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Search results - "zoo"
7 Gallienus19 viewsGallienus
AE Antoninianus, "Zoo Issue"

GALLIENVS AVG IOVI CONS AVG, Radiate head right / Goat standing left. Digamma in exergue.

RIC 207, Göbl 730
7 Gallienus21 viewsGALLIENUS
AE Antoninianus, "Zoo Issue" - Centaur

GALLIENVS AVG, Radiate head right / APOLLINI CONS AVG, Centaur walking left, one forefoot raised, globe in right hand, rudder (or trophy) over shoulder. H in exergue.

A32 viewsGallienus Antoninianus

Attribution: RIC 207k
Date: AD 267-268
Obverse: GALLIENVS AVG; radiate bust r.
Reverse: IOVICONS AVG; goat stg. l.; stigma in exergue
Size: 17 mm
Weight: 2.5 grams

Gallienus’ coinage is perhaps best know by the issuance of his Zoo series. Each coin type depicts a mythical or real animal on the reverse as a dedication to a specific Roman deity: Diana (doe, stag, antelope/gazelle), Apollo (centaur, gryphon), Sol (Pegasus/winged horse, bull), Jupiter (goat), Liber Pater (panther/tigress), Neptune (capricorn, hippocamp), Juno (doe/elk/capreolus), Mercury (hippocamp/criocamp), Hercules (lion, boar).

“The vast majority of Zoo coins were produced at the mint of Rome, with a few rare examples coming from Siscia. Each officina produced a different coin within the series, with some producing a second, less common type also. Occasionally you'll find an animal with the "wrong" officina mark. These are fascinating, and the rarity leads us to believe that they represented mistakes, perhaps when a die engraver was transferred from one workshop to another. He gets the right animal, but the wrong officina. Or maybe one workshop was falling behind, so another was temporarily enlisted to help catch up on the quota?” – from Jim’s page on Coins of Gallienus' Zoo at
A zoo should have at least one Phoenix575 viewsDN CONSTANS PF AUG
Siscia mint, third offic.
Alexander III The Great, Macedonian Kingdom, 336 - 323 B.C., Lifetime Issue, Silver tetradrachm, Price 3599 (same dies)96 viewsSilver tetradrachm
Obv:- Head of (Alexander the Great as) Herakles right, wearing lion skin headdress knotted at base of neck
Rev:- ALEXANDROU, Zeus seated left, holding eagle in right hand and scepter in left, monogram and M below throne;
Price 3599 (same dies), Müller 67, 17.206g, 25.9mm, 255o, Babylon mint, lifetime issue, c. 325 - 323 B.C.;
EF, obverse off-center;

Dies by 'The Alexander Dekadrachm Master'. From the same highly-skilled hand as the famous dekadrachms, including Price 3598, with which this shares all symbols and their arrangement. A massive issue of coinage was struck for the mass-weddings of the soldiers of Alexander the Great to Persian women, and their subsequent return to Macedonia. The best style of the lengthy issue of Alexander coinage


Old coin - new photo.

Click to zoom.
2 commentsmaridvnvm
Ancient Greek Bestiary366 viewsClockwise: Lion of Chersonessos, Dyrrhachion Cow, Calf and Wasp; Dove of Sikyon; Pegasos of Leukas (mythical); Lion and Bull of Tarsos; Macedonian Horse and Human.
Center: Owl of Athens.
Of the animals listed above, it is said that the human animal is the most violent and destructive of all.
4 commentsJason T
Anglo-Saxon/Viking strap end18 viewsMythical creature zoomorphic strap end. Yorkshire detector find1 commentsmauseus
Anglo-Saxon/Viking strap end14 viewsZoomorphic strap end, Ainsbrook/"Arsny" recorded find1 commentsmauseus
Another nice scorpio for the zoo !252 views2 provincial animals !3 commentsphilippe B2
BCC MA1317 viewsBronze Handle
Late Hellenistic or Roman
Zoomorphic cast bronze
handle in the form of a lion
or gryphon paw.
Length: 5.15cm. wt: 12.89gm.
BCC MA3313 viewsZoomorphic Bronze Handle
Caesarea Maritima
Late Hellenistic or Roman
1st Cent. BCE - 3rd Cent. CE?
Bronze handle terminal in the
form of the head of a dog.
Simple and elegant design.
The handle was possibly attached
to a large bronze vessel through
loops on either side, and arched
over the top of the vessel with
the dogs looking upward when
in use.
37 x 8.5 x 6.5mm. wt: 11.1gm.
Surface find, 1976
Bronze nummus - Vandal kingdom153 viewsVandal kingdom. Ć nummus (10 mm, 0.45 g). Obverse: Diademed and draped bust right. Reverse: Eagle or zoomorphic deity within wreath. Wroth 3:18.

Very rare. A similar coin in British Museum (Wroth 3:18) was purchased from Mr. J. Doubleday in 1849 and was believed to originate from Northern Africa. Probably struck in the Vandal kingdom during the time period from c. 450 to 530. One possibility is that the coin imitates Ostrogothic 10 nummi coins with an uppright eagle minted in Rome for Theoderic the great. The vandal king Thrasamund was married to Amalfrida, the sister of Theoderic, from 500 to 523 AD. The coin may perhaps have been struck during this time period. Another possibility is that the reverse shows the Egyptian god Anubis. Comments and alternative interpretations are welcome.

