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QuinAugusto.jpg
48 viewsAR Quinarius - OCTAVIAN - Uncertain Italian mint - 29-27 BC.
Obv.: CAESAR IMP VII, bare head right
Rev.:ASIA RECEPTA, Victory standing left on cista mystica between two serpents erect.
gs. 1,7 mm. 13,4
RIC 276, Sear RCV 1568
Maxentius
india_elephant.jpg
75 viewsstruck under Tipu Sultan (1782 - 1799 n. Chr.)
uncertain mint in Mysore, India
10.95 g, 23 mm
Obv: Elephant walking left
Rev.: Tusk, symbol of ruler
areich
DenCCatone.jpg
27 viewsDenarius - 123 BC (Grueber 150/125 BC) - Mint of Rome (Crawford). Uncertain mint in Italy (Grueber)
C. [PORCIVS] CATO - Gens Porcia
Obv.: Helmeted head of Roma right, X behind
Rev.: Victory in biga right holding reins and whip; C CATO below, ROMA in ex.
Gs. 3,9 mm. 18,9
Craw. 274/1, Sear RCV 149, BMRRC II 461.



Maxentius
Oncia3.jpg
11 viewsUncia - 217-215 BC - Rome mint
Anonymous
Obv.: Helmeted head of Roma left, pellet behind.
Rev.:Prow right, ROMA above, pellet below.
Gs. 12,4 mm. 25,43
Crawf. 38/6, Sear RCV 615.



Maxentius
1a.JPG
65 viewsAnd. II / Michael IX, aEF. The coin is common, but is RARE uncliped.2 comments+Alexios
Semuncia2.jpg
44 viewsÆ Semuncia - Anonymous - 217-215 B.C.
Obv.: Head of Mercury right wearing petasos
Rev.: Prow of galley right; ROMA above.
Gs. 4 mm. 18,80x19,85
Crawford 38/7; Sear RCV 620, Grueber 129.

Maxentius
Semuncia.jpg
44 viewsAE Semuncia - Anonymous - 217/215 B.C.
Obv.:Head of Mercury right wearing petasos
Rev.: Prow of galley right; ROMA above.
Gs. 4,7 mm. 19,64x19,95
Crawford 38/7; Sear RCV 620, Grueber 129.
Maxentius
Twosoldiers.jpg
89 viewsDN CONSTANTINVS PF AVG

New photo of one of my first coins. From an uncleaned lot.

I never did get around to attributing it!
Jay GT4
01115q00.jpg
12 viewsJustin I, 518-527. Pentanummium (Bronze, 11 mm, 1.86 g, 7 h), uncertain mint. [...] Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of Justin I to left. Rev. The Tyche of Antioch seated left; to left, Є. Cf. DOC 57 var., MIB 678 var. and SB 111 var. (all with bust to right). A curious coin with the portrait facing left instead of right, possibly a contemporary imitation. Very fine. Quant.Geek
britannicus01.jpg
45 viewsAE sestertius. Struck under Claudius, circa 50-54 AD, uncertain eastern provincial mint located in the modern-day Balkans.
Obv : TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG F BRITANNICVS, draped bust left.
Rev : - No legend, Mars advancing left, holding spear and shield, SC in fields. 35mm, 19.4g. Extremely Rare.

Ref : BMCRE 226
Cohen 2
RCV 1908, valued at $32,000 in Fine, which is a few multiples greater than any other sestertius issued during the several centuries the denomination was in use.
A large number of the surviving examples of this series (one may even suggest a majority of them), due to their rarity, have been subjected to modern alteration techniques such as smoothing, tooling, and repatination. As such, it's actually pleasant to see a bit of field roughness and a 'plain brown' patina of old copper on this example, evidence that it is just as ugly as it was the day it was last used in circulation back in Ancient Rome.
Britannicus, originally known as Germanicus after Claudius' older brother, was the emperor's original intended heir and natural son. Machinations by Agrippina II eventually saw Britannicus supplanted by her own son Nero, (by Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus) who took the throne upon Claudius' suspicious death. Britannicus himself died a few years later, reportedly poisoned by his step-brother. The future emperor Titus and Britannicus were close friends, and Titus became quite ill and nearly died after eating from the same poisoned dish that killed Britannicus.
R. Smits, Numismatist for Numismall
Pseudo_Rhodian.jpg
90 viewsMacedonian Kingdom, Perseus, 179 - 168 B.C., Pseudo-Rhodian Coinage; Silver drachm, Ashton Pseudo-Rhodian Mainland pp. 29 - 30, Larissa Hoard p. 241 (N. Greece), SNG Keckman 793 - 795 (Thessaly), SNG Cop suppl. 358 (Peraea Rodia), EF, rose toning on luster, uncertain Thessaly mint, weight 2.675g, maximum diameter 16.8mm, die axis 180o, magistrate Hermias, c. 171 - 170 B.C.; obverse head of Helios facing slightly right; reverse ERMIAS (magistrate), rose, with bud right, I - W flanking stem

Ex: Forum (coin and picture)
6 commentspaul1888
GREEKUncleaned.jpg
17 viewsAntonivs Protti
adadd.jpg
24 viewsCeltic, Bastarnae Tribe, Thrace, c. 220 - 160 B.C., Imitative of Macedonian Kingdom Type

The Bastarnae were an important ancient people of uncertain, but probably mixed Germanic-Celtic-Sarmatian, ethnic origin, who lived between the Danube and the Dnieper (Strabo, Geography, VII, 3,17) during the last centuries B.C. and early centuries A.D. The etymology of their name is uncertain, but may mean 'mixed-bloods' (compare 'bastard'), as opposed to their neighbours the East Germanic Scirii, the 'clean-' or 'pure-bloods.'

32899. Bronze AE 16, imitative of SNG Cop 1299 (Macedonian Kingdom, time of Philip V and Perseus, 221 - 168 B.C.), Fair/Fine, 2.168g, 16.3mm, obverse Celtic-style bust of river-god Strymon right; reverse Trident
Patrick O3
Samos_didrachm.jpg
105 viewsIslands off Ionia, Samos. Circa 310-300 BC. AR Didrachm (6.24 gm, 19mm). Asklepiades. Obv.: lion’s mask facing. Rev.: ΣΑ / [Α]ΣΚΛΗΠΙΑΔ[ΗΣ] Forepart of an ox to right, with a dotted truncation and an olive branch to right. Barron p. 214, 2 b (this coin). Ex:Münzen und Medaillen AG, Basel - fixed price list 169 (1957), lot 183 commentspaul1888
image00067.jpg
38 viewsIndia, Pre-Mauryan Empire. Anonymous. Ca. 500-400 B.C. AR karshapana (20.1 mm, 1.62 g). 4 punches: elephant left with double crescent above, 5 crescents around annulets with dot in center (cf. R-195), three fish swimming around annulet with pellets around (cf. R-232)SpongeBob
ACR-892A.jpg
25 viewsGUPTA: Skandagupta, ca. 455-480, lead square unit (2.45g), cf. Pieper-892/893, facing Garuda standing on snake-like object / Brahmi legend, with extra Brahmi legend below, chakra and uncertain object aboveSpongeBob
unknown-provincial.jpg
25 viewsRoman Provincial Trajan, AE23, of Tabae, Caria, 5.1g, 24mm

Obverse: AVK A TPAIANOC APIΓCΔA, Laureate head right.

Reverse: TABHNΩN, Demeter, polos on head, standing left, holding grain ears, bunch of grapes and sceptre.

Reference: SNG Cop 559, Hunter 4.
Gil-galad
Sear-336.jpg
16 viewsJustinian I. 527-565. Æ Decanummium (16mm, 2.75 g). Uncertain mint. Helmeted and cuirassed bust facing, holding globus cruciger and shield / Large six-pointed star within wreath. DOC 368; MIBE 239 (Ravenna); SB 336. VF, dark green patina. An attractive example of this rare issue. Quant.Geek
4402530l.jpg
38 viewsslands off Attica. Aegina circa 350-338 BC. Drachm AR
Islands off Attica. Aegina circa 350-338 BC.
Drachm AR

17mm., 5,53g.

A-[I] across field, land tortoise with segmented shell / A-IΓI in upper sections of refined skew punch, to lower left, dolphin.

Milbank pl. III, 5; SNG Copenhagen 525; HGC 6, 444.
3 commentspaul1888
IMG_9235.JPG
5 viewsAnonymous. Circa 270 BC. Æ Aes Grave Triens (48mm, 93.00 g, 12h). Rome mint. Head of horse right; [••••] (mark of value) below / Head of horse left; [••••] (mark of value) below. Crawford 18/3 (Uncertain mint); ICC 35; HN Italy 281. Fine, gray-green patina, some earthen deposits, a little flaky in parts.

From the Collection of a Director.
ecoli
Sear-328.jpg
8 viewsJustinian I. 527-565. Æ Decanummium (17mm, 3.46 g, 6h). Uncertain mint, possibly Perugia. Dated RY 26 (552/3). Diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right / Large I; cross above, date across field; P. DOC 357; MIBE 101a; SB 328. VF, dark green patina, minor roughness. Rare.


Quant.Geek
image00327.jpg
19 viewsHeraclius & Heraclius Constantine overstruck on Phocas & Leontia . 610-641 / 602-610. Æ follis (26.89 mm, 8.78 g, 6 h). Host coin, Theopolis (Antioch) mint, 602-610 / after 610. overstrike, Thessalonica mint. Overstrike: fragmentary, d N hЄRA[CLIЧS PP AVG] Host coin, also fragmentary, [O N FOCA] NЄ PЄ [AV] , Overstrike: Heraclius (on left, and Heraclius constantine, barely visible on right) standing facing, each holding globus cruciger, cross between their heads Host coin: Phocas on left and Leontia standing facing; Emperor holds globus cruciger, Empress holds cruciform scepter; cross between their heads / Overstrike, large M between A / N / N / O and date (not struck-up), cross above, B below, ΘЄC in exergue Host coin, large m between [A / N /] N / O and date (unclear) cross above, ThЄЧP' in exergue. Host coin, Cf. SBCV 671; Overstrike, Cf. SBCV 824. VF for type, dark green patina on devices, lighter encrustation on fields - overstrike at ~ 90º ccw.

multiply struck: host coin is Phocas & Leontia from Antioch, SBCV 671 or similar overstrike, at ~ 90º ccw, is Heraclius from Thessalonica
Quant.Geek
dm2944.jpg
8 viewsRoman looking AE20 with Pietas reverse. Uncertain late Roman imitative coin. 4.65g.
David C13
rjb_01_07_09.jpg
"Boulogne" (VI) 14b40 viewsMaximianus I 286-305 AD
AE Follis
Obv: IMP C MAXIMIANVS PF AVG
Laureate bust right
Rev: GENIO POPVLI ROMANI
Genius standing left
-/-//-
Uncertain continental mint (Boulogne?) operating around the time of the British invasion
RIC (VI) Lyon 14b
mauseus
rjb_fol4_01_09.jpg
"Boulogne" (VI) 17a41 viewsConstantius I as Caesar 293-305 AD
AE Follis
Obv: FL VAL CONSTANTIVS NOB C
Laureate bust right
Rev: GENIO POPVLI ROMANI
Genius standing left
-/-//-
Uncertain continental mint (Boulogne?) operating around the time of the British invasion
RIC (VI) Lyon 17a
mauseus
Augustus_RPC_1565.jpg
2 Augustus RPC 156517 viewsAUGUSTUS
Æ of Parium or Philippi, 27 BC-14 AD

AVG, head of Augustus r./ Two colonists ploughing with a pair of oxen right.

RPC 1565 (uncertain, Philippi?); SNG BN 1439.
RI0011
Sosius
Tiberius_RIC_90.jpg
3 Tiberius Countermarked AE 3028 viewsTIBERIUS
AE30 of uncertain mint in Commagene
19-20 A.D.

Laureate head right, with countermark: head of Hercules within circle / Winged caduceus between two cornucopiae.

RIC 89, RPC 3868. RIC 89. BMC 174.
Thanks to FORVM member R. Smits for helping to ID the countermark.
RI0053
1 commentsSosius
Vindex_denarius.jpg
6.75 Revolt of Vindex53 viewsRevolt Against Nero, Gaius Iulius Vindex, Governor of Gallia Lugdunensis, c. Late 67 - May 68 A.D.

Struck by Gaius Iulius Vindex, the Roman governor of Gallia Lugdunensis, who rebelled against Nero's tax policy and declared allegiance to Galba, the governor of Hispania Tarraconensis, as the new emperor. Vindex was defeated and killed in battle near Vesontio (modern Besançon), but the military continued to support Galba. On 9 June 68, deserted by the Praetorian Guard, Nero stabbed himself in the throat.

Silver denarius, Unpublished, civil war restitution of Augustus, gF, porosity, marks, uncertain (Lugdunum?) mint, weight 3.167g, maximum diameter 19.0mm, die axis 180o, c. late 67 - May 68 A.D.; obverse CAESAR, bare head of Augustus right; reverse AVGVSTVS, young bull walking right, head turned facing; ex Roma Numismatics e-auction 6, lot 321; only two examples known to Forum

Purchased from FORVM
2 commentsSosius
anixk.jpg
Antiochus IX Kyzikenos14 viewsSeleukid Kings of Syria. Antiochos IX Eusebes Philopator (Kyzikenos) Æ18. Uncertain mint, probably in Phoenicia. Struck 112-101 BCE.
Obverse Winged bust of Eros right
Reverse: BASILEOS ANTIOCOU FILOPATOROS Nike advancing left, holding wreath; no controls or date visible. SC 2388; HGC 9, 1254; cf. DCA 300. 5.5g, 20.2mm,
sold 2-2018
NORMAN K
procopius.jpg
Procopius AE3, 365 CE.26 viewsObverse: D N PROCO-PIVS P F AVG, diademed, draped and cuirassed bust left.
Reverse: REPARATIO FEL TEMP, Emperor standing facing, head right, holding labarum in right hand and resting left hand on shield. Chi-ro at top right.
Uncertain mint, 17.2 mm, 2.4 g.
NORMAN K
rjb_car_cf121.jpg
121cf50 viewsCarausius 287-93 AD
AE antoninianus
Obv "IMP CARAVSIVS PF AVG"
Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev "PAX AVG"
Pax standing left with transverse sceptre
Uncertain mint
V/star//-
RIC - (cf 121)
This coin clearly copies the coins of Victorinus from Mint I (Trier), third issue.
mauseus
rjb_car_178cf_09_05.jpg
178cf57 viewsCarausius 287-93AD
Antoninianus
Obv “IMP CARAVSIVS P.....”
Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev “VICTORIA GERM”
Trophy of arms, two captives beneath
Uncertain mint,
mintmark off flan
RIC - (cf 178?)
1 commentsmauseus
rjb_spain4_08_05.jpg
260 viewsObverse
VIII over S
Reverse
unclear
mauseus
Macrinus_Sby_2965.jpg
27 Macrinus19 viewsMACRINUS
AR Tetradrachm of Phoenicia, Tyre. AD 217-8. (11g, 25.6mm)

AYT K M OP CE MAKPINOC CE, laureate bust right, with drapery at front of truncation / DHMAPX EX YPATOC PP, eagle standing on club facing, head left, murex shell between legs.

Prieur 1555
Sosius
AUGUDU03-2.jpg
28 BC Colony established at Nemausus by Augustus' army409 viewsmedium bronze (dupondius or as?) (12.6g, 25mm, 2h) Nemausus mint. Struck 10 BC - 10 AD.
IMP DIVI F Agrippa laureate head left and Augustus laureate head right, back to back
COL NEM crocodile chained to palm tree top bent to right, wreath at top.
RIC (Augustus) 158

Denomination uncertain. COL NEM stands for COLONIA AVGVSTA NEMAVSVS (present Nîmes, France), built by Augustus' army after their conquest and return from Egypt. The crocodile chained to the palm tree symbolizes the defeat of the Cleopatra and Marc Antony at Actium.
2 commentsCharles S
CaliDu01-2.jpg
37 AD Dedication of the temple of Divus Augustus276 viewsorichalcum dupondius (29mm). Rome mint. Struck AD 37.
CONSENSV SENAT·ET·EQ·ORDIN·P·Q·R Gaius seated left on curule chair
DIVVS AVGVSTVS S C radiate head of Augustus facing left
RIC (Gaius) 56; Cohen (August) 87; Foss (Roman historical coins) 60:4
ex old British (Oxford) collection

Minted under Caligula on the occasion of the dedication of a temple to Divus Agustus; the identity of the seated person is uncertain but probably Gaius. The legend 'ET EQ' refers to 'EQVES' (pl. EQVITES), 'horseman'. In the early empire, they were the holders of administrative posts of a class second only to the senators.
In the picture the obverse and reverse have accidentally been switched around.
Charles S
rjb_car_11_08.jpg
449cf39 viewsCarausius 287-93AD
Antoninianus
Obv "IMP C CARAVSIVS PF AVG"
Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev "FIDES MILIT"
Fides standing left holding two standards
Uncertain mint
S/C//
RIC - (cf 449)
mauseus
rjb_05_07_09.jpg
45724 viewsCarausius 287-93AD
Antoninianus
Obv "IMP C CARAVSIVS P AVG"
Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev "LAETITIA AVG"
Laetitia standing left holding anchor and wreath
Uncertain mint
S/C//
RIC 457
mauseus
rjb_car_465cf_09_05.jpg
465cf32 viewsCarausius 287-93AD
Antoninianus
Obv “IMP C CARAVSIVS P AVG”
Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev “MARTI PACIFER”
Mars walking left holding branch, spear and shield
Uncertain mint
S/C//-
RIC - (cf 465-6)
mauseus
rjb_car465cf_07_07.jpg
465cf35 viewsCarausius 287-93AD
Antoninianus
Obv "IMP C CARAVSIVS PF I AVG"
Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev "MARTI PACIFE"
Mars walking left holding branch, spear and shield
Uncertain mint
S/P//
RIC - (cf 465)
mauseus
rjb_2010_03_17.jpg
465cf26 viewsCarausius 287-93AD
Antoninianus
Obv "IMP C CARAVSIVS P AVG"
Radiate, cuirassed bust right
Rev "MARTI PACIFE"
Mars walking left holding branch, spear and shield
Uncertain mint
S/C//
RIC - (cf 465)
mauseus
rjb_car_469cf_05_05.jpg
469cf24 viewsCarausius 287-93
Antoninianus
Obv"IMP C CARAVSIVS P AVG"
Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev "MONET AVG"
Moneta standing left holding cornucopia and scales
Uncertain mint
S/C//-
RIC - (cf 469)
mauseus
rjb_carausius_oriens_473.jpg
47343 viewsCarausius 287-93 AD
AE antoninianus
Obv " IMP C CARAVSIVS PF AVG"
Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev "ORIENS AVG"
Sol standing left, and raised
Uncertain mint
S/P//-
RIC 473
Same reverse die as Hunter 130
mauseus
rjb_car_475_01_05.jpg
47538 viewsCarausius 287-93AD
Antoninianus
Obv "IMP C CARAVSIVS PF AVG"
Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev "PAX AVG"
Pax standing left with vertical sceptre
Uncertain mint
S/P//
RIC 475
mauseus
rjb_2016_02_19.jpg
47512 viewsCarausius 287-93AD
Antoninianus
Obv "IMP C CARAVSIVS PF AVG"
Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev "PAX AVG"
Pax standing left with vertical sceptre
Uncertain mint, possibly irregular
S/P//
RIC 475
mauseus
rjb_2016_02_16.jpg
47513 viewsCarausius 287-93AD
Antoninianus
Obv "IMP C CARAVSIVS PF AVG"
Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev "PAX AVG"
Pax standing left with vertical sceptre
Uncertain mint
S/C//
RIC 475
mauseus
rjb_2018_01_06.jpg
47614 viewsCarausius 287-93AD
Antoninianus
Obv "IMP C CARAVSIVS P AVG"
Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev "PAX AVG"
Pax standing left with vertical sceptre
Uncertain mint
S/C//
RIC 476
mauseus
rjb_2016_01_06.jpg
48212 viewsCarausius 287-93AD
Antoninianus
Obv "IMP C CARAVSIVS PF I AVG"
Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev "PAX AVG"
Pax standing left with vertical sceptre
Uncertain mint
S/P//
RIC 482
mauseus
rjb_car_487cf_replace.jpg
487cf38 viewsCarausius 287-93AD
Antoninianus
Obv "IMP C CARAVSIVS PF IN AVG"
Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev "PAX AVG"
Pax standing left with vertical sceptre
Uncertain mint
S/P//
RIC - (cf 487)
mauseus
rjb_spain1_08_05.jpg
582 viewsObverse
PHILIPPVS monogram
Crowned date (unclear, 1641?)
Cartouche date (unclear)
Reverse
REX monogram
Cartouche 8
VIII over MD
mauseus
rjb_car_527_10_05.jpg
52734 viewsCarausius 287-93AD
AE antoninianus
Obv "IMP C CARAVSIVS PF AVG"
Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev "VIRTVS AVG"
Mars walking right holding spear (and shield?)
S/C//-
Uncertain mint
RIC 527
mauseus
rjb_laur_unc.jpg
719cf?41 viewsCarausius 287-93AD
AE Laureate
Obv: "...CARAVSIV........."
Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev: "..........V"
Pax (?) standing left with vertical sceptre
Unmarked mint
RIC - (cf 719?)
mauseus
rjb_carausius_renov roman.jpg
968cf65 viewsCarausius 287-93 AD
AE antoninianus
Obv "IMP CARAVSIVS PF AV"
Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev "RENOV ROMAN"
Wolf and twins right
Unclear mint mark, no mint mark?
RIC - (cf 968?)
1 commentsmauseus
55535q00.jpg
AHG 272 . The Antioch Hoard of Gallienus . Salonina, August 254 - c. September 268 A.D.20 viewsSalonina, August 254 - c. September 268 A.D.
Billon antoninianus . 2.763g, 20.1mm, 0o, Syrian mint, 258 - 260 A.D.
Obverse : CORN SALONINA AVG, diademed and draped bust right, crescent behind
Reverse : CONCORDIA AVGG, emperor and empress standing confronted, clasping hands
Göbl MIR 1691p (Samosata), SRCV III 10630 (uncertain Syrian mint), RIC V 63 (Antioch), Cohen 31, AHG 272 (this coin)
From the Antioch Hoard of Gallienus . Ex Forum
Vladislav D
Antiochus_IX.jpg
Antiochus IX Cyzicenus, 114 - 95 B.C.21 viewsSeleukid Kingdom, Antiochus IX Cyzicenus, 114 - 95 B.C. Ae 18. Weight 5.2g. Obv: Diademed head rt. Rev: Pallas Athena rt. holding shield and spear ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ ΦΙΛΟΠΑΤΟΡΟΣ. BMC 93.23
Antiochus IX Eusebes, ruler of the Greek Seleucid kingdom, was the son of Antiochus VII Sidetes and Cleopatra Thea. Upon the death of his father in Parthia and his uncle Demetrius II Nicator's return to power (129 BC), his mother sent him to Cyzicus on the Bosporus, thus giving him his nickname. He returned to Syria in 116 BC to claim the Seleucid throne from half-brother/cousin Antiochus VIII Grypus, with whom he eventually divided Syria. He was killed in battle by the son of Grypus, Seleucus VI Epiphanes in 96 BC.
ddwau
CABAW_Amulet_BCC_L12.jpg
BCC L1223 viewsLead Amulet
Uncertain Date
2nd-5th Century CE?
Lead Amulet with mirror image Greek inscriptions
Obverse: CΑΒΑW (Lord of Hosts)
Rev: ΡΕΦΑΕΛ (Archangel Raphael)
2.3cm. 2.23 gm. Axis:0
v-drome
T1118LG.jpg
C POBLICIUS Q F. 80 BC89 viewsHelmeted bust of Roma right / Hercules strangling the Nemean lion; bow and quiver at left; club below. Cr. 380/1.

POBLICIA, a plebian family, but of consular rank. Its cognomen on coins is Malleolus. There are fifteen varieties, all of silver, on some of which a small hammer or mallett is engraved, evidently alluding to the surname Malleolus.

The first of Heracles' twelve labours, set by King Eurystheus (his cousin) was to slay the Nemean lion.

According to one version of the myth, the Nemean lion took women as hostages to its lair in a cave near Nemea, luring warriors from nearby towns to save the damsel in distress. After entering the cave, the warrior would see the woman (usually feigning injury) and rush to her side. Once he was close, the woman would turn into a lion and kill the warrior, devouring his remains and giving the bones to Hades.

Heracles wandered the area until he came to the town of Cleonae. There he met a boy who said that if Heracles slew the Nemean lion and returned alive within 30 days, the town would sacrifice a lion to Zeus; but if he did not return within 30 days or he died, the boy would sacrifice himself to Zeus.[3] Another version claims that he met Molorchos, a shepherd who had lost his son to the lion, saying that if he came back within 30 days, a ram would be sacrificed to Zeus. If he did not return within 30 days, it would be sacrificed to the dead Heracles as a mourning offering.

While searching for the lion, Heracles fetched some arrows to use against it, not knowing that its golden fur was impenetrable; when he found and shot the lion and firing at it with his bow, he discovered the fur's protective property when the arrow bounced harmlessly off the creature's thigh. After some time, Heracles made the lion return to his cave. The cave had two entrances, one of which Heracles blocked; he then entered the other. In those dark and close quarters, Heracles stunned the beast with his club and, using his immense strength, strangled it to death. During the fight the lion bit off one of his fingers. Others say that he shot arrows at it, eventually shooting it in the unarmoured mouth.

After slaying the lion, he tried to skin it with a knife from his belt, but failed. He then tried sharpening the knife with a stone and even tried with the stone itself. Finally, Athena, noticing the hero's plight, told Heracles to use one of the lion's own claws to skin the pelt.

When he returned on the thirtieth day carrying the carcass of the lion on his shoulders, King Eurystheus was amazed and terrified. Eurystheus forbade him ever again to enter the city; in future he was to display the fruits of his labours outside the city gates. Eurystheus warned him that the tasks set for him would become increasingly difficult. He then sent Heracles off to complete his next quest, which was to destroy the Lernaean hydra.

The Nemean lion's coat was impervious to the elements and all but the most powerful weapons. Others say that Heracles' armour was, in fact, the hide of the lion of Cithaeron.
ecoli
Celtic.jpg
Celtic Coinage16 viewsContinental Celts & Tribes of Britannia
Gaul: Northwest Gaul: Aulerci Eburovices, Carnutes, Coriosolites, Redones, Senones, Veneti. Northeast Gaul: Ambiani, Remi, Suessiones (Cricironus), Treveri.
Central Gaul: Aediu, Arverni. Sequani (Turonos & Cantorix). Southern Gaul: Massalia (Marseilles), Tolostates, Volcae-Arecomici. Uncertain: Volcae Tectosages, Leuci, Senones.
Britain: Atrebates & Regni (Verica), Cantii (Amminus), CantuvellauniCorieltauvi (Volisios Dumnocoveros), Cunobelin, Dobunni, Durotriges, Epaticcus, Iceni, Trinovantes, Cantuvellauni & Trinovantes (Addedomaros, Caratacus).
Lower Danube: Geto-Dacians. Middle Danube: Hercuniates. Central Europe: Boii. Danubian Celts are also referred to as being from the Carpathian Region, in which there were various tribes, many unknown.
1 commentsChristian T
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ENGLAND, NORMAN, Stephen (1135-1154), Silver Penny, Watford type .31 viewsENGLAND, NORMAN, Stephen (1135-1154), Silver Penny, Watford type .
Mint and moneyer uncertain . 1.0 gr
Crowned and diademed bust of king right, holding sceptre in his right hand .
Cross moline, with a fleur each angle .
North 873; SCBC 1278
Vladislav D
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Honorius 393-423 CE.23 viewsHonorius bronze AE4
Obverse: D N HONORI-VS PF AVG, pearl diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: GLORIA ROMANORVM, Emperor standing left, head right, holding labarum & globe.
Uncertain mint,15.2 mm, 1.4g.
NORMAN K
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INDIA-Panchala-Kingdom-HALF-Karshapana-INDIRAMITRA-RARE-COIN-4-42gm 14 viewsObverse Lord Indra standing on a pedestal
Reverse Three Panchala symbols in a row, with name below in Brahmi script: Indramitrasa
Date c. 1st century BCE - 1st century CE (highly uncertain)
Weight 4.78 gm.
Diameter 16 mm.
Die axis 5 o'clock
Reference MAC 4539, Shrimali Type A
Comments The Panchala series is one of the most interesting of the ancient India coin series, because it is quite long and the kings are named on them. Unfortunately, we know very little about the chronology. The order of kings is not known and even the dates of the series are still debated. It appears the series belongs in the post-Mauryan period, but further details are still unavailable.

You can see a catalog of Panchala coins on the CoinIndia website.
Antonivs Protti
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INDIA-Panchala-Kingdom-HALF-Karshapana-INDIRAMITRA-RARE-COIN-4-6gm 13 viewsObverse Lord Indra standing on a pedestal
Reverse Three Panchala symbols in a row, with name below in Brahmi script: Indramitrasa
Date c. 1st century BCE - 1st century CE (highly uncertain)
Weight 4.78 gm.
Diameter 16 mm.
Die axis 5 o'clock
Reference MAC 4539, Shrimali Type A
Comments The Panchala series is one of the most interesting of the ancient India coin series, because it is quite long and the kings are named on them. Unfortunately, we know very little about the chronology. The order of kings is not known and even the dates of the series are still debated. It appears the series belongs in the post-Mauryan period, but further details are still unavailable.

You can see a catalog of Panchala coins on the CoinIndia website.
Antonivs Protti
19700.jpg
Kroisos, Lydia20 viewsLydian Kingdom. Kroisos. Ca. 564/53-550/39 B.C. AR 1/12 stater (7 mm, 0.80 g). Sardes mint. Confronted foreparts of lion, on left, and bull, in right / Incuse square punch. Berk 26-7; SNG Kayhan 1020-1; Traité I 413. VF, toned.ecoli
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Lysimachos Alexander the Great Portrait Coin117 viewsLysimachos, Portrait of Alexander the Great, Kingdon of Thrace, Silver tetradrachm, (Posthumous issue c. 280 - 200 BC), 16.675g, 30.6mm, die axis 0o, Müller 460, Thompson -, SNG Cop -, SNG UK -, uncertain mint,
OBV: Diademed head of Alexander the Great wearing the horn of Ammon
REV: BASILEWS LUSIMACOU, Athena enthroned left, holding Nike crowning name with wreath in right,
resting left arm on shield at side, transverse spear behind, bow case inner left

EX: Heritage Long Beach Signature Sale (18 Sep 2008), lot 20015; EX: Forum Ancient Coins
3 commentsRomanorvm
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Marcus Aurelius Antoninus “Elagabalus”, 218-222 CE.13 viewsElagabalus, 16 May 218 - 11 March 222 A.D., Markianopolis, Moesia Inferior
Bronze AE
Varbanov 1384, VF, Markianopolis mint, 2.0g, 16mm,
Obverse: AΥT K M AΥΡ ANTΩNINOC, laureate head right.
Reverse:MAΡKIANOΠOΛITΩN, bunch of grapes.
NORMAN K
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Maximianus, AE4 Memorial 22 views
Maximianus 317-318 CE.
Obverse: DIVO MAXIMIANO OPTIMO IMP, veiled & laureate, bust right.
Reverse: REQVIES OPTIM-ORVM MERITORVM, Emperor sitting left on curule chair, raising right hand, holding scepter.
TSR ??? in ex. Uncertain mint, 16.4 mm., .8 g.
NORMAN K
KAFFA_PUL_cm.jpg
Pul with Kaffa c/m5 views
CRIMEA, GOLDEN HORDE, (with Genoese countermark)

Anonymous AE - Pul

Obverse: uncertain Ornament, Kaffa Genoese trading colony; Circular countermark arms of Genoa with partitioned portal, within circular frame of dots.

Reverse: uncertain Ornament

Mint: Uncertain (Bulghar?)

Minted: 14th Century (?) cm - 1420 - 1475

Notes: Fair/Fair(c/m a/VF), Crude

Ref: Retowski, Coins with Genoese Countermarks 2


jimbomar
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SIKYONIA, Sikyon. Obol. AR 11mm. Circa 350-330/20 BC 11 views SIKYONIA, Sikyon. Obol. AR 11mm.
Obv. Laureate head of Apollo right.
Rev. Dove flying right, uncertain monogram above tail feathers.
Lee S
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Thrace, Maroneia AE16mm (5.6g).88 viewsThrace, Maroneia AE16mm (5.6g).
Obverse: Head of Dionysos, wreathed in ivy
Reverse: Dionysos standing left holding bunch of grapes and thyrsos.2173

2 commentsAntonivs Protti
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Xerxes II11 viewsAchaemenid Empire. Time of Darios I to Xerxes II, circa 485-420 BC. Siglos (Silver, 16 mm, 5.38 g), Sardes. Persian king or hero in kneeling/running stance to right, holding spear and bow. Rev. Incuse punch. Carradice Type IIIa/b. Beautifully toned. Very fine.arash p
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Γ in rectangular punch285 viewsLYDIA. Thyatira. Elagabalus. Æ 26. A.D. 218-222. Obv: AVTKMAAN-TΩNEINOC. Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right; countermark on lower part of bust. Rev: (ΘVA)TEIP-HNΩN. Tyche standing left, holding cornucopia and rudder. Ref: BMC -; cf. Sear 3072 (same obv. die). Axis: 165°. Weight: 7.92 g. CM: Γ in rectangular punch, 4 x 5 mm. Howgego 772, 774 or 777 (?). Note: The coin is light for 772, has greater greater diamater than 774 and is not as late as 777. Collection Automan.
Automan
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Δ and KA (monogram of)278 viewsCILICIA. Seleuceia ad Calycadnum. Severus Alexander. Æ 28. A.D. 222-235. Obv: AV▪K▪M▪AVP▪CEOVHPAΛEZA-NΔPO. Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right; 2 countermarks: (1) on chest, (2) partly under (1). Rev: CEΛE(-YKEΩN)KAΛY-KA-ΔNΩ. Tyche of Seleuceia seated left on rock in distyle shrine, holding grains; river-god Calycadnus swimming left below. Ref: BMC -; SNG Levante Supp. 196 (same obv. die, var. rev. leg.). Axis: 195°. Weight: 9.91 g. CM(1): Δ containing dot, in triangular punch, 6 x 5 mm. Howgego 670 (206 pcs). Note: Not likely to be a denominational countermark. CM(2): Monogram of K and A, in shaped punch, 4 x 5 mm. Howgego 618 (52 pcs). Note: The countermark likely refers to Calycadnum. Collection Automan.Automan
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Δ and NIKO294 viewsMOESIA INFERIOR. Nikopolis ad Istrum. Septimius Severus. Æ 27. A.D. 193-211. Obv: (VK)ΛCEΠ•-CEVHPOC (...) or similar. Laureate bust right; countermark (1) on shoulder. Rev: VΠAVP•ΓAΛΛOV•NIKOΠOΛITΠPOCIC. River-god reclining left, leaning against urn (?), holding branch in right hand; Countermark (2) to left. Ref: BMC -. Axis: 60°. Weight: 11.68 g. CM(1): Δ, incuse punch, 7 x 6 mm. Howgego 782 (3 pcs). CM(2): NIKO, incuse, 14 x 5 mm. Howgego 553 (3 pcs, 2 of which on reverse). Note: All coins that have the Δ c/m apparently also bear the NIKO c/m and vice-versa, so they must have been applied at the same time. Collection Automan.Automan
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Δ and Six-pointed star282 viewsCILICIA. Ninica-Claudiopolis. Maximinus I. Æ 28. A.D. 235-238. Obv: IMPCSIVLVERMAXIMINVS. Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right; 2 countermarks: (1) before face, (2) on bust. Rev: NIN-C-CLAV. Colonist ploughing behind two oxen, in background vexillum. Ref: BMC 8. Axis: 360°. Weight: 9.86 g. CM (1): Δ containing dot, all within circle; circular punch, 6 mm. Howgego 669 (49 pcs). Not likely to be a denominational countermark. CM (2): Six-pointed star, incuse, 6 mm from point to point. Howgego 451 (45 pcs). Collection Automan.Automan
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Δ containing dot258 viewsCILICIA. Seleuceia ad Calycadnum. Gordian III. Æ 33. A.D. 238-244. Obv: (ANTΩNI)OC-(ΓΩPΔIAN)OC, (C)EBA. Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right; countermark on neck. Rev: CELEUKEΩ-N-(TΩΠPOCTΩK)-AΛV-KAΔ-NΩ. Athena standing left, holding Nike in right hand and resting left hand on shield, behind which rises a spear. Ref: BMC 37. Axis: 180°. Weight: 19.13 g. CM: Δ containing dot, in triangular punch, c. 6 x 5 mm. Howgego 670 (206 pcs). Note: Not likely to be a denominational countermark. Collection Automan. Automan
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Δ containing dot200 viewsCILICIA. Ninica-Claudiopolis. Maximinus I. Æ 23. A.D. 235-238. Obv: (IMP)MAXIMINVΓPI. Laureate head right; Countermark on neck. Rev: NI-NI-CL-Ω-ΩΔ. Two vexilla. Ref: BMC -. Axis: 180°. Weight: 6.92 g.CM: Δ containing dot, all within circle; circular punch, 6 mm. Howgego 669 (49 pcs). Collection Automan.Automan
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Δ in circular punch231 viewsARABIA PETRAEA. Petra. Septimius Severus. Æ 22. A.D. 193-211. Obv: (…)-CEOYHPON(…). Laureate head right; countermark on shoulder. Rev: (…)-MHTPOΠ(…). Tyche seated left on rock, holding trophy in right hand and stele in extended left hand (?). Ref: Spijkerman 28v; BMC -. Axis: 360°. Weight: 7.24 g. CM: Δ in circular punch, 5 mm. Howgego 801 (19 pcs). Note: May bave been countermarked during reign of Elagabalus, although this is uncertain since the coins of Elagabalus were too small to be countermarked Δ, and no coins were issued after his reign. Collection Automan.Automan
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Δ in circular punch267 viewsIONIA. Smyrna. Civic. Æ 20. Time of Gordian to Valerian. Obv: .IEPACVNKΛHTOC. Laureate and draped bust of the Roman Senate right, countermark on bust. Rev: CMVPΓNE-ΩKOPΩN. Figure of Tyche holding rudder and cornucopia, inside tetrastyle temple. Ref: Ex. Lindgren II:556; BMC 233. Axis: 180°. Weight: 4.95 g. CM: Δ in circular punch, 5.5 mm. Howgego 791 (34 pcs). Note: The countermark was probably not applied before the time of the joint reign of Valerian and Gallienus. Collection Automan.Automan
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Δ in circular punch265 viewsBITHYNIA. Tium. Civic. Æ 24. First half of 3rd century A.D. Obv: .TE-IOC. Diademed and draped bust of Teos right; countermark on neck. Rev: TIAN-ΩN. Dionysus standing facing, head left, emptying contents of cantharus, holding thyrsus. Ref: BMC -; SNG von Aulock 928ff (obverse).Axis: 30°. Weight: 5.72 g. CM: Δ in circular punch, 6 mm. Howgego 789 (34 pcs). Note: The latest coin bearing this countermark was issued for Hostilian. Collection Automan.Automan
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Δ in circular punch252 viewsUncertain mint, likely of Balkan origin. Septimius Severus. Æ 28 (4 Assaria?). A.D. 193-211. Obv: (...)CE(...). Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right; countermark behind head. Rev: Inscription largely obliterated, N (?) in exurge. Artemis (?) running right. Axis: 225°. Weight: 13.09 g. CM: Δ in circular punch. Howgego 781, 783, 784 (?). Note: Δ countermarks have recently been found on many coins of the region, indicating that the coins in question are valued at 4 assaria. Collection Automan.1 commentsAutoman
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Δ in circular punch211 viewsMACEDON (?). Thessalonica (?). Augustus. Æ 22. 27 B.C.- A.D. 14. Obv: KAIΣAP-(ΣEBAΣTOΣ) or similar. Laureate head right; countermark before chin. Rev: Inscription obliterated. City ethnic in wreath. Weight: 9.25 g. CM: Δ in circular punch, 5 mm. Howgego 706 (1 pc). Note: Howgego lists only one (!) coin of the period, where the countermark may be a Δ. That coin was struck for Octavian in Thessalonica, dated to 28/27 B.C. It is listed as "not verified" and the countermark described as A or Δ. In regard to [107], the countermark is very clearly Δ! Collection Automan.Automan
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Δ, 6-pointed star and Nike183 viewsCILICIA. Ninica-Claudiopolis. Maximinus I. Æ 28. A.D. 235-238. Obv: (...MA)XIMINVΓP(A)UTΛ or similar. Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right; 4 countermarks: (1) before face, (2) on shoulder; (3) before chest, (4) behind neck. Rev: (C)-OLN-(I)NI-CLAUΔ. Colonist ploughing behind two oxen, in background vexillum, star before colonist. Ref: BMC 8 (var. obv. leg.). Axis: 210°. Weight: 10.70 g. CM(1): Six-pointed star, incuse, 6 mm from point to point. Howgego 451 (45 pcs). CM(2): Δ containing dot, all within circle; circular punch, 6 mm. . Howgego 669 (49 pcs). Note: Not likely to be a denominational countermark. CM(3-4): Nike right, in oval punch, c. 5 x 8 mm (not certain!). Howgego 262 (34 pcs). Note:The sequence of application appears to have been (1) Δ in circle (669), (2) six-pointed star (451), and (3) Nike (262). Collection Automan.Automan
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Δ, six-pointed star, eagle and Nike (6 cmks!)197 viewsCILICIA. Ninica-Claudiopolis. Maximinus I. Æ 27. A.D. 235-238. Obv: OIMPCSIVLVERMAXIMINVS. Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right; 6 countermarks: (1) to right, before bust, (2) on lower part of bust, (3) on neck, (4) behind and on back of head, (5) on upper part of head, (6) before head. Rev: NINIC-OL-CLA-UΔI, OPOLI in ex. Tetrastyle temple containing emperor, standing left, holding patera and spear. Ref: BMC 10; Sear GIC 3548 (same dies). Axis: 360°. Weight: 9.12 g. CM(1): Δ containing dot, all within circle; circular punch, 6 mm. Howgego 669 (49 pcs). Note: Not likely to be a denominational countermark. CM(2): Six-pointed star, incuse, 6 mm from point to point. Howgego 451 (45 pcs). CM(3): Eagle standing right with head left, in shaped punch, c. 4 x 7 mm. Howgego 338 (11 pcs). CM(4): Nike right, in oval punch, c. 5 x 8 mm. Howgego 262 (34 pcs). CM(5): Similar to CM(4). CM(6): Similar to CM(4). Note: The sequence of application appears to have been 669-451-262-338. Automan
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ΔAK in rectangular punch174 viewsSYRIA: COELE SYRIA. Leucas. Trajan. Æ 22. A.D. 102/103 (year 55). Obv: (AY)KAINEP-TRAIA(NOCΔAK...) or similar. Laureate head right; countermark before. Rev: (ΛEYKAΔIWN)-KΛAYΔIEWN, EN in field. Emperor, holding sceptre, in quadriga galloping right. Ref: BMC 3; Sear GIC 1082. Axis: 30°. Weight: 9.16 g. CM: ΔAK in rectangular punch, 6 x 3 mm. Howgego 529 (43 pcs). Note: Interestingly, the title Dacicus is already part of the inscription of the coin. Collection Automan.Automan
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ΘEC187 viewsMACEDON. Thessalonica. Nero. Æ 27. A.D. 54-68. Obv: KAICAP-NEPWN. Bare head left; countermark on head. Rev: ΘECCA-ΛONIKH. Nike standing left on globe, holding wreath in extended right hand, palm branches in left hand. Ref: BMC -; RPC 1593 (2 pcs). Axis: 15°. Weight: 22.04 g. CM: ΘEC in rectangular punch, 7 x 3 mm. Howgego 537 (7 pcs). Howgego notes that the countermark was probably applied in A.D. 68/69, sanctioning coins of Nero. Collection Automan.Automan
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ΘEC in rectangular punch174 viewsMACEDON. Thessalonica. Nero. Æ 23. A.D. 54-68. Obv: NE(PΩNC)EBAΣΣ-TOΣKAIΣAP (sic.). Bare head left; countermark across neck. Rev: ΘECCAΛ-ONIKH-ΩN in three lines in oak-wreath, eagle at top. Ref: BMC -; RPC 1603 (5 pcs); Axis: 180°. Weight: 7.36 g. Note: The name and face of Nero have been erased (damnatio). CM: ΘEC in rectangular punch, 7 x 3 mm. Howgego 537 (7 pcs). Note: Howgego notes that the countermark was probably applied in A.D. 68/69, sanctioning coins of Nero. He also notes that the application of the countermark was not directly connected with the erasure of the name and face of Nero, since this was done to only one of the seven specimens he identified. Collection Automan.Automan
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ΘY (monogram of)199 viewsLYDIA. Thyatira. Severus Alexander. Æ 20. A.D. 222-235. Obv: AΛEΞ(A)N-ΔPOC. Laureate bust right; countermark on head. Rev: ΘVAT-E-IPHN. Tyche standing left, holding rudder and cornucopia. Ref: BMC -; SNG von Aulock -; SNG Cop -; Lindgren -.Axis: 180°. Weight: 3.76 g. CM: Monogram of Θ and Y, in circular punch, 5 mm. Howgego 617 (11 pcs). Note: Undoubtedly the countermark refers to the city of Thyatira where the host coin was issued. Collection Automan.1 commentsAutoman
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ΘY (monogram of)197 viewsLYDIA. Thyatira. Elagabalus. Æ 26. A.D. 218-222. Obv: AVTKMAAN-TΩNEINOC. Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right; countermark on lower part of bust. Rev: (ΘVAT-E-I-)PHNΩN. Athena seated left, holding palladium in right extended arm, resting left arm on spear, wheel-like shield resing against throne. Ref: BMC 114. Axis: 180°. Weight: 7.60 g. Note: Same obverse die as Sear (GIC) 3072. CM: Monogram of Θ and Y, in circular punch, 5 mm. Howgego 617 (11 pcs). Note: Undoubtedly the countermark refers to the city of Thyatira where the host coin was issued. Collection Automan.Automan
101n.jpg
Λ (or possibly Δ)195 viewsCILICIA. Adana (?). Elagabalus. Æ 34. A.D. 218-222. Obv: AVKMAVPANTΩNEINOCCEΓ (or similar), Π-Π on either side of portrait. Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right; countermark on head. Rev: AΔAN-EΩN (?). Zeus seated left on throne, holding staff in left hand and patera right hand, right arm extended. Ref: BMC -. Axis: 165°. Weight: 22.31 g. CM: Λ (or possibly Δ) in circular punch, 5 mm. Howgego -. Note: Deeply recessed countermark. Collection Automan.Automan
042n.jpg
ΛΓΓ176 viewsSYRIA: SELEUCIS & PIERIA. Gabala. Caracalla. Æ 22. A.D. 198-217. Obv: (AVKMAANTΩNEINOC) or similar. Laureate bust right; countermark across shoulder. Rev: Γ(ABAΛEΩ)N. Tyche standing left, holding rudder and cornucopia. Ref: BMC –Axis: 180°. Weight: 7.53 g. CM: ΛΓΓ in rectangular punch, 7.5 x 4 mm. Howgego 551 (5 pcs). Note: Howgego describes the countermark as either ΛΠ or ΛΓI, while this specimen reads ΛΓΓ. Collection Automan.Automan
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Δ on GETA, AE20 ARABIA PETRAEA.196 viewsARABIA PETRAEA. Petra. Geta. Æ 20. A.D. 198-209 (as Caesar). Obv: (...)ΠCE(...)-(ГETACKAICAP) or similar. Bare-headed, draped and cuirassed bust right; countermark before. Rev: AΔ(PI-ΠEP)TA-MHT. Within distyle temple, Tyche seated left, holding small stele in extended right hand, holding trophy in left hand. Ref: Spijkerman 51. Axis: 330°. Weight: 7.75 g. CM: •Δ• in circular punch, 5.5 mm. Howgego 801 (19 pcs). Collection Automan.Automan
00029x00~0.jpg
92 viewsAugustus. 27 BC-AD 14
Æ Dupondius (25mm, 5.96 g, 1 h)
Balkans region. Imitating a Rome mint issue of an uncertain moneyer. Struck early 1st century AD.
Corrupt legend in two lines within wreath; two imitative countermarks
Large (retrograde S)C
Ardatirion
00017x00~2.jpg
32 viewsSPAIN. Uncertain Municipium Flavium.
PB Tessera (11m, 0.91 g, 7 h)
Bull standing right; G above
MF
Unpublished
Ardatirion
00047x00.jpg
19 viewsSPAIN
PB Tessera (17mm, 4.23 g)
C(VF) within pronounced beaded border
Dolphin(?)
Casariego, Cores, & Pliego -

Ex Classical Numismatic Group Electronic Auction 287, lot 941 (part of)
Ardatirion
00014x00~1.jpg
12 viewsSPAIN, Uncertain Municipium Flavium
PB Tessera (18mm, 5.82 g, 7h)
Prow of galley left
MF/ QF
Casariego, Cores, & Pliego 13a
Ardatirion
00072x00.jpg
23 viewsSPAIN, Uncertain Municipium Flavium
PB Tessera (15mm, 4.02 g)
M/ OF
Blank
Cf. Casariego, Cores, & Pliego 13d (for obverse)
Ardatirion
00006x00~0.jpg
20 viewsUNCERTAIN WESTERN EUROPE
PB Tessera (15mm, 2.88 g)
ASP; c/m: plain punch
Blank
Apparently unpublished.

