Early Anonymous Denarii
WORK IN PROCESS
The denarius was introduced in 211 B.C. The early denarii were anonymous with the obverse type: helmeted head of Roma right, X (mark of value = 10 asses) behind; and reverse type: Dioscuri on horseback galloping right, ROMA below. The following early denarii were issued anonymously and without control marks:
ROMA INCUSE ON TABLET
ROMA incuse on a raised tablet (SRCV I 37 says only partially incuse), Rome mint, from 211 - Crawford 44/5 [var. 1]*, SRCV I 37, RSC I 1
Broad thin flans, some letters incuse, some raised ROMA incuse on a raised tablet (distinguished from 44/5 var. 1 only by style?), uncertain mint, after 211 - Crawford 45/1, SRCV I 36, RSC I 1, BMCRR Italy 91, Sydenham 166
ROMA INCUSE IN FRAME
*Crawford 44/5 seems to describe two variants under one number.
ROMA NOT INCUSE
ROMA in a linear frame (NOT incuse, distinguished from 46/1 only by style?), uncertain mint, after 211 - Crawford 46/1, SRCV - 38 corr. (? says Crawford 44/5), RSC I 2
ROMA in a linear frame (NOT incuse, distinguished from 46/1 only by style?), Rome mint, from 211 - Crawford 53/2, SRCV 38 corr. (? says Crawford 44/5), RSC I 2
Roman Silver Coins Volume 1 (RSC I)
RSC I 1 - ROMA incuse (=BMCRR Italy 91, Sydenham 166, Crawford 45/1)
RSC I 1a - ROMA partly incuse (=BMCRR Italy 90, Sydenham 169, Crawford 44/5)
RSC I 2 - Roma in relief (=BMCRR Rome 1, etc.; Sydenham 140, 168, etc.; Crawford 44/5)
Sear - Roman Coins and their Values I (SRCV I)
211- 206 B.C.
SRCV I 36 - ROMA incuse (=Crawford 45/1, Sydenham 166, BMCRR Italy 91, RSC I 1)
SRCV I 37 - Roma partially incuse (=Crawford 45/1, Sydenham 167, BMCRR Italy 90, RSC I 1a)
SRCV I 38 - Roma in relief (=Crawford 44/5, Sydenham 140, BMCRR Rome 1, RSC I 2)
Crawford - Roman Republican Coinage (Crawford or RRC)
From 211, Rome.
44/5 - ROMA incuse on tablet or in linear frame (incuse or in relief in linear frame not specified) (=BMCRR Rome 1)
After 211, Rome.
53/2 - Roman in linear frame
After 211, uncertain mint.
45/1 - ROMA incuse on tablet (=BMCRR Italy 91)
46/1 - ROMA in linear frame (=BMCRR Rome 1)
54/1 - ROMA in exergue
55/1 - Roman in linear frame
Sydenham - The Coinage of the Roman Republic (Sydenham or CRR)
c. 187 - 155 B.C., S. Italy (Regium?). These are the earliest denarii, distinguished by fine style with clear Greek influence. Helmets are simpler and earrings are derived from Greek didrachms of S. Italy.
Sydenham 140 - Helmet earring combinations: A1a1, A1b1, A2a1, A2b1, B1a1, B4a1
c. 182 -172 B.C., S.E. Italy mint (Apulia or Picenum?). Distinguished by broad thin flans, crude, shallow relief types.
Sydenham 166 - ROMA incuse on tablet; Helmet earring combinations: B1a3, B1c2
Sydenham 167 - some letters of ROMA incuse, some in relief; Helmet earring combinations: B3b2, B4a1
Sydenham 168 - ROMA in relief in frame with top, bottom and left side; Helmet earring combinations: B2a4
Sydenham 169 - ROMA in relief under exergue line; Helmet earring combinations: B1a3, B1a4, B3a3, B3a4