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Early Anonymous Denarii

WORK IN PROCESS

The denarius was introduced in 211 B.C. The early denarii were anonymous with the obverse type: helmeted head of Roma right, X (mark of value = 10 asses) behind; and reverse type: Dioscuri on horseback galloping right, ROMA below. The following early denarii were issued anonymously and without control marks:

ROMA INCUSE ON TABLET
ROMA incuse on a raised tablet (SRCV I 37 says only partially incuse), Rome mint, from 211 - Crawford 44/5 [var. 1]*, SRCV I 37, RSC I 1
Broad thin flans, some letters incuse, some raised ROMA incuse on a raised tablet (distinguished from 44/5 var. 1 only by style?), uncertain mint, after 211 - Crawford 45/1, SRCV I 36, RSC I 1, BMCRR Italy 91, Sydenham 166

  

ROMA INCUSE IN FRAME

*Crawford 44/5 seems to describe two variants under one number. 

ROMA NOT INCUSE
ROMA in a linear frame (NOT incuse, distinguished from 46/1 only by style?), uncertain mint, after 211 - Crawford 46/1, SRCV - 38 corr. (? says Crawford 44/5), RSC I 2
ROMA in a linear frame (NOT incuse, distinguished from 46/1 only by style?), Rome mint, from 211 - Crawford 53/2, SRCV 38 corr. (? says Crawford 44/5), RSC I 2

 

 

Roman Silver Coins Volume 1 (RSC I)
From 211.
   RSC I 1 - ROMA incuse (=BMCRR Italy 91, Sydenham 166, Crawford 45/1)
   RSC I 1a - ROMA partly incuse (=BMCRR Italy 90, Sydenham 169, Crawford 44/5)
   RSC I 2 - Roma in relief (=BMCRR Rome 1, etc.; Sydenham 140, 168, etc.; Crawford 44/5) 

Sear - Roman Coins and their Values I (SRCV I)
211- 206 B.C.
   SRCV I 36 - ROMA incuse (=Crawford 45/1, Sydenham 166, BMCRR Italy 91, RSC I 1)
   SRCV I 37 - Roma partially incuse (=Crawford 45/1, Sydenham 167, BMCRR Italy 90, RSC I 1a)
   SRCV I 38 - Roma in relief (=Crawford 44/5, Sydenham 140, BMCRR Rome 1, RSC I 2)

Crawford - Roman Republican Coinage (Crawford or RRC)
From 211, Rome.
   44/5 - ROMA incuse on tablet or in linear frame (incuse or in relief in linear frame not specified) (=BMCRR Rome 1) 

After 211, Rome.
   53/2 - Roman in linear frame

After 211, uncertain mint.
   45/1 - ROMA incuse on tablet (=BMCRR Italy 91)
   46/1 - ROMA in linear frame (=BMCRR Rome 1)
   54/1 - ROMA in exergue
   55/1 - Roman in linear frame

Sydenham - The Coinage of the Roman Republic (Sydenham or CRR) 
c. 187 - 155 B.C., S. Italy (Regium?). These are the earliest denarii, distinguished by fine style with clear Greek influence. Helmets are simpler and earrings are derived from Greek didrachms of S. Italy.
   Sydenham 140 - Helmet earring combinations: A1a1, A1b1, A2a1, A2b1, B1a1, B4a1

c. 182 -172 B.C., S.E. Italy mint (Apulia or Picenum?). Distinguished by broad thin flans, crude, shallow relief types. 
   Sydenham 166 - ROMA incuse on tablet; Helmet earring combinations: B1a3, B1c2
   Sydenham 167 - some letters of ROMA incuse, some in relief; Helmet earring combinations: B3b2, B4a1
   Sydenham 168 - ROMA in relief in frame with top, bottom and left side; Helmet earring combinations: B2a4
   Sydenham 169 - ROMA in relief under exergue line; Helmet earring combinations: B1a3, B1a4, B3a3, B3a4

 

Early Anonymous Denarii

WORK IN PROCESS

The denarius was introduced in 211 B.C. The early denarii were anonymous with the obverse type: helmeted head of Roma right, X (mark of value = 10 asses) behind; and reverse type: Dioscuri on horseback galloping right, ROMA below.

Sydenham - The Coinage of the Roman Republic (Sydenham or CRR) 
Sydenham 140 - Helmet earring combinations: A1a1, A1b1, A2a1, A2b1, B1a1, B4a1. c. 187 - 155 B.C., S. Italy (Rhegium?). These are the earliest denarii, distinguished by fine style with clear Greek influence. Helmets are simpler and earrings are derived from Greek didrachms of S. Italy.