Possibly ex Trau collection.
Ardatirion
00034x00.jpg
30 viewsROME
PB (?) Tessera (24mm, 5.89 g, 2 h)
· FELICIA, counterclockwise around shield (perhaps a 3rd century oval scutum?)
Bundle of thunderbolts, S C flanking
Unpublished

The metal appears too light for lead and is perhaps pewter or some other alloy. Until the metal content is scientifically analyzed and found to be similar to other ancient objects, I remain unconvinced of it's authenticity.
Ardatirion
uncertain.jpg
39 viewsROME
PB Tessera (18mm, 4.33 g)
Contemporary counterfeit
Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopia, GPR (Genio populi Romani) around
Blank
Rostowzew -

This tessera was cast from fractured molds, likely after the they had been discarded by the mint. It is the only possibly counterfeit tessera I have discovered to date.
Ardatirion
00001x00.jpg
21 viewsROME
PB Tessera (16mm, 3.87 g, 9 h)
Hercules standing left, resting right foot on rock and club on ground
Ram or sheep standing right
Rostowzew – (but cf. 2476, for an uncertain specimen with Hercules/Ram in Florence)
Ardatirion
Y04282.jpg
25 viewsROME
PB Tessera (12mm, 2.26 g, 6h)
Mercury advancing right, holding bag and caduceus
PR/OG
Rostovtzev -

The small, round fabric of this issue is not usual for an issue from Rome. Additionally, the attribution of the obverse figure as Mercury is uncertain. Though he appears to bear the bag and caduceus, the figure is in a pose more traditionally held by Eros.
1 commentsArdatirion
00013x00.jpg
35 viewsROME
PB Tessera (19mm, 2.71 g, 12 h)
Imperial issue (?)
Venus Victrix standing right, resting arm on cippus and holding transverse scepter and clasping hands with Mars, standing left
Fortuna standing left, holding rudder and cornucopia
Rostowzew 153, pl. III 2; München 16-7; Kircheriano 572, 582, 738, and 741

Rostowzew places this with the "Tesserae capitibus et nominibus imperatorum signatae" on the basis of type. In my studies, I have noticed that many of the types bearing Imperial portraiture or names are much more finely engraved, often with a centering dot and pronounced rims.
Ardatirion
00008x00~0.jpg
12 viewsROME
PB Tessera (17mm, 5.32 g, 6 h)
Venus standing left, holding mirror and adjusting hair
Bunch of grapes
Rostowzew – (but cf. 484 for a similar type with Fortuna on the obverse)
Ardatirion
Greek_-_Uncertain_Northern_Greek_1.jpg
32 viewsNORTHERN GREECE, Uncertain
PB Tessera (16mm, 4.01 g)
Boar at bay right
Hound standing right

Ex Classical Numismatics Group 85 (15 September 2010), lot 330a
Ardatirion
Greek_-_Uncertain_Northern_Greek_3.jpg
25 viewsNORTHERN GREECE, Uncertain
PB Tessera (14mm, 3.65 g)
Bull standing right
Pitchfork

Ex Classical Numismatics Group 85 (15 September 2010), lot 330c
Ardatirion
Greek_-_Uncertain_Northern_Greek_4.jpg
21 viewsNORTHERN GREECE, Uncertain
PB Tessera(15mm, 3.98 g)
Female standing left, holding two grain ears
Male(?) reclining left, holding pitchfork

Ex Classical Numismatics Group 85 (15 September 2010), lot 330d
Ardatirion
Greek_-_Uncertain_Northern_Greek_2.jpg
30 viewsNORTHERN GREECE, Uncertain
PB Tessera (16mm, 3.96 g)
Goat standing right
Bunch of grapes hanging from vine

Ex Classical Numismatics Group 85 (15 September 2010), lot 330b
Ardatirion
00008x00~2.jpg
15 viewsTHESSALY, Uncertain. Mid-late 4th century BC?
PB Tessera. By the Eurymenai/Atrax engraver?
Bearded head right
Schematic line (horse's leg right?)
Cf. BCD Thessaly 1024 and 1038 (for similar bearded heads)

From the BCD Collection

BCD suggests that these two matching specimens are the products of an itinerant engraver, who would have used similar lead strickings as a portfolio to present to the various polities of the region. They are not related to the comparatively more common lead pieces of Pherai (Rogers 287; BCD Thessaly I 1305).
Ardatirion
00007x00~2.jpg
16 viewsTHESSALY, Uncertain. Mid-late 4th century BC?
PB Tessera. By the Eurymenai/Atrax engraver?
Bearded head right
Schematic line (horse's leg right?)
Cf. BCD Thessaly 1024 and 1038 (for similar bearded heads)

From the BCD Collection

BCD suggests that these two matching specimens are the products of an itinerant engraver, who would have used similar lead strickings as a portfolio to present to the various polities of the region. They are not related to the comparatively more common lead pieces of Pherai (Rogers 287; BCD Thessaly I 1305).
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wreath1.jpg
24 viewsIONIA, Ephesos
PB Tessera (15mm, 2.54 g)
BOY/Λ/ ΘЄO within wreath
Blank
Gülbay & Kireç -

Apparently issued by the Boule, a local council in charge of civic matters. Theo is either the name of a magistrate or an epithet of the Boule.
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cross1.jpg
18 viewsIONIA, Ephesos
PB Tessera (15mm, 2.66 g)
Deeply punched cross shape with two additional annular punches
Blank
Gülbay & Kireç 153 (lacking the two annular punches)
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Ephesus_cult_statue_tessera.JPG
35 viewsIONIA, Ephesos
PB Tessera (17mm, 2.98 g, 7 h)
Diana Ephesia, uncertain legend around
Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm frond
Gülbay & Kireç -
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00006x00~4.jpg
17 viewsIONIA, Ephesos
PB Tessera
Eagle standing right with wings spread, head left, holding wreath in beak; uncertain legend around
Blank
Gülbay & Kireç -
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00005x00~6.jpg
17 viewsIONIA, Ephesos
PB Tessera
Eagle standing right with wings spread, head left, holding wreath in beak; uncertain legend around
Blank
Gülbay & Kireç -
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00003x00~9.jpg
21 viewsIONIA, Ephesos
PB Tessera
The Charites (the Three Graces) standing, the left and right facing, the middle with back to view; uncertain legend around
Blank
Gülbay & Kireç -
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Augustus_quadrans,_Northern_Gaul_under_Germanus_Indutilli,_c_10_BC.jpg
50 viewsGAUL, Uncertain mint (Treveri?). Augustus. 27 BC-AD 14
Æ Quadrans(?) (17mm, 2.7g)
Germanus Indutilli L(ibertus), magistrate. Struck circa 10 BC.
Diademed male head right
Bull butting left
RPC I 506; RIC I 249; Scheers, Traite" 216
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54465q00.jpg
24 viewsASIA MINOR, Uncertain
PB Tessera (9mm, 0.76 g)
Cornucopia or aplustre(?)
Blank
Gülbay & Kireç -
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Y04281.jpg
36 viewsSYRIA, Uncertain. Eloucion?
Magistrate, 2nd-3rd century AD.
PB Tessera (17mm, 3.06 g, 11 h)
HΛOV CION, bust of Shamash right, atop eagle(?)
Nike advancing left; star above crescent before, wheel below
Unpublished

The bust of Shamash (or perhaps Sol) on the obverse is distinctly Syrian in nature. Additionally, the style is dramatically different from the issues of Asia Minor.
1 commentsArdatirion
Asia_Minor_tessera.jpg
23 viewsUNCERTAIN EAST
Circa 300 BC - 100 AD?
PB Tessera (20mm, 3.79 g)
Two punches: bee, Λ A flanking; Nike advancing facing, head right
Blank
Gülbay & Kireç -; Lang & Crosby -; Howgego -

The first punch depicts a bee with a long, cylindrical body, triangular pointed wings, and globular eyes with the letters Λ and A flanking. A second, added later over the edge of the first, shows Nike striding boldly forward with her head slightly to the right. The elegant engraving of the punches, both unlisted as countermarks in Howgego, contrasts starkly with the rough, unfinished flan. Although the basic types of Nike and a bee are common at Ephesos, the fabric and style differ from the issues of that city. Neither does the piece fit with the tokens found in the Athenian Agora. All considered, this piece appears consistent with what one would expect from a temporary token or entry pass, possibly of the pre-Roman period.
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ISLAMIC_3.jpg
83 viewsEAST AFRICA, Kilwa Sultanate. Suleyman bin al-Hasan. AH 702-717 / AD 1302-1316
Æ Fals (23mm, 2.06 g, 11 h). Kilwa Kisiwani mint.
Inscription in two lines; star at center
Inscription in three lines
Album 1183; Walker, Kilwa 3; SICA 10, 602-11; Zeno 87052 (this coin)

Acquired in the 1960's, likely through circulation in Dar-es-Salaam.

The dating is adapted from Chittick ("On the Chronology of the sultans of Kilwa" in NC 13, 1973) - Bosworth (The New Islamic Dynasties) gives different dates. However, considering the uncertain nature of both the chronologies and how they relate to the coinage, particularly in light of the finds at Songo Mnara, all dates should be considered hypothetical.
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Antinoopolis_-.jpg
42 viewsEGYPT, Antinoöpolis
PB Tessera (23mm, 5.21 g, 1 h)
[Dated RY 2 of an uncertain era?]
Draped bust of Antinoös right, wearing hem-hem crown; crescent before, [Θω behind]
Nike advancing left, holding palm frond and wreath; L [B flanking?]
Milne -; Dattari (Savio) 11655; Köln 3560 var. (size)
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00068x00.jpg
34 viewsEGYPT, Antinoöpolis
PB Tessera (20mm, 4.04 g, 6 h)
Dated year 5 of an uncertain era
Draped bust of Antinous right, crescent before
Serapis standing left, holding long scepter; L Є flanking
Milne -; Dattari (Savio) -; Köln -
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00065x00.jpeg
31 viewsEGYPT, Antinoöpolis
PB Tessera (21mm, 5.05 g, 3 h)
Dated year 8 of an uncertain era
Draped bust of Antinous right, wearing hem-hem crown; L [H] flanking
Draped bust of Serapis-Helios right, wearing calathus; L H flanking
Milne -; Dattari (Savio) 6445; Köln 3579
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00071x00.jpg
22 viewsEGYPT, Antinoöpolis
PB Tessera (25mm, 6.33 g, 12 h)
Dated year […] of an uncertain era
Draped bust of Antinous right, crescent before
Serapis standing left, holding long scepter; L [?] flanking
Milne -; Dattari (Savio) -; Köln -
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00069x00.jpg
37 viewsEGYPT, Antinoöpolis
PB Tessera (21mm, 4.14 g, 4 h)
Dated year 2 of an uncertain era
Confronted busts of Antinous, draped and wearing hem-hem crown, and Isis, draped and wearing headdress; [L] B flanking
Nilus reclining left on hippopatumus, holding cornucopia and reeds
Milne -; Milne, Memphis p. 115; Dattari (Savio) -; Köln 3569-70; Rostovtsev & Prou 665-6; Roma 6 (29 September 2013), lot 923-4
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pharoah.jpg
39 viewsEGYPT, Arsinoe (Krokodilopolis)
PB Tessera. (25mm, 7.23 g)
Head of Pharoah right
Serapis seated left on throne, holding scepter
Milne 5442 (Fayûm class); Dattari (Savio) -; Köln 3614

Ex Classical Numismatic Group Electronic Auction 238, lot 295

Milne gives this type to an uncertain city in the Fayûm. Considering the thematic and stylistic similarities with the named piece of Arsinoe, an attribution to this city is probable.
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00006x00~5.jpg
12 viewsEGYPT, Memphis
PB Tessera
Uncertain figure standing facing, holding bust of Harpokrates wearing skent crown; MEMΦIC to right
Serapis enthroned left, holding scepter, with Cerberus at feet; to left, Demeter(?) standing right, holding scepter; to right, Tyche standing left, holding rudder and cornucopia
Milne -; Dattari (Savio) -; Köln 3563
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Oxyrhynchus_5316.jpg
19 viewsEGYPT, Oxyrhynchus
PB Tessera (22mm, 12.13 g)
Draped bust of Athena right, wearing Corinthian helm and aegis
Oak wreath enclosing uncertain letters (OΞ monogram?)
Milne 5317-9; Dattari (Savio) -; Köln 3557-8
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glass_tessera.jpg
57 viewsEGYPT, Uncertain
Glass Tessera (17mm; 2.33 g)
Draped bust of Nike left
Head of Herakles right
Milne -; Dattari (Savio) 6555; Köln -
1 commentsArdatirion
00012x00~2.jpg
14 viewsEGYPT, Uncertain
PB Tessera
Agathodaimon serpent erect right, [wearing skhent crown?]
Blank
Milne –; cf. Dattari (Savio) 11919 = Naville 31, lot 276; Köln –
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ago.jpg
26 viewsEGYPT, Uncertain
PB Tessera (24 mm, 13.90 g)
Athena standing left, holding Nike and grounded shield
AΓO
Milne -; Dattari (Savio) -; Köln 3560

Ex Classical Numismatics Group Electronic Auction 238, lot 294
Ardatirion
00007x00~3.jpg
14 viewsEGYPT, Uncertain
PB Tessera
Solar barge (Ship of Ra) left, with four oarsmen
Nilus reclining left, holding cornucopia and reeds
Milne -; Dattari (Savio) -; Köln -
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Egypt_-.jpg
25 viewsEGYPT, Uncertain
PB Tessera (22 mm, 4.39 g)
Dated year 5 of an uncertain era.
Veiled and draped bust of Demeter right; L Є flanking
Nilus reclining left holding reeds and cornucopia; crocodile below
Milne -; Dattari (Savio) 6475; Köln 3610
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00008x00~3.jpg
13 viewsEGYPT, Uncertain
PB Tessera
Confronted busts, the right bearded; star above
Serapis standing left, holding transverse scepter and raising hand
Milne -; Dattari (Savio) -; Köln -
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00067x00.jpg
21 viewsEGYPT, Uncertain
PB Tessera (19mm, 3.49 g, 8 h)
Dikaiosyne standing left, holding scales and cornucopoia
Nilus reclining left on crocodile, holding cornucopia [and reeds]
Milne -; Dattari (Savio) 1669-70; Köln -; Torino 9137-8
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00066x00.jpg
25 viewsEGYPT, Uncertain
PB Tessera (20mm, 2.69 g, 1 h)
Dikaiosyne standing left, holding scales and cornucopoia
Nilus reclining left on crocodile, holding cornucopia and reeds
Milne -; Dattari (Savio) 1669-70; Köln -; Torino 9137-8
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00010x00~0.jpg
14 viewsEGYPT, Uncertain
PB Tessera
Two figures standing facing
Warrior advancing right?
Milne -; Dattari (Savio) -; Köln -
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anton.jpg
27 viewsEGYPT, Uncertain
PB Seal (?) (21mm, 4.19g)
Dated year 3 of an uncertain era.
ANTWNINOV[KAITOVNY]
Hermes standing facing, nude, head left, disk or globe in right, caduceus in left; ibis at his feet; LΙΓ in left field
Traces of attached metal
Milne , “Egyptian Leaden Tokens” in NC 1930, p. 310 note 3; Milne -; Dattari (Savio) 6413; Köln -

With an old Galiere Antiker Kunst ticket.

Milne does not regard this piece as a token. The attached metal on the reverse is characteristic of certain types of lead seals.
Ardatirion
Egypt_5409.jpg
36 viewsEGYPT, Uncertain
PB Tessera (21mm, 3.70 g, 11 h)
Dated year 5 of an uncertain era
Hermes standing left, holding bag and long caduceus; to left, ramleaping left, star above
Vexillum; L [Є] flanking
Milne 5409 corr. (ram not described); Dattari (Savio) 6453 corr. (vexillum on reverse); Köln -
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00032x00~1.jpg
17 viewsEGYPT, Uncertain
PB Tessera (20mm, 3.34 gm 2 h) Dated year 4 of an uncertain era
Bust of Horus right, wearing stylized pschent crown, being crowned by Victory flying left; LΔ (date) to lower right
Nilus recling left on crocodile, holding reeds and cornucopia, being crowned by Victory flying right
Milne 5415 corr. (date); Dattari (Savio) 11642; Köln –; CNG E-353, lot 370 (same dies)
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00011x00~1.jpg
15 viewsEGYPT, Uncertain
PB Tessera
Dated year 3 of an uncertain era
Nilus reclining left, holding reeds and cornucopia
Euthenia reclining left, holding cornucopia and grain ears; [L] Γ flanking
Ardatirion
00023x00.jpg
22 viewsEGYPT, Uncertain
PB Tessera (18mm, 4.15 g, 1h)
Dated year 2 of an uncertain era
Nilus recling left, holding cornucopia and mummiform figure of Osiris
Euthenia reclining left, holding cornucopia and grain ears; LB above
Milne 5391 var. (date); Dattari (Savio) 11623 var. (placement of date); Köln -
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54463q00.jpg
18 viewsEGYPT, Uncertain
PB Tessera (15mm, 2.07 g, 1h)
Nilus reclining left, holding cornucopia [and mummiform figure of Osiris?]
Euthenia reclining left, holding cornucopia and grain ears
Cf. Milne 5397-401; Dattari (Savio) 6470 corr. (obverse type); Köln -
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egypt.jpg
27 viewsEGYPT, Uncertain
PB Tessera (22mm, 5.50 g, 4 h)
Wreathed and draped bust of Dionysos right, thrysus over shoulder
Nilus reclining left, holding cornucopia and reeds, being crowned by Euthenia advancing right
Milne -; Dattari (Savio) -; Köln -
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00009x00~1.jpg
14 viewsEGYPT, Uncertain
PB Tessera
Two confronted peacocks standing on urn
Nilus reclining left, holding cornucopia and reeds
Milne -; Dattari (Savio) -; Köln -
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00070x00.jpg
27 viewsEGYPT, Uncertain
PB Tessera (18mm, 2.83 , 1 h)
Tyche reclining left on couch (hiera klinê, or lectisternium), holding rudder in outstretched right hand and resting head on raised left set on pillow; all within distyle temple with pellet in pediment
Hercules standing left, holding club and small figure of Telesphorus
Milne -; Dattari (Savio) -; Köln -; Roma E-Live 3 (25 October 2018), lot 484 (same dies)
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2870389.jpg
31 viewsEGYPT, Uncertain
PB Tessera (15mm, 2.89 g, 1h)
Draped male bust left, holding spear over shoulder
Bust of Nilus left; palm frond before, cornucopia over shoulder
Milne -; Dattari (Savio) -; Köln -

Ex Greenpoint Collection (Classical Numismatic Group Electronic Auction 287), lot 389
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2086459.jpg
10 viewsEGYPT, Uncertain
PB Tessera (18mm, 2.91 g, 5h)
Dated year 2 of an uncertain era
Uncertain figure standing facing, behing crowned by Victory standing left
Uncertain figure standing left, holding uncertain object in raised hand; to left, ram(?) standing right; retrograde [L] B across fields
Milne –; Dattari (Savio) –; Köln –

Ex London Ancient Coins 36 (15 July 2014), lot 147
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00049x00.jpg
24 viewsAntoninus Pius. AD 138-161
Fourrée Denarius Core (18mm, 2.02 g, 12 h)
Copying an uncertain issue of the Rome mint
Laureate head right
Uncertain diety standing facing, head right
1 commentsArdatirion
00030x00~0.jpg
25 viewsVolusian. AD 251-253
Æ Antoninianus? (17mm, 1.83 g)
Copying an uncertain issue
Radiate, [draped, and cuirrassed] bust right
Blank

A most curious piece. The attribution to Volusian is suggested by the shape of the facial hair and the generally youthful portrait.
1 commentsArdatirion
IMG_1361.JPG
64 viewsUNITED STATES, Native proto-currency. Seneca tribe.
Ganounata village (Honeoye Falls, NY). Circa AD 1625-1687
White wampum beads (apx. 5mm, 0.10g each)
Carved white shell beads with lateral hole for suspension in belt
Cf. William Martin Beauchamp, Wampum and Shell Articles Used by the New York Indians, p. 369

Found at the Dann Farm site in Honeoye Falls, NY.


In 1687 combined French and Huron forces, lead by the Marquis de Denonville, set out to undermine the strength of the Iriquois Confederacy. The main strike was made against Seneca villages in Western New York. Ganounata was burned during the campaign. This episode was only one in a long line of conflicts fought over control of the North American fur trade.

Wampum was used by Native Americans in woven belts of white and black beads. The white beads were crafted from the columella of the Channeled Whelk, the black from the quahog. Traditionally, wampum belts were used as a ceremonial object to initiate a trade contract. It was only with the coming of the Europeans that wampum began to function as coinage. In 1673, New York state officially set the value of wampum at six white beads to the Dutch stuiver, or three black until they fell out of use.
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00013x00~2.jpg
28 viewsUNITED STATES
Brass Pistareen – 2 Reales
Uncertain illicit mint in the New York City area, copying an issue of the Lima mint
Dated 1787 (LIMA) F, though struck circa 1800-1811 or 1820-1830
• CAROLVS III DEI GRATIA •
Laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right; 1787 below
• HISPAN • ET IND • R EX • (LIMA) • F •
Crowned coat-of-arms flanked by Pillars of Hercules entwined with banners
Kleeburg dies 87A/M2
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00016x00.jpg
25 viewsUNCERTAIN
PB Tessera (14mm, 3.62 g, 12 h)
Pilei of the Dioscuri
Caduceus; LLL(?) to left

This piece is significantly thicker than expected for a small coin of the Roman era. There is a possibility this is an unpublished Hellenistic lead denomination.
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capricorn_tessera.jpg
44 viewsUNCERTAIN
PB Tessera (17mm, 3.45 g)
Capricorn right, cornucopia over shoulder; above, head right, confronted Є's below
Blank
Apparently unpublished
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horse.jpg
61 viewsUNCERTAIN
PB Tessera (25mm, 8.29 g)
Horse, V above and to right
Horse, V above
Apparently unpublished
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frog.jpg
72 viewsUNCERTAIN
PB Tessera (25mm, 7.87 g)
Three leaves
Frog (?)
Apparently unpublished

A curious piece, similar to Roman issues in fabric, but vastly different in style.
Ardatirion
pepin-saint-denis.JPG
D.892 Pepin the Brief (denier, Saint-Denis?)18 viewsPepin the Brief, king of the Franks (751-768)
Denier, Saint-Denis ? (751-768)

Silver, 1.22 g, 16 mm diameter, die axis 11 h

O/ RP under a bar; pellets in the field
R/ ΛVT / TRΔ / NO

RP on the obverse means Rex Pippinus, or maybe PiPpinus Rex (the first R would then have to be read twice, the first time as a P).
The reverse is more intricate. First, the mint was identified as Antrain in Brittany. However, a lead slab has been found in Saint-Denis, on which similiar dies had been tested. As a consequence these deniers may have been minted in Saint-Denis monastery. However the legend on the reverse is still unclear (name of a moneyer, abbreviation of a latine phrase ?).
Droger
charles2-obole-melle.JPG
D.622 Charles II the Bald (obol, class 1d, Melle)30 viewsCharles the Bald, king of the Franks (840-877)
Obol (Melle, class 1d, 840-864)

Silver, 0.65 g, 15 mm diameter, die axis 8h

O/ carolingian monogram
R/ +METVLLO; cross pattée


Certainly because of the lack of space, there isn't any legend with the ruler's name on the obverse but a carolingian KRLS monogram.
The attribution to Charles the Bald or Charles the Great is uncertain, like for the denier's case.
Droger
00039x00~0.jpg
14 viewsGERMANY, Kriegsgeld. Uncertain. Kantine Schürmeyer.
ZN 50 Pfennigen Token (23mm, 3.30 g, 1h)
"Kantine/ (rosette)/ Schürmeyer"
Large 50
Menzel 16660.1; TC 208156

Not properly a "kriesgeld," but possibly a token with military connections, perhaps for an officer's mess. Listed as a 'maverick' in Menzel.
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w14412.jpg
"4 Zhu" Ban Liang of Emperor Wen Di (Western Han Dynasty)42 viewsEmperor Wen Di (minted 175-119 BCE)

Two normal-sized Chinese characters – Ban Liang ("Half an ounce"), large characters (lower part of liang is M shaped), no rims or other marks / Blank, no rims.

24mm, 2.28 grams. BM Chinese coins (Poole) #256ff; Hartill #7.16.
Belisarius
w14240.jpg
"8 Zhu" Ban Liang of Qin Kingdom (Eastern Zhou Dynasty)24 viewsMinted 300-220 BCE.

Two huge Chinese characters - Ban Liang ("Half an ounce"), no rims or other marks / Blank, no rims. Unfiled edges.

This very large thin coins of variable weight were made under the very late Zhou dynasty - they are local issues, and might belong either to the late "Warring States" period or the early Qin period.

31mm, 3.52 grams. Hartill #7.4.
Belisarius
lg004_quad_sm.jpg
"As de Nîmes" or "crocodile" Ӕ dupondius of Nemausus (9 - 3 BC), honoring Augustus and Agrippa29 viewsIMP DIVI F , Heads of Agrippa (left) and Augustus (right) back to back, Agrippa wearing rostral crown and Augustus the oak-wreath / COL NEM, crocodile right chained to palm-shoot with short dense fronds and tip right; two short palm offshoots left and right below, above on left a wreath with two long ties streaming right.

Ӕ, 24.5 x 3+ mm, 13.23g, die axis 3h; on both sides there are remains of what appears to be gold plating, perhaps it was a votive offering? Rough edges and slight scrapes on flan typical for this kind of coin, due to primitive technology (filing) of flan preparation.

IMPerator DIVI Filius. Mint of COLonia NEMausus (currently Nîmes, France). Known as "As de Nîmes", it is actually a dupontius (lit. "two-pounder") = 2 ases (sometimes cut in halves to get change). Dupondii were often made out of a golden-colored copper alloy (type of brass) "orichalcum" and this appears to be such case.

Key ID points: oak-wreath (microphotography shows that at least one leaf has a complicated shape, although distinguishing oak from laurel is very difficult) – earlier versions have Augustus bareheaded, no PP on obverse as in later versions, no NE ligature, palm with short fronds with tip right (later versions have tip left and sometimes long fronds). Not typical: no clear laurel wreath together with the rostral crown, gold plating (!), both features really buffling.

But still clearly a "middle" kind of the croc dupondius, known as "type III": RIC I 158, RPC I 524, Sear 1730. It is often conservatively dated to 10 BC - 10 AD, but these days it is usually narrowed to 9/8 - 3 BC.

It is a commemorative issue, honoring the victory over Mark Antony and conquest of Egypt in 30 BC. The heads of Augustus and Agrippa were probably positioned to remind familiar obverses of Roman republican coins with two-faced Janus. Palm branch was a common symbol of victory, in this case grown into a tree, like the victories of Augustus and Agrippa grown into the empire. The two offshoots at the bottom may mean two sons of Agrippa, Gaius and Lucius, who were supposed to be Augustus' heirs and were patrons of the colony. Palm may also be a symbol of the local Nemausian deity, which was probably worshiped in a sacred grove. When these coins were minted, the colony was mostly populated by the settled veterans of Augustus' campaigns, hence the reminiscence of the most famous victory, but some of the original Celtic culture probably survived and was assimilated by Romans. The crocodile is not only the symbol of Egypt, like in the famous Octavian's coins AEGYPTO CAPTA. It is also a representation of Mark Antony, powerful and scary both in water and on land, but a bit slow and stupid. The shape of the crocodile with tail up was specifically chosen to remind of the shape of ship on very common "legionary" denarius series, which Mark Antony minted to pay his armies just before Actium. It is probably also related to the popular contemporary caricature of Cleopatra, riding on and simultaneously copulating with a crocodile, holding a palm branch in her hand as if in triumph. There the crocodile also symbolized Mark Antony.

Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa was born c. 64-62 BC somewhere in rural Italy. His family was of humble and plebeian origins, but rich, of equestrian rank. Agrippa was about the same age as Octavian, and the two were educated together and became close friends. He probably first served in Caesar's Spanish campaign of 46–45 BC. Caesar regarded him highly enough to send him with Octavius in 45 BC to train in Illyria. When Octavian returned to Rome after Caesar's assassination, Agrippa became his close lieutenant, performing many tasks. He probably started his political career in 43 BC as a tribune of the people and then a member of the Senate. Then he was one of the leading Octavian's generals, finally becoming THE leading general and admiral in the civil wars of the subsequent years.

In 38 as a governor of Transalpine Gaul Agrippa undertook an expedition to Germania, thus becoming the first Roman general since Julius Caesar to cross the Rhine. During this foray he helped the Germanic tribe of Ubii (who previously allied themselves with Caesar in 55 BC) to resettle on the west bank of the Rhine. A shrine was dedicated there, possibly to Divus Caesar whom Ubii fondly remembered, and the village became known as Ara Ubiorum, "Altar of Ubians". This quickly would become an important Roman settlement. Agrippina the Younger, Agrippa's granddaughter, wife of Emperor Claudius and mother of Emperor Nero, would be born there in 15 AD. In 50 AD she would sponsor this village to be upgraded to a colonia, and it would be renamed Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium (colony of Claudius [at] the Altar of Agrippinians – Ubii renamed themselves as Agrippinians to honor the augusta!), abbreviated as CCAA, later to become the capital of new Roman province, Germania Inferior.

In 37 BC Octavian recalled Agrippa back to Rome and arranged for him to win the consular elections, he desperately needed help in naval warfare with Sextus Pompey, the youngest son of Pompey the Great, who styled himself as the last supporter of the republican cause, but in reality became a pirate king, an irony since his father was the one who virtually exterminated piracy in all the Roman waters. He forced humiliating armistice on the triumvirs in 39 BC and when Octavian renewed the hostilities a year later, defeated him in a decisive naval battle of Messina. New fleet had to be built and trained, and Agrippa was the man for the job. Agrippa's solution was creating a huge secret naval base he called Portus Iulius by connecting together lakes Avernus, Avernus and the natural inner and outer harbors behind Cape Misenum at the northern end of the Gulf of Naples. He also created a larger type of ship and developed a new naval weapon: harpax – a ballista-launched grapnel shot with mechanisms that allowed pulling enemy ships close for easy boarding. It replaced the previous boarding device that Romans used since the First Punic War, corvus – effective, but extremely cumbersome. A later defence against it were scythe blades on long poles for cutting ropes, but since this invention was developed in secret, the enemy had no chance to prepare anything like it. It all has proved extremely effective: in a series of naval engagements Agrippa annihilated the fleet of Sextus, forced him to abandon his bases and run away. For this Agrippa was awarded an unprecedented honour that no Roman before or after him received: a rostral crown, "corona rostrata", a wreath decorated in front by a prow and beak of a ship.

That's why Virgil (Aeneid VIII, 683-684), describing Agrippa at Actium, says: "…belli insigne superbum, tempora navali fulgent rostrata corona." "…the proud military decoration, gleams on his brow the naval rostral crown". Actium, the decisive battle between forces of Octavian and Mark Antony, may appear boring compared to the war with Sextus, but it probably turned out this way due to Agrippa's victories in preliminary naval engagements and taking over all the strategy from Octavian.

In between the wars Agrippa has shown an unusual talent in city planning, not only constructing many new public buildings etc., but also greatly improving Rome's sanitation by doing a complete overhaul of all the aqueducts and sewers. Typically, it was Augustus who later would boast that "he had found the city of brick but left it of marble", forgetting that, just like in his naval successes, it was Agrippa who did most of the work. Agrippa had building programs in other Roman cities as well, a magnificent temple (currently known as Maison Carrée) survives in Nîmes itself, which was probably built by Agrippa.

Later relationship between Augustus and Agrippa seemed colder for a while, Agrippa seemed to even go into "exile", but modern historians agree that it was just a ploy: Augustus wanted others to think that Agrippa was his "rival" while in truth he was keeping a significant army far away from Rome, ready to come to the rescue in case Augustus' political machinations fail. It is confirmed by the fact that later Agrippa was recalled and given authority almost equal to Augustus himself, not to mention that he married Augustus' only biological child. The last years of Agrippa's life were spent governing the eastern provinces, were he won respect even of the Jews. He also restored Crimea to Roman Empire. His last service was starting the conquest of the upper Danube, were later the province of Pannonia would be. He suddenly died of illness in 12 BC, aged ~51.

Agrippa had several children through his three marriages. Through some of his children, Agrippa would become ancestor to many subsequent members of the Julio-Claudian dynasty. He has numerous other legacies.
Yurii P
bcountrm.jpg
"B" Countermark205 viewsUncertain provincial, possibly Philip II, with the reverse of Homonia holding a cornucopia and patera, sacrificing over an altar Sid
rjb_2011_01_01~0.jpg
"Boulogne" (VI) 14a37 viewsDiocletianus
AE Follis
Obv: IMP C DIOCLETIANVS PF AVG
Laureate bust right
Rev: GENIO POPVLI ROMANI
Genius standing left
-/-//-
Uncertain continental mint (Boulogne?) operating around the time of the British invasion
RIC (VI) Lyon 14a
mauseus
rjb_2011_02_02.jpg
"Boulogne" (VI) 17b23 viewsGalerius as Caesar
AE Follis
Obv: C VAL MAXIMIANVS NOB C
Laureate bust right
Rev: GENIO POPVLI ROMANI
Genius standing left
-/-//-
Uncertain continental mint (Boulogne?) operating around the time of the British invasion
RIC (VI) Lyon 17b
mauseus
149.jpg
"EVMENEΩN" and "ΦIΛΩNIΔOY" (monograms to be read as)174 viewsPHRYGIA. Eumeneia. Fulvia. Æ 19. Ca. 41-40 B.C. Obv: Draped bust of Fulvia as winged Nike r.; 2 cm’s, (1) on head, (2) above head. Rev: (ΦYΛOYIANΩN) to right, ΣMEPTOPIΓ(OΣ)/(ΦIΛΩNIΔOY) in 2 lines to l. Athena adv. l., hld. spear and shield. Ref: BMC 20-21 (?); RPC 3139 (7 pcs). Axis: 330°. Weight: 6.84 g. Magistrate: Zmertorigos Philopatris. Note: Eumeneia changed its name to Fulvia on the occasion of Mark Antony's journey to the east in 41 B.C., likely propmting the issue of coins. After Fulvia died the city took back its old name. On BMC 21 the ethnic "ΦYΛOVIANΩN" may be purposefully erased, which also seems to be the case on this specimen! Both coins are countermarked, and the cm's may be read "EVMENEΩN" and "ΦIΛΩNIΔOY". The purpose of countermarking in combination with the erasure of the city name, thus, seems to have been to make note of second name change. CM(1): Monogram of EVMNO (?), in circ. punch, 4 mm. CM(2): Monogram of ΦIΛNΔ (?), in circ. punch, 3.5 mm. Collection Automan.1 commentsAutoman
A_PIUS_RES_03_08.jpg
(0138) ANTONINUS PIUS27 views138 - 161 AD
AE SESTERTIUS 32 mm 24.44 g
O: LAUR HEAD R
R: HONOS, TOGATE, STANDING L HOLDING BRANCH AND CORUNCOPIA
laney
fourree.jpg
(0138) ANTONINUS PIUS30 views138 - 161 AD
SILVER-PLATED DENARIUS (FOUREE) 2.70 g 17 mm
O: COS ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P III
BARE HEAD RIGHT
(P P = 139 AD, COS III = 140 AD)
R: HO-N-OS
HONOS, TOGATE, STANDING L HOLDING BRANCH AND CORNUCIPIAE
Reverse cf. BMC 41, 264; RIC 79, 422; Cohen 235, 236.
Minted under Antoninus Pius for Marcus Aurelius as Caesar in Rome, 140 - 144 AD
(mismatching dies in silverplated denarii is not uncommon)
laney
a_pius_annona_seated_r_res_copy.jpg
(0138) ANTONINUS PIUS18 views138 - 161 AD
Struck 155-156 AD
AE As 23..5 mm 10.47 g
O: Laureate head right
R: Annona seated right, modius at foot, and holding coruncopia with both hands
laney
a_pius_annona_1.jpg
(0138) ANTONINUS PIUS14 views138 - 161 AD
Struck 155-156 AD
AE As 23 mm 10.48 g
O: Laureate head right
R: Annona seated right, modius at foot, and holding coruncopia with both hands
laney
antoninus_annona_seated_2.jpg
(0138) ANTONINUS PIUS10 views138 - 161 AD
Struck 155-156 AD
AE As 27 mm 11 g
O: Laureate head right
R: Annona seated right, modius at foot, and holding coruncopia with both hands
laney
geta_pautalia_res.jpg
(0198) GETA26 views198 - 212 AD
AE 19.6 mm, 4.48 g
O: PCENTI GETAC . Bare headed and draped bust right
R: [PAVTA LI] WTWN . Bunch of grapes hanging
(double struck)
Thrace, Pautalia
Rare
laney
valerianb.jpg
(0253) VALERIAN40 views253 - 260 AD
struck 256-258 AD
Billon Antoninianus 20.5 X 23.5 mm, 3.31 g
O: IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS P F AVG - Radiate, draped bust right
R: PIETAS AVGG - Valerian and Gallienus facing each other sacrificing over altar between them, one holding an eagle tipped scepter, the other a parazonium
Uncertain Syrian Mint
Reference SR-9955, RIC V 285
laney
TETRICUS_I.jpg
(0271) TETRICUS I23 views271 - 274AD
AE 16.5 mm 2.04 g
O: IMP TETRICVS P F AVG, radiate cuirassed bust right
R: LAETITIA AVGG, Laetitia standing left holding wreath & anchor.(UNCERTAIN ABOUT REVERSE)

laney
crispus_troph_captives_b.jpg
(0317) CRISPUS20 views317 - 326 AD
AE 19.5 mm max, 2.40 g
O: CRISPUS NOB CAES Cuirassed bust in crested helmet right
R: VIRTVS EXERCIT Two captives seated, trophy between them
uncommon type
laney
julian_spes_re.jpg
(0355) JULIAN II20 viewsAE 15.5 mm; 1.72 g
O: D N FL CL IVLIANVS NOB CS, draped and cuirassed bust right.
R: SPES REIPVBLICE, emperor standing left holding globe and spear; uncertain mark in left field
Cyzicus mint
laney
constans_ii_follis_blk.jpg
(0641) CONSTANS II17 views641 - 668 AD
AE Follis 20 mm max, 3.12 g
O: Constans II standing facing, holding long cross and globus cruciger
R: ANA to left of large M, NEOS to right; cross above M; uncertain officina (A or D) below; Roman numerals in exe.
laney
Denarius91BC.jpg
(501i) Roman Republic, D. Junius L.f. Silanus, 91 B.C.58 viewsSilver denarius, Syd 646a, RSC Junia 16, S 225 var, Cr 337/3 var, VF, 3.718g, 18.6mm, 0o, Rome mint, 91 B.C.; obverse head of Roma right in winged helmet, X (control letter) behind; reverse Victory in a biga right holding reins in both hands, V (control numeral) above, D•SILANVS / ROMA in ex; mint luster in recesses. Ex FORVM.

Although the coin itself does not commemorate the event, the date this coin was struck is historically significant.

MARCUS Livius DRUSUS (his father was the colleague of Gaius Gracchus in the tribuneship, 122 B.C.), became tribune of the people in 91 B.C. He was a thoroughgoing conservative, wealthy and generous, and a man of high integrity. With some of the more intelligent members of his party (such as Marcus Scaurus and L. Licinius Crassus the orator) he recognized the need of reform. At that time an agitation was going on for the transfer of the judicial functions from the equites to the senate; Drusus proposed as a compromise a measure which restored to the senate the office of judices, while its numbers were doubled by the admission of 300 equites. Further, a special commission was to be appointed to try and sentence all judices guilty of taking bribes.

The senate was hesitant; and the equites, whose occupation was threatened, offered the most violent opposition. In order, therefore, to catch the popular votes, Drusus proposed the establishment of colonies in Italy and Sicily, and an increased distribution of corn at a reduced rate. By help of these riders the bill was carried.

Drusus now sought a closer alliance with the Italians, promising them the long coveted boon of the Roman franchise. The senate broke out into open opposition. His laws were abrogated as informal, and each party armed its adherents for the civil struggle which was now inevitable. Drusus was stabbed one evening as he was returning home. His assassin was never discovered (http://62.1911encyclopedia.org/D/DR/DRUSUS_MARCUS_LIVIUS.htm).

The ensuing "Social War" (91-88 B.C.) would set the stage for the "Civil Wars" (88-87 & 82-81 B.C.) featuring, notably, Marius & Sulla; two men who would make significant impressions on the mind of a young Julius Caesar. Caesar would cross the Rubicon not thirty years later.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
LPisoFrugiDenarius_S235.jpg
(502a) Roman Republic, L. Calpurnius Piso Frugi, 90 B.C.156 viewsSilver denarius, S 235, Calpurnia 11, Crawford 340/1, Syd 663a, VF, rainbow toning, Rome mint, 3.772g, 18.5mm, 180o, 90 B.C. obverse: laureate head of Apollo right, scorpion behind; Reverse naked horseman galloping right holding palm, L PISO FRVGI and control number CXI below; ex-CNA XV 6/5/91, #443. Ex FORVM.


A portion of the following text is a passage taken from the excellent article “The Calpurnii and Roman Family History: An Analysis of the Piso Frugi Coin in the Joel Handshu Collection at the College of Charleston,” by Chance W. Cook:

In the Roman world, particularly prior to the inception of the principate, moneyers were allotted a high degree of latitude to mint their coins as they saw fit. The tres viri monetales, the three men in charge of minting coins, who served one-year terms, often emblazoned their coins with an incredible variety of images and inscriptions reflecting the grandeur, history, and religion of Rome. Yet also prominent are references to personal or familial accomplishments; in this manner coins were also a means by which the tres viri monetales could honor their forbearers. Most obvious from an analysis of the Piso Frugi denarius is the respect and admiration that Lucius Calpurnius Piso Frugi, who minted the coin, had for his ancestors. For the images he selected for his dies relate directly to the lofty deeds performed by his Calpurnii forbearers in the century prior to his term as moneyer. The Calpurnii were present at many of the watershed events in the late Republic and had long distinguished themselves in serving the state, becoming an influential and well-respected family whose defense of traditional Roman values cannot be doubted.

Lucius Calpurnius Piso Frugi, who was moneyer in 90 B.C., depicted Apollo on the obverse and the galloping horseman on the reverse, as does his son Gaius. However, all of L. Piso Frugi’s coins have lettering similar to “L-PISO-FRVGI” on the reverse, quite disparate from his son Gaius’ derivations of “C-PISO-L-F-FRV.”

Moreover, C. Piso Frugi coins are noted as possessing “superior workmanship” to those produced by L. Piso Frugi.

The Frugi cognomen, which became hereditary, was first given to L. Calpurnius Piso, consul in 133 B.C., for his integrity and overall moral virtue. Cicero is noted as saying that frugal men possessed the three cardinal Stoic virtues of bravery, justice, and wisdom; indeed in the Thesaurus Linguae Latinae, a synonym of frugalitas is bonus, generically meaning “good” but also implying virtuous behavior. Gary Forsythe notes that Cicero would sometimes invoke L. Calpurnius Piso’s name at the beginning of speeches as “a paragon of moral rectitude” for his audience.

L. Calpurnius Piso Frugi’s inclusion of the laureled head of Apollo, essentially the same obverse die used by his son Gaius (c. 67 B.C.), was due to his family’s important role in the establishment of the Ludi Apollinares, the Games of Apollo, which were first instituted in 212 B.C. at the height of Hannibal’s invasion of Italy during the Second Punic War. By that time, Hannibal had crushed Roman armies at Cannae, seized Tarentum and was invading Campania.

Games had been used throughout Roman history as a means of allaying the fears
of the populace and distracting them from issues at hand; the Ludi Apollinares were no different. Forsythe follows the traditional interpretation that in 211 B.C., when C. Calpurnius Piso was praetor, he became the chief magistrate in Rome while both consuls were absent and the three other praetors were sent on military expeditions against Hannibal.

At this juncture, he put forth a motion in the Senate to make the Ludi Apollinares a yearly event, which was passed; the Ludi Apollinares did indeed become an important festival, eventually spanning eight days in the later Republic. However, this interpretation is debatable; H.H. Scullard suggests that the games were not made permanent until 208 B.C. after a severe plague prompted the Senate to make them a fixture on the calendar. The Senators believed Apollo would serve as a “healing god” for the people of Rome.

Nonetheless, the Calpurnii obviously believed their ancestor had played an integral role in the establishment of the Ludi Apollinares and thus prominently displayed
the head or bust of Apollo on the obverse of the coins they minted.

The meaning of the galloping horseman found on the reverse of the L. Calpurnius Piso Frugi coin is more complicated. It is possible that this is yet another reference to the Ludi Apollinares. Chariot races in the Circus Maximus were a major component of the games, along with animal hunts and theatrical performances.

A more intriguing possibility is that the horseman is a reference to C. Calpurnius Piso, son of the Calpurnius Piso who is said to have founded the Ludi Apollinares. This C. Calpurnius Piso was given a military command in 186 B.C. to quell a revolt in Spain. He was victorious, restoring order to the province and also gaining significant wealth in the process.

Upon his return to Rome in 184, he was granted a triumph by the Senate and eventually erected an arch on the Capitoline Hill celebrating his victory. Of course
the arch prominently displayed the Calpurnius name. Piso, however, was not an infantry commander; he led the cavalry.

The difficulty in accepting C. Calpurnius Piso’s victory in Spain as the impetus for the galloping horseman image is that not all of C. Piso Frugi’s coins depict the horseman or cavalryman carrying the palm, which is a symbol of victory. One is inclined to believe that the victory palm would be prominent in all of the coins minted by C. Piso Frugi (the son of L. Calpurnius Piso Frugi) if it indeed signified the great triumph of C. Calpurnius Piso in 186 B.C. Yet the palm’s appearance is clearly not a direct reference to military feats of C. Piso Frugi’s day. As noted, it is accepted that his coins were minted in 67 B.C.; in that year, the major victory by Roman forces was Pompey’s swift defeat of the pirates throughout the Mediterranean.

Chrestomathy: Annual Review of Undergraduate Research at the College of Charleston. Volume 1, 2002: pp. 1-10© 2002 by the College of Charleston, Charleston SC 29424, USA.All rights to be retained by the author.
http://www.cofc.edu/chrestomathy/vol1/cook.pdf


There are six (debatably seven) prominent Romans who have been known to posterity as Lucius Calpurnius Piso:

Lucius Calpurnius Piso Frugi: (d. 261 A.D.) a Roman usurper, whose existence is
questionable, based on the unreliable Historia Augusta.

Lucius Calpurnius Piso Licinianus: deputy Roman Emperor, 10 January 69 to15 January
69, appointed by Galba.

Lucius Calpurnius Piso: Consul in 27 A.D.

Lucius Calpurnius Piso: Consul in 1 B.C., augur

Lucius Calpurnius Piso: Consul in 15 B.C., pontifex

Lucius Calpurnius Piso Caesoninus: Consul in 58 B.C. (the uncle of Julius Caesar)

Lucius Calpurnius Piso Frugi: Moneyer in 90 B.C. (our man)


All but one (or two--if you believe in the existence of "Frugi the usurper" ca. 261 A.D.) of these gentlemen lack the Frugi cognomen, indicating they are not from the same direct lineage as our moneyer, though all are Calpurnii.

Calpurnius Piso Frugi's massive issue was intended to support the war against the Marsic Confederation. The type has numerous variations and control marks.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lucius_Calpurnius_Piso
http://www.forumancientcoins.com/catalog/indexfrm.asp?vpar=55&pos=0

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.


2 commentsCleisthenes
Greek_Cherronesos.jpg
*SOLD*18 viewsGreek Thracian – Chersonese/Cherronesos AR Hemidrachm

Attribution: Weber 2419, 2434; McClean 4079, BMC 11
Date: 400-350 BC
Obverse: Forepart of lion w/ head reverted and gaping mouth
Reverse: Quadripartite incuse square, alternating depressions with pellet in one and
bunch of grapes in the other
Size: 14 mm
ex-Forvm
Noah
Ashoka_Mauryan_Empire_India.jpg
*SOLD*35 viewsAshoka Maurya AR Karshapana

Attribution: G/H Ser. 1Vd (reverse 416), BMC III-a-5/30
Date: 269-232 BC
Obverse: Punch Marks of sun, six-armed symbol, dog, Brahma bull, and elephant randomly punched on the flan
Reverse: Punch Marks of drum, taurine, fish, and unknown randomly punched on the flan
Size: 20 mm
ex-ECIN
Noah
3350438.jpg
000b. Pompey the Great50 viewsThe Pompeians. Sextus Pompey. 37/6 BC. AR Denarius (19mm, 3.49 g, 9h). Uncertain Sicilian mint, possibly Catana. Bare head of Pompey the Great right; capis to left, lituus to right / Neptune, holding aplustre and resting right foot on prow, standing left between the Catanaean brothers Anapias and Amphinomus running in opposite directions, bearing their parents on their shoulders. Crawford 511/3a; CRI 334; Sydenham 1344; RSC 17 (Pompey the Great). Fine, lightly toned, bankers’ marks on obverse.

AMPHINOMUS and ANAPIS (or Anapias), two brothers, of Silicy, respecting whom it is related that they saved their parents, at the peril of their own lives, from the flames of Etna, at the moment when an eruption of that volcano threatened their immediate destruction. This was a favourite subject with the ancients, in symbolising filial piety; and is often represented on Greek coins of Catana (Catania), where this noble action is alleged to have been performed. Of these two Sicilian brothers, types of that devoted love, which is ever cherished by good children towards the earthly anthors of their being, Cornelius Severus, alluding to Mount Edna, thus expresses himself: "Amphinomus and his brother, both equally courageous in the performance of a duty, whilst the flames murmured their threats against the neighbouring houses, rescue their decrepid father, and their aged mother."
1 commentsecoli
ric_126_augustus.jpg
002 Augustus AR Denarius73 viewsAugustus (27 BC-AD 14), Denarius, Uncertain Spanish mint (Colonia Patricia?), 17-16 BC, (19 mm 3.73 g).
Obv: Bare head right
Rev: Augustus, Capricorn right, holding globe attached to rudder between front hooves; cornucopia above its back.
RIC I 126; RSC 21 SRCV (2000) 1592.
Purchased October 28, 2016 from vcoins store London Coin Galleries Ltd.




Although Augustus was the second Caesar covered by Suetonius, he really was the first ruler of the new Roman empire. Originally known by the name Octavian, he became Augustus as the new ruler of the empire.

The coin below is special to me for two reasons. First, I love the
anepigraphic (no legend) obverse. I feel this gives an elegant look to the portrait and make the portrait the focus of the coin. Many emperors were very particular as to how their images appeared on their coins and Augustus was no exception. It is difficult to tell when a coin of Augustus was issued by the portrait alone because his portraits did not age very much from his beginnings as emperor until his death.

Another reason I like this coin is the reverse. It depicts a Capricorn with globe and rudder. These devices appear on other coins of Augustus, and other emperors used them as well. Augustus would be associated with the image of the Capricorn for much of his rule.

Although this is not a perfect coin because of its imperfect flan shape, the combination of a great portrait and the Capricorn meant I had to have it.
4 commentsorfew
Aigina_turtle.jpg
002a, Aigina, Islands off Attica, Greece, c. 510 - 490 B.C.82 viewsSilver stater, S 1849, SNG Cop 503, F, 12.231g, 22.3mm, Aigina (Aegina) mint, c. 510 - 490 B.C.; Obverse: sea turtle (with row of dots down the middle); Reverse: incuse square of “Union Jack” pattern; banker's mark obverse. Ex FORVM.


Greek Turtles, by Gary T. Anderson

Turtles, the archaic currency of Aegina, are among the most sought after of all ancient coins. Their early history is somewhat of a mystery. At one time historians debated whether they or the issuances of Lydia were the world's earliest coins. The source of this idea comes indirectly from the writings of Heracleides of Pontus, a fourth century BC Greek scholar. In the treatise Etymologicum, Orion quotes Heracleides as claiming that King Pheidon of Argos, who died no later than 650 BC, was the first to strike coins at Aegina. However, archeological investigations date the earliest turtles to about 550 BC, and historians now believe that this is when the first of these intriguing coins were stamped.

Aegina is a small, mountainous island in the Saronikon Gulf, about midway between Attica and the Peloponnese. In the sixth century BC it was perhaps the foremost of the Greek maritime powers, with trade routes throughout the eastern half of the Mediterranean. It is through contacts with Greeks in Asia Minor that the idea of coinage was probably introduced to Aegina. Either the Lydians or Greeks along the coast of present day Turkey were most likely the first to produce coins, back in the late seventh century. These consisted of lumps of a metal called electrum (a mixture of gold and silver) stamped with an official impression to guarantee the coin was of a certain weight. Aegina picked up on this idea and improved upon it by stamping coins of (relatively) pure silver instead electrum, which contained varying proportions of gold and silver. The image stamped on the coin of the mighty sea power was that of a sea turtle, an animal that was plentiful in the Aegean Sea. While rival cities of Athens and Corinth would soon begin limited manufacture of coins, it is the turtle that became the dominant currency of southern Greece. The reason for this is the shear number of coins produced, estimated to be ten thousand yearly for nearly seventy years. The source for the metal came from the rich silver mines of Siphnos, an island in the Aegean. Although Aegina was a formidable trading nation, the coins seemed to have meant for local use, as few have been found outside the Cyclades and Crete. So powerful was their lure, however, that an old proverb states, "Courage and wisdom are overcome by Turtles."

