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Most viewed
Italy, Populonia57 viewsEtruscan graveFranz-Josef M
M2. Constantinople, RIC VII, 32 R357 viewsAe3 2.9 gm 19 mm Struck: 328 Mark: Є/CONS
Rosette diademed head, right. Gazing to heaven.
Victory seated on cippus facing left, but looking right; palm in each hand. Trophy in front and kneeling captive at feet turning head to look, but spurned by Victory.
P2. Amisos, Pontos57 viewsAe20, 8.6 gm, 20 mm, 125-75 BC, Sear (GC) 3643
Obv: Anepigraphic with head of young Ares, right, wearing crested helmet.
Sword in sheath with strap. Crescent over Σ in lower left field.
R2. Aspendos, Pamphylia57 viewsAe18, 6.2 gm, 16 mm, 325-275 BC, Sear (GC) 5402(var)
Obv: Anepigraphic with forepart of bridled horse, galloping right.
Rev: Θ Ο to either side of leather sling, thongs trailing.
1 commentsMassanutten
E4. Nicopolis ad Istrum, Moesia Inferior (Diadumenian)57 viewsObv: [Κ Μ ΟΠΕ] ΛΛΙ ΑΝΤΩ [Ν] ΔΙΑΔΟVΜ [ΕΝΙΑΝΟC]
Bare head, right.
Conflated personification of Nemesis & Aequitas standing left, holding cornucopiae in left arm and set of balance scales in outstretched right hand. Wheel by knees.
10 gm, 25.6mm, 217-218 AD, AMNG (I) 1861(var)
Comment: Issued under the Provincial Governor, Statius Longinus. The interesting combination of godesses was suggested by Pat Lawrence. Based on that I interpret the message to mean that unethical/unlawful conduct in the marketplace will be judged and condemned in the afterlife.
All too typical of the time, Diadumenian and his father, Macrinus, were assassinated at Antioch by the order of Elagabalus in June of 218. The boy was not quite ten years old.
Attribution thanks go to Steve Minnoch and Pat Lawrence.
2 commentsMassanutten
B5. Mark Antony, Denarius, 32-31 BC57 viewsObv: ANT AVG III VIR R P C
Galley right, mast with banners at prow.
Legionary eagle between two standards.
3.5 gm, 18 mm, Mint: Patria (?), S 1479, RSC 58.
Comment: One of the legionary series struck in vast quantities to pay for his impending war against Octavian. Minted from inferior silver supplied from Cleopatra and sometimes referred to as 'money of necessity'.
Piece of Brick found in Pompeii57 viewsI found this on the ground while on the tour in Pompeii.
A good number of the buildings there were built using these long thin bricks.
Mark Z
Bronze-Knife from the "Hallstatt culture" #157 viewsBronze-Knife from the "Hallstatt culture" #1
type: Bronze-Knife. Two holes are for rivets that attached a handle with C-shaped rim.
size: 19x59mm,
weight: 6,06g,
date: Early iron age 8th to 6th centuries B.C.,
ref: ???.
distribution: "By the 6th century BC, it spanned across territories north-south from the Main, Bohemia, the Little Carpathians, the Swiss plateau, the Salzkammergut, down to the border between Lower Styria and Lower Carniola, and from the western zone, that included Champagne-Ardenne, the Upper Rhine, and the upper Danube, to the eastern zone, that included Vienna Basin and the Danubian Lowland, for some 1000 km. " from Wikipedia.
"The Hallstatt culture was the predominant Central European culture from the 8th to 6th centuries BC (European Early Iron Age), developing out of the Urnfield culture of the 12th century BC (Late Bronze Age) and followed in much of Central Europe by the La Tène culture. It is commonly associated with Proto-Celtic and Celtic populations in the Western Hallstatt zone and with (pre-)Illyrians in the eastern Hallstatt zone." from Wikipedia.
C4 8-16-2006 6-55-09 PM.jpg
Thessalonica, Constantine The Great57 viewsCONSTAN-TINVS AVG
Laureate head right

Campgate, 6 rows, 2 turrets, star above

SMTS(gamma)/ (pellet in right field)
Thessalonica Mint

RIC VII Thessalonica 153
1 commentsarizonarobin
caes sever.jpg
Severus Alexander 222-23557 viewsSeverus Alexander 222-235 A.D.
Obv: bust r.
eagle displayed, supporting wreath enclosing the letters SPQR
57 viewsRoman Imperatorial
Julius Caesar, 46-45 BC
AR denarius (18mm, 3.79g)
Military mint moving with Caesar in Spain

O: Head of Venus right, wearing stephane; Cupid behind shoulder

R: Trophy of Gallic arms between two seated captives: female resting her head in hand to left, bearded male with hands tied behind back on right; CAESAR in exergue

Crawford 468/1
Julius Caesar57 viewsCaius Julius Caesar, 100-44 BC, Denarius 47-46 BC.
Obverse: Diademed head of Venus right.
Reverse: CAESAR; Aeneas walking left, holding his father Anchises and palladium.
Cr.458/1. 3.75 g.
1 commentsb70
46-45 BC Gauis Julius Caesar57 viewsDiademed head of Venus right, small cupid at shoulder behind

trophy of Gallic arms between two seated male and female captives

Spain 46-45 BC

Sear 1404

ex-Calgary coins

Minted for the Spanish campaign against the Pompey brothers, the obverse of this series is occupied by the head of Venus, ancestress of the Julia gens along with a small Cupid identifying her as Venus Genetrix. Caesar had recently dedicated a temple in the forum to her. The reverse revives the theme of victory in Gaul probably to remind his veteran legions of the glory and success in years past. These veterans who were overdue for discharge were now being called on to face the Pompeian threat for the third time in two and a half years.
2 commentsJay GT4
Caracalla 198-217 denarius57 viewsOb. ANTONINUS PIVS AVG GERM Head right
Rev. P.M.TR.P.XVII.COS.IIII.P.P. Apollo seated left resting hand on lyre
Ref. Sear 1835
Year 214AD

ANTONIUS PIUS AUGUSTUS GERMANICUS - Antonius Pius is your Emperor and Augustus and has conquered the Germans
PONTIFEX MAXIMUS TRIBUNICIA POTESTAS XVII CONSUL IIII PATER PATRIAE - High priest, Tribune of the People for the seventeenth time, Consul for the fourth time and father of the country

1 commentsBacchus
Temple of Diana57 viewsCaracalla --AE32, Augusta Trajana. R: Temple of Diana, tree on each side. cf. SNG Evelpedis 1037 3 commentsfeatherz
051 Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), RIC IV-I 264c, Rome, AR-Antoninianus, P M TR P XVIII COS IIII P P, Sol, #0557 views051 Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), RIC IV-I 264c, Rome, AR-Antoninianus, P M TR P XVIII COS IIII P P, Sol, #05
avers:- ANTONINVS-PIVS-AVG-GERM, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from front.
revers:- P-M-TR-P-XVIII-COS-IIII-P-P, Sol standing, facing, raising hand and holding globe.(Double strike!).
exe:-/-//--, diameter: 24mm, weight: 3,74g, axis:- h,
mint: Rome, date: 215 A.D., ref: RIC-IV-I-264c, p-250,
051 Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), RIC IV-I 260v, Rome, AR-Antoninianus, P M TR P XVIII COS IIII P P, Jupiter seated left, #257 views051 Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), RIC IV-I 260v, Rome, AR-Antoninianus, P M TR P XVIII COS IIII P P, Jupiter seated left, #2
avers:- ANTONINVS-PIVS-AVG-GERM, Radiate cuirassed bust right, seen half from back.
revers:- P-M-TR-P-XVIII-COS-IIII-P-P, Jupiter seated left holding Victory and sceptre at his feet eagle.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 24mm, weight: 5,53g, axis: 0h,
mint: Rome, date: 215 A.D., ref: RIC-IV-I-260v, p-249, Hill-1519, RSC-277b
Caracalla, Markianopolis, Homonoia, AE2757 viewsAE27, 9.3g
rev: V KVNTIΛΛIANOV MAPKIANOΠOΛI, Homonoia standing left, holding patera over altar in right, cornucopia in left hand
AMNG I/1, 640
1 commentsareich
Troas, Alexandreia, Caracalla, Lindgren 33157 viewsCaracalla AD 198-217
AE22, 6.1g
bust, draped and cuirassed, laureate, r.
rev. GEN CO - L - AVG TRO
Genius standing facing, head l., holding cornucopiae in l. arm and statue of Apollo
in his outstretched r. hand.
Lindgren & Kovacs 331; Bellinger -
about VF
added to

The statue is obviously a cult statue of APOLLO SMINTHEUS. This god was warshipped mainly in Alexandria/Troas. Its meaning is Apollo from Sminthia or Apollo the mouse-exterminator.
"Hear me,..., O god of the silver bow, that protects Chryse and holy Cilla and rulest Tenedos with thy might, hear me oh thou of Sminthe. If I have ever decked your temple with garlands, or burned your thigh-bones in fat of bulls or goats, grant my prayer, and let your arrows avenge these my tears upon the Danans."
(Iliad, I, 37-42, Samuel Butler)

For more information look at the thread 'Coins of mythological interest'
1 commentsJochen
Caracalla Denarius57 viewsCaracalla Denarius
215 AD
Ob: ANTONINVS PIVS AVG GERM, laureate head right
Rv: PM TRP XVIII COS IIII, Fides standing left holding two standards
RIC 266, RSC 315, BMC 143
1 commentsScotvs Capitis
Caracalla, AE 22 Diassaria57 viewsIMP C M . AVR . ANTONIN
Laureate bust right
Nike advancing right, inscribing shield, without globe
Cohen IV 722
V119, Reverse die same as Kuzmanovic Collection 886
Centenional Valente RIC IX Thessalonica 26b, type xx.jpg
A138-07 - Valente (364 - 378 D.C.)57 viewsAE3 Centenional 16 x 15 mm 2.4 gr.

Anv: "DN VALEN-S P F AVG" - Busto con diadema de perlas, coraza y Paludamentum (capote militar) sobre ella, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "GLORIA RO-MANORVM" - Emperador vestido militarmente avanzando a derecha, arrastrando por los pelos a un prisionero con el brazo derecho y portando un Labarum (Estandarte), con el signo Chi-Ro en su bandera, en su mano izquierda. "TES" en exergo, "Corona" en campo izquierdo y "B" en campo derecho.

Acuñada 367 - 375 D.C.
Ceca: Tessalonica (Off.2da.)
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.IX (Thessalonica) #26b Pag.178 tipo xx - Cohen Vol.VIII #11 Pag.103 - DVM #46 Pag.309 - Salgado MRBI Vol.III #9076.h.2. Pag.274 - Sear RCTV (1988) #4117
Claudius, Phrygia, Aizanis, Zeus, AE2057 views19-21mm, 3.96g
obv: KΛAYΔION KAICAPA AIZANITAI; laureate head right
rev: EΠI KΛAΥΔIOΥ IEΡAKOC; Zeus standing left, holding eagle and sceptre
RPC 3088
ex Rutten & Wieland
1 commentsareich
Clodius Albinus denarius57 viewsROMAE AETERNAE1 commentsTibsi
Julia Domna, Tarsos57 viewsTarsus, CILICIA
AE 34mm; 15.85g

Draped bust right on crescent

Athena advancing right, looking back, holding Nike, spear and shield
TAPCOY A over M over K - in left field/ Γ over B in right field

SGI 2441, SNG Von Aulock 6004
wildwinds example
1 commentsarizonarobin
collage9 8-27-2006 1-47-15 PM-25.jpg
Antioch, Constantine I57 viewsCONSTAN-TINVSAVG
Laureate head right

Campgate, 9 rows, 2 turrets, star above, pellet in door

SMANT / (delta in left field, epsilon in right field)
Antioch Mint

RIC VII Antioch 71
2 commentsarizonarobin
Plautilla, Concordia57 viewsPlautilla
Ar Denarius; 2.29g; 18mm

Draped bust right

Concordia standing left holding a patera and sceptre

RIC 363; S 7054; RSC 1 Rome Mint
Apollon | Curule chair - C. Considius Paetus, AR Denarius 46 B.C.57 views
Apollon | Curule chair * Silver deanrius.

Obv: Laureate head of Apollon, right; A in left field (behind).
Rev: Sella Curulis (Curule chair), garlanded, on which lies a laurel wreath: C CONSIDI, above, PAETI below.

Exergue: PAETI

Mint: Rome
Struck: 46 BC.

Size: 19.335 mm.
Weight: 3.396 grm.
Die axis: 90°

Condition: Very fine. Bright, clear, beautiful lustre and quiet toning. Beautiful coin in hand.

RRC 991.
CR 465/2a.
Sydham, 991
Sear, (RCV 2000 Edition) Number 455.
1 commentsTiathena
Constans, Victoriae dd avgg q nn.jpg
Constans- Siscia RIC 19557 viewsConstans AE3/4

[gamma]SIS in exergue
RIC Siscia 195

Gorgeous turquoise patina!!
constantine II glor ex com.JPG
constantine II RIC VII Antioch 10957 viewsAE 15-17 mm 1.6grams 333-335 AD
OBV :: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C . Laureate and cuirassed bust right
REV :: GLOR-IA EXERC-ITVS. Two soldiers standing with shields and spears on ground. Single standard between them..2 badges on banner with dots in center
EX :: SMANS ( Antioch)
RIC VII Antioch 109
RIC rated C1
from uncleaned lot 07/2007
Constantine the Great, (307-337)57 viewsConstantine the Great, Nicomedia mint 324-325
Obv: CONSTANTINVS AVG, laureate head right
Rev: PROVIDEN-TIAE AVGG, camp-gate with no doors and two turrets, star above
SMNA in ex.
2 commentsblot-sven
Constantine I RIC VII, Sirmium 4857 viewsConstantine I the Great 307 - 337
AE - AE 3, 3.55g, 19mm
Sirmium 1. officina, 324 - 325
laureate head r.
Victory advancing r., holding trophy in r. hand and
palmbranch in l. hand, spurning captive sitting on ground to r.
exergue: SIRM
RIC VII, Sirmium 48; C.487; LRBC 802
about EF, flan crack
Constantius II- Fel Temp Raparatio 1C.jpg
Constantius II- Fel Temp Raparatio57 viewsConstantius II, 22 May 337 - 3 November 361 A.D.

Pearl-diademed draped and cuirassed bust right


D N: Dominus Noster, our lord
CONSTANTIVS: Constantinus
P F: Pius Felix, Pious and happy
AVG: Augustus, emperor

FEL TEMP REPARATIO, happy times are here again. Soldier spearing fallen horseman

FEL: Happy
TEMP: Time
REPARATIO: Restoration

Domination: Bronze AE3, size 16 mm

Mint: CONS Γ, Constantinopolis, Γ 3.rd Officina (Perhaps the last letter could be a Gamma), RIC VIII, Thessalonica 192; LRBC 1683; struck 25. Dec. 350-6. Nov. 355; Scarce
The reverse type is F3 stretching.
John Schou
Constantius II, RIC VIII, Alexandria 72 var.57 viewsConstantius II, 324 - 361, son of Constantine I
AE - AE 2 (Centenionalis), 6.04g
Alexandria, 4th officina, 15 March 351 - 6 Nov. 355
bust, draped and cuirassed, pearl-diademed, r.
Helmeted soldier to l., shield on l. arm, spearing falling horseman; shield on
ground at r.; horseman, bearded and wearing turban(!), turns to face soldier and extends l. arm (type FH3?)
in l. field Gamma
in ex. ALE Delta
RIC VIII, Alexandria 72 var. LRBC 2863
about VF, even brown patina

The position of the horseman is extraordinary and doesn't fit any of the RIC types of FH. And he doesn't wear a pointed cap - as described in RIC - but obviously a turban! So I think he is not an ordinary horseman but a dignitary.
The P in the rev. legend looks like a D. A proof that the legends on the obv. and the rev. are cut by different die cutters.

Not in Helvetica's FH lists.
1 commentsJochen
ROMAN EMPIRE, Domitian, Denarius57 viewsSilver denarius, 19-20mm, January - April 85 A.D., RIC 57, Carradice 85.1, BMC 75, RSC 368, Ex. Flan
P M TR POT IIII IMP VIII COS XI P P, Eagle standing on thunderbolt
Siscia, RIC VII 113, 142 Crispus (317-326 A.D.), AE-3 Follis, S/F/BSIS*, VIRTVS EXERCIT, R3!!!57 viewsSiscia, RIC VII 113, 142 Crispus (317-326 A.D.), AE-3 Follis, S/F/BSIS*, VIRTVS EXERCIT, R3!!!
avers:- IV-L-CRIS-PVS-NOB-CAESS (5,G8.l.), Laureate, couirassed bust left with spear pointing forward, shield on arm.
revers:- VIRTVS-EXERCIT, Standard inscribed VOT/X, captive seated on ground on either side.
exerg: S/F/BSIS*, diameter: mm, weight: g, axes: h,
mint: Siscia, 2nd.-off, date: 320 A.D., ref: RIC-VII-113-p-438,
Crispus57 viewsCrispus - Ticinum Mint - Officina 3 - AE Follis - RIC VII 170

O: CRISPVS-NOB CAES, laureate, cuirassed bust right

R: DOMINOR dot NOSTROR dot CAESS around VOT dot X crescent in three lines within wreath, TT in exergue

3.5g, 19.2mm, 45 degree die axis, 320-321AD
2 commentsBiancasDad
C. Coelius Caldus57 viewsC. Coelius Caldus
Minted c. 51 B.C (62 BC in Sydenham)
3,87 grs/17,5 mm.
Crawford 437/2a (observe dies c. 33, reverse dies c. 37), Sydenham 894, Babelon I p. 373
Observe : head of C. Coelius Caldus looking right. Below : COS. In front, standard in the form of a boar. Behind, standard with HIS.
Reverse : figure (between two trophies) seated behind table on which one reads : L. CALDUS VII.VR. EPVL (VIR and VL lig.). Two vertical inscriptions : CCALDUS on left and MP.A.X on right. Below : CA VS. III VIR.
2 commentslabienus
Domitian RIC-79057 viewsAR Denarius
Rome mint, 95-96 AD
RIC 790 (C2), BMC 235, RSC 290
Obv: IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM P M TR P XV; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: IMP XXII COS XVII CENS P P P; Minerva stg. l., with spear (M4)

A very crisp denarius which was struck during the last year of Domitian's reign between 14 September 95 to 13 September 96. This was a large issue with many common examples, including all four standard Minerva types, and one which saw the introduction of many new types (the flying Minverva for example). These later coins tend to lack the high quality and craftsmanship of earlier issues.

A very sharp coin in hand.
1 commentsDavid Atherton
Schjöth 1512, Hartill (QC) 5.190 Type A2, Hartill (CCC) 22.575, KM C 1-357 viewsDaoguang (1821-1850)

1 cash (cast brass), 1821-1823 [?], Board of Revenue mint (in Beijing), south branch, 24 mm.

Obv: Daoguang tongbao.

Rev: Boo chiowan.

Type A is comprised of coins which have a large Guang, with the bottom left-hand stroke at an angle of about 45° to the horizontal. Type A2 is comprised of coins in which the radical of tong is written as a continuous horizontal stroke at the bottom. The coins issued by the south branch of the mint have a square head, two dot tong.

Hartill (QC) rarity 11
119 Diocletianus (284 - 305 A.D.), AE-Follis, Siscia, RIC VI 134a, */Γ/SIS, SACRA MONET AVGG ET CAESS NOSTR, Moneta standing left,57 views119 Diocletianus (284 - 305 A.D.), AE-Follis, Siscia, RIC VI 134a, */Γ/SIS, SACRA MONET AVGG ET CAESS NOSTR, Moneta standing left,
avers:- IMP-DIOCLETIANVS-PF-AVG, Laureate head right.
revers:- SACRA-MONET-AVGG-ET-CAESS-NOSTR, Moneta standing left, holding scales and cornucopia.
exergo: */Γ/SIS, diameter: 27-29mm, weight: 5,85g, axis: 6h,
mint: Siscia, date:301 A.D., ref: RIC-VI-134a, p-469,
Phrygia, Docimeium. Gordian III AE30. Athena Alkidemos. 57 viewsObv: M ANT ΓOPΔIANOC AVΓ, draped laureate right.
Rev: ΔOKIMEΩN MAKEΔONΩN, Athena Alkidemos.
RPC 744

also: Dokimeum, Docimeion, Docimeium, Dokimaion, and Dokimion.
2 commentsancientone
Sicily, Syracuse.57 viewsCirca 395 BC. AE Drachm (32.64 gm). Obv.: SURA, head of Athena left, wearing Corinthian helmet, olive wreath on bowl. Rev.: sea-star between two dolphins.1 commentsseleukoy
Minerva57 viewsMinerva - Romano/Etruscan goddess of wisdom

Domitian AR Denarius

Attribution: RIC II 764,
RSC 290
Date: AD 93-94
laureate head r.
CENS PPP, Minerva stg. l.
Size: 17.9 mm
Weight: 3.61 grams
Domitian as Caesar RIC II V1447 Overstrike57 viewsDomitian as Caesar under Vespasian. AR Denarius. Ephesus Mint, 71 A.D. (2.59g, 20.6m, 7h). Obv: DOMITIAN[VS CAES]AR AVG F, bare bust right, draped and cuirassed with aegis. Rev: PACI AVGUSTAE, Victory adv. R. with wreath and palm, lower r. [EPE]. RIC V1447. Overstruck on RIC II V1433.

Overstrike on identifiable under type of Vespasian RIC II 1433. Obv: IMP CAESAR VEPAS AVG COS III TR PPP, laureate head r. Rev: PACI AVGVSTAE, Victory adv. L. with wreath and palm, lower l. EPE. Unusual to have an overstrike of an emperor still in life, and of a coin as a part of the same series at the same mint.

3 commentsLucas H
Domitian - [RIC II part 1 763 (C3), RSC II 283, BMCRE II 218, BnF III 193, Hunter I 88]57 viewsSilver denarius, choice VF, 3.289g, 18.3mm, 180 degree, Rome mint, 14 Sep 93 - 13 Sep 94 A.D.

Obv. - IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM P M TR P XIII, laureate head right

Rev. - IMP XXII COS XVI CENS P P P, Minerva standing left, helmeted and draped, thunderbolt in right, spear vertical behind in left, grounded shield at feet behind

Superb portrait, excellent centering, and rainbow toned reverse.

Purchased from Forum Ancient Coins

Ex. FORVM Dealer Photo
1 commentsrenegade3220
Domitian - [RIC II part 1 Vespasian 921 (C2), RSC II 47, BMCRE II 193, BnF III 169, SRCV I 2637]57 viewsSilver denarius, choice gF, 3.350g, 19.3mm, 180 degree, Rome mint, as caesar early 76 - early 77 A.D.

Obv. - CAESAR AVG F DOMITIANVS, laureate head right

Rev. - COS IIII, Pegasus standing right, archaic curved wing, only near wing showing, raising left foreleg

Nice portrait, toned, and perfect centering.

Purchased from Forum Ancient Coins

Ex. FORVM Dealer Photo
2 commentsrenegade3220
Domitian RIC-10057 viewsAR Denarius
Rome mint, 82 AD
RIC 100 (C), BMC 27, RSC 596
Obv: IMP CAES DOMITIANVS AVG P M; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: TR POT COS VIII P P; Seat. draped; above, semicircular frame decorated with three crescents

A denarius which is part of the first precious metal issue of 82 minted at Rome and the last before the increased fineness of the denarii later that same year. The reverse is a carry over pulvinar type from Titus' reign. This is the last time this type was minted by Domitian before the overhaul of the mint.

A decent coin in good metal.
2 commentsDavid Atherton
AK 47 - Folding Stock - Kalashnikov - 7.62 x 39mm Soviet - Folded57 viewsKalashnikov - AK 47 - 7.62x39mm with shiny new bolt carrier and 30 round Bulgarian 'waffle' style Polymer magazine. Side Folding buttstock in folded / closed position. As well as German H&K brown leather shoulder sling attached.

*Stock in Folded Position. With my beautiful handcrafted (by me and my uncle) wood bar as a backround.... Spalted Maple wood, beautiful bar.


2 commentsrexesq
Egnatius Maxsumus - 76 B.C (FORVM -E)57 viewsEgnatius Maxsumus - 76 B.C

AR 17,62mm (Thickness 1,68mm), weight 3,83g.

Obverse: Diademed bust of Liberty, Liberty cap behind.

Reverse: Roma and Venus standing facing, Venus caressed by Cupid, oar and prow on either side.
2 commentsMartin R
caracalla57 viewsANTONINVS PIVS AVG GERM
mint : roma
216 AD
3 commentsfrederic
ENGLAND - Edward II57 viewsENGLAND - Edward II (1307-1327) AR PEnny. Sear 1460. London Mint. EDWAR ANG DNS HYB/CIVITAS LONDON.dpaul7
Elagabal, Antioch, Genius, AE2357 viewsPisidia, Antioch. Elagabalus, 218-222 AD.
AE 23mm (6.21 gm).
obv.: IMP CAES M AVR ANTONINVS, laureate head right.
rev.: ANTIOCH COL CAS, Genius standing facing, holding cornucopiae and ears of corn.
SNG BN Paris 1182 (same obverse die)

ex Tom Vossen
1 commentsareich
Septimius Severus (193 - 211 A.D.) 57 viewsAR Denarius
O: IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right.
R.FELICIT TEMPOR, Stalk of grain between crossed cornucopia.
Emesa (Antioch) mint, AD 194/195.
RIC 373, RSC 142b.
7 commentsMat
080 Herennia Etruscilla (?? A.D.), AR-Antoninianus, RIC IV-III 058b, Rome, PVDICITIA AVG, standing, #08,57 views080 Herennia Etruscilla (?? A.D.), AR-Antoninianus, RIC IV-III 058b, Rome, PVDICITIA AVG, standing, #08,
avers:- HER-ETRVSCILLA-AVG, diademed, draped bust right on crescent.
revers:- PVDICITIA-AVG, Pudicitia standing left holding scepter and drawing veil from her face.
exerg: , diameter: 22 mm, weight: 3,75 g, axis: 1 h,
mint: Rome, date: 249-251 A.D., ref: RIC-IV-III-58b, p127, C-17,
1 commentsquadrans
F 9.jpg
57 viewsOrthodoxcoins
FA027139-0100110-I444. Constantine I AE Follis. Treveri Mint. Marti Conservatori.57 viewsObv: CONSTANTINVS P F AVG; bust B; laureate and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: MARTI CONSERVATORI; Helmeted and cuirassed bust of Mars left, carrying spear and shield.
Mint marks:
24.0mm; 2.7g; 0 deg.
Minted 310-313 AD.
Unlisted in RIC.
141 Fausta (290 -326 A.D.), AE-3 Follis, Siscia, RIC VII 205, -/-//•BSIS•, SPES REIPVBLICAE, Spes standing left, Scarce!57 views141 Fausta (290 -326 A.D.), AE-3 Follis, Siscia, RIC VII 205, -/-//•BSIS•, SPES REIPVBLICAE, Spes standing left, Scarce!
avers:- FLAV-MAX-FAVSTA-AVG, 13, A6, Draped bust right, with necklace.
revers:- SPES-REIP-VBLICAE, Spes standing left, holding baby in each arm.
exergo: -/-//•BSIS•, diameter: 19-20mm, weight: 3,10g, axis: 0h,
mint: Siscia, date: 326-27 A.D., ref: RIC-VII-205, p-450, Scarce!
1 commentsquadrans
Philippus I, sestertius (Simpson & Boyd collection)57 viewsFilippo I (244-249 d.C.), sesterzio
AE, 20.35 gr, 28 mm, BB+
D/ IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG, busto laureato a dx
R/ VICTORIA AVG S C, Vittoria che marcia a dx reggendo corona e palma
RIC 191a
Provenienza: collezione Berardengo, Roma Italia (3 luglio 2009, numero archivio 7bis), ex rev. dr. Simpson collection (London 1889), ex William C. Boyd collection (London, 16 dicembre 1889), ex Baldwin's Auctions 42 (London 26 settembre 2005), ex Antony Wilson collection (Yorkcoins New York, Londra fino al 2009).

