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Mahmud Shah I  Silver, Tanka,.JPG
Mahmud shah72 viewssilver coin Tankah of Mahmud shah.adityanoble
[1663a] Byzantine Empire: Manuel I Comnenus Megas (1143-1180)---NOT TO BE CONFUSED WITH---[1685a] Empire of Trebizond: Manuel I Komnenos Megas (1218-1263 AD)72 viewsMANUEL I COMNENUS AE tetarteron. 1143-1180 AD. 19mm, 2.8g. Obverse: Bust of St. George facing, beardless, wearing nimbus, tunic, cuirass and sagion, and holding spear. Reverse: MANVHL-DECPOT, bust of Manuel facing, wearing crown and loros, holding labarum & globe-cross. Simply wonderful style, very sharp for the issue. A gorgeous late Byzantine coin! Ex Incitatus.

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

MANUEL I COMNENUS (A.D. 1143-1180)

Andrew Stone
University of Western Australia

Introduction: Sources
The reign of the emperor Manuel I Comnenus (5 April 1143- 24 September 1180) could well be regarded as a high-water mark of Byzantine civilization. It was the apogee of the so-called "Comnenian Restoration". Politically, the emperor undertook an ambitious foreign policy which has been seen by some, particularly in the light of many ultimate failures, as "misguided imperialism", recent scholarship has come to question this traditional judgment and suggests instead that the the Comnenian foreign policy was rather an energetic seizing of the different opportunities that presented themselves in the rapidly changing constellations of powers of the time. Such measures were made possible by the internal security of the empire under this, its third, Comnenian incumbent, although there were a few other aspirants to the throne, not least among them the emperor's cousin Andronicus. Manuel and other key members of the "Comnenian system", as it has been called, were patrons of rhetoric and other forms of learning and literature, and Manuel himself became keenly interested in ecclesiastical affairs, even if here his imperialistic agenda was a factor as he tried to bring Constantinopolitan theology in line with that of the west in a bid to unite the Church under his crown.

In terms of volume of contemporary material, Manuel is the most eulogised of all Byzantine emperors, and the panegyric addressed to him supplements the two major Byzantine historians of the reign, the more critical Nicetas Choniates and the laudatory John Cinnamus, as primary sources for the student of the period to study. The Crusader historian William of Tyre met Manuel personally, and such was the scope of Manuel's diplomacy that he is mentioned incidentally in western sources, such as Romuald of Salerno. Among authors of the encomia (panegyrics) we have mentioned are Theodore Prodromus and the so-called "Manganeios" Prodromus, who wrote in verse, and the prose encomiasts Michael the Rhetor, Eustathius of Thessalonica and Euthymius Malaces, to name the most important. Manuel, with his penchant for the Latins and their ways, left a legacy of Byzantine resentment against these outsiders, which was to be ruthlessly exploited by Andronicus in the end.

Manuel as sebastokrator
Manuel was born in the imperial porphyry birthchamber on 28 November 1118. He was the fourth of John II's sons, so it seemed very unlikely that he would succeed. As a youth, Manuel evidently accompanied John on campaign, for in the Anatolian expedition of 1139-41 we find Manuel rashly charging a small group of the Turkish enemy, an action for which he was castigated by his father, even though John, we are told, was inwardly impressed (mention of the incident is made in John's deathbed speech in both John Cinnamus and Nicetas Choniates). John negotiated a marriage contract for Manuel with Conrad III of Germany; he was to marry Bertha of Sulzbach. It seems to have been John's plan to carve out a client principality for Manuel from Cilicia, Cyprus and Coele Syria. In the event, it was Manuel who succeeded him.

The Securing of the Succession 1143
In the article on John II it is related how the dying John chose his youngest son Manuel to succeed him in preference to his other surviving son Isaac. Manuel was acclaimed emperor by the armies on 5 April 1143. Manuel stayed in Cilicia, where the army was stationed, for thirty days, to complete the funeral rites for his father. He sent his father's right-hand man John Axuch, however, to Constantinople to confine Isaac to the Pantokrator Monastery and to effect a donation of two hundredweight of silver coin to the clergy of the Great Church. The surviving encomium of Michael Italicus, Teacher of the Gospel, for the new emperor can be regarded as a return gift for this largesse. In the meantime the Caesar John Roger, husband of Manuel's eldest sister Maria, had been plotting to seize the throne; the plot was, however, given away by his wife before it could take effect. Manuel marched home to enter Constantinople c. July 1143. He secured the good-will of the people by commanding that every household should be granted two gold coins. Isaac the younger (Manuel's brother) and Isaac the elder (Manuel's paternal uncle), were both released from captivity and reconciled with him. Manuel chose Michael Oxeites as the new patriarch and was crowned either in August or November 1143.

Manuel confirmed John Axuch in the office of Grand Domestic, that is, commander of the army, appointed John of Poutze as procurator of public taxes, grand commissioner and inspector of accounts and John Hagiotheodorites as chancellor. John of Poutze proved to be an oppressive tax collector, but was also unsusceptible to bribery. However, this John diverted monies levied for the navy into the treasury, which would, as we shall see, further Byzantine dependence on the maritime Italian city-states of Venice, Genoa and Pisa.

Early Campaigns: 1144-1146
Manuel's first concern was to consolidate the work of his father in securing the eastern frontier. He sent a force under the brothers Andronicus and John Contostephanus against the recalcitrant Crusader prince Raymond of Antioch, which consisted of both an army and a navy, the latter commanded by Demetrius Branas. Raymond's army was routed, and the naval force inflicted no small damage on the coastal regions of the principality. In the meantime the Crusader city of Edessa fell to the Turkish atabeg Zengi. Raymond therefore travelled to Constantinople as a suppliant to Manuel. It was subsequently decided, in the light of Manuel's imperial status, that the terms under which he would marry Bertha of Sulzbach should be improved. Manuel asked for 500 knights, and Conrad happily granted them, being prepared to supply 2000 or 3000 if need be all for the sake of this alliance. Bertha took the Greek name Irene.

The Seljuk sultanate of Rum under Masud had become the ascendant Turkish power in Anatolia. Manuel himself supervised the rebuilding of the fortress of Melangeia on the Sangarius river in Bithynia (1145 or 1146). In the most daring campaign of these early years, after building the new fort of Pithecas in Bithynia, Manuel advanced as far into Turkish territory as Konya (Iconium), the Seljuk capital. He had been wounded in the foot by an arrow at a mighty battle at Philomelium (which had been Masud's headquarters), and the city had been rased; once at Konya, he allowed his troops to despoil the graves outside the city walls, before taking the road home.

Cinnamus relates that the gratutitous heroics which Manuel displayed on this campaign were calculated to impress Manuel's new bride. Manuel and his army were harried by Turks on the journey home. Manuel erected the fort of Pylae before leaving Anatolia.

[For a detailed and interesting discussion of the reign of Manuel I Comnenus please see]

Frederick Barbarossa and the "two-emperor problem"
Frederick Barbarossa, who was to become a constant menace to Manuel's designs, had succeeded his uncle Conrad III in 1152, but unlike him proved in the end unprepared to make any territorial concessions in Italy. The origins of this "cold war" between the two empires cannot be dated with any certainty, but there may have been a tendency to date it too early. One school of thought would not date the outbreak of this rivalry to any earlier than 1159-60, the death of Manuel's German wife, Bertha-Irene. About this time there was a scare at Constantinople that Frederick Barbarossa would march on Byzantium, perhaps reflecting a desire on Frederick's part to crusade (which he eventually did, in the reign of Isaac II Angelus). The new Pope, Alexander III, by, as it would seem, offering to grant Manuel the imperial crown, used it as a bargaining chip to play off the emperors of west and east against one another. Manuel may have supported Alexander during the papal schism of 1160-1177 because he was the preferred candidate of Hungary and the Crusader states, both of which he hoped would recognise him as their feudal overlord. By this means he could claim sovereign rights over the crusading movement, and thereby turn it to his advantage. The playing off of Manuel against Frederick continued right up until 1177, the Peace of Venice, whereby Frederick agreed to recognise Pope Alexander, the autonomy of Sicily and of the northern Italian communes. But this result was not a foregone conclusion in the 1160s and early 1170s, and Manuel used Byzantine gold to win supporters in Italy and thereby keep Frederick occupied.

Marriage to Maria of Antioch 1161
Bertha-Irene died in late 1159/early 1160. Manuel sought to strengthen his ties with the Crusader principalities by selecting an eastern Latin princess for his wife. The exceedingly beautiful Maria of Antioch, daughter of Raymond of Antioch, was chosen, and the nuptials celebrated at Christmas, 1161.

Dynastic considerations 1169-1172
Manuel's wife Maria of Antioch gave birth to a baby boy 14 September 1169 in the porphyry marble birthchamber, the cause of great festivities. The infant was crowned emperor in 1171. With the death of Stephen III of Hungary in 1172, Stephen's brother Béla was sent out from Constantinople to assume the throne (though without Sirmium and Dalmatia being surrendered to the Hungarian crown). A husband for Maria Porphyrogenita was therefore required. At first it was proposed that she marry William II of Sicily, who was outraged when she failed to show up at Taranto on the appointed day, the emperor having had second thoughts.

The final months 1180
Manuel took ill in the month of March 1180. During this period of terminal illness the last major religious controversies took place. We are told that Manuel directed that the anathema pronounced against the god of Muhammad be removed from the abjuration against the Islamic faith declared by converts to Christianity. Manuel was opposed by the last patriarch of his reign, Theodosius Boradiotes (1179-1183), as well as, notably, by Eustathius of Thessalonica. Both parties were satisfied in the end upon a reading of the emperor's proposed amendments to the abjuration. This controversy would seem to be a different one from the one alluded to in Eustathius' funeral oration for Manuel, since Manuel is praised by Eustathius for his stance in it, which seems to have revolved around a book written by a convert from Islam that magnified the Father at the expense of the Son (and therefore had Arian overtones). It became apparent that the emperor was dying, and, on the advice of Theodosius, he renounced astrology. As his end approached, he assumed the monastic habit and the name Matthew, demanding that his wife Maria become a nun. Manuel's son Alexius was but eleven, and the minority would prove to be disastrous for Byzantium. Manuel died thirty-seven years and nine months from the beginning of his reign.

General strategies in Manuel's foreign policy
The funeral oration for Manuel by Eustathius of Thessalonica is an interesting document in that it discusses some of the general policies pursued over Manuel's reign. It endorses his policy of dividing his enemies, the Petchenegs, the Sicilian Normans and the Turks, among themselves by using Byzantine gold, a policy of "divide and rule". We have seen how this was applied especially in Italy. Another general policy was to create friendly buffer states on the frontiers of the empire, most notably Hungary (and Serbia) and the Crusader States. Manuel would deliberately underpin the most powerful potentate in each region (the king of Hungary, the king of Jerusalem, the sultan of Konya) and thereby emphasise his own absolute sovereignty. In the funeral oration this granting of autonomy is justified as the reward for good service, as in the parable of the talents. We also see in the panegyric of the 1170s the downplaying of the idea of world rule which was so prevalent in the reign of John. Although Manuel claimed sovereign rights over many of his neighbours, his territorial claims were limited: coastal southern Italy, Dalmatia and Sirmium, coastal Egypt. The Byzantines seem to have come to terms with the reality of nation states and it is in Manuel's reign that they begin to refer to themselves not only as "Romans", but as "Hellenes", in order to demarcate themselves from the barbarians surrounding them.

Manuel's taxation, government and army
Nicetas Choniates roundly criticises Manuel in his history for increasing taxes and lavishing money on his family and retainers, particularly his Latin favourites. We have also seen how money was spent in Manuel's ambitious foreign policy. Mention is made of two towers, one at Damalis, and one next to the monastery of the Mangana, between which a chain could be stretched to block the Bosphorus. Then there was the work done at both the Great Palace and the Palace of the Blachernae, galleries, a pavilion alla Turca and numerous mosaics. He also founded a monastery at Kataskepe at the mouth of the Black Sea, which was endowed from the imperial treasury.

Choniates further criticizes the continuation and spread of the granting of pronoiai, parcels of land, the income from each of which supported a soldier. Many of these were granted to foreigners, for example, Turks captured in the Meander campaigns were settled around Thessalonica. The pronoia would pay not only for a soldier's upkeep, but his expensive equipment, for in Manuel's reign the bow and arrow and circular shield had been replaced by a heavier western-style panoply of armour, large triangular shield and lance. Choniates laments how fashionable a practice it had become in Manuel's reign to forsake the land or one's trade and become enlisted in the army.

Manuel and the "Comnenian system"
Throughout Manuel's reign, as under his father John, the top tier of the aristocracy was formed by the emperor's family, the Comneni, and the families into which they married. The extended family was, however, by now becoming unwieldy, and beginning to lose its cohesion, as the example of Manuel's cousin Andronicus shows. Under Manuel it was degree of kinship to the emperor which determined one's rank, as synodal listings show. So it was that very quickly after Manuel's death the upper tier of the aristocracy splintered into separate groups, each with its own identity and interests.

