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4050632.jpg
10 viewsJohn Comnenus-Ducas. As emperor of Thessalonica, 1237-1242. BI Trachy (14mm, 0.38 g, 6h). Thessalonica mint. Facing bust of Christ Pantokrator / Facing busts John and St. Demetrius, holding patriarchal cross between them. DOC –; SB –; NAC 56, lot 830 (hammer 800 CHF). VF, dark green patina, obverse struck with worn die, ragged flan. Extremely rare.


From the Iconodule Collection.
Quant.Geek
2550332.jpg
3.5 Herennius Etruscus32 viewsROMAN IMPERIAL
Herennius Etruscus
As Caesar, AD 249-251.
AR Antoninianus (22mm, 4.87 g, 12h). Rome mint. 3rd-4th emission, AD 250.

O: Radiate and draped bust right, seen from behind

R: Sprinkler, simpulum, jug, patera and lituus.
RIC IV 143 (Decius); RSC 14. VF, flan flaw on obverse, light reverse porosity, struck from a worn reverse die.

Ex-CNG
2 commentsSosius
Gallienus_Cohen_1322.jpg
7 Gallienus15 viewsGALLIENUS
AE Antoninianus, Rome Mint
261-262 AD

O: GALLIENVS AVG, Radiate bust r.

R: VIRTVS AVGVSTI, Mars standing l., holding olive branch and vertical spear, r. foot on helmet, X in l. field
Cunetio hoard 1278, Normanby hoard 264, Minster hoard 58,
Appleshaw hoard 68,
Göbl 0636a;
Lavilledieu hoard 53 & 54.
Cohen 1322
not in RIC

EF, worn reverse die
Sosius
Quietus_Ant.jpg
8.5 Quietus37 viewsQuietus
Usurper in the East, 260-261 AD
BI Antoninianus, Antioch (3.47 gm)
IMP C FVL QVIETVS PF AVG, Radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right / FORT REDVX, Fortuna seated left on wheel, holding tiller and cornucopia; star in left field.
RIC 4. EF / VF, worn reverse die
Ex Heritage Auctions, 9/2013
1 commentsSosius
IMG_4724.JPG
(0098) TRAJAN24 views98 - 117 AD
AE Sestertius 31.5 mm, 21.45 g
O: laureate bust right
R: worn
laney
had_sest_obv.JPG
(0117) HADRIAN20 views117 - 138 AD
AE Sestertius 31 mm, 18.06 g
O: laureate head right
R: worn
laney
LonginusDenarius.jpg
(504c) Roman Republic, L. Cassius Longinus, 63 B.C.68 viewsSilver denarius, Crawford 413/1, RSC I Cassia 10, SRCV I 364, aVF, struck with worn dies, Rome mint, weight 3.867g, maximum diameter 20.3mm, die axis 0o, c. 63 B.C. Obverse: veiled bust of Vesta left, kylix behind, L before; Reverse: LONGIN III V, voter standing left, dropping tablet inscribed V into a cista.

The reverse of this Longinus denarius captures a fascinating moment when a Roman citizen casts his ballot. "The abbreviation III V [ir] indentifies Longinus as one of the three annually appointed mintmasters (officially called tres viri aere argento auro flando feriundo). A citizen is seen casting his vote into the urn. On the ballot is the letter 'U', short for uti rogas, a conventional formula indicating assent to a motion. The picture alludes to the law, requested by an ancestor of the mintmaster, which introduced the secret ballot in most proceedings of the popular court" (Meier, Christian. Caesar, a Biography. Berlin: Severin and Siedler, 1982. Plate 6).

The date that this denarius was struck possesses unique significance for another reason. Marcus Tullius Cicero (politician, philosopher, orator, humanist) was elected consul for the year 63 BC -- the first man elected consul who had no consular ancestors in more than 30 years. A "new man," Cicero was not the descendant of a "patrician" family, nor was his family wealthy (although Cicero married "well"). Cicero literally made himself the man he was by the power of the words he spoke and the way in which he spoke them. A witness to and major player during the decline of the Roman Republic, Cicero was murdered in 43 BC by thugs working for Marc Antony. But Cicero proved impossible to efface.

Cicero's words became part of the bed rock of later Roman education. As Peter Heather notes, every educated young man in the late Roman Empire studied "a small number of literary texts under the guidance of an expert in language and literary interpretation, the grammarian. This occupied the individual for seven or more years from about the age of eight, and concentrated on just four authors: Vergil, Cicero, Sallust and Terence" (Heather, Peter. The Fall of the Roman Empire: A New History of Rome and the Barbarians. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006. 17).


Plutarch: Cicero's Death

But in the meantime the assassins were come with a band of soldiers, Herennius, a centurion, and Popillius, a tribune, whom Cicero had formerly defended when prosecuted for the murder of his father. Finding the doors shut, they broke them open, and Cicero not appearing, and those within saying they knew not where he was, it is stated that a youth, who had been educated by Cicero in the liberal arts and sciences, an emancipated slave of his brother Quintus, Philologus by name, informed the tribune that the litter was on its way to the sea through the close and shady walks. The tribune, taking a few with him, ran to the place where he was to come out. And Cicero, perceiving Herennius running in the walks, commanded his servants to set down the litter; and stroking his chin, as he used to do, with his left hand, he looked steadfastly upon his murderers, his person covered with dust, his beard and hair untrimmed, and his face worn with his troubles. So that the greatest part of those that stood by covered their faces whilst Herennius slew him. And thus was he murdered, stretching forth his neck out of the litter, being now in his sixty-fourth year. Herennius cut off his head, and, by Antony's command, his hands also, by which his Philippics were written; for so Cicero styled those orations he wrote against Antony, and so they are called to this day.

When these members of Cicero were brought to Rome, Antony was holding an assembly for the choice of public officers; and when he heard it, and saw them, he cried out, "Now let there be an end of our proscriptions." He commanded his head and hands to be fastened up over the rostra, where the orators spoke; a sight which the Roman people shuddered to behold, and they believed they saw there, not the face of Cicero, but the image of Antony's own soul. And yet amidst these actions he did justice in one thing, by delivering up Philologus to Pomponia, the wife of Quintus; who, having got his body into her power, besides other grievous punishments, made him cut off his own flesh by pieces, and roast and eat it; for so some writers have related. But Tiro, Cicero's emancipated slave, has not so much as mentioned the treachery of Philologus.

Translation by John Dryden: http://intranet.grundel.nl/thinkquest/moord_cicero_plu.html

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
Caesar_AR-Den_Diademed-Venus-Head-Right_C·CAESAR_–_IMP·COS·ITER_A·ALLIENVS_–_PRO·COS_Syd-1022_Crawf_457-1_C-13_Sicily-mint_47-BC_Q-001_axis-9h_17-18,5mm_3,53g-s.jpg
001 Caesar (100-44 B.C.), Crawf 457-1, Sicily, AR-denarius, A·ALLIENVS–PRO·COS, Trinacrus standing left,232 views001 Caesar (100-44 B.C.), Crawf 457-1, Sicily, AR-denarius, A·ALLIENVS–PRO·COS, Trinacrus standing left,
avers:- C·CAESAR–IMP·COS·ITER, Diademed, draped Venus Head Right,
revers:- A·ALLIENVS–PRO·COS, Trinacrus standing left, placing right foot on prow, holding trisceles in right hand and cloak in left.
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: 17-18,5mm, weight: 3,59g, axes: 6h,
mint: Sicily, date: 47B.C., ref: Crawford-457/1, Sydneham-1022, Babelon-Julia-14, Alliena-1, C-1,
Q-001
"In late 47 BC Caesar was on Sicily, preparing for his assault on the Pompeian forces in north Africa. During this period a small issue of denarii was produced in his name by Aulus Allienus, then the proconsul of Sicily. The reverse shows a figure of Trinacrus, supposedly a son of Neptune, who may have been invented to account for the name Trinacria, commonly used for Sicily. The coins of Allienus must have seen considerable circulation: almost all surviving specimens are considerably worn."
3 commentsquadrans
Augustus_Tarpeia.jpg
02 01 Augustus. Tarpeia111 viewsAugustus. 27 B.C.-14 A.D. AR. Denarius. Rome Mint. 19-18 B.C. 3.5g, 20 mm. Obv: CAESAR AVGVSTS, bare head righ. Rev: TVRPILIANVS III VIR, Tarpeia facing, buried to the waist in shields. RIC I 299. RSC 494, BMC 29.

Tarpeia, daughter of the commander of the citadel, betrayed her fellow Romans to the Sabines when they came to attack Rome. Tarpeia offered to admit the Sabines into the city in return for what they wore on their arms. She had in mind the gold torques the Sabines usually wore. The Sabines agreed, but disgusted by her greed, the gave her the shields they worn on their arms and put her to death by crushing her under their shields. She was then thrown from a high cliff above the city. The Tarpeian Rock, from which traitors were thrown in Rome, is named after her.
4 commentsLucas H
Augustus_RIC_288.jpg
02 Augustus RIC 28820 viewsAugusts 27 B.C.- 14 A.D. AR Denarius. Rome mint, 19 B.C. P. Petronius Turpilianus, moneyer. (3.65g, 18.2m, 0h). Obv: TVRPILIANS IIIVIR FERON, Diad. and draped bust of Feronia r. Rev: CAESAR AVGVSTVS SIGN RECE, Parthian kneeling r. presenting standard w. X marked vexillum. RIC 288, BMC 14, RSC 484.

A historical type commemorating the return of the standards lost by Crassus at the battle of Carrhae during his Parthian campaign in 53 B.C. Rome was humiliated by the defeat and loss of several Legionary Eagles. Crassus and several of his generals were killed. Through diplomacy, Augusts secured the return of the Eagles, an important victory to tout on his coinage.

I've been wanting this type for some time because of it's historic significance, but as it's outside of my primary collecting area, I was willing to compromise on condition. This example is worn, but clearly recognizable. The obverse has banker's marks which seem to disappear or become much more scarce on denarii towards the end of the Republic and beginning of the Empire.
Lucas H
Augustus_RIC_220.jpg
02 Augustus RIC I 022047 viewsAugustus 27 B.C.-14 A.D. AR Denarius. Lugdunum Mint 13-14 A.D. (3.57g, 19.5, 0 h). Obv: [CAESAR AVGVSTVS] DVI F PATER PATRRIAE, laureate head r. REV: [PONTIF] MAXIM, Liva as Pax seated r. on low-backed chair, vertical scepter in r., branch in left. RIC I 220 (R2), RSC 223.

Worn and on an irregular flan, I still wanted this example because of the reverse. Minted in his last year as emperor, this was Augustus’ precursor to Tiberius’ “tribute penny.” While this was one of many types during Augustus’ reign, it was one very few types for Tiberius.
1 commentsLucas H
Claudius_RIC_I_64.jpg
05 Claudius RIC I 6465 viewsClaudius. 41-54 A.D. Rome Mint 51-2 A.D. (3.32g, 18.4m, 0h). Obv: [TI CLA]VD CAESAR AVG PM TR P XI IMP P P C[OS V], laureate head right. Rev: SPQR/PP/OBCS in three lines in oak wreath. RIC I 64. RSC 96.

Claudius was put on the throne by the Praetorian Guard after the murder of Caligula, and was eventually murdered by Nero’s mother. This is a worn coin and common reverse during Claudius’ reign, but I wanted to obtain it as denarii of Claudius seem few and far between, second only to Gaius in the 12 Caesar series it seems.
4 commentsLucas H
054_Macrinus_(217-218_A_D_),_AE-27-Pentassarion,__AV_K_OPPE_CEV-__,_Markianopolis-Moesia_Inf_HrJ_(2014)-not_in,_217-18-AD,_Q-001,_7h,_26,5-27,5mm,_14,04g-s.jpg
054p Macrinus (217-218 A.D.), Moesia, Markianopolis, Pfeiffer 218 (same dies), AE-27, Pentassarion, Pontianus, Zeus with an eagle at feet, 64 views054p Macrinus (217-218 A.D.), Moesia, Markianopolis, Pfeiffer 218 (same dies), AE-27, Pentassarion, Pontianus, Zeus with an eagle at feet,
avers: AV K OΠΠEΛ CEV MAKPEINOC•K M OΠEΛ ANTΩNEINOC, Laureate bust of Macrinus facing bare-headed bust of Diadumenian.
reverse: VΠ ΠONTIANOV MAPKIANO/ΠOΛI, Naked Zeus standing left, holding patera and scepter, eagle at his feet.
exergue: Є/-//--, diameter: 26,5-27,5mm, weight:14,04g, axis: 7h,
mint: Moesia, Markianopolis, Pontianus, date: 217-218 A.D., ref: Pfeiffer 218 (same dies), AMNG 715, Varbanov (2005, English) I. 1240, Hristova-Jekov (2014) 06.24.01.??, Not in,
a) Not in Hristova/Jekov (2014):
rev. HJ (2014) 6.24.1.5 (same die)
obv. HJ (2014) 6.24.1. 3 (but writes AVT K OPEL, the depicted coin is very worn)
b) Megaw (2nd ed,) MAR5.59c (but writes AVT K OPEL, the depicted coin is very worn)
Q-001
quadrans
Nero_RIC_I_15.jpg
06 Nero RIC I 1539 viewsNero. 54-68 A.D. AR Denarius. Rome Mint. 54 A.D. Oct.-Dec.. (3.43g, 19.1mm, 9h) . Obv: NERO CAESAR AVG IMP, bare head right. Rev: PONTIF MAX TR P IIII PP around oak-wreath enclosing EX SC. RIC I 15 (R2).

A worn but scarce pre-reform denarius from early in Nero’s reign. Despite the wear, the weight of this specimen is quite nice. The EX SC with the oak wreath could allude to the Senate’s awarding of the corona civica to Nero. This specimen also has a very unusual die axis for imperial coinage of the Roman mint from this time.
1 commentsLucas H
Nero_RIC_I_55.jpg
06 Nero RIC I 5528 viewsNero. 54-68 A.D. Rome Mint. 65-66 A.D. (3.30g, 18.7m, 5h). Obv: [N]ERO CAESAR AVGVS[TVS], laureate head right. Rev: ROMA in ex., Roma, helmeted and dr., seated l. on cuirass, r. holding Victory, l. parazonium by side, r. foot resting on helmet; shields, with greaves behind. RIC I 55 (R).

A worn denarius of Nero, but with an interesting reverse. Roma, deprecated frequently on denarii during the Republic, was as not frequently used during the empire. While not necessarily a scarce type, it seems less ubiquitous than Salas and Jupiter for Nero.
1 commentsLucas H
RI 064ci img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 411a (example 2) 21 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– MONET AVG, Moneta standing left, holding scales in right hand, cornucopiae in left
Minted in Emesa, A.D. 194 - 195
References:– BMCRE 380ff, VM 84, RIC 411a, RCV02 6314, RSC 330

Worn obverse dies giving the impression of somewhat crude style, the original obverse die is actually very nice in style.
maridvnvm
RI_064ow_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 497b corr.20 viewsObv:– L SEP SEVERVS PER AVG PIV IMP XI PAR P M, laureate head right
Rev:– SALVTI AVGG, Salus seated left feeding snake coiled around altar
Eastern mint. A.D. 198
Reference:– BMCRE page 281 Note, citing RD page 102. RIC 497b corr.

Holed and worn but an obverse die match to my other two examples from this rare earliest version of obverse legend variety.

Very rare.
maridvnvm
RI 066ao img.jpg
066 - Caracalla denarius - RIC 12031 viewsObv:– ANTONINVS PIVS AVG, Laureate bust right
Rev:– ADVENT AVGG, Galley sailing left with four rowers, steersman, and three figures (Septimius, Caracalla, Geta)
Minted in Rome. A.D. 201-206
Reference:– Van Meter 12. RIC 120 (Scarce). RCV02 6790. RSC 3.
Worn and a bit scrappy but OK.
maridvnvm
dom_as_caesar_salus_and_snake.jpg
07 Domitian as Caesar RIC-108486 viewsAR Denarius, 3.28g
Rome Mint, 79 AD (Vespasian)
Obv: CAESAR AVG F DOMITIANVS COS VI; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: PRINCEPS IVVENTVTIS; Salus, stg. r., resting on column, feeding snake out of patera
RIC 1084 (C2). BMC 265. RSC 384. BNC 237.
Acquired from Aegean Numismatics, July 2008.

A most puzzling reverse type issued during the last months of Vespasian's reign before he died on June 24th. Perhaps a reference to Vespasian's illness and his hopeful recovery.

Worn and average with a good portrait.
vespasian70
Galba_RIC_I_168_Clashed_Dies.jpg
07 Galba RIC I 168 Clashed dies25 viewsGalba. AR Denarius. Rome Mint July 68- Jan. 69 A.D. (3.29g, 19.6m, 11h). Obv: IMP SER GALBA AVG, laureate head right. Rev: [SPQR/OB]/CS in three lines in oak-wreath. Reverse clashed dies. RIC I 168 (R). RSC 287a.

With complete obverse legends and a high relief portrait, the obverse is worn and the coin is on an oblong flan. The reason I added this to my collection is the reverse. I initially thought the reverse was an obverse brockage, which had been restruck. A more experienced collector pointed out it was produced by clashed dies. An interesting oddity.
Lucas H
V1088.jpg
08a Domitian as Caesar RIC-108886 viewsAR Denarius, 3.14g
Rome Mint, 79 AD (Vespasian)
Obv: CAESAR AVG F DOMITIANVS COS VI; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, l.
Rev: PRINCEPS IVVENTVTIS; Vesta std. l., with Palladium and sceptre
RIC 1088 (R3). BMC p. 46 note. RSC 379. BNC -.
Ex Den of Antiquity (eBay), October 2012.

A very rare (4th known) left facing portrait of the common Vesta and Palladium reverse. It is listed in Cohen as 379 (citing lot 784 of the de Moustier Sale of 1872) , although the new RIC states it is unverified (?). The lone example cited by RIC is in G. Mazzini's Monete imperiali romane, vol. 1. Also, Curtis Clay has a specimen, same die pair as mine. Left facing portraits of Domitian are extremely rare, especially those as Caesar.

Worn but all the major devices are visible.

Thanks to Curtis Clay for additional attribution help!
David Atherton
trajan_RIC642.jpg
098-117 AD - TRAJAN AE sestertius - struck 104-110 AD69 viewsobv: [IMP CAES NER TRAIANO OPTIMO AVG GER DAC PM TR P COS VI PP] (laureate, draped bust right)
rev: [ARMENIA ET MESOPOTAMIA IN POTESTATEM P R REDACTAE] (Trajan standing to the front, head turned right, holding spear and parazonium; on both sides of him and reclining are the three females figures, Armenia, Euphrates, Tigris), S-C in field
ref: RIC II 642 (R), BMC 1039, C.39 (20frcs)
mint: Rome
22.41gms, 33mm
Rare

History: Trajan declared war against the Parthians, after overrunning Syria, Mesopotamia and Armenia, he defeated in every encounter, establishing several governments, and thereby gaining from the Roman Senate the title of Parthicus.

This coin is worn enough, even the legends are disappeared, too, but shows the result about one of the most impotant Roman conquest.
berserker
V1446dark.jpg
09a Domitian as Caesar RIC 1446113 viewsAR Denarius, 3.04g
Ephesus mint, 71 AD (Vespasian)
Obv: DOMITIANVS CAESAR AVG F; Bust of Domitian, cuirassed, seen from front, Medusa head on breast of cuirass, fold of cloak on left shoulder, head bare, r.
Rev: CONCORDIA AVG; Ceres std. l., on ornate high-backed chair, with corn ears and poppy and cornucopiae; in exergue, EPHE
RIC 1446 (C). BMC 470. RSC 38. RPC 847 (10 spec.). BNC 363.
Acquired from Lucernae, eBay, January 2015.

In Domitian's first imperial coinage issue he was given special treatment regarding the bust type chosen. The engravers at Ephesus depicted him cuirassed with a cloak draped over his left shoulder. Vespasian and Titus were not engraved so elaborately (although at Antioch Titus' bust is draped). Why this is so is a mystery. Unusually Domitian shares the same reverse types as Vespasian and Titus in this series, unlike at Rome where he largely had his own unique types. This Ceres reverse is probably the most common of his Ephesus denarii.

A worn coin to be sure, but the handsome bust shines through the wear.
5 commentsDavid Atherton
crus_121[1].jpg
1.3 Crusader - Jerusalem106 viewsDenier of Amuary, King of Jerusalem from 1163 to 1174.
obv. AMALRICVS REX
cross, two pellets.
rev. DE IERVSALEM
Sun shining on the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. X through church, probably imprint from Cross on obverse.

hole in top, probably worn as jewlry around the neck, maybe as a Christian souvenir. Desert patina.
Zam
coin72.JPG
103. Hadrian13 views31 mm
24.3g

Worn and corroded. Victory right on the reverse


Uncleaned.
ecoli
MaxHercRIC5iiRome.jpg
1302a, Maximian, 285 - 305, 306 - 308, and 310 A.D.47 viewsMaximianus AE Antoninianus. RIC V Part II 506 Bust Type C. Cohen 355; VF; Minted in Rome A.D. 285-286. Obverse: IMP MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, radiate, draped & cuirassed bust right; Rverse: IOVI CONSERVAT AVGG, Jupiter standing left holding thunderbolt & scepter, XXIZ in exergue. Ex maridvnvm.

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Maximian, 285-305, 306-308, and 310 A.D.

Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Salve Regina University

Perhaps born ca. 249/250 A.D. in Sirmium in the area of the Balkans, Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maximianus, more commonly known as Maximianus Herculius (Maximian), had been a soldier before he put on the purple. A fellow soldier with the Emperor Diocletian, he had served in the military during the reigns of Aurelian and Probus.

When the Emperor Diocletian determined that the empire was too large for one man to govern on his own, he made Maximian his Caesar in 285/6 and elevated him to the rank of Augustus in perhaps the spring of 286. While Diocletian ruled in the East, Maximian ruled in the West. In 293, in order to maintain and to strengthen the stability of the empire, Diocletian appointed Constantius I Chlorus to serve Maximian as a Caesar in the West, while Galerius did the same job in the East. This arrangement, called the "Tetrarchy", was meant not only to provide a stronger foundation for the two emperors' rule, but also to end any possible fighting over the succession to the throne once the two senior Augusti had left the throne--a problem which had bedeviled the principate since the time of the Emperor Augustus. To cement the relationship between Maximian and his Caesar, Constantius married Maximian's elder daughter Theodora. A decade later, Constantius' son Constantine would marry Maximia's younger daughter Fausta.

On 1 May 305 Diocletian, at Nicomedeia, and Maximian, at Mediolanum, divested themselves of the purple. Their resignations seem largely due to the almost fatal illness that Diocletian contracted toward the end of 304. Diocletian seems to have forced his colleague to abdicate. In any case, Herculius had sworn an oath at the temple of Capitoline Jupiter to carry out the terms of the abdication. Constantius and Galerius were appointed as Augusti, with Maximinus Daia and Severus as the new Caesars. The retired emperors then returned to private life. Diocletian's retirement was at Salonae in Dalmatia, while Herculius' retreat was either in Lucania or Campania.

Maximian's retirement, however, was of short duration because, a little more than a year later on 28 October 306, his son Maxentius was proclaimed emperor at Rome. To give his regime an aura of legitimacy, Maximian was forced to affirm his son's acclamation. When Galerius learned of Maxentius' rebellion, he sent Severus against him with an army that had formerly been under his father's command. Maxentius invested his father with the purple again to win over his enemy's troops, a ruse which succeeded. Perhaps to strengthen his own position, in 307 Maximian went to Gaul and married his daughter Fausta to Constantine. When Constantine refused to become embroiled in the civil war between Galerius and Maxentius, Maximian returned to Rome in 308 and attempted to depose his son; however, he did not succeed. When Maximian was unable to convince Diocletian to take up the purple again at a meeting in Carnuntum in late 308, he returned to his son-in-law's side in Gaul.

Although Maximian was treated with all of the respect due a former emperor, he still desired to be more than a figurehead. He decided to seize the purple from Constantine when his son-in-law least expected it. His opportunity came in the summer of 310 when the Franks revolted. When Constantine had taken a small part of his army into enemy territory, Maximian proclaimed himself again emperor and paid the soldiers under his command a donative to secure their loyalty. As soon as Constantine received news about Maximian's revolt in July 310, he went south and reached Arelate before his father-in-law could mount a defense of the city. Although Maximian fled to Massilia, his son-in-law seized the city and took Maximian prisoner. Although he was deprived of the purple, he was granted pardon for his crimes. Unable to endure the humiliation of his defeat, he attempted to have Constantine murdered in his bed. The plot failed because he tried to get his daughter Fausta's help in the matter; she chose to reveal the matter to her husband. Because of this attempt on his son-in-law's life Maximian was dead by the end of July either by his own hand or on the orders of his intended victim.

Eutropia was of Syrian extraction and her marriage to Maximian seems to have been her second. She bore him two children: Maxentius and Fausta. An older daughter, Theodora, may have been a product of her first marriage. Fausta became the wife of Constantine I , while her sister Theodora was the second spouse of his father Constantius I Chlorus . Eutropia apparently survived all her children, with the possible exception of her daughter Fausta who seems to have died in 326. Eutropia is also said to have become a Christian.

By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
Max.jpg
1302b, Maximian, 285-305, 306-308, and 310 A.D., commemorative issued by Constantine the Great (Siscia)55 viewsMaximian, 285-305, 306-308, and 310 A.D., commemorative issued by Constantine the Great. Bronze AE3, RIC 41, VF, Siscia, 1.30g, 16.1mm, 0o, 317-318 A.D. Obverse: DIVO MAXIMIANO SEN FORT IMP, laureate and veiled head right; Reverse: REQVIES OPTIMO-RVM MERITORVM, Emperor seated left on curule chair, raising hand and holding scepter, SIS in exergue; scarce (R3).


De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Maximian, 285-305, 306-308, and 310 A.D.

Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Salve Regina University

Perhaps born ca. 249/250 A.D. in Sirmium in the area of the Balkans, Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maximianus, more commonly known as Maximianus Herculius (Maximian), had been a soldier before he put on the purple. A fellow soldier with the Emperor Diocletian, he had served in the military during the reigns of Aurelian and Probus.

When the Emperor Diocletian determined that the empire was too large for one man to govern on his own, he made Maximian his Caesar in 285/6 and elevated him to the rank of Augustus in perhaps the spring of 286. While Diocletian ruled in the East, Maximian ruled in the West. In 293, in order to maintain and to strengthen the stability of the empire, Diocletian appointed Constantius I Chlorus to serve Maximian as a Caesar in the West, while Galerius did the same job in the East. This arrangement, called the "Tetrarchy", was meant not only to provide a stronger foundation for the two emperors' rule, but also to end any possible fighting over the succession to the throne once the two senior Augusti had left the throne--a problem which had bedeviled the principate since the time of the Emperor Augustus. To cement the relationship between Maximian and his Caesar, Constantius married Maximian's elder daughter Theodora. A decade later, Constantius' son Constantine would marry Maximia's younger daughter Fausta.

On 1 May 305 Diocletian, at Nicomedeia, and Maximian, at Mediolanum, divested themselves of the purple. Their resignations seem largely due to the almost fatal illness that Diocletian contracted toward the end of 304. Diocletian seems to have forced his colleague to abdicate. In any case, Herculius had sworn an oath at the temple of Capitoline Jupiter to carry out the terms of the abdication. Constantius and Galerius were appointed as Augusti, with Maximinus Daia and Severus as the new Caesars. The retired emperors then returned to private life. Diocletian's retirement was at Salonae in Dalmatia, while Herculius' retreat was either in Lucania or Campania.

Maximian's retirement, however, was of short duration because, a little more than a year later on 28 October 306, his son Maxentius was proclaimed emperor at Rome. To give his regime an aura of legitimacy, Maximian was forced to affirm his son's acclamation. When Galerius learned of Maxentius' rebellion, he sent Severus against him with an army that had formerly been under his father's command. Maxentius invested his father with the purple again to win over his enemy's troops, a ruse which succeeded. Perhaps to strengthen his own position, in 307 Maximian went to Gaul and married his daughter Fausta to Constantine. When Constantine refused to become embroiled in the civil war between Galerius and Maxentius, Maximian returned to Rome in 308 and attempted to depose his son; however, he did not succeed. When Maximian was unable to convince Diocletian to take up the purple again at a meeting in Carnuntum in late 308, he returned to his son-in-law's side in Gaul.

Although Maximian was treated with all of the respect due a former emperor, he still desired to be more than a figurehead. He decided to seize the purple from Constantine when his son-in-law least expected it. His opportunity came in the summer of 310 when the Franks revolted. When Constantine had taken a small part of his army into enemy territory, Maximian proclaimed himself again emperor and paid the soldiers under his command a donative to secure their loyalty. As soon as Constantine received news about Maximian's revolt in July 310, he went south and reached Arelate before his father-in-law could mount a defense of the city. Although Maximian fled to Massilia, his son-in-law seized the city and took Maximian prisoner. Although he was deprived of the purple, he was granted pardon for his crimes. Unable to endure the humiliation of his defeat, he attempted to have Constantine murdered in his bed. The plot failed because he tried to get his daughter Fausta's help in the matter; she chose to reveal the matter to her husband. Because of this attempt on his son-in-law's life Maximian was dead by the end of July either by his own hand or on the orders of his intended victim.

Eutropia was of Syrian extraction and her marriage to Maximian seems to have been her second. She bore him two children: Maxentius and Fausta. An older daughter, Theodora, may have been a product of her first marriage. Fausta became the wife of Constantine I , while her sister Theodora was the second spouse of his father Constantius I Chlorus . Eutropia apparently survived all her children, with the possible exception of her daughter Fausta who seems to have died in 326. Eutropia is also said to have become a Christian.

By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
RI_132dj_img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 878 var - Bust Type F (Serdica) (KA•A•) (unlisted with this bust type) 39 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG, Radiate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– VIRTVS PROBI AVG, Emperor galloping right, spearing enemy whose shield lies beneath horse
Minted in Serdica (KA•A• in exe) Emission 4 Officina 1. 277 A.D.
Reference:– RIC 878 var. Bust type F (RIC does not list this bust type for this entry)
A nice bust but from slightly worn reverse dies. The reverse legend breaks around the shield.
Martin Griffiths
RI_141cm_img.jpg
141 - Diocletian - RIC V pt II Lugdunum 8915 viewsObv:– IMP DIOCLETIANVS AVG, Radiate bust left, wearing imperial mantle, holding globe in right hand
Rev:– SALVS AVGG, Salus standing right, feeding snake from patera.
Minted in Lugdunum (//C). 7th Issue, Spring A.D. 290 - 291
Reference:– RIC V Part II Lugdunum 89. Bastien VII 401 (3 examples cited)

A rare bust type for Diocletian. Worn reverse die.
maridvnvm
COMMONWEALTH_HALFGROAT.JPG
1649 - 1660, THE COMMONWEALTH OF ENGLAND, AR Half-groat, Struck 1651 - 1653 at London, England18 viewsObverse: No legend. Shield bearing the Cross of Saint George between palm branch to left and laurel branch to right.
Reverse: • II • above two conjoined shields side by side, that on the left bearing the Cross of Saint George, that on the right bearing the Harp of Ireland.
Diameter: 17mm | Weight: 0.9gms | Die Axis: 11
SPINK: 3221

The Commonwealth coinage was once referred to as "breeches money", because the reverse design of two conjoined shields was reminiscent of the shape of a pair of the breeches which were worn at the time. This coinage was minted in England after a period of civil war which culminated in the execution of King Charles I in London in 1649. Commonwealth coins bear no portrait of a monarch because after Charles I was beheaded there wasn't one, instead the coins have a simple puritan design. The language of the legends on the coins also changed, traditionally it was in Latin, giving the name of the monarch and their titles, but now this was replaced with ‘THE COMMONWEALTH OF ENGLAND’ on the obverse and ‘GOD WITH US’ on the reverse. These simple statements not only did away with all references to royal power, they also replaced the Catholic-sounding Latin with Protestant English laying claim to God’s favour and support in true Puritan style.
There appear to be no surviving records of the exact amount of Commonwealth coinage which was produced. Although Samuel Pepys in his Diaries suggested that during the Commonwealth period from 1649 to 1660 some 750,000 pounds worth of coins were minted in total and that after the restoration in 1660 much of this, some 650,000 pounds, was recovered and melted down. This leaves an outstanding 100,000 pounds which it is believed was exported as bullion.
It seems, too, that during the Commonwealth Period 46.8% of the silver coinage from the mint was produced between December 1651 and November 1653, which would tally with the treasure trove which was captured from foreign ships and brought to London during that period. A second coining period occurred in 1656 when more foreign ships were captured by the navy, brought to London and their precious metal offloaded to the Tower.
This particular coin denomination is undated, but it has been suggested that the coin above can probably be attributed to the first coinage period on stylistic grounds.
1 comments*Alex
Charles_IIII_1795_Mexico_Spanish_Colonial_8_Reales.jpg
1795- MoFM Mexico Spanish Colonial 8 Reales of Charles IIII - [KM-109 -- Charles IIII]63 viewsChopmarked, 0.7797 ounce silver 8 Reales (also known as the pillar dollar), 26.65g, 39.62mm, 0 degree, Mexico City, Mexico Mint [Mo -- small 'o' set over a large 'M'], 179[5]

Obv. - • CAROLUS IIII • DEI • GR[ATIA] •, laureate bust of Charles IIII right

Rev. - • HISPAN • ET IND • REX • Mo • 8R • F • M •, coat of arms of Spain

This coin was sold as a 1794 chopmarked 8 Reale. Upon inspection in hand under high magnification and different lighting conditions, as well as inspection of large, quality pictures on the computer allowing for color/contrast/levels manipulation, and I have determined this coin to actually be from 1795. The '5', although extremely worn is visible under the correct conditions and comparisons of the worn number morphology to other 179x coins lends credence to this finding.

The reverse is just as interesting and challenging. Although the mintmark is almost completely worn off, the assayer of FM ensures that the coin is of Mexico City, Mexico mintmark.

The coat of arms of Spain, a crown crown flanked by columns and a middle shield includes the national motto PLVS VLTRA spread across the two columns. PLVS VLTRA (PLUS ULTRA) translates to "further beyond." It is adopted from the personal motto of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor (and King of Spain as Charles I) and is a Latin translation from Plus Oultre, his original motto in Old French.

A great website for helping to attribute these coins and a breakdown of the legend components can be found here: http://coinquest.com/cgi-bin/cq/coins?main_coin=2334

Reading on different chopmarks can be found here: http://www.1messydesk.com/chopmarks/chopmarks.html

Although this coin is quite worn in certain areas, it has a lovely tone and great character. The numerous different chopmarks just add to the appeal. This coins was bought as a conversation piece as I have always found them interesting, albeit with knowing next to nothing concerning them. However, after doing some research, I have come to appreciate it much more and may follow suite with further additions. In any case, I plan on further reading into the subject area.
___________

Purchased from Regal Coin Exchange in Savannah, GA
1 commentsrenegade3220
George_3_Cartwheel_Penny_1797.JPG
1797 GEORGE III AE "CARTWHEEL" PENNY10 viewsObverse: GEORGIUS III • D : G • REX. Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust of George III facing right.
Reverse: BRITANNIA 1797. Britannia seated facing left, holding olive branch and trident. Small ship in left background; mint-mark SOHO below shield.
Diameter: 36mm
SPINK: 3777

This portrait of George III was designed by Conrad Heinrich Kuchler (c.1740 - 1810), this is marked by a small "K." in the drapery at the base of the King's bust. Kuchler moved to Birmingham in 1795 and designed many of the coins and medals which were struck at Matthew Boulton's SOHO mint.

This was the year that the first copper penny was struck, it was also the first time that the figure of Britannia was portrayed seated amid the waves and holding a trident instead of a spear. The coin was struck by Matthew Boulton at the Soho Mint, Birmingham but, weighing a full one ounce (28.3g) and with a diameter of 36mm, it was rather heavy for the pocket and was soon discontinued. Many have survived though, battered and worn, having been used as weights for kitchen scales.
*Alex
George_3_Twopence_1797.JPG
1797 GEORGE III AE "CARTWHEEL" TWOPENCE9 viewsObverse: GEORGIUS III • D : G • REX. Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust of George III facing right.
Reverse: BRITANNIA. 1797. Britannia seated facing left, holding olive branch and trident. Small ship in left background; mint-mark SOHO below shield.
Diameter: 41mm. Weight: 56.7gms.
SPINK: 3776

This portrait of George III was designed by Conrad Heinrich Kuchler (c.1740 - 1810), this is marked by a small "K." in the drapery at the base of the King's bust. Kuchler moved to Birmingham in 1795 and designed many of the coins and medals which were struck at Matthew Boulton's SOHO mint.

The figure of Britannia was portrayed seated amid the waves and holding a trident instead of a spear for the first time on the Cartwheel twopences and pennies of this year. This mighty coin was struck in Birmingham by Matthew Boulton at his Soho Mint, but, since it weighed a full two ounces (56.7gms) and measured 5mm thick with a diameter of 41mm, it was a bit heavy for the pocket and was soon discontinued. Many have survived though, battered and worn, having been used as weights for kitchen scales. Some of these twopence coins, because they were so big, were even turned into patch boxes.
*Alex
pertinax den-.jpg
193 AD - PERTINAX AR denarius - struck January-March 193 AD83 viewsobv: IMP.CAES.P.HELV.PERTIN.AVG (laureate head right)
rev:OPI.DIVIN.TR.P.COS.II (Ops seated left, holding two corn ears, left hand on top of throne)
ref: RIC IVi 8 (R2), C.33 (60frcs)
2.43gms
Very rare

This coin is ugly, worn and holed, but... it's a Pertinax.

Publius Helvius Pertinax was commander of an equestrian unit in Moesia Superior (or Pannonia Inferior), on the Middle Danube in 167 AD, and fight against the Yaziges. He was also the commander of the First legion Adiutrix, stationed at Brigetio (modern Szöny) between 171-174 AD. Pertinax played an important role during the campaigns against the Marcomanni. It is very likely that I Adiutrix and the two newly founded legions II Italica and III Italica were grouped together in a single task-force. According to the historian Herodian, Pertinax freed the provinces of Noricum and Raetia completely, and took part in the attacks on the Quadi and Sarmatians north of the Danube.
2 commentsberserker
s-1945c.jpg
1945B JOHN II Metropolitan Tetarteron S-1945 DOC 12 CLBC 3.4.1 14 viewsOBV Full length figure of Christ standing on a dais, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds Gospels in l. hand.

REV Full length figure of Emperor wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece and jeweled loros of a simplified type. Holds in r. hand scepter cruciger and in l. hand gl. cr.

Size 18/19mm

Weight 3.8gm

Cosmopolitan Issue were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of 3% and were also issued with a very light silver wash (Silver traces are common on Cosmopolitan issues but intact fully silvered coins are very rare.) These more than likely were tariffed at a higher rate than the Thessalonica issues that have been shown to have no silver content. Cosmopolitan issue are in general far scarcer than the Thessalonica issues.

DOC lists 27 examples with weights from 2,79gm to 4.69gm and sizes ranging from 18mm to 22mm

John IIs Metro tetartera are easy to come by, the do not have the same rarity as the other emperors metro issues. This one has been in my collection near the beginning , it grades as fine an evenly worn.
Simon
s-1970c.jpg
1970c MANUEL METROPOLITIAN TETARTERON S-1970 DOC 17CLBC 4.4.4 18 viewsOBV Bust of Virgin nimbate, orans wearing tunic and maphorion.

REV. Bust of emperor bearded, wearing stemma, divitision, and chlamys; holds in r. hand labarum headed and scepter and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 21.07mm

Weight 3.5gm

Cosmopolitan Issue were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of 3% and were also issued with a very light silver wash (Silver traces are common on Cosmopolitan issues but intact fully silvered coins are very rare.)

I know CLBC issues this as Rarity level 1, I very much disagree, they are not that easily found. Using his scale I would call it a 3.

This example is very worn and light weight. Still attractive to some :)

DOC lists 18 examples with weights ranging from 2.52 to 4.87 and sizes from 17mm to 23mm
Simon
sear1989B.jpg
1989B ANDRONICUS HALF TETARTERON S-1989 DOC 8 CLBC 5.4.342 viewsOBV Bust of Virgin nimbate, orans, wearing tunic and maphorion; beardless. Nimbate head of Christ on breast.

REV Bust of emperor wearing stemma, skaramangion or divitision and sagion; holds in r hand labrum headed scepter, and in l. globus cruciger.

Size 15.32

Weight 2.0gm

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron.The half tetartera at 1/1728 Hyperpyron. This coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

DOC lists 3 examples with weights ranging from 1.38 gm to 2.46 gm with sizes from 15mm to 18mm.

This is my third example of this Very rare coin, well worn but all three examples have a die diameter of 12mm
Simon
PCrassusDenAmazon~0.jpg
1ab Marcus Licinius Crassus17 viewsFormed First Triumvirate with Caesar and Pompey in 60 BC, killed at Carrhae in Parthia in 53 BC.

Denarius, minted by son, P Licinius Crassus, ca 54 BC.
Bust of Venus, right, SC behind
Amazon with horse, P CRASSVS MF.

Seaby, Licinia 18

These coins were probably minted to pay Crassus' army for the invasion of Parthia, which led to its destruction. My synthesis of reviewing 90 examples of this issue revealed a female warrior wearing a soft felt Scythian cap with ear flaps; a fabric garment with a decorated skirt to the knees; probably trousers; an ornate war belt; a baldric; a cape, animal skin, or shoulder cord on attached to the left shoulder; and decorated calf-high boots. She matches the historically confirmed garb of the real amazons—Scythian horsewomen—and of course holds her steed. The horse’s tack is consistent with archeological discoveries of tack in use by Scythians and Romans.

Adrienne Mayor writes that amazon imagery on Greek vases suddenly appeared in 575-550 BC, initially depicting them in Greek-style armor. By the end of the century, as the Greeks learned more through direct and indirect contact with Scythians, they began to appear wearing archeologically confirmed Scythian-Sarmatian-Thracian patterned attire. (Adrienne Mayor, The Amazons: Lives and Legends of Warrior Women Across the Ancient World, Princeton, Princeton University Press, 2014, 199-200). To this, artists added their own creative ideas regarding colors, fabric patterns, and decorations. “They dressed the warrior women in body-hugging ‘unitards’ or tunics, short chitons or belted dresses, sometimes over leggings or trousers. . . . In paintings and sculpture, pointed or soft Scythian caps with earflaps or ties (kidaris) soon replaced the Greek helmets, and the women wear a variety of belts, baldrics (diagonal straps), corselets, shoulder cords or bands, and crisscrossing leather straps attached to belt loops like those worn by the archer huntress Artemis. . . . Amazon footgear included soft leather moccasin-like shoes, calf-high boots (endromides), or taller laced boots (embades) with scallops or flaps and lined with felt or fur.” (Mayor, 202)

The artists apparently had detailed knowledge of gear used by real Scythian horsewomen to equip their imagined Amazons. “Archeological discoveries of well-preserved sets of clothing confirm that real horsewomen of ancient Scythian lands dressed much as did those described in Greek texts and illustrated in Scythian and Greek artwork.” (Mayor, 203)
1 commentsBlindado
PCrassusDenAmazon2.jpg
1ab_2 Marcus Licinius Crassus34 viewsFormed First Triumvirate with Caesar and Pompey in 60 BC, killed at Carrhae in Parthia in 53 BC.

Denarius, minted by son, P Licinius Crassus, ca 54 BC.
Bust of Venus, right, SC behind
Amazon with horse, P CRASSVS MF.

Seaby, Licinia 18

These coins were probably minted to pay Crassus' army for the invasion of Parthia. My synthesis of reviewing 90 examples of this issue revealed a female warrior wearing a soft felt Scythian cap with ear flaps (visible in this example); a fabric garment with a decorated skirt to the knees; probably trousers; an ornate war belt; a baldric; a cape, animal skin, or shoulder cord on attached to the left shoulder; and decorated calf-high boots. She matches the historically confirmed garb of the real amazons—Scythian horsewomen—and of course holds her steed. The horse’s tack is consistent with archeological discoveries of tack in use by Scythians and Romans.

Adrienne Mayor writes that amazon imagery on Greek vases suddenly appeared in 575-550 BC, initially depicting them in Greek-style armor. By the end of the century, as the Greeks learned more through direct and indirect contact with Scythians, they began to appear wearing archeologically confirmed Scythian-Sarmatian-Thracian patterned attire. (Adrienne Mayor, The Amazons: Lives and Legends of Warrior Women Across the Ancient World, Princeton, Princeton University Press, 2014, 199-200). To this, artists added their own creative ideas regarding colors, fabric patterns, and decorations. “They dressed the warrior women in body-hugging ‘unitards’ or tunics, short chitons or belted dresses, sometimes over leggings or trousers. . . . In paintings and sculpture, pointed or soft Scythian caps with earflaps or ties (kidaris) soon replaced the Greek helmets, and the women wear a variety of belts, baldrics (diagonal straps), corselets, shoulder cords or bands, and crisscrossing leather straps attached to belt loops like those worn by the archer huntress Artemis. . . . Amazon footgear included soft leather moccasin-like shoes, calf-high boots (endromides), or taller laced boots (embades) with scallops or flaps and lined with felt or fur.” (Mayor, 202)
The artists apparently had detailed knowledge of gear used by real Scythian horsewomen to equip their imagined Amazons. “Archeological discoveries of well-preserved sets of clothing confirm that real horsewomen of ancient Scythian lands dressed much as did those described in Greek texts and illustrated in Scythian and Greek artwork.” (Mayor, 203)

Plutarch wrote of Crassus: People were wont to say that the many virtues of Crassus were darkened by the one vice of avarice, and indeed he seemed to have no other but that; for it being the most predominant, obscured others to which he was inclined. The arguments in proof of his avarice were the vastness of his estate, and the manner of raising it; for whereas at first he was not worth above three hundred talents, yet, though in the course of his political life he dedicated the tenth of all he had to Hercules, and feasted the people, and gave to every citizen corn enough to serve him three months, upon casting up his accounts, before he went upon his Parthian expedition, he found his possessions to amount to seven thousand one hundred talents; most of which, if we may scandal him with a truth, he got by fire and rapine, making his advantages of the public calamities. . . . Crassus, however, was very eager to be hospitable to strangers; he kept open house, and to his friends he would lend money without interest, but called it in precisely at the time; so that his kindness was often thought worse than the paying the interest would have been. His entertainments were, for the most part, plain and citizen-like, the company general and popular; good taste and kindness made them pleasanter than sumptuosity would have done. As for learning he chiefly cared for rhetoric, and what would be serviceable with large numbers; he became one of the best speakers at Rome, and by his pains and industry outdid the best natural orators. . . . Besides, the people were pleased with his courteous and unpretending salutations and greetings, for he never met any citizen however humble and low, but he returned him his salute by name. He was looked upon as a man well-read in history, and pretty well versed in Aristotle's philosophy. . . . Crassus was killed by a Parthian, called Pomaxathres; others say by a different man, and that Pomaxathres only cut off his head and right hand after he had fallen. But this is conjecture rather than certain knowledge, for those that were by had not leisure to observe particulars. . . .
1 commentsBlindado
PCrassusDenAmazon2~1.jpg
1ab_2 Marcus Licinius Crassus35 viewsFormed First Triumvirate with Caesar and Pompey in 60 BC, killed at Carrhae in Parthia in 53 BC.

Denarius, minted by son, P Licinius Crassus, ca 54 BC.
Bust of Venus, right, SC behind
Amazon with horse, P CRASSVS MF.

Seaby, Licinia 18

These coins were probably minted to pay Crassus' army for the invasion of Parthia, which led to its destruction. My synthesis of reviewing 90 examples of this issue revealed a female warrior wearing a soft felt Scythian cap with ear flaps (visible in this example); a fabric garment with a decorated skirt to the knees; probably trousers; an ornate war belt; a baldric; a cape, animal skin, or shoulder cord on attached to the left shoulder; and decorated calf-high boots. She matches the historically confirmed garb of the real amazons—Scythian horsewomen—and of course holds her steed. The horse’s tack is consistent with archeological discoveries of tack in use by Scythians and Romans.

Adrienne Mayor writes that amazon imagery on Greek vases suddenly appeared in 575-550 BC, initially depicting them in Greek-style armor. By the end of the century, as the Greeks learned more through direct and indirect contact with Scythians, they began to appear wearing archeologically confirmed Scythian-Sarmatian-Thracian patterned attire. (Adrienne Mayor, The Amazons: Lives and Legends of Warrior Women Across the Ancient World, Princeton, Princeton University Press, 2014, 199-200). To this, artists added their own creative ideas regarding colors, fabric patterns, and decorations. “They dressed the warrior women in body-hugging ‘unitards’ or tunics, short chitons or belted dresses, sometimes over leggings or trousers. . . . In paintings and sculpture, pointed or soft Scythian caps with earflaps or ties (kidaris) soon replaced the Greek helmets, and the women wear a variety of belts, baldrics (diagonal straps), corselets, shoulder cords or bands, and crisscrossing leather straps attached to belt loops like those worn by the archer huntress Artemis. . . . Amazon footgear included soft leather moccasin-like shoes, calf-high boots (endromides), or taller laced boots (embades) with scallops or flaps and lined with felt or fur.” (Mayor, 202)

The artists apparently had detailed knowledge of gear used by real Scythian horsewomen to equip their imagined Amazons. “Archeological discoveries of well-preserved sets of clothing confirm that real horsewomen of ancient Scythian lands dressed much as did those described in Greek texts and illustrated in Scythian and Greek artwork.” (Mayor, 203)
2 commentsBlindado
GalbaDenVictory.jpg
1at Galba31 views68-69

Denarius

Laureate head, right, SER GALBA IMP CAESAR AVG P M TR P
Victory standing on globe, VICTORIA PR

RIC 111

Suetonius recorded: Servius Galba, the future emperor was born on the 24th of December, 3BC, in the consulship of Marcus Valerius Messala and Gnaeus Lentulus, at a hillside mansion near Terracina, on the left of the road to Fundi (Fondi). He was formally adopted by his stepmother Livia Ocellina, and took the name Livius and the surname Ocella, also changing his forename to Lucius, until he became Emperor.

It is common knowledge that when calling on Augustus to pay his respects, with other boys of his age, the Emperor pinched his cheek, and said in Greek: ‘You too will have a taste of power, my child.’ And when Tiberius heard the prophecy that Galba would be emperor in old age, he commented: ‘Well let him be, it’s no concern of mine.’

Galba achieved office before the usual age and as praetor (in 20AD), controlling the games at the Floralia, he was the first to introduce a display of tightrope-walking elephants. He next governed Aquitania, for almost a year, and not long afterwards held the consulship for six months (in 33AD). When Caligula was assassinated (in 41AD), Galba chose neutrality though many urged him to seize the opportunity for power. Claudius expressed his gratitude by including him among his intimate friends, and Galba was shown such consideration that the expedition to Britain was delayed to allow him to recover from a sudden but minor indisposition. Later he was proconsul in Africa for two years (44/45AD), being singled out, and so avoiding the usual lottery, to restore order in the province, which was riven by internecine rivalry and an indigenous revolt. He re-established peace, by the exercise of ruthless discipline, and the display of justice even in the most trifling matters. . . .

But when word from the City arrived that Nero was dead and that the people had sworn allegiance to him, he set aside the title of governor and assumed that of Caesar. He then began his march to Rome in a general’s cloak, with a dagger, hanging from his neck, at his chest, and did not resume the toga until his main rivals had been eliminated, namely the commander of the Praetorian Guard in Rome, Nymphidius Sabinus, and the commanders in Germany and Africa, Fonteius Capito and Clodius Macer. . . . His prestige and popularity were greater while winning power than wielding it, though he showed evidence of being a more than capable ruler, loved less, unfortunately, for his good qualities than he was hated for his bad ones.

He was even warned of the danger of imminent assassination, the day before his death, by a soothsayer, as he offered the morning sacrifice. Shortly afterwards he learnt that Otho had secured the Guards camp, and when his staff advised him to carry the day by his presence and prestige, by going there immediately, he opted instead to stay put, but gather a strong bodyguard of legionaries from their billets around the City. He did however don a linen corselet, though saying that frankly it would serve little against so many weapons. False reports, put about by the conspirators to lure him into appearing in public, deceived a few of his close supporters, who rashly told him the rebellion was over, the plotters overthrown, and that the rest of the troops were on their way to congratulate him and carry out his orders. So he went to meet them, with such confidence, that when a soldier boasted of killing Otho, he snapped out: ‘On whose authority?’ before hastening on to the Forum. The cavalrymen who had been ordered to find and kill him, who were spurring through the streets scattering the crowds of civilians, now caught sight of him in the distance and halted an instant before galloping towards him and cutting him down, while his staff ran for their lives.
Blindado
OthoDenSecuritas.jpg
1au Otho36 views69

Denarius
Bewigged head, right, IMP OTHO CAESAR AVG TR P
Securitas stg., SECVRITAS P R

RIC 10

Suetonius wrote: Otho was born on the 28th of April 32 AD, in the consulship of Furius Camillus Arruntius and Domitius Ahenobarbus, Nero’s father. In early youth he was so profligate and insolent that he earned many a beating from his own father. . . . After his father died, he feigned love for an influential freedwoman at Court, though she was old and decrepit, in order to win her favour, and then used her to insinuate himself among the emperor’s friends, easily achieving the role of Nero’s chief favourite, not only because they were of a similar disposition, but also some say because of a sexual relationship. . . .

Otho had hoped to be adopted by Galba as his successor, and anticipated the announcement daily. But Piso was chosen, dashing Otho’s hopes, and causing him to resort to force, prompted not only by feelings of resentment but also by his mounting debts. He declared that frankly he would have to declare himself bankrupt, unless he became emperor. . . . When the moment was finally ripe, . . . his friends hoisted him on their shoulders and acclaimed him Emperor. Everyone they met joined the throng, as readily as if they were sworn accomplices and a part of the conspiracy, and that is how Otho arrived at his headquarters, amidst cheering and the brandishing of swords. He at once sent men to kill Galba and Piso. . . .

Meanwhile the army in Germany had sworn allegiance to Vitellius. When the news reached Otho he persuaded the Senate to send a deputation, advising the soldiers to maintain peace and order, since an emperor had already been chosen. However he also sent envoys with letters and personal messages, offering to share power with Vitellius, and marry his daughter. With civil war clearly inevitable, on the approach of Vitellius’s advance guard, who had marched on Rome led by their generals, . . . Otho began his campaign vigorously, and indeed too hastily. . . .

