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DenSerratoCosconio.jpg
27 viewsDenarius serratus - 118 B.C. - Narbo
L. COSCONIVS, L. LICINIVS, CN. DOMITIVS - Gens Cosconia
Obv.: Helmeted head of Rome right; COSCO M.F.. X behind.
Rev.: Gallic warrior (Bituitus?) in biga right, with shield and carnix. L LIC CN DOM in ex.
Gs. 3,8 mm. 19,7
Craw. 282/2, Sear RCV 158
Maxentius
DenMinucioThermo.jpg
46 viewsDenarius - 103 BC.
Q. MINVCIVS M.f. THERMVS - Gens Minucia
Obv.:Helmeted head of Mars (or Rome) left
Rev.: Q. THERM (THE in monogram) M.F. (in monogram) below two warriors in combat, one on left protecting a fallen man.
Gs. 4 mm. 19,37x20,10
Crawf. 319/1, Sear RCV 197

2 commentsMaxentius
T1118LG.jpg
C POBLICIUS Q F. 80 BC91 viewsHelmeted bust of Roma right / Hercules strangling the Nemean lion; bow and quiver at left; club below. Cr. 380/1.

POBLICIA, a plebian family, but of consular rank. Its cognomen on coins is Malleolus. There are fifteen varieties, all of silver, on some of which a small hammer or mallett is engraved, evidently alluding to the surname Malleolus.

The first of Heracles' twelve labours, set by King Eurystheus (his cousin) was to slay the Nemean lion.

According to one version of the myth, the Nemean lion took women as hostages to its lair in a cave near Nemea, luring warriors from nearby towns to save the damsel in distress. After entering the cave, the warrior would see the woman (usually feigning injury) and rush to her side. Once he was close, the woman would turn into a lion and kill the warrior, devouring his remains and giving the bones to Hades.

Heracles wandered the area until he came to the town of Cleonae. There he met a boy who said that if Heracles slew the Nemean lion and returned alive within 30 days, the town would sacrifice a lion to Zeus; but if he did not return within 30 days or he died, the boy would sacrifice himself to Zeus.[3] Another version claims that he met Molorchos, a shepherd who had lost his son to the lion, saying that if he came back within 30 days, a ram would be sacrificed to Zeus. If he did not return within 30 days, it would be sacrificed to the dead Heracles as a mourning offering.

While searching for the lion, Heracles fetched some arrows to use against it, not knowing that its golden fur was impenetrable; when he found and shot the lion and firing at it with his bow, he discovered the fur's protective property when the arrow bounced harmlessly off the creature's thigh. After some time, Heracles made the lion return to his cave. The cave had two entrances, one of which Heracles blocked; he then entered the other. In those dark and close quarters, Heracles stunned the beast with his club and, using his immense strength, strangled it to death. During the fight the lion bit off one of his fingers. Others say that he shot arrows at it, eventually shooting it in the unarmoured mouth.

After slaying the lion, he tried to skin it with a knife from his belt, but failed. He then tried sharpening the knife with a stone and even tried with the stone itself. Finally, Athena, noticing the hero's plight, told Heracles to use one of the lion's own claws to skin the pelt.

When he returned on the thirtieth day carrying the carcass of the lion on his shoulders, King Eurystheus was amazed and terrified. Eurystheus forbade him ever again to enter the city; in future he was to display the fruits of his labours outside the city gates. Eurystheus warned him that the tasks set for him would become increasingly difficult. He then sent Heracles off to complete his next quest, which was to destroy the Lernaean hydra.

The Nemean lion's coat was impervious to the elements and all but the most powerful weapons. Others say that Heracles' armour was, in fact, the hide of the lion of Cithaeron.
ecoli
00010x00~0.jpg
14 viewsEGYPT, Uncertain
PB Tessera
Two figures standing facing
Warrior advancing right?
Milne -; Dattari (Savio) -; Köln -
Ardatirion
Mensor_Q-001_axis-5h_17-19mm_3,76g-s.jpg
076-075 B.C., L. Farsuleius Mensor, Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 392/1b, Rome, Warrior in quadriga, #1236 views076-075 B.C., L. Farsuleius Mensor, Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 392/1b, Rome, Warrior in quadriga, #1
avers: MENSOR S•C Bust of Libertas right.
reverse: Warrior in quadriga assisting togate male into biga right, control number XXCVT under horses.
exergue: -/-//L•FARSVLEI, diameter: 17-19mm, weight: 3,76g, axis: 5h,
mint: Rome, date:, ref: Crawford-392-1b, Sydenham 789a, Farsuleia 2,
Q-001
quadrans
248Hadrian__RIC850f.JPG
0850 Hadrian AS Roma 134-38 AD Dacia37 viewsReference. Scarce
RIC 850;

Obv. HADRIANVS AVG COS III P P
Laureate, draped bust right, seen from back.

Rev. in ex. DACIA S-C in field
Dacia seated left on rock, holding vexillum and curved sword (Falx); r. foot rests on globe?

11.52 gr
26 mm
6h

Note.
At the time of the Dacian wars researchers have estimated that only ten percent of Spanish and Gallic warriors had access to swords, usually the nobility. By contrast Dacia had rich resources of iron and were prolific metal workers. It is clear that a large percentage of Dacians owned swords, greatly reducing Rome's military advantage.[7]
Marcus Cornelius Fronto described the large gaping wounds that a falx inflicted, and experiments have shown that a blow from a falx easily penetrated the Romans' lorica segmentata, incapacitating the majority of victims.
1 commentsokidoki
A-08_Rep_AR-Den_L_Pomponius-Cn_f__L_POMPONI_CNF_-Helm-head-Roma-r__L_LIC_CN_DOM_-biga-r__Crawford-282-4_Syd-522_Rome_118-BC_Q-001_1h_19,5mm_3,74g-s.jpg
112-109 B.C., L. Pomponius Cn. f., L. Licinius Crassus and Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus, Republic AR-Denarius Serratus, Crawford 282/4, Rome, Gallic warrior in biga right, -/-//L•LIC•CN•DOM•, #1211 views112-109 B.C., L. Pomponius Cn. f., L. Licinius Crassus and Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus, Republic AR-Denarius Serratus, Crawford 282/4, Rome, Gallic warrior in biga right, -/-//L•LIC•CN•DOM•, #1
avers: L•POMPONI•CNF (NF ligate), Helmeted head of Roma right, X behind.
reverse: Gallic warrior (Bituitus?) driving galloping biga right, hurling spear and holding shield and carnyx, in ex. L•LIC•CN•DOM•,
exergue: -/-//L•LIC•CN•DOM•, diameter: 19,5mm, weight: 3,74g, axis: 1h,
mint: Rome, date: 118 B.C., ref: Crawford 282/4, Syd 522a, Pomponia 7a,
Q-001
quadrans
112-109_B_C_,_L_Pomponius_Cn_f_,_L_Licinius_Crassus,_Cn_Domitius_Ahenobarbus,_AR-Den,_L_POMPONI_CNF,_X,_L_LIC_CN_DOM_ROMA_Crwf-282-4,_Syd-522,_Rome_Q-001_2h_19-19,5mm_3,73g-s.jpg
112-109 B.C., L. Pomponius Cn. f., L. Licinius Crassus and Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus, Republic AR-Denarius Serratus, Crawford 282/4, Rome, Gallic warrior in biga right, -/-//L•LIC•CN•DOM•, #2111 views112-109 B.C., L. Pomponius Cn. f., L. Licinius Crassus and Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus, Republic AR-Denarius Serratus, Crawford 282/4, Rome, Gallic warrior in biga right, -/-//L•LIC•CN•DOM•, #2
avers: L•POMPONI•CNF (NF ligate), Helmeted head of Roma right, X behind.
reverse: Gallic warrior (Bituitus?) driving galloping biga right, hurling spear and holding shield and carnyx, in ex. L•LIC•CN•DOM•,
exergue: -/-//L•LIC•CN•DOM•, diameter: 19,0-19,5mm, weight: 3,73g, axis: 2h,
mint: Rome, date: 118 B.C., ref: Crawford 282/4, Syd 522a, Pomponia 7a,
Q-002
quadrans
A-02_Rep_AR-Den-Ser_C_Publicius-Malleolus-C_f__C-MALLE-C-F-X-behind_L-LIC-CN-DOM_ROMA_Crawford-282-3_Syd-524_Rome_118-BC_R1_Q-001_11h_19-20mm_3,79g-s.jpg
118 B.C., L. Licinius Crassus, and Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus with C. Malleolus C.f., Republic AR-Denarius Seratus, Crawford 282/3, Rome, Bearded warrior in biga right, L•LIC•CN•DOM., #1155 views118 B.C., L. Licinius Crassus, and Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus with C. Malleolus C.f., Republic AR-Denarius Seratus, Crawford 282/3, Rome, Bearded warrior in biga right, L•LIC•CN•DOM., #1
(L. Licinius Crassus, Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus and associates, Narbo 118.)
avers: C•MA-L-LE-C•F Helmeted head of Roma right, behind, X.
reverse: Bearded warrior (Bituitus?) fast biga right, holding a shield, carnyx, and reins and hurling spear, in exergue, L•LIC•CN•DOM.
exergue: -/-//L•LIC•CN•DOM, diameter: 19,0-20,0mm, weight: 3,79g, axis: 11h,
mint: Rome, date: 118 B.C., ref: Crawford 282/3, Syd-524, Licinia 13 and Domitia 17,
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
118_B_C_,_L__Licinius_Crassus_and_Cn__Domitius_Ahenobarbus_with_C__Malleolus_C_f_,_AR-Den-serr_,_Licinia_13_and_Domitia_17,_Crw282-3,_Syd-524,_Rome,_Q-003,_3h,_19mm,_3,73g-s.jpg
118 B.C., L. Licinius Crassus, and Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus with C. Malleolus C.f., Republic AR-Denarius Seratus, Crawford 282/3, Rome, Bearded warrior in biga right, L•LIC•CN•DOM., #278 views118 B.C., L. Licinius Crassus, and Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus with C. Malleolus C.f., Republic AR-Denarius Seratus, Crawford 282/3, Rome, Bearded warrior in biga right, L•LIC•CN•DOM., #2
(L. Licinius Crassus, Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus and associates, Narbo 118.)
avers: C•MA-L-LE-C•F Helmeted head of Roma right, behind, X.
reverse: Bearded warrior (Bituitus?) fast biga right, holding a shield, carnyx, and reins and hurling spear, in exergue, L•LIC•CN•DOM.
exergue: -/-//L•LIC•CN•DOM, diameter: 19,0mm, weight: 3,73g, axis: 3h,
mint: Rome, date: 118 B.C., ref: Crawford 282/3, Syd-524, Licinia 13 and Domitia 17,
Q-002
3 commentsquadrans
A-02_Rep_AR-Den-Ser_C_Publicius-Malleolus-C_f__C-MALLE-C-F-X-behind_L-LIC-CN-DOM_ROMA_Crawford-282-3_Syd-524_Rome_118-BC_R1_Q-001_1h_18-19mm_3,35g-s.jpg
118 B.C., L. Licinius Crassus, and Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus with C. Malleolus C.f., Republic AR-Denarius Seratus, Crawford 282/3, Rome, Bearded warrior in biga right, L•LIC•CN•DOM., #3196 views118 B.C., L. Licinius Crassus, and Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus with C. Malleolus C.f., Republic AR-Denarius Seratus, Crawford 282/3, Rome, Bearded warrior in biga right, L•LIC•CN•DOM., #3
(L. Licinius Crassus, Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus and associates, Narbo 118.)
avers: C•MA-L-LE-C•F Helmeted head of Roma right, behind, X.
reverse: Bearded warrior (Bituitus?) fast biga right, holding a shield, carnyx, and reins and hurling spear, in exergue, L•LIC•CN•DOM.
exergue: -/-//L•LIC•CN•DOM, diameter: 18,0-19,0mm, weight: 3,35g, axis: 1h,
mint: Rome, date: 118 B.C., ref: Crawford 282/3, Syd-524, Licinia 13 and Domitia 17,
Q-003
quadrans
1189_-_1199_Richard_I_AR_Denier.JPG
1189 - 1199, RICHARD I (the lionheart), AR Denier minted at Melle, Poitou, France45 viewsObverse: +RICARDVS REX. Cross pattée within braided inner circle, all within braided outer circle.
Reverse: PIC / TAVIE / NSIS in three lines within braided circle.
Diameter: 20mm | Weight: 1.0gms | Die Axis: 2
SPINK: 8008 | Elias: 8

Poitou was an Anglo-Gallic province in what is now west-central France and its capital city was Poitiers, the mint at this time was however located at Melle. Melle was an active centre of minting during the early Middle Ages due to the important silver mines located under and around the city. This is the only coin issue struck during the reign of Richard I to bear his own name and titles as King of England.

Richard I was King of England from 1189 until his death on 6th April 1199. He also ruled several territories outwith England, and was styled as Duke of Normandy, Aquitaine and Gascony, Lord of Cyprus, Count of Poitiers, Anjou, Maine, and Nantes, as well as being overlord of Brittany at various times during the same period. He was the third of five sons of King Henry II of England and Duchess Eleanor of Aquitaine. He was known as Richard the Lionheart (Richard Cœur de Lion) because of his reputation as a great military leader and warrior when, at the age of 16 and commanding his own army, he had put down rebellions against his father in Poitou.
Richard was a commander during the Third Crusade, and led the campaign after the departure of Philip II of France. However, although he scored several notable victories against the Muslims led by Saladin, he failed to retake Jerusalem from them.
Although Richard was born in England and spent his childhood there before becoming king, he lived most of his adult life in the Duchy of Aquitaine. Following his accession, his life was mostly spent on Crusade, in captivity, or actively defending his lands in France. Rather than regarding England as a responsibility requiring his presence as ruler, he appears to have used it merely as a source of revenue to support his armies. Nevertheless, he was seen as a pious hero by his subjects and he remains one of the few kings of England who is remembered by his epithet rather than by his regnal number, and even today he is still an iconic figure in both England and France.
3 comments*Alex
1421_Henry_V_AR_Double-Turnois.JPG
1413 - 1422, Henry V, Billon Niquet (Double Tournois) struck in 1421 at Rouen, France27 viewsObverse: + H REX ANGL HERES FRANC. Crowned lion passant facing left, fleur-de-lis above. Pellet mintmark below first letter of legend = Rouen mint.
Reverse: + SIT NOME DNI BENEDICTV. Cross pattée with lis in angles and lombardic 'h' in centre. Pellet mintmark below first letter of legend.
Diameter: 24mm | Weight: 1.9gms | Die Axis: 9
SPINK: 8162 | Elias: 260 (Scarce)[/b.]

This Anglo-Gallic coin, colloquially called a “leopard” after its obverse design, bears the titles of Henry V as king of England and heir to the French kingdom.

Henry V was King of England from 1413 until his sudden death on 31st August 1422. He is thought to have died from dysentery contracted during the siege of Meaux in France. He was 36 years old and had reigned for nine years. He was the second English monarch of the House of Lancaster.
During the reign of his father, King Henry IV, Henry had acquired an increasing share in England's government due to his father's declining health. After his father's death in 1413, Henry assumed control of the country and asserted the pending English claim to the French throne.
In 1415, Henry embarked on war with France in the ongoing Hundred Years' War between the two countries. Despite his relatively short reign, Henry's outstanding military successes, most notably in his famous victory at the Battle of Agincourt in 1415, made England one of the strongest military powers in Europe.
In 1420, after months of negotiation with Charles VI of France, the Treaty of Troyes was signed recognising Henry V as regent and heir apparent to the French throne. To seal the pact Henry married Charles' daughter, Catherine of Valois. Henry's sudden death however, prevented the prospect of the English King taking the French throne from ever taking place.
Immortalised in the plays of Shakespeare, Henry V is known and celebrated as one of the great warrior kings of medieval England.
2 comments*Alex
Val.jpg
1501s, Valentinian I, 25 February 364 - 17 November 375 A.D. (Siscia)104 viewsValentinian I, 25 February 364 - 17 November 375 A.D., Bronze AE 3, S 4103, VF, Siscia mint, 2.012g, 18.7mm, 180o, 24 Aug 367 - 17 Nov 375 A.D.obverse D N VALENTINI-ANVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse SECVRITAS - REIPVBLICAE, Victory advancing left, wreath in right and palm in left, symbols in fields, mintmark in exergue.


De Imperatoribus Romanis, An Online Encyclopedia of the Roman Emperors and their Families

Valentinian I (364-375 AD.)

Walter E. Roberts, Emory University

Valentinian was one of Rome's last great warrior emperors. Flavius Valentinianus, was born in A.D. 321 at Cibalis (modern Vinkovci) in southern Pannonia. His father Gratian was a soldier renowned for his strength and wrestling skills. Gratian had an illustrious career in the army, rising from staff officer to tribune, to comes Africae, and finally [i/comes Britanniae.

The emperor Jovian died on 17 February 364, apparently of natural causes, on the border between Bithynia and Galatia. The army marched on to Nicaea, the nearest city of any consequence, and a meeting of civil and military officials was convened to choose a new emperor. The assembly finally agreed upon Valentinian.

On 26 February 364, Valentinian accepted the office offered to him. As he prepared to make his accession speech, the soldiers threatened to riot, apparently uncertain as to where his loyalties lay. Valentinian reassured them that the army was his greatest priority. Furthermore, to prevent a crisis of succession if he should die prematurely, he agreed to pick a co-Augustus. According to Ammianus, the soldiers were astounded by Valentinian’s bold demeanor and his willingness to assume the imperial authority. His decision to elect a fellow-emperor could also be construed as a move to appease any opposition among the civilian officials in the eastern portion of the empire. By agreeing to appoint a co-ruler, he assured the eastern officials that someone with imperial authority would remain in the east to protect their interests. After promoting his brother Valens to the rank of tribune and putting him in charge of the royal stables on March 1, Valentinian selected Valens as co-Augustus at Constantinople on 28 March 364, though this was done over the objections of Dagalaifus. Ammianus makes it clear, however, that Valens was clearly subordinate to his brother.

Ammianus and Zosimus as well as modern scholars praise Valentinian for his military accomplishments. He is generally credited with keeping the Roman empire from crumbling away by “. . . reversing the generally waning confidence in the army and imperial defense . . ..” Several other aspects of Valentinian's reign also set the course of Roman history for the next century.

Valentinian deliberately polarized Roman society, subordinating the civilian population to the military. The military order took over the old prestige of the senatorial nobility. The imperial court, which was becoming more and more of a military court, became a vehicle for social mobility. There were new ideas of nobility, which was increasingly provincial in character. By this it is meant that the imperial court, not the Senate, was the seat of nobility, and most of these new nobles came from the provinces. With the erosion of the old nobility, the stage was set for the ascendancy of Christianity. Ammianus makes it clear that actions such as these were part of a systematic plan by Valentinian to erode the power and prestige of the senatorial aristocracy. Several pieces of extant legislation seem to confirm Ammianus’ allegations that Valentinian was eroding senatorial prestige.

Valentinian's reign affords valuable insights into late Roman society, civilian as well as military. First, there was a growing fracture between the eastern and western portions of the empire. Valentinian was the last emperor to really concentrate his resources on the west. Valens was clearly in an inferior position in the partnership. Second, there was a growing polarization of society, both Christian versus pagan, and civil versus military. Finally there was a growing regionalism in the west, driven by heavy taxation and the inability of Valentinian to fully exercise military authority in all areas of the west. All of these trends would continue over the next century, profoundly reshaping the Roman empire and western Europe.

By Walter E. Roberts, Emory University
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
1 commentsCleisthenes
ValentGlRom.jpg
1501s, Valentinian I, 25 February 364 - 17 November 375 A.D. (Siscia)59 viewsValentinian I, 25 February 364 - 17 November 375 A.D. Bronze AE 3, RIC 5(a) ii, VF, Siscia, 1.905g, 19.3mm, 0o, 25 Feb 364 - 24 Aug 367 A.D. Obverse: D N VALENTINI-ANVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: GLORIA RO-MANORVM, Emperor dragging captive with right, labarum (chi-rho standard) in left, •GSISC in exergue.


De Imperatoribus Romanis, An Online Encyclopedia of the Roman Emperors and their Families

Valentinian I (364-375 AD.)

Walter E. Roberts, Emory University

Valentinian was one of Rome's last great warrior emperors. Flavius Valentinianus, was born in A.D. 321 at Cibalis (modern Vinkovci) in southern Pannonia. His father Gratian was a soldier renowned for his strength and wrestling skills. Gratian had an illustrious career in the army, rising from staff officer to tribune, to comes Africae, and finally [i/comes Britanniae.

The emperor Jovian died on 17 February 364, apparently of natural causes, on the border between Bithynia and Galatia. The army marched on to Nicaea, the nearest city of any consequence, and a meeting of civil and military officials was convened to choose a new emperor. The assembly finally agreed upon Valentinian.

On 26 February 364, Valentinian accepted the office offered to him. As he prepared to make his accession speech, the soldiers threatened to riot, apparently uncertain as to where his loyalties lay. Valentinian reassured them that the army was his greatest priority. Furthermore, to prevent a crisis of succession if he should die prematurely, he agreed to pick a co-Augustus. According to Ammianus, the soldiers were astounded by Valentinian’s bold demeanor and his willingness to assume the imperial authority. His decision to elect a fellow-emperor could also be construed as a move to appease any opposition among the civilian officials in the eastern portion of the empire. By agreeing to appoint a co-ruler, he assured the eastern officials that someone with imperial authority would remain in the east to protect their interests. After promoting his brother Valens to the rank of tribune and putting him in charge of the royal stables on March 1, Valentinian selected Valens as co-Augustus at Constantinople on 28 March 364, though this was done over the objections of Dagalaifus. Ammianus makes it clear, however, that Valens was clearly subordinate to his brother.

Ammianus and Zosimus as well as modern scholars praise Valentinian for his military accomplishments. He is generally credited with keeping the Roman empire from crumbling away by “. . . reversing the generally waning confidence in the army and imperial defense . . ..” Several other aspects of Valentinian's reign also set the course of Roman history for the next century.

Valentinian deliberately polarized Roman society, subordinating the civilian population to the military. The military order took over the old prestige of the senatorial nobility. The imperial court, which was becoming more and more of a military court, became a vehicle for social mobility. There were new ideas of nobility, which was increasingly provincial in character. By this it is meant that the imperial court, not the Senate, was the seat of nobility, and most of these new nobles came from the provinces. With the erosion of the old nobility, the stage was set for the ascendancy of Christianity. Ammianus makes it clear that actions such as these were part of a systematic plan by Valentinian to erode the power and prestige of the senatorial aristocracy. Several pieces of extant legislation seem to confirm Ammianus’ allegations that Valentinian was eroding senatorial prestige.

Valentinian's reign affords valuable insights into late Roman society, civilian as well as military. First, there was a growing fracture between the eastern and western portions of the empire. Valentinian was the last emperor to really concentrate his resources on the west. Valens was clearly in an inferior position in the partnership. Second, there was a growing polarization of society, both Christian versus pagan, and civil versus military. Finally there was a growing regionalism in the west, driven by heavy taxation and the inability of Valentinian to fully exercise military authority in all areas of the west. All of these trends would continue over the next century, profoundly reshaping the Roman empire and western Europe.

By Walter E. Roberts, Emory University
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
PCrassusDenAmazon.jpg
1ab Marcus Licinius Crassus173 viewsFormed First Triumvirate with Caesar and Pompey in 60 BC, killed at Carrhae in Parthia in 53 BC.

Denarius, minted by son, P Licinius Crassus, ca 54 BC.
Bust of Venus, right, SC behind
Amazon with horse, P CRASSVS MF.

These coins were probably minted to pay Crassus' army for the invasion of Parthia. The reverse figure is sometimes described as a warrior or Gaulish horseman, but this example clearly accords with those who identify the figure as a woman! Member of the first triumvirate, 59-53 BC.

Seaby, Licinia 18

Plutarch wrote of Crassus: People were wont to say that the many virtues of Crassus were darkened by the one vice of avarice, and indeed he seemed to have no other but that; for it being the most predominant, obscured others to which he was inclined. The arguments in proof of his avarice were the vastness of his estate, and the manner of raising it; for whereas at first he was not worth above three hundred talents, yet, though in the course of his political life he dedicated the tenth of all he had to Hercules, and feasted the people, and gave to every citizen corn enough to serve him three months, upon casting up his accounts, before he went upon his Parthian expedition, he found his possessions to amount to seven thousand one hundred talents; most of which, if we may scandal him with a truth, he got by fire and rapine, making his advantages of the public calamities. . . . Crassus, however, was very eager to be hospitable to strangers; he kept open house, and to his friends he would lend money without interest, but called it in precisely at the time; so that his kindness was often thought worse than the paying the interest would have been. His entertainments were, for the most part, plain and citizen-like, the company general and popular; good taste and kindness made them pleasanter than sumptuosity would have done. As for learning he chiefly cared for rhetoric, and what would be serviceable with large numbers; he became one of the best speakers at Rome, and by his pains and industry outdid the best natural orators. . . . Besides, the people were pleased with his courteous and unpretending salutations and greetings, for he never met any citizen however humble and low, but he returned him his salute by name. He was looked upon as a man well-read in history, and pretty well versed in Aristotle's philosophy. . . . Crassus was killed by a Parthian, called Pomaxathres; others say by a different man, and that Pomaxathres only cut off his head and right hand after he had fallen. But this is conjecture rather than certain knowledge, for those that were by had not leisure to observe particulars. . . .
2 commentsBlindado
PCrassusDenAmazon~0.jpg
1ab Marcus Licinius Crassus17 viewsFormed First Triumvirate with Caesar and Pompey in 60 BC, killed at Carrhae in Parthia in 53 BC.

Denarius, minted by son, P Licinius Crassus, ca 54 BC.
Bust of Venus, right, SC behind
Amazon with horse, P CRASSVS MF.

Seaby, Licinia 18

These coins were probably minted to pay Crassus' army for the invasion of Parthia, which led to its destruction. My synthesis of reviewing 90 examples of this issue revealed a female warrior wearing a soft felt Scythian cap with ear flaps; a fabric garment with a decorated skirt to the knees; probably trousers; an ornate war belt; a baldric; a cape, animal skin, or shoulder cord on attached to the left shoulder; and decorated calf-high boots. She matches the historically confirmed garb of the real amazons—Scythian horsewomen—and of course holds her steed. The horse’s tack is consistent with archeological discoveries of tack in use by Scythians and Romans.

Adrienne Mayor writes that amazon imagery on Greek vases suddenly appeared in 575-550 BC, initially depicting them in Greek-style armor. By the end of the century, as the Greeks learned more through direct and indirect contact with Scythians, they began to appear wearing archeologically confirmed Scythian-Sarmatian-Thracian patterned attire. (Adrienne Mayor, The Amazons: Lives and Legends of Warrior Women Across the Ancient World, Princeton, Princeton University Press, 2014, 199-200). To this, artists added their own creative ideas regarding colors, fabric patterns, and decorations. “They dressed the warrior women in body-hugging ‘unitards’ or tunics, short chitons or belted dresses, sometimes over leggings or trousers. . . . In paintings and sculpture, pointed or soft Scythian caps with earflaps or ties (kidaris) soon replaced the Greek helmets, and the women wear a variety of belts, baldrics (diagonal straps), corselets, shoulder cords or bands, and crisscrossing leather straps attached to belt loops like those worn by the archer huntress Artemis. . . . Amazon footgear included soft leather moccasin-like shoes, calf-high boots (endromides), or taller laced boots (embades) with scallops or flaps and lined with felt or fur.” (Mayor, 202)

The artists apparently had detailed knowledge of gear used by real Scythian horsewomen to equip their imagined Amazons. “Archeological discoveries of well-preserved sets of clothing confirm that real horsewomen of ancient Scythian lands dressed much as did those described in Greek texts and illustrated in Scythian and Greek artwork.” (Mayor, 203)
1 commentsBlindado
PCrassusDenAmazon2.jpg
1ab_2 Marcus Licinius Crassus34 viewsFormed First Triumvirate with Caesar and Pompey in 60 BC, killed at Carrhae in Parthia in 53 BC.

Denarius, minted by son, P Licinius Crassus, ca 54 BC.
Bust of Venus, right, SC behind
Amazon with horse, P CRASSVS MF.

Seaby, Licinia 18

These coins were probably minted to pay Crassus' army for the invasion of Parthia. My synthesis of reviewing 90 examples of this issue revealed a female warrior wearing a soft felt Scythian cap with ear flaps (visible in this example); a fabric garment with a decorated skirt to the knees; probably trousers; an ornate war belt; a baldric; a cape, animal skin, or shoulder cord on attached to the left shoulder; and decorated calf-high boots. She matches the historically confirmed garb of the real amazons—Scythian horsewomen—and of course holds her steed. The horse’s tack is consistent with archeological discoveries of tack in use by Scythians and Romans.

Adrienne Mayor writes that amazon imagery on Greek vases suddenly appeared in 575-550 BC, initially depicting them in Greek-style armor. By the end of the century, as the Greeks learned more through direct and indirect contact with Scythians, they began to appear wearing archeologically confirmed Scythian-Sarmatian-Thracian patterned attire. (Adrienne Mayor, The Amazons: Lives and Legends of Warrior Women Across the Ancient World, Princeton, Princeton University Press, 2014, 199-200). To this, artists added their own creative ideas regarding colors, fabric patterns, and decorations. “They dressed the warrior women in body-hugging ‘unitards’ or tunics, short chitons or belted dresses, sometimes over leggings or trousers. . . . In paintings and sculpture, pointed or soft Scythian caps with earflaps or ties (kidaris) soon replaced the Greek helmets, and the women wear a variety of belts, baldrics (diagonal straps), corselets, shoulder cords or bands, and crisscrossing leather straps attached to belt loops like those worn by the archer huntress Artemis. . . . Amazon footgear included soft leather moccasin-like shoes, calf-high boots (endromides), or taller laced boots (embades) with scallops or flaps and lined with felt or fur.” (Mayor, 202)
The artists apparently had detailed knowledge of gear used by real Scythian horsewomen to equip their imagined Amazons. “Archeological discoveries of well-preserved sets of clothing confirm that real horsewomen of ancient Scythian lands dressed much as did those described in Greek texts and illustrated in Scythian and Greek artwork.” (Mayor, 203)

Plutarch wrote of Crassus: People were wont to say that the many virtues of Crassus were darkened by the one vice of avarice, and indeed he seemed to have no other but that; for it being the most predominant, obscured others to which he was inclined. The arguments in proof of his avarice were the vastness of his estate, and the manner of raising it; for whereas at first he was not worth above three hundred talents, yet, though in the course of his political life he dedicated the tenth of all he had to Hercules, and feasted the people, and gave to every citizen corn enough to serve him three months, upon casting up his accounts, before he went upon his Parthian expedition, he found his possessions to amount to seven thousand one hundred talents; most of which, if we may scandal him with a truth, he got by fire and rapine, making his advantages of the public calamities. . . . Crassus, however, was very eager to be hospitable to strangers; he kept open house, and to his friends he would lend money without interest, but called it in precisely at the time; so that his kindness was often thought worse than the paying the interest would have been. His entertainments were, for the most part, plain and citizen-like, the company general and popular; good taste and kindness made them pleasanter than sumptuosity would have done. As for learning he chiefly cared for rhetoric, and what would be serviceable with large numbers; he became one of the best speakers at Rome, and by his pains and industry outdid the best natural orators. . . . Besides, the people were pleased with his courteous and unpretending salutations and greetings, for he never met any citizen however humble and low, but he returned him his salute by name. He was looked upon as a man well-read in history, and pretty well versed in Aristotle's philosophy. . . . Crassus was killed by a Parthian, called Pomaxathres; others say by a different man, and that Pomaxathres only cut off his head and right hand after he had fallen. But this is conjecture rather than certain knowledge, for those that were by had not leisure to observe particulars. . . .
1 commentsBlindado
PCrassusDenAmazon2~1.jpg
1ab_2 Marcus Licinius Crassus35 viewsFormed First Triumvirate with Caesar and Pompey in 60 BC, killed at Carrhae in Parthia in 53 BC.

