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AURELIUS-2.jpg
29 viewsMARCVS AVRELIVS - Dupondius - 171 AD
Obv.: M ANTONINVS AVG TR P XXV, radiate head right;
Rev.: IMP VI COS III S C, Victoria stg. right places a shield inscribed VIC/GER on a palm tree
Gs. 9,15 mm. 24,4
Cohen 268
Maxentius
artid975_combined.jpg
25 viewsJudaea, Procurators. Antonius Felix. 52-59 CE. in the name of Britannicus Caesar (BPIT).
Æ Prutah (16mm, 2.64 gm.). Jerusalem mint. Dated RY 14 of Claudius (54 CE). Two crossed shields / Palm tree.

Ref : Hendin 1348
Meshorer TJC 340
RPC I 4971
GIC 5626
R. Smits, Numismatist for Numismall
110295LG.jpg
7 viewsNorthwest Gaul, Carnutes. Ca. 100-52 B.C. Æ (16 mm, 3.12 g, 9 h). Head right / Two eagles flying right; in field, pentagram and cross with pellet in each quarter; serpent to right. Depeyrot 25; Delestrée & Tache 2582Quant.Geek
110315LG.jpg
8 viewsNorthwest Gaul, Carnutes. Ca. 100-52 B.C. Æ (16 mm, 3.49 g, 7 h). Female bust left / Eagle and eaglette flying left. Delestrée & Tache 2588Quant.Geek
110895LG.jpg
9 viewsNortheast Gaul, Bellovaci. Ca. 50-20 B.C. Æ (15 mm, 2.25 g, 9 h). Stylized head left / Horizontal line with three lines extending below it; above, chevron-S. Delestrée & Tache 535; Scheers 711Quant.Geek
AUGUDU03-2.jpg
28 BC Colony established at Nemausus by Augustus' army409 viewsmedium bronze (dupondius or as?) (12.6g, 25mm, 2h) Nemausus mint. Struck 10 BC - 10 AD.
IMP DIVI F Agrippa laureate head left and Augustus laureate head right, back to back
COL NEM crocodile chained to palm tree top bent to right, wreath at top.
RIC (Augustus) 158

Denomination uncertain. COL NEM stands for COLONIA AVGVSTA NEMAVSVS (present Nîmes, France), built by Augustus' army after their conquest and return from Egypt. The crocodile chained to the palm tree symbolizes the defeat of the Cleopatra and Marc Antony at Actium.
2 commentsCharles S
VESPSE06-2.jpg
70 AD: Vespasian - Defeat of the Jewish revolt and fall of Jerusalem339 viewsSestertius (28.6g, 37mm, 6h). Roman mint. Struck AD 71.
IMP CAES VESPASIAN AVG PM TR P P COS III laureate head right
IVDAEA CAPTA / S C [in ex.] Judaea seated, in attidue of sorrow, at the foot of a palm tree; behind Vespasian standing in military dress holding spear and parazonium; left foot on a helmet.
RIC 427 (scarce); BMC 543; Cohen 239
1 commentsCharles S
DSC01872.JPG
ANCIENT-INDIA-KAKANI-COIN-OF-SUNGA-KINGDOM-CAST-COPPER-COIN-2-31gm Ref..Mitchiner 4381.13 viewsObv - Elephant Left , Torion, Swastik Indradavaja
Rev - Three arched Hill, Hollow Cross, Torion, Tree Railing
Antonivs Protti
IMG_2204_-_____.JPG
Phoenicia, Akko-Ptolemais Valerian I. 253-260 AD. AE 2663 viewsValerian I. 253-260 AD. AE 26 . Phoenicia, Akko-Ptolemais.
Obv: IMP C P L - [VALERIANVS] AVG Laureate, draped, cuirassed bust right, seen from front.
Rx: COL - P - T - OL Sacred tree between serpents rising from two altars or baskets; to right, winged caduceus. Rare: this type missing in BM, Lindgren, Berk photofile, and Wildwinds. CoinArchives includes a specimen from the same reverse die, but with radiate portrait on obverse: Heritage 357, Long Beach, 9 September 2004, lot 12092. Cohen 374 (de Saulcy Collection). Adjustment marks on obverse.
1 commentsMaritima
1000-15-102.jpg
Syria, Commagene. Zeugma. Philip II24 viewsSyria, Commagene. Zeugma. Philip II. A.D. 247-249. Æ 30 (29.8 mm, 17.59 g, 1 h). AVTOK K M IOVLI ΦIΛIΠΠOC CEB, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right / ZEVΓMATEΩN, tetrastyle temple with peribolos containing grove of trees; capricorn right below. BMC 37; SNG Cop 35. ecoli
DSC_0247.jpg
21 viewsROME
PB Tessera (14mm, 1.30 g, 6 h)
Tree
DI
Cf. Rostowzew 426, pl. III, 48 (similar tree)

Ex Classical Numismatic Group Electronic Auction 267, lot 685 (part of)
Ardatirion
00004x00~5.jpg
61 viewsROME
PB Tessera (16mm, 2.53 g, 12h)
Victory standing right, foot on helmet, inscribing shield set on palm tree
Apex; palm frond to left
M. & B. Overbeck, “Romische Bleimarken als Zeugnis des Ersten Jüdischen Krieges,” in Helas und der Grechen Osten, p. 211-216, 1; Rostovtsev 1840, pl. VII, 37; BMC 802-4

The similarities between the obverse of this piece and the Judaea Capta issues of Caesarea Maritima cannot be overstated. This type, as well as a few others that bear the portrait of Vespasian or palm trees, undoubtedly played some role in the triumph that followed the conclusion of the First Jewish War.
2 commentsArdatirion
00033x00~1.jpg
61 viewsIONIA, Ephesos.
PB Tessera (20mm, 5.41 g)
Oleiculture scene: male figure standing right, holding stick and knocking olives from tree to right; star and crescent between; behind, stag(?) standing left; [...]POV above
Blank
Gülbay & Kireç –

Scenes of the olive harvest are entirely unknown on coinage, but some mosaics and Greek vases illustrate the practice. See in particular an Attic black figure neck amphora in the British Museum (ABV, 273, 116) depicting two men using sticks to knock olives from a tree.
1 commentsArdatirion
grQJzsE.jpg
19 viewsLIBERIA, American Colonization Society. 1820-1847.
CU Cent. Belleville (New Jersey) mint. Dated 1833.
LIBERIA, nude man standing before shore, cutting at tree to left; brush to right; in distance, ship under sail right; 1833 in exergue
AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY/ ONE CENT. FOUNDED/ A.D./ 1816
Snyder dies 1/A; Colver & Harley 1; KM Tn 2

The first regular strike in the sequence.
Ardatirion
00001x00~13.jpg
2 viewsLIBERIA, American Colonization Society. 1820-1847.
CU Cent. Belleville (New Jersey) mint. Dated 1833.
LIBERIA, nude man standing before shore, cutting at tree to left; brush to right; in distance, ship under sail right; 1833 in exergue
AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY/ ONE CENT. FOUNDED/ A.D./ 1816
Snyder dies 1/D; Colver & Harley –; KM Tn2

Ex Katz E-Auction 24 (14 August 2019), lot 900

The obverse of this token is from the first regular circulation issue, here heavily repolished and paired with a die from one of the final strikes, linking the two otherwise distinct sets of obverse dies. Only seven examples of this pairing are known. Snyder notes that die pairing 3/C, presently unlinked to others, could place between the first (obv 5 & 1) and second group (obv 2 &4). As obverses 3 and 4 both occur with significant breaks, this 1/D pairing may have been struck to replace either 3 or 4, with the later being more likely considering the sequence, and the 3/C pair the final set of dies used.
Ardatirion
00002x00~10.jpg
38 viewsLIBERIA, American Colonization Society. 1820-1847.
CU Cent. Belleville (New Jersey) mint. Dated 1833.
LIBERIA, nude man standing before shore, cutting at tree to left; brush to right; in distance, ship under sail right; 1833 in exergue
AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY/ ONE CENT. FOUNDED/ A.D./ 1816
Snyder dies 1/E; Colver & Harley 5; KM Tn 2
1 commentsArdatirion
00002x00~2.jpg
74 viewsLIBERIA, American Colonization Society. 1820-1847.
CU Cent (28.5mm, 10.38 g, 1h). Belleville (New Jersey) mint. Dies by Gibbs. Dated 1833.
LIBERIA. Nude man standing before shore, cutting at tree to left; brush to right; in distance, ship under sail right; 1833 in exergue
AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY/ ONE CENT. FOUNDED/ A.D./ 1816
Snyder dies 2/B; Colver & Harley 2; KM Tn 1
Ardatirion
00001x00~12.jpg
29 viewsLIBERIA, American Colonization Society. 1820-1847.
CU Cent. Belleville (New Jersey) mint. Dated 1833.
LIBERIA. Nude man standing before shore, cutting at tree to left; brush to right; in distance, ship under sail right; 1833 in exergue
AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY/ ONE CENT. FOUNDED/ A.D./ 1816
Snyder dies 2/B; Colver & Harley 2; KM Tn 1

Ex Westfälische Auktionsgesellschaft Online Auction 91 (4 November 2018), lot 259
Ardatirion
00003x02.jpg
0 viewsLIBERIA, American Colonization Society. 1820-1847.
CU Cent. Belleville (New Jersey) mint. Dated 1833.
LIBERIA, nude man standing before shore, cutting at tree to left; brush to right; in distance, ship under sail right; 1833 in exergue
AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY/ ONE CENT. FOUNDED/ A.D./ 1816
Snyder dies 1/A; Colver & Harley 1; KM Tn 2
Ardatirion
00007x00~5.jpg
27 viewsLIBERIA, American Colonization Society. 1820-1847
CU Cent
Belleville (New Jersey) mint. Dated 1833
LIBERIA, Nude man standing before shore, cutting at tree to left; brush to right; in distance, ship under sail right; 1833 in exergue
AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY/ ONE CENT. FOUNDED/ A.D./ 1816
Snyder dies 4/D; Colver & Harley 4; KM Tn1

The final regular strike in the sequence.
Ardatirion
00056x00~0.jpg
42 viewsHAITI, Premier République. Jean Pierre Boyer. President, 1825-1843
Brass 25 Centimes (21mm, 1.99 g, 12h)
Contemporary counterfeit. Dated L'An 25 of the Republic (AD 1828/9)
J * BOYER * PRESIDENTE *, AN 25
Bust left
REPUBLIQUE D'HAITI */ 25 * C
Palm tree flanked by cannon and banners
KM 18.1a; cf. Arroyo 99 (for official issue); Lissade 95
Ardatirion
00055x00~0.jpg
46 viewsHAITI, Premier République. Jean Pierre Boyer. President, 1825-1843
Brass 50 Centimes (25.5mm, 4.26 g, 12h)
Contemporary counterfeit. Dated L'An 25 of the Republic (AD 1828/9)
J * BOYER * PRESIDENTE *, AN 25
Bust left
REPUBLIQUE D'HAITI */ 50 * C
Palm tree flanked by cannon and banners
KM 20a; cf. Arroyo 105 (for official issue); Lissade 96; iNumis 25, lot 1352

On 1 June 1835, local officials arrested engraver Joseph Gardner of Belleville on charges of counterfeiting. When searching his house, officials discovered dies for Spanish 8 reales in various states of completion, coining implements, a bag of gold dust, and several bags of "spurious Haytien coppers." Yet Gardner was not the only individual striking illicit Haitian coins. James Bishop of neighboring Bloomfield, New Jersey had been arrested several months before, and a third person was responsible for the issue brought to Haiti by Jeremiah Hamilton.

Today, two distinct issues of counterfeits can be identified: a group of 25 and 50 Centimes, clearly related in fabric, and two different dates of 100 Centimes. The smaller denominations are most often found lacking a silver plating, while the plating year 26 100 Centimes is fine enough to deceive the likes of NGC and Heritage. Additionally, there are a handful year 27 100 centimes overstruck on US large cents. While I have not yet found a regular strike from these dies, they are the most likely candidate for Belleville's production.
Ardatirion
00004x00~6.jpg
28 viewsHAITI, Premier République. Jean Pierre Boyer. President, 1825-1843
Silvered Brass 50 Centimes (25mm, 4.55 g, 12h)
Contemporary counterfeit. Dated L'An 25 of the Republic (AD 1828/9)
J * BOYER * PRESIDENTE *, AN 25
Bust left
REPUBLIQUE D'HAITI */ 50 * C
Palm tree flanked by cannon and banners
KM 20a; cf. Arroyo 105 (for official issue); Lissade 96; iNumis 25, lot 1352
Ardatirion
00014x00~2.jpg
40 viewsHAITI, Premier République. Jean Pierre Boyer. President, 1825-1843
Silvered CU 100 Centimes (31mm, 10.32 g, 12h)
Contemporary counterfeit. Dated L'An 27 of the Republic (AD 1830/1)
J * BOYER * PRESIDENTE *, AN 27
Bust left
REPUBLIQUE D'HAITI */ 100 * C
Palm tree flanked by cannon and banners
KM A23a; cf. Arroyo 117 (for official issue); Lissade 103
Ardatirion
00087x00.jpg
20 viewsUNITED STATES, Trade Tokens. Wooster, Ohio. Archer House. Circa 1878-1966
AL Twenty-five Cent Token (24mm, 1.48 g, 11h)
ARCHER HOUSE -:- around central hole
GOOD FOR/ 25¢/ IN TRADE

Archer House hotel was constructed in 1878 on the corner of Buckeye and Liberty Streets, on the site of the earlier wood frame Washington House tavern. The founders, tailor E.B. Connelly and his sister-in-law Melinda, named the establishment after Melinda's deceased son, Archer. Melinda Connelly later remarried to A.M. Parrish, with whom she would operate the hotel until her death. The property passed to heir great-grandson, on who's behalf it was sold to Dr. Alonzo Smith in 1923. Archer House was finally purchased by Robert Freeman in 1964, and was razed in 1966. Today, a two story professional building stands on the spot.
Ardatirion
00086x00.jpg
21 viewsUNITED STATES, Trade Tokens. Wooster, Ohio. Archer House. Circa 1878-1966.
AL Ten Cent Token (22.5mm, 1.28 g, 2h)
ARCHER HOUSE -:- around central hole
GOOD FOR/ 10¢/ IN TRADE
Lipscomb WO 8051; TC 226639

Archer House hotel was constructed in 1878 on the corner of Buckeye and Liberty Streets, on the site of the earlier wood frame Washington House tavern. The founders, tailor E.B. Connelly and his sister-in-law Melinda, named the establishment after Melinda's deceased son, Archer. Melinda Connelly later remarried to A.M. Parrish, with whom she would operate the hotel until her death. The property passed to heir great-grandson, on who's behalf it was sold to Dr. Alonzo Smith in 1923. Archer House was finally purchased by Robert Freeman in 1964, and was razed in 1966. Today, a two story professional building stands on the spot.
Ardatirion
00085x00.jpg
16 viewsUNITED STATES, Trade Tokens. Wooster, Ohio. Archer House. Circa 1878-1966.
AL Five Cent Token (21.5mm, 1.16 g, 8h)
ARCHER HOUSE -:- around central hole
GOOD FOR/ 5¢/ IN TRADE

Archer House hotel was constructed in 1878 on the corner of Buckeye and Liberty Streets, on the site of the earlier wood frame Washington House tavern. The founders, tailor E.B. Connelly and his sister-in-law Melinda, named the establishment after Melinda's deceased son, Archer. Melinda Connelly later remarried to A.M. Parrish, with whom she would operate the hotel until her death. The property passed to heir great-grandson, on who's behalf it was sold to Dr. Alonzo Smith in 1923. Archer House was finally purchased by Robert Freeman in 1964, and was razed in 1966. Today, a two story professional building stands on the spot.
Ardatirion
auguste-agrippa-as-nimes.JPG
RIC.158 Augustus (AE, Nimes dupondius)9 viewsAugusutus, emperor (-27/14)
AE: Nimes dupondius (-8/-3, Nimes mint)

bronze, 20mm diameter, 12.74 g, die axis: 1h

A/ IMP / DIVI F above and below heads of Agrippa (left) and Augustus (right), back to back, that of Agrippa wearing rostral crown and that of Augustus is oak-wreathed
R/ COL / ENM to left and right of a chained crocodile and a palm tree
1 commentsDroger
00035x00~1.jpg
11 viewsGERMANY, Kriegsgeld. Lembeck
FE 10 Pfennigen (18mm, 2.99 g, 12h)
Dated 1919
"1000 Jährige Vehm-Eiche * zu Erle *", oak tree
"Herrlichkeil Lembeck"/ 19 5 19/ " * Pfennig *"
Ardatirion
lg004_quad_sm.jpg
"As de Nîmes" or "crocodile" Ӕ dupondius of Nemausus (9 - 3 BC), honoring Augustus and Agrippa29 viewsIMP DIVI F , Heads of Agrippa (left) and Augustus (right) back to back, Agrippa wearing rostral crown and Augustus the oak-wreath / COL NEM, crocodile right chained to palm-shoot with short dense fronds and tip right; two short palm offshoots left and right below, above on left a wreath with two long ties streaming right.

Ӕ, 24.5 x 3+ mm, 13.23g, die axis 3h; on both sides there are remains of what appears to be gold plating, perhaps it was a votive offering? Rough edges and slight scrapes on flan typical for this kind of coin, due to primitive technology (filing) of flan preparation.

IMPerator DIVI Filius. Mint of COLonia NEMausus (currently Nîmes, France). Known as "As de Nîmes", it is actually a dupontius (lit. "two-pounder") = 2 ases (sometimes cut in halves to get change). Dupondii were often made out of a golden-colored copper alloy (type of brass) "orichalcum" and this appears to be such case.

Key ID points: oak-wreath (microphotography shows that at least one leaf has a complicated shape, although distinguishing oak from laurel is very difficult) – earlier versions have Augustus bareheaded, no PP on obverse as in later versions, no NE ligature, palm with short fronds with tip right (later versions have tip left and sometimes long fronds). Not typical: no clear laurel wreath together with the rostral crown, gold plating (!), both features really buffling.

But still clearly a "middle" kind of the croc dupondius, known as "type III": RIC I 158, RPC I 524, Sear 1730. It is often conservatively dated to 10 BC - 10 AD, but these days it is usually narrowed to 9/8 - 3 BC.

It is a commemorative issue, honoring the victory over Mark Antony and conquest of Egypt in 30 BC. The heads of Augustus and Agrippa were probably positioned to remind familiar obverses of Roman republican coins with two-faced Janus. Palm branch was a common symbol of victory, in this case grown into a tree, like the victories of Augustus and Agrippa grown into the empire. The two offshoots at the bottom may mean two sons of Agrippa, Gaius and Lucius, who were supposed to be Augustus' heirs and were patrons of the colony. Palm may also be a symbol of the local Nemausian deity, which was probably worshiped in a sacred grove. When these coins were minted, the colony was mostly populated by the settled veterans of Augustus' campaigns, hence the reminiscence of the most famous victory, but some of the original Celtic culture probably survived and was assimilated by Romans. The crocodile is not only the symbol of Egypt, like in the famous Octavian's coins AEGYPTO CAPTA. It is also a representation of Mark Antony, powerful and scary both in water and on land, but a bit slow and stupid. The shape of the crocodile with tail up was specifically chosen to remind of the shape of ship on very common "legionary" denarius series, which Mark Antony minted to pay his armies just before Actium. It is probably also related to the popular contemporary caricature of Cleopatra, riding on and simultaneously copulating with a crocodile, holding a palm branch in her hand as if in triumph. There the crocodile also symbolized Mark Antony.

Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa was born c. 64-62 BC somewhere in rural Italy. His family was of humble and plebeian origins, but rich, of equestrian rank. Agrippa was about the same age as Octavian, and the two were educated together and became close friends. He probably first served in Caesar's Spanish campaign of 46–45 BC. Caesar regarded him highly enough to send him with Octavius in 45 BC to train in Illyria. When Octavian returned to Rome after Caesar's assassination, Agrippa became his close lieutenant, performing many tasks. He probably started his political career in 43 BC as a tribune of the people and then a member of the Senate. Then he was one of the leading Octavian's generals, finally becoming THE leading general and admiral in the civil wars of the subsequent years.

In 38 as a governor of Transalpine Gaul Agrippa undertook an expedition to Germania, thus becoming the first Roman general since Julius Caesar to cross the Rhine. During this foray he helped the Germanic tribe of Ubii (who previously allied themselves with Caesar in 55 BC) to resettle on the west bank of the Rhine. A shrine was dedicated there, possibly to Divus Caesar whom Ubii fondly remembered, and the village became known as Ara Ubiorum, "Altar of Ubians". This quickly would become an important Roman settlement. Agrippina the Younger, Agrippa's granddaughter, wife of Emperor Claudius and mother of Emperor Nero, would be born there in 15 AD. In 50 AD she would sponsor this village to be upgraded to a colonia, and it would be renamed Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium (colony of Claudius [at] the Altar of Agrippinians – Ubii renamed themselves as Agrippinians to honor the augusta!), abbreviated as CCAA, later to become the capital of new Roman province, Germania Inferior.

In 37 BC Octavian recalled Agrippa back to Rome and arranged for him to win the consular elections, he desperately needed help in naval warfare with Sextus Pompey, the youngest son of Pompey the Great, who styled himself as the last supporter of the republican cause, but in reality became a pirate king, an irony since his father was the one who virtually exterminated piracy in all the Roman waters. He forced humiliating armistice on the triumvirs in 39 BC and when Octavian renewed the hostilities a year later, defeated him in a decisive naval battle of Messina. New fleet had to be built and trained, and Agrippa was the man for the job. Agrippa's solution was creating a huge secret naval base he called Portus Iulius by connecting together lakes Avernus, Avernus and the natural inner and outer harbors behind Cape Misenum at the northern end of the Gulf of Naples. He also created a larger type of ship and developed a new naval weapon: harpax – a ballista-launched grapnel shot with mechanisms that allowed pulling enemy ships close for easy boarding. It replaced the previous boarding device that Romans used since the First Punic War, corvus – effective, but extremely cumbersome. A later defence against it were scythe blades on long poles for cutting ropes, but since this invention was developed in secret, the enemy had no chance to prepare anything like it. It all has proved extremely effective: in a series of naval engagements Agrippa annihilated the fleet of Sextus, forced him to abandon his bases and run away. For this Agrippa was awarded an unprecedented honour that no Roman before or after him received: a rostral crown, "corona rostrata", a wreath decorated in front by a prow and beak of a ship.

That's why Virgil (Aeneid VIII, 683-684), describing Agrippa at Actium, says: "…belli insigne superbum, tempora navali fulgent rostrata corona." "…the proud military decoration, gleams on his brow the naval rostral crown". Actium, the decisive battle between forces of Octavian and Mark Antony, may appear boring compared to the war with Sextus, but it probably turned out this way due to Agrippa's victories in preliminary naval engagements and taking over all the strategy from Octavian.

In between the wars Agrippa has shown an unusual talent in city planning, not only constructing many new public buildings etc., but also greatly improving Rome's sanitation by doing a complete overhaul of all the aqueducts and sewers. Typically, it was Augustus who later would boast that "he had found the city of brick but left it of marble", forgetting that, just like in his naval successes, it was Agrippa who did most of the work. Agrippa had building programs in other Roman cities as well, a magnificent temple (currently known as Maison Carrée) survives in Nîmes itself, which was probably built by Agrippa.

Later relationship between Augustus and Agrippa seemed colder for a while, Agrippa seemed to even go into "exile", but modern historians agree that it was just a ploy: Augustus wanted others to think that Agrippa was his "rival" while in truth he was keeping a significant army far away from Rome, ready to come to the rescue in case Augustus' political machinations fail. It is confirmed by the fact that later Agrippa was recalled and given authority almost equal to Augustus himself, not to mention that he married Augustus' only biological child. The last years of Agrippa's life were spent governing the eastern provinces, were he won respect even of the Jews. He also restored Crimea to Roman Empire. His last service was starting the conquest of the upper Danube, were later the province of Pannonia would be. He suddenly died of illness in 12 BC, aged ~51.

Agrippa had several children through his three marriages. Through some of his children, Agrippa would become ancestor to many subsequent members of the Julio-Claudian dynasty. He has numerous other legacies.
Yurii P
anton_pius_apollo_lizard_slayer.jpg
(0138) ANTONINUS PIUS37 viewsAugust 138 - 7 March 161 A.D., Nikopolis ad Istrum, Moesia Inferior
AE 21 mm 5.57 g
O: Laureate head right
R: Apollo Sauroktonos (the lizard-slayer) standing right, left knee bent, resting hand on tree on which lizard climbs
Nikopolis ad Istrum, Moesia Inferior
Varbanov 2111 Rare
(naming governor Zeno)

laney
l_verus.jpg
(0161) LUCIUS VERUS32 views161 - 169 AD
AE SESTERIUS
32 mm 25,08 g
O: L VERVS AVG ARM PARTH MAX
LAUR HEAD R
R: VICTORY STANDING HEAD R ATTACHING SHIELD INSCRIBED VIC/PAR TO PALM TREE, S-C
(COMMEMORATES PARTHIAN VICTORY)
laney
sept_sev_nik_river_god_res.jpg
(0193) SEPTIMIUS SEVERUS29 views193 - 211 AD
AE 27 mm 10,50 g
O: ΑΥ Κ Λ CΕΠ CΕΥΗΡΟC Π Laureate head right
R: [ΥΠ ΑΥΡ] ΓΑΛΛΟΥ ΝΕΙΚ[ΟΠ ΠΡΟ]C ΙC, Bearded River-god reclining left, right hand outstretched toward tree, left arm resting on urn from which river waters flow
Nikopolis ad Istrum, Moesia Inferior; cf Varbanov 2616, rare (R5)
laney
caracalla_pautalia_temple.jpg
(0198) CARACALLA (Pautalia)25 views198 – 217 AD
(struck 202-203 under Governor Sicinnius Clarus)
AE 28 mm, 12.20 g
O: AΥ K M AΥΡ – ANTΩNINOΣ Laureate draped bust right
R: .: HΓ ΣIKINNIO-Υ KΛAΡ OΥ/ΛΠIAΣ / ΠAΥTAΛIAΣ Asklepios with snake-encoiled rod standing in tetrastyle temple; snake in gable, tree in left field
Thrace, Pautalia; Ruzicka, Pautalia ¬; Varbanov, GIC II, 4958 (rare)
laney
col_nem_resxy.jpg
(02) AUGUSTUS84 views27 BC - 14 AD
struck 10 - 14 AD
AE Dupondius 26 mm, 12.91 g
O: IMP DIVI F P P, laureate heads of Agrippa wearing rostral crown left, and Augustus right, back-to-back;
R: COL NEM, crocodile right chained to palm tree, wreath with long ties above, two palms fronds below
Nemausus mint; cf. RIC I 159, RPC I 525, SRCV 1731
1 commentslaney
col_nem_3.jpg
(02) AUGUSTUS24 views27 BC - 14 AD
struck 10 - 14 AD
AE Dupondius 28 mm max, 11.87 g
O: IMP DIVI F P P, laureate heads of Agrippa wearing rostral crown left, and Augustus right, back-to-back;
R: COL NEM, crocodile right chained to palm tree, wreath with long ties above, two palms fronds below
Nemausus mint; cf. RIC I 159, RPC I 525, SRCV 1731
laney
col_nem_aug_agr_res.jpg
(02) AUGUSTUS38 views27 BC - 14 AD
struck 10 - 14 AD
AE Dupondius 27 mm, 12.5 g
O: IMP DIVI F P P, laureate heads of Agrippa wearing rostral crown left, and Augustus right, back-to-back;
R: COL NEM, crocodile right chained to palm tree, wreath with long ties above, two palms fronds below
Nemausus mint; cf. RIC I 159, RPC I 525, SRCV 1731
laney
philip_temple_res.jpg
(0244) PHILIP I37 views244 - 249 AD
AE 29 mm 17.01 g
O: AVTOK K M IOVL FILIPPOC CEB, laureate draped bust right (COUNTERMARKED)
R: ZEVG[MATEWN], tetrastyle temple (of Zeus?) with peribolos containing grove of trees, capricorn in ex.
Zeugma, Commagene. Roman Syria
laney
constantius_ii_hut_res.jpg
(0324) CONSTANTIUS II17 views324 - 337 AD as Caesar
337 - 361 AD as Augustus
struck ca 348 - 361 AD
AE 20 X 21 mm 4.08 g
O: D N CONSTANTIVS P F AVG bust left holding globe
R: FEL TEMP REPARATIO helmeted soldier walking right, with head left, leading young barbarian out of hut; tree behind.
laney
constans_hut_res.jpg
(0333) CONSTANS53 views333 - 337 (as Caesar)
337 - 350 AD (as Augustus)
struck ca. 348-350 AD.
AE2 Centenionalis 22.mm 4.02 g
O: DN CONSTANS PF AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust left, holding globe
R: FEL TEMP REPARATIO, soldier advancing right, head left, holding spear pointed downwards between legs, leading small bare-headed figure from hut beneath a tree
CONSB in exe., Constantinople
1 commentslaney
vespas_judaea_cap_res.jpg
(10) VESPASIAN23 viewsJudaea Capta Issue
69 - 79 AD
Struck 71 AD
AE Sestertius 32.5 mm 21.75 g
O: IMP CAES VESPASIAN AVG P M TR P P P COS III, laureate head right
R: IVDAEA CAPTA, Emperor with spear standing left of palm tree; Judaea mourning to right; SC in exe
Rome RIC II 427
laney
Agrippa_2_RCV_1731.jpg
(Augustus &) Agrippa AE 'half dupondius,' A.D. 10-14 RIC 159-160, RCV 1731, Cohen 8, RPC 525 38 viewsIMP DIVI F P-P, back-to-back heads of Agrippa, in rostral crown, & Augustus, laureate / COL NEM, palm tree curving to left, crocodile right chained below, wreath to left of palm tip with long ties trailing to right. Gaul, Nemausus.
Maximum Diameter: 25.2 mm
Weight: 7.01 g

Cut in half for fractional change.
1 commentsTheEmpireNeverEnded
Bar_Kochba.jpg
*SOLD*40 viewsBar Kokhba Revolt

Attribution: TJC 292., Hendin 1437 (prev. 736). Mildenberg 125; Palestina
Date: assumed AD 134-135
Obv: 7-branched palm tree, two clusters of fruit beneath; (ŠM'WN) beneath in 2 lines
Rev: Trifoliate vine leaf;(RWT YRWŠLM) around; Undated, assumed year 3 = AD 134-135
Size: 22.8 mm
Weight: 9.3 grams
Noah
constans_hut.jpg
007 - Constans (337-350 AD), AE 2 - RIC 12649 viewsObv. D N CONSTANS P F AVG, pearl diademed, draped and cuirassed bust left, holding globe in right hand.
Rev. FEL TEMP REPARATIO, soldier advancing right, draging small person from hut under tree.
Minted in Antioch (AN gamma in exe), 3d officina, 348-350 AD
1 commentspierre_p77
UmSNAT567or570.jpg
0080-0130 AH - Anonymous - SNAT No. 567 or 570 - Umayyad Fals48 viewsAnonymous
Date: ca. 80-130 AH (ca. 700-750 AD)
Condition: aFine
Denomination: Fals

Obverse: Palm tree; Arabic inscription.

Reverse: Palm tree; Arabic inscription.

Al-Ramla mint, Jund Filastin (Palestine)
SNAT No. 567 or 570
(Sylloge Numorum Arabicorum Tübingen Palastina IV A Bilad as-Sam I, Tübingen 1993)
2.43g; 14.4mm; 330°
Pep
Constans_hut2.jpg
010 - Constans (237-250 AD), AE 2 - RIC 9270 viewsObv: D N CONSTANS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust left, globe in hand.
Rev: FEL TEMP REPARATIO, soldier draging barbarian from hut under tree.
Minted in Constantinople (CONSI* in exe, gamma in left upper field) 347-348 AD.
1 commentspierre_p77
0120.jpg
0120 - Punic - 1/2 AE 242-209 BC41 viewsObv/ Head of Tanit l.
Rev/ Horse standing r.: behind, palm tree; before, three dots.

AE, 16.5 mm, 3.20 g
Mint: Qart Hadasht
CNH/HC --
ex-Numismática Hinojosa, eBay june 2011 - art. #280699851930
dafnis
Antonius_Felix_procurator,_AE-16,_Prutah__Jerusalems_Israel_Palm_Hedin-652,_54_AD_Q-001_0h,_2,28_g_,_16_mm-s~0.jpg
012p Claudius-I (41-54 A.D.), Judaea, Antonius Felix Procurator, under Claudius, (52-60 A.D.), AE-16(Prutah), Hedin 652, BRIT, Six branched palm tree,93 views012p Claudius-I (41-54 A.D.), Judaea, Antonius Felix Procurator, under Claudius, (52-60 A.D.), AE-16(Prutah), Hedin 652, BRIT, Six branched palm tree,
avers:- NEPΩ KΛAV KAICP, Two crossed shields and spears.
revers:- BRIT, Six branched palm tree bearing two bunches of dates, L-IΔ, K-AI across field.
exerg: L/IΔ//K/AI, diameter: 16,0mm, weight: 2,28g, axes: 0h,
mint: Judaea, date: Dated Year of Claudius (Year 14 = 54 A.D.) ref: Hedin 652,
Q-001
quadrans
Andras-II__U-161_C1-227_H-267_Q-001_10,5mm_0,36ga-s.jpg
021. H-267 András II., (Andreas II.), King of Hungary, (1205-1235 A.D.), H-267, CNH I.-227, U-161, AR-Obulus, #0178 views021. H-267 András II., (Andreas II.), King of Hungary, (1205-1235 A.D.), H-267, CNH I.-227, U-161, AR-Obulus, #01
avers: Crescent between two heads with their back to each other, tower between two dots above, Hebrew letter (???) below; line border.
reverse: Leopard advancing left, the tree above, rosette to left, Hebrew letter (teth) to right, line border.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 10,5 mm, weight: 0,36 g, axis: -h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-267, CNH I.-227, Unger-161,
Q-001
quadrans
II_Andras_U-161_C1-227_H-267_Q-002_10,5mm_0,24ga-s.jpg
021. H-267 András II., (Andreas II.), King of Hungary, (1205-1235 A.D.), H-267, CNH I.-227, U-161, AR-Obulus, #0289 views021. H-267 András II., (Andreas II.), King of Hungary, (1205-1235 A.D.), H-267, CNH I.-227, U-161, AR-Obulus, #02
avers: Crescent between two heads with their back to each other, tower between two dots above, Hebrew letter (???) below; line border.
reverse: Leopard advancing left, the tree above, rosette to left, Hebrew letter (teth) to right, line border.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 10,5 mm, weight: 0,24 g, axis: -h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-267, CNH I.-227, Unger-161,
Q-002
quadrans
II_Andras_U-161_C1-227_H-267_Q-003_10,5mm_0,29ga-s.jpg
021. H-267 András II., (Andreas II.), King of Hungary, (1205-1235 A.D.), H-267, CNH I.-227, U-161, AR-Obulus, #0369 views021. H-267 András II., (Andreas II.), King of Hungary, (1205-1235 A.D.), H-267, CNH I.-227, U-161, AR-Obulus, #03
avers: Crescent between two heads with their back to each other, tower between two dots above, Hebrew letter (???) below; line border.
reverse: Leopard advancing left, the tree above, rosette to left, Hebrew letter (teth) to right, line border.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 10,5 mm, weight: 0,29 g, axis: -h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-267, CNH I.-227, Unger-161,
Q-003
quadrans
0222_ACIP581.jpg
0222 - Punic - AE 1/2 unit - 237-209 BC25 viewsObv/ Head of Mars r.
Rev/ Palm tree with fruits.

AE, 19.1 mm, 5.58 g
Mint: Qart Hadasht
ACIP/581 [R3] - CNH/HC41 [R3]
ex-Jesús Vico, auction 148, lot 120
1 commentsdafnis
augustus RIC344-RRR.jpg
027 BC-14 AD - AUGUSTUS AR denarius - struck by P. Licinius Stolo, moneyer (17 BC)82 viewsobv: AVGVSTVS TR POT (Augustus, laureate, wearing cloak and short tunic, on horseback riding right, holding patera in right hand - banker's mark)
rev: P STOLO III VIR (Salii or priest of Mars's cap (same than apex flaminis) between two studded oval shields (ancilia)).
ref: RIC I 344 (R3); BMCRE 76; RSC 439 (80frcs)
mint: Rome
3.53gms,18-19mm
Extremely rare

History: The Ludi Saeculares were spread over a period of three days (from May 31 to June 3), and Augustus celebrated them to inaugurate the beginning of a new age. On the reverse of this coin the ancilias (sacred shields) symbolised the music at festivals. The "jumping priests" or Salii marched to the Regia, where was the shrine of Mars, in which the ancilia (the sacred shield, and its 11 copies) of Mars were stored. The Salii wearing apex, taking the bronze Ancilia, and danced through the streets carrying poles with the shields mounted on them in their left hands. With their other hand, they banged the shields with a drumstick.
3 commentsberserker
Verus_AR-Den_L-VERVS-AVG-ARM-PARTH-MAX_TR-P-VI-IMP-IIII-COS-II_VIC-PAR_RIC-III-566-p259_Rome_166-AD_Q-001_axis-0h_17-18mm_2,68g-s.jpg
039 Lucius Verus (161-169 A.D.), RIC III 566 (Marc.Aur.), Rome, AR-Denarius, TR P VI IMP IIII COS II, VIC/PAR, Victory standing right,85 views039 Lucius Verus (161-169 A.D.), RIC III 566 (Marc.Aur.), Rome, AR-Denarius, TR P VI IMP IIII COS II, VIC/PAR, Victory standing right,
avers:- L-VERVS-AVG-ARM-PARTH-MAX, Laureate head right.
revers:- TR-P-VI-IMP-IIII-COS-II/VIC-PAR, Victory, half-draped, standing right, holds palm and places on palm-tree a shield inscribed VIC PAR.
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: 18mm, weight: 2,68g, axes: 0h,
mint: Rome, date: 166-67 A.D., ref: RIC-III-566 (Marc.Aur.), p-259, C-279,
Q-001
quadrans
054p-Macrinus_AE-28_AVK-OPPEL-CEVH-MAKPINOC_VP-AGPIPPA-NIKOPOLITWN-PPOC-IC-TP-W_HHJ-8_23_7_2-p-276_Moushmov-1212_Nikopolis-ad-Istr_AD-217_Q-001_6h_27-28mm_11,45g-s.jpg
054p Macrinus (217-218 A.D.), Moesia, Nicopolis Ad Istrum, HHJ 08.23.07.02, AE-28, VΠ-AΓPIΠΠA-NIKOΠOΛITΩN-ΠPOC-IC/TP-Ω, Apollo, naked, standing right,75 views054p Macrinus (217-218 A.D.), Moesia, Nicopolis Ad Istrum, HHJ 08.23.07.02, AE-28, VΠ-AΓPIΠΠA-NIKOΠOΛITΩN-ΠPOC-IC/TP-Ω, Apollo, naked, standing right,
avers: AVK-OΠΠEΛ-CEVH-MAKPI-NOC, Laureate head right.
revers: VΠ-AΓPIΠΠA-NIKOΠOΛITΩN-ΠPOC-IC/TP-Ω, Apollo, Sauroktonos, naked, standing right with crossed legs, left hand on tree-stump, in right hand holding twig and pointing to stump.
exe: TP/Ω//--, diameter: 27-28mm, weight: 11,45g, axis:6h,
mint: Moesia, Nicopolis Ad Istrum, Statius Longinus 217-218 A.D., date: 217-218 A.D., ref: Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov 8.23.7.2,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
RI 064hh img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 21128 viewsObv:– SEVERVS PIVS AVG, Laureate bust facing right
Rev:– P M TR P XV COS III P P, Victory standing right, resting foot on helmet, inscribing shield set on palm tree
Minted in Rome, A.D. 207
References:– VM 117/3, RIC 211, RSC 489
maridvnvm
GI_066m_img.jpg
066 - Caracalla AE31 - Amasia, Pontos, Burning altar 20 viewsAE31
Obv: AU KAI M AUR ANTWNINOS, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from front.
Rev: ADR SEU AN AMASIAS MH NE P P / ET - CH, Burning altar with tree to left
Minted in Amaseia/Amasia, Pontos, 208-209 AD

15.08 gms, 30.95 mm
maridvnvm
0010-053.jpg
0899 - S. Pompeius Fostlus, Denarius69 viewsRome mint, 137 BC
Helmeted head of Roma right, X below chin, jug behind head
SEX PO [FOSTLVS] She wolf suckling Remus and Romulus, fig tree in background, the shepherd Faustulus behind. ROMA at exergue
3,73 gr
Ref : RCV # 112 var, RSC Pompeia # 1a, Crawford # 235/1c
2 commentsPotator II
Gallienus_AR-Ant_IMP-C-P-LIC-GALLIENVS-AVG_VOTA-ORBIS_RIC-459j_C-1355_Antioch_253-254-AD_Q-001_axis-11h_22-23mm_4,29g-s.jpg
090a Gallienus (253-268 A.D.), AR-Antoninianus, RIC V-I 459j, Antioch, VOTA ORBIS, Two Victories,89 views090a Gallienus (253-268 A.D.), AR-Antoninianus, RIC V-I 459j, Antioch, VOTA ORBIS, Two Victories,
avers:- IMP-C-P-LIC-GALLIENVS-AVG, Radiate bust right, draped and cuirassed
revers:- VOTA-ORBIS, Two Victories affixing shield inscribed SC to a palm tree.
exergo: -/-//--, diameter: 22-23mm, weight: 4,29g, axis: 11h,
mint: Antioch, date: 253-254 A.D., ref: RIC-V-I-459j, p-, C-1355,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Cornelia51QuinVict.jpg
0aa Defeat of Hannibal on Sicily, 222 BC11 viewsCn. Lentulus, moneyer
90-85 BC

Quinarius

Laureled head of Jupiter, right
Victory crowning trophy, CN LENT in ex

Seaby, Cornelia 51

Possibly a reference to this event: [Q. Fabius Maximus, afterwards called Cunctator] broke up his camp at Suessula and decided to begin by an attack on Arpi. . . . Now at last the enemy was roused; there was a lull in the storm and daylight was approaching. Hannibal's garrison in the city amounted to about 5000 men, and the citizens themselves had raised a force of 3000. These the Carthaginians put in front to meet the enemy, that there might be no attempt at treachery in their rear. The fighting began in the dark in the narrow streets, the Romans having occupied not only the streets near the gate but the houses also, that they might not be assailed from the roofs. Gradually as it grew light some of the citizen troops and some of the Romans recognised one another, and entered into conversation. The Roman soldiers asked what it was that the Arpinians wanted, what wrong had Rome done them, what good service had Carthage rendered them that they, Italians-bred and born, should fight against their old friends the Romans on behalf of foreigners and barbarians, and wish to make Italy a tributary province of Africa. The people of Arpi urged in their excuse that they knew nothing of what was going on, they had in fact been sold by their leaders to the Carthaginians, they had been victimised and enslaved by a small oligarchy. When a beginning had been once made the conversations became more and more general; at last the praetor of Arpi was conducted by his friends to the consul, and after they had given each other mutual assurances, surrounded by the troops under their standards, the citizens suddenly turned against the Carthaginians and fought for the Romans. A body of Spaniards also, numbering something less than a thousand, transferred their services to the consul upon the sole condition that the Carthaginian garrison should be allowed to depart uninjured. The gates were opened for them and they were dismissed, according to the stipulation, in perfect safety, and went to Hannibal at Salapia. Thus Arpi was restored to the Romans without the loss of a single life, except in the case of one man who had long ago been a traitor and had recently deserted. The Spaniards were ordered to receive double rations, and the republic availed itself on very many occasions of their courage and fidelity.

Livy, History of Rome, 24.46-47
Blindado
1-tessera-roman-Cohen-1.jpg
1 tessera roman Cohen 134 viewsAE tessera
2.41 g, 17.3 mm, 6 h.
Obv. Two horse shoes side by side within celtic torque.
Rev. TRI-VMP. Laurel tree with IO IO in field.
Cohen 1. Ex. Mabbott (1969), 5265.
cckk
Claudius-II__AE-Ant_IMP-CLAVDIVS-AVG_VOTA-ORBIS_II_RIC-196var_C-xxx_Siscia_2690-AD__Q-001_axis-0h_21mm_3,31g-y-s.jpg
104 Claudius II. (268-270 A.D.), T-0727 (Estiot), RIC V-I 196var, Siscia, AE-Antoninianus, VOTA ORBIS, -/-//II, Two Victories, extr. Rare !, 200 views104 Claudius II. (268-270 A.D.), T-0727 (Estiot), RIC V-I 196var, Siscia, AE-Antoninianus, VOTA ORBIS, -/-//II, Two Victories, extr. Rare !,
avers:- IMP-CLAVDIVS-AVG, Bust left, helmeted and radiate, cuirassed with cross-belt, holding spear without visible point over right shoulder, shield on left shoulder.Medusa-head on shield, (H4l (w/o point)).
revers:- VOTA-ORBIS, Two Victories stg. facing each other, fixing a shield inscribed SC to a palm tree which is placed between them, (Victories (two)1).
exerg: -/-//II, diameter: 21mm, weight: 3,31g, axes: 0h, (12h),
mint: Siscia, iss-3, off-2, Victory of Naïssus, date: 269 A.D., ref: T-0727 (Estiot), RIC V-I 196var, ,
Q-001
quadrans
trajse18-2.jpg
106 AD: Trajan triumph in the second Dacian war213 viewsorichalcum sestertius (24.9g, 35mm, 6h). Rome mint. Struck AD 106-111.
IMP CAES NERVAE TRAIANO AVG GER DAC PM TR P COS V PP laureate bust of Trajan with aegis (note the detail of the Medusa head on Trajan's chest)
SPQR OPTIMO PRINCIPI [/] S C [in field] Winged Victory standing right, holding shield insribed VIC DAC against a palm tree
RIC 528 [common]; C 454; Foss (Roman Historical Coins) 101-31b
1 commentsCharles S
1229Hadrian_RIC107c.jpg
107 Hadrian Quinarius Roma 119-22 AD Victory18 viewsReference.
RIC 107c; C.1135; Strack 133 (same reverse die as plate)

Obv. IMP CAESAR TRAIAN HADRIANVS AVG
Laureate, draped, cuirassed bust right, seen from rear

Rev. P M TR P COS III
Victory standing right, resting foot on helmet, ready to inscribe shield attached to palm tree

1.45 gr
14 mm
6h
2 commentsokidoki
1000-16-149.jpg
107. Pertinax35 viewsPertinax

Only a mediocre public speaker, Pertinax was first and foremost a gritty old soldier. He was heavily built, had a pot belly, although it was said, even by his critics, that he possessed the proud air of an emperor.
He possessed some charm, but was generally understood to be a rather sly character. He also acquired a reputation for being mean and greedy. He apparently even went as far as serving half portions of lettuce and artichoke before he became emperor. It was a characteristic which would not serve him well as an emperor.

When he took office, Pertinax quickly realized that the imperial treasury was in trouble. Commodus had wasted vast sums on games and luxuries. If the new emperor thought that changes would need to be made to bring the finances back in order he was no doubt right. But he sought to do too much too quickly. In the process he made himself enemies.

The gravest error, made at the very beginning of his reign, was to decide to cut some of the praetorian's privileges and that he was going to pay them only half the bonus he had promised.
Already on 3 January AD 193 the praetorians tried to set up another emperor who would pay up. But that senator, wise enough to stay out of trouble, merely reported the incident to Pertinax and then left Rome.

The ordinary citizens of Rome however also quickly had enough of their new emperor. Had Commodus spoilt them with lavish games and festivals, then now Pertinax gave them very little.
And a truly powerful enemy should be the praetorian prefect Laetus. The man who had after all put Pertinax on the throne, was to play an important role in the emperor's fate. It isn't absolutely clear if he sought to be an honest advisor of the emperor, but saw his advise ignored, or if he sought to manipulate Pertinax as his puppet emperor. In either case, he was disappointed.

And so as Pertinax grew ever more unpopular, the praetorians once more began to look for a new emperor. In early March, When Pertinax was away in Ostia overseeing the arrangements for the grain shipments to Rome, they struck again. This time they tried to set up one of the consuls, Quintus Sosius Falco.

When Pertinax returned to Rome he pardoned Falco who'd been condemned by the senate, but several praetorians were executed. A slave had given them away as being part of the conspiracy.
These executions were the final straw. On 28 March AD 193 the praetorians revolts.
300 hundred of them forced the gates to the palace. None of the guards sought to help their emperor.
Everyone, so it seemed, wanted rid of this emperor. So, too, Laetus would not listen as Pertinax ordered him to do something. The praetorian prefect simply went home, leaving the emperor to his fate.

Pertinax did not seek to flee. He stood his ground and waited, together with his chamberlain Eclectus. As the praetorians found him, they did not discover an emperor quivering with fear, but a man determined on convincing them to put down their weapons. Clearly the soldiers were over-awed by this brave man, for he spoke to them for some time. But eventually their leader found enough courage to step forwards and hurl his spear at the emperor. Pertinax fell with the spear in his chest. Eclectus fought bravely for his life, stabbing two, before he two was slain by the soldiers.
The soldiers then cut off Pertinax' head, stuck it on a spear and paraded through the streets of Rome.

Pertinax had ruled for only 87 days. He was later deified by Septimius Severus.

