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Search results - "theodosius"
Thedosius.JPG
27 viewsTheodosius I. AE4. Antioch. DN THEODO-SIVS PF AVG, pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right / VOT X MV dot LT XX in four lines within wreath. Mintmark AN gamma. RIC IX Antioch 65b var (MV dot LT).

RIC 65b
Jon the Lecturer
THEODOSIUS_AE_3__19mm_2_76gr__USS6_39.jpg
15 viewsAntonivs Protti
THEODOSIUS_I_AE_3__18mm_2_47gr__USS6_39.jpg
15 viewsAntonivs Protti
THEODOSIUS_I_AE_3__17mm_2_84gr__USS7_99.jpg
9 viewsAntonivs Protti
Theodosius.JPG
16 viewsAntonivs Protti
110088LG.jpg
11 viewsTheodosius I. A.D. 379-395. Æ nummus (13 mm, 1.3412 g, 12 h). Heraclea, A.D. 388-392. D N THEODO-SIVS P F AVG, diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of Theodosius I right / SALVS REI-PVBLICAE, Victory advancing left, head right, holding trophy over shoulder and dragging captive; SMHB. RIC 26b.2. Quant.Geek
Theodosius_AE4_RIC_IX_Siscia_39b.jpg
82 Theodosius I41 viewsAE4, Siscia Mint
Bust right / Victory advancing left; mintmark BSIS
VF with earthen highlights
RIC IX Siscia 39b. Sear (2014) 20570.
1 commentsSosius
83353q00_Theodosius_RIC_IX_68a,_F.jpg
GLORIA ROMANORVM, ANT“Δ” in ex; RIC IX 68a Antioch27 viewsTheodosius I, 19 January 379 - 17 January 395 A.D. Bronze AE 2, RIC IX 68a, Antioch mint, 5.657g, 22.6mm, 180o, 392-395 A.D.; obverse D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG, pearl diademed draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse GLORIA ROMANORVM, Emperor standing facing, head right holding standard and globe, ANT“Δ” in exergue. Ex FORVM, photo credit FORVMPodiceps
hon403.jpg
Honorius RIC 403 Cyzicus41 viewsHonorius bronze AE4
Obverse: D N HONORIUS P F AVG, pearl diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right, star in left field.
Reverse: GLORIA ROMANORVM, Honorius and Theodosius II standing facing, heads confronted, each holding a spear vertically in outer hand and resting inner hand on shield. The emperor on the right is slightly smaller than the other.
SMK in ex. Cyzicus 15.24 mm, 2.0 g.
NORMAN K
copper.jpg
Theodosius42 views Theodosius AE4, struck 378-383 at Cyzicus mint.
Obv: D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG, perl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: VOT X MVLT XX in wreath, SMKA in exergue.
RIC IX Cyzicus 21c, common.
b70
theo26b.jpg
Theodosius I, RIC IX 26b Cyzicus20 viewsBronze AE4, 388-392 CE.
Obverse: D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG, pearl diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: SALVS REIPBLICAE, Victory walking left, holding trophy and dragging captive. Chi-ro in left field
SMKB in ex. Cyzicus mint 13.5 mm, 1.4 g.
NORMAN K
theo54c.jpg
Theodosius I, RIC IX 54c Constantinople23 viewsBronze AE2, 378-382 CE.
Obverse: D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG, pearl diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: REPARATIO REIPVB, Emperor standing left raising up kneeling woman with turret with right hand & holding Victory on a globe.
CON in ex. Constantinople mint 24 mm, 3.7 g.
NORMAN K
theodosius.jpg
(0379) THEODOSIUS I37 views379 - 395 AD
AE 22.5 mm 5.76 g
O: DN THEODOSIVS PF AVG
DIAD DR CUIR BUIST R
R: REPARATIO REIPVB
THEODOSIUS STANDING L HOLDING VICTORY ON GLOBE & RAISING KNEELING WOMAN
ASIS IN EXE
SISCIA
laney
theodosius_res.jpg
(0379) THEODOSIUS I36 views379 - 395 AD
AE 12.6 mm, 1.20 g
O: Pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right
R: Victory advancing left, dragging captive behind her.
laney
THEODOSIUS_VOT_RES.jpg
(0379) THEODOSIUS I18 views379-395 AD
AE 13 mm 1.48 g
O: DN THEODOSIVS PF AVG, Diademed, draped & cuirassed bust r.
R: VOT / X / MVLT / XX in wreath
laney
theod_res.jpg
(0379) THEODOSIUS I38 views379 - 395 AD
AE 13 mm 0.92 g
O: DN THEODOSIVS PF AVG, pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right
R: SALVS REIPVBLICAE. Victory advancing left with trophy & captive; Chi-Rho in l. field. SMKA in ex.
CYZICUS MINT
laney
theodosius_resb.jpg
(0379) THEODOSIUS I38 views379 - 395 AD
AE 13 mm 1.22 g
O: DN THEODOSIVS PF AVG, pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right
R: SALVS REIPVBLICAE. Victory advancing left with trophy & captive; Chi-Rho in l. field. SMKA in ex.
CYZICUS MINT

laney
theod_galleyb.jpg
(0379) THEODOSIUS I21 views379 - 395 AD
struck 383-388 AD
AE 21.5 mm max., 4.06 g
O: D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG - Helmeted, draped, and cuirassed bust right
R: GLORIA ROMANORVM - Theodosius standing on a galley, with Victory at the helm, wreath in left field
laney
theod_concor_res.jpg
(0379) THEODOSIUS I24 views379 - 395 AD.
AE 17 mm, 1.77 g
O: DN THEODOSIVS PF AVG, rosette-diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right,
R: CONCORDIA AVGGG, Constantinopolis seated facing, turret on head, looking half right, holding sceptre, left hand on knee;
BSISC in exe.
Siscia mint
laney
theo_1_reparat_asisc_resb.jpg
(0379) THEODOSIUS I19 views379 - 396 AD
AE 23 mm; 3.12 g
O: D N THEODOSIVS PF AVG. Pearl diademed, draped and cuirasseed bust at right.
R: REPARATIO REI PVB, Theodosius standing front, head left, offering right hand to female on left to rise from kneeling position, in other hand he holds Victory on a globe. ASISC in exergue.
Siscia mint; RIC XI 26c
laney
theod_11_res.jpg
(0379) THEODOSIUS I29 views379 - 395 AD
AE 8 mm; 1.16 g
O: D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG, diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right;
R: SALVS REIPVBLICAE, Victory walking left, trophy in right over shoulder, dragging captive with left, christogram left, CONSA in ex
Constantinople mint;
laney
theo_salus.jpg
(0379) THEODOSIUS I23 views379 - 395 AD
AE 12 mm; 1.00 g
O: DN THEODOSIVS PF AVG, pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right
R: SALVS REIPVBLICAE Victory advancing left, holding trophy and dragging captive. Chi-rho in left field
Cyzicus mint
laney
theodos_salus_2.jpg
(0379) THEODOSIUS I26 views379 - 395 AD
AE 12.5 mm; 0.98 g
O: DN THEODOSIVS PF AVG, pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right
R: SALVS REIPVBLICAE Victory advancing left, holding trophy and dragging captive. Chi-rho in left field
Cyzicus mint
laney
theod_gloria.jpg
(0379) THEODOSIUS I19 views379 - 395 AD
AE 21 mm' 4.15 g
O: D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG, pearl diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right;
R: GLORIA ROMANORVM, emperor standing facing holding long scepter in right and globe in left
Heraclea mint
laney
theodosius_reparatio.jpg
(0379) THEODOSIUS I19 views379 - 395 AD
AE 23 mm; 4.36 g
O: DN THEODOSIVS P F AVG. Pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed bust at right.
R: REPA[RATIO REI PVB], Emperor standing facing, head left, holding Victory on globe in left hand and raising kneeling, turreted woman, with right hand
laney
AELIA_FLAC_.jpg
(0383) AELIA FLACCILLA66 views(wife of Theodosius I)
383 - 388 AD
AE 2, 5.45 g
O: AEL FLACCILLA, DIAD DR BUST R, SEEN FROM FRONT
R: SALVS REIPVBLICAE, VICTORY SEATED R INSCRIBING CHI RHO ON SHIELD SUPPORTED BY COLUMN, "T" IN RIGHT FIELD
ANTE IN EXE
ANTIOCH RIC 61
(OFFICINA E = 5)
(ex HJBerk)
laney
theo_i_salus_rei_res.jpg
(0388) THEODOSIUS I18 views388 - 392 AD
AE 14 mm; 1.3 g
O: DN THEODO-SIVS PF AVG, diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right
R: SALVS REI-PVBLICAE, Victory advancing left, trophy on shoulder, dragging captive behind her; Chi-Rho in left field
(EB)
laney
THEODOSIUS_II.jpg
(0402) THEODOSIUS II35 views402 - 450 AD
AE 13 mm 1.05 g
O: DN THEODO---
DIAD DR CUIR BUST R
R: CROSS WITHIN WREATH
laney
theo_ii_res.jpg
(0402) THEODOSIUS II31 views402 - 450 AD
AE 12 mm 1.39 g
O: Diademed head right
R: Cross within wreath, CONS in exe
laney
!CFmFj+QB2k~_(KGrHqZ,!hgE0f0lifVHBNVqZuj6qg~~_12.jpg
*SOLD*47 viewsTheodosius I AE4

Attribution: RIC IX 67b/70a, Antioch
Date: AD 383-392
Obverse: DN THEODO-SIVS PF AVG, pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed bust r.
Reverse: SALVS REI-PVBLICAE, Victory advancing l., trophy on shoulder, dragging
captive behind her, cross in l. field, ANTB or ANT Delta in exergue
Size: 13 mm
Weight: 1.37 grams
Noah
8.jpg
*SOLD*11 viewsTheodosius I AE4

Attribution: RIC 20 variant, Cyzicus
Date: AD 383-388
Obverse: D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped &
cuirassed bust r.
Reverse: VOT V within wreath, SMK? in exergue
Size: 13.2 mm
Noah
theodosiusHeraclea.JPG
-Theodosius II AE3. Heraclea25 viewsTheodosius II, 10 January 402 - 28 July 450 A.D. Bronze AE 3, RIC X 398, VF, Heraclea mint, 13mm, 408 - 423 A.D.; obverse D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right, star behind; reverse GLORIA ROMANORVM, Theodosius II and Honorius standing facing. SMHA in ex; scarce type.ancientone
Theodosius_ae2.jpg
012 - Theodosius I (379-395 AD), AE 2 - RIC 46a43 viewsObv: DN THEODO-SIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: GLORIA ROMANORVM, emperor standing, facing, head right, holding standard and globe.
Minted in Nicomedia (SMNA in exe), first officina, 15 may 392 - 17 jan. 395 AD.
pierre_p77
Theodosius.JPG
014 - Theodosius I (379-395 AD), AE 2 - RIC 83b46 viewsObv: DN THEODOSIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: VIRTVS EXERCITI, emperor standing right, holding standard and globe, left foot on captive. Rho-cross in left field.
Minted in Constantinopolis (CONSA in exe), 25 Aug 383 - 28 Aug 388 AD.
pierre_p77
theodosius2~0.jpg
074. Theodosius II, 402-450AD. AV Solidus.487 viewsAV Solidus. Constantinople mint. Obv: DN THEODO-SIVS PF AVG - Three-quarters bust right, draped, cuirassed, holding spear over right shoulder and shield in left hand Rev: VOT XXX MVLT XXXXS - Constantinopolis seated left, holding cross on globe and scepter, her left foot sits on the prow of a galley and at rear of her throne, a shield sits; in right field, a 'star'. Exe: CONOB : AD 430-440, RIC X, 257 (s) Scarce, page 259/ 4.48 g. Choice FDC.
15 commentsLordBest
Personajes_Imperiales_11.jpg
11 - Personalities of the Empire47 views
Magnentius, Decentius, Vetranius, Constantius Gallo, Julian II, Jovian, Valentinianus I, Valens, Procopius, Gratianus, Valentinianus II, Theodosius I, Aelia Flacilla and Magnus Maximus
mdelvalle
Personajes_Imperiales_12.jpg
12 - Personalities of the Empire45 viewsFlavius Victor, Arcadius, Eudoxia, Honorius, Gala Placidia, Johannes, Theodosius II, Aelia Pulcheria, Valentinianus III, Marcian, Leon I, Severus III, Zenon I and Anastasius I (pre-reform)mdelvalle
LarryW1852.jpg
130 Theodosius II, AD 402-45098 viewsGold solidus, 20.8mm, 4.48g, FDC
Struck AD 408-419 at Constantinople
D N THEODO-SIVS P F AVC, helmeted and cuirassed facing bust holding spear and shield decorated with horseman / CONCORDI-A AVCC Θ, Constantinopolis enthroned facing, head right, foot on prow, holding sceptre and Victory on globe, star left, CONOB in exergue
Ex: Forum Ancient Coins
RIC X, 202
1 commentsLawrence Woolslayer
143a.jpg
143a Theodosius I. AE2 5.3gm21 viewsobv: DN THEODO_SIVS PF AVG helm. drp. cuir. bust r. hoLding spear and shield
rev: GLORIA RO_MANORVM emp. std. r. in galley, Victory holds rudder behind
ex: T//SMHA
hill132
143b.jpg
143b Theodosius I. AE3 2.6gm18 viewsobv: DN THEODO_SIVS PF AVG pearl dia. drp. cuir. bust r.
rev: CONCOR_DIA AVGG Constantinopolis enthroned facing, head r. holding scepter and globe, prow at feet
ex: (theta)ANTB
hill132
12957p00.jpg
1503a, Gratian, 24 August 367 - 25 August 383 A.D.53 viewsGratian, 24 August 367 - 25 August 383 A.D. Bronze AE 3, F, 2.352g, 19.13mm, 0o. Obverse: emperor's diadmed bust right; reverse GLORIA ROMANORVM, emperor draging captive, * in left field.

Gratian, son of Valentinian I, became the sole ruler of the Western empire in 375 A.D., and after the catastrophic defeat of the Roman forces at Hadrianopolis the Eastern empire also came under his rule. To better cope with the empire, he elevated general Theodosius to the Eastern throne. Because of a shortage of coinage to meet the payroll, Gratian was abandoned by his troops during the revolt of Magnus Maximus. He was overtaken and killed while fleeing to the Alps.
Cleisthenes
Theo1Ae3Ant.jpeg
1505b, Theodosius I, 19 January 379 - 17 January 395 A.D. (Antioch)69 viewsTheodosius I, 19 January 379 - 17 January 395 A.D. Bronze AE 3, RIC 44(b), VF, Antioch, 2.17g, 18.1mm, 180o, 9 Aug 378 - 25 Aug 383 A.D. Obverse: D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG, rosette-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: CONCORDIA AVGGG, Constantinopolis enthroned facing, r. foot on prow, globe in l., scepter in r., Q and F at sides, ANTG in ex; scarce.


De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

THEODOSIUS I (379-395 A.D.)
David Woods
University College of Cork


Origin and Early Career
Flavius Theodosius was born at Cauca in Spain in about 346 to Thermantia and Theodosius the Elder (so-called to distinguish him from his son). Theodosius the Elder was a senior military officer serving in the Western empire and rose to become the magister equitum praesentalis under the emperor Valentinian I from late 368 until his execution in early 375. As the son of a soldier, Theodosius was legally obliged to enter upon a military career. He seems to have served under his father during his expedition to Britain in 367/8, and was the dux Moesiae Primae by late 374. Unfortunately, great controversy surrounds the rest of his career until Gratian had him hailed as his imperial colleague in succession to the emperor Valens at Sirmium on 19 January 379. It is clear that he was forced to retire home to Spain only to be recalled to active service shortly thereafter, but the circumstances of his forced retirement are shrouded in mystery. His father was executed at roughly the same time, and much speculation has centred on the relationship between these events.

[For a very detailed and interesting discussion of the Foreign Policy of Theodosius and the Civil Wars that plagued his reign, please see http://www.roman-emperors.org/theo1.htm]

Family and Succession
Theodosius married twice. His first wife was the Spanish Aelia Flavia Flaccilla. She bore him Arcadius ca. 377, Honorius on 9 September 384, and Pulcheria ca. 385. Theodosius honoured her with the title of Augusta shortly after his accession, but she died in 386. In late 387 he married Galla, daughter of Valentinian I and full-sister of Valentinian II. She bore him Gratian ca. 388, Galla Placidia ca. 388/390, and died in childbirth in 394, together with her new-born son John. Of his two sons who survived infancy, he appointed Arcadius as Augustus on 19 January 383 and Honorius as Augustus on 23 January 393. His promotion of Arcadius as a full Augustus at an unusually young age points to his determination right from the start that one of his own sons should succeed him. He sought to strengthen Arcadius' position in particular by means of a series of strategic marriages whose purpose was to tie his leading "generals" irrevocably to his dynasty. Hence he married his niece and adoptive daughter Serena to his magister militum per Orientem Stilicho in 387, her elder sister Thermantia to a "general" whose name has not been preserved, and ca. 387 his nephew-in-law Nebridius to Salvina, daughter of the comes Africae Gildo. By the time of his death by illness on 17 January 395, Theodosius had promoted Stilicho from his position as one of the two comites domesticorum under his own eastern administration to that of magister peditum praesentalis in a western administration, in an entirely traditional manner, under his younger son Honorius. Although Stilicho managed to increase the power of the magister peditum praesentalis to the disadvantage of his colleague the magister equitum praesentalis and claimed that Theodosius had appointed him as guardian for both his sons, this tells us more about his cunning and ambition than it does about Theodosius' constitutional arrangements.

Theodosius' importance rests on the fact that he founded a dynasty which continued in power until the death of his grandson Theodosius II in 450. This ensured a continuity of policy which saw the emergence of Nicene Christianity as the orthodox belief of the vast majority of Christians throughout the middle ages. It also ensured the essential destruction of paganism and the emergence of Christianity as the religion of the state, even if the individual steps in this process can be difficult to identify. On the negative side, however, he allowed his dynastic interests and ambitions to lead him into two unnecessary and bloody civil wars which severely weakened the empire's ability to defend itself in the face of continued barbarian pressure upon its frontiers. In this manner, he put the interests of his family before those of the wider Roman population and was responsible, in many ways, for the phenomenon to which we now refer as the fall of the western Roman empire.


Copyright (C) 1998, David Woods.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

There is a nice segue here, as we pick-up John Julius Norwich's summation of the reign of Theodosius, "Readers of this brief account of his career may well find themselves wondering, not so much whether he deserved the title of 'the Great' as how he ever came to acquire it in the first place. If so, however, they may also like to ask themselves another question: what would have been the fate of the Empire if, at that critical moment in its history after the battle of Adrianople, young Gratian had not called him from his Spanish estates and put the future of the East into his hands? . . . the probability is that the whole Empire of the East would have been lost, swallowed up in a revived Gothic kingdom, with effects on world history that defy speculation.

In his civil legislation he showed, again and again, a consideration for the humblest of his subjects that was rare indeed among rulers of the fourth century. What other prince would have decreed that any criminal, sentenced to execution, imprisonment or exile, must first be allowed thirty days' grace to put his affairs in order? Or that a specified part of his worldly goods must go to his children, upon whom their father's crimes must on no account be visited? Or that no farmer should be obliged to sell his produce to the State at a price lower than he would receive on the open market?

Had he earned his title? Not, perhaps, in the way that Constantine had done or as Justinian was to do. But, if not ultimately great himself, he had surely come very close to greatness; and had he reigned as long as they did his achievements might well have equalled theirs. He might even have saved the Western Empire. One thing only is certain: it would be nearly a century and a half before the Romans would look upon his like again" (Norwich, John Julius. Byzantium, the Early Centuries. London: Penguin Group, 1990. 116-7;118).

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.



Cleisthenes
Theod1GlrMan.jpg
1505c, Theodosius I, 379 - 395 A.D. (Constantinople)78 viewsTheodosius I (379 - 395 AD) AE3. 388-394 AD, RIC IX 27(a)3, Third Officina. Seventh Period. 20.27 mm. 4.8gm. Near VF with black and earthen patina. Constantinople. Obverse: DN THEODO-SIANVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped, & cuirassed bust right; Reverse: GLORIA-ROMANORVM, Theodosius I standing, facing, holding labarum and globe, CONSB in exergue (scarcer reverse). A Spanish find.



De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

THEODOSIUS I (379-395 A.D.)
David Woods
University College of Cork


Origin and Early Career
Flavius Theodosius was born at Cauca in Spain in about 346 to Thermantia and Theodosius the Elder (so-called to distinguish him from his son). Theodosius the Elder was a senior military officer serving in the Western empire and rose to become the magister equitum praesentalis under the emperor Valentinian I from late 368 until his execution in early 375. As the son of a soldier, Theodosius was legally obliged to enter upon a military career. He seems to have served under his father during his expedition to Britain in 367/8, and was the dux Moesiae Primae by late 374. Unfortunately, great controversy surrounds the rest of his career until Gratian had him hailed as his imperial colleague in succession to the emperor Valens at Sirmium on 19 January 379. It is clear that he was forced to retire home to Spain only to be recalled to active service shortly thereafter, but the circumstances of his forced retirement are shrouded in mystery. His father was executed at roughly the same time, and much speculation has centred on the relationship between these events.

[For a very detailed and interesting discussion of the Foreign Policy of Theodosius and the Civil Wars that plagued his reign, please see http://www.roman-emperors.org/theo1.htm]

Family and Succession
Theodosius married twice. His first wife was the Spanish Aelia Flavia Flaccilla. She bore him Arcadius ca. 377, Honorius on 9 September 384, and Pulcheria ca. 385. Theodosius honoured her with the title of Augusta shortly after his accession, but she died in 386. In late 387 he married Galla, daughter of Valentinian I and full-sister of Valentinian II. She bore him Gratian ca. 388, Galla Placidia ca. 388/390, and died in childbirth in 394, together with her new-born son John. Of his two sons who survived infancy, he appointed Arcadius as Augustus on 19 January 383 and Honorius as Augustus on 23 January 393. His promotion of Arcadius as a full Augustus at an unusually young age points to his determination right from the start that one of his own sons should succeed him. He sought to strengthen Arcadius' position in particular by means of a series of strategic marriages whose purpose was to tie his leading "generals" irrevocably to his dynasty. Hence he married his niece and adoptive daughter Serena to his magister militum per Orientem Stilicho in 387, her elder sister Thermantia to a "general" whose name has not been preserved, and ca. 387 his nephew-in-law Nebridius to Salvina, daughter of the comes Africae Gildo. By the time of his death by illness on 17 January 395, Theodosius had promoted Stilicho from his position as one of the two comites domesticorum under his own eastern administration to that of magister peditum praesentalis in a western administration, in an entirely traditional manner, under his younger son Honorius. Although Stilicho managed to increase the power of the magister peditum praesentalis to the disadvantage of his colleague the magister equitum praesentalis and claimed that Theodosius had appointed him as guardian for both his sons, this tells us more about his cunning and ambition than it does about Theodosius' constitutional arrangements.

Theodosius' importance rests on the fact that he founded a dynasty which continued in power until the death of his grandson Theodosius II in 450. This ensured a continuity of policy which saw the emergence of Nicene Christianity as the orthodox belief of the vast majority of Christians throughout the middle ages. It also ensured the essential destruction of paganism and the emergence of Christianity as the religion of the state, even if the individual steps in this process can be difficult to identify. On the negative side, however, he allowed his dynastic interests and ambitions to lead him into two unnecessary and bloody civil wars which severely weakened the empire's ability to defend itself in the face of continued barbarian pressure upon its frontiers. In this manner, he put the interests of his family before those of the wider Roman population and was responsible, in many ways, for the phenomenon to which we now refer as the fall of the western Roman empire.


Copyright (C) 1998, David Woods.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

There is a nice segue here, as we pick-up John Julius Norwich's summation of the reign of Theodosius, "Readers of this brief account of his career may well find themselves wondering, not so much whether he deserved the title of 'the Great' as how he ever came to acquire it in the first place. If so, however, they may also like to ask themselves another question: what would have been the fate of the Empire if, at that critical moment in its history after the battle of Adrianople, young Gratian had not called him from his Spanish estates and put the future of the East into his hands? . . . the probability is that the whole Empire of the East would have been lost, swallowed up in a revived Gothic kingdom, with effects on world history that defy speculation.

In his civil legislation he showed, again and again, a consideration for the humblest of his subjects that was rare indeed among rulers of the fourth century. What other prince would have decreed that any criminal, sentenced to execution, imprisonment or exile, must first be allowed thirty days' grace to put his affairs in order? Or that a specified part of his worldly goods must go to his children, upon whom their father's crimes must on no account be visited? Or that no farmer should be obliged to sell his produce to the State at a price lower than he would receive on the open market?

Had he earned his title? Not, perhaps, in the way that Constantine had done or as Justinian was to do. But, if not ultimately great himself, he had surely come very close to greatness; and had he reigned as long as they did his achievements might well have equalled theirs. He might even have saved the Western Empire. One thing only is certain: it would be nearly a century and a half before the Romans would look upon his like again" (Norwich, John Julius. Byzantium, the Early Centuries. London: Penguin Group, 1990. 116-7;118).

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
154b.jpg
154b Theodosius II. AE3 2.0gm20 viewsobv: DN THEODO_SIVS PF AVG pearl laur. drp. cuir. bust r., star in l field
rev: GLORIA RO_MANORVM two emperors holding spear supporting globe between them
ex: SMHA
hill132
160_Theodosius_I_,_AE-2,_DN_THEODO_SIVS_P_F_AVG,_GLORIA_RO_MANORVM,_ANTGamma,_RIC_IX_40d,_p-,_C_19,_Antioch,_392-395-AD_Q-001,_6h,_21,5-22,5mm,_5,40g-s.jpg
160 Theodosius I. (379-395 A.D.), Antioch, RIC IX 040d, -/-//ANTΓ, AE-2 Follis, GLORIA ROMANORVM, Theodosius I. standing facing on galley, #1126 views160 Theodosius I. (379-395 A.D.), Antioch, RIC IX 040d, -/-//ANTΓ, AE-2 Follis, GLORIA ROMANORVM, Theodosius I. standing facing on galley, #1
avers:- D N THEODO SIVS P F AVG, Helmeted, pearl diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right, holding spear and shield.
revers:- GLORIA ROMANORVM, Emperor standing facing, head right, on galley, raising right hand, Victory seated at helm. Wreath in left field, mintmark ANTΓ.
exerg: -/-//ANTΓ, diameter: 21,5-22,5mm, weight: 5,40g, axes:6h,
mint: Antioch, date: 392-395 A.D., ref: RIC IX 40d,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Theodosius-I_AE-4_DN-THEODO-SIVS-PF-AVG_SALVS-REIPVBLICA_CONS-A_RIC-IX-86b-90a_Constantinopolis_388-395-AD_Q-001_0h_11,5-13mm_1,37g-s.jpg
160 Theodosius I. (379-395 A.D.), Constantinopolis, RIC IX 086b-1, Chi(Cross)-Rho/-//CONSA, AE-3 Follis, SALVS REIPVBLICE, Victory advancing left, #164 views160 Theodosius I. (379-395 A.D.), Constantinopolis, RIC IX 086b-1, Chi(Cross)-Rho/-//CONSA, AE-3 Follis, SALVS REIPVBLICE, Victory advancing left, #1
Avers:- D N THEODO SIVS P F AVG, Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
revers:- SALVS REIPVBLICE, Victory advancing left, holding trophy over right shoulder and dragging captive. Chi(Cross)-Rho in left field.
exerg: Chi(Cross)-Rho/-//CONSA, diameter: 11,5-13mm, weight: 1,37g, axes: 0h,
mint: Constantinopolis, date: 388-395 A.D., ref: RIC IX 86b,
Q-001
quadrans
160_Theodosius_I_,_Cyzicus,_AE-3,_RIC_IX_029a,_DN_THEODO-SIVS_P_F_AVG,_GLORIA_ROMANORVM,_SMK_#915;,_AD,_Q-001,_6h,_16-17mm,_1,96ga-s.jpg
160 Theodosius I. (379-395 A.D.), Cyzicus, RIC IX 029a, -/-//SMKΓ, AE-3 Follis, GLORIA ROMANORVM, Theodosius I. on horseback right, #1139 views160 Theodosius I. (379-395 A.D.), Cyzicus, RIC IX 029a, -/-//SMKΓ, AE-3 Follis, GLORIA ROMANORVM, Theodosius I. on horseback right, #1
avers: D N THEODO SIVS P F AVG, Pearl diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
reverse: GLORIA ROMANORVM, Theodosius I. on horseback right, raising right hand.
exergue: -/-//SMKΓ, diameter: 16,0-17,0mm, weight: 1,96g, axes:6h,
mint: Cyzicus, date: A.D., ref: RIC IX 29a,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Theodosius-I_AE-2_DN-THEODO-SIVS-PF-AVG_GLORIA-ROMANORVM_S-MHA_RIC-IX-27a_p-198_C-18_Heraclea_392-395-AD_Q-001_axis-11h_19-23mm_5,60gx-s.jpg
160 Theodosius I. (379-395 A.D.), Heraclea, RIC IX 027a-1, -/-//SMHA, AE-2 Follis, GLORIA ROMANORVM, Theodosius I. standing, #1298 views160 Theodosius I. (379-395 A.D.), Heraclea, RIC IX 027a-1, -/-//SMHA, AE-2 Follis, GLORIA ROMANORVM, Theodosius I. standing, #1
avers:- D N THEODO SIVS P F AVG, Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
revers:- GLORIA ROMANORVM, Theodosius I. standing, facing, holding labarum and globe.
exerg: -/-//SMHA, diameter: 19-23mm, weight: 5,60g, axes:11 h,
mint: Heraclea, date: 392-395A.D., ref: RIC IX 27a,
Q-001
quadrans
Theodosius-I_AE-2_DN-THEODO-SIVS-PF-AVG_REPARATIO-REIPVB_B-SIS-C_RIC-IX-26c-2_p-150_C-27_Siscia_379-383-AD_Q-001_1h_21,5-23mm_4,78g-s.jpg
160 Theodosius I. (379-395 A.D.), Siscia, RIC IX 026c-2, -/-//BSISC•, AE-2 Follis, REPARATIO REIPVB, Emperor, #187 views160 Theodosius I. (379-395 A.D.), Siscia, RIC IX 026c-2, -/-//BSISC•, AE-2 Follis, REPARATIO REIPVB, Emperor, #1
avers:- D N THEODO SIVS P F AVG, Pearl diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
revers:- REPARATIO REIPVB, Emperor standing, facing, holding hand of kneeling woman and Victory on globe.
exergo: -/-//BSISC•, diameter: 21,5-23mm, weight: 4,78g, axis: 1h,
mint: Siscia, date: 379-383 A.D., ref: RIC-IX-26c-2, p-150,
Q-001
quadrans
Theodosius_I__AE-4_DN-THEODO-SIVS-PF-AVG_CONCOR-DIA-AVG-G-G_A-SIS-C_RIC-IX-27d1_C-xx_Siscia_xxx-AD_Q-001_axis-6h_17,5-18,5mm_2,12g-s.jpg
160 Theodosius I. (379-395 A.D.), Siscia, RIC IX 027d-1, -/-//ASISC, AE-3 Follis, CONCORDIA AVG G G, Constantinopolis seated facing, #1298 views160 Theodosius I. (379-395 A.D.), Siscia, RIC IX 027d-1, -/-//ASISC, AE-3 Follis, CONCORDIA AVG G G, Constantinopolis seated facing, #1
avers:- D N THEODO SIVS P F AVG, Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
revers:- CONCOR DIA AVG G G, Constantinopolis seated facing, holding globe and spear.
exerg: -/-//ASISC, diameter: 17,5-18,5mm, weight: 2,12g, axes: 6 h,
mint: Siscia, date: 379-383 A.D., ref: RIC IX 27d-1,
Q-001
quadrans
Theodosius-I_AE-4_DN-THEODO-SIVS-PF-AVG_CONCOR-DIA-AVG-G-G_A-SIS-C_RIC-396_C-xx_Siscia_xxx-AD_Q-001_axis-h_14mm_1,31g-s.jpg
160 Theodosius I. (379-395 A.D.), Siscia, RIC IX 027d-1, -/-//ASISC, AE-3 Follis, CONCORDIA AVG G G, Constantinopolis seated facing, #2279 views160 Theodosius I. (379-395 A.D.), Siscia, RIC IX 027d-1, -/-//ASISC, AE-3 Follis, CONCORDIA AVG G G, Constantinopolis seated facing, #2
avers:- D N THEODO SIVS P F AVG, Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
revers:- CONCOR DIA AVG G G, Constantinopolis seated facing, holding globe and spear.
exerg: -/-//ASISC, diameter: 14mm, weight: 1,31g, axes: h,
mint: Siscia, date: 379-383 A.D., ref: RIC IX 27d-1,
Q-001
quadrans
160_Theodosius_I__Siscia_RIC_IX_39bA,_AE-4,_D_N_THEODO_SIVS_P_F_AVG_VICTOR_IA_AVG_G_G_ASIS_-AD__Q-001_0h_13,5-14mm_1,36g-s.jpg
160 Theodosius I. (379-395 A.D.), Siscia, RIC IX 039bA, -/-//ASIS, AE-4 Follis, VICTORIA AVG G G, Victory advancing left, #191 views160 Theodosius I. (379-395 A.D.), Siscia, RIC IX 039bA, -/-//ASIS, AE-4 Follis, VICTORIA AVG G G, Victory advancing left, #1
avers:- D N THEODO SIVS P F AVG, Pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right.
revers:- VICTORIA AVG G G, Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm.
exergo: -/-//ASIS, diameter: 13,5-14,0mm, weight: 1,36g, axis: 0h,
mint: Siscia, date: 388-392 A.D., ref: RIC IX 39bA, p-, LRBC 1576,
Q-001
quadrans
Theodosius-I_AE-12_DN-THEODOSIVS-PF-AVG_GLORIA____TES_RIC-IX-62_Q-001_axis-0h_12,5mm_1,56g-s.jpg
160 Theodosius I. (379-395 A.D.), Thessalonica, RIC IX 062b.1.3, AE-4, Δ/-//TES, GLORIA REIPVBLICE, Campgate with two turrets, #1269 views160 Theodosius I. (379-395 A.D.), Thessalonica, RIC IX 062b.1.3, AE-4, Δ/-//TES, GLORIA REIPVBLICE, Campgate with two turrets, #1
avers: D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG, Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
reverse: GLORIA REIPVBLICE, Campgate, 2 turrets, 5 layers, no doors, Δ in left field, mintmark TES in ex.
exergue: Δ/-//TES, diameter: 12,5mm, weight: 1,56g, axes: 0h,
mint: Thessalonica, date: 383-388 A.D., ref: RIC IX 062b.1.3,
Q-001
quadrans
Flaccilla_AE-2_AEL-FLAC-CILLA-AVG_SALVS-REI-PVBLICAE_CON-Gamma_RIC-IX-55-p229_Constantinopolis_378-88-AD_Q-001_h_mm_g-s.jpg
161 Aelia Flaccilla (???- 386 A.D.), Constantinopolis, RIC IX 055-3, -/-//CONΓ, AE-1, SALVS REIPVBLICAE, Victory seated right, #1286 views161 Aelia Flaccilla (???- 386 A.D.), Constantinopolis, RIC IX 055-3, -/-//CONΓ, AE-1, SALVS REIPVBLICAE, Victory seated right, #1
Wife of Theodosius I and mother of Honorius and Arcadius.
avers:- AEL FLAC CILLA AVG, Draped bust right, wearing elaborate headdress, necklace, and mantle.
revers:- SALVS REI PVBLICAE, Victory seated right on throne, inscribing a Christogram on a shield set on a column.
exe: -/-//CONΓ, diameter: 22mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Constantinopolis, date: 379-388 A.D., ref: RIC IX 55, p-229,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Flaccilla_AE-4_AEL-FLACILLA-AVG_SALVS-REIPVBLICAE_CON_RIC-IX-61-p229_Constantinopolis_379-88-AD_Q-001_axis-6h_10-10,5mm_0,80g-s.jpg
161 Aelia Flaccilla (???- 386 A.D.), Constantinopolis, RIC IX 061-3, -/-//CONE, AE-4, SALVS REIPVBLICAE, Victory seated right, #196 views161 Aelia Flaccilla (???- 386 A.D.), Constantinopolis, RIC IX 061-3, -/-//CONE, AE-4, SALVS REIPVBLICAE, Victory seated right, #1
Wife of Theodosius I and mother of Honorius and Arcadius.
avers:- AEL FLACILLA AVG, Diademed, draped bust bust right.
revers:- SALVS REIPVBLICAE, Victory seated right, inscribing Chi-Rho on shield.
exe: -/-//CONE, diameter: 10-10,5mm, weight: 0,80g, axis: 6h,
mint: Constantinopolis, date: 379-388 A.D., ref: RIC IX 61-3, p-229,
Q-001
quadrans
Flaccilla_AE-4_AEL-FLAC-CILLA-AVG_SALVS-REI-PVBLICAE_SMHA_RIC-IX-17-1_p-196_Heraclea_378-83-AD_Q-001_11h_14-14,5mm_1,18g-s.jpg
161 Aelia Flaccilla (???- 386 A.D.), Heraclea, RIC IX 017-1, -/-//SMHA, AE-4, SALVS REIPVBLICAE, Victory seated right, R!, #191 views161 Aelia Flaccilla (???- 386 A.D.), Heraclea, RIC IX 017-1, -/-//SMHA, AE-4, SALVS REIPVBLICAE, Victory seated right, R!, #1
Wife of Theodosius I and mother of Honorius and Arcadius.
avers:- AEL FLAC CILLA AVG, Draped bust right, wearing elaborate headdress, necklace, and mantle.
revers:- SALVS REI PVBLICAE, Victory seated right on throne, inscribing a Christogram on a shield set on a column.
exe: -/-//SMHA, diameter: 14-14,5mm, weight: 1,18g, axis: 11h, R!
mint: Heraclea, date: 379-388 A.D., ref: RIC IX 17-1, p-196,
Q-001
quadrans
Theodosius-II_AE-12_DN-THEODOSIVS-PF-AVG_CONCORDI-AVG_SMH_RIC-X-432-p-274_Heraclea_Q-001_axis-1h_11mm_0,92g-s.jpg
167 Theodosius II. (402-450 A.D.), Heraclea, RIC X 0432, -/-//SMH, AE-4, CONCORDIA AVG, Victory, #1218 views167 Theodosius II. (402-450 A.D.), Heraclea, RIC X 0432, -/-//SMH, AE-4, CONCORDIA AVG, Victory, #1
avers: D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG, Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right. (T2/D3)
reverse: CONCORDIA AVG, Victory advancing to front, holding wreath in each hand.
exergue: -/-//SMH, diameter: 11 mm, weight: 0,92 g, axis: 1h,
mint: Heraclea, date: 425-435 A.D., ref: RIC-X-432, p-274,
Q-001
quadrans
0030-0210.jpg
1749 - Octavian, Denarius269 viewsItalian mint, possibly Rome, 31-30 BC
Anepigraph, bare head of Octavian left
CAESAR - DIVI F, Victory standing right on globe, holding wreath
3.84 gr
Ref : HCRI # 408, RCV # 1552v, Cohen # 66, RIC # 255
The following comment is taken from CNG, sale 84 # 957 :
"Following his victory at Actium, Octavian ordered a golden statue of Victory, standing on a globe and holding a wreath and palm, to be set up on an altar in the Curia in Rome. This statue had been captured by the Romans from Pyrrhus in 272 BC, and it assumed a somewhat tutelary mystique, protecting the Roman state from dissolution. In AD 382, the emperor Gratian ordered its removal. Two years later, the senator and orator Symmachus urged Valentinian II to replace it, a request that was met with stiff opposition from the bishop of Milan, Ambrose. Though it was briefly returned to its place by the usurper Eugenius, it was again removed following his defeat. Petitions to Theodosius I for its subsequent replacement were refused, on grounds that the once-important symbol of the gods’ blessing on the Roman Empire was now nothing more than a piece of paganism"
11 commentsPotator II
Honorius_AE-3_DN-HONORI-VS-PF-AVG_GLORI-A-ROMA-NORVM_Star_ALEA_RIC-X-157(Arcadius)-p-252_Alexandria_406-8-AD_Q-001_0h_13,7mm_1,66g-s.jpg
179 Honorius ( 393-423 A.D.), Alexandria, RIC X 157 (Arcadius), -/-//ALEA, AE-3, GLORIA ROMANORVM, Three emperors standing side by side, Scarce! #196 views179 Honorius ( 393-423 A.D.), Alexandria, RIC X 157 (Arcadius), -/-//ALEA, AE-3, GLORIA ROMANORVM, Three emperors standing side by side, Scarce! #1
avers:- D N HONORI VS P F AVG, Pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right, star behind head.
revers:- GLORI A ROMA NORVM, Three emperors ( Arcadius, Honorius, and Theodosius II ) standing side by side holding spears, the two outer ones taller, each resting hand on shield, the middle one holding a globe.
exerg: -/-//ALEA, diameter: 13,7 mm, weight: 1,66g, axes: 0h,
mint: Alexandria, date:406-408 A.D., ref: RIC X 157 (Arcadius), p-252, Scarce!
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
179- Theodosius 1.JPG
179- Theodosius 172 viewsAE4 , Theodosius I, 388-392 AD , Cyzicus mint.
Obv: DN THEODO-SIVS PF AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: SALVS REI-PVBLICAE, Victory advancing left , dragging captive, trophy over shoulder.
SMKA in exergue, RIC 26b
12mm , 1.0gm.
2 commentsjdholds
181- Theodosius -2.JPG
181- Theodosius -249 viewsAE4 , Theodosius I, 388-392 AD , Constantinople mint.
Obv: DN THEODO-SIVS PF AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: SALVS REI-PVBLICAE, Victory advancing left , dragging captive, trophy over shoulder.
CONSA in exergue, RIC 86b
12mm , .8 gm.
jdholds
182- Theodosius 3.JPG
182- Theodosius 323 viewsAE4, Siscia mint, 388-392 AD
Obv: DN THEODOSIVS PF AVG, Diademmed, draped, and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: VICTORIA AVGGG, Victory advancing left with wreath and palm.
ASIS in exergue. RIC 39b
14mm, 1.3gm
jdholds
RI_183d_img.jpg
183 - Theodosius I - AE4 - RIC IX Alexandria 13c 11 viewsAE4
Obv:– D N THEODO-SIVS P F AVG, Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– VOT / X / MVLT / XX within wreath
Minted in Alexandria (//ALEGamma). 9th August A.D. 378 - 25th August A.D. 383
Reference(s) – RIC IX Alexandria 13c (R)
maridvnvm
RI 183b img.jpg
183 - Theodosius- RIC IX Constantinople 86b35 viewsAE4
Obv:– D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG, Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– SALVS REIPVBLICAE, Victory advancing left, carrying trophy over shoulder and dragging captive (no sign of wings!)
Minted in Constantinople (CONSA in exe.) Tau-Rho in reverse field.
maridvnvm
183-Theodosius-4.JPG
183-Theodosius-429 viewsAE4 , Theodosius I, 388-392 AD , Cyzicus mint.
Obv: DN THEODO-SIVS PF AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: SALVS REI-PVBLICAE, Victory advancing left , dragging captive, trophy over shoulder.
SMKB in exergue, RIC 26b
13mm , 1.3gm.
jdholds
184-Theodosius-5.JPG
184-Theodosius-528 viewsAE4 , Theodosius I, 388-392 AD , Cyzicus mint.
Obv: DN THEODO-SIVS PF AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: SALVS REI-PVBLICAE, Victory advancing left , dragging captive, trophy over shoulder.
SMKA in exergue, RIC 26b
13mm , 1.2gm.
jdholds
IMG_8324.JPG
192. Theodosius I (378-395 A.D.)26 viewsAv.: DN THEODOSIVS PF AVG
Rv.: GLORIA ROMANORVM
Ex.: CONSB

AE Maiorina Ø21 / 5.0g
RIC IX 88a Constantinople
Juancho
IMG_4541.JPG
193. Aelia Flaccilla (Wife of Theodosius I)18 viewsAv.: AEL FLACCILLA AVG
Rv.: SALVS REIPVBLICAE
Ex.: CON ?