Denarius, minted by son, P Licinius Crassus, ca 54 BC.
Bust of Venus, right, SC behind
Amazon with horse, P CRASSVS MF.

Seaby, Licinia 18

These coins were probably minted to pay Crassus' army for the invasion of Parthia, which led to its destruction. My synthesis of reviewing 90 examples of this issue revealed a female warrior wearing a soft felt Scythian cap with ear flaps (visible in this example); a fabric garment with a decorated skirt to the knees; probably trousers; an ornate war belt; a baldric; a cape, animal skin, or shoulder cord on attached to the left shoulder; and decorated calf-high boots. She matches the historically confirmed garb of the real amazons—Scythian horsewomen—and of course holds her steed. The horse’s tack is consistent with archeological discoveries of tack in use by Scythians and Romans.

Adrienne Mayor writes that amazon imagery on Greek vases suddenly appeared in 575-550 BC, initially depicting them in Greek-style armor. By the end of the century, as the Greeks learned more through direct and indirect contact with Scythians, they began to appear wearing archeologically confirmed Scythian-Sarmatian-Thracian patterned attire. (Adrienne Mayor, The Amazons: Lives and Legends of Warrior Women Across the Ancient World, Princeton, Princeton University Press, 2014, 199-200). To this, artists added their own creative ideas regarding colors, fabric patterns, and decorations. “They dressed the warrior women in body-hugging ‘unitards’ or tunics, short chitons or belted dresses, sometimes over leggings or trousers. . . . In paintings and sculpture, pointed or soft Scythian caps with earflaps or ties (kidaris) soon replaced the Greek helmets, and the women wear a variety of belts, baldrics (diagonal straps), corselets, shoulder cords or bands, and crisscrossing leather straps attached to belt loops like those worn by the archer huntress Artemis. . . . Amazon footgear included soft leather moccasin-like shoes, calf-high boots (endromides), or taller laced boots (embades) with scallops or flaps and lined with felt or fur.” (Mayor, 202)

The artists apparently had detailed knowledge of gear used by real Scythian horsewomen to equip their imagined Amazons. “Archeological discoveries of well-preserved sets of clothing confirm that real horsewomen of ancient Scythian lands dressed much as did those described in Greek texts and illustrated in Scythian and Greek artwork.” (Mayor, 203)
2 commentsBlindado
GermanicusAsSC.jpg
1an Germanicus37 viewsAdopted by Tiberius in 4 AD, died mysteriously in 19

As, struck by Caligula

Bare head, left, GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVGVST F DIVI AVG N
C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT SC

RIC 57

Germanicus Julius Caesar (c16 BC-AD 19) was was born in Lugdunum, Gaul (modern Lyon). At birth he was named either Nero Claudius Drusus after his father or Tiberius Claudius Nero after his uncle. He received the agnomen Germanicus, in 9 BC, when it was posthumously awarded to his father in honour of his victories in Germania. Germanicus was the grandson-in-law and great-nephew of the Emperor Augustus, nephew and adoptive son of the Emperor Tiberius, father of the Emperor Caligula, brother of the Emperor Claudius, and the maternal grandfather of the Emperor Nero. He married his maternal second cousin Agrippina the Elder, a granddaughter of Augustus, between 5 and 1 BC. The couple had nine children. Two died very young; another, Gaius Julius Caesar, died in early childhood. The remaining six were: Nero Caesar, Drusus Caesar, the Emperor Caligula, the Empress Agrippina the Younger, Julia Drusilla, and Julia Livilla.

According to Suetonius: Germanicus, who was the son of Drusus the Elder and Antonia the Younger, was adopted (in 4AD) by Germanicus’s paternal uncle, Tiberius. He served as quaestor (in7AD) five years before the legal age and became consul (in12AD) without holding the intermediate offices. On the death of Augustus (in AD14) he was appointed to command the army in Germany, where, his filial piety and determination vying for prominence, he held the legions to their oath, though they stubbornly opposed Tiberius’s succession, and wished him to take power for himself.

He followed this with victory in Germany, for which he celebrated a triumph (in 17 AD), and was chosen as consul for a second time (18 AD) though unable to take office as he was despatched to the East to restore order there. He defeated the forces of the King of Armenia, and reduced Cappadocia to provincial status, but then died at Antioch, at the age of only thirty-three (in AD 19), after a lingering illness, though there was also suspicion that he had been poisoned. For as well as the livid stains which covered his body, and the foam on his lips, the heart was found entire among the ashes after his cremation, its total resistance to flame being a characteristic of that organ, they say, when it is filled with poison.

All considered Germanicus exceptional in body and mind, to a quite outstanding degree. Remarkably brave and handsome; a master of Greek and Latin oratory and learning; singularly benevolent; he was possessed of a powerful desire and vast capacity for winning respect and inspiring affection.

His scrawny legs were less in keeping with the rest of his figure, but he gradually fleshed them out by assiduous exercise on horseback after meals. He often killed enemy warriors in hand-to-hand combat; still pleaded cases in the courts even after receiving his triumph; and left various Greek comedies behind amongst other fruits of his studies.

At home and abroad his manners were unassuming, such that he always entered free or allied towns without his lictors.

Whenever he passed the tombs of famous men, he always offered a sacrifice to their shades. And he was the first to initiate a personal search for the scattered remains of Varus’s fallen legionaries, and have them gathered together, so as to inter them in a single burial mound.

As for Germanicus, Tiberius appreciated him so little, that he dismissed his famous deeds as trivial, and his brilliant victories as ruinous to the Empire. He complained to the Senate when Germanicus left for Alexandria (AD19) without consulting him, on the occasion there of a terrible and swift-spreading famine. It was even believed that Tiberius arranged for his poisoning at the hands of Gnaeus Calpurnius Piso, the Governor of Syria, and that Piso would have revealed the written instructions at his trial, had Tiberius not retrieved them during a private interview, before having Piso put to death. As a result, the words: ‘Give us back Germanicus!’ were posted on the walls, and shouted at night, all throughout Rome. The suspicion surrounding Germanicus’ death (19 AD) was deepened by Tiberius’s cruel treatment of Germanicus’s wife, Agrippina the Elder, and their children.
1 commentsBlindado
coin396.JPG
513. Gratian30 viewsFlavius Gratianus Augustus (April 18/May 23, 359 - August 25, 383), known as Gratian, was a Western Roman Emperor from 375 to 383. He was the son of Valentinian I by Marina Severa and was born at Sirmium in Pannonia.

On August 4, 367 he received from his father the title of Augustus. On the death of Valentinian (November 17, 375), the troops in Pannonia proclaimed his infant son (by a second wife Justina) emperor under the title of Valentinian II.

Gratian acquiesced in their choice; reserving for himself the administration of the Gallic provinces, he handed over Italy, Illyria and Africa to Valentinian and his mother, who fixed their residence at Milan. The division, however, was merely nominal, and the real authority remained in the hands of Gratian.

The Eastern Roman Empire was under the rule of his uncle Valens. In May, 378 Gratian completely defeated the Lentienses, the southernmost branch of the Alamanni, at the Battle of Argentovaria, near the site of the modern Colmar. Later that year, Valens met his death in the Battle of Adrianople on August 9.

In the same year, the government of the Eastern Empire devolved upon Gratian, but feeling himself unable to resist unaided the incursions of the barbarians, he promoted Theodosius I on January 19, 379 to govern that portion of the empire. Gratianus and Theodosius then cleared the Balkans of barbarians in the Gothic War (377–382).

For some years Gratian governed the empire with energy and success but gradually sank into indolence, occupying himself chiefly with the pleasures of the chase, and became a tool in the hands of the Frankish general Merobaudes and bishop Ambrose of Milan.

By taking into his personal service a body of Alani, and appearing in public in the dress of a Scythian warrior, he aroused the contempt and resentment of his Roman troops. A Roman general named Magnus Maximus took advantage of this feeling to raise the standard of revolt in Britain and invaded Gaul with a large army. Gratian, who was then in Paris, being deserted by his troops, fled to Lyon. There, through the treachery of the governor, Gratian was delivered over to one of the rebel generals and assassinated on August 25, 383.

RIC IX Antioch 46b S

DN GRATIA-NVS PF AVG
CONCOR-DIA AVGGG
ecoli
titus RIC208.jpg
69-79 AD - TITUS (Caesar) AR denarius - struck 1Jan-23June 79 AD91 viewsobv: T CAESAR IMP VESPASIANVS (laureate head right)
rev: TR POT VIII COS VII (captive kneeling right in front of trophy of arms)
ref: RIC II 208(Vespasian) (S), C.334(6 francs)
3.32gms, 18mm
Rare

This reverse probably commemorating another Agricola's victory in Britannia or reminder of the successful Jewish War. I think it's belong to the Judea Capta series, because the captive wearing a typical jewish cap, and in ancient times both jewish men and women are wearing dresses covering most of their body (arms and legs). Celtic warriors had a long hair to scary the enemy (and they wearing pants).
4 commentsberserker
513ForumNaso.jpg
AE 216 views Bronze AE 21, c. 241 - 50 BCE Panormus (Palermo) mint, (4.595g, maximum diameter 20.9mm, die axis 315o)
magistrate (L. Axius?) Naso
o: laureate head of Zeus left
r: warrior standing left, sword in extended right, spear vertical behind in left, grounded shield behind leaning on spear, NAS/O left
very rare magistrate

per Forum notes: NASO named on this coin could be Lucius Axius L. f. Naso, who was a moneyer in Rome, c. 73 - 70 B.C. Two inscriptions discovered at Cordoba dedicated to a Lucio Axio Luci filio Polia tribu Nasoni, indicate his honors. He was first decemvir stlitibus iudicandis, then tribunus militum pro legato, then quaestor. Or, this NASO could be completely unrelated.
Calciati I p. 351, 125 (one specimen); HGC 2 1071 (C)
PURCHASED FROM FORUM ANCIENT COINS
PMah
99.jpg
AEOLIS, Temnus16 viewsAE14, 14.05mm (2.24 gm).

Athena in crested Corinthian helmet right / A - Θ - T - A, warrior standing, wearing crested helmet and cuirass, javelin in right hand, shield on left arm; A in upper left field, Θ in upper right field, T in lower left field and A in lower right field. Struck 3rd century BC.

SNG Cop 4, 259.
socalcoins
Alexander.jpg
Alexander III Tetradrachm Price 299991 viewsKINGS OF MACEDON. Alexander III ‘the Great’, 336-323 BC. Tetradrachm (Silver, 25 mm, 17.13 g, 12 h), Tarsos, struck under Balakros or Menes, circa 333-327.
O: Head of Herakles to right, wearing lion skin headdress.
R: AΛEΞANΔPOY Zeus seated left on low throne, holding long scepter in his left hand and eagle standing right with closed wings in his right.
- Price 2999. A rare early and unusual issue from Tarsos, "Officina B", bearing no symbol.

Alexander the Great (356 B.C.–323 B.C.) has been recognized as the greatest stratelates (roughly, ‘general’) in history. His army consisted of 30,000 infantryman and 5,000 cavalrymen. In 334 B.C., when he was 22 years old, he embarked on a campaign starting from the capital of Macedonia, Pella, and he created the Macedonian Empire within 8 years, by 326 B.C. The Macedonian Empire extended from Greece to India and North Africa. Alexander fought in the front lines in every battle, thereby encouraging his fellow warriors to do their best. He was never a spectator in battles, and the rear line was not for him. In each battle, just as any of his soldiers, he faced the risk of not seeing the sunset. He was in danger of “dining in Hades,” as they said about soldiers who died during battle. All his soldiers saw Alexander’s back in every battle.

By comparing these early Tarsos tetradrachms to the staters of Mazaios (Pictured below) it is easy to see the identical forms of the throne, scepter, footstool and other details. The drapery is rendered in a similar manner, the Aramaic inscription of the one and the Greek inscription of the other share the same curve following the dotted border. This evidence indicates the two series of coins were the common product of a single mint.

2 commentsNemonater
allobroges.jpg
Allobroges Tribe, Gaul26 viewsCeltic Gaul. The Allobroges. After 52 B.C. AR unit.
Obverse: Helmeted head of Roma right.
Reverse: Warrior holding couched lance on horse galloping right; below, DONNVS.
CCCBM II 277. 15 mm, 1.90 g, 4′.
Ex ACCG Benefit Auction Lot 1, August 17, 2008.
1 commentsb70
CelticPotinBaldBoarMed.jpg
ANIMALS/PINK FLOYD, Track 3. Pigs (Three Different Ones)26 viewsCeltic potin, Leuci tribe
80-20 BC
AE17.6, 3.43 gm
Obv: bald warrior head left
Rev: boar standing left, three half-circles below
Ref: BN 9100-9104

Composite picture of the collection:
http://www.forumancientcoins.com/gallery/displayimage.php?pos=-104363

Interactive presentation:
http://prezi.com/q7mw1k1zur65/?utm_campaign=share&utm_medium=copy&rc=ex0share


TIF
Greek.jpg
ANTIQUITIES, Greek, Corinthian Arybalos147 viewsCorinthian Arbalos
5th Century B.C.
Two Warriors Facing Boar
2 5/8" Height
Repaired
3 commentsBarry
AntoninusPius_Philippopolis_ Ares.jpg
Antoninus Pius, Philippopolis, Ares?25 views138–161
AE20, 3.8g
obv: [ΑΥ Τ ΑΙ ΑΔΡΙ ΑΝΤΩΝΕΙΝΟ], laureate head right
rev: ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΠΟΛΕΙΤ, nude warrior (Ares?) standing left, wearing helmet, holding patera and spear
variation of RPC-online's Temp №: 7448 (that one also has a shield)
areich
philsyria.jpg
AR Tetradrachm of Antioch, Roman Syria 46/45 BC28 viewsOBVERSE: Diademed head of Philip Philadelphos right
REVERSE: BASILEUS PHILIPPOY EPIPHOYS PHILADELPHOY, Zeus seated left holding Nike and Sceptre, Antioch monogram to inner left. D (date) in Exergue off flan - year 4 of Caesarian era.
RPC_4128, Prieur 5. McAlee 5(b)/1 same dies
Diameter ~26 mm, wt 14.3 gms, some porosity.
This coin is particularly interesting because it shows the change in style that came about as Roman cultural influence followed conquest of the Hellenic world. The flabby and self-indulgent features of the real Philip as portrayed in his lifetime have become idealized as a warrior-hero which he never was.
daverino
Herennia_Etruscilla_R607_fac.jpg
Asia Minor, Ionia, Samos, Herennia Etruscilla, Warrior5 viewsHerennia Etruscilla
Ionia, Samos
AE28
Obv.: ЄΡЄΝ ЄΤΡΟΥϹΚΙΛΛΑ ϹЄB, Draped bust right, wearing stephane and set upon crescent.
Rev.: ϹΑΜΙΩΝ, Warrior advancing right, head left, with foot set upon prow right, extending hand and holding shield.
Ae, 12.41g, 28 mm
Ref.: RPC IX 682; BMC 363
shanxi
Otacilia_Severa_R608_fac.jpg
Asia Minor, Ionia, Samos, Otacilia Severa, Warrior11 viewsOtacilia Severa
Ionia, Samos
AE30
Obv: M ΩTAKIΛIA CEOVHPA CEB.
Draped bust right, wearing stephane.
Rev: ϹΑΜΙΩΝ, Warrior advancing right, head left, with foot set upon prow right, extending hand and holding shield.
Ae, 10.68g, 30 mm
Ref.: SNG Copenhagen 1769; BMC 325
shanxi
Aurelian_Mars_Presentation.jpg
Aurelian * Emperor and Mars, 270-275 AD. Æ Antoninianus.81 views
Aurelian * Emperor and Mars * Bronze Antoninianus.

Obv: IMP AVRELIANVS AVG * radiate, cuirassed bust right facing.
Rev: RESTITVTOR EXERCITI, Mars the aggressor on the left facing right, presents Aurelian the globe (..the world) with his right hand; Aurelian standing opposite on his right, left-facing * Mars holding a spear in left hand, Emperor receiving the globe with his right hand, holding scepter in his left hand.
Officina letter Γ below globe, between the warriors.

Exergue: XXI

Mint: Cyzicus
Struck: 274-275 AD.

Size: 24 mm.
Weight: 4.64 grams
Die axis: 0°

Condition: Quite superb, although with some effacing of the Legends on both sides.
Letter A effaced from [A]VRELIANVS, on the Obv.
Rev. shows – EX[ERC]ITI
In all, beautiful condition; superb, well-centered strike. Lovely universal bronze-gold patina, and excellent details.

Refs:*
Cohen 206
RIC Vi, 366F (s) Scarce, page 306
(Rated Scarce by RIC).

Tiathena
OTTOKAR II L-62.jpg
AUSTRIA -- Ottokar II as King67 viewsAUSTRIA -- Ottokar II as King (1261-1276) AR Pfennig, Vienna mint. Obv.: Warrior to right with sword and shield. Rev.: Embossing traces. Reference: Luschin #62.dpaul7
456001.jpg
Bruttium, The Brettii. (Circa 211-208 BC.)2 viewsÆ Unit – Drachm

21.5mm, 7.58 g

Obverse: Laureate head of Zeus right; thunderbolt to left

Reverse: Warrior advancing right, holding shield and spear; race torch to right.

Scheu, Bronze 43; HN Italy 1988.
Nathan P
Bretti.jpg
Bruttium; the Bretti137 viewsLaureated and bearded head of Zeus right, at left thunderbolt, dotted border

BΡETTIΩN
warrior attacking right holding shield and spear; below bucranium. Dotted border.

211-208 BC


Scheu 42; HNItaly 1988; SNG Copenhagen 1658; SNG ANS 108.

8.05g

Round punch mark on obverse
3 commentsJay GT4
Brettian.jpg
Bruttium; the Bretti43 viewsLaureate head of Zeus right, at left thunderbolt

BPETTIΩN
Warrior standing right, holding shield and spear, below bunch of grapes.

Bruttium, circa 211-208 BC.

8.51g

HN Italy 1988; SNG ANS 106.

Scarce
2 commentsJay GT4
Byzantium-lead-seal-024-s.jpg
Byzantine Lead Seal, #24,177 viewsByzantine Lead Seal, #24,
"That's an anonymous seal depicting two warrior saints. Obv. shows Saint George [O GE]-WPGIO' (The accent is an abbreviation mark, peculiarly only for the letter 'C'!). The rev. shows Demetrios [O D]H/[M]H - TPIOC (can't see these last letters clearly from the photo though). He is holding a spear in r. hand and his l. on hilt of sword set on the ground. I'd date this one 12th century." by Gert thank you Gert.
quadrans
normal_edbldII~0.jpg
Byzantine Period, Crusader States, County of Edessa. Baldwin II , Second reign (1108-1118) . Æ Follis141 viewsCRUSADER STATES . County of Edessa. Baldwin II , Second reign (1108-1118) . Æ Follis
Æ Follis. 8.35 g. Heavy issue .
Obverse : armed warrior standing left holding sword and shield .
Reverse : True Cross on two-stepped base , large pellet in each upper angle , three pellets and sprig in each lower angle .

( Obverse - overstruck on Richard Class 3 reverse , trace of Δ in circular legend and on Baldwin Class 2 reverse long cross , pellets , X and B in first and second angles ;
Reverse - on bust of Christ Baldwin Class 2 obverse ;
CCS 7 ; Slocum 11 ; Porteous, NC 1975 Class 3 ;

Porteous, NC 1975 Plate 16 , 38 (this coin) ; Ex. John Slocum collection , Sothebys London sale 6-7 March 1997 lot 11 ( illustrated Pl.1). Ex Jean Elsen Sale
Vladislav D
C__Poblicius_Malleolus.jpg
C. Poblicius Malleolus - AR denarius6 viewsRome
²92 BC
¹96 BC
helmeted head of Mars right, hammer above
(XVI)
warrior standing half left, foot on cuirass, holding spear; trophy left, grasshopper on prow right
C·M(AL)
¹Crawford 335/3d; Sydenham 615a; Poblicia 6
²Mark Passehl - Roman moneyer & coin type chronology, 150 – 50 BC
3,8g
ex Aureo & Calicó
Johny SYSEL
malleolus_Poblicia01.jpg
C. Poblicius Malleolus, Crawford 282/349 viewsC. Poblicius Malleolus, gens Poblicia
AR - denarius serratus, 19.5mm, 3.8g
Narbo 118 BC (Crawford)
obv. C.MA - L - L - E.C.F
Head of Roma, with decorated and winged helmet, r.
X behind
rev. Nude Gallic warrior (Bituitus?), driving biga r., hurling spear and holding shield and carnyx.
below L.LIC.CN.DOM.
Crawford 282/3; Sydenham 524; RCV 158; Poblicia 1
about VF

Lucius Licinius Crassus, & Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus
The reverse commemorates the victory of L. Licinius Crassus and Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus over the Allobroges and their ally Bituitus, king of the Averni. It is one of the very few issues of the Roman Republic struck outside of Rome, this issue was struck in the newly founded city of Narbo in Gaul. These coins, minted by a number of moneyers at this time (and bearing their names) were important in establishing the republican chronology.
Jochen
mall.jpg
C. Publicus Malleolus, (96 B.C.)15 viewsAR Denarius
O: Helmeted head of Mars right; mallet (malleolus) above, mark of value below chin.
R: Warrior, holding spear and shield, with right foot on cuirass, standing left before trophy; prow to right; C•M(AL) to right.
Rome Mint
3.67g
19mm
Crawford 335/3b; Sydenham 615; Poblicia 6a; Type as RBW 1203.
2 commentsMat
C__Servilius_C_f.JPG
C. Servilius C.f. – Servilia-1541 viewsROMAN REPUBLIC C. Servilius C.f. AR Denarius 57 BC (18.57mm 3.86 grams) FLORAL PRIMUS, hd. of Flora r., wearing wreath of flowers, lituus behind; / C•SERVEIL C•F•, two warriors facing each other with short swords upward. Crawford 423/1, Servilia 15, Syd 890, RCV 380Bud Stewart
1-2013-12-032.jpg
C. Servilius Vatia Fouree23 viewsFouree; 2.84g; 22-23.5mm

head of Roma right; lituus behind, six pointed star below chin
ROMA

Helmeted warrior on horseback charging left, holding spear and shield inscribed M;
horseman on left, defending with sword and shield
C, SERVEIL

imitates crawford 264/1
Robin Ayers
qb3KTen4s8DiMpa26JLtFjp95ZdwzM.jpg
Caabria Tarentum AR Stater circa 380-375 BC 21mm 7.72g 9h Vlasto 428,HNItaly 876.13 viewsNude warrior holding shield on horse galloping left/Phalanthos extending hand,astride dolphin left.1 commentsGrant H
Untitled_collage614.jpg
Caabria Tarentum AR Stater circa 333-332 BC 21mm 7.82g 12 h69 viewsWarrior preparing to cast spear held in right hand,holding two spears and shield in left,on horse rearing right,eight rayed star on hind leg.Rev Taras holding kantharos in extended right hand,cradling trident in left arm,astride dolphin leftAP to left below small dolphin.
Vlasto 602,SNG ANS 995,HN Italy 937.
3 commentsGrant H
940279~0.jpg
Caabria Tarentum circa 240-228 BC AR Nomos 18 mm 6.48 g 6h41 viewsWarrior on horseback rearing right,holding crowning Nike and reins,monogram to left.Rev Phalanthos riding dolphin left,holding crowning Nike and cradling trident,monogram to right.
ex Elvira Elisa Clan-Stefanelli,as the Demarete collection.
Grant H
Calabria_Italy_Taras_on_Dolphin.jpg
Calabria Italy Taras on Dolphin21 viewsTaras, Calabria, Italy, c. 272 - 240 B.C., Silver nomos, Unpublished(?); Vlasto 932 var. (different controls), SNG ANS 1239 var. (same), HN Italy 1044 var. (same), SNG Cop -, BMC Italy -, VF, 6.520g, 19.7mm, die axis 180°,
OBV: Nude warrior wearing crested helmet on horse standing left, holding shield on left arm, horse raising right foreleg, ET (control) before horse, API-ΣTΩN below divided by horse's left foreleg;
REV: Taras on dolphin left, kantharos in extended right hand, trident nearly vertical in left, ΓY (control) behind upper right, TAPAΣ below;

Very Rare variant. EX: Forum Ancient Coins

Taras, the only Spartan colony, was founded in 706 B.C. The founders were Partheniae ("sons of virgins"), sons of unmarried Spartan women and Perioeci (free men, but not citizens of Sparta).
These out-of-wedlock unions were permitted to increase the prospective number of soldiers (only the citizens could be soldiers) during the bloody Messenian wars. Later, however, when they were no longer
needed, their citizenship was retroactively nullified and the sons were obliged to leave Greece forever. Their leader, Phalanthus, consulted the oracle at Delphi and was told to make the harbor of Taranto
their home. They named the city Taras after the son of Poseidon, and of a local nymph, Satyrion. The reverse depicts Taras being saved from a shipwreck by a dolphin sent to him by Poseidon.
This symbol of the ancient Greek city is still the symbol of modern Taranto today.

SRukke
Calabria.jpg
Calabria Nomos92 viewsAR Nomos
Helmeted warrior on horse left, holding shield ornamented with eight-rayed star & two spears behind him

Dionysiac Taras astride dolphin left, holding distaff & grape-bunch

Calabria, Tarentum
ca 281-272 BC

5.58g

Vlasto 789 (SNG ANS 1133)
Ex-Calgary coins

SOLD!
4 commentsJay GT4
aK7Z3pSjN4FxyK6nm2rJHG9oi5DTWX.jpg
Calabria Tarentum AR Didrachm circa 344-340 BC 22mm 7.18g 5h 67 viewsHelmeted warrior standing facing,head right,holding spear and shield,behind horse standing right,before horses forelegs l.Rev TAPAE Phalanthos riding dolphin left,holding trident and shield,below A and waves.
ex Hanbery .
ex Frank Kovacs 1990
2 commentsGrant H
940279.jpg
Calabria Tarentum AR Nomos 18mm 6.48g 6h 240-228 BC124 viewsWarrior on horseback rearing right holding crowning Nike in right hand,and reins in left.Monogram to left in two lines KANNIK PATHE.Rev Phalanthos riding dolphin left holding crowning Nike and cradling trident,monogram to right.
Vlasto 963-70,HN Italy 1059. EX Elvria Elisa Clain Stefanell collection,known as the Demarete collection.
Period of Roman Alliance
2 commentsGrant H
FotorCreated~75.jpg
Calabria Tarentum AR Nomos circa 240-228 BC 21mm 6.37 g 10h48 viewsOlympis Magistrate,warrior brandishing javelin,on horse gelloping right wreath to left Olympis below.Rev Taras riding dolphin left, holding kantharos and cornucopiae,tripod to right. Grant H
FotorCreated~8.jpg
Calabria Tarentum AR Nomos circa 280 BC 20mm 7.93g 12 h60 viewsWarrior wearing shield on left arm and holding spear,on horse prancing left,to left Nike standing facing restraining horse.Rev Phalanthos wearing shield{ inscribed E} and holdingtwo spears,standing astride dolphin left,ZOP to left,waves below.
From the Kallman collection,purchased from Colosseum coin exchange
1 commentsGrant H
3940031.jpg
Calabria Tarentum AR Nomos circa 344-340 BC 21mm 7.49g 8h42 viewsWarrior,wearing helmet and holding spear and shield,standing facing,head right,behind horse standing right,to right l-.Rev Phalanthos holding trident and shield,riding dolphin left,below, A above waves.1 commentsGrant H
Untitled_collagetarastaras.jpg
Calabria Tarentum AR nomos circa 344-340 BC22mm 7.18g Vlasto 51816 viewsHelmeted warrior standing facing,head right holding spear and shield,behind horse ./Phalanthos riding dolphin left,holding triton and shield below A above waves.1 commentsGrant H
greek17.jpg
Calabria, Taras Ar Nomos57 views(272-240 BC) Apollonios, magistrate.
Obv.: Warrior on horseback holding shield and spear.
Rev.: Taras riding dolphin, holding trident; Nike above crowning him; waves below.
Vlasto 894-898. HN Italy 1038.
2 commentsMinos
Vlasto_379ff.jpg
Calabria, Taras AR Nomos. Circa 390-385 BC.79 viewsNude warrior on horseback left, holding reins in right hand, small round shield on left arm; A below / Taras astride dolphin left; P and ΤΑΡΑΣ below. Vlasto 379ff; HN Italy 869; SNG ANS 900. 6.98g, 23mm, 8h.

Good Fine.
4 commentsLeo
Vlasto_638.jpg
CALABRIA, Taras, Circa 315-302 BC. AR Nomos59 views21mm, 8.04 g, 11h
Warrior, preparing to cast spear held aloft in right hand, holding two spears and shield with left hand, on horse rearing right; Ξ to left, API below / Phalanthos, nude, holding kantharos in extended right hand and cradling oar in left arm, riding dolphin left; KΛ to left, TAPAΣ to right. Fischer-Bossert Group 74a, 914 (V357/R709); Vlasto 638; HN Italy 939; SNG ANS 1016 (same obv. die); SNG Lloyd –; BMC 208 (same dies); Pozzi 123 (same obv. die). Very rare in this quality. Excellent style. Beautiful patina. Extremely fine.
Ex Hess-Divo 329 (17 November 2015), lot 6; Leu 91 (10 May 2004), lot 15.