His army won three engagements, but of a minor nature, firstly in the Alps, then near Placentia, and finally at a place called Castor’s, and were ultimately defeated in a decisive and treacherous encounter at Betriacum (on the 14th April). . . . After this defeat, Otho resolved to commit suicide, more from feelings of shame, which many have thought justified, and a reluctance to continue the struggle with such high cost to life and property, than from any diffidence or fear of failure shown by his soldiers. . . . On waking at dawn (on the 16th of April, AD69), he promptly dealt himself a single knife-blow in the left side of his chest, and first concealing and then showing the wound to those who rushed in at the sound of his groaning, he breathed his last. . . . Otho was thirty-six years old when he died, on the ninety-second day of his reign. . . .

Neither his bodily form nor appearance suggested great courage. He is said to have been of medium height, bandy-legged and splay-footed, though as fastidious as a woman in personal matters. He had his body-hair plucked, and wore a toupee to cover his scanty locks, so well-made and so close-fitting that its presence was not apparent.
Blindado
VitelliusDenVesta.jpg
1av Vitellius42 views69

Denarius
Portrait, right, A VITELLIVS GERMAN IMP TR P
Vesta std., PONT MAX

RIC 107

According to Suetonius: Lucius’s son Aulus, the future emperor, was born on the 24th of September 15AD, or according to some authorities on the 7th, during the consulship of Drusus Caesar and Norbanus Flaccus. . . . His boyhood and early youth were spent on Capreae (Capri) among Tiberius’s creatures, he himself being marked by the nickname of ‘Spintria’ (sex-token) throughout his life, and suspected of having secured his father’s first promotion to office by surrendering his own chastity. As he grew older, though contaminated by every kind of vice, Vitellius gained and kept a prominent place at court, winning Caligula’s friendship by his devotion to chariot-racing and Claudius’s by his love of dice. With Nero he was even closer. . . .

Honoured, as these emperors’ favourite, with high office in the priesthood, as well as political power, he governed Africa (under Nero, in 60/61AD) as proconsul, and was then Curator of Public Works (in 63AD), employing a contrasting approach, and with a contrasting effect on his reputation. In his province he acted with outstanding integrity over two successive years, since he served as deputy also to his brother who succeeded him (61/62AD) yet during his administration of the City he was said to have stolen various temple offerings and ornaments, and substituted brass and tin for the gold and silver in others. . . .

Contrary to all expectations, Galba appointed Vitellius to Lower Germany (in 68AD). Some think it was brought about by Titus Vinius, whose influence was powerful at that time, and whose friendship Vitellius had previously won through their mutual support for the ‘Blues’ in the Circus. But it is clear to everyone that Galba chose him as an act of contempt rather than favour, commenting that gluttons were among those least to be feared, and Vitellius’s endless appetite would now be able to sate itself on a province. . . .

He entered Rome to the sound of trumpets, surrounded by standards and banners, wearing a general’s cape, sword at his side, his officers in their military cloaks also, and the men with naked blades. With increasing disregard for the law, human or divine, he then assumed the office of High Priest on the anniversary of the Allia (18th July), arranged the elections for the next ten years, and made himself consul for life. . . .

Vitellius’s worst vices were cruelty and gluttony. . . . By the eighth month of his reign (November 69AD) the legions in Moesia and Pannonia had repudiated Vitellius, and sworn allegiance to Vespasian despite his absence, following those of Syria and Judaea who had done so in Vespasian’s presence. . . .

The vanguard of Vespasian’s army had now forced its way into the Palace, unopposed, and the soldiers were ransacking the rooms, in their usual manner. They hauled Vitellius, unrecognised, from his hiding place, asked his name and where the Emperor might be. He gave some lying answer, but was soon identified, so he begged for safe custody, even if that meant imprisonment, claiming he had important information for Vespasian regarding his security. However his arms were bound behind him and a noose flung over his head, and he was dragged along the Sacred Way to the Forum, amid a hail of mockery and abuse, half-naked, with his clothes in tatters. His head was held back by the hair, like a common criminal and, with a sword-point under his chin so that he was forced to look up and reveal his face, he was pelted with filth and dung, denounced as arsonist and glutton, and taunted with his bodily defects by the crowd. For, Vitellius was exceptionally tall, and his face was usually flushed from some drinking bout. He had a huge belly, too, and one thigh crippled by a blow from a four-horse chariot which struck him when he was in attendance on Caligula who was driving. At last, after being tormented by a host of cuts from the soldiers’ swords, he was killed on the Gemonian Stairs, and his body dragged with a hook to the Tiber.
1 commentsBlindado
Plotina.jpg
1bd Plotina21 viewsWife of Trajan. Died 129

AE 19, Philadelphia, Lydia

Diademed and draped bust, right, PLWTEINA CEBACTH
Worn, FI-LADE-LFE-WN in four lines within wreath

Plotina is credited with having influenced Trajan to select Hadrian as his successor.

BMC 70
Blindado
SeptSevDenFund.jpg
1bs Septimius Severus87 views193-211

Denarius

Laureate head, right, SEVERVS PIVS AVG
Septimius, togate and veiled, standing left holding olive branch, FVNDATOR PACIS

RIC 265

According to the Historia Augusta: After the murder of Didius Julianus, Severus, a native of Africa, gained the empire. His home town was Lepcis Magna, his father was Geta and his ancestors had been Roman knights before citizenship had been given to all. . . . He himself was born on the third day before the Ides of April, when Erucius Clarus, for the second time, and Severus were the consuls [11 April A.D.146]. . . .

After his departure to Germany he conducted himself in such a way in his governorship as to increase his reputation, which had already become noteworthy. Up to this point his military activity was as a private citizen. But then, after it had been learned that Commodus had been murdered and, moreover, that Julianus held the empire amid universal hatred, he was proclaimed emperor by the German legions at Carnuntum, on the Ides of August, although he did put up some resistance to the many who urged him on. He gave the soldiers . . . sesterces each. Then, after strengthening the provinces which he was leaving in his rear, he marched on Rome. All yielded to him wherever he went, while the armies of Illyricum and Gaul, under the pressure of their generals, had already sworn allegiance to him - for he was received by everyone as the avenger of Pertinax. At the same time, on the instigation of Julianus, Septimius Severus was declared a public enemy, and envoys were sent to the army who were to order the soldiers to desert him, on the instructions of the Senate. At first, when Severus heard that the envoys had been sent by authority of a senatorial decree, he was very frightened. Afterwards, by bribing the envoys, he ensured that they spoke in his favour before the army and crossed to his side. Having learned this, Julianus caused a decree ofthe Senate to be passed regarding his sharing of the empire with Severus. It is uncertain whether or not he did this as a trick, since he had already, before this, dispatched certain men, well known for their assassinations of generals, who were to kill Severus. Similarly he had sent men to assassinate Pescennius Niger, who had also assumed the position of emperor in opposition to him, on the instigation of the Syrian armies. But Severus escaped the hands of those that Julianus had sent to murder him and sent a letter to the praetorian guard, giving them the signal either to desertJulianus or to kill him. He was obeyed at once; Julianus was killed in the palace and Severus was invited to Rome. Thus Severus became the victor merely at will - something that had never happened to anyone - and hastened to Rome under arms. . . .

The same emperor, although implacable towards offences, likewise displayed singular judiciousness in encouraging all hard-working persons. He was quite interested in philosophy and the practice of rhetoric, and enthusiastic about learning in general. He took some measures against brigands everywhere. He composed a convincing autobiography dealing with both his private and his public life, making excuses only for the vice of cruelty. With regard to this, the Senate pronounced that either he ought not to have been born or that he ought not to die, since he appeared to be both excessively cruel and excessively useful to the republic. . . . . He died at Eboracum [York] in Britain, having subdued the tribes which appeared hostile to Britain, in the eighteeneh year of his reign, stricken by a very grave illness, now an old man. . . .

This emperor wore such meagre clothing that even his tunic scarcely had any purple, while he covered his shoulders with a shaggy cloak. He ate sparingly, being very addicted to his native vegetable, sometimes fond of wine, often abstaining from meat. His person was handsome, he was of huge size,(Dio Cassius, who knew Severus personally, says that he was small) with a long beard and curly white hair. His face inspired reverence, his voice was resonant but with a trace of an African accent right up to his old age. He was equally beloved after his death, when envy, or the fear of his cruelty, had disappeared.
Blindado
CrispusAE3Victoria.jpg
1ef Crispus67 viewsCaesar 317-326

AE3, Thessalonica

Laureate, draped & cuirassed bust, right, D N FL IVL CRISPVS NOB CAES
Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm, VICTORIA CAESS NN. Mintmark dot TS dot epsilon dot.

Zosimus recorded Crispus' elevation to Caesar: "Constantine, having taken Cibalis, and Sirmium, and all the towns that Licinius had abandoned, sent five thousand men in pursuit of him. But as these were ignorant of the course he had taken, they could not overtake him. Constantine however, having rebuilt the bridge over the Saus, which Licinius had broken down, was with his army almost at his heels. Having entered Thrace, he arrived at the plain where Licinius lay encamped. On the night of his arrival there he marshalled his army, and gave orders for his soldiers to be ready for battle by day-break. As soon as it was light, Licinius, perceiving Constantine with his army, drew up his forces also, having been joined by Valens, whom he styled Caesar, after the battle of Cibalis. When the armies engaged, they first fought with bows at a distance ; but when their arrows were spent, they began to use their javelins, and poignards. Thus the battle continued very obstinately for a considerable time, until those whom Constantine had sent in pursuit of Licinius descended from an eminence upon the armies while they were engaged. These wheeled round the hill |46 before they arrived at them, deeming it best to join their own party from the higher ground, and to encompass the enemy. The troops of Licinius, being aware of them, courageously withstood against them all, so that many thousands were slain on both sides, and the advantage was equal, till the signal was given for both to retire. Next day they agreed on a truce, and entered into an alliance with each other, on condition that Constantine should possess Illyricum and all the nations westward, and that Licinius should have Thrace and the east; but that Valens, whom Licinius had made Caesar, should be put to death, because be was said to be the author of all the mischief which had happened. Having done this, and sworn on both sides to observe the conditions, Constantine conferred the rank and title of Caesar on Crispus, his son by a concubine called Minervina, who was as yet but a youth, and on Constantine, who was born but a few days before at Arelatum. At the same time Licinianus, the son of Licinius, who was twenty months of age, was declared Caesar, Thus ended the second war."

According to Zonaras, "By a concubine he also had another son, called Crispus, older than his other sons, who distinguished himself often in the war against Licinius. His stepmother Fausta, being erotically obsessed with him, since she did not find him compliant, denounced him to his father as being in love with her and as having often attempted to use force against her. Hence, Crispus was condemned to death by his father, who had been persuaded by his spouse."

Constantine had his son strangled to death in Pula.

RIC 62
Blindado
DelmatiusAE3GlorEx.jpg
1eg Delmatius21 viewsCaesar 335-337

AE3, Thessalonica

Laureate, cuirassed bust, right, FL DELMATIVS NOB C two soldiers holding spears and shields with two standards between them, O on banner, GLORIA EXERCITVS. Mintmark: SMTSD.

RIC 202D

Zosimus recorded: After Constantine had oppressed and tormented the people in these various modes, he died of a disease, and was succeeded by his three sons, who were not born of Fausta the daughter of Maximianus Herculius, but of another woman, whom he had put to death for adultery. They devoted themselves more to the pleasures of youth than to the service of the state. They began by dividing the nations between them. Constantine the eldest, and Constans the youngest, having for their share all beyond the Alps, together with Italy and Illyricum, the countries bordering on the Euxine sea and all that belonged to Carthage in Africa; Constantius obtained all Asia, the east, and Egypt. There were likewise others who shared in the government; Dalmatius, whom Constantine made Caesar, Constantius his brother, and Hanniballianus, who had all worn robes of purple embroidered with gold, and were promoted to the order of Nobilissimates by Constantine, from respect to their being of his own family. . . . The empire being thus divided, Constantius who appeared to take pains not to fall short of his father in impiety, began by shedding the blood of his nearest relations. He first caused Constantius, his father's brother, to be murdered by the soldiers ; next to whom he treated Dalmatius in the same manner, as also Optatus whom Constantine had raised to the rank of a Nobilissimate.

A great-nephew of Constantine the Great.
Blindado
29a_tótfalu-identify.jpg
29a. Celtic AR drachm – Boier TĂ“TFALU type411 viewsBecause of the obverse is worn enough, just some wave fragments (?) seen at the edge, it was hard enough to indentify. Of the typical Tótfalu coins only the gaul type has wavy hair figure, so I think my coin is verisimilar than the reference coin.1 commentsberserker
DSC05442.JPG
2nd- 3rd Century Pelta Harness Mount12 viewsThis large pelta-shaped mount was probably worn on the horse's headstall. Two mushroom-footed studs on the back secured this item to the headstall. 47mm x 47mmFiorenza21
Anto3Rhea_Mars.jpg
3. Mars descends on sleeping Rhea Silvia48 viewsAntoninus Pius. 138-161 AD. As. Rome mint. Struck 140-144 AD. Obv.: [ANTO]NINVS - AVG PIVS P P, laureate head right. Rev.: TR POT COS [III around] S C [in field], Mars holding spear and shield descends on sleeping Rhea Silvia.

This coin was struck just prior to 900th anniversary of Rome which was celebrated in 147 AD. According to Titus Livius (59BC to AD17) account of the legend, Rhea Silva was the daughter of Numitor, king of Alba Longa and descendant of Aeneas. Numitor's younger brother Amulius seized the throne and killed Numitor's son. Amulius forced Rhea Silvia to become a Vestal Virgin, a priestess to the goddess Vesta, so that the line of Numitor would have no heirs; Vestal Virgins were sworn to celibacy for a period of thirty years. Rhea Silvia claimed that the god Mars, however, came upon her and seduced her in the forest, thereby conceiving the twins Romulus and Remus. When Amulius learned of this, he imprisoned Rhea Silvia. (In another version of the story, he ordered her to be thrown into the Tiber, where she fell into the arms of the river god who married her.) Legend continued on "Wolf suckling twins"...
Charles S
CtVIISis238.jpg
333-337 AD - Constans as Caesar - RIC VII Siscia 238 - GLORIA EXERCITVS31 viewsCaesar: Constans (Caes. 333-337 AD)
Date: 334-335 AD
Condition: VF
Size: AE3

Obverse: FL CONSTANTIS BEA C
Flavius Constans Caesar of a Blessed Calm Reign
Bust right; laureate, draped and cuirassed

Reverse: GLOR-IA EXERC-ITVS
Glory of the Army.
Two soldiers standing, facing one another, spear in outer hand, inner hand on shield resting on ground, between them two standards.
Exergue: ●ΔSIS● (Siscia mint, fourth officina) (Note: first ● may be worn away)

RIC VII Siscia 238
2.20g; 19.3mm; 30°
Pep
L__Titurius_L_F__Sabinus,_Tituria_4.jpg
344/2b L. Titurius L.f. Sabinus 24 viewsL. Titurius L.f. Sabinus 89 B.C. AR Denarius. Rome Mint. 89 B.C. (3.9 g, 17.48 mm, 9h). Obv: Head of Tatius right, SABIN behind, palm branch below chin. Rev: Tarpeia buried to her waist in shields, fending off two soldiers about to throw shields on her, LTITV[RI] in ex. Tituria 4, Craw. 344/2b, Syd 699.

Tarpeia, daughter of the commander of the citadel, betrayed her fellow Romans to the Sabines when they came to attack Rome. Tarpeia offered to admit the Sabines into the city in return for what they wore on their arms. She had in mind the gold torques the Sabines usually wore. The Sabines agreed, but disgusted by her greed, the gave her the shields they worn on their arms and put her to death by crushing her under their shields. She was then thrown from a high cliff above the city. The Tarpeian Rock, from which traitors were thrown in Rome, is named after her.

This type was later used by Augustus, possibly to demonstrate his ties to the times of the Republic (RIC I 299).
1 commentsLucas H
republic_denarius,_bacchus,_h_1443.jpg
431/1 A. Plautius 50 viewsA. Plautius. Republic: AR Denarius. Hendin 1443. BACCHIVS, IVDAEVS, kneeling figure facing right with palm branch in left hand, camel behind. A PLAVTIVS AED CVR S C, turreted head facing right.

Very worn, but I enjoy the historic significance of this coin. I understand this may be the first coin depicting Roman involvement in Judaea.
1 commentsLucas H
Lepidus_and_Octavian.jpg
495/2a Lepidus and Octavian23 viewsLepidus and Octavian. Military mint traveling with Lepidus in Italy. 43 B.C., late. AR Denarius.(3.35g, 16mm, 6h). Obv:LEPIDVS•PONT•MAX•III•VIR•R•P•C•, bare head of Lepidus right Rev: CAESAR•IMP•III•VIR•R•P•C•, bare head of Octavian right. Cf Crawford 495/2a 2c-d; Syd. 1323; Cf RSC 2-2a; 2c-d. “From Group SGF”

I’ve sought a coin with a portrait of Lepidus, and while worn, the obverse portrait is clearly identifiable. 43 B.C. saw the establishment of the Second Triumvirate giving Lepidus, Antony, and Octavian dictatorial powers over the Roman State.
1 commentsLucas H
juliusoctavian33edit.jpg
534/2 Octavian, Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa44 viewsOctavian and M. Vipsanius Agrippa. AR Denarius. Military mint moving with Octavian. c. 38 A.D. (3.48g, 18.2mm, 6h). Obv: DIVOS IVLIVS DIVI F, confronting heads of Julius Caesar, wreathed r., Octavian, bare headed, l. banker's marks Rev: M AGRIPPA COS DESIG. Craw. 534/2, Vipsania 2.

An exceedingly rare issue, I had to have this despite its condition. Worn, but not beyond recognition, this was an issue under the authority of Agrippa who was governor of Gaul at the time. This is a first use of confronting busts which became more common on dynastic issues of the Empire. The picture does not show it well, but the reverse legend is all there.
1 commentsLucas H
AnthonyLegPanoramaBlack~0.jpg
544/21 Mark Anthony 34 viewsMarc Antony Legionary Denarius- Legion VIII. Patrae(?) Mint 32-31 BC. (3.42 g, 16.73 mm) Obv: ANT AVG III VIR R P C, Praetorian galley. Rev: LEG VIII, legionary eagle between two standards.
Sydenham 1225, RSC 35, Crawford 544/21

Ex: Private Collection

Description from Forvm Ancient Coins:

"The legionary denarii were struck by Antony for the use of his fleet and legions, most likely at his winter headquarters at Patrae just before the Actian campaign. They may have been struck with silver from Cleopatra's treasury. The legionary denarii provide an interesting record of the 23 legions, praetorian cohorts and the chort of speculatores of which Antony's army was composed. Some of them give the name as well as the number of the legion honored. They have a lower silver content than the standard of the time. As a result they were rarely hoarded, heavily circulated and are most often found in very worn condition."

Unfortunately from what I understand VIII Leg has no equivelant among the imperial legions.

This specific coin was fun to photograph, it seemed like no matter how you turned and twisted it still turned out great. A photogenic coin, in other words!
Paddy
215_P_Hadrian__Emmett_848_13.jpg
5728 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Tetradrachm 128-29 AD Hands Clasped30 viewsReference.
Emmett 848.13; Dattari 1525; Milne 1274; RPC III, 5728

Issue L IΓ = year 13

Obv. AVT KAI TPAI AΔPIA CEB
Laureate, draped, cuirassed bust right, seen from back, with Paludamentum.

Rev. PATHR PATRIDOC (nobele vader)
Hands clasped, L IΓ=Jear 13=(128/129).

13.08 gr
25 mm
6h

note.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Bust of Septimius Severus wearing a paludamentum
In Republican and Imperial Rome, the paludamentum was a cloak or cape fastened at one shoulder, worn by military commanders (e.g. the legionary Legatus) and rather less often by their troops. As supreme commander of the whole Roman army, Roman emperors were often portrayed wearing it in their statues (e.g. the Prima Porta Augustus) and on their coinage. After the reign of Augustus, the paludamentum was restricted to the Emperor.[citation needed] Children would also wear it sometimes, when there was bad weather and they needed protection.
The paludamentum was generally crimson, scarlet, or purple in colour, or sometimes white. It was fastened at the shoulder with a clasp, called a fibula, whose form and size varied through time. Putting on the paludamentum was a ceremonial act on setting out for war.
2 commentsokidoki
1019_P_Hadrian_RPC6390.jpg
6390 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Nome Obol 126-27 AD Isis standing22 viewsReference.
RPC 6390.22; Dattari-Savio Pl. 304, 6299 (this coin). Dattari 6299 and Pl XXXV (this rev. Illustrated) Emmett 1246

Issue Memphite

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙ ΤΡΑΙ ΑΔΡΙΑ СΕΒ
Laureate head of Hadrian, r., drapery on l. shoulder

Rev. ΜΕΜΦΙ, L ΙΑ
Isis standing, facing, head l., wearing basileion upon vulture headdress, holding in l. hand figure of Ptah, standing, r., wearing sun disk and was-sceptre in hands, and raised uraeus, l., wearing pschent, in r. hand

5.75 gr
19.5 mm
12h

Note.
From the Dattari collection. Illustrated in Dattari.

Figure of Ptah, God of Creation
The Pschent was the name of the Double Crown worn by rulers in ancient Egypt
1 commentsokidoki
VitelliusARdenariusVesta.jpg
709a, Vitellius, 2 January - 20 December 69 A.D.42 viewsVITELLIUS AR silver denarius. RSC 72, RCV 2200. 19mm, 3.2 g. Obverse: A VITELLIVS GERM IMP AVG TR P, laureate head right; Reverse - PONT MAXIM, Vesta seated right, holding scepter and patera. Quite decent. Ex. Incitatus Coins. Photo courtesy of Incitatus Coins.

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Vitellius (69 A.D.)

John F. Donahue
College of William and Mary


It is often difficult to separate fact from fiction in assessing the life and reign of Vitellius. Maligned in the ancient sources as gluttonous and cruel, he was also a victim of a hostile biographical tradition established in the regime of the Flavians who had overthrown him. Nevertheless, his decision to march against Rome in 69 was pivotal, since his subsequent defeat signalled the end of military anarchy and the beginning of an extended period of political stability under Vespasian and his successors.

Early Life and Career

Aulus Vitellius was born in September, 15 AD, the son of Lucius Vitellius and his wife Sestilia. One of the most successful public figures of the Julio-Claudian period, Lucius Vitellius was a three-time consul and a fellow censor with the emperor Claudius. Aulus seems to have moved with equal ease in aristocratic circles, successively winning the attention of the emperors Gaius, Claudius, and Nero through flattery and political skill.

Among his attested public offices, Vitellius was a curator of public works, a senatorial post concerned with the maintenance and repair of public buildings in Rome, and he was also proconsul of North Africa, where he served as a deputy to his brother, perhaps about 55 A. D. In addition, he held at least two priesthoods, the first as a member of the Arval Brethren, in whose rituals he participated from 57 A.D., and the second, as one of the quindecemviri sacris faciundis, a sacred college famous for its feasts.

With respect to marriage and family, Vitellius first wed a certain Petroniana, the daughter of a consul, sometime in the early to mid thirties A.D. The union produced a son, Petronianus, allegedly blind in one eye and emancipated from his father's control as a result of being named his mother's heir. Tradition records that Vitellius killed the boy shortly after emancipation amid charges of parricide; the marriage soon ended in divorce. A second marriage, to Galeria Fundana, daughter of an ex-praetor, was more stable than the first. It produced another son, who was eventually killed by the Flavians after the overthrow of Vitellius, as well as a daughter. Galeria is praised by Tacitus for her good qualities, and in the end it was she who saw to Vitellius' burial.

Rise to Power and Emperorship

Without doubt, the most fortuitous moment in Vitellius' political career was his appointment as governor of Lower Germany by the emperor Galba late in 68. The decision seemed to have caught everybody by surprise, including Vitellius himself, who, according to Suetonius, was in straitened circumstances at the time. The choice may have been made to reduce the possibility of rebellion by the Rhine armies, disaffected by Galba's refusal to reward them for their part in suppressing the earlier uprising of Julius Vindex. Ironically, it was Vitellius' lack of military achievement and his reputation for gambling and gluttony that may have also figured in his selection. Galba perhaps calculated that a man with little military experience who could now plunder a province to satisfy his own stomach would never become disloyal. If so, it was a critical misjudgement by the emperor.

The rebellion began on January 1, 69 ("The Year of the Four Emperors"), when the legions of Upper Germany refused to renew their oath of allegiance to Galba. On January 2, Vitellius' own men, having heard of the previous day's events, saluted him as emperor at the instigation of the legionary legate Fabius Valens and his colleagues. Soon, in addition to the seven legions that Vitellius now had at his command in both Germanies, the forces in Gaul, Britain, and Raetia also came over to his side. Perhaps aware of his military inexperience, Vitellius did not immediately march on Rome himself. Instead, the advance was led by Valens and another legionary general, Aulus Caecina Alienus, with each man commanding a separate column. Vitellius would remain behind to mobilize a reserve force and follow later.

Caecina was already one hundred fifty miles on his way when news reached him that Galba had been overthrown and Otho had taken his place as emperor. Undeterred, he passed rapidly down the eastern borders of Gaul; Valens followed a more westerly route, quelling a mutiny along the way. By March both armies had successfully crossed the Alps and joined at Cremona, just north of the Po. Here they launced their Batavian auxiliaries against Otho's troops and routed them in the First Battle of Bedriacum. Otho killed himself on April 16, and three days later the soldiers in Rome swore their allegience to Vitellius. The senate too hailed him as emperor.

When Vitellius learned of these developments, he set out to Rome from Gaul. By all accounts the journey was a drunken feast marked by the lack of discipline of both the troops and the imperial entourage. Along the way he stopped at Lugdunum to present his six-year-old son Germanicus to the legions as his eventual successor. Later, at Cremona, Vitellius witnessed the corpse-filled battlefield of Otho's recent defeat with joy, unmoved by so many citizens denied a proper burial.

The emperor entered Rome in late June-early July. Conscious of making a break with the Julio-Claudian past, Vitellius was reluctant to assume the traditional titles of the princes, even though he enthusiastically made offerings to Nero and declared himself consul for life. To his credit, Vitellius did seem to show a measure of moderation in the transition to the principate. He assumed his powers gradually and was generally lenient to Otho's supporters, even pardoning Otho's brother Salvius Titianus, who had played a key role in the earlier regime. In addition, he participated in Senate meetings and continued the practice of providing entertainments for the Roman masses. An important practical change involved the awarding of posts customarily held by freedmen to equites, an indication of the growth of the imperial bureaucracy and its attractiveness to men of ambition.

In other matters, he replaced the existing praetorian guard and urban cohorts with sixteen praetorian cohorts and four urban units, all comprised of soldiers from the German armies. According to Tacitus, the decision prompted a mad scramble, with the men, and not their officers, choosing the branch of service that they preferred. The situation was clearly unsatisfactory but not surprising, given that Vitellius was a creation of his own troops. To secure his position further, he sent back to their old postings the legions that had fought for Otho, or he reassigned them to distant provinces. Yet discontent remained: the troops who had been defeated or betrayed at Bedriacum remained bitter, and detachments of three Moesian legions called upon by Otho were returned to their bases, having agitated against Vitellius at Aquileia.

Flavian Revolt

The Vitellian era at Rome was short-lived. By mid-July news had arrived that the legions of Egypt under Tiberius Julius Alexander had sworn allegiance to a rival emperor, Titus Flavius Vespasianus, the governor of Judaea and a successful and popular general. Vespasian was to hold Egypt while his colleague Mucianus, governor of Syria, was to invade Italy. Before the plan could be enacted, however, the Danube legions, former supporters of Otho, joined Vespasian's cause. Under the leadership of Antonius Primus, commander of the Sixth legion in Pannonia, and Cornelius Fuscus, imperial procurator in Illyricum, the legions made a rapid descent on Italy.

Although his forces were only half of what Vitellius commanded in Italy, Primus struck first before the emperor could muster additional reinforcements from Germany. To make matters worse for the Vitellians, Valens was ill, and Caecina, now consul, had begun collaborating with the Flavians. His troops refused to follow his lead, however, and arrested him at Hostilia near Cremona. They then joined the rest of the Vitellian forces trying to hold the Po River. With Vitellius still in Rome and his forces virtually leaderless, the two sides met in October in the Second Battle of Bedriacum. The emperor's troops were soundly defeated and Cremona was brutally sacked by the victors. In addition, Valens, whose health had recovered, was captured while raising an army for Vitellius in Gaul and Germany; he was eventually executed.

Meanwhile, Primus continued towards Rome. Vitellius made a weak attempt to thwart the advance at the Apennine passes, but his forces switched to the Flavian side without a fight at Narnia in mid-December. At Rome, matters were no better. Vespasian's elder brother, Titus Flavius Sabinus, the city prefect, was successful in an effort to convince Vitellius to abdicate but was frustrated by the mob in Rome and the emperor's soldiers. Forced to flee to the Capitol, Sabinus was set upon by Vitellius' German troops and soon killed, with the venerable Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus set ablaze in the process. Within two days, the Flavian army fought its way into Rome. In a pathetic final move, Vitellius disguised himself in dirty clothing and hid in the imperial doorkeeper's quarters, leaning a couch and a mattress against the door for protection. Dragged from his hiding place by the Flavian forces, he was hauled off half-naked to the Forum, where he was tortured, killed, and tossed into the Tiber. The principate could now pass to Vespasian.

Assessment

Vitellius has not escaped the hostility of his biographers. While he may well have been gluttonous, his depiction as indolent, cruel, and extravagant is based almost entirely on the propaganda of his enemies. On the other hand, whatever moderating tendencies he did show were overshadowed by his clear lack of military expertise, a deficiency that forced him to rely in critical situations on largely inneffective lieutenants. As a result he was no match for his Flavian successors, and his humiliating demise was perfectly in keeping with the overall failure of his reign.

Copyright (C) 1999, John Donahue.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
VespasianPax_RICii10.jpg
710a, Vespasian, 1 July 69 - 24 June 79 A.D.134 viewsSilver denarius, RIC II, 10, aVF, 3.5 g, 18mm, Rome mint, 69-71 AD; Obverse: IMP CAESA[R] VESPASIANV[S AV]G - Laureate head right; Reverse: COS ITER [T]R POT - Pax seated left holding branch and caduceus. Ex Imperial Coins.


De Imperatoribus Romanis:
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Titus Flavius Vespasianus (A.D. 69-79)

John Donahue
College of William and Mary

Introduction

Titus Flavius Vespasianus (b. A.D. 9, d. A.D. 79, emperor A.D. 69-79) restored peace and stability to an empire in disarray following the death of Nero in A.D. 68. In the process he established the Flavian dynasty as the legitimate successor to the Imperial throne. Although we lack many details about the events and chronology of his reign, Vespasian provided practical leadership and a return to stable government - accomplishments which, when combined with his other achievements, make his emperorship particularly notable within the history of the Principate.

Early Life and Career

Vespasian was born at Falacrina near Sabine Reate on 17 November, A.D. 9, the son of T. Flavius Sabinus, a successful tax collector and banker, and Vespasia Polla. Both parents were of equestrian status. Few details of his first fifteen years survive, yet it appears that his father and mother were often away from home on business for long periods. As a result, Vespasian's early education became the responsibility of his paternal grandmother, Tertulla. [[1]] In about A.D. 25 Vespasian assumed the toga virilis and later accepted the wearing of the latus clavus, and with it the senatorial path that his older brother, T. Flavius Sabinus, had already chosen. [[2]] Although many of the particulars are lacking, the posts typically occupied by one intent upon a senatorial career soon followed: a military tribunate in Thrace, perhaps for three or four years; a quaestorship in Crete-Cyrene; and the offices of aedile and praetor, successively, under the emperor Gaius. [[3]]

It was during this period that Vespasian married Flavia Domitilla. Daughter of a treasury clerk and former mistress of an African knight, Flavia lacked the social standing and family connections that the politically ambitious usually sought through marriage. In any case, the couple produced three children, a daughter, also named Flavia Domitilla, and two sons, the future emperors Titus and Domitian . Flavia did not live to witness her husband's emperorship and after her death Vespasian returned to his former mistress Caenis, who had been secretary to Antonia (daughter of Marc Antony and mother of Claudius). Caenis apparently exerted considerable influence over Vespasian, prompting Suetonius to assert that she remained his wife in all but name, even after he became emperor. [[4]]

Following the assassination of Gaius on 24 January, A.D. 41, Vespasian advanced rapidly, thanks in large part to the new princeps Claudius, whose favor the Flavians had wisely secured with that of Antonia, the mother of Germanicus, and of Claudius' freedmen, especially Narcissus. [[5]] The emperor soon dispatched Vespasian to Argentoratum (Strasbourg) as legatus legionis II Augustae, apparently to prepare the legion for the invasion of Britain. Vespasian first appeared at the battle of Medway in A.D. 43, and soon thereafter led his legion across the south of England, where he engaged the enemy thirty times in battle, subdued two tribes, and conquered the Isle of Wight. According to Suetonius, these operations were conducted partly under Claudius and partly under Vespasian's commander, Aulus Plautius. Vespasian's contributions, however, did not go unnoticed; he received the ornamenta triumphalia and two priesthoods from Claudius for his exploits in Britain. [[6]]

By the end of A.D. 51 Vespasian had reached the consulship, the pinnacle of a political career at Rome. For reasons that remain obscure he withdrew from political life at this point, only to return when chosen proconsul of Africa about A.D. 63-64. His subsequent administration of the province was marked by severity and parsimony, earning him a reputation for being scrupulous but unpopular. [[7]] Upon completion of his term, Vespasian returned to Rome where, as a senior senator, he became a man of influence in the emperor Nero's court. [[8]] Important enough to be included on Nero's tour of Greece in A.D. 66-67, Vespasian soon found himself in the vicinity of increasing political turbulence in the East. The situation would prove pivotal in advancing his career.

Judaea and the Accession to Power

In response to rioting in Caesarea and Jerusalem that had led to the slaughter in the latter city of Jewish leaders and Roman soldiers, Nero granted to Vespasian in A.D. 66 a special command in the East with the objective of settling the revolt in Judaea. By spring A.D. 67, with 60,000 legionaries, auxiliaries, and allies under his control, Vespasian set out to subdue Galilee and then to cut off Jerusalem. Success was quick and decisive. By October all of Galilee had been pacified and plans for the strategic encirclement of Jerusalem were soon formed. [[9]] Meanwhile, at the other end of the empire, the revolts of Gaius Iulius Vindex, governor of Gallia Lugdunensis, and Servius Sulpicius Galba , governor of Hispania Tarraconensis, had brought Nero's reign to the brink of collapse. The emperor committed suicide in June, A.D. 68, thereby ensuring chaos for the next eighteen months, as first Galba and then Marcus Salvius Otho and Aulus Vitellius acceded to power. Each lacked broad-based military and senatorial support; each would be violently deposed in turn. [[10]]

Still occupied with plans against Jerusalem, Vespasian swore allegiance to each emperor. Shortly after Vitellius assumed power in spring, A.D. 69, however, Vespasian met on the border of Judaea and Syria with Gaius Licinius Mucianus, governor of Syria, and after a series of private and public consultations, the two decided to revolt. [[11]] On July 1, at the urging of Tiberius Alexander, prefect of Egypt, the legions of Alexandria declared for Vespasian, as did the legions of Judaea two days later. By August all of Syria and the Danube legions had done likewise. Vespasian next dispatched Mucianus to Italy with 20,000 troops, while he set out from Syria to Alexandria in order to control grain shipments for the purpose of starving Italy into submission. [[12]] The siege of Jerusalem he placed in the hands of his son Titus.

Meanwhile, the Danubian legions, unwilling to wait for Mucianus' arrival, began their march against Vitellius ' forces. The latter army, suffering from a lack of discipline and training, and unaccustomed to the heat of Rome, was defeated at Cremona in late October. [[13]] By mid-December the Flavian forces had reached Carsulae, 95 kilometers north of Rome on the Flaminian Road, where the Vitellians, with no further hope of reinforcements, soon surrendered. At Rome, unable to persuade his followers to accept terms for his abdication, Vitellius was in peril. On the morning of December 20 the Flavian army entered Rome. By that afternoon, the emperor was dead. [[14]]

Tacitus records that by December 22, A.D. 69, Vespasian had been given all the honors and privileges usually granted to emperors. Even so, the issue remains unclear, owing largely to a surviving fragment of an enabling law, the lex de imperio Vespasiani, which conferred powers, privileges, and exemptions, most with Julio-Claudian precedents, on the new emperor. Whether the fragment represents a typical granting of imperial powers that has uniquely survived in Vespasian's case, or is an attempt to limit or expand such powers, remains difficult to know. In any case, the lex sanctioned all that Vespasian had done up to its passing and gave him authority to act as he saw fit on behalf of the Roman people. [[15]]

What does seem clear is that Vespasian felt the need to legitimize his new reign with vigor. He zealously publicized the number of divine omens that predicted his accession and at every opportunity he accumulated multiple consulships and imperial salutations. He also actively promoted the principle of dynastic succession, insisting that the emperorship would fall to his son. The initiative was fulfilled when Titus succeeded his father in A.D. 79.[[16]]

Emperorship

Upon his arrival in Rome in late summer, A.D. 70, Vespasian faced the daunting task of restoring a city and a government ravaged by the recent civil wars. Although many particulars are missing, a portrait nevertheles emerges of a ruler conscientiously committed to the methodical renewal of both city and empire. Concerning Rome itself, the emperor encouraged rebuilding on vacated lots, restored the Capitol (burned in A.D. 69), and also began work on several new buildings: a temple to the deified Claudius on the Caelian Hill, a project designed to identify Vespasian as a legitimate heir to the Julio-Claudians, while distancing himself from Nero ; a temple of Peace near the Forum; and the magnificent Colosseum (Flavian Amphitheatre), located on the site of the lake of Nero 's Golden House. [[17]]

Claiming that he needed forty thousand million sesterces for these projects and for others aimed at putting the state on more secure footing, Vespasian is said to have revoked various imperial immunities, manipulated the supply of certain commodities to inflate their price, and increased provincial taxation. [[18]] The measures are consistent with his characterization in the sources as both obdurate and avaricious. There were occasional political problems as well: Helvidius Priscus, an advocate of senatorial independence and a critic of the Flavian regime from the start, was exiled after A.D. 75 and later executed; Marcellus Eprius and A. Alienus Caecina were condemned by Titus for conspiracy, the former committing suicide, the latter executed in A.D. 79.
As Suetonius claims, however, in financial matters Vespasian always put revenues to the best possible advantage, regardless of their source. Tacitus, too, offers a generally favorable assessment, citing Vespasian as the first man to improve after becoming emperor. [[19]] Thus do we find the princeps offering subventions to senators not possessing the property qualifications of their rank, restoring many cities throughout the empire, and granting state salaries for the first time to teachers of Latin and Greek rhetoric. To enhance Roman economic and social life even further, he encouraged theatrical productions by building a new stage for the Theatre of Marcellus, and he also put on lavish state dinners to assist the food trades. [[20]]

In other matters the emperor displayed similar concern. He restored the depleted ranks of the senatorial and equestrian orders with eligible Italian and provincial candidates and reduced the backlog of pending court cases at Rome. Vespasian also re-established discipline in the army, while punishing or dismissing large numbers of Vitellius ' men. [[21]]
Beyond Rome, the emperor increased the number of legions in the East and continued the process of imperial expansion by the annexation of northern England, the pacification of Wales, and by advances into Scotland and southwest Germany between the Rhine and the Danube. Vespasian also conferred rights on communities abroad, especially in Spain, where the granting of Latin rights to all native communities contributed to the rapid Romanization of that province during the Imperial period. [[22]]

Death and Assessment

In contrast to his immediate imperial predecessors, Vespasian died peacefully - at Aquae Cutiliae near his birthplace in Sabine country on 23 June, A.D. 79, after contracting a brief illness. The occasion is said to have inspired his deathbed quip: "Oh my, I must be turning into a god!" [[23]] In fact, public deification did follow his death, as did his internment in the Mausoleum of Augustus alongside the Julio-Claudians.

A man of strict military discipline and simple tastes, Vespasian proved to be a conscientious and generally tolerant administrator. More importantly, following the upheavals of A.D. 68-69, his reign was welcome for its general tranquility and restoration of peace. In Vespasian Rome found a leader who made no great breaks with tradition, yet his ability ro rebuild the empire and especially his willingness to expand the composition of the governing class helped to establish a positive working model for the "good emperors" of the second century.

Bibliography

Since the scholarship on Vespasian is more comprehensive than can be treated here, the works listed below are main accounts or bear directly upon issues discussed in the entry above. A comprehensive modern anglophone study of this emperor is yet to be produced.

Atti congresso internazionale di studi Flaviani, 2 vols. Rieti, 1983.

Atti congresso internazionale di studi Vespasianei, 2 vols. Rieti, 1981.

Bosworth, A.B. "Vespasian and the Provinces: Some Problems of the Early 70s A.D." Athenaeum 51 (1973): 49-78.

Brunt, P. A. "Lex de imperio Vespasiani." JRS (67) 1977: 95-116.

D'Espčrey, S. Franchet. "Vespasien, Titus et la littérature." ANRW II.32.5: 3048-3086.

Dudley, D. and Webster, G. The Roman Conquest of Britain. London, 1965.

Gonzalez, J. "The Lex Irnitana: A New Copy of the Flavian Municipal Law." JRS 76 (1986): 147-243.

Grant, M. The Roman Emperors: A Biographical Guide to the Rulers of Rome, 31 B.C. - A.D. 476. New York, 1985.

Homo, L. Vespasien, l'Empereur du bons sens (69-79 ap. J.-C.). Paris, 1949.

Levi, M.A. "I Flavi." ANRW II.2: 177-207.

McCrum, M. and Woodhead, A. G. Select Documents of the Principates of the Flavian Emperors Including the Year of the Revolution. Cambridge, 1966.

Nicols, John. Vespasian and the Partes Flavianae. Wiesbaden, 1978.

Scarre, C. Chronicle of the Roman Emperors. The Reign-by-Reign Record of the Rulers of Imperial Rome. London, 1995.

Suddington, D. B. The Development of the Roman Auxiliary Forces from Caesar to Vespasian, 49 B.C. - A.D. 79. Harare: U. of Zimbabwe, 1982.

Syme, R. Tacitus. Oxford, 1958.

Wardel, David. "Vespasian, Helvidius Priscus and the Restoration of the Capitol." Historia 45 (1996): 208-222.

Wellesley, K. The Long Year: A.D. 69. Bristol, 1989, 2nd ed.


Notes

[[1]] Suet. Vesp. 2.1. Suetonius remains the major source but see also Tac. Hist. 2-5; Cass. Dio 65; Joseph. BJ 3-4.

[[2]] Suetonius (Vesp. 2.1) claims that Vespasian did not accept the latus clavus, the broad striped toga worn by one aspiring to a senatorial career, immediately. The delay, however, was perhaps no more than three years. See J. Nicols, Vespasian and the Partes Flavianae (Wiesbaden, 1978), 2.

[[3]] Military tribunate and quaestorship: Suet. Vesp. 2.3; aedileship: ibid., 5.3, in which Gaius, furious that Vespasian had not kept the streets clean, as was his duty, ordered some soldiers to load him with filth;,they complied by stuffing his toga with as much as it could hold. See also Dio 59.12.2-3; praetorship: Suet. Vesp. 2.3, in which Vespasian is depicted as one of Gaius' leading adulators, an account consistent with Tacitus' portrayal (Hist 1.50.4; 2.5.1) of his early career. For a more complete discussion of these posts and attendant problems of dating, see Nicols, Vespasian, 2-7.

[[4]] Marriage and Caenis: Suet. Vesp. 3; Cass. Dio 65.14.

[[5]] Nicols, Vespasian, 12-39.

[[6]] Suet. Vesp. 4.1 For additional details on Vespasian's exploits in Britain, see D. Dudley and G. Webster, The Roman Conquest of Britain (London, 1965), 55 ff., 98.

[[7]] Concerning Vespasian's years between his consulship and proconsulship, see Suet. Vesp. 4.2 and Nicols, Vespasian, 9. On his unpopularity in Africa, see Suet. Vesp. 4.3, an account of a riot at Hadrumentum, where he was once pelted with turnips. In recording that Africa supported Vitellius in A.D. 69, Tacitus too suggests popular dissatisfaction with Vespasian's proconsulship. See Hist. 2.97.2.

[[8]] This despite the fact that the sources record two rebukes of Vespasian, one for extorting money from a young man seeking career advancement (Suet. Vesp. 4.3), the other for either leaving the room or dozing off during one of the emperor's recitals (Suet. Vesp. 4.4 and 14, which places the transgression in Greece; Tac. (Ann. 16.5.3), who makes Rome and the Quinquennial Games of A.D. 65 the setting; A. Braithwaite, C. Suetoni Tranquilli Divus Vespasianus, Oxford, 1927, 30, who argues for both Greece and Rome).

[[9]] Subjugation of Galilee: Joseph. BJ 3.65-4.106; siege of Jerusalem: ibid., 4.366-376, 414.

[[10]] Revolt of Vindex: Suet. Nero 40; Tac. Ann. 14.4; revolt of Galba: Suet. Galba 10; Plut. Galba, 4-5; suicide of Nero: Suet. Nero 49; Cass. Dio 63.29.2. For the most complete account of the period between Nero's death and the accession of Vespasian, see K. Wellesley, The Long Year: A.D. 69, 2nd. ed. (Bristol, 1989).

[[11]] Tac. Hist. 2.76.

[[12]] Troops in support of Vespasian: Suet. Vit. 15; Mucianus and his forces: Tac. Hist. 2.83; Vespasian and grain shipments: Joseph. BJ 4.605 ff.; see also Tac. Hist. 3.48, on Vespasian's possible plan to shut off grain shipments to Italy from Carthage as well.

[[13]] On Vitellius' army and its lack of discipline, see Tac. Hist. 2.93-94; illness of army: ibid., 2.99.1; Cremona: ibid., 3.32-33.

[[14]] On Vitellius' last days, see Tac. Hist. 3.68-81. On the complicated issue of Vitellius' death date, see L. Holzapfel, "Römische Kaiserdaten," Klio 13 (1913): 301.

[[15]] Honors, etc. Tac. Hist. 4.3. For more on the lex de imperio Vespasiani, see P. A. Brunt, "Lex de imperio Vespasiani," JRS (67) 1977: 95-116.

[[16]] Omens: Suet. Vesp. 5; consulships and honors: ibid., 8; succession of sons: ibid., 25.

[[17]] On Vespasian's restoration of Rome, see Suet. Vesp. 9; Cass. Dio 65.10; D. Wardel, "Vespasian, Helvidius Priscus and the Restoration of the Capitol," Historia 45 (1996): 208-222.

[[18]] Suet. Vesp. 16.

[[19]] Ibid.; Tac. Hist. 1.50.

[[20]] Suet. Vesp. 17-19.

[[21]] Ibid., 8-10.

[[22]] On Vespasian's exploits in Britain, see esp. Tac., Agricola, eds. R. M. Ogilvie and I. A. Richmond (1967), and W. S. Hanson, Agricola and the Conquest of the North (1987); on the granting of Latin rights in Spain, see, e.g., J. Gonzalez, "The Lex Irnitana: a New Copy of the Flavian Municipal Law." JRS 76 (1986): 147-243.

[[23]] For this witticism and other anecdotes concerning Vespasian's sense of humor, see Suet. Vesp. 23.

Copyright (C) 1998, John Donahue. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis, an Online Encyplopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families.
http://www.roman-emperors.org/vespasia.htm
Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.





Cleisthenes
ivlia.jpg
a typical IVLIA TRAD of Augustus the obverse is very worn, but identifiable.19 viewsMost collectors are familiar with these. Coins were struck at this site in Hispania only for a short time around the time of a visit by Augustus, a scarce coin. 1 commentsRyan C
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AΔP163 viewsSYRIA: COELE SYRIA. Leucas. Trajan. Ć 20. A.D. 102/103 (year 55). Obv: AYKAINEP-TRAIA(NOCΔAK...) or sim.Laur. head right; CM on neck. Rev: (ΛEYKAΔIWN)-KΛAYΔIEWN, EN in field. Emperor, hld. sceptre, in quadriga galloping right. Ref: BMC 3; Sear GIC 1082. Axis: 30°. Weight: 6.52 g. CM: AΔP in rectangular punch, 5.5 x 3 mm. Howgego 511 (12 pcs). Note: Interestingly, no coins countermarks "AΔP" are also countermarked "ΔAK". "ΔAK" is clearly the more common of the two countermarks. The meaning of "AΔP" is uncertain. There are also coins of Macrinus from Leucas countermarked "AΔP", and Howgego therefore argues that it cannot refer to Hadrian. It seems odd, though, that issues of Trajan and Macrinus (but NONE of intervening emperors) should have been countermarked at the same time. If this really were the case, one would expect coins of Trajan to be heavily worn, which is not the case. Collection Automan.Automan
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AE follis Constans II SB 100923 viewsObverse: ENTOTO NIKA Constans with longbeard and moustache stg, facing , wearing crown and chlamys, holding long cross and gl. cr.
Reverse: Large M between ANNO and regnal yr (worn) K above. CON in exergue
Mint: Constantinople
Date: 655-8 CE
Sear 1009 DO 77-8
22mm 5.05gm
2 commentswileyc
sear_1010.jpg
AE follis Constans II SB 101016 viewsObverse: no legend,Constans on l., Constantine IV on r, stg, facing the former with long beard and holding long cross
Reverse: Large M, between ANNO and regnal yr (worn) CON in exergue
Mint: Constantinople
Date: 646-8 CE
Sear 1010 DO 79-81
24/28mm 8.54gm
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AE follis Constans II SB 101023 viewsObverse: no legend,Constans on l., Constantine IV on r, stg, facing the former with long beard and holding long cross
Reverse: Large M, between ANNO and regnal yr (worn) CON in exergue
Mint: Constantinople
Date: 646-8 CE
Sear 1010 DO 79-81
22/25mm 6.11 gm
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AE follis Constans II SB 101014 viewsObverse: no legend,Constans on l., Constantine IV on r, stg, facing the former with long beard and holding long cross
Reverse: Large M, between ANNO and regnal yr (worn) CON in exergue
Mint: Constantinople
Date: 646-8 CE
Sear 1010 DO 79-81
18/21mm 2.92 gm
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AE-Jeton, Radiate head right, Single sided, Howgego 30,95 viewsAE-Jeton, Radiate head right, Single sided, Howgego 30,
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revers: Single sided,
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mint: , date: A.D., ref: Howgego #30 ,
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"KOTI before laureate bust right (Antonine emperor?) Applied twice on one example
(countermark applied at Cotiaeum, where one was found).
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1= P.Waddington 5880; P.876 (countermark applied twice).
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which were applied such 'blanks' "
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Alexander tetradrachm Price 633 views Amphipolis mint. Lifetime issue. Janiform-head vase to the left. Looks like a worn die on the lion-skin headress and a punch on the thundergod's hip.1 commentsChance Vandal
Alexander_The_Great_Gorytos~0.JPG
Alexander The Great Gorytos146 viewsAlexander The Great, bronze, gorytos type, four chalkoi (hemiobol), 336 - 323 BC, 17mm, 4.4g
Western Asia Minor, M.J. Price 322, Müller 1699, SNG Saraglos 843, SNG Milano 145,
SNG Stockholm 284, SNG Cop. 1059, McClean 3516.
This Alexander bronze type, like the first, also features Herakles on the obverse and a soldier's weapons on the reverse.
But in this case the weapons are a gorytos (case for bow and quiver) along with a club, and the bow lies within the gorytos
rather than underneath the quiver.
Often the gorytos is referred to as a bow case, but it also holds arrows as well so is probably best referred to as a gorytos.
Sometimes it's erroneously referred to as an arrow case or quiver, by dealers as well as attribution references,
with no distinction made between the gorytos and quiver bronze types.
SNG Manchester mistakenly referred to it as a bull's head based upon the worn specimen they had to attribute.
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Alexius I, SBCV 193214 viewsAE tetarteron, 15mm, 2.11g, very worn
Patriarchal Cross on two steps, A - Δ / K - Φ to sides
AΛE ZI
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novacystis
amph_goats_pan.jpg
Amphipolis, Macedonia, c. 168 - 149 B.C.62 viewsBronze AE 20, SGCV I 1394; (SNG Cop 62), weight 7.8 g, max. diameter 21.75 mm, Amphipolis mint, Roman rule, c. 168 - 149 B.C.; Obv. diademed head of Artemis Tauropolos right, bow and quiver at shoulder; Rev. ΑΜΦΙΠΟΛΙΤΩΝ, two goats on their hind legs, contending head to head. Green patina, very worn.

Artemis Tauropolos was an epithet for the goddess Artemis, variously interpreted as worshipped at Tauris, or pulled by a yoke of bulls, or hunting bull goddess. A statue of Artemis "Tauropolos" in her temple at Brauron in Attica was supposed to have been brought from the Taurians by Iphigenia. Tauropolia was a festival of Artemis in Athens. - Wikipedia
Steve E
IMG_0355.JPG
Anonymous7 viewsAnonymous. 211-210 BC. AR Victoriatus (16.5mm, 3.14 g, 6h). Spearhead (first) series. Mint in southeast Italy. Laureate head of Jupiter right within border of dots / Victory standing right, placing wreath on trophy; Roma in exergue.

In around 218 BC, at roughly the same time as the appearance of the silver denarius, mints in the Roman Republic began to strike silver coins bearing on the obverse a bust of Jupiter and on the reverse a figure of Victory placing a wreath upon a trophy. Known as a victoriatus in Latin or tropaikon in Greek, this coin was primarily issued to facilitate payments in Greek-speaking southern Italy, where its weight was roughly equivalent to a drachm or half nomos. Rome at this time had a great need for coinage, as the Second Punic War then raged across Italy, and the city needed silver to pay her allies. This function is demonstrated by the hoard evidence, which shows that their circulation was generally limited to southern Italy, and later Cisalpine Gaul and Spain.

The victoriatus was generally struck in less pure silver than the denarius, rarely meeting the same 90% standard, yet it generally followed the same overall pattern of debasements. Despite this, it proved to be an important coin for the budding empire. Though the type was discontinued around 170 BC, the coins themselves continued to circulate, eventually becoming worn enough to function in the marketplace as quinarii. Accordingly, even into the early Imperial period, the silver quinarius was also sometimes refered to as a victoriatus.
ecoli
horse1.png
ANTIQUITIES, Roman, Bronze Cavalry Officer's Horse Adornment, c.3rd century AD21 viewsToo large to be worn as a a soldier's cuirass decoration, this cavalry adornment was probably affixed to a horse's bridle or harness.
Weight: 14.17 g
Dimensions: 34 mm
superflex
CROSSBOW_BROOCH.JPG
ANTIQUITIES, Roman, Crossbow Brooch - 4th Century50 viewsLarge (92mm) complete Roman crossbow brooch dating from circa A.D.320 - 400.

