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ZENOBIA (Septimia), Queen of Palmyra, wife of Odenathus, and mother of Timolaus, Herenuianus, and Vabalathus. [ODENATHVS ; VABALATHVS.] Though claiming her descent from the Macedonian kings of Egypt, she is suposed by some Christian writers to have ben a Jewess (Jost, Geschichte des Israel, vol. iii., p. 166 ; Milman Hist. of the Jews, vol. iii. p. 175 ; cf. Gibbon, Rom. Emp., ed. Smith, vol. ii., p. 20, note a.) After the death of Odenathus (A.D. 266-267) Zenobia attempted to place under her sway Syria, Asia, and Egypt, and assumed the title of Queen of the East [BACILICCA on an inscription found in Palmyra, dated 582 of the Seleucidan era = A.D. 271, Bull. de l'Athén. Franc., 1855, p. 36.] Aurelian made war with her, and defeated her at the battles of Daphne and Emesa. After the capture of this latter city, Zenobia fled to Palmyra, which was besieged by Aurelian. She attempted to escape, but was captured by the cavalry of Aurelian, and Palmyra soon afterwards surrendered. Zenobia - together with the Emperor Tetricus, who had given himself up to Aurelian at the gret battle of Chalons, A.D. 274 [TETRICVS] - had to take a captive's part in the triumph of Aurelian, but afterwards (as well as Tetricus) was treated with great clemency, being allowed to pass the remainder of her life with her sons in a handsome villa at Tibur or Tivoli, which had ben presented to her by her conqueror.
A full historical and numismatic account of Zenobia and the Princes of Palmyra has been written by Dr. von Sallet (Die Fürsten von Palmyra unter Gallienus, Claudius, und Aurelian, 1866), who, from coin-dates, inscriptions and ancient authors, has drawn up the following chronological table:-