Ex Poncin collection; CNG 134, lot 455, 2006; Beast Coins Auction I, lot 205, 2009
3 commentsjbc
Ancient Coins - CAIUS “CALIGULA”, AS, ROME MINT, VESTA, RIC 38 zoom view
Caius “Caligula”
AE as
Rome mint
Bare head left
Vesta seated left holding patera and transverse sceptre
RIC 38
Probably the WORST Caligula as offered on VCoins BUT the type is clearly identifiable from the remaining obverse legend and can be used as a space filler.
1 commentsAntonivs Protti
Gallienus DIANAE CONS AVG RIC 181.jpg
DIANAE CONS AVG RIC V/1 18158 viewsAnt, 20x22mm, 3.51g.

Obverse: GALLIENVS AVG, Radiate head R.

Reverse: DIANAE CONS AVG, antelope walking L.

XII in exe.

Rome RIC V/1 181, Common.

Domitian - quadrans21 viewsThis African rhinoceros was the third rhino which had been brought alive to Rome (the first one was an Indian rhino seized by Octavius in Cleopatra's Alexandrian zoo, the second one was seen in Rome later during Augustus' principate. Pliny's mention of a rhino in the games given by Pompey is probably a mistake).
Domitian's rhino could have been the first African rhino in Rome. He has been opposed in the Colosseum to a bear and perhaps also a bull. The fight has been narrated by Martial.
Domitian RIC-25181 viewsĆ Quadrans, 3.32g
Rome Mint, 84-85 AD
RIC 251 (R). BMC -. BNF 542.
Obv: (No legend) Rhinoceros stg. l.
Rev: IMP DOMIT AVG GERM; S C in centre
Acquired from Marc Breitsprecher, February 2019.

A few years into Domitian's reign an extraordinary issue of quadrantes were struck featuring a rhinoceros. Although the coins are undated, their production can be narrowed down between late 83 when he assumed the title Germanicus and 85 when the consular date XI appeared on the quadrantes. The type is highly unusual and breaks with the standard obverses that were normally featured on the quadrans. One may ask, why a rhinoceros? Certainly the animal was rare in Rome and most difficult to obtain. The rhinoceros depicted on the coin is the African species, identified by the two horns. Martial in his book 'On Spectacles' tells of such a rhinoceros in the Colosseum. Presumably, these coins were struck with that very 'star performer' in mind. Ted Buttrey wrote about this coin type in his article Domitian, the Rhinoceros, and the Date of Martial's "Liber De Spectaculis": "it is wrong to write off the rhinoceros of Domitian's coin casually, as if the coin were a picture postcard from the zoo: 'This is a rhinoceros'. No, coin types are pointed. Everything has to do with imperial advertisement and with its importance at the moment of issue: 'This is my rhinoceros'. Domitian's rhinoceros, in its supremacy in the arena might well stand as a metaphor for the invincible success of the emperor conquering general who had recently assumed the historically-weighted title of Germanicus." Coming back to Martial, he also speaks of tokens being showered upon the cheering crowds - could these quadrantes struck cheaply and in massive quantities have been gifts to the cheering mob at the arena? In essence, can this coin double as currency and a souvenir from a long ago day at the games in the Colosseum?

This variant of the famous rhinoceros quadrans is somewhat rare (no examples in the BM) because of the obverse legend beginning in the upper right, more commonly it begins in the lower left. Artistically, most of the rhinos depicted on these coins have a lot to be desired. Some look like wild boars with horns added for effect. Happily, the animal depicted on this coin's obverse indeed looks every part the powerful and fearsome beast which awestruck Roman audiences - as a matter of fact, it appears to be charging with its head down. Perhaps the engraver was a witness to the very games martial describes?

As mentioned above, the rhino depicted on the coin is the two-horned African species. In contrast, the Indian rhino has one horn. Pliny in his Natural Histories describes the rhinoceros as a one horned creature (although confusingly he confirms its Ethiopian origins), Martial said it had two. The rhino was so rare in Rome, Pliny had to go all the way back to the games of Pompey the Great in 55 BC to find a reference for the animal on display in the city, apparently it was a one-horned Indian rhino. At any rate, both the numismatic evidence and Martial's description coincide rather nicely to confirm that Domitian, at great expense no doubt, brought to Rome an African rhinoceros for his shows in the new Colosseum. The surviving coins featuring this fantastic beast prove how important a feat this was to the emperor.