The various aristocratic courts, that of the emperor and other key members of the extended family, most notably the sebastokrator Isaac Comnenus the elder and the sebastokratorissa Irene, widow of Manuel's brother Andronicus, attracted literati who would seek to serve under them. Such figures would not only turn their hands to literature, encomia in prose or poetry, expositions on mythology, commentaries on Homer or the philosophers, historical chronicles and even, in this period, romances - the twelfth century is a high point of literary production at Constantinople, so much so that some have even talked of a "Comnenian renaissance" - but they would seek to perform more menial, such as administrative, duties to support themselves. Such men would often come from noble families whose prestige had been eclipsed by the Comnenian upper tier of the aristocracy. Serving under a lord was one way of advancing oneself, entering the Church was another.

The patriarchal church and education
The deacons of the church of St Sophia were a powerful group, the chartophylax being second only to the patriarch. These deacons would either go on to become bishops in the provinces, or possibly first hold one of the professorial chairs associated with the patriarchal church. First there were the "teachers", didaskaloi of the Gospels, Epistles and Psalter. Then there was the maistor ton rhetoron, "master of the rhetors", responsible for delivering speeches in praise of the emperor on January 6 each year and of the patriarch on the Saturday prior to Palm Sunday, as well as for other state occasions. And there was the hypatos ton philosophon, "consul of the philosophers", an office which had lapsed but was revived under Manuel.

Character and Legacy
Was Byzantium of the middle to late twelfth century living on borrowed time? Until recently this was the verdict of many scholars. Yet John II and Manuel had, if there is any kernel of truth in their encomia, at least temporarily reversed the overrunning of Anatolia by the Turks, and Manuel had won Dalmatia and Sirmium from Hungary. But Byzantine collapse was rapid, which is the reason why scholars have searched in the reigns of John and Manuel for the beginnings of the disintegration that occurred under the last Comneni and the Angeli. The history and comments of Nicetas Choniates have been adduced as vindicating this view. The victory of the military aristocracy that the establishment of the Comnenian dynasty represents has been seen as both the reason for the temporary reversal of Byzantine fortunes - government by three very capable autocrats - and of ultimate failure, because of the splintering into factions that oligarchy, such as was present in the Comnenian system, foments. A Marxist interpretation is that the feudalisation of the Byzantine Empire, the depletion of the free peasantry, that began to take place in the middle period was the reason for its ultimate failure. But to the Byzantines at the time Byzantium seemed to be holding its own; the "nations" around were being kept at bay, and even though the panegyric of renovation is less evident than in the reign of John II, the emperor remains despotes, "master" of the oikoumene, "world". Indeed, Manuel would be remembered in France, Genoa and the Crusader States as the most powerful sovereign in the world.

We have mentioned the funeral oration for Manuel by Eustathius of Thessalonica. This contains a series of vignettes of the personal aspects of Manuel. There are commonplaces: the emperor is able to endure hunger, thirst, heat and cold, lack of sleep and so on, and sweats copiously in his endeavours on the empire's part. Although these ideas have been recycled from earlier reigns, notably that of John II, the contemporary historians agree that Manuel was an indefatigable and daring warrior. However, there are more specifically individual touches in the Eustathian oration. Manuel had a manly suntan and was tall in stature. The emperor was capable of clever talk, but could also talk to others on a man-to-man basis. Eustathius makes much of the emperor's book-learning (Cinnamus claims to have discussed Aristotle with the emperor). The restoration of churches was a major concern for Manuel. He also had some expertise in medicine (he had tended Conrad III of Germany and Baldwin III of Jerusalem personally). Manuel showed temperance in eating and drinking, with a certain liking for beer as well as wine, the latter being mixed sour after the manner of ascetics. Likewise, he would not slumber long. He would generally choose walking over riding. The oration closes on the widow and orphan Manuel has left behind. The situation resulting for the Byzantine Empire at this stage, with the vacuum created by Manuel would result in no less than implosion.

Copyright (C) 2003, Andrew Stone.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
001a Mark Antony ( 83-30 B.C.), AR-denarius, Crawf 544-35, LEG-XIX, ANT AVG III VIR•R•P•C•, praetorian galley right,72 views001a Mark Antony ( 83-30 B.C.), AR-denarius, Crawf 544-35, LEG-XIX, ANT AVG III VIR•R•P•C•, praetorian galley right,
avers:- LEG-XIX, legionary eagle (aquila) between two standards.
revers:- ANT-AVG-III-VIR•R•P•C•, praetorian galley right.
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: 18mm, weight: 3,44g, axes: 5h,
mint: Legionary Denarius, date: 32-31 B.C., ref: Crawford-544/35, Sydneham-1242, RSC-55,
1 commentsquadrans
Roman Empire, Marcus Aurelius Sestertius72 viewsObv. M AVREL ANTONINVS AVG ARMENIACVS P M, laureate head right
Rev. TR POT XIX IMP II COS III S C, Mars standing right, holding spear, left hand on shield
Mint: Rome, Dec. 164 - Aug. 165 AD.


RIC 898
10 commentskc
Nero AE Dupondius72 viewsNero AE Dupondius / Victory
RIC 450 Lugdunum
Date: 54-68 AD
Ob: NERO CLAVD CAESAR AVG GER P M TR P IMP P P, laureate bust left
Rv: VICTORIA AVGVSTI S C, Victory advancing left
Size: 31.66 mm
Weight: 12.2 grams
2 commentsScotvs Capitis
Nero Dupondius Victoria72 viewsObv.
Laureate head right

Victory walking right, carrying plam branch and wreath

Lugdunum mint
Sinope, Paphlagonia, Silver Drachm72 viewsObv:- Head of nymph left, hair in sakkos, wearing triple pendant earring and necklace
Rev:- Eagle with dolphin in talons facing left, ∆ΙΟΥ (magistrate's name) below wing, ΣΙΝΩ below dolphin
Sinope mint, c. 330 - 300 B.C.
Ref:- SNG BM 1484; SNG Stancomb 772; SNG Cop 284
ex Baldwin & Sons, London, ex Forum Ancient Coins, where it was graded aEF, beautifully toned, fine style
Weight 4.974g, maximum diameter 16.9mm, die axis 180o
7 commentsmaridvnvm
PAPAL STATES - Pope Paul IV72 viewsSilver GIULIO of POPE PAUL IV (1555-1559), 28 mm. Ancona Mint. Obverse: Arms, Paulus IIII. Reverse: Saint Paul with sword and book.dpaul7
Silver stater of Corinth, 480 - 450 B.C.72 viewsObverse: Pegasus, with curled wing, flying left, koppa (Ϙ) below
Reverse: Large, elongated head of Athena right, in Corinthian helmet, all within incuse square

Size: 22mm
Weight: 8,51 gram
2 Pergamon Mysia Bronze72 viewsPergamon 2 coins, nice martial types; 1) Athena / Nike, 2) Athena / Trophy of Armor
Adrian S
113/112 BC L. Marcius Philippus72 viewsL Marcius Philippus
ROMA monogram
Head of King Philip V of Macedon right, wearing helmet decorated with goat's horns, Φ below chin

Equestrian statue right on tablet with inscription. Horseman carrying laurel-branch flower at horses feet. (XVI monogram) below tablet.

Rome 113/112 BC


Crawford 293/1. Sydenham 551. Marcia 12.

Ex Calgary-Coin

This is the first Roman coin to depict an historical person instead of a personification or deity. The money’s ancestor L. Marcius Q.f. Philippus negotiated a treaty between Rome and Philip V of Macedon.
5 commentsJay GT4
Romano-Egyptian Votive Statue72 viewsCirca 1st century BC - 1st century AD
5.5 inches tall

Terracotta votive statue of the Hellenistic god Harpocrates.
ex Superior Galleries

Harpocrates, the god of silence, is the Hellenistic adaptation of the Egyptian child-god Horus, and as such was said to be the son of Isis and Serapis.
3 commentsEnodia
098 Postumus (260-269 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 318, Cologne, PAX AVG, Pax left,72 views098 Postumus (260-269 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 318, Cologne, PAX AVG, Pax left,
avers:- IMP-C-POSTVMVS-PF-AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
revers:- PAX-AVG, Pax standing left,
exerg: , diameter: 20mm, weight: 3,05g, axes: 0h,
mint: Cologne, date: (260-269 A.D., ref: RIC-V-II-318-p-363,
Caracalla, Hadrianopolis - AE2772 viewsHadrianopolis, Thrace
Date: 198-217 AD
Size: 27mm/11.4g
Obverse: AYT M AYP CЄY ANTΩNEINOC - Laureate bust right.
Reverse: AΔPIANOΠOΛЄITΩN - Serapis standing, with right raised hand, holding in left hand spear across
Reference: Moushmov 2645
3 commentsJericho
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 816 var, Siscia, VIRTVS PROBI AVG, Bust-G var, -/-//XXIV, Mars walking right, Scarce, Bust and Officina Not in RIC !!!72 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 816 var, Siscia, VIRTVS PROBI AVG, Bust-G var, -/-//XXIV, Mars walking right, Scarce, Bust and Officina Not in RIC !!!
avers:- IMP-C-M-AVR-PROBVS-P-AVG, Radiate, helmeted, cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield, seen from back, shield in front and a spear pointing forward. (G var)
revers:- VIRTVS-PR-OBI-AVG, Mars walking right, holding spear and trophy.
exergo: -/-//XXIV, diameter: 22mm, weight: 4,00g, axis: 0h,
mint: Siscia, date: 282 A.D., ref: RIC V-II 816 var, p-106 Bust and officina not in RIC, Alföldi type 96, n° 170; Scarce,
2 commentsquadrans
Probus Antoninianus Pax Siscia72 viewsObv.
Helmeted Bust left

Pax standing left, with Olive branch & Sceptre
3 commentsancientdave
ROMAN EMPIRE, Probus72 viewsAntoninianus
Ov: Radiate, helmeted, draped and cuirassed bust left seen from back holding spear and shield decorated with medusa
Rv: Felicitas standing left by altar, holding patera and cornucopiae
Leg: FELICITAS AVG / B in right field
RIC 679var.
Var = unlisted bust type
Very rare
4 commentsJulianus of Pannonia
Roman Empire, Probus Antoninianus72 viewsObverse: IMP C M AVR PROBVS P AVG, radiate, crested helmeted & cuirassed bust left, holding spear over shoulder and shield
Reverse: VIRTVS PROBI AVG, emperor in military dress on horseback left, holding raised hand & sceptre, treading upon a bound captive to left
Mint: Serdica, KAΓ

23mm 3.7g
2 commentskc
157 Procopius (365-366 A.D.), AE-3, RIC IX 007.7, Heraclea, REPARATIO FEL TEMP, Procopius standing, R2!!72 views157 Procopius (365-366 A.D.), AE-3, RIC IX 007.7, Heraclea, REPARATIO FEL TEMP, Procopius standing, R2!!
avers:- DN-PROCOPIVS-PF-AVG, Pearl diademed, draped cuirassed bust left.
revers:- REPARATI-O-FEL-TEMP, Procopius standing, facing, holding labarum and resting hand on shield. Dot down and christogram up in right field.
exe: -/•//SMH Γ, diameter: 17,5mm, weight: 3,34g, axis: 11h,
mint: Heraclea,, date: 364-367A.D., ref: RIC IX-7.7, p-193, R2!!
090 B.C., 72 viewsavers:-
revers: -
axis: h,
diameter: mm,
weight: g,
mint: Rome,
1 commentsquadrans
RI 132ae img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 920 - Bust Type C (Antioch) (Stigma / KA)72 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– CLEMENTIA TEMP, Emperor standing right, holding sceptre surmounted by an eagle, receiving globe from Jupiter, standing left, holding sceptre
Mint – Antioch (Stigma in centre field, KA in exe) Emission 1 Officina 6. A.D. 276
Reference:– RIC 920 Bust type C
Fully silvered with lots of detail.
RI 132dk img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 911 - Bust Type H (Cyzicus) (CM / XXIΓ)72 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, Radiate, bust left in imperial mantle, holding scepter surmounted by eagle
Rev:– SOLI INVICTO, Sol in spread quadriga holding whip
Minted in Cyzicus (CM in centre field, XXIΓ in exe) Emission 4 Officina 3. A.D. 281
Reference:– RIC 911 Bust type H
RI 146g img.jpg
146 - Maximianus - RIC VI Trier 16572 viewsObv:– IMP C MAXIMIANVS P AVG, Laureate bust facing right
Rev:– GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopiae
Minted in Trier (A in left field, Γ in right field, TR in exe.) A.D. 296 - 297
References:– RIC VI Trier 165 (Rare)

Nearly fully silvered
2 commentsmaridvnvm
In the memory of Severus...72 viewsDivus Septimius Severus under Caracalla, AR Denarius, 211?, Rome
Bare head right
Eagle standing facing on garlanded altar, head left
19mm x 20mm, 2.84g
RIC IV, Part I, 191d for Caracalla
3 commentsowellber
Caracalla antoninianus72 viewsCaracalla, 198-217 AD. Antoninian, Rome, 217 AD

Antoninian (AG 22-24mm) Rome, 217 AD. ANTONINVS PIVS AVG GERM Draped, cuirassed and radiate bust r. Rv. P M TR P XX COS IIII PP Iupiter standing frontal, head l., holding thunderbold in his r.hand and sceptre in l.hand. 5,14gr. Good very fine. Nice big flan.

