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Search results - "Claudius"
CLAUDIUS-1.jpg
81 viewsCLAUDIUS I - As - 42/54 AD - Mint of Rome
Obv.: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP P P
Bare head left
Rev.: CONSTANTIAE AVGVSTI S C
Constantia, helmeted and in military dress, standing left, holding long spear in left hand.
Cohen 14, Sear RCV 1858
g. 10 mm. 29,9
1 commentsMaxentius
CLAUDIUS-2.jpg
81 viewsCLAUDIUS I As - 41/42 AD - Mint of Rome
Obv.: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR IMP
Bare head left
Rev.: S C across field, Minerva standing right, brandishing spear and holding shield on left arm.
Cohen 84var, RIC 100
g. 13,5 mm. 29,5
2 commentsMaxentius
CLAUDIO2-3.jpg
41 viewsClaudius II - Potin Tetradrachm - Year 2 (269/270)
Ob.: AVT K ΚΛΑVΔΙΟC CEB; Draped & cuirassed bust right
Rev. L B; Eagle right, head right; palm branch left
gs. 10,3 mm. 21,1
Milne 4291
Maxentius
Tacitus- Dikaiosyne.jpg
506 viewsTacitus, 25 September 275 - 12 April 276 A.D.

Obverse:
Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right

AK K Λ TAKITOC CEB

AK: AVTOKRATOR is the equivalent of the Latin Imperator, 'emperor'.
K Λ is an abbreviation for K AV IOC, 'Claudius' transliterated into Greek.
TOK: TAKITOC= Tacitus
CEB: SEBASTOS (greek indication for augustus).

With the pellet between TOC . CEB

Reverse:
ETOVC A (year 1)

Dikaiosyne standing left holding scales in right hand and cornucopia in left. Diakaiosyne is the Greek equivalent of Aequitas ('Equity, Fair Dealing' to quote Sear).

Domination: Billon TETRAdrachm (4 drachms): size 21 mm

Mint: Alexandria, provincial.

Comment:
These Egyptian issues are not in RIC, but the old standard catalogue for these is Milne, where yours is no. 4492, with the pellet between TOC . CEB. They are also listed in the new Sear vol.III (though in not as much detail), where the nearest is 11831, which doesn't have the pellets in the obverse legend (Milne 4489). Other references : Curtis 1832, BMC 2403v ; Geissen 3115.
1 commentsJohn Schou
aajudaeabrit.jpg
31 viewsCaesarea, Paneas. AE23.
Obv : head of Claudius
Rev : His 3 children : Antonia, Britannicus and Octavia

Ref : RPC 4842
Hen-567
This coin type seems questionable to place under the coinage of Agrippa II since the legends do not mention Agrippa and the time of minting does not conform to the other Agrippa II coins. We will notice the absence of Agrippa's name in other issues as well. At the very least, though, it was struck at Caesarea-Paneas, so it is definitely part of the city coinage. It is catalogued in The Numismatic Legacy of the Jews in the city coinage section as #208.
R. Smits, Numismatist for Numismall
f_051.JPG
36 viewsRIC 156,P Claudius Gothicus AE Antoninianus. Milan, AD 268-270. IMP C CLAVDIVS PF AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / PAX AVG, Pax standing left, holding olive branch and transverse sceptre. Officina letter P in ex. Antonivs Protti
artid975_combined.jpg
26 viewsJudaea, Procurators. Antonius Felix. 52-59 CE. in the name of Britannicus Caesar (BPIT).
Æ Prutah (16mm, 2.64 gm.). Jerusalem mint. Dated RY 14 of Claudius (54 CE). Two crossed shields / Palm tree.

Ref : Hendin 1348
Meshorer TJC 340
RPC I 4971
GIC 5626
R. Smits, Numismatist for Numismall
britannicus01.jpg
47 viewsAE sestertius. Struck under Claudius, circa 50-54 AD, uncertain eastern provincial mint located in the modern-day Balkans.
Obv : TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG F BRITANNICVS, draped bust left.
Rev : - No legend, Mars advancing left, holding spear and shield, SC in fields. 35mm, 19.4g. Extremely Rare.

Ref : BMCRE 226
Cohen 2
RCV 1908, valued at $32,000 in Fine, which is a few multiples greater than any other sestertius issued during the several centuries the denomination was in use.
A large number of the surviving examples of this series (one may even suggest a majority of them), due to their rarity, have been subjected to modern alteration techniques such as smoothing, tooling, and repatination. As such, it's actually pleasant to see a bit of field roughness and a 'plain brown' patina of old copper on this example, evidence that it is just as ugly as it was the day it was last used in circulation back in Ancient Rome.
Britannicus, originally known as Germanicus after Claudius' older brother, was the emperor's original intended heir and natural son. Machinations by Agrippina II eventually saw Britannicus supplanted by her own son Nero, (by Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus) who took the throne upon Claudius' suspicious death. Britannicus himself died a few years later, reportedly poisoned by his step-brother. The future emperor Titus and Britannicus were close friends, and Titus became quite ill and nearly died after eating from the same poisoned dish that killed Britannicus.
R. Smits, Numismatist for Numismall
Claudius_Divis.JPG
5 viewsAntonivs Protti
Claudius_I,_Spain.JPG
9 viewsAntonivs Protti
Claudius_I,_Hispania.JPG
13 viewsAntonivs Protti
Claudius,_AE_ant__Eagle.JPG
8 viewsAntonivs Protti
Claudius_Consecratio_alta.JPG
9 viewsAntonivs Protti
Denarius_111-110.jpg
15 viewsDenarius
Appius Claudius Pulcher, T Manlius Mancinus & Q Urbinus
Mint: Rome
111-110 BCE

Obverse: Helmeted head of Roma, right; behind, mark (circle within a triangle); border of dots
Reverse: Victory in triga right, holding reins in both hands, one horse looking back; AP CL T MAL Q VR in exergue; border of dots

Crawford (RRC) 299/1a
Sydenham 570
RSC I Mallia 1
SRCV I 176
Shea B
_DSCCC3710.jpg
7 viewsivus Augustus (died AD 14). Orichalcum dupondius (30mm, 15.45 gm, 6h). Rome, under Claudius, AD 42-50. DIVVS AVGVSTVS, radiate head of the deified Augustus left between S – C /A, Livia seated to left holding grain ears in right hand and long torch wrapped in left arm. RIC (Claudius) 101 (R2). BMCRE (Claudius) 224. Cohen 93. Rare! Boldly struck on a large, heavy flan, from dies of exceptional style. Fantastic portrait and natural chocolate brown patina. Choice Extremely Fine. From The Lexington Collection. Ex UBS 78 (Basel, 9 September 2008), lot 1377. One of the first acts of Claudius, after his accession as emperor, was to propose that the late Livia, wife of Augustus, be deified. The Senate granted this honor in AD AD 42, 13 years after her death, and the appropriate celebrations were made. This attractive coin could be viewed as commemorating the event, depicting the long-deified Augustus along new, with his newly elevated wife. The work of cutting the dies was obviously considered important enough to be given to a master engraver, as both the portrait of Augustus and the graceful image of Livia are of outstanding quality.1 commentsRonald
CLAUDIUS_TAG.jpg
5 15 viewsSosius
Claudius_As_RIC_113.jpg
5 Claudius48 viewsClaudius. A.D. 41-54.
Æ as (29 mm, 12.16 g, 6 h). Rome, ca. A.D. 50(?)-54.

TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP P P, bare head of Claudius left / LIBERTAS AVGVSTA, S C across field, Libertas standing facing, head right, holding pileus and extending left hand.
RIC 113; BMCRE 204; Cohen -.
Unusual red, green and red-brown patina. Light porosity and chipping on obverse edge. Very fine.
Ex-Triskeles Auction, June 2013
RI0024
3 commentsSosius
Claudius_Sest.jpg
5 Claudius33 viewsRI0028Sosius
Claudius_As_2_-_irreg_mint.jpg
5 Claudius23 viewsAe As
Irregular or Provincial Mint
RI0021
Sosius
Claudius_Bosporus.jpg
5 Claudius and Agrippina27 viewsCLAUDIUS AND AGRIPPINA
Æ As, Bosporus (23mm, 6g)
Minted circa 50–54 AD by King Kotys I (46 – 63 AD)

TI KLAVDIOV KAICAPOC; Head of Claudius r.; "IB" below / IOVLIAN AGRIPPINAN CEBACTHN; Head of Agrippina l.; monogram "BAK" in field to l.

Anokhin # 348
RI0025
1 commentsSosius
Claudius_As_2.jpg
5 Claudius As39 viewsCLAUDIUS
AE As.

TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG PM TR P IMP P P, bare head left / Minerva advancing right, holding shield and brandishing a javelin, S-C across fields.

RIC 116; Sear 1862. aVF, roughness
RI0020
Sosius
Claudius_As.jpg
5 Claudius As32 viewsCLAUDIUS
AE As.

O: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG PM TR P IMP P P, bare head left.

R: Minerva advancing right, holding shield and brandishing a javelin, S-C across fields.

RIC 116; Sear 1862. aVF, roughness
RI0019
1 commentsSosius
Claudius_Modius_Quadrans.jpg
5 Claudius Quadrans20 viewsCLAUDIUS
AE Quadrans, Modius type

VF with encrustations
RI0026
Sosius
Claudius_RIC_85.jpg
5 Claudius Quadrans10 viewsCLAUDIUS
AE Quadrans

O: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG around hand holding pair of scales above PNR

R: PON M TR P IMP COS DES IT around S C.

RIC 85, sear5 #1864. aVF with encrustations
RI0027
Sosius
clsud478.jpg
Claudius II Gothicus, 268-270 CE.25 viewsBronze Antoninianus, Minister 478
Obverse: DIVO CLAUVDIO, radiate head right.
Reverse: CONSECRATIO, garlanded altar with flames above, no decoration on front. 16.7 mm., 1.8 g.
Note: Although a variation of this coin is in the RIC and Cohen, these sources generally refer to the type with a front divided into four sections (RIC 261). This type of garlanded altar, lit altar was not described and published until the discovery of the Minister Hoard, discovered after RIC was written.
NORMAN K
quin.jpg
Claudius II Gothicus, 268-270 CE., Commemorative issue by Quintillus27 viewsBronze Antoninianus, RIC V 261
Obverse: DIVO CLAUVDIO, radiate head right.
Reverse: CONSECRATIO, flaming altar with four panels, each containing pellet.
16.1 mm., 2.2 g.
NORMAN K
18d3.jpg
Claudius II Gothicus, RIC 110 Rome25 views
September 268 - August or September 270 CE
antoninianus, RIC V 110, Rome mint, 3.2g, 20.1mm,
Obverse: IMP C CLAVDIVS AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: VIRTUS AUGUSTI, Virtus helmeted and wearing military gear stands left, waving a branch of laurel in right hand and holding a spear in the left hand, at his feet to the left is his shield. Episilon in right field.
NORMAN K
clau261.jpg
Claudius II Gothicus, RIC 261, Milan, 268-270 CE.22 viewsBronze Antoninianus, RIC 261 Milan
Obverse: DIVO CLAUVDIO, radiate head right.
Reverse: CONSECRATIO, large flaming altar with four sections with a dot in each one. mintmark T, Milan mint. 16.5mm., 2.1 g.
NORMAN K
antoniad.jpg
(0010) ANTONIA17 views(daughter of Mark Antony; mother of Claudius; grandmother of Caligula)
b. ca. 36 BC, d. 37 AD
AE ORICHALCUM DUPONDIUS 28.5 11.98 g
STRUCK BY CLAUDIUS, ca. 50 - 54 AD
O: ANTONIA AVGVSTA, bare-headed bust right, hair in long plait
R: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP (P P) S C, Claudius veiled and togate, standing left, holding simpulum
RIC 1 104
laney
Claudius_Cunetio_2296.jpg
1 Claudius II20 viewsCLAUDIUS II
AE Antoninianus
IMP CLAVDIVS AVG, Radiate, cuirassed bust (small) right / SPES AVG, Spes walking left, holding flower and hitching robe, II in left field
Cunetio hoard 2296, Normanby hoard 1086
aVF/F, Rare
Sosius
Claudius_II_RIC_104.jpg
1 Claudius II34 viewsCLAUDIUS II
AE Antoninianus. Rome mint, 268-270 AD
IMP C CLAVDIVS AVG, radiate, cuirassed bust r., seen from back / VICTORIA AVG, Victory st. l. with wreath and cornucopiae.
RIC 104, Cohen 293; Sear5 11378. VF
Sosius
Diadumenian_4_Assaria.jpg
28 Diadumenian14 viewsDIADUMENIAN
4 Assaria (27mm), Nikopolis ad Istrum, Marcus Claudius Agrippa, Magistrate

M OPELLI DI-ADOUMENIANO C K, Bust of Diadumenian / UP AGRIPPA NIKOPOLITWN PROC ICTRWN, Nike standing r., holding garland and palm

NIC4.32b; AMNG I. 1800, p. 459 111 VF, encrustations
Sosius
Claudius_As_4.jpg
4 Claudius34 viewsRI0023Sosius
Claudius_As_3.jpg
4 Claudius11 viewsCLAUDIUS
AE As
RI0022
Sosius
rjb_claud_01_09.jpg
4126 viewsClaudius 41-54 AD
AE as
Obv "TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG PM TRP PP"
Bare head left
Rev "SC"
Minerva walking right holding shield and spear
Rome mint
RIC 116
mauseus
rjb_2016_09_01.jpg
4110 viewsClaudius 41-54 AD
Tetradrachm
Alexandria in Egypt
Year 6
Rev: Messalina, 3rd wife of Claudius, holding two small children (Claudia Octavia and Britannicus) in outstretched hand
RPC I 5164
mauseus
rjb_car_laur_02_06.jpg
838cf53 viewsCarausius 287-93AD
AE Laureate
Obv: "IMP CARAVSIVS P AV"
Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev: "LITI AV"
Laetitia standing left, altar at feet
Unmarked mint
RIC - (cf 838)
Overstruck on a Rome mint coin of Claudius II, traces visible on the reverse. Obverse and reverse die duplicate of the previous coin. It also looks to be an obverse die duplicate of Normanby 1580.
mauseus
Claudius_II_Alexandria_eagle.jpg
Claudius II - Alexandria6 viewsBI Tetradrachm
29 Aug 270 - 28 Aug 271 AD
laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right from behind
AVT K KΛAV_ΔIOC CEB
eagle standing right, wreath in beak, palm under wing
L_Γ
Dattari 5413; Milne 4291; Geissen 3047; Curtis 1687; BMC Alexandria p. 303, 2336
11,2g
ex Petr Schimandl
Johny SYSEL
dcl.jpg
Claudius II Gothicus, 268-270 CE.20 viewsBronze Antoninianus, Minister 478
Obverse: DIVO CLAUVDIO, radiate head right.
Reverse: CONSECRATIO, garlanded altar with flames above, no decoration on front. 16.7 mm., 1.8 g.
Note: Although a variation of this coin is in the RIC and Cohen, these sources generally refer to the type with a front divided into four sections (RIC 261). This type of garlanded altar, lit altar was not described and published until the discovery of the Minister Hoard, discovered after RIC was written.
NORMAN K
claud41a.jpg
Claudius II Gothicus, RIC 41 Rome25 viewsBronze Antoninianus, Claudius II Gothis
Obverse: IMP CLAUVDIO AVG , radiate head right.
Reverse: FORTVNA, Fortuna standing left, holding rudder and cornucopia. Z in right field.
RIC 41, Rome. 20.5 mm., 3.1 g.
NORMAN K
2228b.jpg
Claudius II Gothicus, Rome20 viewsBronze Antoninianus, Rome
Obverse: IMP CLAUVDIO AVG, radiate head right.
Reverse: SECVRIT AVG, Securitas standing left, leaning on column, holding baton. XI in right field.
Cunetio hoard 2228, Appleshaw hoard 260. 16.9 mm., 2.1 g.
NORMAN K
P1019337.JPG
Claudius II Gothicus. 268-270 AD. AE18mm16 views Claudius II Gothicus. 268-270 AD.
Obv. IMP CLAVDIVS P F AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right.
Rev. PA-X A-VG, Pax advancing left, holding transverse scepter in left hand and olive branch in right hand;
T in ex. Mediolanum (Milan) mint.
Ref. RIC 157
Ex Forvms Never-Ending Cleaning Competition.
Lee S
philadelphiaClaudius.jpg
#Lydia, Philadelphia. Claudius AE1824 viewsObv: T KLAYDIOS GERMANIKOS KAISAR. Laureate bust r.
Rev: P'ILADELP'EWN NEOKAISAREWN C'ONDROS. Four grain-ears bundled together.
ancientone
00040x00.jpg
63 viewsROME. Claudius. AD 41-53.
Æ As (28mm, 11.64 g, 6 h). Official issue.
Iberian mint I, engraver A. Struck AD 41-circa 50.
Bare head left
Minerva advancing right, brandishing spear and holding round shield; S C flanking
RIC I -; Besombes & Barrandon pl. V, 2/3 (obv./rev.)
Ardatirion
00001x00~11.jpg
25 viewsROME. Claudius, with Messalina. AD 41-54
PB Tessera (19mm, 2.16 g, 12h)
TI CLAUDIUS CAESAR
Bare head of Claudius left
MESSALINA
Draped bust of Messalina right
Rostovtsew –

Ex London Ancient Coins 60 (14 February 2017), lot 362
Ardatirion
00033x00.jpg
32 viewsClaudius. AD 41-54.
Æ As (28mm, 10.67 g, 7 h). Western Europe. Cast circa AD 43-64.
Bare head left
Minerva advancing right, brandishing spear and holding round shield; S C flanking
Sutherland grade I
Ardatirion
00038x00.jpg
29 viewsClaudius. AD 41-53.
Æ As (23mm, 6.24 g, 7 h). Western Europe. Struck circa AD 43-64.
Bare head left
Minerva advancing right, brandishing spear and holding round shield; S C flanking
Sutherland grade III
Ardatirion
00039x00.jpg
23 viewsClaudius. AD 41-53.
Æ As (27mm, 9.39 g, 6 h). Western Europe (Spain?). Struck circa AD 43-64.
Bare head left
Minerva advancing right, brandishing spear and holding round shield; S C flanking
Sutherland grade IV

The style of this piece is reminiscent of earlier Spanish provincial issues.
Ardatirion
00027x00.jpg
35 viewsClaudius. AD 41-53
Æ As (26mm, 5.71 g, 4 h). Britain. Struck circa AD 43-64.
Bare head left
Minerva advancing right, brandishing spear and holding round shield; S C flanking
Sutherland grade IV

Found near Canterbury, Kent
1 commentsArdatirion
lg004_quad_sm.jpg
"As de Nîmes" or "crocodile" Ӕ dupondius of Nemausus (9 - 3 BC), honoring Augustus and Agrippa32 viewsIMP DIVI F , Heads of Agrippa (left) and Augustus (right) back to back, Agrippa wearing rostral crown and Augustus the oak-wreath / COL NEM, crocodile right chained to palm-shoot with short dense fronds and tip right; two short palm offshoots left and right below, above on left a wreath with two long ties streaming right.

Ӕ, 24.5 x 3+ mm, 13.23g, die axis 3h; on both sides there are remains of what appears to be gold plating, perhaps it was a votive offering? Rough edges and slight scrapes on flan typical for this kind of coin, due to primitive technology (filing) of flan preparation.

IMPerator DIVI Filius. Mint of COLonia NEMausus (currently Nîmes, France). Known as "As de Nîmes", it is actually a dupontius (lit. "two-pounder") = 2 ases (sometimes cut in halves to get change). Dupondii were often made out of a golden-colored copper alloy (type of brass) "orichalcum" and this appears to be such case.

Key ID points: oak-wreath (microphotography shows that at least one leaf has a complicated shape, although distinguishing oak from laurel is very difficult) – earlier versions have Augustus bareheaded, no PP on obverse as in later versions, no NE ligature, palm with short fronds with tip right (later versions have tip left and sometimes long fronds). Not typical: no clear laurel wreath together with the rostral crown, gold (?) plating (!), both features really baffling.

But still clearly a "middle" kind of the croc dupondius, known as "type III": RIC I 158, RPC I 524, Sear 1730. It is often conservatively dated to 10 BC - 10 AD, but these days it is usually narrowed to 9/8 - 3 BC.

It is a commemorative issue, honoring the victory over Mark Antony and conquest of Egypt in 30 BC. The heads of Augustus and Agrippa were probably positioned to remind familiar obverses of Roman republican coins with two-faced Janus. Palm branch was a common symbol of victory, in this case grown into a tree, like the victories of Augustus and Agrippa grown into the empire. The two offshoots at the bottom may mean two sons of Agrippa, Gaius and Lucius, who were supposed to be Augustus' heirs and were patrons of the colony. Palm may also be a symbol of the local Nemausian deity, which was probably worshiped in a sacred grove. When these coins were minted, the colony was mostly populated by the settled veterans of Augustus' campaigns, hence the reminiscence of the most famous victory, but some of the original Celtic culture probably survived and was assimilated by Romans. The crocodile is not only the symbol of Egypt, like in the famous Octavian's coins AEGYPTO CAPTA. It is also a representation of Mark Antony, powerful and scary both in water and on land, but a bit slow and stupid. The shape of the crocodile with tail up was specifically chosen to remind of the shape of ship on very common "legionary" denarius series, which Mark Antony minted to pay his armies just before Actium. It is probably also related to the popular contemporary caricature of Cleopatra, riding on and simultaneously copulating with a crocodile, holding a palm branch in her hand as if in triumph. There the crocodile also symbolized Mark Antony.

Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa was born c. 64-62 BC somewhere in rural Italy. His family was of humble and plebeian origins, but rich, of equestrian rank. Agrippa was about the same age as Octavian, and the two were educated together and became close friends. He probably first served in Caesar's Spanish campaign of 46–45 BC. Caesar regarded him highly enough to send him with Octavius in 45 BC to train in Illyria. When Octavian returned to Rome after Caesar's assassination, Agrippa became his close lieutenant, performing many tasks. He probably started his political career in 43 BC as a tribune of the people and then a member of the Senate. Then he was one of the leading Octavian's generals, finally becoming THE leading general and admiral in the civil wars of the subsequent years.

In 38 as a governor of Transalpine Gaul Agrippa undertook an expedition to Germania, thus becoming the first Roman general since Julius Caesar to cross the Rhine. During this foray he helped the Germanic tribe of Ubii (who previously allied themselves with Caesar in 55 BC) to resettle on the west bank of the Rhine. A shrine was dedicated there, possibly to Divus Caesar whom Ubii fondly remembered, and the village became known as Ara Ubiorum, "Altar of Ubians". This quickly would become an important Roman settlement. Agrippina the Younger, Agrippa's granddaughter, wife of Emperor Claudius and mother of Emperor Nero, would be born there in 15 AD. In 50 AD she would sponsor this village to be upgraded to a colonia, and it would be renamed Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium (colony of Claudius [at] the Altar of Agrippinians – Ubii renamed themselves as Agrippinians to honor the augusta!), abbreviated as CCAA, later to become the capital of new Roman province, Germania Inferior.

In 37 BC Octavian recalled Agrippa back to Rome and arranged for him to win the consular elections, he desperately needed help in naval warfare with Sextus Pompey, the youngest son of Pompey the Great, who styled himself as the last supporter of the republican cause, but in reality became a pirate king, an irony since his father was the one who virtually exterminated piracy in all the Roman waters. He forced humiliating armistice on the triumvirs in 39 BC and when Octavian renewed the hostilities a year later, defeated him in a decisive naval battle of Messina. New fleet had to be built and trained, and Agrippa was the man for the job. Agrippa's solution was creating a huge secret naval base he called Portus Iulius by connecting together lakes Avernus, Avernus and the natural inner and outer harbors behind Cape Misenum at the northern end of the Gulf of Naples. He also created a larger type of ship and developed a new naval weapon: harpax – a ballista-launched grapnel shot with mechanisms that allowed pulling enemy ships close for easy boarding. It replaced the previous boarding device that Romans used since the First Punic War, corvus – effective, but extremely cumbersome. A later defence against it were scythe blades on long poles for cutting ropes, but since this invention was developed in secret, the enemy had no chance to prepare anything like it. It all has proved extremely effective: in a series of naval engagements Agrippa annihilated the fleet of Sextus, forced him to abandon his bases and run away. For this Agrippa was awarded an unprecedented honour that no Roman before or after him received: a rostral crown, "corona rostrata", a wreath decorated in front by a prow and beak of a ship.

That's why Virgil (Aeneid VIII, 683-684), describing Agrippa at Actium, says: "…belli insigne superbum, tempora navali fulgent rostrata corona." "…the proud military decoration, gleams on his brow the naval rostral crown". Actium, the decisive battle between forces of Octavian and Mark Antony, may appear boring compared to the war with Sextus, but it probably turned out this way due to Agrippa's victories in preliminary naval engagements and taking over all the strategy from Octavian.

In between the wars Agrippa has shown an unusual talent in city planning, not only constructing many new public buildings etc., but also greatly improving Rome's sanitation by doing a complete overhaul of all the aqueducts and sewers. Typically, it was Augustus who later would boast that "he had found the city of brick but left it of marble", forgetting that, just like in his naval successes, it was Agrippa who did most of the work. Agrippa had building programs in other Roman cities as well, a magnificent temple (currently known as Maison Carrée) survives in Nîmes itself, which was probably built by Agrippa.

Later relationship between Augustus and Agrippa seemed colder for a while, Agrippa seemed to even go into "exile", but modern historians agree that it was just a ploy: Augustus wanted others to think that Agrippa was his "rival" while in truth he was keeping a significant army far away from Rome, ready to come to the rescue in case Augustus' political machinations fail. It is confirmed by the fact that later Agrippa was recalled and given authority almost equal to Augustus himself, not to mention that he married Augustus' only biological child. The last years of Agrippa's life were spent governing the eastern provinces, were he won respect even of the Jews. He also restored Crimea to Roman Empire. His last service was starting the conquest of the upper Danube, were later the province of Pannonia would be. He suddenly died of illness in 12 BC, aged ~51.

Agrippa had several children through his three marriages. Through some of his children, Agrippa would become ancestor to many subsequent members of the Julio-Claudian dynasty. He has numerous other legacies.
Yurii P
AUGUSTUS_COMMEM_LIVIA~0.jpg
(00040) LIVIA (WITH AUGUSTUS)43 views(wife of Augustus; mother of Tiberius; grandmother of Claudius)
b. 58 BC - d. 29 AD
AUGUSTUS (COMMEMORATIVE, POSTHUMOUS)
UNDER TIBERIUS, 15 - 26 AD
AE 27mm 9.86g
O: RAD HEAD L, STAR ABOVE
R: LIVIA STD R, FEET ON STOOL, HLDG PATERA/ S-C
ROME
laney
normal_tiberius_denarius_res_trib~0.jpg
(00040a) LIVIA (with Tiberius)34 views(wife of Augustus; mother of Tiberius; grandmother of Claudius)
b. 58 BC - d. 29 AD
minted 18 - 35 AD
AR Denarius ("Tribute Penny")
O: TI CAESAR DIVI AVG AVGVSTVS; laureate head right
R: PONTIF MAXIM; Livia as Pax, seated right on throne with ornate legs, holding long scepter and olive branch; single line below
Lugdunum mint
RIC 30, RSC 16a
laney
tiberius_and_livia_resb~0.jpg
(00040b) LIVIA (with Tiberius)25 viewsb. 58 BC - d. 29 AD
(wife of Augustus; mother of Tiberius; grandmother of Claudius)
struck 14-37 AD
AE 19mm, 8.82 g
O: Laureate head of Tiberius right
R: Veiled and draped bust of Livia r., wearing stephane
Macedonia, Thessalonica; cf RPC 1570
laney
normal_galba_diva_aug_b_res~0.jpg
(00040C) LIVIA (with Galba)25 views(wife of Augustus; mother of Tiberius; grandmother of Claudius; b. 58 BC - d. 29 AD)
struck 68 - 69 AD (posthumous issue)
AR Denarius 3.15 g
O: IMP SER GALBA CAESAR AVG laureate head right
R: DIVA AVGVSTA Livia standing right, holding patera and scepter
Rome, RIC 186
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antonia.jpg
(0010) ANTONIA55 views(daughter of Mark Antony; mother of Claudius; grandmother of Caligula)
b. ca. 36 BC, d. 37 AD
AE ORICHALCUM DUPONDIUS 28.5 11.98 g
STRUCK BY CLAUDIUS, ca. 50 - 54 AD
O: ANTONIA AVGVSTA, bare-headed bust right, hair in long plait
R: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP (P P) S C, Claudius veiled and togate, standing left, holding simpulum
RIC 1 104
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antoniadx.jpg
(0010) ANTONIA7 viewsANTONIA
(daughter of Mark Antony; mother of Claudius; grandmother of Caligula)
b. ca. 36 BC, d. 37 AD
AE ORICHALCUM DUPONDIUS 28.5 11.98 g
STRUCK BY CLAUDIUS, ca. 50 - 54 AD
O: ANTONIA AVGVSTA, bare-headed bust right, hair in long plait
R: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP (P P) S C, Claudius veiled and togate, standing left, holding simpulum
RIC 1 104
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Diadumenian08_08_10.jpg
(0217) DIADUMENIAN37 views217-218 AD
struck 218 AD
AE 27 mm 11.84 g
O: [K M] OPPEL ANTWNI DIADOVM[ENIANOC], bare head right
R: VII AGRIPPA NIKOPOLITWN PROC ICTR, Zeus seated left holding patera and scepter
Legate Marcus Claudius Agrippa
Moushmov 1327
Nikopolis, Moesia Inferior
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diadum_nimb_snake_res.jpg
(0217) DIADUMENIAN (as Caesar)51 views217-218 AD (Marcus Claudius Agrippa, legatus consularis)
AE 27 mm; 12.64 g
O: K M OΠΠEΛ ANTΩNI ∆IA∆OYMENIANOC Bareheaded bust right, slight drapery
R: VΠ AΓPIΠΠA NIKOΠOΛITΩN ΠPO C ICTPCoiled serpent, radiate and nimbate head right (Agathodaemon)
Moesia Inferior, Nicopolis ad Istrum
Varbanov 3659 var.; H&J Nikopolis 8.25.22.1
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claudius_ii_aequitas_a.jpg
(0268) CLAUDIUS II (GOTHICUS)40 views268 - 270 AD
O: IMP C CLAVDIVS AVG; Radiate,draped and cuirassed bust right.
R: AEQVITAS AVG: Aequitas standing left holding scales and cornucopiae
ROME
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CLAUDIUS_II.jpg
(0268) CLAUDIUS II (GOTHICUS)27 views268 - 270 AD
AE ANT. 20.5 mm 3.75 g
O: IMP C CLAVDIVS AVG
RAD BUST R
R: MARS VLTOR
MARS WALKING R HOLDING SPEAR AND TROPHY
RIC 66 VAR.
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claudius_ii_gothicus_fides_mercury_b_res.jpg
(0268) CLAUDIUS II GOTHICUS26 views268 - 270 AD
AE 19.5 mm, 3.75 g
O: IMP C CLAVDIVS AVG, radiate, draped bust right, seen from the back
R: FIDES AVG, Mercury standing left, holding purse and caduceus; Z in exe
Antioch mint
RIC V 207, Antioch var. (bust type); Cohen 83
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claud_goth_conser_res~0.jpg
(0268) CLAUDIUS II GOTHICUS23 views268 - 270 AD
AE 20mm 3.13 g
O: IMP C CLAVDIVS AVG radiate draped cuirassed bust right
R: CONSER AVG Serapis standing left with right hand raised, scepter in left; G in exe
Antioc RIC 201
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claudius_gothicus_fides_mercury_res.jpg
(0268) CLAUDIUS II GOTHICUS37 views268 - 270 AD
AE 19.5 mm, 3.75 g
O: IMP C CLAVDIVS AVG, radiate, draped bust right, seen from the back
R: FIDES AVG, Mercury standing left, holding purse and caduceus; Z in exe
Antioch mint
RIC V 207, Antioch var. (bust type); Cohen 83
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cl_goth_fides_1_res.jpg
(0268) CLAUDIUS II GOTHICUS22 views268 - 270 AD
Struck 268-269 (11th Officina, Issue IIb)
AE 18.5 mm max., 2.36 g
O:[IMP CLA]VDIVS AVG radiate and cuirassed bust right
R: [FIDE]S EXERCI Fides standing facing, head left, holding two signa, one transverse; XI in right field
Rome mint; RIC Vl 34/6
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claud_goth_pax_res.jpg
(0268) CLAUDIUS II GOTHICUS25 views268 - 270 AD
AE 20 mm 2.87 g
O: IMP CLAVDIVS PF AVG Radiate, draped bust r.
R: PAX AVG Pax walking l., holding olive branch and scepter; T in exe
Milan mint
RIC 157a
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clau_goth_fortuna_res.jpg
(0268) CLAUDIUS II GOTHICUS17 views268 - 270 AD
AE 19.5 mm, 2.73 g
O: IMP CLAVDIVS PF AVG radiate bust right
R: FORTVNA REDVX; Fortune standing left; SPQR in exe
Cyzicus mint
RIC 234
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clau_goth_fides_b_res.jpg
(0268) CLAUDIUS II GOTHICUS14 views268 - 270 AD
AE 21.5 mm, 2.49 g
O: IMP CLA[VDIVS PF] AVG Radiatedraped bust right
R: FIDES MILIT Fides standing left hold standard in each hand, D in right field
Milan mint; RIC 149
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clau_goth_cos_res.jpg
(0268) CLAUDIUS II GOTHICUS18 views268 - 270 AD
AE 19 mm, 2.08 g
O: IMP CLAVDIVS AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
R: P M TR P Ii COS P P, Claudius standing right, in military dress, transverse spear in right, globe in left D in right field
RIC V 12
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cl_goth_pax_res.jpg
(0268) CLAUDIUS II GOTHICUS21 views268 - 270 AD
AE 19 mm, 2.20 g
Obverse: IMP CLAVDIVS PF AVG Radiate, draped bust right
Reverse: PAX AVG Pax walking l., holding olive branch and scepter; T in exe.
Milan mint; RIC 157
(EB)
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cl_goth_cos_res.jpg
(0268) CLAUDIUS II GOTHICUS13 views268 - 270 AD
AE 18X21 mm, 2.45 g
O: IMP C CLAVDIVS AVG radiate curissed bust right
R: [P M T]RP II COS P P Claudius, togate, holding olive-branch and scepter
(Scarce dated reverse legend for the period; civilian Emperor symbolism was also rather obsolete at the time, expecially with Claudius II)
cf. RIC 5 10ff

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cl_goth_uber_res.jpg
(0268) CLAUDIUS II GOTHICUS14 views268 - 270 AD
Silvered AE 17.5 mm 1.80 g
O: IMP CL[AVDIVS A]VG radiate cuirassed bust right
R: VBERITAS A[VG], Uberitas standing left holding purse and cornucopiae, T in right field
(extensive silvering intact)
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cl_goth_virt_left_res.jpg
(0268) CLAUDIUS II GOTHICUS20 views268 - 270 AD
AE 19 mm, 2.51 g
O: IMP C CLAVDIVS PF AVG Radiate head right
R: VIRTVS AVG Virtus standing left holding branch and spear.
Rome Mint; RIC V 109
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cl_goth_mars_ultor_res.jpg
(0268) CLAUDIUS II GOTHICUS21 views268 - 270 AD
AE 17.5 mm max. 2.47 g
O: IMP CLAVDIVS AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust right;
R: MARS VLTOR, Mars walking right, holding spear in right hand and spear across shoulder in left, H in right field
Rome mint; RIC V 67
(EB)
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cl_goth_iovi_res.jpg
(0268) CLAUDIUS II GOTHICUS19 views268 - 270 AD
AE 21 mm 3.30 g
O: IMP CLAVDIVS PF AVG radiate draped cuirassed bust right
R: IOVI CONSERVATORI Jupiter standing left holding spear and thunderbolt, eagle at feet left
(Third--final--Emission. A few (4) are recorded by Gyssen in CENB 1999: Not in RIC)
Cyzicus mint.
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claud_ii_alexandria_res.jpg
(0268) CLAUDIUS II GOTHICUS59 views268 - 270 AD
Struck Sept. 268 - Aug. 269 AD (year 1)
Billon Tetradrachm 22 mm 8.62 g
O: AVT K KΛAVΔIOC CEB, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
R: Eagle standing R, looking back, holding wreath in beak, date AL (year 1) right;
Geissen 3015, Curtis 1670, BMC 2331
Alexandria, Roman Provincial Egypt
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claudius_ii_fides_2_res.jpg
(0268) CLAUDIUS II GOTHICUS23 views268 - 270 AD
Struck 268 - 269, 11th Officina, Issue IIb
AE Antoninianus 18.5 mm 2.36 g
O: [IMP CLA]VDIUS AVG Radiate and cuirassed bust right
R: [FIDE]S EXERCI Fides standing facing, head left, holding two signa, one transverse; XI in right field.
Rome RIC V 34/6
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claud_ii_prov_res.jpg
(0268) CLAUDIUS II GOTHICUS34 views268 - 270 AD
AE Double denarius, 19 mm, 3.26 g
O: IMP C CLAVDIVS AVG, radiate cuirassed bust right.
R: PROVIDENT [AVG], Providentia standing left, leaning on column, holding sceptre and cornucopiae, globe at feet
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cl_goth_silvered_ant_virtus.jpg
(0268) CLAUDIUS II GOTHICUS11 views268 - 270 AD
Billon antoninianus, silvered. 17 X 19 mm; 2.27 g
O: IMP C CLAVDIVS AVG, radiate draped bust right
R: VIRTVS AVG, Virtus (Mars) standing left, holding branch and sceptre, shield left at feet
Rome mint; cf RIC 109
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claud_goth_pax.jpg
(0268) CLAUDIUS II GOTHICUS11 views268-270 AD
AE Antoninianus 19 mm, 2.12 g
O: IMP C CLAVDIVS PF AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
R: PAX AVG, Pax standing left, holding olive branch and transverse sceptre.
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claud_ii_snake.jpg
(0268) CLAUDIUS II GOTHICUS / SALUS33 views268 - 270 AD
AE 18.5X21 mm 2.98 g
O: IMP C CLAVDIVS AVG
RAD DIAD BUST R, (PELLET BEHIND?)
R: [SALV]S AVG
SALUS STG L FEEDING SNAKE RISING FROM ALTAR
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claudius.jpg
(05) CLAUDIUS40 views41 - 54 AD
AE As 27.5 mm 10.11 g
O: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG PM TRP IMP(P?)
BARE HEAD LEFT
R: CONSTANTIAE AVGVSTI S-C
CONSTANTIA HELMETED & IN MILITARY DRESS STANDING L HOLDING SPEAR IN LEFT HAND
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CLAUD_03_08_RES.jpg
(05) CLAUDIUS41 views41 - 54 AD
AE As 28.5 mm 10.31g
O: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP, bare head left
R: [LIBERTAS] AVGVS[TA], Libertas standing facing r., holding pileus, l hand extended S-C
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CLAUDIUS_RES.jpg
(05) CLAUDIUS46 views CLAUDIUS
AE As
41-54 A.D.
O: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP PP Bare head left.
R: LIBERTAS AVGVSTA S C, Libertas standing facing, head right, holding pileus, left hand extended
Rome
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claudius_2.jpg
(05) CLAUDIUS34 viewslaney
antioch_wreath_sc.jpg
(05) CLAUDIUS19 views41 - 54 AD
AE 24X26 mm; 16.15 g
O: Laureate head right
R: Large SC within wreath
Syria, Antioch
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claudius_ceres_res2.jpg
(05) CLAUDIUS36 views41 - 54 AD
AE Dupondius 28.5 mm 11.63 g
O: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP Bare head left
R: [CERES AVGVSTA / S]C Ceres seated left, holding grain-ears and long torch
Rome RIC I 94
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NCLAUD_RES.jpg
(05) CLAUDIUS39 views41 - 54 AD
AE 18 mm 7.46 g
O: Laureate head of Claudius right
R: S C in wreath, star at top, ties at bottom
Antioch, Syria; Cf. Lindgren 1964
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claudius_constantia_2.jpg
(05) CLAUDIUS11 views41 - 54 AD
Struck circa 41-50 AD
AE As 28 mm; 8.62 g
O: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP, bare head left
R: CONSTANTIAE AVGVSTI S-C, Constantia, helmeted and in military dress, standing left, holding long spear in left hand.
Rome mint; RIC 95
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claudius_constantia_3.jpg
(05) CLAUDIUS17 views41 - 54 AD
Struck circa 41-50 AD
AE As 25.5 mm, 9.91 g
O: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP, bare head left
R: CONSTANTIAE AVGVSTI S-C, Constantia, helmeted and in military dress, standing left, holding long spear in left hand.
Rome mint; RIC 95
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claudius_minerva.jpg
(05) CLAUDIUS10 views41-54 AD
AE 26.5 mm; 10.90 g
O:[ TI CLAVDIVS CAE]SAR AVG P M TR P IMP P P, bare head of Claudius left
R: S-C, Minerva advancing right, brandishing spear and shield
Rome mint; cf RIC I 116
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claudius_nilus_res.jpg
(05) CLAUDIUS23 views41 - 54 AD
struck 50 - 51 AD
AE Diobol 24.5 mm, 5.44 g
O: Diademed head right
R: Nilus bust right; cornucopia behind, small Genius standing before
Year 11
Alexandria mint
cf BMC Alexandria 81, RPC I 5174
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claudius_nilus_res~0.jpg
(05) CLAUDIUS24 views41 - 54 AD
struck 50 - 51 AD
AE Diobol 24.5 mm, 5.44 g
O: Diademed head right
R: Nilus bust right; cornucopia behind, small Genius standing before
Year 11
Alexandria mint
cf BMC Alexandria 81, RPC I 5174
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claudius_denarius.jpg
(05) CLAUDIUS45 views41-54 AD (struck 41/2)
AR Denarius 3.50 g
O: TI CLAVD CAESAR AVG P M TR P, laureate head right
R: PACI AVGVSTAE, Nemesis walking right, holding caduceus, serpent before.
RIC 10 (R3); RSC 51
(ex Forman collection)
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claudi_koinon_shield.jpg
(05) CLAUDIUS14 views41 - 54 AD
AE 23 mm; 5.84 g
O: Bare head of Claudius left
R: Macedonian shield.
Koinon of Macedonia; RPC 1612.
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claudius__minerva.jpg
(05) CLAUDIUS13 views41-54 AD
AE 26.5 mm; 12.57 g
O: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP P P, bare head of Claudius left
R: S-C, Minerva advancing right, brandishing spear and shield
Rome mint, RIC I 116
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claudius_constantia.jpg
(05) CLAUDIUS23 viewsCLAUDIUS (CONSTANTIA)
41 - 54 AD
Struck circa 41-50 AD
Æ As 26 mm, 9.21 g
O: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP, bare head left
R: CONSTANTIAE AVGVSTI S-C, Constantia, helmeted and in military dress, standing left, holding long spear in left hand.
Rome mint; RIC 95
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claudius_antioch_sc_wreath.jpg
(05) CLAUDIUS11 views41 - 54 AD
AE 25 mm; 13.64 g
O: Laureate head right
R: Large SC within wreath
Syria, Antioch
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claudius_ceres_res.jpg
(05) CLAUDIUS (CERES)24 views41 - 54 AD
AE 27 mm, 11.71 g
O: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG PM TR P IMP Bare headed bust of Claudius left
R: CERES AVGVSTA; SC IN EXE. Seated figure of Ceres left wearing veil, holding corn ear in right hand and torch across knee with left hand.

(Probably an unofficial imitative; note backward S in CERES and backward C in the SC on reverse.)
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claudius_const_4_res.jpg
(05) CLAUDIUS (CONSTANTIA)30 views41 - 54 AD
Struck circa 41-50 AD
Æ As 26 mm, 11.57 g
O: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP, bare head left
R: CONSTANTIAE AVGVSTI S-C, Constantia, helmeted and in military dress, standing left, holding long spear in left hand.
Rome mint; RIC 95
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claud_constan_9res.jpg
(05) CLAUDIUS (CONSTANTIA)18 views41 - 54 AD
Struck circa 41-50 AD
Æ As 28 mm, 12.24 g
O: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP, bare head left
R: CONSTANTIAE AVGVSTI S-C, Constantia, helmeted and in military dress, standing left, holding long spear in left hand.
Rome mint; RIC 95
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claudius_constant_8res.jpg
(05) CLAUDIUS (CONSTANTIA)20 views41 - 54 AD
Struck circa 41-50 AD
Æ As 26 mm, 8.95 g
O: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP, bare head left
R: CONSTANTIAE AVGVSTI S-C, Constantia, helmeted and in military dress, standing left, holding long spear in left hand.
Rome mint; RIC 95
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claudius_constan_7res.jpg
(05) CLAUDIUS (CONSTANTIA)18 views41 - 54 AD
Struck circa 41-50 AD
Æ As 26 mm, 10.58 g
O: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP, bare head left
R: CONSTANTIAE AVGVSTI S-C, Constantia, helmeted and in military dress, standing left, holding long spear in left hand.
Rome mint; RIC 95
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claudius_constan_6_res.jpg
(05) CLAUDIUS (CONSTANTIA)19 views41 - 54 AD
Struck circa 41-50 AD
Æ As 30 mm, 10.64 g
O: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP, bare head left
R: CONSTANTIAE AVGVSTI S-C, Constantia, helmeted and in military dress, standing left, holding long spear in left hand.
Rome mint; RIC 95
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claudius_const_5_res.jpg
(05) CLAUDIUS (CONSTANTIA)26 views41 - 54 AD
Struck circa 41-50 AD
Æ As 27.5 mm, 10.4 g
O: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP, bare head left
R: CONSTANTIAE AVGVSTI S-C, Constantia, helmeted and in military dress, standing left, holding long spear in left hand.
Rome mint; RIC 95
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claudius_constan_y_res.jpg
(05) CLAUDIUS (CONSTANTIA)20 views41 - 54 AD
Struck circa 41-50 AD
Æ As 27 mm, 13.46 g
O: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP, bare head left
R: CONSTANTIAE AVGVSTI S-C, Constantia, helmeted and in military dress, standing left, holding long spear in left hand.
Rome mint; RIC 95
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claudius_libert_xres.jpg
(05) CLAUDIUS (LIBERTAS)21 views41 - 54 AD
27.5 mm, 10.64 g
O: Bare head left
R: S C, Libertas standing right holding pileus
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claudius_libertas10res.jpg
(05) CLAUDIUS (LIBERTAS)24 views41 - 54 AD
AE As 29 mm, 7.39 g
Obv: Claudius head, bare, left
Rev: S - C to l. and r. of Libertas, draped, standing facing, head r., holding pileus.
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claudius_lib_xy.jpg
(05) CLAUDIUS (LIBERTAS)39 views41-54 AD
29 mm, 12.81 g
O: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP, bare head left
R: LIBERTAS AVGVSTA S C, Libertas standing facing, head right, holding pileus and extending left arm
Rome RIC I 97
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claudius_liber_3_res.jpg
(05) CLAUDIUS (LIBERTAS)25 views41 - 54 AD
AE 27 mm 8.88 g
O: Bare head left
R: S C, Libertas standing right holding pileus
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CLAUDIUS_LIBERTAS1_res.jpg
(05) CLAUDIUS (LIBERTAS)22 views41 - 54 AD
AE As 27 mm, 9.73 g
O: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP P P, bare head left
R: LIBERTAS AVGVSTA S C, Libertas standing right holding pileus
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claudius_libertas_2_res.jpg
(05) CLAUDIUS (LIBERTAS)21 views41 - 54 AD
AE As 26.5 mm, 10.10 g
O: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP P P, bare head left
R: LIBERTAS AVGVSTA S C, Libertas standing right holding pileus
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claudius_minerva_13res.jpg
(05) CLAUDIUS (MINERVA)26 views41-54 AD
Struck 24 X 25 mm, 9.47 g
O: Bare head left
R: S-C across fields, Minerva advancing right, brandishing spear and holding shield
Rome mint, RIC I 100
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claudius_minerva_res.jpg
(05) CLAUDIUS (MINERVA)44 views41-54 AD
AE As 28 X 30 mm, 9.44 g
O: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG PM TRP IMP P P Bare head of Claudius facing left.
R: S C, Minerva standing, holding a shield and brandishing a spear.
RIC 116
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claudius_minerva_11_blkres.jpg
(05) CLAUDIUS (MINERVA)23 views41-54 AD
Struck 41-42 AD
Æ As 30 mm, 7.86 g
O: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP, Bare head left
R: S-C across fields, Minerva advancing right, brandishing spear and holding shield
Rome mint, RIC I 100
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claudius_minerva_9res.jpg
(05) CLAUDIUS (MINERVA)25 views41-54 AD
Struck 41-42 AD
Æ As 28 mm, 12.01 g
O: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP, Bare head left
R: S-C across fields, Minerva advancing right, brandishing spear and holding shield
Rome mint, RIC I 100
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claudius_minerv_7res.jpg
(05) CLAUDIUS (MINERVA)22 views41-54 AD
Struck 41-42 AD
Æ As 25 X 28 mm, 7.42 g
O: Bare head left
R: S-C across fields, Minerva advancing right, brandishing spear and holding shield
Rome mint, RIC I 100
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claudius_miner_9_blkres.jpg
(05) CLAUDIUS (MINERVA)26 views41-54 AD
Struck 41-42 AD
Æ As 28 mm, 10.31 g
O: Bare head left
R: S-C across fields, Minerva advancing right, brandishing spear and holding shield
Rome mint, RIC I 100
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claud_minerv_4_res.jpg
(05) CLAUDIUS (MINERVA)26 views41-54 AD
Struck 41-42 AD
Æ As 29.5 mm, 9.91 g
O: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP, Bare head left
R: S-C across fields, Minerva advancing right, brandishing spear and holding shield
Rome mint, RIC I 100
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claud_miner_6res.jpg
(05) CLAUDIUS (MINERVA)24 views41-54 AD
Struck 41-42 AD
Æ As 26.5 mm, 10.67 g
O: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP, Bare head left
R: S-C across fields, Minerva advancing right, brandishing spear and holding shield
Rome mint, RIC I 100
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claud_miner_5_res.jpg
(05) CLAUDIUS (MINERVA)23 views41-54 AD
Struck 41-42 AD
Æ As 26.5 X 31 mm, 9.94 g (double strike)
O: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP, Bare head left
R: S-C across fields, Minerva advancing right, brandishing spear and holding shield
Rome mint, RIC I 100
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claud_miner_3_res.jpg
(05) CLAUDIUS (MINERVA)36 views41-54 AD
Struck 41-42 AD
Æ As 26 mm, 11.34 g
O: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP, Bare head left
R: S-C across fields, Minerva advancing right, brandishing spear and holding shield
Rome mint, RIC I 100
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claud_miner_1_res.jpg
(05) CLAUDIUS (MINERVA)30 views41-54 AD
Struck 41-42 AD
Æ As 25.5 mm, 9.73 g
O: [TI CLAVDIVS] CAESAR AVG P M T[R P IMP], Bare head left
R: S-C across fields, Minerva advancing right, brandishing spear and holding shield
Rome mint, RIC I 100
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claud_min_2_res.jpg
(05) CLAUDIUS (MINERVA)35 views41-54 AD
Struck 41-42 AD
Æ As 26.5 mm, 8.06 g
O: [TI C]LAVDIVS CAESA[R AVG P M TR P IMP], Bare head left
R: S-C across fields, Minerva advancing right, brandishing spear and holding shield
Rome mint, RIC I 100
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claud_miner_12_beires.jpg
(05) CLAUDIUS (MINERVA)28 views41-54 AD
Struck 41-42 AD
Æ As 26.5 X 28 mm, 9.44 g
O: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP, Bare head left
R: S-C across fields, Minerva advancing right, brandishing spear and holding shield
Rome mint, RIC I 100
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claud_min_old_res.jpg
(05) CLAUDIUS (MINERVA)26 views41-54 AD
Struck 41-42 AD
Æ As 27 mm 7.34 g
O: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP, Bare head left
R: S-C across fields, Minerva advancing right, brandishing spear and holding shield
Rome mint, RIC I 100
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clau_min_cm_resb.jpg
(05) CLAUDIUS (MINERVA)31 views41-54 AD
Struck 41-42 AD
AE 30 mm max., 10.66 g
O: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP, Bare head left; PR countermark
R: S-C across fields, Minerva advancing right, brandishing spear and holding shield
Rome mint, RIC I 100
laney
claud_minerv.jpg
(05) CLAUDIUS (MINERVA)14 views41-54 AD
AE As 26 mm; 10.90
O: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG PM TRP IMP Bare head of Claudius facing left.
R: S C, Minerva standing, holding a shield and brandishing a spear.
RIC 100
laney
claud_minerva_a.jpg
(05) CLAUDIUS (MINERVA)17 views41-54 AD
AE As 25 mm; 7.62 g
O: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG PM TRP IMP P P Bare head of Claudius facing left.
R: S C, Minerva standing, holding a shield and brandishing a spear.
RIC 116
laney
modius_quadrans_07.jpg
(05) CLAUDIUS (QUADRANS) 36 views41 - 54 AD
AE QUADRANS 15 mm 2.53 g
O: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG around modius
R: PON M TR P IMP PP COS II around large S C
laney
modius_quad_3_res.jpg
(05) CLAUDIUS (QUADRANS) 23 views41 -54 AD
AE QUADRANS AE QUADRANS 18 mm 2.69 g
O: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG, Modius with 3 legs
R: PON M TR P IMP COS DES IT around S C
laney
modius_quad_1_res.jpg
(05) CLAUDIUS (QUADRANS) 29 views41 -54 AD
AE QUADRANS 14 mm 3.60 g
O: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG, Modius with 3 legs
R: PON M TR P IMP COS DES IT around S C
laney
QUAD_5.jpg
(05) CLAUDIUS (QUADRANS)16 views41 -54 AD
AE QUADRANS 14.5 mm, 1.97 g
O: Modius with 3 legs surrounded by legend
R: Large SC surrounded by legend
laney
QUAD_4.jpg
(05) CLAUDIUS (QUADRANS)15 views41 -54 AD
AE QUADRANS 15 mm, 2.22 g
O: Modius with 3 legs surrounded by legend
R: Large SC surrounded by legend
laney
QUAD_3.jpg
(05) CLAUDIUS (QUADRANS)16 views41 -54 AD
AE QUADRANS 14 X 16 mm, 2.66 g
O: Modius with 3 legs surrounded by legend
R: Large SC surrounded by legend
laney
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(05) CLAUDIUS (QUADRANS)15 views41 -54 AD
AE QUADRANS 15 X 17 mm, 3.62 g
O: Modius with 3 legs surrounded by legend
R: Large SC surrounded by legend
laney
QUAD_1.jpg
(05) CLAUDIUS (QUADRANS)14 views41 -54 AD
AE QUADRANS 14.5 X 17.5 mm, 2.75 g
O: Modius with 3 legs surrounded by legend
R: Large SC surrounded by legend
laney
QUAD_6.jpg
(05) CLAUDIUS (QUADRANS)13 views41 -54 AD
AE QUADRANS 15 mm, 3.72 g
O: Modius with 3 legs surrounded by legend
R: Large SC surrounded by legend
laney
QUAD_8.jpg
(05) CLAUDIUS (QUADRANS)15 views41 -54 AD
AE QUADRANS 17 mm, 3.11 g
O: Modius with 3 legs surrounded by legend
R: Large SC surrounded by legend
laney
QUAD_11.jpg
(05) CLAUDIUS (QUADRANS)13 views41 -54 AD
AE QUADRANS 14 X 16 mm, 2.78 g
O: Modius with 3 legs surrounded by legend
R: Large SC surrounded by legend
laney
QUAD_12.jpg
(05) CLAUDIUS (QUADRANS)12 views41 -54 AD
AE QUADRANS 15 mm, 2.03 g
O: Modius with 3 legs surrounded by legend
R: Large SC surrounded by legend
laney
modius_quadransres.jpg
(05) CLAUDIUS (QUADRANS)15 views41 - 54 AD
AE QUADRANS 17 mm; 3.43 g
O: Modius
R: SC within legend
laney
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(05) CLAUDIUS (QUADRANS) (HAND)19 views41 - 54 AD
AE QUADRANS 15 mm max., 4.31 g
Date: 41 AD
Obverse: Legend around hand left, holding pair of scales above P N R
Reverse: Legend around S dot C
laney
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(05) CLAUDIUS (QUADRANS) (HAND)18 views41 - 54 AD
AE QUADRANS 16 mm, 3.05 g
Date: 41 AD
Obverse: Legend around hand left, holding pair of scales above P N R
Reverse: Legend around S dot C
laney
QUAD_7.jpg
(05) CLAUDIUS (QUADRANS) (HAND)18 views41 - 54 AD
AE QUADRANS 16 mm, 3.41 g
Date: 41 AD
Obverse: Legend around hand left, holding pair of scales above P N R
Reverse: Legend around S dot C
laney
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(05) CLAUDIUS--QUADRANS (Hand)25 views41 - 54 AD
AE QUADRANS 15 mm 2.20 g
Date: 41 AD
Obverse: Legend around hand left, holding pair of scales above P N R
Reverse: Legend around S dot C
(possibly barbarous imitative)
laney
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(05) CLAUDIUS--QUADRANS (Hand)21 views41 - 54 AD
AE QUADRANS 16.5 X 18.5 mm 2.34 g
Date: 41 AD
Obverse: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG around hand left, holding pair of scales above P N R
Reverse: PON M TR P IMP COS DES IT around S C
laney
quad_hand_1_res.jpg
(05) CLAUDIUS--QUADRANS (Hand)24 views41 - 54 AD
16 mm 2.39 g
Date: 41 AD
Obverse: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG around hand left, holding pair of scales above P N R
Reverse: PON M TR P IMP COS DES IT around S dot C
laney
claud_quad_scales.jpg
(05) CLAUDIUS--QUADRANS (Hand) 13 views41 - 54 AD
AE 16 mm 3.04 g
Date: 41 AD
Obverse: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG around hand left, holding pair of scales above P N R
Reverse: PON M TR P IMP COS DES IT around S dot C
laney
Claudius_II_Gothicus1.jpg
*SOLD*15 viewsClaudius II Billon Antoninianus

Attribution: RIC 62 variant (scepter instead of cornucopia)
Date: AD 269-270
Obverse: IMP C CLAVDIVS AVG, radiate, cuirassed bust r.
Reverse: LIBERT AVG, Libertas stg. facing, head l., holding pileum in her right hand and a tall scepter in her l., X in r. field. (Reverse of Gallienus - cf Sear5 11349)
Size: 18.9 mm
Noah
Claudius_RIC_I_97.jpg
*SOLD*10 viewsClaudius Copper AS

Attribution: RIC I 97, BMCRE 145
Date: AD 41-50
Obverse: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP, bare head l.
Reverse: LIBERTAS AVGVSTA, Libertas stg facing, head r., pileus in r., extending l. arm, S-C in fields.
Size: 28.7 mm
Weight: 10.62 grams
ex-Forvm
Noah
Claudius_-_RIC_I__111.jpg
*SOLD*7 viewsClaudius Copper As

Attribution: RIC I 111, Cohen 14
Date: AD 50-54
Obverse: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP P P, bare head l.
Reverse: CONSTANTIAE AVGVSTI S C, Constantia in military dress, standing l., raising hand and holding spear
Size: 28.2 mm
Weight: 11.57 grams
ex-Forvm
Noah
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001.Claudius 41-54 AD33 viewsAE As
Mint: Rome, Date:41-50 AD
Ref: RIC I-95
Obv: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG PM TR P IMP - Bare head left
Rev: CONSTANTIAE AVGVSTI S-C-Constantia standing front, head turned left, Right hand up, holding spear.
S-C -Senatus Consulto,struck by the public authority of the Senate,"by decree of the Senate"
Size: 28 mm;8.86 gms
Ref: RIC I-95
brian l
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002b. Livia48 viewsLivia, as history most often knows her, was the wife of Augustus for over fifty years, from 38 BC until his death in AD 14 , an astonishingly long time in view of life expectancy in ancient Rome. Although certainty about their inner lives and proof for what we would consider a loving relationship is necessarily lost to us, we can infer genuine loyalty and mutual respect between the two. They remained married despite the fact that she bore him no child. Livia's position as first lady of the imperial household, her own family connections, her confident personality and her private wealth allowed her to exercise power both through Augustus and on her own, during his lifetime and afterward. All the Julio-Claudian emperors were her direct descendants: Tiberius was her son; Gaius (Caligula), her great-grandson; Claudius, her grandson; Nero, her great-great-grandson.