Sermarini comments: Dates appear to be wrong. Probably struck 211 - c. 208 B.C. Sydenham appears to indicate the fine Greek style type always has ROMA in relief within a frame? Or if that is not the case, he just does not indicate if ROMA is ever on a tablet, or in the exergue, or incuse, or partially incuse on this type. He does note 5 different variations of the letter A.

Sydenham 166 - ROMA incuse on tablet; Helmet earring combinations: B1a3, B1c2
Sydenham 167 - some letters of ROMA incuse, some in relief; Helmet earring combinations: B3b2, B4a1
Sydenham 168 - ROMA in relief in frame with top, bottom and left side; Helmet earring combinations: B2a4
Sydenham 169 - ROMA in relief under exergue line; Helmet earring combinations: B1a3, B1a4, B3a3, B3a4
All dated c. 182 -172 B.C., S.E. Italy mint (Apulia or Picenum?). Distinguished by broad thin flans, crude, shallow relief types (lesser Greek style). 

Sermarini comments: Dates appear to be wrong.  Probably struck c. 211 - c. 206 B.C. Sydenham identifies two or more Greek mints for anonymous denarius without a control symbols. One with fine Greek style, Sydenham 140, and another or others with lesser Greek style, Sydenham 166 - 169. He does not seem to attribute any anonymous denarii without control symbols to Rome?   

Sermarini comments: Helmets and earrings on coins will rarely perfectly match the types above.

Roman Silver Coins Volume 1 (RSC I)
RSC I 1 - ROMA incuse (=BMCRR Italy 91, Sydenham 166, Crawford 45/1). From 211. No mint identified.
Comments: no plate coin.
RSC I 1a - ROMA partly incuse (=BMCRR Italy 90, Sydenham 167, Crawford 45/1). From 211. No mint identified.
Comments: plate coin has flan broad as described for Sydenham 167, lesser Greek Style, B1b1, ROMA between horizontal lines, RO in relief, MA incuse.
RSC I 2 - Roma in relief (=BMCRR Rome 1, etc.; Sydenham 140, 168, etc.; Crawford 44/5). From 211. No mint identified. Comments: plate coin compact flan, high relief, Greek style (but not exceptional), B1b1. RSC I 2 does not distinguish between ROMA in relief in a frame (with a three sided boarder on the top, right, and bottom) or in exergue.

Sermarini comments: RSC does not distinguish between fine Greek style, lesser Greek style and Rome style.

Sear - Roman Coins and their Values I (SRCV I)
SRCV I 36 - ROMA incuse (=Crawford 45/1, Sydenham 166, BMCRR Italy 91, RSC I 1). 211- 206 B.C. No mint identified. Comments: no plate coin.
SRCV I 37 - Roma partially incuse (=Crawford 45/1, Sydenham 167, BMCRR Italy 90, RSC I 1a). 211- 206 B.C. No mint identified. Comments plate coin as RSC I 1a above.
SRCV I 38 - Roma in relief (=Crawford 44/5, Sydenham 140, BMCRR Rome 1, RSC I 2). 211- 206 B.C. No mint identified. Comments: Plate coin has Rome style, Sydenham helmet/earring type E3C2. SRCV 38 same comments as RSC I 2 above.

Sermarini comments: RSC does not distinguish between fine Greek style, lesser Greek style and Rome style.

Crawford - Roman Republican Coinage (Crawford or RRC)
From 211, Rome.
44/5 - ROMA incuse on tablet or in linear frame (incuse or in relief in linear frame not specified) (=BMCRR Rome 1).

Sermarini comments: Two plate coins. Plate IX.
16. Appears to be Sydenham 167, lesser Greek style, B3b1, RO in relief, MA incuse. 
24. Appears to be Sydenham 140, fine Greek style, B4a1, Roma in relief in a linear frame.
Crawford's type 44/5 seems hopelessly confusing.

After 211, Rome.
53/2 - ROMA in linear frame.

Sermarini comments: Eight plate coins. Plate X. 
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.

After 211, uncertain mint.
45/1 - ROMA incuse on tablet (=BMCRR Italy 91)
46/1 - ROMA in linear frame (=BMCRR Rome 1)
54/1 - ROMA in exergue
55/1 - ROMA in linear frame