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india_elephant.jpg
75 viewsstruck under Tipu Sultan (1782 - 1799 n. Chr.)
uncertain mint in Mysore, India
10.95 g, 23 mm
Obv: Elephant walking left
Rev.: Tusk, symbol of ruler
areich
DenRoscioFabato.jpg
34 viewsDenarius Serratus 64 or 62 BC. - Mint of Rome
L. ROSCIVS FABATVS - Gens Roscia
Obv.: Head of Juno Sospita in goat skin, L ROSCI below, symbol behind (Shield)
Rev.:Girl standing right feeding serpent before, symbol to left (helm), FABATI in ex.
gs. 3,9 mm. 18,2x17,4
Crawford 412/1; Sear RCV 363, Grueber I 3394.



1 commentsMaxentius
DenSerratoLPapio.jpg
26 viewsDenarius Serratus - 79 BC - Rome mint
Obv.: Head of Juno Sospita right, wearing goatskin, symbol behind (amphora with two handles and string)
Rev.:Gryphon dancing right, symbol below (ampulla), L PAPI in ex.
Gs. 3,8 mm. 18,28x19,64
Crawf. 384/1, Sear RCV 311, Grueber 2977

1 commentsMaxentius
DenSerratoMarioCapito.jpg
36 viewsDenarius Serratus - 81 BC. - Rome mint
C. MARIVS C.f. CAPITO - Gens Maria
Obv.: CAPIT CIIII . Bust of Ceres right, wreathed with corn, symbol (torque) below chin.
Rev.:Plowman with yoke of oxen plowing left, same numeral above. In ex., C MARI C.F. / S C.
Gs. 3,7 mm. 19,2
Crawf. 378/1c, Sear RCV 300, Grueber (symbol torque) 2875.



Maxentius
DenPCrepusio.jpg
54 viewsDenarius - 82 BC. - Rome mint
PVBLIVS CREPVSIVS - Gens Crepusia
Obv.: Laureate head of Apollo right, control symbol before (vine leaf) and [numeral behind]
Rev.: Horseman right, brandishing spear; P CREPVSI in ex, [control-numeral behind].
Gs. 4,3 mm. 17,78x16,85
Crawf. 361/1, Sear RCV, Grueber I 2664

2 commentsMaxentius
glok_lokLG.jpg
151 viewsLOKRIS Locri Opuntii. Triobol or Hemidrachm, ca 330 bc (AR; 15mm; 2.68g; 11h) Head of Demeter with wreath of corn-ears to right. Rev. OPONTIWN Ajax advancing to right, between his legs, kantharos; symbol inside the shield, serpent.

BCD coll 99; De Luynes 1958.

5 commentspaul1888
MARATHA_-_TRISHUL_SYMBOL_-_RARE_COPPER_COIN_-_9_24_gm_-_RARE0.jpg
15 viewsAntonivs Protti
MARATHA_-_TRISHUL_SYMBOL_-_RARE_COPPER_COIN_-_9_24_gm_-_RARE.jpg
34 viewsAntonivs Protti
Pseudo_Rhodian_Drachm.jpg
35 viewsMacedonian Kingdom. Perseus. 179-168 B.C. AR drachm (15 mm, 2.60 g, 12 h). ca. 171/0 B.C. Aristokrates, magistrate. Head of Helios facing slightly right / P-O, rose with bud to left; in left field, club; above, magistrate's name: [ΑΡΙ]ΣΤΟΚΡΑΤΗΣ. R. J. H. Ashton, ""Clubs, Thunderbolts, Torches, Stars and Caducei: more Pseudo-Rhodian Drachms from Mainland Greece and the Islands,"" NC 162 (2002), 17 (A6/P5; this coin). Toned. Very fine.
Ex Naville V (18 June 1923), 2669. British Museum Duplicate, Ex: British Museum


The Pseudo-Rhodian drachms were struck, probably by the Macedonians under Perseus but possibly by the Romans, to pay for Mercenaries from Crete and Rhodes who would have been familiar with Rhodian coinage. The coins in the name of the magistrate Aristokrates with the club symbol in the field is the largest known individual issue of pseudo-Rhodian drachms from the Third Macedonian War, and used at least twenty-nine obverse dies.
paul1888
constans199.jpg
Constans, Siscia RIC VIII 19930 viewsConstans, AE 3, Sisica
Obverse: DN CONSTANS PF AVG, pearl diademed and curiassed bust right.
Reverse: FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Emperor standing facing, head left, holding Phoenix on globe and labarum on galley, Victory sits at the helm.
Gamma SIST(symbol 3) in ex. Siscia mint, 18.9 mm, 2.0 g.
NORMAN K
c93a.jpg
Constantius II RIC VIII 93a Cyzicus26 viewsConstantius II, AE 3 of Cyzicus, 324-361 CE
Obverse: DN CONSTAN-TIVS PF AVG, pearl diademed, draped, curiassed bust right.
Reverse: FEL TEMP-REPARATIO, soldier spearing fallen horseman who is wearing a Phrygian helmet, reaching backwards. Γ Symbol in left field
Mintmark SMK delta, 22.8 mm., 5.2 g.
NORMAN K
mon1s.jpg
Constantius II, RIC VIII Cyzicus 93A 21 viewsObv: DN CONSTAN-TIVS PF AVG, pearl-diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right
Rev: FEL TEMP RE-PARATIO, soldier spearing fallen horseman who is wearing a Phrygian helmet and is reaching backwards. Γ symbol in left field
Mintmark: SMK Delta
AE2 23mm., 5.2 g. Cyzicus
NORMAN K
1__antiochus_IV__j_hyrcanus_I.jpg
Hendin-45187 viewsMinted under the joint authority of Antiochos VII and John Hyrcanus I
130/131 BCE
Struck as a transitional issue at the mint of Jerusalem
Called the earliest "Jewish" coin.
Obv- ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ ΕΥΕΡΓΕΤΟΥ
Seleucid anchor, upside down, date below
Rev- Lily,Symbol of Jerusalem and the Temple
Mint: Jerusalem
Meshorer: AJC 1,Supplement II,A2
1 commentsbrian l
AUGUDU03-2.jpg
28 BC Colony established at Nemausus by Augustus' army425 viewsmedium bronze (dupondius or as?) (12.6g, 25mm, 2h) Nemausus mint. Struck 10 BC - 10 AD.
IMP DIVI F Agrippa laureate head left and Augustus laureate head right, back to back
COL NEM crocodile chained to palm tree top bent to right, wreath at top.
RIC (Augustus) 158

Denomination uncertain. COL NEM stands for COLONIA AVGVSTA NEMAVSVS (present Nîmes, France), built by Augustus' army after their conquest and return from Egypt. The crocodile chained to the palm tree symbolizes the defeat of the Cleopatra and Marc Antony at Actium.
2 commentsCharles S
Alexander_I~2.jpg
Alexander I Balas 152 - 145 B.C.12 views Alexander I Balas 152 - 145 B.C. Ar drachm 17.1~17.8mm. 3.43g. Obv: Diademed head right. Obv: BAΣIΛEΩΣ AΛEΞANΔPOY ΘEOΠATOPOΣ EYEPΓETOY, Apollo seated left on omphalos, testing arrow, resting hand on grounded bow. Symbol: (outer left) cornucopia. SC 1785ddwau
COCK_BOTH.jpg
Athens New Style Tetradrachm 146/5 BC19 viewsObs : Athena Parthenos right in tri-form helmet
34 mm Thompson issue 18
Thompson catalogue:Obs Gaziantep 146?:Rev NEW?
Rev : ΑΘΕ ethnic
Owl standing on overturned panathenaic amphora
below control mark ME
2 magistrates : XAPΙ ΗPA
RF symbol : Cock with Palm
All within a surrounding olive wreath
cicerokid
constans199s2.jpg
Constans, RIC VIII 199a Siscia25 viewsConstans, AE 4,
Obverse: DN CONSTANS PF AVG, diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Emperor standing facing, head left, holding Phoenix on globe and holding a labarum on galley. Victory sits on helm.
Mintmark episilon SIS (symbol1) in ex. Siscia. 17 mm, 2.0 g.
NORMAN K
hand2s.jpg
Divus Constantine I, Posthumous commemorative AE4, 337-341 CE27 viewsObverse: DN CONSTANTI-NVS PT AVGG, veiled head right.
Reverse: No legend, the deified Constantine driving quadriga right, hand of god reaching down from above, star at upper left.
SMANS in ex. Antioch mint, 2nd officina. RIV VIII 37, 16.6 mm, 1.4 g.

It is ironic that Constantine, who tradition tells us was the first Christian emperor (although he only actually became one on his death bed), should have been honored with pagan deification and commemorated posthumously with traditional pagan symbolism as found on this coin. He was the last emperor to be so honored.
NORMAN K
DSC01795.JPG
INDIA-Panchala-Kingdom-HALF-Karshapana-INDIRAMITRA-RARE-COIN-4-42gm 15 viewsObverse Lord Indra standing on a pedestal
Reverse Three Panchala symbols in a row, with name below in Brahmi script: Indramitrasa
Date c. 1st century BCE - 1st century CE (highly uncertain)
Weight 4.78 gm.
Diameter 16 mm.
Die axis 5 o'clock
Reference MAC 4539, Shrimali Type A
Comments The Panchala series is one of the most interesting of the ancient India coin series, because it is quite long and the kings are named on them. Unfortunately, we know very little about the chronology. The order of kings is not known and even the dates of the series are still debated. It appears the series belongs in the post-Mauryan period, but further details are still unavailable.

You can see a catalog of Panchala coins on the CoinIndia website.
Antonivs Protti
DSC01834.JPG
INDIA-Panchala-Kingdom-HALF-Karshapana-INDIRAMITRA-RARE-COIN-4-6gm 13 viewsObverse Lord Indra standing on a pedestal
Reverse Three Panchala symbols in a row, with name below in Brahmi script: Indramitrasa
Date c. 1st century BCE - 1st century CE (highly uncertain)
Weight 4.78 gm.
Diameter 16 mm.
Die axis 5 o'clock
Reference MAC 4539, Shrimali Type A
Comments The Panchala series is one of the most interesting of the ancient India coin series, because it is quite long and the kings are named on them. Unfortunately, we know very little about the chronology. The order of kings is not known and even the dates of the series are still debated. It appears the series belongs in the post-Mauryan period, but further details are still unavailable.

You can see a catalog of Panchala coins on the CoinIndia website.
Antonivs Protti
935229_522469501123299_725249295_n.jpg
Rhodos, Carian Islands, c. 188 - 84 B.C.105 viewsSilver hemidrachm, cf. SNG Keckman 642 ff. (various magistrates and control symbols)Dexikrates, Fine/Fair, scratches, underweight (perhaps imitative), 0.905g, 13.0mm, 135o, Rhodos (Rhodes) mint, c. 188 - 84 B.C.; obverse radiate head of Helios facing slightly right; reverse rose with bud to right, P-O in fields, magistrates name above,ΔΕΞΙΚΡΑΤΗΣ, control symbol lower left, all within a shallow square incuse;7 commentsRandygeki(h2)
Aphroditopolis.jpg
34 viewsEGYPT, Aphroditopolis
PB Tessera (13mm, 1.78 g)
Eros standing left, stooping over bird to left
Head of hippocamp right (or swan right?)
Milne 5325-9; Dattari (Savio) 11856-7; Köln -; Rostowzew & Prou 714 (dolphin)

The reverse type here more closely resembles a swan than it does a hippocamp. While the swan is a symbol of Aphrodite, Dattari (Savio) 11857 clearly shows the head a hippocamp. It is possible that these are two distinct types.
Ardatirion
louis9-gros-tournois.JPG
Dy.190C Louis IX (Saint Louis): Gros tournois59 viewsLouis IX, king of France (1226-1270)
Gros tournois (1266-1270)

Silver (958 ‰), 3.94 g, diameter 26 mm, die axis 12h
O: inner circle: +LVDOVICVS REX; cross pattée; outer circle: BHDICTV⋮SIT⋮HOmЄ⋮DNI⋮nRI⋮DЄI⋮IhV.XPI
R: inner circle: +TVRONVS CIVIS; châtel tournois; outer circle: a circlet of 12 fleur-de-lis

The full transcription of the obverse is: benedictvm sit nomen domini nostri dei Jesu Christi, which means ``blessed is the name of our Lord Jesus Christ'' (XPI is in fact a mix of greek and latin letters: χρI[STI]). This choice of religious legend is not surprising for a king as pious as Louis IX.

The value of the denier had become too small for use in commerce. So Louis IX introduced the Gros Tournois in 1266, with a value of 12 deniers tournois (12 is the number of lis, and also of letters of the obverse and reverse legends !). Gros means ``big'' or``thick'', and tournois ``of Tours'' (Tours is a french city). The inner part of a Gros tournois is similar to a denier tournois. An outer circle has been added with the christian legend on the obverse and 12 fleur-de-lis (symbol of French kingship) on the reverse.

Gros tournois were struck in France and entire Europe during one century.
Droger
philippe4-tournois-simple.JPG
Dy.230B Philip IV (the Fair): simple tournois17 viewsPhilip IV, king of France (1285-1314)
Simple tournois (1295-1303)

Billon (399 ‰), 0.83 g, diameter 14-15 mm, die axis 6h
O: cross pattée with a symbol in each quadrant : P, h, I and a cross
R: chatel tournois' pediment with 2 fleur-de-lis
Droger
lg004_quad_sm.jpg
"As de Nîmes" or "crocodile" Ӕ dupondius of Nemausus (9 - 3 BC), honoring Augustus and Agrippa36 viewsIMP DIVI F , Heads of Agrippa (left) and Augustus (right) back to back, Agrippa wearing rostral crown and Augustus the oak-wreath / COL NEM, crocodile right chained to palm-shoot with short dense fronds and tip right; two short palm offshoots left and right below, above on left a wreath with two long ties streaming right.

Ӕ, 24.5 x 3+ mm, 13.23g, die axis 3h; on both sides there are remains of what appears to be gold plating, perhaps it was a votive offering? Rough edges and slight scrapes on flan typical for this kind of coin, due to primitive technology (filing) of flan preparation.

IMPerator DIVI Filius. Mint of COLonia NEMausus (currently Nîmes, France). Known as "As de Nîmes", it is actually a dupontius (lit. "two-pounder") = 2 ases (sometimes cut in halves to get change). Dupondii were often made out of a golden-colored copper alloy (type of brass) "orichalcum" and this appears to be such case.

Key ID points: oak-wreath (microphotography shows that at least one leaf has a complicated shape, although distinguishing oak from laurel is very difficult) – earlier versions have Augustus bareheaded, no PP on obverse as in later versions, no NE ligature, palm with short fronds with tip right (later versions have tip left and sometimes long fronds). Not typical: no clear laurel wreath together with the rostral crown, gold (?) plating (!), both features really baffling.

But still clearly a "middle" kind of the croc dupondius, known as "type III": RIC I 158, RPC I 524, Sear 1730. It is often conservatively dated to 10 BC - 10 AD, but these days it is usually narrowed to 9/8 - 3 BC.

It is a commemorative issue, honoring the victory over Mark Antony and conquest of Egypt in 30 BC. The heads of Augustus and Agrippa were probably positioned to remind familiar obverses of Roman republican coins with two-faced Janus. Palm branch was a common symbol of victory, in this case grown into a tree, like the victories of Augustus and Agrippa grown into the empire. The two offshoots at the bottom may mean two sons of Agrippa, Gaius and Lucius, who were supposed to be Augustus' heirs and were patrons of the colony. Palm may also be a symbol of the local Nemausian deity, which was probably worshiped in a sacred grove. When these coins were minted, the colony was mostly populated by the settled veterans of Augustus' campaigns, hence the reminiscence of the most famous victory, but some of the original Celtic culture probably survived and was assimilated by Romans. The crocodile is not only the symbol of Egypt, like in the famous Octavian's coins AEGYPTO CAPTA. It is also a representation of Mark Antony, powerful and scary both in water and on land, but a bit slow and stupid. The shape of the crocodile with tail up was specifically chosen to remind of the shape of ship on very common "legionary" denarius series, which Mark Antony minted to pay his armies just before Actium. It is probably also related to the popular contemporary caricature of Cleopatra, riding on and simultaneously copulating with a crocodile, holding a palm branch in her hand as if in triumph. There the crocodile also symbolized Mark Antony.

Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa was born c. 64-62 BC somewhere in rural Italy. His family was of humble and plebeian origins, but rich, of equestrian rank. Agrippa was about the same age as Octavian, and the two were educated together and became close friends. He probably first served in Caesar's Spanish campaign of 46–45 BC. Caesar regarded him highly enough to send him with Octavius in 45 BC to train in Illyria. When Octavian returned to Rome after Caesar's assassination, Agrippa became his close lieutenant, performing many tasks. He probably started his political career in 43 BC as a tribune of the people and then a member of the Senate. Then he was one of the leading Octavian's generals, finally becoming THE leading general and admiral in the civil wars of the subsequent years.

In 38 as a governor of Transalpine Gaul Agrippa undertook an expedition to Germania, thus becoming the first Roman general since Julius Caesar to cross the Rhine. During this foray he helped the Germanic tribe of Ubii (who previously allied themselves with Caesar in 55 BC) to resettle on the west bank of the Rhine. A shrine was dedicated there, possibly to Divus Caesar whom Ubii fondly remembered, and the village became known as Ara Ubiorum, "Altar of Ubians". This quickly would become an important Roman settlement. Agrippina the Younger, Agrippa's granddaughter, wife of Emperor Claudius and mother of Emperor Nero, would be born there in 15 AD. In 50 AD she would sponsor this village to be upgraded to a colonia, and it would be renamed Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium (colony of Claudius [at] the Altar of Agrippinians – Ubii renamed themselves as Agrippinians to honor the augusta!), abbreviated as CCAA, later to become the capital of new Roman province, Germania Inferior.

In 37 BC Octavian recalled Agrippa back to Rome and arranged for him to win the consular elections, he desperately needed help in naval warfare with Sextus Pompey, the youngest son of Pompey the Great, who styled himself as the last supporter of the republican cause, but in reality became a pirate king, an irony since his father was the one who virtually exterminated piracy in all the Roman waters. He forced humiliating armistice on the triumvirs in 39 BC and when Octavian renewed the hostilities a year later, defeated him in a decisive naval battle of Messina. New fleet had to be built and trained, and Agrippa was the man for the job. Agrippa's solution was creating a huge secret naval base he called Portus Iulius by connecting together lakes Avernus, Avernus and the natural inner and outer harbors behind Cape Misenum at the northern end of the Gulf of Naples. He also created a larger type of ship and developed a new naval weapon: harpax – a ballista-launched grapnel shot with mechanisms that allowed pulling enemy ships close for easy boarding. It replaced the previous boarding device that Romans used since the First Punic War, corvus – effective, but extremely cumbersome. A later defence against it were scythe blades on long poles for cutting ropes, but since this invention was developed in secret, the enemy had no chance to prepare anything like it. It all has proved extremely effective: in a series of naval engagements Agrippa annihilated the fleet of Sextus, forced him to abandon his bases and run away. For this Agrippa was awarded an unprecedented honour that no Roman before or after him received: a rostral crown, "corona rostrata", a wreath decorated in front by a prow and beak of a ship.

That's why Virgil (Aeneid VIII, 683-684), describing Agrippa at Actium, says: "…belli insigne superbum, tempora navali fulgent rostrata corona." "…the proud military decoration, gleams on his brow the naval rostral crown". Actium, the decisive battle between forces of Octavian and Mark Antony, may appear boring compared to the war with Sextus, but it probably turned out this way due to Agrippa's victories in preliminary naval engagements and taking over all the strategy from Octavian.

In between the wars Agrippa has shown an unusual talent in city planning, not only constructing many new public buildings etc., but also greatly improving Rome's sanitation by doing a complete overhaul of all the aqueducts and sewers. Typically, it was Augustus who later would boast that "he had found the city of brick but left it of marble", forgetting that, just like in his naval successes, it was Agrippa who did most of the work. Agrippa had building programs in other Roman cities as well, a magnificent temple (currently known as Maison Carrée) survives in Nîmes itself, which was probably built by Agrippa.

Later relationship between Augustus and Agrippa seemed colder for a while, Agrippa seemed to even go into "exile", but modern historians agree that it was just a ploy: Augustus wanted others to think that Agrippa was his "rival" while in truth he was keeping a significant army far away from Rome, ready to come to the rescue in case Augustus' political machinations fail. It is confirmed by the fact that later Agrippa was recalled and given authority almost equal to Augustus himself, not to mention that he married Augustus' only biological child. The last years of Agrippa's life were spent governing the eastern provinces, were he won respect even of the Jews. He also restored Crimea to Roman Empire. His last service was starting the conquest of the upper Danube, were later the province of Pannonia would be. He suddenly died of illness in 12 BC, aged ~51.

Agrippa had several children through his three marriages. Through some of his children, Agrippa would become ancestor to many subsequent members of the Julio-Claudian dynasty. He has numerous other legacies.
Yurii P
107-1b-Naville-6-6-2015-wht.jpg
"C", larger head, Denarius, Crawford 107/1b17 viewsDenomination: Denarius
Era: c. 209-208 BC
Metal: AR
Obverse: Helmeted head of Roma r. with splayed visor; “X” behind; Border of dots
Reverse: Dioscuri r.; above, “C” symbol; in linear frame, “ROMA”.
Mint: Etruria(?)
Weight: 4.32 gm.
Reference: Crawford 107/1b
Provenance: Naville auction, 7-MAY-2017

Comments:
This type with a “C” symbol is of the same fundamental style as the staff symbol 106/3c. presumably both issues from the same mint. The type is somewhat scarce, but the most common of the three other “C” sub-varieties.
Near complete on a large flan, GVF.
Steve B5
86A_1.jpg
"Q" Quinarius, RRC 86A/127 viewsDenomination: Quinarius
Era: c. 211 BC
Metal: AR
Obverse: Helmeted head of Roma r. with splayed visor. Hair curl visible on far side of Roma’s neck. Behind, “V”. Border of dots
Reverse: Dioscuri r.; “ROMA” in exergue. “Q” symbol below horses
Mint: S. E. Italy
Weight: 2.11 gm.
Reference: Crawford 86A/1
Provenance: Nomisma E-Live Auction 12, October 2, 2019, Lot 2034

Comments: “Q” symbol quinarius, Not to be confused with the more common Crawford 102/2 Q quinarius varieties. Very scarce, 6 examples in ACSearch at this writing.

Glossy jet black patina(?) Some reverse corrosion, otherwise GVF.
3 commentsSteve B5
cl_goth_cos_res.jpg
(0268) CLAUDIUS II GOTHICUS13 views268 - 270 AD
AE 18X21 mm, 2.45 g
O: IMP C CLAVDIVS AVG radiate curissed bust right
R: [P M T]RP II COS P P Claudius, togate, holding olive-branch and scepter
(Scarce dated reverse legend for the period; civilian Emperor symbolism was also rather obsolete at the time, expecially with Claudius II)
cf. RIC 5 10ff

laney
valt_i_sec_sisc_symb_4_res.jpg
(0364) VALENTINIAN I39 views364 - 375 AD
struck 367 - 375 AD
AE 18 mm; 1.45 g
O: VALENTINIANVS PF AVG Diademed, draped bust right.
R: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE Victory advancing left carrying wreath and palm, R over symbol 4 (A with a curl on top) to left, F to right, GSISCS in exergue.
Siscia mint; RIC IX-15a
laney
valentinian_res.jpg
(0364) VALENTINIAN I -- GLORIA64 views364 - 375 AD
AD 18.3 mm2.63 g
O: DN VALENTINI-ANVS PF AVG, pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right.
R: GLORIA RO-MANORVM, Emperor in military dress, advancing right, head left, holding labarum, dragging captive behind him.
Left field: F; Right field: A over symbol 3.
BSISC zigzag in exe.
Siscia mint
RIC IX Siscia 14a, type xxxiii.
laney
LPisoFrugiDenarius_S235.jpg
(502a) Roman Republic, L. Calpurnius Piso Frugi, 90 B.C.158 viewsSilver denarius, S 235, Calpurnia 11, Crawford 340/1, Syd 663a, VF, rainbow toning, Rome mint, 3.772g, 18.5mm, 180o, 90 B.C. obverse: laureate head of Apollo right, scorpion behind; Reverse naked horseman galloping right holding palm, L PISO FRVGI and control number CXI below; ex-CNA XV 6/5/91, #443. Ex FORVM.


A portion of the following text is a passage taken from the excellent article “The Calpurnii and Roman Family History: An Analysis of the Piso Frugi Coin in the Joel Handshu Collection at the College of Charleston,” by Chance W. Cook:

In the Roman world, particularly prior to the inception of the principate, moneyers were allotted a high degree of latitude to mint their coins as they saw fit. The tres viri monetales, the three men in charge of minting coins, who served one-year terms, often emblazoned their coins with an incredible variety of images and inscriptions reflecting the grandeur, history, and religion of Rome. Yet also prominent are references to personal or familial accomplishments; in this manner coins were also a means by which the tres viri monetales could honor their forbearers. Most obvious from an analysis of the Piso Frugi denarius is the respect and admiration that Lucius Calpurnius Piso Frugi, who minted the coin, had for his ancestors. For the images he selected for his dies relate directly to the lofty deeds performed by his Calpurnii forbearers in the century prior to his term as moneyer. The Calpurnii were present at many of the watershed events in the late Republic and had long distinguished themselves in serving the state, becoming an influential and well-respected family whose defense of traditional Roman values cannot be doubted.

Lucius Calpurnius Piso Frugi, who was moneyer in 90 B.C., depicted Apollo on the obverse and the galloping horseman on the reverse, as does his son Gaius. However, all of L. Piso Frugi’s coins have lettering similar to “L-PISO-FRVGI” on the reverse, quite disparate from his son Gaius’ derivations of “C-PISO-L-F-FRV.”

Moreover, C. Piso Frugi coins are noted as possessing “superior workmanship” to those produced by L. Piso Frugi.

The Frugi cognomen, which became hereditary, was first given to L. Calpurnius Piso, consul in 133 B.C., for his integrity and overall moral virtue. Cicero is noted as saying that frugal men possessed the three cardinal Stoic virtues of bravery, justice, and wisdom; indeed in the Thesaurus Linguae Latinae, a synonym of frugalitas is bonus, generically meaning “good” but also implying virtuous behavior. Gary Forsythe notes that Cicero would sometimes invoke L. Calpurnius Piso’s name at the beginning of speeches as “a paragon of moral rectitude” for his audience.

L. Calpurnius Piso Frugi’s inclusion of the laureled head of Apollo, essentially the same obverse die used by his son Gaius (c. 67 B.C.), was due to his family’s important role in the establishment of the Ludi Apollinares, the Games of Apollo, which were first instituted in 212 B.C. at the height of Hannibal’s invasion of Italy during the Second Punic War. By that time, Hannibal had crushed Roman armies at Cannae, seized Tarentum and was invading Campania.

Games had been used throughout Roman history as a means of allaying the fears
of the populace and distracting them from issues at hand; the Ludi Apollinares were no different. Forsythe follows the traditional interpretation that in 211 B.C., when C. Calpurnius Piso was praetor, he became the chief magistrate in Rome while both consuls were absent and the three other praetors were sent on military expeditions against Hannibal.

At this juncture, he put forth a motion in the Senate to make the Ludi Apollinares a yearly event, which was passed; the Ludi Apollinares did indeed become an important festival, eventually spanning eight days in the later Republic. However, this interpretation is debatable; H.H. Scullard suggests that the games were not made permanent until 208 B.C. after a severe plague prompted the Senate to make them a fixture on the calendar. The Senators believed Apollo would serve as a “healing god” for the people of Rome.

Nonetheless, the Calpurnii obviously believed their ancestor had played an integral role in the establishment of the Ludi Apollinares and thus prominently displayed
the head or bust of Apollo on the obverse of the coins they minted.

The meaning of the galloping horseman found on the reverse of the L. Calpurnius Piso Frugi coin is more complicated. It is possible that this is yet another reference to the Ludi Apollinares. Chariot races in the Circus Maximus were a major component of the games, along with animal hunts and theatrical performances.

A more intriguing possibility is that the horseman is a reference to C. Calpurnius Piso, son of the Calpurnius Piso who is said to have founded the Ludi Apollinares. This C. Calpurnius Piso was given a military command in 186 B.C. to quell a revolt in Spain. He was victorious, restoring order to the province and also gaining significant wealth in the process.

Upon his return to Rome in 184, he was granted a triumph by the Senate and eventually erected an arch on the Capitoline Hill celebrating his victory. Of course
the arch prominently displayed the Calpurnius name. Piso, however, was not an infantry commander; he led the cavalry.

The difficulty in accepting C. Calpurnius Piso’s victory in Spain as the impetus for the galloping horseman image is that not all of C. Piso Frugi’s coins depict the horseman or cavalryman carrying the palm, which is a symbol of victory. One is inclined to believe that the victory palm would be prominent in all of the coins minted by C. Piso Frugi (the son of L. Calpurnius Piso Frugi) if it indeed signified the great triumph of C. Calpurnius Piso in 186 B.C. Yet the palm’s appearance is clearly not a direct reference to military feats of C. Piso Frugi’s day. As noted, it is accepted that his coins were minted in 67 B.C.; in that year, the major victory by Roman forces was Pompey’s swift defeat of the pirates throughout the Mediterranean.

Chrestomathy: Annual Review of Undergraduate Research at the College of Charleston. Volume 1, 2002: pp. 1-10© 2002 by the College of Charleston, Charleston SC 29424, USA.All rights to be retained by the author.
http://www.cofc.edu/chrestomathy/vol1/cook.pdf


There are six (debatably seven) prominent Romans who have been known to posterity as Lucius Calpurnius Piso:

Lucius Calpurnius Piso Frugi: (d. 261 A.D.) a Roman usurper, whose existence is
questionable, based on the unreliable Historia Augusta.

Lucius Calpurnius Piso Licinianus: deputy Roman Emperor, 10 January 69 to15 January
69, appointed by Galba.

Lucius Calpurnius Piso: Consul in 27 A.D.

Lucius Calpurnius Piso: Consul in 1 B.C., augur

Lucius Calpurnius Piso: Consul in 15 B.C., pontifex

Lucius Calpurnius Piso Caesoninus: Consul in 58 B.C. (the uncle of Julius Caesar)

Lucius Calpurnius Piso Frugi: Moneyer in 90 B.C. (our man)


All but one (or two--if you believe in the existence of "Frugi the usurper" ca. 261 A.D.) of these gentlemen lack the Frugi cognomen, indicating they are not from the same direct lineage as our moneyer, though all are Calpurnii.

Calpurnius Piso Frugi's massive issue was intended to support the war against the Marsic Confederation. The type has numerous variations and control marks.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lucius_Calpurnius_Piso
http://www.forumancientcoins.com/catalog/indexfrm.asp?vpar=55&pos=0

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.


2 commentsCleisthenes
Ashoka_Mauryan_Empire_India.jpg
*SOLD*38 viewsAshoka Maurya AR Karshapana

Attribution: G/H Ser. 1Vd (reverse 416), BMC III-a-5/30
Date: 269-232 BC
Obverse: Punch Marks of sun, six-armed symbol, dog, Brahma bull, and elephant randomly punched on the flan
Reverse: Punch Marks of drum, taurine, fish, and unknown randomly punched on the flan
Size: 20 mm
ex-ECIN
Noah
0009.jpg
0009 - Denarius Papia 79 BC108 viewsObv/Head of Juno Sospita r., wearing goatskin, symbol behind.
Rev/Gryphon dancing r., symbol below, L PAPI in ex.

Ag, 19.9mm, 3.82g
Moneyer: L. Papius.
Mint: Rome.
RRC 384/1 [dies o/r: 211/211] - Syd. 773 - Calicó 1057 - RCV 311 - RSC Papia 1 - Cohen Papia 1
ex-Numismática Saetabis
1 commentsdafnis
3350438.jpg
000b. Pompey the Great54 viewsThe Pompeians. Sextus Pompey. 37/6 BC. AR Denarius (19mm, 3.49 g, 9h). Uncertain Sicilian mint, possibly Catana. Bare head of Pompey the Great right; capis to left, lituus to right / Neptune, holding aplustre and resting right foot on prow, standing left between the Catanaean brothers Anapias and Amphinomus running in opposite directions, bearing their parents on their shoulders. Crawford 511/3a; CRI 334; Sydenham 1344; RSC 17 (Pompey the Great). Fine, lightly toned, bankers’ marks on obverse.

AMPHINOMUS and ANAPIS (or Anapias), two brothers, of Silicy, respecting whom it is related that they saved their parents, at the peril of their own lives, from the flames of Etna, at the moment when an eruption of that volcano threatened their immediate destruction. This was a favourite subject with the ancients, in symbolising filial piety; and is often represented on Greek coins of Catana (Catania), where this noble action is alleged to have been performed. Of these two Sicilian brothers, types of that devoted love, which is ever cherished by good children towards the earthly anthors of their being, Cornelius Severus, alluding to Mount Edna, thus expresses himself: "Amphinomus and his brother, both equally courageous in the performance of a duty, whilst the flames murmured their threats against the neighbouring houses, rescue their decrepid father, and their aged mother."
1 commentsecoli
Caesar_AR-Den-plated_CAESAR-elephant-right__Syd-1014_Crawf_443-1_C-49_Gaul-mint_49-48-BC_Q-002_5h_17x20mm_2,26g-s~0.jpg
001 Caesar (100-44 B.C.), AR-denarius, Crawf 443-1, Plated (Fouree), Military mint travelling with Caesar (Gaul), #266 views001 Caesar (100-44 B.C.), AR-denarius, Crawf 443-1, Plated (Fouree), Military mint travelling with Caesar (Gaul), #2
avers:-CAESAR in exergue, elephant right, trampling on serpent.
revers:- Simpulum, sprinkler, axe (surmounted by a wolf's head) and priest's hat.
exerg:-/-//CAESAR, diameter: 17-20mm, weight: 2,66g, axes: 5h,
mint: Military mint travelling with Caesar (Gaul), date: 49-48 B.C., ref: Crawford-443/1, Sydneham-1006, RSC-49, BMCRR (Gaul) 27
Q-002
"This is the first coin struck in the name of Julius Caesar. The symbolism on the obverse apparently alludes to the conquest of good over evil, Caesar's victory over the Gauls, while the reverse refers to Caesar's possession of the office of Pontifex Maximus."
1 commentsquadrans
Caesar_AR-Den_CAESAR-elephant-right__Syd-1006_Crawf_443-1_C-49_Gaul-mint_49-48-BC_Q-001_axis-7h_xxmm_x,xxxg-s.jpg
001 Caesar (100-44 B.C.), Crawf 443-1, Military mint travelling with Caesar (Gaul), AR-denarius, #1186 views001 Caesar (100-44 B.C.), Crawf 443-1, Military mint travelling with Caesar (Gaul), AR-denarius, #1
avers:-CAESAR in exergue, elephant right, trampling on serpent.
revers:- Simpulum, sprinkler, axe (surmounted by a wolf's head) and priest's hat.
exerg:-/-//CAESAR, diameter: 19mm, weight: 3,65g, axes: 10h,
mint: Military mint travelling with Caesar (Gaul), date: 49-48 B.C., ref: Crawford-443/1, Sydneham-1006, RSC-49, BMCRR (Gaul) 27
Q-001
"This is the first coin struck in the name of Julius Caesar. The symbolism on the obverse apparently alludes to the conquest of good over evil, Caesar's victory over the Gauls, while the reverse refers to Caesar's possession of the office of Pontifex Maximus."
quadrans
Caesar_AR-Den-plated_CAESAR-elephant-right__Syd-1014_Crawf_443-1_C-49_Gaul-mint_49-48-BC_Q-002_5h_17x20mm_2,26g-s.jpg
001 Caesar (100-44 B.C.), Crawf 443-1, Military mint travelling with Caesar (Gaul), AR-denarius, Plated (Fouree), #2121 views001 Caesar (100-44 B.C.), Crawf 443-1, Military mint travelling with Caesar (Gaul), AR-denarius, Plated (Fouree), #2
avers:-CAESAR in exergue, elephant right, trampling on serpent.
revers:- Simpulum, sprinkler, axe (surmounted by a wolf's head) and priest's hat.
exerg:-/-//CAESAR, diameter: 17-20mm, weight: 2,66g, axes: 5h,
mint: Military mint travelling with Caesar (Gaul), date: 49-48 B.C., ref: Crawford-443/1, Sydneham-1006, RSC-49, BMCRR (Gaul) 27
Q-002
"This is the first coin struck in the name of Julius Caesar. The symbolism on the obverse apparently alludes to the conquest of good over evil, Caesar's victory over the Gauls, while the reverse refers to Caesar's possession of the office of Pontifex Maximus."
quadrans
Aigina_turtle.jpg
002a, Aigina, Islands off Attica, Greece, c. 510 - 490 B.C.88 viewsSilver stater, S 1849, SNG Cop 503, F, 12.231g, 22.3mm, Aigina (Aegina) mint, c. 510 - 490 B.C.; Obverse: sea turtle (with row of dots down the middle); Reverse: incuse square of “Union Jack” pattern; banker's mark obverse. Ex FORVM.


Greek Turtles, by Gary T. Anderson

Turtles, the archaic currency of Aegina, are among the most sought after of all ancient coins. Their early history is somewhat of a mystery. At one time historians debated whether they or the issuances of Lydia were the world's earliest coins. The source of this idea comes indirectly from the writings of Heracleides of Pontus, a fourth century BC Greek scholar. In the treatise Etymologicum, Orion quotes Heracleides as claiming that King Pheidon of Argos, who died no later than 650 BC, was the first to strike coins at Aegina. However, archeological investigations date the earliest turtles to about 550 BC, and historians now believe that this is when the first of these intriguing coins were stamped.

Aegina is a small, mountainous island in the Saronikon Gulf, about midway between Attica and the Peloponnese. In the sixth century BC it was perhaps the foremost of the Greek maritime powers, with trade routes throughout the eastern half of the Mediterranean. It is through contacts with Greeks in Asia Minor that the idea of coinage was probably introduced to Aegina. Either the Lydians or Greeks along the coast of present day Turkey were most likely the first to produce coins, back in the late seventh century. These consisted of lumps of a metal called electrum (a mixture of gold and silver) stamped with an official impression to guarantee the coin was of a certain weight. Aegina picked up on this idea and improved upon it by stamping coins of (relatively) pure silver instead electrum, which contained varying proportions of gold and silver. The image stamped on the coin of the mighty sea power was that of a sea turtle, an animal that was plentiful in the Aegean Sea. While rival cities of Athens and Corinth would soon begin limited manufacture of coins, it is the turtle that became the dominant currency of southern Greece. The reason for this is the shear number of coins produced, estimated to be ten thousand yearly for nearly seventy years. The source for the metal came from the rich silver mines of Siphnos, an island in the Aegean. Although Aegina was a formidable trading nation, the coins seemed to have meant for local use, as few have been found outside the Cyclades and Crete. So powerful was their lure, however, that an old proverb states, "Courage and wisdom are overcome by Turtles."

The Aeginean turtle bore a close likeness to that of its live counterpart, with a series of dots running down the center of its shell. The reverse of the coin bore the imprint of the punch used to force the face of the coin into the obverse turtle die. Originally this consisted of an eight-pronged punch that produced a pattern of eight triangles. Later, other variations on this were tried. In 480 BC, the coin received its first major redesign. Two extra pellets were added to the shell near the head of the turtle, a design not seen in nature. Also, the reverse punch mark was given a lopsided design.

Although turtles were produced in great quantities from 550 - 480 BC, after this time production dramatically declines. This may be due to the exhaustion of the silver mines on Siphnos, or it may be related to another historical event. In 480 BC, Aegina's archrival Athens defeated Xerxes and his Persian armies at Marathon. After this, it was Athens that became the predominant power in the region. Aegina and Athens fought a series of wars until 457 BC, when Aegina was conquered by its foe and stripped of its maritime rights. At this time the coin of Aegina changed its image from that of the sea turtle to that of the land tortoise, symbolizing its change in fortunes.

The Turtle was an object of desire in ancient times and has become so once again. It was the first coin produced in Europe, and was produced in such great quantities that thousands of Turtles still exist today. Their historical importance and ready availability make them one of the most desirable items in any ancient coin enthusiast's collection.

(Greek Turtles, by Gary T. Anderson .
1 commentsCleisthenes
Crepusius-Syd-738.jpg
007. P. Crepusius.27 viewsDenarius, 82-81 BC, Rome mint.
Obverse: Laureate bust of Apollo; sceptre and E at left; symbol under chin.
Reverse: P CREPVSI / Horseman galloping, hurling spear. Roman numeral CCCXXXXVI above.
4.07 gm., 17.5 mm.
Syd. #738a; RSC #Crepusia 1; Sear #283.

The Roman numerals on this coin series run from I to DXXIII (1 - 523). Aside from numbering the reverse dies, their significance is unknown. The symbol under Apollo's chin is said to be a shell by Stevenson (p. 295), but it could easily be a turtle or even something else.
1 commentsCallimachus
0076.jpg
0076 - Denarius Fabia 102 BC31 viewsObv/Veiled and turreted bust of Cybele r., behind EX A PV.
Rev/Victory in biga r., symbol below, stork before; C FABI C F in ex.

Ag, 20.0mm, 3.96g
Moneyer: C. Fabius C.f. Hadrianus.
Mint: Rome.
RRC 322/1b [dies o/r: (64)/80] - Syd. 590.
ex-Künker, e-auction dec 2010, lot 776756
1 commentsdafnis
Caesar_Elephant.jpg
01 01 Julius Caesar 106 viewsJulius Caesar. 49-44 B.C. AR Denarius. Military mint traveling with Caesar in Gaul. c. 49-48 B.C. (3.72g, 19.0m, 4h). Obv: CAESAR in ex., elephant r. trampling serpent. Rev: simpulum, sprinkler, axe surmounted by wolf’s head, and apex. Cr 443/1; Syd. 1006.

This is the first issue in Caesar’s name. The obverse could symbolize the victory of good over evil in general, or the victory of Caesar’s forces over the Pompeians specifically. The reverse clearly refers to Caesar’s status as Pontifex Maximus.
3 commentsLucas H
coin212.JPG
012. Domitian 81-96 AD60 viewsDomitian

As emperor, Domitian was to become one of Rome's foremost micro managers, especially concerning the economy. Domitian's reach extended well beyond the economy. Late in A.D. 85 he made himself censor perpetuus, censor for life, with a general supervision of conduct and morals. The move was without precedent and, although largely symbolic, it nevertheless revealed Domitian's obsessive interest in all aspects of Roman life. While the military abilities of Vespasian and Titus were genuine, those of Domitian were not. Partly as an attempt to remedy this deficiency, Domitian frequently became involved in his own military exploits outside of Rome. He claimed a triumph in A.D. 83 for subduing the Chatti in Gaul, but the conquest was illusory.

as Caesar, AR Denarius. 76 AD. CAESAR AVG F DOMITIANVS, laureate head right / COS IIII, Pegasus walking right. RSC 47
ecoli
0136.jpg
0136 - Nummus Galeria Valeria 308 AC17 viewsObv/ GAL VAL-ERIA AVG, draped bust of G.V. r., wearing diadem.
Rev/ VENERI V-ICTRICI, Venus standing facing, head l., holding apple in upraised r. hand and raising drapery over l. shoulder; mint symbol Γ in filed; in ex., ANT.

AE, 24.5 mm, 7.08 g
Mint: Antioch.
RIC VI/84 [S]
ex-J.B. González Redondo (denarios.org), jul 2011
dafnis
dom as caesar spes.jpg
02 Domitian as Caesar RIC 788157 viewsAR Denarius, 3.36g
Rome mint, 74 AD (Vespasian)
Obv: CAES AVG F DOMIT COS III; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: PRINCEPS IVVENTVT; Spes, draped, advancing l., holding up flower in r. hand and with l. holding up her skirt.
RIC 788 (C). BMC 156. RSC 375. BNC 135.
Ex Harlan J Berk 155, 31 July 2007, lot 247.

During Vespasian's reign, Domitian was given the honorary title PRINCEPS IVVENTVT or 'Prince of Youth', celebrated here on this denarius from 74 AD. The title is one that was often given to young princes who were marked out as chosen heirs.

Spes, the personification of hope, is seen here on the reverse advacing left, holding a budding flower. The flower is a symbol of future well being.

Domitian's coinage during Vespasian's rule was unique. While Titus followed closely the types of his father, Domitian struck out on his own. One wonders how much of an input the young prince had on his own series.

A very likeable coin with a good portrait and excellent centring.


2 commentsVespasian70
0217_RICVII_290.jpg
0217 - Nummus Constantine I 323-4 AC15 viewsObv/ CONSTANTINVS AG, laureate bust of C. r.
Rev/ Victory advancing r. holding trophy and branch, advancing over captive on ground; around, SARMATIA DEVICTA; in ex., PLON and symbol.

AE, 20.5 mm, 3.78 g
Mint: Londinium.
RIC VII/2 [R2] - CT 10.01.003 [C]
ex-Roma Numismatics, auction e35, lot 1539 (ex-colln of a connoisseur)
dafnis
0218_RICVII_292.jpg
0218 - Nummus Constantine II c.324 AC17 viewsObv/ CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C, laureate bust of C. II r.
Rev/ Laurel wreath with VOT X inscribed on two lines inside; around, CAESARVM NOSTRORVM; in ex., PLON and symbol.