The obverse of this nomos depicts an example of the mercenary cavalrymen for which Taras became famous in the Hellenistic period. The Tarentine cavalryman is believed to have been the first mounted warrior of the Greek world to carry a shield. This novelty made him popular in the armies of Hellenistic kings and led to the training of cavalrymen in the Tarentine style.
2 commentsLeo
Calabria_1b_img.jpg
Calabria, Taras, Nomos, Vlasto 696 87 viewsSilver Nomos

Obv:– Warrior on horseback right thrusting spear downward with right hand, holding two spears and shield in his left hand ; ΣΙ behind , ΔAKINMOΣ below.
Rev:– [TARAS] , Phalanthos astride dolphin left, holding dolphinin right hand , cradling cornucopiae in left arm. [ΔΑ below]
Minted in Calabria, Taras from .c. 302 - 280 B.C. Magistrate Dakinmos
Reference:– Vlasto 696 ; SNG ANS 1071
3 commentsmaridvnvm
Calabria_1d_img.jpg
Calabria, Taras, Nomos, Vlasto 87727 viewsSilver Nomos
Obv:- Nude warrior on horseback right, holding shield and two lances in left hand, spear pointed downwards in right; API-STO/KL-NS below, DI behind.
Rev- Taras astride dolphin left, holding kantharos in right hand and trident in left; head of a nymph behind.
Minted in Calabria, Taras from .c. 272 - 235 B.C.
Reference:– Vlasto 877
1 commentsmaridvnvm
Calabria_1c_img.jpg
Calabria, Taras, Nomos, Vlasto 89181 viewsSilver Nomos
Obv:– Helmeted, nude warrior riding on horse right, transverse spear in right hand, large round shield behind, [ΦI before], ΦHRAE / ΛHTWΣ below.
Rev:– [T_A_RAS], Taras astride dolphin left, holding flower & cornucopiae; EI monogram & thymiaterion behind
Minted in Calabria, Taras from .c. 272 - 235 B.C. Pheraeletos as magistrate
Reference:– Vlasto 891 ???, SNG ANS 1209???. HN Italy 1037
4 commentsmaridvnvm
Vlasto_297.jpg
CALABRIA, Taras. c. 400-390 BC. AR Nomos24 views21mm, 7.67g, 6h
Warrior, wearing helmet, holding shield and lance, dismounting from horse cantering l. R/ Phalanthos, holding helmet and large oval shield, on dolphin l.; Σ below. Vlasto 297; HNItaly 849. VF
1 commentsLeo
vlasto_965.jpg
CALABRIA, Taras. Circa 240-228 BC. AR Nomos8 views18mm, 5.94 g, 6h
Kallikrates, magistrate. Warrior riding right, head facing, extending right hand to receive crowning Nike, flying right; monogram to left, magistrate’s name in two lines below
Phalanthos riding dolphin left, holding trident and Nike; NE monogram to right.
Vlasto 964; HN Italy 1059. VF, darkly toned, some marks under tone.
Leo
Vlasto_684.jpg
CALABRIA, Taras. Circa 280 BC. AR Nomos31 views21mm, 7.82 g, 2h.
Warrior on horse galloping left, holding shield; ΦIΛΩ (retrograde) below / Phalanthos riding dolphin left, holding small Nike; waves below. Vlasto 684 (same obv. die); HN Italy 964. VF, toned.
2 commentsLeo
Vlasto_692.jpg
Calabria, Taras; c. 302-281 BC, Stater12 views7.82g, 20mm, 3h.
Si... and Deinokrates, magistrates. Warrior, preparing to cast spear held in right hand, holding two spears and shield in left, on horse rearing right; [ΣI] to left, [ΔEINOKPATHΣ] below / Taras, holding small dolphin, astride dolphin left; TAPAΣ behind.
Vlasto 692-3; HN Italy 967.
1 commentsLeo
nomos_k.jpg
CALABRIA, Tarentum23 viewsAR didrachm or nomos, 20mm, 8.0g, 6h; c. 302-290 BC.
Obv.: Nude, helmeted warrior on horseback right, holding shield and two spears, thrusting spear downward; ΔAI below.
Rev.: Taras riding dolphin left, holding shield decorated with hippocamp and trident; ΦI to right, murex shell below, [TAPAΣ] to right.
Reference: Vlasto 594, SNG ANS 990, HN Italy 935 / 16-410-375
2 commentsJohn Anthony
greek53.jpg
Calabria, Tarentum AR Nomos89 views(315-302 BC). Sl- and K-, magistrates.
Obv.: Warrior on horseback right, holding shield and spear, preparing to throw spear; ΣA below.
Rev.: Phalanthos, holding kantharos and trident, on dolphin left; K to left; below, dolphin left.
Vlasto 607.
7 commentsMinos
8178A732-E722-408B-AFFE-578EB282340D.jpeg
CALABRIA, Tarentum. Circa 272-240 BC.35 viewsCALABRIA, Tarentum. Circa 272-240 BC. AR Nomos (20mm, 6.48 g, 9h). Warrior on horseback right, holding shield and spear; DI above; APO[LL/WNIOS] in two lines below / Phalanthos riding dolphin left, head facing with flowing chlamys around left arm, holding trident in right hand; crowning Nike to left; waves below. Vlasto 894-898; HN Italy 1038. Lustrous4 commentsMark R1
Vlasto_448.jpg
CALABRIA, Tarentum. Circa 344-340 BC. AR Nomos10 views21mm, 7.77g, 3h
Warrior, wearing helmet and holding shield, on horseback r.; |- below. R/ Phalanthos, holding kantharos, on dolphin l.; below, Π above waves. Vlasto 448; HNItaly 890. Graffiti and small metal-flaw on rev., VF
Leo
Vlasto_626.jpg
CALABRIA. Taras. Ca. 332-302 BC. AR stater19 views21mm, 7.75 gm, 8h. NGC XF 5/5 - 2/5.
Sa-, Her- and Hr, magistrates. Warrior on horseback rearing right, shield and two spears in left hand, preparing to cast a third in right; ΣA below / ΤΑΡΑΣ, Taras astride dolphin right, bow and arrows outward in left hand, spear forward in right; ?HP and HP monogram below.
HN Italy 938. Vlasto 626-33.
1 commentsLeo
Vlasto_497.jpg
CALABRIA. Taras. Circa 380-340 BC, Nomos14 viewsA very rare didrachm or nomos from Tarentum
Silver, 21 mm, 7.73 g, 1 h
Nude warrior, holding bridles with his right hand and carrying small round shield with his left, about to dismount from horse to left; below horse, Λ; all within circle of waves. Rev. TAPAΣ Youthful oikist, nude, riding dolphin to left, holding trident in his right hand and placing his left on the tail of the dolphin; all within circle of waves.
Fischer-Bossert 629. HN Italy 885. Vlasto 497.
Very rare. An unusual issue of splendid style. Very fine.
Leo
221111_l.jpg
Calabria. Tarentum. (Circa 332-302 BC)37 viewsAR Nomos (21 mm, 7.76 g)

Obverse: Warrior, preparing to cast spear held in right hand, holding two spears and shield in left, on horse rearing right; ΣA below

Reverse: Taras, holding kantharos in extended right hand, cradling trident in left arm, astride dolphin left; AP to left, TAPAΣ (Taras) to right; below, small dolphin left.

Vlasto 614-20; HN Italy 937.
2 commentsNathan P
Vlasto_894.jpg
CALABRIEN, Taras, AR Nomos,BC 272/24011 views6.4 g, 20 mm_
Obv: Warrior, holding shield and spear, on horse rearing right; ΔΙ to left; ΑΠΟΛΛ/ΩΝΙΟΣ in two lines below. Rev: TAPAΣ. Phalanthos, holding trident, riding dolphin left; to left, crowning Nike flying right; waves below.
Vlasto 894-8; HN Italy 1038.
Condition: Very fine.
Leo
bolskan.jpg
CELTIBERIANS: Bolskan. AR denarius64 viewsCELTIBERIANS: Bolskan. AR denarius (4.45 gm). Ca. 150-100 BC. Bearded head right, wearing bead necklace, Oscan word "Bolskan" contracted behind / Mounted warrior with spear right, Oscan word "Bolskan" over ground line below. SNG BM 695-704. A few scratches. Nearly very fine

ex Freeman & Sear
1 commentsareich
Celtic_Ring_Money.jpg
Celtic Bronze Ring Proto-Money 48 viewsAttribution: Quiggin, page 281, Plate 28, Hungary
Date: 800-500 BC
Size: 22.8 mm
(Marble statue of injured Gallic/Celtic warrior: Louvre, Paris)

Before the Celts settled in Wales, Scotland, Brittany, and Ireland, their territory extended to most of Europe. Although ancient Roman historians say the barbarian Celts had no coined money, there is evidence that they had ring-money made of bronze, silver, and gold. The rings vary in weight, but they are all exact multiples of a standard unit, showing the uniform principle regulated their size. This points to their use as current coinage.
Noah
4076_4077.jpg
Celtic Gaul, Unit, Boar10 viewsPotin Unit
Celtic Gaul
1st Century BC
17.0 x 15.5mm
O: NO LEGEND; Head of warrior with six strands of flowing hair, facing right.
R: NO LEGEND; Boar, left.
DeLaTour 7445
Harlan Berk
Chicago Coin Expo 4/6/17 4/17/17
Nicholas Z
chinese_charm_pan.jpg
Chinese Charm with coin inscription from Later Zhou Dynasty 951 - 960 A.D.87 viewsCast Bronze Chinese Charm, Weight 8.8g, Max diameter 26.8mm, Obv. 周 元通宝 zhou yuan tong bao "Zhou First Currency", Rev. Dragon on left, Warrior with sword on right (depicting "Zhou Chu killing the dragon"), Rich brown patina.

Background info courtsey Primaltrek.com

In addition to official coinage, China also has a long history of producing "coin-like" charms, amulets and talismans.

Coins, as a form of money, represent power. Coin-shaped charms are, therefore, a very compact form of power. They are filled with symbolism and are believed by the multitude of Chinese to have vast powers.

Cast throughout the centuries, these ancient charms, informally referred to by the Chinese as "ya sheng coins" (压胜钱), "flower coins" (huaqian 花钱) or "play coins" (wanqian 玩钱), were not used as money but rather to suppress evil spirits, bring "good luck", "good fortune" and to avert misfortune.

For the most part, all these old charms,...were privately cast and their quantities and dates are almost impossible to determine. Nevertheless, they serve as important cultural artifacts from the life of the common Chinese throughout the centuries.

Emperor Shizong did cast coins in earnest beginning in 955 AD, the second year of his Xiande (显德) reign, with the inscription zhou yuan tong bao (周 元通宝). To obtain the copper to make the coins, Emperor Shizong ordered the confiscation of bronze statues from 3,336 Buddhist temples. He also mandated that citizens turn in to the government all bronze utensils with the exception of bronze mirrors.

Zhou yuan tong bao coins are very well made and still exist in large quantities. Because the coins were made from Buddhist statues, they are considered to have special powers. For example, it was believed that the zhou yuan tong bao coin could cure malaria and help women going through a difficult labor.

Because of the common belief that the coin has special powers, the zhou yuan tong bao became very popular as the basis for charms and amulets. There are many charms with the inscription zhou yuan tong bao on the obverse and a dragon and phoenix on the reverse. Images of the Buddha, zodiac animals, and other auspicious objects can also be found on the reverse sides of zhou yuan tong bao charms.

The theme of this charm is "Zhou Chu killing the dragon".

A folk story about Zhou Chu appeared in the 430AD book "A New Account of the Tales of the World" and proved to be very popular. The story claims that Zhou Chu was such a hot-headed bully in his younger days that he was called one of the "Three Scourges" by the villagers in his hometown (in today's Yixing), along with a dragon and a tiger. Upon hearing the term, Zhou Chu went on to kill the tiger and the dragon. After he and the dragon disappeared for 3 days fighting in Lake Tai, the villagers celebrated wildly, just when Zhou Chu returned with the dragon's head. That was when he realized that he was the last scourge that the villagers feared. Determined to mend his old ways, he sought out Eastern Wu generals Lu Ji and Lu Yun, and received encouragement. Eventually he became an accomplished general beloved by his people~Wikipedia
3 commentsSteve E
Cilician_Satraps_Datanes_obol_AR10_0_73g.jpg
Cilician Satraps, Datanes, obol40 views10mm, 0.73g
obv: female bust wearing necklace and earring right
rev: bearded warrior's head, wearing Attic helmet right

Klein 820
areich
Cilicia_Satraps_Pharnabazos_SNG-Lev76.jpg
Cilician Satraps, Pharnabazos8 viewsPharnabazos. 379-374 BC. AR Obol (0.65 gm) of Tarsos. Baaltars seated left, holding scepter / Bust of a warrior (Ares?) l. wearing crested Attic helmet. gVF.  CNG EA 259 #137. Minor chipping on edge. SNG France 257; SNG Levante 76; Casabonne Series 4. Christian T
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Cn. Gellius, Denarius12 viewsRRC. 232/1
138 b.c.

Av. Roma in a Laurel-wreath
Rv. Two figures in a quadriga: A Warrior (MArs?) and a woman
Ex Gorny & Mosch, Auction 232, Lot 241 in 2015. - Ex Astarte, 28.10. 1999.
Norbert
476Naville404.jpg
Cr 232/1 AR Denarius Cn. Gellius 19 viewsCn. Gellius. Denarius 138 BCE, (18mm., 3.96g)
O: Helmeted head of Roma r.; behind, X. All within laurel wreath
r: Warrior in quadriga r., holding shield and grasping captive beside him; below, CN·GEL. In ex, ROMA
Babelon Gellia 1. Sydenham 434. RBW 962. Crawford 232/1.
PMah
510Trisk152.jpg
Cr 282/4 AR Denarius L. Pomponius Cn.f. 13 views (21 mm, 3.82 g, 6 h). Rome.
Crawford 282/4; Sydenham 522; Pomponia 7.
o: L·POM-P-ONI C(NF), head of Roma right,in winged helmet; behind, X
r: L·LIC·CN DOM in ex, warrior hurling spear and holding shield, reins and carnyx, galloping biga rt
PMah
597TR333.jpg
Cr 282/5 AR Denarius7 views118 b.c.e. 20 mm, 3.86 gm
o: L · PORCI LICI, head of Roma right, wearing winged helmet; * mark behind
r: L · LIC · CN · DOM in exergue, Gallic warrior (Bituitus?), hurling spear and holding shield and carnyx, driving biga right.
Sydenham 520; Porcia 8
The reverse centering on this coin is not ideal, but the obverse is nicely centered and the serration is perhaps showing natural wear. (I am not certain.) The reverse strike is good.
PMah
480ArteCombo.png
Cr 327/1 AR Denarius M. Servilius C.f. 21 views100 BCE
o: Helmeted head of Roma right; behind, Z
r: Two warriors, a Roman and a barbarian fighting on foot, each with a horse behind him; in exergue, M. SERVEILI. C. F / T
Cr. 327/1. Servilia 13
(g. 3.93 mm. 21.50)
1 commentsPMah
690CN458.jpg
Cr 335/3f AR Denarius Malleolus, Albinus & Metellus15 viewsRome, 96 BCE . AR Denarius
issue of C. Malleolus, A. Albinus Sp.f., and L. Caecilius Metellus

o: Helmeted head of Mars right; mallet above, mark of value below chin
r: Warrior standing left, right foot on cuirass, holding spear and leaning on tabella divided into two compartments, in one CM/(AL) in two lines, in the other a Π, retrograde and sideways; trophy in left field.
Sydenham 615b; Poblicia 8; Type as RBW 1205

18.5mm, 3.91 gms.

This coin is not a beauty, but the key details are quite clear. The placement of the mallet (= "Malleus") above the head of Mars is a bit comical to modern eyes, and reflects either a difference sensibility towards slapstick comedy in ancient times or an engraver not particularly well informed about divine sensitivities. ("Malleolus", by the way, is the medical term for the part of your ankle that sticks out.)

From the Andrew McCabe Collection. McCabe's notes as to this coin include: "This variety with the voting tablet inscribed C. MAL is quite a lot scarcer than that with a prow."
As with the other 3 coins posted in this group, the coin is much better in hand.
PMah
665aa212comb.jpg
Cr 335/9 AR Denarius A. Albinus Sp. f. 8 viewsRome, c. 96 BCE
o: Diademed and draped bust of Diana right, bow and quiver on shoulder; below, ROMA
r: Three horsemen galloping left; before, fallen warrior; in exergue, A. ALBINVS S.F.
[This example has AL ligate.]
3.87 gm 18.50 mm
The odd items on the reverse above left of the riders are likely standards, but the left-most one looks almost like a modius! There are a few possible interpretations of the reverse, none of which are particularly stronger than the others, and all relating to the Postumia gens' tendency to get killed in battles important to Rome. Crawford associates the types of three moneyers for the same year.
PMah
428G395Farsulius.png
Cr 392/1b AR Denarius L. Farsuleius Mensor6 views76 BCE
o: Draped bust of Liberty right wearing stephane and pearl necklace, cap of liberty and SC behind, MENSOR before
r: Roma or male warrior in biga right, assisting togate figure to mount, control number XXCIX below horses, L FARSVLEI in ex
Crawford 392/1b; Farsuleia 2.
3.92gg. (4h)
Each control numeral in this issue appears on only one reverse die
This coin is in splendid condition for the type and nicely struck
PMah
88000269.jpg
CRETE, GORTYNA, 98-94 BC56 viewsDrachm, 20mm, 3.74 g, 11h

O - Diademed head of Zeus left
R - Warrior standing facing, hand on shield set on ground, and holding scepter; border of radiating lines.

Price, Gortyn, Class D, 129-48; Svoronos, Numismatique 144; cf. SNG Copenhagen 448; BMC 54.

Ex Sierra Collection
Ex Triton X (9 January 2007), lot 256
4 commentsrobertpe
edbldII.jpg
CRUSADER STATES . County of Edessa. Baldwin II , Second reign (1108-1118) . Æ Follis64 viewsCRUSADER STATES . County of Edessa. Baldwin II , Second reign (1108-1118) . Æ Follis
Æ Follis. 8.35 g. Heavy issue .
Obverse : armed warrior standing left holding sword and shield .
Reverse : True Cross on two-stepped base , large pellet in each upper angle , three pellets and sprig in each lower angle .

( Obverse - overstruck on Richard Class 3 reverse , trace of Δ in circular legend and on Baldwin Class 2 reverse long cross , pellets , X and B in first and second angles ;
Reverse - on bust of Christ Baldwin Class 2 obverse ;
CCS 7 ; Slocum 11 ; Porteous, NC 1975 Class 3 ;

Porteous, NC 1975 Plate 16 , 38 (this coin) ; Ex. John Slocum collection , Sothebys London sale 6-7 March 1997 lot 11 ( illustrated Pl.1). Ex Jean Elsen Sale

Vladislav D
2EA4C520-C68C-4D44-851A-ED3D8204AC66.jpeg
CRUSADER STATES . County of Edessa. Baldwin II , Second reign (1108-1118) . Æ Follis25 viewsCRUSADER STATES . County of Edessa. Baldwin II , Second reign (1108-1118) . Æ Follis
Æ Follis. 8.23 g. Heavy issue .
Obverse : armed warrior standing left holding sword and shield .
Reverse : True Cross on two-stepped base , large pellet in each upper angle , three pellets and sprig in each lower angle .

CCS 7 ; Slocum 11 ; Porteous, NC 1975 Class 3 ;
Vladislav D
0156.jpg
Denarius, Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus, L. Licinius Crassus, L. Porcius Licinius3 viewsDenarius, Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus, L. Licinius Crassus, L. Porcius Licinius

RRC: 282/5
118 bc
3,93 gr

AV: Head of Roma right, helmeted "L·PORCI LICI X"
RV: Gaulish warrior in biga right; holding shield, carnyx and reins; hurling spear "L·LIC·CN·DOM"

ex Artemide Aste, eLive auction 5b, Lot 210, 11.11.2018

Norbert
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Denarius, M. Aurelius Scaurus, L. Licinius Crassus, Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus2 viewsDenarius, M. Aurelius Scaurus, L. Licinius Crassus, Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus

RRC: 282/1
118 bc
3,89 gr

AV: Head of Roma right, helmeted. "ROMA" "M.AURELI"
RV: Gaulish warrior in biga rightHead of Roma right, helmeted "SCAUR","L LIC CN DOM"

ex Artemide Aste, eLive auction 5b, Lot 208, 11.11.2018
1 commentsNorbert
D791.jpg
Domitian RIC-791115 viewsAR Denarius, 3.00g
Rome mint, 95-96 AD
Obv: IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM P M TR P XV; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: IMP XXII COS XVII CENS P P P; Minerva, winged, flying l., with spear and shield
RIC 791 (C). BMC 237. RSC 294. BNC 210.
Ex Harry N. Sneh Collection.

This coin belongs to one of the final issues Domitian minted in the last year of his reign. It is interesting to note that this winged Minerva is a new type never before seen on his coinage. The type is common, thus it was minted in large quantities, which cannot be said of the other new types (the 'monumental' series, Maia, and warrior with spear & trophy) which were also introduced in the final year of his reign.

Mattingly observed Domitian's portraits at the time were "fine and ambitious ... with an upward lift of face, which, if it does not symbolize prayer, like the 'praying type' of Constantine, certainly suggests lofty aspirations". Those "lofty aspirations" were cut short by an assassin's knife on September 18th, 96 AD.
2 commentsDavid Atherton
D821sm2.jpg
Domitian RIC-821116 viewsAR Denarius, 3.42g
Rome mint, 96 AD
Obv: IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM P M TR P XVI; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: IMP XXII COS XVII CENS P P P; Minerva, winged, flying l., with spear and shield
RIC 821 (R2). BMC 237D. RSC 297b. BNC - .
Ex jerusalemhadaya2012, eBay, 4 March 2019.

Domitian achieved tribunician power for the 16th time on 14 September 96 AD. He was assassinated in a palace plot four days later on 18 September. In between those two dates the mint struck only one issue of denarii recording Domitian as TR P XVI, needless to say they are extremely rare! The Senate decreed Damnatio Memoriae within a day of Domitian's assassination which would have quickly halted production at the mint for his coinage. The months leading up to Domitian's assassination saw the mint at Rome experimenting with many new reverse designs (altar, winged Minerva, Maia, temple reverses), breaking the monotony of the four standard Minerva types that had previously dominated the denarius. These new types are exceedingly rare and were perhaps experimental in nature. This denarius shows one of these new reverse types, Minerva Victrix, a more warrior like attribute of the goddess. The fact that this new type which originally appeared on the denarius when Domitian was TR P XV carried over to the briefly struck TR P XVI issue alongside the Maia and the M1, M3, and M4 Minerva types may hint that there was indeed change in the air at the mint. Perhaps the mix of new types with the older ones hint at a transition regarding the typology on his precious metal coinage? Regardless, the experiment was cut short by an assassin's blade, so we shall never know. This denarius may very well be the last coin ever struck for Domitian.

Fine late style with good natural toning. Same dies as the BM specimen.
10 commentsDavid Atherton
00555q00.jpg
Domitianus25 viewsAE-Sestertius
IMP CAES DOMITIAN AVG GERM COS XI; Laureated Head with Aegis to right
RV: Domitian on horseback right, about to spear fallen German warrior
Ex: SC
Rome
RIC: 280
37mm / 23.79g
1 commentsJulianus of Pannonia
thumb00165.jpg
Dynasts of Lycia AR Stater circa 380-360 BC 25.5 mm 9.59 g 12 h SNG von Aulock 42516 viewsAntiphellos mint,Bearded head of Perikles facing slightly to left,his hair in dramatic disarray and with his cloak held togather around his neckwith a circular broach,to right dolphin swimming downward./PARIKLA VAHNTAZ in Lycian script.Warrior ,nude but for his crested Corinthian helmet,advancing to right,brandishing sword with his raised right hand and holding oval shield in his left hand,to left triskeles,all within shllow incuse square.
Olcay-Morkholm 391-396 A1-P2 same dies.,
from the Trausnitz collection,acquired fromMunzhandlung Athena on 14 April 1997
Grant H
10300334.jpg
Dynasts of Lycia Perikles AR Stater circa 380-375 BC 21mm 9.90g 3h198 viewsHead of Perikles facing slightly left wearing laurel wreath, drapery around neck.Reveres warrior Perikles as Sarpedon nude but for Corinthian helmet in fighting attitude right holding sword aloft in right hand shield on left arm, Peri-kle in Lycian around triskeles to lower right, all within shallow incuse square on square flan. Mithrapata 25 dies 15/20,Podalia 419-25 A2-P6 of falghera 215,SNG COP Supp 478,SNG Von Aulock 4252 This is the first coin with a facing head of a real person.2 commentsGrant H
10300334~1.jpg
DYNASTS of LYCIA,Perikles AR Stater circa 380-360 BC 21 mm9.90g 3h struck circa 380-375 BC.SNG von Aulock 425232 viewsHead of Perikles facing slightly left,wearing laurel wreath,drapery around neck.Rev Warrior nude but for crested Corinthian helmet,in fighting attitude right,holding sword aloft in right hand,shield on left arm.PERI-KLE [in Lycian] around,triskeles to lower right,all within shallow incuse square.
One of four obverse dies.
Grant H
10500384.jpg
DYNASTS of LYCIA,Perikles AR Stater circa 380-360 BC 22.5 mm 9.81g 7h Phellos mint struck circa 380-375 BC.SNG von Aulock 425034 viewsHead of Perikles facing slightly left wearing laurel wreath,drapery around neck,to right dolphin downward.Rev Warrior nude but for crested Corinthian helmet,in fighting attitude right holding sword aloft in right hand,shield on left arm,VEHNTEZ [= Phellos]in Lycian to left triskeles,PERIKLE [in Lycian] and conch shell to right,all within shallow incuse square.
one of four obverse dies.
Grant H
10001541.jpg
DYNASTS of LYCIA,Perikles AR Stater circa 380-360 BC 9.77g SNG von Aulock 425326 viewsHead of Perikles facing three-quarters left with flowing hair,.Rev warrior advancing right wearing Corinthian helmet,brandishing sword and shield.
Stacks & Bowers NYINC LOT 21039.
NGC AU,4/5 4/5
One of four obverse dies.
Grant H
Dahae_k.jpg
EARLY SKYTHIANS, Dahae. Period of Atala.8 viewsAR Scyphate Obol, 9mm, 0.31 g, 12h; Samarkand.
Circa 250-130 BC or AD 300-400.
Obv.: Bearded head left.
Rev.: Warrior standing facing, holding bow.
Reference: Mitchiner, ACW 350; cf. Rtveladze 36 / 17-41-89
John Anthony
EB0023b_scaled.JPG
EB0023 Apollo / Horseman8 viewsKingdom of Paeonia, Patraos AR Tetradrachm. 335-315 BC.
Obverse: Laureate head of Apollo right.
Reverse: Warrior on rearing horseback right, spearing enemy warrior who defends himself with raised shield.
References:
Diameter: 24.5mm, Weight: 12.743g.
EB
EB0161b_scaled.JPG
EB0161 Head / Warrior on Horseback8 viewsBriviesca, HISPANIA, AE 24, 200-100 BC.
Obverse: Beardless male head right. Behind the head, uparrow (Iberian "U").
Reverse: Northern Iberian script UIROUN / IAS (Uironias), Warrior on horseback with spear charging right.
References: Catalogo del Monetario Iberico del Museo de Navarra #348.
Diameter: 24.5mm, Weight: 9.191g.
Regarding Uironias, here is a footnote from The Selected Essays of Julio Caro Baroja:
"Among the Autrigonians, Deobriga and Uironias ... were important names".
EB
EB0345_scaled.JPG
EB0345 Mars / oath-taking scene11 viewsTi. Veturius, AR Denarius, 137 BC.
Obv: Draped bust of Mars right wearing crested Corinthian helmet, X between back of neck and end of crest, TI VET (partially ligate) behind.
Rev: ROMA, Two warriors standing facing each other, vertical spear in left hand, sword in right hand pointed at sacrificial pig held by kneeling youth left.
References: Veturia 1; Crawford 234/1; Syd. 527.
Diameter: 20mm, Weight: 3.913 grams.
EB
EB0355_scaled.JPG
EB0355 Mars / MN FONT TR MIL, Warrior on horseback17 viewsP Fonteius P f Capito, AR Denarius, 55 BC.
Obv: P FONTEIVS P F CAPITO III VIR, helmeted and draped bust of Mars right, trophy over shoulder.
Rev: MN FONT TR MIL, warrior on horseback thrusting his spear at a Gaulish enemy who is about to slay an unarmed third combatant.
References: RSC Fonteia 17; Cr429/1; Syd 900.
Diameter: 19mm, Weight: 3.418 grams.
EB
EB0358_scaled.JPG
EB0358 Mars / Q THERM MF, Two warriors18 viewsQ. Minucius Thermus M.f., moneyer, AR Denarius, 103 B.C.
Obv: Head of Mars left, wearing crested helmet ornamented with plume and annulet.
Rev: Two warriors fighting, each armed with sword and shield; the one on the left protects a fallen comrade, the other wears horned helmet; Q THERM MF (THE and M F ligate) in exergue.
References: Crawford 319/1, Syd. 592, Babelon Minucia 19.
Diameter: 19mm, Weight: 3.865 grams.
EB
FF_Aquitaine_William_X_Roberts_4311.JPG
France (Feudal): Dukes of Aquitaine. William X, the “Saint” (1127-1137).35 viewsRoberts, 4311, Boudeau 464, Poey d'Avant 2735

AR denier, Bordeaux mint, 18 mm.

Obv: + CLVILILMO [first L retrograde] (Guillaume), four crosslets forming a cross.

Rev: + BVRDECIILA (Bordeaux, Burdigalae in Latin), cross pattée.

William X (1099–1137), was Duke of Aquitaine, Duke of Gascony, and Count of Poitou (as William VIII). He was the son of Duke William IX by his second wife, Philippa of Toulouse. He was born in Toulouse when his father was briefly the Count. Shortly after his birth his father went on Crusade, and he was raised in Poitiers by his mother. His father later abandoned her, and took Dangerose, the wife of one of his vassals, as mistress. This caused strain between father and son, until William married Aenor de Châtellerault, daughter of Dangerose, in 1121. They had three children, one of whom was Eleanor of Aquitaine, his heiress.

William was a lover of the arts and a warrior. He became involved in conflicts with Normandy and France. Inside his borders, he faced an alliance of the Lusignans and the Parthenays against him, an issue he resolved by the total destruction of his enemies. William X initially supported antipope Anacletus II in the papal schism of 1130, against the will of his own bishops. In 1134 Saint Bernard of Clairvaux convinced William to drop his support of Anacletus and to embrace Pope Innocent II.

In 1137 William joined the pilgrimage to Santiago de Compostela, but died of suspected food poisoning during the trip. He left the dukedom and the care of his 15-year-old daughter to King Louis VI of France. Louis VI accepted this guardianship and married Eleanor to his son, Louis VII.
1 commentsStkp
P1010018.JPG
GABA COMMODUS 177-192 A.D.59 viewsObv:Bust r laur undraped
AVTKAI KOMMOΔAVG
Rev:Warrior helmeted haed l., resting r. on spear l,.
holding shield and sword. on l star, on r crescent
ΓABH NωNEMC
Ros{III]-16
Maritima
sensdelatour7417OR.jpg
Gaul, Senones Tribe, De La Tour 741722 viewsCeltic, Senones Tribe, Gaul (Area of Sens, France), c. 100 - 50 B.C.
Cast potin, 16mm 2.95g, De La Tour 7417
O: head of 'wild man warrior' right, six locks of hair
R: Celtic horse galloping left, pellet below and in left field

The coin was struck during the time period that Caesar was conquering Gaul. The Senones were involved in the famous Battle of Gergovia against Caesar in 52 B.C.