Well centred with a lovely green patina and fine style.
3 commentsDavid Atherton
Elagabalus, Tripolis, Phoenicia45 viewsBronze AE 25, Tripolis mint, 220 - 221 A.D.
12.154g, 25.0mm, 0°
Obv.: AVT KM AVP ANTW NINOC, laureate head right
Rev.: TRI PO LI TWN, temple, center arch, two tetrastyle wings, curved roof line from wings to top of pediment, Astarte stands facing in doorway, ΓΛΦ (Seleukid year 532) in exergue
BMC Phoenicia p. 223, 120; SNG Cop 291
Not sure if this is correct.
2 goats.JPG
Every petting zoo needs a few goats255 viewsThis one is already in my gallery
Bronze AE 21, S 1394, VF, Amphipolis mint, 6.847g, 21.2mm, 0o, obverse diademed head of Artemis Tauropolis right, bow and quiver at shoulder; reverse , two goats on their hind legs, contending, facing;
ex-Wallace Widtman collection .
ex-Forum Ancient Coins
Purchased 09/2007
1 commentsJohnny
Gallienius, Doe/Antelope29 viewsGallienius
Ae 18-22mm; 2.94g

Radiate head right

Doe/Antelope? walking left

I am not sure if this is a Doe or Antelope- its hind end looks smaller than the Antelope and I don't see any trace of horns- but I also dont see any Doe's walking left with their head foreward, they are all looking back.
Robin Ayers
Gallienus19 viewsGallienus, Bronze antoninianus, "Zoo" reverse, 4.31g, 20.7mm, 0 degreesb70
Gallienus - Bull Left18 viewsObverse:- GALLIENVSAVG, Head left with radiate crown
Reverse:- SOLICONSAVG, Bull left
Exergue:- XI
RIC 285var GOBL 748c CUNETIO 1407var CMR 27a+11

The left facing bull is one of the rarest type in the zoo series. CMR gives it a rarity value of R4 indicating that there are 2 to 5 known examples. The left facing standard type of bust is equally rare. In CMR there are only two types of reverses recorded with it, the right face bull and the left facing goat, again both have the rarity value of R4 indicating that there are 4 to 10 known examples of zoo series having this bust.

This coin combines both and is the only known example, a real rarity amongst the rare :)
Gallienus RIC Rome 181 obv and rev.jpg
AE Antoninianus
19.6mm. 2.62g.
Die Alignment: 165 degrees.
Rome Mint. 267-268 A.D.
Obv: GALLIENVS AVG - Radiate and draped bust right.
Rev: DINAE CONS AVG - Antelope walking left.
Exergue: gamma
Ref: RIC Rome 181 unlisted variant
Gallienus Antoninianus RIC 2839 viewsObverse: GALLIENVS AVG, Radiate bust (Sol) with crown.
Reverse: SOLI CONS AVG, Winged horse springing right. 'A' in exergue.

Struck 264-268 A.D. Rome on undersized flan.

Charles P4
Gallienus Boar20 viewsFirst Zoo coin to enter my album in the Forum !1 commentsphilippe B2
coins1 205~0.jpg
gallienus DIANAE CONS AVG463 viewsgallienus, 267-268 A.D., mint of rome..
OBV: GALLIENVS AVG, radiate head right.
REV: DIANAE CONS AVG, stag walking left. X in exergue.

this coin is historically important because it is believed that this coin was minted to commemorate vows to goddess diana and invoke her protection of gallienus against the revolt of aureolus... theres a whole series of these asking all kinds of different gods/goddesses for help. when i get more of these " zoo" coins ill post them here!

submitted by ancientcoins
2 commentsancientcoins
gallienus RIC V-1, Rome 18146 viewsAE 22 mm 4.4 grams
OBV :: GALLIENVS AVG, Radiate head right
REV :: DIANAE CONS AVG, Antelope walking left
RIC V-1, Rome 181
RIC rated C
purchased 04/2010
Gallienus Zoo20 viewsGallienus Ae. antoninianus

Gallienus (AD 253-268), Ae. antoninianus, rad. bust r., rev., DIANAE CONS AVG, Stag walking r., hd. turned
James b4
Gallienus' Zoo40 viewsCentaur, Panther, Hippocamp, Antelope, Pegasus, Gryphon, Stag, GoatLegatus
Gallienus: Apollos gryphon158 viewsGallienus (253–268)
Rome mint, workshop D.
Obeverse: GALLIENVSAVG, Galllienus head right.
Reverse: APOL[I]NICONS[AVG], gryphon left. Greek ’delta’ below.

Comment: Do anyone mention Buckbeak?

W=1.88g[Sic!]; D=19x22mm.
1 commentsKjetilK
Gallienus: Hercules' boar118 viewsGallienus (253–268)
Rome mint, workshop E.
Obeverse: GALLIENVSAVG, Gallienushead right.
Reverse: HERCVLICONSAVG, boar right. E below.

Comment: One of the true rarities of the zoo series. This is not a great specimen. The boar’s head are disfigured because of ghosting due to a die clash with the obverse die. However it’s a heavy coin with silvery color. Sometimes you just have to take what you can get.

W=3.97g; D=21x20mm.
Gallienus: Liberos panther119 viewsGallienus (253–268)
Rome mint, workshop B.
Obeverse: GALLIE NVSAVG, Gallienus head right.
Reverse: [L]IBEROCONSAVG, panther left. B below.

W=1.95g; D=17x22mm.
Gallienus: Sols 'winged horse'167 viewsGallienus (253–268)
Rome mint, workshop A.
Obeverse: [GALLIE]NVSAVG, Gallienushead right.
Reverse: SOLIC[ONSAVG], winged horse right. A below.