AE, 20.1 mm, 4.18 g
Mint: Londinium.
RIC VII/292 [C3] - CT 10.01.007 [CC]
ex-Roma Numismatics, auction e35, lot 1586
dafnis
augustus RIC344-RRR.jpg
027 BC-14 AD - AUGUSTUS AR denarius - struck by P. Licinius Stolo, moneyer (17 BC)83 viewsobv: AVGVSTVS TR POT (Augustus, laureate, wearing cloak and short tunic, on horseback riding right, holding patera in right hand - banker's mark)
rev: P STOLO III VIR (Salii or priest of Mars's cap (same than apex flaminis) between two studded oval shields (ancilia)).
ref: RIC I 344 (R3); BMCRE 76; RSC 439 (80frcs)
mint: Rome
3.53gms,18-19mm
Extremely rare

History: The Ludi Saeculares were spread over a period of three days (from May 31 to June 3), and Augustus celebrated them to inaugurate the beginning of a new age. On the reverse of this coin the ancilias (sacred shields) symbolised the music at festivals. The "jumping priests" or Salii marched to the Regia, where was the shrine of Mars, in which the ancilia (the sacred shield, and its 11 copies) of Mars were stored. The Salii wearing apex, taking the bronze Ancilia, and danced through the streets carrying poles with the shields mounted on them in their left hands. With their other hand, they banged the shields with a drumstick.
3 commentsberserker
Karoly-Robert_(1307-1342_AD)_AR-Denar_U-393n_C2-018_H-495_REGIS_KAROLI_m_REGIS_hVnGARIE_Q-001_11h_15mm_0,70g-s.jpg
029 Károly Róbert., (Charles Robert of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1307-1342 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-393.n, #01115 views029 Károly Róbert., (Charles Robert of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1307-1342 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-393.n, #01
avers: RЄGIS•KAROLI, King enthroned, facing, holding sceptre and orb; border of dots.
reverse: ✠ m•RЄGIS•hVnGARIЄ, Shield with Árpádian stripes and Anjevin lilies, botle(symbols) as (privy marks) to left and righ, border of dots.
exergue, mint mark:botle(symbols)/botle(symbols)//--, diameter: 15mm, weight: 0,70g, axis:11h,
mint: Hungary, , mint mark: botle(symbols)-botle(symbols), date: 1338 (by Pohl) A.D., ref: Unger-393.n, CNH-2-018, Huszár-495, Pohl-52-04,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Karoly-Robert_(1307-1342_AD)_AR-Obulus_U-403_C2-019_H-496_No-Legend_M_REGIS_KAROLI_Q-001_0h_11,5mm_0,36g-s.jpg
029 Károly Róbert., (Charles Robert of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1307-1342 A.D.) AR-Obulus, U-403.???, New privy mark!!! #01124 views029 Károly Róbert., (Charles Robert of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1307-1342 A.D.) AR-Obulus, U-403.???, New privy mark!!! #01
avers: No legend, King enthroned, facing, holding sceptre and orb, botle(symbols) to left and right Angevin lilies above and belove both sides, border of dots.
reverse: ✠ M•RЄGIS KAROLI•, Shield with Árpádian stripes and Angevin lilies, botle(symbols) as (privy marks) to left and right, border of dots.
exergue, mint mark:botle(symbols)/botle(symbols)//--, diameter: 11,5mm, weight: 0,36g, axis:0h,
mint: Hungary, , mint mark: botle(symbols)-botle(symbols), date: 1338 (by Pohl) A.D., ref: Unger-403.???, CNH-2-019, Huszár-496, Pohl-52-??,
Q-001
quadrans
D717sm.jpg
04 Diva Julia Titi RIC 76039 viewsÆ Sestertius, 24.33g
Rome mint, 92-94 AD (Domitian)
Obv: DIVAE IVLIAE AVG DIVI TITI F above; S P Q R in exergue; Carpentum drawn r. by two mules
Rev: IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM COS XVI CENS PER P P; S C, large, in centre
RIC 760 (R). BMC 471. BNC 502.
Acquired from Ken Dorney, January 2020. Ex Agora Auctions Sale 84, 4 September 2019, lot 187. Ex CNG E314, 6 November 2013, lot 364.

Titus' daughter Julia Titi was granted the title Augusta sometime in 80 or 81 during his reign. After Titus' death she lived with her uncle Domitian at the imperial residence. In 90 or 91 AD she died and was deified by Domitian, this was commemorated on the coinage. The ancient sources are quick to malign her reputation in the name of smearing Domitian. It is said she had an ongoing affair with Domitian and became pregnant. She then was forced by Domitian to abort the baby and died during the attempted abortion sometime in 90 or 91. The Flavian historian Brian Jones has called the supposed affair between Domitian and his niece Julia (some ten or eleven years his junior) and the subsequent forced abortion which killed her as "implausible" and "nonsense". Further he wrote "Scholars seem not to have stressed one of the most significant factors in assessing the rumour's accuracy - Martial's epigram 6.3, written not long after Julia's death and deification. In it, he expresses the hope that Domitian will produce a son, implies that the baby's name will be Julius (6.3.1) and states that (the now deified) Julia will be able to watch over him (6.3.5). Martial was neither a hero or a fool. Had there been the slightest hint of an affair between emperor and niece, he would hardly have written those lines; had Julia's recent death been caused by an abortion forced on her by Domitian, would Martial have so far neglected the bounds of 'safe criticism' and common sense as to humiliate Domitia publicly, urging her to become pregnant, to give the child a name reminiscent of her husband's mistress and finally to remember that same mistress, now dead and deified (thanks to her husband), would be able to protect the child?" No doubt, the Diva coins testify that Domitian felt great affection towards his niece, however, there is no evidence that they had an illicit love affair. The incestuous rumour was spread after Domitian's death.

This sestertius struck for Diva Julia Titi between 92 and 94 copies an early carpentum and mules type struck under Tiberius for Diva Livia and another under Titus struck for her grandmother Domitilla. It is the second issue of this type struck under Domitian and is slightly rarer than the earlier one produced in 90-91. In the early empire the carpentum was granted to ladies of the imperial house by the Senate as an imperial honour. It was frequently used to convey an image of the deceased Divae and to symbolise the event on the coinage. The style of the Diva Julia Titi sestertii are so similar to those of the earlier Memoriae Domitilla sestertii that the RIC authors speculate a few of the older Domitilla dies were recut for Julia's issues (p. 317, note). It's astonishing to think that the mint still had access to dies that were nearly a decade old and were able to re-use them for a new issue!

Dark brassy tone with some minor pitting.
5 commentsDavid Atherton
Bar-Kochba-Hendin-734.jpg
053. 2'nd Jewish (bar Kokhba) Revolt.16 viewsZuz (denarius), attributed to Year 3 (134-35 AD).
Obverse: (Shim'on) / Bunch of Grapes.
Reverse: (For the Freedom of Jerusalem) / Lyre with three strings.
3.19 gm., 18.5 mm.
Mildenberg #205.19 (this coin); Hendin #734.

This coin likely started out as a denarius of one of the Roman emperors between Vespasian and Hadrian. Many coins of the Second Jewish Revolt show traces of the earlier Roman coin. This coin is no exception, and traces of the previous coin can be seen on the obverse in and around the bunch of grapes.

The bunch of grapes on the obverse is an ancient symbol of blessing and fertility. As such it occasionally appears on ancient coins of other areas besides this series. Given the messianic nature of the Bar Kokhba revolt, the bunch of grapes takes on added significance because in Jewish prophetic literature, grapes (and the vine or vineyard) are often symbolic of the restoration of Israel, or even symbolic of Israel itself.

The lyre on the reverse is associated with temple worship, as are trumpets, which are also found on coins of the Bar Kokhba Revolt. King David is mentioned as playing a lyre, and there are numerous Biblical references to praising the Lord with the lyre and trumpets. (The word "kinnor," sometimes translated as "harp," is really a type of lyre.) Even today the lyre is an important Jewish symbol and the state of Israel has chosen to portray it on the half New Israeli Sheqel coin.
Callimachus
JustIISB366_2.jpg
0565-0578 AD - Justin II - Sear 366 - Half Follis - 2nd Example38 viewsEmperor: Justin II (r. 565-578 AD)
Date: 574-575 AD
Condition: Fair
Denomination: Half Follis

Obverse: D N IVSTINVS PP AV (or similar)
Justin, on left, and Sophia, on right, seated facing on double throne, both nimbate; he holds globus cruciger, she holds cruciform sceptre.

Reverse: Large K; above, symbol(s); to left, A/N/N/O; to right, X
Exergue: TES (Thessalonica mint)

Sear 366
5.07g; 22.3mm; 165°
Pep
JustIISB366_3.jpg
0565-0578 AD - Justin II - Sear 366 - Half Follis - 3rd Example38 viewsEmperor: Justin II (r. 565-578 AD)
Date: 577-578 AD
Condition: Fine
Denomination: Half Follis

Obverse: D N IVSTINVS PP AV (or similar)
Justin, on left, and Sophia, on right, seated facing on double throne, both nimbate; he holds globus cruciger, she holds cruciform sceptre.

Reverse: Large K; above, symbol(s); to left, A/N/N/O; to right, XI/II
Exergue: TES (Thessalonica mint)

Sear 366
5.05g; 22.1mm; 165°
Pep
RI 064eg img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 01251 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG, Laureate head right
Rev:– LEG XI CL / TR P COS, Legionary eagle between two standards, Capricorns on standards.
Minted in Rome. A.D. 193
Reference:– Cohen 268. RIC 12 (Scarce)

Capricorns were the symbols of the XIIII the legion though Capricorns have been noted on several other legions in error.

Legio XI Claudia Pia Fidelis dates back to the two legions (the other was the XIIth) recruited by Julius Caesar to invade Gallia in 58 BC, and it existed at least until early 5th century, guarding lower Danube in Durostorum (modern Silistra, Bulgaria).
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_064mj_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 01226 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG, Laureate head right
Rev:– LEG XI CL / TR P COS, Legionary eagle between two standards, Capricorns on standards.
Minted in Rome. A.D. 193
Reference:– Cohen 268. RIC 12 (Scarce)

Capricorns were the symbols of the XIIII the legion though Capricorns have been noted on several other legions in error.

Legio XI Claudia Pia Fidelis dates back to the two legions (the other was the XIIth) recruited by Julius Caesar to invade Gallia in 58 BC, and it existed at least until early 5th century, guarding lower Danube in Durostorum (modern Silistra, Bulgaria).
1 commentsmaridvnvm
Rep_AR-Den-Ser_L_Roscius-Fabatus_Head-Juno-Sospita-r_-lizard-behind-L_ROSCI-below_Girl-Snake-in-ex-FABATI_Crawford-412-1_Syd-915_Rome_64-BC_Q-001_axis-1h_17,5-19,5mm_3,00g-s.jpg
064 B.C., L. Roscius Fabatus, Republic AR-Denarius Serratus, Crawford 412/1, Rome, Maiden and Snake, FABATI, #186 views064 B.C., L. Roscius Fabatus, Republic AR-Denarius Serratus, Crawford 412/1, Rome, Maiden and Snake, FABATI, #1
avers: Juno Sospita right, wearing goat-skin headdress; L ROSC below; behind, lizard,
reverse: Maiden standing right, feeding snake holding itself erect before her, control symbol tortoise walking right on own ground line in left field, FABATI in exergue.
exergue: -/-//FABATI, diameter: 17,5-19,5 mm, weight: 3,00g, axis: 1h,
mint: Rome, date: 64 B.C., ref: Crawford 412/1,
Q-001
quadrans
Rep_AR-Den-Ser_L_Papius_Head-Juno-Sospita-r_-Griphon_leaping-r-_L_PAPI-ex_ROMA_Craw_-384-1_Syd-773_Rome_79-BC_Q-003,_6h,_17-19,5mm,_3,62g-s.jpg
079 B.C., L. Papius, Republic AR-Denarius Serratus, Crawford 384/1, RRC 139, Gryphon leaping right, Unknown with Whip, L•PAPI, #1132 views079 B.C., L. Papius, Republic AR-Denarius Serratus, Crawford 384/1, RRC 139, Gryphon leaping right, Unknown with Whip, L•PAPI, #1
avers: Head of Juno Sospita right, unknown symbol behind.
reverse: Gryphon leaping right, below Whip, L•PAPI in exergue.
exergue: -/-//L•PAPI, diameter: 17,0-19,5mm, weight: 3,62g, axis: 6h,
mint: Rome, date: 79 B.C., ref: Crawford 384/1, Sydenham-773, RRC 139var., Babelon 54.,
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
08-Alex-Ecbatana-P3931.jpg
08. Ecbatana: Tetradrachm in the name of Alexander the Great.45 viewsTetradrachm, ca 311 - 295 BC, Ecbatana mint.
Obverse: Head of Alexander as Herakles, wearing lion's skin headdress.
Reverse: ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ / Zeus sitting, holding his attendant eagle and sceptre. Anchor, forepart of a grazing horse, and two monograms at left; ΣΩ under throne.
17.01 gm., 26 mm.
P. #3931; M. #1355; ESM #475.

This is a coin of the Seleucid Empire from the time of Seleukos I, Nikator. Seleukos used the anchor as his personal symbol. Some of Seleukos' coinage was in the name of Alexander, and some was in his own name
Callimachus
A-17_Rep_AR-Den_L_Julius-Bursio_Head-Apollo-r_-beh-Contr-M__Victory-in-quadriga-r_-in-ex-L_IVLI_BVRSIO_-CXXXXVI_Craw_-352-1_Syd-728_Rome_85-BC_Q-001_axis-11h_19-20,5mm_4,08g-s.jpg
085 B.C., L. Julius Bursio, Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 352/1, Rome, Victory in quadriga right, -/-//L•IVLI•BVRSIO•, #181 views085 B.C., L. Julius Bursio, Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 352/1, Rome, Victory in quadriga right, -/-//L•IVLI•BVRSIO•, #1
avers: Male head right, with attributes of Apollo, Mercury, and Neptune; behind, trident and control symbol ??? .
reverse: Victory in quadriga right, holding reins and wreath; in ex. L•IVLI•BVRSIO•,
exergue: -/-//L•IVLI•BVRSIO•, diameter: 19-20,5mm, weight: 4,08g, axis: 11h,
mint: Rome, date: 85 B.C., ref: Crawford 352/1, Sydenham 728,
Q-001
quadrans
A-18_Rep_AR-Den_L_Julius-Bursio_Head-Apollo-r_-beh-Contr-Mark_Victory-in-quadriga-r_-in-ex-L_IVLI_BVRSIO__Crawford-352-1_Syd-728_Rome_85-BC_Q-002_axis-11h_17,5-19mm_4,02g-s.jpg
085 B.C., L. Julius Bursio, Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 352/1, Rome, Victory in quadriga right, -/-//L•IVLI•BVRSIO•, #292 views085 B.C., L. Julius Bursio, Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 352/1, Rome, Victory in quadriga right, -/-//L•IVLI•BVRSIO•, #2
avers: Male head right, with attributes of Apollo, Mercury, and Neptune, behind, trident and control symbol bust of birds right.
reverse: Victory in quadriga right, holding reins and wreath, in ex. L•IVLI•BVRSIO•,
exergue: -/-//L•IVLI•BVRSIO•, diameter: 17,5-19mm, weight: 4,02g, axis: 11h,
mint: Rome, date: 85 B.C., ref: Crawford 352/1, Sydenham 728, Julia 5,
Q-002
quadrans
085_B_C__L_Julius-Bursio,_Rep_AR-Den,_Head-Apollo-r_-beh-Contr-Mark_Victory-in-quadr_-r_-in-ex-L_IVLI_BVRSIO_,_Crawford-352-1a_Syd-728_Rome_Q-001_8h_19,5-20,0mm_3,24g-s.jpg
085 B.C., L. Julius Bursio, Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 352/1a, Rome, Victory in quadriga right, -/-//L•IVLI•BVRSIO•, #3114 views085 B.C., L. Julius Bursio, Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 352/1a, Rome, Victory in quadriga right, -/-//L•IVLI•BVRSIO•, #3
avers: Male head right, with attributes of Apollo, Mercury and Neptune, behind, trident and control symbol poppy (?).
reverse: Victory in quadriga right, holding reins and wreath; in ex. L•IVLI•BVRSIO•,
exergue: -/-//L•IVLI•BVRSIO•, diameter: 19,5-20,5mm, weight: 3,24g, axis: 8h,
mint: Rome, date: 85 B.C., ref: Crawford 352/1a, Sydenham 728, Julia 5,
Q-003
quadrans
Rep_AR-Den_C_Vibius-C_f_Pansa_Laur-Head-Apollo-r_-beh_-PANSA-bef_contr_m_Minerva-quadriga-r_-ex-C_VIBIVS_C_F__Cr__342_5b_Syd-684a_Rome_90-BC_Q-001_axis-10h_18,5-19,5mm_3,88g-s.jpg
090 B.C., C.Vibius Cf.Pansa, Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 342/5b, Rome, C•VIBIVS•C•F, Minerva in quadriga right, #189 views090 B.C., C.Vibius Cf.Pansa, Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 342/5b, Rome, C•VIBIVS•C•F, Minerva in quadriga right, #1
avers: PANSA, laureate head of Apollo right, symbol before.
reverse: Minerva in quadriga right, holding a spear, reins, and trophy, C•VIBIVS•C•F, in exergue.
exergue: -/-//C•VIBIVS•C•F, diameter: 18,5-19,5mm, weight: 3,88g, axis: 10h,
mint: Rome, date:090 B.C., ref: Crawford 342-5b, Syd 684a, Vibia 1,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Thrace,_Byzantion,__AR_Siglos_340-320_BC~0.jpg
1. Thrace, Byzantion, 340-320 BC, AR Siglos38 viewsHeifer standing left above dolphin, VΠΥ above.
Incuse square of mill-sail pattern.

SNG BM Black Sea 21; SNG Copenhagen 476; Sear GCV 1579.

(17 mm, 5.36 g)
Classical Numismatic Group electronic Auction 146, 23 August 2006, 34.

Standing on the European side of the Bosporos, Byzantion with its twin city Kalchedon on the Asia Minor side of the Bosporos was the ancient gateway between the two continents, a role that continues to the present.

The symbolism of the bull and the heifer on the obverse of the coins of twin cities of Kalchedon (Asia Minor) and Byzantion (Europe) respectively is striking and points to a shared identity. They stood astride the southern entrance to the Bosporus. Both were 7th century BC foundations of Megara and jointly they controlled the vital grain trade from the Black Sea into the Mediterranean.

The grain ear upon which the bull of Kalchedon stands alludes to this fact. That of the dolphin beneath the Heifer of Byzantion is a reflection of the maritime orientation of the city and the bountiful pods of dolphins that even to this day frolic in swift flowing waters of the Bosporus beneath the old city walls of Constantinople which succeded Byzantion and was in turn succeded by Istanbul.
1 commentsn.igma
SulIIVtine144.jpg
1099-1102 AH - Suleyman II - 20-Qos-01 - Ottoman Mangir90 viewsSultan: Suleyman II (r. 1687-1691 AD)
Date: 1687-1691 AD (1099-1102 AH)
Condition: Fair/Fine
Denomination: Mangir

Obverse: Symbol of the Ottoman Empire

Reverse: doreb fi Qstantaniyyah
Struck at Qstantaniyyah (Kostantiniye)
Exergue: 1099 (Suleyman II's rule beginning 1099 AH (1687 AD))

20-Qos-01; Valentine #144; KM #87
1.51g; 19.3mm; 345°
Pep
0010-061-2000.jpg
1174 - L. Calpurnius Piso Frugi, Denarius 64 viewsRome mint, 90 BC
Laureate head of Apollo right, Δ below chin
Naked horseman galloping right, holding whip; above swan. L.PISO.FRUGI / ROMA at exergue
3,93 gr - 18,8 mm
Ref : RCV # 235, RSC # 12b, RRC # 340/1-Calpurnia 12b-symbol 166
Ex. Naville Numismatics
5 commentsPotator II
1305_-1306_Edward_I_LONDON_PENNY.JPG
1272 - 1307, EDWARD I, AR Penny, Struck 1305 - 1306 at London, England16 viewsObverse: + EDWAR ANGL DNS HYB. Crowned bust of Edward I facing within circle of pellets. Cross pattée in legend.
Reverse: CIVITAS LONDON. Long cross dividing legend into quarters, trefoil in each quarter of inner circle.
Undated Penny, type 10cf1
Diameter: 18.5mm | Weight: 1.2gms | Die Axis: 9
SPINK: 1410

Edward I began a major recoinage in 1279 which consisted not only of pennies and new round half-pennies and farthings, but also introduced a new denomination, a fourpenny piece called the "Groat".

Edward I was King of England from 1272 – 1307. He was the eldest surviving son of Henry III and Eleanor of Provence. The contests between his father and the barons led by Simon de Montfort called Edward early into active life when he restored the royal authority within months by defeating and killing de Montfort at the battle of Evesham in 1265. He then proceeded to Palestine, where no conquest of any importance was achieved. After further campaigns in Italy and France he returned to England on his father's death and was crowned at Westminster Abbey in 1274.
Edward was popular because he identified himself with the growing tide of nationalism sweeping the country, displayed later in his persecution and banishment of the Jews which was the culmination of many years of anti-semitism in England.
Edward now turned his attention to the mountainous land to the west which had never been completely subdued. So, following a revolt in the Principality of Wales against English influence, Edward commenced a war which ended in the annexation of the Principality to the English Crown in 1283. He secured his conquest by building nine castles to watch over it and created his eldest son, Edward the Prince of Wales in 1301.
Edward's great ambition, however, was to gain possession of Scotland, but the death of Margaret, the Maid of Norway, who was to have been married to Edward's son, for a time frustrated the king's designs. However the sudden death of the King of Scotland, Alexander III, and the contested succession soon gave him the opportunity to intervene. He was invited by the Scots to arbitrate and choose between the thirteen competitors for the Scottish throne. Edward's choice, John Balliol, who he conceived as his puppet, was persuaded to do homage for his crown to Edward at Newcastle but was then forced to throw off Edward's overlordship by the indignation of the Scottish people. An alliance between the French and the Scots now followed, and Edward, then at war with the French king over possession of Gascony, was compelled to march his army north. Edward invaded Scotland in 1296 and devastated the country, which earned him the sobriquet 'Hammer of the Scots'. It was at this time that the symbolic Stone of Destiny was removed from Scone. Edward's influence had tainted Balliol's reign and the Scottish nobility deposed him and appointed a council of twelve to rule instead. Balliol abdicated and was eventually sent to France where he retired into obscurity, taking no more part in politics. Scotland was then left without a monarch until the accession of Robert the Bruce in 1306.
Meanwhile Edward assumed the administration of the country. However the following summer a new opposition to Edward took place under William Wallace whose successes, notably at Stirling Bridge, forced Edward to return to Scotland with an army of 100,000 men. Although he defeated Wallace's army at Falkirk, and Wallace himself was betrayed, Edward's unjust and barbaric execution of him as a traitor in London made Wallace a national hero in Scotland, and resistance to England became paramount among the people. All Edward's efforts to reduce the country to obedience were unravelling, and after the crowning of Robert Bruce, Earl of Carrick, as Robert I of Scotland in 1306 an enraged Edward assembled another army and marched yet again against the Scots. However, Edward only reached Burgh-on-Sands, a village near Carlisle, when he died. His body was taken back to London and he was buried at Westminster Abbey.
Edward I was married twice: to Eleanor of Castile, by whom he had sixteen children, and Margaret of France by whom he had three. Twelve memorials to his first wife stood between Nottingham and London to mark the journey taken by her funeral cortege. Three of those memorials, known as “Eleanor Crosses”, can still be seen today at Geddington, Hardingstone near Northampton and Waltham Cross. London's Charing Cross is also named after one, but the original was demolished in 1647 and the monument seen there today is a Victorian replica.
1 comments*Alex
0010-068d.jpg
1311 - M. Plaetorius M.f. Cestianus. Denarius58 viewsRome mint, c. 69 BC
Male head right (Mercury ?) with flowing hair. Behind symbol
M·PLAETORI – CEST·EX·S·C Winged caduceus
18 mm, 3,86 gr
Ref : RCV #344, RSC Plaetoria # 5, Sydenham # 807, RBW # 1453, Crawford # 405/5
From the E.E. Clain-Stefanelli collection
2 commentsPotator II
antpius as-concordia.jpg
138-161 AD - ANTONINUS PIUS AE as - struck 140-143 AD62 viewsobv: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS PP TRP COS III (laureate head right)
rev: CONCORDIA EXERCITVM / S.C. (Concordia standing left, holding Victory and aquila)
ref: RIC III 678, C.140 (2frcs)
10.26gms, 26mm

This reverse symbolises the concord between the emperor and the army. The reign of Antoninus Pius was the most peaceful in the entire history of the Principate; while there were several military disturbances throughout the Empire in his time, the Moors in Mauretania (AD150), the Jews in Iudaea (for seventeen years the Romans didn't allow the Jews to bury their dead in Betar, after the Bar Kokhba revolt), the Brigantes in Britannia (AD 140-145, the Antonine Wall being built ca. 40 miles further north), the different Germanic tribes at the Germania limes, the Alans in Dacia (AD158), and had to put down rebellions in the provinces of Achaia and Egypt (AD154).
berserker
CTG_SisCmpGte.jpg
1403i, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D. (Siscia)42 viewsSilvered AE 3, RIC 214, VF, Siscia mint, 3.187g, 19.3mm, 0o, 328 - 329 A.D.
Obverse: CONSTAN-TINVS AVG, laureate head right; Reverse PROVIDEN-TIAE AVGG, campgate with two turrets, star above, ASIS and double crescent in exergue.

Flavius Valerius Constantinus, Constantine the Great, was the son of Helena and the First Tetrarchic ruler Constantius I. Constantine is most famous for his conversion to Christianity and the battle of the Milvian Bridge where he defeated emperor Maxentius. It is reputed that before the battle, he saw the words "In Hoc Signo Victor Eris" (By this sign you shall conquer) emblazoned on the sun around the Chi Rho, the symbol of Christianity. Other sources claim the vision came to Constantine I in a dream. The story continues that after placing this Christogram on the shields of his army, he defeated his opponent and thus ruled the empire through divine providence. Constantine I also shifted the capital of the empire to Constantinople, establishing the foundation for an Empire that would last another 1000 years. He died in 337 and his sons divided the Roman territories.

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power, and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
Cleisthenes
CTG_ThesCmpGte.jpg
1403j, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D. (Thessalonica)26 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC 153, VF, Thessalonica mint, 2.955g, 19.7mm, 0o, 326 - 328 A.D. Obverse: CONSTAN-TINVS AVG, laureate head right; Reverse: PROVIDEN-TIAE AVGG, campgate with two turrets, star above, dot right, SMTSG in exergue.

Flavius Valerius Constantinus, Constantine the Great, was the son of Helena and the First Tetrarchic ruler Constantius I. Constantine is most famous for his conversion to Christianity and the battle of the Milvian Bridge where he defeated emperor Maxentius. It is reputed that before the battle, he saw the words "In Hoc Signo Victor Eris" (By this sign you shall conquer) emblazoned on the sun around the Chi Rho, the symbol of Christianity. Other sources claim the vision came to Constantine I in a dream. The story continues that after placing this Christogram on the shields of his army, he defeated his opponent and thus ruled the empire through divine providence. Constantine I also shifted the capital of the empire to Constantinople, establishing the foundation for an Empire that would last another 1000 years. He died in 337 and his sons divided the Roman territories.

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power, and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
Cleisthenes
CrispusRIC17.jpg
1404a, Crispus, Caesar 317 - 326 A.D. 39 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC 17, aEF, Cyzicus mint, 3.196g, 19.9mm, 315o, 321 - 324 A.D.; Obverse: D N FL IVL CRISPVS NOB CAES, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: IOVI CONSERVATORI, Jupiter standing left holding Victory on globe in right and scepter in left, eagle with wreath in beak to left, X / IIG and captive right, SMKD in exergue; scarce (RIC R3). Ex FORVM.


De Imperatoribus Romanis;
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors and their Families

Crispus Caesar (317-326 A.D.)

Hans Pohlsander
SUNY Albany

Crispus was the oldest son of the emperor Constantine I and played a fairly important role in the political and military events of the early fourth century. The regular form of his full name is Flavius Iulius Crispus, although the forms Flavius Claudius Crispus and Flavius Valerius Crispus also occur. His mother was a woman named Minervina, with whom Constantine had a relationship, probably illegitimate, before he married Fausta in 307. When Minervina died or when Constantine put her aside we do not know. Nor do we know when she gave birth to Crispus; we may assume, of course, that it was before 307. Some modern authorities, on good grounds, think that it was in 305. Crispus' place of birth must have been somewhere in the East, and it is not known when he was brought to Gaul and when, where, or under what circumstances he was separated from his mother.

Constantine entrusted the education of his son to the distinguished Christian scholar Lactantius, thereby giving a clear sign of his commitment to Christianity. We are not told when Lactantius assumed his duties, but a date before 317 seems likely. Nor do we know how successful he was in instilling Christian beliefs and values in his imperial pupil. No later than January of 322 Crispus must have married a woman named Helena -- not to be confused with Constantine's mother or daughter by the same name- and this woman bore him a child in October of 322. Constantine, we learn, was pleased.

Crispus' official career began at an early age and is well documented. On March 1 of 317, at Serdica (modern Sofia), his father appointed him Caesar. The consulship was his three times, in 318, 321, and 324. While nominally in charge of Gaul, with a prefect at his side, he successfully undertook military operations against the Franks and Alamanni in 320 and 323.

In 324, during the second war between Constantine and Licinius, he excelled as commander of Constantine's fleet in the waters of the Hellespont, the Propontis, and the Bosporus, thus making a significant contribution to the outcome of that war. The high points of his career are amply reflected in the imperial coinage. In addition to coins, we have his portrait, with varying degrees of certainty, in a number of sculptures, mosaics, cameos, etc. Contemporary authors heap praises upon him. Thus the panegyrist Nazarius speaks of Crispus' "magnificent deeds," and Eusebius calls him "an emperor most dear to God and in all regards comparable to his father."

Crispus' end was as tragic as his career had been brilliant. His own father ordered him to be put to death. We know the year of this sad event, 326, from the Consularia Constantinopolitana, and the place, Pola in Istria, from Ammianus Marcellinus. The circumstances, however, are less clear. Zosimus (6th c.) and Zonaras (12th c.) both report that Crispus and his stepmother Fausta were involved in an illicit relationship. There may be as much gossip as fact in their reports, but it is certain that at some time during the same year the emperor ordered the death of his own wife as well, and the two cases must be considered together. That Crispus and Fausta plotted treason is reported by Gregory of Tours, but not very believable. We must resolutely reject the claim of Zosimus that it was Constantine's sense of guilt over these deeds which caused him to accept Christianity, as it alone promised him forgiveness for his sins. A similar claim had already been made by Julian the Apostate. We must also, I think, reject the suggestion of Guthrie that the emperor acted in the interest of "dynastic legitimacy," that is, that he removed his illegitimate first-born son in order to secure the succession for his three legitimate younger sons. But Crispus must have committed, or at least must have been suspected of having committed, some especially shocking offense to earn him a sentence of death from his own father. He also suffered damnatio memoriae, his honor was never restored, and history has not recorded the fate of his wife and his child (or children).

Copyright (C) 1997, Hans A. Pohlsander. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis;An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors and their Families:
http://www.roman-emperors.org/crispus.htm


What If?

St. Nectarios, in his book, The Ecumenical Synods, writes "Hellenism spread by Alexander paved the way for Christianity by Emperor Constantine the Great."

Constantine's upward gaze on his "Eyes to Heaven" coins recall the coin portraits of Alexander the Great (namely coins struck by the Diodochi), which served as prototypes for the divine ruler portraiture of much of the Hellenistic age. The diadem, of which this is the most elaborate type, was adopted by Constantine and the members of his house as a new symbol of sovereignty.

In the Greek Orthodox Church, Constantine the Great is revered as a Saint.

Is it just possible? Constantine, knowing what happened (or thinking that he does) to Phillip II of Macedon—assassinated on the eve of his greatness, in a plot that most likely involved his wife—and possibly his son. . . isn’t it just possible that Constantine is growing obsessively jealous of his ever more successful and adulated son? Imagine the Constantine who has proven time and again (think: Licinius) that he is a completely self-serving liar and a murderer, decides to murder again? Why "must we resolutely reject the claim of Zosimus that it was Constantine's sense of guilt over these deeds which caused him to accept Christianity, as it alone promised him forgiveness for his sins [?] (see: above). A similar claim had already been made by Julian the [Philosopher]."

Perhaps it is time to cease being apologists for the sometime megalomaniacal Constantine. As Michael Grant notes, "It is a mocking travesty of justice to call such a murderer Constantine the Great . . ." (Grant, Michael. The Emperor Constantine. London: Phoenix Press, 1998. 226).


Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.


Cleisthenes
crispus_votV.jpg
1404b, Crispus, Caesar 317 - 326 A.D. (Thessalonica)35 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC 118, VF, Thessalonica mint, 2.740g, 18.0mm, 180o, 320 - 321 A.D. Obverse: FL IVL CRISPVS NOB CAES, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust left; Reverse: CAESARVM NOSTRORVM, VOT V in wreath, TSDVI in exergue.

Flavius Julius Crispus was the son of Constantine I by his first wife. A brilliant soldier, Crispus was well loved by all until 326 A.D., when Constantine had him executed. It is said that Fausta, Crispus stepmother, anxious to secure the succession for her own sons falsely accused Crispus of raping her. Constantine, learning of Fausta`s treachery, had her executed too.


De Imperatoribus Romanis;
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors and their Families

Crispus Caesar (317-326 A.D.)

Hans Pohlsander
SUNY Albany

Crispus was the oldest son of the emperor Constantine I and played a fairly important role in the political and military events of the early fourth century. The regular form of his full name is Flavius Iulius Crispus, although the forms Flavius Claudius Crispus and Flavius Valerius Crispus also occur. His mother was a woman named Minervina, with whom Constantine had a relationship, probably illegitimate, before he married Fausta in 307. When Minervina died or when Constantine put her aside we do not know. Nor do we know when she gave birth to Crispus; we may assume, of course, that it was before 307. Some modern authorities, on good grounds, think that it was in 305. Crispus' place of birth must have been somewhere in the East, and it is not known when he was brought to Gaul and when, where, or under what circumstances he was separated from his mother.

Constantine entrusted the education of his son to the distinguished Christian scholar Lactantius, thereby giving a clear sign of his commitment to Christianity. We are not told when Lactantius assumed his duties, but a date before 317 seems likely. Nor do we know how successful he was in instilling Christian beliefs and values in his imperial pupil. No later than January of 322 Crispus must have married a woman named Helena -- not to be confused with Constantine's mother or daughter by the same name- and this woman bore him a child in October of 322. Constantine, we learn, was pleased.

Crispus' official career began at an early age and is well documented. On March 1 of 317, at Serdica (modern Sofia), his father appointed him Caesar. The consulship was his three times, in 318, 321, and 324. While nominally in charge of Gaul, with a prefect at his side, he successfully undertook military operations against the Franks and Alamanni in 320 and 323.

In 324, during the second war between Constantine and Licinius, he excelled as commander of Constantine's fleet in the waters of the Hellespont, the Propontis, and the Bosporus, thus making a significant contribution to the outcome of that war. The high points of his career are amply reflected in the imperial coinage. In addition to coins, we have his portrait, with varying degrees of certainty, in a number of sculptures, mosaics, cameos, etc. Contemporary authors heap praises upon him. Thus the panegyrist Nazarius speaks of Crispus' "magnificent deeds," and Eusebius calls him "an emperor most dear to God and in all regards comparable to his father."

Crispus' end was as tragic as his career had been brilliant. His own father ordered him to be put to death. We know the year of this sad event, 326, from the Consularia Constantinopolitana, and the place, Pola in Istria, from Ammianus Marcellinus. The circumstances, however, are less clear. Zosimus (6th c.) and Zonaras (12th c.) both report that Crispus and his stepmother Fausta were involved in an illicit relationship. There may be as much gossip as fact in their reports, but it is certain that at some time during the same year the emperor ordered the death of his own wife as well, and the two cases must be considered together. That Crispus and Fausta plotted treason is reported by Gregory of Tours, but not very believable. We must resolutely reject the claim of Zosimus that it was Constantine's sense of guilt over these deeds which caused him to accept Christianity, as it alone promised him forgiveness for his sins. A similar claim had already been made by Julian the Apostate. We must also, I think, reject the suggestion of Guthrie that the emperor acted in the interest of "dynastic legitimacy," that is, that he removed his illegitimate first-born son in order to secure the succession for his three legitimate younger sons. But Crispus must have committed, or at least must have been suspected of having committed, some especially shocking offense to earn him a sentence of death from his own father. He also suffered damnatio memoriae, his honor was never restored, and history has not recorded the fate of his wife and his child (or children).

Copyright (C) 1997, Hans A. Pohlsander. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis;An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors and their Families:
http://www.roman-emperors.org/crispus.htm


What If?

St. Nectarios, in his book, The Ecumenical Synods, writes "Hellenism spread by Alexander paved the way for Christianity by Emperor Constantine the Great."

Constantine's upward gaze on his "Eyes to Heaven" coins recall the coin portraits of Alexander the Great (namely coins struck by the Diodochi), which served as prototypes for the divine ruler portraiture of much of the Hellenistic age. The diadem, of which this is the most elaborate type, was adopted by Constantine and the members of his house as a new symbol of sovereignty.

In the Greek Orthodox Church, Constantine the Great is revered as a Saint.

Is it just possible? Constantine, knowing what happened (or thinking that he does) to Phillip II of Macedon—assassinated on the eve of his greatness, in a plot that most likely involved his wife—and possibly his son. . . isn’t it just possible that Constantine is growing obsessively jealous of his ever more successful and adulated son? Imagine the Constantine who has proven time and again (think: Licinius) that he is a completely self-serving liar and a murderer, decides to murder again? Why "must we resolutely reject the claim of Zosimus that it was Constantine's sense of guilt over these deeds which caused him to accept Christianity, as it alone promised him forgiveness for his sins [?] (see: above). A similar claim had already been made by Julian the [Philosopher]."

Perhaps it is time to cease being apologists for the sometime megalomaniacal Constantine. As Michael Grant notes, "It is a mocking travesty of justice to call such a murderer Constantine the Great . . ." (Grant, Michael. The Emperor Constantine. London: Phoenix Press, 1998. 226).


Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
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1405n, Constans, 9 September 337 - 19 January 350 A.D. (Siscia)56 viewsConstans, 9 September 337 - 19 January 350 A.D. Bronze AE 3, RIC 241, S 3978, VM 69, VF, Siscia, 2.32g, 18.3mm, 180o. Obverse: D N CONSTANS P F AVG, pearl diademed draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Phoenix radiate, standing on rocky mound, GSIS and symbol in ex; nice green patina.

Flavius Julius Constans, third and youngest son of Constantine I and Fausta, was born between 320 and 323 A.D. Primary sources for the life and reign of Constans I are scarce. To reconstruct his life and career, one must draw on a variety of references in both fourth century and later works. Raised as a Christian, he was made a Caesar on 25 December 333 A.D. Constans I and his two brothers, after the death of their father on 22 May 337 and the subsequent "massacre of the princes" in which many other relatives were purged, met in the first part of September 337 in Pannonia to re-divide the empire among themselves. There they were acclaimed Augusti by the army. Constans' new realm included Italy, Africa, Illyricum, Macedonia, and Achaea. Shortly before his father's death, Constans' engagement to Olympias, the daughter of the Praetorian Prefect Ablabius, was announced; although the match was never solemnized because of political reasons.

It would appear that Constans was successful in the military sphere. Following his accession to the purple in 337, he seems to have won a victory over the Sarmatians. In 340 Constans was able to beat back an attempt by his brother Constantine II to seize some of his realm. The latter died in a battle fought near Aquileia and Constans absorbed his late brother's territory. In 341 and 342 he conducted a successful campaign against the Franci. He also visited Britain in 343, probably on a military campaign.

As an emperor Constans gets mixed reviews. In what may be a topos, sources suggest that the first part of his reign was moderate but in later years, however, he became overbearing. The emperor apparently attempted to obtain as much money as he could from his subjects and sold government posts to the highest bidder. His favorites were allowed to oppress his subjects. Sources also condemn his homosexuality. He did have some military success and, in addition to other military threats, he had to deal with Donatist-related bandits in North Africa.

Like his father Constantine I and his brother Constantius II, Constans had a deep interest in Christianity. Together with Constantius II he issued (or perhaps re-issued) a ban against pagan sacrifice in 341. The next year, they cautioned against the destruction of pagan temples. Unlike his brother Constantius II, who supported the Arian faction, he stood shoulder to shoulder with Athanasius and other members of the Orthodox clique. In fact, it is due to his request that the Council of Serdica was called to deal with the ecclesiastical squabble between Athanasius of Alexandria and Paul of Constantinople on one side and the Arian faction on the other.

When Magnentius was declared emperor in Gaul during January 350, Constans realized his reign was at an end. When he learned of the revolt, he fled toward Helena, a town in the Pyrenees. Constans was put to death by Gaeso and a band of Magnentius' assassins, who dragged their victim from a temple in which he had sought refuge.

By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University and Robert Frakes, Clarion University
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
Julian2VotXConstantinople.jpg
1409a, Julian II "the Philosopher," February 360 - 26 June 363 A.D.143 viewsJulian II, A.D. 360-363; RIC 167; VF; 2.7g, 20mm; Constantinople mint; Obverse: DN FL CL IVLIANVS P F AVG, helmeted & cuirassed bust right, holding spear & shield; Reverse: VOT X MVLT XX in four lines within wreath; CONSPB in exergue; Attractive green patina. Ex Nemesis.


De Imperatoribus Romanis,
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Julian the Apostate (360-363 A.D.)

Walter E. Roberts, Emory University
Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University

Introduction

The emperor Flavius Claudius Julianus reigned from 360 to 26 June 363, when he was killed fighting against the Persians. Despite his short rule, his emperorship was pivotal in the development of the history of the later Roman empire. This essay is not meant to be a comprehensive look at the various issues central to the reign of Julian and the history of the later empire. Rather, this short work is meant to be a brief history and introduction for the general reader. Julian was the last direct descendent of the Constantinian line to ascend to the purple, and it is one of history's great ironies that he was the last non-Christian emperor. As such, he has been vilified by most Christian sources, beginning with John Chrysostom and Gregory Nazianzus in the later fourth century. This tradition was picked up by the fifth century Eusebian continuators Sozomen, Socrates Scholasticus, and Theodoret and passed on to scholars down through the 20th century. Most contemporary sources, however, paint a much more balanced picture of Julian and his reign. The adoption of Christianity by emperors and society, while still a vital concern, was but one of several issues that concerned Julian.

It is fortunate that extensive writings from Julian himself exist, which help interpret his reign in the light of contemporary evidence. Still extant are some letters, several panegyrics, and a few satires. Other contemporary sources include the soldier Ammianus Marcellinus' history, correspondence between Julian and Libanius of Antioch, several panegyrics, laws from the Theodosian Code, inscriptions, and coinage. These sources show Julian's emphasis on restoration. He saw himself as the restorer of the traditional values of Roman society. Of course much of this was rhetoric, meant to defend Julian against charges that he was a usurper. At the same time this theme of restoration was central to all emperors of the fourth century. Julian thought that he was the one emperor who could regain what was viewed as the lost glory of the Roman empire. To achieve this goal he courted select groups of social elites to get across his message of restoration. This was the way that emperors functioned in the fourth century. By choosing whom to include in the sharing of power, they sought to shape society.

Early Life

Julian was born at Constantinople in 331. His father was Julius Constantius, half-brother of the emperor Constantine through Constantius Chlorus, and his mother was Basilina, Julius' second wife. Julian had two half-brothers via Julius' first marriage. One of these was Gallus, who played a major role in Julian's life. Julian appeared destined for a bright future via his father's connection to the Constantinian house. After many years of tense relations with his three half-brothers, Constantine seemed to have welcomed them into the fold of the imperial family. From 333 to 335, Constantine conferred a series of honors upon his three half-siblings, including appointing Julius Constantius as one of the consuls for 335. Julian's mother was equally distinguished. Ammianus related that she was from a noble family. This is supported by Libanius, who claimed that she was the daughter of Julius Julianus, a Praetorian Prefect under Licinius, who was such a model of administrative virtue that he was pardoned and honored by Constantine.

Despite the fact that his mother died shortly after giving birth to him, Julian experienced an idyllic early childhood. This ended when Constantius II conducted a purge of many of his relatives shortly after Constantine's death in 337, particularly targeting the families of Constantine's half-brothers. ulian and Gallus were spared, probably due to their young age. Julian was put under the care of Mardonius, a Scythian eunuch who had tutored his mother, in 339, and was raised in the Greek philosophical tradition, and probably lived in Nicomedia. Ammianus also supplied the fact that while in Nicomedia, Julian was cared for by the local bishop Eusebius, of whom the future emperor was a distant relation. Julian was educated by some of the most famous names in grammar and rhetoric in the Greek world at that time, including Nicocles and Hecebolius. In 344 Constantius II sent Julian and Gallus to Macellum in Cappadocia, where they remained for six years. In 351, Gallus was made Caesar by Constantius II and Julian was allowed to return to Nicomedia, where he studied under Aedesius, Eusebius, and Chrysanthius, all famed philosophers, and was exposed to the Neo-Platonism that would become such a prominent part of his life. But Julian was most proud of the time he spent studying under Maximus of Ephesus, a noted Neo-Platonic philospher and theurgist. It was Maximus who completed Julian's full-scale conversion to Neo-Platonism. Later, when he was Caesar, Julian told of how he put letters from this philosopher under his pillows so that he would continue to absorb wisdom while he slept, and while campaigning on the Rhine, he sent his speeches to Maximus for approval before letting others hear them. When Gallus was executed in 354 for treason by Constantius II, Julian was summoned to Italy and essentially kept under house arrest at Comum, near Milan, for seven months before Constantius' wife Eusebia convinced the emperor that Julian posed no threat. This allowed Julian to return to Greece and continue his life as a scholar where he studied under the Neo-Platonist Priscus. Julian's life of scholarly pursuit, however, ended abruptly when he was summoned to the imperial court and made Caesar by Constantius II on 6 November 355.

Julian as Caesar

Constantius II realized an essential truth of the empire that had been evident since the time of the Tetrarchy--the empire was too big to be ruled effectively by one man. Julian was pressed into service as Caesar, or subordinate emperor, because an imperial presence was needed in the west, in particular in the Gallic provinces. Julian, due to the emperor's earlier purges, was the only viable candidate of the imperial family left who could act as Caesar. Constantius enjoined Julian with the task of restoring order along the Rhine frontier. A few days after he was made Caesar, Julian was married to Constantius' sister Helena in order to cement the alliance between the two men. On 1 December 355, Julian journeyed north, and in Augusta Taurinorum he learned that Alamannic raiders had destroyed Colonia Agrippina. He then proceeded to Vienne where he spent the winter. At Vienne, he learned that Augustudunum was also under siege, but was being held by a veteran garrison. He made this his first priority, and arrived there on 24 June 356. When he had assured himself that the city was in no immediate danger, he journeyed to Augusta Treverorum via Autessioduram, and from there to Durocortorum where he rendezvoused with his army. Julian had the army stage a series of punitive strikes around the Dieuse region, and then he moved them towards the Argentoratum/Mongontiacum region when word of barbarian incursions reached him.

From there, Julian moved on to Colonia Agrippina, and negotiated a peace with the local barbarian leaders who had assaulted the city. He then wintered at Senonae. He spent the early part of the campaigning season of 357 fighting off besiegers at Senonae, and then conducting operations around Lugdunum and Tres Tabernae. Later that summer, he encountered his watershed moment as a military general. Ammianus went into great detail about Julian's victory over seven rogue Alamannic chieftains near Argentoratum, and Julian himself bragged about it in his later writing. After this battle, the soldiers acclaimed Julian Augustus, but he rejected this title. After mounting a series of follow-up raids into Alamannic territory, he retired to winter quarters at Lutetia, and on the way defeated some Frankish raiders in the Mosa region. Julian considered this campaign one of the major events of his time as Caesar.

Julian began his 358 military campaigns early, hoping to catch the barbarians by surprise. His first target was the Franks in the northern Rhine region. He then proceeded to restore some forts in the Mosa region, but his soldiers threatened to mutiny because they were on short rations and had not been paid their donative since Julian had become Caesar. After he soothed his soldiers, Julian spent the rest of the summer negotiating a peace with various Alamannic leaders in the mid and lower Rhine areas, and retired to winter quarters at Lutetia. In 359, he prepared once again to carry out a series of punitive expeditions against the Alamanni in the Rhine region who were still hostile to the Roman presence. In preparation, the Caesar repopulated seven previously destroyed cities and set them up as supply bases and staging areas. This was done with the help of the people with whom Julian had negotiated a peace the year before. Julian then had a detachment of lightly armed soldiers cross the Rhine near Mogontiacum and conduct a guerilla strike against several chieftains. As a result of these campaigns, Julian was able to negotiate a peace with all but a handful of the Alamannic leaders, and he retired to winter quarters at Lutetia.