AE Maiorina Ø23 / 4.2g
RIC IX 55 Constantinople
Scarce!
Juancho
IMG_4377~0.jpg
194. Magnus Maximus (Pretender under Theodosius I)14 viewsAv.: DN MAG MAXIMVS PF AVG
Rv.: REPARATIO REIPVB
Ex.: LVGP

AE Maiorina Ø22 / 5.8g
RIC IX 32 Lyons
Scarce!
Juancho
GratianAE3GlorRom.jpg
1es Gratian38 views367-383

AE3

Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right, D N GRATIANVS P F AVG
Gratian standing right, holding labarum with Chi-rho on banner, and holding captive by hair, GLORIA ROMANORVM; Q to left, K over P to right, DSISCR in ex.

RIC 14c

Zosimus reports: [T] he emperor Valentinian, having favourably disposed the affairs of Germany, made provisions for the future security of the Celtic nations. . . . Valentinian was now attacked by a disease which nearly cost him his life. Upon his recovery the countries requested him to appoint a successor, lest at his decease the commonwealth should be in danger. To this the emperor consented, and declared his son Gratian emperor and his associate in the government, although he was then very young, and not yet capable of the management of affairs. . . .

When the affairs of the empire were reduced to this low condition, Victor, who commanded the Roman cavalry, escaping the danger with some of his troops, entered Macedon and Thessaly. From thence he proceeded into Moesia and Pannonia, and informed Gratian, who was then in that quarter, of what had occurred, and of the loss of the emperor [Valens] and his army. Gratian received the intelligence without uneasiness, and was little grieved at the death of his uncle, a disagreement having existed between them. Finding himself unable to manage affairs, Thrace being ravaged by the Barbarians, as were likewise Pannonia and Moesia, and the towns upon the Rhine being infested by the neighbouring Barbarians without controul, he chose for his associate in the empire, Theodosius, who was a native of a town called Cauca, in the part of Spain called Hispania Callaecia, and who possessed great knowledge and experience of military affairs. Having given him the government of Thrace and the eastern provinces, Gratian himself proceeded to the west of Gaul, in order, if possible, to compose affairs in that quarter. . . .

While the affairs of Thrace were, thus situated, those of Gratian were in great perplexity. Having accepted the counsel of those courtiers who usually corrupt the manners of princes, he gave a reception to some fugitives called Alani, whom he not only introduced into his army, but honoured with valuable presents, and confided to them his most important secrets, esteeming his own soldiers of little value. This produced among his soldiers a violent hatred against him, which being gradually inflamed and augmented incited in them a disposition for innovation, and most particulary in that part of them which was in Britain, since they were the most resolute and vindictive. In this spirit they were encouraged by Maximus, a Spaniard, who had been the fellow-soldier of Theodosius in Britain. He was offended that Theodosius should be thought worthy of being made emperor, while he himself had no honourable employment. He therefore cherished the animosity of the soldiers towards the emperor. They were thus easily induced to revolt and to declare Maximus emperor. Having presented to him the purple robe and the diadem, they sailed to the mouth of the Rhine. As the German army, and all who were in that quarter approved of the election, Gratian prepared to contend against Maximus, with a considerable part of the army which still adhered to him. When the armies met, there were only slight skirmishes for five days; until Gratian, |115 perceiving that the Mauritanian cavalry first deserted from him and declared Maximus Augustus, and afterwards that the remainder of his troops by degrees espoused the cause of his antagonist, relinquished all hope, and fled with three hundred horse to the Alps. Finding those regions without defence, he proceeded towards Rhaetia, Noricum, Pannonia, and the Upper Moesia. When Maximus was informed of his route, he was not negligent of the opportunity, but detached Andragathius, commander of the cavalry, who was his faithful adherent, in pursuit of Gratian. This officer followed him with so great speed, that he overtook him when he was passing the bridge at Sigidunus, and put him to death.
Blindado
ValentinianIIAE3UrbsRom.jpg
1et Valentinian II19 views373-392

AE3, Nicomedia

Pearl-diademed, draped & cuirassed bust rightt, D N VALENTINIANVS IVN P F AVG
Roma seated on cuirass, holding spear and Victory on globe, VRBS ROMA

The SMN mintmark indicates that the coin was minted in Nicomedia, but RIC does not list this reverse type for that mint.

Sim to RIC 51

Zosimus reports: Valentinian being dead, the tribunes Merobaudes and Equitius, reflecting on the distance at which Valens and Gratian resided, the former being in the east, and the latter left by his father in the western part of Gaul, were apprehensive lest the Barbarians beyond the Ister should make an effort while the country was without a ruler. They therefore sent for the younger son of Valentinian, who was born of his wife the widow of Magnentius, who was not far from thence with the child. Having clothed him in purple, they brought him into the court, though scarcely five years old. The empire was afterwards divided between Gratian and the younger Valentinian, at the discretion of their guardians, they not being of age to manage their own affairs. The Celtic nations, Spain, and Britain were given to Gratian; and Italy, Illyricum, and Africa to Valentinian. . . .

Affairs being thus situated in the east, in Thrace, and in Illyricum, Maximus, who deemed his appointments inferior to his merits, being only governor of the countries formerly under Gratian, projected how to depose the young Valentinian from the empire, if possible totally, but should he fail in the whole, to secure at least some part. . . . he immediately entered Italy without; resistance, and marched to Aquileia. . . . This so much surprised Valentinian, and rendered his situation so desperate, that his courtiers were alarmed lest he should be taken by Maximus and put to death. He, therefore, immediately embarked,and sailed to Thessalonica with his mother Justina, who, as I before mentioned, had been the wife of Magnentius, but after his decease was taken in marriage by the emperor Valentinian on account of her extraordinary beauty. She carried along with her her daughter Galla. After having passed many seas, and arriving at Thessalonica, they sent messengers to the emperor Theodosius, intreating him now at least to revenge the injuries committed against the family of Valentinian. He was astonished at hearing of this, and began to forget his extravagance, and to lay some restraint on his wild inclination for pleasure. . . . Theodosius then delivered to Valentinian as much of the empire as his father had possessed; in which he only acted as he was enjoined by his duty to those who so merited his kindness. . . .

intelligence was brought that the emperor Valentianian was no more, and that his death happened in this manner: Arbogastes, a Frank, who was appointed by the emperor Gratian lieutenant to Baudo, at the death of Baudo, confiding in his own ability, assumed the command without the emperor's permission. Being thought proper for the station by all the soldiers under him, both for his valour and experience in military affairs, and for his disregard of riches, he attained great influence. He thus became so elevated, that he would speak without reserve to the emperor, and would blame any measure which he thought improper. This gave such umbrage to Valentinian. . . .

Eugenius became the sincere friend of Arbogastes, who had no secret which he did not confide to him. Recollecting Eugenius, therefore, at this juncture, who by his extraordinary learning and the gravity of his conversation seemed well-adapted for the management of an empire, he communicated to him his designs. But finding him not pleased with the proposals, he attempted to prevail on him by all the arts he could use, and entreated him not to reject what fortune so favourably offered. Having at length persuaded him, he deemed it advisable in the first place to remove Valentinian, and thus to deliver the sole authority to Eugenius. With this view he proceeded to Vienna, a town in Gaul, where the emperor resided; and as he was amusing himself near the town in some sports with the soldiers, apprehending no danger, Arbogastes gave him a mortal wound.
Blindado
TheodosAE4VotMult~0.jpg
1eu Theodosius24 views379-395

AE4

Pearl diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right, D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG
VOT V MVLT X within wreath, ASISC in ex

RIC 29d

Zosimus recorded: [Valentinian] commanded some legions from the stations in Pannonia and Moesia, to embark for Africa [to crush a rebellion]. On this the Sarmatians and the Quadi. . . , availing themselves, of the opportunity afforded by the departure of the legions for Africa, invaded the Pannonians and Moesians. . . . The barbarians therefore revenged themselves by plundering all the country along the Ister, carrying off all that they found in the towns. The Pannonians were by these means exposed to the cruelty of the barbarians, while the soldiers were extremely negligent in the defence of their towns, and committed as much mischief as the Barbarians themselves in all places on this side of the river. But Moesia was free from harm, because Theodosius, who commanded the forces there, courageously resisted the Barbarians, and routed them when they attacked him. By that victory he not only acquired great renown, but subsequently attained the imperial dignity. . . .

When the affairs of the empire were reduced to this low condition, Victor, who commanded the Roman cavalry, escaping the danger with some of his troops, entered Macedon and Thessaly. From thence he proceeded into Moesia and Pannonia, and informed Gratian, who was then in that quarter, of what had occurred, and of the loss of the emperor [Valens] and his army. Gratian received the intelligence without uneasiness, and was little grieved at the death of his uncle, a disagreement having existed between them. Finding himself unable to manage affairs, Thrace being ravaged by the Barbarians, as were likewise Pannonia and Moesia, and the towns upon the Rhine being infested by the neighbouring Barbarians without controul, he chose for his associate in the empire, Theodosius, who was a native of a town called Cauca, in the part of Spain called Hispania Callaecia, and who possessed great knowledge and experience of military affairs. Having given him the government of Thrace and the eastern provinces, Gratian himself proceeded to the west of Gaul, in order, if possible, to compose affairs in that quarter. . . .

During the stay of the new emperor, Theodosius, at Thesslonica, a great concourse arrived there from all parts of persons soliciting him on business, both public and private; who having obtained of him whatever he could conveniently grant, returned, to their homes. As a great multitude of the Scythians beyond the Ister, the Gotthi, and the Taiphali, and other tribes that formerly dwelt among them, had crossed the river, and were driven to infest the Roman dominions, because the Huns, had expelled them from their own country, the emperor Theodosius prepared for war with all his forces. . . . The army having made this good use of the occasion afforded by fortune, the affairs of Thrace, which had been on the brink of ruin, were now, the Barbarians being crushed beyond all hope, re-established in peace. . . .

Meanwhile, the emperor Theodosius, residing in Thessalonica, was easy of access to all who wished to see him. Having commenced his reign in luxury and indolence, he threw the magistracy into disorder, and increased the number of his military officers. . . . As he squandered the public money without consideration, bestowing it on unworthy persons, he consequently impoverished himself. He therefore sold the government of provinces to any who would purchase them, without regard to the reputation or ablity of the persons, esteeming him the best qualified who brought him the most gold or silver. . . .

Maximus, who deemed his appointments inferior to his merits, being only governor of the countries formerly under Gratian, projected how to depose the young Valentinian from the empire. . . . This so much surprised Valentinian, and rendered his situation so desperate, that his courtiers were alarmed lest he should be taken by Maximus and put to death. He, therefore, immediately embarked,and sailed to Thessalonica with his mother Justina. . . . [A]rriving at Thessalonica, they sent messengers to the emperor Theodosius, intreating him now at least to revenge the injuries committed against the family of Valentinian. . . . The emperor, being delivered from this alarm, marched with great resolution with his whole army against Maximus. . . . Theodosius, having passed through Pannonia and the defiles of the Appennines, attacked unawares the forces of Maximus before they were prepared for him. A part of his army, having pursued them with the utmost speed, forced their way through the gates of Aquileia, the guards being too few to resist them. Maximus was torn from his imperial throne while in the act of distributing money to his soldiers, and being stripped of his imperial robes, was brought to Theodosius, who, having in reproach enumerated some of his crimes against the commonwealth, delivered him to the common executioner to receive due punishment. . . . The emperor Theodosius, having consigned Italy, Spain, Celtica, and Libya to his son Honorius, died of a disease on his journey towards Constantinople.
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MagnMaxAE2RepReip.jpg
1ew Magnus Maximus45 views383-388

AE2

Diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right, D N MAG MAXIMVS P F AVG
Emperor standing left, raising kneeling female; mintmarks PCON, SCON and TCON known, REPARATIO REIPVB

RIC 26a

Zosimus reports: While the affairs of Thrace were, thus situated, those of Gratian were in great perplexity. Having accepted the counsel of those courtiers who usually corrupt the manners of princes, he gave a reception to some fugitives called Alani, whom he not only introduced into his army, but honoured with valuable presents, and confided to them his most important secrets, esteeming his own soldiers of little value. This produced among his soldiers a violent hatred against him, which being gradually inflamed and augmented incited in them a disposition for innovation, and most particulary in that part of them which was in Britain, since they were the most resolute and vindictive. In this spirit they were encouraged by Maximus, a Spaniard, who had been the fellow-soldier of Theodosius in Britain. He was offended that Theodosius should be thought worthy of being made emperor, while he himself had no honourable employment. He therefore cherished the animosity of the soldiers towards the emperor. They were thus easily induced to revolt and to declare Maximus emperor. Having presented to him the purple robe and the diadem, they sailed to the mouth of the Rhine. As the German army, and all who were in that quarter approved of the election, Gratian prepared to contend against Maximus, with a considerable part of the army which still adhered to him. When the armies met, there were only slight skirmishes for five days; until Gratian, |115 perceiving that the Mauritanian cavalry first deserted from him and declared Maximus Augustus, and afterwards that the remainder of his troops by degrees espoused the cause of his antagonist, relinquished all hope, and fled with three hundred horse to the Alps. Finding those regions without defence, he proceeded towards Rhaetia, Noricum, Pannonia, and the Upper Moesia. When Maximus was informed of his route, he was not negligent of the opportunity, but detached Andragathius, commander of the cavalry, who was his faithful adherent, in pursuit of Gratian. This officer followed him with so great speed, that he overtook him when he was passing the bridge at Sigidunus, and put him to death. . . .

The reign of Gratian being thus terminated, Maximus, who now considered himself firmly fixed in the empire, sent an embassy to the emperor Theodosius, not to intreat pardon for his treatment of Gratian, but rather to increase his provocations. The person employed in this mission was the imperial chamberlain (for Maximus would not suffer an eunuch to preside in his court), a prudent person, with whom he had been familiarly acquainted from his infancy. The purport of his mission was to propose to Theodosius a treaty of amity, and of alliance, against all enemies who should make war on the Romans, and on refusal, to declare against him open hostility. Upon this, Theodosius admitted Maximus to a share in the empire, and in the honour of his statues and his imperial title. . . .

Affairs being thus situated in the east, in Thrace, and in Illyricum, Maximus, who deemed his appointments inferior to his merits, being only governor of the countries formerly under Gratian, projected how to depose the young Valentinian from the empire, if possible totally, but should he fail in the whole, to secure at least some part. . . . he immediately entered Italy without; resistance, and marched to Aquileia. . . .

Theodosius, having passed through Pannonia and the defiles of the Appennines, attacked unawares the forces of Maximus before they were prepared for him. A part of his army, having pursued them with the utmost speed, forced their way through the gates of Aquileia, the guards being too few to resist them. Maximus was torn from his imperial throne while in the act of distributing money to his soldiers, and being stripped of his imperial robes, was brought to Theodosius, who, having in reproach enumerated some of his crimes against the commonwealth, delivered him to the common executioner to receive due punishment. Such was the end of Maximus and of his usurpation. Having fraudulently overcome Valentinian, he imagined that he should with ease subdue the whole Roman empire. Theodosius, having heard, that when Maximus came from beyond the Alps he left his son Victor, whom he had dignified with the title of Caesar, he immediately sent for his general, named Arbogastes, who deprived the youth both of his dignity and life.
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EugeniusSiliquaRoma.jpg
1ex Eugenius25 views392-394

AR siliqua

Bearded, pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed bust rightt, DN EVGENIVS PF AVG
Roma seated left on cuirass, MDPS below, VIRTVS ROMANORVM

RIC 32c

Zosimus reports: Eugenius became the sincere friend of Arbogastes, who had no secret which he did not confide to him. Recollecting Eugenius, therefore, at this juncture, who by his extraordinary learning and the gravity of his conversation seemed well-adapted for the management of an empire, he communicated to him his designs. But finding him not pleased with the proposals, he attempted to prevail on him by all the arts he could use, and entreated him not to reject what fortune so favourably offered. Having at length persuaded him, he deemed it advisable in the first place to remove Valentinian, and thus to deliver the sole authority to Eugenius. With this view he proceeded to Vienna, a town in Gaul, where the emperor resided; and as he was amusing himself near the town in some sports with the soldiers, apprehending no danger, Arbogastes gave him a mortal wound. To this audacious action the soldiers quietly submitted, not only because he was so brave and warlike a person, but because they were attached to him through his contempt of riches. As soon as he had performed this action, he declared Eugenius emperor, and infused into them the most favourable hopes that he would prove an excellent ruler, since he possessed such extraordinary qualifications. . . .

[Theodosius marched against Eugenius.] The emperor (having mourned for [his just deceased wife] a whole day, according to the rule of Homer), proceeded with his army to the war, leaving behind him his son Arcadius, who had some time previously been made emperor. This prince being young, his father, in order to amend the defects of his nonage, left with him Rufinus, who was prefect of the court, and acted as he pleased, even as much as the power of sovereignty enabled the emperor himself to do. Having done this, he took with him his younger son Honorius, quickly passed through the intermediate countries, and having exceded his expectations in crossing the Alps, arrived where the enemy was stationed : Eugenius being astonished at seeing him there whom he so little expected. But as he was arrived there, and consequently was under the necessity of engaging, he judged it most prudent to place the Barbarian troops in front, and to expose them first. He ordered Gaines with the troops under his command to make the first attack, and the other commanders of Barbarian soldiers to follow him, either cavalry, horse archers, or infantry. Eugenius then drew out his forces. When the two armies were engaged, so great an eclipse of the sun happened, that for more than half the time of the action it appeared rather to be night than day. As they fought therefore a kind of nocturnal battle, so great a slaughtor was made, that in the same day the greater part of the allies of Theodosius were slain, with their commander Bacurius, who fought very courageously at their head, while the other commanders escaped very narrowly with the remainder. When night came on and the armies had rallied, Eugenius was so elated with his victory, that he distributed money among those who had behaved with the greatest gallantry in the battle, and gave them time to refresh themselves, as if after such a defeat there was no probability of another engagement As they were thus solacing themselves, the emperor Theodosius about break of day fell suddenly on them with his whole forces, while they were still reclined |129 on the ground, and killed them before they knew of the approach of an enemy. He then proceeded to the tent of Eugenius, where he attacked those who were around him, killing many of them, and taking some of them in their flight, among whom was Eugenius. When they had got him in their power, they cut off his head, and carried it on a long spear around the camp, in order to shew those who still adhered to him, that it was now their interest to be reconciled to the emperor, inasmuch as the usurper was removed.
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ArcadiusAE4GlorRom.jpg
1ey Arcadius20 views383-408

AE4

Pearl-diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right, D N ARCADIVS P F AVG
Emperor advancing right, seizing bound captive by the hair & carrying labarum, BSISC in ex., GLORIA ROMANORVM

RIC 38c2

Zosimus recorded, [Theodosius] proceeded with his army to the war [against Eugenius], leaving behind him his son Arcadius, who had some time previously been made emperor. . . .

THE whole empire being vested in Arcadius and Honorius, they indeed appeared by their title to possess the sovereign authority, although the universal administration of affairs was under Rufinus in the east, and under Stilico in the west. By these all causes were determined, at their own pleasure; for whoever bribed plentifully, or by any other means of friendship or consanguinity could make the judge his advocate, was sure to succeed in the process. From hence it happened that most of those great estates, which cause the possessors to be generally esteemed fortunate, devolved to these two; since some endeavoured by gifts to avoid false accusations, and others relinquished all their possessions to obtain an office, or in any other manner to purchase the ruin of particular cities. While iniquity of every kind presided, therefore, in the respective cities, the money from all quarters flowed into the coffers of Rufinus and Stilico ; while on the reverse, poverty preyed on the habitations of those who had formerly been rich. Nor were the emperors acquainted with anything that was done, but thought all that Rufinus and Stilico commanded was done by virtue of some unwritten law. After they had amassed immense wealth, Rufinus began to concert the means of becoming emperor, by making his own daughter, who was now marriageable. . . . [A different cabal persuaded Arcadius to marry a different girl.]. . . .

Before this juncture a report had been circulated at Rome, that the emperor Arcadius was dead, which was confirmed after the departure of Arcadius for Ravenna. Stilico being at Ravenna while the emperor was at a city of Aemilia, called Bononia, about seventy miles distant, the emperor sent for him to chastise the soldiers, who mutinied amongst each other by the way. Stilico, therefore, having collected the mutinous troops together, informed them that the emperor had commanded him to correct them for their disobedience, and to punish them by a decimation, or putting to death every tenth man. At this they were in such consternation, that they burst into tears, and desiring him to have compassion on them, prevailed on him to promise them a pardon from the emperor. The emperor having performed what Stilico had promised, they applied themselves to public business. For Stilico was desirous of proceeding to the east to undertake the management of the affairs of Theodosius, the son of Arcadius, who was very young, and in want of a guardian. Honorius himself was also inclined to undertake the same journey, with a design to secure the dominions of that emperor. But Stilico, being displeased at that, and laying before the emperor a calculation of the immense sum of money it would require to defray the expence of such an expedition, deterred him from the enterprise.
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HonoriusAE3Emperors.jpg
1fa Honorius19 views393-423

AE3

RIC 403

Pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right, DN HONORIVS PF AVG
Two emperors standing facing, heads turned to one another, each holding spear and resting hand on shield, GLORIA ROMANORVM. Mintmark SMKA.

Zosimus wrote: [Theodosius] proceeded with his army to the war [against Eugenius], leaving behind him his son Arcadius, who had some time previously been made emperor. . . . Having done this, he took with him his younger son Honorius, quickly passed through the intermediate countries, and having exceded his expectations in crossing the Alps, arrived where the enemy was stationed. . . . The emperor Theodosius after these successes proceeded to Rome, where he declared his son Honorius emperor, and appointing Stilico to the command of his forces there, left him as guardian to his son. . . . The emperor Theodosius, having consigned Italy, Spain, Celtica, and Libya to his son Honorius, died of a disease on his journey towards Constantinople. . . .

THE whole empire being vested in Arcadius and Honorius, they indeed appeared by their title to possess the sovereign authority, although the universal administration of affairs was under Rufinus in the east, and under Stilico in the west. By these all causes were determined, at their own pleasure; for whoever bribed plentifully, or by any other means of friendship or consanguinity could make the judge his advocate, was sure to succeed in the process. From hence it happened that most of those great estates, which cause the possessors to be generally esteemed fortunate, devolved to these two; since some endeavoured by gifts to avoid false accusations, and others relinquished all their possessions to obtain an office, or in any other manner to purchase the ruin of particular cities. While iniquity of every kind presided, therefore, in the respective cities, the money from all quarters flowed into the coffers of Rufinus and Stilico ; while on the reverse, poverty preyed on the habitations of those who had formerly been rich. Nor were the emperors acquainted with anything that was done, but thought all that Rufinus and Stilico commanded was done by virtue of some unwritten law. . . .

After the autumn was terminated, and winter had commenced, Bassus and Philippus being chosen consuls, the emperor Honorius, who had long before lost his wife Maria, desired to marry her sister Thermantia. But Stilico appeared not to approve of the match, although it was promoted by Serena, who wished it to take place from these motives. When Maria was about to be married to Honorius, her mother, deeming her too young for the marriage-state and being unwilling to defer the marriage, although she thought that to submit so young and tender a person to the embraces of a man was offering violence to nature, she had recourse to a woman who knew how to manage such affairs, and by her means contrived that Maria should live with the emperor and share his bed, but that he should not have the power to deprive her of virginity. In the meantime Maria died a virgin, and Serena, who, as may readily be supposed, was desirous to become the grandmother of a young emperor or empress, through fear of her influence being diminished, used all her endeavours to marry her other daughter to Honorius. This being accomplished, the young lady shortly afterwards died in the same manner as the former. . . . .

For Stilico was desirous of proceeding to the east to undertake the management of the affairs of Theodosius, the son of Arcadius, who was very young, and in want of a guardian. Honorius himself was also inclined to undertake the same journey, with a design to secure the dominions of that emperor. But Stilico, being displeased at that, and laying before the emperor a calculation of the immense sum of money it would require to defray the expence of such an expedition, deterred him from the enterprise. . . .

In the mean time, the emperor Honorius commanded his wife Thermantia to be taken from the imperial throne, and to be restored to her mother, who notwithstanding was without suspicion. . . . Alaric began his expedition against Rome, and ridiculed the preparations made by Honorius. . . . The emperor Honorius was now entering on the consulship, having enjoyed that honour eight times, and the emperor Theodosius in the east three times. At this juncture the rebel Constantine sent some eunches to Honorius, to intreat pardon from him for having accepted of the empire. When the emperor heard this petition, perceiving that it was not easy for him, since Alaric and his barbarians were so near, to prepare for other wars ; and consulting the safety of his relations who were in the hands of the rebel, whose names were Verenianus and Didymius; he not only granted his request, but likewise sent him an imperial robe. . . .

Note: No ancient source reports the sack of Rome by the Goths in 410, they having besieged the city three times, all while Honorius huddled in a besieged Ravenna. Honorius retained his nominal capacity until he died in 423.
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IMG_6965~0.JPG
201. Theodosius II (402-450 A.D.) 28 viewsAv.: DN THEODOSIVS PF AVG
Rv.: GLORIA ROMANORVM
Behind bust: star
Ex.: SMNA

AE Follis Ø15 / 1.5g
RIC X 147 Nicomedia
Juancho
BOTLAUREL_2012.JPG
201240 viewsTHIS YEAR'S WINNERS
CLICK ON A COIN FOR ITS DETAILS

*Alex
coins127.JPG
201a. Julia Domna11 viewsVesta

Vesta was introduced in Rome by King Numa Pompilius. She was a native Roman deity (some authors suggest received from the Sabine cults), sister of Zeus, Poseidon, Hades, Hera and Demeter, and presumably the daughter of Saturn and Ops (or Rea). However, the similarity with the cult of Greek Hestia is notable. Vesta too protected familial harmony and the res publica. Apollo and Neptune had asked for her in marriage, but she refused both, preferring to preserve her virginity, whose symbol was the perpetually lit fire in her circular fane next to the Forum which the Romans always distinguished from a temple by calling it her "house".

As Goddess of the Hearth she was the symbol of the home, around which a newborn child must be carried before it could be received into the family. Every meal began and ended with an offering to her:

Vesta, in all dwellings of men and immortals
Yours is the highest honor, the sweet wine offered
First and last at the feast, poured out to you duly.
Never without you can gods or mortals hold banquet.

Landscape with Vesta temple in Tivoli, Italy, c. 1600.Each city too had a public hearth sacred to Vesta, where the fire was never allowed to go out. If a colony was to be founded, the colonists carried with them coals from the hearth of the mother-city with which to kindle the fire on the new city's hearth.

The fire was guarded by her priestesses, the Vestales. Every March 1 the fire was renewed. It burned until 391, when the Emperor Theodosius I forbade public pagan worship. One of the Vestales was Rea Silvia, who with Mars conceived Romulus and Remus (see founding of Rome).

3070. Silver denarius, RIC 538, RSC 221, VF, 2.30g, 17.5mm, 0o, Rome mint, 193-196 A.D.; obverse IVLIA DOMNA AVG, draped bust right; reverse VESTA, Vesta seated left, holding palladium and scepter. Ex Forum
ecoli
22047.jpg
22047 Theodosius II /Concordia15 viewsTheodosius II /Concordia
Obv: DN THEODOSIVS PF AVG
Pearl-diademed, helmeted and cuirassed bust facing slightly r., holding spear over shoulder and shield decorated with cross.
Rev: CONCORDI-A AVGG
Constantinopolis seated facing on throne, head r., foot on prow, holding sceptre and Victory on globe; SMK_ in Exergue
Mint: Cyzicus 17.1mm 2.5g
RIC X 96. Scarce.
Blayne W
22050.jpg
22050 Theodosius I/Campgate14 viewsTheodosius I/Campgate
AE4. 384-388 AD.
Obv: DN THEODO-SIVS PF AVG,
pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: GLORIA REI-PVBLICE,
campgate, 2 turrets, no star, B in left field,
TES in exergue.
Mint: Thessalonica 12.7mm 1.0g
RIC IX Thessalonica 62b, rated scarce.
1 commentsBlayne W
thessalonica19.jpg
294 Theodosius I. AE411 viewsobv: DN THEODO_SIVS PF AVG laur. drp. cuir. bust r.
rev: GLORIA REI_PVBLICE campgate with two turrents
ex: (delta)/TES
hill132
rjb_2013_10_04.jpg
37932 viewsTheodosius I
AE3
Obv: DN THEODOSIVS PF AVG
Rosette diademed helmeted, draped and cuirassed bust right holding spear and shield
Rev: GLORIA ROMANORVM
Emperor on galley left being guided by Victory at helm, T in left field, cross in right
Antioch mint
RIC IX 59d
mauseus
TheoIXHera19(c)1.jpg
379-395 AD - Theodosius I - RIC IX Heraclea 19(c)1 - VOT | X | MVLT | XX39 viewsEmperor: Theodosius I (r. 379-395 AD)
Date: 379-383 AD
Condition: EF
Size: AE4

Obverse: DN THEODO-SIVS PF AVG
Our Lord Theodosius Dutiful and Wise Emperor
Bust right; pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed

Reverse: VOT | X | MVLT | XX in wreath.
Because of the vows, 10 years; through more vows, 20 years.
Exergue: SMHA (Heraclea mint, first officina)

RIC IX Heraclea 19(c)1; VM 47
1.30g; 14.7mm; 315°
Pep
TheoIXSis29(d)1.jpg
379-395 AD - Theodosius I - RIC IX Siscia 29(d)1 - VOT | V | MVLT | X33 viewsEmperor: Theodosius I (r. 379-395 AD)
Date: 379-383 AD
Condition: Fine
Size: AE4

Obverse: DN THEODO-SIVS PF AVG
Our Lord Theodosius Dutiful and Wise Emperor
Bust right; pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed

Reverse: VOT | V | MVLT | X in wreath.
Because of the vows, 5 years; through more vows, 10 years.
Exergue: ASISC (Siscia mint, first officina)

RIC IX Siscia 29(d)1; VM 46
1.47g; 15.1mm; 195°
Pep
TheoIXSis39(b).jpg
379-395 AD - Theodosius I - RIC IX Siscia 39(b) - VICTORIA AVGGG33 viewsEmperor: Theodosius I (r. 379-395 AD)
Date: 384-387 AD
Condition: Fine
Size: AE4

Obverse: DN THEODO-SIVS P F AVG
Our Lord Theodosius Dutiful and Wise Emperor
Bust right; pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed

Reverse: VICTOR-IA AVGGG
The Three Emperors are victorious.
Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm.
Exergue: (A or B)SIS (Siscia mint, first or second officina)

RIC IX Siscia 39(b); VM43
1.04g; 14.0mm; 210°
Pep
TheoIIVM36.jpg
402-450 AD - Theodosius II - Van Meter 36 - Cross in Wreath Reverse27 viewsProbable Emperor: Theodosius II (r. 402-450 AD)
Date: 425-455 AD
Condition: Fair
Size: AE4

Obverse: DN THEODOSIVS PF AVG
Our Lord Theodosius Dutiful and Wise Emperor
Bust right; diademed, draped and cuirassed

Reverse: no legend
Cross in wreath.
Exergue: unknown

VM 36
0.96g; 9.8mm; 225°
Pep
TheoIIVM36_2.jpg
402-450 AD - Theodosius II - Van Meter 36 - Cross in Wreath Reverse - 2nd Example28 viewsProbable Emperor: Theodosius II (r. 402-450 AD)
Date: 425-455 AD
Condition: Fair
Size: AE4

Obverse: DN THEODOSIVS PF AVG
Our Lord Theodosius Dutiful and Wise Emperor
Bust right; diademed, draped and cuirassed

Reverse: no legend
Cross in wreath.
Exergue: (_T_)? - unknown

VM 36
1.03g; 10.4mm; 15°
Pep
TheoIIVM36_3.jpg
402-450 AD - Theodosius II - Van Meter 36 - Cross in Wreath Reverse - 3rd Example13 viewsProbable Emperor: Theodosius II (r. 402-450 AD)
Date: 425-455 AD
Condition: Fair
Size: AE4

Obverse: DN THEODOSIVS PF AVG
Our Lord Theodosius Dutiful and Wise Emperor
Bust right; diademed, draped and cuirassed

Reverse: no legend
Cross in wreath.
Exergue: unknown

VM 36
0.79g; 11.6mm; 15°
Pep
TheoIIVM36_4.jpg
402-450 AD - Theodosius II - Van Meter 36 - Cross in Wreath Reverse - 4th Example15 viewsProbable Emperor: Theodosius II (r. 402-450 AD)
Date: 425-455 AD
Condition: Fair
Size: AE4

Obverse: DN THEODOSIVS PF AVG
Our Lord Theodosius Dutiful and Wise Emperor
Bust right; diademed, draped and cuirassed

Reverse: no legend
Cross in wreath.
Exergue: unknown

VM 36
1.17g; 11.4mm; 165°
Pep
coin599.JPG
501. Constantine I Alexandria Posthumous23 viewsAlexandria

The city passed formally under Roman jurisdiction in 80 BC, according to the will of Ptolemy Alexander but after it had been previously under Roman influence for more than a hundred years. Julius Caesar dallied with Cleopatra in Alexandria in 47 BC, saw Alexander's body (quipping 'I came to see a king, not a collection of corpses' when he was offered a view of the other royal burials) and was mobbed by the rabble. His example was followed by Marc Antony, for whose favor the city paid dearly to Octavian, who placed over it a prefect from the imperial household.

From the time of annexation onwards, Alexandria seems to have regained its old prosperity, commanding, as it did, an important granary of Rome. This fact, doubtless, was one of the chief reasons which induced Augustus to place it directly under imperial power. In AD 215 the emperor Caracalla visited the city and for some insulting satires that the inhabitants had directed at him, abruptly commanded his troops to put to death all youths capable of bearing arms. This brutal order seems to have been carried out even beyond the letter, for a general massacre ensued.

Even as its main historical importance had formerly sprung from pagan learning, now Alexandria acquired fresh importance as a centre of Christian theology and church government. There Arianism was formulated and where also Athanasius, the great opponent of both Arianism and pagan reaction, triumphed over both, establishing the Patriarch of Alexandria as a major influence in Christianity for the next two centuries.

As native influences began to reassert themselves in the Nile valley, Alexandria gradually became an alien city, more and more detached from Egypt and losing much of its commerce as the peace of the empire broke up during the 3rd century AD, followed by a fast decline in population and splendour.

In the late 4th century, persecution of pagans by Christians had reached new levels of intensity. Temples and statues were destroyed throughout the Roman empire: pagan rituals became forbidden under punishment of death, and libraries were closed. In 391, Emperor Theodosius I ordered the destruction of all pagan temples, and the Patriarch Theophilus, complied with his request. It is possible that the great Library of Alexandria and the Serapeum was destroyed about this time. The pagan mathematician and philosopher Hypathia was a prominent victim of the persecutions.

The Brucheum and Jewish quarters were desolate in the 5th century, and the central monuments, the Soma and Museum, fell into ruin. On the mainland, life seemed to have centred in the vicinity of the Serapeum and Caesareum, both which became Christian churches. The Pharos and Heptastadium quarters, however, remained populous and left intact.

veiled head only
DV CONSTANTI-NVS PT AVGG
RIC VIII Alexandria 32 C3

From uncleaned lot; one of the nicer finds.
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504. CONSTANTIUS II GLORIA EXERCITVS Antioch17 viewsAntioch

Under the empire we chiefly hear of the earthquakes which shook Antioch. One, in AD 37, caused the emperor Caligula to send two senators to report on the condition of the city. Another followed in the next reign; and in 115, during Trajan's sojourn in the place with his army of Parthia, the whole site was convulsed, the landscape altered, and the emperor himself forced to take shelter in the circus for several days. He and his successor restored the city; but in 526, after minor shocks, the calamity returned in a terrible form; the octagonal cathedral which had been erected by the emperor Constantius II suffered and thousands of lives were lost, largely those of Christians gathered to a great church assembly. We hear also of especially terrific earthquakes on November 29, 528 and October 31, 588.

At Antioch Germanicus died in AD 19, and his body was burnt in the forum. Titus set up the Cherubim, captured from the Jewish temple, over one of the gates. Commodus had Olympic games celebrated at Antioch, and in 266 the town was suddenly raided by the Persians, who slew many in the theatre. In 387 there was a great sedition caused by a new tax levied by order of Theodosius, and the city was punished by the loss of its metropolitan status. Zeno, who renamed it Theopolis, restored many of its public buildings just before the great earthquake of 526, whose destructive work was completed by the Persian Chosroes twelve years later. Justinian I made an effort to revive it, and Procopius describes his repairing of the walls; but its glory was past.

The chief interest of Antioch under the empire lies in its relation to Christianity. Evangelized perhaps by Peter, according to the tradition upon which the Antiochene patriarchate still rests its claim for primacy (cf. Acts xi.), and certainly by Barnabas and Paul, who here preached his first Christian sermon in a synagogue, its converts were the first to be called Christians

004. CONSTANTIUS II Antioch

RIC VII Antioch 88 C3

From Uncleaned Lot

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510. Valentinian I51 viewsFlavius Valentinianus, known in English as Valentinian I, (321 - November 17, 375) was a Roman Emperor (364 - 375). He was born at Cibalis, in Pannonia, the son of a successful general, Gratian the Elder.

He had been an officer of the Praetorian guard under Julian and Jovian, and had risen high in the imperial service. Of robust frame and distinguished appearance, he possessed great courage and military capacity. After the death of Jovian, he was chosen emperor in his forty-third year by the officers of the army at Nicaea in Bithynia on February 26, 364, and shortly afterwards named his brother Valens colleague with him in the empire.

The two brothers, after passing through the chief cities of the neighbouring district, arranged the partition of the empire at Naissus (Nissa) in Upper Moesia. As Western Roman Emperor, Valentinian took Italia, Illyricum, Hispania, the Gauls, Britain and Africa, leaving to Eastern Roman Emperor Valens the eastern half of the Balkan peninsula, Greece, Aegyptus, Syria and Asia Minor as far as Persia. They were immediately confronted by the revolt of Procopius, a relative of the deceased Julian. Valens managed to defeat his army at Thyatria in Lydia in 366, and Procopius was executed shortly afterwards.

During the short reign of Valentinian there were wars in Africa, in Germany and in Britain, and Rome came into collision with barbarian peoples never of heard before, specifically the Burgundians, and the Saxons.

Valentinian's chief work was guarding the frontiers and establishing military positions. Milan was at first his headquarters for settling the affairs of northern Italy. The following year (365) Valentinian was at Paris, and then at Reims, to direct the operations of his generals against the Alamanni. These people, defeated at Scarpona (Charpeigne) and Catelauni (Châlons-en-Champagne) by Jovinus, were driven back to the German bank of the Rhine, and checked for a while by a chain of military posts and fortresses. At the close of 367, however, they suddenly crossed the Rhine, attacked Moguntiacum (Mainz) and plundered the city. Valentinian attacked them at Solicinium (Sulz am Neckar, in the Neckar valley, or Schwetzingen) with a large army, and defeated them with great slaughter. But his own losses were so considerable that Valentinian abandoned the idea of following up his success.

Later, in 374, Valentinian made peace with their king, Macrianus, who from that time remained a true friend of the Romans. The next three years he spent at Trier, which he chiefly made his headquarters, organizing the defence of the Rhine frontier, and personally superintending the construction of numerous forts.

During his reign the coasts of Gaul were harassed by the Saxon pirates, with whom the Picts and Scots of northern Britain joined hands, and ravaged the island from the Antonine Wall to the shores of Kent. In 368 Count Theodosius was sent to drive back the invaders; in this he was completely successful, and established a new British province, called Valentia in honour of the emperor.

In Africa, Firmus, raised the standard of revolt, being joined by the provincials, who had been rendered desperate by the cruelty and extortions of Comes Romanus, the military governor. The services of Theodosius were again requisitioned. He landed in Africa with a small band of veterans, and Firmus, to avoid being taken prisoner, committed suicide.

In 374 the Quadi, a Germanic tribe in what is now Moravia and Slovakia, resenting the erection of Roman forts to the north of the Danube in what they considered to be their own territory, and further exasperated by the treacherous murder of their king, Gabinius, crossed the river and laid waste the province of Pannonia. The emperor in April, 375 entered Illyricum with a powerful army. But during an audience to an embassy from the Quadi at Brigetio on the Danube (near Komárom, Hungary), Valentinian suffered a burst blood vessel in the skull while angrily yelling at the people gathered. This injury resulted in his death on November 17, 375.

His general administration seems to have been thoroughly honest and able, in some respects beneficent. If Valentinian was hard and exacting in the matter of taxes, he spent them in the defence and improvement of his dominions, not in idle show or luxury. Though himself a plain and almost illiterate soldier, Valentinian was a founder of schools. He also provided medical attendance for the poor of Rome, by appointing a physician for each of the fourteen districts of the city.

Valentinian was a Christian but permitted absolute religious freedom to all his subjects. Against all abuses, both civil and ecclesiastical, Valentinian steadily set his face, even against the increasing wealth and worldliness of the clergy. His chief flaw was his temper, which at times was frightful, and showed itself in its full fierceness in the punishment of persons accused of witchcraft, fortune-telling or magical practices.

Valentinian I; RIC IX, Siscia 15(a); C.37; second period: 24 Aug. 367-17 Nov. 375; common. obv. DN VALENTINI-ANVS PF AVG, bust cuir., drap., r., rev. SECVRITAS-REI PVBLICAE, Victory advancing l., holding wreath and trophy. l. field R above R with adnex, r. field F, ex. gamma SISC rev.Z dot (type xxxv)
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511. Valens37 viewsAfter a brief stay aimed at building his troop strength and gaining a toehold in Thrace, Valens moved out to Adrianople. From there, he marched against the confederated barbarian army on August 9, 378 in what would become known as the battle of Adrianople. Although negotiations were attempted, these broke down when a Roman unit sallied forth and carried both sides into battle. The Romans held their own early on but were crushed by the surprise arrival of Visigoth cavalry which split their ranks.

The primary source for the battle is Ammianus, who is quoted at length by Edward Gibbon (The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, XXVI). Valens had left a sizeable guard with his baggage and treasures depleting his force. His right wing, cavalry, arrived at the Gothic camp sometime before the left wing arrived. It was a very hot day and the Roman cavalry was engaged without strategic support, wasting its efforts while they suffered in the heat.

Meanwhile Fritigern once again sent an emissary of peace in his continued manipulation of the situation. The resultant delay meant that the Romans present on the field began to succumb to the heat. The army's resources were further diminished when an ill timed attack by the Roman archers made it necessary to recall Valens’ emissary, Count Richomer. The archers were beaten and retreated in humiliation.