C.374; BMC 462,179; RIC 255,285c.
3 commentssseverus
Rome, Lead Seal, #31, Lion , Bee? Fly??72 viewsRome, Lead Seal, #31, Lion , Bee? Fly??quadrans
Romanus IV.jpg
Romanus IV72 views124, Lot: 288. ROMANUS IV, Diogenes. 1068-1071. AV Histamenon Nomisma (28mm, 4.35 g, 6h). Constantinople mint. Estimate $200. Sold for $331.

ROMANUS IV, Diogenes. 1068-1071. AV Histamenon Nomisma (27mm, 4.00 gm). Constantinople mint. Constantius and Andronicus, each holding a globus cruciger, standing facing on either side of Michael holding labarum and akakia; all on beaded exergual line / Christ, nimbate, standing facing on footstool, crowning Romanus and Eudocia, each holding a globus cruciger. DOC III 2; SB 1861. VF, attractive strike with traces of red toning in obverse devices.
Ex Elsen 82 (11 December 2004), lot 747.
Loser of crucial Battle of Manzikert.
1 commentsgoldcoin
Late Achaemenid seal stone, c. 350-250 BC / 3rd-5th century AD72 viewsLate Achaemenid-Sassanian
Carnelian seal stone
c. 350-250 BC; recarved c. 3rd-5th century AD
Winged, man-headed horse seated l., Sassanian-era Pahlavi letters below
049 Septimius Severus (193-211 A.D.), AR-Denarius, RIC IV-I 130, Rome, IOVI CONSERVATORI, Jupiter seated left,72 views049 Septimius Severus (193-211 A.D.), AR-Denarius, RIC IV-I 130, Rome, IOVI CONSERVATORI, Jupiter seated left,
avers:- L-SEPT-SEV-AVG-IMP-XI-PART-MAX, Laurate bust right.
revers:- IOVI-CONSE-RVATORI, Jupiter seated left holding scepter and Victory.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 17mm, weight: 3,48g, axis: 1h,
mint: Rome, date: 198-200 A.D.,ref: RIC-IV-I-130, p-, RSC-237,
Severus Alexander, 222 - 235 AD 72 viewsObv: IMP C M AVR SEV ALEXAND AVG, laureate, draped bust of Severus Alexander facing right.

Rev: PM TRP II COS PP, Pax standing left, holding an olive branch in her right hand and a scepter in her left.

Silver Denarius, Rome mint, 223 AD

2.75 grams, 18.9 mm, 180°

RIC IVii 27, RSC 236, S7896, VM 36/7
SPQR Coins
CHINA - 3 KINGDOMS PERIOD - KINGDOM OF SHU72 viewsCHINA - 3 KINGDOMS PERIOD - KINGDOM OF SHU. This Wu Zhu was cast from AD 214 to 263 in the Kingdom Shu during the period of China's Three Kingdoms. Diameter: about 21.5 mm. w/ both inner and outer rims. It is Schjoth #224 or Fisher's Ding #525 or David Hartill #10.10.
Side, Pamphylia, 2nd - 1st Centuries B.C.72 viewsBronze AE 16, SNG France 740, VF, cleaning scratches, Side mint, 3.160g, 16.3mm, 0o, obverse helmeted head of Athena right; reverse ΣΙΔΗΤΩΝ, Nike flying left, wreath in right hand, pomegranate left;
Adrian S
1775 Potosi, 1788 Mexico City, 1779 Lima - 2 Reales - reverse72 views1775 Potosi, Bolivia - Two Reales
1788 Mexico City - Two Reales
1779 Lima, Peru - Two Reales
Geta, contemporary counterfeit72 viewsGeta, Pautalia, barb., [OV]ΛΠIAC ΠAVTA[ΛIAC], altar *attributed through comment...Thanks A.!
19mm 3.72g
1 commentscasata137ec
Macrinus 72 viewsMackrinus antoninianus.Rad and draped seen from behind REV. Salus enthroned l feeding snake arising from altar and holding sceptre.VOTA PUBL PM TR P. Weight.4,85gr RIC 11 var4 commentsspikbjorn
Tetricus I VICTORIA AVG RIC 140~0.jpg
Tetricus I VICTORIA AVG RIC V/2 14072 viewsAnt, 18x21mm, 2.84g.

Obverse: IMP C C ESV TETRICVS PF AVG, Radiate and draped bust R.

Reverse: VICTORIA AVG, Victoria walking L with wreath and branch.

Trier, Issue 2.

RIC V/2 140, Common.
3 commentsRobert_Brenchley
Tetricus, barbarous AE3.JPG
Tetricus72 viewsStruck imitation of Tetricus I, 19mm
Fides Militvm type
270-276 AD
radiate bust r.
[?] CVS
figure standing with two spears/banners
JULIUS CAESAR72 viewsAR denarius. Military mint. 48-47 BC. 3.76 gr. Laureate head of Pietas right wearing necklace. T II behind. / Trophy of Gallic arms and carnyx ;axe surmounted by an animal head on right. CAE-SAR across lower field. Craw 452/2. RSC 18. Smyth VIII/34. Toned.
Ex eBay.
4 commentsbenito
Trajan Denarius Fortuna Redux72 viewsObv.
Laureate and draped bust right

FORT RED in ex.
Fortuna seated left, holdng cornucopia and rudder
2 commentsancientdave
TRIER P 2 TRP[dot]672 viewsRIC 529.
Weight 1.80g.
Tyre Sheckel-jdh.JPG
Tyre Sheckel72 viewsAnyone know how to date these? 2 commentsJerome Holderman
Valerian II Antoninianus72 viewsStruck with worn dies.

1 commentsWill Hooton
Vespasian dupondius.jpg
Vespasian72 viewsDupondius.
The obverse has a nice green patina.
1 commentsJan Terje Rafdal
72 viewsVespasianus - DenariusRugser
Volusianus antoninianus * rare *72 viewsAEQVTAS AVG (instead of AEQVITAS ...)
Antiochia mint
VRBS ROMA Siscia mint72 views•ASIS•2 commentsXLi
Gallienus, Billon Antoninianus, 260-268, Sole Reign, Asia - RIC 64972 viewsAttribution: RIC 649 (RIC V, Part I)

Mint: Asia

Date: 260-268 AD

Obverse: GALLIENVS AVG; Radiate, draped, cuirassed bust right, seen from behind

Reverse: MARS VICTOR; Mars advancing right, round shield in left hand, spear in right
Palm branch right in exergue

Size: 21mm x 22mm

Weight: 4.01 grams
2 commentsAnemicOak
Apulia, Arpi (Italy) 3rd Century B.C.72 viewsAE 21; SGCV I 569, Lindgren 210; Weight 7.7 gr., Max. Diameter 21.17 mm; Obv. Δ A Σ O Y on right, Laureate head of Zeus left, thunderbolt behind; Rev. Calydonian Boar w/bristling ridgeback right, spearhead above, A P Π A N Ω N in ex.

Background info:

Arpi origially allied with Rome in 326 B.C. Later sided with Hannibal 217-213 B.C., then recaptured by Rome.
5 commentsSteve E
ROMAN IMPERATORS, JULIUS CAESAR denarius71 viewsDenarius minted in North Africa c.47-46 BC
No legend, Diademed head of Venus right
CAESAR, Aeneas left, bearing Anchises on his shoulder
3.91 gr
Ref : HCRI # 55, RCV #1402, Cohen #12
1 commentsPotator II
Germanicus, Middle bronze - 003571 viewsGERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N, bare head right
8.88 gr
Cohen #9
Potator II
Faustina II. Daughter of Antoninus Pius. Wife of M.Aurelius.71 viewsAE sestertius. 161-164 AD. 23.57 gr.6h . Diademed and draped bust right. FAVSTINA AVGVSTA. / Salus seated left, holding patera from which she feeds snake coiled around altar. SALVTI AVGVSTAE, in exergue SC. RIC III 1668 (M.Aurelius). Cohen 200.
3 commentsbenito
Diva Faustina II, Denarius71 viewsRome mint, after AD 176
DIVA AVG FAVSTINA, Veiled and draped bust right
CONSECRATIO, funeral pyre
3.26 gr, 18 mm
Ref : Cohen # 77, RIC # 747, RCV # 5218
2 commentsPotator II
Postumus, Double sestertius71 viewsDouble sestertius struck in Cologne, AD 261
IMP C M CASS LAT POSTVMVS P F AVG, Radiate bust of Postumus right
LAETITIA AVG, Galley travelling left
18.12 gr
Ref : Cohen #177, RCV #11049
1 commentsPotator II
Diocletian, Follis71 viewsAlexandria mint, 2nd officina, c. AD 304-305
IMP C DIOCLETIANVS P F AVG, Laureate bust of Diocletianus right
IOVI CONS CAES, Jupiter standing left, holding victory and spear. B in right field S | P in lower field, ALE at exergue
11.21 gr
Ref : Cohen # 173, RCV # 12805 (180), RIC VI # 41
Potator II
Constantinus II, AE371 viewsTrier mint, 2nd officina ?
FL CL CONSTANTINVS IVN N C, draped and cuirassed bust right
PRINCIPI IVVENTVTIS, Constantine Junior standing right, holding globe and spear, F in left field, T in right field, BTR at exergue
3.12 gr
Ref : Cohen # 143
1 commentsPotator II
Constans, AE271 viewsRome mint, 1st officina
D N CONSTA NS P F AVG, draped and diademed bust left, holding globe in right hand
FEL.TEMP.REPARATIO, Virtus walking right dragging captive out of his hut. R*P at exergue
4.2 gr
Ref : Cohen # 19, LRBC # 604
1 commentsPotator II
Laureate bust and Δ71 viewsBITHYNIA. Nicaea. Maximus. Ć 23. A.D. 235-238. Obv: (ΓI)OVOVHMAΞIMOCK. Bare-headed, draped and cuirassed bust right; 2 countermarks: (1) behind bust, (2) on bust. Rev: N(IKAI)-EΩN.Athena seated left, holding figure of Nike in outstretched right hand, shield behind. Ref: BMC -; Weiser 61. Axis: 210°. Weight: 6.94 g. CM(1): Laureate bust right, in circular punch, 6.5 mm.Howgego 65 (130 pcs). Dating of the countermark is problematic, and it seems likely that it was applied over a period of time. CM(2): Δ in circular punch, 6 mm. Howgego 788. Collection Automan.Automan
eros mint mark71 viewsTraded2 commentsrandy h2
Lithuania. Johann Casimir 1648 - 1668. Copper. 1661.71 viewsLithuania. Johann Casimir 1648 - 1668. Copper. 1661. IOAN CAS REX, head right, TLB below / SOLIMAG.DVCLIT 1661, Vytautas on horseback left, monogram below.

KM 50
Bust right (?) and star in crescent71 viewsCAPPADOCIA. Caesarea. Elagabalus. Ć 35. A.D. 220/221. Obv: (AYTKMAYPHΛIANTWNEINOCCEB) or sim. Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right; 2 countermarks, both before bust. Rev: (MHTPOΠOΛ or similar)-KAICAPIA, NEΩKOPON/(ETГ) in two lines in ex. Tyche seated left on throne, holding cornucopia and agalma of Mt. Argaeus (?), on either side urn with palm-branch. Ref: SNG Cop -; SNG Aul - (6502 for obv.). Axis: 360°. Weight: 24.98 g. CM(1): Bust right (?), in circular punch, 5 mm. Howgego (?). CM(2): six-pointed star in crescent, in circular punch, 5.5 mm. Howgego -. Collection Automan.Automan
Sweden - Gustav II Adolph (1611-1632), 2 ore "klippe" - SM 12171 viewsObv: Crowned G A R S (Gustavus Adolphus Rex Sveciae)
Rev: The Vasa family coat of arms with 2 OR on eighter side and the year 1626 below.