Of course, Julian did more than act as a general during his time as Caesar. According to Ammianus, Julian was an able administrator who took steps to correct the injustices of Constantius' appointees. Ammianus related the story of how Julian prevented Florentius, the Praetorian Prefect of Gaul, from raising taxes, and also how Julian actually took over as governor for the province of Belgica Secunda. Hilary, bishop of Poitiers, supported Ammianus' basic assessment of Julian in this regard when he reported that Julian was an able representative of the emperor to the Gallic provincials. There is also epigraphic evidence to support Julian's popularity amongst the provincial elites. An inscription found near Beneventum in Apulia reads:
"To Flavius Claudius Julianus, most noble and sanctified Caesar, from the caring Tocius Maximus, vir clarissimus, for the care of the res publica from Beneventum".

Tocius Maximus, as a vir clarissimus, was at the highest point in the social spectrum and was a leader in his local community. This inscription shows that Julian was successful in establishing a positive image amongst provincial elites while he was Caesar.

Julian Augustus

In early 360, Constantius, driven by jealousy of Julian's success, stripped Julian of many troops and officers, ostensibly because the emperor needed them for his upcoming campaign against the Persians. One of the legions ordered east, the Petulantes, did not want to leave Gaul because the majority of the soldiers in the unit were from this region. As a result they mutinied and hailed Julian as Augustus at Lutetia. Julian refused this acclamation as he had done at Argentoratum earlier, but the soldiers would have none of his denial. They raised him on a shield and adorned him with a neck chain, which had formerly been the possession of the standard-bearer of the Petulantes and symbolized a royal diadem. Julian appeared reluctantly to acquiesce to their wishes, and promised a generous donative. The exact date of his acclamation is unknown, but most scholars put it in February or March. Julian himself supported Ammianus' picture of a jealous Constantius. In his Letter to the Athenians, a document constructed to answer charges that he was a usurper, Julian stated that from the start he, as Caesar, had been meant as a figurehead to the soldiers and provincials. The real power he claimed lay with the generals and officials already present in Gaul. In fact, according to Julian, the generals were charged with watching him as much as the enemy. His account of the actual acclamation closely followed what Ammianus told us, but he stressed even more his reluctance to take power. Julian claimed that he did so only after praying to Zeus for guidance.

Fearing the reaction of Constantius, Julian sent a letter to his fellow emperor justifying the events at Lutetia and trying to arrange a peaceful solution. This letter berated Constantius for forcing the troops in Gaul into an untenable situation. Ammianus stated that Julian's letter blamed Constantius' decision to transfer Gallic legions east as the reason for the soldiers' rebellion. Julian once again asserted that he was an unwilling participant who was only following the desire of the soldiers. In both of these basic accounts Ammianus and Julian are playing upon the theme of restoration. Implicit in their version of Julian's acclamation is the argument that Constantius was unfit to rule. The soldiers were the vehicle of the gods' will. The Letter to the Athenians is full of references to the fact that Julian was assuming the mantle of Augustus at the instigation of the gods. Ammianus summed up this position nicely when he related the story of how, when Julian was agonizing over whether to accept the soldiers' acclamation, he had a dream in which he was visited by the Genius (guardian spirit) of the Roman state. The Genius told Julian that it had often tried to bestow high honors upon Julian but had been rebuffed. Now, the Genius went on to say, was Julian's final chance to take the power that was rightfully his. If the Caesar refused this chance, the Genius would depart forever, and both Julian and the state would rue Julian's rejection. Julian himself wrote a letter to his friend Maximus of Ephesus in November of 361 detailing his thoughts on his proclamation. In this letter, Julian stated that the soldiers proclaimed him Augustus against his will. Julian, however, defended his accession, saying that the gods willed it and that he had treated his enemies with clemency and justice. He went on to say that he led the troops in propitiating the traditional deities, because the gods commanded him to return to the traditional rites, and would reward him if he fulfilled this duty.

During 360 an uneasy peace simmered between the two emperors. Julian spent the 360 campaigning season continuing his efforts to restore order along the Rhine, while Constantius continued operations against the Persians. Julian wintered in Vienne, and celebrated his Quinquennalia. It was at this time that his wife Helena died, and he sent her remains to Rome for a proper burial at his family villa on the Via Nomentana where the body of her sister was entombed. The uneasy peace held through the summer of 361, but Julian concentrated his military operations around harassing the Alamannic chieftain Vadomarius and his allies, who had concluded a peace treaty with Constantius some years earlier. By the end of the summer, Julian decided to put an end to the waiting and gathered his army to march east against Constantius. The empire teetered on the brink of another civil war. Constantius had spent the summer negotiating with the Persians and making preparations for possible military action against his cousin. When he was assured that the Persians would not attack, he summoned his army and sallied forth to meet Julian. As the armies drew inexorably closer to one another, the empire was saved from another bloody civil war when Constantius died unexpectedly of natural causes on 3 November near the town of Mopsucrenae in Cilicia, naming Julian -- the sources say-- as his legitimate successor.

Julian was in Dacia when he learned of his cousin's death. He made his way through Thrace and came to Constantinople on 11 December 361 where Julian honored the emperor with the funeral rites appropriate for a man of his station. Julian immediately set about putting his supporters in positions of power and trimming the imperial bureaucracy, which had become extremely overstaffed during Constantius' reign. Cooks and barbers had increased during the late emperor's reign and Julian expelled them from his court. Ammianus gave a mixed assessment of how the new emperor handled the followers of Constantius. Traditionally, emperors were supposed to show clemency to the supporters of a defeated enemy. Julian, however, gave some men over to death to appease the army. Ammianus used the case of Ursulus, Constantius' comes sacrum largitionum, to illustrate his point. Ursulus had actually tried to acquire money for the Gallic troops when Julian had first been appointed Caesar, but he had also made a disparaging remark about the ineffectiveness of the army after the battle of Amida. The soldiers remembered this, and when Julian became sole Augustus, they demanded Ursulus' head. Julian obliged, much to the disapproval of Ammianus. This seems to be a case of Julian courting the favor of the military leadership, and is indicative of a pattern in which Julian courted the goodwill of various societal elites to legitimize his position as emperor.

Another case in point is the officials who made up the imperial bureaucracy. Many of them were subjected to trial and punishment. To achieve this goal, during the last weeks of December 361 Julian assembled a military tribunal at Chalcedon, empanelling six judges to try the cases. The president of the tribunal was Salutius, just promoted to the rank of Praetorian Prefect; the five other members were Mamertinus, the orator, and four general officers: Jovinus, Agilo, Nevitta, and Arbetio. Relative to the proceedings of the tribunal, Ammianus noted that the judges, " . . . oversaw the cases more vehemently than was right or fair, with the exception of a few . . .." Ammianus' account of Julian's attempt at reform of the imperial bureaucracy is supported by legal evidence from the Theodosian Code. A series of laws sent to Mamertinus, Julian's appointee as Praetorian Prefect in Italy, Illyricum, and Africa, illustrate this point nicely. On 6 June 362, Mamertinus received a law that prohibited provincial governors from bypassing the Vicars when giving their reports to the Prefect. Traditionally, Vicars were given civil authority over a group of provinces, and were in theory meant to serve as a middle step between governors and Prefects. This law suggests that the Vicars were being left out, at least in Illyricum. Julian issued another edict to Mamertinus on 22 February 362 to stop abuse of the public post by governors. According to this law, only Mamertinus could issue post warrants, but the Vicars were given twelve blank warrants to be used as they saw fit, and each governor was given two. Continuing the trend of bureaucratic reform, Julian also imposed penalties on governors who purposefully delayed appeals in court cases they had heard. The emperor also established a new official to weigh solidi used in official government transactions to combat coin clipping.

For Julian, reigning in the abuses of imperial bureaucrats was one step in restoring the prestige of the office of emperor. Because he could not affect all elements of society personally, Julian, like other Neo-Flavian emperors, decided to concentrate on select groups of societal elites as intercessors between himself and the general populace. One of these groups was the imperial bureaucracy. Julian made it very clear that imperial officials were intercessors in a very real sense in a letter to Alypius, Vicar of Britain. In this letter, sent from Gaul sometime before 361, the emperor praises Alypius for his use of "mildness and moderation with courage and force" in his rule of the provincials. Such virtues were characteristic of the emperors, and it was good that Alypius is representing Julian in this way. Julian courted the army because it put him in power. Another group he sought to include in his rule was the traditional Senatorial aristocracy. One of his first appointments as consul was Claudius Mamertinus, a Gallic Senator and rhetorician. Mamertinus' speech in praise of Julian delivered at Constantinople in January of 362 is preserved. In this speech, Claudius presented his consular selection as inaugurating a new golden age and Julian as the restorer of the empire founded by Augustus. The image Mamertinus gave of his own consulate inaugurating a new golden age is not merely formulaic. The comparison of Julian to Augustus has very real, if implicit, relevance to Claudius' situation. Claudius emphasized the imperial period as the true age of renewal. Augustus ushered in a new era with his formation of a partnership between the emperor and the Senate based upon a series of honors and offices bestowed upon the Senate in return for their role as intercessor between emperor and populace. It was this system that Julian was restoring, and the consulate was one concrete example of this bond. To be chosen as a consul by the emperor, who himself had been divinely mandated, was a divine honor. In addition to being named consul, Mamertinus went on to hold several offices under Julian, including the Prefecture of Italy, Illyricum, and Africa. Similarly, inscriptional evidence illustrates a link between municipal elites and Julian during his time as Caesar, something which continued after he became emperor. One concrete example comes from the municipal senate of Aceruntia in Apulia, which established a monument on which Julian is styled as "Repairer of the World."

Julian seems to have given up actual Christian belief before his acclamation as emperor and was a practitioner of more traditional Greco-Roman religious beliefs, in particular, a follower of certain late antique Platonist philosophers who were especially adept at theurgy as was noted earlier. In fact Julian himself spoke of his conversion to Neo-Platonism in a letter to the Alexandrians written in 363. He stated that he had abandoned Christianity when he was twenty years old and been an adherent of the traditional Greco-Roman deities for the twelve years prior to writing this letter.

(For the complete text of this article see: http://www.roman-emperors.org/julian.htm)

Julian’s Persian Campaign

The exact goals Julian had for his ill-fated Persian campaign were never clear. The Sassanid Persians, and before them the Parthians, had been a traditional enemy from the time of the Late Republic, and indeed Constantius had been conducting a war against them before Julian's accession forced the former to forge an uneasy peace. Julian, however, had no concrete reason to reopen hostilities in the east. Socrates Scholasticus attributed Julian's motives to imitation of Alexander the Great, but perhaps the real reason lay in his need to gather the support of the army. Despite his acclamation by the Gallic legions, relations between Julian and the top military officers was uneasy at best. A war against the Persians would have brought prestige and power both to Julian and the army.

Julian set out on his fateful campaign on 5 March 363. Using his trademark strategy of striking quickly and where least expected, he moved his army through Heirapolis and from there speedily across the Euphrates and into the province of Mesopotamia, where he stopped at the town of Batnae. His plan was to eventually return through Armenia and winter in Tarsus. Once in Mesopotamia, Julian was faced with the decision of whether to travel south through the province of Babylonia or cross the Tigris into Assyria, and he eventually decided to move south through Babylonia and turn west into Assyria at a later date. By 27 March, he had the bulk of his army across the Euphrates, and had also arranged a flotilla to guard his supply line along the mighty river. He then left his generals Procopius and Sebastianus to help Arsacius, the king of Armenia and a Roman client, to guard the northern Tigris line. It was also during this time that he received the surrender of many prominent local leaders who had nominally supported the Persians. These men supplied Julian with money and troops for further military action against their former masters. Julian decided to turn south into Babylonia and proceeded along the Euphrates, coming to the fortress of Cercusium at the junction of the Abora and Euphrates Rivers around the first of April, and from there he took his army west to a region called Zaitha near the abandoned town of Dura where they visited the tomb of the emperor Gordian which was in the area. On April 7 he set out from there into the heart of Babylonia and towards Assyria.

Ammianus then stated that Julian and his army crossed into Assyria, which on the face of things appears very confusing. Julian still seems to be operating within the province of Babylonia between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. The confusion is alleviated when one realizes that,for Ammianus, the region of Assyria encompassed the provinces of Babylonia and Assyria. On their march, Julian's forces took the fortress of Anatha, received the surrender and support of several more local princes, and ravaged the countryside of Assyria between the rivers. As the army continued south, they came across the fortresses Thilutha and Achaiachala, but these places were too well defended and Julian decided to leave them alone. Further south were the cities Diacira and Ozogardana, which the Roman forces sacked and burned. Soon, Julian came to Pirisabora and a brief siege ensued, but the city fell and was also looted and destroyed. It was also at this time that the Roman army met its first systematic resistance from the Persians. As the Romans penetrated further south and west, the local inhabitants began to flood their route. Nevertheless, the Roman forces pressed on and came to Maiozamalcha, a sizable city not far from Ctesiphon. After a short siege, this city too fell to Julian. Inexorably, Julian's forces zeroed in on Ctesiphon, but as they drew closer, the Persian resistance grew fiercer, with guerilla raids whittling at Julian's men and supplies. A sizable force of the army was lost and the emperor himself was almost killed taking a fort a few miles from the target city.
Finally, the army approached Ctesiphon following a canal that linked the Tigris and Euphrates. It soon became apparent after a few preliminary skirmishes that a protracted siege would be necessary to take this important city. Many of his generals, however, thought that pursuing this course of action would be foolish. Julian reluctantly agreed, but became enraged by this failure and ordered his fleet to be burned as he decided to march through the province of Assyria. Julian had planned for his army to live off the land, but the Persians employed a scorched-earth policy. When it became apparent that his army would perish (because his supplies were beginning to dwindle) from starvation and the heat if he continued his campaign, and also in the face of superior numbers of the enemy, Julian ordered a retreat on 16 June. As the Roman army retreated, they were constantly harassed by guerilla strikes. It was during one of these raids that Julian got caught up in the fighting and took a spear to his abdomen. Mortally wounded he was carried to his tent, where, after conferring with some of his officers, he died. The date was 26 June 363.

Conclusion

Thus an ignominious end for a man came about who had hoped to restore the glory of the Roman empire during his reign as emperor. Due to his intense hatred of Christianity, the opinion of posterity has not been kind to Julian. The contemporary opinion, however, was overall positive. The evidence shows that Julian was a complex ruler with a definite agenda to use traditional social institutions in order to revive what he saw as a collapsing empire. In the final assessment, he was not so different from any of the other emperors of the fourth century. He was a man grasping desperately to hang on to a Greco-Roman conception of leadership that was undergoing a subtle yet profound change.
Copyright (C) 2002, Walter E. Roberts and Michael DiMaio, Jr. Used by permission.

In reality, Julian worked to promote culture and philosophy in any manifestation. He tried to reduce taxes and the public debts of municipalities; he augmented administrative decentralisation; he promoted a campaign of austerity to reduce public expenditure (setting himself as the example). He reformed the postal service and eliminated the powerful secret police.
by Federico Morando; JULIAN II, The Apostate, http://www.forumancientcoins.com/NumisWiki/view.asp?key=Julian%20II

Flavius Claudius Iulianus was born in 331 or maybe 332 A.D. in Constantinople. He ruled the Western Empire as Caesar from 355 to 360 and was hailed Augustus by his legions in Lutetia (Paris) in 360. Julian was a gifted administrator and military strategist. Famed as the last pagan emperor, his reinstatement of the pagan religion earned him the moniker "the Apostate." As evidenced by his brilliant writing, some of which has survived to the present day, the title "the Philosopher" may have been more appropriate. He died from wounds suffered during the Persian campaign of 363 A.D. Joseph Sermarini, FORVM.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.




2 commentsCleisthenes
Henry_VI_AR_Halfpenny.JPG
1422 - 1461, HENRY VI (First Reign), AR Halfpenny, Struck 1430 - 1434 at Calais, France31 viewsObverse: HENRICVS (pinecone) REX (mascle) ANGL. Crowned facing bust of Henry VI within circle of pellets. Mintmark: Cross patonce in legend.
Reverse: VIL(mascle)LA CALISIE (pinecone). Long cross pattée dividing legend around inner circle of pellets into quarters, trefoil in each quarter of circle.
Diameter: 15mm | Weight: 0.45gms
SPINK: 1885

This issue of coins is known as the pinecone-mascle issue because these symbols are incorporated in the obverse and reverse legends. This issue was struck between 1430 and 1434 at the mints of London and Calais.

Henry VI was King of England from 1422 to 1461 and again from 1470 to 1471. The only child of Henry V, he succeeded to the English throne at the age of nine months when his father died.
This was during the period of the long-running Hundred Years' War (1337–1453) and Henry is the only English monarch to also have been crowned King of France (as Henri II), in 1431. During his early reign several people were ruling for him and by the time Henry was declared fit to rule in 1437 he found his realm in a difficult position, faced with setbacks in France and divisions among the nobility at home. Henry is described as timid, shy, passive, well-intentioned, and averse to warfare and violence; he was also at times mentally unstable. Partially in the hope of achieving peace, Henry married the ambitious and strong-willed Margaret of Anjou in 1445. The peace policy failed and the war recommenced with France taking the upper hand such that by 1453 Calais was Henry's only remaining territory on the continent.
With Henry effectively unfit to rule, Queen Margaret took advantage of the situation to make herself an effective power behind the throne. Starting around 1453 Henry began suffering a series of mental breakdowns and tensions mounted between Margaret and Richard of York, not only over control of the incapacitated king's government, but over the question of succession to the throne. Civil war broke out in 1459, leading to a long period of dynastic conflict, now known as the Wars of the Roses. Henry was deposed on 29th March 1461 after a crushing defeat at the Battle of Towton by Richard of York's son, who took the throne as Edward IV. Margaret continuing to resist Edward, but Henry was captured by Edward's forces in 1465 and imprisoned in the Tower of London.
Queen Margaret, who was first exiled in Scotland and then in France, was still determined to win back the throne on behalf of her husband and son. So, when Edward IV fell out with two of his main supporters, Richard Neville the Earl of Warwick and George the Duke of Clarence, Margaret formed a secret alliance with them backed by Louis XI of France. Warwick returned with an army to England, forced Edward IV into exile, and restored Henry VI to the throne on 30th October 1470, though Henry's position was nominal as Warwick and Clarence effectively ruled in his name.
But Henry's return to the throne lasted less than six months. Warwick overreached himself by declaring war on Burgundy, whose ruler responded by giving Edward IV the assistance he needed to win back his throne by force. Edward retook power in 1471, killing Warwick at the Battle of Barnet and Henry's only son at the Battle of Tewkesbury. Henry was again imprisoned in the Tower where, during the night of 21st May he died, possibly killed on Edward's orders.
2 comments*Alex
Constans_AE-2-Follis_DN-CONSTA-NS-PF-AVG_FEL-TEMP-REPAR-ATIO_B-SIS-symbol-4_RIC-VIII-199v_p-364_Siscia_348-50-AD_Scarce_Q-001_1h_18,5-19,5mm_2,69g-s.jpg
146 Constans (333-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-350 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VIII 199var ???, -/-//BSIS-symbol-4 ???, AE-2 Follis, FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Galley, Scarce !66 views146 Constans (333-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-350 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VIII 199var ???, -/-//BSIS-symbol-4 ???, AE-2 Follis, FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Galley, Scarce !
avers:- DN-CONSTA-NS-PF-AVG, Draped , diademed, bust right,
revers:- FEL-TEMP-REPARATIO, Emperor military dress stage left on galley, holding phoenix on globe and standard with Chi-Rho on banner, in the stern sits Victory, steering the ship. No letter on the fields !!!
exe: -/-//BSIS-symbol-4 ???, diameter: 18,5-19,5mm, weight: 2,69g, axis: 1h,
mint: Siscia, date: 348-350 A.D., ref: RIC-VIII-199v ???, p-364,
Q-001
quadrans
Constans_AE-2-Follis_DN-CONSTA-NS-PF-AVG_FEL-TEMP-REPAR-ATIO_A-SIS-scriptdelta_RIC-VIII-199v_p-364_Siscia_348-50-AD_Scarce_Q-001_axis-6h_23mm_6,31g-s.jpg
146 Constans (333-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-350 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VIII 199var, -/-//ASIS symbol Delta, AE-2 Follis, FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Galley, Scarce!93 views146 Constans (333-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-350 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VIII 199var, -/-//ASIS symbol Delta, AE-2 Follis, FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Galley, Scarce!
avers:- DN-CONSTA-NS-PF-AVG, Draped , diademed, bust right,
revers:- FEL-TEMP-REPAR-ATIO, Emperor military dress stage left on galley, holding phoenix on globe and standard with Chi-Rho on banner, in the stern sits Victory, steering the ship. No letter on the fields !!
exe: -/-//ASIS symbol Delta, diameter: 23mm, weight: 6,31g, axis: 6h,
mint: Siscia, date: 348-350 A.D., ref: RIC-VIII-199v, p-364,
Q-001
quadrans
146_Constans,_Siscia,_RIC_VIII_218,_D_N_CONSTA-NS_P_F_AVG,_FEL_TEMP_REPA-RATIO,_BSISsymb2M,_Q-001,_h,_22,5mm,_g-s.jpg
146 Constans (333-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-350 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VIII 218, -/-//BSISsymbol2M, AE-2 Follis, FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Tree, #1110 views146 Constans (333-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-350 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VIII 218, -/-//BSISsymbol2M, AE-2 Follis, FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Tree, #1
avers:- D N CONSTA-NS P F AVG, Cn8, G3L, Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust left, holding globe.
revers:- FEL TEMP REPAR-ATIO, Constans advancing right, dragging barbarian from hut under tree.
exergo: -/-//BSISsymbol2M, diameter: 20,5-22,0mm, weight: 3,51g, axis: 11h,
mint: Siscia, date: 348-351 AD., ref: RIC-VIII-218-p,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Constans_AE-3-Follis_DN-CONSTA-NS-PF-AVG_FEL-TEMP-REPARATIO_A-SIS-sign-5_RIC-VIII-241-p366_Siscia-348-50-AD_Q-001_axis-0h_18-19mm_2,38g-s.jpg
146 Constans (333-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-350 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VIII 241, -/-//ASIS Symbol"5", AE-3 Follis, FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Phoenix,92 views146 Constans (333-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-350 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VIII 241, -/-//ASIS Symbol"5", AE-3 Follis, FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Phoenix,
avers:- DN-CONSTA-NS-PF-AVG, Cn8, D3, Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
revers:- FEL-TEMP-REPARATIO, Phoenix, radiate, standing right on pile of ashes.
exergo: -/-//ASIS Symbol"5", diameter: 18-20mm, weight: 2,73g, axis: 0h,
mint: Siscia, date: 348-50 A.D., ref: RIC-VIII-241-p-366,
Q-001
quadrans
Constans_AE-3_RIC-VIII-247_1h_18,5mm_2,25g-s.jpg
146 Constans (333-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-350 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VIII 247, -/Symbol"3"//ΓSIS, AE-3 Follis, FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Phoenix,136 views146 Constans (333-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-350 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VIII 247, -/Symbol"3"//ΓSIS, AE-3 Follis, FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Phoenix,
avers:- DN-CONSTA-NS-PF-AVG, Cn8, D3, Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
revers:- FEL-TEMP-REPARATIO, Phoenix, radiate, standing right on pile of ashes.
exergo: -/Symbol"3"//ΓSIS, diameter: 18,5mm, weight: 2,25g, axis: 1h,
mint: Siscia, date: 348-50 A.D., ref: RIC-VIII-247-p-366,
Q-001
quadrans
Constans_AE-2-Follis_DN-CONSTA-NS-PF-AVG_FEL-TEMP-REPAR-ATIO_symbol-1_A-SIS_RIC-VIII-248_p-366_Siscia_348-50-AD_Q-001_0h_17-18,5mm_1,71ga-s.jpg
146 Constans (333-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-350 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VIII 248(err.in RIC), symbol"1"/-//ASIS, AE-3 Follis, FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Galley, 81 views146 Constans (333-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-350 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VIII 248(err.in RIC), symbol"1"/-//ASIS, AE-3 Follis, FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Galley,
avers:- DN-CONSTA-NS-PF-AVG, Draped , pearl diademed, bust right,
revers:- FEL-TEMP-REPAR-ATIO, Emperor military dress stage left on galley, holding phoenix on globe and standard with Chi-Rho on banner, in the stern sits Victory, steering the ship. Symbol "1" in the left field.
exe: symbol"1"/-//ASIS, diameter:17-18,5mm, weight: 1,71g, axis: 0h,
mint: Siscia, date: A.D., ref: RIC-VIII-248 (err. in RIC right field instead of left field), p-366,
Q-001
quadrans
Constans_AE-3-Follis_DN-CONSTA-NS-PF-AVG_FEL-TEMP-REPAR-ATIO_symbol-4_A-SIS_RIC-VIII-_p-364_Siscia_348-50-AD_Q-001_0h_17,5-18,5mm_2,68ga-s.jpg
146 Constans (333-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-350 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VIII 248(err.in RIC), symbol"4"/-//ASIS, AE-3 Follis, FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Galley, 66 views146 Constans (333-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-350 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VIII 248(err.in RIC), symbol"4"/-//ASIS, AE-3 Follis, FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Galley,
avers:- DN-CONSTA-NS-PF-AVG, Draped , pearl diademed, bust right,
revers:- FEL-TEMP-REPAR-ATIO, Emperor military dress stage left on galley, holding phoenix on globe and standard with Chi-Rho on banner, in the stern sits Victory, steering the ship. Symbol "4" in the left field.
exe: symbol"4"/-//ASIS, diameter:17,5-18,5mm, weight: 2,68g, axis: 0h,
mint: Siscia, date: A.D., ref: RIC-VIII-248 (err. in RIC right field instead of left field), p-366,
Q-001
quadrans
Elagabalus-RIC-146.jpg
15. Elagabalus.20 viewsDenarius, 221-222 AD, Rome mint.
Obverse: IMP ANTONINVS PIVS AVG / Laureate bust of Elagabalus.
Reverse: SVMMVS SACERDOS AVG / Elagabalus standing, holding patera and branch, sacrificing over altar. Star in field.
3.00 gm., 18 mm.
RIC #146; Sear #7549.

Many of Elagabalus' later coins have a horn on his head. It is visible as a prong coming out of the top of his head and pointing forward. There was an idea in antiquity that a horn (or horns) on someone's head symbolized divine power coming from that person.
Callimachus
Val.jpg
1501s, Valentinian I, 25 February 364 - 17 November 375 A.D. (Siscia)104 viewsValentinian I, 25 February 364 - 17 November 375 A.D., Bronze AE 3, S 4103, VF, Siscia mint, 2.012g, 18.7mm, 180o, 24 Aug 367 - 17 Nov 375 A.D.obverse D N VALENTINI-ANVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse SECVRITAS - REIPVBLICAE, Victory advancing left, wreath in right and palm in left, symbols in fields, mintmark in exergue.


De Imperatoribus Romanis, An Online Encyclopedia of the Roman Emperors and their Families

Valentinian I (364-375 AD.)

Walter E. Roberts, Emory University

Valentinian was one of Rome's last great warrior emperors. Flavius Valentinianus, was born in A.D. 321 at Cibalis (modern Vinkovci) in southern Pannonia. His father Gratian was a soldier renowned for his strength and wrestling skills. Gratian had an illustrious career in the army, rising from staff officer to tribune, to comes Africae, and finally [i/comes Britanniae.

The emperor Jovian died on 17 February 364, apparently of natural causes, on the border between Bithynia and Galatia. The army marched on to Nicaea, the nearest city of any consequence, and a meeting of civil and military officials was convened to choose a new emperor. The assembly finally agreed upon Valentinian.

On 26 February 364, Valentinian accepted the office offered to him. As he prepared to make his accession speech, the soldiers threatened to riot, apparently uncertain as to where his loyalties lay. Valentinian reassured them that the army was his greatest priority. Furthermore, to prevent a crisis of succession if he should die prematurely, he agreed to pick a co-Augustus. According to Ammianus, the soldiers were astounded by Valentinian’s bold demeanor and his willingness to assume the imperial authority. His decision to elect a fellow-emperor could also be construed as a move to appease any opposition among the civilian officials in the eastern portion of the empire. By agreeing to appoint a co-ruler, he assured the eastern officials that someone with imperial authority would remain in the east to protect their interests. After promoting his brother Valens to the rank of tribune and putting him in charge of the royal stables on March 1, Valentinian selected Valens as co-Augustus at Constantinople on 28 March 364, though this was done over the objections of Dagalaifus. Ammianus makes it clear, however, that Valens was clearly subordinate to his brother.

Ammianus and Zosimus as well as modern scholars praise Valentinian for his military accomplishments. He is generally credited with keeping the Roman empire from crumbling away by “. . . reversing the generally waning confidence in the army and imperial defense . . ..” Several other aspects of Valentinian's reign also set the course of Roman history for the next century.

Valentinian deliberately polarized Roman society, subordinating the civilian population to the military. The military order took over the old prestige of the senatorial nobility. The imperial court, which was becoming more and more of a military court, became a vehicle for social mobility. There were new ideas of nobility, which was increasingly provincial in character. By this it is meant that the imperial court, not the Senate, was the seat of nobility, and most of these new nobles came from the provinces. With the erosion of the old nobility, the stage was set for the ascendancy of Christianity. Ammianus makes it clear that actions such as these were part of a systematic plan by Valentinian to erode the power and prestige of the senatorial aristocracy. Several pieces of extant legislation seem to confirm Ammianus’ allegations that Valentinian was eroding senatorial prestige.

Valentinian's reign affords valuable insights into late Roman society, civilian as well as military. First, there was a growing fracture between the eastern and western portions of the empire. Valentinian was the last emperor to really concentrate his resources on the west. Valens was clearly in an inferior position in the partnership. Second, there was a growing polarization of society, both Christian versus pagan, and civil versus military. Finally there was a growing regionalism in the west, driven by heavy taxation and the inability of Valentinian to fully exercise military authority in all areas of the west. All of these trends would continue over the next century, profoundly reshaping the Roman empire and western Europe.

By Walter E. Roberts, Emory University
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
1 commentsCleisthenes
Philip-I-RIC-058.jpg
16. Philip I.30 viewsAntoninianus, 247 AD, Rome mint.
Obverse: IMP PHILIPPVS AVG / Radiate bust of Philip I.
Reverse: AETERNITAS AVGG / Elephant and mahout.
4.08 gm., 23 mm.
RIC # 58; Sear # 8921.

Issued about the time of the Millennium celebration, the reverse of this coin takes up the theme of eternity and applies it to the ruling dynasty. The Romans were first awed by, and then fascinated by elephants. They thought elephants lived to be several hundred years old, and thus the elephant became a symbol of eternity. The elephant portrayed on this coin was likely part of the festivities held to celebrate the millennium and some numistmatists consider this coin to be part of the set of coins issued to commemorate the event.
1 commentsCallimachus
RI_169al_img.jpg
169 - Constans - AE2 - RIC VIII Siscia 217 32 viewsAE2
Obv:- D N CONSTA-NS P F AVG, Laureate and rosette-diademed, draped, cuirassed bust left, globe in right hand
Rev:- FEL•TEMP•REPA-RATIO, Helmeted soldier, spear in left hand, advancing right, head left; with his right hand he leads a small bare-headed figure from a hut beneath a tree. The spear points downwards, between the soldier's legs
Minted in Siscia; (// BSIS(Symbol 2)M ), A.D. 348-350
Reference:– RIC VIII Siscia 217 (C). LRBC 1121 var (Hut 2)
maridvnvm
RI 169b img.jpg
169 - Constans - RIC VIII Siscia 198 var (AE2) 44 viewsObv:– DN CONSTANS P F AVG, Diademed bust right, draped and cuirassed
Rev:– FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Constans standing left on galley, holding standard with a Chi-Rho on it and a globe surmounted by a phoenix; Victory is at the helm right
Minted in Siscia. ASIS SYM4 in exe.
Reference:– RIC VIII Siscia 198 var (Not listed with this symbol combination)
Lovely jade green patina.
maridvnvm
RI_170bn_img.jpg
170 - Constantius II - AE2 - RIC VIII Siscia 21619 viewsAE2
Obv:– D N CONSTANTIVS P F AVG, Laureate and rosette-diademed, draped, cuirassed bust left, globe in right hand
Rev:- FEL•TEMP•REPA-RATIO, Helmeted soldier, spear in left hand, advancing right, head left; with his right hand he leads a small bare-headed figure from a hut beneath a tree. The spear points downwards, between the soldier's legs
Minted in Siscia; (// DSIS(Symbol 4)M ), A.D. 348-350
Reference:– RIC VIII Siscia 216; LRBC 1120 var (Hut 3)
maridvnvm
0030-0210.jpg
1749 - Octavian, Denarius272 viewsItalian mint, possibly Rome, 31-30 BC
Anepigraph, bare head of Octavian left
CAESAR - DIVI F, Victory standing right on globe, holding wreath
3.84 gr
Ref : HCRI # 408, RCV # 1552v, Cohen # 66, RIC # 255
The following comment is taken from CNG, sale 84 # 957 :
"Following his victory at Actium, Octavian ordered a golden statue of Victory, standing on a globe and holding a wreath and palm, to be set up on an altar in the Curia in Rome. This statue had been captured by the Romans from Pyrrhus in 272 BC, and it assumed a somewhat tutelary mystique, protecting the Roman state from dissolution. In AD 382, the emperor Gratian ordered its removal. Two years later, the senator and orator Symmachus urged Valentinian II to replace it, a request that was met with stiff opposition from the bishop of Milan, Ambrose. Though it was briefly returned to its place by the usurper Eugenius, it was again removed following his defeat. Petitions to Theodosius I for its subsequent replacement were refused, on grounds that the once-important symbol of the gods’ blessing on the Roman Empire was now nothing more than a piece of paganism"
11 commentsPotator II
LouisXVIBurgundyCanal1783.JPG
1783. Louis XVI. Burgundy Canal Inauguration.140 viewsObv. Draped bust right LUDOVICO XVI FR ET NAVAR REGI OPTIMO COMITIA BURGUND
Rev. Female water nymph, holding caduceus, surrounded by three male water nymphs on rocks surrounded by various symbols of prosperity UTRIUSQUE MARIS JUNCTIO TRIPLEN FOSSIS ABARARI ADLISER SEQUAN RHENUM SIMUL APERTIS MDCLXXXIII

Commemorates the construction of a canal system in Burgundy.
LordBest
17a-Constantine-Cyz-008.jpg
17a. Constantine: Cyzicus.18 viewsAE3, 317 - 320, Cyzicus mint.
Obverse: IMP CONSTANTINVS AVG / Laureate bust of Constantine, facing left, holding globe and sceptre.
Reverse: IOVI CONSERVATORI AVGG / Jupiter standing, holding sceptre and Victory on globe. "Sun" symbol in left field; E in right field.
Mint mark: SMK
3.27 gm., 18 mm.
RIC #8; PBCC #1068; Sear #15967.
Callimachus
JulianIIAE1Bull.jpg
1i Last Bid to Revitalize Pagan Religion8 viewsJulian II
360-363

AE1

Portrait, right, D N FL CL IVLIANVS P F AVG
Bull, eagle, and two stars, SECVRITAS REIPVB, PCONST in ex.

Julian "the Apostate" issued this coin with the symbols of Jupiter on the reverse as part of his campaign to breath life back into pagan faith.

RIC 318
Blindado
DSC05461.JPG
1st- 4th Century C.E. Bronze Casket Hinge12 viewsSmall hinge plate for a casket with dot decoration. A friend suggested that this may be the symbol for Aries. 25mm x 25mm.Fiorenza21
Sicinia_5_Den.jpg
2) The Pompeians: Quintus Sicinius17 viewsROMAN REPUBLIC
Quintus Sicinius for Pompey
AR Denarius, 49 B.C. (3.6g)

Diademed head of Fortuna Populi Romani, goddess of Fortune of the Roman people. FORT before, P.R. behind / Crossed palm branch and winged caduceus (staff carried by ambassadors in wartime), wreath above. Q. SICINIVS, III VIR

The symbols of good fortune and victory on the reverse, together with Fortuna populi Romani on the obverse, anticipate victory by Pompey over Caesar.

CR 440, Sear Imperators #1, Sicinia 5
RM0043
Sosius
Bithynia_Kalchedon,_AR_Drachm_4th_Cent__BC.jpg
2. Bithynia, Kalchedon, 340-320 BC, AR Siglos 17 viewsBull standing left on grain ear, KAΛX above.
Granulated mill-sail incuse square.

SNG BM Black Sea 112; SNG von Aulock 482; Sear 3738.

(18 mm, 5.31 g).
Ephesus Numismatics.

The symbolism of the bull and the heifer on the obverse of the coins of twin cities of Kalchedon (Asia Minor) and Byzantion (Europe) respectively is striking and points to a shared identity. They stood astride the southern entrance to the Bosporus. Both were 7th century BC foundations of Megara and jointly they controlled the vital grain trade from the Black Sea into the Mediterranean.

The grain ear upon which the bull of Kalchedon stands alludes to this fact. That of the dolphin beneath the Heifer of Byzantion is a reflection of the maritime orientation of the city and the bountiful pods of dolphins that even to this day frolic in swift flowing waters of the Bosporus beneath the old city walls of Constantinople which succeded Byzantion and was in turn succeded by Istanbul.

The twin cities merged in the modern era to become the great and fascinating metropolis of Istanbul. Ancient Kalchedon dominated the Asian side of the Bosporus. The remains of the ancient city lie be
n.igma
0030-405.jpg
2000 - Octavian & Agrippa, AE Dupondius 82 viewsArausio mint (Orange), 30-29 BC (Colonia Firma Julia Secundanorum Arausio)
IMP DIVI F (IMPerator DIVI Filii), bare heads of Augustus (right) and Agrippa (left), back to back
Prow of galley right, ram's head (?) enclosed in a medaillion above
17.61 gr - 28 mm.
Ref : RPC # 533
Ex. CNG e-auction #181/28, from the Patrick Villemur collection

Following comment taken from http://www.asdenimes.com/ :

Un très bel exemplaire du dupondius d'Orange. Têtes adossées d'Agrippa (à gauche) et Octave (à droite). Très beaux reliefs.
L’as (ou dupondius) d’Orange est très rare et nombre d'exemplaires connus (quelques dizaines) sont souvent de médiocre conservation. Le dupondius d'Orange préfigure le dupondius de Nîmes frappé à partir de 28/27 av. J.-C. et qui reprendra l’avers quasiment à l’identique (y compris les légendes), avec les profils d’Octave devenu Auguste et d’Agrippa. Le revers sera interprété de façon parodique sur l’as de Nîmes, puisque la galère sera remplacée par le crocodile qui garde à peu près la forme générale du vaisseau et dont l’oeil prophylactique (pas visible sur cet exemplaire : voir les as de Vienne page suivante) deviendra l’oeil du crocodile. On y ajoutera la palme pour former le mat et quelques autres accessoires tout aussi symboliques.
La tête de bélier représentée dans le médaillon du revers serait l’emblème des vétérans de la légio II Gallica qui a fondé la colonie d’Arausio vers 35 av. J.-C.
On distingue 2 types de dupondius d'Orange : ceux dont les portraits occupent la plus grande partie de l'avers et ceux qui montrent des têtes plutôt petites.
1 commentsPotator II
savaria_festival_2008_05.JPG
2008-Savaria - Roman Dragon27 viewsThe Roman Dragon ("draco"), a symbol associated with the military ensigns (banners) all of the Roman Legionary Armies during the period of the Empire, as well as by the Dacians and the Parthians.berserker
coins127.JPG
201a. Julia Domna11 viewsVesta

Vesta was introduced in Rome by King Numa Pompilius. She was a native Roman deity (some authors suggest received from the Sabine cults), sister of Zeus, Poseidon, Hades, Hera and Demeter, and presumably the daughter of Saturn and Ops (or Rea). However, the similarity with the cult of Greek Hestia is notable. Vesta too protected familial harmony and the res publica. Apollo and Neptune had asked for her in marriage, but she refused both, preferring to preserve her virginity, whose symbol was the perpetually lit fire in her circular fane next to the Forum which the Romans always distinguished from a temple by calling it her "house".

As Goddess of the Hearth she was the symbol of the home, around which a newborn child must be carried before it could be received into the family. Every meal began and ended with an offering to her:

Vesta, in all dwellings of men and immortals
Yours is the highest honor, the sweet wine offered
First and last at the feast, poured out to you duly.
Never without you can gods or mortals hold banquet.

Landscape with Vesta temple in Tivoli, Italy, c. 1600.Each city too had a public hearth sacred to Vesta, where the fire was never allowed to go out. If a colony was to be founded, the colonists carried with them coals from the hearth of the mother-city with which to kindle the fire on the new city's hearth.

The fire was guarded by her priestesses, the Vestales. Every March 1 the fire was renewed. It burned until 391, when the Emperor Theodosius I forbade public pagan worship. One of the Vestales was Rea Silvia, who with Mars conceived Romulus and Remus (see founding of Rome).

3070. Silver denarius, RIC 538, RSC 221, VF, 2.30g, 17.5mm, 0o, Rome mint, 193-196 A.D.; obverse IVLIA DOMNA AVG, draped bust right; reverse VESTA, Vesta seated left, holding palladium and scepter. Ex Forum
ecoli
caracalla as-.jpg
215 AD - CARACALLA as 61 viewsobv: ANTONINVS.PIVS.AVG.GERM
rev:PM.TRP.XVIII.COS.IIII.PP / S.C. (Aesculapius standing, facing; small figure of Telesphorus at his side)
ref: RIC554b, C.310
mint: Rome, 10.80g, Scarce
History: Caracalla became quite ill in 214 AD, and in the autumn of this year he visited the shrine of Aesculapius at Pergamun. Telesophorus was a small boy who accompanied Aesculapius, and he became the symbol of success in the practice of medicine.
1 commentsberserker
AquiliaSevera_RIC225.jpg
220-222 AD - AQUILIA SEVERA AR denarius28 viewsobv: IVLIA AQVILIA SEVERA AVG (draped bust right)
rev: CONCORDIA (Concord standing half-left sacrificing over lighted altar, and holding double cornucopia, star in left field)
ref: RIC IVii 225 (Elagabalus) (S), RSC 2 (20fr.)
mint: Rome
2.71gms, 18mm
Very rare

Iulia Aquilia Severa was the second and fourth wife of Emperor Elagabalus. She was a Vestal Virgin and her marriage to Elagabalus in 220 was the cause of enormous controversy - traditionally, the punishment for breaking the thirty-year vow of celibacy was death. Elagabalus is believed to have had religious reasons for marrying Severa - he himself was a follower of the eastern sun god El-Gabal, and when marrying himself to Severa, he also conducted a symbolic marriage of his god to Vesta.
berserker
cow & Stellate.jpg
229 BC- Epidamos-Dyrrhachium, Illyria AR Drachm128 viewsCow standing Right, looking back at suckling calf, MENIEKOS in greek above, nike flying right above legend, monogram/thunderbolt below
Square containing stellate pattern, legend around square.

after 229 BC, 3.23 gms, Sear Greek Coins and their Values sg1900 variant

Meniskos-Kallenos name combination, Class 5 drachm, issued in year -5 (last issue = year -1) that can be around the 70's of the first century BC.
Well centered, well struck specimens are rare. Here you can identify both obverse symbols, flying Nike (=Victory) above Meniskos (wreath in hand off-flan) and thunderbolt in the exergue. The legend on the reverse is DYP KA[L] [LH] NOS (lower segment off-flan).
jimwho523
Shapur I dirham.jpg
241-272 Shapur I - dirham42 viewsPahlavi legend , crowned bust right (crown with earflaps)
Pahlavi legend , fire-altar with two attendants. There is a symbol on the altar's shaft.
Ginolerhino
postume-minerfautr-3.jpg
2e Emission - 2e Phase - (262) - Trèves - MINER FAVTR5 viewsIMP C POSTVMVS P F AVG
MINER FAVTR
Minerve de style 2
avec un point pour symboliser le umbo
EG 31
CUNETIO 2397
RIC 74
ELMER 313
AGK 44
de Witte 160
Cohen 195
PYL
IMG_2291.JPG
3 Constans57 viewsConstans
Billon centenionalis 21mm, 4.3g
D N CONSTA-NS P F AVG Pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed bust left, globe in right hand./ FEL•TEMP•REPA-RATIO Helmeted soldier, spear in left hand, advancing right, head left; with his right hand he leads a small bare-headed figure from a hut beneath a tree. The spear points upwards and to the right.
Exergue: ΔSIS(Symbol 4)M

Siscia, officina 4; 348-350 CE

Ref: RIC VIII Siscia 218; LRBC 1121
BW Ref: 107 024 079

Ex Moonmoth collection
forumancientcoins.com/moonmoth/coins/constans_107.html
4 commentsRandygeki(h2)
innoc_xii_m_34.jpg
3 Innocent XII 1693 Half Piastre M 3438 viewsAn interesting half piastre featuring a pelican as a symbol of self sacrifice. Early church fathers believed the blood on the bird was result of the pelican pecking her own breast to feed her young, as shown on the reverse. Combined with the inspirational legend "not for self, but for others" this was an obvious reference to Christ as model for believers to follow. Lovely and powerful sentiment, but unfortunately the blood is actually the result of captured fish which the pelican had broken up to feed to her chicks. Still, powerful imagery and a great example of the minters art at the end of the 17th century. stlnats
jbk107.jpg
3.0 Bar Kokhba small bronze, year 3 (134-135 CE)172 viewsBar Kokhba rebellion (second Jewish Revolt against Rome)
Year 3 (134-135 CE)
small bronze (19.5 mm)
VF+/VF
Hendin 739

obv. seven branched palm tree, symbolizing Judaea (like Menorah?)
SHIMON (Simon [Bar Kokhba]) in field below tree
rev. Bunch of grapes L'CHAROT YERUSHALAYIM (For the Freedom of Jerusalem) around
5 commentsZam
coin236.JPG
303. Gordian III88 viewsGordian III was a child emperor, but his reign was not perceived as having been burdened by the troubles faced by other young emperors. Competent administrators held important posts, and cultural traditions appear to have been upheld. Gordian III's unlikely accession and seemingly stable reign reveal that child emperors, like modern-day constitutional monarchs, had their advantage: a distance from political decision-making and factionalism that enabled the emperor to be a symbol of unity for the various constituency groups in Roman society. The paucity of information about Gordian III's reign makes it difficult to know whether the young emperor truly lived up to such an ideal, but the positive historical tradition about him gives one the suspicion that perhaps he did.