2 commentspaolo
Follis Galerio RIC Antiochia 59b.jpg
A113-20 - GALERIO Como Cesar de Diocleciano (293 - 305 D.C.)57 viewsAE Follis 27 x 25 mm 9.3 gr.

Anv: "GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES" - Cabeza laureada, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "GENIO POPVLI ROMANI" - Genio de pié a izquierda, desnudo salvo modius en la cabeza y chlamys colgando desde su hombro izquierdo, portando patera en la mano de su brazo derecho extendido de la que cae cierto líquido y cornucopia en izquierda. "ANT·" en exergo y "B" en campo derecho.

Acuñada 304 - 305 D.C.
Ceca: Antiochia (Off.2da)
Rareza: C2

Referencias: RIC Vol.VI (Antiochia) #59b Pag.621 - Cohen Vol.VII #78 Pag.109 - DVM #29 var Pag.281 - Salgado MRBI Vol.III #7169.m. Pag.65
Mn. Fonteius, Crawford 353/1d57 viewsMn. Fonteius, gens Fonteia
AR - denar, 4.05g
Rome 85 BC
obv. Head of Apollo Vejovis, laureate, r.
MN FONTEI behind (MN ligate)
CF below chin, [thunderbolt below]
rev. Infant winged Genius riding goat right, caps of the Dioscouri surmounted by
stars to ight and left, thyrsus below, all within laurel wreath.
Crawford 353/1d; Sydenham 724b; Fonteia 11
about EF

The reverse of this coin imitates a statue in the temple of Vejovis in Rome, with Genius riding the goat Amalthea. Jupiter was suckled by Amalthea on Mount Ida, and her horns gave rise to the cornucopiae.
FAVSTINA AVGVSTA - lifetime issue57 viewsAR 17mm 139-141AD
Obv - FAVSTINA AVGVSTA - draped bust right
Rev - CONCORDIA AVG - Concordia holding patera with right hand, double cornucopiae held in left
Reference - RIC III (Antoninus Pius) 335
Mint - Rome
1 commentsaragon6
Gallienus RIC V-1, Rome 285 (S)57 viewsAE 19 - 22 mm 3.1 grams
OBV :: GALLIENVS AVG. Radiate head right
REV :: SOLI CONS AVG. Bull standing or walking right
EX :: XI
RIC V-1, Rome 285 (S)
Purchased 12/2010
Galeria Valeria, AE Follis57 viewsGAL VALERIA AVG
Heraclea, 309-310 AD
This type records the last appearance of Venus on Imperial Coinage.
ENGLAND - GEORGE IV57 viewsGeorge IV - Britannia seated on reverse. 1826 FARTHING. KM-697dpaul7
Geta (as Caesar), 198–209 CE57 viewsGeta (as Caesar); 198–209 CE. AR denarius, Rome mint, 199–202 CE; 3.27g. BMCRE S234 note, RIC 16b, RSC 157. Obv: P SEPT GETA – CAES PONT; boy’s bare-headed draped bust right. Rx: PR – INC – IVV – ENT; Geta, in military dress, standing half-left, holding branch and reversed spear; behind, trophy. Issued during the reign of Septimius Severus.

ex Henry Hall Wilson Collection, purchased from Herakles Numismatics, 25 June 2011

H.H. Wilson III (1951–2009) an attorney from Charlotte, North Carolina, was the son of H.H. Wilson, Jr. (1921–79), H.H. Wilson III (1951–2009) an attorney from Charlotte, North Carolina, was the son of H.H. Wilson, Jr. (1921–79), an administrative assistant and congressional liaison for Presidents John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson, and president of the Chicago Board of Trade from 1967 to 1973.
3 commentsMichael K5
GIII Ric 84.jpg
RIC-084 Gordian III IOVI STATORI57 viewsIMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG - Radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right
IOVI STATORI - Jupiter standing front, head right, holding thunderbolts and scepter
RIC-84, Cohen-109

Very nice obverse, slightly weak reverse, excellent coin overall
Gordian III Antoninianus, RIC 154, RSC 34857 viewsIMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG, radiate draped bust right / VICTOR AETER, Victory standing left with palm, resting sheild on captive at foot.
Maximum Diameter: 24.7 mm
Weight: 5.11 g
4 commentsTheEmpireNeverEnded
Gordien III sesterce.jpg
Gordian III - sestertius57 viewsNice Gordian III sestertius, reverse : Providentia Aug.

It was minted in 238, and is probably the very first bronze issue as Augustus for this young emperor of only 13. I like this coin because of the portrait : Gordian tries to look serious, without the stupid smile he has on later issues.
1 commentsGinolerhino
Hendin-64957 viewsPontius Pilate - prutah (year 17 = 30AD)
1.80 grams
Hadrian Denarius57 viewsHadrian

Goddess of Nile reclining

RIC 310, RSC 991, BMC 862, Sear 3508
Hadrian Denarius Felicitas57 viewsObv.
Laureate heroic bust right

FEL-AVG across field
Felicitas standing left with caduceus & cornucopia

Minted 118 A.D.
2 commentsancientdave
Hadrian "Quadrans" Modius57 viewsObv.

Radiate Head Right


Modius with 6 ears of grain

Rare. RIC 700
3 commentsancientdave
117-138 AD - HADRIAN AE sestertius - struck 134-138 AD57 viewsobv: HADRIANVS AVG COS III PP (laureate head right)
rev: - (Nemesis standing right, holding fold of dress with right hand and branch pointed downward in left), S-C across field
ref: RIC II 779b (S), C.1372 (12frcs), BMCRE 1549
mint: Rome
20.57gms, 30mm

A nice and scarce Hadrian bronze. This coin shows the original condition with original patina, there’s no corrections or special matters for sharping, and better in hand than the picture allows.
1 commentsberserker
Western Han Jade Protomoney57 viewsDate: 206 BC – 9 AD, Rare
Size: diameter 35 mm
Weight: 6.81 grams

This is one of the earliest primitive Chinese coin types consisting of a piece of jade carved into a shape of a coin, with a large center hole for stringing. Round pieces of jade in the shape of coins are found in tombs from the Western Han period. This type is the latest, made of polished jade. No one is sure what the purpose of these rings was, but because of their shape and their find-spots it is thought they were used as primitive coins or exchange mediums.
Heretical Heavy Guns57 viewsScotvs Capitis
Henry III AR Penny. Class Vb, London, NICOLE ON LVND.JPG
King 08, Henry III 1216-1272. AR Penny, Class Vb, London mint. NICOL ON LVND.57 viewsObv. Crowned head of Henry III facing, with sceptre hENRICVS REX III
Rev. Long cross NICOL ON LVND
Class Vb, London mint.
Herennia Etruscilla antoninianus. 57 viewsReverse shows Pudicitia standing left holding sceptre & drawing veil from her face; reverse legend is PVDICITIA AVG.RIC 58b
Herennia Etruscilla AR Antoninianus. HER ETRVSCILLA AVG, diademed, draped bust right on crescent / PVDICITIA AVG, Pudicitia standing left holding sceptre & drawing veil from her face. RSC 17, RIC 58b. sear5 #9494 _5000
2 commentsAntonivs Protti
Hendin 1190: Herod the Great, Eagle Lepton57 viewsHerod the Great. 37-4 B.C.. AE half-prutah. Jerusalem Mint. Hendin 1190. Obverse: (Of King Herod in Greek), single cornucopia. Reverse: Eagle standing right. Ex Amphora.

The first coin by a Jewish ruler to depict a graven image. This could be a reference to the golden bird King Herod placed at the Second Temple in Jerusalem.
Lucas H
Huszár 846, Pohl 258-11, Unger 675t, Réthy II 308A, dated 1525 57 viewsHungary. Louis II (Lajos II in Hun.) (1516-1526). AR denar, 16 mm.

Obv: 1525, with annulets on either side of date, above four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion), Polish eagle in escutcheon, rosette between two annulets on sides of shield.

Rev: Crowned Madonna with infant Jesus to her right, L—S (privy mark) in fields.

The type was struck 1521-1525 (per Huszár & Unger) or 1521-1526 (per Pohl).

This type was an inflationary currency that was referred to by contemporaries as “moneta nova.” On average, 400 denars, each weighing 0.49 g., were struck form Ofner mark of silver with a fineness of 0,250 (per Huszár). They were officially valued at ½ a denar, but the public did not accept them at this overvalued rate (per Huszár & Pohl).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 4.
Huszár 550 var., Pohl --, Unger 434b var., Réthy II 91 var. 57 viewsHungary. Louis I (Lajos I, in Hun.) (1342-1382). AR denar.

Obv: + MOnETA LODOVICI (counterclockwise and partially retrograde legend), Saracen head right.

Rev: + REGIS hVnGARIE (counterclockwise and partially retrograde legend), Patriarchal cross with random pellets, crown–crown (privy mark) in lowest fields.

Struck in Buda (now Budapest), ca. 1373-1382 (per Huszár & Unger, although Huszár later wrote that the Saracen-head coinage incepted in 1372). Mint and moneyer unknown. Said to possibly be a contemporary counterfeit by Pohl.

Huszár rarity rating 7. This appears to be an uncommon variety of the emission in that the legends on the standard coin are clockwise without retrograde letters. It is neither described nor depicted in any of the catalogs.

The Saracen's head is a pun on the surname of Jacobus Saracenus (Szerechen, in Hun.) and his brother, Johannes, courtiers of Italian descent who were ennobled by Louis. The image of a Saracen's head appeared on their coat of arms. Jacobus became the kammergraf at the Pécs mint in 1352, and the Comes Camerarum Regalium in 1369. He died in the early 1370s, at which time Johannes succeeded him as kammergraf.
016 Istvan III., (Stephen III.), King of Hungary, (1162-1172 A.D.), AR-Denarius, U-082v, #0157 views016 Istvan III., (Stephen III.), King of Hungary, (1162-1172 A.D.), AR-Denarius, U-082v, #01
avers:- Cross with three wedges at the ends and H's between the angles; border of dots.
revers:- Eight dots around cross; border of line.
exe:-/-//--, diameter: 10,3 mm, weight: 0,24g, axis: 2h,
mint: Esztergom , date: A.D., ref: Unger-082v, CHN-1-131, Huszar-117, Kiss-Toth: Sigla- ,
013 Bela II., (Bela-II. the Blind), King of Hungary, (1131-1141 A.D.), AR-Denarius, U-046, #0257 views013 Bela II., (Bela-II. the Blind), King of Hungary, (1131-1141 A.D.), AR-Denarius, U-046, #02
avers:- Crescents and dots in place of the legend; line of dots amongst for wedges between crescents; border of dots.
revers:- Lines and crescents in place of the legend; cross in circle with wedges in the angles; border of line.
exe:-/-//--, diameter: 11 mm, weight: 0,28 g, axis: 6h,
mint: Esztergom , date: A.D., ref: Unger-046, CHN-1-081, Huszar-096, Kiss-Toth: Sigla- ,
1 commentsquadrans
illyria fouree.jpg
ILLYRIA - DYRRHACHIUM57 viewsFOUREE DRACHM -- Cekas 94 to 98. c. 200-30 B.C.E. Cow suckles calf, ARISTON. Reverse: double stellate pattern. dpaul7
Nice seal, not sure who's design57 viewsNeed help finding out who's seal this would be. Found on an Iroquois Indian site in NY. Please help me find who's design this would have been, thanks....mikeNordberg33
Wedjat57 viewsHorus eye
3 cm
3ème intermediate period or late period
Antonius pius caesarea maritima mint 57 viewsObv.: laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev.:COL PRIMA FL AVG CAESAR, Apollo, nude standing to front looking left holding in right bow (?) leaning with left on tripod-lebes which is encircled by serpent. Rare. Very fine.
1 commentsMaritima
57 viewsBulgarian trachy of Constantine Tich Asen (1257-1277). Obv: Bust of Christ. Rev: Czar on horseback, holding scepter topped with patriarchal cross. Dumbarton Oaks Vol IV, pl. XLVIII B (3). +Alexios
Rare Indian gold 1/4 fanam, Southern India, 16th-17th centuries 3mm, ~ 0.1 g. Probably tiniest coin in the World!57 viewsRare Indian gold 1/4 fanam, Southern India, 16th-17th centuries
3mm, ~ 0.1 g. Probably tiniest coin in the World!
Notes: Rare coin, very-very tiny (measuring 2-4mm in diameter and weighing from 0.08 to 0.1 g or so). These are probably the tiniest gold coins ever minted for general circulation. Very rare, these come from a hoard of these, recently unearthed.

Antonio Protti
Iron Age Knife Blades57 views2 Iron Age Knife Blades
11.5g, 95mm / 25.9g, 165mm
ex Barry & Darling
islamic 1.jpg
Iran, Safavids, Husayn57 views Iran, Safavids, Husayn (1694-1722), AR Abbasi, Tabriz, AH 1132.
Moesia inferior, Istros, Septimius Severus, AMNG 493 (rev)57 viewsSeptimius Severus, AD 193-211
AE 28
Head, laureate, r.
Bearded horseman with kalathos and chlamys over shoulder trotting on horse
r.; horse has raised l. forefoot, behind standing a staff with pointed lower end
and bird std. r. on top.
ref. a) not in AMNG:
rev. AMNG I/1, 493
obv. AMNG I/1, 495 (obv.)
b) Varbanov (engl.) 614 var (slightly different obv.-legend: AV KL...)
Very rare, VF, dark-green patina, light roughness

The horseman is not Serapis but seems to be the Thracian Rider-god Heros. Serapis riding on a horse is not possible! The bird should be an eagle or sea-eagle like on the city's coat of arms. To call the rider Mitras - as Varbanov has done - is nonsense although there are some similarities with the riding Mithras from Trapezunt. But Mithras never wears a kalathos but always a Phrygian bonnet.
1 commentsJochen
Moesia, Istros AR Drachm.
4th Century BC.
Facing male heads, the right inverted / ISTPIH, sea-eagle left grasping dolphin with talons, AG monogram below dolphin.
BMC 246; SNG Munich 236; SNG Copenhagen 192; Pick AMNG 417.
5.02g, 20mm.

Curtis H
016 Istvan III., (Stephen III.), King of Hungary, (1162-1172 A.D.), AR-Denarius, U-082, #0257 views016 Istvan III., (Stephen III.), King of Hungary, (1162-1172 A.D.), AR-Denarius, U-082, #02
avers:- Cross with three wedges at the ends and H's between the angles; border of dots.
revers:- Four dots around cross; border of line.
exe:-/-//--, diameter: 13,0 mm, weight: 0,17g, axis: - h,
mint: Esztergom , date: A.D., ref: Unger-082, CHN-1-129, Huszar-117, Kiss-Toth: Sigla- ,
Italy- Pompeii- House with nice mosaic and fountain 1.jpg
Italy- Pompeii- House with nice mosaic and fountain 157 viewsFOUNTAIN
House of the Small Fountain Pompeii Another fountain with mosaic decorations, including abstract and geometric designs, fish, shells, and other sea life.
John Schou
Italy- Rome- The Arch of Constantine The Great.jpg
Italy- Rome- The Arch of Constantine The Great57 viewsArch of Constantine
The Arch of Constantine is a triumphal arch in Rome, situated between the Colosseum and the Palatine Hill. It was erected to commemorate Constantine's victory over Maxentius at the Battle of Milvian Bridge on October 28, 312 AD. Dedicated in 315 AD, it is the latest of the extant triumphal arches in Rome, from which it differs by the extensive re-use of parts of earlier buildings.

General Description
The arch is 21 m high, 25.7 m wide and 7.4 m deep. It has three archways, the central one being 11.5 m high and 6.5 m wide, the lateral archways 7.4 m by 3.4 m each. The lower part of the monument is built of marble blocks, the top (called attic) is brickwork revetted with marble. A staircase formed in the thickness of the arch is entered from a door at some height from the ground, in the end towards the Palatine Hill. The general design with a main part structured by detached columns and an attic with the main inscription above is modelled after the example of the Arch of Septimius Severus on the Forum Romanum. It has been suggested that the lower part of the arch is re-used from an older monument, probably from the times of the emperor Hadrian (Conforto et al., 2001; for a defence of the view that the whole arch was constructed in the 4th century, see Pensabene & Panella). The arch spans the Via Triumphalis, the way taken by the emperors when they entered the city in triumph. This route started at the Campus Martius, led through the Circus Maximus and around the Palatine Hill; immediately after the Arch of Constantine, the procession would turn left and march along the Via Sacra to the Forum Romanum and on to the Capitoline Hill, passing both the Arches of Titus and Septimius Severus. During the Middle Ages, the Arch of Constantine was incorporated into one of the family strongholds of ancient Rome. Works of restoration were first carried out in the 18th century; the last excavations have taken place in the late 1990s, just before the Great Jubilee of 2000.

The decoration of the arch heavily uses parts of older monuments, which are given a new meaning in the context of the Constantinian building. As it celebrates the victory of Constantine, the new "historic" friezes illustrating his campaign in Italy convey the central meaning: the praise of the emperor, both in battle and in his civilian duties. The other imagery supports this purpose: decoration taken from the "golden times" of the Empire under Trajan, Hadrian and Marcus Aurelius places Constantine next to these "good emperors", and the content of the pieces evokes images of the victorious and pious ruler. Another explanation given for the re-use is the short time between the start of construction (late 312 at the earliest) and the dedication (summer 315), so the architects used existing artwork to make up for the lack of time to create new one. As yet another possible reason, it has often been suggested that the Romans of the 4th century lacked the artistic skill to produce acceptable artwork and therefore plundered the ancient buildings to adorn their contemporary monuments. This interpretation has become less prominent in more recent times, as the art of Late Antiquity has been appreciated in its own right. It is, of course, possible that a combination of two or all three of those explanations are correct, as they are not mutually exclusive.

Above the middle archway, the main inscription (see below) takes the most prominent place of the attic. It is identical on both sides of the arch. Flanking the inscription on both sides, there are pairs of relief panels above the minor archways, 8 in total. They were taken from an unknown monument erected in honour of Marcus Aurelius, and show (north side, left to right) the emperor's return to Rome after the campaign (adventus), the emperor leaving the city and saluted by a personification of the Via Flaminia, the emperor distributing money among the people (largitio), the emperor interrogating a German prisoner, (south side, left to right) a captured enemy chieftain led before the emperor, a similar scene with other prisoners, the emperor speaking to the troops (adlocutio), and the emperor sacrificing pig, sheep and bull. Together with three panels now in the Capitoline Museum, the reliefs were probably taken from a triumphal monument commemorating Marcus Aurelius' war against the Sarmatians from 169 - 175, which ended with his triumphant return in 176. On the largitio panel, the figure of Marcus Aurelius' son Commodus has been eradicated after the latter's damnatio memoriae. On top of each of the columns stand marble statues of Dacian prisoners from the times of Trajan, probably taken from the Forum of Trajan. From the same time date the two large (3 m high) panels decorating the attic on the small sides of the arch, showing scenes from the emperor's Dacian Wars. Together with the two reliefs on the inside of the central archway, they came from a large frieze celebrating the Dacian victory. The original place of this frieze was either the Forum of Trajan, as well, or the barracks of the emperor's horse guard on the Caelius.

Main Section
The general layout of the main facade is identical on both sides of the arch. It is divided by four columns of Corinthian order made of Numidian yellow marble (giallo antico), one of which has been transferred into the Basilica di San Giovanni in Laterano and was replaced by a white marble column. The columns stand on bases showing victory figures on front, and captured barbarians and Roman soldiers on the sides. The spandrels of the main archway are decorated with reliefs depicting victory figures with trophies, those of the smaller archways show river gods. Column bases and spandrel reliefs are from the times of Constantine. Above each lateral archway are pairs of round reliefs dated to the times of emperor Hadrian. They display scenes of hunting and sacrificing: (north side, left to right) hunt of a boar, sacrifice to Apollo, hunt of a lion, sacrifice to Hercules, (south side, left to right) departure for the hunt, sacrifice to Silvanus, hunt of a bear, sacrifice to Diana. The head of the emperor (originally Hadrian) has been reworked in all medaillons: on the north side, into Constantine in the hunting scenes and into Licinius or Constantius I in the sacrifice scenes; on the south side, vice versa. The reliefs, c. 2 m in diameter, were framed in porphyry; this framing is only extant on the right side of the northern facade. Similar medaillons, this time of Constantinian origin, are placed on the small sides of the arch; on the eastern side, showing the Sun rising, and on the western side, the Moon, both on chariots. The main piece from the time of Constantine is the "historical" relief frieze running around the monument under the round panels, one strip above each lateral archway and at the small sides of the arch. These reliefs depict scenes from the Italian campaign of Constantine against Maxentius which was the reason for the construction of the monument. The frieze starts at the western side with the "Departure from Milan". It continues on the southern, "outward" looking face, with the siege of a city, probably Verona, which was of great importance to the war in Northern Italy; also on that face, the Battle of Milvian Bridge with Constantine's army victorious and the enemy drowning in the river Tiber. On the eastern side, Constantine and his army enter Rome; the artist here has avoided to use the imagery of the triumph, as Constantine probably did not want to be shown triumphant over the Eternal City. On the northern face, looking "towards" the city, two strips with the emperor's actions after taking possession of Rome: Constantine speaking to the citizens on the Forum Romanum, and distributing money to the people.

Inner Sides of the Archways
In the central archway, there is one of the large panels of Trajan's Dacian War on either wall. Inside the lateral archways, eight portraits busts (two on each wall), destroyed to such an extent that it is not possible to identify them any more.

The main inscription reads:


Which means in English:

To the Emperor Caesar Flavius Constantinus, the greatest, pious, and blessed Augustus: because he, inspired by the divine, and by the greatness of his mind, has delivered the state from the tyrant and all of his followers at the same time, with his army and just force of arms, the Senate and People of Rome have dedicated this arch, decorated with triumphs.

The words instinctu divinitatis ("inspired by the divine") have been much commented. They are usually read as sign of Constantine's shifting religious affiliation: The Christian tradition, most notably Lactantius and Eusebius of Caesarea, relate the story of a vision of the Christian god to Constantine during the campaign, and that he was victorious in the sign of the cross at the Milvian Bridge. The official documents (esp. coins) still prominently display the Sun God until 324 AD, while Constantine started to support the Christian church from 312 on. In this situation, the vague wording of the inscription can be seen as the attempt to please all possible readers, being deliberately ambiguous, and acceptable to both pagans and Christians. As was customary, the vanquished enemy is not mentioned by name, but only referred to as "the tyrant", drawing on the notion of the rightful killing of a tyrannical ruler; together with the image of the "just war", it serves as justification of Constantine's civil war against his co-emperor Maxentius.

Two short inscriptions on the inside of the central archway transport a similar message: Constantine came not as conqueror, but freed Rome from occupation:

LIBERATORI VRBIS (liberator of the city) - FUNDATORI QVIETIS (founder of peace)

Over each of the small archways, inscriptions read:


They give a hint on the date of the arch: "Solemn vows for the 10th anniversary - for the 20th anniversary" and "as for the 10th, so for the 20th anniversary". Both refer to Constantine's decennalia, i.e. the 10th anniversary of his reign (counted from 306), which he celebrated in Rome in the summer of 315 AD. It can be assumed that the arch honouring his victory was inaugurated during his stay in the city.

John Schou
022 Bela IV., King of Hungary, (1235-1270 A.D.), AR-Denar, U-213, #0157 views022 Bela IV., King of Hungary, (1235-1270 A.D.), AR-Denar, U-213, #01
avers: +REX•BELA•QVARTVS, Agnus Dei in circle of dots advancing left with cross, border of dots.
revers: •VNGA•-RIA•, King enthroned facing, holding orb and sceptre, border of dots.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 25,2mm, weight: 0,75g, axis: 9h,
mint: , date: 1235-1270 A.D., ref: Unger-213_CNH-1-229_Huszar-294,
Metapontion, Lucania Phoenicia, AR Plated (fourreé) Stater, c. 400 - 350 BCE57 viewsSilver plated (fourreé) stater of Metapontion, Lucania (Phoenicia / Italy), c. 400 - 350 BCE, 5.32 grams, 18 mm

Obverse: Head of young female, left.
Reverse: Barley ear with murex shell in left field.

Reference: SNG ANS-334, Noe-437, Jameson 289; HN Italy 1521, cf S 404.

Added to collection: January 1, 2006
Daniel Friedman
Brooklyn Hebrew Home & Hospital for the Aged (Brooklyn, New York)57 viewsWhite metal token, 27 mm., undated.

Obv: BROOKLY HEBREW HOME & HOSPITAL/FOR THE AGED, above Jewish star above, above ברוקלינ ??ש לזקבים (Brooklyn _____ for the Elderly) above row of buildings, above HOWARD & DUMONT/AVENUES/BROOKLYN, N.Y.

Rev: FIFTY CENTS WILL BUY along rim above, ONE/MEAL/FOR in center above wheat ears, AN AGED COUPLE, along rim below, AM.EMB. CO UTICA NY in tiny letters along rim at bottom.

Ref: None known.

Note: Incorporated in 1907 as Brooklyn Ladies’ Home for the Aged, its name changed to Brooklyn Hebrew Home for the Aged in 1913 and to Brooklyn Hebrew Home and Hospital for the Aged in 1918. By then it was already located at 813 Howard Avenue, at the intersection of Howard and Dumont Avenues, in the Brownsville section of Brooklyn. It relocated in 1953 to the former Half Moon Hotel at West 29th Street and the Boardwalk, in the Coney Island section of Brooklyn. In 1968 it changed its name to Metropolitan Jewish Geriatric Center, and currently operates as Metropolitan Jewish Health System Foundation.

Note: Manufactured by the American Emblem Co., Utica, New York.
Hebrew Kindergarten & Infants Home (New York , N.Y. & Far Rockaway, Queens County, N.Y.)57 viewsAE token, 32.5 mm., undated (probably ca. 1923).

Obv: HEBREW KINDERGARTEN & INFANTS HOME and 35 & 37 MONTGOMERY ST. N.Y.C./CENTRAL & PLAINVIEW AVES. FAR ROCKAWAY, along toothed rim, girl standing with outstretched arms within solid laureate wreath in center.

Rev: HAVE A HEART/HELP THE/ORPHANS/ -- AND --/GOD WILL/HELP YOU, within solid laureate wreath, GOOD LUCK COIN along toothed rim, beneath.

Ref: Kaplan, Steven H.. “Great Appeal, Kindergarten Tokens Asked for Support,” The Shekel, XLIV No. 1 (January-February 2011) 49-53, Figure 1 (this token); Meshorer, Coins Reveal 144.

Note: The Hebrew Kindergarten and Day Nursery Association was established in 1905 at 29 Montgomery Street as a nursery for the care of children of working mothers. It purchased 35 and 37 Montgomery Street in 1913 for the construction of a three-story building, which was dedicated in May 1914. In November 1918, it opened a ward for children whose mothers had influenza, and also began to care for children whose mothers had died during the epidemic. By then, there had already been a fund drive in August 1918 to raise $50,000 for an orphanage at Far Rockaway, and another fund drive, to raise $100,000 for the completion of its new building. It was then known as the Hebrew Kindergarten, Day and Night Nursery. It formally changed its name to Hebrew Kindergarten & Infants Home, Inc. in August 1925, although it was apparently using that name as early as 1923. Its infant home in Far Rockaway was at the intersection of Plainview Avenue and Central Avenue/Beach 20th Street, and an address of both 310 Central Avenue and 310 Beach 20th Street. It still operates an early childhood program/day care program for ages pre-kindergarten through kindergarten on a nonsectarian basis at that location.
Note: Three different fundraising tokens were issued, all of which contain the address of the day school on Montgomery Street as well as the addresses of the orphanage on Plainview Avenue and Central Avenue, in Far Rockaway. This is the most common of the three tokens, and apparently issued in connection with the August 1923 fund drive for the completion of that building.
Kingdom of Jerusalem57 viewsKingdom of Jerusalem -- Imitation of Ayyubids of Damascus. Al-Salih Ismail, 1237, 1240-45 AD. AR Dirham. 1.8 gm. 20 mm.dpaul7
Sear 1303 - Follis - 694-695 AD (Indictional Year 8) - Syracuse mint57 viewsEmperor: Justinian II (First Reign: 685-695 AD)
Date: 694-695 AD (Indictional Year 8)
Condition: Fine/aFine
Denomination: Follis

Obverse: No legend
Emperor standing, facing, bearded, wearing helmet (with plume) and elaborate robe, holding in right hand, akakia; in left, globus cruciger. In field left, star above palm; in field right, palm.