Tiberius and Livia- Thessalonica, Macedonia/Size: 22.5mm/Reference: RPC 1567
Obverse: TI KAISAR SEBASTOS, bare head of Tiberius right Reverse: QESSALONIKEWN SEBASTOU, draped bust of Livia right.

Ex-Imperial Coins
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Augustus_AE-Semis_VIC-AVG_COHOR-PRAE-PHIL_Phillipi-Macedon_SNG-Cop-305_Q-001_h_18mm_0_00g-s.jpg
002p Augustus (63 B.C.-14 A.D.), (Time of Claudius or Nero, circa AD 41-68.??? ), Macedon, Phillipi, RPC I 1651, AE-18, (AE Semis), COHOR-PRAE-PHIL, Three military standards,108 views002p Augustus (63 B.C.-14 A.D.), (Time of Claudius or Nero, circa AD 41-68.??? ), Macedon, Phillipi, RPC I 1651, AE-18, (AE Semis), COHOR-PRAE-PHIL, Three military standards,
Augustus Macedon Phillipi Æ18 / Struck to Commemorate the Battle of Actium
avers:- VIC-AVG, Nike standing left holding wreath and palm branch.
revers:- COHOR-PRAE-PHIL, Three military standards.
exe: VIC/AVG//--, diameter:18mm, weight: , axis: h,
mint: Macedon, Phillipi, Pseudo-autonomous issue, date: Time of Claudius or Nero, circa AD 41-68., ref: RPC I 1651, SNG ANS 677; SNG Copenhagen 305, BMC 23, SGI 32.
Q-001
"This coin has traditionally been attributed to Augustus, but due to its copper composition, RPC attributes it as likely from Claudius to Nero; Philippi probably did not issue copper coins during the reign of Augustus."
1 commentsquadrans
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004. Claudius14 viewsClaudius Æ Sestertius. TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP, laureate head right / SPES AVGVSTA, Spes standing left, holding flower and raising hem of skirt, SC in ex. Cohen 85. Ric 99

Came pre zapped in an unclean lot. Check
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coins346.JPG
004. Claudius20 viewsCLAUDIUS (41-54 AD) AE Quadrans. Struck 41 AD. TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG around modius/ PON M TR P IMP COS DES IT around Large S C. RIC 84, Cohen 70.
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004. Claudius, 41-54AD. AE Aes.93 viewsAE Aes. Rome mint..
Obv. Bare head left TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG PM TR P IMP PP

Rev. Minerva advancing right brandishing spear and shield, large SC

RIC I00. BMCRE 206.

Beautiful patina. gVF
1 commentsLordBest
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004a CLAUDIUS20 viewsEMPEROR: Claudius
DENOMINATION: As
OBVERSE: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP P P, bare head left
REVERSE: CONSTANTIAE AVGVSTI S-C, Constantia standing left leaning on scepter
MINT: Roma
DATE: Ad 42-43
WEIGHT: 10.22 g
RIC: 111
Barnaba6
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004b CLAUDIUS33 viewsEMPEROR: Claudius
DENOMINATION: As
OBVERSE: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP P P, bare head left
REVERSE: LIBERTAS AVGVSTA S-C, Libertas standing facing with pileus, extending left hand
DATE: Ad 42-54
MINT: Roma
WEIGHT: 11.61 g
RIC: 113
1 commentsBarnaba6
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004c CLAUDIUS23 viewsEMPEROR: Claudius
DENOMINATION: As
OBVERSE: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP P. P., bare head left
REVERSE: Minerva standing right, brandishing javelin and holding shield / S C across field
DATE: Ad 50-54
MINT: Roma
WEIGHT: 10.57 g
RIC: 116
Barnaba6
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005. CLAUDIUS24 viewsClaudius AE As. TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR IMP, bare head left / S-C across field, Minerva standing right, brandishing spear and holding shield on left arm. Cohen 84.

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005. Claudius 22 viewsClaudius (A.D. 41-54),,

Copper As,

bare head of Claudius left,
TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP,
rev., Minerva advancing right brandishing spear and holding shield,
dividing S C (RCV 1861; RIC 100),
27mm, 11.9g

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coin321.JPG
005. Claudius23 viewsLibertas

In Roman mythology, Libertas (which in Latin means freedom) was the goddess of freedom.

Æ As (9.50 gm). Bare head left / Libertas standing right, holding pileus. RIC I 113; BMCRE 202; Cohen 47. Fine, red-gray patina

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005. Claudius28 viewsClaudius AE Sestertius, RIC 112, Cohen 38, BMC 185
TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP P P Laureate head right / EX S C - P P - OB CIVES - SERVATOS in four lines within oak wreath.
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005. Claudius24 viewsCopper as, RIC I 111, Cohen 14, SRCV I 1858, Rome mint, 50 - 54 A.D.; obverse TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP P P, bare head left; reverse CONSTANTIAE AVGVSTI S C, Constantia in military dress, standing left, raising hand and holding spear

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005. Claudius 26 viewsClaudius AE As. TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR IMP, bare head left / S-C across field, Minerva standing right, brandishing spear and holding shield on left arm. Cohen 84.

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005. CLAUDIUS 41 AD - 54 AD53 viewsCLAUDIUS. 41-54 AD.

I, Claudius was a very sympathetic treatment of Claudius; nevertheless, along with Claudius the God, those books hold a special place in my library. Without those books, I would not have taken an interest in the classics in high school, and subsequently, ancient coins. Certainly Claudius was not a saint; nor good as we define a person now; but given the circumstances and the unlimited power he weld, few of us could have done it better.

Æ As (9.50 gm). Bare head left / Libertas standing right, holding pileus. RIC I 113; BMCRE 202; Cohen 47. Ex-CNG
1 commentsecoli
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005a. Antonia74 viewsF/F Antonia Dupondis



Attribution: RIC 92
Date: 41-54 AD
Obverse: ANTONIA AVGVSTA, bust r.
Reverse: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP P P S C. Claudius standing left, holding simpulum
Size: 29.04 mm
Weight: 10.2 grams

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ecoli73
coin312.JPG
005a. Antonia35 viewsAntonia

she exposed a plot between her daughter Livilla and Sejanus, Tiberius's Praetorian Prefect. This led to Sejanus's downfall and to the death of Livilla. Claudius, her biggest disappointment (she once called him a "monster") was the only one of her children to survive her.

She committed suicide in 37 AD on Caligula's orders after expressing unhappiness over the murder of her youngest grandson, Tiberius Gemellus. There is a passage in Suetonius's "Life of Gaius" that mentions how Caligula may have given her poison himself. Renowned for her beauty and virtue, Antonia spent her long life revered by the Roman people and enjoyed many honors conferred upon her by her relatives.

Æ Dupondius (10.61 gm). Struck by Claudius. Draped bust right / Claudius standing left, holding simpulum. RIC I 92 (Claudius); BMCRE 166 (same); Cohen 6. Ex-CNG

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005b. Britannicus126 viewsBritannicus (son of Claudius) AE17. Ionia, Smyrna

Britannicus (41 - 55 A.D.) was the son of the Roman emperor Claudius and his third wife Messalina. His original name was "Germanicus" but was changed in honor of his father's conquest of Britain in 43 AD.

Nobody is sure why Claudius made Nero his successor and not Britannicus, although the fact that Britannicus may have been Caligula's son is a factor. Britannicus was killed by (partisans of) his step-brother (and brother-in-law) Nero so that Nero could become emperor of Rome.

His sister Octavia is the heroine of the play written at some time after the death of Nero. It's title is titled her name, but its central message is the wrong done to the Claudian house because of the wrong done to its last male member and its last hope.

Britannicus. Before 54 AD. AE 17mm (4.31 g), Minted at Ionia, Smyrna. Bare head right 'ZMYP' below bust / Nike flying right. cf S(GIC) 516. Scarce. Some dirt and patina chipping.

ecoli73
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005bb. Antonia, daughter of Claudius 5 viewsJUDAEA, Roman Administration. Claudius, with Britannicus, Antonia, and Octavia. AD 41-54. Æ (23mm, 12.02 g, 12h). Caesarea Panias mint. Struck before 49 CE. Laureate head of Claudius left / The children of Claudius: from left to right, Antonia, Britannicus, and Octavia, the two daughters each holding a cornucopia. Meshorer 350; Hendin 1259; Sofaer 83; RPC I 4842. Fair, green and brown patina with touches of red. Rare.ecoli
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005c. Germanicus22 viewsGermanicus AS / SC

Attribution: RIC(Claudius) 106

Date: 19 AD
Obverse: GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N Bare head right
Reverse: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG GERMANI IMP P P around large SC
Size: 28.73 mm
Weight: 11.6 grams
Description: A decent and scarcer bronze

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005d. Agrippina II89 viewsLYDIA, Hypaepa. Agrippina Jr., mother of Nero. Augusta, 50-59 AD. Æ 14mm (2.33 gm). Draped bust of Agrippina right / Cult statue of Artemis. RPC I 2541; SNG Copenhagen -.

Julia Vipsania Agrippina Minor or Agrippina Minor (Latin for "the younger") (November 7, AD 15 – March 59), often called "Agrippinilla" to distinguish her from her mother, was the daughter of Germanicus and Agrippina Major. She was sister of Caligula, granddaughter and great-niece to Tiberius, niece and wife of Claudius, and the mother of Nero. She was born at Oppidum Ubiorum on the Rhine, afterwards named in her honour Colonia Agrippinae (modern Cologne, Germany).

Agrippina was first married to (1st century AD) Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus. From this marriage she gave birth to Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus, who would become Roman Emperor Nero. Her husband died in January, 40. While still married, Agrippina participated openly in her brother Caligula's decadent court, where, according to some sources, at his instigation she prostituted herself in a palace. While it was generally agreed that Agrippinilla, as well as her sisters, had ongoing sexual relationships with their brother Caligula, incest was an oft-used criminal accusation against the aristocracy, because it was impossible to refute successfully. As Agrippina and her sister became more problematic for their brother, Caligula sent them into exile for a time, where it is said she was forced to dive for sponges to make a living. In January, 41, Agrippina had a second marriage to the affluent Gaius Sallustius Crispus Passienus. He died between 44 and 47, leaving his estate to Agrippina.

As a widow, Agrippina was courted by the freedman Pallas as a possible marriage match to her own uncle, Emperor Claudius, and became his favourite councillor, even granted the honor of being called Augusta (a title which no other queen had ever received). They were married on New Year's Day of 49, after the death of Claudius's first wife Messalina. Agrippina then proceeded to persuade Claudius to adopt her son, thereby placing Nero in the line of succession to the Imperial throne over Claudius's own son, Brittanicus. A true Imperial politician, Agrippina did not reject murder as a way to win her battles. Many ancient sources credited her with poisoning Claudius in 54 with a plate of poisened mushrooms, hence enabling Nero to quickly take the throne as emperor.

For some time, Agrippina influenced Nero as he was relatively ill-equipped to rule on his own. But Nero eventually felt that she was taking on too much power relative to her position as a woman of Rome. He deprived her of her honours and exiled her from the palace, but that was not enough. Three times Nero tried to poison Agrippina, but she had been raised in the Imperial family and was accustomed to taking antidotes. Nero had a machine built and attached to the roof of her bedroom. The machine was designed to make the ceiling collapse — the plot failed with the machine. According to the historians Tacitus and Suetonius, Nero then plotted her death by sending for her in a boat constructed to collapse, intending to drown Agrippina. However, only some of the crew were in on the plot; their efforts were hampered by the rest of the crew trying to save the ship. As the ship sank, one of her handmaidens thought to save herself by crying that she was Agrippina, thinking they would take special care of her. Instead the maid was instantly beaten to death with oars and chains. The real Agrippina realised what was happening and in the confusion managed to swim away where a passing fisherman picked her up. Terrified that his cover had been blown, Nero instantly sent men to charge her with treason and summarily execute her. Legend states that when the Emperor's soldiers came to kill her, Agrippina pulled back her clothes and ordered them to stab her in the belly that had housed such a monstrous son.

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005d. Nero Claudius Drusus31 viewsNero Claudius Drusus. Died 9 BC. Æ Sestertius (35mm, 27.77 g, 6h). Rome mint. Struck under Claudius, circa AD 50-54. Bare head of Nero Claudius left / Claudius seated left on curule chair, holding branch and roll; around chair, weapons and armor to either side of globe. RIC I 109 (Claudius). Fine, rough reddish-brown surfaces.

Ex-CNG sale 209, lot 325 128/100

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006 - Claudius II Gothicus (268-270 AD), Antoninianus - RIC 9135 viewsObv: IMP C CLAVDIVS AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev. PROVIDENT AVG, Providentia standing half left, leaning on column, holding cornucopia and rod over globe.
Minted in Rome.
pierre_p77
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006a. Claudia16 viewsEGYPT, Alexandria. Nero, with Claudia. AD 54-68. BI Tetradrachm (22mm, 10.74 g, 12h). Dated RY 3 (AD 56/57). Laureate head of Nero right / Draped bust of Claudia Octavia right; L Γ (date) below chin. Köln 122-4; Dattari (Savio) 190; K&G 14.7; RPC I 5202; Emmett 127.3. Near VF. Ex - CNG

Furthermore, the carefully contrived marriage between Octavia and Nero was a disaster on a personal level. Nero soon embarked on a serious relationship with a freedman named Acte, and more importantly developed an active dislike for his wife. "Quickly feeling aversion to intimacy with Octavia, he replied to his friends who were finding fault with him that she ought to be satisfied with the outward trappings of a wife." This antipthy was not likely to produce offspring who would unite the Julian and Claudian lines. By 58 Nero was becoming involved with a freeborn mistress, Poppaea, whom he would want to make his empress in exchange for Octavia. But the legitimacy of his principate derived from his relationship with his predecessor, and he was not so secure that he could do without the connection with Claudius provided through his mother and his wife. In 59 he was able to arrange for Agrippina's death, but it was not until 62 that he felt free to divorce Octavia and marry Poppaea. The initial grounds for putting Octavia aside was the charge that she was barren because she had had no children. But a more aggressive attack was needed when opposition arose from those who still challenged Nero's prncipate and remained loyal to Octavia as the last representative of her family. With the connivance of Poppaea, charges of adultery were added, Octavia was banished to Campania and then to the island of Pandataria off the coast, and finally killed. Her severed head was sent to Rome.
2 commentsecoli
Claudgoth2.jpg
007 - Claudius II (268-270 AD), Antoninianus - RIC 13 31 viewsObv: IMP C CLAVDIVS AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: ADVENTVS AVG, emperor on horseback left, holding scptre and rising hand in salute.
Minted in Rome.
1 commentspierre_p77
007_Antonia_ANTONIA_AVGVSTA_TI_CLAVDIVS_CAESAR_AVG_P_M_TR_P_IMP_RIC-I_92_(Claudius)_C-6_BMC-166_41-50-AD_Q-001_10h_26,5mm_9,54y-s.jpg
007 Antonia (?-37 A.D.), RIC I 092 (Claudius), Rome, AE-As(?), (Claudius) Claudius, togate, standing left, S C at sides,136 views007 Antonia (?-37 A.D.), RIC I 092 (Claudius), Rome, AE-As(?), (Claudius) Claudius, togate, standing left, S C at sides,
Antonia, mother of Claudius. Died 37 AD.
avers:- ANTONIA AVGVSTA, draped bust of Antonia right.
revers:- TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP, S-C across field, Claudius, togate, standing left, holding simpulum.
exerg: S/C//--, diameter: 26,5mm, weight: 9,54g, axes:10h,
mint: Rome, date: Struck circa 41-50 A.D., ref: RIC I 92 (Claudius), Cohen 6, BMCRE 166 (Claudius),
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
9.jpg
009 Nero Claudius Drusus. AE sest. 39 viewsobv: NERO CLAVDIVS DRVSVS GERMANICUS IMP bare head l.
rev: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG PM TR P IMP Claudius seated l. on curule chair,
weapons and armer lying around
"brother of Tiberius"
1 commentshill132
Germanicus_AE-AS_GERMANICVS-CAESAR-TI-AVG-F-DIVI-AVG-N_TI_CLAVDIVS_CAESAR_AVG_GERM_P_M_TR_P_IMP_P_P_S-dot-C_RIC_106(Claudius)_Cohen_9,_BMC_241_Rome-41-43-AD_Q-001_h_mm_gx-s.jpg
009a Germanicus (15 B.C.-19 A.D.), RIC I 106 (Claudius), Rome, AE-As, TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR P IMP P P, Around large S•C, #186 views009a Germanicus (15 B.C.-19 A.D.), RIC I 106 (Claudius), Rome, AE-As, TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR P IMP P P, Around large S•C, #1
Germanicus Father of Caligula. Died 19 AD. AE-AS, (15 BC.-19 CE.) posthumous commemorative minted under Caligula.
avers:- GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N, Bare head right
revers:- TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR P IMP P P, Legend around large S•C.
exerg: S•C//--, diameter: 27-28mm, weight: 9,87g, axis: 6h,
mind: Rome, date: 40-41 A.D., ref: RIC I 106 (Claudius), Cohen 9, BMC 241,
Q-001
quadrans
Germanicus_AE-AS_GERMANICVS-CAESAR-TI-AVG-F-DIVI-AVG-N_TI_CLAVDIVS_CAESAR_AVG_GERM_P_M_TR_P_IMPPP_S_C_RIC_106(Cl)_C_9,_Rome-41-3AD_Q-001_6h_30,5mm_11,03ga-s.jpg
009a Germanicus (15 B.C.-19 A.D.), RIC I 106 (Claudius), Rome, AE-As, TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR P IMP P P, Around large S•C, #2141 views009a Germanicus (15 B.C.-19 A.D.), RIC I 106 (Claudius), Rome, AE-As, TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR P IMP P P, Around large S•C, #2
Germanicus Father of Caligula. Died 19 AD. AE-AS, (15 BC.-19 CE.) posthumous commemorative minted under Caligula.
avers:- GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N, Bare head right
revers:- TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR P IMP P P, Legend around large S•C.
exerg: S•C//--, diameter: 29,5-30,5mm, weight: 11,03g, axis: 6h,
mind: Rome, date: 40-41 A.D., ref: RIC I 106 (Claudius), Cohen 9, BMC 241,
Q-002
3 commentsquadrans
Personajes_Imperiales_1.jpg
01 - Personalities of the Empire82 viewsPompey, Brutus, Julius Caesar, Marc Antony, Augustus, Livia, Caius & Lucius, Agrippa, Nero Claudius Drusus, Germanicus, Agrippina Sr., Tiberius, Drusus and Antonia1 commentsmdelvalle
10a.jpg
010a Antonia. AE dupondus 14.4gm30 viewsrev: ANTONIA AVGVSTA drp. bust r.
rev: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG PM TR P Imp. Claudius veiled and togate std. l.,
r. holding simpulem/ SC
"doughter of M. Antony, wife of N.C Drusus"
hill132
10b.jpg
010b Antonia. AE dupondus 19 viewsobv: ANTONIA AVGVSTA drp. bust r.
rev: TI CLAUDIVS CAESAR AVG PM TR P IMP Claudius veiled and togate,
holding simpulum/SC
hill132
quadrans-Q-010_h_mm_ga-s.jpg
012 Claudius-I (41-54 A.D.), RIC I 084, Rome, AE-Quadrans, PON M TR P IMP COS DES IT around small S•C, #1121 views012 Claudius-I (41-54 A.D.), RIC I 084, Rome, AE-Quadrans, PON M TR P IMP COS DES IT around small S•C, #1
avers:- TI-CLAVDIVS-CAESAR-AVG around modius.
revers:- PON-M-TR-P-IMP-COS-DES-IT, around small S•C.
exe: S•C//--, diameter: 14,4-15,5mm, weight: 3,11g, axis: 0h,
mint: Rome, date: 41 A.D., ref: RIC-I-84, C-70, BMC 179,
Q-001
quadrans
quadrans-Q-004_h_mm_ga-s.jpg
012 Claudius-I (41-54 A.D.), RIC I 084, Rome, AE-Quadrans, PON M TR P IMP COS DES IT around small S•C, #2123 views012 Claudius-I (41-54 A.D.), RIC I 084, Rome, AE-Quadrans, PON M TR P IMP COS DES IT around small S•C, #2
avers:- TI-CLAVDIVS-CAESAR-AVG around modius.
revers:- PON-M-TR-P-IMP-COS-DES-IT, around small S•C.
exe: S•C//--, diameter: 14,4-15mm, weight: 2,68g, axis: 6h,
mint: Rome, date: 41 A.D., ref: RIC-I-84, C-70, BMC 179,
Q-002
quadrans
quadrans-Q-011_h_mm_ga-s.jpg
012 Claudius-I (41-54 A.D.), RIC I 084var., Rome, AE-Quadrans, PON M TR P IMP COS DES IT around large S•C,129 views012 Claudius-I (41-54 A.D.), RIC I 084var., Rome, AE-Quadrans, PON M TR P IMP COS DES IT around large S•C,
avers:- TI-CLAVDIVS-CAESAR-AVG around modius.
revers:- PON-M-TR-P-IMP-COS-DES-IT, around large S•C.
exe: S•C//--, diameter: 16,5mm, weight: 2,82g, axis: 0h,
mint: Rome, date: 41 A.D., ref: RIC-I-84 var, C-70, BMC 179,
Q-001
quadrans
Claudius_AE-Quadrans_TI-CLAVDIVS-CAESAR-AVG_P_N_R_PON-M-TRP-IMP-COS-DES-IT__S-C_RIC-I-84_C-70_Rome-AD_Q-001_h_17-88mm_g-s.jpg
012 Claudius-I (41-54 A.D.), RIC I 085, Rome, AE-Quadrans, PON M TR P IMP COS DES IT, S•C across fields, 195 views012 Claudius-I (41-54 A.D.), RIC I 085, Rome, AE-Quadrans, PON M TR P IMP COS DES IT, S•C across fields,
avers:- TI-CLAVDIVS-CAESAR-AVG, Hand with scales, PNR below.
revers:- PON-M-TR-P-IMP-COS-DES-IT, S•C across fields.
exe: S•C//--, diameter: 17-18mm, weight: g, axis:- h,
mint: Rome, date: 41 A.D., ref: RIC-I-085, C-71,
Q-001
quadrans
quadrans-Q-014_h_mm_ga-s.jpg
012 Claudius-I (41-54 A.D.), RIC I 090, Rome, AE-Quadrans, PON M TR P IMP P P COS II, around large S•C, #1121 views012 Claudius-I (41-54 A.D.), RIC I 090, Rome, AE-Quadrans, PON M TR P IMP P P COS II, around large S•C, #1
avers:- TI-CLAVDIVS-CAESAR-AVG around three-legged modius.
revers:- PON-M-TR-P-IMP-P-P-COS-II, around large S•C.
exe: S•C//--, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Rome, date: 42 A.D., ref: RIC-I-90, C-72, BMC 182,
Q-001
quadrans
Claudius_AE-AS_TI-CLAVDIVS-CAESAR-AVG-P-M-TR-P-IMP_LIBERTAS-AVGVSTA_S-C_RIC-I-097_C-47_BMC-145-Rome-41-50-AD_Q-001_7h_28,5-29,5mm_11,05ga-s.jpg
012 Claudius-I (41-54 A.D.), RIC I 097, Rome, AE-As, LIBERTAS AVGVSTA, Libertas, S/C//--, #1136 views012 Claudius-I (41-54 A.D.), RIC I 097, Rome, AE-As, LIBERTAS AVGVSTA, Libertas, S/C//--, #1
avers:- TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP, Bare head of Claudius left .
revers:- LIBERTAS AVGVSTA, Libertas standing facing, head right, holding pileus in right hand, S—C across in lower fields.
exe: S/C//--, diameter: 28,5-29,5mm, weight: 11,05g, axis: 7h,
mint: Rome, date: 41-50 A.D., ref: RIC I 097, C 47, BMC 145, Sear 1859,
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
Claudius_AE-As_TI-CLAVDIVS-CAESAR-AVG-P-M-TR-P-IMP_S-C_RIC-I-100_C-84_Rome-41-50_Q-001_29mm_10,33g-s.jpg
012 Claudius-I (41-54 A.D.), RIC I 100, Rome, AE-As, S-C, Minerva, 354 views012 Claudius-I (41-54 A.D.), RIC I 100, Rome, AE-As, S-C, Minerva,
avers:- TI-CLAVDIVS-CAESAR-AVG-P-M-TR-P-IMP, Bare head left.
revers:- No legend - Minerva advancing right, holding javelin and round shield; S C across fields.
exerg: , diameter: 29mm, weight: 10,33g, axis:- h,
mint: Rome, date: 41-50 A.D., ref: RIC-I-100, C-84,
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
Claudius_AE-AS_TI-CLAVDIVS-CAESAR-AVG-P-M-TR-P-IMP-P-P_CONSTANTIAE-AVGVSTi_S-C_RIC-I-111_C-14_Rome-42-43AD_Q-001_11h_29-30mm_11,58g-s.jpg
012 Claudius-I (41-54 A.D.), RIC I 111, Rome, AE-As, CONSTANTIAE AVGVSTI, Constantia standing left, S C across fields,178 views012 Claudius-I (41-54 A.D.), RIC I 111, Rome, AE-As, CONSTANTIAE AVGVSTI, Constantia standing left, S C across fields,
avers:- TI-CLAVDIVS-CAESAR-AVG-P-M-TR-P-IMP-P-P, Bare head left.
revers:- CONSTANTIAE-AVGVSTI, Constantia standing left leaning on scepter; S C across fields.
exe: S/C//--, diameter: 29-30mm, weight: 11,58g, axis:- 11h,
mint: Rome, date: 42-43 A.D., ref: RIC-I-111, C-14,
Q-001
quadrans
Claudius_TI-CLAVDIVS-CAESAR-AVG-P-M-TR-P-IMP____EX-S-C-P-P-OB-CIVES-SERVATOS_RIC-I-112_C-38_Q-001_34-36mm_23,63g-s.jpg
012 Claudius-I (41-54 A.D.), RIC I 112var. (?), Thracian ?, AE-Sestertius, EX-S-C/P-P/OB-CIVES/SERVATOS, Rare !!!,369 views012 Claudius-I (41-54 A.D.), RIC I 112var. (?), Thracian ?, AE-Sestertius, EX-S-C/P-P/OB-CIVES/SERVATOS, Rare !!!,
Claudius became “Father of the Country” in 50 AD, and this title was added to the coinage, at the end of the legend, with it’s abbreviation: PP. The reverse legend translates to “For Saving the Lives of Citizens.
avers:- TI-CLAVDIVS-CAESAR-AVG-P-M-TR-P-IMP-P-P, laureate head of Claudius right
revers:- No legend - Wreath, EX-S-C/P-P/OB-CIVES/SERVATOS within,
exe:-/-//--, diameter: 34-36mm, weight: 23,63g, axis:11h,
mint:Thracian ?, date: 50-54 A.D., ref: RIC-I-112, C-38,
Q-001
"RIC is in error to state that P P only appeared on Claudius' bronze coins in 50 AD. In fact Claudius became P P very early in 42 AD, and P P appeared immediately not only on his quadrantes, which are specifically dated to 42 by the title COS II, but also on his sestertii and middle bronzes.
Stylistically your coin should not be attributed to Rome, but to a Thracian mint perhaps active only towards the end of the reign. These coins, scarcer than the Rome-mint ones, are not recognized in RIC!" by Curtis Clay. Thank you "curtisclay".
5 commentsquadrans
Claudius_AE-Sest_TI-CLAVDIVS-CAESAR-AVG-P-M-TR-P-IMP-P-P_EX-S-C-P-P-OB-CIVES-SERVATOS_RIC-I-112_C-38_Q-001_11h_34-36mm_23,63ga-s.jpg
012 Claudius-I (41-54 A.D.), RIC I 112var. (?), Thracian ?, AE-Sestertius, EX-S-C/P-P/OB-CIVES/SERVATOS, Rare !!!, Re-Shot !341 views012 Claudius-I (41-54 A.D.), RIC I 112var. (?), Thracian ?, AE-Sestertius, EX-S-C/P-P/OB-CIVES/SERVATOS, Rare !!!, Re-Shot !
Claudius became “Father of the Country” in 50 AD, and this title was added to the coinage, at the end of the legend, with it’s abbreviation: PP. The reverse legend translates to “For Saving the Lives of Citizens.
avers:- TI-CLAVDIVS-CAESAR-AVG-P-M-TR-P-IMP-P-P, laureate head of Claudius right
revers:- No legend - Wreath, EX-S-C/P-P/OB-CIVES/SERVATOS within,
exe:-/-//--, diameter: 34-36mm, weight: 23,63g, axis:11h,
mint:Thracian ?, date: 50-54 A.D., ref: RIC-I-112, C-38,
Q-001
"RIC is in error to state that P P only appeared on Claudius' bronze coins in 50 AD. In fact Claudius became P P very early in 42 AD, and P P appeared immediately not only on his quadrantes, which are specifically dated to 42 by the title COS II, but also on his sestertii and middle bronzes.
Stylistically your coin should not be attributed to Rome, but to a Thracian mint perhaps active only towards the end of the reign. These coins, scarcer than the Rome-mint ones, are not recognized in RIC!" by Curtis Clay. Thank you "curtisclay".
1 commentsquadrans
Claudius_AE-AS_TI-CLAVDIVS-CAESAR-AVG-P-M-TR-P-IMP-P-P_LIBERTAS-AVGVSTA_S-C_RIC-I-113_C-47_Rome-50-54-_Q-001_27-28mm_10,94g-s.jpg
012 Claudius-I (41-54 A.D.), RIC I 113, Rome, AE-As, LIBERTAS AVGVSTA, Libertas, #1392 views012 Claudius-I (41-54 A.D.), RIC I 113, Rome, AE-As, LIBERTAS AVGVSTA, Libertas, #1
avers:- TI-CLAVDIVS-CAESAR-AVG-P-M-TR-P-IMP-P-P, Bare head left.
revers:- LIBERTAS-AVGVSTA - Libertas standing, facing, holding pileus and raising hand; S C across fields.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 27-28mm, weight: 10,94g, axis:- h,
mint: Rome, date: 41-50 A.D., ref: RIC-I-113, C-47,
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
Claudius--Q-001pa-s.jpg
012 Claudius-I (41-54 A.D.), RIC I 113, Rome, AE-As, LIBERTAS AVGVSTA, Libertas, #293 views012 Claudius-I (41-54 A.D.), RIC I 113, Rome, AE-As, LIBERTAS AVGVSTA, Libertas, #2
avers:- TI-CLAVDIVS-CAESAR-AVG-P-M-TR-P-IMP-P-P, Bare head left.
revers:- LIBERTAS-AVGVSTA - Libertas standing, facing, holding pileus and raising hand; S C across fields.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis:- h,
mint: Rome, date: 41-50 A.D., ref: RIC-I-113, C-47,
Q-002
quadrans
Claudius_AE-AS_TI-CLAVDIVS-CAESAR-AVG-P-M-TR-P-IMP-P-P_S-C_RIC-I-116_C-84_Rome-50-54_Q-001_29mm_12,09g-s.jpg
012 Claudius-I (41-54 A.D.), RIC I 116, Rome, AE-As, S-C, Minerva, 442 views012 Claudius-I (41-54 A.D.), RIC I 116, Rome, AE-As, S-C, Minerva,
avers:- TI-CLAVDIVS-CAESAR-AVG-P-M-TR-P-IMP-P-P, Bare head left.
revers:- No legend - Minerva advancing right, holding javelin and round shield; S C across fields.
diameter: 29mm,
weight: 12,09g,
axis:- h,
mint: Rome,
date: 50-54 A.D.
ref: RIC-I-116, C-84,
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
Claudius_Jeton-_21,5mm_3,02ga-s.jpg
012j Claudius-I (41-54 A.D.), RIC I , Rome, AE-Jeton, 107 views012j Claudius-I (41-54 A.D.), RIC I , Rome, AE-Jeton,
avers:- Countermark: TI•C•A (mirror writing).
revers:- No legend -
exerg: , diameter: 21,5 mm, weight: 3,02 g, axis:- h,
mint: Rome, date: A.D., ref: RIC-I-, C-,
Q-001
quadrans
012_Claudius-I_(41-54_A_D_),_Billon-Tetradrachm,_Milne_0077,_Alexandria,_ME__A_I-NA_KAI___EBA_,_Messalina_standing_facing_Q-001_axis-0h_25mm_11,50ga-s.jpg
012p Claudius-I (41-54 A.D.), AR-Tetradrachm, G-075, D-123, Egypt, Alexandria, MEΣΣAΛI-NA KAIΣ ΣEBAΣ, Messalina standing facing,80 views012p Claudius-I (41-54 A.D.), AR-Tetradrachm, G-075, D-123, Egypt, Alexandria, MEΣΣAΛI-NA KAIΣ ΣEBAΣ, Messalina standing facing,
avers:- TI KΛAΥΔI KAIΣ ΣEBA ΓERMANI AΥTOK, laureate head of Claudius right, LΓ before
revers:- MEΣΣAΛI-NA KAIΣ ΣEBAΣ, Messalina standing facing, head left, leaning on draped column, holding figures of two children in extended right hand and cradling two grain ears in left arm.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 25mm, weight: 11,50g, axis: 0h,
mint: Alexandria, date: Year (LΓ) 3 = 42-43 A.D., ref: Geissen-075, Dattari-123, Kapmann-Ganschow-12.22-p-5½, RPC-5131, Milne 77,
Q-001
quadrans
Antonius_Felix_procurator,_AE-16,_Prutah__Jerusalems_Israel_Palm_Hedin-652,_54_AD_Q-001_0h,_2,28_g_,_16_mm-s~0.jpg
012p Claudius-I (41-54 A.D.), Judaea, Antonius Felix Procurator, under Claudius, (52-60 A.D.), AE-16(Prutah), Hedin 652, BRIT, Six branched palm tree,93 views012p Claudius-I (41-54 A.D.), Judaea, Antonius Felix Procurator, under Claudius, (52-60 A.D.), AE-16(Prutah), Hedin 652, BRIT, Six branched palm tree,
avers:- NEPΩ KΛAV KAICP, Two crossed shields and spears.
revers:- BRIT, Six branched palm tree bearing two bunches of dates, L-IΔ, K-AI across field.
exerg: L/IΔ//K/AI, diameter: 16,0mm, weight: 2,28g, axes: 0h,
mint: Judaea, date: Dated Year of Claudius (Year 14 = 54 A.D.) ref: Hedin 652,
Q-001
quadrans
012_Claudius-I_(41-54_A_D_),_AE-24,_Macedon,________-________-_______________-__________Varb-III-3005-334p_Sear-425-40p_BMC-5-27,145_41-54-AD_Q-001_23-25mm_9,87g-s.jpg
012p Claudius-I (41-54 A.D.), Macedonia, Macedonian Koinon, Varb-III-3005, AE-24, ΣEBAΣTOΣ MAKEΔONΩN,79 views012p Claudius-I (41-54 A.D.), Macedonia, Macedonian Koinon, Varb-III-3005, AE-24, ΣEBAΣTOΣ MAKEΔONΩN,
avers:- ΤΙ-ΚΛΑΥΔΙΟΣ-ΚΑΙΣΑΡ, Bare head left.
revers:- ΣΕΒΑΣΤΟΣ-ΜΑΚΕΔΟΝΩΝ, around Macedonian shield.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 23-25mm, weight: 9,87g, axis: h,
mint: Macedonia, Macedonian Koinon, date: 41-54 A.D., ref: Varb-III-3005-334p, Sear-425-40p, BMC-5-27,145,
Q-001
quadrans
012_Claudius_AE-22_TI-KLAV-KAISAR-SEVASTOS-GERM_THESSALONEIKEON-TEOS-SEVASTOS_RPC-1578_Varb-4238_41-45-AD_Q-001_6h_20-22mm_9,86gx-s.jpg
012p Claudius-I (41-54 A.D.), Macedonia, Thessalonica, RPC-1578, AE-21, ΘEΣΣAΛONEIKEON ΘEOΣ ΣEBAΣTOΣ, 128 views012p Claudius-I (41-54 A.D.), Macedonia, Thessalonica, RPC-1578, AE-21, ΘEΣΣAΛONEIKEON ΘEOΣ ΣEBAΣTOΣ,
avers:- ΤΙ-ΚΛΑΥ-ΚΑΙΣΑΡ-ΣΕΒΑΣΤΟΣ-ΓΕΡΜ, Laureate head of Claudius left
revers:- ΘΕΣΣΑΛΟΝΕΙΚΕΟΝ-ΘΕΟΣ-ΣΕΒΑΣΤΟΣ, Radiate head of Augustus right.
exe:-/-//--, diameter: 20-21,5mm, weight: 9,86g, axis: 6h,
mint: Macedonia, Thessalonica, date: 41-45 A.D., ref: RPC-1578, Varbanov-4235-38,
Q-001
3 commentsquadrans
012p_Claudius-I_(41-54_A_D_),_Syria,_Uncertain_Caesarea,_Tyche_Q-001_0h_24-24,5mm_9,7g-s.jpg
012p Claudius-I (41-54 A.D.), Syria, Uncertain Caesarea, RPC I 4086, AE-24, KAICAPEΩN ETOYC E, Veiled Tyche seated right,150 views012p Claudius-I (41-54 A.D.), Syria, Uncertain Caesarea, RPC I 4086, AE-24, KAICAPEΩN ETOYC E, Veiled Tyche seated right,
avers:- TIBEPIOC KΛAYΔIOC KAICAP, Bare head of Tiberius right.
revers:- KAICAPEΩN ETOYC E, Veiled Tyche, seated right, on rocks and holding ears of corn, below, river god.
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: 24,0-24,5mm, weight: 9,7g, axes: 0h,
mint: Syria, Uncertain Caesarea, date: Year 5 = 45 A.D., ref: RPC-I-4086, BMC Anazarbus 4,
Q-001
3 commentsquadrans
14a.jpg
014a Claudius. AE AS 12.2gm25 viewsobv: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG PM TR P IMP bare head l.
rev: SC Minerva helmeted and drp., r. javalon-shield on l. arm
hill132
RI_015c_img.jpg
015 - Claudius Ae AS - Barbarous29 viewsAe AS
Obv:– TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP, bare head left
Rev:– CONSTANTIAE AVGVSTI S-C, Constantia, helmeted and in military dress, standing left, holding long spear in left hand
Minted in Rome. A.D. 41-50
Reference:- RIC 95, Cohen 14, BMC 140

The style looks a little crude and the legends lack uniformity though are quite legible. It is also light, weighing in at only 7.85 gms. The die orientation is 180 degrees.

Would appear to be an ancient imitation.
2 commentsmaridvnvm
RI 015b img.jpg
015 - Claudius AS - RIC 09790 viewsObv:– TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP, Claudius facing left
Rev:– LIBERTAS AVGVSTA / S C, Libertas standing facing, with pileus and extending left hand
Reference RIC 97
(SOLD)
maridvnvm
15a.jpg
015 Britannicus. AE17 4.0gm 25 viewsobv: bare head r.
rev: Nike with trophy
"son of Claudius and Messelina"
1 commentshill132
Claudius_Milan.jpg
016 - Claudius II (268-270 AD), Antoninianus - RIC 15324 viewsObv: IMP CLAVDIVS P F AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: ORIENS AVG, Sol standing right, holding right hand rised and globe in left.
Minted in Mediolanum - Milan - (P in exe) 268-270 AD.
17 mm in diam.
pierre_p77
16a.jpg
016a Aggrippina jr. AE14 2.1gm26 viewsobv: drp. bust r.
rev: cult statue of Artemis
"mother of Nero, doughter of germanicus,
sister of Caligula, wife of Claudius"
hill132
Personajes_Imperiales_2.jpg
02 - Personalities of the Empire58 viewsCalígula, Claudius, Britannicus , Agrippina jr., Nero, Galba, Otho, Vitellius, Vespasian, Domitila, Titus, Domitia and Julia Titi1 commentsmdelvalle
02-Claudius-II-The-26.jpg
02. Claudius II: Thessalonica fractional.19 viewsAE3 fractional (half follis?), 317-18, Thessalonica mint.
Obverse: DIVO CLAVDIO OPTIMO IMP / Veiled bust of Claudius II, Gothicus.
Reverse: REQVIES OPTIMORVM MERITORVM / Emperor seated on curule chair, raising right hand and holding sceptre.
Mint mark:: . TS . Γ .
1.35 gm., 16 mm.
RIC #26; PBCC #906; Sear #16399.

Around the years 317 - 318, Constantine issued commemorative coins honoring three deified emperors: Claudius II Gothicus, Constantius I, and Maximian. It is not real clear when these coins were issued, but RIC assigns them to the years 317-18 saying there is evidence they were issued near or at the end of the Sol coinage. They are small AE3 in size (16 mm), but on flans that are much thinner and weigh significantly less than other coins of the period. Therefore they are generally regarded as fractionals. They were minted at Treveri, Arelate, Rome, Aquileia, Siscia, and Thessalonica.

Why these three emperors? Constantine claimed Claudius II Gothicus was one of his ancestors (probably not true). Constantius I was Constantine's father, and Maximian was the father of Constantine's wife, Fausta.

Callimachus
Divoclavdio.jpg
020 - Claudius II Gothicus (268-270 AD), Antoninianus - RIC 26145 viewsObv: DIVO CLAVDIO. radiated bust right.
Rev: CONSECRATIO, large altar.
Minted in Milan(?), c 270 AD.

Commemorative coin struck after the emperors death.
pierre_p77
IMG_6752.JPG
022. Claudius (41-54 A.D.) 25 viewsAv.: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP P P
Rv.: Minerva walking holding javelin and shield / S-C

AE As Ø25-27 / 10.4g
RIC 116 Rome, Cohen 84
Juancho
Claudius-RIC-72.jpg
025. Claudius.10 viewsQuadrans, 41 AD, Rome mint.
Obverse: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG / Modius.
Reverse: PON M TR P IMP COS DES IT / S C
3.01 gm., 17 mm.
RIC #72.

COS DES IT - Consul Designatus Iterum: Consul-Elect for the second time, but before actually taking office.
Callimachus
03-Constantius-The-25.jpg
03. Constantius I: Thessalonica fractional.21 viewsAE3 fractional (half follis?), 317-18, Thessalonica mint.
Obverse: DIVO CONSTANTIO PIO PRINCIPI / Veiled bust of Constantius I.
Reverse: REQVIES OPTIMORVM MERITORVM / Emperor seated on curule chair, raising right hand and holding sceptre.
Mint mark: . T . SB .
1.78 gm., 16 mm.
RIC #25; PBCC #908; Sear unlisted.

Around the years 317 - 318, Constantine issued commemorative coins honoring three deified emperors: Claudius II Gothicus, Constantius I, and Maximian. It is not real clear when these coins were issued, but RIC assigns them to the years 317-18 saying there is evidence they were issued near or at the end of the Sol coinage. They are small AE3 in size (16 mm), but on flans that are much thinner and weigh significantly less than other coins of the period. Therefore they are generally regarded as fractionals. They were minted at Treveri, Arelate, Rome, Aquileia, Siscia, and Thessalonica.

Why these three emperors? Constantine claimed Claudius II Gothicus was one of his ancestors (probably not true). Constantius I was Constantine's father, and Maximian was the father of Constantine's wife, Fausta.

Callimachus
Antonia_03_portrait.jpg
036 BC - AD 037 - ANTONIA10 viewsAntonia

Antonia 36 BC - 37 was the younger of two daughters of Mark Antony and Octavia Minor. She was a niece of the Emperor Augustus, sister-in-law of the Emperor Tiberius, paternal grandmother of the Emperor Caligula and Empress Agrippina the Younger, mother of the Emperor Claudius, and both maternal great-grandmother and paternal great-aunt of the Emperor Nero

for obverse, reverse and coin details click here
shanxi
043.jpg
039 CLAUDIUS II GOTHICUS9 viewsEMPEROR: Claudius II Gothicus
DENOMINATION: Antoninianus
OBVERSE: IMP C CLAVDIVS AVG, radiate, cuirassed bust right
REVERSE: AEQVITAS AVG, Aequitas standing left holding scales and cornucopiae
DATE: 268-270 AD
MINT: Roma
WEIGHT: 3.03
RIC: 14
Barnaba6
Claudius 1.jpg
04 Claudius113 viewsClaudius. 41-54 AD. AR Denarius. Struck 51-52 AD. TI CLAUD CAESAR AVG P M TR P XI IMP P P COS V, laureate head right / PACI AVGVSTAE, Nemesis walking right holding caduceus, preceded by a serpent. RSC 68. Weight 3.74 g. Die Axis 5 hr.4 commentsmix_val
04-Maximianus-Sis-41.jpg
04. Maximian: Siscia fractional.43 viewsAE3 fractional (half follis?), 317-18, Siscia mint.
Obverse: DIVO MAXIMIANO SEN FORT IMP / Veiled bust of Maximian.
Reverse: REQVIES OPTIMORVM MERITORVM / Emperor seated on curule chair, raising right hand and holding sceptre.
Mint mark: SIS
1.61 gm., 15mm.
RIC #41; PBCC #838; Sear #16412.

Around the years 317 - 318, Constantine issued commemorative coins honoring three deified emperors: Claudius II Gothicus, Constantius I, and Maximian. It is not real clear when these coins were issued, but RIC assigns them to the years 317-18 saying there is evidence they were issued near or at the end of the Sol coinage. They are small AE3 in size (16 mm), but on flans that are much thinner and weigh significantly less than other coins of the period. Therefore they are generally regarded as fractionals. They were minted at Treveri, Arelate, Rome, Aquileia, Siscia, and Thessalonica.

Why these three emperors? Constantine claimed Claudius II Gothicus was one of his ancestors (probably not true). Constantius I was Constantine's father, and Maximian was the father of Constantine's wife, Fausta.

Callimachus
022~0.JPG
040 Claudius366 viewsClaudius Æ As. TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP, bare head left / LIBERTAS AVGVSTA S-C, Libertas standing facing, with pileus and extending left hand. RIC 113, Cohen 47, BMC 202 10.9 g
Click and enlarge for better photo
18 commentsRandygeki(h2)
c3947.JPG
040 Claudius39 viewsClaudius Æ As. TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP, bare head left / LIBERTAS AVGVSTA S-C, Libertas standing facing, with pileus and extending left hand. Cohen 47.




"Claudius was born at Lugdunum, in the consulship of Iullus Antonius and Fabius Africanus, on August 1st, 10 B.C., the very day when the first altar was dedicated there to Augustus the God; and he was given the name Tiberius Claudius Drusus. Subsequently he assumed the surname Germanicus after his brother had been admitted into the Julian House as Tiberius's adopted son."
Randygeki(h2)
011~1.JPG
041 Germanicus17 viewsGermanicus, Caesar
Died 10 Oct 19 A.D.

