Islamic Rulers
Ottoman Empire 1290 - 1924

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All dates are A.D.


The Turkish peoples who were to become the Ottomans, entered Asia Minor from the east at the end of the 13th century and founded several small Principalities. The prince that was destined to found an empire was called Osman, which in Arabic is Uthman, giving the word Ottoman. Their Empire at its greatest extent included all the Middle East, northern Africa and the Balkans. The decline of the Ottoman empire ended with its defeat in World War 1.

Prince of the Ottoman Turks

OSMAN I (OTHMAN) c.1300 - c.1326. Prince of a tribe of Turkish nomads, who founded a Principality in north-west Turkey.

Beys of the Ottoman Turks

ORHAN (ORKHAN) c.1326 - c.1360, son of Osman I. Orhan took Bursa (which became the Ottoman capital) and the title Bey. He entered Europe with the permission of the Byzantine Emperor John VI , to sack Thrace.

MURAD I c.1360 - 1389 killed in battle, son of Orhan. Murad won the Ottomans' first territory in Europe including Edirne (the second Ottoman capital).

BAYEZID I 1389-1396 when he became Sultan.

Ottoman Sultans

BAYEZID I ('The Thunderbolt') Sultan 1396 - July 1402, son of Murad I, died a captive of Tamerlane Mar 1403.

1402-1413 Interregnum.

MEHMED I 1413 - 26 May 1421, son of Bayezid I.

MURAD II May 1421-Feb? 1444 abdicated, son of Mehmed I. Murad rebuilt the Empire, and fought wars against Hungary, Serbia and Venice. He founded the Janissaries (a force of mercenaries formed from captured Christian boys).

MEHMED II ('The Conqueror') Feb - Nov 1444, son of Murad II. Mehmed captured Constantinople in May 1453, ending the Roman Empire forever. He made it his new capital. He also took Trebizond, the Karaman state, Morea, Albania, Bosnia, Serbia and Wallachia.

MURAD II 2nd reign Nov 1444-3rd Feb 1451.

MEHMED II 2nd reign Feb 1451 - 3rd May 1481.

BAYEZID II ('The Just') May 1481 - April 1512 when he was deposed by the Janissaries, elder son of Mehmed II.

SELIM I ('The Grim') April 1512 - 22nd Sep 1520, brother of Bayezid II, conquered Syria, Palestine and Egypt.

SULEYMAN I ('The Magnificent' and 'The Lawgiver') Sep 1520 Sep 1566, son of Selim I. The Ottoman Empire reached its zenith. Hungary, Vienna besieged.

SELIM II Sep 1566 - Dec 1574, son of Suleyman I.

MURAD III Dec 1574-16 or 17 Jan 1595, son of Selim II.

MEHMED III Jan 1595 - 22nd Dec 1603, son of Murad III.

AHMED I Dec 1603 - 22nd Nov 1617, son of Mehmed III.

MUSTAFA I Nov 1617 - 1618 deposed, son of Mehmed III.

OSMAN II 1618 - 19th May 1622 deposed, son of Ahmed I.

MUSTAFA I 1622 - 1623 deposed again.

MURAD IV 1623 - 8 Feb 1640, son of Ahmed I.

IBRAHIM Feb 1640-8 Aug 1648 deposed, son of Ahmed I.

MEHMED IV ('The Hunter') Aug 1648 - 7th Nov 1687 deposed, son of Ibrahim. The tide turned against Turkey in Europe with the relief of the siege of Vienna.

Early period/Umayyad and Abbasid Caliphs
North Africa
Egypt and Syria
Arabian Peninsular
Iran - early period
Iran under Seljuks
Seljuks of Rum
The Mongols and after
Ottoman Empire