Reverse: Large ""; Above, ; To left, //; To right, //

Syracuse mint
DO 63; Sear 1303
2.74g; 27.2mm; 180°
Jovian57 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC 423, S 4086, VM 12, VF, Siscia mint, 3.081g, 19.2mm, 45o, 363 - 364 A.D.; obverse D N IOVIAN-VS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse , VOT V in wreath, crescent [...]SISC in ex

purchased 09/2007 forvm e-bay auctions
SPAIN - Castille & Leon - Juan I57 viewsSPAIN - Castille & Leon - Juan I (1379-1390) Billon Cornado. dpaul7
Juba II & Cleopatra Selene57 viewsREX IVBA
Diademed and draped bust right, club over shoulder

Headdress of Isis, with stalks of grain, crescent above

Caesarea mint, 25 B.C. - 24 A.D


Bronze AE 27, Alexandropoulos 209, Mazard 351 (RRR), SNG Cop 605, De Luynes 4013

Very Rare! Excellent for the type!

From a very old collection

Juba II was the only son and heir of his father King Juba I. King Juba I was the King of Numidia and ally to Pompey the Great. He fought against Julius Caesar at the battle of Thapsus and lost commiting suicide soon after. His son Juba II was taken away to Rome to be paraded in Caesar's Triumph's. He was then raised in Caesar's houshold and educated in both Latin and Greek excelling in his studies. He was praised as one of Rome's most educated citizens and at age 20 even published a work entitled Roman Archaeology. He became life long friends with Julius Caesar's heir Octavian. He accompanied Octavian on several campaigns during the turbulent times after Caesar's death even fighting at the battle of Actium against his future wifes parents...Antony and Cleopatra VII.

Augustus restored Juba II as the king of Numidia between 29 BC-27 BC and Numidia become one of the most loyal client kings that served Rome. Between 26 BC-20 BC, Augustus arranged for him to marry Cleopatra Selene II (Daughter of Antony and Cleopatra) giving her a large dowry and appointing her queen. She also had been paraded in a Triumph in Rome after the battle of Actium. It was probably due to his services with Augustus in a campaign in Spain that led Augustus to make him King of Mauretania.

Cleopatra is said to have exerted considerable influence on Juba II's policies. Juba II encouraged and supported the performing arts, research of the sciences and research of natural history. Juba II also supported Mauretanian trade. Mauretania traded all over the Mediterranean and exported fish grapes, pearls, figs, grain, wooden furniture and purple dye harvested from certain shellfish, which was used in the manufacture of purple stripes for senatorial robes. Juba II sent a contingent to Iles Purpuraires to re-establish the ancient Phoenician dye manufacturing process.

Cleopatra Selene seems to have inherited the same qualities of both Antony and Cleopatra VII. She was strong willed and maintained her Egyptian/Greek heritage. She seems intent on continuing the Ptolomaic line of strong women rulers using the same titles as her mother. She died sometime before Juba II. The Greek Historian Plutarch describes Juba II as 'one of the most gifted rulers of his time'. Between 2 BC-2, he travelled with Gaius Caesar as a member of his advisory staff to the troubled Eastern Mediterranean. In 21, Juba II made his son Ptolemy co-ruler. Juba II died in 23 AD. He had two children by Cleopatra Selene, Ptolomy of Mauretania (1 BC- 40 AD) and Drusilla of Mauretania (born in 5 AD). He was burried in the Mausolium he constructed for himself and his wife which is still visible today.
1 commentsJay GT4
Judaea, Johannes Hyrcanus I, TJC F1157 viewsJohn Hyrcanus I (Yehochanan), 135-104 BC
AE - Prutah, 1.59g, 14mm
struck in Jerusalem
obv. Paleo-Hebrew legend in 4 lines within laurel wreath:
יהוח / נןהכהן / הגדלוח / ברי
from r. to l.:
= YHW(Ch) / NN H KHN / H GDL W (Ch) / BR Y
= Yehochanan Ha Kohen Ha Gadol We Chaver Ye[hudim]
= Yehochanan the High Priest and Council of the Jews
rev. Double cornucopiae, decorated with ribbons hanging down, a pomegranate with long stalk between horns, in dotted circle
ref. GBC4 452; AJC K8; TJC F11
about VF
1 commentsJochen
Judaea, Johannes Hyrcanus I, TJC B1157 viewsJohn Hyrcanus I (Yehochanan), 135-104 BC
AE - Prutah, 13.77mm, 1.92g, 0°
struck in Jerusalem
obv. Paleo-Hebrew legend in 5 lines, 2 dots above, all within laurel wreath:
יהוחנן / הכהןהגד / להחברה / יהדימ
from r. to l.:
= Yehochanan Ha Kohen Ha Gadol Ha Chaver Ha Yehudim
= Yehochanan the High Priest the Council of the Jews
rev. Double cornucopiae, coming from a floral base, filled with fruits and a grain-ear each, decorated with ribbons hanging down, a pomegranate with long stalk between horns, in dotted circle, monogram in l. field (not visible)
ref. Hendin 5, 1133; Hendin 4, 456; AJC Na18; TJC B11
ex Hendin
1 commentsJochen
Judaea. Alexander Jannaeus (103-76 B.C.)57 viewsHendin 473, TJC Group P, AJC I Group E

AE Prutah, 13 mm.

Obv: Paleo-Hebrew legend in five lines in a wreath:
יהו/נתן הכ/הן הגדל/וחבר הי/הידם
(YHWNTN HKHN HGDL WHBR HYHWDYM = Yehonatan the high priest and the council of the Jews)

Rev: Double cornucopia with pomegranate in between the horns.

153 Julianus-II. (360-363 A.D.), AE-1, RIC VIII 322, Arles, SECVRITAS REIPVB, R!, #157 views153 Julianus-II. (360-363 A.D.), AE-1, RIC VIII 322, Arles, SECVRITAS REIPVB, R!, #1
avers:- DN FL CL IVLIAN VS PF AVG, bearded, pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right.
revers:- SECVRITAS REIPVB, Bull standing right, two stars above, in right field: eagle standing right on wreath, head up, holding wreath in beak.
exergo: S CONST •,
date: 361-363 A.D.,
mint: Arles,
diameter: 27-28mm,
weight: g,
ref: RIC-VIII-322, R!
0565-0578 AD - Justin II - Sear 366 - Half Follis57 viewsEmperor: Justin II (r. 565-578 AD)
Date: 569-570 AD
Condition: Fair
Denomination: Half Follis

Obverse: D N IVSTINVS PP AV (or similar)
Justin, on left, and Sophia, on right, seated facing on double throne, both nimbate; he holds globus cruciger, she holds cruciform sceptre.

Reverse: Large K; above, cross; to left, A/N/N/O; to right, E
Exergue: TES (Thessalonica mint)

Sear 366
4.76g; 23.5mm; 150°
Justin II follis57 viewsFollis, 573-574, Constantinople, 2nd officina, 14.6g, 30mm, sand patina.vercingetorix
Philip III, 323-317 BC; Kolophon 323-319 BC57 viewsAR drachm, 18.2mm, 4.24g, VF/gVF
Head Herakles right in lion-head headdress / ΦIΛIΠΠOY Zeus seated left on backless throne, feet on footstool, right leg drawn back, holding eagle and sceptre. Lyre in left field, U (could be part of garment) under throne above strut.
Ex: Forvm Ancient Coins
Price P43b; Müller P50
Lawrence Woolslayer
1.3 Marcus Anotonius AR Legionary Denarius. Legion VI Ferrata57 viewssilver denarius, gF
32-31 BC
obv. ANT AVG III VIR R P C Praetorian Galley
rev. LEG VI eagle between standards

"The Iroonclads" were a legion created under Julius Caesar in Gallia Cisalpina in 52 BC. The name is probably a reference to the suits of armor that they wore.
Mark Antony Legionary Denarius LEG XIII57 viewsANT AVG III VIR R P C
galley r. mast with banners at prow

Rev LEG XIII legionary eagle between two standards

Patrae mint 32-31BC


Purchased as a low budget LEG XII upon viewing in hand it is definately a 13th Legion

Legio XIII was levied by Julius Caesar in 57 BC, before marching against the Belgae, in one of his early interventions in intra-Gallic conflicts.

During the Gallic wars (58-51 BC), Legio XIII was present at the Battle against the Nervians, the siege of Gergovia, and while not specifically mentioned in the sources, it is not unreasonable to assume that Legio XIII was also present for the Battle of Alesia.

Forced to choose either the end of his political career, or civil war, Caesar brought Legio XIII across the Rubicon river and into Italy. The legion remained faithful to Caesar during the resulting civil war between Caesar and the conservative Optimates faction of the senate, whose legions were commanded by Pompey. Legio XIII was active throughout the entire war, fighting at Dyrrhachium (48 BC) and Pharsalus (48 BC). After the decisive victory over Pompey at Pharsalus, the legion was to be disbanded, and the legionaries "pensioned off" with the traditional land grants; however, the legion was recalled for the Battle of Thapsus (46 BC) and the final Battle of Munda (45 BC). After Munda, Caesar disbanded the legion, retired his veterans, and gave them farmlands in Italy.

Reconstituted by Octavian in 41 BC.
Its standard was the lion.
1 commentsTitus Pullo
Licinius * Jupiter, Æ Follis - 313-315 AD.57 views
Licinius * Jupiter, Bronze Follis

Obv: IMP LIC LICINIVS PF AVG * Laureate head right facing
Rev: IOVI CON - SERVATORI * Jupiter standing left, holding Victory on globe in right hand, and scepter in his left hand, with an Eagle holding a wreath in beak at his feet, to the right, Monogram A in the right field.

Exergue: SIS

Mint: Siscia
Struck: 313-315 AD.

Size: 21 mm.
Weight: 3.83 grams
Die axis: 0 degs.

Condition: Beautiful. Dark patina and great clarity in all. Much nicer in hand than the image shows.

The Roman Imperial Coinage, Vol. VII, 8
(RIC 8)

Licinius I SECURITAS London mint57 viewsIMP LICINIVS P F AVG
Laureated and cuirassed bust right

Securitas standing left, leaning on short column, right hand on head; *//PLN

RIC VI 275;
4,24g -- 22,5mm
6 commentsgb29400
licinivs57 views1 commentsScotvs Capitis
Anonymous lead seal, ca. 2.-3. Century A.D. Lion57 viewsAnonymous lead seal, ca. 2.-3. Century A.D. 18-22mm, 10.94g. Obv: lion walking left on ground line, the lion has his front paw placed upon an object, probably a bucranium, crescent and star (?) above. Ex Rutten & Wieland.
2 commentsPodiceps
USA, Seated Liberty dime love token, 189057 views"SPL" (or "SPI"?) monogram on high grade host coin.
Ex-"oscarsaab" (eBay). (11,334,027).
Lydia, Blaundus, Anonymous Issue, (The Antonines, time A.D.) AE-23, BMC 45-7, Blaundus, BΛAVNΔƐΩN MAKƐΔONΩN, Nude Zeus standing left, 57 viewsLydia, Blaundus, Anonymous Issue, (The Antonines, time A.D.) AE-23, BMC 45-7, Blaundus, ΒΛΑVΝΔƐΩΝ ΜΑΚƐΔΟΝΩΝ, Nude Zeus standing left,
avers: ΙΕΡΑ CΥΝΚΛΗΤΟC, Bust of youthful senate to right.
revers: ΒΛΑVΝΔƐΩΝ ΜΑΚƐΔΟΝΩΝ, Nude Zeus standing left, holding patera and thunderbolt.
exerg: -/-/--, diameter: 22,5-23,5mm, weight: 8,67g, axis: 6h,
mint: Lydia, Blaundus, date: Second Century, The Antonines times. A.D., ref: BMC 45-7,
017. Marcus Antonius.57 viewsDenarius, 32-31 BC.
Obverse: ANT AVG III VIR R P C / Galley with rowers, standard at prow.
Reverse: LEG XXIII / Legionary eagle between two standards.
3.62 gm.. 17 mm.
Syd. #1246; RSC #60; Sear unlisted.

Mark Antony minted a long series of legionary coins for the use of the army and navy prior to the Battle of Actium (Sept. 2, 31 BC). The legion depicted on this coin - Legion XXIII - is one that we know nothing about.
1 commentsCallimachus
Marcus Aurelius, RIC 912, Sestertius of AD 16557 viewsÆ Sestertius (26.8g, Ø 33mm, 12h), Rome mint, struck between August and December of the year AD 165.
Obv.: M AVREL ANTONINVS AVG ARMENIACVS P M, laureate bust of Marcus Aurelius facing right.
Rev.: TR POT XIX IMP III COS III (around edge) S C (in field), Providentia standing l., holding a wand and a long sceptre; globe at her feet.
RIC 912 (S); BMCRE 1248; Banti (I Grandi Bronzi Imperiali III-1) 421 (8 spec.)
ex Cayón auction June 2009.
Charles S
Macedonia. Alexander III AR Tetradrachm (reverse)57 viewsCirca 325-315 B.C. Reverse. Zeus Aëtophoros seated left, on throne, ALEXANDROU in right field, monogram in left field. Die shift. Price-211. Ex Berk. Mint State.1 commentsJason T
Macrinus, Markianopolis, Eagle, AE2657 viewsMacrinus, 217 - 218 AD
AE26, 8.05g
governor Pontianus
obv: AVT K OΠEΛΛIOC CEVN MAKPEINOC, laureate, cuirassed bust right
rev: VΠ ΠONTIANOV M[APKIANOΠOΛEI]TΩN, eagle right, holding wreath in beak
AMNG I 714
1 commentsareich
037a Marcus Aurelius (139-161 A.D. as Caesar, 161-180 A.D. as Augustus), RIC III 0470var. (Ant. Pius), Rome, AR-Denarius, T-R-POT-XI-COS-II, Felicitas standing left,57 views037a Marcus Aurelius (139-161 A.D. as Caesar, 161-180 A.D. as Augustus), RIC III 0470var. (Ant. Pius), Rome, AR-Denarius, T-R-POT-XI-COS-II, Felicitas standing left,
avers:- AVRELIVS-CAES-AN-TON-AVG-P-II-F, Bare head right.
revers:- T-R-POT-XI-COS-II, Felicitas standing left, (no leaning on column !) holding caduceus and sceptre.
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: 16,5-17,5mm, weight: 3,23g, axis: 0h,
mint: Rome, date: 156-157 A.D., ref: RIC-III-470var. (Ant. Pius), p-88, RSC-703, Strack A318,
Marcus Aurelius Honos RIC 42257 viewsMarcus Aurelius, Denarius, 3g, 16.72mm, RIC III pg 79 422, RSC 236, Sear 5 4784
REV: HONOS, Honos standing, head left, with branch & cornucopiae
57 viewsMarcus Aurelius. Sestertius.
Reign: Emperor, A.D. 161-180
Denomination: Æ Sestertius.
Diameter: 31 mm.
Weight: 25.46 grams.
Mint: Struck in Rome, A.D. 158-9.
Obverse: AVRELIVS CAESAR AVG. PII F. Head, bare, right, bust draped and cuirassed.
Reverse: TR. POT. XIII COS. II S. C. Virtus standing right, left foot on helmet, holding spear and parazonium.
Reference: RIC (A. Pius) 187, 1349b. Cohen 741.
Ex Richard Graham Collection, Schulman Sale, June, 1966, #1896.
Marcus Aurelius Sestertius RIC 96457 viewsAE Sestertius
Marcus Aurelius, Rome Mint, 168-169 AD
Obverse: M ANTONINVS AVG TRP XX III, Laureate and draped bust right
Reverse: SALVTI AVG COS III, Salus feeding snake rising from altar
RIC 964; Cohen 544
28mm, 24.4gm

1 commentsJerome Holderman
039 Matyas Hunyadi., (Matthias Corvinus), King of Hungary, (1458-1490 A.D.) AR Denarius, U-556.b, , #0157 views039 Matyas Hunyadi., (Matthias Corvinus), King of Hungary, (1458-1490 A.D.) AR Denarius, U-556.b, , #01
avers:- +•MONETA•MAThIE•D•EI•G•, Two-part shield (Hungarian (Árpádian) stripes, raven with ring) in circle; border of dots.
revers:- REGIS•hV-nGARIAE•, Patriarchal cross in circle, mint-mark on each side (B-I); border of dots.
diameter: 15mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Hungary, Buda, mint mark: B-I, (Pohl)
date: 1463 A.D., ref: Unger-556.b, CNH-2-228, Huszar-706,
1 commentsquadrans
Maximinus II57 viewsAE Follis
Laureate head right

Genius standing left, modius on head, naked but for chlamys over shoulder, holding patera & cornucopiae, * left, A right, ANT in ex.

Antioch 310 AD

Jay GT4
Medieval Brooch AE-004, Fibula #09257 viewsMedieval Brooch AE-004, Fibula #092
Flower (or 8 arms star) shape Brooch with lot of circle decoration,
mint: ???
date: ??? A.D.,
ref: ???
distribution: ???,
Ragusa (now, Dubrovnik, Croatia)57 viewsCNI VI Type 6, Group 2, Mimica Type XVII, Resetar Type 17

AE minca (follaro), 17-18 mm. Struck ca. 1546-1551.

Obv: • MONETA—RACVSII, Laureate female head left, hair bunched in back.

Rev: • CIVITAS • • RACVSII, City walls with three towers and one gate, double line (stylized harbor) below.

Note: This coin does not appear to match any of the specific coins identified in the references, but seems to fall within the types indicated above.
Misterium Plakett, Lead, Romae, #0857 viewsMisterium Plakett, Lead, Romae, #08
diameter: mm,
mint: ,
1 commentsquadrans
moneta 350.jpg
Caracalla Provincial, Nicaea, AE1557 viewsobv: Radiate head right
rev: Palm branch within urn
Struck 196-217 A.D.
ex: automan
1 commentsJericho
moneta 520 lg.jpg
Dicoletian, Ticinum - RIC 22557 viewsDicoletian Antoninianus
obv: IMP C C VAL DIOCLETIANVS P F AVG. Radiate and cuirassed bust right.
rev: IOVI CONSERVAT. Jupiter standing left with thunderbolt and sceptre.
exergue: TXXIT
Struck 285 A.D. at Ticinum
RIC 225 (Scarce)
1 commentsJericho
moneta 705 large.jpg
Faustina Sr. Posthumous Denarius, Rome57 viewsobv: DIVA AVG FAVSTINA. Draped bust right.
rev: AETERNITIS. Aeternitas standing left, holding globe and scepter.
Struck after 143 A.D. by Antoninus Pius
RIC 350a
RSC 34a
moneta 710 lg.jpg
Caracalla, Nicopolis AE2157 viewsobv: Laureate and draped bust right
rev: Tetrastyle temple with Serpais within
Struck 196-217 A.D. at Nicopolis ad Istrum
1 commentsJericho
Nero, 54 - 68 AD57 viewsObv: NERO CAESAR, laureate head of Nero facing right.

Rev: AVGVSTVS GERMANICVS, Nero dressed in a toga and wearing a radiate crown, standing facing, holding a branch and a statue of Victory on a globe.

Silver Denarius, Rome mint, 64 - 65 AD

3.8 grams, 18 mm, 180°

RIC I 47, RSC 45, S1941, VM 6
1 commentsSPQR Coins
Nero, 54 - 68 AD57 viewsObv: NERO C(LAVD DI CLAV)D F CAESAR AVG GERMA, laureate head of Nero facing right.

Rev: DIVOS CLAVD AV(GVST GERMAN)IC PATER AVG, laureate head of Claudius facing right.

Silver Didrachm, Caesarea, Cappadocia mint, 64 AD

7.6 grams, 21 mm, 0°

RIC I 619 (var.), RSC Nero & Claudius 1a, S2055
1 commentsSPQR Coins
Nezak Huns, AE Drachm, 600-700 AD, Kabul mint57 viewsHUNNIC TRIBES, Nezak Huns. Anonymous Group I (Npki Mlka).
Circa 600-700 AD.
Æ Drachm. (27mm, 3.39 g, 4h)
Kabul mint.
'NPKY MLK' in Pahlavi, bust right with winged bull's head crown; 'A' in Pahlavi behind
Fire altar with attendants; wheel symbols in fields above, control marks in outer fields
Göbl, Dokumente Em. 198/34; cf. MACW 1510
2 commentsArdatirion
BYZANTINE, Theodore I 1208-1222 Nicaea57 viewsObv: Virgin Enthroned
Rev: Emperor and St. Theodore with Patriarchal Cross Between Them
Sear 2061
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 10. Commodus, HrHJ (2013) (plate coin)57 viewsCommodus, AD 177-192
AE 26, 12.68g, 26.29mm, 100°
struck under governor Caecilius Servilianus
head, laureate, r.
River-god, bearded, leaning l., holding rudder(?) in outstretched r. hand, resting
with l. arm on urn from whitch water flows l.
ref. a) AMNG I/1, 1235, pl. XVII, 31
b) Varbanov (engl.) 2160
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2013) No. (plate coin)
d) not in RPC online
rare, about VF

The object in the r. hand of the river-god appears as a thin stick but should be a rudder; anyway it is no reed as Santini has suggested (Pick).
The big bronzes from Commodus are from bad style. They all seem to come from the same die-cutter, perhaps his first ones (Pick).
2 commentsJochen
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 10. Commodus, HrHJ (2013) (plate coin)57 viewsCommodus AD 177-192
AE 26, 11.61g, 26.03, 90°
struck under hegemon Caecilius Servilianus
laureate head, r.
River-god, bearded, leaning l., holding reed in outstretched r. hand, resting
with l. arm on urn from whitch water flows l.
ref. a) AMNG I/1, 1235 var. (has rudder)
b) Varbanov (engl.) 2160 var.
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2013) No. (plate coin)
d) RPC IV online temp. no. 4338

Pick called the object in the r. hand of the river-god a rudder. But here it is clearly a waterplant. I think this type has 2 subtypes:
subtype a with the urn within or above the groundline and a typical waterplant, and
subtype b with the urn under the groundline and a waterplant looking more like a rudder
Here it is obviously subtype a. But look at my other coins of this type!
2 commentsJochen
114 Numerianus (283-284 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 416, Rome, -/-//KAΔ, PIETAS AVG G, Mercury standing left,57 views114 Numerianus (283-284 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 416, Rome, -/-//KAΔ, PIETAS AVG G, Mercury standing left,
avers:- IMP-NVMERIANVS-AVG, Radiate, draped, cuirassed bust right.
revers:- PIETA-S-AVG-G, Mercury standing left, holding purse and caduceus.
exerg: -/-//KAΔ, diameter: mm, weight: g, axes: h,
mint: Rome, 7th officinae, date: 283-284 A.D., ref: RIC V-II 416, p-196,
CHINA - PRE-QING - NURHACHI57 viewsCHINA - PRE-QING - NURHACHI (1616-1626) Abkai Fulinga. AE CAsh. Tian Ming Han Qian. Hartill #22.1.1 commentsdpaul7
Kysikos, Mysia, obol57 viewsKysikos, Mysia, AR obol, (0.70g) 480-450 BC, Forepart of running
boar left, tunny fish behind upward / Head of roaring lion
left within incuse square
3 commentsOptimus
Octavian AR denarius, 31-30 BC, Rome57 viewsOctavian
AR denarius – 19mm
Italian (Rome?) mint, 31-30 BC
bare head r.
Mercury (or Apollo?),naked, seated right on rock upon which is spread his cloak, petasus (or shield?) slung on his back, holding lyre with both hands
RIC 257, CRI 401, BMCRR 4335
1 commentsArdatirion
Ottoman AR aqche Murad-I 3rd-decade57 viewsOttoman AR aqche Murad-I 3rd-decade
date: ?? AH (3rd-decade)
Trajan 98-117 A.D.57 viewsObv:bust r. laur
Rev:nike winged advancing holding wrearth and plam branch
Diadumenian 217-218 A.D.57 viewsObv:bust r. bereheaded wearing paludamentum
and cuirass
R:sarapis to r. wearing ornamented kalathos
L. Papius Celsus, Crawford 472/157 viewsL. Papius Celsus, gens Papia
AR - denarius, 18mm, 3.66g
Rome, 45 BC
obv. Head of Juno Sospita, wearing goat-skin, r.
rev. She-wolf r., with a wood stick in her mouth for throwing it in fire, which is burning r. before her, on its r. side an eagle stg. l., fanning the fire with his wings.
in ex. L.PAPIVS
ref. Crawford 472/1; Sydenham 964; Papia 2
VF, attractive toning

The rev. depicts a scene from the founder myth of Lanuvium. For more information please look at the thread 'Coins of mythological interest'.
*ACC* Parion, Mysia, AR10mm Tetrobol (2.5g). c 480 BC.57 viewsParion, Mysia, AR10mm Tetrobol (2.5g). c 480 BC.
Facing gorgon head, with tongue protruding ./
Incuse square containing cruciform pattern with pellet at center.
Antonio Protti
57 viewsEPEIROS, Ambrakia. Circa 360-338 BC. AR Stater (8.55 gm; 20 mm). Helmeted head of Athena left; grain ear behind / Pegasos flying right; A below. Pegasi 128/2.5 commentspaul1888
Macedonia, Pella, (168-158 B.C.), AE-19, SNG Cop 266, ΠΕΛΛ-ΗΣ, Bull grazing right, #1 57 viewsMacedonia, Pella, (168-158 B.C.), AE-19, SNG Cop 266, ΠΕΛΛE/N/-ΗΣ, Bull grazing right, #1
Avers:- Helmeted head of Athena right,
Revers: - ΠΕΛΛE above and N/ -ΗΣ below, bull grazing right.
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: 19-21mm, weight: 6,16g, axes: 0h,
mint: Macedonia, Pella, date: 168-158 B.C., ref: SNG Cop 266, Moushmov 6453; BMC 76.,
1 commentsquadrans
Pertinax 1.jpg
19 Pertinax57 viewsAR Denarius, 193 AD. IMP CAES P HELV PERTIN AVG, laureate head right/ AEQVIT AVG TR P COS II, Aequitas standing left, holding scales and cornucopiae. RIC 1. Weight 2.79 g. Die Axis 5 hr. Max Dia 17.7 mm.
1 commentsmix_val
Philipp I RIC IV, 6957 viewsPhilipp I Arabs AD 244-249
AR - Antoninian, 5.10g, 22mm
Antiochia AD 247
Radiate, draped, cuirassed bust r.
Pax standing l., holding branch and transverse sceptre
RIC IV/3, 69, C.113
Scarce; about EF

Philip's first important task was the problem of ending the war in the East. Philip was more fortunate in his negotiations than Macrinus had been. Philip made a peace treaty with the Persian king Shapur in which Philip agreed to pay the equivalent of 50 million sesterces, and possibly an annual tribute. The treaty enabled the new emperor to travel westward to Rome.
2 commentsJochen
Macedonia, Philippi, anonymous, RPC 165157 viewsAE 19 (Semis?), 6.72g
struck about AD 41-68
obv. VIC - AVG
Victoria advancing r. on prow, holding palmbranch in l. arm and wreath in
raised r. hand
around three standards
RPC 1651; SNG ANS 674-681; SNG Copenhagen 305-306
EF, brown patina, extraordinary good condition for this type

In 42 BC at the city of Philippi Octavian, the later emperor Augustus, defeated Brutus and Cassius, the assassins of Caesar. Following the battle, Philippi became a Roman colony and discharged veterans receiving land allotments settled permanently in the area. Special privileges were allowed to these Roman colonists, such as exemption from taxes and the right to own and market property, and to struck their own coins.