Æ As struck under Claudius. GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N, bare head right / TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR P IMP P P around S-C

Fair, 8.138g, 27.4mm, 180*, Rome min, 42 A.D., S 1905, RIC 106, BMC 215 ex Forvm ex Bill D.

"Germanicus inflicted serious defeats on the barbarian tribes in Germania and recovered the legionary standards lost by Varus. He was to be Tiberius' successor, but died of and unknown cause. His tremendous popularity helped his son Caligula ontain the throne after Tiberius died."

-----

"Such virtuous conduct brought Germanicus rich rewards. He was so deeply respected and loved by all his kindred that Augustus - I need hardly mention his other relatives - wondered for a long time wether to make him his successor, but at last ordered Tiberius to adopt him."
Randygeki(h2)
007~1.JPG
041 Germanicus 18 viewsGermanicus Æ As struck under Claudius. GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N, bare head right / TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR P IMP P P around S-C



"Germanicus, Father of Gaius Caesar(Caligula), son of Drusus and Antonia the Younger, was adopted by Tiberius, his paternal uncle."
Randygeki(h2)
ClaudI97or113.jpg
041-054 AD - Claudius - RIC I 097 or 113 - Libertas Reverse46 viewsEmperor: Claudius (r. 41-54 AD)
Date: 41-54 AD
Condition: Fair
Denomination: As

Obverse: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP (P P?)
Tiberius Claudius Caesar Emperor Pontifex Maximus Tribunicia Potestas Imperator (Pater Patriae?)
Bare head left

Reverse: LIBERTAS AVGVSTA
S - C to left and right
The Emperor restores liberty.
Libertas, draped, standing facing, head right, right holding pileus, left extended.

Rome mint
RIC I Claudius 97 or 113; VM 16
6.38g; 29.3mm; 210°
1 commentsPep
cd3961.JPG
042 Nero Claudius Drusus26 viewsNero Claudius Drusus AE Sestertius. NERO CLAVDIVS DRVSVS GERMANICVS IMP, bare head left / TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP, Claudius, togate, seated left on curule chair, holding branch; arms lying around; SC in ex.




"When, three months after her marriage to Augustus, Livia gave birth to Decimus (later Nero) Drusus - the father of the future Emperor Claudius - people naturally suspected that he was the product of adultry with his stepfather."
Randygeki(h2)
Claudius_Gothicus_Antoninianus.jpg
043. Claudius II Gothicus, A.D. 268-270.40 viewsAE Antoninianus. Mediolanum mint.

Obv: IMP CLAVDIVS P F AVG, radiate, draped, cuirassed bust right, seen from behind.

Rev: FELIC TEMPO, Felicitas standing facing, head left, vertical sceptre in left hand, short caduceus in right hand, T in ex.

RIC V-1 145 Milan/Mediolanum.
LordBest
Claudius_RIC_I_58.jpg
05 Claudius RIC I 58249 viewsClaudius 41-54 A.D. AR Denarius. Rome Mint 50-51 A.D. (3.58g, 18.4mm, 8h). Obv: TI CLAVD CAESAR AVG P M TR P X PP IMP XVIII, laureate head right. Rev: PACI AVGVSTAE, Pax-Nemesis advancing right, holding winged caduceus pointed at snake. RIC I 58, RSC 66a. Ex CNG 258, Lot: 348.

Claudius was a capable, yet unlikely emperor. Shunned as an idiot by his family due to a limp and embarrassing stutter. After Caligula's murder the Praetorian Guard proclaimed him emperor. He governed well and conquered the troublesome island of Britain. He was poisoned by his second wife, mother of Nero. It was very difficult for me to find a denarius of Claudius, and I love this reverse.
8 commentsLucas H
Claudius_RIC_I_64.jpg
05 Claudius RIC I 6465 viewsClaudius. 41-54 A.D. Rome Mint 51-2 A.D. (3.32g, 18.4m, 0h). Obv: [TI CLA]VD CAESAR AVG PM TR P XI IMP P P C[OS V], laureate head right. Rev: SPQR/PP/OBCS in three lines in oak wreath. RIC I 64. RSC 96.

Claudius was put on the throne by the Praetorian Guard after the murder of Caligula, and was eventually murdered by Nero’s mother. This is a worn coin and common reverse during Claudius’ reign, but I wanted to obtain it as denarii of Claudius seem few and far between, second only to Gaius in the 12 Caesar series it seems.
4 commentsLucas H
claudiuscombhoriz.jpg
05. CLAUDIUS38 viewsAE As
41-54 A.D.
O: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP PP Bare head left.
R: LIBERTAS AVGVSTA S C, Libertas standing facing, head right, holding pileus, left hand extended
Rome
1 commentslaney
Republica_AR-Den_S-dot-C_A-dot-CXXIIII_TI-dot-CLAVD-dot-TI-dot-F_A-dot-N_Xx_Xx_Q-001_18mm_3_79g-s.jpg
079 B.C., Ti. Claudius Nero, Republic AR-Denarius Serratus, Crawford 383/1, Rome, Denarius serratus, TI.CLAUD TI.F AP.N TI., A. CXXIIII, Victory in biga right,83 viewsRepublic, TI.CLAUD TI.F AP.N TI. Claudius Nero, 79 BC. Claudia-5,
avers:- Bust of Diana r., draped, with bow and quiver over shoulder; before S dot C, Border of dots.
revers:- Victory in biga right, holding wreath in right hand and reins and palm-branch in left hand; below, control-letter "A" with dot on the right and numeral CXXIIII ; TI dot CLAVD dot TI dot F / AP dot N dot
exe: -/-// TI•CLAVD•TI•F / AP•N•, diameter: 18mm, weight: 3,79g, axis: 4h,
mint: Rome, date 79 B.C., ref: Crawford 383/1, Sydenham 770a,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Personajes_Imperiales_8.jpg
08 - Personalities of the Empire78 viewsMarius, Victorianus, Domitian II, Tetricus I, Tetricus II, Claudius II, Quintillus, Aurelianus, Severina, Zenobia, Vaballathus, Tacitus, Florianus and Probus2 commentsmdelvalle
AGRIPPINA.jpg
08-01 - AGRIPPINA MADRE (14 A.C. - 33 D.C.)91 viewsAE Sestercio 35 mm 25.6 gr.
Hija de Agrippa y Julia, nieta de Augusto, mujer de Germánico y madre de Calígula. Emisión póstuma acuñada por su cuñado Claudio.

Anv: "AGRIPPINA M F GERMANICI [CAESARIS]" - Busto vestido viendo a derecha.
Rev: "[TI CL]AVDIVS CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR P IMP P P" - Leyenda alrededor de gran "S C ".

Acuñada 42 D.C.
Ceca: Roma

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 #102 Pag.128 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1906 Pag.376 - BMCRE #219 - Cohen Vol.1 #3 Pag.231 - DVM #2 Pag.78 - CBN (Claudius) #236 - Von Kaenel #78, pl.49, 2063
1 commentsmdelvalle
RIC_102_Sestercio_Agripina_Sr_.jpg
08-01 - AGRIPPINA MADRE (14 A.C. - 33 D.C.)14 viewsAE Sestercio 35 mm 25.6 gr.
Hija de Agrippa y Julia, nieta de Augusto, mujer de Germánico y madre de Calígula. Emisión póstuma acuñada por su cuñado Claudio.

Anv: "AGRIPPINA M F GERMANICI [CAESARIS]" - Busto vestido viendo a derecha.
Rev: "[TI CL]AVDIVS CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR P IMP P P" - Leyenda alrededor de gran "S C ".

Acuñada 42 D.C.
Ceca: Roma

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 #102 Pag.128 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1906 Pag.376 - BMCRE #219 - Cohen Vol.1 #3 Pag.231 - DVM #2 Pag.78 - CBN (Claudius) #236 - Von Kaenel #78, pl.49, 2063
mdelvalle
Denarius A.C.PULCHER.jpg
08-01 - APPIUS CLAUDIUS PULCHER, T. MANLIUS MANCINUS y Q. URBINIUS (111 - 110 A.C.)58 viewsAR Denarius 17 mm 3.3 gr
Anv: Busto de Minerva o Palas (como Roma) con yelmo alado viendo a derecha, detrás un signo desconocido.
Rev: Victoria llevando con ambas manos las riendas de una triga que cabalga a derecha . Uno de los caballos mira hacia atrás.
Una de las dos ocasiones en que se acuña una triga ( Carruaje de guerra griego tirado por tres caballos) en las monedas romanas. "AP•CL•T•MANL•Q•VR" (MANL y VR en ligadura) en Exergo.

Ceca: Roma
Referencias: Sear RCTV Vol.1 #176 Pag.106 - Craw RRC #299/1a - Syd CRR #570 - BMCRR #1290 - RSC Vol.1 Claudia 2 Pag.31
mdelvalle
Craw_299_1a_Appius_Claudius_-_Manlius_Mancinus_-_R__Urbinus.jpg
08-01 - APPIUS CLAUDIUS PULCHER, T. MANLIUS MANCINUS y Q. URBINIUS (111 - 110 A.C.)18 viewsAR Denarius 17 mm 3.3 gr
Anv: Busto de Minerva o Palas (como Roma) con yelmo alado viendo a derecha, detrás un signo desconocido.
Rev: Victoria llevando con ambas manos las riendas de una triga que cabalga a derecha . Uno de los caballos mira hacia atrás.
Una de las dos ocasiones en que se acuña una triga ( Carruaje de guerra griego tirado por tres caballos) en las monedas romanas. "AP•CL•T•MANL•Q•VR" (MANL y VR en ligadura) en Exergo.

Ceca: Roma

Referencias: Sear RCTV Vol.1 #176 Pag.106 - Craw RRC #299/1a - Syd CRR #570 - BMCRR #1290 - RSC Vol.1 Claudia 2 Pag.31
mdelvalle
94.jpg
094 Claudius II Gothicus. bill. antoninianus13 viewsobv: IMP C CLADIUS AG rad. drp. bust r.
rev: SALVS AVG Isis std. l. holding sistrum and basket
ex: epsilon
hill132
00230Q00.jpg
1.Roman Republican. Appius Claudius Pulcher, T. Manlius Mancius, and Q. Urbinius. AR Denarius. 111-110 BC.9 views(17 mm. 3,89 g.). Rome mint. Helmeted head of Roma right; quadrangular device to left / Victory driving triga right; AP · CL · T · (MANL) · Q · (VR) in exergue. Crawford 299/1a; Sydenham 570; Claudia 2.Ruslan K
Denario_Claudio_I_y_Agripina_jr.jpg
10-01 - CLAUDIO (41 - 54 D.C.)71 viewsAR Denario 3.13 grs.

Anv: TI. CLAVD. CAESAR AVG. GERM. P. M. TRIB. POT. P. P.. Cabeza laureada de Claudio a derecha.
Rev: AGRIPPINAE AVGVSTAE. Busto de Agripina a derecha con corona de espigas.

Julia Vipsania Agripina , más conocida cómo Agripina la Menor para distinguirla de su madre, fue la hija mayor de Germánico y Agripina la Mayor, bisnieta por tanto de Marco Antonio y Octavia. Fue además Esposa de Ahenobarbo, hermana de Calígula, mujer y sobrina de Claudio I y madre de Nerón.

Acuñada 50 - 54 D.C.
Ceca: Roma Italia
Rareza: R

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 #81 Pag.126 (Plate.16) - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1886 Pag.371 - BMCRE Vol.1 #75 - Cohen Vol.1 (Agrippine et Claude) #4 Pag.274 - DVM #27 Pag.84 - CBN #82 - RSC Vol. II #4 Pag.11
3 commentsmdelvalle
RIC_81_Claudio_y_Agripina_Jr_.jpg
10-01 - CLAUDIO y AGRIPINA Jr. (41 - 54 D.C.)27 viewsAR Denario 20.0 mm 3.13 grs.

Anv: TI. CLAVD. CAESAR AVG. GERM. P. M. TRIB. POT. P. P.. Cabeza laureada de Claudio a derecha.
Rev: AGRIPPINAE AVGVSTAE. Busto de Agripina a derecha con corona de espigas.

Julia Vipsania Agripina , más conocida cómo Agripina la Menor para distinguirla de su madre, fue la hija mayor de Germánico y Agripina la Mayor, bisnieta por tanto de Marco Antonio y Octavia. Fue además Esposa de Ahenobarbo, hermana de Calígula, mujer y sobrina de Claudio I y madre de Nerón.

Acuñada 50 - 54 D.C.
Ceca: Roma Italia
Rareza: R

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 #81 Pag.126 (Plate.16) - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1886 Pag.371 - BMCRE Vol.1 #75 - Cohen Vol.1 (Agrippine et Claude) #4 Pag.274 - DVM #27 Pag.84 - CBN #82 - RSC Vol. II #4 Pag.11
1 commentsmdelvalle
AS_Claudio_Minerva_RIC_116.jpg
10-04 - CLAUDIO (41 - 54 D.C.)143 viewsAE AS 26,75 mm 10,7 gr.

Anv: "TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG IMP TR P P" - Busto a cabeza desnuda viendo a izquierda.
Rev: "S C" - Minerva (Pallas) avanzando a derecha blandiendo jabalina en mano derecha y escudo redondo en izquierda.

Acuñada ca. 42 D.C.
Ceca: Roma
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.I #116 Pag.130 - Sear RCTV Vol.I #1862 Pag.368 - BMCRE #206 - Cohen Vol.I #84 Pag.257 - DVM #110 Pag.114 - CBN #233
1 commentsmdelvalle
AS CLAUDIO RIC 100.jpg
10-05 - CLAUDIO (41 - 54 D.C.)83 viewsImitación antigua
AE AS 26 x 29 mm 9.8 gr.

Anv: "[TI CLAVDIVS CA]ESAR AVG P[M TR P IMP]" - Busto a cabeza desnuda viendo a izquierda.
Rev: "S C" - Minerva (Pallas) avanzando a derecha blandiendo jabalina en mano derecha y escudo en izquierda.

Acuñada 41 - 50 D.C.
Ceca: Roma
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.I #100 Pag.128 - Sear RCTV Vol.I #1861 Pag.368 - BMCRE #149 - Cohen Vol.I #84 Pag.257 - DVM #110 Pag.114 - CBN #179 - RC #639
mdelvalle
Dupondio CLAUDIO RIC 97.jpg
10-06 - CLAUDIO (41 - 54 D.C.)181 viewsAE AS 31 x 28 mm 11.7 gr.

Anv: "TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP PP" - Busto a cabeza desnuda viendo a izquierda.
Rev: "LIBERTAS AVGVSTA - S C " - Libertas (Libertad) de pié de frente viendo a derecha, portando Pileus en mano derecha y extendiendo la izquierda.

Acuñada 42 D.C.
Ceca: Roma
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 #113 Pag.130 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1860 Pag.368 - BMCRE #202/4 - Cohen Vol.1 #47 Pag.254 - DVM #16 Pag.82 - CBN #230 - Von Kaenel #722
4 commentsmdelvalle
Dupondio CLAUDIO RIC 94.jpg
10-10 - CLAUDIO (41 - 54 D.C.)59 viewsAE Dupondio 30 x 28 mm 10.7 gr.

Anv: "[TI CLAV]DIVS CAESAR AVG [P M TR P IM]P PP]" - Busto a cabeza desnuda viendo a izquierda.
Rev: "CERE[S] AVGVS[TA] - S C" - Ceres sentada a izquierda sosteniendo dos espigas de maiz con mano derecha y larga antorcha cruzada sobre sus piernas y brazo izquierdo.

Acuñada 42 D.C.
Ceca: Roma
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 #110 Pag.129 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1856 Pag.367 - BMCRE #197 - Cohen Vol.1 #1 Pag.250 - DVM #14 Pag.82 - CBN #222
mdelvalle
RIC_100_AS_Imitativo_Claudio_I.jpg
10-10 - CLAUDIO (41 - 54 D.C.)18 viewsCeca No Oficial
AE AS 26 x 29 mm 9.8 gr.

Anv: "[TI CLAVDIVS CA]ESAR AVG P[M TR P IMP]" - Busto a cabeza desnuda viendo a izquierda.
Rev: "S C" - Minerva (Pallas) avanzando a derecha blandiendo jabalina en mano derecha y escudo en izquierda.

Acuñada 41 - 50 D.C.
Ceca: Incierta, probablemente Hispanica.

Referencias: RIC Vol.I #100 Pag.128 - Sear RCTV Vol.I #1861 Pag.368 - BMCRE #149 - Cohen Vol.I #84 Pag.257 - DVM #110 Pag.114 - CBN #179 - RC #639
mdelvalle
RIC_113_AS_Claudio_I.jpg
10-14 - CLAUDIO (41 - 54 D.C.)14 viewsAE AS 31 x 28 mm 11.7 gr.

Anv: "TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP PP" - Busto a cabeza desnuda viendo a izquierda.
Rev: "LIBERTAS AVGVSTA - S C " - Libertas (Libertad) de pié de frente viendo a derecha, portando Pileus en mano derecha y extendiendo la izquierda.

Acuñada 42 D.C.
Ceca: Roma
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 #113 Pag.130 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1860 Pag.368 - BMCRE #202/4 - Cohen Vol.1 #47 Pag.254 - DVM #16 Pag.82 - CBN #230 - Von Kaenel #722
mdelvalle
RIC_116_AS_Claudio.jpg
10-16 - CLAUDIO (41 - 54 D.C.)14 viewsAE AS 26,75 mm 10,7 gr.

Anv: "TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG IMP TR P P" - Busto a cabeza desnuda viendo a izquierda.
Rev: "S C" - Minerva (Pallas) avanzando a derecha blandiendo jabalina en mano derecha y escudo redondo en izquierda.

Acuñada ca. 42 D.C.
Ceca: Roma
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.I #116 Pag.130 - Sear RCTV Vol.I #1862 Pag.368 - BMCRE #206 - Cohen Vol.I #84 Pag.257 - DVM #110 Pag.114 - CBN #233
mdelvalle
AS CLAUDIO SGCTV 472.jpg
10-20 - CLAUDIO (41 - 54 D.C.)66 viewsAE AS (Provincial) 23 x 25 mm 12.9 gr.

Anv: "IM T[I. CLA. CAE. AV. GER]" - Busto laureado viendo a derecha.
Rev: "S C " dentro de una corona de laureles con 8 grupos de hojas.

Acuñada 41 - 54 D.C.
Ceca: Syria - Seleucis and Pieria - Antiochia ad Orontem

Referencias: Sear GICTV #472 Pag.43 - BMC Vol.20 #166 Pag.171 - Cohen Vol.1 #134 Pag.262
mdelvalle
RIC_110_Dupondio_Claudio_I.jpg
10-20 - CLAUDIO (41 - 54 D.C.)14 viewsAE Dupondio 30 x 28 mm 10.7 gr.

Anv: "[TI CLAV]DIVS CAESAR AVG [P M TR P IM]P PP]" - Busto a cabeza desnuda viendo a izquierda.
Rev: "CERE[S] AVGVS[TA] - S C" - Ceres sentada a izquierda sosteniendo dos espigas de maiz con mano derecha y larga antorcha cruzada sobre sus piernas y brazo izquierdo.

Acuñada 42 D.C.
Ceca: Roma
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 #110 Pag.129 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1856 Pag.367 - BMCRE #197 - Cohen Vol.1 #1 Pag.250 - DVM #14 Pag.82 - CBN #222
mdelvalle
SGICTV_472_AS_Antioquia_Claudio_I.jpg
10-30 - Antioquia ad Orontem - CLAUDIO (41 - 54 D.C.)10 viewsAE AS (Provincial) 23 x 25 mm 12.9 gr.

Anv: "IM T[I. CLA. CAE. AV. GER]" - Busto laureado viendo a derecha.
Rev: "S C " dentro de una corona de laureles con 8 grupos de hojas.

Acuñada 41 - 54 D.C.
Ceca: Syria - Seleucis and Pieria - Antiochia ad Orontem

Referencias: Sear GICTV #472 Pag.43 - BMC Vol.20 #166 Pag.171 - Cohen Vol.1 #134 Pag.262
mdelvalle
Claudius-II__AE-Ant_IMP-CLAVDIVS-PF-AVG_PAX-AVG_T-60_RIC-157_Temp-60_Mediolanum-269-70-AD_Q-001_axis-5h_18-21mm_3,88g-s.jpg
104 Claudius II. (268-270 A.D.), T-0060 (Estiot), RIC V-I 157, Mediolanum, AE-Antoninianus, PAX-AVG, -/-//T, Pax running left,90 views104 Claudius II. (268-270 A.D.), T-0060 (Estiot), RIC V-I 157, Mediolanum, AE-Antoninianus, PAX-AVG, -/-//T, Pax running left,
avers:- IMP-CLAVDIVS-PF-AVG, Bust right, radiate, cuirassed and draped with paludamentum, seen from rear, (D2).
revers:- PAX-AVG, Pax running left, holding olive branch in right hand and long transverse sceptre in left hand, (Pax4).
exerg: -/-//T, diameter: 18-21 mm, weight: 3,88 g, axes: 5 h,
mint: Mediolanum, iss-3, off-3, date: 269-270 A.D., ref: T-0060, RIC V-I 157,
Q-001
quadrans
104_Claudius-II_,_T-0085,_AE-Ant,_IMP_CLAVDIVS_P_F_AVG,_FORTVNAE_RED,_S,_RIC_V-I_151,_iss-3,_off-2,_Mediolanum,_270-AD,_Q-001,_6h,_19-20,5mm,_3,70g-s.jpg
104 Claudius II. (268-270 A.D.), T-0085 (Estiot), RIC V-I 151, Mediolanum, AE-Antoninianus, FORTVNAE RED, -/-//S, Fortuna standing left, #1112 views104 Claudius II. (268-270 A.D.), T-0085 (Estiot), RIC V-I 151, Mediolanum, AE-Antoninianus, FORTVNAE RED, -/-//S, Fortuna standing left, #1
avers: IMP CLAVDIVS P F AVG, Bust right, radiate, cuirassed and draped with paludamentum, seen from the rear, (D2).
reverse: FORTVNAE RED, Fortuna standing left, holding the rudder in right hand and cornucopiae in left hand, (Fortuna 2).
exergue: -/-//S, diameter: 19,0-20,5 mm, weight: 3,70 g, axes: 6h,
mint: Mediolanum, iss-3, off-3, date: 269-270 A.D., ref: T-0085, RIC V-I 151,
Q-001
quadrans
Claudius-II__AE-Ant_IMP-C-CLAVDIVS-AVG_PROVIDENT-AVG_RIC-91var_C-xxx_Roma_268-AD__Q-001_axis-210_20mm_2,89g-s.jpg
104 Claudius II. (268-270 A.D.), T-0126 (Estiot), RIC V-I 091var, Rome, AE-Antoninianus, PROVIDENT AVG, -/-//--, Providentia standing left, Rare!263 views104 Claudius II. (268-270 A.D.), T-0126 (Estiot), RIC V-I 091var, Rome, AE-Antoninianus, PROVIDENT AVG, -/-//--, Providentia standing left, Rare!
avers:- IMP-C-CLAVDIVS-AVG, Bust left, radiate, nude with cross-belt, seen from rear, holding spear pointing forward in right hand, aegis on left shoulder, (L2l).
revers:- PROVIDENT-AVG, Providentia standing left, holding baton in right hand and cornucopiae in left hand, with left elbow leaning on column, at feet to left globe, (Providentia 3).
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: 20mm, weight: 2,89g, axes: 7h,
mint: Rome, iss-1 (probably for the Adventus: exceptional busts), off-12,
date: 268 A.D., ref: T-0126 (Estiot), RIC V-I 091var,
Q-001
quadrans
Claudius-II__AE-Ant_IMP-C-CLAVDIVS-AVG_VICTORIA-AVG_RIC-104_T-168_C-_Roma_268-69-AD_Q-001_h_mm_ga-s.jpg
104 Claudius II. (268-270 A.D.), T-0168 (Estiot), RIC V-I 104var., Rome, AE-Antoninianus, VICTORIA AVG, -/-//--, Victoria standing left, 133 views104 Claudius II. (268-270 A.D.), T-0168 (Estiot), RIC V-I 104var., Rome, AE-Antoninianus, VICTORIA AVG, -/-//--, Victoria standing left,
avers:- IMP-C-CLAVDIVS-AVG, Radiate and cuirassed bust right, (B1).
revers:- VICTORIA-AVG, , Victory stg. l., holding wreath in r. hand and palm against l. shoulder. (Victoria 1).
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: mm, weight: g, axes: h,
mint: Rome, iss-1, off-1, date: 268 A.D., ref: T-0168 (Estiot), RIC V-I 104var,
Q-001
quadrans
104_Claudius_II_,_T-0183_(Estiot),_RIC_V-I_98,_Roma,_AE-Ant,_IMP_C_CLAVDIVS_AVG,_SALVS_AVG,_iss-1,_off-,_268-9AD,_Q-001,_6h,_18,5-20mm,_3,01g-s.jpg
104 Claudius II. (268-270 A.D.), T-0183 (Estiot), RIC V-I 098, Rome, AE-Antoninianus, SALVS AVG, -/-//--, Salus standing left, #1148 views104 Claudius II. (268-270 A.D.), T-0183 (Estiot), RIC V-I 098, Rome, AE-Antoninianus, SALVS AVG, -/-//--, Salus standing left, #1
avers: IMP C CLAVDIVS AVG, Bust right, radiate, cuirassed and draped with paludamentum, seen from the rear. (D2).
reverse: SALVS AVG, Salus standing left, holding long vertical sceptre in left hand, feeding snake rising from altar from patera held in right hand. (Salus 1).
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 18,5-20,0mm, weight: 3,01g, axes: 6h,
mint: Rome, iss-1, off-3 (or 10), date: 268-269 A.D., ref: T-0183 (Estiot), RIC V-I 98,
Q-001
quadrans
Claudius-II__AE-Ant_IMP-C-CLAVDIVS-AVG_VIRT-VS-AVG_RIC-109_T-203_C-_Roma_268-69-AD_Q-001_axis-7h_17-20mm_3,70g-s.jpg
104 Claudius II. (268-270 A.D.), T-0203 (Estiot), RIC V-I 109, Rome, AE-Antoninianus, VIRTVS AVG, -/-//--, Virtus standing left,123 views104 Claudius II. (268-270 A.D.), T-0203 (Estiot), RIC V-I 109, Rome, AE-Antoninianus, VIRTVS AVG, -/-//--, Virtus standing left,
avers:-IMP-C-CLAVDIVS-AVG, Radiate and cuirassed bust right, (B1).
revers: VIRT-VS-AVG, Virtus standing left, holding olive branch in right hand and spear (sometimes pointing down) in left hand, on the left, a shield rests against his leg, (Virtus 4b).
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: 17-20mm, weight: 3,70g, axes: 7 h,
mint: Rome, iss-1, off-5, date: 268-269 A.D., ref: T-0203 (Estiot), RIC V-I 109,
Q-001
quadrans
Claudius-II__AE-Ant_IMP-CLAVDIVS-AVG_VICTORIA-AVG_Gamma_RIC-107_T-454_iss-3_off-3_C-_Roma_270-AD_Q-001_6h_18,5-19mm_3,49g-s.jpg
104 Claudius II. (268-270 A.D.), T-0454 (Estiot), RIC V-I 107., Rome, AE-Antoninianus, VICTORIA AVG, -/Γ//--, Victory running right, 194 views104 Claudius II. (268-270 A.D.), T-0454 (Estiot), RIC V-I 107., Rome, AE-Antoninianus, VICTORIA AVG, -/Γ//--, Victory running right,
avers:- IMP-CLAVDIVS-AVG, Radiate bust right, (A1).
revers:- VICTORIA-AVG, Victory running right, holding wreath in right hand and palm against left shoulder. (Victoria 8).
exerg: -/Γ//--, diameter: 18,5-19mm, weight: 3,49g, axes: 6h,
mint: Rome, iss-3, off-3, date: 270 A.D., ref: T-0454(Estiot), RIC V-I 107,
Q-001
quadrans
Claudius-II__AE-Ant_IMP-CLAVDIVS-AVG_MARTI-PACIF_X_T-529_off-10_RIC-72_C-_Roma_270-AD__Q-001_1h_19-20mm_3,24g-s.jpg
104 Claudius II. (268-270 A.D.), T-0529 (Estiot), RIC V-I 072, Rome, AE-Antoninianus, MARTI PACIF, X/-//--, Mars in military dress walking left, 176 views104 Claudius II. (268-270 A.D.), T-0529 (Estiot), RIC V-I 072, Rome, AE-Antoninianus, MARTI PACIF, X/-//--, Mars in military dress walking left,
avers: IMP-CLAVDIVS-AVG, Radiate bust right, (A1).
revers: MARTI-PACIF, Mars in military dress walking left, holding olive branch in right hand, transverse spear and round shield in left hand. (Mars 1b).
exerg: X/-//--, diameter: 19-20mm, weight: 3,24g, axes: 1h,
mint: Rome, iss-, off-10, date: 270 A.D., ref: T-0529 (Estiot), RIC V-I 072,
Q-001
quadrans
Claudius-II__AE-Ant_IMP-CLAVDIVS-AVG_ANNONA-AVG_Gamma_RIC-xxx_C-xxx_Siscia_348-350-AD__Q-001_axis-170_20-21mm_2,45g-ys.jpg
104 Claudius II. (268-270 A.D.), T-0611 (Estiot), RIC V-I Not in RIC, Siscia, AE-Antoninianus, ANNONA AVG, -/I//--, Annona standing left,151 views104 Claudius II. (268-270 A.D.), T-0611 (Estiot), RIC V-I Not in RIC, Siscia, AE-Antoninianus, ANNONA AVG, -/I//--, Annona standing left,
avers:- IMP-CLAVDIVS-AVG, Bust right, radiate, cuirassed and draped with paludamentum, seen from rear, (D2).
revers:- ANNONA-AVG, Annona standing left, holding corn-ears in right hand and cornucopiae in left hand, at feet to left, modius, "I" in right field, (Annona 1).
exerg: -/I//--, diameter: 20-21mm, weight: 2,45g, axes: 5h,
mint: Siscia, iss-2 Phase 2, off-1, date: 268-69. A.D., ref: T-0611 (Estiot), RIC V-I Not in RIC, Normanby 1062,
Q-001
quadrans
Claudius-II__AE-Ant_IMP-CLAVDIVS-AVG_VOTA-ORBIS_II_RIC-196var_C-xxx_Siscia_2690-AD__Q-001_axis-0h_21mm_3,31g-y-s.jpg
104 Claudius II. (268-270 A.D.), T-0727 (Estiot), RIC V-I 196var, Siscia, AE-Antoninianus, VOTA ORBIS, -/-//II, Two Victories, extr. Rare !, 200 views104 Claudius II. (268-270 A.D.), T-0727 (Estiot), RIC V-I 196var, Siscia, AE-Antoninianus, VOTA ORBIS, -/-//II, Two Victories, extr. Rare !,
avers:- IMP-CLAVDIVS-AVG, Bust left, helmeted and radiate, cuirassed with cross-belt, holding spear without visible point over right shoulder, shield on left shoulder.Medusa-head on shield, (H4l (w/o point)).
revers:- VOTA-ORBIS, Two Victories stg. facing each other, fixing a shield inscribed SC to a palm tree which is placed between them, (Victories (two)1).
exerg: -/-//II, diameter: 21mm, weight: 3,31g, axes: 0h, (12h),
mint: Siscia, iss-3, off-2, Victory of Naïssus, date: 269 A.D., ref: T-0727 (Estiot), RIC V-I 196var, ,
Q-001
quadrans
Claudius-II__AE-Ant_IMP-CLAVDIVS-AVG_VBERTAS-AVG_RIC-193_T-0761_Siscia_348-350-AD__Q-001_axis-0_21mm_3,23g-s.jpg
104 Claudius II. (268-270 A.D.), T-0761 (Estiot), RIC V-I 193, Siscia, AE-Antoninianus, VBERTAS AVG, -/-//--, Uberitas standing left, #185 views104 Claudius II. (268-270 A.D.), T-0761 (Estiot), RIC V-I 193, Siscia, AE-Antoninianus, VBERTAS AVG, -/-//--, Uberitas standing left, #1
avers:- IMP-CLAVDIVS-AVG, Bust right, radiate, cuirassed, (B1).
revers:- VBERTAS-AVG, Uberitas standing left, holding purse in right hand and cornucopiae in left hand, (Uberitas 1).
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: 21mm, weight: 3,23g, axes: 0h,(12h),
mint: Siscia, iss-4, date: 270. A.D., ref: T-0761 (Estiot), RIC V-I 193, Alf. 1936, 5.11,
Q-001
quadrans
Claudius-II__AE-Ant_IMP-CLAVDIVS-AVG_FELICITAS-AVG_RIC-r_C-xxx_Roma_268-AD__Q-001_axis-h_18mm_x,xxga-s.jpg
104 Claudius II. (268-270 A.D.), T-0761 (Estiot), RIC V-I 193, Siscia, AE-Antoninianus, VBERTAS AVG, -/-//--, Uberitas standing left, #288 views104 Claudius II. (268-270 A.D.), T-0761 (Estiot), RIC V-I 193, Siscia, AE-Antoninianus, VBERTAS AVG, -/-//--, Uberitas standing left, #2
avers:- IMP-CLAVDIVS-AVG, Bust right, radiate, cuirassed, (B1).
revers:- VBERTAS-AVG, Uberitas standing left, holding purse in right hand and cornucopiae in left hand, (Uberitas 1).
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: 18-19mm, weight: 2,17g, axes: 0h,
mint: Siscia, iss-4, date: 270. A.D., ref: T-0761 (Estiot), RIC V-I 193, Alf. 1936, 5.11,
Q-001
quadrans
Claudius-II__AE-Ant_IMP-C-M-AVR-CLAVDIVS-AVG_FORTVNA-REDVX_SPQR_RIC-233_T-909_C-_Cyzicus_269-AD__Q-001_5h_21mm_3,48ga-s.jpg
104 Claudius II. (268-270 A.D.), T-0909 (Estiot), RIC V-I 233, Cyzicus, AE-Antoninianus, FORTVNA REDVX, -/-//SPQR, Fortuna standing left,65 views104 Claudius II. (268-270 A.D.), T-0909 (Estiot), RIC V-I 233, Cyzicus, AE-Antoninianus, FORTVNA REDVX, -/-//SPQR, Fortuna standing left,
avers:- IMP-C-M-AVR-CLAVDIVS-AVG, Bust right, radiate, cuirassed and draped with paludamentum, seen from rear, (D2).
revers:- FORTVNA-REDVX, Fortuna standing left, holding rudder in right hand and cornucopiae in left hand, (Fortuna2).
exerg: -/-//SPQR, diameter: 21mm, weight: 3,84g, axes: 5h,
mint: Cyzicus, date: 269 A.D., ref: T-0909 (Estiot), RIC V-I 233,
Q-001
quadrans
Claudius-II__AE-Ant_IMP-CLAVDIVS-AVG_VICTORIAE-GOTHIC_SPQR_RIC-252var_T-946-iss-3-Ph-2_Komin-1149_Cyzicus-269-270-AD_Q-001_11h_22-23,5mm_4,74ga-s.jpg
104 Claudius II. (268-270 A.D.), T-0946 (Estiot), RIC V-I 252, Cyzicus, AE-Antoninianus, VICTORIAE GOTHIC, -/-//SPQR, Trophy of arms, Rare!,62 views104 Claudius II. (268-270 A.D.), T-0946 (Estiot), RIC V-I 252, Cyzicus, AE-Antoninianus, VICTORIAE GOTHIC, -/-//SPQR, Trophy of arms, Rare!,
avers:- IMP-CLAVDIVS-AVG, Bust right, radiate, cuirassed and draped with paludamentum, seen from rear, (D2).
revers:- VICTORIAE-GOTHIC, Trophy of arms (helmet l.); on each side, a bound and std. captive in oriental dress, (Trophy 1c).
exerg: -/-//SPQR, diameter: 22-23,5mm, weight: 4,74g, axes: 11h,
mint: Cyzicus, iss-3, Ph-2, date: 269-270 A.D., ref: T-0946 (Estiot), RIC V-I 252, Komin 1149, Rare!,
Q-001
quadrans
Claudius-II__AE-Ant_IMP-CLAVDIVS-P-F-AVG-(three-dots)(D2)_VIRTV-S-AVG(V1)_SPQR_RIC-254var_T-966-iss-3-Ph-2_off-3_Alf_1938,31_10_Cyzicus-269-270-AD_Q-001_0h_20-21,5mm_3,00g-s.jpg
104 Claudius II. (268-270 A.D.), T-0966 (Estiot), RIC V-I 254, Cyzicus, AE-Antoninianus, VIRTVS AVG, -/-//SPQR, Virtus standing left,66 views104 Claudius II. (268-270 A.D.), T-0966 (Estiot), RIC V-I 254, Cyzicus, AE-Antoninianus, VIRTVS AVG, -/-//SPQR, Virtus standing left,
avers:- IMP-CLAVDIVS-P-F-AVG, Bust right, radiate, cuirassed and draped with paludamentum, seen from rear, (D2). Obverse mark: •••,
revers:- VIRTV-S-AVG, Virtus stg. l., holding shield which rests on ground in r. hand and spear in l. hand., (Virtus1).
exerg: -/-//SPQR, diameter: 21mm, weight: 3,84g, axes: 5h,
mint: Cyzicus, iss-3, Ph-2, off-3, date: 269-270 A.D., ref: T-0966 (Estiot), RIC V-I 254var, Alf:1938, 31.10,
Q-001
quadrans
104_Claudius_II__(268-270_A_D_),IMP_C_CLAVDIVS_AVG,_IVVENTVS_AVG,_Delta,_T-1022,_Antioch,_iss-1,_off-4,_268-9,_Q-001,_h,_19mm,_4,08g-s.jpg
104 Claudius II. (268-270 A.D.), T-1022 (Estiot), RIC V-I 104var., Antioch, AE-Antoninianus, IVVENTVS AVG, -/-//Δ, Hercules standing, facing, #1103 views104 Claudius II. (268-270 A.D.), T-1022 (Estiot), RIC V-I 104var., Antioch, AE-Antoninianus, IVVENTVS AVG, -/-//Δ, Hercules standing, facing, #1
avers:- IMP C CLAVDIVS AVG, Bust right, radiate, cuirassed and draped with paludamentum, seen from rear, (D2).
revers:- IVVENTVS AVG, Hercules standing, facing, head left, right hand leaning on club, and holding apple in left hand, lion's skin over left arm. (Hercules 4).
exerg: -/-//Δ, diameter: 19,0mm, weight: 4,08g, axes: h,
mint: Antioch, iss-1, off-4, date: 268-269 A.D., ref: T-1022 (Estiot), RIC V-I 213,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
104_Claudius_II__(268-270_A_D_),IMP_C_CLAVD(I)VS_AVG,dot,_IVVENTVS_AVG,_RIC-213,T-1057var_,_Antioch,_iss-3,_off-4,_270,_Q-001,_0h,_20mm,_3,01g-s.jpg
104 Claudius II. (268-270 A.D.), T-1057var. (Estiot), RIC V-I 113var., Antioch, AE-Antoninianus, IVVENTVS AVG, -/-//--, Hercules standing, facing, #1135 views104 Claudius II. (268-270 A.D.), T-1057var. (Estiot), RIC V-I 113var., Antioch, AE-Antoninianus, IVVENTVS AVG, -/-//--, Hercules standing, facing, #1
avers:- IMP C CLAVD(I)VS AVG (Legends error I are missing), Bust left, radiate, with traces of drapery to front of truncation, one or two dot under the bust(!!!), (A2l).
revers:- IVVENTVS AVG, Hercules standing, facing, head left, right hand leaning on club, and holding apple in left hand, lion's skin over left arm, (Hercules 4).
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: 20,0mm, weight: 3,01g, axes: 0h,
mint: Antioch, iss-3, off-4, date: 270 A.D., ref: T-1057var. (Estiot), RIC V-I 213,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Claudius-II__AE-Ant_DIVO-CLAVDIO_CONSAECRATIO_RIC-261_Temp-1276_Rome-270-271-AD_Q-001_7h_15-17mm_1,68g-s.jpg
104 Claudius II. (268-270 A.D.), T-1276 (Estiot), RIC V-I 261, Rome, AE-Antoninianus, CONSECRATIO, -/-//--, Altar, 76 views104 Claudius II. (268-270 A.D.), T-1276 (Estiot), RIC V-I 261, Rome, AE-Antoninianus, CONSECRATIO, -/-//--, Altar,
avers: DIVO-CLAVDIO, Bust right, radiate. (A1).
revers: CONSECRATIO, Altar, with flame above, . (Altar ).
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: 15-17mm, weight: 1,68g, axes: 7h,
mint: Rome, off-, iss-1, date: 270-271A.D., ref: T-1276, RIC V-I 261,
Q-001
quadrans
Claudius-II__AE-Ant_DIVO-CLAVDIO_CONSAECRATIO_RIC-266_Temp-1278_Rome-270-271-AD_Q-001_7h_21,5-22,5mm_2,99g-s.jpg
104 Claudius II. (268-270 A.D.), T-1278 (Estiot), RIC V-I 266, Rome, AE-Antoninianus, CONSECRATIO, -/-//--, Eagle standing left, #1154 views104 Claudius II. (268-270 A.D.), T-1278 (Estiot), RIC V-I 266, Rome, AE-Antoninianus, CONSECRATIO, -/-//--, Eagle standing left, #1
avers:- DIVO-CLAVDIO, Bust right, radiate. (A1).
revers:- CONSECRATIO, Eagle standing left, head turned right. (Eagle2).
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: 21,5-22,5mm, weight: 2,99g, axes: 7h,
mint: Rome, iss-1, date: 270-271 A.D., ref: T-1278, RIC V-I 266,
Q-001
quadrans
Claudius-II__AE-Ant_DIVO-CLAVDIO_CONSAECRATIO_RIC-266_Temp-1278_Rome-270-271-AD_Q-002_7h_20,5-22mm_2,91g-s.jpg
104 Claudius II. (268-270 A.D.), T-1278 (Estiot), RIC V-I 266, Rome, AE-Antoninianus, CONSECRATIO, -/-//--, Eagle standing left, #2162 views104 Claudius II. (268-270 A.D.), T-1278 (Estiot), RIC V-I 266, Rome, AE-Antoninianus, CONSECRATIO, -/-//--, Eagle standing left, #2
avers:- DIVO-CLAVDIO, Bust right, radiate. (A1).
revers:- CONSECRATIO, Eagle standing left, head turned right. (Eagle2).
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: 20,5-22mm, weight: 2,91g, axes: 7h,
mint: Rome, iss-1, date: 270-271 A.D., ref: T-1278, RIC V-I 266,
Q-002
quadrans
Claudius-II__AE-Ant_DIVO-CLAVDIO_CONSAECRATIO_T_RIC-257var_Temp-1298_Siscia-270-271-AD_Q-001_axis-6h_19-21mm_2,10g-s.jpg
104 Claudius II. (268-270 A.D.), T-1298 (Estiot), RIC V-I 257var., Siscia, AE-Antoninianus, CONSAECRATIO, -/-//T, Altar,92 views104 Claudius II. (268-270 A.D.), T-1298 (Estiot), RIC V-I 257var., Siscia, AE-Antoninianus, CONSAECRATIO, -/-//T, Altar,
avers:- DIVO-CLAVDIO, Bust right, radiate, cuirassed, seen from rear. (B2).
revers:- CONSAECRATIO, Altar, with flame above, divided in four squares with a dot inside of each square. (Altar 1a).
exerg: -/-//T, diameter: 19-21mm, weight: 2,10g, axes: 6h,
mint: Siscia, off-3, iss-1, date: 270-271 A.D., ref: T-1298, RIC V-I 257var,
Q-001
quadrans
Claudius-II__AE-Ant_DIVO-CLAVDIO_CONSECRATIO_T_RIC-_Temp-1299_Siscia-270-271-AD_Q-001_axis-6h_21-22mm_3,42g-s.jpg
104 Claudius II. (268-270 A.D.), T-1299 (Estiot), RIC V-I 261corr., Siscia, AE-Antoninianus, CONSECRATIO, -/-//T, Altar, 146 views104 Claudius II. (268-270 A.D.), T-1299 (Estiot), RIC V-I 261corr., Siscia, AE-Antoninianus, CONSECRATIO, -/-//T, Altar,
avers:- DIVO-CLAVDIO, Bust right, radiate. (A1).
revers:- CONSECRATIO, Altar, with flame above, divided in four squares with a dot inside of each square. (Altar 1a).
exerg: -/-//T, diameter: 21-22mm, weight: 3,42g, axes: 6h,
mint: Siscia, off-3, iss-1, date: 270-271 A.D., ref: T-1299, RIC V-I 261corr.,
Q-001
quadrans
Claudius-II__AE-Ant_DIVO-CLAVDIO_CONSECRATIO_T_RIC-_Temp-Not-in_-AD_Q-001_axis-0h_19-21mm_2,82g-s.jpg
104 Claudius II. (268-270 A.D.), T-???? (Estiot), RIC V-I ???, Siscia, AE-Antoninianus, CONSECRATIO, -/-//--, Altar, 142 views104 Claudius II. (268-270 A.D.), T-???? (Estiot), RIC V-I ???, Siscia, AE-Antoninianus, CONSECRATIO, -/-//--, Altar,
avers:- DIVO-CLAVDIO, Bust right, radiate. (A1).
revers:- CONSECRATIO, Altar, with flame above, . (Altar ).
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: 19-21mm, weight: 2,82g, axes: 0h,
mint: ???, off-, iss-, date: A.D., ref: T-, RIC V-I ,
Q-001
quadrans
Claudius-II__AE-Ant_IMP-CLAVDIVS-AVG_GENIVS-AVG_Gamma_RIC-46k_C-109_Roma_348-350-AD__Q-001_20-21mm_2,21g-s.jpg
104 Claudius II. (268-270 AD.) T-0326 , Roma, AE-Antoninianvs, GENIVS AVG, Genius standing left, Curious rotated or flipped double strikes, Error-coin, !!73 views104 Claudius II. (268-270 AD.) T-0326 , Roma, AE-Antoninianvs, GENIVS AVG, Genius standing left, Curious rotated or flipped double strikes, Error-coin, !!
avers:- IMP CLAVDIVS AVG, Radiate head right.
revers:- GENIVS AVG, Genius standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding cornucopia, Gamma in right field.
exe: -/Γ//--, diameter: 20,0-21,0mm, weight: 2,21g, axis: h,
mint: Rome, iss 2, off 3, date: 270 A.D., ref: RIC V-I 46k, T-326, C-109,
Q-001
quadrans
Claudius-II_AE-Ant_IMP-CLAVDIVS-AVG__Error-coin-Q-001_axis-6h_20mm_2,21g-s.jpg
104 Claudius II. (268-270 AD.) T-0326 , Roma, AE-Antoninianvs, GENIVS AVG, Genius standing left, Curious rotated or flipped double strikes, Error-coin, !!80 views104 Claudius II. (268-270 AD.) T-0326 , Roma, AE-Antoninianvs, GENIVS AVG, Genius standing left, Curious rotated or flipped double strikes, Error-coin, !!
avers:- IMP CLAVDIVS AVG, Radiate head right.
revers:- GENIVS AVG, Genius standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding cornucopia, Gamma in right field.
exe: -/Γ//--, diameter: 20,0-21,0mm, weight: 2,21g, axis: h,
mint: Rome, iss 2, off 3, date: 270 A.D., ref: RIC V-I 46k, T-326, C-109,
Q-001
quadrans
104_Claudius-II__Gothicus_(268-270_A_D_),_Bi-Tetradrachm,_G-,_D-5411,_Alexdr,Tyche_s_-l,LA_Q-001_0h_20-20,5mm_9,26g-s.jpg
104p Claudius-II. Gothicus (268-270 A.D.), Egypt, Alexandria, Bi-Tetradrachm, G-, D-5411, LA//--, Tyche seated left, #166 views104p Claudius-II. Gothicus (268-270 A.D.), Egypt, Alexandria, Bi-Tetradrachm, G-, D-5411, LA//--, Tyche seated left, #1
avers: AVT K KΛAVΔIOC CEB, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
reverse: LA above, Tyche reclining left on draped and garlanded couch, holding the rudder in right hand.
exergue: LA//--, diameter: 20-20,5mm, weight: 9,26g, axes: 0h,
mint: Alexandria, date: 268-269 A.D., Year 1. LA., ref: Geissen-, Dattari-5411, Kapmann-Ganschow-104.14-p-328,
Q-001
quadrans
104_Claudius-II__Gothicus_(268-270_A_D_),_Bi-Tetradrachm,_G-3015,_D-5414,_Alexandria,_Eagle_standing_right,_LA_in_left(Y-1,268_AD)_Q-001_0h_21-22,5mm_8,54g-s.jpg
104p Claudius-II. Gothicus (268-270 A.D.), Egypt, Alexandria, Bi-Tetradrachm, G-3015, D-5414, -/LA//--, Eagle standing right, #1136 views104p Claudius-II. Gothicus (268-270 A.D.), Egypt, Alexandria, Bi-Tetradrachm, G-3015, D-5414, -/LA//--, Eagle standing right, #1
avers: AVT K KΛAVΔIOC CEB, Laureate, draped bust right.
reverse: Eagle standing right, head left with wreath in its beak, LA in the left field.
exergue: -/LA//--, diameter: 21,0-22,5mm, weight: 8,54g, axes: 0h,
mint: Alexandria, date: 268-269 A.D., Year 1. LA., ref: Geissen- 3015, Dattari-5414, Kapmann-Ganschow-104.01-p-327,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
104_Claudius-II__Gothicus_(268-270_A_D_),_Bi-Tetradrachm,_G-3015v,_D-5414v,_Alexandria,_Eagle_standing_right,_LA_in_left(Y-1,268_AD)_Q-001_11h_21,5mm_10,35g-s.jpg
104p Claudius-II. Gothicus (268-270 A.D.), Egypt, Alexandria, Bi-Tetradrachm, G-3015v., D-5414v., -/LA//--, Eagle standing right, #1163 views104p Claudius-II. Gothicus (268-270 A.D.), Egypt, Alexandria, Bi-Tetradrachm, G-3015v., D-5414v., -/LA//--, Eagle standing right, #1, #1
avers: AVT K KΛAVΔIOC CEB, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right. (Bust variation!)
reverse: Eagle standing right, head left with wreath in its beak, LA in the left field.
exergue: -/LA//--, diameter: 21,5mm, weight: 10,35g, axes: 11h,
mint: Alexandria, date: 268-269 A.D., Year 1. LA., ref: Geissen- 3015v., Dattari-5414v., Kapmann-Ganschow-104.01v.-p-327,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
104_Claudius-II__Gothicus_(268-270_A_D_),_Bi-Tetradrachm,_G-3027,_D-5415,_Alexandria,_Eagle_standing_right,L-B_Q-001_h_mm_g-s.jpg
104p Claudius-II. Gothicus (268-270 A.D.), Egypt, Alexandria, Bi-Tetradrachm, G-3027, D-5415, L/B//--, Eagle standing right, #166 views104p Claudius-II. Gothicus (268-270 A.D.), Egypt, Alexandria, Bi-Tetradrachm, G-3027, D-5415, L/B//--, Eagle standing right, #1
avers: AVT K KΛAVΔIOC CEB, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
reverse: Eagle standing right, head left with wreath in its beak, L-B across the field,
exergue: L/B//--, diameter: 21-22mm, weight: 11,21g, axes: 11 h,
mint: Alexandria, date: 269-270 A.D., Year 2. L-B., ref: Geissen- 3027, Dattari-5415, Kapmann-Ganschow-104.17-p-328,
Q-001
quadrans
104_Claudius-II__Gothicus_(268-270_A_D_),_Bi-Tetradrachm,_G-3028,_D-5417,_KG-104_16_Alexandria,_Eagle_standing_left,_L-B_,_269-270_(Y-2)-Q-001_0h_21-21,5mm_9,02g-s.jpg
104p Claudius-II. Gothicus (268-270 A.D.), Egypt, Alexandria, Bi-Tetradrachm, G-3028, D-5417, L/B//--, Eagle standing left, #1114 views104p Claudius-II. Gothicus (268-270 A.D.), Egypt, Alexandria, Bi-Tetradrachm, G-3028, D-5417, L/B//--, Eagle standing left, #1
avers: AVT K KΛAVΔIOC CEB, Laureate and cuirassed bust right.
reverse: Eagle standing left, head right with wreath in its beak, L-B across the field,
exergue: L/B//--, diameter: 21-21,5mm, weight: 9,02g, axes: 0 h,
mint: Alexandria, date: 269-270 A.D., Year 2. L-B., ref: Geissen- 3028, Dattari-5418, Kapmann-Ganschow-104.16-p-328, Milne 4248, Curtis 1683, BMC-Alexandria 2333,
Q-001
quadrans
104_Claudius-II__Gothicus_(268-270_A_D_),_Bi-Tetradrachm,_G-3037-3038,_D-5392-5393,_Alexandria,_Bust_of_Hermanubis_right,_LB_to_left_Q-001_h_mm_g-s.jpg
104p Claudius-II. Gothicus (268-270 A.D.), Egypt, Alexandria, Bi-Tetradrachm, G-3037-3038, D-5392-5393, LB/-//--, Bust of Hermanubis right, #165 views104p Claudius-II. Gothicus (268-270 A.D.), Egypt, Alexandria, Bi-Tetradrachm, G-3037-3038, D-5392-5393, LB/-//--, Bust of Hermanubis right, #1
avers: AVT K KΛAVΔIOC CEB, Laureate, cuirassed bust right.
reverse: Bust of Hermanubis right, wearing modius, lotus blossom to right, LB to left.
exergue: LB/-//--, diameter: 21mm, weight: 9,5g, axes: 0 h,
mint: Alexandria, date: 269-270 A.D., Year 2. LB., ref: Geissen- 3037-3038, Dattari-5392-5393, Kapmann-Ganschow-104.25-p-329,
Q-001
quadrans
104_Claudius_II__Gothicus,_Alexandria,_Potin,_Tetradrachm,_Nike,_Milne_4235_,_year-2,_269_AD__Q-001,_h,_20mm,_10,76g-s.jpg
104p Claudius-II. Gothicus (268-270 A.D.), Egypt, Alexandria, Bi-Tetradrachm, G-3041, D-5402, -/LB//--, Nike advancing right, #190 views104p Claudius-II. Gothicus (268-270 A.D.), Egypt, Alexandria, Bi-Tetradrachm, G-3041, D-5402, -/LB//--, Nike advancing right, #1
avers: AVT K KΛAVΔIOC CEB, Laureate and cuirassed bust right.
reverse: Nike advancing right, holding wreath and palm, year LB in right field.
exergue: -/LB//--, diameter: 20,0mm, weight: 10,76g, axes: h,
mint: Egypt, Alexandria, date: 269-270 A.D., Year 2. LB., ref: Milne 4235, Giessen-3041, Dattari-5402, Kapmann-Ganschow-104.29-p-329,
Q-001
quadrans
Medio_Asarion_BRITANICO_Smyrna_en_Ionia.jpg
11-20 - Smyrna en Ionia - BRITANICO (50 - 54 D.C.)17 viewsAE15 - 1/2 Assarión (Provincial)
15 mm 4,05 gr 0 hr.