RI1. Pertinax. A.D. 193. AR denarius (18.0 mm, 2.74 g, 7 h). Rome mint. Rare. IMP CAES P HELV PERTIN AVG, laureate head right / OPI DIVIN TR P COS II, Ops seated left, holding two stalks of grain, resting hand on seat of throne. RIC 8a; RSC 33; BMCRE 19. aVF, flan crack.
ecoli
Probus_AE-Ant-Silvered_IMP-C-M-AVR-PROBVS-P-AVG_VICTORIAE-AVG_KA-P_RIC-800_C-_Siscia-4th-emission-rare_277-AD__Q-001_axis-180_20-21mm_2,46g-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), Siscia, Alföldi 0088.0001, -/-//KAP, Bust E1/G, RIC V-II 800, AE-Antoninianus, VICTORIAE AVG, Two Victories, Rare!!!151 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), Siscia, Alföldi 0088.0001, -/-//KAP, Bust E1/G, RIC V-II 800, AE-Antoninianus, VICTORIAE AVG, Two Victories, Rare!!!
avers: IMP C M AVR PROBVS P AVG, Radiate, helmeted, cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield.
reverse: VICTORIAE AVG, Two Victories standing face to face, clasping hands before palm-tree.
exergue: -/-//KAP, diameter: 21mm, weight: 2,46g, axis: 6h,
mint: Siscia, 4th. emission of Siscia, date: 277 A.D., ref: RIC V-II 800, p-103, Alföldi 0088.0001, Rare!!!
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
130b.jpg
130b Constans. AE Centenionalis 5.3gm18 viewsobv: DN CONSTA_NS PF AVG pearl dia. drp. and cuir. bust l. holding globe
rev: FEL TEMP REPA_RATIO helm. soldier leading small figure from hut beneath tree
ex: .SMKS
hill132
130c.jpg
130c Constans. AE Centenionalis 4.5gm18 viewsobv: DN CONSTA_NS PF AVG pearl dia. drp. cuir. bust l. holding globe
rev: FEL TEMP REPA_RATIO helm. soldier leading small figure from hut beneath tree
ex: ANr
hill132
130d.jpg
130d Constans. AE Centenionalis 4.5gm31 viewsobv: DN CONSTA_NS PF AVG pearl dia. drp. cuir. bust l. holding globe
rev: FEL TEMP REPA_RETIO helm. soldier leading small figure from hut under tree
ex: */ANS
hill132
130e.jpg
130e Constans. AE Centenionalis 3.8gm18 viewsobv: DN CONSTA_NVS PF AVG pearl dia. drp. cuir bust l. holding globe
rev: FEL TEMPA_RATIO helm. soldier leading small figure from hut under tree
ex: ALEB
hill132
130f.jpg
130f Constans. AE Centenionalis 3.8gm38 viewsobv: DN CONSTA_NVS PF AVG pearl dia. drp. cuir. bust l. holding globe
rev: FEL TEMP REPARATIO helm. soldier leading small figure from hut under tree
ex: R*P
1 commentshill132
130g.jpg
130g Constans. AE Centenionalis 3.8gm12 viewsobv: DN CONSTA_NS PF AVG pearl dia. drp. cuir. bust l. holding globe
rev: FEL TEMP REPA_RATIO helm. soldier leading small figure from hut under tree
ex: SMH(delta)
hill132
130h.jpg
130h Constans. AE Centenionalis 4.6gm18 viewsobv: DN CONSTA_NS PF AVG pearl dia. drp. cuir. bust l. holding globe
rev: FEL TEMP REPA_RATIO helm. soldier leading small figure from hut under tree
ex: R*T
hill132
130i.jpg
130i Constans. AE Centenionalis 3.7gm22 viewsobv: DN CONSTA_NS PF AVG pearl dia. drp. cuir. bust l. hlding globe
rev: FEL TEMP REPA_RATIO soldier leading small figure from hut under tree
ex: *SMK(delta)
hill132
130k.jpg
130k Constans. AE Centenionalis 4.0gm17 viewsobv: DN CONSTA_NS PF AVG pearl dia. drp. cuir. bust. l. holding globe
rev: FEL TEMP REPA_RATIO helm. soldier leading small figure from hut under tree
ex: r/ CONSIA*
hill132
130l.jpg
130l Constans. AE centenionalis 5.2gm12 viewsobv: DN CONSTA_NS PF AVG pearl dia. drp. cuir. bust l. holding globe
rev: FEL TEMP REPA_RATIO soldier leading small figure from hut under tree
ex: AN(delta)
hill132
130m.jpg
130m Constans. AE Centenionalis 3.5gm14 viewsobv : DN CONSTA_NS PF AVG pearl dia. drp. cuir. bust l. holding globe
rev: FEL TEMP REPA_RATIO soldier leading small figure from hut under tree
ex: .SMK(epsilon)
hill132
RI 132nf img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 800 - Bust Type G (Siscia) (KAQ)37 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS P AVG, Radiate, helmeted, cuirassed bust left holding spear and shield.
Rev:– VICTORIAE AVG, Two Victories standing face to face, clasping hands before palm-tree
Minted in Siscia (KAQ) Emission 4, Officina 4. Late A.D. 277
Reference:– Alföldi type 88, n° 3. RIC 800 Bust type G (R)

Not great but a rare(ish) coin
maridvnvm
Licinius-I_AE-3-Follis_IMP-LICI-NIVS-AVG-2--_PROVIDEN-TIAE-AVGG_7-lay_HT-E_RIC-VII-15_Heraclea_316-17-AD_R2_Q-001_6h_19mm_3,59g-s~1.jpg
132 Licinius l. (308-324 A.D.), Heraclea, RIC VII 015, AE-3 Follis, -/-//HTЄ, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate with tree turrets, R2!!107 views132 Licinius l. (308-324 A.D.), Heraclea, RIC VII 015, AE-3 Follis, -/-//HTЄ, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate with tree turrets, R2!!
avers: IMP LICI NIVS AVG, 2, J1l., Laureate, draped bust left, holding mappa and sceptre on globe.
reverse: PROVIDEN TIAE AVG G, Campgate with three turrets, no dors, 7 layers of stones.
exergue: -/-//HTЄ, diameter: 19mm, weight: 3,59g, axis: 6h,
mint: Heraclea, 5th. off., date: 316-317 A.D., ref: RIC VII 015, p544, R2!!
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Licinius-I_AE-3-Follis_IMP-LICI-NIVS-AVG-2-J1_l_PROVIDEN-TIAE-AVGG_MHT-Epsilon_7layer_RIC-VII-17-p545-5th-off_Heraclea_316-17-AD_R4_Q-001_axis-5h_19mm_2,51ga-s.jpg
132 Licinius l. (308-324 A.D.), Heraclea, RIC VII 017, AE-3 Follis, -/-//MHTЄ, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate with tree turrets, R4!!!280 views132 Licinius l. (308-324 A.D.), Heraclea, RIC VII 017, AE-3 Follis, -/-//MHTЄ, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate with tree turrets, R4!!!
avers: IMP LICI NIVS AVG, 2, J1l., Laureate, draped bust left, holding mappa and sceptre on globe.
reverse: PROVIDEN TIAE AVG G, Campgate with three turrets, no dors, 7 layers of stones.
exergue: -/-//MHTЄ, diameter: 19mm, weight: 2,51g, axis: 5h,
mint: Heraclea, 5th. off., date: 316-317 A.D., ref: RIC VII 017, p545, R4!!!
Q-001
quadrans
Licinius_I__Heraclea,_RIC_VII_17A,_AE-3-Follis,_IMP_LICI_NIVS_AVG_2-J1_l,_PROVIDEN_TIAE_AVG_G,_MHTA,_5_layer,_1st_off,_317_AD,_Q-001,_6h,_18,5-19,5mm,_2,52-s.jpg
132 Licinius l. (308-324 A.D.), Heraclea, RIC VII 017, AE-3 Follis, -/-//MHTA, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate with tree turrets, #1119 views132 Licinius l. (308-324 A.D.), Heraclea, RIC VII 017, AE-3 Follis, -/-//MHTA, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate with tree turrets, #1
avers: IMP LICI NIVS AVG, 2, J1l., Laureate, draped bust left, holding mappa and sceptre on globe.
reverse: PROVIDEN TIAE AVG G, Campgate with three turrets, no dors, 5 layers of stones.
exergue: -/-//MHTA, diameter: 18,5-19,5mm, weight: 2,52g, axis: 6h,
mint: Heraclea, 1st. off., date: 316-317 A.D., ref: RIC VII 017, p545,
Q-001
quadrans
132_Licinius_l_,_Heraclea_RIC_VII_039,_AE-3,_IMP_LICINIVS_AVG,_PROVIDENTIAE_AVG_G,_SMHA,__318-20_AD,R4_Q-001,_0h,_18-19mm,_3,60gx-s.jpg
132 Licinius l. (308-324 A.D.), Heraclea, RIC VII 039, AE-3 Follis, -/-//SMHA, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate with tree turrets, R4! #1102 views132 Licinius l. (308-324 A.D.), Heraclea, RIC VII 039, AE-3 Follis, -/-//SMHA, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate with tree turrets, R4! #1
avers: IMP LICI NIVS AVG, 2, J1l., Laureate, draped bust left, holding mappa and scepter on globe.
reverse: PROVIDEN TIAE AVG G, Campgate with three turrets, no dors, 6 layers of stones.
exergue: -/-//SMHA, diameter: 18,0-19,0mm, weight: 3,60g, axis: 0h,
mint: Heraclea, date: 318-320 A.D., ref: RIC VII 039, R4!
Q-001
quadrans
Constantinus-I__AE-19-Follis_CONSTAN-TINVS-AVG-1-K3__BEATA-TRANQVILLITAS_PTR-dot_RIC-342_Trier_320-AD_Q-002_6h_20-21,5mm_2,84gx-s.jpg
136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Trier, RIC VII 342, AE-3 Follis, -/-//PTR•, BEATA TRANQVILLITAS, #261 views136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Trier, RIC VII 342, AE-3 Follis, -/-//PTR•, BEATA TRANQVILLITAS, #2
avers:- CONSTAN TINVS AVG, 1, K3, Laureate head left, wearing trabea, eagle-tipped sceptre in right hand.
revers:- BEATA TRANQVILLITAS, Globe set on altar inscribed VO/TIS/XX, above tree stars.
exerg: -/-//PTR•, diameter: 20-21,5 mm, weight: 2,84g, axes: 6h,
mint: Treveri, date: 320 A.D., ref: RIC VI 342, p-194,
Q-002
quadrans
Constantinus-I__AE-19-Follis_CONSTAN-TINVS-AVG-1-K3_BEATA-TRANQVILLITAS_PTR-dot_RIC-342_Trier_320-AD_Q-001_axis-0h_19mm_2,9g-s.jpg
136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Trier, RIC VII 342, AE-3 Follis, -/-//PTR•, BEATA TRANQVILLITAS, Altar, #1197 views136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Trier, RIC VII 342, AE-3 Follis, -/-//PTR•, BEATA TRANQVILLITAS, Altar, #1
avers:- CONSTAN TINVS AVG, 1, K3, Laureate head right, wearing trabea, eagle-tipped scepter in right hand.
revers:- BEATA TRAN QVILLITAS, Globe set on altar inscribed VO/TIS/XX, above tree stars.
exerg: -/-//PTR•, diameter: 19 mm, weight: 2,90g, axes: 0h,
mint: Treveri, date: 320 A.D., ref: RIC VI 342, p-194,
Q-001
quadrans
Constantinus-I__AE-19-Follis_CONSTAN-TINVS-AVG-1-K3l__BEATA-TRANQVILLITAS_STR-dot_RIC-343_Trier_320-AD_Q-001_axis-6h_19mm_3,18g-s.jpg
136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Trier, RIC VII 343, AE-3 Follis, -/-//STR•, BEATA TRANQVILLITAS, Scarce!!178 views136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Trier, RIC VII 343, AE-3 Follis, -/-//STR•, BEATA TRANQVILLITAS, Scarce!!
avers:- CONSTAN TINVS AVG, 1, K3-l., Laureate head left, wearing trabea, eagle-tipped sceptre in right hand.
revers:- BEATA TRANQVILLITAS, Globe set on altar inscribed VO/TIS/XX, above tree stars.
exerg: -/-//STR•, diameter: 19 mm, weight: 3,18 g, axes: 6 h,
mint: Trier, date: 320 A.D., ref: RIC VI 343, p-194, Scarce!!
Q-001
quadrans
Constantinus-I__AE-19-Follis_CONSTAN-TINVS-AVG-1-D2__BEATA-TRAN-QVILLITAS_dotPTRcrescent_RIC-VII-389_Trier_323-AD_Q-001_h_mm_ga-s.jpg
136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Trier, RIC VII 389, AE-3 Follis, -/-//•PTRCrescent, BEATA TRANQVILLITAS, Altar,113 views136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Trier, RIC VII 389, AE-3 Follis, -/-//•PTRCrescent, BEATA TRANQVILLITAS, Altar,
avers:- CONSTAN TINVS AVG, 1, D2, Helmeted cuirassed head right.
revers:- BEATA TRAN QVILLITAS, Globe set on altar inscribed VO/TIS/XX, above tree stars.
exerg: -/-//•PTRCrescent, diameter: 19-19,5mm, weight: 4,81g, axes: 6h,
mint: Trier, date: 323 A.D., ref: RIC VII 389, p-199, c2,
Q-001
quadrans
Constantinus-I__AE-19-Follis_CONSTAN-TINVS-AVG-1-D2__BEATA-TRANQVILLITAS_dot-STR-crescent_RIC-VII-389-p-199_Trier_323-AD_c2_Q-001_1h_18,5-20mm_2,99g-s.jpg
136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Trier, RIC VII 389, AE-3 Follis, -/-//•STR Crescent, BEATA TRANQVILLITAS, Altar,62 views136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Trier, RIC VII 389, AE-3 Follis, -/-//•STR Crescent, BEATA TRANQVILLITAS, Altar,
avers:- CONSTAN TINVS AVG, 1, D2, Helmeted cuirassed head right.
revers:- BEATA TRANQ VILLITAS, Globe set on altar inscribed VO/TIS/XX, above tree stars.
exerg: -/-//•STR Crescent, diameter: 18,5-20 mm, weight: 2,99g, axes: 1h,
mint: Trier, date: 323 A.D., ref: RIC VII 389, p-199, c2,
Q-001
quadrans
Rep_AR-Den_Sex_Pompeius_Helm-head-of-Roma_r_behind-jug-before-X_She-wolf-r__SEX-PO_ex-ROMA_Crawford-235-1_Syd-461a_Rome_137-BC_Q-001_axis-6h_17-19,5mm_3,73g-s.jpg
137 B.C., Sextus Pompeius, Rebublic AR-Denarius, Crawford-235-1, Rome, Wolf standing right, 78 views137 B.C., Sextus Pompeius, Rebublic AR-Denarius, Crawford-235-1, Rome, Wolf standing right,
avers:- Head of Roma, X below chin, jug behind.
revers: - SEX POMP FOSTLVS, Wolf standing right, head turned, suckling the twins Romulus and Remus, shepherd to left, birds on fig tree behind, ROMA in ex.
exerg: -/-//ROMA, diameter: 17-19,5mm, weight: 3,73g, axis: 6h,
mint: Rome, date: 137 B.C.,, ref: Crawford-235-1, Syd-461a, Pompeia 1,
Q-001
quadrans
Faust.jpg
137 BC Sextus Pompeius54 viewsHelmeted head of Roma right, X below chin, jug behind

FOSTLVS SEX POM
ROMA in Ex.
She-wolf standing rightsuckling the twins Romulus and Remus, fig tree in background with three birds, the shepherd Faustulus standing right behind

Rome 137 BC
Sear 112
CRR 461

ex-ANE

This moneyer was the husband of Lucilia (sister of the poet C. Lucilius) and father to Cn. Pompeius Sex. f Strabo, and grandfather of Pompeius Magnus (Pompey the Great). He may also have been praetor in 119 BC.
2 commentsJay GT4
RI_141bt_img.jpg
141 - Diocletian - Antoninianus - RIC V Pt 2, 177 Bust Type H28 viewsAntoninianus
Obv:– IMP DIOCLETIANVS AVG, Radiate bust left, wearing imperial mantle, holding eagle headed sceptre
Rev:– PRIMIS X MVLTIS XX, Victory standing right, left, holding victory ileft foot on rock, inscribing VO/T X on shield on palm tree
Minted in Rome (_ R // XXID).
Reference:– Cohen 388. RIC V Pt. 2 177 Bust Type H (Rated scarce)
maridvnvm
Constantinus-II__AE-3-Follis_CONSTANTINVS-IVN-NOB-C_BEATA-TRAN-QVILLITAS_VO_TIS_XX_7a-K3r__dotPTRdot_RIC-VII-Not-in-this_Bust-p-_Trier_322-3-AD_Q-001_5h_19mm_2,30g-s.jpg
145 Constantinus-II. (316-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-340 A.D. Augustus), Trier, RIC VII Not in this bust, AE-3 Follis, -/-//•PTR•, BEATA TRANQVILLITAS, VO/TIS/XX, Altar,187 views145 Constantinus-II. (316-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-340 A.D. Augustus), Trier, RIC VII Not in this bust, AE-3 Follis, -/-//•PTR•, BEATA TRANQVILLITAS, VO/TIS/XX, Altar,
avers:- CONSTANTINVS-IVN-NOB-C, 7a, K3r., Consular, laureate wearing trabea, eagle-tipped sceptre in right hand, bust right.
rever:- BEATA-TRAN-QVILLITAS, Globe on altar inscribed VO/TIS/XX in tree lines , above, tree stars.
exergo: -/-//•PTR•, diameter:19 mm, weight: 2,30g, axis: 5h,
mint: Trier, date: 322-323 A.D., ref: RIC-VII-Not in this Bust-p-, "Die römische Münzserie Beata Tranquillitas in der Prägestätte Trier 321-323 (RMBT) #90"
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Constans_AE-2-Follis_DN-CONSTA-NS-PF-AVG_FEL-TEMP-REPAR-ATIO_AQT-dot_RIC-VIII-106-p-323_Aquilea_348-350-AD__Q-001_axis6h_20,5-22,5mm_4,76g-s.jpg
146 Constans (333-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-350 A.D. Augustus), Aquilea, RIC VIII 106, -/-//AQT•, AE-2 Follis, FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Soldier leading captive from hut, #1115 views146 Constans (333-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-350 A.D. Augustus), Aquilea, RIC VIII 106, -/-//AQT•, AE-2 Follis, FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Soldier leading captive from hut, #1
avers:- DN-CONSTA-NS-PF-AVG, Cn8, G3L, Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust left, holding globe.
revers:- FEL-TEMP-REPAR-ATIO, Constans advancing right, dragging barbarian from hut under tree.
exergo: -/-//AQT•, diameter: 20,5-22,5mm, weight: 4,76g, axis: 6h,
mint: Aquilea, date: 348-350 A.D., REF: RIC-VIII-106-p323,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Constans_AE-2-Follis_DN-CONSTA-NS-PF-AVG-Cn8-G3L_FEL-TEMP-REPAR-ATIO_CONS-A_RIC-VIII-86-p454_348-351-AD_Q-001_axis-0h_22-23,5mm_3,38g-s.jpg
146 Constans (333-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-350 A.D. Augustus), Constantinopolis, RIC VIII 086, -/-//CONSA, AE-2 Follis, FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Tree, #1230 views146 Constans (333-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-350 A.D. Augustus), Constantinopolis, RIC VIII 086, -/-//CONSA, AE-2 Follis, FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Tree, #1
avers:- DN-CONSTA-NS-PF-AVG, Cn8, G3L, Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust left, holding globe.
revers:- FEL-TEMP-REPAR-ATIO, Constans advancing right, dragging barbarian from hut under tree.
exergo: -/-//CONSA, diameter: 22-23,5mm, weight: 3,38g, axis: 0h,
mint: Constantinopolis, date: 348-351 AD.,ref: RIC-VIII-086-p454,
Q-001
3 commentsquadrans
146_Constans,_Siscia,_RIC_VIII_218,_D_N_CONSTA-NS_P_F_AVG,_FEL_TEMP_REPA-RATIO,_BSISsymb2M,_Q-001,_h,_22,5mm,_g-s.jpg
146 Constans (333-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-350 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VIII 218, -/-//BSISsymbol2M, AE-2 Follis, FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Tree, #1109 views146 Constans (333-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-350 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VIII 218, -/-//BSISsymbol2M, AE-2 Follis, FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Tree, #1
avers:- D N CONSTA-NS P F AVG, Cn8, G3L, Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust left, holding globe.
revers:- FEL TEMP REPAR-ATIO, Constans advancing right, dragging barbarian from hut under tree.
exergo: -/-//BSISsymbol2M, diameter: 20,5-22,0mm, weight: 3,51g, axis: 11h,
mint: Siscia, date: 348-351 AD., ref: RIC-VIII-218-p,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Constans_AE-2-Follis_DN-CONSTA-NS-PF-AVG_FEL-TEMP-REPAR-ATIO_TES-Gamma_RIC-118_C-xx_Thessalonica_348-350-AD__Q-001_21-22mm_3,85g-s.jpg
146 Constans (333-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-350 A.D. Augustus), Thessalonica, RIC VIII 118, -/-//TESΓ, AE-2 Follis, FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Soldier leading captive from hut, #186 views146 Constans (333-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-350 A.D. Augustus), Thessalonica, RIC VIII 118, -/-//TESΓ, AE-2 Follis, FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Soldier leading captive from hut, #1
avers:- DN-CONSTA-NS-PF-AVG, Cn8, G3L, Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust left, holding globe.
revers:- FEL-TEMP-REPAR-ATIO, Constans advancing right, dragging barbarian from hut under tree.
exergo: -/-//TESΓ, diameter: 21-22mm, weight: 3,85g, axis: 0h,
mint: Thessalonica, date: 348-350 A.D., Ref: RIC-VIII-118-p412,
Q-001
quadrans
16-Alex-Aradus-P3396.jpg
16. Aradus: Tetradrachm in the name of Alexander the Great.65 viewsTetradrachm, 196 / 195 BC, Aradus mint.
Obverse: Head of Alexander as Herakles, wearing lion's skin headdress.
Reverse: ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ / Zeus sitting, holding his attendant eagle and sceptre. Palm tree at left, ΑΡ monogram under throne, ΔΞ in exergue.
17.00 gm., 30 mm.
P. #3396.

Dating this coin: ΔΞ = year 64 = 196 / 195 BC. The era dates to 259 BC when Aradus gained its autonomy. In this series there are 35 different dates between year 17 (243 / 242 BC) and year 94 (166 / 165 BC). There are several breaks in the series (after years 45 and 69 for example) which reflect different political situations in Phoenecia.
Callimachus
RI_161ah_img.jpg
161 - Commemorative Issues - AE3 - RIC VII Arles 39218 viewsObv: Helmeted bust of Roma left
Rev: She wolf feeding Romulus and Remus, two stars above
Minted in Arles (Pine Tree //PCONST).
Reference:– RIC VII Arles 392 (R4)
maridvnvm
lverus dup-.jpg
161-169 AD - LUCIUS VERUS AE dupondius - struck 166 AD48 viewsobv: L VERVS AVG ARM PARTH MAX (radiate head right)
rev: TR P VI IMP IIII COS II / S.C. (Victory standing left, head right, holding palm & setting shield inscribed VIC PAR on palm tree to right)
ref: RIC III 1458 (M.Aurelius), Cohen 208, BMC 1315
13.11g, 25mm
berserker
lverus sestertius.jpg
161-169 AD - LUCIUS VERUS AE sestertius - struck 166 AD30 viewsobv: L VERVS AVG ARM PARTH MAX (laureate head right)
rev: TR POT VI IMP IIII COS II / S.C. (Victory standing right, holding palm & attaching shield inscribed VIC PAR to palm tree)
ref: RIC III 1456 (M.Aurelius), C.206
19.20gms, 29mm
Scarce
berserker
maurel sest-victory.jpg
161-180 AD - MARCUS AURELIUS AE sestertius - struck 166 AD46 viewsobv: M AVREL ANTONINVS AVG ARM PARTH MAX (laureate head right)
rev: TR POT XX IMP IIII COS III (Victory standing facing, head right, holding palm & placing shield inscribed VIC PAR on palm tree), S-C in field
ref: RIC III 934, C.810 (12frcs)
28.42gms, 33mm,
Similar to RIC931
berserker
maurel sest-victory2.jpg
161-180 AD - MARCUS AURELIUS AE sestertius - struck 166 AD52 viewsobv: M AVREL ANTONINVS AVG ARM PARTH MAX (laureate head right)
rev: TR POT XX IMP IIII COS III (Victory standing facing, head right, holding palm & placing shield inscribed VIC PAR on palm tree, at base arms), S-C in field
ref: RIC III 931, C.807(12frcs)
20.27gms, 30mm,
berserker
RI_169f_img.jpg
169 - Constans - AE2 - RIC VIII Alexandria 06070 viewsObv:- D N CONSTA-NS P F AVG, Pearl-diademed, draped, cuirassed bust left, globe in right hand.
Rev:- FEL TEMP REPA-RATIO, Helmeted soldier, spear in left hand, advancing right, head left; with his right hand he leads a small bare-headed figure from a hut beneath a tree. The spear points downwards, between the soldier's legs.
Minted in Alexandria, officina 3; (/ALEG), A.D. 348-350 A.D.
Reference:– RIC VIII Alexandria 60; LRBC 2820
2 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_169x_img.jpg
169 - Constans - AE2 - RIC VIII Alexandria 06141 viewsAE2
Obv:- D N CONSTA-NS P F AVG, Laureate and rosette-diademed, draped, cuirassed bust left, globe in right hand.
Rev:- FEL TEMP REPA-RATIO, Helmeted soldier, spear in left hand, advancing right, head left; with his right hand he leads a small bare-headed figure from a hut beneath a tree. The spear points downwards, between the soldier's legs.
Minted in Alexandria, officina A; (/ALEA), A.D. 348-350 A.D.
Reference:– RIC VIII Alexandria 61
maridvnvm
RI_169l_img.jpg
169 - Constans - AE2 - RIC VIII Alexandria 06728 viewsAE2
Obv:- D N CONSTA-NS P F AVG, Pearl-diademed, draped, cuirassed bust left, globe in right hand.
Rev:- FEL TEMP REPA-RATIO, Helmeted soldier, spear in left hand, advancing right, head left; with his right hand he leads a small bare-headed figure from a hut beneath a tree. The spear points downwards, between the soldier's legs.
Minted in Alexandria, officina 3; (*/ALEG), A.D. 348-350 A.D.
Reference:– RIC VIII Alexandria 67
maridvnvm
RI_169bn_img.jpg
169 - Constans - AE2 - RIC VIII Antioch 12630 viewsAE2
Obv:- D N CONSTA-NS P F AVG, Laureate and rosette-diademed, draped, cuirassed bust left, globe in right hand
Rev:- FEL TEMP REPA-RATIO, Helmeted soldier, spear in left hand, advancing right, head left; with his right hand he leads a small bare-headed figure from a hut beneath a tree. The spear points downwards, between the soldier's legs
Minted in Antioch; (//ANS), A.D. 348-350
Reference:– RIC VIII Antioch 126 (C)
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_169ak_img.jpg
169 - Constans - AE2 - RIC VIII Antioch 126 43 viewsAE2
Obv:- D N CONSTA-NS P F AVG, Laureate and rosette-diademed, draped, cuirassed bust left, globe in right hand
Rev:- FEL TEMP REPA-RATIO, Helmeted soldier, spear in left hand, advancing right, head left; with his right hand he leads a small bare-headed figure from a hut beneath a tree. The spear points downwards, between the soldier's legs
Minted in Antioch; (//AND), A.D. 348-350
Reference:– RIC VIII Antioch 126
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_169bi_img.jpg
169 - Constans - AE2 - RIC VIII Antioch 12626 viewsAE2
Obv:- D N CONSTA-NS P F AVG, Laureate and rosette-diademed, draped, cuirassed bust left, globe in right hand
Rev:- FEL TEMP REPA-RATIO, Helmeted soldier, spear in left hand, advancing right, head left; with his right hand he leads a small bare-headed figure from a hut beneath a tree. The spear points downwards, between the soldier's legs
Minted in Antioch; (//ANG), A.D. 348-350
Reference:– RIC VIII Antioch 126 (C)

3.38 gms. 21.28 mm. 0 degrees
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_169p_img.jpg
169 - Constans - AE2 - RIC VIII Aquileia 103 26 viewsAE2
Obv:- D N CONSTA-NS P F AVG, Pearl-diademed, draped, cuirassed bust left, globe in right hand.
Rev:- FEL TEMP REPA-RATIO, Helmeted soldier, spear in left hand, advancing right, head left; with his right hand he leads a small bare-headed figure from a hut beneath a tree. The spear points upwards to the right.
Minted in Aquileia, officina 1; (/AQP Dot),
Reference:– RIC VIII Aquileia 103
maridvnvm
RI_169ah_img.jpg
169 - Constans - AE2 - RIC VIII Arles 106 27 viewsAE2
Obv:- D N CONSTANS P F AVG, Rosette diademed, draped & cuirassed bust left holding globe
Rev:- FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Helmeted soldier, spear in left hand, advancing right, head left; with his right hand he leads a small bare-headed figure from a hut beneath a tree. The spear points up and to the right
Minted in Arles; (//SARL)
Reference:– RIC VIII Arles 106 (R2)
maridvnvm
RI_169v_img.jpg
169 - Constans - AE2 - RIC VIII Constantinople 8826 viewsAE2
Obv:- D N CONSTA-NS P F AVG, Pearl-diademed, draped, cuirassed bust left, globe in right hand.
Rev:- FEL TEMP REPA-RATIO, Helmeted soldier, spear in left hand, advancing right, head left; with his right hand he leads a small bare-headed figure from a hut beneath a tree. The spear points downwards, between the soldier's legs.
Minted in Constantinople; (//CONSI*), A.D. 348-350 A.D.
Reference:– RIC VIII Constantinople 88; LRBC 2014
maridvnvm
RI_169aq_img.jpg
169 - Constans - AE2 - RIC VIII Constantinople 88 26 viewsAE2
Obv:- D N CONSTA-NS P F AVG, Pearl-diademed, draped, cuirassed bust left, globe in right hand.
Rev:- FEL TEMP REPA-RATIO, Helmeted soldier, spear in left hand, advancing right, head left; with his right hand he leads a small bare-headed figure from a hut beneath a tree. The spear points downwards, between the soldier's legs.
Minted in Constantinople; (//CONSG*), A.D. 348-350 A.D.
Reference:– RIC VIII Constantinople 88
maridvnvm
RI_169bb_img.jpg
169 - Constans - AE2 - RIC VIII Constantinople 9230 viewsAE2
Obv:– D N CONSTANS P F AVG, Pearl diademed, draped and cuirassed bust left, holding globe
Rev:– Helmeted soldier, spear in left hand, advancing right, head left; with his right hand he leads a small bare-headed figure from a hut beneath a tree. The spear points downwards, between the soldier's legs
Minted in Constantinople (G //CONSI*).
Reference:- RIC VIII Constantinople 92 (C)
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_169u_img.jpg
169 - Constans - AE2 - RIC VIII Cyzicus 77 28 viewsAE2
Obv:- D N CONSTA-NS P F AVG, Pearl-diademed, draped, cuirassed bust left, globe in right hand.
Rev:- FEL TEMP REPA-RATIO, Helmeted soldier, spear in left hand, advancing right, head left; with his right hand he leads a small bare-headed figure from a hut beneath a tree. The spear points downwards, between the soldier's legs.
Minted in Cyzicus; (//*SMKD), A.D. 348-350 A.D.
Reference:– RIC VIII Cyzicus 77
maridvnvm
RI_169bh_img.jpg
169 - Constans - AE2 - RIC VIII Cyzicus 7733 viewsAE2
Obv:- D N CONSTA-NS P F AVG, Pearl-diademed, draped, cuirassed bust left, globe in right hand.
Rev:- FEL TEMP REPA-RATIO, Helmeted soldier, spear in left hand, advancing right, head left; with his right hand he leads a small bare-headed figure from a hut beneath a tree. The spear points downwards, between the soldier's legs.
Minted in Cyzicus; (//*SMKE), A.D. 348-350 A.D.
Reference:– RIC VIII Cyzicus 77

4.93 gms. 21.81 mm. 0 degrees.

Double strike
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_169ay_img.jpg
169 - Constans - AE2 - RIC VIII Cyzicus 8125 viewsAE2
Obv:- D N CONSTA-NS P F AVG, Laureate and rosette-diademed, draped, cuirassed bust left, globe in right hand
Rev:- FEL TEMP REP-ARATIO, Helmeted soldier, spear in left hand, advancing right, head left; with his right hand he leads a small bare-headed figure from a hut beneath a tree. The spear points downwards, between the soldier's legs
Minted in Cyzicus; (//dot SMKS)
Reference:– RIC VIII Cyzicus 81 (C)
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_169aj_img.jpg
169 - Constans - AE2 - RIC VIII Cyzicus 82 var 47 viewsAE2
Obv:- D N CONSTA-NS P F AVG, Laureate and rosette-diademed, draped, cuirassed bust left, globe in right hand
Rev:- FEL TEMP REP-ARATIO, Helmeted soldier, spear in left hand, advancing right, head left; with his right hand he leads a small bare-headed figure from a hut beneath a tree. The spear points downwards, between the soldier's legs
Minted in Cyzicus; (//dot SMKS), A.D. 348-350
Reference:– RIC VIII Cyzicus 82 var (unlisted in RIC with this reverse legend break for this workshop)
maridvnvm
RI_169bj_img.jpg
169 - Constans - AE2 - RIC VIII Heraclea 06434 viewsAE2
Obv:- D N CONSTA-NS P F AVG, Laureate and rosette-diademed, draped, cuirassed bust left, globe in right hand
Rev:- FEL TEMP REPA-RATIO, Helmeted soldier, spear in left hand, advancing right, head left; with his right hand he leads a small bare-headed figure from a hut beneath a tree. The spear points downwards, between the soldier's legs
Minted in Heraclea; (//SMH), A.D. 348-351. First series without officina letter.
Reference:– RIC VIII Heraclea 64 (R)

4.64 gms. 22.24 mm. 180 degrees
2 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_169ao_img.jpg
169 - Constans - AE2 - RIC VIII Heraclea 71 var 26 viewsAE2
Obv:- D N CONSTA-NS P F AVG, Laureate and rosette-diademed, draped, cuirassed bust left, globe in right hand
Rev:- FEL TEMP REPA-RATIO, Helmeted soldier, spear in left hand, advancing right, head left; with his right hand he leads a small bare-headed figure from a hut beneath a tree. The spear points downwards, between soldier's legs
Minted in Heraclea; (// SMHB)
Reference:– RIC VIII Heraclea 71 var (S). Unlisted for this officina (Known for A G D E)
maridvnvm
RI_169bl_img.jpg
169 - Constans - AE2 - RIC VIII Lugdunum 08424 viewsAE2
Obv:- D N CONSTA-NS P F AVG, Pearl-diademed, draped, cuirassed bust left, globe in right hand
Rev:- FEL TEMP REPAR-ATIO, Helmeted soldier, spear in left hand, advancing right, head left; with his right hand he leads a small bare-headed figure from a hut beneath a tree. The spear points up and to the right
Minted in Lugdunum, (// PLG), A.D. 348-350
Reference:– RIC VIII Lugdunum 84 (S)

4.04 gms. 0 degrees. 20.89 mm
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_169ae_img.jpg
169 - Constans - AE2 - RIC VIII Lugdunum 8735 viewsAE2
Obv:- D N CONSTA-NS P F AVG, Rosette-diademed, draped, cuirassed bust left, globe in right hand
Rev:- FEL TEMP REPAR-ATIO, Helmeted soldier, spear in left hand, advancing right, head left; with his right hand he leads a small bare-headed figure from a hut beneath a tree. The spear points up and to the right
Minted in Lugdunum, (// *PLG), A.D. 348-350
Reference:– RIC VIII Lugdunum 87 (R)
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_169k_img.jpg
169 - Constans - AE2 - RIC VIII Lugdunum 8737 viewsAE2
Obv:- D N CONSTA-NS P F AVG, Rosette-diademed, draped, cuirassed bust left, globe in right hand
Rev:- FEL TEMP REPAR-ATIO, Helmeted soldier, spear in left hand, advancing right, head left; with his right hand he leads a small bare-headed figure from a hut beneath a tree. The spear points up and to the right
Minted in Lugdunum, (// *PLG), A.D. 348-350
Reference:– RIC VIII Lugdunum 87 (R)

Ex collection of Count Gaston de Lambertye formed in the 18th century
maridvnvm
RI_169m_img.jpg
169 - Constans - AE2 - RIC VIII Nicomedia 7030 viewsAE2
Obv:- D N CONSTA-NS P F AVG, Pearl-diademed, draped, cuirassed bust left, globe in right hand.
Rev:- FEL TEMP REPA-RATIO, Helmeted soldier, spear in left hand, advancing right, head left; with his right hand he leads a small bare-headed figure from a hut beneath a tree. The spear points downwards, between the soldier's legs.
Minted in Nicomedia, officina B; (//SMNB), A.D. 348-351 A.D.
Reference:– RIC VIII Nicomedia 70
maridvnvm
RI_169af_img.jpg
169 - Constans - AE2 - RIC VIII Rome 140 23 viewsAE2
Obv:- D N CONSTANS P F AVG, Pearl diademed, draped & cuirassed bust left holding globe,
Rev:- FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Helmeted soldier, spear in left hand, advancing right, head left; with his right hand he leads a small bare-headed figure from a hut beneath a tree. The spear points up and to the right
Minted in Rome; (//R*S)
Reference:– RIC VIII Rome 140
maridvnvm
RI_169ag_img.jpg
169 - Constans - AE2 - RIC VIII Rome 159 31 viewsAE2
Obv:- D N CONSTANS P F AVG, Rosette diademed, draped & cuirassed bust left holding globe, N behind bust
Rev:- FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Helmeted soldier, spear in left hand, advancing right, head left; with his right hand he leads a small bare-headed figure from a hut beneath a tree. The spear points up and to the right
Minted in Rome; (_ | N //RE)
Reference:– RIC VIII Rome 159
maridvnvm
RI_169bk_img.jpg
169 - Constans - AE2 - RIC VIII Rome 159 27 viewsAE2
Obv:- D N CONSTANS P F AVG, Rosette diademed, draped & cuirassed bust left holding globe, N behind bust
Rev:- FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Helmeted soldier, spear in left hand, advancing right, head left; with his right hand he leads a small bare-headed figure from a hut beneath a tree. The spear points up and to the right
Minted in Rome; (_ | N //RT),
Reference:– RIC VIII Rome 159 (C)
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_169al_img.jpg
169 - Constans - AE2 - RIC VIII Siscia 217 31 viewsAE2
Obv:- D N CONSTA-NS P F AVG, Laureate and rosette-diademed, draped, cuirassed bust left, globe in right hand
Rev:- FEL•TEMP•REPA-RATIO, Helmeted soldier, spear in left hand, advancing right, head left; with his right hand he leads a small bare-headed figure from a hut beneath a tree. The spear points downwards, between the soldier's legs
Minted in Siscia; (// BSIS(Symbol 2)M ), A.D. 348-350
Reference:– RIC VIII Siscia 217 (C). LRBC 1121 var (Hut 2)
maridvnvm
RI_169w_img.jpg
169 - Constans - AE2 - RIC VIII Thessalonica 11826 viewsAE2
Obv:- D N CONSTA-NS P F AVG, Pearl-diademed, draped, cuirassed bust left, globe in right hand.
Rev:- FEL TEMP REPAR-ATIO, Helmeted soldier, spear in left hand, advancing right, head left; with his right hand he leads a small bare-headed figure from a hut beneath a tree. The spear points downwards, between the soldier's legs.
Minted in Thessalonica; (//TESB), A.D. 348-350 A.D.
Reference:– RIC VIII Thessalonica 118; LRBC 1636
maridvnvm
RI_169ba_img.jpg
169 - Constans - AE2 - RIC VIII Thessalonica 11833 viewsAE2
Obv:- D N CONSTA-NS P F AVG, Pearl-diademed, draped, cuirassed bust left, globe in right hand.
Rev:- FEL TEMP REPAR-ATIO, Helmeted soldier, spear in left hand, advancing right, head left; with his right hand he leads a small bare-headed figure from a hut beneath a tree. The spear points downwards, between the soldier's legs.
Minted in Thessalonica; (//TESD), A.D. 348-350 A.D.
Reference:– RIC VIII Thessalonica 118
2 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_169bf_img.jpg
169 - Constans - AE2 - RIC VIII Trier -37 viewsAE2
Obv:- D N CONSTANS P F AVG, Pearl diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right; N behind bust
Rev:- FEL TEMP-REPARATIO, Helmeted soldier, spear in left hand, advancing right, head left; with his right hand he leads a small bare-headed figure from a hut beneath a tree. The spear points downwards to the left
Minted in Trier; (_ | N//TR), Second Series
Reference:– RIC VIII Trier -

A puzzling coin. The style is consistent with Trier. The trre detail, hut, soldier and captive are all consistent with Trier. Hut coins are not ateested for the second series at Trier and the value mark "N" is not attested for at Trier. The lack of officina is also puzzling.

20.87 mm. 4.39 gms. 180 degrees
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_169am_img.jpg
169 - Constans - AE2 - RIC VIII Trier 221 20 viewsAE2
Obv:- D N CONSTA-NS P F AVG, Laureate and rosette-diademed, draped, cuirassed bust left, globe in right hand
Rev:- FEL•TEMP•REPAR-ATIO, Helmeted soldier, spear in left hand, advancing right, head left; with his right hand he leads a small bare-headed figure from a hut beneath a tree. The spear points downwards, diagonally across soldier (Hut 3)
Minted in Trier; (// TRP )
Reference:– RIC VIII Trier 221 (S).
maridvnvm
RI_169ap_img.jpg
169 - Constans - AE2 - RIC VIII VIII Alexandria -; 25 viewsConstans AE2
Obv:- D N CONSTA-NS P F AVG, Laureaare and rosette-diademed, draped, cuirassed bust left, globe in right hand.
Rev:- FEL TEMP REPA-RATIO, Helmeted soldier, parazonium in left hand, advancing right, head left; with his right hand he leads a small bare-headed figure from a hut beneath a tree.
Minted in Alexandria, (/ALE Greek_Gamma)
Reference:– RIC VIII Alexandria -;

Unknown variation with a parazonium instead of a spear
maridvnvm
RI 169c img.jpg
169 - Constans - RIC VIII Lugdunum 8614 viewsObv:– D N CONSTANS P F AVG, Pearl diademed, draped & cuirassed bust left, holding globe
Rev:– FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Helmeted soldier, spear in left hand, tip downwards, advancing right, head left, leading small figure from a hut beneath a tree
Minted in Lugdunum (//*SLG),
Reference:– RIC VIII 86 (R)
maridvnvm
RI_169br_img.jpg
169 - Constans II - AE2 - Barbarous imitative of Trier24 viewsAE2
Obv:- D N CONSTA-NS P F AVG, Laureate and rosette-diademed, draped, cuirassed bust left, globe in right hand
Rev:- FII ITEPM IYTIIO, Helmeted soldier, spear in left hand, advancing right, head left; with his right hand he leads a small bare-headed figure from a hut beneath a tree. The spear points downwards, diagonally across soldier
Barbarous imitative of Trier; (// TRI )

4.84 gms. 21.56 mm. 180 degrees
maridvnvm
AureliusPanorama.jpg
17 Marcus Aurelius RIC 16348 viewsMarcus Aurelius 161-180 AD. AR Denarius. Rome Mint. 166-169 AD. (3.23 g, 19.07 mm) Obv: M ANTONINVS AVG ARM PARTH MAX, Laureate head right. Rev: TR P XX IMP IIII COS III, Victory, naked to waist, standing front, head right, holding a palm and placing on a palm-tree a shield inscribed VIC/PAR.
RIC 163; RSC 878; BMC 406
Paddy
RI_170fz_img.jpg
170 - Constantius II - AE2 - RIC VIII Alexandria 05922 viewsAE2
Obv:– D N CONSTANTIVS P F AVG, Laureate and rosettediademed, draped and cuirassed bust left, holding globe
Rev:– FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Soldier advancing right, head left, holding spear and leading small figure from hut beneath tree
Minted in Alexandria (//ALEA).
Reference:– RIC VIII Alexandria 59
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_170bs_img.jpg
170 - Constantius II - AE2 - RIC VIII Alexandria 66 var 51 viewsAe2
Obv:– D N CONSTANTIVS P F AVG, Pearl diademed, draped and cuirassed bust left, holding globe
Rev:– FEL . TEMP . REPARATIO, Soldier advancing right, head left, holding spear and leading small figure from hut beneath tree
Minted in Alexandria (* //ALED).
Reference:– RIC VIII Alexandria 66 var (RIC 66 rated S, Not listed for this officina in RIC)
2 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_170bp_img.jpg
170 - Constantius II - AE2 - RIC VIII Aquileia 102 15 viewsAe2
Obv:– CONSTANTIVS P F AVG, Pearl diademed, draped and cuirassed bust left, holding globe
Rev:– FEL . TEMP . REPARATIO, Soldier advancing right, head left, holding spear and leading small figure from hut beneath tree
Minted in Aquileia (//AQS dot).
Reference:– RIC VIII Aquileia 102 (C)
maridvnvm
RI_170ax_img.jpg
170 - Constantius II - AE2 - RIC VIII Arles 108 25 viewsAE2
Obv:– D N CONSTANTIVS P F AVG, Pearl diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right, holding globe in right hand
Rev:– FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Helmeted soldier, spear in left hand, advancing right, head left; with his right hand he leads a small bare-headed figure from a hut beneath a tree. The spear points up and to the right
Minted in Arles (//PARL).
Reference:- RIC VIII Arles 108 (R2)
maridvnvm
RI_170fj_img.jpg
170 - Constantius II - AE2 - RIC VIII Rome 13930 viewsAE2
Obv:- D N CONSTANS P F AVG, Pearl diademed, draped & cuirassed bust left holding globe,
Rev:- FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Helmeted soldier, spear in left hand, advancing right, head left; with his right hand he leads a small bare-headed figure from a hut beneath a tree. The spear points up and to the right
Minted in Rome; (//R*S)
Reference:– RIC VIII Rome 139 (R)

Weight 3.58g. 24.54mm. 180 degrees.
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_170fr_img.jpg
170 - Constantius II - AE2 - RIC VIII Rome 139 var22 viewsAE2
Obv:- D N CONSTANS P F AVG, Pearl diademed, draped & cuirassed bust left holding globe,
Rev:- FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Helmeted soldier, spear in left hand, advancing right, head left; with his right hand he leads a small bare-headed figure from a hut beneath a tree. The spear points up and to the right
Minted in Rome; (//R*B)
Reference:– RIC VIII Rome 139 var (not listed for this officina)

Double struck

Weight 4.09g. 23.41mm. 180 degrees.
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_170x_img~0.jpg
170 - Constantius II - AE2 - RIC VIII Rome 156 27 viewsAE2
Obv:– D N CONSTANTIVS P F AVG, Pearl diademed, draped and cuirassed bust left, holding globe (N in right field)
Rev:– FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Helmeted soldier, spear in left hand, advancing right, head left; with his right hand he leads a small bare-headed figure from a hut beneath a tree. The spear points down and to the left
Minted in Rome (_ | N //RP).
Reference:– RIC VIII Rome 156 (R)
maridvnvm
RI_170bz_img.jpg
170 - Constantius II - AE2 - RIC VIII Rome 15720 viewsAE2
Obv:– D N CONSTANTIVS P F AVG, Laureate, rosette diademed, draped and cuirassed bust left, holding globe (N in right field)
Rev:– FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Helmeted soldier, spear in left hand, advancing right, head left; with his right hand he leads a small bare-headed figure from a hut beneath a tree. The spear points down and to the left
Minted in Rome (_ | N //RT).
Reference:– RIC VIII Rome 157 (C)
maridvnvm
RI_170bn_img.jpg
170 - Constantius II - AE2 - RIC VIII Siscia 21619 viewsAE2
Obv:– D N CONSTANTIVS P F AVG, Laureate and rosette-diademed, draped, cuirassed bust left, globe in right hand
Rev:- FEL•TEMP•REPA-RATIO, Helmeted soldier, spear in left hand, advancing right, head left; with his right hand he leads a small bare-headed figure from a hut beneath a tree. The spear points downwards, between the soldier's legs
Minted in Siscia; (// DSIS(Symbol 4)M ), A.D. 348-350
Reference:– RIC VIII Siscia 216; LRBC 1120 var (Hut 3)
maridvnvm
RI_170fp_img.jpg
170 - Constantius II - AE2 - RIC VIII Thessalonica 11720 viewsAE2
Obv:– CONSTANTIVS P F AVG, Pearl diademed, draped and cuirassed bust left, holding globe
Rev:– FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Soldier advancing right, head left, holding spear and leading small figure from hut beneath tree
Minted in Thessalonica; (//TESE).
Reference:– RIC VIII Thessalonica 117 (S)

2.75 gms. 21.51 mm. 180 degrees.
maridvnvm
RI_170ec_img.jpg
170 - Constantius II - AE2 - RIC VIII Trier 22237 viewsAE2
Obv:– D N CONSTANS P F AVG, Rosette-diademed, draped, cuirassed bust left, globe in right hand
Rev:– FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Helmeted soldier, spear in left hand, advancing right, head left; with his right hand he leads a small bare-headed figure from a hut beneath a tree. The spear points up and to the right.
Minted in Trier (//TRS).
Reference:- RIC VIII Trier 222 (R)
2 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_176l_img.jpg
176 - Julian II - AR Reduced Siliqua - RIC VIII Lugdunum 22720 viewsAR Reduced Siliqua
Obv:– FL CL IVLIA-NVS P P AVG, Pearl diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– VOTIS V MVLTIS X, within wreath
Minted in Lugdunum (//SLVG), Spring A.D. 360 - 26th June A.D. 363
Reference:– RIC VIII Lugdunum 227

17.26 mm. 2.0 gms. 0 degrees

East Harptree Hoard, which was discovered near Bath in 1887. There were 36 coins of this type found in the hoard.
1 commentsmaridvnvm
commodus_RIC259a.jpg
177-192 AD - COMMODUS AR denarius - struck 191 or 192 AD33 viewsobv: L AEL AVREL COM-M AVG P FEL (laureate head right)
rev: PROVIDENTIAE AVG (Hercules standing right, his foot is placed on the prow of a vessel, resting club on treetrunk right and holding thunderbolt; clasping hands with Africa, who wears elephantskin on head, in her left hand holding sistrum, at her feet lion)
ref: RIC III 259a (R), RSC 643 (20frcs)
mint: Rome
2.86gms, 18mm
Rare

This coin legend and type is regarded to the African fleet of corn transports. The elephant's head, the sistrum, and the lion are attributes peculiar to Egypt and to Africa proper, which were the granaries of Rome. But Commodus having sent his ships for freights of corn is on this coin represented paying worship to Hercules, and he himself plants his foot on the prow of one of the vessels, as if showing care for his new colony.
1 commentsberserker
1792_BIRMINGHAM_FARTHING.JPG
1792 AE Farthing Token. Birmingham, Warwickshire.31 viewsObverse: IOHN HOWARD • F • R • S. Bare headed and draped bust of John Howard facing left.
Reverse: BIRMINGHAM PROMISSORY FARTHING •. HH cypher (for Henry Hickman) with the date, 1792, above.
Edge: "Plain".
Diameter: 23mm | Die Axis: 6
Dalton & Hamer : 481a

This token was issued by Henry Hickman, a wholesale and retail dealer in sheet, bar and rod iron with a business at 3, Edgbaston Street, Birmingham. Hickman is also recorded as a die-sinker and toolmaker in Wrightson’s triennial Birmingham directory, 1818. The token was probably manufactured by William Mainwaring who worked as a diesinker for William Lutwyche at the latter's works in Birmingham, but Hickman himself, given his profession, may have been involved in creating the dies. William Mainwaring died in 1794.