Comment: This is one of the most common coins in the zoo series. I have kept this lower grade coin over the years because of the excellent strike and the nice body of the horse. I’m a big fan of those ’winged horses’ – those who drew Sol’s chariot over the sky. The coin costed me about 10 dollars, and that is not a big investment for a favourite coin.

W=2.47g; D=19x21mm
2 commentsKjetilK
Gallienus: Sols winged horse160 viewsGallienus (253–268)
Rome mint, workshop A.
Obeverse: GALLIENVSAVG, Gallienushead right.
Reverse: , SOLICONSAVG, winged horse right. A below to the right.

Comment: This variation must be one of the scarcer of the zoo series. On this specimen you can see ghosting on the reverse due to a die clash from the obverse die.
1 commentsKjetilK
Horse Fibula109 viewsZoomorphic plate Horse fibula

2nd Century AD

40mm X 22mm


Pin intact

Ex-Ancient Treasures
3 commentsJay GT4
ISLAMIC, India, Mughals, Jahangir57 viewsIndia / Mughal Empire. Jahangir, AH 1014-1037 / AD 1605-1627. Rupee, AH 1025 / AD 1616; RY 10; month Isfandarmuz. Agra. Lane-Poole 441 (similar). KM 147.1. Zeno 49303. Silver. Square, 20mm × 20mm, 11.04 grams.

Obverse: Shah Nur-ud-din Jahangir, ibn Shah Akbar.

Reverse: "mah-i isfandarmuz-i ilahi / zarb agra / sanat 10 / 1025" (the month of Isfandarmuz of the ilahi month, struck Agra year 10, 1025).

Prince Salim's accession to the Mughal throne occured in 1605 AD following the death of his father, Jalal-ud-din Muhammad Akbar. Prince Salim chose the titular name of Nur-ud-din Muhammad Jahangir and ruled in a fair and just manner. Jahangir was born amidst luxury and opulence and he was a refined, educated and cultured man. He excelled in astronomy, zoology, painting etc and was liberal and tolerant towards other religions. As a prince, he was known for his affair with Anarkali, a courtesan, who, as rumoured, was buried alive by an incensed Akbar. Later Jahangir married a Persian widow, Nur Jahan, who became his favorite wife and a capable administrator as in the last few years of his reign Jahangir's mental and physical health deteriorated under the influence of alcohol and opium. Jahangir died in 1627 AD.

Under Jahangir, numismatics reached its greatest zenith. Jahangir minted some of the best known coins of the world including the largest gold coin ever minted, a 1,000 Tola (12 Kg) gold mohur, zodiac coins in gold and silver, portrait coins of himself and Akbar, and coins featuring poetic couplets. Some of these innovations were radical and defied the Islamic tradition viz zodiac & portrait coins. Shah Jahan, Jahangir's son and successor, ordered death penalty for anyone found using the zodiac coin series (consider as un-Islamic) as well as coins bearing the name of his step-mother, Nur Jahan, as she had undue influence over Jahangir and had interfered in Shah Jahan's accession, that makes them a great rarity today. No wonder coins of Jahangir are considered works of art and are much sought after by collectors around the world.

The featured specimen is an elegant square coin of Jahangir with magnificent work of calligraphy and depiction of vines, creepers, flowers, sunbursts and what not on the coin. It is most certainly struck from the Gold Mohur dies. All square rupee's were intended as 'nazrana' or tribute. The Ilahi coins were struck as round or square shape in alternate months. The ornate multiple dotted borders (thin inner border, thick outer border) together with the artistic scroll work, calligraphy and the flora depicted on the coin makes it an exquisite specimen, more so remarkable due to the absence of any shroff 'test' marks that disfigure and plague the Mughal coin series. The coin has great eye appeal and is a fine tribute to one of the best known numismatic innovator of his time.
Lion520 viewsSilvered AE ant, Gallienus, GALLIENVS AVG, Radiate head right / HERCVLI CONS AVG, Lion walking left, roaring. A in exergue. Rome, Göbl 709b.4 commentsflinn
Lysimachos, drachm, Thompson 12596 viewsSilver drachm
Obv:– Head of Herakles right clad in lion's head headdress.
Rev:– BASILEWS LUSIMACOU, Zeus seated left on throne, eagle extended in right, long vertical scepter in left, forepart of lion over DI on left, K under throne
Minted in Colophon mint from . B.C. 299 - 296.
Ref:– Thompson 125, Müller -

Restoring the types from the lifetime of Alexander the Great but minted in the name of Lysimachos.

ex Harlan J. Berk. Ex-Forvm

Old coin - new photo

Click to zoom to full size
3 commentsmaridvnvm
Monacle Cobra10 viewsMonacle Cobra at the Zoo Negara in Kuala Lumpur.rexesq
Mughal Empire: Akbar I (1556-1605) Ć Dam, Dogaon, 984AH (KM 28.18; Liddle Type C-1)17 viewsObv: Denomination and mint formula
Rev: Hijri date in Persian

From the collection of the late Manzoor Mirza
Nero Tetradrachm - Agathodaemon with Opium Poppy Pods and Grain, RY: 3199 views--
*Not sure if this would be considered a 'zoo animal'.... it seems at least half of it is ..... but it sure does look amazing and intricate on some coins, and is often depicted wearing the crowns of upper and lower Egypt, like the Pharohs of old, you can see the crown on his head on this example fairly well, as well as the Opium Poppies and Grain.
Roman Empire
Emperor Nero Caesar (54 - 68 AD)
AR/BI Tetradrachm of Alexandria, Egypt.
Regnal Year: 3 = ( 56/57 AD )