Tiberio Claudio César Británico en latín Tiberius Claudius Caesar Britannicus (12 de febrero de 41 - 11 de febrero de 55) fue un noble romano, nacido del matrimonio entre el emperador Claudio y su tercera esposa, Valeria Mesalina. En el momento de su nacimiento, sólo un mes después del inicio del reinado de Claudio, fue nombrado heredero del Imperio; no obstante hubo tres factores: la condena a muerte de su madre a causa de bigamia, el matrimonio de Claudio con Agripina y la adopción de Nerón, descendiente del recordado Germánico, que provocaron que los ciudadanos romanos no le consideraran como sucesor imperial. Fue asesinado el día anterior a su decimocuarto cumpleaños. (Fuente Wikipedia)

Anv: "ZMYP" debajo - Busto vestido a cabeza desnuda viendo a derecha.
Rev: "ΕΠΙ ΦΙΛΙΣ ΤΟΥ ΕΙΚΑΔΙΟ Σ", (Philistos y Eikadios Magistrados), Nike avanzando a derecha, portando un trofeo sobre su hombro.

Acuñada 50 - 54 D.C.
Ceca: Smyrna en Ionia

Referencias: Vagi #650 - Lingren #562 - KLDSE XXXI #37 pag.223 - SNG Cop #1351 - SNG Von Aulock #7995 - BMC Vol.16 #284 Pag.270 - RPC I #2476 Pag.419
mdelvalle
A-x3_Rep_AR-Den_xxxxxxx_Crawford-_Syd-_Rome_-BC_Q-001_axis-5h_18mm_3,74g-s.jpg
110-109 B.C., C.Claudius Ap.f.C.n. Pulchner, AR-Denarius, Crawford 300/1, Rome, Victory in biga,112 views110-109 B.C., C.Claudius Ap.f.C.n. Pulchner, AR-Denarius, Crawford 300/1, Rome, Victory in biga,
avers:- Helmeted head of Rome right (helmet decorated with circular device). Border of dots.
revers: - Victory in biga right, holding both hands. Border of dots.
exerg: -/-/ C.PVLCHER, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Rome, date:110-109 B.C., ref: Crawford-300/1, Sydenham-569,
Q-001
quadrans
12_caes_portraits_coll_res_lt.jpg
12 CAESARS PORTRAITS164 viewsObverse images from my collection.
R 1: Julius, Augustus, Tiberius, Caligula
R 2: Claudius, Nero, Galba, Otho
R 3: Vitellius, Vespasian, Titus, Domitian
2 commentslaney
RIC_92_Dupondio_Antonia.jpg
12-01 - ANTONIA (36 A.C. - 37 D.C.)22 viewsAE Dupondio 27 mm 10.2 gr. (IMITACIÓN PROVINCIAL)
Hija de Marco Antonio y Octavia, nieta de Augusto, esposa de Nero Claudius Drusus y madre de Germánico y Claudio. Emisión póstuma acuñada por su hijo Claudio

Anv: "ANTONIA [AVG]VSTA" - Busto vestido viendo a derecha.
Rev: "TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG PM [TR P] IMP - S C" - Claudio de pié a izquierda, vistiendo toga y velo, portando Simpulum en mano derecha extendida y pergamino enrollado en izquierda.

Acuñada 41 - 42 D.C.
Ceca: Inicialmente acreditada por mí a Roma, pero finalmente corregida esta acreditación por el Sr. Curtis Clay como una imitación Provincial.

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 #92 Pag.127 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 (Claudius) #1902 Pag.375 - BMCRE #166 - Cohen Vol.1 #6 Pag.223 - DVM #3 Pag.77 - CBN (Claudius) #143 - Von Kaenel Tipo 15 #292 (V216/R262)
mdelvalle
Dupondio ANTONIA RIC 92.jpg
12-1 - ANTONIA (36 A.C. - 37 D.C.)70 viewsAE Dupondio 27 mm 10.2 gr. (IMITACIÓN PROVINCIAL)
Hija de Marco Antonio y Octavia, nieta de Augusto, esposa de Nero Claudius Drusus y madre de Germánico y Claudio. Emisión póstuma acuñada por su hijo Claudio

Anv: "ANTONIA [AVG]VSTA" - Busto vestido viendo a derecha.
Rev: "TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG PM [TR P] IMP - S C" - Claudio de pié a izquierda, vistiendo toga y velo, portando Simpulum en mano derecha extendida y pergamino enrollado en izquierda.

Acuñada 41 - 42 D.C.
Ceca: Inicialmente acreditada por mí a Roma, pero finalmente corregida esta acreditación por el Sr. Curtis Clay como una imitación Provincial.

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 #92 Pag.127 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 (Claudius) #1902 Pag.375 - BMCRE #166 - Cohen Vol.1 #6 Pag.223 - DVM #3 Pag.77 - CBN (Claudius) #143 - Von Kaenel Tipo 15 #292 (V216/R262)
mdelvalle
GI_122e_img.jpg
122 - Claudius II Gothicus - Billon tetradrachm - Milne 422611 viewsBillon tetradrachm
Obv:– AVT K KLAUDIOC CEB, Laureate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– None, Helmeted and cuirassed Ares (Mars) standing left, rests on spear and holds sword in sheath with chlamys
Minted in Alexandria (L | B). A.D. 268/269
Reference(s) – Milne 4226. Emmett 3871(2). Curtis 1661. BMC 2311. SNG Cop 839, Kampmann 104.20;
maridvnvm
RI_122p_img.jpg
122 - Claudius II Gothicus - RIC V Antioch 212 (bust left)21 viewsAntoninianus
Obv:– IMP C CLAVDIVS AVG, Radiate head left
Rev:– IVNO REGINA, Juno standing left, patera in right, scepter in left, peacock at feet left
Minted in Antioch. September 268 - August or September 270 A.D.
Reference:– RIC V 212
maridvnvm
RI_122q_img.jpg
122 - Claudius II Gothicus - RIC V Antioch 21318 viewsAntoninianus
Obv:– IMP C CLAVDIVS AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind
Rev:– IVVENTVS AVG, Hercules standing facing, head turned right, holding club set on ground in right hand, apple in left
Minted in Antioch (//D). A.D. 68 - 270
Reference:– RIC 213
maridvnvm
RI_122n_img.jpg
122 - Claudius II Gothicus Ant. - RIC -29 viewsObv:– IMP C CLAVDIVS AVG, Radiate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– APPOLINI CONS, Apollo standing left, holding laurel branch and lyre on rock
Minted in Rome (_ | H).
Reference(s) – Cohen -. RIC Unlisted (APPOLINI CONS listed with IMP CLAVDIVS AVG, this legend listed with APPOLI CONS!)
maridvnvm
RI 122f img.jpg
122 - Claudius II Gothicus Ant. - RIC 03629 viewsObv:– IMP C CLAVDIVS AVG, Radiate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– FIDES EXERCI, Fides standing right holding two standards, one transverse
Minted in Rome
Reference:– RIC 36
maridvnvm
RI 122c img.jpg
122 - Claudius II Gothicus Ant. - RIC 045 21 viewsObv:– IMP C CLAVDIVS AVG, Radiate, draped bust right
Rev:– GENIVS AVG, Genius standing left with patera & cornucopaie
Minted in Rome. A.D. 268-270
Reference:– RIC 45
maridvnvm
RI 122b img.jpg
122 - Claudius II Gothicus Ant. - RIC 05434 viewsObv:– IMP C CLAVDIVS AVG, Radiate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– IOVI VICTORI, Jupiter standing left, holding staff and thunderbolt
Minted in Rome
Reference:– RIC 54
maridvnvm
RI 122l img.jpg
122 - Claudius II Gothicus Ant. - RIC 06665 viewsObv:– IMP C CLAVDIVS AVG, Radiate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– MARS VLTOR, Mars advancing right, holding trophy and spear
Reference:– RIC 66
maridvnvm
RI 122a img.jpg
122 - Claudius II Gothicus Ant. - RIC 109a56 viewsObv:– IMP C CLAVDIVS AVG, Radiate, draped bust right
Rev:– VIRTVS AVG, Virtus standing left, holding branch and scepter; leaning on shield, left
Reference:– RIC 109a

Peculiar coloration caused by the toning process
maridvnvm
RI_122m_img.jpg
122 - Claudius II Gothicus Ant. - RIC 17243 viewsObv:– IMP CLAVDIVS P F AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– VIRTVS AVG, Mars advancing right, holding trophy and spear
Minted in Milan. (P in exe)
Reference:– RIC 172. Cohen 315
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI 122e img.jpg
122 - Claudius II Gothicus Ant. - RIC 234 33 viewsObv:– IMP CLAVDIVS P F AVG, Radiate, draped bust right
Rev:– FORTVNA REDVX, Fortuna standing left holding rudder and cornucopiae
Minted in Cyzicus. A.D. 268-270
Reference:– Van Meter 14. RIC 234. Cohen 102
maridvnvm
GI 122b img.jpg
122 - Claudius II Gothicus, Billon tetradrachm, Alexandria, Eagle, Milne 429118 viewsBillon tetradrachm
Obv:– AVT K KΛAVΔIOC CEB, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– None, Eagle standing right, wreath in beak, palm behind
Minted in Alexandria, L in left field, Г in right field (year 3). A.D. 269/270
Reference:– Curtis 1687, BMC 2336, Milne 4291
maridvnvm
GI 122a img.jpg
122 - Claudius II Gothicus, Billon tetradrachm, Alexandria, Nike right30 viewsBillon tetradrachm
Obv:– AVT K KΛAVΔIOC CEB, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– None, Nike advancing right, holding wreath & palm, year
Minted in Alexandria, L in left field, B in right field (year 2). A.D. 268/269
Reference:– Curtis 1712, BMC 2321 Milne 4228
1 commentsmaridvnvm
IMG_3871~0.jpg
133. Claudius II Gothicus (268-270 A.D.)33 viewsAv.: IMP CLAVDIVS PF AVG
Rv.: VICTORIA AVG
Ex.: S

AE Antoninian Ø20 / 3,5g
RIC V-1 171 Milan, Cohen 302, Sear5 11379
Juancho
IMG_5071.JPG
134. Quintillus (Pretender under Claudius II)19 viewsAv.: IMP QVINTILLVS AVG
Rv.: FIDES MILIT
Ex.: S

AE Antonionian Ø18-21 / 2.7g
RIC V-1 52 Milan
Juancho
CrispusRIC17.jpg
1404a, Crispus, Caesar 317 - 326 A.D. 38 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC 17, aEF, Cyzicus mint, 3.196g, 19.9mm, 315o, 321 - 324 A.D.; Obverse: D N FL IVL CRISPVS NOB CAES, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: IOVI CONSERVATORI, Jupiter standing left holding Victory on globe in right and scepter in left, eagle with wreath in beak to left, X / IIG and captive right, SMKD in exergue; scarce (RIC R3). Ex FORVM.


De Imperatoribus Romanis;
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors and their Families

Crispus Caesar (317-326 A.D.)

Hans Pohlsander
SUNY Albany

Crispus was the oldest son of the emperor Constantine I and played a fairly important role in the political and military events of the early fourth century. The regular form of his full name is Flavius Iulius Crispus, although the forms Flavius Claudius Crispus and Flavius Valerius Crispus also occur. His mother was a woman named Minervina, with whom Constantine had a relationship, probably illegitimate, before he married Fausta in 307. When Minervina died or when Constantine put her aside we do not know. Nor do we know when she gave birth to Crispus; we may assume, of course, that it was before 307. Some modern authorities, on good grounds, think that it was in 305. Crispus' place of birth must have been somewhere in the East, and it is not known when he was brought to Gaul and when, where, or under what circumstances he was separated from his mother.

Constantine entrusted the education of his son to the distinguished Christian scholar Lactantius, thereby giving a clear sign of his commitment to Christianity. We are not told when Lactantius assumed his duties, but a date before 317 seems likely. Nor do we know how successful he was in instilling Christian beliefs and values in his imperial pupil. No later than January of 322 Crispus must have married a woman named Helena -- not to be confused with Constantine's mother or daughter by the same name- and this woman bore him a child in October of 322. Constantine, we learn, was pleased.

Crispus' official career began at an early age and is well documented. On March 1 of 317, at Serdica (modern Sofia), his father appointed him Caesar. The consulship was his three times, in 318, 321, and 324. While nominally in charge of Gaul, with a prefect at his side, he successfully undertook military operations against the Franks and Alamanni in 320 and 323.

In 324, during the second war between Constantine and Licinius, he excelled as commander of Constantine's fleet in the waters of the Hellespont, the Propontis, and the Bosporus, thus making a significant contribution to the outcome of that war. The high points of his career are amply reflected in the imperial coinage. In addition to coins, we have his portrait, with varying degrees of certainty, in a number of sculptures, mosaics, cameos, etc. Contemporary authors heap praises upon him. Thus the panegyrist Nazarius speaks of Crispus' "magnificent deeds," and Eusebius calls him "an emperor most dear to God and in all regards comparable to his father."

Crispus' end was as tragic as his career had been brilliant. His own father ordered him to be put to death. We know the year of this sad event, 326, from the Consularia Constantinopolitana, and the place, Pola in Istria, from Ammianus Marcellinus. The circumstances, however, are less clear. Zosimus (6th c.) and Zonaras (12th c.) both report that Crispus and his stepmother Fausta were involved in an illicit relationship. There may be as much gossip as fact in their reports, but it is certain that at some time during the same year the emperor ordered the death of his own wife as well, and the two cases must be considered together. That Crispus and Fausta plotted treason is reported by Gregory of Tours, but not very believable. We must resolutely reject the claim of Zosimus that it was Constantine's sense of guilt over these deeds which caused him to accept Christianity, as it alone promised him forgiveness for his sins. A similar claim had already been made by Julian the Apostate. We must also, I think, reject the suggestion of Guthrie that the emperor acted in the interest of "dynastic legitimacy," that is, that he removed his illegitimate first-born son in order to secure the succession for his three legitimate younger sons. But Crispus must have committed, or at least must have been suspected of having committed, some especially shocking offense to earn him a sentence of death from his own father. He also suffered damnatio memoriae, his honor was never restored, and history has not recorded the fate of his wife and his child (or children).

Copyright (C) 1997, Hans A. Pohlsander. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis;An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors and their Families:
http://www.roman-emperors.org/crispus.htm


What If?

St. Nectarios, in his book, The Ecumenical Synods, writes "Hellenism spread by Alexander paved the way for Christianity by Emperor Constantine the Great."

Constantine's upward gaze on his "Eyes to Heaven" coins recall the coin portraits of Alexander the Great (namely coins struck by the Diodochi), which served as prototypes for the divine ruler portraiture of much of the Hellenistic age. The diadem, of which this is the most elaborate type, was adopted by Constantine and the members of his house as a new symbol of sovereignty.

In the Greek Orthodox Church, Constantine the Great is revered as a Saint.

Is it just possible? Constantine, knowing what happened (or thinking that he does) to Phillip II of Macedon—assassinated on the eve of his greatness, in a plot that most likely involved his wife—and possibly his son. . . isn’t it just possible that Constantine is growing obsessively jealous of his ever more successful and adulated son? Imagine the Constantine who has proven time and again (think: Licinius) that he is a completely self-serving liar and a murderer, decides to murder again? Why "must we resolutely reject the claim of Zosimus that it was Constantine's sense of guilt over these deeds which caused him to accept Christianity, as it alone promised him forgiveness for his sins [?] (see: above). A similar claim had already been made by Julian the [Philosopher]."

Perhaps it is time to cease being apologists for the sometime megalomaniacal Constantine. As Michael Grant notes, "It is a mocking travesty of justice to call such a murderer Constantine the Great . . ." (Grant, Michael. The Emperor Constantine. London: Phoenix Press, 1998. 226).


Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.


Cleisthenes
crispus_votV.jpg
1404b, Crispus, Caesar 317 - 326 A.D. (Thessalonica)35 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC 118, VF, Thessalonica mint, 2.740g, 18.0mm, 180o, 320 - 321 A.D. Obverse: FL IVL CRISPVS NOB CAES, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust left; Reverse: CAESARVM NOSTRORVM, VOT V in wreath, TSDVI in exergue.

Flavius Julius Crispus was the son of Constantine I by his first wife. A brilliant soldier, Crispus was well loved by all until 326 A.D., when Constantine had him executed. It is said that Fausta, Crispus stepmother, anxious to secure the succession for her own sons falsely accused Crispus of raping her. Constantine, learning of Fausta`s treachery, had her executed too.


De Imperatoribus Romanis;
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors and their Families

Crispus Caesar (317-326 A.D.)

Hans Pohlsander
SUNY Albany

Crispus was the oldest son of the emperor Constantine I and played a fairly important role in the political and military events of the early fourth century. The regular form of his full name is Flavius Iulius Crispus, although the forms Flavius Claudius Crispus and Flavius Valerius Crispus also occur. His mother was a woman named Minervina, with whom Constantine had a relationship, probably illegitimate, before he married Fausta in 307. When Minervina died or when Constantine put her aside we do not know. Nor do we know when she gave birth to Crispus; we may assume, of course, that it was before 307. Some modern authorities, on good grounds, think that it was in 305. Crispus' place of birth must have been somewhere in the East, and it is not known when he was brought to Gaul and when, where, or under what circumstances he was separated from his mother.

Constantine entrusted the education of his son to the distinguished Christian scholar Lactantius, thereby giving a clear sign of his commitment to Christianity. We are not told when Lactantius assumed his duties, but a date before 317 seems likely. Nor do we know how successful he was in instilling Christian beliefs and values in his imperial pupil. No later than January of 322 Crispus must have married a woman named Helena -- not to be confused with Constantine's mother or daughter by the same name- and this woman bore him a child in October of 322. Constantine, we learn, was pleased.

Crispus' official career began at an early age and is well documented. On March 1 of 317, at Serdica (modern Sofia), his father appointed him Caesar. The consulship was his three times, in 318, 321, and 324. While nominally in charge of Gaul, with a prefect at his side, he successfully undertook military operations against the Franks and Alamanni in 320 and 323.

In 324, during the second war between Constantine and Licinius, he excelled as commander of Constantine's fleet in the waters of the Hellespont, the Propontis, and the Bosporus, thus making a significant contribution to the outcome of that war. The high points of his career are amply reflected in the imperial coinage. In addition to coins, we have his portrait, with varying degrees of certainty, in a number of sculptures, mosaics, cameos, etc. Contemporary authors heap praises upon him. Thus the panegyrist Nazarius speaks of Crispus' "magnificent deeds," and Eusebius calls him "an emperor most dear to God and in all regards comparable to his father."

Crispus' end was as tragic as his career had been brilliant. His own father ordered him to be put to death. We know the year of this sad event, 326, from the Consularia Constantinopolitana, and the place, Pola in Istria, from Ammianus Marcellinus. The circumstances, however, are less clear. Zosimus (6th c.) and Zonaras (12th c.) both report that Crispus and his stepmother Fausta were involved in an illicit relationship. There may be as much gossip as fact in their reports, but it is certain that at some time during the same year the emperor ordered the death of his own wife as well, and the two cases must be considered together. That Crispus and Fausta plotted treason is reported by Gregory of Tours, but not very believable. We must resolutely reject the claim of Zosimus that it was Constantine's sense of guilt over these deeds which caused him to accept Christianity, as it alone promised him forgiveness for his sins. A similar claim had already been made by Julian the Apostate. We must also, I think, reject the suggestion of Guthrie that the emperor acted in the interest of "dynastic legitimacy," that is, that he removed his illegitimate first-born son in order to secure the succession for his three legitimate younger sons. But Crispus must have committed, or at least must have been suspected of having committed, some especially shocking offense to earn him a sentence of death from his own father. He also suffered damnatio memoriae, his honor was never restored, and history has not recorded the fate of his wife and his child (or children).

Copyright (C) 1997, Hans A. Pohlsander. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis;An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors and their Families:
http://www.roman-emperors.org/crispus.htm


What If?

St. Nectarios, in his book, The Ecumenical Synods, writes "Hellenism spread by Alexander paved the way for Christianity by Emperor Constantine the Great."

Constantine's upward gaze on his "Eyes to Heaven" coins recall the coin portraits of Alexander the Great (namely coins struck by the Diodochi), which served as prototypes for the divine ruler portraiture of much of the Hellenistic age. The diadem, of which this is the most elaborate type, was adopted by Constantine and the members of his house as a new symbol of sovereignty.

In the Greek Orthodox Church, Constantine the Great is revered as a Saint.

Is it just possible? Constantine, knowing what happened (or thinking that he does) to Phillip II of Macedon—assassinated on the eve of his greatness, in a plot that most likely involved his wife—and possibly his son. . . isn’t it just possible that Constantine is growing obsessively jealous of his ever more successful and adulated son? Imagine the Constantine who has proven time and again (think: Licinius) that he is a completely self-serving liar and a murderer, decides to murder again? Why "must we resolutely reject the claim of Zosimus that it was Constantine's sense of guilt over these deeds which caused him to accept Christianity, as it alone promised him forgiveness for his sins [?] (see: above). A similar claim had already been made by Julian the [Philosopher]."

Perhaps it is time to cease being apologists for the sometime megalomaniacal Constantine. As Michael Grant notes, "It is a mocking travesty of justice to call such a murderer Constantine the Great . . ." (Grant, Michael. The Emperor Constantine. London: Phoenix Press, 1998. 226).


Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
Julian2VotXConstantinople.jpg
1409a, Julian II "the Philosopher," February 360 - 26 June 363 A.D.143 viewsJulian II, A.D. 360-363; RIC 167; VF; 2.7g, 20mm; Constantinople mint; Obverse: DN FL CL IVLIANVS P F AVG, helmeted & cuirassed bust right, holding spear & shield; Reverse: VOT X MVLT XX in four lines within wreath; CONSPB in exergue; Attractive green patina. Ex Nemesis.


De Imperatoribus Romanis,
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Julian the Apostate (360-363 A.D.)

Walter E. Roberts, Emory University
Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University

Introduction

The emperor Flavius Claudius Julianus reigned from 360 to 26 June 363, when he was killed fighting against the Persians. Despite his short rule, his emperorship was pivotal in the development of the history of the later Roman empire. This essay is not meant to be a comprehensive look at the various issues central to the reign of Julian and the history of the later empire. Rather, this short work is meant to be a brief history and introduction for the general reader. Julian was the last direct descendent of the Constantinian line to ascend to the purple, and it is one of history's great ironies that he was the last non-Christian emperor. As such, he has been vilified by most Christian sources, beginning with John Chrysostom and Gregory Nazianzus in the later fourth century. This tradition was picked up by the fifth century Eusebian continuators Sozomen, Socrates Scholasticus, and Theodoret and passed on to scholars down through the 20th century. Most contemporary sources, however, paint a much more balanced picture of Julian and his reign. The adoption of Christianity by emperors and society, while still a vital concern, was but one of several issues that concerned Julian.

It is fortunate that extensive writings from Julian himself exist, which help interpret his reign in the light of contemporary evidence. Still extant are some letters, several panegyrics, and a few satires. Other contemporary sources include the soldier Ammianus Marcellinus' history, correspondence between Julian and Libanius of Antioch, several panegyrics, laws from the Theodosian Code, inscriptions, and coinage. These sources show Julian's emphasis on restoration. He saw himself as the restorer of the traditional values of Roman society. Of course much of this was rhetoric, meant to defend Julian against charges that he was a usurper. At the same time this theme of restoration was central to all emperors of the fourth century. Julian thought that he was the one emperor who could regain what was viewed as the lost glory of the Roman empire. To achieve this goal he courted select groups of social elites to get across his message of restoration. This was the way that emperors functioned in the fourth century. By choosing whom to include in the sharing of power, they sought to shape society.

Early Life

Julian was born at Constantinople in 331. His father was Julius Constantius, half-brother of the emperor Constantine through Constantius Chlorus, and his mother was Basilina, Julius' second wife. Julian had two half-brothers via Julius' first marriage. One of these was Gallus, who played a major role in Julian's life. Julian appeared destined for a bright future via his father's connection to the Constantinian house. After many years of tense relations with his three half-brothers, Constantine seemed to have welcomed them into the fold of the imperial family. From 333 to 335, Constantine conferred a series of honors upon his three half-siblings, including appointing Julius Constantius as one of the consuls for 335. Julian's mother was equally distinguished. Ammianus related that she was from a noble family. This is supported by Libanius, who claimed that she was the daughter of Julius Julianus, a Praetorian Prefect under Licinius, who was such a model of administrative virtue that he was pardoned and honored by Constantine.

Despite the fact that his mother died shortly after giving birth to him, Julian experienced an idyllic early childhood. This ended when Constantius II conducted a purge of many of his relatives shortly after Constantine's death in 337, particularly targeting the families of Constantine's half-brothers. ulian and Gallus were spared, probably due to their young age. Julian was put under the care of Mardonius, a Scythian eunuch who had tutored his mother, in 339, and was raised in the Greek philosophical tradition, and probably lived in Nicomedia. Ammianus also supplied the fact that while in Nicomedia, Julian was cared for by the local bishop Eusebius, of whom the future emperor was a distant relation. Julian was educated by some of the most famous names in grammar and rhetoric in the Greek world at that time, including Nicocles and Hecebolius. In 344 Constantius II sent Julian and Gallus to Macellum in Cappadocia, where they remained for six years. In 351, Gallus was made Caesar by Constantius II and Julian was allowed to return to Nicomedia, where he studied under Aedesius, Eusebius, and Chrysanthius, all famed philosophers, and was exposed to the Neo-Platonism that would become such a prominent part of his life. But Julian was most proud of the time he spent studying under Maximus of Ephesus, a noted Neo-Platonic philospher and theurgist. It was Maximus who completed Julian's full-scale conversion to Neo-Platonism. Later, when he was Caesar, Julian told of how he put letters from this philosopher under his pillows so that he would continue to absorb wisdom while he slept, and while campaigning on the Rhine, he sent his speeches to Maximus for approval before letting others hear them. When Gallus was executed in 354 for treason by Constantius II, Julian was summoned to Italy and essentially kept under house arrest at Comum, near Milan, for seven months before Constantius' wife Eusebia convinced the emperor that Julian posed no threat. This allowed Julian to return to Greece and continue his life as a scholar where he studied under the Neo-Platonist Priscus. Julian's life of scholarly pursuit, however, ended abruptly when he was summoned to the imperial court and made Caesar by Constantius II on 6 November 355.

Julian as Caesar

Constantius II realized an essential truth of the empire that had been evident since the time of the Tetrarchy--the empire was too big to be ruled effectively by one man. Julian was pressed into service as Caesar, or subordinate emperor, because an imperial presence was needed in the west, in particular in the Gallic provinces. Julian, due to the emperor's earlier purges, was the only viable candidate of the imperial family left who could act as Caesar. Constantius enjoined Julian with the task of restoring order along the Rhine frontier. A few days after he was made Caesar, Julian was married to Constantius' sister Helena in order to cement the alliance between the two men. On 1 December 355, Julian journeyed north, and in Augusta Taurinorum he learned that Alamannic raiders had destroyed Colonia Agrippina. He then proceeded to Vienne where he spent the winter. At Vienne, he learned that Augustudunum was also under siege, but was being held by a veteran garrison. He made this his first priority, and arrived there on 24 June 356. When he had assured himself that the city was in no immediate danger, he journeyed to Augusta Treverorum via Autessioduram, and from there to Durocortorum where he rendezvoused with his army. Julian had the army stage a series of punitive strikes around the Dieuse region, and then he moved them towards the Argentoratum/Mongontiacum region when word of barbarian incursions reached him.

From there, Julian moved on to Colonia Agrippina, and negotiated a peace with the local barbarian leaders who had assaulted the city. He then wintered at Senonae. He spent the early part of the campaigning season of 357 fighting off besiegers at Senonae, and then conducting operations around Lugdunum and Tres Tabernae. Later that summer, he encountered his watershed moment as a military general. Ammianus went into great detail about Julian's victory over seven rogue Alamannic chieftains near Argentoratum, and Julian himself bragged about it in his later writing. After this battle, the soldiers acclaimed Julian Augustus, but he rejected this title. After mounting a series of follow-up raids into Alamannic territory, he retired to winter quarters at Lutetia, and on the way defeated some Frankish raiders in the Mosa region. Julian considered this campaign one of the major events of his time as Caesar.

Julian began his 358 military campaigns early, hoping to catch the barbarians by surprise. His first target was the Franks in the northern Rhine region. He then proceeded to restore some forts in the Mosa region, but his soldiers threatened to mutiny because they were on short rations and had not been paid their donative since Julian had become Caesar. After he soothed his soldiers, Julian spent the rest of the summer negotiating a peace with various Alamannic leaders in the mid and lower Rhine areas, and retired to winter quarters at Lutetia. In 359, he prepared once again to carry out a series of punitive expeditions against the Alamanni in the Rhine region who were still hostile to the Roman presence. In preparation, the Caesar repopulated seven previously destroyed cities and set them up as supply bases and staging areas. This was done with the help of the people with whom Julian had negotiated a peace the year before. Julian then had a detachment of lightly armed soldiers cross the Rhine near Mogontiacum and conduct a guerilla strike against several chieftains. As a result of these campaigns, Julian was able to negotiate a peace with all but a handful of the Alamannic leaders, and he retired to winter quarters at Lutetia.

Of course, Julian did more than act as a general during his time as Caesar. According to Ammianus, Julian was an able administrator who took steps to correct the injustices of Constantius' appointees. Ammianus related the story of how Julian prevented Florentius, the Praetorian Prefect of Gaul, from raising taxes, and also how Julian actually took over as governor for the province of Belgica Secunda. Hilary, bishop of Poitiers, supported Ammianus' basic assessment of Julian in this regard when he reported that Julian was an able representative of the emperor to the Gallic provincials. There is also epigraphic evidence to support Julian's popularity amongst the provincial elites. An inscription found near Beneventum in Apulia reads:
"To Flavius Claudius Julianus, most noble and sanctified Caesar, from the caring Tocius Maximus, vir clarissimus, for the care of the res publica from Beneventum".

Tocius Maximus, as a vir clarissimus, was at the highest point in the social spectrum and was a leader in his local community. This inscription shows that Julian was successful in establishing a positive image amongst provincial elites while he was Caesar.

Julian Augustus

In early 360, Constantius, driven by jealousy of Julian's success, stripped Julian of many troops and officers, ostensibly because the emperor needed them for his upcoming campaign against the Persians. One of the legions ordered east, the Petulantes, did not want to leave Gaul because the majority of the soldiers in the unit were from this region. As a result they mutinied and hailed Julian as Augustus at Lutetia. Julian refused this acclamation as he had done at Argentoratum earlier, but the soldiers would have none of his denial. They raised him on a shield and adorned him with a neck chain, which had formerly been the possession of the standard-bearer of the Petulantes and symbolized a royal diadem. Julian appeared reluctantly to acquiesce to their wishes, and promised a generous donative. The exact date of his acclamation is unknown, but most scholars put it in February or March. Julian himself supported Ammianus' picture of a jealous Constantius. In his Letter to the Athenians, a document constructed to answer charges that he was a usurper, Julian stated that from the start he, as Caesar, had been meant as a figurehead to the soldiers and provincials. The real power he claimed lay with the generals and officials already present in Gaul. In fact, according to Julian, the generals were charged with watching him as much as the enemy. His account of the actual acclamation closely followed what Ammianus told us, but he stressed even more his reluctance to take power. Julian claimed that he did so only after praying to Zeus for guidance.

Fearing the reaction of Constantius, Julian sent a letter to his fellow emperor justifying the events at Lutetia and trying to arrange a peaceful solution. This letter berated Constantius for forcing the troops in Gaul into an untenable situation. Ammianus stated that Julian's letter blamed Constantius' decision to transfer Gallic legions east as the reason for the soldiers' rebellion. Julian once again asserted that he was an unwilling participant who was only following the desire of the soldiers. In both of these basic accounts Ammianus and Julian are playing upon the theme of restoration. Implicit in their version of Julian's acclamation is the argument that Constantius was unfit to rule. The soldiers were the vehicle of the gods' will. The Letter to the Athenians is full of references to the fact that Julian was assuming the mantle of Augustus at the instigation of the gods. Ammianus summed up this position nicely when he related the story of how, when Julian was agonizing over whether to accept the soldiers' acclamation, he had a dream in which he was visited by the Genius (guardian spirit) of the Roman state. The Genius told Julian that it had often tried to bestow high honors upon Julian but had been rebuffed. Now, the Genius went on to say, was Julian's final chance to take the power that was rightfully his. If the Caesar refused this chance, the Genius would depart forever, and both Julian and the state would rue Julian's rejection. Julian himself wrote a letter to his friend Maximus of Ephesus in November of 361 detailing his thoughts on his proclamation. In this letter, Julian stated that the soldiers proclaimed him Augustus against his will. Julian, however, defended his accession, saying that the gods willed it and that he had treated his enemies with clemency and justice. He went on to say that he led the troops in propitiating the traditional deities, because the gods commanded him to return to the traditional rites, and would reward him if he fulfilled this duty.

During 360 an uneasy peace simmered between the two emperors. Julian spent the 360 campaigning season continuing his efforts to restore order along the Rhine, while Constantius continued operations against the Persians. Julian wintered in Vienne, and celebrated his Quinquennalia. It was at this time that his wife Helena died, and he sent her remains to Rome for a proper burial at his family villa on the Via Nomentana where the body of her sister was entombed. The uneasy peace held through the summer of 361, but Julian concentrated his military operations around harassing the Alamannic chieftain Vadomarius and his allies, who had concluded a peace treaty with Constantius some years earlier. By the end of the summer, Julian decided to put an end to the waiting and gathered his army to march east against Constantius. The empire teetered on the brink of another civil war. Constantius had spent the summer negotiating with the Persians and making preparations for possible military action against his cousin. When he was assured that the Persians would not attack, he summoned his army and sallied forth to meet Julian. As the armies drew inexorably closer to one another, the empire was saved from another bloody civil war when Constantius died unexpectedly of natural causes on 3 November near the town of Mopsucrenae in Cilicia, naming Julian -- the sources say-- as his legitimate successor.

Julian was in Dacia when he learned of his cousin's death. He made his way through Thrace and came to Constantinople on 11 December 361 where Julian honored the emperor with the funeral rites appropriate for a man of his station. Julian immediately set about putting his supporters in positions of power and trimming the imperial bureaucracy, which had become extremely overstaffed during Constantius' reign. Cooks and barbers had increased during the late emperor's reign and Julian expelled them from his court. Ammianus gave a mixed assessment of how the new emperor handled the followers of Constantius. Traditionally, emperors were supposed to show clemency to the supporters of a defeated enemy. Julian, however, gave some men over to death to appease the army. Ammianus used the case of Ursulus, Constantius' comes sacrum largitionum, to illustrate his point. Ursulus had actually tried to acquire money for the Gallic troops when Julian had first been appointed Caesar, but he had also made a disparaging remark about the ineffectiveness of the army after the battle of Amida. The soldiers remembered this, and when Julian became sole Augustus, they demanded Ursulus' head. Julian obliged, much to the disapproval of Ammianus. This seems to be a case of Julian courting the favor of the military leadership, and is indicative of a pattern in which Julian courted the goodwill of various societal elites to legitimize his position as emperor.

Another case in point is the officials who made up the imperial bureaucracy. Many of them were subjected to trial and punishment. To achieve this goal, during the last weeks of December 361 Julian assembled a military tribunal at Chalcedon, empanelling six judges to try the cases. The president of the tribunal was Salutius, just promoted to the rank of Praetorian Prefect; the five other members were Mamertinus, the orator, and four general officers: Jovinus, Agilo, Nevitta, and Arbetio. Relative to the proceedings of the tribunal, Ammianus noted that the judges, " . . . oversaw the cases more vehemently than was right or fair, with the exception of a few . . .." Ammianus' account of Julian's attempt at reform of the imperial bureaucracy is supported by legal evidence from the Theodosian Code. A series of laws sent to Mamertinus, Julian's appointee as Praetorian Prefect in Italy, Illyricum, and Africa, illustrate this point nicely. On 6 June 362, Mamertinus received a law that prohibited provincial governors from bypassing the Vicars when giving their reports to the Prefect. Traditionally, Vicars were given civil authority over a group of provinces, and were in theory meant to serve as a middle step between governors and Prefects. This law suggests that the Vicars were being left out, at least in Illyricum. Julian issued another edict to Mamertinus on 22 February 362 to stop abuse of the public post by governors. According to this law, only Mamertinus could issue post warrants, but the Vicars were given twelve blank warrants to be used as they saw fit, and each governor was given two. Continuing the trend of bureaucratic reform, Julian also imposed penalties on governors who purposefully delayed appeals in court cases they had heard. The emperor also established a new official to weigh solidi used in official government transactions to combat coin clipping.

For Julian, reigning in the abuses of imperial bureaucrats was one step in restoring the prestige of the office of emperor. Because he could not affect all elements of society personally, Julian, like other Neo-Flavian emperors, decided to concentrate on select groups of societal elites as intercessors between himself and the general populace. One of these groups was the imperial bureaucracy. Julian made it very clear that imperial officials were intercessors in a very real sense in a letter to Alypius, Vicar of Britain. In this letter, sent from Gaul sometime before 361, the emperor praises Alypius for his use of "mildness and moderation with courage and force" in his rule of the provincials. Such virtues were characteristic of the emperors, and it was good that Alypius is representing Julian in this way. Julian courted the army because it put him in power. Another group he sought to include in his rule was the traditional Senatorial aristocracy. One of his first appointments as consul was Claudius Mamertinus, a Gallic Senator and rhetorician. Mamertinus' speech in praise of Julian delivered at Constantinople in January of 362 is preserved. In this speech, Claudius presented his consular selection as inaugurating a new golden age and Julian as the restorer of the empire founded by Augustus. The image Mamertinus gave of his own consulate inaugurating a new golden age is not merely formulaic. The comparison of Julian to Augustus has very real, if implicit, relevance to Claudius' situation. Claudius emphasized the imperial period as the true age of renewal. Augustus ushered in a new era with his formation of a partnership between the emperor and the Senate based upon a series of honors and offices bestowed upon the Senate in return for their role as intercessor between emperor and populace. It was this system that Julian was restoring, and the consulate was one concrete example of this bond. To be chosen as a consul by the emperor, who himself had been divinely mandated, was a divine honor. In addition to being named consul, Mamertinus went on to hold several offices under Julian, including the Prefecture of Italy, Illyricum, and Africa. Similarly, inscriptional evidence illustrates a link between municipal elites and Julian during his time as Caesar, something which continued after he became emperor. One concrete example comes from the municipal senate of Aceruntia in Apulia, which established a monument on which Julian is styled as "Repairer of the World."

Julian seems to have given up actual Christian belief before his acclamation as emperor and was a practitioner of more traditional Greco-Roman religious beliefs, in particular, a follower of certain late antique Platonist philosophers who were especially adept at theurgy as was noted earlier. In fact Julian himself spoke of his conversion to Neo-Platonism in a letter to the Alexandrians written in 363. He stated that he had abandoned Christianity when he was twenty years old and been an adherent of the traditional Greco-Roman deities for the twelve years prior to writing this letter.

(For the complete text of this article see: http://www.roman-emperors.org/julian.htm)

Julian’s Persian Campaign

The exact goals Julian had for his ill-fated Persian campaign were never clear. The Sassanid Persians, and before them the Parthians, had been a traditional enemy from the time of the Late Republic, and indeed Constantius had been conducting a war against them before Julian's accession forced the former to forge an uneasy peace. Julian, however, had no concrete reason to reopen hostilities in the east. Socrates Scholasticus attributed Julian's motives to imitation of Alexander the Great, but perhaps the real reason lay in his need to gather the support of the army. Despite his acclamation by the Gallic legions, relations between Julian and the top military officers was uneasy at best. A war against the Persians would have brought prestige and power both to Julian and the army.

Julian set out on his fateful campaign on 5 March 363. Using his trademark strategy of striking quickly and where least expected, he moved his army through Heirapolis and from there speedily across the Euphrates and into the province of Mesopotamia, where he stopped at the town of Batnae. His plan was to eventually return through Armenia and winter in Tarsus. Once in Mesopotamia, Julian was faced with the decision of whether to travel south through the province of Babylonia or cross the Tigris into Assyria, and he eventually decided to move south through Babylonia and turn west into Assyria at a later date. By 27 March, he had the bulk of his army across the Euphrates, and had also arranged a flotilla to guard his supply line along the mighty river. He then left his generals Procopius and Sebastianus to help Arsacius, the king of Armenia and a Roman client, to guard the northern Tigris line. It was also during this time that he received the surrender of many prominent local leaders who had nominally supported the Persians. These men supplied Julian with money and troops for further military action against their former masters. Julian decided to turn south into Babylonia and proceeded along the Euphrates, coming to the fortress of Cercusium at the junction of the Abora and Euphrates Rivers around the first of April, and from there he took his army west to a region called Zaitha near the abandoned town of Dura where they visited the tomb of the emperor Gordian which was in the area. On April 7 he set out from there into the heart of Babylonia and towards Assyria.

Ammianus then stated that Julian and his army crossed into Assyria, which on the face of things appears very confusing. Julian still seems to be operating within the province of Babylonia between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. The confusion is alleviated when one realizes that,for Ammianus, the region of Assyria encompassed the provinces of Babylonia and Assyria. On their march, Julian's forces took the fortress of Anatha, received the surrender and support of several more local princes, and ravaged the countryside of Assyria between the rivers. As the army continued south, they came across the fortresses Thilutha and Achaiachala, but these places were too well defended and Julian decided to leave them alone. Further south were the cities Diacira and Ozogardana, which the Roman forces sacked and burned. Soon, Julian came to Pirisabora and a brief siege ensued, but the city fell and was also looted and destroyed. It was also at this time that the Roman army met its first systematic resistance from the Persians. As the Romans penetrated further south and west, the local inhabitants began to flood their route. Nevertheless, the Roman forces pressed on and came to Maiozamalcha, a sizable city not far from Ctesiphon. After a short siege, this city too fell to Julian. Inexorably, Julian's forces zeroed in on Ctesiphon, but as they drew closer, the Persian resistance grew fiercer, with guerilla raids whittling at Julian's men and supplies. A sizable force of the army was lost and the emperor himself was almost killed taking a fort a few miles from the target city.
Finally, the army approached Ctesiphon following a canal that linked the Tigris and Euphrates. It soon became apparent after a few preliminary skirmishes that a protracted siege would be necessary to take this important city. Many of his generals, however, thought that pursuing this course of action would be foolish. Julian reluctantly agreed, but became enraged by this failure and ordered his fleet to be burned as he decided to march through the province of Assyria. Julian had planned for his army to live off the land, but the Persians employed a scorched-earth policy. When it became apparent that his army would perish (because his supplies were beginning to dwindle) from starvation and the heat if he continued his campaign, and also in the face of superior numbers of the enemy, Julian ordered a retreat on 16 June. As the Roman army retreated, they were constantly harassed by guerilla strikes. It was during one of these raids that Julian got caught up in the fighting and took a spear to his abdomen. Mortally wounded he was carried to his tent, where, after conferring with some of his officers, he died. The date was 26 June 363.

Conclusion

Thus an ignominious end for a man came about who had hoped to restore the glory of the Roman empire during his reign as emperor. Due to his intense hatred of Christianity, the opinion of posterity has not been kind to Julian. The contemporary opinion, however, was overall positive. The evidence shows that Julian was a complex ruler with a definite agenda to use traditional social institutions in order to revive what he saw as a collapsing empire. In the final assessment, he was not so different from any of the other emperors of the fourth century. He was a man grasping desperately to hang on to a Greco-Roman conception of leadership that was undergoing a subtle yet profound change.
Copyright (C) 2002, Walter E. Roberts and Michael DiMaio, Jr. Used by permission.

In reality, Julian worked to promote culture and philosophy in any manifestation. He tried to reduce taxes and the public debts of municipalities; he augmented administrative decentralisation; he promoted a campaign of austerity to reduce public expenditure (setting himself as the example). He reformed the postal service and eliminated the powerful secret police.
by Federico Morando; JULIAN II, The Apostate, http://www.forumancientcoins.com/NumisWiki/view.asp?key=Julian%20II

Flavius Claudius Iulianus was born in 331 or maybe 332 A.D. in Constantinople. He ruled the Western Empire as Caesar from 355 to 360 and was hailed Augustus by his legions in Lutetia (Paris) in 360. Julian was a gifted administrator and military strategist. Famed as the last pagan emperor, his reinstatement of the pagan religion earned him the moniker "the Apostate." As evidenced by his brilliant writing, some of which has survived to the present day, the title "the Philosopher" may have been more appropriate. He died from wounds suffered during the Persian campaign of 363 A.D. Joseph Sermarini, FORVM.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.




2 commentsCleisthenes
1176_P_Hadrian_pseudo.jpg
1608C LYCAONIA. Iconium (as Claudiconium). Pseudo-autonomous. Time of Claudius to Hadrian 41-138 AD, Wreath10 viewsReference
Aulock, Lykaonien 251; SNG France 2277; RPC II, 1608C

Obv.
Winged head of Medusa facing.dotted border

Rev: KLAY / ΔΕΙΚΟ / ΝΙΕWΝ.
Legend in 3 lines within wreath.

1.90 gr
15 mm
6h
okidoki
M.Aurelius RIC1033.jpg
161-180 AD - MARCUS AURELIUS AE sestertius - struck 171-172 AD42 viewsobv: M ANTONINVS AVG TR P XXVI (laureate head right)
rev: IMP VI COS III (Roma with Victory in her right hand and spear in her left enthroning left, beside her shield. Victorious type), S-C in field
ref: RIC III 1033, C. 281
23.13gms, 30mm,

History: In 170, during the course of the bellum Germanicum sarmaticum the Iazyges defeated and killed Claudius Fronto, Roman governor of Lower Moesia, and his troops. Operating from Sirmium on the Sava river, Marcus Aurelius moved against the Iazyges personally. After hard fighting, the Iazyges were pressed to their limits. In 172, the Roman legions crossed the Ister (Danube) river at Vindobona and Carnuntum and went into Marcomannic territory. The Romans achieved success, subjugating the Marcomanni and their allies, the Naristi and the Cotini. This coin commemorate the victories in the first Marcomannic War.
berserker
AgrippaAsNeptune.jpg
1ah Marcus Agrippa36 viewsDied 12 BC
As, minted by Caligula.

Head left wearing rostral crownt, M AGRIPPA L F COS III
Neptune standing facing, head left, naked except for cloak draped behind him & over both arms, holding small dolphin in right hand & vertical trident in left, SC

RIC 58

Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa (c 63 BC–12 BC) was a close friend, and defence minister of the future emperor Augustus. He was responsible for many of his military victories, most notably Actium against the forces of Mark Antony and Cleopatra VII of Egypt. He was son-in-law to Augustus, maternal grandfather of the Emperor Caligula, father-in-law of the Emperors Tiberius and Claudius, and maternal great-grandfather of the Emperor Nero. He probably served in Caesar’s campaign of 46/45 BC against Pompey and Caesar regarded him highly enough to send him with Octavius in 45 BC to study at Apollonia. From then on Agrippa played a major part in Augustus’ career, as military commander and admiral, also undertaking major public works, and writing works on geography (following his survey of the Empire) and other subjects. He erected many fine buildings in Rome, including the original Pantheon on the Campus Martius (during his third consulship 27 BC). He married Claudia Marcella the Elder, daughter of Octavia the Younger in 28 BC, and Julia the Elder in 21 BC, with whom he had five children. His daughter Agrippina Vipsania the Younger the married Tiberius, and his daughter Agrippina Vipsania the Elder married Germanicus. His last campaign initiated the conquest of the upper Danube region, which would become the Roman province of Pannonia in 13 BC. Augustus had Agrippa’s remains placed in his own mausoleum. Ronald Syme offers a compelling case that Agrippa was much more co-ruler of the empire with Augustus than he was a subordinate.
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DrususAsSC.jpg
1am Drusus22 viewsHeir to throne until assassination by Sejanus in 23

As

Bare head, left, DRVSVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N
PONTIF TRIBVN POTEST ITER SC

RIC 45

Nero Claudius Drusus, later adopted as Drusus Julius Caesar (13BC - 23AD), called Drusus the Younger, was the only child of Tiberius and his first wife, Vipsania Agrippina. Tiberius and Drusus delivered the only two eulogies for Augustus in front of the temple to the god Julius. In 14, after the death of Augustus, Drusus suppressed a mutiny in Pannonia. In 15 he became consul. He governed Illyricum from 17 to 20. In 21 he was again consul, while in 22 he received tribunicia potestas (tribunician power), a distinction reserved solely for the emperor or his immediate successor. Drusus married his paternal cousin Livilla in 4. Their daughter Julia was born shortly after. Their son Tiberius Gemellus (his twin brother Germanicus Gemellus died in infancy) was born in 19. By 23 Drusus, who made no secret of his antipathy towards Sejanus, looked likely to succeed Tiberius as emperor. Sources concur that with Livilla as his accomplice Sejanous poisoned her husband Drusus.

Suetonius says, "He lacked affection not only for his adopted son Germanicus, but even for his own son Drusus the Younger, whose vices were inimical to him, Drusus indeed pursing loose and immoral ways. So inimical, that Tiberius seemed unaffected by his death (in 23AD), and quickly took up his usual routine after the funeral, cutting short the period of mourning. When a deputation from Troy offered him belated condolences, he smiled as if at a distant memory, and offered them like sympathy for the loss of their famous fellow-citizen Hector!"
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GermanicusAsSC.jpg
1an Germanicus36 viewsAdopted by Tiberius in 4 AD, died mysteriously in 19

As, struck by Caligula

Bare head, left, GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVGVST F DIVI AVG N
C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT SC

RIC 57

Germanicus Julius Caesar (c16 BC-AD 19) was was born in Lugdunum, Gaul (modern Lyon). At birth he was named either Nero Claudius Drusus after his father or Tiberius Claudius Nero after his uncle. He received the agnomen Germanicus, in 9 BC, when it was posthumously awarded to his father in honour of his victories in Germania. Germanicus was the grandson-in-law and great-nephew of the Emperor Augustus, nephew and adoptive son of the Emperor Tiberius, father of the Emperor Caligula, brother of the Emperor Claudius, and the maternal grandfather of the Emperor Nero. He married his maternal second cousin Agrippina the Elder, a granddaughter of Augustus, between 5 and 1 BC. The couple had nine children. Two died very young; another, Gaius Julius Caesar, died in early childhood. The remaining six were: Nero Caesar, Drusus Caesar, the Emperor Caligula, the Empress Agrippina the Younger, Julia Drusilla, and Julia Livilla.

According to Suetonius: Germanicus, who was the son of Drusus the Elder and Antonia the Younger, was adopted (in 4AD) by Germanicus’s paternal uncle, Tiberius. He served as quaestor (in7AD) five years before the legal age and became consul (in12AD) without holding the intermediate offices. On the death of Augustus (in AD14) he was appointed to command the army in Germany, where, his filial piety and determination vying for prominence, he held the legions to their oath, though they stubbornly opposed Tiberius’s succession, and wished him to take power for himself.

He followed this with victory in Germany, for which he celebrated a triumph (in 17 AD), and was chosen as consul for a second time (18 AD) though unable to take office as he was despatched to the East to restore order there. He defeated the forces of the King of Armenia, and reduced Cappadocia to provincial status, but then died at Antioch, at the age of only thirty-three (in AD 19), after a lingering illness, though there was also suspicion that he had been poisoned. For as well as the livid stains which covered his body, and the foam on his lips, the heart was found entire among the ashes after his cremation, its total resistance to flame being a characteristic of that organ, they say, when it is filled with poison.

All considered Germanicus exceptional in body and mind, to a quite outstanding degree. Remarkably brave and handsome; a master of Greek and Latin oratory and learning; singularly benevolent; he was possessed of a powerful desire and vast capacity for winning respect and inspiring affection.