John Howard, in whose name this token was issued, was an expert in prisons and published the book "The State of the Prisons in England & Wales" in 1777.
*Alex
ELIZABETH_I_1794.JPG
1794 AE Halfpenny Token. Chichester, Sussex13 viewsObverse: QUEEN ELIZABETH •. Three-quarter facing crowned bust of Queen Elizabeth I right, sceptre resting on her right shoulder.
Reverse: CHICHESTER HALFPENNY •. View of Chichester Cross; in exergue, 1794.
Edge: PAYABLE AT DALLY'S CHICHESTER + + + +.
Diameter 29mm | Die Axis 6
Dalton & Hamer: 15

This token was manufactured by Peter Kempson in Birmingham and the dies were engraved by Thomas Wyon. Little is known about the issuer of the token, seemingly to have been Dally and Son who were drapers in Chichester in the 18th century.

Chichester Cross is an elaborate perpendicular market cross standing at the intersection of the four principal streets in the centre of the city of Chichester, West Sussex. According to the inscription upon it, this cross was built by Edward Story, Bishop of Chichester from 1477 to 1503, but little is known for certain and the style and ornaments of the building suggest that it may date from the reign of Edward IV. It was apparently built so that the poor people should have somewhere to sell their wares, and as a meeting point. An earlier wooden cross had been erected on the same site by Bishop Rede (1369-1385). The stone cross, which underwent repairs during the reign of Charles II and again in 1746, still stands to this day.
3 comments*Alex
1794_EARL_HOWE.JPG
1794 AE Halfpenny, Emsworth, Hampshire.84 viewsObverse: EARL HOWE & THE GLORIOUS FIRST OF JUNE. "Youthful" bust of Earl Howe, wearing tricorn hat and with hair in long pigtail tied with a ribbon, facing left.
Reverse: RULE BRITANNIA. Britannia facing left, seated on globe, her right hand holding spear, her left arm holding laurel-branch and resting on shield at her side; in exergue, 1794.
Edge: “PAYABLE AT LONDON LIVERPOOL OR BRISTOL •.
Diameter: 29mm.
Dalton & Hamer: 13

During the 18th and 19th centuries Emsworth was a busy little port, known for shipbuilding, boat building and rope making. Grain from the area was ground into flour by tidal mills at Emsworth and the flour was then transported by ship to places like London and Portsmouth. Timber from the area was also exported from Emsworth in the 18th and 19th centuries.

This token was probably issued by John Stride, a grocer and tea dealer with a business in Emsworth, and the dies were likely engraved by Thomas Wyon. The token was probably manufactured by Peter Kempson at his mint in Birmingham.
These 18th century tokens are often generically referred to as “Conder” tokens, the name originating from James Conder, a linen draper from Tavern Street in Ipswich. Conder was an ardent collector of tokens and the author of the standard work on the subject until it was superseded by that of Atkins in 1892.

Richard Howe, 1st Earl Howe, Knight of the Garter and Admiral of the Fleet was born on 8th March, 1726. He was a British naval officer notable in particular for his service during the American War of Independence and the French Revolutionary Wars. He died on the 5th of August, 1799.

The Glorious First of June, 1794 was the first and largest fleet action of the naval conflict between Britain and the French during the French Revolutionary Wars. The British, under Admiral Lord Howe, attempted to prevent the passage of a vital grain convoy from the United States, which was protected by the French fleet commanded by Vice-Admiral Louis Thomas Villaret de Joyeuse. The two forces clashed in the Atlantic Ocean, some 400 nautical miles west of the French island of Ushant, on the first of June 1794. During the battle both fleets were so severely damaged that both Howe and Villaret were compelled to return to their home ports. Both sides claimed victory and the outcome of the battle was seized upon by the press of both nations as a demonstration of the prowess and bravery of their respective navies.
*Alex
1795_EARL_HOWE_HALFPENNY.JPG
1795 AE Halfpenny, Emsworth or Portsmouth, Hampshire.51 viewsObverse: EARL HOWE & THE GLORIOUS FIRST OF JUNE. "Elderly" bust of Earl Howe, wearing tricorn hat and with hair tied with a ribbon at back, facing left.
Reverse: RULE BRITANNIA. Britannia facing left, seated on globe, her right hand holding spear, her left arm holding laurel-branch and resting on shield at her side; in exergue, 1795.
Edge: “PAYABLE IN LONDON” the remainder engrailed.
Diameter: 29mm.
Dalton & Hamer: 23b

This token was probably issued by John Stride, a grocer and tea dealer with a business in Emsworth, and the dies were likely engraved by Thomas Wyon. The token was probably manufactured by Peter Kempson at his mint in Birmingham.
These 18th century tokens are often generically referred to as “Conder” tokens, the name originating from James Conder, a linen draper from Tavern Street in Ipswich. Conder was an ardent collector of tokens and the author of the standard work on the subject until it was superseded by that of Atkins in 1892.

Richard Howe, 1st Earl Howe, Knight of the Garter and Admiral of the Fleet was born on 8th March, 1726. He was a British naval officer notable in particular for his service during the American War of Independence and the French Revolutionary Wars. He died on the 5th of August, 1799.

The Glorious First of June, 1794 was the first and largest fleet action of the naval conflict between Britain and the French during the French Revolutionary Wars. The British, under Admiral Lord Howe, attempted to prevent the passage of a vital grain convoy from the United States, which was protected by the French fleet commanded by Vice-Admiral Louis Thomas Villaret de Joyeuse. The two forces clashed in the Atlantic Ocean, some 400 nautical miles west of the French island of Ushant, on the first of June 1794. During the battle, Howe defied naval convention by ordering his fleet to turn towards the French and for each of his vessels to rake and engage their immediate opponent. This unexpected order was not understood by all of his captains, and as a result his attack, though successful, was more piecemeal than he intended. In the course of the battle the two fleets were so severely damaged that both Howe and Villaret were compelled to return to their home ports.
Both sides claimed victory and the outcome of the battle was seized upon by the press of both countries as a demonstration of the prowess and bravery of their respective navies. France because, despite losing seven of his ships, Villaret had successfully bought enough time for the grain convoy to reach safety unimpeded by Howe's fleet and Britain because, since the French were forced to withdraw their battle-fleet to port, they were left free to conduct a campaign of blockade for the remainder of the war.
*Alex
1795_GLAMORGAN_HALF-PENNY_TOKEN.JPG
1795 AE Halfpenny, Glamorgan, South Wales.62 viewsObverse: JESTYN • AP • GWRGAN • TYWYSOG • MORGANWG • 1091•. Crowned and robed bust of Jestyn ap Gwrgan facing left, wearing a small shield bearing the St George's cross suspended on a chain round his neck.
Reverse: Y • BRENHIN • AR • GYFRAITH •. Britannia facing left, seated on a globe, her right hand pointing to a ship, her left supporting a shield and a spear; behind her a cippus with a crown on top and a laurel branch leaning against it; in exergue, 1795.
Edge: "GLAMORGAN HALFPENNY" in raised letters, followed by three leaves.
Diameter: 29mm
Dalton & Hamer:3b (Glamorganshire)

This token is thought to have been engraved and manufactured by John Stubbs Jordan, a Birmingham ironfounder for his father, William Jordan, who had returned to South Wales, possibly to Merthyr Tydfil. The Jordens were of Welsh descent and had come to Staffordshire earlier in the century. The father, William Jorden, a victualler from Weaman Street, Birmingham, retired and moved back to South Wales in the early 1780s and in 1794 his son, John Stubbs Jorden, who had remained back in Birmingham, made this Welsh token for his father as a private piece.
This is the only eighteenth century token with Welsh legends.

Jestyn ap Gwrgan, or Gwrgant, was the last Prince and Lord of Glamorgan of British blood. He was of the royal house of Morganwg, which had a lineage stretching back over five centuries to Tewdrig (c.550-584 C.E.). The members of this royal house had links to the other royal houses of Wales through marriage, and were descendants of the celebrated Rhodri Mawr. Jestyn ap Gwrgan's base is believed to have been at Dinas Powis, south of Cardiff. He probably ruled Glamorgan for a little less than a decade around 1081-1090 C.E.
The popular version of historical events is that Jestyn, following a dispute with his rival Einion ap Collwyn, invited the Norman ruler Robert Fitzhamon, lord of Gloucester, and his twelve knights into the region to settle the matter. Once invited in, the Normans refused to leave, Jestyn was deposed and Fitzhamon, having established a lordship based in Cardiff, subsequently conquered the lowlands of Glamorgan, which was parcelled out to his followers. The undesirable mountainous parts of Glamorgan Fitzhamon left in Welsh control. However this story, dating from at least the 15th century, where it touches known historical facts, is demonstrably wrong.
Nowadays there are many people living in South Wales with the surname of Williams who claim to be descended from Jestyn ap Gwrgan. This is not impossible because Jestyn ap Gwrgan had a large family. Notable people who may have been descended from Jestyn ap Gwrgan are the Tudor Monarchs of England, Oliver Cromwell (whose real surname was Williams) and also, being of Welsh descent, Winston Churchill, Princess Diana and several Presidents of The United States of America.
1 comments*Alex
1795_Glasgow_Halfpenny_Token.JPG
1795 AE Halfpenny, Glasgow, Lanarkshire, Scotland.29 viewsObverse: LET GLASGOW FLOURISH. The arms of Glasgow; Shield containing tree with a bird and a bell in it's branches and a fish across it's trunk.
Reverse: RULE BRITANNIA. Britannia facing left, seated on globe, her right hand holding spear, her left arm holding laurel-branch and resting on shield at her side; in exergue, 1795.
Edge: Engrailed.
Striking flaw visible next to the “H” in FLOURISH
Diameter: 28mm | Weight: 7.3gms.
Dalton & Hamer: 6a

Manufactured by Matthew Boulton at his SOHO mint in Birmingham, the diesinker was probably Thomas Wyon.
Reputedly issued by Gilbert Shearer & Co. who were, according to Jones's Directory dated 1789, woollen drapers with a shop at No.19 Trongate, Glasgow.
*Alex
1795_John_Howard_Halfpenny.JPG
1795 AE Halfpenny, Portsmouth, Hampshire.69 viewsObverse: IOHN HOWARD F.R.S. PHILANTHROPIST •. Bust of John Howard facing left.
Reverse: RULE BRITANNIA. Britannia facing left, seated on globe, her right hand holding spear, her left arm holding laurel-branch and resting on shield at her side; in exergue, 1795.
Edge: “CURRENT EVERY WHERE ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦”
Diameter: 29mm
Dalton & Hamer: 57b

The dies for this token were likely engraved by Thomas Wyon and it was probably manufactured by Peter Kempson at his mint in Birmingham.
The Fitzwilliam Museum regards Liverpool as an alternative possibility for the place of issue.
These 18th century tokens are often generically referred to as “Conder” tokens, the name originating from James Conder, a linen draper from Tavern Street in Ipswich. Conder was an ardent collector of tokens and the author of the standard work on the subject until it was superseded by that of Atkins in 1892.

John Howard was born in Lower Clapton, London the son of a wealthy upholsterer. After the death of his father in 1742, he received a sizeable inheritance. Since he was wealthy and had no true vocation, in 1748 Howard left England and began to travel. However, while in Hanover he was captured by French privateers and imprisoned. It was this experience that made him consider the conditions in which prisoners were held.
In 1758 Howard returned to England and settled in Cardington, Bedfordshire. As a landowner he was philanthropic and enlightened, ensuring that his estate housing was of good standard and that the poor houses under his management were well run.
In 1773 he became High Sheriff of Bedfordshire. On his appointment he began a tour of English prisons which led to two Acts of Parliament in 1774, making gaolers salaried officers and setting standards of cleanliness.
In April 1777, Howard's sister died leaving him £15,000 and her house. He used this inheritance and the revenue from the sale of her house to further his work on prisons. In 1778 he was examined by the House of Commons, who were this time inquiring into prison ships, or “hulks”. Two days after giving evidence, he was again travelling Europe, beginning in the Dutch Republic.
His final journey took him into Eastern Europe and Russia. Whilst at Kherson, in what is now Ukraine, Howard contracted typhus on a prison visit and died. He was buried on the shores of the Black Sea in a walled field at Dophinovka (Stepanovka), Ukraine. Despite requesting a quiet funeral without pomp and ceremony, the event was elaborate and attended by the Prince of Moldovia.
Howard became the first civilian to be honoured with a statue in St Paul's Cathedral, London. A statue was also erected in Bedford, and another one in Kherson. John Howard's bust can still be seen as a feature in the architecture of a number of Victorian prisons across the UK.
*Alex
1797_PERTH_HALFPENNY.JPG
1797 AE Halfpenny Token. Perth, Scotland.23 viewsObverse: PRO REGE LEGE ET GREGE (For King, Law and Flock). Coat of Arms of the City of Perth consisting of double-headed eagle with shield, displaying lamb holding saltire flag.
Reverse: PERTH • HALFPENNY • • • •. A hank of yarn above a package of dressed flax; 17 - 97 across field.
Edge: Incuse legend “PAYABLE AT THE HOUSE OF PAT. K MAXWELL X X".
Diameter: 29mm.
Dalton & Hamer: 9
SCARCE

This token was issued by Patrick Maxwell, a grocer and spirit dealer on the High Street in Perth. In later years this business became known as Maxwell & Son. The hank of yarn and bale of flax refers to the linen trade in the town which was its main industry at the time of this token’s issue.
This token was engraved and manufactured by Joseph Kendrick at his works in Birmingham, England.
*Alex
1797_Halfpenny_Token_Middlesex_(Mule).JPG
1797 AE Halfpenny, Middlesex County.39 viewsObverse: FREDk. DUKE OF YORK. Bare headed bust of Frederick Augustus, Duke of York, facing right; HALFPENNY 1795 in two lines below.
Reverse: RULE BRITANNIA. Britannia seated on globe facing left, left arm resting on shield and holding laurel-branch, right hand holding spear, ship's masts in front of her in background; 1797 in exergue.
Edge: Plain.
Diameter: 27mm | Die Axis: 6h | Obverse die flaw.
Dalton & Hamer: 990. Cobwright No: F.0010/R.0010. Not in Atkins.

Manufactured by William Lutwyche, Birmingham.
In the 18th century, token manufacturers often used their dies to their own advantage by striking “mules”, solely with the object of creating rare varieties which were sold to the collectors of the day.

Prince Frederick Augustus, Duke of York and Albany, was born on16th August 1763. He was the second eldest child, and second son, of King George III. Thrust into the British army at a very young age he was appointed a colonel by his father on 4th November 1780 when he was only 17 years old. He was created Duke of York and Albany on 27th November 1784.
On 26th May 1789 he took part a duel with Colonel Charles Lennox, who had insulted him; Lennox missed and Prince Frederick honourably refused to return fire.
On 12th April 1793 he was promoted to a full general and sent to Flanders in command of the British contingent destined for the invasion of France. Frederick's command fought under extremely trying conditions and though he won several notable engagements, he was defeated at the Battle of Hondschoote in September 1793. Then, in the 1794 campaign, he was successful at the battle of Willems in May but was defeated at the Battle of Tourcoing later that month.
Promoted to the rank of field marshal, on 3rd April 1795 he became effective Commander-in-Chief in succession to Lord Amherst and went with the army sent for the Anglo-Russian invasion of Holland in August 1799. A number of disasters befell the allied forces however and, on 17th October, the Duke signed the Convention of Alkmaar, by which the allied expedition withdrew after giving up its prisoners.
These military setbacks led to Frederick being mocked in the rhyme "The Grand Old Duke of York":
The grand old Duke of York,
He had ten thousand men.
He marched them up to the top of the hill
And he marched them down again.
And when they were up, they were up.
And when they were down, they were down.
And when they were only halfway up,
They were neither up nor down.
However, Frederick's experience in the Dutch campaign had demonstrated the numerous weaknesses of the British army after years of neglect so he carried through a massive programme of reform and he was the person most responsible for creating the force which served in the Peninsular War.
Frederick died of dropsy and apparent cardioid-vascular disease at the home of the Duke of Rutland on Arlington Street, London, on 5th January, 1827. After lying in state in London, his remains were interred in St. George's Chapel, at Windsor.
*Alex
Norwich_halfpenny_1811.JPG
1811 AE HALFPENNY, Norwich, Norfolk.42 viewsObverse: NORWICH MDCCCXI. The arms of Norwich consisting of a heraldic shield containing a three towered castle above a lion passant.
Reverse: NEWTON SILVERSMTH AND JEWELLER. Britannia standing facing right, holding spear and shield, behind her, at her side, lion walking right.
Edge: Centre grained.
Diameter: 27mm
Davis 26 | Withers 923

Issued by Francis Newton, a silversmith and Jeweller in Norwich. This is possibly the same Francis Newton (or a close relative) who, in a circular to bankers, was declared bankrupt by solicitors Messrs Bignold, Pulley and Mawe of New Bridge Street, at a meeting in the Rampant Horse Inn, Norwich on 5th August, 1835.

Norwich is situated on the River Wensum and is the regional administrative centre and county town of Norfolk. During the 11th century, Norwich was the largest city in England after London, and one of the most important places in the kingdom. Until the Industrial Revolution, Norwich was the capital of the most populous county in the country and vied with Bristol as England's second city.
*Alex
1812_HULL_LEAD_WORKS_PENNY.JPG
1812 AE Penny Token. Hull, Yorkshire.21 viewsObverse: No legend. View of Hull lead works with smoking chimneys in background; 1812 in exergue.
Reverse: PAYABLE IN BANK OF ENG.D OR HULL NOTES BY I.K.PICARD • around ONE PENNY / HULL / LEAD / WORKS in four lines with ornament below.
Edge: Grained.
Diameter 34mm | Die Axis 7
Davis: 82

The dies for this token were engraved by Thomas Halliday and it was manufactured by Edward Thomason.
The token was issued by John Kirby Picard, who had practised as an attorney-at-law in Trinity House-lane, become a barrister and been chosen as a Deputy-Recorder of Hull before he entered into the lead business of his father. He was a man of considerable wealth and frequently visited London on business and for pleasure. He mixed with the 'high' society of the period but became addicted to gambling. Picard used his tokens for the gambling parties he held in his house and after they gained the attention of the Prince Regent, the later George IV, he was invited to show them at court.
No mention of Picard has been found in any of the London Directories, but the 'London Gazette', on February 13th, 1827, announced that J. K. Pickard (sic), white lead merchant, Russell Street, Covent Garden, had been declared bankrupt. Picard died in reduced circumstances in 1843.

The legend “PAYABLE IN BANK OF ENGLAND NOTES” was placed on this token due to an Act of Parliament which was passed in 1809 requiring issuers of local tokens to meet claims for repayment in Bank of England notes. The government having seen the widespread use of private coinage in the form of tokens realised how much money was not being controlled by it, so by passing this act it effectively made these tokens into defacto currency.
*Alex
1813_SHEFFIELD_PENNY_TOKEN_.JPG
1813 AE Penny, Sheffield, Yorkshire.28 viewsObverse: PAYABLE AT S. HOBSON & SON's, BUTTON MANUFACTURERS, incuse letters on a raised rim. Arms consisting of eight arrows arranged saltirewise, bound together with a ribbon; pheon on either side; above, a facing winged cherubim; below, SHEFFIELD.
Reverse: ONE PENNY TOKEN 1813 incuse letters on a raised rim. Britannia seated facing left on shield, holding olive branch and trident, small ship in left background; small “H” (for Halliday) below shield.
Edge: Centre-grained.
Diameter 34mm
Davis:138

The dies for this token were engraved by Thomas Halliday (c.1780-1854). Active in the early 19th century, Halliday originally worked as an engraver at Matthew Boulton's Soho Mint in Handsworth and set up on his own as a medallist and token-producer from 1801. Established in Newhall Street, Birmingham about 1810, he engraved dies for the trade, or engraved and manufactured tokens and medals at his own works for all traders who wished to issue them.

This token was issued by Hobson & Son who were button manufacturers with a business in Sheffield.
*Alex
1813_STOCKTON_PENNY_TOKEN_.JPG
1813 AE Penny, Stockton-on-Tees, County Durham.36 viewsObverse: CHRISTOPHER & JENNETT * STOCKTON *, incuse letters on a raised rim. View of the bridge over the Tees being crossed by several small figures including a rider on horse, rowing boat containing two figures in river below; in field above, TEES; in field below, 1813.
Reverse: BRITANNIA * ONE PENNY TOKEN *, incuse letters on a raised rim. Britannia seated facing left on shield, holding olive branch and trident, small ship in left background at her feet.
Edge: Centre-grained.
Diameter 34mm | Weight 19.7gms
Davis:6 | Withers:1109

The die engraver for this token was Peter Wyon. It was issued by Robert Christopher & Thomas Jennett who were booksellers and printers in Stockton, they were also the Stockton agents for the Sun Fire Office.
Jennett was Christopher's apprentice and on the completion of his indentures, he was taken into partnership. Matching the high standards of his companion, Jennett became well known and much respected, growing to be a man of power and influence. He became a magistrate and was mayor of Stockton three times.

The bridge shown on this token was the first bridge to serve the growing town of Stockton, it was a five arch stone bridge which was completed in 1769. Before the existence of the bridge at this location, the only way of crossing the Tees was by the Bishop’s Ferry. The bridge was subject to rent to the Bishop of Durham and the costs of building it had to be repaid, so a system of tolls was charged. These were supposed to be abolished as soon as the debt was cleared, but they remained in place until, in 1819, the local people took the law into their own hands, throwing two of the bridge gates into the river and burning the third gate in the High Street. Although the bridge was good news for Stockton’s business, it had a devastating impact on Yarm. As ships were growing in size at this time, the building of the bridge prevented many ships reaching Yarm because they were unable to navigate further up the river. This only heightened shipping in Stockton and affirmed its place as the main port on the Tees before the 1800s. The bridge also halted Yarm’s shipbuilding industry and, since Stockton was unaffected, yards sprang up east of the bridge towards the sea. By 1876 the old bridge was inadequate and in 1881 work was begun on a new bridge. This new bridge, named the ‘Victoria Bridge’ in recognition of Queen Victoria, was opened in 1887 and the old stone bridge was demolished.
*Alex
Coin_cabinet_medal.JPG
1843 "BENJAMIN NIGHTINGALE" AE Halfpenny Token. London, Middlesex16 viewsObverse: VILIUS EST ARGENTUM AURO, VIRTUTIBUS AURUM. Female, leaning on books behind her, holding a cornucopia from which coins are spilling, seated facing right in front of an open coin cabinet; in exergue, tudor rose on shield between two branches.
Reverse: BENJAMIN NIGHTINGALE LONDON * PRIVATE TOKEN * 1843 surrounding “BN” monogram in script.
Edge: Plain.
Diameter: 30mm | Weight: 14.2gms | Die Axis: 12
Bell (Middlesex) A3
VERY RARE (Only 72 of these bronzed copper halfpenny tokens were struck)

Privately issued in London by Benjamin Nightingale, the die sinker for this token was William Joseph Taylor (whose initials WJT can be seen to the left below the books on the obverse), following a similar design for halfpennies that he had produced for Matthew Young, a British merchant. Taylor was born in Birmingham in 1802 and was apprenticed to Thomas Halliday in 1818 as the first die-sinker to be trained by him. He set up his own business as a die-sinker, medallist and engraver at 5 Porter Street, Soho, London in 1829, later moving to 3 Lichfield Street, Birmingham. In 1843 the business moved to 33 Little Queen Street and finally, in 1869, to 70 Red Lion Street where, in 1885, Taylor died.
The Soho Mint at Birmingham (founded by Matthew Boulton) closed in 1848, and it's plant and equipment was sold via auction in April 1850. Taylor purchased many of the Soho Mint's hubs and dies from this auction and used them to restrike many of the coins & patterns that the Soho Mint had struck between the 1790's and the 1840's, though he nearly always re-polished or re-engraved elements of the original dies before re-using them.

Benjamin Nightingale was a wine and spirit merchant who lived at 17 Upper Stamford Street, Blackfriars Road in London. He was born in 1806 and died on March 9th, 1862. He was a well known Antiquarian and was a member of the Numismatic Society of London.
In 1863, after his death, Benjamin Nightingale's collection, consisting of 359 lots, was sold over a two day period by Sotheby's. This is from the February 13, 1863 edition of the London Daily News (page 8, column 6).

THE VALUABLE CABINET of COINS and MEDALS of the late BENJAMIN NIGHTINGALE, Esq.
MESSRS S. LEIGH SOTHEBY and WILKINSON, auctioneers of literary property and works illustrative of the fine arts, will SELL BY AUCTION, at their house, No. 13 (late 3), Wellington-street, Strand, W.C., on WEDNESDAY, Feb. 25, and following day, at 1 precisely, the valuable CABINET OF COINS and MEDALS of the late Benjamin Nightingale, Esq.; comprising a few Roman coins in gold, silver, and copper, in the highest state of preservation; a most valuable collection of English medals in all metals; rare and curious jetons, including a very perfect set of those struck to illustrate the history of the low countries; a few remarkable foreign medals, a choice library of numismatic books, several well-made cabinets, & c. – May be viewed two days previous, and catalogues had on receipt of two stamps.

According to Manville and Robertson, prior to his death, Benjamin Nightingale had sold off part of his collection at an auction by Sotheby's on 29th Nov. 1855.
"Benjamin NIGHTINGALE" in ANS copy; Greek, Roman, Tavern Tokens, Town Pieces, 17-18c Tokens, English and Foreign Medals, Books; 165 lots. -Curtis Clay.

The inspiration for these tokens might have been Pye's 1797 halfpenny (Warwickshire 223) which is of a similar design.
*Alex
1875H_VICTORIA_BUN_HEAD_FARTHING_.JPG
1875 "H" VICTORIA BRONZE "BUN HEAD" FARTHING33 viewsObverse: VICTORIA D:G: BRITT:REG:F:D: "Bun head" bust of Queen Victoria with elderly features facing left.
Reverse: FARTHING. Britannia seated facing right, her right hand resting on shield, her left holding a trident; in left background, a lighthouse and in right background, a ship; 1875, small "H" below, in exergue.
Diameter: 20mm
SPINK: 3959

Victoria's "bun head" portrait was designed by Leonard Charles Wyon (1826 - 1891), he was the eldest son of William Wyon, who had previously designed the "young head" portrait of the Queen. The letters L C WYON are incuse amongst the ornamentation of the Queen's dress.

On 1st April 1850 the auction was announced of equipment from the defunct Soho Mint, created by Matthew Boulton around 1788. At the auction, on 29th April, Ralph Heaton II bought Boulton's four steam-powered screw presses and six planchet presses for making blanks from strip metal. These were installed at Heaton's Bath Street works, and his Birmingham Mint began to strike trade tokens for use in Australia. In 1851 copper planchets were made for the Royal Mint to make into pennies, halfpennies, farthings, half-farthings and quarter-farthings.
In 1853 the Royal Mint was overwhelmed with producing silver and gold coins and so Ralph Heaton and Sons won their first contract to strike finished coins for Britain, these coins had no mintmark to identify them as from Birmingham.
In 1860 the firm bought a 1-acre plot on Icknield Street and constructed a three storey red brick factory. Completed in 1862 and employing 300 staff, it was at this time the largest private mint in the world.
From 1874 the Birmingham Mint began striking bronze pennies, halfpennies and farthings for the Royal Mint. This time though, the Birmingham Mint issues are distinguished by an H (for Heaton) mintmark below the date on the reverse. Victorian British coins bearing the H mintmark were produced in 1874, 1875, 1876, 1881 and 1882.
*Alex
Victoria_Halfpenny_1876H.JPG
1876 "H" VICTORIA BRONZE "BUN HEAD" HALFPENNY4 viewsObv: VICTORIA D:G: BRITT:REG:FID:DEF: "Bun head" bust of Queen Victoria with elderly features facing left.
Rev: HALF PENNY. Britannia seated facing right, her right hand resting on shield, her left holding a trident; in left background, a lighthouse and in right background, a ship; 1876, small H below, in exergue.
SPINK: 3957

Victoria's "bun head" portrait was designed by Leonard Charles Wyon (1826 - 1891), he was the eldest son of William Wyon, who had previously designed the "young head" portrait of the Queen. The letters L C WYON are incuse amongst the ornamentation of the Queen's dress.

On 1st April 1850 the auction was announced of equipment from the defunct Soho Mint, created by Matthew Boulton around 1788. At the auction, on 29th April, Ralph Heaton II bought Boulton's four steam-powered screw presses and six planchet presses for making blanks from strip metal. These were installed at Heaton's Bath Street works, and his Birmingham Mint began to strike trade tokens for use in Australia. In 1851 copper planchets were made for the Royal Mint to make into pennies, halfpennies, farthings, half-farthings and quarter-farthings.
In 1853 the Royal Mint was overwhelmed with producing silver and gold coins and so Ralph Heaton and Sons won their first contract to strike finished coins for Britain, these coins had no mintmark to identify them as from Birmingham.
In 1860 the firm bought a 1-acre plot on Icknield Street and constructed a three storey red brick factory. Completed in 1862 and employing 300 staff, it was at this time the largest private mint in the world.
From 1874 the Birmingham Mint began striking bronze pennies, halfpennies and farthings for the Royal Mint. This time though, the Birmingham Mint issues are distinguished by an H (for Heaton) mintmark below the date on the reverse. Victorian British coins bearing the H mintmark were produced in 1874, 1875, 1876, 1881 and 1882.
*Alex
1876H_Victoria_Penny.JPG
1876 "H" VICTORIA BRONZE "BUN HEAD" PENNY7 viewsObv: VICTORIA D:G: BRITT:REG:FID:DEF: "Bun head" bust of Queen Victoria with elderly features facing left.
Rev: ONE PENNY. Britannia seated facing right, her right hand resting on shield, her left holding a trident; in left background, a lighthouse and in right background, a ship; 1876, small H below, in exergue.
SPINK: 3955

Victoria's "bun head" portrait was designed by Leonard Charles Wyon (1826 - 1891), he was the eldest son of William Wyon, who had previously designed the "young head" portrait of the Queen. The letters L C WYON are incuse amongst the ornamentation of the Queen's dress.

On 1st April 1850 the auction was announced of equipment from the defunct Soho Mint, created by Matthew Boulton around 1788. At the auction, on 29th April, Ralph Heaton II bought Boulton's four steam-powered screw presses and six planchet presses for making blanks from strip metal. These were installed at Heaton's Bath Street works, and his Birmingham Mint began to strike trade tokens for use in Australia. In 1851 copper planchets were made for the Royal Mint to make into pennies, halfpennies, farthings, half-farthings and quarter-farthings.
In 1853 the Royal Mint was overwhelmed with producing silver and gold coins and so Ralph Heaton and Sons won their first contract to strike finished coins for Britain, these coins had no mintmark to identify them as from Birmingham.
In 1860 the firm bought a 1-acre plot on Icknield Street and constructed a three storey red brick factory. Completed in 1862 and employing 300 staff, it was at this time the largest private mint in the world.
From 1874 the Birmingham Mint began striking bronze pennies, halfpennies and farthings for the Royal Mint. This time though, the Birmingham Mint issues are distinguished by an H (for Heaton) mintmark below the date on the reverse. Victorian British coins bearing the H mintmark were produced in 1874, 1875, 1876, 1881 and 1882.
*Alex
SeptMoush369.jpg
193-211 AD - Septimius Severus - Moushmov 0369 - Apollo Reverse52 viewsEmperor: Septimius Severus (r. 193-211 AD)
Date: 193-211 AD
Condition: Fine
Denomination: Tetrassarion

Obverse: AΥKΛCEΠ - CEΥHΡOC
Head right with beard

Reverse: ΥΦΛOΥΛΠIΛ NOΥ - MAΡKIANOΠOΛIC
Apollo standing with bow facing right, altar left, serpent wrapped around tree stump right.

Mint: Markianopolis, Moesia Inferior
Magistrate: Flavius Ulpianus
Moushmov 369
10.56g; 26.5mm; 45°
1 commentsPep
rjb_sev4_02_06.jpg
193b22 viewsSeptimius Severus 193-211 AD
AR denarius
Obv "SEVERVS PIVS AVG"
Laureate bust right
Rev "PM TRP XV COS III PP"
Victory standing right inscribing shield on plam tree
Rome mint
RIC 211
mauseus
1248_P_Hadrian_RPC1961.jpg
1961 LYDIA, Mostene Hadrian, Hero on Horse11 viewsReference.
RPC III, 1961; vA 8238; Paris 762

Obv. ΑΥ ΚΑΙ ΤΡΑΙΑΝ ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СΕ Γ Δ Π
Laureate and cuirassed bust of Hadrian, right

Rev. ΛΥΔΩΝ ΜΟСΤΗΝΩΝ
Hero with double axe on horse, standing r.; beneath horse’s foreleg, lighted altar and in front, cypress-tree

15.70 gr
30 mm
6h
2 commentsokidoki
NeroAsGenAug.jpg
1ar Nero52 views54-68

As

Bare head, right, IMP NERO CAESAR AVG P MAX TR P P P
Genius, GENIO AVGVSTI

RIC 86

Suetonius wrote: Nero was born nine months after the death of Tiberius, at Antium, at sunrise on the 15th of December (AD 37). . . . While he was still a young stripling he took part in a successful performance of the Troy Game in the Circus, in which he exhibited great self-possession. At the age of twelve or so (sometime in AD 50), he was adopted by Claudius, who appointed Annaeus Seneca, already a member of the Senate, as his tutor. The following night, it is said, Seneca dreamed that his young charge was really Caligula, and Nero soon proved the dream prophetic by seizing the first opportunity to reveal his cruel disposition. . . . After Claudius’s death (AD 54) had been announced publicly, Nero, who was not quite seventeen years old, decided to address the Guards in the late afternoon, since inauspicious omens that day had ruled out an earlier appearance. After being acclaimed Emperor on the Palace steps, he was carried in a litter to the Praetorian Camp where he spoke to the Guards, and then to the House where he stayed until evening. He refused only one of the many honours that were heaped upon him, that of ‘Father of the Country’, and declined that simply on account of his youth.

Eutropius summarized: To him succeeded NERO, who greatly resembled his uncle Caligula, and both disgraced and weakened the Roman empire; he indulged in such extraordinary luxury and extravagance, that, after the example of Caius Caligula, he even bathed in hot and cold perfumes, and fished with golden nets, which he drew up with cords of purple silk. He put to death a very great number of the senate. To all good men he was an enemy. At last he exposed himself in so disgraceful a manner, that he danced and sung upon the stage in the dress of a harp-player and tragedian. He was guilty of many murders, his brother, wife, and mother, being put to death by him. He set on fire the city of Rome, that he might enjoy the sight of a spectacle such as Troy formerly presented when taken and burned.

In military affairs he attempted nothing. Britain he almost lost; for two of its most noble towns4 were taken and levelled to the ground under his reign. The Parthians took from him Armenia, and compelled the Roman legions to pass under the yoke. Two provinces however were formed under him; Pontus Polemoniacus, by the concession of King Polemon; and the Cottian Alps, on the death of King Cottius.

15 When, having become detestable by such conduct to the city of Rome, and being deserted at the same time by every one, and declared an enemy by the senate, he was sought for to be led to punishment (the punishment being, that he should be dragged naked through the streets, with a fork placed under his head,5 be beaten to death with rods, and then hurled from the Tarpeian rock), he fled from the palace, and killed himself in a suburban villa of one of his freed-men, between the Salarian and Nomentane roads, at the fourth milestone from the city. He built those hot baths at Rome, which were formerly called the Neronian, but now the Alexandrian. He died in the thirty-second year of his age, and the fourteenth year of his reign; and in him all the family of Augustus became extinct.

Having successfully dispatched his scheming mother Agrippina in 59 and survived a decade on the throne, Nero must have felt like a genius when this was minted ca 64 AD!
1 commentsBlindado
GalbaDenVictory.jpg
1at Galba31 views68-69

Denarius

Laureate head, right, SER GALBA IMP CAESAR AVG P M TR P
Victory standing on globe, VICTORIA PR

RIC 111

Suetonius recorded: Servius Galba, the future emperor was born on the 24th of December, 3BC, in the consulship of Marcus Valerius Messala and Gnaeus Lentulus, at a hillside mansion near Terracina, on the left of the road to Fundi (Fondi). He was formally adopted by his stepmother Livia Ocellina, and took the name Livius and the surname Ocella, also changing his forename to Lucius, until he became Emperor.

It is common knowledge that when calling on Augustus to pay his respects, with other boys of his age, the Emperor pinched his cheek, and said in Greek: ‘You too will have a taste of power, my child.’ And when Tiberius heard the prophecy that Galba would be emperor in old age, he commented: ‘Well let him be, it’s no concern of mine.’

Galba achieved office before the usual age and as praetor (in 20AD), controlling the games at the Floralia, he was the first to introduce a display of tightrope-walking elephants. He next governed Aquitania, for almost a year, and not long afterwards held the consulship for six months (in 33AD). When Caligula was assassinated (in 41AD), Galba chose neutrality though many urged him to seize the opportunity for power. Claudius expressed his gratitude by including him among his intimate friends, and Galba was shown such consideration that the expedition to Britain was delayed to allow him to recover from a sudden but minor indisposition. Later he was proconsul in Africa for two years (44/45AD), being singled out, and so avoiding the usual lottery, to restore order in the province, which was riven by internecine rivalry and an indigenous revolt. He re-established peace, by the exercise of ruthless discipline, and the display of justice even in the most trifling matters. . . .

But when word from the City arrived that Nero was dead and that the people had sworn allegiance to him, he set aside the title of governor and assumed that of Caesar. He then began his march to Rome in a general’s cloak, with a dagger, hanging from his neck, at his chest, and did not resume the toga until his main rivals had been eliminated, namely the commander of the Praetorian Guard in Rome, Nymphidius Sabinus, and the commanders in Germany and Africa, Fonteius Capito and Clodius Macer. . . . His prestige and popularity were greater while winning power than wielding it, though he showed evidence of being a more than capable ruler, loved less, unfortunately, for his good qualities than he was hated for his bad ones.

He was even warned of the danger of imminent assassination, the day before his death, by a soothsayer, as he offered the morning sacrifice. Shortly afterwards he learnt that Otho had secured the Guards camp, and when his staff advised him to carry the day by his presence and prestige, by going there immediately, he opted instead to stay put, but gather a strong bodyguard of legionaries from their billets around the City. He did however don a linen corselet, though saying that frankly it would serve little against so many weapons. False reports, put about by the conspirators to lure him into appearing in public, deceived a few of his close supporters, who rashly told him the rebellion was over, the plotters overthrown, and that the rest of the troops were on their way to congratulate him and carry out his orders. So he went to meet them, with such confidence, that when a soldier boasted of killing Otho, he snapped out: ‘On whose authority?’ before hastening on to the Forum. The cavalrymen who had been ordered to find and kill him, who were spurring through the streets scattering the crowds of civilians, now caught sight of him in the distance and halted an instant before galloping towards him and cutting him down, while his staff ran for their lives.
Blindado
BalbinusSestFelicit.jpg
1cj Balbinus20 views238

Sestertius

Laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust, right, seen from front, right, IMP CAES D CAEL BALBINVS AVG
Felicitas standing facing, head left, holding caduceus in right hand, PM TR P COS II PP SC

RIC 18

Herodian wrote, continuing the story of the rebellions against Maximinus: When the death of the elder Gordian was reported at Rome, . . . the senate therefore thought it best to meet and consider what should be done. Since they had already cast the die, they voted to issue a declaration of war and choose two men from their own ranks to be joint emperors. . . . Other senators received votes, but on the final count [Pupienus] Maximus and Balbinus were elected joint emperors by majority opinion. . . .

[Pupienus] had held many army commands; appointed prefect of Rome, he administered the office with diligence and enjoyed among the people a good reputation for his understanding nature, his intelligence, and his moderate way of life. Balbinus, an aristocrat who had twice served as consul and had governed provinces without complaint, had a more open and frank nature. After their election, the two men were proclaimed Augusti, and the Senate awarded them by decree all the imperial honors.

While these actions were being taken on the Capitoline Hill, the people, whether they were informed by Gordian's friends and fellow countrymen or whether they learned it by rumor, filled the entire street leading up to the Capitol. The huge mob was armed with stones and clubs, for they objected to the Senate's action and particularly disapproved of [Pupienus]. The prefect ruled the city too strictly for the popular taste, and was very harsh in his dealings with the criminal and reckless elements of the mob. In their fear and dislike of [Pupienus], they kept shouting threats to kill both emperors, determined that the emperor be chosen from the family of Gordian and that the title remain in that house and under that name.

Balbinus and [Pupienus] surrounded themselves with an escort of swordsmen from the young equestrians and the discharged soldiers living in Rome, and tried to force their way from the Capitol. The mob, armed with stones and clubs, prevented this until, at someone's suggestion, the people were deceived. There was in Rome at that time a little child, the son of Gordian's daughter, who bore his grandfather's name.

The two emperors ordered some of their men to bring the child to the Capitol. Finding the lad playing at home, they lifted him to their shoulders and brought him to the Capitol through the midst of the crowd. Showing the boy to the people and telling them that he was the son of Gordian, they called him "Gordian," while the mob cheered the boy and scattered leaves in his path. The senate appointed him caesar, since he was not old enough to be emperor. The mob, placated, allowed the imperial party to proceed to the palace.

Blindado
GordianIIIAntLaetitia.jpg
1cl Gordian III21 views238-244

Antoninianus

Radiate, draped & cuirassed bust, right, IMP GORDINVS PIVS FEL AVG
Laetitia standing right with wreath & anchor, LAETITIA AVG N

RIC 86

Continuing his story of the deaths of Balbinus and Pupienus, Herodian wrote: Leaving the corpses exposed in the street, the praetorians took up Gordian Caesar and proclaimed him emperor, since at the moment they could find no other candidate for the office. Proclaiming that they had only killed the men whom the people did not want to rule them in the first place, they chose as emperor this Gordian who was descended from the Gordian whom the Romans themselves had forced to accept the rule. Keeping their emperor Gordian with them, they went off to the praetorian camp. . . . Gordian, at the age of about thirteen, was designated emperor and assumed the burden of the Roman empire. . . .

Eutropius continued the story: After Gordian, when quite a boy, had married Tranquillina at Rome, he opened the temple of Janus, and, setting out for the east, made war upon the Parthians, who were then proceeding to make an irruption. This war he soon conducted with success, and made havoc of the Persians in great battles. As he was returning, he was killed, not far from the Roman boundaries, by the treachery of Philip who reigned after him. The Roman soldiers raised a monument for him, twenty miles from Circessus, which is now a fortress of the Romans, overlooking the Euphrates. His relics they brought to Rome, and gave him the title of god.
Blindado
Anto02Sow.jpg
2. Sow with piglets under oak tree94 viewsAntoninus Pius. 138-161 AD. Sestertius (25.9g, 33mm, 12h), Rome mint, struck 141-143 AD. Obv.: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P COS III, laureate head right Rev.: S C in ex., Sow under oak tree suckling seven piglets; one more to the right.
RIC 629; BMC 1298; Cohen 775; Sear (II) 4226.

Minted in preparation of the 900th anniversary of the founding of Rome, celebrated on April 21st, 147 AD. According to Vergil, The Trojan exile Aeneas sailed up the Tiber until he came upon a white sow nursing thirty piglets, and was to found a settlement on the site of this good omen, the town of Lanuvium, the precursor to Rome.
3 commentsCharles S
junlia_domna.JPG
201a. Julia Domna66 viewsIn Rome, when the worship of Cybele, as Magna Mater, was formally initiated in 203 BC, Rome was embroiled in the Second Punic War. The previous year, an inspection had been made of the Sibylline Books, and some oracular verses had been discovered that announced that if a foreign foe should carry war into Italy, he could be driven out and conquered if the Mater Magna were brought from Pessinos to Rome. Publius Cornelius Scipio Nasica was ordered to go to the port of Ostia, accompanied by all the matrons, to meet the goddess. He was to receive her as she left the vessel, and when brought to land he was to place her in the hands of the matrons who were to bear her to her destination, the Temple of Victory on the Palatine Hill. The day on which this event took place, 12 April, was observed afterwards as a festival, the Megalesian. (Livy, History of Rome, circa AD 10)

In Rome, her Phrygian origins were recalled by Catullus, whose famous poem on the theme of Attis includes a vivid description of Cybele's worship: "Together come and follow to the Phrygian home of Cybele, to the Phrygian forests of the goddess, where the clash of cymbals ring, where tambourines resound, where the Phrygian flute-player blows deeply on his curved reed, where ivy-crowned maenads toss their heads wildly."

Roman devotion to Cybele ran deep. Not coincidentally, when a Christian basilica was built over the site of a temple to Cybele, to occupy the site, it was dedicated as the Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore.

The worship of Cybele penetrated as far as Mauretania, where, just outside Setif, the ceremonial "tree-bearers" and the faithful (religiosi) restored the temple of Cybele and Attis after a disastrous fire in AD 288. Lavish new fittings paid for by the private group included the silver statue of Cybele and the chariot that carried her in procession received a new canopy, with tassels in the form of fir cones. (Robin Lane Fox, Pagans and Christians, p 581.)

Today, a monumental statue of Cybele can be found in one of the principal traffic circles of Madrid, the Plaza de Cibeles (illustration, upper right).

In Roman mythology, Magna Mater deorum Idaea ("great Idaean mother of the gods") was the name for the originally Phrygian goddess Cybele, as well as Rhea.

Her cult moved from Phrygia to Greece from the 6th century to the 4th. In 205 BC, Rome adopted her cult.

Julia Domna Denarius. 212 AD. IVLIA PIA FELIX AVG, draped bust right / MATRI DEVM, Cybele standing left, leaning on column, holding drum & scepter, lion at foot. RSC 137. RIC 382
1 commentsecoli
rjb_2013_04_05.jpg
218a37 viewsElagabalus 218-22 AD
AE 29 mm
Tyre in Phoenicia
Hexastyle temple with curved arch containing a statue of Astarte left, palm tree and murex shell flanking an altar in the foreground
BMC 393, Rouvier 2363, countermark Howgego 359
1 commentsmauseus
27-Constantius-II-Tre-222.jpg
27. Constantius II / Hut.26 viewsMaiorina (?) (smaller AE 2), 348-350, Treveri mint.
Obverse: DN CONSTANTIVS P F AVG / Diademed bust of Constantius II, left, holding globe.
Reverse: FEL TEMP REPARATIO / Soldier, holding spear, pulling prisoner from a hut under a tree.
Mint mark: TRS
3.78 gm., 21 mm.
RIC # 222; LRBC #30; Sear #18208.
Callimachus
28-Constans-Ant-126.jpg
28. Constans / Hut.53 viewsMaiorina (?) (smaller AE 2), 348-350, Antioch mint.
Obverse: DN CONSTANS P F AVG / Diademed bust of Constans, left, holding globe.
Reverse: FEL TEMP REPARATIO / Soldier, holding spear, pulling prisoner from a hut under a tree.
Mint mark: ANS
4.10 gm., 21 mm.
RIC #126; LRBC #2615; Sear #18700.
1 commentsCallimachus
513_P_Hadrian_RPC_2818.JPG
2818 PISIDIA, Selge Hadrian AE 24 two styrax-trees22 viewsReference.
RPC 3, 2818; BMC 68-69

Obv. ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС ΚΑΙСΑΡ
laureate and cuirassed bust of Hadrian, r., with paludamentum, and Triskeles countermark

Rev. СΕΛ-ΓΕΩΝ
large quadrangular base on which two styrax-trees in boxes; l. and r., altar

7.42 gr
23 mm
5h
okidoki
513_P_Hadrian_RPC_2818~0.JPG
2818 PISIDIA, Selge Hadrian AE 24 two styrax-trees3 viewsReference.
RPC III, 2818; BMC 68-69; c/m Triskeles countermark

Rev. СΕΛ-ΓΕΩΝ
large quadrangular base on which two styrax-trees in boxes; l. and r., altar

7.42 gr
23 mm
6h
okidoki
IMG_2624.JPG
3 Constans35 viewsConstans, Rome, AE3, D N CONSTA-NS P F AVG, Laurel and rosette diademed, draped, cuirassed bust left, globe in right hand. N behind bust. / FEL TEMP REPARAT-I-O, Helmeted soldier, spear in left hand, advancing right, head left; with his right hand he leads a small bare-headed figure from a hut beneath a tree. The spear points downwards, between the soldier's legs, N in right field. Mintmark RT

Ref: RIC VIII Rome 159; LRBC 596
2 commentsRandygeki(h2)
3_IMG_2423.JPG
3 Constans43 viewsBillon centenionalis of Constans
Antioch, officina 10; 348-350 CE
9mm x 21mm, 4.41g
D N CONSTA-NS P F AVG Pearl-diademed, draped, cuirassed bust left, globe in right hand.
FEL TEMP REPA-RATIO Helmeted soldier, spear in left hand, advancing right, head left; with his right hand he leads a small bare-headed figure from a hut beneath a tree. The spear points downwards, between the soldier's legs. Star in upper left field, ANI in ex
RIC VIII Antioch 128; LRBC 2615 BW Ref: 188 026 120

Ex moonmoth
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3 commentsRandygeki(h2)
IMG_2514.JPG
3 Constans50 viewsConstans

D N CONSTA-NS P F AVG Pearl-diademed, draped, cuirassed bust left, globe in right hand. FEL TEMP REPA-RATIO Helmeted soldier, spear in left hand, advancing right, head left; with his right hand he leads a small bare-headed figure from a hut beneath a tree. The spear points downwards, between the soldier's legs.
*SMKΓ in ex

RIC VIII Cyzicus 77; LRBC 2479
2 commentsRandygeki(h2)
IMG_2291.JPG
3 Constans54 viewsConstans
Billon centenionalis 21mm, 4.3g
D N CONSTA-NS P F AVG Pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed bust left, globe in right hand./ FEL•TEMP•REPA-RATIO Helmeted soldier, spear in left hand, advancing right, head left; with his right hand he leads a small bare-headed figure from a hut beneath a tree. The spear points upwards and to the right.
Exergue: ΔSIS(Symbol 4)M

Siscia, officina 4; 348-350 CE

Ref: RIC VIII Siscia 218; LRBC 1121
BW Ref: 107 024 079

Ex Moonmoth collection
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4 commentsRandygeki(h2)
2_IMG_2566.JPG
3 Constans45 viewsConstans

Billon centenionalis
Heraclea, officina 5; 348-351 CE
Size and Weight: 20mm x 21mm, 4.31g
Obverse: D N CONSTA-NS P F AVG
Pearl-diademed, draped, cuirassed bust left, globe in right hand.
Reverse: FEL TEMP REPA-RATIO
Helmeted soldier, spear in left hand, advancing right, head left; with his right hand he leads
a small bare-headed figure from a hut beneath a tree. The spear points downwards, between the soldier's legs.
Exergue: SMHЄ
RIC VIII Heraclea 71; LRBC 1892

ex moonmoth
3 commentsRandygeki(h2)
IMG_2612.JPG
3 Constans35 viewsConstans
AE3, D N CONSTA-NS P F AVG, Pearl-diademed, draped, cuirassed bust left, globe in right hand. / FEL TEMP REPA-RATIO, Helmeted soldier, spear in left hand, advancing right, head left; with his right hand he leads a small bare-headed figure from a hut beneath a tree. The spear points downwards, between the soldier's legs. Star in upper left field. Mintmark SMNA.

