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Saloninus was one of the sons of Gallienus and Salonina. After the death of his older brother Valerian II, he was made Caesar late in 258 A.D. and sent to oversee the western regions, aided by his praetorian prefect Silvanus and the governor of Germany, Postumus. In 260 A.D., the same year his grandfather was captured by the Sasanians, Postumus rebelled and besieged him at Cologne. He was made Augustus in 260 but within a few weeks or months of his accession he was captured and executed. According to Vagi, his coinage as Augustus is extremely rare, with perhaps fewer than 20 specimens known. -- Coinage and History of The Roman Empire by David L. Vagi
Also see: ERIC - SALONINUS
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SALONIVS (Cornelius), eldest son of Gallienus and Salonina, born A.D. 242, was declared Caesar by Valerian, his grandfather, at the same time that his father was associated to the imperial government, A.D: 253. - About the year 258 (according to Beauvais) be be received from his father the titles of Imperator and Augustus. Sent by Gallienus into Gaul, under a preceptor, named Sylvanus, his residence in those provinces contributed to maintain them in obedience to the Romans till 260.
Gallienus, after the captivity of his father, being compelled to go into Pannonia, then disturbed by the revolt of the usurper Ingenuus, continued to entrust his son to the care of Sylvanus, who, jealous of the warlike exploits and increasing glory of Postumus, prefect of the Gauls, embroiled his young master with the soldiers of that experienced general, in the paltry matter of some booty taken from barbarians who had been repulsed in an attempt to pillage the borders of the Rhine.
The consequence was their revolt from Saloninus, and their election of Postumus as emperor - immediately followed by his laying siege to Colonia Agrippina (Cologne), where the youthful Augustus and his preceptor resided, and where on thir being delivered up by the cowardly garrison, both were put to death by order of Postumus, A.D. 259.
Saloninus was placed amongst the number of the gods by his sorrowing father, who, however, did not fulfill his oath to avenge his death on the head of Postumus.
The coins of this young prince are in ordinary sized silver, and in small brass, common; rare in first (sestertii) and second brass (dupondii, asses), and very rare in gold, as also are his bronze medallions.
On these he is styled P LIC COR VALERIANVS CAES - SALON VALERIANVS NOB CAES - IMP C L VALERIANVS NOB CAESAR - VALERIANVS NOBIL CAES - IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS P F AVG - DIVVS CORN SAL VALERIANVS. Some of the pieces represent him with Gallienus.
The medals which numismatists were formerly accustomed to divide between Saloninus and Valerianus junior, are now assigned solely to Saloninus. The researches and opinions of Eckhel have led to this decision amongst antiquaries on a once perplexed and unsettled question.
The learned and acute author of Doct. Num. Vet. has, in two copious and elaborate diatribes (see tom. vii. p. 427 et seq.), clearly shown that Valerianus the younger, brother of Gallienus, never took the title either of Caesar or of Augustus, and consequently that no medals were ever struck in honour of that prince.
"The medals of Saloninus (says Mionnet - Med. Rom. tom. ii. p. 54) have this peculiarity, that great numbers of those struck during the life-time of this young prince give him the title of Augustus, whilst on the greater part of the medals struck after his death he bears only the title of Caesar.
From this latter circumstance, it seems to follow that Saloninus had no legal claim to be called Augustus; that is to say, if this title was conferred on him by his father, it was not confirmed to him by the Senate.
But, in that case, how does it happen that this title is found on medals which were struck before the death of that prince? We must believe, with Eckhel, who seems to have given the most satisfactory solution to this difficulty, that Gallienus, in departing from Gaul on his expedition to pacify Pannonia, and in leaving there his son (Saloninus) under the care of Sylvanus, had previously taken the step of conferring upon him more authority, and that many mint-masters, deceived by his title, which was usually accompanied by that of Augustus, were induced to add that title also on their medals, believing that it really belonged to the prince.
The supposition respecting the title of Imperator given to Saloninus is warranted by several monuments in which this honour is united to that of CAESAR, or NOBILISSIMVS CAESAR. - See Doct. Num. Vet. tom. vii. p. 426.