Minted in Sater or Nykoping 1626. These square coins where the first copper coins minted in Sweden, They were minted from 1624 - 1627, at first hammer -struck and from 1626 roller milled, as this example showed here.
1 commentspierre_p77
Italy, Pompeii - Forum71 viewsJohny SYSEL
Alexander the Great71 viewsKings of Macedon, Alexander the Great, AE 20. Obv: Head of Herakles right wearing lion's skin headdress. Rev: ALEXAND between club above and quiver below, bee(?) over club. Possibily a new issue from Ephesos.Molinari
Adegu “AGD”71 viewsObverse: Bust facing forward. Garment draped on shoulders. Crowned with a diadem with centre gilded. Ge’ez legend (King of Aksum).
Reverse: Arch supported by columns with a cross within, inlaid with gold. Ge’ez legend (The King who exalts the saviour).
Mint :
Date : AD. 7th C
Reference : M-H 126, V61
Grade : VG
Weight : 1.57g
Metal : AR
Comments : AR 16mm, Die Axis ?°.
1 commentsBolayi
08-01 - AGRIPPINA MADRE (14 A.C. - 33 D.C.)71 viewsAE Sestercio 35 mm 25.6 gr.
Hija de Agrippa y Julia, nieta de Augusto, mujer de Germánico y madre de Calígula. Emisión póstuma acuńada por su cuńado Claudio.

Anv: "AGRIPPINA M F GERMANICI [CAESARIS]" - Busto vestido viendo a derecha.
Rev: "[TI CL]AVDIVS CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR P IMP P P" - Leyenda alrededor de gran "S C ".

Acuńada 42 D.C.
Ceca: Roma

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 #102 Pag.128 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1906 Pag.376 - BMCRE #219 - Cohen Vol.1 #3 Pag.231 - DVM #2 Pag.78 - CBN (Claudius) #236 - Von Kaenel #78, pl.49, 2063
1 commentsmdelvalle
Mughal coins of India71 viewsAhmad_Shah_II,_Silver,_TankaGirish sharma
Amisos71 viewsPontos, Amisos. Circa 85-65 BC.

Ć 21 mm

Bust of Amazon right, wearing wolfskin headdress / AMISOU, Nike walking right, holding wreath in right hand, palm over left shoulder. SNG BMC Black Sea 1218-1219; SNG Stancomb 704; SNG Copenhagen 165.
2 commentsrandy h2
Anastasius AU Tremissis71 viewsANASTASIUS I. 491-518 AD. AV Tremissis. DN ANASTASIUS PP AVG; Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / : VICTORIA AVGVSTORVM; Victory walking right, head left, holding globus cruciger and wreath; */CONOB.

DOC I 10a; MIB 12; SB 8.

2 commentsTanit
Cilicia, Anazarbus, Commodus, SNG Leante Supp. 32571 viewsCommodus AD 177-192
AE 26, 12.84g, 225°
struck (Theta)QP = 199 = AD 181/182
bust, draped and cuirassed, laureate, r.
bust of Zeus Olybrius, draped, diademed, wearing necklace, seen from front, head r.
SNG Levante 325 (this ex.); SNG Paris 2041 var. (date, legend)
rare, VF, dark green patina, obv. a bit rough, impressive portrait of Zeus
added to

This coin is much better in hand, especially the rev. is very beautiful!
4 commentsJochen
Ancient Ujjiani  seated goddess...JPG
India:Coin of ancient Ujjain71 viewsRare AE coin of ancient Ujjain,adityanoble
Roman Empire, Antoninus Pius Sestertius71 viewsĆ Sestertius, 24.4g, Ř 32-34mm, 12h, minted AD 140-144, Rome
Obv.: ANTONINVS AVG PI-VS P P TR P COS III, laurate head right
Rev.: SECVRITA-S PVBLICA / S C, Securitas standing left, holding sceptre and leaning on column.
RIC 641; C. 783; BMCRE 1312; Sear RCVII 4232

2 commentsCharles S
Syracuse, Second Democracy71 views415-405 BC
AE Hemilitron (16mm, 4.59g).
O: Head of Arethusa left, hair in ampyx, wearing necklace and sphendone.
R: Quadripartite incuse, eight-rayed star within incuse at center.
Sear 1185; CNS 16; SNG ANS 398
ex Aegean Numismatics

Arethusa was the Goddess of the local spring at Ortygia, the heart of Syracuse.

A special coin from a very dear friend.
AS Agrippa RIC 58.jpg
03-01 - AGRIPPA (27 - 12 A.C.)71 viewsAE AS (Emisión Póstuma realizada por Gaius (Calígula), Tiberio es también responsable por esta extensa emisión) 28 mm 8.3 gr.

Anv: "M AGRIPPA · L · F · COS · III" - Busto con Corona Rostral viendo a izquierda.
"Corona Rostral" de oro (corona de laureles adornada con proas y popas de barcos, que se concedía por haber capturado una nave enemiga o bien por un gran acto de valor en combate naval)
Rev: "S C " - Neptuno de pié a izquierda, portando delfín en mano derecha y tridente en izquierda.

Acuńada 37 - 41 D.C.
Ceca: Roma

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 #58 Pag.112 (Gaius) - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1812 Pag.358 - BMCRE (Tiberius) #161 - Cohen Vol.1 #3 Pag.175/6 - DVM #4 Pag.74 - CBN #77
Aspron Trachy Vellón Alexio III SB02012.jpg
62-05 - Alexio III Angelus Commenus (08/04/1195 - 17/07/1203 D.C.)71 viewsAE/Vellón Aspron Trachy 25 x 27 mm 2.6 gr.
Moneda "Escifulada" cóncava.

Anv: "IC - XC" (Jesús Cristo) en campos izquierdo y derecho - Busto de Cristo sin barba, vistiendo nimbus cruciger (Halo redondo con cruz que rodea su busto), Pallium (Tipo de capa o manto) y Collobium (Túnica especial sin mangas), levantando su mano derecha en seńal de bendición y sosteniendo un rollo de pergamino con mano izquierda." + Kε ROHΘεI " leyenda rodeando el busto.
Rev: " AΛEΣIω ΔεCΠ O KωNcTANTI " Emperador a derecha y San Constantino, barbado y nimbado a izquierda, ambos de pié de frente vistiendo corona, divitision (Larga túnica de seda usada por los Emperadores y Obispos, de color púrpura o blanco) y Loros (Ropa elaboradamente adornada que constituye el vestido consular de los Emperadores). Portando entre ellos Orbe con cruz y labarum (Lábaro, Enseńa militar usado como estandarte imperial), el Emperador en mano derecha y el santo en la izquierda.

Acuńada 1195 - 1203 D.C.
Ceca: Constantinopla

Referencias: Sear BCTV #2012 Pag. 407 - Hendy CMBE pl.22.8-12, pl.23.1-7 - B.M.C.#16-18 - Ratto M.B.#2005/13 - Morrisson C.M.b.B.N. #1-16
Attica, Athens Hemiobol71 viewsATTICA, ATHENS
AR Hemiobol.
454(?)–415 BC.

O: Head of Athena right with frontal eye, in crested Attic helmet adorned with olive leaves above visor / R: AQE, owl standing three-quarters r, olive sprig behind, all in incuse square.

Svoronos pl. 17, 52–56. SNG Cop 59–61, Sear sg2531 VF

4 commentsSosius
Attica, Athens, ( 123-122 B.C.), AR-Tetradrachm (New style), Sear , Athena and Owl,71 viewsAttica, Athens, ( 123-122 B.C.), AR-Tetradrachm (New style), Sear , Athena and Owl,
Obv:– Helmeted head of Athena right, wearing crested Corinthian helmet.
Rev:– A-ΘE across top, magistrates' names MIK-IΩN, EVRVKΛEI, APE/ΣTO/Σ across fields, (), Owl standing facing on amphora, To right, the Dioscouri standing left, one holding patera, both holding staffs. Κ letter on amphora, ΣΦ below..
diameter: 28,5mm, weght: 16,68g , axis: 11h,
mint: Attica, Athens, date:123-122 B.C., ref.:Thompson 488 d/e/f, (Svoronos JAN X, 173; BMC 459; cf Sear 2555-2559 (magistrates).???)
1 commentsquadrans
Nasir al-Din Mahmud (AH 616-631/ AD 1219-1234),71 viewsOb. Facing head with two Nikes above
Rev. Modud's legend

Nasir al-Din Mahmud (AH 616-631/ AD 1219-1234),
al-Mawsil (Mosul) mint

Ae Dirhem
Ref Mitchiner 1118, SS59
Size 30mm

5 commentsBacchus
Octavian71 viewsOctavian. 30-29 B.C. AR denarius (19 mm, 3.84 g, 3'). Uncertain Italian mint, perhaps Rome. Bare head right / Trophy set on prow of galley right; crossed rudder and anchor at base. RIC 265a; BMC 625; HCRI 419; RSC 119. 1 commentscarthago
Battle of Leipzig, 1813. d'Essling 141271 viewsObv. FRANZ. I: KAISER. V: OESTERREICH * ALEXANDER KAISER. V: RUSSLAND * . Bustes, en regard, de François et d'Alexandre JETTON
Rev. DIE ENTSCHEID: SCHLACHT DER ALLIIRTEN BEY LEIPZIG. Vue de la ville et de la bataille. Dans les airs, un aigle couronné, tenant le glaive et le globe.
Exergue: DEN 18=19. OCT: 1813.
Silvered AE34. d'Essling 1412, Bramsen 1259.

A medal/jeton commemorating the Battle of Leipzig in 1813, the most devestating battle prior to WWI.
AR-No.TPAP 130/QBR1-B (BA)71 viewsPhoenicia, Arados 130-129 B.C

AE 19.44mm (Thickness 3.30mm), weight 6.48g, die axis = 1h (30 degrees), denomination B.

Obverse: Turreted head of Tyche right, S shaped ponytail, palm branch behind.

Reverse: Poseidon seated left on galley prow left with (Ἀθηνᾶ Πρόμαχος) Athena figurehead, wreath in his right hand and trident in left, Phoenician letters qoph (Q) and beth (B) above, Aradain era date 130 with resh (R) below.
Martin R
018 Bela III., King of Hungary, (1172-1196 A.D.), AE-Coin, U-114, #0171 views018 Bela III., King of Hungary, (1172-1196 A.D.), AE-Coin, U-114, #01
avers:- REX BELA REX STS, Emperors, seated facing, holding orb and scepter.
revers:- SANCTA MARIA, Nimbate Madonna facing the front, scepter in right hand, infant Jesus in left. Two crosses above.
exe:-/-//--, diameter: 23,0 mm, weight: 1,98g, axis: 9h,
mint: , date: 1235-1270 A.D., ref: Unger-114_CNH-1-098_Huszar-072, Toth-Kiss sigla-variation-,
ROMAN EMPIRE, Maximinus II AE Follis71 views308 AD. Alexandria mint.
Obv.: GAL VAL MAXIMINVS NOB CAES - Laureate bust of Maximinus II.
Rev.: VIRTVS EXERCITVS - Mars in military dress, holding transverse spear, shield and trophy over shoulder. X in l. field, B/K in r..
RIC 83.
2 commentsMinos
T5. Constantius II, Siscia RIC 254, R5, 335-36 AD71 viewsObv: FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C
Laureate and cuirassed bust, right.
Two soldiers with spears and shields on either side of a single standard.
1.4 gm 17 mm Ae3 Exergue: ΔSIS
BRAZIL Johannes X Reis.jpg
BRAZIL - Joao VI71 viewsBRAZIL - Joao VI (1818-1822) CU 10 Reis.
Obv.: JOANNES VI D G PORT ET BRAS ET ALG REX around crowned X/1822/.B. The X flanked by 4-petalled rosettes.
Rev.: PECUNIA TOTUM CIRCUMIT ORBEM around arms of Portugal/Brazil Kingdom.
Reference: KM-314.2
Tiberius, AD 14-3771 viewsAR denarius, 19.77mm (3.69 gm).

TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS, laureate head right / PONTIF MAXIM, female figure seated right, holding sceptre in right hand and branch in left, on chair with ornamented legs, and single line below. Rome mint, struck AD 36-37.

RIC I, 030 (pg. 95); RSC II, 016a.
1 commentssocalcoins
Great Britain. George II 1727 - 1760. Brass Jeton 1791.71 viewsGreat Britain. George II 1727 - 1760. Brass Jeton 1791. GEORGIVS II DEI GRATIA, bust right / M.B.F.E.T.H.REX.F.D.B.RT.L.D.S.R.I.A.T.FT.E 1791, crowned arms.oneill6217
BRUTTIUM, Kroton. Circa 300-250 BC. AR Triobol 71 views Head of Athena r. wearing crested Corinthian helmet, KPOTΩ above

Herakles advancing right, wearing lion skin and draping it over club held in his hand; koppa to left, OIKIΣTAΣ to right.

300-250 BC

Rutter, Historia Numorum 2199; SNG ANS 426; SNG München 1467.