The Aeginean turtle bore a close likeness to that of its live counterpart, with a series of dots running down the center of its shell. The reverse of the coin bore the imprint of the punch used to force the face of the coin into the obverse turtle die. Originally this consisted of an eight-pronged punch that produced a pattern of eight triangles. Later, other variations on this were tried. In 480 BC, the coin received its first major redesign. Two extra pellets were added to the shell near the head of the turtle, a design not seen in nature. Also, the reverse punch mark was given a lopsided design.

Although turtles were produced in great quantities from 550 - 480 BC, after this time production dramatically declines. This may be due to the exhaustion of the silver mines on Siphnos, or it may be related to another historical event. In 480 BC, Aegina's archrival Athens defeated Xerxes and his Persian armies at Marathon. After this, it was Athens that became the predominant power in the region. Aegina and Athens fought a series of wars until 457 BC, when Aegina was conquered by its foe and stripped of its maritime rights. At this time the coin of Aegina changed its image from that of the sea turtle to that of the land tortoise, symbolizing its change in fortunes.

The Turtle was an object of desire in ancient times and has become so once again. It was the first coin produced in Europe, and was produced in such great quantities that thousands of Turtles still exist today. Their historical importance and ready availability make them one of the most desirable items in any ancient coin enthusiast's collection.

(Greek Turtles, by Gary T. Anderson .
1 commentsCleisthenes
coin328.JPG
004. Claudius13 viewsClaudius Æ Sestertius. TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP, laureate head right / SPES AVGVSTA, Spes standing left, holding flower and raising hem of skirt, SC in ex. Cohen 85. Ric 99

Came pre zapped in an unclean lot. Check
ecoli
coin247~0.JPG
004. Constantius II Sirmium Fel Temp7 viewsSirmium 48 C2

From Uncleaned

ecoli
Fontius-Syd-724.jpg
005. Mn. Fonteius, Cf15 viewsDenarius, ca 85-84 BC, Auxiliary Italian mint.
Obverse: MN FONTEI CF / Bust of Vejovis with hair in loose locks; thunderbolt below; AP monogram under chin.
Reverse: Winged Cupid or Genius seated on goat; caps of the Dioscuri above; thyrsus with fillet below; all within a laurel wreath.
3.89 gm., 20 mm.
Syd. #724; RSC #Fonteia 9; Sear #271.

Vejovis was an ancient deity whose early function was forgotten. At his shrine in Rome, his statue portrayed him as a young beardless youth with a goat. By the time this coin was issued, he was identified with Pluto, the god of the underworld. He was probably a god of expiation since a goat was sacrificed to him once a year. We know from other sources that this goat sacrifice was expiatory in nature.
Callimachus
NeroDECVRSIOSestertiusRome.JPG
005. Nero 54-68AD. AE Sestertius, Rome mint, 63AD. DECVRSIO. 38.6mm192 viewsObv. Laureate ead right, wearing aegis NERO CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR P IMP P P
Rev. Nero on horseback prancing right, wearing cuirass, short tunic, and billowing cloak, spear in right hand, to right soldier moving right. carrying vexillum; to leftin shallow relief, soldier running right DECVRSIO in ex
BMCRE 155; Cohen 94, RIC I 176 var (obv legend)
38.6mm, 180o, 63 A.D. Rome mint.
This sestertius was an early emission from the Rome Mint, which resumed striking bronze after about 10 years of inactivity. The talented engraver, perhaps with extra time for this initial project, produced one of the best dies in the entire imperial bronze series. The special style, complemented by superior execution, has similarities to later medallions.


The fine expressive portrait has higher relief than the more common Lugdunum issues.
The reverse uses the roundness of the flan and three geometric planes of relief to both present the scene in a format that draws the eye to the emperor and show movement that is lacking on almost all other Roman coins. The rare use of geometric planes was repeated on ADLOCVTIO sestertii of Galba five years later, perhaps the work of the same artist. Rome sestertii after 70 A.D. are of far less impressive style.


The lack of SC leaves the reverse fields uncluttered. SC stood for Senatus Consultum, "By Decree of the Senate" and signified the role of the Senate in the minting of brass and bronze coinage. Many sestertii of Caligula and some brass and bronze of Nero lack SC. Subsequent issues include SC again, until inflation produced the demise of the sestertius under Gallienus, c. 265 AD
5 commentsLordBest
5514.jpg
005d. Agrippina II88 viewsLYDIA, Hypaepa. Agrippina Jr., mother of Nero. Augusta, 50-59 AD. Æ 14mm (2.33 gm). Draped bust of Agrippina right / Cult statue of Artemis. RPC I 2541; SNG Copenhagen -.

Julia Vipsania Agrippina Minor or Agrippina Minor (Latin for "the younger") (November 7, AD 15 – March 59), often called "Agrippinilla" to distinguish her from her mother, was the daughter of Germanicus and Agrippina Major. She was sister of Caligula, granddaughter and great-niece to Tiberius, niece and wife of Claudius, and the mother of Nero. She was born at Oppidum Ubiorum on the Rhine, afterwards named in her honour Colonia Agrippinae (modern Cologne, Germany).

Agrippina was first married to (1st century AD) Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus. From this marriage she gave birth to Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus, who would become Roman Emperor Nero. Her husband died in January, 40. While still married, Agrippina participated openly in her brother Caligula's decadent court, where, according to some sources, at his instigation she prostituted herself in a palace. While it was generally agreed that Agrippinilla, as well as her sisters, had ongoing sexual relationships with their brother Caligula, incest was an oft-used criminal accusation against the aristocracy, because it was impossible to refute successfully. As Agrippina and her sister became more problematic for their brother, Caligula sent them into exile for a time, where it is said she was forced to dive for sponges to make a living. In January, 41, Agrippina had a second marriage to the affluent Gaius Sallustius Crispus Passienus. He died between 44 and 47, leaving his estate to Agrippina.

As a widow, Agrippina was courted by the freedman Pallas as a possible marriage match to her own uncle, Emperor Claudius, and became his favourite councillor, even granted the honor of being called Augusta (a title which no other queen had ever received). They were married on New Year's Day of 49, after the death of Claudius's first wife Messalina. Agrippina then proceeded to persuade Claudius to adopt her son, thereby placing Nero in the line of succession to the Imperial throne over Claudius's own son, Brittanicus. A true Imperial politician, Agrippina did not reject murder as a way to win her battles. Many ancient sources credited her with poisoning Claudius in 54 with a plate of poisened mushrooms, hence enabling Nero to quickly take the throne as emperor.

For some time, Agrippina influenced Nero as he was relatively ill-equipped to rule on his own. But Nero eventually felt that she was taking on too much power relative to her position as a woman of Rome. He deprived her of her honours and exiled her from the palace, but that was not enough. Three times Nero tried to poison Agrippina, but she had been raised in the Imperial family and was accustomed to taking antidotes. Nero had a machine built and attached to the roof of her bedroom. The machine was designed to make the ceiling collapse — the plot failed with the machine. According to the historians Tacitus and Suetonius, Nero then plotted her death by sending for her in a boat constructed to collapse, intending to drown Agrippina. However, only some of the crew were in on the plot; their efforts were hampered by the rest of the crew trying to save the ship. As the ship sank, one of her handmaidens thought to save herself by crying that she was Agrippina, thinking they would take special care of her. Instead the maid was instantly beaten to death with oars and chains. The real Agrippina realised what was happening and in the confusion managed to swim away where a passing fisherman picked her up. Terrified that his cover had been blown, Nero instantly sent men to charge her with treason and summarily execute her. Legend states that when the Emperor's soldiers came to kill her, Agrippina pulled back her clothes and ordered them to stab her in the belly that had housed such a monstrous son.

ecoli
0061.jpg
0061 - Denarius Petilia 43 BC32 viewsObv/ Eagle on thunderbolt r.; above, PETILLIVS; below, CAPITOLINVS.
Rev/ Temple of Jupiter Capitolinus; roof is decorated with armed figure at each side and cuadriga at apex; within pediment, uncertain figure; between central four columns, hanging decorations; on l., S; on r., F.

Ag, 18.0 mm, 3.85 g
Moneyer: Petilllius Capitolinus
Mint: Rome.
RRC 487/2b [dies o/r: 85/74 (all var.] - BMCRR Rome 4222
ex-Spink, auction march 2008, lot 994 (ex-Glendining, auction april 1980, lot 159)
1 commentsdafnis
Uncia Emision anónima.jpg
01-09 - Semi Uncia Emision Anonima (211 - 206 A.C.)63 viewsAE Semi Uncia 18 mm 3.9 gr
Anv: Cabeza de Mercurio vistiendo petasos alado viendo a derecha - Sin marca de valor.
Rev: Proa de galera a derecha - "ROMA" arriba.
Ceca: Roma
Referencias: Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1360 Pag.257 - Craw RRC #56/8 - Syd CRR #143f - BMCRR #277
mdelvalle
Craw_56_8_Semi_uncia_Anonima.jpg
01-09 - Semi Uncia Emision Anonima (211 - 206 A.C.)20 viewsAE Semi Uncia 18 mm 3.9 gr
Anv: Cabeza de Mercurio vistiendo petasos alado viendo a derecha - Sin marca de valor.
Rev: Proa de galera a derecha - "ROMA" arriba.

Ceca: Roma

Referencias: Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1360 Pag.257 - Craw RRC #56/8 - Syd CRR #143f - BMCRR #277
mdelvalle
0010-019.jpg
0110 - Republic, Quartuncia66 viewsRome mint, circa 217-215 BC
Head of Roma right, wearing a crested helmet
Prow of galey right, ROMA above
3,41 gr - 15 mm
Ref :RCV # 624
According to RCV, "the quartuncia is the smallest denomination of the Roman bronze coinage, and has been briefly produced during the semilibral weight standard. With the further decline in the weight of the bronze coinage after 215 BC, issue of the experimental quartuncia ceased."
4 commentsPotator II
coin26.JPG
012. Domitian25 viewsDomitian Æ As. Struck 87 AD. IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM COS XIII CENS PERP P, laureate bust right wearing aegis / VIRTVTI AVGVSTI S-C, Virtus standing right, left foot on a helmet, with spear & parazonium. Cohen 650.

Uncleaned, Flaky patina prevents anymore cleaning.

Check
ecoli
coin362.JPG
012. Domitian27 viewsDomitian Æ Sestertius. IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM COS XIIII CENS PER P P, laureate head right / IOVI VICTORI, Jupiter seated left, SC in exergue. RIC 388.

Pre Zapped again from uncleaned lot.

Check
ecoli
0010-018.jpg
0129 - Republic, Uncia58 viewsRome mint, c. 215-212
Head of Roma right wearing attic helmet, pellet behind
ROMA prow of galley right
9.08 gr
Ref : Crawford 41/10
2 commentsPotator II
Antonius_Felix_procurator,_AE-16,_Prutah__Jerusalems_Israel_Palm_Hedin-652,_54_AD_Q-001_0h,_2,28_g_,_16_mm-s~0.jpg
012p Claudius-I (41-54 A.D.), Judaea, Antonius Felix Procurator, under Claudius, (52-60 A.D.), AE-16(Prutah), Hedin 652, BRIT, Six branched palm tree,93 views012p Claudius-I (41-54 A.D.), Judaea, Antonius Felix Procurator, under Claudius, (52-60 A.D.), AE-16(Prutah), Hedin 652, BRIT, Six branched palm tree,
avers:- NEPΩ KΛAV KAICP, Two crossed shields and spears.
revers:- BRIT, Six branched palm tree bearing two bunches of dates, L-IΔ, K-AI across field.
exerg: L/IΔ//K/AI, diameter: 16,0mm, weight: 2,28g, axes: 0h,
mint: Judaea, date: Dated Year of Claudius (Year 14 = 54 A.D.) ref: Hedin 652,
Q-001
quadrans
012p_Claudius-I_(41-54_A_D_),_Syria,_Uncertain_Caesarea,_Tyche_Q-001_0h_24-24,5mm_9,7g-s.jpg
012p Claudius-I (41-54 A.D.), Syria, Uncertain Caesarea, RPC I 4086, AE-24, KAICAPEΩN ETOYC E, Veiled Tyche seated right,150 views012p Claudius-I (41-54 A.D.), Syria, Uncertain Caesarea, RPC I 4086, AE-24, KAICAPEΩN ETOYC E, Veiled Tyche seated right,
avers:- TIBEPIOC KΛAYΔIOC KAICAP, Bare head of Tiberius right.
revers:- KAICAPEΩN ETOYC E, Veiled Tyche, seated right, on rocks and holding ears of corn, below, river god.
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: 24,0-24,5mm, weight: 9,7g, axes: 0h,
mint: Syria, Uncertain Caesarea, date: Year 5 = 45 A.D., ref: RPC-I-4086, BMC Anazarbus 4,
Q-001
3 commentsquadrans
0132.jpg
0132 - 1/2 AE Alexander III the Great 325-10 BC29 viewsObv/ Macedonian shield with thunderbolts inside.
Rev/ Macedonian helmet, (dolphin), AI monogram below; B A on each side of the field.

AE, 15.5 mm, 4.48 g
Mint: Macedonia uncertain.
Price 415
ex-Numismatik Lanz, eBay jul 2011 - art. #300569816457
dafnis
0139.jpg
0139 - AE Alexander III the Great 336-23 BC48 viewsObv/ Head of Heracles r. wearing lion-skin headdress.
Rev/ ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ in middle, with goryte, bow and mallet at sides; bunch of grapes and circle on r.

AE, 19.1 mm, 6.33 g
Mint: Macedonia uncertain.
Price -- - Drama 103
ex-CGB, auction 49, lot 155
dafnis
Uncia_AES_Grave_14.jpg
014/6 AES Grave Uncia41 viewsAnonymous. AES Grave Uncia. 280-276 BC. (27.79g) Obv: Knucklebone; below, one pellet (indistinct). Rev: Central pellet in high relief.
Crawford 14/6; Sydenham 13
Paddy
02-Tarsus.jpg
02. Persian Empire: Province of Cilicia: City of Tarsos.63 viewsDouble shekel, ca. 351 BC.
Obverse: Baal of Tarsos seated, holding eagle, ear of wheat, bunch of grapes, and sceptre.
Reverse: Lion attacking bull.
10.51 gm., 24 mm.
S. #5650; series V in Myriandros Katisson (E.T. Newell).
2 commentsCallimachus
LitraRoma.jpg
026/3 Litra or 1/8 ounce40 viewsAnonymous. Æ Litra or 1/8 ounce. Rome. 234-231 BC. ( 3.43g, 15mm, 5h) Obv: Laureate head of Apollo right Rev: Horse rearing left, wearing bridle, bit, and reins; ROMA below.

Crawford 26/3; Sydenham 29 (Half-litra); Kestner 56-65; BMCRR Romano-Campanian 70-74 (Half-litra)

This coin is attributed as a Litra by Crawford, others define it as half-litra. However, it could be argued that "1/8 ounce piece" is the better description.

First of all, on litra and half-litra:

"According to Crawford, the weight standard of the series 26 litra and half litra are based on a litra of 3.375 grams . The half litra in Crawford is described as having a dog on the reverse rather than a horse, and the average weight of the half litra of several specimens is described as 1.65 grams. BMCRR does refer to these as half litrae; but keep in mind that Grueber was writing circa 1900 and based on older scholarship. Sydenham was writing in the 1950s. Of the three major works cited, Crawford is the most current and likely based on a greater number of more recent finds."

Andrew Mccabe:

"It's very doubtful to me that the word "litra" is correct. Much more likely, these small bronze coins were simply fractions of the Aes Grave cast coinage system, as they come in weights of 1/4, 1/8 and 1/16 ounce, and the Aes Grave coinage generally had denominations from As down to Semuncia (1/2 ounce). So this coin would be 1/8 ounce coin. That's my view, which differs from their long term designation as "Litra", which presume them to be overvalued token bronze coinage on the Sicilian model, whereby bronze coins had value names that indicate a relationship to the silver coinage.

Litra, the word, is from the same stem as Libra, i.e. pound, would suggest a denomination of a (light) Sicilian pound of bronze, which sometimes equates in value to a small silver coin in Sicily weighing about 1/12 didrachm (about 0.6 grams) so by this definition, a Litra = an Obol. But it hardly stands up to scrutiny that such a tiny bronze coin, weighing 3.375 grams, could have been equivalent to a 0.6 gram silver obol. It would imply a massive overvaluation of bronze that just does not seem credible.

So. throw out the Litras, and call these coins 1/8 ounce pieces, and I think we have a sensible answer."

Paddy
augustus as2.jpg
027 BC-14 AD - AUGUSTUS AE As - struck c.25 BC48 viewsobv: CAESAR (bare head of Augustus right)
rev: [AVGVS]TVS (within laurel wreath)
ref: RIC 486, BMCRE 731, RPC 2235
mint: Ephesus (?)(Uncertain mint in Cyprus or Syria)
11.18gms, 28mm
Scarce
berserker
augustus quadr-.jpg
027 BC-14 AD - AUGUSTUS AE quadrans - struck 5 BC66 viewsobv: GALVS.MESSALLA.III.VIR
rev: SISENNA.APRONIVS.AAA.FF / S.C.
ref: RIC I 443, C.352
mint: Rome, 3.03gms, 16mm
Moneyers Apronius, Galus, Messalla, and Sisena.

The quadrans (literally meaning "a quarter") was a low-value Roman bronze coin worth 1/4th of an as. After ca. 90 BC, when bronze coinage was reduced to the semuncial standard, the quadrans became the lowest-valued coin in production.
berserker
452-AugustusAE19-.jpg
027 BC-14 AD - AUGUSTUS AE19 of Philippi 55 viewsobv: AVG (laureate head of Augustus right)
rev: Two colonists plowing with two oxen right
ref: RPC1656, BMC (Parium) 86-88
mint: uncertain mint in Macedon, probably Philippi
Scarce
berserker
027_Traianus_AE-23_AY_KAI_TRAI-AN-GEDA_TABH-NWN_Moushmov__SNG_Cop_559,_Mionnet__Tabae_-AD_Q-001_0h_22-24mm_9,16g-s~0.jpg
027p Traianus (98-117 A.D.), Caria, Tabae, SNG Cop-559, AE-23, Demeter standing left, 60 views027p Traianus (98-117 A.D.), Caria, Tabae, SNG Cop-559, AE-23, Demeter standing left,
avers:- AY-KAI-TPAIA-NOC-API-ΓEΔA, Laureate head right .
revers:- TABH-NΩN, Demeter, polos on head, standing left, holding corn-ears, bunch of grapes and sceptre.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 22-24 mm, weight: 9,16g, axis: 0h,
mint: Caria, Tabae, date: A.D., ref: SNG Cop-559, SNG Aulock 2718, SNG München 545, Hunter 4; Weber Coll. 6586; BMC 74.
Q-001
quadrans
RSC 48 Mamaea.JPG
028. Julia Mamaea, mother or Severus Alexander. AR Denarius. Pietas.30 viewsAR Denarius. Rome mint.

Obv. Draped and diadememed bust right IVLIA MAMAEA AVG

Rev. Pietas standing left sacrificing over altar PIETAS AVGVSTAE.

RSC 48, RIC346. UNC

Not the best scan of a beautiful, fully lustrous coins.
LordBest
didrachm.jpg
028/3 Didrachm/Quadrigatus 37 viewsAnonymous. AR Didrachm-Quadrigatus. Uncertain or Rome Mint c. 225-214 B.C. (6.26g, 20.9m, 9h). Obv: Laureate head of Janus. Rev: Jupiter, hurling Thunderbolt and holding scepter in Quadriga right driven by Victory. Roma in relief in linear frame. Craw. 28/3, Syd. 65, RSC 24. CNG276/320.

One of Rome’s pre-denarius silver coins issued before the Second Punic War, and the introduction of the denarius circa 214-211 B.C.

I wanted to trace the evolution of Roman coinage, so I couldn’t pass this one up when I saw it. More information on the type can be found here: andrewmccabe.ancients.info.

2 commentsLucas H
RI 030e img.jpg
030 - Vespasian Denarius - RIC ???54 viewsObv:– IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG TR P, Laureate head right
Rev:– LIBERTAS [PVBLICA], Libertas standing left, holding pileus and staff
Minted in Uncertain mint in Spain. A.D. 70-71
References:– Cohen -. RIC II ???

SOLD
maridvnvm
Didrachm_Black~0.jpg
030/1 AR Didrachm60 viewsAnonymous. AR Didrachm. Uncertain Mint, 225-214 BC. (6.56g, 23mm, 12h) Obv: Janiform head of the Dioscuri. Rev: Jupiter, hurling thunderbolt and holding sceptre, in galloping quadriga driven by Victory; ROMA on tablet below.

Crawford 30/1; Sydenham 64.

Traces of corrosion, Good Very Fine.

Ex: Roma Numismatics

From the Andrew McCabe Collection; Ex Goodman
5 commentsPaddy
saloninaant.jpg
036. Salonina.79 viewsBI Antoninianus. Eastern mint.

Obv. Draped bust right, on crescent SALONINA AVG

Rev. Ivno standing left holding patera and sceptre, peacock at feet IVNO REGINA.

RIC13s. aUNC. Simply superb, perfect style, fabric and strike on perfectly round flan with full silvering. Very rare in this condition.

4 commentsLordBest
SemunicaBlack.jpg
038/07 AE Semiuncia50 viewsAnonymous. AE Semiuncia. Rome Mint. c. 217-215. (5,2 g, 19 mm) Obv: Head of Mercury right, wearing winged petasus. Rev: ROMA Prow right.
BMC 129-161 and 163-165; Crawford 38/7

1 commentsPaddy
007~1.JPG
041 Germanicus 18 viewsGermanicus Æ As struck under Claudius. GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N, bare head right / TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR P IMP P P around S-C



"Germanicus, Father of Gaius Caesar(Caligula), son of Drusus and Antonia the Younger, was adopted by Tiberius, his paternal uncle."
Randygeki(h2)
GI_044a_img.jpg
044 - Hadrian Cistophoric tetradrachm - RIC 50337 viewsCistophoric tetradrachm
Obv:- HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS P P, Bare-headed, draped bust right
Rev:- COS III, Minerva, helmeted, standing l., holding patera and spear; at her side, shield.
References:- Cohen 294. BMC 1071. RIC 503. Metclaf 395.
Minted in uncertain mint in Asia circa A.D. 138

Appears to be overstruck on a Mark Antony and Octavia AR Cistophorus. The remains of the legend M • ANTONIVS • IMP • COS • DESIG • ITER • ET TERT can be seen on the reverse with the M starting at 9 o'clock.
maridvnvm
RI_044x_img.jpg
044 - Hadrian Denarius - RIC -49 viewsObv:- HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS, laureate head right with slight drapery on far shoulder (Legend reversed as AVGVSTVS HADRIANVS)
Rev:- COS III, Victory standing right holding wreath and palm (Legend reversed as III COS)
Minted in Eastern Mint. A.D. 129-131
Reference:– BMCRE -. Strack -. RIC -. RSC -. Apparently unpublished.

Strack knew just three Eastern denarii with this transposed obv. legend, including one with a Minerva standing rev. type in the Trau coll., Strack's pl. XVIII, *18. Curtis Clay has another example with this obverse with the Minerva type. This would appear to be a fifth specimen from this obverse die but with a new reverse type.

Additional information on this coin from Curtis Clay:-
"Interesting. Apparently a new rev. type on the Eastern denarii, of uncertain origin.

That's admittedly a fairly standard Victory advancing right rev. type, but I find no such type on any denarius of Hadrian from the mint of Rome, nor on his Asian cistophori.

A similar type does occur on Hadrian's silver quinarii, and on a rather scarce denarius of Trajan struck in 112 but these seem unlikely sources for a type on Hadrian's Eastern denarii.

Moreover on the Roman coins Victory grasps the stem of the palm over her shoulder in her left fist, thumb upwards, whereas on the Eastern denarius she palms the stem, holding it with her downwards pointing thumb while apparently keeping her fingers extended. I imagine that this detail may go back to the source copied, since it seems unlikely that the engraver changed it on his own whim."
maridvnvm
florianantB.JPG
047. Florian, 276AD. BI Antoninianus.30 viewsAE Antoninianus. Cyzikus mint.

Obv. Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right IMP FLORIANVS AVG

Rev. Victoria standing right, presenting wreath to Florian standinf left holding sceptre CONCORDIA MILITVM, T in ex.

RIC116. aEF. Semi-uncleaned, not game to try and clean it further.
LordBest
049_Septimius-Severus_AE-18-Hadriannopolis-in-Bithynia_AVK-dot-_-dot-CE_-dot-CEV-dot-H-dot-POC-laureate-head-right_A_PIANO-_OLEITON_Var-II-3354-p-277_Q-001_1h_18mm_3,40g-s.jpg
049p Septimius Severus (193-211 A.D.), Thrace, Hadriannopolis, Varbanov II 3354, AE-18, AΔPIANO-ΠOΛEITON, Bunch of grapes,62 views049p Septimius Severus (193-211 A.D.), Thrace, Hadriannopolis, Varbanov II 3354, AE-18, AΔPIANO-ΠOΛEITON, Bunch of grapes,
avers:- AVK•Λ•CEΠ•CEV•H•POC, Laureate head right.
revers:-AΔPIANO-ΠOΛEITON, Bunch of grapes.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 18mm, weight: 3,40g, axis: 1 h,
mint: Thrace, Hadriannopolis, date: 193-211 A.D., ref:Varbanov II 3354, p-277,
Q-001
quadrans
049_Septimius_Severus_(193-211_A_D_),_AE-18,_Varb-1338,_Thrace,_Philippopolis,_Bunch_of_grapes,_Scarce_Q-001_h_mm_g-s.jpg
049p Septimius Severus (193-211 A.D.), Thrace, Philippopolis, Varb-1338, AE-18, Bunch of grapes, Scarce!61 views049p Septimius Severus (193-211 A.D.), Thrace, Philippopolis, Varb-1338, AE-18, Bunch of grapes, Scarce!
avers:- AY-KAI-CE-CEVHROC, Laurate head left.
revers:- ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΠΟΛΙΤΟΝ, Bunch of grapes.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 18mm, weight: 3,07g, axis: h,
mint: Thrace, Philippopolis, date: 193-211 A.D., ref:Varbanov (engl.) 1338, (private coll. O. Gavrailov,)
Q-001
quadrans
051_Caracalla_(198_-_217_A_D_)_AE-17_Nikopolis_MAR-AV-KAI-ANTONINO_NIKOPOLIS-PROC-ICTRON_HHJ-8_18_8_13-p-187_Q-001_7h_16,5-18mm_2,11ga-s~0.jpg
051p Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), Moesia, Nicopolis Ad Istrum, HHJ-08.18.08.13, AE-17, Bunch of grapes,66 views051p Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), Moesia, Nicopolis Ad Istrum, HHJ-08.18.08.13, AE-17, Bunch of grapes,
avers:- MAP-AV-KAI-ANTΩNINO, Bareheaded-bust-r.
revers:- NIKOΠOΛIT-ΠPOC-ICTPON, Bunch of grapes,
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 16,5-18mm, weight: 2,11g, axis: 7h,
mint: Moesia, Nicopolis Ad Istrum, date: A.D., ref: Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov HHJ-8.18.06.13, p-187
Q-001
quadrans
Bar-Kochba-Hendin-734.jpg
053. 2'nd Jewish (bar Kokhba) Revolt.15 viewsZuz (denarius), attributed to Year 3 (134-35 AD).
Obverse: (Shim'on) / Bunch of Grapes.
Reverse: (For the Freedom of Jerusalem) / Lyre with three strings.
3.19 gm., 18.5 mm.
Mildenberg #205.19 (this coin); Hendin #734.

This coin likely started out as a denarius of one of the Roman emperors between Vespasian and Hadrian. Many coins of the Second Jewish Revolt show traces of the earlier Roman coin. This coin is no exception, and traces of the previous coin can be seen on the obverse in and around the bunch of grapes.

The bunch of grapes on the obverse is an ancient symbol of blessing and fertility. As such it occasionally appears on ancient coins of other areas besides this series. Given the messianic nature of the Bar Kokhba revolt, the bunch of grapes takes on added significance because in Jewish prophetic literature, grapes (and the vine or vineyard) are often symbolic of the restoration of Israel, or even symbolic of Israel itself.

The lyre on the reverse is associated with temple worship, as are trumpets, which are also found on coins of the Bar Kokhba Revolt. King David is mentioned as playing a lyre, and there are numerous Biblical references to praising the Lord with the lyre and trumpets. (The word "kinnor," sometimes translated as "harp," is really a type of lyre.) Even today the lyre is an important Jewish symbol and the state of Israel has chosen to portray it on the half New Israeli Sheqel coin.
Callimachus
56_4_PanoramaBlack1.jpg
056/4 Subgroup 85 & 86A AE Triens60 viewsAnonymous. Ae Triens. Apulia. 212-208 BC. (9.08 g, 23.72 g) Obv: Helmeted head of Minerva right, four pellets above. Rev: ROMA, prow right, four pellets below.

Originally defined as Crawford 56/4, this type of Triens have been assigned to subgroup 85 & 86A. This is a Q or H triens, that is missing the Q or H. Andrew McCabe gives the subgroup the number F1 which has the following characteristics:

"Mint: Apulia. Second Punic war. Related to RRC 85 H, and RRC 86 anchor and Q. Obverses are in high relief. The general style, for examples Janus, or Hercules’ truncation, or the regular reverse prow, is like RRC 86 anchor and Q. Reverses of Sextans and Quadrans have either regular, or Luceria style, prows with a club in an elevated fighting platform. On regular reverses, the top and central keel lines join half way across prow. Flans are thin and broad akin to late issues of Luceria. All denominations As through Sextans are known."

"The regular reverse prow is tall (height/width) with a fighting platform and deck structure elevated more than usual, and there is always a line extending either side of the deck structure. The keel-lines are also distinctive, with the middle of the three lines always converging with the top line half way across the prow... These specific design features – especially the middle keel line converging with the upper line half way across the prow – are identical with and typical of the RRC 86A Q series from Apulia58... The obverses of all denominations are in high relief, and show high quality engraving."

"So a close geographic and timing link between the Anchor Q, H, L, L-T, CA and P coins can be posited. These coins are certainly a second Punic war issue from Apulia. It remains open for discussion which city minted these group F1 coins, presumably alongside the RRC 85 and RRC 86 issues."

This is one out of six specimens: "F1 Triens: 6 coins, mean 9.4 grams, heaviest 10.5 grams".

All quotes are from the work of Andrew McCabe.

Link to thread at Forvm Ancient Coins: http://www.forumancientcoins.com/board/index.php?topic=90604.0

On this topic at Andrew McCabe's homepage: http://andrewmccabe.ancients.info/RRC056.html

I would strongly recommend anyone who wants to learn more about Roman Republican coins to give Andrew McCabe's homepage a visit.


1 commentsPaddy
056_Elagabalus_(218-222_A_D_),_AE-17_Nikopolis_AV-K-M-AVP-ANTONINOC__NIKO_OLIT_N-PROC-ICTRON_HHJ-8_26_08_05_Q-001_7h_16,5mm_3,13ga-s.jpg
056p Elagabalus (218-222 A.D.), Moesia, Nicopolis Ad Istrum, HHJ-08.26.08.05, AE-17, Dionysos left,79 views056p Elagabalus (218-222 A.D.), Moesia, Nicopolis Ad Istrum, HHJ-08.26.08.05, AE-17, Dionysos left,
avers:- AV-K-M-AVP-ANTΩNINOC, Laureate, draped and couirassed bust right.
revers:- NIKOΠOΛITΩN-ΠPOC-ICTPON, Dionysos, nude, wearing boots, standing left, resting with left hand on thyrsos and holding in right hand bunch of grapes.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 16,5m, weight: 3,13g, axis: 7h,
mint: Moesia, Nicopolis Ad Istrum, date: A.D., ref: Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov HHJ-08.26.08.05, p-392
Q-001
quadrans
056_Elagabalus_(218-222_A_D_),_AE-17_Nikopolis_AVT-K-M-AVP-ANTONINOC__NIKO_OLIT_N-PROC-ICTRON_HHJ-_Q-001_h_mm_ga-s~0.jpg
056p Elagabalus (218-222 A.D.), Moesia, Nicopolis Ad Istrum, HrHJ (2012) 08.26.08.06., AE-17, NIKOΠOΛITΩN ΠPOC ICTPON, Bunch of grapes, #163 views056p Elagabalus (218-222 A.D.), Moesia, Nicopolis Ad Istrum, HrHJ (2012) 08.26.08.06., AE-17, NIKOΠOΛITΩN ΠPOC ICTPON, Bunch of grapes, #1
avers: AVT K M AVP ANTONINOC, Laureated, cuirassed bust right.
reverse: NIKOΠOΛITΩN ΠPOC ICTPON, Bunch of grapes,
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 16,5mm, weight: 3,36g, axis: 16,5h,
mint: Moesia, Nicopolis Ad Istrum, date: A.D., ref: HrHJ (2012) 08.26.08.06., p-393
Q-001
quadrans
Domitian_as_caesar_legionary_standard.jpg
06 Domitian as Caesar RIC-1081111 viewsAR Denarius, 3.45g
Rome Mint, 79 AD (Vespasian)
RIC 1081 (C2). BMC 269. RSC 393.
Obv: CAESAR AVG F DOMITIANVS COS VI; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: PRINCEPS IVVENTVTIS; Clasped hands holding legionary eagle set on prow
Acquired from Beast Coins, April 2007.


The reverse represents 'Concordia Militum', harmony of the troops. Domitian quite possibly was plotting against Titus after Vespasian's death by appealing to the troops with a double donative. This coin might provide numismatic evidence of such. Suetonius states: " On the death of his father he hesitated for some time whether to offer a double largess to the soldiers, and he never had any compunction about saying that he had been left a partner in the imperial power, but that the will had been tampered with."

A nice coin with average wear and an interesting history behind it.


Vespasian70
VHC06-coin.JPG
06- CANADA, 5 CENTS, KM2.24 viewsSize: 18.5 mm. Composition: .925 Silver/.0346 oz. Mintage: 2,000,000.
Grade: Raw VF+ to XF (some nicks, but also some pretty toning- which may be heat-induced, but I don't care).
Comments: Purchased from Bobby Hurst, aka "forvm" on eBay. Though not perfect, it will serve as an attractive "filler" until I step up to a full UNC.
lordmarcovan
RI_064lz_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 430 corr.23 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– VICTORIA, Victory standing left engraving AV/G on shield to left with right hand, which is resting on a column, holding palm in left hand. Centre dot.
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 194-195
Reference:– BMCRE 402, thought to be SE V, CO and AV/VG but from same die pair as this coin. RIC 430 (Rated R citing BM). RSC 703a.

All the coins cite the BM example which is unclear. This example, whilst suffering from the harsh cleaning method (zapped?) is sufficiently clear to make out the correct COS II obverse legend and the AV/G on the shield.

A rare reverse type.
maridvnvm
1299_P_Hadrian_pseudo_RPC736.jpg
0736 THRACE, Bizya, Pseudo-autonomous under Hadrian Tyche standing21 viewsReference.
RPC III, 736; Jurukova 165

Obv. ΔΙΟΝΥСω ΚΤΙСΤΗ
Dionysos seated right on throne, holding grape bunch and a single grape; vine to left

Rev. ΒΙΖΥΗΝΩΝ.
River-god and Tyche; to left, river-god reclining right, resting right arm on water-urn, holding reed in left hand; to right, Tyche standing facing, head left, wearing long garment and kalathos, holding cantharus in right hand and two ears of corn in left hand.

6.59 gr
22 mm
6h
1 commentsokidoki
theodosius2~0.jpg
074. Theodosius II, 402-450AD. AV Solidus.487 viewsAV Solidus. Constantinople mint. Obv: DN THEODO-SIVS PF AVG - Three-quarters bust right, draped, cuirassed, holding spear over right shoulder and shield in left hand Rev: VOT XXX MVLT XXXXS - Constantinopolis seated left, holding cross on globe and scepter, her left foot sits on the prow of a galley and at rear of her throne, a shield sits; in right field, a 'star'. Exe: CONOB : AD 430-440, RIC X, 257 (s) Scarce, page 259/ 4.48 g. Choice FDC.
15 commentsLordBest
075-Otac-Severa_AR-Ant_M-OTACIL-SEVERA-AVG_IVNO-CONSERVAT_Roma_RIC-127_246-48-AD_Q-001_h_mm_0,00ga-s.jpg
075 Otacilia Severa (?-249 A.D.), RIC IV-III 127, Rome, AR-Antoninianus, IVNO CONSERVAT, Iuno veiled, standing left, #0182 views075 Otacilia Severa (?-249 A.D.), RIC IV-III 127, Rome, AR-Antoninianus, IVNO CONSERVAT, Iuno veiled, standing left, #01
avers:- M OTACIL SEVERA AVG, Diademedand draped bust right, on crescent.
revers:- IVNO CONSERVAT, Iuno ( the consort of Jupiter) veiled, standing left,, holding patera and scepter.
exergo: -/-//--, diameter: 20,0-22,7mm, weight: 4,15g, axis: 7h,
mint: Rome, date: 246-248A.D., ref: RIC-IV-III-127, p-, RSC 20, Sear 2628, Scarce,
Q-001
Note: RIC notes that this coin is probably issued from Antioch but since there is uncertainty, leaves it under Rome.
quadrans
075-Otac-Severa_AR-Ant_M-OTACIL-SEVERA-AVG_IVNO-CONSERVAT_Roma_RIC-127_246-48-AD_Q-002_h_mm_0,00ga-s.jpg
075 Otacilia Severa (?-249 A.D.), RIC IV-III 127, Rome, AR-Antoninianus, IVNO CONSERVAT, Iuno veiled, standing left, #0263 views075 Otacilia Severa (?-249 A.D.), RIC IV-III 127, Rome, AR-Antoninianus, IVNO CONSERVAT, Iuno veiled, standing left, #02
avers:- M OTACIL SEVERA AVG, Diademedand draped bust right, on crescent.
revers:- IVNO CONSERVAT, Iuno ( the consort of Jupiter) veiled, standing left,, holding patera and scepter.
exergo: -/-//--, diameter: 22,0-23,5mm, weight: 3,90g, axis: 0h,
mint: Rome, date: 246-248A.D., ref: RIC-IV-III-127, p-, RSC 20, Sear 2628, Scarce,
Q-002
Note: RIC notes that this coin is probably issued from Antioch but since there is uncertainty, leaves it under Rome.
quadrans
654Hadrian_RIC841.jpg
0841 Hadrian AS Roma 134-38 AD Africa OSTROGOTHS. Uncertain king. Follis circa VI cent.20 viewsReference. very rare
RIC 841; C 147. BMC 1714. MEC I, 66 for countermark.

Obv. HADRIANVS AVG COS III P P
Laureate and draped bust right; in front XLII.

Rev. AFRICA
Africa reclining left, wearing elephant-trunk, holding scorpion and cornucopia; in front, basket of corn.

12.22 gr
26 mm
6h

From the E.E. Clain-Stefanelli collection.
okidoki
victorituts.jpg
095/1a Victoriatus52 viewsAnonymous. 211-208B.C. AR Victoriatus. Uncertain Mint. (2.74g, 16mm, 12h). Obv: Laureate head of Jupiter right. Rev: Victory standing right, crowing trophy; VB monogram between. Crawford 95/1a. Sydenham 113, RSC 36m.

An interesting denomination, he Victoriatus circulated at the same time as the denarius but was made of debased silver and could have been valued at ¾ a denarius. It was hoarded separately from denarii, and could have been used for trade in southern Italy among the Greek colonies. It was later remade into the Quninarri keeping the victory motif from the old Victoriatus.
1 commentsLucas H
trajan mines coin RIC709-RR.jpg
098-117 AD - TRAJAN AE quadrans - struck 104-110 AD72 viewsobv: IMP CAES TRAIAN AVG GER DAC (laureate head right)
rev: METALLI VLPIANI (Aequitas standing left, holding scales and cornucopia)
ref: RIC II 709 (R2), Cohen 182 (30frcs)
3.23gms, 17mm
Very rare

Under Trajan and Hadrian several series of bronze quadrantes were struck in the name of the imperial mines in Noricum, Dalmatia, Pannonia and Moesia (Dardania). These operations supplied metal for the mint at Rome, and perhaps were the sites of workshops to produce coinage for local circulation or as donatives. Others theorize that these pieces were struck at Rome itself, and served some unidentified function,much as the contemporary "nome" coinage struck at Alexandria in Egypt. The exact denomination is unclear. Most appear to be quadrans in the 14-17mm range but some larger examples could be considered semisses.
berserker
trajan quadrans RIC704-RR.jpg
098-117 AD - TRAJAN AE quadrans - struck 99-102 AD50 viewsobv: IMP CAES NERVA TRAIAN AVG (laureate head right)
rev: DARDANICI (woman standing left, holding branch and gathering up drapery)
ref: RIC II 704 (R2), C.139 (30frcs), BMCRE 1106 note
mint: Dardanian mines
2.90gms, 16mm
Very rare

Dardania was a region situated in Moesia Superior. For the Romans this was the mining province par excellence; were divided into several mining districts managed by the procuratores. It is unknown why these coins were struck, though many feel that they were made for use at the mines themselves, as payment for the workers. The original denomination of this coin is uncertain.
berserker
Cornelia51QuinVict.jpg
0aa Defeat of Hannibal on Sicily, 222 BC11 viewsCn. Lentulus, moneyer
90-85 BC

Quinarius

Laureled head of Jupiter, right
Victory crowning trophy, CN LENT in ex

Seaby, Cornelia 51

Possibly a reference to this event: [Q. Fabius Maximus, afterwards called Cunctator] broke up his camp at Suessula and decided to begin by an attack on Arpi. . . . Now at last the enemy was roused; there was a lull in the storm and daylight was approaching. Hannibal's garrison in the city amounted to about 5000 men, and the citizens themselves had raised a force of 3000. These the Carthaginians put in front to meet the enemy, that there might be no attempt at treachery in their rear. The fighting began in the dark in the narrow streets, the Romans having occupied not only the streets near the gate but the houses also, that they might not be assailed from the roofs. Gradually as it grew light some of the citizen troops and some of the Romans recognised one another, and entered into conversation. The Roman soldiers asked what it was that the Arpinians wanted, what wrong had Rome done them, what good service had Carthage rendered them that they, Italians-bred and born, should fight against their old friends the Romans on behalf of foreigners and barbarians, and wish to make Italy a tributary province of Africa. The people of Arpi urged in their excuse that they knew nothing of what was going on, they had in fact been sold by their leaders to the Carthaginians, they had been victimised and enslaved by a small oligarchy. When a beginning had been once made the conversations became more and more general; at last the praetor of Arpi was conducted by his friends to the consul, and after they had given each other mutual assurances, surrounded by the troops under their standards, the citizens suddenly turned against the Carthaginians and fought for the Romans. A body of Spaniards also, numbering something less than a thousand, transferred their services to the consul upon the sole condition that the Carthaginian garrison should be allowed to depart uninjured. The gates were opened for them and they were dismissed, according to the stipulation, in perfect safety, and went to Hannibal at Salapia. Thus Arpi was restored to the Romans without the loss of a single life, except in the case of one man who had long ago been a traitor and had recently deserted. The Spaniards were ordered to receive double rations, and the republic availed itself on very many occasions of their courage and fidelity.

Livy, History of Rome, 24.46-47
Blindado
Aemilia10.jpg
0ac Conquest of Macedonia13 viewsPaullus Aemilius Lepidus, moneyer
109-100 BC

Denarius

Veiled head of Concord, right, PAVLLVS LEPIDVS CONCORDIA
TER above trophy, L. Aemelius Lepidus on right, Perseus and his two sons as prisoners on left, PAVLLVS in ex.

Seaby, Aemelia 10

L. Aemelius Paullus defeated the Macedonians in 168 BC and brought Perseus and his sons to Rome to adorn his triumph.

Three days after the battle Perseus arrived at Amphipolis, and from that city he sent heralds with a caduceus to Paulus. In the meanwhile Hippias, Midon, and Pantauchus, the principal men among the king's friends who had fled from the field of battle to Beroea, went and made their surrender to the Roman consul. In the case of others also, their fears prompted them, one after another, to do the same. The consul sent his son Q. Fabius, together with L. Lentulus and Q. Metellus, with despatches to Rome announcing his victory. He gave the spoils taken from the enemy's army lying on the field of battle to the foot soldiers and the plunder from the surrounding country to the cavalry on condition that they were not absent from the camp more than two nights. The camp at Pydna was shifted to a site nearer the sea. First of all Beroea, then Thessalonica and Pella, and almost the whole of Macedonia, city by city, surrendered within two days.

Livy, History of Rome, 44.45
Blindado
100105.jpg
1. Æ Aes Grave Triens265 viewsAnonymous. Circa 280-276 BC. Æ Aes Grave Triens (49mm, 106.35 gm). Thunderbolt; four pellets across field / Dolphin swimming right; four pellets below. Thurlow-Vecchi 3; Crawford 14/3; Haeberlin pl. 39, 7-10. VF, green patina.

Ex Cng Sale 100 lot 105 310/300

The triens (plural trientes) was an Ancient Roman bronze coin produced during the Roman Republic valued at one-third of an as (4 unciae).
ecoli73
17457598_10155129927082232_7943941005198907512_n.jpg
1. Seleukos I Nikator10 viewsSELEUKID EMPIRE. Seleukos I Nikator. 312-281 BC. Æ Uncertain mint. Winged head of Medusa right / Bull butting right; controls not visible. Cf. SC 21, 152, and 191; HGC 9, 92.ecoli
avanti_together.jpg
1..Avantivarman 857-883 AD18 viewsAvantivarman 857-883 AD (1st ruler of Utpala dynasty)
Copper Kaserah or Punchshi 18/19mm (4.70gr)
Obverse- Goddess Ardochsho/Lakshmi seated facing in half lotus position, with Nagari legend 'Aadi' at right
Reverse- King standing facing and sacrificing at altar, with Nagari legend 'Deva' at right
Paul R3
f1_1_b.jpg
1.10 Judah Aristobulus I AE Prutah52 viewsAE Prutah of Judah Aristobulus I
104 - 103 BCE
Hendin 465
"Yehudah the High Priest and the Council of the Jews"
Zam
IMG_0133.JPG
1.3 John Hyrcanus II (Yonatan) Prutah98 views67 and 63-40 BCE
"Yonatan the High Priest and the Council of the Jews"
either a coin of Hyrcanus II, or a coin of Alexander Jannaeus in his later years. He may have changed his name to the deminunitive form in order to break up the YEHO- which is also God's name as a concession to the Pharisees.
Hendin 478
2 commentsZam
karia.jpg
1/16 Stater, Karia uncertain (Kaunos?)35 views1/16 Stater, Karia uncertain (Kaunos?)
aka Tritartemorion

490 - 470 BC

Female deity (Iris?) with curled wings,
Griffin standing l. in incuse square.

0.58 gr, 8.6 mm

cf SNGKeckman 817 for type & 821 for weight
see also AsiaMinorCoins #3960
Konuk 57 (O1,R1)
2 commentsPekka K
coin72.JPG
103. Hadrian13 views31 mm
24.3g

Worn and corroded. Victory right on the reverse


Uncleaned.
ecoli
IMG_9257.JPG
103c. Antinous 10 viewsEGYPT, Antinoöpolis. 2nd-3rd centuries AD. PB Tessera (22mm, 4.45 g, 2h). Dated year 2 of an uncertain era. Draped bust of Antinous right, wearing hem-hem crown; L B flanking / Victory advancing left, wings spread, holding palm frond and wreath. Milne –; Dattari (Savio) 11655; Köln –. Fine, dark gray surfaces.ecoli
104_Claudius_II__(268-270_A_D_),IMP_C_CLAVD(I)VS_AVG,dot,_IVVENTVS_AVG,_RIC-213,T-1057var_,_Antioch,_iss-3,_off-4,_270,_Q-001,_0h,_20mm,_3,01g-s.jpg
104 Claudius II. (268-270 A.D.), T-1057var. (Estiot), RIC V-I 113var., Antioch, AE-Antoninianus, IVVENTVS AVG, -/-//--, Hercules standing, facing, #1135 views104 Claudius II. (268-270 A.D.), T-1057var. (Estiot), RIC V-I 113var., Antioch, AE-Antoninianus, IVVENTVS AVG, -/-//--, Hercules standing, facing, #1
avers:- IMP C CLAVD(I)VS AVG (Legends error I are missing), Bust left, radiate, with traces of drapery to front of truncation, one or two dot under the bust(!!!), (A2l).
revers:- IVVENTVS AVG, Hercules standing, facing, head left, right hand leaning on club, and holding apple in left hand, lion's skin over left arm, (Hercules 4).
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: 20,0mm, weight: 3,01g, axes: 0h,
mint: Antioch, iss-3, off-4, date: 270 A.D., ref: T-1057var. (Estiot), RIC V-I 213,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
3290446.jpg
104. Antoninus Pius38 viewsAntoninus Pius. AD 138-161. Æ Sestertius (31mm, 24.70 g, 12h). Rome mint. Struck AD 149. Laureate head right / Crossed cornucopias from which a grape bunch flanked by two grain ears hang, surmounted by busts of boy. RIC III 857; Banti 410. Near VF, brown patina, minor surface roughness.

From the Fairfield Collection. Ex Pegasi Auctions 25 (8 November 2011), lot 504.

The infants are thought to be T. Aelius Antoninus and T. Aurelius Antoninus, the twin sons of Marcus Aurelius and Faustina Junior born in AD 149. These were the first male offspring of the couple, offering hope for the establishment of the new dynasty, but both died in infancy.

Ex-CNG Eauction 329 446/150/180
ecoli
coin2~0.jpg
104a. Faustina Sr21 viewsDiva Faustina Sr Denarius.

DIVA FAVSTINA, draped bust right, hair in bun
AVGVSTA, Ceres standing, head right, holding corn ears & long scepter.
RIC 360, RSC 78.

From the unclean pile
ecoli
coin219.JPG
105. Marcus Aurelius41 viewsMarcus Aurelius

The joint succession may have been motivated by military exigency. During his reign Marcus Aurelius was almost constantly at war with various peoples outside the Empire. Germanic tribes and other peoples launched many raids along the long European border, particularly into Gaul — Germans, in turn, may have been under attack from more warlike tribes farther east. In Asia, a revitalized Parthian Empire renewed its assault. A highly authoritative figure was needed to command the troops, yet the emperor himself could not defend both fronts at the same time. Neither could he simply appoint a general to lead one assault; earlier popular military leaders like Julius Caesar and Vespasian had used the military to overthrow the existing government and install themselves as supreme leaders.

Marcus Aurelius solved the problem by sending Verus to command the legions in the East. He was authoritative enough to command the full loyalty of the troops, but already powerful enough that he had little incentive to overthrow Marcus. The plan succeeded — Verus remained loyal until his death on campaign in 169. This joint emperorship was faintly reminiscent of the political system of the Roman Republic, which functioned according to the principle of collegiality and did not allow a single person to hold supreme power. Joint rule was revived by Diocletian's establishment of the Tetrarchy in the late 3rd century.