His scrawny legs were less in keeping with the rest of his figure, but he gradually fleshed them out by assiduous exercise on horseback after meals. He often killed enemy warriors in hand-to-hand combat; still pleaded cases in the courts even after receiving his triumph; and left various Greek comedies behind amongst other fruits of his studies.

At home and abroad his manners were unassuming, such that he always entered free or allied towns without his lictors.

Whenever he passed the tombs of famous men, he always offered a sacrifice to their shades. And he was the first to initiate a personal search for the scattered remains of Varus’s fallen legionaries, and have them gathered together, so as to inter them in a single burial mound.

As for Germanicus, Tiberius appreciated him so little, that he dismissed his famous deeds as trivial, and his brilliant victories as ruinous to the Empire. He complained to the Senate when Germanicus left for Alexandria (AD19) without consulting him, on the occasion there of a terrible and swift-spreading famine. It was even believed that Tiberius arranged for his poisoning at the hands of Gnaeus Calpurnius Piso, the Governor of Syria, and that Piso would have revealed the written instructions at his trial, had Tiberius not retrieved them during a private interview, before having Piso put to death. As a result, the words: ‘Give us back Germanicus!’ were posted on the walls, and shouted at night, all throughout Rome. The suspicion surrounding Germanicus’ death (19 AD) was deepened by Tiberius’s cruel treatment of Germanicus’s wife, Agrippina the Elder, and their children.
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ClaudiusAsLibertas.jpg
1ap Claudius29 views41-54

As
Bare head, left, TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP
Libertas, LIBERTAS AVGVSTA SC

RIC 97

According to Suetonius: Claudius was born at Lugdunum (Lyon) on the 1st of August 10BC in the consulship of Iullus Antonius and Fabius Africanus, on the day when the very first altar to Augustus was dedicated there, the child being given the name Tiberius Claudius Drusus. When his elder brother Germanicus was adopted into the Julian family (in 4 AD), he added the name Germanicus also. He lost his father when still an infant (in 9 BC), and throughout his childhood and youth was severely afflicted by various stubborn ailments so that his mind and body lacked vigour, and even when he attained his majority he was not considered capable of a public or private career.

Nevertheless, he applied himself to liberal studies from his earliest youth, and often published examples of his proficiency in each area, though even so he was excluded from public office and failed to inspire any brighter hopes for his future. His mother Antonia the Younger often condemned him as an unfinished freak of Nature, and when accusing someone of stupidity would say: ‘He’s a bigger fool than my son Claudius.’ His grandmother Augusta (Livia) always treated him with utter contempt, and rarely even spoke to him, admonishing him, when she chose to do so, in brief harsh missives, or via her messengers. When his sister Livilla heard the prophecy that he would be Emperor some day, she prayed openly and loudly that Rome might be spared so cruel and unmerited a fate.

Having spent the larger part of his life in such circumstances, he became emperor at the age of fifty (in AD41) by a remarkable stroke of fate. Caligula’s assassins had dispersed the crowd on the pretext that the Emperor wished for solitude, and Claudius, shut out with the rest, retired to a room called the Hermaeum, but shortly afterwards, terrified by news of the murder, crept off to a nearby balcony and hid behind the door-curtains. A Guard, who was wandering about the Palace at random, spotting a pair of feet beneath the curtain where Claudius was cowering, dragged the man out to identify him, and as Claudius fell to the ground in fear, recognised him, and acclaimed him Emperor.

Eutropius summarizes: His reign was of no striking character; he acted, in many respects, with gentleness and moderation, in some with cruelty and folly. He made war upon Britain, which no Roman since Julius Caesar had visited; and, having reduced it through the agency of Cnaeus Sentius and Aulus Plautius, illustrious and noble men, he celebrated a magnificent triumph. Certain islands also, called the Orcades, situated in the ocean, beyond Britain, he added to the Roman empire, and gave his son the name of Britannicus. . . . He lived to the age of sixty-four, and reigned fourteen years; and after his death was consecrated3 and deified.

This was the first "good" coin I ever bought and therefore marks the begiining of an addiction.
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ClaudiusMessalinaAE20.jpg
1ap_2 Messalina36 viewsThird wife of Claudius, married in 38 (?)

AE 20, Knossos mint

Bare head of Claudius left, CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS

Draped bust of Messalina right, VALERIA MESSALINA [CAPITONE CYTHERONTE IIVIR] or [CYTHERO CAPITONE] (end of legend off flan)

According to Suetonius: [Claudius] was betrothed twice at an early age: to Aemilia Lepida, great-granddaughter of Augustus, and to Livia Medullina, who also had the surname of Camilla and was descended from the ancient family of Camillus the dictator. He put away the former before their marriage, because her parents had offended Augustus; the latter was taken ill and died on the very day which had been set for the wedding. He then married Plautia Urgulanilla, whose father had been honoured with a triumph, and later Aelia Paetina, daughter of an ex-consul. He divorced both these, Paetina for trivial offences, but Urgulanilla because of scandalous lewdness and the suspicion of murder. Then he married Valeria Messalina, daughter of his cousin Messala Barbatus. But when he learned that besides other shameful and wicked deeds she had actually married Gaius Silius, and that a formal contract had been signed in the presence of witnesses, he put her to death and declared before the assembled praetorian guard that inasmuch as his marriages did not turn out well, he would remain a widower, and if he did not keep his word, he would not refuse death at their hands. . . . [He later married Agrippina Jr.]

He had children by three of his wives: by Urgulanilla, Drusus and Claudia; by Paetina, Antonia; by Messalina, Octavia and a son, at first called Germanicus and later Britannicus. . . .

But it is beyond all belief, that at the marriage which Messalina had contracted with her paramour Silius he signed the contract for the dowry with his own hand, being induced to do so on the ground that the marriage was a feigned one, designed to avert and turn upon another a danger which was inferred from certain portents to threaten the emperor himself. . . .

He was so terror-stricken by unfounded reports of conspiracies that he had tried to abdicate. When, as I have mentioned before, a man with a dagger was caught near him as he was sacrificing, he summoned the senate in haste by criers and loudly and tearfully bewailed his lot, saying that there was no safety for him anywhere; and for a long time he would not appear in public. His ardent love for Messalina too was cooled, not so much by her unseemly and insulting conduct, as through fear of danger, since he believed that her paramour Silius aspired to the throne. . . .

Appius Silanus met his downfall. When Messalina and Narcissus had put their heads together to destroy him, they agreed on their parts and the latter rushed into his patron's bed-chamber before daybreak in pretended consternation, declaring that he had dreamed that Appius had made an attack on the emperor. Then Messalina, with assumed surprise, declared that she had had the same dream for several successive nights. A little later, as had been arranged, Appius, who had received orders the day before to come at that time, was reported to be forcing his way in, and as if were proof positive of the truth of the dream, his immediate accusation and death were ordered. . . .


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AgrippinaObol.jpg
1aq Agrippina junior31 viewsMarried Claudius 49 AD

Diobol of Alexandria

Draped bust right, wreathed with corn, hair bound in plait behind, AGRIPPEINA CЄBACTH
Draped bust of Euthenia right, wreathed with corn, holding ears of corn, ЄYQH-NIA across fields, L-IB below

Milne 124

Agrippina the Younger, Julia Agrippina, or Agrippinilla (Little Agrippina) after 50 AD known as Julia Augusta Agrippina (c16 AD –59) was sister of Caligula, niece and fourth wife of Claudius and the mother of Nero. In 28, Tiberius arranged for Agrippina to marry her paternal second cousin Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus. Their only son was named Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus, after Domitius’s recently deceased father. This child would become the Emperor Nero. In 39, Agrippina and her sister Livilla, with their maternal cousin, Drusilla’s widower, Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, were involved in a failed plot to murder Caligula, and make Lepidus emperor. Lepidus was executed. Agrippina and Livilla were exiled by their brother to the Pontine Islands.

Suetonius says, "But it was Agrippina the Younger, his brother Germanicus’s daughter, who ensnared him, assisted by a niece’s privilege of exchanging kisses and endearments. At the next Senate meeting, he primed a group of Senators to propose that he ought to marry Agrippina, as it was in the public interest, and that such marriages between uncle and niece should from then on be regarded as lawful, and no longer incestuous. He married her (AD 49) with barely a day’s delay, but only one freedman and one leading centurion married their respective nieces, to follow suit. Claudius himself, with Agrippina, attended the centurion’s wedding."

The Euthenia reverse reminds one of "euthanasia." which is what some suspect she did to Claudius to elevate her son Nero to the purple.
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NeroAsGenAug.jpg
1ar Nero52 views54-68

As

Bare head, right, IMP NERO CAESAR AVG P MAX TR P P P
Genius, GENIO AVGVSTI

RIC 86

Suetonius wrote: Nero was born nine months after the death of Tiberius, at Antium, at sunrise on the 15th of December (AD 37). . . . While he was still a young stripling he took part in a successful performance of the Troy Game in the Circus, in which he exhibited great self-possession. At the age of twelve or so (sometime in AD 50), he was adopted by Claudius, who appointed Annaeus Seneca, already a member of the Senate, as his tutor. The following night, it is said, Seneca dreamed that his young charge was really Caligula, and Nero soon proved the dream prophetic by seizing the first opportunity to reveal his cruel disposition. . . . After Claudius’s death (AD 54) had been announced publicly, Nero, who was not quite seventeen years old, decided to address the Guards in the late afternoon, since inauspicious omens that day had ruled out an earlier appearance. After being acclaimed Emperor on the Palace steps, he was carried in a litter to the Praetorian Camp where he spoke to the Guards, and then to the House where he stayed until evening. He refused only one of the many honours that were heaped upon him, that of ‘Father of the Country’, and declined that simply on account of his youth.

Eutropius summarized: To him succeeded NERO, who greatly resembled his uncle Caligula, and both disgraced and weakened the Roman empire; he indulged in such extraordinary luxury and extravagance, that, after the example of Caius Caligula, he even bathed in hot and cold perfumes, and fished with golden nets, which he drew up with cords of purple silk. He put to death a very great number of the senate. To all good men he was an enemy. At last he exposed himself in so disgraceful a manner, that he danced and sung upon the stage in the dress of a harp-player and tragedian. He was guilty of many murders, his brother, wife, and mother, being put to death by him. He set on fire the city of Rome, that he might enjoy the sight of a spectacle such as Troy formerly presented when taken and burned.

In military affairs he attempted nothing. Britain he almost lost; for two of its most noble towns4 were taken and levelled to the ground under his reign. The Parthians took from him Armenia, and compelled the Roman legions to pass under the yoke. Two provinces however were formed under him; Pontus Polemoniacus, by the concession of King Polemon; and the Cottian Alps, on the death of King Cottius.

15 When, having become detestable by such conduct to the city of Rome, and being deserted at the same time by every one, and declared an enemy by the senate, he was sought for to be led to punishment (the punishment being, that he should be dragged naked through the streets, with a fork placed under his head,5 be beaten to death with rods, and then hurled from the Tarpeian rock), he fled from the palace, and killed himself in a suburban villa of one of his freed-men, between the Salarian and Nomentane roads, at the fourth milestone from the city. He built those hot baths at Rome, which were formerly called the Neronian, but now the Alexandrian. He died in the thirty-second year of his age, and the fourteenth year of his reign; and in him all the family of Augustus became extinct.

Having successfully dispatched his scheming mother Agrippina in 59 and survived a decade on the throne, Nero must have felt like a genius when this was minted ca 64 AD!
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GalbaDenVictory.jpg
1at Galba31 views68-69

Denarius

Laureate head, right, SER GALBA IMP CAESAR AVG P M TR P
Victory standing on globe, VICTORIA PR

RIC 111

Suetonius recorded: Servius Galba, the future emperor was born on the 24th of December, 3BC, in the consulship of Marcus Valerius Messala and Gnaeus Lentulus, at a hillside mansion near Terracina, on the left of the road to Fundi (Fondi). He was formally adopted by his stepmother Livia Ocellina, and took the name Livius and the surname Ocella, also changing his forename to Lucius, until he became Emperor.

It is common knowledge that when calling on Augustus to pay his respects, with other boys of his age, the Emperor pinched his cheek, and said in Greek: ‘You too will have a taste of power, my child.’ And when Tiberius heard the prophecy that Galba would be emperor in old age, he commented: ‘Well let him be, it’s no concern of mine.’

Galba achieved office before the usual age and as praetor (in 20AD), controlling the games at the Floralia, he was the first to introduce a display of tightrope-walking elephants. He next governed Aquitania, for almost a year, and not long afterwards held the consulship for six months (in 33AD). When Caligula was assassinated (in 41AD), Galba chose neutrality though many urged him to seize the opportunity for power. Claudius expressed his gratitude by including him among his intimate friends, and Galba was shown such consideration that the expedition to Britain was delayed to allow him to recover from a sudden but minor indisposition. Later he was proconsul in Africa for two years (44/45AD), being singled out, and so avoiding the usual lottery, to restore order in the province, which was riven by internecine rivalry and an indigenous revolt. He re-established peace, by the exercise of ruthless discipline, and the display of justice even in the most trifling matters. . . .

But when word from the City arrived that Nero was dead and that the people had sworn allegiance to him, he set aside the title of governor and assumed that of Caesar. He then began his march to Rome in a general’s cloak, with a dagger, hanging from his neck, at his chest, and did not resume the toga until his main rivals had been eliminated, namely the commander of the Praetorian Guard in Rome, Nymphidius Sabinus, and the commanders in Germany and Africa, Fonteius Capito and Clodius Macer. . . . His prestige and popularity were greater while winning power than wielding it, though he showed evidence of being a more than capable ruler, loved less, unfortunately, for his good qualities than he was hated for his bad ones.

He was even warned of the danger of imminent assassination, the day before his death, by a soothsayer, as he offered the morning sacrifice. Shortly afterwards he learnt that Otho had secured the Guards camp, and when his staff advised him to carry the day by his presence and prestige, by going there immediately, he opted instead to stay put, but gather a strong bodyguard of legionaries from their billets around the City. He did however don a linen corselet, though saying that frankly it would serve little against so many weapons. False reports, put about by the conspirators to lure him into appearing in public, deceived a few of his close supporters, who rashly told him the rebellion was over, the plotters overthrown, and that the rest of the troops were on their way to congratulate him and carry out his orders. So he went to meet them, with such confidence, that when a soldier boasted of killing Otho, he snapped out: ‘On whose authority?’ before hastening on to the Forum. The cavalrymen who had been ordered to find and kill him, who were spurring through the streets scattering the crowds of civilians, now caught sight of him in the distance and halted an instant before galloping towards him and cutting him down, while his staff ran for their lives.
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VitelliusDenVesta.jpg
1av Vitellius42 views69

Denarius
Portrait, right, A VITELLIVS GERMAN IMP TR P
Vesta std., PONT MAX

RIC 107

According to Suetonius: Lucius’s son Aulus, the future emperor, was born on the 24th of September 15AD, or according to some authorities on the 7th, during the consulship of Drusus Caesar and Norbanus Flaccus. . . . His boyhood and early youth were spent on Capreae (Capri) among Tiberius’s creatures, he himself being marked by the nickname of ‘Spintria’ (sex-token) throughout his life, and suspected of having secured his father’s first promotion to office by surrendering his own chastity. As he grew older, though contaminated by every kind of vice, Vitellius gained and kept a prominent place at court, winning Caligula’s friendship by his devotion to chariot-racing and Claudius’s by his love of dice. With Nero he was even closer. . . .

Honoured, as these emperors’ favourite, with high office in the priesthood, as well as political power, he governed Africa (under Nero, in 60/61AD) as proconsul, and was then Curator of Public Works (in 63AD), employing a contrasting approach, and with a contrasting effect on his reputation. In his province he acted with outstanding integrity over two successive years, since he served as deputy also to his brother who succeeded him (61/62AD) yet during his administration of the City he was said to have stolen various temple offerings and ornaments, and substituted brass and tin for the gold and silver in others. . . .

Contrary to all expectations, Galba appointed Vitellius to Lower Germany (in 68AD). Some think it was brought about by Titus Vinius, whose influence was powerful at that time, and whose friendship Vitellius had previously won through their mutual support for the ‘Blues’ in the Circus. But it is clear to everyone that Galba chose him as an act of contempt rather than favour, commenting that gluttons were among those least to be feared, and Vitellius’s endless appetite would now be able to sate itself on a province. . . .

He entered Rome to the sound of trumpets, surrounded by standards and banners, wearing a general’s cape, sword at his side, his officers in their military cloaks also, and the men with naked blades. With increasing disregard for the law, human or divine, he then assumed the office of High Priest on the anniversary of the Allia (18th July), arranged the elections for the next ten years, and made himself consul for life. . . .

Vitellius’s worst vices were cruelty and gluttony. . . . By the eighth month of his reign (November 69AD) the legions in Moesia and Pannonia had repudiated Vitellius, and sworn allegiance to Vespasian despite his absence, following those of Syria and Judaea who had done so in Vespasian’s presence. . . .

The vanguard of Vespasian’s army had now forced its way into the Palace, unopposed, and the soldiers were ransacking the rooms, in their usual manner. They hauled Vitellius, unrecognised, from his hiding place, asked his name and where the Emperor might be. He gave some lying answer, but was soon identified, so he begged for safe custody, even if that meant imprisonment, claiming he had important information for Vespasian regarding his security. However his arms were bound behind him and a noose flung over his head, and he was dragged along the Sacred Way to the Forum, amid a hail of mockery and abuse, half-naked, with his clothes in tatters. His head was held back by the hair, like a common criminal and, with a sword-point under his chin so that he was forced to look up and reveal his face, he was pelted with filth and dung, denounced as arsonist and glutton, and taunted with his bodily defects by the crowd. For, Vitellius was exceptionally tall, and his face was usually flushed from some drinking bout. He had a huge belly, too, and one thigh crippled by a blow from a four-horse chariot which struck him when he was in attendance on Caligula who was driving. At last, after being tormented by a host of cuts from the soldiers’ swords, he was killed on the Gemonian Stairs, and his body dragged with a hook to the Tiber.
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VespDenSalus.jpg
1aw Vespasian44 views69-79

Denarius
Laureate head, right, IMP CAES VESP AVG CEN
Salus seated left with patera, SALVS AVG

RIC 513 (C2)

Suetonius wrote: The Flavians seized power, and the Empire, long troubled and adrift, afflicted by the usurpations and deaths of three emperors, at last achieved stability. True they were an obscure family, with no great names to boast of, yet one our country has no need to be ashamed of. . . . Vespasian was born in the Sabine country, in the little village of Falacrinae just beyond Reate (Rieti), on the 17th of November 9 AD in the consulship of Quintus Sulpicius Camerinus and Gaius Poppaeus Sabinus, five years before the death of Augustus. He was raised by his paternal grandmother Tertulla on her estate at Cosa. . . .

Under Claudius, he was sent to Germany (in 41 AD) to command a legion, thanks to the influence of Narcissus. From there he was posted to Britain (in 43 AD), where partly under the leadership of Aulus Plautius and partly that of Claudius himself, he fought thirty times, subjugating two powerful tribes, more than twenty strongholds, and the offshore island of Vectis (the Isle of Wight). This earned him triumphal regalia, and a little later two priesthoods and the consulship (in 51 AD) which he held for the last two months of the year. . . . He won, by lot, the governorship of Africa (in 63 AD), ruling it soundly and with considerable dignity. . . .

An ancient and well-established belief became widespread in the East that the ruler of the world at this time would arise from Judaea. This prophecy as events proved referred to the future Emperor of Rome, but was taken by the Jews to apply to them. They rebelled, killed their governor, and routed the consular ruler of Syria also, when he arrived to restore order, capturing an Eagle. To crush the rebels needed a considerable force under an enterprising leader, who would nevertheless not abuse power. Vespasian was chosen, as a man of proven vigour, from whom little need be feared, since his name and origins were quite obscure. Two legions with eight divisions of cavalry and ten cohorts of auxiliaries were added to the army in Judaea, and Vespasian took his elder son, Titus, along as one of his lieutenants. . . .

Yet Vespasian made no move, though his follower were ready and eager, until he was roused to action by the fortuitous support of a group of soldiers unknown to him, and based elsewhere. Two thousand men, of the three legions in Moesia reinforcing Otho’s forces, despite hearing on the march that he had been defeated and had committed suicide, had continued on to Aquileia, and there taken advantage of the temporary chaos to plunder at will. Fearing that if they returned they would be held to account and punished, they decided to choose and appoint an emperor of their own, on the basis that they were every bit as worthy of doing so as the Spanish legions who had appointed Galba, or the Praetorian Guard which had elected Otho, or the German army which had chosen Vitellius. They went through the list of serving consular governors, rejecting them for one reason or another, until in the end they unanimously adopted Vespasian, who was recommended strongly by some members of the Third Legion, which had been transferred to Moesia from Syria immediately prior to Nero’s death. . . .

Vespasian, an unheralded and newly-forged emperor, as yet lacked even a modicum of prestige and divine majesty, but this too he acquired. . . . Returning to Rome (in 70 AD) attended by such auspices, having won great renown, and after a triumph awarded for the Jewish War, he added eight consulships (AD 70-72, 74-77, 79) to his former one, and assumed the censorship. He first considered it essential to strengthen the State, which was unstable and well nigh fatally weakened, and then to enhance its role further during his reign. . . .
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ClaudiusAE28Caesar_Augustus.jpg
1bb Octavian's Succession of Julius Caesar10 viewsClaudius, Philippi, Macedon
Date unknown

AE 26

TI CLAVDIVS CAES AVG P M TR P IMP P P, Bare head left
COL AVG IVL PHILIP, Statue of Divus Julius being crowned by statue of Divus Augustus

I'm guessing this coin was meant to emphasize the succession of legitimacy from Julius Caesar to Augustus.

RPC 1654
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1cy Gallienus16 views253-268

Bronze antoninianus

Radiate, draped bust, right, GALLINVS AVG
Mars standing left, holding globe in right hand and spear in left hand, P in right field, VIRTVS AVG

RIC 317

Gallienus oversaw a period of disintegration of the empire and lost control over the East, Gaul, Spain, and Britain.

Zosimus observed: [When Valerian left for the East] As the Germans were the most troublesome enemies, and harrassed the Gauls in the vicinity of the Rhine, Gallienus marched against them in person, leaving his officers to repel with the forces under their command any others that should enter Italy, Illyricum, and Greece. With these designs, he possessed himself of and defended the passages of the Rhine, at one time preventing their crossing, and at another engaging them as soon as they had crossed it. But having only a small force to resist an immense number, he was at a loss how to act, and thought to secure himself by a league with one of the German princes. He thus not only prevented the other Barbarians from so frequently passing the Rhine, but obstructed the access of auxiliaries.

Eutropius recorded: Gallienus, who was made emperor when quite a young man, exercised his power at first happily, afterwards fairly, and at last mischievously. In his youth he performed many gallant acts in Gaul and Illyricum, killing Ingenuus, who had assumed the purple, at Mursa, and Regalianus. He was then for a long time quiet and gentle; afterwards, abandoning himself to all manner of licentiousness, he relaxed the reins of government with disgraceful inactivity and carelesness. The Alemanni, having laid waste Gaul, penetrated into Italy. Dacia, which had been added to the empire beyond the Danube, was lost. Greece, Macedonia, Pontus, Asia, were devastated by the Goths. Pannonia was depopulated by the Sarmatians and Quadi. The Germans made their way as far as Spain, and took the noble city of Tarraco. The Parthians, after taking possession of Mesopotamia, began to bring Syria under their power.

Zosimus resumes: Gallienus in the mean time still continued beyond the Alps, intent on the German war, while the Senate, seeing Rome in such imminent danger, armed all the soldiers that were in the city, and the strongest of the common people, and formed an army, which exceeded the Barbarians in number. This so alarmed the Barbarians, that they left Rome, but ravaged all the rest of Italy. At this period, when Illyricum groaned under the oppression of the Barbarians, and the whole Roman empire was in such a helpless state as to be on the very verge of ruin, a plague happened to break out in several of the towns, more dreadful than any that had preceded it. The miseries inflicted on them by the Barbarians were thus alleviated, even the sick esteeming themselves fortunate. The cities that had been taken by the Scythians were thus deserted.

Gallienus, being disturbed by these occurrences, was returning to Rome to relieve Italy from the war which the Scythians were thus carrying on. It was at this time, that Cecrops, a Moor, Aureolus and Antoninus, with many others, conspired against him, of whom the greater part were punished and submitted. Aureolus alone retained his animosity against the emperor.

The Scythians, who had dreadfully afflicted the whole of Greece, had now taken Athens, when Gallienus advanced against those who were already in possession of Thrace, and ordered Odonathus of Palmyra, a person whose ancestors had always been highly respected by the emperors, to assist the eastern nations which were then in a very distressed condition. . . .

While affairs were thus situated in the east, intelligence was brought to Gallienus, who was then occupied in the Scythian war, that Aurelianus, or Aureolus, who was commander of the cavalry posted in the neighbourhood of Milan to watch the motions of Posthumus, had formed some new design, and was ambitious to be emperor. Being alarmed at this he went immediately to Italy, leaving the command against the Scythians with Marcianus, a person of great experience in military affairs. . . . Gallienus, in his journey towards Italy, had a plot formed against him by Heraclianus, prefect of the court, who communicated his design to Claudius, in whom the chief management of affairs was vested. The design was to murder Gallienus. Having found a man very ready for such an undertaking, who commanded a troop of Dalmatians, he entrusted the action to him. To effect it, the party stood by Gallienus at supper and informed him that some of the spies had brought intelligence, that Aureolus and his army were close at hand. By this they considerably alarmed him. Calling immediately for his horse and arms, he mounted, ordering his men to follow him in their armour, and rode away without any attendance. Thus the captain finding him alone killed him.
Blindado
VictorinusAntPax.jpg
1df Victorinus20 views268-270

AE Antoninianus

Radiate, cuirassed bust, right, IMP C VICTORINVS P F AVG
Pax walking left, holding olive-branch and sceptre, PAX AVG

RIC 55

According to the Historia Augusta: When the elder Postumus saw that Gallienus was marching against him with great forces, and that he needed the aid not only of soldiers but also of a second prince, he called Victorinus, a man of soldierly energy, to a share in the imperial power, and in company
with him he fought against Gallienus. Having summoned to their aid huge forces of Germans, they protracted the war for a long time, but at last they were conquered. Then, when Lollianus, too, had been slain, Victorinus alone remained in command. He also, because he devoted his time to seducing the wives of his soldiers and officers, was slain at Agrippina l through a conspiracy formed by a certain clerk, whose wife he had debauched ; his mother Vitruvia, or rather Victoria, who was later called Mother of the Camp, had given his son Victorinus the title of Caesar, but the boy, too, was immediately killed after his father was slain at Agrippina. [Scholars doubt that Postumus raised Victorianus to the purple, they he was one of his generals, and suggest a held power later during the time of Claudius.]
Blindado
ClaudiusIIAntLiberalit.jpg
1di Claudius Gothicus25 views268-270

AE antoninianus

Radiate cuirassed bust right, IMP C CLAVDIVS AVG
Liberlitas stg, LIBERALITAS AVG

RIC 57

Zosimus recorded: When the troops were calmed by their commanders, Claudius was chosen emperor, having previously been designed for that dignity by general consent. Aureolus, who had for a long time kept himself out of the hands of Gallienus, presently sent agents to Claudius, to effect a peace. Surrendering himself, he was killed by the guards of the emperor, who still remembered the hatred they bore against him for his treachery.

The Scythians were by this time so elated by their former success, that they appointed a place of meeting with the Heruli, Peucae, and Gothi, near the river Tyra, which empties itself into the Pontus; where having built six thousand vessels, and put on board them three hundred and twenty thousand men, they sailed across the Pontus, and made an attempt on Tomes, a fortified town, but were repulsed from it. From thence they proceed to Marcianopolis, a city of Mysia, but failing there likewise in their attack on it, they took the opportunity of a favourable wind and sailed forward. . . . they passed through the Hellespont, and arrived at Mount Athos. Having there refitted and careened their vessels, they laid siege to Cassandria and Thessalonica, which they were near taking by means of machines which they raised against the walls. But hearing that the emperor was advancing with an army, they went into the interior, plundering all the neighbourhood of Doberus and Pelagonia. There they sustained a loss of three thousand men, who were met with by the Dalmatian cavalry, and with the rest of their force engaged the army of the emperor. Great numbers were slain in this battle on both sides, but the Romans, by a pretended flight, drew the Barbarians into an ambuscade and killed more than fifty thousand of them.

Egypt being thus reduecd by the Palmyrenians, the Barbarians, who survived the battle of Naissus between Claudius and the Scythians, defending themselves with their carriages which went before them, marched towards Macedon, but were so distressed by the want of necessaries, that many of them and of their beasts perished with hunger. They were met likewise by the Roman cavalry, who having killed many of them, drove the rest towards Mount Haemus; where being surrounded by the Roman army, they lost a vast number of men. But a quarrel ensuing between the Roman horse and foot soldiers, the emperor wishing the foot to engage the Barbarians, the Romans, after a smart engagement, were defeated with considerable loss, but the cavalry, coming up immediately, redeemed in some degree the miscarriage of the infantry. After this battle, the Barbarians proceeded on their march, and were pursued by the Romans. The pirates who cruized about Crete and Rhodes retired without doing any thing worthy of mention; and being attacked by the plague on their way home, some of them died in Thrace and some in Macedon. All that survived were either admitted into the Roman legions, or had lands assigned for them to cultivate and so become husbandmen. Nor was the plague confined to the Barbarians alone, but began to infest the Romans, many of whom died, and amongst the rest Claudius, a person adorned with every virtue. His death was a severe loss to his subjeets, and was consequently much regretted by them.
Blindado
QuintillusAntApollo.jpg
1dj Quintillus22 views270

AE antoninianus

Radiate, draped bust, right, IMP C M AVR CL QVINTILLVS AVG
Apollo stg, APOLLONI CONS

RIC 9

Zosimus recorded, "Quintillus, the brother of Claudius, was then declared emperor. He had reigned but a few months, and had performed nothing worthy of notice, before Aurelianus was raised to the imperial throne. Some writers inform us, that Quintillus was advised by his friends, as soon as they heard of Aurelianus being made emperor, to die by his own hand, and give place voluntarily to a man of so much greater merit. They report, that he complied by opening a vein and bleeding to death. "
Blindado
DiocletianAntConcordMil.jpg
1ds Diocletian13 views284-305

AE antoninianus

Radiate, draped, cuirassed bust, right, IMP C C VAL DIOCLETIANVS P F AVG
Zeus and Diocletian, CONCORDIA MILITVM

RIC 284B

According to the Historia Augusta, after the death of Numerian: Then a huge assembly was held and a tribunal, too, was constructed. And when the question was asked who would be the most lawful avenger of Numerian and who could be given to the commonwealth as a good emperor, then all, with a heaven-sent unanimity, conferred the title of Augustus on Diocletian. . . . He was at this time in command of the household-troops, an outstanding man and wise, devoted to the commonwealth, devoted to his kindred, duly prepared to face whatever the occasion demanded, forming plans that were always deep though sometimes over-bold, and one who could by prudence and exceeding firmness hold in check the impulses of a restless spirit. This man, then, having ascended the tribunal was hailed as Augustus, and when someone asked how Numerian had been slain, he drew his sword and pointing to Aper, the prefect of the guard, he drove it through him, saying as he did so, "It is he who contrived Numerian's death.''

Eutropius summarized a long and important reign: DIOCLETIAN, a native of Dalmatia, [was] of such extremely obscure birth, that he is said by most writers to have been the son of a clerk, but by some to have been a freedman of a senator named Anulinus. . . . He soon after overthrew Carinus, who was living under the utmost hatred and detestation, in a great battle at Margum, Carinus being betrayed by his own troops, for though he had a greater number of men than the enemy, he was altogether abandoned by them between Viminacium and mount Aureus. He thus became master of the Roman empire; and when the peasants in Gaul made an insurrection, giving their faction the name of Bagaudae, and having for leaders Amandus and Aelianus, he despatched Maximian Herculius, with the authority of Caesar, to suppress them. Maximian, in a few battles of little importance, subdued the rustic multitude, and restored peace to Gaul. . . .

Diocletian promoted MAXIMIAN HERCULIUS from the dignity of Caesar to that of emperor, and created Constantius and Maximian Galerius Caesars, of whom Constantius is said to have been the grand-nephew of Claudius by a daughter, and Maximian Galerius to have been born in Dacia not far from Sardica. That he might also unite them by affinity, Constantius married Theodora the step-daughter of Herculius, by whom he had afterwards six children, brothers to Constantine; while Galerius married Valeria, the daughter of Diocletian; both being obliged to divorce the wives that they had before. . . .

Diocletian, meanwhile, besieging Achilleus in Alexandria, obliged him to surrender about eight months after, and put him to death. He used his victory, indeed, cruelly, and distressed all Egypt with severe proscriptions and massacres. Yet at the same time he made many judicious arrangements and regulations, which continue to our own days. . . .

Diocletian was of a crafty disposition, with much sagacity, and keen penetration. He was willing to gratify his own disposition to cruelty in such a way as to throw the odium upon others; he was however a very active and able prince. He was the first that introduced into the Roman empire a ceremony suited rather to royal usages than to Roman liberty, giving orders that he should be adored, whereas all emperors before him were only saluted. He put ornaments of precious stones on his dress and shoes, when the imperial distinction had previously been only in the purple robe, the rest of the habit being the same as that of other men. . . .

But when Diocletian, as age bore heavily upon him, felt himself unable to sustain the government of the empire, he suggested to Herculius that they should both retire into private life, and commit the duty of upholding the state to more vigorous and youthful hands. With this suggestion his colleague reluctantly complied. Both of them, in the same day, exchanged the robe of empire for an ordinary dress, Diocletian at Nicomedia, Herculius at Milan, soon after a magnificent triumph which they celebrated at Rome over several nations, with a noble succession of pictures, and in which the wives, sisters, and children of Narseus were led before their chariots. The one then retired to Salonae, and the other into Lucania.

Diocletian lived to an old age in a private station, at a villa which is not far from Salonae, in honourable retirement, exercising extraordinary philosophy, inasmuch as he alone of all men, since the foundation of the Roman empire, voluntarily returned from so high a dignity to the condition of private life, and to an equality with the other citizens. That happened to him, therefore, which had happened to no one since men were created, that, though he died in a private condition, he was enrolled among the gods.
Blindado
GaleriusFollisGenio.jpg
1dv Galerius21 views305-311

Quarter Follis

Laureate head, right, MAXIMIANVS AVG
Genius standing left, modius on head, holding cornucopia & patera, SIS in ex., GENIO POPVLI ROMANI

RIC 169b

Eutropius tells us: Diocletian promoted MAXIMIAN HERCULIUS from the dignity of Caesar to that of emperor, and created Constantius and Maximian Galerius Caesars, of whom Constantius is said to have been the grand-nephew of Claudius by a daughter, and Maximian Galerius to have been born in Dacia not far from Sardica. . . . Galerius married Valeria, the daughter of Diocletian. . . .

Galerius Maximian, in acting against Narseus, fought, on the first occasion, a battle far from successful, meeting him between Callinicus and Carrae, and engaging in the combat rather with rashness than want of courage; for he contended with a small army against a very numerous enemy. Being in consequence defeated, and going to join Diocletian, he was received by him, when he met him on the road, with such extreme haughtiness, that he is said to have run by his chariot for several miles in his scarlet robes.

But having soon after collected forces in Illyricum and Moesia, he fought a second time with Narseus (the grandfather of Hormisdas and Sapor), in Greater Armenia, with extraordinary success, and with no less caution and spirit, for he undertook, with one or two of the cavalry, the office of a speculator. After putting Narseus to flight, he captured his wives, sisters, and children, with a vast number of the Persian nobility besides, and a great quantity of treasure; the king himself he forced to take refuge in the remotest deserts in his dominions. Returning therefore in triumph to Diocletian, who was then encamped with some troops in Mesopotamia, he was welcomed by him with great honour. Subsequently, they conducted several wars both in conjunction and separately, subduing the Carpi and Bastarnae, and defeating the Sarmatians, from which nations he settled a great number of captives in the Roman territories. . . .

Galerius, a man of excellent moral character, and skilful in military affairs, finding that Italy, by Constantius's permission, was put under his government, created two Caesars, MAXIMIN, whom he appointed over the east, and SEVERUS, to whom he committed Italy. He himself resided in Illyricum.
Blindado
Claudius_II_-_Johannes_sm.jpg
2) Claudius II - Johannes48 views1 commentsSosius
IMG_1103.JPG
2.5 Claudius, Quadrans57 viewsF, Rome Mint, 41 AD
Obv. TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG, Hand holding pair of scales above PNR
Rev. PON M TR P IMP COS DES IT, large SC
Zam
IMG_1102.JPG
2.51 Claudius, Quadrans48 viewsF, Rome Mint, 41 AD
Obv. TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG, Hand holding pair of scales above PNR
Rev. PON M TR P IMP COS DES IT, large SC
Zam
savaria_01-stone_of_the_Caesars.JPG
2008-Savaria - The stone of the Caesars23 viewsOn the top of the red granite stone a sun-dial shows the time, and has six emperor relief. All of them played a significant role in the development of this town:
Claudius founded in AD 43 as Colonia Claudia Savaria;
during the reign of Domitian the town became a religion centre;
Emperor Trajan settled military troops from the civilians and they fought in Dacian War;
during the reign of Septimius Severus was built an Isis shrine;
Diocletian made the centre of jury during the Great Persecution;
and finally Constantine the Great, who partitioned Pannonia four province and Savaria was the capital of Pannonia Prima.
berserker
22021.jpg
22021 Claudius II/Eagle10 viewsClaudius II/Eagle
Obv:DIVO CLAVDIO,
Radiate head right
Rev: CONSECRATIO,
Eagle standing facing, head right, wings
spread close, head up to right, tail right
Mint: All Mints 15.5mm 1.7g
RIC V, Part I, 266 (C)
Blayne W
22074.jpg
22074 CLAUDIUS II GOTHICUS/Juno15 viewsCLAUDIUS II GOTHICUS/Juno
268-270 AD. Antoninianus
mint. Struck 268 AD.
Obv: IMP C CLAVDIVS AVG,
radiate head left
Rev: IVNO R-EGINA,
Juno standing left, holding patera and sceptre; peacock standing left at feet.
Mint: Antioch 19.8mm 3.5g
RIC V 212;
Blayne W
22112.jpg
22112 Claudius/Minerva16 viewsClaudius/Minerva
Obv: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP,
bare head left.
Rev: S-C across fields,
Minerva standing right, brandishing spear and holding shield on left arm.
Mint: Rome 26.6mm 10.21g
RIC I 100; BMCRE 149; Cohen 84.
Ex Frascatius
1 commentsBlayne W
1554353_615393281830920_1677002385_n.jpg
260 Claudius II21 views1 commentsRandygeki(h2)
1779766_745860845450829_7800872537179818972_n.jpg
260 Claudius II20 viewsClaudius II
Æ Antoninianus
Mediolanum (Milan, Italy) mint

IMP CLAVDIVS P F AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse PAX AVG, Pax walking left, extending olive-branch in right hand, long transverse scepter in left, T in ex

RIC V 157, SRCV 3215, Cohen 202
Randygeki(h2)
10613056_721237667913147_2356862005840950412_n.jpg
260 Claudius II 43 viewsClaudius II Rome mint?, IMP C CLAVDIVS AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse VIRTVS AVG, Virtus standing left, branch in right, vertical spear in left, shield at feet RIC 109?2 commentsRandygeki(h2)
10734263_745860875450826_1812360881337081506_n.jpg
260 Claudius II17 viewsClaudius II
Æ Antoninianus

Mediolanum (Milan) mint, 2nd officina, 2nd emission, (mid 269 – spring 270 A.D.)

Obv: IMP CLAVDIVS P F AVG, radiate, draped bust of Claudius II right
Rev: FIDES MILIT, S in ex , Fides standing left holding standards in each hand
RIC 149
Randygeki(h2)
10885311_769549229748657_2090406297486556920_n.jpg
260 Claudius II18 viewsClaudius Gothicus AE Antoninianus. Rome, AD 268-270. IMP C CLAVDIVS AVG, radiate, cuirassed bust right / GENIVS AVG, Genius standing left, by altar, holding patera and cornucopiae. RIC 45Randygeki(h2)
rjb_claud_12_06.jpg
26823 viewsClaudius II 268-70 AD
AE antoninianus
Rome mint
Obv "IMP C CLAVDIVS AVG"
Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev "ADVENTVS AVG"
Claudius on horseback riding left
RIC 13
mauseus
rjb_cii_2_12_08.jpg
26826 viewsClaudius II 268-70 AD
AE antoninianus
Antioch mint
Obv "IMP C CLAVDIVS AVG"
Radiate, cuirassed bust left
Rev "FELIC AVG"
Nemesis(?) and Felicitas standing facing each other
RIC - (cf 206)
1 commentsmauseus
rjb_cii_1_12_08.jpg
26828 viewsClaudius II 268-70 AD
AE antoninianus
Antioch mint
Obv "IMP C CLAVDIVS AVG"
Radiate head left
Rev "SALVS AVG"
Isis walking left holding sistrum and basket
RIC 217
1 commentsmauseus
rjb_claud2_01_09.jpg
26821 viewsClaudius II 268-70 AD
AE antoninianus
Cyzicus mint
3rd emission
Obv "IMP CLAVDIVS PF AVG"
Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust left, pellet below
Rev "FORTVNA REDVX"
Fortuna standing left holding rudder and cornucopia
RIC - (cf233-4); La Venera -; Canakkale -
Gysen (CENB July 1999) notes three examples of this type
mauseus
rjb_2010_07_07.jpg
26817 viewsClaudius II 268-70 AD
AE antoninianus
Smyrna/Cyzicus mint
1st emission
Obv "IMP C M AVR CLAVDIVS AVG"
Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev "VIRTVTI AVG"
Virtus standing left holding shield and spear
RIC - ; La Venera -; Canakkale -
Gysen (CENB July 1999) notes one example of this type
mauseus
rjb_2017_03_04.jpg
26830 viewsClaudius II 268-70 AD
AE antoninianus
Milan mint
Obv "IMP CLAVDIVS P F AVG"
Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev "VICTORIA AVG"
Victory walking right holding wreath and branch
RIC 171, RIC revised temp 33
1 commentsmauseus
rjb_2017_03_03.jpg
26820 viewsClaudius II 268-70 AD
AE antoninianus
Milan mint
Obv "IMP CLAVDIVS . P . F . AVG"
Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev "VICTORIA . AVG"
Victory walking right holding wreath and branch
RIC 171, RIC revised temp 34
mauseus
rjb_2019_02_21.jpg
26815 viewsClaudius II 268-70 AD
AE tetradrachm
Alexandria in Egypt
Obv Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev "LB"
Eagle standing right, head turned back, holding wreath in beak
2 commentsmauseus
rjb_2019_02_22.jpg
26816 viewsClaudius II 268-70 AD
AE tetradrachm
Alexandria in Egypt
Obv Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev "LB"
Eagle standing right, head forwards, holding wreath in beak
2 commentsmauseus
rjb_2019_02_20.jpg
2684 viewsClaudius II 268-70 AD
AE antoninianus
Cyzicus mint
Issue 1
Obv "IMP C M AVR CLAVDIVS AVG"
Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev "ROMAE AETERNA"
Roma seated left
RIC 241; RIC (temp) 869 (2 examples)
mauseus
rjb_2019_02_19.jpg
2684 viewsClaudius II 268-70 AD
AE antoninianus
Cyzicus mint
Issue 3
Obv "IMP CLAVDIVS PF AVG"
Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev "PAX AETERNA"
Pax standing left holding transverse sceptre
RIC 238; RIC (temp) 953 (3 examples)
mauseus
ClaudiusII-Ric 66.jpg
268-270 AD - Claudius Gothicus - AE Antoninianus75 viewsIMP C CLAVDIVS AVG - Radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust
MARS VLTOR - Mars striding right, spear in right hand, and trophy over left shoulder

References Ric V, part1, 66, Cohen 160

very pleasing example of this 'Martial" coin! (IMHO)
jimwho523
ClGtV18.jpg
268-270 AD - Claudius Gothicus - RIC V 018 - ANNONA AVG33 viewsEmperor: Claudius Gothicus (r. 268-270 AD)
Date: 268-270 AD
Condition: aFine
Denomination: Antoninianus

Obverse: IMP C CLAVDIVS AVG
Imperator Caesar Claudius Emperor
Bust right; radiate and cuirassed

Reverse: ANNONA AVG
The Emperor provides wheat.
Annona standing left, foot on prow, holding ears of corn and cornucopiae.

Rome mint
RIC V Claudius Gothicus 18; VM 5
2.52g; 21.6mm; 0°
Pep
ClGtV32or33.jpg
268-270 AD - Claudius Gothicus - RIC V 032 or 033 - FELICITAS AVG27 viewsEmperor: Claudius Gothicus (r. 268-270 AD)
Date: 268-270 AD
Condition: Fine
Denomination: Antoninianus

Obverse: IMP (C?) CLAVDIVS AVG
Imperator Emperor Claudius
Head right; radiate

Reverse: FELICITAS AVG
The Emperor provides happiness and success.
Felicitas standing left, holding caduceus and cornucopia.
"B" in right field (Rome mint, second officina)

RIC V 32 or 33, VM 10
2.47g; 21.8mm; 180°
Pep
ClGtV91or92.jpg
268-270 AD - Claudius Gothicus - RIC V 091 or 092 - PROVIDENT AVG30 viewsEmperor: Claudius Gothicus (r. 268-270 AD)
Date: 268-270 AD
Condition: Fair/VF
Denomination: Antoninianus

Obverse: IMP (C?) CLAVDIVS AVG
Imperator Emperor Claudius
Bust right; radiate and draped or cuirassed

Reverse: PROVIDENT AVG
The Emperor has foresight.
Providentia standing left, leaning on column.
"XII" in right field

Rome mint
RIC V Claudius Gothicus 91 or 92
3.72g; 18.1mm; 165°
Pep
ClGtV104.jpg
268-270 AD - Claudius Gothicus - RIC V 104 - VICTORIA AVG26 viewsEmperor: Claudius II Gothicus (r. 268-270 AD)
Date: 268-270 AD
Condition: Fine
Denomination: Antoninianus

Obverse: IMP C CLAVDIVS AVG
Imperator Caesar Emperor Claudius
Bust right; radiate and cuirassed

Reverse: VICTORIA AVG
The Emperor is victorious.
Victory standing left, holding wreath and palm.

Rome mint
RIC V Claudius Gothicus 104; VM 35
3.38g; 20.1mm; 0°
Pep
ClGtV187.jpg
268-270 AD - Claudius Gothicus - RIC V 187 - PROVIDEN AVG33 viewsEmperor: Claudius Gothicus (r. 268-270 AD)
Date: 268-270 AD
Condition: Fair
Denomination: Antoninianus

Obverse: IMP CLAVDIVS AVG
Imperator Claudius Emperor
Bust right; radiate and cuirassed

Reverse: PROVIDEN AVG
The Emperor has foresight.
Providentia standing left, holding baton and cornucopiae; at foot, globe.
"II" in right field

Siscia mint, second officina
RIC V Claudius Gothicus 187
2.83g; 21.0mm; 345°
Pep
claudius2 ant.jpg
268-270 AD - CLAUDIUS II (GOTHICUS) - AR antoninianus55 viewsobv: IMP.C.CLAVDIVS.AVG (radiate head right)
rev: LIBERALITAS AVG (Liberalitas standing left, holding coin counter and cornucopia)
ref: RIC57, C.144
mint: Rome, 3.08gms, struck 268-270 AD
This coin is AR!! Rare
berserker
claudiusII ant-.jpg
268-270 AD - CLAUDIUS II (GOTHICUS) AE antoninianus 29 viewsobv: IMP.CLAVDIVS.CAES.AVG (radiate bust right)
rev: RESTITVTOR.ORBIS (emperor standing left, sacrifacing at altar and holding sceptre)
ref: RIC189, C.247(20fr)
mint: Siscia, struck 268-270 AD
2.98gms, 19mm
Rare
Unusual and rare using the title Caesar!
berserker
divoclaudio_RIC266.jpg
268-270 AD - CLAUDIUS II (GOTHICUS) AE antoninianus58 viewsobv: DIVO CLAVDIO (radiate head right)
rev: CONSECRATIO (eagle standing front, wings spread, head right)
ref: RIC Vi 266 (C), Cohen 43
mint: Rome
3.36gms, 19mm

Claudius II issued after his death by Quintillus and later emperors.
History: Late in 269 Claudius was preparing to go to war against the german Vandals tribe, who were raiding in Pannonia. Next year the pannonian legions led by Claudius defeated the Vandals, but the Emperor fell victim to an epidemic of plague and died in Sirmium early in August of 270. The Senate immediately deified Claudius as "Divus Claudius Gothicus", making him one of the few Roman emperors of the period to be so honored.
berserker
quintillus ant-.jpg
270 AD - QUINTILLUS - AE antoninianus 19 viewsobv: IMP.C.M.AVR.CL.QVINTILLVS.AVG (radiate & draped bust right)
rev: FIDES.MILIT (Fides standing left, holding two standards)
ref: RIC52 (?)
mint: no mint-marks (Mediolanum without 'S' or unpublished Siscia),
3.03gms, 22mm
Quintillus had been emperor for only a few weeks after the death of Claudius Gothicus.
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309. Gallienus33 viewsOne of the key characteristics of the Crisis of the Third Century was the inability of the Emperors to maintain their hold on the Imperium for any marked length of time. An exception to this rule was the reign of the Emperor Gallienus. The fact that Gallienus served as junior Emperor with his father, Valerian, from 253 to 260 may have had something to do with his successes. Father and son each wielded his authority over a smaller area, thus allowing for more flexible control and imperial presence. Another, more probable reason, lay in Gallienus's success in convincing Rome that he was the best man for the job. However, Gallienus had to handle many rebellions of the so-called "Gallienus usurpers".

In 260, Valerian was taken prisoner by Sapor, King of Persia while trying to negotiate a peace settlement. Although aware that his father had been taken alive (the only Emperor to have suffered this fate), Gallienus did not make public Valerian's death until a year later. His decision hinged on the fact that Romans believed that their fate rose and fell with the fate of the Emperor, which in turn depended upon his demonstrating the proper amount of piety (Latin pietas) to the gods and maintaining their favor. A defeated Emperor would surely have meant that the gods had forsaken Valerian and, by extension, Gallienus.

Gallienus's chief method of reinforcing his position is seen in the coinage produced during his reign (see Roman currency). The coinage provides clear evidence of a successful propaganda campaign. Gallienus took pains to make sure that he was regularly represented as victorious, merciful, and pious. The people who used these coins on a daily basis saw these messages and, with little evidence to the contrary, remained supportive of their Emperor.

There were, however, those who knew better. During Gallienus' reign, there was constant fighting on the western fringes of the Empire. As early as 258, Gallienus had lost control over a large part of Gaul, where another general, Postumus, had declared his own realm (typically known today as the Gallic Empire). As Gallienus' influence waned, another general came to the fore. In time-honored tradition, Claudius II Gothicus gained the loyalty of the army and succeeded Gallienus to the Imperium.

In the months leading up to his mysterious death in September of 268, Gallienus was ironically orchestrating the greatest achievements of his reign. An invasion of Goths into the province of Pannonia was leading to disaster and even threatening Rome, while at the same time, the Alamanni were raising havoc in the northern part of Italy. Gallienus halted the Allamanic progress by defeating them in battle in April of 268, then turned north and won several victories over the Goths. That fall, he turned on the Goths once again, and in September, either he or Claudius, his leading general, led the Roman army to victory (although the cavalry commander Aurelian was the real victor) at the Battle of Naissus.

At some time following this battle, Gallienus was murdered during the siege of usurper Aureolus in Mediolanum; many theories abound that Claudius and Aurelian conspired to have the emperor killed. Be that as it may, Claudius spared the lives of Gallienus' family — Gallienus' wife, Iulia Cornelia Salonina, had given him three sons: Valerianus (who died in 258), Saloninus (died in 260 after becoming co-emperor), and Egnatius Marinianus — and had the emperor deified.

Gallienus Antoninianus - Minerva
OBVERSE: GALLIENVS AVG, radiate, cuirassed bust right
REVERSE: MINERVA AVG, Minerva standing right with spear and shield.
23mm - 3.7 grams
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311a. Aureolus7 viewsAureolus. Romano-Gallic Usurper, AD 267-268. Antoninianus (19mm, 2.17 g, 7h). Struck in the name of Postumus. Mediolanum (Milan) mint, 2nd officina. 3rd emission, mid AD 268. Radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust of Postumus right / Concordia standing left, holding patera and rudder; prow of galley to left; S. RIC V (Postumus) 373; Mairat 215-21; AGK (Postumus) 6b; RSC (Postumus) 19. Near VF, dark brown patina.

Aureolus was an extraordinarily capable general who served under Valerian and Gallienus. Around AD 258, Gallienus stationed a new cavalry unit at Mediolanum that was to serve as a quick reaction force against any new invasions along the frontier of the central empire. Aureolus was given command of this unit. In AD 260-261 his forces defeated the armies of the usurpers Ingenuus and Macrianus, and recovered the province of Raetia. Following these victories, Gallienus and Aureolus led a Roman army against the breakaway Gallic provinces under Postumus. Gallienus was forced to leave the field after being injured in battle, and left the campaign in the hands of Aureolus. Aureolus ended the campaign shortly thereafter, and while the reason is uncertain, the historical record suggests it was due to either his incompetence or else treachery (he had come to a secret agreement with Postumus). While the former seems unlikely, given Aureolus’ record, the latter is possible, as there are indications that he had been preparing for a revolt as early as AD 262. Regardless, at some point in AD 267, Aureolus revolted and established his base at Mediolanum, where Gallienus besieged him in AD 268. The details of the revolt are unclear, but it appears that Aureolus first appealed to Postumus for aid, and, failing to gain the Gallic Emperor’s support, declared himself emperor. About the same time, Gallienus was murdered, and was succeeded by Claudius II Gothicus, who continued to beseige Mediolanum. Soon, though, it appeared that an agreement was reached, and Aureolus emerged from the city to meet Claudius. Any such concord, however, was simply a ruse, as Aureolus was taken into custody and executed.
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313. Tetricus I27 viewsCaius Pius Esuvius Tetricus was emperor of the Gallic Empire from 270/271 to 273, following the murder of Victorinus. Tetricus, who ruled with his son, Tetricus II, was the last of the Gallic Emperors.