Antoninianus. IMP GORDIANVS PVS FEL AVG, radiate draped bust right / IOVI STATORI, Jupiter standing right with scepter & thunderbolt. RIC 84, RSC 109
ecoli
rjb_2011_04_04.jpg
35220 viewsL Iuli Burso; c.85 BC
AR denarius
Obv Head right with the attributes of Apolo, Mercury and Neptune, symbols behind
Rev "L IVLI BVRSIO"
Victory in quadriga right, TI above
Rome mint
Crawford 352
Five specimens with this obverse/reverse pairing of symbols noted by De Ruyter in NC 1996
2 commentsmauseus
agrippa cmk as.jpg
37-41 AD - AGRIPPA memorial AE dupondius - struck under Caligula (by RIC)76 viewsobv: M AGRIPPA LF COS III (head left wearing rostral crown)(with Vespasian countermark)
rev: - / S.C. (Neptune holding small dolphin in right hand & vertical trident in left)
ref: RIC58(Gaius), BMC(Tib)161
10.51gms, 28mm
Rare with this cmk

The capricorn originally a sign related to Augustus, it became a symbol of Vespasian' reign also. This countermark often attributed to Vespasian during the civil war, mostly found on eastern provincial coins. A similiar countermark exists on regular roman coinage from Claudius, likely applied in the balkan region. The emblem beneath could be variously interpreted as a plough or a globe with ships rudder, or maybe instrument. This Agrippa coin with Vespasian cmk was found in the balkan region, too. Top of the picture is the original counterstamp-mint.
berserker
Magnentius-Amb-34.jpg
40. Magnentius.12 viewsAE 1, Sept. 353 - Aug. 353, Ambianum mint.
Obverse: DN MAGNENTIVS P F AVG / Bust of Magnentius.
Reverse: SALVS DD NN AVG ET CAES / Large Christogram between small A and ω .
Mint mark: AMB
7.16 gm., 28 mm.
RIC #34; LRBC #19; Sear #18774.

The large Christogram is made up of X and P, the first two letters of "Christ" in Greek. It is placed between the first and last letters of the Greek alphabet. This is an allusion to Revelation 22:13 where Christ says "I am the Alpha and the Omega, The Beginning and the End, the First and the Last." It is interesting that these symbols would appear on the coins of Magnentius since he is generally considered to have been a pagan. See RIC, vol. VIII, page 43 for a discussion of this reverse type.
Callimachus
150_P_Hadrian__BMC_31.jpg
4025 JUDAEA, Gaza Hadrian 132 AD Tyche of Gaza27 viewsReference.
RPC III, 4025; Rosenberger 60; SNG ANS 916; BMC Palestine 31

Obv. AVT KAI TPA AΔPIANOC CE
laureate and draped bust right.

Rev. ΓAZA Γ EΠ I, BYP
Tyche of Gaza standing left, holding scepter and cornucopia; heifer (Cow) standing to left; date in upper left field; Marnas symbol in right.

10.41 gr
26 mm
12 h
okidoki
273_P_Hadrian_BMC.jpg
4026 JUDAEA, Gaza. Hadrian, 131-32 AD Heracles25 viewsReference.
RPC III, 4026; BMC Palestine, 46; Rosenberger 53; SNG ANS 921

Issue Year 3 = 192

Obv: AK ATΡA AΔΡIAN CE
laureate head right.

Rev: ΓΑΖΑ Γ (GAZA G) EΠI BYΡ
Heracles standing facing, head left, leaning on club, holding lion skin; Marnas symbol to left.

5.97 gr
18 mm
12h
okidoki
938_P_Hadrian_RPC4030.jpg
4030 JUDAEA, Gaza Hadrian AE 21 132-33 AD Tyche standing16 viewsReference.
RPC III, 4030; Sofaer 69; De Saulcy 6-7, BMC 36

Issue Year 4 = 193

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙ ΤΡΑΙ ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС С
Laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right

Rev. ΓΑΖΑ Δ (Ε)ΕΠΙ ΓЧΡ
Tyche standing left, holding scepter and cornucopia; heifer to lower left, symbol of Marnas to lower right.

8.58 gr
21 mm
12h

Note.
From the François Righetti Collection, purchased from Shraga Quedar.
1 commentsokidoki
claudius as1.jpg
41-54 AD - CLAUDIUS I AE as - struck 41-50 AD19 viewsobv: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG PM TR P (bare head left)
rev: CONSTANTIAE AVGVSTI / S.C. (Constantia, helmeted and in military dress, standing left, holding long spear in left hand)
ref: RIC I 95, C.14
mint: Rome
8.05gms, 28mm

Constancy was the symbol of the Emperor Claudius.
berserker
1053_P_Hadrian_RPC5050.jpg
5050 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Tetradrachm 117-18 AD Dikaiosyne standing21 viewsReference.
RPC III, 5050 (this coin). Dattari-Savio Pl. 65, 1347 (this coin).Emmett 833.2

Issue L B = year 2

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙС ΤΡΑΝΟС (sic) ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СƐΒ
Laureate head of Hadrian, r., drapery on l. shoulder

Rev. L Β
Dikaiosyne standing facing, head l., holding scales and cornucopia

12.52 gr
25 mm
12h

Note.
From the Dattari collection.

In ancient Greek culture, Dikē (/ˈdiːkeɪ/ or /ˈdɪkiː/; Greek: Δίκη, English translation: "justice") was the goddess of justice and the spirit of moral order and fair judgement based on immemorial custom, in the sense of socially enforced norms and conventional rules. According to Hesiod (Theogony, l. 901), she was fathered by Zeus upon his second consort, Themis. She and her mother were both personifications of justice. She is depicted as a young, slender woman carrying a physical balance scale and wearing a laurel wreath while her Roman counterpart (Justitia) appears in a similar fashion but blind-folded. She is represented in the constellation Libra which is named for the Latin name of her symbol (Scales). She is often associated with Astraea, the goddess of innocence and purity. Astraea is also one of her epithets referring to her appearance in the nearby constellation Virgo which is said to represent Astraea. This reflects her symbolic association with Astraea, who too has a similar iconography.

The sculptures of the Temple of Zeus at Olympia have as their unifying iconographical conception the dikē of Zeus, and in poetry she is often the attendant (paredros) of Zeus.
In the philosophical climate of late 5th century Athens, dikē could be anthropomorphised as a goddess of moral justice.
She was one of the three second-generation Horae, along with Eunomia ("order") and Eirene ("peace")
okidoki
53-2-C_3-C_5.jpg
53/2 Denarius Group 415 viewsDenomination: Denarius
Metal: AR
Obverse: Head of Roma with Peaked visor, X mark of value behind
Reverse: Dioscuri riding r., Flag cape., ROMA in raised letters in three-line rectangular frame.
Weight: 3.72 gm
Reference: Crawford 53/2
Provenance: CNG Esale 284, lot 230, 8-Aug-2012

Comments: Group 4 flag cape and small stars (later variation of group 4). This is one of the coins that spans the Group 4-Group 5 boundary. The obverse style is very close to the prototypical group 5 with a charming, almost “elfin” face, but the frame on the reverse is a close rectangle rather than a long exergual frame. This is an anonymous sibling to RRC 88/2, the spear head symbol series. Reverse slightly off-center, otherwise GEF.
Steve B5
53-2-G5.jpg
53/2 Denarius Group 512 viewsDenomination: Denarius
Metal: AR
Obverse: Head of Roma with Peaked visor, X mark of value behind
Reverse: Dioscuri riding r., Flag cape., ROMA in raised letters in exergue.
Weight: 3.99 gm
Reference: Crawford 53/2
Provenance: Ebay, ex Ibercoin 12, Lot 3. Feb, 2013

Comments: This is a true prototype of group 5. The obverse style is has a charming face, and the reverse ROMA is in a fully exergual frame. This is an anonymous sibling to RRC 88/2, the spear head symbol series. Little actual wear but the reverse is a little off-center and there are a few minor dings. Very Fine.
Steve B5
nero sest-.jpg
54-68 AD - NERO AE sestertius - struck 66 AD58 viewsobv: NERO CLAVD CAESAR AVG GER P M TR P IMP P P (laureate head right, aegis on bust)
rev: ANNONA AVGVSTI CERES / S.C. (Ceres seated left with grain-ears & torch, facing Annona standing right with cornucopiae; between them, ship's stern and modius set on altar.)
ref: RIC I 137, BMCRE 127, C.16 (8frcs)
mint: Rome
27.51gms, 34mm orichalcum
Rare

Ceres, the Roman goddess of agriculture, holds her usual attributes, grain and the torch with which she searches for her daughter, Proserpina, held captive in the Underworld for the winter months. Annona, the personification of the grain harvest,
holds a cornucopia, symbol of agricultural abundance; this is her first appearance on a coin. On the altar is a modius, a grain measure, and in the background a ship's stern, references to the transport of the grain.
1 commentsberserker
Sulla_pompey.jpg
56 BC Faustus Cornelius Sulla 81 viewsLaur. diad. and draped bust of Venus right, sceptre over shoulder SC behind

Three trophies between jub and lituus, monogram FAVSTVS in ex.

RRC 426/3
Sear 386

SOLD!

The three trophies were engraved on the signet ring of Pompey the Great symbolizing his victories on three continents. Faustus was the son of Lucius Cornelius Sulla and son-in-law of Pompey the Great.
1 commentsTitus Pullo
376_P_Hadrian_Emmett883.jpg
5713 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Tetradrachm 127-28 AD Mummiform Osiris64 viewsReference.
Emmett 883.12; RPC III, 5713; Köln 982; Dattari (Savio) 1445; K&G 32.458.

Issue L ΔWΔƐΚΑΤΟΥ = year 12

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙ - ΤΡΑΙAN ΑΔΡ CΕΒ
Laureate, draped, cuirassed bust right, seen from back.

Rev. LΔωΔΕ ΚΑΤΟV
Mummiform Osiris (Ptah-Sokar-Osiris) standing right, holding scepter tipped with jackal-head (Was-sceptre)

12.66 gr
24 mm
6h

Note.
Giovanni Dattari summarizes the unusual reverse type seen on this billon tetradrachm of Hadrian. The image of the Ptah-Sokar-Osiris divinity belongs to Egyptian theology, and in particular to funeral worship. It brings together three famous members of the Pharaonic Pantheon through their respective symbols: the headdress and scepter for Ptah, the solar disk for Osiris, and the mummiform wrappings for Sokar – the “Lord of the Necropolis.” These three associated divinities call upon the concepts of “mourning” and “life”, evoking at the same time the pain associated with death and the hope of resurrection. The main sanctuaries of Ptah, Sokaris, and Osiris were at Memphis and Abydos.
2 commentsokidoki
293_P_Hadrian_RPC5823.jpg
5823 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Tetradrachm 132-33 AD Mummiform Sokar44 viewsReference.
Emmett 883.17; RPC III, 5823; Dattari (Savio) 1446

Issue L IZ = year 17

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙС ΤΡΑΙΑΝ - ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СƐΒ
Laureate draped and cuirassed bust of Hadrian, r., seen from rear

Rev. L ΙΖ
Mummiform Sokar (Ptah-Sokar-Osiris) standing right, holding sceptre tipped with falon (Horus?)

13.00 gr
27 mm
12h

Note.
Giovanni Dattari summarizes the unusual reverse type seen on this billon tetradrachm of Hadrian. The image of the Ptah-Sokar-Osiris divinity belongs to Egyptian theology, and in particular to funeral worship. It brings together three famous members of the Pharaonic Pantheon through their respective symbols: the headdress and scepter for Ptah, the solar disk for Osiris, and the mummiform wrappings for Sokar – the “Lord of the Necropolis.” These three associated divinities call upon the concepts of “mourning” and “life”, evoking at the same time the pain associated with death and the hope of resurrection. The main sanctuaries of Ptah, Sokaris, and Osiris were at Memphis and Abydos.
4 commentsokidoki
729Hadrian_RIC589b.jpg
589b Hadrian Sestertius Roma 119-21 AD Hadrian standing40 viewsReference.
BMC 1204. Cohen 1207 var. (different bust type). RIC 589b; Banti 617

Obv. IMP CAESAR TRAIANVS HADRIANVS AVG P M TR P COS III
Laureate bust of Hadrian to right, with slight drapery on far shoulder.

Rev. PROVIDENTIA DEORVM / S - C
Hadrian standing facing, his head turned to left, holding scroll in his left hand and raising his right towards eagle flying right in upper left field and bearing scepter in its claws.

27.14 gr
33 mm
6h

ex.
Nomos AG auction Obolos 6 Lot Lot 637
Auction 142 lot 2557 2005 Gorny & Mosch Giessener Münzhandlung
Auction 73 lot 644 2004 Auktionshaus H. D. Rauch GmbH

Note. CNG
This fascinating reverse type is meant to emphasize the legitimacy of Hadrian's rule: Jupiter's symbol, the eagle, is bringing a sceptre to the emperor.
1 commentsokidoki
168Hadrian__RIC637.jpg
637 Hadrian Sestertius, Roma 125-28 AD Aequitas standing40 viewsReference.
RIC 637

Obv. HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS.
Laureate bust right with drapery on left shoulder

Rev. COS III S C.
Aequitas standing left, holding scales and rod.

25.66 gr
31 mm

Note.
Aequitas is the Latin concept of justice, equality, conformity, symmetry, or fairness.
It is the origin of the English word "equity". In ancient Rome, it could refer to either the legal concept of equity, or fairness between individuals.

During the Roman Empire, Aequitas as a divine personification was part of the religious propaganda of the emperor, under the name Aequitas Augusti, which also appeared on coins.
She is depicted on coins holding a cornucopiae and a balance scale (libra), which was more often a symbol of "honest measure" to the Romans than of justice.
(Wiki)

Ex American Numismatic Society #1001.1.22972.
okidoki
vespasian denar-.jpg
69-79 AD - VESPASIAN - AR denarius - struck 73 AD44 viewsobv: IMP.CAES.VESP.AVG.P.M.COS.IIII.CEN (Laureate head right)
rev: FIDES PVBL (Clasped hands holding corn-ears, poppy and caduceus)
ref: RIC II 55, RSC 164 (5frcs), BMC 86
mint: Rome
3.32gms, 19mm

The two united hands were meant to symbolize the good faith and fidelity of soldiers and people to the reigning prince - and not to represent Fides in her quality of goddess. Vespasian was censor from 1st July 73 AD- (with Titus).
1 commentsberserker
Philip-II-RIC-238var.jpg
70. Philip II as Augustus.58 viewsAntoninianus, 249 AD, Antioch mint.
Obverse: IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG / Radiate bust of Philip II facing right.
Reverse: PM TR P VI COS P P / Radiate lion walking right.
4.40 gm., 21.5 mm.
RIC 238 / 239 var; Sear 9272 / 9273 var.

This is an apparently unpublished coin. The RIC / Sear numbers above refer to coins with the bust facing left & the lion walking right; or the bust facing right & the lion walking left. Roger Bland, in his unpublished listing of Roman imperial coins from Antioch, lists a coin with bust right & lion walking right (#97); however Curtis Clay at Harlan J Berk Ltd. feels there is an error in the listing of #97 and that it refers to a coin in Paris with a left-facing bust. Details can be found at the web site of Forum Ancient Coins (http://www.forumancientcoins.com/board/index.php?topic=47620.0).

The portrait on this coin is a superbly engraved portrait, but it is not the portrait of a 11 or 12 year old boy. A radiate lion is a symbol not often seen on Roman imperial coinage. It is associated with solar cults of the East and likely has the same meaning as the radiate crown on the emperor's portrait: the power and authority of the emperor is equated with the power and authority of the sun god. The radiate lion on this coin was certainly the invention of the mint of Antioch since the prototype on which this reverse is based -- the millennium coin with a lion on the reverse, RIC 12 -- is not a radiate lion.
1 commentsCallimachus
770Hadrian_RIC706~0.jpg
706 Hadrian Sestertius Roma 132-34 AD Galley left60 viewsReference
RIC 706; Strack 837; C. 657; Banti 337

Obv. HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS
Laureate head right.

Rev. FELICITATI AVG COS III P P S-C in field
Galley moving left with stearman and five rowers; vexillum on prow.

23.61 gr
31 mm
12h

Ex.
Stack's Bowers Galleries January 2013 N.Y.I.N.C. lot 5210

Note.
An acrostolium is an ornamental extension of the stem post on the prow of an ancient warship. Often used as a symbol of victory or of power at sea. (numiswiki)
1st-4th Century AD:
The Ship in Imperial Rome

Realizing its importance, Augustus established the Roman navy along lines similar to that of the legions. In addition to a number of key harbors, from which ships could be deployed, he stationed several fleets (Latin classes) in key areas throughout the empire. Among these, the classis Britannica patrolled the channel between Gaul and Britannia, protecting the shipping lanes. Its strategic regional importance is commemorated in the coinage of several of the period usurpers from the area. M. Aurelius Postumus was the first to do so (lots 676-679). His bronze ship issues carry the legend LAETITIA AVG, emphasizing the source of imperial well-being resides in a strong navy. The usurper M. Aurelius Carausius, commander of the classis Britannica under Diocletian, struck coins commemorating, in part, his control of that fleet and its abilities in keeping the sea lanes open (lot 680). His short-lived successor, Allectus, continued the type (lots 681-684).

One important function of the navy was the transportation of the imperial family on state visits. From the time of Augustus, vessels were dispatched to carry the emperor between the capital and the provinces. One such instance is commemorated in a rare bronze as, struck at Patrae in AD 66/7 (lot 609). The reverse depicts the quinquereme used to carry Nero on his infamous tour of Greece. Hadrian’s extensive travels were recorded with a wide variety of ship types struck at Rome (lots 610-622), and in the East (lot 623). An inscription from Ephesus (Syll. III 3241), records that a local captain, L. Erastus, used his ship to transport the emperor while he was in that area. A coin struck at Alexandria (lot 624) is of particular importance for, in the same year as the coin was struck Antinoüs drowned as the imperial party was sailing up the Nile. Hadrian’s successors continued to travel, now to shore up border conflicts or prepare for one of the periodic wars with Persia (lots 625-627; 631-675). By the middle of the third century AD local issues, rather than those minted at the imperial capital, recorded these events, a sign that the center of power was drifting away from Rome itself.

Warships were not the exclusive vessel of the Roman navy. Providing the empire with an uninterrupted supply of grain, as well as other necessary supplies, necessitated the construction of ship for such a purpose. Unlike the warship, which required speed and strength for ramming, the merchantman (Greek nau~ stroggulh; Latin navis oneraria) was of broader beam. Many of these vessels, like the ponto or more common actuaria resembled the shape of a trireme and could be powered by both oars and sails. Since ships of this type were used to transport vital commodities such as wine and grain, they, like the large ponto, are often those shown on coins from the Black Sea (lots 655 and 664-666). The great Roman merchantman, or corbita, often seen in part on imperial issues commemorating the annona, is more familiar (lots 607-608). Powered by two large sails, it featured a rear cabin in the shape of a swan and was the true workhorse of Roman merchant vessels; its type continued well into the Byzantine period.
3 commentsokidoki
DomitianARDenariusHorseman.jpg
712a, Domitian, 13 September 81 - 18 September 96 A.D.160 viewsDomitian, as Caesar, AR Denarius. 77-78 AD; RIC 242, VF, 18mm, 3.18grams. Obverse: CAESAR AVG F DOMITIA[NVS], laureate head right ; Reverse: COS V below man with hand raised out behind him on horse prancing right. RSC 49a. Scarce. Ex Zuzim Judaea.

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Titus Flavius Domitianus(A.D. 81-96)

John Donahue
College of William and Mary

Domitian was born in Rome on 24 October A.D. 51, the youngest son of Vespasian, Roman emperor (A.D. 69-79) and Domitilla I, a treasury clerk's daughter. Little is known about Domitian in the turbulent 18 months of the four (five?) emperors, but in the aftermath of the downfall of Vitellius in A.D. 69 he presented himself to the invading Flavian forces, was hailed as Caesar, and moved into the imperial residence.

As emperor, Domitian was to become one of Rome's foremost micromanagers, especially concerning the economy. Shortly after taking office, he raised the silver content of the denarius by about 12% (to the earlier level of Augustus), only to devaluate it in A.D. 85, when the imperial income must have proved insufficient to meet military and public expenses.

Domitian's reach extended well beyond the economy. Late in A.D. 85 he made himself censor perpetuus, censor for life, with a general supervision of conduct and morals. The move was without precedent and, although largely symbolic, it nevertheless revealed Domitian's obsessive interest in all aspects of Roman life. An ardent supporter of traditional Roman religion, he also closely identified himself with Minerva and Jupiter, publicly linking the latter divinity to his regime through the Ludi Capitolini, the Capitoline Games, begun in A.D.86. Held every four years in the early summer, the Games consisted of chariot races, athletics and gymnastics, and music, oratory and poetry.

Beyond Rome, Domitian taxed provincials rigorously and was not afraid to impose his will on officials of every rank. Consistent with his concern for the details of administration, he also made essential changes in the organization of several provinces and established the office of curator to investigate financial mismanagement in the cities. Other evidence points to a concern with civic improvements of all kinds, from road building in Asia Minor, Sardinia and near the Danube to building and defensive improvements in North Africa.

While the military abilities of Vespasian and Titus were genuine, those of Domitian were not. Partly as an attempt to remedy this deficiency, Domitian frequently became involved in his own military exploits outside of Rome. He claimed a triumph in A.D. 83 for subduing the Chatti in Gaul, but the conquest was illusory. Final victory did not really come until A.D. 89. In Britain, similar propaganda masked the withdrawal of Roman forces from the northern borders to positions farther south, a clear sign of Domitian's rejection of expansionist warfare in the province.

Domitian's autocratic tendencies meant that the real seat of power during his reign resided with his court. The features typically associated with later courts - a small band of favored courtiers, a keen interest in the bizarre and the unusual (e.g., wrestlers, jesters, and dwarves), and a highly mannered, if somewhat artificial atmosphere, characterized Domitian's palace too, whether at Rome or at his Alban villa, some 20 kilometers outside of the capital.

On 18 September, A.D. 96, Domitian was assassinated and was succeeded on the very same day by M. Cocceius Nerva, a senator and one of his amici. The sources are unanimous in stressing that this was a palace plot, yet it is difficult to determine the level of culpability among the various potential conspirators.
In many ways, Domitian is still a mystery - a lazy and licentious ruler by some accounts, an ambitious administrator and keeper of traditional Roman religion by others. As many of his economic, provincial, and military policies reveal, he was efficient and practical in much that he undertook, yet he also did nothing to hide the harsher despotic realities of his rule. This fact, combined with his solitary personality and frequent absences from Rome, guaranteed a harsh portrayal of his rule. The ultimate truths of his reign remain difficult to know.

Copyright (C) 1997, John Donahue.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Perhaps the reverse of this Domitian/Horseman specimen depicts Domitian as he rode a white horse behind his father, Vespasian, and his brother, Titus, during their joint triumph celebrating their victory over Judaea (see: Suetonius. The Twelve Caesars. Trans. Robert Graves. London: Penguin, 2003. 304).

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
LPapi.jpg
79 BC L Papius Serrated denarius53 viewsHead of Juno Sospita right clad in goat's skin control symbal behind (bakers shovel), bead and reel in border

L PAPI
Gryphon leaping right control symbol (bakers oven) below, bead and reel border

trade guild: cooks and bakers

3.75g

Rome
79 BC

Sear 311 RRC 89

ex-ANE

Plate coin 89:www.bonannocoins.com/l_papius/l_papius_db.php

SOLD to Calgary Coin June 2017
1 commentsJay GT4
Papius3.jpg
79 BC L Papius Serrated denarius78 viewsHead of Juno Sospita right clad in goat's skin control symbal behind (half of fat fish), bead and reel in border

L PAPI
Gryphon leaping right control symbol (fish) below, bead and reel border

trade guild: fishmongers

3.91g

Rome
79 BC

Sear 311 RRC 39

ex-ANE

To see the amazing variety of control marks on this series: www.bonannocoins.com/l_papius/l_papius_db.php

SOLD to Calgary Coin June 2017
2 commentsJay GT4
LPapi2.jpg
79 BC L Papius Serrated denarius56 viewsHead of Juno Sospita right clad in goat's skin control symbal behind (base of column), bead and reel in border

L PAPI
Gryphon leaping right control symbol (Corinthian capital) below, bead and reel border

Trade guild: Builders

3.9g

Rome
79 BC

Sear 311 RRC 89

Ex-Calgary Coin

To see the amazing variety of control marks on this series:
www.bonannocoins.com/l_papius/l_papius_db.php

SOLD to Calgary Coin June 2017
1 commentsJay GT4
domitian_RIC318.jpg
81-96 AD - DOMITIAN AE semis - struck 85 AD 52 viewsobv: IMP DOMIT AVG GERM COS XI (bust of Apollo, draped, laureate right)
rev: lyre, S-C in field
ref: RIC II 318 (C), RSC 541 (3 frcs)
mint: 4.10gms, 21mm
Scarce

The lyre was the symbol of harmony and unity among men.
This orichalcum semis (= 2 quadrantes) was in the auction of Dr. Busso Peus, date: 3 November 2004. It’s the same what the coinarchives shows. Although in RIC this coin rate is common, I think it’s a bit scarcer.
1 commentsberserker
domitian AE19~0.jpg
81-96 AD - DOMITIAN AE19 Byzantion - struck 81-96 AD47 viewsobv: DOMITIANOY KAICAPOC (laureate head left)
rev: [BYZ]ANTIWN (crescent moon and star)
ref: Moushmov3274
mint: Byzantion (Thrace)
3.16gms, 19mm
Very rare

The crescent and star is one of the oldest symbol, it appears on petroglyphs and steles of the first civilization in Sumer. This symbol was adopted by the Greeks and was associated with many of their gods. Nevertheless, Byzantium was the first governing state to use the crescent moon as its national symbol. According to some reports, they chose it in honor of the goddess Diana.
berserker
Piso~0.jpg
90 BC Calpurnius Piso66 viewsLaureate head of Apollo right

L PISO FRVGI
Naked horseman galloping to the right holding palm-branch
CXXXI ? in exergue

Rome 90 BC

3.71g

Sear 235

"This extraordinarily large and complex issue represents one of the principal war coinages of the Romans during the conflict with the Marsic Confederation. The control-Marks are legion and consist of letters, mumerals and symbols in a multitude of combinations on the obverse and reverse" SEAR Millenium Edition

Sold Forum auction January 2018
3 commentsJay GT4
1270Hadrian_RIC968.jpg
968 Hadrian Sestertius, Roma 134-38 AD Hadrian with Roma and Senate38 viewsReference.
RIC 968; Banti 193; BMC 1364; C. 352; Hill 388; Strack 632

Obv. HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS P P
Laureate head of Hadrian to right.

Rev. COS III / S C
Genius of the Senate, togate on the left, and Hadrian, togate on the right, holding a volumen, standing facing each other, clasping their right hands; behind them, Roma standing right, holding spear in her left hand and resting her right on the others' clasped hands.

25.00 gr
33 mm
6h

Note.
The Romans often staged events in which the emperor was accompanied by actors dressed to personify symbolic personalities such as Annona, Liberalitas, Roma, et al. Here we see the emperor clasping the hand of the Senate in the presence of Roma, who stands behind them confirming their cooperative spirit by resting her hand on theirs.

This reverse type, representing "Concordia Senatus," likely commemorates the conferring of the title pater patriae upon Hadrian by the Senate in 128 AD.
1 commentsokidoki
india_elephant~0.jpg
a cute elephant!502 viewsstruck under Tipu Sultan (1782 - 1799 n. Chr.)
uncertain mint in Mysore, India
10.95 g, 23 mm
Obv: Elephant walking left
Rev.: Tusk, symbol of ruler
areich
IMG_1890.JPG
Abdera, Thrace Tetrobol42 viewsAR Tetrobol
Size: 16mm, Weight: 2.87 grams, Die Axis: 3h

Abdera, Thrace
411 - 375 BCE

Obverse: Griffin to left, forelegs raised.

Reverse: Wreathed bust of Dionysos to left, MOΛΠAΓOPHΣ around, all within linear frame and shallow incuse square.

Notes:
- Abdera was was repopulated by citizens from Teos circa 544 BCE, who brought with them the griffin symbol. The griffin on coins from Teos face right, and on coins from Abdera, left.
- The worship of Dionysos appears to have been important in Abdera, and may have been reinforced by the pre-existence of the cult among the native Thracian population.
- The magistrate's name Molpagores also appears on staters of Abdera, where the punning reverse type is a dancing woman performing the 'molpe' (dancing and singing).

Ex Harlan J. Berk, 2018
Pharsalos
Lincoln_Presidential_Medal.JPG
Abraham Lincoln Presidential Medal33 viewsObv: ABRAHAM LINCOLN, bust of the 16th President facing right.

Rev: A wreath of oak and laurel with a pearled border with the inscription: "INAUGURATED PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES MARCH 4, 1861. SECOND TERM MARCH 4, 1865. ASSASSINATED APRIL 14, 1865." Within the wreath is a spray of pine and cedar, circled by a serpent with its tail in its mouth – the Egyptian symbol of eternity and immortality.

Engraver: George T. Morgan

Mint: Philadelphia, Date: 1886 (20th Century Restrike), Bronze, Diameter: 76 mm
Matt Inglima
37413_Rhodos,_Carian_Islands,_c__350_-_300_B_C_.jpg
AE 11; Head of Rhodos right/ hibiscus, RO12 viewsRhodos, Carian Islands, c. 350 - 300 B.C. GB37413. Bronze AE 11, SNG Keckman 384 - 425 (various symbols), F, dark patina, Rhodos mint, 1.143g, 10.8mm, 45o, obverse diademed head of Rhodos right; reverse P O, hibiscus, bud at right, symbol off-flan. Ex FORVM, photo credit FORVMPodiceps
tarsus.jpg
AE 26 Civic Issue of Tarsus in Cilicia after 164 BC16 viewsObverse: City goddess (Tyche) seated right on a throne holding an ear of grain, at her feet swims the river god Kyndos.
Reverse: Jupiter Nikephoros seated right holding staff. TARSEWN (of the Tarsians) in the right field
The obverse symbolizes the city on the banks of the Kyndos river, holding the symbol of its prosperity. Tarsos was the birthplace of the Apostle Paul. In the Roman era the figure of Jupiter has replaced the ancient God, Sandan.
SNGLev979m(ref. Wildwinds), w.t 14.7 gms
daverino
Lg007_quad_sm.jpg
AE provincial, Saitta, Lydia (Sidas Kaleh, Turkey), Senate/River-God (mid-2nd to early 3d century AD) 5 viewsIЄΡA - [CYNKΛHTOC], bare-headed youthful draped bust of Senate right / CAIT[THNΩN] + [ЄPMOC] in exergue, River-God Hermos reclining left, holding reed and cornucopiae, resting arm on urn (hydria) from which waters flow.

Ӕ (base metal yellow, orichalcum?), 22 mm, 5.68 g, die axis 6.5h (coin alignment)

It is difficult to read the name of the river. I think that ЄPMOC is more likely, but VΛΛΟС is also possible, representing the other important local river, Hyllos.

Possible catalog references are BMC Lydia 25 (or 26-27?), SNG Copenhagen 398, SNG München 439.
For the Hyllos reverse, Leypold 1153.

To emphasize the autonomy of certain Hellenistic polises, even under the Roman rule they sometimes used allegorical figures of Senate or Demos on obverses of their coins instead of imperial portraits. Saitta was issuing similar-looking coins with busts of emperors and their family as well, but in this issue the town Senate is honoured as the ruler. IЄΡA CYNKΛHTOC = Holy Senate. CAITTHNΩN = Saitta, ЄPMOC = Hermos, the name of the river and its god.

River-Gods or Potamoi (Ποταμοί) were the gods of the rivers and streams of the earth, all sons of the great earth-encirling river Okeanos (Oceanus) and his wife Tethys. Their sisters were the Okeanides (Oceanids), goddesses of small streams, clouds and rain, and their daughters were the Naiades, nymphs of springs and fountains. A River-God was depicted in one of three forms: as a man-headed bull; a bull-horned man with the tail of a serpentine-fish in place of legs; or as a reclining man with an arm resting upon a pitcher pouring water, which we see in this case. The addition of cornucopia symbolizes the blessings that a particular river bestows on those who live near it.

Saitta or Saittae (Σαίτται, Ptolemy 5.2.21: Σέτται, Σάετται) was a polis in eastern Lydia (aka Maeonia), in the rivers' triangle between the upper Hyllus (modern Demirci Çayı, c. 12 km to the west) and the Hermus or Hermos (modern Gediz Nehri, c. 20 km to the south). In Roman imperial times it belonged to the "conventus" of Sardis in the Roman province of Asia (conventus was a territorial unit of a Roman province, mostly for judicial purposes).

Now its ruins are known now as Sidas Kaleh or Sidaskale in Turkey, near the village of İçikler (İcikler Mahallesi, 45900 Demirci/Manisa). They were never excavated, so are little known or cared for. Ruins of a stadium and a theatre survive, together with remains of some temples and tombs.

Not much is known about it. It was a regional centre for the production of textiles. In 124 AD the town was probably visited by emperor Hadrianus. During the Roman period the cult of the moon god Mēn Axiottenus was very popular in the city. Because of its reference to "angels" (both literally as the Greek word and by their function as god's messengers) it was possibly close to the more general Asia Minor cult of Theos Hypsistos, Θεος ὕψιστος, "the highest god" (200 BC – 400 AD), which in turn was perhaps related to the gentile following of the Second Temple in Jerusalem.

Known Roman provincial coins issued by this city feature portraits of emperors from Hadrian to Gallienus, thus covering the period from 117 to 268 AD, with the peak around the Severan dynasty. The semi-autonomous issues are usually dated from mid-2nd to mid-3d century AD.

Later Saittae was the seat of a Byzantine bishopric. Bishop Limenius signed the Chalcedon Creed, while Bishop Amachius spoke at the Council of Chalcedon. Although an Islamic area now, Saittae remains a titular see of the Roman Catholic Church.
Yurii P
sear_2280.jpg
AE trachy Michael VIII Palaeologus SB 228014 viewsObverse: Christ enthroned
Reverse: Michael stg., holding long cross and castle B to left which is a Palaeologid symbol)
Mint: Constantinople
Date: 1261-1282 CE
Sear 2280 Gr. 1376
19 mm 2.0 gm
wileyc
2010-03-09.jpg
AE trachy Michael VIII Palaeologus SB 228014 viewsObverse: Christ enthroned
Reverse: Michael stg., holding long cross and castle B to left which is a Palaeologid symbol)
Mint: Constantinople
Date: 1261-1282 CE
Sear 2280 Gr. 1376
17/21 mm 1.36 gm

B to left is a Palaeologid symbol
wileyc
AE-Weight_with_Gold-Chi-Rho_AD-Q-051_27x25x4mm_17,83g-s.jpg
AE weight (4 nomismata), marked with Golden color Chi-Rho #51,205 viewsAE weight (4 nomismata), marked with Golden color Chi-Rho #51,
type: AE four-cornered weight, engraved square inside Christogram (Chi-Rho, marked with golden color), both side unredable symbols (hope Α-Ω ). In addition to the ich lines outside the 4 points (mean 4 nomismata ?).
size: 27x25x4mm,
weight: 17,83g, (4 nomismata, exactly 17.84g; 4x4,46 = 17.84g).
date: 6th-8th cent. A.D.,
ref: Not official, may be hommade,
distribution: Byzatine ?,
Q-051
"This is really a beautiful and rare weight. Congratulations!
From my point of view it is a nominal to 4 nomismata, exactly 17.83 g (4x4,46 = 17.84 g). Each side of the weight is separately punched with 4 points which means lettering for 4 nomismata.
Within the Christogram the letters Α-Ω are to be read. These were engraved faulty. No official weight, but a homemade version (see Simon Bendall). The Christogam was marked with golden color no gold inlay!
dated approx. 6th-8th cent. AD
similar weights were found in Bulgaria. by Basil, Thanks "

3 commentsquadrans
AELIA4R2D+R.jpg
AELIA 437 viewsC. Allius Bala (c. BC 92) - symbol below on reverse : griffonRugser
afae4.jpg
Aelia Flaccilla AE4 383 CE.17 viewsObverse: AEL FLAC-CILLA AVG, draped bust with elaborate headdress, necklace and mantle.
Reverse: SALVS REI-PVBLICAE, Victory seated right, inscribing chi-rho symbol on shield resting on a small column.
Uncertain mint. 12.43 mm., 1.2 g.
NORMAN K
125166.jpg
Aes Grave Sextans Circa 269-266 BC39 viewsThe sextans was an Ancient Roman bronze coin produced during the Roman Republic valued at one-sixth of an as (2 unciae). The most common design for the sextans was the bust of Mercury and two pellets (indicating two unciae) on the obverse and the prow of a galley on the reverse. Earlier types depicted a scallop shell, a caduceus, or other symbols on the obverse.

ROME. Circa 269-266 BC. Æ Aes Grave Sextans (31mm, 20.40 g). Exterior of cockle shell; two pellets / Interior of cockle shell. Thurlow-Vecchi 20; Crawford 21/5; Haeberlin pl. 28, 3-8. Fine, rough green patina.

Ex-CNG 125, lot 166, 88/100

Check
ecoli
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AFGHANISTAN - HORSE MAN & BULL - SAMANT DEWA -HINDU SHAHI - SILVER COIN - 3.21gm15 viewsSilver drachm (jital), ca.870-950 AD, late Kabul Shahi (Tye #21)
Horseman right, holding banner; Nagari Bhi in the upper left, Adl (?) in Arabic in the upper right / śri samanta deva in Nagari, recumbent zebu bull to left with symbol on rump; to left, star above pellet above crescent. Uncertain mint in (Kabul or Ohind?). 20mm, 3.21 grams. Tye #21. SKU 42565

Samanta Deva just meant "The Feudatory Chield" - it was the title assumed by the Kabul Shahi and their Islamic successors, and was probably not a personal name. Hundreds of types of jitals inscribed "Samanta Deva" (in imitation of this type) were struck by numerous dynasties in the later period. The Kabul Shahi dynasties also called Shahiya ruled the Kabul Valley (in eastern Afghanistan) and the old province of Gandhara (northern Pakistan) during the Classical Period of India, from the decline of the Kushan Empire in the 3rd century to the early 9th century. They are split into two eras the Buddhist-Shahis and the later Hindu-Shahis with the change-over occurring around 870. These coins are of full size and weight, but were probably not minted by Samanta Deva but can be considered anonymous issues of his successors
Antonivs Protti
FotorCreated~52.jpg
Akarnania Leukas AR circa 340-290 BC 22 mm 8.40g 2h41 viewsPegasos flying right mintmark below.Rev helmeted head of Athena facing right,left Pentalpha five pointed star.
The Pentagram is commonly accepted as a symbol of protection and exorcism driving away evil.
EX LePezek #94 sale 61
Grant H
Kxo7P4WpdD8J5HCnDx9fMXs36QSmrL.jpg
Akarnania Leukas AR Stater circa 320-280 BC 22mm 8.35g27 viewsPegasos flying left.Rev head of Athena right wearing Corinthian helmet,Pileus behind.
The Pileus seems to be an unpublished symbol.
Grant H
12330_a45_316.jpg
Akarnania Leukas AR Stater circa 320-280 BC 8.09g33 viewsPegasos flying left with pointed wing.Rev helmeted head of Athena left with unknown symbol behind.TRIPOD?
not in Calciati or the British Museum Catalogue
Grant H
Akragas_2.JPG
Akragas, Sicily85 views275-240 BC
AE22 (21.8mm, 6.945g, 315o)
O: Laureate head of Zeus Hellanios right; symbols before and behind.
R: Two eagles standing left, devouring hare upon which they stand, nearer head up and wings closed, farther head down and wings open, caduceus above wings.
HGC 2, 159; Calciati p. 212, 125; SNG ANS 1128; Sear 1030; BMC 2, 131
ex Forvm Ancient Coins
Enodia
DSCN5242.jpg
Alexander II Zabinas. 128-123 BC. AE19mm . 6.439grm.28 viewsAlexander II Zabinas. 128-123 BC. Apamea on the Orontes(?) mint.
Obv. Dionysos right, wreathed in ivy.
Rev. ΒΑΣΙΛΣΩΣ ΑΛΣΞΑΝ∆ΟΥ . Winged Tycheleft, Kalathos on head, standing left, tiller in right, cornucopia in left. Monogram over symbol outer left.
Ref. Sear 7133, Houghton and Lorber 2242.
( Ex- Forvm Ancient Coins )
Lee S
217.jpg
Alexander III45 viewsAlexander the Great
Cast fake Tetradrachm

Obverse:Head of Alexander the Great as Herakles wearing lions skin
Reverse:Zeus on throne holding eagle; ALEXANDROY BASILEOS;symbol under and left throne

26.03mm 13.80gm (Under weight) and very soft metal

MODERN CAST FAKE

I bought it as is 24$ at ebay from fake listed seller
maik
Alexander_TG.jpg
Alexander III - Tarsos82 viewsObv: Head of Herakles right wearing lionskin headdress
Rev: ALEXANDROU between club above, quiver and bow below. No symbols
Size: 17 mm, 5,47 g
Mint: Tarsos, 323-317 BC
Ref: Likely Price 3056
Notes: Discussion on this coin at http://www.forumancientcoins.com/board/index.php?topic=91693.msg569052#new
2 commentsickster
Alexander.jpg
Alexander III Tetradrachm Price 299991 viewsKINGS OF MACEDON. Alexander III ‘the Great’, 336-323 BC. Tetradrachm (Silver, 25 mm, 17.13 g, 12 h), Tarsos, struck under Balakros or Menes, circa 333-327.
O: Head of Herakles to right, wearing lion skin headdress.
R: AΛEΞANΔPOY Zeus seated left on low throne, holding long scepter in his left hand and eagle standing right with closed wings in his right.
- Price 2999. A rare early and unusual issue from Tarsos, "Officina B", bearing no symbol.

Alexander the Great (356 B.C.–323 B.C.) has been recognized as the greatest stratelates (roughly, ‘general’) in history. His army consisted of 30,000 infantryman and 5,000 cavalrymen. In 334 B.C., when he was 22 years old, he embarked on a campaign starting from the capital of Macedonia, Pella, and he created the Macedonian Empire within 8 years, by 326 B.C. The Macedonian Empire extended from Greece to India and North Africa. Alexander fought in the front lines in every battle, thereby encouraging his fellow warriors to do their best. He was never a spectator in battles, and the rear line was not for him. In each battle, just as any of his soldiers, he faced the risk of not seeing the sunset. He was in danger of “dining in Hades,” as they said about soldiers who died during battle. All his soldiers saw Alexander’s back in every battle.

By comparing these early Tarsos tetradrachms to the staters of Mazaios (Pictured below) it is easy to see the identical forms of the throne, scepter, footstool and other details. The drapery is rendered in a similar manner, the Aramaic inscription of the one and the Greek inscription of the other share the same curve following the dotted border. This evidence indicates the two series of coins were the common product of a single mint.

2 commentsNemonater
Macedonian Kingdom 1a img.jpg
Alexander III The Great, Macedonian Kingdom, 336 - 323 B.C., Lifetime Issue, Silver tetradrachm, Price 3599 (same dies) 176 viewsSilver tetradrachm
Obv:- Head of (Alexander the Great as) Herakles right, wearing lion skin headdress knotted at base of neck
Rev:- ALEXANDROU, Zeus seated left, holding eagle in right hand and scepter in left, monogram and M below throne;
Price 3599 (same dies), Müller 67, 17.206g, 25.9mm, 255o, Babylon mint, lifetime issue, c. 325 - 323 B.C.;
EF, obverse off-center;

Dies by 'The Alexander Dekadrachm Master'. From the same highly-skilled hand as the famous dekadrachms, including Price 3598, with which this shares all symbols and their arrangement. A massive issue of coinage was struck for the mass-weddings of the soldiers of Alexander the Great to Persian women, and their subsequent return to Macedonia. The best style of the lengthy issue of Alexander coinage
3 commentsmaridvnvm
Macedonian_Kingdom_1a_img.jpg
Alexander III The Great, Macedonian Kingdom, 336 - 323 B.C., Lifetime Issue, Silver tetradrachm, Price 3599 (same dies)104 viewsSilver tetradrachm
Obv:- Head of (Alexander the Great as) Herakles right, wearing lion skin headdress knotted at base of neck
Rev:- ALEXANDROU, Zeus seated left, holding eagle in right hand and scepter in left, monogram and M below throne;
Price 3599 (same dies), Müller 67, 17.206g, 25.9mm, 255o, Babylon mint, lifetime issue, c. 325 - 323 B.C.;
EF, obverse off-center;

Dies by 'The Alexander Dekadrachm Master'. From the same highly-skilled hand as the famous dekadrachms, including Price 3598, with which this shares all symbols and their arrangement. A massive issue of coinage was struck for the mass-weddings of the soldiers of Alexander the Great to Persian women, and their subsequent return to Macedonia. The best style of the lengthy issue of Alexander coinage

Ex-Forum

Old coin - new photo.

Click to zoom.
2 commentsmaridvnvm
Macedonian_Kingdom_1a_img~0.jpg
Alexander III The Great, Macedonian Kingdom, 336 - 323 B.C., Lifetime Issue, Silver tetradrachm, Price 3599 (same dies)61 viewsSilver tetradrachm
Obv:- Head of (Alexander the Great as) Herakles right, wearing lion skin headdress knotted at base of neck
Rev:- ALEXANDROU, Zeus seated left, holding eagle in right hand and scepter in left, monogram and M below throne;
Price 3599 (same dies), Müller 67, 17.206g, 25.9mm, 255o, Babylon mint, lifetime issue, c. 325 - 323 B.C.;
EF, obverse off-center;

Dies by 'The Alexander Dekadrachm Master'. From the same highly-skilled hand as the famous dekadrachms, including Price 3598, with which this shares all symbols and their arrangement. A massive issue of coinage was struck for the mass-weddings of the soldiers of Alexander the Great to Persian women, and their subsequent return to Macedonia. The best style of the lengthy issue of Alexander coinage

Ex-Forum

Updated image using new photography setup.
maridvnvm
Alexander Jannaeus TJC K17.jpg
Alexander Jannaeus (103-76BC) Hendin 470, TJC K17108 viewsPrutah, 15mm, 1.26g.

Obverse: ALEXANDROU BASILEWS around anchor.

Reverse: 8-pointed star within diadem, HMLK CHN followed by a symbol, between rays.

Hendin 470

Treasury of Jewish Coins K17

A rare variant known from a single die. The significance of the reverse inscription, 'The King [and] Priest' isn't known.
3 commentsRobert_Brenchley
IMG_4617.PNG
Alexander the Great54 viewsCNG description:

KINGS of MACEDON. Alexander III ‘the Great’. 336-323 BC. AR Tetradrachm (25.5mm, 17.19 g, 11h). Babylon mint. Struck under Stamenes or Archon, circa 324/3 BC. Head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin / Zeus Aëtophoros seated left; in left field, horizontal ear above M; monogram below throne. Price 3611 corr. (symbol). Good VF, lightly toned, slight die shift on obverse, reverse a little off center. Ex CNG.
4 commentsMolinari
alexamphipolis.jpg
Alexander the Great AR Tetradrachm 325-320 BC28 viewsOBVERSE: Head of Herakles clad in the skin of the Nemean lion
REVERSE: Zeus Aeotophoros enthroned left, ALEXANDROY in right field, Cornucopia in left field.