*pop cultural note - The battle is recalled by Mascius in HBO's Rome (TV series),
when Titus Pullo and Lucius Vorenus are interrogating him. He claims to have taken an arrow saving the lives of his comrades.
casata137ec
Vlasto_713.JPG
GREEK, Italy, Calabria, Taras203 views281-272 BC (Period VII - The Pyrrhic Hegemony)
AR Didrachm (19mm, 6.37g)
Sostratos magistrate.
O: Warrior on horseback right, holding shield and spears in left hand and thrusting spear downward with right; [Γ]Y (engraver) behind, ΣΩΣTP - ATOΣ (magistrate) in two lines below.
R: Taras riding dolphin left, holding cornucopia in left hand and Nike with laurel wreath in right; ΠOΛY to left, thunderbolt to right, T-APA[Σ] below.
Vlasto 713 / Evans VII, A2 / Cote 371-72 / SNG ANS 1084 / HN Italy 1001
ex CNG

Taras was foremost in resisting Roman influence during the third century, forming an alliance with Metapontum and supporting Pyrrhus of Epirus in his war against Rome from 281-275 BC.
3 commentsEnodia
Taras_2.JPG
GREEK, Italy, Calabria, Taras155 views281-272 BC (Period VII - The Pyrrhic Hegemony)
AR Didrachm (20mm, 6.44g)
Apollo(...) magistrate.
O: Warrior in crested helmet on horse cantering left, carrying large round shield and two spears; ΞΩ behind, [AΠOΛΛΩ] (magistrate) below.
R: Taras (of the plump Dionysiac type) riding dolphin left, holding bunch of grapes in extended right hand, distaff over left shoulder; ANΘ to right, TAPAΣ below.
Vlasto 789-91 / Evans VII, F2 or F6 / Cote 413 / SNG ANS 1131-1133 / HN Italy 1013

This plump rendition of Taras, differing greatly from previous images, is actually meant to represent a young Iacchus, the son of Dionysus and Persephone, and signifies the influence of the chthonic cult of Dionysus upon the religion of Taras.
Enodia
Vlasto_594~0.JPG
GREEK, Italy, Calabria, Taras138 views330-302 BC (Period V)
AR Didrachm (20mm, 7.98g).
O: Naked warrior in crested helmet on horse prancing right, spearing downward with right hand, shield and two extra spears in left; ΔΑΙ below. R: Naked ephebe riding dolphin left, holding trident over shoulder with right hand and shield decorated with hippocamp in left; ΦΙ to left, ΤΑΡΑΣ to right, murex shell below.
Vlasto 594; Cote 239; Evans V, B5; Fischer-Bossert 1022a; HN Italy 935; SNG ANS 991.
ex Heidelberger Munzhandlung.
4 commentsEnodia
normal_Vlasto_379ff~0.jpg
GREEK, Italy, Calabria, Taras AR Nomos. Circa 390-385 BC.15 views6.98g, 23mm, 8h.
Nude warrior on horseback left, holding reins in right hand, small round shield on left arm; A below / Taras astride dolphin left; P and ΤΑΡΑΣ below. Vlasto 379ff; HN Italy 869; SNG ANS 900.
Good Fine.
Leo
Vlasto_634-47~0.jpg
GREEK, ITALY, CALABRIA, Taras, AR Nomos107 viewsCirca 315-302 BC. AR Nomos (21mm, 8.04 g, 11h).

Warrior, preparing to cast spear held aloft in right hand, holding two spears and shield with left hand, on horse rearing right; Ξ to left, API below / Phalanthos, nude, holding kantharos in extended right hand and cradling oar in left arm, riding dolphin left; KΛ to left, TAPAΣ to right. Fischer-Bossert Group 74a, 914 (V357/R709); Vlasto 638; HN Italy 939; SNG ANS 1016 (same obv. die); SNG Lloyd –; BMC 208 (same dies); Pozzi 123 (same obv. die). Very rare in this quality. Excellent style. Beautiful patina. Extremely fine.
Ex Hess-Divo 329 (17 November 2015), lot 6; Leu 91 (10 May 2004), lot 15.

The obverse of this nomos depicts an example of the mercenary cavalrymen for which Taras became famous in the Hellenistic period. The Tarentine cavalryman is believed to have been the first mounted warrior of the Greek world to carry a shield. This novelty made him popular in the armies of Hellenistic kings and led to the training of cavalrymen in the Tarentine style.
1 commentsLeo
FotorCreated~115.jpg
GREEK, Italy, Calabria, Tarentum, AR Didrachm circa 344-340 BC 22mm 7.18g 5h Fischer-Bossert 67968 viewsHelmeted warrior standing facing,head right, holding spear and shield, behind horse standing right, before horses foreleg 90 degree t. Rev TARAS Phalanthos riding dolphin left, holding trident and shield, A below and above waves. Overstruck on another Tarentum stater?
ex Hanbery
ex Frank Kovacs 1990.
1 commentsGrant H
10300334~0.jpg
Greek, Perikles, Dynasts of Lycia, AR Stater circa 380-375 BC 21mm 9.90g 3h101 viewsHead of Perikles facing slightly left, wearing laurel wreath, drapery around neck. Rev Warrior Perikles as Sarpedon, nude but for Corinthian helmet in fighting attitude right holding sword aloft in right hand shield on left arm, PERI-KLE around in Lycian letters triskeles to lower right, all within shallow incuse square on a square flan.Grant H
thumb00384.jpg
GREEK, PERIKLES, DYNASTS of LYCIA, AR Stater circa 380-360 BC 22.5 mm 9.81 g 7 h,96 viewsOlcay&Morkholm,The coin hoard from Podalia,NC 1971 399 [A1/P3] this coin,L.Mildenberg,Mithrapata and Perikles,Proceedings of the 8th International Numismatic Congress,Rome 1961 21 [A14/R16] reverse of this coin Illustrated/Head of Perikles facing slightly left,wearing laurel wreath,drapery around neck,to right dolphin downward.Rev warrior nude but for crested Corinthian helmet,in fighting attitude right,holding sword aloft in right hand,shield on left arm,VEHNTEZ[= Phellos] in Lycian]to left,triskeles.PERIKLE [in Lycian] whelk shell?to right,all within shallow incuse square.From the J.Eric Engstrom collection,ex Gorny&Mosch 199,lot 514 10-10-11,ex CNG esale 164 lot 80,ex Kirk Davis FPL 17 lot 61 ,in commerce 1958 per Podalia.Grant H
4360060.jpg
GREEK, Sicily, Gela, AR Litra circa 430-425 BC 13mm 0.61g 2h Jenkins 401-5312 viewsWarrior on horseback left/Forepart of man-headed bull right.Grant H
Hieron_II_Equestrian_3c.jpg
Hieron II * Equestrian Warrior, Syracuse, Sicily * 274-216 BC. Æ drachm271 views
Hieron II * Equestrian Warrior, Syracuse, Bronze drachm

Obv: Portrait head of the young Hieron II, hair bound with tainia, left-facing with wreath behind.
Rev: Mounted warrior galloping right with couched lance, cloak flowing behind. Α, below horse's raised right fore-leg.

Exergue: ΙΕΡΩNΟΣ

Mint: Syracuse
Struck: 274-216 BC.

Size: 28 mm.
Weight: 17.82 grams
Die axis: 270°

Condition: Gorgeous coin. Beautiful olive green patina, nicely centered and well-struck. Great relief and details. Rather illusory 'disfigurement' on the portrait, due to wear of the relief on the outer form of the ear. This ear is nevertheless still present and discernable on close inspection. A prize to my private collection.

Refs:*
B.M.C. 2.583
SNG ANS 957
Sear GCATV, 1221(v), pg. 126
Calciati II, 195 (Ds 42), pg. 376

4 commentsTiathena
1433_Iatos.jpg
Iaitos - AE semis?6 viewsc. 241-30 BC
helmeted head of warrior righ
warrior standing half-left, with grounded spear and shield
IAITI_NΩN
CNS I pg. 383, 4; SNG ANS -
3,40g
ex Artemide Kunstauktionen
Johny SYSEL
Chandragupta_II,_Gold_Dinar,_7_75g,_Archer_type.jpg
India, Gupta Empire, Chandragupta II, Gold Dinar, Archer Type78 viewsGupta Empire, Chandragupta II Vikramaditya, Gold Dinar, 7.75g, Archer type

The above coin of Chandragupta II Vikramaditya is a celebration of the exquisite and sublime skills of the artist who designed the die for this coin which demonstrates why the Gupta Age is called the golden period of Indian history. This time period saw all round development in science, astronomy, poetry, sculptor, metallurgy etc and coinage was no different with original coins bearing Indian motifs introduced by the Guptas.

The above coin is more of a tribute to the skills and artistry of the die engraver than the image that the coin itself bears. In the above coin, the die cutter has managed to achieve the following objectives simultaneously:

1. The features of the King is portrayed as extremely youthful. 'Chir-Yauvana' or Eternal Youth is an elixir that mankind, and more so the Ruler, has sought since time immemorial. This coin shows how the die cutter wishes the King to be remembered amongst his subjects and for posterity as a handsome youthful King.

2. The body of the King is lithe, supple, muscular and well proportioned. This complements and brings out the relative youthfulness of the King. I can almost visualize the thoughts running in the die engravers mind as he thinks of the message to be conveyed by this coin 'Hail the King, Glory be to Him, our benevolent King, our Protector, the Strong and Valiant Chandragupta'.

3. The King exudes an aura of energy, vigour and vitality even as he stands in the 'dvibhanga' pose (head and torso inclined to the right with lower limbs in opposite direction, a common feature applied in Indian sculptor and classical dance, especially Odissi). The King appears calm, composed and serene. This is a delicate balance that has admirably been achieved by the die cutter. You can actually sense the King trying to communicate with you and about to step out of the coin to hold your hand and draw you back into time.

4. The King holding a Bow in his left arm while drawing an Arrow from his right hand only accentuates the powerful image of the King as a young, energetic warrior who is well disposed and endowed with the bodily strength to overcome his enemies and detractors. Symbolically, the bow and arrow represent the female and male energy as also love and death-wish, respectively. It is well acknowledged that a person has manifestations of both the feminine and masculine aspects that reveal themselves interchangeably. The soft features of the King together with his slender frame accentuates the feminine aspect while the weapons of war amplifies his masculinity. The die engraver has blended these two concepts perfectly.

5. The swaying 'mudra' or pose of the standing King is a feature of Gupta coins to reflect the King as divine and higher than a mere mortal as a man's body is imperfect being straight, rigid and stiff. The graceful sway is achieved by giving a curve or twist at the neck (head) and waist (out thrust hips), the Dvibhanga pose, or the neck, waist and knee, the Tribhanga pose. This is done to reflect that the King's body is aligned alike to the statues of the Gods and Goddesses at the temple with which the common man can more closely associate the King's divinity. The die cutter has achieved this admirably.

6. Similarly, the image of the Goddess on the Reverse is slim and sensual without being erotic. The Goddess holds a flower by a short stalk in her upraised left arm, a 'pasa' or noose in her right hand and sits in the yogic 'Padmasana' posture atop a Lotus. It must be remembered that these symbols on the coin are a depiction of the iconographic manifestation of the ancient Hindu philosophy. The Lotus flower blooms amidst the muck and filth of muddy swamps and marshes and symbolizes man's ability to rise, similar to the Lotus flower, from the dark depths of ignorance and gain happiness with the beauty and radiance of spiritual knowledge. The open flowers of the Lotus that blossoms and spreads out signifies the Sun, an essential life nourishing source as well as the light that destroys ignorance and illuminates wisdom. The 'pasa' (noose or lasso) signifies an attachment to worldly matters as well as the capability of the God to capture evil and (blind) ignorance.

Its a pity we do not have any details of the die engravers name in the historical records but given the finesse and fine style achieved in executing the portrayal of the King on the coin, I am certain he must have been a person held in high esteem for his die engraving skills. Perhaps he may even have been the same person who was also the chief architect of the fabulous temples built during the reign of Gupta Kings.

All in all, this is a great masterpiece of the Gupta miniature art on a Gold Coin of Chandragupta II Vikramaditya. It is my all time favourite coin simply because of the beautiful rendition of the Kings feature, body, posture and message it seeks to convey.
2 commentsmitresh
Kushan_Empire,_Huvishka,_Gold_Dinar,_21_mm,_7_80g,_4-arm_Shiva_type.jpg
INDIA, Kushan-Huviska-oHpO142 viewsKushan Empire, Huvishka, Gold Dinar, 21 mm, 7.80g, OhPo (Oesho) or Shiva type (with 4-arms)

Obv: Bearded King's bust emerging from clouds holding a short mace/goad in right hand and a sceptre/sword in left hand, flames coming out from the right shoulder. The King is wearing beautiful clothes and ornaments but the overall look of the King, bearded and with heavy jowl, is nomadic, barbaric and fierce. If the desire was to convey an image of a fierce and uncompromising warrior, then the same has been communicated very well by the die engraver. The King rising from the clouds and with flames coming out from shoulders indicate the King's claim to divinity.

Rev: 4-arm Shiva, nimbate and wearing a 'dhoti' (Indian loin cloth), holding in various arms, Damru or the celestial drum (upper right), Kamandla or water-pot with water pouring forth (lower right), Trishul or trident (upper left) and a Mrig or antelope held by its horns (lower left). The kamandla with water pouring forth symbolizes the blessing of the God on the King's investiture featured on the Obv while the Mrig held by its horns symbolizes the control of (an ascetic) Shiva over sensory perceptions, desires etc of which a fast moving and easily agitated deer/antelope is a symbol. Shiva is also known by various other names with the most popular ones being "Maha Yogi" (Great Ascetic) where Shiva is shown with matted hair and ash smeared over body sitting in "Padmasana" (Padma - Lotus, Asana - yogic posture). He is also termed as "Pashupatinath" (Lord of Animals or Wild Beasts) where the reference to animals/wild beasts is to the wild passions/desires etc that leads mere mortals astray but over which Shiva has mastery and full control. Shiva is also called "Mahadeva" (The Great God), "Mahakaal" (The Great (controller of) Death, Destruction or Time, a reference to Shiva's ability to destroy (evil/ignorance) for new creation and creativity), "Neelkanth" (Blue Throated Lord, a reference to Shiva's selfless act of consuming poison generated from the churning of the ocean to elicit the elixir of life that the Gods drank to become immortal), "Rudra" (Fierce, Mighty, Terrifying etc, a reference to Shiva's ability to eliminate evil and usher peace), etc.

A very fine piece of art in which the swaying 'rudraksha mala' (garland) around the neck of Shiva conveys the necessary vigour and motion together with the other objects shown in the iconography viz vibrating drum, pouring water etc. The facial features of both the King and the Deity complement each other symbolizing common association with the King claiming his right to rule as a "Dev-putra" (Son of God) with the blessing of the God. A powerful iconographic symbol.
2 commentsmitresh
Shah_Jahan,_Nazrana_Gold_Mohur,_10_88g,_22mm,_Akbarabad_mint,_AH_1052,_RY_15.jpg
ISLAMIC, India, Mughals, Shah Jahan, Nazrana Mohur64 viewsMughal Empire, Shihab ud-din Muhammad Shah Jahan( AH 1037-1068 / AD 1628-1658), Gold Mohur, 24 mm, 10.88g, Akbarabad mint, AH 1052 (AD 1642), RY 15, Quatrefoil type

Reference: Lane-Poole 547; KM 258.1

Obverse: Centre (within Quatrefoil): Kalima. Margins: bi-sudq Abu Bakr / wa 'adl 'Umar / bi-azram 'Uthman / wa 'ilm 'Ali (name and attributes of the Four Caliphs - Ali, Usman, Omar and Abu Bakr)

Reverse: Centre (within Quatrefoil): Badshah Ghazi Shah Jahan 1052 / 15. Margins: Shihab ud-din / Muhammad Sahib / Qiran Sani / Zarb Akbarabad. (The title 'Badshah or Padshah' is a Persian title meaning Great King (literally meaning Lord or Master of Kings), often translated as Emperor, while 'Ghazi' means an Islamic warrior. 'Sahib Qiran Sani' means the splendid or guiding light, as 'Qiran' in Urdu means light and 'Sani' means brilliant or bright. 'Sahib' means lord, master or owner. 'Zarb' means mint.

Shah Jahan ascended the throne following the death of his father, Jahangir in AH 1037 (1627 AD). He maintained the fine numismatic tradition of his father but did not introduce any innovation. Shah Jahan concentrated more on the grandeur, design and architecture of monuments and fine buildings, Taj Mahal being the most well known.

Akbarabad was a name given to the city, and Mughal capital, of Agra by Shah Jahan in honour of his grandfather Akbar. This changeover of name happened in RY2/3 of Shah Jahan's reign.

The featured coin depicts fine calligraphy within a perfectly centred Quatrefoil (Obv/Rev) and alongside the margins. The complete die impression with legends is fully visible on the broad flan. A well struck specimen befitting its status as a Nazrana or presentation coin from the builder of one of the present wonders of the world.
1 commentsmitresh
bruttiiOR.jpg
Italy, Bruttium, The Brettii, BMC Italy p. 327, 7025 viewsItaly, Bruttium, The Brettii, Bronze reduced uncia, c. 216 - 203 B.C. AE, 21mm 6.30g, BMC Italy p. 327, 70; SNG ANS 103
O: laureate head of Zeus right, thunderbolt behind
R: BPETTIΩN, naked warrior right, spear in right, shield in left, grapes at feet
1 commentscasata137ec
Caesar_Vercingetorix.jpg
Julius Caesar and Vercingetorix40 viewsTHE BATTLE OF ALESIA

Caesar describes this "battle"in his Commentaries on the war in Gaul in Book VII, “Chapters 63-90.”

The story begins in the winter of 54/53 BC when the Eburones attack and destroy the XIVth Legion. The Roman losses have been estimated to be as high as 9000 men. The atmosphere in Rome, at that time, is a politically complex and tense one for Caesar. He realizes he will not be reinforced. Before long, half of Gaul is in revolt; and for the first time individual Gallic tribes--the Senones, Parisii, Pictones, Cadurci, Turoni, Aulerci, Lemovices and Anndes--unite under the leadership of one man, Vercingetorix (Meier 317).

Vercingetorix is a charismatic, highly gifted and ambitious man. He detests the Romans but has carefully studied their tactics. Caesar, himself, comments that “in the exercise of his command Vercingetorix ‘added the utmost care to the utmost severity’” (Meier 318).

The contest between these two leaders is intriguing, and I am unable to do it justice within the confines of this thread. In his book, Caesar, Christian Meir writes not only with the authority of impressive scholarship; he carefully depicts, with the gift of a story teller, the decisions of these men.

Suffice it to say that Vercingetorix seeks temporary refuge with 80,000 men on the summit of a hill named Alesia. His position is “impregnable and impossible to take by storm” (Meier 323). Caesar sees his chance, and in an endeavor that is incredible by any standard, he builds a siege wall/trench that completely surrounds Vercingetorix’s stronghold. “The wall built by the Romans extended for fourteen kilometers, with twenty-three forts as strong points” (Meier 323).

Realizing his predicament, Vercingetorix calls for help. 250,000 Gauls march on Caesar; “the whole of Gaul was to show itself and be victorious” (Meier 324). Surrounded himself, Caesar orders his men to attempt the almost impossible: they must build another siege wall/trench that will surround their first feat of engineering. The Gauls attack Caesar on both sides, and the Romans now fight a battle on two “fronts.”

Caesar, in command of 60,000 men (10 legions or so) is seriously, numerically out numbered. And yet, because of Caesar’s ingenuity and courage; because his legions are superior warriors; perhaps, because Fortune (upon whom Caesar certainly counted) favored the brave (Virgil); and because of the Roman soldier’s other weapon—the shovel; Caesar won a stunning victory. “Few battles, says Plutarch, have been fought with such outstanding bravery and such a wealth of technical invention or ‘martial genius’” (Meier 327).

Works Cited

Meier, Christian. Caesar. London: Fontana Press: 1996.
Cleisthenes
Paeonia 1a img.jpg
Kindom of Paeonia, Patraos, Tetradrachm43 viewsSilver Tetradrachm
Obv:– Laureate head of Apollo right with short hair right.
Rev:– PATRAOU, armed warrior on horse prancing right, spearing fallen enemy who holds spear and shield, EM monogram in left field
Minted in Kindom of Paeonia, Patraos from . B.C. 335 - 315.
Ref:– SNG Oxford 3359 (different dies)
12.646g, 27.5mm, 90 degrees

Obverse struck off centre.

This obverse was struck with a well executed die engraved in an attractive classical style.
maridvnvm
Paeonia_1a_img.jpg
Kindom of Paeonia, Patraos, Tetradrachm33 viewsSilver Tetradrachm
Obv:– Laureate head of Apollo right with short hair right.
Rev:– PATRAOU, armed warrior on horse prancing right, spearing fallen enemy who holds spear and shield, EM monogram in left field
Minted in Kindom of Paeonia, Patraos from . B.C. 335 - 315.
Ref:– SNG Oxford 3359 (different dies)
12.646g, 27.5mm, 90 degrees

Ex-Forum

Obverse struck off centre.

This obverse was struck with a well executed die engraved in an attractive classical style.

Updated image of an old coin from my collection.
1 commentsmaridvnvm
Paeonia_1a_img~0.jpg
Kindom of Paeonia, Patraos, Tetradrachm27 viewsSilver Tetradrachm
Obv:– Laureate head of Apollo right with short hair right.
Rev:– PATRAOU, armed warrior on horse prancing right, spearing fallen enemy who holds spear and shield, EM monogram in left field
Minted in Kindom of Paeonia, Patraos from . B.C. 335 - 315.
Ref:– SNG Oxford 3359 (different dies)
12.646g, 27.5mm, 90 degrees

Ex-Forum

Obverse struck off centre.

This obverse was struck with a well executed die engraved in an attractive classical style.

Updated image using new photography setup.
maridvnvm
Paeonia,_Patraos,_AR_Tetradrachm.jpg
Kings of Paeonia, Patraos, ca. 335-315 BC, AR Tetradrachm 32 viewsLaureate head of Apollo right.
[Π]ATPAOY Warrior on horse rearing right, spearing fallen enemy who defends with shield; ligate [E]M monogram behind horse’s rear leg.

AMNG III 4; Paeonian Hoard 312 & 410 (same reverse die); SNG ANS 1040.
Damastion mint (?).

(23 mm, 12.55 g, 9h)
CNG; ex- Numismatica Ars Classica Auction N, 26 June 2003, 1242.
2 commentsn.igma
patraos.jpg
Kings of Paeonia, Patroas61 viewsAR Tetradrachm 340--315 B.C.

Obv. Laureate head of Apollo right, with short hair; a test cut in the fourth quadrant


Rev. Armed warrior on a horse prancing right, spearing a fallen enemy, who holds a shield and a spear(Pi)ATPAOY.

12.64 g., 25 mm. SG 1520. Slightly double-struck. EF
1 commentsLordBest
paeonia_k.jpg
Kings of Paeonia, Patros, 335-315 BC7 viewsAR Tetradrachm, 25mm, 12.83 gm, 6h.
Obv.: Laureate head of Apollo right
Rev.: Horseman riding down fallen warrior who defends himself with a raised shield.
Reference: AMNG III 5 var (legend); Paeonian Hoard 461 (same dies); SNG ANS 1040 var. (same)
John Anthony
Patraos.jpg
Kings of Paeonia. Patraos AR Tetradrachm.34 viewsCirca 335-315 BC. AR Tetradrachm (24mm, 12.66 g, 3h). Paeonian Hoard 185 (same dies); SNG ANS 1032. Obverse Laureate head of Apollo right. Reverse Warrior on horse rearing right, spearing enemy who defends with shield and spear; kantharos behind horse’s rear legs. Good VF, toned. Well centered and struck on a broad flan.

Ex Bank Leu. Ex CNG.

Much of the kingdom of ancient Paeonia could be roughly located in the modern day Republic of Macedonia (FYROM). The Paeonian tribes were thought to descend from Thracian and Illyrian peoples and settled on the lower Axios River around the end of the Bronze Age. Although much of the early history and ruling classes of Paeonians were obscure, the last seven kings were recorded with certainty. Patraos (or Patreus) was thought to be the son of Lykkeios, also king of the Paeonians. It is also thought that he supported Alexander III in his conquest of the East. Much debate revolved around the reverse of Patraos’ numerous coins. Who represent the horseman and the warrior? A current consensus put forward by Gaebler and Merker was that the reverse represented a very specific event during Alexander’s crossing of the Tigris River and a fight between the cavalry headed by Ariston (supposedly a Paeonian and brother of Patraos) and the Persian commander Satropates, with the ultimate defeat and beheading of the latter. The horseman was identified as Ariston at the moment he struck down Satropates. The costume of the fallen warrior was identified as “Persian”, especially the pair of trousers he is wearing. So it is natural to assume in assigning the identities represented on the reverse as the two historical figures mentioned above. However, an argument put forward by Nicholas Wright in his paper “The Horseman and the Warrior: Paionia and Macedonia in the 4th Century BC” discussed with certainty that the reverse might be a generic representation of Paeonia subduing a foreign enemy. He surveyed the entire corpus of Patraos’ coinage and made detailed analyses of the different iconography of the fallen warrior. A percentage of the reverse showed the warrior holding a Macedonian shield (Persians used wicker shields) and a number of coins showed him wearing long-sleeved chiton, thought to be the traditional attire of the Macedonians and other Balkan tribes, and kausia. Such anachronistic representation and iconography of the coins struck across a short timespan begs us to reconsider and reassess the identity of the warrior. The inherent antipathy of Paeonia towards their southern as well as their Balkan neighbors and the inclusion of the name of Patraos in his coins instead of Alexander reflect the king’s opposition to the supposed overlordship of Macedonia over Paeonia. Such evidence would only lead us to conclude that the reverse shows an allegorical representation of Paeonians defeating a foreign enemy and not to a specific event or a single ethnic group.




Jason T
image00111.jpg
KINGS of PAEONIA. Patraos. (Circa 335-315 BC)25 viewsAR Tetradrachm

23.5mm, 12.78 g

Astibos or Damastion mint.

Obverse: Laureate head of Apollo right

Reverse: Warrior on horse rearing right, thrusting spear held in his right hand at enemy below who defends with shield on his left arm. ΠΑΤΡΑΟΥ (PATRAOS)

Paeonian Hoard 479 (same dies); Peykov E2160 (same obv. die as illustration); NRBM Paeonia 40 (same obv. die); HGC 3, 148.

Phiip II of Macedon (359-336 BC) reduced the Paeonian kingdom to a semi-autonomous, subordinate status, which led to a process of gradual and formal Hellenization of the Paeonians, who, during Philip's reign, began to issue coins with Greek legends like the Macedonian ones. Paeonia was most likely still a subordinated kingdom at the beginning of Patraos' reign (340/35 - 315 BC), and at the time of Alexander’s Eastern campaign, the Paeonians were part of the Macedonian army with their light cavalry. In fact, at the battle of Gaugamela (331 BC), Ariston, the leader of the Paeonian cavalry and possibly the brother off Patraos was especially distinguishable, defeating Satropates, the commander of the Persian horseman. It is this victory that was likely the inspiration for the reverse iconography of Patraos tetradrachms.

Interestingly, though, on most of the coins the "Persian" horseman is represented as defending himself with a Macedonian shield, the appearance of which, obviously contains a certain message. There is no direct historical explanation, but the literary sources reveal that after the death of Alexander of Macedon in 323 BC, Antipater was positioned in Europe, being appointed strategus autocrator in charge of all Macedonians, Hellenes, Illyrians, Triballi, Agrianes and the people of Epirus. Notably, the Paeonians are not mentioned in this list, probably because Paeonia had regained its autonomy. Thus, the insertion of the Macedonian shield on the reverse was likely announcing the liberation of Paeonia from Macedonian sovereignty.

With regard to the coin iconography, it is notable that the cult of Apollo was predominant on Paeonian coins. Hesiod identified Paeon as an individual deity: "Unless Phoebus Apollo should save him from death, or Paean himself who knows the remedies for all things." In time, Paeon (more usually spelled Paean) became an epithet of Apollo, in his capacity as a god capable of bringing disease and therefore propitiated as a god of healing.

As discussed by Wayne Sayles in "Ancient Coin Collecting III, Numismatic Art of the Greek World," the obverse of this coin is minted in archaizing style, "with the frontal almond eye common to the art of a century earlier." This type was produced with both the archaic eye and the modern profile eye. "The contrast is not one of stylistic transition, but rather of artistic intention. In fact, the archaizing version seems to have been issued toward the end of the series."
Nathan P
B793BA9B-40D3-497D-BC02-AA3B4AAA6895.jpeg
KINGS of PAEONIA. Patraos. Circa 335-315 BC. AR Tetradrachm21 viewsKINGS of PAEONIA. Patraos. Circa 335-315 BC. AR Tetradrachm (26 mm, 12.62 g, 8h). Lustrous EF. Damastion mint(?). Laureate head of Apollo right / Warrior on horse rearing right, spearing enemy warrior who defends with shield and spear. Paeonian Hoard 434. Superb EF with unusually well struck up types. Irregular flan (not clipped or cut1 commentsMark R1
L_COSCONIUS_MF.jpg
L COSCONIUS MF ROMAN REPUBLIC AR Denarius Serratus10 viewsOBVERSE: Helmeted head of Roma right, L . COSCO . M . F around, X behind
REVERSE: naked Celtic warrior (Bituitus), brandishing a spear & holding a shield & carnyx, driving a racing biga right, L LIC CN DOM in ex.
Struck at Rome, 118 BC
3.72g, 19.13mm
Cosconia.1. Cr.282 / 2
Legatus
Hostilius_saserna_denarius.jpg
L Hostilius Saserna denarius69 viewsL Hostilius Saserna Denarius. 48 BC.
Obv: Head of gaulish male (maybe Vercingetorix) right, gaulish shield behind
Rev: Two warriors in biga, one driving and the other brandishing spear, L HOSTILIVS above, SASERN below. Crawford 448/2a; Syd 952.
areich
L__Pomponius_Cn__f_~0.JPG
L Pomponius Cn f19 viewsL. Pomponius Cn. f. AR denarius minted in Narbo (Narbona, France), in 118 B.C. OBV - helmeted Roma bust right, X behind, L.POMPONI.CN.F. around. REV - with the Bituitus warrior in galloping biga right, holding spear. L.LIC.CN. DOM in exergue. 1 commentsRomanorvm
1302_392_Farculeius.JPG
L. Farsuleius Mensor - AR denarius5 viewsRome
¹²75 BC
diademed and draped bust of Libertas right, pileus behind
S·C__MENSOR
helmeted warrior right in biga holding spear and reins asisting togate citizen into biga
II
L·FARSVLEI
¹Crawford 392/1b; Sydenham 789; Farsuleia 2
²Mark Passehl - Roman moneyer & coin type chronology,
ex Naumann

This issue commemorates a acceptance of lex Iulia de civitate sociis danda, law from 90 BC which guaranteed citizenship to all Italic people who didn't stand up against Rome in social war. For that reason warrior in the chariot is sometimes considered to be Roma.
Johny SYSEL
farsuleius_mensor_Crawford392.1b.jpg
L. Farsuleius Mensor, Crawford 392/1b75 viewsL. Farsuleius Mensor, gens Farsuleia
AR - denar, 18 mm, 3.96 gm.
Rome 75 BC
obv. Diademed and draped bust of Libertas r., wearing ear-rings and necklace.
S C and pileus behind
MENSOR before
rev. Armed and helmeted warrior, holding spear, takes togated person into his
biga, driving r.
CXV under horses
L. FARSVLEI in exergue.
Crawford 392/1b; Sydenham 789; Farsuleia 2
about VF, obv. slightly excentric
ex Lakeview coll.

The reverse depiction is heavily propagandistic. It could be related to the 'Lex Iulia de civitate sociis dandi', introduced by the consul L. Caesar (not Julius Caesar!) in 90 BC and offering Roman citizenship to all citizens of Italian municipia who had not raised arms against Rome in the Italian War (Social War).

Another possibilitiy is that it is related to to the recruitment of military troops needed for the wars in Spain (against Sertorius) and against Mithradates in Asia.

In the 1st case it is Roma taking the Roman allies in her biga, in the other case it could be Mars taking the Roman citizens in his war chariot.
2 commentsJochen
Combined~28.jpg
L. Farsuleius Mensor. 76 BC.26 viewsL. Farsuleius Mensor. 76 BC.

AR Denarius (3,65 g, 18,65mm.), Rome mint.