The Victory on the obv. resembles the famous Nike of Samothrace.
Phillip II, Macedonian Kingdom, 359 -336 B.C.57 viewsBronze 1/4 unit, SNG ANS Macedonia II 979-993 (Symbols off flan on rev.); SNG Alpha Bank-online 449, uncertain mint c. 359 - 294 B.C. (many posthumous issues minted for Phillip II), weight 1.2 g. max. diameter 10.5 mm, Obv. head of Herakles r. wearing lion skin headdress, Rev. (Φ)ΙΛΙΠ above, (Π)OY below, club in between. Bright green patina with some earthen deposits.2 commentsSteve E
Picture 021.jpg
Pontius Pilate57 viewsPrefect: 26-36 AD
Size: AE Prutah
Reverse: LIH in wreath
Date: Year 18 = 31/32 AD
Reference: Hendin 650
1 commentsJohn K
Plautilla, Diana57 viewsPlautilla
Ar Denarius Rome

draped bust right, hair waved & drawn down on neck

Diana standing left, holding torch in both hands.

RIC 366
5 commentsarizonarobin
Sigismund III. Wasa 1587-1632. Dreipölker 1622, Bromberg. Kopicki 861.57 views2 commentsancientone
POLAND - Sigismund III57 viewsPOLAND - Sigismund III (1587-1632) AR Ort (1/4 Thaler), 1622. Obv.: Half-length figure of crowned and armored king facing right, holding ornate orb and sword. Rev.: Crowned arms divide date; legends surround. Reference: Klimek #683. dpaul7
[18H650] Pontius Pilate prefect for Tiberius Prutah, 31 BC57 viewsPONTIUS PILATUS PRUTAH. Hendin 650, aVF, 14.3mm, 1.94 grams. Minted 31 C.E. FULL "LIH" Date, (H partially hidden behind pretty patina can be revealed.)

Jean-Philippe Fontanille

They are not really beautiful, or truly rare, nor are they of very great monetary value. Yet these apparently modest coins carry in their weight an era and an act which would have immense consequence to the history of the world. Indeed, they are closely associated with three basic factors which saw the foundation of Christianity :
1 - The temporal proximity : Most modern experts agree in recognising that the year now designated 30 C.E. marked the trial and the death of Jesus. Given that time-frame, Pilate's coins were minted in 29, 30 and 31 C.E.
2 - The geographic proximity : The most credible hypothesis indicates that these particular coins where struck in Jerusalem, the city in which the significant events took place.
3 - The human proximity : Pontius Pilate himself designed and put the coins into circulation, and of course he was the man who conducted the trial and ordered the crucifixion of Jesus.

So it is that everyone, whether a believer or simply a lover of history or of numismatics, will find in these coins direct evidence of and witness to an episode the memory of which has survived 2000 years : A momentous event which has to a great extent fashioned the world we know.

Throughout this article we will also note the exceptional character of Pilate's coins: Exceptional in the nature of the images they bear, for the numerous variants they offer, for the presence of countermarks, and above all for the part their originator played in history. The putative appearance of these coins imprints on the Turin shroud has yet to be confirmed by more solid scientific proofs.

Pilate's coins are Roman coins, the words on them are Greek, they were circulated in Judea, and today they are to be found distributed among world-wide collectors after having spent 2000 years buried in the earth. They were minted and used during a period which produced an event destined to change the face of the world, and issued at the command of one of the principal actors in that event. An amazing and dramatic destiny for apparently such humble and unassuming little coins !

For 35 years Pilate's coins were passed from hand to hand every day. They knew the scent of spice-stalls, heard the merchants' ranting, smelled the sweat and dust of daily works. They were alive to the sounds of Hebrew, Aramaic, Greek and Latin voices ¬ now haggling over a price, now offering prayers to YHVH, Jesus or Jupiter.

Nobody prays to Jupiter any more [?], but Pilate's coins are surviving witnesses to a time when the first Christians were considered as a messianic sect among several others in the midst of Judaism in crisis. The absolute split between Judaism and Christianity took place from about 70 C.E, the year which marked the tragic ending of the first Jewish rebellion. It was from that time, too, that Pilate's money ceased to be used.

Like each one of us, who carries always a few small coins in the bottom of our pockets; there is no doubt that some of Pilate's coins resonated to the last words of the most famous of all supplicants. A very long story had its beginning...

Although the prefects had their residencies in Cesarea, the administrative capital of the province, it seems that their money was minted in Jerusalem. Indeed, a specimen dated year 31 has been found in this town in an incomplete state of manufacture.

It would seem that Pilate's money was in current use for at least 35 years. Indeed, some of it has been discovered among other coins during the excavation of remains of dwellings destroyed by the Romans during the first Jewish revolt, which is evidence that they were still in use at that time.

These coins circulated far beyond the frontiers of Judea. Some samples have been discovered as far away as Antioch in present-day Turkey, nearly 500 kilometres from Jerusalem where they were minted. Others have also been found in Jordan. These limits represent a circulation area of at least 100.000 square kilometres, that is five times larger than the size of the state of Israel. Taking into account that it was a time when distances were expressed in terms of days of march, one begins to see the important influence of these coins.

A fairly frequent symbol from the Roman religion of the time, the simpulum was a utensil used by the priests during their religious ceremonies. This little ladle, provided with shaft and a handle, allowed the priests to taste the wine which they poured onto the head of an animal destined for sacrifice, after which the soothsayer was empowered to examine the animal's entrails for signs and portents sent to men by the Gods through the medium of the interpreter. As I pointed, none of this would have been obvious at first sight of the motif except perhaps to a Roman citizen. However, it throws some light on the theory put forward by F.A. Banks [Coins of the Bible Days].

This wasn't the first time that the simpulum appeared on Roman coins, but it is the first time it figured alone. This fact gives an additional specificity to Pilate's coins, not only in the context of Judea but also in comparison with all the other coins of the Empire.

The three ears or barley are featured on the opposing face of the simpulum. Unlike the simpulum, these ears of barley are not in contravention of the Jewish Law. The motif is nevertheless distinctive because it is the first time it appears on a Judean coin. The motif would reappear twelve years later on one of Herod Agrippa's coin, then on another, much rarer, of Agrippa II (ears of barley held in a hand). After that, the motif disappeared altogether from ancient Jewish coins.

The lituus was the wooden staff which the augurs held in the right hand; it symbolised their authority and their pastoral vocation. It was raised toward heavens while the priests invoked the Gods and made their predictions. Legend records that Romulus used it at the time of Rome's foundation in 753 B.C.E. It is interesting to note that the cross used in present times is the direct descendant of the lituus. As with the simpulum, Pilate's coinage is exceptional in that it alone displays the lituus as the sole object illustrated on the face.

The laurel wreath is a symbol of power and victory, and figures on various ancient Greek and Roman coins. In Judea it can be found during the reign of John Hyrcanus I (134 to 104 B.C.E.). After that, Herod Antipas, speaker for Pilate, used it on all his coins. On Pilate's coins, the laurel wreath figures on the reverse side of the lituus, framing the date.

The notation of dates uses a code invented by the Greeks whereby each letter of the alphabet was assigned a number. This code would be used again in Judaism under the name of Guematria. The system is simple : the first ten letters of the alphabet are linked to units (1,2,3...), the following ten letters to tens (10,20,30...) and the four remaining letters to the first four hundreds. The "L" is an abbreviation meaning "year". Tiberius became emperor on September 17 of year 14 C.E, so we have :

LIS = Year 29 C.E. * LIZ = Year 30 C.E. * LIH = Year 31 C.E.

The legends on Pontius Pilate's coins are written in Greek. Judea, governed by the Ptolemy dynasty (301 to 198 B.C.E) then by the Syrians until 63 B.C.E, came under the same powerful influence of the Hellenic culture which touched the other territories of the ancient Persian Empire won by Alexander the Great. In spite of a certain amount of resistance, this Hellenistic heritage eventually crept into every aspect of daily life. Apart from the dates, the texts on Pilate's coinage consisted of only three different words : - TIBEPIOY KAICAPOC (Of Tiberius Emperor) on all three coins; - IOYLIA KAICAPOC (Empress Julia) added to the coin of year 29.

Pontius Pilate
After the deposition of the eldest son of Herod, Archelaus (who had succeeded his father as ethnarch), Judea was placed under the rule of a Roman procurator. Pilate, who was the fifth, succeeding Valerius Gratus in A.D. 26, had greater authority than most procurators under the empire, for in addition to the ordinary duty of financial administration, he had supreme power judicially. His unusually long period of office (A.D. 26-36) covers the whole of the active ministry both of St. John the Baptist and of Jesus Christ.
As procurator Pilate was necessarily of equestrian rank, but beyond that we know little of his family or origin. Some have thought that he was only a freedman, deriving his name from pileus (the cap of freed slaves) but for this there seems to be no adequate evidence, and it is unlikely that a freedman would attain to a post of such importance. The Pontii were a Samnite gens. Pilate owed his appointment to the influence of Sejanus. The official residence of the procurators was the palace of Herod at Cæsarea; where there was a military force of about 3,000 soldiers. These soldiers came up to Jerusalem at the time of the feasts, when the city was full of strangers, and there was greater danger of disturbances, hence it was that Pilate had come to Jerusalem at the time of the Crucifixion. His name will be forever covered with infamy because of the part which he took in this matter, though at the time it appeared to him of small importance.
Pilate is a type of the worldly man, knowing the right and anxious to do it so far as it can be done without personal sacrifice of any kind, but yielding easily to pressure from those whose interest it is that he should act otherwise. He would gladly have acquitted Christ, and even made serious efforts in that direction, but gave way at once when his own position was threatened.
The other events of his rule are not of very great importance. Philo (Ad Gaium, 38) speaks of him as inflexible, merciless, and obstinate. The Jews hated him and his administration, for he was not only very severe, but showed little consideration for their susceptibilities. Some standards bearing the image of Tiberius, which had been set up by him in Jerusalem, caused an outbreak which would have ended in a massacre had not Pilate given way. At a later date Tiberius ordered him to remove certain gilt shields, which he had set up in Jerusalem in spite of the remonstrances of the people. The incident mentioned in St. Luke 13:1, of the Galilaeans whose blood Pilate mingled with the sacrifices, is not elsewhere referred to, but is quite in keeping with other authentic events of his rule. He was, therefore, anxious that no further hostile reports should be sent to the emperor concerning him.
The tendency, already discernible in the canonical Gospels, to lay stress on the efforts of Pilate to acquit Christ, and thus pass as lenient a judgment as possible upon his crime, goes further in the apocryphal Gospels and led in later years to the claim that he actually became a Christian. The Abyssinian Church reckons him as a saint, and assigns 25 June to him and to Claudia Procula, his wife. The belief that she became a Christian goes back to the second century, and may be found in Origen (Hom., in Mat., xxxv). The Greek Church assigns her a feast on 27 October. Tertullian and Justin Martyr both speak of a report on the Crucifixion (not extant) sent in by Pilate to Tiberius, from which idea a large amount of apocryphal literature originated. Some of these were Christian in origin (Gospel of Nicodemus), others came from the heathen, but these have all perished.
His rule was brought to an end through trouble which arose in Samaria. An imposter had given out that it was in his power to discover the sacred vessels which, as he alleged, had been hidden by Moses on Mount Gerizim, whither armed Samaritans came in large numbers. Pilate seems to have thought the whole affair was a blind, covering some other more important design, for he hurried forces to attack them, and many were slain. They appealed to Vitellius, who was at that time legate in Syria, saying that nothing political had been intended, and complaining of Pilate's whole administration. He was summoned to Rome to answer their charges, but before he could reach the city the Emperor Tiberius had died.
Catholic Encyclopedia:

As the man who presided over the trial of Jesus, who found no fault with the defendant and washed his hands of the affair by referring it back to the Jewish mob, but who signed the final death warrant, Pontius Pilate represents almost a byword for ambivalence.
He appears in a poor light in all four Gospels and in a favourable light in the apocryphal Gospel of Peter where the Jews take all the blame for Jesus' death.
In the later Acts of Pilate, he is both cleared of responsibility for the Crucifixion and is said to have converted to Christianity.
In the drama of the Passion, Pilate is a ditherer who drifts towards pardoning Jesus, then drifts away again. He tries to pass the buck several times, makes the decision to save Jesus, then capitulates.
The former Archbishop of Canterbury, the late Robert Runcie once wrote, "It would have been better for the moral health of Christianity if the blame had stayed with Pilate."
In a poignant moment in the course of the trial, Pontius Pilate responds to an assertion by Jesus by asking "What is truth?"
The truth about Pilate is difficult to ascertain since records are few. Legends say he was a Spaniard or a German, but most likely he was a natural-born Roman citizen from central Italy.
But the fact that he was definitely the Procurator of Judea from 26 to 36 AD helps to establish Jesus as a real person and fixes him in time.
The official residence of the procurators was the palace of Herod at Caesarea, a mainly non-Jewish city where a force of some 3,000 Roman soldiers were based.
These would come to Jerusalem during the time of feasts when there was a greater danger of disturbances. This would explain Pilate's presence in the city during the time of the Crucifixion.
Pilate is recorded by several contemporary historians; his name is inscribed on Roman coins and on a stone dug up in Caesarea in the 1960s with the words, PONTIUS PILATUS PRAEFECTUS PROVINCIAE JUDAEAE.
The governorship of Judea was only a second-rate posting, though having the Jewish religious capital, Jerusalem, on its patch would have increased its importance.
Pilate ruled in conjunction with the Jewish authorities and was under orders from Emperor Tiberius, to respect their culture. He was a soldier rather than a diplomat.
The Jews relied on the Romans to keep their own rebellious factions under control. But they appeared to hate Pilate.
One contemporary Jewish historian Philo, describes him as a violent thug, fond of executions without trial. Another, Josephus, records that, at the start of his term, Pilate provoked the Jews by ordering the imperial standards to be carried into Jerusalem.
But he backed off from an all-out confrontation. On the other hand, later, he helped himself to Jewish revenues to build an aqueduct.
When, according to Josephus, bands of resistance fighters, supported by crowds of ordinary people, sabotaged the project by getting in the way of Pilate's workmen, he sent in his soldiers. Hundreds were massacred.
Anne Wroe, author of a recent book Pilate: the Biography of an Invented Man, says that for some modern scholars, given this propensity for violence when the occasion warranted, the idea of Pilate as a waverer is nonsense.
A Roman governor, they point out, would not have wasted two minutes thinking about a shabby Jewish villain, one among many. Wroe's depiction of Pilate, however, suggests he was something of a pragmatist.
His first duty was to keep the peace in Judea and to keep the revenues flowing back to Rome. "Should I have jeopardised the peace for the sake of some Jew who may have been innocent?", she has Pilate asking. "Should I have defied a furious crowd, maybe butchered them, to save one life?"
Whatever the truth about the real Pontius Pilate, such dilemmas are what he has come to symbolise.
Anne Wroe makes the modern comparisons of Neville Chamberlain in 1938. Bill McSweeney, of the Irish School of Ecumenics suggests that "without the Pilates of Anglo-Irish politics, we might never have had the Good Friday Agreement".
Tony Blair has said of Pilate: "It is possible to view Pilate as the archetypal politician, caught on the horns of a dilemma."
Even if, in reality, the Jesus affair was nothing but a small side-show in the career of Pontius Pilate, it had monumental repercussions for his image.
His inclusion in the Christian creeds, in the words of Robert Runcie, "binds the eternal realms to the stumbling, messy chronology of earthly time and place".

The Ethiopian Church recognized Pilate as a saint in the sixth century, based on the account in the Acts of Pilate

Although historians can pinpoint the exact date of death of many distinguished historical figures, the date of the crucifixion of Jesus Christ remains a matter of scholarly debate. Christ’s birth is most often dated between 7-5 BC (some scholars have suggested, however, His birth was as early as 20 BC). Christ’s Death and Resurrection is dated between 29-36 AD.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 243 var, Rome, VIRTVS-AVGVSTI, Bust-F-var with spear (Not in RIC), Emperor standing left,57 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 243 var, Rome, VIRTVS-AVGVSTI, Bust-F-var with spear (Not in RIC), Emperor standing left,
avers:- IMP-C-M-AVR-PROBVS-AVG, Radiate, cuirassed bust right, holding spear. (F-var with spear, Not in RIC)
revers:- _VIRTVS-AVGVSTI, Emperor standing left, holding sceptre and crowning trophy; to left, captive.
exergo: -/-//R, diameter: 20,5-23mm, weight: 3,45g, axis: 6h,
mint: Rome, 2nd emission of Rome, 277, date: 277 A.D., ref: RIC V-II 243 var (Not in RIC), p-42,
Roman Empire, Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 864 var, Serdica, SOLI INVICTO, Bust-H right (Not in RIC), -/-//KA•Γ•, Sol in spread quadriga,57 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 864 var, Serdica, SOLI INVICTO, Bust-H right (Not in RIC), -/-//KA•Γ•, Sol in spread quadriga,
avers:- IMP-C-M-AVR-PROBVS-P-AVG, Radiate bust right in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle. (H-var right, Not in RIC)
revers:- S-O-LI-IN-VICTO, Sol in spread quadriga holding globe and whip.
exergo: -/-//KA•Γ•, no exergual line, diameter: 22mm, weight: 4,45g, axis: 6h,
mint: Serdica, 3rd emission of Serdica, 277, date: 277 A.D., ref: RIC V-II 864 (Not in RIC), p-112,
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 059, Lugdunum, ABVNDANTIA AVG, Bust-F-var, -/-//IIII, Abundantia standing right, emptying cornucopiae, Rare!!!57 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 059, Lugdunum, ABVNDANTIA AVG, Bust-F-var, -/-//IIII, Abundantia standing right, emptying cornucopiae, Rare!!!
avers:- IMP-C-M-AVR-PROBVS-AVG, Radiate, cuirassed bust right, holding spear across the left shoulder. (F-var),
revers:- ABVNDANTIA-AVG, Abundantia standing right, emptying cornucopiae.
exerg: -/-//IIII, diameter: 22mm, weight: 3,90g, axis: 1h,
mint: Lugdunum, 5th emiss, 277-78., date: 277-278 A.D., ref: RIC V-II 059, p-25, C-, Bastien-249d, Rare!!!
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 220, Rome, VICTORIA GERM, Bust-F, Trophy between two captives, C, #257 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 220, Rome, VICTORIA GERM, Bust-F, Trophy between two captives, C, #2
avers:- IMP-PRO-BVS-P-F-AVG, Radiate, cuirassed bust right. (4,F)
revers:- VICTOR-IA-GERM, Trophy between two captives.
exerg: -/-//R-thunderbolt-A, diameter: 21,5-22,5mm, weight: 3,76g, axes: 5h,
mint: Rome, 6th emission of Rome, 281A.D., date: 281 A.D., ref: RIC V-II 220, p-41, C-773, "C",
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 169, Rome, FIDES MILITVM, Bust-F, Fides standing left, #257 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 169, Rome, FIDES MILITVM, Bust-F, Fides standing left, C, #2
avers:-IMP-PROB-VS-P-F-AVG, Radiate, cuirassed bust right. (4,F)
revers:-FIDE-S-M-ILITVM, Fides standing left, with two ensigns.
exerg: -/-//R thunderbolt E, diameter: 20,5-22,5mm, weight: 3,24g, axes: 0h,
mint: Rome, 6th emision of Rome, date: 281 A.D., ref: RIC V-II 169, p-36, "C",
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 222, Rome, VICTORIA GERM, Bust-F, Trophy between two captives, C, #3,57 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 222, Rome, VICTORIA GERM, Bust-F, Trophy between two captives, C, #3,
avers:- IMP-PRO-BVS-AVG, Radiate, cuirassed bust right. (F)
revers:- VICTOR-IA-GERM, Trophy between two captives.
exerg: -/-//R-wreath-A, diameter: 21,5mm, weight: 3,95g, axis: 11h,
mint: Rome, date: 279 A.D., ref: RIC V-II 222, p-41, C-768, "C",
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 214, Rome, VICTORIA AVG, Bust-G, -/-//R thunderbolt ς, Victory walking left, #1,57 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 214, Rome, VICTORIA AVG, Bust-G, -/-//R thunderbolt ς, Victory walking left, #1,
avers:- IMP-PRO_BVS-AVG, Radiate, helmeted, cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield. (6,G)
revers:- VICTO_RIA_AVG, Victory walking left, holding wreath and trophy.
exergo: -/-//R thunderbolt ς, diameter: 18-21mm, weight: 3,63g, axis: 5h,
mint: Rome, 6th emission of Rome, 281, date: 281 A.D., ref: RIC V-II 214, p-40, C-741,
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 509, Ticinum, MARTI PACIF, Bust-G, I/-//QXXI, Mars walking left, #3, C,57 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 509, Ticinum, MARTI PACIF, Bust-G, I/-//QXXI, Mars walking left, #3, C,
avers:- VIRTVS-PROBI-AVG, Radiate, helmeted, cuirassed bust left., holding spear and shield. (9,G)
revers:- MART-I-PACIF, Mars walking left, holding olive-branch, spear and shield. Mintmark: In left field I. EQV"I"TI
exerg: I/-//QXXI, diameter: 22,5-23,5mm, weight: 4,68g, axis: 11h,
mint: Ticinium, 9th emission, date: 281 A.D., ref: RIC-V-II-509, p-71, C-358, "C",
Lydia, Gordus-Julia, Synkletos / Dionysos, AE1957 views19mm, 4.86g
time of Commodus, 178-192 AD
obv: IEPA CVNKΛHTOC; draped bust of Synkletos (Senate) right
rev: IOVΛIEΩN ΓOPΔHNΩN; Dionysos standing facing, head left, holding thyrsos in left, kantharos in right hand, panther at feet left

SNG von Aulock 2980; SNG Leypold 942 var (without panther)

ex Gert Boersema
1 commentsareich
Republic AE-33,57 viewsRepudlic AE-33,
avers:- Helmeted head right,
revers: - ROMA,
exerg: , diameter: 50mm, weight: 22,57g, axis: 5h,
mint: Rome, date:, ref:,
SPAIN - PHILIP IV57 viewsPhilip IV (1621-1665) Copper 4 Maravedis Resellado. Type 30, 1658. Cayon #5214, Toledo. dpaul7
RI 048a img.jpg
048 - Antoninus Pius denarius - RIC 290a57 viewsObv:– ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P XXII, laureate head facing right
Rev:– TEMPLVM DIV AVG REST / COS III, Octastyle Temple of Divus Augustus, with cult images of Augustus and Livia inside
Mint – Rome
Date Minted – A.D. 158-159
Reference RIC 290a
RI 064fq img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 496a corr.57 viewsObv:– L SEP SEVERVS PER AVG P M IMP XI, Laureate bust right
Rev:– PAR AR AD TR P VI COS II P P, Captives bound and both sitting on discarded armor on the ground, both are sitting on shield; between them, a large trophy
Minted in Laodicea ad Mare, A.D. 198
References:– RIC 496a corr. (Scarce), RSC 360
2 commentsmaridvnvm
RI 066a img.jpg
066 - Caracalla denarius - RIC 130d57 viewsObv:– ANTONINVS PIVS AVG, Laureate bust right, draped
Rev:– INDVLGENTIA AVGG, Dea Caelestis, holding thunderbolt and scepter, riding lion over waters gushing from rock on left. Exe: IN CARTH
Minted in Rome, A.D. 204-205
References:– VM 29, RIC 130D, RCV02 6806, RSC 97
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI 132kp img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 435 var (Ticinum) (QXXT) 57 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG, Radiate, cuirassed bust left in elaborate cuirass decorated with Medusa medallion & holding Vitoriola (Victory on globe, facing left, holding wreath) in right hand, palm up
Rev:– VIRTVS AVG, Soldier standing left, holding Victory and spear and leaning on shield
Minted in Ticinum(QXXT) Emission 2 Officina 4. A.D. 276
Reference:– Cohen unlisted. RIC 435 var. (This bust type not listed in RIC or Cohen)
Die match is illustrated in Bastien's Buste Monetaire... pl. 126 number 11
2 commentsmaridvnvm
VICTORIAE BRIT - Septimius Severus57 viewsAR Denarius, Rome, 210 (2.92gm)
RIC IVi.335, RCV.6385 (S)
O: Laureate head right.
R: Victory seated left on shield (or shields), resting another shield on right knee and holding palm in left.

ex. Wayne Phillips
1 commentsPaul DiMarzio
47557 viewsCarausius 287-93AD
Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Pax standing left with vertical sceptre
Unmarked mint
RIC 475
2 commentsmauseus
157 viewsSeverus Alexander and Julia Mamaea
AE 26 mm
Rome Mint
Ticinum 33657 viewsAntoninianus
Helmeted, radiate, cuirassed bust left with spear and shield
Emperor shaking hands with Concordia
Ticinum, PXXT
RIC 336
2 commentsmauseus
557 viewsObverse
PHILIPPVS monogram
Crowned date (unclear, 1641?)
Cartouche date (unclear)
REX monogram
Cartouche 8
VIII over MD
76 Trier57 viewsLRBC I 76
1 commentsmauseus
Aagatized dinosaur bone57 views
Utah/Colorado area.
1 commentsRandygeki(h2)
Whale Bulla57 viewsFossilized Whale Tympanic Bulla (ear bone)
east coast fossil

Miocene/Pleistocene Epoch

2 commentsRandygeki(h2)
57 viewsROME
Æ Tessera (12mm, 0.70 g)
Crescent and stars type
Radiate head of Sol right
Three stars over crescent
Hristova & Jekov, Nikopolis -; cf. Vauctions 270, lot 363
RPC-2411-Vespasian57 viewsAR Tetradrachm
Alexandria mint, 69-70 AD
RPC 2411 (43 spec.)
Obv: AYTOK KAIΣ ΣEBA OYEΣΠAΣIANOY; Head of Vespasian, laureate, r., date LB before neck
Rev: EIPHNH; Eirene standing l., with corn-ears and caduceus

Alexandria was the first city to proclaim for Vespasian in July 69 and most likely was the first mint to strike coins for him. This coin is dated year 2. Alexandrian years began on 29 August, so it was minted between 29 August 69 and 28 August 70. Vespasian did not initially accept the title ΣEBA (Augustus) on the year one issue, but did so by year 2. The reverse type of Eirene was quite a common reverse and was a very appropriate type for the new emperor to strike during an ongoing civil war. The Alexandrian tetradrachm was worth the same as a denarius.

A really great example of the type in wonderful Alexandrian style.
3 commentsDavid Atherton
HADRIAN (117-138 AD), AR denarius, Roma57 viewsObverse- Hadrian Denarius. IMP CAESAR TRAIAN HADRIANVS AVG, laureate bust right, draped far shoulder.
Reverse- P M TR P COS III, Roma seated left on cuirass, shield behind, holding Victory and scepter.
RIC 77, RSC 1103, 19 mm, 3.5 g.
Ex- Mathew Baca, through a swap on Collectors Universe, November, 2011.
While it's not super high grade or anything, I just really like the look of this coin... a lot. With a nice expressive portrait, full legends on both sides, good centering, and some handsome grey-brown toning that sets off the devices superbly, what's not to like? Got this in a trade with Mat, who's been good to deal with. I've been pleased to take on a few of his castoffs. A pretty decent Trajan denarius also came with that deal, but this was the coin that cinched the swap for me.
3 commentslordmarcovan
57 viewsSabina Augusta Hadriani Avg pp. Diad and draped bust r.Hair coiled and piled on top of head.REV No legend Venus stg.r.viewed partially from behind,holding helmet and spear and resting on column against which rest shield.Weight 3,30gr RIC 4123 commentsspikbjorn
091 Salonina (? - 268 A.D.), AR-Antoninianus, RIC V-I 021var, Rome (Viminacium?), PIETAS AVG, Pietas standing left,57 views091 Salonina (? - 268 A.D.), AR-Antoninianus, RIC V-I 021var, Rome (Viminacium?), PIETAS AVG, Pietas standing left,
avers:- CORN-SALONINA-AVG, Diademed draped bust right on crescent.
revers:- PIETAS AVG, Pietas standing left, holding box of perfumes.
exe:-/-//--, diameter: 21,5 mm, weight: 3,44 g, axis: 11 h,
mint: Rome (Viminacium?), date: 256-57 A.D., ref: RIC-V-I-21var (no "P" in field or exe!!), p-, Göbl-0853b, Viminacium,
091 Salonina (? - 268 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-I 031, Rome, VENVS V(I)CTRIX, Venus standing left,57 views091 Salonina (? - 268 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-I 031, Rome, VENVS V(I)CTRIX, Venus standing left,
avers:- SALONINA-AVG, Diademed draped bust right on crescent.
revers:- VENVS-V(I)CTRIX, Venus standing left, holding apple and vertical sceptre, shield at feet in left. Legend error I missing (VCTRIX).
exe:-/-//--, diameter: 21-22,5 mm, weight: 3,28 g, axis: 0 h,
mint: Rome, date: A.D., ref: RIC-V-I-031, p-, Göbl-232b, C-129a,
Salonina, Göbl 167157 viewsSalonina, killed 268, wife of Gallienus
AR - Antoninianus, 4.39g, 22mm
Antiochia, AD 267
bust, draped and diademed, on crescent, r.
rev. VENV - S AVG
Venus standing frontal, head l., leaning with l. ellbow on shield,
holding transverse spear in l. and helmet in l. hand
in ex. PXV
ref. RIC V/1, 86; C.113; Göbl 1671
good VF

VENUS with these attributes reminds on VENUS VICTRIX
2 commentsJochen
Sear 1853 (with Mardin c/m 17)57 viewsHost coin: Follis of Constantine X Ducas (1059 – 1067 CE), weight 5.3g, diameter 27mm., mint of Constantinople. Faint traces of an undertype on the obverse, apparently a class B anonymous follis (Sear 1823). Mardin type 17 countermark on obverse, the word lillah [ = ‘for Allah’]: Artuqid, ruler uncertain.