Nicomedia
RIC VIII 72
3 commentsRandygeki(h2)
IMG_2647.JPG
3 Constans27 viewsConstans
officina 1; 348-350 CE 4.13g
D N CONSTA-NS P F AVG Rosette diademed, draped, cuirassed bust left, globe in right hand.
FEL TEMP REPAR-ATIO Helmeted soldier, spear in left hand, advancing right, head left; with his right hand he leads a small bare-headed figure from a hut beneath a tree. The spear points up and to the right.
PLG in ex
VIII Lyons 85; LRBC 178
1 commentsRandygeki(h2)
IMG_2690.JPG
3 Constans54 viewsCoin Type: Billon centenionalis of Constans, Caesar 333-337 CE, Augustus 337-350 CE
Mint and Date: Constantinople, officina 1; 348-351 CE
Size and Weight: 20mm x 21mm, 4.30g
Obverse: D N CONSTA-NS P F AVG
Pearl-diademed, draped, cuirassed bust left, globe in right hand.
Reverse: FEL TEMP REPA-RATIO
Helmeted soldier, spear in left hand, advancing right, head left; with his right hand he leads a small bare-headed figure from a hut beneath a tree. The spear points downwards, between the soldier's legs.
Exergue: CONSA

Ref: RIC VIII Constantinople 86; LRBC 2012
BW Ref: 115 024 080

Ex Moonmoth
4 commentsRandygeki(h2)
IMG_3099.JPG
3 Constans55 views
Billon centenionalis of Constans
Antioch, officina 3; 348-350 CE
4.4 g, 22 mm
D N CONSTA-NS P F AVG Pearl-diademed, draped, cuirassed bust left, globe in right hand.
FEL TEMP REPA-RATIO Helmeted soldier, spear in left hand, advancing right, head left; with his right hand he leads a small bare-headed figure from a hut beneath a tree. The spear points downwards, between the soldier's legs. Star in upper left field, AN Gamma in ex
RIC VIII Antioch 128; LRBC 2615
6 commentsRandygeki(h2)
IMG_4646.jpg
3 Constans22 viewsConstans
Billon centenionalis
Thessalonica, officina 3; 348-350 CE
D N CONSTA-NS P F AVG Pearl-diademed, draped, cuirassed bust left, globe in right hand/ FEL TEMP REPAR-ATIO Helmeted soldier, spear in left hand, advancing right, head left; with his right hand he leads a small bare-headed figure from a hut beneath a tree. The spear points downwards and to the left.
TES gamma in ex

RIC VIII Thessalonica 118; LRBC 1636
3 commentsRandygeki(h2)
IMG_2360.JPG
3 Constantius II16 viewsConstantius II
AE2, Trier
3.58 g / 22 mm

DN CONSTAN-TIVS PF AVG
pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed bust left, holding globe
R/ FEL TEMP REPARATIO
helmeted soldier, spear in left hand, advancing right, head turned to left. The spear points downwards between the soldier's legs. With his right hand he is leading a small bare-headed figure from a hut beneath a tree with bunches of three circular flowers forming a trefoil shape at the end of the branches
TRS in ex

RIC VIII Trier 222
Randygeki(h2)
IMG_2640.JPG
3 Constantius II30 viewsObverse: DN CONSTAN-TIVS P F AVG; Pearl diademed draped cuirassed bust left, holding globe in right hand
Reverse: FEL TEMP REPA-RATIO; Helmeted soldier, spear in left hand, advancing right, head left; with his right hand he leads a small bare-headed figure from a hut beneath a tree. The spear points downwards, between the soldier's legs.; ALEA in exergue
Size: 22.05mm
Weight: 3.3 grams

RIC VIII 58 Alexandria
2 commentsRandygeki(h2)
IMG_2353.JPG
3 Constantius II35 viewsConstantius II
Billon centenionalis
Siscia, officina 3; 348-350 CE
22mm x 23mm, 4.74g
D N CONSTAN-TIVS P F AVG Pearl-diademed, draped, cuirassed bust left, globe in right hand.
Reverse: FEL•TEMP•REPA-RATIO
Helmeted soldier, spear in left hand, advancing right, head left; with his right hand he leads a small bare-headed figure from a hut beneath a tree. The spear points upwards and to the right.
Exergue: ΓSISR•

Ref: RIC VIII, similar to Siscia 221 but (a) different emperor; (b) the officina is unlisted and (c) this spear position is not listed for any mintmark ending in a dot.
BW Ref: 073 040 137

Ex Moonmoth
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1 commentsRandygeki(h2)
IMG_2409.JPG
3 Constantius II32 viewsBillon centenionalis of Constantius II
Arelate, officina 1; 348-350 CE
19mm x 21mm, 2.78g.
D N CONSTAN-TIVS P F AVG Pearl-diademed, draped, cuirassed bust left, globe in right hand.
FEL TEMP REPAR-ATIO Helmeted soldier, spear in left hand, advancing right, head left; with his right hand he leads a small bare-headed figure from a hut beneath a tree. The spear points upwards and to the right. Star in upper left field.
Ex. PARL

RIC VIII Arles 108; LRBC 400 BW Ref: 089 054 169

ex moonmoth
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1 commentsRandygeki(h2)
IMG_2553.JPG
3 Constantius II43 viewsConstantius II, 337 - 361 AD
AE24, Thessalonika Mint, 3.79 grams
Obverse: DN CONSTANTIVS PF AVG, Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of Constantius left holding globe.
Reverse: FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Helmeted soldier, spear in left hand, advancing right, head left; with his right hand he leads a small bare-headed figure from a hut beneath a tree. The spear points downwards and to the left, TES Delta in exergue.
RIC117
3 commentsRandygeki(h2)
IMG_2564.JPG
3 Constantius II48 views

Constantius II

Billon centenionalis
Aquileia, officina 2; 348-350 CE
Size and Weight: 20mm x 21mm, 3.85g
Obverse: CONSTANT-IVS P F AVG
Pearl-diademed, draped, cuirassed bust left, globe in right hand.
Reverse: FEL•TEMP•REPAR-ATIO
Helmeted soldier, spear in left hand, advancing right, head left; with his right hand he leads a small bare-headed figure from a hut beneath a tree. The spear points upwards and to the right.
Exergue: AQS•

Ref: RIC VIII Aquileia 102; LRBC 887.
4 commentsRandygeki(h2)
3+_lb__Grassy_Mtn__Petrified_Wood_-_Hoodoo_Creek_Elm.JPG
3+ lb. Grassy Mtn. Petrified Wood - Hoodoo Creek Elm 19 views7 3/4" high and measures about 4 3/4" wide across the mirror polished face. Weight is 3.06 lbs. elm tree, Grassy Mountain site in Eastern Oregon, Hoodoo Creek, a short distance from the Grassy Mtn. peak. 1 commentsAntonivs Protti
jbk107.jpg
3.0 Bar Kokhba small bronze, year 3 (134-135 CE)172 viewsBar Kokhba rebellion (second Jewish Revolt against Rome)
Year 3 (134-135 CE)
small bronze (19.5 mm)
VF+/VF
Hendin 739

obv. seven branched palm tree, symbolizing Judaea (like Menorah?)
SHIMON (Simon [Bar Kokhba]) in field below tree
rev. Bunch of grapes L'CHAROT YERUSHALAYIM (For the Freedom of Jerusalem) around
5 commentsZam
30m-Roma-Arl-392.jpg
30m. Roma commemorative: Arelate.23 viewsAE3, 335, Arelate (Constantina) mint.
Obverse: VRBS ROMA / Helmeted bust of Roma, facing left.
Reverse: She-wolf with Romulus and Remus.
Mint mark: PCONST, two stars above with "pine tree" between.
2.56 gm., 17 mm.
RIC #392; LRBC #396; Sear #16500.
Callimachus
282_P_Hadrian.JPG
3900 PHOENICIA, Tyre. Pseudo-autonomous under Hadrian, 121-22 AD Palm15 viewsReference.
RPC III, 3900; BMC Phoenicia 347 ( pg. 266 ); SNG Copenhagen 351.

Obv. no legend.
Turreted, veiled, and draped bust of Tyche right.

Rev. ΤΥΡ ΜΗΤΡΟΠΟΛƐΩС ΙƐΡ ΑΣ, ΖΜΣ (or ΖΜС)
Phoenician letters לצר (‘of Tyre’); palm tree.

3.05 gr
16 mm
12h
okidoki
423-1_Servilia2.jpg
423/1. Servilia - denarius (57 BC)30 viewsAR Denarius (Rome, 57 BC)
O/ Head of Flora right; lituus behind; FLORAL PRIMVS before.
R/ Two soldiers facing each other and presenting swords; C SERVEIL in exergue; C F upwards on right.
3.87g; 18mm
Crawford 423/1 (99 obverse dies/110 reverse dies)
- ROMA Numismatics, E-Sale 42, lot 484.
- Artemide Aste, 11-12 June 2016, lot 253.

* Gaius Servilius C.f. (Brocchus?):

The gens Servilia was originally patrician, but our moneyer was most likely a plebeian because at this time, the only remaining patrician branch of the gens was the Caepiones. The Servilii Gemini, likewise patricians at first, lost their status during the Second Punic War for an unknown reason and their descendants had erratic cognomina, making it difficult to reconstruct the genealogical tree of the gens. The one given by Crawford for RRC 239 is dubious, although possible.

Crawford also says that our moneyer was perhaps a brother of Marcus Servilius C.f., Tribune of the Plebs in 43 BC. He was possibly the Gaius Servilius Brocchus, son of Gaius, mentioned as Military Tribune by Flavius Josephus (Jewish Antiquities, xiv. 229), who tells that he served under the Consul L. Cornelius Lentulus Crus in Asia. It would match a career started in the 50, during which the Pompeian party was dominating, and continued as Pompey's supporter during the Civil War.

The meaning of his denarius has been debated. According to Crawford, the obverse legend refers to the priesthood of Flora, probably held by the gens, contradicting the view of Mommsen, who thought it was celebrating the establishment of the Ludi Florales in 173. This view has been in turn challenged by Robert Palmer, but without giving an explanation of his own*. It should also be mentioned that Pliny the Elder tells that there were statues of Flora, Triptolemus and Ceres by Praxiteles in the "Servilian gardens" (Natural History, xxxvi. 4), which obviously belonged to the gens, showing that Flora was of special importance for the Servilii.

The reverse reuses a common theme on Servilii's denarii: the duels of Marcus Servilius Pulex Geminus, Consul in 202, who was famous for his 23 victories in single combats (Plutarch, Aemilius Paullus, 31). The scene was depicted with variations on RRC 264 (horseback duel), RRC 327 (duel on foot), and RRC 370 (rider charging). It is also possible that RRC 239 shows another duel on horse, but disguised as the Dioscuri riding apart. The fact that our moneyer used this theme links him to the other direct descendants of Servilius Pulex Geminus, thus supporting Crawford's theory that he was a grandchild of Gaius Servilius, Praetor in 102.

* "Flora and the Sybil", in Ten Years of the Agnes Kirsopp Lake Michels Lectures at Bryn Mawr College, edited by Suzanne B. Faris, Lesley E. Lundeen, Bryn Mawr, 2006, pp. 58-70.
3 commentsJoss
vespa judea capta.jpg
69-79 AD - VESPASIAN - AE dupondius - struck 71 AD44 viewsobv: IMP CAES VESPASIAN AVG C[OS ?] (radiate head right)
rev: [IVDEA.CAPTA] / S.C. (mourning Jew captive seated right under palm tree)
ref: RIC - , C.-
12.22gms, 25mm
Rare, not in RIC
The Judea Capta coin testifies to the great importance the Romans attached to quelling the revolt in Judea and capturing Jerusalem. This image was designed and circulated to send a message of Judea's defeated revolt to all the provinces of the Roman Empire and served as constant reminder of the fate of rebellious provinces.
berserker
TiberiusTributePennyRICI30RSCII16aSRCV1763.jpg
703a, Tiberius, 19 August 14 - 16 March 37 A.D., Tribute Penny of Matthew 22:20-2145 viewsSilver denarius, RIC I 30, RSC II 16a, SRCV 1763, gVF, Lugdunum mint, 3.837g, 18.7mm, 90o, 16 - 37 A.D.; obverse TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS, laureate head right; reverse PONTIF MAXIM, Pax/Livia seated right holding scepter and branch, legs on chair ornamented, feet on footstool; toned. Ex FORVM.


De Imperatoribus Romanis
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Tiberius (A.D. 14-37)

Garrett G. Fagan
Pennsylvania State University

Introduction
The reign of Tiberius (b. 42 B.C., d. A.D. 37, emperor A.D. 14-37) is a particularly important one for the Principate, since it was the first occasion when the powers designed for Augustus alone were exercised by somebody else. In contrast to the approachable and tactful Augustus, Tiberius emerges from the sources as an enigmatic and darkly complex figure, intelligent and cunning, but given to bouts of severe depression and dark moods that had a great impact on his political career as well as his personal relationships.

. . . .

Early life (42-12 B.C.)
Tiberius Claudius Nero was born on 16 November 42 B.C. to Ti. Claudius Nero and Livia Drusilla. Both parents were scions of the gens Claudia which had supplied leaders to the Roman Republic for many generations. . . [I]n 39 B.C., his mother Livia divorced Ti. Claudius Nero and married Octavian, thereby making the infant Tiberius the stepson of the future ruler of the Roman world. Forever afterward, Tiberius was to have his name coupled with this man, and always to his detriment.

. . . .

Accession and Early Reign (A.D. 14 - 23)
The accession of Tiberius proved intensely awkward. After Augustus had been buried and deified, and his will read and honored, the Senate convened on 18 September to inaugurate the new reign and officially "confirm" Tiberius as emperor. Such a transfer of power had never happened before, and nobody, including Tiberius, appears to have known what to do. Tacitus's account is the fullest. . . Rather than tactful, he came across to the senators as obdurate and obstructive. He declared that he was too old for the responsibilities of the Principate, said he did not want the job, and asked if he could just take one part of the government for himself. The Senate was confused, not knowing how to read his behavior. Finally, one senator asked pointedly, "Sire, for how long will you allow the State to be without a head?" Tiberius relented and accepted the powers voted to him, although he refused the title "Augustus."

. . . .

Tiberius allowed a trusted advisor to get too close and gain a tremendous influence over him. That advisor was the Praetorian Prefect, L. Aelius Sejanus, who would derail Tiberius's plans for the succession and drive the emperor farther into isolation, depression, and paranoia.

Sejanus (A.D. 23-31)
Sejanus hailed from Volsinii in Etruria. He and his father shared the Praetorian Prefecture until A.D. 15 when the father, L. Seius Strabo, was promoted to be Prefect of Egypt, the pinnacle of an equestrian career under the Principate. Sejanus, now sole Prefect of the Guard, enjoyed powerful connections to senatorial houses and had been a companion to Gaius Caesar on his mission to the East, 1 B.C. - A.D. 4. Through a combination of energetic efficiency, fawning sycophancy, and outward displays of loyalty, he gained the position of Tiberius's closest friend and advisor.

. . . .

[I]n a shocking and unexpected turn of events, [a] letter sent by Tiberius from Capri initially praised Sejanus extensively, and then suddenly denounced him as a traitor and demanded his arrest. Chaos ensued. Senators long allied with Sejanus headed for the exits, the others were confused -- was this a test of their loyalty? What did the emperor want them to do? -- but the Praetorian Guard, the very troops formerly under Sejanus's command but recently and secretly transferred to the command of Q. Sutorius Macro, arrested Sejanus, conveyed him to prison, and shortly afterwards executed him summarily. A witch-hunt followed. . . All around the city, grim scenes were played out, and as late as A.D. 33 a general massacre of all those still in custody took place.

Tiberius himself later claimed that he turned on Sejanus because he had been alerted to Sejanus's plot against Germanicus's family. This explanation has been rejected by most ancient and modern authorities, since Sejanus's demise did nothing to alleviate that family's troubles.

. . . .

The Last Years (A.D. 31-37)
The Sejanus affair appears to have greatly depressed Tiberius. A close friend and confidant had betrayed him; whom could he trust anymore? His withdrawal from public life seemed more complete in the last years. Letters kept him in touch with Rome, but it was the machinery of the Augustan administration that kept the empire running smoothly. Tiberius, if we believe our sources, spent much of his time indulging his perversities on Capri.

. . . .

Tiberius died quietly in a villa at Misenum on 16 March A.D. 37. He was 78 years old. There are some hints in the sources of the hand of Caligula in the deed, but such innuendo can be expected at the death of an emperor, especially when his successor proved so depraved. The level of unpopularity Tiberius had achieved by the time of his death with both the upper and lower classes is revealed by these facts: the Senate refused to vote him divine honors, and mobs filled the streets yelling "To the Tiber with Tiberius!" (in reference to a method of disposal reserved for the corpses of criminals).

Tiberius and the Empire
Three main aspects of Tiberius's impact on the empire deserve special attention: his relative military inertia; his modesty in dealing with offers of divine honors and his fair treatment of provincials; and his use of the Law of Treason (maiestas).

. . . .

Conclusion
. . . Tiberius's reign sporadically descended into tyranny of the worst sort. In the right climate of paranoia and suspicion, widespread denunciation led to the deaths of dozens of Senators and equestrians, as well as numerous members of the imperial house. In this sense, the reign of Tiberius decisively ended the Augustan illusion of "the Republic Restored" and shone some light into the future of the Principate, revealing that which was both promising and terrifying.

[For the entire article please refer to http://www.roman-emperors.org/tiberius.htm]

Copyright © 1997, Garrett G. Fagan. Used by permission.

"Some of the things he did are hard to believe. He had little boys trained as minnows to chase him when he went swimming and to get between his legs and nibble him. He also had babies not weaned from their mother breast suck at his chest and groin . . . "
(Suetonius. The Twelve Caesars. Trans. Robert Graves. London: Penguin Books, 1979. XLIV).

Jesus, referring to a "penny" asked, "Whose is this image and superscription?" When told it was Caesar, He said, ''Render therefore unto Caesar the things which are Caesar's and unto God the things that are God's" (Matthew 22:20-21). Since Tiberius was Caesar at the time, this denarius type is attributed by scholars as the "penny" referred to in the Bible(Joseph Sermarini).


Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
TiberiusHierapolis.jpg
703b, Tiberius, 19 August 14 - 16 March 37 A.D., Hierapolis, Phrygia103 viewsBronze AE 16, RPC I 2966 (1 specimen), F, Phrygia, Hierapolis, 3.300g, 15.6mm, 0o; Obverse: TIBEPIOC KAISAR, laureate head right; Reverse: IERAPOLEITWN ZOSIMOS [...], Apollo Archegetes (Lairbenos) standing left, playing lyre; reverse countermarked with star of six rays, in oval punch, 2.5 x 3.5 mm, Howgego 445 (3 pcs, 1 of which from this magistrate); dark patina; very rare. Ex FORVM.

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

TIBERIUS (A.D. 14-37)

Garrett G. Fagan
Pennsylvania State University

The reign of Tiberius Claudius Nero (b. 42 B.C., d. A.D. 37, emperor A.D. 14-37) is a particularly important one for the Principate, since it was the first occasion when the powers designed for Augustus alone were exercised by somebody else. In contrast to the approachable and tactful Augustus, Tiberius emerges from the sources as an enigmatic and darkly complex figure, intelligent and cunning, but given to bouts of severe depression and dark moods that had a great impact on his political career as well as his personal relationships. His reign abounds in contradictions. Despite his keen intelligence, he allowed himself to come under the influence of unscrupulous men who, as much as any actions of his own, ensured that Tiberius's posthumous reputation would be unfavorable; despite his vast military experience, he oversaw the conquest of no new region for the empire; and despite his administrative abilities he showed such reluctance in running the state as to retire entirely from Rome and live out his last years in isolation on the island of Capri. His reign represents, as it were, the adolescence of the Principate as an institution. Like any adolescence, it proved a difficult time.

. . . .

It is all but inevitable that any historical assessment of Tiberius will quickly devolve into a historiographical assessment of Tacitus. So masterful is Tacitus's portrayal of his subject, and so influential has it been ever since, that in all modern treatments of Tiberius, in attempting to get at the man, must address the issue of Tacitus's historiographical methods, his sources, and his rhetoric. The subject is too vast to address here, but some points are salient. Tacitus's methods, especially his use of innuendo and inference to convey notions that are essentially editorial glosses, makes taking his portrayal of Tiberius at face value inadvisable. Further, his belief in the immutable character of people -- that one's character is innate at birth and cannot be changed, although it can be disguised -- prevents him from investigating the possibility that Tiberius evolved and developed over his lifetime and during his reign. Instead, Tacitus's portrayal is one of peeling back layers of dissimulation to reach the "real" Tiberius lurking underneath.

Overall, Tiberius's reign can be said to show the boons and banes of rule by one man, especially a man as dark, awkward, and isolated as Tiberius. For the people of the provinces, it was a peaceful and well-ordered time. Governors behaved themselves, and there were no destructive or expensive wars. In the domestic sphere, however, the concentration of power in one person made all the greater the threat of misbehavior by ambitious satellites like Sejanus or foolish friends like Piso. Furthermore, if the emperor wished to remain aloof from the mechanics of power, he could do so. Administrators, who depended on him for their directions, could operate without his immediate supervision, but their dealings with a man like Sejanus could lead to disaster if that man fell from grace. As a result, although he was not a tyrant himself, Tiberius's reign sporadically descended into tyranny of the worst sort. In the right climate of paranoia and suspicion, widespread denunciation led to the deaths of dozens of Senators and equestrians, as well as numerous members of the imperial house. In this sense, the reign of Tiberius decisively ended the Augustan illusion of "the Republic Restored" and shone some light into the future of the Principate, revealing that which was both promising and terrifying.

[For the complete article please refer to http://www.roman-emperors.org/tiberius.htm]

By Garrett G. Fagan, Pennsylvania State University.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.


Hierapolis in History

Usually said to be founded by Eumenes II, king of Pergamum (197-159 BC), Hierapolis may actually have been established closer to the 4th century BC by the Seleucid kings.

The name of the city may derive from Hiera, the wife of Telephus (son of Hercules and grandson of Zeus), the mythical founder of Pergamum. Or it may have been called the "sacred city" because of the temples located at the site. (The name Pamukkale is sometimes used just to refer to the white terraces, but the modern name of the whole area is also Pamukkale.)

With Colossae and Laodicea, Hierapolis became part of the tri-city area of the Lycus River valley. Hierapolis was located across the river from the other two cities and was noted for its textiles, especially wool. The city was also famous for its purple dye, made from the juice of the madder root.

The hot springs at Hierapolis (which still attract visitors today) were believed to have healing properties, and people came to the city to bathe in the rich mineral waters in order to cure various ailments.

Hierapolis was dedicated to Apollo Lairbenos, who was said to have founded the city. The Temple of Apollo that survives in ruins today dates from the 3rd century AD, but its foundations date from the Hellenistic period.

Also worshipped at Hierapolis was Pluto, god of the underworld, probably in relation to the hot gases released by the earth (see the Plutonium, below). The chief religious festival of ancient Hierapolis was the Letoia, in honor of the the goddess Leto, a Greek form of the Mother Goddess. The goddess was honoured with orgiastic rites.

Hierapolis was ceded to Rome in 133 BC along with the rest of the Pergamene kingdom, and became part of the Roman province of Asia. The city was destroyed by an earthquake in 60 AD but rebuilt, and it reached its peak in the 2nd and 3rd centuries AD.

Famous natives of Hierapolis include the Stoic philosopher Epictetus (c.55-c.135 AD) and the philosopher and rhetorician Antipater. Emperor Septimus hired Antipater to tutor his sons Caracalla and Geta, who became emperors themselves.

Hierapolis had a significant Jewish population in ancient times, as evidence by numerous inscriptions on tombs and elsewhere in the city. Some of the Jews are named as members of the various craft guilds of the city. This was probably the basis for the Christian conversion of some residents of Hierapolis, recorded in Colossians 4:13.

In the 5th century, several churches as well as a large martyrium dedicated to St. Philip (see "In the Bible," below) were built in Hierapolis. The city fell into decline in the 6th century, and the site became partially submerged under water and deposits of travertine. It was finally abandoned in 1334 after an earthquake. Excavations began to uncover Hierapolis in the 19th century.

Hierapolis in the Bible

Hierapolis is mentioned only once in the Bible, when St. Paul praises Epaphras, a Christian from Colossae, in his letter to the Colossians. Paul writes that Epaphras "has worked hard for you and for those in Laodicea and in Hierapolis" (Colossians 4:12-13). Epaphras was probably the founder of the Christian community at Hierapolis.

Ancient tradition also associates Hierapolis with a biblical figure, reporting that Philip died in Hierapolis around 80 AD. However, it is not clear which Philip is menat. It could be Philip the Apostle, one of the original 12 disciples, who is said to have been martyred by upside-down crucifixion (Acts of Philip) or by being hung upside down by his ankles from a tree.

Or Philip could be Philip the Evangelist, a later disciple who helped with administrative matters and had four virgin-prophetess daughters (Acts 6:1-7; 21:8-9). Early traditions say this Philip was buried in Hierapolis along with his virgin daughters, but confusingly call him "Philip the Apostle"! In any case, it seems a prominent person mentioned in Acts did die in Hierapolis.
http://www.sacred-destinations.com/turkey/hierapolis-pamukkale.htm

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
Nero AE Sestertius.jpg
706a, Nero, 13 October 54 - 9 June 68 A.D.73 views6, Nero, 13 October 54 - 9 June 68 A.D. AE setertius, Date: 66 AD; RIC I 516, 36.71 mm; 25.5 grams; aVF. Obverse: IMP NERO CAESAR AVG PONT MAX TR POT PP, Laureate bust right; Reverse: S C, ROMA, Roma seated left, exceptional portrait and full obverse legends. Ex Ancient Imports.

NERO (54-68 A.D.)

It is difficult for the modern student of history to realize just how popular Nero actually was, at least at the beginning of his reign. Rome looked upon her new Emperor with hope. He was the student of Seneca, and he had a sensitive nature. He loved art, music, literature, and theatre. He was also devoted to horses and horse racing—a devotion shared by many of his subjects. The plebs loved their new Emperor. As Professor of Classics Judith P. Hallett (University of Maryland, College Park) says, “It is not clear to me that Nero ever changed or that Nero ever grew-up, and that was both his strength and his weakness. Nero was an extraordinarily popular Emperor: he was like Elvis” (The Roman Empire in the First Century, III. Dir. Margaret Koval and Lyn Goldfarb. 2001. DVD. PBS/Warner Bros. 2003).

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Herbert W. Benario
Emory University

Introduction and Sources
The five Julio-Claudian emperors are very different one from the other. Augustus dominates in prestige and achievement from the enormous impact he had upon the Roman state and his long service to Rome, during which he attained unrivaled auctoritas. Tiberius was clearly the only possible successor when Augustus died in AD 14, but, upon his death twenty-three years later, the next three were a peculiar mix of viciousness, arrogance, and inexperience. Gaius, better known as Caligula, is generally styled a monster, whose brief tenure did Rome no service. His successor Claudius, his uncle, was a capable man who served Rome well, but was condemned for being subject to his wives and freedmen. The last of the dynasty, Nero, reigned more than three times as long as Gaius, and the damage for which he was responsible to the state was correspondingly greater. An emperor who is well described by statements such as these, "But above all he was carried away by a craze for popularity and he was jealous of all who in any way stirred the feeling of the mob." and "What an artist the world is losing!" and who is above all remembered for crimes against his mother and the Christians was indeed a sad falling-off from the levels of Augustus and Tiberius. Few will argue that Nero does not rank as one of the worst emperors of all.

The prime sources for Nero's life and reign are Tacitus' Annales 12-16, Suetonius' Life of Nero, and Dio Cassius' Roman History 61-63, written in the early third century. Additional valuable material comes from inscriptions, coinage, papyri, and archaeology.


Early Life
He was born on December 15, 37, at Antium, the son of Cnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbusand Agrippina. Domitius was a member of an ancient noble family, consul in 32; Agrippina was the daughter of the popular Germanicus, who had died in 19, and Agrippina, daughter of Agrippa, Augustus' closest associate, and Julia, the emperor's daughter, and thus in direct descent from the first princeps. When the child was born, his uncle Gaius had only recently become emperor. The relationship between mother and uncle was difficult, and Agrippina suffered occasional humiliation. But the family survived the short reign of the "crazy" emperor, and when he was assassinated, it chanced that Agrippina's uncle, Claudius, was the chosen of the praetorian guard, although there may have been a conspiracy to accomplish this.

Ahenobarbus had died in 40, so the son was now the responsibility of Agrippina alone. She lived as a private citizen for much of the decade, until the death of Messalina, the emperor's wife, in 48 made competition among several likely candidates to become the new empress inevitable. Although Roman law forbade marriage between uncle and niece, an eloquent speech in the senate by Lucius Vitellius, Claudius' closest advisor in the senatorial order, persuaded his audience that the public good required their union. The marriage took place in 49, and soon thereafter the philosopher Seneca [[PIR2 A617]] was recalled from exile to become the young Domitius' tutor, a relationship which endured for some dozen years.

His advance was thereafter rapid. He was adopted by Claudius the following year and took the name Tiberius Claudius Nero Caesar or Nero Claudius Caesar Drusus Germanicus, was preferred to Claudius' natural son, Britannicus, who was about three years younger, was betrothed to the emperor's daughter Octavia, and was, in the eyes of the people, the clear successor to the emperor. In 54, Claudius died, having eaten some poisoned mushrooms, responsibility for which was believed to be Agrippina's, and the young Nero, not yet seventeen years old, was hailed on October 13 as emperor by the praetorian guard.


The First Years of Rule
The first five years of Nero's rule are customarily called the quinquennium, a period of good government under the influence, not always coinciding, of three people, his mother, Seneca, and Sextus Afranius Burrus, the praetorian prefect. The latter two were allies in their "education" of the emperor. Seneca continued his philosophical and rhetorical training, Burrus was more involved in advising on the actualities of government. They often combined their influence against Agrippina, who, having made her son emperor, never let him forget the debt he owed his mother, until finally, and fatally, he moved against her.

Nero's betrothal to Octavia was a significant step in his ultimate accession to the throne, as it were, but she was too quiet, too shy, too modest for his taste. He was early attracted to Poppaea Sabina, the wife of Otho, and she continually goaded him to break from Octavia and to show himself an adult by opposing his mother. In his private life, Nero honed the musical and artistic tastes which were his chief interest, but, at this stage, they were kept private, at the instigation of Seneca and Burrus.

As the year 59 began, Nero had just celebrated his twenty-first birthday and now felt the need to employ the powers which he possessed as emperor as he wished, without the limits imposed by others. Poppaea's urgings had their effect, first of all, at the very onset of the year, with Nero's murder of his mother in the Bay of Naples.

Agrippina had tried desperately to retain her influence with her son, going so far as to have intercourse with him. But the break between them proved irrevocable, and Nero undertook various devices to eliminate his mother without the appearance of guilt on his part. The choice was a splendid vessel which would collapse while she was on board. As this happened, she swam ashore and, when her attendant, having cried out that she was Agrippina, was clubbed to death, Agrippina knew what was going on. She sent Nero a message that she was well; his response was to send a detachment of sailors to finish the job. When she was struck across the head, she bared her womb and said, "Strike here, Anicetus, strike here, for this bore Nero," and she was brutally murdered.

Nero was petrified with fear when he learned that the deed had been done, yet his popularity with the plebs of Rome was not impaired. This matricide, however, proved a turning point in his life and principate. It appeared that all shackles were now removed. The influence of Seneca and Burrus began to wane, and when Burrus died in 62, Seneca realized that his powers of persuasion were at an end and soon went into retirement. Britannicus had died as early as 55; now Octavia was to follow, and Nero became free to marry Poppaea. It may be that it had been Burrus rather than Agrippina who had continually urged that Nero's position depended in large part upon his marriage to Octavia. Burrus' successor as commander of the praetorian guard, although now with a colleague, was Ofonius Tigellinus, quite the opposite of Burrus in character and outlook. Tigellinus became Nero's "evil twin," urging and assisting in the performance of crimes and the satisfaction of lusts.


Administrative and Foreign Policy
With Seneca and Burrus in charge of administration at home, the first half-dozen years of Nero's principate ran smoothly. He himself devoted his attention to his artistic, literary, and physical bents, with music, poetry, and chariot racing to the fore. But his advisors were able to keep these performances and displays private, with small, select audiences on hand. Yet there was a gradual trend toward public performance, with the establishment of games. Further, he spent many nights roaming the city in disguise, with numerous companions, who terrorized the streets and attacked individuals. Those who dared to defend themselves often faced death afterward, because they had shown disrespect for the emperor. The die was being cast for the last phases of Nero's reign.


The Great Fire at Rome and The Punishment
of the Christians
The year 64 was the most significant of Nero's principate up to this point. His mother and wife were dead, as was Burrus, and Seneca, unable to maintain his influence over Nero without his colleague's support, had withdrawn into private life. The abysmal Tigellinus was now the foremost advisor of the still young emperor, a man whose origin was from the lowest levels of society and who can accurately be described as criminal in outlook and action. Yet Nero must have considered that he was happier than he had ever been in his life. Those who had constrained his enjoyment of his (seemingly) limitless power were gone, he was married to Poppaea, a woman with all advantages save for a bad character the empire was essentially at peace, and the people of Rome enjoyed a full measure of panem et circenses. But then occurred one of the greatest disasters that the city of Rome, in its long history, had ever endured.

The fire began in the southeastern angle of the Circus Maximus, spreading through the shops which clustered there, and raged for the better part of a week. There was brief success in controlling the blaze, but then it burst forth once more, so that many people claimed that the fires were deliberately set. After about a fortnight, the fire burned itself out, having consumed ten of the fourteen Augustan regions into which the city had been divided.

Nero was in Antium through much of the disaster, but his efforts at relief were substantial. Yet many believed that he had been responsible, so that he could perform his own work comparing the current fate of Rome to the downfall of Troy. All his efforts to assist the stricken city could not remove the suspicion that "the emperor had fiddled while Rome burned." He lost favor even among the plebs who had been enthusiastic supporters, particularly when his plans for the rebuilding of the city revealed that a very large part of the center was to become his new home.

As his popularity waned, Nero and Tigellinus realized that individuals were needed who could be charged with the disaster. It so happened that there was such a group ready at hand, Christians, who had made themselves unpopular because of their refusal to worship the emperor, their way of life, and their secret meetings. Further, at this time two of their most significant "teachers" were in Rome, Peter and Paul. They were ideal scapegoats, individuals whom most Romans loathed, and who had continually sung of the forthcoming end of the world.

Their destruction was planned with the utmost precision and cruelty, for the entertainment of the populace. The venue was Nero's circus near the Mons Vaticanus. Christians were exposed to wild animals and were set ablaze, smeared with pitch, to illuminate the night. The executions were so grisly that even the populace displayed sympathy for the victims. Separately, Peter was crucified upside down on the Vatican hill and Paul was beheaded along the Via Ostiensis. But Nero's attempt, and hope, to shift all suspicion of arson to others failed. His popularity even among the lower classes was irrevocably impaired.

[For a detailed and interesting discussion of Nero’s reign please see http://www.roman-emperors.org/nero.htm]

The End - Nero's Death and its Aftermath
Nero's and Tigellinus' response to the conspiracy was immediate and long-lasting. The senatorial order was decimated, as one leading member after another was put to death or compelled to commit suicide. The year 66 saw the suicides of perhaps the most distinguished victims of the "reign of terror," Caius Petronius and Thrasea Paetus. Petronius, long a favorite of Nero because of his aesthetic taste, had been an able public servant before he turned to a life of ease and indolence. He was recognized as the arbiter elegantiae of Nero's circle, and may be the author of the Satyricon. At his death, he left for Nero a document which itemized many of the latter's crimes. Thrasea, a staunch Stoic who had been for some years an outspoken opponent of Nero's policies, committed suicide in the Socratic manner. This scene is the last episode in the surviving books of Tacitus' Annals.

In the year 68, revolt began in the provinces. . . the end of Nero's reign became inevitable. Galba claimed the throne and began his march from Spain. Nero panicked and was rapidly abandoned by his supporters. He finally committed suicide with assistance, on June 9, 68, and his body was tended and buried by three women who had been close to him in his younger days, chief of whom was Acte. His death scene is marked above all by the statement, "Qualis artifex pereo," (What an artist dies in me.) Even at the end he was more concerned with his private life than with the affairs of state.

The aftermath of Nero's death was cataclysmic. Galba was the first of four emperors who revealed the new secret of empire, that an emperor could be made elsewhere than in Rome. Civil war ensued, which was only ended by the victory of the fourth claimant, Vespasian, who established the brief dynasty of the Flavians. The dynasty of the Julio-Claudians was at an end.

Nero's popularity among the lower classes remained even after his death.

. . . .

It is not excessive to say that he was one of the worst of Rome's emperors in the first two centuries and more of the empire. Whatever talents he had, whatever good he may have done, all is overwhelmed by three events, the murder of his mother, the fire at Rome, and his savage treatment of the Christians.

Precisely these qualities are the reasons that he has remained so well known and has been the subject of many writers and opera composers in modern times. These works of fiction particularly merit mention: Henryk Sienkiewicz's Quo Vadis, one of the finest works of the 1907 Nobel Laureate in Literature, and John Hersey's The Conspiracy. Nero unquestionably will always be with us.

Copyright (C) 2006, Herbert W. Benario.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

1 commentsCleisthenes
VespasianPax_RICii10.jpg
710a, Vespasian, 1 July 69 - 24 June 79 A.D.133 viewsSilver denarius, RIC II, 10, aVF, 3.5 g, 18mm, Rome mint, 69-71 AD; Obverse: IMP CAESA[R] VESPASIANV[S AV]G - Laureate head right; Reverse: COS ITER [T]R POT - Pax seated left holding branch and caduceus. Ex Imperial Coins.


De Imperatoribus Romanis:
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Titus Flavius Vespasianus (A.D. 69-79)

John Donahue
College of William and Mary

Introduction

Titus Flavius Vespasianus (b. A.D. 9, d. A.D. 79, emperor A.D. 69-79) restored peace and stability to an empire in disarray following the death of Nero in A.D. 68. In the process he established the Flavian dynasty as the legitimate successor to the Imperial throne. Although we lack many details about the events and chronology of his reign, Vespasian provided practical leadership and a return to stable government - accomplishments which, when combined with his other achievements, make his emperorship particularly notable within the history of the Principate.

Early Life and Career

Vespasian was born at Falacrina near Sabine Reate on 17 November, A.D. 9, the son of T. Flavius Sabinus, a successful tax collector and banker, and Vespasia Polla. Both parents were of equestrian status. Few details of his first fifteen years survive, yet it appears that his father and mother were often away from home on business for long periods. As a result, Vespasian's early education became the responsibility of his paternal grandmother, Tertulla. [[1]] In about A.D. 25 Vespasian assumed the toga virilis and later accepted the wearing of the latus clavus, and with it the senatorial path that his older brother, T. Flavius Sabinus, had already chosen. [[2]] Although many of the particulars are lacking, the posts typically occupied by one intent upon a senatorial career soon followed: a military tribunate in Thrace, perhaps for three or four years; a quaestorship in Crete-Cyrene; and the offices of aedile and praetor, successively, under the emperor Gaius. [[3]]

It was during this period that Vespasian married Flavia Domitilla. Daughter of a treasury clerk and former mistress of an African knight, Flavia lacked the social standing and family connections that the politically ambitious usually sought through marriage. In any case, the couple produced three children, a daughter, also named Flavia Domitilla, and two sons, the future emperors Titus and Domitian . Flavia did not live to witness her husband's emperorship and after her death Vespasian returned to his former mistress Caenis, who had been secretary to Antonia (daughter of Marc Antony and mother of Claudius). Caenis apparently exerted considerable influence over Vespasian, prompting Suetonius to assert that she remained his wife in all but name, even after he became emperor. [[4]]

Following the assassination of Gaius on 24 January, A.D. 41, Vespasian advanced rapidly, thanks in large part to the new princeps Claudius, whose favor the Flavians had wisely secured with that of Antonia, the mother of Germanicus, and of Claudius' freedmen, especially Narcissus. [[5]] The emperor soon dispatched Vespasian to Argentoratum (Strasbourg) as legatus legionis II Augustae, apparently to prepare the legion for the invasion of Britain. Vespasian first appeared at the battle of Medway in A.D. 43, and soon thereafter led his legion across the south of England, where he engaged the enemy thirty times in battle, subdued two tribes, and conquered the Isle of Wight. According to Suetonius, these operations were conducted partly under Claudius and partly under Vespasian's commander, Aulus Plautius. Vespasian's contributions, however, did not go unnoticed; he received the ornamenta triumphalia and two priesthoods from Claudius for his exploits in Britain. [[6]]

By the end of A.D. 51 Vespasian had reached the consulship, the pinnacle of a political career at Rome. For reasons that remain obscure he withdrew from political life at this point, only to return when chosen proconsul of Africa about A.D. 63-64. His subsequent administration of the province was marked by severity and parsimony, earning him a reputation for being scrupulous but unpopular. [[7]] Upon completion of his term, Vespasian returned to Rome where, as a senior senator, he became a man of influence in the emperor Nero's court. [[8]] Important enough to be included on Nero's tour of Greece in A.D. 66-67, Vespasian soon found himself in the vicinity of increasing political turbulence in the East. The situation would prove pivotal in advancing his career.

Judaea and the Accession to Power

In response to rioting in Caesarea and Jerusalem that had led to the slaughter in the latter city of Jewish leaders and Roman soldiers, Nero granted to Vespasian in A.D. 66 a special command in the East with the objective of settling the revolt in Judaea. By spring A.D. 67, with 60,000 legionaries, auxiliaries, and allies under his control, Vespasian set out to subdue Galilee and then to cut off Jerusalem. Success was quick and decisive. By October all of Galilee had been pacified and plans for the strategic encirclement of Jerusalem were soon formed. [[9]] Meanwhile, at the other end of the empire, the revolts of Gaius Iulius Vindex, governor of Gallia Lugdunensis, and Servius Sulpicius Galba , governor of Hispania Tarraconensis, had brought Nero's reign to the brink of collapse. The emperor committed suicide in June, A.D. 68, thereby ensuring chaos for the next eighteen months, as first Galba and then Marcus Salvius Otho and Aulus Vitellius acceded to power. Each lacked broad-based military and senatorial support; each would be violently deposed in turn. [[10]]

Still occupied with plans against Jerusalem, Vespasian swore allegiance to each emperor. Shortly after Vitellius assumed power in spring, A.D. 69, however, Vespasian met on the border of Judaea and Syria with Gaius Licinius Mucianus, governor of Syria, and after a series of private and public consultations, the two decided to revolt. [[11]] On July 1, at the urging of Tiberius Alexander, prefect of Egypt, the legions of Alexandria declared for Vespasian, as did the legions of Judaea two days later. By August all of Syria and the Danube legions had done likewise. Vespasian next dispatched Mucianus to Italy with 20,000 troops, while he set out from Syria to Alexandria in order to control grain shipments for the purpose of starving Italy into submission. [[12]] The siege of Jerusalem he placed in the hands of his son Titus.

Meanwhile, the Danubian legions, unwilling to wait for Mucianus' arrival, began their march against Vitellius ' forces. The latter army, suffering from a lack of discipline and training, and unaccustomed to the heat of Rome, was defeated at Cremona in late October. [[13]] By mid-December the Flavian forces had reached Carsulae, 95 kilometers north of Rome on the Flaminian Road, where the Vitellians, with no further hope of reinforcements, soon surrendered. At Rome, unable to persuade his followers to accept terms for his abdication, Vitellius was in peril. On the morning of December 20 the Flavian army entered Rome. By that afternoon, the emperor was dead. [[14]]

Tacitus records that by December 22, A.D. 69, Vespasian had been given all the honors and privileges usually granted to emperors. Even so, the issue remains unclear, owing largely to a surviving fragment of an enabling law, the lex de imperio Vespasiani, which conferred powers, privileges, and exemptions, most with Julio-Claudian precedents, on the new emperor. Whether the fragment represents a typical granting of imperial powers that has uniquely survived in Vespasian's case, or is an attempt to limit or expand such powers, remains difficult to know. In any case, the lex sanctioned all that Vespasian had done up to its passing and gave him authority to act as he saw fit on behalf of the Roman people. [[15]]

What does seem clear is that Vespasian felt the need to legitimize his new reign with vigor. He zealously publicized the number of divine omens that predicted his accession and at every opportunity he accumulated multiple consulships and imperial salutations. He also actively promoted the principle of dynastic succession, insisting that the emperorship would fall to his son. The initiative was fulfilled when Titus succeeded his father in A.D. 79.[[16]]

Emperorship

Upon his arrival in Rome in late summer, A.D. 70, Vespasian faced the daunting task of restoring a city and a government ravaged by the recent civil wars. Although many particulars are missing, a portrait nevertheles emerges of a ruler conscientiously committed to the methodical renewal of both city and empire. Concerning Rome itself, the emperor encouraged rebuilding on vacated lots, restored the Capitol (burned in A.D. 69), and also began work on several new buildings: a temple to the deified Claudius on the Caelian Hill, a project designed to identify Vespasian as a legitimate heir to the Julio-Claudians, while distancing himself from Nero ; a temple of Peace near the Forum; and the magnificent Colosseum (Flavian Amphitheatre), located on the site of the lake of Nero 's Golden House. [[17]]

Claiming that he needed forty thousand million sesterces for these projects and for others aimed at putting the state on more secure footing, Vespasian is said to have revoked various imperial immunities, manipulated the supply of certain commodities to inflate their price, and increased provincial taxation. [[18]] The measures are consistent with his characterization in the sources as both obdurate and avaricious. There were occasional political problems as well: Helvidius Priscus, an advocate of senatorial independence and a critic of the Flavian regime from the start, was exiled after A.D. 75 and later executed; Marcellus Eprius and A. Alienus Caecina were condemned by Titus for conspiracy, the former committing suicide, the latter executed in A.D. 79.
As Suetonius claims, however, in financial matters Vespasian always put revenues to the best possible advantage, regardless of their source. Tacitus, too, offers a generally favorable assessment, citing Vespasian as the first man to improve after becoming emperor. [[19]] Thus do we find the princeps offering subventions to senators not possessing the property qualifications of their rank, restoring many cities throughout the empire, and granting state salaries for the first time to teachers of Latin and Greek rhetoric. To enhance Roman economic and social life even further, he encouraged theatrical productions by building a new stage for the Theatre of Marcellus, and he also put on lavish state dinners to assist the food trades. [[20]]

In other matters the emperor displayed similar concern. He restored the depleted ranks of the senatorial and equestrian orders with eligible Italian and provincial candidates and reduced the backlog of pending court cases at Rome. Vespasian also re-established discipline in the army, while punishing or dismissing large numbers of Vitellius ' men. [[21]]
Beyond Rome, the emperor increased the number of legions in the East and continued the process of imperial expansion by the annexation of northern England, the pacification of Wales, and by advances into Scotland and southwest Germany between the Rhine and the Danube. Vespasian also conferred rights on communities abroad, especially in Spain, where the granting of Latin rights to all native communities contributed to the rapid Romanization of that province during the Imperial period. [[22]]

Death and Assessment

In contrast to his immediate imperial predecessors, Vespasian died peacefully - at Aquae Cutiliae near his birthplace in Sabine country on 23 June, A.D. 79, after contracting a brief illness. The occasion is said to have inspired his deathbed quip: "Oh my, I must be turning into a god!" [[23]] In fact, public deification did follow his death, as did his internment in the Mausoleum of Augustus alongside the Julio-Claudians.

A man of strict military discipline and simple tastes, Vespasian proved to be a conscientious and generally tolerant administrator. More importantly, following the upheavals of A.D. 68-69, his reign was welcome for its general tranquility and restoration of peace. In Vespasian Rome found a leader who made no great breaks with tradition, yet his ability ro rebuild the empire and especially his willingness to expand the composition of the governing class helped to establish a positive working model for the "good emperors" of the second century.