Virtus

In Roman mythology, Virtus was the god of bravery and military strength. His Greek equivalent was Arete. The word, "Virtus" is commonly used in mottos of universities and other entities.

Marcus Aurelius, as Caesar, Denarius. 155-156 AD. AVRELIVS CAES ANTON AVG PII F, bare head right / TR POT X COS II, Virtus, helmeted, standing left, holding parazonium & spear. RSC 703. RIC 468
ecoli
106_Aurelianus_(270-275_A_D_),_T-2511,_RIC_V-I_407,_IMP_AVRELIANVS_AVG,_VIRT(·)MILITVM,_Gamma,_Uncertain_Balkan_mint,_iss-2__ph-1,_off-3,_272-3AD,_Q-001,_h,_22-23,5mm,_g-s.jpg
106 Aurelianus (270-275 A.D.), T-2511, RIC V-I 407, Uncertain Balkan mint, AE-Antoninianus, -/-//Γ, VIRT•MILITVM, Emperor and soldier, #1147 views106 Aurelianus (270-275 A.D.), T-2511, RIC V-I 407, Uncertain Balkan mint, AE-Antoninianus, -/-//Γ, VIRT•MILITVM, Emperor and soldier, #1
avers: IMP AVRELIANVS AVG, Radiated and cuirassed bust right. (B1)
reverse: VIRT•MILI T VM, Soldier standing right, holding spear (or long sceptre) in right hand and globe in left hand, facing Emperor in military dress standing left holding Victory in right hand and transversal spear (or long sceptre) in left hand. (Emperor and soldier 1)
exergue: -/-//Γ, diameter: 22,0-23,5mm, weight: g, axes: h,
mint: Uncertain Balkan mint, off-3, iss-2, Ph 1, date: 272-273 A.D., ref: T-2511 (Estiot), RIC V-I 407,
Q-001
quadrans
coin229.JPG
106. Commodus32 viewsCommodus

According to Gibbon, the emperor Commodus spent the early years of his reign "in a seraglio of three hundred beautiful women and as many boys, of every rank and of every province." Later, adding bloodshed to his round of pleasures, he launched a career in murder, beginning with the dispatch of the usual senators, ministers and family members and continuing with the slaughter of beasts. Styling himself the Roman Hercules, he went as a performer into the amphitheater, where he cut down before the public a number of ostriches, a panther, a hundred lions, an elephant, a rhinoceros and a giraffe. He then entered the lists as a gladiator. Commodus fought 735 times and paid himself such a high fee for each appearance that a new tax had to be levied. He was strangled by a wrestler while drunk.

Denarius. 192 AD. L AEL AVREL COMM AVG P FEL, laureate head right / P M TR P XVII IMP VIII COS VII P P, Fides standing left holding standard & cornucopiae, star right. RSC 583a. RIC 233
ecoli
AlexISear1909.jpg
1081-1118 AD - Alexius I Comnenus - Follis - Thessalonica mint17 viewsEmperor: Alexius I Comnenus (r. 1081-1118 AD)
Date: 1081-1092 AD
Condition: aFair
Denomination: Follis

Obverse: No legend
Bust of the Virgin facing, nimbate and wearing pallium and maphorium; She holds before Her the infant Christ whose nimbate head facing is represented; to left, ; to right, ; on either side of Virgin's head, uncertain wedge-shaped object.

Reverse: - ]
Alexius standing facing, wearing crown and loros, and holding labarum and globus cruciger.

Thessalonica mint
Sear 1909
4.27g; 26.1mm; 165°
Pep
rjb_car_1094_08_05.jpg
109443 viewsCarausius 287-93AD
Antoninianus
Obv “IMP CARAVSIVS PF AVG”
Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev “VIRTVS AVG”
Woman standing right holding standard clasping hand of emperor standing left
Uncertain mint
-/-//XX
RIC 1094
RIC cites the collection of Sir John Evans for this type and no Webb reference. Webb cites a similar type in the collection of Sir John Evans but with the reverse legend VIRTVS [MILIT?] (Webb 1222). The RIC description appears to be describing the same coin but re-read.
mauseus
rjb_2013_01_07.jpg
1094cf24 viewsCarausius 287-93AD
Antoninianus
Obv “IMP CARAVSIVS PF AVG”
Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev “VIRTVS AVG”
Fortuna(?) standing left holding baton and cornucopia
Uncertain mint
-/-//XX
RIC - (cf 1094)
mauseus
Tacitus_AE-Antoninianus_IMP-C-M-C-L-TACITVS-AVG-(A3)_PRO-VIDENTIA-AVG-(P2)_XXI-A_RIC-92_T-3530_Iss-3-off-1_Rome-276-AD_Rare_Q_0h_21,5-22,5mm_3,54g-s.jpg
110 Tacitus (275-276 A.D.), T-3530, RIC V-I 092, Rome, AE-Antoninianus, PROVIDENTIA AVG, -/-//XXIA, Bust-A3, Providentia left, #178 views110 Tacitus (275-276 A.D.), T-3530, RIC V-I 092, Rome, AE-Antoninianus, PROVIDENTIA AVG, -/-//XXIA, Bust-A3, Providentia left, #1
avers:- IMP-C-M-CL-TACITVS-AVG, Head right, radiate, with traces of drapery to front and rear of truncation, (A3).
revers:- PROVIDENTIA-AVG, Providentia stg. l., holding baton in r. hand and cornucopiae in l. hand; at feet to l., globe, (Pr2).
exerg: -/-//XXIA, diameter: 21,5-22,5mm, weight: 3,54g, axes: 0h,
mint: Rome, issue-3., off-1., date: 276 A.D., ref: RIC-V-I-92, T-(Estiot)-3530,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
T-3538_Tacitus_AE-Antoninianus_IMP-C-M-C-L-TACITVS-AVG-(A3)_LAETITIA-FVND-(Laet-1)_XXI-B_RIC-89_T-3538_Iss-3-off-2_Rome-276-AD_Q-001_4h_21,5-23mm_3,88g-s.jpg
110 Tacitus (275-276 A.D.), T-3538, RIC V-I 089, Rome, AE-Antoninianus, LAETITIA FVND, -/-//XXIB, Bust-A3, Laetitia standing left, #168 views110 Tacitus (275-276 A.D.), T-3538, RIC V-I 089, Rome, AE-Antoninianus, LAETITIA FVND, -/-//XXIB, Bust-A3, Laetitia standing left, #1
avers: IMP-C-M-CL-TACITVS-AVG, Head right, radiate, with traces of drapery to front and rear of truncation, (A3).
revers: LAETITIA-FVND, Laetitia standing left, holding wreath in right hand and anchor in left hand. (Laet-1).
exerg: -/-//XXIB, diameter: 21,5-23mm, weight: 3,88g, axes: 4h,
mint: Rome, issue-3., off-2., date: 276 A.D., ref: RIC-V-I-89, T-(Estiot)-3538,
Q-001
quadrans
T-3562_Tacitus_AE-Antoninianus_IMP-C-M-CL-TACITVS-AVG-(D2)_VBERTAS-AVG-(U1)_XXI-E_RIC-95_T-3562_iss-3_off-5_Roma_276-AD_Q-001_h_mm_g-s.jpg
110 Tacitus (275-276 A.D.), T-3562, RIC V-I 095, Rome, AE-Antoninianus, VBERTAS AVG, -/-//XXIE, Bust-A3, Uberitas standing left, #164 views110 Tacitus (275-276 A.D.), T-3562, RIC V-I 095, Rome, AE-Antoninianus, VBERTAS AVG, -/-//XXIE, Bust-A3, Uberitas standing left, #1
avers: IMP-C-M-CL-TACITVS-AVG, Head right, radiate, with traces of drapery to front and rear of truncation.(A3)
revers: VBERTAS-AVG, Uberitas standing left, holding purse in right hand and cornucopiae in lleft hand. (Uberitas 1)
exerg: -/-//XXIE, diameter: 3mm, weight: ,axes: h,
mint: Rome, iss-3., off.-5th., date: 276 AD., ref: RIC-095, T-(Estiot)-3562, C-, LV 914-31,
Q-001
quadrans
T-3570_Tacitus_AE-Antoninianus_IMP-C-M-CL-TACITVS-AVG-(A1)_FIDES-MILITVM-(F1)_XXI-stigma_RIC-temp-3570_Rome_276-AD_Q-001_5h_20,5-23mm_4,02g-s.jpg
110 Tacitus (275-276 A.D.), T-3570, RIC V-I 087, Rome, AE-Antoninianus, FIDES MILITVM, -/-//XXIς, Bust-A3, Fides standing left, #167 views110 Tacitus (275-276 A.D.), T-3570, RIC V-I 087, Rome, AE-Antoninianus, FIDES MILITVM, -/-//XXIς, Bust-A3, Fides standing left, #1
avers:- IMP-C-M-CL-TACITVS-AVG, Head right, radiate, with traces of drapery to front and rear of truncation, (A3).
revers:- FIDES-MILITVM, Fides stg. l., holding standard in each hand, (Fides 1).
exerg: -/-//XXIς, diameter: 20,5-23mm, weight: 4,02g, axes: 5h,
mint: Rome, off-6, iss-3, date: 276 A.D., ref: RIC-87., T-(Estiot)-3570, C-,
Q-001
quadrans
T-3570_Tacitus_AE-Antoninianus_IMP-C-M-CL-TACITVS-AVG-(A1)_FIDES-MILITVM-(F1)_XXI-stigma_RIC-temp-3569_Rome_276-AD_Q-001_6h_21mm_3,40g-s.jpg
110 Tacitus (275-276 A.D.), T-3570, RIC V-I 087, Rome, AE-Antoninianus, FIDES MILITVM, -/-//XXIς, Bust-A3, Fides standing left, #266 views110 Tacitus (275-276 A.D.), T-3570, RIC V-I 087, Rome, AE-Antoninianus, FIDES MILITVM, -/-//XXIς, Bust-A3, Fides standing left, #2
avers: IMP-C-M-CL-TACITVS-AVG, Head right, radiate, with traces of drapery to front and rear of truncation, (A3).
revers: FIDES-MILITVM, Fides stg. l., holding standard in each hand, (Fides 1).
exerg: -/-//XXIς, diameter: 21mm, weight: 3,40g, axes: 6h,
mint: Rome, off-6, iss-3, date: 276 A.D., ref: RIC-V-I-87., T-(Estiot)-3570, C-,
Q-001
quadrans
Tacitus_AE-Antoninianus_IMP-C-M-CL-TACITVS-AVG-(A1)_FIDES-MILITVM-(F1)_XXI-stigma_RIC-_T-3569_Rome_276-AD_Q-003_5h_21-21,5mm_3,73ga-s.jpg
110 Tacitus (275-276 A.D.), T-3570, RIC V-I 087, Rome, AE-Antoninianus, FIDES MILITVM, -/-//XXIς, Bust-A3, Fides standing left, #364 views110 Tacitus (275-276 A.D.), T-3570, RIC V-I 087, Rome, AE-Antoninianus, FIDES MILITVM, -/-//XXIς, Bust-A3, Fides standing left, #3
avers:- IMP-C-M-CL-TACITVS-AVG, Head right, radiate, with traces of drapery to front and rear of truncation, (A3).
revers:- FIDES-MILITVM, Fides stg. l., holding standard in each hand, (Fides 1).
exerg: -/-//XXIς, diameter: 21-21,5mm, weight: 3,73g, axes: 5h,
mint: Rome, off-6, iss-3, date: 276 A.D., ref: RIC-V-I-87., T-(Estiot)-3570, C-,
Q-003
quadrans
T-3570_Tacitus_AE-Antoninianus_IMP-C-M-CL-TACITVS-AVG-(A1)_FIDES-MILITVM-(F1)_XXI-stigma_RIC-temp-3570_Rome_276-AD_Q-002_0h_22-23,5mm_4,55g-s.jpg
110 Tacitus (275-276 A.D.), T-3570, RIC V-I 087, Rome, AE-Antoninianus, FIDES MILITVM, -/-//XXIς, Bust-A3, Fides standing left, #464 views110 Tacitus (275-276 A.D.), T-3570, RIC V-I 087, Rome, AE-Antoninianus, FIDES MILITVM, -/-//XXIς, Bust-A3, Fides standing left, #4
avers:- IMP-C-M-CL-TACITVS-AVG, Head right, radiate, with traces of drapery to front and rear of truncation, (A3).
revers:- FIDES-MILITVM, Fides stg. l., holding standard in each hand, (Fides 1).
exerg: -/-//XXIς, diameter: 22-23,5mm, weight: 4,55g, axes:0h,
mint: Rome, off-6, iss-3, date: 276 A.D., ref: RIC-V-I-87., T-(Estiot)-3570, C-,
Q-004
quadrans
T-3578_Tacitus_AE-Silvered-Ant__IMP-CM-CL-TACITVS-AVG_CLEMNTIA-TEMP_XXI-Z_RIC-84-RIC-T-3578_276-7-AD__Rome_off-7_issue-3_Q-001_0h_21-22mm_3,23g-s.jpg
110 Tacitus (275-276 A.D.), T-3578, RIC V-I 084, Rome, AE-Antoninianus, CLEMENTIA TEMP, -/-//XXIZ, Bust-A3, Clementia standing left, #165 views110 Tacitus (275-276 A.D.), T-3578, RIC V-I 084, Rome, AE-Antoninianus, CLEMENTIA TEMP, -/-//XXIZ, Bust-A3, Clementia standing left, #1
avers:- IMP-CM-CL-TACITVS-AVG, Head right, radiate, with traces of drapery to front and rear of truncation. A3.
revers:- CLEMNTIA-TEMP, Clementia stg. l., holding long sceptre in r. hand, with I. elbow leaning on column. Clementia 1.
exerg: -/-//XXIZ, diameter: 21-22mm, weight: 3,23g, axes: 0h,
mint: Rome, 3rd.issue, 7th.off, date: 276-77 AD., ref: RIC-84., T-(Estiot)-3578, C-, LV 1080-110,
Q-001
quadrans
T-3578_Tacitus_AE-Silvered-Ant__IMP-CM-CL-TACITVS-AVG_CLEMNTIA-TEMP_XXI-Z_RIC-84-RIC-T-3578_276-7-AD__Rome_off-7_issue-3_Q-002_6h_22,5-23,5mm_4,57g-s.jpg
110 Tacitus (275-276 A.D.), T-3578, RIC V-I 084, Rome, AE-Antoninianus, CLEMENTIA TEMP, -/-//XXIZ, Bust-A3, Clementia standing left, #272 views110 Tacitus (275-276 A.D.), T-3578, RIC V-I 084, Rome, AE-Antoninianus, CLEMENTIA TEMP, -/-//XXIZ, Bust-A3, Clementia standing left, #2
avers:- IMP-CM-CL-TACITVS-AVG, Head right, radiate, with traces of drapery to front and rear of truncation. A3.
revers:- CLEMNTIA-TEMP, Clementia stg. l., holding long sceptre in r. hand, with I. elbow leaning on column. Clementia 1.
exerg: -/-//XXIZ, diameter: 22,5-23,5mm, weight: 4,57g, axes: 6h,
mint: Rome, 3rd.issue, 7th.off, date: 276-77 AD., ref: RIC-84., T-(Estiot)-3578, C-, LV 1080-110,
Q-002
quadrans
ManISB1980.jpg
1143-1180 AD - Manuel I - Sear 1980 - Half Tetarteron37 viewsProbable Emperor: Manuel I (r. 1143-1180 AD)
Date: 1143-1180 AD
Condition: Fair
Denomination: Half Tetarteron

Obverse: to left, /Γ/E; to right, /ΓI/O/S (or similar)
Bust of St. George facing, beardless, wearing nimbus, tunic, cuirass and sagion, and holding spear and shield.

Reverse: MANHΛ ΔECΠOT (or similar)
Bust facing, wearing crown and loros, and holding labarum and globus cruciger.

Uncertain Greek mint
Sear 1980; DOC 23
2.32g, 16.1mm; 180°
Pep
hadrian_RIC42.jpg
117-138 AD - HADRIAN AR denarius - struck 118 AD52 viewsobv: IMP CAESAR TRAIAN HADRIANVS AVG (laureate bust right, cuirassed, draped far shoulder)
rev: P M TR P COS II (Justice is seated on the curule chair, as on a tribunal: with the insignia of the hasta pura and the extended patera she displays her care for religion), IVSTITIA in ex.
ref: RIC II 42, RSC 877
mint: Rome
3.25gms, 19mm

Rare cuirassed bust, RIC not describes (c - not in RIC). Unfortunately the reverse is burned, but still valuable.
The reverse perhaps refer to the edictum perpetuum or Pretorian edict, what was an annual declaration made by the praetor urbanus in which he laid out the principles by which he would exercise his jurisdiction for his year in office. Under Hadrian, the edict became fixed and unchangeable.
And there's an other fact that can refer this reverse. When Hadrian arrived in Rome in July 118 to a hostile reception on the part of the senate, because of the death of the four consulars. The four men were Cornelius Palma, governor of Syria, Avidius Nigrinus, governor of Dacia, Publilius Celsus and Lusius Quietus, governor of Judaea, they were all Trajan's men, and their elimination certainly made Hadrian's course easier. But an Emperor had right everytime, and he was the justice.
berserker
128-1_Decia_2.jpg
128/1. Decia - denarius (206-200 BC)17 viewsAR Denarius (uncertain mint, 206-200 BC)
O/ Helmeted head of Roma right; X behind head.
R/ The Dioscuri galloping right; shield & carnyx below horses; ROMA in exergue.
4.01g; 20.5mm
Crawford 128/1 (less than 10 obverse dies/less than 12 reverse dies)
- Privately bought from Münzen & Medaillen Basel.
- Ex collection of Elvira Elisa Clain-Stefanelli (1914-2001), former director of the National Numismatic Collection (part of the Smithsonian Institute).
- Naville Numismatics Live Auction 29, lot 479.

* Anonymous (shield & carnyx), Decius?:

This very rare issue has traditionally been attributed to a descendant of a line of three heroes named Publius Decius Mus. The first of that name was Consul in 340 BC; he received the Grass Crown after having saved his army from destruction against the Samnites, then sacrificed himself at the Battle of Vesuvius during his consulship in an act of devotio (exchanging his life against the victory of his army). His son was four times Consul (312, 308, 297 and 295 BC) and similarly sacrificed himself at the Battle of Sentinum in 295 BC against a coalition of Etruscans, Samnites, and Gauls. The third of that name was Consul in 279 BC and fought against Pyrrhus, who successfully thwarted his attempt to sacrifice himself like his ancestors (cf. discussion in Broughton, vol. I, p. 193).

300 years later, Trajan restored several issues of the Republic, including this one, but with the addition of DECIVS MVS on the obverse (RIC 766). Babelon thus assumed that this denarius was minted by the son of the last Publius Decius Mus (Decia 1). In this hypothesis, the shield and Carnyx refers to the second Mus -- the one who fought the Gauls.

However, Crawford contested this view, writing: "The restoration of this issue by Trajan with the added legend DECIVS MVS provides no grounds whatever for supposing that it was originally struck by someone of that name - the family was certainly extinct by this period."

It is still very strange that Trajan picked this rare denarius, from an irregular mint, for restoration. He could have chosen many other anonymous issues of the early Roman coinage, and simply add the name of Decius Mus. It thus shows that the imperial mint had retained some specimens or archives of previous issues up to the 3rd century BC, because due to its rarity, this denarius had already disappeared from circulation by the time of Trajan. A list of the magistrates behind each issue could therefore have been kept as well; Trajan might have selected the moneyers whom he thought were significant for the history of Rome and restored their issue. A Publius Decius Subulo was living in these years (Livy, xliii. 17) and perhaps minted this coin; his name could have been preserved in the archives of the mint, which might have led Trajan to pick his denarius for restoration.
1 commentsJoss
DiocleAnt.jpg
1301a, Diocletian, 284-305 A.D. (Antioch)92 viewsDIOCLETIAN (284 – 305 AD) AE Antoninianus, 293-95 AD, RIC V 322, Cohen 34. 20.70 mm/3.1 gm, aVF, Antioch. Obverse: IMP C C VAL DIOCLETIANVS P F AVG, Radiate bust right, draped & cuirassed; Reverse: CONCORDIA MILITVM, Jupiter presents Victory on a globe to Diocletian, I/XXI. Early Diocletian with dusty earthen green patina.


De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Diocletian ( 284-305 A.D.)

Ralph W. Mathisen
University of South Carolina


Summary and Introduction
The Emperor Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus (A.D. 284-305) put an end to the disastrous phase of Roman history known as the "Military Anarchy" or the "Imperial Crisis" (235-284). He established an obvious military despotism and was responsible for laying the groundwork for the second phase of the Roman Empire, which is known variously as the "Dominate," the "Tetrarchy," the "Later Roman Empire," or the "Byzantine Empire." His reforms ensured the continuity of the Roman Empire in the east for more than a thousand years.

Diocletian's Early Life and Reign
Diocletian was born ca. 236/237 on the Dalmatian coast, perhaps at Salona. He was of very humble birth, and was originally named Diocles. He would have received little education beyond an elementary literacy and he was apparently deeply imbued with religious piety He had a wife Prisca and a daughter Valeria, both of whom reputedly were Christians. During Diocletian's early life, the Roman empire was in the midst of turmoil. In the early years of the third century, emperors increasingly insecure on their thrones had granted inflationary pay raises to the soldiers. The only meaningful income the soldiers now received was in the form of gold donatives granted by newly acclaimed emperors. Beginning in 235, armies throughout the empire began to set up their generals as rival emperors. The resultant civil wars opened up the empire to invasion in both the north, by the Franks, Alamanni, and Goths, and the east, by the Sassanid Persians. Another reason for the unrest in the army was the great gap between the social background of the common soldiers and the officer corps.

Diocletian sought his fortune in the army. He showed himself to be a shrewd, able, and ambitious individual. He is first attested as "Duke of Moesia" (an area on the banks of the lower Danube River), with responsibility for border defense. He was a prudent and methodical officer, a seeker of victory rather than glory. In 282, the legions of the upper Danube proclaimed the praetorian prefect Carus as emperor. Diocletian found favor under the new emperor, and was promoted to Count of the Domestics, the commander of the cavalry arm of the imperial bodyguard. In 283 he was granted the honor of a consulate.

In 284, in the midst of a campaign against the Persians, Carus was killed, struck by a bolt of lightning which one writer noted might have been forged in a legionary armory. This left the empire in the hands of his two young sons, Numerian in the east and Carinus in the west. Soon thereafter, Numerian died under mysterious circumstances near Nicomedia, and Diocletian was acclaimed emperor in his place. At this time he changed his name from Diocles to Diocletian. In 285 Carinus was killed in a battle near Belgrade, and Diocletian gained control of the entire empire.

Diocletian's Administrative and Military Reforms
As emperor, Diocletian was faced with many problems. His most immediate concerns were to bring the mutinous and increasingly barbarized Roman armies back under control and to make the frontiers once again secure from invasion. His long-term goals were to restore effective government and economic prosperity to the empire. Diocletian concluded that stern measures were necessary if these problems were to be solved. He felt that it was the responsibility of the imperial government to take whatever steps were necessary, no matter how harsh or innovative, to bring the empire back under control.

Diocletian was able to bring the army back under control by making several changes. He subdivided the roughly fifty existing provinces into approximately one hundred. The provinces also were apportioned among twelve "dioceses," each under a "vicar," and later also among four "prefectures," each under a "praetorian prefect." As a result, the imperial bureaucracy became increasingly bloated. He institutionalized the policy of separating civil and military careers. He divided the army itself into so-called "border troops," actually an ineffective citizen militia, and "palace troops," the real field army, which often was led by the emperor in person.

Following the precedent of Aurelian (A.D.270-275), Diocletian transformed the emperorship into an out-and-out oriental monarchy. Access to him became restricted; he now was addressed not as First Citizen (Princeps) or the soldierly general (Imperator), but as Lord and Master (Dominus Noster) . Those in audience were required to prostrate themselves on the ground before him.

Diocletian also concluded that the empire was too large and complex to be ruled by only a single emperor. Therefore, in order to provide an imperial presence throughout the empire, he introduced the "Tetrarchy," or "Rule by Four." In 285, he named his lieutenant Maximianus "Caesar," and assigned him the western half of the empire. This practice began the process which would culminate with the de facto split of the empire in 395. Both Diocletian and Maximianus adopted divine attributes. Diocletian was identified with Jupiter and Maximianus with Hercules. In 286, Diocletian promoted Maximianus to the rank of Augustus, "Senior Emperor," and in 293 he appointed two new Caesars, Constantius (the father of Constantine I ), who was given Gaul and Britain in the west, and Galerius, who was assigned the Balkans in the east.

By instituting his Tetrarchy, Diocletian also hoped to solve another problem. In the Augustan Principate, there had been no constitutional method for choosing new emperors. According to Diocletian's plan, the successor of each Augustus would be the respective Caesar, who then would name a new Caesar. Initially, the Tetrarchy operated smoothly and effectively.

Once the army was under control, Diocletian could turn his attention to other problems. The borders were restored and strengthened. In the early years of his reign, Diocletian and his subordinates were able to defeat foreign enemies such as Alamanni, Sarmatians, Saracens, Franks, and Persians, and to put down rebellions in Britain and Egypt. The easter frontier was actually expanded.

.
Diocletian's Economic Reforms
Another problem was the economy, which was in an especially sorry state. The coinage had become so debased as to be virtually worthless. Diocletian's attempt to reissue good gold and silver coins failed because there simply was not enough gold and silver available to restore confidence in the currency. A "Maximum Price Edict" issued in 301, intended to curb inflation, served only to drive goods onto the black market. Diocletian finally accepted the ruin of the money economy and revised the tax system so that it was based on payments in kind . The soldiers too came to be paid in kind.

In order to assure the long term survival of the empire, Diocletian identified certain occupations which he felt would have to be performed. These were known as the "compulsory services." They included such occupations as soldiers, bakers, members of town councils, and tenant farmers. These functions became hereditary, and those engaging in them were inhibited from changing their careers. The repetitious nature of these laws, however, suggests that they were not widely obeyed. Diocletian also expanded the policy of third-century emperors of restricting the entry of senators into high-ranking governmental posts, especially military ones.

Diocletian attempted to use the state religion as a unifying element. Encouraged by the Caesar Galerius, Diocletian in 303 issued a series of four increasingly harsh decrees designed to compel Christians to take part in the imperial cult, the traditional means by which allegiance was pledged to the empire. This began the so-called "Great Persecution."

Diocletian's Resignation and Death
On 1 May 305, wearied by his twenty years in office, and determined to implement his method for the imperial succession, Diocletian abdicated. He compelled his co-regent Maximianus to do the same. Constantius and Galerius then became the new Augusti, and two new Caesars were selected, Maximinus (305-313) in the east and Severus (305- 307) in the west. Diocletian then retired to his palace at Split on the Croatian coast. In 308 he declined an offer to resume the purple, and the aged ex-emperor died at Split on 3 December 316.

Copyright (C) 1996, Ralph W. Mathisen, University of South Carolina
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

1 commentsCleisthenes
DicletianConcordCyz.jpg
1301b, Diocletian, 20 November 284 - 1 March 305 A.D.56 viewsDiocletian. RIC V Part II Cyzicus 256 var. Not listed with pellet in exegrue
Item ref: RI141f. VF. Minted in Cyzicus (B in centre field, XXI dot in exegrue)Obverse:- IMP CC VAL DIOCLETIANVS AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right. Reverse:- CONCORDIA MILITVM, Diocletian standing right, holding parazonium, receiving Victory from Jupiter standing left with scepter.
A post reform radiate of Diocletian. Ex Maridvnvm.

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Diocletian ( 284-305 A.D.)

Ralph W. Mathisen
University of South Carolina


Summary and Introduction
The Emperor Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus (A.D. 284-305) put an end to the disastrous phase of Roman history known as the "Military Anarchy" or the "Imperial Crisis" (235-284). He established an obvious military despotism and was responsible for laying the groundwork for the second phase of the Roman Empire, which is known variously as the "Dominate," the "Tetrarchy," the "Later Roman Empire," or the "Byzantine Empire." His reforms ensured the continuity of the Roman Empire in the east for more than a thousand years.

Diocletian's Early Life and Reign
Diocletian was born ca. 236/237 on the Dalmatian coast, perhaps at Salona. He was of very humble birth, and was originally named Diocles. He would have received little education beyond an elementary literacy and he was apparently deeply imbued with religious piety He had a wife Prisca and a daughter Valeria, both of whom reputedly were Christians. During Diocletian's early life, the Roman empire was in the midst of turmoil. In the early years of the third century, emperors increasingly insecure on their thrones had granted inflationary pay raises to the soldiers. The only meaningful income the soldiers now received was in the form of gold donatives granted by newly acclaimed emperors. Beginning in 235, armies throughout the empire began to set up their generals as rival emperors. The resultant civil wars opened up the empire to invasion in both the north, by the Franks, Alamanni, and Goths, and the east, by the Sassanid Persians. Another reason for the unrest in the army was the great gap between the social background of the common soldiers and the officer corps.

Diocletian sought his fortune in the army. He showed himself to be a shrewd, able, and ambitious individual. He is first attested as "Duke of Moesia" (an area on the banks of the lower Danube River), with responsibility for border defense. He was a prudent and methodical officer, a seeker of victory rather than glory. In 282, the legions of the upper Danube proclaimed the praetorian prefect Carus as emperor. Diocletian found favor under the new emperor, and was promoted to Count of the Domestics, the commander of the cavalry arm of the imperial bodyguard. In 283 he was granted the honor of a consulate.

In 284, in the midst of a campaign against the Persians, Carus was killed, struck by a bolt of lightning which one writer noted might have been forged in a legionary armory. This left the empire in the hands of his two young sons, Numerian in the east and Carinus in the west. Soon thereafter, Numerian died under mysterious circumstances near Nicomedia, and Diocletian was acclaimed emperor in his place. At this time he changed his name from Diocles to Diocletian. In 285 Carinus was killed in a battle near Belgrade, and Diocletian gained control of the entire empire.

Diocletian's Administrative and Military Reforms
As emperor, Diocletian was faced with many problems. His most immediate concerns were to bring the mutinous and increasingly barbarized Roman armies back under control and to make the frontiers once again secure from invasion. His long-term goals were to restore effective government and economic prosperity to the empire. Diocletian concluded that stern measures were necessary if these problems were to be solved. He felt that it was the responsibility of the imperial government to take whatever steps were necessary, no matter how harsh or innovative, to bring the empire back under control.

Diocletian was able to bring the army back under control by making several changes. He subdivided the roughly fifty existing provinces into approximately one hundred. The provinces also were apportioned among twelve "dioceses," each under a "vicar," and later also among four "prefectures," each under a "praetorian prefect." As a result, the imperial bureaucracy became increasingly bloated. He institutionalized the policy of separating civil and military careers. He divided the army itself into so-called "border troops," actually an ineffective citizen militia, and "palace troops," the real field army, which often was led by the emperor in person.

Following the precedent of Aurelian (A.D.270-275), Diocletian transformed the emperorship into an out-and-out oriental monarchy. Access to him became restricted; he now was addressed not as First Citizen (Princeps) or the soldierly general (Imperator), but as Lord and Master (Dominus Noster) . Those in audience were required to prostrate themselves on the ground before him.

Diocletian also concluded that the empire was too large and complex to be ruled by only a single emperor. Therefore, in order to provide an imperial presence throughout the empire, he introduced the "Tetrarchy," or "Rule by Four." In 285, he named his lieutenant Maximianus "Caesar," and assigned him the western half of the empire. This practice began the process which would culminate with the de facto split of the empire in 395. Both Diocletian and Maximianus adopted divine attributes. Diocletian was identified with Jupiter and Maximianus with Hercules. In 286, Diocletian promoted Maximianus to the rank of Augustus, "Senior Emperor," and in 293 he appointed two new Caesars, Constantius (the father of Constantine I ), who was given Gaul and Britain in the west, and Galerius, who was assigned the Balkans in the east.

By instituting his Tetrarchy, Diocletian also hoped to solve another problem. In the Augustan Principate, there had been no constitutional method for choosing new emperors. According to Diocletian's plan, the successor of each Augustus would be the respective Caesar, who then would name a new Caesar. Initially, the Tetrarchy operated smoothly and effectively.

Once the army was under control, Diocletian could turn his attention to other problems. The borders were restored and strengthened. In the early years of his reign, Diocletian and his subordinates were able to defeat foreign enemies such as Alamanni, Sarmatians, Saracens, Franks, and Persians, and to put down rebellions in Britain and Egypt. The easter frontier was actually expanded.

.
Diocletian's Economic Reforms
Another problem was the economy, which was in an especially sorry state. The coinage had become so debased as to be virtually worthless. Diocletian's attempt to reissue good gold and silver coins failed because there simply was not enough gold and silver available to restore confidence in the currency. A "Maximum Price Edict" issued in 301, intended to curb inflation, served only to drive goods onto the black market. Diocletian finally accepted the ruin of the money economy and revised the tax system so that it was based on payments in kind . The soldiers too came to be paid in kind.

In order to assure the long term survival of the empire, Diocletian identified certain occupations which he felt would have to be performed. These were known as the "compulsory services." They included such occupations as soldiers, bakers, members of town councils, and tenant farmers. These functions became hereditary, and those engaging in them were inhibited from changing their careers. The repetitious nature of these laws, however, suggests that they were not widely obeyed. Diocletian also expanded the policy of third-century emperors of restricting the entry of senators into high-ranking governmental posts, especially military ones.

Diocletian attempted to use the state religion as a unifying element. Encouraged by the Caesar Galerius, Diocletian in 303 issued a series of four increasingly harsh decrees designed to compel Christians to take part in the imperial cult, the traditional means by which allegiance was pledged to the empire. This began the so-called "Great Persecution."

Diocletian's Resignation and Death
On 1 May 305, wearied by his twenty years in office, and determined to implement his method for the imperial succession, Diocletian abdicated. He compelled his co-regent Maximianus to do the same. Constantius and Galerius then became the new Augusti, and two new Caesars were selected, Maximinus (305-313) in the east and Severus (305- 307) in the west. Diocletian then retired to his palace at Split on the Croatian coast. In 308 he declined an offer to resume the purple, and the aged ex-emperor died at Split on 3 December 316.

Copyright (C) 1996, Ralph W. Mathisen, University of South Carolina
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.


Cleisthenes
745_P_Hadrian_RPC1332.jpg
1332 Hadrian, Cistophorus IONIA Ephesus mint 132-34 AD Tetrastyle temple Artemis standing62 viewsReference.
RPC III, 1332; Metcalf 8; RIC 475; RSC 536; BMCRE 1091; Pinder 70; Sear 3449.

Obv. HADRIANVS AVG COS III P P
Bare head right.

Rev. DIA-NA / EPHESIA
Tetrastyle temple on three or four steps; within, cult image of Artemis of Ephesus

10.15 gr
28 mm
6h

Note.
Overstruck on an uncertain cistophorus of Mark Antony and Octavia.
5 commentsokidoki
789_P_Hadrian_RPC_1335A.jpg
1335A Hadrian, Cistophorus IONIA Ephesus mint 132-34 AD Tetrastyle temple Artemis standing51 viewsReference.
RPC --; Metclaf 10; RIC 475 var. (legend); RPC III 1335 var. (obv. legend).

Obv. HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS
Bare head right

Rev. [D]IA-NA / EPHESIA
Tetrastyle temple on three or four steps; within, cult image of Artemis of Ephesus (no stags)

10.97 gr
27 mm
5h

note.
There is evidence of the undertype on the obverse, below the truncation of Hadrian's neck: 'IMP CAE
3 commentsokidoki
antpius sest-.jpg
138-161 AD - ANTONINUS PIUS AE sestertius - struck 149 AD34 viewsobv: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P XII (laureate bust right)
rev: TEMPORVM FELICITAS, COS IIII in exergue, S C across field (crossed cornucopiae from which a grape bunch flanked by two grain ears hang, surmounted by busts of two boys, vis-á -vis)
ref: RIC III 857, Cohen 813 (8frcs), BMC 1825note
23.14gms, 30mm,
Rare

The infants are thought to represent T. Aelius Antoninus and T. Aurelius Antoninus, the twin sons of Marcus Aurelius and Faustina Junior born in 149 AD. These were the first male offspring of the couple, offering hope for the establishment of the new dynasty, but both died in infancy.
The coin is before cleaning.
berserker
tiberius memorial as.jpg
14-37 AD - AUGUSTUS memorial AE as - struck under Tiberius (22/23-(?)30 AD)53 viewsobv: DIVVS AVGVSTVS PATER (radiate head of Augustus left)
rev: Altar with double panelled door, uncertain ornaments in top, S-C either side of altar, PROVIDENT in ex.
ref: RIC I 81 (Tiberius), BMC146, C.228 (5frcs)
10.33gms, 26mm
Scarce
berserker
CtG AE3.jpg
1403a,1, Constantine I (the Great), 307-337 A.D.46 viewsConstantine I (the Great), 307-337 A.D. Bronze AE 3, RIC 16, C -, VF, 2.854g, 19.1mm, 180o, Constantinople mint, 327 A.D. Obverse: CONSTANTI-NVS MAX AVG, rosette diademed head right; Reverse: GLORIA EXERCITVS, Soldier standing left, head right, resting left hand on shield and holding inverted spear in right, G in left field, CONS in exergue; very rare (R3).

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
1 commentsCleisthenes
Const1GlrEx.jpg
1403b, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D.37 viewsConstantine the Great, early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D., Bronze AE 3, RIC 137, VF, Constantinople mint, 1.476g, 16.4mm, 180o, 336 - 337 A.D. Obverse: CONSTANTI-NVS MAX AVG, laurel and rosette-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: GLOR-IA EXERC-ITVS, two soldiers, each holding spear and shield on ground, flanking standard, CONS[ ] in exergue. Ex FORVM.

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
Cleisthenes
CTGDafne.jpg
1403c, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D.49 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC VII 35, choice aEF, Constantinople mint, 3.336g, 20.0mm, 180o, 328 A.D.; Obverse: CONSTANTI-NVS MAX AVG, laurel and rosette diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: CONSTANTINI-ANA DAFNE, Victory seated left on cippus, head right, palm frond in each hand, trophy and captive before, CONS in exergue, B left; scarce. Ex FORVM.

"The information about Constantine's campaign across [the Danube] is obscure and untrustworthy. The question, therefore, of what he achieved by this enterprise was, and is, subject to contradictory interpretations. On the one hand, the Panegyrists claimed that he had repeated the triumphs of Trajan. On the other, his own nephew, Julian the Apostate, spoke for many when he expressed the view that this second 'conquest' of Dacia was incomplete and extremely brief . . . monetary commemoration was accorded to the building, at about the same time [AD 328], of the river frontier fortress of Constantiniana Dafne (Spantov, near Oltenita) . . ." (Grant, Michael. The Emperor Constantine. London: Phoenix, 1998. 58-9).

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
1 commentsCleisthenes
CTGKyzAE3.jpg
1403d, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D. (Cyzicus)37 viewsConstantine the Great, early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D. Bronze AE 3, RIC 199, gVF, corrosion, Cyzicus, 1.402g, 16.2mm, 0o, 336 - 337 A.D. Obverse: CONSTANTI-NVS MAX AVG, laurel and rosette-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: GLOR-IA EXERC-ITVS•, two soldiers, each holding spear and shield on ground, flanking standard, SMKA in exergue.

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
Cleisthenes
CTGVOTXXX.jpg
1403e, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D. (Heraclea)28 viewsConstantine the Great, Bronze AE 3, RIC 69, VF, Heraclea, 3.38g, 19.0mm, 180o, 325 - 326 A.D. Obverse: CONSTAN-TINVS AVG, laureate head right; Reverse: D N CONSTANTINI MAX AVG, VOT XXX in wreath, SMHD in exergue.

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
Cleisthenes
12817p00.jpg
1403f, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D. (Heraclea)20 viewsBronze follis, RIC 5, F/aF, 3.513g, 20.4mm, 180o, Heraclea mint, 313 A.D.; obverse IMP C FL VAL CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, laureate head right; reverse IOVI CONSER-VATORI AVGG, Jupiter standing left holding Victory and scepter, eagle with wreath in beek at feet, B in right field, SMHT in exergue.

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
Cleisthenes
CTGaeFolNico.jpg
1403g, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D. (Nicomedia)22 viewsConstantine the Great, early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D. Bronze follis, RIC 12, aVF, Nicomedia mint, 2.760g, 22.0mm, 0o, 313 - 317 A.D. Obverse: IMP C FL VAL CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, laureate head right; Reverse: IOVI CONS-ERVATORI, Jupiter standing left holding Victory on globe and scepter, eagle with wreath in beak left, G right, SMN in exergue; scarce.

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
Cleisthenes
CTG.jpg
1403h, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D. (Siscia)36 viewsBronze follis, RIC 232b, gVF, Siscia, 3.87g, 23.8mm, 180o, early 313 A.D. Obverse: IMP CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, laureate head right; Reverse: IOVI CONSERVATORI AVGG NN, Jupiter standing left holding Victory on globe and scepter, eagle with wreath in beak left, E right, SIS in exergue.

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
Cleisthenes
CTG_SisCmpGte.jpg
1403i, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D. (Siscia)41 viewsSilvered AE 3, RIC 214, VF, Siscia mint, 3.187g, 19.3mm, 0o, 328 - 329 A.D.
Obverse: CONSTAN-TINVS AVG, laureate head right; Reverse PROVIDEN-TIAE AVGG, campgate with two turrets, star above, ASIS and double crescent in exergue.

Flavius Valerius Constantinus, Constantine the Great, was the son of Helena and the First Tetrarchic ruler Constantius I. Constantine is most famous for his conversion to Christianity and the battle of the Milvian Bridge where he defeated emperor Maxentius. It is reputed that before the battle, he saw the words "In Hoc Signo Victor Eris" (By this sign you shall conquer) emblazoned on the sun around the Chi Rho, the symbol of Christianity. Other sources claim the vision came to Constantine I in a dream. The story continues that after placing this Christogram on the shields of his army, he defeated his opponent and thus ruled the empire through divine providence. Constantine I also shifted the capital of the empire to Constantinople, establishing the foundation for an Empire that would last another 1000 years. He died in 337 and his sons divided the Roman territories.

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power, and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
Cleisthenes
CTG_ThesCmpGte.jpg
1403j, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D. (Thessalonica)26 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC 153, VF, Thessalonica mint, 2.955g, 19.7mm, 0o, 326 - 328 A.D. Obverse: CONSTAN-TINVS AVG, laureate head right; Reverse: PROVIDEN-TIAE AVGG, campgate with two turrets, star above, dot right, SMTSG in exergue.

Flavius Valerius Constantinus, Constantine the Great, was the son of Helena and the First Tetrarchic ruler Constantius I. Constantine is most famous for his conversion to Christianity and the battle of the Milvian Bridge where he defeated emperor Maxentius. It is reputed that before the battle, he saw the words "In Hoc Signo Victor Eris" (By this sign you shall conquer) emblazoned on the sun around the Chi Rho, the symbol of Christianity. Other sources claim the vision came to Constantine I in a dream. The story continues that after placing this Christogram on the shields of his army, he defeated his opponent and thus ruled the empire through divine providence. Constantine I also shifted the capital of the empire to Constantinople, establishing the foundation for an Empire that would last another 1000 years. He died in 337 and his sons divided the Roman territories.

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power, and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
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1405a, Constans, 9 September 337 - 19 January 350 A.D. (Alexandria)39 viewsBronze AE 4, RIC 37, gVF, Egypt, Alexandria, 1.54g, 15.0mm, 180o, 345-347 A.D. Obverse: D N CONSTANS P F AVG, pearl diademed head right; Reverse: VOT XX MVLT XXX in wreath, SMALA• in exergue.

Flavius Julius Constans, third and youngest son of Constantine I and Fausta, was born between 320 and 323 A.D. Primary sources for the life and reign of Constans I are scarce. To reconstruct his life and career, one must draw on a variety of references in both fourth century and later works. Raised as a Christian, he was made a Caesar on 25 December 333 A.D. Constans I and his two brothers, after the death of their father on 22 May 337 and the subsequent "massacre of the princes" in which many other relatives were purged, met in the first part of September 337 in Pannonia to re-divide the empire among themselves. There they were acclaimed Augusti by the army. Constans' new realm included Italy, Africa, Illyricum, Macedonia, and Achaea. Shortly before his father's death, Constans' engagement to Olympias, the daughter of the Praetorian Prefect Ablabius, was announced; although the match was never solemnized because of political reasons.

It would appear that Constans was successful in the military sphere. Following his accession to the purple in 337, he seems to have won a victory over the Sarmatians. In 340 Constans was able to beat back an attempt by his brother Constantine II to seize some of his realm. The latter died in a battle fought near Aquileia and Constans absorbed his late brother's territory. In 341 and 342 he conducted a successful campaign against the Franci. He also visited Britain in 343, probably on a military campaign.

As an emperor Constans gets mixed reviews. In what may be a topos, sources suggest that the first part of his reign was moderate but in later years, however, he became overbearing. The emperor apparently attempted to obtain as much money as he could from his subjects and sold government posts to the highest bidder. His favorites were allowed to oppress his subjects. Sources also condemn his homosexuality. He did have some military success and, in addition to other military threats, he had to deal with Donatist-related bandits in North Africa.

Like his father Constantine I and his brother Constantius II, Constans had a deep interest in Christianity. Together with Constantius II he issued (or perhaps re-issued) a ban against pagan sacrifice in 341. The next year, they cautioned against the destruction of pagan temples. Unlike his brother Constantius II, who supported the Arian faction, he stood shoulder to shoulder with Athanasius and other members of the Orthodox clique. In fact, it is due to his request that the Council of Serdica was called to deal with the ecclesiastical squabble between Athanasius of Alexandria and Paul of Constantinople on one side and the Arian faction on the other.

When Magnentius was declared emperor in Gaul during January 350, Constans realized his reign was at an end. When he learned of the revolt, he fled toward Helena, a town in the Pyrenees. Constans was put to death by Gaeso and a band of Magnentius' assassins, who dragged their victim from a temple in which he had sought refuge.

By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University and Robert Frakes, Clarion UniversityPublished: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

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1405n, Constans, 9 September 337 - 19 January 350 A.D. (Siscia)56 viewsConstans, 9 September 337 - 19 January 350 A.D. Bronze AE 3, RIC 241, S 3978, VM 69, VF, Siscia, 2.32g, 18.3mm, 180o. Obverse: D N CONSTANS P F AVG, pearl diademed draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Phoenix radiate, standing on rocky mound, GSIS and symbol in ex; nice green patina.

Flavius Julius Constans, third and youngest son of Constantine I and Fausta, was born between 320 and 323 A.D. Primary sources for the life and reign of Constans I are scarce. To reconstruct his life and career, one must draw on a variety of references in both fourth century and later works. Raised as a Christian, he was made a Caesar on 25 December 333 A.D. Constans I and his two brothers, after the death of their father on 22 May 337 and the subsequent "massacre of the princes" in which many other relatives were purged, met in the first part of September 337 in Pannonia to re-divide the empire among themselves. There they were acclaimed Augusti by the army. Constans' new realm included Italy, Africa, Illyricum, Macedonia, and Achaea. Shortly before his father's death, Constans' engagement to Olympias, the daughter of the Praetorian Prefect Ablabius, was announced; although the match was never solemnized because of political reasons.

It would appear that Constans was successful in the military sphere. Following his accession to the purple in 337, he seems to have won a victory over the Sarmatians. In 340 Constans was able to beat back an attempt by his brother Constantine II to seize some of his realm. The latter died in a battle fought near Aquileia and Constans absorbed his late brother's territory. In 341 and 342 he conducted a successful campaign against the Franci. He also visited Britain in 343, probably on a military campaign.

As an emperor Constans gets mixed reviews. In what may be a topos, sources suggest that the first part of his reign was moderate but in later years, however, he became overbearing. The emperor apparently attempted to obtain as much money as he could from his subjects and sold government posts to the highest bidder. His favorites were allowed to oppress his subjects. Sources also condemn his homosexuality. He did have some military success and, in addition to other military threats, he had to deal with Donatist-related bandits in North Africa.

Like his father Constantine I and his brother Constantius II, Constans had a deep interest in Christianity. Together with Constantius II he issued (or perhaps re-issued) a ban against pagan sacrifice in 341. The next year, they cautioned against the destruction of pagan temples. Unlike his brother Constantius II, who supported the Arian faction, he stood shoulder to shoulder with Athanasius and other members of the Orthodox clique. In fact, it is due to his request that the Council of Serdica was called to deal with the ecclesiastical squabble between Athanasius of Alexandria and Paul of Constantinople on one side and the Arian faction on the other.

When Magnentius was declared emperor in Gaul during January 350, Constans realized his reign was at an end. When he learned of the revolt, he fled toward Helena, a town in the Pyrenees. Constans was put to death by Gaeso and a band of Magnentius' assassins, who dragged their victim from a temple in which he had sought refuge.

By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University and Robert Frakes, Clarion University
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
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1405t, Constans, 9 September 337 - 19 January 350 A.D. (Thessalonica )38 viewsConstans, 9 September 337 - 19 January 350 A.D., Bronze AE 3, unattributed; Thessalonica mint, 2.25g, 18.9mm, 0; aVF.

Flavius Julius Constans, third and youngest son of Constantine I and Fausta, was born between 320 and 323 A.D. Primary sources for the life and reign of Constans I are scarce. To reconstruct his life and career, one must draw on a variety of references in both fourth century and later works. Raised as a Christian, he was made a Caesar on 25 December 333 A.D. Constans I and his two brothers, after the death of their father on 22 May 337 and the subsequent "massacre of the princes" in which many other relatives were purged, met in the first part of September 337 in Pannonia to re-divide the empire among themselves. There they were acclaimed Augusti by the army. Constans' new realm included Italy, Africa, Illyricum, Macedonia, and Achaea. Shortly before his father's death, Constans' engagement to Olympias, the daughter of the Praetorian Prefect Ablabius, was announced; although the match was never solemnized because of political reasons.

It would appear that Constans was successful in the military sphere. Following his accession to the purple in 337, he seems to have won a victory over the Sarmatians. In 340 Constans was able to beat back an attempt by his brother Constantine II to seize some of his realm. The latter died in a battle fought near Aquileia and Constans absorbed his late brother's territory. In 341 and 342 he conducted a successful campaign against the Franci. He also visited Britain in 343, probably on a military campaign.

As an emperor Constans gets mixed reviews. In what may be a topos, sources suggest that the first part of his reign was moderate but in later years, however, he became overbearing. The emperor apparently attempted to obtain as much money as he could from his subjects and sold government posts to the highest bidder. His favorites were allowed to oppress his subjects. Sources also condemn his homosexuality. He did have some military success and, in addition to other military threats, he had to deal with Donatist-related bandits in North Africa.

Like his father Constantine I and his brother Constantius II, Constans had a deep interest in Christianity. Together with Constantius II he issued (or perhaps re-issued) a ban against pagan sacrifice in 341. The next year, they cautioned against the destruction of pagan temples. Unlike his brother Constantius II, who supported the Arian faction, he stood shoulder to shoulder with Athanasius and other members of the Orthodox clique. In fact, it is due to his request that the Council of Serdica was called to deal with the ecclesiastical squabble between Athanasius of Alexandria and Paul of Constantinople on one side and the Arian faction on the other.