Abu Galyon
Calabria, Tarentum 272-240 a.c. Ar stater57 viewsObv/ Naked rider crowning horse prancing right. ΑΓΑΘΑ / ΡΧΟΞ below
Rev/ Taras on dolphin left, holding kantharos in right hand and cornucopiae in left hand; torch to right. TAPAK below.
Vlasto 852-4; SNG ANS 1179; HN It 1028; SGCV 375 var.
18 mm; 6,19 g
Purchased from La Parpaiolle - Marseilles, France
1 commentsTaras
Arcadia, Phigalia. Septimius Severus. BCD Peloponnesos 1644 var. 57 viewsÆ20. Arcadia, Phigalia. Septimius Severus (AD 193–211), laureate head to r., bare bust. Legend mostly illegible. Rev., Dionysus to l., holding cantharus and thyrsus. ΦI - [A?]Λ - EΩN. BCD Peloponnesos 1644 var. (CNG notes: "unpublished in the standard references."). Ex. Collegium Josephinum Bonn, 2-14-2010.

Possibly same obverse die as CNG 81, Lot 2910:
Mark Fox
Bust right, drape, wearing stephane
Reverse: "IVNO"CONSERVATRIX, S and C, left and right, low in field.
Juno veiled draped standing front, head left, holding patera in extended right hand and vertical sceptre in left; to the left, peakcock standing front, body inclined left, head turned to catch drops from patera
BMC 51 (Plate 2), RIC 686
Weight, 20.32g; die axis, 12h
Severus Alexander - sestertius RIC 63557 viewsSeverus Alexander. Sestertius, minted in Rome, 232 A.D.; 18.90 g; obv. IMP ALEXANDER PIVS AVG, laureate, draped & cuirassed bust right; rev. MARS VLTOR S-C, Mars advancing right, holding spear & shield. RIC 635, BMC 843.

Ex F. R. Künker E-Auktion
Bartosz A
062 Alexander Severus ( 221-222 A.D. Caesar, 222-235 A.D. Augustus), RIC IV-II 032, Rome, AR-Denarius, P M TR P II COS P P, Salus seated left,57 views062 Alexander Severus ( 221-222 A.D. Caesar, 222-235 A.D. Augustus), RIC IV-II 032, Rome, AR-Denarius, P M TR P II COS P P, Salus seated left,
avers:-IMP-C-M-AVR-SEV-ALEXAND-AVG, Laureate draped bust right.
revers: P-M-TR-P-II-COS-P-P, Salus seated left, holding patera, feeding serpent rising from altar.
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: 18,5mm, weight: 3,32g, axis: 0h,
mint: Rome, date: 223 A.D., ref: RIC-IV-II-32, p-73, C-239,
1 commentsquadrans
028. Severus Alexander, 222-235. AR Denarius. Victoria.57 viewsAR Denarius. Rome mint. AD 231-235.
Obv. Laureate head right IMP ALEXANDER PIVS AVG
Rev. Victoria standing left, left hand holding palm, right resting on shield, bound captive at feet VICTORIA AVG.

RIC 257, RSC 558a. aEF.

Struck to commemorate the 'victories' over the Persians in the emperors' eastern campaign of 231-233.
2 commentsLordBest
Sex. Pompeius Fostlus – Pompeia-157 viewsROMAN REPUBLIC AR Denarius Sex. Pompeius Fostlus. 137 BC. (18mm, 3.96 g, 6h). Rome mint. Helmeted head of Roma right; capis to left, X (mark of value) below chin / She-wolf standing right, head left, suckling the twins Remus and Romulus; to left, shepherd Faustulus standing right; in background, birds on fig tree. Crawford 235/1a; Sydenham 461; RCV 112; Pompeia 1. From the Dr. Robert A. Kilmarx Collection2 commentsBud Stewart
Silesia under Bohemia. Ferdinand I, AD .jpg
SILESIA - Under Bohemia, Ferdinand I57 viewsSILESIA - Under Bohemia, Ferdinand I (1522-1564). AR Pfennig, Uniface.
Side-by-side coats of arms; date 1533 above; "F" below. Reference: Schulten #4058.
Ionia, Smyrna, Britannicus, RPC 247657 viewsBritannicus, son of Claudius, killed AD 55 by Nero
AE 16, 3.89g
struck AD 50-54 under the magistrates Philistos (stephanophoros) and Eikadios (strategos)
obv. Youthful bust of Britannicus, draped, bare-headed, r.
Below the neck ZMY
Nike, flying r., holding tropaion over l. shoulder
RPC 2476 (Nero as Caesar); BMC 283 (Britannicus); Klose 233, 37 (Britannicus)
very rare, VF (one of the nicest specimens)

It is discussed wether the obv. shows Britannicus or Nero. Britannicus was the son of Claudius with Messalina. Originally his name was Germanicus. After the victory of his father over Britannia he was renamed Britannicus. He was poisoned AD 55 in order of Nero.
2 commentsJochen
SPQR OPTIMO PRINCIPI, Ostia57 viewsConstantine I
312-313 AD.
AE Follis
Obv: IMP C CONSTANTINVS PF AVG, laureate, cuirassed bust right
Rev: SPQR OPTIMO PRINCIPI [The senate and the people of Rome to the best of Princes] Legionary eagle (to the left) between two vexilla, that on left surmounted by a right hand, that on right by a wreath; flag on the eagle.
in ex MOSTP
Ostia RIC 94

This type commemorates Constantine's victory over Maxentius at the battle of Milvian bridge and only out of mints he had just won - Rome and Ostia (then Arles after the transfer).
sweden carl xv.jpg
SWEDEN - KARL XV - 1859-187257 viewsSWEDEN - KARL XV - 1859-1872 -- 1870 1-Ore, AE. KM#705.dpaul7
Septimius Severus denarius57 viewsRIC 264a (3,2 gm, 19 mm).
Mint of Rome, 203 AD.

Taras, Calabria57 views500-430 BC (Period I)
AR Litra (10mm, 0.68g)
O: Scallop shell with nine teeth.
R: Head of Taras left.
Vlasto 1166; Cote 53; McGill II, 145
Very Scarce
From the Lewis Egnew collection. ex Superior Galleries; ex Harlan J. Berk

A wonderful example of late archaic style, these early litrae are all fairly scarce and quite desirable.
The reverse of this type is often referred to as ‘Female head left’, or ‘Head of nymph Satyra left’. George Brauer Jr. confirms this in his book 'Taras; It's History and Coinage' (1986), but cites no source. Satyra was the mother of Taras. The style differs slightly from die to die, but in none of them do I really see a female head. Effeminate perhaps, but Apollo and Dionysus have both taught us that lesson.
So once again I find myself agreeing with Vlasto and I believe this to be the head of Taras, which was also common to some of the larger coins of the period.
Both left and right facing busts are known.

Με βαθύτατη ευγνωμοσύνη αγαπητέ μου αγαπητέ φίλε Σηαννον
3 commentsEnodia
Aeolis, Temnos. Pseudo-autonomous Ae25. Senate/Nemeses57 viewsObv: IERACY NKLHTOC; Bust of youthful Senate r.
Rev: THM NE ITWN; Two Nemeses standing facing each other, drawing fold of drapery from breasts.
200-250 AD.
25mm, 6.5g.
SNG COP 21 266(1)

Temnos was a little town of Aeolia, near the Hermus River, which is shown on its coins. Situated at elevation it commanded the territories of Cyme, Phocaea, and Smyrna. Under Augustus it was already on the decline; under Tiberius it was destroyed by an earthquake; and in the time of Pliny it was no longer inhabited. It was however rebuilt.
Tetricus II AE Antoninianus57 viewsTetricus II (Caesar)
AE Antoninianus, 270-273 AD
Ob: C PIV ESV TETRICVS CAES - Draped radiate bust right
Rv: SPES AVGG - Spes walking left, holding flower and raising robe
Ref: RIC 270, Sear 3190
2 commentsScotvs Capitis
ROMAN EMPIRE, Theodosius II AE4 402-450 Constantinople (CON)57 viewsObv: ...SPFAV...
RIC X 457
BYZANTINE, Thessalonica Manuel 1230-123757 viewsObv: St. Theodore
Rev: Emperor and St. Demetrius with Sword Between Them, Manus Dei Above
Sear 2182
Thessaly, Larissa, Drachm57 viewsSilver Drachm
Obv:– Youth wrestling or restraining bull, both to right, cloak and petasos flying out behind.
Rev:– LAR/ISAI, bridled horse galloping right, all in incuse square
Minted in Thessaly, Larissa from 440-400 B.C.
Reference:– SNG Oxford - (vgl. 3865). SNG Cop. -.
4 commentsmaridvnvm
57 viewsThourioi, Lucania
AR nomos (20mm, 7.85g)
c. 350-330 BC

O: Head of Athena right, wearing crested Attic helmet decorated with Skylla; Φ on neckguard

R: ΘOΥΡIΩN, Bull butting right; ΘE above, two tunny-fish in exergue

SNG ANS 1078, SNG München 1199
1 commentsSalaethus
TIBET -- TANGKA57 viewsTIBET -- TANGKA (1-1/2 Sho) Billon Obv: Dot to left and right of lotus; northeast symbol two fish with dots; south symbol with 3 dots; northwest symbol circle with 4 dots around center dot Edge: Plain Reference: Y# F13.4 Note: Weight varies: 4.10-4.70 grams. Varieties exist including 34-78 dots for outer circles. Prev. Y#13.7.dpaul7
Titus as Caesar RIC-V146057 viewsAR Denarius
Ephesus Mint, 74 AD
RIC V1460 (R2), BMC V477, RSC 39a, RPC 856 (2 spec.)
Obv: IMP T CAESAR COS III; Head of Titus, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: CONCORDIA AVG; Ceres std. l., on ornate high-backed chair, with corn ears and poppy and cornucopiae; in exergue, star

This reverse type (shared with Vespasian), a common issue at Rome and to some degree Ephesus, is rare with the star mint mark. The Eastern denarii are usually done in a fine style and are very distinct from the much more abundant Rome issues. Here we see Titus gazing heavenwards, a trait of this particular series. Another group minted around the same time used annulets as mint marks along with the star. The star alone rates an R2 in RIC.

Perhaps a bit worn with a few stains, but IMHO a handsome example from this very rare series.
David Atherton
Titus as Caesar RIC V87357 viewsAR Denarius
Rome Mint, 76 AD
RIC V873 (R2), BMC p. 36 note, RSC 60
Obv: T CAESAR IMP VESPASIANVS; Head of Titus, laureate, bearded, l.
Rev: COS V across field; Eagle, stg. front on garlanded altar, thunderbolt in claws, wings open, head r.

A very rare (R2) left facing example of the type.

Both obverse and reverse are off-center, but both major designs are intact and it's a better example than the RIC plate coin. This portrait seems to portray an angry looking Titus, a not so usual occurrence!
1 commentsDavid Atherton
Countermarked Troas! :)57 viewsTroas -- AE18. 2nd-1st Century BC. Facing bust of Apollos 3/4 to left, countermarks of mouse and bust of Apollo/Lyre, countermark of horse's head. cf. SNG Cop. 88 (no mouse, head 3/4 to r.). ex: Mabbott Collection Hans Schulman sale, 6/691 commentsfeatherz
Lauer AE Token, rechenpfenning early/middle 1800s.Token57 viewsLauer AE Token, rechenpfenning early/middle 1800s.Token. , IOH:LAUER`RECN`PF-Five stars with a crescent moon above.PLUS ULTRA-Ship with 4 masts , Neurenberg mint, RARE !

JOHAN JACOB LAUER made token and toy money until the 1860s!!!
027 Traianus (98-117 A.D.), RIC II 0128, Rome, AR-Denarius, COS V PP SPQR OPTIMO PRINC, Victory standing left, 57 views027 Traianus (98-117 A.D.), RIC II 0128, Rome, AR-Denarius, COS V PP SPQR OPTIMO PRINC, Victory standing left,
avers:- IMP-TRAIANO-AVG-GER-DAC-P-M-TR-P, Laureate bust right, drapery on far shoulder.
revers:- COS-V-PP-SPQR-OPTIMO-PRINC, Victory standing left holding wreath and palm.
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: 18,5mm, weight:3,06g, axis: 6h,
mint: Rome, date: 103-112 A.D., ref: RIC-II-128-p-, BMCRE-328, RSC-74,
1 commentsquadrans
trajan dup-SPQR.jpg
098-117 AD - TRAJAN AE dupondius - struck 104-110 AD57 viewsobv: IMP CAES NERVAE TRAIANO AVG GER DAC PMTRP COS V PP (radiate head right)
rev: SPQR / OPTIMO / PRINCIPI / S.C. in wreath
ref: RIC II 477, C.584(2frcs)
11.12gms, 26,5mm
MARTEM PROGNATOREM57 viewsTrebonianus Gallus antoninianus
Antiochia mint
Rev.: ...PROGNATOREM (instead of ...PROPVGNATOREM)
cca. 5-6 examples known only
extremely rare
1 commentstibsi67
018 Bela III., King of Hungary, (1172-1196 A.D.), AR-Denarius, U-094, #0157 views018 Bela III., King of Hungary, (1172-1196 A.D.), AR-Denarius, U-094, #01
avers: Patriarchal cross on double arch between two crescents containing star, two dots and two lines, border of dots.
revers: Four crescents containing crosses, line border.
exe:-/-//--, diameter: 12,0 mm, weight: 0,21g, axis: - h,
mint: Esztergom , date: A.D., ref: Unger-094, CHN-1-127, Huszar-116, Kiss-Toth: Sigla- ,
09c Domitian as Caesar57 viewsAR Denarius
Ephesus (?) mint, 76 AD
RIC V1494 (R2), BMC V488 bis, RSC 47 var., RPC 1465 (1 spec.)
Obv: CAESAR AVG F DOMITIANVS; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r. 'o' mint mark below neck
Rev: COS IIII above; Pegasus r.

An unknown eastern mint struck a spate of denarii in 76 which copied many contemporary types from Rome. Both RIC and RPC speculate it possibly could be Ephesus, citing a similar style with a previous Ephesian issue from 74 and the use of an annulet as a mint mark. The issue is extremely rare. This denarius copies the much more common Pegasus type struck at Rome for Domitian. Domitian's connection to this unusual type perhaps can be explained by Pegasus' association with Athena/Minerva, Domitian's patron goddess. These eastern denarii are understandably confused with the issues from Rome, however, they can be distinguished by style and the annulet (if visible) below the bust.

A fine styled, nicely toned denarius.
7 commentsDavid Atherton
Vespasian RIC-98457 viewsAR Denarius
Rome Mint, 77-78 AD
RIC 984 (R2), BMC p.62, 21, RSC 210
Obv: CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG; Head of Vespasian, laureate, r.
Rev: IMP XIII in exergue; Sow l., with three piglets

A rare mule combing an obverse of Vespasian and a reverse of Titus as Caesar. The reverse type was issued simultaneously for both, so one can understand how they could easily have gotten mixed up.

Not in the best condition, but the legends are fairly clear and the strike is reasonably centered.
2 commentsDavid Atherton
30-01 - AELIO (136 - 138 D.C.)57 viewsAR Denario 18 mm 3.3 gr.

Anv: "L AELIVS CAESAR" - Cabeza desnuda viendo a derecha.
Rev: "TR POT COS II" - Pietas (La Piedad) estante a der. ante un altar, levantando su mano der. y sosteniendo su vestido con izq. "PIETAS" en los campos.

Acuñada 137 D.C.
Ceca: Roma
Rareza: S

Referencias: RIC Vol.II #438 Pag.393 - RSC Vol.II #36 Pag. 163 - BMCRE Vol.II #989 - Cohen Vol.II #36 Pag.261 - DVM #4/2 var. Pag.133 - Sear RCTV Vol.II #3971 Pag.199 - St. Vol.I #389 - Hill UCR #840
2 commentsmdelvalle
valerianus57 viewsicos
VALENS-557 viewsObv: D N VALENS P F AVG pearl diademed draped and cuirassed bust right

Rev: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE Victory advancing left holding wreath and palm branch

Exe: CONSPΓ Constantinople mint

Ref: RIC IX 21c 2.5g 18mm Dug in England
Matthew Raica
AR Antoninianus of Valerian I, 253-260 AD.57 viewsValerian I AR Antoninianus. IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS PF AVG, radiate, draped bust right / VICTORIA AVGG, Victory standing left resting on shield and holding palm. 2.7 gr.
RIC 128, Cohen 224. RIC 128Cv
4 commentsAntonivs Protti
Velia, Lucania; AE12; Zeus right/ owl with open wings57 viewsVelia, Lucania, 4th - 2nd century B.C. AE 12mm, 1.69g; Obv: Zeus right. Rev: Owl facing with open wings. SNG ANS 1417. Ex Colin E. Pitchfork, Jason FaillaPodiceps
Velia, Lucania57 views305-290 BC (Period VII, Philistion Group)
AR Didrachm (22mm, 7.33g)
O: Head of Athena left, wearing crested Phrygian helmet decorated with griffin; palmette on neck-guard, Θ (Philistion) behind.
R: Lion standing right with head facing, devouring ram‘s head; grasshopper between Φ-I above, YEΛHTΩN in ex.
William 415; HN Italy 1305; SNG ANS 1361; SNG Ashmolean 1322-4
ex Praefectus Coins

Velia was never conquered by the Lucanians, and in 275 BC signed an alliance with Rome. However over the centuries the mouths of the two rivers between which the city was built silted up the harbor, resulting in a ruined trade. In time the city became surrounded by marshlands, malaria ensued, and its inhabitants moved away.
Velia had managed to withstand centuries of regional hostility, but withered before the forces of nature.
4 commentsEnodia
Vespasian Sestertius57 viewsVespasian Æ Sestertius. Rome, AD 71. IMP CAES VESPASIAN AVG P M TR P P P COS III, laureate head right / IVDEA CAPTA, Palm tree; to left, Vespasian standing right, with spear and parazonium, foot on helmet; to right, Judaea seated right on cuirass; S C in exergue. RIC 168; BMC 545; CBN 499. 25.64g, 34mm, 7h. 1 commentskc
VITELLIUS57 viewsAR denarius. 69 AD. 3.26 grs. Laureate head right. A VITELLIVS GERM IMP AVG TR P / Tripod-lebes, dolphin right above, raven right below. XV VIR SACR FAC.
RIC 109 . RSC 111.
084 Volusian (251-253 A.D.), AR-Antoninianus, RIC IV-III 205, Rome, FELICITAS-PVBL, Felicitas standing left, #157 views084 Volusian (251-253 A.D.), AR-Antoninianus, RIC IV-III 205, Milan, FELICITAS-PVBL, Felicitas standing left, #1
avers:- IMP-C-C-VIB-VOLVSIANVS-AVG, Radiate, draped, cuirassed, right.
revers:- FELICITAS-PVBL, Felicitas standing left, caduceus and cornucopia.
exe: , diameter: 21-22 mm, weight: 3,78 g, axis: 0 h,
mint: Milan, date:251-253 A.D., ref:RIC-IV-III-205, p-,
York 1057 viewsThe remains of the caldarium in the Roman military bath house.mauseus
Achaea. Zacynthus, Island off Elis. Marcus Aurelius AE20. Pan with infant Dionysus57 viewsZacynthus; Achaea; Peleponnessus (District: Zacynthus). Date 161–180. Obverse design laureate head of Marcus Aurelius, r. Obverse inscription ΑΥ ΚΑΙ Μ ΑΥ ΑΝΤΩΝΕΙΝ ΑΥ
Reverse design Pan standing, r., nebris over shoulders, holding bunch of grapes and infant Dionysus
Reverse inscription ΖΑΚΥΝΘΙΩΝ
BMC 93-4

Athens Owl56 viewsAthens Owl Tetradrachm
24 mm 17.14 gm
Head of Athena right
Owl standing right
2 commentsJohn Campbell
56 viewsvercingetorix
Procopius 56 viewsProcopius AE3
20.5 mm 3.692 gm
Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust left;
Procopius holding labarum in right, resting left on shield, object on ground to left, Christogram above right, CONSΓ in ex;
5 commentsKoffy
Caligula AE As56 viewsRIC I 38 Rome, C 27
10.61 g, 28 mm
Struck 37-38 AD
VESTA above, S C across field, Vesta seated left, holding patera and sceptre
Mark Z
AKARNANIA, LEUKAS, 350-300 BC56 viewsStater, 20mm, 8.28g

O. Pegasos left; AN monogram below
R. Head of Athena left, wearing Corinthian helmet, KΛE above, monogram below, monogram and bucranium ornamented with fillets behind

Pegasi 71; BCD Akarnania 86

Ex CNG 262, Lot 76
2 commentsrobertpe
ATTICA, ATHENS, 449-413 BC56 viewsTetradrachm , 22mm, 16.85g

O.Head of Athena right, wearing helmet with necklace
R. AΘE, owl standing right, head facing; olive sprig & crescent behind, ; all within incuse square.

Kroll 8; SNG Copenhagen 31

Ex CNG, 262, Lot 95
2 commentsrobertpe
ROMAN EMPIRE, PLAUTILLA Denarius RIC 26956 viewsRome mint, AD 202
PLAVTILLAE AVGVSTAE, draped bust right, hair coiled in ridges and fastened in bun
CONCORDIA AVGG, Concordia standing left, holding patera and sceptre
3,43 gr, 20 mm
RIC # 269, RCV # --, Cohen # 2
See Künker auction 03/8/2004 # 2406, same obverse die
3 commentsPotator II
Macrinus, Denarius56 viewsDenarius struck in Rome in AD 217
IMP C M OPEL SEV MACRINVS AVG, Laureate bust of Macrinus right
IOVI CONSERVATORI, Jupiter standing holding thunderbolt and sceptre, protecting a small figure of Macrinus
2.76 gr
Ref : Cohen #37, RCV #7337
1 commentsPotator II
Didius Julianus AR Denarius56 viewsRIC IVa 3, RSC 15, BMC 7
2.81 g, 17 mm x 18 mm
IMP CAES M DID IVLIAN AVG, laureate draped & cuirassed right
RECTOR ORBIS, Didius standing left, holding globe & roll
2 commentsMark Z2
Caracalla Orichalcum Sestertius56 viewsRIC 490a var (consular year); Cohen 198 var (same)., C198, BMCRE V 235
24.18 g, 30 mm
P M TR P XV COS III P P, S-C across fields, Mars standing l., holding Victory in r. hand and resting l. hand on shield, spear against l. arm; at feet, l., captive seated
RIC 490a var (consular year); Cohen 198 var (same). (RIC lists only COS IIII for this reverse and obverse.)
2 commentsMark Z2
Caesarea Maritima. Trajan Decius. 249-251 CE.56 viewsCaesarea Maritima. Trajan Decius. 249-251 CE. Æ 25mm
Radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right
Galley sailing left, with three rowers, three ensigns in stern; PORTVS AVGVSTI above. Kadman, Caesarea, 152.
1 commentsMaritima
ROMAN EMPIRE, OTACILIA SEVERA sestertius RIC 202a56 viewsRome mint, AD 248
MARCIA OTACIL SEVERA AVG, Diademed and draped bust of Otacilia right
SAECVLARES AVGG, Cippus, SC in field
22.44 gr
Ref : RIC # 202a, Cohen #68, RCV # 9171
Potator II
China, Southern Song Dynasty, Emperor Guang Zong, AD 1190-119556 viewsChina, Southern Song Dynasty, Emperor Guang Zong, AD 1190-1195, Iron Cash (4.39gm), Quchun Mint, Hubei, year 5.

Song script. O: Shao Xi Yuan Bao. R: Chun and numeral 5. Cf. Jen 1167+. Good VF.
041 Commodus (177-192 A.D.), Moesia, Nicopolis Ad Istrum, HHJ-, AE-17, NEIKOΠOΛI ΠPOC I, 56 views041 Commodus (177-192 A.D.), Moesia, Nicopolis Ad Istrum, HHJ-, AE-17, NEIKOΠOΛI ΠPOC I,
avers:- AVT-Λ-KAI-KOMOΔOC, Laureate head right.
revers:- NEIKOΠOΛI-ΠPOC-I, .
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: 17,5mm, weight: 3,13g, axes: 1h,
mint: Moesia, Nicopolis Ad Istrum, date: 193-211 A.D., ref: HHJ-, p-, PB-, HM-,
Valerian II, antoninianus - 005056 viewsCologne mint, AD 257-258
VALERIANVS CAES, radiate and draped bust of Valerian junior right
IOVI CRESCENTI, Young Jupiter on back of goat Amalthea right
3.66 gr
1 commentsPotator II
ROMAN EMPIRE, Claudius II Gothicus Antoninianus56 viewsRIC Vb 225 Antioch 268 A.D.
3.42 g, 20 mm x 21 mm
IMP C CLAVDIVS PF AVG, radiate head left
VIRTVS AVG, Minerva standing right, holding spear, resting hand on shield
Mark Z
101- Constantine -11.JPG
Constantine The Great -1156 viewsAE3, 322-323 AD, Lyons mint.
Obv: CONSTANTINVS AVG, Laureate head right.
Rev: SARMATIA DEVICTA, Victory advancing right carrying trophy and palm, captive at her feet.
PLG (crescent) in exergue.
18mm, 2.4gm.
RIC 209
5 commentsjdholds
104- Constantine -14.JPG
Constantine -1456 viewsAE3, 323-325 AD, trier mint.
Obv: CONSTANTINVS AVG, Laureate head right.
Rev: SARMATIA DEVICTA, Victory advancing right carrying trophy and palm, captive at her feet.
19.3mm, 3.0gm.
RIC 435
Purchased right here at Forvm Ancient coins!!
267-268 AD., Postumus, Colonia mint, Antoninianus, Zschucke 178.56 viewsPostumus, Colonia mint, 20th emission,
Antoninianus (20-21 mm / 2.83 g), 267-268 AD.,
Obv.: IMP POSTVMVS P F AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev.: SAECVLI FELICITAS , Postumus standing right, holding globe and spear.
Zschucke 178 ; Cunetio 2444 ; RIC 83 ; C 331 .

my ancient coin database
1 commentsArminius
204d. Aquilia Severa56 viewsAquilia Severa

As part of this marriage of gods, Elagabalus married one of the Vestal Virgins, Julia Aquilia Severa (AD 220). In earlier days sexual relations with a Vestal Virgins meant the immediate death penalty for both her and her lover, then this marriage of the emperor only further enraged public opinion. Although the marriage between Elagabalus and Aquilia Severa went ahead, the emperor's religious aspirations for El-Gabal had to be abandoned, for fear of the public's reaction. Instead the god El-Gabal, by now known to the Romans as Elagabalus - the same name used for their emperor, - was 'married' to the less controversial moon goddess Urania.