Bibliography

Since the scholarship on Vespasian is more comprehensive than can be treated here, the works listed below are main accounts or bear directly upon issues discussed in the entry above. A comprehensive modern anglophone study of this emperor is yet to be produced.

Atti congresso internazionale di studi Flaviani, 2 vols. Rieti, 1983.

Atti congresso internazionale di studi Vespasianei, 2 vols. Rieti, 1981.

Bosworth, A.B. "Vespasian and the Provinces: Some Problems of the Early 70s A.D." Athenaeum 51 (1973): 49-78.

Brunt, P. A. "Lex de imperio Vespasiani." JRS (67) 1977: 95-116.

D'Espèrey, S. Franchet. "Vespasien, Titus et la littérature." ANRW II.32.5: 3048-3086.

Dudley, D. and Webster, G. The Roman Conquest of Britain. London, 1965.

Gonzalez, J. "The Lex Irnitana: A New Copy of the Flavian Municipal Law." JRS 76 (1986): 147-243.

Grant, M. The Roman Emperors: A Biographical Guide to the Rulers of Rome, 31 B.C. - A.D. 476. New York, 1985.

Homo, L. Vespasien, l'Empereur du bons sens (69-79 ap. J.-C.). Paris, 1949.

Levi, M.A. "I Flavi." ANRW II.2: 177-207.

McCrum, M. and Woodhead, A. G. Select Documents of the Principates of the Flavian Emperors Including the Year of the Revolution. Cambridge, 1966.

Nicols, John. Vespasian and the Partes Flavianae. Wiesbaden, 1978.

Scarre, C. Chronicle of the Roman Emperors. The Reign-by-Reign Record of the Rulers of Imperial Rome. London, 1995.

Suddington, D. B. The Development of the Roman Auxiliary Forces from Caesar to Vespasian, 49 B.C. - A.D. 79. Harare: U. of Zimbabwe, 1982.

Syme, R. Tacitus. Oxford, 1958.

Wardel, David. "Vespasian, Helvidius Priscus and the Restoration of the Capitol." Historia 45 (1996): 208-222.

Wellesley, K. The Long Year: A.D. 69. Bristol, 1989, 2nd ed.


Notes

[[1]] Suet. Vesp. 2.1. Suetonius remains the major source but see also Tac. Hist. 2-5; Cass. Dio 65; Joseph. BJ 3-4.

[[2]] Suetonius (Vesp. 2.1) claims that Vespasian did not accept the latus clavus, the broad striped toga worn by one aspiring to a senatorial career, immediately. The delay, however, was perhaps no more than three years. See J. Nicols, Vespasian and the Partes Flavianae (Wiesbaden, 1978), 2.

[[3]] Military tribunate and quaestorship: Suet. Vesp. 2.3; aedileship: ibid., 5.3, in which Gaius, furious that Vespasian had not kept the streets clean, as was his duty, ordered some soldiers to load him with filth;,they complied by stuffing his toga with as much as it could hold. See also Dio 59.12.2-3; praetorship: Suet. Vesp. 2.3, in which Vespasian is depicted as one of Gaius' leading adulators, an account consistent with Tacitus' portrayal (Hist 1.50.4; 2.5.1) of his early career. For a more complete discussion of these posts and attendant problems of dating, see Nicols, Vespasian, 2-7.

[[4]] Marriage and Caenis: Suet. Vesp. 3; Cass. Dio 65.14.

[[5]] Nicols, Vespasian, 12-39.

[[6]] Suet. Vesp. 4.1 For additional details on Vespasian's exploits in Britain, see D. Dudley and G. Webster, The Roman Conquest of Britain (London, 1965), 55 ff., 98.

[[7]] Concerning Vespasian's years between his consulship and proconsulship, see Suet. Vesp. 4.2 and Nicols, Vespasian, 9. On his unpopularity in Africa, see Suet. Vesp. 4.3, an account of a riot at Hadrumentum, where he was once pelted with turnips. In recording that Africa supported Vitellius in A.D. 69, Tacitus too suggests popular dissatisfaction with Vespasian's proconsulship. See Hist. 2.97.2.

[[8]] This despite the fact that the sources record two rebukes of Vespasian, one for extorting money from a young man seeking career advancement (Suet. Vesp. 4.3), the other for either leaving the room or dozing off during one of the emperor's recitals (Suet. Vesp. 4.4 and 14, which places the transgression in Greece; Tac. (Ann. 16.5.3), who makes Rome and the Quinquennial Games of A.D. 65 the setting; A. Braithwaite, C. Suetoni Tranquilli Divus Vespasianus, Oxford, 1927, 30, who argues for both Greece and Rome).

[[9]] Subjugation of Galilee: Joseph. BJ 3.65-4.106; siege of Jerusalem: ibid., 4.366-376, 414.

[[10]] Revolt of Vindex: Suet. Nero 40; Tac. Ann. 14.4; revolt of Galba: Suet. Galba 10; Plut. Galba, 4-5; suicide of Nero: Suet. Nero 49; Cass. Dio 63.29.2. For the most complete account of the period between Nero's death and the accession of Vespasian, see K. Wellesley, The Long Year: A.D. 69, 2nd. ed. (Bristol, 1989).

[[11]] Tac. Hist. 2.76.

[[12]] Troops in support of Vespasian: Suet. Vit. 15; Mucianus and his forces: Tac. Hist. 2.83; Vespasian and grain shipments: Joseph. BJ 4.605 ff.; see also Tac. Hist. 3.48, on Vespasian's possible plan to shut off grain shipments to Italy from Carthage as well.

[[13]] On Vitellius' army and its lack of discipline, see Tac. Hist. 2.93-94; illness of army: ibid., 2.99.1; Cremona: ibid., 3.32-33.

[[14]] On Vitellius' last days, see Tac. Hist. 3.68-81. On the complicated issue of Vitellius' death date, see L. Holzapfel, "Römische Kaiserdaten," Klio 13 (1913): 301.

[[15]] Honors, etc. Tac. Hist. 4.3. For more on the lex de imperio Vespasiani, see P. A. Brunt, "Lex de imperio Vespasiani," JRS (67) 1977: 95-116.

[[16]] Omens: Suet. Vesp. 5; consulships and honors: ibid., 8; succession of sons: ibid., 25.

[[17]] On Vespasian's restoration of Rome, see Suet. Vesp. 9; Cass. Dio 65.10; D. Wardel, "Vespasian, Helvidius Priscus and the Restoration of the Capitol," Historia 45 (1996): 208-222.

[[18]] Suet. Vesp. 16.

[[19]] Ibid.; Tac. Hist. 1.50.

[[20]] Suet. Vesp. 17-19.

[[21]] Ibid., 8-10.

[[22]] On Vespasian's exploits in Britain, see esp. Tac., Agricola, eds. R. M. Ogilvie and I. A. Richmond (1967), and W. S. Hanson, Agricola and the Conquest of the North (1987); on the granting of Latin rights in Spain, see, e.g., J. Gonzalez, "The Lex Irnitana: a New Copy of the Flavian Municipal Law." JRS 76 (1986): 147-243.

[[23]] For this witticism and other anecdotes concerning Vespasian's sense of humor, see Suet. Vesp. 23.

Copyright (C) 1998, John Donahue. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis, an Online Encyplopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families.
http://www.roman-emperors.org/vespasia.htm
Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.





Cleisthenes
titus sest-Cohen114-Paduan.jpg
79-81 AD - TITUS AE sestertius - Paduan 164 viewsobv: IMP T CAES VESP AVG P M TR P P P COS VIII (laureate head left)
rev: IVDAEA CAPTA (Jewess seated right under palm tree, mourning; on left side Jew standing right, heap of arms), S-C in ex.
ref: C.114 (12frcs) Paduan, RIC II 93 (S)
18.35gms, 32mm, bronze
Rare

A well-known Paduan medal after Giovanni Cavino, but this is not the 20th century cast with dark patinated aluminium alloy, and it is in Cohen and RIC catalog as Paduan coin. OK, you say this is a fake, but I say it has room in my collection.
2 commentsberserker
corinth~0.jpg
Achaea. Corinthia, Corinth. Caracalla Æ24.87 viewsObv: Laureate, draped bust of Caracalla left. Melikertes-Palaimon.
Rev: CLI COR / Melikertes-Palaimon reclining right on the back of a dolphin, pine tree in background.
24mm., 8.1 g.
BCD Corinth 930.
ancientone
zeugitania_palm_pegasus.jpg
AE 13; Palm/ Pegasos13 viewsZEUGITANIA. KARTHAGO. 4./3. Cent B.C. 1,7g. 13mm. Obs: Palm tree Rev: Pegasos flies left. Calciati 9; SNG Cop. 102.Podiceps
zeugitania.jpg
AE 1716 viewsCarthage, Zeugitania, North Africa, c. 310 - 290 B.C. Bronze AE 17, SNG Cop 109 ff., F, Sicilian (?) mint, 2.372g, 15.0mm, 225o, c. 310 - 290 B.C.; obverse head of Tanit left wearing wreath of grain and pendant necklace; reverse, horse standing right, date palm tree behind. Tanit was a Phoenician lunar goddess, worshiped as the patron goddess at Carthage. Ex FORVMPodiceps
IMG_3476.JPG
Akko-PTOLEMAIS Valerianus I., 253-258. AE 2687 viewsAkko-Ptolemais, Phoenicia. Valerian 253 - 260 AD.
Sacred tree flanked by two altars with snakes; in r. field, caduceus; COL PTOL
3 commentsMaritima
Alexander_I.jpg
Alexander I Balas, 150 - 145 B.C.34 viewsAlexander I Balas. 152-145BC. Ae 13.4~13.9mm. 2.39g. Dilepton Tyre mint. Obv: Diademed head r. Rev: BAΣIΛEΩΣ r. / AΛEΞANΔΡOΥ l. Palm tree; across field. SNG Spaer 1539-43; Newell, Tyre 80; CSE 748.ddwau
ATGmosaic.jpg
Alexander the Great, The Battle of Issus River21 viewsThis mosaic depicts a battle between Alexander the Great and the Persian king Darius, probably the Battle of the Issus River in November of 333 B.C. It is in opus vermiculatum, with over one and a half million tesserae, none larger than 4 mm., in four colors: white, yellow, red, and black. The minuteness of the tesserae enables incredibly fine detail and painterly effects, including remarkable portraits of Alexander and Darius.

The border of this huge mosaic consists of large stones in a dentate pattern . In the corners are rosettes. Within the border along the bottom of the picture is a blank brown stripe, which some consider to be part of the picture, balancing the white expanse of sky at the top, while others argue that it is simply part of the frame.

The composition of the mosaic is dominated by the two protagonists: On the left, Alexander, with his head uncovered, rushes forward on his horse Bucephalus. He holds a spear with which he has skewered a Persian soldier, who has rushed to the defence of Darius. With Alexander appear his helmeted Macedonian soldiers, although little remains of them due to damage of the left side of the mosaic. On the right Darius, wearing a Persian cap, stretches out his hand to his wounded defender, while his charioteer whips the horses to flee toward the right. Around him are his Persian soldiers who mill in confusion in the background, their faces filled with fear and determination. One Persian, however, to the right of the dying defender of Darius, is intent upon Alexander, and holds his sword in his hand, ready to attack.

There are many details which emphasize the terror and confusion of the battle. The horse of the Persian defender of Darius collapses beneath him while he writhes in agony on Alexander's spear. Below Darius in his chariot, a Persian soldier, staring in horror at this scene, attempts to hold a rearing horse. The hindquarters of this horse project into the middle ground of the picture, giving it a sense of depth. To the right, a soldier is being crushed under the wheels of Darius' chariot. His face is reflected in the shield which he holds. Further to the right appear the terrified horses of the chariot team, trampling upon another unfortunate Persian.

The composition of the mosaic is dominated by diagonals. The center is dominated by the intersecting diagonals of the Persian speared by Alexander and the Persian restraining the rearing horse. Two other sets of intersecting diagonals are provided by the figures of Darius and his charioteer and by Alexander and the wounded Persian. The lances in the background of the picture also carry on the diagonal motif.

The setting of the battle is very stylized. In the background appears a tree with bare twisted limbs whose diagonals continue the unifying compositional motif of the mosaic. The tree also serves as a formal vertical counterweight to the Persian king and his charioteer, who rise above the battle fray. In the foreground are discarded weapons and rocks, which serve to define the space between the viewer and the battle scene.

The Alexander mosaic is thought to be based on a painting which Philoxenus of Eretria created for King Cassander of Macedonia. The painting is described by Pliny the Elder as representing "the battle of Alexander with Darius." Certain inconsistencies in the mosaic point to its derivation from another source. In the center of the composition appears a helmeted head to the right of the rearing horse. Two lance shafts come from the left and abruptly stop behind this he‡d. To the right of the same head appears a head of a horse and beneath this are the hindquarters of another horse, neither of which is logically completed. Among the four horses of Darius' chariot there are parts of a white horse which do not fit together anatomically. Above these horses is a Persian soldier who appears to have two right hands, one on his head and the other raised in the air. These details provide evidence that the mosaicist misunderstood details of the original.

Nevertheless, the overall effect of the mosaic is masterful. The expert blending of the colors of the tesserae and the careful control of the overall composition create a scene which comes to life with all the horror and confusion of battle. The Alexander mosaic is a truly great work, unmatched in the history of Roman art.

See: http://www.hackneys.com/alex_web/pages/alxphoto.htm
Cleisthenes
Alexander_Troas_opt.jpg
ALEXANDER TROAS CIVIC ISSUE, AE25, BMC 52, Horse31 viewsOBV: COL ALEX TRO, Turreted & draped bust of city goddess or Tyche right; vexillum behind
REV: COL AL [EX TRO], Horse feeding right, tree behind; beside the horse, a herdsman wearing chlamys, holding pedum in right hand, standing right
24.9mm, 5.6g
Minted at Alexander Troas, 250-270 AD
Legatus
Amasia Caracalla.jpg
Amasia (Pontus) - Caracalla29 viewsAY. KAI. M. AYP. ANTΩNIN[...] , laureate, draped and cuirassed bust of Caracalla right.
AΔP. CEY. ANT. AMACIAC MHT. ΠP. ΠO. , eagle on monumental stone altar near a tree.
Ginolerhino
Picture 004.jpg
Ambibulus153 viewsPrefect: 9-12 AD
Size: AE Prutah
Obverse: Grain-ear KAICA POC
Reverse: Palm Tree L MA
Date: Year 41 = 11 AD
Reference: Hendin 638
1 commentsJohn K
DSC01989.JPG
ANCIENT INDIA - KAKANI COIN OF SUNGA KINGDOM - CAST COPPER COIN - 2.46 gm 13 viewsSunga kingdom CA 150-100 AD..copper kakani obverse Elephantleft,torion,swastik,Indradvaja,Reverse 3 Arch hill,hollow cross,torion,tree railing..Ref..Mitchiner 4381.Antonivs Protti
DSC01491.JPG
ANCIENT INDIA - KAKANI COIN OF SUNGA KINGDOM - CAST COPPER COIN - 3.03 gm12 viewsSunga kingdom CA 150-100 AD..copper kakani obverse Elephantleft,torion,swastik,Indradvaja,Reverse 3 Arch hill,hollow cross,torion,tree railing..Ref..Mitchiner 4381.Antonivs Protti
ANCIENT_INDIA_-_SUNGA_EMPIRE_-_200_B_C__-_Cast_Copper_-~0.jpg
ANCIENT INDIA - SUNGA EMPIRE - 200 B.C. - Cast Copper - TREE / ELEPHANT - 1.94gm19 views___600Antonivs Protti
DSC01402.JPG
ANCIENT INDIA KAKANI COIN OF SUNGA KINGDOM - CAST COPPER COIN - - 3.18 gm11 viewsObv - Elephant Left , Torion, Swastik Indradavaja
Rev - Three arched Hill, Hollow Cross, Torion, Tree Railing
Ref..Mitchiner 4381.
Antonivs Protti
Hendin-1328.jpg
Ancient Judaea, Procuratorial: Coponius (6-9 CE) Æ Prutah, Jerusalem, RY 36 of Augustus (Hendin 1328; TJC 311; RPC 4954)22 viewsObv: KAICA-POC; grain ear
Rev: Palm tree; across field, date (L Λς)
1 commentsQuant.Geek
Anonymous-quadrans-group-2-.gif
Anonymous quadrantes group 02 Minerva olive tree40 viewsQuadrans
3.32 g, 16.5 mm, 12 h.
Obv. No legend. Helmeted bust of Minerva right.
Rev. Olive tree. SC in field.
RIC 9.
2 commentscckk
antioch_new_follis.jpg
Antioch Anonymous issue7 viewsAntioch Anonymous issue.
(1104-1112)
Cast AE Follis (new type follis or token?)
Obverse: Cross pommee with IC-XC NI-KA in angles.
Reverse: Cross pommee with IC-XC NI-KA in angles.
Mint: Antioch (?)
Minted: 1104-1112 (?)
Dia: 21.60mm
Wt: 4.8g
Notes: Extremely rare, F/F, earthen deposits, It has been noted that these are similar to issues of Tancred (1104-1112).The reverse is reminiscent of Tancred's 2nd type follis (Schl.II.7, Met.63-70 ) Obverse facing bust reverse similar to above but with cross as tree of life.
jimbomar
antoninus_alexandria.jpg
ANTONINUS PIUS Tetradrachm Alexandria 37 viewsANTONINOC - CB E - V - C - E
Radiated bust right, draped on far shoulder

Nike standing right ,on globe, holding wreath and palm tree
LK Gamma

Tetradrachm struck in Alexandria
year 23 = 159/160 AD

24 mm -- 13,02 g --

BMC.969 (same dies)
gb29400
ANTOSEg4-2.jpg
Antoninus Pius, RIC 587, Sestertius of AD 139 (Aurum Coronarium: Phoenicia) 18 viewsÆ Sestertius (25,03g, Ø 32mm, 6h). Rome, AD 139.
Obv.: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P, laureate head right.
Rev.: [PH]OENI[CE] around, [COS II] in ex., S | C, Phoenicia, with turreted head-dress, standing left, holding crown and short sceptre, palm tree (and prow) behind.
RIC 587 (rare); BMCRE 1193; Cohen 596; Strack 794; Banti 265 (3 spec.); Sear (Roman Coins and their Values) 4202
Ex Lucernae Coins (June 2015)
Charles S
ANTOSEh0.jpg
Antoninus Pius, RIC 587, Sestertius of AD 139 (Crown series: Phoenicia)35 viewsÆ Sestertius (27,11g, Ø 34mm, 6h). Rome, AD 139.
Obv.: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P, laureate head right.
Rev.: PHOENICE around, COS II in ex., S | C, Phoenicia, with turreted head-dress, standing left, holding diadem as crown and short sceptre, palm tree behind; prow by left foot.
RIC 587 (R); BMC 1193; Cohen 596; Strack 794; Banti 265 (3 spec.); RCV 4202
Ex ArtCoins Roma E-Auction 28, July 2015.
1 commentsCharles S
Felix_H_652.JPG
Antonius Felix86 viewsAntonius Felix
Prefect: 52-59 AD
Size: AE Prutah
Obverse: Crossed Shields Spears
Reverse: Palm Tree
Date: Year 14 = 54 AD
Reference: Hendin 652
3 commentsJohn K
Comb22022017112636.jpg
Antonius Felix (AD 52-59/60). Prutah.17 viewsObv. NEPW KΛAY KAICAP, two oblong shields and spears crossed.
Rev. BPIT, LIΔ KAI, six-branched palm tree bearing two bunches of dates.
References: Hendin 1348; Meshorer TJC 340; RPC 4971.
Prefect under Claudius, year 14 = 54 C.E..
16mm, 2.06grams.
Canaan
J12O-Felix H-652.jpg
Antonius Felix, procurator under Claudius, Æ Prutah, 52-59 CE48 viewsBronze Prutah of Antonius Felix procurator under Claudius, 52-59 CE, 2.7g, 18 mm. Struck 54 C.E.

Obverse: Two oblong shields and two spears crossed, surrounded by legend NEPW KLAY KAICAP (Nero Claudius Caesar - son of Claudius)
Reverse: Six-branched palm tree bearing two bunches of dates, BPIT above (="Britanicus" - second son of Claudius), K-AI (= "Caesar") and date below L-ΙΔ (= Year 14 of Caesar = 54 CE.)

Reference: Hendin 652, SearGIC 5626, TJC 340, AJC II, Supp. V, p. 283, #29, Madden R136, RPC 4971.

Added to collection: April 21, 2006
Daniel Friedman
geta_amng1654~0.jpg
Apollo Sauroktonos315 viewsNikopolis ad Istrum/Moesia inferior, Geta 198-202
AE 25, 11.38g
obv. L CEPTIMI GETAC KAICAR
bust draped, bare head r.
rev. [YP AVR G]A[LL]OC NIKOPOLITWN PROC ICTRON
Apollo, naked, laureate, with crossed legs, stg. r., r. hand raised behind holding arrow, l. hand resting on tree before him; at the tree a lizard, touching Apollo
AMNG 1654, VF, lizard only partially visible due to a weak strike, but nice green patina
Rare, only one spec. in AMNG ex coll. Löbbecke

From Pliny the Elder we know the detailed description of a famous bronze sculpture of Praxiteles (4th century BC) named Sauroktonos, the Lizard-killer. The original sculpture is lost. We have two Roman marble copies in the Louvre and in the Musei Vaticani in Rome. May be the coin is the pic of Pliny's description or may be not. But the reverse shows clearly the two sides of Apollo: Here the youthful smiling bringer of light and in the same moment the merciless killer for fun.
Jochen
ap94a_50.jpg
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 94 - Bronze Dichalk16 viewsBeginning of 2nd century B.C.
2.50 gm, 14 mm.
Obv: Naked Apollo, full-face, standing and holding a laurel tree in his right hand and a bow with arrows in his left hand.
Rev.: Upright anchor with large flukes and a rectangular stock. The letter A to left between fluke and the stock.
Topalov Apollonia p. 510, 1; p.620, 94 var., p.804-5;
SNG BM Black Sea 190

Topalov Type 94: Bronze coins of the type “Standing Apollo - Upright Anchor”, dichalk (?)
Obv.: Full-face naked Apollo, standing and holding a laurel tree and two arrows. The image represents the statue of Kalamis erected in the town.
Rev.: Upright anchor with large flukes and a rectangular stock. The letter A l. and the additional symbol of a crab r. viewed from above on the other side between flukes and the stock.
Jaimelai
Constans_AE-2-Follis_DN-CONSTA-NS-PF-AVG_FEL-TEMP-REPAR-ATIO_AQT-dot_RIC-VIII-97-p-323_Aquilea_348-350-AD__Q-001_axis6h_20,5-22,5mm_4,76ga-s.jpg
Aquilea, RIC VIII 106, 146 Constans (333-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-350 A.D. Augustus), AE-2 Follis, -/-//AQT•, FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Soldier leading captive from hut,63 viewsAquilea, RIC VIII 106, 146 Constans (333-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-350 A.D. Augustus), AE-2 Follis, -/-//AQT•, FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Soldier leading captive from hut,
avers:- DN-CONSTA-NS-PF-AVG, Cn8, G3L, Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust left, holding globe.
revers:- FEL-TEMP-REPAR-ATIO, Constans advancing right, dragging barbarian from hut under tree.
exergo: -/-//AQT•, diameter: 20,5-22,5mm, weight: 4,76g, axis: 6h,
mint: Aquilea, date: 348-350 A.D., REF: RIC-VIII-106-p323,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Elagabalus +.jpg
Arados - Elagabalus - AE2813 viewsAE28
Phoenecia, Arados, ref Lindgren I 2241

Obv: Elagabalus
Rev: Cypress tree between bull and lion / ARADIWN
BMC 383
Tanit
978.jpg
aradosbmc38310 viewsElagabalus
Arados, Phoenicia

Obv: AVT K M [AVΡ ANTΩNI]NOC, laureate, draped, cuirassed bust right
Rev: [ARADIWN] → E ZOY (Z is backwards), Cypress tree, between bull standing right and lion standing left, standard behind each, star above lion’s head.
26 mm, 12.53 gms

BMC 383
Charles M
389c.jpg
aradosbmc383_27 viewsElagabalus
Arados, Phoenicia

Obv: AVT K M AVΡ [ANTΩNINOC], laureate, draped, cuirassed bust right
Rev: ARAD[IWN → E ZOY (Z is backwards)], Cypress tree, between bull standing right and lion standing left, standard behind each, star above lion’s head.
25 mm, 12.78 gms

BMC 383
Charles M
532.jpg
aradosbmc3845 viewsElagabalus
Arados, Phoenicia

Obv: [AVT K M AVΡ ANTΩNINOC], laureate, draped, cuirassed bust right
Rev: [ARADIWN → E ZOY (Z is backwards)], Cypress tree, between bull standing right and lion standing left, standard behind each, crescent above lion’s head.
25 mm, 12.05 gms

BMC 384 (Note: Serrated in ancient times. This was likely done for purely decorative reasons for a coin that was no longer legal currency. One theory is that it was done to be used as a playing token.)
Charles M
1543.jpg
aradosbmc38513 viewsElagabalus
Arados, Phoenicia

Obv: AVT K M AVΡ [ANTΩNINOC], laureate, draped, cuirassed bust right
Rev: ARA-ΔI-WN → E ZOY (Z is backwards), Cypress tree, between bull standing right and lion standing left, standard (hand and vexillium) behind each, no symbol above lion’s head.
28 mm, 18.15 gms

BMC 385
Charles M
Aradus_Phoenicia_Elagabalus_Bronze_Coin.JPG
Aradus Phoenicia Elagabalus Bronze Coin 55 viewsElagabalus 218 - 222 AD
Aradus Phoenicia
Bronze 25 mm 8.3 gram coin
Obverse: Head Right
Reverse: Cypress Tree between lion and bull
Kov 2241

Antonivs Protti
Aphrodisias_01.jpg
Asia Minor, Caria, Aphrodisias, Senate, tree14 viewsAphrodisias
Asia Minor, Caria
Assarion, AD 209-211
Ti Cl. Zenon magistrate
Obv: IEPA CYNKΛHTOC; diademed and draped bust of Senate right
Rev: KΛ ZHNΩN PXAΦPOΔICIEΩN, tree with three branches growing up from altar
AE, 24 mm, 8.95 g
Ref.: David MacDonald, The Coinage of Aphrodisias, Type 104, O152/R269 (same dies)
shanxi
G_322_Pergamon_fac.jpg
Asia Minor, Mysia, Pergamon, Hermes, kerykeion.9 viewsMysia, Pergamon
AE17
Obv.: Draped bust of Hermes to right; wing on head.
Rev.: ΠΕΡΓΑΜΗΝΩΝ; winged kerykeion.
AE, 17mm, 2.70g
Ref.: unpublished type
(Same obverse (die match) as H. v. Fritze. - Berlin, 1910, pl. III, 26, but with kerykeion instead of tree/serpent on the reverse)
shanxi
054n.jpg
Athena (helmeted bust of)200 viewsTROAS. Ilium. Faustina Jr. Æ 25. A.D. 146-175. Obv: CEBAC-ΦAVCTINAAVΓ. Draped bust right; countermark on neck. Rev: IΛI-EΩ. To right bull suspended from tree, on back of bull sits male figure (Ilos), plunging knife into bull’s neck; to left statue of Athena Ilias on pedestal. Ref: BMC 53. Axis: 15°. Weight: 9.50 g. CM: Helmeted bust of Athena right, in oval punch, 6 x 7 mm. Howgego 186 (53 pcs). Collection Automan.Automan
auagcr.jpg
Augustus & Agrippa Nemausus37 viewsColony established at Nemausus by Augustus' army
bronze 13.1, 26.2mm, Nemausus mint. Struck 10 BC E- 10 CE.
Obverse: IMP DIVI F P P Agrippa laureate head left and
Augustus laureate head right, back to back
Reverse: COL NEM crocodile chained to palm tree top bent to
right, wreath at top.
RIC 159
sold 4-2018
2 commentsNORMAN K
augrcr.jpg
Augustus & Agrippa Nemausus 52 views Colony established at Nemausus by Augustus' army
bronze 13.1, 26.2mm, Nemausus mint. Struck 10 BC E- 10 CE.
Obverse: IMP DIVI F P P Agrippa laureate head left and Augustus laureate head right, back to back
Reverse: COL NEM crocodile chained to palm tree top bent to right, wreath at top.
RIC 159
sold 4-2018
2 commentsNORMAN K
0030-411.jpg
Augustus & Agrippa, AE Dupondius 79 viewsNemausus mint, after AD 10
4th type
IMP DIVI F PP, Laureate heads of Augustus looking right and Agrippa looking left, back to back
COL NEM, Crocodile chained to palm tree
13,52 gr
Ref : RCV #1731, Cohen #8
5 commentsPotator II
0030-410np_noir.jpg
Augustus & Agrippa, AE Dupondius - *284 viewsDupondius struck in Nemausus, after 10 AD
4th type
IMP DIVI F PP, Laureate heads of Augustus and Agrippa back to back
COL NEM, Crocodile chained to palm tree
12.84 gr
Ref : RCV #1731, Cohen #8
3 commentsPotator II
0030-409.jpg
Augustus & Agrippa, AE halved dupondius91 viewsHalved dupondius struck in Nemausus, after 10 BC
3rd type
[IM]P [DI]VI F , Laureate head of Augustus right
[COL NEM], Crocodile chained to palm tree
6.70 gr
Ref : RCV #1730, Cohen # 10
1 commentsPotator II
00564.jpg
Augustus (RIC 159, Coin #564)54 viewsAugustus , RIC 159, AE AS, Nemausus, Gaul (Nimes, France), 10 - 14 AD.
Obv: IMP DIVI F P P Laureate heads of Agrippa and Augustus back-to-back.
Rev: COL NEM Crocodile right chained to palm tree, wreath with long ties
above, two palms fronds below.
Size: 26.7mm 12.36g.
2 commentsMaynardGee
AUGUSTUS_-_Marcus_Ambibulus_.jpg
Augustus / Marcus Ambibulus, procurator of Judea under Augustus.22 viewsMarcus Ambibulus, procurator of Judea under Augustus, 9-12 AD, bronze prutah of 15.4 mm, 1.72 grams. Struck in the year 10 AD.
Obverse: Ear of grain, KAICA POC.
Reverse: Palm tree with 2 bunches of dates and date, LM.
Reference: Hendin-1330.

“Swear to me, young women of Jerusalem, by the gazelles or by the does of the field, that you won’t awaken or arouse love before its proper time.” Song of Solomon.
Sam
ARP_-_Augustus___Agrippa-3.jpg
Augustus 27BC - AD14 & Agrippa born 63BC - died 12BC22 viewsAE Dupondius - This coin was issued from 16/15-10BC - Sear #1729, RIC-155
Ch VF Strike 4/5 - Surface 5/5
Obv. - IMP DIVI F, Heads back to back of Augustus r., bare, and Agrippa l., wearing rostral crown
Rev. - COL NEM, crocodile., chained to palm tree, wreath with long ties above, two palms below.

Issue of Nemausus in Gaul (now the city of Nimes in France). The Cities coat of arms shows a palm tree with a crocodile chained to it. Veterans of the Roman legions who had served Julius Caesar in his Nile campaigns, at the end of fifteen years of soldiering, were given plots of land to cultivate on the plain of Nimes.
Richard M10
AUGVSTVS__AGRIPPA.JPG
Augustus and Agrippa Dupondius, Nemausus24 viewsAugustus and Agrippa Dupondius, Nemausus. Sear RCV 1731, RIC 159-60. RIC 159-160, Cohen 8, RPC 525. Gaul, Nemausus. ca 10-14 AD. IMP DIVI F P-P, back-to-back heads of Agrippa, in rostral crown, & Augustus, laureate/ COL NEM, palm tree curving to left, crocodile right chained below, wreath to left of palm tip with long ties trailing to right. 1 commentsPodiceps
Nimes.JPG
Augustus and Agrippa, Nimes dupondius35 viewsAugustus (27 BC – 14 AD)

Æ Dupondius. Nemausus (Nimes), 12 BC

Struck to commemorate the defeat of Mark Antony at Actium and the capture of Egypt.

Obv: IMP DIVI F P P. adduced heads of Augustus (right) and Agrippa (left), Augustus laureate, Agrippa wearing rostral crown.
Rev.: COL NEM. crocodile chained to palm tree.
RIC 157

Weight: 12.9g.
Diameter: 26mm.
1 commentsJose P
Augustus~2.jpg
Augustus As24 viewsAugustus AE As , ca. 10 BC - 10 AD.
Obv: IMP DIVI F; heads of Agrippa wearing rostral crown and Augustus laureate back to back

Rev: COL NEM ; crocodile r., chained to palm tree, wreath and fillet in upper field.

RIC 158
Tanit
nemausus_k.jpg
Augustus, 27 BC - AD 1421 viewsÆ26, 12.5g, 7h; Nemausus, c. AD 10-14
Obv.: IMP DIVI F P-P; back-to-back heads of Agrippa, in rostral crown, and Augustus, laureate.
Rev.: COL-NEM, palm tree curving to left, crocodile right chained below, wreath to left of palm tip with long ties trailing to right.
Reference: Cohen 8, RPC 525, RIC I Augustus 159.
1 commentsJohn Anthony
judaean-marcus-ambibulus-prutah.jpg
Augustus, Procurator Marcus Ambibulus, Æ Prutah, Year 41 = 11 AD26 viewsAncient Greek, Judaea, Augustus, Procurator Marcus Ambibulus, Æ Prutah, Year 41 = 11 AD, 1.7g, 16mm

Obverse: KAICA-POC, Head of barley curved right.

Reverse: Eight-branched date palm tree, bearing two bunches of dates, L - MA (year 41).

Reference: Hendin 1331, Meshorer TJC 315
Gil-galad
normal_AUGUDU03-2~0.jpg
Augustus, RIC 158, medium bronze of 10 BC to AD 1068 viewsmedium bronze (dupondius ?) (12.6g, 25mm, 2h) Nemausus mint. Struck 10 BC - 10 AD.
Obv.: IMP DIVI F Agrippa laureate head left and Augustus laureate head right, back to back
Rev.: COL NEM crocodile chained to palm tree top bent to right, wreath at top.
RIC (Augustus) 158

COL NEM stands for COLONIA AVGVSTA NEMAVSVS (now the city of Nîmes, France), built by Augustus' army after their conquest and return from Egypt. The crocodile chained to the palm tree symbolizes the defeat of the Cleopatra and Marc Antony at Actium. This symbol is still used as the city's emblem in Nîmes today.
3 commentsCharles S
ottokar lu76.jpg
AUSTRIA - OTTOKAR II as King80 viewsOTTOKAR II as King (1261-1276) AR Pfennig. Vienna mint. Obv: Dog running left, tree behind. Rev.: Embossing traces. Reference: Luschin 76.dpaul7
OTTOKAR II L-76 TWO.jpg
AUSTRIA - OTTOKAR II as King 111 viewsAUSTRIA - OTTOKAR II as King (1261-1276) AR Pfennig. Vienna mint. Obv: Dog running left, tree behind. Rev.: Embossing traces. Reference: Luschin 76. dpaul7
ottokar ii l-79 two.jpg
AUSTRIA - Ottokar II as King 101 viewsAUSTRIA -- Ottokar II as King (1261-1276) AR PFennig, Vienna mint. Ovb.: Star and crescent over eagle looking left. Rev.: Tree behind lion and eagle. Reference: Luschin #79.dpaul7
ottokar ii l79 one.jpg
AUSTRIA -- Ottokar II as King85 viewsAUSTRIA -- Ottokar II as King (1261-1276) AR PFennig, Vienna mint. Ovb.: Star and crescent over eagle looking left. Rev.: Tree behind lion and eagle. Reference: Luschin #79.dpaul7
Phygela.jpg
Æ14; Head of Artemis Munychia/ ΦΥΓ, Bull butting left against palm tree; [Σ]ΩKΡAT[HΣ]11 viewsIONIA, Phygela. Circa 294-281 B.C. Æ 14mm, 2.46g. Head of Artemis Munychia, wearing palm-decorated stephane, facing slightly left / ΦΥΓ, Bull butting left against palm tree; [Σ]ΩKΡAT[HΣ] (magistrate) in exergue. Cf. Winterthur 3118; SNG Kayhan 585; SNG von Aulock -; SNG Copenhagen 1075. Podiceps
JCT_B_S_S___N_Z__Home_for_the_Aged.JPG
B & S. Steinhouse/Nachlass Zkainim Home For the Aged (Montreal, Quebec, Canada)197 viewsAE token, 34 mm., 15.78 gr., undated (but probably minted ca. 1927).

Obv: B & S.S & N.Z. HOME FOR THE AGED, and • MONTREAL •, within border around rim, 25¢ to left and right of building in center, SOUVENIR below building.

Rev: KEEP ME and GOOD LUCK within border in upper and lower rim, “תשליכנו / לצת זקנה אל„ [Do not cast us off in our old age. (Psalm 71:9)] and DO NOT CAST US / OFF AT OUR OLD AGE, in center, between profiles of elderly man and woman facing left and right, respectively.

Ref: Randolph, Marc A. “Jewish Homes for the Aged Tokens,” The Shekel, XXXVI No. 3 (May-June 2003) 14-19, Figure 2.

Note: The B & S. Steinhouse Old People’s Home opened in Montreal in 1923 and soon merged with the Nachlass Zkainim Home. In 1927, encouraged by the newly formed Federation of Jewish Philanthropies of Montreal, the combined B & S. Steinhouse/Nachlass Zkainim Home For the Aged amalgamated with the Montreal Hebrew Sheltering Home, a/k/a Moshav Zkainim (which was founded in 1910, and then housed six residents on Evans Street). The institution raised funds for the construction of a larger building on land owned by the Montreal Sheltering Home on Esplanade Street. By 1945, the average age of new residents was over eighty, and increased medical and nursing staff were required. The institution changed its name to Maimonides Hospital and Home for the Aged to reflect this expanded role. The institution still exists, as the Maimonides Geriatric Center of McGill University.

Note: The token was issued sometime between 1923 (when B & S. Steinhouse Old People’s Home opened) and 1945 (when the amalgamated institution changed its name to Maimonides Hospital and Home for the Aged), and probably no later than 1927 (when the combined B & S. Steinhouse/Nachlass Zkainim Home For the Aged) amalgamated with the Montreal Hebrew Sheltering Home, a/k/a Moshav Zkainim). It may even have been issued in connection with the fund drive that was initiated in 1927 to build the larger building on Esplanade Street.
Stkp
IMG_4616.JPG
BAR KOCHBA REBELLION, AE25MM. YEAR 225 viewsBAR KOCHBA REBELLION, AE25MM. YEAR 2
Hebrew legend, For the Freedom of Jerusalem Grape leaves.
/ Hebrew legend, Simon Palm tree with seven branches.
Maritima
BAVARIA_1971_VICTORY_THALER.jpg
BAVARIA - Ludwig II193 viewsBAVARIA - Ludwig II (1864-1886) AR Thaler, "Victory Thaler". Made to commemorate Germany's victory over France in the Fraco-Prussian war. Obv: Ludwig's head left; LUDWIG II KOENIG V. BAYERN J. REISS below bust. Rev.: Woman seated right, holding wreath and cornucopia; a tree at her feet; DURCH KAMPF UND SIEG ZUM FRIEDEN In exurge: FRIEDENSSCHLUSS ZU FRANKFURT A.M. 10. MAI 1871. Small obversse rim nick. Reference: KM #496.dpaul7
BAVARIA_LANDSHUT_HEIN_IV_DOG.jpg
BAVARIA/LANDSHUT -- Henry XVI (IV) the Rich47 viewsBAVARIA/LANDSHUT -- Henry XVI (IV) the Rich (1392–1450) Silver Pfennig, Neuötting Mint. Obv.: Dog running left, tree behind him. Rev.: Gothic "H" between 2 stars. Reference: Wittelsbach 3433; Saurma #418.dpaul7
heraclius_s_palm_BCC_B8.jpg
BCC B819 viewsByzantine Period
Heraclius 610-641CE
Sasanian occupation of Egypt
ca. 618-628CE
AE Hexanummium, Alexandria Mint.
Obv:Palm tree with fruit.
Rev: Large S,
20x18mm. 6.80gm. Axis:30
SB 864
v-drome
BCC_CM35_Decius_Altar.jpg
BCC CM3527 viewsCaesarea Maritima
Trajan Decius 249-251CE
Obv:IMP C C MES Q TRA
DECIVS AVG Laureate, draped bust right.
Rev:COL PR F AVG FC CAES METROP
Altar with palm and olive tree behind.
AE 28 X 26mm 14.75gm.
Kadman #154
v-drome
Coponius_BCC_j17.jpg
BCC j1727 viewsJudaea AE Prutah
Coponius, under Augustus
6-9 C.E.
Obv: KAI[CA-POC]
Ear of Barley
Rev: Palm tree with dates,
in field:[L] ΛS (year 36)
16.5mm. 1.63gm. Axis:0
Hendin 635
v-drome
Titus_capta_BCC_j20.jpg
BCC J2038 viewsRoman Provincial BCC j20
Judaea Capta Series
Caesarea Maritima
Titus 79-81 CE
Obv:AVTOKP TITOΣ KAIΣAP
Laureate head right.
Rev:ΙΟΥΔΑΙΑΣ ΕΑΛWΚΥΙΑΣ
Victory inscribing shield supported
on knee, palm tree to right.
21.5mm. 8.06gm. Axis:0
Hendin III 744
v-drome
titus_capta.jpg
BCC j435 viewsJudaean - Caesarea Maritima
Titus 79-81 CE
Obv:[ΑΥTΟΚΡ TΙT]ΟΣ [ΚΑΙϹΑΡ]
Laur. head of Titus right.
Rev:IΟΥΔΑΙ[Α ΕΑΛWΚ]ΥΙΑΣ
Nike std. right, writing on shield hanging
from palm tree.
AE 18.5mm 6.67 gm. Axis:0
Hendin 743
v-drome
BCC_LS2_aspidiou.jpg
BCC LA241 viewsBCC LA2
Lead Amphora
Late Roman?
Hollow cast miniature lead amphora
with conical body and wide angled
handles. It is inscribed around in
Greek ΑCΠΙ / ΔΙΟΥ
a proper name which may be translated
as “of a little shield”. Below the inscription
on the obverse is the figure of a dog
with forelegs extended. Other designs
above it and on the reverse are obscure,
and remain unidentified, but may include
a tree above, and a caped figure opposite
the dog. A collar of points encircles the neck.
Pb 47mm x 22mm 18.6gm. Capacity 0.65cc.
v-drome
BCC_Lsr3_gorgon.jpg
BCC LSR325 viewsLead seal
Roman 1st -4th cent CE?
Obv: Gorgonian face? or Lion ?
Rev: Branched object, tree or
menorah?
11.5mm. 3.31gm. Axis:0
v-drome
BCC_Lt15.jpg
BCC Lt1542 viewsLead Tessera
Obv: Female figure
possibly Venus
to left, facing altar or tree?
Rev: Blank
7.0x8.5mm. 1.06gm.
v-drome
BCC_LT_57_Winged_Nemisis.jpg
BCC LT5714 viewsLead Tessera
Caesarea Maritima
1st - 3rd century CE
Obv: Winged Nemesis? or
Eros? or Thanatos? with
pickaxe, or torch? Uncertain
object (Herm? or tree?) to right.
Rev: Blank.
10 x 10 x 1.0mm. 0.68gm.
J. Berlin Caesarea Collection

At first I thought this must be
Eros, but the size of the wings
made me think may be Nemesis.
Any suggestions are welcome.
Tesserae and Gemstones with
these motifs are well known
from Caesarea, but so far
nothing exactly like this one.
v-drome
tyre_minimae_BCC_m56-60.jpg
BCC m56-6092 viewsCaesarea Minimae BCC m56-m60
Five minute coins from Caesarea Maritima
Mint: Caesarea or Tyre?
Obv:Head of Tyche or male bust right, often crudely rendered.
Rev: Palm tree,with fruits, traces of inscription
AE10.0 - 12.5mm. 0.60 - 0.93g. Axis:0 or 90
Similar to Hamburger #6 through #26
Hamburger assigns this type to the mint at Tyre, in imitation of
the well-known autonomous coins of that city from the late 1st
and early 2nd cent. CE. However, other experts suggest Caesarea was
the mint, since they seem to be most commonly found there.
v-drome
BCC_M61-65_Tyre.jpg
BCC m61-m6598 viewsFive minute coins from Caesarea Maritima
BCC m61-m65
Mint: Caesarea or Tyre?
Obv:Head of Tyche right, crudely rendered on some specimens.
Rev: Palm tree, with fruits and/or traces of inscription or pseudo-date.
AE10.5-12.0mm. 0.62-1.07gm. Axis: 90
Similar to Hamburger #6-26 “Minute Coins
from Caesarea Maritima” Vol.1 Atiqot,1954.
Hamburger assigns this type to the mint at Tyre, in imitation of
the well-known autonomous coins of that city from the late 1st
and early 2nd cent. CE. However, other experts suggest Caesarea was
the mint, since they seem to be commonly found there. Of note is the 90 degree
axis seen in the majority of these Tyche/palm tree minimae.
v-drome
tyre_minima_BCC_m66-70.jpg
BCC m66-m7068 viewsCaesarea Minimae
Five minute coins from Caesarea Maritima
Mint: Caesarea or Tyre?
Obv:Head of Tyche right, crudely
rendered on some specimens.
Rev: Palm tree, with fruits, traces
of inscription, or pseudo-date.
AE15mm-12.5mm. 2.01gm-0.7gm. Axis: var.
Similar to Hamburger #6-#26. Hamburger
assigns this type to the mint at Tyre. Other
experts suggest Caesarea since they are
commonly found there. However, very
small module coins, apparently official issues
from cities around the eastern empire, were also
frequently found in the surrounding sand dunes.
v-drome
tyre_minimae_m71-75.jpg
BCC m71-m7553 viewsCaesarea Minimae
Five minute coins from Caesarea Maritima
Mint: Caesarea or Tyre?
Obv:Head of Tyche right, crudely
rendered on some specimens. The second coin,
(m72), has a palm branch to the left of Tyche.
Rev: Palm tree with fruits, traces of inscription,
or pseudo-date, very crudely rendered on m74 and m75.
AE12.5mm.-8.5mm. 0.79gm.-0.29gm. Axis: var.
Similar to Hamburger #6-#26. Apparently minted in
imitation of the well known 1st-2nd CE autonomous coins of Tyre.
v-drome
trajan_sepphoris.jpg
BCC rgp1034 viewsRoman Greek Provincial
Sepphoris - Judaea
Trajan 98-117 CE
Obv: ΤΡΑΙΑΝΟΣ ΑΥΤΟΚΡΑΤΩΡ ΕΔΩΚΕΝ
Laureate bust of Trajan right.
Rev:ΣΕΠ/ΦΩ/ΡΗ/ΝΩΝ
Date palm tree
24mm. 10.56 gm. Axis:330
Hendin 907
v-drome
trye_autonomous.jpg
BCC rgp1651 viewsRoman Provincial BCC rgp16
Tyre-Phoenicia autonomous issue
94/95 CE (reign of Domitian)
Obv:Turreted head of Tyche right
palm branch behind.
Rev:Palm tree with fruit, across field:
Date:AKΣ (221) - monogram of Tyre Metropolis, below:IE-PAC
AE14x16mm. 3.21g. Axis: 0
SGI 5923?
v-drome
elagab_tyre_rgp_36.jpg
BCC rgp3625 viewsRoman Provincial BCC rgp36
Tyre - Phoenicia
Elagabalus 218-222C.E.
Obv: IMP [CAES] M AV ANT -[ON]INVS AVG
Laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: TY RI O RVM
Astarte standing facing, holding scepter and placing
hand on trophy. To left, palm tree; to right, murex shell
and column surmounted by Nike.
AE 27.5mm. 15.61gm. Axis:330
possible reference: SNG 364 , BMC 396-402.
v-drome
075~1.JPG
Berry, Sancerre, Etienne 1er (1152-1190), France.4 viewsDenier, argent, 0,97 g, frappé à Sancerre.
A/ + IVLIVS CESAR, tête mitrée à gauche.
R/ + STEPhANVS COMES, croix cantonnée en 3 et 4 d'un point.
Réfs : Poey d'Avant 2004.
Gabalor
CarthageBillion.jpg
Billion Tridrachm from Carthage82 viewsA Billion tridrachm from Carthage, minted during the second Punic war. 9.589g, 26.2mm, Carthage mint, c. 215 - 205 B.C.

Obverse: Head of Tanit left, wearing barley wreath, pellet on leaf, triple-pendant earing, and necklace with many pendants

Reverse: Unbridled horse standing right, palm tree in background, pellet below horse's belly forward of the palm trunk; scarce;

Attribution: Alexandropoulos 44a; Müller Afrique 104; SNG Cop 190 var (no pellet); SRCV II 6494 var (same)
3 commentschuy1530
nikaia_sev_alex_Nymphe_unbekannt.jpg
Bithynia, Nikaia, Severus Alexander, Rec.Gen. 600 (rev. only), unpublished34 viewsSeverus Alexander, AD 222-235
AE 22, 6.87g
struck AD 222 (as Caesar)
obv. M AVR ALEZANDROC KAIC
Bust, draped and cuirassed, bare-headed, r.
rev. NIKAIE - WN
Nymph Nikaia, in long dress ans wearing mural crown, stg. l., holding patera(?) in l. hand and resting with r. hand on a thyrsos with a gnarled staff
ref.: Rec.Gen. 600, pl.82, 27 (rev. only), apparently unpublished
Very rare, F+
Thanks to archivum and Curtis Clay for their help to attribute this coin.