Typology: Keller 4a; Pröttel 3/4a; Soupault III1
Distribution: Upper Danube, NE Gaul

The brooch would have been worn as shown in the inset, which is a detail from this ivory diptych of the Roman general Stilicho.
1 comments*Alex
Antonia_RIC_92.JPG
Antonia, RIC 9218 viewsANTONIA AVGVSTA
TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG PM T RP IMP
AE dupondius, 26mm, 12.00g
Draped bust right
Cladius, togate, standing left, holding simpulum, SC to sides

very worn example
novacystis
41684_Philip_I_antoninianus,_SRCV_III_8922,_RIC_IV_28c_ANNONA_AVGG.jpg
Antoninianus; ANNONA AVGG, RIC 28c Rome11 viewsPhilip I, the Arab, First Half of 244 - End of September 249 A.D. Silver antoninianus, SRCV III 8922, RIC IV 28c, RSC IV 25, VF, Rome mint, 3.823g, 22.5mm, 0o, 244 - 247 A.D.; obverse IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse ANNONA AVGG, Annona standing left holding stalks of grain over modius and cornucopia; struck with a worn reverse die. Ex FORVM, photo credit FORVMPodiceps
00346.jpg
Antoninus Pius (RIC 920, Coin #346)21 viewsRIC 920 (C), AE Dupondius, Rome, 153-154 AD.
Obv: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P XVII Radiate head right.
Rev: LIBERTAS COS IIII S C Libertas standing right holding pileus (cap worn by freed slaves).
Size: 26.0mm 11.49gm
MaynardGee
Antpiuspan.jpg
Antoninus Pius, 10Jul. 138-7 to Mar. 161 AD, Rome mint34 viewsOrichalcum sestertius, Sear RCV II 4252, RIC 967, (BMCRE 2016), (Cowen 1008); Weight 21.4 gr., Max Diameter 32.3 mm; Rome mint, 156-7 AD; Obv. ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P IMP II, laureate head right, Rev. TR POT XX COS IIII S C, Justitia (?) seated left on chair formed by 2 crossed cornuacopiae, holding sceptre; Thin olive patina with with brass showing through in areas, very worn, pitted and corrosion spots mainly on rev.Steve E
prnbzw~0.jpg
Aphrodite and Ares on Cilician AR Stater of Satrap Pharnabazos168 views
Circa 380-374/3 B.C.(21mm, 10.39g, 11h). Struck circa 380-379 B.C. Casabonne series 3; Moysey Issue 3, 3-5 var. (dolphin on obv.); SNG France 246 var. (rev. legend). Obverse Head of nymph facing three-quarters left. Reverse Helmeted head of Ares left, Aramaic PRNBZW to left. Near EF, toned, struck from a slightly worn obverse die.

Ex CNG.

There is still an ongoing debate whether who represent the obverse and reverse of this coin type of Pharnabazos. The obverse obviously was inspired by the renowned Syracusan tetradrachm of Kimon, whose three-quarter facing head of the nymph Arethusa was widely copied throughout the ancient world. A handful of ancient poleis adopted this style to represent their local nymph or goddess on their coins. A perfect example is the numerous coins of Larissa in Thessaly representing the local nymph of the same name. It is possible to assume then that the obverse of our coin might be another female deity other than Arethusa. A current opinion holds that the obverse represents Aphrodite, the goddess of love; and the reverse depicts Ares, the god of war. The two were known in ancient mythology as lovers, and commonly paired together on ancient coins. Of special note on this coin is the reverse: while most coins of this type display static male heads with little originality, the reverse die is probably from a special issue marked by superior style and executed with extreme delicacy. It has been suggested (Leu Auction 81, lot 317) that the head of Ares may be a disguised portrait of Pharnabazos himself.

1 commentsJason T
IMG_2238.JPG
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 56 - Silver Diobol - very worn49 views410 - 323 B.C.
0.59 gm, 8.78 mm
Obv.: Head of Apollo (or Medusa)
Rev.: Anchor, A to left, crayfish to right
Topalov Apollonia p.596, 56
Sear p.165, 1657
B.M.C. 15 (Mysia) p.9, 15

From Topalov Apollonia 2007: "Full-Face Apollo's Head - Upright Anchor" silver diobol (410/404 – 341/323 B.C.) Obv.: Full-face laureate Apollo with short hair. Rev.: Magistrates' initials around the images. Upright anchor with thick flukes and a rectangular stock. The letter A on one side and the additional symbol of a crab viewed from above on the other side between flukes and the stock.
Jaimelai
apo2_33.jpg
Apollonia, Illyria16 views229 - 80 B.C.
Silver drachm
2.72 gm, 15.5 mm
Obv.: Cow left, head turned, suckling calf right, TIMHN above (worn), monogram (ΠΑΝΚ) in exergue
Rev.: AΠOΛ – ΔAMO- ΦΩΝ-ΤΟΣ around double stellate pattern within double linear square with sides curved inwards
Petrányi Class A7ALc2b Year -4 (51 BC),
Ceka 115,
BMC Illyria p. 57, 14
Jaimelai
2d26e9ec.jpeg
AR Antoninianus, Philip the Arab 244-249 A.D., reverse21 viewsPhilip I AR Silver Antoninianus. Rome, 244-249 AD.
Reverse: ANNONA AVGG, Annona standing left, holding corn-ear over galley at feet, & cornucopia.

RIC 29
RSC 32
SR 8923

The coin seems to be AU-UNC but has this weakly struck reverse, perhaps struck with a worn reverse die?
1 commentsLarry M2
Architectural_AE26_of_Elagabalus_(218-222_AD)_from_Nikopolis,_Moesia_Inferior.jpg
Architectural AE26 of Elagabalus (218-222 AD) from Nikopolis, Moesia Inferior41 viewsArchitectural AE26 of Elagabalus (218-222 AD) from Nikopolis, Moesia Inferior
Notes: Elagabalus facing right on obverse, Castle with two tourettes on reverse. Rare! Excellent quality for these. These large provincial bronzes are usually very worn, and not often seen in such a nice condition as this one. 26 mm, 13.1grams. Elagabalus AE24 of Nikopolis ad Istrum. Laureate head right / UP NOBIOU ROUFOU NIKOPOLITWN PROC ICTPON, city gate with two wide towers and a arched door. _5000
Antonio Protti
Argolis,_Epidauros_Hemidrachm.jpg
Argolis, Epidauros ca. 250-240 BC, AR Hemidrachm22 viewsLaureate head of Asklepios left; Θ re-cut over an effaced E behind.
EΠ monogram within wreath.

HGC 5, 729; Requier Monnayage Series 4 [2], 202 (this coin) dies D2/R3, weight recorded as 2.34 g on BCD tag = Requier 2, 202); BCD Peloponnesos 1243-44 (same dies); Dewing 1931 (same dies).

(16 mm, 2.35 g, 7h).

Struck from worn dies as are all examples of this the last civic hemidrachm issue of Epidauros.

CNG Classical Numismatic Review XXXIX, 1, Spring 2014, 976803 from the BCD Collection; ex-1979/80 Epidauros Hoard (CH VII, 69).

This emission was the last civic silver issue struck by Epidauros. It was struck on a reduced weight standard that was adopted throughout most of the Peloponnesos from around 250 BC. It utilized an obverse die from the preceding emission on which the Θ mint control (D2) was re-cut over the earlier E mint control (D1). In 243 BC the last of pro-Macedonian tyrants that had ruled Epidauros for the previous fifty years was forced to step aside by Aretos of Sikyon, the strategos of the Achaean League. This event probably bought to an end the civic silver issues of Epidauros, although bronze civic coinage continued down to ca. 200 BC. After this, a few Epidauran issues in silver and bronze, conforming to Achaean League standards, were made in the period leading up to the defeat of the League by Rome in 146 BC
1 commentsn.igma
10900389.jpg
Arsakes I8 viewsArsakes I. 247-211 BC. AR Drachm (18mm, 4.06 g, 12h). Hekatompylos mint. Head left, wearing bashlyk / Archer (Arsakes I) seated right on backless throne, holding bow; A to right. Sellwood 5.1 (Arsakes II); A&S Type 5, 6 (Arsakes II; same dies); Sunrise 240; Shore 3 (Arsakes II). EF, toned, traces of find patina, obverse struck with worn die.

Ex Classical Numismatic Group 103 (14 September 2016), lot 434; Atrek 1965 Hoard (IGCH 1798).

Ex CNG 109 lot 389
arash p
010~0.JPG
Assos, Troas*30 views400 - 241 B.C.
Bronze Ć 11
0.98 gm, 11 mm
Obv.: Head of Athena right, wearing close-fitting crested Attic helmet
Rev.: Bull's head (bucranium) facing,
AΣ-ΣI in lower field
SNG Copenhagen 243 var.;
BMC Troas p. 37, 9 var.;
Sear 4051 var.

* or not - could be from Lamponia or some other southern Troas location - coin a little too worn to be certain.
Jaimelai
Pharsalos_Athena_Horse_3a.jpg
Athena * Protome Horse - Pharsalos, Thessaly – AR Hemidrachm * 480-450 BC.71 views
Athena * Horse head - Pharsalos, silver half-drachm.

Obv: Athena in Attic-styled crested helmet facing right.
Rev: Protome of horse facing right within incuse square. ΦΑΡ, vertical in right field.

Exergue: None

Mint: Pharsalos
Struck: 480-450 BC.

Size: 14.64 x 12.80 (oblong flan)
Weight: 2.65 gms.
Die axis: 0°

Condition: Beautifully worn.

Refs:*
SNG Cop. 218
Sear, GC. Vol. I, p. 209; 2187

Status: TCJH, Private Collection
Tiathena
Athena_Pegasos_3a.jpg
Athena | Pegasus - Corinthian Stater, AR - 350-306 BC.90 views
Athena | Pegasus - Corinthian Silver Stater.

Obv: Head of Athena, left-facing, wearing Corinthian helmet over leather cap; Thessalian helmet, behind.
Rev: Pegasus, with pointed wing flying left, quoppa beneath.

Exergue: None.

Mint: Corinth
Struck: 350-306 BC.

Size: 20.14 mm.
Weight: ca. 8.5 grm.
Die axis: 270°

Condition: Fair if worn, but with good silver and good devices. Reverse struck high on the flan. Lovely, brightly toned, clear and fairly lustrous in hand.

Refs:*
BMC, 220
Sear, GCV 2629 (or var).
1 commentsTiathena
worn_owl.jpg
Athens c. 393-300 BC, tetradrachm48 viewsAttica. Athens c. 393-300 BC, tetradrachm, 16.23 g, eye seen in profile, Sear GCV I: 2537.1 commentsPodiceps
attalusI.jpg
Attalus I AR Tetradrachm 241-197 BC23 viewsOBV: Diademed head of Philetairos, founder of the Pergamene dynasty, to right
REV: Athena enthroned left resting left arm on shield and placing a wreath on the name of PHILETAIROY with her extended right arm. 'A' in field below Athena's arm - likely Sear 7720
Philetairos was a eunuch trusted by Seleukos to guard the treasury at Pergamon. This he did for many years before eventually striking out on his own and founding a dynasty by adoption. Attalus I, one of his successors was a loyal ally of Rome in its wars with Macedon.
The coin is worn but it still retains much of its original portrait quality. The engravers of royal Greek tetradrachms often tried to capture a subtle atmospheric effect by fading the profile into the fields.
Diam 27.6 mm, wt 15.6 gm
1 commentsdaverino
Schönert-Geiss_#228_Caracalla_City-gate_Augusta_Traiana.jpg
Augusta Traiana Caracalla Sicinnius Clarus74 viewsCaracalla as co-emperor
Governor Q. Sicinnius Clarus Po[ntianus?] 202AD cf. Stein Reichsbeamte Thracia p.46-7
AE27 13.65g
Ob: [AVT K M AVPHΛIOC | ANTΩNINOC]
Laureate draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev: HΓE CIKINNIOV KΛAPOV A[VΓOVCTH]
Ex: TPAIANHC
City gate with three turrets with battlements

Obverse legend worn away, reverse more detail, dull black patina
Cf. BMC 11 under Trajanopolis; Schönert-Geiss Die Münzpragung von Augusta Traiana und Traianopolis p. 86 # 228 reverse depicted Tafel 10; Mionnet Supp. 2 p.511 #1809 (Trajanopolis)
M & M cites Trell 247, 79 in addition to confirming my attributions above.
The legend is slightly different from the British Museum specimen (=#230). I think this reverse die is more common. Placement of kappa in relation to central tower is an indication of die.

This coin appears to be from Righetti’s collection M & M Auction 15 (21 10 2004) lot 77 Righetti Teil IV!
http://www.acsearch.info/record.html?id=99790

No tags from auction nor Righetti’s own
1 commentsPetrus Elmsley
normal_coin333.jpg
Augustus8 viewsCan barely make out the obverse of Augustus; reverse worn smooth

From Uncleaned lot
ecoli
basilII_constantin_VIII,_SBCV1818.jpg
Basil II & Constantin VIII, SBCV 18186 viewsBasil II & Constantin VIII, AD 1023-1028
AE 30, 8.94g, 30.1mm, 180°
so-called anonymous follis, type A3
struck in a provincial mint(?)
obv. EMMA - NOVHL
in l. and r. field IC - XC
Bust of Christus, with nimbus, in pallium and colobium, holding in both hand New
Testament
nimbus and New Testament decorated with crosses
rev. IhSuS / XRISTuS / bASIEu / bASILE
legend in 4 lines, above and below a cross
ref. SBCV 1818; Grierson - NumisWiki Ornaments 32
about VF, rev. a bit excentric
From Foruma Ancient Coins, thanks!

Emmanuel = God with us (Matthew 1:2, Isaiah 7:14)
IC - XC = Iesous Xristos
IhSuS / XRISTuS / bASIEu / bASILE = Iesus Xristus King of kings
Pallium: Mantle of emperors and kings
Colobium: Sleeveless long tunic worn by Christus on the cross
Jochen
heraclius_K_c_m_comp.jpg
BCC b538 viewsByzantine
Heraclius 610-641CE
AE 1/2 follis 20 nummia
Obv: Traces of image.
Rev: Large K
Countermark of Heraclian
monogram type 2c, (Schulze et al)
c/m 8mm, die worn and cracked at top
18x23mm. 4.85g.
v-drome
BCC_BW15,16,17,18.jpg
BCC BW15-BW1835 views4 Bronze Weights, square with diamond shape
on upper sides. All are blank on the reverse.
BW15: 7.25x7.25mm. 1.15gm.  
No marks visible, worn, cleaned.
BW16: 9.0x9.25mm. 1.64gm.  Three punch
marks on diamond. Intact, uncleaned.
BW17: 14x14.75mm. 5.87gm.  No marks
visible, very worn, heavily cleaned.
BW18: 18.5x18.75mm. 13.17gm.  One punch
mark in corner of square, worn, cleaned.
Surface finds from Caesarea Maritima, but not
found together. The cleaned specimens may have
lost an estimated 5-20% of their original mass.
Age and weight standard remain uncertain.
v-drome
Green_Glass_BCC_G24,_G25.jpg
BCC G24 and G2532 viewsGreen Glass Gem Stones
Caesarea Maritima
Uncertain Date
Very small semi-transparent
green glass ringstones,
probably imitating emerald.

G24: profile C2A, rectangular
with slightly curved top and
corners, four-faceted sides
ending in a rounded ridge, worn.
5.0 x 4.3 x 2.5mm 0.12gm.

G25: profile F2 or F1, oval,
with flat top and bottom, sharp
beveled sides.
5.8 x 5.0 x 1.0mm 0.10gm.

cf. Hendler Collection, #322-326
v-drome
BCC_J39_Archelaus.jpg
BCC J398 viewsJudaea - AE Prutah
Caesarea Maritima
Herod Archelaus 4BCE - 6CE
Mint of Jerusalem
Obv:HPω∆[OY]
Bunch of grapes, vine leaf to left.
Rev:EΘNAPXOY
Tall military helmet, facing,
with crest and cheek straps,
caduceus, below left.
15.5mm. 1.28gm. Axis:330
Broken, worn. Hendin III 505
J. Berlin Caesarea Collection
v-drome
arcadius_LR48.jpg
BCC LR4819 viewsLate Roman
Arcadius 383-408 CE
Obv:[DN AR]CADIVS P[F AVG]
Pearl diademed, draped and cuirassed bust rt.
Rev:SALVS REI[PUBLICAE]
Victory advancing left, holding trophy
and dragging captive. In fld: staurogram.
In exergue: ANT Γ
Very worn, with black and red ceramic patina
12.5mm. 0.73gm. Axis:180
Poss. ref: RIC IX 67( ) Antioch
v-drome
BCC_m103-m107_galley.jpg
BCC M103 - M10760 viewsCaesarea Minimae
Five minute coins from Caesarea Maritima
Mint: Caesarea?
Obv:Head of Tyche, very worn.
Rev: Various styles of galley.

m103: 13.0x11.5mm 1.29gm. Axis:180 cf. Ham #61
m104: 13.5x13mm 0.97gm Axis:180 cf. Ham #65
m105: 12.5mm 1.25gm Axis:120 cf. Ham#62-64
m106: 10.5mm 0.69gm Axis:120 cf. Ham #65
m107: 10x9mm 0.47gm Axis:150 cf. Ham# 70

Hamburger suggested a date
of early through late 3rd century CE
and assigned this type to the mint
at Caesarea, based on the high number
of specimens found there. However, a
number of other cities on the coast,
including Ascalon and Tyre, also used
this type intheir official and semi-
autonomous coinage up until the early
2nd century. Any references to
recent studies would be appreciated.

H. Hamburger “Minute Coins from Caesarea
Maritima” Atiqot, Vol.1, 1954. #59-#74
v-drome
sear_1918.jpg
Billion aspron trachy Alexios I SB 191818 viewsObverse:(worn) Christ enthroned facing, wearing nimbus cr. pallium and colobium holding book of gospels in l., in field to l., IC to r, XC
Reverse: +AAEZIW AECIIT or similar, bust wearing crown and loros, holding labarum and gl. cr.
Mint: Constantinople
Date: post reform, 1092-1118 CE
Sear 1918 H pl 7.1
29mm 3.04gm
wileyc
sear_1944.jpg
Billion aspron trachy John II SB 1944 Variation A44 viewsObverse:(worn) Bust of Christ facing on footstool wearing nimbus cr. pallium and colobium.
Reverse: + IWAECIIOT T II(theta)VPgammaNT or similar, John stg facing, wearing crown and loros, and holding cruciform sceptre sometimes with additional bar on shaft as on this coin, and gl. cr.
Mint: Thessalonica
Date: 1118-1143 CE
Sear 1944 H 10.9-11
30mm 4.45gm
wileyc
2010-12-09_SB_1944.jpg
Billion aspron trachy John II SB 1944 variation a37 viewsObverse:(worn) Bust of Christ facing on footstool wearing nimbus cr. pallium and colobium.
Reverse: + IWAECIIOT T II(theta)VPgammaNT or similar, John stg facing, wearing crown and loros, and holding cruciform sceptre sometimes without the additional bar on shaft as on this coin, and gl. cr.
Mint: Thessalonica
Date: 1118-1143 CE
Sear 1944 H 10.9-11
27mm 3.73 gm
wileyc
sear_1944a.jpg
Billion aspron trachy John II SB 1944 Variation B34 viewsObverse:(worn) Bust of Christ facing on footstool wearing nimbus cr. pallium and colobium.
Reverse: + IWAECIIOT T II(theta)VPgammaNT or similar, John stg facing, wearing crown and loros, and holding cruciform sceptre sometimes with additional bar on shaft as on this coin, and gl. cr.
Mint: Thessalonica
Date: 1118-1143 CE
Sear 1944 H 10.9-11
28mm 3.79gm
wileyc
sb1944varb30mm476g.jpg
Billion aspron trachy John II SB 1944 Variation B25 viewsObverse:(worn) Bust of Christ facing on footstool wearing nimbus cr. pallium and colobium.
Reverse: + IWAECIIOT T II(theta)VPgammaNT or similar, John stg facing, wearing crown and loros, and holding cruciform sceptre sometimes with additional bar on shaft as on this coin, and gl. cr.
Mint: Thessalonica
Date: 1118-1143 CE
Sear 1944 H 10.9-11
30mm 4.76gm
wileyc
sb1944varb28mm376g.jpg
Billion aspron trachy John II SB 1944 Variation B45 viewsObverse:(worn) Bust of Christ facing on footstool wearing nimbus cr. pallium and colobium.
Reverse: + IWAECIIOT T II(theta)VPgammaNT or similar, John stg facing, wearing crown and loros, and holding cruciform sceptre sometimes with additional bar on shaft as on this coin, and gl. cr.
Mint: Thessalonica
Date: 1118-1143 CE
Sear 1944 H 10.9-11
28mm 3.76gm
1 commentswileyc
sb1944varb28mm309g.jpg
Billion aspron trachy John II SB 1944 Variation B41 viewsObverse:(worn) Bust of Christ facing on footstool wearing nimbus cr. pallium and colobium.
Reverse: + IWAECIIOT T II(theta)VPgammaNT or similar, John stg facing, wearing crown and loros, and holding cruciform sceptre sometimes with additional bar on shaft as on this coin, and gl. cr.
Mint: Thessalonica
Date: 1137-1143 CE
Sear 1944 H 10.9-11
28mm 3.09gm
1 commentswileyc
Bramsen 0032.JPG
Bramsen 0032. Passage du Saint-Bernard, 1800.295 viewsObv. Uniformed bust of Napoleon right BONAPARTE Ir. CONSUL DE LA REPUBLIQUE FRANCAISE.
Rev. Napoleon on horseback, crossing the Alps, after the painting by David PASSAGE DU Gd. St. BERNARD LE XXV FLOREAL AN VIII

AE58. Montagny, after Andrieu.

Stained and slightly worn.

LordBest
Bramsen 1091.JPG
Bramsen 1091. Le Roi de Rome, 1811.223 viewsObv. Profile busts of the Emperor Napoleon, and the Empress Maria Louisa; the head of the Emperor encircled with a wreath, that of the Empress is adorned with the imperial diadem as worn by the former Queens of France; under the head of Napoleon or exergue, the name of the artist and designer, ANDRIEU F. DENON D.
Rev. Bust of the infant son of Napoleon; on base of the bust, ANDRIEU F.
Legend, NAPOLEON FRANCOIS JOSEPH CHARLES ROI DE ROME.
Exergue, XX MARS MDCCCXI.

Struck to commemorate the birth of Napoleon II in 1811.
LordBest
BrettianJupiter.jpg
Bruttium drachm98 viewsVeiled head of Hera Lakinia right, wearing polos; scepter over shoulder, feather to left

ΒΡΕΤΤΙΩΝ
Zeus standing left, right foot on ionic capital, holding scepter; crab to left, [tiny Γ between foot and scepter].

Second Punic War issue. Circa 216-214 BC.
3.88 g.

Arslan dies 12/17’; Scheu 68–77 var. (obv. symbol);

HN Italy 1969. VF, toned, struck with worn dies.

Rare issue with feather on obverse, unknown to Scheu.

Ex-CNG 407 lot 14, From the B. H. Webb Collection. Ex-Pipito Collection

Tough to photograph, much better in hand.
5 commentsJay GT4
Brettian_HN1970.jpg
Bruttium, The Bretti, drachm15 viewsDiademed, draped and winged bust of Nike right, bird? behind

BPETTIΩN
River-god Aisaros/Dionysos standing, crowning himself, holding cloak and scepter, monogram and shield to right

216-214 BC Punic war issue

4.81g

Rare with these control marks. Only 2 on acsearch including this one, both from same dies and die flaws.
Struck with worn obverse die.

Arslan dies 81/107’; Scheu S65; HN Italy 1970

Ex-CNG 452 Lot 48; From the John L. Cowan Collection; Ex-Pegasi, 31 May 2012 Auction 24 lot 44.
2 commentsJay GT4
205.jpg
Bust and Nike left162 viewsUncertain mint, possibly SYRIA. Uncertain emperor, possibly Trajan. Ć 24.1st century A.D. Obv:Inscription illegible.Outline of imperial head; 2 countermarks: (1) to left of head, on neck. Rev: Worn smooth. Weight: 9.62 g. CM(1): Laureate imperial bust right, in roughly rectangular punch, 5 x 7 mm. Howgego 133 ? (17 pcs). CM(1): Winged figure of Nike walking left, holding wreath in extended hand, in rectangular punch, 4.5 x 6 mm. Howgego -. Collection Automan.Automan
146.jpg
BYZ▪Δ131 viewsUncertain mint. Ć 26. 1st-2nd Century A.D. (?). Obv: Outline of early imperial bust; countermark before. Reverse worn smooth. Weight: 8.80 g. Found in Spain according to seller’s notes. CM: BYZ▪Δ in rectangular punch, 4.5 x 11 mm (actually the "Z" is mirrored). Howgego 520 var. (2 pcs). Note: Likely applied in Byzantium (Thrace). This specimen is quite clear, and it would seem that the countermark is made up of a combination of a city reference (BYZ) and a denomination (Δ). Collection Automan.Automan
803_Annius_Luscus_and_Fabius_Hispaniensis.jpg
C. Annius T.f. T.n. Luscus and L. Fabius L.f. Hispaniensis - AR denarius7 views˛Transalpine Gaul
ąnorth Italy
ą˛82-81 BC
diademed draped bust of Anna Parenna right; caduceus left, scales right, dagger below
C·ANNI·T·F·T·N_·_PRO·COS·EX·S·C·
Victory in quadriga right, holding palm branch and reins
Q .
L·FABI·L·F·HISP
ąCrawford 366/1a, SRCV I 289, Sydenham 748, RSC I Annia 2
˛Mark Passehl - Roman moneyer & coin type chronology, 150 – 50 BC
3,7g
ex Gitbud and Naumann

Moneyer apparently used Anna Parenna as a pun to his name Annius. It is the only known depiction of Anna Parenna whose identity is very complicated.

"An older myth tells that Anna Perenna was an old woman from the city of Bollivae in Latium. The myth tells that Anna Perenna brought bread and cakes to the Plebeians who wanted to separate from Rome because of their unequal status as Plebeians in 494 BC and so she saved them from starving. This is why she was popular on the common people and considered as goddes after her death.

A later tradition from the time of the myth of Aeneas made Anna the sister of Dido. After Dido has committed suicide and Carthage was conquered she had to fly. A heavy storm throw her to the coast of Latium at Laurentum where Aeneas was the ruler. Aeneas and his companion went to the beach and he recognized her and took her to his palace. In a dream Anna was warned to be alarmed at the traps that Lavinia, Aeneas' wife, would set for her so she fled from the palace. While she was wandering she met Numicius, the god of a nearby stream who carried her off to his bed. The servants of Aeneas searched for Anna and followed her tracks to the river bank a shape rose from the water and revealed to them that Anna had become a water nymph, whose new name, Perenna, signified eternity. Aeneas' servants in their joy scattered among the fields and passed the day in feasting and festivities, which became established as an annual celebration of the festival of Anna Perenna. There is another opinion too that she committed suicide by drowning in the river Numicius because of her desperation.

In another myth she was an old woman again. Mars was fallen in love to Minerva, sworn virgin. Mars asked Anna Perenna for interceding on his behalf. But instead of this - knowing about the impossibility of his wishes - she dressed herself like Minerva and came to Mars veiled. When he tried to kiss her she lifted her veil, break out in laughter and mocked Mars. Minerva's main festival, the Quinquatrus, was celebrated 4 days after the festival of Anna Perenna so this could be reason of this story." from Jochen's coins of mythological interest.
Johny SYSEL
Vlasto_338.jpg
CALABRIA, Taras. Circa 400-390 BC. AR Nomos27 views20mm, 7.93 g, 2h
Youth on horse galloping right; tiny Λ below / Phalanthos, holding torch, riding dolphin left.

Fischer-Bossert Group 26, 361.2 (V164/R283) = Vlasto 338 (this coin); HN Italy 850. Old collection tone, small edge test cut, a few marks on edge, struck from worn dies. VF.

Ex Michel Pandely Vlasto Collection.
1 commentsLeo
211114_l.jpg
Calabria. Tarentum. Nomos (Circa 302-280 BC)27 viewsAR Nomos

21 mm, 7.78 g

Obv: Youth, holding shield, on horse rearing left; ΣΛ to right, ΦΙΛΩΝ below.
Rev: TAPAΣ.
Phalanthos, holding crowning Nike, riding dolphin left; waves below.

Vlasto 684-5; HN Italy 964.

In Greek mythology, Phalanthos (Φάλανθος) is a divine hero, the leader of the Spartan Partheniae and the founder of Taranto. In Ancient Greece, the Partheniae or Parthenians were a lower ranking Spartiate population which, according to tradition, left Laconia to go to Magna Graecia and founded Taras, modern Taranto, in the current region of Apulia, in southern Italy. In Greek mythology, Phalanthos is a divine hero, and the leader of the Spartan Partheniae.

At least three distinct traditions carry the origins of the Parthenians. The oldest is that of Antiochus of Syracuse, according to which the Spartiates, during the first Messenian war (end of the 8th century BC), had rejected like cowards those who had not fought, along with their descendants:

"Antiochus says that, during the Messenian war, those Lacedemonians which did not take part with the mission shall be declared as slaves and called Helots; as for the children born during the mission, we shall call them Parthenians and deny them of all legal rights."

The Parthenians were therefore the first tresantes ("trembling"), a category which gathers the cowards and thus excludes themselves from the community of the Homoioi, the Peers. Thereafter, Parthenians plotted against the Peers and, discovered, would have been driven out of Sparta, from which they departed for Italy and founded Taras, whose date is traditionally fixed in 706 BC - which archaeology does not deny.

In the second tradition, according to Ephorus (4th century BC), the Spartiates swore during the Messenian War, not to return home as long as they had not attained victory. The war prolonged and Sparta's demography being threatened, the Spartiates let the young Spartans who had not sworn the oath return home. These were ordered to copulate with all the girls available. The children who were born from these unions were named Parthenians. Their mothers, since they were compelled by the state to procreate, were legally considered unmolested and fit to marry once the war was over.

Lastly, a third tradition, made the Parthenians bastards who had resulted from the unions of Spartan women and their slaves, always during the Messenian war. The same tradition is told to explain the origins of Locri, also in Magna Graecia.
Nathan P
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-3qs59GR6xcPDlCaligula_2.jpg
Caligula (Augustus) Coin: Brass Dupondius 12 viewsNERO ET DRVSVS CAESARES - Nero and Drusus on horseback riding right
C. CAESAR. DIVI. AVG. PRON. AVG. P. M. TR. P. III. P. P. around large S. C. - Legend surrounding large S C
Mint: Rome (39-40 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 13.04g / 32mm / 6h
Rarity: R3
References:
RIC I 42 (Gaius)
BMCRE p. 156, n. ‡
Provenances:
Artemide Aste
Acquisition/Sale: Artemide Aste Internet 46e #266 $0.00 02/19

The Gary R. Wilson Collection

The TR P III (39-40 AD) date of Caligula's base coinage is the scarcest of all his dates. The TR P (37-38 AD) is the most common followed by his TR P IIII (40-41 AD). Caligula did not issue base coinage from Rome with the TR P II (38-39 AD) date.

From: Incitatus Coins
Nero and Drusus were the elder brothers of Caligula, and the sons of Germanicus. Both were heirs of Tiberius and both were killed by the machinations of Sejanus. Caligula survived Sejanus, and the subsequent years, to become emperor. He immediately proclaimed his informed uncle Claudius as his co-consul, an appointment made so that Caligula could, in essence, rule as sole consul. Claudius was given the modest
task of preparing a celebration of Caligula's brothers, including statues in their honor. According to 'I Claudius', Claudius encountered difficulty in completing these statues on time. The completed statues appear on this coinage.

ODERINT, DUM METUANT (LET THEM HATE, SO LONG AS THEY FEAR). — CALIGULA


From Joe Geranio:
The dupondii issues of the brothers of Caligula , Nero and Drusus Caesar was no doubt to remind the Roman populace about the Dioscuri the saviors of the Roman state. The Dioscuri won a miraculous battle in 496 B.C. and then on the same day appear in the Roman Forum to tell the populace about the victory, no doubt Caligula wanted to associate himself with the Dioscuri with this issue of the gods represented as Nero and Drusus Caesars galloping on their horses with ease as though the wind is blowing in their hair. This familial propaganda would cement that the sons of Germanicus and Agrippina would reign and were in control.

This type was issued by Caligula for his two deceased brothers, Nero Julius Caesar and Drusus Julius Caesar Germanicus. Nero Caesar was Tiberius' oldest adoptive grandson and was the emperor's most obvious successor until 29 A.D. when he was accused of treason along with his mother, Agrippina the Elder. He was exiled to the island of Ponza where he was either induced to commit suicide or starved to death before October 31. In 30, his brother Drusus Caesar was also accused of treason and exiled and imprisoned. He starved to death in prison in 33, reduced to chewing the stuffing of his bed.

From Suetonius:
But he (Claudius) was exposed also to actual dangers. First in his very consulship, when he was all but deposed, because he had been somewhat slow in contracting for and setting up the statues of Nero and Drusus, the emperor's brothers.


From COINWEEK:
THE ANNALS OF THE ROMAN HISTORIAN TACITUS (56 – 117 CE) survived in one damaged medieval manuscript at the Monte Cassino monastery. The section covering the reign of Emperor Caligula is missing, and we rely largely on fragmentary chapters of Cassius Dio’s Roman History (155-235 CE) and the Twelve Caesars of Suetonius (c.69 – 140 CE), a gossip writer who was the Perez Hilton of Imperial Rome. There are few contemporary eyewitness sources – some passages in the writings of Seneca (4 BCE – 65 CE) and Philo of Alexandria (c. 25 BCE – 50 CE ).

The story is not a happy one.

The future emperor was born on August 31 in the year 12, probably at Antium (Anzio) south of Rome. His father Germanicus, nephew of Emperor Tiberius, was a successful and popular general. His mother, Agrippina “the Elder”, was the daughter of Marcus Agrippa, the brilliant organizer who was largely responsible for Octavian’s victory in the Roman civil war (32-30 BCE).

“Caligula” is a nickname. It means “little boot” in Latin, because as a child he wore a miniature military uniform including tiny hobnailed boots, much to the delight of his father’s veteran legionaries. He grew up to dislike it. His given name, which appears on his coins, variously abbreviated, was Gaius (or Caius) Julius Caesar Germanicus. “Caesar” here is not a title, but a personal name, inherited through Germanicus Julius Caesar, grandson of Emperor Augustus, the adopted son of the famous Julius Caesar (100 – 44 BCE).

A New Hope
“TO MAKE AN INEXPERIENCED AND ALMOST UNKNOWN YOUNG MAN, BROUGHT UP UNDER A SERIES OF AGED AND REPRESSIVE GUARDIANS, MASTER OF THE WORLD, ALMOST LITERALLY OVERNIGHT, ON THE SOLE RECOMMENDATION THAT HIS FATHER HAD BEEN A THOROUGHLY DECENT FELLOW WAS TO COURT DISASTER IN A QUITE IRRESPONSIBLE FASHION.”
–BARRETT, CALIGULA: THE CORRUPTION OF POWER (1990)

When the reclusive, miserly and increasingly paranoid Emperor Tiberius died on March 16, 37 CE at the age of 78, most Romans greeted Caligula’s accession joyfully. Caligula’s early coinage celebrates his descent from his great-grandfather, the deified Augustus.

Caligula’s laurel-crowned portrait appears on the obverse of his gold aurei and silver denarii surrounded by his titles. On one reverse, which bears no inscription, the head of Augustus, wearing the sun god’s spiky radiate crown, appears between two stars. Another type omits the stars and adds the inscription, “Divine Augustus, Father of the Nation”. On some examples, the portrait seems to have the features of the unpopular Tiberius, who was never deified by the Senate. Perhaps the mint engravers, who had copied and recopied the portrait of Tiberius for 22 years, automatically reproduced a familiar face.

On his birthday in the year 37, Caligula dedicated the Temple of Augustus, which had been under construction for over two decades in the Roman forum. The event is commemorated on a magnificent brass sestertius. On the obverse a veiled seated figure is labeled PIETAS (“piety”) – an untranslatable Latin term for the Roman virtue that combined profound respect for ancestral traditions and meticulous observance of ritual obligations. The reverse shows Caligula in his role as Pontifex Maximus, high priest of the state religion, sacrificing an ox before a richly decorated temple. The finest known example of this coin sold for over $269,000 USD in a November 2013 Swiss auction.

Addressing the Guards
The orderly succession and survival of any Roman emperor depended on the Praetorian Guard, an elite force of bodyguards stationed in the capital. It was organized into nine battalions, or “cohorts”, each of 500 to 1,000 men.

On his accession, one of Caligula’s first official acts was to present each guardsman with a thousand sestertii bequeathed by Tiberius in his will, adding another thousand of his own. The reverse of a rare bronze sestertius, which may have been specially struck for this payment, shows Caligula standing on a platform with his arm raised in a formal gesture of greeting to a rank of guards. The abbreviated inscription ADLOCUT COH means “Address to the Cohorts”. Remarkably, this coin lacks the inscription SC (“by decree of the Senate”), which normally appeared on all Roman bronze coinage. An outstanding example of this type (“undoubtedly the finest specimen known”) brought over $634,000 in a 2014 European auction.

Family Ties
Caligula issued numerous types honoring the memory of his parents. Some of these continued under the reign of his uncle and successor, Claudius.

A handsome brass dupondius (worth half a sestertius or two asses) shows Germanicus riding in a chariot, celebrating his triumph (May 26, 17 CE) over German tribes. On the reverse, Germanicus stands in armor, holding an eagle-tipped scepter as a symbol of command. The inscription reads, “Standards Regained From the Defeated Germans”. This commemorates the return of sacred eagle standards captured when Roman legions of P. Quinctilius Varus were ambushed and annihilated eight years previously (September, 9 CE) in the Teutoburg Forest of north-central Germany. Examples of this type have sold for $500 to $3,000 in recent auctions.

Agrippina the Elder, mother of Caligula, was honored on a bronze sestertius. The obverse inscription surrounding her strong, dignified portrait translates: “Agrippina, daughter of Marcus, mother of emperor Gaius Caesar”. On the reverse, the legend “To the Memory of Agrippina” appears beside a carpentum, a ceremonial cart drawn by two mules that paraded an image of Agrippina on special occasions.

A superb, pedigreed example of this coin (“Very rare and among the finest specimens known. A delicate portrait of sublime style, Tiber tone”) sold for over $98,000 in a November 2013 Swiss auction. More typical examples sell for $1,000 to $3,000.

Perhaps the best-known coin of Caligula is a rare sestertius that depicts his three sisters, Agrippina the Younger, Drusilla and Julia Livilla as the personifications of Securitas, Concordia and Fortuna respectively. Caligula was close to his sisters, and lavished public honors on them in a way that shocked traditional Roman values. This inevitably led later writers to charge the emperor with incestuous relations, a rumor that is almost certainly false.

In recent auctions, exceptional examples of this type have sold for prices ranging from $15,000 to 21,000. Worn or corroded examples that have been “tooled” to improve the detail can sometimes be found for under $2,000. Cast forgeries are common, mostly modern, some dating back to the Renaissance that are collectable in their own right.

Small Change
Perhaps the most enigmatic coin of Caligula’s reign was the smallest regular Roman denomination, the quadrans. It took 64 of these little coppers to equal the value of one silver denarius – a day’s pay for a manual worker. On the obverse, the emperor’s name and titles surround a “liberty cap” – the felt hat worn by freed slaves – bracketed by the letters “SC”. The reverse inscription continues the emperor’s titles, surrounding the large letters “RCC”.

For many years, the consensus of numismatic scholars was that this abbreviation stood for remissa ducentesima, celebrating Caligula’s repeal of an unpopular one-half percent sales tax (“one part in two hundred” – “CC” being the Roman numeral for 200). A brilliant 2010 study by David Woods argues that this interpretation is unlikely, and RCC probably stands for something like res civium conservatae (“the interests of citizens have been preserved”).

The quadrans is probably the most affordable coin of Caligula, with decent examples appearing at auction for under $100.

The Making of a Monster
SO MUCH FOR CALIGULA THE EMPEROR; THE REST OF THIS HISTORY MUST NEEDS DEAL WITH CALIGULA THE MONSTER.
— SUETONIUS, THE TWELVE CAESARS, 22.1

Caligula fell seriously ill in October, 37 CE. After he recovered, his personality (always rather dark) took a decided turn for the worse. He became increasingly paranoid, ordering the execution or forcing the suicide of many who were previously close to him. He reportedly took special delight in having people tortured to death in his presence. As his increasingly bizarre expenditures emptied the treasury, he had wealthy Romans executed in order to seize their assets. Nevertheless, Suetonius reports that Caligula was devoted and faithful to his fourth and last wife, Milonia Caesonia, “who was neither beautiful nor young”.



The Death of Caligula

On January 24, 41 CE, conspirators including Cassius Chaerea, an officer of the Praetorian Guard, stabbed Caligula to death as he left a theatrical performance. Caesonia and her young daughter were also murdered. The only certainly identifiable contemporary portrait of Caesonia appears on a rare provincial bronze issued by Caligula’s childhood friend, Herod Agrippa I (11 BCE – 44 CE), the Roman client-king of Judaea.

Collecting the Monster
Gold and silver issues of Caligula are scarce, and in high demand from collectors, especially those determined to complete a set of the “Twelve Caesars” – all the Roman rulers from Julius Caesar to Domitian. Some of the bronzes are quite common, particularly the bronze as with Vesta reverse – decent examples can be found at auction for well under $200. For bronzes in the highest grades, with pristine surfaces and untouched patinas, the sky’s the limit.

For an emperor who was supposedly feared and hated by the Romans by the end of his short reign – only three years and 10 months – Caligula’s coins seem to have a good survival rate, and few that reach the numismatic market are mutilated. Some have the first ‘C’ of the emperor’s personal name filed off or scratched out, but it is rare to find deliberate ancient gouges or cuts across the portrait.

Any collector approaching the coinage of Caligula seeking evidence of madness, decadence and depravity will be disappointed. Coinage is conservative, and these coins present an idealized portrait of a rather dorky young man, along with a series of stock images reflecting the conventions of classical art that the Romans adopted from the Greeks
Gary W2
39-40_AD_Gaius_(Caligula,_37-.jpg
Caligula (Augustus) Coin: Bronze Quadrans 5 viewsC CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG, Pileus between S C - Pileus between S C
PON M TR P III P P COS TERT, around R C C - Inscription around R C C
Exergue:



Mint: Rome (39-40 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 3.65g / 17mm / 180
Rarity: Scarce
References:
RIC I 45
BMCRE 63
Cohen 6
Provenances:
Bertolami Fine Arts
Acquisition/Sale: Bertolami Fine Arts Internet E-Live Auction 50 #32

The Gary R. Wilson Collection

There were four different issues of quadrans from Caligula:
PON M TR P III P P COS DES III- 39AD
PON M TR P III P P COS TERT-39-40AD-This Coin
PON M TR P IIII P P COS TERT-40-41AD
PON M TR P IIII P P COS QVART-January 1-24, 41AD

ODERINT, DUM METUANT (LET THEM HATE, SO LONG AS THEY FEAR). — CALIGULA

The purpose of the pileus and the (related or not) meaning of the RCC inscription remain in dispute and have led to differing hypotheses since the late 18th century, with most modern observers echoing the original hypotheses of Eckel from 1796, who thought that the RCC inscription referred to Caligula's remission of the 0.5% sales tax (hence remissa ducentesima), with the pileus a reference to restored liberty deriving from return of elections to the popular comitia from the Senate. Eckel thus thought the obverse and reverse commemorated separate distinct acts of the emperor.

David Woods' interpretation of the Caligula quadrans is that the liberty it celebrates is the liberty of all free Roman citizens, with the pileus as a their symbol. He reasons that it was Caligula's crackdown on those illegally claiming citizenship that is the focus of the coin's commemoration. This proper enforcement of the rules of citizenship would theoretically play well among the greater masses of the population who normally encounter the quadrans in everyday exchange.

As for the meaning of the RCC reverse inscription, Woods posits that it could be Res Civium Conservatae (The interests of the citizens has been preserved), or something closely related to this.

From The Dictionary of Roman Coins:
R CC Remissa Ducentesima. - Initial letters inscribed on the reverse of a third brass coin of Caligula, commemorative of a tax having been abolished by that Emperor. - The treasury of the state having been exhausted by the civil wars, Augustus, to assist in replenishing the public revenues, had established an impost of the hundredth denarius on all sales. But this burden in the year AD 17, Tiberius, yielding to the petitions of the people, had reduced on-half, that is to say to one denarius for 200. At length, in the year A.D. 39, the whole tax was taken off by Caligula as the inscription, on this small brass coin, of Remissa CC. plainly tells; and Suetonius confirms the fact in saying ducentesimun auctionum Italia remisit, although he does not specify the time.

And that this act of liberality was permanent is proved by medals struck in subsequent years of Caligula's reign, on which the memory of this benefit is gratefully renewed by the Senate. - The obverse is in scribed C CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG S C (Caius Caesar Augustus, great grandson of the Divine Augustus) and the type is the pileus or cap of liberty, an allusion made to the right of suffrage granted to the people in the year AD 38.

From COINWEEK: Small Change
Perhaps the most enigmatic coin of Caligula’s reign was the smallest regular Roman denomination, the quadrans. It took 64 of these little coppers to equal the value of one silver denarius – a day’s pay for a manual worker. On the obverse, the emperor’s name and titles surround a “liberty cap” – the felt hat worn by freed slaves – bracketed by the letters “SC”. The reverse inscription continues the emperor’s titles, surrounding the large letters “RCC”.

For many years, the consensus of numismatic scholars was that this abbreviation stood for remissa ducentesima, celebrating Caligula’s repeal of an unpopular one-half percent sales tax (“one part in two hundred” – “CC” being the Roman numeral for 200). A brilliant 2010 study by David Woods argues that this interpretation is unlikely, and RCC probably stands for something like res civium conservatae (“the interests of citizens have been preserved”).

The quadrans is probably the most affordable coin of Caligula, with decent examples appearing at auction for under $100.
Gary W2
Caligula_37-41_Quadrans_78_06.jpg
Caligula (Augustus) Coin: Bronze Quadrans6 viewsC CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG SC - Pileus flanked by S C
PON M TR P IIII P P COS QVAT - Legend surrounding RCC large in center of field Exergue:
Mint: Rome (41 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 2.43g / 18mm / 6h
Rarity: Rare
References:
RIC I (first ed.) 41
BMC 78,80
Paris 126-7
BMCRE I, no. 79
Cohen 8
Acquisition/Sale: hmm shop eBay

The Gary R. Wilson Collection

he last quadrans minted by Caligula with the mint date January 1-January 24, 41AD.

There were four different issues of quadrans from Caligula:
PON M TR P III P P COS DES III- 39AD
PON M TR P III P P COS TERT-39-40AD
PON M TR P IIII P P COS TERT-40-41AD
PON M TR P IIII P P COS QVAT-January 1-24, 41AD-This Coin

ODERINT, DUM METUANT (LET THEM HATE, SO LONG AS THEY FEAR). — CALIGULA

The purpose of the pileus and the (related or not) meaning of the RCC inscription remain in dispute and have led to differing hypotheses since the late 18th century, with most modern observers echoing the original hypotheses of Eckel from 1796, who thought that the RCC inscription referred to Caligula's remission of the 0.5% sales tax (hence remissa ducentesima), with the pileus a reference to restored liberty deriving from return of elections to the popular comitia from the Senate. Eckel thus thought the obverse and reverse commemorated separate distinct acts of the emperor.

David Woods' interpretation of the Caligula quadrans is that the liberty it celebrates is the liberty of all free Roman citizens, with the pileus as a their symbol. He reasons that it was Caligula's crackdown on those illegally claiming citizenship that is the focus of the coin's commemoration. This proper enforcement of the rules of citizenship would theoretically play well among the greater masses of the population who normally encounter the quadrans in everyday exchange.

As for the meaning of the RCC reverse inscription, Woods posits that it could be Res Civium Conservatae (The interests of the citizens has been preserved), or something closely related to this.

From The Dictionary of Roman Coins:
R CC Remissa Ducentesima. - Initial letters inscribed on the reverse of a third brass coin of Caligula, commemorative of a tax having been abolished by that Emperor. - The treasury of the state having been exhausted by the civil wars, Augustus, to assist in replenishing the public revenues, had established an impost of the hundredth denarius on all sales. But this burden in the year AD 17, Tiberius, yielding to the petitions of the people, had reduced on-half, that is to say to one denarius for 200. At length, in the year A.D. 39, the whole tax was taken off by Caligula as the inscription, on this small brass coin, of Remissa CC. plainly tells; and Suetonius confirms the fact in saying ducentesimun auctionum Italia remisit, although he does not specify the time.

And that this act of liberality was permanent is proved by medals struck in subsequent years of Caligula's reign, on which the memory of this benefit is gratefully renewed by the Senate. - The obverse is in scribed C CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG S C (Caius Caesar Augustus, great grandson of the Divine Augustus) and the type is the pileus or cap of liberty, an allusion made to the right of suffrage granted to the people in the year AD 38.

Per Curtis Clay:
Simply overlooked by Sutherland in his second edition, it would appear.

This quadrans with COS QVAT is scarce, struck only between 1 Jan. 41 and Caligula's assassination on 24 Jan., but well known and unquestionably authentic: BMC 79-80 has two, similarly Paris 126-7, quoted by Cohen 8 from Paris, the first ed. of RIC quotes it from Cohen as you say.

Sutherland (Preface, p. X) says he couldn't supply a concordance to the first edition because that edition frequently "subsumed two or more varieties under the same entry." I don't see how that fact excludes a concordance; and in any case drawing up a concordance would have helped by alerting Sutherland to varieties he had overlooked, such as this one!

From CNG:
A coin with significant historical connections.
On January 1, 41 AD, Caligula became consul for
the fourth time. On January 24 of that year, a
group of conspirators, led by the Praetorian
Prefect, Cassius Chaerea, assassinated the emperor
in an underground tunnel on the Palatine.
The editors of the revised edition of RIC I
neglected to include this issue in the corpus.

From COINWEEK: Small Change
Perhaps the most enigmatic coin of Caligula’s reign was the smallest regular Roman denomination, the quadrans. It took 64 of these little coppers to equal the value of one silver denarius – a day’s pay for a manual worker. On the obverse, the emperor’s name and titles surround a “liberty cap” – the felt hat worn by freed slaves – bracketed by the letters “SC”. The reverse inscription continues the emperor’s titles, surrounding the large letters “RCC”.

For many years, the consensus of numismatic scholars was that this abbreviation stood for remissa ducentesima, celebrating Caligula’s repeal of an unpopular one-half percent sales tax (“one part in two hundred” – “CC” being the Roman numeral for 200). A brilliant 2010 study by David Woods argues that this interpretation is unlikely, and RCC probably stands for something like res civium conservatae (“the interests of citizens have been preserved”).

The quadrans is probably the most affordable coin of Caligula, with decent examples appearing at auction for under $100.
Gary W2
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-B1lgFjNUL7hU2d-Caligula.jpg
Caligula (Augustus) Coin: Bronze Quadrans39 viewsC CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG SC - Pileus flanked by S C
PON M TR P IIII P P COS QVAT - Legend surrounding RCC large in center of field
Exergue:


Mint: Rome (41AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 3.19g / 18mm / 180
Rarity: Rare
References:
BMC 78,80
Paris 126-7
Cohen 8
BMCRE I, no. 79
RIC I (first ed.) 41

The Gary R. Wilson Collection

The last quadrans minted by Caligula with the mint date January 1-January 24, 41AD.

There were four different issues of quadrans from Caligula:
PON M TR P III P P COS DES III- 39AD
PON M TR P III P P COS TERT-39-40AD
PON M TR P IIII P P COS TERT-40-41AD
PON M TR P IIII P P COS QVAT-January 1-24, 41AD-This Coin

ODERINT, DUM METUANT (LET THEM HATE, SO LONG AS THEY FEAR). — CALIGULA

The purpose of the pileus and the (related or not) meaning of the RCC inscription remain in dispute and have led to differing hypotheses since the late 18th century, with most modern observers echoing the original hypotheses of Eckel from 1796, who thought that the RCC inscription referred to Caligula's remission of the 0.5% sales tax (hence remissa ducentesima), with the pileus a reference to restored liberty deriving from return of elections to the popular comitia from the Senate. Eckel thus thought the obverse and reverse commemorated separate distinct acts of the emperor.

David Woods' interpretation of the Caligula quadrans is that the liberty it celebrates is the liberty of all free Roman citizens, with the pileus as a their symbol. He reasons that it was Caligula's crackdown on those illegally claiming citizenship that is the focus of the coin's commemoration. This proper enforcement of the rules of citizenship would theoretically play well among the greater masses of the population who normally encounter the quadrans in everyday exchange.

As for the meaning of the RCC reverse inscription, Woods posits that it could be Res Civium Conservatae (The interests of the citizens has been preserved), or something closely related to this.

From The Dictionary of Roman Coins:
R CC Remissa Ducentesima. - Initial letters inscribed on the reverse of a third brass coin of Caligula, commemorative of a tax having been abolished by that Emperor. - The treasury of the state having been exhausted by the civil wars, Augustus, to assist in replenishing the public revenues, had established an impost of the hundredth denarius on all sales. But this burden in the year AD 17, Tiberius, yielding to the petitions of the people, had reduced on-half, that is to say to one denarius for 200. At length, in the year A.D. 39, the whole tax was taken off by Caligula as the inscription, on this small brass coin, of Remissa CC. plainly tells; and Suetonius confirms the fact in saying ducentesimun auctionum Italia remisit, although he does not specify the time.

And that this act of liberality was permanent is proved by medals struck in subsequent years of Caligula's reign, on which the memory of this benefit is gratefully renewed by the Senate. - The obverse is in scribed C CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG S C (Caius Caesar Augustus, great grandson of the Divine Augustus) and the type is the pileus or cap of liberty, an allusion made to the right of suffrage granted to the people in the year AD 38.

Per Curtis Clay:
Simply overlooked by Sutherland in his second edition, it would appear.

This quadrans with COS QVAT is scarce, struck only between 1 Jan. 41 and Caligula's assassination on 24 Jan., but well known and unquestionably authentic: BMC 79-80 has two, similarly Paris 126-7, quoted by Cohen 8 from Paris, the first ed. of RIC quotes it from Cohen as you say.

Sutherland (Preface, p. X) says he couldn't supply a concordance to the first edition because that edition frequently "subsumed two or more varieties under the same entry." I don't see how that fact excludes a concordance; and in any case drawing up a concordance would have helped by alerting Sutherland to varieties he had overlooked, such as this one!

From CNG:
A coin with significant historical connections.
On January 1, 41 AD, Caligula became consul for
the fourth time. On January 24 of that year, a
group of conspirators, led by the Praetorian
Prefect, Cassius Chaerea, assassinated the emperor
in an underground tunnel on the Palatine.
The editors of the revised edition of RIC I
neglected to include this issue in the corpus.