Gothic cavalry under the command of Althaeus and Saphrax then struck and, with what was probably the most decisive event of the battle, the Roman cavalry fled. The Roman infantry was abandoned, surrounded and cut to pieces. Valens was wounded and carried to a small wooden hut. The hut was surrounded by the Goths who put it to the torch, evidently unaware of the prize within. According to Ammianus, this is how Valens perished.

When the battle was over, two-thirds of the eastern army lied dead. Many of their best officers had also perished. What was left of the army of Valens was led from the field under the cover of night by Count Richomer and General Victor.

J.B. Bury, a noted authority on the barbarian invasion of Europe provides specific interpretation on the significance the battle; It was "a disaster and disgrace that need not have occurred."

For Rome, the battle incapacitated the government. Emperor Gratian, nineteen years old, was overcome by the debacle, and until he appointed Theodosius, unable to deal with the catastrophe which spread out of control.

Date: 364-367 AD
Obverse: D N VALEN-S P F AVG, Cuirassed and draped, pearl diademed bust right.
Reverse: RESTITV-TOR REIP, Valens stg. Looking r. holding labarum in r. hand and Victory on globe presenting wreath on emperor on l. hand. TES delta in exergue.
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513. Gratian27 viewsFlavius Gratianus Augustus (April 18/May 23, 359 - August 25, 383), known as Gratian, was a Western Roman Emperor from 375 to 383. He was the son of Valentinian I by Marina Severa and was born at Sirmium in Pannonia.

On August 4, 367 he received from his father the title of Augustus. On the death of Valentinian (November 17, 375), the troops in Pannonia proclaimed his infant son (by a second wife Justina) emperor under the title of Valentinian II.

Gratian acquiesced in their choice; reserving for himself the administration of the Gallic provinces, he handed over Italy, Illyria and Africa to Valentinian and his mother, who fixed their residence at Milan. The division, however, was merely nominal, and the real authority remained in the hands of Gratian.

The Eastern Roman Empire was under the rule of his uncle Valens. In May, 378 Gratian completely defeated the Lentienses, the southernmost branch of the Alamanni, at the Battle of Argentovaria, near the site of the modern Colmar. Later that year, Valens met his death in the Battle of Adrianople on August 9.

In the same year, the government of the Eastern Empire devolved upon Gratian, but feeling himself unable to resist unaided the incursions of the barbarians, he promoted Theodosius I on January 19, 379 to govern that portion of the empire. Gratianus and Theodosius then cleared the Balkans of barbarians in the Gothic War (377–382).

For some years Gratian governed the empire with energy and success but gradually sank into indolence, occupying himself chiefly with the pleasures of the chase, and became a tool in the hands of the Frankish general Merobaudes and bishop Ambrose of Milan.

By taking into his personal service a body of Alani, and appearing in public in the dress of a Scythian warrior, he aroused the contempt and resentment of his Roman troops. A Roman general named Magnus Maximus took advantage of this feeling to raise the standard of revolt in Britain and invaded Gaul with a large army. Gratian, who was then in Paris, being deserted by his troops, fled to Lyon. There, through the treachery of the governor, Gratian was delivered over to one of the rebel generals and assassinated on August 25, 383.

RIC IX Antioch 46b S

DN GRATIA-NVS PF AVG
CONCOR-DIA AVGGG
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514. Valentinian II34 viewsValentinian II (371 - 392) was elevated as Western Roman Emperor at the age of four in 375, along with his half-brother Gratian.

Valentinian and his family lived in Milan, and the empire was nominally divided between them. Gratian took the trans- Alpine provinces, while Italy, Illyricum in part, and Africa were to be under the rule of Valentinian, or rather of his mother, Justina. Justina was an Arian, and the imperial court at Milan struggled against the Catholics of that city, led by their bishop Ambrose. The popularity of Ambrose was so great that the emperors' authority was materially shaken. In 387, Magnus Maximus, a Roman consul who had commanded an army in Briton, and in 383 (the year of Gratian's death) had declared himself emperor of Western Rome, crossed the Alps into the valley of the Po and threatened Milan.

The emperor Valentinian II and his mother fled to Theodosius I, the Eastern Roman Emperor and Valentinian's brother in law. Valentinian was restored in 388 by Theodosius, following the death of Magnus Maximus.

On May 15, 392, Valentinian was found hanged in his residence in the town of Vienne in Gaul. The Frankish soldier Arbogast, Valentinian's protector and magister militum, maintained that it was suicide. Arbogast and Valentinian had frequently disputed rulership over the Western Roman Empire, and Valentinian was also noted to have complained of Arbogast's control over him to Theodosius. Thus when word of his death reached Constantinople Theodosius believed, or at least suspected, that Arbogast was lying and that he had engineered Valentinian's demise. These suspicions were further fueled by Arbogast's elevation of a Eugenius, pagan official to the position of Western Emperor, and the veiled accusations which Ambrose, the Bishop of Milan, spoke during his funeral oration for Valentinian.

Valentinian II's death sparked a civil war between Eugenius and Theodosius over the rulership of the West in the Battle of the Frigidus. The resultant Eastern victory there led to the final brief unification of the Roman Empire under Theodosius, and the ultimate irreparable division of the Empire after his death.

Bronze AE3, RIC 22, VF, 2.19g, 17.7mm, 0o, Arelate mint, 378-383 A.D.; obverse D N VALENTINIANVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse VICTORIAE AVGGG, Victory advancing left holding wreath in right and palm frond in left, [S]CON in ex;Ex Aiello;Ex Forum
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515. Theodosius I37 viewsSon of a senior military officer, Theodosius the Elder, Theodosius accompanied his father to Britannia to help quell the Great Conspiracy in 368. He was military commander (dux) of Moesia, a Roman province on the lower Danube, in 374. However, shortly thereafter, and at about the same time as the sudden disgrace and execution of his father, Theodosius retired to Cauca. The reason for his retirement, and the relationship (if any) between it and his father's death is unclear. It is possible that he was dismissed of his command by the emperor Valentinian I, after the loss of two of Theodosius' legions by the Sarmatians in late 374.

In 378, after the death of the emperor Valens at the Battle of Adrianople, the emperor Gratian appointed Theodosius co-augustus for the East. After 392, following the death of Valentinian II, whom he had supported against a variety of usurpations, Theodosius ruled as sole emperor, defeating the usurper Eugenius on September 6, 394, at the Battle of the Frigidus.


RIC IX Constantinople 88a C
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515. Theodosius I REPARATIO REIPVB Aquileia14 viewsTheodosius I AE2. 379-383 AD. D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG, diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right / REPARATIO REIPVB, emperor standing front, head left, offering right hand to female on left to help her rise from kneeling position, & holding Victory on a globe, SMAQP in ex. Cohen 27. Aquileia RIC 30d
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515a. Aelia Flacilla33 viewsEmpress, wife of Theodosius the Great, died c. A. D. 385 or 386. Like Theodosius himself, his first wife, Ælia Flaccilla, was of Spanish descent. She may have been the daughter of Claudius Antonius, Prefect of Gaul, who was consul in 382. Her marriage with Theodosius probably took place in the year 376, when his father, the comes Theodosius, fell into disfavour and he himself withdrew to Cauca in Gallæcia, for her eldest son, afterwards Emperor Arcadius, was born towards the end of the following year. In the succeeding years she presented two more children to her husband Honorius (384), who later became emperor, and Pulcheria, who died in early childhood, shortly before her mother. Gregory of Nyssa states expressly that she had three children; consequently the Gratian mentioned by St. Ambrose, together with Pulcheria, was probably not her son. Flaccilla was, like her husband, a zealous supporter of the Nicene Creed and prevented the conference between the emperor and the Arian Eunomius (Sozomen, Hist. eccl., VII, vi). On the throne she was a shining example of Christian virtue and ardent charity. St. Ambrose describes her as "a soul true to God" (Fidelis anima Deo. — "De obitu Theodosii", n. 40, in P. L., XVI, 1462). In his panegyric St. Gregory of Nyssa bestowed the highest praise on her virtuous life and pictured her as the helpmate of the emperor in all good works, an ornament of the empire, a leader of justice, an image of beneficence. He praises her as filled with zeal for the Faith, as a pillar of the Church, as a mother of the indigent. Theodoret in particular exalts her charity and benevolence (Hist. eccles., V, xix, ed. Valesius, III, 192 sq.). He tells us how she personally tended cripples, and quotes a saying of hers: "To distribute money belongs to the imperial dignity, but I offer up for the imperial dignity itself personal service to the Giver." Her humility also attracts a special meed of praise from the church historian. Flaccilla was buried in Constantinople, St. Gregory of Nyssa delivering her funeral oration. She is venerated in the Greek Church as a saint, and her feast is kept on 14 September. The Bollandists (Acta SS., Sept., IV, 142) are of the opinion that she is not regarded as a saint but only as venerable, but her name stands in the Greek Menæa and Synaxaria followed by words of eulogy, as is the case with the other saints

Wife of Theodosius. The reverse of the coin is very interesting; a nice bit of Pagan-Christian syncretism with winged victory inscribing a chi-rho on a shield.
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515b. Magnus Maximus35 viewsA Spaniard, Maximus was proclaimed emperor by his troops in 383, while serving with the army in Britain. Later legend made him King of the Britons; he handed the throne over to Caradocus when he went to Gaul to pursue his imperial ambitions.

Following his destruction of Gaul, Maximus went out to meet his main opponent, Gratian, who he defeated near Paris. Gratian, after fleeing, was killed at Lyon on August 25, 383. Soon after, Maximus managed to force Valentinian II out of Rome after which he fled to Theodosius I, the Eastern Roman Emperor. Maximus made his capital at Augusta Treverorum (Treves, Trier) in Gaul. He became a popular emperor, although also a stern persecutor of heretics.

Theodosius I and Valentinian II campaigned against Magnus Maximus in July-August 388. Maximus was defeated in the Battle of the Save, near Emona, and retreated to Aquileia. Andragathius, magister equitum of Maximus and killer of Gratian, was defeated near Siscia, his brother Marcellinus again at Poetovio. Maximus surrendered in Aquileia and although pleaded for mercy was executed. However, his wife and two daughters were spared. Maximus' son, Flavius Victor, was defeated and executed by Valentinian's magister peditum Arbogast in the fall of the same year.

What happened to his family is not related, although it is clear that they survived and that his descendants continued to occupy influential posts. We encounter a possible daughter of Magnus Maximus, Sevira, on the Pillar of Eliseg, an early medieval inscribed stone in Wales which claims her marriage to Vortigern, king of the Britons. Another daughter was possibly married to Ennodius, proconsul Africae (395). Their grandson was Petronius Maximus, who was another ill-fated emperor, ruling in Rome for but 77 days before he was stoned to death while fleeing from the Vandals on May 24, 455. Other descendants included Anicius Olybrius, emperor in 472, but also several consuls and bishops such as St. Magnus Felix Ennodius (Bishop of Pavia c. 514-21).

Magnus Maximus AE-4

Obv: MM right, DN MAG MAXIMVS PF AVG; Reverse: SPES ROMANORVM, campgate with two turrets and star above. Coin is nice VF for this small issue.
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515c. Flavius Victor29 viewsFlavius Victor was the infant son of Magnus Maximus by his wife Helen, allegedly the daughter of Octavius. He was proclaimed an Augustus from 384 to his death in 388.

Victor's father was considered a usurper of the Western Roman Empire. He negotiated receiving recognition by the legitimate Augusti Valentinian II and Theodosius I. When negotiations failed, Maximus pressed the matter by proclaiming his son an Augustus, indicating an attempt to secure a succession. This method had been used by former Emperor Valentinian I who declared his son and heir Gratian an Augustus in 367 and by Theodosius who had declared his own son and heir Arcadius an Augustus in 383.

Maximus and Victor gained recognition of their legitimacy for their co-reign by Theodosius in 386. In 387, Maximus campaigned in Italy against Valentinian II. Victor was left behind in Trier. His father defeated Valentinian but failed against a then hostile Theodosius in 388. Theodosius send Arbogastes in Trier to slay Victor.

Victor's death left Valentinian II, Theodosius and Arcadius as the sole Augusti in the Empire

RIC IX Aquileia 55b
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516. Honorius45 viewsFlavius Honorius (September 9, 384–August 15, 423) was Emperor of the Western Roman Empire from 395 until his death. He was the younger son of Theodosius I and his first wife Aelia Flaccilla, and brother of the Eastern emperor Arcadius.

Honorius was declared Augustus in 393 by his father and became western emperor at the age of 10, following his father's death in January 395. For the first part of his reign he depended on the military leadership of the Vandal general Stilicho. To strengthen his bonds to the young emperor, Stilicho married his daughter Maria to him.

At first Honorius based his capital in Milan, but when the Visigoths entered Italy in 402 he moved his capital to the coastal city of Ravenna, which was protected by a ring of marshes and strong fortifications. While the new capital was easier to defend, it was poorly situated to allow Roman forces to protect central Italy from the barbarian incursions.

The most notable event of his reign was the assault and sack of Rome on August 24, 410 by the Visigoths under Alaric.

The city had been under Visigothic siege since shortly after Stilicho's deposition and execution in the summer of 408. Lacking a strong general to control the by-now mostly barbarian Roman Army, Honorius could do little to attack Alaric's forces directly, and apparently adopted the only strategy he could do in the situation: wait passively to Visigoths to grow weary and spend the time marshalling what forces he could. Unfortunately, this course of action appeared to be the product of Honorius' indecisive character and he suffered much criticism for it both from contemporaries and later historians.

Whether this plan could have worked is perhaps debatable, especially since he deprived himself of several skillful officers by only promoting Catholics to the top military positions. In any case it was overtaken by events. Stricken by starvation, somebody opened Rome's defenses to Alaric and the Goths poured in. The city had not been under the control of a foreign force since an invasion of Gallic Celts some seven centuries before. The victorious Visigoths did untold damage to the city and the shock of this event reverberated from Britain to Jerusalem, and inspired Augustine to write his magnum opus, The City of God.

The year 410 also saw Honorius reply to a British plea for assistance against local barbarian incursions. Preoccupied with the Visigoths and lacking any real capabilities to assist the distant province, Honorius told the Britons to defend themselves as best they could.

There is a story (which Gibbon disbelieved) that when he heard the news that Rome had "perished", Honorius was initially shocked; thinking the news was in reference to a favorite chicken he had named "Roma", he recalled in disbelief that the bird was just recently feeding out of his hand. It was then explained to him that the Rome in question was the city.

His reign of twenty-eight years was one of the most disastrous in the Roman annals. Honorius' supposed weakness and timidity in the face of internal dissension and the attacks of the Visigoths and Vandals is often said to have contributed to the rapid disintegration of the western half of the empire.



RIC X Antioch 153
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516a Johannes41 viewsAfter the death of Honorius on August 15, 423, his closest male relative was Valentinian, son of Galla Placidia. Valentinian was currently at Constantinople. This power vacuum allowed Ioannes, the primicerius notariorum (chief notary) to seize power in the west. Virtually nothing is known of Ioannes himself, though he was said to have had a mild character. He was supported by the magister militum Castinus and by Aetius, son of the magister militum Gaudentius. After his acclamation at Rome, Ioannes transferred his capital to Ravenna. Ioannes' rule was accepted in Gaul, Spain and Italy, but not in Africa. Ioannes' attempts to negotiate with the eastern emperor Theodosius II were unsuccessful. He seems not to have had a firm grasp of power and this encouraged eastern intervention. In 425, Theodosius II sent an expedition under the command of Ardabur the Elder to install Valentinian as emperor in the west. Ardabur was captured, but treated well, as Ioannes still hoped to be able to negotiate with Theodosius. Ardabur, however, persuaded some of Ioannes' officials to betray him. After his capture, Ioannes was taken to Aquileia where he was mutilated, then executed. Three days after Ioannes's execution, one of his generals, Aetius, arrived in Italy with a large force of Huns. Rather than continue the war, Valentinian bought off the Huns with gold and Aetius with the office of comes.
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517. Arcadius32 viewsFlavius Arcadius (377/378–May 1, 408) was Roman Emperor in the Eastern half of the Roman Empire from 395 until his death.

Arcadius was the elder son of Theodosius I and Aelia Flaccilla, and brother of Honorius, who would become a Western Roman Emperor. His father declared him an Augustus in January, 383. His younger brother was also declared an Augustus in 393.

As Emperors, Honorius was under the control of the Romanized Vandal magister militum Flavius Stilicho while Arcadius was dominated by one of his ministers, Rufinus. Stilicho is alleged by some to have wanted control of both emperors, and is supposed to have had Rufinus assassinated by Gothic mercenaries in 395, but definite proof of these allegations is lacking. In any case, Arcadius' new advisor Eutropius simply took Rufinus' place as the power behind the Eastern imperial throne. Arcadius was also dominated by his wife Aelia Eudoxia, who convinced her husband to dismiss Eutropius in 399. Eudoxia was strongly opposed by John Chrysostom, the Patriarch of Constantinople, who felt that she had used her family's wealth to gain control over the emperor. Eudoxia used her influence to have Chrysostom deposed in 404, but she died later that year.

Arcadius was dominated for the rest of his rule by Anthemius, the Praetorian Prefect, who made peace with Stilicho in the West. Arcadius himself was more concerned with appearing to be a pious Christian than he was with political or military matters, and he died, only nominally in control of his empire, in 408.

Bronze AE 4, RIC 67d and 70a, choice aEF, 1.14g, 13.8mm, 180o, Antioch mint, 383-395 A.D.; obverse D N ARCADIVS P F AVG, pearl diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse SALVS REIPVBLICE, Victory advancing left holding trophy over right shoulder, dragging captive with left, staurogram left, ANTG in ex; Ex Aiello; Ex Forum
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601. Eudoxia24 viewsAelia Eudoxia (d. 6 October 404) was the wife of the Eastern Roman emperor Arcadius.

The daughter of a certain Bauto, a Frankish magister militum serving in the Western Roman army during the 380s, Eudoxia owed her marriage to the youthful Emperor Arcadius on 27 April 395 to the intrigues of the eunuch of the palace, Eutropius. She had very considerable influence over her husband, who was of rather weak character and who was more interested in Christian piety than imperial politics.

In 399 she succeeded, with help from the leader of the Empire's Gothic mercenaries, in deposing her erstwhile benefactor Eutropius, who was later executed over the protests of John Chrysostom, the Patriarch of Constantinople.

John Chrysostom was already becoming unpopular at court due to his efforts at reforming the Church, and in 403 Eudoxia and Theophilus, Patriarch of Alexandria, succeeded in having the outspoken Patriarch condemned by a synod and then deposed. He was exiled to Armenia the next year after a brief return to power resulting from popular disgust at his fall and an earthquake which reinforced those feelings.

Eudoxia had a total of seven pregnancies, five of which were successful. Her final pregnancy ended in a miscarriage which led to her death on October 6, 404. One of her children was the future emperor Theodosius II.

In 403, Simplicius, Prefect of Constantinople, erected a statue dedicated to her on a column of porphyry. Arcadius renamed the town of Selymbria (Silivri) Eudoxiopolis after her, though this name did not survive.

Bronze AE 4, RIC 102, S 4241, VM 6, VF, 2.14g, 17.0mm, 180o, Nikomedia mint, 401-403 A.D.; obverse AEL EVDOXIA AVG, diademed and draped bust right with hand of God holding wreath over her head; reverse SALVS REIPVBLICAE, Victory seated on cuirass inscribing Christogram on shield, SMNA in ex; softly struck reverse; rare
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602. Theodosius II30 viewsFlavius Theodosius II (April, 401 - July 28, 450 ). The eldest son of Eudoxia and Arcadius who at the age of 7 became the Roman Emperor of the East.

He was heavily influenced by his eldest sister Pulcheria who pushed him towards Eastern Christianity. Pulcheria was the primary driving power behind the emperor and many of her views became official policy. These included her anti-Semitic view which resulted in the destruction of synagogues.

On the death of his father Arcadius in 408, he became Emperor. In June 421 Theodosius married the poet Aelia Eudocia. They had a daughter, Licinia Eudoxia, whose marriage with the Western Roman Emperor Valentinian III marked the re-unification of the two halves of the Empire, even if for a short time. Theodosius created the University of Constantinople, and died in 450 as the result of a riding accident.

Bronze AE4, S 4297, VG, .96g, 12.3mm, 0o, uncertain mint, 408-450 A.D.; obverse D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse no legend, cross in wreath, obscure mintmark in exergue; ex Forum
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603. Marcian26 viewsMarcian was born in Thrace or Illyria. He spent his early life as an obscure soldier. He subsequently served for nineteen years under Ardaburius and Aspar, and took part in the wars against the Persians and Vandals. In 431, Marcian was taken prisoner by the Vandals in the fighting near Hippo Regius; brought before the Vandal king Geiseric, he was released on his oath never to take up arms against the Vandals.

Through the influence of these generals he became a captain of the guards, and was later raised to the rank of tribune and senator. On the death of Theodosius II he was chosen as consort by the latter's sister and successor, Pulcheria, and called upon to govern an empire greatly humbled and impoverished by the ravages of the Huns.

Upon becoming Emperor, Marcian repudiated the embarrassing payments of tribute to Attila the Hun, which the latter had been accustomed to receiving from Theodosius in order to refrain from attacks on the eastern empire. Aware that he could never capture the eastern capital of Constantinople, Attila turned to the west and waged his famous campaigns in Gaul 451 and Italy (452) while leaving Marcian's dominions alone.

He reformed the finances, checked extravagance, and repopulated the devastated districts. He repelled attacks upon Syria and Egypt (452), and quelled disturbances on the Armenian frontier (456). The other notable event of his reign is the Council of Chalcedon (451), in which Marcian endeavoured to mediate between the rival schools of theology.

Marcian generally ignored the affairs of the western Roman Empire, leaving that tottering half of the empire to its fate. He did nothing to aid the west during Attila's campaigns, and, living up to his promise, ignored the depredations of Geiseric even when the Vandals sacked Rome in 455. It has recently been argued, however, that Marcian was more actively involved in aiding the western Empire than historians had previously believed and that Marcian's fingerprints can be discerned in the events leading up to, and including, Attila's death. (See Michael A. Babcock, "The Night Attila Died: Solving the Murder of Attila the Hun," Berkley Books, 2005.)

Shortly before Attila's death in 453, conflict had begun again between him and Marcian. However, the powerful Hun king died before all-out war broke out. In a dream, Marcian claimed he saw Attila's bow broken before him, and a few days later, he got word that his great enemy was dead.

Marcian died in 457 of disease, possibly gangrene contracted during a long religious journey.

Despite his short reign and his writing off of the west Marcian is considered one of the best of the early "Byzantine" emperors. The Eastern Orthodox Church recognizes him and his wife Pulcheria as saints, with their feast day on February 17.

Marcian AE4.9mm (1.30 grams) D N MARCIANVS P F AV, diademed & draped bust right / Monogram of Marcian inside wreath, * above
ecoli
01860q00.jpg
604. Leo I384 viewsImperator Caesar Flavius Valerius Leo Augustus or Leo I of the Byzantine Empire (401–474), reigned from 457 to 474, also known as Leo the Thracian, was the last of a series of emperors placed on the throne by Aspar, the Alan serving as commander-in-chief of the army. His coronation as emperor on February 7, 457, was the first known to involve the Patriarch of Constantinople. Leo I made an alliance with the Isaurians and was thus able to eliminate Aspar. The price of the alliance was the marriage of Leo's daughter to Tarasicodissa, leader of the Isaurians who, as Zeno, became emperor in 474.

During Leo's reign, the Balkans were ravaged time and again by the West Goths and the Huns. However, these attackers were unable to take Constantinople thanks to the walls which had been rebuilt and reinforced in the reign of Theodosius II and against which they possessed no suitable siege engines.

Leo's reign was also noteworthy for his influence in the Western Roman Empire, marked by his appointment of Anthemius as Western Roman Emperor in 467. He attempted to build on this political achievement with an expedition against the Vandals in 468, which was defeated due to the treachery and incompetence of Leo's brother-in-law Basiliscus. This disaster drained the Empire of men and money.

Leo's greatest influence in the West was largely inadvertent and at second-hand: the great Goth king Theodoric the Great was raised at the Leo's court in Constantinople, where he was steeped in Roman government and military tactics, which served him well when he returned after Leo's death to become the Goth ruler of a mixed but largely Romanized people.

Leo also published a New Constitutions or compilation of Law Code[1], Constitution LV concerned Judaism: "JEWS SHALL LIVE IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE RITES OF CHRISTIANITY. Those who formerly were invested with Imperial authority promulgated various laws with reference to the Hebrew people, who, once nourished by Divine protection, became renowned, but are now remarkable for the calamities inflicted upon them because of their contumacy towards Christ and God; and these laws, while regulating their mode of life, compelled them to read the Holy Scriptures, and ordered them not to depart from the ceremonies of their worship. They also provided that their children should adhere to their religion, being obliged to do so as well by the ties of blood, as on account of the institution of circumcision. These are the laws which I have already stated were formerly enforced throughout the Empire. But the Most Holy Sovereign from whom We are descended, more concerned than his predecessors for the salvation of the Jews, instead of allowing them (as they did) to obey only their ancient laws, attempted, by the interpretation of prophesies and the conclusions which he drew from them, to convert them to the Christian religion, by means of the vivifying water of baptism. He fully succeeded in his attempts to transform them into new men, according to the doctrine of Christ, and induced them to denounce their ancient doctrines and abandon their religious ceremonies, such as circumcision, the observance of the Sabbath, and all their other rites. But although he, to a certain extent, overcame the obstinacy of the Jews, he was unable to force them to abolish the laws which permitted them to live in accordance with their ancient customs. Therefore We, desiring to accomplish what Our Father failed to effect, do hereby annul all the old laws enacted with reference to the Hebrews, and We order that they shall not dare to live in any other manner than in accordance with the rules established by the pure and salutary Christian Faith. And if anyone of them should be proved to, have neglected to observe the ceremonies of the Christian religion, and to have returned to his former practices, he shall pay the penalty prescribed by the law for apostates."

Leo died of dysentery at the age of 73 on January 18, 474.

Bronze AE4, RIC 671, S 4340 var, VG, 1.17g, 10.3mm, 180o, Alexandria mint, obverse D N LEO P F AVG (or similar), pearl diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse Lion standing left, head right, cross above, ALEA in ex; very rare (R3); ex Forum
ecoli73
Theodosius-I-Cyz-14c.jpg
70. Theodosius I.22 viewsAE 2, 383, Cyzicus mint.
Obverse: DN THEODOSIVS P F AVG / Helmeted bust of Theodosius, holding spear and shield.
Reverse: GLORIA ROMANORVM / Theodosius standing on ship, raising right hand. Victory seated at helm.
Mint mark: SMKΓ
5.73 gm., 23 mm.
RIC #14c; LRBC #2550; Sear #20482.
Callimachus
Theodosius-II-Her-398.jpg
86. Theodosius II.15 viewsAE 3/4, 408 - 423, Heraclea mint.
Obverse: DN THEODOSIUS P F AVG / Diademed bust of Theodosius.
Reverse: GLORIA ROMANORVM / Two emperors standing, facing each other, each holding a spear and shield.
Mint mark: SMHA
1.88 gm., 15 mm.
RIC #398; LRBC #2001; Sear #21199.
Callimachus
Valens_33.jpg
A123 viewsValens AE3

Attribution: RIC IX, 12b, Antioch
Date: AD 364-378
Obverse: DN VALENS PF AVG, pearl diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust r.
Reverse: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE, Victory advancing l. holding wreath and palm, ANTH in exergue
Size: 18 mm

Approximately one month after his ascension, Valentinian I appointed his younger brother, Valens, joint Augustus and placed him in charge of the eastern provinces including the eastern half of the Balkan Peninsula, Greece, Egypt, Syria and Anatolia as far east as Persia. As a dedicated Christian and anti-intellectual, Valens chose those close to him as his officers and ministers. He did not follow the traditional aristocratic ways. The Visigoths along the Danube frontier were being pushed towards the borders of the empire by the Huns. They requested asylum, which was not entirely granted by the emperor. Valens left a small group of riparian commanders to oversee the entry of a small group of Visigoths, but the barbarians crossed into the empire by the tens of thousands. When the riparian commanders began abusing the Visigoths under their charge, they revolted in early AD 377 and defeated the Roman units in Thrace outside of Marcianople. Interestingly, but AD 378, the Visigoths were actually joined by the Ostrogoths, Alans, and Huns, to form a formidable force which the Romans now had to contend with. The emperor of the West, Gratian, pleaded with his uncle, emperor Valens, to wait for his reinforcements to arrive prior to engaging the barbarians. In an act of superciliousness, Valens decided to take care of the problem himself due to his jealousy of his nephew’s successes. Valens sallied forth to the confrontation which would later be called the Battle of Adrianople. Here the hasty emperor met his fate. There are two accounts of his death given by Ammianus. The first states that he was mortally wounded by an arrow and died on the battlefield. The second account tells of how the wounded Valens fled to a wooden hut which was then burned down by Gothic troops who were unaware of his presence inside. Still a third account of his death was specified by the church historian Socrates (see quote below). The Romans never recovered from this debacle; this marked the beginning of the end for the empire. Gratian, only 19 at the time, chose a Spanish officer named Theodosius to take the position vacated by his uncle Valens.

“Some have asserted that he was burnt to death in a village whither he had retired, which the barbarians assaulted and set on fire. But others affirm that having put off his imperial robe he ran into the midst of the main body of infantry; and that when the cavalry revolted and refused to engage, the infantry were surrounded by the barbarians, and completely destroyed in a body. Among these it is said the emperor fell, but could not be distinguished, in consequence of his not having on his imperial habit.” – Church Historian Socrates The Ecclesiastical History VI.38
1 commentsNoah
Nummus Teodosio I RIC IX Nicomedia 48a.jpg
A142-10 - Teodosio I (375 - 392 D.C.)52 viewsAE4 Nummus 12 mm 1.2 gr.
Augusto Sr. de Oriente desde 379 D.C., con Graciano Sr. de Occidente hasta 383 D.C. y con Valentiniano II hasta 392 D.C.

Anv: "DN THEODO-SIVS P F AVG" - Busto con diadema de perlas, coraza y Paludamentum (capote militar) sobre ella, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "SALVS REI-[PVBLIC]AE" - Victoria avanzando a izquierda, portando trofeo apoyado en su hombro con mano derecha y arrastrando por los pelos a un cautivo con su mano izquierda. "SMNA" en exergo y " + " en campo izquierdo.

Acuñada 388 - 394 D.C.
Ceca: Nicomedia (Off.1ra.)
Rareza: S

Referencias: RIC Vol.IX (Nicomedia) #45b Pag.262 ó #48a Pag.263 - Cohen Vol.VIII #30 Pag.158 - DVM #40 Pag.313 - Salgado MRBI Vol.III #9231.g.var Pag.288 - Sear RCTV (1988) #4188
mdelvalle
Theo-Spes.jpg
Ae3 Theodosius I18 viewsAe3 Théodose Ier A/ D N THEODO-SIVS P F AVG, buste diadémé (perles), drapé et cuirassé à droite, R/ SPES REI-PVBLICAE, empereur debout, tête a droite, tenant le labarum dans la main droite et un globe dans la main gauche, un captif a genou à gauche, RP à l’exergue – Rome– 388/394 - RIC 63 b (R4)

http://www.nummus-bible-database.com/monnaie-21255.htm
nemesis25
Aelia_Flaccilla~0.jpg
Aelia Flaccilla 217 viewsAelia Flaccilla AE2. Struck 383 AD, Constantinople mint.

AEL FLACCILLA AVG, mantled bust right in elaborate headdress & necklace / SALVS REIPVBLICAE, Victory seated right, inscribing a christogram on shield resting on small column. T in right field, mintmark CON Epsilon. RIC 81 var (RIC lists T in left field only).

FLACILLA (Aelia), the first wife of Theodosius the Great; born in Spain, daughter of Antonius, prefect of Gaul, she was celebrated for her piety, and for her benevolence to the poor. Arcadius and Honorius were her sons by the above named emperor, who married her before his accession to the imperial throne.

She died in Thrace, A. D. 388. Her brass coins are of the lowest degree of rarity, her gold and silver most rare.

A half aureus of this empress's, on which she is styled AEL FLACILLA AVG, bears her head crowned with a diadem enriched with precious stones. - SALVS REIPVBLICAE is the legend, and a victory inscribing on a shield the monogram of Christ, is the type of the reverse.
2 commentssuperflex
W3.png
Aelia Flaccilla (wife of Theodosius I) Æ Centenionalis. 9 viewsAntioch, AD 383-388. AEL FLACCILLA AVG, draped bust right, with elaborate head-dress, necklace and mantle / SALVS REIPVBLICAE, Empress standing facing, head right, with arms folded; ANTЄ in exergue. RIC 62. 5.56g, 22mm, 11h. Very Fine.Chris C2
Aelia_Flaccilla_b.jpg
Aelia Flaccilla AE445 viewsfirst wife of Theodosius I.
SALVS REIPVBLICAE
Tibsi
AELIA FLACILLA.JPG
Aelia Flaccilla, Augusta 19 January 379 - 386 or 388 A.D., wife of Theodosius I36 views11099. Bronze AE 2, S 4193, VF, 4.764g, 23.22mm, 0o, uncertain mint, 25 Aug 383 - 28 Aug 388 A.D.; obverse AEL FLACCILLA AVG, diademed and draped bust right; reverse SALVS REIPVBLICAE, empress standing facing, head right, arms folded on breast; partially uncleaned1 commentsMarjan E
aelia_flaccilla_Heraclea_25.2.jpg
Aelia Flaccilla, RIC IX, Heraclea 2578 viewsAelia Flaccilla AD 379-388, 1st wife of Theodosius I
AE- AE 2, 4.73g
Heraclea 1st officina, 25 Aug. 383 - 28 Aug. 388
obv. AEL FLAC - CILLA AVG
Bust, draped with elaborate headdress, necklace and mantle, r.
rev. SALVS REI - PVBLICAE
Empress standing frontal, head r., with arms crossed before breast
in ex. dot SMHA
star in l. field, cross in r. field
RIC IX, Heraclea 25 type 2; C.6
scarce, good VF, green patina

Usually all coins of Aelia Flaccilla are not common
4 commentsJochen
PULCHER-1.jpg
Aelia Pulcheria, sister of Theodosius II. Augusta, 414-453 CE.310 viewsÆ 4 (14 mm, 0.82 gm). Constantinople mint, 414-423 CE.
Obv: AEL PVLCH-ERIA AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right, wearing necklace and earring.
Rev: SALVS REIPVBLICAE, Victory seated r., inscribing Christogram on shield set on cippus; CON? in exergue.
Sear 4309; Goodacre 9; Tolstoi 43; LRBC 2226.
1 commentsEmpressCollector
arcadiusae3.JPG
Arcadius (unlisted hybrid)12 viewsAD 383-408
AE4
VOT X MVLT XX
Herakles
SMHA
Arcadius obverse paired with a Theodosius II reverse
JRoME
Arcadius_Concordia~0.jpg
Arcadius Concordia29 viewsArcadius, 19 January 383 - 1 May 408 A.D.
Bronze AE 3, RIC X 85 (Arcadius) or 87 (Honorius), aVF, Constantinople mint, weight 2.235g, maximum diameter 15.5mm, die axis 180o, 401 - 403 A.D.;
OBV: D N [ARCADI?] - VS P F AVG, helmeted bust facing, diademed, cuirassed, spear in right over right shoulder behind head, shield decorated with a cross on left arm;
REV: CONCORDIA AVGG, Constantinopolis enthroned facing, head right, long vertical scepter in right, Victory on globe in left, foot on prow, CONSA in exergue (off flan); scarce;

This reverse type combined with a facing military bust was struck by Arcadius at Constantinople in his own name and also for Honorius and Theodosius II. Since part of the obverse legend is off-flan, we cannot determine if the coin was struck by Arcadius in his own name or in the name of Honorius. Both types are scarce.
EX Forvm Ancient Coins

SCARCE
Romanorvm
arcadius_const_29.jpg
Arcadius RIC X, 29160 viewsArcadius 383 - 408, son of Theodosius I
AV - Solidus, 4.40g, 21mm
Constantinopolis 9.officina, ca. 403 - 408
obv. DN ARCADI - VS PF AVG
bust cuirassed, laureate, helmeted and pearl-diademed
head 3/4 r., with spear across r. shoulder and shield with
horseman spearing enemy at l. shoulder
rev. NOVA SPES REI PVBLICAE
Victory sitting r. on cuirass, shield behind, with l. hand holding shield
on l. knee, scribing with r. hand XX above XXX on it.
field: star and Theta
exergue: CONOB
RIC X, 29
R2; good VF
added to www.wildwinds.com

OB, possibly from Greek obryzon = refined (gold). In the later Roman Empire the word was regularly used to describe gold which had been melted down and testet before being returned for minting
Jochen
Arcadius.jpg
Arcadius, 19 January 383 - 1 May 408 A.D.10 viewsBronze AE 4, RIC 65(c), Fair, Thessalonica, 1.301g, 13.9mm, 180o, 28 Aug 388 - spring 393 A.D.; obverse D N ARCADIVS P F AVG, pearl diademed draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse SECVRITAS REI-PVBLICAE, Victory advancing left carrying trophy and dragging captive, P in left field, TESG in exergue; scarce;

Flavius Arcadius was the son of Theodosius I and Aelia Flaccilla. Born in 377 A.D., Arcadius was raised to the rank of Augustus by his father at the age of six. Upon the death of Theodosius in 395 A.D., Arcadius was given the Eastern half of the Roman empire while his brother Honorius received the Western half. Arcadius inherited none of his great father's skills and was under the influence of variously Rufinus the Praetorian prefect, Eutropius a courtier eunuch, the Goth Gainas, Empress Eudoxia and another Praetorian prefect Anthemius. His greatest personal accomplishment in life was his beautiful handwriting. Arcadius died in 408 A.D. and was succeeded by his young son Theodosius II.
b70
P1019754.JPG
Arcadius, Honorius and Theodosius II. C.406 - 1 May 408 A.D. AE1312 viewsArcadius, Honorius and Theodosius II. C.406 - 1 May 408 A.D.

Obv. rosette-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev. GLORIA ROMANORVM, three emperors stand facing, two outermost taller with heads toward center holding spear & resting hand on shield, center holds spear in right and globe in left. Mint mark off flan.
Lee S
Arcadius_AE_4,_Nicomedia.JPG
Arcadius: GLORIA ROMANORVM - Three emperors10 viewsArcadius AE4 - Three Emperors Standing, Mint: Nicomedia (SMN…), AE4, Obv: DN ARCADIVS PF AVG - Diad., dr. and cuir. bust r., Rev: GLORIA ROMANORVM - Three emperors standing, with co-emperors Honorius and Theodosius II. ex oa, photo credit oa.Podiceps
Deified_Alexander_.jpg
Athena and Deified Alexander391 viewsThe deified Alexander the Great is depicted on the obverse of this coin of Lysimachos, dating to the early third century BC.

In the years following his death Alexander the Great came to be the subject of cult worship throughout the Mediterranean basin. His corpse was appropriated by Ptolemy I who transported it to Egypt, initially interring it at Memphis, then to a mausoleum and center of worship in Alexandria. It survived until the 4th century AD when Theodosius banned paganism, only to disappear without trace.

Athena depicted on the reverse of this coin was the patron goddess of Athens. She came to be worshiped throughout much of the Mediterranean basin during Hellenistic period.
7 commentsLloyd T
theodosius_I_salus.jpg
BCC LR139 viewsLate Roman - Caesarea Maritima
Theodosius I 379-395CE
Obv:DN THEODOSIVS P F AVG
Dia. draped, and cuir. bust rt.
Rev:SALVS REIPVBLICAE
Victory adv. left, dragging
captive, holding trophy.
Christogram in lt. fld. In.ex.SMK
Cyzicus. Officina uncertain.
AE 13.75mm 1.35gm. Axis:0
v-drome
LR50_Theo_II.jpg
BCC LR5024 viewsLate Roman
Theodosius II 402-450CE
Obv:[DN THE]ODOS[IVS P F AVG]
Pearl diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust rt.
Rev:CONCOR-[DIA AVGG]
Cross. In ex: SMN (B? )
Officina uncertain. RIC X ?
Nicomedia Mint
AE 11.5mm 0.62gm. Axis:210
v-drome
BYZANTINE_MAURICE_TIB_CHERSON_MINT.jpg
BYZANTINE EMPIRE - MAURICE TIBERIAS 30 viewsBYZANTINE EMPIRE - MAURICE TIBERIAS (582-602 CE) Bronze Pentanummia (Half-Follis). Cherson mint. Obv.: ΧΕΡCONOC Maurice on left; Empress Constantina on right, both standing facing & nimbate, Emperor holds globus cruciger; Empress holds long cruciform sceptre. Rev.: Large Δ to left, cross above it; to right - Theodosius, son of Maurice, stands facing, nimbate, holding long staff surmounted by XI-RHO symbol. Reference: Sear #610.

*NOTE: There is a controversy in the attribution: Anokhin (and other Russian experts) assign the varieties with XEPCWNOC to Justin II, instead of the older attribution to Maurice used by Sear. Anokhin assigns only those with DNMAVRIC PP AVG to Maurice. Grierson does not outright deny it, but has his doubts. Very similar coins were issued in the name of Maurice, so older attributions of the "XEPCONOC" types were also to Maurice, but now some scholars have argued that they were originally issued by Justin II. Under the old attribution the obverse figures are Maurice and his wife and the reverse figure is his son Theodosius. Grierson (p. 73) says, "If the coins all belong together it would seem reasonable to regard them as an insurrectionary coinage struck at Cherson in 602, the intention of the rebels having been initially to depose Maurice in favor of his son Theodosius and not the upstart adventurer Phocas." According to this theory, the revolt prompted a new coin with a neutral legend, which was replaced by the emperor's name when the outcome favored Maurice. This attribution is accepted by Sear.

Anokhin (1980) and Hahn (1978) concur in attributing them to Justin II (and the following period). Anokhin argues the two-figure type resembles the regular type introduced by Justin II and Sophia. However, a type can resemble one of Justin II and be issued a few years later. Anokhin says (p. 92) "if the striking commenced from the moment Theodosius was named Augustus, i.e. in 590, all three series with differing types would have had to be issued within limits between 590-602, which is unlikely." Hahn also argues that there are several minor varieties which would probably take a number of years to mint. However, the varieties are clearly very similar and not numerous. I think there is no need to postulate more than ten years to mint three very similar types, all of which are scarce.

Anokhin (p. 92) argues "if we assign the coins described to Maurice we expose their failure to correspond with empire-wide coins, which have on the obverse a portrait of Maurice alone." But that argument is feeble -- we know Maurice minted such coins that fail to correspond with empire-wide coins -- some of the coins we are attributing have his name on them!

Anokhin (p. 93) thinks the reverse figure, if a real person, could "be Tiberius, the future emperor, who was proclaimed Caesar in December 574 and who reigned as co-regent jointly with Sophia during the last four years of the life of Justin II who was mentally ill." However, he does not accept that it is a real person and says "it most likely represents some symbolic figure or a saint."

Hahn notes that the reverse figure seems to be a Caesar (because the pendillia are lacking) and says in the later 6th century the only appropriate Caesar is Tiberius II under Justin II. However, the older attribution already had an acceptable Caesar, just in the early 7th instead of the late 6th century. Hahn notes the first issue, with the "M" and "K" has a capital omega in "XERCWNOC", rather than the later "O", as do some of the "H" and delta pieces. Clearly, the "M" and "K" are the first of the series. However, that does not make them issued by Justin II.