L. Farsuleius Mensor. 76 BC. AR Denarius (3,65 g, 18,65mm.). Rome mint. Diademed and draped bust of Libertas right; control number behind / Warrior (Roma?) standing in biga right, holding reins and spear, extending hand to assist citizen into biga; scorpion below.


Flamur H
crassus.jpg
L. Licinius Crassus and Cn Domitius Ahenobarbus with C. Malleolus, Gallic warrior in biga4 viewsL. Licinius Crassus and Cn Domitius Ahenobarbus with C. Malleolus C.f. 118 B.C. AR Denarius serratus. Obv. C·MALLE·C·F, Head of Roma right X behind. Rev. Gallic warrior with spear, shield and carnyx, in biga right, L·LIC·CN·DOM in exergue. Mint of Narbo. 3.7g, 19mm. Sear RCV I 158, RSC Poblicia 1.Podiceps
Aurelia_1a_img.jpg
L. Licinius Crassus and Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus with M. Aurelius Scaurus, Denarius serratus11 viewsObv:- Head of Roma right in winged helmet, M·AVRELI (VR in monogram) before, ROMA and X (XVI in monogram) behind
Rev:- Naked Gallic warrior in biga right with shield, spear and carnyx, SCAVRI (AVR in monogram) below, L·LIC·CN·DOM in exergue
Minted in Gaul, Narbo mint. 118 BC.
Reference:- SRCV I 157, Crawford 282/1, Sydenham 523, RSC I Aurelia 20
maridvnvm
0067.jpg
L. Licinius Crassus, Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus and associates, Denarius23 viewsRRC 282/2
118 bc

Obverse: L·COSCO·M·F Helmeted head of Roma r.; behind, X.
Reverse: Bearded warrior in fast biga r., holding shield, carnyx and reins and hurling spear; in exergue, L·LIC·CN·DOM.

Minted in Narbo (Narbonne) where a new mint had been established after the defeat of the Allobroges. This issue is special for for legend errors.

--
Ex Numismatica Ars Classica, Auction 78, Lot 597, 26 - 27 May 2014
Norbert
L__Porcius_Licinius.jpg
L. Porcius Licinus - AR serratus denarius6 viewsL. Licinius Crassus and Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus
³issue struck partly in Sardinia and partly in Gallia in two or three different mint locations
¹Narbo
²120-119 BC
¹118 BC
helmet head of Roma right
L·PORCI__LICI (XVI)
naked Gallic warrior riding in biga right, holding spear, reins, shield and carnyx
L·LIC·CN·DOM
¹Crawford 282/5, SRCV I 158, Sydenham 520, RSC I Porcia 8
²Mark Passehl - Roman moneyer & coin type chronology, 150 – 50 BC
³Mark Passehl
3,9g
ex Gitbud and Naumann

Narbo, the first colony in Gaul, was founded 118-117 BC. L. Licinius Crassus and Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus were officials charged with founding colony (duoviri coloniae deducendae). L. Porcius Licinus was one of 5 officials charged with production of denarii (curatorec denariorum flandorum). Reverse probably commemorates victory of Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus (consul 122 BC) in southern Gaul. He and Q. Fabius Maximus attacked united Gallic tribes of Allobrogi and Averni led by Bituitus at the confluence of Rhone and Isere. Their triumph was celebrated in 120 BC.
Johny SYSEL
00farsmensor.jpg
L.FARSULEIUS MENSOR23 viewsAR denarius. 75 BC. 3.91 grs. Diademed and draped bust of Libertas right. SC below chin. MENSOR before. Pileus and control numeral behind. Bead and reel border. / Warrior in biga right,holding spear and reining in horses while he helps togate figure to mount into the chariot,scorpion below. L FARSULEI in exergue.
Craw 392/1a. RSC Farsuleia 1.
benito
00farsmensor~0.jpg
L.FARSULEIUS MENSOR 29 viewsAR denarius. 75 BC. 3.91 grs. Diademed and draped bust of Libertas right. SC below chin. MENSOR before. Pileus and control numeral behind. Bead and reel border. / Warrior in biga right,holding spear and reining in horses while he helps togate figure to mount into the chariot,scorpion below. L FARSULEI in exergue.
Craw 392/1a. RSC Farsuleia 1.
benito
Lar_50.jpg
Larissa, Thessaly21 views3rd Century B.C.
Bronze Dichalkon
7.04 gm, 19 mm
Obv: Head of nymph Larissa facing slightly left
Rev.: ΛAP-I-Σ-AIΩ – [N], warrior on horse rearing right, wearing petasus and chiton, holding lance
Sear 2133 var. (arrangement of ethnic);
Rogers 284-7 var.;
BCD Thessaly I 1171.1 var.;
BCD Thessaly II 393.1 var.;
HGC 4, 530 var.;
BMC vii, p. 31, 84

From the BCD Collection (purchased from Baldwin’s, November 1969, for £1).

Jaimelai
Lopadusa.jpg
Lopadusa59 viewsLopadusa, island off Sicily (2nd century BC).
Attribution to this mint is uncertain however.
Some scholars believe the mint was in North Africa instead.

obv: naked warrior standing right
rev: crab; punic letters below

Montenegro #5804, (cross ref. to SNG Cop (Nord Africa) #477)
Lindgren (European Mints) 667; listed under "Island between Sicily and Tunisia, uncertain mints"
Calciati #4
Rare R2
1 commentsTanit
senons-indien-cheval.JPG
LT 4717var, Gaul, Senones, potin20 viewsSenones tribe (near Sens, Bourgogne, France)
Circa 100-50 BC

Cast potin, 2.98 g, 19 mm diameter, die axis 8h

O/ head of an Indian warrior right, six locks of hair
R/ horse galopping left, one bullet below and one on the left, one bullet at the end of the horse's tail

This coin is supposed to have been struck during Gallic wars, when Caesar was conquering Gaul. It is maybe the most common gallic coin.
Droger
remes-guerrier-courant.JPG
LT 8124, Gaul, Remi, potin14 viewsRemi tribe (near Reims, northeast of France)
Circa 100-50 BC

Cast potin, 4.66 g, 20 mm diameter, die axis 9h

O/ warrior with plait running right, holding torc and spear
R/ beast standing right, with mouth open; object in shape of fibula above; serpent (?) below

This coin is supposed to have been struck during Gallic wars, when Caesar was conquering Gaul.
Droger
leuques-indien-sanglier.JPG
LT 9078, Gaul, Leuci, potin10 viewsLeuci tribe (in Lorraine, northeast of France)
Circa 75-50 BC

Cast potin, 3.16 g, 19 mm diameter, die axis 3h

O/ head of an Indian warrior left, 3 locks of hair
R/ boar standing left with a symbol below

This coin is supposed to have been struck during Gallic wars, when Caesar was conquering Gaul.
Droger
Farsuleia_1.JPG
Lucius Farsuleius Mensor38 viewsObv: Diademed, draped bust of Libertas facing right, SC below chin, MENSOR before, pileus and control number XII behind.

Rev: Warrior (or Roma) in a biga facing right, holding a spear and reigning in horses while helping a togate figure step into the chariot, scorpion below horses' fore-hoves, L FARSVLEI in exergue.

Silver Denarius, Rome mint, 75 BC

3.97 grams, 18 mm, 180°

RSC Farsuleia 1, S328
SPQR Coins
Lucius.jpg
Lucius Pomponius Cneo Filius2 viewsLucius Pomponius Cneo Filius. Serrated denarius.
Obv. Helmeted head of Roma right, L•POMPONI CN F, X behind head
Rev. naked gallic warrior in biga right, holding spear, shield and carnyx,
L•LIC•CN•DOM in exergue
20 mm. 3.86 g
Cr.282/4.

This issue with serratus edges, was minted at the newly-founded city of Narbo, the first Roman colony in gaul. The two principal magistrates Licinius Crassus and Domitius Ahenobarbus produced their coins in association with five junior colleagues, in this case L. Pomponius.

Marsman
mamertini_horse.jpg
Mamertini horseman10 viewsThe Mamertini, Sicily, c. 220 - 200 B.C. Bronze pentonkion, SNG Cop 446 - 447, aVF, Messana mint, 10.440g, 26.1mm, 0o, obverse laureate head of Ares left; reverse MAMERTINWN, warrior, horse behind, standing left, spear in left, right holding head of horse, P left. ex FORVMPodiceps
mamert.jpg
Mamertini warrior with spear and shield9 viewsThe Mamertini, Sicily, c. 220 - 200 B.C.
Messana mint. 27 mm, 11.1g
Obverse: laureate head of Zeus right
Reverse: MAMERTINWN, Warrior, with spear and shield, advancing right, P right. ex areich

Podiceps
0061.jpg
Manius Aquillius Mn. f. Mn. n. , Denarius23 viewsRRC 40171
71 b.c.

Obverse: Helmeted and draped bust of Virtus right "VIRTVS" before and "III VIR" behind.
Reverse: Warrior, (Mn. Aquillius, consul in 101 BC) standing facing, looking right, holding shield, raising figure of Sicilia who is slumped to the left, "MN. AQVIL." on right and "MN. F. MN. N." on left (both MN in monogram). In ex. "SICIL."

Mn. Aquillius (the moneyer's grandfather) was consul in 101 B.C. and sent as proconsul to end the second slave war in Sicily. The slaves were under the control of Athenion, a Cilician, one of their commanders, who had already defeated L. Licinius Lucullus. Aquillius succeeded the next year in defeating Athenion and this coin type commemorates his valour (Virtus). The coin was minted during the famous slave war led by Spartacus, when Rome was trembling, which may or may not be a coincidence.

Mn. Aquillius was not so lucky after the defeat of the slaves. In 88 B.C. he went to Asia as one of the consular legates in the Mithridactic war; he was defeated and handed over by the inhabitants of Mytilene to Mithridates, who put him to death by pouring molten gold down his throat.
(FORVM)


Ex Numismatica Ars Classica, Auction 73, Lot 127
The Collection of Roman Republican Coins of a Student and his Mentor Part II
18 November 2013
1 commentsNorbert
ma3OR.jpg
Marcus Aurelius, Moushmov 105-623 viewsPhilippopolis mint, Marcus Aurelius, 161-180 A.D. AE, 19mm 3.68g, Moushmov 105-6
O: AY KAI M AYPH ANTΩNEIN, bare head r.
R: ΦIΛIΠΠOΠOΛEITΩN, nude warrior (Ares?) standing l., wearing helmet, holding shield
casata137ec
MAURYAN_EMPIRE.jpg
MAURYAN EMPIRE19 viewsMAURYAN EMPIRE - 3rd Century BC - AR Karshapana. 13.4 MM, 3.40 Grams.
Punch marks; especially note the sun and the 6-armed figure, trademarks of Mauryan coinage.

The coins issued by the Mauryans are mostly silver in various shapes, sizes and weights and which have one or more symbols punched on them. The most common symbols are the elephant, the tree in railing symbol and the mountain. The technique of producing such coins was generally that the metal was cut first and then the device was punched. These symbols are said to have either represented the Royal insignia or the symbol of the local guild that struck the coin. Some coins had Shroff marks on them indicating that older coins were often re-issued.
One of the greatest empires in the history of India was the Mauryan Empire. It approximately lasted from 322 - 185 B.C. Most of India was united as a single entity by the great emperor Chandragupta Maurya. His son Bindusara extended the kingdom of Mauryas over almost the entire sub-continent. The Mauryan Empire had the most powerful military force in ancient India. The greatest emperor of the Mauryan dynasty was Ashoka. An able administrator and a skillful warrior, Ashoka converted to Buddhism after the gruesome Battle of Kalinga.
The Mauryan Empire had smooth administration and efficient rulers. The government was hierarchical and centralized with a lot of staff to make sure that work was carried on smoothly and efficiently. Taxes were collected regularly, trade and commerce was carried on smoothly, citizens were taken care of and the army was always ready for any sort of external aggression or threat. Every province had its own officials who managed administration at grassroots level. The economy was agrarian and the main economic activity of people was agriculture. The capital city of Magadha was beautifully decorated and had all facilities that any modern city would have.
1 commentsdpaul7
calydonhunters0534.jpeg
Meleager and Atalanta and the Hunt of the Calydonian Boar, c. 1618-19; Peter Paul Rubens299 viewsMeleager and Atalanta and the Hunt of the Calydonian Boar, c. 1618-19

Peter Paul Rubens
Flemish, 1577-1640
Oil on panel
18-3/4 x 29-1/8 in. (47.6 x 74 cm)
Norton Simon Art Foundation, Gift of Mr. Norton Simon
M.1975.21.P
© 2002 Norton Simon Art Foundation

The subject is derived from Homer's Iliad, but it is widely believed that Ruben's composition is drawn from Ovid's narrative in the Metamorphoses. The goddess Diana has taken insult over the Calydonian king's failure to pay her tribute during the harvest festival. To avenge herself, she sends a ferocious boar to ravage the land. The king's son Meleager, accompanied by the bravest warriors, seeks to destroy the creature. Atalanta, the beautiful virgin huntress, joins the hunt and is the first to wound the boar with her arrow, much to the chagrin of her male competitors.

This infamous boar has been depicted on, notably, a beautiful reverse of a coin of the ROMAN REPUBLIC: C. Hosidius C.f. Geta. Diana / Calydonian boar.

Cleisthenes
3720615259_0a83d7fe41_o.jpg
Minucia97 viewsMinucius Thermus Mf Denarius. 103 BC. Helmeted head of Mars left / Q*TERM*MF below two warriors in combat, one on left protecting a fallen man. Syd 592, Cr319/1.

Ex. Aureo auction, 25/10/2006, 16.
8 commentsrmon
mars.jpg
Minucius Thermus Mf AR Denarius55 viewsOBV: Helmeted head of Mars left
REV: 2 Warriors Fighting (a Roman and a Gaul); Roman Warrior on left protecting fallen comrade, the other (presumably a Gaul) wears horned helmet
Date: 103BC
3.9g, 14mm
Syd 592, Cr319/1
2 commentsmiffy
normal_coin10.jpg
Minucius Thermus Mf Denarius. 103 BC.13 viewsMinucius Thermus Mf Denarius. 103 BC. Helmeted head of Mars left / Q*TERM*MF below two warriors in combat, one on left protecting a fallen man. Syd 592, Cr319/1.Britanikus
Minucius_Thermus_Mf.JPG
MINUCIUS THERMUS MF ROMAN REPUBLIC; GENS MINUCIA AR Denarius15 viewsOBVERSE: Helmeted head of Mars left
REVERSE: Q*TERM*MF below two warriors in combat, one on left protecting a fallen man
Struck at Rome, 103BC
3.5g, 19mm
Syd 592, Cr319/1
Legatus
1438_Morgantina.jpg
Morgantina - AR litra21 views339-317 BC
laureate head of Apollo right
MOPΓANTINΩN
warrior on horseman left, brandishing spear, holding reins
SNG ANS 465 (same dies); SNG Copenhagen 472; HGC 2, 900.
0,80g
ex Roma
ex Nomos
1 commentsJohny SYSEL
patraos.jpg
Nice Patraos75 viewsPatraos --AR Tetradrachm (12.8gm). Laureate head of Apollo R/Horseman riding down fallen warrior. SNG ANS 1031, Sear 1520.featherz
Orissian_Leaf_002.jpg
Orissian Palm Leaf Manuscript illustrating the Mahabharata60 viewsThe Mahabharat, Book 6: Bhishma Parva; Canto 120-122

This illustrates the death of Bhishma. He felled in battle by a reluctant, ashamed and tearful Arjuna pierced by innumerable arrows. As Bhishma fell, his whole body was held above the ground by the shafts of Arjuna's arrows which protruded from his back, and through his arms and legs. He asked Arjuna to give him a pillow fit for a warrior. Arjuna then removed three arrows from his quiver and placed them underneath Bhishma's head, pointed side upwards. To quench the war veteran's thirst, Arjuna shot an arrow into the earth, and a jet stream of water rose up and into Bhishma's mouth.
1 commentsSpongeBob
capito.jpg
P. Fonteius P.f. Capito, 55 BC.43 viewsObverse: Helmeted bust of Mars r., trophy over shoulder, P FONTEIVS P F CAPITO III VIR around.
Reverse: Horseman attacking warrior who is about to slay a kneeling captive, MN FONT TR MIL above.
Cr-429/1, Syd-900, Fonteia-17. 3.88g.
1 commentsb70
publius_crassus_Cr430_1.jpg
P. Licinius Crassus, Crawford 430/127 viewsP. Licinius Crassus, gens Licinia, 86(?)/82(?) - 53 BC, son of triumvir Marcus Licinius Crassus
AR - denarius, 3.95g, 20.57x18.10mm, 225
Rome, 55 BC
obv. Bust of Venus, draped, diademed, laureate, wearing ear-rings and necklace, r.
behind S.C
rev. P.CRASSVS - M.F
Female warrior with spear stg. in front of horse, holding horse with r. hand by bridle; at her feet l.cuirass,
r. shield
ref. Crawford 430/1; Sydenham 929; Albert 1358; Licinia 18; BMCRR 3901
scarce, F+, oval flan, obv. excentric
pedigree:
ex Roberto Pedoni, Via Vespasiano, Roma

Crawford writes: The correct descripton of the issue (which I owe to Mr. H.-D. Schultz) renders impossible traditional interpretations of the reverse type as a recognitio equitum, as symbolising the cavalry brought from Gaul by P. Crassus or as alluding to the battle of the Colline Gate near the temple of Venus Erycina. The female figure has long hair and wears a curious head-dress with two projections at the front, a cloak gathering on the left shoulder and a skirt.
1 commentsJochen
00fonteius1.jpg
P.FONTEIUS P.f. CAPITO18 viewsAR denarius. 55 BC. 4.21 grs. Helmeted and draped bust of Mars right, with trophy over shoulder. P·FONTEIVS·P·F – CAPITO·III·VIR / Horseman r. spearing warrior about to drive sword through unarmed opponent; in field r., helmet and shield. MN·FONT·TR·MIL.
Craw 429/1. RSC Fonteia 17.
NAC 25,Lot 311. Münz-Zentrum Köln December 1991, Lot 1230.
benito
00fonteius1~0.jpg
P.FONTEIUS P.f. CAPITO 35 viewsAR denarius. 55 BC. 4.21 grs. Helmeted and draped bust of Mars right, with trophy over shoulder. P·FONTEIVS·P·F – CAPITO·III·VIR / Horseman r. spearing warrior about to drive sword through unarmed opponent; in field r., helmet and shield. MN·FONT·TR·MIL.
Craw 429/1. RSC Fonteia 17.
benito
greek7.jpg
Paeonia, Patraos Ar Tetradrachm59 views(340-315 BC)
Obv.: Laureate head of Apollo.
Rev.: Warrior on horseback right, spearing fallen enemy.
BMC 9. Paeonian Hoard 490.
1 commentsMinos
Macedon_Paionia_Patraos_SNG-ANS_1040_gf.jpg
Paionia, Patraos. 335-315 BC. AR Tetradrachm of Damastion6 viewsMacedon, Paionia, Patraos. 335-315 BC. AR Tetradrachm (12.48 gm) of Damastion, Light Thraco-Mac. stdd. Laureate head of Apollo r. / Horseman in crested helmet riding down Macedonian warrior. Π-Α-ΤꟼΑΟΥ. nEF.  CNG 51 #219. Same dies: Sotheby's Paeonian Hoard I #439 (#430/439). Same obv. die: AMNG III #5; Babelon Traité pl. 328 #10; HGC 3.2 #148; SNG ANS 7 #1040; SNG Berry #390; SNG Cop 2 #1390. Anaximander
Aspendos.jpg
Pamphylia, Aspendos. AE14 Pseudo-autonomous 48 viewsFirst century A.D.
Obv: Horse galloping right.
Rev: AΣΠEN-ΔIΩN, Warrior standing right, holding shield and hurling javelin.
ancientone
tres.jpg
Pamphylia, Aspendos (465 - 430 B.C.)19 viewsAR Stater
O: Warrior advancing right with a spear and shield.
R:Triskeles
10.86g
SNG Cop 174
4 commentsMat
SNG_France_3_12.jpeg
Pamphylia, Aspendus: Anonymous (ca. 465-430 BCE) AR Stater (SNG France 3, 12)9 viewsObv: Helmeted nude hoplite warrior advancing right, shield in left hand, spear forward in right; countermark on lower right
Rev: EΣ-TFFΔI, triskeles clockwise; lion crouching left below in background, ΠΦ below lion, all within incuse square
Dim: 19mm, 2h

2 commentsQuant.Geek
1434_Panormus.jpg
Panormos - AE6 viewsQ. Mallius
c. 241-30 BC (208-180 BC)
laureate head of Zeus left
warrior standing half-left, extending hand, holding grounded shield and spear
Q / (MAL)
(ΠAP)
CNS I, 9.
7,70g
ex Artemide Kunstauktionen
Johny SYSEL
g_047.JPG
Patraos53 viewsKing Patraos Paeonia 340-315 b.c
Tetradrachm

Obverse :Apollo head at right.
Reverse: ΠΑΤΡΑΟΥ;Armed warrior on horse spearing fallen enemy.

22.30mm 10.60g
SEAR 1520 ;Sotheby's April 16 1969, #100 (same dies).

EX H.J.B
2 commentsmaik
698_Pelinna.JPG
Pelinna - AE 146 viewsc. 425-350 BC
Horseman left, striking at fallen Hoplite with javelin
Warrior advancing left, holding shield
ΠEΛINNA_ION
Rogers 427; BCD Thessaly 520; SNG Copenhagen 186-7 var
3,00g
ex Gitbud-Naumann
Johny SYSEL
pelinna_40.jpg
Pelinna, Thessaly21 views425-400 B.C.
Silver Trihemiobol
1.31 gm, 15 mm
Obv: Horseman galloping left, wearing chlamys and with petasus hanging from neck; holds two lances; boarder of dots
Rev: ΠΕ ΛΛΙ Ν. Warrior left wearing petasus and chiton, holds spear in right, another spear and shield in left; all in incuse square.
Sear 2165
BMC Thessaly p.38, 1
BCD Thessaly II 514
[SNG Cop 185]
Jaimelai
APius_Philippo_warriors_clasped_hands_rx.JPG
Philippopolis Antoninus Pius L. Pullaienus Gargilius Antiquus (161 AD)36 viewsAntoninus Pius

AE 30 20g

Governor L. Pullaienus Gargilius Antiquus (161 AD)

AVT AI AΔPIA | ANTΩNEINOC
Laureate head right

HΓE ΓAPΓIΛI ANTIKOV ΦIΛIΠΠOΠOΛEI TΩN
Two helmed warriors clasping hands

Mionnet Supp. II 1437; SNG Cop767; Varbanov (E) III679-81, cf 694-;Mushmov Les Monnaies Antiques de Philippopolis (1924) 37; BMC-

Moushmov and Varbanov suggest these warriors represent the Dioscouri.
rennrad12020
Phliasia,_Phlious,_AR_Obol.jpg
Phliasia, Phlious, ca. 400-350 BC, AR Obol 13 viewsForepart of bull butting left.
Large Φ with four pellets.

HGC 5, 156; BCD Peloponnesos 102-3; SNG Copenhagen 7.

(12 mm, 0.79 g, 10h)
CNG; ex- BCD Collection; ex- Stacks Auction March 15-17, 1979, Lot 149.

Phlious was the main city of Phliasia in the northeast Peloponnesos. Located on the river Asopos, its acropolis, known as Trikaranon, commanded one of the subsidiary roads leading to Corinth. It was renowned for a sacred stone, an omphalos, which its inhabitants revered as the center of the Peloponnesos. The city was a long-standing ally of Sparta. Two hundred citizen soldiers of Phlious were with Leonidas and his Spartan warriors at Thermopylae in 480 BC and one thousand of the city’s citizens faced the Persians at Plataea in 479 BC.
n.igma
byblos.jpg
PHOENICIA, BYBLOS42 viewsBefore 333 BC
(King Azbaal)
AR Shekel 13.25 g
O: Three Hoplite warriors in war galley left, with lions prow and Hippocamp and Murex below
R: Lion attacking stag, name of king in Phoenician script above
1 commentslaney
byblos~1.jpg
PHOENICIA, BYBLOS32 viewsBefore 333 BC
(King Azbaal)
AR Shekel 13.25 g
O: Three Hoplite warriors in war galley left, with lions prow and Hippocamp and Murex below
R: Lion attacking stag, name of king in Phoenician script above
laney
Porcia_8.JPG
Porcia 8 serratus23 viewsPorcia 8 (118 BC) moneyer L. Porcius Licinius Mint-Narbo

Denarius Serratus
Ob: Helmeted head of Roma around LICI * L ∙ PORCI
Rev: Naked, bearded warrior in biga right, holding shield, carnyx and reigns in left hand and hurling spear with right hand, in exergue L ∙ LIC ∙ CN ∙ DO[M

BMCRR I 1187

Sydenham 520

Crawford 282/5

This reverse is said by Grueber to commemorate the victory in Gaul of Gnaeus Domitus Ahenobarbus, the father of the Censor, over the Allobroges and their ally, Bituitus, king of the Arverni, who was shortly afterwards taken prisoner by C Fabius Maximus and figured in Rome in his own chariot of silver at the triumph of Fabius.
The figure on the reverse is clearly a Gaul; Crawford does not think anything else can be stated definitely. Cf. Valerius Maximus ix.6.3 and Eutropius iv.22
Petrus Elmsley
_MG_2161.JPG
PRECOLUMBIAN76 viewsNazca. 150-250 AD. 87,3 cms ( the longest).7-8 cms figurines. Knit in llama's wool. Fringe of a poncho or a mantle representing warriors carrying batons (right hand) and shields (left).1 commentsbenito
Fonteia_17.JPG
Publius Fonteius P.f. Capito120 viewsObv: P • FONTEIVS • P • F • CAPITO • III • VIR, helmeted and draped bust of Mars facing right, trophy over shoulder.

Rev: MN FONT • TR MIL, warrior on horseback thrusting his spear at a Gaulish enemy who is about to slay an unarmed, kneeling captive.

Note: This type records the exploits of Manius Fonteius who was governor of Narbonese Gaul between 76 - 73 BC.

Silver Denarius, Rome mint, c. 55 - 54 BC

3.875 grams, 17.6 mm, 30°

RSC Fonteia 17, S392

Ex: FORVM
3 commentsSPQR Coins
401_RR_Crawford_319_1.jpg
Q. Minucius Thermus M.f. 103 BC.11 viewsReference.
Crawford 319/1; Sydenham 592; Minucia 19.
Obv.
Helmeted head of Mars left.

Rev. in exergue, Q·THERM·MF.
Two warriors fighting with swords and shields, one of whom is protecting fallen comrade between.

4.01 gr
20 mm
okidoki
minucia.jpg
Q. Thermus M.f.97 viewsQ. Thermus, 103 B.C. AR Denarius
Obverse: Helmeted head of Mars left.
Reverse: Two warriors fighting, one protecting fallen comrade.
Crawford 319/1, Syd 592, Minucia 19
18.94 mm, 3.7 grams
4 commentsb70
Babelon_Minucia.jpg
Q. Thermus M.f. - Minucia-19328 viewsROMAN REPUBLIC. Q. Thermus M.f. 103 BC. Silver denarius (3.86 gm). Head of Mars left / Two warriors fighting, the one on the left protecting fallen comrade, the other wearing horned helmet, Q THERM M F in exergue. Crawford 319/1, Sydenham 592, Babelon Minucia 19, RCV 19719 commentsBud Stewart
XMAS_079.JPG
Q. Thermus M.f., AR Denarius, 103 BC, Rome38 views(No legend)
Helmeted head of Mars left
(No legend)
Two warriors fighting with swords and shields, warrior on left protects fallen comrade, warrior on right wears horned helmet
Q . THERM (ligate) . M F (ligate) in exergue
18mm x 20mm, 3.99g
Minucia 19; Crawford 319/1; Sydenham 592

Seaby notes: This records the brave deeds of the moneyer's ancestor and namesake, who was consul in 193 BC. He was engaged in a severe contest with the Ligurians and is said to have distinguished himself by his bravery.
1 commentsAntonio Protti
AR_101.JPG
Q. Thermus M.f., AR Denarius, 103 BC, Rome 69 viewsHelmeted head of Mars left
(No legend)
Two warriors fighting with swords and shields, warrior on left protects fallen comrade, warrior on right wears horned helmet
Q . THERM (ligate) . M F (ligate) in exergue
18mm x 20mm, 3.99g
Minucia 19; Crawford 319/1; Sydenham 592; 103 BCE

Seaby notes: This records the brave deeds of the moneyer's ancestor and namesake, who was consul in 193 BC. He was engaged in a severe contest with the Ligurians and is said to have distinguished himself by his bravery.
1 commentsAntonivs Protti
1467_Remi.jpg
Remi - potin14 viewsGallia Belgica (Durocortorum (Reims)?)
c. 100-50 BC
warrior king walking right holding torc and spear
bear right attacking snake right
De La Tour 8124, SGCV I 136
ex Aurea
Johny SYSEL
Servilius~0.jpg
Republic C. Servilius Vatia42 viewsC. Servilius Vatia. AR Denarius circa 127.
Helmeted head of Roma r.; below chin, *. Behind, lituus and below, ROMA. Rev. Battle on horseback between two warriors; the shield on horseman on r. inscribed M. In exergue, C·SERVEIL.

FFC 1114. B. Servilia 6. Syd. 483. Cr. 264/1.
1 commentsTanit
Robert_E_Lee_1965_NYU_Hall_of_Fame.JPG
Robert E. Lee, 1965 NYU Hall of Fame Medal36 viewsObv: THE HALL OF FAME FOR GREAT AMERICANS AT NEW YORK UNIVERSITY - ROBERT E. LEE - 1808 - 1870, three-quarter bust of the Confederate General facing left, holding a saber in his right hand, cloak floating behind him.

Rev: An allegory for the struggle of Brother versus Brother depicted by two naked warriors on horseback engaged in mortal combat; at the horses feet is a broken chain signifying the fractured Union.

Designed by: Donald De Lue (1897 - 1988)
Mint: Medallic Art Company

Bronze: 44 mm
Matt Inglima
geta.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE PROVINCIAL, Geta, AE30, Serdica342 viewsGeta --AE30, Serdica. R: Emperor/Warrior standing right on captive. Similar to L. Ruzicka, Die Muenzen von Serdica, Numismatische Zeitschrift 48, 1914, nos. 339-340 (Caracalla). Reverse purportedly unlisted for Geta. 2 commentsfeatherz
118_BC_ROMA_GALLIC_WARRIOR_BOTH.jpg
Roman Republic, C. Mal. Cf, AR Denarius, 118 BC25 viewsHead of Roma right
Gallic warrior in biga right
jcm-houston
Screenshot_2019-03-20_17_52_48.png
Roman Republic, Gens: Servilia, C Servilius Cf, AR Denarius.13 viewsRome 57 B.C. 3.63g - 18.6mm, Axis 3h.

Obv: FLORA PRIMVS - head of Flora right wearing wreath of flowers, lituus behind.

Rev: C●SERVEIL / C F - Two warriors face to face with shields & swords; C F to right, C●SERVEIL in ex.

RSC Servilia 15; Crawford 423/1.
Christian Scarlioli
TorquatusCombined.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, L. Manlius Torquatus, AR Denarius23 viewsRome. The Republic.
L. Manlius Torquatus, 59-58 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.92g; 20mm).
Rome Mint.

Obverse: Head of Sibyl facing right, wearing ivy wreath; SIBVLLA below; all within laurel border.

Reverse: L•TORQVAT - III•VIR; Amphora on tripod flanked by stars; torque border.