From COINWEEK: Small Change
Perhaps the most enigmatic coin of Caligula’s reign was the smallest regular Roman denomination, the quadrans. It took 64 of these little coppers to equal the value of one silver denarius – a day’s pay for a manual worker. On the obverse, the emperor’s name and titles surround a “liberty cap” – the felt hat worn by freed slaves – bracketed by the letters “SC”. The reverse inscription continues the emperor’s titles, surrounding the large letters “RCC”.

For many years, the consensus of numismatic scholars was that this abbreviation stood for remissa ducentesima, celebrating Caligula’s repeal of an unpopular one-half percent sales tax (“one part in two hundred” – “CC” being the Roman numeral for 200). A brilliant 2010 study by David Woods argues that this interpretation is unlikely, and RCC probably stands for something like res civium conservatae (“the interests of citizens have been preserved”).

The quadrans is probably the most affordable coin of Caligula, with decent examples appearing at auction for under $100.

4 commentsGary W2
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-B1lgFjNUL7hU2d-Caligula~0.jpg
Caligula (Augustus) Coin: Bronze Quadrans11 viewsC CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG SC - Pileus flanked by S C
PON M TR P IIII P P COS QVAT - Legend surrounding RCC large in center of field
Exergue:


Mint: Rome (41AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 3.19g / 18mm / 180
Rarity: Rare
References:
BMC 78,80
Paris 126-7
Cohen 8
BMCRE I, no. 79
RIC I (first ed.) 41

The last quadrans minted by Caligula with the mint date January 1-January 24, 41AD.

There were four different issues of quadrans from Caligula:
PON M TR P III P P COS DES III- 39AD
PON M TR P III P P COS TERT-39-40AD
PON M TR P IIII P P COS TERT-40-41AD
PON M TR P IIII P P COS QVAT-January 1-24, 41AD-This Coin

The Gary R. Wilson Collection

ODERINT, DUM METUANT (LET THEM HATE, SO LONG AS THEY FEAR). — CALIGULA

The purpose of the pileus and the (related or not) meaning of the RCC inscription remain in dispute and have led to differing hypotheses since the late 18th century, with most modern observers echoing the original hypotheses of Eckel from 1796, who thought that the RCC inscription referred to Caligula's remission of the 0.5% sales tax (hence remissa ducentesima), with the pileus a reference to restored liberty deriving from return of elections to the popular comitia from the Senate. Eckel thus thought the obverse and reverse commemorated separate distinct acts of the emperor.

David Woods' interpretation of the Caligula quadrans is that the liberty it celebrates is the liberty of all free Roman citizens, with the pileus as a their symbol. He reasons that it was Caligula's crackdown on those illegally claiming citizenship that is the focus of the coin's commemoration. This proper enforcement of the rules of citizenship would theoretically play well among the greater masses of the population who normally encounter the quadrans in everyday exchange.

As for the meaning of the RCC reverse inscription, Woods posits that it could be Res Civium Conservatae (The interests of the citizens has been preserved), or something closely related to this.

From The Dictionary of Roman Coins:
R CC Remissa Ducentesima. - Initial letters inscribed on the reverse of a third brass coin of Caligula, commemorative of a tax having been abolished by that Emperor. - The treasury of the state having been exhausted by the civil wars, Augustus, to assist in replenishing the public revenues, had established an impost of the hundredth denarius on all sales. But this burden in the year AD 17, Tiberius, yielding to the petitions of the people, had reduced on-half, that is to say to one denarius for 200. At length, in the year A.D. 39, the whole tax was taken off by Caligula as the inscription, on this small brass coin, of Remissa CC. plainly tells; and Suetonius confirms the fact in saying ducentesimun auctionum Italia remisit, although he does not specify the time.

And that this act of liberality was permanent is proved by medals struck in subsequent years of Caligula's reign, on which the memory of this benefit is gratefully renewed by the Senate. - The obverse is in scribed C CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG S C (Caius Caesar Augustus, great grandson of the Divine Augustus) and the type is the pileus or cap of liberty, an allusion made to the right of suffrage granted to the people in the year AD 38.

Per Curtis Clay:
Simply overlooked by Sutherland in his second edition, it would appear.

This quadrans with COS QVAT is scarce, struck only between 1 Jan. 41 and Caligula's assassination on 24 Jan., but well known and unquestionably authentic: BMC 79-80 has two, similarly Paris 126-7, quoted by Cohen 8 from Paris, the first ed. of RIC quotes it from Cohen as you say.

Sutherland (Preface, p. X) says he couldn't supply a concordance to the first edition because that edition frequently "subsumed two or more varieties under the same entry." I don't see how that fact excludes a concordance; and in any case drawing up a concordance would have helped by alerting Sutherland to varieties he had overlooked, such as this one!

From CNG:
A coin with significant historical connections.
On January 1, 41 AD, Caligula became consul for
the fourth time. On January 24 of that year, a
group of conspirators, led by the Praetorian
Prefect, Cassius Chaerea, assassinated the emperor
in an underground tunnel on the Palatine.
The editors of the revised edition of RIC I
neglected to include this issue in the corpus.

From COINWEEK: Small Change
Perhaps the most enigmatic coin of Caligula’s reign was the smallest regular Roman denomination, the quadrans. It took 64 of these little coppers to equal the value of one silver denarius – a day’s pay for a manual worker. On the obverse, the emperor’s name and titles surround a “liberty cap” – the felt hat worn by freed slaves – bracketed by the letters “SC”. The reverse inscription continues the emperor’s titles, surrounding the large letters “RCC”.

For many years, the consensus of numismatic scholars was that this abbreviation stood for remissa ducentesima, celebrating Caligula’s repeal of an unpopular one-half percent sales tax (“one part in two hundred” – “CC” being the Roman numeral for 200). A brilliant 2010 study by David Woods argues that this interpretation is unlikely, and RCC probably stands for something like res civium conservatae (“the interests of citizens have been preserved”).

The quadrans is probably the most affordable coin of Caligula, with decent examples appearing at auction for under $100.

RIC failed to place this issue in the most recent edition. The fact that this issue was only from January 1 to January 24, 41 AD makes this issue rare.
Gary W2
Caligula_37-41_Quadrans_78_06~0.jpg
Caligula (Augustus) Coin: Bronze Quadrans11 viewsC CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG SC - Pileus flanked by S C
PON M TR P IIII P P COS QVAT - Legend surrounding RCC large in center of field
Exergue:


Mint: Rome (41AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 3.19g / 18mm / 180
Rarity: Rare
References:
BMC 78,80
Paris 126-7
Cohen 8
BMCRE I, no. 79
RIC I (first ed.) 41

The last quadrans minted by Caligula with the mint date January 1-January 24, 41AD.

There were four different issues of quadrans from Caligula:
PON M TR P III P P COS DES III- 39AD
PON M TR P III P P COS TERT-39-40AD
PON M TR P IIII P P COS TERT-40-41AD
PON M TR P IIII P P COS QVAT-January 1-24, 41AD-This Coin

The Gary R. Wilson Collection

ODERINT, DUM METUANT (LET THEM HATE, SO LONG AS THEY FEAR). — CALIGULA

The purpose of the pileus and the (related or not) meaning of the RCC inscription remain in dispute and have led to differing hypotheses since the late 18th century, with most modern observers echoing the original hypotheses of Eckel from 1796, who thought that the RCC inscription referred to Caligula's remission of the 0.5% sales tax (hence remissa ducentesima), with the pileus a reference to restored liberty deriving from return of elections to the popular comitia from the Senate. Eckel thus thought the obverse and reverse commemorated separate distinct acts of the emperor.

David Woods' interpretation of the Caligula quadrans is that the liberty it celebrates is the liberty of all free Roman citizens, with the pileus as a their symbol. He reasons that it was Caligula's crackdown on those illegally claiming citizenship that is the focus of the coin's commemoration. This proper enforcement of the rules of citizenship would theoretically play well among the greater masses of the population who normally encounter the quadrans in everyday exchange.

As for the meaning of the RCC reverse inscription, Woods posits that it could be Res Civium Conservatae (The interests of the citizens has been preserved), or something closely related to this.

From The Dictionary of Roman Coins:
R CC Remissa Ducentesima. - Initial letters inscribed on the reverse of a third brass coin of Caligula, commemorative of a tax having been abolished by that Emperor. - The treasury of the state having been exhausted by the civil wars, Augustus, to assist in replenishing the public revenues, had established an impost of the hundredth denarius on all sales. But this burden in the year AD 17, Tiberius, yielding to the petitions of the people, had reduced on-half, that is to say to one denarius for 200. At length, in the year A.D. 39, the whole tax was taken off by Caligula as the inscription, on this small brass coin, of Remissa CC. plainly tells; and Suetonius confirms the fact in saying ducentesimun auctionum Italia remisit, although he does not specify the time.

And that this act of liberality was permanent is proved by medals struck in subsequent years of Caligula's reign, on which the memory of this benefit is gratefully renewed by the Senate. - The obverse is in scribed C CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG S C (Caius Caesar Augustus, great grandson of the Divine Augustus) and the type is the pileus or cap of liberty, an allusion made to the right of suffrage granted to the people in the year AD 38.

Per Curtis Clay:
Simply overlooked by Sutherland in his second edition, it would appear.

This quadrans with COS QVAT is scarce, struck only between 1 Jan. 41 and Caligula's assassination on 24 Jan., but well known and unquestionably authentic: BMC 79-80 has two, similarly Paris 126-7, quoted by Cohen 8 from Paris, the first ed. of RIC quotes it from Cohen as you say.

Sutherland (Preface, p. X) says he couldn't supply a concordance to the first edition because that edition frequently "subsumed two or more varieties under the same entry." I don't see how that fact excludes a concordance; and in any case drawing up a concordance would have helped by alerting Sutherland to varieties he had overlooked, such as this one!

From CNG:
A coin with significant historical connections.
On January 1, 41 AD, Caligula became consul for
the fourth time. On January 24 of that year, a
group of conspirators, led by the Praetorian
Prefect, Cassius Chaerea, assassinated the emperor
in an underground tunnel on the Palatine.
The editors of the revised edition of RIC I
neglected to include this issue in the corpus.

From COINWEEK: Small Change
Perhaps the most enigmatic coin of Caligula’s reign was the smallest regular Roman denomination, the quadrans. It took 64 of these little coppers to equal the value of one silver denarius – a day’s pay for a manual worker. On the obverse, the emperor’s name and titles surround a “liberty cap” – the felt hat worn by freed slaves – bracketed by the letters “SC”. The reverse inscription continues the emperor’s titles, surrounding the large letters “RCC”.

For many years, the consensus of numismatic scholars was that this abbreviation stood for remissa ducentesima, celebrating Caligula’s repeal of an unpopular one-half percent sales tax (“one part in two hundred” – “CC” being the Roman numeral for 200). A brilliant 2010 study by David Woods argues that this interpretation is unlikely, and RCC probably stands for something like res civium conservatae (“the interests of citizens have been preserved”).

The quadrans is probably the most affordable coin of Caligula, with decent examples appearing at auction for under $100.

RIC failed to place this issue in the most recent edition. The fact that this issue was only from January 1 to January 24, 41 AD makes this issue rare.
Gary W2
new_caius_combined.jpg
Caligula RIC 001433 viewsCaligula and Agrippina AR Denarius, aF, toned, bumps and marks,
(17.84 mm, 2.680g) 180o
Lugdunum (Lyon, France) mint, end of 37 - early 38 A.D.;
Obv: C CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR POT (counterclockwise), laureate head of Gaius right;
Rev: AGRIPPINA MAT C CAES AVG GERM (counterclockwise), draped bust of Agrippina Senior (his mother), her hair in a queue behind, one curly lock falls loose on the side of her neck,
RIC I 14 (R) (Rome), RSC II 2; BMCRE I 15 (Rome), BnF II 24, Hunter I 7 (Rome), SRCV I 1825
Ex: the Jyrki Muona Collection, Ex: Forvm Ancient Coins.




As you can tell from the photo, this is a worn coin. All denarii of Gaius (Caligula) are scarce, and some are harder to find than others. Denarii of Claudius are also scarce. The speculation is that after Nero debased the denarii, people hoarded all of the good silver coins, and this included denarii of Claudius and Gaius. According to Gresham's law bad money drives out good money. However, this does not explain why there appears to be plenty of earlier denarii available of figures such as Tiberius and Augustus but very few of Claudius and Gaius. We may never have a satisfactory answer.

Now why do I call him Gaius. Caligula (meaning little boots) was a nickname given to Gaius when he was young and travelling with his father's (Germanicus) army. According to contemporary or near contemporary accounts he detested the name. If you were emperor I am sure you would not want to be called "Bootykins".

The reverse of this coin has a portrait of Agrippina the Elder , Gaius' mother. She reportedly starved herself to death 4 years before Gaius became emperor.
orfew
Claigula_Vesta_2a.jpg
Caligula | Vesta * Æ As - 37-41 AD.56 views
Caligula Gaius | Vesta, Copper As

Obv: Bare head left: C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT
Rev: Vesta seated left holding patera in right hand and scepter in left hand, semi-transverse resting on left shoulder: S-C.

Exergue: None

Mint: Rome
Struck: 37-38 AD

Size: 26.90 grm.
Weight: 10.44 mm.
Die axis: 180°

Condition: A well worn coin, far more pleasant to the eye in hand. A challenge to photograph for like impression.

Refs:*
BN, 54
RIC I, 38
Cohen, 27
BMCRE, 46
Tiathena
244.jpg
CAP/▪Δ‾, Serapis and bust167 viewsLYDIA. Tripolis (?). Commodus (?). Ć 32. A.D. 175-177. Obv: Dr. bust r.; 3 CMs. Ref: SNG Aul -; SNG Cop -. Weight: 19.49 g. Note: The identif. of the coin is consistent with other specimens bearing cm (2), which are from Tripolis, bear the portrait of Faustina Jr., and are around 30 mm. CM(1): CAP, ▪Δ‾, in 2 lines, in oval punch, 10 x 9 mm. Howg. 561 (46 pcs). Note: The "dash" to the right of the Δ might indicate that the denom. is 4 1/2 assaria. This, and other denominational countermarks, were applied at Sardis to worn coins of other cities in w. Roman Asia, although not to Sardian coins (unless worn smooth). Appl. may have taken place during the sole reign of Gallienus, the reason being that coins bearing the portr. of Gallienus have been found cm'd, while a cm'd coin has been found bearing the cm of another city consistent with this date. CM(2): Hd of Serapis r., in modius, n circ. punch, 4 mm. How. 20 (3 pcs). CM(3): Bust in circ punch, 5 mm. How. 95 ? (2 pcs). Collection Automan.Automan
Caracalla_Hermes_2b.jpg
Caracalla * Hermes, Trajanopolis. 209-217 AD. Æ 17 As.136 views
Caracalla * Hermes - Bronze Assarion.

Obv: AVT K M AVP CE ANTWNEINOC . Laureate bust right.
Rev: TPAIANOPOLEITWN. Nude Hermes standing facing, head turned left, holding purse in right hand partially extended, and caduceus in his left hand, traverse across left bicep; drapery over left arm.

Exergue: (N/A) Exergual line only.

Mint: Trajanopolis
Struck: 209-217 AD.

Size: 17 mm.
Weight: 3.62 grams
Die axis: 178°

Condition: Morphologically rough & somewhat worn, yet showing the strong, clear strike it received in creation. Good, clear, high relief on virtually all areas still intact. On the whole, stronger clarity than evidenced in the image.
Dark green patina & really quite lovely.

Rare.

Refs:*
BMC 10v
Moushmov 5049

1 commentsTiathena
Caracalla_Equestrian.jpg
Caracalla - Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Pius Bassianus * Equestrian, AR Denarius * 196-217 AD121 views
Coin issue, celebration of Caracalla's invasion of Britain which would eventually culminate in his acclamation & title of, 'Britanicus.'

Obv: ANTONINVS PIVS AVG - Laureate head right
Rev: PONTIF TR P XI COS III - the Emperor Caracalla in military attire, holding spear on horseback, right-facing, enemy kneeling before & below horse (worn from view), right hand raised as in supplication, also right-facing.

Exergue: PROF

Mint: Rome
Struck: 208 AD.

Size: 19 mm.
Weight: 3.4 grams
Die axis: 180 degs.

Condition: Beautiful bright, clear luster, despite some notable wear to the relief on the reverse.

Refs:*
RIC IVi, p. 228, 108 Scarce
Cohen 510
D. Sear II, 6874, p. 526
BMCRE 574
Hill 983
RSC 510

Tiathena
caracalla_39.jpg
Caracalla RIC IV, 39(a) corr.127 viewsCaracalla, AD 198 - 217
AR - Denar, 3.67g, 19mm
Rome AD 199 - 201
obv. ANTONINVS - AVGVSTVS
bust draped and cuirassed, seen from behind, laureate head r., youthful portrait
rev. RECTOR - ORBIS
Caracalla as Alexander the Great, naked, standing frontal, laureate head l.,
Chlamys over l. shoulder, wears sword in scabbard suspended from
belt over shoulder, holding globe r. and reversed spear l.
RIC IV, 39(a) corr.; C.542; BMC 165 corr.
EF, mint luster

The rev. is usually called Caracalla as Sol. But there are some oddities: The figure is not radiate but laureate, and a sword in a scubbard is hanging over the r. shoulder. That doesn't match the attributes of Sol. Curtis Clay: It is Caracalla as Alexander the Great! Probably it resembles the statue of Lysipp 'Alexander with spear'.

CHLAMYS, cloak, if the context suggest civilian rather than military use
PALUDAMENTUM, used to describe the cloak worn with a cuirass by emperors on late Roman coins. So the garment on the obv. is a paludament, that on the rev. a chlamys!
3 commentsJochen
c1.jpg
Caracalla, antoninianus, RIC 261c ("R"), 215 CE17 viewsMy first and only so far antoninianus. It's not only worn but also cut, but it seems it's quite rare (RIC gives it an "R") and I believe it's among the first antoniniani ever minted - it was minted in 215 - the year when these coins were introduced.

Obverse: radiate cuirassed bust right, seen from behind
Legend: ANTONINVS PIVS AVG GERM

Reverse: Serapis/Pluto seated left wearing polos, holding scepter, & reaching toward three-headed dog Cerberus seated to left.
Legend: P M TR P XVIII COS IIII P P
AquilaSPQR
Harness_7a.jpg
Cavalry Harness Decoration - obverse75 viewsThis large harness decoration, circa early- to mid-1st century AD has extensive incised decorations which were likely filled with niello. It is often called a phalera though differes from the phalera worn on soldiers armour or belts. Exact parallels can be seen in the Romisches Museum Germany from Vindonissa and Colchester (believed to have belonged to Ala I Thracia attached to Legio XX); and in Feugere, figure 187, #2 from Hod Hill UK dating to the Neronian era. The centre hole was for a lost attachment - possibly a silver medallion.otlichnik
39231q00.jpg
Celts, Danube Region, Imitative61 viewsCelts, Danube Region, Imitative of Alexander or Philip III, c. 150 B.C. - c. 50 A.D.,
Silver scyphate drachm, Dessewffy, No. 534, Group XXVIII (or similar)
Fair, 3.314g, 19.1mm, obverse head of Herakles right, wearing lion's head headdress; reverse Zeus enthroned left, holding a scepter in left and eagle in outstretched right; struck with extremely worn dies. ex Forvm
Randygeki(h2)
zhi zheng.jpg
CHINA - EMPEROR SHUN (TOGHUN TEMUR) - ZHI ZHENG REIGN TITLE126 viewsYuan (Mongol) Dynasty - Emperor Shun (Toghon Temur) 1333-1368, Zhi Zheng reign title (1341-1368) Coin made between 1350-1354. Beautiful obverse; reverse too worn to make out year character. H-19.9X -- S-1127.dpaul7
CHINA_TSING_KIANG_SERIES.jpg
CHINA - Emperor Zai Tian - Kiangsu/Chekiang Province242 viewsCHINA - Emperor Zai Tian - Guang Xu Reign (1875-1908) AE 10 Cash, 1905 - Kiangsu/Chekiang Province; Tsing-Kiang Series. Reference: Y-78.2, plain edge. Parts of this and other dragn machine-made coins appear worn; they were actually weakly struck, as the mint personnel did not fully understand the new machienry they were using. dpaul7
amulet25_15mm578g.jpg
Christian lead amulet First Bulgarian Empire (681 - 1018).56 viewsworn on neck
Date: end of 9th through tenth century
Knjaz St. Boris I obliges all the Bulgarians to bring Christian symbols after the conversion to Christianity (865 AD).
25mm by 15mm, 5.78g


thanks to Val/Orthodox coins for this information
wileyc
amulet20mm15mm758g.jpg
Christian lead amulet First Bulgarian Empire (681 - 1018).28 viewsworn on neck
Date: end of 9th through tenth century
Knjaz St. Boris I obliges all the Bulgarians to bring Christian symbols after the conversion to Christianity (865 AD).
20mm by 15mm, 7.58g

thanks to Val/Orthodox coins for this information
wileyc
30mm16mm516g.jpg
Christian lead amulet First Bulgarian Empire (681 - 1018).28 viewsworn on neck
simple cross on one side
cross with two concentric circles on other side
Date: end of 9th through tenth century
Knjaz St. Boris I obliges all the Bulgarians to bring Christian symbols after the conversion to Christianity (865 AD).
3mm/16mm 5.16g

20mm by 15mm, 7.58g
wileyc
21mm309g.jpg
Christian lead amulet First Bulgarian Empire (681 - 1018).13 viewsworn on neck

cross with two concentric circles on ends
half circle with concentric circles on end, and in arch
Date: end of 9th through tenth century
Knjaz St. Boris I obliges all the Bulgarians to bring Christian symbols after the conversion to Christianity (865 AD).
3mm/16mm 5.16g

21mm 3.09g
wileyc
prnbzw.jpg
Cilicia, Tarsos. Satrap Pharnabazos II. AR Stater.21 viewsCirca 380-374/3 B.C.(21mm, 10.39g, 11h). Struck circa 380-379 B.C. Casabonne series 3; Moysey Issue 3, 3-5 var. (dolphin on obv.); SNG France 246 var. (rev. legend). Obverse Head of nymph facing three-quarters left. Reverse Helmeted head of Ares left, Aramaic PRNBZW to left. Near EF, toned, struck from a slightly worn obverse die.

Ex CNG.

There is still an ongoing debate whether who represent the obverse and reverse of this coin type of Pharnabazos. The obverse obviously was inspired by the renowned Syracusan tetradrachm of Kimon, whose three-quarter facing head of the nymph Arethusa was widely copied throughout the ancient world. A handful of ancient poleis adopted this style to represent their local nymph or goddess on their coins. A perfect example is the numerous coins of Larissa in Thessaly representing the local nymph of the same name. It is possible to assume then that the obverse of our coin might be another female deity other than Arethusa. A current opinion holds that the obverse represents Aphrodite, the goddess of love; and the reverse depicts Ares, the god of war. The two were known in ancient mythology as lovers, and commonly paired together on ancient coins. Of special note on this coin is the reverse: while most coins of this type display static male heads with little originality, the reverse die is probably from a special issue marked by superior style and executed with extreme delicacy. It has been suggested (Leu Auction 81, lot 317) that the head of Ares may be a disguised portrait of Pharnabazos himself.
Jason T
Thessalonika_PanStridingLeft_LegendInWreath_AE16_4.25g.jpg
Civic, Thessalonika, Pan / legend in wreath40 viewsAE16, 4.25g

Touratsoglou Emission II, Group A (time of Nerva/Trajan):

Pan naked on tip-toe walking left, shading his eyes with the raised right hand, holding pedum and nebris (fawnskin worn by Bacchus and his devotees according to OLD) in his left.
Tour. 3 (V3 R3): AMNG 29

Same type, other dies: Paris (Mionnet Supp. III/775), Munich, SNG ANS 811.
areich
t10~0.JPG
Claudius Sestertius Countermarked10 viewsDVP - Dupondius, struck upon worn specimens of sestertii and downgrading their value by half.ecoli
00146.jpg
Claudius (RIC 113, Coin #146)13 viewsRIC 113 (C), Copper AS, Rome, 42 AD.
Obv: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP P P Bare head left.
Rev: LIBERTAS AVGVSTA S C Libertas standing right holding pileus (cap worn by freed slaves).
Size: 28.0mm 9.56gm
MaynardGee
00375.jpg
Claudius (RIC 113, Coin #375)31 viewsRIC 113 (C), Copper AS, Rome, 42 AD.
Obv: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP P P Bare head left.
Rev: LIBERTAS AVGVSTA S C Libertas standing right holding pileus (cap worn by freed slaves).
Size: 28.1mm 11.00gm
1 commentsMaynardGee
claudius_ii_eagle[1].jpg
CLAUDIUS II GOTHICUS, SILVERED ANTONINIANUS, 268-270 C.E. 12 viewsSilvered antoninianus, RIC V 266, 3.5 g. 20mm dia.
Obverse - DIVO CLAVDIO, radiate head right
Reverse - CONSERATIO, eagle standing left, head right
Rome mint. strong strike on obverse but has worn die on reverse
NORMAN K
Claudius_Libertas_2.JPG
Claudius LIBERTAS AVGVSTA S C27 viewsClaudius, 25 January 41 - 13 October 54 A.D.

Obverse:
Bare head left

TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP
TI: Tiberius
CLAVDIVS: Claudius
CAESAR: CAESAR

AVG: Augustus, emperor
P M: PP: Pontifix Maximus, high priest
TR P: Tribunicia Potestate. The tribunician power, the emperor as civil head of the state.
IMP: Imperator, leader of the army

Reverse:

LIBERTAS AVGVSTA S C
LIBERTAS: Libertas
AVGVSTA: AVGVSTA

The title of Augusta denotes a woman with significant imperial power. Minting coins with Libertas on Roman coins was a political statement by many who succeeded tyrants

S C
S C: Senatus Consulto, by Decree of the Senate

LIBERTAS AVGVSTA S C, Libertas standing facing, head right, pileus in right (cap worn by freed slaves), extending left hand

Domination: Copper AS, size 27 mm, die axis 180o

Mint: Rome mint, 50- 54 A.D, RIC 1-113_C47
John S
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Claudius RIC 008345 viewsClaudius, with Nero as Caesar. 41-54 AD. AR Denarius. Struck 50-54 AD.
(17.68 mm, 2.78 g, 6h)
Obv: TI CLAVD CAESAR AVG GERM P M TRIB POT P P Laureate head of Claudius right
Rev: NERO CLAVD CAES DRVSVS GERM PRINC IVVENT Draped bust of Nero Left
RIC I 83 (R2) ; RSC 5.
Ex: CNG e-auctions 356, Lot: 469. Closing Jul 29, 2015
Ex: Holding History Coins Agora Auctions Lot 07-158 April 21, 2016




This denarius of Claudius is interesting because it has 2 portraits. the obverse depicts Claudius and on the reverse we see a very young portrait of Nero as Caesar or successor to Claudius. The portrait of Nero looks nothing like the "Fat tyrant" of Neros' later days.

Denarii of Claudius are scarce to rare. When Nero debased the coinage in 64 CE people hoarded or melted down the finer denarii of decades past. However, this does not explain why there appears to be plenty of earlier denarii available of figures such as Tiberius and Augustus but very few of Claudius and Gaius. We may never have a satisfactory answer.

I like this coin for its 2 portraits and especially for its depiction of a young Nero who seems so full of promise as the next ruler of Rome. I also like this coin because it reminds me that although Claudius was an improbable choice for ruler of Rome, he led the empire in a period of relative stability.

I know the coin is rather worn, but for me, that is part of its charm. It is obvious that this coin circulated and was used by those who lived in ancient Rome. It is interesting to think of who could have handled this coin and what it could have bought almost 2ooo years ago.
2 commentsorfew
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Commodus (RIC 241, Coin #429)16 viewsRIC 241 (C), AR Denarius, Rome, 192 AD.
Obv: L AL AVREL COMM AVG P FEL Laureate head right.
Rev: LIB AVG P M TR P XVII COS VII P P Libertas standing left holding pileus (freedom cap - worn by freed slaves) and rod, star right.
Size: 17.7mm 2.82gm

Rare engraver's error on obverse. Obverse text is "L AL ..." instead of "L AEL ...". A die match to this coin can be seen here: http://www.forumancientcoins.com/gallery/displayimage.php?album=3205&pos=4
MaynardGee
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Commodus - Medallic sestertius51 viewsWorn obverse legend, that should read : L. AELIVS AVRELIVS COMMODVS AVG. PIVS FELIX , head of Hercules/Commodus left, wearing lion's skin
HER CVLI / ROM ANO / AVG VST. in three lines divided by club, all in wreath. No SC.
33-34 mm

This bronze coin has the size of a large sestertius, but has not the letters SC, and the obverse is from the die engraver who worked for medallions, while the reverse die was carved with much less care. It is a reduced version of a medallion (42 mm) discovered in Crete - the only parallel I could find :
http://www.maat.com.au/commodusmedallion.html

Probably unpublished
Ginolerhino
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Commodus Sestertius Obv9 viewsCommodus; 184 AD
AE Sestertius, 28mm/22.6g
OBV: M COMMODVS ANTON AVG PIVS BRIT; Head laureate right
REV: Legend worn away; Commodus, togate, standing left sacrificing over a tripod.
(RIC 441, Cohen 988)
Philip G
DSC04026.JPG
Commodus Sestertius Rev9 viewsCommodus; 184 AD
AE Sestertius, 28mm/22.6g
OBV: M COMMODVS ANTON AVG PIVS BRIT; Head laureate right
REV: Legend worn away; Commodus, togate, standing left sacrificing over a tripod.
(RIC 441, Cohen 988)
Philip G
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Constans * Emperor and Victory, Æ2 * 324-350 AD.135 views
Constans * Emperor and Victory, Bronze.

Obv: DN CONSTANS PF AVG * Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust, right-facing.
Rev: FEL TEMP REPARATIO - Emperor standing facing on galley, holding phoenix on a globe in right hand, arm little extended from waist, and holding labarum with Chi-Rho in right hand, arm partially-extended and slightly raised; in ship's stern seated Victory is steering the ship.

Exergue: TESB

Mint: Thessalonica
Struck: 348-351 AD.

Size: 19.4 mm.
Weight: 2.54 grams
Die axis: 0°

Condition: Modestly worn but a well centered and forceful strike with good clear images both sides. Very dark olive-green, near-black patina. In all, an attractive coin.

Refs:*
RIC VIII, 120, pg. 412

1 commentsTiathena
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Constantine 8.08.0299 viewsConstantine
Obv CONSTANTINVS AVG
(R .laur, cuir)
Rev SOLI INVICTO COMITI
(Sol raising right hand, holding up globe with left, spread chlamys)
T |F
PLN in ex
London
Not in RIC CT 8.08.029 (RR)
(All coins of Constantine with a T F bronze mark and spread chlamys are rare. RIC VII 100 has a CONSTANTINVS AVG legend and a draped cuirassed bust. Although the obverse of this coin is worn, it is clear enough to be identified as a cuirassed bust, which is not in RIC)
Noviomagus
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CONSTANTINVS MAX AVG (the 1st) / GLORIA EXERCITVS AE3/4 follis (306-337 A.D.)19 viewsCONSTANTI-NVS MAX AVG, (laurel and?) rosette diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / GLOR-IA EXERC-ITVS, two soldiers standing inward facing each other, holding spears, shields and two standards between them, "dot" (clearly filled) on banners. Mintmark: SMNE (?) in exergue.

AE3/4, 16.5-17mm, 2.46g, die axis 12 (medal alignment), material: bronze/copper-based alloy

MAX AVG = Maximus Augustus, the Great Emperor, Gloria Exercitus (noun + genitive) "The Glory of the Army", SMNE = Sacra Moneta Nicomedia, "officina epsilon", i. e. workshop#5.

Limiting information to only what is known for sure: the legends with the particular breaks, two standards and four-letter mintmark starting with SM, we conclude that this is definitely Constantine I, and only 3 mints are possible: SMN... Nicomedia (RIC VII Nicomedia 188), SMH... Heraclea (RIC VII Nicomedia 111) and SMK... Cyzicus (RIC VII Cyzicus 76-79). All are minted in 330-335 A.D. If the mintmark is indeed SMN..., two variations are listed: rosette-diademed and laurel- and rosette-diademed (laurels typically designated by longish shapes and rosettes as squares with dots). Since the obverse is worn, it is difficult to judge which one is the case here. One can definitely see the rosettes, but as for laurels... probably, not. Officina may be E or S, but I think E fits better.

Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus, aka Constantine the Great, aka Saint Constantine, born 27 Feb c. 272 to Flavius Valerius Constantius (aka Constantius I), a Roman Army officer of Illyrian origins, and a Greek woman of low birth Helena (aka Saint Helena). His father became Caesar, the deputy emperor in the west, in 293 AD. Constantine was sent east, where he rose through the ranks to become a military tribune under Emperors Diocletian and Galerius. In 305, Constantius raised himself to the rank of Augustus, senior western emperor, and Constantine was recalled west to campaign under his father in Britannia (Britain). Constantine was acclaimed as emperor by the army at Eboracum (modern-day York) after his father's death in 306 AD, and he emerged victorious in a series of civil wars against Emperors Maxentius and Licinius to become sole ruler of both west and east by 324 AD. He did so many a great deed that there is no point to list them here. Best known for (having some sort of Christ-related mystical experience in 312, just before the decisive Battle of the Milvian Bridge with Maxentius) being the first Roman Emperor to convert to Christianity and for being a champion of this faith, in particular, he played an influential role in the proclamation of the Edict of Milan in 313, which declared religious tolerance for Christianity in the Roman empire, and called the First Council of Nicaea in 325 that produced the statement of Christian belief known as the Nicene Creed. Died 22 May 337, famously being baptized on his deathbed. Succeeded by his 3 sons: Constantine II, Constantius II and Constans.
Yurii P
Corinth_Archaic_Stater.jpg
Corinthia, Corinth, 525-500 BC, AR Stater19 viewsPegasos flying right, koppa beneath.
Incuse square with swastika pattern.

Ravel Group 1.3, 77 (dies P61/T61); BCD Corinth 3; Sear 1860.

(22 mm, 7.78 g, 12h).
Harlan J. Berk Buy or Bid Sale 189, 6 February 2014, 125.

Ancient hole at 12 o'clock, probably worn as jewelry in antiquity; amongst the earliest numismatic examples of this practice.
n.igma
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Coriosolite Bi "boar" stater, region: Armorica (Brittany and Channel Islands), c. 56 BC24 viewsSlightly oval shape, obverse convex, reverse a bit concave. 19-20+mm, 2+mm thick, 5.05g, die axis 6h (coin alignment), material: billon of unknown silver and other metal content.

Obverse: stylized head of a god right (Celtic "Apollo", most probably a Sun or sky god) with three plaits of curly hair forming the triskelion-like spiral pattern, reverse: stylized charioteer driving a chariot right with a boar right under the horse and a curl and leaf device in front of it.

The design is loosely based on golden staters of Philip II of Macedon with laureate head of Apollo right on obverse and a charioteer driving a biga (Mediterranean two-horse chariot) right on reverse.

ID: since the obverse is worn off, it is impossible to determine exactly the variety of this coin. but the reverse features such as no reins, chariot driver's head has no long "nose" and even the weak obverse and strong clear reverse all point to series Y. The pellet eye of the pony, no ears, characteristic shape of the pony's head, "weird" driver and the leaf and curl rather than the quadrilateral banner all point to class I (roman numeral), most probably its middle group I (letter), but earlier group H or later transitional groups J or even K of class III are also possible (only the shape of the eye and nose on the obverse would have allowed to tell definitely). This is a well-developed middle chronological type, minted somewhere west of the river Rance.

Mythological and symbolic connotations of this design are very complex. The spirals (here present in the god's hair and as the device before the horse) were one of the most important Celtic symbols, with its main meaning related to the Sun and life (e. g. the Sun's "growing" from winter to summer solstice and then dwindling back, growing from child to adult, leaves and vines unfolding etc.) The double spiral meant life and death or death and rebirth, the cycle of seasons, that sort of thing. The triple spiral or triskelion was probably of the biggest mystical significance, connected to the godhead, with meaning like past+present+future = eternity or morning + day + evening = time. It definitely had to do with the change of seasons, flow of time, power over life and death. Thus the god's hear all made out of spirals with three main spiral branches. The charioteer also probably represents a deity, probably the same deity representing light and life, hunting the boar representing darkness and death. The boar symbol (if one looks closely, there is a rising or setting sun symbol -- a pellet within a circle over a line -- between the boar's legs) is connected to the darkness because boars are dark and their tusks look like crescent moons. They are also parts of many myths, e. g. Greek darkish stories of the Calydonian Boar hunted by Meleager and his many hero comrades or the Erymanthian boar killed by Heracles as his fourth (by some counts) labor: Celts shared the Greek mythological tradition, but probably imbued it with many of their own mythological connotations. God hunting the boar probably symbolizes the same as the spirals in the obverse: changing of seasons, passing of time, life and rebirth etc.

Coriosolites were a Gallic tribe. In the 1st century BC they were living in the so called "Armorica" (ar mor = by the sea) -- a region of modern Brittany around the river Rance roughly to the south of Jersey. They probably migrated there from Rhineland, running away from the Germanic expansion, since they share some cultural features with the Celtic tribes of the Rhine. This tribe on its own was hardly of much significance compared to the other neighboring Gallic tribes (Unelli, Osismii, Veneti, Redones, Abrincatui etc.), but their coin making is among the best studied of all the Celts because several huge hoards of their coins were discovered in Brittany and Jersey, and studied in detail. When Romans led by Julius Caesar came to conquer Gaul, Coriosolites were actively resisting, first on their own, then as a part of the local tribal union and, finally, contributed to Vercingetorix's war effort. The minting of these coins and hoarding them was probably related to these war activities and subsequent defeat, so since series Y is in the middle of the chronology, it can probably be dated around the middle of the Gallic wars (58 - 50 BC), but since the main event in Armorica, the stand off with Viridovix, happened in 57-56 BC, that's probably the best guess.

In addition to Caesar himself, two other Roman generals who fought Coriosolites should be mentioned: Publius Licinius Crassus (86|82? - 53 BC), a son of Marcus Licinius Crassus, Caesar's co-triumvir, who led the initial assault on Armorica, and Quintus Titurius Sabinus, who defeated the union of three Gallic tribes (Unelli, Curiosolitae, and Lexovii) under the chieftain Viridovix in 56 BC. Ironically to our discussion, when Crassus went back to Rome, his first office there was a monetalis, i. e. a Republican official with authority to issue coins.

A lot more about this type of coins can be learned here:
http://www.writer2001.com/exp0002.htm
Yurii P
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Countermark Bee on Antiochos II 13 viewsCountermark Bee (Ephesos ?)
on worn
Seleukid Kingdom, Antiochos II Theos
261-246 B.C.
Obv.: Head of Apollo right, hair falling in curls
Rev.: [B]A[ΣIΛ]E[ΩΣ] ANTIOX[OΥ], tripod
AE, 14.4mm, 3g
shanxi
204.jpg
Countermark of Aurelius and Verus (?)157 viewsUncertain mint, possibly PHOENICIA. Ptolemais (Akko)? Uncertain emperor, possibly Trajan. Ć 22. A.D. 98-117 (?). Obv: Inscription illegible. (Laureate head right?).Rev: Inscription illegible. (Tyche seated right?); countermark. Weight: 9.39 g. CM: Two facing bearded busts (Aurelius and Verus?), in rectangular punch, 6 x 4.5 mm. Howgego 50 ? (2 pcs). Note: Howgego 50 is the only countermark resembling this one, although the identification is uncertain. The speciment illustratd by Howgego, is also heavily worn, though. Collection Automan.Automan
794IB203.jpg
Cr 167/1 AR Denarius Anonymous8 viewsRome, c. 179-170 bce 3.82 gm
o: Head of Roma, rt, X behind, dotted border.
r: Dioscuri riding right, ROMA in linear border below.
This type is among the many anonymous Roma/Dioscuri denari, and I believe the Crawford attribution is correct.
Brinkman and Debernardini, in their excellent online guide, call this the "beaky" nose style, also emphasizing the full bar on the "A", the short rear legs on the horses (I would say only the foreground horse), the ROMA frame on top and right, and the main rider's cape. (The cape on this specimen is somewhat more worn than their illustrations.)
PMah
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Cr 201/2 Ć As C. Scribonius 6 viewscirca 154 b.c.e. 30 mm, 21.38 gm.
o: Laureate head of Janus; above, mark of value "I"
r: Prow r.; above, C·SCR and before, mark of value. Below, ROMA.
Scribonia 2
Although quite worn, the centering of the reverse is quite good, as sometimes it is difficult to determine the initial of the moneyer's praenomen.
PMah
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Cr 383/1 AR Denarius Ti. Claudius Ti. f. Ap. n. Nero7 views Rome, 79 BCE
o: Draped bust of Diana right, bow and quiver on shoulder; before chin, SC
r: Victory in prancing biga right, holding palm-branch and reins in left hand and wreath in right; below horses, A. XXII. In exergue, TI. CLAVD. TI. F/AP. N. [ligate AV]
3.95 gms 19.00 mm
This series uses one-die control numerals, slightly fewer with the "A" prefix as in this example than without the prefix. Although this example has a rather worn obverse, the reverse is somewhat sharper, with crisp leaves on the palm frond, and is well-centered for the type.

The "S.C." tells us that this issue is perhaps a supplemental issue, although the specific reason is not immediately apparent. Ti. Claudius Ti. f. Ap. n. Nero was likely the great-grandfather of Emperor Claudius, grandfather of Emperor Tiberius, and so up the chain of Claudii, and may have been the fellow who opposed Cicero's immediate execution of the Catalinarian conspirators on the somewhat reasonable grounds that perhaps the facts should be uncovered first. My un-posted gallery of my Julio-Claudian collection will eventually include some coins associated with these ancestors as well.
PMah
Aemilia_8_Dealer_.jpg
Cr 422/1b - Aemilia 850 viewsROMAN REPUBLIC
AR Denarius, 58 BC (3.9g)
Moneyers: M Aemilius Scarus & Pub Plautius Hypsaeus

M SCAVR AED CVR EX S C, Nabatean king Aretas kneeling before camel, REX ARETAS beneath camel / P HVPSAEVS AED CVR CAPTV C HVPSAE COS PREIVER, Jupiter in quadriga right; scorpion to left.

Cr422/1b, Syd 913, Aemilia 8 VF, worn dies

Ex Imperial Coins
RR0005
3 commentsSosius
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Crawford 20/1 - Hercules and Wolf and Twins22 viewsDenomination: Didrachm
Era: c. 269-266 BC
Metal: AR
Obverse: Head of Hercules R. Club and lionskin over shoulder. Border of dots.
Reverse: She-2olf r., suckling twins. ROMANO in exergue.
Weight: 7.21 gm
Reference: Crawford 20/1
Provenance: CNG shop, 09-MAR-2009

Comments: Obverse fully centered and complete. Reverse struck from a somewhat worn die, and slightly off-center obscuring the “O” in ROMONO. GVF/VF.
3 commentsSteve B5
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Didia Clara, daughter of Didius Julianus, Augusta, 193 CE.304 viewsĆ sestertius (30.5 mm, 21.24 gm), Rome mint, struck April-June, 193 CE.
Obv: DIDIA CLARA AVG, Draped bust right, hair in bun behind.
Rev: HILAR TEMPOR SC (Legend worn). Hilaritas standing, head left, holding palm branch and cornucopia. RIC 20; BMC 38; Cohen 4; Sear 6087.
2 commentsEmpressCollector
224.jpg
Dioscuri stg. facing, hld. spears136 viewsUncertain mint. Uncertain emperor. Ć 25. 2nd century A.D. (?). Obv: Inscription illegible. Faint outline of imperial bust; countermark. Rev: Worn smooth. Weight: 8.93 g. CM: Dioscuri standing facing, holding spears, in rectangular punch 7 x 9 mm. Howgego 250 ? (1 pc!). Note: The only "Dioscuri standing" countermark noted by Howgego is applied to an Ascalon bronze from Septimius Severus, dated A.D. 197. Collection Automan.Automan
Augustus_Provident_SC_2b.jpg
Divus Augustus | Altar & PROVIDENT * AD. Æ As - 27 BC-14 AD126 views
Divus Augustus | Altar & PROVIDENT * AD. Bronze As.

Obv: Radiate head of Divus Augustus, left-facing: DIVVS AVGVSTVS PATER
Rev: Altar-enclosure with double panelled doors, closed; uncertain ornaments at the top, PROVIDENT beneath.

Exergue: None.

Mint: Rome
Struck: 31-37 AD
(Struck under Tiberius)

Size: 29.15 mm.
Weight: 9.71 grm.
Die axis: 180°

Condition: Quite worn but with yet clearly visible images both sides; most obverse legend visible & legible, showing: [DIVV]S AVGVSTVS [P]ATER. Some light red-ish encrustration on the upper-right of the obverse, behind top of portrait.

Refs:*
BN, 132
Cohen, 228
RIC I, 81 (Tiberius)
BMCRE, 146 (Tiberius)

AUGUSTUS: Gaius Octavius Thurinus, later Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus, was born Sept. 23, 63 BC. After defeating his rivals he is given the title 'Augustus' by which he became known thenceforth.
Tiathena
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DN VALENS PF AVG / GLORIA ROMANORVM AE3/4 follis (364-378 A.D.) 19 viewsDN VALEN-S PF AVG, pearl-diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right / GLORIA RO-MANORVM, Emperor walking right, head left, (probably) holding labarum, dragging captive behind him. V(?) in left field, star (or point) over Δ in right field. Mintmark worn off.

AE3/4, 17mm, 1.96g, die axis 12 (medal alignment), material: bronze/copper-based alloy

DN = Dominus Noster = Our Lord, P F AVG = Pius Felix Augustus = the pius (dutiful) and fortunate (happy) emperor. GLORIA ROMANORVM = Glory of the Romans. The labarum (Greek: λάβαρον) was a vexillum (military standard) that displayed the "Chi-Rho" symbol ☧, a christogram formed from the first two Greek letters of the word "Christ" (Greek: ΧΡΙΣΤΟΣ, or Χριστός) — Chi (χ) and Rho (ρ). It was first used by the Roman emperor Constantine the Great.

GLORIA ROMANORVM with the captive was a very popular reverse design for Valens' coins, minted at many mints all over the empire. But star or dot over Δ in right field is characteristic only of one mint, Thessalonica. Examples include various types of RIC IX Thessalonica 26b (star over Δ) and 31 (dot over Δ). These types are dated 367-375 or 375-378 A.D., with some letter in the left field usually indicating later, 375-378 issue. Mintmark for these types is always TES, sometimes with dot before or after.

Flavius Iulius Valens. Born in 328 in Cibalae (in present-day Croatia) into an Illyrian family. His older brother Valentinian was later to become Valenitinian I the Great, another emperor.

His father Gratian (aka the Elder or Gratianus Funarius or Gratianus Major), a Roman soldier of common birth, rose through the ranks to become "protector domesticus" during the reign of Constantine the Great [A member of an elite guard unit/staff member with various important duties . After serving under the emperor for a certain duration, the Domestici would be able to become leaders themselves and potentially command their own regiment of legionnaires in the military], and later tribune and comes. He was forced to retire due to suspicion of embezzlement, but later recalled back to active duty to serve Constans. Again fell into disrespect and lost all estates when Constantius came to deal with Magnentius, because he was suspected to support him, but never lost influence with the army, which helped to promote careers of his sons.

Brothers grew up in various estates in Africa and Britain. While Valentinian had been distinguished in an active military career, Valens, though already 35 years old, had not participated in either the civil or military affairs of the empire previous to his selection as Augustus by his brother. In February 364, reigning Emperor Jovian, while hastening to Constantinople to secure his claim to the throne, died in his sleep during a stop at Dadastana, 100 miles east of Ankara. Valentinian, a tribunus scutariorum, who owed his advancement to the deceased, was elected by the legions to succeed Jovian. He was proclaimed Augustus on 26 February, 364. It was the general opinion that Valentinian needed help to handle the cumbersome administration, civil and military, of the large and unwieldy empire, and, on 28 March of the same year, at the express demand of the soldiers for a second Augustus, he selected his brother Valens as co-emperor in the palace of Hebdomon. Both emperors were briefly ill, delaying them in Constantinople, but as soon as they recovered, the two Augusti travelled together through Adrianople and Naissus to Mediana, where they divided their territories. Valentinian then went on to the West, where the Alemanic wars required his immediate attention.

Valens obtained the eastern half of the Empire Greece, Egypt, Syria and Anatolia as far east as Persia. He was back in his capital of Constantinople by December 364. Valens was utterly undistinguished and possessed no military ability: he betrayed his consciousness of inferiority by his nervous suspicion of plots and savage punishment of alleged traitors, but he was also a conscientious administrator, careful of the interests of the humble. He was an earnest Christian. Like the brothers Constantius II and Constans, Valens and Valentinian I held divergent theological views. Valens was an Arian and Valentinian I upheld the Nicene Creed. Valens was baptized by the Arian bishop of Constantinople before he set out on his first war against the Goths. Not long after Valens died the cause of Arianism in the Roman East was to come to an end. His death was considered a sign from God. His successor Theodosius I would favor the Nicene Creed, and suppress the Arian heresy. Valens, sometimes known as the Last True Roman (his co-emperor brother was dead in 375), was defeated and killed in the Battle of Adrianople against a confederated Gothic army on 9 August 378, which marked the beginning of the collapse of the decaying Western Roman Empire.
Yurii P
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Domitian as Caesar RIC II V095734 viewsDomitian as Caesar AR Denarius. Rome Mint 77-78 A.D. (3.08g, 17.9m, 6h). CɅESɅR ɅVG F DOMITIɅNVS, laureate head right. Rev: COS V in exergue, horseman galloping r. r. hand raised behind. RIC II V957, BMC V234, RSC 49.

The rider is unidentified on this reverse. Theories range from some type of commemorative, to Domitian himself, and Mars calling Rome to battle in the East where Domitian desired a command around this time. This example is worn, but has full legends and decent reverse details.
Lucas H
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Domitian as Caesar RIC II V096142 viewsDomitian as Caesar 69-81 A.D. AR Denarius. Rome Mint. 77-78 A.D. (3.43g 18.6mm 6h). Obv: CAESAR AVG F DOMITIANVS, laureate head right. Rev: COS V high across field; Wolf and twins, in exergue, boat. RIC II V 961, BMC V240, RSC 51.

A common coin of Domitian as Caesar, I’ve been looking for an example for my collection for some time. This one fit the bill balancing price and condition. While worn, all the major devices and legends are there. This was a new reverse type during this time, and most of the Flavian reverses during this period were antiquarian in style if not direct copies of older coins.
4 commentsLucas H
Domitian_as_Caesar_RIC_II_T266.jpg
Domitian as Caesar under Titus RIC II T026641 viewsDomitian as Caesar. 69-81 A.D. AR Denarius. Rome Mint 80-81 A.D. (3.23g, 18.5mm, 6h). Obv: CAESAR DIVI F DOMITANVS COS VII, laureate head right. Rev: PRINCEPS IVVENTVTIS, Altar, garlanded and lighted. RIC II T266, BMC T92, RSC 397a.

A unique pulvinaria reverse type for Domitian at the time used both as Caesar and emperor. The addition of “DIVI F” on Domitian’s coins in 80 A.D. help scholars determine that Vespasian’s deification had taken place by 80 A.D., although it arguably took place before in 79 A.D..

While worn, the legends on this example are complete.
1 commentsLucas H
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Domitian RIC 0382 viewsAR Denarius, 3.13g
Rome mint, 81 AD
Obv: IMP CAESAR DOMITIANVS AVG; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: TR P COS VII; Seat, draped; above, triangular frame decorated with corn ears
RIC 3 (R). BMC 2. RSC 554a. BNC 2.
Acquired from Museum Surplus, July 2013.

Here we have a rather worn denarius of Domitian which may at first glance appear unremarkable, however, to me it is anything but that. Minted within the first few days of Domitian's reign, the reverse type is a carry-over from Titus' 'pulvinar' series. The mint had yet to develop unique or new reverse types for Domitian. Here we see a triangular frame above a chair, which is its only appearance in Domitian's 'pulvinar' series making this a rather rare coin. The early dating of the type can be confirmed by the spartan-like reverse titles that show Domitian simply as Tribunica Potestat for the first time and Consul for the seventh. Domitian was notorious for his adherence to the correct form of his titles, as clearly evident here. He would not advertise any titles that had yet to be bestowed. The absence of PM or P P is glaringly apparent.

A nice little coin that provides a neat glimpse into the workings of a mint and the mind of a new emperor.
3 commentsDavid Atherton
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Domitian RIC II 007021 viewsDomitian 81-96 A.D. AR Denarius. Rome Mint, Sept. 13-Dec. 31, 81 A.D. (2.87g, 18.3m, 6h). Obv: IMP CAES DOMITIANVS AVG PM, laureate head right. Rev: TR P COS VII DES VIII P P, seat, draped; above, winged thunderbolt. RIC II 70.

Produced in the first months of Domitian’s reign, this denarius carries over a pulvinaria reverse type previously produced under Titus. Although worn, this coin has a full flan and full a legend. The legend also maintains the anti-clockwise, outward from lower right orientation on the obverse at this point during Domitian’s reign.
Lucas H
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Domitian RIC II 009530 viewsDomitian. 81-96 A.D. AR Denarius. Rome Mint 82 A.D. (3.12g, 18.2mm, 6h). Obv: IMP CAES DOMITIANVS, laureate head right. Rev: TR POT COS VIII PP, curule chair; above wreath. RIC II 95.

This was a part of Domitian’s first issue of 82 A.D. before the coinage was reformed. This issue used the same eight main reverse types as his denarii of 81 A.D. including this pulvinaria type. While worn, this example is well centered and has full legends.
3 commentsLucas H
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Domitian RIC II 059013 viewsDomitian 81-96 A.D. AR Quinarius Rome Mint 88, 1 Jan.-13 Sept A.D. (1.48g, 15.5mm, 6h). Obv: IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM PM TRP VII, laureate head right. Rev: IMP XIIII COS XIIII CENS PPP, Victory standing left with wreath and palm. RIC 590.

Despite the fact the updated RIC lists this, as other, quinarii as common, I see very few in trade. This one is not overly worn, is well centered, but has wonderful toning. I’m amazed at the length of legend the engravers were able to get on such a small coin.
Lucas H
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Domitian RIC II 059626 viewsDomitian. 81-96 A.D. AR Denarius. Rome Mint. 14 Sept.-31 Dec. 88A.D. (2.97g, 19.2m, 6h). Obv: IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM PM TRP VIII, laureate head right. Rev: COS XIIII LVD SAEC FEC, herald advancing left with wand and shield decorated with Minerva. RIC II 596, RSC 76. Ex Forum.