Hahn admits, as noted by Grierson, that the two-figure type is very similar to some coins of Focas, showing a continuum of types could equally well be at either end of the potential attribution period. Hahn gives the attribution to Justin II and calls it "secure." It may well be that the "M" and "K" types began under Justin II, but the Hahn paper presents no convincing evidence.

If we postulate this type began under Justin II, it is hard to explain why it pops up again under Maurice with a 12-year gap from the end of Justin II (578) until Maurice (582-602) promotes Theodosius to Caesar (May 26, 590). Unless, of course, it was minted throughout the period as a type immobilise. (Thanks for ancients.info for the argument text). My own research of my Russian resources vs. Sear and others confirm all of the above!
dpaul7
Sear-607.jpg
Byzantine Empire: Maurice Tiberius (582-602) 8 pentanummi (Follis), Cherson Mint (Sear-607, DOC-I,303)28 viewsObv: Maurice and the Empress Constantina standing facing, both haloed, holding a globus cruciger one, the other a long cruciform scepter. Cross between heads. Legend aroud - DNmAV[...]PPAVG

Rev: Theodosius, son of Maurice, standing facing, nimbus, holding a long cross. Right, H with a cross above.
SpongeBob
theodosius~0.jpg
Byzantine Theodosius 1/3 Siliqua15 viewsTheodosius, son of Maurice Tiberius (590-602).
1/3 Siliqua (200 Nummi). Carthage, 592-597.
AR 0.3 gr.
DNTHEODO SIVSPPA. Bust facing, wearing cuirass and crown with trefoil ornament above circle.
Rv. Large N • M; above, +; beneath, CC, all within circle of dots surrounded by wreath.

BNC Maurice Tiberius 6; MIB Maurice Tiberius 62; Sear 615A.


Extremely rare.
1 commentsTanit
Teodosius.jpg
Byzantine Theodosius Half Siliqua52 viewsHalf Siliqua (Silver, Carthage, 592-602. )
D N TEODOSIVS PP A Helmeted and cuirassed bust of Theodosius facing. Rev. Facing busts of Maurice and Constantina with long cross between; in exergue,

ACTI. DOC 307. MIB 59. S. 615.

Rare
Tanit
0582-Mau-H-Chr-BC607.jpg
BYZANTINE, Maurice & Constantina, Follis struck at Cherson (582-602)66 viewsA l'avers DN mAVRIC PP AVG AVG l'empereur Maurice et l'impératrice Constantina debout de face, tous deux nimbés, Maurice tenant un globe crucigère et Constantina un long sceptre crucigère, Tous deux sont sur une estrade. Une croix entre l'empereur et l'impératrice.
Au revers Théodosius, fils de Maurice, debout de face, tenant une longue croix. A droite, la valeur H, une croix au dessus.
Atelier : Cherson (Crimée, Ukraine)
11.87 g / 30 mm
Ref : Sear 607, MIBEC 157a1 - Sommer 7.108, DOC 303, Anokhin 320, Esty 17
1 commentséRIC_FR
0582-Mau-H-Chr-BC607-2.jpg
BYZANTINE, Maurice and Constantina, Follis struck at Cherson (582-602)11 viewsA l'avers DN MAVRIC PP AVG AVG l'empereur Maurice et l'impératrice Constantina debout de face, tous deux nimbés, Maurice tenant un globe crucigère et Constantina un long sceptre crucigère. Une croix entre l'empereur et l'impératrice.
Au revers Théodosius, fils de Maurice, debout de face, tenant un long chrisme. A droite, la valeur H, une croix au dessus.
Atelier : Cherson (Crimée, Ukraine)
10,86 g / 26-29 mm
Ref : Sear 607 var, MIBEC 157b2 - Sommer 7.108, DOC 303, Anokhin 320, Esty 17
éRIC_FR
Theodosius_I_37.jpg
C104 viewsTheodosius I AE4

Attribution: RIC IX 26a, Heraclea
Date: AD 379-395
Obverse: DN THEODOSIVS PF AVG; diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust r.
Reverse: SALVS REIPVBLICAE; Victory advancing l. dragging captive,
SMHA in exergue
Size: 13.1 mm
Weight: 1.6 grams

Emperor Gratian appointed Theodosius as co-emperor of the East until Gratian’s death in AD 383 during a rebellion. He then appointed his eldest son as co-emperor of the East, and later, after the death of Valentinian II, his son Honorius as co-emperor in the West. The reign of Theodosius was marked by dealing with the Goths, who now resided within the borders of the empire. The Goths within the Empire had, as a result of the treaties, military obligations to fight for the Romans as a national contingent, as opposed to being fully integrated into the Roman forces. However, many Goths would serve in Roman legions and others, as foederati, for a single campaign, while bands of Goths switching loyalties became a destabilizing factor in the internal struggles for control of the Empire. In AD 390 the population of Thessalonica rioted in complaint against the presence of the local Gothic garrison. The garrison commander was killed in the violence, so Theodosius ordered the Goths to kill all the spectators in the circus as retaliation; Theodoret, a contemporary witness to these events, reports:

“the anger of the Emperor rose to the highest pitch, and he gratified his vindictive desire for vengeance by unsheathing the sword most unjustly and tyrannically against all, slaying the innocent and guilty alike. It is said seven thousand perished without any forms of law, and without even having judicial sentence passed upon them; but that, like ears of wheat in the time of harvest, they were alike cut down.”

Interestingly, despite his often ruthless policies against rebellious groups and persons, Theodosius promoted Nicene Trinitarianism within Christianity and Christianity within the Empire. On February 27, AD 380, he declared "Catholic Christianity" the only legitimate imperial religion, ending state support for the traditional Roman religion.Theodosius I was the last emperor of a unified Roman Empire. He reunited the Easter and Western empires, yet they were split again upon his death. Towards the end of his reign, Theodosius saw the rise of a Gothic leader named Alaric. Alaric had participated in Theodosius’ campaign against the usurper Eugenius in AD 394, but rebelled against Arcadius soon after the death of the emperor.
2 commentsNoah
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CAMPGATE, Theodosius I231 viewsObv: ...DO-SIVSPFAVG
Rev: Two-story Campgate with Two Windows,
GLORIA REIPVBLICE
RIC IX 62(b)v
From the collection of Laetvs
Laetvs
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Constantinople CONSS66 viewsConstantine had altogether more ambitious plans. Having restored the unity of the empire, now overseeing the progress of major governmental reforms and sponsoring the consolidation of the Christian church, Constantine was well aware that Rome had become an unsatisfactory capital for several reasons. Located in central Italy, Rome lay too far from the eastern imperial frontiers, and hence also from the legions and the Imperial courts. Moreover, Rome offered an undesirable playground for disaffected politicians; it also suffered regularly from flooding and from malaria.

It seemed impossible to many that the capital could be moved. Nevertheless, Constantine identified the site of Byzantium as the correct place: a city where an emperor could sit, readily defended, with easy access to the Danube or the Euphrates frontiers, his court supplied from the rich gardens and sophisticated workshops of Roman Asia, his treasuries filled by the wealthiest provinces of the empire.

Constantine laid out the expanded city, dividing it into 14 regions, and ornamenting it with great public works worthy of a great imperial city. Yet initially Constantinople did not have all the dignities of Rome, possessing a proconsul, rather than a prefect of the city. Furthermore, it had no praetors, tribunes or quaestors. Although Constantinople did have senators, they held the title clarus, not clarissimus, like those of Rome. Constantinople also lacked the panoply of other administrative offices regulating the food supply, police, statues, temples, sewers, aqueducts or other public works. The new program of building was carried out in great haste: columns, marbles, doors and tiles were taken wholesale from the temples of the empire and moved to the new city. Similarly, many of the greatest works of Greek and Roman art were soon to be seen in its squares and streets. The emperor stimulated private building by promising householders gifts of land from the imperial estates in Asiana and Pontica, and on 18 May 332 he announced that, as in Rome, free distributions of food would be made to citizens. At the time the amount is said to have been 80,000 rations a day, doled out from 117 distribution points around the city.

Constantinople was a Greek Orthodox Christian city, lying in the most Christianised part of the Empire. Justinian ordered the pagan temples of Byzantium to be deconstructed, and erected the splendid Church of the Holy Wisdom, Sancta Sophia (also known as Hagia Sophia in Greek), as the centrepiece of his Christian capital. He oversaw also the building of the Church of the Holy Apostles, and that of Hagia Irene.

Constantine laid out anew the square at the middle of old Byzantium, naming it the Augusteum. Sancta Sophia lay on the north side of the Augusteum. The new senate-house (or Curia) was housed in a basilica on the east side. On the south side of the great square was erected the Great Palace of the emperor with its imposing entrance, the Chalke, and its ceremonial suite known as the Palace of Daphne. Located immediately nearby was the vast Hippodrome for chariot-races, seating over 80,000 spectators, and the Baths of Zeuxippus (both originally built in the time of Septimius Severus). At the entrance at the western end of the Augusteum was the Milion, a vaulted monument from which distances were measured across the Eastern Empire.

From the Augusteum a great street, the Mese, led, lined with colonnades. As it descended the First Hill of the city and climbed the Second Hill, it passed on the left the Praetorium or law-court. Then it passed through the oval Forum of Constantine where there was a second senate-house, then on and through the Forum of Taurus and then the Forum of Bous, and finally up the Sixth Hill and through to the Golden Gate on the Propontis. The Mese would be seven Roman miles long to the Golden Gate of the Walls of Theodosius.

Constantine erected a high column in the middle of the Forum, on the Second Hill, with a statue of himself at the top, crowned with a halo of seven rays and looking towards the rising sun.

RIC VII Constantinople 61 C1
ecoli
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DN VALENS PF AVG / GLORIA ROMANORVM AE3/4 follis (364-378 A.D.) 19 viewsDN VALEN-S PF AVG, pearl-diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right / GLORIA RO-MANORVM, Emperor walking right, head left, (probably) holding labarum, dragging captive behind him. V(?) in left field, star (or point) over Δ in right field. Mintmark worn off.

AE3/4, 17mm, 1.96g, die axis 12 (medal alignment), material: bronze/copper-based alloy

DN = Dominus Noster = Our Lord, P F AVG = Pius Felix Augustus = the pius (dutiful) and fortunate (happy) emperor. GLORIA ROMANORVM = Glory of the Romans. The labarum (Greek: λάβαρον) was a vexillum (military standard) that displayed the "Chi-Rho" symbol ☧, a christogram formed from the first two Greek letters of the word "Christ" (Greek: ΧΡΙΣΤΟΣ, or Χριστός) — Chi (χ) and Rho (ρ). It was first used by the Roman emperor Constantine the Great.

GLORIA ROMANORVM with the captive was a very popular reverse design for Valens' coins, minted at many mints all over the empire. But star or dot over Δ in right field is characteristic only of one mint, Thessalonica. Examples include various types of RIC IX Thessalonica 26b (star over Δ) and 31 (dot over Δ). These types are dated 367-375 or 375-378 A.D., with some letter in the left field usually indicating later, 375-378 issue. Mintmark for these types is always TES, sometimes with dot before or after.

Flavius Iulius Valens. Born in 328 in Cibalae (in present-day Croatia) into an Illyrian family. His older brother Valentinian was later to become Valenitinian I the Great, another emperor.

His father Gratian (aka the Elder or Gratianus Funarius or Gratianus Major), a Roman soldier of common birth, rose through the ranks to become "protector domesticus" during the reign of Constantine the Great [A member of an elite guard unit/staff member with various important duties . After serving under the emperor for a certain duration, the Domestici would be able to become leaders themselves and potentially command their own regiment of legionnaires in the military], and later tribune and comes. He was forced to retire due to suspicion of embezzlement, but later recalled back to active duty to serve Constans. Again fell into disrespect and lost all estates when Constantius came to deal with Magnentius, because he was suspected to support him, but never lost influence with the army, which helped to promote careers of his sons.

Brothers grew up in various estates in Africa and Britain. While Valentinian had been distinguished in an active military career, Valens, though already 35 years old, had not participated in either the civil or military affairs of the empire previous to his selection as Augustus by his brother. In February 364, reigning Emperor Jovian, while hastening to Constantinople to secure his claim to the throne, died in his sleep during a stop at Dadastana, 100 miles east of Ankara. Valentinian, a tribunus scutariorum, who owed his advancement to the deceased, was elected by the legions to succeed Jovian. He was proclaimed Augustus on 26 February, 364. It was the general opinion that Valentinian needed help to handle the cumbersome administration, civil and military, of the large and unwieldy empire, and, on 28 March of the same year, at the express demand of the soldiers for a second Augustus, he selected his brother Valens as co-emperor in the palace of Hebdomon. Both emperors were briefly ill, delaying them in Constantinople, but as soon as they recovered, the two Augusti travelled together through Adrianople and Naissus to Mediana, where they divided their territories. Valentinian then went on to the West, where the Alemanic wars required his immediate attention.

Valens obtained the eastern half of the Empire Greece, Egypt, Syria and Anatolia as far east as Persia. He was back in his capital of Constantinople by December 364. Valens was utterly undistinguished and possessed no military ability: he betrayed his consciousness of inferiority by his nervous suspicion of plots and savage punishment of alleged traitors, but he was also a conscientious administrator, careful of the interests of the humble. He was an earnest Christian. Like the brothers Constantius II and Constans, Valens and Valentinian I held divergent theological views. Valens was an Arian and Valentinian I upheld the Nicene Creed. Valens was baptized by the Arian bishop of Constantinople before he set out on his first war against the Goths. Not long after Valens died the cause of Arianism in the Roman East was to come to an end. His death was considered a sign from God. His successor Theodosius I would favor the Nicene Creed, and suppress the Arian heresy. Valens, sometimes known as the Last True Roman (his co-emperor brother was dead in 375), was defeated and killed in the Battle of Adrianople against a confederated Gothic army on 9 August 378, which marked the beginning of the collapse of the decaying Western Roman Empire.
Yurii P
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EB0812 Theodosius I / Victory9 viewsTheodosius I 379-395, AE 4.
Obverse: DN THEODO-SIVS PF AVG, pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: SALVS REI-PVBLICAE, Victory walking left, holding trophy over right shoulder and dragging captive. Chi-rho in left field. Mintmark ?
References: Cf. RIC IX 86b.
Diameter: 13mm, Weight: 1.235g.
EB
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EB0813 Aelia Flaccilla / SALVS REIPVBLICAE11 viewsAelia Flaccilla (wife of Theodosius I died 386), AE 2, Heraclea 383-388 AD.
Obverse: AEL FLAC-CILLA AVG, draped bust right wearing headdress, necklace and mantle.
Reverse: SALVS REI-PVBLICAE, Empress standing facing, head right, hands crossed on breast. Star in left field, Cross in right field. Mintmark dot SMHA.
References: RIC IX Heraclea 25.
Diameter: 23.5mm, Weight: 4.195g.
EB
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EB0814 Aelia Flaccilla / Victory7 viewsAelia Flaccilla (wife of Theodosius I died 386), AE 4.
Obverse: Diademed head of Aelia Flaccilla right.
Reverse: Victory seated right inscribing a Christogram on a shield.
References: -.
Diameter: 16.5mm, Weight: 2.157g.
EB
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EB0946 Theodosius II / Monogram19 viewsTheodosius II 402-450 AD, AE 4, Constantinople mint, Struck AD 445-450.
Obverse: D N THEODO_SIVS P F AVG, Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: Monogram of Theodosius in wreath, CON below.
References: LRBC 2245.
Diameter: 13.5mm, Weight: 1.131g.
1 commentsEB
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EB1015 Lead Seal of Theodosius III6 viewsObverse: Monogram, possibly of Theodosius III
Reverse: Same as obv.
References: Monogram #44 sim.
Diameter: 16.5mm, Weight: 4.331g.
EB
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Elis, Olympia191 viewsOlympia (Greek: Ολυμπία Olympí'a or Ολύμπια Olýmpia, older transliterations, Olimpia, Olimbia), a sanctuary of ancient Greece in Elis, is known for having been the site of the Olympic Games in classical times, comparable in importance to the Pythian Games held in Delphi. Both games were held every olympiad (i.e. every four years), the Olympic Games dating back possibly further than 776 BC. In 394 emperor Theodosius I, or possibly his grandson Theodosius II in 435, abolished them because they were reminiscent of paganism.

The sanctuary itself consists of an unordered arrangement of various buildings. To the north of the sanctuary can be found the prytaneion and the Philippeion, as well as the array of treasuries representing the various city states. The metroon lies to the south of these treasuries, with the Echo Stoa to the East. To the south of the sanctuary is the South Stoa and the Bouleuterion, whereas the West side houses the palaistra, the workshop of Pheidias, the Gymnasion and the Leonidaion. Enclosed within the temenos are the temples of Hera and Zeus, the Pelopion and the area of the altar, where the sacrifices were made. The hippodrome and later stadium were also to the East.

Olympia is also known for the gigantic ivory and gold statue of Zeus that used to stand there, sculpted by Pheidias, which was named one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World by Antipater of Sidon. Very close to the temple of Zeus (see photo of ruins below) which housed this statue, the studio of Pheidias was excavated in the 1950s. Evidence found there such as sculptor's tools, corroborates this opinion.

Excavation of the Olympia temple district and its surroundings began with a French expedition in 1829. German archaeologists continued the work in the latter part of the 19th century. The latter group uncovered, intact, the Hermes of Praxiteles statue, among other artifacts. In the middle of the 20th Century, the stadium where the running contests took place was excavated.

The Olympic flame of the modern-day Olympic Games is lit by reflection of sunlight in a parabolic mirror at the restored Olympia stadium and then transported by a torch to the place where the games are held.

When the modern Olympics came to Athens in 2004, the men's and women's shot put competition was held at the restored stadium.

The ancient ruins sits north of the Alfeios River and lies next to Cronius or Kronios hill (the hill of Kronos, or Saturn). Kladeos, a tributary of Alfeios, flows around the area.

The town has a school and a square (plateia). Tourism is popular throughout the late-20th century. The city has a train station and is the easternmost terminus of the line of Olympia-Pyrgos (Ilia). The train station which the freight yard is west of it is about 300 m east of the town centre.

It is linked by GR-74 and the new road was opened in the 1980s, the next stretch N and NE of Olympia will open in around 2005. Distance from Pyrgos is 20 km E(old: 21 km), about 50 km SW of Lampeia, W of Tripoli and Arcadia and 4 km north of Krestena and N of Kyparissia and Messenia. The highway passed north of the ancient ruins.

A reservoir is located 2 km southwest damming up the Alfeios river and has a road from Olympia and Krestena which in the late-1990s has been closed.

The area is hilly and mountainous, most of the area within Olympia is forested.

Elis, Olympia. After ca. 340/30-late 3rd century B.C. Æ unit (20 mm, 5.99 g). Laureate head of Zeus right / FA above, horse trotting right; [L]U below. BCD 339.3 (this coin). Near VF, dark brown patina.
Ex BCD Collection. Ex-John C Lavender G18
ecoli73
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Eudoxia Wife of Arcadius42 views
Reverse: Victory inscribing chi-rho on shield. Constantinople mint. Aelia Eudoxia was the daughter of a Frankish officer serving in the Roman army. In 395, through the efforts of a palace eunuch, she was married to emperor Arcadius (r. 383-408). She exerted a strong influence over her husband and also bore 5 children, including future emperor Theodosius II. Eudoxia died from a miscarriage in 404.

17mm and weighs 2.4g,
Marjan E
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Flavius Theodosius, 379 - 395 AD30 viewsObv: DN THEODOSIVS PF AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of Theodosius r.

Rev: GLORIA ROMANORVM, Emperor stg. facing, head r., holding a labarum and a globe SMHA in exergue.

AE 2, Heraclea mint, 392-395 AD

3.4 grams, 19.5 mm, 180°

RIC IX 29a
SPQR Coins
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GLORIA ROMANORVM, Nicomedia, SMNA6 viewsTheodosius I, AE2, Nicomedia Mint, Officina 1, 382-395 A.D. Size and weight: 21x23mm, 5.16g. 
Obverse: Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right. 
D N THEODO-SIVS P F AVG 
Reverse: Emperor standing facing, head right, a tall standard in his right hand and a globe in his left. 
GLORIA ROMANORVM 
Exergue: SMNA 
Reference: RIC IX Nicomedia 46a. Ex MoremothPodiceps
Theodosius-II_AE-12_DN-THEODOSIVS-PF-AVG_CONCORDI-AVG_SMH_RIC-X-432-p-274_Heraclea_Q-001_axis-1h_11mm_0,92g-s~0.jpg
Heraclea, RIC X 432, 167 Theodosius II. (402-450 A.D.), AE-4 Nummus, CONCORDI AVG, Victory, 64 viewsHeraclea, RIC X 432, 167 Theodosius II. (402-450 A.D.), AE-4 Nummus, CONCORDI AVG, Victory,
avers:- D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG, Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
revers:- CONCORDI AVG, Victory advancing to front, holding wreath in each hand.
exe: SMH, diameter: 11 mm, weight: 0,92 g, axis: 1h,
mint: Heraclea, date: 402-450 A.D., ref: RIC-X-432, p-274,
Q-001
quadrans
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Honorius (RIC X 153)71 viewsHonorius (384-423), Roman Emperor (393-395) and Western Roman emperor (395-423). Æ (13 mm, 2.22 g), minted in Antioch 406-408. Obverse: DN HONORIVS PF AVG. Reverse: GLORIA ROMANORVM, Arcadius, Honorius and Theodosius II holding spears and shields; ANTA or ANT delta in exergue. RIC IX Antioch 153, C.
Jan (jbc)
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Honorius - AE 326 viewsCyzicus
406-408 AD
pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
D N HONORIVS P F AVG
*
Three emperors (Arcadius, Theodosius II, Honorius) standing, holding spears and shields
GLORI_A ROMA_NORVM
SMKB
RIC X Cyzicus 149
1,83 g 14,5-14 mm
Johny SYSEL
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Honorius - AE 36 viewsAntioch
406-408 AD
pearl-didemed, draped and cuirassed bust right
D N HONORI_VS P F AVG
*
Three emperors (Arcadius, Theodosius II, Honorius) standing, holding spears and shields
GLORI_A ROMA_NORVM
ANTA
RIC X Antioch 153
Johny SYSEL
Honorius 2.jpg
Honorius - AE3 fromAntioch34 viewsD.N. HONORIVS P.F. AVG.
GLORIA ROMANORVM , Arcadius, Honorius and Theodosius II standing side by side ; exergue : ANTA (Antioch)
Ginolerhino
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Honorius and Theodosius. c. 406 - 423 A.D. AE1310 viewsHonorius and Theodosius. c. 406 - 423 A.D.
Obv. D N HONORIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right, star left.
Rev. GLORIA ROMANORVM, Honorius and Theodosius standing facing, heads turned toward each other, each leaning on a spear in outer hand, inner hands rest on shields and hold a globe between them.
Lee S
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Honorius RIC X, Arcadius 24161 viewsHonorius, AD 393-423, son of Theodosius I
AV - Solidus, 4.47g, 21mm
Constantinopolis 7. officina, 402 - ca. 403
obv. DN HONORI - VS PF AVG
cuirassed bust, laureate, helmeted and pearl-diademed
head 3/4 r., with spear across r. shoulder and shield with
horseman spearing enemy at l. shoulder
rev. CONCORDI - A AVGGG
Constantinopolis sitting frontal, head r., with r. foot on prora,
holding sceptre in l. hand and in r. hand globe with Victory
holding wreath
field: l. star, r. reversed Z
exergue: CONOB
RIC X, Arcadius 24; C.3
R2; EF
added to www.wildwinds.com
PRORA, prow, is the symbol for Constantinopolis, as a city with access to the sea in contrast to Rome
2 commentsJochen
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Honorius RIC X, Ravenna 134048 viewsHonorius 393 - 423
AV - Tremissis, 1.41g, 12mm
Ravenna AD 408 - 423 (after death of Arcadius)
obv. DN HONORI - VS PF AVG
draped, cuirassed bust, rosette-diademed head r.
rev. VICTORIA - AVGVSTORV[M]
Victory in military dress advancing r., holding cross-globe li. and wreath r.
field: R and V
exergue: COMOB
RIC X, Ravenna 1340; C.47
Rare; about VF (obv. with scratches, rev. with dagger's marks, bended)
added to www.wildwinds.com

Die-links with Johannes RIC 1906 and Theodosius RIC 1339 and RIC 1802!
Jochen
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Honorius, AE3, GLORIA ROMANORVM2 viewsAE3
Honorius
Augustus: 393 - 423AD
Issued: 402 - 408AD
14.0 x 12.0mm
O: DN HONORIVS PF AVG; Diademed (pearls), draped and cuirassed bust, right.
R: GLORIA ROMANORVM; Honorius, Theodosius and Arcadius standing facing, each holding a scepter.
Exergue: (Star), behind bust, obverse; SMKA, below line, reverse.
Cyzicus Mint
Aorta: 219: B2, O3, R8, T21, M6.
RIC X Cyzicus 149; Sear 21010.
happybear123 361080089256
11/12/14 1/29/17
Nicholas Z
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Italy, Rome, Temple of Vesta in the Forum Romanum.72 viewsTemple of Vesta in the Forum Romanum in Rome. See: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Temple_of_Vesta. All temples to Vesta were round, and had entrances facing east to symbolize connection between Vesta’s fire and the sun as sources of life. The Temple of Vesta represents the site of ancient cult activity as far back as 7th century BCE. Numa Pompilius is believed to have built this temple along with the original Regia and House of the Vestal Virgins in its original form. Around the Temple stood The Sacred Grove, in which also there was a graveyard for the priests and virgins. It was one of the earliest structures located in the Roman Forum although its present reincarnation is the result of subsequent rebuilding. Instead of a cult statue in the cella there was a hearth which held the sacred flame. The temple was the storehouse for the legal wills and documents of Roman Senators and cult objects such as the Palladium. The Palladium was a statue of Athena (Roman Minerva) believed to have been brought by Aeneas from Troy; the statue was felt to be one of the Pignora Imperii, or pledges of imperium, of Ancient Rome. According to Dionysius of Halicarnassus, the Romans believed that the Sacred fire of Vesta was closely tied to the fortunes of the city and viewed its extinction as a portent of disaster. The sacred flame was put out in 394 by Theodosius I after he won the Battle of the Frigidus, defeating Eugenius and Arbogast. The Temple of Vesta remained reasonably intact until the Renaissance. However, in 1549 the building was completely demolished and its marble reused in churches and papal palaces. The section standing today was reconstructed in the 1930s during the dictatorship of Benito Mussolini.

By Wknight94, 26 April 2008. Source:
Joe Sermarini
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Jordan, Jerash - Temple of Artemis205 viewsArtemis was the patron goddess of Gerasa, and the temple dedicated to her was one of the city’s grandest monuments. It was reached by ascending an imposing processional Sacred Way, starting from the Cardo. The temple was built during the mid 2nd-century CE and worship continued there until suppressed by Theodosius around 391. Afterwards, in Byzantine times, part of the Sacred Way was converted into a church (the ‘Propylaeum Church’) and the temple courtyard was used as a pottery workshop, while the naos itself was left to crumble quietly away. Abu Galyon
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Late Roman AE419 viewsArcadius or Theodosius II (?), late 4th cent. AD. Possibly a contemporary imitation, Obv: Emperor right; Rev: VIX over X (?) within wreath, AE 4, 8mm.Molinari
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Maurice Tiberius, 13 August 582 - 22 November 602 A.D.30 viewsBronze follis, (SBCV 494), weight 11.8g, max. diameter 31.9 mm, 2nd officina, Constantinople mint, 590 - 591 A.D.; Obv. D N mAVRC TIbER PP AVC, helmeted and cuirassed bust facing, globus cruciger in right, shield in left, Rev. large M, cross above, ANNO left, σ I II (year 9) right, B (2nd officina) below, CON in exergue. Brown with dusty green desert patina.

Background Info courtesy Forvm Ancient Coins;

Joint rule with Theodosius (his son), 29 March 590 - 22 November 602 A.D.
Maurice Tiberius, a successful general, was selected by Tiberius II Constantine as his successor. Although he achieved a favorable peace in Persia and was able to stem the losses of territory in Italy and Africa, much of the Balkans were lost. Focas, a junior officer, led a military revolt against Maurice and was declared emperor in November 602. Maurice and Theodosius, his son and co-emperor, were captured and murdered.

Steve E
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Nummus (?) of Theodosius8 viewsI purchased this in Aachen at a more generic antique store. The owner had a box of coins from all over and different periods mixed together. This was one of a few roman coins in there... he did not seem to know what this coin actually was.
Alex F
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RIC 157 Honorius AE3. 406-8 AD.13 viewsRIC 157 Honorius AE3. 406-8 AD. D N HONORIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped bust right / GLORIA ROMANORVM, Arcadius, Honorius, & Theodosius II standing side by side, ALEA in ex. Coin #231
cars100
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RIC X, 0202 Theodosius II, 408-45014 viewsAV solidus, 20.4mm, 4.40g, Choice VF
Struck 408-420 at Constantinople
DN THEODO-SIVS PF AVG, helmeted, diademed and cuirassed bust 3/4 face to right, holding spear and shield / CONCORDI-A AVGG I, Constantinoplis enthroned facing, head right, holding sceptre and Victory on globe, right foot on prow, star in left field, CONOB in exg
RIC X, 202S
Consigned to Forvm
Lawrence Woolslayer
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ROMAN EMPIRE - THEODOSIUS I22 viewsBronze AE 2, RIC 24(b)1, Cyzicus mint, 25 Aug 383 - 28 Aug 388 A.D.; obverse D N THEODO-SIVS P F AVG, pearl diademed draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse VIRTVS EXERCITI, Emperor standing right, head left, foot on captive, holding standard and globe, •SMHA in exerguedpaul7
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ROMAN EMPIRE - Theodosius I11 viewsROMAN EMPIRE - Theodosius I (379-395) Helmeted bust of emperor with pearl diadem, draped and cuirassed, holding spear and shield in front. DN THEODO-SIVS PF AVG Rev.: GLORIA RO-MANORVM Emperor standing left, head right, on ship, raising right hand, Victory seated at helm. Wreath in left field. CONΔ in exergue = Constantinople Mint. Reference: RIC IX Constantinople 52c.dpaul7
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ROMAN EMPIRE - Theodosius II58 viewsTheodosius II (402-450) -- AE4 “Cross” minted AD 408-450, Small copper AE4. Obv: DN THEODOSIVS PF AVG – Diademed bust right, draped and cuirassed Rev: no legend – Christian Cross within wreath, 1.42 g. Mint undetermined.dpaul7
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ROMAN EMPIRE - Theodosius II39 viewsTheodosius II (402-450) AE 3 “Three Emperors”, minted 406-408. Obv: D N THEODO-SIVS P F AVG – Diademed bust right, draped and cuirassed; ‘star’ behind head. Rev: GLORIA ROMANORVM – Three emperors standing. 1.88 g.
RIC-147 - SMHA = Nicodemia mint.
dpaul7
Aelia_Flaccilla.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Aelia Flaccilla AE48 viewsAelia Flaccilla AE4. Augusta 19 January 379 - 386 or 388 A.D., wife of Theodosius I
Obv: AEL FLAC-CILLA AVG, draped bust right with elaborate headdress, necklace and mantle
Rev: SALVS REI-PVBLICAE, Victory seated right, writing chi-rho on shield resting on small column; in ex. 'dot' SMHA.
RIC IX Heraclea 17,
Rare
George
bpLRE1M5AeliaFlac.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Aelia Flaccilla, Ae4, Nicomedia, RIC 36 (R), LRBC 2386, 383-86 AD49 viewsObv: AEL FLACCILA AVG
Draped bust, right, with elaborate head-dress, wearing necklace and mantle.
Rev: SALVS REIPVBLICAE
Victory seated, right, inscribing Christogram on shield set on cippus.
1.1 gm 12 mm Exergue: SMNЄ
Comment: First wife of Theodosius I and mother of Arcadius and Honorius.
Massanutten
moneta 551 small.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Aelia Flaccilla, Heraclea207 viewsAelia Flaccilla AE4
obv: AEL FLACCILLA AVG. Diademed and draped bust right, wearing knecklace
rev: SALVS REIPVBLICAE. Victory seated right, inscribing a chi-rho on shield resting on small column
exergue: dot S (?)
Struck at 383-386 A.D. at Heraclea
Van Meter 6
Note: Wife of Theodosius I, mother of Arcadius and Honorius
Jericho
AEL FLA-2.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Aelia Flaccilla. wife of Theodosius I. Augusta, 379-386/8 CE.153 viewsÆ 2 (4.74 grams, 23.4mm). Constantinople mint, 383-386 CE.
Obv: AEL FLAC-CILLA AVG, Draped bust right with elaborate head-dress and necklace.
Rev: SALVS REI-PVBLICAE, Flaccilla standing facing, head right, arms folded on breast. Christogram in right field, CONSE in exergue.
RIC IX 82; Sear 4193 (var); Cohen 6.
EmpressCollector
TheodosiusFrontBust.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, ARCADIUS, CONCORDIA AVGG62 viewsARCADIUS AE3 19mm Minted at Antioch 401-403 A.D.

OBV. DN ARCADI-VS PF AVG, Helmeted bust facing, spear across shoulder, holding shield decorated with cross.
REV. CONCORD-IA AVGG, Constantinopolis enthroned facing, foot on prow, head right, holding scepter & Victory on globe
EX. ANT gamma
Attrib.RIC X 97
1 commentsblack-prophet
EudociaRIC428.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE, Eudocia, 423-425 Constantinople (mm off flan)157 viewsObv: ...EVDO...
Rev: Empress Enthroned, CONCORDIA AVG
RIC X 428
(Eudocia was the empress of Theodosius II and is not to be confused with Arcadius' empress Eudoxia. Eudoxia had a similar coin, but it was larger [AE3], with a different reverse legend [GLORIA ROMANORVM], and never a star in reverse left field [sometimes a cross]).
1 commentsLaetvs
bpLRE1P1Honorius.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Honorius, Ae4, 402-08 AD49 viewsObv: D N HONORIVS AVG
Pearl diademed and draped bust, right. Star to left.
Rev: GLORIA ROMANORVM
Arcadius, Theodosius II (aged between two and seven) and Honorius standing side by side and facing.
2.3 gm 14 mm
Massanutten
BarbTheoII.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE, Imitation Theodosius II232 viewsObv: Bust right, no legend
Rev: Retrograde monogram in wreath
11 mm
From the collection of Laetvs
Laetvs
JohannesRIC1920.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE, Johannes AE4 A.D.423-425 Rome (TRM)159 viewsObv: ...NN-ESPFA...
Rev: Victory Dragging Captive, SALVS REIPVBLICE
RIC X 1920
Johannes lost a power struggle with Theodosius II, who wanted Valentinian III installed as Western emperor. It is said that he was a mild-mannered guy, and that he was captured, mutilated, and exhibited in a zoo before being executed. Whenever I see this coin, I feel sorry for him.
Laetvs
Pulcheria.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Pulcheria, AV Tremissis, Constantinople.120 viewsObv: AEL PVLCHERIA AVG. Diademed and draped bust right.
Rev: No legend. Cross in wreath; in exergue, CONOB*.
RIC X: 214

Pulcheria was the daughter of Arcadius and Eudoxia and the elder sister of Theodosius II. Although she was only 15 she assumed the regency on behalf of her brother and was made Augusta in A.D.414. Even after Theodosius attained his majority, Pulcheria remained in control of the government, maintaining that supremacy throughout most of her brother's long reign. And when Theodosius II died in A.D.450, it was she who selected the senator Marcian as his successor. When Pulcheria died in A.D.453 she left all her possessions to the poor.
3 commentsgoldcoin
TheoAE4or.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE, Theodosius AE4 VOT16 viewsAE4 13.6x13.7mm
Obv. DN THEODO_SIVS PF AVG
Bust right, diadem
Rev. VOT X MVLT XX in wreath
Ex. BSIS dot
gparch
theodosius_mini.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Theodosius I11 viewsobv. DN THEODO-SIVS PF AVG,
pearl diademed, dr., cuir.
rev. VOT/V/MVLT/X
exe: _SISC
Ref.: RIC IX Siscia 29d
Rarity: common
Jani
theodosius2_mini.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Theodosius I10 viewsobv. DN THEODO-SIVS PF AVG,
pearl diadem, draped, cuirassed
rev. SALVS REI-PVBLICAE,
Victory dragging captive. chi-rho left field
exe: SMK_ (Cyzicus)
388-392 AD
Ref.: RIC IX Cyzicus 26b or 30a
Rarity: common

Jani
Theodosius_RIC27d~0.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Theodosius I 9 viewsTheodosius I AE3. 379-383 AD. DN THEODO-SIVS PF AVG, pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right / CONCOR-DIA AVGGG, Roma, helmeted, seated facing with head left, holding globe & reversed spear, left leg bare, *ASISC· in ex. Siscia RIC 27djessvc1
100B~0.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Theodosius I AE2134 viewsRIC IX 40d.2 Antioch, LRBC 2714, C19, 378-383 A.D.
23 mm, 5.79 gm
DN THEODO-SIVS PF AVG, Helmeted, pearl diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right, holding spear and shield
GLORIA RO-MANORVM, Emperor standing facing, head right, on galley, raising right hand, Victory seated at helm. Wreath in left field
ANTG(amma) in exergue
2 commentsMark Z
P8230386.jpg
Roman Empire, Theodosius I Campgate, Pellet in Doorway256 viewsObv: DNTHEOD...
Rev: Campgate, GLORIA REIPVBLICE, B in left field,
TES in exergue (mostly off flan)
RIC IX 62 (b)v
Unlisted in RIC or LRBC for pellet in doorway.
Laetvs
theodosiusI_47~0.jpg
Roman Empire, Theodosius I RIC IX, Antiochia 47(d) var.285 viewsTheodosius I, the Great AD 379 - 395
AE - AE3, 2.37g, 19mm
Antiochia 4. period: 9 Aug. 378 - 25 Aug. 383 2. officina
obv.: DN THEODO - SIVS PF AVG
Draped and cuirassed bust, pearl-diademed head r.
rev.: CONCOR - DIA AVGGG
Constantinopolis, helmeted, seated facing, head r., on throne, holding partly
seen spear and globe; r. leg bare; l. foot on prow
field: l. Theta
exergue: ANTB
RIC IX, Antiochia 47(d) var., unrecorded; C.5
rarity?; about VF, chocolate-brown patina
added to www.wildwinds.com

But RIC 47(d) should have rosette-diademed head. So it is a mix of RIC 47(c) and RIC 47(d)!
1 commentsJochen
TheodosiusConcordia.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE, THEODOSIUS I, 379-395 A.D AE3.30 viewsAe 3, 18mm/3.0gm

OBV/ DN THEODOSIUS PF AVG; pearl-diad., dr., and cuir. bust r.

REV/ CONCORDIA AUGGG; Constantinopolis seated facing, her turreted head r., foot on prow, holding sceptre and hand on knee.


Thessalonika Mint; TES in exergue.

Con: chVF

Ref: VM 30/4

Sylvianus
moneta 599.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Theodosius I, AE2, Heraclea49 viewsobv: D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG. Diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right
rev: GLORIA ROMANORVM. Emperor standing facing, head right, holding labarum and globe
right field: star
exergue: SMHB
Struck 392-395 A.D. at Heraclea
RIC IX 27a (4)
Van Meter 27
1 commentsJericho
theodosius_ae18.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, THEODOSIUS I, AE318 viewsTheodosius

ae 18mm
seaotter
bpLRE1K3TheodosI.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Theodosius I, Ae3, Siscia, RIC 27(d) (S), LRBC 1518, 378-83 AD57 viewsObv: D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG Pearl diademed, draped and cuirassed bust, right.
Rev: CONCORDIA AVGGG Roma seated facing, head left, holding globe and spear.
2.5 gm 18 mm Exergue: BSISC
2 commentsMassanutten
Theodoor.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE, Theodosius I, AE4 Wreath17 viewsAE4 12.3x12.6 mm
Obv. DN THEODO_SIVS PF AVG
Bust right, diadem
Rev. VOT X MVLT XX on four lines within wreath
Ex. ALE (Alexandria mint)
gparch
bpLRE1K5TheodosI.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Theodosius I, Ae4, Thessalonica, RIC 62(b) (S), LRBC 1861, 388 AD36 viewsObv: D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG
Pearl diademed, draped and cuirassed bust, right.
Rev: GLORIA REIPUBLICE
Four tiered campgate with two beacons.
1.2 gm 12 mm Exergue: TES
Massanutten
moneta 160r.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Theodosius I, Constantinople32 viewsAE4
obv: d n theodosivs p f avg. Diad., dr. & cuir. bust right.
rev: salvs reipvblicae. Victory walking left, dragging captive and carrying trophy.
Struck 379-383 A.D. at Constantinople
Jericho
moneta 288.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Theodosius I, Cyzicus45 viewsTheodosius I AE4
obv: DN THEODOSIVS P F AVG. Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
rev: SALVS REIPVBLICAE. Victory advancing left, holding trophy and dragging captive
exergue: SMKA?
Struck 379-395 A.D. at Cyzicus
Van Meter 40
Jericho
moneta 406r.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Theodosius I, Siscia25 viewsAE4
obv: d n theodosivs p f avg. Diad., dr. & cuir. bust right.
rev: vot x mvlt xx enclosed in wreath
Struck 383-387 A.D. at Siscia
Jericho
Theodosius_I_Ric_8b_1_-__C_37_2.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Theodosius I, Solidus RIC 8(b) C.37 31 views4.49 grams.