This classic type was probably minted at Amphipolis in Macedon at or near the end of Alexander's brief reign (333-323BC). The lion was the symbol of Persia and the obverse likely represents his conquest of that Empire. The Figure of Zeus enthroned is almost the same as that of Baal on the silver shekels of the Persian satraps. The significance of the conquest of the East by Greeks was not lost on Alexander or his contemporaries
Price 104 (ref.Wildwinds) Weight 17.1 gm
1 commentsdaverino
20180222_114742.jpg
Alexander the great AE unit, Phoenicia, Sidon mint, 333-305 B.C.13 viewsObv. Head of beardless Heracles right wearing lion skin headdress.
Rev. Quiver on bow and club, Legend: ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ, Symbol: ΣΙ (Below)
References: Price 3492
19mm and 8.03 grams.
Canaan
Alexander_the_Great_drachm.JPG
Alexander the Great, Ephesus19 viewsdrachm
336-323 BC
4.19 grams
Alexander in the guise of Herakles with lion skin headdress
Zeus seated left on throne with eagle on outstretched hand. Symbol to left of Zeus.
Ephesus was an important Greek city thus it is no surprise that their coinage shows a more refined sense of artistry. Coins struck in Ehesus signal a higher level of sophistication.
JBGood
AugAlter2.jpg
Altar of Lugdunum929 viewsCAESAR PONT MAX
Laureate head of Augustus, right.
ROM ET AVG
Altar flanked by two columns each surmounted by Victory.
Various sacred items on top; mystic symbols to front.
Copper As 22.5 mm 9.5 gm

Augustus took a risky break with tradition by allowing
himself to be the object of cult adoration. To minimize
the affront to his fellow Romans, he permitted the
practice only in the West. Interestingly, the year of
dedication in 10 BC saw the birth of Claudius in the same
place.
Massanutten
2 commentsMassanutten
50-2-white-bg1.jpg
Anchor - Denarius, Crawford 50/212 viewsDenomination: Denarius
Era: c. 209-208 BC
Metal: AR
Obverse: Helmeted head of Roma r. with splayed visor. Behind, “X”. Border of dots
Reverse: Dioscuri r.; below to r., anchor; in linear frame “ROMA”.
Mint: Rome
Weight: 4.71 gm.
Reference: Crawford 50/2
Provenance: Gert Boersema. 31-JAN-2018


Comments: Anonymous denarius with anchor symbol (early variety with splayed visor)
VF.
Steve B5
s-l1600_(61).jpg
ANCIENT - Panchala Dynasty - DHRUVAMITRA - 4.66gm - 65-50 BCE - HALF KARSHAPANA15 viewsObverse Lord Indra standing on a pedestal
Reverse Three Panchala symbols in a row, with name below in Brahmi script: Indramitrasa
Date c. 1st century BCE - 1st century CE (highly uncertain)
Weight 4.78 gm.
Diameter 16 mm.
Die axis 5 o'clock
Reference MAC 4539, Shrimali Type A
Comments The Panchala series is one of the most interesting of the ancient India coin series, because it is quite long and the kings are named on them. Unfortunately, we know very little about the chronology. The order of kings is not known and even the dates of the series are still debated. It appears the series belongs in the post-Mauryan period, but further details are still unavailable.

You can see a catalog of Panchala coins on the CoinIndia website.
Antonivs Protti
CB057733-85C5-4D4B-B1AD-923D596B7B5D.jpeg
Ancient India13 viewsDate: circa 650-300BC
Obverse: Septa-radiate symbol stamped at each end of the bar.
Reverse: Blank

Description: Persian occupation of the area influenced the coinage of the time resulting in these double siglos denomination bars of relatively pure silver
1 commentsecoli
DSC01924.JPG
ANCIENT INDIA - SATAVAHANA Empire - 177AD - Elephant - RARE COIN - 2.64gm15 viewsDeccan Post-Mauryan; Satavahanas (Andhras), 'Sri Satakanisa' Circa 1st Century B.C.-1st Century A.D. Karshapana Satavahana (Andhra) empire

Bi karshapana (22 mm, 2.77 g)

Obverse: Elephant with raised trunk standing right, with Brahmi legend (Siri) Sataka(nisa) above
Reverse: 4-orbed 'Ujjain' symbol
Ref: MACW 4941-4952

Nicely struck on a broad flan with lovely Glossy black patina with some earthen in devices. Boldly struck.

CHOICE.
Antonivs Protti
DSC01968.JPG
ANCIENT INDIA - SATAVAHANA Empire - 177AD - Elephant - RARE COIN - 3.21gm18 viewsElephant with raised trunk, standing r.; legend above.
Satavahana symbol.
Antonivs Protti
Sydenham_519_19mm,_4_40_grams_113_B_C__Cr_79_1.jpg
Anonymous Wheel Cr.79/164 viewsCrawford 79/1 Wheel (209-8BC) Sicily?
Denarius Serratus
Ob: helmeted head of Roma right, behind X
Rev: Dioscuri riding right with lances, below wheel, in exergue ROMA; line border

BMCRR II 308 (217-197BC)

Sydenham 519 (113BC) Narbo

Iridescent highlights, 4.4gr.

Grueber: The wheel maybe a symbol of the moneyer rather than of a mint, although it does occur on aes grave of Campania and central Italy, and the early coins of Luceria and Tartentum. This is the earliest occurrence of the serratus on republican denarii and the only anonymous. Only serratus attributed to a mint other than Rome by Count de Salis.

Sydenham classifies this serratus with Porcia 8 at the colony of Narbo. The serrated edge may have been suggested by the Gaulish custom of using serrated rings or wheels as currency. Tacitus stated that the Gaulish tribes showed a marked preference for coins that were serrati bigatique (Germania 5) Sydenham wrote an article entitled “Origin of the Roman Serrati” NC 1935 209 ff.

Crawford writes that Mattingly’s view that serrati were Marian coins was demolished by Sydenham’s article, but his view that they were struck at non-Italian mints for Trans-alpine circulation does not hold either. Grueber’s view that they are probably merely decorative best remaining theory. Crawford Vol 2 p. 581

Tacitus Germania 5 pecuniam probant veterem et diu notam, serratos bigatosque. They approve the old and long known money, those that are serrated and biga depicting.
3 commentsPetrus Elmsley
Macedon_AntigonosGonatas_SNG-Cop_1198_gf.jpg
Antigonos II Gonatas. 277-239 BC. AR Tetradrachm of Amphipolis 14 viewsMacedon, Antigonos II Gonatas. 277-239 BC. AR Tetradrachm (17.03 gm) of Amphipolis 274-255 BC. Macedonian shield w/ horned head of Pan l. & lagoblon at center and stars in double crescents. / Athena Alkidemos advancing r. brandishing thunderbolt & holding shield decorated w/ aegis. ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΓΟΝΟΥ. Kalanthos to l. & AV monogram to r.  gVF.  CNG 63 #207. "Exceptional for issue. Very rare with the right-facing Athena , only 14 specimens recorded by Mathisen!" HGC 3.1 #1043; Mathisen ANSMN 26 [1981] plate 22 #39 = SNG Cop 2 #1198 (same dies); SNG Alpha Bank -; SNG Ashmolean 3257 (same dies); SNG Berry -.
Mathisen contends that the fighting Athena was a traditional symbol of Pyrrhos, Antigonos' vanquished enemy, and Pan symbolizes Antigonos' victory over the Gauls, whose invasions had terrorized Macedon and Thrace for decades.
Anaximander
ANTIOCH_SNG_COP_80.jpg
ANTIOCH ON THE ORONTES 13 viewsANTIOCH ON THE ORONTES - AE-22. 11.98 g. Denomination A. Year 9 (41-40 B.C.) Obv.: Laureate head of Zeus right. Rev.: ΑΝΤΙΟΧΕΩΝ / ΤΗΣ / ΜΗΤΡΟΠΟΛΕΩΣ / ΚΑΙΑΥΤΟΝΟΜΟΥ Zeus seated left, holding Nike and scepter. Thunderbolt above. Symbols to left: Star over cap. Caesarean era date in exergue: Θ. Reference: Butcher: CRS 20; SNG COP 80.dpaul7
AntiochosVII_tetradrachm_AR29-32_16_29g.jpg
Antiochos VII (in the name of) tetradrachm, c. 130 - 80 BC85 views29-32mm, 16.29g
obv: diademed head right
rev: Athena standing left, Nike in right, spear and shield in left, ligate ∆Ι / A left, Nike extends wreath into laurel wreath border
From FORVM Ancient coins: Oliver Hoover, in Coins of the Seleucid Empire from the Collection of Arthur Houghton, attributes this type to the Cappadocian Kingdom, c. 130 - 80 B.C. The symbols were used on Cappadocian royal coinage, the coins are found in Cappadocian hoards and a tetradrachm naming the Cappadocian King Ariarathes VII Philometor (116 - 99 B.C.) bears the obverse portrait of Antiochus VII. He notes they may have been struck to pay foreign (Syrian?) mercenaries who preferred the types of Antiochus VII.

CLICK PICTURE FOR A HIGHER-QUALITY VERSION
1 commentsareich
Antiochus_VII~4.jpg
Antiochos VII Euergetes (Sidetes) 138-129 B.C.9 viewsAntiochos VII Euergetes (Sidetes). 138-129 BC. Æ 22.0~23.0mm. (11.94 g.). Antioch mint. Dated S.E. 174 (139/8 BC). Obv: Prow of galley right; caps of the Dioskouroi above, dotted border. Rev: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ / ΕΥΕΡΓΕΤΟΥ Vertical trident ornamented with dolphins facing downward on each side; Control: monogram (ΔI) in outer left field, Symbols: Caps of Dioskouri (flanking trident); ΔO-P (date) below. SC 2064.5 var.ddwau
antiochos_VII_leo.jpg
Antiochos VII, Euergetes; Lion/ club13 viewsSeleukid Kingdom, Antiochos VII, Euergetes (Sidetes), 138 - 129 B.C. Bronze AE 15, SNG Spaer 1906 ff. (various dates and symbols), F, 3.171g, 13.6mm, obverse lion head right; reverse “BASILEWS ANTIOCOU EUERGETOU”, club. Ex FORVMPodiceps
AntiochosVIII.jpg
Antiochos VIII Epiphanes (Grypos)206 views121/0-97/6 BC. AR Tetradrachm (30mm, 16.72 g, 11h). Sidon mint. Dated SE 196 (117/6 BC). Diademed head right / BAΣIΛEΩΣ ANTIOXOY EΠI-ΦANOYΣ, Zeus Ouranios standing left, holding star in extended right hand and scepter in left; to outer left; ΣIΔΩ/IEP/AΣ in three lines above monogram; C9P (date) in exergue. SC 2330.1; CSE 723; HGC 9, 1197g; DCA 268. Near EF, lightly toned. In 121 BCE, a very rare astronomical event occurred in the sky. The moon had eclipsed Jupiter, a significant celestial body of the ancient world. This phenomenon was visible from Antioch, the capital of the then-collapsing Seleucid Empire. Antiochos VIII saw this as a good omen, a harbinger that a great leader would come to Syria, so he struck symbols of the eclipse on the reverse side of Tetradrachms. The crescent above Zeus' head is the moon, and the star hovering above his hand is Jupiter.
5 commentsThatParthianGuy
AntiochosVIII~0.jpg
Antiochos VIII Grypos24 views121/0-97/6 BC. AR Tetradrachm (30mm, 16.72 g, 11h). Sidon mint. Dated SE 196 (117/6 BC). Diademed head right / BAΣIΛEΩΣ ANTIOXOY EΠI-ΦANOYΣ, Zeus Ouranios standing left, holding star in extended right hand and scepter in left; to outer left; ΣIΔΩ/IEP/AΣ in three lines above monogram; C9P (date) in exergue. SC 2330.1; CSE 723; HGC 9, 1197g; DCA 268.

In 121 BCE, a very rare astronomical event occurred in the sky. The moon had eclipsed Jupiter, a significant celestial body of the ancient world. This phenomenon was visible from Antioch, the capital of the then-collapsing Seleucid Empire. Antiochos VIII saw this as a good omen, a harbinger that a great leader would come to Syria, so he struck symbols of the eclipse on the reverse side of Tetradrachms. The crescent above Zeus' head is the moon, and the star hovering above his hand is Jupiter.
ThatParthianGuy
Antiochus_III~2.jpg
Antiochus III, 223 - 187 B.C.11 viewsSeleucid Kingdom, Antiochus III, 223 - 187 B.C. Bronze AE 23.4~26mm., 11.66g, 0°, Antioch on the Orontes mint, c. 204 - 197 B.C. Obv: Laureate head of Apollo, with features of Antiochus III, right. Rev: BAΣIΛEΩΣ ANTIOXOΥ, Apollo seated left on omphalos, examining arrow in right, resting left on grounded bow, symbols left. Houghton 1048(1), SNG Spaer 561
Ref : http://www.acsearch.info/record.html?id=231908, http://www.acsearch.info/record.html?id=225801
ddwau
Antiochus_IV.jpg
Antiochus IV Epiphanes 175 - 164 BC22 viewsAntiochus IV Epiphanes "God Manifest" c. 215 BC – 164 BC) ruled the Seleucid Empire from 175 BC until his death in 164 BC. He was a son of King Antiochus III the Great. His original name was Mithradates (alternative form Mithridates); he assumed the name Antiochus after he ascended the throne.
Antiochos IV Epiphanes. Seleukid Kingdom AE 12mm, 2,88gr. Veiled bust of Laodike IV right / ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ANTIOXOY, elephant's head left. No symbols in fields. Hoover 685; SC 1421-1422.
ddwau
antiochos_VII_lion.jpg
Antiochus VII, Lion/ Club, AE1515 viewsSeleukid Kingdom, Antiochos VII, Euergetes (Sidetes), 138 - 129 B.C. Bronze AE 15, SNG Spaer 1906 ff. (various dates and symbols), 3.2g, 15mm, obverse lion head right; reverse “BASILEWS ANTIOCOU EUERGETOU”, club. Podiceps
Byzantine_lamp.jpg
Antique oil lamp12 viewsAntique terra-cotta oil lamp with Christian symbol Tanit
2__Cylindre-Sceau_1ère_dynastie_de_Babylone_1900-1700_avant_J_-C__Stéatite_grise.jpg
ANTIQUITIES, Babylonia, Cylinder Seal, 1900 - 1700 B.C.86 viewsCylindre-Sceau, 1ère dynastie de Babylone, 1900-1700 avant J.-C (Stéatite grise)
Cylindre de 18 x 10 mn, gravé en creux de symboles, personnages (Dieux) et animaux (aigle et félin), patine verte.
Roger D2
pius_vas.jpg
Antoninus Pius, Antioch, head left, AE 225 viewsAntoninus Pius, August 138 - 7 March 161 A.D., Antioch, Syria. Orichalcum as, McAlee 561 (f), aF, Antioch mint, 8.835g, 22.1mm, 0o, 145 - 147 A.D.; obverse AUTO KAI TI AIL ADRI ANTWNEINOS, laureate head left, star left; reverse , large S C, eagle below, symbol resembling R on its side above, all within laurel wreath. ex FORVMPodiceps
antoas18-2.jpg
Antoninus Pius, RIC 693a, As of AD 140-144 (Janus) 27 viewsÆ As (9.8g, Ø27mm, 5h). Rome mint. Struck AD 140-144.
Obv.: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P, laureate head of Antoninus Pius facing right.
Rev.: TR POT COS III (around), S C (in field), Janus draped, naked to waist, standing front, holding long sceptre.
RIC 693a (S); BMC 1369; Cohen 882

Type belonging to a series depicting scenes from ancient Roman legends, struck just prior to 900th anniversary of Rome in AD 147. Janus was supposedly the first king of Italy, and inventor of civilisation before he became a god. He also stands here as a symbol of the new, golden, age.
Charles S
Apameia,_Phrygia.jpg
Apameia, Phrygia, ca 133 - 48 B.C.27 viewsobv.helmeted bust of Athena right, wearing aegis
rev. AΠAMEΩN ANΔΡONIK AΛKIOY
eagle flying right, below Maeander symbol in center with caps of Dioskouroi and star above on each side
HG
42215_Apameia,_Phrygia,_c__133_-_48_B_C__eagle.jpg
Apameia; Athena/ eagle flying right, star above, below Maeander symbol with caps of Dioskouroi and stars9 viewsPhrygia, Apameia, 133-48 B.C. Bronze AE 22, BMC Phrygia p. 86, 97 ff., aVF, Apameia mint, weight 6.723g, maximum diameter 23.1mm, die axis 0o, c. 133 - 48 B.C.; obverse helmeted bust of Athena right, wearing aegis; reverse ΑΠΑΜΕΩΝ ΦΑΙΝΙΠΠΟΥ ∆ΡΑΚΟΝΤΟΣ, eagle flying right, star above, below Maeander symbol in center with caps of Dioskouroi and star above on each side. Ex FORVM, photo credit FORVMPodiceps
gordianIII_SNGlev774~0.jpg
Aphrodite524 viewsAphrodite is the greek goddess of beauty and love. She is much older and more primordial than Venus. Venus was a more local goddess and came to Rome not before the 4th century. Aphrodite is melted together of indoeuropean-hellenistic, aegaean-anatolean and semitic-oriental elements. The origin of her name is unknown, perhaps it is related to the sem.*asthart. Her relation to Cyprus is referring to that origin. Possibly the name of the month April comes from etruscan *aprodita. So there could be an etruscan intermediation. She seems to be a conglomerate of old fertility goddesses. Her attributes dolphin and shell points to marine, dove, sparrow and and swane to caelestic and apple, rose and pomegranat to herbal sexual spheres. With Homer Aphrodíte replaces the dark weird deities as a light goddess of charm and gracefulness. She was called 'philommeides', the smiling, and she was the mistress of the Graces.
On the rev. of this coin we see Aphrodite as a later depiction as goddess of grace and seduction. She holds a mirror as the symbol of vanity. Her companions are two Erotes with torches to ignite love.
2 commentsJochen
007~0.JPG
Apollonia Pontica92 views450 – 425 B.C.
Silver Drachm
3.14 gm, 15 mm
Rev: Archaic Ionian Gorgon head facing with wild hair and snakes
Obv.: Anchor; A to right, crayfish to left.
Topalov Apollonia p. 588, 44
Sear Vol. 1, p. 165, 1655

Topalov Type: "Upright Anchor a crab as an additional symbol and the letter A on the left or right - Full-Face Gorgon's Head" Last Late Issues (450-425 B.C.)
Obv.: Upright anchor with large flukes and solid stock. An additional symbol of a crab viewed from above left and the letter A right (or visa versa) between the fluke and the stock.
Rev.: Full-face of a noble Gorgon's head with a low narrow forehead, projecting eyebrows and eyes, a short flat nose, abnormaly open mouth, long teeth and tongue. Human hair mixed with snakes with thin bodies. The image in a concave circle.
1 commentsJaimelai
AP5_a.jpg
Apollonia Pontica83 views450 - 425 B.C.
Silver Drachm
3.20 gm, 12-14 mm
Obv.: Anchor; crayfish to left, A to right
Rev: Gorgon head facing with hair in tufts

Topalov Type: "Upright Anchor a crab as an additional symbol and the letter A on the left or right - Full-Face Gorgon's Head" Last Late Issues (450-425 B.C.)
Obv.: Upright anchor with large flukes and solid stock. An additional symbol of a crab viewed from above left and the letter A right (or visa versa) between the fluke and the stock.
Rev.: Full-face of a noble Gorgon's head with a low narrow forehead, projecting eyebrows and eyes, a short flat nose, abnormaly open mouth, long teeth and tongue. Human hair mixed with snakes with thin bodies. The image in a concave circle.
Jaimelai
Capture_00016.JPG
Apollonia Pontica56 views450 – 425 B.C.
Silver Drachm
3.28 gm, 14 mm
Rev: Archaic Ionian Gorgon head facing with straight vertical hair with wavy bangs
Obv.: Anchor; A to left, crayfish to right
Topalov Apollonia p. 588, 44
Sear p. 165, 1655

Topalov Type: "Upright Anchor a crab as an additional symbol and the letter A on the left or right - Full-Face Gorgon's Head" Last Late Issues (450-425 B.C.)
Obv.: Upright anchor with large flukes and solid stock. An additional symbol of a crab viewed from above left and the letter A right (or visa versa) between the fluke and the stock.
Rev.: Full-face of a noble Gorgon's head with a low narrow forehead, projecting eyebrows and eyes, a short flat nose, abnormaly open mouth, long teeth and tongue. Human hair mixed with snakes with thin bodies. The image in a concave circle.
1 commentsJaimelai
Capture_00174_white.JPG
Apollonia Pontica99 views450 – 424 B.C.
Silver Drachm
3.26 gm, 14.5 mm
Rev: Archaic Ionian Gorgon head facing with
beaded hair in tuffs, surrounded by thin snakes
Obv.: Anchor; crayfish to left, A to right
Topalov Apollonia p. 586, 42 (corrected)
Sear p. 165, 1655

Topalov Type 1. C. Upright Anchor - Gorgon's Head: Late Issues (450-424 B.C.)
Obv.: Upright anchor with large flukes and curved stock. An additional symbol of a crab viewed from above left between the fluke and the stock and the letter “A” right.
Rev.: Full-face Gordon's head in the archaic Ionian style with a low narrow forehead, projecting eyebrows and eyes, a short flat nose, abnormaly open mouth, long teeth and toungue. Instead of hair there are snakes with thin bodies. The image in a concave circle.

Description from Topalov Apollonia 2007
3 commentsJaimelai
Capture_00003_(2).JPG
Apollonia Pontica139 views450 – 425 B.C.
Silver Drachm
3.32 gm, 13.5 mm
Rev: Archaic Ionian Gorgon head facing with
beaded hair, surrounded by thin snakes
Obv.: Anchor; crayfish to left, A to right
Topalov Apollonia p. 586, 42 (corrected)
Sear p. 165, 1655

Topalov Type: "Upright Anchor, a crab as an additional symbol on the left, A on the right - Gorgon's Head" Late Issues (450-425 B.C.)
Obv.: Upright anchor with large flukes and curved stock. An additional symbol of a crab viewed from above left between the fluke and the stock and the letter “A” right.
Rev.: Full-face Gordon's head in the archaic Ionian style with a low narrow forehead, projecting eyebrows and eyes, a short flat nose, abnormaly open mouth, long teeth and toungue. Instead of hair there are snakes with thin bodies. The image in a concave circle.
4 commentsJaimelai
ap_50_2.jpg
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 08 - Silver Half-Drachm/Diobol43 views550-540/535 B.C.
2.12 gm, 11.3 mm
Obv: Upright anchor; blank to left, crayfish to left
Rev.: Swastika arms bent left, deeply engraved into flan (as four dolphins?)
Topalov Apollonia p.245, 1-2; p.564, 8;

Topalov Type: Silver half drachmas (?)/diobols (?) (as per the system of Aegina) of the type “upright anchor with thin flukes and a thin shaft - swastika in a deep groove” (550-540/535 B.C.)
Obverse: Upright anchor with thin flukes and a thin stock. Side view of the additional symbol of a crab l. between the fluke and the stock.
Reverse: Schematic view of a swastika with arms bent to the left deeply engraved in the flan.
Jaimelai
2760053.JPG
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 09 - Silver Drachm62 views550-540/535 B.C.
4.15 gm, 11.5-15.5 mm
Obv: Upright anchor; blank to left, crayfish to right
Rev.: Swastika arms bent right
Topalov Apollonia p. 564, 9

Topalov Type: “Upright Anchor a crab viewed sideways – Swastika in a deep grove” (550-540/535 B.C.)
Obv.: Upright anchor with thin flukes and a thin stock. Side view of the additional symbol of a crab right between the fluke and the stock.
Rev.: Schematic view of a swastika with arms bent to the right deeply engraved in the flan.
1 commentsJaimelai
AP_50.jpg
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 10 - Silver Drachm60 views540-535/525 B.C.
3.51 gm., 13.5 mm.
Obv: Anchor; blank to left, crayfish to right
Rev.: Swastika with arms bent left, dolphins with heads pointed outward in-between each arm
Topalov Apollonia p. 566, 12, p.250-3, 1-16
SNG Stancomb 30

Topalov Type: “Upright Anchor – Swastika: First Intermediate Issues” (540-535/525 B.C.)
Obv.: Upright anchor with thin flukes and a thin stock. Side view of the additional symbol of a crab (or view from above) right between the fluke and the stock.
Rev.: Schematic view of a swastika in sectors concave with arms bent to the left. A dolphin as an additional symbol in every one of the sectors. Dolphins’ heads point from the center of the swastika outwards.

Jaimelai
AP_50~2.jpg
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 12 - Silver Drachm56 views525-519/512 B.C.
3.47 gm, 14 mm
Obv: Upright anchor with thin flukes and thin stock; blank to left, crayfish to right
Rev.: Swastika arms bent left, deeply engraved into flan with dolphin in each sector, head facing to center, raised areas ending in teeth
Topalov Apollonia p. 255-7, 1-5; p. 564, 12;
SNG Bulgaria 2, 60-63; SNG Stancomb 31;
[SNG Copenhagen 451]

Topalov Type: The last intermediate issues of coins of the type “upright anchor - swastika” have a swastika represented like a sketch and consisting of four concave sectors ending with “teeth”. Dolphins’ head points to the center of the swastika.

Drachmas (?)/tetrobols (?) (as per the system of Aegina) of the type “upright anchor with thin flukes and a thin stock - swastika in a deep groove” (525-519/512 B.C.)
Obv.: Upright anchor with thin flukes and a thin stock. Side view of the additional symbol of a crab (or viewed from above) r. between the fluke and the stock.
Rev.: Swastika represented like a sketch and consisting of four concave sectors ending with “teeth”. A dolphin as an additional symbol in every one of the sectors. Dolphins’ head points to the center of the swastika.
Jaimelai
Apollonia_50.jpg
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 12 - Silver Drachm18 views525-519/512 B.C.
3.51 gm, 13 mm
Obv: Upright anchor with thin flukes and thin stock; blank to left, crayfish to right
Rev.: Swastika arms bent left, deeply engraved into flan with dolphin in each sector, head facing to center, raised areas ending in teeth
Topalov Apollonia p. 255-7, 1-5; p. 564, 12;
SNG Bulgaria 2, 60-63; SNG Stancomb 31;
[SNG Copenhagen 451]

Topalov Type: The last intermediate issues of coins of the type “upright anchor - swastika” have a swastika represented like a sketch and consisting of four concave sectors ending with “teeth”. Dolphins’ head points to the center of the swastika.

Drachmas (?)/tetrobols (?) (as per the system of Aegina) of the type “upright anchor with thin flukes and a thin stock - swastika in a deep groove” (525-519/512 B.C.)
Obv.: Upright anchor with thin flukes and a thin stock. Side view of the additional symbol of a crab (or viewed from above) r. between the fluke and the stock.
Rev.: Swastika represented like a sketch and consisting of four concave sectors ending with “teeth”. A dolphin as an additional symbol in every one of the sectors. Dolphins’ head points to the center of the swastika.
Jaimelai
dolphins_50.jpg
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 38 - Silver Drachm90 views480/478 – 470 B.C.
Silver Drachm
3.36 gm., 15 mm.
Obv: Anchor; blank to left, crayfish to right
Rev.: Gorgon head facing in archaic Ionian style with hair in pellets
Topalov Apollonia p.584, 38 struck over Topalov Apollonia p. 566, 10
BMC Mysia p.8, 3, Pl.II, 2

Topalov Type 38: “Upright anchor, crab right - full-face Gorgon's head" first early issues” (480/478-470 B.C)
Obv.: Upright anchor with large flukes on a curved stock. Image of a crab viewed from above on the right between the fluke and the stock. Letter “A” missing.
Rev.: Full-face Gorgon's head in the archaic Ionian style with a low narrow forehead, projecting eyebrows and eyes, a short flat nose, abnormally open mouth, long teeth and tongue. Instead of hair there are snakes with thin bodies. The image in a concave circle.
-struck over-
Topalov Type 10: “Upright anchor with thin flukes and thin shaft – Swastika ia a concave square with four dolphins as additional symbols" (540-535/525 B.C.)
Obv.: Upright anchor with thin flukes and a thin stock. Side view of the additional symbol of a crab (or view from above) right, between the fluke and the stock.
Rev.: Schematic view of a swastika in sectors concave with arms bent to the left. A dolphin as an additional symbol in every one of the sectors. Dolphins’ heads point from the center of the swastika outwards.
2 commentsJaimelai
174.jpg
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 42 - Silver Drachm 84 views450 – 424 B.C.
3.26 gm, 14.5 mm
Obv.: Anchor; crayfish to left, A to right
Rev: Archaic Ionian Gorgon head facing with beaded hair in tuffs, surrounded by thin snakes
Topalov Apollonia p. 586, 42 (corrected)
Sear p. 165, 1655

Topalov Type: Upright Anchor - Gorgon's Head: Late Issues (450-424 B.C.)
Obv.: Upright anchor with large flukes and curved stock. An additional symbol of a crab viewed from above left between the fluke and the stock and the letter “A” right.
Rev.: Full-face Gordon's head in the archaic Ionian style with a low narrow forehead, projecting eyebrows and eyes, a short flat nose, abnormaly open mouth, long teeth and toungue. Instead of hair there are snakes with thin bodies. The image in a concave circle.

Description from Topalov Apollonia 2007
1 commentsJaimelai
3.jpg
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 42 - Silver Drachm 76 views450 – 425 B.C.
3.32 gm, 13.5 mm
Obv.: Anchor; crayfish to left, A to right
Rev: Archaic Ionian Gorgon head facing with beaded hair, surrounded by thin snakes
Topalov Apollonia p. 586, 42 (corrected)
Sear p. 165, 1655

Topalov Type: "Upright Anchor, a crab as an additional symbol on the left, A on the right - Gorgon's Head" Late Issues (450-425 B.C.)
Obv.: Upright anchor with large flukes and curved stock. An additional symbol of a crab viewed from above left between the fluke and the stock and the letter “A” right.
Rev.: Full-face Gordon's head in the archaic Ionian style with a low narrow forehead, projecting eyebrows and eyes, a short flat nose, abnormaly open mouth, long teeth and toungue. Instead of hair there are snakes with thin bodies. The image in a concave circle.
1 commentsJaimelai
AP42_33.jpg
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 42 - Silver Drachm33 views450 – 425 B.C.
3.28 gm, 15 mm
Obv.: Anchor; crayfish to left, A to right
Rev: Archaic Ionian Gorgon head facing with beaded hair, surrounded by snakes
Topalov Apollonia p. 586, 42 (corrected)
Sear p. 165, 1655

Topalov Type: "Upright Anchor, a crab as an additional symbol on the left, A on the right - Gorgon's Head" Late Issues (450-425 B.C.)
Obv.: Upright anchor with large flukes and curved stock. An additional symbol of a crab viewed from above left between the fluke and the stock and the letter “A” right.
Rev.: Full-face Gordon's head in the archaic Ionian style with a low narrow forehead, projecting eyebrows and eyes, a short flat nose, abnormaly open mouth, long teeth and toungue. Instead of hair there are snakes with thin bodies. The image in a concave circle.
Jaimelai
AP_25.jpg
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 42 - Silver Drachm 30 views450 – 424 B.C.
3.19 gm, 15.3 mm
Obv.: Anchor; crayfish to left, A to right
Rev: Archaic Ionian Gorgon head facing with beaded hair in tuffs, surrounded by thin snakes
Topalov Apollonia p. 586, 42 (corrected)
Sear p. 165, 1655

Topalov Type: Upright Anchor - Gorgon's Head: Late Issues (450-424 B.C.)
Obv.: Upright anchor with large flukes and curved stock. An additional symbol of a crab viewed from above left between the fluke and the stock and the letter “A” right.
Rev.: Full-face Gordon's head in the archaic Ionian style with a low narrow forehead, projecting eyebrows and eyes, a short flat nose, abnormaly open mouth, long teeth and toungue. Instead of hair there are snakes with thin bodies. The image in a concave circle.

Description from Topalov Apollonia 2007
Jaimelai
AP3_a.jpg
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 44 - Silver Drachm103 views450 - 425 B.C.
3.16 gm, 13-14 mm
Obv.: Anchor; A to left, crayfish to right
Rev: Gorgon head facing in tufts parted in middle

Topalov Type: "Upright Anchor a crab as an additional symbol and the letter A on the left or right - Full-Face Gorgon's Head" Last Late Issues (450-425 B.C.)
Obv.: Upright anchor with large flukes and solid stock. An additional symbol of a crab viewed from above left and the letter A right (or visa versa) between the fluke and the stock.
Rev.: Full-face of a noble Gorgon's head with a low narrow forehead, projecting eyebrows and eyes, a short flat nose, abnormaly open mouth, long teeth and tongue. Human hair mixed with snakes with thin bodies. The image in a concave circle.
Jaimelai
AP2_a.jpg
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 44 - Silver Drachm61 views450 - 425 B.C.
3.13 gm, 13-15 mm
Obv.: Anchor; crayfish to left, A to right
Rev: Gorgon head facing, narrow forehead, hair in tufts

Topalov Type: "Upright Anchor a crab as an additional symbol and the letter A on the left or right - Full-Face Gorgon's Head" Last Late Issues (450-425 B.C.)
Obv.: Upright anchor with large flukes and solid stock. An additional symbol of a crab viewed from above left and the letter A right (or visa versa) between the fluke and the stock.
Rev.: Full-face of a noble Gorgon's head with a low narrow forehead, projecting eyebrows and eyes, a short flat nose, abnormaly open mouth, long teeth and tongue. Human hair mixed with snakes with thin bodies. The image in a concave circle.
Jaimelai
a05_626.jpg
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 44 - Silver Drachm97 views450 - 425 B.C.
3.15 gm, 13.5 - 15 mm
Rev: Gorgon head facing with hair parted in the middle
Obv.: Anchor; crayfish to left, A to right

Topalov Type: "Upright Anchor a crab as an additional symbol and the letter A on the left or right - Full-Face Gorgon's Head" Last Late Issues (450-425 B.C.)
Obv.: Upright anchor with large flukes and solid stock. An additional symbol of a crab viewed from above left and the letter A right (or visa versa) between the fluke and the stock.
Rev.: Full-face of a noble Gorgon's head with a low narrow forehead, projecting eyebrows and eyes, a short flat nose, abnormaly open mouth, long teeth and tongue. Human hair mixed with snakes with thin bodies. The image in a concave circle.
1 commentsJaimelai
Capture_00003b.jpg
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 44 - Silver Drachm59 views450 – 425 B.C.
3.26 gm, 13-14 mm
Rev: Archaic Ionian Gorgon head facing with hair in tufts
Obv.: Anchor; crayfish to left, A to right
Topalov Apollonia p. 588, 44
Sear p. 165, 1655

Topalov Type: "Upright Anchor, a crab as an additional symbol and the letter A on the left or on the right - Full-face Gorgon's Head" Last Late Issues (450-425 B.C.)
Obv.: Upright anchor with large flukes and solid stock. An additional symbol of a crab viewed from above left and the letter A right (or visa versa) between the fluke and the stock.
Rev.: Full-face of a noble Gorgon's head with a low narrow forehead, projecting eyebrows and eyes, a short flat nose, abnormaly open mouth, long teeth and toungue. Human hair mixed with snakes with thin bodies. The image in a concave circle.
Jaimelai
ap3_50~0.jpg
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 44 - Silver Drachm44 views450 – 424 B.C.
3.31 gm, 13.2 mm
Obv.: Anchor; A to right, crayfish to left.
Rev: Archaic Ionian Gorgon head facing with straight vertical hair with wavy bangs; elaborate design with pronounced face wrinkles and spoked wheel/star pattern ear-rings, on a webbed aegis shield tipped with coiled snakes.
Topalov Apollonia p. 588, 44; Sear 1655;
BMC 15, p. 8 5-7& 9; SNG BM Black Sea 156

Certified Authentic by David R. Sear (A.C.C.S. Ref. 501CR/GC/CO/CD)

Topalov Type: "Upright Anchor, a crab as an additional symbol and the letter A on the left or on the right - Full-face Gorgon's Head" Last Late Issues (450-425 B.C.)
Obv.: Upright anchor with large flukes and solid stock. An additional symbol of a crab viewed from above left and the letter A right (or visa versa) between the fluke and the stock.
Rev.: Full-face of a noble Gorgon's head with a low narrow forehead, projecting eyebrows and eyes, a short flat nose, abnormaly open mouth, long teeth and toungue. Human hair mixed with snakes with thin bodies. The image in a concave circle.
2 commentsJaimelai
018b2.jpg
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 44 - Silver Drachm44 views450 – 425 B.C.
3.24 gm, 14 mm
Obv.: Anchor; A to left, crayfish to right
Rev: Noble Attic Gorgon head facing with straight vertical hair with wavy bangs
Topalov Apollonia p. 588, 44; Sear 1655 var.

Topalov Type: "Upright Anchor, a crab as an additional symbol and the letter A on the left or on the right - Full-face Gorgon's Head" Last Late Issues (450-425 B.C.)
Obv.: Upright anchor with large flukes and solid stock. An additional symbol of a crab viewed from above and the letter “A” right (or visa versa) between the fluke and the stock.
Rev.: Full-face of a noble Gorgon's head with a low narrow forehead, projecting eyebrows and eyes, a short flat nose, abnormaly open mouth, long teeth and toungue. Human hair mixed with snakes with thin bodies. The image in a concave circle.

Description from Topalov Apollonia 2007
Jaimelai
002_2~1.jpg
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 44 - Silver Drachm39 views450 – 425 B.C.
3.16 gm, 14 mm
Obv.: Anchor; A to left, crayfish to right
Rev: Noble Attic Gorgon head facing with straight vertical hair with wavy bangs
Topalov Apollonia p. 588, 44; Sear 1655 var.

Topalov Type: "Upright Anchor, a crab as an additional symbol and the letter A on the left or on the right - Full-face Gorgon's Head" Last Late Issues (450-425 B.C.)
Obv.: Upright anchor with large flukes and solid stock. An additional symbol of a crab viewed from above and the letter “A” right (or visa versa) between the fluke and the stock.
Rev.: Full-face of a noble Gorgon's head with a low narrow forehead, projecting eyebrows and eyes, a short flat nose, abnormaly open mouth, long teeth and toungue. Human hair mixed with snakes with thin bodies. The image in a concave circle.

Description from Topalov Apollonia 2007
Jaimelai
012~0.JPG
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 44 - Silver Drachm46 views450 – 425 B.C.
3.21 gm, 14 mm
Obv.: Anchor; crayfish to left, A to right
Rev: Noble Attic Gorgon head facing with straight vertical hair with wavy bangs
Topalov Apollonia p. 588, 44; Sear 1655 var.

Topalov Type: "Upright Anchor, a crab as an additional symbol and the letter A on the left or on the right - Full-face Gorgon's Head" Last Late Issues (450-425 B.C.)
Obv.: Upright anchor with large flukes and solid stock. An additional symbol of a crab viewed from above and the letter “A” right (or visa versa) between the fluke and the stock.
Rev.: Full-face of a noble Gorgon's head with a low narrow forehead, projecting eyebrows and eyes, a short flat nose, abnormaly open mouth, long teeth and toungue. Human hair mixed with snakes with thin bodies. The image in a concave circle.

Description from Topalov Apollonia 2007
1 commentsJaimelai
AP11_a~0.jpg
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 44 - Silver Drachm34 views450 – 425 B.C.
3.13 gm, 12-14 mm
Obv.: Anchor; A to left, crayfish to right
Rev: Noble Attic Gorgon head facing with straight vertical hair with wavy bangs
Topalov Apollonia p. 588, 44; Sear 1655 var.

Topalov Type: "Upright Anchor, a crab as an additional symbol and the letter A on the left or on the right - Full-face Gorgon's Head" Last Late Issues (450-425 B.C.)
Obv.: Upright anchor with large flukes and solid stock. An additional symbol of a crab viewed from above and the letter “A” right (or visa versa) between the fluke and the stock.
Rev.: Full-face of a noble Gorgon's head with a low narrow forehead, projecting eyebrows and eyes, a short flat nose, abnormaly open mouth, long teeth and toungue. Human hair mixed with snakes with thin bodies. The image in a concave circle.

Description from Topalov Apollonia 2007
Jaimelai
Capture_00016_(2)~0.JPG
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 44 - Silver Drachm44 views450 – 425 B.C.
3.28 gm, 14 mm
Obv.: Anchor; A to left, crayfish to right
Rev: Noble Attic Gorgon head facing with straight vertical hair with straight bangs parted in the middle
Topalov Apollonia p. 588, 44; Sear 1655 var.

Topalov Type: "Upright Anchor, a crab as an additional symbol and the letter A on the left or on the right - Full-face Gorgon's Head" Last Late Issues (450-425 B.C.)
Obv.: Upright anchor with large flukes and solid stock. An additional symbol of a crab viewed from above and the letter “A” right (or visa versa) between the fluke and the stock.
Rev.: Full-face of a noble Gorgon's head with a low narrow forehead, projecting eyebrows and eyes, a short flat nose, abnormaly open mouth, long teeth and toungue. Human hair mixed with snakes with thin bodies. The image in a concave circle.

Description from Topalov Apollonia 2007
Jaimelai
AP5_b2.jpg
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 44 - Silver Drachm33 views450 - 425 B.C.
3.13 gm, 13 mm
Obv.: Anchor; crayfish to left, A to right
Rev: Gorgon head facing with hair in tufts

Topalov Type: "Upright Anchor a crab as an additional symbol and the letter A on the left or right - Full-Face Gorgon's Head" Last Late Issues (450-425 B.C.)
Obv.: Upright anchor with large flukes and solid stock. An additional symbol of a crab viewed from above left and the letter A right (or visa versa) between the fluke and the stock.
Rev.: Full-face of a noble Gorgon's head with a low narrow forehead, projecting eyebrows and eyes, a short flat nose, abnormaly open mouth, long teeth and tongue. Human hair mixed with snakes with thin bodies. The image in a concave circle.
Jaimelai
7.jpg
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 44 - Silver Drachm 56 views450 – 425 B.C.
3.14 gm, 15 mm
Obv.: Anchor; A to right, crayfish to left.
Rev: Archaic Ionian Gorgon head facing with wild hair and snakes
Topalov Apollonia p. 588, 44
Sear Vol. 1, p. 165, 1655

Topalov Type: "Upright Anchor a crab as an additional symbol and the letter A on the left or right - Full-Face Gorgon's Head" Last Late Issues (450-425 B.C.)
Obv.: Upright anchor with large flukes and solid stock. An additional symbol of a crab viewed from above left and
the letter A right (or visa versa) between the fluke and the stock.
Rev.: Full-face of a noble Gorgon's head with a low narrow forehead, projecting eyebrows and eyes, a short flat nose, abnormaly open mouth, long teeth and tongue. Human hair mixed with snakes with thin bodies. The image in a concave circle.
Jaimelai
AP5_a~0.jpg
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 44 - Silver Drachm 37 views450 - 425 B.C.
3.20 gm, 12-14 mm
Obv.: Anchor; crayfish to left, A to right
Rev: Gorgon head facing with hair in tufts

Topalov Type: "Upright Anchor a crab as an additional symbol and the letter A on the left or right - Full-Face Gorgon's Head" Last Late Issues (450-425 B.C.)
Obv.: Upright anchor with large flukes and solid stock. An additional symbol of a crab viewed from above left and the letter A right (or visa versa) between the fluke and the stock.
Rev.: Full-face of a noble Gorgon's head with a low narrow forehead, projecting eyebrows and eyes, a short flat nose, abnormaly open mouth, long teeth and tongue. Human hair mixed with snakes with thin bodies. The image in a concave circle.
Jaimelai
011~0.JPG
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 44 - Silver Drachm 36 views450 – 425 B.C.
3.24 gm, 13 mm
Obv.: Anchor; A to left, crayfish to right
Rev: Archaic Ionian Gorgon head facing with straight vertical hair with wavy bangs
Topalov Apollonia p. 588, 44; Sear 1655 var.

Topalov Type: "Upright Anchor, a crab as an additional symbol and the letter A on the left or on the right - Full-face Gorgon's Head" Last Late Issues (450-425 B.C.)
Obv.: Upright anchor with large flukes and solid stock. An additional symbol of a crab viewed from above and the letter “A” right (or visa versa) between the fluke and the stock.
Rev.: Full-face of a noble Gorgon's head with a low narrow forehead, projecting eyebrows and eyes, a short flat nose, abnormaly open mouth, long teeth and toungue. Human hair mixed with snakes with thin bodies. The image in a concave circle.

Description from Topalov Apollonia 2007
Jaimelai
ap_33~0.jpg
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 44 - Silver Drachm27 views450 - 425 B.C.
3.09 gm, 14.3 mm
Obv.: Anchor; A to left, crayfish to right
Rev: Gorgon head facing in tufts parted in middle

Topalov Type: "Upright Anchor a crab as an additional symbol and the letter A on the left or right - Full-Face Gorgon's Head" Last Late Issues (450-425 B.C.)
Obv.: Upright anchor with large flukes and solid stock. An additional symbol of a crab viewed from above left and the letter A right (or visa versa) between the fluke and the stock.
Rev.: Full-face of a noble Gorgon's head with a low narrow forehead, projecting eyebrows and eyes, a short flat nose, abnormaly open mouth, long teeth and tongue. Human hair mixed with snakes with thin bodies. The image in a concave circle.
Jaimelai
ap_real_50.jpg
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 44 - Silver Drachm45 views450 – 424 B.C.
3.27 gm, 13.7 mm
Obv.: Anchor; A to right, crayfish to left.
Rev: Archaic Ionian Gorgon head facing with straight vertical hair with wavy bangs
Topalov Apollonia p. 588, 44;
Sear 1655;
BMC 15, p. 8 5-7& 9;
SNG BM Black Sea 153-6 & 158

Certified Authentic by David Sear (A.C.C.S. Ref. 502CR/GC/CO/CD)

Note: From same dies as the source coin of the series of cast fakes (see Fake Coin Reports)

Topalov Type 44: Upright Anchor - Gorgon's Head: Last Late Issues (450-424 B.C.)
Obv.: Upright anchor with large flukes and solid stock. An additional symbol of a crab viewed from above left between the fluke and the stock and the letter “A” right (or visa versa).
Rev.: Full-face of a noble Gorgon's head with a low narrow forehead, projecting eyebrows and eyes, a short flat nose, abnormally open mouth, long teeth and tongue. Human hair mixed with snakes with thin bodies. The image in a concave circle.
2 commentsJaimelai
ap44.jpg
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 44 - Silver Drachm24 views450 – 424 B.C.
3.20 gm, 13 mm
Obv.: Anchor; A to left, crayfish to right
Rev.: Attic Gorgon head facing with straight vertical hair and wavy bangs, snaky ringlets circle face
Topalov Apollonia p.348, 11; p.588, 44

Topalov Type: Upright Anchor - Gorgon's Head: Last Late Issues (450-424 B.C.)
Obv.: Upright anchor with large flukes and solid stock. An additional symbol of a crab viewed from above left between the fluke and the stock and the letter “A” right (or visa versa).
Rev.: Full-face of a noble Gorgon's head with a low narrow forehead, projecting eyebrows and eyes, a short flat nose, abnormally open mouth, long teeth and tongue. Human hair mixed with snakes with thin bodies. The image in a concave circle.
Jaimelai
44_50.jpg
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 44 - Silver Drachm22 views450 – 425 B.C.
3.18 gm, 15.98 mm
Obv.: Inverted anchor; crayfish to left, A to right
Rev: Noble Attic Gorgon head facing with wavy hair parted in the middle
Topalov Apollonia p. 588, 44; Sear 1655; HGC 3, 1323

Topalov Type: "Upright Anchor, a crab as an additional symbol and the letter A on the left or on the right - Full-face Gorgon's Head" Last Late Issues (450-425 B.C.)
Obv.: Upright anchor with large flukes and solid stock. An additional symbol of a crab viewed from above and the letter “A” right (or visa versa) between the fluke and the stock.
Rev.: Full-face of a noble Gorgon's head with a low narrow forehead, projecting eyebrows and eyes, a short flat nose, abnormaly open mouth, long teeth and tongue. Human hair mixed with snakes with thin bodies. The image in a concave circle.