Another of Domitian’s series commemorating the Secular Games held in 88 A.D. The Games were previously celebrated by Augustus and Claudius. The Minerva is clear on the Herald’s shield in this example while many are not clearly struck or are worn off.
Lucas H
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Domitian RIC II 076122 viewsDomitian. 81-96 A.D. Rome Mint 93, 14 Sept.-94, 13 Sept. (3.40g, 19mm, 6h). Obv: IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM PM TR P XIII, laureate head right. Rev: IMP XXII COS XVI CENS PPP, Minerva advancing right with spear and shield (M1). RIC II 761, BMC 214, RSC 283b.

This is a common denarius of Domitian’s reign in acceptable condition with complete legends if a bit worn. The lettering behind Domitian’s head is remarkably sharp and was probably saved from some wear by the head itself.
1 commentsLucas H
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Domitian RIC II 077128 viewsDomitian 81-96 A.D. AR Denarius. Rome Mint (3.21g, 18.1mm, 6h). Obv: IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM P M TR P XIIII, laureate head right. Rev: IMP XXII COS XVII CNES P P P, Minerva standing right on capital of rostral column, with spear and shield; to right owl. (M2). RIC II 771.

During 95 A.D, Domitian’s coinage continued with the same well established pattern of Minerva types. Although worn, the agies is clear on Minerva’s back in this example. The legends are also complete on this example despite its wear.
Lucas H
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Domitian RIC II 078730 viewsDomitian. 81-96 A.D. AR Denarius. Rome Mint. 95, 14 Sept.- 96 13 Sept. A.D. (3.33g, 19.3mm, 6h). Obv: IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM PM TR P XV, laureate head right. Rev: IMP XXII COS XVII CENS PPP, Minerva advancing right with spear and shield (M1). RIC II 787.

This is a common Minerva type from the end of Domitian’s reign. While well worn, the coin is well centered and retains complete legends. This is a part of the last great issue of Domitian’s silver before his assassination on September 18, 96 A.D.
2 commentsLucas H
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Domitian RIC II 084748 viewsDomitia. AR Cistophoric Tetradrachm. Rome Mint for Asia. 82 A.D. (10.66g, 26.6m, 6h). Obv: DOMITIA AVGVSTA, bust of Domitia, draped, right, hair massed in front and long plait behind, [pellet under bust.] Rev: VENVS AVG, Venus stg. r. leaning on column, with helmet and spear. RIC II 847.

My first example of an Empress during the era of the 12 Caesars. Cistophoric tetradrachms were valued at 3 denarii, and during the Flavian era, were likely minted in Rome for distribution in the East. Worn, and slightly off center, I still enjoy the denomination.
3 commentsLucas H
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Domitian RIC II, 249181 viewsDomitian 81 - 96
AE - As, 11.14g, 27mm
Rome 84
obv. IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM COS X
bust with Aegis, laureate, r. (corr.!)
rev. Victory advancing r., holding eagle-standart across l. shoulder,
between S - C
RIC II, 249; C.463
good VF

AEGIS, a small cloak or shawl worn by Zeus or his daughter Athena. In Roman coinage it appears as a symbol for Minerva. Usually it displays a gorgon's head in the centre. Domitian claimed Minerva as his patron.
4 commentsJochen
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Domitian RIC-10253 viewsAR Denarius, 2.81g
Rome mint, 82 AD
Obv: IMP CAES DOMITIANVS AVG P M; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: TR POT COS VIII P P; Tripod with fillets; above, dolphin
RIC 102 (C2). BMC 30. RSC 594 corr. BNC 33.
Acquired from Aegean Numismatics, July 2011.

A reverse type that is part of the last issue of denarii Domitian minted in early 82 AD before the coinage reform which improved the quality and fineness of the coinage. RSC incorrectly places ravens on tripod. For Domitian the ravens are found only on RIC 5.


Better in hand than the photo suggests. A worn but respectable denarius.
1 commentsDavid Atherton
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Domitian RIC-39742 viewsĆ Sestertius, 26.19g
Rome mint, 85 AD
Obv: IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM XI CENS PER P P; Head of Domitian, laureate, r., with aegis
Rev: GERMANIA CAPTA; S C in exergue; Trophy; to r., German captive stg. r., hands bound, head l.; to l., Germania std. l.; around arms
RIC 397 (R2). BMC 361. BNC -.
Acquired from Incitatus Coins, August 2019.

In 85 Domitian struck a fairly impressive issue of sestertii, M. Grant hyperbolically called it the most 'ambitious' of any one reign or year. The series is the first major aes issue of Domitian's reign and is dominated by panoramic types commemorating his military victory over the Germanic tribe the Chatti. The details of the war are unclear, but the overall impression is that the conflict was a minor affair blown out of proportion by an emperor eager for military glory. Consequently, Domitian's Germanic triumph of 83 received a certain amount of ridicule from ancient writers who thought the whole thing was a sham (Dio goes so far as to say Domitian raided the palace's furniture stores for his fake spoils!), no doubt the numismatic propaganda for the victory was likely viewed in the same manner by contemporary senatorial elites. Germania Capta types were first struck in silver in 84 and in bronze in 85. This iconic Germania Capta sestertius strongly echoes Vespasian's Judaea Capta types - but instead of a trophy we see a palm tree and a bound captive replaces the triumphal emperor. H. Mattingly writes in BMCRE 'the type is closely modelled on the Judaea Capta of Vespasian, but the German element is indicated by the heavy angular cloak worn by the man and by the oblong shields.' Comparing the two triumphs, the Josephian scholar Steve Mason remarked - 'The same people who produced Flavian Triumph I: Judaea were on hand for Flavian Triumph II: Germania, and sequels are rarely as good as the originals.'

The Germania Capta sestertii were produced for only a few short years between 85-88. The present example from the third issue of 85 is a rare variant with an obverse legend struck just after Domitian had become censor for life (CENS PER).
3 commentsDavid Atherton
D577b.jpg
Domitian RIC-57783 viewsAR Denarius, 2.73g
Rome mint, 88 AD
Obv: IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERMAN P M TR P VII; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: IMP XIIII COS XIIII CENS P P P; Minerva stg. r. on capital of rostral column, with spear and shield; to r., owl (M2)
RIC 577 (R2). BMC -. RSC -. BNC -.
Ex Private Collection.

At first glance this Domitian Minerva denarius is nothing special, however, upon closer inspection one can see the obverse legend has the rare GERMAN spelling instead of the very common GERM. RIC cites only two specimens - one in Belgrade, another in a private collection. This is a very common issue from 88, but unusually it is peppered with scarce variants, such as this rare obverse legend. Other rarities include busts with aegis and a unique 5 aurei piece (subsequently stolen from Paris). Perhaps it's a special issue struck in conjunction with the Secular Games which were held in 88.

Worn, but with a fine style portrait.
3 commentsDavid Atherton
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Domitian RIC-597117 viewsAR Denarius, 2.60g
Rome mint, 88 AD
Obv: IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM P M TR P VIII; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, l.
Rev: COS XIIII LVD SAEC FEC; Herald adv. l., with wand and shield
RIC 597 (R2). BMC 133 var. RSC - (cf. 77a). BNC -.
Acquired from Michael Trenerry, August 2017.

An extremely rare example of the Secular Games herald denarius with portrait head left. Probably the fifth recorded specimen. Obverse die match with the RIC plate coin.

Somewhat worn, but nicely centred and in fine style.
6 commentsDavid Atherton
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Domitian RIC-75151 viewsĆ Sestertius, 23.75g
Rome mint, 92-94 AD
Obv: IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM COS XVI CENS PER P P; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: IOVI VICTORI; S C in exergue; Jupiter std. l., with Victory and sceptre
RIC 751 (C2). BMC 464. BNC 491.
Acquired from eBay, May 2019. Ex Degani Coin Shop.

Just like the silver and gold, Domitian's aes coinage in the mid 80s settled down to a few predicable reverse types that were annually struck throughout the reign. The Sestertii were dominated by Victory crowning the emperor and the seated Jupiter with Victory, as seen on this coin. 'Jupiter the giver of Victory' was an important propaganda type because of the periodic conflicts on the Northern frontier that flared up form time to time. Domitian did not renew the consulship until 95, so these COS XVI sestertii are imprecisely dated between 92-94, which accounts for their extreme commonness.

A well worn example with a good portrait and fine olive green patina.
3 commentsDavid Atherton
D762asm.jpg
Domitian RIC-76233 viewsAR Denarius, 3.33g
Rome mint, 93-94 AD
Obv: IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM P M TR P XIII; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: IMP XXII COS XVI CENS P P P; Minverva stg. r. on capital of rostral column, with spear and shield; to r., owl (M2)
RIC 762 (C3). BMC 216. RSC 284. BNC 192.

A fairly large issue struck in the aftermath of the Second Pannonian War. Domitian celebrated only an ovatio upon his return and not a full triumph, perhaps due to unsatisfactory results.

Worn, but in decent style with a minor obverse flan flaw at 12h.
David Atherton
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Domitian RIC-81672 viewsAR Denarius, 2.73g
Rome mint, 95-96 AD
Obv: DOMITIANVS AVG GERM; Head of Domitian, bare, bearded, r.
Rev: Temple, eight columns, seated figure in centre; IMP CAESAR on architrave
RIC 816 (R2). BMC 243. RSC 175. BNC -.
Ex Private Collection.

Domitian struck a rare undated issue of denarii depicting five different temples. Based on portrait style and the fact that Domitian's moneyers were experimenting with new reverse designs after 94, the issue has been dated to either 95 or 96. Four of the five temples have been identified - Serapis, Cybele, Minerva, and Capitoline Jupiter. The fifth type is an octastyle temple, as seen on the coin above, and its identification remains a mystery. Mattingly conjectured it could be the Temple of Divus Vespasian, P.V. Hill and D. Vagi thought it possibly the Temple of Jupiter Victor, R.H. Darwell-Smith speculated it is the Temple of Jupiter Custos, and M. Tameanko believed it to be the Temple of Divus Augustus. Tameanko makes the strongest case. Earlier renditions of the temple on the coinage under Caligula show it with a hexastyle facade. Domitian restored or rebuilt the temple after the fire of 80. His architect Rabirius may have completely overhauled the building in a more contemporary style producing an octastyle temple. Almost a hundred years later Antoninus Pius restored the temple again and struck a series of coins commemorating the event. His coins indeed depict an octastyle temple very much like the one seen on this denarius and may be proof that under Domitian the temple was rebuilt as an octastyle structure. However, until more evidence comes to light, the identification remains uncertain. Like Domitian's earlier Saecular Games series, the temple denarii were likely struck as a special issue, perhaps reflecting Domitian's new interest as builder. The remarkable bare headed portrait further enhances the issue as something special.

Needless to say it is a fantastically rare piece! Additionally, the eight column type may be the scarcest of the temple group, considering I have located only two other examples in trade over the last 15 years. The other two coins (OldRomanCoins 2002, HJB 145, lot 265) are obverse die matches with mine. Oddly, some specimens (BM 234 for example) lack IMP CAESAR on the architrave.

Worn, with some bumps and scrapes, but well-centred and in good style with plenty of eye appeal.
4 commentsDavid Atherton
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DYNASTS OF LYCIA. Perikles (Circa 380-360 BC)17 viewsTetrobol. Uncertain mint, possibly Limyra.

18 mm, 2.80 g

Obv: Facing scalp of lion.
Rev: 𐊓𐊁𐊕-𐊆𐊋-𐊍𐊁 ("Perikle" in Lycian), Triskeles ("three legs" in Greek) within incuse circle.

Müseler VIII.47-51; SNG von Aulock 4254-5.

Lycia initially fought for the Persians in the Persian Wars, but on the defeat of the Achaemenid Empire by the Greeks, it became intermittently a free agent. After a brief membership in the Athenian Empire, it seceded and became independent (its treaty with Athens had omitted the usual non-secession clause), was under the Persians again, revolted again (the Revolt of the Satraps), was conquered by Mausolus of Caria, returned to the Persians, and went under Macedonian hegemony at the defeat of the Persians by Alexander the Great.

Pericles, who ruled from 380 BC to about 360 BC, was ruler during the Revolt of the Satraps. The Satraps’ revolt was a rebellion in the Achaemenid Empire of several satraps against the authority of the Great King Artaxerxes II Mnemon. During the Revolt of the Satraps, Pericles declared himself king of Lycia and drove out the Xanthian ruler Arttum̃para. Pericles is regarded as the last king of Lycia. After the revolt failed, the land once again reverted to the empire.

Struck during the reign of Pericles (Perikle), c. 380-361/2 BC, this issue may be connected to Perikles' conquests in Lycia and Caria and/or the satrapal revolt of 362/1. It was, however, struck in great haste and with little quality control: the vast majority of the surviving examples were struck from worn or broken dies and are often poorly centered on small flans.
Nathan P
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DYNASTS of LYCIA. Uvug12 views
DYNASTS of LYCIA. Uvug. Circa 470-440 BC. AR Tetrobol (15mm, 2.72 g, 1h). Forepart of winged man-headed bull right / Laureate male head right within dotted square border; all within incuse square. Falghera II 90-3; SNG von Aulock 4119; SNG Copenhagen Supp. 4301. VF, toned, some light porosity, struck from a worn obverse die.
ecoli
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EB0877 Constantine I / Jupiter6 viewsConstantine I 307-337, AE Follis, Cyzicus mint 311-313.
Obverse: [F]L VAL CONSTANTINVS PF AVG, laureate head right.
Reverse: IOVI CONSER-VATORI AVGG, Jupiter standing left, chlamys hanging from left shoulder, holding globe marked with lines of latitude and longitude, and leaning on sceptre, eagle with wreath left, Mintmark MKVA.
References: RIC VI 80.
Diameter: 25.5mm, Weight: 6.555g.
Note the missing F in the obverse legend. Dirty, worn die or engraver's error?
EB
Gordien III Edesse.jpg
Edessa (Sanliurfa, Turkey) - Gordian III and Abgar X21 viewsThis coin is very worn, sorry.
[AVTOK. K. M. ANT. ΓOP]ΔIANOC [CEB.] , laureate, draped and cuirassed bust of Gordian III right.
[AVTOK. ΓOPΔIANOC ABΓAPOC BACIΛEVC] , Gordian III seated right on chair set on platform facing Abgar X standing left and holding small nike.
Bronze, 31 mm.

Abgar X was king of Osrhoene and a close ally of the Romans when Gordian III led a military expedition against the Sassanid Persians in AD 242. With such a coin, minted in Edessa, the city of Abgar, we see the hierarchy of powers, who is enthroned, and who is standing in front of him waiting for orders. In fact, this coin reflects the feudal system in the Middle East at the time, and is closely paralleled by Parthian reliefs showing the King of Kings enthroned and a vassal king standing in front of him.

Bought in Amman (Jordan) just behind the Roman theatre.
Ginolerhino
alexandria_trajan_Köln636~0.jpg
Egypt, Alexandria, Trajan, Geissen 63647 viewsTrajan, AD 98-117
AE - drachm, 33.58mm, 21.83g
Alexandria, AD 113/114 (year 17?)
obv. [AVT TRAIAN CEB GERM]
bust, draped and wreathed with corn-ears(?), r.
rev. Dionysos in long garment and holding thyrsos in r. hand, std. l. in biga with two panthers l; the panther in front with raised l. foot and looking r.
in field LIZ(?) (year 17)
rwef. Geissen 636
F/F+, worn obv. but rev. with nice coloured patina

The correct attribution depends on the date in the field of the rev. which can't be identified for sure.
1 commentsJochen
Egypt,_Sabakes_Tetradrachm.jpg
Egypt, Memphis or Aswan (?), Satrap Sabakes, 335-333 BC, AR Tetradrachm37 viewsHead of Athena right with punch mark X on cheek.
Owl standing right, head facing, crescent and olive spray to left, crescent above a stylized thunderbolt (Sabakes symbol) and Aramaic legend SWYN (Aswan) to right, punch mark X on owl.

Nicolet-Pierre 6, D4/R-; SNG Copenhagen 3; Van Alfen Type I, O4/R-; Mitchiner 10a; Sear GCV 6232. Van Alfen (AJN 14 2002) countermark 3 on obv. & rev.

(24 mm, 16.91 g, 9h).
From LWHT Col.; HJB 166, 15 October 2009, 176.

Sabakes, to whom the issue of this coin type is attributed, was the penultimate Persian Satrap of Egypt. In 333 BC he led a contingent from Egypt to join the Persian army facing Alexander the Great at Issos, where he perished in battle. It is likely that this coin was struck under his governorship, perhaps for use as payment in preparations for the expeditionary force in support of Darius III. Counter marks are commonly present on these coins and most of the surviving examples are worn, indicating an extended period of circulation. This is consistent with the fact that the next coinage to be struck in Egypt was almost a decade later, shortly after the death of Alexander the Great.
2 commentsn.igma
berptolOR.jpg
Egypt, Ptolemy III (Berenike), Svoronos 105637 viewsSvoronos 1056, Ptolemy III. Depicting Berenike (wife of Ptolemy III) and an open-wing eagle on the reverse. It should have an inscription on the obverse, a little unusual for Ptolemaic coins, possibly too worn or corroded to see clearly on this one. These are thought to be issues of a short-lived mint in Northern Syria, possibly during the 3rd Syrian war of ca. 246-241BC early in the reign of Ptolemy III (partly a mission to rescue his doomed sister who married into the Seleukid royal family). There is a 'family' of about 10 bronze types which depict Berenike, different sizes variations. This type would have some letters to the left of the eagle, off the flan on this specimen. (Info from PtolemAE)casata137ec
Elis,_Olympia,_AR_Drachm_.jpg
Elis, Olympia, 134th-143rd Olympiad, 244-208 BC, AR Drachm 30 viewsEagle flying right, with both wings above its body, grasping hare with talons and tearing at it with beak.
F-A either side of thunderbolt with wings below and volutes above.

Schwabacher NumChron 1939 Group III; BCD Olympia 243 (same dies); HGC 5, 509 (S); Seltman pl. VIII/34. Struck from a worn and rusty obverse die.

(18 mm, 4.73 g, 12h).
Freeman & Sear.
1 commentsn.igma
043n~0.jpg
Empress, AVKTP(?) and ΠPY165 viewsBITHYNIA. Prusias (?). Domitian (?). Ć 26. A.D. 81-96 (?). Obv: Laureate (?) bust right; 2 countermarks, (1) on shoulder, (2) before face. Rev: Countermark (3). Poor/worn smooth, brown patina with very minor traces of green encrustation. Weight: 9.05 g. Note: All coins noted by Howgego with these countermarks are from Domitian and are attributed to Prusias or Bithynia in Genere (which, in turn, may have been from Prusias also. CM(1): Head of empress, in oval punch, 7 x 8 mm. Howgego 217 (1 pcs). CM(2): Monogram of AVKTP (?), in rectangular punch, 6 x 4 mm. Howgego 608 (8 pcs). CM(3): Monogram of ΠPY, in rectangular punch, 8 x 5 mm. Howgego 630 (3 pcs). Note: Since all coins countermarked with (1) are countermarked also with (2) and (3), while all coins countermarked with (2) are also countermarked with (3), the order of application (3)-(2)-(1) may be implied (also consistent with (1) being a portrait of Faustina Jr. and (2) referring to Trajan). Collection Automan.Automan
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ENGLAND - CHARLES II47 viewsENGLAND - CHARLES II - (1660-1685) AR Half-Crown, 1676. Although worn, it is a scarcer variety, with retrograde "1" in the date. KM#438.1.dpaul7
Histiaia_Nymph_Hemiobol_1b.jpg
Euboia, Histiaia. 3rd Century BC. AR Tetrobol - II121 views
Euboia, Histiaia, 275-225 BC.
Silver Tetrobol

Obv: Ivy-wreathed head of the nymph Histiaia, here showing a rather softer and more-pleasant expression, hair stylishly-rolled; right facing.
Rev: Nymph Histiaia seated upon the prow of a Greek Galley, holding a Naval Standard; right facing. ΙΣΤΙ below, [A?]ΙΕΩΝ, above.
Reverse legend * ( ΙΣΤΙΑΙΕΩΝ )

Appearance: Beautiful, bright silver semi-gloss with good reflectivity. Obverse is age-worn but pleasant and nicely struck; image on the reverse is in exceptionally fine condition and style.

Weight: ca. 1.85 grams
Die axis: 0°

Similar to, SGC 2496
S2498 var.
SNG Copenhagen 517ff.

2 commentsTiathena
otho1B.jpg
Fake RIC 22a203 viewsHere we have a series of late Otho obverses. The one on the left (RIC 10) and in the middle (RIC 22) are authentic coins minted with the same obverse die. The one on the right is a cast copy (RIC 22) based on the same die (but not either of these coins!!). The forger has overdone the job in making the coin look better. Clearly the original one had worn hair and the added detail is not well executed. The neck has been slightly modified as well, but all in all this would fool the majority of buyers. The reverse has fatal flaws revealing the casting - please have a look at the accompanying detailed image.jmuona
otho10b.jpg
Fake RIC 22a232 viewsA detail of the reverse of a genuine RIC 22 Otho on horsback denarius (left) and a modern cast made from a coin minted with same dies (right). Note the sharp detail in recessed parts of the real coin - pellets behind the horse's neck etc - all absent or mushy in the cast coin, althoug it appears to be less "worn". Also note that the forger has re-cut the emperor´s leg, the original having been in a different angle clearly still visible in the more worn authentic coin.
An extra bonus: both the original and the host of the fake (copied to the cast) show a shadow-line of Otho's forehead below the front leg as they were minted with a clashed die.
3 commentsjmuona
fakerepB.JPG
Fake RIC 840 viewsThese are often called "Museum replicas" and similar things are sold at museums. A copy of a real coin, cast in wrong metal and stamprd with "R" for replica. Without the "R" and the surface manipulated this can be very convincing as a heavily worn, affordable Otho.jmuona
Faustina_II_Mou_4733.JPG
Faustina II, Mou 473319 viewsFAVCTEINA CEBACTH
PΛΩTEINOΠOΛEITΩN
AE 22, Plotinopolis, 5.13g
Draped bust right
Homonoia standing left holding patera and cornucopia
Very worn example
novacystis
FH-G-043_(0s).jpg
FH-G-04313 viewsSyria, Antioch ad Orntem; 100-0 BC; bronze AE19 (dichalkon)

- Laureate head of Zeus right, round dot border.

- ΑΝΤΙΟΧEΩΝ / ΜΗΤΡΟΠΟΛΕΩΣ / ΑΥΤΟΝΟΜΟΥ
- ANTIOCEWN / MHTROPOLEWS / AUTONOMOU
– Zeus, naked to waist, seated left, holding Nike in right hand and vertical sceptre in left, all within wreath.

8.10gm / 19.56mm / Axis: 0

References:
HGCS 1372

Notes: Dec 13, 15 - There are many different types of this coin and identification is difficult with a significantly worn coin, though I believe the legend, and reverse wreath match up with the referenced coin. Compare to coins listed here: http://wildwinds.com/coins/greece/syria/antioch/t.html
Jonathan P
FH-G-045_(0s).jpg
FH-G-04510 viewsArados, Phoenicia; 140-139 BC; bronze AE16 (Hemi-Chalkous)

- Bearded head of Poseidon right.

- Ram of galley left. Phoenician script 'n above, date year 120 below.

3.70gm / 16.71mm / Axis: 0

References:
Rouvier 186

Notes: Dec 13, 15 - The reverse legend of this coin is very worn, but when comparing the bust and what can be read, I believe this coin to be a close match to the one listed here: http://www.wildwinds.com/coins/greece/phoenicia/arados/t.html submitted to WW by Forvm member Jaimelai.
Jonathan P
FH-G-047_(0s).jpg
FH-G-04712 views
Syria, Seleukid Kingdom; Antiochus III; 198 BC; bronze AE18

- Head of Athena in crested helmet right.

- BAΣIΛEΩΣ / ANTIOXOY
- BASILEWS / ANTIOXOY
- Winged Nike standing right holding wreath and palm, Reversed anchor countermark in inner left field.

8.70gm / 17.96mm / Axis:0

References:
Hoover Seleucid Coins 1095.2
SNG Spaer 245-247

Notes: Dec 20, 15 - Obverse and reverse are worn, but major details are fine. Struck on a tight flan, slightly less weight than other examples I found. This coin contains the reverse anchor countermark that is present on multiple coins within this collection. Compare to coin found here: http://www.forumancientcoins.com/gallery/displayimage.php?album=search&cat=0&pos=16
Jonathan P
othoRIC16.jpg
First_RIC 16119 viewsThis coin, although quite worn, is dear to me. I used to think it was from the Apostolo Zeno collection. A more detailed study has shown that although very similar in strike and wear to the die-match coin in Zeno collection, this is not the same one. The die-combination is common, ie. in Otho terms. 3.04 gr, die-axis 6.1 commentsjmuona
Nîmes_-_Arena_detail.JPG
France, Nemausus - Relief on the Amphitheatre282 viewsThis relief is found above one of the arches of the ancient amphitheatre of Nemausus. It's rather worn, but two gladiators can still be seen. Syltorian
40-41_AD_GAIUS_CALIG.jpg
Gaius/Caligula (Augustus) Coin: Bronze Quadrans 6 viewsC CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG SC - Pileus flanked by S C
PON M TR P IIII P P COS TERT - Legend surrounding RCC large in center of field
Exergue:


Mint: Rome (40-41AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 2.30g / 17mm / 180
Rarity: Common
References:
RIC 1-Gaius 52
Provenances:
London Ancient Coins

The Gary R. Wilson Collection

obverse: C CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG (Gaius Caesar, emperor, great-granson of Divine Augustus)

reverse: PON M TR P IIII P P COS TERT (high priest, holder of tribune power for 4 years, father of the country, consul for the third time)

There were four different issues of quadrans from Caligula:
PON M TR P III P P COS DES III- 39AD
PON M TR P III P P COS TERT-39-40AD
PON M TR P IIII P P COS TERT-40-41AD-This Coin
PON M TR P IIII P P COS QVART-January 1-24, 41AD

ODERINT, DUM METUANT (LET THEM HATE, SO LONG AS THEY FEAR). — CALIGULA

The purpose of the pileus and the (related or not) meaning of the RCC inscription remain in dispute and have led to differing hypotheses since the late 18th century, with most modern observers echoing the original hypotheses of Eckel from 1796, who thought that the RCC inscription referred to Caligula's remission of the 0.5% sales tax (hence remissa ducentesima), with the pileus a reference to restored liberty deriving from return of elections to the popular comitia from the Senate. Eckel thus thought the obverse and reverse commemorated separate distinct acts of the emperor.

David Woods' interpretation of the Caligula quadrans is that the liberty it celebrates is the liberty of all free Roman citizens, with the pileus as a their symbol. He reasons that it was Caligula's crackdown on those illegally claiming citizenship that is the focus of the coin's commemoration. This proper enforcement of the rules of citizenship would theoretically play well among the greater masses of the population who normally encounter the quadrans in everyday exchange.

As for the meaning of the RCC reverse inscription, Woods posits that it could be Res Civium Conservatae (The interests of the citizens has been preserved), or something closely related to this.

From The Dictionary of Roman Coins:
R CC Remissa Ducentesima. - Initial letters inscribed on the reverse of a third brass coin of Caligula, commemorative of a tax having been abolished by that Emperor. - The treasury of the state having been exhausted by the civil wars, Augustus, to assist in replenishing the public revenues, had established an impost of the hundredth denarius on all sales. But this burden in the year AD 17, Tiberius, yielding to the petitions of the people, had reduced on-half, that is to say to one denarius for 200. At length, in the year A.D. 39, the whole tax was taken off by Caligula as the inscription, on this small brass coin, of Remissa CC. plainly tells; and Suetonius confirms the fact in saying ducentesimun auctionum Italia remisit, although he does not specify the time.

And that this act of liberality was permanent is proved by medals struck in subsequent years of Caligula's reign, on which the memory of this benefit is gratefully renewed by the Senate. - The obverse is in scribed C CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG S C (Caius Caesar Augustus, great grandson of the Divine Augustus) and the type is the pileus or cap of liberty, an allusion made to the right of suffrage granted to the people in the year AD 38.

From COINWEEK: Small Change
Perhaps the most enigmatic coin of Caligula’s reign was the smallest regular Roman denomination, the quadrans. It took 64 of these little coppers to equal the value of one silver denarius – a day’s pay for a manual worker. On the obverse, the emperor’s name and titles surround a “liberty cap” – the felt hat worn by freed slaves – bracketed by the letters “SC”. The reverse inscription continues the emperor’s titles, surrounding the large letters “RCC”.

For many years, the consensus of numismatic scholars was that this abbreviation stood for remissa ducentesima, celebrating Caligula’s repeal of an unpopular one-half percent sales tax (“one part in two hundred” – “CC” being the Roman numeral for 200). A brilliant 2010 study by David Woods argues that this interpretation is unlikely, and RCC probably stands for something like res civium conservatae (“the interests of citizens have been preserved”).

The quadrans is probably the most affordable coin of Caligula, with decent examples appearing at auction for under $100.
Gary W2
39_AD_GAIUS_CALIGULA.jpg
Gaius/Caligula (Augustus) Coin: Bronze Quadrans 5 viewsC CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG SC - Pileus flanked by S C
PON M TR P III P P COS DES III - Legend surrounding RCC large in center of field
Exergue:


Mint: Rome (39AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 2.63g / 18mm / 180
Rarity: Scarce
References:
RIC 1-Gaius 39
Provenances:
London Ancient Coins
Acquisition/Sale: London Ancient Coins Ebay

The Gary R. Wilson Collection

here were four different issues of quadrans from Caligula:
PON M TR P III P P COS DES III- 39AD-This Coin
PON M TR P III P P COS TERT-39-40AD
PON M TR P IIII P P COS TERT-40-41AD
PON M TR P IIII P P COS QVART-January 1-24, 41AD

ODERINT, DUM METUANT (LET THEM HATE, SO LONG AS THEY FEAR). — CALIGULA

The purpose of the pileus and the (related or not) meaning of the RCC inscription remain in dispute and have led to differing hypotheses since the late 18th century, with most modern observers echoing the original hypotheses of Eckel from 1796, who thought that the RCC inscription referred to Caligula's remission of the 0.5% sales tax (hence remissa ducentesima), with the pileus a reference to restored liberty deriving from return of elections to the popular comitia from the Senate. Eckel thus thought the obverse and reverse commemorated separate distinct acts of the emperor.

David Woods' interpretation of the Caligula quadrans is that the liberty it celebrates is the liberty of all free Roman citizens, with the pileus as a their symbol. He reasons that it was Caligula's crackdown on those illegally claiming citizenship that is the focus of the coin's commemoration. This proper enforcement of the rules of citizenship would theoretically play well among the greater masses of the population who normally encounter the quadrans in everyday exchange.

As for the meaning of the RCC reverse inscription, Woods posits that it could be Res Civium Conservatae (The interests of the citizens has been preserved), or something closely related to this.

From The Dictionary of Roman Coins:
R CC Remissa Ducentesima. - Initial letters inscribed on the reverse of a third brass coin of Caligula, commemorative of a tax having been abolished by that Emperor. - The treasury of the state having been exhausted by the civil wars, Augustus, to assist in replenishing the public revenues, had established an impost of the hundredth denarius on all sales. But this burden in the year AD 17, Tiberius, yielding to the petitions of the people, had reduced on-half, that is to say to one denarius for 200. At length, in the year A.D. 39, the whole tax was taken off by Caligula as the inscription, on this small brass coin, of Remissa CC. plainly tells; and Suetonius confirms the fact in saying ducentesimun auctionum Italia remisit, although he does not specify the time.

And that this act of liberality was permanent is proved by medals struck in subsequent years of Caligula's reign, on which the memory of this benefit is gratefully renewed by the Senate. - The obverse is in scribed C CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG S C (Caius Caesar Augustus, great grandson of the Divine Augustus) and the type is the pileus or cap of liberty, an allusion made to the right of suffrage granted to the people in the year AD 38.

From COINWEEK: Small Change
Perhaps the most enigmatic coin of Caligula’s reign was the smallest regular Roman denomination, the quadrans. It took 64 of these little coppers to equal the value of one silver denarius – a day’s pay for a manual worker. On the obverse, the emperor’s name and titles surround a “liberty cap” – the felt hat worn by freed slaves – bracketed by the letters “SC”. The reverse inscription continues the emperor’s titles, surrounding the large letters “RCC”.

For many years, the consensus of numismatic scholars was that this abbreviation stood for remissa ducentesima, celebrating Caligula’s repeal of an unpopular one-half percent sales tax (“one part in two hundred” – “CC” being the Roman numeral for 200). A brilliant 2010 study by David Woods argues that this interpretation is unlikely, and RCC probably stands for something like res civium conservatae (“the interests of citizens have been preserved”).

The quadrans is probably the most affordable coin of Caligula, with decent examples appearing at auction for under $100.
Gary W2
galval867.jpg
Galeria Valeria, Venus67 viewsGAL VALE-RIA AVG

VENERI V-ICT RICI

:dot: SM :dot: TS :dot:
:star: /left field, B in right ( I think just worn down)

Thessalonica
2 commentsarizonarobin
85001190.jpg
Galerius Argenteus38 viewsGalerius. As Caesar, AD 293-305. AR Argenteus (19mm, 3.10 g, 12h). Ticinum mint. Struck circa AD 294. Laureate head right; outer wreath tie curves upward / VIRTVS MILITVM, tetrarchs sacrificing over tripod before city enclosure with six turrets. RIC VI 15b; Jelocnik 30 var. (wreath ties); RSC 220a.1 commentsTLP
Gallienus_Centaur_1a.jpg
Gallienus * Centaur - AE Billon Antoninianus * 253-268 AD.98 views
* Gallienus | Centaur - Billon Antoninianus *

Obv: Radiate head, right. GALLIENVS AVG.
Rev: Centaur walking left, right foreleg raised, holding globe in right hand, arm stretched front and rudder transverse over shoulder in his left hand. APOLLINI CONS AVG

Exergue: H
( Officina 8 )

Mint: Rome
Struck: 260-268 AD.

Size: 22.63 x 20.32 mm.
Weight: 3.32 gms.
Die axis: 180°

Condition: As you see it here. Worn, but still an attractive coin.

Refs:*
RIC 164
Göbl 733

Special thanks to Lars for his kind assistance and sharing his knowledge pertaining to this issue.
Tiathena
geneva_silver.jpg
GENEVA15 viewsGENEVA - 1795 AR 6 Florins. Holed and worn... but still an interesting coin! ARms of Geneva in wreath circle/Radian sun with value inside, date below. KM-10.dpaul7
Claudius II GENIUS EXERCI RIC 48.jpg
GENIVS EXERCI RIC V/1 48124 viewsAnt, 21mm, 2.49g.

Obverse: IMP C CLAVDIVS AVG, radiate head R.

Reverse: GENIUS EXERCI, Genius standing L holding cornucopia and patera. Z in R field.

Rome mint.

RIC 48, Common.

A rather grotesque portrait, with an interesting flan flaw. A large crack goes right through the flan, running almost parallel to the faces. It takes seriously cruddy metal to produce something like that. The reverse is struck from a worn die.
Robert_Brenchley
5kreuzer.jpg
German States. Archbishopric of Mainz. Silver 5-kreuzer, worn date (c.1763).77 viewsGerman States. Archbishopric of Mainz. Silver 5-kreuzer, worn date (c.1763). SR.I.P.G.A.C.PR.EL-EM.IOS.D.G.A.EP.M, crowned arms on base containing value / 240 EINE FEINE MARK, IUS TIRT [1763] F.B., star below.

KM 349
oneill6217
Germaincus by Gaius SIGNIS RECEPT DEVICTIS GERM RIC 57.jpg
Germanicus by Gaius SIGNIS RECEPT DEVICTIS GERM RIC 57439 viewsDupondius, 30mm, 14.17g.

Obverse: GERMANICVS/CAESAR in two lines across field, Germanicus, bare-headed and cloaked, in slow quadriga, R. Eagle-tipped sceptre in L hand.

Reverse: SIGNIS - RECEPT/DEVICTIS - GERM/S - C in three lines to L and R of Germanicus, bareheaded and cuirassed, standing L, R hand raised, L holding eagle-tipped sceptre.

Struck under Gaius in honour of his father, 37-41.

Rome, RIC 57, Common.

The coin is badly struck rather than heavily worn. Issued to commemorate Germanicus' capture of the standards lost in the Teutoberg Forest in 9AD. He had been awarded the ornamenta triumphalia by Augustus, the trappings of a triumph without the thing itself; the full triumph was finally awarded by Tiberius in Ad15, but not actually celebrated until Germanicus returned to Rome in 17, after a successful campaign. Although RIC does not say so, I assume the figure of Germanicus in a quadriga commemorates the triumph.
3 commentsRobert_Brenchley
2820333.jpg
Geta (as Augustus), 209–11 CE89 viewsAR denarius, Rome mint, 210 CE; 19mm, 3.11g, 6h; BM —, CRB —, RIC —, RSC —. Obv: P SEPT GETA PIVS AVG BRIT; laureate bust right. Rx: VICTORI – AE BRIT; Victory seated left on shields, holding shield on right knee and palm. Commemorates victories declared in Britain. Very rare mule; CNG states, “this reverse type is unknown on coins of Geta. It is known, however, for aurei of Caracalla (RIC IV 174). As the reverse die is worn, it is possible that the minters felt the die was too deteriorated to continue producing aurei, but sufficient for striking denarii.” According to Curtis L. Clay, “only one other is known to me, in my collection, from different dies, much less fine, ex Gitbud & Naumann, eBay, 19 March 2011.”

ex CNG eAuction 282, 11 July 2012, lot 333
ex Dr. J.S. Vogelaar Collection, CNG eAuction 215, 29 July 2009, lot 473

Dr. J.S. “Stoffel” Vogelaar (1949–2010), a resident of Bohea, County Mayo, Ireland, but native to Puttershoek, Holland, was a well-known antique, coin, and book dealer. He was an expert in the field of Romano-British coinage and amassed a large collection
3 commentsMichael K5
Geta_Temple_Serdica.JPG
Geta Temple Serdica22 viewsGeta, Serdica, 30.30mm, 19.1g, Ruzicka 473 (1 specimen in Budapest), a bust variety of Varbanov 2596
OBV: AVT K Π CEΠTI ΓETAC, Laureate head right
REV: OVΛΠIAC CEPΔIKHC, Tetrastyle temple with cult-statue of Asklepios standing,
holding serpent entwined staff. Snake in pediment.
Not illustrated by either Varbanov or Ruzicka, but the breaks in the rev. legend, given by Ruzicka,
correspond with this piece. According to Ruzicka the rev. of the Budapest piece shows
Asclepios with snake-wreathed staff in the temple, also a snake in the pediment,
details which seem to be largely worn away on this specimen.
The obv. die may be the same as Varbanov 2545,
there with rev. Asclepios seated (not in temple).

RARE
Romanorvm
GetaStobi2.JPG
Geta, AE 25 Tetrassaria28 viewsIM.C.P.SE/PT.GETA PIV
Bust laureate, right
[MVN?] STOBEN
Nike advancing right, holding wreath and palm
Both dies apparently unlisted
Josifovski catalogued only 13 specimens issued by Geta. All except one show Geta as Caesar. This is only the third obverse die known with Geta as Augustus. Note recent addition of a relatively unworn specimen of this obverse die.
Kuzmanovic Collection 554 but reverse is described as Nike stepping on a globe
whitetd49
GetaStobi5.JPG
Geta, AE 25 Tetrassaria25 viewsIM.C.P.SE/PT.GETA PIV
Bust laureate, right
[STOB?] MVNICIP
Nike advancing left with wreath and palm
Unlisted dies but note obverse die match with worn specimen in this Gallery
whitetd49
glass10_2mm_73g.jpg
Glass one-quarter (1/4) dirham weight9 viewsworn Glass/Likely umayyad or abbasid coin weight

Islamic script?
10 by 2mm
.73g
wileyc
Gloria Exercitus Obverse and Reverse.jpg
Gloria Constantius II 337-361 A.D.8 viewsThe overse picture is too worn to identify but the inscription reads FLIVLCONSTANTIUS. The Reverse is of two soldiers standing on eoither side of two standards each holding a spear and resting hand on their shield. Reverse inscription reads GLORIAEXERCITVS.cwonsidler
AP_Gorgoneian_7a.jpg
Gorgoneion | Anchor - Apollonia Pontica - AR Drachm, 450-400 BC. * Specimen 171 views
Gorgoneion | Anchor - Apollonia Pontica, Thrace: Specimen 1.

Obv: Gorgoneion facing.
Rev: Inverted anchor with crayfish in left field, monogram A in right field.

Exergue: None.

Mint: Apollonia Pontica
Struck: 450-400 BC.

Size: 16.425 mm.
Weight: 2.79 grams
Die axis: 0°

Condition: Worn and as shown in photographs, but still an impressive Gorgoneion.

Refs:*
Sear, 1655(v)
Tiathena
AP_Gorgoneion_4a.jpg
Gorgoneion | Anchor - Apollonia Pontica - AR Drachm, 450-400 BC. * Specimen 262 views
Gorgoneion | Anchor - Apollonia Pontica, Thrace: Specimen 2.

Obv: Gorgoneion facing.
Rev: Inverted anchor with crayfish in left field, monogram A in right field.

Exergue: None.

Mint: Apollonia Pontica
Struck: 450-400 BC.

Size: 15.80 x 13.025 mm.
Weight: 3.27 grams
Die axis: 0°

Condition: Worn and as shown in photographs, but still remarkable and impressive coin.

Refs:*
Sear, 1655(v)
1 commentsTiathena
UK_Penn7_1793_secret_box.jpg
Great Britain, George III, 1760 - 1820, Modified Into a "Secret" Box21 viewsBronze penny, SCBC 3777, VF, altered into a screw top box, screws worn, Soho mint, weight 20.008g, maximum diameter 35.4mm, die axis 0o, 1797; obverse GEORGIUS III D G REX, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse BRITANNIA 1797, Britannia seated left on rocks, olive-branch in right hand, trident in left, Union shield at side, tiny SOHO on rock below, sailing ship on water at a distance on left, diving whale right, waves in exergue.

In 1797, at the Soho Mint, James Watt and Matthew Boulton used their steam powered presses to strike 450 tons of the new "cartwheel" pennies, at 1 ounce of copper per coin. The penny was found to be too heavy for regular use and was only struck for that single year.

Similar boxes made from American silver dollars are sometimes called "Opium Dollars."

Valentine's Day present from my wife!

PURCHASED FROM FORVM
Sosius
argoswolf2.jpg
GREEK, ARGOLIS, Argos, AR Triobol, 330-275 B.C.25 viewsARGOLIS, Argos. Circa 330-275 BC. AR Triobol or Hemidrachm (15mm, 2.45 g, 12h).
Obv: Forepart of wolf left
Rev: Large A; crescent moon below; all within shallow incuse square.
BCD Peloponnesos ; BCD Peloponnesos II –; HGC 5, –.
Toned and porous surfaces, struck from a worn obverse die.
chance v
Vlasto_338~0.jpg
Greek, Catalogue of the Collection of Tarentine Coins formed by M. P. Vlasto #33830 views20mm, 7.93 g, 2h
Youth on horse galloping right; tiny Λ below / Phalanthos, holding torch, riding dolphin left.

Fischer-Bossert Group 26, 361.2 (V164/R283) = Vlasto 338 (this coin); HN Italy 850. Old collection tone, small edge test cut, a few marks on edge, struck from worn dies. VF.

Ex Michel Pandely Vlasto Collection.
1 commentsLeo
a06.jpg
GREEK, Macedonian Kingdom, Alexander lll The Great, Tetradrachm60 viewsObverse.Head of Herakles facing right wearing lion skin headdress.
Reverse.Zeus seated left holding eagle and scepter.Legends and Monograms worn.
27mm.16.7 grams.
1 commentsNervousRex
86308q00.jpg
GREEK, Sicily, Syracuse, Hieron, c. 478 - 466 B.C.23 viewsSH86308. Silver tetradrachm, Boehringer Series X, 229 (V102/R155); HGC 2, 1306; Bement 451; Jameson 744; McClean 2611 (all from the same dies)., gVF, well centered, toned, obverse struck with a worn die, some marks and scratches, weight 17.105 g, maximum diameter 24.4 mm, die axis 270o, Syracuse mint, c. 478 - 475 B.C.; obverse slow quadriga driven right by male charioteer holding goad, Nike above flying right crowning horses; reverse ΣYP-AKO-ΣI-ON (beginning 3:30, 1st Σ reversed), head of Arethusa right, hair turned up behind under diadem of beads, wearing bead necklace, surrounded by four dolphins swimming clockwise; ex Numismatica Ars Classica auction 59 (4 Apr 2011), lot 1571Joe Sermarini
Larissa_Obol.jpg
GREEK, Thessaly, Larissa, AR Trihemiobol30 viewsSamll and a bit worn but very, very charming. I love it :-)Optimus
Seleucid_Kingdom,_Antiochos_II_AR_tetradrachm_-_SC_Plate_coin_.jpg
GREEK, Antioche de Syrie, p. 46, pl.4, G (this coin), Seleucid Coins 534.3 (this coin illustrated on Plate 25)79 viewsSeleukid Kingdom, Antiochos II Theos, 261-246 BC, AR Tetradrachm - Tralles
Diademed head of Antiochos II right.
ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ANTIOXOY Apollo seated left on omphalos, holding arrow with left hand resting on bow; YA monogram in inner left field and ME in exergue.
Antioche de Syrie, p. 46, pl.4, G (this coin) dies A1-P5, referenced to W K Raymond coll., Fresno California; SC 534.3 (this coin - illustrated on Plate 25); HGC 9, 238i.
Tralles mint.
(30 mm, 16.45 g, 12h).
ex- Eukratides Ancient Numismatics; consigned from the William K. Raymond Collection.

This coin is referenced in Seleucid Coins (Volume I page 190 and Volume II Plate 25) with the comment, ‘Antioche de Syrie p.46. 14. Pl 4 G dies A1-P5 in W. K. Raymond coll, Fresno, California. Obverse die link with cat. Nos. 534.1-2 above, die in a very worn state, reverse die of barbarous style’. In describing the series to which this coin belongs, Seleucid Coins notes that it employs an obverse die of fine style, which after receiving considerable wear, is ultimately paired with a barbarous reverse die.

Tralles where this coin was struck was located in Ionia, about 50 kilometres inland from Ephesus.

References:
Georges le Rider. Antioche de Syrie sous les Séleucides Corpus des monnaies d'or et d'argent. I: De Séleucos I ŕ Antiochos V, c. 300-161. Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres, 1999.

Houghton A. and Lorber C. Seleucid Coins A Comprehensive Catalogue Part I Seleucus I through Antiochus III Volumes I & II. The American Numismatic Society, New York in association with Classical Numismatic Group Inc Lancaster/London 2002.
n.igma
230.jpg
H in circular punch139 viewsUncertain mint, possibly SAMARIA, Caesarea Maritima (Judaea Capta coinage). Titus (?). Ć 18. Early 70s A.D. (?). Obv: Inscription illegible. Outline of imperial bust right; countermark before. Rev: Worn smooth. Weight: 4.81 g. Note: The identification of the coin as belong to the Judaea Capta series depicting Titus is based on the countermark. CM: H in circular punch, 5 mm (punch may be broken). Howgego 832.1 (1 pc). Collection Automan.Automan
hadr664.jpg
Hadrian AE As, RIC II 66446 viewsHadrian 117-138 A.D.
AE As, RIC II 664
Ć As 13.50g. 27mm. 125-128 A.D. Rome Mint
Ob: HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS , Laureate and draped bust, r.
Rv: COS III, S C to either side. Minerva advancing r., brandishing javelin and holding shield;

Dark green patina with some earthen encrustation.
Reverse struck from worn die.

Ex Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.
Scotvs Capitis
HadrianLibertas.jpg
Hadrian Libertas Denarius65 viewsHADRIAN (117-138). Denarius. Rome.
O: HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS, Laureate bust right, with slight drapery.
R: COS III, Libertas standing left, holding pileus and sceptre.
- RIC 175.

The pileus liberatis was a soft felt cap worn by liberated slaves of Troy and Asia Minor. In late Republican Rome, the pileus was symbolically given to slaves upon manumission, granting them not only their personal liberty, but also freedom as citizens with the right to vote (if male). Following the assassination of Julius Caesar in 44 B.C., Brutus and his co-conspirators used the pileus to signify the end of Caesar's dictatorship and a return to a Republican system of government. The pileus was adopted as a popular symbol of freedom during the French Revolution and was also depicted on some early U.S. coins. - FAC
3 commentsNemonater
sept_sev_hadriano_demeter_clarus_rx.JPG
Hadrianopolis Septimius Severus Sicinnius Clarus Demeter46 viewsSeptimius Severus

Hadrianopolis

AE 27

Sicinnius Clarus (202 AD)

Ob: AV K Λ CEΠT] | CEVHPOC
Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust

HΓE CIK KΛAPOV A |ΔPIANOΠOΛITΩN
Demeter facing left with torch and patera

Jurukova -; Varbanov (E) -; Mionnet -; BMC –; SNG Cop. –

worn blackish-green patina
1 commentsrennrad12020
harpokratescomp.jpg
Harpokrates Bronze63 viewsAn ancient Egyptian bronze statuette of the God Harpokrates, shown seated wearing the sidelock of youth, sun-disc and tripartite wig, dating to Egypt's Late Period, approximately 664-323 B.C.E.

Harpokrates is the Greek name for the Egyptian God Horus, depicted in his child form with finger to the mouth - a recognition of the Egyptian "child" hieroglyph. He was the God of the sunrise, and was often depicted as a falcon.

A suspension loop at the back would have enabled the figure to be worn as an amulet.

Height: 3 1/2 inches.

Provenance:
Ex. Collection of C.E.Best (died 1973). Cecil Best was an incredibly colorful character. Educated at Ardingley college in the late 1800's, Best trained as a banker but subsequently worked as a miner, soldier, merchant, editor and singer. He served as syllabus secretary at the Theosophical Society, England, where he met his future wife Inayat Khan, who converted him to the Sufism form of Islam and renamed him Shahbaz. Shahbaz Best, as he was now known, traveled to Rio de Janeiro in Brazil to spread his religion and work as a banker. It was during this time that he met H.E.Inman, a marine engineer, who gifted him his collection of antiquities that he had acquired in lieu of payment from the Egyptian government between 1910-1912. The antiquities were excavated from tombs in lower Egypt and were on display at the Southampton Museum in England after the death of Mr. Best in 1973.

Ex. ArtAncientLtd
Salaethus
221.jpg
Head and galley161 viewsSAMARIA. Caesarea Maritima (for province of Judaea). Titus (?). Ć 19. A.D. 71 to circa 73. Obv: Inscription illegible. Faint outline of imperial bust; countermark (1). Rev: worn smooth, countermark (2). Ref: RPC 2311-2312 ? Weight: 6.63 g. CM(1): Laureate (?) head right, in rectangular punch, 4 x 4.5 mm. Howgego 135 ? (28 pcs). Note: The countermark is likely of Palestinian origin. CM(2): Galley, in rectangular punch, 6 x 4 mm. Howgego 409 (22 pcs) or possibly 410 (15 pcs). Note: The galley was an emblem of Legio X Fretensis. The size of the countermark places it somewhere between 409 and 410. Collection Automan.Automan
220.jpg
Head and galley131 viewsSAMARIA. Caesarea Maritima (for province of Judaea). Titus (?). Ć 19. A.D. 71 to circa 73. Obv: Inscription illegible. Outline of bust right; countermark (1) before. Rev: Worn smooth; countermark (2). Ref: RPC 2311-2312 ? Weight: 6.98 g. CM(1): Laureate (?) head right, in rectangular punch, 4 x 4.5 mm. Howgego 135 (28 pcs). Note: The countermark is likely of Palestinian origin. CM(2): Galley, in rectangular punch, 5 x 4 mm. Howgego 409 (22 pcs). Note: The galley was an emblem of Legio X Fretensis. Collection Automan.Automan
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Head of emperor right (possibly NE behind)153 viewsSAMARIA. Neapolis. Domitian. Ć 24. A.D. 86/87 (year 15). Obv: (AYTOKPATΩPΔOMITIANOΣKAIΣAP)ΣEBAΣTOΣГEP or similar. Laureate head right; countermark on head. Rev: ΦΛAOYI-NEAΠ-(ΣAM) or similar in three lines, LEI beneath. Crossed cornucopiae. Ref: RPC 2224 (1 pc!). Axis: 180°. Weight: 14.24 g. Note: Since the second letter of the date line, although resembling an "E" rather than an "A", is heavily worn it is difficult to say wheather this coin was struck in year 11 (LAI) or year 15 (LEI) based solely on that letter. The obverse legend seems to end "ГEP", though, which is not the case on coins of year 11. The coins of year 15, though, are extremely rare. CM: Head of emperor right (possibly letters NE behind), in rectangular punch, 5 x 6 mm. Howgego 32 ? (7 pcs). Note: There does not seem to be space enough for the letters "NE" (which probably refer to Neapolis rather than Nerva) behind the head. Howgego 32 is, however, applied to most of these coins. Collection Automan.Automan
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Head right (laureate)127 viewsSYRIA, SAMARIA, or JUDAEA (?).Uncertain mint. Uncertain Flavian (?) emperor. Ć 25. Circa A.D. 69-96 (?). Obv: Inscription illegible. Laureate head left; countermark on chin. Rev: Inscription illegible. Worn nearly smooth. Weight: 11.30 g. CM: Laureate head right, in rectangular punch, 5 x 6 mm. Howgego 132 (13 pcs) or Howgego 133 (17 pcs) ? Collection Automan.Automan
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Heraclius, with Heraclius Constantine. 610-641.37 viewsHeraclius, with Heraclius Constantine. 610-641. AV Solidus (22mm, 4.36 g, 6h). Constantinople mint, 5th officina. Struck circa 616-625. Crowned and draped facing busts of Heraclius and Heraclius Constantine; cross above / Cross potent set on three steps; Є//CONOB. DOC 13d; MIB 11; SB 738. VF, minor deposits in devices, traces of underlying luster, areas of flat strike at periphery, reverse struck with worn die, lightly clipped.

Ex Artemide XLIV (12 December 2015), lot 317; CNG 405, lot 589.
1 commentsMolinari
herenniaEtruscilla090308.jpg
Herennia Etruscilla, Pudicitia31 viewsPurchased from FORVM Ancient Coins:

Silver antoninianus, RIC IV 59b, RSC IV 19, VF, struck with worn dies, 5.03g, 21.7mm, 180o, Rome mint, 249 - 251 A.D.; obverse HER ETRVSCILLA AVG, diademed and draped bust right, on crescent; reverse PVDICITIA AVG, Pudicitia (modesty) seated left, drawing veil from face with right, scepter in left;
arizonarobin
HUN_Karoly_Huszar_497_Pohl_54-11.JPG
Huszár 497, Pohl 54-11, Unger 394k, Réthy II 1534 viewsHungary. Charles Robert (Károly Róbert, in Hun.) (1307-1342). AR denar, 14 mm.

