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AMMON, a surname of Zeus or Jupiter.

Alexander the Great styled himself the son of Zeus-Ammon; his successors, the kings of Syria and those of Cyrenaica have, on coins, their heads adorned with the horns of a ram, or of Ammon, the symbol of their dominion over Libya.  This deity appears on a great number of coins and engraved marbles.  The Egyptians, for whom he was a popular divinity, regarded him as the author of fecundity and generation.  The same belief was later introduced to the Romans who worshipped Ammon as the preserver of nature.


In the consular series of the Roman mint, the head of Ammon is found on coins of the Cornuficia, Lollia, Pinaris, Papina and other families, and in the Imperial, on those of Augustus, Trajan, Hadrian. Aurelius, Severus and Trebonius Gallus.


The head of Jupiter-Ammon appears on a denarius of Augustus (see, Pembroke Collection, pg. iii, TAB. 9). -- Eckhel (vi. pg. 87) referring to this, observes that it is a type of an unusual kind in the mint of that Prince (then simply, Octavianus), but he accounts for it from the circumstance of its having been struck in Africa by Pinarius Scarpus, one of his Lieutenants.

On a denarius of the Antonia family, given in Morell, Thesaur., we read M. ANTO. (Marcus Antoninus) COS III. IMP IIII.  The type is Jupiter-Ammon, as designated by the attribute of a ram's horn on the side of a bearded head.

For this device, see Cornuficia gens.

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