SULTANATES OF INDIA

DELHI SULTANATES

THIRD DYNASTY - TUGHLAQS

After the death of Ala-ud-din, Malik Kafur made the minor prince Shahab-ud-din Omar Khan to ascend the throne and Kafur took the key role of regent to him.  Being unfair to the elder prince, he put himself in trouble by the rebellious nobles.  The nobles put him to death in few weeks of Shahab-ud-din's rule.  On Kafur's death, the second son who had escaped and hidden in the jungle came out and assumed power under the title "Qutub-ud-din Mubarak Shah".  He took off very smoothly, he suppressed rebellions in the South and Gujarath.  During this period, the low caste Hindu Malik Khusru won his trust and became successful authority in Qutub-ud-din's affair and played very good role then onwards.  His expeditions to Tellingana was very successful. Seizing a good opportunity, he murdered his master Mubarak and started reigning.  He managed to marry Diwal Devi, the daughter of Raja Khan. Before marrying to Malik Khusru, she had been married to Khizr Khan and his master Mubarak Shah earlier.  In the process, Malik Khsru became the cause to end Khalji's rule.

The usurper Malik Khusru reigned under the title of "Nasir-ud-din", though Hindu at heart, but reigned with great harshness and contempt.  He replaced muslim nobles with low caste Hindus.  This made ex-nobles intolerant of his rule, and hence they sought the help of Ghazi Beg who was a loyalist and staunch supporter of the previous dynasty.  He marched with his troops to Delhi and defeated Malik Khusru, but there were no scions of Khalji left to rule.  Hence he placed Malik Ghazi on the throne with the title "Ghiyas-ud-din Tughlak.  The coronation took place at Siri in 1320 AD thus establishing a new era of Tughlaks.

Ghiyas-ud-din Tughlak was originally a Karauna Turk, perhaps a tribe of Mongol settled between Sindh and Turkistan.  He was a son of Panjab jat woman and was brought up by Balban as a slave.  With his ability, he had become the governor of Dipalpur.  Circumstances put him to accept the throne though he had no ambitions or dream of becoming a King.  During the period of 1321 to 1323, he conquered Tellingana just because of the fact that they turned rebellious.  Bidar and Deogiri were annexed on the way back.  In 1324, on defeating the rebellion Bahadur Shah of Bengal and the rulers of Mithila, he returned home and met with an accidental death due to the collapse of roof of the pendal meant for the celebration of his victory.  The treacherous pavilion which was constructed intentionally by his son Juna thus ended the story of Ghiyas-ud-din Tughlak.

Mohammad Tughlak was a man of remarkable personality with  scholarly tastes, artistic and scientifical skills.  He was a genius, eloquent and a scholar.  But the lack of common sense and his administrative reforms in adverse condition gained him a title of "Fool or Madman" though some historians suggests that he is not.

He shifted his capital to Devagiri (called Daulatabad later) of South from Delhi of North in 1327.  It is probably due to the frequent threat of Mongol attacks, or because Daulatabad is more central to his kingdom.  Though the scheme of moving the capital has nothing wrong, it was defective for two reasons : 1. All the officials were compelled to migrate, 2. After two years of his reign he made all his subjects who stayed in Delhi to move to Daulatabad.  Later, mongols grew stronger and started attacking quite frequent and Rajputs became more refractory due to the royal absence in the north. Added reason, the un-suitable climate made him to move the capital this time back to Delhi. In the process of moving capital, the country's treasury depleted, and there was a economic imbalance.

To counter measure the economic retardation, he introduced token currency system which was well established in Persia and China by then. This proved fatal again to his treasury, as there was mischievous forgery of  his easily mintable coins. The lack of security features in the coin, and the easily available source of bronze thus brought imbalance in the ratio of gold silver and copper.

LAST UPDATED 1st Nov 2001
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