Obv: King enthroned with scepter and imperial orb.

Rev: + • [M • ]REGIS • ]h[VNGA]RIE, Ostrich-head on horseshoe, S in lower right field (privy mark).

Issued in 1339-1342 (per Pohl, Huszár and Unger), with a nominal weight of 0.6978 g. (per Pohl).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 4. The references differ slightly with respect to the placement of pellets on the reverse. As much of the legend is worn or off the flan, the placement of the pellets cannot be discerned on this coin.
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HUN_Karoly_Huszar_497_Pohl_54-8.JPG
Huszár 497, Pohl 54-8, Unger 394e, Réthy II 1522 viewsHungary. Charles Robert (Károly Róbert, in Hun.) (1307-1342). AR denar, 15 mm.

Obv: King enthroned with scepter and imperial orb.

Rev: + • M • REGIS [hVNGAR]IE, Ostrich-head on horseshoe, C in lower right field (privy mark).

Issued in 1339-1342 (per Pohl, Huszár and Unger), with a nominal weight of 0.6978 g. (per Pohl).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 4. The references differ slightly with respect to the placement of pellets on the reverse. Alhough part of the legend is worn, the placement of the pellets comports with Huszár.
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HUN_Karoly_Huszar_497_Pohl_54-9.JPG
Huszár 497, Pohl 54-9, Unger 394i, Réthy II 1538 viewsHungary. Charles Robert (Károly Róbert, in Hun.) (1307-1342). AR denar, 14 mm.

Obv: King enthroned with scepter and imperial orb.

Rev: [+ • M • REGI]S hVNGARIE, Ostrich-head on horseshoe, m in lower right field (privy mark).

Issued in 1339-1342 (per Pohl, Huszár and Unger), with a nominal weight of 0.6978 g. (per Pohl).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 4. The references differ slightly with respect to the placement of pellets on the reverse. As much of the legend is worn, the complete placement of the pellets cannot be discerned on this coin.
1 commentsStkp
HUN_Zsigmund_Huszar_580_Pohl_119-dot.jpg
Huszár 580, Pohl 119--, Unger 451-, Réthy II 125A, Frynas H.27.821 viewsHungary. Sigismund/Zsigmund of Luxembourg (1387-1437; Holy Roman Emperor 1433-1437)

AR parvus; .31 g., 10.21 mm. max., 0°

Obv: Four-part shield (Árpádian stripes and eagle), S-V-R above and flanking.

Rev: Cross with four crowns, pellet between upper cross arms.

The type was struck in 1387-1427 (Huszár, Pohl, Unger, Frynas and Gyöngyössy, although it terminated in 1410 per Engel).

The parvus (also called the “small denar” fillér or pankart) was struck with an average nominal fineness of 0.353 silver. Because of many worn out and counterfeit coins it was pulled from circulation after 1427 (per Huszár). Although not specifically discussed in this context in Engel, the parvus must have experienced the same rampant debasement as the denar did.

Huszár/Pohl rarity 4; Unger rarity 5; Frynas rarity C. Unrecorded privy mark.
1 commentsStkp
HUN_Zsigmond_Huszar_580_Pohl_119-1.jpg
Huszár 580, Pohl 119-1, Unger 451a, Réthy II 125A46 viewsHungary. Sigismund (Zsigmond, in Hun.) of Luxembourg (1387-1437; Holy Roman Emperor 1433-1437). AR parvus, .29 g., 11.62 mm. max.

Obv: Four-part shield (Árpádian stripes and eagle), S—V—R above and flanking.

Rev: Cross with four crowns between its arms.

The type was struck in 1387-1427 (per Pohl, Huszár & Unger, although this emission terminated in 1410 per Engel).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 4.

The parvus (also called the “small denar” fillér or pankart) was struck with an average nominal fineness of 0.353 silver. Because of many worn out and counterfeit coins it was pulled from circulation after 1427 (per Huszár). Although not specifically discussed in this context in Engel, the parvus must have experienced the same rampant debasement as the denar did.

“Owing to inner strife and disordered general conditions, the coins [of this period] were usually minted with extremely low precious metal content; moreover, poor mintages were often struck with negligently engraved dies. As a result of the hurried, superficial minting, it was sometimes doubtful whether a faulty coin had been issued officially, or was a forgery” (Huszár 1963, at 15).

This emission is typically struck on a small flan. This coin is unusually well struck for the type.
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HUN_Zsigmund_parvus_Huszar_580_Pohl_119-11.jpg
Huszár 580, Pohl 119-11, Unger 455r, Réthy II 125A, Frynas H.27.821 viewsHungary. Sigismund/Zsigmond of Luxembourg (1387-1437; Holy Roman Emperor 1433-1437)

AR parvus; .45 g., 10.20 mm. max,

Obv: Four-part shield (Árpádian stripes and eagle), S—V—R above and flanking, L above to right.

Rev: Cross with four crowns between its arms.

The type was struck in 1387-1427 (Huszár, Pohl, Unger, Frynas and Gyöngyössy, although the terminated in 1410 per Engel), this privy mark was struck at Lippa, now Lipova, Romania.

The parvus (also called the “small denar” fillér or pankart) was struck with an average nominal fineness of 0.353 silver. Because of many worn out and counterfeit coins it was pulled from circulation after 1427 (per Huszár). Although not specifically discussed in this context in Engel, the parvus must have experienced the same rampant debasement as the denar did.

Huszár/Pohl rarity 4; Frynas rarity C.
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HUN_Zsigmond_Huszar_580_Pohl_119-14.JPG
Huszár 580, Pohl 119-14, Unger 451u, Réthy II 125A55 viewsHungary. Sigismund (Zsigmond, in Hun.) of Luxembourg (1387-1437; Holy Roman Emperor 1433-1437). AR parvus, 10 mm.

Obv: Four-part shield (Árpádian stripes and eagle), S—V—R above and flanking, o to the left of the S (privy mark).

Rev: Cross with four crowns between its arms.

The type was struck in 1387-1427 (per Pohl, Huszár & Unger, although this emission terminated in 1410 per Engel) at Offenbánya (now, Baia de Arieș, Romania) (per Pohl).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 4.

The parvus (also called the “small denar” fillér or pankart) was struck with an average nominal fineness of 0.353 silver. Because of many worn out and counterfeit coins it was pulled from circulation after 1427 (per Huszár). Although not specifically discussed in this context in Engel, the parvus must have experienced the same rampant debasement as the denar did.

“Owing to inner strife and disordered general conditions, the coins [of this period] were usually minted with extremely low precious metal content; moreover, poor mintages were often struck with negligently engraved dies. As a result of the hurried, superficial minting, it was sometimes doubtful whether a faulty coin had been issued officially, or was a forgery” (Huszár 1963, at 15). This emission is typically struck on a small flan.
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HUN_Zsigmund_Huszar_580_Pohl_119-24.jpg
Huszár 580, Pohl 119-24, Unger 451b, Réthy II 125A, Frynas H.27.819 viewsHungary. Sigismund/Zsigmund of Luxembourg (1387-1437; Holy Roman Emperor 1433-1437)

AR parvus; .36 g., 11.53 mm. max.

Obv: Four-part shield (Árpádian stripes and eagle), S-V-R above and flanking, star to right of S.

Rev: Cross with four crowns.

The type was struck in 1387-1427 (Huszár, Pohl, Unger, Frynas and Gyöngyössy, although it terminated in 1410 per Engel). This privy mark was struck in Nagybánya, now Baia Mare, Romania (per Pohl).

The parvus (also called the “small denar” fillér or pankart) was struck with an average nominal fineness of 0.353 silver. Because of many worn out and counterfeit coins it was pulled from circulation after 1427 (per Huszár). Although not specifically discussed in this context in Engel, the parvus must have experienced the same rampant debasement as the denar did.

Huszár/Pohl rarity 4; Unger rarity 5; Frynas rarity C.
1 commentsStkp
HUN_Zsigmund_Huszar_580_Pohl_119-32.jpg
Huszár 580, Pohl 119-32, Unger 451j, Réthy II 125A, Frynas H.27.813 viewsHungary. Sigismund/Zsigmund of Luxembourg (1387-1437; Holy Roman Emperor 1433-1437)

AR parvus; .26 g., 10.32 mm. max.

Obv: Four-part shield (Árpádian stripes and eagle), S-V-R above and flanking, monogram to right of S.

Rev: Cross with four crowns.

The type was struck in 1387-1427 (Huszár, Pohl, Unger, Frynas and Gyöngyössy, although it terminated in 1410 per Engel). This privy mark was struck by Ulrich Kamerer (per Pohl).

The parvus (also called the “small denar” fillér or pankart) was struck with an average nominal fineness of 0.353 silver. Because of many worn out and counterfeit coins it was pulled from circulation after 1427 (per Huszár). Although not specifically discussed in this context in Engel, the parvus must have experienced the same rampant debasement as the denar did.

Huszár/Pohl rarity 4; Unger rarity 5; Frynas rarity C.
1 commentsStkp
HUN_Zsigmond_Huszar_580_Pohl_119-46.JPG
Huszár 580, Pohl 119-46, Unger 451ζ, Réthy II 125A56 viewsHungary. Sigismund (Zsigmond, in Hun.) of Luxembourg (1387-1437; Holy Roman Emperor 1433-1437). AR parvus, 10 mm.

Obv: Four-part shield (Árpádian stripes and eagle), S—V—R above and flanking, I-C flanking the S (privy mark).

Rev: Cross with four crowns between its arms.

The type was struck in 1387-1427 (per Pohl, Huszár & Unger, although this emission terminated in 1410 per Engel). This privy mark was struck at Kassa (now, Košice, Slovakia) by Jacobus and Christianus before 1410 (per Pohl), who also states that they were joint kammergraffen at Kassa under Maria from 1385-1387, suggesting that this coin was struck early in Sigismund’s reign.

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 4.

The parvus (also called the “small denar” fillér or pankart) was struck with an average nominal fineness of 0.353 silver. Because of many worn out and counterfeit coins it was pulled from circulation after 1427 (per Huszár). Although not specifically discussed in this context in Engel, the parvus must have experienced the same rampant debasement as the denar did.

“Owing to inner strife and disordered general conditions, the coins [of this period] were usually minted with extremely low precious metal content; moreover, poor mintages were often struck with negligently engraved dies. As a result of the hurried, superficial minting, it was sometimes doubtful whether a faulty coin had been issued officially, or was a forgery” (Huszár 1963, at 15). This emission is typically struck on a small flan.
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HUN_Zsigmund_Huszar_580_Pohl_119-54.jpg
Huszár 580, Pohl 119-54[?], Unger 451ψ[?], Réthy II 125A, Frynas H.27.818 viewsHungary. Sigismund/Zsigmund of Luxembourg (1387-1437; Holy Roman Emperor 1433-1437)

AR parvus; .25 g., 10.16 mm. max.

Obv: Four-part shield (Árpádian stripes and eagle), S-V-R above and flanking, m-4 flanking S.

Rev: Cross with four crowns.

The type was struck in 1387-1427 (Huszár, Pohl, Unger, Frynas and Gyöngyössy, although it terminated in 1410 per Engel). If this privy mark is in fact Pohl 119-54, Unger 451ψ, was struck by Markus Armbauer [?] of Nürnberg in 1404-1405 (per Pohl).

The parvus (also called the “small denar” fillér or pankart) was struck with an average nominal fineness of 0.353 silver. Because of many worn out and counterfeit coins it was pulled from circulation after 1427 (per Huszár). Although not specifically discussed in this context in Engel, the parvus must have experienced the same rampant debasement as the denar did.

Huszár/Pohl rarity 4; Unger rarity 5; Frynas rarity C.
1 commentsStkp
HUN_Zsigmond_Huszar_580_Pohl_119-58.jpg
Huszár 580, Pohl 119-58, Unger 451gg, Réthy II 125A25 viewsHungary. Sigismund (Zsigmond, in Hun.) of Luxembourg (1387-1437; Holy Roman Emperor 1433-1437). AR parvus, .29 g., 9.77 mm. max.

Obv: Four-part shield (Árpádian stripes and eagle), S—V—R above and flanking.

Rev: Cross with four crowns between its arms, r-B (privy mark) flanking the S.

The type was struck in 1387-1427 (per Pohl, Huszár & Unger, although this emission terminated in 1410 per Engel).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 4.

The parvus (also called the “small denar” fillér or pankart) was struck with an average nominal fineness of 0.353 silver. Because of many worn out and counterfeit coins it was pulled from circulation after 1427 (per Huszár). Although not specifically discussed in this context in Engel, the parvus must have experienced the same rampant debasement as the denar did.

“Owing to inner strife and disordered general conditions, the coins [of this period] were usually minted with extremely low precious metal content; moreover, poor mintages were often struck with negligently engraved dies. As a result of the hurried, superficial minting, it was sometimes doubtful whether a faulty coin had been issued officially, or was a forgery” (Huszár 1963, at 15).

This emission is typically struck on a small flan.
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HUN_Zsigmond_Huszar_580_Pohl_119-29_2.JPG
Huszár 580, Pohl 119-72, Unger 451ll, Réthy II 125A53 viewsHungary. Sigismund (Zsigmond, in Hun.) of Luxembourg (1387-1437; Holy Roman Emperor 1433-1437). AR parvus, 8x10 mm.

Obv: Four-part shield (Árpádian stripes and eagle), S—V—R above and flanking, symbols to the left and right of the S (privy mark).

Rev: Cross with four crowns between its arms.

The type was struck in 1387-1427 (per Pohl, Huszár & Unger, although this emission terminated in 1410 per Engel). This privy mark was struck in Buda (now Budapest) by Onofrio Bardi, kammergraf, from 1418-1424 (per Pohl).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 4.

The parvus (also called the “small denar” fillér or pankart) was struck with an average nominal fineness of 0.353 silver. Because of many worn out and counterfeit coins it was pulled from circulation after 1427 (per Huszár). Although not specifically discussed in this context in Engel, the parvus must have experienced the same rampant debasement as the denar did.

“Owing to inner strife and disordered general conditions, the coins [of this period] were usually minted with extremely low precious metal content; moreover, poor mintages were often struck with negligently engraved dies. As a result of the hurried, superficial minting, it was sometimes doubtful whether a faulty coin had been issued officially, or was a forgery” (Huszár 1963, at 15). This emission is typically struck on a small flan.
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HUN_Zsigmund_Huszar_580_Pohl_119-75.jpg
Huszár 580, Pohl 119-75, Unger 451ζζ, Réthy II 125A, Frynas H.27.811 viewsHungary. Sigismund/Zsigmund of Luxembourg (1387-1437; Holy Roman Emperor 1433-1437)

AR parvus; .26 g., 12.35 mm. max., 0°

Obv: Four-part shield (Árpádian stripes and eagle), S-V-R above and flanking.

Rev: Cross with four crowns, I between upper cross arms.

The type was struck in 1387-1427 (Huszár, Pohl, Unger, Frynas and Gyöngyössy, although it terminated in 1410 per Engel).

The parvus (also called the “small denar” fillér or pankart) was struck with an average nominal fineness of 0.353 silver. Because of many worn out and counterfeit coins it was pulled from circulation after 1427 (per Huszár). Although not specifically discussed in this context in Engel, the parvus must have experienced the same rampant debasement as the denar did.

Huszár/Pohl rarity 4; Unger rarity 5; Frynas rarity C.
1 commentsStkp
HUN_Zsigmund_Huszar_580_Pohl_119-77.jpg
Huszár 580, Pohl 119-77, Unger 451ρρ, Réthy II 125A, Frynas H.27.811 viewsHungary. Sigismund/Zsigmund of Luxembourg (1387-1437; Holy Roman Emperor 1433-1437)

AR parvus; .38 g., 10.43 mm. max., 270°

Obv: Four-part shield (Árpádian stripes and eagle), S-V-R above and flanking.

Rev: Cross with four crowns, n between upper cross arms.

The type was struck in 1387-1427 (Huszár, Pohl, Unger, Frynas and Gyöngyössy, although it terminated in 1410 per Engel). This privy mark was issued at Nagybánya, now Baia Mare, Romania (per Pohl).

The parvus (also called the “small denar” fillér or pankart) was struck with an average nominal fineness of 0.353 silver. Because of many worn out and counterfeit coins it was pulled from circulation after 1427 (per Huszár). Although not specifically discussed in this context in Engel, the parvus must have experienced the same rampant debasement as the denar did.

Huszár/Pohl rarity 4; Unger rarity 5; Frynas rarity C.
1 commentsStkp
HUN_Zsigmond_Huszar_580_Pohl_119-8_2.JPG
Huszár 580, Pohl 119-8.2, Unger 451o, Réthy II 125A50 viewsHungary. Sigismund (Zsigmond, in Hun.) of Luxembourg (1387-1437; Holy Roman Emperor 1433-1437). AR parvus, 10 mm.

Obv: Four-part shield (Árpádian stripes and eagle), S—V—R above and flanking, h to the right of the S (privy mark).

Rev: Cross with four crowns between its arms.

The type was struck in 1387-1427 (per Pohl, Huszár & Unger, although this emission terminated in 1410 per Engel) at Nagyszeben, in Transylvania (Hermannstadt, in German, which is why the privy mark is an ‘h”; now, Sibiu, Romania) (per Pohl).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 4.

The parvus (also called the “small denar” fillér or pankart) was struck with an average nominal fineness of 0.353 silver. Because of many worn out and counterfeit coins it was pulled from circulation after 1427 (per Huszár). Although not specifically discussed in this context in Engel, the parvus must have experienced the same rampant debasement as the denar did.

“Owing to inner strife and disordered general conditions, the coins [of this period] were usually minted with extremely low precious metal content; moreover, poor mintages were often struck with negligently engraved dies. As a result of the hurried, superficial minting, it was sometimes doubtful whether a faulty coin had been issued officially, or was a forgery” (Huszár 1963, at 15). This emission is typically struck on a small flan.
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HUN_Zsigmund_parvus_Huszar_580_Pohl_119-84_Unger_451_.jpg
Huszár 580, Pohl 119-84, Unger 451_, Réthy II 125A, Frynas H.27.817 viewsHungary. Sigismund/Zsigmond of Luxembourg (1387-1437; Holy Roman Emperor 1433-1437)

AR parvus; .33 g., 10.15 mm. max., 180°

Obv: Four-part shield (Árpádian stripes and eagle), S—V—R above and flanking.

Rev: Cross with four crowns between its arms, r in upper cross arms.

The type was struck in 1387-1427 (Huszár, Pohl, Unger, Frynas and Gyöngyössy, although the type terminated in 1410 per Engel). This privy mark is listed in Huszár and Pohl but not in Unger.

The parvus (also called the “small denar” fillér or pankart) was struck with an average nominal fineness of 0.353 silver. Because of many worn out and counterfeit coins it was pulled from circulation after 1427 (per Huszár). Although not specifically discussed in this context in Engel, the parvus must have experienced the same rampant debasement as the denar did.

Huszár/Pohl rarity 4; Frynas rarity C.
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HUN_Zsigmund_parvus_Huszar_580_Pohl_119-86.jpg
Huszár 580, Pohl 119-86, Unger 451j or νν, Réthy II 125A, Frynas H.27.819 viewsHungary. Sigismund/Zsigmond of Luxembourg (1387-1437; Holy Roman Emperor 1433-1437)

AR parvus; .22 g., 9.55 mm. max,, 0°

Obv: Four-part shield (Árpádian stripes and eagle), S—V—R above and flanking.

Rev: Cross with four crowns, monogram between the upper arms.

The type was struck in 1387-1427 (Huszár, Pohl, Unger, Frynas and Gyöngyössy, although the terminated in 1410 per Engel), this privy mark was struck by Ulrich Kamerer (per Pohl).

The parvus (also called the “small denar” fillér or pankart) was struck with an average nominal fineness of 0.353 silver. Because of many worn out and counterfeit coins it was pulled from circulation after 1427 (per Huszár). Although not specifically discussed in this context in Engel, the parvus must have experienced the same rampant debasement as the denar did.

Huszár/Pohl rarity 4; Frynas rarity C.
1 commentsStkp
HUN_Zsigmund_parvus_Huszar_580_Pohl_119-__Unger_451_#969;_#969;.jpg
Huszár 580, Pohl 119-_, Unger 451ωω, Réthy II 125A, Frynas H.27.820 viewsHungary. Sigismund/Zsigmond of Luxembourg (1387-1437; Holy Roman Emperor 1433-1437)

AR parvus; .34 g., 12.08 mm. max.

Obv: Four-part shield (Árpádian stripes and eagle), S—V—R above and flanking, •• below.

Rev: Cross with four crowns between its arms.

The type was struck in 1387-1427 (Huszár, Pohl, Unger, Frynas and Gyöngyössy, although the type terminated in 1410 per Engel). This privy mark is listed in Huszár and Unger but not in Pohl.

The parvus (also called the “small denar” fillér or pankart) was struck with an average nominal fineness of 0.353 silver. Because of many worn out and counterfeit coins it was pulled from circulation after 1427 (per Huszár). Although not specifically discussed in this context in Engel, the parvus must have experienced the same rampant debasement as the denar did.

Huszár/Pohl rarity 4; Frynas rarity C. This type is typically struck on a small flan. This specimen is unusually well and fully struck for the type.
1 commentsStkp
HUN_Zsigmund_Huszar_580_Pohl_119-pi.jpg
Huszár 580, Pohl 119-_, Unger 451_, Réthy II 125A, Frynas H.27.87 viewsHungary. Sigismund/Zsigmund of Luxembourg (1387-1437; Holy Roman Emperor 1433-1437)

AR parvus; .20 g., 10.16 mm. max., 180°

Obv: Four-part shield (Árpádian stripes and eagle), S-V-R above and flanking.

Rev: Cross with four crowns, π between lower cross arms.

The type was struck in 1387-1427 (Huszár, Pohl, Unger, Frynas and Gyöngyössy, although it terminated in 1410 per Engel).

The parvus (also called the “small denar” fillér or pankart) was struck with an average nominal fineness of 0.353 silver. Because of many worn out and counterfeit coins it was pulled from circulation after 1427 (per Huszár). Although not specifically discussed in this context in Engel, the parvus must have experienced the same rampant debasement as the denar did.

Huszár/Pohl rarity 4; Unger rarity 5; Frynas rarity C. Unrecorded privy mark.
Stkp
HUN_Zsigmond_Huszar_581_2.JPG
Huszár 581, Pohl 120, Unger 453, Réthy II 125B67 viewsHungary. Sigismund (Zsigmond, in Hun.) of Luxembourg (1387-1437; Holy Roman Emperor 1433-1437). AR parvus, 11-12 mm.

Obv: Four-part shield (Árpádian stripes and eagle), S—[V—R] above and flanking.

Rev: Cross with M and three crowns between its arms.

The type was struck in 1404-1405 (per Pohl, Huszár & Unger) in Buda (now Budapest) by Markus von Nürnberg, oberkammergraf (per Pohl).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 5.

The parvus (also called the “small denar” fillér or pankart) was struck with an average nominal fineness of 0.353 silver. Because of many worn out and counterfeit coins it was pulled from circulation after 1427 (per Huszár). Although not specifically discussed in this context in Engel, the parvus must have experienced the same rampant debasement as the denar did.

“Owing to inner strife and disordered general conditions, the coins [of this period] were usually minted with extremely low precious metal content; moreover, poor mintages were often struck with negligently engraved dies. As a result of the hurried, superficial minting, it was sometimes doubtful whether a faulty coin had been issued officially, or was a forgery” (Huszár 1963, at 15).
Stkp
HUN_Zsigmund_Huszar_580_Unger_451ww.JPG
Huszár 580, Pohl 119--, Unger 451ww, Réthy II 125A94 viewsHungary. Sigismund (Zsigmond, in Hun.) of Luxembourg (1387-1437; Holy Roman Emperor 1433-1437). AR parvus, 10 mm.

Obv: Four-part shield (Árpádian stripes and eagle), S—V—R above and flanking, •--• flanking the S (privy mark).

Rev: Cross with four crowns between its arms.

The type was struck in 1387-1427 (per Pohl, Huszár & Unger, although this emission terminated in 1410 per Engel). This mintmark is recorded in Huszár and Unger but not in Pohl.

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 4.

The parvus (also called the “small denar” fillér or pankart) was struck with an average nominal fineness of 0.353 silver. Because of many worn out and counterfeit coins it was pulled from circulation after 1427 (per Huszár). Although not specifically discussed in this context in Engel, the parvus must have experienced the same rampant debasement as the denar did.

“Owing to inner strife and disordered general conditions, the coins [of this period] were usually minted with extremely low precious metal content; moreover, poor mintages were often struck with negligently engraved dies. As a result of the hurried, superficial minting, it was sometimes doubtful whether a faulty coin had been issued officially, or was a forgery” (Huszár 1963, at 15). This emission is typically struck on a small flan.
Stkp
HUN_Zsigmond_Huszar_580_Pohl_119-10.JPG
Huszár 580, Pohl 119-10 or 15, Unger 451q or v, Réthy II 125A153 viewsHungary. Sigismund (Zsigmond, in Hun.) of Luxembourg (1387-1437; Holy Roman Emperor 1433-1437). AR parvus, 9-11 mm.

Obv: Four-part shield (Árpádian stripes and eagle), S—V—R above and flanking, K or P (privy mark) above at right.

Rev: Cross with four crowns between its arms.

The type was struck in 1387-1427 (per Pohl, Huszár & Unger, although this emission terminated in 1410 per Engel). This privy mark was struck in either Kremnitz (then Körmöcbánya, Hungary, now Kremnica, Slovakia) or in Pécs (per Pohl).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 4. This privy mark is a less common variant (described in Pohl but not in Unger) in which the mark is on the right side of the S instead of on the left side.

The parvus (also called the “small denar” fillér or pankart) was struck with an average nominal fineness of 0.353 silver. Because of many worn out and counterfeit coins it was pulled from circulation after 1427 (per Huszár). Although not specifically discussed in this context in Engel, the parvus must have experienced the same rampant debasement as the denar did.

“Owing to inner strife and disordered general conditions, the coins [of this period] were usually minted with extremely low precious metal content; moreover, poor mintages were often struck with negligently engraved dies. As a result of the hurried, superficial minting, it was sometimes doubtful whether a faulty coin had been issued officially, or was a forgery” (Huszár 1963, at 15). This emission is typically struck on a small flan.
Stkp
HUN_Zsigmond_Huszar_580_Pohl_119-24.JPG
Huszár 580, Pohl 119-24, Unger 451b, Réthy II 125A204 viewsHungary. Sigismund (Zsigmond, in Hun.) of Luxembourg (1387-1437; Holy Roman Emperor 1433-1437). AR parvus, 11.5 mm., .27 gr.

Obv: Four-part shield (Árpádian stripes and eagle), S—V—R above and flanking, * (privy mark) above at left.

Rev: Cross with four crowns between its arms.

The type was struck in 1387-1427 (per Pohl, Huszár & Unger, although this emission terminated in 1410 per Engel). This privy mark was struck in Nagybánya (now Baia Mare, Romania) (per Pohl).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 4.

The parvus (also called the “small denar” fillér or pankart) was struck with an average nominal fineness of 0.353 silver. Because of many worn out and counterfeit coins it was pulled from circulation after 1427 (per Huszár). Although not specifically discussed in this context in Engel, the parvus must have experienced the same rampant debasement as the denar did.

“Owing to inner strife and disordered general conditions, the coins [of this period] were usually minted with extremely low precious metal content; moreover, poor mintages were often struck with negligently engraved dies. As a result of the hurried, superficial minting, it was sometimes doubtful whether a faulty coin had been issued officially, or was a forgery” (Huszár 1963, at 15). This emission is typically struck on a small flan. This coin is unusually well struck for the type, and on a full flan.
Stkp
HUN_Zsigmund_Huszar_580_Pohl_119-64.JPG
Huszár 580, Pohl 119-64, Unger 451ii, Réthy II 125A88 viewsHungary. Sigismund (Zsigmond, in Hun.) of Luxembourg (1387-1437; Holy Roman Emperor 1433-1437). AR parvus, 10.5 mm.

Obv: Four-part shield (Árpádian stripes and eagle), S—V—R above and flanking, T-O flanking the S (privy mark).

Rev: Cross with four crowns between its arms.

The type was struck in 1387-1427 (per Pohl, Huszár & Unger, although this emission terminated in 1410 per Engel).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 4.

The parvus (also called the “small denar” fillér or pankart) was struck with an average nominal fineness of 0.353 silver. Because of many worn out and counterfeit coins it was pulled from circulation after 1427 (per Huszár). Although not specifically discussed in this context in Engel, the parvus must have experienced the same rampant debasement as the denar did.

“Owing to inner strife and disordered general conditions, the coins [of this period] were usually minted with extremely low precious metal content; moreover, poor mintages were often struck with negligently engraved dies. As a result of the hurried, superficial minting, it was sometimes doubtful whether a faulty coin had been issued officially, or was a forgery” (Huszár 1963, at 15). This emission is typically struck on a small flan.
Stkp
HUN_Zsigmund_Huszar_580a.JPG
Huszár 580a, Pohl 119-1 var., Unger 451a var., Réthy II 125C166 viewsHungary. Sigismund (Zsigmond, in Hun.) of Luxembourg (1387-1437; Holy Roman Emperor 1433-1437). AR parvus, 8-9 mm., .18 gr.

Obv: Four-part shield (eagle and Árpádian stripes) [S—V—R above and flanking].

Rev: Cross with four crowns between its arms.

The type was struck in 1387-1427 (per Pohl, Huszár & Unger, although this emission terminated in 1410 per Engel). This privy mark was struck in Nagybánya (now Baia Mare, Romania) (per Pohl).

Huszár rarity rating 4. This is a rare variety in which the eagle is on the upper left and lower right, instead of the opposite.

The parvus (also called the “small denar” fillér or pankart) was struck with an average nominal fineness of 0.353 silver. Because of many worn out and counterfeit coins it was pulled from circulation after 1427 (per Huszár). Although not specifically discussed in this context in Engel, the parvus must have experienced the same rampant debasement as the denar did.

“Owing to inner strife and disordered general conditions, the coins [of this period] were usually minted with extremely low precious metal content; moreover, poor mintages were often struck with negligently engraved dies. As a result of the hurried, superficial minting, it was sometimes doubtful whether a faulty coin had been issued officially, or was a forgery” (Huszár 1963, at 15). This emission is typically struck on a small flan.
Stkp
HUN_Zsigmond_Huszar_581.JPG
Huszár 581, Pohl 120, Unger 453, Réthy II 125B117 viewsHungary. Sigismund (Zsigmond, in Hun.) of Luxembourg (1387-1437; Holy Roman Emperor 1433-1437). AR parvus, 11 mm.

Obv: Four-part shield (Árpádian stripes and eagle), [S]—V—R above and flanking.

Rev: Cross with M and three crowns between its arms.

The type was struck in 1404-1405 (per Pohl, Huszár & Unger) in Buda (now Budapest) by Markus von Nürnberg, oberkammergraf (per Pohl).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 5.

The parvus (also called the “small denar” fillér or pankart) was struck with an average nominal fineness of 0.353 silver. Because of many worn out and counterfeit coins it was pulled from circulation after 1427 (per Huszár). Although not specifically discussed in this context in Engel, the parvus must have experienced the same rampant debasement as the denar did.

“Owing to inner strife and disordered general conditions, the coins [of this period] were usually minted with extremely low precious metal content; moreover, poor mintages were often struck with negligently engraved dies. As a result of the hurried, superficial minting, it was sometimes doubtful whether a faulty coin had been issued officially, or was a forgery” (Huszár 1963, at 15).
Stkp
HUN_Zsigmond_Huszar_582_Pohl_121-1.JPG
Huszár 582, Pohl 121-1, Unger 452, Réthy II 126168 viewsHungary. Sigismund (Zsigmond, in Hun.) of Luxembourg (1387-1437; Holy Roman Emperor 1433-1437). AR parvus, 11 mm.

Obv: Four-part shield (Árpádian stripes and Bohemian lion), S—V—R above and flanking.

Rev: Cross with four crowns between its arms.

The type was struck in 1402 (per Huszár & Unger) or 1402-1403 (per Pohl) in Buda (now Budapest) (per Pohl).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 5.

The parvus (also called the “small denar” fillér or pankart) was struck with an average nominal fineness of 0.353 silver. Because of many worn out and counterfeit coins it was pulled from circulation after 1427 (per Huszár). Although not specifically discussed in this context in Engel, the parvus must have experienced the same rampant debasement as the denar did.

“Owing to inner strife and disordered general conditions, the coins [of this period] were usually minted with extremely low precious metal content; moreover, poor mintages were often struck with negligently engraved dies. As a result of the hurried, superficial minting, it was sometimes doubtful whether a faulty coin had been issued officially, or was a forgery” (Huszár 1963, at 15).
Stkp
carth3.JPG
IBERIA, Carthago Nova, Quarter shekel39 viewsStruck after 221 B.C.
The description for this coin is quite interesting, as has been discussed on this forum. Most descriptions doubt whether this was a person of importance on the coin, however, the ancient puncture holes seem to suggest a possibility that the coin may have been worn by a political supporter of this person. If this is indeed a real person of power, it could be a Barcid or even Hannibal himself.
Rev. Elephant walking r.
Weight: 1.7 g Diameter: 14 mm
2 commentssuperflex
236~0.jpg
Imperial head (Hadrian?) right200 viewsUncertain mint. Domitian (?). Ć 33. A.D. 81-96 (?). Obv: Inscription illegible. Laureate bust/head right; countermark before. Rev: Worn smooth. Weight: 19.36 g. CM: Laureate imperial head right (Hadrian?), in oval punch, 8 x 10 mm. Howgego 109 (1 pc). Howgego notes that 109 is probably a Cypriot countermark. Collection Automan.1 commentsAutoman
Indo-Roman_imitation_(5th_century)_AE4.png
Indo-Roman imitation (5th century) AE455 viewsObv.: Diademed head of emperor right Rev.: Female figure surrounded by veil? Field: S C? Diameter: 13.92 mm Weight: 1.2 grams

This Indo-Roman imitation, according to Weerakoddy, should be connected to the invasion of Sri Lanka from South India by a certain Pandu who, according to the Mahavamsa, ruled the island from A.D. 433-460. He further suggests that most of the coin hoards from Sri Lanka may represent temple donations and payments made to soldiers during Pandu's reign. The abandoning of these hoards may have been the result of disturbances that accompanied the Sinhala rebellion led by Dhatusena, which ended South Indian rule of the island in A.D. 460. Weerakkody also states that these imitative bronzes have been found in great numbers on the island, often as part of large hoards. Many are in private collections, of unknown provenience, or inadequately published. In general, the coins are very worn, and when their context is known it is often a good deal later than the date that they were struck.

(http://www.ancientimports.com/cgi-bin/category.pl?id=544)
Nick.vdw
EL_18.jpg
IONIA, Uncertain4 viewsca. 600-550 BC.
EL Myshemihekte (1/24 Stater); 6 mm, 0.63 grams
Obverse: Archaic head right
Reverse: Quadripartite incuse square
Heavily worn, but very rare.
ex. CNG
cf. CNG 99, lot 245 (image inserted at right to show additional detail)
1 commentscmcdon0923
sb1941varb_31mm_228g.jpg
John II, Electrum Aspron Trachy of Constantinople16 viewsobv: IC XC in field
Christ, bearded and nimbate wearing tunic and collobion seated upon throne without back; right hand raised in benediction, holds Gospels in left
Rev:
var. Ib
Full length figure of emperor on left and of Saint George beardless and nimbate on right, between them patriarchal cross on long shaft at the base is a small globe(worn on this coin) Emperor wears stemma, divitision and chlamys( in this coin var b there is a dot below the tab lion on chlamys); saint wears short military tunic, breast plate and sagion, holds sword in left hand.
Mint: Constantinople
Date: 1118-1143 CE
31mm 2.28g

wileyc
Julia Domna Hilaritas.JPG
Julia Domna- Hilaritas32 viewsJulia Domna, Augusta 194 - 8 April 217 A.D.

IVLIA AVGVSTA, draped bust right

Obverse:
IVLIA AVGVSTA

IVLIA: Julia
AVGVSTA: Augusta/ Empress

Reverse:
HILARITAS, the happiness of our empress

Hilaritas standing left holding long palm and cornucopia
That it is Hilaritas is a guess, the coin is worn.

Bronze AE 3, size 18 mm

Mint: official, Rome mint, 198 A.D, RIC # ?
John S
Julia_Mamaea_VESTA_2b.jpg
Julia Mamaea * Vesta, Silver Denarius * 222-235 AD.90 views
Julia Mamaea * Vesta, AR Denarius
* Mother of Severus Alexander &nd Cousin of Elegabalus *

Obv: IVLIA MAMAEA AVG * Diademed and draped bust, right facing.
Rev: VESTA * Vesta standing left, holding patera in right hand, arm partially extended, and transverse scepter in her left hand.

Exergue: (None)

Mint: Rome
Struck: 227 AD.

Size: 18 mm.
Weight: 3.32 grams
Die axis: 180°

Condition: Tellingly aged and circulation worn, but still in possession of quite lovely luster on the whole with some subtle toning.

Refs:*
Cohen, 85
BMC, 440
RIC IVii, 362, page 99
SEAR RCV II (2002), 8218, page 679

2 commentsTiathena
julia-mamaea_sestertius_24_9gr_obv_06_rev_03.JPG
Julia Mamaea 002 - 01 - AE Sestertius - Venus Victrix 30 viewsEmpress Julia Mamaea, Mother of Emperor Severus Alexander (222-235 AD)
AE Sestertius. Struck 228-9 AD - Rome Mint.

obv: JULIA MAMAEA AUGUSTA - Diademed and draped bust right, seen from the front.
rev: VENVS VICTRIX SC - Venus standing left holding helmet & scepter, shield at feet.

24.9 grams - HEAVY!
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*Notes: This is a very thick and large sestertius of Julia Mamaea, great even patina and coloration as well as having a VERY bold and quite pleasant portrait of the Empress! despite some legend letters being worn or off the flan.
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2 commentsrexesq
julia-mamaea_sestertius_24_9gr_obv_01_rev_01.JPG
Julia Mamaea 002 - 01 AE Sestertius - Venus Victrix50 viewsEmpress Julia Mamaea, Mother of Emperor Severus Alexander (222-235AD)
AE Sestertius. Struck 228-9 AD - Rome Mint.

obv: JULIA MAMAEA AUGUSTA - Diademed and draped bust right, seen from the front.
rev: VENVS VICTRIX SC - Venus standing left holding helmet & scepter, shield at feet.

24.9 grams - HEAVY!
-----------

*Notes: This is a very thick and large sestertius of Julia Mamaea, great even patina and coloration as well as having a VERY bold and quite pleasant portrait of the Empress! despite some legend letters being worn or off the flan.
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5 commentsrexesq
julia-mamaea_sestertius_24_9gr_obv_10.JPG
Julia Mamaea 002 - 04 - AE Sestertius - Venus Victrix 19 viewsJulia Mamaea AE Sestertius. 228-9 AD.

obv: JULIA MAMAEA AUGUSTA - Diademed and draped bust right, seen from the front.
rev: VENVS VICTRIX SC - Venus standing left holding helmet & scepter, shield at feet.

24.9 grams - heavy
-----------

*Notes: This is a very thick and large sestertius of Julia Mamaea, great even patina and coloration as well as having a VERY bold and quite pleasant portrait of the Empress! despite some legend letters being worn or off the flan.
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1 commentsrexesq
T389.jpg
Julia Titi RIC 38995 viewsAR Denarius, 3.10g
Rome mint, 80-81 AD (Titus)
Obv: IVLIA IMP T AVG F AVGVSTA•; Bust of Julia, draped, r., hair piled high in front and knotted low at back
Rev: VESTA in exergue; Vesta std. l., with palladium and sceptre
RIC 389 (R). BMC p. 144 note. RSC 16. BNC 108.

Titus struck a small issue of denarii for his daughter Julia Titi, most of which are fairly scarce. This Vesta reverse type is much rarer than the more commonly encountered Venus one. Julia is seen here sporting the classic Flavian lady hairdo.

Worn, but not unattractively so.
4 commentsDavid Atherton
Julius_Caesar.jpg
Julius Caesar82 viewsGaius Julius Caesar, denarius.
Rome, 44 BC.
3.32 g., 19 mm.
Obv. CAESAR / DICT PERPETVO; laureate head of Caesar right.
Rev. P SEPVLLIVS / MACER; Venus standing left, holding Victory in right hand, scepter set on shield in left.
Crawford 480/10, RSC 38.
Worn but still appealing.
2 commentsMarsman
174.jpg
KA (monogram of)124 viewsUncertain mint. Ć 26. 1st century A.D. (?). Obv: Outline of female (?) imperial bust; Countermark (1) on neck. Rev: Worn smooth; Countermark (2). Weight: 7.92 g. CM(1-2): Monogram of KA, in circular punch, 4.5 mm. Howgego -. Collection Automan.Automan
Kavaros_Tetradrachm.jpg
Kabyle Thrace Tetradrachm -- 230-218 BC14 views16.62 g, 29 mm, 30°
Minted in Kabyle
Silver Tetradrachm; Lightly Toned, Struck from Worn Dies, Minor Porosity
In the Name and Style of Alexander the Great; Celtic Design
Price 882; Draganov 874-875 (Variation); Peykov F2010

Obverse: Head of Herakles Wearing Nemean Skin Headdress Right.
Reverse: BΑΣΙΛΕΛΣ AΛEΞAN∆POY (Of King Alexander), Zeus Aëtophoros Enthroned Left Holding Eagle and Staff. Artemis Phosphoros (Lightbringer) Standing Left, Holding Torches.

Alexander III the Great, the King of Macedonia and conqueror of the Persian Empire is considered one of the greatest military geniuses of all times. He became king upon his father’s death in 336 BCE and went on to conquer most of the known world of his day. He is known as 'the great' both for his military genius and his diplomatic skills in handling the various populaces of the regions he conquered. Kabyle was an ancient Thracian city in modern South Eastern Bulgaria which was conquered by Philip II in 341 BC. Following the Celtic Invasion of Thrace, the royal Odrysian power was replaced by city rule. Kavaros was a Gallic King of Thrace, the only of them to strike coins.
__________________________________
My #1 or #2 favorite. I love the look that results from the worn dies often used on this style and the addition of Artemis. The flan has a slight bend that's apparent on the left side of the reverse, but I think it gives the coin more character rather than taking away from anything. The reverse also has a slight toning that I've heard referred to as "classic coin cabinet toning" or "gunmetal toning" that makes it look great. In hand, the overall presentation of this coin is just amazing in my opinion.
Hydro
Lycian Stater 2.jpg
Kherei, Lycian Dynast Silver Stater121 viewsKherei, Lycian Dynast Silver Stater, S. Hurter, INJ 14 (2000-2), pp. 15-18, pl. 2, 1/6, struck 410-390BC,
8.7 grams, 17.8 mm. Choice VF

Obv: Lion right, attacking bull standing left
Rev: Bull standing left, triskeles above, all within incuse square
These coins are only known with a very crude obverse strike due to worn dies. However I really like the reverse, and that makes up for the lack of a clear obverse. Actually this specimen has a faint motif if you look closely.
Another interesting thing is the four die cracks that starts from each corner of the incuse. This tell us the kind of force that was used during the striking. Maybe this explains the state of the obverse die?
Interesting coin all togheter.
1 commentsJan Terje R
Corinth,_Alexander_Tetradrachm,_Price_691.jpg
Kings of Macedon, Demetrios I Poliorketes, 306-283 BC, AR Tetradrachm - Corinth ca. 290-287 BC 28 viewsHead of Herakles right wearing lion skin headdress.
BAΣIΛEΩΣ AΛEΞANΔPOY Zeus Aëtophoros seated left, Nikai on throne back, cornucopia in left field, NO beneath throne.

Price 691; Müller 877; Commerce ("Seleucus I") Hoard 2005 (CH 10.265) 339-374 (same obv. die as 376 a Price 691 variant). Struck ca. 290-287 BC in Corinth by Demetrios I Poliorketes.
Struck from worn and rusty dies.

(28 mm, 17.16 g, 4h).
ex- Commerce ("Seleucus I") Hoard 2005 (CH 10.265)

The Commerce ("Seleucus I") Hoard 2005 (CH 10.265) is believed to have been a part of Seleukos’ treasury at the time he was assassinated by Ptolemy Keraunos. The coins in the hoard consist of tetradrachms and drachms, of early the Hellenistic period accompanied by one Boeotian and five Athenian civic issues. The Hellenistic royal coinage derived from the mints of Alexander the Great, Antigonos Monopthalmos, Demetrios Poliorketes, Lysimachos and Seleukos. The hoard was found in an undisclosed location in Asia Minor. Its composition is inferred from 1,721 coins in commerce in 2005-06, although the total hoard is believed to have consisted of more than 3,000 coins. The hoard appears to have been closed around 281 BC at the time of the murder of Seleukos.
n.igma
Corinth,_Price_703_.jpg
Kings of Macedon, Philip V, 221-179 BC, AR Tetradrachm – Corinth 220-217 BC26 viewsHead of Herakles right wearing lion skin headdress.
AΛEΞANΔPOY Zeus Aëtophoros seated left on a throne with a backrest topped by two Nikai, in left field Athena advancing left, shield over shoulder, holding spear on which is perched an owl, ΘE beneath throne.

Troxell Peloponnesian Alexanders pl. XVII, 3 (same obverse die); Price 703 (same obverse die); Noe ANSNS 6, 60.

(27 mm, 16.83 g, 1h).
Jencek Historical Enterprise.

Struck ca. 220-217 BC in Corinth, part of the Achaean League contribution to the maintenance of the army of Philip V of Macedon during the Social War. Obverse struck from a worn die.
n.igma
ALEXANDER_III_worn_resized.jpg
KINGS OF MACEDON--ALEXANDER III46 viewsAR DRACHM 19.5 mm 3.55 g
OBV: HEAD OF HERAKLES IN LIONSKIN HEADDRESS R
REV: ZEUS ENTHRONED L HOLDING EAGLE AND SCEPTER
laney
Kushan-Vima-Kadphises.jpg
Kushan Vima Kadphises AE Tetradrachm22 viewsIndia, Kushan Vima Kadphises AE Tetradrachm, (112-127 AD), 15.7g, 27mm

Obverse: BACIΛƐΥC BACIΛƐωN OOHMO MƐΓAC OOHM KAΔΦICHC, King standing facing, sacrificing at altar left, tamgha and club in right field, Greek legend starting at 12 O'clock, worn off.

Reverse: MAHARAJASA RAJADIRAJASA SARVALOGA ISVARASA MAHISVARASA VIMA KATHPHISHASA TRATARA, Siva standing facing, Bull Nandi behind, nandipada at left, tamgha left , Kharoshthi legend starting at 12 O'clock.

Reference: Mitchiner 3006-3046

Ex: Tyche Numismatics - David Murrey

-------------------------------------------------

Kharosthi viewable with Segoe UI Historic, Alphabetum, Unifont, Everson Mono

𐨨𐨱𐨪𐨗𐨯𐨪𐨗𐨜𐨁𐨪𐨗𐨯𐨮𐨃𐨬𐨫𐨆𐨒𐨯𐨁𐨬𐨪𐨯𐨨𐨱𐨁𐨯𐨬𐨪𐨮𐨬𐨁𐨨𐨐𐨠𐨥𐨁𐨭𐨯𐨚𐨃𐨟𐨪 ←

MAHARAJASA RAJADIRAJASA SARVALOGA SIVARASA MAHISVARASA VIMA KATHPHISHASA TRATARA
Gil-galad
224-1-SB-Jencek.jpg
l IVLI - XVI Denarius, Crawford 224/111 viewsDenomination: Denarius
Era: c. 141 BC
Metal: AR
Obverse: Helmeted head of Roma r. with peaked visor; “XVI” behind; Border of dots
Reverse: Dioscuri riding r. l IVLI below and to right of horsemen. ROMA in exergue

Mint: Rome
Weight: 3.75 gm.
Reference: Crawford 224/1
Provenance: John Jencek, 6-July-2009.

Comments:
One of the five issues listed by Crawford in RRC with mark of value XVI, and connected with the retariffing of the denarius from 10 to 16 asses. This retariffing would reduce the amount of silver that could be exchanged for a given amount of bronze.

After these five issues in 141-140 BC, this value marking was mysteriously dropped in favor of the X mark of value, and later the x-dash symbol but the reckoning of 16 asses to 1 denarius remained for the duration of the denarius as a denomination for about 450 years.

Some interesting facts that may help to explain the transition to 16 Asses include:
• The weight of the bronze coinage had significantly dropped over time to well below the uncial standard.
• About the same time as the denarius mark of value change from X to XVI around 140 BC, the As bronze coin ceased to be produced, although its fractions continued to be minted in small quantities.
• The Roman Army was paid in silver, so this retariffing presumably had no impact on their compensation and was not controversial within the army.

The explanation for the abandonment of the XVI mark of value in favor of the (obsolete) X mark of value is unknown.

This coin is the most common of the five issue with XVI mark of value. The reverse is from a somewhat worn die and is off-center, obscuring some of the far dioscuri at 1:00 to 3:00. Otherwise, AEF / VF
Steve B5
Sabin.jpg
L. Titurius L.f. Sabinus146 viewsSABIN
Bare head of King Tatius right, bearded. Palm branch before

L TITVRI
Tarpeia facing, buried to her waist in shields, trying to ward off two soldiers who are about to cast their shields on her, star within crescent moon above

Rome, 89 BC

Sear 251, RRC 344/2a

Ex-ANE from an old collection

Jet black toning.

One of the great legends of Rome commemorated on a coin. It tells the story of Rome being besieged by the Sabine king Titus Tatius after the "Rape" of the Sabine women. Tarpeia, daughter of the Roman commander Spurius Tarpeius, went out to the Sabine camp and offered them entry to the city in exchange for "what they bore on their left arms". She had meant their gold bracelets worn on their arms. Once inside the citadel the Sabines threw their shields—carried on the left arm—upon her, crushing her to death. Her body was then thrown from a steep cliff of the southern summit of the Capitoline Hill. The cliff was named the Tarpeian Rock after Tarpeia and would become the place of execution for Rome's most notorious traitors. King Tatius and Romulus soon were reconciled through the efforts of the abducted Sabine women who had come to love their Roman abductors. They jointly ruled over Rome for the next 5 years until Tatius death.
9 commentsJay GT4
Large_AE30_of_Caracalla_(198-217_AD)_from_Serdika,_Thrace.jpg
Large AE30 of Caracalla (198-217 AD) from Serdika, Thrace32 viewsMature bust of Caracalla facing right on obverse, Concordia standing on reverse, holding cornucopiae and sacrificing over an altar. Excellent quality for these. These large provincial bronzes are usually very worn, and not often seen in such a nice condition as this one. 30 mm, 16.8 grams. 2495 soldAntonio Protti
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Large head right105 viewsUncertain mint. Ć 22. 1st century A.D. ? Obv: Inscription illegible. Outline of imperial bust right; countermark on bust. Rev: Worn smooth. Weight: 6.42 g. CM: Large head right, in rectangular punch, 7 x 9 mm. Howgego -. Collection AutomanAutoman
Larissa_Nymph.jpg
Larissa, Thessaly * Trihemiobol * 370-360 BC.103 views
Obv: Nymph Larissa, front-facing slightly angled-left.
Rev: Grazing Thessalian horse, right-facing.

Exergue: [LA]R[ISAION] (worn illegible)

Mint: Larissa
Struck: ca. 370-360 BC.

Size: 10 mm.
Weight: 0.85 grams
Die axis: 90 degs.

Refs: *
Herrmann group VII, series B, pl. VI, 2
BMC Thessaly pg. 31, 75 var.

2 commentsTiathena
226.jpg
Laureate (?) head right122 viewsSAMARIA. Uncertain mint (Caesarea Maritima?). Titus (?). Ć 20. 70s A.D. (?). Obv: Inscription illegible. Faint outline of imperial bust right; countermark on neck. Rev: Worn smooth. Weight: 7.59 g. CM: Laureate (?) head right, in rectangular punch, 3.5 x 4.5 mm. Howgego 135 (28 pcs). Note: Probably applied in Palestine. Collection Automan.Automan
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Laureate bust and "S" (?)126 viewsUncertain mint. Ć 18. 2 countermarks. Worn smooth. Weight: 2.70 g. CM(1): Laureate bust right, in circular punch, 5 mm. Howgego – CM(2): (?).S (?) in rectangular punch, 5 x 3 mm.Howgego - (?).Collection Automan.Automan
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Laureate bust right105 viewsSYRIA or SAMARIA (?). Uncertain mint. Titus or Domitian (?). Ć 23. 70s-80s A.D. Obv: Inscription illegible. Faint outline of imperial bust right; countermark on head. Rev: Worn smooth. Weight: 10.78 g. CM: Laureate bust right, in rectangular punch, 4.5 x 6 mm. Howgego 133 ? (17 pcs). Collection Automan.Automan
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Laureate head of emperor right132 viewsUncertain mint. Domitian (?). Ć 29. 1st century A.D. Obv: Inscription illegible. Outline of imperial bust right; countermark before. Rev: Worn smooth. Weight: 7.25 g. CM: Laureate head of emperor right, in oval punch, 7.5 x 9 mm. Howgego 109 sim (?). Note: Howgego 109 is noted as being a Cypriot countermark. Collection Automan.1 commentsAutoman
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Laureate head of emperor right230 viewsUncertain mint. Domitian (?). Ć 29. 1st century A.D. Obv: Inscription illegible. Outline of imperial bust right; countermark before. Rev: Worn smooth. Weight: 7.25 g. CM: Laureate head of emperor right, in oval punch, 7.5 x 9 mm. Howgego 109 sim (?). Note: Howgego 109 is noted as being a Cypriot countermark. Collection Automan.1 commentsAutoman
Rsc37.jpg
Leg IX22 viewsThis worn denarius has an IMP VES countermark on the reverse. Most likely the countermark was applied at Ephesus early in Vespasian's reign. Proof that more than 100 years after being minted this coin was still circulating around the Roman world!Paul F
augustus_lepida_celsa.jpg
Lepida-Celsa, Spain. AE28; Head without wreath? / Bull10 viewsAugustus, 16 January 27 B.C. - 19 August 14 A.D., Lepida-Celsa, Spain. Bronze AE 28, unpublished? cf. RPC I 270 (obverse head in wreath), Fair, Lepida-Celsa mint, 16.144g, 28.9mm, 45o, obverse AVGVS C V I CELS (or similar), bare head right (all within wreath?); reverse L COR TER M IVNIVS HISP II VIR (or similar), bull right. The obverse is worn and it is possible there is a wreath and this coin is RPC 270 but we don't see any sign of the wreath and the head is larger than on the examples of RPC 270 examined by Forum. Ex FORVMPodiceps
licinius_msn.png
licinius 8.07.023.230 viewsLicinius
Obv IMP LICINIVS PF AVG
(R.laur.cuir)
Rev SOLI INVICTO COMITI
(Sol raising right hand, holding up globe with left)
S |P
MSN in ex
London
Not in RIC CT 8.07.023 (2) (R)
3.0g
(We will never know if MSN was a deliberate mint mark for the London mint, or whether it was an engraver's error. Only 7 coins are known with this mint mark, which would suggest an error. However, there are examples with a Constantine and Licinius obverse, which might support the view that the use of the MSN mint mark was deliberate. In all, 4 obverse dies are known for this issue and 2 reverse dies. See "A New London Mint mark for Constantine the Great”: Numismatic Circular, July 2009, pp.106 (Lee Toone). CT has a further comment on this mint mark on page 64.
This coin has the same reverse die as the Constantine example in my collection, although this example suggests that the die was worn by this stage. This gives a possible glimpse into the working practices of the mint. It suggests that reverse dies were mixed and matched and weren’t exclusively used for the coins of only one emperor.)
Noviomagus
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Lokri Opuntii, 360-350 B.C.49 views"Locrian Ajax (the Lesser) was a Greek mythological hero, son of Oileus, the king of Locris. He was the leader of the Lokrian contingent during the Trojan War. He was called the "lesser" or "Locrian" Ajax, to distinguish him from Ajax the Great, son of Telamon. He is a significant figure in Homer's Iliad and is also mentioned in the Odyssey and Virgil's Aeneid."

