Van Buchem

Van Buchem, H. De Fibulae Van Nijmegen. (Nijmegen, 1941).

In Dutch. The fibulae from Nijmegen [Netherlands].

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NOTE: TRANSLATIONS BELOW NEED IMPROVEMENT.  PLEASE CONTRIBUTE CORRECTIONS AND IMPROVEMENTS.


Table of Contents

LITERATURE LIST WITH THE ABBREVIATIONS USED... 1

INTRODUCTION... 11
  1. Names... 11
  2. The fibulae of Nijmegen... 15
  3. Processing of the material... 26
  4. Metallographic research... 33
  5. Wearing practices of the fibulae... 35
  6. Manufacturers and users of the fibulae... 44

CATALOG... 65
   Pre-Roman era... 68
   Early Roman era... 68
   Middle Roman era... 100
   Late Roman era... 120
   Post-Roman era... 122

PLATES... I - XIX

I. Prehistoric Fibulae (|Bronze Age |Fibulae|)
   1. Simple arch fibula
   2. Serpent fibula
   3-5. Boat fibula
   6-7. Leech |fibula (Sanguisuga)
   8. Spectacle fibula with two spirals
   9-10. Spectacle fibula with four spirals
   11. Certosa fibula.

II. Iron Age |Fibulae
   1. Early La Tène fibula
   2-3. Middle La Tène fibula
   4-5. Nauheim fibula
   6-13. Cap fibula
   14. Collar fibula
   15-16. Wing fibula
   17-19. Shield-winged fibulae
   20-30. Fibula with spring sleeve

III.
   1-7. Buckle fibula
   8-24. Thistle |fibula|

IV. Rosette |fibula

V.
   1-24. Hook fibula
   23-30. Secco fibula

VI. Arc fibula

VII.
   1-26. Knick fibula
   27-32. Dagger fibula

VIII. Augen fibula (Eyes Fibula)

IX. Aucissa fibula

X.
   1-4. Lattice fibula (Aucissa fibula variant)
   5-37. Kraftig profilierte (highly profiled) fibulae with spring pin

XI. Kraftig profilierte (highly profiled) fibulae with hinge pin

XII. Soldiers fibula (legionary fibula, wire fibula)

XIII.
   1-5. Soldiers fibula (legionary fibula, wire fibula) with triangular cross-section bow
   6-21. Soldiers fibula (legionary fibula, wire fibula) with a band-shaped bow

XIV.
   1-9. T-shaped fibula
   10-15. Trumpet fibula
   16-33. Enameled stirrup fibula

XV. Geometric plate fibula
   1-18. Equilateral geometric plate fibula
   19-27. Plate fibula with oval or polygonal shape

XVI. Enamel plate fibula

XVII. Plate fibulae
   1-5. Zoomorphic plate fibula
   6. Letter plate fibula (inverted S)
   7. Skeuomorphic Plate Fibula (axe)
   8-9. Openwork plate fibula (Swastika)
   10-12. Geometric plate fibula
   13-25. Knee fibula

XVIII. Crossbow fibula

XIX.
   1-4. Anglo-Saxon Fibula
   5-8. Frankish Fibula
   9-11. Plate Fibula
   12. Knot fibula
   13-28. Various fibula
   29-39 Fibula fragments


Abbreviations with English Translations

afgebi. = afgebroken en ontbreekt = broken off and missing
bandv. = bandvotmig = band-shaped
besch. = beschadigd = damaged
bovendr. = bovendraads = above the wire
bijgev. = bijgevoegd = attached
bijz. = bijzonderheden = specifics 
doorsn. = doorsnede = cross section
drieh. = driehoekig = triangular
dwarsb. = dwarsbalk = crossbar
ex. = exemplaar = specimen, example
ged. = gedeeltelijk = partial
geox. = geoxydeerd = corrosion (oxidized)
geprof. = geprofileerd = profiled
grotend. = voor het grootste = the largest
gedeelte hor. = horizontaal = horizontal
hulssch. = hulsscharnier = sleeve hing
lì. = links = left
m. = met = with
naaldh. = naaldhouder = needle catch (holder)
onderdr. = onderdraads = underwire
ontbr. = ontbreekt = missing
orn. = ornament = ornament
prof. = profilering = profiling
ie. = rechts = right
rechth. = rechthoekig = rectangular
ruitv. = ruitvormig = diamond shaped
schamierh. = scharnierhuls = hing sleeve
scharnierst. = scharnierstift = hing pin
spandr. = spandraad = tendon wire
spir. dr. = spiraaldraad = spring (spiral wire)
steuna. = steunarm(en) = support arm(s)
steunpl. = steunplaat = support plate
uitst. = uitsteeksel = protrusion
verm. = vermoedelijk = probably
vert. = vertikaal = vertical
vierk. = vierkant = square
wa.sch. = wangenschamier = cheek(?) joint
weersz. = weerszijden = on both sides
wind. = windingen = windings
wschl. = waarschijnlijk = probably