(titles in Greek)
obv: Laureate head right
rev: Agathodaemon serpent rearing up, with two Opium Poppy Pods, and two Grain Ears. Date in right field. Regnal Year: 3

Size: 28mm
Weight: 12.4 Grams
more info on the coin:
The Agathodaemon was a good spirit/demon that was worshipped by the ancient Egyptians.
He had the shape of a serpent with a human head.
The Greek inscription on the reverse of this coin shows that this is the "neo" or "new" agathodaemon serpent, or, in other words, the new good spirit (of rule by Nero).
2 commentsrexesq
Owl - This zoo needs an OWL! Preferably a perky owl..1307 viewsCalabria --Circa 281-272 BC. AR Drachm (3.16 gm). Helmeted head of Athena left; helmet decorated with skylla hurling a stone / [TARANTINWN], owl standing right on thunderbolt, wings spread. Vlasto 1077ff; SNG ANS 1320 15 commentsfeatherz
ROMAN EMPIRE, Gallienus Zoo61 viewsNervousRex
ROMAN EMPIRE, Johannes AE4 A.D.423-425 Rome (TRM)159 viewsObv: ...NN-ESPFA...
Rev: Victory Dragging Captive, SALVS REIPVBLICE
RIC X 1920
Johannes lost a power struggle with Theodosius II, who wanted Valentinian III installed as Western emperor. It is said that he was a mild-mannered guy, and that he was captured, mutilated, and exhibited in a zoo before being executed. Whenever I see this coin, I feel sorry for him.
Roman Plate, Enamelled, equal-ended Fibula #162,104 viewsRoman Plate, Enamelled, equal-ended Fibula #162,
type: Roman Plate, equal-ended Fibula with zoomorphic terminals.
size: 47x25x8mm,
weight: 5,67g,
date: cc.2nd century A.D.,
ref: ??? ,
distribution: ??? ,
1 commentsquadrans
Roman Plate, Enamelled, Zoomorpic-Plate-Frog-Fibula-059,73 viewsRoman Plate, Enamelled, Zoomorpic-Plate-Frog-Fibula-059,
type: ,
size: 30,5x17mm,
weight: 5,81g,
date: A.D.,
ref: .,
distribution: ,
Roman Zoomorph, Enamelled, Bird Fibula #196,129 viewsRoman Zoomorph, Enamelled, Bird Fibula #196,
type: ???,
size: 40x20x22mm,
weight: 6,95g,
date: ??? A.D.,
ref: ???,
distribution: ???,
1 commentsquadrans
Salonina, wife of Gallienus: Junos stag111 viewsSalonina, wife of Gallienus (253–268)
Rome mint, workshop A.
Obeverse: [COR]SALONINAAVG, Salonina head right.
Reverse: IVNONICONSAVG, stag standing left. [A] below.

W=2.83g; D=21x23mm.
Seleucid Kingdom, Seleukos I, tetradrachm, 312 - 281 B.C.85 viewsSilver tetradrachm
Obv:- Head of Herakles right, clad in lion head headdress
Rev:- BASILEWS SELEUKOU, Zeus enthroned left, holding Nike and scepter, monogram left;
Antioch mint, c. 300 B.C.;
Tef:- SNG Spaer 2, WSM 923, CSE 8



Old coin - new image

Click to zoom to full size image. I think it's worth it.
3 commentsmaridvnvm
Septimius Severus denarius56 viewsRIC 490a (3,67 gm, 20 mm).
Mint of Laodicea, 196-197 AD.

Perfect engraver's work & stamp!
Great ferocious portrait!

Septimius Severus denarius40 viewsRIC 459 (3,11 gm, 18,5 mm).
Mint of Laodicea, 194 AD.

Wide & pure specimen of early Laodicea type!

Septimius Severus denarius31 viewsRIC 244 (3,2 gm, 19 mm).
Mint of Rome, 211 AD.

An excellent sage portrait of aged emperor!

Septimius Severus denarius42 viewsRIC 191f (3,1 gm, 19 mm).
Mint of Rome, 211 AD.

Sharp & attractive strike but scabbing flan!

1 commentsneander
Sicily. Messana. The Mamertinoi. Ae Quadruple Unit (288-278 BC).24 views27 mm, 19.38 g

Obverse: APEOΣ Laureate head of Ares to right; behind, helmet.

Reverse: MAMEPTINΩN Eagle standing to left on thunderbolt.

Calciati I, 92, 3. SNG ANS 402.

After the tyrant of Syracuse Agathocles died in 289 BC, the majority of his mercenaries became unemployed. Some bands dispersed but the Mamertines attempted to stay in Syracuse. Hailing from Campania (a region in southern Italy), perhaps related to the Samnites, the civilized Greeks did not take kindly to a large armed mob of uncultured barbaroi loitering around the Hellenistic center of Sicily. Barred from settling in Syracuse, these mercenaries headed north until they came across the town of Messana on the north-east tip of Sicily.

