Carson, R., P. Hill & J. Kent. Late Roman Bronze Coinage. (London, 1960).

Part I : The bronze coinage of the house of Constantine, A.D. 324-346.

Part II : Bronze Roman imperial coinage of the later empire, A.D. 346-498.

Part I

List of Abbreviations Used

Obverse Busts

CI = Constantine the Great
CII = Constantine II
Cr = Crispus
Cs = Constantius II
Cn = Constans
Han = Hannibalianus
H = Helena
T = Theodora
U.R. = Urbs Roma
Cp. = Constantinopolis

A. Head, laureate.
B. Head, laur. (and rosettes).
C. Head, laur. (and rosettes, looking upward.
D. Head, diademed (pearls).
E. Head, diademed (pearls and rosettes).
F. Head, diademed (pearls and rosettes), looking upward.
G. Head, diademed (plain).
H. Head, diademed (plain), looking upward.
I. Head, veiled.
J. Bust, laur., cuirassed.
K. Bust, laur., cuir., in paludamentum.
L. Bust, laur., cuir., holding spear and shield.
M. Bust, laur. (and rosettes), cuir.
N. Bust, laur. (and rosettes), cuir., in palud.
O. Bust, diad. (pearls), cuir.
P. Bust, diad. (pearls), cuir., in palud.
Q. Bust, diad. (pearls and rosettes), cuir., in palud.
R. Bust, veiled
S. Bust, veiled, diad.,
T. Bust, bareheaded, cuir., in palud.
U. Bust, bareheaded, draped.
V. Bust, laur., dr.
W. Bust, laur. (and pearls), dr., mantled
X. Bust, diad. (pearls), dr.
Y. Bust, diad., dr.
Z. Bust, diad., dr., mantled
AA. Bust, dr., in pearled head-dress
BB. Bust, dr., mantled, in pearled head dress
CC. Bust, diad. (pearls and rosettes), cuir.

l. The letter l following a bust letter = bust to left (e.g. Kl).

1 After a bust letter = 3 or more rosettes in the diadem.

2 After a bust letter = one end rosette in the diadem.