When Magnentius was declared emperor in Gaul during January 350, Constans realized his reign was at an end. When he learned of the revolt, he fled toward Helena, a town in the Pyrenees. Constans was put to death by Gaeso and a band of Magnentius' assassins, who dragged their victim from a temple in which he had sought refuge.

By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University and Robert Frakes, Clarion University.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
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1407a, Constantius II, 337-361 A.D. (Antioch)51 viewsAE4, 337-361 A.D. Antioch, aVF/VF,Obv:– DN CONSTANTIVS P F AVG, Pearl and rosette diadem, head right/R: Wreath with VOT XX MVLT XXX, SMANB in exe.RIC VIII Antioch 113,Item ref: RI170b.

AE3, 2.80 grams, 330-333, Heraclea, aVF. Obv: FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C - Laureate bust right, draped and cuirassed. R: GLOR-IA EXERC-ITVS - Two soldiers looking in at each other and both holding a spear; between them, two standards Exe: SMHB.

Constantius II was born in Illyricum in August AD 317, the son of Constantine the Great and Fausta, and was proclaimed Caesar in AD 323.

In AD 337, at the death of his father Constantine, he acceded to the throne together with his two brothers Constantine II and Constans. But this accession by the three brothers was tainted by the murder of their cousins Dalmatius and Hannibalianus, whom Constantine had also intended as joint heirs. These murders are believed to have been masterminded by Constantius II.

Eventually, Constantius II was left as the sole emperor of the Roman empire. Constantius elevated his cousin, Julian, to the rank of Caesar (junior emperor) and gave him his sister Helena in marriage. Julian was assigned the task of dealing with the Frankish leader, Silvanus, who had proclaimed himself emepror at Colonia Agrippina. Julian's success led his men to declare him Augustus. Julian, while reluctant to take the throne, accepted.

Constantius II, therefore, left the Mesopotamian frontier and marched his troops west, seeking to deal with the usurper. As he reached Cilicia in the winter of AD 361, he was overcome by a sudden fever and died at Mopsucrene. Julian, the Apostate, succeded him as Emperor.

Our chief source for Constantius' reign is the great historian Ammianus Marcellinus. He presents a mixed view of that emperor. In some ways a sound administrator and competent general, Constantius is also portrayed as easily influenced by those around him such as his wives, courtiers and the eunuchs of the court (Ammianus 21. 16. 16). Ammianus (21.16.18) also attacks Constantius' great interest in Church affairs--alleging that he bankrupted the courier service with calls for Church councils. Of course, imperial interest in Church affairs was a major policy of his father Constantine and it may be that Constantius was trying to emulate his model (if only with mixed success). Indeed, Constantius II (like his brothers Constantine II and Constans) was raised a Christian. Among his many laws is the famous CTh 16.10.2 of 341 which either prohibited or re-issued his father's prohibition of pagan sacrifices. Sympathetic to Arianism, he spent a great deal of his reign calling Church councils. One of the longest-reigned emperors in Roman history, Constantius is hard for the modern historian to fully understand both due to his own actions and due to the interests of the authors of primary sources for his reign.

By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University & Robert Frakes, Clarion University
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

1 commentsCleisthenes
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1407h, Constantius II, 337-361 A.D. (Heraclea)32 viewsConstantius II 337-361 A.D. AE3, 2.80 grams, 330-333, Heraclea, aVF. Obverse: FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C - Laureate bust right, draped and cuirassed; Reverse: GLOR-IA EXERC-ITVS - Two soldiers looking in at each other and both holding a spear; between them, two standards; SMHB in exergue.

Constantius II was born in Illyricum in August AD 317, the son of Constantine the Great and Fausta, and was proclaimed Caesar in AD 323.

In AD 337, at the death of his father Constantine, he acceded to the throne together with his two brothers Constantine II and Constans. But this accession by the three brothers was tainted by the murder of their cousins Dalmatius and Hannibalianus, whom Constantine had also intended as joint heirs. These murders are believed to have been masterminded by Constantius II.

Eventually, Constantius II was left as the sole emperor of the Roman empire. Constantius elevated his cousin, Julian, to the rank of Caesar (junior emperor) and gave him his sister Helena in marriage. Julian was assigned the task of dealing with the Frankish leader, Silvanus, who had proclaimed himself emepror at Colonia Agrippina. Julian's success led his men to declare him Augustus. Julian, while reluctant to take the throne, accepted.

Constantius II, therefore, left the Mesopotamian frontier and marched his troops west, seeking to deal with the usurper. As he reached Cilicia in the winter of AD 361, he was overcome by a sudden fever and died at Mopsucrene. Julian, the Apostate, succeded him as Emperor.

Our chief source for Constantius' reign is the great historian Ammianus Marcellinus. He presents a mixed view of that emperor. In some ways a sound administrator and competent general, Constantius is also portrayed as easily influenced by those around him such as his wives, courtiers and the eunuchs of the court (Ammianus 21. 16. 16). Ammianus (21.16.18) also attacks Constantius' great interest in Church affairs--alleging that he bankrupted the courier service with calls for Church councils. Of course, imperial interest in Church affairs was a major policy of his father Constantine and it may be that Constantius was trying to emulate his model (if only with mixed success). Indeed, Constantius II (like his brothers Constantine II and Constans) was raised a Christian. Among his many laws is the famous CTh 16.10.2 of 341 which either prohibited or re-issued his father's prohibition of pagan sacrifices. Sympathetic to Arianism, he spent a great deal of his reign calling Church councils. One of the longest-reigned emperors in Roman history, Constantius is hard for the modern historian to fully understand both due to his own actions and due to the interests of the authors of primary sources for his reign.
By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University & Robert Frakes, Clarion University
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
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1407r, Constantius II, 22 May 337 - 3 November 361 A.D.39 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC 272, aVF, 2.203g, 18.1mm, 0o, Rome mint, 352 - 355 A.D.; obverse D N CONSTAN-TIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse FEL TEMP REPARATIO, soldier spearing fallen horseman, RT in ex.

Constantius II was born in Illyricum in August AD 317, the son of Constantine the Great and Fausta, and was proclaimed Caesar in AD 323.

In AD 337, at the death of his father Constantine, he acceded to the throne together with his two brothers Constantine II and Constans. But this accession by the three brothers was tainted by the murder of their cousins Dalmatius and Hannibalianus, whom Constantine had also intended as joint heirs. These murders are believed to have been masterminded by Constantius II.

Eventually, Constantius II was left as the sole emperor of the Roman empire. Constantius elevated Julian to the rank of Caesar (junior emperor) and gave him his sister Helena in marriage. Julian was assigned the task of dealing with the Frankish leader, Silvanus, who had proclaimed himself emepror at Colonia Agrippina. Julian's success lead his men to declare him Augustus. Julian, while reluctant to take the throne, accepted.

Constantius II, therefore left the Mesopotamian frontier and marched his troops west, seeking to deal with the usurper. As he reached Cilicia in the winter of AD 361, he was overcome by a sudden fever and died at Mopsucrene. Julian, the Apostate, succeded him as Emperor.

Our chief source for Constantius' reign is the great historian Ammianus Marcellinus. He presents a mixed view of that emperor. In some ways a sound administrator and competent general, Constantius is also portrayed as easily influenced by those around him such as his wives, courtiers and the eunuchs of the court (Ammianus 21. 16. 16). Ammianus (21.16.18) also attacks Constantius' great interest in Church affairs--alleging that he bankrupted the courier service with calls for Church councils. Of course, imperial interest in Church affairs was a major policy of his father Constantine and it may be that Constantius was trying to emulate his model (if only with mixed success). Indeed, Constantius II (like his brothers Constantine II and Constans) was raised a Christian. Among his many laws is the famous CTh 16.10.2 of 341 which either prohibited or re-issued his father's prohibition of pagan sacrifices. Sympathetic to Arianism, he spent a great deal of his reign calling Church councils. One of the longest-reigned emperors in Roman history, Constantius is hard for the modern historian to fully understand both due to his own actions and due to the interests of the authors of primary sources for his reign.

By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University & Robert Frakes, Clarion University
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.



Cleisthenes
Julian2VotXConstantinople.jpg
1409a, Julian II "the Philosopher," February 360 - 26 June 363 A.D.143 viewsJulian II, A.D. 360-363; RIC 167; VF; 2.7g, 20mm; Constantinople mint; Obverse: DN FL CL IVLIANVS P F AVG, helmeted & cuirassed bust right, holding spear & shield; Reverse: VOT X MVLT XX in four lines within wreath; CONSPB in exergue; Attractive green patina. Ex Nemesis.


De Imperatoribus Romanis,
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Julian the Apostate (360-363 A.D.)

Walter E. Roberts, Emory University
Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University

Introduction

The emperor Flavius Claudius Julianus reigned from 360 to 26 June 363, when he was killed fighting against the Persians. Despite his short rule, his emperorship was pivotal in the development of the history of the later Roman empire. This essay is not meant to be a comprehensive look at the various issues central to the reign of Julian and the history of the later empire. Rather, this short work is meant to be a brief history and introduction for the general reader. Julian was the last direct descendent of the Constantinian line to ascend to the purple, and it is one of history's great ironies that he was the last non-Christian emperor. As such, he has been vilified by most Christian sources, beginning with John Chrysostom and Gregory Nazianzus in the later fourth century. This tradition was picked up by the fifth century Eusebian continuators Sozomen, Socrates Scholasticus, and Theodoret and passed on to scholars down through the 20th century. Most contemporary sources, however, paint a much more balanced picture of Julian and his reign. The adoption of Christianity by emperors and society, while still a vital concern, was but one of several issues that concerned Julian.

It is fortunate that extensive writings from Julian himself exist, which help interpret his reign in the light of contemporary evidence. Still extant are some letters, several panegyrics, and a few satires. Other contemporary sources include the soldier Ammianus Marcellinus' history, correspondence between Julian and Libanius of Antioch, several panegyrics, laws from the Theodosian Code, inscriptions, and coinage. These sources show Julian's emphasis on restoration. He saw himself as the restorer of the traditional values of Roman society. Of course much of this was rhetoric, meant to defend Julian against charges that he was a usurper. At the same time this theme of restoration was central to all emperors of the fourth century. Julian thought that he was the one emperor who could regain what was viewed as the lost glory of the Roman empire. To achieve this goal he courted select groups of social elites to get across his message of restoration. This was the way that emperors functioned in the fourth century. By choosing whom to include in the sharing of power, they sought to shape society.

Early Life

Julian was born at Constantinople in 331. His father was Julius Constantius, half-brother of the emperor Constantine through Constantius Chlorus, and his mother was Basilina, Julius' second wife. Julian had two half-brothers via Julius' first marriage. One of these was Gallus, who played a major role in Julian's life. Julian appeared destined for a bright future via his father's connection to the Constantinian house. After many years of tense relations with his three half-brothers, Constantine seemed to have welcomed them into the fold of the imperial family. From 333 to 335, Constantine conferred a series of honors upon his three half-siblings, including appointing Julius Constantius as one of the consuls for 335. Julian's mother was equally distinguished. Ammianus related that she was from a noble family. This is supported by Libanius, who claimed that she was the daughter of Julius Julianus, a Praetorian Prefect under Licinius, who was such a model of administrative virtue that he was pardoned and honored by Constantine.

Despite the fact that his mother died shortly after giving birth to him, Julian experienced an idyllic early childhood. This ended when Constantius II conducted a purge of many of his relatives shortly after Constantine's death in 337, particularly targeting the families of Constantine's half-brothers. ulian and Gallus were spared, probably due to their young age. Julian was put under the care of Mardonius, a Scythian eunuch who had tutored his mother, in 339, and was raised in the Greek philosophical tradition, and probably lived in Nicomedia. Ammianus also supplied the fact that while in Nicomedia, Julian was cared for by the local bishop Eusebius, of whom the future emperor was a distant relation. Julian was educated by some of the most famous names in grammar and rhetoric in the Greek world at that time, including Nicocles and Hecebolius. In 344 Constantius II sent Julian and Gallus to Macellum in Cappadocia, where they remained for six years. In 351, Gallus was made Caesar by Constantius II and Julian was allowed to return to Nicomedia, where he studied under Aedesius, Eusebius, and Chrysanthius, all famed philosophers, and was exposed to the Neo-Platonism that would become such a prominent part of his life. But Julian was most proud of the time he spent studying under Maximus of Ephesus, a noted Neo-Platonic philospher and theurgist. It was Maximus who completed Julian's full-scale conversion to Neo-Platonism. Later, when he was Caesar, Julian told of how he put letters from this philosopher under his pillows so that he would continue to absorb wisdom while he slept, and while campaigning on the Rhine, he sent his speeches to Maximus for approval before letting others hear them. When Gallus was executed in 354 for treason by Constantius II, Julian was summoned to Italy and essentially kept under house arrest at Comum, near Milan, for seven months before Constantius' wife Eusebia convinced the emperor that Julian posed no threat. This allowed Julian to return to Greece and continue his life as a scholar where he studied under the Neo-Platonist Priscus. Julian's life of scholarly pursuit, however, ended abruptly when he was summoned to the imperial court and made Caesar by Constantius II on 6 November 355.

Julian as Caesar

Constantius II realized an essential truth of the empire that had been evident since the time of the Tetrarchy--the empire was too big to be ruled effectively by one man. Julian was pressed into service as Caesar, or subordinate emperor, because an imperial presence was needed in the west, in particular in the Gallic provinces. Julian, due to the emperor's earlier purges, was the only viable candidate of the imperial family left who could act as Caesar. Constantius enjoined Julian with the task of restoring order along the Rhine frontier. A few days after he was made Caesar, Julian was married to Constantius' sister Helena in order to cement the alliance between the two men. On 1 December 355, Julian journeyed north, and in Augusta Taurinorum he learned that Alamannic raiders had destroyed Colonia Agrippina. He then proceeded to Vienne where he spent the winter. At Vienne, he learned that Augustudunum was also under siege, but was being held by a veteran garrison. He made this his first priority, and arrived there on 24 June 356. When he had assured himself that the city was in no immediate danger, he journeyed to Augusta Treverorum via Autessioduram, and from there to Durocortorum where he rendezvoused with his army. Julian had the army stage a series of punitive strikes around the Dieuse region, and then he moved them towards the Argentoratum/Mongontiacum region when word of barbarian incursions reached him.

From there, Julian moved on to Colonia Agrippina, and negotiated a peace with the local barbarian leaders who had assaulted the city. He then wintered at Senonae. He spent the early part of the campaigning season of 357 fighting off besiegers at Senonae, and then conducting operations around Lugdunum and Tres Tabernae. Later that summer, he encountered his watershed moment as a military general. Ammianus went into great detail about Julian's victory over seven rogue Alamannic chieftains near Argentoratum, and Julian himself bragged about it in his later writing. After this battle, the soldiers acclaimed Julian Augustus, but he rejected this title. After mounting a series of follow-up raids into Alamannic territory, he retired to winter quarters at Lutetia, and on the way defeated some Frankish raiders in the Mosa region. Julian considered this campaign one of the major events of his time as Caesar.

Julian began his 358 military campaigns early, hoping to catch the barbarians by surprise. His first target was the Franks in the northern Rhine region. He then proceeded to restore some forts in the Mosa region, but his soldiers threatened to mutiny because they were on short rations and had not been paid their donative since Julian had become Caesar. After he soothed his soldiers, Julian spent the rest of the summer negotiating a peace with various Alamannic leaders in the mid and lower Rhine areas, and retired to winter quarters at Lutetia. In 359, he prepared once again to carry out a series of punitive expeditions against the Alamanni in the Rhine region who were still hostile to the Roman presence. In preparation, the Caesar repopulated seven previously destroyed cities and set them up as supply bases and staging areas. This was done with the help of the people with whom Julian had negotiated a peace the year before. Julian then had a detachment of lightly armed soldiers cross the Rhine near Mogontiacum and conduct a guerilla strike against several chieftains. As a result of these campaigns, Julian was able to negotiate a peace with all but a handful of the Alamannic leaders, and he retired to winter quarters at Lutetia.

Of course, Julian did more than act as a general during his time as Caesar. According to Ammianus, Julian was an able administrator who took steps to correct the injustices of Constantius' appointees. Ammianus related the story of how Julian prevented Florentius, the Praetorian Prefect of Gaul, from raising taxes, and also how Julian actually took over as governor for the province of Belgica Secunda. Hilary, bishop of Poitiers, supported Ammianus' basic assessment of Julian in this regard when he reported that Julian was an able representative of the emperor to the Gallic provincials. There is also epigraphic evidence to support Julian's popularity amongst the provincial elites. An inscription found near Beneventum in Apulia reads:
"To Flavius Claudius Julianus, most noble and sanctified Caesar, from the caring Tocius Maximus, vir clarissimus, for the care of the res publica from Beneventum".

Tocius Maximus, as a vir clarissimus, was at the highest point in the social spectrum and was a leader in his local community. This inscription shows that Julian was successful in establishing a positive image amongst provincial elites while he was Caesar.

Julian Augustus

In early 360, Constantius, driven by jealousy of Julian's success, stripped Julian of many troops and officers, ostensibly because the emperor needed them for his upcoming campaign against the Persians. One of the legions ordered east, the Petulantes, did not want to leave Gaul because the majority of the soldiers in the unit were from this region. As a result they mutinied and hailed Julian as Augustus at Lutetia. Julian refused this acclamation as he had done at Argentoratum earlier, but the soldiers would have none of his denial. They raised him on a shield and adorned him with a neck chain, which had formerly been the possession of the standard-bearer of the Petulantes and symbolized a royal diadem. Julian appeared reluctantly to acquiesce to their wishes, and promised a generous donative. The exact date of his acclamation is unknown, but most scholars put it in February or March. Julian himself supported Ammianus' picture of a jealous Constantius. In his Letter to the Athenians, a document constructed to answer charges that he was a usurper, Julian stated that from the start he, as Caesar, had been meant as a figurehead to the soldiers and provincials. The real power he claimed lay with the generals and officials already present in Gaul. In fact, according to Julian, the generals were charged with watching him as much as the enemy. His account of the actual acclamation closely followed what Ammianus told us, but he stressed even more his reluctance to take power. Julian claimed that he did so only after praying to Zeus for guidance.

Fearing the reaction of Constantius, Julian sent a letter to his fellow emperor justifying the events at Lutetia and trying to arrange a peaceful solution. This letter berated Constantius for forcing the troops in Gaul into an untenable situation. Ammianus stated that Julian's letter blamed Constantius' decision to transfer Gallic legions east as the reason for the soldiers' rebellion. Julian once again asserted that he was an unwilling participant who was only following the desire of the soldiers. In both of these basic accounts Ammianus and Julian are playing upon the theme of restoration. Implicit in their version of Julian's acclamation is the argument that Constantius was unfit to rule. The soldiers were the vehicle of the gods' will. The Letter to the Athenians is full of references to the fact that Julian was assuming the mantle of Augustus at the instigation of the gods. Ammianus summed up this position nicely when he related the story of how, when Julian was agonizing over whether to accept the soldiers' acclamation, he had a dream in which he was visited by the Genius (guardian spirit) of the Roman state. The Genius told Julian that it had often tried to bestow high honors upon Julian but had been rebuffed. Now, the Genius went on to say, was Julian's final chance to take the power that was rightfully his. If the Caesar refused this chance, the Genius would depart forever, and both Julian and the state would rue Julian's rejection. Julian himself wrote a letter to his friend Maximus of Ephesus in November of 361 detailing his thoughts on his proclamation. In this letter, Julian stated that the soldiers proclaimed him Augustus against his will. Julian, however, defended his accession, saying that the gods willed it and that he had treated his enemies with clemency and justice. He went on to say that he led the troops in propitiating the traditional deities, because the gods commanded him to return to the traditional rites, and would reward him if he fulfilled this duty.

During 360 an uneasy peace simmered between the two emperors. Julian spent the 360 campaigning season continuing his efforts to restore order along the Rhine, while Constantius continued operations against the Persians. Julian wintered in Vienne, and celebrated his Quinquennalia. It was at this time that his wife Helena died, and he sent her remains to Rome for a proper burial at his family villa on the Via Nomentana where the body of her sister was entombed. The uneasy peace held through the summer of 361, but Julian concentrated his military operations around harassing the Alamannic chieftain Vadomarius and his allies, who had concluded a peace treaty with Constantius some years earlier. By the end of the summer, Julian decided to put an end to the waiting and gathered his army to march east against Constantius. The empire teetered on the brink of another civil war. Constantius had spent the summer negotiating with the Persians and making preparations for possible military action against his cousin. When he was assured that the Persians would not attack, he summoned his army and sallied forth to meet Julian. As the armies drew inexorably closer to one another, the empire was saved from another bloody civil war when Constantius died unexpectedly of natural causes on 3 November near the town of Mopsucrenae in Cilicia, naming Julian -- the sources say-- as his legitimate successor.

Julian was in Dacia when he learned of his cousin's death. He made his way through Thrace and came to Constantinople on 11 December 361 where Julian honored the emperor with the funeral rites appropriate for a man of his station. Julian immediately set about putting his supporters in positions of power and trimming the imperial bureaucracy, which had become extremely overstaffed during Constantius' reign. Cooks and barbers had increased during the late emperor's reign and Julian expelled them from his court. Ammianus gave a mixed assessment of how the new emperor handled the followers of Constantius. Traditionally, emperors were supposed to show clemency to the supporters of a defeated enemy. Julian, however, gave some men over to death to appease the army. Ammianus used the case of Ursulus, Constantius' comes sacrum largitionum, to illustrate his point. Ursulus had actually tried to acquire money for the Gallic troops when Julian had first been appointed Caesar, but he had also made a disparaging remark about the ineffectiveness of the army after the battle of Amida. The soldiers remembered this, and when Julian became sole Augustus, they demanded Ursulus' head. Julian obliged, much to the disapproval of Ammianus. This seems to be a case of Julian courting the favor of the military leadership, and is indicative of a pattern in which Julian courted the goodwill of various societal elites to legitimize his position as emperor.

Another case in point is the officials who made up the imperial bureaucracy. Many of them were subjected to trial and punishment. To achieve this goal, during the last weeks of December 361 Julian assembled a military tribunal at Chalcedon, empanelling six judges to try the cases. The president of the tribunal was Salutius, just promoted to the rank of Praetorian Prefect; the five other members were Mamertinus, the orator, and four general officers: Jovinus, Agilo, Nevitta, and Arbetio. Relative to the proceedings of the tribunal, Ammianus noted that the judges, " . . . oversaw the cases more vehemently than was right or fair, with the exception of a few . . .." Ammianus' account of Julian's attempt at reform of the imperial bureaucracy is supported by legal evidence from the Theodosian Code. A series of laws sent to Mamertinus, Julian's appointee as Praetorian Prefect in Italy, Illyricum, and Africa, illustrate this point nicely. On 6 June 362, Mamertinus received a law that prohibited provincial governors from bypassing the Vicars when giving their reports to the Prefect. Traditionally, Vicars were given civil authority over a group of provinces, and were in theory meant to serve as a middle step between governors and Prefects. This law suggests that the Vicars were being left out, at least in Illyricum. Julian issued another edict to Mamertinus on 22 February 362 to stop abuse of the public post by governors. According to this law, only Mamertinus could issue post warrants, but the Vicars were given twelve blank warrants to be used as they saw fit, and each governor was given two. Continuing the trend of bureaucratic reform, Julian also imposed penalties on governors who purposefully delayed appeals in court cases they had heard. The emperor also established a new official to weigh solidi used in official government transactions to combat coin clipping.

For Julian, reigning in the abuses of imperial bureaucrats was one step in restoring the prestige of the office of emperor. Because he could not affect all elements of society personally, Julian, like other Neo-Flavian emperors, decided to concentrate on select groups of societal elites as intercessors between himself and the general populace. One of these groups was the imperial bureaucracy. Julian made it very clear that imperial officials were intercessors in a very real sense in a letter to Alypius, Vicar of Britain. In this letter, sent from Gaul sometime before 361, the emperor praises Alypius for his use of "mildness and moderation with courage and force" in his rule of the provincials. Such virtues were characteristic of the emperors, and it was good that Alypius is representing Julian in this way. Julian courted the army because it put him in power. Another group he sought to include in his rule was the traditional Senatorial aristocracy. One of his first appointments as consul was Claudius Mamertinus, a Gallic Senator and rhetorician. Mamertinus' speech in praise of Julian delivered at Constantinople in January of 362 is preserved. In this speech, Claudius presented his consular selection as inaugurating a new golden age and Julian as the restorer of the empire founded by Augustus. The image Mamertinus gave of his own consulate inaugurating a new golden age is not merely formulaic. The comparison of Julian to Augustus has very real, if implicit, relevance to Claudius' situation. Claudius emphasized the imperial period as the true age of renewal. Augustus ushered in a new era with his formation of a partnership between the emperor and the Senate based upon a series of honors and offices bestowed upon the Senate in return for their role as intercessor between emperor and populace. It was this system that Julian was restoring, and the consulate was one concrete example of this bond. To be chosen as a consul by the emperor, who himself had been divinely mandated, was a divine honor. In addition to being named consul, Mamertinus went on to hold several offices under Julian, including the Prefecture of Italy, Illyricum, and Africa. Similarly, inscriptional evidence illustrates a link between municipal elites and Julian during his time as Caesar, something which continued after he became emperor. One concrete example comes from the municipal senate of Aceruntia in Apulia, which established a monument on which Julian is styled as "Repairer of the World."

Julian seems to have given up actual Christian belief before his acclamation as emperor and was a practitioner of more traditional Greco-Roman religious beliefs, in particular, a follower of certain late antique Platonist philosophers who were especially adept at theurgy as was noted earlier. In fact Julian himself spoke of his conversion to Neo-Platonism in a letter to the Alexandrians written in 363. He stated that he had abandoned Christianity when he was twenty years old and been an adherent of the traditional Greco-Roman deities for the twelve years prior to writing this letter.

(For the complete text of this article see: http://www.roman-emperors.org/julian.htm)

Julian’s Persian Campaign

The exact goals Julian had for his ill-fated Persian campaign were never clear. The Sassanid Persians, and before them the Parthians, had been a traditional enemy from the time of the Late Republic, and indeed Constantius had been conducting a war against them before Julian's accession forced the former to forge an uneasy peace. Julian, however, had no concrete reason to reopen hostilities in the east. Socrates Scholasticus attributed Julian's motives to imitation of Alexander the Great, but perhaps the real reason lay in his need to gather the support of the army. Despite his acclamation by the Gallic legions, relations between Julian and the top military officers was uneasy at best. A war against the Persians would have brought prestige and power both to Julian and the army.

Julian set out on his fateful campaign on 5 March 363. Using his trademark strategy of striking quickly and where least expected, he moved his army through Heirapolis and from there speedily across the Euphrates and into the province of Mesopotamia, where he stopped at the town of Batnae. His plan was to eventually return through Armenia and winter in Tarsus. Once in Mesopotamia, Julian was faced with the decision of whether to travel south through the province of Babylonia or cross the Tigris into Assyria, and he eventually decided to move south through Babylonia and turn west into Assyria at a later date. By 27 March, he had the bulk of his army across the Euphrates, and had also arranged a flotilla to guard his supply line along the mighty river. He then left his generals Procopius and Sebastianus to help Arsacius, the king of Armenia and a Roman client, to guard the northern Tigris line. It was also during this time that he received the surrender of many prominent local leaders who had nominally supported the Persians. These men supplied Julian with money and troops for further military action against their former masters. Julian decided to turn south into Babylonia and proceeded along the Euphrates, coming to the fortress of Cercusium at the junction of the Abora and Euphrates Rivers around the first of April, and from there he took his army west to a region called Zaitha near the abandoned town of Dura where they visited the tomb of the emperor Gordian which was in the area. On April 7 he set out from there into the heart of Babylonia and towards Assyria.

Ammianus then stated that Julian and his army crossed into Assyria, which on the face of things appears very confusing. Julian still seems to be operating within the province of Babylonia between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. The confusion is alleviated when one realizes that,for Ammianus, the region of Assyria encompassed the provinces of Babylonia and Assyria. On their march, Julian's forces took the fortress of Anatha, received the surrender and support of several more local princes, and ravaged the countryside of Assyria between the rivers. As the army continued south, they came across the fortresses Thilutha and Achaiachala, but these places were too well defended and Julian decided to leave them alone. Further south were the cities Diacira and Ozogardana, which the Roman forces sacked and burned. Soon, Julian came to Pirisabora and a brief siege ensued, but the city fell and was also looted and destroyed. It was also at this time that the Roman army met its first systematic resistance from the Persians. As the Romans penetrated further south and west, the local inhabitants began to flood their route. Nevertheless, the Roman forces pressed on and came to Maiozamalcha, a sizable city not far from Ctesiphon. After a short siege, this city too fell to Julian. Inexorably, Julian's forces zeroed in on Ctesiphon, but as they drew closer, the Persian resistance grew fiercer, with guerilla raids whittling at Julian's men and supplies. A sizable force of the army was lost and the emperor himself was almost killed taking a fort a few miles from the target city.
Finally, the army approached Ctesiphon following a canal that linked the Tigris and Euphrates. It soon became apparent after a few preliminary skirmishes that a protracted siege would be necessary to take this important city. Many of his generals, however, thought that pursuing this course of action would be foolish. Julian reluctantly agreed, but became enraged by this failure and ordered his fleet to be burned as he decided to march through the province of Assyria. Julian had planned for his army to live off the land, but the Persians employed a scorched-earth policy. When it became apparent that his army would perish (because his supplies were beginning to dwindle) from starvation and the heat if he continued his campaign, and also in the face of superior numbers of the enemy, Julian ordered a retreat on 16 June. As the Roman army retreated, they were constantly harassed by guerilla strikes. It was during one of these raids that Julian got caught up in the fighting and took a spear to his abdomen. Mortally wounded he was carried to his tent, where, after conferring with some of his officers, he died. The date was 26 June 363.

Conclusion

Thus an ignominious end for a man came about who had hoped to restore the glory of the Roman empire during his reign as emperor. Due to his intense hatred of Christianity, the opinion of posterity has not been kind to Julian. The contemporary opinion, however, was overall positive. The evidence shows that Julian was a complex ruler with a definite agenda to use traditional social institutions in order to revive what he saw as a collapsing empire. In the final assessment, he was not so different from any of the other emperors of the fourth century. He was a man grasping desperately to hang on to a Greco-Roman conception of leadership that was undergoing a subtle yet profound change.
Copyright (C) 2002, Walter E. Roberts and Michael DiMaio, Jr. Used by permission.

In reality, Julian worked to promote culture and philosophy in any manifestation. He tried to reduce taxes and the public debts of municipalities; he augmented administrative decentralisation; he promoted a campaign of austerity to reduce public expenditure (setting himself as the example). He reformed the postal service and eliminated the powerful secret police.
by Federico Morando; JULIAN II, The Apostate, http://www.forumancientcoins.com/NumisWiki/view.asp?key=Julian%20II

Flavius Claudius Iulianus was born in 331 or maybe 332 A.D. in Constantinople. He ruled the Western Empire as Caesar from 355 to 360 and was hailed Augustus by his legions in Lutetia (Paris) in 360. Julian was a gifted administrator and military strategist. Famed as the last pagan emperor, his reinstatement of the pagan religion earned him the moniker "the Apostate." As evidenced by his brilliant writing, some of which has survived to the present day, the title "the Philosopher" may have been more appropriate. He died from wounds suffered during the Persian campaign of 363 A.D. Joseph Sermarini, FORVM.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.




2 commentsCleisthenes
RI_141by_img.jpg
141 - Diocletian - RIC V pt II Antioch 323 Bust Type C10 viewsObv:– IMP C C VAL DIOCLETIANVS P F AVG, Radiate draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– IOV ET HERCV CONSER AVGG, Jupiter facing right holding globe and sceptre, facing Hercules facing left, holding Victory on globe, club and lion's skin
Minted in Antioch (? // XXI Dot) Uncertain officina mark. Clogged die?
Reference:– RIC V Pt. 2 323
maridvnvm
1302_P_Hadrian_RPC1410.jpg
1410 Hadrian, Cistophorus Uncertain mint in Asia Minor, Bundle of grain four ears16 viewsReference.
RPC III, 1410; Metcalf 66; (same die pair as M303 plate)

Obv. HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS
Laureate bust right, drapery on left shoulder,

Rev. COS III (across top)
Poppy and four grain stalks in bundle

9.26 gr
28 mm
1h
1 commentsokidoki
1283_P_Hadrian_RPC--.jpg
1423A Hadrian, Cistophorus Uncertain mint in Asia Minor, Fortuna standing27 viewsReference.
RPC III, 1423A (drapery); Metcalf —

Issue Group 2: HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS P P

Obv. HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS P P
Bare head right, drapery on left shoulder

Rev. COS III
Fortuna standing left wearing Polos, holding rudder in right and cornucopia in left.

10.22 gr
27 mm
6h
1 commentsokidoki
1287_P_Hadrian_RPC--.jpg
1424 Hadrian, Cistophorus Uncertain mint in Asia Minor, Heracles standing13 viewsReference.
RPC III, --; RIC --; Metclaf 100 (reverse)

Issue Group 1: AVGVSTVS HADRIANVS P P

Obv. AVGVSTVS HADRIANVS P P
Bare head right

Rev. COS III
Heracles standing r., r. hand on hip, l. reading on club with lion skin set on rock

9.93 gr
30 mm
6h
okidoki
1269_P_Hadrian_RPC--.jpg
1425A Hadrian, Cistophorus Uncertain mint in Asia Minor, Fortuna standing40 viewsReference.
RPC III, 1417; for rev.; Cf. RPC III 1408-9: RPC --; Metcalf--; RIC--

Obv. HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS P P
Laureate head right

Rev. FORTVNA AVGVST
Fortuna standing left, holding rudder and cornucopia.

10.57 gr
30 mm
12h
4 commentsokidoki
702_P_Hadrian_RIC518.jpg
1431 Hadrian, Cistophorus Uncertain mint in Asia Minor. 128 AD Six grain ears tied in a bundle.14 viewsReference.
RIC 518; C. 440; Metcalf 85; RPC III, 1431

http://rpc.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/coins/3/1431/

Mint B

Obv. HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS P P
Laureate head right.

Rev. COS-III
Bundle of six grain ears.

10.53 gr
28 mm
6h
okidoki
1034_P_Hadrian_RPC1441.jpg
1441 Hadrian, Cistophorus Uncertain mint in Asia Minor 128 AD Hadrian standing31 viewsReference.
RPC III 1441; Metcalf Type 92, 35; RIC 532.

Obv. IMP CAESAR AVGVSTVS
Head of Augustus right

Rev. HADRIANVS AVG P P REN
Hadrian togate standing half-l. holding grain stalk in r. and wrapping l. in toga.

10.31 gr
26 mm
6h
3 commentsokidoki
954_P_Hadrian_RPC1441.jpg
1441A Hadrian, Cistophorus Uncertain mint in Asia Minor 128 AD Hadrian standing35 viewsReference.
unpublished; RPC III, 1441var. on reverse legend; RIC 532 var.; C. 576 var. (Augustus); Metcalf, Cistophori of Hadrian 92 var.

Person Augustus (under Hadrian) (Divus)

Obv. IMP CAESAR AVGVSTVS
Head of Augustus r.

Rev. HADRIANVS AVGGVSTVS REN (sic)
Hadrian togate standing half-left, holding grain stalk in right and roll in left in toga.

9.89 gr
27 mm
6h

Note.
Peus auction 420 lot 305
Sammlung Dr. Neussel Nr. 385
3 commentsokidoki
1124_P_Hadrian_RPC1445.jpg
1445 Hadrian, Cistophorus Uncertain mint in Asia Minor 128 AD Roma seated49 viewsReference
RPC III, 1445; Metcalf 95; RIC 511

Obv. HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS P P
Bare head r., with draped l. shoulder

Rev. COS III
Roma seated l. on cuirass and shield holding Victory in extended r. and vertical spear in l.

10.66 gr
26 mm
6h
5 commentsokidoki
1209_P_Hadrian_RPC1447_1.jpg
1447 Hadrian, Cistophorus Uncertain mint in Asia Minor 128 AD Roma seated18 viewsReference.
RPC III, 1447.1; Metcalf 97; RSC 347d; RIC II 511

Obv. HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS P P
Bare head right

Rev. COS III
Roma seated left on chair, shield beneath left elbow, holding Victory in extended right and transverse spear in left

8.36 gr
29 mm
6h
1 commentsokidoki
1318_P_Hadrian_RPC1450_var_.jpg
1450 var. Hadrian, Cistophorus Uncertain mint in Asia Minor 130 AD Dionysus standing2 viewsReference.
RPC III, 1450 var.; RIC 485; Metcalf 99 var. (no omphalus)

Obv. HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS P P
Bare head right

Rev. COS III
Dionysus draped standing front head l. emptying oinochoe over panther on l. and holding thyrsus in r.; panther looks left, serpent entwined around omphalus behind

10.68 gr
27 mm
6h
okidoki
771_P_Hadrian_RPC1450.JPG
1450A Hadrian, Cistophorus Uncertain mint in Asia Minor 130 AD Dionysus/Bacchus standing23 viewsReference.
RPC III, 1450A; Metcalf 99 var. (drapery); RIC II 485 VAR.

Obv. HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS P P
Bare bust right, drapery on left shoulder

Rev. COS III
Dionysus draped standing front head l. emptying oinochoe over panther on l. and holding thyrsus in r.; panther looks left

8.41 gr
28 mm
6h
okidoki
1319_P_Hadrian_RPC1450.jpg
1450A Hadrian, Cistophorus Uncertain mint in Asia Minor 130 AD Dionysus/Bacchus standing1 viewsReference.
RPC III, 1450A; Metcalf 99 var. (drapery); RIC II 485 var.

Obv. HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS P P
Bare bust right, drapery on left shoulder

Rev. COS III
Dionysus draped standing front head l. emptying oinochoe over panther on l. and holding thyrsus in r.; panther looks left

10.51 gr
29 mm
7h
okidoki
1296_P_Hadrian_RPC1454.jpg
1454 Hadrian, Cistophorus Uncertain mint in Asia Minor, Roma seated19 viewsReference.
RPC III, 1454; Metcalf 103

Obv. HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS P P
Laureate head right

Rev. COS III
Roma seated left on chair and shield holding Victory in extended right and vertical spear in upraised left

10.35 gr
26 mm
7h
1 commentsokidoki
511_P_Hadrian_unpub_.jpg
1461A Hadrian, Cistophorus Uncertain mint in Asia Minor. 128 AD Five grain ears tied in a bundle45 viewsReference.
RPC III, 1461A; cf Metcalf 107; RIC II 518 var. (six grain ears); Metcalf, Cistophori -; Pinder 87 var. (same); BMCRE pg. 391, note var. (same); RSC 441 var. (same).

Obv. HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS P P
Laureate head right.

Rev. COS III
bundle of five grain stalks splayed

10.65 gr
26 mm
6h

note.
Ex
Heidelberger Münzhandlung Herbert Grün
Auction 66 2015 Lot 134

Ex. Fritz Rudolf Künker GmbH
Auction 153 2009 Lot 8735
Ex. CNG 2004
Sale: CNG 66, Lot: 1488
4 commentsokidoki
1208_P_Hadrian_RPC1463_2.jpg
1463 Hadrian, Cistophorus Uncertain mint in Asia Minor 128 AD Pax standing23 viewsReference.
RPC III, 1463.2; RIC II 514; Metcalf 108; RSC 364

Obv. HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS P P
Laureate head left

Rev. COS III
Pax standing l., modius on head, holding olive branch in r. and cornucopiae in l.; in field l., anchor.

10.61 gr
28 mm
6h
2 commentsokidoki
541_P_Hadrian_RIC503.jpg
1471 Hadrian, Cistophorus Uncertain mint in Asia Minor Phrygia?. Minerva standing23 viewsReference.
RIC 503; Metcalf 118 400, RSC 194; RPC III, 1474

Obv. HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS P P
Bare head, draped bust right.

Rev. COS III
Minerva standing slightly left holding a patera, spear and shield.

10.75 gr
30 mm
12h

Provenance:
ex. Terrance Cheesman collection.
okidoki
544_P_Hadrian_RIC480.jpg
1472A Hadrian, Cistophorus Uncertain mint in Asia Minor 138 AD Bundle of six grain ears46 viewsReference.
RPC III, 1472A; RIC 480; Pinder 88; BMCRE p. 391; cf Metcalf 93

Obv. HADRIANVS AVG COS III P P.
Bare head right.

Rev. COS III.
Bundle of six grain ears, pellet in middle.

8.58 gr
27 mm
6h
1 commentsokidoki
1160_P_Hadrian_RPC1480.jpg
1480 Hadrian, Cistophorus Uncertain mint in Asia Minor, Hexastyle temple34 viewsReference.
RPC III, 1480; Metcalf 124

Obv. HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS P P
Laureate head left.

Rev. COS-III
Hexastyle temple, with three stairs and palmette in pediment.

10.19 gr
27 mm
12h
3 commentsokidoki
1174_P_Hadrian_RPC--.jpg
1480A Hadrian, Cistophorus Uncertain mint in Asia Minor, Eagle52 viewsReference.
RPC III, 1480A; Metcalf --

Obv. HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS P P
Laureate bust left.

Rev. COS III.
Eagle, with head right and wings spread, standing facing on thunderbolt.

10.15 gr
28 mm
12h
4 commentsokidoki
Val.jpg
1501s, Valentinian I, 25 February 364 - 17 November 375 A.D. (Siscia)98 viewsValentinian I, 25 February 364 - 17 November 375 A.D., Bronze AE 3, S 4103, VF, Siscia mint, 2.012g, 18.7mm, 180o, 24 Aug 367 - 17 Nov 375 A.D.obverse D N VALENTINI-ANVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse SECVRITAS - REIPVBLICAE, Victory advancing left, wreath in right and palm in left, symbols in fields, mintmark in exergue.


De Imperatoribus Romanis, An Online Encyclopedia of the Roman Emperors and their Families

Valentinian I (364-375 AD.)

Walter E. Roberts, Emory University

Valentinian was one of Rome's last great warrior emperors. Flavius Valentinianus, was born in A.D. 321 at Cibalis (modern Vinkovci) in southern Pannonia. His father Gratian was a soldier renowned for his strength and wrestling skills. Gratian had an illustrious career in the army, rising from staff officer to tribune, to comes Africae, and finally [i/comes Britanniae.

The emperor Jovian died on 17 February 364, apparently of natural causes, on the border between Bithynia and Galatia. The army marched on to Nicaea, the nearest city of any consequence, and a meeting of civil and military officials was convened to choose a new emperor. The assembly finally agreed upon Valentinian.

On 26 February 364, Valentinian accepted the office offered to him. As he prepared to make his accession speech, the soldiers threatened to riot, apparently uncertain as to where his loyalties lay. Valentinian reassured them that the army was his greatest priority. Furthermore, to prevent a crisis of succession if he should die prematurely, he agreed to pick a co-Augustus. According to Ammianus, the soldiers were astounded by Valentinian’s bold demeanor and his willingness to assume the imperial authority. His decision to elect a fellow-emperor could also be construed as a move to appease any opposition among the civilian officials in the eastern portion of the empire. By agreeing to appoint a co-ruler, he assured the eastern officials that someone with imperial authority would remain in the east to protect their interests. After promoting his brother Valens to the rank of tribune and putting him in charge of the royal stables on March 1, Valentinian selected Valens as co-Augustus at Constantinople on 28 March 364, though this was done over the objections of Dagalaifus. Ammianus makes it clear, however, that Valens was clearly subordinate to his brother.

Ammianus and Zosimus as well as modern scholars praise Valentinian for his military accomplishments. He is generally credited with keeping the Roman empire from crumbling away by “. . . reversing the generally waning confidence in the army and imperial defense . . ..” Several other aspects of Valentinian's reign also set the course of Roman history for the next century.

Valentinian deliberately polarized Roman society, subordinating the civilian population to the military. The military order took over the old prestige of the senatorial nobility. The imperial court, which was becoming more and more of a military court, became a vehicle for social mobility. There were new ideas of nobility, which was increasingly provincial in character. By this it is meant that the imperial court, not the Senate, was the seat of nobility, and most of these new nobles came from the provinces. With the erosion of the old nobility, the stage was set for the ascendancy of Christianity. Ammianus makes it clear that actions such as these were part of a systematic plan by Valentinian to erode the power and prestige of the senatorial aristocracy. Several pieces of extant legislation seem to confirm Ammianus’ allegations that Valentinian was eroding senatorial prestige.

Valentinian's reign affords valuable insights into late Roman society, civilian as well as military. First, there was a growing fracture between the eastern and western portions of the empire. Valentinian was the last emperor to really concentrate his resources on the west. Valens was clearly in an inferior position in the partnership. Second, there was a growing polarization of society, both Christian versus pagan, and civil versus military. Finally there was a growing regionalism in the west, driven by heavy taxation and the inability of Valentinian to fully exercise military authority in all areas of the west. All of these trends would continue over the next century, profoundly reshaping the Roman empire and western Europe.

By Walter E. Roberts, Emory University
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
1 commentsCleisthenes
ValentGlRom.jpg
1501s, Valentinian I, 25 February 364 - 17 November 375 A.D. (Siscia)54 viewsValentinian I, 25 February 364 - 17 November 375 A.D. Bronze AE 3, RIC 5(a) ii, VF, Siscia, 1.905g, 19.3mm, 0o, 25 Feb 364 - 24 Aug 367 A.D. Obverse: D N VALENTINI-ANVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: GLORIA RO-MANORVM, Emperor dragging captive with right, labarum (chi-rho standard) in left, •GSISC in exergue.


De Imperatoribus Romanis, An Online Encyclopedia of the Roman Emperors and their Families

Valentinian I (364-375 AD.)

Walter E. Roberts, Emory University

Valentinian was one of Rome's last great warrior emperors. Flavius Valentinianus, was born in A.D. 321 at Cibalis (modern Vinkovci) in southern Pannonia. His father Gratian was a soldier renowned for his strength and wrestling skills. Gratian had an illustrious career in the army, rising from staff officer to tribune, to comes Africae, and finally [i/comes Britanniae.

The emperor Jovian died on 17 February 364, apparently of natural causes, on the border between Bithynia and Galatia. The army marched on to Nicaea, the nearest city of any consequence, and a meeting of civil and military officials was convened to choose a new emperor. The assembly finally agreed upon Valentinian.

On 26 February 364, Valentinian accepted the office offered to him. As he prepared to make his accession speech, the soldiers threatened to riot, apparently uncertain as to where his loyalties lay. Valentinian reassured them that the army was his greatest priority. Furthermore, to prevent a crisis of succession if he should die prematurely, he agreed to pick a co-Augustus. According to Ammianus, the soldiers were astounded by Valentinian’s bold demeanor and his willingness to assume the imperial authority. His decision to elect a fellow-emperor could also be construed as a move to appease any opposition among the civilian officials in the eastern portion of the empire. By agreeing to appoint a co-ruler, he assured the eastern officials that someone with imperial authority would remain in the east to protect their interests. After promoting his brother Valens to the rank of tribune and putting him in charge of the royal stables on March 1, Valentinian selected Valens as co-Augustus at Constantinople on 28 March 364, though this was done over the objections of Dagalaifus. Ammianus makes it clear, however, that Valens was clearly subordinate to his brother.

Ammianus and Zosimus as well as modern scholars praise Valentinian for his military accomplishments. He is generally credited with keeping the Roman empire from crumbling away by “. . . reversing the generally waning confidence in the army and imperial defense . . ..” Several other aspects of Valentinian's reign also set the course of Roman history for the next century.

Valentinian deliberately polarized Roman society, subordinating the civilian population to the military. The military order took over the old prestige of the senatorial nobility. The imperial court, which was becoming more and more of a military court, became a vehicle for social mobility. There were new ideas of nobility, which was increasingly provincial in character. By this it is meant that the imperial court, not the Senate, was the seat of nobility, and most of these new nobles came from the provinces. With the erosion of the old nobility, the stage was set for the ascendancy of Christianity. Ammianus makes it clear that actions such as these were part of a systematic plan by Valentinian to erode the power and prestige of the senatorial aristocracy. Several pieces of extant legislation seem to confirm Ammianus’ allegations that Valentinian was eroding senatorial prestige.

Valentinian's reign affords valuable insights into late Roman society, civilian as well as military. First, there was a growing fracture between the eastern and western portions of the empire. Valentinian was the last emperor to really concentrate his resources on the west. Valens was clearly in an inferior position in the partnership. Second, there was a growing polarization of society, both Christian versus pagan, and civil versus military. Finally there was a growing regionalism in the west, driven by heavy taxation and the inability of Valentinian to fully exercise military authority in all areas of the west. All of these trends would continue over the next century, profoundly reshaping the Roman empire and western Europe.

By Walter E. Roberts, Emory University
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
1106_P_Hadrian_RPC--.jpg
1527A Hadrian, Cistophorus Uncertain mint in Asia Minor. 128 AD23 viewsReference.
Metcalf -. RIC -. RPC III 1527A

Obv. HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS P P
Bare head of Hadrian to right.

Rev. COS III
Youthful male figure (Apollo?) standing front, head to left, holding long scepter.

10.75 gr
29 mm
6h

Note.
Apparently unpublished and unique
1 commentsokidoki
IMG_7900.JPG
154. Carausius (286-293 A.D.)11 viewsAv.: IMP CARAVSIVS PF AVG
Rv.: PAX AVG

AE Antoninian Ø20 / 2.6g
RIC V-2 880, uncertain British mint
Juancho
VHC16-coin.JPG
16- CYPRUS, 9 PIASTRES, KM6.13 viewsSize: 23.7 mm. Composition: .925 Silver/.1682 oz. Mintage: 600,000.
Grade: Raw AU.
2009 KM catalog values: $15.00 F, 40.00 VF, 100.00 XF, 200.00 UNC, 1,250.00 PR.
Comments: Ex- Dimitri Gotzamanis.
lordmarcovan
0023-070np_noir.jpg
1641 - Mark Antony and Lucius Antonius, Denarius236 viewsDenarius minted in Ephesus in 41 BC
M ANT IMP AVG III VIR RPCM NERVA PROQ P, Bare head of Mark Antony right
L ANTONIUS COS, Bare head of Lucius Antonius right
3.58 gr
Ref : HCRI # 246, RCV #1509, Cohen #2
Following description taken from NAC auction 40, #617, about an other example of the same coin :
"This denarius, depicting the bare heads of Marc Antony and his youngest brother Lucius Antony, is a rare dual-portrait issue of the Imperatorial period. The family resemblance is uncanny, and one wonders if they truly looked this much alike, or if it is another case of portrait fusion, much like we observe with the dual-portrait billon tetradrachms of Antioch on which the face of the Egyptian queen Cleopatra VII takes on the square dimensions of Marc Antony. When Antony fled Rome to separate himself from Octavian and to take up his governorship in Gaul, Lucius went with him, and suffered equally from the siege of Mutina. This coin, however, was struck in a later period, when Lucius had for a second time taken up arms against Octavian in the west. Marc Antony was already in the east, and that is the region from which this coinage emanates. Since Lucius lost the ‘Perusine War’ he waged against Octavian, and was subsequently appointed to an office in Spain, where he died, it is likely that he never even saw one of his portrait coins."
3 commentsPotator II
Louis XIV 1672 Prise de douze villes en Hollande.JPG
1672, Prise de douze villes en Hollande773 viewsObv. Draped and cuirassed bust right LVD MAG FRA ET NAV REX PP, CHERON on bust truncation.
Rev. The King in the guise of Sol, radiating light, seated right in a heavenly chariot pulled by three horses, surrounded by clouds. Around are aerlia views of twelve towns and forts captured in Holland SOLIS QVE LABORES on scroll above central design, the names of all twelve towns/forts around.