The city offered its hospitality to the band of mercenaries and in return the mercenaries slaughtered many of the men and leading figures of the city and claimed it for themselves. The women and possessions were split among the mercenaries as their own. It was at this time that the mercenaries seem to officially proclaim themselves as the Mamertines as they began to mint their own coinage. The name Mamertines means the sons of Mamers, Mamers being an Italic war god with the Latin equivalent of Mars. Soon afterwards, the Italian town of Rhegium suffered a similar fate.

With Messana and its sister city of Rhegium across the strait, the Mamertines held a commanding position in Sicily and the shipping routes that passed through the Strait of Messina. With Messana as a base of operations the Mamertines were able to plunder, pirate, and raid the surrounding countryside with considerable success. Syracuse was unable to react immediately due to its internal political disorder. This left Sicily split between Carthage in the west and disunited Greeks and Mamertines elsewhere.

When Hiero II of Syracuse attempted to dislodge the Mamertines in 265, they enlisted the aid of a nearby Carthaginian fleet, whose swift intervention forced Hiero to withdraw. The Mamertines soon regretted the Carthaginian occupation and appealed to Rome for protection, citing their status as Italians. Rome was hesitant to become entangled in a conflict outside of Italy or to come to the aid of the piratical Mamertines. Yet Rome's fear of a Carthaginian stronghold so close to Italy—and greed for plunder in what they assumed would be a short war against Syracuse—outweighed their concerns. The Romans invaded Sicily and marched to the Mamertines' aid.