2 commentsJay GT4
BYZANTINE EMPIRE -- Constantine IX71 viewsBYZANTINE EMPIRE -- Constantine IX (1042-1055), AE Class D anonymous follis. 1042-1055 AD. IC to left, XC to right of Christ, nimbate, seated facing on throne with back, holding book of Gospels in both hands / bAS-ILE bAS-ILE in three lines, crescent below. Reference: SB 1836.dpaul7
051 Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), AR-Antoninianus, RIC IV-I 275b, Rome, P M TR P XVIIII COS IIII P P, Jupiter Standing, Scarce!,71 views051 Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), AR-Antoninianus, RIC IV-I 275b, Rome, P M TR P XVIIII COS IIII P P, Jupiter Standing, Scarce!,
avers:- ANTONINVS-PIVS-AVG-GERM, Radiate, draped bust right, seen half from back.
revers:- P-M-TR-P-XVIIII-COS-IIII-P-P, Jupiter standing, facing, holding thunderbolt and scepter.
exe:-/-//--, diameter: 23mm, weight: 4,22g, axis:- h,
mint: Rome, date: 215-216 A.D., ref: RIC-IV-I-275b, p-252,
2 commentsquadrans
104 Claudius II. (268-270 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, T-1298 (Estiot), RIC V-I 257var, Siscia, CONSAECRATIO, Altar,71 views104 Claudius II. (268-270 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, T-1298 (Estiot), RIC V-I 257var, Siscia, CONSAECRATIO, Altar,
avers:- DIVO-CLAVDIO, Bust right, radiate, cuirassed, seen from rear. (B2).
revers:- CONSAECRATIO, Altar, with flame above, divided in four squares with a dot inside of each square. (Altar 1a).
exerg: -/-//T, diameter: 19-21mm, weight: 2,10g, axes: 6h,
mint: Siscia, off-3, iss-1, date: 270-271 A.D., ref: T-1298, RIC V-I 257var,
104 Claudius II. (268-270 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, T-0761 (Estiot), RIC V-I 193, Siscia, VBERTAS AVG, Uberitas standing left, #171 views104 Claudius II. (268-270 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, T-0761 (Estiot), RIC V-I 193, Siscia, VBERTAS AVG, Uberitas standing left, #1
avers:- IMP-CLAVDIVS-AVG, Bust right, radiate, cuirassed, (B1).
revers:- VBERTAS-AVG, Uberitas standing left, holding purse in right hand and cornucopiae in left hand, (Uberitas 1).
exerg: -, diameter: 21mm, weight: 3,23g, axes: 0h,(12h),
mint: Siscia, iss-4, date: 270. A.D., ref: T-0761 (Estiot), RIC V-I 193, Alf. 1936, 5.11,
Imperator Caesar Decimus Clodius Septimius Albinus Augustus71 viewsClodius Albinus, Lugdunum mint, 18mm, 3.25 g. Struck 195 - 196 C.E.
R: Aequitas facing left holding scales and cornucopiae, AEQVITAS AVG COS II. RIC 13a

When allied with Septimius Severus, Clodius Albinus’ portraits show him with hair combed forward to cover a receding hairline matched with a short scruffy beard.

When Septimius Severus named his son Caracalla Caesar, Albinus understood this as the end of their alliance and the beginning of a fight for his life. Ablinus took the title of Augustus (Imperator Caesar Decimus Clodius Septimius Albinus Augustus), and his portrait quickly converts to a full head of hair and voluminous beard worthy of an Emperor.

According to Cutis Clay, Albinus broke with Severus c. Nov. 195, but was defeated and killed by Severus near Lugdunum not on 19 Feb. 197, as traditionally stated, but a year earlier, on 19 Feb. 196, after a revolt lasting only about three months!

This explains the scarcity of Albinus' coinage as Emperor compared to Albinus as Caesar under Severus.
3 commentsNemonater
Julia Domna, Isis71 viewsJulia Domna
Ar Denarius; 22mm

Draped bust right

Isis standing right, stepping on galley prow, holding baby

RIC 577, RSC 174, BMC 75
1 commentsarizonarobin
Gallienus, Wolf & Twins71 viewsO: GALLIENVS AVG
Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
She wolf suckling Romulus and Remes

RIC V-1 Sole Reign, Asian Mint 628; Gobl 1628a
Ant; 4.18g; 22mm

1 commentsarizonarobin
BYZANTINE EMPIRE - Constantine VII & Romanus II71 viewsJoint Reign of Constantine VII (913-959) & Romanus II (945-963) -- AE Follis minted between 945 and 959. Obv: Constantine VII facing, bearded, wearing modified loros and crown with cross, globus cruciger in left, akakia in right "+ COnST bASIL ROM". Rev: Legend in four lines - "+ COnSt / EnQEO bA / SILEVS R / OmEOn" (Constantine King of the Romans);. Constantinople min Ref: D. Sear Byzantine coins and their value, p. 339, 1761, 6.01 g. Berk 930. dpaul7
316-319 AD Constantine I - AE3 - Victories - Siscia mint71 viewsIMPCONSTANTINVSPFAVG - Helmeted, Laureate, curaissed bust right
VICTORIAELAETAEPRINCPERP in exe. (Delta)SIS - Two victories facing, inscribing VOT/PR on shield placed on altar, X on cippus.

Siscia mint, Ric 53, 18 mm, 2.85 gms, 45 degrees
slightly rough surfaces, Great detail, Dark green patina, aEF ....
ROMAN EMPIRE, Constantine II 71 viewsConstantine II
CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C, buste of Constantine II LD
GLOR-IA EXERC-ITVS, SMH gamma in ex., o on banners
Heraclea, RIC VII Heraclea 112, r4, 330-335 AD
Sebastiaan v
Constantine I SARMATIA DEVICTA RIC 48.jpg
Constantine I SARMATIA DEVICTA RIC VII Sirmium 4871 viewsAE3, 20mm, 2.61g.

Obverse: CONSTAN-TINVS AVG, laureate head R.

Reverse: SARMATIA - DEVICTA, Victory advancing R with trophy and branch, treading captive R.

Exe: SIRM (Sirmium).

RIC VII 48, 324-5, C3.
1 commentsRobert_Brenchley
Constantine The Great- Posthumous 3.jpg
Constantine The Great- Posthumous commemorative Aequitas71 viewsConstantine the Great, early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D.

Constantine with veiled bust right


DV: Divus, Divine (acclaimed a deity), Divus was applied to consecrated deceased rulers.
CONSTANTI-NVS: Constantine
PT: Pather, farther (is used with AVGG)
AVGG: Augustus, more than one emperor



IVST: IVSTITA, The personification of justice.
VENER: Venerabilis (revered memory)

IVST (JUST) means just in the sense of fair, so the legend means "justly venerated memory".

VENER MEMOR/ VNMR (revered memory) was used on the consecration coins of Constantine the Great.

Aequitas standing left holding scales and a scepter. She's also winged on this coin.

Domination: Bronze, AE 4, Size 14 mm. Posthumous commemorative for Constantine the Great

Mint: SMALΓ, Alexandria, Oficina=Γ Gamma (3rd Oficina). The choices for this time period at Alexandria are - A /α (Alpha, first), B /β (Beta, second), (Gamma/Γ, third) and (Delta /Δ,forth).

The coin is dedicated to Constantine The Great by one of his sons from 341 to 347AD

The attribution is RIC VIII Alexandria 28, minted in 345-347. RIC rates the coin as merely "scarce", but perhaps that's rather an understatement!
John Schou
Constantine I AD307- AD33771 viewsDie axis 0 degrees
Sear 3787
Siscia mint
weak reverse die
4 commentsPaul D3
Constantius II Hoc Sign Victor Eris2.jpg
Constantius II- Siscia RIC 30471 viewsobv: DN CONSTAN-TIVS PF AVG
obv: HOC SIGN VICTOR ERIS, Emperor holding labarum, being crowned by Victory.
BSIS in exergue
RIC Siscia 304

Commemorates Constantine's vision and ensuing victory. This type is extremely hard to find in decent condition.
damroo-koushambi coin.JPG
Coin of kaushambi, India71 viewsCoin of kaushambi, Indiaadityanoble
Delmatius RIC VII 22771 viewsObv: FL DALMATIVS NOB C
laureate, draped & cuirassed bust right
two soldiers, each holding reversed spear & resting on shield, standing on either side of standard
SMTSr in ex.
17mm 1.7 gm
ROMAN EMPIRE, Domitian. AD 81-96 (Struck AD 90-91). Ć Dupondius71 viewsDomitian. AD 81-96 (Struck AD 90-91). Ć Dupondius Radiate head right / Virtus standing right. RIC II 393; BMCRE 446; BN -; Cohen 657Adrian W
Domitianus denar71 viewsIMP XXII COS XVI CENS P P P1 commentsTibsi
Amphipolis, Macedonia 187-31 B.C.71 viewsAmphipolis mint, 16mm

Obverse: Diademed head of Apollo right
Reverse: AMΦIΠO/ΛITΩN, stalk of grain
Ionia, Ephesos, bee / eagle head71 views7mm, 0.18g
obv: bee within dotted border
rev: EΦ; head of eagle right within incuse square
5 commentsareich
Cárbula as (2)71 viewsObserve: Apollo head to the right. Snake before. X behind.
Reverse: CARBVLA. Lyre.
Weight: 10,1 gr. Size: 29 mm.
FAB. 335. LV.4
Dated: I Century B.C.

The mint of Cárbula is now in the village of Almodovar del Río near Córdoba.
038a Faustina (II) Filia (128-175 A.D.), AE-Dupondius, RIC III 1389a (Ant.Pius), Rome, AVGVSTI P II FIL, Venus,71 views038a Faustina (II) Filia (128-175 A.D.), AE-Dupondius, RIC III 1389a (Ant.Pius), Rome, AVGVSTI P II FIL, Venus,
"Daughter of Antoninus Pius and Faustina Sr. and wife of Marcus Aurelius. She was also the mother of Commodus and Lucilla, wife of Lucius Verus."
avers:- FAVSTINA AVGVSTA, Draped bust right, with hair waved and coiled on back of head.
revers: AVGVS-TI-P-II-FIL, Venus standing left, holding Victory and shield on helmet.
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: 23-25mm, weight: 10,46g, axis: h,
mint: Rome, date: 156-161 A.D., ref: RIC-III-1389a (Antoninus Pius), p-193, C-17,
Philip II starter.71 viewsWeight: 8,5 gr.
Sear: 6664 variant. A thunder below the horses.
Publius Fonteius P.f. Capito71 viewsObv: P • FONTEIVS • P • F • CAPITO • III • VIR, helmeted and draped bust of Mars facing right, trophy over shoulder.

Rev: MN FONT • TR MIL, warrior on horseback thrusting his spear at a Gaulish enemy who is about to slay an unarmed, kneeling captive.

Note: This type records the exploits of Manius Fonteius who was governor of Narbonese Gaul between 76 - 73 BC.

Silver Denarius, Rome mint, c. 55 - 54 BC

3.875 grams, 17.6 mm, 30°

RSC Fonteia 17, S392
3 commentsSPQR Coins
FRIESACH PFENNIG71 viewsc. 1200 AD - AR Pfennig. Issued by the Bishop of Salzburg - crudely made. dpaul7
Gallienus71 viewsGallienus AR Antoninianus. GALLIENVS P F AVG, radiate cuirassed bust right / IOVI STATORI, Jupiter standing facing, head right, holding sceptre & thunderbolt. Cohen 388. RIC 6446 commentsRandygeki(h2)
Galba As Libertas Publica71 viewsObv.
Laureate head right

Libertas standing left, holding spear and pileus
Anchialos Septimius Severus T. Statilius Barbarus (196-8 AD)71 viewsSeptimius Severus

AE 28 12.28g


T. Statilius Barbarus (196-98 AD)

Laureate draped and cuirassed bust right

Tyche standing left with right foot on prow, holding rudder and cornucopiae

AMNG II 460; Varbanov (E) II 188; Mionnet -; BMC-

Attractive green patina.