AE63. Engraved by Charles Jean Francois Cheron. ORIGINAL STRIKE, very rare.

Charles Jean Francois Cheron (1635-1698), one of the most distinguished artists of the school of Jean Warin, was born at Nancy and was trained by his father, Jean-Charles Cheron, engraver to Charles IV, Duke of Lorraine. Cheron went to Rome and became engraver of medals for Clement IX and Innocent X. Cheron's style in his Roman medals is of remarkable boldness, and his medals of Pope Clement IX and of Bernini are grandiloquent and among the finest Italian medals of the period. He returned to France in 1675 and was employed by Louis XIV at the Medal Mint at Paris for about twelve years, where he contributed several medals to the medallic series of the monarch, the Histoire Metallique. His medals are considered to be in an international baroque style.
11 commentsLordBest
s-l500.jpg
16th Century Cholas India Gold Fannam Uncirculated 0.30 grams20 views16th Century Cholas India Gold Fannam that grades uncirculated. The coin weighs 0.30 grams with a diameter of 7 mm. The obverse depicts a prancing elephant and the reverse has an inscription.
_46
Antonivs Protti
Saladin_A788.jpg
1701a, Saladin, 1169-11932024 viewsAYYUBID: Saladin, 1169-1193, AR dirham (2.92g), Halab, AH580, A-788, lovely struck, well-centered & bold, Extremely Fine, Scarce.

His name in Arabic, in full, is SALAH AD-DIN YUSUF IBN AYYUB ("Righteousness of the Faith, Joseph, Son of Job"), also called AL-MALIK AN-NASIR SALAH AD-DIN YUSUF I (b. 1137/38, Tikrit, Mesopotamia--d. March 4, 1193, Damascus), Muslim sultan of Egypt, Syria, Yemen, and Palestine, founder of the Ayyubid dynasty, and the most famous of Muslim heroes.

In wars against the Christian crusaders, he achieved final success with the disciplined capture of Jerusalem (Oct. 2, 1187), ending its 88-year occupation by the Franks. The great Christian counterattack of the Third Crusade was then stalemated by Saladin's military genius.

Saladin was born into a prominent Kurdish family. On the night of his birth, his father, Najm ad-Din Ayyub, gathered his family and moved to Aleppo, there entering the service of 'Imad ad-Din Zangi ibn Aq Sonqur, the powerful Turkish governor in northern Syria. Growing up in Ba'lbek and Damascus, Saladin was apparently an undistinguished youth, with a greater taste for religious studies than military training.
His formal career began when he joined the staff of his uncle Asad ad-Din Shirkuh, an important military commander under the amir Nureddin, son and successor of Zangi. During three military expeditions led by Shirkuh into Egypt to prevent its falling to the Latin-Christian (Frankish) rulers of the states established by the First Crusade, a complex, three-way struggle developed between Amalric I, the Latin king of Jerusalem, Shawar, the powerful vizier of the Egyptian Fatimid caliph, and Shirkuh. After Shirkuh's death and after ordering Shawar's assassination, Saladin, in 1169 at the age of 31, was appointed both commander of the Syrian troops and vizier of Egypt.

His relatively quick rise to power must be attributed not only to the clannish nepotism of his Kurdish family but also to his own emerging talents. As vizier of Egypt, he received the title king (malik), although he was generally known as the sultan. Saladin's position was further enhanced when, in 1171, he abolished the Shi'i Fatimid caliphate, proclaimed a return to Sunnah in Egypt, and consequently became its sole ruler.

Although he remained for a time theoretically a vassal of Nureddin, that relationship ended with the Syrian emir's death in 1174. Using his rich agricultural possessions in Egypt as a financial base, Saladin soon moved into Syria with a small but strictly disciplined army to claim the regency on behalf of the young son of his former suzerain.
Soon, however, he abandoned this claim, and from 1174 until 1186 he zealously pursued a goal of uniting, under his own standard, all the Muslim territories of Syria, northern Mesopotamia, Palestine, and Egypt.

This he accomplished by skillful diplomacy backed when necessary by the swift and resolute use of military force. Gradually, his reputation grew as a generous and virtuous but firm ruler, devoid of pretense, licentiousness, and cruelty. In contrast to the bitter dissension and intense rivalry that had up to then hampered the Muslims in their resistance to the crusaders, Saladin's singleness of purpose induced them to rearm both physically and spiritually.

Saladin's every act was inspired by an intense and unwavering devotion to the idea of jihad ("holy war")-the Muslim equivalent of the Christian crusade. It was an essential part of his policy to encourage the growth and spread of Muslim religious institutions.

He courted its scholars and preachers, founded colleges and mosques for their use, and commissioned them to write edifying works especially on the jihad itself. Through moral regeneration, which was a genuine part of his own way of life, he tried to re-create in his own realm some of the same zeal and enthusiasm that had proved so valuable to the first generations of Muslims when, five centuries before, they had conquered half the known world.

Saladin also succeeded in turning the military balance of power in his favour-more by uniting and disciplining a great number of unruly forces than by employing new or improved military techniques. When at last, in 1187, he was able to throw his full strength into the struggle with the Latin crusader kingdoms, his armies were their equals. On July 4, 1187, aided by his own military good sense and by a phenomenal lack of it on the part of his enemy, Saladin trapped and destroyed in one blow an exhausted and thirst-crazed army of crusaders at Hattin, near Tiberias in northern Palestine.

So great were the losses in the ranks of the crusaders in this one battle that the Muslims were quickly able to overrun nearly the entire Kingdom of Jerusalem. Acre, Toron, Beirut, Sidon, Nazareth, Caesarea, Nabulus, Jaffa (Yafo), and Ascalon (Ashqelon) fell within three months.

But Saladin's crowning achievement and the most disastrous blow to the whole crusading movement came on Oct. 2, 1187, when Jerusalem, holy to both Muslim and Christian alike, surrendered to the Sultan's army after 88 years in the hands of the Franks. In stark contrast to the city's conquest by the Christians, when blood flowed freely during the barbaric slaughter of its inhabitants, the Muslim reconquest was marked by the civilized and courteous behaviour of Saladin and his troops. His sudden success, which in 1189 saw the crusaders reduced to the occupation of only three cities, was, however, marred by his failure to capture Tyre, an almost impregnable coastal fortress to which the scattered Christian survivors of the recent battles flocked. It was to be the rallying point of the Latin counterattack.

Most probably, Saladin did not anticipate the European reaction to his capture of Jerusalem, an event that deeply shocked the West and to which it responded with a new call for a crusade. In addition to many great nobles and famous knights, this crusade, the third, brought the kings of three countries into the struggle.

The magnitude of the Christian effort and the lasting impression it made on contemporaries gave the name of Saladin, as their gallant and chivalrous enemy, an added lustre that his military victories alone could never confer on him.

The Crusade itself was long and exhausting, and, despite the obvious, though at times impulsive, military genius of Richard I the Lion-Heart, it achieved almost nothing. Therein lies the greatest-but often unrecognized--achievement of Saladin. With tired and unwilling feudal levies, committed to fight only a limited season each year, his indomitable will enabled him to fight the greatest champions of Christendom to a draw. The crusaders retained little more than a precarious foothold on the Levantine coast, and when King Richard set sail from the Orient in October 1192, the battle was over.

Saladin withdrew to his capital at Damascus. Soon, the long campaigning seasons and the endless hours in the saddle caught up with him, and he died. While his relatives were already scrambling for pieces of the empire, his friends found that the most powerful and most generous ruler in the Muslim world had not left enough money to pay for his own grave.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
H.A.R. Gibb, "The Arabic Sources for the Life of Saladin," Speculum, 25:58-72 (1950). C.W. Wilson's English translation of one of the most important Arabic works, The Life of Saladin (1897), was reprinted in 1971. The best biography to date is Stanley Lane-Poole, Saladin and the Fall of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, new ed. (1926, reprinted 1964), although it does not take account of all the sources.
See: http://stp.ling.uu.se/~kamalk/language/saladin.html
Ed. J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
1 commentsCleisthenes
750_P_Hadrian_pseudo_RPC_1741.jpg
1741 MYSIA, Pergamon AE 18 Pseudo-autonomous under Hadrian 134 AD nude male25 viewsReference.
RPC 3, 1741; BMC 227-30, Cop 448-50, SNG France 1953-6

Magistrate I. Pôlliôn (strategos)

Obv. ΠΕΡΓΑΜΗΝΩΝ
Helmeted head of Athena, right; with snake aegis

Rev. CTP I ΠOΛΛIΩNOC
Nude male youth standing facing, his r. hand raised, holding uncertain object in l.

2.59 gr
17 mm
12h
2 commentsokidoki
LouisXVICoronation1775.JPG
1775. Coronation of Louis XVI at Rheims143 viewsObv. Crowned bust of Louis XVI LUDOVICUS XVI REX CHRISTIANISSIMUS
Rev. King kneeling at altar, an angel anointing his head DEO CONSECRATORI, exergue UNCTIO REGIA REMIS XL JUN MDCCLXXV
Signed B DUVIVIER F

AR42.

Louis XVI succeeded his grandfather Louis XV to the throne of France in 1774 and his coronation ceremony took place in Rheims the following year.
1 commentsLordBest
LouisXVIBurgundyCanal1783.JPG
1783. Louis XVI. Burgundy Canal Inauguration.140 viewsObv. Draped bust right LUDOVICO XVI FR ET NAVAR REGI OPTIMO COMITIA BURGUND
Rev. Female water nymph, holding caduceus, surrounded by three male water nymphs on rocks surrounded by various symbols of prosperity UTRIUSQUE MARIS JUNCTIO TRIPLEN FOSSIS ABARARI ADLISER SEQUAN RHENUM SIMUL APERTIS MDCLXXXIII

Commemorates the construction of a canal system in Burgundy.
LordBest
1792_NORFOLK___NORWICH_HALFPENNY.JPG
1792 AE Halfpenny Token. Norwich, Norfolk.21 viewsObverse: MAY NORWICH FLOURISH •. The arms of Norwich consisting of a three turreted gateway over a lion with raised paw; PRO BONO PUBLICO in smaller letters below.
Reverse: NORFOLK AND NORWICH HALFPENNY•. The Duke of Norfolk’s coat of arms; below shield, 1792.
Edge: PAYABLE AT N • BOLINGBROKES HABERDASHER & C • NORWICH • X •.
Diameter: 29mm | Axis: 12
Dalton & Hamer: 15

This token was issued by Nathaniel Bolingbroke, a haberdasher and silversmith with a business in the market place in Norwich, the manufacturer and diesinker are uncertain.

Norwich, a city in England, is situated on the River Wensum and is the regional administrative centre and county town of Norfolk. During the 11th century, Norwich was the largest city in England after London, and one of the most important places in the kingdom. Until the Industrial Revolution, Norwich was the capital of the most populous county in the country and vied with Bristol as England's second city.
*Alex
1793_Newton_farthing.JPG
1793 AE Farthing, London, Middlesex.86 viewsObverse: Ic • NEWTON. Bare headed bust of Isaac Newton facing left.
Reverse: FARTHING. Britannia, helmeted and draped, facing left seated on globe, shield at her side, holding olive-branch in her extended right hand and spear in her left; in exergue, 1793.
Edge: “Plain".
Diameter : 21mm
Dalton & Hamer : 1160 | Cobwright : I.0010/F.0050 (listed as an evasion piece)

The die engraver for this token was most likely Thomas Wyon but the manufacturer is uncertain.

Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727), was an English physicist and mathematician who is widely recognised as one of the most influential scientists of all time and as a key figure in the scientific revolution. Newton shares credit with Gottfried Leibniz for the invention of calculus and also made seminal contributions to optics. He built the first practical reflecting telescope and developed a theory of colour based on the observation that a prism decomposes white light into the many colours of the visible spectrum.
Newton's “Principia” formulated the laws of motion and universal gravitation, which came to dominate scientists' view of the physical universe for the next three centuries.
Newton was a fellow of Trinity College and a Professor of Mathematics at the University of Cambridge. Unusually for a member of the Cambridge faculty of the day, he refused to take holy orders in the Church of England, perhaps because he privately rejected the doctrine of the Trinity.
In his later life, Newton became president of the Royal Society and became Warden of the Royal Mint in 1696. He became Master of the Royal Mint in 1699 and was very instrumental in developing techniques to try and prevent the counterfeiting of English coinage.
*Alex
1795_Kilvington.JPG
1795 AE Halfpenny, Brunswick, Middlesex.78 viewsObverse: PAYABLE AT J.KILVINGTONS. Laureate head facing left.
Reverse: BRUNSWICK HALFPENNY • . Britannia facing left, seated on globe, her right hand holding spear, her left arm holding laurel-branch and resting on shield at her side; in exergue, 1795.
Edge: Centre-grained.
Diameter: 29mm
Dalton & Hamer: 346

The dies for this token were engraved by Thomas Wyon and it was manufactured by Peter Kempson at his mint in Birmingham.

The token was issued by John Kilvington, a grocer and tea dealer at No. 153 Drury Lane, London.

The identity of the bust on the obverse of this token is uncertain, but it may represent a member of the Royal family, even George III himself since the Duke of Brunswick was among his titles.
*Alex
Charles_IIII_1795_Mexico_Spanish_Colonial_8_Reales.jpg
1795- MoFM Mexico Spanish Colonial 8 Reales of Charles IIII - [KM-109 -- Charles IIII]63 viewsChopmarked, 0.7797 ounce silver 8 Reales (also known as the pillar dollar), 26.65g, 39.62mm, 0 degree, Mexico City, Mexico Mint [Mo -- small 'o' set over a large 'M'], 179[5]

Obv. - • CAROLUS IIII • DEI • GR[ATIA] •, laureate bust of Charles IIII right

Rev. - • HISPAN • ET IND • REX • Mo • 8R • F • M •, coat of arms of Spain

This coin was sold as a 1794 chopmarked 8 Reale. Upon inspection in hand under high magnification and different lighting conditions, as well as inspection of large, quality pictures on the computer allowing for color/contrast/levels manipulation, and I have determined this coin to actually be from 1795. The '5', although extremely worn is visible under the correct conditions and comparisons of the worn number morphology to other 179x coins lends credence to this finding.

The reverse is just as interesting and challenging. Although the mintmark is almost completely worn off, the assayer of FM ensures that the coin is of Mexico City, Mexico mintmark.

The coat of arms of Spain, a crown crown flanked by columns and a middle shield includes the national motto PLVS VLTRA spread across the two columns. PLVS VLTRA (PLUS ULTRA) translates to "further beyond." It is adopted from the personal motto of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor (and King of Spain as Charles I) and is a Latin translation from Plus Oultre, his original motto in Old French.

A great website for helping to attribute these coins and a breakdown of the legend components can be found here: http://coinquest.com/cgi-bin/cq/coins?main_coin=2334

Reading on different chopmarks can be found here: http://www.1messydesk.com/chopmarks/chopmarks.html

Although this coin is quite worn in certain areas, it has a lovely tone and great character. The numerous different chopmarks just add to the appeal. This coins was bought as a conversation piece as I have always found them interesting, albeit with knowing next to nothing concerning them. However, after doing some research, I have come to appreciate it much more and may follow suite with further additions. In any case, I plan on further reading into the subject area.
___________

Purchased from Regal Coin Exchange in Savannah, GA
1 commentsrenegade3220
1797_SIR_BEVOIS_SOUTHAMPTON_HALFPENNY.JPG
1797 AE Halfpenny, Southampton, Portsmouth or London.43 viewsObverse: FOR GENERAL CONVENIENCE. Helmeted and armoured bust, possibly of Sir Bevois, facing right.
Reverse: * * RULE BRITANIA (sic) * *. Britannia seated facing left on globe, shield at her side, holding spear in her left hand and branch in her right; 1797 in exergue.
Edge: Incuse legend “PAYABLE IN LONDON” the remainder engrailed.
Diameter: 29mm
Dalton & Hamer:1019 (Middlesex)
SCARCE

Although the die-sinker is uncertain the dies were probably engraved by Rambert Dumarest due to the close similarity between this image and Dumarest's "Sir Bevois" image on Southampton issues. This token was manufactured by William Lutwyche in Birmingham.
*Alex
George_3_Cartwheel_Penny_1797.JPG
1797 GEORGE III AE "CARTWHEEL" PENNY10 viewsObverse: GEORGIUS III • D : G • REX. Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust of George III facing right.
Reverse: BRITANNIA 1797. Britannia seated facing left, holding olive branch and trident. Small ship in left background; mint-mark SOHO below shield.
Diameter: 36mm
SPINK: 3777

This portrait of George III was designed by Conrad Heinrich Kuchler (c.1740 - 1810), this is marked by a small "K." in the drapery at the base of the King's bust. Kuchler moved to Birmingham in 1795 and designed many of the coins and medals which were struck at Matthew Boulton's SOHO mint.

This was the year that the first copper penny was struck, it was also the first time that the figure of Britannia was portrayed seated amid the waves and holding a trident instead of a spear. The coin was struck by Matthew Boulton at the Soho Mint, Birmingham but, weighing a full one ounce (28.3g) and with a diameter of 36mm, it was rather heavy for the pocket and was soon discontinued. Many have survived though, battered and worn, having been used as weights for kitchen scales.
*Alex
George_3_Twopence_1797.JPG
1797 GEORGE III AE "CARTWHEEL" TWOPENCE9 viewsObverse: GEORGIUS III • D : G • REX. Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust of George III facing right.
Reverse: BRITANNIA. 1797. Britannia seated facing left, holding olive branch and trident. Small ship in left background; mint-mark SOHO below shield.
Diameter: 41mm. Weight: 56.7gms.
SPINK: 3776

This portrait of George III was designed by Conrad Heinrich Kuchler (c.1740 - 1810), this is marked by a small "K." in the drapery at the base of the King's bust. Kuchler moved to Birmingham in 1795 and designed many of the coins and medals which were struck at Matthew Boulton's SOHO mint.

The figure of Britannia was portrayed seated amid the waves and holding a trident instead of a spear for the first time on the Cartwheel twopences and pennies of this year. This mighty coin was struck in Birmingham by Matthew Boulton at his Soho Mint, but, since it weighed a full two ounces (56.7gms) and measured 5mm thick with a diameter of 41mm, it was a bit heavy for the pocket and was soon discontinued. Many have survived though, battered and worn, having been used as weights for kitchen scales. Some of these twopence coins, because they were so big, were even turned into patch boxes.
*Alex
George_III_Bank_of_England_Dollar_1804.JPG
1804 GEORGE III AR BANK OF ENGLAND DOLLAR 46 viewsObverse: GEORGIUS III DEI GRATIA REX. Laureate and draped bust of George III facing right.
Reverse: BANK OF ENGLAND 1804. Britannia, seated left, holding a branch and spear, her left arm resting on a shield which in turn rests on a cornucopia, a beehive is in the background to the left; all within a garter inscribed FIVE SHILLINGS DOLLAR. The garter is surmounted by a castellated "crown" of five circular stone turrets.
On this coin there are enough traces of the host coin discernible on the reverse, near the edge between 'BANK' and 'OF', and on the obverse below the bust to make an accurate identification of the undertype possible. It was overstruck on a Spanish Colonial 8 Reales minted at Potosi in Bolivia which bore the date 1806.
Spink 3768; Obverse die A, Reverse die 2
Diameter: 41mm | Weight: 26.7gms | Die Axis: 11
SPINK: 3768

This portrait of George III was designed by Conrad Heinrich Kuchler (c.1740 - 1810), this is marked by C. H. K. in raised letters on the truncation at the king's shoulder. The reverse, which was also designed by Kuchler has the raised initial K in the triangular space between the shield, cornucopia, and Britannia's dress. Kuchler moved to Birmingham in 1795 and designed many of the coins and medals which were struck at Matthew Boulton's SOHO mint.

Note on George III Bank of England Silver Dollars
Although George III reigned for sixty years from 1760 to 1820, the only crowns issued were in the last three years of his reign, apart from these Bank of England dollars issued as an emergency measure.
There had been a persistent shortage of silver coins throughout most of George's reign, and the Bank of England attempted to alleviate this by counter-marking Spanish colonial 8-Reale pieces (the “pieces of eight” of pirate legend) with a punch bearing the head of George III. When this counter-mark was enthusiastically counterfeited, the bank resorted to counter-stamping the entire coin. Most survivors were struck on Mexican or Peruvian 8-Reale pieces, though a few have been found to be struck on issues from Spain proper. Although these Bank of England dollars are all dated 1804, they were issued every year until 1811, and occasionally the dates of Spanish 8 Reales minted after 1804 can be discerned on them. In 1811, to take account of the increase in the value of silver, the Bank of England dollar coins were revalued at 5s6d and they stayed at this value until they were withdrawn from circulation in 1817, by which time a massive silver re-coinage was being undertaken.
2 comments*Alex
1812_BRITISH_NAVAL_HALFPENNY.JPG
1812 AE Non-local Halfpenny Token. Stockton on Tees, Yorkshire.20 viewsObverse: ENGLAND EXPECTS EVERY MAN TO DO HIS DUTY •. Bust of Horatio Nelson facing left.
Reverse: BRITISH NAVAL HALPPENNY (sic). Three masted ship, probably H.M.S. Victory, sailing right, 1812 in panel below.
Edge: Centre Grained.
Diameter 30mm | Die Axis 6
Withers: 1590 | Davis: 150 (Yorkshire)

The dies for this token were, according to some sources, engraved by Thomas Wyon. Though the manufacturer of the token is unknown, it was most likely struck in Birmingham.

Issued from Stockton on Tees, this token seems to have been struck to commemorate the Battle of Trafalgar which took place in 1805, and in which Nelson was killed. The issuer is uncertain but it was probably Robert Christopher and Thomas Jennett.
Robert Christopher & Thomas Jennett were booksellers and printers in Stockton, they were also the Stockton agents for the Sun Fire Office.
Jennett was Christopher's apprentice and on the completion of his indentures, he was taken into partnership. Matching the high standards of his companion, Jennett became well known and much respected, growing to be a man of power and influence. He became a magistrate and was mayor of Stockton three times.
*Alex
1812_HULL_LEAD_WORKS_PENNY.JPG
1812 AE Penny Token. Hull, Yorkshire.21 viewsObverse: No legend. View of Hull lead works with smoking chimneys in background; 1812 in exergue.
Reverse: PAYABLE IN BANK OF ENG.D OR HULL NOTES BY I.K.PICARD • around ONE PENNY / HULL / LEAD / WORKS in four lines with ornament below.
Edge: Grained.
Diameter 34mm | Die Axis 7
Davis: 82

The dies for this token were engraved by Thomas Halliday and it was manufactured by Edward Thomason.
The token was issued by John Kirby Picard, who had practised as an attorney-at-law in Trinity House-lane, become a barrister and been chosen as a Deputy-Recorder of Hull before he entered into the lead business of his father. He was a man of considerable wealth and frequently visited London on business and for pleasure. He mixed with the 'high' society of the period but became addicted to gambling. Picard used his tokens for the gambling parties he held in his house and after they gained the attention of the Prince Regent, the later George IV, he was invited to show them at court.
No mention of Picard has been found in any of the London Directories, but the 'London Gazette', on February 13th, 1827, announced that J. K. Pickard (sic), white lead merchant, Russell Street, Covent Garden, had been declared bankrupt. Picard died in reduced circumstances in 1843.

The legend “PAYABLE IN BANK OF ENGLAND NOTES” was placed on this token due to an Act of Parliament which was passed in 1809 requiring issuers of local tokens to meet claims for repayment in Bank of England notes. The government having seen the widespread use of private coinage in the form of tokens realised how much money was not being controlled by it, so by passing this act it effectively made these tokens into defacto currency.
*Alex
LouisXVIII1815.JPG
1815. Louis XVIII. The Holy Alliance.98 viewsObv. Bust left LVDOVICVS XVIII FRANC ET NAV REX, ANDRIEU F on truncation.
Rev. REGNIS EVROPAE CONCORDIA STABILIENDIS, on shield at centre GALLIA AVSTRIA BORVSS (Prussia) ANGLIA RVSSIA, SACRO FOEDERE IVNCTAE, in exergue ACCESSIT GALLIA NOVEMB MDCCCXV, signed F GATTEAUX Allegorical figures of France and ? facing in each in front of shield and a group of standards bearing the arms of the Great Powers involved in the Napoleonic Wars (Britains, interestingly enough, is at the back, half covered) with a unicorn behind the right figure.
AE50.

This is a confusing medal. It depicts the nations of Austria, Great Britain, France, Prussia and Russia as part of the Holy Alliance. Yet many historical sources say Great Britain never joined due to distaste and constitutional incompatibility with the others reactionary policies. But other sources say Britain did join at the same time as France (November 20, 1815). Who is right? If Britain did not join why are they on the medal, but if they did why is there so much written to the contrary?
LordBest
LouisXVIII1817HenriIVPontNeuf.JPG
1817. Louis XVIII. Dedication of the statue of Henri IV at Pont Neuf.161 viewsObv. Bust of Louis XVIII LVDOVICVS XVIII LAPIDEM AVSPICALEM POSVIT D XXVIII M OCT ANN MDCCCXVII REGNI XXIII, ANDRIEU F on truncation.
Rev. Statue of Henri IV at the Pont Neuf HENRICO MAGNO CIVIVM PIETAS RESTITVIT MDCCCXVII ANDRIEU FECIT.
AE50.
LordBest
George_IV_Farthing_1822.JPG
1822 GEORGE IV AE FARTHING6 viewsObverse: GEORGIUS IIII DEI GRATIA. Laureate and draped bust of George IV facing left.
Reverse: BRITANNIAR: REX FID: DEF: Britannia seated facing right, her right hand holding olive branch and resting on shield, her left holding trident; at her feet, a lion. In exergue, 1822.
Diameter 22mm | UNC with lustre
SPINK: 3822

The first copper coinage of George IV consisted of farthings only, they were the work of Benedetto Pistrucci (1783 - 1855). This first series of coinage, of which the farthings formed a part, was distasteful to the king because they represented his face as puffed and bloated, his neck undoubtedly thick, and his hair harsh and wiry. The upshot was that Pistrucci was replaced as Master of the Mint by William Wyon and in 1825 the whole series of George IV's coinage was completely redesigned.
*Alex
EdwardVIIasPoW1874.JPG
1874. Edward VII, as Prince of Wales. Royal Horticultural Buildings. Taylor 180b105 viewsObv. Head of Edward left ALBERT EDWARD PRINCE OF WALES PRESIDENT, G MORGAN SC, on truncation BOEHM
Rev. The Royal Horticultural Buildings LONDON ANNUAL INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION OF ALL FINE ARTS INDUSTRIES AND INVENTIONS on scroll below central medallion MDCCCLXXIV

AE51. Taylor 180b.

This medal is arguably the most complex architectural medal ever undertaken, and in my opinion the most accomplished. The depth of view is truly astounding, though this does not come accross to well in the picture. The depiction of the buildings is used as the cover art of Taylor's "The Architectural Medal: England in the Nineteenth Century", British Museum Publication, 1978.

LordBest
1875H_VICTORIA_BUN_HEAD_FARTHING_.JPG
1875 "H" VICTORIA BRONZE "BUN HEAD" FARTHING33 viewsObverse: VICTORIA D:G: BRITT:REG:F:D: "Bun head" bust of Queen Victoria with elderly features facing left.
Reverse: FARTHING. Britannia seated facing right, her right hand resting on shield, her left holding a trident; in left background, a lighthouse and in right background, a ship; 1875, small "H" below, in exergue.
Diameter: 20mm
SPINK: 3959

Victoria's "bun head" portrait was designed by Leonard Charles Wyon (1826 - 1891), he was the eldest son of William Wyon, who had previously designed the "young head" portrait of the Queen. The letters L C WYON are incuse amongst the ornamentation of the Queen's dress.

On 1st April 1850 the auction was announced of equipment from the defunct Soho Mint, created by Matthew Boulton around 1788. At the auction, on 29th April, Ralph Heaton II bought Boulton's four steam-powered screw presses and six planchet presses for making blanks from strip metal. These were installed at Heaton's Bath Street works, and his Birmingham Mint began to strike trade tokens for use in Australia. In 1851 copper planchets were made for the Royal Mint to make into pennies, halfpennies, farthings, half-farthings and quarter-farthings.
In 1853 the Royal Mint was overwhelmed with producing silver and gold coins and so Ralph Heaton and Sons won their first contract to strike finished coins for Britain, these coins had no mintmark to identify them as from Birmingham.
In 1860 the firm bought a 1-acre plot on Icknield Street and constructed a three storey red brick factory. Completed in 1862 and employing 300 staff, it was at this time the largest private mint in the world.
From 1874 the Birmingham Mint began striking bronze pennies, halfpennies and farthings for the Royal Mint. This time though, the Birmingham Mint issues are distinguished by an H (for Heaton) mintmark below the date on the reverse. Victorian British coins bearing the H mintmark were produced in 1874, 1875, 1876, 1881 and 1882.
*Alex
Victoria_Halfpenny_1876H.JPG
1876 "H" VICTORIA BRONZE "BUN HEAD" HALFPENNY4 viewsObv: VICTORIA D:G: BRITT:REG:FID:DEF: "Bun head" bust of Queen Victoria with elderly features facing left.
Rev: HALF PENNY. Britannia seated facing right, her right hand resting on shield, her left holding a trident; in left background, a lighthouse and in right background, a ship; 1876, small H below, in exergue.
SPINK: 3957

Victoria's "bun head" portrait was designed by Leonard Charles Wyon (1826 - 1891), he was the eldest son of William Wyon, who had previously designed the "young head" portrait of the Queen. The letters L C WYON are incuse amongst the ornamentation of the Queen's dress.

On 1st April 1850 the auction was announced of equipment from the defunct Soho Mint, created by Matthew Boulton around 1788. At the auction, on 29th April, Ralph Heaton II bought Boulton's four steam-powered screw presses and six planchet presses for making blanks from strip metal. These were installed at Heaton's Bath Street works, and his Birmingham Mint began to strike trade tokens for use in Australia. In 1851 copper planchets were made for the Royal Mint to make into pennies, halfpennies, farthings, half-farthings and quarter-farthings.
In 1853 the Royal Mint was overwhelmed with producing silver and gold coins and so Ralph Heaton and Sons won their first contract to strike finished coins for Britain, these coins had no mintmark to identify them as from Birmingham.
In 1860 the firm bought a 1-acre plot on Icknield Street and constructed a three storey red brick factory. Completed in 1862 and employing 300 staff, it was at this time the largest private mint in the world.
From 1874 the Birmingham Mint began striking bronze pennies, halfpennies and farthings for the Royal Mint. This time though, the Birmingham Mint issues are distinguished by an H (for Heaton) mintmark below the date on the reverse. Victorian British coins bearing the H mintmark were produced in 1874, 1875, 1876, 1881 and 1882.
*Alex
1876H_Victoria_Penny.JPG
1876 "H" VICTORIA BRONZE "BUN HEAD" PENNY7 viewsObv: VICTORIA D:G: BRITT:REG:FID:DEF: "Bun head" bust of Queen Victoria with elderly features facing left.
Rev: ONE PENNY. Britannia seated facing right, her right hand resting on shield, her left holding a trident; in left background, a lighthouse and in right background, a ship; 1876, small H below, in exergue.
SPINK: 3955

Victoria's "bun head" portrait was designed by Leonard Charles Wyon (1826 - 1891), he was the eldest son of William Wyon, who had previously designed the "young head" portrait of the Queen. The letters L C WYON are incuse amongst the ornamentation of the Queen's dress.

On 1st April 1850 the auction was announced of equipment from the defunct Soho Mint, created by Matthew Boulton around 1788. At the auction, on 29th April, Ralph Heaton II bought Boulton's four steam-powered screw presses and six planchet presses for making blanks from strip metal. These were installed at Heaton's Bath Street works, and his Birmingham Mint began to strike trade tokens for use in Australia. In 1851 copper planchets were made for the Royal Mint to make into pennies, halfpennies, farthings, half-farthings and quarter-farthings.
In 1853 the Royal Mint was overwhelmed with producing silver and gold coins and so Ralph Heaton and Sons won their first contract to strike finished coins for Britain, these coins had no mintmark to identify them as from Birmingham.
In 1860 the firm bought a 1-acre plot on Icknield Street and constructed a three storey red brick factory. Completed in 1862 and employing 300 staff, it was at this time the largest private mint in the world.
From 1874 the Birmingham Mint began striking bronze pennies, halfpennies and farthings for the Royal Mint. This time though, the Birmingham Mint issues are distinguished by an H (for Heaton) mintmark below the date on the reverse. Victorian British coins bearing the H mintmark were produced in 1874, 1875, 1876, 1881 and 1882.
*Alex
966_P_Hadrian_RPC1885.jpg
1885 AEOLIS, Elaea. Hadrian, Basket with Poppies26 viewsReference.
RPC III, 1885; Sear 1161v; BMC 42 (pag. 129); SNGvA 1611; SNG Munchen 424, SNG Cop -

Obv. ΑΥΤΟ ΤΡΑΙ ΑΔΡΙ
Laureate, draped & cuirassed bust right.

Rev. ΕΛΑΙΤΩΝ
Basket containing ears of corn & poppy-heads.

3.20 gr
16 mm
12h

Note.
FORVM, from the Butte College Foundation, ex Lindgren

laea was the ancient port of Pergamum, located near the modern town of Zeytindag, Izmir Province, Turkey. The name of Elaea occurs in the history of the kings of Pergamum. According to Strabo, from Livy (xxxv. 13), travelers who would reach Pergamum from the sea, would land at Elaea. One of the passages of Livy shows that there was a small hill near Elaea, and that the town was in a plain and walled. Elaea was damaged by an earthquake in the reign of Trajan, at the same time that Pitane suffered. The ruins of the silted port's breakwater can be seen on satellite photos.
1 commentsokidoki
s-l500_(2).jpg
18th Century Mysore Area India Arabic "H" Gold Fannam Uncirculated 0.30 gram14 views18th Century Mysore Area India Gold Fannam that grades uncirculated. The coin weighs 0.30 grams with a diameter of 7 mm. The obverse has an Arabic "H" and the reverse has an inscription.
_42
Antonivs Protti
439Hadrian_RIC19.jpg
19 ANONYMOUS. Period of Domitian to Antoninus Pius, Quadrans Circa 81-161 AD Mars30 viewsReference.
RIC 19 (pag. 218); Cohen 26; Weigel 10

Obv.
Helmeted and cuirassed bust of Mars right

Rev. S-C
Cuirass.

2.41 gr
18 mm
12h

Note from CNG.
Under Trajan and Hadrian several series of bronze quadrantes were struck in the names of the imperial mines in Noricum, Dalmatia, Pannonia and Moesia (Dardania). These operations supplied metal for the mint at Rome, and perhaps were the sites of workshops to produce coinage for local circulation or as donatives. Some scholars believe these pieces were struck at Rome itself, and served some unidentified function, much as the contemporary "nome" coinage struck at Alexandria in Egypt. Whatever the circumstances, these pieces saw limited use, and, except for one rare type struck by Marcus Aurelius, were not issued at any other period.
2 commentsokidoki
f6~0.jpg
1921 ALEXIUS Metropolitan TETARTERON S-1921 Doc 34 CLBC 2.4.2 Grierson 1043 16 views
Bust of Christ, bearded with cross behind head, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds gospels in l. hand. UU in fields of cross.

Rev Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece, and jeweled loros of simplified type; holds in r hand jeweled scepter and in l, gl. cr.

Size 18mm

Weight 3.5gm

Metropolitan Issues were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of 3% and were also issued with a very light silver wash (Silver traces are common on Cosmopolitan issues but intact fully silvered coins are very rare.) These more than likely were tariffed at a higher rate than the Thessalonica issues that have been shown to have no silver content. Cosmopolitan issue are in general far scarcer than the Thessalonica issues

DOC catalog lists 3 examples with weights ranging from 1.6gm to 3.49gm and size is universal at 18mm

All of the Constantinople coins are uncommon but this one appears very rarely, I would mark its rarity 4/5 This example has a very dark patina in hand, I lightened this pic for a better view of the details. This is one of the most difficult of Alexius coins to obtain.
Simon
jdomna_RIC632.jpg
193-196(?) AD - JULIA DOMNA AR denarius49 viewsobv: IVLIA DOMNA AVG (draped bust right, hair coiled and waved)
rev: VENERI VICTR (Venus half naked standing to r., holding an apple and a palm and leaning on a column)
ref: RIC IVi 632, C.194 (5frcs)
mint: Emesa and Laodicea (or probably Rome)
3.5gms, 18mm
Scarce

Julia Domna was the wife of Septimius Severus and mother of Caracalla and Geta. She was a great support for Severus in serving her family and the empire. A staunch opponent to Severus' praetorian prefect Plautianus, she attempted to turn his influence from the emperor. Her attempts to mitigate in the hatred between her two sons did not succeed. However, she seems to have prevented them from splitting the empire between them, fearing an all-out civil war. Perhaps this was one of the turning points of Roman history. If the empire had been divided at this time, future history may have become wholly different. Her greatest tragedy was probably the death of Geta in her arms from the murderers instigated by Caracalla. Nevertheless she continued serving the empire and Caracalla until, he too, was murdered. After bearing Caracalla's ashes to Rome, she starved herself to death.
2 commentsberserker
s-1930-bc.jpg
1930C ALEXIUS AE TETARTERON S-1930 DOC 39 CLBC 2.4.6 Imitation?21 viewsOBV Bust of Virgin nimbate, orans, wearing tunic and maphorion.

REV Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision and chlamys; holds in r. hand labarum on a long shaft and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 15/16mm

Weight 2.2

I am uncertain where this coin fits in the picture. Its weight is within range but its size and die size is not. It could be an imitation.

DOC lists 5 examples with weights ranging from 2.05gm to 4.02gm and sizes ranging from 20mm to 22m
Simon
194_Clodius_Albinus_cast_As_RIC_57_2.jpg
194_Clodius_Albinus_cast_As_RIC_57_215 viewsClodius Albinus (194 – 196 AD)
AE cast As/Dupondius, uncertain Mint, 194 - 195
D CLOD SEPT ALBIN CAES;
Bare headed, draped and cuirassed bust right
COS II, S-C;
Aesculapius standing left, holding serpent-wreathed wand
6,74 gr, 24 mm
Cast after RIC IVa, 57; BMC V, 543; C. 11; CMB I, 2
ga77
c6~0.jpg
1978 MANUEL AE HALF TETARTERON S-1978 DOC 21 CLBC 4.4.8 22 views
OBV Bust of Christ beardless and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds scrolls in l. hand. Pellet in each limb of nimbus cross
.
REV Full length figure of emperor, bearded, wearing uncertain dress (stemma, short military tunic, breastplate and sagion?) holds in r. hand scepter cruciger and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 19mm
Weight 3.23gm

DOC lists 3 examples with weights ranging from 2.66 gm to 2.75 gm with sizes all 20mm

This coin differs from S-1981 not only by size but DOC notes a beard on Christ on S-1981 where as S-1978 is beardless , I however am finding that a difficult distinction to concur with, the beard on Christ can be a simple dot on his chin, however with this style of coins I am finding the lighter weight coins with perhaps a beard with one dot on chin in another example a series of dots making the beard, in these larger and heavier beards the dot on the chin is still there but not as distinct. Interesting to note that Hendy did not note a beard in his 1969 book but in his latter DOC works he does, the earlier catalogs such as Ratto do note a difference in the two styles because of the weight and beard.

This coin is a choice example Good Very Fine.
1 commentsSimon
c3.jpg
1978A MANUEL AE HALF TETARTERON S-1978 DOC 21 CLBC 4.4.8 31 viewsOBV Bust of Christ beardless and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds scrolls in l. hand. Pellet in each limb of nimbus cross
.
REV Full length figure of emperor, bearded, wearing uncertain dress (stemma, short military tunic, breastplate and sagion?) holds in r. hand scepter cruciger and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 19.92mm

Weight 2.3 gm

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron.The half tetartera at 1/1728 Hyperpyron. These coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

DOC lists 3 examples with weights ranging from 2.66 gm to 2.75 gm with sizes all 20mm

This coin differs from S-1981 not only by size but DOC notes a beard on Christ on S-1981 where as S-1978 is beardless.
Simon
s-1978c.jpg
1978c MANUEL AE HALF TETARTERON S-1978 DOC 21 CLBC 4.4.8 24 viewsOBV Bust of Christ beardless and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds scrolls in l. hand. Pellet in each limb of nimbus cross
.
REV Full length figure of emperor, bearded, wearing uncertain dress (stemma, short military tunic, breastplate and sagion?) holds in r. hand scepter cruciger and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 18.63mm
Weight 3.1gm

DOC lists 3 examples with weights ranging from 2.66 gm to 2.75 gm with sizes all 20mm

This coin differs from S-1981 not only by size but DOC notes a beard on Christ on S-1981 where as S-1978 is beardless , I however am finding that a difficult distinction to concur with, the beard on Christ can be a simple dot on his chin, however with this style of coins I am finding the lighter weight coins with perhaps a beard with one dot on chin in another example a series of dots making the beard, in these larger and heavier beards the dot on the chin is still there but not as distinct. Interesting to note that Hendy did not note a beard in his 1969 book but in his latter DOC works he does, the earlier catalogs such as Ratto do note a difference in the two styles because of the weight and beard.
Simon
a5.jpg
1980d MANUEL AE HALF TETARTERON S-1980 DOC 23 CLBC 4.4.9 13 viewsOBV Bust of St. George, beardless and nimbate, wearing tunic, breastplate, and Saigon; holds in r. hand spear, and in l. shield.

REV Bust of emperor, bearded, wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece, and jeweled loros of simplified type; holds in r. hand labarum headed scepter, and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 17.30 mm

Weight 2.4gm

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron.The half tetartera at 1/1728 Hyperpyron. These coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

This example is beautiful considering its size. I would grade aEF , rarity 1/5 Common coin , uncommon condition.

DOC lists 7 examples with weights ranging from .91 gm to 2.26 gm with sizes from 14mm to 17mm.
Simon
j6~0.jpg
1981 MANUEL AE HALF TETARTERON S-1981 DOC 24 CLBC 4.4.12 9 views

OBV Bust of Christ bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds scrolls in l. hand. Pellet in each limb of nimbus cross.

REV Full length figure of emperor, bearded, wearing uncertain dress (stemma, short military tunic, breastplate and sagion?) holds in r. hand scepter cruciger and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 17.8mm

Weight 2.0gm

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron. The half tetartera at 1/1728 Hyperpyron.These coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

DOC lists 19 examples with weights ranging from 1.28 gm to 2.75 gm with sizes from 16mm to 18mm.

Ex Forum Coin.
Simon
s1981brockc.jpg
1981A MANUEL AE HALF TETARTERON S-1981 DOC 24 CLBC 4.4.12 BROCKAGE 37 viewsOBV Bust of Christ bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds scrolls in l. hand. Pellet in each limb of nimbus cross.

REV Full length figure of emperor, bearded, wearing uncertain dress (stemma, short military tunic, breastplate and sagion?) holds in r. hand scepter cruciger and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 17.37 mm

Weight 1.9 gm



DOC lists 19 examples with weights ranging from 1.28 gm to 2.75 gm with sizes from 16mm to 18mm.

Nice Brock age example, nice fill shows it off. Rare to find a brockage this nice.
Simon
1f.jpg
1982A MANUEL AE HALF TETARTERON S-1982 DOC 25 CLBC 4.4.10 32 viewsOBV Radiate cross on three steps

REV Half length figure of emperor, bearded, wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece, and jeweled loros of simplified type; holds in r. hand labarum on long shaft and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 18/17mm

Weight 2.2gm

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron.The half tetartera at 1/1728 Hyperpyron. This coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

DOC lists 6 examples with weights ranging from 1.26 gm to 2.24 gm with sizes from 16mm to 19mm.

I am uncertain if this is an official issue, Many of Alexius and Manuel's tetartera were imitated as late as the 1300's , my only reason to suspect this coin is style , the weight seems correct for the issue
Simon
199-170_B_C_,_Anonymus_AR-Den_Unc__Helm-Roma-Head-l__Dioscuri-galloping-r_-D-below_ROMA_Cr-171-1_Syd-285_Rome_199-170-BC_R6-Q-001_8-9h_17,5-18,5mm_3,18g-s.jpg
199-170 B.C., Anonymus AR-Denarius, Crawford 171/1, Rome, Uncertain mint, R6!!!,132 views199-170 B.C., Anonymus AR-Denarius, Crawford 171/1, Rome, Uncertain mint, R6!!!,
avers:- Helmeted head of Roma right, X behind, border of dots.
revers:- Dioscuri galopping right, "D" below horses, ROMA in linear frame below.
exerg: -/-//ROMA, diameter: 17,5-18,5mm, weight: 3,18g, axis: 8-9h,
mint: Rome, Uncertain mint, date: 199-170 B.C., ref: Crawford-171/1, Sydenham-285, very Rare (R6),
Q-001
quadrans
Lepidus_Antony_Quinarius.jpg
1af Lepidus_214 viewsQuinarius

M LEP IMP, simpulum, aspergillum, axe (surmounted by wolf's head) & ape

M ANT IMP, lituus, capis (jug) and raven

Military mint with Marcus Aemilius Lepidus & Antony in Transalpine Gaul, 44-42 BC

Cr489/3, Syd 1158a

Lepidus was a member of the Second Triumvirate.

According to Plutarch's Life of Pompey: Sulla, however, was annoyed at seeing to what a height of reputation and power Pompey was advancing, but being ashamed to obstruct his career, he kept quiet. Only, when in spite of him and against his wishes Pompey made Lepidus consul, by canvassing for him and making the people zealously support him through their goodwill towards himself, seeing Pompey going off through the forum with a throng, Sulla said: "I see, young man, that you rejoice in your victory; and surely it was a generous and noble thing for Lepidus, the worst of men, to be proclaimed consul by a larger vote than Catulus, the best of men, because you influenced the people to take this course. Now, however, it is time for you to be wide awake and watchful of your interests; you have made your adversary stronger than yourself." But Sulla showed most clearly that he was not well-disposed to Pompey by the will which he wrote. For whereas he bequeathed gifts to other friends, and made some of them guardians of his son, he omitted all mention of Pompey. And yet Pompey bore this with great composure, and loyally, insomuch that when Lepidus and sundry others tried to prevent the body of Sulla from being buried in the Campus Martius, or even from receiving public burial honours, he came to the rescue, and gave to the interment alike honour and security.

Soon after the death of Sulla, his prophecies were fulfilled, and Lepidus tried to assume Sulla's powers. He took no circuitous route and used no pretence, but appeared at once in arms, stirring up anew and gathering about himself the remnants of faction, long enfeebled, which had escaped the hand of Sulla. His colleague, Catulus, to whom the incorrupt and sounder element in the senate and people attached themselves, was the great Roman of the time in the estimate set upon his wisdom and justice, but was thought better adapted for political than military leadership. The situation itself, therefore, demanded Pompey, who was not long in deciding what course to take. He took the side of the nobility, and was appointed commander of an army against Lepidus, who had already stirred up a large part of Italy and was employing Brutus to hold Cisalpine Gaul with an army.

Other opponents against whom Pompey came were easily mastered by him, but at Mutina, in Gaul, he lay a long while besieging Brutus. Meanwhile, Lepidus had made a hasty rush upon Rome, and sitting down before it, was demanding a second consulship, and terrifying the citizens with a vast throng of followers. But their fear was dissipated by a letter brought from Pompey, announcing that he had brought the war to a close without a battle. For Brutus, whether he himself betrayed his army, or whether his army changed sides and betrayed him, put himself in the hands of Pompey, and receiving an escort of horsemen, retired to a little town upon the Po. Here, after a single day had passed, he was slain by Geminius, who was sent by Pompey to do the deed. And Pompey was much blamed for this. For as soon as the army of Brutus changed sides, he wrote to the senate that Brutus had surrendered to him of his own accord; then he sent another letter denouncing the man after he had been put to death. The Brutus who, with Cassius, killed Caesar, was a son of this Brutus, a man who was like his father neither in his wars nor in his death, as is written in his Life. As for Lepidus, moreover, as soon as he was expelled from Italy, he made his way over to Sardinia. There he fell sick and died of despondency, which was due, as we are told, not to the loss of his cause, but to his coming accidentally upon a writing from which he discovered that his wife was an adulteress.
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1an Germanicus36 viewsAdopted by Tiberius in 4 AD, died mysteriously in 19

As, struck by Caligula

Bare head, left, GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVGVST F DIVI AVG N
C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT SC

RIC 57

Germanicus Julius Caesar (c16 BC-AD 19) was was born in Lugdunum, Gaul (modern Lyon). At birth he was named either Nero Claudius Drusus after his father or Tiberius Claudius Nero after his uncle. He received the agnomen Germanicus, in 9 BC, when it was posthumously awarded to his father in honour of his victories in Germania. Germanicus was the grandson-in-law and great-nephew of the Emperor Augustus, nephew and adoptive son of the Emperor Tiberius, father of the Emperor Caligula, brother of the Emperor Claudius, and the maternal grandfather of the Emperor Nero. He married his maternal second cousin Agrippina the Elder, a granddaughter of Augustus, between 5 and 1 BC. The couple had nine children. Two died very young; another, Gaius Julius Caesar, died in early childhood. The remaining six were: Nero Caesar, Drusus Caesar, the Emperor Caligula, the Empress Agrippina the Younger, Julia Drusilla, and Julia Livilla.

According to Suetonius: Germanicus, who was the son of Drusus the Elder and Antonia the Younger, was adopted (in 4AD) by Germanicus’s paternal uncle, Tiberius. He served as quaestor (in7AD) five years before the legal age and became consul (in12AD) without holding the intermediate offices. On the death of Augustus (in AD14) he was appointed to command the army in Germany, where, his filial piety and determination vying for prominence, he held the legions to their oath, though they stubbornly opposed Tiberius’s succession, and wished him to take power for himself.

He followed this with victory in Germany, for which he celebrated a triumph (in 17 AD), and was chosen as consul for a second time (18 AD) though unable to take office as he was despatched to the East to restore order there. He defeated the forces of the King of Armenia, and reduced Cappadocia to provincial status, but then died at Antioch, at the age of only thirty-three (in AD 19), after a lingering illness, though there was also suspicion that he had been poisoned. For as well as the livid stains which covered his body, and the foam on his lips, the heart was found entire among the ashes after his cremation, its total resistance to flame being a characteristic of that organ, they say, when it is filled with poison.

All considered Germanicus exceptional in body and mind, to a quite outstanding degree. Remarkably brave and handsome; a master of Greek and Latin oratory and learning; singularly benevolent; he was possessed of a powerful desire and vast capacity for winning respect and inspiring affection.

His scrawny legs were less in keeping with the rest of his figure, but he gradually fleshed them out by assiduous exercise on horseback after meals. He often killed enemy warriors in hand-to-hand combat; still pleaded cases in the courts even after receiving his triumph; and left various Greek comedies behind amongst other fruits of his studies.

At home and abroad his manners were unassuming, such that he always entered free or allied towns without his lictors.

Whenever he passed the tombs of famous men, he always offered a sacrifice to their shades. And he was the first to initiate a personal search for the scattered remains of Varus’s fallen legionaries, and have them gathered together, so as to inter them in a single burial mound.

