British Museum Press, 1991. 637 pages, 159 plates. Describes about 4100 coins struck in the name of Alexander the Great (lifetime and posthumous issues), his half-brother and successor, Philip Arrhidaeus, and those of Lysimachus of the Alexander types. The introductory text discusses designs, titles, portraiture, symbols and monograms, denominations, weights, hoard evidence, circulation patterns, countermarks, counterfeits, and chronology. The catalogue of coin varieties is arranged by mints. References are given to similar specimens in other collections and hoards. The list of varieties is supplemented by more specific listings of coins in the British Museum collection for which weights, die alignment, and provenances are given. The plates illustrate coins in the British Museum's collection. Includes tables of concordance to Muller and von Prokesch-Osten and indices of hoards and issue marks (symbols, Greek and Aramaic letters, monograms). Also includes brief listings of barbarous issues and modern forgeries. This is the most comprehensive study of the Alexander coinage ever published and is the standard reference fro the series.--from Ancient Greek Numismatics, A Guide to Reading and Research by William E. Daehn.

Arena, V. "New Acquisitions at the British Museum: additions to Price, Alexander, and the 1870 Larnaca Hoard" in NC 2003.
Bauslaugh, R.A. "The posthumous Alexander coinage of Chios" in ANSMN 24 (1979).
Cohen, E. Dated Coins of Antiquity: A comprehensive catalogue of the coins and how their numbers came about. (CNG, Lancaster, PA, 2011).
Davesne, A. & G. Le Rider. Le trésor de Meydancikkale. (Paris, 1989).
Duyrat, F. Arados Hellénistique: Étude historique et monétaire. (Beirut, 2005).
Gaebler, H. Die antiken Münzen von Makedonia und Paionia, Die antiken Münzen Nord-Griechenlands Vol. III. (Berlin, 1935).
Gardiakos, Soterios, ed. The Coinages of Alexander the Great. (Aurora, Il, 1981).
Head, B. V. British Museum Catalogue of Greek Coins, Macedonia, etc. (London, 1879).
Hersh, C. "Additions and Corrections to Martin J. Price's 'The Coinage in the name of Alexander the Great and Philip Arrhidaeus'" in Studies Price.
Houghton, A.; C. Lorber & O. Hoover. Seleucid Coins: A Comprehensive Catalog. (Lancaster, 2002 - 2008).
Karayotov, I. The Coinage of Mesambria Vol. I: Silver and Gold Coins of Mesambria. (Sozopol, Bulgaria, 1994).
Le Rider, G. Alexander the Great: Coinage, Finances, and Policy. (Philadelphia, 2007).
Liampi, K. "A Hoard of Bronze Coins of Alexander the Great" in Studies Price.
Liampi. K. "Zur Chronologie der sogenannten 'anonymen' mekedonischen Münzen des späten 4. Jhs. v. Chr." in JNG XXXVI. (1986).
Lindgren, H & F. Kovacs. Ancient Bronze Coinage of Asia Minor and the Levant. (San Mateo, 1985).
Lindgren, H. Ancient Greek Bronze Coins: European Mints. (San Mateo, 1989).
Lindgren, H. Ancient Greek Bronze Coins. (Quarryville, 1993).
Mildenberg, L. & S. Hurter, eds. The Dewing Collection of Greek Coins. ACNAC 6. (New York, 1985).
Müller, L. Die Münzen Des Thracishen Konigs Lysimacus. (Copenhagen, 1858).
Müller, L. Numismatique d'Alexandre le Grand; Appendice les monnaies de Philippe II et III, et Lysimaque. (Copenhagen, 1855-58).
Nash, D. "The Kuft Hoard of Alexander III Tetradrachms" in NC 1974, pp. 14 - 30. Kuft Hoard
Newell, D. Reattribution of certain tetradrachms of Alexander the Great. (New York, 1912).
Pick, B. and K. Regling. Die antiken Münzen von Dacien und Möesien, Die antiken Münzen Nord-Griechenlands Vol. I/II. (Berlin, 1910).
Polk, R.S. A Catalog of the Greek Coins in the British Museum, the Ptolemies, Kings of Egypt. (London, 1882).
Prieur, M. and K. Prieur. The Syro-Phoenician Tetradrachms and their fractions from 57 BC to AD 258. (Lancaster, PA, 2000).
Price, M. J. The Coinage of in the Name of Alexander the Great and Philip Arrhidaeus. (London, 1991).
Sear, D. Greek Coins and Their Values, Volume 2, Asia and Africa. (London, 1979).
Svoronos, J. Ta Nomismata tou Kratous ton Ptolemaion. (Athens, 1904-08).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Austria, Klagenfurt, Landesmuseum für Kärnten, Sammlung Dreer. Part 3: Thracien-Macedonien-Päonien. (Klagenfurt, 1984).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Denmark, The Royal Collection of Coins and Medals, Danish National Museum, Volume 2: Macedonia and Thrace. (West Milford, NJ, 1982).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Deutschland, München Staatlische Münzsammlung, Makedonien - Könige, 10/11 Heft. (Berlin, 2001).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Great Britain V, Ashmolean Museum, Oxford, Part 3: Macedonia. (London, 1976).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Greece II, The Alpha Bank Collection, Macedonia I: Alexander I - Perseus. (Athens, 2000).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Greece IV, Numismatic Museum, Athens, The Petros Z. Saroglos Collection, Part 1: Macedonia. (Athens, 2005).
Thompson, M., and A.R. Bellinger. Greek Coins in the Yale Collection, IV: A Hoard of Alexander Drachms. (New Haven, CT, 1955).
von Prokesch-Osten, A. "Liste des Alexandres de ma collection qui ne se trouvent pas dans le catalogue de Mr. L. Müller" in NZ 1 (Constantinople, 1869). pp. 31 - 64.
von Prokesch-Osten, A. "Suite des monnaies inédites d'or et d'argent d'Alexandre le Grand" in NZ 3 (Constantinople, 1873). pp. 51 - 72.
Waggoner, N. The Alexander Mint at Babylon. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Columbia University, 1968.
Wartenberg, U. & J.H. Kagan, "Some Comments on a New Hoard from the Balkan Sea" in Travaux Le Rider.