Tetricus was born to a noble family and held the administrative rank of praeses provinciae (provincial governor) of Aquitania at the time of Victorinus' death. Victorinus' mother, Victoria, paid the army heavily to declare Tetricus emperor near Burdigalia (Bordeaux, France), which was approved in Gaul and Britain. Following his appointment, Tetricus repelled Germanic tribes that took advantage of the confusion following the death of Victorinus to invade.

Tetricus installed his capital at Augusta Treverorum (present Trier, Germany, near the vital Rhine border, hence later seat of a Tetrarch) and appointed his son, Tetricus II, Caesar, i.e. junior emperor (273). Tetricus made no attempts to expand the Gallic Empire, other than southward, regaining Aquitania (which had rejoined the Roman empire during the reign of Claudius Gothicus).

In 273, Emperor Aurelian set out to reconquer the western Roman empire, following his victories in the east. Tetricus took his army southward from Trier to meet Aurelian, who was advancing into northern Gaul. The decisive battle took place near Châlons-sur-Marne, where Tetricus and his son surrendered to Aurelian.

According to literary sources, after being displayed as trophies at Aurelian's triumph in Rome, the lives of Tetricus and his son were spared by Aurelian and Tetricus was even given the title of corrector Lucaniae et Bruttiorum, that is governor of a region of Italia. Tetricus died at an unknown date living in Italy; he is listed as one of Rome's Thirty Tyrants in the Historia Augusta.
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314. Claudius II37 viewsMarcus Aurelius Claudius Gothicus (May 10, 213/214 - January, 270), more often referred to as Claudius II, ruled the Roman Empire for less than two years (268 - 270), but during that brief time, he was so successful and beloved by the people of Rome that he attained divine status.

His origin is uncertain. Claudius was either from Syrmia (Sirmium; in Pannonia Inferior) or from Dardania (in Moesia Superior). Claudius was the commander of the Roman army that defeated decisively the Goths at the battle of Naissus, in September 268; in the same month, he attained the throne, amid charges, never proven, that he murdered his predecessor Gallienus. However, he soon proved to be less than bloodthirsty, as he asked the Roman Senate to spare the lives of Gallienus' family and supporters. He was less magnanimous toward Rome's enemies, however, and it was to this that he owed his popularity.

Claudius, like Maximinus Thrax before him, was of barbarian birth. After an interlude of failed aristocratic Roman emperors since Maximinus's death, Claudius was the first in a series of tough soldier-emperors who would eventually restore the Empire from the Crisis of the third century.

At the time of his accession, the Roman Empire was in serious danger from several incursions, both within and outside its borders. The most pressing of these was an invasion of Illyricum and Pannonia by the Goths. Not long after being named emperor (or just prior to Gallienus' death, depending on the source), he won his greatest victory, and one of the greatest in the history of Roman arms.

At the Battle of Naissus, Claudius and his legions routed a huge Gothic army. Together with his cavalry commander, the future Emperor Aurelian, the Romans took thousands of prisoners, destroyed the Gothic cavalry as a force and stormed their chariot laager (a circular alignment of battle-wagons long favored by the Goths). The victory earned Claudius his surname of "Gothicus" (conqueror of the Goths), and that is how he is known to this day. More importantly, the Goths were soon driven back across the Danube River, and a century passed before they again posed a serious threat to the empire.

While this was going on, the Germanic tribe known as the Alamanni had crossed the Alps and attacked the empire. Claudius responded quickly and swiftly, routing the Alamanni at the Battle of Lake Benacus in the late fall of 268, a few months after the battle of Naissus. He then turned on the "Gallic Empire", ruled by a pretender for the past 15 years and encompassing Britain, Gaul and Spain. He won several victories and soon regained control of Spain and the Rhone river valley of Gaul. This set the stage for the ultimate destruction of the Gallic Empire under Aurelian.

However, Claudius did not live long enough to fulfill his goal of reuniting all the lost territories of the empire. Late in 269 he was preparing to go to war against the Vandals, who were raiding in Pannonia. However, he fell victim to an epidemic of plague and died early in January of 270. Before his death, he is thought to have named Aurelian as his successor, although Claudius' brother Quintillus briefly seized power.

The Senate immediately deified Claudius as "Divus Claudius Gothicus", making him one of the few Roman emperors of the period to be so honored.

Historia Augusta reports Claudius and Quintillus having another brother named Crispus and through him a niece. Said niece Claudia reportedly married Eutropius and was mother to Constantius Chlorus. Historians however suspect this account to be a genealogical fabrication by Constantine the Great.

Claudius II Gothicus AE Antoninianus. Cyzicus mint. IMP CLAVDIVS P F AVG, radiate, draped bust right / FORTUNA REDUX, Fortuna standing left with rudder & cornucopiae. RIC 234, Cohen 88.
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315. Quintillus109 viewsQuintillus, August or September - October or November 270 A.D.

Marcus Aurelius Claudius Quintillus (d. 270) was brother of the Roman Emperor Claudius II, and became the Emperor himself in 270.

Historia Augusta reports that he became Emperor in a coup d'état. Eutropius reports Quintillus to have been elected by soldiers of the Roman army immediately following the death of his brother. The choice was reportedly approved by the Roman Senate. Joannes Zonaras however reports him elected by the Senate itself.

Records however agree that the legions which had followed Claudius in campaigning along the Danube were either unaware or disapproving of Quintillus' elevation. They instead elevated their current leader Aurelian to the rank of Augustus. Historia Augusta reports Aurelian to have been chosen by Claudius himself as a successor, apparently in a deathbed decision.

The few records of Quintillus' reign are contradictory. They disagree on the length of his reign, variously reported to have lasted as few as 17 days and as many as 177 days (about six months). Records also disagree on the cause of his death. Historia Augusta reports him murdered by his own soldiers in reaction to his strict military discipline. Jerome reports him killed, persumably in conflict with Aurelian. John of Antioch and Joannes Zonaras reported Quintillus to have committed suicide by opening his veins and bleeding himself to death. John reports the suicide to have been assisted by a physician. Claudius Salmasius pointed that Dexippus recorded the death without stating causes. All records however agree in placing the death at Aquileia.

Quintillus was reportedly survived by his two sons.

Historia Augusta reports Claudius and Quintillus having another brother named Crispus and through him a niece, Claudia. who reportedly married Eutropius and was mother to Constantius Chlorus. Historians however suspect this account to be a genealogical fabrication to flatter Constantine the Great.

Surviving Roman records considered Quintillus a moderate and capable Emperor. He was seen as a champion of the Senate and thus compared to previous Emperors Servius Sulpicius Galba and Publius Helvius Pertinax. All three were highly regarded by Senatorial sources despite their failure to survive a full year of reign.

Bronze antoninianus, RIC 58, C-47, S 3246, EF, 3.37g, 19.9mm, 180o, Mediolanum mint, obverse IMP QVINTILLVS AVG, radiate and draped bust right; reverse MARTI PACI, Mars holding olive branch and spear, P in ex; found in England; Ex Forum
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316. Aurelian22 views316. Aurelian

In 275, Aurelian marched towards Asia Minor, preparing another campaign against the Sassanids: the close deaths of Kings Shapur I (272) and Hormizd I (273), and the rise to power of a weakened ruler (Bahram I), set the possibility to attack the Sassanid Empire.

On on his way, the emperor suppressed a revolt in Gaul — possibly against Faustinus, an officer or usurper of Tetricus — and defeated barbarian marauders at Vindelicia (Germany).

However, Aurelian never reached Persia, since he was killed on his way. As an administrator, Aurelian had been very strict and handed out severe punishments to corrupt officials or soldiers. A secretary of Aurelian (called Eros by Zosimus) had told a lie on a minor issue. Scared of what the emperor might do, he told high ranking officials that the emperor wanted their life, showing a forged document. The notarius Mucapor and other high-ranking officiers of the Praetorian Guard, fearing punishment from the Emperor, murdered him in September of 275, in Caenophrurium, Thracia (modern Turkey).

Aurelian's enemies in the Senate briefly succeeded in passing damnatio memoriae on the emperor, but this was reversed before the end of the year and Aurelian, like his predecessor Claudius, was deified as Divus Aurelianus.

Ulpia Severina, wife of Aurelian and Augusta since 274, is said to have held the imperial role during the short interregnum before the election of Marcus Claudius Tacitus to the purple.

Siscia mint. IMP C AVRELIANVS AVG, radiate & cuirassed bust right / ORIENS AVG, Sol advancing left between two seated captives, holding up raised hand & whip, XXIT in ex. Cohen 158. RIC 255
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317. Tacitus 90 viewsMarcus Claudius Tacitus, (c.200 - 276) Roman Emperor from September 25, 275, to April 276, was a native of Interamna (Terni) in Umbria.

In the course of his long life he discharged the duties of various civil offices, including that of consul in 273, with universal respect.

Six months after the assassination of Aurelian, he was chosen by the senate to succeed him, and the choice was cordially ratified by the army. During his brief reign he set on foot some domestic reforms, and sought to revive the authority of the senate, but, after a victory over the Alans near the Palus Maeotis, he was assassinated at Tyana in Cappadocia.

Tacitus, besides being a man of immense wealth (which he bequeathed to the state) had considerable literary culture, and was proud to claim descent from the historian Gaius Cornelius Tacitus, whose works he caused to be transcribed at the public expense and placed in the public libraries.

However, modern research has cast considerable suspicion on this traditional image of Tacitus as a venerable old senator. Quite the contrary, evidence (from coins, for example) indicates that Tacitus was just another military emperor, whose only distiction from other short-lived emperors of the time was his attempt to cultivate the image of a learned man.

Tactitus Silvered AE Antoninianus. Gaul mint. IMP C M CL TACITVS P F AVG, radiate, draped & cuirassed bust right / FELICITAS SAECILI (sic), Felicity standing left, sacrificing over altar, holding a long cauduceus Ric 21

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318. Florian28 viewsAfter Tacitus died, the army chose Florian to succeed him. His full name as Emperor was Imperator Caesar Marcus Annius Florianus Pius Felix Invictus Augustus. The Historia Augusta characterizes the succession as a dynastic coup in which the Senate was ignored, but since Florian like Tacitus issued coins inscribed SC, advertising the Senate's authority for minting them, the Historia Augusta's complaint may be factitious. Most of this biography is.

Florian had hardly assumed office when the armies and provinces of Phoenicia, Palestine, Syria and Egypt declared for Probus. Florian turned from pursuing the the Eruli north to return to Cilicia and confront Probus and his army. Florian appears to have had the larger army, but Probus, an experienced general, held back. After a few weeks of sporadic fighting, Florian was assassinated by his own troops near Tarsus. He had reigned about 88 days.

Florian's different nomen, Annius rather than Claudius, means that he cannot have been Tacitus's full brother as the Historia Augusta implies; but one passage identifies him as Tacitus's half brother by the same mother, which might be true. Some historians doubt, however, whether any blood connexion existed at all. Little can be said about Florian's reign. One inscription assigns him a consulate. Though neither reigned long, both Tacitus and Florian had a large and varied coinage, "lively with hope for a golden age neither emperor ever realized."



Florian, Antoninianus 276 AD 2.77g
Obv: Bust of Florian right 'IMP FLORIANVS AVG'
Rev: Victory presenting a wreath to Florian 'CONCORDIA MILITVM' 'T' in ex.
RIC 116
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JulIIVIIIConst150.jpg
355-360 AD - Julian II as Caesar - RIC VIII Constantinople 150 - SPES REIPVBLICE23 viewsCaesar: Julian II (Caes. 355-360 AD)
Date: 355-361 AD
Condition: Fair
Size: AE4

Obverse: DN CL IVLIANVS NOB CAES
Our Lord Claudius Julian Noble Caesar
Bust right; bare-headed, draped and cuirassed

Reverse: SPES REI-PVBLICE
Hope of the Republic.
Emperor, helmeted and in military dress, standing left, holding globe and spear.
Exergue: CONSS (Constantinople mint, sixth officina)

RIC VIII Constantinople 150
2.22g; 15.9mm; 180°
Pep
Denario_Lucilla_RIC_786.jpg
36-02 - LUCILA (164 - 180 D.C.)87 viewsAR Denario 19 x 17 mm 2.7 gr.

Annia Aurelia Galeria Lucila (7 de marzo de 150 - 182) fue la hija mayor del emperador romano Marco Aurelio y Faustina la Menor y hermana de Cómodo. En el año 164 d. C., el emperador Marco Aurelio casó a su hija Annia Lucilla, con su socio en el poder y hermano de adopción Lucio Aurelio Vero. Después de la muerte del emperador Lucio Vero en 169, Lucila se volvió a casar, esta vez con Claudius Pompeianus y se entregó al desenfreno y depravación, viviendo incluso una incestuosa relación con su hermano Cómodo. El emperador Cómodo sufrió numerosos complots y después de descubrir algunos de ellos, empezó un periodo de terror en el que numerosas personalidades influyentes fueron acusadas y condenadas a muerte. Incluso sus más allegados, como su esposa Crispina y su hermana Lucila fueron acusadas de traición, deportadas a Caprea (isla de Capri) y más tarde asesinadas. Lucila había realmente conspirado junto con un grupo de senadores, pero durante el año 182 fue descubierta y murió en Capri, por orden de emperador. Los senadores líderes también fueron ejecutados. [Fuente WIKIPEDIA]

Anv: "LVCILLA AVGVSTA"- Busto con rodete y vestido viendo a derecha.
Rev: "VENVS VICTRIX" - Venus estante a izquierda portando Victoriola en la mano derecha extendida y apoyando la izquierda en un escudo.

Acuñada 166 - 169 D.C.
Ceca: Roma

Referencias: RIC Vol.III (Marco Aurelio) #786 Pag.276 - Sear RCTV Vol.II #5492 – BMCRE IV #353 - Cohen Vol.III #89 Pag.222 - DVM #15 Pag.158 – RSC II #89 - MIR.18/45 -4
mdelvalle
RIC_786_Denario_Lucila.jpg
36-02 - LUCILA (164 - 180 D.C.)12 viewsAR Denario 19 x 17 mm 2.7 gr.

Annia Aurelia Galeria Lucila (7 de marzo de 150 - 182) fue la hija mayor del emperador romano Marco Aurelio y Faustina la Menor y hermana de Cómodo. En el año 164 d. C., el emperador Marco Aurelio casó a su hija Annia Lucilla, con su socio en el poder y hermano de adopción Lucio Aurelio Vero. Después de la muerte del emperador Lucio Vero en 169, Lucila se volvió a casar, esta vez con Claudius Pompeianus y se entregó al desenfreno y depravación, viviendo incluso una incestuosa relación con su hermano Cómodo. El emperador Cómodo sufrió numerosos complots y después de descubrir algunos de ellos, empezó un periodo de terror en el que numerosas personalidades influyentes fueron acusadas y condenadas a muerte. Incluso sus más allegados, como su esposa Crispina y su hermana Lucila fueron acusadas de traición, deportadas a Caprea (isla de Capri) y más tarde asesinadas. Lucila había realmente conspirado junto con un grupo de senadores, pero durante el año 182 fue descubierta y murió en Capri, por orden de emperador. Los senadores líderes también fueron ejecutados. [Fuente WIKIPEDIA]

Anv: "LVCILLA AVGVSTA"- Busto con rodete y vestido viendo a derecha.
Rev: "VENVS VICTRIX" - Venus estante a izquierda portando Victoriola en la mano derecha extendida y apoyando la izquierda en un escudo.

Acuñada 166 - 169 D.C.
Ceca: Roma

Referencias: RIC Vol.III (Marco Aurelio) #786 Pag.276 - Sear RCTV Vol.II #5492 – BMCRE IV #353 Pag.432 (Plate 59 #10) - Cohen Vol.III #89 Pag.222 - DVM #15 Pag.158 – RSC II #89 Pag.234 - MIR.18/45 -4
mdelvalle
agrippa cmk as.jpg
37-41 AD - AGRIPPA memorial AE dupondius - struck under Caligula (by RIC)76 viewsobv: M AGRIPPA LF COS III (head left wearing rostral crown)(with Vespasian countermark)
rev: - / S.C. (Neptune holding small dolphin in right hand & vertical trident in left)
ref: RIC58(Gaius), BMC(Tib)161
10.51gms, 28mm
Rare with this cmk

The capricorn originally a sign related to Augustus, it became a symbol of Vespasian' reign also. This countermark often attributed to Vespasian during the civil war, mostly found on eastern provincial coins. A similiar countermark exists on regular roman coinage from Claudius, likely applied in the balkan region. The emblem beneath could be variously interpreted as a plough or a globe with ships rudder, or maybe instrument. This Agrippa coin with Vespasian cmk was found in the balkan region, too. Top of the picture is the original counterstamp-mint.
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383/1 TI.CLAVD TI.F AP.N.12 viewsTi. Claudius Ti.f. Ap. N. AR Denarius Serrate. Rome mint. 79 BC. Obv: Bust of Diana right, bow and quiver onshoulder, SC before. Rev: Victory in biga right, carrying wreath and long palm, CXIII below, TI CLAVD TI F/AP N in two lines in exergue.
Syd 770; Claudia 5; Crawford 383/1
Paddy
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3912 Phoenicia, Acco-Ptolemaïs. Hadrian. Æ 21 Hadrian, as founder plowing44 viewsReference.
RPC III, 3912; Kadman 103; cf. Rosenberger 48 (head right); cf. Rouvier 1000 (same).; Hendin 819

Obv. IMP TRA HADRIA[NO CAESAR]
Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from front.

Rev. DIVOS CLAV above, C-O-L/PT-OL in two lines across field. (COL PTOL=Colonia Ptolemais)
Claudius, as founder plowing right with yoked bull and cow; in background, four standards.

11.02 gr
21 mm
12 h

Agora Auctions.
From the Kenneth Miller Collection of Ake-Ptolemaïs and Related Biblical Coins.
2 commentsokidoki
agrippina RIC102(claudius).jpg
41-54 AD - AGRIPPINA Senior AE Sestertius - struck under Claudius (ca.42-43 AD)43 viewsobv: AGRIPPINA M F GERMANICI CAESARIS (draped bust right, hair behind in an elaborate plait)
rev: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR P IMP P P around large SC
ref: RIC I 102 [Claudius], Cohen 3, BMC 219
mint: Rome
25.89gms, 35mm
Rare

Agrippina was the wife of Germanicus, and the father of six children who survived into adulthood, including the emperor Caligula. She was banished by Tiberius to the island of Pandataria, where she died of starvation in 33 AD. Her memory was honored under Caligula and Claudius.
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antonia_AE17_RPC1582.jpg
41-54 AD - ANTONIA AE16 of Thessalonica - struck under Claudius 29 viewsobv: ANTWNIA (draped bust right, hair tied in queue down neck)
rev: TECCALO-NEIKEWN (Nike on globe left, holding wreath and palm)
ref: RPC 1582, SNG ANS 840
mint: Thessalonica, Macedonia
4.74 gms, 16 mm
Very rare - original green patina

Antonia was daughter of Marc Antony and Octavia, wife of Nero Claudius Drusus, sister-in-law of Tiberius, mother of Claudius, and grandmother of Caligula.
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claudius_AE18_RPC2624.jpg
41-54 AD - CLAUDIUS & AGRIPPINA Junior AE18 of Ephesos - struck 49-50 AD37 viewsobv: Jugate laureate heads of Claudius and draped bust of Agrippina II, right
rev: EFE / KOYCI-NIOC / TO-D (stag standing right) (D = episcopus for the fourth time)
ref: BMC 205, RPC 2624, SNG Cop.373
mint: Ephesos
6.49 gms, 18 mm
Very rare - original green patina

Julia Agrippina (Agrippina the Younger) was the 4th wife of the emperor Claudius. She was murdered by her son, Nero, in 59 A.D.
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claudius_AE21_RPC1578.jpg
41-54 AD - CLAUDIUS & AUGUSTUS AE21 of Thessalonica - struck under Claudius29 viewsobv:TI KLAY KAICAP CEBACTOC GEP (laureate head of Claudius left)
rev: TEOC CEBACTOC TECCALONEIKEWN (radiate head of Augustus right)
ref: RPC 1578, SNG ANS 842, BMC Macedonia -; SNG Copenhagen -
mint: Thessalonica, Macedonia
8.19 gms, 21 mm
Rare

Under the Roman Empire, Thessalonica became the capital city of the Roman province of Macedonia (146 BCE). Paul wrote the epistles to the Thessalonians, from Corinth in 51 AD.
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claudius_diobol_RPC5151.jpg
41-54 AD - CLAUDIUS AE Diobol - struck 42-43 AD50 viewsobv: TI.KLAU.KAI.CEBAC.GERMA (laureate bust right, star before chin)
rev: AYTOKPA (hippopotamus walking right, in exergue LG; = year 3 = 42/3)
ref: Milne 100, Koln 84, RPC 5151, BMCGr 96v, Dattari 166
mint: Alexandria
11.85 gms, 25 mm
Rare
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claudius RIC I 99.jpg
41-54 AD - CLAUDIUS AE sestertius - struck 41-50 AD31 viewsobv: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP (laureate head right)
rev: SPES AVGVSTA (Spes standing left, holding flower and raising hem of skirt), S-C in ex.
ref: RIC 99, Cohen 85cf, BMC 124
mint: Rome
24,56gms, 35mm, orichalcum

This type of Spes, which became afterwards so common on coins of the Imperial mint, appears for the first time on a large brass of Claudius. It would seem that Claudius worshipped Hope as a favourite divinity, and on his natal day made vows to her honour.
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claudius as1.jpg
41-54 AD - CLAUDIUS I AE as - struck 41-50 AD19 viewsobv: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG PM TR P (bare head left)
rev: CONSTANTIAE AVGVSTI / S.C. (Constantia, helmeted and in military dress, standing left, holding long spear in left hand)
ref: RIC I 95, C.14
mint: Rome
8.05gms, 28mm

Constancy was the symbol of the Emperor Claudius.
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claudius as2.jpg
41-54 AD - CLAUDIUS I AE as - struck 41-50 AD22 viewsobv: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG PM TR P (bare head left)
rev: CONSTANTIAE AVGVSTI / S.C. (Constantia, helmeted and in military dress, standing left, holding long spear in left hand)
ref: RIC I 95, C.14
8.60gms, 29mm
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claudius quadr-.jpg
41-54 AD - CLAUDIUS I AE quadrans - struck 41 AD35 viewsobv: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG around modius
rev: PON M TR P IMP COS DES I T around large S.C.
ref: RIC I 84, Hu74, C.70
mint: Rome
2.61gms, 17mm

The modius obverse quadrantes probably relate to a distribution of corn to the citizens to mark Claudius’ accession.
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claud quadr01.jpg
41-54 AD - CLAUDIUS I AE quadrans - struck 41 AD23 viewsobv: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG around hand holding pair of scales above PNR
rev: PON M TR P IMP COS DES IT around S C
ref: RIC85, Cohen71, BMC174, SRC1864
mint: Rome
3.44gms, 15mm

PNR = Pondus Numni Restitutum. It refers to some kind of monetary rectification.
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claud quadr02.jpg
41-54 AD - CLAUDIUS I AE quadrans - struck 41 AD26 viewsobv: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG around hand holding pair of scales above PNR
rev: PON M TR P IMP COS DES IT around S C
ref: RIC I 85, Cohen71, BMC174, SRC1864
mint: Rome
3.13gms, 15mm
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claud quadr03.jpg
41-54 AD - CLAUDIUS I AE quadrans - struck 41 AD21 viewsobv: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG around three-legged modius
rev: PON M TR P IMP COS DES IT around large SC
ref: RIC I 84, Cohen70, SRC1863
mint: Rome
3.41gms, 15mm
berserker
claud quadr04.jpg
41-54 AD - CLAUDIUS I AE quadrans - struck 41 AD16 viewsobv: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG around three-legged modius
rev: PON M TR P IMP COS DES IT around large SC
ref: RIC I 84, Cohen70, SRC1863
mint: Rome
3.05gms, 15mm
berserker
Nero Claudius Drusus sest - R.jpg
41-54 AD - NERO CLAUDIUS DRUSUS AE Sestertius - struck under Claudius (42-43 AD)38 viewsobv: NERO CLAVDIVS DRVSVS GERMANICVS IMP (bare head of Drusus left)
rev: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP P P (Claudius, togate, holding laurel branch and roll, seated left on curule chair set on globe, resting both feet on cuirass on ground, several shields, spears, and a helmet are also scattered around him, a sword rests against the globe beneath the curule chair), S-C in ex.
ref: RIC I 109 [Claudius], Cohen 8 (10 frcs), BMCRE 208
26.36gms, 34mm, orichalcum
Rare

Nero Claudius Drusus Germanicus, son of Livia, brother of Tiberius and father of Claudius was the governor of Gaul in 13 BC, initiated a series of successful campaigns against the Germans. Died in a fall from his horse in 9 BC.
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Scipio.jpg
47-46 BC Q. Caecilius Metellus Pius Scipio68 viewsQ METEL SCIPIO IMP
head of Africa right, laur. and clad in elephant's skin, corn-ear before, plough below

EPPIVS LEG F C

Naked Hercules standing facing right, hand on hip resting on club set on rock

North Africa
47-46 BC

Sear 1380/1

Born Publius Cornelius Scipio Nasica. He was adopted by his uncle by marriage and father's second cousin Quintus Caecilius Metellus Pius. He married Aemilia Lepida, daughter of Mamercus Aemilius Lepidus Livianus (son of the Censor Marcus Livius Drusus and wife Cornelia Scipio and adopted by Mamercus Aemilius Lepidus) and wife Claudia (sister of Appius Claudius Pulcher (Senior)), and was the father in law of Pompey the Great, married to his daughter Cornelia Metella, called Quinta Pompeia for being his fifth wife.

He was Tribune in 59 BC and became Consul with Pompey the Great in 52 BC. During Caesar's civil war, he served the party of Pompey and fought against Caesar and Marcus Antonius. In 49 BC he was sent as Proconsul to Syria and the following year he took part in the Battle of Pharsalus, where he commanded the center of the Republican battleline. After Pharsalus he fled to Africa were he commanded an army with Cato the Younger, losing in the Battle of Thapsus. After the defeat he tried to escape but was cornered by the fleet of Publius Sittius when he wrecked the ship as he tried to escape to the Iberian Peninsula, to continue to fight from there. He committed suicide by stabbing himself so he would not fall at the hands of his enemies.

SOLD to Calgary Coin June 2017
1 commentsJay GT4
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501. Constantine I London BEATA TRANQVILLITAS26 viewsLondon

Londinium was established as a town by the Romans after the invasion of 43 AD led by the Emperor Claudius. Archaeological excavation (undertaken by the Department of Urban Archaeology of the Museum of London now called MOLAS) since the 1970s has also failed to unearth any convincing traces of major settlement before c.50 — so ideas about Londinium being a military foundation around the Fort that protected London Bridge are now largely discounted.

The name Londinium is thought to be pre-Roman in origin although there is no consensus on what it means. One suggestion is that it derived from a personal name meaning 'fierce'. However, recent research by Richard Coates has suggested that the name derives from pre-Celtic Old European — Plowonida — from 2 roots, "plew" and "nejd", meaning something like "the flowing river" or "the wide flowing river". Londinium therefore means "the settlement on the wide river". He suggests that the river was called the Thames up river where it was narrower, and Plowonida down river where it was too wide to ford. For a discussion on the legends of London and Plowonida see [1]. The story of the settlement being named after Lud is considered unlikely.

Archaeologists now believe that London was founded as a civilian settlement by 50 AD. A wooden drain by the side of the main roman road excavated at No 1 Poultry has been dated to 47 which is likely to be the foundation date.

Ten years later, Londinium was sacked by the Iceni lead by the British queen Boudica. Excavation has revealed extensive evidence of destruction by fire at this date, and recently a military compound has been discovered in the City of London which may have been the headquarters of the Roman fight back against the British uprising.

The city recovered after perhaps 10 years, and reached its population height by about 120 AD, with a population of around 60,000. London became the capital of Roman Britain (Britannia) (previously the capital was the older, nearby town of Colchester). Thereafter began a slow decline; however, habitation and associated building work did not cease. By 375 London was a small wealthy community protected by completed defences. By 410 Roman occupation officially came to an end, with the citizens being ordered to look after their own defenses. By the middle of the 5th century the Roman city was practically abandoned.

RIC VII London 271 R2

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501. Constantine I Lyons Sol14 viewsLyons

Originally, the important city in this area was that of Vienne, at a crossroads of Celtic trails, and port for the Greek trade. They had been largly Hellanised during the 2nd - 1st centuries BCE, then caught up in the conflicts involving Rome and Athens. Roman traders had settled there and competition started a revolt, driving the Romans to the north. At the present site of Lyons, they sought and received refuge from the Gallic tribe called Segusiavi. At that time, Lyons was just a tribe of Celts occupying the top of a hill, later to be called Fourviere. A Roman settlement was begun, and then later used by Julius Caesar to launch his campaigns against the Helvetii in 58 BCE.

The site of Lyons, being on a crossroads as well as a connection to the Mediterranean, was early recognised as being strategically important. In 43 BCE, the city of Lugdunum became an official Roman colony recognised by the Roman senate, founded by the governor of Gallia Comata (province of Comata), Lucius Munatius Plancus. Later, in 27 BCE, then Emperor Augustus divided Gallia Comata into three provinces, and Lugdunum became the capital of Gallia Lugdunensis. [The third province was Gallia Aquitania.]

Lyons became the financial center for taxation purposes of Aquitania and Lugdunum provinces, and an official mint was established there. Also, the state cult honoring Augustus [or the present Emperor] was established at Lyons, drawing many pilgrims and supplicants. Drusus, the father of Claudius, (born 10 BCE) was stationed at Lyons, being in charge of Gallia Comata. Also, a cohort of Roman policemen were stationed at lyons, to protect the mint. A bronze inscription found at Lyons records the speech given to the Roman Senate in 48 CE by Emperor Claudius, arguing for the acceptance of admission of senators from Gallia Comata.

Through Lyons [and Vienne] passed the great roads leading to the different regions of Gaul and towards Italy. Trade with Gaul, Britain and Germany passed through Lyons, mostly supplying Roman colonies on the the frontier. Later, these routes were paved by the Romans to facilitate trade and troop movement. Lyons became an important trade and military center. However, intercity rivalry with Vienne to the south never died, and indeed Vienne became jealous over time.

Lyons was burnt to the ground in 65 CE but quickly rebuilt. It prospered until 197 when it was sacked in a civil war. The city of Lyons had backed the unfortunate loser in a battle between two Roman generals. Cities to the south [Arles, Vienne, and to the north, Trier] took over the economic functions of Lyons; and the city of Lyons was again plundered 269. Lyons fought back, and the trade wars raged on, until early in the 4th century when the aqueducts of Lyons were destroyed. Without water, the hillsite of Lyons [the Fourviere Hill] became untenable. The merchants moved down to the city below, or out of the city entirely. The protection of Lyons was thus much more difficult. And the decline of the Roman Empire also spelled the decline of many of its cities.

RIC VII Lyons 34 C3

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501. Constantine I Ostia Sol16 viewsOstia
Although Ostia was probably founded for the sole purpose of military defence — since through the Tiber's mouths armies could eventually reach Rome by water — in time the port became a commercial harbour, and a very important one too. Many of the goods that Rome received from its colonies and provinces passed through Ostia. In this role, Ostia soon replaced Pozzuoli (Puteoli, near Naples).

In 87 BC, the town was razed by Marius, and again in 67 BC it was sacked by pirates. After this second attack, the town was re-built and provided with protective walls by Cicero. The town was then further developed during the 1st century AD, mainly under the influence of Tiberius, who ordered the building of the first Forum. The town was also soon enriched by the construction of a new harbour on the northern mouths of the Tiber (which reaches the sea with a larger mouth in Ostia, Fiumara Grande, and a narrower one near to the current Fiumicino international airport). The new harbour, not surprisingly called Portus, was excavated from the ground at the orders of the emperor Claudius; it has an hexagonal form, in order to reduce the waves strength. The town was provided with all the services a town of the time could require; in particular, a famous lighthouse. Archaeologists also discovered the public latrinas, organised for collective use as a series of seats that lets us imagine today that the function was also a social moment. In addition, Ostia had a large theatre, public baths and a fire fighting service. You can still see the mosaic floors of the baths near today's entrance to the town.

Trajan too, required a widening of the naval areas, and ordered the building of another harbour, again pointing towards the north. It must be remembered that at a relatively short distance, there was also the harbour of Civitavecchia (Centum Cellae), and Rome was starting to have a significant number of harbours, the most important remaining Portus.

Ostia grew to 50,000 inhabitants in the 2nd century AD and in time focused its naval activities on Portus. With the end of the Roman Empire, Ostia fell slowly into decay, and was finally abandoned in the 9th century due to the fall of the Roman empire in combination with repeated invasions and sackings by Arab pirates; the inhabitants moved to Gregoriopolis. In the Middle Ages, bricks from buildings in Ostia were used for several other occasions. The Leaning Tower of Pisa was entirely built of material originally belonging to Ostia. A "local sacking" was carried out by baroque architects, who used the remains as a sort of marble store for the palazzi they were building in Rome. Soon after, foreign explorers came in search of ancient statues and objects. The Papacy started organising its own investigations with Pope Pius VII and the research still continues today. It has been estimated that two thirds of the ancient town have currently been found.

001. Constantine I Ostia

RIC VI Ostia 85 S

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502. CONSTANTINE II156 viewsFlavius Claudius Constantinus, known in English as Constantine II, (316 - 340) was Roman Emperor (337 - 340). The eldest son of Constantine I and Fausta, he was born at Arles, and was raised as a Christian.

On March 1, 317, Constantine was made Caesar, and at the age of seven, in 323, took part in his father's campaign against the Sarmatians.

At the age of ten became commander of Gaul, after the death of his half-brother Crispus. An inscription dating to 330 records the title of Alamannicus, so it is probable that his generals won a victory over Alamanni. His military career continued when Constantine I elected his son field commander during the 332 campaign against the Goths.

Following the death of his father in 337, Constantine II became Emperor jointly with his brothers Constantius II and Constans. His section of the Empire was Gaul, Britannia and Hispania.

At first, he was the guardian of his younger brother Constans, whose portion was Italia, Africa and Illyricum. As Constans came of age, Constantine would not relinquish the guardianship and in 340 he marched against Constans in Italy, but was defeated at Aquileia and died in battle. Constans came to control his deceased brother's realm.

CONSTANTINE II, as Caesar. 317-337 AD. Æ Reduced Follis (18mm, 2.74 gm). Siscia mint. Struck 321-324 AD. Laureate head right / VOT / X in two lines across field; all within wreath; SIS sunburst. RIC VII 182. Ex-CNG
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505. Constantius Gallus51 viewsFlavius Claudius Constantius Gallus (c. 325/326 - 354), better known as Gallus Caesar, was a member of the Constantinian dynasty and Caesar of the Eastern Roman Empire (351-354). Gallus was consul three years, from 352 to 354.

Son of Julius Constantius by his first wife Galla, Gallus' paternal grandparents were Western Roman Emperor Constantius Chlorus and his second wife Flavia Maximiana Theodora. Julius Constantius was also a half-brother of Roman Emperor Constantine I, and thus Gallus was a first cousin of Roman Emperors Constantine II, Constantius II and Constans.

Born in Massa Veternensis, Italia, young Gallus saw his father killed by order of his cousin Constantius II.

Gallus became Caesar of the East on March 15 351, added the name of Constantius to his own, and set up residence in Antioch. In order to create a loyality bond with his Caesar, Constantius gave him his elder sister Constantina as wife. Gallus ruled the city in such a severe way that people complained to Constantius, who had him arrested. On the way to his summons he was executed.

His youger half-brother Julian became later Emperor.

Constantius Gallus. 351-354 AD. DN CONSTANTIVS IVN NOB C, bare head bust right, draped & cuirassed / FEL TEMP REPARATIO, soldier spearing fallen horseman, ASIS in ex. RIC 351
2 commentsecoli
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508. Julian II VOTA Sirmium9 viewsSirmium

Sirmium was one of the oldest cities in Europe. Archaeologists have found a trace of organized human life dating from the 5000 BC.

When the Romans conquered the city in the 1st century BC, Sirmium already was a settlement with a long tradition.

In the 1st century, Sirmium gained a status of a colony of the citizens of Rome, and became a very important military and strategic location in Pannonia province. The war expeditions of Roman emperors Traian, Marcus Aurelius, and Claudius II, were prepared in Sirmium.

In 103, Pannonia was split into two provinces: Upper Pannonia and Lower Pannonia, and Sirmius became the capital city of Lower Pannonia.

In 296, Diocletian operated a new territorial division of Pannonia. Instead of previous two provinces, there were four new provinces established in former territory of original province: Pannonia Prima, Pannonia Valeria, Pannonia Savia and Pannonia Secunda. Capital city of Pannonia Secunda was Sirmium.

In 293, with the establishment of tetrarchy, the Roman Empire was split into four parts; Sirmium become one of the four capital cities of Roman Empire, the other three being Trier, Mmediolanum, and Nicomedia. During the tetrarchy, Sirmium was the capital of emperor Galerius. With the establishment of praetorian prefectures in 318, the capital of the prefecture of Illyricum was Sirmium. Sirmium was capital of this prefecture until 379, when the prefecture was divided politically into Eastern and Western Illyricum. The western part (including Sirmium) was included into prefecture of Italia. The eastern part of Illyricum remained a separate prefecture with the capital in Thessalonica.

The city also was an important Christian centre. Several Christian councils were held in Sirmium.

008. Julian II Sirmium

RIC VIII Sirmium 108 ASIRM???

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515a. Aelia Flacilla33 viewsEmpress, wife of Theodosius the Great, died c. A. D. 385 or 386. Like Theodosius himself, his first wife, Ælia Flaccilla, was of Spanish descent. She may have been the daughter of Claudius Antonius, Prefect of Gaul, who was consul in 382. Her marriage with Theodosius probably took place in the year 376, when his father, the comes Theodosius, fell into disfavour and he himself withdrew to Cauca in Gallæcia, for her eldest son, afterwards Emperor Arcadius, was born towards the end of the following year. In the succeeding years she presented two more children to her husband Honorius (384), who later became emperor, and Pulcheria, who died in early childhood, shortly before her mother. Gregory of Nyssa states expressly that she had three children; consequently the Gratian mentioned by St. Ambrose, together with Pulcheria, was probably not her son. Flaccilla was, like her husband, a zealous supporter of the Nicene Creed and prevented the conference between the emperor and the Arian Eunomius (Sozomen, Hist. eccl., VII, vi). On the throne she was a shining example of Christian virtue and ardent charity. St. Ambrose describes her as "a soul true to God" (Fidelis anima Deo. — "De obitu Theodosii", n. 40, in P. L., XVI, 1462). In his panegyric St. Gregory of Nyssa bestowed the highest praise on her virtuous life and pictured her as the helpmate of the emperor in all good works, an ornament of the empire, a leader of justice, an image of beneficence. He praises her as filled with zeal for the Faith, as a pillar of the Church, as a mother of the indigent. Theodoret in particular exalts her charity and benevolence (Hist. eccles., V, xix, ed. Valesius, III, 192 sq.). He tells us how she personally tended cripples, and quotes a saying of hers: "To distribute money belongs to the imperial dignity, but I offer up for the imperial dignity itself personal service to the Giver." Her humility also attracts a special meed of praise from the church historian. Flaccilla was buried in Constantinople, St. Gregory of Nyssa delivering her funeral oration. She is venerated in the Greek Church as a saint, and her feast is kept on 14 September. The Bollandists (Acta SS., Sept., IV, 142) are of the opinion that she is not regarded as a saint but only as venerable, but her name stands in the Greek Menæa and Synaxaria followed by words of eulogy, as is the case with the other saints

Wife of Theodosius. The reverse of the coin is very interesting; a nice bit of Pagan-Christian syncretism with winged victory inscribing a chi-rho on a shield.
1 commentsecoli
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62 Julian II RIC 22523 viewsJulian II 360-363 AD. AE1 (Double Maiorina). Tessalonica Mint.362-363 AD. (29.30mm) Obv: D N FL CL IVLI-ANVS P F AVG, bearded, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right. Rev: SECVRITAS REIPVB, bull standing right, head facing, two stars above. palm branch TESB palm branch in ex.
RIC 225
Actual name: Flavius Claudius Iulianus Augustus
Wildwinds: Julian II, "The Apostate": Caesar 355-360 AD, Augustus 360-363 AD. The last true "pagan" emperor who revered the ancient gods until the day he died in 363 from a javelin wound fighting the Persians.
Paddy
TiberiusTributePennyRICI30RSCII16aSRCV1763.jpg
703a, Tiberius, 19 August 14 - 16 March 37 A.D., Tribute Penny of Matthew 22:20-2146 viewsSilver denarius, RIC I 30, RSC II 16a, SRCV 1763, gVF, Lugdunum mint, 3.837g, 18.7mm, 90o, 16 - 37 A.D.; obverse TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS, laureate head right; reverse PONTIF MAXIM, Pax/Livia seated right holding scepter and branch, legs on chair ornamented, feet on footstool; toned. Ex FORVM.


De Imperatoribus Romanis
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Tiberius (A.D. 14-37)

Garrett G. Fagan
Pennsylvania State University

Introduction
The reign of Tiberius (b. 42 B.C., d. A.D. 37, emperor A.D. 14-37) is a particularly important one for the Principate, since it was the first occasion when the powers designed for Augustus alone were exercised by somebody else. In contrast to the approachable and tactful Augustus, Tiberius emerges from the sources as an enigmatic and darkly complex figure, intelligent and cunning, but given to bouts of severe depression and dark moods that had a great impact on his political career as well as his personal relationships.

. . . .

Early life (42-12 B.C.)
Tiberius Claudius Nero was born on 16 November 42 B.C. to Ti. Claudius Nero and Livia Drusilla. Both parents were scions of the gens Claudia which had supplied leaders to the Roman Republic for many generations. . . [I]n 39 B.C., his mother Livia divorced Ti. Claudius Nero and married Octavian, thereby making the infant Tiberius the stepson of the future ruler of the Roman world. Forever afterward, Tiberius was to have his name coupled with this man, and always to his detriment.

. . . .

Accession and Early Reign (A.D. 14 - 23)
The accession of Tiberius proved intensely awkward. After Augustus had been buried and deified, and his will read and honored, the Senate convened on 18 September to inaugurate the new reign and officially "confirm" Tiberius as emperor. Such a transfer of power had never happened before, and nobody, including Tiberius, appears to have known what to do. Tacitus's account is the fullest. . . Rather than tactful, he came across to the senators as obdurate and obstructive. He declared that he was too old for the responsibilities of the Principate, said he did not want the job, and asked if he could just take one part of the government for himself. The Senate was confused, not knowing how to read his behavior. Finally, one senator asked pointedly, "Sire, for how long will you allow the State to be without a head?" Tiberius relented and accepted the powers voted to him, although he refused the title "Augustus."

. . . .

Tiberius allowed a trusted advisor to get too close and gain a tremendous influence over him. That advisor was the Praetorian Prefect, L. Aelius Sejanus, who would derail Tiberius's plans for the succession and drive the emperor farther into isolation, depression, and paranoia.

Sejanus (A.D. 23-31)
Sejanus hailed from Volsinii in Etruria. He and his father shared the Praetorian Prefecture until A.D. 15 when the father, L. Seius Strabo, was promoted to be Prefect of Egypt, the pinnacle of an equestrian career under the Principate. Sejanus, now sole Prefect of the Guard, enjoyed powerful connections to senatorial houses and had been a companion to Gaius Caesar on his mission to the East, 1 B.C. - A.D. 4. Through a combination of energetic efficiency, fawning sycophancy, and outward displays of loyalty, he gained the position of Tiberius's closest friend and advisor.

. . . .

[I]n a shocking and unexpected turn of events, [a] letter sent by Tiberius from Capri initially praised Sejanus extensively, and then suddenly denounced him as a traitor and demanded his arrest. Chaos ensued. Senators long allied with Sejanus headed for the exits, the others were confused -- was this a test of their loyalty? What did the emperor want them to do? -- but the Praetorian Guard, the very troops formerly under Sejanus's command but recently and secretly transferred to the command of Q. Sutorius Macro, arrested Sejanus, conveyed him to prison, and shortly afterwards executed him summarily. A witch-hunt followed. . . All around the city, grim scenes were played out, and as late as A.D. 33 a general massacre of all those still in custody took place.

Tiberius himself later claimed that he turned on Sejanus because he had been alerted to Sejanus's plot against Germanicus's family. This explanation has been rejected by most ancient and modern authorities, since Sejanus's demise did nothing to alleviate that family's troubles.

. . . .

The Last Years (A.D. 31-37)
The Sejanus affair appears to have greatly depressed Tiberius. A close friend and confidant had betrayed him; whom could he trust anymore? His withdrawal from public life seemed more complete in the last years. Letters kept him in touch with Rome, but it was the machinery of the Augustan administration that kept the empire running smoothly. Tiberius, if we believe our sources, spent much of his time indulging his perversities on Capri.

. . . .

Tiberius died quietly in a villa at Misenum on 16 March A.D. 37. He was 78 years old. There are some hints in the sources of the hand of Caligula in the deed, but such innuendo can be expected at the death of an emperor, especially when his successor proved so depraved. The level of unpopularity Tiberius had achieved by the time of his death with both the upper and lower classes is revealed by these facts: the Senate refused to vote him divine honors, and mobs filled the streets yelling "To the Tiber with Tiberius!" (in reference to a method of disposal reserved for the corpses of criminals).

Tiberius and the Empire
Three main aspects of Tiberius's impact on the empire deserve special attention: his relative military inertia; his modesty in dealing with offers of divine honors and his fair treatment of provincials; and his use of the Law of Treason (maiestas).

. . . .

Conclusion
. . . Tiberius's reign sporadically descended into tyranny of the worst sort. In the right climate of paranoia and suspicion, widespread denunciation led to the deaths of dozens of Senators and equestrians, as well as numerous members of the imperial house. In this sense, the reign of Tiberius decisively ended the Augustan illusion of "the Republic Restored" and shone some light into the future of the Principate, revealing that which was both promising and terrifying.

[For the entire article please refer to http://www.roman-emperors.org/tiberius.htm]

Copyright © 1997, Garrett G. Fagan. Used by permission.

"Some of the things he did are hard to believe. He had little boys trained as minnows to chase him when he went swimming and to get between his legs and nibble him. He also had babies not weaned from their mother breast suck at his chest and groin . . . "
(Suetonius. The Twelve Caesars. Trans. Robert Graves. London: Penguin Books, 1979. XLIV).

Jesus, referring to a "penny" asked, "Whose is this image and superscription?" When told it was Caesar, He said, ''Render therefore unto Caesar the things which are Caesar's and unto God the things that are God's" (Matthew 22:20-21). Since Tiberius was Caesar at the time, this denarius type is attributed by scholars as the "penny" referred to in the Bible(Joseph Sermarini).


Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
TiberiusHierapolis.jpg
703b, Tiberius, 19 August 14 - 16 March 37 A.D., Hierapolis, Phrygia104 viewsBronze AE 16, RPC I 2966 (1 specimen), F, Phrygia, Hierapolis, 3.300g, 15.6mm, 0o; Obverse: TIBEPIOC KAISAR, laureate head right; Reverse: IERAPOLEITWN ZOSIMOS [...], Apollo Archegetes (Lairbenos) standing left, playing lyre; reverse countermarked with star of six rays, in oval punch, 2.5 x 3.5 mm, Howgego 445 (3 pcs, 1 of which from this magistrate); dark patina; very rare. Ex FORVM.

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

TIBERIUS (A.D. 14-37)

Garrett G. Fagan
Pennsylvania State University

The reign of Tiberius Claudius Nero (b. 42 B.C., d. A.D. 37, emperor A.D. 14-37) is a particularly important one for the Principate, since it was the first occasion when the powers designed for Augustus alone were exercised by somebody else. In contrast to the approachable and tactful Augustus, Tiberius emerges from the sources as an enigmatic and darkly complex figure, intelligent and cunning, but given to bouts of severe depression and dark moods that had a great impact on his political career as well as his personal relationships. His reign abounds in contradictions. Despite his keen intelligence, he allowed himself to come under the influence of unscrupulous men who, as much as any actions of his own, ensured that Tiberius's posthumous reputation would be unfavorable; despite his vast military experience, he oversaw the conquest of no new region for the empire; and despite his administrative abilities he showed such reluctance in running the state as to retire entirely from Rome and live out his last years in isolation on the island of Capri. His reign represents, as it were, the adolescence of the Principate as an institution. Like any adolescence, it proved a difficult time.

. . . .

It is all but inevitable that any historical assessment of Tiberius will quickly devolve into a historiographical assessment of Tacitus. So masterful is Tacitus's portrayal of his subject, and so influential has it been ever since, that in all modern treatments of Tiberius, in attempting to get at the man, must address the issue of Tacitus's historiographical methods, his sources, and his rhetoric. The subject is too vast to address here, but some points are salient. Tacitus's methods, especially his use of innuendo and inference to convey notions that are essentially editorial glosses, makes taking his portrayal of Tiberius at face value inadvisable. Further, his belief in the immutable character of people -- that one's character is innate at birth and cannot be changed, although it can be disguised -- prevents him from investigating the possibility that Tiberius evolved and developed over his lifetime and during his reign. Instead, Tacitus's portrayal is one of peeling back layers of dissimulation to reach the "real" Tiberius lurking underneath.

Overall, Tiberius's reign can be said to show the boons and banes of rule by one man, especially a man as dark, awkward, and isolated as Tiberius. For the people of the provinces, it was a peaceful and well-ordered time. Governors behaved themselves, and there were no destructive or expensive wars. In the domestic sphere, however, the concentration of power in one person made all the greater the threat of misbehavior by ambitious satellites like Sejanus or foolish friends like Piso. Furthermore, if the emperor wished to remain aloof from the mechanics of power, he could do so. Administrators, who depended on him for their directions, could operate without his immediate supervision, but their dealings with a man like Sejanus could lead to disaster if that man fell from grace. As a result, although he was not a tyrant himself, Tiberius's reign sporadically descended into tyranny of the worst sort. In the right climate of paranoia and suspicion, widespread denunciation led to the deaths of dozens of Senators and equestrians, as well as numerous members of the imperial house. In this sense, the reign of Tiberius decisively ended the Augustan illusion of "the Republic Restored" and shone some light into the future of the Principate, revealing that which was both promising and terrifying.

[For the complete article please refer to http://www.roman-emperors.org/tiberius.htm]

By Garrett G. Fagan, Pennsylvania State University.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.


Hierapolis in History

Usually said to be founded by Eumenes II, king of Pergamum (197-159 BC), Hierapolis may actually have been established closer to the 4th century BC by the Seleucid kings.

The name of the city may derive from Hiera, the wife of Telephus (son of Hercules and grandson of Zeus), the mythical founder of Pergamum. Or it may have been called the "sacred city" because of the temples located at the site. (The name Pamukkale is sometimes used just to refer to the white terraces, but the modern name of the whole area is also Pamukkale.)

With Colossae and Laodicea, Hierapolis became part of the tri-city area of the Lycus River valley. Hierapolis was located across the river from the other two cities and was noted for its textiles, especially wool. The city was also famous for its purple dye, made from the juice of the madder root.

The hot springs at Hierapolis (which still attract visitors today) were believed to have healing properties, and people came to the city to bathe in the rich mineral waters in order to cure various ailments.

Hierapolis was dedicated to Apollo Lairbenos, who was said to have founded the city. The Temple of Apollo that survives in ruins today dates from the 3rd century AD, but its foundations date from the Hellenistic period.

Also worshipped at Hierapolis was Pluto, god of the underworld, probably in relation to the hot gases released by the earth (see the Plutonium, below). The chief religious festival of ancient Hierapolis was the Letoia, in honor of the the goddess Leto, a Greek form of the Mother Goddess. The goddess was honoured with orgiastic rites.

Hierapolis was ceded to Rome in 133 BC along with the rest of the Pergamene kingdom, and became part of the Roman province of Asia. The city was destroyed by an earthquake in 60 AD but rebuilt, and it reached its peak in the 2nd and 3rd centuries AD.

Famous natives of Hierapolis include the Stoic philosopher Epictetus (c.55-c.135 AD) and the philosopher and rhetorician Antipater. Emperor Septimus hired Antipater to tutor his sons Caracalla and Geta, who became emperors themselves.

Hierapolis had a significant Jewish population in ancient times, as evidence by numerous inscriptions on tombs and elsewhere in the city. Some of the Jews are named as members of the various craft guilds of the city. This was probably the basis for the Christian conversion of some residents of Hierapolis, recorded in Colossians 4:13.

In the 5th century, several churches as well as a large martyrium dedicated to St. Philip (see "In the Bible," below) were built in Hierapolis. The city fell into decline in the 6th century, and the site became partially submerged under water and deposits of travertine. It was finally abandoned in 1334 after an earthquake. Excavations began to uncover Hierapolis in the 19th century.