This coin has the same reverse die as Jochen's solidus. Note the REV die flaw at 10 o`clock
http://www.forumancientcoins.com/gallery/displayimage.php?pos=-483
Richard T3
Theodosius_I_Ric_43(var).jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Theodosius I, Solidus, RIC 43(var)18 views4.41 grams.
Unlike any Ric 43 Portrait I`ve seen before..It`s been suggested that this is a rare western mint.
Richard T3
THEODOSIUS_GALLEY2~0.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE, THEODOSIUS I. AE2 of Antioch. Struck c.A.D.379 - 383105 viewsObverse: D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG. Helmeted, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of Theodosius facing right, holding spear in his right hand and shield in his left.
Reverse: GLORIA ROMANORIVM. Theodosius, his head turned right and right hand raised, standing facing left on galley sailing left with Victory at the helm. In left field, wreath; at top right, †; in exergue, eagle on globe ANTΓ.
RIC IX : 40d
2 comments*Alex
Theodosius_I_VOT_V_MVLT_X_ASISC~0.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE, THEODOSIUS I. AE4 of Siscia. Struck c.A.D.379 - 38342 viewsObverse: D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG. Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of Theodosius facing right.
Reverse: VOT V MVLT X in four lines within laurel wreath; in exergue, ASISC.
RIC IX : 292
1 comments*Alex
THEODOSIUS-1_REP-REIP_BSISC~0.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE, THEODOSIUS I. AE2 of Siscia. Struck c.A.D.379 - 38340 viewsObverse: D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG. Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of Theodosius facing right.
Reverse: REPARATIO REIPVB. Theodosius standing facing, head left, raising kneeling turreted female figure with his right hand holding Victory on globe in his left. In exergue, *BSISC•.
RIC IX : 26d
1 comments*Alex
Theodosius-1_BSISC_AE3~0.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE, THEODOSIUS I. AE3 of Siscia. Struck c.A.D.379 - 38325 viewsObverse: D N THEODO-SIVS P F AVG. Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of Theodosius facing right.
Reverse: CONCOR-DIA AVGGG. Roma seated facing on throne, her left leg bare and her head turned left. She is holding a globe in her right hand and reversed spear in her left; in exergue, BSISC.
RIC IX : 27d
SCARCE
*Alex
TheoIIRIC454.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE, Theodosius II 402-450 Antioch73 viewsObv: D N TH(EODOSIVS) AVG
Rev: Cross in Wreath: ANT[ ] in exergue.
RIC X 454
(This coin has a cross over Theodosius' head...a rather scarce variety of the cross reverse type.)
Laetvs
TheoCrossRho.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE, Theodosius II 402-450 Antioch (ANT Gamma)109 viewsObv: Bust right, indistinct legend
Rev: Cross (-Rho?) in Wreath
RIC X 453v
(Cross-Rho? Or just a cross with a big pit at the top? To my knowledge there are no published late Roman AE4s with cross-rho reverses. Ex Henry Clay Lindgren, who listed it as a cross-rho. What do you think?)
1 commentsLaetvs
TheoVicWreaths.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE, Theodosius II 402-450 Uncertain Mint105 viewsObv: ...THEODOSIVSPF...
Rev: Victory with Two Wreaths,
[CO]NCO[RDIA AVG]
RIC X 431-439
Laetvs
TheoIIRIC462-463.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE, Theodosius II AE4 402-450 Constantinople (CON)95 viewsObv: D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG
Rev: Monogram in wreath; CON in exergue
RIC X 462-463
Laetvs
TheoIIRIC457.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE, Theodosius II AE4 402-450 Constantinople (CON)86 viewsObv: ...SPFAV...
Rev: VT XXX V
RIC X 457
Laetvs
TheoIIRIC449.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE, Theodosius II AE4 402-450 Cyzicus (SMKA)109 viewsObv: ...SIVSPFAVG
Rev: Cross in Wreath
RIC X 449
(I photographed the obverse at an angle to try to best capture the portrait...it is very artistically executed, especially for this issue)
3 commentsLaetvs
111B.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Theodosius II AV Tremissis48 viewsRIC X 213, Depeyrot 70/1 Constantinople 408-419 A.D.
13.4 mm, 1.343 gm, die axis 180o
D N THEODO-SIVS P F AVG, pearl diademed draped and cuirassed bust right, Z graffito in front
VICTORIA AVGVSTORVM, Victory walking right, head left, holding wreath and globus cruciger, star in right field
CONOB in exergue
Scarce
EX: FORVM
Mark Z
0800-210.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, THEODOSIUS II siliqua, RIC 38152 viewsConstantinople mint
D N THEODO SIVS P F AVG, diademed draped and cuirassed bust right seen from front
VOT/XX/MVLT/XXX, within a laurel wreath, CONS* at exergue
2.16 gr, 18.5 mm
RIC X, # 381
1 commentsPotator II
theodosius2.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Theodosius II Solidus1316 viewsAV Solidus. Constantinople mint. Obv: DN THEODO-SIVS PF AVG - Three-quarters bust right, draped, cuirassed, holding spear over right shoulder and shield in left hand Rev: VOT XXX MVLT XXXXS - Constantinopolis seated left, holding cross on globe and scepter, her left foot sits on the prow of a galley and at rear of her throne, a shield sits; in right field, a 'star'. Exe: CONOB : AD 430-440, RIC X, 257 (s) Scarce, page 259/ 4.48 g. FDC.
11 commentsLordBest
Theodosius_II_Ric_365_TESOB.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Theodosius II, Solidus, RIC X:36514 viewsThessalonica Mint.
4.50 grams.
Richard T3
Theodosius II AE4 cross.jpg
Roman Empire, Theodosius II, AE413 viewsRIC 445?
AE4, 13mm.
Rev: cross in wreath, no legend.
Mint: possibly Constantinople (CON)
E Pinniger
Theodosius_AU_Solidus.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Theodosius II, AV Solidus76 viewsD N THEODOSIVS P F AVG, helmeted, laureate, cuirassed bust head 3/4 right with spear across shoulder & shield decorated with horseman spearing enemy. GLOR ORVI-S TERRAR, Theodosius II standing facing, holding standard and cross on globe; * to left, TESOB.
Original lustre still there.
RIC X:362/3
1 commentsOptimus
Theodosius_II_Ric_202.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Theodosius II, Solidus, RIC 20221 views4.46 grams.
There are three unusual marks projecting from top of right shoulder!
Richard T3
Theodosius_II_Ric_225.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Theodosius II, Solidus, RIC 22519 views4.51 grams.Richard T3
Theodosius_II_Ric_237.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Theodosius II, Solidus, RIC 23725 views4.43 grams.Richard T3
Theodosius_Ric_257_C.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Theodosius II, Solidus, RIC 25721 views4.43 grams.Richard T3
Theodosius_Ric_257_B.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Theodosius II, Solidus, RIC 25726 views4.50 grams.Richard T3
Theodosius_Ric_257_A.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Theodosius II, Solidus, RIC 25717 views4.44 grams.Richard T3
Theododius_Ric_307_or_285_or_293.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Theodosius II, Solidus, RIC 29323 views4.57 grams.
Richard T3
THEODOSIUS_II_TWO_EMPERORS~0.JPG
Roman Empire, THEODOSIUS II. AE3 0f Cyzicus. Struck A.D.408 - 423.17 viewsObverse: D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG. Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of Theodosius II facing right; star behind head.
Reverse: GLORIA ROMANORVM. Two emperors standing facing, each holding a spear and shield; in exergue, SMKA.
RIC X : 404
*Alex
THEODOSIUS_II_URBS_ROMA_FELIX.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE, THEODOSIUS II. AE3 of Rome. Struck c.A.D.404 - 408. 51 viewsObverse: D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG. Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of Theodosius facing right.
Reverse: VRBS ROMA FELIX. Roma standing facing, head right, holding spear with trophy attached in her right hand and Victory on globe in her left; at feet, shield. In exergue, SMROM; across field, OF - Q.
RIC X : 1283 under Honorius. Also see RIC IX : 67a under Theodosius I and RIC X p130
VERY RARE
1 comments*Alex
bpLRE1K2TheodosI.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Theodosius, Ae4, Siscia, RIC 27d(1), 378-383 AD.28 viewsObv: D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG Pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed bust, right.
Rev: VOT V MVLT X Legend in four lines within wreath.
1.5 gm, 15.5 mm, Exergue: ASISC
Massanutten
moneta 512.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Theodosius, Nicomedia - RIC IX 45b92 viewsTheodosius AE4
obv: D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG. Diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right
rev: SALVS REIPVBLICAE. Victory, trophy over shoulder, dragging captive left
exergue: SMNA
Struck 379-395 A.D. at Nicomedia
RIC IX 45b(1)(Scarce)
Van Meter 40
Note: Could also be 48a as RIC says both are "indistinguishable."
1 commentsJericho
Theodosius_II_Gold_Solidus.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE: Theodosius II Gold Solidus104 viewsTheodosius II, Gold solidus, RIC X 202, NGC Choice AU, 5th officina, Constantinople, 4.46g, 22mm, die axis 180o, 408 - 419 A.D.
OBV: D N THEODO-SIVS P F AVG, helmeted and cuirassed facing bust holding spear and shield decorated with horseman;
REV: CONCORDI-A AVGG Ε, Constantinopolis enthroned facing, head right, foot on prow, holding scepter and Victory on globe, star left, CONOB in ex;
NGC rated 5/5 for strike

EX: Forvm Ancient Coins
3 commentsRomanorvm
39393078_306505770112623_146110943414190080_n.jpg
Roman Imperial, Theodosius I AE3 (392-395 AD)6 viewsRoman Imperial, Theodosius I AE3 (392-395 AD)

DN THEODOSIVS PF AVG, Pearl diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.

GLORIA ROMANORVM, Emperor on horseback right, hand raised. Mintmark ANTB

RIC IX Antioch 69b
Gil-galad
Screenshot_2019-06-13_10_57_21.png
Roman Imperial, Theodosius I as Augustus, AE2. 6 viewsAntioch 392-395 A.D. 5.13g - 20mm, Axis 12h.

Obv: D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG - Pearl diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.

Rev: GLORIA ROMANORVM - Emperor standing facing holding labarum and globe. Mintmark ANTA.

RIC IX 68a,
scarli
Screenshot_2019-05-19_12_43_11.png
Roman Imperial, Theodosius I as Augustus, AE3. 8 viewsAquileia 379-383 A.D. 2.21g - 20.8mm, Axis 6h.

Obv: DN THEODO-SIVS PF AVG - Pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right.

Rev: CONCOR-DIA AVGGG - Constantinopolis, turret on head, seated facing, head right, left hand resting on knee and holding reversed spear in right hand. Mintmark SMAQP.

RIC IX 33b.
Scarce.
Coin came with old ticket.
scarli
Screenshot_2019-08-01_17_50_00.png
Roman Imperial, Theodosius II as Augustus, AE4.6 viewsNicomedia 423-425 A.D. 1.59g - 12.2mm, Axis 4h.

Obv: D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG - Pearl diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.

Rev: Cross within wreath. Mintmark SMNA.

RIC X 448; Sear 21233.
scarli
Screenshot_2019-05-23_13_54_52.png
Roman Imperial. Theodosius II as Augustus, Æ Minimus.6 viewsAlexandria 404-406 A.D. 0.75g - 12.1mm, Axis 7h.

Obv: D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG - Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right

Rev: CONCORDIA NVGGG - Cross. Mintmark ALEA.

RIC X 141.
scarli
Theodosius_I_RIC_IX-44b.jpg
Roman Imperial: Theodosius I (383-388 CE) AE2, Thessalonica (RIC IX 44b)11 viewsObv: DN THEODO-SIVS PF AVG; pearl diademed and helmet bust right, draped and cuirassed holding spear forward
Rev: GLORIA ROMANORVM; Emperor standing on galley left with head turned right, Victory at the helm, wreath in left field; TESΔ in exergue
Quant.Geek
RIC_IX_86b.jpg
Roman Imperial: Theodosius I. (379-395) Æ Nummus, Constantinople Mint (RIC IX-86b; LRBC 2184)15 viewsObv: DN THEODO-SIVS PF AVG; Pearl-diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right
Rev: SALVS REI-PVBLICAE; Victory advancing left, head right, holding trophy in right hand, dragging captive with left; staurogram to left; CONSA in exergue
SpongeBob
Theodosius_II_RIC-100.jpg
Roman Imperial: Theodosius II (402-450 CE) Æ Follis, Antioch (RIC 100)17 viewsObv: D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG; Diademed, helmeted and cuirassed bust facing slightly right, holding spear and shield decorated with cross
Rev: CONCORDIA AVGG; Constantinopolis seated facing on throne, head right, with foot set upon prow, holding sceptre and crowning Victory on globus; ANTΓ in exergue
Quant.Geek
Theodosius_II_RIC-449.jpg
Roman Imperial: Theodosius II (402-450 CE) Æ Nummus, Uncertain mint, Cyzicus? (RIC 441/444/447/449)9 viewsObv: D N THEODO-SIVS P F AVG; diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of Theodosius II right
Rev: Cross within wreath with medallion containing X at top; mint mark in exergue off flan
Quant.Geek
Theodosius_II_Antioch_RIC-453.jpg
Roman Imperial: Theodosius II (402-450) Æ Nummus, Antioch (RIC 453; LRBC 2810)9 viewsObv: D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG; Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of Theodosius II right
Rev: Cross within wreath; ANTA in exergue
Dim: 12 mm, 1.04 g, 5 h
Quant.Geek
34079_Roman_Empire,_Lead_Bulla_Seal,_Late_4th_-_Early_5th_Century_A_D_.jpg
Roman Lead Bulla Seal, Late 4th - Early 5th Century A.D. Three male facing diademed busts38 viewsRoman Empire, Lead Bulla Seal, Late 4th - Early 5th Century A.D. Lead seal, Bulla seal, possibly imperial, gVF, 7.885g, 18.4mm, obverse three male facing diademed busts, the left one smallest, stars above the two larger ones; reverse, no stamp. Interesting seal, perhaps depicting two senior Augusti (center and right) and a junior Augustus (smaller bust left). Two likely combinations are Valentinian I, Valens and Gratian (367 - 375 A.D.) and Theodosius I, Arcadius und Honorius (393 - 395 A.D.). Ex FORVM, photo credit FORVMPodiceps
Seal005.jpg
ROMAN LEAD SEAL139 viewsFacing bust, flanked by two profile busts, all draped and wearing cuirass; Above, DDD[NNN] ('Dominorum Nostrorum')

16x15x5mm

2.58g

very fine, rough spot

Note: On a number of occasions three emperors ruled the Roman empire. This seal might well belong to the joint reign of Arcadius, Honorius and Theodosius II.

Early 5th century.

From the Gert Boersema files
Jay GT4
Theodosius II 1+.jpg
Roman Theodosius II - Solidus95 viewsAU Solidus
Obv.: DN THEODOSIVS PF AVG
Rev.: IMP XXXXII COS XVII PP ; Roma seted l., holding cross on globe andspecter.

This type illustrates the difficulties of dating late Roman coins: the reverse legend celebrates the seventeenth Consulate, of 439 AD, but the issue was seemingly struck in 443 AD to pay the tribute to Attila the Hun.
Tanit
my-theodosius.jpg
Roman, Theodosius I AE4 Bust187 viewsTheodosius I (Augustus)
Bronze AE4
DN THEODO-SIVS PF AVG - Pearl diademed bust draped and cuirassed right.
SALVS REI-PVBLICAE - Victory dragging captive left and holding trophy. Cross in left field.
Minted in Antioch or Alexandria (388-395 A.D.)
Cross in left field, A-- mint mark.
RIC IX Antioch 67b/70a or RIC IX Alexandria 20b/23a

WOW! When I was making an order and I saw this bust on a AE4, how could I pass on it!?
2 commentsCoinScrubber
Valentinian_I_AE1~1.JPG
Roman, VALENTINIAN I90 viewsFrom an AE1 of Heraclea, struck between A.D.364 and 367.
RIC IX : 2
Extremely Rare

The Colossus of Barletta is a large bronze statue of a Roman Emperor, nearly three times life size currently located in the coastal town of Barletta, Italy. The legs and hands were replaced in the 15th Century, but the 5-metre-high statue is still a powerful reminder of the later days of the Roman Empire.
There are many different versions of the story of this statue, the most popular being that the statue washed up on the shore after a Venetian ship sank returning from the sack of Constantinople during the Fourth Crusade, but if that was indeed the case it is not impossible that the statue had been sent to Constantinople much earlier. The identity of the Emperor is uncertain, the most likely subjects appear to be Valentinian I (A.D.364–375), Honorius (A.D.393–423), Theodosius II (A.D.408–450), Marcian (A.D.450–457), Leo I (A.D.457–474) and Justinian I (A.D.527–565). The facial features on my coin seem to me to closely resemble those on the statue, so Valentinian I would be my own personal choice as to the identity of the emperor.
*Alex
victoria_lead-seal-29_Q-002_20mm_x,xxg-s.jpg
Rome, Lead Seal, #29, Two face , Victory #02,90 viewsRome, Lead Seal, #29, Two face , Victory #02,
"My guess would be late Roman, first half 5th century. In 425-35 a similar (possibly identifcal) coin type was introduced with a facing Victory holding two wreaths in outstretched hands. That type isn't described as standing on a globe, but I think it might very well be there. This parallel might also date your seal to the joint reign of Valentinian III and Theodosius II.
This type of standing Victory was also used in early Byzantine times, but those have different obv. and crosses in the fields."
byGert thank you Gert.
quadrans
aelia_f.jpg
SALVS REIPVBLICAE, CONE10 viewsAELIA FLACCILLA (wife of Theodosius I, mother of Arcadius and Honorius) Æ 4. Rev. SALVS REIPVBLICAE, Victory seated right inscribing Christogram on shield set on cippus, CONE in exergue, mint of Constantinople. 1.2g 14mm RIC 61(3). Podiceps
bc0607.jpg
SBCV 607 - Follis de Maurice et Constantina émis à Cherson (582-602)7 viewsA l'avers DN mAVRIC PP AVG, l'empereur Maurice et l'impératrice Constantina debout de face, tous deux nimbés, l'empereur tenant un globe crucigère et l'impératrice un long sceptre crucigère, tous deux sont sur une estrade. Une croix entre l'empereur et l'impératrice.
Au revers Théodosius, fils de Maurice, debout de face, tenant une longue croix. A droite, la valeur H, une croix au dessus.
Atelier : Cherson (Crimée)
Ref : Sear 607, MIBEC 157a1 - Sommer 7.108, DOC 303, Anokhin 320, Esty ES17, Groupe III
11.87 g / 30 mm
Eric
bc0607-2.jpg
SBCV 607 var - Follis de Maurice et Constantina émis à Cherson (582-602)9 viewsA l'avers DN MAVRIC PP AVG, l'empereur Maurice et l'impératrice Constantina debout de face, tous deux nimbés, l'empereur tenant un globe crucigère et l'impératrice un long sceptre crucigère. Une croix entre l'empereur et l'impératrice, un trait au sessous au lieu de l'estrade.
Au revers Théodosius, fils de Maurice, debout de face, tenant un long chrisme. A droite, la valeur H, une croix au dessus.
Sur cet exemplaire, malgré la légende de Maurice, le style de cette monnaie est plus proche du groupe IV attribué à Phocas
Atelier : Cherson (Crimée)
Ref : Sear 607 var, MIBEC 157b2 - Sommer 7.108, DOC 303, Anokhin 320, Esty ES17, Groupe III
10,86 g / 26-29 mm
Eric
theodose_II.jpg
Solidus Theodosius II45 viewsMint of Constantinopolis

D N THEODO-SIVS P F AVG
VOT XX – MVLT XXX S//CONOB

420/422 AD

Ref: RIC.219 (S)
1 commentsbyzancia
VALENTINIAN_AE1_SMHA.JPG
Struck A.D.364 - 367. VALENTINIAN I. AE1 of HERACLEA14 viewsObverse: D N VALENTINIANVS P F AVG. Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of Valentinian facing right.
Reverse: RESTITVTOR REIPVBLICAE. Valentinian standing facing, head right, holding standard and Victory; in exergue, SMHA.
Diameter: 26mm | Weight: 6.7gms | Die Axis: 6
RIC IX : 2.
Extremely Rare

The Colossus of Barletta is a large bronze statue of a Roman Emperor, nearly three times life size currently located in the coastal town of Barletta, Italy. The legs and hands were replaced in the 15th Century, but the 5-metre-high statue is still a powerful reminder of the later days of the Roman Empire.
There are many different versions of the story of this statue, the most popular being that the statue washed up on the shore after a Venetian ship sank returning from the sack of Constantinople during the Fourth Crusade, but if that was indeed the case it is not impossible that the statue had been sent to Constantinople much earlier. The identity of the Emperor is uncertain, the most likely subjects appear to be Valentinian I (A.D.364–375), Honorius (A.D.393–423), Theodosius II (A.D.408–450), Marcian (A.D.450–457), Leo I (A.D.457–474) and Justinian I (A.D.527–565). The facial features on my coin seem to me to closely resemble those on the statue, so Valentinian I would be my own personal choice as to the identity of the emperor.
*Alex
Theodosius_I_VOT_V_MVLT_X_ASISC.JPG
Struck A.D.379 - 383. THEODOSIUS I. AE4 of Siscia11 viewsObverse: D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG. Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of Theodosius facing right.
Reverse: VOT V MVLT X in four lines within laurel wreath; in exergue, ASISC.
RIC IX : 29d
1 comments*Alex
THEODOSIUS-1_GLOR-ROM_ANTGamma_.JPG
Struck A.D.379 - 383. THEODOSIUS I. AE2 of Antioch7 viewsObverse: D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG. Helmeted, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of Theodosius facing right, holding spear in his right hand and shield in his left.
Reverse: GLORIA ROMANORIVM. Theodosius, his head turned right and right hand raised, standing facing left on galley sailing left with Victory at the helm. In left field, wreath; at top right, cross; in exergue, eagle on globe ANTΓ.
RIC IX : 40d.
SCARCE
*Alex
THEODOSIUS-1_REP-REIP_BSISC.JPG
Struck A.D.379 - 383. THEODOSIUS I. AE2 of Siscia12 viewsObverse: D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG. Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of Theodosius facing right.
Reverse: REPARATIO REIPVB. Theodosius standing facing, head left, raising kneeling turreted female figure with his right hand holding Victory on globe in his left. In exergue, ✱BSISC•.
RIC IX : 26d
1 comments*Alex
Theodosius-1_BSISC_AE3.JPG
Struck A.D.379 - 383. THEODOSIUS I. AE3 of Siscia4 viewsObverse: D N THEODO-SIVS P F AVG. Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of Theodosius facing right.
Reverse: CONCOR-DIA AVGGG. Roma seated facing on throne, her left leg bare and her head turned left. She is holding a globe in her right hand and reversed spear in her left; in exergue, BSISC.
RIC IX : 27d
SCARCE
*Alex
Aelia_Flaccilla_Salus-R_ANTE.JPG
Struck A.D.383 - 386. AELIA FLACCILLA (Wife of Theodosius I). AE2 of Antioch29 viewsObverse: AEL FLACCILLA AVG. Pearl-diademed and draped bust of Aelia Flaccilla, wearing pearl necklace and earring, facing right.
Reverse: SALVS REIPVBLICAE. Victory seated on cippus facing right and inscribing Christogram (Chi-Rho) on shield which is also set on a short column (cippus). In right field, T; in exergue, ANTE.
RIC IX : 61
RARE

Aelia Flaccilla was the wife of Theodosius I, and the mother of Arcadius and Honorius. She died in A.D.386.
4 comments*Alex
THEODOSIUS_I_VICTORIA_Siscia_BSIS.JPG
Struck A.D.384 - 387. THEODOSIUS I. AE4 of Siscia13 viewsObverse: D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG. Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of Theodosius facing right.
Reverse: VICTORIA AVGGG. Victory walking left; in exergue, BSIS.
RIC IX : 39b | LRBC : 1575-78
SCARCE
2 comments*Alex
Theodosius_I_SMHA_Gloria_Romanorum.JPG
Struck A.D.392 - 395. THEODOSIUS I. AE2 of Heraclea4 viewsObverse: D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG. Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of Theodosius facing right.
Reverse: GLORIA ROMANORVM. Theodosius standing facing, head turned to right, holding standard in his right hand and globe in his left; in exergue, SMHA.
RIC IX : 27a
*Alex
URBS_ROMA_FELIX.JPG
Struck A.D.404 - 408. THEODOSIUS II. AE3 of Rome. 8 viewsObverse: D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG. Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of Theodosius facing right.
Reverse: VRBS ROMA FELIX. Roma standing facing, head right, holding spear with trophy attached in her right hand and Victory on globe in her left; at feet, shield. In exergue, SMROM; across field, OF - Q.
RIC X : 1283 under Honorius. Also see RIC IX : 67a under Theodosius I and RIC X p130
VERY RARE
*Alex
Theodosius-2_GLOR-ROM_SMKA.JPG
Struck A.D.408 - 423. THEODOSIUS II. AE3 0f Cyzicus6 viewsObverse: D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG. Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of Theodosius II facing right; star behind head.
Reverse: GLORIA ROMANORVM. Two emperors standing facing, each holding a spear and shield; in exergue, SMKA.
RIC X : 404
*Alex
IMG_0785.JPG
Struck Imitation of Theodosius I, after 383 AD19 viewsStruck Imitation of Theodosius I
Reparatio Rei Pub type
after 383 AD
[DN] THEODO-[SIVS] PF AVG
Pearl diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust r.
[REPARATIO] REIP[VB]
Emperor standing left, raising kneeling female wearing turreted crown, holding Victory on globe
PCON in ex.
Cf. RIC IX Arles 20d
Ardatirion
Vandale.jpg
SUB ROMAN, Vandals, Minimus16 viewsMinimus, imitating a coin of Theodosius IINumis-Student
théodose.jpg
Théodosius I, AE413 viewsMint of Siscia.
DN THEODOSIVS PF AVG - Diademed bust right.
VICTORIA AVGGG/// BSIS - Victory walking left with palm and laurel wreath
0,92gr
384-387AD.

Ref:,RIC 39b.2 (Siscia)
byzancia
THEODOSE_RIC25.jpg
THEODOSE IER (379-395) - AQUILEA - RIC 2516 viewsSilique, 378-383, C1
A/D N THEODO-SIVS P F AVG
Dominus Noster Theodosius Pius Felix Augustus, Notre Maître Théodose Pieux et Heureux Auguste
Buste à droite, diadémé (Perles), drapé et cuirassé. Portait aux cheveux lisse.
R/CONCOR-DIA AVGGG//AQPS
Concordia Augustorum, La Concorde des 3 augustes
La concorde casquée, drapée, la tête tournée à droite, sur un trône, le pied sur une proue de navire, tenant un sceptre long de la main droite et une corne d'abondance de la main gauche.
Argent - 1.31 gr - 16.2 mm - 12h
RIC IX 25, RSC 4
Siliquae
THEODOSE_RIC28d.jpg
THEODOSE IER (379-395) - AQUILEA - RIC 28d5 viewsSilique, 378-383, C1
A/D N THEODO-SIVS P F AVG
Dominus Noster Theodosius Pius Felix Augustus, Notre Maître Théodose Pieux et Heureux Auguste
Buste à droite, diadémé (Perles), drapé et cuirassé. Portait aux cheveux lisse.
R/VIRTVS RO-MANORVM//AQPS
Virtus Romanorum, La vertu des romains
Rome casquée assise de face, tête à gauche, sur un trone, tenant dans sa main droite un globe et une lance renversée dans la main gauche.
Argent - 1.33 gr - 18 mm - 12h
RIC IX 28d, RSC 59
Siliquae
THEODOSE_RIC51b.jpg
THEODOSE IER (379-395) - CONSTANTINOPLE - RIC 51b12 viewsSilique, 378-383, R4
A/D N THEODO-SIVS P F AVG
Dominus Noster Theodosius Pius Felix Augustus, Notre Maître Théodose Pieux et Heureux Auguste
Buste à droite, diadémé (Perles), drapé et cuirassé.
R/VOT/V/MVLT/X//CONS•
Votis quinquennalibus/Multis decennalibus, Vœux pour le cinquième anniversaire de règne et plus pour les dix ans à venir
Légende en 4 lignes dans une couronne de lauriers fermée.
Argent - 1.24 gr - 16.9 mm - 12h
RIC IX 51b, RSC 64
Siliquae
THEODOSE_RIC77h.jpg
THEODOSE IER (379-395) - CONSTANTINOPLE - RIC 77h5 viewsSilique, 383-388, R1
A/D N THEODO-SIVS P F AVG
Dominus Noster Theodosius Pius Felix Augustus, Notre Maître Théodose Pieux et Heureux Auguste
Buste à droite, diadémé (Perles), drapé et cuirassé.
R/VOT/X/MV•LT/XX//CONS•
Votis decennalibus/Multis vicennalibus, Vœux pour le dixième anniversaire de règne et pour le vingtième à venir
Légende en 4 lignes dans une couronne de lauriers fermée.
Argent - 2.03 gr - 17.3 mm - 12h
RIC IX 77h, RSC 67
Siliquae
THEODOSE_RIC43b3.jpg
THEODOSE IER (379-395) - LYON - RIC 43b(3)13 viewsSilique, 388-392, R1
A/D N THEODO-SIVS P F AVG
Dominus Noster Theodosius Pius Felix Augustus, Notre Maître Théodose Pieux et Heureux Auguste
Buste à droite, diadémé (Perles), drapé et cuirassé.
R/VRBS-ROMA//LVGS
Urbs Roma, La ville de Rome
Rome casquée assise à gauche sur une cuirasse, tenant un globe nicéphore de la main droite et une lance renversée de la main gauche.
Argent - 2 gr - 18.3 mm - 12h
RIC IX 43b(3), RSC 72
Soit une haste renversée, soit un sceptre pour certaines officines, lorsque le crochet n'est plus visible.
A l'exergue, dans la marque d'officine, N et S semblent superposés. Ce peut-être du soit une illusion due à un coin bouché, soit une rectification de coin entre officine. La lettre est certainement un S, le plus courant.
Il s’agit peut être d’un coin rectifié ce qui permettrai de dire que l’émission LVGS succède à l’émission LVGN (merci Elagabale2000)
Siliquae
THEODOSE_RIC43b1.jpg
THEODOSE IER (379-395) - LYON - RIC 43d4 viewsSilique, 388-392, R3
A/D N THEODO-SIVS P F AVG
Dominus Noster Theodosius Pius Felix Augustus, Notre Maître Théodose Pieux et Heureux Auguste
Buste à droite, diadémé (Perles), drapé et cuirassé.
R/VRBS-ROMA//LVGPS
Urbs Roma, La ville de Rome
Rome casquée assise à gauche sur une cuirasse, tenant un globe nicéphore de la main droite et une lance renversée de la main gauche.
Argent - 1.03 gr - 16.1 mm - 6h
RIC IX 43d, RSC
Devant la divinité au revers faut il y voir un candélabre ou brule parfum ? Le RIC y voit un cippe, d'où la référence 43d au lieu de 43b2.
Siliquae
THEODOSE_RIC32a.jpg
THEODOSE IER (379-395) - MILAN - RIC 32a 8 viewsSilique, 393-394, R2
A/D N THEODO-SIVS P F AVG
Dominus Noster Theodosius Pius Felix Augustus, Notre Maître Théodose Pieux et Heureux Auguste
Buste à droite, diadémé (Perles), drapé et cuirassé. Portait aux cheveux lisse.
R/VIRTVS RO-MANORVM//MDPS
Virtus Romanorum, La vertu des romains
Rome casquée assise à gauche sur une cuirasse, tenant dans sa main droite le globe nicéphore et une lance renversée dans la main gauche.
Argent - 1.5 gr - 18.8 mm - 12h
RIC IX 32a, RSC 57b
Siliquae
THEODOSE_RIC55a.jpg
THEODOSE IER (379-395) - TREVES - RIC 55a4 viewsSilique, 378-383, C1
A/D N THEODO-SIVS P F AVG
Dominus Noster Theodosius Pius Felix Augustus, Notre Maître Théodose Pieux et Heureux Auguste
Buste à droite, diadémé (Perles), drapé et cuirassé. Portait aux cheveux lisse.
R/CONCOR-DIA AV GGG//TRPS
Concordia Augustorum, La Concorde des 3 augustes
La concorde casquée, drapée, la tête tournée à droite, sur un trône, le pied sur une proue de navire, tenant un sceptre long de la main droite et une corne d'abondance de la main gauche.
Argent - 1.88 gr - 17.3 mm - 12h
RIC IX 55a, RSC 4a
Siliquae
THEODOSE_RIC55a~0.jpg
THEODOSE IER (379-395) - TREVES - RIC 55a6 viewsSilique, 378-383, C1
A/D N THEODO-SIVS P F AVG
Dominus Noster Theodosius Pius Felix Augustus, Notre Maître Théodose Pieux et Heureux Auguste
Buste à droite, diadémé (Perles), drapé et cuirassé. Portait aux cheveux lisse.
R/CONCOR-DIA AV GGG//TRPS
Concordia Augustorum, La Concorde des 3 augustes
La concorde casquée, drapée, la tête tournée à droite, sur un trône, le pied sur une proue de navire, tenant un sceptre long de la main droite et une corne d'abondance de la main gauche.
Argent - 1.88 gr - 17.3 mm - 12h
RIC IX 55a, RSC 4a
Siliquae
THEODOSE_RIC94b.jpg
THEODOSE IER (379-395) - TREVES - RIC 94b4 viewsSilique, 388-392, C1
A/D N THEODO-SIVS P F AVG
Dominus Noster Theodosius Pius Felix Augustus, Notre Maître Théodose Pieux et Heureux Auguste
Buste à droite, diadémé (Perles), drapé et cuirassé. Portait aux cheveux lisse.
R/VIRTVS RO-MANORVM//TRPS
Virtus Romanorum, La vertu des romains
Rome casquée assise à gauche sur une cuirasse, tenant un globe nicéphore de la main droite et une lance renversée de la main gauche.
Argent - 1.98 gr - 17.4 mm - 12h
RIC IX 94b, RSC 57a
Siliquae
x1.jpg
Theodosius16 views AE2 Theodosius I 24mm
Obverse: DN THEODOSIVS PF AVG, Diademed , draped and cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: REPARATIO REIPVB: Emperor standing raising a kneeling woman.
b70
Theodosius_Rev.JPG
Theodosius5 viewsTheodosius I; AD 379-395
AE2; 22MM/4.1G, Czyicus Mint
OBV: D N THEODISIVS P F AVG; Pearl diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right
REV: VIRTVS EXERSITI; Theodosius standing L foot on captive holding labarum and globe, SMK(Gamma) in exergue;
(RIC 25b)
Philip G
100_6145.JPG
Theodosius I43 viewsTheodosius I AE2. AD 379-383. DN THEODSIVS P F AVG, helmeted, diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right, holding spear / GLORIA ROMANORVM, Emperor standing left on galley piloted by Victory to right, wreath to left, CON[/]1 commentsRandygeki(h2)
00502-Theodosius_II.JPG
Theodosius II12 viewsTheodosius II AE 4
12 mm 0.96 gm
O: D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG
Diademed bust right
R: Cross within wreath, SMKA in exergue
Koffy
31+ Theodosius.jpg
Theodosius - AE321 viewsAE3
Obv: DN THEODOSIVS PF AVG
Rev: CONCORDIA AGGG ; Constantinopolis sated facing, her helmeted head turned right, foot on prow, holding specter and globe.
Tanit
Theodosius 15 D~0.jpg
Theodosius - AE415 viewsAE4
Obv: DN THEODOSIVS PF AVG
Rev: VOT V ; legnd in wreath.
Tanit
teodosio_castrianva2.jpg
Theodosius - Gloria Reipvblice27 viewsCastrorvm Ianva - Thessalonica
Ric IX Thessalonica 62
antvwala
teodosio_castrianva1.jpg
Theodosius - Gloria Reipvblice22 viewsCastrorvm Ianva - Thessalonica
Ric IX Thessalonica 62
antvwala
teodosio_castr_ian_delta.jpg
Theodosius - Gloria Reipvblice16 viewsCastrorvm Ianva, Thessalonica
RIC IX, 62 s
antvwala
teodo_castrianva2.jpg
Theodosius - Gloria Reipvblice20 viewsCastrorvm Ianva - Thessalonica
RIC IX 62b
antvwala
0_theodosius-ric.jpg
Theodosius - RIC ?7 viewsSALVS REIPUB
xokleng
Teodosio.JPG
Theodosius AE Majorina Virtus Exerciti4 viewsTheodosius I (379 – 395 AD)

AE4, majorina, Nicomedia 387 – 392 AD

Obv: DN THEODOSIVS PF AVG, pearl-diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right
Rev: VIRTVS E-XERCITI, Emperor standing facing, head right, foot on captive, holding labarum and globe.
Mintmark: SMNA
RIC IX 44

Weight: 5.2g.
Diameter: 24mm.
Jose Polanco
Theodosius_II_Gold_Solidus~1.jpg
Theodosius becomes 3-dimensional20 viewsRomanorvm
Theodosius I.jpg
Theodosius I31 viewsAE4
Obv: DN THEODOSIVS PF AVG
Rev: SALVS REIPVBLICAE ; Victory walking l., carring trophy and dragging captive
Tanit
theodosius.jpg
Theodosius I32 viewsTheodosius I, Æ3, 384-387 AD, Siscia mint.
Obverse- CN THEODO-SIVS PF AVG; pearl-diademed, draped, and curissaed bust right.
Reverse- GLORIA RO-MANORVM; emperor advancing right, with right hand dragging captive, holding labarum with Chi-Rho symbol in left hand; BSISC in exergue.
RIC IX 38b2, 18.3 mm, 2.94 g.
1 commentsb70
THD30.jpg
Theodosius I34 viewsTheodosius I. 379 - 395 AD (Struck 383-392 AD). AE2 (22mm, 5.19g). Helmeted, diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right, holding spear and shield / Emperor standing facing on galley, Victory at the rear; t / SMHA in ex.. RIC 21b; LRBC 1971 Heraclea.

1 commentsTLP
00500-Theodosius.JPG
Theodosius I8 viewsTheodosius I AE2
23 mm 3.94 gm
O: D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG
Diademmed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
R: REPARATIO REIPVB
Theodosius I standing left, raising kneeling female figure.
John Campbell
Theodosius.jpg
Theodosius I39 viewsDn Theodo-Sivs Pf Avg. Pearl diadem,draped,cuirassed. Salvs Rei-Pvblicae. Victory dragging captive holding trophy on shoulder. Chi-rho to left.tiberiusjulius
THEODOS1-4.jpg
Theodosius I 24 viewsObv: D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG
pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right
Rev: VOT X MVLT XX
VOT X MVLT XX in wreath.
13mm 1.gm
Cyzicus ?
OWL365
THEODOS1-5.jpg
Theodosius I 20 viewsObv: D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG
pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right
Rev: VOT X MVLT XX
VOT X MVLT XX in wreath.
14mm 1.3gm
OWL365
tedosio_votXVmvltXX.jpg
Theodosius I10 viewsVOT XV MVLT XXantvwala
teodosio_vot_V.jpg
Theodosius I19 viewsVot Vantvwala
Theodosius_I_(3).jpg
Theodosius I42 viewsDNTHEODOSIVSPFAVG
SALVSREIPUBLICAE
victory advancing left with trophy and dragging captive
SMK in exe
vacationchick
22A630.JPG
THEODOSIUS I18 viewsTHEODOSIUS I, 379-395 AD. Æ 2 (6.30 gm) of Constantinople, 378-83. Helmeted draped bust with spear / Emperor in galley steered by Victory. RIC.52(c)3TLP
Theodo.jpg
Theodosius I10 viewsTheodosius I (379-388 CE),
Head of emperor, right, diademed/Wreath with inscription. Legend: VOT X MVLT XX (Votis Decennalibus Multis Vicennalibus),
Constantinople mint.
AE 13mm.
Belisarius
Theodosius_I_RIC_IX_Constantinople_52c.jpg
Theodosius I45 viewsAE2 (5,64g - 22mm)
obv. DN THEODOSIVS PF AVG
Helmeted, diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right and holding spear and shield.
rev. GLORIA ROMANORVM
Theodosius I standing left on galley, raising hand; Victory seated to right, steering galley. Wreath in left field.
in exergue CONB
mint Constantinople
RIC IX Constantinople 52c
HG
00500-Theodosius~0.JPG
Theodosius I31 viewsTheodosius I AE4
15 mm 1.54 gm
O: DN THEODO-SIVS PF AVG
Pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right
R: GLORIA ROMANORVM
Emperor on horseback right, raising right hand.
2 commentsKoffy
Theodosius_I.jpg
Theodosius I12 viewsObv: DN THEODO-SIVS PF AVG, pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed, right facing
Rev: VOT X MLVT XX within wreath, SMK(epsilon) in ex
Size: 15mm, 1.32g
Id#'s: RIC IX Cyzicus 21c, minted 377-388
Notes: an ugly little coin from my early coin cleaning experiments. High on the list to replace with a good example
ickster
theoi.jpg
Theodosius I12 viewsAe3; Nicomedia mint, fourth period: 378- 383
Obv.: DN THEODO-SIVS PF AVG; Pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed bust r.
Rev.: CONCOR-DIA AVGGG; Constantinopolis, helmeted, seated facing, head r., on throne, holding partly seen spear and globe, r. leg bare, r. foot on prow / A // SMNΓ
Reference: RIC IX 31(b) mm5 (p. 258) Scarce
John Anthony
theoconcord.jpg
Theodosius I26 viewsAE3, 17mm, 2.7g, 12h; Siscia mint fourth period: AD 378-383
Obv.: DN THEODO-SIVS PF AVG; Daidemed, draped, cuirassed bust right.
Rev.: CONCOR-DIA AVGGG; Roma seated facing, head left, holding globe and reversed spear, her left leg bare // BSISC.
Reference: RIC IX Siscia 27d (p.151) Scarce.
Notes: sold to Eng, 11/15
1 commentsJohn Anthony
teodosio33.jpg
THEODOSIUS I25 viewsAR siliqua. Trier. 388-395 AD. 2,23 grs. Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right. D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG / Roma seated facing, head left on throne , holding globe and reversed spear. VIRTVS ROMANORVM. In exergue TRPS.
RIC 58 b. Cohen 59.
Gussage All Sainta hoard. Ex. William B. Porter collection .
benito
Theodosius.jpg
Theodosius I13 viewsAE2 RIC IX

379 - 383 AD

Obverse: DN THEODO SIVS PF AVG

Reverse: REPARATIO REIPVB
Emperor standing holding victory on globe and raising kneeling woman
Pericles J2
THEODOS1-13.jpg
Theodosius I RIC IX 25G18 viewsObv: DN THEODOSIVS P F AVG
pearl-diademed, draped, & cuirassed bust right
Rev: VIRTVS E-XERCITI
Emperor standing facing, head right,
foot on captive, holding labarum & globe
SMKr in Ex
23mm 6gm
OWL365
THEODOS1-2.jpg
Theodosius I RIC IX 29d23 viewsObv: D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG
pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right
Rev: VOT V MVLT X
VOT V MVLT X within wreath.
ASISC in ex.
15mm 1.7gm
OWL365
theodosius I  com.JPG
Theodosius I SALUS REIPUBLICAE54 viewsAE 12.5 mm 1.3 grams 388-392 AD
OBV :: DN THEODO-SIVS PF AVG. diadem, draped and cuirassed bust right
REV :: SALUS REIPUBLICAE. Victory advancing left with trophy and captive
EX :: CONSA (Constantinople)
RIC IX Constantinople 86b.c30
from uncleaned lot 10/2006
Johnny
Theodosius_I.jpg
Theodosius I 'The Great', RIC IX 83b, 383 – 388 AD, Constantinople, Thrace15 viewsPearl diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right. Emperor stepping to the right, treading on captive & holding labarum & globe.

D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG
VIRTVS EXERCITI
Our Lord Theodosius the Pius, Happy, and Revered Emperor.
Valor of the Army.
Jonathan N
57905q00.jpg
Theodosius I (379 - 395 A.D.)35 viewsÆ2
O: D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG, rosette-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
R: GLORIA ROMANORVM, Theodosius standing left, head right, standard in right, globe in left, ANTA in ex.
Antioch
4.67g
20.6mm
RIC IX 68b
1 commentsMat
theodosius-i-vot.jpg
Theodosius I (379-395 AD) AE4, Antioch mint20 viewsRoman Imperial, Theodosius I (379-395 AD) AE4, Antioch mint

Obverse: D N THEODO-SIVS PF AVG, Diademmed, draped and cuirassed bust right.

Reverse: VOT X MVLT XX inside wreath. Mint mark: ANA "Vow of ten years service, total of twenty.

Reference: RIC IX Antioch 65

Ex: Kayser-i Rum Numismatics +photo
Gil-galad
Theodosius.JPG
Theodosius I (379-395 CE), Æ3.62 viewsObverse: DNTHEODOSIVSPFAVG - Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: GLORIAREIPVBLICE, B to left, TES in Exergue, camp gate with two turrets.