When the Mamertines learned that the Romans were approaching, they persuaded the Carthaginian general to withdraw his forces from the city. The general, regretting this decision to abandon the city, took the fateful steps of allying with Hiero. The combined Carthaginian and Syracusan forces then besieged Messana. After attempts to negotiate a truce failed, Carthage and Rome began hostilities. Both sides were confident of a quick and decisive victory. Neither side anticipated the horror that was to come: a ferocious, generation-long war that would transform the Roman and Carthaginian empires, upend the balance of power in the western Mediterranean, and set the stage for Hannibal's avenging assault on Italy.
Nathan P
Syracuse, Sicily, Agathocles, 317 - 289 B.C.82 viewsBronze AE 18, Calciati II, p. 201, 86 Ds46/Rl 1; BMC Sicily p. 191, 335; SNG ANS 656, EF, 5.257g, 17.9mm, 270o, Syracuse mint, c. 310 - 305 B.C.; obverse laureate head of Apollo left, Campanian helmet behind; reverse SURAKOSIWN (below), Pegasos with pointed wing flying left, E/L monogram2 commentsNick T
This wolf is allowed in a zoo, see... she is good with kids!166 viewsShe wolf suckling Romulus and Remus2 commentsSkyler
Zoo: Goat left, S in ex18 viewsGALLIENUS A.D. 253-268 Ć Antoninianus. Rev. IOVI CONS AVG, Goat walking left, S in exergue. 1.9gm 22x19mm Sear RCV III 10235 var. RSC341 Podiceps
Zoo: Hippocamp right, N in ex16 viewsGALLIENUS A.D. 253-268 Ć Antoninianus. Rev. NEPTVNO CONS AVG, Hippocamp right, N in exergue. 3.3g 19mm Sear RCV III 10292 RSC 667Podiceps
Zoo: Panther left, RIC 57421 viewsAntoninianus of Gallienus, Siscia Mint, 267-268 CE. Size and weight: 20x22mm, 2.50g. 
Obverse: Radiate head right. 
Reverse: Panther walking left. 
Exergue: Blank. 
Reference: RIC V Sole Reign 574. The panther on this coin belongs to the god Liber, equivalent to the Greek Dionysos, who Gallienus was calling on for help in his turbulent reign. The P in the reverse legend stands for PATER, so he was calling on Father Liber. Ex MoremothPodiceps
Zoo: Pegasus right, H in ex32 viewsGALLIENUS A.D. 253-268 Ć Antoninianus. Rev. SOLI CONS AVG, Pegasus springing right, H in exergue. 3.3g 18mm Sear RCV III 10362 RSC 979Podiceps
Zoo: Stag left, X in ex43 viewsGALLIENUS A.D. 253-268 Ć Antoninianus. Rome 267-8 A.D. Rev. DIANAE (CONS AVG), Stag walking left, X in exergue. 2.8gm 18mm Sear RCV III 10201. RSC 1581 commentsPodiceps
Zoo; IOVI CONS AVG, bearded goat left, “ς” in ex, RIC V 20738 viewsGallienus, August 253 - 24 March 268 A.D. Bronze antoninianus, Göbl 730b, RIC V 207, Cohen 342, VF, soft strike, Rome mint, 2.745g, 22.3mm, 0o, 260 - 268 A.D.; obverse GALLIENVS AVG, radiate head right; reverse IOVI CONS AVG, bearded goat left, “ς” in ex; green patina. Ex FORVM, photo credit FORVMPodiceps
Zoomorfic-3D Gaulish origin fibulae Group, dating circa AD 40-65.100 views3D-Zoomorfic Gaulish origin fibulae Group, dating circa AD 40-65.quadrans
Zoomorphic 3D Lion (Bear) and Bull Fibula, Gaul, Fibula #046 133 viewsFibula #046
type:Zoomorphic 3D Lion(Bear) and Bull Fibula,
This is the rare bow broosh of Gaulish origin dating circa AD 40-65. The bow takes the form of a fully moulded lion (bear) with its front paws placed on a trapezoid plate with a bull's head between. The pin is hinged and contained within a tubular frame that supports the back legs of the lion. The detailing is clear with incised zizag grooves indicating the mane.
size: 10x15x33mm,
weight: 7,02g,
date: 40-65 A.D.,
ref: ???
distribution: Gaul,
Zoomorphic 3D Lion, AE Roman Enamelled Fibula, Fibula #075, Romano-British type,237 viewsFibula #075, AE Roman Zoomorphic 3D Lion Enamelled Fibula,
type: Roman Zoomorphic 3D Lion Enamelled Fibula, Romano-British type.
Lion walking to right. There are eight enamelled circular cells on its body within which traces of light blue and orange are visible. It has a mane represented by two ridges with incised wavy lines. This example is unusual as all four paws arc shown.
size: 35x21mm,
weight: 8,52g,
date: ater the 2nd centuries A.D.,
ref: Hattatt (Oxf. 2012,reprint): Fig.:222, No 1194, p-363,
distribution: Romano-British,
2 commentsquadrans
Zoomorphic 3D type Fibula, Horse standing on spring, Fibula #021, 344 viewsFibula #021, Zoomorphic 3D type Fibula, Horse standing on spring,
With knobs on the end of the T-arms date into the 4th century.
size: 40x33mm,
weight: 18,19g,
date: 4th century A.D.,
ref: Jobst 29a; Nowak 16; Matouschek/Novak 1b; Bojovic XXVIII.4a; ,
distribution: Pannonia and middle and lower Danube.
2 commentsquadrans
Zoomorphic 3D type Fibula, Horse, Fibula #022, 269 viewsFibula #022, Zoomorphic This 3D type Fibula, Horse,
A typical Pannonian horse fibula. This 3D type stands above its hinge and is therefore actually a bow fibula and not a plate fibula. It is clearly related to the knee fibula family and dates to late 2nd to mid-3rd century AD.
size: 40x17,5mm,
weight: 13,09g,
date:c. late 2nd to 3rd century A.D.,
ref: Jobst 29a; Nowak 16; Matouschek/Novak 1b; Bojovic XXVIII.4a;,
distribution: Pannonia and middle and lower Danube,
1 commentsquadrans
Zoomorphic Application, AE, sea-lions or walruses #00168 viewsZoomorphic Application, AE, sea-lions or walruses #001
size: 42,5x27mm,
weight: 11,59g,
date: ??? A.D.,
ref: ???,
distribution: ???,
Zoomorphic Bird Fibula #0101, AE-Bird fibula 03, Hattatt-163783 viewsZoomorphic Bird Fibula #0101, AE-Bird fibula 03, Hattatt-1637
Fibula #101, Bird fibula 03
type: It is late - 4th-5th century Germanic or Roman.,
size: 35x17,5mm,
weight: 7,50g,
date: A.D.,
ref: Hattatt-1637.,
distribution: ,
Zoomorphic Bird Fibula #030, Bird fibula, Hattatt-1416var.,219 viewsZoomorphic Bird Fibula #030, Bird fibula, Hattatt-1416var.,
type: It is late - 4th-5th century Germanic or Roman.,
size: 41x15mm,
weight: 6,70g,
date: A.D.,
ref: Hattatt-1416var.,
distribution: ,
Zoomorphic Bird Fibula #055, AE-Bird fibula 02, Hattatt-1158var.,84 viewsZoomorphic Bird Fibula #055, AE-Bird fibula 02, Hattatt-1158var.,
Fibula #055, Bird fibula 02.
type: It is late - 4th-5th century Germanic or Roman.,
size: 37x15mm,
weight: 5,73g,
date: A.D.,
ref: Hattatt-1158var.,
distribution: ,
Zoomorphic Bird Fibula (Pigeon or Duck ?) #181, AE-Bird fibula 10, Hattatt-Not in,128 viewsZoomorphic Bird Fibula (Pigeon or Duck ?) #181, AE-Bird fibula 10, Hattatt-Not in,
Fibula #181, Bird fibula 10
type: It is late -Roman.,
size: 37x17x21mm,
weight: 10,37g,
date: A.D.,
ref: Hattatt-Not in ,
distribution: ,
2 commentsquadrans
Zoomorphic Bird Owl ??? Fibula #078, AE-Bird fibula 73 viewsZoomorphic Bird Owl ??? Fibula #078, AE-Bird fibula
type: ,
size: 30x15mm,
weight: 3,18g,
date: A.D.,
ref: .,
distribution: ,
Zoomorphic Bird plate fibula51 viewsZoomorphic fibula

Bird type (eagle?)