Ex collection Art Noot
1 commentsPetrus Elmsley
R/ PRI - NC IV - VENTV - TIS Geta, in military dress, stading half left holding baton and long sceptre, behind trophy
Denarius 3,41 g
Cohen 187var RIC 18
3 commentsgb29400
053 Geta (209-211 A.D.), AR-Denarius, RIC IV-I 059b, Rome, PONTIF COS II, Genius standing left,71 views053 Geta (209-211 A.D.), AR-Denarius, RIC IV-I 059b, Rome, PONTIF COS II, Genius standing left,
avers:- P-SEPTIMIVS-GETA-CAES, Bare head right, bearded.
revers:- PONTIF-COS-II, Genius standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding grain ears.
exe: , diameter: 19mm, weight: 2,71g, axis:- 0 h,
mint: Rome, date: 209 A.D., ref: RIC-IV-I-059b-p-321, C-114,
Gordianus III. antoninianus71 viewsPROVIDENTIA AVG3 commentstibsi67
Greece, Delos - Grotto of Hercules71 viewsTo be found at the foot of the approach of Mt Kinthos.Lloyd T
Constantine I AV Solidus71 viewsConstantine I AV Solidus, struck at Siscia on the occasion of the Tricennalia. 335 AD. CONSTANTINVS MAX AVG, diademed, draped and cuirassed bust, 3/4 facing, head right. / VICTORIA CONSTANTINI AVG, Victory seated right by cuirass and shield, holding shield incribed VOT XXX; SIS in ex. RIC 242 (This example cited)


Ex. A. J. Evans Collection
Ex. H. C. Levis Collection
Ex. Naville & Cie, Genva 3 (Lucerne 1922), 195;
Ex. Naville & Cie, Geneva - Ars Classica 11 (Lucerne 1925), 998 et 17 (Lucerne 1934), 1905;
Ex. Münzen & Medaillen AG Basel 73 (1988) 272
Ex. Hess-Divo 2007
2 commentsTrajan
hard times token usa.jpg
USA Hard Times Token - 183771 views1837 1-Cent Size copper "Hard Times" Token. Obv.: Turtle with strongbox on his back, labeled "SUB TREASURY' "EXECUTIVE EXPERIMENT" 1837 FISCAL AGENT
Reverse: Jackass running left, inscription: "I FOLLOW IN THE STEPS OF MY ILLUSTRIOUS PREDECESSOR"
HESSE-CASSEL - Friedrich II71 viewsHESSE-CASSEL - Friedrich II (1760-1785) 24th/Thaler, 1780 BR (Johann Balthasar Reinhard, Mintmaster). Obv.: Lion rampant left, BR. Rev.: Value and date. Metal: Silver. 1,80 g; 21 mm. KM#-520.dpaul7
Hiranyakas of Karnataka,.JPG
Hiranyakas71 viewsHiranyakas of Karnataka.
Lead coin
Huszár 846, Pohl 258-2, Unger 675e, Réthy II 308A, dated 1522 71 viewsHungary. Louis II (Lajos II in Hun.) (1516-1526). AR denar, 16 mm.

Obv: 1522, with rosettes on either side of date, above four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion), Polish eagle in escutcheon, rosette between two pellets on sides of shield.

Rev: Crowned Madonna with infant Jesus to her right, L—K (privy mark) in fields.

The type was struck 1521-1525 (per Huszár & Unger) or 1521-1526 (per Pohl). This privy mark was struck in Kremnitz (formerly Körmöcbánya, Hungary, now Kremnica, Slovakia) (per Pohl).

This type was an inflationary currency that was referred to by contemporaries as “moneta nova.” On average, 400 denars, each weighing 0.49 g., were struck form Ofner mark of silver with a fineness of 0,250 (per Huszár). They were officially valued at ˝ a denar, but the public did not accept them at this overvalued rate (per Huszár & Pohl).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 4.

Huszár 547 var., Pohl 89-1 var., Unger 432a var., Réthy II 89A var.71 viewsHungary. Louis I (Lajos I, in Hun.) (1342-1382). AR denar.

Obv: + MOnETA LODOVICI, Saracen head left.

Rev: + MOnETA LODOVICI, Patriarchal cross with random pellets.

The type was struck 1373-1382 (per Huszár, Pohl & Unger, although Huszár later wrote that the Saracen-head coinage incepted in 1372). Those without a privy mark were struck in Pécs by Johannes Saracenus (per Pohl).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 3. This is an uncommon variety of the emission, in that the standard obverse legend appears on both the obverse and the reverse of the coin. It is neither described nor depicted in any of the catalogs.

The Saracen's head is a pun on the surname of Jacobus Saracenus (Szerechen, in Hun.) and his brother, Johannes, courtiers of Italian descent who were ennobled by Louis. The image of a Saracen's head appeared on their coat of arms. Jacobus became the kammergraf at the Pécs mint in 1352, and the Comes Camerarum Regalium in 1369. He died in the early 1370s, at which time Johannes succeeded him as kammergraf.

Huszár 717, Pohl 216-_, Unger 562_, RĂ©thy II 235A, Kaplan Subtype A71 viewsHungary. Matthias "Corvinus" (Mátyás Hunyadi in Hun.) (1458-1490). AR denar 16 mm..

Obv: + M • MAThIE • R [•] VnGARIE, Four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion), raven in lightly outlined escutcheon in center, hints of a ring in its beak.

Rev: PATROn — VnGAR, Veiled Madonna with infant Jesus to her right, R –shield (privy mark) in fields.

The type was struck 1468-1470 (per Unger), 1468-1481 (per Huszár) or 1468-1484 (per Pohl), with an average fineness of approximately .500 silver, and an average weight of .59023 g.
The shield privy mark was struck in Kremnitz (formerly Körmöcbánya,
Hungary, now Kremnica, Slovakia) by Johannes Constorfer, kammergraf, in 1469 (per Pohl).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 3. This is a highly variable type with four subtypes. Subtype A is the most common variety, comprising around 50% of the coins in the emission. This is an unrecorded privy mark, due to the presence of the R rather than the K.

In Subtype A coins, the obverse legend is + M MAThIE.R.VnGARIE (or a minor variant), per Huszar and Pohl, but contrary to the description in Huszár, there is either no escutcheon or just faint hints of an escutcheon, and there is no ring in the raven's beak or just the hint of a ring. They are depicted in Huszár/Pohl but not depicted in Unger or Réthy.
Huszár 807, Pohl 242-3, Unger 641c, RĂ©thy II 272B. Kaplan Subtype C (unpublished)71 viewsHungary. Wladislaus II (Ulászló II in Hun.) (1490-1516). AR denar, 16 mm., .58 gr.

Obv: * WLADISLAI *R * VNGAR, Four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion), Polish eagle with outstretched wings in center.

Rev: PATRO — N * R VNGAR, Crowned Madonna with infant Jesus to her right, n—A (privy mark) in fields.

The type was struck 1498-1503 (per Unger) or 1500-1502, except for this privy (per Pohl). This privy mark was struck in Nagybánya (now Baia Mare, Romania) in 1505 Ambrosius Literatus, kammergraf (per Pohl).

Huszar/Pohl rarity rating 3. This is a rare privy mark. According to Huszár and Pohl, there are one to three stars on the coins bearing this mark, apparently on the obverse above and the sides of the shield. They are absent from this coin, which is apparently an less common variant for the mark. The style of the Madonna’s robe and crown do not fit within Kaplan Subtypes A and B, and are assigned to a catch-all Subtype C.
Hadrian 117-138 A.D. Caesarea Maritima mint 30mm71 viewsHadrian 117-138 A.D. Caesarea Maritima mint 31mm

O:Laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right
R: Hadrian, as priest-founder, plowing with team of oxen right; above, Nike flying left. Kadman, Caesarea, 27; Hendin 836; SNG ANS 766.
2 commentsMaritima
Italy, Ostia - mosaique floor71 viewsJohny SYSEL
Two for the price of one71 viewsMy Istros stater with not one but two animals! As can be seen they shouldn't be kept in the same cage as they have a tendancy to start fighting!Adrian S
VESPASIAN. 69-79 AD. AR Denarius (3.33 gm). "Judaea Capta" issue. Struck 69-71 AD. 71 viewsAR Denarius (3.2 gm). "Judaea Capta" issue. Struck 69-71 AD.
Laureate head right
Judaea mourning right, trophy behind.
RIC II 15; RSC 226.
1 commentsCGPCGP
Judaea, Alexander Jannaeus, Hendin 473 #171 viewsAlexander Jannaeus (Yehonatan), 103-76 BC
AE - Prutah, 1.84g
obv. Paleo-Hebrew legend in 4 lines in laurel wreath, from r. to l.:
= Yehonatan Ha Kohen Ha Gadol Ha Chaver Ha [Yehudim]
= Yehonatan the High Priest and the Council [of the Jews]
rev. Double Cornucopiae, flled with fruits and a grainear each, decorated with ribbons, in dotted circle, between horns a pomegranate with long stalk
ref. GBC5 1145; GBC4 473; AJC type Ea(19?); TJC group P17
VF, rev. excentric
Roman Empire, Vespasian IVDAEA CAPTA Denarius 71 viewsVespasian. AD 69-79. AR Denarius (17mm, 3.5g, ). “Judaea Capta” commemorative. Rome mint. Struck circa 21 December AD 69-early AD 70. Laureate head right / IVDAEA in exergue, trophy; to right, Jewess, in attitude of mourning, seated right. RIC II 2; Hendin 1479; RSC 226

2 commentsAdrian W
050 Julia-Domna (170-217 A.D.), AR-Denarius, RIC IV-I 577, Rome, SAECVLI FELICITAS, Isis, 71 views050 Julia-Domna (170-217 A.D.), AR-Denarius, RIC IV-I 577, Rome, SAECVLI FELICITAS, Isis,
avers:- IVLIA-AVGVSTA, Bust draped right.
revers:- SAECVLI-FELICITAS, Isis, wearing peaked head-dress, standing right with left foot on prow, nursing infant Horus at her breast, altar at left against which rests a rudder.
exe: , diameter: 18-19mm, weight: 2,63g, axis: 11h,
mint: Rome, date: 196-211 A.D., ref: RIC-IV-I-577, p-170, C-174,
2 commentsquadrans
051 Caracalla (198 - 217 A.D.), AE-23, Macedonia, Stobi, Nike advancing right,71 views051 Caracalla (198 - 217 A.D.), AE-23, Macedonia, Stobi, Nike advancing right,
avers:- M-AVREL-A-NTONIN..., Laureate head right.
revers:- MVNICIP-S-TOBENSI, Nike advancing right holding wreath and palm frond.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 23mm, weight: 5,78g, axis: 0h,
mint: Stoby, date:198 - 217 A.D., ref: SNGCop335, Moushmov 6553,
1 commentsquadrans
RGA, Hadrian, AD 117-13871 viewsGold aureus, 7.09g, VF
Struck at Rome AD 118
IMP CAESAR TRAIAN HADRIANVS AVG, laureate and cuirassed bust left / P M TR P COS II SALVS AVG, Salus seated left, feeding snake coiled around altar.
RIC 46v (bust right); Cohen 1368
2 commentsLawrence Woolslayer
Latin Trachy 1204-1261 Constantinople71 viewsObv: Virgin Orans, Facing Right
Rev: St. Peter and St. Paul Embracing
Sear 2040
1 commentsLaetvs
Urbs Roma71 viewsUrbs Roma commemorative AE3, 330-331 AD, Trier.
Obv: VRBS ROMA, helmeted bust of Roma in imperial cloak left.
Rev: She-wolf standing left suckling twins, two stars above.
Ex: TRP•
19-20 mm, 2.71 g
RIC VII, Trier, 529
3 commentsPscipio
Mark Antony Legionary Denarius LEG III 71 viewsANT AVG III VIR R P C

galley r. mast with banners at prow

legionary eagle between two standards

Patrae mint 32-31BC

Legio III Gallica was levied by Julius Caesar around 49 BC, for his civil war against the conservative republicans led by Pompey.

The legion took part in all Julius Caesar's campaigns against his enemies, including the battles of Pharsalus and Munda. Following Caesar's death, III Gallica was integrated in the army of Mark Antony for his campaigns against the Parthians. They were included in the army levied by Fulvia and Lucius Antonius (Antony's wife and brother) to oppose Octavian, but ended by surrendering in Perugia, in the winter of 41 BC. After the battle of Actium and Antony's suicide, the III Gallica was sent again to the East, where they garrisoned the province of Syria.

III Gallica was used in Gnaeus Domitius Corbulo's campaign against the Parthians over the control of Armenia (63). Corbulo's successes triggered emperor Nero's paranoia of persecution and eventually the general was forced to commit suicide. After this, III Gallica is transferred to Moesia province, in the Danube border.
Titus Pullo
1815. Louis XVIII. The Holy Alliance.71 viewsObv. Bust left LVDOVICVS XVIII FRANC ET NAV REX, ANDRIEU F on truncation.
Rev. REGNIS EVROPAE CONCORDIA STABILIENDIS, on shield at centre GALLIA AVSTRIA BORVSS (Prussia) ANGLIA RVSSIA, SACRO FOEDERE IVNCTAE, in exergue ACCESSIT GALLIA NOVEMB MDCCCXV, signed F GATTEAUX Allegorical figures of France and ? facing in each in front of shield and a group of standards bearing the arms of the Great Powers involved in the Napoleonic Wars (Britains, interestingly enough, is at the back, half covered) with a unicorn behind the right figure.