Reference: RIC 62b.2 (Thessalonica)
Daniel Friedman
theodosius-1-victory.jpg
Theodosius I (388-392 AD) AE4, Cyzicus mint9 viewsRoman Imperial, Theodosius I (388-392 AD) AE4, Cyzicus mint

Obverse: DN THEODO-SIVS PF AVG, Pearl diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.

Reverse: SALVS REI-PVBLICAE, Victory advancing left, dragging captive. Chi-Rho left field. Mintmark: SMKA

Reference: RIC IX Cyzicus 26b/30a

Ex: Bryan Aaker
Gil-galad
VT-05.jpg
Theodosius I (A.D. 379-395)12 viewsAE4, A.D. 388-395, Nicomedia, 13.9mm, 1.03g, 0°, RIC IX 45b.1.
Obv: DN THEODOSIVS PF AVG. Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: SALVS REIPVBLICAE. Victory advancing left, holding trophy and dragging captive; SMNA in ex.
Joseph D5
00187.jpg
Theodosius I (RIC 19c, Coin #187)8 viewsRIC 19c (C), AE4, Heraclea, 378-383 AD.
Obv: D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG Diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right.
Rev: VOT X MVLT XX (SMHA) Wreath surrounding four lines of text.
Size: 14.1mm 1.40gm
MaynardGee
00604.jpg
Theodosius I (RIC 21c, Coin #604)7 viewsRIC 21c (C), AE4, Cyzicus, 378 - 383 AD.
OBV: D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG; Pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right.
REV: VOT XX MVLT XXX (SMKB); Text within wreath.
SIZE: 15.1mm 1.00g
MaynardGee
00480.jpg
Theodosius I (RIC 25b, Coin #480)12 viewsRIC 25b (C), AE2, Cyzicus, 383 - 388 AD.
OBV: D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG; Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
REV: VIRTVS EXERCITI (SMKB); Emperor standing right, holding labarum and globe, left foot on captive.
SIZE: 23.6mm 5.06g
MaynardGee
00104.jpg
Theodosius I (RIC 25c, Coin #104)16 viewsRIC 25c (C), AE2, Nicomedia, 378-383 AD.
Obv: D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG Helmeted, diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right holding spear and shield.
Rev: GLORIA ROMANORVM (SMN delta) Emperor standing facing on galley, head right, raising right hand, Victory at helm. Wreath in left field.
Size: 23.7mm 4.02gm
MaynardGee
00465.jpg
Theodosius I (RIC 26b, Coin #465)10 viewsRIC 26b (C), AE4, Cyzicus, 388 - 392 AD.
OBV: D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG; Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
REV: SALVS REIPVBLICAE (SMKA); Victory advancing left, with right hand carrying trophy on shoulder and dragging captive with left. Staurogram in left field.
SIZE: 13.1mm 0.78g
MaynardGee
00706.jpg
Theodosius I (RIC 29d, Coin #706)4 viewsRIC 29d (C), Half Centenionalis, Siscia, 379-383 AD.
OBV: D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG; Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
REV: VOT / V / MVLT / X (BSIS•); Four lines of text within wreath.
SIZE: 17.9mm, 1.46g
MaynardGee
00410.jpg
Theodosius I (RIC 52c, Coin #410)25 viewsRIC 52c (C), AE2, Constantinople, 378 - 383.
Obv: D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG Pearl diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right. Holding spear and shield.
Rev: GLORIA ROMANORVM (CONA) Emporer standing left on galley, Victory at stern.
Size: 22.3mm 4.64gm
MaynardGee
00337.jpg
Theodosius I (RIC 67b, Coin #337)8 viewsRIC 67b (C), AE4, Antioch, 383-392 AD.
OBV: D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG; Pearl diadem, draped and cuirassed bust right.
REV: SALVS REIPVBLICAE (ANT delta); Victory advancing left, carrying trophy and dragging captive, P left.
SIZE: 14.1mm 1.52g
MaynardGee
00167.jpg
Theodosius I (RIC 68b, Coin #167)12 viewsRIC 68b (C), AE2, Antioch, 392-395 AD.
Obv: DN THEODOSIVS PF AVG Rosette-diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right.
Rev: GLORIA ROMANORVM (ANT delta) Emporer standing facing, head right holding standard and globe.
Size: 21.0mm 3.74gm
MaynardGee
00464.jpg
Theodosius I (RIC 86b, Coin #464)6 viewsRIC 86b (C), AE4, Constantinople, 388 - 395 AD.
OBV: D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG; Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
REV: SALVS REIPVBLICAE (CONSA); Victory advancing left, with right hand carrying trophy on shoulder and dragging captive with left. Staurogram in left field.
SIZE: 13.6mm 1.50g
MaynardGee
Theodosius_I_ab2.jpg
Theodosius I (RIC IX Antioch 56c)103 viewsTheodosius I (347-395), Roman emperor (379-395). Æ (12 mm, 1.02 g), Antioch. Obverse: DN THEODO-SIVS PF AVG. Reverse: VOT/X/MVLT/XX, ANTA or ANT delta in exergue. RIC IX Antioch 56c, C.3 commentsjbc
Théodose I 2.jpg
Theodosius I - AE 222 viewsD.N. THEODOSIVS P.F. AVG.
VIRTVS EXERCITI (sic) , Theodosius standing right, foot on captive, holding labarum and globe ; exergue : ?
Ginolerhino
430_Theodosius_I_ALEA.jpg
Theodosius I - AE 45 viewsAlexandria
9.8.378 - 25.8.383 AD
pearl-diademed draped and cuirassed bust right
D N THEODO_SIVS P F AVG
within wreath:
VOT / X / MVLT / XX
ALEΓ
RIC IX 13(c)
1,05g
Johny SYSEL
449_Theodosius_CONSA.jpg
Theodosius I - AE 45 viewsConstantinople
388-395 AD
pearl-diademed draped and cuirassed bust right
D N THEODO_SIVS P F AVG
Victory advancing left, holding trophy and dragging captive
SALVS REI_PVBLICAE
(XP)
CONSA
RIC IX Constantinople 86b/90a
1,20g
Johny SYSEL
Théodose I 1.jpg
Theodosius I - AE2 of Cyzicus27 viewsD.N. THEODOSIVS P.F. AVG
VIRTVS EXERCITI (sic) , Theodosius standing right, foot on captive, holding labarum and globe ; exergue : SMKB (Cyzicus)
Ginolerhino
Théodose I 3.jpg
Theodosius I - AE2 of Cyzicus13 views[D.N. THEODO]SIVS P.F. AVG. , helmeted bust right holding spear and shield
[GLORIA RO]MANORVM , Theodosius standing on galley left, victory at helm ; exergue SMKA (Cyzicus)
Ginolerhino
Théodose 1.jpg
Theodosius I - AE417 viewsD.N. THEODOSIVS P.F. AVG
SALVS REIPVBLICAE , Victory advancing left carrying trophy and dragging captive, in field to left +P monogram.
Ginolerhino
Théodose I 6.jpg
Theodosius I - AE414 viewsD.N. THEODOSIVS P.F. AVG.
SALVS REIPVBLICAE , victory advancing left carrying trophy and dragging captive
Ginolerhino
Théodose I 5.jpg
Theodosius I - AE4 from Antioch15 viewsD.N. THEODOSIVS P.F. AVG.
VOY. / X / MVLT. / XX in wreath , exergue AN[T.] (Antioch)
Ginolerhino
Théodose I 4.jpg
Theodosius I - AE4 from Antioch13 viewsD.N. THEODOSIVS P.F. AVG.
VOY. / X / MVLT. / XX in wreath , exergue ANTA (Antioch)
Ginolerhino
teodosio_I_votXmvltXX_ric_IX_ant_56.jpg
Theodosius I - Antioch11 viewsVOT XX MVLT XXX
Ric IX Antioch 56 R
antvwala
teodosio_castrianva2~0.jpg
Theodosius I - Gloria Reipvblice20 viewsantvwala
teodosio_rond.jpg
Theodosius I - Gloria Reipvblice17 viewsCastrorvm Ianva
Ric IX Thessalonica 62 s
antvwala
teodo_castrianva1.jpg
Theodosius I - Gloria Reipvblice16 viewsCastrorvm Ianva - Thessalonica
RIC IX 62b
antvwala
teodosio_castrorvm_ianva.jpg
Theodosius I - Gloria Reipvblice 14 viewsRic IX 62bantvwala
teodosio_repreip_nicomedia.jpg
Theodosius I - Nicomedia11 viewsReparatio Reipvblicaeantvwala
Theodosius_I_VOTIS.jpg
Theodosius I - [RIC IX 22c variant]104 viewsBronze AE4, 12-13 mm, Cyzicus mint

Obv. - DN THEODO-SIVS PF AVG, pearl diadem, draped, cuirassed, & bust right

Rev. - VOT / XX / {dot} / MVLT / {dot}XXX{dot} within wreath, SMKB in ex.
___________

Purchased from eBay in an Uncleaned Lot
renegade3220
Theodosius I -Cyzicus-RIC 28b.JPG
Theodosius I -Cyzicus-RIC 28b-216 viewsAE4 , Theodosius I, 388-392 AD , Cyzicus mint.
Obv: DN THEODO-SIVS PF AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: SALVS REI-PVBLICAE, Victory advancing left , dragging captive, trophy over shoulder.
SMKB in exergue, RIC 26b
14mm , 1.1gm.
Jerome Holderman
Collage3.jpg
Theodosius I AD 383 -38812 viewsBust right / DN THEODOSIVS PF AVG
Emperor on horseback / GLORIA ROMARVM
Niclas E
theo1orweb.jpg
Theodosius I AE 436 viewsObv: DN THEODOSIVS PF AVG, diademed, dr and cuir bust r.

Rev: SALVS REIPVBLICAE. Victory advancing l. with trophy & captive. SMKB in ex.

RIC 26b, Cohen 30

This little guy (9mm) is my first attempt at coin photography (this coin was unscannable). It looks much better in hand, but the obv. looks pretty good here. ;)
casata137ec
100B.jpg
Theodosius I AE244 viewsRIC IX 40d.2 Antioch, LRBC 2714, C19, 378-383 A.D.
23 mm, 5.79 gm
DN THEODO-SIVS PF AVG, Helmeted, pearl diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right, holding spear and shield
GLORIA RO-MANORVM, Emperor standing facing, head right, on galley, raising right hand, Victory seated at helm. Wreath in left field
ANTG(amma) in exergue
2 commentsMark Z2
th1AE2-.jpg
THEODOSIUS I AE2 (majorina pecunia) - AD379-38326 viewsobv: D.N.THEODO-SIVS.PF.AVG (diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right)
rev: REPARATIO.REIPVB / SMAQP (emperor standing front, head left, offering right hand to female on left to help her rise from kneeling position, & holding Victory on a globe)
ref: RIC IX-Aquileia30d, C.27
4.67gms, 24mm
berserker
Theodosius_I_6_opt.jpg
THEODOSIUS I AE2, RIC 30d, REPARATIO REIPVB39 viewsOBV: D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG, pearl diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right
REV: REPARATIO REIPVB, emperor standing front, head left, offering right hand to female on left to help her rise from kneeling position, & holding Victory on a globe, SMAQS in ex.
5g, 22 mm

Minted at Aquileia, 379-83 AD
1 commentsLegatus
Theodosius_I_2.jpg
THEODOSIUS I AE2, RIC 68b, GLORIA ROMANORVM19 viewsOBV: D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG, rosette-diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right
REV: GLORIA ROMANORVM, emperor standing facing, head right, holding standard & globe, ANTA in ex.


Minted at Antioch, 392-5 AD
Legatus
theodosius-i-horseback-reshoot.jpg
Theodosius I AE3, 392-395 AD, Antioch20 viewsRoman Imperial, Theodosius I AE3, 392-395 AD, Antioch, 2.2g, 15.13mm

Obverse: D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG, Pearl diademed bust right.

Reverse: GLORIA ROMANORVM, emperor on horseback, hand raised, ANTΓ in ex. "Glory of the Romans"

Reference: RIC IX Antioch 69A
Gil-galad
theodosius_zps3pxvf4bz.jpg
Theodosius I AE3. 379-395 AD23 viewsRoman Imperial, Theodosius I AE3, (379-395 AD)

Obverse: D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG, Pearl diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right.

Reverse: CONCOR-DIA AVGGG, Constantinopolis seated facing, looking half right, holding scepter, left hand on knee. Mintmark ANTB "Concord of Three Emperors"

Reference: Pending
Gil-galad
AAICb.png
Theodosius I AE416 viewsTheodosius I, 379–395 A.D.

Antioch

15mm., 0.99g.

D N THEODO-SIVS P F AVG. Bust of Theodosius I, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed, right

VOT/X/MVLT/XX within wreath. Mintmark -/-//ANΓ

References: RIC IX Antioch 65B: Subtype 2

AAIC
1 commentsRL
th1AE4-1.jpg
THEODOSIUS I AE4 - AD388-39525 viewsobv: D.N.THEODO-SIVS.PF.AVG (diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right)
rev: SALVS.REIPVBLICAE (Victory advancing left, head turned back, carrying trophy & dragging captive, XP monogram left)
ref: RIC IX-Thessalonica65b
1.18gms, 12mm
berserker
th1AE4-2.jpg
THEODOSIUS I AE4 - AD388-39513 viewsobv: D.N.THEODO-SIVS.PF.AVG (diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right)
rev: VOT X MVLT XX in wreath / SMK
ref: RIC IX-Cyzicus21c
1.63gms, 13mm
berserker
th1AE4-3.jpg
THEODOSIUS I AE4 - AD388-39516 viewsobv: D.N.THEODO-SIVS.PF.AVG (diademed, draped, & cuirassed bust right)
rev: SALVS.REIPVBLICAE / SMKA (Victory advancing left with trophy & captive)
ref: RIC IX-Cyzicus26b, C.30
1.14gms, 13mm
berserker
th1AE4-4.jpg
THEODOSIUS I AE4 - AD388-39520 viewsobv: D.N.THEODO-SIVS.PF.AVG (diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right)
rev: VOT X MVLT XX in wreath / SMHA in ex.
ref: RIC IX-Heracleia19c, C.68
1.35gms, 13mm
berserker
Theodosius_II_1_opt.jpg
THEODOSIUS I AE4 RIC 451, Cross15 viewsOBV: D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG, pearl diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right
REV: Cross within wreath, X in jewel at top of wreath, SMK(?) in ex
0.7g, 11mm

Minted at Cyzicus, 425-35 AD
Legatus
theodosius-i-wreath-reshoot.jpg
Theodosius I AE4, 379-383 AD, Siscia20 viewsRoman Imperial, Theodosius I AE4, 379-383 AD, Siscia, 1.7g, 14.82mm

Obverse: D N THEODO-SIVS P F AVG, Pearl diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right.

Reverse: VOT V MVLT X within wreath, ASISC in ex. "Vow of five years service, total of ten.

Reference: RIC IX Siscia 29D
Gil-galad
Theodosius_I_1_opt.jpg
THEODOSIUS I AE4, RIC 39b, Victory14 viewsOBV: DN THEODO-SIVS PF AVG, draped bust right
REV: VICTOR-IA AVGGG, Victory advancing left holding wreath, ASIS in ex.
1.2g, 12mm

Minted at Siscia, 388-92 AD
Legatus
Theodosius_I_5_opt.jpg
THEODOSIUS I AE4, RIC 86b.1 , Victory17 viewsOBV: DN THEODOSIVS PF AVG - Diademed (pearls), draped and cuirassed bust right
REV: SALVS REIPVBLICAE - Victory advancing left, holding trophy and dragging captive; Christogram in left field. CONS(alpha or delta) in ex
1.2g, 13mm

Minted at Constantinople, 388-92 AD
Legatus
e10.JPG
Theodosius I Alexandria GLORIA ROMANORVM10 viewsObv: DN THEODO-SIVS PF AVG
Bust: PDC/ * behind
Rev: GLORI-A ROMA-NORVM
Exe: ALEA?
RIC X Alexandria 159 S

ecoli
c9~0.JPG
Theodosius I Arles Victory Advancing left23 viewsRIC IX Arles 30d C
ecoli
Theodosius_I_concordia~0.JPG
Theodosius I Concordia28 viewsTheodosius I, RIC IX Nicomedia 31b, 17mm; Weight: 2.4g
Obv: D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG, diademed draped bust right
Rev: CONCOR-DIA AVGV, Emperor standing facing, in military garb, holding standard and globe.
With palm branch left and right in fields it's Theodosius I, RIC IX Nicomedia 31b (foot on prow) or 32b (without prow), struck A. D. 379-383.
Mintmark is SMNA or SMNΓ.

SCARCE
Romanorvm
coins426.JPG
Theodosius I Constantinople GLORIA ROMANORVM8 viewsRIC IX Constantinople 88a C
ecoli
coin774.JPG
Theodosius I Constantinople GLORIA ROMANORVM18 viewsRIC IX Constantinople 88a

1 commentsecoli
e17.JPG
Theodosius I Constantinople SALVS REIPVBLICAE13 viewsRIC IX Constantinople 86b or 90a(identical)
ecoli
ppp13.JPG
Theodosius I Constantinople SALVS REIPVBLICAE14 viewsRIC IX Constantinople 86b
ecoli
coin667.JPG
Theodosius I Cyzicus VOT24 viewsDN THEODO-SIVS PF AVG
VOT X MVLT XX
SMKB
RIC IX Cyzicus 21c C

ecoli
pp1.JPG
Theodosius I GLORIA ROMANORVM15 views RIC IX Constantinople 86b C2
ecoli
coin395.JPG
Theodosius I Heraclea Vota27 viewsDate: 378-383 AD
Obverse: D N THEODO-SIVS P F AVG, Draped and cuirassed, pearl diademed bust right.
Reverse: VOT/X/MVLT/XX, enclosed in wreath. SMHA in exergue
ecoli
Theodosius_I_Horseback.JPG
Theodosius I Horseback25 viewsTheodosius I, Antioch, 379 - 395 AD, 16mm, RIC 69b
OBV: D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG, pearl diademed bust right
REV: GLORIA ROMANORVM, emperor on horseback, hand raised, ANTA in ex.

SCARCE
Romanorvm
q1~1.JPG
Theodosius I Nicomedia GLORIA ROMANORVM16 viewsRIC X Nicomedia 147
ecoli
THEODOS1-3.jpg
Theodosius I RIC IX 19c21 viewsObv: D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG
pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right
Rev: VOT X MVLT XX
VOT X MVLT XX in wreath.
SMHA in ex.
14mm 1.7gm
OWL365
THEODOS1-12.jpg
Theodosius I RIC IX 26b15 viewsObv: D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG
pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right
Rev: SALVS REI-PVBLICAE
Victory advancing right, dragging captive and
carrying trophy on shoulder, chi-rho left
SMKB in ex.
13mm 1.1gm
OWL365
THEODOS1-6.jpg
Theodosius I RIC IX 27d15 viewsObv: D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG
pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right
Rev: CONCORDIA AVGGG
Roma, helmeted, seated facing with head left,
holding globe & reversed spear, left leg bare.
star BSISC dot in ex.
18mm 2.4gm
OWL365
THEODOS1-10.jpg
Theodosius I RIC IX 39b25 viewsObv: D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG
pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right
Rev: VICTORIA AVGGG
Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm
BSIS in ex.
14mm 1.2gm
OWL365
Theodosius_I_RIC_IX_46a.jpg
Theodosius I RIC IX 46a19 viewsObv: DN THEODO-SIVS PF AVG, pearl-diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right
Rev: GLORIA ROMANORVM, Theodosius standing facing, holding standard and globe, SMNA in ex
Mint: Nicomedia 392-395 AD
Size: 23mm, 5.13g
Ids: RIC IX 46a
ickster
THEODOS1-11.jpg
Theodosius I RIC IX 48a19 viewsObv: D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG
pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right
Rev: SALVS REI-PVBLICAE
Victory advancing right, dragging captive and carrying trophy on shoulder
SMNA in ex.
14mm 1.3gm
OWL365
THEODOS1-9.jpg
Theodosius I RIC IX 57d15 viewsObv: D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG
pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right
Rev: CONCORDIA AVGGG
Constantinopolis, helmeted, seated facing,
head right, right leg bare, holding globe and spear.
Upright palm branch in left field, HN in right field
CONSE in ex.
18mm 2.8gm
OWL365
THEODOS1-7.jpg
Theodosius I RIC IX 57d14 viewsObv: D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG
pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right
Rev: CONCORDIA AVGGG
Constantinopolis, helmeted, seated facing, head right,
right leg bare, holding globe and spear O left.
CONSB in ex.
18mm 2.gm
OWL365
THEODOS1-1.jpg
THEODOSIUS I RIC IX 62b27 viewsObv: D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG
Pearl diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right
Rev: GLORIA REPUBLICE
Camp gate with two
turrets , D to right
TES in ex.
12mm 1.1gm
OWL365
THEODOS1-8.jpg
Theodosius I RIC IX 9311 viewsObv: D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG
helmeted, diademed, cuirassed facing bust,
spear across right shoulder, shield slung around back of
Rev: CONCORDIA AVGGG
Constantinopolis seated, facing, stepping on galley prow, holding Victory on globe and scepte
SMN ? in ex.
16mm 1.9gm
OWL365
theodosiusI_heraclea_21b.jpg
Theodosius I RIC IX, Heraclea 21(b)59 viewsTheodosius I AD 379-395
AE - Centenionalis (AE 21), 4.24g
Heraclea, 25. Aug. 383 - 28. Aug. 388
obv. DN THEODO - SIVS PF AVG
Bust, helmeted and with pearl-diadem, draped and cuirassed, r., holding
spear and shield before
rev. GLORIA RO - MANORVM
Emperor, helmeted and in military cloak, standing l. on galley, head r., r. hand
raised in greeting attitude, behind him Victory seated at helm, holding rudder
and steering the ship.
Greek Tau in left field
in ex. SM[HA]
RIC IX, Heraclea 21(b); C.19; LRBC 1971
EF, brown patina
3 commentsJochen
theodosiusI_medio_8(b).jpg
Theodosius I RIC IX, Mediolanum 8(b)353 viewsTheodosius I the Great, AD 379-395
AV - Solidus, 4.46g, 21mm
Mediolanum, Aug 25. 383 - summer 387
obv. DN THEODO - SIVS PF AVG
bust draped and cuirassed, head pearl-diademed r.
rev. VICTOR - IA AVGG
Theodosius I and Valentinianus II, both nimbated, each holding
mappa, sitting frontal, holding together globe, between them
palmbranch. Above them Victory, wings over their heads, hands
on the emperor's shoulders
exergue: COM
RIC IX, Mediolanum 8(b); C.37
Rare; good VF
added to www.wildwinds.com


COM, from Comes Auri or Comes Obryzi. The abbreviated title of the official who is known to have supervised the imperial gold supplies in the western part of the Empire, the 'Count of Gold'. Not used in the eastern part of the Roman Empire.
4 commentsJochen
Theodosius_I_Roma~0.JPG
Theodosius I Roma23 viewsTheodosius I, AE Follis, Siscia, 379 - 383 AD, 18mm, 2.4g, Cohen 14, RIC IX 27(d)
OBV: DN THEODO-SIVS PF AVG, pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right
REV: CONCOR-DIA AVGGG, Roma, helmeted, seated facing, head left, holding globe and reversed spear,
point downwards, left leg bare.

SCARCE
1 commentsRomanorvm
U3141F1HUVHFOHG.jpg
Theodosius I The Great, AE Maiorina.17 viewsDN THEODOSIVS P F AVG, diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right

VIRTVS EXERCITI, Emperor standing, holding standard, foot on captive, ANTA in exergue

RIC IX Antioch 63d, struck 383-388

GaiusCaligula
coin873.JPG
Theodosius I Virtvs-Xerciti, Cyzicus8 viewsRIC IX Cyzicus 25b
ecoli
Theodosius coin 7.JPG
Theodosius I, (379-395 CE), Æ34 Cyzicus80 viewsObverse: DN THEODOSIVS PF AVG, diademed, draped and cuirassed bust r.
Reverse: VOT/X/MVLT/XX in wreath;
Exergue SNKr.

Reference: RIC 21c, Cohen 68
Daniel Friedman
Theodotius.jpg
Theodosius I, 19 January 379 - 17 January 395 A.D.8 viewsTheodosius I. 378-383 AD. Ae 17 2.03g. Obv: DN THEODO-SIVS PF AVG, rosette-diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right. Rev: CONCOR-DIA AVGGG, Constantinopolis, helmeted, seated facing, head right, right leg bare, holding globe and spear whose lower part is hidden by robe; upright palm branch in left field; I in lower right field; CONS in ex. ddwau
P1019744.JPG
Theodosius I, 388-392 AD. AE13mm.9 viewsTheodosius I, 388-392 AD.

Obv: DN THEODO-SIVS PF AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: SALVS REI-PVBLICAE, Victory advancing left , dragging captive, trophy over shoulder.
Lee S
0750-301.jpg
Theodosius I, AE2 51 viewsAntioch mint, 4th officina
DN THEODOSIVS P F AVG, diademed and draped bust right
GLORIA ROMANORVM, Emperor standing, holding globe and standard, ANT delta at exergue
4.25 gr
Ref : Cohen # 18
1 commentsPotator II
0750-310np_noir.jpg
Theodosius I, AE2 - 71 viewsHeraclea mint, 1st officina
DN THEODOSIVS PF AVG, diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
GLORIA ROMANORVM, Theodosius standing, head right, holding standard and globe. SMHA at exergue
6,38 gr
Ref : Cohen # 18, Roman coins #4181, LRBC # 1986
Potator II
6248_6249.jpg
Theodosius I, AE2, VIRTVS EXERCITI3 viewsAE2
Theodosius I
Augustus: 379 - 395AD
Issued: 383 - 388AD
23.0mm 5.95gr
O: DN THEODOSIVS PF AVG; Diademed (pearls), draped and cuirassed bust, right.
R: VIRTVS EXERCITI; Theodosius I standing right, stepping on captive, holding labarum and globe.
Exergue: ALEA
Alexandria Mint
Aorta: 203: B4, O1, R21, T31, M1.
RIC IX 183, C.
gwestcot23 272143705771
3/1/16 1/29/17
Nicholas Z
5288_5289.jpg
Theodosius I, AE2, VIRTVS EXERCITI4 viewsAE2
Theodosius I
Augustus: 379 - 395AD
Issued: 383 - 388AD
23.0mm 5.20gr
O: DN THEODOSIVS PF AVG; Diademed (pearls), draped and cuirassed bust, right.
R: VIRTVS EXERCITI; Theodosius I standing facing, holding labarum and globe, foot on captive.
Exergue: SMKΓ
Cyzicus Mint
Aorta: B4, O1, R21, T31, M6.
RIC 256, Γ; LRBC 2565.
okta2000-2013 271984982733
9/23/15 1/31/17
Nicholas Z
theodoss_ii.jpg
Theodosius I, AE2,Nicomedia RIC IX 44b, A12 viewsTheodosius I, Nicomedia, AE 2, 5.45gm. 22mm 383-388 AD. DN THEODOSIVS PF AVG, pearl-diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right / VIRTVS EXERCITI, Emperor standing right, holding labarum and globe, left foot on captive, palm branch upright in left field. Mintmark SMNA. RIC IX Nicomedia 44b.Britanikus
6070_6071.jpg
Theodosius I, AE4, NO LEGEND, Wreath, VOT/X/MVLT/XX, within3 viewsAE4
Theodosius I
Augustus: 379 - 395AD
Issued: 379 - 383AD
12.0mm
O: DN THEODOSIVS PF AVG; Diademed (pearls), draped and cuirassed bust, right.
R: NO LEGEND; Wreath, VOT/X/MVLT/XX, within.
Exergue: SMKA
Cyzicus Mint
RIC IX 21c, A; Cohen 68.
Aorta: 525: B4, O1, R27, T44, M6.
2013 1/29/17
Featured on WildWinds, February, 2017.
Nicholas Z
Theodosius_Antiochia.JPG
Theodosius I, Antioch, 3. Officina, 378-383 AD. 10 viewsDN THEODO-SIVS PF AVG, rosette-diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right / CONCOR-DIA AVGGG, Constantinopolis seated facing, turret on head, looking half right, holding sceptre, left hand on knee theta-phi across fields. Mintmark ANT Gamma. RIC IX Antioch 44b. Antonivs Protti
THEODOS1-5-ROMAN.jpg
Theodosius I, Constantinople RIC IX-88a11 viewsAE2
Constantinople mint, 392-395 A.D.
22mm, 6.02g
RIC IX-88a

Obverse:
D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG
Pearl-diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right.

Reverse:
GLORIA ROMANORVM
+ / +
CONSB
Emperor standing facing, head right, holding standard and globe.

The only reason this slug like coin is in my collection is because it was suprisingly and with some difficulty identifiable.
rubadub
Teodosio_CastrIan_Ric_IX_Thes_62_s.jpg
Theodosius I, Gloria Reipvbblice 17 viewsCastrorvm Ianva, Thessalonica
Ric IX,62 s
antvwala
teodosio_I,_C16.jpg
Theodosius I, Gloria Reipvbblice 19 viewsCastrorvm Ianva, Thessalonica, Oficina B
Ric IX Thessalonica 62 s
antvwala
teodosio_I,_castr_ian,_tess.jpg
Theodosius I, Gloria Reipvbblice19 viewsCastrorvm Ianva, Thessalonica
Ric IX Thessalonica 62 s
antvwala
Theodosius_I,_GLORIA_ROMANORVM,_on_horse,_Constantinople,_392-395_AD.jpg
Theodosius I, GLORIA ROMANORVM, on horse, Constantinople, 392-395 AD13 viewsRIC IX Constantinople 88a
1.9g / 15mm _2144
Antonivs Protti
Theodosius_AE_Constantinipla_Horseman.JPG
Theodosius I, GLORIA ROMANORVM, on horse, Constantinople, 392-395 AD12 viewsRIC IX Constantinople 88a
1.9g / 15mm _2144 sold
Antonivs Protti
teodosio_repreip_roma.jpg
Theodosius I, Reparatio Reipvblicae, Roma?, AE219 views1 commentsantvwala
teodosio_repreip_siscia.jpg
Theodosius I, Reparatio Reipvblicae, Siscia, AE211 viewsantvwala
Theodosius_I_RIC_29.JPG
Theodosius I, RIC 2914 viewsDN THEODOSIVS PF AVG
VOT V MVLT X
AE4, 14mm, 1.57g
Pearl diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right
Vows within wreath
BSISC• in ex.
Siscia mint
novacystis
th44.jpg
Theodosius I, RIC 44b Antioch, 378-383 CE9 viewsObverse: DN THEODO-SIVS PF AVG, rosette-diademed,draped, cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: CONCOR-DIA AVGGG, Constantinopolis seated facing, turret on head, looking right, holding sceptre, left hand on knee. THETA-PHI across fields.
ANTA in ex. Antioch mint
17.5 mm diam., 2.6 g
NORMAN K
theo26a.jpg
Theodosius I, RIC IX 26a Siscia20 viewsBronze AE2, 379-395 CE.
Obverse: D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG, pearl diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: REPARATIO REIPVB, Emperor standing left raising up kneeling woman with turret with right hand & holding Victory on a globe.
ASISC in ex. Siscia mint 23.9 mm, 4.3 g.
sold 4-2018
NORMAN K
Theo 16.jpg
Theodosius I, RIC IX 26b, Cyzicus80 viewsObv: D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG
Bust: Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev: SALVS REIPVBLICAE
Victory advancing left holding trophy and dragging captive.
Exe: SMK delta Chi-rho in field left
Date: 379-395 AD
Denom: Ae4
Rated "C"
Bluefish
Theo 151.jpg
Theodosius I, RIC IX 26b, Cyzicus85 viewsObv: D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG
Bust: Diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right
Rev: SALVS REIPVBLICAE
Victory advancing left carrying trophy and dragging captive
Exe: SMKB chi-rho in field left
Date: 388-395 AD
Denom: Ae4
Rated "C"
Bluefish
theo39b.jpg
Theodosius I, RIC IX 39b Siscia18 viewsBronze AE4, 379-395 CE.
Obverse: D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG, pearl diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: VICTORIA AVGGG, Victory walking left, wreath in right hand and palm fond in left hand.
ASIS in ex. Siscia mint, 14.5 mm, 1.0 g.
sold 3-2018
NORMAN K
theo43d.jpg
Theodosius I, RIC IX 43d Rome15 viewsBronze AE2, 379-395 CE.
Obverse: D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG, pearl diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: REPARATIO REIPVB, Emperor standing left raising kneeling turreted woman with right hand & holding Victory on a globe wth his left hand.
SMRO in ex. Rome mint 23 mm., 4.9 g.
NORMAN K
theo65b.jpg
Theodosius I, RIC IX 65b Antioch16 viewsBronze AE2, 379-395 CE.
Obverse: D N THEODO-SIVS P F AVG, pearl diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: VOT X MVLT XX within wreath
ANA IN EX. ANTIOCH MINT 13.2 MM, 1.4 G.
NORMAN K
Theo 85.jpg
Theodosius I, RIC IX 90a, Constantinople88 viewsObv: D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG
Bust: Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev: SALVS REIPVBLICAE
Victory advancing left carring trophy on shoulder and dragging captive.
Exe: CONSA Chi-rho in field left
Date: 383-388 AD
Denom: Ae4
Rated "C"
Bluefish
tricixcon86bOR.jpg
Theodosius I, RIC IX Constantinople 86b17 viewsConstantinople mint, Theodosius I, 388-392 A.D. AE, 12mm 1.29g, RIC IX Constantinople 86b
O: DN THEODO-SIVS PF AVG, pearl diadem, draped, and cuirassed, bust r.
R: SALVS REI-PVBLICAE, Victory advancing left, dragging captive, trophy on shoulder, chi-rho in l. field
Ex: CONSA
casata137ec
tricix45bOR.jpg
Theodosius I, RIC IX Nicomedia 45b14 viewsNicomedia mint, Theodosius I, 383-387 A.D. AE, 13mm .98g, RIC IX Nicomedia 45b
O: DN THEODO-SIVS PF AVG, pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right
R: SALVS REI-PVBLICAE, Victory advancing left, dragging captive (upright)
and carrying trophy on shoulder
Ex: SMNA
casata137ec
theodosiusI_47.jpg
Theodosius I, RIC IX, Antiochia 47(d) var.31 viewsTheodosius I, the Great AD 379 - 395
AE - AE3, 2.37g, 19mm
Antiochia 4. period: 9 Aug. 378 - 25 Aug. 383 2. officina
obv.: DN THEODO - SIVS PF AVG
Draped and cuirassed bust, pearl-diademed head r.
rev.: CONCOR - DIA AVGGG
Constantinopolis, helmeted, seated facing, head r., on throne, holding partly
seen spear and globe; r. leg bare; l. foot on prow
field: l. Theta
exergue: ANTB
RIC IX, 47(d) var., unrecorded; C.5
rarity?; about VF, chocolate-brown patina
added to www.wildwinds.com

But RIC 47(d) should have rosette-diademed head. So it is a mix of RIC 47(c) and RIC 47(d)!
Jochen
THEODOS1-1-ROMAN.jpg
Theodosius I, Rome RIC IX-43d12 viewsAE2
Rome mint, 379-383 A.D.
23mm, 4.19g
RIC IX-43d

Obverse:
D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG
Pearl-diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right.

Reverse:
REPARATIO REIPVB
SMRB
Emperor standing facing, head left, with right hand raising kneeling turreted woman and holding Victory on globe in left.
rubadub
THEODOS1-2-ROMAN.jpg
Theodosius I, Rome RIC IX-46c13 viewsAE3
Rome mint, 379-383 A.D.
17mm, 1.38g
RIC IX-46c

Obverse:
D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG
Pearl-diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right.

Reverse:
CONCORDIA AVGGG
O in right field
SMR Ε
Roma seated facing, head left, on throne, holding globe and partly seen spear; right leg bare.
rubadub
Giovanni.jpg
Theodosius I, Salvs Reipvblicae20 viewsimitative?
diam. 9 mm
antvwala
teodosio_salus_1.jpg
Theodosius I, Salvs Reipvblicae, ???, AE411 viewsantvwala
teodosio_salus_4_cizico.jpg
Theodosius I, Salvs Reipvblicae, Cizicus, AE412 viewsantvwala
teodosio_salus_5_costantinopoli.jpg
Theodosius I, Salvs Reipvblicae, Constantinopolis, AE418 viewsantvwala
teodosio_II_salvs_reip_eraclea.jpg
Theodosius I, Salvs Reipvblicae, Nicomedia32 views2 commentsantvwala
teodosio_salus_3_eraclea.jpg
Theodosius I, Salvs Reipvblicae, Nicomedia, AE417 viewsantvwala
teodosio_salus_2_nicomedia_(duda).jpg
Theodosius I, Salvs Reipvblicae, Nicomedia?, AE412 viewsantvwala
teodosio_salus_6_nicomedia.jpg
Theodosius I, Salvs Reipvblicae, Nicomedia?, AE410 viewsantvwala
0750-210.jpg
Theodosius I, Siliqua68 viewsTreveri mint, 2nd officina
D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG, diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
VIRTVS RO MANORVM, Roma seated left, holding Victory and spear, TRPS at exergue

Ref : Cohen # 57, Roman coins # 4176
Potator II
THEODOS1-3-ROMAN.jpg
Theodosius I, Siscia RIC IX-26c14 viewsAE2
Siscia mint, 378-383 A.D.
24mm, 4.64g
RIC IX-26c

Obverse:
D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG
Pearl-diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right.

Reverse:
REPARATIO REIPVB
A SISC.
Emperor standing facing, head left, with right hand raising kneeling turreted woman and holding Victory on globe in left.
rubadub
THEODOS1-4-ROMAN.jpg
Theodosius I, Siscia RIC IX-38b12 viewsAE3
Siscia mint, 384-387 A.D.
19mm, 1.91g
RIC IX-38b

Obverse:
D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG
Pearl-diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right.

Reverse:
GLORIA ROMANORVM
A SISC
Emperor advancing right, with right hand dragging captive and holding labarum in left.
rubadub
Teodosio_Vict_avggg_siscia.jpg
Theodosius I, Victoria Avgg, Siscia, AE414 viewsantvwala
Theodosius_I_Virtus.JPG
Theodosius I, Virtus27 viewsTheodosius I, 379 - 395 AD, Thessalonica, 2.1g, 18 mm, RIC 61b
OBV: D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG, pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right
REV: VIRTVS AVGGG, emperor standing left on prow of ship, head right, foot on captive & holding phoenix on globe & standard; Victory sits at the helm, delta to left, TES in ex.

SCARCE
Romanorvm
teodosio,_votVmvltX,_siscia.jpg
Theodosius I, Vot V Mvlt X, Siscia, AE48 viewsantvwala
teodosio,_votXmvltXX,_Aquileia.jpg
Theodosius I, Vot X Mvlt XX, Aquileia, AE48 viewsantvwala
teodosio,_votXmvltXX,_Cizico.jpg
Theodosius I, Vot X Mvlt XX, Cizico, AE411 viewsantvwala
teodosio,_votXmvltXX,_Cost.jpg
Theodosius I, Vot X Mvlt XX, Costantinopoli, AE47 viewsantvwala
Teodosio_II_VotXmvltXX_Rav.jpg
Theodosius I, Vot X Mvlt XX, Eraclea?15 views1 commentsantvwala
Theodosius_Vows1a~0.jpg
Theodosius I, Vows AE4 * 379-395 AD54 views
Theodosius I, Vows * 379-395 AD * Bronze

Obverse: DN THEODOSIVS PF AVG, Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
Reverse: VOT / V / MVLT / X, Legend within wreath. ("I Vow five years, perhaps ten").

B(eta) SISC in exergue

Mint: Siscia

Size: 15 mm.
Weight: 1.4 grams
Patina: Medium green, flat.

RIC 29d.
Sear 4187v.
Tiathena
Theodosius I- SALVS REIPUBLICAE.jpg
Theodosius I- SALVS REIPUBLICAE40 viewsTheodosius I, 19 January 379 - 17 January 395 A.D.

Obverse:
Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right

D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG

D N: Dominus Noster, our Lord
THEODOSIVS: Theodosius
P F: Pius Felix, Pious and happy
AVG: Augustus, emperor

Reverse
SALVS REI-PVBLICAE, The health of the republic

SALVS: The health
REI-PVBLICAE: republic

Victory advancing left, carrying trophy and dragging captive

Domination: Bronze AE 4, size 13 mm

Mint: Perhaps SMK in exe Cyzikus, struck 28 Aug 388 - 15 May 392 A.D. RIC 26(b). Perhaps P left.
John Schou
Theodosius I- Siscia-RIC 39b.JPG
Theodosius I- Siscia-RIC 39b21 viewsAE4 , Theodosius I, 388-392 AD , Siscia mint.
Obv: DN THEODO-SIVS PF AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: VICTORIA AVGGG, Victory advancing left with wreath and palm.
BSIS in exergue, RIC 39b
13mm , 1.0gm.
Jerome Holderman
Theodosius_VOT_X_MVLT_XX_.JPG
Theodosius I- VOT X MVLT XX31 viewsTheodosius I, 19 January 379 - 17 January 395 A.D.


Obverse:
Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right

D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG

D N: Dominus Noster, our Lord
THEODOSIVS: Theodosius
P F: Pius Felix, Pious and happy
AVG: Augustus, emperor

Reverse
VOT X MVLT XX in wreath

VOT X MVLT XX in wreath= 'Votis decennalibus (solutis), , Vows of the ten years, or the tenth year, and expecting 20 years more.

Domination: Bronze AE 4, size 13 mm

Mint: SMHA, Heraclea A= Alpha 1. Officina, 378- 383, RIC 192

Vota (plural of votum). A vow made to a god in order to obtain a divine favour stipulated in advance. The granting of the request obliged the vower to fulfil his promise. This usually took the form of a sacrifice to the deity or an offering to his (or her) temple. Public vota in Imperial times were normally for the welfare of the emperor over a stated period of time (five or ten years) and were regularly undertaken (vota suscepta) and hopefully paid (vota soluta). Sometimes they were more specific, relating to the safety of the emperor on a particularly hazardous journey or military campaign, or the current state of his health. The undertaking and fulfillment of these public vows was frequently recorded on the coinage and in the late Empire especially may provide useful evidence for the chronological arrangement of issues.
John Schou
Theodosius I-Alexandria-RIC 23a.JPG
Theodosius I-Alexandria-RIC 23a20 viewsAE4 , Theodosius I, 388-392 AD , Alexandria mint.
Obv: DN THEODO-SIVS PF AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: SALVS REI-PVBLICAE, Victory advancing left , dragging captive, trophy over shoulder.
ALEA in exergue, RIC 23a
12mm , 1.1gm.
Jerome Holderman
Theodosius I-Constantinople-RIC 86b-2.JPG
Theodosius I-Constantinople-RIC 86b-218 viewsAE4, 388-392 AD, Constantinople mint
Obverse: DN THEODOSIVS PF AVG, Diademmed, draped and cuirassed bust right
Reverse: SALVS REIPVBLICAE, Victory advancing left dragging captive.
CONS? in exergue
RIC 86b
14mm, 1.1gms.
Jerome Holderman
Theodosius_I_b.jpg
Theodosius I. AE427 viewsVICTORIA AVGGGTibsi
imgonline-com-ua-2to1-KgFh0M8RU2aa05M.jpg
THEODOSIUS I. Æ 1/4 Centenionalis. Struck 388-392 AD. 2 viewsConstantinople mint. (14 mm, 1,4 g.) D N THEODO-SIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right / SALVS REI-PVBLICAE, Victory advancing left, head right, holding trophy and dragging captive, Chi-Rho in left field; CONSA. RIC IX 86b.1.Ruslan K
theo_I.jpg
Theodosius I; VICTOR-IA AVGGG, Siscia10 viewsTheodosius I, 19 January 379 - 17 January 395 A.D. Bronze AE 4, RIC IX 39(b)4, choice VF, Siscia mint, 1.089g, 13.4mm, 180o; obverse D N THEODO-SIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse VICTOR-IA AVGGG, Victory advancing left, holding wreath in right and palm frond in left, [...] SIS• in ex; scarce. exFORVMPodiceps
theo.jpg
Theodosius II15 viewsTheodosius II. AD 402-450. AR Siliqua (18mm, 1.88 g, 6h). Constantinople mint. Struck circa AD 408-420. Pearl-diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right / VOT/X/MVLT/XX in four lines within wreath; CONS*. RIC X 372; RSC 20B. TLP
59183.jpg
THEODOSIUS II55 viewsTHEODOSIUS II. 402-450 AD. AV Tremissis (15mm, 1.47 gm). Constantinople mint. Struck 408-419 AD. Pearl-diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right / Victory walking right, head left, holding wreath and cross on globe, star in right field; CONOB. RIC X 213; Depeyrot 70/1; DOCLR 319; MIRB 45. Toned VF, slight obverse die crack and some nicks, slight reverse scratch and nicks.