References: Crawford 411/1a; Sydenham 837a; BMCRR 3512; Manlia 11.

Provenance: Ex Baldwins Auction 100 (27 Sep 2016), Lot 505; Künker Auktion 216 (8 Oct 2012), Lot 642; Numismatica Ars Classica Auction 54 (24 Mar 2010), Lot 232; Spink Num. Circ. March 1989, No. 948.


There are two obverse varieties of this denarius: one with a laurel border (as this coin); the other with a border of dots. The torque border on the reverse is more than just a naming pun; it refers to an ancestor’s defeat of a Gallic warrior in a one-on-one challenge, following which the Manlia ancestor removed the bloody torque from the dead Gaul and wore it – earning the cognomen Torquatus. The remaining devices allude to the position of either the moneyer or an ancestor on the 15-member (quindecemviri) religious college who guarded the Sibylline Books.

With its very high obverse relief and deep reverse cupping, this coin shares similar fabric with those of C. Calpurnius Piso Frugi. Crawford dates their issues two years apart (67 for Frugi and 65 for Torquatus). However, in their analysis of the Mesagne hoard, Hersh and Walker downdated Frugi to 61 and Torquatus to 58. In “Roman Republican Moneyers and Their Coins” (2nd ed.), Michael Harlan dates both Frugi and Torquatus to 59 BCE, based on their common fabric, prosopography and because Torquatus’ small output could not have been the sole issue in his year. Indeed, Crawford estimates fewer than 10 obverse dies and fewer than 11 reverse dies for both varieties of Torquatus’ denarii which suggests a very small issue.
1 commentsCarausius
118BC_Pomponius.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, L. Pomponius Cn. f and L. Porcius Licinius. AR denarius serratus.48 viewsObv. Head of Roma right, behind X. legend: L.POMPONI CN F. Banker's mark of a star on head.
Rev. Warrior Bitutius with shield hurling spear in biga right. L LIC CN DOM. Banker's mark below horses.
Ref. Albert 1049; Crawford 282/4; Sear 158.
Narbo, 112-109 BC.
20mm
Bohemond
Q__Minucius_M_f__Thermus_-_2.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, Q. Thermus M.f. - Minucia-19184 viewsROMAN REPUBLIC. Q. Thermus M.f. 103 BC. Silver denarius (3.86 gm). Head of Mars left / Two warriors fighting, the one on the left protecting fallen comrade, the other wearing horned helmet, Q THERM M F in exergue. Crawford 319/1, Sydenham 592, Babelon Minucia 19, RCV 1973 commentsBud Stewart
Sydenham-523.jpg
Roman Republic: M. Aurelius Scaurus (118 BCE) AR Serrate Denarius, Narbo (Crawford 282/1; Sydenham 523; Aurelia 20; RBW-1106)31 viewsObv: Helmeted head of Roma right; ROMA downward and mark of value behind; M•A(VR)ELI upward before
Rev: Gallic warrior (Bituitus?), hurling spear and holding shield and carnyx, driving galloping biga right; SC(AVR)I below horses; L•LIC•CN•DOM in exergue
1 commentsQuant.Geek
aurorbisO.JPG
Roman, Aurelian Silvered Antoninianus RIC 368245 viewsOBV: IMP C AURELIANUS AVG; Radiate and cuirassed bust right,
REV: RESTITUTOR ORBIS; Aurelian receiving a wreath from a Woman (PAX), Cyzicus Mint, about 275 AD

The coin is not the most perfect but the portrait is super. Done after Aurelian had reunited the Empire the Emperor is depicted as warrior hero, tough but humane -which Aurelian was. The relief of the ear is low compared to most coins, probably to avoid having the silvering wear off too quickly. The highlight of the eye is very realistically imitated and this makes a very animated portrait.
1 commentsdaverino
Rondanini_Medusa_Glyptothek_Munich_252_n1.jpg
Rondanini Medusa23 viewsSo-called “Rondanini Medusa”. Marble, Roman copy after a 5th-century BC Greek original by Phidias, which was set on the shield of Athena Parthenos.

Homer wrote about the Gorgon on four occasions, but only about the head, as if the creature had no body. Up to the 5th century B.C., the head depicted was very ugly, with her tongue sticking out, boar tusks, puffy cheeks, her eyeballs staring straight ahead and the snakes twisting all around her. The direct frontal stare was highly unusual in ancient Greek art. In some cases a beard, (probably representing streaks of blood) was added to her chin, making her appear as a wild. Gorgoneia painted on the shields of warriors on mid-5th century Greek vases, however, are not as ugly, strange or frightening. By that time, the Gorgon had lost her tusks and the snakes were rather stylized. The Hellenistic marble known as the Medusa Rondanini shows how the Gorgon changed over time into a beautiful woman.
Joe Sermarini
edward-iii-groat-1.jpg
S.1570 Edward III27 viewsGroat of Edward III (1327-1377)
Mint: London
Pre-treaty
Series Gc
S.1570
O: +EDWARD D G REX ANGL Z FRANC D HYB
R: +POSVI DEVM ADIVTOREM MEV CIVITAS LONDON

Edward III, the great medieval warrior-king, hero of battle of Crecy, was a major figure that transformed England into a contemporary English states. He lived long enough to see some of it unravel during his lifetime, but his legacy has remained one of England's greatest figures.

Ex- Hammered British Coins
Nap
Seljuks,_Rum,_Ghiyath_al-Din_Kay_Khusraw_I_bin_Qilich_Arslan_(Second_reign,_AH_601-608_,1204-1211_AD)__AE-Fals,_Album_1207,_ICV_1329__Q-001,_9h,_18-19mm,_2,88g-s.jpg
Seljuks, Rum, Ghiyath al-Din Kay Khusraw I bin Qilich Arslan (Second reign, AH 601-608 / 1204-1211 A.D.), Album 1207, AE-Fals, Islamic legends, #162 viewsSeljuks, Rum, Ghiyath al-Din Kay Khusraw I bin Qilich Arslan (Second reign, AH 601-608 / 1204-1211 A.D.), Album 1207, AE-Fals, Islamic legends, #1
avers: Warrior, head facing and holding sword, on horse rearing right; star to left, right and below.
reverse: Islamic legends.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 18,0-19.0mm, weight: 2,88g, axes: 9h,
mint: Seljuks, Rum, date: Second reign, AH 601-608 / 1204-1211 A.D.,
ref: Album 1207, ICV 1329.
Q-001
quadrans
9normal_Cleaned.JPG
SICILY, Gela9 viewsSicily, Gela, c. 480-470 BC, AR didrachm, 8.17g. Obv: Warrior holding spear riding horseback to right. Rev: Forepart of Acheloos Gelas as a man-faced bull to right.

Ex. Rutten and Weiland.
Molinari
warrior_k.jpg
SICILY, Mamertini9 viewsÆ Pentonkion, 27mm, 10.2g, 6h; Messana, circa 264-241.
Obv.: Laureate head of Zeus right.
Rev.: MAMEPTINΩN Warrior advancing r., holding spear and shield; in r. field, Π.
Reference: SNG Cop 462, Calciati I, 41 / 16-374-101
John Anthony
Sicily,_Morgantina__AR_LITRA.jpg
Sicily, Morgantina 339-317 BC, Litra37 viewsHead of Apollo right "MOPGANTINWN" to right
Warrior on horseback left holding a spear.
0.45 gr.
SNG ANS 465
2 commentsAntonivs Protti
5E00E6BC-64E2-47C0-813C-653BC8E5223B.jpeg
Sicily, Segesta4 viewsSICILY, Segesta. Roman protectorate. Circa 210-mid 1st century BC. Æ Head of female right, wearing stephanos / Warrior standing facing, head left, holding rein of horse standing left in background. BAR Issue 4; CNS 53/1–2; HGC 2, 1203.ecoli
Hieron_II.jpg
Sicily, Syracuse. Hieron II (Circa 230-215 BC)8 viewsAE26 (17.59g)

Obverse: Diademed head left

Reverse: (I)ERWNOS in exergue, warrior, holding couched lance, on horse prancing right; ΣΩ below.

CNS 195 R1 31; BAR issue 62; HGC 2, 1548.
1 commentsNathan P
HGC-1548.jpg
Sicily, Syracuse: Hieron II (275-215 BCE) Æ Hemilitron (BAR Issue 62; CNS 195 Ds 42 R1 8; HGC 2, 1548)16 viewsObv: Diademed head left; wreath to right
Rev: Warrior, holding couched lance, on horse prancing right; monogram to lower right; IEΡΩNOΣ in exergue
Quant.Geek
mamertinoi.jpg
SICILY, The Mamertinoi. Æ Pentonkion31 viewsSICILY, The Mamertinoi. After 210 BC. Æ Pentonkion. Laureate head of Zeus right / MAMERTINWN, nude warrior in crested helmet advancing right, with shield on left arm & long spear in right hand; P in right field. Calciati 40/1, BMC 25ff; SNG Cop 458.ancientone
SileraianLitra32_37g.jpg
SICILY: The Sileraians7 viewsSicily, The Sileraioi, Litra, c. 357-339 BC, AE (g 32,27 mm 31 h 9), ΣIΛEPAIΩN (retr.), Achelous Silarus Himera depicted as the forepart of a man-faced bull swimming l. linear border, Rv. [ΣIΛA], nude warrior running r., holding shield and spear. CNS III, n. 1 SNG Copenhagen 607 SNG ANS -.; MSP I, 54.

Ex Gorny & Mosch, Auction 208 lot 1150.
Ex. ACR, Auction 9, lot 160.
Molinari
20180307_BATTLE-TOGETHER.jpg
Silaharas of Khankan (1000-1200 AD)12 viewsSilaharas of Khankan (1000-1200 AD)
Anonymous
AR Drachm 14.1 mm x 4.13 g
Obverse: Stylized Sassanian Bust right. "Sri" in Brahmi behind head left field.
Reverse: Stylized Horseman battle scene shows a mounted warrior with sword to right.
Below a fallen body and to the right a standing figure defending himself
with a shield. Behind the horse a bow., Sun in upper right field.
ref: Mit. NIS 649-652
Paul R3
1386_Solus2.jpg
Solus - AE Tetras7 viewsc. 400-300 BC
head of Athena half left wearing Corinthian helmet
warrior right, kneeling drawing arrow bow
KPRA - kapara meaning village
Ref: cf. Calciati I pg. 310, 5 (same); SNG ANS 743.

slight tooling
ex Gorny & Mosch
Johny SYSEL
Suebian_warrior.jpg
Suebian warrior (Germanic tribes) circa 1st century A.D.332 viewsThe Suebi occupied more than half of Germany, and were divided into a number of distinct tribes under distinct names. In his Germania Tacitus mentions the Semnones as being "the oldest and noblest of the Suebi". One of the most distinguising features of the Suebic people was the so called 'Suebic knot', which is also seen on this specific model. According to Germania by Tacitus, the Suebian warriors combed their hair back or sideways and tied it into a knot, allegedly with the purpose of appearing taller and more awe-inspiring on the battlefield. Tacitus also reports that the fashion had spread to neighboring Germanic tribes among the younger warriors, while among the Suebians, the knot was sported even by old men as a status symbol, which "distinguishes the freeman from the slave", with the most artful knots worn by the most wealthy nobles.

Scale of this model: 75mm (1/24)

1 commentsRomaVictor
GAE330.jpg
Syracuse - Hieron II 275/216BC216 viewsAE 25.9-27.4mm : 16.524gm : 4h
OBV - Diademed Hieron II portrait facing left
REV - Helmetted cuirassed warrior on horseback facing right with spear. SIGMA monogram below horse leg. HIERONOS in exergue.
REF - CNS II 387 - 195 Rl 22/2
5 commentsPtolemAE
Vlasto_713~0.JPG
Taras, Calabria163 views281-272 BC (Period VII - The Pyrrhic Hegemony)
AR Didrachm (19mm, 6.34g)
Sostratos magistrate.
O: Warrior on horseback right, holding shield and spears in left hand and thrusting spear downward with right; [E]Y behind, ΣΩΣTP - ATOΣ (magistrate) in two lines below.
R: Taras riding dolphin left, holding cornucopia in left hand and Nike with laurel wreath in right; ΠOΛY to left, thunderbolt to right, T-APA[Σ] below.
Vlasto 713; Evans VII, A2; Cote 371-72; SNG ANS 1084; SNG Cop 874; HN Italy 1001
ex CNG

As the leading Greek city in Magna Graecia Taras was foremost in resisting Roman influence during the third century, forming an alliance with Metapontum and later supporting Pyrrhus of Epirus in his war against Rome from 281-275 BC, the period of this coin.

It was during this time that the standard was reduced to c. 6.5g, and with its distinctly Epirote thunderbolt symbol this specimen represents one of the earliest 'light' didrachms.
3 commentsEnodia
Vlasto_789.jpg
Taras, Calabria108 views281-272 BC (Period VII - The Pyrrhic Hegemony)
AR Didrachm (20mm, 6.44g)
Apollo(...) magistrate.
O: Helmeted warrior on horse cantering left, carrying two javelins and a large round shield decorated with eight-rayed star; ΞΩ behind, [AΠOΛΛΩ] (magistrate) below.
R: Taras (of the plump Dionysiac type) astride dolphin left, holding bunch of grapes in extended right hand, distaff over left shoulder; ANΘ to right, TAPAΣ below.
Vlasto 789-91; Evans VII, F2 or F6; Cote 413; McGill II, 84; SNG ANS 1131-1133; HN Italy 1013
ex Numisantique

The helmeted warrior shown here behind a large shield is a definite departure from the typical image found on this coinage. The earlier naked skirmishers have been replaced by the fully armored cavalryman presented here. This was of course a gradual process, but the evolution becomes more apparent on later issues where the rider is clearly depicted wearing a cuirass.
This plump rendition of Taras also differs greatly from previous images and is actually meant to represent a young Iacchus, the son of Dionysus and Persephone. Similar images can be found on kraters and terracotta votives found in the region. The attributes of Dionysus which he carries show the foreign influence of the chthonic cult of Dionysus upon the city of Taras. This relatively new mystery cult was introduced along side the earlier ouranic cults of Poseidon and Apollo, and the inclusion of Iacchus here represents a distinct link to the Mysteries of Eleusis.
The distaff, in this context, is probably a reference to Ariadne, a wife of Dionysus, but its’ phallic nature also symbolizes the god of ecstasy Himself.

- The Tarantinians Carouse -
The theaters are full, music everywhere,
here debauchery and lewdness, and there
athletic and sophistical contests.
An unwithering wreath adorns the statue
of Dionysus. Not an earthly nook remains
unsprinkled by libations...
~ Kavafy (1933)
2 commentsEnodia
Vlasto_594.JPG
Taras, Calabria200 views330-302 BC (Period V)
AR Didrachm (20mm, 7.98g)
O: Naked warrior in crested helmet on horse prancing right, spearing downward with right hand, shield and two extra spears in left; ΔΑΙ below.
R: Taras riding dolphin left, holding trident over shoulder with right hand and shield decorated with hippocamp in left; ΦΙ to left, ΤΑΡΑΣ to right, murex shell below.
Vlasto 594; Cote 239; Evans V, B5; Fischer-Bossert 1022a; McGill II, 52; HN Italy 935; SNG ANS 991
ex Heidelberger Munzhandlung

Vlasto dates this coin to the time of Alexander the Molossian, but I believe it may be safely placed after the King’s death in 331, as the typical Epirote symbols are no longer seen (especially, as Evans points out, the eagle’s head). Alexander, uncle to Alexander the Great, arrived at Taras in 334 as defender, the leader of a mercenary army from Epirus hired to help defend Taras from the indigenous Italian tribes. However he was quickly seen to have something more in the way of conquest in mind. Having ignored the warning of the Oracle at the Temple of Zeus Dodona, Alexander pushed west and fulfilled prophecy, being killed while fighting the Lucanians at Pandosia, near the River Acheron.

The murex shell played a very large part in the Tarentine economy, producing a rich purple dye. In fact the early reference books simply describe it as “a purple shell”. Purple cloth from Taras was considered a great luxury throughout the Mediterranean.
5 commentsEnodia
Vlasto_984-6.JPG
Taras, Calabria105 views212-209 BC (Period X - The Punic Occupation)
AR Half-Shekel (Reduced Nomos) (22mm, 3.94g)
Sokannos magistrate.
O: Warrior on horseback right, holding filleted palm frond in right hand, rein in left; ΣΩKAN-NA below.
R: Phalanthos on dolphin left, holding kantharos in extended right hand, trident in left; eagle with open wings standing left behind, TAPAΣ below.
Vlasto 984-86; Cote 605-06; SNG ANS 1272; HN Italy 1082; SNG Ashmolean 420-1; Sear 383v (drachm)
ex CNG

Popular history suggests that the Romans shut down the Tarentine mint circa 228 BC. No further coins were produced (at least in silver) until Hannibal captured the city in 212, at which time these “reduced nomoi” were struck for the approximately three years of occupation using the Punic standard.
While the earlier horseman/dolphin rider types were renewed at this time, the artistic quality was greatly diminished.
Also, the magistrate names differed greatly from the earlier coins and were likely not even Hellenic. One theory is that the names were those of the local indigenous peoples (Messapians, etc), although I believe they were more likely Carthaginian and probably those of Hannibal’s own administrators.
What a shame that the last emissions from this once great city should be so debased.
5 commentsEnodia
V_630.JPG
Taras, Calabria69 views315-302 BC (Period V)
AR Didrachm (22mm, 7.63g, 4h)
O: Warrior, preparing to throw spear and holding shield and two more spears, on horse rearing right; ΣA below.
R: Phalanthos, holding arrow and bow, astride dolphin right; |-HP and HP monogram below, TAPAΣ to left.
Vlasto 630; Fischer-Bossert Group 68, 818; Evans V, B18; SNG ANS 1011; HN Italy 938
From Group SGF. ex CNG

Sir Arthur Evans places this coin at the end of Period V, during the time of Kleonymus, and the martial themes on both sides of this coin, unusual on Tarentine coinage, may support this theory.
Kleonymus, the unworthy heir to the Spartan throne, was yet another in a line of self-serving mercenary generals to come to the aid of Taras (circa 302 BC), but he was no more successful than his predecessors.

This is the first right-facing dolphin in my collection. While not rare, these occur less often than the typical left-facing types.
3 commentsEnodia
temnos.jpg
Temnos, AE12.6mm; 3rd-2nd century B.C. Athena/ Warrior 10 viewsAiolis, Temnos, AE 12.6mm (2.63g) 3rd-2nd century B.C.
Head of Athena in crested Corinthian helmet r./ Warrior standing r., wearing crested helmet and cuirass, r.hand javelin, on l.arm shield; To l. and r.: Φ-Z and T-A. SNG Copenhagen 261; SNG Von Aulock 1675; VF. Ex. Collection Friedrich Popken, Künker 133 (2007), lot 7537. Ex Gert Boersema.
Podiceps
3960091.jpg
Thessaly Larissa AR Drachm circa 380-365 BC 17 mm 5.83 g 10h42 viewsHead of the nymph Larissa facing slightly left,wearing grain ears in hair.Rev Thessalian warrior ,holding spear,on horse rearing right.
ex BCD collection.
1 commentsGrant H
Larissa_Thessaly_AE-20_Head_of_Larissa_facing_Horseman_galloping_right_LARIS_AIWN_M_Rogers-286_BMC-85-c_360-325-BC_Q-001_2h_18,5-19,2mm_5,32g-s.jpg
Thessaly, Larissa, (c.360-325 B.C.), AE-20, Rogers 286, ΛΑΡI ΣAIΩN, Warrior galloping right, 122 viewsThessaly, Larissa, (c.360-325 B.C.), AE-20, Rogers 286, ΛΑΡI ΣAIΩN, Warrior galloping right,
avers: Head of the nymph Larissa facing, turned slightly to the left.
revers: ΛΑΡI ΣAIΩN, Warrior on horseback galloping right, holding couched spear; M beneath horse.
exerg: -/-//M, diameter: 18,5-19,2mm, weight: 5,32g, axes: 2h,
mint: Thessaly, Larissa, date: 360-325 B.C., ref: Rogers 286, BMC-85,
Q-001
quadrans
Larissa_Thessaly_AE-20_Head_of_the_nymph_Larissa_facing_l__Horse_trotting_right_LARI-S_AIWN_E_grain-ear_Rogers_273,_BMC-81_c_400-344-BC_Q-001_1h_18,3-19,2mm_8,97g-s.jpg
Thessaly, Larissa, (c.400-344 B.C.), AE-20, Rogers 273, ΛΑΡI ΣAIΩN, Warrior galloping right, #1122 viewsThessaly, Larissa, (c.400-344 B.C.), AE-20, Rogers 273, ΛΑΡI ΣAIΩN, Warrior galloping right, #1
avers: Head of the nymph Larissa facing, turned slightly to the left.
revers: ΛΑΡI Σ AIΩN, bridled horse trotting right, E above, grain ear below. ..
exerg: -/-// AIΩN, diameter:18,3-19,2mm, weight: 8,97g, axes: 1h,
mint: Thessaly, Larissa, date: c.400-344 B.C., ref: Rogers 273, BMC-81,
Q-001
quadrans
Larissa_Thessaly_AE-20_Head_of_the_nymph_Larissa_facing_l__Horse_trotting_right_LARI-S_AIWN_E_grain-ear_Rogers_273,_BMC-81_c_400-344-BC_Q-002_9h_19,2-21,8mm_8,86g-s.jpg
Thessaly, Larissa, (c.400-344 B.C.), AE-20, Rogers 273, ΛΑΡI ΣAIΩN, Warrior galloping right, #2108 viewsThessaly, Larissa, (c.400-344 B.C.), AE-20, Rogers 273, ΛΑΡI ΣAIΩN, Warrior galloping right, #2
avers: Head of the nymph Larissa facing, turned slightly to the left.
revers: ΛΑΡI Σ AIΩN, bridled horse trotting right, E above, grain ear below. ..
exerg: -/-// AIΩN, diameter:19,2-21,8mm, weight: 8,86g, axes: 9h,
mint: Thessaly, Larissa, date: c.400-344 B.C., ref: Rogers 273, BMC-81,
Q-002
quadrans
103046.jpg
THESSALY, Pharsalos85 viewsTHESSALY, Pharsalos. Circa 400-344 BC. AR Drachm (20mm, 5.53 gm). Helmeted head of Athena right / Warrior on horseback right, holding mace over shoulder. SNG Copenhagen 220-1; BMC Thessaly pg. 43, 6. Fine. Ex-Cng B5AV6Eecoli
Ti_Veturius.jpg
TI VETURIUS AR Denarius Veturia 1, Oath Taking23 viewsOBV: Helmeted bust of Mars right
REV: Youth kneeling l., between two warriors who touch with their swords a pig which he holds., ROMA above
3.7g, 18mm

Minted at Rome, 137 BC
Legatus
Ti_Veturius.jpg
Ti. Veturius - AR denarius14 viewsRome
²139 BC
¹137 BC
head of Mars right wearing winged and crested helmet
TI·(VET)
X
Oath-taking scene*, two standing warriors holding spears and facing attendant kneeling in center, holding sacrificial pig.
ROMA
¹SRCV 111, Crawford 234/1, Sydenham 527, RSC I Veturia 1
²Mark Passehl - Roman moneyer & coin type chronology, 150 – 50 BC
3,9g
ex Aurea

This type revived the reverse of gold coinage issued in 217 - 216 B.C. and broke the 75-year tradition of Roma obverses with Dioscuri or chariot reverses on denarii.

*Oath-taking scene most probably refer to the peace treaty between Romans and Campanians, concluded by T. Veturius Calvinus in 334 BC, which granted Campanians citizenship. Other interpretations are truce with Samnites made by moneyer's ancestor, consul T. Veturius Calvinus after the battle of the Caudine Forks in the second Samnite war where Romans were ingloriously defeated; mythical conclusion of the agreement between king Latinus and Aeneas or Titus Tatis and Romulus, oath-taking of representatives of Alba Longa and Romans before the battle between Horatii and Curatii.
1 commentsJohny SYSEL
Veturia_1.JPG
Tiberius Veturius27 viewsObv: Helmeted, draped bust of Mars facing right, X and TI VET behind.

Rev: Oath taking scene, with two standing warriors and a kneeling attendant who holds a sacrificial pig, ROMA above.

Silver Denarius, Rome mint, 137 BC

3.8 grams, 20.4 mm, 315°

RSC Veturia 1, S111
SPQR Matt
lg_tranq2_2.jpg
Tranquillina, Pisidia, Sagalassos87 viewsTranquillina (Augusta)
Pisidia, Sagalassos
AE - / 25mm / -
Ob: CAΒΙ ΤΡAΝΚVΛΛΙA - Diademed bust right on crescent
Rv: CΑΓΑΛΑC CЄΩΝ - Nike or warrior (ΛΑΚЄΔΑΙΜΩΝ / Lakedaimon) with spear and phiale
Mint: 244 AD
Ref: Gorny & Mosch Giessener Münzhandlung Auction 126, October 14th, 2003, Lot 1988/a
Apparently an uncataloged type, Tranquillina's coins are scarce to begin with, but from Sagalassos is even more rare.
Scotvs Capitis
970c.jpg
varb169913 viewsElagabalus
Philippopolis, Thrace

Obv: AVT K M AVPHΛ ANTΩNEINOC, laureate head right
Rev: MHTPOΠOΛεΩC ΦIΛIΠΠOΠOΛE →ΩC NEΩKO, in center field, P(OV), 2 warriors facing, naked except for helmets, clasping right hands, warrior on right holding a shield.
27 mm, 12.68 gms

Varbanov 1464
Charles M
vesp_horseback.jpg
Vespasian RIC 05173 viewsAR Denarius, 3.17g
Rome Mint, 69-70 AD
Obv: IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG; Head of Vespasian, laureate, r.
Rev: TITVS ET DOMITIAN CAES PRIN IV; Titus and Domitian riding r., hands outstretched
RIC 5 (R). BMC p. 7, ||. RSC 539. BNC 28.
Ex Harry N. Sneh Collection.

A denarius of Vespasian from his first issue at Rome, dated from December 69 AD to early 70 AD by the new RIC. The reverse depicts Titus and Domitian galloping with their hands outstretched, an obvious dynastic type with the two princes 'as armed warriors on horseback' (BMCRE II p. xxxiii).

It was very important to Vespasian to establish the fact that his son(s) would succeed him. Indeed Suetonius writes 'either his sons would succeed him or nobody would' (Suet. Vesp. 25) which the numismatic evidence backs up. No less than 3 different precious metal dynastic types were minted at Rome in the first months of the new regime: The present type with Titus and Domitian on horseback, another with them seated on curule chairs, and a third with their confronting busts. Arguably, the horseback type is the rarest of the three with the confronting busts by far the most common.

My example is not a particularly well preserved specimen, but I am most pleased with it.
1 commentsDavid Atherton
V190aa_(2).jpg
Vespasian RIC-19094 viewsÆ Sestertius, 25.22g
Rome mint, 71 AD
Obv: IMP CAES VESPASIAN AVG P M TR P P P COS III; Head of Vespasian, laureate, r.
Rev: ROMA; S C in field; Roma stg. l., with Victory and spear
RIC 190 (C3). BMC 560. BNC 525.
Ex Pegasi 39, 13 November 2018, lot 467. Ex Bonhams, 11 June 2018, group lot 3. Ex Superior 2-3 June 1998, The J. B. Parker Collection, lot 7023.

In 71 AD the Rome and Lugdunum mints struck a massive iconic issue of aes coinage for Vespasian, setting the tone for the bronze coinage for the remainder of the reign. One of the commonest sestertius types struck for the issue was Roma holding Victory. Roma is depicted in the guise of an Amazon warrior, a typical attribute for her on the coinage during the Flavian era.

Fantastic portrait in good style.
5 commentsDavid Atherton
Villanovan_warrior.jpg
Villanovan warrior, circa 8th century B.C.212 viewsThe Villanovan culture, flourishing between 1000-700 B.C., was the earliest Iron Age culture of central and northern Italy, abruptly following the Bronze Age "Terramare" culture. The name Villanovan comes from the site where the first archaeological finds relating to this advanced culture (remnants of a cemetery) were found: Villanova in northern Italy, near Bologna. Similar finds to those of the Bolognan village were discovered at urban centres across Italy, from parts of Campania in the South to the Po Valley in the North, but focused most around modern Tuscany and Lazio, equivalent to ancient Etruria.

During the 7th century B.C. the Villanovan culture began to give way to an increasingly orientalizing culture influenced by Greek traders and Greek neighbours in Magna Graecia, the Hellenic civilization of southern Italy. As a result, Villanovan culture disappeared, to be replaced by the Etruscan civilization.

Scale of this model: 75mm (1/24)
2 commentsRomaVictor
w1304.jpg
Warrior with two standards152 viewsSyria, Kings, Antiochos II. 261-246 BC. AE-16 mm, 3.43 grs. AV: Laur. head of Apollo to right. Oval CM: Warrior with two standards. RV: BASILEWS / ANTIOXOI either side of tripod, below anchor, in the left
field: Monogram. Collection: Mueller.
Automan
San_Francisco_1919_WWI_medal.jpg
WWI Service Medal City of San Francisco28 viewsInscribed to: "E. E. NICHOLSON"

Conjoined busts of a Doughboy wearing helmet and a sailor facing left.: SAN FRANCISCO TO HER WARRIOR SONS 1919

Makers Mark: GRANAT BROS 980/1000 Silver (GRANAT BROS is still a large jeweler in the San Francisco Bay Area)

Date: 1919

Size: approximately 2"h x 1.25"w x 1/16"d

Weight: 12.4 grams.
Matt Inglima
PostumusRIC93.jpg
[1200] Postumus, Summer 260--Spring 269 A.D.43 viewsBillon Antoninianus, RIC 93 Bust Type A. RSC 419. Weight, Size; VF; Obverse:– IMP C POSTVMVS P F AVG, Radiate, draped bust right; Reverse:– VIRTVS AVG, Mars/Virtus, standing right, holding spear and resting on shield. Ex maridvnvm.

De Imperatoribus Romanis, An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Postumus (A.D. 260-269)

Michel Polfer
Centre Universitaire de Luxembourg

Postumus is the first emperor of the so-called "Gallic Empire", which lasted from his rebellion against Gallienus in 260 AD to the surrender of Tetricus I to the central emperor Aurelian in 274 AD.

In 260 AD, the general situation of the Empire was favorable to usurpations: Valerian I, father of and co-emperor with Gallienus, had been made prisoner by the Persian king Shapur I. The news shook the Empire and in the following months, the position of his heir Gallienus became very difficult, as he had to face rebellions in several parts of the Empire. While the inner situation was thus more than unstable, the barbarians, sensing the opportunity, poured across the northern frontier. The Franks entered into Gaul, devastating Germania Inferior and Belgica. Some Frankish warrior groups pressed on as far as Spain, where they destroyed Tarragona. The Alamanni broke through the lines in Germania superior and Raetia, overran the Agri Decumates, sacked the city of Aventicum and begun to extend their destructions to the interior of Gaul. Italy itself was exposed to them, as Gallienus had withdrawn most of the troops to fight the usurper Ingenuus on the Danube. After his victory over Ingenuus, Gallienus returned to Italy and was able to defeat the Germanic invaders at Milan in midsummer 260 AD. The resulting peace was short-lived, as a new rebellion on the Danube, led by Regalianus, and the great Sarmatic invasions of 260 exposed the northern frontier. Moreover, Gallienus had to face the revolt of Macrianus and Quietus in Egypt, which removed this important province from his control.

