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PATER. The appellation of Pater is sometimes given alone (that is to say without the addition of the word Patriae) to the Emperors after their deaths and when their deification or consecration had taken place. Thus we find DIVVS AVGVSTVS PATER inscribed on some of that Emperor's coins with the various symbols of the apotheosis. In like manner after they were dead, medals with with the addition of that word, were struck in honor of the memory of Trajan and of Pertinax, viz DIVVS TRAIANUS PARTH PATER, and DIVVS PERT PATER.
The title of Pater appears on a gold coin struck by order of Trajan in memory of his own father, Marcus Ulpius Trajanus who is thereon styled DIVVS PATER TRAIANVS and represented seated on a curule chair. And in like manner some coins of Hadrian (who was, through the intervention of Plotina, the adopted son and appointed successor of Trajan). present the heads of Trajan and Plotina face to face with the inscription DIVIS PARENTIBVS.
Another medal with the head of Trajan bears TRAIANVS PATER AVGVSTVS. Besides which there is another of Hadrian on which we read DIVVS TRAIANVS AVG PARTHicus PATER. To the same class of medals on which sons, whether natural or adopted, of deceased emperors pay filial honor to their memory, are to be referred these coins of Maximianus Hercules inscribed DIVVS MAXIMIANVS PATER, and on another DIVVS MAXIMIANVS SOCER (perhaps as Akerman says, MAXENTII) and probably struck after his death by his son Maxentius.
Pater. Almost every pagan god was so called as Neptunus Pater, Janus Pater, etc. (Vaillant, Pr. ii, p. 223). Thus also on coins of Commodus and of Severus, Bacchus Pater. See LIBERO PATRI. See also LIBERO P CONS AVG on a medal of Gallienus. In like manner Mars is surnamed Pater as the founder (through Romulus) of the city and the empire of Rome. See MARS PATER to which are added the titles of CONSERVATOR and PROPVGNATOR on medals of Constantinus M.
Pater. As already observed, is also an appellation given on coins to Augustus. As seated in the likeness of Jupiter himself, that Emperor is depicted as one of the celestial deities. DIVVS AVGVSTVS PATER appears not only with radiated head, but also with naked and laureated head and with various symbols of consecration.