There is another type of Nikaia for Marcus Aurelius showing the nymph Nikaia empting a kantharos and with a tree behind entwined by a snake, Rec.Gen. 178, pl. 71.10.
Jochen
412.jpg
bmc388_111 viewsElagabalus
Tyre, Phoenicia

Obv: IMP CAES MAV AN-TONINVS AVG, laureate draped and cuirassed bust right wearing paludamentum.
Rev: SEPT IM T VRO →COLO, Astarte wearing turreted crown and short chiton and himation, standing front left foot on prow, right hand on trophy and holding in left arm transverse scepter and is being crowned by Nike standing on column on right. Palm tree on left and murex shell on right.
28 mm, 25.01 gms

BMC 388
Charles M
67c.jpg
bmc388_28 viewsElagabalus
Tyre, Phoenicia

Obv: IMP CAES MAV AN-TONINVS AVG, laureate draped and cuirassed bust right, indistinct countermark.
Rev: SEPT IM T VRO →COLO, Astarte wearing turreted crown and short chiton and himation, standing front left foot on prow, right hand on trophy and holding in left arm transverse scepter and is being crowned by Nike standing on column on right. Palm tree on left and murex shell on right.
30 mm, 15.02 gms

BMC 388
Charles M
1619.jpg
bmc388_39 viewsElagabalus
Tyre, Phoenicia

Obv: IMP CAES MA[V AN-TONI]NVS AVG, laureate draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: [SEPT] IM T VRO →COLO, Astarte wearing turreted crown and short chiton and himation, standing front left foot on prow, right hand on trophy and holding in left arm transverse scepter and is being crowned by Nike standing on column on right. Palm tree on left and murex shell on right.
29 mm, 15.80 gms

BMC 388
Charles M
468.jpg
bmc3939 viewsElagabalus
Tyre, Phoenicia

Obv: IMP CAES MAV ANTONINVS AVG, laureate draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: SEP TIM TVR COL, Temple of Astarte with 6 columns, arch over middle with pellet in pediment over arch, Astarte within with right hand on trophy being crowned by Nike standing on column on right. Altar at base of steps with palm tree on left and murex shell on right.
29 mm, 17.78 gms

BMC 393
Charles M
1433.jpg
bmc393var5 viewsElagabalus
Tyre, Phoenicia

Obv: IMP CAES MAV ANTONINVS AVG, laureate cuirassed bust right, seen from front. Countermark of laureate head in incuse oval.
Rev: SEP TIM TVR COL, Temple of Astarte with 6 columns, arch over middle with pellet in pediment over arch, Astarte within with right hand on trophy being crowned by Nike standing on column on right. Altar at base of steps with palm tree on left and murex shell on right.
30 mm, 15.48 gms

BMC 393 variant (bust type). Triskeles Auctions, Sale 22, Lot 368. Countermark Howgego 65
Charles M
1517.jpg
bmc393var_22 viewsElagabalus
Tyre, Phoenicia

Obv: IMP CAES MAV ANTONINVS AVG, laureate cuirassed bust right, seen from front.
Rev: SEP TIM TVR COL, Temple of Astarte with 6 columns, arch over middle with pellet in pediment over arch, Astarte within with right hand on trophy being crowned by Nike standing on column on right. Altar at base of steps with palm tree on left and murex shell on right.
30 mm, 15.62 gms

BMC 393 variant (bust type). Triskeles Auctions, Sale 22, Lot 368.
Charles M
674.jpg
bmc393_212 viewsElagabalus
Tyre, Phoenicia

Obv: IMP CAES MAV ANTONINVS AVG, laureate draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: SEP TIM TVR COL, Temple of Astarte with 6 columns, arch over middle with pellet in pediment over arch, Astarte within with right hand on trophy being crowned by Nike standing on column on right. Altar at base of steps with palm tree on left and murex shell on right.
29 mm, 15.96 gms

BMC 393
1 commentsCharles M
714.jpg
bmc393_36 viewsElagabalus
Tyre, Phoenicia

Obv: Laureate draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: Temple of Astarte with 6 columns, arch over middle with pellet in pediment over arch, Astarte within with right hand on trophy being crowned by Nike standing on column on right. Altar at base of steps with palm tree on left and murex shell on right.
29 mm, 11.77 gms

BMC 393
Charles M
644c.jpg
bmc393_49 viewsElagabalus
Tyre, Phoenicia

Obv: Laureate draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: Temple of Astarte with 6 columns, arch over middle with pellet in pediment over arch, Astarte within with right hand on trophy being crowned by Nike standing on column on right. Altar at base of steps with palm tree on left and murex shell on right.
30 mm, 11.19 gms

BMC 393

Cuts on this coin are very straight as if done with a sharp edge weapon--perhaps to make change??
Charles M
734.jpg
bmc396_19 viewsElagabalus
Tyre, Phoenicia

Obv: IMP CAES MAV AN-TONINVS AVG, laureate draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind.
Rev: TV RI O RVM, Astarte wearing turreted crown and short chiton and himation, standing front left foot on prow, right hand on trophy and holding in left arm transverse scepter and is being crowned by Nike standing on column on right. Palm tree on left and murex shell on right.
29 mm, 14.06 gms

BMC 396
Charles M
988.jpg
bmc396_29 viewsElagabalus
Tyre, Phoenicia

Obv: IMP CAES MAV AN-TONINVS AVG, laureate draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind.
Rev: TV RI O RVM, Astarte wearing turreted crown and short chiton and himation, standing front left foot on prow, right hand on trophy and holding in left arm transverse scepter and is being crowned by Nike standing on column on right. Palm tree on left and murex shell on right.
29 mm, 17.34 gms

BMC 396
Charles M
60.jpg
bmc396_321 viewsElagabalus
Tyre, Phoenicia

Obv: IMP CAES MAV AN-TONINVS AVG, laureate draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind. Oval countermark of a male head right.
Rev: TV RI O RVM, Astarte wearing turreted crown and short chiton and himation, standing front left foot on prow, right hand on trophy and holding in left arm transverse scepter and is being crowned by Nike standing on column on right. Palm tree on left and murex shell on right.
32 mm, 14.14 gms

BMC 396 Countermark: Howgego 65
1 commentsCharles M
1515.jpg
bmc396_42 viewsElagabalus
Tyre, Phoenicia

Obv: IMP CAES MAV AN-TONINVS AVG, laureate draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from front.
Rev: TV RI O RVM, Astarte wearing turreted crown and short chiton and himation, standing front left foot on prow, right hand on trophy and holding in left arm transverse scepter and is being crowned by Nike standing on column on right. Palm tree on left and murex shell on right.
32 mm, 18.13 gms

BMC 396
Charles M
1516.jpg
bmc396_52 viewsElagabalus
Tyre, Phoenicia

Obv: IMP CAES MAV ANTONINVS [AVG], laureate draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind. Oval countermark of a male head right.
Rev: TV RI O RVM, Astarte wearing turreted crown and short chiton and himation, standing front left foot on prow, right hand on trophy and holding in left arm transverse scepter and is being crowned by Nike standing on column on right. Palm tree on left and murex shell on right.
27 mm, 11.76 gms

BMC 396 Countermark: Howgego 65
Charles M
735.jpg
bmc40411 viewsElagabalus
Tyre, Phoenicia

Obv: IMP CAES MAV AN[TONINVS AVG], laureate draped and cuirassed bust right wearing paludamentum.
Rev: T VRI ORV M, Temple of Astarte with 6 columns, arch over middle, Astarte within with right hand on trophy being crowned by Nike standing on column on right. Altar at base of steps with palm tree on right and murex shell on left.
28 mm, 13.68 gms

BMC 404
Charles M
258.jpg
bmc404_210 viewsElagabalus
Tyre, Phoenicia

Obv: IMP CAES MAV ANTONINVS AVG, laureate draped and cuirassed bust right wearing paludamentum.
Rev: T VRI ORV M, Temple of Astarte with 6 columns, arch over middle, Astarte within with right hand on trophy being crowned by Nike standing on column on right. Altar at base of steps with palm tree on right and murex shell on left.
26 mm, 10.24 gms

BMC 404
Charles M
253c.jpg
bmc404_38 viewsElagabalus
Tyre, Phoenicia

Obv: Laureate draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: [T VRI O] RVM, Temple of Astarte with 6 columns, arch over middle, Astarte within with right hand on trophy being crowned by Nike standing on column on right. Altar at base of steps with palm tree on right and murex shell on left.
27 mm, 14.00 gms

BMC 404
Charles M
1332.jpg
bmc404_42 viewsElagabalus
Tyre, Phoenicia

Obv: IMP CAES MAV ANTONINVS AVG, laureate draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: T VRI ORV M, Temple of Astarte with 6 columns, arch over middle, Astarte within with right hand on trophy being crowned by Nike standing on column on right. Altar at base of steps with palm tree on right and murex shell on left.
27 mm, 11.30 gms

BMC 404
Charles M
1432.jpg
bmc404_52 viewsElagabalus
Tyre, Phoenicia

Obv: IMP CAES MAV ANTO[NINVS AVG], laureate draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: T VRI ORV M, Temple of Astarte with 6 columns, arch over middle, Astarte within with right hand on trophy being crowned by Nike standing on column on right. Altar at base of steps with palm tree on right and murex shell on left.
30 mm, 8.79 gms

BMC 404
Charles M
1467.jpg
bmc404_62 viewsElagabalus
Tyre, Phoenicia

Obv: IMP CAES MAV ANTONINVS AVG, laureate draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: TV RI OR VM, Temple of Astarte with 6 columns, arch over middle, Astarte within with right hand on trophy being crowned by Nike standing on column on right. Altar at base of steps with palm tree on right and murex shell on left.
28 mm, 13.65 gms

BMC 404
Charles M
1532a.jpg
bmc404_711 viewsElagabalus
Tyre, Phoenicia

Obv: [IMP CAES M]AV ANTONINVS A[VG], laureate draped and cuirassed bust right. Indistinct countermark.
Rev: T VRI ORV M, Temple of Astarte with 6 columns, arch over middle, Astarte within with right hand on trophy being crowned by Nike standing on column on right. Altar at base of steps with palm tree on right and murex shell on left.
27 mm, 12.87 gms

BMC 404
Charles M
1058.jpg
bmc4097 viewsElagabalus
Tyre, Phoenicia

Obv: Laureate cuirassed bust right.
Rev: Dido building Carthage, she stands front looking left, holding a ruler in right hand and scepter in left, before the arched gate of the city; above the gate a mason at work on one of the towers, below a man digging with a pick, murex shell and palms tree in upper fields.
27 mm, 12.07 gms

BMC 409
Charles M
1022.jpg
bmc41310 viewsElagabalus
Tyre, Phoenicia

Obv: [IMP CAES MAV] ANTONINVS AVG, laureate draped and cuirassed bust right, uncertain countermark.
Rev: TVRIORVM, Serpent entwined ovoid baetyl, palm tree to left, murex shell to right.
29 mm, 12.70 gms

BMC 413
Charles M
1405.jpg
bmcxxx-22 viewsElagabalus
Tyre, Phoenicia

Obv: Laureate draped bust right.
Rev: The legend of the founding of Tyre. Palm tree flanked by holy Ambrosial Stones, in exergue hound advancing right finds murex shell.
28 mm, 11.09 gms

BMC-, SNG Cop-, Cf. Rouvier 2411 (for Julia Maesa), CNG E-Sale 375, lot 106 variant, CNG E-Sale 368, lot 292 variant (In both CNG sales hound is advancing left.)
Charles M
1544.jpg
bmcxxx-313 viewsElagabalus
Tyre, Phoenicia

Obv: [IM]P CAES MAV ANTONINVS AVG, laureate and cuirassed bust right, wearing paludamentum .
Rev: Turreted figure of Astarte standing facing within hexastyle temple, placing hand on trophy to left and being crowned by Victory standing on column to right; TVRIORVM below, altar between palm tree and murex shell in exergue.
29 mm, 11.52 gms

BMC-; SNG Cop-; CNG E-Sale 356, lot 391; CNG E-Sale 362, lot 301; CNG E-Sale 378, lot 374; Roma Numismatics Limited, E-SALE 57, Lot 688 (this coin).
Charles M
Bramsen 0546.JPG
Bramsen 0546. Entree a Berlin, 1806.204 viewsObv. Laureate bust right NAPOLEON IMP ET ROI
Rev. The Brandenburg Gate, in ex: L`EMPEREUR ENTRE A BERLIN LE XXVII OCTOBRE MDCCCVI. DENON Dt. * JALEY Ft.

Following the Battles of Jena and Auerstadt the Prussians fled in all directions, hotly pursued by the French. Berlin was abandoned to them and Napoleon entered in triumph. It was here that he issued the famous Berlin decree, banning British goods from his empire, declaring all products from British colonies subject to confiscation.
LordBest
AugustusAgrippa.jpg
Bronze As of Augustus and Agrippa15 viewsA bronze As of Augustus and Agrippa, minted in Nimes Gaul between 10-14 AD. 27 mm, 12.25 g.

Obverse: IMP DIVI F P-P, Back to back heads of Agrippa, in rostral crown, and Augustus, Laureate.

Reverse: COL NEM, Palm tree curving to the left, crocodile right chained below, wreath to left of palm tip with long tie trailing to the right

Attribution: RIC I Augustus 159-160, Cohen 8, PRC 525
chuy1530
Bracelet.jpg
Bronze engraved bracelet75 viewsIntact (Roman?) Bronze engraved bracelet.

Engraved on both sides with the same motif.

Alternating pattern of lines and chevrons starting on both ends. Triangle on both sides with punch marks around and tree or leaf motif within. Leaf with stem (arrow?) on the ends.

Bronze

14.11g

Pannonia

Some original patina remains but entire piece treated with Jax brown patina and then waxed.
1 commentsJay GT4
JCT_Brooklyn_Hebrew_Home_and_Hospital.JPG
Brooklyn Hebrew Home & Hospital for the Aged (Brooklyn, New York)87 viewsWhite metal token, 27 mm., undated.

Obv: BROOKLY HEBREW HOME & HOSPITAL/FOR THE AGED, above Jewish star above, above ברוקלינ ??ש לזקבים (Brooklyn _____ for the Elderly) above row of buildings, above HOWARD & DUMONT/AVENUES/BROOKLYN, N.Y.

Rev: FIFTY CENTS WILL BUY along rim above, ONE/MEAL/FOR in center above wheat ears, AN AGED COUPLE, along rim below, AM.EMB. CO UTICA NY in tiny letters along rim at bottom.

Ref: None known.

Note: Incorporated in 1907 as Brooklyn Ladies’ Home for the Aged, its name changed to Brooklyn Hebrew Home for the Aged in 1913 and to Brooklyn Hebrew Home and Hospital for the Aged in 1918. By then it was already located at 813 Howard Avenue, at the intersection of Howard and Dumont Avenues, in the Brownsville section of Brooklyn. It relocated in 1953 to the former Half Moon Hotel at West 29th Street and the Boardwalk, in the Coney Island section of Brooklyn. In 1968 it changed its name to Metropolitan Jewish Geriatric Center, and currently operates as Metropolitan Jewish Health System Foundation.

Note: Manufactured by the American Emblem Co., Utica, New York.
Stkp
Bruttium_Kaulonia_SNG-ANS185.jpg
Bruttium, Kaulonia.27 viewsBruttium, Kaulonia. 470-440 BC. AR Stater (6.71 gm). Apollo Catharsius advancing r., laurel branch in hand, small figure running on outstretched arm. Stag in r. field, looking back, bucranium (wolf's head) in tree to l. / Stag stdg. r., KAVΛΩΝΙAΤA-N. VF. CNG 55 #71. SNG ANS 185 (same dies); HN Italy Type G 2049; HGC 1 1419var (℞ full legend); Noe Caulonia group G #108-109; SNG Lockett 588 (same dies); SNG Cop 1714.1 commentsChristian T
Byzantine-weight-disk-shape_IB_-AD-Q-035_14x14x3,2mm_3,35g-s.jpg
Byzantine AE weight, B with tree dots (3 scripulum), #35106 viewsByzantine AE weight, B with tree dots (3 scripulum), #35
type: Byzantine AE weight,
size: 14x14x3,2mm,
weight: 3,35g,
date: 5th.-7th. centuries A.D.,
ref: ???
distribution: Byzantine,
Q-035
" its a B with three dots that might represent 3 scripula (3.35 g = 3 scripula of 1.12 g)" by "WileyC" thank you.
quadrans
Sear-864.jpg
Byzantine Empire: Heraclius (610-641 CE) Æ 6 Nummi, Alexandria (Sear-864; DOC 200; MIB 211)19 viewsObv: Large S
Rev: Palm tree with dates


Quant.Geek
Sulpicius~0.jpg
C. Sulpicius C.f. (Galba) - AR denarius serratus9 views³moneyer probably not belonged to the patrician Galba family but to a Plebeian branch
³Sardinia or Massalia region
¹Rome
²103 BC
¹106 BC
2 jugate laureate heads of Dii Penates Publici left
D · P · P
Two soldiers (or Dii Penas Publici) standing facing each other, holding spears and pointing at sow which lies between them
C
C·SV(LP)ICI·C·F
¹Crawford 312/1, RSC I Sulpicia 1, SRCV I 189, Sydenham 572
²Mark Passehl - Roman moneyer & coin type chronology, 150 – 50 BC
³Mark Passehl
3,96g
ex Aurea numismatika

The Sulpicii came from Lavinium and both sides of coin are related to it.

Di Penates Publici were taken from Troy together with Palladium by Aeneas. When Aeneas fled from Troy Helenus, a son of Priamos, has predicted Aeneas, that he would built a new city where a white sow would cast 30 piglets. Aeneas prepared to sacrifice a pregnant white sow he has brought in his ship for this purpose, but the sow escaped and fled 24 stadiums in the inland, layed down under an oak-tree (or ilex-tree) and casted 30 white piglets. Because of that Aeneas knew that this prophecy too became true and he should built a city here. He sacrificed the 30 piglets and erected a shrine at this place. The new city he called Lavinium referring to Lavinia, daughter of king Latinus. The 30 piglets represented 30 years only after which his successors became the real owners of the new land.

At the same time story of white sow predicts foundation of another town:
River god Tiber speak to Aeneas in a dream:
"....
A sow beneath an oak shall lie along,
All white herself, and white her thirty young.
When thirty rolling years have run their race,
Thy son Ascanius, on this empty space,
Shall build a royal town, of lasting fame,
Which from this omen shall receive the name.
..."
Alba Longa was founded just 30 years after Lavinium and so the prophecy was fulfilled here too. The name Alba Longa is said to be derived from the white sow (meaning the long white). So Lavinium was the mothertown of Alba Longa and finely of Rome itself. On the Forum of Lavinium stood a bronze statue of the sow, its body was conserved by the priests in pickle.
(Jochen's coins of mythological interests)
Johny SYSEL
0103.jpg
C. Sulpicius C.f. Galba, Denarius8 viewsC. Sulpicius C.f. Galba, Denarius

RRC 312/1
106 bc

Av: Jugate, laureate heads of Dei Penates l.; before, D P P,
Rv: Two male figures standing facing each other, each holding spear and pointing at sow which lies between them; above, L; in ex., C SVLPICI C [F].

Reverse depicts scene from Aeneid. According to the prophecy, in the place where a white sow casts 30 piglets under an oak tree, a new city shall be built (Lavinium); also, a new city called after the white sow shall be built by Ascanius 30 years later (Alba Longa). (Wikipedia)

Ex Bertolami Fine arts, Auction 24, Numismatics, London, 23.06.2016, #413
Norbert
IMAG1220_1.jpg
Caesarea Maritima mint HERENNIUS ETRUSCUS 250-251 A.D35 viewsHERENNIUS ETRUSCUS 250-251 A.D
Caesarea Maritima mint AE28
OBV:HERENNIUS ETRUSCUS Caesarea Maritima mint AE27
REV:horned altar behind two trees a palm tree and a fig tree on R
COLPFAVFC CAESMETROPO
Maritima
Cara&DomMarkAthena.JPG
Caracalla & Julia Domna, AE 2639 viewsANTWNINOC AVGOVCTOC IOVLIA DOMNA
Confronted busts
VP KVNTILIANOV MARKIANOPOLI/TON
Athena standing left with Corinthian helmet, shield and spear behind, holding wheat ears (patera) and poppies, olive tree (gift to mankind by Athena) entwined by guardian snakes before. In right field, reversed E.
AMNG 669, Varbanov (Eng.) I, 1010
H&J 6.19.4.2
10.03 g.
whitetd49
CaraMarkApolloLyk.JPG
Caracalla, AE 2637 viewsAV K M AVR ANTWNINOC
Bust laureate, draped, cuirassed, right, seen from behind
VI FAVCTINIANOV MAPKIANOPOLI/TWN
Apollo Lykeios standing facing, head right, arm raised over head, holding bow, snake entwined tree to right, garment (chiton) draped over quiver to left.
AMNG Pick 611, Varbanov (Eng.) I, 923
H&J 6.18.7.1
whitetd49
SGCV_6444_Medio_Calco_CARTAGO.jpg
CARTAGO - Nor-África 12 viewsAE 1/2 Calco 15 mm 2.9 gr.

Anv: Cabeza coronada de Tanit a izquierda, vistiendo triple pendiente.
Rev: Caballo estante a derecha, palmera en segundo plano, 3 puntos en formación triangular, en campo derecho.

Tanit fue la diosa más importante de la mitología cartaginesa, la consorte de Baal y patrona de Cartago. Era equivalente a la diosa fenicia Astarté; también fue una deidad bereber. Fue la diosa de Ibiza (Islas Baleares, España). Wikipedia

Acuñada: 325-300 A.C.
Ceca: Cartago - Nor-África

Referencias: Visona #16 - MAA #18f - Sear GCV II #6444 Pag.596 - Jenkins & Lewis #12 Plate.26 - Müller II #163 Pag.95 - SNG Cop #109 - Calciati III #20 - Henzen #384-9
mdelvalle
carthage_bronze.jpg
Carthage23 viewsCarthage, Zeugitana; AE 16, uncertain Sicilian mint, circa 300 BC.
Obverse: Head of Tanit left.
Reverse: Horse standing right, palm-tree behind.
SNGCop 113, Müller 163; 2.66 gm.
b70
carthage_bronze2.jpg
Carthage17 viewsCarthage, Zeugitana; AE 16, uncertain Sicilian mint, circa 300 BC.
Obverse: Head of Tanit left.
Reverse: Horse standing right, palm-tree behind.
SNGCop 113, Müller 163; 16mm, 2.44 gm.
b70
carthage_k.jpg
CARTHAGE15 viewsÆ Unit, 16mm, 2.8g, 5h; Carthage mint, c. 400-350 BC.
Obv.: Wreathed head of Tanit left.
Rev.: Horse standing right; palm tree in background.
Reference: SNG Copenhagen (Africa) 109 / 17-120-128
1 commentsJohn Anthony
Carthage_SNG-Cop132.jpg
Carthage23 viewsCarthage. 4th c. BC. EL ⅒ stater or AR Litre (0.66 gm) of Zeugitania Palm tree / Head and neck of horse r. gVF. SNG Cop. 8 132; Falbe 1829-1832; L Müller Afrique 79; Sear Greek 6461 var.; SNG Cop. 1 (Sicily) 961.
1 commentsChristian T
SICILY_PUNIC_1.jpg
Carthage3 viewsCARTHAGE/SICILY-PUNIC AE20
OBVERSE: Date palm tree with fruit
Rev: Horse head
Struck at Zeugitana, Carthage or Siculo-Punic, 3d-4th Century BC
8.2g, 20mm
SNG Cop-10
Adam P2
Carthage, c300-200 BC.JPG
Carthage, c300-200 BC38 viewsCarthage
AE3 – c. 300-200 BC
Head of Tanit l., wreathed with corn
Horse facing left, palm tree behind
S 6444
Ardatirion
Carthage.jpg
Carthage, Second Punic War (220-215 BC)27 viewsAE Trishekel

29 mm, 18.21 g

Obverse: Head of Tanit left, wearing wreath of grain ears and single-pendant earring

Reverse: Horse standing right; palm tree in background to left.

MAA 84; Müller, Afrique 147; SNG Copenhagen 344.

The Second Punic War formally began when the Carthaginian general Hannibal and his army crossed the Alps in November of 218 BC and descended into Northern Italy. Battles raged on Italian soil for nearly 15 years until Hannibal and what remained of his army sailed for North Africa in the summer or fall of 203 BC. Shown above is a typical example of what would have been a lower-value coin issued by the Carthaginians in the early stages of the war.

Carthage was a Phoenician colony, and as such the Carthaginians were related to the Hebrews and the Canaanites (among others). Culturally they had much in common, including the use of the shekel as the primary unit of money. Likewise, the Carthaginians worshipped a variety of deities from the ancient Middle East. One in particular was the goddess Tanit. A Phoenician (Punic) goddess of war, Tanit was also a virgin mother goddess and a fertility symbol.
2 commentsNathan P
Carthage_2.JPG
Carthage, Zeugitana 45 viewscirca 4th-3rd century BC
AE16 (2.99g)
O: Head of Tanit left, wreathed in corn, wearing earring and necklace; pellet behind.
R: Horse standing right, palm tree in background; pellet at right.
Sear 6444v
1 commentsEnodia
128.JPG
Carthage, Zeugitana24 views310-290 B.C.
Bronze AE17
1.96 gm, 17 mm
Obv.: Head of Tanit left wearing wreath of grain ears, triple drop earrings and necklace
Rev.: Horse right, in front of palm tree
Siculo-Punic, Sicilian Mint?
Sear 6444;
[SNG Cop 109, 117]
Jaimelai
65642p00.jpg
Carthage, Zeugitania Tanit Bronze c. 310-290 B.C.12 viewsBronze AE 17, 2.875g, 16.1mm, 315o, Sicilian mint, c. 310 - 290 B.C.
Obv: Head of Tanit left wearing wreath of grain, earring, and necklace.
Rev: Horse standing right, date palm tree in background behind horse.
Ref: SNG Cop 109 ff., SGCV II 6444.
Choice VF.
mjabrial
thumb_58489p00~0.jpg
Carthage, Zeugitania, North Africa, c. 400 - 350 B.C.12 viewsBronze AE 17, cf. Alexandropoulos 18, SNG Cop 109 ff., Müller Afrique 163, SGCV II 6444, F, 1.606g, 13.9mm, 270o, c. 400 - 350 B.C.; obverse head of Tanit left wearing wreath of grain and pendant necklace; reverse horse standing right, date palm tree behind;MagisterRiggs
20180528_103242.png
Carthage. Carthage circa 400-350 BC. 9 viewsObv. Head of Tanit to left, wearing wreath of grain ears.
Rev. Horse standing right, palm tree in background, three pellets above pellet in right field.
References: MAA 18l; Jenkins & Lewis 13; SNG Copenhagen 118. SEAR 6508-11.
16.1mm and 2.23grams.
As found condition.
Canaan
10250110_10102484189401383_1805500442807347379_n.jpg
Carthaginian Coin19 viewsA bronze coin minted in Carthage or possibly Punic Sicily between 264-241 BC. 16 mm, 2.06 g

Obverse: Head of Tanit left wearing earrings and wreathed in ears of grain

Reverse: Horse standing right, date palm tree behind

Attribution: SNG Copenhagen 109
chuy1530
greekhorse1.jpg
Carthago Horse/Kore178 viewsCarthago - Siclian Mint
Bronze Punic
Ae; 2.86g; 17mm

Head of Kore Left;
Horse standing right, Palm tree behind

SNG Copenhagen 109/113; Acquaro 193/324; Muller II 163
7 commentsarizonarobin
pictones.jpg
Central Gaul. The Pictones. Contoutos Æ16. Circa 50-30 BC.43 viewsObv: Romanized head right; CONTOVTOS.
Rev: Wolf right placing feet on bucranium; tree in background.
1 commentsancientone
MACW-4971.jpg
Chutus of Banavasi: Mulananda (ca. 78-175 CE) Pb Unit (MACW-4971)32 viewsObv: 8-arched hill with river symbol below and Brahmi legend Rajno Mulanamdasa (narrow la variety)
Rev: Tree in simple railing with 4 compartments, with nandipada and swastika at left
SpongeBob
MCSI-34.jpg
Chutus of Banavasi: Mulananda (ca. 78-175 CE) Pb Unit (MCSI-34)37 viewsObv: Eight-arched hill, river below. Brahmi legend around: Rajno Mulanamdasa
Rev: Railed tree within 12-compartment railing, nandipada symbol at right
SpongeBob
claudiopolis_maximiusI_SNGfrance791.jpg
Cilicia, Ninica-Claudiopolis, Maximinus I, SNG Levante Supp. 170 (plate coin)142 viewsMaximinus I AD 235-236
AE 30 mm, 14.59 g
obv. IMP.CAES.SA.IVL.VER.MAXI / MINVS
Bust, draped and cuirassed, bare-headed, r.
behind bust c/m Howgego 338 eagle r., head l.
rev. NINIC COL CLA / VDIOPO / L
She-wolf standing right under Ruminal fig tree, head l., suckling the twins
Remus and Romulus
SNG Levante 618 (same dies); SNG Levante Supp. 170 (this coin); SNG Paris 791 (same dies); SNG von Aulock 5775 (same dies)
Choice EF, nice olive-brown patina, rare this nice.
published on www.wildwinds.com

The fig tree was sanctified to the goddess Rumina. Later the twins were found by the shepherd Faustulus. The rest is well-known!
The legend is in Latin because the city was a Roman colonia. The she-wolf looks a bit like a horse!
6 commentsJochen
tarsos_gordianIII_SNGcop383.jpg
Cilicia, Tarsos, Gordian III, SNG Copenhagen 383 cf.28 viewsGordian III, AD 238-244
AE 35
obv. AVT KAI M ANT GOR[DIANOC CEB]
Bust, draped and cuirassed, seen from behind, radiate, r.
in field l. and r. P - P
rev. TARCOV MHTROPOLEW
Herakles, bearded(?), nude, stg. facing, head l., resting with r. hand on his club, holding
over l. arm the lion-skin and in the outstretched l. hand five apples.; l. beside him a tree
with twigs, entwined by a nake.
in the upper r. field A / G, in the lower l. field M / K
Ref.: cf. SNG Copenhagen 383
very rare, good F/about VF, trace of ancient smoothing process on rev. The coin is in the usual rough state of the coins of Tarsos.

For more information please look at the thread 'Mythological interesting coins'!
Jochen
Cilicia_Satraps_Datames_SNG-France237.jpg
Cilician Satraps, Datames6 viewsDatames, satrap. 370 BC AR Stater (10.06 gm) of Tarsos.  Helmeted Athena seated l. on rocks, holding spear, resting on shield; olive tree to r. / Aphrodite (?) in chiton and wearing peplos around legs, kneeling l., tossing astragaloi; lotus plant to r. Legend: [TEPΣIKON]. gVF.  CNG 72 #837. SNG France 2 237; SNG Levante 64; SNG von Aulock 5915; Casabonne type K1; Traité II/2, 1374, pl. CXXXVII, 3.Christian T
Civil_War_Cannonball~0.jpg
Civil War Cannon Ball133 viewsWeight: Approx. 3 lbs.

Excavated from the Perryville, Kentucky Battlefield - Fought Oct. 8th, 1862.

Confederate Gen. Braxton Bragg's autumn 1862 invasion of Kentucky had reached the outskirts of Louisville and Cincinnati, but he was forced to retreat and regroup. On October 7, the Federal army of Maj. Gen. Don Carlos Buell, numbering nearly 55,000, converged on the small crossroads town of Perryville, Kentucky, in three columns.

Union forces first skirmished with Rebel cavalry on the Springfield Pike before the fighting became more general, on Peters Hill, as the grayclad infantry arrived. The next day, at dawn, fighting began again around Peters Hill as a Union division advanced up the pike, halting just before the Confederate line. The fighting then stopped for a time. After noon, a Confederate division struck the Union left flank and forced it to fall back.

When more Confederate divisions joined the fray, the Union line made a stubborn stand, counter attacked, but finally fell back with some troops routed. Buell did not know of the happenings on the field, or he would have sent forward some reserves. Even so, the Union troops on the left flank, reinforced by two brigades, stabilized their line, and the Rebel attack sputtered to a halt.

Later, a Rebel brigade assaulted the Union division on the Springfield Pike but was repulsed and fell back into Perryville. The Yankees pursued, and skirmishing occurred in the streets in the evening before dark. Union reinforcements were threatening the Rebel left flank by now. Bragg, short of men and supplies, withdrew during the night, and, after pausing at Harrodsburg, continued the Confederate retrograde by way of Cumberland Gap into East Tennessee. The Confederate offensive was over, and the Union controlled Kentucky.

Result(s): Union strategic victory

Location: Boyle County

Campaign: Confederate Heartland Offensive (1862)

Date(s): October 8, 1862

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. Don Carlos Buell [US]; Gen. Braxton Bragg [CS]

Forces Engaged: Army of the Ohio [US]; Army of the Mississippi [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 7,407 total (US 4,211; CS 3,196)
1 commentsNoah
Civil_Wars_RIC_121.jpg
Civil Wars of 68-69 Clasped Hands71 viewsCivil Wars of 68-69 AD AR denarius. 3.49 g. Minted by pro-Vitellian forces in Southern Gaul.
O: FIDES EXERCITVVM, two clasped hands.
R: FIDES PRAETORIANORVM, two clasped hands.
-BMC 65; Martin 7; RIC² 121 (Group IV) , Ex Jonathan P. Rosen, Ex Auktion Myers/Adams 7, New York 1974, Nr. 269.

The message of a unified fidelity, or loyalty, of the 'armies' (FIDES EXERCITVVM) and the praetorians (FIDES PRAETORIANORVM) would only be an effective propaganda tool if it was distributed among the praetorians.

David R Sear, writing in RCV, agrees with Kraay (Num. Chron 1949, pp 78.) that this interesting, anonymous civil war issue was produced on behalf of Vitellius, to be used as 'bribe money' to suborn the soldiers, as well as the Praetorian Guard, loyal to Otho in the capital. "In March 69 AD, Vitellian commander Fabius Valens entered Italy from Southern Gaul at the head of a small band of secret agents. Their mission was to infiltrate the capital, especially the ranks of the Praetorians, with the object of disseminating pro-Vitellian propaganda and dissociating the guards from their allegiance to Otho. These coins, struck in advance in Southern Gaul, would thus have played a vital role as 'bribe money'. Despite these covert activities, the Praetorians remained loyal to their Emperor, though all was to be for naught, as the following month, the invading army of Vitellius was victorious at the battle of Bedriacum, and Otho took his own life" - David R Sear

Here is the ad from the New york times December 1, 1974 page 208, advertising the Myers/Adams auction 7:
Several thousand foreign coin collectors are expected here next weekend for the biggest event on their winter calendar, the third annual New York International Numismatic Convention. The three‐day show will be held in the Albert Hall of the Americana Hotel, Seventh Avenue between 52d and 53rd Streets. It will open at 11 A.M. on Friday, with the exhibit area and the dealer bourse to remain open till 8 P.M. On Saturday the hours are 10 A.M. to 8 P.M., and on Sunday from 11 A.M. to 6 P.M. There will be an admission charge of 50 cents, for which a badge will be issued that will be good for all three days.
As its title indicates, the show emphasizes foreign numismatics to the point of almost excluding U.S. material. This holds true in exhibits as well as in the bourse and throughout the convention program. All of the exhibits are, again, invitational—noncompetitive—and were selected to assure representation of a wide range of international numismatic interests.

One symbol of the convention's success is that the, number of exhibitors and dealers has grown each year. This year there will be 67 bourse tables, roughly a quarter of them occupied by dealers from Europe and Canada; the remainder will be taken by leading U.S. dealers who have established reputations as specialists in ancient and foreign coins.
The convention will have two auctions, both described in some detail in this column a couple of weeks ago. The first, a “prologue” to the convention, will he the Myers/ Adams auction of ancient Greek and Roman coins at 7 P.M. on Thursday. The second, a two‐session sale of foreign coins and paper money, will be conducted by Henry Christensen, Inc., at 7 P.M. on Friday and 1:30 P.M. on Saturday.
3 commentsNemonater
commodus1.jpg
Commodus 88 viewsObverse: L AEL AVREL COMM AVG P FEL Commodus Laureate head right
Reverse: PROVIDENTIAE AVG Commodus, as Hercules, standing right with foot on prow, resting club on tree trunk and holding thunderbolt, clasping hands with Africa who wears elephant-skin headdress and stands right holding sistrum; to her feet, a lion
Mint : Rome
Date : AD 191-192
Reference : RIC III 259a; MIR 18, 861-4/30; RSC 643
Grade : Good VF
Weight : 3.48 g
Denom : Denarius
Metal : Silver
Comments : The elements comprising this reverse type portray a personified Africa and the emperor Commodus as Hercules and represent the African fleet of corn transports as Africa was the granary of Rome. 16mm
Bolayi
Commodus.jpg
Commodus - Hercluea and Africa52 viewsObverse: L AEL AVREL COMM AVG P FEL - Laureate head Commodus right
Reverse: PROVIDENTIAE AVG - Hercules standing left, foot on prow, resting club on a tree trunk behind and holding thunderbolt while clasping hands with Africa, who stands right, wearing elephant skin and holding sistrum; lion at her feet
Mint : Rome
Date : AD 191-192
Reference : RIC III, p. 396, 259a Rare; Cohen 643
Grade : aVF
Weight : 3.04g
Denom : Denarius
Metal : Silver
Acquired: 03/04/04

Comments : Issued c.192 A.D., to mark the establishment of a fleet of ships to bring North African grain to Rome which he renamed the Commodiana Herculea, and Commodus' foresight (PROVIDENTIAE AVG) in doing so. The ship's prow makes reference to the role of Rome's overseas provinces, in feeding the capital.
Bolayi
Commodus_RIC_259a.JPG
Commodus, 177 - 193 AD28 viewsObv: L AEL AVREL (COMM) AVG P FEL, laureate head of Commodus facing right.

Rev: PROVIDENTIAE AVG, Commodus dressed as Hercules, standing front, head left, naked, foot on prow, resting a club on a tree-trunk, clasping hands over corn-ears with Africa, who stands before him facing right, she wears an elephant's skin headdress and holds a sistrum, lion at her feet.

Note: Refers to the foresight of the emperor in reorganizing the North African grain fleet that was renamed Commodiana Herculea.

Silver Denarius, Rome mint, 192 AD

2.6 grams, 18 mm, 180°

RIC III 259a, RSC 643, S5687, VM 90
1 commentsSPQR Coins
commodospan.jpg
Commodus, Mar. or Apr. 177 to Dec. 192 AD, Rome mint.44 viewsOrichalcum sestertius, RIC III 472, Sear RCV 5800 weight 14.9 g, max. diameter 27.3 mm, Rome mint, 186 A.D.; Obv. M COMMODVS ANT P FELIX AVG BRIT, laureate head right; Rev.SAEC FEL P M TR P XI IMP COS V P P S C, Victory stg. right, attatching shield, inscribed VO/DE, to palm tree. Some black and pink encrustation. Small square flan.

Ex. Connie's Coins
1 commentsSteve E
Commodus_PrusaAdOlympum_AE22_7_85g.jpg
Commodus, Prusa ad Olympum, Apollo Sauroktonos, AE2238 viewsAE22, 7.85g
Λ AI ΑΥΡΗΛΙ ΚΟΜΟΔΟΣ; laureate head right
ΠΡΟΥΣΑΕΩΝ; Apollo Sauroktonos standing right, holding bow in extended right hand. left resting on small tree

the 'small tree' doesn't look anything like a tree here
1 commentsareich
commse19.JPG
Commodus, RIC 641, Sestertius of AD 192 (Providentiae)37 viewsÆ Sestertius (26.15g, Ø30mm, 12h). Rome mint. Struck AD 192.
Obv.: L·AEL·AVREL·CO-MM·AVG·P·FEL, laureate head right.
Rev.: P M TR P X IMP VII COS IIII (around) S C (in ex.), Commodus as Hercules, naked, standing left, foot on prow, holding club left resting on tree trunk or rock(s), receiving corn-ears from Africa, standing right, togate, wearing elephant-skin head-dress, holding sistrum (brass rattle, an Egyptian musical instrument) in left, lion at her feet.

RIC 641 (R); Cohen 644 (15fr.); BMC 718; Sear 5796

During the last year of his reign, the megalomania of Commodus reached insane levels. He renamed many things of importance after himself including the twelve months year, even the city Rome, the citizens of Rome, the Senate and so on. This issue marks the renaming of the African grain fleet to "Commodiana Herculea"

ex cgb.fr (2014); ex Alessandra Brunetti (London, 2010); ex coll. Prof. M. Caselli.
2 commentsCharles S
0160-310np_noir.jpg
Commodus, Sestertius - *138 viewsMinted in Rome, AD 192
L AEL AVREL CO---MM AVG P FEL, Laureate head of Commodus right
HERCVLI ROMANO AVG, Hercules facing, head left, holding club and lion's skin, resting on trophy. SC in field
21,01 gr
Ref : RCV #5752, Cohen #203, BMC # 314. RIC # 640.

This is the very first roman coin I have ever possessed, gift from my grand father who found it digging a trench at Verdun battle during WWI

The following comment is taken from the description of a similar example (in far much better condition) in NAC auction 54, # 477 :
Few Roman coins excite as much commentary as those of Commodus, which show him possessed of Hercules. Not only do they present an extraordinary image, but they offer incontrovertible support to the literary record. The reports of Commodus’ megalomania and infatuation with Hercules are so alarming and fanciful that if the numismatic record was not there to confirm, modern historians would almost certainly regard the literary record as an absurd version of affairs, much in the way reports of Tiberius’ depraved behaviour on Capri are considered to be callous exaggerations. Faced with such rich and diverse evidence, there can be no question that late in his life Commodus believed that Hercules was his divine patron. Indeed, he worshipped the demigod so intensely that he renamed the month of September after him, and he eventually came to believe himself to be an incarnation of the mythological hero. By tradition, Hercules had fashioned his knotted club from a wild olive tree that he tore from the soil of Mount Helicon and subsequently used to kill the lion of Cithaeron when he was only 18 years old. Probably the most familiar account of his bow and arrows was his shooting of the Stymphalian birds while fulfilling his sixth labour. The reverse inscription HERCVLI ROMANO AVG (‘to the August Roman Hercules’) makes the coin all the more interesting, especially when put into context with those of contemporary coins inscribed HERCVLI COMMODO AVG, which amounts to a dedication ‘to Hercules Commodus Augustus’.
1 commentsPotator II
Commodus_Sestertius_RIC_472.JPG
Commodus_Sestertius_RIC_47248 viewsCommodus Sestertius, 186 AD, Rome mint
Obverse: M COMMODVS ANT P FELIX AVG BRIT, Laureate head right.
Reverse: SAEC FEL PM TRP XI IMP VII COS V PP / SC. Victory standing right inscribing VO/DE on a shield, which rests on a palm tree.
RIC 472 (Rare) Cohen 670
29mm, 21.6gm.
Jerome Holderman
ASIS_TREE.JPG
Constans29 viewsConstans - Siscia Mint - Officina 1 - AE3 - RIC VIII 195

O: CONSTANS P F AVG, rosette-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right

R: VICTORIAE DD AVGGQ NN , two victories facing one another, each holding a wreath and palm frond, palm in center, ASIS in exergue

1.3g, 15.8/16.8mm, 180 degree die axis, 347-348AD
1 commentsBiancasDad
Constans_RIC_VIII_Nicomedia_70_neu.jpg
Constans 44 viewsAE2 (5.3g - 22mm)
obv. D N CONSTANS P F AVG
pearl diademed, draped and cuirassed bust left, globe in right
rev. FEL TEMP REPARATIO
Soldier leading barbarian from hut under tree
ex. SMNA
mint Nicomedia
RIC VIII Nicomedia 70
HG
hut.jpg
Constans19 views337-350 A.D.
AE2, Billon centenionalis
Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust left, holding globe in right hand
3.80 gm, 21 mm
D N CONSTA-NS P F AVG
FEL TEMP REPA-RATIO
Helmeted soldier, spear in left hand, advancing right, head left; with his right hand he leads a small bare-headed figure from a hut beneath a tree. The spear points downwards, between the soldier's legs. Hut 2 type
SMNA in ex.
RIC VIII Nicomedia 70
Nicomedia mint, officina 1; 348-351 A.D.
Jaimelai
Constans.jpg
Constans46 viewsDN CONSTANS PF AVG
Pearl-diademed, draped, cuirassed bust left, globe in right hand.

FEL TEMP REPARATIO
Helmeted soldier, spear in left hand, advancing right, head left; with his right hand he leads a small bare-headed figure from a hut beneath a tree. The spear points up and to the right
SLG in exergue

Lyons

20 mm, 2.95g

RIC VIII 86

Sold Forum Auctions March 2016
1 commentsJay GT4
001104_l.jpg
Constans21 viewsAE Cententionalis (20 mm, 3.33 g), Lugdunum (Lyon), 348-350 AD.
Obv. D N CONSTANS P F AVG, diademed, draped and cuirassed bust left, globe in right hand.
Rev. FEL TEMP REPARATIO, emperor with advancing right, head turned to left, leading barbarian out of hut beneath a tree.
Ex. SLG.
RIC VIII, p. 182, 84.

Light green patina.
1 commentsTLP
Constans_centenionalis.jpg
Constans (r. 337-350 AD; Caesar 333-337 AD) - billon centenionalis - Constantinople43 viewsObv: D N CONSTA-NS P F AVG - Pearl-diademed, draped, cuirassed bust left, globe in right hand
Rev: FEL TEMP REPA-RATIO - Helmeted soldier, spear in left hand, advancing right, head left; with his right hand he leads a small bare-headed figure from a hut beneath a tree. The spear points downwards, between the soldier's legs
Field Mark: Γ in upper left field
Exergue: CONSI*

Mint of Constantinople, officina 10, struck between 348-351 AD
References: RIC VIII Constantinople 92 (C)
Weight: 4.26 g
Dimensions: 20 x 22 mm
1 commentskrazy
00562.jpg
Constans (RIC 103, Coin #562)12 viewsConstans, RIC 103, AE2, Aquileia, 348 - 350 AD.
Obv: D N CONSTANS P F AVG Pearl-diademed, draped
and cuirassed bust left, globe in right.
Rev: FEL TEMP REPARATIO (AQT dot) Helmeted soldier, leading
barbarian with right hand from hut under tree, spear in left.
Size: 22.8mm 4.54g.
MaynardGee
00524.jpg
Constans (RIC 79, Coin #524)8 viewsRIC 79 (C), AE2, Cyzicus, 348 - 350 AD.
OBV: D N CONSTANS P F AVG; Pearl diademed, draped and cuirassed bust left holding globe.
REV: FEL TEMP REPARATIO (star SMK gamma); Constans walking right, looking back, leading barbarian from hut under tree and holding spear.
SIZE: 21.1mm 2.82g
MaynardGee
00186.jpg
Constans (RIC 88, Coin #186)10 viewsRIC 88 (C), AE2, Constantinople, 348-351 AD.
OBV: D N CONSTANS P F AVG; Pearl diasdemed, draped & cuirassed bust left. Holding globe.
REV: FEL TEMP REPARATIO (CONSI star); Soldier dragging young barbarian from hut tree.
SIZE: 23.3mm 3.16g
MaynardGee
321_Constans_TESG.jpg
Constans - AE 2 centionalis4 viewsThessalonica
348-350 AD
pearl-diademed cuirassed draped bust left, globe in hand
D N CONSTA_NS P F AVG
helmeted soldier advancing right, head left, holding inverted spear and dragging small bare-headed figure from a hut beneath tree, 3 branches on tree
FEL TEMP REPAR_ATIO
TESΓ
RIC VIII Thessalonica 118
3,83g
Johny SYSEL
Constans - FTR1.jpg
Constans - Constantinople70 viewsAE2/3 Centenionalis, 4.17 g, 21 mm, 12 h, 348-351 AD

Obverse: D N CONSTA-NS P F AVG
Pearl-diademed, draped, cuirassed bust left, holding globe with right hand

Reverse: FEL TEMP REPA-RATIO
Helmeted soldier, head left, spear in left hand, advancing right; with right hand, leading small bare-headed figure from hut beneath tree. Spear points downwards between soldier's legs.

Exergue: CONSIH*

Constantinople mint

RIC VIII 88
1 commentsdrjbca
Constans - FTR2.jpg
Constans - Heraclea46 viewsAE2 Centenionalis, 4.44 g, 23 mm, 12 h, 348-351 AD

Obverse: D N CONSTA-NS P F AVG
Pearl-diademed, draped, cuirassed bust left, holding globe with right hand

Reverse: FEL TEMP REPA-RATIO
Helmeted soldier, head left, spear in left hand, advancing right; with right hand, leading small bare-headed figure from hut beneath tree. Spear points downwards between soldier's legs. */-/-

Exergue: SMHΔ

Heraclea mint

RIC VIII 74
drjbca
Constans2_opt.jpg
CONSTANS AE Centenionalis RIC VIII 72, FELTEMP REPARATIO17 viewsOBV: D N CONSTA-NS P F AVG, Pearl-diademed, draped, cuirassed bust left, globe in right hand
REV: FEL TEMP REPA-RATIO, Helmeted soldier, spear in left hand, advancing right, head left; with his right hand he leads a small bare-headed figure from a hut beneath a tree. The spear points downwards, between the soldier's legs., Star in upper left field, SMNA in ex.
3.8g, 20mm

Minted at Nicomedia
Legatus
Constans_10_opt.jpg
CONSTANS AE Centenionalis RIC VIII 72, FELTEMP REPARATIO12 viewsOBV: D N CONSTA-NS P F AVG, Pearl-diademed, draped, cuirassed bust left, globe in right hand.
REV: FEL TEMP REPA-RATIO, Helmeted soldier, spear in left hand, advancing right, head left; with his right hand he leads a small bare-headed figure from a hut beneath a tree. The spear points downwards, between the soldier's legs., Star in upper left field, SMNA in ex.
3.9g, 20mm

Minted at Nicomedia
Legatus
P1018832.JPG
Constans AE Centenionalis. Antioch mint. 20mm6 viewsConstans AE Centenionalis. 348-350. Antioch mint.

Obv. DN CONSTANS P F AVG . Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust left, holding globe.

Rev. FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Helmeted soldier, spear in left hand, advancing right, head turned to left. With his right hand he is leading a small bare-headed figure from a hut beneath a tree. The spear points downwards, between the soldier's legs, star in left field, ANQ in ex.