Plates



I. Prehistoric Fibulae
   1. Simple arch fibula
   2. Serpent fibula
   3-5. Boat fibula
   6-7. Leech fibula (Sanguisuga fibula)
   8. Spectacle fibula with two spirals
   9-10. Spectacle fibula with four spirals
   11. Certosa fibula


II.
   1. Early La Tène fibula
   2-3. Middle La Tène fibula
   4-5. Nauheim fibula
   6-13. Cap fibulae
   14. Collar fibula
   15-16. Wing fibulae
   17-19. Shield-winged fibulae
   20-30. Fibulae with spring sleeve


III.
   1-7. Buckle fibula
   8-24.
Thistle |fibula|


IV. Rosette fibula


V.
   1-24. Hook fibulae
   23-30. Secco fibulae




VI. Arc fibulae







VII.
  1-26. Knick fibula
  27-32. Dagger fibulae





VIII.
Augen| |fibula (Eyes Fibula)



IX.
Aucissa| |fibula



X.
1-4. 
Lattice fibula| (openwork Aucissa variant)
5-37.
Kraftig profilierte (highly profiled) fibulae with spring

XI.
Kraftig profilierte (highly profiled) fibulae with hinge



XII. Soldiers fibula (legionary fibula, wire fibula)
Series A.
1 -  4, 6. The bow curve is rounded, the bow cross section is usually but not always round or oval, the spring section of wire is usually but not always square in cross section.
Series B.
5, 7 - 17. Variations of Series A as described below:
5. Round opening in the needle holder.
7 - 8. S-shaped profile and with small disk at the top of the bow and knob or button on the foot.
9 - 10. S-shaped profile and with small disk at the top of the bow but without foot button.
11. S-shaped profile but without disk or foot button.
12. Notch in the bottom of the pin catch plate and ornamental horizontal notches on the bow.
13. Notch in the bottom of the pin catch plate.
14. Notch in the bottom of the pin catch plate, rectangular bow cross-section.
15 - 17. Hexagonal bow cross-section.
Series C.
18 - 27. The bow curve is more angular, the bow cross section is usually but not always band-shaped, the spring section of wire is usually but not always square in cross section.
Series D.
28 - 37. Variations of Series C as described below:
28. Foot button and round opening in the pin catch plate.
29. Round opening in the pin catch plate.
30. Foot button, no opening in the pin catch plate.
31. Two notches in the bottom of the pin catch plate.
32. Notch in the bottom of the pin catch plate.
33 - 34. Notch in the bottom of the pin catch plate and ornamental horizontal notches on the bow.
35. Ornamental horizontal notches on the bow, no notch in the pin catch plate.
36 - 37. Rectangular bow cross-section.



XIII.
1-5. Soldiers fibula (legionary fibula, wire fibula) with triangular cross-section bow
6-21. Soldiers fibula (legionary fibula, wire fibula) with a band-shaped bow




XIV.
1-9. T-shaped fibula|
10-15. Trumpet fibula
16-33. Enameled stirrup fibula





XV. Geometric plate fibula
1-18. Equilateral fibula
19-27 Plate fibula with oval or polygonal shape


XVI. Enamel plate fibula



XVII. Plate fibulae
1-5. Zoomorphic plate fibula
6. Letter plate fibula (inverted S)
7. Skeuomorphic Plate Fibula (axe)
8-9. Openwork plate fibula (Swastika)
10-12. Geometric plate fibula
13-25. Knee fibula

XVIII. Crossbow fibula

XIX. Post Roman Fibula and Other Fibula
1-4. Anglo-Saxon fibula
5-8. Frankish fibula
9-11. Plate Fibula
12. Knot fibula

13-28. Various fibula
29-39 Fibula fragments