As for Germanicus, Tiberius appreciated him so little, that he dismissed his famous deeds as trivial, and his brilliant victories as ruinous to the Empire. He complained to the Senate when Germanicus left for Alexandria (AD19) without consulting him, on the occasion there of a terrible and swift-spreading famine. It was even believed that Tiberius arranged for his poisoning at the hands of Gnaeus Calpurnius Piso, the Governor of Syria, and that Piso would have revealed the written instructions at his trial, had Tiberius not retrieved them during a private interview, before having Piso put to death. As a result, the words: ‘Give us back Germanicus!’ were posted on the walls, and shouted at night, all throughout Rome. The suspicion surrounding Germanicus’ death (19 AD) was deepened by Tiberius’s cruel treatment of Germanicus’s wife, Agrippina the Elder, and their children.
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1ao Caligula30 views37-41

As
Bare head, left, C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT
Vesta std, VESTA SC

RIC 38

The son of Germanicus, modern research suggests, was not as bad a ruler as history generally supposes, but the winners write the history, and Caligula had the dubious honor of being the first loser to die in the purple at the hand of assassins.

Suetonius recorded: Gaius Caesar (Caligula) was born on the 31st of August AD12, in the consulship of his father, Germanicus, and Gaius Fonteius Capito. The sources disagree as to his place of birth. Gnaeus Lentulus Gaetulicus claims it was Tibur (Tivoli), Pliny the Elder, says it was among the Treveri in the village of Ambitarvium, above Confluentes (the site of Koblenz) at the junction of the Moselle and Rhine. . . . His surname Caligula (‘Little Boot’) was bestowed on him affectionately by the troops because he was brought up amongst them, dressed in soldier’s gear.

Caligula accompanied his father, Germanicus, to Syria (in AD 19). On his return, he lived with his mother, Agrippina the Elder until she was exiled (in 29 AD), and then with his great-grandmother Livia. When Livia died (in 29 AD), he gave her eulogy from the rostra even though he was not of age. He was then cared for by his grandmother Antonia the Younger, until at the age of eighteen Tiberius summoned him to Capreae (Capri, in AD 31). On that day he assumed his gown of manhood and shaved off his first beard, but without the ceremony that had attended his brothers’ coming of age.

On Capraea, though every trick was tried to lure him, or force him, into making complaints against Tiberius, he ignored all provocation, . . . behaving so obsequiously to his adoptive grandfather, Tiberius, and the entire household, that the quip made regarding him was well borne out, that there was never a better slave or a worse master.

Even in those days, his cruel and vicious character was beyond his control, and he was an eager spectator of torture and executions meted out in punishment. At night, disguised in wig and long robe, he abandoned himself to gluttony and adulterous behaviour. He was passionately devoted it seems to the theatrical arts, to dancing and singing, a taste in him which Tiberius willingly fostered, in the hope of civilizing his savage propensities.

And came near to assuming a royal diadem at once, turning the semblance of a principate into an absolute monarchy. Indeed, advised by this that he outranked princes and kings, he began thereafter to claim divine power, sending to Greece for the most sacred or beautiful statues of the gods, including the Jupiter of Olympia, so that the heads could be exchanged for his own. He then extended the Palace as far as the Forum, making the Temple of Castor and Pollux its vestibule, and would often present himself to the populace there, standing between the statues of the divine brothers, to be worshipped by whoever appeared, some hailing him as ‘Jupiter Latiaris’. He also set up a special shrine to himself as god, with priests, the choicest sacrificial victims, and a life-sized golden statue of himself, which was dressed each day in clothes of identical design to those he chose to wear.

He habitually committed incest with each of his three sisters, seating them in turn below him at large banquets while his wife reclined above. . . . His preferred method of execution was by the infliction of many slight wounds, and his order, issued as a matter of routine, became notorious: ‘Cut him so he knows he is dying.’
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1ao2 Caesonia (?)19 viewsAE 27 of Carthago Nova, Spain

Laureate head of Caligula, right, C CAESAR AVG GERMANIS
Draped bust of Caesonia (as Salus) right, DN ATEL FLAC CN POM FLAC II VIR Q V I N C, SAL AVG across field

Generally held to portray the fourth wife of Caligula.

Sear 624

Caesonia, Milonia, (d41AD) was the fourth and last wife of Caligula. Her younger half-brother was the Consul Gnaeus Domitius Corbulo. Her niece, Domitia Longina, married Domitian. In 41, Caligula was assassinated and Caesonia and her daughter Julia Drusilla murdered.

Suetonius states: As for Caesonia, who was neither young nor beautiful, had three daughters by another man, and was wildly promiscuous and extravagant, he not only loved her more passionately for it, but also more faithfully, taking her out riding, and showing her to the soldiers, dressed in a cloak with helmet and shield: while he exhibited her to his friends stark naked. He did not honour her with the title of wife until she had given him a child, announcing his paternity and the marriage on the very same day. This child, whom he named Julia Drusilla, he carried round all the temples of the goddesses, before finally entrusting her to Minerva’s lap, calling on that goddess to nurture and educate his daughter. Nothing persuaded him more clearly that she was his own issue than her violent temper, which was so savage the infant would tear at the faces and eyes of her little playmates. . . .

And as [Caligula] kissed the neck of wife or sweetheart, he never failed to say: ‘This lovely thing will be slit whenever I say.’ Now and then he even threatened his dear Caesonia with torture, if that was the only way of discovering why he was so enamoured of her. . . . Some think that Caesonia his wife administered a love potion that had instead the effect of driving him mad.
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1aq Agrippina junior31 viewsMarried Claudius 49 AD

Diobol of Alexandria

Draped bust right, wreathed with corn, hair bound in plait behind, AGRIPPEINA CЄBACTH
Draped bust of Euthenia right, wreathed with corn, holding ears of corn, ЄYQH-NIA across fields, L-IB below

Milne 124

Agrippina the Younger, Julia Agrippina, or Agrippinilla (Little Agrippina) after 50 AD known as Julia Augusta Agrippina (c16 AD –59) was sister of Caligula, niece and fourth wife of Claudius and the mother of Nero. In 28, Tiberius arranged for Agrippina to marry her paternal second cousin Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus. Their only son was named Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus, after Domitius’s recently deceased father. This child would become the Emperor Nero. In 39, Agrippina and her sister Livilla, with their maternal cousin, Drusilla’s widower, Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, were involved in a failed plot to murder Caligula, and make Lepidus emperor. Lepidus was executed. Agrippina and Livilla were exiled by their brother to the Pontine Islands.

Suetonius says, "But it was Agrippina the Younger, his brother Germanicus’s daughter, who ensnared him, assisted by a niece’s privilege of exchanging kisses and endearments. At the next Senate meeting, he primed a group of Senators to propose that he ought to marry Agrippina, as it was in the public interest, and that such marriages between uncle and niece should from then on be regarded as lawful, and no longer incestuous. He married her (AD 49) with barely a day’s delay, but only one freedman and one leading centurion married their respective nieces, to follow suit. Claudius himself, with Agrippina, attended the centurion’s wedding."

The Euthenia reverse reminds one of "euthanasia." which is what some suspect she did to Claudius to elevate her son Nero to the purple.
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1ar Nero52 views54-68

As

Bare head, right, IMP NERO CAESAR AVG P MAX TR P P P
Genius, GENIO AVGVSTI

RIC 86

Suetonius wrote: Nero was born nine months after the death of Tiberius, at Antium, at sunrise on the 15th of December (AD 37). . . . While he was still a young stripling he took part in a successful performance of the Troy Game in the Circus, in which he exhibited great self-possession. At the age of twelve or so (sometime in AD 50), he was adopted by Claudius, who appointed Annaeus Seneca, already a member of the Senate, as his tutor. The following night, it is said, Seneca dreamed that his young charge was really Caligula, and Nero soon proved the dream prophetic by seizing the first opportunity to reveal his cruel disposition. . . . After Claudius’s death (AD 54) had been announced publicly, Nero, who was not quite seventeen years old, decided to address the Guards in the late afternoon, since inauspicious omens that day had ruled out an earlier appearance. After being acclaimed Emperor on the Palace steps, he was carried in a litter to the Praetorian Camp where he spoke to the Guards, and then to the House where he stayed until evening. He refused only one of the many honours that were heaped upon him, that of ‘Father of the Country’, and declined that simply on account of his youth.

Eutropius summarized: To him succeeded NERO, who greatly resembled his uncle Caligula, and both disgraced and weakened the Roman empire; he indulged in such extraordinary luxury and extravagance, that, after the example of Caius Caligula, he even bathed in hot and cold perfumes, and fished with golden nets, which he drew up with cords of purple silk. He put to death a very great number of the senate. To all good men he was an enemy. At last he exposed himself in so disgraceful a manner, that he danced and sung upon the stage in the dress of a harp-player and tragedian. He was guilty of many murders, his brother, wife, and mother, being put to death by him. He set on fire the city of Rome, that he might enjoy the sight of a spectacle such as Troy formerly presented when taken and burned.

In military affairs he attempted nothing. Britain he almost lost; for two of its most noble towns4 were taken and levelled to the ground under his reign. The Parthians took from him Armenia, and compelled the Roman legions to pass under the yoke. Two provinces however were formed under him; Pontus Polemoniacus, by the concession of King Polemon; and the Cottian Alps, on the death of King Cottius.

15 When, having become detestable by such conduct to the city of Rome, and being deserted at the same time by every one, and declared an enemy by the senate, he was sought for to be led to punishment (the punishment being, that he should be dragged naked through the streets, with a fork placed under his head,5 be beaten to death with rods, and then hurled from the Tarpeian rock), he fled from the palace, and killed himself in a suburban villa of one of his freed-men, between the Salarian and Nomentane roads, at the fourth milestone from the city. He built those hot baths at Rome, which were formerly called the Neronian, but now the Alexandrian. He died in the thirty-second year of his age, and the fourteenth year of his reign; and in him all the family of Augustus became extinct.

Having successfully dispatched his scheming mother Agrippina in 59 and survived a decade on the throne, Nero must have felt like a genius when this was minted ca 64 AD!
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1au Otho36 views69

Denarius
Bewigged head, right, IMP OTHO CAESAR AVG TR P
Securitas stg., SECVRITAS P R

RIC 10

Suetonius wrote: Otho was born on the 28th of April 32 AD, in the consulship of Furius Camillus Arruntius and Domitius Ahenobarbus, Nero’s father. In early youth he was so profligate and insolent that he earned many a beating from his own father. . . . After his father died, he feigned love for an influential freedwoman at Court, though she was old and decrepit, in order to win her favour, and then used her to insinuate himself among the emperor’s friends, easily achieving the role of Nero’s chief favourite, not only because they were of a similar disposition, but also some say because of a sexual relationship. . . .

Otho had hoped to be adopted by Galba as his successor, and anticipated the announcement daily. But Piso was chosen, dashing Otho’s hopes, and causing him to resort to force, prompted not only by feelings of resentment but also by his mounting debts. He declared that frankly he would have to declare himself bankrupt, unless he became emperor. . . . When the moment was finally ripe, . . . his friends hoisted him on their shoulders and acclaimed him Emperor. Everyone they met joined the throng, as readily as if they were sworn accomplices and a part of the conspiracy, and that is how Otho arrived at his headquarters, amidst cheering and the brandishing of swords. He at once sent men to kill Galba and Piso. . . .

Meanwhile the army in Germany had sworn allegiance to Vitellius. When the news reached Otho he persuaded the Senate to send a deputation, advising the soldiers to maintain peace and order, since an emperor had already been chosen. However he also sent envoys with letters and personal messages, offering to share power with Vitellius, and marry his daughter. With civil war clearly inevitable, on the approach of Vitellius’s advance guard, who had marched on Rome led by their generals, . . . Otho began his campaign vigorously, and indeed too hastily. . . .

His army won three engagements, but of a minor nature, firstly in the Alps, then near Placentia, and finally at a place called Castor’s, and were ultimately defeated in a decisive and treacherous encounter at Betriacum (on the 14th April). . . . After this defeat, Otho resolved to commit suicide, more from feelings of shame, which many have thought justified, and a reluctance to continue the struggle with such high cost to life and property, than from any diffidence or fear of failure shown by his soldiers. . . . On waking at dawn (on the 16th of April, AD69), he promptly dealt himself a single knife-blow in the left side of his chest, and first concealing and then showing the wound to those who rushed in at the sound of his groaning, he breathed his last. . . . Otho was thirty-six years old when he died, on the ninety-second day of his reign. . . .

Neither his bodily form nor appearance suggested great courage. He is said to have been of medium height, bandy-legged and splay-footed, though as fastidious as a woman in personal matters. He had his body-hair plucked, and wore a toupee to cover his scanty locks, so well-made and so close-fitting that its presence was not apparent.
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1av Vitellius42 views69

Denarius
Portrait, right, A VITELLIVS GERMAN IMP TR P
Vesta std., PONT MAX

RIC 107

According to Suetonius: Lucius’s son Aulus, the future emperor, was born on the 24th of September 15AD, or according to some authorities on the 7th, during the consulship of Drusus Caesar and Norbanus Flaccus. . . . His boyhood and early youth were spent on Capreae (Capri) among Tiberius’s creatures, he himself being marked by the nickname of ‘Spintria’ (sex-token) throughout his life, and suspected of having secured his father’s first promotion to office by surrendering his own chastity. As he grew older, though contaminated by every kind of vice, Vitellius gained and kept a prominent place at court, winning Caligula’s friendship by his devotion to chariot-racing and Claudius’s by his love of dice. With Nero he was even closer. . . .

Honoured, as these emperors’ favourite, with high office in the priesthood, as well as political power, he governed Africa (under Nero, in 60/61AD) as proconsul, and was then Curator of Public Works (in 63AD), employing a contrasting approach, and with a contrasting effect on his reputation. In his province he acted with outstanding integrity over two successive years, since he served as deputy also to his brother who succeeded him (61/62AD) yet during his administration of the City he was said to have stolen various temple offerings and ornaments, and substituted brass and tin for the gold and silver in others. . . .

Contrary to all expectations, Galba appointed Vitellius to Lower Germany (in 68AD). Some think it was brought about by Titus Vinius, whose influence was powerful at that time, and whose friendship Vitellius had previously won through their mutual support for the ‘Blues’ in the Circus. But it is clear to everyone that Galba chose him as an act of contempt rather than favour, commenting that gluttons were among those least to be feared, and Vitellius’s endless appetite would now be able to sate itself on a province. . . .

He entered Rome to the sound of trumpets, surrounded by standards and banners, wearing a general’s cape, sword at his side, his officers in their military cloaks also, and the men with naked blades. With increasing disregard for the law, human or divine, he then assumed the office of High Priest on the anniversary of the Allia (18th July), arranged the elections for the next ten years, and made himself consul for life. . . .

Vitellius’s worst vices were cruelty and gluttony. . . . By the eighth month of his reign (November 69AD) the legions in Moesia and Pannonia had repudiated Vitellius, and sworn allegiance to Vespasian despite his absence, following those of Syria and Judaea who had done so in Vespasian’s presence. . . .

The vanguard of Vespasian’s army had now forced its way into the Palace, unopposed, and the soldiers were ransacking the rooms, in their usual manner. They hauled Vitellius, unrecognised, from his hiding place, asked his name and where the Emperor might be. He gave some lying answer, but was soon identified, so he begged for safe custody, even if that meant imprisonment, claiming he had important information for Vespasian regarding his security. However his arms were bound behind him and a noose flung over his head, and he was dragged along the Sacred Way to the Forum, amid a hail of mockery and abuse, half-naked, with his clothes in tatters. His head was held back by the hair, like a common criminal and, with a sword-point under his chin so that he was forced to look up and reveal his face, he was pelted with filth and dung, denounced as arsonist and glutton, and taunted with his bodily defects by the crowd. For, Vitellius was exceptionally tall, and his face was usually flushed from some drinking bout. He had a huge belly, too, and one thigh crippled by a blow from a four-horse chariot which struck him when he was in attendance on Caligula who was driving. At last, after being tormented by a host of cuts from the soldiers’ swords, he was killed on the Gemonian Stairs, and his body dragged with a hook to the Tiber.
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JuliaTitiDupVesta.jpg
1ax2 Julia Titi15 viewsDupondius

Draped bust right, hair in bun at back of head, IVLIA IMP T AVG F AVGVSTA
S-C either side of Vesta enthroned left holding Victory, VESTA in ex

RIC 398

The daughter of Titus and Marcia Furnilla, she lived with her uncle Domitian for a time as his wife. Suetonius records, "He had been offered marriage with his niece, Julia, Titus’s daughter, while she was still a young girl, but refused her repeatedly because of his infatuation with Domitia Longina, yet he seduced Julia shortly afterwards, while Titus was still alive, and when she was newly married to Flavius Sabinus. After the deaths of her father and husband, he loved her ardently and openly, and indeed caused her death by forcing her to abort a child by him." When Domitian died at the age of 44, his nurse cremated his body and "secretly carried [the ashes] to the Flavian Temple and there mingled them with those of his niece Julia, Titus’s daughter whom she had also nurtured."
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1bj Marcus Aurelius93 views161-180

Sestertius

Laureate head, right, IMP CAES M AVREL ANTONINVS AVG PM
Salus stg, SALVTI AVGVSTOR TR P XVII COS III SC

RIC 843

The Historia Augusta relates: He was reared under the eye of Hadrian, who called him Verissimus. . . . And so he was adopted in his eighteenth year, and at the instance of Hadrian exception was made for his age and he was appointed quaestor for the year of the second consulship of Antoninus [Pius], now his father. . . . After Hadrian's death, Pius immediately got his wife to ask Marcus if he would break off his betrothal to the daughter of Lucius Commodus and marry their own daughter Faustina (whom Hadrian had wanted to marry Commodus' son, even though he was badly matched in age). After thinking the matter over, Marcus replied he was willing. And when this was done, Pius designated him as his colleague in the consulship, though he was still only quaestor, gave him the title of Caesar. . . .

When Antoninus Pius saw that the end of his life was drawing near, having summoned his friends and prefects, he commended Marcus to them all and formally named him as his successor in the empire. . . . Being forced by the senate to assume the government of the state after the death of the Deified Pius, Marcus made his brother his colleague in the empire, giving him the name Lucius Aurelius Verus Commodus and bestowing on him the titles Caesar and Augustus.

Eutropius summarizes: They carried on a war against the Parthians, who then rebelled for the first time since their subjugation by Trajan. Verus Antoninus went out to conduct that war, and, remaining at Antioch and about Armenia, effected many important achievements by the agency of his generals; he took Seleucia, the most eminent city of Assyria, with forty thousand prisoners; he brought off materials for a triumph over the Parthians, and celebrated it in conjunction with his brother, who was also his father-in-law. He died in Venetia. . . . After him MARCUS ANTONINUS held the government alone, a man whom any one may more easily admire than sufficiently commend. He was, from his earliest years, of a most tranquil disposition; so that even in his infancy he changed countenance neither for joy nor for sorrow. He was devoted to the Stoic philosophy, and was himself a philosopher, not only in his way of life, but in learning. . . .

Under his rule affairs were successfully conducted against the Germans. He himself carried on one war with the Marcomanni, but this was greater than any in the memory of man,so that it is compared to the Punic wars. . . . Having persevered, therefore, with the greatest labour and patience, for three whole years at Carnuntum,14 he brought the Marcomannic war to an end; a war which the Quadi, Vandals, Sarmatians, Suevi, and all the barbarians in that quarter, had joined with the Marcomanni in raising; he killed several thousand men, and, having delivered the Pannonians from slavery, triumphed a second time at Rome with his son Commodus Antoninus, whom he had previously made Caesar. . . . Having, then, rendered the state happy, both by his excellent management and gentleness of disposition, he died in the eighteenth year of his reign and the sixty-first of his life, and was enrolled among the gods, all unanimously voting that such honour should be paid him.
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1bl Lucius Verus113 views161-169

As
166-167

Laureate head, right, L VERVS AVG ARM PARTH MAX
3 trophies, TR P VII IMP III[I] COS III

RIC 1464

Son of Aelius Caesar and adopted son of Antoninus Pius, Marcus Aurelius elevated his adoptive brother to co-ruler in 161. The Parthians launched an attack against Roman Syria that it had planned before the death of Pius, and Marcus, with the agreement of the Senate, dispatched Lucius to deal with the crisis. According to the Historia Augusta, "Verus, of course, after he arrived in Syria, lived in luxury at Antioch and Daphne, although he was acclaimed imperator while waging the Parthian war through legates." This coin's reverse honors his military victory over the Parthians in 165.

The Historia Augusta describes Verus: He was physically handsome with a genial face. His beard was allowed to grow almost in Barbarian style. He was a tall man, his forehead projected somewhat above his eyebrows, so that he commanded respect. . . In speech almost halting, he was very keen on gambling, and his way of life was always extravagant.
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Sestertius

Laureate head, right, M COMMOD ANT P FELIX AVG BRIT PP

Roma seated left, ROM FEL PM TR P XVI COS VI

RIC 224

The Historia Augusta reports: As for Commodus himself, he was born, with his twin brother Antoninus, at Laiiuvium where his mother's father was born, it is said on the day before the Kalends of September, while his father and uncle were consuls. . . . Marcus tried to educate Commodus by his own teaching and by that of the greatest and the best of men. . . . However, teachers in all these studies profited him not in the least such is the power, either of natural character, or of the tutors maintained in a palace. For even from his earliest years he was base and dis- honorable, and cruel and lewd, defiled of mouth, moreover, and debauched. . . . While yet a child he was given the name of Caesar, along with his brother Verus. . . .

[After Marcus died], He abandoned the war which his father had almost finished and submitted to the enemy's terms, and then he returned to Rome. . . . After he had come back to Rome, he led the triumphal procession with Saoterus, his partner in depravity, seated in his chariot, and from time to time he would turn around and kiss him openly, repeating this same performance even in the orchestra. And not only was he wont to drink until dawn and squander the resources of the Roman Empire, but in the evening he would ramble through taverns and brothels. 6 He sent out to rule the provinces men who were either his companions in crime or were recommended to him by criminals. He became so detested by the senate that he in his turn was moved with cruel passion for the destruction of that great order, and from having been despised he became bloodthirsty. . . . He was called also the Roman Hercules, on the ground that he had killed 192 wild beasts in the amphitheatre at Lanuvium. . . . He engaged in gladiatorial combats, and accepted
the names usually given to gladiators 5 with as much pleasure as if he had been granted triumphal decorations. . . .

Because of these things but all too late Quintus Aemilius Laetus, prefect of the guard, and Marcia, his concubine, were roused to action and entered into a conspiracy against his life. First they gave him poison; and when this proved ineffective they had him strangled by the athlete with whom he was accustomed to exercise.
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1bs Septimius Severus87 views193-211

Denarius

Laureate head, right, SEVERVS PIVS AVG
Septimius, togate and veiled, standing left holding olive branch, FVNDATOR PACIS

RIC 265

According to the Historia Augusta: After the murder of Didius Julianus, Severus, a native of Africa, gained the empire. His home town was Lepcis Magna, his father was Geta and his ancestors had been Roman knights before citizenship had been given to all. . . . He himself was born on the third day before the Ides of April, when Erucius Clarus, for the second time, and Severus were the consuls [11 April A.D.146]. . . .

After his departure to Germany he conducted himself in such a way in his governorship as to increase his reputation, which had already become noteworthy. Up to this point his military activity was as a private citizen. But then, after it had been learned that Commodus had been murdered and, moreover, that Julianus held the empire amid universal hatred, he was proclaimed emperor by the German legions at Carnuntum, on the Ides of August, although he did put up some resistance to the many who urged him on. He gave the soldiers . . . sesterces each. Then, after strengthening the provinces which he was leaving in his rear, he marched on Rome. All yielded to him wherever he went, while the armies of Illyricum and Gaul, under the pressure of their generals, had already sworn allegiance to him - for he was received by everyone as the avenger of Pertinax. At the same time, on the instigation of Julianus, Septimius Severus was declared a public enemy, and envoys were sent to the army who were to order the soldiers to desert him, on the instructions of the Senate. At first, when Severus heard that the envoys had been sent by authority of a senatorial decree, he was very frightened. Afterwards, by bribing the envoys, he ensured that they spoke in his favour before the army and crossed to his side. Having learned this, Julianus caused a decree ofthe Senate to be passed regarding his sharing of the empire with Severus. It is uncertain whether or not he did this as a trick, since he had already, before this, dispatched certain men, well known for their assassinations of generals, who were to kill Severus. Similarly he had sent men to assassinate Pescennius Niger, who had also assumed the position of emperor in opposition to him, on the instigation of the Syrian armies. But Severus escaped the hands of those that Julianus had sent to murder him and sent a letter to the praetorian guard, giving them the signal either to desertJulianus or to kill him. He was obeyed at once; Julianus was killed in the palace and Severus was invited to Rome. Thus Severus became the victor merely at will - something that had never happened to anyone - and hastened to Rome under arms. . . .

The same emperor, although implacable towards offences, likewise displayed singular judiciousness in encouraging all hard-working persons. He was quite interested in philosophy and the practice of rhetoric, and enthusiastic about learning in general. He took some measures against brigands everywhere. He composed a convincing autobiography dealing with both his private and his public life, making excuses only for the vice of cruelty. With regard to this, the Senate pronounced that either he ought not to have been born or that he ought not to die, since he appeared to be both excessively cruel and excessively useful to the republic. . . . . He died at Eboracum [York] in Britain, having subdued the tribes which appeared hostile to Britain, in the eighteeneh year of his reign, stricken by a very grave illness, now an old man. . . .

This emperor wore such meagre clothing that even his tunic scarcely had any purple, while he covered his shoulders with a shaggy cloak. He ate sparingly, being very addicted to his native vegetable, sometimes fond of wine, often abstaining from meat. His person was handsome, he was of huge size,(Dio Cassius, who knew Severus personally, says that he was small) with a long beard and curly white hair. His face inspired reverence, his voice was resonant but with a trace of an African accent right up to his old age. He was equally beloved after his death, when envy, or the fear of his cruelty, had disappeared.
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Denarius

Laureate, horned & draped bust rightt, IMP ANTONINVS PIVS AVG
Elagabalus standing left, sacrificing from patera over lit tripod altar, holding branch, star in field left, SVMMVS SACERDOS AVG

RIC 146

The Historia Augusta, in the life of Caracalla, notes: Bassianus lived for forty-three years and ruled for six. . . . He left a son, who afterward received, like his father, the name Antoninus Marcus Antoninus Elagabalus; for such a hold had the name of the Antonines that it could not be removed from the thoughts of the people, because it had taken root in the hearts of all, even as had the name of Augustus.

In the life of Macrinus is recorded: Now there was a certain woman of the city of Emesa, called [Julia] Maesa or Varia; she was the sister of Julia, the wife of [Septimius] Severus Pertinax the African, and after the death of Antoninus Bassianus she had been expelled from her home in the palace through the arrogance of Macrinus. . . . This woman had two daughters, [Julia Soaemias] and [Julia] Mamaea, the elder of whom was the mother of Elagabalus; he assumed the names Bassianus and Antoninus, for the Phoenicians give the name Elagabalus to the Sun. Elagabalus, moreover, was notable for his beauty and stature and for the priesthood which he held, and he was well known to all who frequented the temple, and particularly to the soldiers. To these, Maesa, or Varia as she was also called, declared that this Bassianus was the son of Antoninus, and this was gradually made known to all the soldiers. Maesa herself, furthermore, was very rich (whence also Elagabalus was most wasteful of money), and through her promises to the soldiers the legions were persuaded to desert Macrinus. . . .

Finally, when he received the imperial power, he took the name Antoninus and was the last of the Antonines to rule the Roman Empire. . . . He was wholly under the control of his mother [Soaemias], so much so, in fact, that he did no public business without her consent, although she lived like a harlot and practised all manner of lewdness in the palace. For that matter, her amour with Antoninus Caracalla was so notorious that Varius, or rather Elagabalus, was commonly supposed to be his son. . . . In short, when Elagabalus' message was read in the senate, at once good wishes were uttered for Antoninus and curses on Macrinus and his son, and, in accordance with the general wish and the eager belief of all in his paternity, Antoninus was hailed as emperor. . . .

After he had spent the winter in Nicomedia, [218-219] living in a depraved manner and indulging in unnatural vice with men, the soldiers soon began to regret that they had conspired against Macrinus to make this man emperor, and they turned their thoughts toward his cousin Alexander, who on the murder of Macrinus had been hailed by the senate as Caesar. . . . Among the base actions of his life of depravity he gave orders that Alexander, whom he had formally adopted, be removed from his presence, saying that he regretted the adoption. Then he commanded the senate to take away from Alexander the name of Caesar. But when this was announced to the senate, there was a profound silence. For Alexander was an excellent youth, as was afterwards shown by the character of his rule, even though, because he was chaste, he was displeasing to his adoptive father he was also, as some declare, his cousin. Besides, he was loved by the soldiers and acceptable to the senate and the equestrian order. Yet the Emperor's madness went the length of an attempt to carry out the basest design; for he despatched assassins to kill Alexander. . . . The soldiers, however, and particularly the members of the guard, either because they knew what evils were in store for Elagabalus, or because they foresaw his hatred for themselves, formed a conspiracy to set the state free. First they attacked the accomplices in his plan of murdering Alexander. . . . Next they fell upon Elagabalus himself and slew him in a latrine in which he had taken refuge.
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Denarius

Laureate draped bust, right, IMP C M AVR SEV ALEXAND AVG
Sev. Alex in armor, P M TR P III COS P P

RIC 74

Herodian recorded: [The soldiers] were more favorably disposed toward Alexander, for they expected great things of a lad so properly and modestly reared. They kept continual watch upon the youth when they saw that Elagabalus was plotting against him. His mother Mamaea did not allow her son to touch any food or drink sent by the emperor, nor did Alexander use the cupbearers or cooks employed in the palace or those who happened to be in their mutual service; only those chosen by his mother, those who seemed most trustworthy, were allowed to handle Alexander's food.

Mamaea secretly distributed money to the praetorians to win their good will for her son; it was to gold that the praetorians were particularly devoted. . . . . Maesa, the grandmother of them both, foiled all his schemes; she was astute in every way and had spent much of her life in the imperial palace. As the sister of Severus' wife Julia, Maesa had always lived with the empress at the court. . . .

When Alexander received the empire, the appearance and the title of emperor were allowed him, but the management and control of imperial affairs were in the hands of his women, and they undertook a more moderate and more equitable administration. . . . At any rate, he entered the fourteenth year of his reign without bloodshed, and no one could say that the emperor had been responsible for anyone's murder. Even though men were convicted of serious crimes, he nevertheless granted them pardons to avoid putting them to death, and not readily did any emperor of our time, after the reign of Marcus, act in this way or display so much concern for human life.

In the fourteenth year, however, unexpected dispatches from the governors of Syria and Mesopotamia revealed that Artaxerxes, the Persian king, had conquered the Parthians and seized their Eastern empire, killing Artabanus [IV], who was formerly called the Great King and wore the double diadem. Artaxerxes then subdued all the barbarians on his borders and forced them to pay tribute. He did not remain quiet, however, nor stay on his side of the Tigris River, but, after scaling its banks and crossing the borders of the Roman empire, he overran Mesopotamia and threatened Syria.

Traveling rapidly, he came to Antioch, after visiting the provinces and the garrison camps in Illyricum; from that region he collected a huge force of troops. While in Antioch he continued his preparations for the war, giving the soldiers military training under field conditions. . . . The Romans suffered a staggering disaster; it is not easy to recall another like it, one in which a great army was destroyed, an army inferior in strength and determination to none of the armies of old.

Now unexpected messages and dispatches upset Alexander and caused him even greater anxiety: the governors in Illyria reported that the Germans [the Alamans] had crossed the Rhine and the Danube rivers, were plundering the Roman empire. . . . Although he loathed the idea, Alexander glumly announced his departure for Illyria. . . . Alexander undertook to buy a truce rather than risk the hazards of war. . . .

The soldiers, however, were not pleased by his action, for the time was passing without profit to them, and Alexander was doing nothing courageous or energetic about the war; on the contrary, when it was essential that he march out and punish the Germans for their insults, he spent the time in chariot racing and luxurious living. . . . They plotted now to kill Alexander and proclaim Maximinus emperor and Augustus. . . . Alexander's troops deserted him for Maximinus, who was then proclaimed emperor by all. . . . Maximinus sent a tribune and several centurions to kill Alexander and his mother, together with any of his followers who opposed them.
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Sestertius

Laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust, right, IMP CAES PVPIEN MAXIMVS AVG
Pax seated left with branch & scepter PAX PVBLICA SC

RIC 22b

Herodian, continuing the story of the rebellion against Maximinus, wrote: [Pupienus] led most of these soldiers out to attack Maximinus; the rest remained behind to guard and defend the city. . . . In the meantime, having completed his march, Maximinus was poised on the borders of Italy; after offering sacrifices at all the boundary altars, he advanced into Italy. . . . When no opposition was offered, they crossed the Alps without hindrance. . . . While the army was in the plain, the scouts reported that Aquileia, the largest city in that part of Italy, had closed its gates and that the Pannonian legions which had been sent ahead had launched a vigorous attack upon the walls of this city. In spite of frequent assaults, they were completely unsuccessful. . . .

As time passed, the army of Maximinus grew depressed and, cheated in its expectations, fell into despair. . . . As Maximinus rode about, the [people of Aquileia] shouted insults and indecent blasphemies at him and his son. The emperor became increasingly angry because he was powerless to retaliate. . . . The emperor's soldiers were. . . in need of everything. There was scarcely even sufficient water for them. . . .

Without warning, the soldiers whose camp was near Rome at the foot of Mount Alba, where they had left their wives and children, decided that the best solution was to kill Maximinus and end the interminable siege. . . . [T]he conspirators went to Maximinus' tent about noon. The imperial bodyguard, which was involved in the plot, ripped Maximinus' pictures from the standards; when he came out of his tent with his son to talk to them, they refused to listen and killed them both. . . .

For the rest of the time the two emperors governed in an orderly and well-regulated manner, winning approval on every hand both privately and publicly. The people honored and respected them as patriotic and admirable rulers of the empire. . . . It so happened that the two men were not in complete accord: so great is the desire for sole rule and so contrary to the usual practice is it for the sovereignty to be shared that each undertook to secure the imperial power for himself alone. Balbinus considered himself the more worthy because of his noble birth and his two terms as consul; [Pupienus] felt that he deserved first place because he had served as prefect of Rome and had won a good reputation by his administrative efforts. Both men were led to covet the sole rule because of their distinguished birth, aristocratic lineage, and the size of their families. This rivalry was the basis of their downfall. When [Pupienus] learned that the Praetorian Guard was coming to kill them, he wished to summon a sufficient number of the German auxiliaries who were in Rome to resist the conspirators. But Balbinus, thinking that this was a ruse intended to deceive him (he knew that the Germans were devoted to [Pupienus]), refused to allow [Pupienus] to issue the order. . . . While the two men were arguing, the praetorians rushed in. . . . When the guards at the palace gates deserted the emperors, the praetorians seized the old men and ripped off the plain robes they were wearing because they were at home. Dragging the two men naked from the palace, they inflicted every insult and indignity upon them. Jeering at these emperors elected by the senate, they beat and tortured them. . . . When the Germans learned what was happening, they snatched up their arms and hastened to the rescue. As soon as the praetorians were informed of their approach, they killed the mutilated emperors.
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Quarter Follis

Laureate head, right, MAXIMIANVS AVG
Genius standing left, modius on head, holding cornucopia & patera, SIS in ex., GENIO POPVLI ROMANI

RIC 169b

Eutropius tells us: Diocletian promoted MAXIMIAN HERCULIUS from the dignity of Caesar to that of emperor, and created Constantius and Maximian Galerius Caesars, of whom Constantius is said to have been the grand-nephew of Claudius by a daughter, and Maximian Galerius to have been born in Dacia not far from Sardica. . . . Galerius married Valeria, the daughter of Diocletian. . . .

Galerius Maximian, in acting against Narseus, fought, on the first occasion, a battle far from successful, meeting him between Callinicus and Carrae, and engaging in the combat rather with rashness than want of courage; for he contended with a small army against a very numerous enemy. Being in consequence defeated, and going to join Diocletian, he was received by him, when he met him on the road, with such extreme haughtiness, that he is said to have run by his chariot for several miles in his scarlet robes.

But having soon after collected forces in Illyricum and Moesia, he fought a second time with Narseus (the grandfather of Hormisdas and Sapor), in Greater Armenia, with extraordinary success, and with no less caution and spirit, for he undertook, with one or two of the cavalry, the office of a speculator. After putting Narseus to flight, he captured his wives, sisters, and children, with a vast number of the Persian nobility besides, and a great quantity of treasure; the king himself he forced to take refuge in the remotest deserts in his dominions. Returning therefore in triumph to Diocletian, who was then encamped with some troops in Mesopotamia, he was welcomed by him with great honour. Subsequently, they conducted several wars both in conjunction and separately, subduing the Carpi and Bastarnae, and defeating the Sarmatians, from which nations he settled a great number of captives in the Roman territories. . . .

Galerius, a man of excellent moral character, and skilful in military affairs, finding that Italy, by Constantius's permission, was put under his government, created two Caesars, MAXIMIN, whom he appointed over the east, and SEVERUS, to whom he committed Italy. He himself resided in Illyricum.
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Draped bust with pearl necklace, right, FLAV MAX FAVSTA AVG
Fausta Constantine II and Constantius II, FAVSTAE NOBILISSIMAE FEMINAE, mintmark: ΓSIS wreath

RIC 197

Zonaras records: When he had succeeded to his father’s realm, [Constantine] ruled Britain and the Alps, and in addition Gaul, still leaning toward the religion of the Hellenes and opposing the Christians, enticed by his wife Fausta toward ardor in the worship of the idols. Fausta was the daughter of Maximianus. . . . From Fausta, the daughter of Maximianus, the sovereign produced three sons—Constantine, Constantius, and Constans—and a daughter Helen, who later married Julian. . . . Fausta, being erotically obsessed with [her stepson Crispus], since she did not find him compliant, denounced him to his father as being in love with her and as having often attempted to use force against her. Hence, Crispus was condemned to death by his father, who had been persuaded by his spouse. When the emperor later realized the truth, he chastened his wife both because of her unchasteness and on account of the murder of his son. For after she had been led into an exceedingly hot bath, there she violently ended her life.
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AE3, Thessalonica

Laureate, draped & cuirassed bust, right, D N FL IVL CRISPVS NOB CAES
Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm, VICTORIA CAESS NN. Mintmark dot TS dot epsilon dot.

Zosimus recorded Crispus' elevation to Caesar: "Constantine, having taken Cibalis, and Sirmium, and all the towns that Licinius had abandoned, sent five thousand men in pursuit of him. But as these were ignorant of the course he had taken, they could not overtake him. Constantine however, having rebuilt the bridge over the Saus, which Licinius had broken down, was with his army almost at his heels. Having entered Thrace, he arrived at the plain where Licinius lay encamped. On the night of his arrival there he marshalled his army, and gave orders for his soldiers to be ready for battle by day-break. As soon as it was light, Licinius, perceiving Constantine with his army, drew up his forces also, having been joined by Valens, whom he styled Caesar, after the battle of Cibalis. When the armies engaged, they first fought with bows at a distance ; but when their arrows were spent, they began to use their javelins, and poignards. Thus the battle continued very obstinately for a considerable time, until those whom Constantine had sent in pursuit of Licinius descended from an eminence upon the armies while they were engaged. These wheeled round the hill |46 before they arrived at them, deeming it best to join their own party from the higher ground, and to encompass the enemy. The troops of Licinius, being aware of them, courageously withstood against them all, so that many thousands were slain on both sides, and the advantage was equal, till the signal was given for both to retire. Next day they agreed on a truce, and entered into an alliance with each other, on condition that Constantine should possess Illyricum and all the nations westward, and that Licinius should have Thrace and the east; but that Valens, whom Licinius had made Caesar, should be put to death, because be was said to be the author of all the mischief which had happened. Having done this, and sworn on both sides to observe the conditions, Constantine conferred the rank and title of Caesar on Crispus, his son by a concubine called Minervina, who was as yet but a youth, and on Constantine, who was born but a few days before at Arelatum. At the same time Licinianus, the son of Licinius, who was twenty months of age, was declared Caesar, Thus ended the second war."

According to Zonaras, "By a concubine he also had another son, called Crispus, older than his other sons, who distinguished himself often in the war against Licinius. His stepmother Fausta, being erotically obsessed with him, since she did not find him compliant, denounced him to his father as being in love with her and as having often attempted to use force against her. Hence, Crispus was condemned to death by his father, who had been persuaded by his spouse."

Constantine had his son strangled to death in Pula.

RIC 62
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Centenionalis

Bare-headed, draped & cuirassed bust, right, D N MAGNEN-TIVS P F AVG
Two victories, VICTORIAE DD NN AVG ET CAES

RIC 173

Zosimus recorded: Magnentius thus gained the empire, and possessed himself all the nations beyond the Alps, and the whole of Italy. Vetranio, general of the Pannonian army, upon hearing of the good fortune of Magnentius, was himself inflamed with the same desire, and was declared emperor by the legions that were with him, at Mursa, a city of Pannonia. While affairs were thus situated, the Persians plundered the eastern countries, particularly Mesopotamia. But Constantine, though he was defeated by the Persians, yet resolved to subdue the factions of Magnentius and Vetranio. . . . Constantius advanced from the east against Magnentius, but deemed it best first to win over Vetranio to his interest, as it was difficult to oppose two rebels at once. On the other hand, Magnentius used great endeavours to make Vetranio his friend, and thus to put an end to the war against Constantius. Both therefore sent agents to Vetranio, who chose to adopt the friendship of Constantius rather than that of Magnentius. The ambassadors of Magnentius returned without effecting their purpose. Constantius desired that both armies might join, to undertake the war against Magnentius. To which proposal Vetranio readily assented. . . . When the soldiers heard this, having been previously corrupted by valuable presents, they cried out, that they would have no mock emperors, and immediately began to strip the purple from Vetranio, and pulled him from the throne with the determination to reduce him to a private station. . . . Constantius, having so well succeeded in his design against Vetranio, marched against Magnentius, having first conferred the title of Caesar on Gallus, the son of his uncle, and brother to Julian who was afterwards emperor, and given him in marriage his sister Constantia. . . .

Constantius now gaining the victory, by the army of Magnentius taking to flight, a terrible slaughter ensued. Magnentius, therefore being deprived ofall hope, and apprehensive lest the remnant of his army should deliver him to Constantius, deemed it best to retire from Pannonia, and to enter Italy, in order to raise an army there for another attempt. But when he heard that the people of Rome were in favour of Constantius, either from hatred to himself, or because they had heard of the event of the battle, he resolved to cross the Alps, and .seek for himself a refuge among the nations on that side. Hearing however that Constantius had likewise engaged the Barbarians near the Rhine against him, and that |65 he could not enter Gaul, as some officers had obstructed his passage thither in order to make their court to Constantius, nor through Spain into Mauritania, on account of the Roman allies there who studied to please Constantius. In these circumstances he preferred a voluntary death to a dishonourable life, and chose rather to die by his own hand than by that of his enemy.

Thus died Magnentius, having been emperor three years and six months. He was of Barbarian extraction, but lived among the Leti, a people of Gaul. He understood Latin, was bold when favoured by fortune, but cowardly in adversity, ingenious in concealing his natural evil disposition, and deemed by those who did not know him to be a man of candour and goodness. I have thought it just to make these observations concerning Magnentius, that the world may be acquainted With his true character, since it has been the opinion of some that he performed much good, who never in his life did any thing with a good intention.
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Centenionalis

Bare-headed, draped, cuirassed bust right, A behind head, D N CONSTANTIVS IVN NOB C
Emperor, diademed and in military dress, standing facing, head left, holding standard with chi-rho banner in each hand. Star above. Left field: III. CONCORDIA MILITVM. Mintmark: star SIRM.

RIC 22

Zosimus noted: Constantius, having so well succeeded in his design against Vetranio, marched against Magnentius, having first conferred the title of Caesar on Gallus, the son of his uncle, and brother to Julian who was afterwards emperor, and given him in marriage his sister Constantia; either in order that he might oppose the Persians, or as seems more probable, that he might have an opportunity of taking him off. He and his brothers were the only remaining persons of the family whom Constantius had not put to death, as I have related. When he had clothed Gallus with the Caesarean robe, and appointed Lucilianus general in the Persian war, he marched towards Magnentius with his own troops and those of Vetranio in one body. Constantius II had him tried and put to death for misrule of the East as Caesar. . . . The state-informers, with which such men are usually surrounded, and which are designed for the ruin of those that are in prosperity, were augmented. These sycophants, when they attempted to effect the downfal of a noble in hopes of sharing his wealth or honours, contrived some false accusation against him. This was the practice in the time of Constantius. Spies of this description, who made the eunuchs of the court their accomplices, flocked about Constantius, and persuaded him that his cousin german Gallus, who was a Caesar, was not satisfied with that honour, but wished to be emperor. They so far convinced him of the truth of this charge, that they made him resolve upon the destruction of Gallus. The contrivers of this design were Dynamius and Picentius, men of obscure condition, who endeavoured to raise themselves by such evil practises. Lampadius also, the Prefect of the court, was in the conspiracy, being a person who wished to engross more of the emperor's favour than any other. Constantius listened to those false insinuations, and Gallus was sent for, knowing nothing of what was intended against him. As soon as he arrived, Constantius first degraded him from the dignity of Caesar, and, having reduced him to private station, delivered him to the public executioners to be put to death.
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AE3

Pearl-diademed, helmeted, cuirassed bust left, holding shield & spear, D N FL CL IVLIANVS P F AVG
VOT X MVLT XX in four lines within wreath, palm branch-BSIS-palm branch in ex [?].

RIC 415

According to Zosimus: Constantius, having so well succeeded in his design against Vetranio, marched against Magnentius, having first conferred the title of Caesar on Gallus, the son of his uncle, and brother to Julian who was afterwards emperor, and given him in marriage his sister Constantia. . . . CONSTANTIUS, after having acted towards Gallus Caesar in the manner I have related, left Pannonia to proceed into Italy. . . . He scarcely thought himself capable of managing affairs at this critical period. He was unwilling, however, to associate any one with himself in the government, because he so much desired to rule alone, and could esteem no man his friend. Under these circumstances he was at a loss how to act. It happened, however, that when the empire was in the greatest danger, Eusebia, the wife of Constantius, who was a woman of extraordinary learning, and of greater wisdom than her sex is usually endowed with, advised him to confer the government of the nations beyond the Alps on Julianus Caesar, who was brother to Gallus, and grandson to Constantius. As she knew that the emperor was suspicious of all his kindred, she thus circumvented him. She observed to him, that Julian was a young man unacquainted with the intrigues of state, having devoted himself totally to his studies; and that he was wholly inexperienced in worldly business. That on this account he would be more fit for his purpose than any other person. That either he would be fortunate, and his success would be attributed to the emperor's conduct, or that he would fail and perish; and that thus Constantius would have none of the imperial family to succeed to him.

Constantius, having approved her advice, sent for Julian from Athens, where he lived among the philosophers, and excelled all his masters in every kind of learning. Accordingly, Julian returning from Greece into Italy, Constantius declared him Caesar, gave him in marriage his sister Helena, and sent him beyond the Alps. . . .

Constantius, having thus disposed of Julian, marched himself into Pannonia and Moesia, and having there suppressed the Quadi and the Sarmatians, proceeded to the east, and was provoked to war by the inroads of the Persians. Julian by this time had arrived beyond the Alps into the Gallic nations which he was to rule. Perceiving that the Barbarians continued committing the same violence, Eusebia, for the same reasons as before, persuaded Constantius to place the entire management of those countries into the hands of Julian. . . . Julian finding the military affairs of Gallia Celtica in a very ruinous state, and that the Barbarians pased the Rhine without any resistance, even almost as far as the sea-port towns, he took a survey of the remaining parts of the enemy. And understanding that the people of those parts were terrified at the very name of the Barbarians, while those whom Constantius had sent along with him, who were not more than three hundred and sixty, knew nothing more, as he used to say, than how to say their prayers, he enlisted as many more as he could and took in a great number of volunteers. He also provided arms, and finding a quantity of old weapons in some town he fitted them up, and distributed them among the soldiers. The scouts bringing him intelligence, that an immense number of Barbarians had crossed the river near the city of Argentoratum (Strasburg) which stands on the Rhine, he no sooner heard of it, than he led forth his army with the greatest speed, and engaging with the enemy gained such a victory as exceeds all description.

After these events he raised a great army to make war on the whole German nation; He was opposed however by the Barbarians in vast numbers. Caesar therefore would not wait while they came up to him, but crossed the Rhine, preferring that their country should be the seat of war, and not that of the Romans, as by that means the cities would escape being again pillaged by the Barbarians. A most furious battle therefore took place; a great number of the Barbarians being slain on the field of battle, while the rest fled, and were pursued by Caesar into the Hercynian forest, and many of them killed. . . .

But while Julian was at Parisium, a small town in Germany, the soldiers, being ready to march, continued at supper till midnight in a place near the palace, which they so called there. They were as yet ignorant of any design against Caesar [by Constantius], when some tribunes, who began to suspect the contrivance against him, privately distributed a number of anonymous billets among the soldiers, in which they represented to them, that Caesar, by his judicious conduct had so managed affairs, that almost all of them had erected trophies over the Barbarians ; that he had always fought like a private soldier, and was now in extreme danger from the emperor, who would shortly deprive him of his whole army, unless they prevented it. Some of the soldiers having read these billets, and published the intrigue to the whole army, all were highly enraged. They suddenly rose from their seats in great commotion, and with the cups yet in their hands went to the palace. Breaking open the doors without ceremony, they brought out Caesar, and lifting him on a shield declared him emperor and Augustus. They then, without attending to his reluctance, placed a diadem upon his head. . . .

Arriving at Naisus, he consulted the soothsayers what measures to pursue. As the entrails signified that he must stay there for some time, he obeyed, observing likewise the time that was mentioned in his dream. When this, according to the motion of the planets, was arrived, a party of horsemen arrived from Constantinople at Naisus, with intelligence that Constantius was dead, and that the armies desired Julian to be emperor. Upon this he accepted what the gods had bestowed upon him, and proceeded on his journey. On his arrival at. Byzantium, he was received with joyful acclamations. . . .

[After slashing through Persia and crossing the Tigris,] they perceived the Persian army, with which they engaged, and having considerably the advantage, they killed a great number of Persians. Upon the following day, about noon, the Persians drew up in a large body, and once more attacked the rear of the Roman army. The Romans, being at that time out of their ranks, were surprised and alarmed at the suddenness of the attack, yet made a stout and spirited defence. The emperor, according to his custom, went round the army, encouraging them to fight with ardour. When by this means all were engaged, the emperor, who sometimes rode to the commanders and tribunes, and was at other times among the private soldiers, received a wound in the heat of the engagement, and was borne on a shield to his tent. He survived only till midnight. He then expired, after having nearly subverted the Persian empire.

Note: Julian favored the pagan faith over Christianity and was tarred by the church as "the apostate."
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GratianAE3GlorRom.jpg
1es Gratian38 views367-383

AE3

Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right, D N GRATIANVS P F AVG
Gratian standing right, holding labarum with Chi-rho on banner, and holding captive by hair, GLORIA ROMANORVM; Q to left, K over P to right, DSISCR in ex.