Description from Topalov Apollonia 2007
Jaimelai
016~4.JPG
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 44 - Siver Drachm40 views450 – 425 B.C.
3.17 g., 13-15 mm.
Rev: Archaic Ionian Gorgon head facing with wavy hair parted in middle
Obv.: Anchor; crayfish to left, A to right
Topalov Apollonia p. 588, 44
Sear p. 165, 1655

Topalov Type: "Upright Anchor a crab as an additional symbol and the letter A on the left or right - Full-Face Gorgon's Head" Last Late Issues (450-425 B.C.)
Obv.: Upright anchor with large flukes and solid stock. An additional symbol of a crab viewed from above left and the letter A right (or visa versa) between the fluke and the stock.
Rev.: Full-face of a noble Gorgon's head with a low narrow forehead, projecting eyebrows and eyes, a short flat nose, abnormaly open mouth, long teeth and tongue. Human hair mixed with snakes with thin bodies. The image in a concave circle.
Jaimelai
072.JPG
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 45 - Silver Drachm61 views450-424 or 410/404 B.C.
2.91 gm, 15 mm
Obv: Gorgon head facing, snaky ringlets circle face.
Rev.: Anchor; A to left, crayfish to right
Topalov Apollonia p. 588, 45; p. 348, 9
Sear 1655var; BMC Mysia p.9, 11

Topalov Type: "Full-Face Gorgon's Head – Upright Anchor, a crab on the right, the letter A on the left or the letter A on the right and a crab on the left" Main Issue (450-424 or 410/404 B.C.)
Obv.: Full-face Gorgon's head in the classical Attic style. Gorgon's features are noble in conformity with the Attic manner of portraying her and Gorgon has more human hair in addition to the snakes.
Rev.: Upright anchor with large flukes, the letter A on one side, a crab as an additional symbol viewed from above on the other side. The image in a concave circle.

Forvm purchase - Description from Topalov Apollonia 2007
Jaimelai
AP13_c.jpg
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 45 - Silver Drachm60 views450-424 or 410/404 B.C.
2.89 gm, 15 mm
Obv: Gorgon head facing, snaky ringlets circle face.
Rev.: Anchor; A to left, crayfish to right
Topalov Apollonia p. 588, 45; p. 348, 9
Sear 1655var; BMC Mysia p.9, 11

Topalov Type: "Full-Face Gorgon's Head – Upright Anchor, a crab on the right, the letter A on the left or the letter A on the right and a crab on the left" Main Issue (450-424 or 410/404 B.C.)
Obv.: Full-face Gorgon's head in the classical Attic style. Gorgon's features are noble in conformity with the Attic manner of portraying her and Gorgon has more human hair in addition to the snakes.
Rev.: Upright anchor with large flukes, the letter A on one side, a crab as an additional symbol viewed from above on the other side. The image in a concave circle.
Jaimelai
AP13_d.jpg
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 45 - Silver Drachm65 views450-424 or 410/404 B.C.
2.87 gm, 14 mm
Obv: Gorgon head facing, snaky ringlets circle face.
Rev.: Anchor; A to left, crayfish to right
Topalov Apollonia p. 588, 45; p. 348, 9
Sear 1655var; BMC Mysia p.9, 11

Topalov Type: "Full-Face Gorgon's Head – Upright Anchor, a crab on the right, the letter A on the left or the letter A on the right and a crab on the left" Main Issue (450-424 or 410/404 B.C.)
Obv.: Full-face Gorgon's head in the classical Attic style. Gorgon's features are noble in conformity with the Attic manner of portraying her and Gorgon has more human hair in addition to the snakes.
Rev.: Upright anchor with large flukes, the letter A on one side, a crab as an additional symbol viewed from above on the other side. The image in a concave circle.
Jaimelai
AP13_b.jpg
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 45 - Silver Drachm69 views450-424 or 410/404 B.C.
2.86 gm, 13-14 mm
Obv: Gorgon head facing, snaky ringlets circle face.
Rev.: Anchor; crayfish to left, A to right
Topalov Apollonia p. 588, 45; p.348, 9
Sear 1655var; BMC Mysia p.9, 11

Topalov Type: "Full-Face Gorgon's Head – Upright Anchor, a crab on the right, the letter A on the left or the letter A on the right and a crab on the left" Main Issue (450-424 or 410/404 B.C.)
Obv.: Full-face Gorgon's head in the classical Attic style. Gorgon's features are noble in conformity with the Attic manner of portraying her and Gorgon has more human hair in addition to the snakes.
Rev.: Upright anchor with large flukes, the letter A on one side, a crab as an additional symbol viewed from above on the other side. The image in a concave circle.
1 commentsJaimelai
AP13_a.jpg
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 45 - Silver Drachm51 views450-424 or 410/404 B.C.
2.85 gm, 12-14 mm
Obv: Gorgon head facing, snaky ringlets circle face.
Rev.: Anchor; A to left, crayfish to right
Topalov Apollonia p. 588, 45; p.348, 9
Sear 1655var; BMC Mysia p.9, 11

Topalov Type: "Full-Face Gorgon's Head – Upright Anchor, a crab on the right, the letter A on the left or the letter A on the right and a crab on the left" Main Issue (450-424 or 410/404 B.C.)
Obv.: Full-face Gorgon's head in the classical Attic style. Gorgon's features are noble in conformity with the Attic manner of portraying her and Gorgon has more human hair in addition to the snakes.
Rev.: Upright anchor with large flukes, the letter A on one side, a crab as an additional symbol viewed from above on the other side. The image in a concave circle.
Jaimelai
AP13_e.jpg
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 45 - Silver Drachm59 views450-424 or 410/404 B.C.
2.85 gm, 15 mm
Obv: Gorgon head facing, snaky ringlets circle face.
Rev.: Anchor; A to left, crayfish to right
Topalov Apollonia p. 588, 45; p.348, 9
Sear 1655var; BMC Mysia p.9, 11

Topalov Type: "Full-Face Gorgon's Head – Upright Anchor, a crab on the right, the letter A on the left or the letter A on the right and a crab on the left" Main Issue (450-424 or 410/404 B.C.)
Obv.: Full-face Gorgon's head in the classical Attic style. Gorgon's features are noble in conformity with the Attic manner of portraying her and Gorgon has more human hair in addition to the snakes.
Rev.: Upright anchor with large flukes, the letter A on one side, a crab as an additional symbol viewed from above on the other side. The image in a concave circle.
Jaimelai
010.JPG
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 45 - Silver Drachm51 views450-424 or 410/404 B.C.
2.82 gm, 14 mm
Obv: Gorgon head facing, snaky ringlets circle face.
Rev.: Anchor; A to left, crayfish to right
Topalov Apollonia p. 588, 45; p.348, 9
Sear 1655var; BMC Mysia p.9, 11

Topalov Type: "Full-Face Gorgon's Head – Upright Anchor, a crab on the right, the letter A on the left or the letter A on the right and a crab on the left" Main Issue (450-424 or 410/404 B.C.)
Obv.: Full-face Gorgon's head in the classical Attic style. Gorgon's features are noble in conformity with the Attic manner of portraying her and Gorgon has more human hair in addition to the snakes.
Rev.: Upright anchor with large flukes, the letter A on one side, a crab as an additional symbol viewed from above on the other side. The image in a concave circle.

Forvm purchase - Description from Topalov Apollonia 2007
Jaimelai
a1_50.jpg
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 45 - Silver Drachm51 views450-424 or 410/404 B.C.
2.85 gm, 15 mm
Obv: Gorgon head facing, snaky ringlets circle face.
Rev.: Anchor; A to left, crayfish to right
Topalov Apollonia p. 588, 45; p.348, 9
Sear 1655var; BMC Mysia p.9, 11

Topalov Type: "Full-Face Gorgon's Head – Upright Anchor, a crab on the right, the letter A on the left or the letter A on the right and a crab on the left" Main Issue (450-424 or 410/404 B.C.)
Obv.: Full-face Gorgon's head in the classical Attic style. Gorgon's features are noble in conformity with the Attic manner of portraying her and Gorgon has more human hair in addition to the snakes.
Rev.: Upright anchor with large flukes, the letter A on one side, a crab as an additional symbol viewed from above on the other side. The image in a concave circle.450 – 404 B.C.
Jaimelai
005~4.JPG
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 45 - Silver Drachm45 views450-424 or 410/404 B.C.
2.80 gm, 15 mm
Obv: Gorgon head facing, snaky ringlets circle face.
Rev.: Anchor; A to left, crayfish to right
Topalov Apollonia p. 588, 45; p.348, 9
Sear 1655var; BMC Mysia p.9, 11

Topalov Type: "Full-Face Gorgon's Head – Upright Anchor, a crab on the right, the letter A on the left or the letter A on the right and a crab on the left" Main Issue (450-424 or 410/404 B.C.)
Obv.: Full-face Gorgon's head in the classical Attic style. Gorgon's features are noble in conformity with the Attic manner of portraying her and Gorgon has more human hair in addition to the snakes.
Rev.: Upright anchor with large flukes, the letter A on one side, a crab as an additional symbol viewed from above on the other side. The image in a concave circle.
Jaimelai
015~2.JPG
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 45 - Silver Drachm 28 views450-424 or 410/404 B.C.
2.67 gm, 15 mm
Obv: Gorgon head facing, snaky ringlets circle face.
Rev.: Anchor; crayfish to left, A to right
Topalov Apollonia p. 588, 45; p.348, 9
Sear 1655var; BMC Mysia p.9, 11;
SNG Bulgaria II 322-324

Topalov Type: "Full-Face Gorgon's Head – Upright Anchor, a crab on the right, the letter A on the left or the letter A on the right and a crab on the left" Main Issue (450-424 or 410/404 B.C.)
Obv.: Full-face Gorgon's head in the classical Attic style. Gorgon's features are noble in conformity with the Attic manner of portraying her and Gorgon has more human hair in addition to the snakes.
Rev.: Upright anchor with large flukes, the letter A on one side, a crab as an additional symbol viewed from above on the other side. The image in a concave circle.
Jaimelai
016~5.JPG
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 45 - Silver Drachm64 views450 – 404 B.C.
Silver drachm
2.81 gm, 14 mm
Obv: Attic Gorgon head facing, hair in single row of large beads, head surrounded by long snakes tied in bow at top of head.
Rev.: Anchor; A to left, crayfish to right with large chelipeds folded back
Topalov Apollonia p.588, 45; p.347, 4
Sear 1655var

Topalov Type: "Full-Face Gorgon's Head – Upright Anchor, a crab on the right, the letter A on the left or the letter A on the right and a crab on the left" Main Issue (450-424 or 410/404 B.C.)
Obv.: Full-face Gorgon's head in the classical Attic style. Gorgon's features are noble in conformity with the Attic manner of portraying her and Gorgon has more human hair in addition to the snakes.
Rev.: Upright anchor with large flukes, the letter A on one side, a crab as an additional symbol viewed from above on the other side. The image in a concave circle.
1 commentsJaimelai
005_(2)~0.JPG
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 45 - Silver Drachm58 views450 – 404 B.C.
Silver drachm
2.85 gm, 13-15 mm
Obv: Attic Gorgon head facing, snaky ringlets circle face.
Rev.: Anchor; crayfish to left, A to right
Topalov Apollonia p. 588, 45; p.348, 9;
Sear 1655var; BMC Mysia p.9, 11

Topalov Type: Gorgon's Head – Upright Anchor: Basic (Main) Issue (450-424 or 410/404 B.C.)
Obv.: Full-face Gorgon's head in the classical Attic style. Gorgon's features are noble in conformity with the Attic manner of portraying her and Gorgon has more human hair in addition to the snakes.
Rev.: Upright anchor with large flukes, the letter A on one side, a crab as an additional symbol viewed from above on the other side. The image in a concave circle.

Die match to another of my coins and to CNG 806828
2 commentsJaimelai
Capture_00008_(2).JPG
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 45 - Silver Drachm37 views450 – 404 B.C.
Silver drachm
2.87 gm, 13.5 mm
Obv: Attic Gorgon head facing, snaky ringlets circle face.
Rev.: Anchor; crayfish to left, A to right
Topalov Apollonia p. 588, 45; p.348, 9;
Sear 1655var; BMC Mysia p.9, 11

Topalov Type: Gorgon's Head – Upright Anchor: Basic (Main) Issue (450-424 or 410/404 B.C.)
Obv.: Full-face Gorgon's head in the classical Attic style. Gorgon's features are noble in conformity with the Attic manner of portraying her and Gorgon has more human hair in addition to the snakes.
Rev.: Upright anchor with large flukes, the letter A on one side, a crab as an additional symbol viewed from above on the other side. The image in a concave circle.

Die match to another of my coins and to CNG 806828
1 commentsJaimelai
45_33.jpg
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 45 - Silver Drachm25 views450 – 404 B.C.
Silver drachm
2.81 gm, 15 mm
Obv: Attic Gorgon head facing with human hair surrounded by snakes
Rev.: Anchor; A to left, crayfish to right with large chelipeds folded back
Topalov Apollonia p.588, 45; p.347, 6;
Sear 1655var

Topalov Type: "Full-Face Gorgon's Head – Upright Anchor, a crab on the right, the letter A on the left or the letter A on the right and a crab on the left" Main Issue (450-424 or 410/404 B.C.)
Obv.: Full-face Gorgon's head in the classical Attic style. Gorgon's features are noble in conformity with the Attic manner of portraying her and Gorgon has more human hair in addition to the snakes.
Rev.: Upright anchor with large flukes, the letter A on one side, a crab as an additional symbol viewed from above on the other side. The image in a concave circle.
Jaimelai
45_33~0.jpg
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 45 - Silver Drachm36 views450 – 404 B.C.
Silver drachm
2.61 gm, 14 mm
Obv: Attic Gorgon head facing with human hair surrounded by snakes
Rev.: Anchor; A to left, crayfish to right with large chelipeds folded back
Topalov Apollonia p.588, 45; p.347, 6;
Sear 1655var

Topalov Type: "Full-Face Gorgon's Head – Upright Anchor, a crab on the right, the letter A on the left or the letter A on the right and a crab on the left" Main Issue (450-424 or 410/404 B.C.)
Obv.: Full-face Gorgon's head in the classical Attic style. Gorgon's features are noble in conformity with the Attic manner of portraying her and Gorgon has more human hair in addition to the snakes.
Rev.: Upright anchor with large flukes, the letter A on one side, a crab as an additional symbol viewed from above on the other side. The image in a concave circle.
1 commentsJaimelai
ap_50~1.jpg
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 45 - Silver Drachm27 views450 – 404 B.C.
Silver drachm
2.82 gm, 14 mm
Obv: Attic Gorgon head facing with human hair surrounded by snakes
Rev.: Anchor; A to left, crayfish to right with large chelipeds folded back
Topalov Apollonia p.588, 45; p.347, 6;
Sear 1655var

Topalov Type: "Full-Face Gorgon's Head – Upright Anchor, a crab on the right, the letter A on the left or the letter A on the right and a crab on the left" Main Issue (450-424 or 410/404 B.C.)
Obv.: Full-face Gorgon's head in the classical Attic style. Gorgon's features are noble in conformity with the Attic manner of portraying her and Gorgon has more human hair in addition to the snakes.
Rev.: Upright anchor with large flukes, the letter A on one side, a crab as an additional symbol viewed from above on the other side. The image in a concave circle.
Jaimelai
AP_50~3.jpg
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 45 - Silver Drachm16 views450 – 404 B.C.
Silver drachm
2.71 gm, 14 mm
Obv: Attic Gorgon head facing, hair in single row of large beads, head surrounded by long snakes tied in bow at top of head.
Rev.: Anchor; A to left, crayfish to right with large chelipeds folded back
Topalov Apollonia p.588, 45; p.347, 4
Sear 1655var

Topalov Type: "Full-Face Gorgon's Head – Upright Anchor, a crab on the right, the letter A on the left or the letter A on the right and a crab on the left" Main Issue (450-424 or 410/404 B.C.)
Obv.: Full-face Gorgon's head in the classical Attic style. Gorgon's features are noble in conformity with the Attic manner of portraying her and Gorgon has more human hair in addition to the snakes.
Rev.: Upright anchor with large flukes, the letter A on one side, a crab as an additional symbol viewed from above on the other side. The image in a concave circle.

Similar to another one of my coins though a tab bit more weathered!
Jaimelai
AP33.jpg
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 45 - Silver Drachm17 views450-424 or 410/404 B.C.
2.71 gm, 14 mm
Obv: Gorgon head facing, snaky ringlets circle face.
Rev.: Anchor; A to left, crayfish to right
Topalov Apollonia p. 588, 45; p.348, 9
Sear 1655var; BMC Mysia p.9, 11

Topalov Type: "Full-Face Gorgon's Head – Upright Anchor, a crab on the right, the letter A on the left or the letter A on the right and a crab on the left" Main Issue (450-424 or 410/404 B.C.)
Obv.: Full-face Gorgon's head in the classical Attic style. Gorgon's features are noble in conformity with the Attic manner of portraying her and Gorgon has more human hair in addition to the snakes.
Rev.: Upright anchor with large flukes, the letter A on one side, a crab as an additional symbol viewed from above on the other side. The image in a concave circle.
Jaimelai
app_15.png
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 45 - Silver Drachm3 views450-424 or 410/404 B.C.
2.89 gm, 15 mm
Obv: Gorgon head facing, snaky ringlets circle face.
Rev.: Anchor; A to left, crayfish to right
Topalov Apollonia p. 588, 45; p. 348, 9
Sear 1655var; BMC Mysia p.9, 11
SNG Bulgaria II 301-309

Topalov Type: "Full-Face Gorgon's Head – Upright Anchor, a crab on the right, the letter A on the left or the letter A on the right and a crab on the left" Main Issue (450-424 or 410/404 B.C.)
Obv.: Full-face Gorgon's head in the classical Attic style. Gorgon's features are noble in conformity with the Attic manner of portraying her and Gorgon has more human hair in addition to the snakes.
Rev.: Upright anchor with large flukes, the letter A on one side, a crab as an additional symbol viewed from above on the other side. The image in a concave circle.
Jaimelai
ap_50~0.jpg
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 45(i?) - Silver Drachm24 views450 – 424 or 410/404 B.C.
Silver Drachm, Thracian Imitation?
2.39 gm, 14.5 mm
Obv: Attic Gorgon head facing, snaky ringlets
circle face.
Rev.: Anchor; A to left, crayfish to right
Topalov Apollonia p.588, 45; p.348, 9
Sear 1655var;
BMC Mysia p.9, 11
SNG BM Black Sea 160/61

Topalov Type 45 – Gorgon's Head – Upright Anchor: Basic (Main) Issue (450-424 or 410/404 B.C.)
Obv.: Full-face Gorgon's head in the classical Attic style. Gorgon's features are noble in conformity with the Attic manner of portraying her and Gorgon has more human hair in addition to the snakes.
Rev.: Upright anchor with large flukes, the letter A on one side, a crab as an additional symbol viewed from above on the other side. The image in a concave circle.
Jaimelai
a01_3.jpg
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 45i - Silver Drachm61 views450-424 or 410/404 B.C.
2.82 gm, 14 mm
Obv: Gorgon head facing, snaky ringlets circle face.
Rev.: Anchor; A to left, crayfish to right
Topalov Apollonia p. 588, 45; p.348, 9
Sear 1655var; BMC Mysia p.9, 11

Topalov Type: "Full-Face Gorgon's Head – Upright Anchor, a crab on the right, the letter A on the left or the letter A on the right and a crab on the left" Main Issue (450-424 or 410/404 B.C.)
Obv.: Full-face Gorgon's head in the classical Attic style. Gorgon's features are noble in conformity with the Attic manner of portraying her and Gorgon has more human hair in addition to the snakes.
Rev.: Upright anchor with large flukes, the letter A on one side, a crab as an additional symbol viewed from above on the other side. The image in a concave circle.

Appears to die match previous coin
Jaimelai
a02.jpg
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 45i - Silver Drachm69 views450-424 or 410/404 B.C.
2.77 gm, 14 mm
Obv: Gorgon head facing, snaky ringlets circle face.
Rev.: Anchor; A to left, crayfish to right
Topalov Apollonia p. 588, 45; p.348, 9
Sear 1655var; BMC Mysia p.9, 11

Topalov Type: "Full-Face Gorgon's Head – Upright Anchor, a crab on the right, the letter A on the left or the letter A on the right and a crab on the left" Main Issue (450-424 or 410/404 B.C.)
Obv.: Full-face Gorgon's head in the classical Attic style. Gorgon's features are noble in conformity with the Attic manner of portraying her and Gorgon has more human hair in addition to the snakes.
Rev.: Upright anchor with large flukes, the letter A on one side, a crab as an additional symbol viewed from above on the other side. The image in a concave circle.

Appears to die match previous coin though roughed up a bit
Jaimelai
053.JPG
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 45i - Silver Drachm64 views450-424 or 410/404 B.C.
2.84 gm, 13.5-15 mm
Obv: Gorgon head facing, snaky ringlets circle face.
Rev.: Anchor; A to left, crayfish to right
Topalov Apollonia p. 588, 45; p.348, 9
Sear 1655var; BMC Mysia p.9, 11

Topalov Type: "Full-Face Gorgon's Head – Upright Anchor, a crab on the right, the letter A on the left or the letter A on the right and a crab on the left" Main Issue (450-424 or 410/404 B.C.)
Obv.: Full-face Gorgon's head in the classical Attic style. Gorgon's features are noble in conformity with the Attic manner of portraying her and Gorgon has more human hair in addition to the snakes.
Rev.: Upright anchor with large flukes, the letter A on one side, a crab as an additional symbol viewed from above on the other side. The image in a concave circle.

Forvm purchase - Description from Topalov Apollonia 2007
Jaimelai
014.JPG
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 45i - Silver Drachm 31 views450-424 or 410/404 B.C.
2.84 gm, 14.2 mm
Obv: Gorgon head facing, snaky ringlets circle face.
Rev.: Anchor; A to left, crayfish to right
Topalov Apollonia p. 588, 45 var.; p.348, 9
Sear 1655var; BMC Mysia p.9, 11

Topalov Type: "Full-Face Gorgon's Head – Upright Anchor, a crab on the right, the letter A on the left or the letter A on the right and a crab on the left" Main Issue (450-424 or 410/404 B.C.)
Obv.: Full-face Gorgon's head in the classical Attic style. Gorgon's features are noble in conformity with the Attic manner of portraying her and Gorgon has more human hair in addition to the snakes.
Rev.: Upright anchor with large flukes, the letter A on one side, a crab as an additional symbol viewed from above on the other side. The image in a concave circle.

Forvm purchase (GS55520) - Dr. Prokopov has identified this as a tribal (Celtic?) imitative. This is my fourth coin with from the same cracked reverse die. There appears to be three different obverse dies though.
Jaimelai
ap_33.jpg
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 45i - Silver Drachm19 views450-424 or 410/404 B.C.
2.77 gm, 14.5 mm
Obv: Gorgon head facing, snaky ringlets circle face.
Rev.: Anchor; A to left, crayfish to right
Topalov Apollonia p. 588, 45; p.348, 9
Sear 1655var; BMC Mysia p.9, 11

Topalov Type: "Full-Face Gorgon's Head – Upright Anchor, a crab on the right, the letter A on the left or the letter A on the right and a crab on the left" Main Issue (450-424 or 410/404 B.C.)
Obv.: Full-face Gorgon's head in the classical Attic style. Gorgon's features are noble in conformity with the Attic manner of portraying her and Gorgon has more human hair in addition to the snakes.
Rev.: Upright anchor with large flukes, the letter A on one side, a crab as an additional symbol viewed from above on the other side. The image in a concave circle.

My fifth coin of this reverse die - appears to be an earlier strike when compared to the others as the crack is not as severe.
Jaimelai
AP_50~4.jpg
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 45i - Silver Drachm14 views450-424 or 410/404 B.C.
2.86 gm, 14.0 mm
Obv: Gorgon head facing, snaky ringlets circle face.
Rev.: Anchor; A to left, crayfish to right
Topalov Apollonia p. 588, 45 var.; p.348, 9
Sear 1655var; BMC Mysia p.9, 11

Topalov Type: "Full-Face Gorgon's Head – Upright Anchor, a crab on the right, the letter A on the left or the letter A on the right and a crab on the left" Main Issue (450-424 or 410/404 B.C.)
Obv.: Full-face Gorgon's head in the classical Attic style. Gorgon's features are noble in conformity with the Attic manner of portraying her and Gorgon has more human hair in addition to the snakes.
Rev.: Upright anchor with large flukes, the letter A on one side, a crab as an additional symbol viewed from above on the other side. The image in a concave circle.
Jaimelai
a04.jpg
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 47 - Silver Drachm58 viewsEnd of the 5th - beginning of the 4th c. B.C.
2.77 gm, 12.5-13.5 mm
Obv: Gorgoneion head facing with wild hair and snakes
Rev.: Anchor; A to left, crayfish to right with long chelapeds folded back
Mint magistrate initials (IΩΠ YPO)
Topalov Apollonia p.590, 47; p.354, 9

Topalov Type: "Full-Face Gorgon's Head – Upright Anchor, a crab on one side, the letter A on the other" Last Issue (end of the 5th - beginning of the 4th c. B.C.)
Obv.: Full-face Gorgon's head in the classical Attic style. Gorgon's features are noble in conformity with the Attic manner of portraying her and Gorgon has locks of human hair.
Rev.: Magistrates' names and initials (KEO, KΛEINIO, KΛEAN, IΩΠYPO). Upright anchor with large flukes and a rectangular stock, the letter A in one side, a crab as an additional symbol viewed from above on the other side. The image in a concave circle.

Description from Topalov Apollonia 2007
Jaimelai
AP_obol.JPG
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 55 - Silver Obol35 views410/404 – 341/323 B.C.
0.72 gm, 9.0 mm
Obv.: Laureate head of Apollo ¾ left with short hair
Rev.: Anchor; crayfish to left, A to right
Topalov Apollonia p.596, 55; p.395, 1-3; p.774

Topalov Apollonia 2007: "Apollo's Head Turned Aside to 3/4 - Upright Anchor" Silver Obol (410/404 – 341/323 B.C.)
Obv.: Laureate Apollo ¾ left (rarely right) with short hair.
Rev.: Upright anchor with thick flukes and a rectangular stock. The letter A on one side and the additional symbol of a crab viewed from above on the other side between flukes and the stock.
Jaimelai
retake_50.jpg
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 55 - Silver Obol30 views410/404 – 341/323 B.C.
0.66 gm, 8.07 mm
Obv.: Laureate head of Apollo ¾ left with short hair
Rev.: Anchor; crayfish to left, A to right
Topalov Apollonia p.596, 55; p.395, 1-3; p.774

Topalov Apollonia 2007: "Apollo's Head Turned Aside to 3/4 - Upright Anchor" Silver Obol (410/404 – 341/323 B.C.)
Obv.: Laureate Apollo ¾ left (rarely right) with short hair.
Rev.: Upright anchor with thick flukes and a rectangular stock. The letter A on one side and the additional symbol of a crab viewed from above on the other side between flukes and the stock.
Jaimelai
Capture_00010.JPG
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 56 - Silver Diobol44 views410/404 – 341/323 B.C.
1.31 gm, 10.6 mm
Obv.: Laureate head of Apollo facing
Rev.: Anchor, A to left, crayfish to right,
ΣΩ (magistrate's initials) to left
Topalov Apollonia p.393, 1-3; p.596, 56;
Sear p. 165, 1657;
B.M.C. 15 (Mysia) p.9, 15

Topalov Type: "Full-Face Apollo's Head - Upright Anchor" silver diobol (410/404 – 341/323 B.C.)
Obv.: Full-face laureate Apollo with short hair.
Rev.: Magistrates' initials around the images. Upright anchor with thick flukes and a rectangular stock. The letter A on one side and the additional symbol of a crab viewed from above on the other side between flukes and the stock.
Jaimelai
AP_half_b.jpg
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 56 - Silver Diobol45 views410 - 323 B.C.
1.25 gm, 11 mm
Obv.: Laurate head of Apollo
Rev.: Anchor, A and magistrate initials to left, crayfish to right
Topalov Apollonia p. 393, 1-3; p.596, 56
Sear p. 165, 1657
B.M.C. 15 (Mysia) p.9, 15

From Topalov Apollonia 2007: "Full-Face Apollo's Head - Upright Anchor" silver diobol (410/404 – 341/323 B.C.)
Obv.: Full-face laureate Apollo with short hair.
Rev.: Magistrates' initials around the images. Upright anchor with thick flukes and a rectangular stock. The letter A on one side and the additional symbol of a crab viewed from above on the other side between flukes and the stock.
Jaimelai
014~2.JPG
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 56 - Silver Diobol40 views410/404 - 341/323 B.C.
1.26 gm, 12 mm
Obv.: Laurate head of Apollo
Rev.: Anchor, A to left, crayfish to right
Topalov Apollonia p.596, 56; Sear 1657; B.M.C. 15 (Mysia) p.9, 15

Topalov Type: "Full-Face Apollo's Head - Upright Anchor" Silver diobol (410/404 – 341/323 B.C.)
Obv.: Full-face laureate Apollo with short hair.
Rev.: Magistrates' initials around the images. Upright anchor with thick flukes and a rectangular stock. The letter A on one side and the additional symbol of a crab viewed from above on the other side between flukes and the stock
Jaimelai
AP_half_c.jpg
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 56 - Silver Diobol41 views410 - 323 B.C.
0.87 gm, 9.5 mm
Obv.: Laurate head of Apollo
Rev.: Anchor, A to left, crayfish to right
Topalov Apollonia p.596, 56
Sear p. 165, 1657
B.M.C. 15 (Mysia) p.9, 15

From Topalov Apollonia 2007: "Full-Face Apollo's Head - Upright Anchor" silver diobol (410/404 – 341/323 B.C.) Obv.: Full-face laureate Apollo with short hair. Rev.: Magistrates' initials around the images. Upright anchor with thick flukes and a rectangular stock. The letter A on one side and the additional symbol of a crab viewed from above on the other side between flukes and the stock.
Jaimelai
AP_half_d.jpg
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 56 - Silver Diobol80 views410-323 B.C.
1.15 gm, 10.5 mm
Obv.: Laurate head of Apollo
Rev.: Anchor, A and magistrate's initials to left, crayfish to right
Topalov Apollonia p.596, 56
Sear p. 165, 1657
B.M.C. 15 (Mysia) p.9, 15

Topalov Type: "Full-Face Apollo's Head - Upright Anchor" silver diobol (410/404 – 341/323 B.C.)
Obv.: Full-face laureate Apollo with short hair.
Rev.: Magistrates' initials around the images. Upright anchor with thick flukes and a rectangular stock. The letter A on one side and the additional symbol of a crab viewed from above on the other side between flukes and the stock.
3 commentsJaimelai
Capture_00009.JPG
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 56 - Silver Diobol50 views410/404 - 341/323 B.C.
1.26 gm, 11 mm
Obv.: Laureate head of Apollo facing
Rev.: Anchor, A to left, crayfish to right,
A Π (magistrate's initials) to left
Topalov Apollonia p.387, 2, p.596, 56;
Sear p.165, 1657;
B.M.C. 15 (Mysia) p.9, 15

Topalov Type: "Full-Face Apollo's Head - Upright Anchor" Silver diobol (410/404 – 341/323 B.C.)
Obv.: Full-face laureate Apollo with short hair.
Rev.: Magistrates' initials around the images. Upright anchor with thick flukes and a rectangular stock. The letter A on one side and the additional symbol of a crab viewed from above on the other side between flukes and the stock.
Jaimelai
Capture_00009_(2).JPG
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 56 - Silver Diobol56 views410/404 - 341/323 B.C.
0.53 gm, 10 mm
Obv.: Laurate head of Apollo
Rev.: Anchor, A to left, crayfish to right
Topalov Apollonia p.596, 56;
Sear 1657; B.M.C. 15 (Mysia) p.9, 15

Topalov Type: "Full-Face Apollo's Head - Upright Anchor" Silver diobol (410/404 – 341/323 B.C.)
Obv.: Full-face laureate Apollo with short hair.
Rev.: Magistrates' initials around the images. Upright anchor with thick flukes and a rectangular stock. The letter A on one side and the additional symbol of a crab viewed from above on the other side between flukes and the stock

This coin is small enough to be an obol, but in the diobol style. Obols have Apollo facing left or right.
Jaimelai
048.JPG
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 56 - Silver Diobol38 views410/404 - 341/323 B.C.
0.84 gm, 11.5 mm
Obv.: Laurate head of Apollo
Rev.: Anchor, A to left, crayfish to right
Topalov Apollonia p.596, 56; Sear 1657; B.M.C. 15 (Mysia) p.9, 15

Topalov Type: "Full-Face Apollo's Head - Upright Anchor" Silver diobol (410/404 – 341/323 B.C.)
Obv.: Full-face laureate Apollo with short hair.
Rev.: Magistrates' initials around the images. Upright anchor with thick flukes and a rectangular stock. The letter A on one side and the additional symbol of a crab viewed from above on the other side between flukes and the stock
Jaimelai
diobol_50.jpg
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 56 - Silver Diobol25 views410 - 323 B.C.
1.05 gm, 11 mm
Obv.: Laurate head of Apollo
Rev.: Anchor
A to left, crayfish to right
Topalov Apollonia p.596, 56
Sear 1657,
B.M.C. 15 (Mysia) p.9, 15

From Topalov Apollonia 2007: "Full-Face Apollo's Head - Upright Anchor" silver diobol (410/404 – 341/323 B.C.) Obv.: Full-face laureate Apollo with short hair. Rev.: Magistrates' initials around the images. Upright anchor with thick flukes and a rectangular stock. The letter A on one side and the additional symbol of a crab viewed from above on the other side between flukes and the stock.
Jaimelai
072~2.JPG
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 56 - Silver Diobol 37 views410/404 – 341/323 B.C.
1.31 gm, 10.6 mm
Obv.: Laureate head of Apollo facing
Rev.: Anchor, A to left, crayfish to right, ΣΩ (magistrate's initials) to left
Topalov Apollonia p.393, 1-3; p.596, 56;
Sear p. 165, 1657;
B.M.C. 15 (Mysia) p.9, 15

Topalov Type: "Full-Face Apollo's Head - Upright Anchor" silver diobol (410/404 – 341/323 B.C.)
Obv.: Full-face laureate Apollo with short hair.
Rev.: Magistrates' initials around the images. Upright anchor with thick flukes and a rectangular stock. The letter A on one side and the additional symbol of a crab viewed from above on the other side between flukes and the stock
Jaimelai
006_(2).JPG
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 56 - Silver Diobol 52 views410/404 – 341/323 B.C.
1.34 gm, 11.56 mm
Obv.: Laureate head of Apollo facing
Rev.: Anchor, A to left, crayfish to right, ΣΩ (magistrate's initials) to left
Topalov Apollonia p.393, 1-3; p.596, 56;
Sear p. 165, 1657;
B.M.C. 15 (Mysia) p.9, 15

Topalov Type: "Full-Face Apollo's Head - Upright Anchor" silver diobol (410/404 – 341/323 B.C.)
Obv.: Full-face laureate Apollo with short hair.
Rev.: Magistrates' initials around the images. Upright anchor with thick flukes and a rectangular stock. The letter A on one side and the additional symbol of a crab viewed from above on the other side between flukes and the stock
Jaimelai
ap2_50.JPG
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 56 - Silver Diobol26 views410/404 – 341/323 B.C.
1.25 gm, 10 mm
Obv.: Laureate head of Apollo facing
Rev.: Anchor, A to left, crayfish to right, ΣΩ (magistrate's initials) to left
Topalov Apollonia p.393, 1-3; p.596, 56;
Sear p. 165, 1657;
B.M.C. 15 (Mysia) p.9, 15

Topalov Type: "Full-Face Apollo's Head - Upright Anchor" silver diobol (410/404 – 341/323 B.C.)
Obv.: Full-face laureate Apollo with short hair.
Rev.: Magistrates' initials around the images. Upright anchor with thick flukes and a rectangular stock. The letter A on one side and the additional symbol of a crab viewed from above on the other side between flukes and the stock.
Jaimelai
apollo_50.jpg
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 56 - Silver Diobol9 views410/404 – 341/323 B.C.
1.25 gm, 11 mm
Obv.: Laureate head of Apollo facing
Rev.: Anchor, A to left, crayfish to right, ΣΩ (magistrate's initials) to left
Topalov Apollonia p.393, 1-3; p.596, 56;
Sear p. 165, 1657; HGC 1315;
B.M.C. 15 (Mysia) p.9, 15;
SNG Black Sea 175

Topalov Type: "Full-Face Apollo's Head - Upright Anchor" silver diobol (410/404 – 341/323 B.C.)
Obv.: Full-face laureate Apollo with short hair.
Rev.: Magistrates' initials around the images. Upright anchor with thick flukes and a rectangular stock. The letter A on one side and the additional symbol of a crab viewed from above on the other side between flukes and the stock
Jaimelai
IMG_2238.JPG
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 56 - Silver Diobol - very worn49 views410 - 323 B.C.
0.59 gm, 8.78 mm
Obv.: Head of Apollo (or Medusa)
Rev.: Anchor, A to left, crayfish to right
Topalov Apollonia p.596, 56
Sear p.165, 1657
B.M.C. 15 (Mysia) p.9, 15

From Topalov Apollonia 2007: "Full-Face Apollo's Head - Upright Anchor" silver diobol (410/404 – 341/323 B.C.) Obv.: Full-face laureate Apollo with short hair. Rev.: Magistrates' initials around the images. Upright anchor with thick flukes and a rectangular stock. The letter A on one side and the additional symbol of a crab viewed from above on the other side between flukes and the stock.
Jaimelai
a02~0.jpg
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 56 - Silver Diobol Fouree39 views410/404 - 341/323 B.C.
0.85 gm, 10.5 mm
Obv.: Laurate head of Apollo
Rev.: Anchor, A to left, crayfish to right
Topalov Apollonia p.596, 56
Sear p. 165, 1657, B.M.C. 15 (Mysia) p.9, 15

Topalov Type: "Full-Face Apollo's Head - Upright Anchor" Silver diobol (410/404 – 341/323 B.C.)
Obv.: Full-face laureate Apollo with short hair.
Rev.: Magistrates' initials around the images. Upright anchor with thick flukes and a rectangular stock. The letter A on one side and the additional symbol of a crab viewed from above on the other side between flukes and the stock
Jaimelai
Capture_00064.JPG
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 57 - Silver Diobol - Thracian Imitation44 views410-323 B.C.
0.88 gm, 10.5 mm
Obv.: Laureate head of Apollo facing
Rev.: Anchor,
A to left, crayfish to right
Topalov Apollonia p.596, 57;
Sear p.165, 1657 (sim.);
B.M.C. 15 (Mysia) p.9, 15

From Topalov Apollonia 2007: "Probable Thracian Imitation of Full-Face Apollo's Head - Upright Anchor" Silver diobol
(410/404 – 341/323 B.C.)
Obv.: Stylized image of full-face Apollo's head.
Rev.: Stylized image of an upright anchor, symbol of a crab and the letter A .
Jaimelai
Capture_00009_(4).JPG
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 58 - Bronze dichalk67 views410/404 – 341/323 B.C.
1.78 gm, 13 mm.
Obv.: Laurate head of Apollo right with short hair
Rev.: ΔIXAΛ/KIH (vertically left/ right) Upright anchor with thich flukes and a rectangular stock.
A to left and crayfish to right.
Topalov Apollonia p.596, 58 (var. in reverse legend)

Topalov Type: "Apollo's Head – ΔIXA/ΛKIH Upright Anchor" Bronze Dichalk (410/404 - 341/323 B.C.)
Obv.: Laureate Apollo's head right, rarely left.
Rev.: ΔIXA (vertical left) / ΛKIH (vertical right), upright anchor in the midddle, at one side of which there is an image of a crab as an additional symbol, and the letter A at the other side. No magistrate's names on coins of this type.


Ex-Roland Mueller Collection
Jaimelai
052.JPG
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 58 - Bronze Dichalk41 views410/404 – 341/323 B.C.
1.96 gm, 12 mm
Obv.: Laurate head of Apollo right with short hair
Rev.: ΔIXA/ΛKIH (vertically left/ right) Upright anchor with thich flukes and a rectangular stock. A to left and crayfish to right.
Topalov Apollonia p.596, 58

Topalov Type: "Apollo's Head – ΔIXA/ΛKIH Upright Anchor" Bronze Dichalk (410/404 - 341/323 B.C.)
Obv.: Laureate Apollo's head right, rarely left.
Rev.: ΔIXA (vertical left) / ΛKIH (vertical right), upright anchor in the midddle, at one side of which there is an image of a crab as an additional symbol, and the letter A at the other side. No magistrate's names on coins of this type.
Jaimelai
Capture_00058.JPG
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 59 - Bronze Dichalk47 views410/404 – 341/323 B.C.
2.34 gm, 13.5 mm
Obv.: Laureate head of Apollo right with short hair
Rev.: AΠOΛΛONIATΩN ΔIXAΛKIH (around the images)
Upright anchor with thich flukes and a rectangular stock. A to left and crayfish to right.
Topalov Apollonia p.598, 59

Topalov Type: "Apollo's Head – AΠOΛΛONIATΩN ΔIXAΛKIH Upright Anchor" Bronze Dichalk (410/404 - 341/323 B.C.)
Obv.: Laureate Apollo's head right, rarely left.
Rev.: AΠOΛΛONIATΩN ΔIXAΛKIH (around the images)
Upright anchor in the middle, at one side of which there is an image of a crab as an additional symbol, and the letter A at the other side. No magistrate's names on coins of this type.
Jaimelai
061.jpg
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 59 - Bronze Dichalk28 views410/404 – 341/323 B.C.
2.17 gm, 13.3 mm
Obv.: Laureate head of Apollo right with short hair
Rev.: AΠOΛΛONIATΩN ΔIXAΛKIH (around the images)
Upright anchor with thich flukes and a rectangular stock. A to left and crayfish to right.
Topalov Apollonia p.598, 59

Topalov Type: "Apollo's Head – AΠOΛΛONIATΩN ΔIXAΛKIH Upright Anchor" Bronze Dichalk (410/404 - 341/323 B.C.)
Obv.: Laureate Apollo's head right, rarely left.
Rev.: AΠOΛΛONIATΩN ΔIXAΛKIH (around the images)
Upright anchor in the middle, at one side of which there is an image of a crab as an additional symbol, and the letter A at the other side. No magistrate's names on coins of this type.
Jaimelai
013~0.JPG
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 60 - Bronze Dichalk39 views410/404 – 341/323 B.C.
1.87 gm, 12 mm
Obv.: Laureate head of Apollo right with short hair
Rev.: Upright anchor with thich flukes and a rectangular stock; A to left and crayfish to right.
Topalov Apollonia p.598, 60

Topalov Type: "Apollo's Head – Upright Anchor" Bronze Dichalk (410/404 - 341/323 B.C.)
Obv.: Laureate Apollo's head right, rarely left.
Rev.: Upright anchor in the midddle, at one side of which there is an image of a crab as an additional symbol, and the letter A at the other side. No magistrate's names on coins of this type.
Jaimelai
chalk_50.jpg
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 61 - Bronze Chalk20 views410/404 – 341/323 B.C.
0.92 gm, 10 mm
Obv.: Laureate head of Apollo left
Rev.: Upright anchor with thick flukes and a rectangular stock. A to left and crayfish to right.
Topalov Apollonia p.598, 61

Topalov Type 61: “Apollo’s Head - Upright Anchor" – bronze chalk(?) (410/404-341/323 B.C.)
Obv.: Laureate Apollo r. or l. with short hair.
Rev.: Upright anchor with thick flukes and a rectangular stock. The letter A on one side and the additional symbol of a crab viewed from above on the other side between flukes and the stock. No magistrates' names on coins of this type
Jaimelai
obv_a.JPG
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 61 - Bronze Chalk12 views410/404 – 341/323 B.C.
1.04 gm, 9-10.5 mm
Obv.: Laureate head of Apollo right
Rev.: Upright anchor with thick flukes and a rectangular stock. A to left and crayfish to right.
Topalov Apollonia p.598, 61

Topalov Type 61: “Apollo’s Head - Upright Anchor" – bronze chalk(?) (410/404-341/323 B.C.)
Obv.: Laureate Apollo r. or l. with short hair.
Rev.: Upright anchor with thick flukes and a rectangular stock. The letter A on one side and the additional symbol of a crab viewed from above on the other side between flukes and the stock. No magistrates' names on coins of this type
Jaimelai
a16.jpg
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 62 - Bronze Tetrachalk329 views410/404 – 341/323 B.C.
4.02 gm, 17 mm.
Obv: Laurate head of Apollo right with short hair
Rev.: Anchor; crayfish to left, A to right.
Topalov Apollonia p. 600, 62

Topalov Type: "Apollo's Head – Upright Anchor" Bronze Tetrachalk (410/404 - 341/323 B.C.)
Obv.: Laureate Apollo's head right hand, rarely left with short hair.
Rev.: Upright anchor with thick flukes and a rectangular stock. The letter A on one side and the additional symbol of a crab viewed from above on the other side between flukes and the stock. No magistrate's names on coins of this type.
8 commentsJaimelai
a15.jpg
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 63 - Bronze Tetrachalk; Topalov 73 - with solar symbol countermark171 views350 B.C.
3.95 gm, 16.5-19 mm.
Obv.: Apollo seated left on omphalos, right hand resting on bow, left on omphalos
Round solar symbol countermark over Apollo's left hand
Rev.: Anchor; A and A[KOYΣY/]ΛEΩΣ (magistrate's name partially flattened by countermark blow on opposite side) to left, crayfish to right
Topalov Apollonia p.414, 1; p.600, 63
D. Sear, Greek coins and their values, Vol. 1, p. 165, 1658,
BMC Mysia Apollonia ad Rhyndacum, p. 10, 17 var (magistrate)

Topalov Type: "Apollo sitting on the Omphalos – Upright Anchor" Bronze Tetrachalk (about 350 B.C.)
Obv.: Apollo sitting on the omphalos, holding a bow in his right hand, his left hand hanging downwards or resting on the omphalos. Round solar symbol countermark over Apollo's left hand (second half of the 3rd c. B.C.)
Rev.: Magistrates' initials or names on the left or on the right. Upright anchor with thick flukes and a rectangular stock. The letter A on one side and the additional symbol of a crab viewed from above on the other side betwee flukes and the stock.
1 commentsJaimelai
ap94a_50.jpg
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 94 - Bronze Dichalk16 viewsBeginning of 2nd century B.C.
2.50 gm, 14 mm.
Obv: Naked Apollo, full-face, standing and holding a laurel tree in his right hand and a bow with arrows in his left hand.
Rev.: Upright anchor with large flukes and a rectangular stock. The letter A to left between fluke and the stock.
Topalov Apollonia p. 510, 1; p.620, 94 var., p.804-5;
SNG BM Black Sea 190

Topalov Type 94: Bronze coins of the type “Standing Apollo - Upright Anchor”, dichalk (?)
Obv.: Full-face naked Apollo, standing and holding a laurel tree and two arrows. The image represents the statue of Kalamis erected in the town.
Rev.: Upright anchor with large flukes and a rectangular stock. The letter A l. and the additional symbol of a crab r. viewed from above on the other side between flukes and the stock.
Jaimelai
apollonia.jpg
Apollonia Pontica, Thrace31 viewsAncient Greek City Issue
Apollonia Pontica, Thrace


Obverse: Gorgon (Medusa?) or Apollo head facing with tongue sticking out


Reverse: Upturned anchor with crayfish and A on sides


Silver Drachm (16mm, 2.5g)
Minted in Apollonia Pontica 450-400BC

Reference: SNG Black Sea 155


Translations and explanations:

Apollonia Pontica (Apollonia on the Black Sea) is modern day Sozopol, Bulgaria.