This is a confusing medal. It depicts the nations of Austria, Great Britain, France, Prussia and Russia as part of the Holy Alliance. Yet many historical sources say Great Britain never joined due to distaste and constitutional incompatibility with the others reactionary policies. But other sources say Britain did join at the same time as France (November 20, 1815). Who is right? If Britain did not join why are they on the medal, but if they did why is there so much written to the contrary?
Lucius Verus71 viewsL VERVS AVG ARM PARTH MAX
Laureate head of Lucius Verus right

Victory standing right holding palm in right hand and shield inscribed VIC PAR

Rome 166 AD
Sear 5384 RIC 1456
3 commentsJay GT4
Mamaea AE28 Antioch, Syria.jpg
Julia Mamaea, AE-29. Antioch, Syria. City-Goddess on rocks71 viewsRoman Empire, Julia Mamaea, the mother of Severus Alexander. AD 222 - 235. AE-29. Antioch, Syria. Her diademed and draped bust rt. / City-Goddess seated lt. on rocks, river-god Orontes swimming at her feet. Beautiful patination!3 commentsFausta
Marcus Aurelius, Tomis, Hermes , AE1871 viewsAE18, 3.7g, 180°
obv: KAICAPI BHRΩ, draped, bare head bust left
rev: TOMI-TΩN, Hermes stands facing, head left, wears chlamys, holds caduceus and pouch

Varbanov 4740, SGI -

dealer's picture

2 commentsareich
120 Maximianus Herculeus (285-286 Caesar, 286-305, 307-308 & 310 A.D. Augustus), AE-Antoninian, RIC V-II xxx, Siscia, CONSERVATOR AVGG,71 viewsavers:-,
exerg: ,
diameter: mm,
weight: g,
axes: h,
mint: ,
date: ,
ref: ,
Roman Empire, Maximinus II AE2. 312 AD. 71 viewsMaximinus II AE2. 312 AD. IMP C GAL VAL MAXIMINVS P F AVG, laureate head right / IOVI CONSERVATORI, Jupiter standing left, holding Victory & sceptre, eagle at foot left with wreath in its beak,A officina letter to right, SMHT in ex. 3 commentsBritanikus
Baktria, Graeco Baktrian Kings. Menander * ca. 155-130 BC. AR Drachm71 views
Silver Drachm, Menander, Graeco-Baktria

Obv: Diademed heroic bust, with aegis and spear raised in combative-posture, left-facing.
Rev: Athena Alkidemos left, hurling thunderbolt in right hand, holding hoplon shield raised in left hand; monogram in right field, Legend above.

Mint: Taxila (?)
Struck: 155-130 BC.

Size: 18 mm. (&nd slightly oblong on horizontal-plane)
Weight: 2.44 grams
Die axis: 355 degs.

Interesting aged-appearance; some luster, some wear, light corrosion & ample deposits (particularly on the reverse).

Bopearachchi Série 7B, 37-40
MIG 224c.
Bop 037
Metapontion, Lucania, Italy, c. 330 - 290 B.C.71 viewsSilver stater, HN Italy 1581; SGCV I 416 var; Noe-Johnston 3, class C 1.2-72, VF, obverse off center, weight 7.851g, maximum diameter 20.2mm, die axis 150o, c. 330 - 290 B.C.; obverse head of Demeter right; reverse head of grain, META on left, plough above leaf on right, M[AX] lower right; ex CNG; ex FORVM

Demeter in Greek mythology is the goddess of grain and fertility, the pure; nourisher of the youth and the green earth, the health-giving cycle of life and death; and preserver of marriage and the sacred law. In the Homeric Hymn to Demeter, dated to about the seventh century B.C. she is invoked as the "bringer of seasons," a subtle sign that she was worshipped long before she was made one of the Olympians. She and her daughter Persephone were the central figures of the Eleusinian Mysteries that also predated the Olympian pantheon.
3 commentsAdrian S
Umayyad Caliphate. 71 viewscf. Walker 790-792, cf. Bones Halab 3.1

AE post-reform anonymous fals (22-23 mm.), struck at the Halab (Aleppo) mint after ca. 90 A.H. (= 708 A.D.)

Obv: la Ilaha / illa Allah / wahdah (= There is no god but Allah) in three lines within double circle.

Rev: Muhammed / rasul / Allah (= Muhammad is the prophet of Allah), in three lines within circle. Bism Allah duriba hadha l-fals bi-Halab waf around margin (possibly blundered).

Note: The Umayyad falus were essentially a local civic coinage struck under several governors and local officials with very few, if any, struck by order of the Caliphs.
Mysia, Parion, Silver hemidrachm71 viewsObv:– Facing Gorgoneion, surrounded by snakes.
Rev:– PA / RI, bull standing left, looking back right
Minted in Parion, 350 - 300 B.C.
Reference:– BMC Mysia p. 95, 14
2.427g, 13.8mm

Ex-Forum, Ex-Lanz.

Graded by Forum as EF, mint luster! golden toning
4 commentsmaridvnvm
Nero As Temple of Janus71 viewsObv:
Laureate head right

Temple of Janus with doors closed
3 commentsancientdave
92. Maximinus FIDES MILITVM denarius71 viewsRome Mint, 235-236 CE
Obv: IMP MAXIMINUS PIUS AUG laureate bust right, draped (much finer in hand)
Beverungen, 50 Pfenning71 viewsBeverungen, 50 Pfenning, Jews playing cards, drinking and smoking.Molinari
Pantikapaion, Tauric Chersonesos, Thrace, 310 - 304 BC.71 viewsAE 20, McDonald 70, SNG Pushkin 886, Sear GCV I 1701, Lindgren II 677, , weight 5.1 g, max. diameter 19.84 mm, Pantikapaion mint, c. 310 - 304 BC; Obv. head of youthful satyr left, wreathed in ivy; Rev. Π Α Ν in legend, head of roaring lion left, sturgeon fish left below. Chestnut brown patina.

Background info; Pantikapaion (Panticapaeum) is present-day Kerch, an important Greek city and port in Taurica (Tauric Chersonese), situated on a hill (Mt. Mithridates) on the western side of the Cimmerian Bosporus (Kerch Strait), between the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov. It was founded by Milesians in the late 7th or early 6th century B.C. Originally called Apollonia. Wikipedia.
2 commentsSteve E
Philip I. Antoninianus71 viewsPhilippus I. Antoninianus, early 245 AD, Rome.
Obv: IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind.
Rev: ADVENTVS AVGG, Philip on horse pacing left, raising right hand and holding spear.
Ř 20-21 mm, 4.86 g
RIC IV, Part 3, 26b

Thanks to Curtis for specifying the date!
3 commentsPscipio
Philipp II, AE18 71 views18mm, 6.51g
obv: diademed head right
rev: ΦIΛIΠΠOY; horseman right
4 commentsareich
Philistis, wife of Hieron II.71 viewsAR 5 litrae (4.46 gm).
Syracuse, Sicily, 270-230 BCE.
Obv: Diademed and veiled head left, palm branch behind.
Rev: BASILISSAS FILISTIDOS, Nike driving biga to left, E in l. field.
SNG ANS 893; SNG III (Lockett) 1017; Forrer 196.
Macedonian Kingdom, Phillip II, 359 - 336 B.C. Amphipolis mint?71 viewsAE unit; SNG ANS 8-865. Weight 6.2 gr., max diameter 18.09 mm; Amphipolis mint? (per Dr. Thomas Gibson) Obv. Apollo facing left, wearing taenia; Rev. Φ Ι Λ Ι Π Π O Υ above; boy riding horse prancing right;dolphin swimming right below.Thin black patina. Less common left facing Apollo with right facing horseman!

Ex. Timeline Originals

This coin posted as an example of the type on Wildwinds.
5 commentsSteve E
47 BC L Plautius Plancus71 viewsL PLAVTIVS
Head of Medusa facing

Victory facing, her wings spread, conducting four rearing horses

Rome 47 BC
Sear 429, RSC Plautia 14-15c, RRC 453/1

ex Roberto Pedoni Roma
2 commentsJay GT4
PORTUGAL - Maria II71 viewsPORTUGAL - Maria II with Ferdinand II (1834-1853) Cu 10 Reis, 1850.
Obv: MARIA II DEI GRATIA around crowned arms of Portugal.
Rev.: PORTUGAL ET ALGARBIORUM REGINA 1850 around value X in wreath.
Reference: KM-41.
Postumus RIC V, 37371 viewsAureolus in the name of Postumus
AE - Antoninian, 3.05g, 19mm
Mediolanum, 2nd officin, Aug./Sept. 268
radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Concordia standing left, foot on prow, holding pater and rudder.
S in ex.
RIC V/2, 373; Schulzki 6b
about VF, super coin for type!
1 commentsJochen
GREEK, Macedonian Kingdom, Philip III Arrhidaios, 323-317 BC, AR Tetradrachm – Babylon under Seleukos as satrap 71 viewsHead of Herakles right wearing lion-skin headdress.
ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ФIΛIΠΠOY Zeus Aëtophoros seated left, ancient Greek Zeta beneath throne, circled ΣIEP monogram above grape bunch to left.
SC Ad 43.13; Price P155 (Arados).
Babylon II workshop 317/16 BC under Seleukos as Satrap 320- 315 BC.
(26 mm, 17.16 g, 8h)
7 commentsLloyd T
Probus - Soli Invicto71 viewsIMP CM AVR PROBVS P AVG
Bust type F, right, radiate, cuirassed
Sol in facing quadriga
Serdica, 4th emission, 2nd officina, 277 AD (citing Pink)
RIC 864
1 commentswhitetd49
Ptolemy I.jpg
Ptolemy I71 viewsPtolemy I AE29. Laureate head of Zeus right / Eagle standing left, on a thunderbolt, wings back, monograms before.

Sear 7763; Svoronos 293.
3 commentsTanit
Ptolemy-III Euregetes (247-47,221-20 BC.), AE-21, Sv-1698 ???, 71 viewsPtolemy-III Euregetes (247-47,221-20 BC.), AE-21, Sv-1698 ???,
avers:- Laureate head of Head of Zeus-Ammon right.
revers:- ΠΤΟΛΕΜΑΙΟY ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ, Two eagle standing left on thunderbolt; club (???) in left field.
exerg: ,
diameter: 21mm,
weight:8,53 g,
axes:0 h,
mint: ,
date: ,
ref: Sovronos-1698,
Rajuvula Jammu AD1-20...jpg
Rajuvula coin71 viewsRajuvula.
France Republic 1796 - 1800 - A - 5 Centimes - Edge71 viewsFrench Republic 1796 - 1800 - A
5 Centimes - Nice Edge.
RI 066m img.jpg
066 - Caracalla denarius - RIC 344b71 viewsObv:– ANTONINVS AVGVSTVS, Laureate, draped, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– P MAX TR P IIII COS, Caracalla, veiled, standing half-left, sacrificing out of a patera over a lighted tripod and holding a scroll.
Minted in Laodicea-ad-Mare, A.D. 201
References:– RIC 344b (Scarce), RSC 183
Urbs Roma Cyzicus71 viewsRIC VII Cyzicus 118

Cyzicus mint, fourth officina, struck under Constantine I, 335-336 A.D.

AE3, 18 mm.

Obv: VRBS ROMA, helmeted bust or Roma left, wearing imperial cloak

Rev: She-wolf standing left, suckling the twins (Romulus and Remus), two stars above, *SMKΔ in exergue.

RIC rarity r5
Free City of Riga 1561-1581. Silver Schilling 1570.71 viewsFree City of Riga 1561-1581. Silver Schilling 1570. *CIVITATIS.RIGENSIS, Arms of Riga, no keys above / MONE.NO.ARGENTEA, Last digits of date divided by arms.

RI 064fu img71 viewsObv:– L SEPT SEV PERT AVG IMP VIII, Laureate head right
Rev:– INVICT IMP, Trophy with arms below, dejected captive seated beneath, shield on knees
Minted in Laodicea ad Mare, A.D. 196 – 197
References:– RIC -, RSC -, BMCRE -
1171 viewsConstantius I
AV 42 mm
Trier Mint
The "Arras Medallion"
Rome, Lead Seal, #31,71 viewsRome, Lead Seal, #31,
Helmeted head right.
Mid-4th century or later???
Anonymous/anepigraphic types.
Constantinian type of the face.
diameter: 15mm,
1 commentsquadrans
Septimius Severus denarius71 viewsRIC 520 (2,9 gm, 19,5 mm).
Mint of Laodicea, 202 AD.

Rare ten years rule denarius!
Lustrous, sharp, well centering!