RIC 14c

Zosimus reports: [T] he emperor Valentinian, having favourably disposed the affairs of Germany, made provisions for the future security of the Celtic nations. . . . Valentinian was now attacked by a disease which nearly cost him his life. Upon his recovery the countries requested him to appoint a successor, lest at his decease the commonwealth should be in danger. To this the emperor consented, and declared his son Gratian emperor and his associate in the government, although he was then very young, and not yet capable of the management of affairs. . . .

When the affairs of the empire were reduced to this low condition, Victor, who commanded the Roman cavalry, escaping the danger with some of his troops, entered Macedon and Thessaly. From thence he proceeded into Moesia and Pannonia, and informed Gratian, who was then in that quarter, of what had occurred, and of the loss of the emperor [Valens] and his army. Gratian received the intelligence without uneasiness, and was little grieved at the death of his uncle, a disagreement having existed between them. Finding himself unable to manage affairs, Thrace being ravaged by the Barbarians, as were likewise Pannonia and Moesia, and the towns upon the Rhine being infested by the neighbouring Barbarians without controul, he chose for his associate in the empire, Theodosius, who was a native of a town called Cauca, in the part of Spain called Hispania Callaecia, and who possessed great knowledge and experience of military affairs. Having given him the government of Thrace and the eastern provinces, Gratian himself proceeded to the west of Gaul, in order, if possible, to compose affairs in that quarter. . . .

While the affairs of Thrace were, thus situated, those of Gratian were in great perplexity. Having accepted the counsel of those courtiers who usually corrupt the manners of princes, he gave a reception to some fugitives called Alani, whom he not only introduced into his army, but honoured with valuable presents, and confided to them his most important secrets, esteeming his own soldiers of little value. This produced among his soldiers a violent hatred against him, which being gradually inflamed and augmented incited in them a disposition for innovation, and most particulary in that part of them which was in Britain, since they were the most resolute and vindictive. In this spirit they were encouraged by Maximus, a Spaniard, who had been the fellow-soldier of Theodosius in Britain. He was offended that Theodosius should be thought worthy of being made emperor, while he himself had no honourable employment. He therefore cherished the animosity of the soldiers towards the emperor. They were thus easily induced to revolt and to declare Maximus emperor. Having presented to him the purple robe and the diadem, they sailed to the mouth of the Rhine. As the German army, and all who were in that quarter approved of the election, Gratian prepared to contend against Maximus, with a considerable part of the army which still adhered to him. When the armies met, there were only slight skirmishes for five days; until Gratian, |115 perceiving that the Mauritanian cavalry first deserted from him and declared Maximus Augustus, and afterwards that the remainder of his troops by degrees espoused the cause of his antagonist, relinquished all hope, and fled with three hundred horse to the Alps. Finding those regions without defence, he proceeded towards Rhaetia, Noricum, Pannonia, and the Upper Moesia. When Maximus was informed of his route, he was not negligent of the opportunity, but detached Andragathius, commander of the cavalry, who was his faithful adherent, in pursuit of Gratian. This officer followed him with so great speed, that he overtook him when he was passing the bridge at Sigidunus, and put him to death.
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ValentinianIIAE3UrbsRom.jpg
1et Valentinian II19 views373-392

AE3, Nicomedia

Pearl-diademed, draped & cuirassed bust rightt, D N VALENTINIANVS IVN P F AVG
Roma seated on cuirass, holding spear and Victory on globe, VRBS ROMA

The SMN mintmark indicates that the coin was minted in Nicomedia, but RIC does not list this reverse type for that mint.

Sim to RIC 51

Zosimus reports: Valentinian being dead, the tribunes Merobaudes and Equitius, reflecting on the distance at which Valens and Gratian resided, the former being in the east, and the latter left by his father in the western part of Gaul, were apprehensive lest the Barbarians beyond the Ister should make an effort while the country was without a ruler. They therefore sent for the younger son of Valentinian, who was born of his wife the widow of Magnentius, who was not far from thence with the child. Having clothed him in purple, they brought him into the court, though scarcely five years old. The empire was afterwards divided between Gratian and the younger Valentinian, at the discretion of their guardians, they not being of age to manage their own affairs. The Celtic nations, Spain, and Britain were given to Gratian; and Italy, Illyricum, and Africa to Valentinian. . . .

Affairs being thus situated in the east, in Thrace, and in Illyricum, Maximus, who deemed his appointments inferior to his merits, being only governor of the countries formerly under Gratian, projected how to depose the young Valentinian from the empire, if possible totally, but should he fail in the whole, to secure at least some part. . . . he immediately entered Italy without; resistance, and marched to Aquileia. . . . This so much surprised Valentinian, and rendered his situation so desperate, that his courtiers were alarmed lest he should be taken by Maximus and put to death. He, therefore, immediately embarked,and sailed to Thessalonica with his mother Justina, who, as I before mentioned, had been the wife of Magnentius, but after his decease was taken in marriage by the emperor Valentinian on account of her extraordinary beauty. She carried along with her her daughter Galla. After having passed many seas, and arriving at Thessalonica, they sent messengers to the emperor Theodosius, intreating him now at least to revenge the injuries committed against the family of Valentinian. He was astonished at hearing of this, and began to forget his extravagance, and to lay some restraint on his wild inclination for pleasure. . . . Theodosius then delivered to Valentinian as much of the empire as his father had possessed; in which he only acted as he was enjoined by his duty to those who so merited his kindness. . . .

intelligence was brought that the emperor Valentianian was no more, and that his death happened in this manner: Arbogastes, a Frank, who was appointed by the emperor Gratian lieutenant to Baudo, at the death of Baudo, confiding in his own ability, assumed the command without the emperor's permission. Being thought proper for the station by all the soldiers under him, both for his valour and experience in military affairs, and for his disregard of riches, he attained great influence. He thus became so elevated, that he would speak without reserve to the emperor, and would blame any measure which he thought improper. This gave such umbrage to Valentinian. . . .

Eugenius became the sincere friend of Arbogastes, who had no secret which he did not confide to him. Recollecting Eugenius, therefore, at this juncture, who by his extraordinary learning and the gravity of his conversation seemed well-adapted for the management of an empire, he communicated to him his designs. But finding him not pleased with the proposals, he attempted to prevail on him by all the arts he could use, and entreated him not to reject what fortune so favourably offered. Having at length persuaded him, he deemed it advisable in the first place to remove Valentinian, and thus to deliver the sole authority to Eugenius. With this view he proceeded to Vienna, a town in Gaul, where the emperor resided; and as he was amusing himself near the town in some sports with the soldiers, apprehending no danger, Arbogastes gave him a mortal wound.
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TheodosAE4VotMult~0.jpg
1eu Theodosius24 views379-395

AE4

Pearl diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right, D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG
VOT V MVLT X within wreath, ASISC in ex

RIC 29d

Zosimus recorded: [Valentinian] commanded some legions from the stations in Pannonia and Moesia, to embark for Africa [to crush a rebellion]. On this the Sarmatians and the Quadi. . . , availing themselves, of the opportunity afforded by the departure of the legions for Africa, invaded the Pannonians and Moesians. . . . The barbarians therefore revenged themselves by plundering all the country along the Ister, carrying off all that they found in the towns. The Pannonians were by these means exposed to the cruelty of the barbarians, while the soldiers were extremely negligent in the defence of their towns, and committed as much mischief as the Barbarians themselves in all places on this side of the river. But Moesia was free from harm, because Theodosius, who commanded the forces there, courageously resisted the Barbarians, and routed them when they attacked him. By that victory he not only acquired great renown, but subsequently attained the imperial dignity. . . .

When the affairs of the empire were reduced to this low condition, Victor, who commanded the Roman cavalry, escaping the danger with some of his troops, entered Macedon and Thessaly. From thence he proceeded into Moesia and Pannonia, and informed Gratian, who was then in that quarter, of what had occurred, and of the loss of the emperor [Valens] and his army. Gratian received the intelligence without uneasiness, and was little grieved at the death of his uncle, a disagreement having existed between them. Finding himself unable to manage affairs, Thrace being ravaged by the Barbarians, as were likewise Pannonia and Moesia, and the towns upon the Rhine being infested by the neighbouring Barbarians without controul, he chose for his associate in the empire, Theodosius, who was a native of a town called Cauca, in the part of Spain called Hispania Callaecia, and who possessed great knowledge and experience of military affairs. Having given him the government of Thrace and the eastern provinces, Gratian himself proceeded to the west of Gaul, in order, if possible, to compose affairs in that quarter. . . .

During the stay of the new emperor, Theodosius, at Thesslonica, a great concourse arrived there from all parts of persons soliciting him on business, both public and private; who having obtained of him whatever he could conveniently grant, returned, to their homes. As a great multitude of the Scythians beyond the Ister, the Gotthi, and the Taiphali, and other tribes that formerly dwelt among them, had crossed the river, and were driven to infest the Roman dominions, because the Huns, had expelled them from their own country, the emperor Theodosius prepared for war with all his forces. . . . The army having made this good use of the occasion afforded by fortune, the affairs of Thrace, which had been on the brink of ruin, were now, the Barbarians being crushed beyond all hope, re-established in peace. . . .

Meanwhile, the emperor Theodosius, residing in Thessalonica, was easy of access to all who wished to see him. Having commenced his reign in luxury and indolence, he threw the magistracy into disorder, and increased the number of his military officers. . . . As he squandered the public money without consideration, bestowing it on unworthy persons, he consequently impoverished himself. He therefore sold the government of provinces to any who would purchase them, without regard to the reputation or ablity of the persons, esteeming him the best qualified who brought him the most gold or silver. . . .

Maximus, who deemed his appointments inferior to his merits, being only governor of the countries formerly under Gratian, projected how to depose the young Valentinian from the empire. . . . This so much surprised Valentinian, and rendered his situation so desperate, that his courtiers were alarmed lest he should be taken by Maximus and put to death. He, therefore, immediately embarked,and sailed to Thessalonica with his mother Justina. . . . [A]rriving at Thessalonica, they sent messengers to the emperor Theodosius, intreating him now at least to revenge the injuries committed against the family of Valentinian. . . . The emperor, being delivered from this alarm, marched with great resolution with his whole army against Maximus. . . . Theodosius, having passed through Pannonia and the defiles of the Appennines, attacked unawares the forces of Maximus before they were prepared for him. A part of his army, having pursued them with the utmost speed, forced their way through the gates of Aquileia, the guards being too few to resist them. Maximus was torn from his imperial throne while in the act of distributing money to his soldiers, and being stripped of his imperial robes, was brought to Theodosius, who, having in reproach enumerated some of his crimes against the commonwealth, delivered him to the common executioner to receive due punishment. . . . The emperor Theodosius, having consigned Italy, Spain, Celtica, and Libya to his son Honorius, died of a disease on his journey towards Constantinople.
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EugeniusSiliquaRoma.jpg
1ex Eugenius25 views392-394

AR siliqua

Bearded, pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed bust rightt, DN EVGENIVS PF AVG
Roma seated left on cuirass, MDPS below, VIRTVS ROMANORVM

RIC 32c

Zosimus reports: Eugenius became the sincere friend of Arbogastes, who had no secret which he did not confide to him. Recollecting Eugenius, therefore, at this juncture, who by his extraordinary learning and the gravity of his conversation seemed well-adapted for the management of an empire, he communicated to him his designs. But finding him not pleased with the proposals, he attempted to prevail on him by all the arts he could use, and entreated him not to reject what fortune so favourably offered. Having at length persuaded him, he deemed it advisable in the first place to remove Valentinian, and thus to deliver the sole authority to Eugenius. With this view he proceeded to Vienna, a town in Gaul, where the emperor resided; and as he was amusing himself near the town in some sports with the soldiers, apprehending no danger, Arbogastes gave him a mortal wound. To this audacious action the soldiers quietly submitted, not only because he was so brave and warlike a person, but because they were attached to him through his contempt of riches. As soon as he had performed this action, he declared Eugenius emperor, and infused into them the most favourable hopes that he would prove an excellent ruler, since he possessed such extraordinary qualifications. . . .

[Theodosius marched against Eugenius.] The emperor (having mourned for [his just deceased wife] a whole day, according to the rule of Homer), proceeded with his army to the war, leaving behind him his son Arcadius, who had some time previously been made emperor. This prince being young, his father, in order to amend the defects of his nonage, left with him Rufinus, who was prefect of the court, and acted as he pleased, even as much as the power of sovereignty enabled the emperor himself to do. Having done this, he took with him his younger son Honorius, quickly passed through the intermediate countries, and having exceded his expectations in crossing the Alps, arrived where the enemy was stationed : Eugenius being astonished at seeing him there whom he so little expected. But as he was arrived there, and consequently was under the necessity of engaging, he judged it most prudent to place the Barbarian troops in front, and to expose them first. He ordered Gaines with the troops under his command to make the first attack, and the other commanders of Barbarian soldiers to follow him, either cavalry, horse archers, or infantry. Eugenius then drew out his forces. When the two armies were engaged, so great an eclipse of the sun happened, that for more than half the time of the action it appeared rather to be night than day. As they fought therefore a kind of nocturnal battle, so great a slaughtor was made, that in the same day the greater part of the allies of Theodosius were slain, with their commander Bacurius, who fought very courageously at their head, while the other commanders escaped very narrowly with the remainder. When night came on and the armies had rallied, Eugenius was so elated with his victory, that he distributed money among those who had behaved with the greatest gallantry in the battle, and gave them time to refresh themselves, as if after such a defeat there was no probability of another engagement As they were thus solacing themselves, the emperor Theodosius about break of day fell suddenly on them with his whole forces, while they were still reclined |129 on the ground, and killed them before they knew of the approach of an enemy. He then proceeded to the tent of Eugenius, where he attacked those who were around him, killing many of them, and taking some of them in their flight, among whom was Eugenius. When they had got him in their power, they cut off his head, and carried it on a long spear around the camp, in order to shew those who still adhered to him, that it was now their interest to be reconciled to the emperor, inasmuch as the usurper was removed.
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ArcadiusAE4GlorRom.jpg
1ey Arcadius20 views383-408

AE4

Pearl-diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right, D N ARCADIVS P F AVG
Emperor advancing right, seizing bound captive by the hair & carrying labarum, BSISC in ex., GLORIA ROMANORVM

RIC 38c2

Zosimus recorded, [Theodosius] proceeded with his army to the war [against Eugenius], leaving behind him his son Arcadius, who had some time previously been made emperor. . . .

THE whole empire being vested in Arcadius and Honorius, they indeed appeared by their title to possess the sovereign authority, although the universal administration of affairs was under Rufinus in the east, and under Stilico in the west. By these all causes were determined, at their own pleasure; for whoever bribed plentifully, or by any other means of friendship or consanguinity could make the judge his advocate, was sure to succeed in the process. From hence it happened that most of those great estates, which cause the possessors to be generally esteemed fortunate, devolved to these two; since some endeavoured by gifts to avoid false accusations, and others relinquished all their possessions to obtain an office, or in any other manner to purchase the ruin of particular cities. While iniquity of every kind presided, therefore, in the respective cities, the money from all quarters flowed into the coffers of Rufinus and Stilico ; while on the reverse, poverty preyed on the habitations of those who had formerly been rich. Nor were the emperors acquainted with anything that was done, but thought all that Rufinus and Stilico commanded was done by virtue of some unwritten law. After they had amassed immense wealth, Rufinus began to concert the means of becoming emperor, by making his own daughter, who was now marriageable. . . . [A different cabal persuaded Arcadius to marry a different girl.]. . . .

Before this juncture a report had been circulated at Rome, that the emperor Arcadius was dead, which was confirmed after the departure of Arcadius for Ravenna. Stilico being at Ravenna while the emperor was at a city of Aemilia, called Bononia, about seventy miles distant, the emperor sent for him to chastise the soldiers, who mutinied amongst each other by the way. Stilico, therefore, having collected the mutinous troops together, informed them that the emperor had commanded him to correct them for their disobedience, and to punish them by a decimation, or putting to death every tenth man. At this they were in such consternation, that they burst into tears, and desiring him to have compassion on them, prevailed on him to promise them a pardon from the emperor. The emperor having performed what Stilico had promised, they applied themselves to public business. For Stilico was desirous of proceeding to the east to undertake the management of the affairs of Theodosius, the son of Arcadius, who was very young, and in want of a guardian. Honorius himself was also inclined to undertake the same journey, with a design to secure the dominions of that emperor. But Stilico, being displeased at that, and laying before the emperor a calculation of the immense sum of money it would require to defray the expence of such an expedition, deterred him from the enterprise.
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HonoriusAE3Emperors.jpg
1fa Honorius19 views393-423

AE3

RIC 403

Pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right, DN HONORIVS PF AVG
Two emperors standing facing, heads turned to one another, each holding spear and resting hand on shield, GLORIA ROMANORVM. Mintmark SMKA.

Zosimus wrote: [Theodosius] proceeded with his army to the war [against Eugenius], leaving behind him his son Arcadius, who had some time previously been made emperor. . . . Having done this, he took with him his younger son Honorius, quickly passed through the intermediate countries, and having exceded his expectations in crossing the Alps, arrived where the enemy was stationed. . . . The emperor Theodosius after these successes proceeded to Rome, where he declared his son Honorius emperor, and appointing Stilico to the command of his forces there, left him as guardian to his son. . . . The emperor Theodosius, having consigned Italy, Spain, Celtica, and Libya to his son Honorius, died of a disease on his journey towards Constantinople. . . .

THE whole empire being vested in Arcadius and Honorius, they indeed appeared by their title to possess the sovereign authority, although the universal administration of affairs was under Rufinus in the east, and under Stilico in the west. By these all causes were determined, at their own pleasure; for whoever bribed plentifully, or by any other means of friendship or consanguinity could make the judge his advocate, was sure to succeed in the process. From hence it happened that most of those great estates, which cause the possessors to be generally esteemed fortunate, devolved to these two; since some endeavoured by gifts to avoid false accusations, and others relinquished all their possessions to obtain an office, or in any other manner to purchase the ruin of particular cities. While iniquity of every kind presided, therefore, in the respective cities, the money from all quarters flowed into the coffers of Rufinus and Stilico ; while on the reverse, poverty preyed on the habitations of those who had formerly been rich. Nor were the emperors acquainted with anything that was done, but thought all that Rufinus and Stilico commanded was done by virtue of some unwritten law. . . .

After the autumn was terminated, and winter had commenced, Bassus and Philippus being chosen consuls, the emperor Honorius, who had long before lost his wife Maria, desired to marry her sister Thermantia. But Stilico appeared not to approve of the match, although it was promoted by Serena, who wished it to take place from these motives. When Maria was about to be married to Honorius, her mother, deeming her too young for the marriage-state and being unwilling to defer the marriage, although she thought that to submit so young and tender a person to the embraces of a man was offering violence to nature, she had recourse to a woman who knew how to manage such affairs, and by her means contrived that Maria should live with the emperor and share his bed, but that he should not have the power to deprive her of virginity. In the meantime Maria died a virgin, and Serena, who, as may readily be supposed, was desirous to become the grandmother of a young emperor or empress, through fear of her influence being diminished, used all her endeavours to marry her other daughter to Honorius. This being accomplished, the young lady shortly afterwards died in the same manner as the former. . . . .

For Stilico was desirous of proceeding to the east to undertake the management of the affairs of Theodosius, the son of Arcadius, who was very young, and in want of a guardian. Honorius himself was also inclined to undertake the same journey, with a design to secure the dominions of that emperor. But Stilico, being displeased at that, and laying before the emperor a calculation of the immense sum of money it would require to defray the expence of such an expedition, deterred him from the enterprise. . . .

In the mean time, the emperor Honorius commanded his wife Thermantia to be taken from the imperial throne, and to be restored to her mother, who notwithstanding was without suspicion. . . . Alaric began his expedition against Rome, and ridiculed the preparations made by Honorius. . . . The emperor Honorius was now entering on the consulship, having enjoyed that honour eight times, and the emperor Theodosius in the east three times. At this juncture the rebel Constantine sent some eunches to Honorius, to intreat pardon from him for having accepted of the empire. When the emperor heard this petition, perceiving that it was not easy for him, since Alaric and his barbarians were so near, to prepare for other wars ; and consulting the safety of his relations who were in the hands of the rebel, whose names were Verenianus and Didymius; he not only granted his request, but likewise sent him an imperial robe. . . .

Note: No ancient source reports the sack of Rome by the Goths in 410, they having besieged the city three times, all while Honorius huddled in a besieged Ravenna. Honorius retained his nominal capacity until he died in 423.
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DSC05512.JPG
1st-3rd Century C.E. Harness Ring Junction Loops25 viewsView of the ring junction loops showing the studs used to secure them to the harness straps.Fiorenza21
DSC05510.JPG
1st-3rd Century C.E. Harness Ring Junction Loops24 viewsThree different loops varying in style. The left loop is silvered and this measures 10mm x 49mm.Fiorenza21
049n.jpg
2 Countermarks on obverse of Geta ΠCEΠT-ΓETA•KA AE24280 viewsARABIA PETRAEA. Petra. Geta. Æ 24. A.D. 198-209. Obv: (ΠCEΠT-ΓETA•KA) or similar. Bare-headed, draped and cuirassed bust right; 2 countermarks, (1) on bust, (2) behind bust. Rev: (AΔPIΠETP-AMHTPOΠ) or similar. Tyche seated left on rock, holding trophy in right hand and stele in extended left hand (?). Ref: Spijkerman 48. Axis: 360°. Weight: 7.28 g. CM(1): •Δ• in circular punch, 5.5 mm.Howgego 801 (19 pcs). CM(2): Second application of same CM. Collection Automan.Automan
2550281.jpg
2) The Pompeians 66 viewsROMAN IMPERATORIAL
Pompey the Great / Sextus Pompey
37/6 BC. AR Denarius (18mm, 3.72 g, 2h). Uncertain Sicilian mint, possibly Catana.

Bare head of Pompey the Great right; capis behind, lituus before / Neptune standing left, holding aplustre and resting foot on prow, between the Catanaean brothers, Anapias and Amphinomus, who carry their parents on their shoulders.

Cr 511/3a; CRI 334; Sydenham 1344; RSC 17 (Pompey the Great). Near VF, toned, scratches.

Ex CNG
RM0006
4 commentsSosius
trajan.jpg
2. Trajan190 viewsSilver denarius, RIC 40, RSC 214, choice aUNC, Rome mint, 3.374g, 18.2mm, 180o, 100 A.D.; obverse IMP CAES NERVA TRAIAN AVG GERM, laureate head right; reverse P M TR P COS III P P, Vesta seated left holding patera and torchb70
santogether.jpg
2..Sankaravarman 883-902 AD (Utpala dynasty)15 viewsSankaravarman 883-902 AD (Utpala dynasty)
Copper Kaserah or Punchshi 18mm (5.15gr)
Obverse- Goddess Ardochsho/Lakshmi seated
Reverse- King facing
Paul R3
1_Archer.jpg
2.Darius I to Xerxes I - 505-480 BC33 viewsAR 1/3 Siglos
Obv. Bearded king or hero, kneeling right with drawn bow and a quiver on his back.
Rev. Incuse Oblong punch.
Size:10mm;1.76gms
Ref.-Carridice II; BMC Arabia vol.28,pg.173,No.184
Sear 3429,SNG Turkey I 1027
brian l
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201. Septimus Severus; Pautalia, Thrace18 viewsSeptimus Severus AE19 of Pautalia. AV K L CEP CEVHPOC, laureate head right / OVLPIAC PAVTALIAC, bunch of grapes on a stem. Moushmov 4164. No.3179.

ecoli
2014-105-4_AE18MacedoniaAlexanderIIIClubBowInCase-Forum.jpg
2014.105.440 viewsAlexander III, The Great, Uncertain Macedonian Mint (336-323 BC)

AE18; 5.91 g; 6h

Obverse: Head of Heracles right, wearing lion's skin.
Reverse: ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ, between club and bow in case.
Ref: Price 266; SNG Munich Part 10/11 827;
1 commentsgordian_guy
2014-105-5_AE15MacedoniaAlexanderIIIHorseRight-Forum.jpg
2014.105.536 viewsAlexander III, The Great, Uncertain Macedonian Mint (336-323 BC)

AE15; 3.66 g; 7h

Obverse: Male head right, wearing Taenia.
Reverse: ΑΛΕΞΑΝ[ΔΡΟΥ]; Horse advancing right. Below E.
Ref: Price 356;
2 commentsgordian_guy
2014-105-6_AE18AsiaMinorAlexanderTheGreatBowInCaseClub-Forum.jpg
2014.105.636 viewsAlexander III, The Great, Uncertain Mint Western Asia Minor (c. 323 - c. 310 BC)

AE18; 5.71 g; 3h

Obverse: Head of Heracles right, wearing lion's skin.
Reverse: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ, between bow in decorated case and club, torch to left in exergue.
Ref: Price 2800(f); SNG Munich 919;
1 commentsgordian_guy
2014-246-5_AE23KelenderisCityGoddessApollo-Forum.jpg
2014.246.524 viewsKelenderis (2nd - 1st Century BC)

AE23; 7.29 g; 12h
Obverse: Turreted head of City Goddess right; ΙΣ, behind.
Reverse: ΚΕΛΕΝΔΕΡΙΤΩΝ, downward in right field; ΛΕ, in left field, uncertain Monogram left field(?); Apollo, nude, standing left, holding laurel branch in extended right hand; left elbow leaning on column surmounted by tripod.
Ref: cf SNG France 727-728, for similar types.
gordian_guy
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201a. Julia Domna66 viewsIn Rome, when the worship of Cybele, as Magna Mater, was formally initiated in 203 BC, Rome was embroiled in the Second Punic War. The previous year, an inspection had been made of the Sibylline Books, and some oracular verses had been discovered that announced that if a foreign foe should carry war into Italy, he could be driven out and conquered if the Mater Magna were brought from Pessinos to Rome. Publius Cornelius Scipio Nasica was ordered to go to the port of Ostia, accompanied by all the matrons, to meet the goddess. He was to receive her as she left the vessel, and when brought to land he was to place her in the hands of the matrons who were to bear her to her destination, the Temple of Victory on the Palatine Hill. The day on which this event took place, 12 April, was observed afterwards as a festival, the Megalesian. (Livy, History of Rome, circa AD 10)

In Rome, her Phrygian origins were recalled by Catullus, whose famous poem on the theme of Attis includes a vivid description of Cybele's worship: "Together come and follow to the Phrygian home of Cybele, to the Phrygian forests of the goddess, where the clash of cymbals ring, where tambourines resound, where the Phrygian flute-player blows deeply on his curved reed, where ivy-crowned maenads toss their heads wildly."

Roman devotion to Cybele ran deep. Not coincidentally, when a Christian basilica was built over the site of a temple to Cybele, to occupy the site, it was dedicated as the Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore.

The worship of Cybele penetrated as far as Mauretania, where, just outside Setif, the ceremonial "tree-bearers" and the faithful (religiosi) restored the temple of Cybele and Attis after a disastrous fire in AD 288. Lavish new fittings paid for by the private group included the silver statue of Cybele and the chariot that carried her in procession received a new canopy, with tassels in the form of fir cones. (Robin Lane Fox, Pagans and Christians, p 581.)

Today, a monumental statue of Cybele can be found in one of the principal traffic circles of Madrid, the Plaza de Cibeles (illustration, upper right).

In Roman mythology, Magna Mater deorum Idaea ("great Idaean mother of the gods") was the name for the originally Phrygian goddess Cybele, as well as Rhea.

Her cult moved from Phrygia to Greece from the 6th century to the 4th. In 205 BC, Rome adopted her cult.

Julia Domna Denarius. 212 AD. IVLIA PIA FELIX AVG, draped bust right / MATRI DEVM, Cybele standing left, leaning on column, holding drum & scepter, lion at foot. RSC 137. RIC 382
1 commentsecoli
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201c. Pescennius Niger125 viewsGaius Pescennius Niger was governor of Syria in the year 193 when he learned of the emperor Pertinax's murder. Niger's subsequent attempt to claim the empire for himself ended in failure in Syria after roughly one year. His life before becoming governor of Syria is not well known. He was born in Italy to an equestrian family. He seems to have been older than his eventual rival Septimius Severus, so his birth should perhaps be placed ca. AD 135-40. Niger may have held an important position in the administration of Egypt. He won renown, along with Clodius Albinus, for participation in a military campaign in Dacia early in Commodus' reign. Although Niger could have been adlected into the senate before the Dacian campaign, he was by now pursuing a senatorial career and must have been held in high esteem by Commodus. Niger was made a suffect consul, probably in the late 180s, and he was sent as governor to the important province of Syria in 191.

Niger was a well-known and well-liked figure to the Roman populace. After Pertinax became emperor at the beginning of 193, many in Rome may have hoped that the elderly Pertinax would adopt Niger as his Caesar and heir, but Pertinax was murdered without having made succession plans. When Didius Julianus arrived at the senate house on 29 March 193, his first full day as emperor, a riot broke out among the Roman crowd. The rioters took over the Circus Maximus, from which they shouted for Niger to seize the throne. The rioters dispersed the following day, but a report of their demonstration may well have arrived in the Syrian capital, Antioch, with the news that Pertinax had been murdered and replaced by Julianus.

Spurred into action by the news, Niger had himself proclaimed emperor in Antioch. The governors of the other eastern provinces quickly joined his cause. Niger's most important ally was the respected proconsul of Asia, Asellius Aemilianus, and support began to spread across the Propontis into Europe. Byzantium welcomed Niger, who now was preparing further advances. Niger took the additional cognomen Justus, "the Just." Justice was promoted as the theme of his intended reign, and personifications of Justice appeared on his coins.

Other provincial governors, however, also set their sights on replacing Julianus. Albinus in Britain and Septimius Severus in Upper Pannonia (western Hungary) had each aspired to the purple, and Severus was marching an army on Rome. Severus was still 50 miles from the city when the last of Julianus' dwindling authority disappeared. Julianus was killed in Rome 1 June 193.

Niger sent messengers to Rome to announce his acclamation, but those messengers were intercepted by Severus. A deal was struck between Severus and Albinus that kept Albinus in Britain with the title of Caesar. The larger armies of the western provinces were now united in their support for Severus. Niger's support was confined to the east. Severus had Niger's children captured and held as hostages, and a legion was sent to confront Niger's army in Thrace.

The first conflict between the rival armies took place near Perinthus. Although Niger's forces may have inflicted greater casualties on the Severan troops, Niger was unable to secure his advance; he returned to Byzantium. By the autumn of 193, Severus had left Rome and arrived in the region, though his armies there continued to be commanded by supporters. Niger was offered the chance of a safe exile by Severus, but Niger refused.

Severan troops crossed into Asia at the Hellespont and near Cyzicus engaged forces supporting Niger under the command of Aemilianus. Niger's troops were defeated. Aemilianus attempted to flee but was captured and killed. Not long after, in late December 193 or early January 194, Niger was defeated in a battle near Nicaea and fled south to Antioch. Eastern provincial governors now switched their loyalty to Severus, and Niger faced revolts even in Syria. By late spring 194, the Severan armies were in Cilicia preparing to enter Syria. Niger and his army met the Severan troops near Issus. The battle was a decisive defeat for Niger, who fled back to Antioch. The Syrian capital that only one year earlier had cheered as Niger was proclaimed emperor now waited in fear for the approach of its new master. Niger prepared to flee once more, but outside Antioch he was captured and killed.

Despite his popularity with the Roman mob, Pescennius Niger lacked both the strong loyalty of other senatorial commanders and the number of soldiers that his rival Severus enjoyed. Niger was ultimately unable to make himself the true avenger of Pertinax, and his roughly one-year control of the eastern provinces never qualified him to be reckoned a legitimate emperor.

BITHYNIA, Caesarea. Pescennius Niger. AD 193-194. Æ 22mm (6.35 g). Laureate head right / KAICAREIAC GERMANIKHC, coiled serpent left. RG p. 282, 9, pl. XLIV, 8 (same dies); SNG Copenhagen -; SNG von Aulock -. Near VF, brown patina, rough surfaces. Very rare. Ex-CNG
2 commentsecoli
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202. Septimius Severus49 viewsThe Caledonians are next mentioned in 209, when they are said to have surrendered to the emperor Septimius Severus after he personally led a military expedition north of Hadrian's Wall, in search of a glorious military victory. Herodian and Dio wrote only in passing of the campaign but describe the Caledonians ceding territory to Rome as being the result. Cassius Dio records that the Caledonians inflicted 50,000 Roman casualties due to attrition and unconventional tactics such as guerrilla warfare. Dr. Colin Martin has suggested that the Severan campaigns did not seek a battle but instead sought to destroy the fertile agricultural land of eastern Scotland and thereby bring about genocide of the Caledonians through starvation.

By 210 however, the Caledonians had re-formed their alliance with the Maeatae and joined their fresh offensive. A punitive expedition led by Severus' son, Caracalla, was sent out with the purpose of slaughtering everyone it encountered from any of the northern tribes. Severus meanwhile prepared for total conquest but was already ill; he died at Eboracum (modern day York) in Britannia in 211. Caracalla attempted to take over command but when his troops refused to recognise him as emperor, he made peace with the Caledonians and retreated south of Hadrian's Wall to press his claim for the throne. Sheppard Frere suggests that Caracalla briefly continued the campaign after his father's death rather than immediately leaving, citing an apparent delay in his arrival in Rome and indirect numismatic and epigraphic factors that suggest he may instead have fully concluded the war but that Dio's hostility towards his subject led him to record the campaign as ending in a truce. Malcolm Todd however considers there to be no evidence to support this. Nonetheless the Caledonians did retake their territory and pushed the Romans back to Hadrians Wall.

In any event, there is no further historical mention of the Caledonians for a century save for a c. AD 230 inscription from Colchester which records a dedication by a man calling himself the nephew (or grandson) of "Uepogenus, [a] Caledonian". This may be because Severus' campaigns were so successful that the Caledonians were wiped out, however this is highly unlikely. In 305, Constantius Chlorus re-invaded the northern lands of Britain although the sources are vague over their claims of penetration into the far north and a great victory over the "Caledones and others" (Panegyrici Latini Vetares, VI (VII) vii 2). The event is notable in that it includes the first recorded use of the term 'Pict' to describe the tribes of the area.

Septimius Severus. AD 193-211. Æ As (25mm, 11.07 g, 7h). “Victoria Britannica” issue. Rome mint. Struck AD 211. Laureate head right / Victory standing right, holding vexillum; seated captives flanking. RIC IV 812a. Near VF, brown surfaces with touches of green and red, porous. Rare.

From the Fairfield Collection.

ex-cng EAuction 329 481/100/60
1 commentsecoli
RIC_0086.jpg
203. MACRINUS191 viewsMACRINUS. 217-218 AD.

Caracalla's mother, Julia Domna, had toyed with the idea of raising a rebellion against Macrinus shortly after her son's murder, but the empress was uncertain of success and already suffering from breast cancer. She chose to starve herself to death instead.

The grandchildren of her sister, Julia Maesa, would become the focus of the successful uprising that began on 15 May 218. Her 14-year-old grandson Avitus (known to history as Elagabalus) was proclaimed emperor by one the legions camped near the family's hometown of Emesa. Other troops quickly joined the rebellion, but Macrinus marshalled loyal soldiers to crush the revolt. Macrinus also promoted his son to the rank of emperor.

The forces met in a village outside Antioch on 8 June 218. Despite the inexperience of the leaders of the rebel army, Macrinus was defeated. He sent his son, Diadumenianus, with an ambassador to the Parthian king, while Macrinus himself prepared to flee to Rome. Macrinus traveled across Asia Minor disguised as a courier and nearly made it to Europe, but he was captured in Chalcedon. Macrinus was transported to Cappadocia, where he was executed. Diadumenianus had also been captured (at Zeugma) and was similarly put to death.

Contemporaries tended to portray Macrinus as a fear-driven parvenu who was able to make himself emperor but was incapable of the leadership required by the job. An able administrator, Macrinus lacked the aristocratic connections and personal bravado that might have won him legitimacy. His short reign represented a brief interlude of Parthian success during what would prove the final decade of the Parthian empire.

AR Denarius (18mm 3.55 gm). IMP C M OPEL SEV MACRINVS AVG, laureate and cuirassed bust with short beard right / SALVS PVBLICA, Salus seated left, feeding snake rising up from altar, holding sceptre in left. RIC IV 86; Good VF; Ex-CNG
2 commentsecoli73
coin230.JPG
204. Elagabalus29 viewsElagabalus was and is one of the most controversial Roman emperors. During his reign he showed a disregard for Roman religious traditions and sexual taboos. Elagabalus' name is a Latinized form of the Semitic deity El-Gabal, a manifestation of the Semitic deity Ēl. He replaced Jupiter, head of the Roman pantheon, with a new god, Deus Sol Invictus, which in Latin means "the Sun, God Unconquered". Elagabalus forced leading members of Rome's government to participate in religious rites celebrating Sol invictus which he personally led.

He also took a Vestal Virgin as one of a succession of wives and openly boasted that his sexual interest in men was more than just a casual pastime, as it had been for previous emperors.

Elagabalus developed a reputation among his contemporaries for eccentricity, decadence, and zealotry which was likely exaggerated by his successors. This black propaganda was passed on and as such he was one of the most reviled Roman emperors to early Christian historians and later became a hero to the Decadent movement of the late 19th century.

Elagabalus Denarius. IMP ANTONINVS PIVS AVG, horned, laureate, and draped bust right / PM TR P IIII COS III P P, Elagabalus standing left sacrificing out of patera over lighted altar & holding branch, star left. RIC 46, RSC 196
ecoli
coin231.JPG
204b. Julia Maesa29 viewsJulia Maesa (about 170- about 226) was daughter of Julius Bassianus, priest of the sun god Heliogabalus, the patron god of Emesa in the Roman province of Syria, and grandmother of the Roman emperor Elagabalus. Like her younger sister Julia Domna, she was among the most important women ever to exercise power behind the throne in the Roman empire.

Julia Maesa was married to Julius Avitus and had two daughters, Julia Mamaea and Julia Soaemias, each one mother of an emperor. Following the accession to the throne of her brother in law Septimius Severus, Julia Maesa moved to Rome to live with her sister. After the murder of her nephew Caracalla, and the suicide of Julia Domna, she was compelled to return to Syria. But the new emperor Macrinus did not proscribe her and allowed her to keep her money. In Syria, Maesa engaged in a plot to overthrow Macrinus and place one of her grandsons, Elagabalus son of Julia Soaemias, in his place. In order to legitimise this pretension, mother and daughter rumoured that the 14-year-old boy was Caracalla's illegitimate son. The Julias were successful, mainly due to the fact that Macrinus was of an obscure origin without the proper political connections, and Elagabalus became emperor.

For her loyalty and support, Elagabalus honored Julia Maesa with the title Augusta avia Augusti (Augusta, grandmother of Augustus). When the teenager proved to be a disaster as emperor (even taking the liberty of marrying a Vestal virgin), Julia Maesa decided to promote Alexander Severus, another of her grandsons. Elagabalus was forced to adopt Alexander as son and was murdered shortly afterwards.

Julia Maesa died in an uncertain date around 226 AD and, like her sister Domna before her, was deified.

Julia Maesa Denarius. PVDICITIA, Pudicitia seated left, raising veil and holding sceptre.

Julia Maesa Denarius. IVLIA MAESA AVG, draped bust right / PVDICITIA, Pudicitia seated left, raising veil and holding sceptre. RIC 268, RSC 36. s2183. No.1502. nVF.
RSC 444, RIC 88
ecoli
207-1_Decimia.jpg
207/1. Decimia or Flavia? - denarius (150 BC)10 viewsAR Denarius (Rome, 150 BC)
O/ Helmeted head of Roma right; X behind.
R/ Luna in biga right, holding whip & reins; FLAVS below; ROMA in exergue.
3.95g; 19mm
Crawford 207/1 (61 obverse dies/76 reverse dies)
- Collection of Frederick Sydney Clark (1923-2016), British collector in East Sussex.
- Toovey's, 01/11/2017, Lot 701.

* Decimius Flavus or Gaius Flavius Fimbria:

This issue has been given to a member of the plebeian gens Decimia, of Samnite origin. The gens was relatively new at the time since its first identified member Numerius Decimius distinguished himself during the Second Punic War (Livy, xxii. 24), and probably received the Roman citizenship as a result. Two Decimii used the cognomen Flavus: a military tribune in 207 named Gaius Decimius Flavus (Livy, xxvii. 14), and his probable son of the same name, who was Urban Praetor in 184, but died immediately after his election (Livy, xxxix. 38).

Three other Decimii are then known: Marcus, Gaius, and Lucius, all ambassadors in Greece in 172-171 (Livy, xlii. 19, 35, 37 respectively). They were possible sons of the Praetor of 184, in which case our moneyer was the son of one of them, although nothing is known of him. However, none of them had a cognomen and Flavus simply meant "blond hair", a rather common cognomen unlikely to feature alone on a coin.

So the name could refer to another gens; it is indeed possible to read it as FLAVIVS. This name, widespread during the Empire after Vespasian, was nevertheless uncommon in the second century and therefore distinctive enough so that the moneyer did not need to add the rest of his name. Besides, only one Flavius is known in this century: the Popularis Gaius Flavius C.f. Fimbria, Consul in 104 alongside Marius. Fimbria was therefore born no later than 146 (the Consulship was reserved to men aged at least 42 years old), a date which would remarkably fit with his father moneyer in 150 and therefore in his 20s. As Fimbria was a novus homo, the moneyership held by his father would testify the ascension of the family before him.
Joss
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217-215 BC Roman Republic AE Semi uncia 19 viewsThe semuncia (Latin half-ounce) was an ancient Roman bronze coin valued at one-twenty-fourth of an as produced during the Roman Republic. It was made during the beginning of Roman cast bronze coinage as the lowest valued denomination. The most common obverse types were a bust of Mercury or an acorn (occasionally marked with Σ), and the most common reverse types were a prow or a caduceus. It was issued until ca. 210 BC, at about the time the same time as the denarius was introduced.

Cr. 38/7
217-215 BC
Obverse: Head of Mercury right, wearing winged petasus
Reverse: ROMA above prow right

From Ebay(UK seller - George Clegg)

Check
ecoli
22-Celtic-Alex-tet.jpg
22. Celtic Alexander Tetradrachm (?)42 viewsTetradrachm, ca 2'nd century BC, Danube region.
Obverse: Head of Alexander as Herakles, wearing lion's skin headdress.
Reverse: ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ / Zeus sitting, holding his attendant eagle and sceptre. Tripod at left.
17.25 gm., 28 mm.

In researching this coin, I found five coins which are from the same pair of dies as this one. These are the only examples of this type (tripod on reverse) that I've been able to find.

1. Palladium sale #10 (Nov. 1995), attributed to the mint at Pella and catalogued as Muller #146.

2. Palladium sale #11 (April 1996), described as "unlisted in Price, and apparently unknown before a recent hoard find. Variant of Price 633."

3. CNG sale #54, lot 99, described as a Celtic imitation of Alexander's coinage from the Danube region, ca 2'nd century BC. c.f. Goble, OTA, 566. This is the coin pictured above.

4. CNG sale #72, lot 13, described as "Celtic, Lower Danube, uncertain tribe, early 3'rd century BC . . . . Unpublished in the standard references . . . . By virtue of its style, fabric, and weight, this Alexander imitation is certainly an early issue, probably struck during the first decades of the third century BC."

5. Harlan J Berk 156th Buy or Bid Sale (Oct. 2007), lot 75, described as "Possibly unpublished . . . Somewhat unusual style on the obverse."

Five coins from the same pair or dies, five different attributions. I will agree, though, with the last statement of coin #4 above, that this appears to be an early issue. This coin is on a thick flan resembling coins minted during Alexander's lifetime and immediately thereafter and is made from good silver. There is something a bit barbaric about the style of this coin, although there are genuine Alexander coins listed and pictured in Martin J. Price's book which are more barbaric than this one. An interesting coin.
1 commentsCallimachus
22107.jpg
22107 Victorinus/Pax from the Petherington Hoard11 viewsVictorinus/Pax
Obv: IMP C VICTORINVS P F AVG,
Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: PAX AVG
Pax standing left, holding branch and sceptre;
V-star across fields.
Mint:Cologne 19.8mm 2.7g
RIC 118; Elmer 682; AGK (corr.) 14b. Sear 11175.
From the South Petherington Hoard in uncleaned condition
Ex Frascatius
Blayne W
1472777_598560563514192_1044810181_n.jpg
240 Valerian I39 viewsValerian I, October 253 - c. June 260 A.D.
Billon antoninianus, Göbl MIR 1700l (Samosata), RIC V 287 (Antioch), SRCV III 9967 (uncertain Syrian mint), Fine or better, Syrian mint, 258 - 260 A.D.; obverse IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS P F AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse RESTITVT ORIENTIS (restorer of the East), turreted female (the Orient) presenting wreath to the Emperor standing left holding spear, pellet in wreath above; Ex Forvm

"The false propaganda on the reverse is particularly ironic considering Valerian's fate. After years of war and great losses, Valerian arranged peace talks with the Sasanian Persian emperor Sapor. He set off with a small group to discuss terms and was never seen again. In Rome it was rumored that Sapor was using his stuffed body as a footstool."
2 commentsRandygeki(h2)
rjb_carus1_10_07.jpg
28229 viewsCarus 282-3 AD
AE antoninianus
IMP C M AVR CARVS PF AVG
Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
VIRTVS AVG
Mars stg right, leaning on shield
-/-//-
RIC -
RIC ascribes this coin to Lugdunum (RIC 27), but that is an attribution I am uncomfortable with. The lettering style is quite clearly not Lugdunum. The mint is that of Ticinum and the type unrecorded in RIC although at least one other example from the same reverse die is known (Thanks Ed D and Curtis).
mauseus
diocletian-Cocordia-militum.jpg
284-305 AD Diocletian Silvered Antoninianus - Concordia Militum76 viewsIMPCCVALDIOCLETIANVSAVG - radiate, and draped bust right
CONCORDIAMILITVM, Emperor standing right, holding scepter, recieving Victory on globe from jupiter standing Left and holding scepter. Gamma between, XXI in Exergue

Perhaps Antioch Mint, Ric 306 ??? ( the gamma between is what throws me...)
This coin came from a uncleaned lot.
jimwho523
rjb_2012_11_36.jpg
28633 viewsMaximianus I 286-305 AD
AE denarius
Uncertain Mint
MAXIMIANVS AVG CONS III
Laureate consular bust left holding eagle tipped sceptre
HERCVLI CONSERVATORI
Hercules standing right leaning on club after completing his labours
-/-//-
RIC (V) -
mauseus
834_P_Hadrian_RPC2945A.JPG
2945A PONTUS, Nicopolis ad Lycum Hadrian Ae 18 126-27 AD Nike18 viewsReference.
RPC III, 2945A; new type

Issue Year 56 (NϚ)

Obv. AYT TPAI-AΔPIAN
Laureate head of Hadrian right

Rev. ΕΤΟΥC ΝϚ
Victory walking, right, holding wreath and palm 'uncertain object' to right

4.61 gr
18 mm
6h
okidoki
1033_P_Hadrian_RPC2952.jpg
2952 CAPPADOCIA, Tyana. Hadrian 117-18 AD Tyche seated on throne12 viewsReference.
RPC III, 2952; SNG Leypold 2821

Issue Year 2

Obv. AVTO KAIC TPAIA AΔPIANOC CЄBACTOC.
Laureate head right.

Rev. ΤΥΑΝΕωΝ ΤΗС ΙΕΡΑС ΑСΥΛΟΥ ΑΥΤΟΝΟΜΟΥ
Tyche seated l., holding ears of corn and bunch of grapes in her r. hand; below, river-god l.; in field, l. and r., ΕΤ Β

11.05 gr
25 mm
12h
okidoki
1262_P_Hadrian_RPC2952.jpg
2952 CAPPADOCIA, Tyana. Hadrian 117-18 AD Tyche seated on throne5 viewsReference.
RPC III, 2952; SNG Leypold 2821

Issue Year 2

Obv. ΑΥΤΟ ΚΑΙ ΤΡΑΙΑ ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СΕΒΑСΤΟС
Laureate head of Hadrian, right

Rev. ΤΥΑΝΕωΝ ΤΗС ΙΕΡΑС ΑСΥΛΟΥ ΑΥΤΟΝΟΜΟΥ
Tyche seated l., holding ears of corn and bunch of grapes in her r. hand; below, river-god l.; in field, l. and r., ΕΤ Β

10.15 gr
25 mm
12h
okidoki
390_P_Hadrian.jpg
2955 CAPPADOCIA, Tyana. Hadrian 135-36 AD Tyche seated on throne37 viewsReference.
RPC III, 2955; SNG von Aulock 6538-9; Lindgren I 1735; cf SNG Cop 316.

Issue Year 20

Obv. AVTO KAIC TPAIA AΔPIANOC CЄBACTOC.
Laureate head right.

Rev. TVANЄΩN TΩN T T IЄP ACV AVT. ЄT K (date) across field
Tyche seated left on throne decorated with sphinx, holding grain ears and bunch of grapes; below, river god swimming left, head facing, holding club

11.04 gr
25 mm
12h

Note.
ex Lindgren 1735
1 commentsokidoki
21_P_Hadrian__SNG_von_Aulock_6538-9.jpg
2955 CAPPADOCIA, Tyana. Hadrian 135-36 AD Tyche seated on throne25 viewsReference.
RPC III, 2955; SNG von Aulock 6538-9; Lindgren I 1735; cf SNG Cop 316.

Issue Year 20

Obv. AVTO KAIC TPAIA AΔPIANOC CЄBACTOC.
Laureate head right.

Rev. TVANЄΩN TΩN T T IЄP ACV AVT. ЄT K (date) across field
Tyche seated left on throne decorated with sphinx, holding grain ears and bunch of grapes; below, river god swimming left, head facing, holding club

10.2 gr
25 mm
12h
okidoki
937_P_Hadrian_RPC2955.JPG
2955 CAPPADOCIA, Tyana. Hadrian Æ 135-36 AD Tyche seated on throne15 viewsReference.
RPC III, 2955; SNG von Aulock 6538-9; Lindgren I 1735; cf SNG Cop 316.

Issue Year 20

Obv. AVTO KAIC TPAI AΔPIANOC CЄBACTOC.
Laureate head right.

Rev. TVANЄΩN TΩN T T IЄP ACV AVT. ЄT K (date) across field
Tyche seated left on throne decorated with sphinx, holding grain ears and bunch of grapes; below, river god swimming left, head facing, holding club

11.26 gr
25 mm
12h
okidoki
1035_P_Hadrian_RPC2955.jpg
2955cf CAPPADOCIA, Tyana. Hadrian 135-36 AD Tyche seated on throne17 viewsReference.
cf RPC III, 2955; cf SNG von Aulock 6538-9; Lindgren I 1735; cf SNG Cop 316. (crescent)

Issue Year 20

Obv. AVTO KAIC TPAIA AΔPIANOC CЄBACTOC.
Laureate head right.

Rev. TVANЄΩN TΩN T T IЄP ACV AVT. ЄT K (date) across field
Tyche seated left on throne decorated with sphinx, holding grain ears and bunch of grapes and below crescent; below, river god swimming left, head facing, holding club

11.15 gr
26 mm
12h
okidoki
DSC05421.JPG
2nd Century C.E. Celtic Style Belt Mounts29 viewsCeltic style belt mounts in "trumpet" shapes 42mm length for the two complete mounts. The two complete mounts had one stud inte