Silver triobol or hemidrachm, BCD Lokris 46, SNG Cop 48, SGCV I 2332, Nice F, centered, toned, 2.561g, 15.5mm, 270o, Lokri Opuntii mint, 360 - 350 B.C.; obverse head of Demeter right, wreathed in grain, wearing drop earring and necklace (worn away); reverse OPON-TIWN, Ajax son of Oileus, advancing right in fighting attitude, helmeted, nude, short sword in right, shield in left ornamented inside coiled snake (control symbol), broken spear on ground in background;
1 commentsjimmynmu
HN_Italy_1384.jpg
Lucania, Heraclea. Circa 334-330 BC. AR Nomos46 views7.46 g, 7h
Obv: Helmeted head of Athena
Rx: Herakles standing facing holding lion skin and bow in left arm, club in right, being crowned by Nike
VF, struck with worn obverse die. beautiful style.
Van Keuren 83; HN Italy 1384v jug to rt.
Ex Frank Robinson 2012
2 commentsLeo
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LUCANIA, Metapontion28 viewsLUCANIA, Metapontion. Circa 400-340 BC. AR Nomos (7.76 g, 9h). Head of Demeter left / Barley ear of seven grains with leaf to right; ivy leaf above leaf. Noe 521; HN Italy 1545. Near VF, lightly toned, struck from worn obverse die, a few scratches. Rare, Noe records only 2 examples.

From the Colin E. Pitchfork Collection.

Ex-CNG(120)

ecoli
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Lucius Verus9 viewsSilver Denarius
Roman Imperial - The Principate

Lucius Verus

Rome mint, 168 A.D.
Fine, weak strike? worn dies? Some elements of reverse not struck up.
18.0 mm / 2.834 g / 180°

Obverse: "L VERVS AVG ARM PARTH MAX", laureate head right.
Reverse: "TR P VIII IMP V COS III", Aequitas standing left, holding scales and cornucopia.

RIC 590.

MyID: 020C
TenthGen
RS062-Roman-AE_sestertius,_Lucius_Verus_(ca_161-169_AD).jpg
LUCIUS VERUS (161-169 AD), AE sestertius, Victory, struck ca. 164 AD43 viewsObverse- L AVREL VERVS AVG ARMENIACVS, laureate head right.
Reverse- TR P IIII IMP II COS II S-C, Victory standing right, placing a shield inscribed VIC/AVG in two lines on palm.
RIC 1396, 33.79 mm, 23 g.
Ex-Ancient Imports, May 2007, through VCoins store.
Comments: This bronze sestertius is well worn and the legends are a bit weak in places, but it is impressively large and thick and has a nice clear portrait, even if the emperor does look a bit stern. This is a holdover from my first Roman Imperial collection and was one of the first coins I bought as a novice; certainly the first sestertius I ever owned.
1 commentslordmarcovan
LV_RIC_1379.jpg
Lucius Verus 7 Mar. 161 - Feb. 169 A.D. Rome mint99 viewsOrichalcum sestertius; RIC III 1379, Sear RCV 5376, (BMCRE 1109), (Cowen 224); Rome mint; Weight 21.4gr., Max. Diameter 30.56mm; 164 A.D.; Obv. L AVREL VERVS AVG ARMENIACVS, laureate head right, Rev. TR P IIII IMP II COS II S C, Mars advancing r., carrying spear and trophy. Thin black patina, worn on high spots.

Ex. Andreas Kohn
5 commentsSteve E
Lucius_Verus_Pan_1379.jpg
Lucius Verus, 7 Mar. 161 to Feb. 169 AD, Rome mint87 viewsOrichalcum sestertius; RIC III 1420 (probablly, rev. is too worn to know for sure, only other possibility is RIC 1379); Rome mint; Weight 25.9gr., Max. Diameter 33.45mm; 165 A.D.; Obv. L AVREL VERVS AVG ARMENIACVS, laureate head right, Rev. (TR P V IMP II COS II) S C, Mars advancing r., carrying spear and trophy. Olive green patina with green and pink encrustations, large corrosion spot on rev.
I found an exact die match of the obv. which was a RIC 1420, couldn't tell if the rev. was a match because mine is so worn.
http://www.acsearch.info/record.html?id=62257

This was my first ancient coin I bought from a dealer about 30 years ago. I wasn't able to ID the emperor until 2010, when I discovered Forvm Ancient Coins!
1 commentsSteve E
caracalla_284~0.jpg
Luna/Diana270 viewsCaracalla AD 198 - 217
AR - Denar, 3.13g, 19mm
Rome AD 217
obv. ANTONINVS PIVS AVG GERM
laureate head r.
rev. PM TRP XX COS IIII PP
Luna/Diana with crescent on head and scarf flying
behind her, standing in bull-biga, driving l.
RIC IV, 284; C.396
Scarce; good EF

LUNA, goddess of the moon. Her usual attribute is a crescent worn at top of her head. She first appears early 2nd century BC on Bigati. Equated with DIANA and sometimes impossible to make any clear distinction between these two. The bull is connected to DIANA by a myth, in which sacrificing a big bull would bring great power to the city of the person who sacrificed him. Thus Rome was given the imperium! Diana was the patron of the Biga racing driver too!
2 commentsJochen
Stobe M.ST.jpg
M.ST180 viewsObv: Radiate head of M. Aurelius; Countermark. Host coin possibly of Stobe, although reverse is worn blank. CM: M.ST in rectangular punch for "Municipium Stobensium". Howgego 704. Collection Cassius.1 commentsAutoman
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Macedonia, Alexander the Great31 viewsAR Tetradrachm
16.7g

Eastern style, probably Babylonian mint, most likely dating to the period 315-300 B.C. (controls marks too worn to attribute fully)

Thanks to FORVM members Lloyd T and Meepzorp for their help attributing this coin.

Per Lloyd T:
"The chubby Herakles head and reverse portrayal of the throne with prominant "bell cap" bases to the legs are characteristics of this period of Babylonian output, although to be found to varying degress in other eastern issues."

FORVM member Lee S describes this as follows in a post:
"A nice, recognisable silver lump of currency over 2200 years old, and you can hold it in your hand (like some merchant or soldier did more than 2 millennia ago) without worry about degrading it.... I feel sometimes these worn examples are better ambassadors of history than a mint example.. A closer connection to our ancestors!"
Sosius
PhilipIIMacedonLifetimeTet.jpg
Macedonian Kingdom, Philip II, 359 - 336 B.C., Lifetime Issue129 viewsSilver tetradrachm, Le Rider 233 (D130/R188); SNG ANS 385 ff., VF, Pella, 14.163g, 25.4mm, 225o, 342 - 336 B.C.; obverse laureate head of Zeus right; reverse "FILIPPOU", naked youth on horse pacing right on horseback holding palm, thunderbolt below; ex CNG 214, 82; very high relief sculptural portrait, nice style, lifetime issue. Ex FORVM.

Philip II expanded the size and influence of the Macedonian Kingdom, but is perhaps best known as the father of Alexander the Great. He personally selected the design of his coins.

Philip II of Macedon (382 BC–336 BC; in Greek Φίλιππος = φίλος (friend) + ίππος (horse), transliterated Philippos) was the King of Macedon from 359 BC until his assassination. He was the father of Alexander the Great, Phillip III Arrhidaeus, and possibly Ptolemy I Soter, founder of the Ptolemaic dynasty.

Born in Pella, Philip was the youngest son of King Amyntas III and Eurydice. In his youth, (ca. 368 BC–365 BC) Philip was a hostage in Thebes, which was the leading city of Greece during the Theban hegemony. While a captive there, Philip received a military and diplomatic education from Epaminondas, was involved in a pederastic relationship with Pelopidas and lived with Pammenes, who was an enthusiastic advocate of the Sacred Band of Thebes. In 364 BC, Philip returned to Macedonia. The deaths of Philip's elder brothers, King Alexander II and Perdiccas III, allowed him to take the throne in 359 BC. Originally appointed regent for his infant nephew Amyntas IV, who was the son of Perdiccas III, Philip managed to take the kingdom for himself that same year.

Philip's military skills and expansionist vision of Macedonian greatness brought him early success. The hill tribes were broken by a single battle in 358 BC, and Philip established his authority inland as far as Lake Ohrid. He used the Social War as an opportunity for expansion. In 357 BC, he took the Athenian colony of Amphipolis, which commanded the gold mines of Mount Pangaion. That same year Philip married the Epirote princess Olympias, who was the daughter of the king of the Molossians. In 356 BC, Philip conquered the town of Crenides and changed its name to Philippi. Philip also attacked Abdera and Maronea, on the Thracian sea-board. Also in 356 Alexander was born and his race horse won in the Olympics in He took Methone in 354 BC, a town which had belonged to Athens. During the siege of Methone, Philip lost an eye.

Not until his armies were opposed by Athens at Thermopylae in 352 BC did Philip face any serious resistance. Philip did not attempt to advance into central Greece because the Athenians had occupied Thermopylae. Also in 352 BC, the Macedonian army won a complete victory over the Phocians at the Battle of Crocus Field. This battle made Philip tagus of Thessaly, and he claimed as his own Magnesia, with the important harbour of Pagasae.
Hostilities with Athens did not yet take place, but Athens was threatened by the Macedonian party which Philip's gold created in Euboea. From 352 to 346 BC, Philip did not again come south. He was active in completing the subjugation of the Balkan hill-country to the west and north, and in reducing the Greek cities of the coast as far as the Hebrus (Maritza). For the chief of these coastal cities, Olynthus, Philip continued to profess friendship until its neighboring cities were in his hands.

In 349 BC, Philip started the siege of Olynthus. Olynthus at first allied itself with Philip, but later shifted its allegiance to Athens. The Athenians did nothing to help Olynthus. Philip finally took Olynthus in 348 BC and razed the city to the ground. In 346 BC, he intervened effectively in the war between Thebes and the Phocians, but his wars with Athens continued intermittently.

Macedonia and the regions adjoining it having now been securely consolidated, Philip celebrated his Olympic games at Dium. In 347 BC, Philip advanced to the conquest of the eastern districts about the Hebrus, and compelled the submission of the Thracian prince Cersobleptes. Meanwhile, Athens had made overtures for peace, and when Philip, in 346 BC, again moved south, peace was sworn in Thessaly. With key Greek city-states in submission, Philip turned to Sparta; he sent them a message, "You are advised to submit without further delay, for if I bring my army into your land, I will destroy your farms, slay your people, and raze your city." Their reply was "If." Philip and Alexander would both leave them alone. Later, the Macedonian arms were carried across Epirus to the Adriatic Sea. In 342 BC, Philip led a great military expedition north against the Scythians, conquering the Thracian fortified settlement Eumolpia to give it his name, Philippoupolis (modern Plovdiv).

In 340 BC, Philip started the siege of Perinthus. Philip began another siege in 339 BC of the city of Byzantium. After unsuccessful sieges of both cities, Philip's influence all over Greece was compromised. However, Philip successfully reasserted his authority in the Aegean by defeating an alliance of Thebans and Athenians at the Battle of Chaeronea in 338 BC. He erected a memorial of a marble lion to the Sacred Band of Thebes for their bravery that still stands today. Philip created and led the League of Corinth in 337 BC. Members of the League agreed never to wage war against each other, unless it was to suppress revolution. Philip was elected as leader (hegemon) of the army of invasion against the Persian Empire. In 336 BC, when the invasion of Persia was in its very early stage, Philip was assassinated, and was succeeded on the throne of Macedon by his son Alexander the Great.

Philip’s Assassination

The murder happened in October of 336 BC, at Aegae, the ancient capital of the kingdom of Macedon. The court had gathered there for the celebration of the marriage between Alexander of Epirus and Philip's daughter. While the king was entering unprotected into the town's theatre (highlighting his approachability to the Greek diplomats present), he was killed by Pausanias of Orestis, one of Philip's seven bodyguards. The assassin immediately tried to escape and reach his associates who were waiting for him with horses at the entrance of Aegae. He was pursued by three of Philip's bodyguards and died by their hands.
The reasons for Pausanias' assassination of Phillip are difficult to fully expound, since there was controversy already among ancient historians. The only contemporary account in our possession is that of Aristotle, who states rather tersely that Philip was killed because Pausanias had been offended by the followers of Attalus, the king's father-in-law.

Whatever else that may be written about Philip II it must be recognized that he was responsible for making Macedon the ascendant Greek power. He reorganized the Macedonian army. It was this army that Alexander the Great inherited. Phillip II trained some of Alexander’s best generals: Antigonus Cyclops, Antipater, Nearchus, Parmenion, and Perdiccas.

According to the Greek historian Theopompus of Chios, Europe had never seen a man like king Philip of Macedonia, and he called his history of the mid-fourth century BCE the Philippic History. Theopompus had a point. Not even his better known son Alexander has done so much to change the course of Greek history. Philip reorganized his kingdom, gave it access to the sea, expanded its power so that it could defeat the Achaemenid Empire, and subdued the Greek city-states, which never regained their independence again. To achieve this, he modernized the Macedonian economy, improved the army, and concluded several marital alliances. The result was a superpower with one weakness: it was as strong as its king. When Philip's son Alexander died, the institutions were too weak, and Macedonia never recovered.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philip_II_of_Macedon
http://www.livius.org/phi-php/philip/philip_ii.htm
Ed. by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
1 commentsCleisthenes
Macrinus_Tyche_1a.jpg
Macrinus * Tyche, Marcianopolis, Moesia Inferior - Æ26, 217-218 AD.134 views
Macrinus * Tyche, Marcianopolis, Moesia Inferior – Bronze, 26 mm.

Obv: AVT K OPE/\/\ICEVH MAKPEINOC Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: /\ MARKIANOPOLEITWN Tyche standing left, holding cornucopia in left hand/arm, and rudder in her right.

Exergue: (N/A)

Mint: Marcianopolis
Struck: 217-218 AD.

Size: 26 mm.
Weight: 10.42 grams
Die axis: 170°

Condition: Showing the wear of time and usage, a bit worn, but quite clear, strong & distinct images and a lovely brass-colored patina, slightly more-brown on the reverse with some small green-colored spots of oxidation, particularly around the upper form of Tyche.

Refs:*
Moushmov 527
SNGCop 221

3 commentsTiathena
056n.jpg
Male bust and B168 viewsARABIA PETRAEA (?). Petra (?). Hadrian (?). Ć 26. A.D. 117-138 (?). 2 countermarks. Worn smooth. Weight: 6.96 g. CM(1): Male bust right, in circular punch, 6 mm. Howgego 125 (4 pcs). CM(2): B in circular punch, 5.5 mm. Howgego 770 (4 pcs). Note: The two countermarks were probably applied at the same time, but were likely earlier than other denomination countermarks of Petra. Collection Automan.Automan
Manuel_I_2b.jpg
Manuel I * Virgin crowning Emperor, Æ Billon Trachy, 1143-1180 AD.141 views
Manuel I * Virgin crowning Emperor, Billon Trachy

Obv: Bearded Xristos, seated facing on throne without back, wearing nimbus cruciger, pallium and colobium, in left hand book of Gospels; to left, IC with bar above and to right XC with bar above. Two stars, one in left and right fields respectively.
Rev: MANα HA ΔεCΠOT (or similar). The Virgin, nimbate to the right of Manuel on left, both standing facing; The Virgin wears pallium and maphorium and with her right hand crowns the emperor, who wears divitision and loros, and holds labarum and gl. cruciger; between the heads, M or MP with bar above; to right V with bar above.

Exergue: (Blank)

Mint: Constantinople
Struck: 1143-1180 AD.

Size: 30 mm.
Weight: 4.03 grams
Die axis: 180°

Condition: Worn as evident in photo, but retaining moderately strong images on both sides.

Refs:*
Sear, BCATV, 1966
(Common)

3 commentsTiathena
100_0684.JPG
Marcus Aurelius13 viewsMarcus Aurelius. AD 161-180. Ć Sestertius. Rome mint. Struck AD 165. Laureate bust right, slight drapery / Mars standing right, holding spear and shield. RIC III 898 handsome dark green patina.

Very worn UK find
simmurray
MAsestertius.jpg
Marcus Aurelius Sestertius73 viewsM ANTONINVS AVG TR P XXV
Laureate bust right

IMP VI COS III SC
Victory standing right attaching shield, inscribed VIC GER to palm tree

26.41g

RIC 1029, Sear 4978, BMC1423

Ex-ANE

Worn but with a lovely smooth chocolate patina

Sold Forum Auction March 2019
1 commentsJay GT4
Antony_Sol.jpg
Mark Antony225 viewsM ANTONI IMP
Bare head of Marcus Antonius right, bearded

III VIR R P C
Distyle temple containing facing bust of Sol on disk

Epirus? Autumn of 42 BC

3.44g

Sear 1467
Scarce
Ex-Incitatus

David Sear in "The History and Coinage of the Roman Imperators" says:

The reappearance of IMP in Antony's titulature suggests that this issue is subsequent to the second battle of Philippi (23 October), though as the Triumvir is still bearded it must have been struck quite soon after the deaths of Brutus and Cassius before orders had been given for the modification of the portrait. With Caesar's murder now avenged both Antony and Octavian could shave the beards which they had worn as a sign of mourning."
11 commentsJay GT4
Mark_Antony_Denarius_91_90.jpg
Mark Antony (Triumvir) Gens: Antonia Moneyer: Military Mint Coin: Silver Denarius 6 viewsANTAVG III VIR. R.P.C. - Galley right under oars
Legion XII Antiqvae - Eagle between standards
Mint: Patras ? (32-31 BC)
Wt./Size/Axis: 2.72g / 18mm / 12h
References:
RSC 40
BMC 222
Cr544/9
Syd 1231
Sear5 #1480
Provenances:
Thierry DUMEZ NUMISMATIQUE
Acquisition/Sale: Thierry DUMEZ NUMISMATIQUE MA-Shops $0.00 10/18
Notes: Nov 23, 18 - The Gary R. Wilson Collection

"ANT AVG | III VIR R P C"
("Antonius Augur | Triumvir rei publicae constituendae")
trans. "Antony Augustus (military title), Triumvirate for the Restoration of the Republic"



From Wikipedia:
Marcus Antonius (Latin: M·ANTONIVS·M·F·M·N;[note 1] 14 January 83 BC – 1 August 30 BC), commonly known in English as Mark Antony or Marc Antony, was a Roman politician and general who played a critical role in the transformation of the Roman Republic from an oligarchy into the autocratic Roman Empire.

Antony was a supporter of Julius Caesar, and served as one of his generals during the conquest of Gaul and the Civil War. Antony was appointed administrator of Italy while Caesar eliminated political opponents in Greece, North Africa, and Spain. After Caesar's death in 44 BC, Antony joined forces with Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, another of Caesar's generals, and Octavian, Caesar's great-nephew and adopted son, forming a three-man dictatorship known to historians as the Second Triumvirate. The Triumvirs defeated Caesar's murderers, the Liberatores, at the Battle of Philippi in 42 BC, and divided the government of the Republic between themselves. Antony was assigned Rome's eastern provinces, including the client kingdom of Egypt, then ruled by Cleopatra VII Philopator, and was given the command in Rome's war against Parthia.

Relations among the triumvirs were strained as the various members sought greater political power. Civil war between Antony and Octavian was averted in 40 BC, when Antony married Octavian's sister, Octavia. Despite this marriage, Antony carried on a love affair with Cleopatra, who bore him three children, further straining Antony's relations with Octavian. Lepidus was expelled from the association in 36 BC, and in 33 BC disagreements between Antony and Octavian caused a split between the remaining Triumvirs. Their ongoing hostility erupted into civil war in 31 BC, as the Roman Senate, at Octavian's direction, declared war on Cleopatra and proclaimed Antony a traitor. Later that year, Antony was defeated by Octavian's forces at the Battle of Actium. Antony and Cleopatra fled to Egypt, where they committed suicide.

With Antony dead, Octavian became the undisputed master of the Roman world. In 27 BC, Octavian was granted the title of Augustus, marking the final stage in the transformation of the Roman Republic into an empire, with himself as the first Roman emperor.

LEG XII ANTIQVAE
This was Caesar's 12th legion, raised in 58 BC for the campaign against the Helvetii. It served throughout the wars in Gaul (58 to 49), Italy (49), and at Pharsalus (48). It was disbanded 46-45 BC and the colonists were settled at Parma. The legion was reformed in 44-43 BC most likely by Lepidus. The legion was then passed to Antony in 41-31 BC and was present at Actium. It appears on Antony's coinage as LEG XII ANTIQVAE. Colonists were settled at Patrae, Greece alongside men of Legio X Equestris, perhaps by Antony, more likely by Octavian soon after Actium.

The legion's whereabouts during most of Augustus' reign is unclear. The 12th was very possibly the unnamed third legion (with III Cyrenaica and XXII Deiotariana) stationed in Egypt. That unnamed legion disappears from Egypt at just about the same time that Legio XII Fulminata is first found in Syria. By early in the reign of Tiberius, the 12th legion was based at Raphanae.

Above the ship ANT AVG abbreviates the name Antonius along with one of his titles, Augur, a priest of the Roman state religion. Below the ship is his other title III VIR. R.P.C. (tresviri rei publicae constituendae), which loosely translates as “Triumvir for the Reorganization of the Republic”. A triumvir in this case was a member of the “Second Triumvirate” an informal power-sharing arrangement formed in 43 BCE between three men: Antony, Octavian (Julius Caesar’s great-nephew and designated heir,) and Marcus Aemilius Lepidus (c. 88 – 12 BCE), last high priest of the Republic and Caesar’s political ally.

From Forvm:
The legionary denarii were struck by Antony for the use of his fleet and legions, most likely at his winter headquarters at Patrae just before the Actian campaign. They may have been struck with silver from Cleopatra's treasury. The legionary denarii provide an interesting record of the 23 legions, praetorian cohorts and the chort of speculatores of which Antony's army was composed. Some of them give the name as well as the number of the legion honored. They have a lower silver content than the standard of the time. As a result they were rarely hoarded, heavily circulated and are most often found in very worn condition. The Francis Jarman collection includes the very rare and scarce named legions and cohorts.
Gary W2
Antony.jpg
Mark Antony Denarius7 viewsA very worn Mark Antony denarius.chuy1530
legioxxiiLG.jpg
Mark Antony, Triumvir and Imperator, 44 - 30 B.C.62 viewsMARCUS ANTONIUS (Marc Antony) AR silver legionary denarius. Legion XXIII. 18mm, 3.5g. Struck at a military mint, likely Patrae, 32-31 BC. Obverse: ANT AVG III VIR R P C, Praetorian galley sailing. Reverse: LEG XXIII, eagle between standards. Ex Incitatus.

Legion XXII, the 22nd, is the second-last legion in the series and one of the scarcer types of the regular numbered legions.

Marcus Antonius (in Latin: M·ANTONIVS·M·F·M·N[1]) (January 14, 83 BC – August 1, 30 BC), known in English as Mark Antony, was a Roman politician and general. He was an important supporter and the loyal friend of Gaius Julius Caesar as a military commander and administrator, despite his blood ties, through his mother Iulia, to the branch of Caesars opposed to the Marians and murdered by them. After Caesar's assassination, Antony formed an official political alliance with Octavian (Augustus) and Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, known to historians today as the Second Triumvirate.

The triumvirate broke up in 33 BC. Disagreement between Octavian and Antony erupted into civil war, the Final War of the Roman Republic, in 31 BC. Antony was defeated by Octavian at the naval Battle of Actium, and in a brief land battle at Alexandria. He and his lover Cleopatra committed suicide shortly thereafter.

For anyone tempted to laud Marcus Antonius, to Antony's great shame read what Plutarch wrote about what Antony did to Cicero:

Plutarch: Cicero's Death

But in the meantime the assassins were come with a band of soldiers, Herennius, a centurion, and Popillius, a tribune, whom Cicero had formerly defended when prosecuted for the murder of his father. Finding the doors shut, they broke them open, and Cicero not appearing, and those within saying they knew not where he was, it is stated that a youth, who had been educated by Cicero in the liberal arts and sciences, an emancipated slave of his brother Quintus, Philologus by name, informed the tribune that the litter was on its way to the sea through the close and shady walks. The tribune, taking a few with him, ran to the place where he was to come out. And Cicero, perceiving Herennius running in the walks, commanded his servants to set down the litter; and stroking his chin, as he used to do, with his left hand, he looked steadfastly upon his murderers, his person covered with dust, his beard and hair untrimmed, and his face worn with his troubles. So that the greatest part of those that stood by covered their faces whilst Herennius slew him. And thus was he murdered, stretching forth his neck out of the litter, being now in his sixty-fourth year. Herennius cut off his head, and, by Antony's command, his hands also, by which his Philippics were written; for so Cicero styled those orations he wrote against Antony, and so they are called to this day.

When these members of Cicero were brought to Rome, Antony was holding an assembly for the choice of public officers; and when he heard it, and saw them, he cried out, "Now let there be an end of our proscriptions." He commanded his head and hands to be fastened up over the rostra, where the orators spoke; a sight which the Roman people shuddered to behold, and they believed they saw there, not the face of Cicero, but the image of Antony's own soul.

Translation by John Dryden: http://intranet.grundel.nl/thinkquest/moord_cicero_plu.html

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
janusprowpan.jpg
Matiena Janus Prow AS65 viewsBronze As, Sear RCV I 685, (Crawford 162/3a, CRR 321a, BMCRR 625); Weight 28.3g.; Max. diameter 34.32mm.; Rome mint; 179 - 169 B.C. Obv. Laureate Head of Janus left and right, 1 above between heads (denomonation mark for 1 as); Rev. prow of galley right, 1 before, MAT monogram above, ROMA in ex. (obliterated); Very worn, Medium brown patina.

Thanks to Andrew McCabe for the help in Identifying this very worn example!

Gift from a friend to replace my lost pocket piece.
3 commentsSteve E
Maximinus_I_pan.jpg
Maximinus I, 19 Mar.235 to May/Jun. 238 AD, Rome mint49 viewsOrichalcum sestertius, RIC IV 43, Sear RCV 8327, (BMCRE 2, 63), (Cowen 10); Rome mint; Weight 27.13gr., Max. Diameter 30.58mm; 235-6 A.D.; Obv. IMP MAXIMINUS PIVS AVG, laureate and draped and cuirassed bust right, Rev. FIDES MILTVM S C, Fides Militum stg. l., holding standard in each hand. Thin brown/green patina worn on high spots.
Pleasant portrait without the usual exagerrated chin and nose!

Ex. Roma Numismatics
1 commentsSteve E
nisibis_philippI_Sear3970.jpg
Mesopotamia, Nisibis, Philip I, Sear 397030 viewsPhilip I Arabs, AD 246-249
AE 25, 11.5g
obv. AVTOK KM IOVLI FILIPPOC CEB
Bust, draped and cuirassed, seen from behind, laureate, r.
rev. IOV CEP KOLW NECIBI MET
Tetrastyle temple with twisted columns and central arch, within City Tyche std.
facing(!), above ram leaping r., head turned backwards, beneath river-god
Mygdonius swimming r.
Sear GICV 3970

The depiction of the City Tyche facing is very rare. On worn coins it looks often like a canopus.
Mygdonios, today Kharmis, a tributary of the Khabur, which opens into the Euphrates.
Jochen
IMGP0436Mith1_combo.jpg
Mithradates I., 171-138 BC,12 viewsAR dr., 3,83gr, 20mm; Sellwood 10.2, Shore --, Sunrise --;
mint: uncertain, axis: 12h;
obv.: beardless head, left, in bashlyk w/chin straps, diadem w/knot and ribbons; fringe of hair; earring, necklace; prominent nose; worn die;
rev.: archer, right, on omphalos, w/bow in right hand; 3-line legend: BAΣIΛEΩΣ MEΓAΛOY APΣAKOY; in right field outside of legend the letter I, in exergue ε over M;

ex: Coincraft, London, UK
Schatz
markianopolis_commodus_Pick541.jpg
Moesia inferior, Markianopolis, 10. Commodus, HrJ (2014) 6.10.38.01100 viewsCommodus, AD 177-192
AE 22, 4.96g, 21.79mm, 45°
obv. AV KL AVR - KOMODOC
bust, bearded, draped and cuirassed, seen from behind, laureate, r.
rev. MARKIANOP - OLEITWN
Tyche Euposia, in long garment and mantle, wearing kalathos, stg. frontal, head l., holding cornucopiae in l.
arm and rudder in r. Hand; the small faintly-drawn baby Ploutos in the crook of Tyche's left arm
ref. a) AMNG I/1, 541 corr. (2 ex., St.Petersburg, Mionnet)
b) Varbanov (engl.) 709
c) Hristova/Jekov (2014) No.6.10.38.1
d) RPC IV online temp. no. 4320
VF+, exceptional portrait of Commodus

The obv. of Pick's coin was worn. So he hasn't seen the laurel-wreath. Thanks to archivum for pointing us to Plutos!
2 commentsJochen
markianopolis_sept_severus_AMNG556var.jpg
Moesia inferior, Markianopolis, 14. Septimius Severus, HrJ (2013) 6.14.08.08 (plate coin)32 viewsSeptimius Severus, AD 193-211
AE 28, 10.76g, 28.11mm, 210°
struck under governor Aurelius Gallus
obv. AV KL CEP - [CEVHROC P]
Bust, draped and cuirassed, laureate, r.
rev. V AV GALLOV MARKIAN - OPOLITWN (RK ligate, R reversed!)
Dionysos, nude, wearing boots, stg. l., holding fileted thyrsos with l. hand and
pouring wine from kantharos in r. hand.
ref. a) AMNG I/1, 556 var.
b) Varbanov (engl.) 774 var.
c) Hristova/Jekov (2013) No. 6.14.8.8 (plate coin)
very rare, VF, obv. struck with worn die, a bit excentric

AMNG 556 has a different rev. legend: ending with TW, different legend breaks and no ligate RK! Possibly the R has been forgotten and was added later!
BTW the pic on pl. XVI, no.26 doesn't match Pick's description of this coin!
Jochen
markianopolis_macrinus_diadum_HristovaJekov6_24_34_1.jpg
Moesia inferior, Markianopolis, 24. Macrinus & Diadumenian, HrJ (2013) 6.24.34.05 (plate coin)42 viewsMacrinus & Diadumenian, AD 217-218
AE 27, 10.37g, 26.89mm, 15°
struck under governor Furius Pontianus
obv. AVT KM OPELLI CEV [MAKREINOC] KM OPELLI ANTWNEINOC
Confronted busts of Macrinus, draped and cuirassed, laureate, r., and
Diadumenian, draped and cuirassed(?), bare-headed, l.
rev. VP PONTIANO - V- M- ARKIANOPOLEI / TWN (AR ligate)
Emperor, with mantle over back, riding r., holding sceptre in l. hand and raising r.
hand in greating attitude; horse with raised r. forefoot over bearded captive,
kneeling l., head turned back
E in upper l. field (for pentassarion)
ref. a) not in AMNG
b) not in Varbanov (engl.)
c) Hristova/Jekov (2013) No. 6.24.34.5 (plate coin)
extremely rare (R9), about VF, green patina

This type is not listed in AMNG nor in Varbanov (engl.). I found it in Hristova/Jekov's monography about Marcianopolis. Here the obv. legend is listed as KM OPEL ANTWNEINOC, but the depicted specimen is so worn, that I think the legend is added without evidence. So it is possible that the legend is identical with the legend on my coin.
2 commentsJochen
markianopolis_diadumenian_HrJ(2011)6_25_8_2corr.jpg
Moesia inferior, Markianopolis, 25. Diadumenian, HrJ (2013) 6.25.08.02 (plate coin)9 viewsDiadumenian, AD 217-218
AE 18, 3.92g, 17.99mm, 0°
obv. KM OPELLI - ANTWNINOC
bare head r.
rev. MARKIANO - P - OLITWN
Dionysos, nude, wearing boots, stg. l., holding grapes in outstretched r. hand and resting
with raised l. hand on knobby thyrsos
ref. a) not in AMNG
b) Varbanov (engl.) 1333 (writes unpublished)
c) Hristova/Jekov (2013) No. 6.25.8.2 (plate coin)
d) not in Pfeiffer
very rare, F+/about VF

Because the coin depicted in HrJ is very worn it could well be KM OPELLI too.
Jochen
markianopolis_sev_alex_mamaea_AMNG1058corr.jpg
Moesia inferior, Markianopolis, 34. Severus Alexander & Julia Mamaea, HrJ (2014) 6.34.36.01 (plate coin)9 viewsSeverus Alexander & Julia Mamaea, AD 222-235
AE 27, 11.72g, 27.11, 0°
struck under governor Fir. Philopappus
obv. AVT KM AVR CEVH ALEZANDROC KAI IOVLIA MAMAIA
confronting busts of Severus Alexander, draped and cuirassed, laureate, r., and Julia
Mamaea, draped and wearing stephane, l.
rev. VP FIR FILOPAPPOV MARKIANOPOLITWN (PP ligate)
Homonoia, diademed, in long garment and mantle, stg. l., holding cornucopiae in l. arm
and patera in extended r. hand
ref. a) AMNG I/1, 1058 corr. (1 ex., Paris)
Pick ponts to the obv. of no. 1082 which has the obv. legend without KAI. But because
he couldn't see the stephane for sure, I think the obv. legend too was so worn that he
couldn't see the KAI.
b) Varbanov (engl.) 1852 corr. (KAI not mentioned even though it could be seen on the
attached pic)
c) Hristova/Jekov (2014) No. 6.34.36.1 (plate coin)
d) Blancon Liste 41/2003, no. 491 (Curtis Clay)
F+/about VF, flan damage upper left, obv. slightly rough
Jochen
nikopolis_commodus_HrJ(2012)8_10_4_1var(rev)~0.jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 10. Commodus, HrHJ (2018) 8.10.04.02 (plate coin)15 views Commodus, AD 177-192
AE 17, 3.01g, 16.51mm, 210°
obv. AVT KA - I KOMODOC
laureate head r.
rev. NIKOP - OLI PROC I
Athena in long girded double chiton and helmeted stg. r., holding in lowered l. hand
shield seen from inwards and set on ground, and resting with raised r. hand on spear
which is entwined by snake
ref. a) not in AMNG
b) not in Varbanov (engl.)
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.10.4.2 (plate coin)
about VF, almost black patina

Under No. 8.10.4.1 are subsumed 2 different types because the depicted coins are very worn. The central coin seems to be this type. It deserves its own number
Jochen
nikopolis_sept_severus_HrHJ(2012)8_14_8_25corr.jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 14. Septimius Severus, HrHJ (2018) 8.14.08.27 #2 (plate coin)13 viewsSeptimius Severus, AD 192-211
AE 16, 3.24g, 15.96mm, 210°
obv. AV KAI. - CEVHROC
laureate head r.
rev. NIKOPOL - I - PROC I.
Dionysos, nude, stg. l., holding kantharos in lowered r. hand and resting with raised l.
hand on thyrsos
ref. a) AMNG I/1, 1377 var. (obv. like #2 from Bukarest, but has ICT)
b) not in Varbanov (engl.):
cf. #2261
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.14.8.27 (plate coin)
F+

The obv. legend could well be AVT KAI C. And once more the depicted rev. in HrJ is so worn that it could be IC on the rev.
Jochen
nikopolis_sept_severus_HrHJ(2017)8_21_32_1(rev).jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 14. Septimius Severus, HrHJ (2018) 8.14.32.12 (plate coin)7 viewsSeptimius Severus, AD 193-211
AE 25, 10.50g, 25.13mm, 30°
obv. [AV K L CE] - CEVHROC P (HR ligate)
Bust, draped and cuirassed, laureate, r.
rev. VP AVR GALL[OV NIKOPOL PR]OC I. (beginning upper right!)
Youthful river god, nude to hips, leaning l., holding in extended r. hand plant and resting with l.
elbow on overturned vase from which water flows l.
ref. a) not in AMNG
b) not in Varbanov
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No.8.14.32.12 (this coin)
F, dark green patina, very worn

Rev. known for Iulia Domna HrHJ (2018) No. 8.21.32.1. Another example for a parallel issue for members of the imperial family!
Jochen
nikopolis_sept_severus_HrHJ(2013)8_14_54_14var.jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 14. Septimius Severus, HrHJ (2018) 8.14.54.16 #2 (plate coin)15 viewsSeptimius Severus, AD 193-211
AE 18, 2.98g, 17.89mm, 210°
obv. [AV KAI] CE - CEVHRO
laureate head r.
rev. NIKO[POL]ITWN PROC I - C.
Laurel wreath, dot in center
ref. a) AMNG I/1, 1446 var. (has only PROC I)
b) Varbanov (engl.) 2484 var.
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.14.54.16 (plate coin))
F/about VF, brown patina

Because the depicted coin is very worn it is well possible that it has actually too PROC I - C.
Jochen
nikopolis_caracalla_HrHJ(2018)8_18_4_2corr.jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 18. Caracalla, HrHJ (2018) 8.18.04.02 corr.5 viewsCaracalla, AD 198-217
AE 28, 14.36g, 27.67mm, 210°
struck under governor Aurelius Gallus
obv. AV K M AV - ANTWNINOC
Bust, draped and cuirassed, seen from behind, laureate, r.
rev. VP AV GALLOV - NIKOPOLITWN / .PROC I.
Athena, in long double chiton, helmeted, stg. frontal, looking l., resting with raised r. hand
on spear and holding in l. hand shield set on narrow base
ref. a) not in AMNG
b) not in Varbanov
c) not in Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018):
rev. Shield on base not listed
obv. e.g. No. 8.18.4.2 (same die)
F+, green patina, partially metallic

It is possible, that it is No. 8.18.4.2 corr. The depicted coin is very worn.
Jochen
nikopolis_geta_HrJ(2011)8_22_48_4.jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 22. Geta, HrHJ (2018) 8.22.48.0611 viewsGeta as Caesar, AD 198-209
AE 16, 1.99g, 16.12mm, 45°
obv. LOV AV KAIcAR GETAC
laureate head r.
rev. NIKOPOLITWN PROC IC
crescent with 4 stars
ref. a) AMNG I/1, 1647 (1 ex., Torino, worn)
b) Varbanov (engl.) 3237 corr. (= AMNG 1647)
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.22.48.6 (same dies)
rare, F+, dark green patina

A rarer obv. legend. Pick: The coins of the 2nd group, with the wrong family name Aurelius are apparently struck at the same time as those of Caracalla as Caesar with the form M AVR KAI ANTWNINOC.
Jochen
nikopolis_diadumenian_AMNG1868_#2.jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 25. Diadumenian, HrHJ (2018) 8.25.38.1142 viewsDiadumenian, AD 217-218
AE 25, 8.83g, 25.06mm, 45°
struck under governor Statius Longinus
obv. [K M OPPELI DIA - DOVMENIANOC]
Bust, draped, bare-headed, r.
rev. [VP CTA LONGINOV] NI - KOPOLITWN PROC IC [TRON?]
Tyche Euposia, wearing kalathos, stg. frontal, head l.(?), holding cornucopiae in l. arm and rudder in
outstretched r. hand; on the cornucopiae std. a small child (Ploutos) l.!
ref. a) AMNG I/1, 1868 var. (has break as N - IKO)
b) Varbanov (engl.) 3716 (cites AMNG 1868 but writes 'child seated at her feet')
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.25.38.11
very rare, F, green patina

Even though the coin is in a bad state Ploutos can clearly be seen! The goddess is the same as on No. 8.25.38.9 with head turned l.! Sadly all depicted coins are very worn.
Jochen
nikopolis_elagabal_AMNG1905corr.jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 26. Elagabal, HrHJ (2018) 8.26.05.03 #1 (plate coin)34 viewsElagabal, AD 218-222
AE 27, 10.19g, 26.90mm, 180°
struck under governor Novius Rufus
obv. AVT K M AVR - ANTWNEINOC
Bust, draped and cuirassed, seen from front, radiate, r.
rev. VP NOBIOV ROVFOV - NI - KOPOLITWN PROC / ICTRO (2nd OV of ROVFOV ligate)
Demeter in long garment and veiled, stg. l., holding grain-ears in lowered r.
hand and burning long torch in l. hand.
ref. a) AMNG I/1, 1905 corr. (1 ex., Philippopolis)
b) Varbanov (engl.) 3958
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.26.5.3 (plate coin)
rare, about VF

This coin resembles Pick's #1905 except that Pick describes Demeter as holding grain-ears and sceptre. But here the rev. shows clearly a burning torch. I think that the coin which Pick has seen must have been so worn that he couldn't identify the long torch. This suggestion is strenghened by the fact that Pick has not seen the full legend but has completed it by looking at another coin (from Mandl).
Jochen
nikopolis_elagabal_AMNG1905corr~0.jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 26. Elagabal, HrHJ (2018) 8.26.05.03 #242 viewsElagabal, AD 218-222
AE 26, 13.4g, 26.14mm, 180°
struck under governor Novius Rufus
obv. AVT K M AVR - ANTWNEINOC
Bust, draped and cuirassed, seen from front, radiate, r.
rev. VP NOBIOV ROVFOV - NI - KOPOLITWN PROC / ICTRON (last OV ligate)
Demeter, wearing long garment, stg. frontal, head l., holding grain-ears in
outstretched r. hand and resting with l. hand on long torch.
ref. a) AMNG I/1, 1905 corr. (1 ex., Philippopolis)
b) Varbanov (engl.) 3958
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.26.5.3
F+, dark-green patina, some incrustations on obv.

Pick writes: "with grain-ears and sceptre stg.". But the rev. of his coin was so worn, that he takes the legends from an ex. from the coll. of Mandl.

Interesting: This is the only coin of Elagabal from Nikopolis with Demeter!
Jochen
nikopolis_elagabal_HrHJ(2012)8_26_6_2.jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 26. Elagabal, HrHJ (2018) 8.26.06.02 (plate coin)10 viewsElagabal, AD 218-222
AE 26, 10.52g, 26.31mm, 345°
struck under governor Novius Rufus
obv. [AV]T M AVR - ANTWNINOC
Bust, draped and cuirassed, seen from behind, laureate, r.
rev. VP NOBIOV ROVF - OV - NIKOPO[LITWN PROC IC]
in lower l. field TRW
Serapis in himation with crossed legs stg. l., holding sceptre in l. arm and raising r. hand in greeting
attitude
ref. a) not in AMNG
b) not in Varbanov (engl.)
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.26.6.2 (plate coin)
very rare, F, green patina, patina damage on obv., r. lower rev. worn
Jochen
nikopolis_elagabal_HrHJ(2015)8_26_20_18corr(rev)_.jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 26. Elagabal, HrHJ (2018) 8.26.20.19 (plate coin)4 viewsElagabal, AD 218-222
AE 19, 3.75g, 18.64mm, 195°
obv. AV K M AVRH - ANTWNINOC
Bust, draped and cuirassed, laureate, r.
rev. NIKOPOLITWN PROC ICTRO
in r. field N
Staff entwined by snake, head r.
ref. a) not in AMNG:
cf. AMNG I/1, 2032 (for the type only)
b) cf. Varbanov (engl.) 3867 (= AMNG 2032)
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.26.20.19 (this coin)
F-, black green patina

It is possible that No. 8.26.20.18 has AV K M AVRH too, but the depicted coins are too worn.
Jochen
nikopolis_elagabal_AMNG1966(rev)_die_break)~0.jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 26. Elagabal, HrHJ (2018) 8.26.36.13 (plate coin)15 viewsElagabal, AD 218-222
AE 26, 12.06g, 26.4mm, 0°
struck under governor Novius Rufus
obv. AVT K M A[VRH] - ANTWNEINOC
laureate head r.
rev. VP NOBIOV ROV - FOV NIKOPOLIT / WN PROC I / CTR
Homonoia, in long garment and mantle, stg. l., holding cornucopiae in l. arm and patera in r.
hand
ref. a) not in AMNG:
rev. AMNG I/1, 1966
obv. AMNG I/1, 1968
b) Varbanov (engl.) 3917 var. (= AMNG 1966)
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.26.36.13 (plate coin)
F+, general roughness, interesting die break on obv.
from Forum Ancient Coins, thanks!

The die break is linked to a worn die as so often.
Jochen
nikopolis_elagabal_AMNG1966(rev)_die_break).jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, Elagabal, AMNG 1966 rev. (die break)17 viewsElagabal, AD 218-222
AE 27, 12.06g
struck under consulare legate Novius Rufus
obv. AVT KM A[VRH] - ANTWNEINOC
Head, laureate. r.
rev. VP NOBIOV ROV - FOV NIKOPOLIT / WN PROC I / CTR
Homonia, in long garment, stg. l., holding cornucopiae in l. arm and patera in r.
hand.
AMNG I/1 1966 (rev.), AMNG I/1 1968 (obv.); Varbanov (engl.) 3917-3918 (bust types)
about VF, general roughness
interesting die break on the obv.
from Forum Ancient Coins, thanks!

The die break is linked to a worn die as so often.
Jochen
054_Macrinus_(217-218_A_D_),_AE-27-Pentassarion,__AV_K_OPPE_CEV-__,_Markianopolis-Moesia_Inf_HrJ_(2014)-not_in,_217-18-AD,_Q-001,_7h,_26,5-27,5mm,_14,04g-s~0.jpg
Moesia, Markianopolis, 054p Macrinus (217-218 A.D.), Pfeiffer 218 (same dies), AE-27, Pentassarion, Pontianus, Zeus with an eagle at feet, 71 viewsMoesia, Markianopolis, 054p Macrinus (217-218 A.D.), Pfeiffer 218 (same dies), AE-27, Pentassarion, Pontianus, Zeus with an eagle at feet,
avers: AV K OΠΠEΛ CEV MAKPEINOC•K M OΠEΛ ANTΩNEINOC, Laureate bust of Macrinus facing bare-headed bust of Diadumenian.
reverse: VΠ ΠONTIANOV MAPKIANO/ΠOΛI, Naked Zeus standing left, holding patera and scepter, eagle at his feet.
exergue: Є/-//--, diameter: 26,5-27,5mm, weight:14,04g, axis: 7h,
mint: Moesia, Markianopolis, Pontianus, date: 217-218 A.D., ref: Pfeiffer 218 (same dies), AMNG 715, Varbanov (2005, English) I. 1240, Hristova-Jekov (2014) 06.24.01.??, Not in,
a) Not in Hristova/Jekov (2014):
rev. HJ (2014) 6.24.1.5 (same die)
obv. HJ (2014) 6.24.1. 3 (but writes AVT K OPEL, the depicted coin is very worn)
b) Megaw (2nd ed,) MAR5.59c (but writes AVT K OPEL, the depicted coin is very worn)
Q-001
quadrans
3430151.jpg
MYSIA, Kyzikos35 viewsMYSIA, Kyzikos. Circa 450-400 BC. AR Hemiobol (8mm, 0.23 g, 11h). Forepart of boar left, [retrograde K on shoulder]; to right, tunny upward / Head of lion left; to upper left, head of panther(?) facing; all within incuse square. Von Fritze II 13; SNG Ashmolean 540; SNG France 386; SNG von Aulock 1215. Good VF, find patina, struck with worn obverse die.ecoli
parion_commodus_RPCIV3151.jpg
Mysia, Parion, Commodus, RPC IV 315111 viewsCommodus, AD 177-192
AE 25, 7.31g, 24.69mm, 180°
obv. M CAE L AV - COMODVS
Bust, unbearded, draped and cuirassed, laureate, r.
rev. [DEO CV]PIDINI - [COLON IVL HAD PA]
Eros, nude, stg. half left, chlamys over l. arm, l. hand on hip, r. hand extended over a small
column with head of Hermes (herm)
ref. RPC IV 3151; SNG von Aulock 1338
F, worn

The rev. shows the famous Eros of Parium made by Praxiteles
Jochen
pergamon_SNGcop377-379.jpg
Mysia, Pergamon, SNG Copenhagen 377-37913 viewsPergamon, 200-133 BC
AE 23, 7.35g, 22.83mm, 315°
obv.laureate head of Asklepios r.
rev. Eagle with open wings on thunderbolt l., head r.
in upper fields P - E[R], below G - A
in ex. MHNWN (NWN ligate)
ref. SNG Copenhagen 377-379; SNG von Aulock 1380-1382; BMC MYsia 144-149; Lindgren I 294-295
F+/F, brown patina, worn

The portrait matched the head of the famous statue of Asklepios made by Phyromachos.
Jochen
nabataea,_aretas_IV,_silver.jpg
Nabataean, Aretas IV54 viewsNabataean Kington: Aretas IV. AR Drachm. Obverse: Aramaic "Aretas, king of Nabataea, lover of his people," laureate and draped bust of Aretas right. Reverse: Aramaic "Shuqailat, queen of Nabataea," date off flan, jugate busts of Aretas and Shuqailat right.

Ex Forvm. This is a well worn coin, but I like it for a couple of reasons. First, it was an affordable silver coin from Nabataea. Second, the flan is uniformly thick. Much thicker than the denarii I've put together.
1 commentsLucas H
Native_American_Bead.JPG
Native American Bead23 viewsThis is possibly Nipmuc. I found it in the roots of a massive oak that had fallen over during a hurricane in MA, USA. I'm sure its bone, but I'm no expert so possibly antler. It has 2 small stones, one blue and one red. It was leafed with what appeared to be gold and silver but most has worn off. I have never been able to find another bead even remotely similar.JRoME
neropan.jpg
Nero 13 Oct 59 - 9 Jun 68 AD, Lugdunum Mint78 viewsOrichalcum dupondius, Van Meter RIC (Nero) 27, RIC I 519 (BMCRE I 347), Weight 10.14 g, Max.diameter 27.55 mm, Lugdunum (Lyons) mint, 67 A.D.; obverse IMP NERO CAESAR AVG P MAX TR P P P, laureate head left, small globe at base of neck; Rev. SECVRITAS AVGVSTI S C, Securitas enthroned right, relaxed with head resting on right hand, scepter in left, lit altar and torch before. Thin brown and red patina, mostly worn. Cracks, chips, and corroded.

Historical background; Van Meter states that this type refers to the suppression of the Pisonian Conspiracy.
1 commentsSteve E
nero_ric_28.jpg
Nero RIC 003441 viewsNero. As Caesar, A.D. 50-54. AR denarius
(18.40 mm, 3.37 g, 7 h). Lugdunum (Lyon) mint.
Obv: NERO CAESAR AVG IMP, bare head right
Rev: PONTIF MAX TR P VII COS IIII P P, EX S C across field, Roma standing right, holding and inscribing shield supported on knee, foot on helmet; dagger and bow at feet to right. RIC 34 (R3); RSC 231. aVF, toned. Rare.
From the D. Thomas Collection;
Ex Hohn Leipziger Munzhandlung.





Nero Denarius 54-68 CE
August 28, 2017
I knew when I started building my 12 Caesars collection that I would eventually want a pre-reform denarius of Nero. The problem is that these are quite scarce in any condition. Also, there is much competition for them the they do appear for sale. Denarii like this one were minted before Nero decided to debase the silver coinage. Pre-reform denarii like this one are at near 100% fineness. This dropped considerably after the debasement. The earlier denarii are also heavier than the post reform coinage.One reason Nero debased the coins was to make up for a shortfall in available cash because of the massive spending he committed to building projects.

This is not a perfect coin, but I like several things about it. First, I like the younger more slender portrait. Contrast this with the "Fat tyrant" portrait later Nero denarii. I also like that the legends are intact. True, they are worn, but they are still readable.
2 commentsorfew
Nero_Victory_2b.jpg
Nero | Victory * Æ As, 54-68 AD.57 views
Nero | Victory * Copper As

Obv: Laureate head right: NERO CAESAR AVG GERM IMP
Rev: Victory standing left holding oval shield inscribed, SPQR: S-C.

Exergue: None

Mint: Rome
Struck: 65 AD.

Size: 27.335
Weight: 10.07 grm.
Die axis: 180°

Condition: Well worn all over, but with still vivid images and a lovely medium chocolate patina.