EGYPT, Alexandria. Potin Tetradrachm (25mm, 14.54 gm). Dated year 5 (221/222 AD). Draped bust right / Eagle standing left, head right, wreath in beak. Köln 2374; Dattari 4188; Milne 2868; Curtis 1016; Emmett 3010. VF, brown patina, rough surfaces. From the Tony Hardy Collection. Ex-CNG
Trajan Denarius - Aequitas (RIC II 118)56 viewsAR Denarius
Rome 103-111 AD

Obv: Laureate bust of Trajan (R) with drapery on far shoulder.

Rev: AEQUITAS standing (L) folding Scales and Cornucopia.


RIC II 118 RSC 85
Kained but Able
Trajan Denarius - Trajan's Column (RIC II 292)56 viewsAR Denarius
Rome 113-117AD

Obv: Laureate draped bust of Trajan (R)

Rev: TRAJAN'S COLUMN surmounted by statue of Trajan and two eagles at base.

An unfortunate but nevertheless interesting example of a tooled silver coin. Tooling visible on both sides but especially in reverse fields, legend and on column.

RIC II 292 RSC 558
1 commentsKained but Able
Basiliscus AE456 viewsRIC X 1014 Constantinople
0.94 g, 10 mm
D N bASIL........AVG Pearl-diademed, draped, cuirassed bust r.
Basiliscus monogram within wreath
KOC in exergue
2 commentsMark Z2
TOM56 viewsMOESIA INFERIOR. Tomis. Civic. Æ 17. 1st century A.D. Obv: Blank; countermark. Rev: Blank. Weight: 2.57 g. CM: TOM in rectangular punch, 8 x 2.5 mm. Howgego 567 (12 pcs). Collection Automan.Automan
56 viewsAntonivs Protti
Moriaseis, Thrace56 views185-168 B.C
Bronze Æ 19
5.89 gm, 19 mm
Obv.: Laureate head of Zeus right
Rev.: Six-rayed star; M-OP-IA-ΣE-Ω-N between rays
Katalog Münzauktion Essen 64 (1992) no. 47;
P.R. Franke, MOPIAΣEΩN - Die erste Münze eines bislang unbekannten thrakisch-makedonischen Stammes, in: V. Spinoi - L. Munteanu, Miscellanea numismatica antiquitatis in honorem septagenarii magistri Virgilii Mihailescu, Bucarest 2008, p. 67-68.

Special thanks to Forvm member Dapsul for his help with this attribution!
3 commentsJaimelai
140-C1 VLLP Siscia, RIC 55.JPG
140-C1 VLLP Siscia, RIC 5556 viewsConstantine The Great, AE3, 319-320 AD
Obv: CONSTAN-TINVS AVG, Cuirassed bust left wearing high crested helmet and holding spear.
Rev: VICTORIAE LAETAE PRINC PERP, Two Victories holding shield inscribed VOT/PR over altar.
BSIS in exergue. Siscia mint
19mm, 3.1 gm.
RIC 55
2 commentsjdholds
ROMAN EMPIRE, Constantine I AD 306-337 Rome (RFP)56 viewsObv: CONSTANTI-NVSMAXAVG
Rev: Two Soldiers, Two Standards,

I really like this portrait. Too bad about the corrosion!
1 commentsLaetvs
PAMPHYLIA, Aspendos56 viewsPAMPHYLIA, Aspendos. Circa 380-325 BC.

Greek ASPENDOS, modern BELKIS, ancient city of Pamphylia, now in southwestern Turkey. It is noted for its Roman ruins. A wide range of coinage from the 5th century BC onward attests to the city's wealth. Aspendus was occupied by Alexander the Great in 333 BC and later passed from Pergamene to Roman rule in 133 BC. According to Cicero, it was plundered of many of its artistic treasures by the provincial governor Verres. The hilltop ruins of the city include a basilica, an agora, and some rock-cut tombs of Phrygian design. A huge theatre, one of the finest in the world, is carved out of the northeast flank of the hill. It was designed by the Roman architect Zeno in honour of the emperor Marcus Aurelius (reigned AD 161-180)

The present-day Belkiz was once situated on the banks of the River Eurymedon, now known as the Kopru Cay. In ancient times it was navigable; in fact, according to Strabo, the Persians anchored their ships there in 468 B.C., before the epic battle against the Delian Confederation.

It is commonly believed that Aspendos was founded by colonists from Argos. One thing is certain: right from the beginning of the 5th century, Aspendos and Side were the only two towns to mint coins. An important river trading port, it was occupied by Alexander the Great in 333 B.C. because it refused to pay tribute to the Macedonian king. It became an ally of Rome after the Battle of Sipylum in 190 B.C. and entered the Roman Empire.

The town is built against two hills: on the "great hill" or Buyuk Tepe stood the acropolis, with the agora, basilica, nymphaeum and bouleuterion or "council chamber". Of all these buildings, which were the very hub of the town, only ruins remain. About one kilometer north of the town, one can still see the remains of the Roman aqueduct that supplied Aspendos with water, transporting it from a distance of over twenty kilometers, and which still maintains its original height.

Aspendos' theatre is the best preserved Roman theatre anywhere in Turkey. It was designed during the 2nd century A.D. by the architect Zeno, son of Theodore and originally from Aspendos. Its two benefactors— the brothers Curtius Crispinus and Curtius Auspicatus —dedicated it to the Imperial family as can be seen from certain engravings on the stones. Discovered in 1871 by Count Landskonski during one of his trips to the region, the theatre is in excellent condition thanks to the top quality of the calcareous stone and to the fact that the Seljuks turned it into a palace, reinforcing the entire north wing with bricks. Its thirty-nine tiers of steps—96 meters long—could seat about twenty thousand spectators. At the top, the elegant gallery and covered arcade sheltered spectators. One is immediately struck by the integrity and architectural distinction of the stage building, consisting of a Irons scacnae which opens with five doors onto the proscenium and scanned by two orders of windows which also project onto the outside wall. There is an amusing anecdote about the construction of this theatre—in which numerous plays are still held, given its formidable acoustics — and the aqueduct just outside the town: in ancient times, the King of Aspendos had a daughter of rare beauty named Semiramis, contended by two architects; the king decided to marry her off to the one who built an important public work in the shortest space of time. The two suitors thus got down to work and completed two public works at the same time: the theatre and the aquaduct. As the sovereign liked both buildings, he thought it right and just to divide his daughter in half. Whereas the designer of the aquaduct accepted the Solomonic division, the other preferred to grant the princess wholly to her rival. In this way, the sovereign understood that the designer of the theatre had not only built a magnificent theatre— which was the pride of the town—, but would also be an excellent husband to his daughter; consequently he granted him her hand in marriage

AR Stater (21mm, 10.76 g). Two wrestlers grappling; DA between / Slinger to right; triskeles in field. Tekin Series D; SNG France 87 (same reverse die). Ex-CNG B9FV15E
1 commentsecoli
3rd Republic of France 1870 - 1940. Copper 5 Centimes 1873 A56 views3rd Republic of France 1870 - 1940. Copper 5 Centimes 1873 A. REPUBLIQUE FRANCAIS, Liberty head left 1873 below / 5 Centimes, mint-mark A, all within wreath, star above.

KM 821.1
mintage: 1,492,000
Republic of Cuba. nickle centavo 1916.56 viewsRepublic of Cuba. nickle centavo 1916. REPUBLICA DE CUBA, National arms within wreath, UN CENTAVO / PATRIA Y LIBERTAD, Roman denomination within circle of star, date below.

KM 9.1
CCO (?),CAГ and Artemis56 viewsSYRIA: SELEUCIS & PIERIA. Laodiceia ad Mare. Domitian. Æ 25. A.D. 84/85 (year 132). Obv: (ΔOMETIANΩKAICAPICEBACTΩГEPMANIKOΩ, BΛP in front of bust) or similar. Laureate head left; 3 countermarks: (1) before face, (2) on neck, (3) on neck, on top of (2). Rev: (IOYΛIEΩNTΩN)-KAI-(ΛAOΔIKEΩN), or similar, uncertain letters in field. Veiled and turreted bust of city-goddess right. Ref: RPC 2027-2030. Axis: 30°. Weight: 8.45 g. CM(1): CCO (?) in shaped punch, 6 x 3 mm. Howgego -. Note: May be a blundered variant form of Howgego 586, which reads "COL". CM(2): CAГ in rectangular punch, 6 x 3.5 mm. Howgego 581 (116 pcs). CM(3): Artemis, bust right, quiver over shoulder, in rectangular punch, 3.5 x 5 mm. Howgego 181 (15 pcs). Collection Automan.Automan
Sear 200556 viewsOrthodoxcoins
Anchor56 viewsTitus and Domitian, 79-81 A.D.
Germe, Lydia
Bronze AE 16
F, 3.038g, 17.3mm, 0*, RPC 930, SNG Cop 135, BMC Lydia -

obv. AYTO KAI CEBAC, Laureate head if Titus right
rev. AYTO KAI CEBAC, Laureate head of Domitian right

Each side countermarked with uncertain object within round punch. One probably an anchor.
randy h2
ROMAN EMPIRE, Domitian, Denarius56 viewsSilver denarius,3.38g, 19-22mm, Jan. - April 85 A.D., Carradice 85.1, RIC 56, BMC 72, RSC 362; Ex CNG
Thrace, Maroneia AE16mm (5.6g).56 viewsThrace, Maroneia AE16mm (5.6g).
Obverse: Head of Dionysos, wreathed in ivy
Reverse: Dionysos standing left holding bunch of grapes and thyrsos.2173

2 commentsAntonivs Protti
BRUTTIUM, Kaulonia. Circa 475-425 BC.56 viewsAR Nomos, Noe, Caulonia Group F, 78 (same dies); HN Italy 2046. BMC 42, aVF, 7.9 g, 19 mm,. Apollo advancing right, holding branch; [small daimon] running right on Apollo's left arm; to right, stag standing right, head reverted / Stag standing right; KAV above in retrograde, leaf to right.

Ex Holyland
2 commentsPhiloromaos
German States. Archbishopric of Mainz. Silver 5-kreuzer, worn date (c.1763).56 viewsGerman States. Archbishopric of Mainz. Silver 5-kreuzer, worn date (c.1763). SR.I.P.G.A.C.PR.EL-EM.IOS.D.G.A.EP.M, crowned arms on base containing value / 240 EINE FEINE MARK, IUS TIRT [1763] F.B., star below.

KM 349
Philip I (244 - 249 A.D.)56 viewsO: IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right, from behind.
R: LIBERALITAS AVGG II, Liberalitas standing left, counting board in right, cornucopia in left.
RIC IV 38b, RSC IV 87 SRCV III 8937

Very Heavy!
5 commentsMat
zoo56 viewsNervousRex
Sicily, Agrigento - Temple of Juno Lacinia56 viewsThis temple was constructed on a mostly artificial spur. It dates to c. 450 BC, measuring 38.15 x 16.90 m: it is in Doric style, peripteros 6 columns wide by 13 long, preceded by a pronaos and opisthodomos. The basement has four steps.

Current remains (including anastylosis from the 18th Century onwards) consist of the front colonnade with parts of the architrave and of the frieze. Only fragments of the other three sides survive, with few elements of the cella. The building was damaged in the fire of 406 BC and restored in Roman times, with the substitution of clay marble roof tiles with ones and the addition of a steep rise in the area where today can be seen the remains of the altar.

Nearby are arcosolia and other sepultures from Byzantine times, belonging to the late 6th century AD renovation of the Temple of Concordia into a Christian church.
Joe Sermarini
Alexander III the Great AR Drachm56 viewsMagnesia mint (319-305 BC).
Price 1980
1 commentsMinos
Alexander III the Great AR Drachm56 viewsLampsakos mint (310-301 BC).
Price 1406
Alexander III the Great AR Drachm56 viewsSardes mint (334-323 BC).
Price 2578
3 commentsMinos
alexander the great, AE1956 views19mm, 6.93g1 commentsareich
Troas, Alexandreia, Elagabal, Bellinger A316 (rev. only)56 viewsElagabal, AD 218-222
AE - AE 24, 8.01g, 24.10mm, 150°
Bust, unbearded, draped and cuirassed, seen from front, laureate, r.; Gorgoneion on breast plate
rev. COL AVG T / [R]O ALEX
Roman she-wolf stg. r., head l., suckling the twins Remus and Romulus
ref. not in Bellinger:
rev. A316, Type 56 (depiction)
A317 var. (legend, has COL AVG - TROAD CEX)
obv. not listed:
about VF

Coins for Elagabal from Alexandreia seem to be rare at all. Bellinger: Coins of Elagabal are difficult to differentiate from those of Caracalla. The Copenhagen Sylloge attributes to him a considerable number of coins, 147-156. We have seen reason to transfer most of these to Caracalla, but there remains a group which must belong to the younger emperor: those with a youthful portrait and the reverse inscription COL ALEX AVG, which cannot be dated before 214.
My coin shows the typical portrait of Elagabal with his sensual lips. It is remarkable that in 3 cases (of 4) the reverse inscription is faulty. ...and CEX of A314 is presumably the garbled abbreviation of ALEX. My coin shows a clear LEX!
German States. Prussia. Wilhelm I 1861 - 1888. .2220 Silver Groschens. 1863-A, 1864-A, 1865-A, 1866-A, 1867-A, 1869-A, 1871-A, 1871-B, 1871-C, 1872-A.56 viewsGerman States. Prussia. Wilhelm I 1861 - 1888. .2220 Silver Groschens. 1863-A, 1864-A, 1865-A, 1866-A, 1867-A, 1869-A, 1871-A, 1871-B, 1871-C, 1872-A. WILHELM KOENIG VON PREUSSEN, head right / 30 EINEN THALER, 1 SILBER GROSCHEN, SCHEIDE MUNZE.

KM 485
ROMAN EMPIRE, Domitian, Denarius56 viewsSilver denarius, 18mm, 3.42g, Rome shortly before 13 September 96 A.D.; IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM P M TR P XV laureate head right
IMP XXII COS XVII CENS P P P, Altar showing two men (soldiers) holding scepters or spears, surmounted by two eagles and two bound captives.
Ex Amphora Coins, same dies as Lanz 38, 1986 lot 646; same obverse die as the ANS specimen of the Maia type.

Very rare, apparently the 9th recorded specimen. Judging from the military decorations, we might guess the tomb of a general or an altar dedicated to soldiers died in battle.
004 Andras-I., (Andreas-I.), King of Hungary, (1047-1060 A.D.), AR-Denarius, U-005, + PANONEIA, #0256 views004 Andras-I., (Andreas-I.), King of Hungary, (1047-1060 A.D.), AR-Denarius, U-005, + PANONEIA, #02
avers:- + REX•ANDREAS in double circle; cross in circle with circle in the centre, (hands of three lines?); border of dots with three lines at each quarter.
revers:- + PANONEIA, Cross in circle with circle in the centre and wedges in the angles; line border.
exe:-/-//--, diameter: 15,5mm, weight: 0,64 g, axis: 5h,
mint: Esztergom , date: A.D., ref: Unger-005, CHN-1-012, Huszar-009,
Kiss-Toth: Sigla- ,
BYZANTINE, Andronicus II and Michael IX 1295-1320 Constantinople56 viewsHyperpyron
Obv: Virgin Orans within City, Four Towers
Rev: Christ Crowning Emperors
Weight: 3.4 grams
Sear 2396
Antiochus I (Soter) * Apollo, 280-261 BC56 views
Antiochus I * Apollo,* 280-261 BC
Æ hemidrachm (?)

Obv: Diademed head of Antiochus right
Rev: Apollo seated on omphalos (Delphi), holding arrow in right hand, leaning on strung bow with his left hand, left-facing.
BASILEOS to the right, [A]NTIOXOY to the left. Monograms to left and right, omitted by strike from the right, effaced by wear from the left.

Weight: ca. 4.0 grams
Die axis: 190 degs.

Patina: Quite lovely 'desert-patina.'

Sear, GCATV * (SG) Number 6866v (This example appears to be bronze, not silver: I have been unable to date to find any reference to an Æ variant of SG #6866).
BMC, 4.9, 10

This coin bears portrait of the middle-aged Antiochus I 'Soter,' from the time of his sole reign (280-261 BC.), following the death of his father, Seleukos I.
The reverse depicts Delphian Apollo holding a single arrow, as opposed to the two arrows as seen on the coins dating from his joint-reign with his father.

* Olympian

Antoninus Pius Temple of Perga56 viewsANTONINUS PIUS, 138 - 161 AD, AE32, Perga, Pamphylia, 24.4g,
OBV: KAI ADRIA ANTWNEINOS, Laureate head right.
REV: ARTEMODOS PERGAIAS, Distyle temple, with fluted Ionic columns, with eagle in pediment,
containing simulacrum of Pergean Artemis; on either side of which, sphinx on pedestal.
Not in BMC, nor von Aulock.
SNG FRANCE 3, 0406(1) / COLL PARIS 317A(1)

Extremely Rare
5 commentsRomanorvm
Mark Antony & Octavian AR Denarius56 viewsWhat can I say? I'm a sucker for iridescent toning.

Mark Antony & Octavian AR Denarius. Ephesus mint, 41 BC. M. Barbatius Pollio, moneyer. M ANT. IMP AVG III VIR. R. PC. M. BARBAT Q P, bare head of Antony right / CAESAR. IMP. PONT. III. VIR. R. P. C., bare head of Octavian right, in slight beard. Cr517/2.

Ex. Kunker 2007
2 commentsTrajan
Antony quinarius56 viewsIII VIR R P C
Diademed and veiled head of Concordia right

Two hands clasped round caduceus

Mint moving with Octavian in Gaul
39 BC


Crawford 529/4b. Sydenham 1195. Sear, Imperators 304

From a very old collection
Museum number 175 on obverse.
Could use some more cleaning but I don't want to loose the number.
2 commentsJay GT4
Mark Antony Sol denarius56 viewsM ANTONIVS M F M N AVGVR IMP TERT around (MP and RT ligatured)
Mark Antony, veiled and wearing the priestly robes of an Augur, standing right, holding lituus in right hand.

Radiate head of Sol right

Summer 38 BC

Crawford 533/2, Sear Imperators 267

Ex-ANE, Ex-Seaby with original ticket

New Photo

Antony's third Imperatorial acclimation resulted from Ventidius' victory at Gindarus. Antony's depiction in priestly robes of an augur emphasizes the importance which he placed on the possession of this religious office. The word AVGVR features prominently on most of Antony's remaining coinage right down to Actium. No doubt this was to stress his adherence to Republican traditions. Sol is symbolic of the East and shows Antony's personal concern for eastern affairs after the distraction caused by his extended stay in Italy starting in the second half of 40 BC and running almost the whole of the following year
6 commentsJay GT4
8. Janus, first king of Italy, and inventor of civilisation56 viewsSestertius minted AD 140, Rome. 24.70g, Ø 32mm, 12h. RIC 644, Cohen 881, Foss 55
Obv.: ANTONINVS - AVG PIVS PP, laurate head right.
Rev.: TR POT COS III round edge SC in field, Janus standing facing, holding sceptre.
ex CNG eAuction 233 lot 335 (June 2010); ex the John Bitner Collection of Secular Games Coinage; ex Astarte XV (27 November 2004), lot 234.

Sestertius issued in preparation of the 900th anniversary of Rome, celebrated on 21 April 147.
Janus was believed to be first king of Italy, serving as both leader and teacher to all within his lands. In honor of his deeds, he was elevated to the status of a deity by the Romans, with Romulus himself, one of the mythical founders of Rome, building and dedicating the Temple of Janus.
2 commentsCharles S
138-161 AD - ANTONINUS PIUS AR denarius - struck 158-159 AD56 viewsobv: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS PP (laureate head right)
rev: TEMPLVM DIV AVG REST COS IIII (octastyle temple [8 columns] in which the statues of Augustus and Livia reside)
ref: RIC III 143D (R), Cohen 809 (8frcs)
3.01 gms, 18mm,

History: The Temple of Divus Augustus was built between the Palatine and Capitoline Hills, behind the Basilica Julia. It is known from Roman coinage that the temple was originally built to an Ionic hexastyle design (see my Caligula sestertius). During the reign of Domitian the Temple of Divus Augustus was destroyed by fire but was rebuilt and rededicated in 89/90 with a shrine to his favourite deity, Minerva. The temple was redesigned as a memorial to four deified emperors, including Vespasian and Titus.
It was restored again in the late 150s by Antoninus Pius, who was perhaps motivated by a desire to be publicly associated with the first emperor. The exact date of the restoration is not known, but the restored temple was an octostyle design with Corinthian capitals and two statues - presumably of Augustus and Livia - in the cella. The pediment displayed a relief featuring Augustus and was topped by a quadriga. Two figures stood on the eaves of the roof, that on the left representing Romulus and the one on the right depicting Aeneas leading his family out of Troy, alluding to Rome's origin-myth. The steps of the temple were flanked by two statues of Victory.
1 commentsberserker
Anubis56 viewsEgyptian Faience
late or ptolemaic period
H: 3 cm
1 commentsfrederic
Tyche, Ram56 viewsSyria, Antiochia ad Orontem
55-56 AD
Ae 15mm; 3.09g

turreted and veiled bust of Tyche left

Ram leaping right, looking back, star and crescent above
ETOY DIP below

SNG Cop 126
1 commentsRobin Ayers
Gorgoneion | Anchor - Apollonia Pontica - AR Drachm, 450-400 BC. * Specimen 256 views
Gorgoneion | Anchor - Apollonia Pontica, Thrace: Specimen 2.

Obv: Gorgoneion facing.
Rev: Inverted anchor with crayfish in left field, monogram A in right field.

Exergue: None.

Mint: Apollonia Pontica
Struck: 450-400 BC.

Size: 15.80 x 13.025 mm.
Weight: 3.27 grams
Die axis: 0°

Condition: Worn and as shown in photographs, but still remarkable and impressive coin.

Sear, 1655(v)
1 commentsTiathena
Thessalonica, RIC IX 062.c, 165 Acadius (384-408 A.D.), AE-4, Γ/-//TES, GLORIA REI PVBLICE, Campgate with two turrets,56 viewsThessalonica, RIC IX 062.c, 165 Acadius (384-408 A.D.), AE-4, Γ/-//TES, GLORIA REI PVBLICE, Campgate with two turrets,
avers:- DN-ARCADIVS-PF-AVG, Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
revers:- GLORIA-REI-PVBLICE, Camp gate with two turrets, closed gate, 6 layer of stone.
exe: Γ/-//TES, diameter: 12 mm, weight: 1.15g, axis: 5h,
mint: Thessalonica, date: 383-388A.D., ref: RIC IX 062.c, p-,
2 commentsquadrans
AS Augusto RIC 439.jpg
01-28 - AUGUSTO (27 A.C. - 14 D.C.) 56 viewsAE AS (Serie de los Triunviros Monetales) 23 mm 7.9 gr.

Anv: "CAESAR AVG[VST PONT MAX TRI]BVNIC POT" - Busto a cabeza desnuda viendo a derecha.
Rev: "[SEX N]ONIVS QVINC[TIL]IAN III VIR A A A F F" - Leyenda alrededor de gran "S C".
"SENATUS CONSULTO" - Era potestad del Senado la promulgación de la acuñación de las emisiones de bronce (cobre) - Ley Julia (19-15 A.C.)

Acuñada 6 A.C.
Ceca: Roma
Rareza: S

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 #439 Pag.76 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1687 Pag.331 - BMCRE #237 (=BMCRR #4667) - Cohen Vol.1 #474 Pag.76 - CBN #725
Roman Empire, Nero, AE As, Rome mint, struck 67 AD56 viewsIMP NERO CAESAR AVG GERMANIC. Laureate head right
S-C. Victoria flying left with shield inscribed S P Q R
RIC 368; Cohen 300
AIOLIS, NEONTEICHOS56 viewsAE 10.3 mm 0.86 g
SEAR 4223 BMC 141 RARE
1 commentslaney
Augustus denarius - Gaius and Lucius 56 viewsEmperor Augustus
Mint Lugdunum
size (mm) 17
Weight (g) 3.83
Die Axis 170
Tariff 1 denarius
Ob. Desc. Laureate head right
Rev. Desc. Gaius and Lucius caesar on l. anbd r. standing front, each togate and resting hand on shield; behind each shield a spear and on l. simpulum r and on r. lituus l.
1 commentsBacchus
002 Augustus (63 B.C.-14 A.D.), RIC I 428, Rome, AE-As, (moneyer P Lurius Agrippa), P LVRIVS AGRIPPA IIIVIR •A•A•A•F•F•, around large S•C, #156 views002 Augustus (63 B.C.-14 A.D.), RIC I 428, Rome, AE-As, (moneyer P Lurius Agrippa), P LVRIVS AGRIPPA IIIVIR •A•A•A•F•F•, around large S•C, #1
revers:- P-LVRIVS-AGRIPPA-IIIVIR•A•A•A•F•F•, around large S•C.
exe: S•C//--, diameter: 27,5mm, weight: 8,42g, axis:5h,
mint: Rome, date: 7 B.C., ref: RIC-I-428, C-446, BMC-244,
ROMAN EMPIRE, Aureolus (267-268 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 372, Mediolanum, CONCORDIA EQVIT, Fortuna standing left,56 views098a Aureolus (267-268 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 372, Mediolanum, CONCORDIA EQVIT, Fortuna standing left,
avers:- (IMP-C-)POSTVMVS-AVG, In the name of Postumus. Radiate draped and cuirassed bust right. Attributed by Alföldi to Aureolus.
revers:- CONCORDIA-EQVIT, Fortuna standing left, foot on prow, holding patera and rudder.
exerg: -/-//S, diameter: 18,5-19,5 mm, weight: 2,20g, axes:11h,
mint: Mediolanum, date: 267-268 A.D., ref: RIC-VII-372-p-, RSC-20a,
Laureate head right

Gaius and Lucius stg. facing, shields and spears between them

Lugdunum 2 BC-4 AD

Sear 1597

Ex-Calgary Coins, ex-Rudnik Numismatics

Cracked and repaired, crystallized but stable.

Gaius and Lucius where the children of Marcus Agrippa and Augustus' daughter Julia.