Ref. RIC VIII 128
Lee S
Constans15_opt.jpg
CONSTANS AE2 RIC VIII 126, Fel Temp Reparatio28 viewsOBV: D N CONSTA-NS P F AVG, Pearl-diademed, draped, cuirassed bust left, globe in right hand
REV: FEL TEMP REPA-RATIO, Helmeted soldier, spear in left hand, advancing right, head left; with his right hand he leads a small bare-headed figure from a hut beneath a tree. The spear points downwards, between the soldier's legs. ANGamma in ex

Minted at Antioch, 348-50 AD
Legatus
Constans_Hut1.jpg
Constans Centenionalis30 viewsOBV: DN CONSTA-NS PF AVG,
pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed bust left, holding globe
REV: FEL TEMP REPA-RATIO, helmeted soldier, spear in left hand,
advancing right, head left. With his right hand he is leading
a small bare-headed child from a hut beneath a tree. The
spear points downwards, between the soldier's legs.
Mintmark R star epsilon.
4.02 grams 19 mm
RIC VIII Rome 140.
3 commentsgoldenancients
image~2.jpeg
Constans Centenionalis Fel Temp Reparatio hut39 viewsAE Centenionalis
Constans, 337-350 CE
Diameter: 19 mm, Weight: 4.20 grams, Die axis: 6h

Obverse: D N CONSTANS PF AVG
Diadem, draped, and cuirassed bust to left, holding globe.

Reverse: FEL TEMP REPARATIO
Helmeted soldier advancing right, leading small child from hut beneath tree.

Mint: CONSЄ*: Constantinopolis

Notes:
- This coin depicts a small figure with quite foreign features, for example the upright hair. This depiction is quite common, particularly to some Eastern mints, as noted on Bill Welch's excellent hut site. This is why the small figure is sometimes described as a 'barbarian'. However there are plenty of other plausible interpretations.
- ‘FELix TEMPorvm REPARATIO’ = Happy times restored.
- This type was issued at 13 different mints, each using a different tree, shrub or plant.

Ex Bill Welch hut collection eBay UK 2016, eBay 2006
1 commentsPharsalos
Constans_Fel_Temp_Cyzicus_2.jpg
Constans Centenionalis Fel Temp Reparatio Hut Cyzicus62 viewsAE Centenionalis
Constans, 337-350 CE
Diameter: 21 mm, Weight: 4.20 grams, Die axis: 7h

Obverse: D N CONSTANS PF AVG
Diadem, draped, and cuirassed bust to left, holding globe.

Reverse: FEL TEMP REPARATIO
Helmeted and caped Soldier advancing right, dragging small child from hut beneath tree.

Mint: SMKA: Cyzicus

Notes:
- Exceptional strike and style for type; note the graded pearls on the diadem and the beautifully engraved cape over the soldier’s shoulder.
- ‘FELix TEMPorvm REPARATIO’ = Happy times restored.
- This type was issued at 13 different mints, each using a different tree, shrub or plant.

Ex Victor’s Imperial Coins, 2014
3 commentsPharsalos
Constans_FT_reparatio_RIC_118.JPG
Constans FT Reparatio RIC 11832 viewsConstans, Thessalonica, 21mm, 4.4g, 148 - 350 AD, RIC VIII Thessalonica 118
OBV: DN CONSTANS PF AVG, pearl-diadem, draped & cuirassed bust left, holding globe
REV: FEL TEMP REPARATIO, helmeted soldier advancing right, head left,
holding inverted spear & dragging small bare-headed figure from a hut beneath tree,
3 branches on tree ending in one large circular pod each. TESE in ex.
Romanorvm
CONSTNS-23.jpg
Constans RIC VIII 12815 viewsObv: D N CONSTANS P F AVG
diademed, draped & cuirassed bust left, holding globe
Rev: FEL TEMP REPARATIO
Helmeted soldier, spear in left hand, advancing right, head turned to left. With his right hand he is leading a small bare-headed figure from a hut beneath a tree.
AN Theta in ex
21mm 3.8gm
OWL365
CONSTNS-27.jpg
Constans RIC VIII 8812 viewsObv: D N CONSTANS P F AVG
diademed, draped & cuirassed bust left, holding globe
Rev: FEL TEMP REPARATIO
Helmeted soldier, spear in left hand, advancing right, head turned to left. With his right hand he is leading a small bare-headed figure from a hut beneath a tree.
CONSB star in ex
20mm 2.3gm
OWL365
Constans_RIC_VIII_Trier_221.jpg
Constans RIC VIII Trier 22131 viewsAE (21mm - 3.8g)
obv. DN CONSTANS PF AVG
pearl diademed, draped bust left , glob in right hand
rev. FEL TEMP REPARATIO
Soldier leading barbarian from hut under tree
ex. TRS
mint Trier
RIC VIII Trier 221
HG
hut_k.jpg
Constans, AD 337-35023 viewsAE Follis, 20mm, 3.0g, 6h; Nicomedia mint, 2nd officina, AD 348-351
Obv.: D N CONSTANS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust left, holding globe in right.
Rev.: FEL TEMP REPARATIO; Helmeted soldier, spear in left hand, advancing right, head turned to left; with his right hand he leads a small bare-headed figure from a hut beneath a tree. The spear points downward, between the soldier’s legs // SMNB
Reference: RIC VIII Nicomedia 72, p. 476
From the YOC Collection
1 commentsJohn Anthony
constans_hut_rome_k.jpg
Constans, AD 337-35010 viewsÆ Centenionalis, 22/19mm, 4.6g, 6h; Rome AD 348-350
Obv.: DN CONSTA-NS PF AVG; Rosette-diademed, draped, cuirassed bust left, globe in right hand.
Rev.: FEL TEMP REPA-RATIO; Helmeted soldier advancing right, spear in left hand pointing downward between his legs, leading captive with right hand from hut beneath tree // R star T
Reference: RIC VIII 140, p. 258
From the YOC Collection / 16-430-61
John Anthony
constans_~0.jpg
Constans, AE2, Antioch. AD 348-350.18 viewsDN CONSTA-NS PF AVG, Pearl-diademed, draped, cuirassed bust left, holding globe / FEL TEMP REPA-RATIO, Helmeted soldier, spear in left hand, walking right, looking left; leading a small bare-headed figure from a hut beneath a tree with branches like sprays of millet. The spear points downwards, between the soldier's legs. Star in upper centre. Mintmark AN&Delta. RIC VIII Antioch 128; Sear 18700.1 commentsBritanikus
CONSTNS-8-ROMAN~0.jpg
Constans, Nicomedia RIC VIII-072(A)15 viewsAE2
Nicomedia mint, 348-350 A.D.
20mm, 3.22g
RIC VIII-72

Obverse:
D N CONSTANS P F AVG
Pearl-diademed, draped, and cuirassed, globe in right hand, bust left.

Reverse:
FEL TEMP REPARATIO
* in left field.
SMNA
Helmeted soldier, spear in left hand, advancing right, head turned to left; with his right hand he leads a small bare-headed figure from a hut beneath a tree. The spear points downwards, between the soldiers legs.
rubadub
Constans_RIC_118.JPG
Constans, RIC 11811 viewsDN CONSTANS PF AVG
FEL TEMP REPARATIO
AE2, 23mm, 4.74g
Pearl diadem, draped & cuirassed bust left, holding globe
Helmeted soldier advancing right holding inverted spear drags small bare-headed figure from a hut beneath tree, 3 branches ending in circular pod
TESΓ
novacystis
constans_const_86.jpg
Constans, RIC VIII, Constantinopolis 8640 viewsConstans, AD 337-350, son of Constantine I
AE - Centenionalis, 4.20g, 21mm
Constantinopolis, AD 346-350
obv. DN CONSTA - NS PF AVG
Bust, draped, with necklace, pearldiadem, l., holding globe in l. hand
rev. FEL TEMP REPA - RATIO
Soldier in military cloak, advancing r., looking l., holding transverted spear in l. hand, leading young
barbarian in military cloak and wearing crown(?) from reed hut, behind bended tree.
in ex. CONS[?]
ref. RIC VIII, Constantinopolis 86; C.18; LRBC 2012

The rev. alludes to the fact that under Constans Franks were led over the Rhine and settled in Toxandria (todays Belgium) as armed farmers to secure the frontier.
1 commentsJochen
constans_cyzicus72.jpg
Constans, RIC VIII, Cyzicus 7285 viewsConstans AD 337-335, son of Constantine I
AE - Bronze centenionalis, 4.09g, 21.7mm
Cyzicus 2nd officina, AD 348-350
Av. DN CONSTA - NS PF AVG
pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust l., holding globe in r. hand
Rv. FEL TEMP REPA - RATIO
Soldier right leading barbarian from hut under tree
ex. SMKB
RIC VIII, Cyzikus 72
Choice EF, nice patina!; ex J. Aiello coll.
From Forum Ancient Coins, thanks!

I couldn't resist the impressive portrait!
Jochen
constans_heraclea_64.jpg
Constans, RIC VIII, Heraclea 6431 viewsConstans, AD 337-350, son of Constantine I
AE 2 (centenionalis), 4.29g, 22.50mm
Heraclea, 2nd group, 1st series, AD 348-351
obv. DN CONSTA - NS PF AVG
Bust, draped and cuirassed, pearl-diademed, l., globe in r. hand
rev. FEL TEMP REPA - RATIO
Soldier in military dress, holding reversed spear in l. hand, leading with r. hand young barbarian out off
a hut, stg. l. under a bended tree with leaves; the barbarian, nude(?) with thick curly hair, holds in his l.
hand an unknown object (rod? idol?)
in ex. SMH
ref. RIC VIII, Heraclea 64
R!, about VF

For more information about this type look at the website of moonmoth!
1 commentsJochen
constantineI_trier_305.jpg
Constantine I, RIC VII, Trier 30511 viewsConstantine I, the Great, AD 307-377
AE - Follis (AE 3), 3.17g, 19.45mm, 180°
Trier, 1st officina, AD 321
obv. CONSTAN - TINVS AVG
Bust, with consulare mantle (trabea) and eagle-tipped sceptre in r. hand, laureate, r.
rev. BEATA TRAN - QVILLITAS
Great altar inscribed with VO / TIS / XX in three lines, above globe and three stars. Globe decorated with four vertical lines and a horizontal ladder-like band.
ex. PTR
RIC VII, Trier 305
about EF

From the Langtoft hoard, buried c. AD 325 near a street running through Langtoft/Yorkshire, discovered 24. Sept 2000, containing 924 coins, mostly reduced folles from the Constantinian family.
Jochen
Constantine II- Virtvs Avgvsti.jpg
Constantine II- Virtvs Avgvsti73 viewsConstantine II , 22 May 337 - March or April 340 A.D.

Obverse:
Laureate, cuirassed bust right.

VICCONSTANTINVSAVG

VIC: The conqueror
CONSTANTINVS: Constantine
AVG: Augustus, emperor


Reverse:
VIRTVSAVGVSTI, The braveness of the emperor

VIRTVS: Braveness
AVGVSTI: The emperor

Constantine II standing, facing, holding spear and resting hand on shield.

Domination: Bronze, size 13 mm

Exe: RP, mint Rome 337-340, 1 st. officina
RIC VIII Rome 4. the exergue is R leaf (probably P) rated as common and it was issued between 9 Sept 337- April 340

The P stands for the officina (P is "prima" or first officina) The leaf stands for nothing more (that I know of) than the Romans penchant for using marks from nature. Lots of marks from nature are employed...leafs, branches, trees etc. Of course there is liable to be plenty of symbolism that we do not recognize.

Additional information:
http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/comm/comm.html
Though RIC calls them common, they're a) not common and b) mostly struck so poorly on wretched little flans that they're hard to read and attribute. Your piece, despite the hardly legible exergue, is well above average!
John Schou
w4~0.JPG
Constantinople CONSS66 viewsConstantine had altogether more ambitious plans. Having restored the unity of the empire, now overseeing the progress of major governmental reforms and sponsoring the consolidation of the Christian church, Constantine was well aware that Rome had become an unsatisfactory capital for several reasons. Located in central Italy, Rome lay too far from the eastern imperial frontiers, and hence also from the legions and the Imperial courts. Moreover, Rome offered an undesirable playground for disaffected politicians; it also suffered regularly from flooding and from malaria.

It seemed impossible to many that the capital could be moved. Nevertheless, Constantine identified the site of Byzantium as the correct place: a city where an emperor could sit, readily defended, with easy access to the Danube or the Euphrates frontiers, his court supplied from the rich gardens and sophisticated workshops of Roman Asia, his treasuries filled by the wealthiest provinces of the empire.

Constantine laid out the expanded city, dividing it into 14 regions, and ornamenting it with great public works worthy of a great imperial city. Yet initially Constantinople did not have all the dignities of Rome, possessing a proconsul, rather than a prefect of the city. Furthermore, it had no praetors, tribunes or quaestors. Although Constantinople did have senators, they held the title clarus, not clarissimus, like those of Rome. Constantinople also lacked the panoply of other administrative offices regulating the food supply, police, statues, temples, sewers, aqueducts or other public works. The new program of building was carried out in great haste: columns, marbles, doors and tiles were taken wholesale from the temples of the empire and moved to the new city. Similarly, many of the greatest works of Greek and Roman art were soon to be seen in its squares and streets. The emperor stimulated private building by promising householders gifts of land from the imperial estates in Asiana and Pontica, and on 18 May 332 he announced that, as in Rome, free distributions of food would be made to citizens. At the time the amount is said to have been 80,000 rations a day, doled out from 117 distribution points around the city.

Constantinople was a Greek Orthodox Christian city, lying in the most Christianised part of the Empire. Justinian ordered the pagan temples of Byzantium to be deconstructed, and erected the splendid Church of the Holy Wisdom, Sancta Sophia (also known as Hagia Sophia in Greek), as the centrepiece of his Christian capital. He oversaw also the building of the Church of the Holy Apostles, and that of Hagia Irene.

Constantine laid out anew the square at the middle of old Byzantium, naming it the Augusteum. Sancta Sophia lay on the north side of the Augusteum. The new senate-house (or Curia) was housed in a basilica on the east side. On the south side of the great square was erected the Great Palace of the emperor with its imposing entrance, the Chalke, and its ceremonial suite known as the Palace of Daphne. Located immediately nearby was the vast Hippodrome for chariot-races, seating over 80,000 spectators, and the Baths of Zeuxippus (both originally built in the time of Septimius Severus). At the entrance at the western end of the Augusteum was the Milion, a vaulted monument from which distances were measured across the Eastern Empire.

From the Augusteum a great street, the Mese, led, lined with colonnades. As it descended the First Hill of the city and climbed the Second Hill, it passed on the left the Praetorium or law-court. Then it passed through the oval Forum of Constantine where there was a second senate-house, then on and through the Forum of Taurus and then the Forum of Bous, and finally up the Sixth Hill and through to the Golden Gate on the Propontis. The Mese would be seven Roman miles long to the Golden Gate of the Walls of Theodosius.

Constantine erected a high column in the middle of the Forum, on the Second Hill, with a statue of himself at the top, crowned with a halo of seven rays and looking towards the rising sun.

RIC VII Constantinople 61 C1
ecoli
4808_4809.jpg
Constantinopolis City Commemorative, AE3, NO LEGEND; Victory Standing Left, Stepping on Galley Prow9 viewsAE3
Constantinopolis City Commemorative
Issued: 335AD
19.0 x 18.0mm 2.50gr
O: CONSTAN-TINOPOLIS; Constantinopolis helmeted, laureate bust left, holding scepter over shoulder.
R: NO LEGEND; Victory standing left, stepping on galley prow, cradling scepter and resting hand on a shield.
Exergue: Tree, left field; SCONST, below line.
Arelate Mint
Aorta: 109: B3, O2, R9, T12, M4.
RIC VII Arles 393
2/19/17
Nicholas Z
Constans_AE-2-Follis_DN-CONSTA-NS-PF-AVG-Cn8-G3L_FEL-TEMP-REPAR-ATIO_CONS-A_RIC-VIII-86-p454_348-351-AD_Q-001_0h_22-23,5mm_3,38g-s.jpg
Constantinopolis, RIC VIII 086, 146 Constans (333-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-350 A.D. Augustus), AE-2 Follis, -/-//CONSA, FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Soldier leading captive from hut, 70 viewsConstantinopolis, RIC VIII 086, 146 Constans (333-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-350 A.D. Augustus), AE-2 Follis, -/-//CONSA, FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Soldier leading captive from hut,
avers:- DN-CONSTA-NS-PF-AVG, Cn8, G3L, Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust left, holding globe.
revers:- FEL-TEMP-REPAR-ATIO, Constans advancing right, dragging barbarian from hut under tree.
exergo: -/-//CONSA, diameter: 22-23,5mm, weight: 3,38g, axis: 0h,
mint: Constantinopolis, date: 348-351 AD.,ref: RIC-VIII-086-p454,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
00324q00.jpg
Constantius Chlorus7 viewsAE-Antoninianus
FL VAL CONSTANTIVS NOB C; Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust to right.
VIRTVS AVGG; Hercules in the garden on the Hesperides, holding club and apple, standing r. under apple tree around which a serpent is entwined.
Ex: XXIT
Ticinum
RIC 670
Julianus of Pannonia
20+.jpg
Constantius II41 viewsConstantius II AE3. 348-350 AD. D N CONSTANTIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped bust left, holding globe / FEL TEMP REPARATIO, helmeted soldier walking right, head left, holding reversed spear & leading young barbarian out of his hut, tree behind, ALEB in ex.

Alexandria RIC VIII 58 , Cohen 53.
Tanit
Const_12.jpg
Constantius II15 viewsAE2
Obv: DN CONSTANTIVS PF AVG
Rev: FEL TEMP REPARATIO ; Constantius dragging a barbarian youth from a hut beneth a tree.
Tanit
Constantius_II_Centenionalis.jpg
Constantius II Centenionalis Fel Temp Reparatio hut60 viewsAE Centenionalis
Constantius II, 337-361 CE
Diameter: 21 mm, Weight: 3.97 grams, Die axis: 1h

Obverse: D N CONSTANTIVS PF AVG
Diadem, draped, and cuirassed bust to left, holding globe.

Reverse: FEL TEMP REPARATIO
Soldier advancing right, dragging young barbarian from hut beneath tree.

Mint: TRS: Trier, second mint house

Notes:
- ‘FELix TEMPorvm REPARATIO’ = Happy times restored.
- This type was issued at 13 different mints, each using a different tree, shrub or plant.
- The Fel Temp reform coinage began around 348 CE and initially had a target weight of 5.5 grams and a diameter of 23 mm, with a silver content of 2-3%. From circa 351 the series was gradually debased in both weight and size until it was finally discontinued circa 357 CE. The weight and diameter of this piece indicate it was struck between 351 and 354 CE.
- This coin has a deep glossy green patina; I guess it was found in a sealed container. Only the high points show wear suggesting contact with other coins in a sealed environment.

Ex Central City Coins Brisbane, 2002
3 commentsPharsalos
cst2ricviiithes117web.jpg
Constantius II Centenionalis, RIC VIII Thessalonica 11737 viewsThessalonica mint, Constantius II Centenionalis, 348-350 A.D. AE, 21mm 3.81g, RIC VIII Thessalonica 117
O: DN CONSTAN-TIVS PF AVG, pearl diademed, draped cuirassed bust left with globe in right hand
R: FEL TEMP REPAR-ATIO, helmeted soldier advancing right, head left, leading captive with right hand from hut beneath tree, spear in left hand pointing downward
EX: TES()
*Ex Vel Garnett collection
casata137ec
constantiusII_58.jpg
Constantius II RIC VIII, Alexandria 5864 viewsConstantius II 324 - 361, son of Constantine I
AE - AE 3, 4.68g, 21mm
Alexandria 2. officina, 348 - 350
obv. DN CONSTA - NTIVS PF AVG
draped bust, pearl-diademed head l., holding globe with r.
rev. FEL TEMP - REPARATIO
helmeted soldier walking r., head l., holding reversed spear l. and
leading young barbarian out of his hut, tree behind
exergue: ALEB
RIC VIII, Alexandria 58; C.53
VF, sandpatina
added to www.wildwinds.com

This issue celebrates the fact that AD 342 under Constans the Franks were taken over the Rhine and settled in Taxandria (Belgium).
Jochen
constantiusII_58~0.jpg
Constantius II RIC VIII, Alexandria 58608 viewsConstantius II 324 - 361, son of Constantin I
AE - AE 3, 4.68g, 21mm
Alexandria 2. officina, 348 - 350
obv. DN CONSTA - NTIVS PF AVG
draped bust, pearl-diademed head l., holding globe with r.
rev. FEL TEMP - REPARATIO
helmeted soldier walking r., head l., holding reversed spear l. and
leading young barbarian out of his hut, tree behind
exergue: ALEB
RIC VIII, Alexandria 58; C.53
VF, sandpatina
added to www.wildwinds.com

This issue celebrates the fact that AD 342 under Constans the Franks were taken over the Rhine and settled in Taxandria (Belgium). This was a peaceful act (the barbarian would not been dragged but guided!) done by negotiations and the Franks had to fight for the Romans.
Jochen
Picture 005.jpg
Coponius69 viewsPrefect: 6-9 AD
Size: AE Prutah
Obverse: Grain-ear KAICA POC
Reverse: Palm Tree L AS
Date: Year 36 = 6 AD
Reference: Hendin 635
John K
J11J-Coponius.jpg
Coponius procurator under Augustus, Æ 6-9 CE105 viewsBronze prutah of Coponius, procurator of Judea under Augustus, 6-9 CE, 16.1 mm, 1.81 grams.

Obverse: Ear of grain, KAICA POC ("Of Caesar").
Reverse: Eight-branched palm tree, bearing two bunches of dates, date in field L Λς [lambda][stigma] (year 36).

Reference: Hendin 635, TJC 311.

Added to collection: January 16, 2006
Daniel Friedman
corinth_marcus_aurelius_SNGcop329.jpg
Corinthia, Corinth, Marcus Aurelius, SNG Cop. 32980 viewsMarcus Aurelius, AD 161-180
AE 25, 11.25g
obv. M AVR AN[TONI] - NVS A[VG]
bust, laureate, r.
rev. CLI - COR
The young Melikertes laying on a dolphin, swimming r., behind a pine-tree(?)
SNG Copenhagen 329; Lindgren 1619; BCD 700; Edwards 150, pl.IV
rare, good F-about VF, green-brown patina
added to www.wildwinds.com

Corinth at this time was a Roman colony, therefore the Latin inscriptions.
The revers legend CLI - COR is solved to COLONIA LAUS IULIA CORINTHUS.

For more information look at the thread 'Coins of mythological interest'
3 commentsJochen
COVENTRY_HALF-PENNY_GODIVA.jpg
COVENTRY HALF-PENNY225 viewsCOVENTRY HALF-PENNY - CU 1797 Coventry half-penny. Obv.: Lady Godiva rides horse left. Above: PRO BONO PUBLICO - Date in exurge. Reverse: Elephant with tower on back walks right. COVENTRY HALF-PENNY. Reference: Conder #68.
From the Birmingham Museum: In the late 18th century the Royal Mint did not make enough low value coins to satisfy the growing demand for small change. As a result, many towns and cities started producing their own token money. This halfpenny token was issued at Coventry in Warwickshire. It depicts the famous story of Lady Godiva, who supposedly rode naked through the streets to win a reduction in the city’s taxes from her husband, Earl Leofric. The reverse shows that the die cutter had clearly never seen a real elephant!
dpaul7
762NN409.jpg
Cr 433/2 AR Denarius M. Junius Brutus25 viewsAR Denarius 54 bce Rome 4.09 gm 17.5 mm
o: BRVTVS, downwards behind head of L. Iunius Brutus r, border of dots
r: AHALA, downwards behind head of C. Servilius Ahala r, border of dots
Junia 30; Servilia 17; Sydenham 932

This type has always puzzled me. It clearly depicts the two anti-tyrants in the Junia family tree, L. Junius Brutus and C. Servilius Ahala. (Crawford uses the phrase "tyrannicides", but Brutus did not kill Tarquin and Ahala seems to have sucker-stabbed Maelius in anger.) Young Brutus, or whatever his name was when he was a moneyer, clearly chose to put them on his coins at the time when Pompey's prominence in the state was at its peak; Caesar was in Gaul or Britain, and could not help him. This decision as to coinage, therefore, seems to me extremely unhealthy. Roughly the same number of dies have been identified for both of Brutus's moneyer issues, so it is unlikely that this type is an indiscretion that was quickly withdrawn. So, was Brutus being played or deployed by Pompey against Caesar? Pompey was ostentatiously NOT claiming the dictatorship, so why "warn" him, especially when a "warning" from a 30-ish year old aspiring politician who maybe had held a staff officer's post would not likely impress Pompey, "the teenage butcher"? Worth, I think, exploring a bit.
2 commentsPMah
10039b.jpg
Crusader States, Normans of Sicily, William II, AD 1166-1189, AE Trifollaro, Spahr 117.75 viewsCrusader States, Sicily, William II, AD 1166-1189, AE Trifollaro (24-25 mm), 8,82 g.
Obv.: Facing head of lioness within circle of dots.
Re.: Palm tree with five branches and two bunches of dates, within circle of dots.
Biaggi 1231, Spahr 117 ; Grie 210 (Roger II); Thom 2480 .

William II of Sicily (1153-1189), called the Good, was king of Sicily and Naples from 1166 to 1189.
William was only thirteen years old at the death of his father William I, when he was placed under the regency of his mother, Margaret of Navarre.
Until the king came of age in 1171 the government was controlled first by the chancellor Stephen du Perche, cousin of Margaret (1166-1168), and then by Walter Ophamil, archbishop of Palermo, and Matthew of Ajello, the vice-chancellor.
William's character is very indistinct. Lacking in military enterprise, secluded and pleasure-loving, he seldom emerged from his palace life at Palermo. Yet his reign is marked by an ambitious foreign policy and a vigorous diplomacy. Champion of the papacy and in secret league with the Lombard cities he was able to defy the common enemy, Frederick I Barbarossa. In 1174 and 1175 he made treaties with Genoa and Venice and his marriage in February 1177 with Joan, daughter of Henry II of England and Eleanor of Aquitaine, marks his high position in European politics.
In July 1177, he sent a delegation of Archbishop Romuald of Salerno and Count Roger of Andria to sign the Treaty of Venice with the emperor. To secure the peace, he sanctioned the marriage of his aunt Constance, daughter of Roger II, with Frederick's son Henry, afterwards the emperor Henry VI, causing a general oath to be taken to her as his successor in case of his death without heirs. This step, fatal to the Norman kingdom, was possibly taken that William might devote himself to foreign conquests.
Unable to revive the African dominion, William directed his attack on Egypt, from which Saladin threatened the Latin kingdom of Jerusalem. In July 1174, 50,000 men were landed before Alexandria, but Saladin's arrival forced the Sicilians to re-embark in disorder. A better prospect opened in the confusion in Byzantine affairs which followed the death of Manuel Comnenus (1180), and William took up the old design and feud against Constantinople. Durazzo was captured (June 11, 1185). Afterwards while the army marched upon Thessalonica, the fleet sailed towards the same target capturing on their way the Ionian islands of Corfu, Cephalonia,Ithaca and Zakynthos. In August Thessalonica surrendered to the joint attack of the Sicilian fleet and army.
The troops then marched upon the capital, but the troop of the emperor Isaac Angelus overthrew the invaders on the banks of the Strymon (September 7, 1185). Thessalonica was at once abandoned and in 1189 William made peace with Isaac, abandoning all the conquests. He was now planning to induce the crusading armies of the West to pass through his territories, and seemed about to play a leading part in the Third Crusade. His admiral Margarito, a naval genius equal to George of Antioch, with 60 vessels kept the eastern Mediterranean open for the Franks, and forced the all-victorious Saladin to retire from before Tripoli in the spring of 1188.
In November 1189 William died, leaving no children. Though Orderic Vitalis records a (presumably short-lived) son in 1181: Bohemond, Duke of Apulia. His title of "the Good" is due perhaps less to his character than to the cessation of internal troubles in his reign. The "Voyage" of Ibn Jubair, a traveller in Sicily in 1183-1185, shows William surrounded by Muslim women and eunuchs, speaking and reading Arabic and living like "a Moslem king."

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

my ancient coin database
1 commentsArminius
bhmd_I_ccs_1.jpg
Crusaders . Principality of Antioch, Bohemond I (1098-1104) AE-Follis 31 viewsCrusaders . Principality of Antioch, Bohemond I (1098-1104) AE-Follis
21 mm /2,69 g
Obverse : Bust of St. Peter facing, nimbate, wearing tunic, right hand raised in benediction, cross scepter in left , O/Π/Э .
Reverse : The Cross as the Tree of Life; in angles, B / H / M / T
CCS 1 ; Schlumberger Pl. II, 4 ; Metcalf 47-48
Very rare
Vladislav D
17256_Late_Ptolemaic_Cyprus,_Unstruck_Blank.jpg
Cyprus, Unstruck Blank. Bronze diobol10 viewsLate Ptolemaic Cyprus, Unstruck Blank. Bronze diobol, apparently unpublished, dark patina, Paphos mint, 13.907g, 24.4mm, obverse blank, with dimple where the limestone mold was drilled; reverse, blank, with signs of casting, sprue cut where the planchet was disconnected from the casting tree. Ex FORVM, photo credit FORVMPodiceps
Demetrius_II~2.jpg
Demetrius II - First Reign 146-138 B.C.10 viewsPhoenicia Tyre. Demetrius II - First Reign, 146-138 B.C. Seleukid Ae 12.7~13.7mm. 2.42g. Obv: Head of Demetrius r., dotted border. Rev: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ curving on r., ΔHMHTPIOY curving on l., palm tree with fruits, dotted border. Date (O P = S.E. 170) 142 B.C. across field.ddwau
Demetrius_II~4.jpg
Demetrius II 146 - 138 B.C.6 viewsDemetrius II 146 - 138 B.C.first reign. Ae 13.5~14.5mm. 2.43g. Tyre mint. Obv: Diademed head of Demetrius II r., diadem ends falling straight behind, dotted border. Rev: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ curving on r., ΔHMHTPIOY curving on l., palm tree dotted border Date across field (IX-P S.E. 167 = 146/5 B.C.). SC 1970.1ddwau
Demetrius_II.jpg
Demetrius II First Reign 146-138 B.C.15 viewsPhoenicia Tyre. Demetrius II First Reign BCE 146-138. Seleukid Ae 14.5~15mm. 2.40g. Obv: Head of Demetrius r., diadem ends falling straight behind, dotted border. Rev: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ curving on r., ΔHMHTPIOY curving on l., palm tree dotted border Date across field.ddwau
D397sm.jpg
Domitian RIC-39739 viewsÆ Sestertius, 26.19g
Rome mint, 85 AD
RIC 397 (R2). BMC 361. BNF - .
Obv: IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM XI CENS PER P P; Head of Domitian, laureate, r., with aegis
Rev: GERMANIA CAPTA; S C in exergue; Trophy; to r., German captive stg. r., hands bound, head l.; to l., Germania std. l.; around arms
Acquired from Incitatus Coins, August 2019.

In 85 Domitian struck a fairly impressive issue of sestertii, M. Grant hyperbolically called it the most 'ambitious' of any one reign or year. The series is the first major aes issue of Domitian's reign and is dominated by panoramic types commemorating his military victory over the Germanic tribe the Chatti. The details of the war are unclear, but the overall impression is that the conflict was a minor affair blown out of proportion by an emperor eager for military glory. Consequently, Domitian's Germanic triumph of 83 received a certain amount of ridicule from ancient writers who thought the whole thing was a sham (Dio goes so far as to say Domitian raided the palace's furniture stores for his fake spoils!), no doubt the numismatic propaganda for the victory was likely viewed in the same manner by contemporary senatorial elites. Germania Capta types were first struck in silver in 84 and in bronze in 85. This iconic Germania Capta sestertius strongly echoes Vespasian's Judaea Capta types - but instead of a trophy we see a palm tree and a bound captive replaces the triumphal emperor. H. Mattingly writes in BMCRE 'the type is closely modelled on the Judaea Capta of Vespasian, but the German element is indicated by the heavy angular cloak worn by the man and by the oblong shields.' Comparing the two triumphs, the Josephian scholar Steve Mason remarked - 'The same people who produced Flavian Triumph I: Judaea were on hand for Flavian Triumph II: Germania, and sequels are rarely as good as the originals.'

The Germania Capta sestertii were produced for only a few short years between 85-88. The present example from the third issue of 85 is a rare variant with an obverse legend struck just after Domitian had become censor for life (CENS PER).
3 commentsDavid Atherton
DomitianLXF.jpg
Domitian Sebaste, Samaria Countermark LXF84 viewsDomitian Ae 25mm, 14.02 g. Sebaste, Samaria. O: Laureate head of Domitian IMP DOMITIANVS CAESAR; Countermark: LXF, of the Tenth Legion Fretensis in rectangular punch. R: Tyche standing to left resting foot on rock(?) holding spear and globe, [CEBAC]THNWN (of the people of Sebaste); in l. field, date: LΘΡ (year 109 = 81/2 AD). Host coin - RPC II 2226, with LXF - Hendin 1613a.

The Tenth Legion probably acquired its name, Fretensis, from the Fretum Siculum, the straits where the legion fought successfully against Sextus Pompey.

It is undoubtedly most famous for its part in the destruction of Jerusalem under General Titus. Starting in 66 CE, Roman armies began fighting their way from the northern parts of Israel, down to Jerusalem.

Titus advanced on Jerusalem near Passover 70 C.E., trapping the residents and pilgrims inside the city. His forces stripped the Judean countryside of trees to build a 4.5-mile-long wall of pointed stakes around the capital.

In that year X Fretensis, in conjunction with V Macedonica, XII Fulminata, and XV Apollinaris, began the five month siege of Jerusalem that would result in what Jewish Bible scholar Alfred Edersheim described as a, “tribulation to Israel unparalleled in the terrible past of its history, and unequalled even in its bloody future.”

What was the Tenth Legion doing in Sebaste, Samaria? According to some scholars it was perhaps to defend against the appearance of a pseudo-Nero, who had garnered the support of the Parthians.
1 commentsNemonater
Neapolis-Domitian.jpg
Domitian, (81-96 CE), Æ Neapolis (Shechem).41 viewsBronze of Domitian, (81-96 CE), minted in Neapolis in Samaria.

Obverse: AYTOK ΔOMITIANOΣ KAIΣAPΣEBA; Laureate head of Domitian, r.
Reverse: ΦΛΑ ΟΥΙΝΕΑ ΠΟΛΙΣΑ ΜΑ; Palm tree; below LAI 82/3 CE)

Reference: SNG ANS 962

Added to collection: October 29, 2006
Daniel Friedman
031~9.JPG
Drachme - cheval/roue perlee centree d'un anneau (?), -100/-5016 viewsArgent, 2,24 g, 15 mm.
A/ Tête à gauche
R/ Cheval au galop à gauche, dessous anneau perlé centré d'un anneau lisse (?).
Réfs possibles : Dicomon ARV-3770 ; DT 3585 ; Depeyrot 2004, type 146 ; BnF 3770 var.
Le dessous du cheval n'étant pas visible, le description peut ne pas être la bonne
Gabalor
017.JPG
Drachme - cheval/roue perlee centree d'un anneau, -100/-5017 viewsArgent fourré, 1,55 g, 15 mm.
A/ Tête à gauche
R/ Cheval au galop à gauche, dessous anneau perlé centré d'un anneau lisse.
Réfs : Dicomon ARV-3770 ; DT 3585 ; Depeyrot 2004, type 146 ; BnF 3770 var.
Gabalor
013~0.JPG
Drachme - cheval/roue perlee centree d'un anneau, -100/-5021 viewsArgent fourré, 1,90 g, 14 mm
A/ Tête à gauche
R/ Cheval au galop à gauche, dessous anneau perlé centré d'un anneau lisse.
réfs : Dicomon ARV-3770 ; DT 3585 ; Depeyrot 2004, type 146 ; BnF 3770 var.
Gabalor
064~6.JPG
Drachme - cheval/roue perlee centree d'un anneau, -100/-5018 viewsArgent, 2,19 g, 15,5 mm
A/ Tête à gauche
R/ Cheval au galop à gauche, dessous anneau perlé centré d'un anneau lisse.
Réfs : Dicomon ARV-3770 ; DT 3585 ; Depeyrot 2004, type 146 ; BnF 3770 var.
Gabalor
Nero_37.jpg
E74 viewsNero AE As

Attribution: RIC I 313, Rome
Date: AD 65
Obverse: NERO CAESAR AVG GERM IMP laureate head l.
Reverse: Victory advancing l. holding shield with “ S P Q R” inscribed, S-C in fields
Size: 26 mm
Weight: 12.3 grams
(Bust of Nero: Museo Nazionale, Rome)

“He was about the average height, his body marked with spots and malodorous, his hair light blond…His health was good for though indulging in every kind of riotous excess, he was ill but three times in all during the fourteen years of his reign.” –Seutonius Life of Nero LI

Upon the death of Claudius in AD 54, 16 year-old Nero was accepted as the next emperor. At first, he pampered the senate, made financial promises to the praetorian guard, and generally appeared to be headed in the direction of the superior reign of the divine Augustus. Problems soon became evident upon the poisoning of Britannicus, Claudius’ son. The murder of Nero’s mother, Agrippina, in AD 59 was the single most notoriously sordid act of the emperor’s entire reign. Still, he was noted for numerous other disdainful exploits as well. Nero became infatuated with Poppaea, the wife of a close friend, Marcus Otho. He had Otho appointed governor of Lusitania and soon began an affair with Poppaea. His marriage to Octavia, of course, was a problem as well, so Nero had her exiled on the island of Pandateria in AD 62. There she was accused of adultery and subsequently killed not long after. Sadly, in AD 65, while throwing a temper tantrum, Nero kicked a pregnant Poppaea to death. He did remarry again, but eventually became lovers with the boy Sporus who resembled Poppaea.

“Rumour had it that he used to roam the streets after dark, visiting taverns with his friends, mugging people in the street, attacking women, and thieving from shops and stalls. He was also accused of abusing married women and freeborn boys.” – from Chronicle of the Roman Emperors by Chris Scarre (1995)

Nero’s reign is marked by a time of financial bleeding of the imperial coffers. His “projects” and excesses were so vast, that the emperor needed to find money wherever he could. One of his most heinous rampages saw him coercing wealthy citizens to will their possessions and fortunes to him prior to forcing them to commit suicide. The Great Fire of AD 64, which started in the neighborhood of the Circus Maximus and spread rapidly to 10 of Rome’s 14 regions, brought the emperor’s popularity further down as tensions reached the boiling point. This is partially due to the fact that he diverted the blame for the fire in the direction of an emerging religious “cult”, the Christians (who were persecuted unmercifully). It is said that he even tied some Christians to posts and had them tarred and lit to illuminate his parties in the royal gardens. Later several conspiracies were unraveled and quelled, but in the end, Nero pushed his luck too far. The revolts of Vindex, Rufus, and Galba were the beginning of the end for the emperor. He was abandoned by his guards and found himself alone at the palace. One of his freedmen, Phaon, led him out of the city to a villa. There Nero committed suicide by stabbing himself in the neck (although his private secretary Epaphroditus finished the job). His last words were, “What an artist the world is losing!” He died in AD 68 at age 30.
4 commentsNoah
EB0059b_scaled.JPG
EB0059 Bee / Stag18 viewsEphesos, IONIA, drachm, ca.405-325 BC.
Obverse: Bee, E-Φ to left and right.
Reverse: Stag standing right, palm tree in background, ΠγPPAΛIΩN to right.
References: SNG Cop 283ff. Note: There are almost 1,000 known varieties of the bronze and silver bee/stag coin types with unpublished types appearing every year.
Diameter: 18mm, Weight: 4.062g.
2 commentsEB
EB0081b_scaled.JPG
EB0081 Horse / Palm5 viewsCarthage, ZEUGITANA, AR litra, 320-310 BC.
Obverse: Horse head
Reverse: Palm tree
References: SNGCop 74.
Diameter: 9mm, Weight: 0.732g.
EB
EB0234b_scaled.JPG
EB0234 Tanit / Horse5 viewsCarthage, ZEUGITANA, AE 16, 200-146 BC.
Obverse: Head of Tanit left.
Reverse: Horse standing right, palm tree in background.
References:-.
Diameter: 16mm, Weight: 1.81g.
EB
EB0237b_scaled.JPG
EB0237 Tanit / Horse4 viewsCarthage, ZEUGITANA, AE 19, 241-146 BC.
Obverse: Head of Tanit left.
Reverse: horses head right, palm tree symbol .
References: SG 6528.
Diameter: 19.5mm, Weight: 5.922g.
EB
EB0248b_scaled.JPG
EB0248 Barley / Palm14 viewsJUDAEA, M. AMBIBULUS, AE 16 (prutah ?), Year 39 = 9 AD.
Obverse: KAICAPOC, ear of barley turned to right.
Reverse: eight-branched palm tree bearing two bunches of dates, date in fields: L-AQ.
References: M. 217; H. 101; Hendin 636; Meshorer 2; RPC 4954.
Diameter: 16mm, Weight: 2.206g.
2 commentsEB
EB0251b_scaled.JPG
EB0251 Crossed Shields / Palm tree7 viewsJUDAEA, ANTONIUS FELIX, 52-60 AD, AE 16.5 Prutah, Year 14 = 54 AD.
Obverse: NERW KLAV KAICP, two crossed shields and spears.
Reverse: BRIT, six branched palm tree bearing two bunches of dates; L-ID K-AI across field.
References: Hendin 652.
Diameter: 16.5mm, Weight: 2.07g.
1 commentsEB
EB0264b_scaled.JPG
EB0264 Horse / Palm3 viewsSicilo-Punic or Carthage in Zeugitana, AE 19, 300-264 BC.
Obverse: Horse's head right.
Reverse: Palm tree with two dates.
References: Acquaro 148; Lindgren 626; or ... Sear 6531; Muller II, 104,317; SNG Copenhagen 102.
Diameter: 19.5mm, Weight: 5.703g.
EB
EB0312b_scaled.JPG
EB0312 Palm / Horse7 viewsCarthage in Zeugitana, AE 17.
Obverse: Palm tree with two bunches of dates.
Reverse: Horse standing right, head reverted.
References: -.
Diameter: 17mm, Weight: 3.266g.
EB
EB0408_scaled.JPG
EB0408 Domitian / Victory erecting trophy6 viewsDomitian, AE As, 85 AD.
Obv: IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM COS XI CENS POT P P, laureate head right.
Rev: VICTORIAE AVGVSTI, Victory standing left, holding palm & erecting trophy set on tree, S-C either side of trunk.
References: RIC 389; Cohen 640.
Diameter: 28mm, Weight: 11.204 grams.
EB
EB0529_scaled.JPG
EB0529 Agrippa and Augustus / Crocodile20 viewsAgrippa and Augustus, AE 24 (As) of Gaul, Nemausus, ca 10 BC - 10 AD.
Obv: IMP DIVI F, back-to-back heads of Agrippa left in rostral crown, & Augustus right (bare? / in oak wreath?).
Rev: COL [NEM], Crocodile chained to palm tree, [wreath] with long ties trailing above.
References: cf. RIC 158, Cohen 10; RPC 523 (bare head) or 524 (oak wreath).
Diameter: 24mm, Weight: 6.642 grams.
EB
EB0530_scaled.JPG
EB0530 Agrippa and Augustus / Crocodile33 viewsAgrippa and Augustus, AE As of Gaul, Nemausus, ca 10 BC - 10 AD.
Obv: IMP DIVI F, back-to-back heads of Agrippa left in rostral crown, & Augustus right in oak wreath.
Rev: COL NEM, Crocodile chained to palm tree, wreath to left of palm with long ties trailing right.
References: cf. RIC 158, Cohen 10; RPC 524.
27mm, Weight: 11.477 grams.
1 commentsEB
EB0554_scaled.JPG
EB0554 Philip II / Athena15 viewsPhilip II, AE 35 of Side, Pamphylia 247-248 AD.
Obv: AYT K MARK IOVΛ CE OVHR FIΛIΠΠON C[EB], laureate, draped, cuirassed
bust right, epsilon to right.
Rev: CI ΔH TΩ N, Athena standing left by olive tree, holding patera and spear (double or overstrike).
References: SNG BN 869 var.
Diameter: 36.5mm, Weight: 18.493 grams.
EB
EB0799b_sclaed.JPG
EB0799 Constans / FEL TEMP11 viewsConstans, Cyzicus, AE Centenionalis, 337-350 AD.
Obverse: D N CONSTA-NS P F AVG, Pearl-diademed, draped, cuirassed bust left, globe in right hand
Reverse: FEL TEMP REP-ARATIO, Helmeted soldier, spear in left hand, walking right, head left; with his right hand he leads a small bare-headed figure from a hut beneath a tree. The spear points downwards, between the soldier's legs. Mintmark SMKB.
References: RIC VIII 73.
Diameter: 22mm, Weight: 3.118g.
1 commentsEB
Babylon_in_Egypt.jpg
Egypt, Babylon297 viewsThis elegant red and white banded brickwork is about all that remains on the surface to mark the Roman fortress of ‘Babylon in Egypt’. The Roman structure was started during the reign of Trajan on the site of an earlier Egyptian stronghold which marked the border between Lower and Middle Egypt. The fortress remained an important strategic outpost down through Byzantine times. In the fifth century the Legio XIII Gemina was stationed here. During the Arab conquest of Egypt in 640/1, Babylon endured a seven month siege before its capture.

These days most of the extensive Babylon complex lies buried under the streets of the Christian quarter of Old Cairo. The nearby medieval Coptic Orthodox Church of the Virgin Mary is popularly known as the ‘Hanging Church’ because its nave was built suspended over two towers of the Roman fort.
1 commentsAbu Galyon
Elagabalus_Possibly_Unique.jpg
Elagabalus, 16 May 218 - 11 March 222 A.D. Silver denarius49 viewsPossibly unique! The combination of this reverse legend with a recumbent bull behind the altar is apparently unpublished and this is the only example known to Forum. The bull is present on a similar type with the reverse legend INVICTVS SACERDOS AVG.


Silver denarius, RSC III 213c var. (no bull); BMCRE V 269 var. (same); Hunter III 68 var. (same); RIC IV 52 (S) var. (same, also no horn); SRCV II 7538 var. (same), NGC XF, strike 5/5, surface 3/5 (2412840-011), Rome mint, weight 3.07g, maximum diameter 18.4mm, die axis 0o, Jan 222 A.D.; obverse IMP ANTONINVS PIVS AVG, horned, laureate, draped and bearded bust right, from the front; reverse P M TR P V COS IIII P P, Elagabalus standing slightly left, wearing Syrian priestly dress, sacrificing from patera in right hand over flaming altar at feet on left, club (or branch) cradled in left hand and arm, star in upper left field, recumbent bull behind altar; NGC certified (slabbed); extremely rare.

Coins with a horned portrait and the title TR P V were struck in January 222 A.D. After some days or weeks the horn was removed from Elagabalus' portrait. Elagabalus had shocked the public with bizarre behavior including cross dressing and marrying a vestal virgin. Removing the unusual horn from his portrait was probably part of a last ditch effort to show that he had changed, dropping his peculiar Syrian ways. The effort failed. On 11 March 222, Elagabalus and his mother were murdered, dragged through the streets of Rome and dumped into the Tiber.

From The Sam Mansourati Collection.
Sam
Evasion_314.jpg
Evasion Token 31428 viewsObv: GOD SAVE THE KING, laureate bust of George III, facing right.

Rev: BE AS YOU SEEM TO BE, two hands clasped before a tree decorated with three crowns, 1796 in exergue.

Note: Although, this piece is not a Conder token, it was produced around the same time, and is reminiscent of the political types of the series.

Edge: Plain

Half Penny Evasion Token

Atkins 314
SPQR Coins
DOMNA-13~0.JPG
Four Seasons311 viewsJulia Domna, wife of Septimius Severus, Augusta, 193-217 C.E.
AR Denarius (3.24g, 20.0mm), Rome mint, AD 207.
Obv: IVLIA AVGVSTA, draped bust right.
Rev: FECVNDITAS, Terra reclining left under tree, left arm on basket of fruits, right hand set on globe, spangled with stars, in background four children representing the four Seasons.
RIC 549, RSC 35, BMC 21, Sear 6579.
Ex FORVM Ancient coins.

The four seasons--spring, summer, fall and winter--are typically personified by four nude boys at play.
1 commentsEmpressCollector
Fouree_augustus.jpg
Fouree Augustus40 views Obv. Laureate head of Augustus right
Rev. AVGVSTVS below two laurel trees
1 commentsSkyler
091~5.JPG
Fraction - cheval/roue perlée pointée au centre/volute (?), argent, -100/-50. 15 viewsArgent, 0,58 g, 9 mm.
A/ Tête à gauche.
R/ Cheval au galop à gauche, volute dessus (?), roue perlée centrée d'un point dessous.
Réfs : Dicomon ARV-3838 var. ; DT série 1062 ; Depeyrot 2004, type 214 var.
Gabalor
101.JPG
Fraction - cheval/roue perlee/volute, argent, -100/-50.20 viewsArgent, 0,52 g, 7,5 mm.
A/ Tête à gauche.
R/ Cheval au galop, volute dessus, roue perlée centrée d'un gros globule dessous.
Réfs : Dicomon ARV-3859 var. ; DT série 1062 (manque ce type) ; Depeyrot 2004, type 214 var.
Gabalor
Nîmes_-_Crocodile_Fountain.JPG
France, Nemausus - Crocodile Fountain246 viewsThis fountain is not ancient, but represents the famous coin-type of the ancient city of Nemausus, showing a crocodile chained to a palm-tree. Syltorian
Boyd_1867_underprint_unita.jpg
Francobollo retrostampato negozio Boyd (1867)35 views1867 SG43 PP7 1d 1d RED PL.209
J & C BOYD & CO UNDERPRINT (MC)
Provenienza: collezione Berardengo, Roma Italia (12 agosto 2013, numero catalogo 193), ex Elstree Stamps, Borehamwood, United Kingdom, prima del 2013.
paolo
JET_Louis_XVI_mit_lust.jpg
French Jeton of Louis XVI13 viewsHennin 273. plate. 26
Brass,1.90 g., 23.72 mm max., 0°

Minted in Nuremberg in 1791 by Ernest Ludwig Sigmund Lauer (active 1783-1833)..