Hierapolis in the Bible

Hierapolis is mentioned only once in the Bible, when St. Paul praises Epaphras, a Christian from Colossae, in his letter to the Colossians. Paul writes that Epaphras "has worked hard for you and for those in Laodicea and in Hierapolis" (Colossians 4:12-13). Epaphras was probably the founder of the Christian community at Hierapolis.

Ancient tradition also associates Hierapolis with a biblical figure, reporting that Philip died in Hierapolis around 80 AD. However, it is not clear which Philip is menat. It could be Philip the Apostle, one of the original 12 disciples, who is said to have been martyred by upside-down crucifixion (Acts of Philip) or by being hung upside down by his ankles from a tree.

Or Philip could be Philip the Evangelist, a later disciple who helped with administrative matters and had four virgin-prophetess daughters (Acts 6:1-7; 21:8-9). Early traditions say this Philip was buried in Hierapolis along with his virgin daughters, but confusingly call him "Philip the Apostle"! In any case, it seems a prominent person mentioned in Acts did die in Hierapolis.
http://www.sacred-destinations.com/turkey/hierapolis-pamukkale.htm

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
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704a, Caligula, 16 March 37 - 24 January 41 A.D.100 viewsCaligula, 37 - 41 AD, Ionia, Smyrna. AE 17mm. Klose, Smyrna 27a. RPC 2473. 2.89 gm. Fine. Menophanes, Aviola, Procos, 37-38 AD. Obverse: AION, laureate head right; Reverse: Nike holding wreath right. Ex Tom Vossen.


De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

GAIUS (CALIGULA) (A.D. 37-41)

Garrett G. Fagan
Pennsylvania State University

Gaius Caesar Augustus Germanicus (Caligula) was born on 31 August, A.D. 12, probably at the Julio-Claudian resort of Antium (modern Anzio), the third of six children born to Augustus's adopted grandson, Germanicus, and Augustus's granddaughter, Agrippina. Caligula was the Roman Emperor between A.D. 37-41). Unfortunately, his is the most poorly documented reign of the Julio-Claudian dynasty. The literary sources for these four years are meager, frequently anecdotal, and universally hostile.[[1]] As a result, not only are many of the events of the reign unclear, but Gaius himself appears more as a caricature than a real person, a crazed megalomaniac given to capricious cruelty. Although some headway can be made in disentangling truth from embellishment, the true character of the youthful emperor will forever elude us.

As a baby he accompanied his parents on military campaigns in the north and was shown to the troops wearing a miniature soldier's outfit, including the hob-nailed sandal called caliga, whence the nickname by which posterity remembers him. His childhood was not a happy one, spent amid an atmosphere of paranoia, suspicion, and murder. Instability within the Julio-Claudian house, generated by uncertainty over the succession, led to a series of personal tragedies.

When Tiberius died on 16 March A.D. 37, Gaius was in a perfect position to assume power, despite the obstacle of Tiberius's will, which named him and his cousin Tiberius Gemellus joint heirs. (Gemellus's life was shortened considerably by this bequest, since Gaius ordered him killed within a matter of months.) Backed by the Praetorian Prefect Q. Sutorius Macro, Gaius asserted his dominance. He had Tiberius's will declared null and void on grounds of insanity, accepted the powers of the Principate as conferred by the Senate, and entered Rome on 28 March amid scenes of wild rejoicing. His first acts were generous in spirit: he paid Tiberius's bequests and gave a cash bonus to the Praetorian Guard, the first recorded donativum to troops in imperial history.

The ancient sources are practically unanimous as to the cause of Gaius's downfall: he was insane. The writers differ as to how this condition came about, but all agree that after his good start Gaius began to behave in an openly autocratic manner, even a crazed one. The sources describe his incestuous relations with his sisters, laughable military campaigns in the north, the building of a pontoon bridge across the Bay at Baiae, and the plan to make his horse a consul. Their unanimous hostility renders their testimony suspect, especially since Gaius's reported behavior fits remarkably well with that of the ancient tyrant, a literary type enshrined in Greco-Roman tradition centuries before his reign. Further, the only eye-witness account of Gaius's behavior, Philo's Embassy to Gaius, offers little evidence of outright insanity, despite the antagonism of the author, whom Gaius treated with the utmost disrespect.

The conspiracy that ended Gaius's life was hatched among the officers of the Praetorian Guard, apparently for purely personal reasons. It appears also to have had the support of some senators and an imperial freedman. As with conspiracies in general, there are suspicions that the plot was more broad-based than the sources intimate, and it may even have enjoyed the support of the next emperor Claudius, but these propositions are not provable on available evidence. On 24 January A.D. 41 the praetorian tribune Cassius Chaerea and other guardsmen caught Gaius alone in a secluded palace corridor and cut him down. He was 28 years old and had ruled three years and ten months.

Whatever damage Tiberius's later years had done to the carefully crafted political edifice created by Augustus, Gaius multiplied it a hundredfold. When he came to power in A.D. 37 Gaius had no administrative experience beyond his honorary quaestorship, and had spent an unhappy early life far from the public eye. He appears, once in power, to have realized the boundless scope of his authority and acted accordingly. For the elite, this situation proved intolerable and ensured the blackening of Caligula's name in the historical record they would dictate. The sensational and hostile nature of that record, however, should in no way trivialize Gaius's importance. His reign highlighted an inherent weakness in the Augustan Principate, now openly revealed for what it was -- a raw monarchy in which only the self-discipline of the incumbent acted as a restraint on his behavior. That the only means of retiring the wayward princes was murder marked another important revelation: Roman emperors could not relinquish their powers without simultaneously relinquishing their lives.

Copyright © 1997, Garrett G. Fagan.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Ancient Smyrna

The 5,000 year-old city of Izmir is one of the oldest cities of the Mediterranean basin. The original city was established in the third millennium BC (at present day Bayraklı), at which time it shared with Troy the most advanced culture in Anatolia.


Greek settlement is attested by the presence of pottery dating from about 1000 BC. In the first millennium BC Izmir, then known as Smyrna, ranked as one of the most important cities of the Ionian Federation. During this period, it is believed that the epic poet Homer resided here.

Lydian conquest of the city around 600 BC brought this golden age to an end. Smyrna was little more than a village throughout the Lydian and subsequent sixth century BC Persian rule. In the fourth century BC a new city was built on the slopes of Mt. Pagos (Kadifekale) during the reign of Alexander the Great. Smyrna's Roman period, beginning in the first century BC, was its second great era.

In the first century AD, Smyrna became one of the earliest centers of Christianity and it was one of the Seven Churches of Revelation. Both Revelation and the Martyrdom of Polycarp indicate the existence of a Jewish community in Smyrna as early as the 1st and 2nd centuries AD. The letter to the church at Smyrna in Revelation indicates that the Christians were spiritually "rich" and apparently in conflict with the Jews (2:9).

The origins of the Christian community there, which was established in the 1st century, are unknown. Ignatius of Antioch stopped at Smyrna on his way to martyrdom in Rome in 107 AD, and he sent a letter back to the Christians there from later in his journey. Smyrna's bishop, Polycarp, was burned at the stake in Smyrna's stadium around 156 AD.

Byzantine rule came in the fourth century and lasted until the Seljuk conquest in 11th century. In 1415, under Sultan Mehmed Çelebi, Smyrna became part of the Ottoman Empire.

The city earned its fame as one of the most important port cities of the world during the 17th to 19th centuries. The majority of its population were Greek but merchants of various origins (especially Greek, French, Italian, Dutch, Armenian, Sephardi and Jewish) transformed the city into a cosmopolitan portal of trade. During this period, the city was famous for its own brand of music (Smyrneika) as well as its wide range of products it exported to Europe (Smyrna/Sultana raisins, dried figs, carpets, etc.).

Today, Izmir is Turkey's third largest city and is nicknamed "the pearl of Aegean." It is widely regarded as the most Westernized city of Turkey in terms of values, ideology, gender roles, and lifestyle.
© 2005-08 Sacred Destinations. All rights reserved.
http://www.sacred-destinations.com/turkey/izmir-history.htm

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
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705a, Claudius, 25 January 41 - 13 October 54 A.D.62 viewsClaudius. 42-43 AD. AE As.
Claudius. 42-43 AD. AE As (29 mm, 10.87 g). Obverse: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP P P, bare head right; Reverse: CONSTANTIAE AVGVSTI / S - C, Constantiae in military dress standing left, holding spear; RIC I, 111; aVF. Ex Imperial Coins.



De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

CLAUDIUS (41-54 A.D.)

Garrett G. Fagan
Pennsylvania State University

Ti. Claudius Nero Germanicus (b. 10 BC, d. 54 A.D.; emperor, 41-54 A.D.) was the third emperor of the Julio-Claudian dynasty. His reign represents a turning point in the history of the Principate for a number of reasons, not the least for the manner of his accession and the implications it carried for the nature of the office. During his reign he promoted administrators who did not belong to the senatorial or equestrian classes, and was later vilified by authors who did. He followed Caesar in carrying Roman arms across the English Channel into Britain but, unlike his predecessor, he initiated the full-scale annexation of Britain as a province, which remains today the most closely studied corner of the Roman Empire. His relationships with his wives and children provide detailed insights into the perennial difficulties of the succession problem faced by all Roman Emperors. His final settlement in this regard was not lucky: he adopted his fourth wife's son, L. Domitius Ahenobarbus, who was to reign catastrophically as Nero and bring the dynasty to an end. Claudius's reign, therefore, was a mixture of successes and failures that leads into the last phase of the Julio-Claudian line.

Robert Graves' fictional characterization of Claudius as an essentially benign man with a keen intelligence has tended to dominate the wider public's view of this emperor. Close study of the sources, however, reveals a somewhat different kind of man. In addition to his scholarly and cautious nature, he had a cruel streak, as suggested by his addiction to gladiatorial games and his fondness for watching his defeated opponents executed. He conducted closed-door (in camera ) trials of leading citizens that frequently resulted in their ruin or deaths -- an unprecedented and tyrannical pattern of behavior. He had his wife Messalina executed, and he personally presided over a kangaroo court in the Praetorian Camp in which many of her hangers-on lost their lives. He abandoned his own son Britannicus to his fate and favored the advancement of Nero as his successor. While he cannot be blamed for the disastrous way Nero's rule turned out, he must take some responsibility for putting that most unsuitable youth on the throne. At the same time, his reign was marked by some notable successes: the invasion of Britain, stability and good government in the provinces, and successful management of client kingdoms. Claudius, then, is a more enigmatic figure than the other Julio-Claudian emperors: at once careful, intelligent, aware and respectful of tradition, but given to bouts of rage and cruelty, willing to sacrifice precedent to expediency, and utterly ruthless in his treatment of those who crossed him. Augustus's suspicion that there was more to the timid Claudius than met the eye was more than fully borne out by the events of his unexpected reign.

The possibility has to be entertained that Claudius was a far more active participant in his own elevation than traditional accounts let on. There is just reason to suspect that he may even have been involved in planning the murder of Gaius (Caligula). Merely minutes before the assassination of Gaius, Claudius had departed for lunch; this appears altogether too fortuitous. This possibility, however, must remain pure speculation, since the ancient evidence offers nothing explicit in the way of support. On the other hand, we can hardly expect them to, given the later pattern of events. The whole issue of Claudius's possible involvement in the death of Gaius and his own subsequent acclamation by the Praetorian Guard must, therefore, remain moot . . . yet intriguing

Copyright 1998, Garrett G. Fagan.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
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706a, Nero, 13 October 54 - 9 June 68 A.D.73 views6, Nero, 13 October 54 - 9 June 68 A.D. AE setertius, Date: 66 AD; RIC I 516, 36.71 mm; 25.5 grams; aVF. Obverse: IMP NERO CAESAR AVG PONT MAX TR POT PP, Laureate bust right; Reverse: S C, ROMA, Roma seated left, exceptional portrait and full obverse legends. Ex Ancient Imports.

NERO (54-68 A.D.)

It is difficult for the modern student of history to realize just how popular Nero actually was, at least at the beginning of his reign. Rome looked upon her new Emperor with hope. He was the student of Seneca, and he had a sensitive nature. He loved art, music, literature, and theatre. He was also devoted to horses and horse racing—a devotion shared by many of his subjects. The plebs loved their new Emperor. As Professor of Classics Judith P. Hallett (University of Maryland, College Park) says, “It is not clear to me that Nero ever changed or that Nero ever grew-up, and that was both his strength and his weakness. Nero was an extraordinarily popular Emperor: he was like Elvis” (The Roman Empire in the First Century, III. Dir. Margaret Koval and Lyn Goldfarb. 2001. DVD. PBS/Warner Bros. 2003).

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Herbert W. Benario
Emory University

Introduction and Sources
The five Julio-Claudian emperors are very different one from the other. Augustus dominates in prestige and achievement from the enormous impact he had upon the Roman state and his long service to Rome, during which he attained unrivaled auctoritas. Tiberius was clearly the only possible successor when Augustus died in AD 14, but, upon his death twenty-three years later, the next three were a peculiar mix of viciousness, arrogance, and inexperience. Gaius, better known as Caligula, is generally styled a monster, whose brief tenure did Rome no service. His successor Claudius, his uncle, was a capable man who served Rome well, but was condemned for being subject to his wives and freedmen. The last of the dynasty, Nero, reigned more than three times as long as Gaius, and the damage for which he was responsible to the state was correspondingly greater. An emperor who is well described by statements such as these, "But above all he was carried away by a craze for popularity and he was jealous of all who in any way stirred the feeling of the mob." and "What an artist the world is losing!" and who is above all remembered for crimes against his mother and the Christians was indeed a sad falling-off from the levels of Augustus and Tiberius. Few will argue that Nero does not rank as one of the worst emperors of all.

The prime sources for Nero's life and reign are Tacitus' Annales 12-16, Suetonius' Life of Nero, and Dio Cassius' Roman History 61-63, written in the early third century. Additional valuable material comes from inscriptions, coinage, papyri, and archaeology.


Early Life
He was born on December 15, 37, at Antium, the son of Cnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbusand Agrippina. Domitius was a member of an ancient noble family, consul in 32; Agrippina was the daughter of the popular Germanicus, who had died in 19, and Agrippina, daughter of Agrippa, Augustus' closest associate, and Julia, the emperor's daughter, and thus in direct descent from the first princeps. When the child was born, his uncle Gaius had only recently become emperor. The relationship between mother and uncle was difficult, and Agrippina suffered occasional humiliation. But the family survived the short reign of the "crazy" emperor, and when he was assassinated, it chanced that Agrippina's uncle, Claudius, was the chosen of the praetorian guard, although there may have been a conspiracy to accomplish this.

Ahenobarbus had died in 40, so the son was now the responsibility of Agrippina alone. She lived as a private citizen for much of the decade, until the death of Messalina, the emperor's wife, in 48 made competition among several likely candidates to become the new empress inevitable. Although Roman law forbade marriage between uncle and niece, an eloquent speech in the senate by Lucius Vitellius, Claudius' closest advisor in the senatorial order, persuaded his audience that the public good required their union. The marriage took place in 49, and soon thereafter the philosopher Seneca [[PIR2 A617]] was recalled from exile to become the young Domitius' tutor, a relationship which endured for some dozen years.

His advance was thereafter rapid. He was adopted by Claudius the following year and took the name Tiberius Claudius Nero Caesar or Nero Claudius Caesar Drusus Germanicus, was preferred to Claudius' natural son, Britannicus, who was about three years younger, was betrothed to the emperor's daughter Octavia, and was, in the eyes of the people, the clear successor to the emperor. In 54, Claudius died, having eaten some poisoned mushrooms, responsibility for which was believed to be Agrippina's, and the young Nero, not yet seventeen years old, was hailed on October 13 as emperor by the praetorian guard.


The First Years of Rule
The first five years of Nero's rule are customarily called the quinquennium, a period of good government under the influence, not always coinciding, of three people, his mother, Seneca, and Sextus Afranius Burrus, the praetorian prefect. The latter two were allies in their "education" of the emperor. Seneca continued his philosophical and rhetorical training, Burrus was more involved in advising on the actualities of government. They often combined their influence against Agrippina, who, having made her son emperor, never let him forget the debt he owed his mother, until finally, and fatally, he moved against her.

Nero's betrothal to Octavia was a significant step in his ultimate accession to the throne, as it were, but she was too quiet, too shy, too modest for his taste. He was early attracted to Poppaea Sabina, the wife of Otho, and she continually goaded him to break from Octavia and to show himself an adult by opposing his mother. In his private life, Nero honed the musical and artistic tastes which were his chief interest, but, at this stage, they were kept private, at the instigation of Seneca and Burrus.

As the year 59 began, Nero had just celebrated his twenty-first birthday and now felt the need to employ the powers which he possessed as emperor as he wished, without the limits imposed by others. Poppaea's urgings had their effect, first of all, at the very onset of the year, with Nero's murder of his mother in the Bay of Naples.

Agrippina had tried desperately to retain her influence with her son, going so far as to have intercourse with him. But the break between them proved irrevocable, and Nero undertook various devices to eliminate his mother without the appearance of guilt on his part. The choice was a splendid vessel which would collapse while she was on board. As this happened, she swam ashore and, when her attendant, having cried out that she was Agrippina, was clubbed to death, Agrippina knew what was going on. She sent Nero a message that she was well; his response was to send a detachment of sailors to finish the job. When she was struck across the head, she bared her womb and said, "Strike here, Anicetus, strike here, for this bore Nero," and she was brutally murdered.

Nero was petrified with fear when he learned that the deed had been done, yet his popularity with the plebs of Rome was not impaired. This matricide, however, proved a turning point in his life and principate. It appeared that all shackles were now removed. The influence of Seneca and Burrus began to wane, and when Burrus died in 62, Seneca realized that his powers of persuasion were at an end and soon went into retirement. Britannicus had died as early as 55; now Octavia was to follow, and Nero became free to marry Poppaea. It may be that it had been Burrus rather than Agrippina who had continually urged that Nero's position depended in large part upon his marriage to Octavia. Burrus' successor as commander of the praetorian guard, although now with a colleague, was Ofonius Tigellinus, quite the opposite of Burrus in character and outlook. Tigellinus became Nero's "evil twin," urging and assisting in the performance of crimes and the satisfaction of lusts.


Administrative and Foreign Policy
With Seneca and Burrus in charge of administration at home, the first half-dozen years of Nero's principate ran smoothly. He himself devoted his attention to his artistic, literary, and physical bents, with music, poetry, and chariot racing to the fore. But his advisors were able to keep these performances and displays private, with small, select audiences on hand. Yet there was a gradual trend toward public performance, with the establishment of games. Further, he spent many nights roaming the city in disguise, with numerous companions, who terrorized the streets and attacked individuals. Those who dared to defend themselves often faced death afterward, because they had shown disrespect for the emperor. The die was being cast for the last phases of Nero's reign.


The Great Fire at Rome and The Punishment
of the Christians
The year 64 was the most significant of Nero's principate up to this point. His mother and wife were dead, as was Burrus, and Seneca, unable to maintain his influence over Nero without his colleague's support, had withdrawn into private life. The abysmal Tigellinus was now the foremost advisor of the still young emperor, a man whose origin was from the lowest levels of society and who can accurately be described as criminal in outlook and action. Yet Nero must have considered that he was happier than he had ever been in his life. Those who had constrained his enjoyment of his (seemingly) limitless power were gone, he was married to Poppaea, a woman with all advantages save for a bad character the empire was essentially at peace, and the people of Rome enjoyed a full measure of panem et circenses. But then occurred one of the greatest disasters that the city of Rome, in its long history, had ever endured.

The fire began in the southeastern angle of the Circus Maximus, spreading through the shops which clustered there, and raged for the better part of a week. There was brief success in controlling the blaze, but then it burst forth once more, so that many people claimed that the fires were deliberately set. After about a fortnight, the fire burned itself out, having consumed ten of the fourteen Augustan regions into which the city had been divided.

Nero was in Antium through much of the disaster, but his efforts at relief were substantial. Yet many believed that he had been responsible, so that he could perform his own work comparing the current fate of Rome to the downfall of Troy. All his efforts to assist the stricken city could not remove the suspicion that "the emperor had fiddled while Rome burned." He lost favor even among the plebs who had been enthusiastic supporters, particularly when his plans for the rebuilding of the city revealed that a very large part of the center was to become his new home.

As his popularity waned, Nero and Tigellinus realized that individuals were needed who could be charged with the disaster. It so happened that there was such a group ready at hand, Christians, who had made themselves unpopular because of their refusal to worship the emperor, their way of life, and their secret meetings. Further, at this time two of their most significant "teachers" were in Rome, Peter and Paul. They were ideal scapegoats, individuals whom most Romans loathed, and who had continually sung of the forthcoming end of the world.

Their destruction was planned with the utmost precision and cruelty, for the entertainment of the populace. The venue was Nero's circus near the Mons Vaticanus. Christians were exposed to wild animals and were set ablaze, smeared with pitch, to illuminate the night. The executions were so grisly that even the populace displayed sympathy for the victims. Separately, Peter was crucified upside down on the Vatican hill and Paul was beheaded along the Via Ostiensis. But Nero's attempt, and hope, to shift all suspicion of arson to others failed. His popularity even among the lower classes was irrevocably impaired.

[For a detailed and interesting discussion of Nero’s reign please see http://www.roman-emperors.org/nero.htm]

The End - Nero's Death and its Aftermath
Nero's and Tigellinus' response to the conspiracy was immediate and long-lasting. The senatorial order was decimated, as one leading member after another was put to death or compelled to commit suicide. The year 66 saw the suicides of perhaps the most distinguished victims of the "reign of terror," Caius Petronius and Thrasea Paetus. Petronius, long a favorite of Nero because of his aesthetic taste, had been an able public servant before he turned to a life of ease and indolence. He was recognized as the arbiter elegantiae of Nero's circle, and may be the author of the Satyricon. At his death, he left for Nero a document which itemized many of the latter's crimes. Thrasea, a staunch Stoic who had been for some years an outspoken opponent of Nero's policies, committed suicide in the Socratic manner. This scene is the last episode in the surviving books of Tacitus' Annals.

In the year 68, revolt began in the provinces. . . the end of Nero's reign became inevitable. Galba claimed the throne and began his march from Spain. Nero panicked and was rapidly abandoned by his supporters. He finally committed suicide with assistance, on June 9, 68, and his body was tended and buried by three women who had been close to him in his younger days, chief of whom was Acte. His death scene is marked above all by the statement, "Qualis artifex pereo," (What an artist dies in me.) Even at the end he was more concerned with his private life than with the affairs of state.

The aftermath of Nero's death was cataclysmic. Galba was the first of four emperors who revealed the new secret of empire, that an emperor could be made elsewhere than in Rome. Civil war ensued, which was only ended by the victory of the fourth claimant, Vespasian, who established the brief dynasty of the Flavians. The dynasty of the Julio-Claudians was at an end.

Nero's popularity among the lower classes remained even after his death.

. . . .

It is not excessive to say that he was one of the worst of Rome's emperors in the first two centuries and more of the empire. Whatever talents he had, whatever good he may have done, all is overwhelmed by three events, the murder of his mother, the fire at Rome, and his savage treatment of the Christians.

Precisely these qualities are the reasons that he has remained so well known and has been the subject of many writers and opera composers in modern times. These works of fiction particularly merit mention: Henryk Sienkiewicz's Quo Vadis, one of the finest works of the 1907 Nobel Laureate in Literature, and John Hersey's The Conspiracy. Nero unquestionably will always be with us.

Copyright (C) 2006, Herbert W. Benario.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

1 commentsCleisthenes
GalbaAEAs.jpg
707a, Galba, 3 April 68 - 15 January 69 A.D.66 viewsGalba AE As, 68-69 AD; cf. SRC 727, 729ff; 27.85mm, 12g; Rome: Obverse: GALBA IMP CAESAR…, Laureate head right; Reverse: S P Q R OB CIV SER in oak wreath; gF+/F Ex. Ancient Imports.

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Galba (68-69 A.D.)

John Donahue
College of William and Mary


Introduction
The evidence for the principate of Galba is unsatisfactory. The sources either concentrate on the personality of the man, thereby failing to offer a balanced account of his policies and a firm chronological base for his actions; or, they focus on the final two weeks of his life at the expense of the earlier part of his reign. As a result, a detailed account of his principate is difficult to write. Even so, Galba is noteworthy because he was neither related to nor adopted by his predecessor Nero. Thus, his accession marked the end of the nearly century-long control of the Principate by the Julio-Claudians. Additionally, Galba's declaration as emperor by his troops abroad set a precedent for the further political upheavals of 68-69. Although these events worked to Galba's favor initially, they soon came back to haunt him, ending his tumultuous rule after only seven months.

Early Life and Rise to Power
Born 24 December 3 BC in Tarracina, a town on the Appian Way, 65 miles south of Rome, Servius Galba was the son of C. Sulpicius Galba and Mummia Achaica. Galba's connection with the noble house of the Servii gave him great prestige and assured his acceptance among the highest levels of Julio-Claudian society. Adopted in his youth by Livia, the mother of the emperor Tiberius, he is said to have owed much of his early advancement to her. Upon her death, Livia made Galba her chief legatee, bequeathing him some 50 million sesterces. Tiberius, Livia's heir, reduced the amount, however, and then never paid it. Galba's marriage proved to be a further source of disappointment, as he outlived both his wife Lepida and their two sons. Nothing else is known of Galba's immediate family, other than that he remained a widower for the rest of his life.

Although the details of Galba's early political career are incomplete, the surviving record is one of an ambitious Roman making his way in the Emperor's service. Suetonius records that as praetor Galba put on a new kind of exhibition for the people - elephants walking on a rope. Later, he served as governor of the province of Aquitania, followed by a six-month term as consul at the beginning of 33. Ironically, as consul he was succeeded by Salvius Otho, whose own son would succeed Galba as emperor. Over the years three more governorships followed - Upper Germany (date unknown), North Africa (45) and Hispania Tarraconensis, the largest of Spain's three provinces (61). He was selected as a proconsul of Africa by the emperor Claudius himself instead of by the usual method of drawing lots. During his two-year tenure in the province he successfully restored internal order and quelled a revolt by the barbarians. As an imperial legate he was a governor in Spain for eight years under Nero, even though he was already in his early sixties when he assumed his duties. The appointment showed that Galba was still considered efficient and loyal. In all of these posts Galba generally displayed an enthusiasm for old-fashioned disciplina, a trait consistent with the traditional characterization of the man as a hard-bitten aristocrat of the old Republican type. Such service did not go unnoticed, as he was honored with triumphal insignia and three priesthoods during his career.

On the basis of his ancestry, family tradition and service to the state Galba was the most distinguished Roman alive (with the exception of the houses of the Julii and Claudii) at the time of Nero's demise in 68. The complex chain of events that would lead him to the Principate later that year began in March with the rebellion of Gaius Iulius Vindex, the governor of Gallia Lugdunensis. Vindex had begun to sound out provincial governors about support for a rebellion perhaps in late 67 or early 68. Galba did not respond but, because of his displeasure with Neronian misgovernment, neither did he inform the emperor of these treasonous solicitations. This, of course, left him dangerously exposed; moreover, he was already aware that Nero, anxious to remove anyone of distinguished birth and noble achievements, had ordered his death. Given these circumstances, Galba likely felt that he had no choice but to rebel.

In April, 68, while still in Spain, Galba "went public," positioning himself as a vir militaris, a military representative of the senate and people of Rome. For the moment, he refused the title of Emperor, but it is clear that the Principate was his goal. To this end, he organized a concilium of advisors in order to make it known that any decisions were not made by him alone but only after consultation with a group. The arrangement was meant to recall the Augustan Age relationship between the emperor and senate in Rome. Even more revealing of his imperial ambitions were legends like LIBERTAS RESTITUTA (Liberty Restored), ROM RENASC (Rome Reborn) and SALUS GENERIS HUMANI (Salvation of Mankind), preserved on his coinage from the period. Such evidence has brought into question the traditional assessment of Galba as nothing more than an ineffectual representative of a bygone antiquus rigor in favor of a more balanced portrait of a traditional constitutionalist eager to publicize the virtues of an Augustan-style Principate.
Events now began to move quickly. In May, 68 Lucius Clodius Macer, legate of the III legio Augusta in Africa, revolted from Nero and cut off the grain supply to Rome. Choosing not to recognize Galba, he called himself propraetor, issued his own coinage, and raised a new legion, the I Macriana liberatrix. Galba later had him executed. At the same time, 68, Lucius Verginius Rufus, legionary commander in Upper Germany, led a combined force of soldiers from Upper and Lower Germany in defeating Vindex at Vesontio in Gallia Lugdunensis. Verginius refused to accept a call to the emperorship by his own troops and by those from the Danube, however, thereby creating at Rome an opportunity for Galba's agents to win over Gaius Nymphidius Sabinus, the corrupt praetorian prefect since 65. Sabinus was able to turn the imperial guard against Nero on the promise that they would be rewarded financially by Galba upon his arrival. That was the end for Nero. Deposed by the senate and abandoned by his supporters, he committed suicide in June. At this point, encouraged to march on Rome by the praetorians and especially by Sabinus, who had his own designs on the throne, Galba hurriedly established broad-based political and financial support and assembled his own legion (subsequently known as the legio VII Gemina). As he departed from Spain, he abandoned the title of governor in favor of "Caesar," apparently in an attempt to lay claim to the entire inheritance of the Julio-Claudian house. Even so, he continued to proceed cautiously, and did not actually adopt the name of Caesar (and with it the emperorship) until sometime after he had left Spain.

The Principate of Galba
Meanwhile, Rome was anything but serene. An unusual force of soldiers, many of whom had been mustered by Nero to crush the attempt of Vindex, remained idle and restless. In addition, there was the matter concerning Nymphidius Sabinus. Intent on being the power behind the throne, Nymphidius had orchestrated a demand from the praetorians that Galba appoint him sole praetorian prefect for life. The senate capitulated to his pretensions and he began to have designs on the throne himself. In an attempt to rattle Galba, Nymphidius then sent messages of alarm to the emperor telling of unrest in both the city and abroad. When Galba ignored these reports, Nymphidius decided to launch a coup by presenting himself to the praetorians. The plan misfired, and the praetorians killed him when he appeared at their camp. Upon learning of the incident, Galba ordered the executions of Nymphidius' followers. To make matters worse, Galba's arrival was preceded by a confrontation with a boisterous band of soldiers who had been formed into a legion by Nero and were now demanding legionary standards and regular quarters. When they persisted, Galba's forces attacked, with the result that many of them were killed.
Thus it was amid carnage and fear that Galba arrived at the capital in October, 68, accompanied by Otho, the governor of Lusitania, who had joined the cause. Once Galba was within Rome, miscalculations and missteps seemed to multiply. First, he relied upon the advice of a corrupt circle of advisors, most notably: Titus Vinius, a general from Spain; Cornelius Laco, praetorian prefect; and his own freedman, Icelus. Second, he zealously attempted to recover some of Nero's more excessive expenditures by seizing the property of many citizens, a measure that seems to have gone too far and to have caused real hardship and resentment. Third, he created further ill-will by disbanding the imperial corps of German bodyguards, effectively abolishing a tradition that originated with Marius and had been endorsed by Augustus. Finally, he seriously alienated the military by refusing cash rewards for both the praetorians and for the soldiers in Upper Germany who had fought against Vindex.

This last act proved to be the beginning of the end for Galba. On 1 January 69 ("The Year of the Four Emperors"), the troops in Upper Germany refused to declare allegiance to him and instead followed the men stationed in Lower Germany in proclaiming their commander, Aulus Vitellius, as the new ruler. In response, Galba adopted Lucius Calpurnius Piso Frugi Licinianus to show that he was still in charge and that his successor would not be chosen for him. Piso, although an aristocrat, was a man completely without administrative or military experience. The choice meant little to the remote armies, the praetorians or the senate, and it especially angered Otho, who had hoped to succeed Galba. Otho quickly organized a conspiracy among the praetorians with the now-familiar promise of a material reward, and on 15 January 69 they declared him emperor and publicly killed Galba; Piso, dragged from hiding in the temple of Vesta, was also butchered.

Assessment
In sum, Galba had displayed talent and ambition during his lengthy career. He enjoyed distinguished ancestry, moved easily among the Julio-Claudian emperors (with the exception of Nero towards the end of his principate), and had been awarded the highest military and religious honors of ancient Rome. His qualifications for the principate cannot be questioned. Even so, history has been unkind to him. Tacitus characterized Galba as "weak and old," a man "equal to the imperial office, if he had never held it." Modern historians of the Roman world have been no less critical. To be sure, Galba's greatest mistake lay in his general handling of the military. His treatment of the army in Upper Germany was heedless, his policy towards the praetorians short sighted. Given the climate in 68-69, Galba was unrealistic in expecting disciplina without paying the promised rewards. He was also guilty of relying on poor advisors, who shielded him from reality and ultimately allowed Otho's conspiracy to succeed. Additionally, the excessive power of his henchmen brought the regime into disfavor and made Galba himself the principal target of the hatred that his aides had incited. Finally, the appointment of Piso, a young man in no way equal to the challenges placed before him, further underscored the emperor's isolation and lack of judgment. In the end, the instability of the post-Julio-Claudian political landscape offered challenges more formidable than a tired, septuagenarian aristocrat could hope to overcome. Ironically, his regime proved no more successful than the Neronian government he was so eager to replace. Another year of bloodshed would be necessary before the Principate could once again stand firm.

Copyright (C) 1999, John Donahue.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.


Cleisthenes
roman_emperor_otho.jpg
708a, Otho64 viewsOtho (69 A.D.)
John Donahue
College of William and Mary

Introduction
In January 69 Otho led a successful coup to overthrow the emperor Galba. Upon advancing to the throne, he hoped to conciliate his adversaries and restore political stability to the Empire. These ambitions were never to be realized. Instead, our sources portray a leader never fully able to win political confidence at Rome or to overcome military anarchy abroad. As a result, he was defeated in battle by the forces of Vitellius, his successor, and took his own life at the conclusion of the conflict. His principate lasted only eight weeks.
Early Life and Career
Marcus Salvius Otho was born at Ferentium on 28 April 32 A. D. His grandfather, also named Marcus Salvius Otho, was a senator who did not advance beyond the rank of praetor. Lucius Otho, his father, was consul in 33 and a trusted administrator under the emperors Tiberius, Gaius and Claudius. His mother, Albia Terentia, was likely to have been nobly born as well. The cognomen "Otho" was Etruscan in origin, and the fact that it can be traced to three successive generations of this family perhaps reflects a desire to maintain a part of the Etruscan tradition that formed the family's background.
Otho is recorded as being extravagant and wild as a youth - a favorite pastime involved roving about at night to snare drunkards in a blanket. Such behavior earned floggings from his father, whose frequent absences from home on imperial business suggest little in the way of a stabilizing parental influence in Otho's formative years. These traits apparently persisted: Suetonius records that Otho and Nero became close friends because of the similarity of their characters; and Plutarch relates that the young man was so extravagant that he sometimes chided Nero about his meanness, and even outdid the emperor in reckless spending.
Most intriguing in this context is Otho's involvement with Nero's mistress, Poppaea Sabina, the greatest beauty of her day. A relationship between the two is widely cited in the ancient sources, but the story differs in essential details from one account to the next. As a result, it is impossible to establish who seduced whom, whether Otho ever married Poppaea, and whether his posting to Lusitania by Nero should be understood as a "banishment" for his part in this affair. About the only reliable detail to emerge is that Otho did indeed become governor of Lusitania in 59, and that he assumed the post as a quaestor, a rank below that of praetor or consul, the minimum usually required for the office. From here he would launch his initial thrust towards the imperial throne.
Overthrow of Galba
Nero's suicide in June 68 marked the end of the Julio-Claudian dynasty and opened up the principate to the prerogatives of the military beyond Rome. First to emerge was Servius Sulpicius Galba, governor of Hispania Tarraconensis, who had been encouraged to revolt by the praetorians and especially by Nymphidius Sabinus, the corrupt and scheming praetorian prefect at Rome. By this time Otho had been in Spain for close to ten years. His record seems to have been a good one, marked by capable administration and an unwillingness to enrich himself at the expense of the province. At the same time, perhaps seeing this as his best chance to improve his own circumstances, he supported the insurrection as vigorously as possible, even sending Galba all of his gold and his best table servants. At the same time, he made it a point to win the favor of every soldier he came in contact with, most notably the members of the praetorian guard who had come to Spain to accompany Galba to Rome. Galba set out from Spain in July, formally assuming the emperorship shortly thereafter. Otho accompanied him on the journey.
Galba had been in Rome little more than two months when on 1 January 69 the troops in Upper Germany refused to declare allegiance to him and instead followed the men stationed in Lower Germany in proclaiming their commander, Aulus Vitellius, as the new ruler. To show that he was still in charge Galba adopted his own successor, Lucius Calpurnius Piso Frugi Licinianus, an aristocrat completely without administrative or military experience. The choice meant little to the remote armies, the praetorians or the senate and particularly angered Otho, who had hoped to succeed Galba. Otho quickly organized a conspiracy among the praetorians with promise of a material reward, and on 15 January 69 they declared him emperor and publicly killed Galba; Piso, dragged from hiding in the temple of Vesta, was also butchered. On that same evening a powerless senate awarded Otho the imperial titles.
Otho's Principate in Rome
It is not possible to reconstruct a detailed chronology of Otho's brief eight and a half weeks as princeps in Rome (15 January-15 March). Even so, Galba's quick demise had surely impressed upon Otho the need to conciliate various groups. As a result, he continued his indulgence of the praetorian guard but he also tried to win over the senate by following a strict constitutionalist line and by generally keeping the designations for the consulship made by Nero and Galba. In the provinces, despite limited evidence, there are some indications that he tried to compensate for Galba's stinginess by being more generous with grants of citizenship. In short, Otho was eager not to offend anyone.
Problems remained, however. The praetorians had to be continually placated and they were always suspicious of the senate. On the other hand, the senate itself, along with the people, remained deeply disturbed at the manner of Otho's coming to power and his willingness to be associated with Nero. These suspicions and fears were most evident in the praetorian outbreak at Rome. Briefly, Otho had decided to move from Ostia to Rome a cohort of Roman citizens in order to replace some of Rome's garrison, much of which was to be utilized for the showdown with Vitellius. He ordered that weapons be moved from the praetorian camp in Rome by ship to Ostia at night so that the garrison replacements would be properly armed and made to look as soldierly as possible when they marched into the city. Thinking that a senatorial counter-coup against Otho was underway, the praetorians stormed the imperial palace to confirm the emperor's safety, with the result that they terrified Otho and his senatorial dinner guests. Although the praetorians' fears were eventually calmed and they were given a substantial cash payment, the incident dramatically underscored the unease at Rome in the early months of 69.
Otho's Offensive against Vitellius
Meanwhile, in the Rhineland, preparations for a march on Rome by the military legions that had declared for Vitellius were far advanced. Hampered by poor intelligence gathering in Gaul and Germany and having failed to negotiate a settlement with Vitellius in early 69, Otho finally summoned to Italy his forces for a counterattack against the invading Vitellian army. His support consisted of the four legions of Pannonia and Dalmatia, the three legions of Moesia and his own imperial retinue of about 9,000. Vitellius' own troops numbered some 30,000, while those of his two marshals, Aulus Caecina Alienus and Fabius Valens, were between 15,000 and 20,000 each.
Otho's strategy was to make a quick diversionary strike in order to allow time for his own forces to assemble in Italy before engaging the enemy. The strategy worked, as the diversionary army, comprised of urban cohorts, praetorians and marines all from Rome or nearby, was successful in Narbonese Gaul in latter March. An advance guard sent to hold the line on the Po River until the Danubian legions arrived also enjoyed initial success. Otho himself arrived at Bedriacum in northern Italy about 10 April for a strategy session with his commanders. The main concern was that the Vitellians were building a bridge across the Po in order to drive southward towards the Apennines and eventually to Rome. Otho decided to counter by ordering a substantial part of his main force to advance from Bedriacum and establish a new base close enough to the new Vitellian bridge to interrupt its completion. While en route, the Othonian forces, strung out along the via Postumia amid baggage and supply trains, were attacked by Caecina and Valens near Cremona on 14 April. The clash, know as the Battle of Bedriacum, resulted in the defeat of the Othonian forces, their retreat cut off by the river behind them. Otho himself, meanwhile, was not present, but had gone to Brixellum with a considerable force of infantry and cavalry in order to impede any Vitellian units that had managed to cross the Po.
The plan had backfired. Otho's strategy of obtaining victory while avoiding any major battles had proven too risky. Realizing perhaps that a new round of fighting would have involved not only a significant re-grouping of his existing troops but also a potentially bloody civil war at Rome, if Vitellius' troops reached the capital, Otho decided that enough blood had been shed. Two weeks shy of his thirty-seventh birthday, on 16 April 69, he took his own life.
Assessment
To be sure, Otho remains an enigma - part profligate Neronian wastrel and part conscientious military commander willing to give his life for the good of the state. Our sources are at a loss to explain the paradox. Perhaps, like Petronius, he saw it was safer to appear a profligate in Nero's court? In the final analysis, Otho proved to be an organized and efficient military commander, who appealed more to the soldier than to the civilian. He also seems to have been a capable governor, with administrative talents that recalled those of his father. Nevertheless, his violent overthrow of Galba, the lingering doubts that it raised about his character, and his unsuccessful offensive against Vitellius are all vivid reminders of the turbulence that plagued the Roman world between the reigns of Nero and Vespasian. Regrettably, the scenario would play itself out one more time before peace and stability returned to the empire.
Copyright (C) 1999, John Donahue
Edited by J.P.Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
VitelliusARdenariusVesta.jpg
709a, Vitellius, 2 January - 20 December 69 A.D.42 viewsVITELLIUS AR silver denarius. RSC 72, RCV 2200. 19mm, 3.2 g. Obverse: A VITELLIVS GERM IMP AVG TR P, laureate head right; Reverse - PONT MAXIM, Vesta seated right, holding scepter and patera. Quite decent. Ex. Incitatus Coins. Photo courtesy of Incitatus Coins.

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Vitellius (69 A.D.)

John F. Donahue
College of William and Mary


It is often difficult to separate fact from fiction in assessing the life and reign of Vitellius. Maligned in the ancient sources as gluttonous and cruel, he was also a victim of a hostile biographical tradition established in the regime of the Flavians who had overthrown him. Nevertheless, his decision to march against Rome in 69 was pivotal, since his subsequent defeat signalled the end of military anarchy and the beginning of an extended period of political stability under Vespasian and his successors.

Early Life and Career

Aulus Vitellius was born in September, 15 AD, the son of Lucius Vitellius and his wife Sestilia. One of the most successful public figures of the Julio-Claudian period, Lucius Vitellius was a three-time consul and a fellow censor with the emperor Claudius. Aulus seems to have moved with equal ease in aristocratic circles, successively winning the attention of the emperors Gaius, Claudius, and Nero through flattery and political skill.

Among his attested public offices, Vitellius was a curator of public works, a senatorial post concerned with the maintenance and repair of public buildings in Rome, and he was also proconsul of North Africa, where he served as a deputy to his brother, perhaps about 55 A. D. In addition, he held at least two priesthoods, the first as a member of the Arval Brethren, in whose rituals he participated from 57 A.D., and the second, as one of the quindecemviri sacris faciundis, a sacred college famous for its feasts.

With respect to marriage and family, Vitellius first wed a certain Petroniana, the daughter of a consul, sometime in the early to mid thirties A.D. The union produced a son, Petronianus, allegedly blind in one eye and emancipated from his father's control as a result of being named his mother's heir. Tradition records that Vitellius killed the boy shortly after emancipation amid charges of parricide; the marriage soon ended in divorce. A second marriage, to Galeria Fundana, daughter of an ex-praetor, was more stable than the first. It produced another son, who was eventually killed by the Flavians after the overthrow of Vitellius, as well as a daughter. Galeria is praised by Tacitus for her good qualities, and in the end it was she who saw to Vitellius' burial.

Rise to Power and Emperorship

Without doubt, the most fortuitous moment in Vitellius' political career was his appointment as governor of Lower Germany by the emperor Galba late in 68. The decision seemed to have caught everybody by surprise, including Vitellius himself, who, according to Suetonius, was in straitened circumstances at the time. The choice may have been made to reduce the possibility of rebellion by the Rhine armies, disaffected by Galba's refusal to reward them for their part in suppressing the earlier uprising of Julius Vindex. Ironically, it was Vitellius' lack of military achievement and his reputation for gambling and gluttony that may have also figured in his selection. Galba perhaps calculated that a man with little military experience who could now plunder a province to satisfy his own stomach would never become disloyal. If so, it was a critical misjudgement by the emperor.

The rebellion began on January 1, 69 ("The Year of the Four Emperors"), when the legions of Upper Germany refused to renew their oath of allegiance to Galba. On January 2, Vitellius' own men, having heard of the previous day's events, saluted him as emperor at the instigation of the legionary legate Fabius Valens and his colleagues. Soon, in addition to the seven legions that Vitellius now had at his command in both Germanies, the forces in Gaul, Britain, and Raetia also came over to his side. Perhaps aware of his military inexperience, Vitellius did not immediately march on Rome himself. Instead, the advance was led by Valens and another legionary general, Aulus Caecina Alienus, with each man commanding a separate column. Vitellius would remain behind to mobilize a reserve force and follow later.

Caecina was already one hundred fifty miles on his way when news reached him that Galba had been overthrown and Otho had taken his place as emperor. Undeterred, he passed rapidly down the eastern borders of Gaul; Valens followed a more westerly route, quelling a mutiny along the way. By March both armies had successfully crossed the Alps and joined at Cremona, just north of the Po. Here they launced their Batavian auxiliaries against Otho's troops and routed them in the First Battle of Bedriacum. Otho killed himself on April 16, and three days later the soldiers in Rome swore their allegience to Vitellius. The senate too hailed him as emperor.

When Vitellius learned of these developments, he set out to Rome from Gaul. By all accounts the journey was a drunken feast marked by the lack of discipline of both the troops and the imperial entourage. Along the way he stopped at Lugdunum to present his six-year-old son Germanicus to the legions as his eventual successor. Later, at Cremona, Vitellius witnessed the corpse-filled battlefield of Otho's recent defeat with joy, unmoved by so many citizens denied a proper burial.

The emperor entered Rome in late June-early July. Conscious of making a break with the Julio-Claudian past, Vitellius was reluctant to assume the traditional titles of the princes, even though he enthusiastically made offerings to Nero and declared himself consul for life. To his credit, Vitellius did seem to show a measure of moderation in the transition to the principate. He assumed his powers gradually and was generally lenient to Otho's supporters, even pardoning Otho's brother Salvius Titianus, who had played a key role in the earlier regime. In addition, he participated in Senate meetings and continued the practice of providing entertainments for the Roman masses. An important practical change involved the awarding of posts customarily held by freedmen to equites, an indication of the growth of the imperial bureaucracy and its attractiveness to men of ambition.

In other matters, he replaced the existing praetorian guard and urban cohorts with sixteen praetorian cohorts and four urban units, all comprised of soldiers from the German armies. According to Tacitus, the decision prompted a mad scramble, with the men, and not their officers, choosing the branch of service that they preferred. The situation was clearly unsatisfactory but not surprising, given that Vitellius was a creation of his own troops. To secure his position further, he sent back to their old postings the legions that had fought for Otho, or he reassigned them to distant provinces. Yet discontent remained: the troops who had been defeated or betrayed at Bedriacum remained bitter, and detachments of three Moesian legions called upon by Otho were returned to their bases, having agitated against Vitellius at Aquileia.

Flavian Revolt

The Vitellian era at Rome was short-lived. By mid-July news had arrived that the legions of Egypt under Tiberius Julius Alexander had sworn allegiance to a rival emperor, Titus Flavius Vespasianus, the governor of Judaea and a successful and popular general. Vespasian was to hold Egypt while his colleague Mucianus, governor of Syria, was to invade Italy. Before the plan could be enacted, however, the Danube legions, former supporters of Otho, joined Vespasian's cause. Under the leadership of Antonius Primus, commander of the Sixth legion in Pannonia, and Cornelius Fuscus, imperial procurator in Illyricum, the legions made a rapid descent on Italy.

Although his forces were only half of what Vitellius commanded in Italy, Primus struck first before the emperor could muster additional reinforcements from Germany. To make matters worse for the Vitellians, Valens was ill, and Caecina, now consul, had begun collaborating with the Flavians. His troops refused to follow his lead, however, and arrested him at Hostilia near Cremona. They then joined the rest of the Vitellian forces trying to hold the Po River. With Vitellius still in Rome and his forces virtually leaderless, the two sides met in October in the Second Battle of Bedriacum. The emperor's troops were soundly defeated and Cremona was brutally sacked by the victors. In addition, Valens, whose health had recovered, was captured while raising an army for Vitellius in Gaul and Germany; he was eventually executed.

Meanwhile, Primus continued towards Rome. Vitellius made a weak attempt to thwart the advance at the Apennine passes, but his forces switched to the Flavian side without a fight at Narnia in mid-December. At Rome, matters were no better. Vespasian's elder brother, Titus Flavius Sabinus, the city prefect, was successful in an effort to convince Vitellius to abdicate but was frustrated by the mob in Rome and the emperor's soldiers. Forced to flee to the Capitol, Sabinus was set upon by Vitellius' German troops and soon killed, with the venerable Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus set ablaze in the process. Within two days, the Flavian army fought its way into Rome. In a pathetic final move, Vitellius disguised himself in dirty clothing and hid in the imperial doorkeeper's quarters, leaning a couch and a mattress against the door for protection. Dragged from his hiding place by the Flavian forces, he was hauled off half-naked to the Forum, where he was tortured, killed, and tossed into the Tiber. The principate could now pass to Vespasian.

Assessment

Vitellius has not escaped the hostility of his biographers. While he may well have been gluttonous, his depiction as indolent, cruel, and extravagant is based almost entirely on the propaganda of his enemies. On the other hand, whatever moderating tendencies he did show were overshadowed by his clear lack of military expertise, a deficiency that forced him to rely in critical situations on largely inneffective lieutenants. As a result he was no match for his Flavian successors, and his humiliating demise was perfectly in keeping with the overall failure of his reign.

Copyright (C) 1999, John Donahue.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
VespasianPax_RICii10.jpg
710a, Vespasian, 1 July 69 - 24 June 79 A.D.134 viewsSilver denarius, RIC II, 10, aVF, 3.5 g, 18mm, Rome mint, 69-71 AD; Obverse: IMP CAESA[R] VESPASIANV[S AV]G - Laureate head right; Reverse: COS ITER [T]R POT - Pax seated left holding branch and caduceus. Ex Imperial Coins.


De Imperatoribus Romanis:
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Titus Flavius Vespasianus (A.D. 69-79)

John Donahue
College of William and Mary

Introduction

Titus Flavius Vespasianus (b. A.D. 9, d. A.D. 79, emperor A.D. 69-79) restored peace and stability to an empire in disarray following the death of Nero in A.D. 68. In the process he established the Flavian dynasty as the legitimate successor to the Imperial throne. Although we lack many details about the events and chronology of his reign, Vespasian provided practical leadership and a return to stable government - accomplishments which, when combined with his other achievements, make his emperorship particularly notable within the history of the Principate.

Early Life and Career

Vespasian was born at Falacrina near Sabine Reate on 17 November, A.D. 9, the son of T. Flavius Sabinus, a successful tax collector and banker, and Vespasia Polla. Both parents were of equestrian status. Few details of his first fifteen years survive, yet it appears that his father and mother were often away from home on business for long periods. As a result, Vespasian's early education became the responsibility of his paternal grandmother, Tertulla. [[1]] In about A.D. 25 Vespasian assumed the toga virilis and later accepted the wearing of the latus clavus, and with it the senatorial path that his older brother, T. Flavius Sabinus, had already chosen. [[2]] Although many of the particulars are lacking, the posts typically occupied by one intent upon a senatorial career soon followed: a military tribunate in Thrace, perhaps for three or four years; a quaestorship in Crete-Cyrene; and the offices of aedile and praetor, successively, under the emperor Gaius. [[3]]

It was during this period that Vespasian married Flavia Domitilla. Daughter of a treasury clerk and former mistress of an African knight, Flavia lacked the social standing and family connections that the politically ambitious usually sought through marriage. In any case, the couple produced three children, a daughter, also named Flavia Domitilla, and two sons, the future emperors Titus and Domitian . Flavia did not live to witness her husband's emperorship and after her death Vespasian returned to his former mistress Caenis, who had been secretary to Antonia (daughter of Marc Antony and mother of Claudius). Caenis apparently exerted considerable influence over Vespasian, prompting Suetonius to assert that she remained his wife in all but name, even after he became emperor. [[4]]

Following the assassination of Gaius on 24 January, A.D. 41, Vespasian advanced rapidly, thanks in large part to the new princeps Claudius, whose favor the Flavians had wisely secured with that of Antonia, the mother of Germanicus, and of Claudius' freedmen, especially Narcissus. [[5]] The emperor soon dispatched Vespasian to Argentoratum (Strasbourg) as legatus legionis II Augustae, apparently to prepare the legion for the invasion of Britain. Vespasian first appeared at the battle of Medway in A.D. 43, and soon thereafter led his legion across the south of England, where he engaged the enemy thirty times in battle, subdued two tribes, and conquered the Isle of Wight. According to Suetonius, these operations were conducted partly under Claudius and partly under Vespasian's commander, Aulus Plautius. Vespasian's contributions, however, did not go unnoticed; he received the ornamenta triumphalia and two priesthoods from Claudius for his exploits in Britain. [[6]]

By the end of A.D. 51 Vespasian had reached the consulship, the pinnacle of a political career at Rome. For reasons that remain obscure he withdrew from political life at this point, only to return when chosen proconsul of Africa about A.D. 63-64. His subsequent administration of the province was marked by severity and parsimony, earning him a reputation for being scrupulous but unpopular. [[7]] Upon completion of his term, Vespasian returned to Rome where, as a senior senator, he became a man of influence in the emperor Nero's court. [[8]] Important enough to be included on Nero's tour of Greece in A.D. 66-67, Vespasian soon found himself in the vicinity of increasing political turbulence in the East. The situation would prove pivotal in advancing his career.