Thus, it is not surprising that Gallienus was unable to take swift and effective military actions, when - probably in the summer of 260 AD- an other usurper, M. Cassianius Latinius Postumus, rebelled on the Rhine frontier. The exact position of Postumus on the moment of the revolt is not known, but the context makes it clear that he was commanding troops on the Rhine frontier. The direct reason for his rebellion seems to have been a quarrel about booty taken from a barbarian raiding-party destroyed on its way home by Postumus and his soldiers. While Postumus had distributed the booty to his men, the praetorian prefect Silvanus ordered him to surrender the booty to himself and the Caesar Saloninus, the son of Gallienus, whom his father had left behind as his representative in the town of Cologne, under the guardianship of Silvanus. Postumus troops rebelled and proclaimed their commander imperator. They marched against and laid siege to Cologne. The garrison in the town was compelled to hand over Saloninus and Silvanus, both were put to death.

The area controlled by Postumus after his rebellion in 260 AD consisted of Germania Inferior and Germania Superior as well as of Raetia and the whole of Gaul (except for the southern parts of Lugdunensis and perhaps also Narbonensis). From 261 AD on, it also included Britain and the Spain. Neither he nor his successors made any attempt to extend the Gallic Empire further to the south or the east.

According to the literary sources at our disposal, the first "Gallic" emperor Postumus reigned well. They praise him for his military success against the Germanic invaders, thus crediting him with the restoration of the western provinces which had been on the verge of collapse. That Postumus undertook heavy fighting against Germanic tribes is also confirmed by his coinage and by the fact that he assumed -before the 10th of December 261 AD - the title of Germanicus maximus.

In 265 AD, the central emperor Gallienus tempted to crush the usurper, but twice failed to do so. On the first occasion, the fugitive Postumus owed his life only to the carelessness of Gallienus' cavalry commander Aureolus, on the second occasion, the emperor, besieging the usurper in a Gallic town, was wounded by an arrow and had to break of the assault. It seems that thereafter Gallienus made no other serious attempt to overcome this usurpation, devoting his attention to the political and military problems in the eastern part of the Roman empire.

He could do so, because Postumus took no actions at all to march on Rome. Right from the beginning of his usurpation, Postumus thus had made it clear that he had no intentions to make a bid for Rome, that his thoughts were only for Gaul. Even when in 268 AD Aureolus, the cavalry commander of Gallienus stationed in Milan - who had succeeded to recover Raetia for the central empire- entered into rebellion and declared himself for Postumus. Postumus did not take up the implied invitation to invade Italy, finally abandoning Aureolus to his fate.

But on the other hand there is no evidence at all to support the theory that he had the intention to create a separate "Galliarum Imperium." On the contrary: Postumus - ass well as his successors - avoided in his propaganda every hint to the limited extension of his reign. He put himself clearly in the tradition of the central Roman emperors, clearly underlining the universal claim of his rule, taking all the traditional titles of the Roman emperors, including those of pontifex maximus and pater patriae, proclaiming senators and nominating his own consuls. His coins show the same universal claims, giving preference to types like Roma aeterna or pacator orbis, to salus and fides.

By the end of 265 AD, Postumus' coins joyfully proclaimed his victory, the festivities celebrating his quinquennalia continued into the following year. But while the coinage of Postumus of the years 267-268 underlined the peace and prosperity brought to his reign by the guiding hand of the emperor, the sudden deterioration of his billon coinage in 268 AD shows that Postumus was facing more and more difficulties. It is very likely that his repeated refusal to march on Rome had disturbed many of his soldiers, since only his recognition of sole ruler of the Empire might have legitimized their rebellion of 260 AD and provided them with adequate reward for their support. So the debasement of 268 was probably occasioned by Postumus' need to buy the loyalty of his men, thus forcing him to mint beyond the silver supplies which the area under his control could provide. Nevertheless, he was able to celebrate in late 268 AD the commencement of his tenth year in power as well as his entry into his fifth consulship on 1st of January 269.

These festivities were cut short early in 269 AD by the rebellion of Ulpius Cornelius Laelianus at Moguntiacum (Mainz). There is no direct written or epigraphic evidence for the office Laelianus held at the time of his revolt against Postumus, but it seems most likely that he held an office in Germania Superior, either as legatus legionis XXII Primigenie or as governor of Germania Superior. His rebellion can be explained only on the grounds of a growing dissatisfaction of the troops of the Rhine-army with their commander in chief and emperor Postumus. How deep these tensions had become became apparent after the successful action against the usurper: no sooner had Postumus taken Moguntiacum and thus ended the ephemerous rebellion of Laelianus than he was murdered by his own troops for refusing them to sack the city. In his place, the troops raised to the purple a simple soldier, Marcus Arelius Marius, shortly afterwards killed and replaced by Marcus Piavonius Victorinus.

Copyright (C) 2000, Michel Polfer. Used by permission.
http://www.roman-emperors.org/postumus.htm


Postumus was an incredibly skilled general and administrator. Rebelling against Gallienus, Postumus succeeded in uniting Gaul, Spain and Britain into what was essentially an empire within an empire. Enjoying tremendous military success against the Germans, he kept his Gallic Empire secure and prosperous. In 268 A.D. he quickly destroyed the forces of the usurper Laelianus, but his refusal to allow his forces to sack Moguntiacum (Mainz, Germany) led to his assassination by disgruntled troops (Joseph Sermarini, FORVM).

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
man1pano.jpg
[1663a] Byzantine Empire: Manuel I Comnenus Megas (1143-1180)---NOT TO BE CONFUSED WITH---[1685a] Empire of Trebizond: Manuel I Komnenos Megas (1218-1263 AD)155 viewsManuel I Comnenus Megas (1143-1180). AE billon trachy; Sear 1964; 30mm, 3.91g.; Constantinople mint; aF. Obverse: MP-OV-The Virgin enthroned. Nimbate and wearing pallium and maphorium; Reverse: Maueil standing facing, wearing crown, holding labarum and globe surmounted by Patriachal cross. Ex SPQR.


De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

MANUEL I COMNENUS (A.D. 1143-1180)

Andrew Stone
University of Western Australia

Introduction: Sources
The reign of the emperor Manuel I Comnenus (5 April 1143- 24 September 1180) could well be regarded as a high-water mark of Byzantine civilization. It was the apogee of the so-called "Comnenian Restoration". Politically, the emperor undertook an ambitious foreign policy which has been seen by some, particularly in the light of many ultimate failures, as "misguided imperialism", recent scholarship has come to question this traditional judgment and suggests instead that the the Comnenian foreign policy was rather an energetic seizing of the different opportunities that presented themselves in the rapidly changing constellations of powers of the time. Such measures were made possible by the internal security of the empire under this, its third, Comnenian incumbent, although there were a few other aspirants to the throne, not least among them the emperor's cousin Andronicus. Manuel and other key members of the "Comnenian system", as it has been called, were patrons of rhetoric and other forms of learning and literature, and Manuel himself became keenly interested in ecclesiastical affairs, even if here his imperialistic agenda was a factor as he tried to bring Constantinopolitan theology in line with that of the west in a bid to unite the Church under his crown.

In terms of volume of contemporary material, Manuel is the most eulogised of all Byzantine emperors, and the panegyric addressed to him supplements the two major Byzantine historians of the reign, the more critical Nicetas Choniates and the laudatory John Cinnamus, as primary sources for the student of the period to study. The Crusader historian William of Tyre met Manuel personally, and such was the scope of Manuel's diplomacy that he is mentioned incidentally in western sources, such as Romuald of Salerno. Among authors of the encomia (panegyrics) we have mentioned are Theodore Prodromus and the so-called "Manganeios" Prodromus, who wrote in verse, and the prose encomiasts Michael the Rhetor, Eustathius of Thessalonica and Euthymius Malaces, to name the most important. Manuel, with his penchant for the Latins and their ways, left a legacy of Byzantine resentment against these outsiders, which was to be ruthlessly exploited by Andronicus in the end.

Manuel as sebastokrator
Manuel was born in the imperial porphyry birthchamber on 28 November 1118. He was the fourth of John II's sons, so it seemed very unlikely that he would succeed. As a youth, Manuel evidently accompanied John on campaign, for in the Anatolian expedition of 1139-41 we find Manuel rashly charging a small group of the Turkish enemy, an action for which he was castigated by his father, even though John, we are told, was inwardly impressed (mention of the incident is made in John's deathbed speech in both John Cinnamus and Nicetas Choniates). John negotiated a marriage contract for Manuel with Conrad III of Germany; he was to marry Bertha of Sulzbach. It seems to have been John's plan to carve out a client principality for Manuel from Cilicia, Cyprus and Coele Syria. In the event, it was Manuel who succeeded him.

The Securing of the Succession 1143
In the article on John II it is related how the dying John chose his youngest son Manuel to succeed him in preference to his other surviving son Isaac. Manuel was acclaimed emperor by the armies on 5 April 1143. Manuel stayed in Cilicia, where the army was stationed, for thirty days, to complete the funeral rites for his father. He sent his father's right-hand man John Axuch, however, to Constantinople to confine Isaac to the Pantokrator Monastery and to effect a donation of two hundredweight of silver coin to the clergy of the Great Church. The surviving encomium of Michael Italicus, Teacher of the Gospel, for the new emperor can be regarded as a return gift for this largesse. In the meantime the Caesar John Roger, husband of Manuel's eldest sister Maria, had been plotting to seize the throne; the plot was, however, given away by his wife before it could take effect. Manuel marched home to enter Constantinople c. July 1143. He secured the good-will of the people by commanding that every household should be granted two gold coins. Isaac the younger (Manuel's brother) and Isaac the elder (Manuel's paternal uncle), were both released from captivity and reconciled with him. Manuel chose Michael Oxeites as the new patriarch and was crowned either in August or November 1143.

Manuel confirmed John Axuch in the office of Grand Domestic, that is, commander of the army, appointed John of Poutze as procurator of public taxes, grand commissioner and inspector of accounts and John Hagiotheodorites as chancellor. John of Poutze proved to be an oppressive tax collector, but was also unsusceptible to bribery. However, this John diverted monies levied for the navy into the treasury, which would, as we shall see, further Byzantine dependence on the maritime Italian city-states of Venice, Genoa and Pisa.

Early Campaigns: 1144-1146
Manuel's first concern was to consolidate the work of his father in securing the eastern frontier. He sent a force under the brothers Andronicus and John Contostephanus against the recalcitrant Crusader prince Raymond of Antioch, which consisted of both an army and a navy, the latter commanded by Demetrius Branas. Raymond's army was routed, and the naval force inflicted no small damage on the coastal regions of the principality. In the meantime the Crusader city of Edessa fell to the Turkish atabeg Zengi. Raymond therefore travelled to Constantinople as a suppliant to Manuel. It was subsequently decided, in the light of Manuel's imperial status, that the terms under which he would marry Bertha of Sulzbach should be improved. Manuel asked for 500 knights, and Conrad happily granted them, being prepared to supply 2000 or 3000 if need be all for the sake of this alliance. Bertha took the Greek name Irene.

The Seljuk sultanate of Rum under Masud had become the ascendant Turkish power in Anatolia. Manuel himself supervised the rebuilding of the fortress of Melangeia on the Sangarius river in Bithynia (1145 or 1146). In the most daring campaign of these early years, after building the new fort of Pithecas in Bithynia, Manuel advanced as far into Turkish territory as Konya (Iconium), the Seljuk capital. He had been wounded in the foot by an arrow at a mighty battle at Philomelium (which had been Masud's headquarters), and the city had been rased; once at Konya, he allowed his troops to despoil the graves outside the city walls, before taking the road home.

Cinnamus relates that the gratutitous heroics which Manuel displayed on this campaign were calculated to impress Manuel's new bride. Manuel and his army were harried by Turks on the journey home. Manuel erected the fort of Pylae before leaving Anatolia.

[For a detailed and interesting discussion of the reign of Manuel I Comnenus please see http://www.roman-emperors.org/mannycom.htm]

Frederick Barbarossa and the "two-emperor problem"
Frederick Barbarossa, who was to become a constant menace to Manuel's designs, had succeeded his uncle Conrad III in 1152, but unlike him proved in the end unprepared to make any territorial concessions in Italy. The origins of this "cold war" between the two empires cannot be dated with any certainty, but there may have been a tendency to date it too early. One school of thought would not date the outbreak of this rivalry to any earlier than 1159-60, the death of Manuel's German wife, Bertha-Irene. About this time there was a scare at Constantinople that Frederick Barbarossa would march on Byzantium, perhaps reflecting a desire on Frederick's part to crusade (which he eventually did, in the reign of Isaac II Angelus). The new Pope, Alexander III, by, as it would seem, offering to grant Manuel the imperial crown, used it as a bargaining chip to play off the emperors of west and east against one another. Manuel may have supported Alexander during the papal schism of 1160-1177 because he was the preferred candidate of Hungary and the Crusader states, both of which he hoped would recognise him as their feudal overlord. By this means he could claim sovereign rights over the crusading movement, and thereby turn it to his advantage. The playing off of Manuel against Frederick continued right up until 1177, the Peace of Venice, whereby Frederick agreed to recognise Pope Alexander, the autonomy of Sicily and of the northern Italian communes. But this result was not a foregone conclusion in the 1160s and early 1170s, and Manuel used Byzantine gold to win supporters in Italy and thereby keep Frederick occupied.

Marriage to Maria of Antioch 1161
Bertha-Irene died in late 1159/early 1160. Manuel sought to strengthen his ties with the Crusader principalities by selecting an eastern Latin princess for his wife. The exceedingly beautiful Maria of Antioch, daughter of Raymond of Antioch, was chosen, and the nuptials celebrated at Christmas, 1161.


Dynastic considerations 1169-1172
Manuel's wife Maria of Antioch gave birth to a baby boy 14 September 1169 in the porphyry marble birthchamber, the cause of great festivities. The infant was crowned emperor in 1171. With the death of Stephen III of Hungary in 1172, Stephen's brother Béla was sent out from Constantinople to assume the throne (though without Sirmium and Dalmatia being surrendered to the Hungarian crown). A husband for Maria Porphyrogenita was therefore required. At first it was proposed that she marry William II of Sicily, who was outraged when she failed to show up at Taranto on the appointed day, the emperor having had second thoughts.


The final months 1180
Manuel took ill in the month of March 1180. During this period of terminal illness the last major religious controversies took place. We are told that Manuel directed that the anathema pronounced against the god of Muhammad be removed from the abjuration against the Islamic faith declared by converts to Christianity. Manuel was opposed by the last patriarch of his reign, Theodosius Boradiotes (1179-1183), as well as, notably, by Eustathius of Thessalonica. Both parties were satisfied in the end upon a reading of the emperor's proposed amendments to the abjuration. This controversy would seem to be a different one from the one alluded to in Eustathius' funeral oration for Manuel, since Manuel is praised by Eustathius for his stance in it, which seems to have revolved around a book written by a convert from Islam that magnified the Father at the expense of the Son (and therefore had Arian overtones). It became apparent that the emperor was dying, and, on the advice of Theodosius, he renounced astrology. As his end approached, he assumed the monastic habit and the name Matthew, demanding that his wife Maria become a nun. Manuel's son Alexius was but eleven, and the minority would prove to be disastrous for Byzantium. Manuel died thirty-seven years and nine months from the beginning of his reign.

General strategies in Manuel's foreign policy
The funeral oration for Manuel by Eustathius of Thessalonica is an interesting document in that it discusses some of the general policies pursued over Manuel's reign. It endorses his policy of dividing his enemies, the Petchenegs, the Sicilian Normans and the Turks, among themselves by using Byzantine gold, a policy of "divide and rule". We have seen how this was applied especially in Italy. Another general policy was to create friendly buffer states on the frontiers of the empire, most notably Hungary (and Serbia) and the Crusader States. Manuel would deliberately underpin the most powerful potentate in each region (the king of Hungary, the king of Jerusalem, the sultan of Konya) and thereby emphasise his own absolute sovereignty. In the funeral oration this granting of autonomy is justified as the reward for good service, as in the parable of the talents. We also see in the panegyric of the 1170s the downplaying of the idea of world rule which was so prevalent in the reign of John. Although Manuel claimed sovereign rights over many of his neighbours, his territorial claims were limited: coastal southern Italy, Dalmatia and Sirmium, coastal Egypt. The Byzantines seem to have come to terms with the reality of nation states and it is in Manuel's reign that they begin to refer to themselves not only as "Romans", but as "Hellenes", in order to demarcate themselves from the barbarians surrounding them.

Manuel's taxation, government and army
Nicetas Choniates roundly criticises Manuel in his history for increasing taxes and lavishing money on his family and retainers, particularly his Latin favourites. We have also seen how money was spent in Manuel's ambitious foreign policy. Mention is made of two towers, one at Damalis, and one next to the monastery of the Mangana, between which a chain could be stretched to block the Bosphorus. Then there was the work done at both the Great Palace and the Palace of the Blachernae, galleries, a pavilion alla Turca and numerous mosaics. He also founded a monastery at Kataskepe at the mouth of the Black Sea, which was endowed from the imperial treasury.

Choniates further criticizes the continuation and spread of the granting of pronoiai, parcels of land, the income from each of which supported a soldier. Many of these were granted to foreigners, for example, Turks captured in the Meander campaigns were settled around Thessalonica. The pronoia would pay not only for a soldier's upkeep, but his expensive equipment, for in Manuel's reign the bow and arrow and circular shield had been replaced by a heavier western-style panoply of armour, large triangular shield and lance. Choniates laments how fashionable a practice it had become in Manuel's reign to forsake the land or one's trade and become enlisted in the army.

Manuel and the "Comnenian system"
Throughout Manuel's reign, as under his father John, the top tier of the aristocracy was formed by the emperor's family, the Comneni, and the families into which they married. The extended family was, however, by now becoming unwieldy, and beginning to lose its cohesion, as the example of Manuel's cousin Andronicus shows. Under Manuel it was degree of kinship to the emperor which determined one's rank, as synodal listings show. So it was that very quickly after Manuel's death the upper tier of the aristocracy splintered into separate groups, each with its own identity and interests.

Literature
The various aristocratic courts, that of the emperor and other key members of the extended family, most notably the sebastokrator Isaac Comnenus the elder and the sebastokratorissa Irene, widow of Manuel's brother Andronicus, attracted literati who would seek to serve under them. Such figures would not only turn their hands to literature, encomia in prose or poetry, expositions on mythology, commentaries on Homer or the philosophers, historical chronicles and even, in this period, romances - the twelfth century is a high point of literary production at Constantinople, so much so that some have even talked of a "Comnenian renaissance" - but they would seek to perform more menial, such as administrative, duties to support themselves. Such men would often come from noble families whose prestige had been eclipsed by the Comnenian upper tier of the aristocracy. Serving under a lord was one way of advancing oneself, entering the Church was another.

The patriarchal church and education
The deacons of the church of St Sophia were a powerful group, the chartophylax being second only to the patriarch. These deacons would either go on to become bishops in the provinces, or possibly first hold one of the professorial chairs associated with the patriarchal church. First there were the "teachers", didaskaloi of the Gospels, Epistles and Psalter. Then there was the maistor ton rhetoron, "master of the rhetors", responsible for delivering speeches in praise of the emperor on January 6 each year and of the patriarch on the Saturday prior to Palm Sunday, as well as for other state occasions. And there was the hypatos ton philosophon, "consul of the philosophers", an office which had lapsed but was revived under Manuel.

Character and Legacy
Was Byzantium of the middle to late twelfth century living on borrowed time? Until recently this was the verdict of many scholars. Yet John II and Manuel had, if there is any kernel of truth in their encomia, at least temporarily reversed the overrunning of Anatolia by the Turks, and Manuel had won Dalmatia and Sirmium from Hungary. But Byzantine collapse was rapid, which is the reason why scholars have searched in the reigns of John and Manuel for the beginnings of the disintegration that occurred under the last Comneni and the Angeli. The history and comments of Nicetas Choniates have been adduced as vindicating this view. The victory of the military aristocracy that the establishment of the Comnenian dynasty represents has been seen as both the reason for the temporary reversal of Byzantine fortunes - government by three very capable autocrats - and of ultimate failure, because of the splintering into factions that oligarchy, such as was present in the Comnenian system, foments. A Marxist interpretation is that the feudalisation of the Byzantine Empire, the depletion of the free peasantry, that began to take place in the middle period was the reason for its ultimate failure. But to the Byzantines at the time Byzantium seemed to be holding its own; the "nations" around were being kept at bay, and even though the panegyric of renovation is less evident than in the reign of John II, the emperor remains despotes, "master" of the oikoumene, "world". Indeed, Manuel would be remembered in France, Genoa and the Crusader States as the most powerful sovereign in the world.

We have mentioned the funeral oration for Manuel by Eustathius of Thessalonica. This contains a series of vignettes of the personal aspects of Manuel. There are commonplaces: the emperor is able to endure hunger, thirst, heat and cold, lack of sleep and so on, and sweats copiously in his endeavours on the empire's part. Although these ideas have been recycled from earlier reigns, notably that of John II, the contemporary historians agree that Manuel was an indefatigable and daring warrior. However, there are more specifically individual touches in the Eustathian oration. Manuel had a manly suntan and was tall in stature. The emperor was capable of clever talk, but could also talk to others on a man-to-man basis. Eustathius makes much of the emperor's book-learning (Cinnamus claims to have discussed Aristotle with the emperor). The restoration of churches was a major concern for Manuel. He also had some expertise in medicine (he had tended Conrad III of Germany and Baldwin III of Jerusalem personally). Manuel showed temperance in eating and drinking, with a certain liking for beer as well as wine, the latter being mixed sour after the manner of ascetics. Likewise, he would not slumber long. He would generally choose walking over riding. The oration closes on the widow and orphan Manuel has left behind. The situation resulting for the Byzantine Empire at this stage, with the vacuum created by Manuel would result in no less than implosion.

Copyright (C) 2003, Andrew Stone.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
ManuelStGeorge.jpg
[1663a] Byzantine Empire: Manuel I Comnenus Megas (1143-1180)---NOT TO BE CONFUSED WITH---[1685a] Empire of Trebizond: Manuel I Komnenos Megas (1218-1263 AD)131 viewsMANUEL I COMNENUS AE tetarteron. 1143-1180 AD. 19mm, 2.8g. Obverse: Bust of St. George facing, beardless, wearing nimbus, tunic, cuirass and sagion, and holding spear. Reverse: MANVHL-DECPOT, bust of Manuel facing, wearing crown and loros, holding labarum & globe-cross. Simply wonderful style, very sharp for the issue. A gorgeous late Byzantine coin! Ex Incitatus.


De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

MANUEL I COMNENUS (A.D. 1143-1180)

Andrew Stone
University of Western Australia

Introduction: Sources
The reign of the emperor Manuel I Comnenus (5 April 1143- 24 September 1180) could well be regarded as a high-water mark of Byzantine civilization. It was the apogee of the so-called "Comnenian Restoration". Politically, the emperor undertook an ambitious foreign policy which has been seen by some, particularly in the light of many ultimate failures, as "misguided imperialism", recent scholarship has come to question this traditional judgment and suggests instead that the the Comnenian foreign policy was rather an energetic seizing of the different opportunities that presented themselves in the rapidly changing constellations of powers of the time. Such measures were made possible by the internal security of the empire under this, its third, Comnenian incumbent, although there were a few other aspirants to the throne, not least among them the emperor's cousin Andronicus. Manuel and other key members of the "Comnenian system", as it has been called, were patrons of rhetoric and other forms of learning and literature, and Manuel himself became keenly interested in ecclesiastical affairs, even if here his imperialistic agenda was a factor as he tried to bring Constantinopolitan theology in line with that of the west in a bid to unite the Church under his crown.

In terms of volume of contemporary material, Manuel is the most eulogised of all Byzantine emperors, and the panegyric addressed to him supplements the two major Byzantine historians of the reign, the more critical Nicetas Choniates and the laudatory John Cinnamus, as primary sources for the student of the period to study. The Crusader historian William of Tyre met Manuel personally, and such was the scope of Manuel's diplomacy that he is mentioned incidentally in western sources, such as Romuald of Salerno. Among authors of the encomia (panegyrics) we have mentioned are Theodore Prodromus and the so-called "Manganeios" Prodromus, who wrote in verse, and the prose encomiasts Michael the Rhetor, Eustathius of Thessalonica and Euthymius Malaces, to name the most important. Manuel, with his penchant for the Latins and their ways, left a legacy of Byzantine resentment against these outsiders, which was to be ruthlessly exploited by Andronicus in the end.

Manuel as sebastokrator
Manuel was born in the imperial porphyry birthchamber on 28 November 1118. He was the fourth of John II's sons, so it seemed very unlikely that he would succeed. As a youth, Manuel evidently accompanied John on campaign, for in the Anatolian expedition of 1139-41 we find Manuel rashly charging a small group of the Turkish enemy, an action for which he was castigated by his father, even though John, we are told, was inwardly impressed (mention of the incident is made in John's deathbed speech in both John Cinnamus and Nicetas Choniates). John negotiated a marriage contract for Manuel with Conrad III of Germany; he was to marry Bertha of Sulzbach. It seems to have been John's plan to carve out a client principality for Manuel from Cilicia, Cyprus and Coele Syria. In the event, it was Manuel who succeeded him.

The Securing of the Succession 1143
In the article on John II it is related how the dying John chose his youngest son Manuel to succeed him in preference to his other surviving son Isaac. Manuel was acclaimed emperor by the armies on 5 April 1143. Manuel stayed in Cilicia, where the army was stationed, for thirty days, to complete the funeral rites for his father. He sent his father's right-hand man John Axuch, however, to Constantinople to confine Isaac to the Pantokrator Monastery and to effect a donation of two hundredweight of silver coin to the clergy of the Great Church. The surviving encomium of Michael Italicus, Teacher of the Gospel, for the new emperor can be regarded as a return gift for this largesse. In the meantime the Caesar John Roger, husband of Manuel's eldest sister Maria, had been plotting to seize the throne; the plot was, however, given away by his wife before it could take effect. Manuel marched home to enter Constantinople c. July 1143. He secured the good-will of the people by commanding that every household should be granted two gold coins. Isaac the younger (Manuel's brother) and Isaac the elder (Manuel's paternal uncle), were both released from captivity and reconciled with him. Manuel chose Michael Oxeites as the new patriarch and was crowned either in August or November 1143.

Manuel confirmed John Axuch in the office of Grand Domestic, that is, commander of the army, appointed John of Poutze as procurator of public taxes, grand commissioner and inspector of accounts and John Hagiotheodorites as chancellor. John of Poutze proved to be an oppressive tax collector, but was also unsusceptible to bribery. However, this John diverted monies levied for the navy into the treasury, which would, as we shall see, further Byzantine dependence on the maritime Italian city-states of Venice, Genoa and Pisa.

Early Campaigns: 1144-1146
Manuel's first concern was to consolidate the work of his father in securing the eastern frontier. He sent a force under the brothers Andronicus and John Contostephanus against the recalcitrant Crusader prince Raymond of Antioch, which consisted of both an army and a navy, the latter commanded by Demetrius Branas. Raymond's army was routed, and the naval force inflicted no small damage on the coastal regions of the principality. In the meantime the Crusader city of Edessa fell to the Turkish atabeg Zengi. Raymond therefore travelled to Constantinople as a suppliant to Manuel. It was subsequently decided, in the light of Manuel's imperial status, that the terms under which he would marry Bertha of Sulzbach should be improved. Manuel asked for 500 knights, and Conrad happily granted them, being prepared to supply 2000 or 3000 if need be all for the sake of this alliance. Bertha took the Greek name Irene.

The Seljuk sultanate of Rum under Masud had become the ascendant Turkish power in Anatolia. Manuel himself supervised the rebuilding of the fortress of Melangeia on the Sangarius river in Bithynia (1145 or 1146). In the most daring campaign of these early years, after building the new fort of Pithecas in Bithynia, Manuel advanced as far into Turkish territory as Konya (Iconium), the Seljuk capital. He had been wounded in the foot by an arrow at a mighty battle at Philomelium (which had been Masud's headquarters), and the city had been rased; once at Konya, he allowed his troops to despoil the graves outside the city walls, before taking the road home.

Cinnamus relates that the gratutitous heroics which Manuel displayed on this campaign were calculated to impress Manuel's new bride. Manuel and his army were harried by Turks on the journey home. Manuel erected the fort of Pylae before leaving Anatolia.

[For a detailed and interesting discussion of the reign of Manuel I Comnenus please see http://www.roman-emperors.org/mannycom.htm]

Frederick Barbarossa and the "two-emperor problem"
Frederick Barbarossa, who was to become a constant menace to Manuel's designs, had succeeded his uncle Conrad III in 1152, but unlike him proved in the end unprepared to make any territorial concessions in Italy. The origins of this "cold war" between the two empires cannot be dated with any certainty, but there may have been a tendency to date it too early. One school of thought would not date the outbreak of this rivalry to any earlier than 1159-60, the death of Manuel's German wife, Bertha-Irene. About this time there was a scare at Constantinople that Frederick Barbarossa would march on Byzantium, perhaps reflecting a desire on Frederick's part to crusade (which he eventually did, in the reign of Isaac II Angelus). The new Pope, Alexander III, by, as it would seem, offering to grant Manuel the imperial crown, used it as a bargaining chip to play off the emperors of west and east against one another. Manuel may have supported Alexander during the papal schism of 1160-1177 because he was the preferred candidate of Hungary and the Crusader states, both of which he hoped would recognise him as their feudal overlord. By this means he could claim sovereign rights over the crusading movement, and thereby turn it to his advantage. The playing off of Manuel against Frederick continued right up until 1177, the Peace of Venice, whereby Frederick agreed to recognise Pope Alexander, the autonomy of Sicily and of the northern Italian communes. But this result was not a foregone conclusion in the 1160s and early 1170s, and Manuel used Byzantine gold to win supporters in Italy and thereby keep Frederick occupied.

Marriage to Maria of Antioch 1161
Bertha-Irene died in late 1159/early 1160. Manuel sought to strengthen his ties with the Crusader principalities by selecting an eastern Latin princess for his wife. The exceedingly beautiful Maria of Antioch, daughter of Raymond of Antioch, was chosen, and the nuptials celebrated at Christmas, 1161.


Dynastic considerations 1169-1172
Manuel's wife Maria of Antioch gave birth to a baby boy 14 September 1169 in the porphyry marble birthchamber, the cause of great festivities. The infant was crowned emperor in 1171. With the death of Stephen III of Hungary in 1172, Stephen's brother Béla was sent out from Constantinople to assume the throne (though without Sirmium and Dalmatia being surrendered to the Hungarian crown). A husband for Maria Porphyrogenita was therefore required. At first it was proposed that she marry William II of Sicily, who was outraged when she failed to show up at Taranto on the appointed day, the emperor having had second thoughts.


The final months 1180
Manuel took ill in the month of March 1180. During this period of terminal illness the last major religious controversies took place. We are told that Manuel directed that the anathema pronounced against the god of Muhammad be removed from the abjuration against the Islamic faith declared by converts to Christianity. Manuel was opposed by the last patriarch of his reign, Theodosius Boradiotes (1179-1183), as well as, notably, by Eustathius of Thessalonica. Both parties were satisfied in the end upon a reading of the emperor's proposed amendments to the abjuration. This controversy would seem to be a different one from the one alluded to in Eustathius' funeral oration for Manuel, since Manuel is praised by Eustathius for his stance in it, which seems to have revolved around a book written by a convert from Islam that magnified the Father at the expense of the Son (and therefore had Arian overtones). It became apparent that the emperor was dying, and, on the advice of Theodosius, he renounced astrology. As his end approached, he assumed the monastic habit and the name Matthew, demanding that his wife Maria become a nun. Manuel's son Alexius was but eleven, and the minority would prove to be disastrous for Byzantium. Manuel died thirty-seven years and nine months from the beginning of his reign.