2 commentsJay GT4
Azes II BI tetradrachm, 30-5 BC56 viewsAzes II
Indo-Scythian Kingdom
BI tetradrachm
35-5 BC
Azes II on horseback r, holding whip and raising r. hand
Zeus standing l, holding Nike and sceptre.
Mitchiner 2406
2 commentsArdatirion
Barbarous, Constantine I 56 viewsVICTORIAE LAETAE PRINC PERP

with what looks like CONSTNNT-NSNNG on obv. and E?SIS in ex
2 commentsRandygeki(h2)
013 Bela II., (Bela-II. the Blind), King of Hungary, (1131-1141 A.D.), AR-Denarius, U-050, #0156 views013 Bela II., (Bela-II. the Blind), King of Hungary, (1131-1141 A.D.), AR-Denarius, U-050, #01
avers:- Three columns, above them two crescents, E-E to the sides.
revers:- Lines and crescents instead of an inscription, cross with four wedges.
exe:-/-//--, diameter: 11 mm, weight: 0,21 g, axis: -h,
mint: Esztergom , date: A.D., ref: Unger-050, CHN-1-056, Huszar-054,
Kiss-Toth: Sigla- ,
013 Bela II., (Bela-II. the Blind), King of Hungary, (1131-1141 A.D.), AR-Denarius, U-050, #0256 views013 Bela II., (Bela-II. the Blind), King of Hungary, (1131-1141 A.D.), AR-Denarius, U-050, #02
avers:- Three columns, above them two crescents, E-E to the sides.
revers:- Lines and crescents instead of an inscription, cross with four wedges.
exe:-/-//--, diameter: 10 mm, weight: 0,25 g, axis: -h,
mint: Esztergom , date: A.D., ref: Unger-050, CHN-1-056, Huszar-054,
Kiss-Toth: Sigla- ,
Belt Ornament AE-Propeller #00256 viewsBelt Ornament AE-Propeller #002
type: Propeller AE with central ridge and 6 circle to decoration
size: 35x23mm,
weight: 4,47g,
date: 4th. century A.D.,
ref: ???,
distribution: ???,
Caracalla AE34 Provincial56 viewsCaracalla --Pisidia, Antioch. Æ 34mm (28.52 gm). IMP CAES M AVR ANTONINVS AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust of Caracalla right / COL CAES ANTIOCH, S R across field, Mên standing facing, head right, holding long sceptre and Nike on globe. Krzyzanowska pl. XXII, XXVII. 06/08/20011 commentsfeatherz
BOUILLON & SEDAN56 viewsBOUILLON & SEDAN -- Henri de la Tour - (1591-1623) -- Copper 2 Liards, 1613. Obv.: Bust right, date below. rev: Crowned arms. Reference: KM #12.1dpaul7
B2. Terina, Bruttium (Italia)56 viewsAe18, 4.1 gm, 16.8 mm, 350-275BC, Sear (GC) 697
Obv: Anepigraphic with female head, left, wearing earring and necklace, hair rolled.
Crab with claws extended, crescent above and legend below.
H2. Athens, Attica56 viewsTetradrachm, 16.8 gm, 20.5 mm, 325-275 BC, Sear (GC) 2547.
Obv: Anepigraphic with head of Athena, right, (wearing crested helmet ornamented with olive leaves and floral scroll).
Rev: Owl standing right, head facing, ΑΘΕ to right; olive twig and crescent moon to left; all within incuse square.
Comment: Careless and mis-shapen flans are common to this period.
1 commentsMassanutten
M5. C Claudius Pulcher, Denarius, 110-109 BC56 viewsObv: Anepigraphic
Helmeted head of Roma
Victory in biga, right.
3.3 gm, 19 mm, Mint: Rome, S 177, RSC 1.
Comment: Gens Claudia. Reverse refers to an ancestor's B.C. 177 victory over the Ligurian and Istrian tribes in southern Gaul.
5h. Seventy-nine Knobbed Base Metal Ring56 views14.3 gm 36 mm Produced circa 400-200 BC.
The text-book definition of why knobs and value are related to neither weight nor dimension when compared to the ring shown just previous. To my mind it must solidify the theory that the relative value of these rings (coins) were dictated by a social class recognized and respected by the Celtic peoples, which I believe (without fact) were the priestly caste. This coin is considered extremely rare.
FRIEDE FRIEDE, Medals of King Frederick II, the Great 1742,56 viewsFRIEDE FRIEDE, Medals of King Frederick II, the Great 1742,
Medals of King Frederick II, the Great 1742 Silver Medal, unsigned, GW Kittel, at the peace of Breslau.
avers:- FRIEDE FRIEDE ! / PUBLIC•IN BRESLAV/ D•27•IUN 11•, The winning interconnected arms of Prussia and Austria / Hungary, about dove with olive branch, in section two lines characters.
revers:- ES KOMT GOTT EN / WIR VNS VERSEHN / VND LAESSET VNS/ VIEL GVTS / GESCHEN•, Beaming triangle over five lines of text. The back inscription of the coin contains the year as a chronogram.
exe:-/-//--, diameter: 32,5mm, weight:9,14g, axes:0h,
material: AR, mint: , artist: unsigned, GW Kittel , date:1742 A.D.,
ref: F. u. S. 4274; Old. 539 a; Pax in Nummis 525 var.,
Greek, Calabria, Tarentum AR nomos (334-330 BC)56 viewso/ Nude warrior, holding shield and two spears, preparing to cast a third, on horse rearing right; ΔAI below.
r/ TAPAΣ, Phalanthos, holding trident and shield decorated with hippocamp, astride dolphin left; ΦI to left, conch shell below.
7,73g. 20x21mm.
Vlasto 594-5.
6 commentsAugustin Caron
Calabria Tarentum AR Drachm56 viewsHead of Athena to right, wearing crested Attic helmet adorned with Skylla preparing to hurl a stone

Owl standing to right on olive branch, head facing; ZOR (magistrate) to right, TAP to left.


Circa 281-276 BC.

Vlasto 1048. McGill 135, Cote 348, Sear 367v.
8 commentsJay GT4
Caligula AE15, Tomis, Thrace.56 viewsΓAIOC KAICAP, laureate head right

TOM - HΓH - TOPI - ΔOY, winged caduceus

AMNG 2579 .

Located in modern day Romania on the coast of the Black Sea Tomis ( Constanţa), was founded by Greek traders around the 6th century BC.
It is the town celebrated by Ovid in his poems after his exile there in 8 AD by Augustus.
The town was later renmaed Constantiana after the half sister of Constantine the Great, Constantia. This is the modern name of the town.
Kos, Islands off Caria56 views337 – 330 B.C.
Bronze Æ 16
2.71 gm, 15-16.5 mm
Obv.: Head of young Herakles right,
wearing lion's skin
Rev.: Crab, KΩI(?)
BMC Caria p.203, 102 var.;
HGC 6, 1336
4 commentsJaimelai
caracalla as-.jpg
rev:PM.TRP.XVIII.COS.IIII.PP / S.C. (Aesculapius standing, facing; small figure of Telesphorus at his side)
ref: RIC554b, C.310
mint: Rome, 10.80g, Scarce
History: Caracalla became quite ill in 214 AD, and in the autumn of this year he visited the shrine of Aesculapius at Pergamun. Telesophorus was a small boy who accompanied Aesculapius, and he became the symbol of success in the practice of medicine.
1 commentsberserker
Caracalla, Carrhae, Tyche, AE1556 viewsAE15, 2.3g
obv: []ANTONINVS PF(?) IMP CAES; laureate head right
rev: LI(?) ANTONINIAN COL []; turreted head of Tyche right
Caracalla RIC 21656 viewsCaracalla Denarius, 210-213
Head, laureate, r.
Liberalitas standing l., holding abacus and cornucopiae
3.42g, 19mm
1 commentsklausklage
Titus Carisius 56 viewsObv: Winged bust of Victory facing right, SC behind head.

Rev: Victory holding a laurel wreath and driving a quadriga right, T CARISI in exergue.

Silver Denarius, Rome mint, 46 BC

3.7 grams, 17.1 x 18.5 mm, 0°

RSC Carisia 3, S450
1 commentsSPQR Coins
SPAIN. Castulo.56 viewsAE unit ( AS ). Early 1st.century BC. 12,90 grs. Male head left. L. QVL. F. before. Q. ISC. F behind / Europa seated sideways on bull running right. She extends both her hands, her mantle floating in the wind like a double halo. M. C. F. below.
SNG BM Spain 1394. Villaronga ,CNH 70
2 commentsbenito
C. Cato 123 BC.56 viewsC. Cato. 123 BC, silver denarius.
Obverse- Helmeted Roma right, X behind.
Reverse- Victory driving biga right, C. Cato, Roma in exergue.
Crawford 274/1.
EAST CELTS, AR-Tetradrachm, Sattelkopfpferd type. Imitation of Philip II of Macedon. 56 viewsEAST CELTS, AR-Tetradrachm, Sattelkopfpferd type. Imitation of Philip II of Macedon.
avers:- Stilyzed Laureate head of Zeus right.
revers:- Stilyzed horseman riding left.
diameter: 22mm, weight: 5,46g, axis: 6h,
mint: EAST CELTS. Sattelkopfpferd type. Imitation of Philip II of Macedon. Tetradrachm., date: B.C., ref: Göbl OTA 300/14, Lanz 649, Castelin 1317 / Pink 304
A121-23 - Constantino I "El Grande" (307 - 337 D.C.)56 viewsAE3 Centenional 19 mm 3.1 gr.

Anv: "CONST-ANTINVS AVG" - Busto con yelmo y cola rizada y con coraza, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "VIRTVS EXERCIT" – Dos prisioneros sentados a lados de un estandarte en el que se inscribe "VOT-XX", el de la izquierda tiene sus manos atadas a la espalda y el de la derecha mira hacia la izquierda. " T°T" en exergo.

Acuñada 319 - 320 D.C.
Ceca: Ticinum (Off.3ra.)
Rareza: R1

Referencias: RIC Vol.VII (Ticinum) #122 Pag.377 - Cohen Vol.VII #693 Pag.311 - DVM # Pag. - Salgado MRBI Vol.III # Pag.
Wu San Kuei - died 1678 - Ming: Rebel Prince56 viewsOb. Chao-wu t'ung-pao
Rev. yi fen
Ref. Schjoch 1347, Mitchiner 3709
Seal writing
Year 1678

Maximian Coded - lamba I - Siscia - RIC 58056 viewsIMP C M A VAL MAXIMIANVS P F AVG (2); CONSERVATOR AVGG; Radiated, cuirassed bust right. (F); Emperor and Herakles standing facing each other, altar between; with XXI gamma dot lamba I dot in ex.cscoppa
Claudius sestercius56 viewsMint:Roma
41/ 42AD
Dimensions 35mm/26.7grms état de conservation:TTB/TB+
“Tiberius Claudius Cæsar Augustus Pontifex Maximus Tribunicia Potestas Imperator
Reverse : SPES AVGVSTA// S.C.
“Spes Augusta”
Réf:C.85 (4f.) - RIC.99 - BMC/RE.192 - BN/R.165 - RCV.1853

moneta romana
56 viewsCLAUDIUS I As - 41/42 AD - Mint of Rome
Bare head left
Rev.: S C across field, Minerva standing right, brandishing spear and holding shield on left arm.
Cohen 84var, RIC 100
g. 13,5 mm. 29,5
2 commentsMaxentius
Claudius, 41 - 54 AD56 viewsObv: TI CLAVD CAESAR AVG PM TRP VI IMP XI, laureate head of Claudius facing right.

Rev: SPQR / P P / OP CS, in three lines within an oak wreath.

Plated Denarius, Illegal mint after Rome, ca. 46 - 47 AD

2.9 grams, 19 mm, 180°

RIC I 41, RSC 87, S1848, VM 10
1 commentsSPQR Coins
Clodius Turrinus Fourré56 viewsObv: Anepigraphic, Head of Apollo facing right;
Rev: Diana Lucifera bearing two torches, standing facing, bow and quiver on her shoulder, P. CLODIVS to right, M.F. to left.
Denarius subaeratus, (3,01 g, 18 mm)

Reproducing RRC 494/23, RSC Claudia 15 of ca. 42 B.C.The original coin would have been struck under the second triumvirate, possibly the year Cassius and Brutus were defeated at Second Philippi.
003. Tiberius (14 AD - 37 AD)56 viewsTiberius.

Hard and secretive by nature and embittered by the neglect with which his step- father allowed him to be treated, he did not arouse personal enthusiasm, and until recently was described by historians as a bloody tyrant. It is only during the last sixty years that he has been more fairly judged, and at present the opinion begins to prevail that he was a genuine Roman, a ruler faithful to his duties, just, wise, and self-contained. The strong opposition which grew up against him was due to his taciturn and domineering disposition, and to the influence of the prefect of the guard, Ælius Sejanus, who alone possessed his confidence.

Lugdunum mint. TI CAESAR DIVI AVG AVGVSTVS, laureate head right / PONTIF MAXIM, Livia, as Pax, seated right, holding olive branch & long scepter RSC 16a. Ex Calgary
coins1 225.jpg
gallienus, ABVNDANTIA AVG56 viewsGallienus, 260-268 A.D., Rome(?).
OBV: GALLIENVS AVG, radiate head right.
REV: ABVNDANTIA AVG, Abundantia standing right emptying cornucopia. B in left field.
201. Septimus Severus; Nikopolis, Lower Moesia56 views"Presumably reflecting Septimius' capture of Ctesiphon in Jan. 198, since we know from IGBulg. II, 659 (Boteva pp. 166-7) that Tertullus was governor when news of that victory and the promotions of Caracalla to Augustus and Geta to Caesar reached Lower Moesia.

Obv. die seems the same as Varbanov 2750 = Bulg. ed. 2163
rev. type apparently unpublished"
2 commentsecoli
Parion, Gorgon/Bull56 viewsParion, 350-300 BC
Silver hemidrachm; 2.32g; 12-13mm

O: Gorgoneion facing
R: Bull standing left, looking back
Crispus, Treveri Altar56 viewsO:IVL CRISPVS NOB CAES
Laureate, cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield
Altar reading, VO/TIS/XX, 3 Stars above
E: STR(pellet)
3.79g, 18-19mm
10 - 06 - Virreynato CARLOS III (1759-1788) 56 viewsPieza columnaria o de "Mundos y Mares"

1 Real de Plata ley 917
21 mm

Anv: CAR·III·D·G·HISP·ET·IND·R (Carlos III por la gracia de Dios rey de las Españas y las Indias) alrededor de un escudo coronado de castillos y leones y escusón de los Borbones, entre R y valor I.
Rev: VTRAQUE VNUM ·PTS monograma POTOSI (ceca) ·1770·JR· (JR = ensayador ) (uno y otro son uno, refiriéndose a la unión de los 2 mundos el conocido y el nuevo, América) alrededor de 2 bolas coronadas que representan al nuevo y viejo mundo entre 2 columnas con las leyendas PLVS VLTRA

Acuñada: 1770
Ensayador: JR - José de Vargas y Flores y Raimundo de Iturriaga
Ceca: Potosí - Hoy ubicada en Bolivia

Referencias: Krause SCWC C#10 Pag.180 - #B-290-4
Commodus RIC III, 25156 viewsCommodus, AD 177-192
AR - denarius, 16.34mm, 2.49g
Rome, AD 192
Bearded head of Commodus, wearing lion-skin headdress
rev. HER - CVL / ROM - AN / AV - GV on both sides of
Hercules' club in oak-wreath
RIC III, 251; C.190; BMC 339
scarce, VF/VF, toned, on a small flan as usual, but nice portrait

This is one of the types showing Commodus as Hercules, sign of his madness.
1 commentsJochen
Con2 2.jpg
Constantine II, RIC VII 67, Heraclea56 viewsObv: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C
Bust: Laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right
Campgate, no door, 3 turrets, star above. 6 layers.
Exe: (dot) SMHA (dot)
Date: 317-329 AD
Denom: Ae3
Rated "R4"
1 commentsBluefish
Con2 34.jpg
Constantine II, RIC VII 220, Siscia56 viewsObv: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C
Bust: Laureate, cuirassed bust right
2 soldiers standing to either side of two standards.
Exe: epsilon SIS
Date: 330-340 AD
Denom: Ae3
Rated "C3"
cons gallus com.JPG
constantius Gallus56 viewsAE 18-19 mm 3.8 grams
OBV :: DN CONSTANTIVS IVN NOB C. Bare headed , draped and cuirassed bust right ..A behind head
REV :: FEL TEMP RE-PARATIO. Emperor spearing fallen horseman.. I in left field
EX :: ( unknown ) but due to the letters A behind bust and I in left field, this coin is attributable to Siscia
RIC VII Siscia 347
Ric Rated C2
from uncleaned lot 10/2006
Const1 65.jpg
Constantine I, RIC VIII 37, Antioch (posthumous)56 viewsObv: DIV CONSTANTINVS PT AVGG
Bust: Veiled bust right
Rev: Emperor in quadriga reaching for the hand of God.
Exe: SMANS, star above
Date: 337-340 AD
Denom: Ae4
Rated "C3"
Siscia, RIC VII 163, 145 Constantinus-II. (316-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-340 A.D. Augustus), AE-3 Follis, -/-//ΔSIS*, CAESARVM NOSTRORVM, VOT/•/V, #2, R1!56 viewsSiscia, RIC VII 163, 145 Constantinus-II. (316-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-340 A.D. Augustus), AE-3 Follis, -/-//ΔSIS*, CAESARVM NOSTRORVM, VOT/•/V, #2, R1!
avers:- CONSTANTINVS-IVN-NOB-C, 7a, B1, Laureate head right.
rever:- CAESARVM-NOSTRORVM, VOT/•/V in wreath.
exergo: -/-//ΔSIS*, diameter: 18,5-19,5mm, weight: 3,73g, axis: 7h,
mint: Siscia, date: 320-321 AD., ref: RIC-VII-163-p444, R1!,
1 commentsquadrans
Constantius II RIC VIII, Alexandria 5856 viewsConstantius II 324 - 361, son of Constantine I
AE - AE 3, 4.68g, 21mm
Alexandria 2. officina, 348 - 350
draped bust, pearl-diademed head l., holding globe with r.
helmeted soldier walking r., head l., holding reversed spear l. and
leading young barbarian out of his hut, tree behind
exergue: ALEB
RIC VIII, Alexandria 58; C.53
VF, sandpatina
added to

This issue celebrates the fact that AD 342 under Constans the Franks were taken over the Rhine and settled in Taxandria (Belgium).
CRISPUS left with shield56 viewsIVL CRISPVS NOB CAES
Laureated bust left spear on right shoulder, shield on left arm
Treveri mint
RIC.VII, 372
142 Crispus (317-326 A.D.), AE-3 Follis, Treveri, RIC VII 372, -/-//•STR•, BEATA TRANQVILLITAS, VO/TIS/XX, #156 views142 Crispus (317-326 A.D.), AE-3 Follis, Treveri, RIC VII 372, -/-//•STR•, BEATA TRANQVILLITAS, VO/TIS/XX, #1
avers:- IVL-CRISPVS-NOB-CAES, Laureated and cuirassed bust left, spear across right shoulder, decorated shield on the left arm. The sash visible on the bust.
revers:- BEATA-TRANQVILLITAS, Globe set on altar inscribed VO/TIS/XX, above, three stars.
exerg: -/-//•STR•, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Treveri, date: 322-323 A.D., ref: RIC-VII-372, p-197,
Domitian RIC-45656 viewsAR Denarius
Rome mint, 86 AD
RIC 456 (R), BMC 98, RSC 210b
Obv: IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM P M TR P VI; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: IMP XIIII COS XII CENS P P P; Minerva stg. r. on capital of rostral column, with spear and shield; to r., owl (M2)

All of Domitian's denarii minted in 86 are rare, so well worth seeking out. This example is from the fifth issue, struck after mid-September.

86 saw a rapid increase in Domitian's imperial salutations, mainly due to troubles on the Danube.

A decent denarius in the formal, mannered style of 85-87.
3 commentsDavid Atherton
Denario COMODO RIC 212.jpg
37-05 - COMODO (177 - 192 D.C.)56 viewsAR Denario 17 mm 2.3 gr.

Anv: "M COM[M ANT P] FEL AVG BRIT P P" - Busto laureado viendo a derecha.
Rev: "P M TR P XV IMP VIII COS VI" - Emperador vistiendo toga, sentado a izquierda en silla curvada (trono), portando una rama de olivo en mano derecha extendida y cetro corto en brazo izquierdo.

Acuñada 190 D.C.
Ceca: Roma

Referencias: RIC Vol.III #212 Pag.389 - Sear RCTV Vol.II #5683 Pag.390 - BMCRE #281 - Cohen Vol.III #555 bis Pag.304 - RSC Vol. II #555 bis Pag.245 - MIR Vol.18 #791
1 commentsmdelvalle
Denario GALBA RIC 167.jpg
15-01 - GALBA (2/04/68 - 15/01/69 D.C.)56 viewsAR Denario 17 mm 3.1 gr.

Anv: "[IMP S]ER - GALBA [AVG]" - Busto a cabeza desnuda viendo a derecha.
Rev: "SPQR / OB / C S" - Leyenda en tres líneas dentro de una corona de hojas de roble.

Acuñada Set./Dic. 68 D.C.
Ceca: Roma
Rareza: R

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 #167 Pag.241 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #2093 var Pag.407 - BMCRE #34 - Cohen Vol.1 #287 var Pag.338 - DVM #28 Pag.93 - CBN #76 - Hunter #5 - RSC Vol. II #287 Pag.22
1 commentsmdelvalle
04-10 - TIBERIO (14 - 37 D.C.)56 viewsAnv: "TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS" (Leyenda de der. a izq.) - Busto laureado viendo a derecha.
Rev: "PONTIF MAXIM" (Leyenda de der. a izq.) - Julia Livia (Madre del Emperador personificando a la Paz) sentada a derecha en una silla con patas sin ornamentos apoyadas en una plataforma (doble-linea), portando un largo cetro en mano derecha y rama de olivo en izquierda.

Este denario es el comúnmente llamado “el Penique del Tributo” de la muy conocida historia relatada en el Evangelio de San Mateo (22,17-21) del Nuevo Testamento.

Acuñada 16 - 37 D.C.
Ceca: Lugdunum - Hoy Lyon Francia
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 #26 Pag.95 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1763 Pag.346 - BMCRE Vol.1 #34 - Cohen Vol.1 #16 Pag.191 - DVM #8 Pag.75 - CBN #16 - RSC Vol. II #16 Pag.1 - Hendin #916 Pag.418
Diadumenian, Nikopolis ad Istrum, Ister, AE2556 viewsAE25, 12 g.

Obv: [K M OΠEΛ A]NTΩNI ΔIAΔOVMENIAN-OC, bare head right
beardless river god Ister sitting left on rock ?, right hand resting on prow, left hand on rock, holding branch

ex AAH
Artemis, (Diana of Ephesus), in her Temple56 viewsTI. CLAVD CAES AVG. Claudius bare head, facing left. / DIAN-EPHE Cult statue of Diana (Artemis) of Ephesus inside a tetra style temple, set on three tiered base; pediment decorated by figures flanking three windows.
RIC I 118; RPC I 2222; BMCRE 229; RSC 30; Sear Millennium 1839. Ephesus ca. 41-42 AD.
(25 mm, 11.14 g, 6h)

The statue of Artemis (Diana) at Ephesus was one of the Seven Wonders of the ancient world. Depicted on this coin, which was minted shortly after Claudius’ accession to the throne, there remains no trace of the statue, or the temple that housed it, other than some recently stacked column remnants to mark the location. Pliny The Elder described the temple as 115 meters in length, 55 meters in width, made almost entirely of marble; consisting of 127 Ionic style columns 18 meters in height. The original temple, which stood on the site from about 550 BC, was destroyed by arson in 356 BC. It was rebuilt around 330 BC in the form depicted on the coin, only to be destroyed by the Goths in 262 AD. Again rebuilt it was destroyed for the final time by Christians in 401 AD. The columns and marble of the temple were used to construct other buildings. Some of the columns found their way into the church of Hagia Sophia in Constantinople (Istanbul).

The site of the temple was rediscovered in 1869 by an expedition sponsored by the British Museum, but little remains to be seen today. A Christian inscription found at Ephesus reads Destroying the delusive image of the demon Artemis, Demeas has erected this symbol of Truth, the God that drives away idols, and the Cross of priests, deathless and victorious sign of Christ. This Christian zeal explains why so little remains of the site despite its repute in the ancient pre-Christian world.

This coin is rare with a few dozen examples known. In contrast to most examples, which show a four tiered temple base, the reverse of this coin shows a three-tiered temple base. The rectangles on the pediment of the temple are frequently identified as tables, or altars. However, it is more likely that these are windows in the pediment to facilitate lighting of the statue in the interior of the temple. The Ionic style of the columns, as described by Pliny, is clearly visible in the reverse image.
1 commentsLloyd T
Diocletian, RIC 13, Heraclea56 viewsObv: IMP C C VAL DIOCLETIANVS P F AVG
Bust: Radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right
Jupiter, standing left and leaning on scepter,
presents Victory on globe to emperor.
Exe: HB (Heraclea)
Date: 292-296 AD
RIC 13
Denom: Antoninianus
Islamic coins, anonymus Umayad dirham (under caliph Hisham 724-743 AD)56 viewsObv: In centre: 'There is no God except Allah. He is alone, He has no partner', in three lines. Around: 'In the name of Allah this Dirham was struck in Wasit in the year twelve and one hundred'.
Rev: In centre: 'He has no equal, God is one God / the eternal and indivisible, who has not begotten and / has not been begotten and never is there / His equal', in four lines. Around: 'Muhammad is the messenger of God. He sent him with guidance and the true religion to reveal it to all religions, even if the polytheists abhor it'.
Minted in Wasit 112 AH or 730 AD.

The obverse centre inscription is the Muslim declaration of faith. The reverse inscriptions is quotations from the koran, sura 112 in centre and sura 9 verse 33 around (if I got the information right).
Domitian Denarius Minerva56 viewsIMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM PM TR PXV
laur. head right


Minerva standing left holding spear left hand on side

95 AD

RIC 193



ex-Arcade Coins
5 commentsJay GT4
ROMAN EMPIRE, Domitian as Caesar RIC 108456 viewsDomitian, denarius.
Rome Mint, 79 AD.
RIC 1084, RSC 384.
19mm, 3.13g.
Obv. CAESAR AVG F DOMITIANVS COS VI, laureate head right.
Rev. PRINCEPS IVVENTVTIS, Salus standing right, leaning on column and feeding serpent with patera in hand.
Domitian (as Caesar), 69 - 81 AD56 viewsObv: CAESAR DIVI F DOMITIANVS COS VII, laureate head of Domitian facing right.

Rev: TRP VIIII IMP XIIII COS VII PP, radiate statue atop a rostral column.

Plated Denarius, Type of Rome mint, c. 80 - 81 AD

3 grams, 19.5 mm, 180°

By looking at this coin accuracy wasn't important to ancient counterfeiters. The obverse is a Domitian as Caesar whereas the reverse is taken from a coin of his brother Titus as Augustus.

A similar hybrid is listed in Roman Silver Coins as Domitian 590b with slightly different inscriptions.
SPQR Coins
CN Domitius Denarius 128bc56 viewsSilver denarius, SRCV I 137, Crawford 261/1, Sydenham 514, RSC I Domitia 14, VF, Rome mint, 128 B.C.; obverse head of Roma right in winged helmet, stalk of grain behind, X (XVI in monogram) below chin; reverse ROMA, Victory in a biga right, man with spear fighting lion below, CN DOM in exergue.2 commentsAdrian S
08 Domitian as Caesar RIC-V108756 viewsAR Denarius
Rome Mint, 79 AD
RIC V1087 (C2), BMC V262, RSC 378
Obv: CAESAR AVG F DOMITIANVS COS VI; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: PRINCEPS IVVENTVTIS; Vesta, std. l., with palladium and sceptre

Vesta is supposed to be holding a palladium in her right hand, but on this example the legend covers up the palladium completely. It is barely visible (if at all) under the legend. Most examples of the type clearly show it in her out-stretched hand. A note for an aureus of the type in the BM (#261) notes - 'palladium hardly visible, sceptre nearly vertical'. There is no illustration of the specimen, so I'm guessing mine is similar.
Domitian RIC II Rome 4956 viewsAR 18 mm 3.1 grams 80 AD
REV ::PRINCEPS IVVENTVTIS, Cretan goat standing left in laurel wreath.
ex :: none
REF :: RIC II Rome 49, RSC 390, BMC 88
Purchased 12/09

Minted while Domitian was Caesar under Titus
3 commentsJohnny
Domitian RIC-14556 viewsAR Denarius
Rome mint, 82-83 AD
RIC 145 (R), BMC 54, RSC 412
Obv: IMP CAES DOMITIANVS AVG P M; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: SALVS AVGVST; Salus std. l., with corn ears and poppy

In 82 AD Domitian banished his a rationibus Tiberius Julius and then proceeded to increase the fineness of both the silver and gold coins to pre-Neronian standards. The portraits also became more refined, prompting C. H. V. Sutherland to remark they possessed an expression of 'critical disdain, of a kind familiar to the medalist of Louis XLV'.

This denarius dates to 82-83 AD when Domitian improved the quality of the precious metal coinage. The reverse depicts Salus holding grain ears and poppies, an attribute H. Mattingly speculated may refer to Domitian's care for Italian agriculture. The coin itself is darkly toned with hints of a rainbow patina.

2 commentsDavid Atherton
Mini 14 - Ruger Ranch Rifle .223 Rem56 viewsSturm Ruger Mini-14 Rifle.
Short Barrel Mini 14 w/ Muzzle Brake & Polymer Stock
Caliber: .223 Rem
In this photo, the bolt is closed, and there is a 30 round magazine in the rifle.
Smith and Wesson - Model 669 56 viewsSmith and Wesson Model 669 Automatic Pistol.