Judaea and the Accession to Power

In response to rioting in Caesarea and Jerusalem that had led to the slaughter in the latter city of Jewish leaders and Roman soldiers, Nero granted to Vespasian in A.D. 66 a special command in the East with the objective of settling the revolt in Judaea. By spring A.D. 67, with 60,000 legionaries, auxiliaries, and allies under his control, Vespasian set out to subdue Galilee and then to cut off Jerusalem. Success was quick and decisive. By October all of Galilee had been pacified and plans for the strategic encirclement of Jerusalem were soon formed. [[9]] Meanwhile, at the other end of the empire, the revolts of Gaius Iulius Vindex, governor of Gallia Lugdunensis, and Servius Sulpicius Galba , governor of Hispania Tarraconensis, had brought Nero's reign to the brink of collapse. The emperor committed suicide in June, A.D. 68, thereby ensuring chaos for the next eighteen months, as first Galba and then Marcus Salvius Otho and Aulus Vitellius acceded to power. Each lacked broad-based military and senatorial support; each would be violently deposed in turn. [[10]]

Still occupied with plans against Jerusalem, Vespasian swore allegiance to each emperor. Shortly after Vitellius assumed power in spring, A.D. 69, however, Vespasian met on the border of Judaea and Syria with Gaius Licinius Mucianus, governor of Syria, and after a series of private and public consultations, the two decided to revolt. [[11]] On July 1, at the urging of Tiberius Alexander, prefect of Egypt, the legions of Alexandria declared for Vespasian, as did the legions of Judaea two days later. By August all of Syria and the Danube legions had done likewise. Vespasian next dispatched Mucianus to Italy with 20,000 troops, while he set out from Syria to Alexandria in order to control grain shipments for the purpose of starving Italy into submission. [[12]] The siege of Jerusalem he placed in the hands of his son Titus.

Meanwhile, the Danubian legions, unwilling to wait for Mucianus' arrival, began their march against Vitellius ' forces. The latter army, suffering from a lack of discipline and training, and unaccustomed to the heat of Rome, was defeated at Cremona in late October. [[13]] By mid-December the Flavian forces had reached Carsulae, 95 kilometers north of Rome on the Flaminian Road, where the Vitellians, with no further hope of reinforcements, soon surrendered. At Rome, unable to persuade his followers to accept terms for his abdication, Vitellius was in peril. On the morning of December 20 the Flavian army entered Rome. By that afternoon, the emperor was dead. [[14]]

Tacitus records that by December 22, A.D. 69, Vespasian had been given all the honors and privileges usually granted to emperors. Even so, the issue remains unclear, owing largely to a surviving fragment of an enabling law, the lex de imperio Vespasiani, which conferred powers, privileges, and exemptions, most with Julio-Claudian precedents, on the new emperor. Whether the fragment represents a typical granting of imperial powers that has uniquely survived in Vespasian's case, or is an attempt to limit or expand such powers, remains difficult to know. In any case, the lex sanctioned all that Vespasian had done up to its passing and gave him authority to act as he saw fit on behalf of the Roman people. [[15]]

What does seem clear is that Vespasian felt the need to legitimize his new reign with vigor. He zealously publicized the number of divine omens that predicted his accession and at every opportunity he accumulated multiple consulships and imperial salutations. He also actively promoted the principle of dynastic succession, insisting that the emperorship would fall to his son. The initiative was fulfilled when Titus succeeded his father in A.D. 79.[[16]]

Emperorship

Upon his arrival in Rome in late summer, A.D. 70, Vespasian faced the daunting task of restoring a city and a government ravaged by the recent civil wars. Although many particulars are missing, a portrait nevertheles emerges of a ruler conscientiously committed to the methodical renewal of both city and empire. Concerning Rome itself, the emperor encouraged rebuilding on vacated lots, restored the Capitol (burned in A.D. 69), and also began work on several new buildings: a temple to the deified Claudius on the Caelian Hill, a project designed to identify Vespasian as a legitimate heir to the Julio-Claudians, while distancing himself from Nero ; a temple of Peace near the Forum; and the magnificent Colosseum (Flavian Amphitheatre), located on the site of the lake of Nero 's Golden House. [[17]]

Claiming that he needed forty thousand million sesterces for these projects and for others aimed at putting the state on more secure footing, Vespasian is said to have revoked various imperial immunities, manipulated the supply of certain commodities to inflate their price, and increased provincial taxation. [[18]] The measures are consistent with his characterization in the sources as both obdurate and avaricious. There were occasional political problems as well: Helvidius Priscus, an advocate of senatorial independence and a critic of the Flavian regime from the start, was exiled after A.D. 75 and later executed; Marcellus Eprius and A. Alienus Caecina were condemned by Titus for conspiracy, the former committing suicide, the latter executed in A.D. 79.
As Suetonius claims, however, in financial matters Vespasian always put revenues to the best possible advantage, regardless of their source. Tacitus, too, offers a generally favorable assessment, citing Vespasian as the first man to improve after becoming emperor. [[19]] Thus do we find the princeps offering subventions to senators not possessing the property qualifications of their rank, restoring many cities throughout the empire, and granting state salaries for the first time to teachers of Latin and Greek rhetoric. To enhance Roman economic and social life even further, he encouraged theatrical productions by building a new stage for the Theatre of Marcellus, and he also put on lavish state dinners to assist the food trades. [[20]]

In other matters the emperor displayed similar concern. He restored the depleted ranks of the senatorial and equestrian orders with eligible Italian and provincial candidates and reduced the backlog of pending court cases at Rome. Vespasian also re-established discipline in the army, while punishing or dismissing large numbers of Vitellius ' men. [[21]]
Beyond Rome, the emperor increased the number of legions in the East and continued the process of imperial expansion by the annexation of northern England, the pacification of Wales, and by advances into Scotland and southwest Germany between the Rhine and the Danube. Vespasian also conferred rights on communities abroad, especially in Spain, where the granting of Latin rights to all native communities contributed to the rapid Romanization of that province during the Imperial period. [[22]]

Death and Assessment

In contrast to his immediate imperial predecessors, Vespasian died peacefully - at Aquae Cutiliae near his birthplace in Sabine country on 23 June, A.D. 79, after contracting a brief illness. The occasion is said to have inspired his deathbed quip: "Oh my, I must be turning into a god!" [[23]] In fact, public deification did follow his death, as did his internment in the Mausoleum of Augustus alongside the Julio-Claudians.

A man of strict military discipline and simple tastes, Vespasian proved to be a conscientious and generally tolerant administrator. More importantly, following the upheavals of A.D. 68-69, his reign was welcome for its general tranquility and restoration of peace. In Vespasian Rome found a leader who made no great breaks with tradition, yet his ability ro rebuild the empire and especially his willingness to expand the composition of the governing class helped to establish a positive working model for the "good emperors" of the second century.

Bibliography

Since the scholarship on Vespasian is more comprehensive than can be treated here, the works listed below are main accounts or bear directly upon issues discussed in the entry above. A comprehensive modern anglophone study of this emperor is yet to be produced.

Atti congresso internazionale di studi Flaviani, 2 vols. Rieti, 1983.

Atti congresso internazionale di studi Vespasianei, 2 vols. Rieti, 1981.

Bosworth, A.B. "Vespasian and the Provinces: Some Problems of the Early 70s A.D." Athenaeum 51 (1973): 49-78.

Brunt, P. A. "Lex de imperio Vespasiani." JRS (67) 1977: 95-116.

D'Espèrey, S. Franchet. "Vespasien, Titus et la littérature." ANRW II.32.5: 3048-3086.

Dudley, D. and Webster, G. The Roman Conquest of Britain. London, 1965.

Gonzalez, J. "The Lex Irnitana: A New Copy of the Flavian Municipal Law." JRS 76 (1986): 147-243.

Grant, M. The Roman Emperors: A Biographical Guide to the Rulers of Rome, 31 B.C. - A.D. 476. New York, 1985.

Homo, L. Vespasien, l'Empereur du bons sens (69-79 ap. J.-C.). Paris, 1949.

Levi, M.A. "I Flavi." ANRW II.2: 177-207.

McCrum, M. and Woodhead, A. G. Select Documents of the Principates of the Flavian Emperors Including the Year of the Revolution. Cambridge, 1966.

Nicols, John. Vespasian and the Partes Flavianae. Wiesbaden, 1978.

Scarre, C. Chronicle of the Roman Emperors. The Reign-by-Reign Record of the Rulers of Imperial Rome. London, 1995.

Suddington, D. B. The Development of the Roman Auxiliary Forces from Caesar to Vespasian, 49 B.C. - A.D. 79. Harare: U. of Zimbabwe, 1982.

Syme, R. Tacitus. Oxford, 1958.

Wardel, David. "Vespasian, Helvidius Priscus and the Restoration of the Capitol." Historia 45 (1996): 208-222.

Wellesley, K. The Long Year: A.D. 69. Bristol, 1989, 2nd ed.


Notes

[[1]] Suet. Vesp. 2.1. Suetonius remains the major source but see also Tac. Hist. 2-5; Cass. Dio 65; Joseph. BJ 3-4.

[[2]] Suetonius (Vesp. 2.1) claims that Vespasian did not accept the latus clavus, the broad striped toga worn by one aspiring to a senatorial career, immediately. The delay, however, was perhaps no more than three years. See J. Nicols, Vespasian and the Partes Flavianae (Wiesbaden, 1978), 2.

[[3]] Military tribunate and quaestorship: Suet. Vesp. 2.3; aedileship: ibid., 5.3, in which Gaius, furious that Vespasian had not kept the streets clean, as was his duty, ordered some soldiers to load him with filth;,they complied by stuffing his toga with as much as it could hold. See also Dio 59.12.2-3; praetorship: Suet. Vesp. 2.3, in which Vespasian is depicted as one of Gaius' leading adulators, an account consistent with Tacitus' portrayal (Hist 1.50.4; 2.5.1) of his early career. For a more complete discussion of these posts and attendant problems of dating, see Nicols, Vespasian, 2-7.

[[4]] Marriage and Caenis: Suet. Vesp. 3; Cass. Dio 65.14.

[[5]] Nicols, Vespasian, 12-39.

[[6]] Suet. Vesp. 4.1 For additional details on Vespasian's exploits in Britain, see D. Dudley and G. Webster, The Roman Conquest of Britain (London, 1965), 55 ff., 98.

[[7]] Concerning Vespasian's years between his consulship and proconsulship, see Suet. Vesp. 4.2 and Nicols, Vespasian, 9. On his unpopularity in Africa, see Suet. Vesp. 4.3, an account of a riot at Hadrumentum, where he was once pelted with turnips. In recording that Africa supported Vitellius in A.D. 69, Tacitus too suggests popular dissatisfaction with Vespasian's proconsulship. See Hist. 2.97.2.

[[8]] This despite the fact that the sources record two rebukes of Vespasian, one for extorting money from a young man seeking career advancement (Suet. Vesp. 4.3), the other for either leaving the room or dozing off during one of the emperor's recitals (Suet. Vesp. 4.4 and 14, which places the transgression in Greece; Tac. (Ann. 16.5.3), who makes Rome and the Quinquennial Games of A.D. 65 the setting; A. Braithwaite, C. Suetoni Tranquilli Divus Vespasianus, Oxford, 1927, 30, who argues for both Greece and Rome).

[[9]] Subjugation of Galilee: Joseph. BJ 3.65-4.106; siege of Jerusalem: ibid., 4.366-376, 414.

[[10]] Revolt of Vindex: Suet. Nero 40; Tac. Ann. 14.4; revolt of Galba: Suet. Galba 10; Plut. Galba, 4-5; suicide of Nero: Suet. Nero 49; Cass. Dio 63.29.2. For the most complete account of the period between Nero's death and the accession of Vespasian, see K. Wellesley, The Long Year: A.D. 69, 2nd. ed. (Bristol, 1989).

[[11]] Tac. Hist. 2.76.

[[12]] Troops in support of Vespasian: Suet. Vit. 15; Mucianus and his forces: Tac. Hist. 2.83; Vespasian and grain shipments: Joseph. BJ 4.605 ff.; see also Tac. Hist. 3.48, on Vespasian's possible plan to shut off grain shipments to Italy from Carthage as well.

[[13]] On Vitellius' army and its lack of discipline, see Tac. Hist. 2.93-94; illness of army: ibid., 2.99.1; Cremona: ibid., 3.32-33.

[[14]] On Vitellius' last days, see Tac. Hist. 3.68-81. On the complicated issue of Vitellius' death date, see L. Holzapfel, "Römische Kaiserdaten," Klio 13 (1913): 301.

[[15]] Honors, etc. Tac. Hist. 4.3. For more on the lex de imperio Vespasiani, see P. A. Brunt, "Lex de imperio Vespasiani," JRS (67) 1977: 95-116.

[[16]] Omens: Suet. Vesp. 5; consulships and honors: ibid., 8; succession of sons: ibid., 25.

[[17]] On Vespasian's restoration of Rome, see Suet. Vesp. 9; Cass. Dio 65.10; D. Wardel, "Vespasian, Helvidius Priscus and the Restoration of the Capitol," Historia 45 (1996): 208-222.

[[18]] Suet. Vesp. 16.

[[19]] Ibid.; Tac. Hist. 1.50.

[[20]] Suet. Vesp. 17-19.

[[21]] Ibid., 8-10.

[[22]] On Vespasian's exploits in Britain, see esp. Tac., Agricola, eds. R. M. Ogilvie and I. A. Richmond (1967), and W. S. Hanson, Agricola and the Conquest of the North (1987); on the granting of Latin rights in Spain, see, e.g., J. Gonzalez, "The Lex Irnitana: a New Copy of the Flavian Municipal Law." JRS 76 (1986): 147-243.

[[23]] For this witticism and other anecdotes concerning Vespasian's sense of humor, see Suet. Vesp. 23.

Copyright (C) 1998, John Donahue. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis, an Online Encyplopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families.
http://www.roman-emperors.org/vespasia.htm
Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.





Cleisthenes
TitusCommColosseum.jpg
711a, Titus, 24 June 79 - 13 September 81 A.D. 110 viewsTITUS AUGUSTUS AR silver denarius. Struck at Rome, 80 AD. IMP TITVS CAESAR VESPASIAN AVG PM, laureate head right. Reverse - TRP IX IMP XV COS VIII PP, elephant walking left. Fully legible legends, about Very Fine, nice golden toning. Commemmorates the completion and dedication of the Colosseum and the opening of games. SCARCE. RCV 2512, valued at $544 in EF. 17mm, 3.1g. Ex Incitatus.

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Titus Flavius Vespasianus (A.D. 79-81)

John Donahue
College of William and Mary

Titus Flavius Vespasianus was born on December 30, 39 A.D. He was the oldest of the three children of the founder of the Flavian Dynasty, Vespasian. Beginning in the year 70 Titus was named Cæsar and coregent; he was highly educated and a brilliant poet and orator in both Latin and Greek. He won military fame during the Jewish Revolt of 69-70. In April, 70, he appeared before the walls of Jerusalem, and conquered and destroyed the city after a siege of five months. He wished to preserve the Temple, but in the struggle with the Jews who rushed out of it a soldier threw a brand into the building. The siege and taking of the city were accompanied by barbarous cruelties. The next year Titus celebrated his victory by a triumph; to increase the fame of the Flavian dynasty the inscription on the triumphal arch represented the overthrow of the helpless people as a heroic achievement. Titus succeeded his father as Emperor in 79.

Before becoming emperor, tradition records that Titus was feared as the next Nero, a perception that may have developed from his association with Berenice, his alleged heavy-handedness as praetorian prefect, and tales of sexual debauchery. Once in office, however, both emperor and his reign were portrayed in universally positive terms. The suddenness of this transformation raises immediate suspicions, yet it is difficult to know whether the historical tradition is suspect or if Titus was in fact adept at taking off one mask for another. What is clear, however, is that Titus sought to present the Flavians as the legitimate successors of the Julio-Claudian dynasty. Proof came through the issuing of a series of restoration coins of previous emperors, the most popular being Augustus and Claudius. In A.D. 80 Titus also set out to establish an imperial cult in honor of Vespasian. The temple, in which cult (the first that was not connected with the Julio-Claudians) was housed, was completed by Domitian and was known as the Temple of Vespasian and Domitian.
Legitimacy was also sought through various economic measures, which Titus enthusiastically funded. Vast amounts of capital poured into extensive building schemes in Rome, especially the Flavian Amphitheater, popularly known as the Colosseum. In celebration of additions made to the structure, Titus provided a grand 100-day festival, with sea fights staged on an artificial lake, infantry battles, wild beast hunts, and similar activities. He also constructed new imperial baths to the south-east of the Amphitheater and began work on the celebrated Arch of Titus, a memorial to his Jewish victories. Large sums were directed to Italy and the provinces as well, especially for road building. In response to the eruption of Vesuvius in A.D. 79, Titus spent large sums to relieve distress in that area; likewise, the imperial purse contributed heavily to rebuilding Rome after a devastating fire destroyed large sections of the city in A.D. 80. As a result of these actions, Titus earned a reputation for generosity and geniality. For these reasons he gained the honourable title of "amor et deliciæ generis humani" (the darling and admiration of the human race). Even so, his financial acumen must not be under-estimated. He left the treasury with a surplus, as he had found it, and dealt promptly and efficiently with costly natural disasters. The Greek historian of the third-century A.D., Cassius Dio, perhaps offered the most accurate and succinct assessment of Titus' economic policy: "In money matters, Titus was frugal and made no unnecessary expenditure." In other areas, the brevity of Titus' reign limits our ability to detect major emphases or trends in policy. As far as can be discerned from the limited evidence, senior officials and amici were well chosen, and his legislative activity tended to focus on popular social measures, with the army as a particular beneficiary in the areas of land ownership, marriage, and testamentary freedom. In the provinces, Titus continued his father's policies by strengthening roads and forts in the East and along the Danube.

Titus died in September, A.D. 81 after only 26 months in office. Suetonius recorded that Titus died on his way to the Sabine country of his ancestors in the same villa as his father. A competing tradition persistently implicated his brother and successor, Domitian, as having had a hand in the emperor's demise, but the evidence is highly contradictory and any wrongdoing is difficult to prove. Domitian himself delivered the funeral eulogy and had Titus deified. He also built several monuments in honor of Titus and completed the Temple of Vespasian and Titus, changing the name of the structure to include his brother's and setting up his cult statue in the Temple itself.

Titus was the beneficiary of considerable intelligence and talent, endowments that were carefully cultivated at every step of his career, from his early education to his role under his father's principate. Cassius Dio suggested that Titus' reputation was enhanced by his early death. It is true that the ancient sources tend to heroicize Titus, yet based upon the evidence, his reign must be considered a positive one. He capably continued the work of his father in establishing the Flavian Dynasty and he maintained a high degree of economic and administrative competence in Italy and beyond. In so doing, he solidified the role of the emperor as paternalistic autocrat, a model that would serve Trajan and his successors well. Titus was used as a model by later emperors, especially those known as the Five Good Emperors (Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius).

Copyright (C) 1997, John Donahue.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Catholic Encyclopedia, http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/14746b.htm

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
Titus_Colosseum_Commem_AR_denarius.jpg
711a, Titus, 24 June 79 - 13 September 81 A.D.136 viewsTitus, 24 June 79 - 13 September 81 A.D. AR denarius, RCV 2512, aVF, struck at Rome, 80 A.D., 17.5mm, 3.4g. Obverse: IMP TITVS CAESAR VESPASIAN AVG PM, laureate head right; Reverse: TRP IX IMP XV COS VIII PP, elephant walking left. Fully legible legends; nice golden toning. This coin was struck in order to commemorate the completion and dedication of the Flavian Amphitheatre (the Colosseum) and its opening games. Very scarce. Ex Incitatus; photo courtesy Incitatus.

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Titus Flavius Vespasianus (A.D. 79-81)

John Donahue
College of William and Mary

Titus Flavius Vespasianus was born on December 30, 39 A.D. He was the oldest of the three children of the founder of the Flavian Dynasty, Vespasian. Beginning in the year 70 Titus was named Cæsar and coregent; he was highly educated and a brilliant poet and orator in both Latin and Greek. He won military fame during the Jewish Revolt of 69-70. In April, 70, he appeared before the walls of Jerusalem, and conquered and destroyed the city after a siege of five months. He wished to preserve the Temple, but in the struggle with the Jews who rushed out of it a soldier threw a brand into the building. The siege and taking of the city were accompanied by barbarous cruelties. The next year Titus celebrated his victory by a triumph; to increase the fame of the Flavian dynasty the inscription on the triumphal arch represented the overthrow of the helpless people as a heroic achievement. Titus succeeded his father as Emperor in 79.

Before becoming emperor, tradition records that Titus was feared as the next Nero, a perception that may have developed from his association with Berenice, his alleged heavy-handedness as praetorian prefect, and tales of sexual debauchery. Once in office, however, both emperor and his reign were portrayed in universally positive terms. The suddenness of this transformation raises immediate suspicions, yet it is difficult to know whether the historical tradition is suspect or if Titus was in fact adept at taking off one mask for another. What is clear, however, is that Titus sought to present the Flavians as the legitimate successors of the Julio-Claudian dynasty. Proof came through the issuing of a series of restoration coins of previous emperors, the most popular being Augustus and Claudius. In A.D. 80 Titus also set out to establish an imperial cult in honor of Vespasian. The temple, in which cult (the first that was not connected with the Julio-Claudians) was housed, was completed by Domitian and was known as the Temple of Vespasian and Domitian.
Legitimacy was also sought through various economic measures, which Titus enthusiastically funded. Vast amounts of capital poured into extensive building schemes in Rome, especially the Flavian Amphitheater, popularly known as the Colosseum. In celebration of additions made to the structure, Titus provided a grand 100-day festival, with sea fights staged on an artificial lake, infantry battles, wild beast hunts, and similar activities. He also constructed new imperial baths to the south-east of the Amphitheater and began work on the celebrated Arch of Titus, a memorial to his Jewish victories. Large sums were directed to Italy and the provinces as well, especially for road building. In response to the eruption of Vesuvius in A.D. 79, Titus spent large sums to relieve distress in that area; likewise, the imperial purse contributed heavily to rebuilding Rome after a devastating fire destroyed large sections of the city in A.D. 80. As a result of these actions, Titus earned a reputation for generosity and geniality. For these reasons he gained the honourable title of "amor et deliciæ generis humani" (the darling and admiration of the human race). Even so, his financial acumen must not be under-estimated. He left the treasury with a surplus, as he had found it, and dealt promptly and efficiently with costly natural disasters. The Greek historian of the third-century A.D., Cassius Dio, perhaps offered the most accurate and succinct assessment of Titus' economic policy: "In money matters, Titus was frugal and made no unnecessary expenditure." In other areas, the brevity of Titus' reign limits our ability to detect major emphases or trends in policy. As far as can be discerned from the limited evidence, senior officials and amici were well chosen, and his legislative activity tended to focus on popular social measures, with the army as a particular beneficiary in the areas of land ownership, marriage, and testamentary freedom. In the provinces, Titus continued his father's policies by strengthening roads and forts in the East and along the Danube.

Titus died in September, A.D. 81 after only 26 months in office. Suetonius recorded that Titus died on his way to the Sabine country of his ancestors in the same villa as his father. A competing tradition persistently implicated his brother and successor, Domitian, as having had a hand in the emperor's demise, but the evidence is highly contradictory and any wrongdoing is difficult to prove. Domitian himself delivered the funeral eulogy and had Titus deified. He also built several monuments in honor of Titus and completed the Temple of Vespasian and Titus, changing the name of the structure to include his brother's and setting up his cult statue in the Temple itself.

Titus was the beneficiary of considerable intelligence and talent, endowments that were carefully cultivated at every step of his career, from his early education to his role under his father's principate. Cassius Dio suggested that Titus' reputation was enhanced by his early death. It is true that the ancient sources tend to heroicize Titus, yet based upon the evidence, his reign must be considered a positive one. He capably continued the work of his father in establishing the Flavian Dynasty and he maintained a high degree of economic and administrative competence in Italy and beyond. In so doing, he solidified the role of the emperor as paternalistic autocrat, a model that would serve Trajan and his successors well. Titus was used as a model by later emperors, especially those known as the Five Good Emperors (Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius).

Copyright (C) 1997, John Donahue.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Catholic Encyclopedia, http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/14746b.htm

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
3 commentsCleisthenes
Claudius-II-RIC-34.jpg
74. Claudius Gothicus.21 viewsAntoninianus, 268 - 270 AD, Rome mint.
Obverse: IMP C CLAVDIVS AVG / Radiate bust of Claudius.
Reverse: FIDES EXERCI / Fides standing, holding two standards.
3.10 gm., 19 mm.
RIC #34; Sear #11334.
Callimachus
Quintillus-RIC-18.jpg
76. Quintillus.20 viewsAntoninianus, 270 AD, Rome mint.
Obverse: IMP C M AVR CL QVINTILLVS AVG / Radiate bust of Quintillus.
Reverse: FIDES MILITVM / Fides standing, holding standard and spear. E in right field.
3.79 gm., 18.5 mm.
RIC #18; Sear #11440.

Many historians limit the reign of Quintillus to 17 days. However, the number of his coins that have survived seems to contradict this. This is corroborated by the fact that all the mints -- except Antioch -- that struck coins for his brother Claudius Gothicus also struck coins for him.
Callimachus
titus rest as.jpg
79-81 AD - TITUS restitutions as - struck 80-81 AD38 viewsobv: [TI CLAVDIVS CAE]SAR AVG PM TR [P IMP PP] (Claudius bust right)
rev: IMP T VESP [AVG] REST (Minerva advancing right, brandishing javelin and holding shield)
ref: RIC II 241 (R), C.105(10fr.)
mint: Rome
8.01gms, 26mm
Rare

Restitutions, or restored coins, is a name given to pieces of money copied from other pieces struck in the past. This coin's mint same as coin of Claudius under his reign.
berserker
Antoniniano Claudio Gótico RIC 62.jpg
94-02 - CLAUDIO GÓTICO (268 - 270 D.C.)103 viewsAE Antoniniano 12.5 x 19 mm 2.7 gr.

Anv: "IMP C CLAVDIVS AVG" - Busto radiado y acorazado, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "LIBERT AVG" - Libertas (La Libertad) de pié de frente viendo a izquierda portando Pileus en la mano de su brazo derecho extendido y largo cetro vertical en izquierda.

Acuñada 1ra. Emisión Set. 268 - Inicios 269 D.C.
Ceca: Roma (Off. 10 ma.)
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.V Parte I #62 Pag.216 - Cohen Vol.VI #152 Pag.145 - DVM #21 Pag.255 - Nor.#684
mdelvalle
RIC_62_Antoniniano_Claudio_II.jpg
94-02 - CLAUDIO GOTICO (268 - 270 D.C.)16 viewsAE Antoniniano 12.5 x 19 mm 2.7 gr.

Anv: "IMP C CLAVDIVS AVG" - Busto radiado y acorazado, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "LIBERT AVG" - Libertas (La Libertad) de pié de frente viendo a izquierda portando Pileus en la mano de su brazo derecho extendido y largo cetro vertical en izquierda.

Acuñada 1ra. Emisión Set. 268 - Inicios 269 D.C.
Ceca: Roma (Off. 10 ma.)

Referencias: RIC Va #62 (C) P.216, Cohen VI #152 P.145, DVM #21 P.255, Nor.#684, Sear RCTV III #11349 P.402
mdelvalle
RIC_66_Antoniniano_Claudio_II.jpg
94-03 - CLAUDIO GOTICO (268 - 270 D.C.)15 viewsAE Antoniniano 12.5 x 19 mm 2.7 gr.

Anv: "IMP C C[LAVDIVS A]VG" - Busto radiado, vestido y acorazado, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "MARS [VLTOR]" - Marte avanzando a der., cargando trofeo de armas en hombro izq. y portando lanza en der.

Acuñada 1ra. Emisión Set. 268 - Inicios 269 D.C.
Ceca: Roma (Off. 8va.)

Referencias: RIC Va #66 (C) P.216, RIC2 temp #242, Cohen VI #155 P.145, DVM #22 P.255, Nor.#669, Sear RCTV III #11350 P.402, La Venera #7406/18, Cunetio #1990-92, Normanby #669
mdelvalle
Antoniniano Claudio Gótico RIC 104.jpg
94-04 - CLAUDIO GÓTICO (268 - 270 D.C.)38 viewsAE Antoniniano 20 x 19 mm 3.4 gr.

Anv: "IMP C CLAV[DIVS AVG]" - Busto radiado y acorazado, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "VIC[TO]RIA AVG" - Victoria vestida, de pié de frente viendo a izquierda, portando una corona de laureles en la mano de su brazo derecho extendido y una hoja de palma en izquierda. "A" en campo izq.

Acuñada 1ra. Emisión Set. 268 - Inicios 269 D.C.
Ceca: Roma (Off. 1ra.)

Referencias: RIC Vol.V Parte I #104 Pag.219 (C) - Sear RCTV (1988) #3222 - Sear RCTV III #11378 Pag.404 - Cohen Vol.VI #293 Pag.158 - DVM #35 Pag.255 - Nor.#616 - Hunter #23
mdelvalle
RIC_104_Antoniniano_Claudio_II.jpg
94-04 - CLAUDIO GOTICO (268 - 270 D.C.)11 viewsAE Antoniniano 20 x 19 mm 3.4 gr.

Anv: "IMP C CLAV[DIVS AVG]" - Busto radiado y acorazado, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "VIC[TO]RIA AVG" - Victoria vestida, de pié de frente viendo a izquierda, portando una corona de laureles en la mano de su brazo derecho extendido y una hoja de palma en izquierda. "A" en campo izq.

Acuñada 1ra. Emisión Set. 268 - Inicios 269 D.C.
Ceca: Roma (Off. 1ra.)

Referencias: RIC Vol.V Parte I #104 Pag.219 (C) - Sear RCTV (1988) #3222 - Sear RCTV III #11378 Pag.404 - Cohen Vol.VI #293 Pag.158 - DVM #35 Pag.255 - Nor.#616 - Hunter #23
mdelvalle
RIC_156_Antoniniano_Claudio_II.jpg
94-05 - CLAUDIO GOTICO (268 - 270 D.C.)6 viewsAE Antoniniano 18 x 19 mm 3.3 gr.

Anv: "IMP C CLAVDIVS AVG" - Busto radiado y acorazado, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "PAX AVG" - Pax (La Paz), estante a izq. a izq., portando una rama de olivo en mano de der. y cetro largo vert. en izq. "P" en exergo.

Acuñada 1da. Emisión 269 D.C.
Ceca: Roma (Off. 1ra.)

Referencias: RIC Va #156 Pag.223 (C), Cohen VI #200 Pag.149, DVM #25 Pag.255 - Nor.#1031
mdelvalle
Antoniniano Claudio Gótico RIC 145.jpg
94-06 - CLAUDIO GÓTICO (268 - 270 D.C.)40 viewsAE Antoniniano 19 x 17 mm 4.1 gr.

Anv: "[IMP CLA]VDIVS P F AVG" - Busto radiado y vestido, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "FELIC TEMPO" - Felicitas (La Felicidad) de pié de frente viendo a izquierda, portando un Caduceo en mano derecha y un largo cetro vertical en izquierda. "T" en exergo.

Acuñada 1ra. Emisión Set. 268 - Inicios 269 D.C.
Ceca: Mediolanum (Off. 3ra.) - Milan Italia
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.V Parte I #145 Pag.223 - Cohen Vol.VI #74 Pag.138 - DVM #9 var Pag.255 - Nor.#1012
mdelvalle
RIC_109_Antoniniano_Claudio_II.jpg
94-07 - CLAUDIO GOTICO (268 - 270 D.C.)9 viewsAE Antoniniano 19 x 21 mm 3.2 gr.

Anv: "IMP C CLAVD[IVS AV]G", Cabeza radiada, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "VIRTVS [AVG]", Virtus (La Virtud) estante a izq., portando rama de olivo en mano der.y lanza en izq., a su der. escudo apoyado en tierra.

Acuñada 1ra. Emisión Set. 268 - Final 269 D.C.
Ceca: Roma (Off. 5ta.)

Referencias: RIC Va #109 (C) P.219, RIC2 temp #204, Cohen VI #313 P.160, DVM #39 P.255, Sear RCTV III #11383 P.404, Hunter #24, ES #69, La Venera #6794/6807, Cunetio #1969
mdelvalle
Antoniniano Claudio Gótico RIC 156.jpg
94-08 - CLAUDIO GÓTICO (268 - 270 D.C.)52 viewsAE Antoniniano 18 x 19 mm 3.3 gr.

Anv: "IMP CLAVDIVS P F AVG" - Busto radiado y vestido, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "PAX AVG" - Pax (La Paz) de pié a izquierda, portando ramo de hojas de olivo en la mano de su brazo derecho extendido y largo cetro vertical en izquierda. "P" en exergo.

Acuñada 2da. Emisión 269 D.C.
Ceca: Roma (Off. 1ra.)
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.V Parte I #156 Pag.223 - Sear RCTV (1988) #3215 - Cohen Vol.VI #200 Pag.149 - DVM #25 Pag.255 - Nor.#1031
mdelvalle
RIC_14_Antoniniano_Claudio_II.jpg
94-08 - CLAUDIO GOTICO (268 - 270 D.C.)7 viewsAE Antoniniano 18 mm 2.7 gr.

Anv: "[IMP] C CLAVDIVS [AVG]", Busto radiado y acoraz., viendo a derecha.
Rev: "[AEQVIT]AS AVG]", Aequitas (La Equidad) estante a izq., portando balanza en mano der. y cornucopia en izq.

Acuñada 1ra. Emisión Set. 268 - Fin 269 D.C.
Ceca: Roma (Off. 6ta.)

Referencias: RIC Va #14 (C) P.212, RIC2 temp #219, Cohen VI #9 P.131, DVM #3 P.255, Nor.#656, La Venera #7089/7161, Cunetio #1976/80, MRK #10412
mdelvalle
RIC_38_Antoniniano_Claudio_II.jpg
94-09 - CLAUDIO GOTICO (268 - 270 D.C.)10 viewsAE Antoniniano 12.5 x 19 mm 2.7 gr.

Anv: "[IMP CL]AVDIVS [AVG]" - Cabeza radiada, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "FIDE[S MILITVM]", Fides (La Fidelidad) estante a izq., portando estandarte militar (Vexilum) en mano der. y largo cetro vert. en izq..

Acuñada 3ra. Emisión med. 270 - Ago. 270 D.C.
Ceca: Roma (Off. 5ta.)

Referencias: RIC Va #38 (C) P.214, RIC2 temp #471, Cohen VI #91 P.139, Nor.#940, Sear RCTV III #11336 P.401, Hunter #42, La Venera #7406/18, Cunetio #1990-92, Normanby #669
mdelvalle
Antoniniano Claudio Gótico RIC 192.jpg
94-10 - CLAUDIO GÓTICO (268 - 270 D.C.)52 viewsAE Antoniniano 20 x 17 mm 2.6 gr.

Anv: "IMP CLAVDIVS AVG" - Busto radiado y acorazado, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "TEMPORVM FELI" - Felicitas (La Felicidad) de pié de frente viendo a izquierda, portando un largo Caduceo en mano derecha y una cornucopia en izquierda.

Acuñada 4ta. Emisión finales 269 D.C.
Ceca: Siscia
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.V Parte I #192 Pag.227 - Cohen Vol.VI #285 Pag.158 - Alföldi4 /34
mdelvalle
Antoniniano Claudio Gótico RIC 252.jpg
94-12 - CLAUDIO GÓTICO (268 - 270 D.C.)39 viewsAE Antoniniano 21 x 20 mm 4.4 gr.

Anv: "IMP CLAVDIVS P F AVG" - Busto radiado, con coraza y Paludamentum (capote militar) sobre ella, viendo a derecha. "··" debajo del busto.
Rev: "VICTORIAE GOTHIC" - Trofeo compuesto por una armadura (Cuerpo), un caso (Cabeza), dos escudos y dos lanzas cruzadas (Brazos). A sus piés un cautivo sentado a cada lado con sus brazos atados a la espalda. "SP[QR]" en exergo.
La acuñación refiere a la gran victoria sobre los Godos en los Balcanes en 269 D.C.

Acuñada 3ra. Emisión mediados 269 D.C.
Ceca: Cyzicus (2do.Período Off.2da) - Balkiz Turquía
Rareza: R

Referencias: RIC Vol.V Parte I #252 Pag.233 - Cohen Vol.VI #308 Pag.160 (20 fr) - Alföldi 31 /4 - DVM #37 Pag.255
mdelvalle
RIC_192_Antoniniano_Claudio_II.jpg
94-12 - CLAUDIO GOTICO (268 - 270 D.C.)7 viewsAE Antoniniano 20 x 17 mm 2.6 gr.

Anv: "IMP CLAVDIVS AVG" - Busto radiado y acorazado, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "TEMPORVM FELI" - Felicitas (La Felicidad) de pié de frente viendo a izquierda, portando un largo Caduceo en mano derecha y una cornucopia en izquierda.

Acuñada 4ta. Emisión finales 269 D.C.
Ceca: Siscia

Referencias: RIC Va #192 (C) P.227, Cohen VI #285 P.158, Alföldi 4 /34, Sear RCTV III #11375 P.404, Hunter pl.lxxxii
mdelvalle
RIC_178_Antoniniano_Claudio_II.jpg
94-13 - CLAUDIO GOTICO (268 - 270 D.C.)11 viewsAE Antoniniano 19 mm 3.7 gr.

Anv: "[IMP CLAVDIV]S CAES AVG", Busto radiado, vestido y acorazado, viendo a derecha. Visto por detrás.
Rev: "[AE]QVITAS AVG", Aequitas (La Equidad) estante a izq., portando balanza en mano der. y cornucopia en izq.

Acuñada 1ra. Emisión 1ra.Fase Final 268 D.C.
Ceca: Siscia (Off. 1ra.??)

Referencias: RIC Va #178var. (C) (Busto, leyenda y off.) P.226, RIC2 temp #566, DVM #3var. (Ley.) P.255, La Venera #9413, Alföldi 1964 #51553/5 p.16, Cunetio #2270
mdelvalle
RIC_193_Antoniniano_Claudio_II.jpg
94-15 - CLAUDIO GOTICO (268 - 270 D.C.)9 viewsAE Antoniniano 18 mm 2.4 gr.

Anv: "IMP CLAVDIVS AVG", Busto radiado y acorazado, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "VBERITAS AVG", Uberitas estante a izq., portando bolsa/ubre en mano der. y cornucopia en izq..

Acuñada 4ta. Emisión inicio - Ago. 270 D.C.
Ceca: Siscia

Referencias: RIC Va #193 (C) P.227, RIC2 Temp #761, Cohen VI #286 P.158, Alföldi 4 /28, Sear RCTV III #11376 P.404, Hunter #72, La Venera #9813/54, Cunetio #2311, Normanby #1102
mdelvalle
RIC_145_Antoniniano_Claudio_II.jpg
94-17 - CLAUDIO GOTICO (268 - 270 D.C.)7 viewsAE Antoniniano 19 x 17 mm 4.1 gr.

Anv: "[IMP CLA]VDIVS P F AVG" - Busto radiado y vestido, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "FELIC TEMPO" - Felicitas (La Felicidad) de pié de frente viendo a izquierda, portando un Caduceo en mano derecha y un largo cetro vertical en izquierda. "T" en exergo.

Acuñada 1ra. Emisión Set. 268 - Inicios 269 D.C.
Ceca: Mediolanum (Off. 3ra.) - Milan Italia

Referencias: RIC Va #145 (C) P.223, Sear RCTV III #11330 P.400, Cohen VI #74 P.138, DVM #9 var (Ley.) P.255, Nor.#1012, Hunter #52
mdelvalle
Antoniniano Claudio Gótico RIC 261.jpg
94-20 - CLAUDIO GÓTICO (268 - 270 D.C.)80 viewsAE Minimus? (Pequeño módulo) 15 x 16 mm 1.2 gr.

Anv: "DIV[O CLAVDIO]" - Cabeza radiada viendo a derecha.
Rev: "[CONSEC]RATIO" - Altar llameante decorado con cuatro cajones y un punto en cada cajon.

IMITACIÓN ITALIANA, Después de la revuelta de Mont Caelius (Una de las 7 colinas de Roma, hoy Celio) de Roma en 271 D.C., los monetarios de la ciudad perdieron su estatus de monetarios oficiales, sin embargo continuaron acuñando moneda, indudablemente en Italia del norte, así pasaron a ser simples falsificadores.

Acuñada después de 271 D.C.
Ceca: No oficial

Referencias: RIC Vol.V Parte I #259 Pag.233 - Sear RCTV (1988) #3228 - Cohen Vol.VI #50 Pag.135 - DVM #44/1 Pag.256 - Nor.#1829 - Göbl#99 mOa
1 commentsmdelvalle
Antoniniano Claudio Gótico RIC 266.jpg
94-21 - CLAUDIO GOTICO (268 - 270 D.C.)69 viewsAE Minimus? (Pequeño módulo) 14 x 13 mm 2.2 gr.

Anv: "[DIVO CLAVDIO]" - Cabeza radiada viendo a derecha.
Rev: "[CONSE]CRATIO" - Aguila parada de frente con su cabeza hacia la derecha y sus alas extendidas.

IMITACIÓN ITALIANA, Después de la revuelta de Mont Caelius (Una de las 7 colinas de Roma, hoy Celio) de Roma en 271 D.C., los monetarios de la ciudad perdieron su estatus de monetarios oficiales, sin embargo continuaron acuñando moneda, indudablemente en Italia del norte, así pasaron a ser simples falsificadores.

Acuñada después de 271 D.C.
Ceca: No oficial

Referencias: RIC Vol.V Parte I #266 Pag.234 - Sear RCTV (1988) #3227 -Cohen Vol.VI #41 Pag.134 - DVM #44/2 Pag.256 - Nor.#1115 - Göbl#98 mOa
mdelvalle
Antoniniano Claudio Gótico RIC 273.jpg
94-23 - CLAUDIO GÓTICO (268 - 270 D.C.)58 viewsAE Minimus? (Pequeño módulo) 14 mm 1.7 gr.

Anv: "[DIVO CLAVDIO]" - Cabeza radiada viendo a derecha.
Rev: "FIDES [MILITVM]" - Fides (La Fidelidad) de pié de frente, viendo a izquierda, portando un estandarte militar en mano derecha y una lanza en la izquierda.

IMITACIÓN ITALIANA, Después de la revuelta de Mont Caelius (Una de las 7 colinas de Roma, hoy Celio) de Roma en 271 D.C., los monetarios de la ciudad perdieron su estatus de monetarios oficiales, sin embargo continuaron acuñando moneda, indudablemente en Italia del norte, así pasaron a ser simples falsificadores.

Acuñada después de 271 D.C.
Ceca: No oficial

Referencias: RIC Vol.V Parte I #273 Pag.235 - Cohen Vol.VI #94 Pag.139
mdelvalle
RIC_252_Antoniniano_Claudio_II.jpg
94-23 - CLAUDIO GOTICO (268 - 270 D.C.)8 viewsAE Antoniniano 21 x 20 mm 4.4 gr.

Anv: "IMP CLAVDIVS P F AVG" - Busto radiado, con coraza y Paludamentum (capote militar) sobre ella, viendo a derecha. "··" debajo del busto.
Rev: "VICTORIAE GOTHIC" - Trofeo compuesto por una armadura (Cuerpo), un caso (Cabeza), dos escudos y dos lanzas cruzadas (Brazos). A sus piés un cautivo sentado a cada lado con sus brazos atados a la espalda. "SP[QR]" en exergo.
La acuñación refiere a la gran victoria sobre los Godos en los Balcanes en 269 D.C.

Acuñada 3ra. Emisión mediados 269 D.C.
Ceca: Cyzicus (2do.Período Off.2da) - Balkiz Turquía

Referencias: RIC Va #252 (R) P.233, Cohen VI #308 P.160 (20 fr), Alföldi 4/31, DVM #37 P.255, Sear RCTV III #11381 P.404, Hunter #87
mdelvalle
RIC_Incierta_Minimus_Claudio_II_Altar_1.jpg
94-35 - CLAUDIO GOTICO (268 - 270 D.C.)7 viewsANTIGUA FALSIFICACIÓN ó ACUÑACIÓN NO OFICIAL
AE Minimus? (Pequeño módulo) 17 mm 2.0 gr.

Anv: "DIVO CLAVDIO" - Cabeza radiada viendo a derecha.
Rev: "[CONSECRATIO]" - Altar llameante decorado.

IMITACIÓN ITALIANA, Después de la revuelta de Mont Caelius (Una de las 7 colinas de Roma, hoy Celio) de Roma en 271 D.C., los monetarios de la ciudad perdieron su estatus de monetarios oficiales, sin embargo continuaron acuñando moneda, en Italia del norte, así pasaron a ser simples falsificadores.
También se acuñaron en Las Galias e Hispania.

Acuñada después de 271 D.C.
Ceca: No oficial

Referencias: Sim. RIC Va #261 P.233, Sim. Sear RCTV '88 #3228, Sim. Sear RCTV III #11462 P.412, Sim.Cohen VI #50 P.135 (Nota), Sim.DVM #44/1 Pag.256
mdelvalle
RIC_Incierta_Minimus_Claudio_II.jpg
94-36 - CLAUDIO GOTICO (268 - 270 D.C.)8 viewsAE Minimus? (Pequeño módulo) 15 x 16 mm 1.2 gr.

ANTIGUA FALSIFICACIÓN ó ACUÑACIÓN NO OFICIAL
AE Minimus? (Pequeño módulo) 15 mm 1.2 gr.

Anv: "DIV[O CLAVDIO]" - Cabeza radiada viendo a derecha.
Rev: "[CONSEC]RATIO" - Altar llameante decorado con cuatro cajones y un punto en cada cajon.

IMITACIÓN ITALIANA, Después de la revuelta de Mont Caelius (Una de las 7 colinas de Roma, hoy Celio) de Roma en 271 D.C., los monetarios de la ciudad perdieron su estatus de monetarios oficiales, sin embargo continuaron acuñando moneda, en Italia del norte, así pasaron a ser simples falsificadores.
También se acuñaron en Las Galias e Hispania.

Acuñada después de 271 D.C.
Ceca: No oficial

Referencias: Sim. RIC Va #261 P.233, Sim. Sear RCTV '88 #3228, Sim. Sear RCTV III #11462 P.412, Sim.Cohen VI #50 P.135 (Nota), Sim.DVM #44/1 Pag.256
mdelvalle
RIC_Incierta_Minimus_Claudio_II_Fides.jpg
94-40 - CLAUDIO GOTICO (268 - 270 D.C.)9 viewsANTIGUA FALSIFICACIÓN ó ACUÑACIÓN NO OFICIAL
AE Minimus? (Pequeño módulo) 14 mm 1.7 gr.

Anv: "[DI]VO CL[AVDIO]" - Cabeza radiada viendo a derecha.
Rev: "FIDES [MILITVM]" - Fides (La Fidelidad) de pié de frente, viendo a izquierda, portando un estandarte militar en mano derecha y una lanza en la izquierda.

IMITACIÓN ITALIANA, Después de la revuelta de Mont Caelius (Una de las 7 colinas de Roma, hoy Celio) de Roma en 271 D.C., los monetarios de la ciudad perdieron su estatus de monetarios oficiales, sin embargo continuaron acuñando moneda, en Italia del norte, así pasaron a ser simples falsificadores.
También se acuñaron en Las Galias e Hispania.

Acuñada después de 271 D.C.
Ceca: No oficial

Referencias: Sim. RIC Va #273 Pag.235 - Cohen Vol.VI #94 Pag.139 - Sear RCTV III Nota Pag.413
mdelvalle
RIC_Incierta_Minimus_Claudio_II_Aguila_1.jpg
94-45 - CLAUDIO GOTICO (268 - 270 D.C.)9 viewsANTIGUA FALSIFICACIÓN ó ACUÑACIÓN NO OFICIAL
AE Minimus? (Pequeño módulo) 14 x 13 mm 2.2 gr.

Anv: "[DIVO CLAVDIO]", Cabeza radiada viendo a derecha.
Rev: "[CON]SEC[RATIO]", Aguila parada de frente con su cabeza hacia la derecha y sus alas extendidas

IMITACIÓN ITALIANA, Después de la revuelta de Mont Caelius (Una de las 7 colinas de Roma, hoy Celio) de Roma en 271 D.C., los monetarios de la ciudad perdieron su estatus de monetarios oficiales, sin embargo continuaron acuñando moneda, en Italia del norte, así pasaron a ser simples falsificadores.
También se acuñaron en forma irregular en Las Galias e Hispania.

Acuñada después de 271 D.C.
Ceca: No oficial

Referencias: Sim.RIC Va #266 P.234, Sim.Sear RCTV III #11459 P.412 y Nota P.413, Sim.Cohen VI #41 P.134, Sim.DVM #44/2 P.256
mdelvalle
RIC_Incierta_Minimus_Claudio_II_Aguila.jpg
94-46 - CLAUDIO GOTICO (268 - 270 D.C.)9 viewsANTIGUA FALSIFICACIÓN ó ACUÑACIÓN NO OFICIAL
AE Minimus? (Pequeño módulo) 14 x 13 mm 2.2 gr.

Anv: "[DIVO CLAVDIO]" - Cabeza radiada viendo a derecha.
Rev: "[CONSE]CRATIO" - Aguila parada de frente con su cabeza hacia la derecha y sus alas extendidas.

IMITACIÓN ITALIANA, Después de la revuelta de Mont Caelius (Una de las 7 colinas de Roma, hoy Celio) de Roma en 271 D.C., los monetarios de la ciudad perdieron su estatus de monetarios oficiales, sin embargo continuaron acuñando moneda, en Italia del norte, así pasaron a ser simples falsificadores.
También se acuñaron en forma irregular en Las Galias e Hispania.

Acuñada después de 271 D.C.
Ceca: No oficial

Referencias: Sim.RIC Va #266 P.234, Sim.Sear RCTV III #11459 P.412 y Nota P.413, Sim.Cohen VI #41 P.134, Sim.DVM #44/2 P.256
mdelvalle
BMC_2336_Tetradracma_Claudio_II_Alejandría.jpg
94-60 - CLAUDIO GOTICO (268 - 270 D.C.)6 viewsALEJANDRIA - Egipto
Vellón Tetradracma 19 mm 9.7 gr.

Anv: ”AVT K KΛAVΔIOC CEB”, Busto laureado y vestido viendo a derecha.
Rev: "L - Γ" =Año de acuñación =3, en ambos campos, Águila estante a der. con una guirnalda en su pico y hoja de palma detrás.

Acuñada: Ago - Sep. 270 D.C.

Referencias: Dattari #5413, Milne #4291, Geissen #3047, Curtis #1687, BMC Alexandria #2336 P.303, Sear RCTV #11458 P.412
mdelvalle
Alexandria_Tray_1_obv.jpg
A) Roman Egypt Portrait Gallery 1: Obverses, Claudius through Sev. Alexander43 views+


CLICK ON IMAGE FOR A MUCH LARGER VIEW


+
Sosius
Alexandria_Tray_2_rev.jpg
A) Roman Egypt Portrait Gallery 1: Reverses, Claudius through Sev. Alexander17 views+


CLICK ON IMAGE FOR A MUCH LARGER VIEW


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Sosius
nerocorinth2.jpg
Achaea. Corinthia, Corinth. Nero Æ20. Claudius Anaxilaus and P. Ventidius Fronto151 viewsCorinthia, Corinth. Nero. 54-68 AD. Æ 20mm . Ti. Claudius Anaxilaus and P. Ventidius Fronto, Duovirs. Struck 67-68 AD. Laureate head of Nero left / Nero stands facing within tetrastyle temple. BCD Corinth 480. SNG Copenhagen 235-236. RPC I 1208.

Duoviri, "the two men" was the official style of two joint magistrates. Such pairs of magistrates were appointed at various periods of Roman history both in Rome itself and in the colonies and municipia.
2 commentsancientone
ClaudiusLacedaemon.jpg
Achaea. Laconia, Lacedaemon(Sparta). Claudius Æ25. Piloi of the Dioscuri.61 viewsObv: TI KLAVDIOC KAICAP; laureate bust right.
Rev: EΠI ΛAKΩNOΣ; piloi of the Dioscuri; two stars above.
Magistrate Lacon
RPC 1115 var.
1 commentsancientone
claudius_ae_as_minerva_spain.JPG
AE AS OF CLAUDIUS RV/MINERVA 53 viewsWEIGHT: 11.6GR, DIAMETER: 27MM
Tiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus (1 August 10 BC – 13 October AD 54), born Tiberius Claudius Drusus, then Tiberius Claudius Nero Germanicus until his accession, was Roman Emperor from 41 to 54 AD.

1 commentsAntonivs Protti
unkntinyOR.jpg
AE imitative, no ref33 viewsUnofficial mint, AE imitative, c. 2nd - 3rd century A.D. AE, 10mm .41g, no ref
O: Blundered legend, Radiate and bearded bust right
R: Blundered legend, figure standing l, holding uncertain objects
(possibly imitating Tetricus, but it looks like Claudius II to my eyes)
casata137ec