Ex-CNG
ecoli
Theodosius_II_RIC_X_Antioch_155.jpg
Theodosius II36 viewsAE3 (1,9g - 12mm)
rev.DN THEODO-SIVS PF AVG
pearl diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right, star behind head
obv.GLORI-A ROMA-NORVM
the three emperors Arcadius, Honorius and Theodosius standing facing, all holding spears, the two outermost also resting hand on shields
in exergue ANTGamma
mint Antioch
Struck 406-408 AD
RIC X Antioch 155

Holger G
000-theodosiusII.jpg
Theodosius II11 viewsTheodosius II AE4
D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right /
cross within a wreath
xokleng
theo.jpg
Theodosius II11 viewsAE3, Thessalonica mint: 408-23
Obv.: DN THEO-DOSIVS PF AVG; diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right, star behind.
Rev.: GLORIA ROMA-NORVM; Two emperors standing facing, heads turned to one another, each holding spear and resting hand on shield; the emperor on right is smaller than the other (Variation A).
Reference: RIC X 396 (p. 271)
John Anthony
Theodosius.jpg
Theodosius II6 viewsarash p
theoii_a.jpg
Theodosius II (402 - 450 A.D.)28 viewsÆ4
O: D N THEODO-SIVS P F AVG, diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
R: cross in wreath, SMKB in exergue.
Cyzicus Mint
1g
13mm
RIC X 449
1 commentsMat
theodosius-ii-wreath.jpg
Theodosius II (423-425 AD) AE4, Antioch mint19 viewsRoman Imperial, Theodosius II (423-425 AD) AE4, Antioch mint

Obverse: D N THEODO-SIVS PF AVG, Diademmed, draped and cuirassed bust right.

Reverse: VOT XX MV dot LT XXX inside wreath. Mint mark: ANTA "Vow of twenty years service, total of thirty"

Reference: RIC X 456

Ex: Kayser-i Rum Numismatics +photo
Gil-galad
VT-08.jpg
Theodosius II (A.D. 408-450)30 viewsAU Solidus, A.D. 441-450, Constantinople, 21.7mm, 4.43g, 180°, RIC 323.
Obv: D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG. Pearl-diademed, helmeted, cuirassed bust facing right, holding spear over shoulder & shield decorated with horseman.
Rev: IMP XXXXII COS XVII P P. Constantinopolis seated left holding cross on globe & scepter, star in left field; CONOB in ex.
1 commentsMarti Vltori
00605.jpg
Theodosius II (RIC 398, Coin #605)10 viewsRIC 398 (C2), AE3, Heraclea, 408 - 423 AD.
OBV: D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG; Pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right, star left.
REV: GLORIA ROMANORVM (SMHA); Theodosius II and Honorius standing facing, heads to center, each holding spear and shield on ground.
SIZE: 15.2mm 1.70g
MaynardGee
Theodosius_II_ab3.jpg
Theodosius II (RIC X 1909)46 viewsTheodosius II (401-450), Eastern Roman Emperor (408-450). Æ (10 mm, 1.51 g), minted in Rome 423-425. Obverse: DN TH(EODOS-IVS PF AVG). Reverse: (VICTOR)-IA AV(GG), Victory advancing left with wreath and palm branch, RM in exergue and epsilon in left field off flan. RIC X 1909, R4.
jbc
Theodosius_II_ab2.jpg
Theodosius II (RIC X 432 var.)96 viewsTheodosius II (401-450), Eastern Roman Emperor (408-450). Æ (12 mm, 1.26 g), minted in Heraclea 425-435. Obverse: DN THEODO-SIVS PF AVG. Reverse: Victory holding wreath in each hand, CONCO-RDI AVG (retrograde), SMH in exergue. RIC X 432 var., R.

Not in RIC. Reverse usually CONCOR-DIA AVG, and obverse legend without break.
jbc
Theodosius_II_ab.jpg
Theodosius II (RIC X 443)80 viewsTheodosius II (401-450), Eastern Roman Emperor (408-450). Æ (11 mm, 0.91 g), minted in Constantinople 425-435. Obverse: DN THEODOSIVS PF AVG. Reverse: cross in wreath, CONS in exergue. RIC X 443, R.
jbc
Theodosius_II_Concordia.jpg
Theodosius II - AE 412 views???
425 - 435 AD
pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG
Victory facing, holding wreath in each hand
CONCORDI AVG
???
RIC X (431-439)?
1,10g
Johny SYSEL
431_Theodosius_II_SMK.jpg
Theodosius II - AE 44 viewsCyzicus
425-435 AD
pearl-didemed, draped and cuirassed bust right
D N THEODO_SIVS P F AVG
christian cross within wreath wreath (X in jewel)
SMKB
RIC X 449
1,19g
Johny SYSEL
teodosio_II_antiochia_Ric454.jpg
Theodosius II - Antioch9 viewscross
Ric X Antioch 454
antvwala
teodosio_II_antiochia_Ric454~0.jpg
Theodosius II - Antioch12 viewsCross - Ric 454antvwala
teodosio_II_cizico.jpg
Theodosius II - Concordia Avg15 viewsCyzicusantvwala
teodosio_II,_Nicomedia.jpg
Theodosius II - Nicomedia11 viewsCross in wreathantvwala
teodosio_II,_concordia_avg,_Nicomedia_436,_r3_.jpg
Theodosius II - Nicomedia15 viewsRic Nicomedia 436, r3antvwala
teodosio_II,_Nicomedia~0.jpg
Theodosius II - Nicomedia10 viewscross un wreathantvwala
teodosio_II,_concordia_avg,_Nicomedia_436,_r3_~0.jpg
Theodosius II - Nicomedia12 viewsConcordia Avg
Ric 436, very scarce!
antvwala
theodo D.jpg
Theodosius II - Solidus83 viewsAU Soldius. THEODOSIUS II, 402-450 AD.
Obv.: DN THEODO SIVS PF AVG - Three-quarters bust right, draped, cuirassed, holding spear over right shoulder and shield in left hand.
Rev: VOT XXX MVLT XXXXS ; Constantinopolis seated left, holding cross on globe and scepter, her left foot sits on the prow of a galley and at rear of her throne, a shield sits; in right field, a 'star'. Exe: CONOB .
(RIC X, 257 (s) Scarce)
Tanit
Théodose II solidus.jpg
Theodosius II - solidus of Constantinople68 viewsD.N. THEODOSIVS P.F. AVG. , helmeted bust facing holding spear and shield
IMP. XXXXII COS. XVII P.P. , Constantinople* seated left holding cross on globe, foot on prow ; exergue : CONOB

*The description in Sear says it is Roma. But Roma is never depicted with a foot resting on a prow. Constantinople does, and it must be a commemoration of the naval battle of Chrysopolis, not far from there, won by Constantine the Great against his rival Licinius.
2 commentsGinolerhino
Theodosius II Obverse and Reverse.jpg
Theodosius II 402-450 A.D.42 viewsThis was the first coin I attributed by myself. Diademed, draped, cuirassed bust of Theodosius II facing right. Obverse inscription reads DNTHEODOSIVSPFAVG.Reverse of a wreath containing the letters VOT/X/MVLT/XX.1 commentscwonsidler
theodosius-ii-reshoot.jpg
Theodosius II AE 4, 402-450 AD, Cyzicus12 viewsRoman Imperial, Theodosius II AE 4, (402-450 AD), Cyzicus, 1.6g, 14.5mm

Obverse: DN THEODO-SIVS PF AVG, Pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right, star behind.

Reverse: GLORI-A ROMA-NORVM, two emperors standing facing, holding globe between them. SMKA in exergue. "Glory of the Romans"

Reference: RIC X Cyzicus 415

Ex: Dirty Old Coins
Gil-galad
Theodosius_II_AE14,_425-435_AD,_Cyzicus.jpg
Theodosius II AE14, 425-435 AD, Cyzicus23 viewsTheodesius II
AE14
Cyzicus, 425-435 AD
Pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed bust r.
DN THEODOSIVS PF AVG
cross in wreath
SMKA in ex.
RIC X 451
Ardatirion
Theodosius_IIa.jpg
Theodosius II AE425 viewsObv: DN THEODO-SIVS PF AVG, pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right
Rev: no legend, cross within wreath, X in jewel at top of wreath, SMKB in ex
Size: 13mm, 1.04g
Mint: Cyzicus
ickster
theodosius2_RICX_Cyzicus_134.jpg
Theodosius II AE4, Cross (RIC X Cyzicus 134)8 viewsCyzicus mint, 1st officina, 404-406. 11 mm, 0.77 g, 0º.

Obverse: DN THEODOSIVS PF AVGPearl diademed, draped, cuirassed bust, looking right.

Reverse: CONCORDIA AVGG Cross.

Exergue: SMKA

Reference: RIC X Cyzicus 134. Added to Wildwinds.
Manuel
coin590.JPG
Theodosius II Alexandria Gloria Romanorvm7 viewsDN THEODO-SIVS PF AVG
GLORI-A ROMA-NORVM
RIC X Alexandria 158 S

ecoli
111A.jpg
Theodosius II AV Tremissis56 viewsRIC X 213, Depeyrot 70/1 Constantinople 408-419 A.D.
13.4 mm, 1.343 gm, die axis 180o
D N THEODO-SIVS P F AVG, pearl diademed draped and cuirassed bust right, Z graffito in front
VICTORIA AVGVSTORVM, Victory walking right, head left, holding wreath and globus cruciger, star in right field
CONOB in exergue
Scarce
EX: FORVM
2 commentsMark Z
Theodosius II Concordia Avg.JPG
Theodosius II Concordia Avg24 viewsAE4, Uncertain mint, 402-450 AD
Obverse: DN THEODOSIVS PF AVG, Diademed, and draped bust right
Reverse: CONCORDIA AVG: Victory facing with wreath in each hand.
1.0gm, 10mm
Van meter 38
Jerome Holderman
THEODOS2-1.jpg
Theodosius II Gold Solidus of Constantinople95 viewsTheodosius II Gold Solidus
408 - 420 AD
21mm, 4.4g
Constantinople
Obv: D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG
Helmeted bust facing, pearl-diademed, spear over r. shoulder, shield on l.
Rev: CONCORDIA AVGG
Constantinopolis enthroned facing, head r., holding sceptre and Victory on globe, l. foot on prow; star in l. field
RIC X 202d
2 commentsricksta
Arcadius_AE1_Cross.JPG
Theodosius II Heraclea, AE421 viewsRIC 442 Theodosius II AE4, Heraclea. D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right / cross within a wreath, SMHA in ex. Antonivs Protti
theodosiusII_const_233.jpg
Theodosius II RIC X, 233106 viewsTheodosius 402 - 450, son of Arcadius
Av - Solidus, 4.42g, 21mm
Constantinopolis Jan. - Oct. 425
obv. DN THEODO - SIVS PF AVG
cuirassed bust, laureate, helmeted and pearl-diademed
head 3/4 r., with spear across r. shoulder and shield with
horseman spearing enemy at l. shoulder
rev. SALVS REI - PVBLICAE (var. A)
Theodosius II, left, sitting frontal, both feet on footstool, and Valentinianus III, right, smaller, standing frontal, both in
consular robe, holding mappa in r. and long cross in l. hand;
above and between them a star
exergue: CONOB
RIC X, 233
R2; VF, graffitti (Epsilon) on obv.
added to www.wildwinds.com

The 3 dots above the head of Theodosius are the rest of his crest.
2 commentsJochen
theodosiusII_const_234.jpg
Theodosius II RIC X, 234132 viewsTheodosius II 402-450, son of Arcadius
AV - Solidus, 4.39g, 21mm
Constantinopolis Jan. - Oct. 425
obv. DN THEODOSI - VS PF AVG
cuirassed bust, laureate, helmeted and pearl-diademed
head 3/4 r., with spear across r. shoulder and shield with
horseman spearing enemy at l. shoulder
rev. SALVS REI - PVB - LICAE (var. B)
Theodosius II, left, sitting frontal, l. foot on footstool, and
Valentinianus III, right, smaller, standing frontal, both in
consular robe, holding mappa in r. and long cross in l. hand; above and between them a star
exergue: CONOB
RIC X, 234
Rare; good VF
added to www.wildwinds.com

MAPPA, a roll of cloth, formerly dropped down as start of the races in the Circus. In the late Empire a regular attribute of the consuls in art.
1 commentsJochen
theodosiusII_257.jpg
Theodosius II RIC X, 25790 viewsTheodosius II 402-450, son of Arcadius
AV - Solidus, 4.39g, 20mm
Constantinopolis AD 437(?)
obv. DN THEODO - SIVS PF AVG
cuirassed bust, laureate, helmeted and pearl-diademed
head r., with spear across r. shoulder and shield with
horseman spearing enemy at l. shoulder
rev. VOT XXX - MVLT XXXX
Constantinopolis, cuirassed and helmeted, sitting l.,
holding crossglobe in r. hand and long sceptre in l. hand,
l. ellbow leaning on shield, l. foot on prora
exergue: CONOB
RIC X, 257; Ratto 172?
Scarce; VF

VOT XXX (votis XXX solutis), public vows commemorating anniversaries of the emperor's accession, here: thirty-year vows redeemed
MVLT XXXX (multis XXXX susceptis), many forty-year vows undertaken
Perhaps a conflation with the general acclamation: 'Many years!'
Jochen
theodosiusII_const_321.jpg
Theodosius II RIC X, Constantinopolis 321257 viewsTheodosius II, AD 402-450, son of Arcadius
AU - Solidus, 4.47g, 21.5mm
Constantinopolis AD 441-450
obv. DN THEODOSI - VS PF AVG
Helmeted bust facing, pearl-diademed, cuirassed, spear in r. hand held over r.
shoulder behind head, on l. arm decorated shield with horseman riding down
enemy
rev. IMP XXXXII COS - XVII PP
Constantinopolis enthroned to l., l. foot on prow, holding cross-globe and
sceptre, by the throne a shield, star in l. field
exergue: COMOB
RIC X, 321 (group III type A); R4
good EF (fine graffiti K in r. obv. field)
added to www.wildwinds.com

Group III: No punctuation either side; throne square-backed; figure with stiff drapery, r. knee shown as triangular protuberance from body, with fan-shaped drapery; vertical sceptre; legend ends above shield; which is large and rather irregular (type A)
Jochen
TeodosioIIRoma1.JPG
Theodosius II solidus56 viewsObserve: D.N. THEODOSIVS P.F. AVG.
Reverse: VOT. XXX, MVLT. XXXX.
Mint: CONOB
Weight: 4,5 gr.
1 commentsCorduba
TeodosioIIRoma2.JPG
Theodosius II solidus36 viewsObserve: D.N. THEODOSIVS P.F. AVG.
Reverse: IMP. XXXXII COS. XVII. P.P.
Mint: CONOB
Weight: 4,4 gr.
Corduba
theodosius.jpg
Theodosius II Solidus64 viewsAU Solidus. THEODOSIUS II, 402-450 AD.
Obv.: DN THEODO SIVS PF AVG - Three-quarters bust right, draped, cuirassed, holding spear over right shoulder and shield in left hand.
Rev: VOT XXX MVLT XXXXS ; Constantinopolis seated left, holding cross on globe and scepter, her left foot sits on the prow of a galley and at rear of her throne, a shield sits; in right field, a 'star'. Exe: CONOB .
(RIC X, 257 (s) Scarce)
Tanit
TheodosiusII_1.jpg
Theodosius II Solidus62 viewsTHEODOSIUS II AV Solidus. Constantinople mint.
Obv: DN THEODOSIVS PF AVG , Diademed, helmeted & cuirassed 3/4-facing bust, spear on shoulder & shield decorated with horseman on left arm
Rev: IMP XXXXII COS XVII P P, Constantinopolis enthroned left with cross on globe & scepter, foot on prow, elbow on shield, star to left. COMOB.

RIC 299

Tanit
TheodosiusII_2_.jpg
Theodosius II Solidus34 viewsAU Solidus. THEODOSIUS II, 402-450 AD.
Obv.: DN THEODO SIVS PF AVG - Three-quarters bust right, draped, cuirassed, holding spear over right shoulder and shield in left hand.
Rev: VOT XXX MVLT XXXX ; Constantinopolis seated left, holding cross on globe and scepter, her left foot sits on the prow of a galley and at rear of her throne, a shield sits; in right field, a 'star'. Exe: CONOB .
(RIC X, 257 )

Scarce
Tanit
coin14.JPG
Theodosius II VRBS ROMA FELIX56 viewsVRBS ROMA FELIX

This type was originally thought to have been issued by Arcadius and Honorius in conjunction with Theodosius I, but it came to be realized that "Theodosius" was really Theodosius II. Thus it is included in RIC IX under the earlier erroneous attribtution with an erroneous early date (AD 394-395) and then again in RIC X with a corrected attribution and date (404-408, given on page 130). "
ecoli
0800-310.jpg
Theodosius II, AE371 viewsConstantinople mint, 1st officina
DN THEODOSIVS AVG, Diademed and cuirassed bust of Theodiosius facing, holding spear on his right shoulder
CONCORDI A AVG, Constantinopolis, seated, facing, holding spear and a victory on globe. In exergue CONSA
2,25 gr, 16 mm
Ref : RC # 4296, LRBC # 2212 var, RIC X, 90 (R4)
1 commentsPotator II
Theodosius_II_AE4.JPG
Theodosius II, AE429 viewsDN THEODOSIVS PF AVG
CONCORDIA AVG
AE4, 12mm, 1.05g
Pearled diademed, draped bust right
Victory advancing to front head left, holding wreath in each hand, SMK• in ex.
Cyzicus mint
1 commentsnovacystis
5301_5302.jpg
Theodosius II, AE4, NO LEGEND; Cross within Wreath3 viewsAE4
Theodosius II
Augustus: 408 - 450AD
12.0mm 1.20gr
O: THEODOSIVS PF AVG; Laureate, draped bust, right.
R: NO LEGEND; Cross within wreath.
okta2000-2013 281799679223
9/24/15 1/31/17
Nicholas Z
theodosius_overstruck.jpg
Theodosius II, barbaric overstruck on official coin28 viewsBarbaric overstruck of an official SALVS REI PVBLICAE coin by a VIRTVS EXERCITI type

AE 4, 1.1g, 14mm
struck ca. 395-401
obv. Uncertain corrupt legend
Bust, draped, perl-diademed, r.
rev. corrupt VIRTVS EXERCITI
Emperor with spear and shield crowned by Victory
ref. Imitation of Theodosius SALVS REI PVBLICAE RIC X, 70-71
depatinated

This overstruck type is usually linked to the Codex Theodosianus edict from Apr.12th, 395 AD. The connection is probably not valid, though the coins can certainly be dated to ca.395-401 AD. The more likely explanation is that the counterfeiters were attempting to take advantage the lack of familiarity of the people with the newly issued VIRTVS EXERCITI type by converting the old SALVS REIPVBLICAE AE4’s (with an average weight of around 1.1 to 1.2 grams) into the new VIRTVS EXERCITI AE3’s (with an average weight of about 2.3 to 2.4 grams). The obvious advantage to such fraud would be the doubling of the nominal value of the coin, the profit belonging, obviously, to the “moneyer” (from Ancient Coins Canada).
Jochen
teodosio_II,gloriarom,tess.jpg
Theodosius II, Gloria Romanorvm, Thessalonica21 viewsantvwala
theodosiusII_barbaric_imitation.jpg
Theodosius II, RIC X , Cyzicus 26(b) cf. (barbaric imitation)25 viewsTheodosius II, AD 388-400
AE 4, 0.78g, 10.4mm
obv. blundered legend
Bust, draped and cuirassed, pearl-diademed, r.
rev. blundered legend, imitating SALVS REI - PVBLICAE
Victoria with trophy advancing l., drawing captive behind
in l. field staurogramm (tau-rho)
in ex. blundered legend
ref. cf. RIC X, Cyzicus 26(b) (for official issue)
nice VF, nice green patina
From Forum Ancient Coins, thanks!
Jochen
0800-210np_noir.jpg
Theodosius II, Siliqua - *122 viewsConstantinople mint
D N THEODO SIVS P F AVG, diademed draped and cuirassed bust right seen from front
VOT/XX/MVLT/XXX, within a laurel wreath, CONS* at exergue
2.16 gr, 18.5 mm
RIC X, # 381
2 commentsPotator II
THEODOS2-1-ROMAN.jpg
Theodosius II, Thessalonica RIC X-3967 viewsAE3
Thessalonica mint, 408-423 A.D.
17mm, 1.11g
RIC X-396

Obverse:
D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG
* behind head
Pearl-diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right.

Reverse:
GLORIA ROMANORVM
TESA
Two emperors standing facing, heads turned to one another, each holding spear and resting hand on shield.
rubadub
theodoII.jpg
Theodosius II: CONCORDIA AVG13 viewsTheodosius II AD 402-450. CONCORDIA AVG/Victory facing holding wreaths (1.10g; 10.4mm), ex Gert Boersema

Podiceps
theoII.jpg
Theodosius II: VOT/XXX/V7 viewsTheodosius II AD 402-450. VOT/XXX/V in wreath (11 mm; 1.33 g). The highest number votive on Roman bronze coinage, ex Gert Boersema


Podiceps
Theodosius_Obv.JPG
Theodosius Obv3 viewsTheodosius I; AD 379-395
AE2; 22MM/4.1G, Czyicus Mint
OBV: D N THEODISIVS P F AVG; Pearl diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right
REV: VIRTVS EXERSITI; Theodosius standing L foot on captive holding labarum and globe, SMK(Gamma) in exergue;
(RIC 25b)
Philip G
0750-320np_noir.jpg
Theodosius, AE4120 viewsMinted in Cyziqua, 2nd officina
DN THEODO SIVS P F AVG, draped and diademed bust of Theodosius right
SALVS REI PVBLICAE, Victory walking left, dragging captive. Christogram in field, SMKB at exergue
1.41 gr
Ref : Cohen #30, LRBC # 2569, Roman coins #4188v, RIC IX Cyzicus 26b
Potator II
apr_18_20125.jpg
Theodosius, Antioch29 viewsTheodosius (379-395 AD)

DNTHEODO-SIVS PF AVG
Pearl Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right

CONCOR-DIA AVGGG
Constantinopolis, turreted, seated facing on throne, holding scepter right

ANTr
Antioch mint

RIC 44a Antioch
1 commentsRobin Ayers
Theodosius, Thessalonica, RIC 63b.JPG
Theodosius, Thessalonica, RIC 63b20 viewsAE4, Thessalonica mint, 388-392 AD
Obverse: DN THEOOSIVS PF AVG, Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: VICTORIA AVGGG, Two Victories facing with wreaths.
TES in exergue
4mm, 1.5gm
Jerome Holderman
Theodosius- Aquileia- RIC 47b2.JPG
Theodosius- Aquileia- RIC 47b224 viewsAE4, 379-395 AD, Aquileia mint
Obverse: DN THEODOSIVS PF AVG, Diademmed, draped and cuirassed bust right
Reverse: VICTORIA AVGGG, Two victories facing holding wreaths
SMAQS in exergue
RIC 47b2
12mm, 1.0 gms.
Jerome Holderman
Theodosius- Cyzicus- RIC 26b.JPG
Theodosius- Cyzicus- RIC 26b22 viewsAE4, 379-395 AD, Cyzicus mint
Obverse: DN THEODOSIVS PF AVG, Diademmed, draped and cuirassed bust right
Reverse: SALVS REIPVBLICAE, Victory advancing left dragging captive.
SMKA in exergue
RIC 26b
14mm, 0.9gms.
Jerome Holderman
Theodosius-Aquileia-RIC47b.JPG
Theodosius-Aquileia-RIC47b12 viewsAE4, Aquileia mint, 388-392 AD
Obverse: DN THEODOSIVS PF AVG, diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: VICTORIA AVGGG, Two victories facing with wreaths.
SMAQS in exergue
1.2gm , 13mm
Jerome Holderman
Theodosius-Nicomedia-RIC 45b.JPG
Theodosius-Nicomedia-RIC 45b18 viewsAE4, Nicomedia mint, 388-392 AD
Obverse: DN THEODOSIVS PF AVG, Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
Reverse: SALVS REIPVBLICAE, Victory advancing left dragging captive, Cross in circle in left field.
SMN in exergue
0.9gm, 14mm
Jerome Holderman
Theodosius-Siscia-RIC 39b.JPG
Theodosius-Siscia-RIC 39b14 viewsAE4, Siscia mint, 388-392 AD
Obverse: DN THEODOSIVS PF AVG, Diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: VICTORIA AVGGG, Victory advancing left with wreath and palm.
ASIS in exergue
1.5gm, 14mm
Jerome Holderman
Theodosius-II_AE-12_DN-THEODOSIVS-PF-AVG_GLORIA____TES_RIC-X-445_Q-001_axis-0h_12,5mm_1,56ga-s.jpg
Thessalonica, 160 Theodosius I. (379-395 A.D.), RIC IX 062b.1.3, AE-4, Δ/-//TES, GLORIA REIPVBLICE, Campgate with two turrets, #163 viewsThessalonica, 160 Theodosius I. (379-395 A.D.), RIC IX 062b.1.3, AE-4, Δ/-//TES, GLORIA REIPVBLICE, Campgate with two turrets, #1
avers: D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG, Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
reverse: GLORIA REIPVBLICE, Campgate, 2 turrets, 5 layers, no doors, Δ in left field, mintmark TES in ex.
exergue: Δ/-//TES, diameter: 12,5mm, weight: 1,56g, axes: 0h,
mint: Thessalonica, date: 383-388 A.D., ref: RIC IX 062b.1.3,
Q-001
quadrans
PICT2317a.jpg
Turkey, Istanbul (Constantinople) - Obelisk Thutmosis Hippodrom178 viewsEgypt obelisk (from Thutmosis III temple of Karnak 1471 before christ). now on the Hippodrom place (where in ancient times was a horse race-track) in Instanbul, erected under the reign of Theodosius in the year 390 after christ.Franz-Josef M
Istanbul_Land_Wall.jpg
Turkey, Istanbul (Constantinople) The Land Wall138 viewsThe Land Wall of Theodosius stretches for 6.5 km from the Golden Horn to the Sea of Marmara. The first phase (a single wall with towers) was complete by 413; after a major earthquake in 447 the Wall was rebuilt and strengthened (a second outer screen and a moat were added), just in time to discourage Attila the Hun from attacking the city. The fortifications included 96 guard towers, each 18-20 m in height and spaced roughly 55 m apart. The Land Wall remained a formidable defensive barrier until the advent of artillery in the 15th century. Even in ruins, and with vegetables growing in the moat, it's still an impressive sight today. Abu Galyon
Valentinian II- Victoria.jpg
Valentinian II- SALVS REI PVBLICAE54 viewsValentinian II, 17 November 375 - 15 May 392 A.D.


Obverse:
Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.

DN VALENTINI - ANVS PF AVG

DN: Dominus Noster, our lord

VALENTINIANVS: Valentinian

PF, PIUS FELIX, piteous and happy

AVG: Augustus, emperor

Reverse:
SALVS REI PVBLICAE, Health of the republic

SALVS: Health
REI PVBLICAE: Republic

Victory advancing left, holding standard over shoulder and dragging captive

Domination: Copper, AE4, size 12 mm

Mint: Aquileia or Rome .

Comment:
This is the SALVS REI PVBLICAE type. This type was not struck for Valentininan I but only for Valentininan II. (and Theodosius I, Arcadius and Honorius). IF the obv. legend of the coin is broken DN VALENTINI - ANVS PF AVG then the mint is Aquileia or Rome. All other mints have unbroken obv. legends.
Source: Guido Bruck, Die spätrömische Kupferprägung, Graz/Austria 1961
John Schou
Vesta.jpg
Vesta159 viewsVesta was the virgin goddess of the hearth, home, and family.
She isn't equivalent of greek Hestia.
She is often depicted with Palladium which Aeneas brought from Troy according legend. Palladium was stored in her temple on forum.
Their priestess (Vestal Virgins) were tending holy fire which was renewed every 1. March.
Rites of Vesta ended in 394 and Vestal Virgins were disbanded by order of Theodosius I.

upleft: Antoninus Pius - AR denarius; Rome; 153-154 AD; Vesta holding simpulum and Palladium; RIC 229a, RSC 198; 3,11g 17-16 mm;
upright: Faustina I - AR denarius; Rome; 148-161 AD; Vesta holding Palladium and patera over lit altar; RSC 116; RIC 370.4; 3,19g 17-16 mm
downleft: Faustina I - AE As; Rome; 148-161 AD; Vesta holding palladium and torch; RIC 1178, Cohen 114, BMC 1581, sear5 #4648; 9,26g 27-26 mm
downright: Julia Mamaea - AR denarius; Rome; 222 AD; Vesta holding patera and scepter; RIC 362, BMC 440, S 8218, C 85; ??? g 20-18 mm
Johny SYSEL
theodosius_ric_44b.jpg
VIRTVS E-XERCITI, Nicomedia, RIC 44b14 viewsTheodosius I, 19 January 379 - 17 January 395 A.D.
Bronze AE 2, RIC IX 44(b), F, Nicomedia mint, 4.258 grams, 23.8 mm, die axis 180o, 25 Aug 383 - 28 Aug 388 A.D.; obverse D N THEODO-SIVS P F AVG, rosette-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse VIRTVS E-XERCITI, emperor standing right, standard in right, globe in left, left foot on captive seated on the ground, branch left, SMN“D” in ex; scarce; ex FORVM
Podiceps
theodosius_I_cons_59b.jpg
VOT V MVLT X within wreath. RIC IX 59b Constantinople?12 viewsTheodosius I, 19 January 379 - 17 January 395 A.D. Copper AE 4, Cf. RIC IX 59(b) Constantinople, VF, uncertain mint, 1.652g, 13.6mm, 0o, 379 - 383 A.D.; obverse D N THEODO-SIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse , VOT V MVLT X within wreath. Based on style it does not appear to be from the more common issue of Siscia. The next choice is Constantinople (CONB in ex) which is rare. Ex FORVMPodiceps
ARI-Honorius-3.jpg
Western Roman Empire , Honorius, AD 393-423 18 viewsAR Siliqua, Milan Mint, RIC X 1228

Grade: Ch AU: Strike 5/5: Surface 4/5

Obv. :D N HONORIVS P F AVG, diademed draped bust right.

Rev.: VIRTVS ROMANORVM, Roma seated left holding Victory & inverted spear, Mintmark MDPS

Honorius was Western Roman Emperor from 393 to 423. He was the younger son of emperor Theodosius I and his first wife Aelia Flaccilla, and brother of Arcadius, who was the Eastern Emperor from 395 until his death in 408.
Richard M10
LarryW1809.jpg
X, 0257 Theodosius II, 408-45083 viewsAV solidus, 20.5mm, 4.42g, EF
Struck c. 430-440 at Constatinople, no officina
DN THEODO-SIVS PF AVG, helmeted, diademed and cuirassed bust ¾ right, holding spear in right and shield with horseman motif on left arm. / VOT XXX MVLT XXXX, Constantinopolis enthroned left, holding globus cruciger and sceptre; by the throne shield. Star in right field, CON OB in exg.
RIC X, 257
1 commentsLawrence Woolslayer
TheodosiusRIC83b.jpg
[1601a] Theodosius I, 19 January 379 - 17 January 395 A.D. 66 viewsBronze AE 2, RIC 83(b), EF, Constantinople mint, 4.389g, 22.1mm, 180o, 25 Aug 383 - 28 Aug 388 A.D.; Obverse: D N THEODO-SIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: VIRTVS E-XERCITI, Emperor standing right holding standard and globe, foot on captive, cross in left field, CONSA in exergue. Ex FORVM.


De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

THEODOSIUS I (379-395 A.D.)
David Woods
University College of Cork


Origin and Early Career
Flavius Theodosius was born at Cauca in Spain in about 346 to Thermantia and Theodosius the Elder (so-called to distinguish him from his son). Theodosius the Elder was a senior military officer serving in the Western empire and rose to become the magister equitum praesentalis under the emperor Valentinian I from late 368 until his execution in early 375. As the son of a soldier, Theodosius was legally obliged to enter upon a military career. He seems to have served under his father during his expedition to Britain in 367/8, and was the dux Moesiae Primae by late 374. Unfortunately, great controversy surrounds the rest of his career until Gratian had him hailed as his imperial colleague in succession to the emperor Valens at Sirmium on 19 January 379. It is clear that he was forced to retire home to Spain only to be recalled to active service shortly thereafter, but the circumstances of his forced retirement are shrouded in mystery. His father was executed at roughly the same time, and much speculation has centred on the relationship between these events.

[For a very detailed and interesting discussion of the Foreign Policy of Theodosius and the Civil Wars that plagued his reign, please see http://www.roman-emperors.org/theo1.htm]

Family and Succession
Theodosius married twice. His first wife was the Spanish Aelia Flavia Flaccilla. She bore him Arcadius ca. 377, Honorius on 9 September 384, and Pulcheria ca. 385. Theodosius honoured her with the title of Augusta shortly after his accession, but she died in 386. In late 387 he married Galla, daughter of Valentinian I and full-sister of Valentinian II. She bore him Gratian ca. 388, Galla Placidia ca. 388/390, and died in childbirth in 394, together with her new-born son John. Of his two sons who survived infancy, he appointed Arcadius as Augustus on 19 January 383 and Honorius as Augustus on 23 January 393. His promotion of Arcadius as a full Augustus at an unusually young age points to his determination right from the start that one of his own sons should succeed him. He sought to strengthen Arcadius' position in particular by means of a series of strategic marriages whose purpose was to tie his leading "generals" irrevocably to his dynasty. Hence he married his niece and adoptive daughter Serena to his magister militum per Orientem Stilicho in 387, her elder sister Thermantia to a "general" whose name has not been preserved, and ca. 387 his nephew-in-law Nebridius to Salvina, daughter of the comes Africae Gildo. By the time of his death by illness on 17 January 395, Theodosius had promoted Stilicho from his position as one of the two comites domesticorum under his own eastern administration to that of magister peditum praesentalis in a western administration, in an entirely traditional manner, under his younger son Honorius. Although Stilicho managed to increase the power of the magister peditum praesentalis to the disadvantage of his colleague the magister equitum praesentalis and claimed that Theodosius had appointed him as guardian for both his sons, this tells us more about his cunning and ambition than it does about Theodosius' constitutional arrangements.

Theodosius' importance rests on the fact that he founded a dynasty which continued in power until the death of his grandson Theodosius II in 450. This ensured a continuity of policy which saw the emergence of Nicene Christianity as the orthodox belief of the vast majority of Christians throughout the middle ages. It also ensured the essential destruction of paganism and the emergence of Christianity as the religion of the state, even if the individual steps in this process can be difficult to identify. On the negative side, however, he allowed his dynastic interests and ambitions to lead him into two unnecessary and bloody civil wars which severely weakened the empire's ability to defend itself in the face of continued barbarian pressure upon its frontiers. In this manner, he put the interests of his family before those of the wider Roman population and was responsible, in many ways, for the phenomenon to which we now refer as the fall of the western Roman empire.


Copyright (C) 1998, David Woods.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

There is a nice segue here, as we pick-up John Julius Norwich's summation of the reign of Theodosius, "Readers of this brief account of his career may well find themselves wondering, not so much whether he deserved the title of 'the Great' as how he ever came to acquire it in the first place. If so, however, they may also like to ask themselves another question: what would have been the fate of the Empire if, at that critical moment in its history after the battle of Adrianople, young Gratian had not called him from his Spanish estates and put the future of the East into his hands? . . . the probability is that the whole Empire of the East would have been lost, swallowed up in a revived Gothic kingdom, with effects on world history that defy speculation.

In his civil legislation he showed, again and again, a consideration for the humblest of his subjects that was rare indeed among rulers of the fourth century. What other prince would have decreed that any criminal, sentenced to execution, imprisonment or exile, must first be allowed thirty days' grace to put his affairs in order? Or that a specified part of his worldly goods must go to his children, upon whom their father's crimes must on no account be visited? Or that no farmer should be obliged to sell his produce to the State at a price lower than he would receive on the open market?

Had he earned his title? Not, perhaps, in the way that Constantine had done or as Justinian was to do. But, if not ultimately great himself, he had surely come very close to greatness; and had he reigned as long as they did his achievements might well have equalled theirs. He might even have saved the Western Empire. One thing only is certain: it would be nearly a century and a half before the Romans would look upon his like again" (Norwich, John Julius. Byzantium, the Early Centuries. London: Penguin Group, 1990. 116-7;118).

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
ArcadiusManusDei.jpg
[1601b] Arcadius, 19 January 383 - 1 May 408 A.D.63 viewsARCADIUS AE2. Struck at Constantinople, 378-383 AD. Obverse: D N ARCADIVS P F AVG, diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right, holding spear and shield, Hand of God above holding wreath; Reverse - GLORIA ROMANORVM, emperor standing facing, head left, holding standard & resting shield at side, bound captive seated on ground to left, head right, CONG in exergue. RIC 53b. Scarce. Extremely Fine, some roughness and corrosion.


De Imperatoribus Romanis, An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors and their Families


Arcadius (395-408 A.D.)

Geoffrey S. Nathan
University of California at Los Angeles

Introduction and Early Life
The ineffectual life and reign of Flavius Arcadius are of considerably less importance than the quite significant developments that occurred during his reign. Born either in 377 or 378 to then general Theodosius and Aelia Flavia Flacilla, he and his younger brother, Honorius, ruled the eastern and western halves of the Roman Empire respectively from 395.

Shortly after his birth, his father was raised to the imperial purple in 379. Events in Illyricum with the massive influx of Ostrogothic and Visigothic peoples had resulted in the defeat of the Roman army and the death of the emperor, Valens. Theodosius' first task was to confront the Visigoths who had been ravaging the Balkans. Perhaps in the wake of this difficult and almost insurmountable task, the emperor wanted to insure that his infant son would bear some legitimacy should he die on campaign. Whatever the reason, Arcadius was proclaimed Augustus in January of 383 at the age of five or six. In the following year, his younger brother was born and it seems as if Theodosius initially had been interested in preserving the theoretical position of his elder son. While Arcadius enjoyed the status of Augustus, Honorius only achieved the office of consul posterior in 386. Perhaps the eastern emperor had wanted to avoid the possible conflicts that arose earlier in the century with the family of Constantine. Recent events in the west with the assassination of Gratian by Magnus Maximus may have also played a part: Theodosius initially had to leave the murder of his imperial colleague unavenged and leave the boy- emperor, Valentinian II, largely undefended. The profusion of emperors may well have been seen by Theodosius as kindling for civil war. His own autocratic tendencies may have also meant that he saw only one possible successor for himself.

Nevertheless, Theodosius gave Arcadius very little independence in early life. When he went to campaign against Magnus in the late 380's, he placed his son under the Praetorian Prefect of the East, Tatian, who was the de facto emperor in Theodosius' absence. This began a long series of regencies for Arcadius. The strength of Tatian's position with the eastern governing class made the office of Praetorian Prefect all the more powerful in Constantinople, which in turn made it easier to dominate future emperors. When Theodosius replaced Tatian with the more malleable and more ambitious Rufinus in 392, he had appointed a minister who would centralize even greater authority under the prefecture.

By 393, the emperor's situation had changed radically. When events in the west demanded his attention again, Theodosius was in a much stronger position. The ascendancy of the general, Arbogast, and his own puppet emperor, Eugenius, in the west provided Theodosius an opportunity and, indeed, the obligation to take full control of the Empire. The chance for having his own two sons ruling both halves of Rome not only seemed practical and feasible, but such an arrangement would establish himself as the head of a new dynasty. With thoughts in that direction, Honorius was made Augustus in 393 and accompanied his father west in the summer of 394. Arcadius, although near his majority, was nevertheless placed again under the guardianship (epitropos) of the Prefect of the East. In January of 395, Theodosius the Great died and his two sons took theoretical control of the two halves of the Roman Empire.

Early Reign and the Dominance of Rufinus and Eutropius (395-399)
Arcadius was eighteen when he assumed the throne in the east. We do not know whether or not he was ready for the responsibilities. During the mid-380's, the young emperor had been educated in part by Themistius, a famous pagan statesman, philosopher, and speaker. In what way he affected Arcadius is impossible to say, but surely his teachings must have included statecraft. Perhaps because of this influence, the new emperor's attempt to establish himself as an independent force can be seen in a series of laws passed at his accession. In contrast to trying to create a military image for himself, which would not be allowed either by Rufinus or by the eastern court, he attempted to portray himself as a pious Christian emperor. He enacted several comprehensive laws against heresy and paganism.

This was not necessarily an ineffectual strategy. By celebrating his religious piety, he expressed his power in the only way available to an emperor largely controlled by his ministers. He also perhaps sought to gain support and power from the local governing and religious hierarchies in Constantinople. Arcadius also perhaps thought that he was carrying on in the tradition of his father and so, by extension, might share in some of his glory. Rufinus in contrast wanted to tie himself to the emperor through a marriage connection to his daughter. But in April of 395, Arcadius had taken advantage of the Prefect's temporary absence to marry Aelia Eudoxia, whose guardian, the general, Promotus, had been a bitter enemy of Rufinus. Arcadius had been aided in this move by his own grand chamberlain (praepositus sacri cubiculi), Eutropius, and it perhaps indicated the degree to which he wanted to be free of any regent.

But in reality, Arcadius gained little if any power. Rufinus assumed full control of the east, and the Vandal Stilicho, Theodosius' closest advisor and general, took control of Honorius in the west. The tension between east and west quickly grew when Stilicho, in command of all the eastern and western armies, tried to press his guardianship over Arcadius as well. Moreover, there was considerable resentment against Rufinus in the east for using his office to greatly enrich himself and perhaps, too, because he was a westerner. Rufinus, understanding the perils around him, acted quickly. He had Arcadius demand the return of the eastern armies at once. Stilicho acquiesced, perhaps because the general was basing his claim of guardianship on his own legitimacy: to have taken control of the east and Arcadius by force would have undermined his position there and perhaps in the west. The soldiers returned under the command of the Gothic general, Gainas. With the control of the field army, it seemed as if Rufinus was going to be more thoroughly in control of the east and over Arcadius.