Refs:*
RIC I, 312
BMCRE 241
WCN 285, 290
Cohen 288
BN 399
Tiathena
203.jpg
Nike (x2), Asklepios, Elagabalus, and Goat (x2)165 viewsCILICIA. Aegae. Caracalla (?). Ć 32. A.D. 198-217. Inscription illegible. Laureate head right; 4 countermarks: (1) on shoulder, (2) on head, (3) before face, (4) before neck.Inscription obliterated. Rev: Worn smooth; 2 countermarks. Weight:16.38 g. Note: The coin can be identified as being from Aegeae since this coin's countermarks were applied only to coins of that city. CM(1&5): Nike left, in circular punch, 6 mm. Howgego 258 (9 pcs). Note: The countermark was applied to both sides of all coins. CM(2): Bust of Asklepois right (?), in rectangular punch, 4 x 6 mm. Howgego 5 ? (1 pc). CM(3): Laureate bust right (Elagabalus), in oval punch, 4 x 7 mm. Howgego (11 pcs). Note: Likely applied during the reign of Elagabalus, since his coins were not countermarked. CM(4&6): Goat standing right (?), in roughly circular punch, 5 mm.Howgego 313 ? (7 pcs). Collection Automan.1 commentsAutoman
ELY4_TOGETHER.jpg
Orodes II10 viewsOrodes II
Early to mid 2nd century AD 13-15.5mm/3.6gr
Van’t Haaff 13.3.2-2A
Obv: Bust facing forward, wearing tiara with no crest, vertical line and dots at rim (worn away here), pellet within crescent and anchor with one crossbar to right
Rev: Dashes with regular pattern

Attributed by BobL
Paul R3
883kost.jpg
Ottoman AV Sultani Mehmet II 883AH/1478AD Qustantaniyye138 viewsThe other side of the story. This coin is one of the first coins minted in "Istanbul" by the Ottoman Empire. The coin was minted under Mehmet II who is also known as"The Conquerer" hence his title in Turkish which is Fatih Sultan Mehmet. Constantinople was conquered by the Ottoman Empire in 1453AD and consequently the Byzantine Empire fell. This coin is the second series of this type. The first one was minted in 882AH and this one is just one year after it. Before 1477AD there were no Ottoman Gold coins minted in Istanbul, however some coins from other mints circulated there. I chose this coin because it is on exceptional state. A specimen of this coin which was bent, holed cut and very worn has recently sold for 350 Euros. This coin is rare and expensive.2 commentsIstinpolin
owl.jpg
owl162 viewsHost coin worn smooth, AE 18/20 mm. Weight: 7.63 grs. Obv: round CM: Owl on a twig Rev: ?? Collection Roland Mueller
Automan
p_owl_1.jpg
Owl countermark (1)26 viewsOwl countermarks are commonly found on worn bronze from Pergamon, struck c. 200 - 100 B.C., with a bearded head of Zeus right on the obverse and a snake around omphalos reverse. It seems likely that these two coins were originally struck at Pergamon and that the countermarks were also made at Pergamon. ex FORVMPodiceps
p_owl2.jpg
Owl countermark (2)15 viewsOwl countermarks are commonly found on worn bronze from Pergamon, struck c. 200 - 100 B.C., with a bearded head of Zeus right on the obverse and a snake around omphalos reverse. It seems likely that these two coins were originally struck at Pergamon and that the countermarks were also made at Pergamon. ex FORVMPodiceps
Pautalia_asklepios_cf__Ruzicka_276_rx.JPG
Pautalia Septimius Severus Caecina Largus 46 viewsSeptimius Severus

AE 30 12.89g vierer

Caecina Largus (198-9 AD)

AVT K CEΠTI | CEVHPOC ΠE
Laureate head right

HΓE ∙ KAIKINA ΛAPΓOY OVΛΠIAC ΠAV (parts of governor’s name very faint)
Ex: TAΛIAC

Asklepios standing facing head left, holding serpent entwined staff

BMC-; Ruzicka cf. p. 94 #276 rx match but cuirassed bust not head; Ruzicka 276 = Varbanov (E) II 4635; Mionnet –

Rough brown patina with worn legends

A common reverse type with 3 different reverse dies listed in Ruzicka for Caecina Largus (198-201 AD). Ruzicka obv. die #9.
Petrus Elmsley
AE28_Pautalia_river-god__Sept_Sev.jpg
Pautalia Septimius Severus Caecina Largus30 viewsSeptimius Severus

AE 28

Caecina Largus (198-9AD)

AVT K CEΠTI | CEVHPOC ΠE
Laureate draped head right

[HΓE ∙ KAIKINA ΛAPΓOY ]OVΛΠIAC
Ex: ΠAVTAΛI
AC

Bearded river-god recumbent; head right, left arm on overturned urn from which water flows left. Holding large upright water plant in right

Ruzicka 293 (depicted Tafel V 22); BMC -; Mionnet Sup II -; Varbanov (E) II –; SNG Cop.-

well worn, but attractive
Petrus Elmsley
Eagle_on_globe_Pautalia_SSev_28mm_-_14_4_gr.jpg
Pautalia Septimius Severus Caicina Largus eagle + globe24 viewsSeptimius Severus

AE 28 14.4g

Caicina Largus (198-9AD)

AVT K] Λ ∙ CEΠ∙ | CEVHPOC ∙ Π
Laureate head right

HΓE ∙ K[AIKINA] ΛAPΓOV [OVΛΠIAC ΠAVT]AΛIAC ? legend inscribed circularly
Eagle on globe, wings outspread, with wreath in beak, head right

A worn example with a brownish/black patina + a pitted and lightly encrusted reverse

BMC-; Ruzicka -; Varbanov (E) II -; Mionnet Supp. II -; SNG Cop-
rennrad12020
10_24g_delta_countermark_Pautalia_SeptSev.JPG
Pautalia Septimius Severus Sicinnius Clarus (202 AD) Artemis51 viewsAE 28 10.24g

AV K Λ] CEΠTI ∙ | CEV[HPOC Π
Laureate draped and cuirassed bust right

HΓ CIKINIOV] KΛAPOY OVΛΠIAC ΠAVT[IAΛIAC?
Artemis advancing right, bow in left hand right hand reaching for arrow in quiver

Ruzicka-; Varbanov(E) II –; BMC-; SNG Cop.-; Mionnet Supp II -

Denominational countermark Δ= 4 assaria in incuse triangle, cf. Howgego 781-788

Worn greenish-brown patina with crack where countermark was applied
rennrad12020
Egypt,_Sabakes_Tetradrachm.jpg
Persian Satrap Sabakes perished opposing Alexander III the Great at Issos 333 BC.202 viewsEgypt, Memphis (or Aswan?), Persian Administration, 343-332 BC, Sabakes as Satrap, AR Tetradrachm

Head of Athena right with punchmark X on cheek / Owl standing right, head facing, crescent and olive spray to left, crescent above a stylized thunderbolt(?) (Sabakes symbol) and SWYN (Aswan) in Aramaic script to right, countermark X on owl.
Nicolet-Pierre 6, D4/R-; SNG Copenhagen 3; Van Alfen Type I, O4/R-; Mitchiner 10a; Sear 6232. Van Alfen (AJN 14 2002) countermark 3 on obv. & rev.
(24 mm, 16.91 g, 9h)

Sabakes, to whom the issue of this coin type is attributed, was the penultimate Persian Satrap of Egypt. In 333 BC he led a contingent from Egypt to join the Persian army facing Alexander the Great at Issos, where he perished in battle. It is likely that this coin was struck under his governorship, perhaps for use as payment in preparations for the expeditionary force in support of Darius III. Countermarks are commonly present on these coins and most of the surviving examples are worn, indicating an extended period of circulation. This is consistent with the fact that the next coinage to be struck in Egypt was almost a decade later, shortly before the death of Alexander the Great.
1 commentsLloyd T
philipI as.jpg
PHILIP I as - 244-249 AD27 viewsobv: IMP.M.IVL.PHILIPPVS.AVG (laureate head right)
rev: FELICITAS.TEMP / S.C. (Felicitas standing left with caduceus & cornucopiae)
ref: RIC169b, C.45
6.53gms, 21mm
Felicity's image occurs on almost all the imperial series coins: the senate professed to wish that all princes should consider it their duty to promote public happiness. Although this coin is worn enough, but it symbolises ’the happiness of the age’.
berserker
Phillip_II_Apollo~0.jpg
Philip II of Macedon -1st- 359-336 BC AE1887 views
Macedonia, Philip II, AE 18 * (copper or bronze)

Obv.: Head of Apollo* right, hair bound with tainia.
Rev.: Equestrian; Nude youth on horseback prancing right. ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΥ above (mostly worn), independent spearhead symbol (nearly completely worn) beneath horse, between horse's legs.

Mint: Pella (?)
Struck: 359-336 BC.
Size: 18 mm.
Weight: 6.5 grams

Patina: Luscious jade-green, semi-glossy

Similar to D. Sear GCATV; 6696v, Vol. 2, pg. 620
Similar to SNG ANS 880-882 (?)

* Olympian
Tiathena
Phill_Apollo_Horse_c~0.jpg
Philip II of Macedon -2nd- 359-336BC Æ 1884 views
Macedonia, Philip II, Ć 18 * (copper or bronze)

Obv.: Head of Apollo* right, hair bound with tainia.
Rev.: Equestrian; Nude youth on horseback running forward, front legs extended, rear legs firmly planted, right facing. ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΥ above (mostly worn), Monogram E beneath horse, between horse's legs.

Mint: Pella (probable)
Struck: 359-336 BC.
Size: 18 mm.
Weight: 5.79 grams

Patina: Light green, flat.

Similar to D. Sear, Greek coins and their values, Vol. II, 6696; pg. 620
SNG Cop. 594

* Olympian
Tiathena
Philippo_AE30_CTBAPB_temple_varb_1172.JPG
Philippopolis Septimius Severus St. Barbarus Temple38 viewsAE 31

Philippopolis

Statilius Barbarus (196-8 AD)

Ob: AV K Λ CEΠ∙ CEVHPOC Π (very faint)
Laureate draped and cuirassed bust

Rev: HΓ CTA BAPBAPOV ΦIΛIΠΠ
Ex: [O]ΠOΛEI
[T]ΩN
Tetra style temple containing a statue of Apollo

Varbanov(E) III 1172(depicted); Mionnet -; BMC -; SNG Cop. -; Mushmov Les Monnaies Antiques de Philippopolis (1924) -

smooth blackish-green patina; worn
rennrad12020
asklepios_SeptSev_Statilius_Barbarus_Philippopolis_12_09gr.JPG
Philippopolis Statilius Barbarus Asklepios Septimius Severus38 views AE 27 12.09gr.

Septimius Severus

Philippopolis

Statilius Barbarus (196-8 AD)

Ob: AV KAI CE | CEVHPO[C (legend on right side very faint)
Laureate draped and cuirassed bust

Rx: HΓ[E] CTATI BAPBA[P]O[V] ΦIΛIΠ[ΠOΠOΛEITΩN]
Asklepios standing right resting on serpent entwined staff

Varbanov (E) III p.140 #1194; BMC-;Mushmov "Les Monnaies Antiques de Philippopolis"(1924) -; Mionnet Supp. II-.
Tannish-brown patina, worn. Old scratch on Septimius’ head, light pitting both sides. Irregularly shaped planchet.
1 commentsPetrus Elmsley
phil2macedon.jpg
Phillip II of Macedon AR Tetradrachm ca 340 BC28 viewsOBVERSE: Laureate head of Zeus, right
REVERSE: Nude youth on horseback holding laurel branch, PHILIPOY in upper field
A rather worn example of one of the great coins of antiquity.
wt. 13.65 gm, dim. 24 mm
daverino
1FE07C0B-4D99-4422-A700-DB3ED8394ECC.jpeg
PHOCIS FEDERAL COINAGE AR TRIOBOL, 3rd SACRED WAR26 views

BMC 81, BCD 294, GVF/AEF, 13.7mm, 2.64 grams, Struck Circa. 354 - 352 B.C.E. under Onymarchos

Obverse: Bull's head facing
Reverse: Laureate head of Apollo right, lyre behind, monograms below

Nicer than the great majority of these. Bull struck in high relief and usually well worn. This level of detail scarcely seen.

Ex: Hanberry collection, 1970's - early 1990's
4 commentsMark R1
3grosch~0.jpg
Poland. East Prussia. Friedrich III of Prussia billon 3-groschen 1801-1807-A (dates worn).132 viewsPoland. East Prussia. Friedrich III of Prussia billon 3-groschen 1801-1807-A (dates worn). FRIEDRICH BORUSSORUM REX, head left / crowned flying eagle above value and date.

KM 60
oneill6217
resss_a-horz.jpg
Postumius Albinus. 96 BC. Denarius20 viewsPostumius Albinus. 96 BC.

ROMA / X Laureate head of Apollo r., star.
A ALBINVS S F Dioscuri watering horses at fountain, crescent.

Cr. 335/10a; RSC Postumia 5. Rare.

The Romans believed that the Dioscuri twins aided them on the battlefield. The construction of the Temple of Castor and Pollux, located in the Roman Forum at the heart of their city, was undertaken to fulfil a vow sworn by Aulus Postumius Albus Regillensis in gratitude at the Roman victory in the Battle of Lake Regillus . According to legend, the twins fought at the head of the Roman army and subsequently brought news of the victory back to Rome. After battle, they were also seen watering their horses and that scene is represented on this coin.
Pedja R
Postumus NEPTVNO REDVCI RIC 76.jpg
Postumus NEPTVNO REDVCI RIC V/2 7657 viewsAnt, 23mm, 4.28g.

Obverse: IMP C POSTVMVS PF AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust R.

Reverse: NEPTVNO REDVCI, Neptune standing L with dolphin and trident.

Trier, Officina 2, Issue 2. RIC 76, C.

A seriously worn reverse die, but this is typical of Postumus.

Robert_Brenchley
Antoninus Alexandria.jpg
Provincial Alexandria - Antoninus Pius - AE Drachme144 viewsĆ-Drachme, Alexandria (Aegyptus);

Dattari 2862 and 8723 is this same rev. type for Ant. Pius, LKB = Year 22 = 158/9 AD.
Diameter: 32 mm
Weight: 21 g
Obv.: AVT K TPAIAN AEL ANTWNINOC CE; laureate-headed bust of Antoninus Pius wearing cuirass and paludamentum, r.
Rev.: Sarapis seated, l., holding sceptre; at his feet, Cerberus; to l., Demeter standing, r., holding torch; to r., Tyche holding rudder and cornucopia; all wearing kalathos, all on galley with oars

"Definitely a rare type. Not in the rich Cologne collection for Ant. Pius, and Dattari, in the best collection of Alexandrian coins ever assembled, had only two worn specimens." Curtislclay.
2 commentsTanit
Ptolemy_XII.jpg
Ptolemy XII Silver Tetradrachm47 viewsPtolemy XII, Silver tetradrachm, Paphos mint, 14.577g, 24.3mm, die axis 0o, 58 - 57 BC, Noeske 356, Svoronos -, SNG Cop -,
OBV: diademed head of Ptolemy I right wearing aegis
REV: PTOLEMAIOU BASILEWS, eagle standing left on thunderbolt, wings closed, LKD left (year 24), PA right; struck with a worn obverse die; scarce;

Ptolemaic Kingdom, Ptolemy XII Neos Dionysos, 80 - 58 B.C. and 55 - 51 B.C.
Ptolemy XII was a weak and unpopular ruler. He was awarded the belittling title Auletes - the flute player.
Deposed by his own subjects in 58 B.C., he regained his throne with Roman assistance.
His daughter, the famous Cleopatra VII, was the last Ptolemaic ruler of Egypt.

EX: Forum Ancient Coins
1 commentsRomanorvm
Domitian_RIC_2.jpg
RIC 000266 viewsDomitian, Denarius, 81 Rome
Obv: Laureate head of Domitian right., IMP CAESAR DOMITIANVS AVG
Rev: Dolphin coiled around anchor.,TR P COS VII
RIC:2 (R); BMC 3
Purchased from Numiscorner on Vcoins
February 23, 2019



Here is an interesting coin. It is an early Domitian as Augustus issue. The 4 groups of coins in the first issue were minted in the first 3.5 months of Domitian's rule. What is interesting about this one is not the titles that are present but what is absent. The only titles here are TR P, IMP and COS. Notice that PP is nowhere to be seen. This means that group 1 denarii such as this must have been issued first of all 4 groups of 81 CE. This was not an easy coin to find. I have RIC 3 and RIC 3 Var, but these were my only group 1 denarii until now. Coins of this group are not as rare as group2 and group 3 denarii.

There are a few things I really like about this coin. First, the portrait has a very engaging style. Next, the reverse has really interesting devices. Lastly, the wear does not distract too much from the appeal of the coin. Although worn, I bought this coin because I did not know when I would see another. I would rather have a worn coin than no coin at all.
7 commentsorfew
Domitin_ric_21-removebg-preview.png
RIC 002156 viewsDomitian AR Denarius 81 CE September 13-December 31
Rome
Obv: Laureate Head right: IMP CAES DOMITIANVS AVG PONT
Rev: Curule chair, above wreath; COS VII DES VIII PP
RIC 21(R2), RSC 58, BMC 7* p. 299



Why did I want this worn denarius of Domitian? I bought it for the obverse legend. Note that the legend ends with "PONT". All of the PONT denarii are rare. They were only issued near the beginning of Domitian's rule as Augustus. Note also that this coin uses "DOMITIANVS" in the obverse legend. My other PONT denarius (RIC 40) also uses "DOMITIANVS". However, the PONT denarii also use "DOMITIAN". In fact there are fewer types of PONT denarii listed for "DOMITIAN" than for "DOMITIANVS". Why PONT and not PM or "PONTIFEX MAXIMVS" as you see on later denarii? The speculation is that the PONT denarii were minted before Domitian assumed the title of PONTIFEX MAXIMVS, and that PONT was used as a temporary title.

There are 4 groups of precious metal coinage for Domitian in 81 CE. This denarius is part of group 3. Group 1 coins are generally common and this group contains no PONT denarii. Group 2 denarii are very rare to extremely rare and Group 2 contains seven PONT denarii. Group 3 coins can also be quite rare, and this group contains 10 PONT denarii. My coin is part of Group 3. Group 4 contains coins that are overall more common than Group 2 or Group 3 and features 10 PONT denarii. Most PONT denarii are R2 (few examples known to the authors of RIC) but few are R3 (one example known to the authors).

Quite often when these appear they are misattributed as far more common coins. So if you look for one of these, make sure you carefully examine the coins and the descriptions. It is easy to get fooled with the coins of Domitian. I will continue to look for these interesting coins and hope to add a "DOMITIAN" PONT denarius very soon.
4 commentsorfew
Domitian_ric_40.jpg
RIC 004075 viewsRoman empire - Domitian (81-96 AD.) silver denarius
(2.87 g 18 mm). Rome. 81 AD
Obv: IMP CAES DOMITANVS AVG PONT, laureate head right
Rev: TR P COS VII DES VIII P P, seat, draped, above, a winged thunderbolt placed horizontally.
RIC II 40. (R2)
Purchased from Lucernae on Catawiki auctions May 2019



Yes, I know the coin is worn, but I still wanted it. Why would I accept such a coin? The reason is that it is so rare that I might never see another in my lifetime available for sale. Sometime one has to sacrifice condition to availability. Such is the case here.

The reason this coin is so rare because of the obverse legend. Note that the legend does not end in the customary "AVG PM" common on these early coins of Domitian, but instead ends in "AVG PONT". All denarii with "PONT" for Domitian are very rare. If you see one be sure to snap it up as you may not see another for months or years.

The rarity alone was enough reason to own this coin. However, I also like that this coin is part of the very early issues for Domitian as Augustus.
2 commentsorfew
Screen_Shot_2019-03-01_at_1_49_16_AM.png
RIC 006752 viewsDomitian AR Denarius 81 CE (Group 4)
Obv: Laureate head right, IMP CAES DOMITIANVS AVG PM
Rev: Seat draped, above semi-circular frame decorate with three crescents TR P COS VII DES VIII PP
RIC 67 (R); BMC 17
Purchased from Romanrum.com
March 1, 2019

This coin is rare with this reverse legend. I really like the denarii from groups 1-4 of 81 CE because this was Domitian's first coinage as Augustus. There is some discussion about the production order of these 4 groups of coins. Domitian's denarii would become dominated by the Minerva reverse so these early issues are interesting for the variety of reverses they display. Many of the reverse were carried over from the denarii of his brother Titus.

Though worn, I still think this coin has lots of charm, especially the portrait. this combined with this reverse made this coin must have.

3 commentsorfew
Domitian_RIC_435_.jpg
RIC 043592 viewsDOMITIAN, (A.D. 81-96), silver denarius, Rome mint, issued A.D. 86, Second Issue
(3.47 g),
Obv. laureate head of Domitian to right, around IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM P M TR P V,
Rev. around IMP XII COS XII CENS P P P, Minerva standing to right, fighting, holding javelin and shield,
RIC 435 R, RSC 201b BMC 93
Attractive blue and gold patina, extremely fine.
Ex Dr V.J.A. Flynn Collection. With old dealer's ticket.
Noble Numismatics Auction 120 Lot 3217 April 4, 2019.



This coin was part of the second issue of Domitian for 86 CE. Most of the denarii for 86 CE are rare and this coin is no exception. However, that was only one of the considerations I had for buying this coin. The other is the amazing condition of this coin. There is very little wear on this coin at all. I find this remarkable for a coin that is more than 1900 years old. The quality of the portrait is superb and the condition helps to highlight this. Having said that, the reverse is no slouch either. the rendering of the Minerva is artistic and extremely well preserved.

I like worn coins as well because they tell a story. One wonders who has touched the coin, what did they buy with it? Coins like the one above were hardly used by anyone at all. So in one way the worn coin has the advantage of having a story that connects it to the people who used it. However, this is also something special about an artifact that is so well preserved that it can take you back to an earlier time. You are seeing the coin much as your ancestors saw it almost 2000 years ago. I would argue that this connect us to history as well. All ancient coins have a history and it is fascinating to speculate about that history.

I know that this coin looks like just another Minerva reverse for Domitian, but for me it is a special coin that shall take an honoured spot in my collection.
10 commentsorfew
Domitian_RIC_460_Aegean.jpg
RIC 04608 viewsDomitan AR Denarius
86 CE (Fifth Issue)
3.29 g
Obv:Leaureate head r; IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM PM TR P VI
Rev: Minerva Stg. L with spear; IMP XIIII COS XII CENS P PP
RIC 460 (R)
Ex: Aegean Numismatics March 25, 2019



Though generally worn, I still find this portrait to have some charm. This coin is part of the last of 5 issues for 86 CE, in fact it is part of the the 5th issue. All coins from these issues are scarce to rare. I bought this coin because I did not have any coins from this particular issue. The toning is light but even and the general overall wear means that this coin was used. Some coins in my collection appear that they were barely used in circulation. While this is great for condition, it does not say much about the story of the coin.

I can appreciate the wear on this coin because I know it was handled spent and used by people who went long before. For me that is the charm of these worn coins. I often ask myself "Who handled this coin?", "What did they spend it on?" or "Was it part of a soldier's pay?". While we will never know the answers to these questions, merely asking them gets us closer to people who lived and died nearly 2000 years ago.

When I look at the portrait on this coin I often wonder what the citizens of Rome at the time thought of the emperor Domitian. It is easy to analyze and criticize from 2000 years away, but I wonder what the citizens of ancient Rome would have to say.
orfew
Domitian_RIC_573.jpg
RIC 057338 viewsDomitian AR Denarius. Rome, AD 88. First Issue
3.25g, 19mm, 6h.
Obv: IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERMAN PM TR P VII, laureate head right
Rev: IMP XIIII COS XIIII CENS P P P, Minerva standing right with spear and shield. RIC 573 (R2)
Ex: Roma Numismatics E-Sale 59 July 11, 2019 Lot 79


This lovely coin has a great portrait. However, what is most interesting is not the portrait but the obverse legend. Note that instead of GERM, the coin reads GERMAN. There are only 5 types of denarii listed in RIC that have GERMAN in the obverse legend and all of are at least R2 (very few examples known). This coin was attributed as RIC 572, a common coin. This coin is definitely not common. I had been looking for one for months when I stumbled across this example a few weeks ago. While there are a few encrustations near the left legend on the reverse, I quite like the look of this coin overall. Of course, it is a nice bonus that it is so scarce.

I love tracking down these misattributed coins that are missed by others, it is a lot of fun. I do not blame anyone for missing this one as GERM is so common in the obverse legend that many would not not even read the legend to begin with. My photo does not do it justice but this coin has lovely toning. I am lucky that this was in such nice condition, though if it was very worn or had other problems I would have bought it anyway. When a true rarity comes along I do not let condition bother me at all.

So, keep an eye out for legend variations on denarii of Domitian. GERMAN is not the only variation that exists. One of my other posts in this gallery has another Domitian denarius with just such a variation.
2 commentsorfew
Domitian_RIC_661.jpg
RIC 066147 viewsAR Denarius (19mm, 2.88g, 5h). Rome mint, struck c. Sept 16, 88 - c. Sept 15, 89 (Second Issue).
IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM P M TR P VIII, head laureate right; IMP XVII COS XIIII CENS P P P, Capitoline Minerva cult statue standing left, with spear (M4).
RIC 661 (R), BMC 150, RSC 244.
Purchase from James Hazelton



All the coins in this issue are rare to very rare. Included are denarii with a very rare obverse legend variation. Though the coin is quite worn I still like it very much. One of the reasons I like this coin concerns the imperial titles. Due to increased military activity along the Danube imperial titles were being awarded very rapidly. According to RIC possible dates for coins of the issue span between November 3 and December 10 of 88 CE-just 38 days. The acclamation IMP XVII is known as of November 7th from a document. The previous imperial acclamation IMP XVI was perhaps operable for a much narrower time period, perhaps as few as 4 days. IMP XVII was perhaps only held for 9 days before the following Imperial acclamation. As one can see, the titles were changing very rapidly. This has led to a scarcity of many of the coins from this time period.

One cannot divorce the dating of these coins from the surrounding history. These are not some random dates they correspond to real world events such as the battles along the Danube in 88 CE. The history of these coins is a major motivating factor in my collecting of these coins. Though it is unlikely we will know specifically what happened during these months of 88, coins such as this one offer tantalizing clues.
1 commentsorfew
Domitian_RIC_666.jpg
RIC 066672 viewsDomitian AR Denarius 88 -89 CE
19mm., 2,93g.
Obv: Head laureate r; IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM PM TR P VIII
Rev:Minerva stg. L with spear; IMP XVIII COS XIII CENS PPP
RIC 666 (R2) BMC—RSC--
Purchased from Savoca auctions June 23, 2019



In 88 CE Domitian was fighting a series of battles. As a result Imperial acclamations for Domitian changed rather rapidly. According to hoard evidence cited in RIC coins from IMP XVIII may have been struck for as few as 38 days. Elsewhere in this gallery I posted RIC 655 which was IMP XVI and might have been struck for only 7-8 days.

As a result this coin is rather rare. RIC cites it as R2-very few examples known. I know the coin is rather worn, but when a rarity appears one sometimes has to take what one can get. As stated in the attribution this coin is not in BMCRE or RSC.

I love finding these rarities. The complex legends mean that one has to pay close attention of every detail on these coins. Coins like this one are frequently misattributed.

2 commentsorfew
Vespasian_ric_773.jpg
RIC 077383 viewsVespasian (69-79). AR Denarius (18.08 mm, 3.50 g, 6h). Rome, AD 75.
Obv: Bare head l. R IMP CEASAR VESPASIANUS AUG
Rev: Pax seated l., resting l. elbow on throne and holding branch.
PON MAX TRP COS VI
RIC II 773 (this coin); RSC –. Extremely Rare variety, near VF.
Ex Vecchi sale 13, 1998, 757.
Ex: St Paul Antiques auction 7 Lot 285 June 11, 2017




Vespasian ruled Rome for 10 years, and he was the last emperor in the year of the four emperors. His rule brought stability to the empire. He was famous for his military response to the Jewish revolt, and for the construction of the Flavian amphitheater. The looting of Jerusalem provided the funding for this building project. The colosseum was completed by his son Titus who became emperor after the death of Vespasian. The Flavian era had three emperors, Vespasian, his son Titus and his other son Domitian.

While this coin is worn, please take note of the bare head of Vespasian. There are only 2 known coin types that feature Vespasian with a bare head, all others are laureate. For one coin type there are several examples known to exist. For the coin type displayed below, this coin was, until very recently the only one to have surfaced. A second example has now been found by an expert on Flavian coinage. The reference Roman Imperial Coinage II Part 1 refers to my coin but does not have a photo of the coin. I sent a photo to the co-author of the volume, and I hope that a photo will be added when this edition is updated.
7 commentsorfew
Domitian_RIC_1085_[Vespasian].png
RIC 108549 viewsDomitian as Caesar Denarius 79 to 24 June
18mm., 3,15g.
Obv:Head laureate l; CAESAR AVG F DOMITIANVS COS VI
Rev: Salus stg r resting on column feeding snake out of patera; PRINCEPS IVVENTUTIS
RIC 1085 [Vesp] (R2) BMC page 47 note. RSC 385.
Ex: Savoca Blue 19th auction April 21, 2019 Lot 1138



On first glance this looks like just another Domitian denarius and a very worn one at that. However, there is one large difference between this denarius and most other Domitian denarii-it has a left facing portrait. Left facing portraits occur on Domitian's bronze coins but for some unknown reason they are very rare on his silver coinage. Also, both Titus and Vespasian used left facing portraits on their denarii. Though in many cases these instances are rare they are not as generally rare as left facing denarii for Domitian. Again the reason is unknown. I have wanted a left facing Domitian denarius for a few years and finally found this one in a recent auction. Sometimes when you are chasing rarities condition becomes a secondary consideration. With some coins you have to ask yourself should I buy a coin in poorer condition or should I do without.

The other interesting fact about this denarius concerns the reverse. For coins minted when Domitian was Caesar there are several interesting reverses. One of these is the Salus reverse seen here. The reverse legend PRINCEPS IVVENTUTIS occurs on a number of different coins for Domitian as Caesar. Most of these are quite common, this one is an exception.
4 commentsorfew
Screen_Shot_2018-09-02_at_12_39_50_PM.jpg
RIC 142571 viewsVESPASIAN (69-79). Denarius. Ephesus.
(3.00 g. 17 mm.)
Obv: IMP CAESAR VESPAS AVG COS III TR P P P.
Laureate head right.
Rev: PACI AVGVSTAE.
Victory advancing right, holding wreath and palm frond; monogram to right.
RIC˛ 1425. (R3)
Condition: Very fine.
Numismatik Naumann Auction 69 Lot 348

Here is another Vespasian denarius minted in Ephesus. The quality of the engraving on these issues never fails to impress me. While the portrait on this example is a bit worn, the reverse is truly impressive. The victory is lovely and the legend is clear and crisp. This is an example where, in my opinion, the reverse outshines the obverse.

The other interesting aspect of this coin is its rarity. According to a reliable source this example is the second known of its type. It is listed in RIC II Part One as R3-one known example in the collections examined. The RIC example is the other known example. I feel very lucky to be the custodian of this coin.

I will continue to pursue these Ephesian denarii mostly for their style and because the reverse themes make them interesting. I hope that more will find their way into my collection.
6 commentsorfew
Trajan_RIC_318_var-2.jpg
RIC 318 var-228 viewsDenarius, 114-117
Obv: IMP CAES NER TRAIANO OPTIMO AVG GER DAC
Laur. r., almost frontal with cuirass and balteus.
Rev: P M TR P COS VI P P S P Q R – FORT RED
Fortuna seated l., holding rudder and cornucopiae.

18mm, 3.42g
Woytek - (bust type y+); (apparently from the same dies as Woytek 526y, where the balteus was overlooked due to the worn condition).
1 commentsklausklage
Antoninus Alexandria~0.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE PROVINCIAL, Antoninus Pius, Alexandria, Drachm475 viewsĆ-Drachme, Alexandria (Aegyptus);

Dattari 2862 and 8723 is this same rev. type for Ant. Pius, LKB = Year 22 = 158/9 AD.
Diameter: 32 mm
Weight: 21 g
Obv.: AVT K TPAIAN AEL ANTWNINOC CE; laureate-headed bust of Antoninus Pius wearing cuirass and paludamentum, r.
Rev.: Sarapis seated, l., holding sceptre; at his feet, Cerberus; to l., Demeter standing, r., holding torch; to r., Tyche holding rudder and cornucopia; all wearing kalathos, all on galley with oars

"Definitely a rare type. Not in the rich Cologne collection for Ant. Pius, and Dattari, in the best collection of Alexandrian coins ever assembled, had only two worn specimens." Curtislclay.
6 commentsTanit
lg_diad_portrait~0.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE PROVINCIAL, Diadumenian, Thrace, Nikopolis ad Istrum182 viewsVery worn, not an exceptional coin, but look at that almost pathetic individual so well captured in bronze! It seems brutally honest.

Diadumenian (Caesar)
Thrace, Nikopolis ad Istrum
AE 11.60g / 26mm / -
Κ Μ ΟΠΕΑ ΔΙΑΔΥΜΕΝΙΑΝΟCΚ - Draped bare head right
CΤΡΟΝ - Artemis advancing right holding bow & drawing arrow from quiver on her back.
Exergue: CΤΡΟΝ
Ref: Moushmov 1303
2 commentsScotvs Capitis
coin79.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, AUGUSTUS - silver denarius - Lugdunum - Bull - 11/10 BC21 viewsObv: " AVGVSTVS DIVIF" Augustus, laureate?, right.
Rev: "IMP XII" (in ex.) bull butting r.
3.34g - 17mm - RIC 187a - Scarce.
Comment
An early Lugdunum, good silver denarius, well worn, but with clear and distinct identification images. The coin may be the earlier, and more common RIC 167a, but the clear ribbon, hanging from Augustus' hair, suggests to me he is laureate, and there is a possible hint of the top of an I, in the Rev. ex. "IMP X??"
jerseyjohnjames
Picture_33.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, AURELIAN A.D. 270-275 AE Antoninianus7 viewsAURELIAN A.D. 270-275 AE Antoninianus-This coin appears to have a worn officina mark of S star or T star. This would make it from the Siscia mint - RIC V-1, 220 Sisciajessvc1
bpS1C5Caracalla.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Caracalla46 viewsObv: ANTONINVS PIVS AVG
Laureate and draped bust, right.
Rev:PONTIF TR P X COS II
Caracalla standing right, holding spear in right hand, pulling parazonium forward with left hand and left foot resting on helmet.
Denarius, 2.3 gm, 20.4 mm, RIC 95
Comment: A parazonium is a short sword worn at the waist. This coin was issued during his joint reign with his father, Septimus Severus. Obverse shows his relatively early age at eighteen or nineteen years. He murdered his brother, Geta, within the year following his father's death. He was known as a bloodthirsty and cruel emperor and was finally assassinated on April 8, 217.
Massanutten
7110LG.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, CARAUSIUS. Ae antoninianus 33 viewsCARAUSIUS. Ae antoninianus. 286-293 A.D.
Obverse: Radiate bust of Carausius right. EF
Reverse: PAX AVG: Pax standing left, MLXXI in exergue.

A mis-strike with the reverse devices very faint as shown. The condition of the obverse die and the period of issue almost certainly precludes this being just a very worn reverse die.
1 commentsNico
Clavdivs-II-Gothicus.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Claudius II Gothicus Antoninianus September 268 - August or September 270 A.D.20 viewsClaudius II Gothicus Antoninianus
September 268 - August or September 270 A.D. - died from plague


From Helvetica's RIC Lists:

IMP CM AVR CLAVDIVS AVG, radiate, cuirassed bust right, two dots below/

SALVS AVG, Salus standing right, feeding serpent in arms, SPQR in exe. RIC 242 variation.

Serdica mint.

Numismatische Zeitschrift No.16, pg 439.

Scarce

"Under Claudius Serdica struck in three officinae and marked their coins, as mentioned
above, with 1, 2, or 3 dots •, ••, ••• beneath the bust, although unmarked coins are
know to exist. However, whether a coin really is unmarked can only be checked on
really well preserved, unworn coins, as the dot was very small and could be worn away
fairly quickly. "

"We will also point out that the letters SPQR in the exergue are not really a mintmark
but the continuation i.e. the end of the reverse legend. "


"This mint only made one issue and that comprised entirely of devalued Antoniniani."

Thanks to Will Hooton for his assistance
George
First_Attribution.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Constantius Gallus, Caesar : 28 Sept 351 - Winter 354AD15 viewsBronze AE3, 2.45g, 18.8mm, RIC VIII SIS 351, rarity: C2
Obverse: D N CONSTANTIVS IVN NOB C, bust right, bare-headed, draped and cuirassed
Reverse: FEL TEMP RE-PARATIO, Soldier with spear in right hand, shield worn on left arm, horseman's shield on ground, attacking fallen horseman wearing a Phrygian cap, ΓSIS in ex.
ModernCoinTraitor
Domit_MInerva_standing2.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Domitian Minerva standing RIC 17424 viewsObv: IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM PM TRP XII
Domitian laureate right
Rev: IMP XXII COS XVI CEN P PP
Minerva standing left

This coin, RIC 174 was minted in 92-93 A.D. Although well worn, the legends continue to be fully legible. It is a fairly representive example of Domitian's late coinage. Minerva standing is a common reverse on Domitian's denarii.
C. Caesar Germ.
Domit_horseback.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Domitian on horseback- RSC 49a29 viewsObv: CAESAR AVG F DOMITIANVS
Domitian laureate right

Rev: Helmeted horseman, right, COS V in exergue

This is an extremely worn denarius and was one of my early purchases. The reverse may be a reference to the Judean triumph in which Domitian rode a white horse (according to Suetonius). The coin was minted in Rome between 77-78 A.D.
C. Caesar Germ.
Domitian_thunderbolt.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Domitian thunderbolt/throne denarius- RIC 1340 viewsObv: IMP CAES DOMITIANVS AVG PM
Domitian laureate, right

Rev: COS VII DES VIII PP
Thunderbolt on throne

Minted in 81 AD, this is a very early issue of Domitian. It continues the pulvinar series of Titus with a thunderbolt on a throne, emblematic of the god Jupiter. Domitian's titles on this coin do not include TRP-- typically Domitian was very fastidious about including all of his titles on his coins and this is another indication that this is an early issue. It indicates he has been consul seven times and is designated for an eighth consulship that would commence on New Year's day of 82 A.D. Although this coin is quite worn, I am very fond of the portrait because I think Domitian looks incredibly happy. Having spent his life in the background he is finally getting his chance to make his mark as sole master of the Roman Empire.
C. Caesar Germ.
AftrNobCor.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE, Julian II AE3 FTR SMAN(?)54 viewsAE3 16.7x17.9mm
Struck with good obverse die but worn reverse die.
Mintmark is SM followed by two letters and a dot.
gparch
038.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Philip I antoninianus19 viewsPhilip I. 244 - 249 AD. Roma Mint. VF+, reverse weakly struck with worn die
rev: FIDES MILIT (Fides standing left, holding sceptre and standard)
C.54 , RIC 33, sear 2557
Nico
philip35LG.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Philip I antoninianus18 viewsPHILIP I THE ARAB AR silver antoninianus. IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG, radiate bust right. Reverse - ADVENTVS AVGG, Philip on horseback left raising hand. RIC 26b, RSC 3. 24mm, HEAVY 5.2g.
Extremely Fine, struck on worn reverse dies.
Nico
philip35LG.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, PHILIP I THE ARAB35 viewsPHILIP I THE ARAB AR silver antoninianus. IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG, radiate bust right. Reverse - ADVENTVS AVGG, Philip on horseback left raising hand. RIC 26b, RSC 3. 24mm, HEAVY 5.2g.
Extremely Fine, struck on worn reverse dies.
sseverus
coin69.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, TRAJAN - Silver denarius - Hercules - Rome 11 viewsObv: 'IMP CAES NERVA TRAIAN AVG GERM' laur. bust r.
Rev: 'P M TR P COS IIII P P' Hercules on small column, carrying club and lion skin.
3.10g - 18mm - s. none - RIC 49.
Comment A Fine to Very Fine Portrait and legend, but Hercules has his age worn away, and he seems but a young lad again.
jerseyjohnjames
Valentinian~0.png
Roman Empire, Valentinian I, AE321 viewsValentinian I
364 - 368ad
AE3
Obv: D N VALENTINIANVS P F AVG
Rev: GLORIA ROMANORVM - Emperor standing holding labarum, dragging captive by hair
Siscia mint
17mm

This common coin is in stunningly good condition; every hair is visible on the portrait, all details on the figures on the reverse are not worn, this coin is evenly patinated with a light brown patina and even all of the mint-marks are virtually flawless (although the reverse does have one small mark and is slightly weakly struck). The best of this type I have ever seen or owned.

Here's a link to the coin in the BOT gallery:
http://www.forumancientcoins.com/gallery/displayimage.php?pos=-149023
Harry G
Valentinian.png
Roman Empire, Valentinian I, AE349 viewsValentinian I
364 - 368ad
AE3
Obv: D N VALENTINIANVS P F AVG
Rev: GLORIA ROMANORVM - Emperor standing holding labarum, dragging captive by hair
Siscia mint
17mm

This common coin is in stunningly good condition; every hair is visible on the portrait, all details on the figures on the reverse are not worn, this coin is evenly patinated with a light brown patina and even all of the mint-marks are virtually flawless (although the reverse does have one small mark and is slightly weakly struck). The best of this type I have ever seen or owned.

Here's a link to the coin in my gallery:
http://www.forumancientcoins.com/gallery/displayimage.php?pos=-150939
Harry G
ArriusSecundus.jpg
ROMAN IMPERATORIAL, M. Arrius Secundus, AR Denarius - Crawford 513/248 viewsRome, The Imperators.
M. Arrius Secundus. 41 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.82g; 20mm).
Rome mint.

Obverse: M. ARRIVS - SECVNDVS; bare head, with slight beard, facing right.

Reverse: Victory honors - wreath, spear and phalera.

References: Crawford 513/2; HCRI 319; Sydenham 1084; BMCRR 4210; Arria 2.

Provenance: Nomisma 59 (14 May 2019) Lot 134; Munzen und Medaillen XIX (5-6 Jun 1959) Lot 172; Munzhandlung Basel 10 (15 Mar 1938) Lot 486.

M. Arrius Secundus was likely son of Quintus Arrius, who had a victory in the Servile War against one of Spartacus’ lieutenants, but subsequently lost a battle to Spartacus himself. He was the only member of his gens to strike coins, and not much else is known about him.

The slightly-bearded, obverse portrait, while probably depicting the moneyer’s father, Quintus Arrius, also bears a striking resemblance to contemporaneous portraits of Octavian. However, without any inscription naming Caesar, a positive identification of the portrait remains debated by scholars. David Sear suggests that the portrait is deliberately ambiguous, as the political and military climate was very risky and the moneyer likely wanted plausible deniability that the portrait was Octavian. The reverse shows awards of victory granted to the moneyer’s father for his Servile War victory: a laurel wreath, golden spear and phalera (a military decoration attached to a harness and worn over a cuirass).
2 commentsCarausius
roman-imperial-countermarked-as.jpg
Roman Imperial Countermarked As19 viewsRoman Imperial, Countermarked As., 3.7g, 23mm

Obverse: TI-CA

Reverse: Faint and worn outline of "SC".

Reference: None
Gil-galad
DHbyzwight15mm13mm10mm2430g.jpg
Roman lead trade weight, one uncia7 viewsWorn design one side
15mm by 13mm by 8mm 24.30g
wileyc
PlautiusDenarius.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, L. Plautius Plancus, AR Denarius56 viewsRome. The Republic.
L. Plautius Plancus, 47 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.94g; 19mm).
Rome Mint.

Obverse: L·PLAVTIVS; Facing mask of Medusa with coiled snakes on each side.

Reverse: PLANCVS; Victory facing, leading four horses and holding palm.

References: Crawford 453/1a; HCRI 29; Sydenham 959; BMCRR 4006; Plautia 14.

Provenance: Ex The New York Sale Auction XXXII (8 Jan 2014) Lot 205; NAC 54 (24 Mar 2010), Lot 256.

Lucius Plautius Plancus was a brother of L. Munatius Plancus, who became Prefect of the City under Caesar. Lucius was adopted by L. Plautius. In 47 BCE, Lucius was a moneyer and produced this coin. Two styles of the obverse were produced, one with coiled snakes on either side of Medusa's head; the other without snakes.

In 43 BCE, Lucius was proscribed by the Second Triumvirate and executed. The same year of Lucius’ proscription and execution, his brother, L. Munatius Plancus, placed in the capitol a painting by the 4th century BCE, Greek artist, Nicomachus of Thebes in which Victory is driving a quadriga and holding a palm. David Sear, in “History and Coinage of the Roman Imperators” suggests that Lucius may have owned the Nicomachus painting in 47 BCE (it would have passed to his brother upon his execution) and that the reverse of this coin was inspired by the painting. Sear is not the first numismatist to have proposed this theory regarding the Nicomachus painting. Eckhel had an equally conjectural theory for this coin type that connected the devices to a story involving one of Lucius’ ancestors as the basis for an annual celebration in Rome where masks were worn.

Regardless of the true derivation and meaning of the type, the coin is a remarkably artistic design for the period, and surely the devices must have some connection to the moneyer’s natural or adopted family.
3 commentsCarausius
MFA_Clouius.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, T. Cloulius, AR Quinarius21 viewsRome. The Republic.
T. Cloulius, 98 BCE.
AR Quinarius (1.94g; 17mm).
Rome Mint.

Obverse: Laureate head of Jupiter, facing right; D control mark below

Reverse: Victory crowning trophy with wreath; T·CLOVLI between; captive seated below and carnyx to left of trophy; Q in exergue.

References: Crawford 332/1b; Sydenham 586a; BMCRR 1103; Cloulia 2.

The silver quinarius, a half-denarius denomination, was introduced as part of the denarius reform of the silver coinage circa 212 BCE. The early quinarius and its fraction-sibling, the sestertius, were discontinued just a few years after their initial introduction. However, the contemporaneous victoriatus, a coin produced on the drachm standard largely for trade with Greek communities, continued in production until about 170 BCE. By the close of the second century and later, many worn victoriati continued to circulate but were valued as quinarii because of wear and their debased fabric. Thus, when the Romans reissued the quinarius, they employed the victoriatus imagery of Jupiter/Victory crowning trophy. Indeed, these new quinarii were referred to as victoriati. The denomination was particularly popular in Gaul and often turns up in first century Gallic hoards.

This quinarius was struck by T. Cloulius, a partisan of Marius. The carnyx near the trophy on the reverse refers to Marius’ victories over invading Gauls in 102-101 BCE. The coins may have been issued in connection with Marius giving colonial lands to the veterans of these Gallic victories. No obverse control mark has more than one die. The reverse exergual letter Q likely refers to the moneyer's office of quaestor rather than a denominational mark.
1 commentsCarausius
Z8g54YYbCs8yjeQ97pGEKGx6D3zzRS.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, T. Cloulius, AR Quinarius16 viewsRome. The Republic.
T. Cloulius, 98 BCE.
AR Quinarius (1.79g; 16mm).
Rome Mint.

Obverse: Laureate head of Jupiter, facing right; O control mark below

Reverse: Victory crowning trophy with wreath; T·CLOVLI between; captive seated below and carnyx to left of trophy; Q in exergue.

References: Crawford 332/1b; Sydenham 586a; BMCRR 1103; Cloulia 2.

Provenance: Ex Boston Museum of Fine Arts Collection [Triton I (2-3 Dec 1997), Lot 2313 (part)], acquired before 1968.

The silver quinarius, a half-denarius denomination, was introduced as part of the denarius reform of the silver coinage circa 212 BCE. The early quinarius and its fraction-sibling, the sestertius, were discontinued just a few years after their initial introduction. However, the contemporaneous victoriatus, a coin produced on the drachm standard largely for trade with Greek communities, continued in production until about 170 BCE. By the close of the second century and later, many worn victoriati continued to circulate but were valued as quinarii because of wear and their debased fabric. Thus, when the Romans reissued the quinarius, they employed the victoriatus imagery of Jupiter/Victory crowning trophy. Indeed, these new quinarii were referred to as victoriati. The denomination was particularly popular in Gaul and often turns up in first century Gallic hoards. 

This quinarius was struck by T. Cloulius, a partisan of Marius. The carnyx near the trophy on the reverse refers to Marius’ victories over invading Gauls in 102-101 BCE. The coins may have been issued in connection with Marius giving colonial lands to the veterans of these Gallic victories. No obverse control mark has more than one die. The reverse exergual letter Q likely refers to the moneyer's office of quaestor rather than a denominational mark.

The coin was formerly part of the Boston Museum of Fine Arts collection. In 1997, the MFA deaccessioned a group of 890 coins which had been acquired by the MFA between 1872 and 1968. 
1 commentsCarausius
carodessos~0.jpg
Roman, Caracalla AE 26 of Odessos, Thrace148 viewsOBV: AVK MAV ANTWNINOC; Laureate, draped cuirassed bust seen from behind, REV:ODHCCEITWN; The Great God of Odessos offering sacrifice over a lighted altar.
The portrait of Caracalla as a youth is beautifully modeled and very idealized. Usually the provincial mints did not produce this quality of coin sculpture, superb even in a worn condition.


Moushmov 1610
daverino
Macrinus-Büste.JPG
Roman, Macrinus280 viewsMacrinus AE25, struck 217-218 AD at Nikopolis ad Istrum, Moesia Inferior, legat Statius Longinus.
Obv: AY K M OΠEΛΛI CEV MAKPINOC (AY?), laureate bust right.
(Rev: VΠ CTA ΛONΓINOV NIKOΠOΛITΩN ΠPOC ICTPΩ, Liberalitas standing left, holding cornucopia and counting frame.)
Ř 23-25 mm, 9.30 g.
SNG ANS 278, Pick 1779

I love this portrait, even it is a bit worn! Ex FORVM.
1 commentsPscipio
RPC1639.jpg
RPC-1639-Domitian as Caesar66 viewsAR Drachm, 3.26g
Rome mint (for Cappadocia), 73-74 AD
Obv: KAIC ΔOMITIANOC CЄBACTOY YIOC; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: OMONOIA CЄBACTH; Homonoia/Concordia seated l., holding patera in r. hand, sceptre in l. hand
RPC 1639 (10 spec.).
Ex Lanz (eBay), November 2016.

Rome likely struck a small issue of drachms for Cappadocia in 73-74. Coins were issued for Vespasian, Titus Caesar and Domitian Caesar. This Homonoia reverse for Domitian is probably the most common coin of the group. The 6 o'clock die axis and the 'Roman' style of the piece strongly suggest Rome as the home mint. Metallurgical analysis by K. Butcher and M. Ponting show these drachms were struck with the same silver bullion as that used to strike contemporary Roman denarii.

Worn, but nicely centred.
2 commentsDavid Atherton
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RPC-1646-Vespasian48 viewsAR Drachm, 3.09g
Caesarea, Cappadocia mint, 74-75 AD
Obv: AYTOKPA KAICAP OYЄCΠACIANOC CЄBACTOC; Head of Vespasian, laureate, r.
Rev: ЄYOYC ЄBΔOMOY; Mt Argaeus; on summit, radiate figure standing l., globe in r. hand, sceptre in l. hand
RPC 1646 (2 spec.).
Ex London Ancient Coins Auction A1, 3 July 2017, lot 45.

A fairly rare drachm from Caesarea, Cappadocia. Struck in 'local' style with a 12 o'clock die axis. Ironically, the Mt. Argaeus type is more commonly seen in 'Roman' Style.

Worn, but the major devices are still intact.
4 commentsDavid Atherton
RPC1651a.jpg
RPC-1651-Vespasian (1)120 viewsAR Didrachm, 6.77g
Caesarea, Cappadocia mint, 76-77 AD
Obv: AYTOKPA KAICAP OYЄCΠACIANOC CЄBACTOC; Head of Vespasian, laureate, r.
Rev: ΔOMITIANOC KAICAP CЄB YIO ЄT Θ; Domitian standing, l., holding branch
RPC 1651 (19 spec.).
Ex Pegasi VAuction 32, 19 May 2015, lot 314.

For dynastic reasons Vespasian frequently featured his sons on the coinage, even in far-flung provinces. Here we see Domitian "son of the Augustus" togate as consul, holding an olive branch in a suggestion of peace.

Although a bit worn, it's a decent example in good "local" style, similar to the denarii struck at Ephesus.
7 commentsDavid Atherton
RPC1652sm.jpg
RPC-1652-Vespasian69 viewsAR Drachm, 3.03g
Caesarea, Cappadocia mint, 76-77 AD
Obv: AYTOKPA KAICAP OYЄCΠACIANOC CЄBACTOC; Head of Vespasian, laureate, r.
Rev: TITOC AYTOKPATWP KAICAP ЄTO Θ; Titus in military dress, stg. facing, holding spear and sword
RPC 1652 (3 spec.).
Ex Kölner 108, 7 April 2018, lot 131.

Vespasian's Cappadocian silver issues were struck in two distinct styles: Roman (six o'clock die axis) and 'local' (twelve o'clock die axis). Unsurprisingly, the Roman style coins were struck at Rome and sent to Cappadocia to help supplement the locally produced pieces. The majority of Cappadocia's silver coins were struck locally, very likely in Caesarea. Whether 'Roman' or 'local', all Cappadocian silver was produced at nearly 50% fineness. This rare drachm in 'local' style features Titus Caesar on the reverse in full military dress, perhaps a nod to his important role during the Jewish War. The type was struck for both didrachms and more sparingly for drachms. Only three specimens are cited by RPC II.

Worn, but nicely centred in fine 'local' style.
4 commentsDavid Atherton
RPC1659a.JPG
RPC-1659-Vespasian51 viewsAR Hemidrachm, 1.41g
Caesarea, Cappadocia mint, undated
Obv: AVTOKP KAICAP OYЄCΠACIANOC CЄBA; Head of Vespasian, laureate, r.
Rev: No legend; Nike advancing r., wreath in r. hand, palm in l. hand
RPC 1659 (18 spec.).

All the hemidrachms from Caesarea were struck in "local style" and originate from that mint, as opposed to those coins in "Roman style" which were struck in Rome and shipped to Caesarea. Although undated they probably were minted in regnal year 9 (76/77).

Fairly worn, but in decent condition with all the main devices on flan.
1 commentsDavid Atherton
RPC1671.jpg
RPC-1671-Domitian43 viewsAR Didrachm, 6.22g
Rome mint (for Cappadocia), 93-94 AD
Obv: AYT KAI ΔOMITIANOC CЄBACTOC ΓЄPM; Head of Domitian, laureate, r.
Rev: ЄTO ΙΓ; Nike advancing r., holding wreath in r. hand, palm in l. hand
RPC 1671 (33 spec.).
Ex Pegasi B152, 22 August 2017, lot 220 (unsold).

The style and six o'clock die axis strongly indicate this didrachm was struck in Rome for circulation in Cappadocia. Unsurprisingly, the portrait style is similar to contemporaneous denarii from Rome. Nike is one of the most common didrachm reverse types struck for the province by the Rome mint.

A worn piece, but in decent 'Roman' style.
2 commentsDavid Atherton
RPC1968.jpg
RPC-1968-Titus as Caesar103 viewsAR Tetradrachm, 13.93g
Caesarea Maritima mint, 70-71 AD
Obv: AYTOKP TITOΣ KAIΣ OYEΣΠ; Bust of Titus, laureate, r., with aegis
Rev: ETOYΣ Γ IEPOY; Eagle standing, l., with wreath in beak on palm branch; club in l. field
RPC 1968 (1 spec.).
Acquired from Roy's Coins, October 2014.

After the siege and sack of Jerusalem in August 70 AD, Titus Caesar spent three days outside the ruined city with his legions handing out rewards and spoils. Josephus tells us what followed next - "Then descending with his army to Caesarea-on-sea, he there deposited the bulk of his spoils and directed that his prisoners should be kept in cus