Obv: LVD XVI -- DG FR N REX., bust of Louis XVI to right.

Rev: MIT LUST (= with pleasure), fountain in center of law surrounded by trees, L in exergue.
Stkp
Gallienus_Artemis_wBow.JPG
Gallienus Artemis wBow18 viewsGallienus Æ 26.07mm, 8.1g Ephesos, Ionia.
Same obverse die as SNG Cop 512 and SNG Aulock 7888.
OBV: AVT K M AVP ANTWNIENOC, laureate, draped & cuirassed bust right
REV: EFECIWN D NEWKORWN, Artemis standing with bow right, reaching for an arrow in quiver at shoulder. trees behind.
Romanorvm
Gallienus_AlexandriaTroas_Horse.jpg
Gallienus, Alexandria Troas, grazing horse, AE2130 viewsAE21, 5.2 g
obv: IMP C LICIN GALLIE AVG
rev: COL AVG TROA, grazing horse, tree behind
GICV -
Bellinger A453
1 commentsareich
6110_6111.jpg
Gallienus, Antoninianus, VOTA ORBIS2 viewsAR Antoninianus
Gallienus
Augustus: 253 - 268AD
Issued: 253 - 254AD
22.5 x 20.5mm 5.50gr, 11h
O: IMP C P LIC GALLIENVS PF AVG; Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust, right.
R: VOTA ORBIS; Two Victories standing, facing one another, hanging shield inscribed "SC" on palm tree.
Antioch Mint
Aorta: 1287: B57, O24, R420, T281, M1.
Gobl 1682m; RIC 460[j]; RSC 1335b.
Agora Auctions for Holding History Lot 05-141
3/10/16 1/26/17
Nicholas Z
gallienus_459~0.JPG
Gallienus, Göbl 1688 (Samosata)76 viewsGallienus, AD 253-268
AE - Antionianus, 3.25g, 22.9mm, 45°
Samosata, AD 253-254
obv. IMP CP LIC GALLIENVS AVG
Bearded bust, draped and cuirassed, radiate, r.
rev. VOTA ORBIS
Two Victories holding shield, inscribed SC, behind palmtree.
RIC V1, (Antiochia) 459; C.1335; Göbl 1168 (Samosata)
Scarce, good VF, attractive sandpatina
Pedigree:
ex coll. Salem
From Forum Ancients Coins, thanks!
2 commentsJochen
IMG_4821.JPG
German Notgeld: Weilburg, Hesse-Nassau19 viewsCity: Weilburg
State: Hesse-Nassau
Denomination: 10 Pfennig
Obverse: Weilburg – 1917 ✠, head of town mayor wearing steel helmet and facing right; artist name: W. O. PRACK.
Reverse: 10 Pf divided by oak tree with Coat of Arm at bottom of tree, Kleingeld – Ersatzmarke
Date: 1917
Grade: VF
Catalog #: L564.3
Matt Inglima
1768bb.jpg
German States. Brunswick-Luneburg-Calenburg-Hannover. George III, king of Britain 1760 - 1814. Copper pfenning 1768 I.A.P.108 viewsGerman States. Brunswick-Luneburg-Calenburg-Hannover. George III, king of Britain 1760 - 1814. Copper pfenning 1768 I.A.P. Wild man holding tree in right hand / .I. PFENNING SCHEIDE MVNTZ 1768.

KM 330
oneill6217
Scheuch-1881a.jpg
Germany, Third Reich: Meissen Porcelain Medal, Japanese Victory over Singapore (Scheuch-1881a)35 viewsObv: Lion facing left beneath a coconut tree; German legend around EINNAHME VON SINGAPORE . 11 FEBRUARY 1942 (The Capture of Singapore - 11 Febrary 1942)
Rev: Wreath circling a Japanese battle flag; German legend around GROSSOSTASIEN VON FREMDHERRCHAFT BEFREIT (Greater East Asia Freed of Foreign Dominion)
SpongeBob
1501.jpg
germe002a4 viewsElagabalus
Germe, Mysia

Obv: ΑΥΤΟΚΡ Κ Μ ΑΥΡ ΑΝΤΩΝƐΙΝΟС СƐΒ, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from the back.
Rev: СΤΡ ΑΛƐΖΑΝ-ΔΡΟΥ ΓƐΡΜΗ, vertically, ΝΩN in right field, Apollo, nude, standing right, placing hand over head and holding lyre over small column; behind, laurel tree around which serpent is coiled.
28 mm, 10.89 gms

RPC Online 3826; Ehling 179-80
Charles M
Geta_VictoriaBrittanica.jpg
Geta Sestertius Victoriae Brittanicae 57 viewsSpink lot 80061134 Geta , AE Sestertius, 211, laureate bust right, drapery on far shoulder, imp caes p sept geta pivs avg , rev. victoriae britannicae sc , two Victories fixing shield to palm tree, two captives at its base (RIC 167 var.- no aegis on neck), minor flan-crack, very rare, almost very fine. The Prior Collection. Dr J S Vogelaar Co; Ref RIC 167var, BMCRE p.392, C.224, RCV 72712 commentsmattpat
GetaHadrianArtemis.JPG
Geta, AE 2638 viewsAUT K P CEPT MIOC GETAC
Bust laureate, cuirassed, draped, right, seen from behind
ADRIANO/POLITW/N
Tetrastyle temple, Artemis advancing right, holding bow and drawing arrow from quiver, hunting dog at her feet (not seen), temple flanked by laurel trees, tall garland pedestal before.
Jurukova 431 (V 219/R 418), Price/Trell, S. 248, 97.
whitetd49
Gloucester_38.jpg
Gloucestershire 3827 viewsObv: INDUSTRY LEADS TO HONOUR, a shield standing before an apple tree.

Rev: SEVERAL THOUSANDS YOUNG HEALTHY & FINE CRAB APPLE & PEAR STOCKS RAISED FROM THE KERNAL TO BE SOLD BY J • MORSE NEWENT GLOCESTERSHIRE 1796 spiraling to the center.

Edge: PAYABLE AT NEWENT

Half Penny Conder Token

Dalton & Hamer: Gloucestershire 38
SPQR Coins
g3andserORweb.jpg
Gordian III & Serapis AE28 of Markianopolis37 viewsGordian III & Serapis AE28 of Markianopolis. Magistrate Tullius Menophilus.
Obv: laureate draped bust right confronting bust of Serapis AVT K M ANT ΓOPΔIANOC AVΓ
Rev: Apollo standing right, nude, hand over head & holding bow, his mantle draped over low column to left, serpent climbing small tree to right, E in left field. VΠ MHNOΦIΛOV MAPKIANOΠOΛI-T-Ω-N
SNGCop 255. Markianopolis AE28 Moushmov 782


28mm 10.18 g
1 commentscasata137ec
freeeeeeeeeeeeeeee_159.JPG
Gordian III & Serapis AE28 of Markianopolis. Magistrate Tullius Menophilus.44 viewsMarkianopolis
Moushmov 782 Gordian III & Serapis AE28 of Markianopolis. Magistrate Tullius Menophilus. AVT K M ANT GORDIANOC AVG, laureate draped bust right confronting bust of Serapis / VP MHNOFILOV MAPKIANOPOLI-T-W-N, Apollo standing right, nude, hand over head & holding bow, his mantle draped over low column to left, serpent climbing small tree to right, E in left field. SNGCop 255. sold
Antonio Protti
207- Gordian III, Pisidia, Antioch-2.JPG
Gordian III, Pisidia, Antioch-239 views AE35, Antioch, Pisidia, 238-244 AD
Obverse: IMP CAES M ANT GORDIANVS AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: CAES ANTIOCH COLNI, Two Nikes
standing, placing shield marked SR on palm tree, two captives , seated at base of palm, back to back, SR in exergue.
BMC99; SNG VA 4961.
34mm, 25.4gm.
Jerome Holderman
Roman_era_residential_area_-_Delos.jpg
Greece, Delos - Maritime Quarter Streetscape249 viewsLloyd T
Kassope.jpg
Greece, Epirus, Kassope Street in Kassope and view to the south20 viewsGreece, Epirus, Kassope Street in Kassope and view to the south

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Kassope_2016-05-09_13.06.21.jpg
9 May 2016 Rjdeadly

Kassope or Cassope was an ancient Greek city in Epirus. Kassope occupies a magnificent and remote site on a high platform overlooking the sea, the Ambracian Gulf and the fertile lands to the south, and with the slopes of the Zalongo mountain to the north. It is considered one of the best remaining examples of a city built on a rectilinear street grid of a Hippodamian plan in Greece. The first settlements on the site are from the Paleolithic. However the city of Kassope was founded in the middle of the 4th century B.C. as the capital of the Kassopaeans, a sub-tribe of the Thesprotians. It belonged to the Aetolian League. Cassope or Cassopia is mentioned in the war carried on by Cassander against Alcetas II of Epirus, in 312 B.C. The city flourished in the 3rd century BC, when large public buildings were built. Kassope also minted its own coins. It was destroyed by Roman forces in 168-167 B.C. Kassope was abandoned in 31 B.C. when the remaining inhabitants resettled to Nikopolis the region’s new capital. The visible remains include the Cyclopean walls, an agora, a theater, the prytaneion.
Joe Sermarini
1092_bee_stag_cmpl.jpg
GREEK, Ephesos15 viewsbee within wreath
stag in front of a tree -- magistrates name in exergue
Ephesos mint SNG Cop 301
Franz-Josef M
IMG_0832.JPG
GREEK, Lesbos, Koinon, Billon Stater74 viewsLESBOS, Unattributed Koinon mint. Circa 510-480 BC. Billon Double Shekel – Stater (18.5mm, 11.10 g). Confronted calves’ heads; tree between / Rough incuse square. Lazzarini, Contribution, Series III; HGC 6, 1076; SNG von Aulock 1682; SNG Ashmolean 1488–91; BMC p. 154, 46–9; Dewing 2251.
CNG, Triton XVIII, lot 588.
From the RH Collection.
1 commentsDiogenes
IMG_0802~0.PNG
GREEK, Lesbos, Koinon, Billon Stater, Double Shekel, Lazzarini series III18 viewsLESBOS, Unattributed Koinon mint. Circa 510-480 BC. Billon Double Shekel – Stater (18.5mm, 11.10 g). Confronted calves’ heads; tree between / Rough incuse square. Lazzarini, Contribution, Series III; HGC 6, 1076; SNG von Aulock 1682; SNG Ashmolean 1488–91; BMC p. 154, 46–9; Dewing 2251.
CNG, Triton XVIII, lot 588.
From the RH Collection.
Diogenes
85703q00.jpg
GREEK, PHOENICIA, Arados, Phoenicia, 200 - 190 B.C., Civic Issue in the Types and Name of Alexander the Great18 viewsGS85703. Silver tetradrachm, Price 3390 ff., Mektepini 614 ff.; Duyrat 1270 ff., Cohen Dated 771, gVF, attractive style, reverse double struck, earthen encrustations, weight 17.039 g, maximum diameter 31.0 mm, die axis 0o, Arados mint, c. 200 - 190 B.C.; obverse head of Herakles right, wearing Nemean lion-scalp headdress; reverse AΛEΞAN∆POY BAΣIΛEΩΣ, Zeus seated left, nude to waist, himation around hips and legs, right leg drawn back, eagle in extended right hand, long scepter vertical behind in left hand, palm tree with two bunches of dates in left field under arm, AP monogram under throne, uncertain Greek additive date (60 - 69?) belowJoe Sermarini
ephesos~0.jpg
GREEK. Ephesos AR Tetradrachm. Hecatomnus Hoard (1977).109 viewsCirca 405-390 BC (21mm, 14.95 g, 12h). Aristainetos, magistrate. Hecatomnus 53b (O11/R48 – this coin); SNG Kayhan –; Winterthur 2904 (same obverse die). Obverse: bee with curved wings. Reverse: forepart of stag right, head left; palm tree to left (off flan), APIΣTAINETO[Σ] to right. Toned, VF. Struck on a tight flan.

Ex Hecatomnus Hoard (CH V, 17; CH VIII, 96; and CH IX, 387). Ex CNG Electronic Auction 338, lot 85.

The bee, palm tree and the stag are emblems of Ephesos. This city was an important center of worship of the Greek goddess Artemis, and the images on Ephesian coinage represent her. Ephesos also used the bee on its coins since it was a producer of honey, so the bee advertised their most famous product. The bee was also mythologically connected to Ephesos because, according to Philostratos, the colonizing Athenians were led to Ephesos in Ionia by the Muses who took the form of bees. Ephesos occupied the alluvial plain of the lower Cayster, but it owed its chief wealth and renown less to the produce of its soil than to the illustrious sanctuary of the old Anatolian nature-goddess, whom the Ionian Greeks identified with Artemis, the Goddess of Hunt. It is noteworthy that the high-priest of the temple of Artemis was called Ηεσσην, ‘the king bee,’ while the virgin priestesses bore the name of “melissai” or Honey-Bees. The stag was regarded as sacred to her and stag figures were said to have flanked the cult statue of Artemis in her temple at Ephesos. The palm tree alludes to Artemis’ birthplace, the island of Delos, where the goddess Leto gave birth to Artemis and her twin brother Apollo underneath a palm tree. Therefore, the coin might represent the city’s origin as well.

The earlier type tetradrachmae of Ephesos could be identified by the curved pair of wings of the bee on the obverse side of these coins. It is roughly estimated that a total of about less than a hundred of these tetradrachmae exist as compared to the straight wing bee variant of later emissions, which are believed to be seven to eight times more common than the former. These estimates are based on the findings and studies made after the discoveryof the Hecatomnus and Pixodarus hoards in 1977 and 1978, respectively. Prior to their discovery, there were only about 35 of these curved wing tetradrachmae recorded in existence.
1 commentsJason T
216.jpg
Head right (laureate)149 viewsSAMARIA. Caesarea. Domitian. Æ 27. Circa A.D. 92. Obv: IMPCA-ESDOMITAVG-(GERMTRPXI). Radiate head right, with aegis; countermark before. Rev: (IMPXXI)COS(XVICENSPP). Palm-tree. Ref: RPC 2307. Axis: 30°. Weight: 15.10 g. CM: Laureate head right, in circular punch, 6.5 mm. Howgego 119 (18 pcs). Collection Automan.Automan
JCT_Hebrew_Kindergarten_C.JPG
Hebrew Kindergarten & Infants Home (New York , N.Y. & Far Rockaway, Queens County, N.Y.)88 viewsAE token, 32.5 mm., undated.

Obv: HEBREW KINDERGARTEN & INFANTS HOME and 35 & 37 MONTGOMERY ST. N.Y.C./CENTRAL & PLAINVIEW AVES. FAR ROCKAWAY, along toothed rim, bust of boy facing within laureate wreath in center.

Rev: HAVE A HEART/HELP THE/ORPHANS/ -- AND --/GOD WILL/HELP YOU, within laureate wreath, GOOD LUCK COIN along toothed rim, beneath.

Ref: Kaplan, Steven H.. “Great Appeal, Kindergarten Tokens Asked for Support,” The Shekel, XLIV No. 1 (January-February 2011) 49-53, Figure 3 (this token).

Note: The Hebrew Kindergarten and Day Nursery Association was established in 1905 at 29 Montgomery Street as a nursery for the care of children of working mothers. It purchased 35 and 37 Montgomery Street in 1913 for the construction of a three-story building, which was dedicated in May 1914. In November 1918, it opened a ward for children whose mothers had influenza, and also began to care for children whose mothers had died during the epidemic. By then, there had already been a fund drive in August 1918 to raise $50,000 for an orphanage at Far Rockaway, and another fund drive, to raise $100,000 for the completion of its new building. It was then known as the Hebrew Kindergarten, Day and Night Nursery. It formally changed its name to Hebrew Kindergarten & Infants Home, Inc. in August 1925, although it was apparently using that name as early as 1923. Its infant home in Far Rockaway was at the intersection of Plainview Avenue and Central Avenue/Beach 20th Street, and an address of both 310 Central Avenue and 310 Beach 20th Street. It still operates an early childhood program/day care program for ages pre-kindergarten through kindergarten on a nonsectarian basis at that location.

Note: Three different fundraising tokens were issued, all of which contain the address of the day school on Montgomery Street as well as the addresses of the orphanage on Plainview Avenue and Central Avenue, in Far Rockaway. The most common of the three tokens was apparently issued in connection with the August 1923 fund drive for the completion of that building, and this token was apparently issued at a later date in connection with a lesser fund drive.
Stkp
JCT_Hebrew_Kindergarten_B.JPG
Hebrew Kindergarten & Infants Home (New York , N.Y. & Far Rockaway, Queens County, N.Y.)111 viewsAE token, 32.5 mm., undated.

Obv: HEBREW KINDERGARTEN & INFANTS HOME and 35 & 37 MONTGOMERY ST. N.Y.C./CENTRAL & PLAINVIEW AVES. FAR ROCKAWAY, along toothed rim, bust of boy facing within laureate wreath in center.

Rev: HAVE A HEART/HELP THE/ORPHANS/ -- AND --/GOD WILL/HELP YOU, within laureate wreath, GOOD LUCK COIN along toothed rim, beneath.

Ref: Kaplan, Steven H.. “Great Appeal, Kindergarten Tokens Asked for Support,” The Shekel, XLIV No. 1 (January-February 2011) 49-53, Figure 2 (this token).

Note: The Hebrew Kindergarten and Day Nursery Association was established in 1905 at 29 Montgomery Street as a nursery for the care of children of working mothers. It purchased 35 and 37 Montgomery Street in 1913 for the construction of a three-story building, which was dedicated in May 1914. In November 1918, it opened a ward for children whose mothers had influenza, and also began to care for children whose mothers had died during the epidemic. By then, there had already been a fund drive in August 1918 to raise $50,000 for an orphanage at Far Rockaway, and another fund drive, to raise $100,000 for the completion of its new building. It was then known as the Hebrew Kindergarten, Day and Night Nursery. It formally changed its name to Hebrew Kindergarten & Infants Home, Inc. in August 1925, although it was apparently using that name as early as 1923. Its infant home in Far Rockaway was at the intersection of Plainview Avenue and Central Avenue/Beach 20th Street, and an address of both 310 Central Avenue and 310 Beach 20th Street. It still operates an early childhood program/day care program for ages pre-kindergarten through kindergarten on a nonsectarian basis at that location.

Note: Three different fundraising tokens were issued, all of which contain the address of the day school on Montgomery Street as well as the addresses of the orphanage on Plainview Avenue and Central Avenue, in Far Rockaway. The most common of the three tokens was apparently issued in connection with the August 1923 fund drive for the completion of that building, and this token was apparently issued at a later date in connection with a lesser fund drive.
Stkp
JCT_Hebrew_Kindergarten_A.JPG
Hebrew Kindergarten & Infants Home (New York , N.Y. & Far Rockaway, Queens County, N.Y.)85 viewsAE token, 32.5 mm., undated (probably ca. 1923).

Obv: HEBREW KINDERGARTEN & INFANTS HOME and 35 & 37 MONTGOMERY ST. N.Y.C./CENTRAL & PLAINVIEW AVES. FAR ROCKAWAY, along toothed rim, girl standing with outstretched arms within solid laureate wreath in center.

Rev: HAVE A HEART/HELP THE/ORPHANS/ -- AND --/GOD WILL/HELP YOU, within solid laureate wreath, GOOD LUCK COIN along toothed rim, beneath.

Ref: Kaplan, Steven H.. “Great Appeal, Kindergarten Tokens Asked for Support,” The Shekel, XLIV No. 1 (January-February 2011) 49-53, Figure 1 (this token); Meshorer, Coins Reveal 144.

Note: The Hebrew Kindergarten and Day Nursery Association was established in 1905 at 29 Montgomery Street as a nursery for the care of children of working mothers. It purchased 35 and 37 Montgomery Street in 1913 for the construction of a three-story building, which was dedicated in May 1914. In November 1918, it opened a ward for children whose mothers had influenza, and also began to care for children whose mothers had died during the epidemic. By then, there had already been a fund drive in August 1918 to raise $50,000 for an orphanage at Far Rockaway, and another fund drive, to raise $100,000 for the completion of its new building. It was then known as the Hebrew Kindergarten, Day and Night Nursery. It formally changed its name to Hebrew Kindergarten & Infants Home, Inc. in August 1925, although it was apparently using that name as early as 1923. Its infant home in Far Rockaway was at the intersection of Plainview Avenue and Central Avenue/Beach 20th Street, and an address of both 310 Central Avenue and 310 Beach 20th Street. It still operates an early childhood program/day care program for ages pre-kindergarten through kindergarten on a nonsectarian basis at that location.
Note: Three different fundraising tokens were issued, all of which contain the address of the day school on Montgomery Street as well as the addresses of the orphanage on Plainview Avenue and Central Avenue, in Far Rockaway. This is the most common of the three tokens, and apparently issued in connection with the August 1923 fund drive for the completion of that building.
Stkp
Antonius_Felix,_h_1348.jpg
Hendin 1348 Antonius Felix, Crossed Sheilds128 viewsAntonius Felix. AE Prutah. 54 A.D.. Caesarea Mint. Obverse: (Nero Claudius Caesar), two oblong shields and spears crossed. Reverse: (Britannicus) above, (year 14 of Caesar), six-branched palm tree bearing two bunches of dates. Ex Amphora.

Acts 24:24. Paul appeared before Felix during his imprisonment in Caesarea.
1 commentsLucas H
Medaillen_Artemis_01_Henri_II_fac.jpg
Henri II of France, Artemis5 viewsHenri II
Obv.: + HENRICVS. II. GALLIAR - REX CHRISTIANISS. PP, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust of Henry II facing right.
Rev.: .NOMEN. AD *ASTRA. 1552, Diana walking left front, arrow in right hand, bow in left hand, building and tree in background.
From the collection of Baron Auguste Gaspard Louis Desnoyers (1779-1857)
Possibly an old restrike
Ref.: Mazerolle, Medailleurs francais. No. 112, Appel (HENRICVS II) 3
shanxi
184~2.JPG
Henri III, Roi de France (1574-1589) - Demi franc4 viewsDemi-franc au col plat, argent, 6,98 g.
Lettre X sous le buste pour l'atelier d'Amiens.
A/ HENRICVS III D G FRANC ET POL REX, buste d'Henri III, lauré, à droite.
R/ SIT NOMEN DOMINI BENEDICTVM 1597, croix feuillue centrée d'un H
Réfs : Sb 4716
Gabalor
084~3.JPG
Henri III, Roi de France (1574-1589) - Demi franc3 viewsDemi-franc au col fraisé, argent, 6,98 g.
Lettre A sous le buste pour l'atelier de Paris.
A/ HENRICVS III D G FRAN ET POL REX, buste d'Henri III, lauré, à droite.
R/ SIT NOMEN DOMINI BENEDICTVM 1587, croix feuillue centrée d'un H
Réfs : Dup. 1131b
Gabalor
088~2.JPG
Henri III, Roi de France (1574-1589) - Demi franc4 viewsDemi-franc au col plat, argent, 5,56 g.
Lettre B sous le buste pour l'atelier de Rouen.
A/ HENRICVS III D G FRANCOR ET POL REX, buste d'Henri III, lauré, à droite.
R/ SIT NOMEN DOMINI BENEDICTVM 1587, croix feuillue centrée d'un H
Réfs : Sb 4716
Gabalor
023~0.JPG
Henri III, Roi de France (1574-1589) - Franc9 viewsFranc au col fraisé, argent, 13,43 g.
Lettre M sous le buste pour l'atelier de Toulouse. S en fin de légende du revers pour le maitre Louis de Saporta (1585-1590). Etoile en fin de légende au revers pour le graveur Jean Calmetes (1584-1586)
A/ HENRICVS III D G FRANC ET POL REX 1585, buste d'Henri III, lauré, à droite.
R/ SIT NOMEN DOMINI BENEDICTVM S, croix feuillue centrée d'un H
Réfs : Duplessy 1130a ; Sb 4720
Gabalor
177~1.JPG
Henri III, Roi de France (1574-1589) - Franc6 viewsFranc au col plat, argent, 13,79 g.
Lettre L sous le buste pour l'atelier de Bayonne.
A/ HENRICVS III D G FRANC ET POL RX 1582, buste d'Henri III, lauré, à droite.
R/ SIT NOMEN DOMINI BENEDICTVM, croix feuillue centrée d'un H
Réfs : Sb 4714
Gabalor
049~4.JPG
Henri III, Roi de France (1574-1589) - Quart de franc10 viewsQuart de franc au col plat, argent, 2,77 g.
Lettre M sous le buste pour Toulouse. R en fin de légende au revers pour le maître E. Faure de la Roque (1591-1592). Rose après le R pour le graveur ? (1590-1591).
A/ HENRICVS III D G FRANC ET POL REX 1591, buste d'Henri III à droite.
R/ SIT NOMEN DOMINI BENEDICTVM R, croix feuillue centrée d'un H.
Réfs : Sb 4718.
Gabalor
Licinius-I_AE-3-Follis_IMP-LICI-NIVS-AVG-2--_PROVIDEN-TIAE-AVGG_7-lay_HT-E_RIC-VII-15_Heraclea_316-17-AD_R2_Q-001_6h_19mm_3,59g-s~0.jpg
Heraclea, 132 Licinius l. (308-324 A.D.), RIC VII 015, AE-3 Follis, -/-//HTЄ, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate with tree turrets, R2!!66 viewsHeraclea, 132 Licinius l. (308-324 A.D.), RIC VII 015, AE-3 Follis, -/-//HTЄ, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate with tree turrets, R2!!
avers: IMP LICI NIVS AVG, 2, J1l., Laureate, draped bust left, holding mappa and sceptre on globe.
reverse: PROVIDEN TIAE AVG G, Campgate with three turrets, no dors, 7 layers of stones.
exergue: -/-//HTЄ, diameter: 19mm, weight: 3,59g, axis: 6h,
mint: Heraclea, 5th. off., date: 316-317 A.D., ref: RIC VII 015, p544, R2!!
Q-001
quadrans
Licinius-I_AE-3-Follis_IMP-LICI-NIVS-AVG-2-J1_l_PROVIDEN-TIAE-AVGG_MHT-Epsilon_7layer_RIC-VII-17-p545-5th-off_Heraclea_316-17-AD_R4_Q-001_5h_19mm_2,51ga-s.jpg
Heraclea, 132 Licinius l. (308-324 A.D.), RIC VII 017, AE-3 Follis, -/-//MHTЄ, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate with tree turrets, R4!!!66 viewsHeraclea, 132 Licinius l. (308-324 A.D.), RIC VII 017, AE-3 Follis, -/-//MHTЄ, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate with tree turrets, R4!!!
avers: IMP LICI NIVS AVG, 2, J1l., Laureate, draped bust left, holding mappa and sceptre on globe.
reverse: PROVIDEN TIAE AVG G, Campgate with three turrets, no dors, 7 layers of stones.
exergue: -/-//MHTЄ, diameter: 19mm, weight: 2,51g, axis: 5h,
mint: Heraclea, 5th. off., date: 316-317 A.D., ref: RIC VII 017, p545, R4!!!
Q-001
quadrans
Licinius_I__Heraclea,_RIC_VII_17A,_AE-3-Follis,_IMP_LICI_NIVS_AVG_2-J1_l,_PROVIDEN_TIAE_AVG_G,_MHTA,_5_layer,_1st_off,_317_AD,_Q-001,_6h,_18,5-19,5mm,_2,52-s~0.jpg
Heraclea, 132 Licinius l. (308-324 A.D.), RIC VII 017, AE-3 Follis, -/-//MHTA, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate with tree turrets, #1109 viewsHeraclea, 132 Licinius l. (308-324 A.D.), RIC VII 017, AE-3 Follis, -/-//MHTA, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate with tree turrets, #1
avers: IMP LICI NIVS AVG, 2, J1l., Laureate, draped bust left, holding mappa and sceptre on globe.
reverse: PROVIDEN TIAE AVG G, Campgate with three turrets, no dors, 5 layers of stones.
exergue: -/-//MHTA, diameter: 18,5-19,5mm, weight: 2,52g, axis: 6h,
mint: Heraclea, 1st. off., date: 316-317 A.D., ref: RIC VII 017, p545,
Q-001
quadrans
132_Licinius_l_,_Heraclea_RIC_VII_039,_AE-3,_IMP_LICINIVS_AVG,_PROVIDENTIAE_AVG_G,_SMHA,__317-8_AD,R4_Q-001,_0h,_18-19mm,_3,60gx-s~0.jpg
Heraclea, 132 Licinius l. (308-324 A.D.), RIC VII 039, AE-3 Follis, -/-//SMHA, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate with tree turrets, R4! #193 viewsHeraclea, 132 Licinius l. (308-324 A.D.), RIC VII 039, AE-3 Follis, -/-//SMHA, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate with tree turrets, R4! #1
avers: IMP LICI NIVS AVG, 2, J1l., Laureate, draped bust left, holding mappa and scepter on globe.
reverse: PROVIDEN TIAE AVG G, Campgate with three turrets, no dors, 6 layers of stones.
exergue: -/-//SMHA, diameter: 18,0-19,0mm, weight: 3,60g, axis: 0h,
mint: Heraclea, date: 318-320 A.D., ref: RIC VII 039, R4!
Q-001
quadrans
J11E-Agrippa II.jpg
Herod Agrippa II, (Herodian Tetrarch), Domitian, Æ, 55-95 CE46 viewsBronze hemiassarion of Agrippa II, 55-95 CE, struck with portrait of Domitian year 25 = 84/5, 15.9 mm, 2.69 grams.

Obverse: Laureate bust Domitian to right.
Reverse: Palm tree.

One of the SCARCE dates in this series.

Reference: Hendin 607, AJC 28-29, RPC 2267-2268, TJC 156, SNG 6 - 63.

Added to collection: January 16, 2006
Daniel Friedman
254c.jpg
hhj8.26.04.0110 viewsElagabalus
Nicopolis

Obv: AVT K M AVP ANTΩNEINOC, laureate draped cuirassed bust right, seen from behind.
Rev:VΠ NOBIOV POVΦOV NIKO[ΠOΛITΩNΠPOC →ICTPO], Athena seated left with left hand resting on spear, right hand feeding snake from patera coiled around tree stump, shield on ground beside her.
27 mm, 12.00 gms

Hristova-Hoeft-Jekov 8.26.4.1
Charles M
841.jpg
hhj8.26.04.1012 viewsElagabalus
Nicopolis

Obv: [AVT K M] AVPH ANTΩ[NEINOC], laureate draped cuirassed bust right, seen from behind.
Rev:[VΠ NOBIOV] POVΦOV NIKOΠOΛITΩN →ΠPOCICT, Athena standing left, patera in right hand feeding snake coiled around olive tree, her shield behind her.
26 mm, 9.43 gms

Hristova-Hoeft-Jekov 8.26.4.10
Charles M
1147c.jpg
hhj8.26.43.012 viewsElagabalus
Nicopolis

Obv: AVT K M AVP ANTΩNEINOC, radiate draped cuirassed bust right, seen from front.
Rev: [VΠ NO]BIOV POVΦOV NIKOΠOΛITΩN →ΠPOCICTP →ON, Mountain-god, Haimos standing left leaning on rock, right hand on head, left arm on tree behind; behind him stag leaping right, below bear right coming out of cave.
26 mm, 12.87 gms

Hristova-Hoeft-Jekov 8.26.43.1
Charles M
Hiempsal.jpg
Hiempsal II - Horse galloping87 viewsObverse: Veiled head of Demeter r., wreathed with corn
Reverse: Free running horse r., Punic H below, palm tree behind
Date : c. 106-60 BC
Reference : Mazzard-81, Muller-48
Weight : 6.87g
Acquired: 29/04/04

Comments : AE 20, Hiempsal II. was the son of Gauda, the half-brother of Jugurtha. In 88 B.C., after the triumph of Sulla, when the younger Marius fled from Rome to Africa, Hiempsal received him with apparent friendliness, his real intention being to detain him as a prisoner. Marius discovered this intention in time and made good his escape with the assistance of the kings daughter. In 81 Hiempsal was driven from his throne by the Numidians themselves, or by Hiarbas, ruler of part of the kingdom, supported by Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus, the leader of the Marian party in Africa. Soon afterwards Pompey was sent to Africa by Sulla to reinstate Hiempsal, wh
1 commentsBolayi
MCSI-134.jpg
Hiranyaka: Anonyous (ca. 3rd-4th century AD) Pb Unit (MCSI-134)22 viewsObv: Horse standing right facing pellet (solar symbol?)
Rev: Tree-in-railing left and six-arched hill right, with river below
SpongeBob
1239.jpg
hj6.28.07.0410 viewsElagabalus and Julia Maesa
Marcianopolis

Obv: AVT K M [AVPH ANTΩNE]INOC AVΓ IOVΛIA MAICA AVΓ., laureate draped and cuirassed bust of Elagabalus on left facing draped bust of Julia Maesa on right .
Rev: [VΠ IOVΛ ANT] CEΛ-EVKOV MAPKIANOΠ →OΛITΩN, Apollo, naked, standing facing, head right, with arm over his head, holding bow, serpent climbing tree to right, E to left.
27 mm, 11.71 gms

Hristova-Jekov 6.28.7.4
Charles M
683c.jpg
hj6.28.07.0516 viewsElagabalus and Julia Maesa
Marcianopolis

Obv: AVT K M AVP ANTΩNEINOC AVΓ IOVΛIA MAICA AVΓ., laureate head of Elagabalus on left facing draped bust of Julia Maesa on right .
Rev: VΠ IOVΛ ANT CEΛEV KOV MAPKIANOΠOΛIT(ΩN), Apollo, naked, standing facing, head right, with arm over his head, holding bow, serpent climbing tree to right, E to left.
28 mm, 13.39 gms

Hristova-Jekov 6.28.7.5
Charles M
1285.jpg
hj6.28.07.05_213 viewsElagabalus and Julia Maesa
Marcianopolis

Obv: AVT K M AVP ANTΩ(NE)INOC AVΓ IOVΛIA MAICA AVΓ., laureate head of Elagabalus on left facing draped bust of Julia Maesa on right .
Rev: VΠ IOVΛ ANTCEΛEV KOV MAPKIANOΠOΛIT(ΩN), Apollo, naked, standing facing, head right, with arm over his head, holding bow, serpent climbing tree to right, E to left.
28 mm, 13.82 gms

Hristova-Jekov 6.28.7.5
1 commentsCharles M
JCT_Home_of_Old_Israel.JPG
Home of Old Israel (New York, New York)140 viewsAE token, 32.5 mm., undated (but probably minted in 1928).

Obv: תשליכני לצת זקנה אל [Do not cast us off in our old age. (Psalm 71:9)] and 204 HENRY ST., N.Y.C. along toothed rim, TO PITY/IS HUMAN/TO HELP/IS/GODLIKE/HOME OF/OLD ISRAEL, between busts of woman and bearded man.

Rev: HELP US BUILD OUR NEW HOME and 301-2-3 EAST BWAY., N.Y.C. along toothed rim with rosettes between, CONTRIBUTION.ONE DOLLAR, beneath building.

Ref: Meshorer, Coins Reveal 146; Randolph, Marc A. “Jewish Homes for the Aged Tokens,” The Shekel, XXXVI No. 3 (May-June 2003) 14-19, Figure 7.

Note: Founded in 1922 by real estate developer Louis Singer as a privately-endowed non-sectarian institution providing free housing, meals, activities and care of the aged, the Home moved from Henry Street to 70 Jefferson Street on March 31, 1929. It relocated to Far Rockaway, Queens in 1965. In the early 1970s the Home merged into the Jewish Association for Services for the Aged.

Note: In 1922, the Rabbi Isaac Elchanan Theological Seminary (the rabbinical seminary of Yeshiva University) was located at 301-303 East Broadway, and only moved to 186th Street and Amsterdam Avenue in 1928/1929. The Home must not have also occupied the East Broadway address, therefore, until 1928/1929. Thus, the token can be tentatively dated to 1928 (while the Home was still located at Henry Street but after it expanded into East Broadway). It was probably issued in connection with the 1928 fund drive for the Jefferson Street property.
Stkp
JCT_Home_of_the_Sons___Daughters_Rec.JPG
Home of the Sons and Daughters of Israel (New York, New York)80 viewsAE token, 19 x 44.5 mm. (rectangular), 11.429 gr., undated (but probably issued ca. 1935).

Obv: HOME OF SONS/AND DAUGHTERS/OF ISRAEL above building 232 E. 12 ST./NEW YORK, N.Y., below building.

Rev: BUY A BRICK/$1.00/HELP US AND/GOD/WILL/HELP YOU between busts of woman and bearded man.

Ref: Meshorer, Coins Reveal 140; Friedenberg, Jewish Minters [?] 476; Leonard, Jr., Robert D. “Home of the Sons and Daughters of Israel: Its History and Contribution Tokens.” The Shekel, XXXVIII No. 6 (Nov. to Dec. 2005). pp. 14-23; Randolph, Marc A. “Jewish Homes for the Aged Tokens,” The Shekel, XXXVI No. 3 (May-June 2003) 14-19, Figure 6; ANS Database 2000.1.261.

Note: Organized in 1909 and incorporated in 1912, the Home acquired 230 East Tenth Street in December 1914. The adjacent 232 East Tenth Street was acquired by April 1915, and in May 1919 plans for a new building, encompassing both addresses, were approved. On June 21, 1925 the Home expanded into yet a third adjacent building on East Tenth Street. On December 22, 1935, it relocated to a larger building at 232-38 East Twelfth Street, where it remained in operation until the mid-1960s.

Note: This token was issued after the acquisition of the East Twelfth Street building, in or about 1935.
Stkp
JCT_Home_of_the_Sons___Daughters_C.JPG
Home of the Sons and Daughters of Israel (New York, New York)145 viewsAE token, 32.7 mm., 10.639 gr., undated (but probably issued in 1923 or 1928).

Obv: THE GREAT DRIVE FOR A HOME FOR THE AGED and 232 E. 10 ST., along toothed rim, HELP US/BUILD above building and HOME OF THE/SONS AND DAUGHTERS/OF ISRAEL below building.

Rev: CONTRIBUTION and ONE DOLLAR along toothed rim, HELP US/AND/GOD/WILL/HELP YOU between busts of woman and bearded man.

Ref: Meshorer, Coins Reveal 147; Kenny, So-Called Dollars 229; Leonard, Jr., Robert D. “Home of the Sons and Daughters of Israel: Its History and Contribution Tokens.” The Shekel, XXXVIII No. 6 (Nov. to Dec. 2005). pp. 14-23 (this token is depicted as Obverse C); Randolph, Marc A. “Jewish Homes for the Aged Tokens,” The Shekel, XXXVI No. 3 (May-June 2003) 14-19, Figure 5; ANS Database 2000.1.511.

Note: Organized in 1909 and incorporated in 1912, the Home acquired 230 East Tenth Street in December 1914. The adjacent 232 East Tenth Street was acquired by April 1915, and in May 1919 plans for a new building, encompassing both addresses, were approved. On June 21, 1925 the Home expanded into yet a third adjacent building on East Tenth Street. On December 22, 1935, it relocated to a larger building at 232-38 East Twelfth Street, where it remained in operation until the mid-1960s.

Note: There was a $400,000 fund drive in 1923 and a $100,000 fund drive in 1928, and this token could have been issued in connection with either of those events.

Note: Leonard noted that these tokens were made in such large numbers that three obverse dies were required (the designation of obverse and reverse on these is arbitrary, and I refer to the side which Leonard termed the obverse as the reverse). The differences noted by Leonard pertain to the distance between the rim and the words CONTRIBUTION and ONE DOLLAR, the relief of the woman, especially at the shoulder, and the man’s bust. But there are also others. This token is Leonard Obverse C (described by Leonard as CONTRIBUTION/ONE DOLLAR far from rim, woman’s shoulder in low relief, man’s bust retouched).

ex Robert J. Leonard, Jr. collection.
Stkp
JCT_Home_of_the_Sons___Daughters_B.JPG
Home of the Sons and Daughters of Israel (New York, New York)89 viewsAE token, 32.7 mm., 10.639 gr., undated (but probably issued in 1923 or 1928).

Obv: THE GREAT DRIVE FOR A HOME FOR THE AGED and 232 E. 10 ST., along toothed rim, HELP US/BUILD above building and HOME OF THE/SONS AND DAUGHTERS/OF ISRAEL below building.

Rev: CONTRIBUTION and ONE DOLLAR along toothed rim, HELP US/AND/GOD/WILL/HELP YOU between busts of woman and bearded man.

Ref: Meshorer, Coins Reveal 147; Kenny, So-Called Dollars 229; Leonard, Jr., Robert D. “Home of the Sons and Daughters of Israel: Its History and Contribution Tokens.” The Shekel, XXXVIII No. 6 (Nov. to Dec. 2005). pp. 14-23 (this token is depicted as Obverse B); Randolph, Marc A. “Jewish Homes for the Aged Tokens,” The Shekel, XXXVI No. 3 (May-June 2003) 14-19, Figure 5; ANS Database 2000.1.511.

Note: Organized in 1909 and incorporated in 1912, the Home acquired 230 East Tenth Street in December 1914. The adjacent 232 East Tenth Street was acquired by April 1915, and in May 1919 plans for a new building, encompassing both addresses, were approved. On June 21, 1925 the Home expanded into yet a third adjacent building on East Tenth Street. On December 22, 1935, it relocated to a larger building at 232-38 East Twelfth Street, where it remained in operation until the mid-1960s.

Note: There was a $400,000 fund drive in 1923 and a $100,000 fund drive in 1928, and this token could have been issued in connection with either of those events.

Note: Leonard noted that these tokens were made in such large numbers that three obverse dies were required (the designation of obverse and reverse on these is arbitrary, and I refer to the side which Leonard termed the obverse as the reverse). The differences noted by Leonard pertain to the distance between the rim and the words CONTRIBUTION and ONE DOLLAR, the relief of the woman, especially at the shoulder, and the man’s bust. But there are also others. This token is Leonard Obverse B (described by Leonard as CONTRIBUTION/ONE DOLLAR near rim, woman’s shoulder in low relief).

ex Robert J. Leonard, Jr. collection.
Stkp
JCT_Home_of_the_Sons___Daughters_A.JPG
Home of the Sons and Daughters of Israel (New York, New York)83 viewsAE token, 32.7 mm., 10.639 gr., undated (but probably issued in 1923 or 1928).

Obv: THE GREAT DRIVE FOR A HOME FOR THE AGED and 232 E. 10 ST., along toothed rim, HELP US/BUILD above building and HOME OF THE/SONS AND DAUGHTERS/OF ISRAEL below building.

Rev: CONTRIBUTION and ONE DOLLAR along toothed rim, HELP US/AND/GOD/WILL/HELP YOU between busts of woman and bearded man.

Ref: Meshorer, Coins Reveal 147; Kenny, So-Called Dollars 229; Leonard, Jr., Robert D. “Home of the Sons and Daughters of Israel: Its History and Contribution Tokens.” The Shekel, XXXVIII No. 6 (Nov. to Dec. 2005). pp. 14-23 (this token is depicted as Obverse A); Randolph, Marc A. “Jewish Homes for the Aged Tokens,” The Shekel, XXXVI No. 3 (May-June 2003) 14-19, Figure 5; ANS Database 2000.1.511.

Note: Organized in 1909 and incorporated in 1912, the Home acquired 230 East Tenth Street in December 1914. The adjacent 232 East Tenth Street was acquired by April 1915, and in May 1919 plans for a new building, encompassing both addresses, were approved. On June 21, 1925 the Home expanded into yet a third adjacent building on East Tenth Street. On December 22, 1935, it relocated to a larger building at 232-38 East Twelfth Street, where it remained in operation until the mid-1960s.

Note: There was a $400,000 fund drive in 1923 and a $100,000 fund drive in 1928, and this token could have been issued in connection with either of those events.

Note: Leonard noted that these tokens were made in such large numbers that three obverse dies were required (the designation of obverse and reverse on these is arbitrary, and I refer to the side which Leonard termed the obverse as the reverse). The differences noted by Leonard pertain to the distance between the rim and the words CONTRIBUTION and ONE DOLLAR, the relief of the woman, especially at the shoulder, and the man’s bust. But there are also others. This token is Leonard Obverse A (described by Leonard as CONTRIBUTION/ONE DOLLAR far from rim, woman in high relief).

ex Robert J. Leonard, Jr. collection.
Stkp
Horace_Mann_HOF_Medal.JPG
Horace Mann, 1970 NYU Hall of Fame Medal12 viewsObv: HALL OF FAME FOR GREAT AMERICANS AN NEW YORK UNIVERSITY - HORACE MANN - 1796 - 1859, bust of Horace Mann.

Rev: DOCENDO DISCIMUS "We learn by teaching", A man tying a young tree to a stake so that it will grow straight; a depiction of the maxim "As the twig is bent, so grows the tree.

Designer: C. Paul Jennewein, Mint: Medallic Art Company

Bronze, 44.5 mm
Matt Inglima
HUNGARY CHARLES ROBERT H453.jpg
HUNGARY - Carl Robert129 viewsHUNGARY - Carl Robert (Karoly Robert) 1307-1342. Silver Denar. Obv.: Crowned bust of king left. 'KARVL REX" Rev.: 2 Peacocks back to back, heads turned toward each other, tree in center between them.
Reference: Huszar 453.
Thanks to Cibalia for the attribution!
dpaul7
Huszár-267.jpg
Hungary: Andrew II (1205-1235) Obolus (Huszár-267, Unger-161)21 viewsObv: Tower above crescent, flanked by profiles facing left and right.
Rev: Panther facing left under branched tree with leaves, Hebrew letter ט (tet) above.
SpongeBob
HUN_Andras_II_Huszar_266.JPG
Huszár 266, Unger 160, Réthy I 22641 viewsHungary. Andreas II (András in Hun.) (1205-1235). AR denar, 14 mm.

Obv: Tower above crescent above star, flanked by profiles facing left and right, pellets above.

Rev: Panther facing left under branched tree with leaves, rosette above in left field and Hebrew letter ט (tet) above in right field.

Issued by Teka, who was a kammergraf in 1232 and 1235-1245 (as determined by Rádóczy and Nagy, per Friedenberg; also per Pohl).

The coins of Andreas II were struck with a fineness of 0.7500 silver. They can be divide into four weight groups (with average weights of the denars being 0.53, 0.59, 0.86 and 0.79 grams). The heaviest coins were apparently issued between 1222 and 1230 (per Huszár at 11).

Huszár rarity rating 6.
Stkp
HUN_Andras_II_Huszar_267.JPG
Huszár 267, Unger 161, Réthy I 22728 viewsHungary. Andreas II (András in Hun.) (1205-1235). AR obulus, 11 mm.

Obv: Tower above crescent above ?, flanked by profiles facing left and right.

Rev: Panther facing left under branched tree with leaves, Hebrew letter ט (tet) above.

Issued by Teka, who was a kammergraf in 1232 and 1235-1245 (as determined by Rádóczy and Nagy, per Friedenberg; also per Pohl).

The coins of Andreas II were struck with a fineness of 0.7500 silver. They can be divide into four weight groups (with average weights of the denars being 0.53, 0.59, 0.86 and 0.79 grams). The heaviest coins were apparently issued between 1222 and 1230 (per Huszár at 11).

Huszár rarity rating 9.
Stkp
constans_antiochia_hut.jpg
Hut type, Antioch, ANΓ 9 viewsConstans, Billon centenionalis, Hut type, Antioch Mint, Officina 3, AD 348-350. 23mm, 2.75g. 
Obverse: Pearl-diademed, draped, cuirassed bust left, globe in right hand 
D N CONSTA-NS P F AVG 
Reverse: Helmeted soldier, spear in left hand, advancing right, head left; with his right hand he leads a small bare-headed figure from a hut beneath a tree. The spear points downwards, between the soldier's legs. 
FEL TEMP REPA-RATIO 
Exergue: ANΓ 
Reference: RIC VIII Antioch 126. Ex MoremothPodiceps
constantius_II_hut_aqui.jpg
Hut type, Aquileia, AQP(dot)7 viewsConstantius II, Billon centenionalis, Hut type, Aquileia Mint, Officina 1, AD 348-350. 20mm, 3.23g. 
Obverse: Pearl-diademed, draped, cuirassed bust left, globe in right hand 
D N CONSTAN-TIVS P F AVG 
Reverse: Helmeted soldier, spear in left hand, advancing right, head left; with his right hand he leads a small bare-headed figure from a hut beneath a tree. The spear points upwards and to the right. 
FEL TEMP REPAR-ATIO 
Field Marks: None. 
Exergue: AQP(dot) 
Reference: RIC VIII Aquileia 102. Ex MoremothPodiceps
constans_aquileia_hut.jpg
Hut type, Aquileia, AQS dot6 viewsConstans, Billon centenionalis, Hut type, Aquileia Mint, Officina 2, AD 348-350. 19x21mm, 3.34g. 
Obverse: Pearl-diademed, draped, cuirassed bust left, globe in right hand 
D N CONSTA-NS P F AVG 
Reverse: Helmeted soldier, spear in left hand, advancing right, head left; with his right hand he leads a small bare-headed figure from a hut beneath a tree. The spear points upwards and to the right. 
FEL TEMP REPAR-ATIO 
Exergue: AQS (dot) 
Reference: RIC VIII Aquileia 103. Ex MoremothPodiceps
constantius_II_parl.jpg
Hut type, Arelate, PARL6 viewsConstantius II. 348-350 AD. Centenionalis. Arelate (Arles) Mint, Officina 1, 348-350 AD. 20x22mm, 3.48g. 
Obverse: Pearl-diademed, draped, cuirassed bust left, globe in right hand 
D N CONSTAN-TIVS P F AVG 
Reverse: Helmeted soldier, spear in left hand, advancing right, head left; with his right hand he leads a small bare-headed figure from a hut beneath a tree. The spear points downwards and to the left. FEL•TEMP•REPAR-ATIO 
Exergue: PARL 
Reference: RIC VIII Arles 104 (rated R2). Ex MoremothPodiceps