General strategies in Manuel's foreign policy
The funeral oration for Manuel by Eustathius of Thessalonica is an interesting document in that it discusses some of the general policies pursued over Manuel's reign. It endorses his policy of dividing his enemies, the Petchenegs, the Sicilian Normans and the Turks, among themselves by using Byzantine gold, a policy of "divide and rule". We have seen how this was applied especially in Italy. Another general policy was to create friendly buffer states on the frontiers of the empire, most notably Hungary (and Serbia) and the Crusader States. Manuel would deliberately underpin the most powerful potentate in each region (the king of Hungary, the king of Jerusalem, the sultan of Konya) and thereby emphasise his own absolute sovereignty. In the funeral oration this granting of autonomy is justified as the reward for good service, as in the parable of the talents. We also see in the panegyric of the 1170s the downplaying of the idea of world rule which was so prevalent in the reign of John. Although Manuel claimed sovereign rights over many of his neighbours, his territorial claims were limited: coastal southern Italy, Dalmatia and Sirmium, coastal Egypt. The Byzantines seem to have come to terms with the reality of nation states and it is in Manuel's reign that they begin to refer to themselves not only as "Romans", but as "Hellenes", in order to demarcate themselves from the barbarians surrounding them.

Manuel's taxation, government and army
Nicetas Choniates roundly criticises Manuel in his history for increasing taxes and lavishing money on his family and retainers, particularly his Latin favourites. We have also seen how money was spent in Manuel's ambitious foreign policy. Mention is made of two towers, one at Damalis, and one next to the monastery of the Mangana, between which a chain could be stretched to block the Bosphorus. Then there was the work done at both the Great Palace and the Palace of the Blachernae, galleries, a pavilion alla Turca and numerous mosaics. He also founded a monastery at Kataskepe at the mouth of the Black Sea, which was endowed from the imperial treasury.

Choniates further criticizes the continuation and spread of the granting of pronoiai, parcels of land, the income from each of which supported a soldier. Many of these were granted to foreigners, for example, Turks captured in the Meander campaigns were settled around Thessalonica. The pronoia would pay not only for a soldier's upkeep, but his expensive equipment, for in Manuel's reign the bow and arrow and circular shield had been replaced by a heavier western-style panoply of armour, large triangular shield and lance. Choniates laments how fashionable a practice it had become in Manuel's reign to forsake the land or one's trade and become enlisted in the army.

Manuel and the "Comnenian system"
Throughout Manuel's reign, as under his father John, the top tier of the aristocracy was formed by the emperor's family, the Comneni, and the families into which they married. The extended family was, however, by now becoming unwieldy, and beginning to lose its cohesion, as the example of Manuel's cousin Andronicus shows. Under Manuel it was degree of kinship to the emperor which determined one's rank, as synodal listings show. So it was that very quickly after Manuel's death the upper tier of the aristocracy splintered into separate groups, each with its own identity and interests.

Literature
The various aristocratic courts, that of the emperor and other key members of the extended family, most notably the sebastokrator Isaac Comnenus the elder and the sebastokratorissa Irene, widow of Manuel's brother Andronicus, attracted literati who would seek to serve under them. Such figures would not only turn their hands to literature, encomia in prose or poetry, expositions on mythology, commentaries on Homer or the philosophers, historical chronicles and even, in this period, romances - the twelfth century is a high point of literary production at Constantinople, so much so that some have even talked of a "Comnenian renaissance" - but they would seek to perform more menial, such as administrative, duties to support themselves. Such men would often come from noble families whose prestige had been eclipsed by the Comnenian upper tier of the aristocracy. Serving under a lord was one way of advancing oneself, entering the Church was another.

The patriarchal church and education
The deacons of the church of St Sophia were a powerful group, the chartophylax being second only to the patriarch. These deacons would either go on to become bishops in the provinces, or possibly first hold one of the professorial chairs associated with the patriarchal church. First there were the "teachers", didaskaloi of the Gospels, Epistles and Psalter. Then there was the maistor ton rhetoron, "master of the rhetors", responsible for delivering speeches in praise of the emperor on January 6 each year and of the patriarch on the Saturday prior to Palm Sunday, as well as for other state occasions. And there was the hypatos ton philosophon, "consul of the philosophers", an office which had lapsed but was revived under Manuel.

Character and Legacy
Was Byzantium of the middle to late twelfth century living on borrowed time? Until recently this was the verdict of many scholars. Yet John II and Manuel had, if there is any kernel of truth in their encomia, at least temporarily reversed the overrunning of Anatolia by the Turks, and Manuel had won Dalmatia and Sirmium from Hungary. But Byzantine collapse was rapid, which is the reason why scholars have searched in the reigns of John and Manuel for the beginnings of the disintegration that occurred under the last Comneni and the Angeli. The history and comments of Nicetas Choniates have been adduced as vindicating this view. The victory of the military aristocracy that the establishment of the Comnenian dynasty represents has been seen as both the reason for the temporary reversal of Byzantine fortunes - government by three very capable autocrats - and of ultimate failure, because of the splintering into factions that oligarchy, such as was present in the Comnenian system, foments. A Marxist interpretation is that the feudalisation of the Byzantine Empire, the depletion of the free peasantry, that began to take place in the middle period was the reason for its ultimate failure. But to the Byzantines at the time Byzantium seemed to be holding its own; the "nations" around were being kept at bay, and even though the panegyric of renovation is less evident than in the reign of John II, the emperor remains despotes, "master" of the oikoumene, "world". Indeed, Manuel would be remembered in France, Genoa and the Crusader States as the most powerful sovereign in the world.

We have mentioned the funeral oration for Manuel by Eustathius of Thessalonica. This contains a series of vignettes of the personal aspects of Manuel. There are commonplaces: the emperor is able to endure hunger, thirst, heat and cold, lack of sleep and so on, and sweats copiously in his endeavours on the empire's part. Although these ideas have been recycled from earlier reigns, notably that of John II, the contemporary historians agree that Manuel was an indefatigable and daring warrior. However, there are more specifically individual touches in the Eustathian oration. Manuel had a manly suntan and was tall in stature. The emperor was capable of clever talk, but could also talk to others on a man-to-man basis. Eustathius makes much of the emperor's book-learning (Cinnamus claims to have discussed Aristotle with the emperor). The restoration of churches was a major concern for Manuel. He also had some expertise in medicine (he had tended Conrad III of Germany and Baldwin III of Jerusalem personally). Manuel showed temperance in eating and drinking, with a certain liking for beer as well as wine, the latter being mixed sour after the manner of ascetics. Likewise, he would not slumber long. He would generally choose walking over riding. The oration closes on the widow and orphan Manuel has left behind. The situation resulting for the Byzantine Empire at this stage, with the vacuum created by Manuel would result in no less than implosion.

Copyright (C) 2003, Andrew Stone.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
JohnHyrcanusAntiochos7Lily.jpg
[18H451] Judaean Kingdom, John Hyrcanus I (Yehohanan), 134 - 104 B.C., for the Seleukid King Antiochos VII106 viewsJohn Hyrcanus [for Antiochos VII]; Lily, AE, Hendin 451, 15mm, 2.92 grams; VF, Jerusalem; 182-180 B.C. This interesting coin was the precursor to the "prutah" which would subsequently be minted in Israel. Struck by John Hyrcanus, King of Judaea, in the name of the Seleukid King Antiochos VII, Euergetes (Sidetes). Ex Zuzim Judaea.

Johanan [John] Hyrcanus
(d. 104 BCE)

Grandson of Mattathias of Modein and chief architect of Judean dominance of Palestine. The youngest and only surviving son of Simon Thassi succeeded his father as high priest in 134 BCE. He was the fourth Hasmonean to rule Jerusalem. But his tenure began with a year-long Syrian siege that forced him to agree to tear down the city's fortifications and renew a tribute to the Greek emperor [133 BCE].

Within a few years, however, he took advantage of political turmoil in Syria following the death of Antiochus VII [129 BCE] to rebuild his forces, reclaim independence and extend Judean control over Palestine and Jordan. On the southern front he forced Judah's neighbors in Idumea [descendents of the Edomites] to accept Judaism and on the northern front he destroyed the rival temple at Shechem in Samaria.

Such triumphs made him the probable subject of messianic tributes by his fellow Judeans. But his own preference for Greek culture made him controversial in Jerusalem. When Pharisees challenged his right to be high priest, he switched his allegiance to the aristocratic Sadducee [Zadokite] party. Still, the Dead Sea Scrolls suggest that other Zadokites probably rejected his leadership and left Jerusalem, labeling him the "wicked priest," who persecuted the priest whom they regarded as the "Teacher of Righteousness."

Copyright 2007, The American-Israeli Cooperative Enterprise. Published on The Jewish Virtual Library; http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/index.html


John Hyrcanus
John Hyrcanus (Yohanan Girhan) (reigned 134 BCE - 104 BCE, died 104 BCE) was a Hasmonean (Maccabeean) leader of the 2nd century BC. Apparently the name "Hyrcanus" was taken by him as a regnal name upon his accession to power. His taking a Greek regnal name was a significant political and cultural step away from the intransigent opposition to and rejection of Hellenistic culture which had characterised the Maccabaen revolt against Seleucid rule, and a more pragmatic recognition that Judea had to maintain its position among a millieu of small and large states which all shared the Hellenistic culture and communicated in Greek.

Life and work
He was the son of Simon Maccabaeus and hence the nephew of Judas Maccabaeus, Jonathan Maccabaeus and their siblings, whose story is told in the deuterocanonical books of 1 Maccabees and 2 Maccabees, and in the Talmud. John was not present at a banquet at which his father and his two brothers were murdered, purportedly by his brother-in-law Ptolemy. He attained to his father's former offices, that of high priest and king (although some Jews never accepted any of the Hasmoneans as being legitimate kings, as they were not lineal descendants of David).

His taking a Greek regnal name - "Hyrcanus" - was a significant political and cultural step away from the intransigent opposition to and rejection of Hellenistic culture which had characterised the Maccabaen revolt against Seleucid rule. It reflected a more pragmatic recognition that Judea, once having attained independence, had to maintain its position among a milieu of small and large states which all shared the Hellenistic culture. All subseqent Hashmonean rulers followed suit and adopted Greek names in their turn.

Achievements
John Hyrcanus apparently combined an energetic and able style of leadership with the zeal of his forebears. He was known as a brave and brilliant military leader. He is credited with the forced conversion of the Idumeans to Judaism, which was unusual for a Jewish leader; Judaism was not typically spread by the sword. He also set out to resolve forcibly the religious dispute between the Jews and the Samaritans; during his reign he destroyed the Samaritan temple on Mount Gerizim (although their descendants still worship among its ruins), which served further to deepen the already-historic hatred and rivalry between the two groups. Many historians believe that the apocryphal book of Jubilees was written during his reign; some would suggest even at his behest. Some writers, particularly Christian ones, have dated the division of Judaism into the parties of Pharisees and Sadducees to his era; most Jewish writers and some Christian ones suggest that this split actually well predates him. Some historians would go so far as to identify him, as a priest, predominantly with the Sadducee party, which was closely associated with the Temple worship and the priestly class.

Peak and decline of the kingdom
John Hyrcanus represented in some ways the highest point of the Hasmonean Dynasty. The restored Jewish "kingdom" approached its maximum limits of both territory and prestige. Upon his death, his offices were divided among his heirs; his son Aristobulus succeeded him as high priest; his wife as "Queen regnant". The son, however, soon came to desire the essentially unchecked power of his father; he shortly ordered his mother and his brothers imprisoned. This event seems to mark the beginning of the decline of the Hasmonean Dynasty; in just over four decades they were removed from power by the Roman Republic and none of them ever began to approach the level of power or prestige that had pertained to John Hyrcanus or his predecessors.

Modern Commemoration
Tel Aviv has a Yochanan Hyrcanus Street (רחוב יוחנן הורקנוס), as do several other cities in contemporary Israel. In the ealy decades of the 20th century, the Zionist historical perception of the Jewish past tended to approve of and revere strong warrior kings of both Biblical and later periods, and Hyrcanus' exploits earned him a place in that pantheon.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Hyrcanus


John Hyrcanus was the son of Simon the Maccabee and nephew of the folk hero Judah Maccabee. Not long after Hyrcanus assumed power, the Seleukid kingdom marched on Jerusalem. The Seleukid king, Antiocus VII, and Hyrcanus I negotiated a treaty that left Hyrcanus a vassal to the Syrian king. Joseph Sermarini, FORVM.
http://www.forumancientcoins.com/catalog/roman-and-greek-coins.asp?vpar=922&pos=0

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
CommodusRSC190.jpg
[906a]Commodus, March or April 177 - 31 Dec 192 A.D.168 viewsCOMMODUS AR silver denarius. RSC 190. RCV 5644. 16.5mm, 2.3g. F. Obverse: L AEL AVREL COMM AVG P FEL, bust of Commodus wearing lion skin in imitation of Hercules and Alexander the Great, facing right; Reverse: HER-CVL RO-MAN AV-GV either side of club of Hercules, all in wreath. RARE. Ex Incitatus.

This coin refers to Commodus' belief that he was Hercules reincarnated. According to the historian Herodian, "he issued orders that he was to be called not Commodus, son of Marcus, but Hercules, son of Jupiter. Abandoning the Roman and imperial mode of dress, he donned the lion-skin, and carried the club of Hercules..." (Joseph Sermarini).

De Imperatoribus Romanis:
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Commodus (A.D. 180-192)

Dennis Quinn

Marcus Aurelius Commodus Antoninus, the son of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius and his wife-cousin Faustina, was born in Lanuvium in 161 AD. Commodus was named Caesar at the age of 5, and co-Augustus at the age of 17, spending most of his early life accompanying his father on his campaigns against the Quadi and the Marcomanni along the Danubian frontier. His father died, possibly of the plague, at a military encampment at Bononia on the Danube on 17 March 180, leaving the Roman Empire to his nineteen-year-old son.[[1]] Upon hearing of his father's death, Commodus made preparations for Marcus' funeral, made concessions to the northern tribes, and made haste to return back to Rome in order to enjoy peace after nearly two decades of war. Commodus, and much of the Roman army behind him, entered the capital on 22 October, 180 in a triumphal procession, receiving a hero's welcome. Indeed, the youthful Commodus must have appeared in the parade as an icon of new, happier days to come; his arrival sparked the highest hopes in the Roman people, who believed he would rule as his father had ruled.[[2]]

The coins issued in his first year all display the triumphant general, a warrior in action who brought the spoils of victory to the citizens of Rome.[[3]] There is a great deal of evidence to support the fact that Commodus was popular among many of the people, at least for a majority of his reign. He seems to have been quite generous.[[4]]. Coin types from around 183 onward often contain the legend, Munificentia Augusta[[5]], indicating that generosity was indeed a part of his imperial program. Coins show nine occasions on which Commodus gave largesses, seven when he was sole emperor.[[6]] According to Dio, the emperor obtained some of this funding by taxing members of the senatorial class.[[7]] This policy of munificence certainly caused tensions between Commodus and the Senate. In 191 it was noted in the official Actus Urbis that the gods had given Commodus to Populus Senatusque Romanus. Normally the phrase Senatus Populusque Romanus was used. [[8]] While the Senate hated Commodus, the army and the lower classes loved him.[[9]] Because of the bad relationship between the Senate and Commodus as well as a senatorial conspiracy,[[10]] Rome "...was virtually governed by the praetorian prefects Perennis (182-185) and Cleander (186-9)."[[11]]

Commodus began to dress like the god Hercules, wearing lion skins and carrying a club.[[12]] Thus he appropriated the Antonines' traditional identification with Hercules, but even more aggressively. Commodus' complete identification with Hercules can be seen as an attempt to solidify his claim as new founder of Rome, which he now called the Colonia Lucia Annia Commodiana. This was legitimized by his direct link to Hercules, son of Father Jupiter.[[13]] He probably took the title of Hercules officially some time before mid-September 192.[[14]]

While the literary sources, especially Dio, Herodian, and the Historia Augusta, all ridicule the antics of his later career, they also give important insight into Commodus' relationship to the people.[[15]] His most important maneuver to solidify his claims as Hercules Romanus was to show himself as the god to the Roman people by taking part in spectacles in the amphitheater. Not only would Commodus fight and defeat the most skilled gladiators, he would also test his talents by encountering the most ferocious of the beasts.[[16]]

Commodus won all of his bouts against the gladiators.[[17]] The slayer of wild beasts, Hercules, was the mythical symbol of Commodus' rule, as protector of the Empire.[[18]]

During his final years he declared that his age should be called the "Golden Age."[[19]] He wanted all to revel in peace and happiness in his age of glory, praise the felicitas Commodi, the glorious libertas, his pietas, providential, his victoria and virtus aeterna.[[20]] Commodus wanted there to be no doubt that this "Golden Age" had been achieved through his munificence as Nobilissimus Princeps. He had declared a brand new day in Rome, founding it anew in 190, declaring himself the new Romulus.[[21]] Rome was now to be called Colonia Lucia Annia Commodiana, as noted above, and deemed "the Immortal," "the Fortunate," "the Universal Colony of the Earth."[[22]] Coins represent the archaic rituals of city-[re]foundation, identifying Commodus as a new founder and his age as new days.[[23]]

Also in 190 he renamed all the months to correspond exactly with his titles. From January, they run as follows: Lucius, Aelius, Aurelius, Commodus, Augustus, Herculeus, Romanus, Exsuperatorius, Amazonius, Invictus, Felix, Pius.[[24]] According to Dio Cassius, the changing of the names of the months was all part of Commodus' megalomania.[[25]] Commodus was the first and last in the Antonine dynasty to change the names of the months.


The legions were renamed Commodianae, the fleet which imported grain from Africa was called Alexandria Commodiana Togata, the Senate was deemed the Commodian Fortunate Senate, his palace and the Roman people were all given the name Commodianus.[[26]] The day that these new names were announced was also given a new title: Dies Commodianus.[[27]] Indeed, the emperor presented himself with growing vigor as the center of Roman life and the fountainhead of religion. New expressions of old religious thought and new cults previously restricted to private worship invade the highest level of imperial power.[[28]]

If Eusebius of Caesarea [[29]] is to be believed, the reign of Commodus inaugurated a period of numerous conversions to Christianity. Commodus did not pursue his father's prohibitions against the Christians, although he did not actually change their legal position. Rather, he relaxed persecutions, after minor efforts early in his reign.[[30]] Tradition credits Commodus's policy to the influence of his concubine Marcia; she was probably his favorite,[[31]] but it is not clear that she was a Christian.[[32]] More likely, Commodus preferred to neglect the sect, so that persecutions would not detract from his claims to be leading the Empire through a "Golden Age."[[33]]

During his reign several attempts were made on Commodus' life.[[34]] After a few botched efforts, an orchestrated plot was carried out early in December 192, apparently including his mistress Marcia. On 31 December an athlete named Narcissus strangled him in his bath,[[35]] and the emperor's memory was cursed. This brought an end to the Antonine Dynasty.


SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY
Alföldy, G. "Der Friedesschluss des Kaisers Commodus mit den Germanen," Historia 20 (1971): 84-109.

Aymard, J. "Commode-Hercule foundateur de Rome," Revue des études latines 14 (1936): 340-64.

Birley, A. R. The African Emperor: Septimius Severus. -- rev. ed.-- London, 1988.
________. Marcus Aurelius: A Biography. London, 1987.

Breckenridge, J. D. "Roman Imperial Portraiture from Augustus to Gallienus," ANRW 2.17. 1 (1981): 477-512.

Chantraine, H. "Zur Religionspolitik des Commodus im Spiegel seiner Münzen," Römische Quartalschrift für christliche Altertumskunde und für Kirchengeschichte 70 (1975): 1-31.

Ferguson, J. The Religions of the Roman Empire. Ithaca, 1970.

Fishwick, D. The Imperial Cult in the Latin West. Leiden, 1987.

Gagé, J. "La mystique imperiale et l'épreuve des jeux. Commode-Hercule et l'anthropologie hercaléenne," ANRW 2.17.2 (1981), 663-83.

Garzetti, A. From Tiberius to the Antonines. A History of the Roman Empire A. D. 14-192. London, 1974.

Grosso F. La lotta politica al tempo di Commodo. Turin, 1964.

Hammond, M. The Antonine Monarchy. Rome, 1956.

Helgeland, J. "Roman Army Religion," ANRW II.16.2 (1978): 1470-1505.

Howe, L. L. The Praetorian Prefect from Commodus to Diocletian (A. D. 180-305). Chicago, 1942.

Keresztes, P. "A Favorable Aspect of Commodus' Rule," in Hommages à Marcel Renard 2. Bruxelles, 1969.

Mattingly, R. The Roman Imperial Coinage. Volume III: Antoninus Pius to Commodus. London, 1930.

Nock, A. D. "The Emperor's Divine Comes," Journal of Roman Studies 37 (1947): 102-116.

Parker, H. M. D. A History of the Roman World from A. D. 138 to 337. London, 1935.
________. and B.H. Warmington. "Commodus." OCD2, col. 276.

Raubitschek, A. E. "Commodus and Athens." Studies in Honor of Theodore Leslie Shear. Hesperia, Supp. 8, 1948.

Rostovtzeff, M. I. "Commodus-Hercules in Britain," Journal of Roman Studies 13 (1923): 91-105.

Sordi, M. "Un senatore cristano dell'éta di Commodo." Epigraphica 17 (1959): 104-112.

Speidel, M. P. "Commodus the God-Emperor and the Army," Journal of Roman Studies 83 (1993): 109-114.

Stanton, G. R. "Marcus Aurelius, Lucius Verus, and Commodus: 1962-1972." ANRW II.2 (1975): 478-549.

Notes
[[1]] For a discussion of the circumstances surrounding the death of Marcus Aurelius, see A. R. Birley, Marcus Aurelius: A Biography -- rev. ed. -- (London, 1987), 210.
Aurelius Victor, De Caes. 16.4, writing around the year 360, claimed Aurelius died at Vindobona, modern Vienna. However, Tertullian, Apol. 25, who wrote some seventeen years after Marcus' death, fixed his place of death at Sirmium, twenty miles south of Bononia. A. R. Birley (Marcus Aurelius, 209-10) cogently argues Tertullian is much more accurate in his general description of where Marcus was campaigning during his last days.
For the dating of Marcus Aurelius' death and the accession of Commodus, see M. Hammond, The Antonine Monarchy (Rome, 1956), 179-80.

[[2]] For the army's attitude toward peace, the attitude of the city toward the peace, and the reception of the emperor and his forces into Rome, see Herodian, 1.7.1-4; for Commodus' subsequent political policies concerning the northern tribes, see G. Alföldy, "Der Friedesschluss des Kaisers Commodus mit den Germanen," Historia 20 (1971): 84-109.
For a commentary on the early years of Commodus in the public perception as days of optimism, see A. Garzetti, From Tiberius to the Antonines. A History of the Roman Empire A. D. 14-192 (London, 1974), 530. For a more critical, and much more negative portrayal, see the first chapter of F. Grosso, La lotta politica al tempo di Commodo (Turin, 1964).

[[3]]The gods Minerva and Jupiter Victor are invoked on the currency as harbingers of victory; Jupiter Conservator on his coins watches over Commodus and his Empire, and thanks is given to divine Providence (H. Mattingly, The Roman Imperial Coinage. Volume III: Antoninus Pius to Commodus, [London, 1930] 356-7, 366-7). In 181, new coin types appear defining the new reign of Commodus. Victory and peace are stressed. Coins extol Securitas Publica, Felicitas, Libertas, Annona, and Aequitas (ibid., 357).
By 186 Commodus is depicted as the victorious princes, the most noble of all born to the purple. Herodian (1.5.5) describes how Commodus boasted to his soldiers that he was born to be emperor. See also H. Chantraine, "Zur Religionspolitik des Commodus im Spiegel seiner Münzen," Römische Quatralschrift für christliche Altertumskunde und für Kirchengeschichte 70 (1975), 26. He is called Triumphator and Rector Orbis, and associated with the Nobilitas of Trojan descent (Mattingly, RIC III.359; idem, Coins of the Roman Empire in the British Museum. Volume IV: Antoninus Pius to Commodus, [Oxford, 1940], clxii).

[[4]] Dio tells us that Commodus liked giving gifts and often gave members of the populace 140 denarii apiece (Cass. Dio, 73.16), whereas the Historia Augusta reports that he gave each man 725 denarii (SHA, Comm., 16.3).

[[5]]Mattingly, RIC, III.358.

[[6]] Idem., CBM, IV.clxxiv.

[[7]]Cass. Dio, 73.16.

[[8]]M. P. Speidel, "Commodus the God-Emperor and the Army," Journal of Roman Studies 83 (1993), 113.

[[9]]Mattingly, CBM, IV.xii. Commodus was also popular amongst the northern divisions of the army because he allowed them to wield axes in battle, a practice banned by all preceding emperors. See, Speidel, JRS 83 (1993), 114.

[[10]]Infra, n. 34.

[[11]] H. Parker and B.H. Warmington, OCD2, s.v. "Commodus," col. 276; after 189, he was influenced by his mistress Marcia, Eclectus his chamberlain, and Laetus (who became praetorian prefect in 191 (Idem.).

[[12]]Herodian, 1.14.8. Hadrian appears on medallions in lion skins; but as far as the sources tell us, he never appeared in public in them. See J. Toynbee, Roman Medallions,(New York, 1986), 208.
He would often appear at public festivals and shows dressed in purple robes embroidered with gold. He would wear a crown made of gold, inlaid with the finest gems of India. He often carried a herald's staff as if imitating the god Mercury. According to Dio Cassius, Commodus' lion's skin and club were carried before him in the procession, and at the theaters these vestiges of Hercules were placed on a gilded chair for all to see (Cass. Dio, 73.17). For the implications of the golden chair carried in procession in relation to the imperial cult, see D. Fishwick, The Imperial Cult in the Latin West, (Leiden, 1987-91 ), 555.

[[13]] H. M. D. Parker, A History of the Roman World from A. D. 138 to 337, (London, 1935), 34; For medallions that express the relationship between Antoninus Pius, Marcus Aurelius, and Lucius Verus extolling Hercules as a symbol of civic virtue, see Toynbee, Roman Medallions, 208. For a general statement on the symbolism of Hercules in the Antonine age, see M. Hammond, The Antonine Monarchy, 238.
For a discussion of Commodus' association with Hercules, see
Rostovtzeff, "Commodus-Hercules," 104-6.
Herodian spells out the emperor's metamorphosis in detail (1.14.8).

[[14]]See Speidel, "Commodus the God-Emperor," 114. He argues this general date because a papyrus from Egypt's Fayum records Hercules in Commodus' title on 11 October 192.

[[15]]For a preliminary example, Herodian writes (1.13.8), "people in general responded well to him."

[[16]]As Dio reports, Commodus, with his own hands, gave the finishing stroke to five hippopotami at one time. Commodus also killed two elephants, several rhinoceroses, and a giraffe with the greatest of ease. (Cass. Dio, 73.10), and with his left hand (ibid., 73.19). Herodian maintains that from his specially constructed terrace which encircled the arena (enabling Commodus to avoid risking his life by fighting these animals at close quarters), the emperor also killed deer, roebuck, various horned animals, lions, and leopards, always killing them painlessly with a single blow. He purportedly killed one hundred leopards with one hundred javelins, and he cleanly shot the heads off countless ostriches with crescent-headed arrows. The crowd cheered as these headless birds continued to run around the amphitheater (1.15-4-6; for Commodus' popularity at these brutal spectacles, see Birley, The African Emperor, 86) (and Dio tells his readers that in public Commodus was less brutal than he was in private [73.17ff]).

[[17]] According to Herodian (1.15-17), "In his gladiatorial combats, he defeated his opponents with ease, and he did no more than wound them, since they all submitted to him, but only because they knew he was the emperor, not because he was truly a gladiator."

[[18]]Webber, "The Antonines," CAH, XI.360.

[[19]]Cass. Dio, 73.15.

[[20]] Mattingly, RIC, III.361. For Commodus' propaganda of peace, see W. Webber, "The Antonines," CAH, XI.392.

[[21]] W. Webber, "The Antonines," CAH, XI.392-3. In 189 a coin type was issued with the legend Romulus Conditor, perhaps indicating he began the official renaming process during that year. For a discussion on Commodus as Romulus, see A. D. Nock, "The Emperor's Divine Comes," Journal of Roman Studies 37 (1947), 103.

[[22]] HA, Comm. 7.1; Cass. Dio, 73.15.

[[23]]Mattingly, RIC, III.361. See also, Webber, "The Antonines," CAH, XI.386.

[[24]]The title Felix is first used by the emperor Commodus, and is used in the titles of almost all successive emperors to the fifth century. See, D. Fishwick, The Imperial Cult in the Latin West (Leiden, 1987-91), 473.
HA, Comm., 12.315; Cass. Dio, 73.15; Herodian, I.14.9. These new names for the months seem to have actually been used, at least by the army, as confirmed by Tittianus' Altar. See M. P. Speidel, "Commodus the God-Emperor and the Army," Journal of Roman Studies 83 (1993), 112.

[[25]] Cass. Dio, 73.15.

[[26]]Legions:Idem.; the Grain fleet: SHA, Comm., 12.7. For a further discussion of Commodus' newly named fleet, see, A. Garzetti, From Tiberius to the Antonines, 547. For coins issued extolling the fleet, see Mattingly, CBM, IV.clxix; RIC, III.359; the Senate: Cass. Dio, 73.15; the Imperial Palace: SHA, Comm., 12.7; the Roman People: Ibid., 15.5.

[[27]]Cass. Dio, 73.15.

[[28]]Mattingly, CBM, IV.clxxxiv.

[[29]]Eusebius, Hist.Ecc., 5.21.1.

[[30]]For a discussion of the treatment of Christianity during the reigns of Marcus Aurelius and Commodus as well as persecutions during the reign of Commodus, see Keresztes, "A Favorable Aspect," 374, 376-377.

[[31]]Herodian, 1.16.4; Dio, 73.4. A Medallion from early 192 shows Commodus juxtaposed with the goddess Roma, which some scholars have argued incorporates the features of Marcia. See, Roman Medallions, "Introduction." Commodus was married, however, to a woman named Crispina. He commissioned several coins early in his rule to honor her.

[[32]]The Christian apologist Hippolytus tells that she was a Christian (Philos. 9.2.12), Dio tells that she simply favored the Christians (73.4). Herodian does not take a stand on the matter either way (1.16.4).

[[33]]Cass. Dio, 73.15. He pronounces Commodus' edict that his rule should be henceforth called the "Golden Age."

[[34]]H. Parker and B.H. Warmington note that Commodus..."resorted to government by means of favorites...which was exacerbated by an abortive conspiracy promoted by Lucilla and Ummidius Quadratus (182)." (OCD2, col. 276).

[[35]]Herodian, 1.17.2-11; Dio Cass., 73.22; SHA, Comm.,17.1-2.

Copyright (C) 1998, Dennis Quinn. This file may be copied on the condition that the entire contents, including the header and this copyright notice, remain intact. Used by Permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.


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