Pin missing

2nd Century AD

32 mm X 26 mm


Böhme 43a
2 commentsJay GT4
Zoomorphic Plate Enamelled Fibula, Rabbit fibula, Bojovic: Typ-28, Table-XXX/291, Fibula #13990 viewsZoomorphic Plate Enamelled Fibula, Rabbit fibula, Bojovic: Typ-28, Table-XXX/291, Fibula #139
size: 24x17mm,
weight: 3,93g,
date: 100-200, fl. 150-200 A.D.,
ref: Typology: Bojovic: Typ-28, Table-XXX/291,
distribution: ???,
1 commentsquadrans
Zoomorphic Plate Fibula, Bird fibula, Fibula #042,137 viewsFibula #042,
type: Zoomorphic Plate Fibula, Bird fibula,
size: 23,5x37,5mm,
weight: 5,83g,
date: A.D.,
ref: .,
distribution: ,
Zoomorphic Plate Fibula, Dog fibula, Bojovic: Typ-28, Table-XXX/294var., Fibula #08076 viewsZoomorphic Plate Fibula, Dog fibula, Bojovic: Typ-28, Table-XXX/294var., Fibula #080
weight: 7,95g,
date: 100-200, fl. 150-200 A.D.,
ref: ???
distribution: ???,
1 commentsquadrans
Zoomorphic Plate Fibula, Hare fibula, Bojovic: Typ-28, Table-XXX/294var., Fibula #07988 viewsZoomorphic Plate Fibula, Hare fibula, Bojovic: Typ-28, Table-XXX/294var., Fibula #079
weight: 4,75g,
date: 100-200, fl. 150-200 A.D.,
ref: "Typology: Bojovic: Typ-28, Table-XXX/294var.,
distribution: ???,
1 commentsquadrans
Zoomorphic Plate Fibula, Hors and Rider Fibula #073126 viewsZoomorphic Plate Fibula, Hors and Rider fibula,Fibula #073
type:Zoomorphic Plate Fibula, Hors and Rider fibula,
size: 27x20mm,
weight: 4,29g,
date: 2nd and 3rd centuries A.D.,
ref: Bojovic 28 (Table XXX, 299); ,
distribution: Balkan area,
1 commentsquadrans
Zoomorphic Plate Fibula, Horse fibula, Fibula #020, 311 viewsFibula #020
type:Zoomorphic Plate Fibula, Horse fibula,
size: 39x22mm,
weight: 8,72gg,
date: 100-200 A.D.,
ref: ,
1 commentsquadrans
Zoomorphic Plate Fibula, Horse fibula, Fibula #121133 viewsZoomorphic Plate Fibula, Horse fibula, Fibula #121
type:Zoomorphic Plate Fibula, Horse fibula,
size: 36x18,5mm,
weight: 8,19g,
date: 100-200 A.D.,
ref: ,
1 commentsquadrans
Zoomorphic Plate Fibula, Peacock fibula, Fibula #099, Hattatt-166,94 viewsZoomorphic Plate Fibula, Peacock fibula, Fibula #099, Hattatt-166,
weight: 10,56g,
date: ,
distribution: ???,
1 commentsquadrans
Zoomorphic Plate Fibula, Rabbit fibula, Bojovic: Typ-28, Table-XXX/291var., Fibula #039176 viewsZoomorphic Plate Fibula, Rabbit fibula, Bojovic: Typ-28, Table-XXX/291var., Fibula #039
size: 21,5x17mm,
weight: 2,99g,
date: 100-200, fl. 150-200 A.D.,
ref: Typology: Bojovic: Typ-28, Table-XXX/291var.,
distribution: ???,
1 commentsquadrans
Zoomorphic Plate Fibula, Rabbit fibula, Bojovic: Typ-28, Table-XXX/291var., Fibula #15968 viewsZoomorphic Plate Fibula, Rabbit fibula, Bojovic: Typ-28, Table-XXX/291var., Fibula #159
size: 22x18mm,
weight: 3,25g,
date: 100-200, fl. 150-200 A.D.,
ref: Typology: Bojovic: Typ-28, Table-XXX/291var.,
distribution: ???,
Zoomorphic Plate Fibula, Stag, Bojovic: No, Fibula #16399 viewsZoomorphic Plate Fibula, Stag, Bojovic: No, Fibula #163
weight: 13,32g,
date:??? A.D.,
ref: "Typology: Bojovic: Not in, ???
distribution: ???,
Zoomorphic Plate Roman Fibula, Bird pigeon or pheasant fibula, Fibula #201178 viewsZoomorphic Plate Roman Fibula, Bird pigeon or pheasant fibula, Fibula #201
type:Zoomorphic Plate Bird pigeon or pheasant, fibula,
size: 37x23x2mm, weight: 9,37g, date: 100-250 A.D.,
ref: , distribution:
1 commentsquadrans
Zoomorphic Plate Roman Fibula, Bird-Eagle fibula, Fibula #191188 viewsZoomorphic Plate Roman Fibula, Bird-Eagle fibula, Fibula #191
type:Zoomorphic Plate Bird-Eagle, fibula,
size: 38x27x3,5mm, weight: 15,01g, date: 100-250 A.D.,
ref: , distribution:
2 commentsquadrans
Zoomorphic Plate Roman Fibulae, Group of Zoomorphic Fibulae87 viewsZoomorphic Plate Roman Fibulae
Group of Zoomorphic Fibulae
1 commentsquadrans
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