Caliber: 9 mm
Magazine Capacity: 12 rounds in the Magazine.
View of right side.
Magazine in, safety off/hammer cocked back.
Achaia, Achaean League, Argos. 196-146 BC.56 viewsAR Hemidrachm. Laureate head of Zeus left / AX monogram, AKT monogram above, wolf head right below.CGPCGP
056 Elagabalus (218-222 A.D.), RIC IV-II 137, Rome, AR-Antoninianus, SALVS ANTONINI AVG, Salus 1, 56 views056 Elagabalus (218-222 A.D.), RIC IV-II 137, Rome, AR-Antoninianus, SALVS ANTONINI AVG, Salus 1,
avers:- IMP-CAES-ANTONINVS-AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
revers:- SALVS-ANTONINI-AVG, Salus standing right, feeding snake in arms, snake head right.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 21mm, weight: 5,18g, axis: - h,
mint: Rome, date: 219 A.D., ref: RIC-IV-II-137, p-37,
1 commentsquadrans
056 Elagabalus (218-222 A.D.), RIC IV-II 070, Rome, AR-Antoninianus, FIDES EXERCITVS, Fides seated left, Scarce!,56 views056 Elagabalus (218-222 A.D.), RIC IV-II 070, Rome, AR-Antoninianus, FIDES EXERCITVS, Fides seated left, Scarce!,
avers:- IMP-CAES-M-AVR-ANTONINVS-AVG, Radiate, draped bust right.
revers:- FIDE-S-EXER-CITVS, Fides seated left, holding eagle and standard; standard to left.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 22mm, weight:4,31g, axis:- h,
mint: Roma, date: 218 A.D., ref: RIC-IV-II-70, p-33, C-31,
056 Elagabalus (218-222 A.D.), RIC IV-II 138, Rome, AR-Antoninianus, SALVS ANTONINI AVG, Salus 2,56 views056 Elagabalus (218-222 A.D.), RIC IV-II 138, Rome, AR-Antoninianus, SALVS ANTONINI AVG, Salus 2,
avers:- IMP-CAES-M-AVR-ANTONINVS-AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
revers:- SALVS-ANTONINI-AVG, Salus standing right, holding and feeding snake.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 21mm, weight: 4,66g, axis: - h,
mint: Rome, date: 219 A.D., ref: RIC-IV-II-138,
1953. Elizabeth II Coronation Medal.56 viewsObv. Crowned bust right.
Rev. Boat scene.
Ephesos, Ionia, 202BC-133BC56 viewsAE17, die axis 0 degrees
Ephesos mint
SNG Cop 301
4 commentsPaul D3
faustinaI sest.jpg
138-161 AD - FAVSTINA Senior AE sestertius - struck after 141 AD56 viewsbv: DIVA FAVSTINA (diademed & draped bust right)
rev: - / S.C. (Vesta standing left, holding long torch & palladium {Pallas statue})
ref: RIC III 1151(AntPius) (S), C.268 (6fr.)
23.51gms, 30mm,

I think it's a rare piece.
2 commentsberserker
Faustina II (c. 130-176 AD) - AE As - Rome56 viewsRoman empress, wife of the emperor Marcus Aurelius

Obv: FAVSTINA AVGVSTA - Draped bust right
Rev: AVGVS-TI PII FIL / S.C. - Venus standing left, holding Victory and leaning on shield, set on helmet

Minted in Rome (145-146 AD)
References: RIC III Antoninus Pius, 1389a (C)
Weight: 10.29 g
Dimensions: 25 mm
1 commentskrazy
Tapering Bow Brooch, Romano-Gaul Aucissa variety, Fibula #036, 56 viewsTapering Bow Brooch, Romano-Gaul Aucissa variety, Fibula #036,
The flat bow decorated by zigzag (sinusoid).
size: 55x24x22mm,
weight: 9,20g,
date: A.D.,
ref: Bojovic T-I/5var,
Germanic Two-Plate Bow Fibulae / Blechfibeln, with Semi-Circular Head Plate, Germanic fibula, #6, Fibula #038,56 viewsGermanic Two-Plate Bow Fibulae / Blechfibeln, with Semi-Circular Head Plate, Germanic fibula, #6, Fibula #038,
type: Germanic fibula. The basic type is called "bow with two plates" or "plate-bow" or, in German Blechfibeln.
This is the round head with five knobs type. Small blech fibula with five knobs on semi-circular head plate. Very similar to the Krefeld type. Serbia more likely Gepid, Bulgaria Gepid or more likely Ostrogoth.
The reverse shows rust traces from the iron spring.
size: 45x22mm,
weight: 8,44g,
date: c. A.D. 475-525, some into 7th century,
ref: ,
distribution: Gepid; Chernyakhov culture / Goths.
Roman Plate, Silvered Openwork Plate Fibula, Elliptical-Shape Fibula #049,56 viewsRoman Plate, Silvered Openwork Plate Fibula, Elliptical-Shape Fibula #049,
size: 37x25mm,
weight: 9,59g,
date: A.D.,
ref: .,
distribution: ,
Zoomorphic Plate Fibula, Rabbit fibula, Bojovic: Typ-28, Table-XXX/291var., Fibula #15956 viewsZoomorphic Plate Fibula, Rabbit fibula, Bojovic: Typ-28, Table-XXX/291var., Fibula #159
size: 22x18mm,
weight: 3,25g,
date: 100-200, fl. 150-200 A.D.,
ref: Typology: Bojovic: Typ-28, Table-XXX/291var.,
distribution: ???,
111 Florianus (276-282 A.D.), T-4533, RIC V-I 116, Cyzicus, AE-Antoninianus, CONCORDIA MILITVM, -/-//Q, Bust-D1, Victory standing right, Emperor #156 views111 Florianus (276-282 A.D.), T-4533, RIC V-I 116, Cyzicus, AE-Antoninianus, CONCORDIA MILITVM, -/-//Q, Bust-D1, Victory standing right, Emperor #1
avers: IMP-FLORIANVS-AVG, Bust right, radiate, cuirassed and draped with paludamentum (D1).
revers: CONCORDIA-MILITVM, Victory standing right, holding wreath in right hand and palm against left shoulder, facing Emperor in military dress standing left, right hand outstretched and holding long sceptre in left hand., (Victory and Emperor 2).
exerg: -/-//Q, diameter: 21,5-22,5mm, weight: 3,96g, axes: 0h,
mint: Cyzicus, 1st.issue,, date: 276 A.D., ref: RIC-V-I-116, T-(Estiot)-4533,
Austria, Eberhard II. von Regensberg, (1200-1246 A.D.), Duchy of Steiermark, Friesach under Archbishopric of Salzburg, AR-Pfennig, CNA I, Ck 2,56 viewsAustria, Eberhard II. von Regensberg, (1200-1246 A.D.), Duchy of Steiermark, Friesach under Archbishopric of Salzburg, AR-Pfennig, CNA I, Ck 2,
avers:- Facing busts of bishop and duke side by side, above a wall. Above: star between small crosses, 3 balls between busts.
revers:- EBERHARDS EPS, Standing archbishop facing.
diameter: 15,5-16,5mm, weight: 0,80g, axis: 7h,
mint :Rann, mint mark: ,
date: A.D., ref: CNA Ck2. Probszt 23. Rare!
56 viewsElagabalus, 16 May 218 - 11 March 222 A.D.
Silver denarius, BMCRE V 277 - 278, RSC III 27, RIC IV 188, EF, 3.561g, 18.8mm, 0o, Antioch mint, obverse ANTONINVS PIVS FEL AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, from behind; reverse FELICITAS TEMP, galley with sail right, containing eight rowers and pilot holding rudder, acrostolium and standard at stern, sail or standard at prow
4 commentspaul1888
gallienus RIC V-1, Rome 16356 viewsAE17-22mm 3.2 grams
OBV :: GALLIENVS AVG. Radiate head right
REV :: APOLLINI CONS AVG. Centaur walking right , drawing back on bow
EX :: not visible
RIC V-1, Rome 163
Purchased 08/2008

2 commentsJohnny
[1113a] Gallienus, August 253 - 24 March 268 A.D.56 viewsBronze antoninianus, RIC 163, RSC 72, choice EF, Rome mint, 3.716g, 21.6mm, 180o, 268 A.D.; Obverse: GALLIENVS AVG, radiate head right; Reverse: APOLLINI CONS AVG, centaur walking right drawing bow, Z in exergue; struck on a full and round flan, rare this nice. Commemorates vows to Apollo invoking his protection against the revolt of Aureolus. Ex FORVM.

De Imperatoribus Romanis,
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors and their Families

Valerian (A.D. 253-260) and Gallienus (A.D. 253-268)

Richard D. Weigel
Western Kentucky University

P. Licinius Valerianus, or Valerian, was unusual for his time period in that he was an emperor who came from an old Roman senatorial family. He was likely born shortly before 200 A.D., but little is known of his early life. Valerian married Egnatia Mariniana and had two sons, Gallienus and Valerian Junior. Gallienus was born around 218. Valerian makes his first appearance in the sources in 238 A.D. as an ex-consul and princeps senatus negotiating with (more likely than serving on) the embassy sent to Rome by Gordian I's African legions to secure senatorial approval of Gordian's rebellion against and replacement of Maximinus Thrax as emperor. The Scriptores Historiae Augustae probably report accurately that Trajan Decius, on the recommendation of the Senate, offered Valerian the censorship in 251. Although the senatus consultum cited and the specific office are of doubtful authenticity, the high reputation Valerian possessed in the Senate and his association with the government under Decius probably are truthful aspects of the story. In 253 Valerian was apparently commanding in Raetia and Noricum when Trebonianus Gallus sent him to bring legions from Gaul and Germany to Italy for the struggle with the forces of Aemilianus. After Gallus' troops killed him and his son and joined Aemilianus, Valerian's men proclaimed their general emperor and their arrival in Italy caused Aemilianus' soldiers to desert and kill their commander and join Valerian's forces in acclaiming Valerian as emperor.

The Senate presumably was pleased to ratify the position of Valerian, one of their own, as emperor and they also accepted his son and colleague, P. Licinius Egnatius Gallienus, as Augustus, rather than just as Caesar. Valerian apparently realized the necessity of sharing power equally with his son and of dividing their efforts geographically, with Gallienus responsible for the West and Valerian himself concentrating on the East. The biographies of Valerian and Gallienus in the Scriptores Historiae Augustae, attributed to Trebellius Pollio, are not especially helpful in putting together an account of their joint reign. The life of Valerian is fragmentary and that of Gallienus projects an extremely biased negative interpretation of his career.

Gallienus in the early years of the joint reign concentrated, with some success, on protecting Gaul and the Rhine frontier by driving back Germanic tribes and fortifying cities such as Cologne and Trier. In a move which would characterize later diplomacy with Germans, Gallienus concluded an alliance with one of their chieftains, presumably to assist the Romans in protecting the empire from other Germanic tribes. The invasions increased in number around 257-258 as the Franks entered Gaul and Spain, destroying Tarraco (Tarragona), and the Alamanni invaded Italy. Gallienus defeated the Alamanni at Milan, but soon was faced with the revolts in Pannonia and Moesia led first by his general there, Ingenuus, and then by Regalianus, commander in Illyricum. Gallienus put down these rebellions by 260 and secured stability in the region by concluding an alliance with the Marcomannic king, whose daughter Pipa the emperor apparently accepted as his concubine although he was still married to Cornelia Salonina.

In the East, Valerian had succeeded by A.D. 257 in rescuing Antioch in Syria from Persian control, at least temporarily, but was soon faced with a major invasion of the Goths in Asia Minor. The Scriptores Historiae Augustae biography of Aurelian has Valerian appear to speak in the Baths at Byzantium to publicly commend Aurelian for his success in driving back the Goths and reward him with the consulship and even with adoption as imperial successor. However, it is not clear that Valerian even reached Byzantium because he sent Felix to that city while he remained to protect the eastern section of Asia Minor and then returned to Antioch to guard it against renewed Persian attacks. It was at this point, around 259, that Valerian moved to defend Edessa and his troops lost significant numbers to the plague. Valerian tried to negotiate a peace with the Persian king, Sapor, but was captured by treachery and taken into captivity. The ultimate humiliation of a Roman emperor by a foreign leader was enacted through Sapor's use of Valerian as a human stepping-stool to assist the Persian king in mounting his horse and Valerian's body was later skinned to produce a lasting trophy of Roman submission.

Eusebius discusses the policy of Valerian toward the Christians and says that, after initially treating them most positively, Valerian was persuaded by Macrianus to lead another persecution against them. Valerian in fact after his brutal imprisonment and death in Persia would serve as a negative moral exemplum for some Latin Christian writers who gleefully pointed out that those who oppose the true God receive their just desserts.

Eusebius also credits Gallienus with reversing his father's policy and establishing peace with the Church, citing imperial edicts which established freedom of worship and even restored some lost property. Paul Keresztes claims that Gallienus in fact established a peace with Christians that lasted for forty-three years, from A.D. 260 until 303, and gave the community a kind of legal status which they had previously lacked.

Andreas Alföldi details a growing separation between Gallienus and his father which goes well beyond the geographical one which had developed out of military necessity. In addition to the strikingly different policies, just described, which they pursued toward the Christians, Gallienus began to make his military independence clear through changes in coin inscriptions and by 258 he had created his central cavalry unit and stationed it at Milan. This independent force, which was under the command of a man of equestrian rank and soon stood on a level at least equal to that of the Praetorian Guard, would play a significant role in Gallienus' upcoming battles and, of course, was a foretoken of a new trend for military organization in the future. Alföldi cites as evidence of the increasing separation between the joint emperors the statement that Gallienus did not even seek his father's return from captivity, which Lactantius of course interpreted as part of Valerian's divine punishment, but one wonders what indeed Gallienus might have done and his "indifference" may have been instead his attempt to reassert confidence in his armies and not dwell on the depressing and humiliating servitude and ultimate death of Valerian. Another reform which Alföldi discusses as part of Gallienus' independent stand is his exclusion of the senatorial class from major military commands. H.M.D. Parker credits Gallienus with beginning to separate the civil and military functions of Rome's provincial governors, thus making senatorial governors purely civil administrators and starting to replace them even in this reduced role by equestrians. The disappearance in this period of the S.C. stamp of senatorial authority on bronze coins was probably also seen as an attack on the prestige of the order, although the debasement of the silver coinage had by this time practically reached the point where the "silver" coins were themselves essentially bronze and the change may have been more for economic than for political reasons. Gallienus' exclusion of senators from military command further broke down class distinctions because sons of centurions were by this time regularly given equestrian rank and the move further accelerated the alienation of Rome as center of the Empire. In addition, the bitterness of the senatorial class over Gallienus' policy most likely explains the hatred of Latin writers toward this particular emperor.

Although Gallienus' military innovations may have made his forces more effective, he still had to face numerous challenges to his authority.In addition to systemic invasions and revolts, the plague wreaked havoc in Rome and Italy and probably in several provinces as well. It must have seemed that every commander he entrusted to solve a problem later used that authority to create another threat. When Gallienus was involved in putting down the revolt of Ingenuus in Pannonia, he put Postumus in charge of the armies guarding the Rhine and Gaul. There is some doubt about which of Gallienus' sons, Cornelius Valerianus or P. Cornelius Licinius Saloninus, was left in Cologne under the care of the Praetorian Prefect Silvanus and perhaps also Postumus. In any case, when Postumus revolted and proclaimed his independent Gallic Empire, Silvanus and one of the emperor's sons were killed. Gallienus probably restricted Postumus' expansion, but he never gained the personal revenge that, according to one source, drove him to challenge Postumus to single combat. While Gallienus was thus engaged, and after Valerian's capture by the Persians, Macrianus had his soldiers proclaim his sons, Macrianus and Quietus, emperors in Syria, Asia Minor, and Egypt. Gallienus sent Aureolus to defeat Macrianus and one son in the area of Illyria and Thrace; Odenathus of Palmyra defeated the other son and restored stability in Syria and, with Gallienus' approval, followed that up with a victory over the Persians. After Odenathus' assassination ca. 267, his wife Zenobia continued to rule the independent Palmyrene section of the Empire.

In A.D. 262 Gallienus concluded his tenth year in office by celebrating in Rome his Decennalia with a spectacular procession involving senators, equestrians, gladiators, soldiers, representatives of foreign peoples, and many other groups. This festival included feasts, games, entertainment, and spectacle which probably reminded Romans of the millennial Secular Games celebrations of Philip I and likely were intended to secure popular support at home for Gallienus. Over the next five years little is known about specific activities of the emperor and he presumably spent more time in Rome and less along the frontiers.

Gallienus and Salonina as rulers patronized a cultural movement which collectively is known as the Gallienic Renaissance. The imperial patrons are most directly connected with the philosophical aspects of this movement because Porphyry testifies to their friendship for the Neoplatonic philosopher Plotinus. Porphyry goes on to say that Plotinus asked Gallienus to rebuild an abandoned former city of philosophers in Campania, rename it Platonopolis, and govern it as a kind of Platonic Republic, but that the jealousy and spite of others at court scuttled the plan. In addition to Neoplatonic philosophy, according to Gervase Matthew, the Gallienic Renaissance included the "upward glance" and other stylistic changes in imperial sculpture and religious beliefs that were characterized by "an overwhelming sense of the transcendent and immutable." Matthew points out both the return to artistic models of Augustus, Hadrian, and even Severus Alexander and also "a new Romantic tension" which breaks with the past and points toward a new and very different world. The Hellenic character of much of the Gallienic Renaissance is also stressed in the emperor's trip to Athens where he, likely in imitation of Hadrian, became eponymous archon and received initiation into the Eleusinian cult of Demeter.

Late in his reign, Gallienus issued a series of coins in Rome which honored nine deities as Conservator Augusti or protector of the emperor by pairing his portrait with reverses picturing an animal or animals symbolic of each deity. Included in this group of celestial guardians are Apollo, Diana, Hercules, Jupiter, Juno, Liber Pater, Mercury, Neptune, and Sol. For example, Apollo's coin-types portray a centaur, a gryphon, or Pegasus; Hercules is represented by either the lion or the boar. It appears that Gallienus was issuing the "animal series" coins both to secure, through some religious festival, the aid of Rome's protective gods against continuing invasions, revolts, and plague and to entertain the Roman populace with pageantry and circus games, thus to divert their attention away from the same problems and maintain the security of the regime in power.

In A.D. 268, Gallienus saw his third son, Marinianus, become consul, but in the spring another Gothic invasion brought the emperor back to Greece. He defeated the invaders at Naissus in Moesia , but was deterred from pursuing them further by a revolt of the commander of his elite cavalry, Aureolus. He besieged this last rebel emperor in Milan, but a plot involving his Praetorian Prefect and two future emperors, Claudius and Aurelian, all three men Illyrians popular with many of the soldiers, lured Gallienus away from the city on a false pretext and assassinated him.The emperor's brother Valerian and young son Marinianus were also murdered. In spite of the bitter resentment which many of the senators must have felt toward the dead emperor and his reform policies, Claudius II, perhaps only to legitimize his own reign, persuaded the Senate to deify Gallienus.

Copyright (C) 1998, Richard D. Weigel. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis,
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors and their Families Used by permission.

Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus was born in about AD 213. This means that he was about 40 years old when his father Valerian, in AD 253, was hailed emperor by his troops in Raetia. Gallienus was made Caesar immediately by his father. But within a month, when Valerian got to Rome, Gallienus received the rank of Augustus.

Compared to other Roman emperors of the age, Gallienus was an exception, as far as he was not a soldier-emperor. He was rather a thoughtful, intellectual ruler, possessing sophisticated Greek tastes. However, this made him deeply unpopular with the gritty Danubian generals, who very much understood it as their right to choose a leader among their own ranks to rule the empire.

If the Danubian military elite didn't like Gallienus, then he certainly soon proved that he was a capable military leader. Between AD 254 to AD 256 he campaigned along the Danube, securing this troubled frontier against the barbarians. In AD 256 he then moved west to fight the Germans along the Rhine.

Then by autumn AD 260 the message of Valerian's capture by the Persians reached Gallienus. If Gallienus had always been unpopular among the military leaders, then now with his father gone and Roman authority crumbling, rebellion was in the air.

On a night in September, AD 268, at the siege of Mediolanum (Milan), an alarm was suddenly raised in the camp of the emperor. In the brief moment of confusion, Gallienus was struck down in the dark as he emerged from his tent.

During his reign, Gallienus began numerous reforms and military campaigns to defend the empire, as much from usurpers as from barbarians. In doing so, he perhaps saved the empire from oblivion. At the same time he presided over perhaps the last flowering of classical Roman culture, patronizing poets, artists and philosophers.

As a last gesture of disrespect to this, most unfortunate of emperors, the Romans should lay Gallienus to rest not in one of the great mausoleums in Rome, but in a tomb nine miles south of the capital, along the Via Appia.

Ironically, he was deified by the senate at the request of Claudius II Gothicus, one of the men who must be held accountable for the assassination of Gallienus.

Gallienus was the son of Valerian I and was named Caesar at his father's accession to the throne in 253 A.D. Upon his father's capture by the Parthians he assumed the rank of Augustus and began numerous reforms and military campaigns to defend the empire, as much from usurpers as from barbarians. At the same time he presided over perhaps the last flowering of classical Roman culture, patronizing poets, artists and philosophers. Gallienus was assassinated while besieging Milan. Joseph Sermarini, FORVM.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Gallienus AD 26556 viewsRadiate lion with bull's head. Unlisted variant of RIC V-1 sole reign 602. Billion.1 commentsGhengis_Jon
Diana56 viewsAR Denarius, Rome mint, 79 BC
Obv: Diademed and draped bust of Diana right, bow and quiver over shoulder. S.C. before. Border of dots
Rev: Victory in biga right, holding palm branch and reins in left hand, and laurel wreath in right hand. Control-mark A.IIII above exergue. TI.CLAVD.TI.F/ APN in exergue. Border of dots.
Weight: 3.88g
Crawford 383/1 Sear RCV I 310 RSC Claudia 6

Diana, the sister of Apollo, was regarded as the moon-goddess, but she was also the protectress of the young and the goddess of the chase. It is in this latter guise that she is depicted here with her attributes of bow and quiver depicting her as a huntress.
GI 070a img.jpg
Diadumenian AE2756 viewsObv:– K-M OΠΕΛΛΙ ANTWNI DIADOMENIANOC, Draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– V P AGRIPPA NIKOPOLITWN PPO C I C TROΣ, Nike advancing right with palm and wreath
Minted in Nicopolis ad Istrum, Magistrate Agrippa
References:– SNGC unlisted, Moushmov 1312
2 commentsmaridvnvm
Ric-144 Gordian III Fortuna56 viewsIMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG - Radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right
FORTVNA REDVX - Fortuna seated left, holding rudder and cornucopia; wheel under chair.

Rome mint: AD 243 (12th Issue, 2nd Officina)
Ric-144 Cohen-98
242 AD - Gordian III - 238-244 AD - Fortuna - Antioch56 viewsIMPGORDIANVSPIVSFELAVG - Radiate, draped and curraissed bust right
FORTVNAREDVX - Fortuna seated left, holding cornucopia and rudder

Antioch mint, 242-244 AD, Ric 210, Cohen 98
RIC-093 Gordian III - Gordian in Military attire56 viewsIMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG - Radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right
P M TR P V COS II P P - Gordian in military dress, standing right, hoilding globe and transverse scepter
RIC-93, Cohen-253

nicely centered, full flan, Silver slightly porous. Nice style for this type. AD 241-3 (4th issue,)
ATTICA,Athens. AR tetradrachm56 viewsThomson 31b/bmc 445/ 135-134bc
obv: Helmeted head of Athena bust R.
rev: Owl std.r.head facing on amphora. Magistrates name in field
Asklepios std.l. holding serpent. intwined scepter. Z on amphora,delta
I below. all within wreath
4 commentshill132
Attica, Athens AR Tetradrachm56 views(454-415 BC)
Obv.: Head of Athena right in crested Attic helmet decorated with three olive leaves above visor and spiral palmette on bowl, wearing round earring and bead necklace.
Rev.: Owl standing right, head facing, olive sprig and crescent moon behind, AOE before.
2 commentsMinos
Macedonian Kingdom56 viewsSear 6713-20 var; Price 3602; Newell __, Group 2; Müller 671.

AR tetradrachm (17.10 gr., 25 mm.), struck by Alexander III the Great (336-323 B.C.E.) at Babylon ca. 325-323 B.C.E. (his last lifetime issue).

Obv: Head of beardless Herakles facing right, wearing Nemian lion’s skin headdress.

Rev: Zeus seated left (on throne with back, his legs parallel, feet on stool), holding eagle and scepter, M to left, ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ to right, monogram beneath thrown.

Alexander adopted the Attic weight standard for his silver coinage.

Note on Characteristics of Newell Group 2: The coins carry the letter M as the magistrate’s mark together with this monogram or an M with both this monogram and a symbol (33 are known). The legs of Zeus are parallel. The legend is ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ, and then ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ. The dies are not necessarily aligned at 0-degrees (as in Group 1). There are 77 obverse dies. Price (1991) wrote that “this group of issues, with its closely knit interlocking of obverse dies, has every aspect of a large-scale production over a relatively short period of time.” Le Rider (1991) suggested that Groups 1 and 2 were issued in parallel with one-another, essentially in different workshops.

Note on Mint Attribution: Imhoof-Blumer (1895) noted that the M-ΛY on lion tetradrachms issued by Mazaeus as satrap of Alexander at Babylon (331-328 B.C.E.) also appear on Newell’s Group 3 tetradrachms. Newell (1923) concluded that, since his Groups 1-3 tetradrachms form an ensemble, they were all issued in Babylon. Price (1991) questioned but did not depart from this attribution. LeRider (2007) agrees with this attribution, adding that eight of the nine symbols that appear with the Γ on certain lion tetradrachms also appear on Newell’s Groups 1-2 tetradrachms.

Note on Dating: Newell Group 2 is dated to 329-324/3 B.C.E., per Newell (1923); to 329/8-23/2 B.C.E., per Waggoner (in Mørkholm (1979)); to 325-323 B.C.E., per Price (1991); and to 324/3-322/1 B.C.E., per LeRider (2007), with the posthumous issues within the group including ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ in the legend. This coin was Alexander’s last lifetime issue.
2 commentsStkp
Gratian AR Light Miliarense56 viewsGratian AR Light Miliarense. Treveri mint. 376 AD. DN GRATIANVS P F AVG, diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / VIRTVS EXERCITVS, Emperor standing facing, head turned left, holding vexillum in right hand and resting left on shield. RIC 42b.


Ex. Numismatic Fine Arts, Inc., Beverly Hills XXVII (New York 1991), 208
Ex. AUCTIONES SA, Basel Sale 23 (1993), 624.
Ex. Hess-Divo 2007
3 commentsTrajan
JUDEA - ALEXANDER JANNAEUS (Yehonatan)56 viewsHendin #470 - AE Prutah. 103-76 B.C.E. Obverse: Anchor; in Greek: Of King Alexander. Reverse: Star of 8 pellets. No inscription between the pellets. 1 commentsdpaul7
Hendin-504 / 119556 viewsHerod Archelaus - prutah
1.28 grams
1 commentscmcdon0923
Hadrian Denarius Concordia.jpg
Hadrian, AR denarius56 viewsConcordia reverse. Interesting portrait of Hadrian with full bust.Optimus
Hadrian Orichalcum As Roma56 viewsObv.
Laureate head right

Roma seated left on cuirass and shield, holding figure of Victory in hand
BCC m556 viewsRoman Provincial
Hadrian? 117-138 CE
Obv:Imperial bust rt. with radiate crown.
(Radiate crown is rare for Hadrian but not unknown)
Rev:Griffin to right rolling wheel of fate.
AE 12x13mm. approx.1.25g Axis:270
Similar to, but slightly larger than, Hamburger#108
Atiqot vol. 1 (1954) "Minute Coins From Caesarea"
laur. bust right with drapery on shoulder

Roma standing right with spear, parazonium and foot on helmet

Rome 125-128 AD
RSC 353

1 commentsTitus Pullo
Half Shekel of Tyre56 viewsPhoenicia, Tyre
Date: 12/13 AD
Size: AR Half Shekel 7.02g
Obverse: Melqarth
Reverse: Eagle KP
2 commentsJohn K
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