While the city was clearly named after Greek god Apollo, the earlier coins feature a snake-haired gorgon face that over time seems to transition to a more Apollo like image.

The anchor on the reverse was the symbol of the city denoting its important maritime trade status.

Sphinx357
740_299_triga.JPG
Appius Claudius, T. Manlius, Q. Urbinius - AR denarius5 viewsRome
²109 BC
¹111-110 BC
helmeted head of Roma right; circle in triangle behind
victory in triga right holding reins
T·(MAL)·A·P CL·Q·(VR)
¹Crawford 299/1b; Sydenham 570a; Mallia 2; BM 1843,0116.505
²Mark Passehl - Roman moneyer & coin type chronology, 150 – 50 BC
3,8g
ex Lucernae

Names of three moneyers are still mystery, Appius Clausius, T. Mallius, and Q. Urbanus are other possibilities.

Joint coinage of three monetal triumvirs. Triga is found only on the denaries of the Naevia family except coins of these three moneyers. Triga commemorates three of the persons who were monetal triumvirs in the second century BC. Cavedoni suggests that the triangle on the obverse may symbolize the same individuals. In this case the circle within that figure may represent a coin?
Johny SYSEL
khusro.jpg
AR Drachm of Khusro II, 618 AD29 viewsOBVERSE: Right facing crowned bust of Khusro II whose name appears in Pahlavi script to his right and honorifics to the left. Astral symbols (star and crescent at 3,6 and 9 o'clock. Two rings surrounding.
REVERSE: Fire Altar with two attendants with hands resting on swords. To the right is mintmark SW (Khuzistan) and to the left is the regnal year 28 which dates the coin to 618 AD. Three rings surrounding

Weight 3.0 grams. The coin has been severely clipped since these usually weigh about 4 grams.
The Sassanid were succesors to the Parthian (Arsacid) dynasty which they conquered in the third century AD. The Sassanids were Zoroastrians who followed the teachings of their prophet Zoroaster (Zarathustra) and their God was Ahura-Mazda - the God of light (or fire) and hence the reverse theme on Sassanid coins. Their rule was centered in what is Iraq and Iran and extended eastward. It lasted until the coming of Islam in the later 7th century. The ancient cultural heritage of Persia is quite distinct from that of their Semitic neighbors to the west and has repercussions in the religous and political conflicts of today.

daverino
afghan.JPG
AR Drachma of the Shahi, ca 900 AD53 views"Bull and Horseman" silver drachm of the Shahi dynasty and Kings of Kabul. OBV; Seated Humped bull with the Sanskrit legend "Sri Semanta Deva" meaning "military commander" above, a trident on the bull's rump.
REV: Horseman with lance.

The Shahi were a Buddhist/Hindu dynasty that ruled from Kabul in the 9th and 10th centuries AD. The Bull (a Hindu symbol) and Horseman drachmas were an enduring type minted in good silver that was mined in the Panjshir Valley of Afghanistan. The Shahi were gradually pushed eastward to Kashmir by Islam until they disappeared as a political group in the 12th century.
2 commentsdaverino
taras.jpg
AR Nomos of Taras (Tarentum) in Calabria ca. 275-240 BC27 viewsOBVERSE: A naked youth placing wreath on horse walking right. An indeterminate symbol between the horse's front legs and the bearded head of Poseidon below. The letter A is in the field behind the rider

REVERSE: Naked Taras astride dolphin left, holding kantharos. "TARAS" to the right

Weight 6.1 grams; diameter ~20 mm
1 commentsdaverino
33986_Arab_Pseudo-Byzantine,_Bilad_al-Sham_(Greater_Syria),_c__658_-_680_A_D_.jpg
Arab Pseudo-Byzantine (imitating Constans II, SBCV 1000 and similar)22 viewsArab Pseudo-Byzantine, Bilad al-Sham (Greater Syria), c. 658 - 680 A.D. Bronze follis, Goodwin type E (imitating Constans II, SBCV 1000 and similar), VF, 2.934g, 26.9mm, 315o, obverse emperor standing facing, wearing crown and chlamys, long cross in r., globus cruciger in l.; reverse, large cursive m, blundered letters and symbols around. Ex FORVM, photo credit FORVMPodiceps
1543.jpg
aradosbmc38514 viewsElagabalus
Arados, Phoenicia

Obv: AVT K M AVΡ [ANTΩNINOC], laureate, draped, cuirassed bust right
Rev: ARA-ΔI-ⲰN → E ZOY (Z is backwards), Cypress tree, between bull standing right and lion standing left, standard (hand and vexillium) behind each, no symbol above lion’s head.
28 mm, 18.15 gms

BMC 385
Charles M
arcadius_RIC22.jpg
ARCADIUS AE2 - 383-388 AD42 viewsobv: DN ARCAD-IVS P F AVG (pearl diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right holding spear & shield, hand of God holding wreath above)
rev: GLORIA RO-MANORVM (emperor standing facing, head left, holding labarum in right hand and resting left hand on shield; on the left a captive is sitting to left with his head right; in left field, symbol P on its side); SMHB* in ex.
ref: RIC IX Heraclea 22
mint: Heraclea - SMHB
5.45gms, 23mm
berserker
arcadius_cyzicus_26(c).jpg
Arcadius, RIC IX, Cyzicus 26(c)130 viewsArcadius AD 383-408
AE - AE 4, 1.40g, 14.0mm
Cyzicus 3. officina 28 Aug. 388-15 May 392
obv. D N ARCADIVS P F AVG
pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
rev. SALVS REI - PVBLICAE
Victory advancing left, holding trophy over r. shoulder, dragging
captive with l.
field: l. cross-Rho
ex. SMK Gamma
RIC IX, Cyzicus 26(c); S.4; LRBC. 2578
EF
added to www.wildwinds.com
from Forum Ancient Coins, thanks!

CROSS-RHO, or TAU-RHO, is an early Christian symbol. Probably it is the sign described by Lactantius which Constantine I put on the shields of his soldiers at the Milvian bridge. It is an abbreviation of the Greek 'stauros', meaning 'cross', therefore called often 'staurogram'.
2 commentsJochen
IMG_1069.JPG
Ariobarzanes III Drachm 23 viewsAR Drachm
Size: 17mm, Weight: 3.53 grams, Die Axis: 12h

Cappadocian Kingdom, Ariobarzanes III Eusebes
Circa 52 – 42 BCE

Obverse: Anepigraphic.
Diademed bust to right.

Reverse: BAΣIΛEΩΣ APIOBAPZANOY EYΣEBOYΣ KAI ΦIΛOPΩMAIOY (of King Ariobarzanes, pious and friend of the Romans)
Athena Nikephoros standing left, spear and grounded shield to right. Star in crescent monogram to left, monogram to right, and IA date in exergue (year 11, 42 BCE).

Notes:
-Ariobarzanes III was the grandson of Mithradates VI of Pontos, and adopted the Pontic royal symbol of a star in crescent.
-Ariobarzanes III was allied with Pompey, but was allowed to keep his position under Julius Caesar. Following Caesar's assassination, he refused to aid Cassius. Cappadocia was invaded, and Ariobarzanes III was executed.

Ex Forvm Ancient Coins, 2016
Pharsalos
abmSCONSTstarinexergue.jpg
ARLES -//SCONST*30 viewsRIC VII, 351, LRBC 355.
An early issue for Arles, presumably just before the variant issue where the star has been moved to the field. This was surely carried out for reasons of space - SCONST is already long for an exergual mark, without the further addition of an issue symbol.
adrianus
IMGP0095Art2tdrcombo2.jpg
Artabanos II., 10 - 38 AD56 viewsBI tdr., 12,68gr., 26,31mm;
Sellw. 63.4, Shore 335, Sunrise 411var.;
mint: Seleukia, axis: 12h;
obv.: bare-headed, facing, w/3-strand diadem and 2 broad ribbons; long wavy hair, droopy mustache,med.-long beard cut square at end; double necklace; cuirass; dotted border 4 - 7h;
rev.:on the right side king on horseback, left, facing goddess w/palm branch in right hand, long scepter or lance in left hand, between heads T, behind king’s head Λ, above horse’s tail N = year 27 AD, month symbol 52 for Holoos (July); a 4-line legend is visible: BΛCIΛEΩ(C) ΛPCΛK(OY), under hte exergual line (ΔIKΛIOY) (EΠ)IΦΛNOYC;

ex: CNG Auction 103, # 453.
2 commentsSchatz
Diana_of_Ephesus_-_Claudius_AR_Tetradrachm.jpg
Artemis, (Diana of Ephesus), in her Temple141 viewsTI. CLAVD CAES AVG. Claudius bare head, facing left. / DIAN-EPHE Cult statue of Diana (Artemis) of Ephesus inside a tetra style temple, set on three tiered base; pediment decorated by figures flanking three windows.
RIC I 118; RPC I 2222; BMCRE 229; RSC 30; Sear Millennium 1839. Ephesus ca. 41-42 AD.
(25 mm, 11.14 g, 6h)

The statue of Artemis (Diana) at Ephesus was one of the Seven Wonders of the ancient world. Depicted on this coin, which was minted shortly after Claudius’ accession to the throne, there remains no trace of the statue, or the temple that housed it, other than some recently stacked column remnants to mark the location. Pliny The Elder described the temple as 115 meters in length, 55 meters in width, made almost entirely of marble; consisting of 127 Ionic style columns 18 meters in height. The original temple, which stood on the site from about 550 BC, was destroyed by arson in 356 BC. It was rebuilt around 330 BC in the form depicted on the coin, only to be destroyed by the Goths in 262 AD. Again rebuilt it was destroyed for the final time by Christians in 401 AD. The columns and marble of the temple were used to construct other buildings. Some of the columns found their way into the church of Hagia Sophia in Constantinople (Istanbul).

The site of the temple was rediscovered in 1869 by an expedition sponsored by the British Museum, but little remains to be seen today. A Christian inscription found at Ephesus reads Destroying the delusive image of the demon Artemis, Demeas has erected this symbol of Truth, the God that drives away idols, and the Cross of priests, deathless and victorious sign of Christ. This Christian zeal explains why so little remains of the site despite its repute in the ancient pre-Christian world.

This coin is rare with a few dozen examples known. In contrast to most examples, which show a four tiered temple base, the reverse of this coin shows a three-tiered temple base. The rectangles on the pediment of the temple are frequently identified as tables, or altars. However, it is more likely that these are windows in the pediment to facilitate lighting of the statue in the interior of the temple. The Ionic style of the columns, as described by Pliny, is clearly visible in the reverse image.
1 commentsLloyd T
Lycian_League_01.jpg
Asia Minor, Lykia, Masikytes, Artemis, Quiver 26 viewsMasikytes
Asia Minor, Lykian League
AR Hemidrachm
Obv.: Draped bust of Artemis left, bow and quiver over shoulder
Rev.: Λ - Y / M - A, Quiver within incuse square.
Ag, 0.92g, 12mm
Ref.: Troxell Period IV 135, RPC 3311 var. (symbols on reverse).
Ex Pecunem Gitbud&Naumann auction 26, Lot 292
1 commentsshanxi
Pergamon_16.jpg
Asia Minor, Mysia, Pergamon, Boar, Symbol, Triskleles, Apollo?30 viewsMysia, Pergamon
AE9, c. 300 BC
Obv.: Laureate head of Apollo? right
Rev.: ΠΕΡΓ, boar´s head right, symbol above, triskeles below
AE, 0.92g, 9.2mm
Ref.: ???
1 commentsshanxi
762c.jpg
asmcalee802c114 viewsElagabalus
Antioch, Syria

Obv: AVT·K·M AVP ANTΩNεI(...). Laureate head right.
Rev: ANTIOXεΩN M KOΛ, Tyche seated left on rocks, holding grain ears in right hand, left hand resting on rocks; below, river-god Orontes swimming left; above, ram leaping left, head right; S-C and Δ-ε across upper field. No symbol in reverse left field.
32 mm, 17.94 gms

McAlee Supplement 802(c)
Charles M
785c.jpg
asmcalee802c211 viewsElagabalus
Antioch, Syria

Obv: AVT K M AV ANTΩNINOC CεB. Laureate head right.
Rev: ANTIOXεΩN (...) Ω, Tyche seated left on rocks, holding grain ears in right hand, left hand resting on rocks; below, river-god Orontes swimming left; above, ram leaping left, head right; S-C and Δ-ε across upper field. No symbol in reverse left field.
34 mm, 16.5 gms

McAlee Supplement 802(c)
Charles M
958c.jpg
asmcalee802c37 viewsElagabalus
Antioch, Syria

Obv: AVTO. KAI. MAPK. AVPH(...). Laureate head right.
Rev: ANTIOXεΩN MHT KOΛ, Tyche seated left on rocks, holding grain ears in right hand, left hand resting on rocks; below, river-god Orontes swimming left; above, ram leaping left, head right; S-C and Δ-ε across upper field. No symbol in reverse left field.
30 mm, 14.54 gms

McAlee Supplement 802(c)
Charles M
385a.jpg
asmcalee803a114 viewsElagabalus
Antioch, Syria

Obv: AVT. K. MAV. ANTΩNINOC Cε. Laureate head right, slight drapery at neck.
Rev: ANTIOXεΩN MT KOΛ, Tyche seated left on rocks, holding grain ears in right hand, left hand resting on rocks; below, river-god Orontes swimming left; above, ram leaping left, head right; S-C and Δ-ε across upper field. No symbol in reverse field.
32 mm, 14.84 gms

McAlee 803(a)
Charles M
211c.jpg
asmcalee803a212 viewsElagabalus
Antioch, Syria

Obv: AVT. K. M. AV. ANT(...) C. Laureate head right, slight drapery at neck.
Rev: ANTIOXεΩN M KOΛ, Tyche seated left on rocks, holding grain ears in right hand, left hand resting on rocks; below, river-god Orontes swimming left; above, ram leaping left, head right; S-C and Δε across upper field. No symbol in reverse field.
31 mm, 16.57 gms

McAlee 803(a)
Charles M
756.jpg
asmcalee803a315 viewsElagabalus
Antioch, Syria

Obv: AVT KAI MA (...) ANTΩNεINOC C. Laureate head right, slight drapery at neck
Rev: ANTIOXεΩN M(...), Tyche seated left on rocks, holding grain ears in right hand, left hand resting on rocks; below, river-god Orontes swimming left; above, ram leaping left, head right; S-C and Δ-ε across upper field. No symbol in reverse left field.
31 mm, 15.77 gms

McAlee 803(a)
Charles M
915c.jpg
asmcalee803a48 viewsElagabalus
Antioch, Syria

Obv: AVT KAI MAV ANTΩNεINOC C. Laureate head right, slight drapery at neck
Rev: ANTIOXεΩN M KOΛ, Tyche seated left on rocks, holding grain ears in right hand, left hand resting on rocks; below, river-god Orontes swimming left; above, ram leaping left, head right; S-C and Δ-ε across upper field. No symbol in reverse left field.
31 mm, 18.50 gms

McAlee 803(a)
Charles M
968c.jpg
asmcalee803a515 viewsElagabalus
Antioch, Syria

Obv: AVT. KAI. MAV. ANTΩNεINOC C. Laureate head right, slight drapery at neck.
Rev: ANTIOXεΩN MHOΠ KOΛ, Tyche seated left on rocks, holding grain ears in right hand, left hand resting on rocks; below, river-god Orontes swimming left; above, ram leaping left, head right; S-C and Δ-ε across upper field. No symbol in reverse field.
34 mm, 15.35 gms

McAlee 803(a)
1 commentsCharles M
121c.jpg
asmcalee803d114 viewsElagabalus
Antioch, Syria

Obv: AVT. KA. ΛI ANTΩNεINOC C. Laureate head right, slight drapery at neck.
Rev: ANTIOXεΩN M KOΛ, Tyche seated left on rocks, holding grain ears in right hand, left hand resting on rocks; below, river-god Orontes swimming left; above, ram leaping left, head right; S-C and Δε across upper field. No symbol in reverse field. 2 dots in exergue.
32 mm, 14.49 gms

McAlee 803(d)
Charles M
916c.jpg
asmcalee80512 viewsElagabalus
Antioch, Syria

Obv: AVT K MAV ANTΩNINOC Cε. Laureate head right, slight drapery at neck
Rev: ANTIOXεΩN M KOΛΩN, Tyche seated left on rocks, holding grain ears in right hand, left hand resting on rocks; below, river-god Orontes swimming left; above, ram leaping left, head right; S-C and Δ-ε across upper field. Star above ram. No symbol in reverse left field.
35 mm, 20.41 gms

McAlee 805
Charles M
1234c.jpg
asmcalee805_26 viewsElagabalus
Antioch, Syria

Obv: AVT K MAP ANTΩNINOC Cε. Laureate head right, slight drapery at neck
Rev: ANTIOXεΩN M KOΛΩ, Tyche seated left on rocks, holding grain ears in right hand, left hand resting on rocks; below, river-god Orontes swimming left; above, ram leaping left, head right; S-C and Δ-ε across upper field. Star above ram. No symbol in reverse left field.
32 mm, 25.03 gms

McAlee 805
Charles M
1011c.jpg
asmcalee80610 viewsElagabalus
Antioch, Syria

Obv: AVT K M AV. ANTΩNINOC Cε. Laureate head right, slight drapery at neck
Rev: ANTIOXεΩN MH KOΛΩ, Tyche seated right on rocks; below, river-god Orontes swimming right; above, ram leaping right, head forward; S-C and Δ-ε across upper field. No symbol in reverse left field.
32 mm, 15.80 gms

McAlee 806
Charles M
1182c.jpg
asmcalee807a6 viewsElagabalus
Antioch, Syria

Obv: AVT. KAI. MAP. AVPH ANTΩNεINOC CεB. Laureate draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind.
Rev: ANTIOXεΩN MHT KO , Tyche seated left on rocks, holding grain ears in right hand, left hand resting on rocks; below, river-god Orontes swimming left; above, ram leaping left, head right; S-C and Δ-ε across upper field. No symbol in reverse field.
32 mm, 16.70 gms

McAlee 807(a)
Charles M
1183c.jpg
asmcalee809a8 viewsElagabalus
Antioch, Syria

Obv: AVT. KAI. MAP. AV. Cε. ANTΩNεINOC. legend from upper left, radiate head left.
Rev: ANTIOXεΩN MHT KOΛ , Tyche seated left on rocks, holding grain ears in right hand, left hand resting on rocks; below, river-god Orontes swimming left; above, ram leaping left, head right; S-C and Δ-ε across upper field. No symbol in reverse field.
32 mm, 19.02 gms

McAlee 809(a)
Charles M
543a.jpg
asmcalee810a111 viewsElagabalus
Antioch, Syria

Obv: AVT. K. M. AV. ANTΩNINOC C. Laureate head right, slight drapery at neck.
Rev: ANTIOXεΩ M. N(...), Tyche seated left on rocks, holding grain ears in right hand, left hand resting on rocks; below, river-god Orontes swimming left; S-C and Δ-ε across upper field. No symbol in reverse field.
26 mm, 11.29 gms

McAlee 810(a)
Charles M
606.jpg
asmcalee810a212 viewsElagabalus
Antioch, Syria

Obv: AVT. K. M. AV. ANTΩNINOC Cε. Laureate head right, slight drapery at neck.
Rev: ANTIOXεΩN M. KO, Tyche seated left on rocks, holding grain ears in right hand, left hand resting on rocks; below, river-god Orontes swimming left; S-C and Δ-ε across upper field. No symbol in reverse field.
25 mm, 11.80 gms

McAlee 810(a)
Charles M
932c.jpg
asmcalee810a39 viewsElagabalus
Antioch, Syria

Obv: (…) K. M. AV. ANTΩNINO-C. Laureate head right, slight drapery at neck.
Rev: ANTIOX(…), Tyche seated left on rocks, holding grain ears in right hand, left hand resting on rocks; below, river-god Orontes swimming left; S-C and Δ-ε across upper field. No symbol in reverse field.
25 mm, 10.55 gms

McAlee 810(a)
Charles M
983c.jpg
asmcalee810a410 viewsElagabalus
Antioch, Syria

Obv: AVT. K. M. AV. ANTΩNINOC Cε. Laureate head right, slight drapery at neck.
Rev: ANTIOXεΩN M. KOΛ, Tyche seated left on rocks, holding grain ears in right hand, left hand resting on rocks; below, river-god Orontes swimming left; S-C and Δ-ε across upper field. No symbol in reverse field.
25 mm, 15.16 gms

McAlee 810(a)
Charles M
1013c.jpg
asmcalee810a57 viewsElagabalus
Antioch, Syria

Obv: AVT. K. M. AV. ANTΩNINO(…). Laureate head right, slight drapery at neck.
Rev: ANTIOXεΩN M. K, Tyche seated left on rocks, holding grain ears in right hand, left hand resting on rocks; below, river-god Orontes swimming left; S-C and Δ-ε across upper field. No symbol in reverse field.
26 mm, 10.24 gms

McAlee 810(a)
Charles M
1503.jpg
asmcalee810a66 viewsElagabalus
Antioch, Syria

Obv: AVT. K. M. AV. ANTΩNINOC C. Laureate head right, slight drapery at neck.
Rev: [ANT]IOXεΩN M. KOΛΩI, Tyche seated left on rocks, holding grain ears in right hand, left hand resting on rocks; below, river-god Orontes swimming left; S-C and Δ-ε across upper field. No symbol in reverse field.
26 mm, 11.39 gms

McAlee 810(a)
Charles M
1049.jpg
asmcalee8118 viewsElagabalus
Antioch, Syria

Obv: AVT. K. M. AV. ANTΩNINOC. Laureate head right, no drapery at neck.
Rev: ANTIOXεΩN M. KOΛ, Tyche seated left on rocks, holding grain ears in right hand, left hand resting on rocks; below, river-god Orontes swimming left; S-C and Δ-ε across upper field. No symbol in reverse field.
25 mm, 9.26 gms

McAlee 811
Charles M
655c.jpg
asmcalee81212 viewsElagabalus
Antioch, Syria

Obv: AVT. KAI. M. AV. ANTΩNINOC Cε. Laureate head right, slight drapery at neck.
Rev: ANTIOXεΩN M. KOΛ, Tyche seated left on rocks, holding grain ears in right hand, left hand resting on rocks; below, river-god Orontes swimming left; S-C and Δ-ε across upper field. No symbol in reverse field.
24 mm, 12.60 gms

McAlee 812
Charles M
646c.jpg
asmcalee812_213 viewsElagabalus
Antioch, Syria

Obv: AVT. KAI. M. AV. ANTΩNINOC Cε. Laureate head right, slight drapery at neck.
Rev: ANTIOXεΩN M. KO, Tyche seated left on rocks, holding grain ears in right hand, left hand resting on rocks; below, river-god Orontes swimming left; S-C and Δ-ε across upper field. No symbol in reverse field.
24 mm, 11.88 gms

McAlee 812
Charles M
913a.jpg
asmcalee81610 viewsElagabalus
Antioch, Syria

Obv: [AVT.] K. M. AV. AN[TΩNINOC Cε]. Laureate draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind.
Rev: ANTIOX[εΩN] M. KOΛΩ, Tyche seated left on rocks, holding grain ears in right hand, left hand resting on rocks; below, river-god Orontes swimming left; S-C and Δ-ε across upper field. No symbol in reverse field.
25 mm, 8.52 gms

McAlee 816
Charles M
885.jpg
asmcalee816_27 viewsElagabalus
Antioch, Syria

Obv: AVT. K. M. AV. ANTΩNINOC [Cε]. Laureate draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind.
Rev: ANTIOXεΩN M. KO, Tyche seated left on rocks, holding grain ears in right hand, left hand resting on rocks; below, river-god Orontes swimming left; S-C and Δ-ε across upper field. No symbol in reverse field.
27 mm, 8.80 gms

McAlee 816
Charles M
980c.jpg
asmcalee816_39 viewsAntioch, Syria

Obv: AVT. K. M. AV. ANTΩ(…). Laureate draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind.
Rev: ANTIOXεΩN M. (…), Tyche seated left on rocks, holding grain ears in right hand, left hand resting on rocks; below, river-god Orontes swimming left; S-C and Δ-ε across upper field. No symbol in reverse field.
24 mm, 11.08 gms

McAlee 816
Charles M
1789c.jpg
asmcalee816_42 viewsElagabalus
Antioch, Syria

Obv: ...AV. ANTΩN.... Laureate draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind.
Rev: ...KOΛ..., Tyche seated left on rocks, holding grain ears in right hand, left hand resting on rocks; below, river-god Orontes swimming left; S-C and Δ-ε across upper field. No symbol in reverse field.
26 mm, 11.14 gms

McAlee 816
Charles M
1918c.jpg
asmcalee819var3 viewsElagabalus
Antioch, Syria

Obv: AVT. KAI. MAP. AV. ANTΩNЄINOC C. radiate head left. Legend is retrograde and all letters are reversed (mirror image).
Rev: ANTIOXεΩN MHT. KO, Tyche seated left on rocks, holding grain ears in right hand, left hand resting on rocks; below, river-god Orontes swimming left; S-C and Δ-ε across upper field. No symbol in reverse field.
26 mm, 10.89 gms

McAlee 819 variant (retrograde and reversed obverse legend; no star in reverse field)
Charles M
Athen_owl_Tetradrachm_.jpg
Athena and her owl 182 viewsIn Greek mythology, a Little Owl baby (Athene noctua) traditionally represents or accompanies Athena, the virgin goddess of wisdom, or Minerva, her syncretic incarnation in Roman mythology. Because of such association, the bird often referred to as the "owl of Athena" or the "owl of Minerva" has been used as a symbol of knowledge, wisdom, perspicacity and erudition throughout the Western world.
The reasons behind the association of Athena and the owl are lost in time. Some mythographers, such as David Kinsley and Martin P. Nilsson suggest that she may descend from a Minoan palace goddess associated with birds and Marija Gimbutas claim to trace Athena's origins as an Old European bird and snake goddess.
On the other hand, Cynthia Berger theorizes about the appeal of some characteristics of owls such as their ability to see in the dark to be used as symbol of wisdom while others, such as William Geoffrey Arnott, propose a simple association between founding myths of Athens and the significant number of Little Owls in the region (a fact noted since antiquity by Aristophanes in The Birds and Lysistrata).
In any case, the city of Athens seems to have adopted the owl as proof of allegiance to its patron virgin goddess, which according to a popular etiological myth reproduced on the West pediment of the Parthenon, secured the favor of its citizens by providing them with a more enticing gift than Poséidon.
Owls were commonly reproduced by Athenians in vases, weights and prize amphoras for the Panathenaic Games. The owl of Athena even became the common obverse of the Athenian tetradrachms after 510 BC and according to Philochorus, the Athenian tetradrachm was known as glaux throughout the ancient world and "owl" in present day numismatics. They were not, however, used exclusively by them to represent Athena and were even used for motivation during battles by other Greek cities, such as in the victory of Agathocles of Syracuse over the Carthaginians in 310 B.C. in which owls flying through the ranks were interpreted as Athena’s blessing or in the Battle of Salamis, chronicled in Plutarch's biography of Themistocles.
(Source: Wikipédia)
moneta romana
Athens_tetra_1.jpg
Athens - AR tetradrachm56 views431-393 BC
head of Athena right - almond shaped eye, crested helmet with olive leaves and floral scroll
owl standing right, head facing, olive sprig and crescent left
AΘE right
Phoenician contermark
bēth yōdh
(Type C), Sear 2526
16,5g 22mm

Three cuts over the owl probably weren't test cuts but intentional destruction of a symbol of unpopular Athens.
Johny SYSEL
CHALKOUS_BOTH_2.jpg
Athens AE2 Star & 2 Crescents Chalkous 87/6 BC4 viewsObv: Athena in Corinthian helmet
Rev: Grounded fulminating Zeus advancing right about to hurl thunderbolt
ΑΘΕ
ethnic surrounding Zeus
Symbol RF: Pontic Star & 2 Crescents
AE2 (18mm) 9.05gm
Kroll 97 Mithradatic war issue King Mithradates & Aristion as magistrates
cicerokid
2_PALMS_ROMA_March_2019.jpg
Athens New Style Tetradrachm 160/59 BC46 viewsObv: Athena right in tri-form helmet
Thompson issue 5 16.97 Gm 32 mm
Thompson Catalogue: Obs:New : Rev:New
Rev:ΑΘΕ ethnic
Owl standing on amphora
2 Magistrates monograms beside each a single palm.
Symbol: 2 Palms
All surrounded by an olive wreath
4 commentscicerokid
Both_No_Symbol_1.jpg
Athens New Style Tetradrachm 161/0 BC6 viewsObs : Athena Parthenos right in tri-form helmet
34.2mm 16.97g Thompson issue 4
Thompson catalogue : Obs 13 : Rev (not in plates)/ NEW?
Rev : ΑΘΕ ethnic
Owl standing on overturned panathenaic amphora
2 magistrates monograms in both fields
No symbol type
All within a surrounding olive wreath
cicerokid
ISIS_Post_Sulla.jpg
Athens New Style Tetradrachm 83/2 BC8 viewsObs : Athena Parthenos right in tri-form helmet
29 mm 16.82 gm Thompson issue 82 Thompson catalogue:ll69a
Rev : ΑΘΕ ethnic
Owl standing on overturned panathenaic amphora
on which month mark Θ control ΔI below
2 magistrates : ARCHITIMOS DEMETRI
RF symbol : Isis
All surrounded by an olive wreath
cicerokid
Savoca_15th_28052017_800_X__resisze_Beatyl_with_Fillets.jpg
Athens New Style Tetradrachm 84/3 BC8 viewsObs : Athena Parthenos right in tri-form helmet
28 mm 16.47 gm Thompson issue 81 Thompson catalogue: Obs 1160 ? Rev: NEW
Rev : ΑΘΕ ethnic
Owl standing on overturned panathenaic amphora
on which month mark B control [] below
2 magistrates : KLEOPHANES EPITHETHES
RF symbol : Beatyl with Fillets
All surrounded by an olive wreath
cicerokid
Both_Tyche_Staff___Cornucopia~0.jpg
Athens New Style Tetradrachm 100/9 BC3 viewsObs : Athena Parthanos right in tri-form helmet
16.25g 29mm Thompson issue 65
Thompson catalogue: Obs 875 : Rev NEW
REV : ΑΘΕ ethnic
Owl standing on overturned panathanaic amphora
on which month mark Λ control ME below
3 magistrates : DOSITHEOS XARIAS XAIR
RF symbol : Tyche, Staff & Cornucopia
All surrounded by an olive wreath
cicerokid
NOW_BOTH_DIONYSOS~0.jpg
Athens New Style Tetradrachm 104/3 BC5 viewsObs: Athena Parthenos right in tri-form helmet
32mm !6.75g Thompson issue 61
Thompson catalogue Obs 802 : Rev h (not in plates)
Rev : ΑΘΕ ethnic
Owl standing on overturned panathenaic amphora
on which month mark Η ? control ΑΠ below
3 magistrates : ANDREAS CHIRANAUTES DEMETRI
RF symbol : Dionysus & Demeter
All within a surrounding olive wreath
cicerokid
NOW_BOTH_QUIVER~0.jpg
Athens New Style Tetradrachm 109/8 BC6 viewsObs : Athena Parthenos in tri-form helmet
30mm 16.64gm Thompson issue 56
Thompson catalogue: Obs 724 : Rev ? (altered)
Rev : AΘE ethnic
Owl standing on overturned panathenaic amphora
on which month mark Δ/Γ control ΠΕ below
3 magistrates : DAMON SOSIKRATES KRITON
RF symbol : Quiver & Bow
All within a surrounding olive wreath
cicerokid
BOTH_NEW_TRIP.jpg
Athens New Style Tetradrachm 113/2 BC7 viewsObs : Athena Parthenos right in tri-form helmet
29mm 16.73 gm Thompson issue 52
Thompson catalogue : Obs 680 : Rev NEW
Rev : ΑΘΕ ethnic
Owl standing on overturned panathenaic amphora
on which month mark M control ME below
3 magistrates : EUMAREIDES KLEOMEN PYRRI
RF symbol : Triptolemos in biga pulled by snakes
All within a surrounding olive wreath
cicerokid
NOW_BOTH_GRAPES~0.jpg
Athens New Style Tetradrachm 115/4 BC7 viewsbs: Athena Parthenos right in tri-form helmet
16.56g 29mm Thompson issue 50
Thompson catalogue : Obs 639 : Rev ? (altered)
Rev : ΑΘΕ ethnic
Owl standing on overturned panathenaic amphora on
which month mark Γ/Β/Α control ΣΦ below
3 magistrates : METRODOROS DEMOSTHE(N) KALLIPH / PYRROS
RF symbol : Bunch of Grapes on vine leaf
All within a surrounding olive wreath
cicerokid
BOTH_NEW_DOUBLE_CORNUCOPIA~0.jpg
Athens New Style Tetradrachm 120/9 BC6 viewsObs : Athena Parthenos right in tri-form helmet
28mm 16.50g Thompson issue 45
Thompson catalogue: Obs 543 : Rev f/g (not in plates)
Rev : ΑΘΕ ethnic
Owl standing on overturned panathenaic amphora
on which month mark Δ control ΔΙ below
3 magistrates : APHRODiSI DIOGE PHILOX
RF symbol : Double Cornucopia with Fillets
All surrounded within an olive wreath
cicerokid
NOW_BOTH_DIOSCURI~0.jpg
Athens New Style tetradrachm 123/2 BC4 viewsObs : Athena Parthanos right in tri-form helmet
16.23g 30mm Thompson issue (new) 42
Thompson catalogue: 479g
REV : ΑΘΕ ethnic
Owl standing on overturned panathanaic amphora
on which month mark Δ control ΣΦ below
3 magistrates : MIKION EURYKLEI BOYKATTHES
RF symbol : Dioscuri
All surrounded by an olive wreath
cicerokid
NOW_BOTH_PROW~0.jpg
Athens New Style tetradrachm 124/3 BC4 viewsObs : Athena Parthenos in tri-form helmet
16.81g 30mm Thompson issue (new) 41
Thompson catalogue : 532
Rev : ΑΘΕ ethnic
Owl standing on overturned panathenaic amphora on
which month mark Ε control ΣΦ below
3 magistrates : KAPAIX EPGOKLE KLE
RF symbol : Prow of Ship
All within a surrounding olive wreath
cicerokid
NOW_BOTH_TRIPOD~0.jpg
Athens New Style Tetradrachm 125/4 BC5 viewsObs : Athena Parthenos right in tri-form helmet
29mm 16.67g Thompson issue 40
Thompson catalogue : 470f
Rev : ΑΘΕ ethnic
Owl standing on overturned panathenaic amphora on
which month mark Θ control ΜΕ below
3 magistrates : POLEMON ALKETES ARIS
LF symbol : Tripod
All within a surrounding olive wreath
cicerokid
NOW_BOTH_FULMEN~0.jpg
Athens New Style Tetradrachm 126/5 BC5 viewsObs : Athena Parthenos right in tri-form helmet
16.65gm 32mm Thompson issue 39
Thompson catalogue Obs 450 : Rev b (not in plates)
Rev : ΑΘΕ ethnic
Owl standing on overturned panathenaic amphora
on which month mark Ε control ΗΡ below
3 magistrates : EPIGENE SOSANDROS ELIODO
LF symbol : Eagle on Thunderbolt
All within a surrounding olive wreath
cicerokid
NOW_BOTH_CADUCEUS~0.jpg
Athens New Style Tetradrachm 133/2 BC6 viewsObs : Athena Parthenos right in tri-form helmet
29mm 17.06g Thompson issue 32
Thompson catalogue: Obs 378 : Rev d (not in plates)
Rev : ΑΘΕ ethnic
Owl standing on overturned panathenaic amphora on
which month mark Ε control ΔΙ below
3 magistrates : POLYCHARM NIKOG DIONYSIOU
LF symbol : Winged Caduceus
All surrounded within an olive wreath
cicerokid
NOW_BOTH_ASKLEPIOS~0.jpg
Athens New Style Tetradrachm 135/4 BC10 viewsbs : Athena Parthenos right in tri-form helmet
16.63g 29.2mm Thompson issue 30
Thompson catalogue: Obs 354 : Rev NEW
Rev : AΘE ethnic
Owl standing on overturned Panathenaic amphora on
which month mark Ν control ΗΡ below
3 magistrates : MENED EPIGENO ARISTE
LF symbol : Asklepios clutching stick with snake entwined
All within a surrounding olive wreath
cicerokid
NOW_BOTH_LIONSKIN~0.jpg
Athens New Style Tetradrachm 136/5 BC7 viewsObs: Athena Parthenos right in tri-form helmet
16.81 g 31.5mm Thompson issue 29
Thompson catalogue: Obs 332: Rev c (not in plates)
Rev : ΑΘΕ ethnic
Owl standing on overturned panathenaic amphora
on which month mark Δ control: ΗΡ below
3 magistrates : HRA ARISTOPH POLYM
LF symbol: Bow Club & Lionskin
All surrounded by an olive wreath
cicerokid
BOTH_NEW_NIKE.jpg
Athens New Style Tetradrachm 137/6 BC4 viewsbs: Athena Parthenos right in tri-form helmet
16.82gm 30mm Thompson issue 28
Thompson catalogue: Obs 315 : Rev NEW
Rev : ΑΘΕ ethnic
Owl standing on overturned panathenaic amphora on
which month mark Β control ΜΕ below
2 magistrates : MIKI ΘΕΟΦΡΑ
RF symbol : Nike driving Quadriga
All within a surrounding olive wreath
cicerokid
NOW_BOTH_HELIOS~0.jpg
Athens New Style Tetradrachm 138/7 BC4 viewsbs : Athena Parthenos right in tri-form helmet
33mm 16.87gm Thompson issue 27
Thompson catalogue : 288a
Rev : ΑΘΕ ethnic
Owl standing on overturned panathenaic amphora on
which month mark Α control ΗΡ in LF
LF - ΓΛΑΥ RF - ΕΧΕ
2 magistrates
RF symbol : Radiate facing bust of Helios
All within a surrounding olive wreath
cicerokid
Both_Aplustre~0.jpg
Athens New Style Tetradrachm 139/8 BC6 viewsObs : Athena Parthenos right in tri-form helmet: No Pegasos
32.8mm 16.87g Thompson issue (new) 26
Thompson catalogue : Obs 264 : Rev NEW
Rev : ΑΘΕ ethnic
Owl standing on overturned panathenaic amphora
upon which month mark Κ control AN below
2 complex magistrates monograms in both fields
RF symbol : Aplustre
All within a surrounding olive wreath
cicerokid
NOW_BOTH_EAGLE~0.jpg
Athens New Style Tetradrachm 141/0 BC4 viewsObs: Athena Parthenos right in tri-form helmet
35mm 16.53gm Thompson issue 24
Thompson catalogue : Obs 230 : Rev NEW
Rev : ΑΘΕ ethnic
Owl standing on overturned panathenaic amphora
on which month mark Δ control ΣΦ below
2 complex magistrates monograms
RF symbol : Eagle perching on right monogram
All within a surrounding olive wreath
cicerokid
APOLLO_BOTH~0.jpg
Athens New Style Tetradrachm 143/2 BC4 viewsObs : Athena Parthenos right in tri-form helmet
16.00 gm 34.4mm Thompson issue 22
Thompson catalogue : Obs 188 : Rev NEW
Rev : ΑΘΕ ethnic
Owl standing on overturned panathenaic amphora on which
month mark Θ below left control mark ME 2 magistrates : ΔΙΟΦΑ ΔΙΟΔΟ
LF symbol : Apollo
All within a surrounding olive wreath
cicerokid
BOTH_THRYSOS~0.jpg
Athens New Style Tetradrachm 144/3 BC6 viewsObs : Athena Parthenos right in tri-form helmet
16.75gm 34mm Thompson issue 21
Thompson catalogue : Obs : GAZIANTEP 185 : Rev NEW
Rev : ΑΘΕ ethnic
Owl standing on overturned panathenaic amphora on
which month mark Ε control ΤΙ below
2 complex magistrates monograms
RF symbol : Filleted Thyrsos
All within a surrounding olive wreath
cicerokid
HORSE_BOTH~1.jpg
Athens New Style Tetradrachm 145/4 BC4 viewsObs : Athena Parthenos right in tri-form helmet
16.70 gm 34.8mm Thompson issue 20
Thompson catalogue : Obs 160 : Rev NEW
Rev : ΑΘΕ ethnic
Owl standing on overturned panathenaic amphora on which
month mark Γ : LF control mark ΣΦΑΙ
2 magistrates : ΠΑΔΩ ΛΥΣΙΑ
RF symbol :Forepart of Bridled Horse
All within a surrounding olive wreath
cicerokid
NOW_BOTH_TRIDENT.jpg
Athens New Style Tetradrachm 147/6 BC SOLD10 viewsObs : Athena Parthenos right in tri-form helmet
16.74 gm 34mm Thompson issue 18
Thompson catalogue : Obs 127 : Rev NEW
Rev : ΑΘΕ ethnic
Owl standing on overturned panathenaic amphora
below control mark ΠΡΟ
2 magistrates : ΑΔΕΙ ΗΛΙΟ
RF symbol : Trident Head
All within a surrounding olive wreath SOLD
cicerokid
Dionysos_Mine_Cornucopia_Both.jpg
Athens New Style Tetradrachm 148/7 BC10 viewsObs: Athena Parthenos right in tri-form helmet
31mm 16.59gm Thompson issue 17
Thompson catalogue: Obs 120/NEW?: Rev (not in plates)/ NEW?
Rev : ΑΘΕ ethnic
Owl standing on overturned panathenaic amphora
2 magistrates : AMMO ΔΙΟ
LF symbol : Cornucopia
EY below amphora
All surrounded by an olive wreath
cicerokid
NOW_BOTH_PALM_LEAF.jpg
Athens New Style Tetradrachm 149/8 BC5 viewsObs : Athena Parthenos right in tri-form helmet
34mm 16.64g Thompson issue 16
Thompson catalogue: Obs 109 : Rev (not in plates)/ NEW?
Rev : AΘE ethnic
Owl standing on overturned panathenaic amphora
on which 2 control letters Ε ? : RF month mark Ι
ΠOΛΥ , TI - MPΔ monogram
2 magistrates : ΠΟΛΥ TIMARCHIDES
Symbol : Palm Leaf (oblique behind owl)
All within a surrounding olive wreath
cicerokid
BOTH_KERNOS~0.jpg
Athens New Style Tetradrachm 150/9 BC3 viewsObs: Athena Parthenos right in tri-form helmet
34.5mm 16.70gm Thompson issue 15
Thompson catalogue: Obs 99: Rev (not in plates)/ NEW?
Rev : ΑΘΕ ethnic
Owl standing on overturned panathenaic amphora
2 magistrates : AMMO ΔΙΟ
LF symbol : Kernos
All surrounded by an olive wreath
cicerokid
BOTH_NEW_TERM_of_HERMES.jpg
Athens New Style Tetradrachm 151/0 BC5 viewsObs : Athena Parthenos right in tri-form helmet
32 3 mm 17.20 g Thompson Issue 14
Thompson catalogue: Obs 87 : Rev NEW
Rev : AΘE ethnic
Owl Standing on overturned panathenaic amphora
on which month mark M/B
2 magistrates mongrams in both fields
LF symbol : Term of Hermes
All within a surrounding olive wreath
cicerokid
NOW_BOTH_SERPENTS.jpg
Athens New Style Tetradrachm 152/1 BC4 viewsObs : Athena Parthenos right in tri-form helmet
33mm 16.92 g Thompson Issue 13
Thompson catalogue: Obs 80 ?? : Rev 79a
Rev : AΘE ethnic
Owl Standing on overturned panathenaic amphora
on which month mark Ζ
XM monogram left, AΦN monogram right
2 magistrates : MOSCHOS PHANIAS
RF symbol : 2 Serpents
All within a surrounding olive wreath
cicerokid
Both_CICADA~0.jpg
Athens New Style Tetradrachm 153/2 BC3 viewsObs : Athena Parthenos right in tri-form helmet
34.2mm 16.80 g Thompson issue 12
Thompson catalogue : Obs 66 : Rev NEW
Rev : ΑΘΕ ethnic
Owl standing on overturned panathenaic amphora
on which month letter A
2 magistrates monograms in both fields
LF symbol : Cicada
All within a surrounding olive wreath
cicerokid
NOW_BOTH_PILAII.jpg
Athens New Style tetradrachm 154/3 BC3 viewsObs : Athena Parthenos right in tri-form helmet
34.5mm 16.72g Thompson issue 11
Thompson catalogue : Obs 60 : Rev (not in plates)/ NEW?
Rev : ΑΘΕ ethnic
Owl standing on overturned panathenaic amphora
2 complex magistrates monograms in both fields
RF symbol : Caps of Dioscuri
All within a surrounding olive wreath
cicerokid
NOW_BOTH_GRAIN_EAR.jpg
Athens New Style Tetradrachm 155/4 BC6 viewsObs : Athena Parthenos right in tri-form helmet
33mm 17.2gm Thompson issue 10
Thompson catalogue: Obs 50 : Rev: (not in plates)/ NEW?
Rev : ΑΘΕ ethnic
Owl standing on overturned panathenaic amphora
2 Complex magistrates monograms in both fields
LF symbol: Ear of Grain
All surrounded by olive wreath
cicerokid
BOTH_TROPHY_EXCELLENT.jpg
Athens New Style Tetradrachm 156/5 BC7 viewsObs : Athena Parthenos right in tri-form helmet
32mm 16.82gm Thompson issue 9
Thompson catalogue: Obs 43 : Rev: (not in plates)/ NEW?
Rev : ΑΘΕ ethnic
Owl standing on overturned panathenaic amphora
2 Complex magistrates monograms in right field
LF symbol: Trophy
All surrounded by olive wreath
cicerokid
BOTH_NIKE_WREATH_PHOTO~0.jpg
Athens New Style Tetradrachm 157/6 BC2 viewsObs : Athena Parthenos right in tri-form helmet
Lions tailed pegasos type
33.8 mm 16.32gm Thompson issue 8
Thompson catalogue: 34b ? ( not in plates)
Rev : ΑΘΕ ethnic
Owl standing on overturned panathenaic amphora
2 magistrates monograms in both fields
RF symbol:Nike presenting Wreath
All surrounded by olive wreath
cicerokid
BOTH_TOP_RUDDER_REV.jpg
Athens New Style Tetradrachm 158/7 BC5 viewsObs : Athena Parthenos in tri-form helmet wearing aegis
15 55g 32.5mm Thompson issue 7
Thompson catalogue : Obs 27 : Rev NEW (no rudder)
Rev : ΑΘΕ ethnic
Owl standing on overturned panathenaic amphora
2 magistrates monograms : NAUKRATES ARI....
NO RUDDER SYMBOL BELOW LF MONOGRAM
EXE graffito below left centre olive wreath
All within surrounding olive wreath
cicerokid
BOTH_CLUB_again.jpg
Athens New Style Tetradrachm 159/8 BC2 viewsObs : Athena Parthenos right in tri-form helmet
16.94gm 36mm Thompson Issue 6
Thompson catalogue : Obs 22 : Rev NEW
Rev : ΑΘΕ ethnic
Owl standing on overturned panathenaic amphora
LF monogram RF monogram Π ω
2 magistrates
RF symbol : Club
All within a surrounding olive wreath
cicerokid
Both_Cornucopia_161_BC.jpg
Athens New Style Tetradrachm 161/0 BC6 viewsObs : Athena Parthenos right in tri-form helmet
32mm 16.66g Thompson issue 4
Thompson catalogue : Obs 13 : Rev: 3c (not in plates)/ NEW?
Rev : ΑΘΕ ethnic
Owl standing on overturned panathenaic amphora
2 magistrates monograms in both fields
RF symbol: Cornucopiae
All within a surrounding olive wreath
cicerokid
Kernos_Bakhos_Both.gif
Athens New Style Tetradrachm 163/2 BC14 viewsObs : Athena Parthenos right in tri-form helmet
35.5mm 16.29g Thompson issue 2
Thompson catalogue : Obs 7 : Rev NEW
Rev : ΑΘΕ ethnic
Owl standing on overturned panathenaic amphora
2 magistrates
1 monogram in LF & in RF
2 Symbols Kernos in RF: Bakhos below amphora
All within a surrounding olive wreath
cicerokid
T_OBV___REV_2~0.jpg
Athens New Style Tetradrachm 164/3 BC7 viewsObs: Athena Parthenos in tri-form helmet
right,wearing Aegis, Biga on neckguard
No border of dots
33.5 mm 16.15gm Thompson issue 1
Thompson catalogue:Obs 3 : Rev NEW
Rev : ΑΘΕ ethnic
Owl standing on overturned panathenaic amphora
2 magistrates monograms in both fields
All surrounded by olive wreath with single tie
cicerokid
STAG_299_16_60_g.jpg
Athens New Style Tetradrachm 79/8 BC31 viewsObs : Athena Parthenos right in tri-form helmet
30 mm 16.60 gm Thompson issue 86 Thompson catalogue: Obs 1217 Rev: New/Not in plztes?
Rev : ΑΘΕ ethnic
Owl standing on overturned panathenaic amphora
on which month mark ? control ? below
2 magistrates : NESTOR MNASEAS
RF symbol : Stag
All surrounded by an olive wreath
1 commentscicerokid
Poppy_BOTH.jpg
Athens New Style Tetradrachm 82/1 BC5 viewsObs : Athena Parthenos right in tri-form helmet
29 mm 16.82 gm Thompson issue 83 Thompson catalogue: Obs 1183 Rev: not in plates/ NEW
Rev : ΑΘΕ ethnic
Owl standing on overturned panathenaic amphora
on which month mark K control ΔI below
2 magistrates : LYSANDROS OINOPHILOS
RF symbol : Poppy Head between 2 Grain Ears
All surrounded by an olive wreath
cicerokid
Athens_CNG_GRIFFIN_2011.jpg
Athens New Style Tetradrachm 89/88 BC18 viewsObs : Athena Parthenos right in tri-form helmet
32 mm 16.78 gm Thompson issue (new) 77
Thompson catalogue: Obs:1131 Rev: Not in plates
Rev : ΑΘΕ ethnic
Owl standing on overturned panathenaic amphora
on which month mark B control EΠ below
3 magistrates : APELLICON GORGIAS DIOGE
RF symbol : Leaping Griffin
All surrounded by an olive wreath
1 commentscicerokid
Roma_and_Nike.jpg
Athens New Style Tetradrachm 90/89 BC13 viewsObs : Athena Parthenos right in tri-form helmet
30.5 mm 15.67 gm corroded Thompson issue (new) 76
Thompson catalogue: 1128a
Rev : ΑΘΕ ethnic
Owl standing on overturned panathenaic amphora
on which month mark Γ control ΠΡ below
3 magistrates : KOINTOS KLEAS DIONYSI
RF symbol : Roma & Nike
All surrounded by an olive wreath
cicerokid
BOTH_ROMA_EXCELLENT~0.jpg
Athens New Style Tetradrachm 91/0 BC2 viewsObs : Athena Parthenos right in tri-form helmet
29.9 mm 16.4 gm Thompson issue (new) 75
Thompson catalogue: Obs1122/Rev1123 NEW
Rev : ΑΘΕ ethnic
Owl standing on overturned panathenaic amphora
on which month mark H/Z control ΣTΕ/ΔΑ below
2 magistrates : XENOCLES HARMOXENOS
RF symbol : Roma seated
All surrounded by an olive wreath
cicerokid
Both_D___T.jpg
Athens New Style Tetradrachm 92/1 BC2 viewsObs : Athena Parthenos right in tri-form helmet
30 mm 16.2 gm Thompson issue (new) 74
Thompson catalogue: Obs1076/Rev Not in plates/NEW
Rev : ΑΘΕ ethnic
Owl standing on overturned panathenaic amphora
on which month mark Δ control ?? below
2 magistrates : XENOCLES HARMOXENOS
RF symbol : Dolphin & Trident
All surrounded by an olive wreath
cicerokid
Both_New_Pegassos~0.jpg
Athens New Style Tetradrachm 94/3 BC4 viewsObs : Athena Parthenos right in tri-form helmet
28.5mm 16.25 gm Thompson issue (New) 67
Thompson catalogue: Obs 972 : Rev NEW
Rev : ΑΘΕ ethnic
Owl standing on overturned panathenaic amphora
on which month mark Θ control Α Π below
3 magistrates : ARIST(I)ON PHILON HGEAS
RF symbol : Drinking Pegasos
All surrounded by an olive wreath
cicerokid
Both_Gorgoneon.jpg
Athens New Style Tetradrachm 95/4 BC5 viewsObs : Athena Parthenos right in tri-form helmet
28.5mm 16.76 gm Thompson issue (New) 66
Thompson catalogue: 937a ? (not in plates)
Rev : ΑΘΕ ethnic
Owl standing on overturned panathenaic amphora
on which month mark Γ control MH below
3 magistrates : NIKETES DIONYSIOS MENE
RF symbol : Gorgon Head
All surrounded by an olive wreath
cicerokid
NOW_BOTH_COILED_SERPENT~0.jpg
Athens New Style Tetradrachm 97/6 BC4 viewsObs : Athena Parthenos right in tri-form helmet
28 mm 16.8 gm Thompson issue 70
Thompson catalogue: Obs NEW: Rev 1019 (altered) NEW
Rev : ΑΘΕ ethnic
Owl standing on overturned panathenaic amphora
on which month mark Ζ/Γ control ΣΟ/ΠΕ below
2 magistrates : XENOCLES HARMOXENOS
RF symbol : Coiled Serpent
All surrounded by an olive wreath
cicerokid
BOTH_IMITATION_CICADA.jpg
Athens New Style Tetradrachm c153/2 BC4 viewsObs : Athena
32.5mm 16.27g Die axis: 6 o'clock
Thompson catalogue : IMITATION
Obs : 1350 Rev : NEW
Rev : ΑΘΕ ethnic Above symbol LF Cicada
Below ΠΟ
Owl standing on overturned panathenaic amphora
All within a surrounding olive wreath
cicerokid
Both_DIOKLES_TO_DEY.jpg
Athens New Style Tetradrachm c47 BC23 viewsbs : Athena Parthenos right in tri-form helmet with tr-partite earings
27mm 17.04gm Thompson (new) issue 105
Thompson catalogue: Obs: I260 Rev:NEW
Rev : ΑΘΕ ethnic
Owl standing on overturned panathenaic amphora on
which month mark A: control ΣΩ below
2 magistrates : DIOKLES TO DEY MEDEIOS
RF symbol : Hygieia
All within a surrounding olive wreath
cicerokid
Both__Ares_New_Style__80_BC.jpg
Athens New Style Tetradrachm c80/9 BC5 viewsbs : Athena Parthenos right in tri-form helmet
29mm 16.04gm Thompson (new) issue 85
Thompson catalogue: IMITATION 1419ba
Rev : ΑΘΕ ethnic
Owl standing on overturned panathenaic amphora on
which month mark Α control ΔΙ below
2 magistrates : EUMELOS THEOXENID(E)S
RF symbol : Ares
All within a surrounding olive wreath
cicerokid
Superb_Both_Aetolia.jpg
Athens New Style Tetradrachm c90/9 BC7 viewsObs : Athena Parthenos right in tri-form helmet
29 mm 16.53 gm Thompson issue (new) 75
Thompson catalogue: IMITATION Obs : 1420 Rev : NEW
Rev : ΑΘΕ ethnic
Owl standing on overturned panathenaic amphora
on which month mark A control ? below
2 magistrates : XENOCLES HARMOXENOS
RF symbol : Aetolia ?
All surrounded by an olive wreath
cicerokid
G292_Athens_fac.jpg
Attica, Athens, Athena, Owl, New Style Tetradrachm19 viewsAttica. Athens
New Style Tetradrachm
Obv: Head of Athena right, wearing crested Attic helmet
Rev: Owl standing right on amphora, no symbol, A - ΘE flanking owl's head, ΔIOTIMOΣ MAΓAΣ XAPINAYTHΣ magistrates, ΣΦ below amphora, Γ on amphora. All within wreath
AR, 16.47g, 28mm
Ref.: Thompson 656 a,b
Ex Sothebys London, June 2000
1 commentsshanxi
Augustus~0.jpg
Augustus86 viewsAugustus, 16 January 27 B.C. - 19 August 14 A.D.