4 commentsneander
Sabina RIC III, (Hadrian) 39071 viewsSabina died AD 137, wife of Hadrian, grand-niece of Trajan
AR - Denar, 3.63g
Rome AD 130
diademed and draped bust r., hair in queue down neck
Concordia, draped, standing frontal, head l., holding patera in r. hand and
double-cornucopiae in l. hand
RIC III, (Hadrian) 390; C.3; BMC 929
about EF

Her marriage was very unhappy, Hadrian only having eyes for his favourite Antinous (from Forum).
3 commentsJochen
Lybia, Sabratha - Theatre71 viewsThe theatre of the ancient city of Sabratha (Libya), built during the reign of the Severans, reconstructed by Mussolini. Syltorian
GREEK, Seleukid Kingdom, Seleukos I Nikator, 312-281 BC, AR Tetradrachm in the name of Philip III Arrhidaios, 323-317 BC – Seleukeia on the Tigris - SC 11871 viewsHead of Herakles right wearing lion-skin headdress. / ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΥ, Zeus enthroned left, holding eagle on extended right hand and scepter in left, pentalpha in left field.
SC 118 (same obverse die); Price P229 (uncertain eastern mint); Thompson, ANSMN 31, 160 (same obverse die); Commerce (“Seleucus I”) Hoard 2005 (CH10.256) 1517-1522 (one of these coins).
Seleukeia on the Tigris
(24 mm, 17.16 g, 6h)
ex- Arthur Houghton Collection (New Series 744); ex- Commerce (“Seleucus I”) Hoard 2005 (CH10.256).
2 commentsLloyd T
Sear 190171 viewsAnonymous Class K Follis, weight 6.0g, diameter 26mm. Quite worn, but still showing very clear traces of the undertype (which is an Anonymous Class J, Sear 1900). Abu Galyon
Septimius Severus71 viewsSeptimius Severus Denarius. 197 AD. Rome mint, L SEPT SEV PERT AVG IMP VIIII, laureate head right / MVNIFICENTIA AVG, Elephant (possibly wearing cuirass) walking right. RIC 100, RSC 3496 commentsNemonater
SevAlex RIC 558.jpg
Severus Alexander - sestertius RIC 55871 viewsSestertius, RIC 558, 22.12g, Rome mint 222-231 A.D.; obverse: IMP SEV ALEXANDER AVG, laureate head right, slight drapery on far shoulder; reverse: IOVI CONSERVATORI S-C, Jupiter standing left, holding thunderbolt & scepter, protecting Alexander at foot left.

Notes: bought in Lyon (Lugdunum).
Severus Alexander Denarius.JPG
Severus Alexander Denarius71 viewsSeverus Alexander (222-235 AD)
Minted 226 AD
head right, laureate bust draped
emperor standing left sacrificing from patera over alter and holding a scroll.
Denomination: Denarius
RIC 50
3 commentsbaseball_7
ROMAN EMPIRE, SEVERUS ALEXANDER. AR Denarius, A.D.231 - 235.71 viewsSeverus Alexander, AD 222-235. AR Denarius, minted AD 231-235. Laureate and draped bust, right. Reverse: Mars advancing right with spear and shield. RIC 246; C-1612 commentspaul1888
Roman Empire, Severus Alexander, Unlisted71 viewsObv: IMP CAES...
Rad. Dr. Bust R
Pax adv. L holding palm branch and scepter
228 AD
AE Dupondius 24 mm 8.86 g
Not listed in RIC or BMC
The First Alexander Tetradrachm to be Struck in Sidon during the Siege of Tyre71 viewsKings of Macedonia, Alexander III The Great, 336-323 BC, AR Tetradrachm - Sidon
Head of young Herakles right in lion-skin headdress, paws tied at neck. / ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡOΥ Zeus left seated on a backless throne, eagle in right hand, scepter held in left hand, Phoenician date (letter Alaph) indicating Year 1 (333/2 BC) beneath throne, indistinct Phoenician letter Sadhe (being the initial of Sidon) in outer left field.
Price 3467a (same dies); Newell Sidon 8, dies I/α.; Le Rider pl. 4, 1 & 2. The first Alexander tetradrachm emission from Sidon mint 333/2 BC from the first Alexander dies used at the mint.

This is amongst the first Alexander coinage struck at Sidon and dated to Year 1 of his Asian reign, being the year in which he defeated the Persian King Darius at the battle of Issos, which was shortly followed by the surrender of Sidon. This coin is from the first Alexander dies to be used at Sidon and would have been struck during Alexander's siege of nearby Tyre probably as part of the funding for the siege effort.
4 commentsLloyd T
Artaxerxes II - Darius III71 viewsPersian Empire, Lydia, Anatolia, Artaxerxes II - Darius III, c. 375 - 340 B.C., Silversiglos, Carradice Type IV (late) C, 46 ff.; BMC Arabia 172 ff.; SNG Kayhan 1031; SGCV II 4683; Rosen 674; Klein 763; Carradice Price p. 77 and pl. 20, 387 ff.

Following Darius II came Artaxerxes II (called Mnemon), during whose reign Egypt revolted and relations with Greece deteriorated. His reign (dated as from 404 to 359 B.C.E.) was followed by that of his son Artaxerxes III (also called Ochus), who is credited with some 21 years of rule (358-338 B.C.E.) and is said to have been the most bloodthirsty of all the Persian rulers. His major feat was the reconquest of Egypt.
This was followed by a two-year rule for Arses and a five-year rule for Darius III (Codomannus), during whose reign Philip of Macedonia was murdered (336 B.C.E.) and was succeeded by his son Alexander. In 334 B.C.E. Alexander began his attack on the Persian Empire.
4 commentsNemonater
Sweden, Sten Sture sen. (1470-1497, 1501-1503), Ortug, LL 371 viewsObv: SCS ERICVS REX, crowned head of Saint Eric facing.
Rev: MONETA STOCHOL, wepon shield with three crowns.
Minted in Stocholm.
21 mm in diam, 1,12 g.
Ex. Anders Frosells collection of Swedish medieval coins.

Sten Sure was a nobleman who was chosen by the royal coincil as regent (not king) in the conflict with king Kristian I of denmark (king of the union between Sweden, Denmark and Norway). He was never king and thus never had his name on the coinage of his period of power.
405-367 BC - Dionysis I - Syracuse, Sicily - Calciati 62 - AE Drachm71 viewsKing: Dionysios I
Date: 405-367 BC
Denomination: AE Drachm
Condition: Fair

Obverse: Head of Athena left, wearing Corinthian helmet.

Reverse: Two dolphins around starfish.

Sicily, Syracuse
Calciati 62
28.73g; 33.4mm; 0°
Precolumbian.71 viewsTairona. Gold bell. Santa Marta. Colombia. c.1100 AD.benito
Thasos - tetradrachm71 viewsThasos, island off Thrace, AR Tetradrachm, Dewing 1344, BMC 74, 16.26g; after 148 B.C.; obverse: Head of Dionysos right, wreathed with ivy; reverse: HPAKLEOYS SWTHPOS QASIWN, Herakles, naked, standing left leaning on a club & holding a lion's skin, MH monogram to left.3 commentsPriscian
Theo 16.jpg
Theodosius I, RIC IX 26b, Cyzicus71 viewsObv: D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG
Bust: Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
Victory advancing left holding trophy and dragging captive.
Exe: SMK delta Chi-rho in field left
Date: 379-395 AD
Denom: Ae4
Rated "C"
Theodosius II RIC X, 23371 viewsTheodosius 402 - 450, son of Arcadius
Av - Solidus, 4.42g, 21mm
Constantinopolis Jan. - Oct. 425
cuirassed bust, laureate, helmeted and pearl-diademed
head 3/4 r., with spear across r. shoulder and shield with
horseman spearing enemy at l. shoulder
rev. SALVS REI - PVBLICAE (var. A)
Theodosius II, left, sitting frontal, both feet on footstool, and Valentinianus III, right, smaller, standing frontal, both in
consular robe, holding mappa in r. and long cross in l. hand;
above and between them a star
exergue: CONOB
RIC X, 233
R2; VF, graffitti (Epsilon) on obv.
added to

The 3 dots above the head of Theodosius are the rest of his crest.
2 commentsJochen
Theodosius II (RIC X 432 var.)71 viewsTheodosius II (401-450), Eastern Roman Emperor (408-450). Ć (12 mm, 1.26 g), minted in Heraclea 425-435. Obverse: DN THEODO-SIVS PF AVG. Reverse: Victory holding wreath in each hand, CONCO-RDI AVG (retrograde), SMH in exergue. RIC X 432 var., R.

Not in RIC. Reverse usually CONCOR-DIA AVG, and obverse legend without break.
titus semi-circular throne.jpg
Titus RIC-12271 viewsAR denarius
Rome Mint, 80 AD
RIC 122 (C2), BMC 58 var., RSC 313
Obv: IMP TITVS CAES VESPASIAN AVG P M; Head of Titus, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: TR P IX IMP XV COS VIII P P; Square seat, draped with cloth, with fringe: it has a semicircular frame on it, on which are three crescent like objects: ('pulvinar' of Apollo and Diana (?)).

Another in a series of pulvinaria types Titus issued in commemoration of the opening of the Colosseum in 80 AD . The BMCRE attributes this reverse to Apollo and Diana, also, the BMCRE description puts the number of crescent-like objects on the frame as three, the above reverse has five. There is quite a variety of differences with the throne reverses for both Titus and Domitan, a lot of them are variants.

A fairly typical denarius of Titus, well toned with a solid portrait. I already owned this reverse type with the triangular frame, but liked this coin enough to add it to the collection.
1 commentsVespasian70
022 Titus (69-79 A.D. Caesar, 79-81 A.D. Augustus), AR-Antoninianus, RIC 081a, Rome, CONSECRATIO, Eagle standing, its wings spread, 71 views022 Titus (69-79 A.D. Caesar, 79-81 A.D. Augustus), AR-Antoninianus, RIC 081a, Rome, CONSECRATIO, Eagle standing, its wings spread,
avers:- DIVO-TITO, Radiate head of Divus Titus right.
revers:- CONSECRATIO, Eagle standing, its wings spread.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis:h,
mint: Rome, date: struck under Trajan Decius, 250-251, A.D., ref: RIC 81a; C (Titus) 404; RCV 9462;
Trajan71 viewsTrajan 98-117 A.D.

RIC 131
Valentinian III-CONCORDIA AVG71 viewsAttribution:RIC X 434,438- LRBC 2237,2603
Obv: DN VALENTINIANO PF AVG-Pearl diadem,draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev: CONCOR-DIA AVG-Victory facing with two wreaths
Comments:Full readable legends and center strike.The finest example of this type I have ever seen.One of my personal favorites and maybe the best coin I own.
Municipal coinage of Carthage - Vandal kingdom71 viewsVandal kingdom. Ć 4 Nummi (12 mm, 1.57 g). Struck circa 480-523. Obverse: bust left holding palm branch. Reverse: dash above dot N/IIII. MIB 20; MEC 51; BMC I:17.

Ex Tintinna Auction 11, Lot 2502, 2011.
Jan (jbc)
Vespasian Denarius A.D. 75 RIC 772, (RIC [1962] 90), RSC 366, BMC 16171 viewsIMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG, laureate head right / PON MAX TR P COS VI, Pax seated left holding branch.
Maximum Diameter: 19 mm
Weight: 3.04 g
2 commentsTheEmpireNeverEnded
Vespasian AR Denarius Aug - Dec 73 AD71 viewsOBV: IMP CAES VESP AVG CEN; Vespasian's laureate head, right
REV: SALVS AVG; Salus seated left holding patera.
A fine portrait of Vespasian, only lightly worn and within my price range.

RIC V.II 513(new edition) or 067(old edition), RSC 431

wt 3.0 gm
2 commentsdaverino
09 Vitellius RIC I 09071 viewsVitellius Jan. 2-Dec. 20, 69 A.D. AR Denarius. Rome Mint 69 A.D. (3.07g, 19.9m, 6h). Obv: A VITELLIVS GERM I{MP AVG TR P}, laureate head right. Rev: CONCORDIA PR, Concordia seated left holding patera & double cornucopiae. RIC I 90, RSC 18.

Vitellius is described by Suetonius as lazy and self-indulgent, fond of eating and drinking, and an obese glutton, eating banquets four times a day and feasting on rare foods he would send the Roman navy to procure.
2 commentsLucas H
AR Didrachm71 viewsTaras, Calabria
330-302 BC (Period V)
AR Didrachm (20mm, 7.98g).
O: Naked warrior in crested helmet on horse prancing right, spearing downward with right hand, shield and two extra spears in left; ΔΑΙ below. R: Naked ephebe riding dolphin left, holding trident over shoulder with right hand and shield decorated with hippocamp in left; ΦΙ to left, ΤΑΡΑΣ to right, murex shell below.
Vlasto 594; Cote 239; Evans V, B5; Fischer-Bossert 1022a; HN Italy 935; SNG ANS 991.
ex Heidelberger Munzhandlung.

Vlasto places this coin at the time of Alexander the Molossian, but I believe it may be safely dated to after the King’s death in 331, as the typical Epirote symbols are no longer seen (especially, as Evans points out, the eagle’s head). Alexander, uncle to Alexander the Great, arrived at Taras in 334 as defender, the leader of a mercenary army from Epirus hired to help defend Taras from the indigenous Italian tribes. However he was quickly seen to have something more in the way of conquest in mind. Having ignored the warning of the Oracle at the Temple of Zeus Dodona, Alexander pushed west and fulfilled prophecy, being killed while fighting the Lucanians at Pandosia, near the River Acheron.
However what really intrigued me about this coin is the names of the engravers. The ΦΙ initial on the reverse is likely that of Philistion, whose signature appears in various abbreviations throughout this period. I believe that ΔΑΙ on the obverse is the same ΔΑΙ… who also engraved the Demeter obverse on my Metapontine didrachm.

The murex shell played a very large part in the Tarentine economy, producing a rich purple dye. In fact the early reference books simply describe it as “a purple shell”. Purple cloth from Taras was considered a great luxury throughout the Mediterranean.
5 commentsEnodia
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