He did not long enjoy his victory. When Arcadius and Rufinus came to greet the armies at Hebdoman near Constantinople in November of 395, the soldiers turned on the Praetorian Prefect and cut him down in front of the emperor. Whether Stilicho instigated the assassination is a matter of some debate, but if he did, he received no benefit from it. The armies remained and Arcadius soon fell under the sway of other ministers. Nevertheless, despite the shock and fear Arcadius may have felt at witnessing such a brutal murder, he probably missed Rufinus' presence not at all and even thought it might provide an opportunity to assert his own authority. For the bureaucracy, the death meant that maintaining civilian control over the army was paramount to their own survival.

Soon thereafter, Eutropius assumed Rufinus' place in dominating Arcadius. Since the grand chamberlain could control access to the emperor and commanded the powerful palace bureaucracy, he was well-placed to dictate what and whom the emperor saw and heard. Military officers--frequently Germanic--who dominated the western government, were held suspect by fearful and jealous civil administrators in Constantinople. Eutropius used that fear to his advantage and froze out any access they may have had to the circles of power. His decision to effectively eliminate the military's input in decision-making would eventually lead to his demise.

It is difficult to determine how popular Eutropius was either with Arcadius or with the wider population. As a eunuch and a former slave, the sources generally portray him very negatively. He nevertheless seems to have enjoyed some support from the emperor, likely aided by Eudoxia with whom the grand chamberlain had close ties. The emperor happily took annual vacations in Galatia, apparently upon the Eutropius' suggestion. Moreover, the chamberlain showed great personal courage and talent in leading a campaign against invading Huns in 397/8, for which he won the consulship and the rank of patrician in the following year of 399. He also seems to have gained considerable support from the local clergy by procuring the patriarchate of Constantinople in 398 for John Chrysostom.

Despite Eutropius' rise to power, however, eastern policy changed little. The religious policies of Theodosius and Arcadius continued, including the forced closure of pagan temples in Gaza. More significantly, tension between the two halves of the empire persisted as Stilicho continued to press for his position as guardian. Although Stilicho led periodic raids into Greece and Thrace to attack the new Visigothic king, Alaric, his victories were incomplete and were more likely meant to keep the Germanic people out of western territory. This meant, among other things, that the Visigoths were an enduring problem for the east. Eutropius in turn supported the revolt of the Count Gildo in Africa, which was under western control, in an attempt to destabilize Stilicho's control and further eastern domains.

The failure of the revolt in 398 was the first step in Eutropius' downfall. The decision to exclude the military men of the period, particularly among the growing importance of Germanic officers, created a dangerous situation. By 399, the dissatisfaction with east-west affairs and the Gildo fiasco resulted in a revolt by the Gothic count, Tribigild. He was apparently in collusion with Gainas, who had taken advantage of the crisis to be named chief general in the east (magister utriusque militiae). Gainas quickly reached an agreement with the rebel and part of the settlement was the dismissal of Eutropius, to which Arcadius--at Eudoxia's urging--agreed. The chamberlain took refuge in the Hagia Sophia, and was exiled to Cyprus. But shortly thereafter, in the autumn of 399, Eutropius was recalled, tried and executed in Chalcedon.

The Age of Eudoxia (400-404)
The death of Eutropius precipitated a serious crisis. Gainas, who had wanted high office for years, now tried to force the hand of Arcadius. Having come to a quick resolution with Tribigild, he moved from Thrace towards Constantinople in 400. With the Germanic troops supporting him, Gainas tried for six months to initiate his own primacy-- including seizing the imperial palace--but which failed. He was forced to withdraw personally from the city to regroup and planned to use his troops remaining there to seize the entire city. But they were slaughtered by the inhabitiants and he fled first to Thrace and then to Asia. Eventually Gainas was killed by the Huns later in that year. His attempted coup ensured that Germanic officers would never again be trusted by the eastern government and would forever be kept out of any important decision-making roles.

The likely successor to Eutropius had been the anti-Germanic leader, Aurelianus, who had succeeded to the Prefecture of the East in 399. But Gainas had exiled him, having forced Arcadius to hand him over, and although Aurelianus returned triumphantly after Gainas' departure, he appears to have lost his hold over the emperor. In the meantime, Aelia Eudoxia had done much to forward her own place in the government. In January of 400, she had been named Augusta, a singular distinction offered to only three other women in the previous century. Her position thus gained a semi-official legitimacy afforded to very few Roman empresses. It has been assumed that because of her beauty, her intelligence, and her fecundity (she bore Arcadius five children), she was able to assert her influence to a point where she was the new power behind the throne.

That assessment, while held by many scholars, is not entirely accurate. While there were several events in which she played a crucial part, they were not terribly important moments during Arcadius' reign. But because Eudoxia was enormously wealthy, because she delivered a male heir in 401, and because she was involved in a highly publicized and drawn out political fight with John Chrysostom, this belief that there was an assumption of power is based more on the notoriety of her acts than on actual control. The fact that there was no one clearly dominating the government nor the emperor during this time implies perhaps that Arcadius had more power during these five years of his reign than at any other time.

There are several indications that he did try to improve and assert his own position. The emperor and his court immediately came to some understanding with the west. The east at the very least gave Honorius and Stilicho moral support in their increasing problems with Alaric. In 402, the feeling of goodwill was sealed by a joint consulship between Arcadius and his brother. The emperor also sought to establish his own military prowess and Christian piety with the erection of a column set up in the Hippodrome of Constantinople in 402/3. The column depicted his military victory over Gainas, crowned with a capital emblazoned with the Greek letters chi-rho, symbolizing his devotion to Christ. Arcadius' son, Theodosius II, was born in 401, and was quickly made Augustus at the age of eight months. The eastern ruler was thus interested in assuring his own dynasty.

In all these things, the emperor was largely successful, but they were largely overshadowed by the feud between his empress and the bishop of Constantinople. Eudoxia had already shown herself able in pushing her interests during the baptism of her son. The Bishop of Constantinople, however, was a much tougher opponent than her husband. John Chrysostom, a strong believer in social justice, had boorishly attacked Eudoxia and many of her friends for the conspicuous luxury in which they lived and displayed themselves. At the height of these attacks, John compared the empress to Jezebel. Eudoxia in turn used her considerable influence to inflame hostility among the clergy against the bishop. Working through Bishop Theophilus of Alexandria, in 403 Chrysostom was deposed and forced into exile at a Church council convened by the emperor (the Synod of the Oak at Chalcedon). However, there was soon such turmoil and uproar in the imperial city that the bishop was recalled a few days later. But the public feuding between Eudoxia and Chrysostom continued until at last she had him banished again in 404, this time permanently. Among other things, it caused a breach between Arcadius and his brother, who had, with Pope Innocent I, tried to support Chrysostom.

Eudoxia's victory was short-lived, however. In October of 404, the Augusta died of a miscarriage. Her death was seen by some as retribution for dismissing John. Whatever the reason, her end also signaled a complete retreat into the background by the emperor and no further initiatives seem to have been pushed by the 27-year-old Augustus.

The Final Years: Anthemius and Death (404-408)
The last years of Arcadius' reign were completely dominated by his Praetorian Prefect of the East, Anthemius. It was perhaps fitting that when the emperor seems to have been most retiring, the most able and energetic of his high ministers came to power. Anthemius worked hard to solve a series of governmental abuses, continue to push for Christianization, and secure the east from attack.

Anthemius first seems to have tried to reconcile with the west, so much so that there was a joint consulship between Anthemius and Stilicho in 405. This might have also been meant to symbolize the Prefect's new dominance, however. Additionally, a number of new laws were passed, curtailing paganism, Judaism and heresy. He tried to make use of the continuing problem of incoming Germanic peoples to combat the Isaurian tribes which had been plaguing Asia Minor since 403. While it failed to halt either group's incursions, it was nevertheless a practical and intelligent strategy. As a means of protecting the imperial capital, Anthemius also strengthened the walls around Constantinople. Our records for the last years of Arcadius' rule are quite spotty, but the emperor himself seems to have completely vanished, even symbolically, from the political scene.

In May of 408, Flavius Arcadius died at the age of 31 of unknown causes. Our only physical description of Arcadius is heavily influenced by the generally low regard in which he was held. The emperor was supposedly short, thin and dark-complected. A more kindly correspondent described him as good-natured and temperate. His son succeeded him without any controversy and the government remained unchanged. Arcadius thus left the world much as he entered it: without much significance and overshadowed by more powerful forces.

Assessment
Despite the ineffectual nature of Arcadius and his rule, a number of significant changes occurred during his stewardship of the eastern empire. His inability to forcefully or at least effectively govern meant that there were few consistent or long-range goals of his administration. With the exception of trying to emphasize the emperor's piety, an important development in the history of the Byzantine monarchy, Arcadius and his ministers were for the most part simply reacting to events.

The emperor became an even more remote figure to the general public. Even in the capital city itself, he was rarely seen: we read in one account that people came running to see the emperor for the first time when he happened to be praying in a local church. A series of "orientalizing" court practices no doubt continued in order to emphasize the symbolic separation of the emperor from the rest of society. The hieratic, almost semi- divine nature of the imperial person, also became a feature of the eastern ruler.

Perhaps of greatest importance was the political and cultural split between east and west. With the death of Theodosius, the two halves of the Roman Empire increasingly went their separate ways. For the most part, the west was thrown back upon its own resources, unable to deal with the problems of the fifth century. The east proved more compact and more resilient: it largely weathered the political storms from without and within.

Moreover, Constantinople fully became the imperial capital of the east, a Roma nova. The emperor rarely left the city and the palace officials became more influential than many of the more theoretically important ministers outside the city. Constantinople was also made an archepiscopate and Chrysostom and others started to push strongly for its primacy in the east. Both public and private building projects beautified and enlarged the city. Under Arcadius' reign, it truly became the second city of the Roman Empire.
Finally, the hard stance against Germanic officers in Roman government became a central feature in the east. While the reasons for this development were inspired largely out of fear and perhaps racism, the eastern Roman Empire did manage to avoid the largely detrimental succession of Germanic generalissimos who controlled the west in the fifth century. It also encouraged the eastern rulers in the following century to take hard lines against other peoples, including the Isaurians, the Huns and the Persians. Taken in all, the era of Arcadius was far more important than Arcadius himself. He perhaps had his father's pretensions, but none of the skills or powers necessary to leave his mark on the Empire.

By Geoffrey S. Nathan, University of California at Los Angeles
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
man1pano.jpg
[1663a] Byzantine Empire: Manuel I Comnenus Megas (1143-1180)---NOT TO BE CONFUSED WITH---[1685a] Empire of Trebizond: Manuel I Komnenos Megas (1218-1263 AD)154 viewsManuel I Comnenus Megas (1143-1180). AE billon trachy; Sear 1964; 30mm, 3.91g.; Constantinople mint; aF. Obverse: MP-OV-The Virgin enthroned. Nimbate and wearing pallium and maphorium; Reverse: Maueil standing facing, wearing crown, holding labarum and globe surmounted by Patriachal cross. Ex SPQR.


De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

MANUEL I COMNENUS (A.D. 1143-1180)

Andrew Stone
University of Western Australia

Introduction: Sources
The reign of the emperor Manuel I Comnenus (5 April 1143- 24 September 1180) could well be regarded as a high-water mark of Byzantine civilization. It was the apogee of the so-called "Comnenian Restoration". Politically, the emperor undertook an ambitious foreign policy which has been seen by some, particularly in the light of many ultimate failures, as "misguided imperialism", recent scholarship has come to question this traditional judgment and suggests instead that the the Comnenian foreign policy was rather an energetic seizing of the different opportunities that presented themselves in the rapidly changing constellations of powers of the time. Such measures were made possible by the internal security of the empire under this, its third, Comnenian incumbent, although there were a few other aspirants to the throne, not least among them the emperor's cousin Andronicus. Manuel and other key members of the "Comnenian system", as it has been called, were patrons of rhetoric and other forms of learning and literature, and Manuel himself became keenly interested in ecclesiastical affairs, even if here his imperialistic agenda was a factor as he tried to bring Constantinopolitan theology in line with that of the west in a bid to unite the Church under his crown.

In terms of volume of contemporary material, Manuel is the most eulogised of all Byzantine emperors, and the panegyric addressed to him supplements the two major Byzantine historians of the reign, the more critical Nicetas Choniates and the laudatory John Cinnamus, as primary sources for the student of the period to study. The Crusader historian William of Tyre met Manuel personally, and such was the scope of Manuel's diplomacy that he is mentioned incidentally in western sources, such as Romuald of Salerno. Among authors of the encomia (panegyrics) we have mentioned are Theodore Prodromus and the so-called "Manganeios" Prodromus, who wrote in verse, and the prose encomiasts Michael the Rhetor, Eustathius of Thessalonica and Euthymius Malaces, to name the most important. Manuel, with his penchant for the Latins and their ways, left a legacy of Byzantine resentment against these outsiders, which was to be ruthlessly exploited by Andronicus in the end.

Manuel as sebastokrator
Manuel was born in the imperial porphyry birthchamber on 28 November 1118. He was the fourth of John II's sons, so it seemed very unlikely that he would succeed. As a youth, Manuel evidently accompanied John on campaign, for in the Anatolian expedition of 1139-41 we find Manuel rashly charging a small group of the Turkish enemy, an action for which he was castigated by his father, even though John, we are told, was inwardly impressed (mention of the incident is made in John's deathbed speech in both John Cinnamus and Nicetas Choniates). John negotiated a marriage contract for Manuel with Conrad III of Germany; he was to marry Bertha of Sulzbach. It seems to have been John's plan to carve out a client principality for Manuel from Cilicia, Cyprus and Coele Syria. In the event, it was Manuel who succeeded him.

The Securing of the Succession 1143
In the article on John II it is related how the dying John chose his youngest son Manuel to succeed him in preference to his other surviving son Isaac. Manuel was acclaimed emperor by the armies on 5 April 1143. Manuel stayed in Cilicia, where the army was stationed, for thirty days, to complete the funeral rites for his father. He sent his father's right-hand man John Axuch, however, to Constantinople to confine Isaac to the Pantokrator Monastery and to effect a donation of two hundredweight of silver coin to the clergy of the Great Church. The surviving encomium of Michael Italicus, Teacher of the Gospel, for the new emperor can be regarded as a return gift for this largesse. In the meantime the Caesar John Roger, husband of Manuel's eldest sister Maria, had been plotting to seize the throne; the plot was, however, given away by his wife before it could take effect. Manuel marched home to enter Constantinople c. July 1143. He secured the good-will of the people by commanding that every household should be granted two gold coins. Isaac the younger (Manuel's brother) and Isaac the elder (Manuel's paternal uncle), were both released from captivity and reconciled with him. Manuel chose Michael Oxeites as the new patriarch and was crowned either in August or November 1143.

Manuel confirmed John Axuch in the office of Grand Domestic, that is, commander of the army, appointed John of Poutze as procurator of public taxes, grand commissioner and inspector of accounts and John Hagiotheodorites as chancellor. John of Poutze proved to be an oppressive tax collector, but was also unsusceptible to bribery. However, this John diverted monies levied for the navy into the treasury, which would, as we shall see, further Byzantine dependence on the maritime Italian city-states of Venice, Genoa and Pisa.

Early Campaigns: 1144-1146
Manuel's first concern was to consolidate the work of his father in securing the eastern frontier. He sent a force under the brothers Andronicus and John Contostephanus against the recalcitrant Crusader prince Raymond of Antioch, which consisted of both an army and a navy, the latter commanded by Demetrius Branas. Raymond's army was routed, and the naval force inflicted no small damage on the coastal regions of the principality. In the meantime the Crusader city of Edessa fell to the Turkish atabeg Zengi. Raymond therefore travelled to Constantinople as a suppliant to Manuel. It was subsequently decided, in the light of Manuel's imperial status, that the terms under which he would marry Bertha of Sulzbach should be improved. Manuel asked for 500 knights, and Conrad happily granted them, being prepared to supply 2000 or 3000 if need be all for the sake of this alliance. Bertha took the Greek name Irene.

The Seljuk sultanate of Rum under Masud had become the ascendant Turkish power in Anatolia. Manuel himself supervised the rebuilding of the fortress of Melangeia on the Sangarius river in Bithynia (1145 or 1146). In the most daring campaign of these early years, after building the new fort of Pithecas in Bithynia, Manuel advanced as far into Turkish territory as Konya (Iconium), the Seljuk capital. He had been wounded in the foot by an arrow at a mighty battle at Philomelium (which had been Masud's headquarters), and the city had been rased; once at Konya, he allowed his troops to despoil the graves outside the city walls, before taking the road home.

Cinnamus relates that the gratutitous heroics which Manuel displayed on this campaign were calculated to impress Manuel's new bride. Manuel and his army were harried by Turks on the journey home. Manuel erected the fort of Pylae before leaving Anatolia.

[For a detailed and interesting discussion of the reign of Manuel I Comnenus please see http://www.roman-emperors.org/mannycom.htm]

Frederick Barbarossa and the "two-emperor problem"
Frederick Barbarossa, who was to become a constant menace to Manuel's designs, had succeeded his uncle Conrad III in 1152, but unlike him proved in the end unprepared to make any territorial concessions in Italy. The origins of this "cold war" between the two empires cannot be dated with any certainty, but there may have been a tendency to date it too early. One school of thought would not date the outbreak of this rivalry to any earlier than 1159-60, the death of Manuel's German wife, Bertha-Irene. About this time there was a scare at Constantinople that Frederick Barbarossa would march on Byzantium, perhaps reflecting a desire on Frederick's part to crusade (which he eventually did, in the reign of Isaac II Angelus). The new Pope, Alexander III, by, as it would seem, offering to grant Manuel the imperial crown, used it as a bargaining chip to play off the emperors of west and east against one another. Manuel may have supported Alexander during the papal schism of 1160-1177 because he was the preferred candidate of Hungary and the Crusader states, both of which he hoped would recognise him as their feudal overlord. By this means he could claim sovereign rights over the crusading movement, and thereby turn it to his advantage. The playing off of Manuel against Frederick continued right up until 1177, the Peace of Venice, whereby Frederick agreed to recognise Pope Alexander, the autonomy of Sicily and of the northern Italian communes. But this result was not a foregone conclusion in the 1160s and early 1170s, and Manuel used Byzantine gold to win supporters in Italy and thereby keep Frederick occupied.

Marriage to Maria of Antioch 1161
Bertha-Irene died in late 1159/early 1160. Manuel sought to strengthen his ties with the Crusader principalities by selecting an eastern Latin princess for his wife. The exceedingly beautiful Maria of Antioch, daughter of Raymond of Antioch, was chosen, and the nuptials celebrated at Christmas, 1161.


Dynastic considerations 1169-1172
Manuel's wife Maria of Antioch gave birth to a baby boy 14 September 1169 in the porphyry marble birthchamber, the cause of great festivities. The infant was crowned emperor in 1171. With the death of Stephen III of Hungary in 1172, Stephen's brother Béla was sent out from Constantinople to assume the throne (though without Sirmium and Dalmatia being surrendered to the Hungarian crown). A husband for Maria Porphyrogenita was therefore required. At first it was proposed that she marry William II of Sicily, who was outraged when she failed to show up at Taranto on the appointed day, the emperor having had second thoughts.


The final months 1180
Manuel took ill in the month of March 1180. During this period of terminal illness the last major religious controversies took place. We are told that Manuel directed that the anathema pronounced against the god of Muhammad be removed from the abjuration against the Islamic faith declared by converts to Christianity. Manuel was opposed by the last patriarch of his reign, Theodosius Boradiotes (1179-1183), as well as, notably, by Eustathius of Thessalonica. Both parties were satisfied in the end upon a reading of the emperor's proposed amendments to the abjuration. This controversy would seem to be a different one from the one alluded to in Eustathius' funeral oration for Manuel, since Manuel is praised by Eustathius for his stance in it, which seems to have revolved around a book written by a convert from Islam that magnified the Father at the expense of the Son (and therefore had Arian overtones). It became apparent that the emperor was dying, and, on the advice of Theodosius, he renounced astrology. As his end approached, he assumed the monastic habit and the name Matthew, demanding that his wife Maria become a nun. Manuel's son Alexius was but eleven, and the minority would prove to be disastrous for Byzantium. Manuel died thirty-seven years and nine months from the beginning of his reign.

General strategies in Manuel's foreign policy
The funeral oration for Manuel by Eustathius of Thessalonica is an interesting document in that it discusses some of the general policies pursued over Manuel's reign. It endorses his policy of dividing his enemies, the Petchenegs, the Sicilian Normans and the Turks, among themselves by using Byzantine gold, a policy of "divide and rule". We have seen how this was applied especially in Italy. Another general policy was to create friendly buffer states on the frontiers of the empire, most notably Hungary (and Serbia) and the Crusader States. Manuel would deliberately underpin the most powerful potentate in each region (the king of Hungary, the king of Jerusalem, the sultan of Konya) and thereby emphasise his own absolute sovereignty. In the funeral oration this granting of autonomy is justified as the reward for good service, as in the parable of the talents. We also see in the panegyric of the 1170s the downplaying of the idea of world rule which was so prevalent in the reign of John. Although Manuel claimed sovereign rights over many of his neighbours, his territorial claims were limited: coastal southern Italy, Dalmatia and Sirmium, coastal Egypt. The Byzantines seem to have come to terms with the reality of nation states and it is in Manuel's reign that they begin to refer to themselves not only as "Romans", but as "Hellenes", in order to demarcate themselves from the barbarians surrounding them.

Manuel's taxation, government and army
Nicetas Choniates roundly criticises Manuel in his history for increasing taxes and lavishing money on his family and retainers, particularly his Latin favourites. We have also seen how money was spent in Manuel's ambitious foreign policy. Mention is made of two towers, one at Damalis, and one next to the monastery of the Mangana, between which a chain could be stretched to block the Bosphorus. Then there was the work done at both the Great Palace and the Palace of the Blachernae, galleries, a pavilion alla Turca and numerous mosaics. He also founded a monastery at Kataskepe at the mouth of the Black Sea, which was endowed from the imperial treasury.

Choniates further criticizes the continuation and spread of the granting of pronoiai, parcels of land, the income from each of which supported a soldier. Many of these were granted to foreigners, for example, Turks captured in the Meander campaigns were settled around Thessalonica. The pronoia would pay not only for a soldier's upkeep, but his expensive equipment, for in Manuel's reign the bow and arrow and circular shield had been replaced by a heavier western-style panoply of armour, large triangular shield and lance. Choniates laments how fashionable a practice it had become in Manuel's reign to forsake the land or one's trade and become enlisted in the army.

Manuel and the "Comnenian system"
Throughout Manuel's reign, as under his father John, the top tier of the aristocracy was formed by the emperor's family, the Comneni, and the families into which they married. The extended family was, however, by now becoming unwieldy, and beginning to lose its cohesion, as the example of Manuel's cousin Andronicus shows. Under Manuel it was degree of kinship to the emperor which determined one's rank, as synodal listings show. So it was that very quickly after Manuel's death the upper tier of the aristocracy splintered into separate groups, each with its own identity and interests.

Literature
The various aristocratic courts, that of the emperor and other key members of the extended family, most notably the sebastokrator Isaac Comnenus the elder and the sebastokratorissa Irene, widow of Manuel's brother Andronicus, attracted literati who would seek to serve under them. Such figures would not only turn their hands to literature, encomia in prose or poetry, expositions on mythology, commentaries on Homer or the philosophers, historical chronicles and even, in this period, romances - the twelfth century is a high point of literary production at Constantinople, so much so that some have even talked of a "Comnenian renaissance" - but they would seek to perform more menial, such as administrative, duties to support themselves. Such men would often come from noble families whose prestige had been eclipsed by the Comnenian upper tier of the aristocracy. Serving under a lord was one way of advancing oneself, entering the Church was another.

The patriarchal church and education
The deacons of the church of St Sophia were a powerful group, the chartophylax being second only to the patriarch. These deacons would either go on to become bishops in the provinces, or possibly first hold one of the professorial chairs associated with the patriarchal church. First there were the "teachers", didaskaloi of the Gospels, Epistles and Psalter. Then there was the maistor ton rhetoron, "master of the rhetors", responsible for delivering speeches in praise of the emperor on January 6 each year and of the patriarch on the Saturday prior to Palm Sunday, as well as for other state occasions. And there was the hypatos ton philosophon, "consul of the philosophers", an office which had lapsed but was revived under Manuel.

Character and Legacy
Was Byzantium of the middle to late twelfth century living on borrowed time? Until recently this was the verdict of many scholars. Yet John II and Manuel had, if there is any kernel of truth in their encomia, at least temporarily reversed the overrunning of Anatolia by the Turks, and Manuel had won Dalmatia and Sirmium from Hungary. But Byzantine collapse was rapid, which is the reason why scholars have searched in the reigns of John and Manuel for the beginnings of the disintegration that occurred under the last Comneni and the Angeli. The history and comments of Nicetas Choniates have been adduced as vindicating this view. The victory of the military aristocracy that the establishment of the Comnenian dynasty represents has been seen as both the reason for the temporary reversal of Byzantine fortunes - government by three very capable autocrats - and of ultimate failure, because of the splintering into factions that oligarchy, such as was present in the Comnenian system, foments. A Marxist interpretation is that the feudalisation of the Byzantine Empire, the depletion of the free peasantry, that began to take place in the middle period was the reason for its ultimate failure. But to the Byzantines at the time Byzantium seemed to be holding its own; the "nations" around were being kept at bay, and even though the panegyric of renovation is less evident than in the reign of John II, the emperor remains despotes, "master" of the oikoumene, "world". Indeed, Manuel would be remembered in France, Genoa and the Crusader States as the most powerful sovereign in the world.

We have mentioned the funeral oration for Manuel by Eustathius of Thessalonica. This contains a series of vignettes of the personal aspects of Manuel. There are commonplaces: the emperor is able to endure hunger, thirst, heat and cold, lack of sleep and so on, and sweats copiously in his endeavours on the empire's part. Although these ideas have been recycled from earlier reigns, notably that of John II, the contemporary historians agree that Manuel was an indefatigable and daring warrior. However, there are more specifically individual touches in the Eustathian oration. Manuel had a manly suntan and was tall in stature. The emperor was capable of clever talk, but could also talk to others on a man-to-man basis. Eustathius makes much of the emperor's book-learning (Cinnamus claims to have discussed Aristotle with the emperor). The restoration of churches was a major concern for Manuel. He also had some expertise in medicine (he had tended Conrad III of Germany and Baldwin III of Jerusalem personally). Manuel showed temperance in eating and drinking, with a certain liking for beer as well as wine, the latter being mixed sour after the manner of ascetics. Likewise, he would not slumber long. He would generally choose walking over riding. The oration closes on the widow and orphan Manuel has left behind. The situation resulting for the Byzantine Empire at this stage, with the vacuum created by Manuel would result in no less than implosion.

Copyright (C) 2003, Andrew Stone.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
ManuelStGeorge.jpg
[1663a] Byzantine Empire: Manuel I Comnenus Megas (1143-1180)---NOT TO BE CONFUSED WITH---[1685a] Empire of Trebizond: Manuel I Komnenos Megas (1218-1263 AD)131 viewsMANUEL I COMNENUS AE tetarteron. 1143-1180 AD. 19mm, 2.8g. Obverse: Bust of St. George facing, beardless, wearing nimbus, tunic, cuirass and sagion, and holding spear. Reverse: MANVHL-DECPOT, bust of Manuel facing, wearing crown and loros, holding labarum & globe-cross. Simply wonderful style, very sharp for the issue. A gorgeous late Byzantine coin! Ex Incitatus.


De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

MANUEL I COMNENUS (A.D. 1143-1180)

Andrew Stone
University of Western Australia

Introduction: Sources
The reign of the emperor Manuel I Comnenus (5 April 1143- 24 September 1180) could well be regarded as a high-water mark of Byzantine civilization. It was the apogee of the so-called "Comnenian Restoration". Politically, the emperor undertook an ambitious foreign policy which has been seen by some, particularly in the light of many ultimate failures, as "misguided imperialism", recent scholarship has come to question this traditional judgment and suggests instead that the the Comnenian foreign policy was rather an energetic seizing of the different opportunities that presented themselves in the rapidly changing constellations of powers of the time. Such measures were made possible by the internal security of the empire under this, its third, Comnenian incumbent, although there were a few other aspirants to the throne, not least among them the emperor's cousin Andronicus. Manuel and other key members of the "Comnenian system", as it has been called, were patrons of rhetoric and other forms of learning and literature, and Manuel himself became keenly interested in ecclesiastical affairs, even if here his imperialistic agenda was a factor as he tried to bring Constantinopolitan theology in line with that of the west in a bid to unite the Church under his crown.

In terms of volume of contemporary material, Manuel is the most eulogised of all Byzantine emperors, and the panegyric addressed to him supplements the two major Byzantine historians of the reign, the more critical Nicetas Choniates and the laudatory John Cinnamus, as primary sources for the student of the period to study. The Crusader historian William of Tyre met Manuel personally, and such was the scope of Manuel's diplomacy that he is mentioned incidentally in western sources, such as Romuald of Salerno. Among authors of the encomia (panegyrics) we have mentioned are Theodore Prodromus and the so-called "Manganeios" Prodromus, who wrote in verse, and the prose encomiasts Michael the Rhetor, Eustathius of Thessalonica and Euthymius Malaces, to name the most important. Manuel, with his penchant for the Latins and their ways, left a legacy of Byzantine resentment against these outsiders, which was to be ruthlessly exploited by Andronicus in the end.

Manuel as sebastokrator
Manuel was born in the imperial porphyry birthchamber on 28 November 1118. He was the fourth of John II's sons, so it seemed very unlikely that he would succeed. As a youth, Manuel evidently accompanied John on campaign, for in the Anatolian expedition of 1139-41 we find Manuel rashly charging a small group of the Turkish enemy, an action for which he was castigated by his father, even though John, we are told, was inwardly impressed (mention of the incident is made in John's deathbed speech in both John Cinnamus and Nicetas Choniates). John negotiated a marriage contract for Manuel with Conrad III of Germany; he was to marry Bertha of Sulzbach. It seems to have been John's plan to carve out a client principality for Manuel from Cilicia, Cyprus and Coele Syria. In the event, it was Manuel who succeeded him.

The Securing of the Succession 1143
In the article on John II it is related how the dying John chose his youngest son Manuel to succeed him in preference to his other surviving son Isaac. Manuel was acclaimed emperor by the armies on 5 April 1143. Manuel stayed in Cilicia, where the army was stationed, for thirty days, to complete the funeral rites for his father. He sent his father's right-hand man John Axuch, however, to Constantinople to confine Isaac to the Pantokrator Monastery and to effect a donation of two hundredweight of silver coin to the clergy of the Great Church. The surviving encomium of Michael Italicus, Teacher of the Gospel, for the new emperor can be regarded as a return gift for this largesse. In the meantime the Caesar John Roger, husband of Manuel's eldest sister Maria, had been plotting to seize the throne; the plot was, however, given away by his wife before it could take effect. Manuel marched home to enter Constantinople c. July 1143. He secured the good-will of the people by commanding that every household should be granted two gold coins. Isaac the younger (Manuel's brother) and Isaac the elder (Manuel's paternal uncle), were both released from captivity and reconciled with him. Manuel chose Michael Oxeites as the new patriarch and was crowned either in August or November 1143.

Manuel confirmed John Axuch in the office of Grand Domestic, that is, commander of the army, appointed John of Poutze as procurator of public taxes, grand commissioner and inspector of accounts and John Hagiotheodorites as chancellor. John of Poutze proved to be an oppressive tax collector, but was also unsusceptible to bribery. However, this John diverted monies levied for the navy into the treasury, which would, as we shall see, further Byzantine dependence on the maritime Italian city-states of Venice, Genoa and Pisa.

Early Campaigns: 1144-1146
Manuel's first concern was to consolidate the work of his father in securing the eastern frontier. He sent a force under the brothers Andronicus and John Contostephanus against the recalcitrant Crusader prince Raymond of Antioch, which consisted of both an army and a navy, the latter commanded by Demetrius Branas. Raymond's army was routed, and the naval force inflicted no small damage on the coastal regions of the principality. In the meantime the Crusader city of Edessa fell to the Turkish atabeg Zengi. Raymond therefore travelled to Constantinople as a suppliant to Manuel. It was subsequently decided, in the light of Manuel's imperial status, that the terms under which he would marry Bertha of Sulzbach should be improved. Manuel asked for 500 knights, and Conrad happily granted them, being prepared to supply 2000 or 3000 if need be all for the sake of this alliance. Bertha took the Greek name Irene.

The Seljuk sultanate of Rum under Masud had become the ascendant Turkish power in Anatolia. Manuel himself supervised the rebuilding of the fortress of Melangeia on the Sangarius river in Bithynia (1145 or 1146). In the most daring campaign of these early years, after building the new fort of Pithecas in Bithynia, Manuel advanced as far into Turkish territory as Konya (Iconium), the Seljuk capital. He had been wounded in the foot by an arrow at a mighty battle at Philomelium (which had been Masud's headquarters), and the city had been rased; once at Konya, he allowed his troops to despoil the graves outside the city walls, before taking the road home.

Cinnamus relates that the gratutitous heroics which Manuel displayed on this campaign were calculated to impress Manuel's new bride. Manuel and his army were harried by Turks on the journey home. Manuel erected the fort of Pylae before leaving Anatolia.

[For a detailed and interesting discussion of the reign of Manuel I Comnenus please see http://www.roman-emperors.org/mannycom.htm]

Frederick Barbarossa and the "two-emperor problem"
Frederick Barbarossa, who was to become a constant menace to Manuel's designs, had succeeded his uncle Conrad III in 1152, but unlike him proved in the end unprepared to make any territorial concessions in Italy. The origins of this "cold war" between the two empires cannot be dated with any certainty, but there may have been a tendency to date it too early. One school of thought would not date the outbreak of this rivalry to any earlier than 1159-60, the death of Manuel's German wife, Bertha-Irene. About this time there was a scare at Constantinople that Frederick Barbarossa would march on Byzantium, perhaps reflecting a desire on Frederick's part to crusade (which he eventually did, in the reign of Isaac II Angelus). The new Pope, Alexander III, by, as it would seem, offering to grant Manuel the imperial crown, used it as a bargaining chip to play off the emperors of west and east against one another. Manuel may have supported Alexander during the papal schism of 1160-1177 because he was the preferred candidate of Hungary and the Crusader states, both of which he hoped would recognise him as their feudal overlord. By this means he could claim sovereign rights over the crusading movement, and thereby turn it to his advantage. The playing off of Manuel against Frederick continued right up until 1177, the Peace of Venice, whereby Frederick agreed to recognise Pope Alexander, the autonomy of Sicily and of the northern Italian communes. But this result was not a foregone conclusion in the 1160s and early 1170s, and Manuel used Byzantine gold to win supporters in Italy and thereby keep Frederick occupied.

Marriage to Maria of Antioch 1161
Bertha-Irene died in late 1159/early 1160. Manuel sought to strengthen his ties with the Crusader principalities by selecting an eastern Latin princess for his wife. The exceedingly beautiful Maria of Antioch, daughter of Raymond of Antioch, was chosen, and the nuptials celebrated at Christmas, 1161.


Dynastic considerations 1169-1172
Manuel's wife Maria of Antioch gave birth to a baby boy 14 September 1169 in the porphyry marble birthchamber, the cause of great festivities. The infant was crowned emperor in 1171. With the death of Stephen III of Hungary in 1172, Stephen's brother Béla was sent out from Constantinople to assume the throne (though without Sirmium and Dalmatia being surrendered to the Hungarian crown). A husband for Maria Porphyrogenita was therefore required. At first it was proposed that she marry William II of Sicily, who was outraged when she failed to show up at Taranto on the appointed day, the emperor having had second thoughts.


The final months 1180
Manuel took ill in the month of March 1180. During this period of terminal illness the last major religious controversies took place. We are told that Manuel directed that the anathema pronounced against the god of Muhammad be removed from the abjuration against the Islamic faith declared by converts to Christianity. Manuel was opposed by the last patriarch of his reign, Theodosius Boradiotes (1179-1183), as well as, notably, by Eustathius of Thessalonica. Both parties were satisfied in the end upon a reading of the emperor's proposed amendments to the abjuration. This controversy would seem to be a different one from the one alluded to in Eustathius' funeral oration for Manuel, since Manuel is praised by Eustathius for his stance in it, which seems to have revolved around a book written by a convert from Islam that magnified the Father at the expense of the Son (and therefore had Arian overtones). It became apparent that the emperor was dying, and, on the advice of Theodosius, he renounced astrology. As his end approached, he assumed the monastic habit and the name Matthew, demanding that his wife Maria become a nun. Manuel's son Alexius was but eleven, and the minority would prove to be disastrous for Byzantium. Manuel died thirty-seven years and nine months from the beginning of his reign.

General strategies in Manuel's foreign policy
The funeral oration for Manuel by Eustathius of Thessalonica is an interesting document in that it discusses some of the general policies pursued over Manuel's reign. It endorses his policy of dividing his enemies, the Petchenegs, the Sicilian Normans and the Turks, among themselves by using Byzantine gold, a policy of "divide and rule". We have seen how this was applied especially in Italy. Another general policy was to create friendly buffer states on the frontiers of the empire, most notably Hungary (and Serbia) and the Crusader States. Manuel would deliberately underpin the most powerful potentate in each region (the king of Hungary, the king of Jerusalem, the sultan of Konya) and thereby emphasise his own absolute sovereignty. In the funeral oration this granting of autonomy is justified as the reward for good service, as in the parable of the talents. We also see in the panegyric of the 1170s the downplaying of the idea of world rule which was so prevalent in the reign of John. Although Manuel claimed sovereign rights over many of his neighbours, his territorial claims were limited: coastal southern Italy, Dalmatia and Sirmium, coastal Egypt. The Byzantines seem to have come to terms with the reality of nation states and it is in Manuel's reign that they begin to refer to themselves not only as "Romans", but as "Hellenes", in order to demarcate themselves from the barbarians surrounding them.

Manuel's taxation, government and army
Nicetas Choniates roundly criticises Manuel in his history for increasing taxes and lavishing money on his family and retainers, particularly his Latin favourites. We have also seen how money was spent in Manuel's ambitious foreign policy. Mention is made of two towers, one at Damalis, and one next to the monastery of the Mangana, between which a chain could be stretched to block the Bosphorus. Then there was the work done at both the Great Palace and the Palace of the Blachernae, galleries, a pavilion alla Turca and numerous mosaics. He also founded a monastery at Kataskepe at the mouth of the Black Sea, which was endowed from the imperial treasury.

Choniates further criticizes the continuation and spread of the granting of pronoiai, parcels of land, the income from each of which supported a soldier. Many of these were granted to foreigners, for example, Turks captured in the Meander campaigns were settled around Thessalonica. The pronoia would pay not only for a soldier's upkeep, but his expensive equipment, for in Manuel's reign the bow and arrow and circular shield had been replaced by a heavier western-style panoply of armour, large triangular shield and lance. Choniates laments how fashionable a practice it had become in Manuel's reign to forsake the land or one's trade and become enlisted in the army.

Manuel and the "Comnenian system"
Throughout Manuel's reign, as under his father John, the top tier of the aristocracy was formed by the emperor's family, the Comneni, and the families into which they married. The extended family was, however, by now becoming unwieldy, and beginning to lose its cohesion, as the example of Manuel's cousin Andronicus shows. Under Manuel it was degree of kinship to the emperor which determined one's rank, as synodal listings show. So it was that very quickly after Manuel's death the upper tier of the aristocracy splintered into separate groups, each with its own identity and interests.

Literature
The various aristocratic courts, that of the emperor and other key members of the extended family, most notably the sebastokrator Isaac Comnenus the elder and the sebastokratorissa Irene, widow of Manuel's brother Andronicus, attracted literati who would seek to serve under them. Such figures would not only turn their hands to literature, encomia in prose or poetry, expositions on mythology, commentaries on Homer or the philosophers, historical chronicles and even, in this period, romances - the twelfth century is a high point of literary production at Constantinople, so much so that some have even talked of a "Comnenian renaissance" - but they would seek to perform more menial, such as administrative, duties to support themselves. Such men would often come from noble families whose prestige had been eclipsed by the Comnenian upper tier of the aristocracy. Serving under a lord was one way of advancing oneself, entering the Church was another.

The patriarchal church and education
The deacons of the church of St Sophia were a powerful group, the chartophylax being second only to the patriarch. These deacons would either go on to become bishops in the provinces, or possibly first hold one of the professorial chairs associated with the patriarchal church. First there were the "teachers", didaskaloi of the Gospels, Epistles and Psalter. Then there was the maistor ton rhetoron, "master of the rhetors", responsible for delivering speeches in praise of the emperor on January 6 each year and of the patriarch on the Saturday prior to Palm Sunday, as well as for other state occasions. And there was the hypatos ton philosophon, "consul of the philosophers", an office which had lapsed but was revived under Manuel.

Character and Legacy
Was Byzantium of the middle to late twelfth century living on borrowed time? Until recently this was the verdict of many scholars. Yet John II and Manuel had, if there is any kernel of truth in their encomia, at least temporarily reversed the overrunning of Anatolia by the Turks, and Manuel had won Dalmatia and Sirmium from Hungary. But Byzantine collapse was rapid, which is the reason why scholars have searched in the reigns of John and Manuel for the beginnings of the disintegration that occurred under the last Comneni and the Angeli. The history and comments of Nicetas Choniates have been adduced as vindicating this view. The victory of the military aristocracy that the establishment of the Comnenian dynasty represents has been seen as both the reason for the temporary reversal of Byzantine fortunes - government by three very capable autocrats - and of ultimate failure, because of the splintering into factions that oligarchy, such as was present in the Comnenian system, foments. A Marxist interpretation is that the feudalisation of the Byzantine Empire, the depletion of the free peasantry, that began to take place in the middle period was the reason for its ultimate failure. But to the Byzantines at the time Byzantium seemed to be holding its own; the "nations" around were being kept at bay, and even though the panegyric of renovation is less evident than in the reign of John II, the emperor remains despotes, "master" of the oikoumene, "world". Indeed, Manuel would be remembered in France, Genoa and the Crusader States as the most powerful sovereign in the world.

We have mentioned the funeral oration for Manuel by Eustathius of Thessalonica. This contains a series of vignettes of the personal aspects of Manuel. There are commonplaces: the emperor is able to endure hunger, thirst, heat and cold, lack of sleep and so on, and sweats copiously in his endeavours on the empire's part. Although these ideas have been recycled from earlier reigns, notably that of John II, the contemporary historians agree that Manuel was an indefatigable and daring warrior. However, there are more specifically individual touches in the Eustathian oration. Manuel had a manly suntan and was tall in stature. The emperor was capable of clever talk, but could also talk to others on a man-to-man basis. Eustathius makes much of the emperor's book-learning (Cinnamus claims to have discussed Aristotle with the emperor). The restoration of churches was a major concern for Manuel. He also had some expertise in medicine (he had tended Conrad III of Germany and Baldwin III of Jerusalem personally). Manuel showed temperance in eating and drinking, with a certain liking for beer as well as wine, the latter being mixed sour after the manner of ascetics. Likewise, he would not slumber long. He would generally choose walking over riding. The oration closes on the widow and orphan Manuel has left behind. The situation resulting for the Byzantine Empire at this stage, with the vacuum created by Manuel would result in no less than implosion.

Copyright (C) 2003, Andrew Stone.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
   
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