Obverse:

Augustus with his bare head right

CAESAR AVGVST PONT MAX TRIBVNIC POT

CAESAR: Ceasar, emperor
AVGVST: Agustus
PONT MAX: Pontifix Maximus,
TRIBVNIC: Tribunicia, tribunal
POT: POTESTAS, the people

Reverse:

M MAECILIVS TVLLVS III VIR A A A F F

M: Marcus
MAECILLIS: Maelcilius
TVLLVS: Tullus
IIIVIR: Triumviri
AAAFF: Auro, Argento, Aeri, Flando, Feriundo,

S . C, Senatus Consultum

I think the dots were used as centering devices, one see them sometimes on Soldiers/Standards coins although on this coin it is certainly a large dot.

Domination: AS, Copper

Mint: Rome

The Roman Moneyers (or you may prefer the title of Mint Magistrates) were also responsible for the minting of gold, silver and bronze coinage and they reported to the Senate. They were known as the Triumviri Monetales or Triumviri Auro, Argento, Aeri, Flando, Feriundo which is abbreviated as III VIR. A.A.A. F.F. which may be translated as 'Commision (or college) of three men under whom gold, silver and bronze coins were struck'. (Note that the order of the metals varies according to different references.) The title 'III VIR. A.A.A. F.F.' occurs rarely on Republic coins and when it is present it is usually seen in an abbreviated form such as 'III VIR'. It is interesting to note that the full title occurs frequently on the reverses of Augustan Aes

The College of the Three Moneyers was a revived republican tradition. This coin was struck under the supervision of Marcus Salvius Otho, an ancestor of the future emperor Otho. Later, the number of members was increased to four, and their names were not included on the coins.

TRP = This is short for tribunicia potestate - "with the power of the Tribune of the Plebs." The government of Rome was split into the Patricians (who were Senators) and the Plebians. Nine Tribunes of the Plebs were elected by both Plebs and Patricians every year to be in charge of the Plebian assembly. These Tribunes could not be injured because it could be punishable by death. They had veto powers, and they could prevent a law from being passed or an election. An emperor cannot technically rule on the Plebian assembly since he is a Patrician, but by taking the title he could be free from injury. On a coin, if this symbol is followed by a number, it depicts how many times he has been elected Tribune of the Plebs.
John Schou
auli~0.jpg
Augustus and Livia , Colonial Romula (Seville), Minted by Tiberus13 viewsAugustus and Livia, minted by Tiberius, 14 Aug 19 - 16 Mar 37 A.D.
This coin associates Livia with globe and crescent symbols and refers to her as Augusta Genetrix Orbis, Sacred Mother of the World. This extraordinary title was never official and is not used on any other coin type for any empress.
5474. Orichalcum dupondius, RPC I 73, Alverez Burgos 1587, aF, Colonia Romula mint, 25.1g, 33.4mm, 180°, obverse PERM DIVI AVG COL ROM, Augustus radiate head right, star above, thunderbolt right; reverse IVLIA AVGVSTA GENETRIX ORBIS, Livia head left on globe, crescent above;
sold 4-2018
NORMAN K
normal_AUGUDU03-2~0.jpg
Augustus, RIC 158, medium bronze of 10 BC to AD 1068 viewsmedium bronze (dupondius ?) (12.6g, 25mm, 2h) Nemausus mint. Struck 10 BC - 10 AD.
Obv.: IMP DIVI F Agrippa laureate head left and Augustus laureate head right, back to back
Rev.: COL NEM crocodile chained to palm tree top bent to right, wreath at top.
RIC (Augustus) 158

COL NEM stands for COLONIA AVGVSTA NEMAVSVS (now the city of Nîmes, France), built by Augustus' army after their conquest and return from Egypt. The crocodile chained to the palm tree symbolizes the defeat of the Cleopatra and Marc Antony at Actium. This symbol is still used as the city's emblem in Nîmes today.
3 commentsCharles S
mazaios~0.jpg
Baal or Zeus (Interpretatio Graecia) on Cilician Stater of Satrap Mazaios266 viewsCirca 361-334 B.C. AR Stater (10.88g, 24mm, 5h). cf. SNG Levant-106; SNG Paris-. Obverse Baal of Tarsos enthroned left, head facing, holding club, bunch of grapes, wheat ear, and eagle in right hand, lotus-headed scepter in left hand, B’LTRZ (Baaltarz) in Aramaic behind, M below throne, all within a circle of dots. Reverse lion bringing down bull, attacking with teeth and claws, MZDI (Mazdai) in Aramaic above, unlisted ankh symbol, wheat ear below, all within a circle of dots. Sharply struck on an excellent metal with areas of flat strikes on high points. Choice superb EF/EF. Toned, lustrous.

Ex Ponterio and Associates Sale No. 84, November 1996, lot 141. Ex Stacks Bowers and Ponterio Sale No. 172, November 2012, lot 11680. Ex Pars Coins.

The depiction of Phoenician-Canaanite god Baal on Cilician coinage suggests the preeminence of his cult in Tarsos. He is shown enthroned, most probably on Mount Zaphon. The symbols corn-ear/barley and grapes suggest Baal’s capacity as a god involved in the seasonal cycles of life and death, or a more specific reference to Cilicia’s fertile plains. The iconography of this late coinage is also a syncretic mixture of other cultures, including Greek. The treatment of the god’s body gives us a hint of the extent of influence of Hellenic culture exerted in Eastern Asia Minor long before Alexander’s conquest, and it is said that Baal could be equated with Zeus in the Greek context. After the conquest of Alexander III of the East, Mazaios was appointed governor of Babylon. The new coinage of Alexander was strongly influenced by Mazaios’ pre-Alexandrine coinage (the Zeus Aetophoros commonly found on the reverses of his tetradrachmai is a direct descendant of this). The reverse depicts the City’s Emblem and clearly has an underlying meaning now lost to us. Some say it symbolizes the victory of Day over Night, while others suggest military conquest and subjugation of the enemies by the Persian Empire. Marvin Tameanko has persuasively argued (see Celator, Jan. 1995, pp. 6-11) that the kneeling bull (without the lion) is symbolic of Zeus, as attested on scores of later Greek and Roman coins; and the lion is symbolic of the supreme god Baal of the Cilicians. This concludes the lion-over-bull motif on this coin delivers a message that is blatantly direct and simple, if the argument put forward is to be believed.
4 commentsJason T
kushan_kaniskaI_Göbl766cf.jpg
Bactria, Kingdom of Kushans, Kanishka I, Göbl 766 cf.56 viewsKanishka I, AD 127-151
AE 22
obv. BACILEVC BACI - LEWN KANHiKOV (i should be read like sh as in Kushan)
Kanishka, bearded, wearing heavy Kushan cloak and trousers, long boots and
high hat, stg. facing, holding standard in l. hand and sacrificing with r. hand
over altar; from his shoulders emanating flames; club at feet r.(?)
rev. HLIOC
Helios, nimbate, stg. l., r. had hand raised in salvation gestus (Greek style)
left before monogram (tamgha) of Kanishka
cf. Göbl 766 (has HILOC in legend)
rare, good F/VF

Kanishka I was a very important ruler in South-East-Asia. While in his early years he was an adherent of syncretistic religions he later established Buddhism in his empire and became a crucial founder.
This type belongs to Kanishka's earlier years, because the legends are Greek. Later issues have legends in Kushan. Tamgha first was a brand for cattle, later it became a symbol for the nomadic clans too.
Jochen
murex.jpg
BCC 4918 viewsMurex shell, source of Royal Purple Dye,
and the symbol of Tyre-Phoenicia
6.30cm. From the beach at Caesarea
v-drome
BCC_g14_eagle.jpg
BCC g14112 viewsRoman Gem Stone Intaglio
2nd-3rd century CE
Caesarea Maritima
Eagle between vexilla, standing right,
head left, wreath? in beak.
Yellow Jasper in iron setting.
Gem size: 12 x 9 mm. 2.94gm.
Anit Hamburger's "Gems from Caesarea Maritima",
Atiqot English Series, Vol. VIII, 1968, lists several
gems which include an eagle between vexilla in the
design. "The military symbol of an eagle between standards
represented the luck of the unit and was venerated...probably
becoming a magical symbol” (page 14).
Coins from Caesarea with this motif were also minted by
Trajan Decius and Trebonianus Gallus.
1 commentsv-drome
anguipede_lead_1.jpg
BCC L651 viewsLead Amulet
Late Roman - Gnostic
Obv: Anguipede, stylized Persian influenced snake-legged figure,
usually with head of rooster, carrying flail and shield.
Rev: ABPACAX mystical word whose letters add up to 365
in the Greek numerical system. The Gnostic cult was active at Caesarea at least
through the early 4th century. At this stage, the magical symbol itself on this amulet
has become more important than the details of that image.
22x16mm 3.86gm Axis:0
v-drome
BCC_LS14_Lead_Seal.jpg
BCC LS1416 viewsLead Seal
6th Century CE
Obv: Facing portrait, nimbate,
Mother and Child. Possible symbols
to left and right (cross?)
Rev: Cruciform monogram with Greek letters:
θ, E, Λ, Ρ, I, O, Υ,
Eleutheriou
20.5 x 19mm. 7.85gm. Axis:0
J. Berlin Caesarea Collection
v-drome
BCC_LT12_Uterus_Bird__Tessera.jpg
BCC LT1216 viewsLead Tessera
Caesarea Martima
1st to 4th Century CE?
Obv: Uterus symbol.
Rev: Uncertain object,
perhaps bird or rooster.
11x12mm. 1.07gm.
Axis:330?
cf. Anit Hamburger #76
v-drome
BCC_Lt41_cornu.jpg
BCC Lt4132 viewsLead Tessera
Roman, uncertain date
Obv: Crossed cornucopiae,
uncertain symbols to lt. and rt.
Incuse circular punch.
Rev: Blank
Pb 11 x 10 x 1mm.
Wt: 1.16gm.
v-drome
BCC_LT55_Uterus_symbol_.jpg
BCC LT5512 viewsLead Tessera
Caesarea Maritima
Roman 1st-4th? Cent. CE
Obv: Uterus Symbol?
Rev: Uncertain figure, serpent?
13.5 x 12 x 3.0mm. 2.09gm. Axis:?
cf. Hamburger #74-#77 obverse.
J. Berlin Caesarea Collection
v-drome
BCC_LT74_tessera_uterus_.jpg
BCC LT7419 viewsLead Tessera
Caesarea Maritima
1st to 4th Century CE?
Obv: Uterus symbol?
on large raised pellet.
Rev: Uncertain object,
perhaps bird, branch, or
Pegasus?, on raised pellet.
9 x 8 x 2.5mm. 0.86gm.
Axis:270?
cf. A. Hamburger #77
v-drome
BHM_1061__Elgin_Marbles_East_IV_24-27.jpg
BHM 1061. The Elgin Marbles, East Frieze IV 24-27.81 viewsObv. THE ELGIN MARBLES DEDICATED BY PERMISSION TO HIS MAJESTY GEORGE IV The Royal Coat of Arms with supporters.
Rev. CASTOR POLLUX CERES AND TRIPTOLEMUS THOMASON DIREXIT Hermes, Dionysos(?), Demeter and Ares seated.

AE48

The British Museum writes about the fragment depicted:
24-25. Hermes, a messenger god, sits looking in the direction of the procession. He wears sandals and a traveller's hat (petasos) rests on his knee. The figure who leans on his shoulder is probably Dionysos, god of wine. His left arm was supported by a staff (thyrsos).
26. Demeter, goddess of growing corn, was shown resting her chin (now missing) upon her hand. In Greek art this was a conventional gesture of mourning. Her grief is for her daughter Persephone, who was abducted by the god of the Underworld. In her left hand Demeter holds a torch, the symbol of the Eleusinian Mysteries, of which she was the patron.
27. Ares, god of war, sits with one knee cradled in his hands, while his left foot rests on the haft of a spear. Part of the weapon is just visible below the ankle bone. The rest of it must have been painted on the stone.
LordBest
FotorCreated~33.jpg
Boeotia Haliartus AR Stater circa 500-480 BC 18mm 12.34g28 viewsBoeotian shield upper and lower rim divided into four segments.Rev archaic aspirate symbol for the H sound in center of incuse mill sail pattern.
EX BCD
Grant H
Bruttium~1.jpg
Bruttium Petelia Quadrantes63 viewsLaureate head of Zeus right; behind three pellets,

ΠΕΤΗ/ΛΙΝΩΝ
Zeus standing right, preparing to hurl thunderbolt and holding scepter; device (monogram?) to the left.

Bruttium Petalia
3.57g

SNG Copenhagen 1916; HN Italy 2461 var. (symbol)
4 commentsJay GT4
Vibo.jpg
Bruttium Vibo Valentia Semis79 views Bronze semis

head of Juno (Hera) right, wearing stephane, S (mark of value) behind

VALENTIA
Double cornucopia overflowing with grain and grapes, carnyx (control symbol) and S (mark of value) on right


Vibo Valentia mint, 193 - 150 B.C.

3.57g, 18.1 mm 270o

Mensitieri Valentia 211; HN Italy 2263; SNG ANS 483, SNG Cop 1849; BMC Italy p. 361, 16 (control described as staff ending in boar's head)

Ex-Forum from the Andrew McCabe Collection
6 commentsJay GT4
HN_Italy_2497.jpg
Bruttium, Rhegion, 415-387 B.C., Drachm 28 views14mm, 3.89 grams
Reference: Sear 502; B.M.C.1.38
Lion's scalp facing.
PHΓINON, Laureate head of Apollo right, olive-sprig behind.

"Dionysios I, after concluding a peace with the Carthaginians, went about securing his power in the island of Sicily. His troops, however, rebelled against him and sought help from, among others, the city of Rhegion (Diod. Sic. 14.8.2). In the ensuing campaigns, Dionyios I proceeded to enslave the citizens of Naxos and Katane, with whom the Rhegians shared a common history and identity (Diod. Sic. 14.40.1). This association was a source of anger and fear for the inhabitants of Rhegion. The Syracusan exiles living there also encouraged the Rhegians to go to war with Syracuse (Diod. Sic. 14.40.3). The overarching strategy of Dionysios I included extending his power into Italy by using Rhegion as a stepping stone to the rest of the peninsula. In 387 BC, after a siege that lasted eleven months, the Rhegians, on the brink of starvation, surrendered to Dionysus. Indeed, we are told that by the end of the siege, a medimnos of wheat cost about five minai (Diod. Sic. 14.111.2). Strabo remarks that, following Dionysios' capture of the city, the Syracusan “destroyed the illustrious city” (Strabo 6.1.6).

The next decade or so of the history of Rhegion is unclear, but sometime during his reign, Dionysios II, who succeeded his father in 367 BC, rebuilt the city, giving it the new name of Phoibia (Strabo 6.1.6). Herzfelder argues that this issue was struck by Dionysios II of Syracuse after he rebuilt the city, and dates it to the period that Dionysios II is thought to have lived in the city. Due to civil strife at Syracuse, Dionysios II was forced to garrison Region, but was ejected from the city by two of his rivals circa 351 BC (Diod. Sic. 16.45.9).

The coin types of Rhegion, founded as a colony of Chalcis, are related to its founding mythology. Some of the earliest tetradrachms of the city, from the mid-5th century BC, depict a lion’s head on the obverse, and a seated figure on the reverse. J.P. Six (in NC 1898, pp. 281-5) identified the figure as Iokastos, the oikistes (founder) of Rhegion (Diod. Sic. 5.8.1; Callimachus fr. 202). Head (in HN), suggested Aristaios, son of Apollo. Iokastos was one of six sons of Aiolos, ruler of the Aeolian Islands. All of the sons of Aiolos secured their own realms in Italy and Sicily, with Iokastos taking the region around Rhegion. Aristaios, born in Libya, discovered the silphium plant, and was the patron of beekeepers (mentioned by Virgil), shepherds, vintners, and olive growers. He also protected Dionysos as a child, and was the lover of Eurydike. The replacement of the seated figure type with the head of Apollo circa 420 BC also suggests the figure could be Aristaios. An anecdote from the first-century BC geographer Strabo (6.1.6 and 6.1.9), which connects Rhegion’s founding to the orders of the Delphic Oracle and Apollo, as the reason for the advent of the new type could be simply serendipitous.

Different theories exist for the lion’s head on the coins of Rhegion. The lion’s head (or mask as it is sometimes described) first appeared on the coinage of Rhegion at the start of the reign of Anaxilas, in about 494 BC. E.S.G. Robinson, in his article “Rhegion, Zankle-Messana and the Samians” (JHS vol. 66, 1946) argues that the lion was a symbol of Apollo. He makes a comparison to the coinage of the nearby city of Kaulonia, “At Kaulonia Apollo’s animal was the deer; if at Rhegion it was the lion, the early appearance and persistence of that type is explained. The lion is a certain, though infrequent, associate of Apollo at all periods.” The link, he suggests, is that the lion was associated with the sun, as was Apollo himself.

The lion’s head could also relate to the exploits of Herakles, who had some significance for the city. The extant sources tell us that Herakles stopped at southern Italy near Rhegion on his return with the cattle of Geryon (Diod. Sic. 4.22.5). It was here that supposedly a bull broke away from the rest of the herd and swam to Sicily (Apollod. 2.5.10). Though but a passing reference in Apollodorus, it is very possible that the Rhegians venerated Herakles. Indeed, Herakles was a very important figure throughout the entire area. Dionysios of Halicarnassus says that “in many other places also in Italy [besides Rome] precincts are dedicated to this god [Herakles] and altars erected to him, both in cities and along highways; and one could scarcely find any place in Italy in which the god is not honoured” (I.40.6). As the skin of the Nemean Lion was one of the main attributes of Herakles, the lion’s head may refer to him through metonymic association."
1 commentsLeo
__5.jpg
BRUTTIUM, Rhegion. AR Litra37 viewsCirca 445-435 BC.
10x11 mm , 0,7 g
Facing lion’s head / Ethnic ; symbol below ; all within olive wreath . _8103
Antonivs Protti
bruttium.jpg
Bruttium, Rhegion. Circa 215-150 BC. Æ Pentonkion.33 viewsObv: Janiform female head, wearing polos.
Rev: ΡΗΓΙΝΩΝ, Asklepios seated left, holding scepter, lebes/tripod control symbol in left field.
ancientone
BrettianJupiter.jpg
Bruttium, The Bretti, drachm100 viewsVeiled head of Hera Lakinia right, wearing polos; scepter over shoulder, feather to left

ΒΡΕΤΤΙΩΝ
Zeus standing left, right foot on ionic capital, holding scepter; crab to left, [tiny Γ between foot and scepter].

Second Punic War issue. Circa 216-214 BC.
3.88 g.

Arslan dies 12/17’; Scheu 68–77 var. (obv. symbol);

HN Italy 1969. VF, toned, struck with worn dies.

Rare issue with feather on obverse, unknown to Scheu.

Ex-CNG 407 lot 14, From the B. H. Webb Collection. Ex-Pipito Collection

Tough to photograph, much better in hand.
5 commentsJay GT4
Bulgar_Ivan-Shishman-(1371-1395AD)_AR-Half-Grosh_Tarnovo_Dochev-4440_Q-001_6h_13,5-14mm_0,43g-s.jpg
Bulgaria, Ivan Shishman, (1371-1395 A.D.), AR-Half-Grosh, Tarnovo, Dochev-4440, 107 viewsBulgaria, Ivan Shishman, (1371-1395 A.D.), AR-Half-Grosh, Tarnovo, Dochev-4440,
avers:- Half bust of the Virgin orans, with figure of nimbate infant Christ to her breast.
revers:- Half figure of emperor, holding cross-tipped sceptre; symbols around.
exe:-/-//--, diameter: 13,5-14mm, weight: 0,43g, axis: 6h,
mint: Tarnovo, date: 1371-1395 A.D., ref: Dochev-4440, Radushev-Zhekov-1.15.9 - 1.15.12, page 202 (as grosso), Moushmov-
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
BYZANTINE_MAURICE_TIB_CHERSON_MINT.jpg
BYZANTINE EMPIRE - MAURICE TIBERIAS 33 viewsBYZANTINE EMPIRE - MAURICE TIBERIAS (582-602 CE) Bronze Pentanummia (Half-Follis). Cherson mint. Obv.: ΧΕΡCONOC Maurice on left; Empress Constantina on right, both standing facing & nimbate, Emperor holds globus cruciger; Empress holds long cruciform sceptre. Rev.: Large Δ to left, cross above it; to right - Theodosius, son of Maurice, stands facing, nimbate, holding long staff surmounted by XI-RHO symbol. Reference: Sear #610.

*NOTE: There is a controversy in the attribution: Anokhin (and other Russian experts) assign the varieties with XEPCWNOC to Justin II, instead of the older attribution to Maurice used by Sear. Anokhin assigns only those with DNMAVRIC PP AVG to Maurice. Grierson does not outright deny it, but has his doubts. Very similar coins were issued in the name of Maurice, so older attributions of the "XEPCONOC" types were also to Maurice, but now some scholars have argued that they were originally issued by Justin II. Under the old attribution the obverse figures are Maurice and his wife and the reverse figure is his son Theodosius. Grierson (p. 73) says, "If the coins all belong together it would seem reasonable to regard them as an insurrectionary coinage struck at Cherson in 602, the intention of the rebels having been initially to depose Maurice in favor of his son Theodosius and not the upstart adventurer Phocas." According to this theory, the revolt prompted a new coin with a neutral legend, which was replaced by the emperor's name when the outcome favored Maurice. This attribution is accepted by Sear.

Anokhin (1980) and Hahn (1978) concur in attributing them to Justin II (and the following period). Anokhin argues the two-figure type resembles the regular type introduced by Justin II and Sophia. However, a type can resemble one of Justin II and be issued a few years later. Anokhin says (p. 92) "if the striking commenced from the moment Theodosius was named Augustus, i.e. in 590, all three series with differing types would have had to be issued within limits between 590-602, which is unlikely." Hahn also argues that there are several minor varieties which would probably take a number of years to mint. However, the varieties are clearly very similar and not numerous. I think there is no need to postulate more than ten years to mint three very similar types, all of which are scarce.

Anokhin (p. 92) argues "if we assign the coins described to Maurice we expose their failure to correspond with empire-wide coins, which have on the obverse a portrait of Maurice alone." But that argument is feeble -- we know Maurice minted such coins that fail to correspond with empire-wide coins -- some of the coins we are attributing have his name on them!

Anokhin (p. 93) thinks the reverse figure, if a real person, could "be Tiberius, the future emperor, who was proclaimed Caesar in December 574 and who reigned as co-regent jointly with Sophia during the last four years of the life of Justin II who was mentally ill." However, he does not accept that it is a real person and says "it most likely represents some symbolic figure or a saint."

Hahn notes that the reverse figure seems to be a Caesar (because the pendillia are lacking) and says in the later 6th century the only appropriate Caesar is Tiberius II under Justin II. However, the older attribution already had an acceptable Caesar, just in the early 7th instead of the late 6th century. Hahn notes the first issue, with the "M" and "K" has a capital omega in "XERCWNOC", rather than the later "O", as do some of the "H" and delta pieces. Clearly, the "M" and "K" are the first of the series. However, that does not make them issued by Justin II.

Hahn admits, as noted by Grierson, that the two-figure type is very similar to some coins of Focas, showing a continuum of types could equally well be at either end of the potential attribution period. Hahn gives the attribution to Justin II and calls it "secure." It may well be that the "M" and "K" types began under Justin II, but the Hahn paper presents no convincing evidence.

If we postulate this type began under Justin II, it is hard to explain why it pops up again under Maurice with a 12-year gap from the end of Justin II (578) until Maurice (582-602) promotes Theodosius to Caesar (May 26, 590). Unless, of course, it was minted throughout the period as a type immobilise. (Thanks for ancients.info for the argument text). My own research of my Russian resources vs. Sear and others confirm all of the above!
dpaul7
Sear-243.jpg
Byzantine Empire: Justinian I (527-565) AE Pentanummium, Antioch/Theopolis (Sear-243; DOC 270)18 viewsObv: DN IVSTINIANVS PP AVG; pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right
Rev: Large Є with crossbar, Greek V/O monogram, symbolizing Theopolis, to right
SpongeBob
Justinan1.jpg
BYZANTINE, Justinan 144 viewsThis emperor recovered most of Roman lands lost by predecesors but this was last gasp of Roman glory. Lands were lost after his death. Obverse shows Justinan facing. Reverse shows angel holding rod with chi and rho, symbols of Christ.goldcoin
1335_266_C__Cassius.jpg
C. Cassius - AR denarius4 viewsRome
²130 BC
¹126 BC
head of Roma right wearing winged helmet, urn behind
(XVI)
Libertas in quadriga right, holding pileus and scepter
C·CASSI
ROMA
¹Crawford 266/1, Sydenham 502, BMCRR Rome 1032, RSC I Cassia 1, SRCV I 142
²Mark Passehl - Roman moneyer & coin type chronology, 150 – 50 BC
3,8g
ex Künker

Depiction of Libertas, as well as voting urn, refer to the lex Cassia tabellaria from 137 BC. This law legalized secret ballot for court decisionmaking. Vindicta and pileus held by Libertas are symbols of liberty.
Johny SYSEL
clovi_Crawford476.1a.jpg
C. Clovius, Crawford 476/1a138 viewsAE - Orichalcum-Dupondius, 14.87g, 27mm
struck 45 BC for Julius Caesar, mint in northern Italy (probably Milano)
obv. bust of Victoria, winged, draped and with ear-ring, r.
CAESAR.DIC.TER before
rev. Minerva, wearing Korinthian helmet, advancing l., holding trophy over r.
shoulder, spear and shield decorated with head of Medusa; behind her feet a
snake, erecting in front of her.
C.CLOVI before, PRAEF behind
Crawford 476/1a; Sydenham 1025; C.7; RPC I 601/1; CRI 62; Julia 17; BMRR 4125
about VF, attractive yellow-olive patina (so-called river-patina!)
Pedigree:
ex Glendining 25.June 1997, lot 45
ex CNG

An exceptional issue: It is the first Roman coin struck from Orichalcum (brass). Probably this type was struck after the victory over the sons of Pompeius at Munda 17.March AD 45 to serve as donation at his triumph in Rome. The depiction is unusual and is a symbol of Caesar's military abilities. Brass was used probably to make the look of the coin more valuable.
4 commentsJochen
749_467_Caesar.JPG
C. Julius Caesar - AR denarius5 viewsmoving mint (Africa or Sicily)
I - IV 46 BC
head of Ceres right, grain wreath
DICT·ITER__COS·TERT
sacrificial implements: simpulum, aspergillum, capis (jug), lituus
AVGVR / PONT·MAX
M
SRCV I 1403, Crawford 467/1, RSC I 4
3,7g
ex Aurea

Ceres symbolizes Africa as granary of Rome. M on reverse means munus - payment for soldier's service. These coins probably served to pay Caesar's veterans after battle of Thapsus.
Johny SYSEL
C__Marius_C_f__Capito.jpg
C. Marius C.f. Capito - Maria-9132 viewsROMAN REPUBLIC, C. Marius C.f. Capito. 81 B.C. AR Serrate Denarius (3.86 g, 19.5 mm). CAPIT • XXXXI behind draped bust of Ceres right, wreathed in corn, symbol below chin. / Plowman steering yoke of oxen left, XXXXI above; C • MARCI • C • F / SC in ex. Crawford 378/1c; Sydenham 744b; RSC Maria 9; RCV 3009 commentsBud Stewart
rsc_valeria_12a.jpg
C. Valerius Flaccus AR Denarius RSC Valeria 12a18 viewsAr Denarius of C. Valerius Flaccus 82-81BC

Obverse: Bust of Victory Right, Symbol in front of head.

Reverse: "C.VAL.FLA.IMPERAT" Legionary eagle between two standards inscribed H and P, EX S.C between them.

3.49g, 19mm, RSC Valeria 12a
284ad
00762.jpg
C. Vibius C.F. Pansa (RSC I Vibia 2, Coin #762)2 viewsRSC I Vibia 2, AR Denarius, Rome, 90 BC
OBV: PANSA; Laureate head of Apollo right, control symbol below chin.
REV: C•VIBIVS•C•F•; Minerva in a quadriga right, trophy over shoulder in right, spear and reins in left.
SIZE: 17.69mm, 3,74g
MaynardGee
298_RR_C__Vibius_C_f__Pansa_Sear242.jpg
C. Vibius C.f. Pansa. Denarius 90 BC9 viewsReference.
Sydenham 684. Crawford 342/5b.

Obv. no legend.
PANSA Laureate head of Apollo right, below chin, symbol.

Rev. Minerva in fast quadriga right, holding spear and reins in l. hand and trophy in right.
in exergue, C·VIBIVS·C·F. B. Vibia 1.

3.94 gr
19 mm
okidoki
zb~1.jpg
C.MARIUS C.f. CAPITO37 viewsAR denarius. 81 BC. 3.75 gr. Draped bust of Ceres right,head bound with corn wreath. CAPIT CXXXXI behind,symbol before. / Plowman with yoke of oxen left. CXXXXI above; C.MARI.C.F./SC in exergue.
RSC Maria 9; Craw. 378/1c.
I & L Goldberg 2002. Ex Lejeune collection.

benito
cmari.jpg
C.MARIUS C.f. CAPITO72 viewsAR denarius. 81 BC. 3.75 gr. Draped bust of Ceres right,head bound with corn wreath. CAPIT CXXXXI behind,symbol (jellyfish) before. / Plowman with yoke of oxen left. CXXXXI above; C.MARI.C.F./SC in exergue. Border of dots.
RSC Maria 9; Craw. 378/1c.
I & L Goldberg 2002. Ex Lejeune collection.
1 commentsbenito
60-1a-blk.jpg
Caduceus (early) - Denarius, Crawford 60/114 viewsDenomination: Denarius
Era: c. 211-208 BC
Metal: AR
Obverse: Helmeted head of Roma R; X behind. Border of dots

Reverse: Dioscuri riding r.; Caduceus symbol below.; ROMA in raised letters in frame. Line border

Mint: Unknown mint in central Italy
Weight: 4.72 gm.
Reference: RRC 60/1
Provenance: Aureo & Calico Alba Longa sale, November 7, 2018; Ex. The Goodman Collection, Triton I, December 2-3, 1997, lot 892.

This issue is one of the most crude but distinctive of the early denarii. Lovely light toning, well centered and about EF.
1 commentsSteve B5
108-1-NAC84.jpg
Caduceus, Denarius, Crawford 108/111 viewsDenomination: Denarius
Era: c. 211-208 BC
Metal: AR
Obverse: Helmeted head of Roma r. with splayed visor; “X” behind; Border of dots
Reverse: Dioscuri r.; Below, caduceus symbol; in linear frame, “ROMA”.
Mint: Uncertain
Weight: 4.37 gm.
Reference: Crawford 108/1
Provenance: NAC 84, Part II, 21-MAY-2015

Comments:
Crawford 108/1 with Caduceus symbol is a rare issue. It is believed to be later and is of completely different style from the other caduceus issue, Crawford 60/1. Well centered, nearly complete, and VF
Steve B5
Taras_Calabria_Italy.jpg
Calabria Italy Taras on Dolphin92 viewsTaras, Calabria, Italy, Silver nomos, Taros mint, 272 - 235 BC, 20.3mm, 6.375g, 0o axis, Vlasto 877 ff., SNG ANS 1197 ff., HN Italy 1033
OBV: Nude youth on horseback right, shield and two lances in left hand, spear pointed downwards in right, DI above left, API-STI/KL-HS below
REV: TARAS, Taras astride dolphin left, kantharos in right, trident in left, head of a nymph left behind; typical tight flan

The reverse depicts Taras, the son of Poseidon and of a local nymph,
Satyrion, being saved from a shipwreck by riding a dolphin sent to him by Poseidon.
This symbol of the ancient Greek city is still the symbol of Taranto today.

EX: Forum Ancient Coins
4 commentsRomanorvm
Calabria_Italy_Taras_on_Dolphin.jpg
Calabria Italy Taras on Dolphin21 viewsTaras, Calabria, Italy, c. 272 - 240 B.C., Silver nomos, Unpublished(?); Vlasto 932 var. (different controls), SNG ANS 1239 var. (same), HN Italy 1044 var. (same), SNG Cop -, BMC Italy -, VF, 6.520g, 19.7mm, die axis 180°,
OBV: Nude warrior wearing crested helmet on horse standing left, holding shield on left arm, horse raising right foreleg, ET (control) before horse, API-ΣTΩN below divided by horse's left foreleg;
REV: Taras on dolphin left, kantharos in extended right hand, trident nearly vertical in left, ΓY (control) behind upper right, TAPAΣ below;

Very Rare variant. EX: Forum Ancient Coins

Taras, the only Spartan colony, was founded in 706 B.C. The founders were Partheniae ("sons of virgins"), sons of unmarried Spartan women and Perioeci (free men, but not citizens of Sparta).
These out-of-wedlock unions were permitted to increase the prospective number of soldiers (only the citizens could be soldiers) during the bloody Messenian wars. Later, however, when they were no longer
needed, their citizenship was retroactively nullified and the sons were obliged to leave Greece forever. Their leader, Phalanthus, consulted the oracle at Delphi and was told to make the harbor of Taranto
their home. They named the city Taras after the son of Poseidon, and of a local nymph, Satyrion. The reverse depicts Taras being saved from a shipwreck by a dolphin sent to him by Poseidon.
This symbol of the ancient Greek city is still the symbol of modern Taranto today.

SRukke
Vlasto_255.jpg
Calabria, Taras, 425-415 BC, Oecist Nomos39 views7.99g. Fischer-Bossert-279 (V127/R212), Vlasto-255.
Obv: Phalantos naked and ithyphallic riding dolphin left; extending right hand and holding cuttlefish in left hand.
Rx: Oecist naked to waist, seated left on stool and balancing distaff on right hand, a lekythos on his left wrist.
Ex Gemini XII, 11 January 2015, lot 13. Ex NAC 10, 9 April 1997, lot 17. Ex M&M Basel 10, 1951, lot 161. With interesting and unusual types: Phalantos holds cuttlefish on obverse, while on reverse Taras(or Oecist?) is shown seated rather than on horseback. Nicely centered and well struck, except for Phalantos' head on obverse; rare; beautifully toned. EF

The distaff is a very common symbol on Tarentine coins. It may be an allusion to the very important wool industry and the wool-trade Tarentum was famous for.
Leo
103002.jpg
CALABRIA, Tarentum186 viewsTaranto was founded in 706 BC by Dorian immigrants as the only Spartan colony, and its origin is peculiar: the founders were Partheniae, sons of unmarried Spartan women and perioeci (free men, but not citizens of Sparta); these unions were decreed by the Spartans to increase the number of soldiers (only the citizens of Sparta could become soldiers) during the bloody Messenian Wars, but later they were nullified, and the sons were forced to leave. According to the legend Phalanthus, the Parthenian leader, went to Delphi to consult the oracle and received the puzzling answer that he should found a city where rain fell from a clear sky. After all attempts to capture a suitable place to found a colony failed, he became despondent, convinced that the oracle had told him something that was impossible, and was consoled by his wife. She laid his head in her lap and herself became disconsolate. When Phalanthus felt her tears splash onto his forehead he at last grasped the meaning of the oracle, for his wife's name meant clear sky. The harbour of Taranto in Apulia was nearby and he decided this must be the new home for the exiles. The Partheniae arrived and founded the city, naming it Taras after the son of the Greek sea god, Poseidon, and the local nymph Satyrion. A variation says Taras was founded in 707 BC by some Spartans, who, the sons of free women and enslaved fathers, were born during the Messenian War. According to other sources, Heracles founded the city. Another tradition indicates Taras himself as the founder of the city; the symbol of the Greek city (as well as of the modern city) is Taras riding a dolphin. Taranto increased its power, becoming a commercial power and a sovereign city of Magna Graecia, ruling over the Greek colonies in southern Italy.

In its beginning, Taranto was a monarchy, probably modelled on the one ruling over Sparta; according to Herodotus (iii 136), around 492 BC king Aristophilides ruled over the city. The expansion of Taranto was limited to the coast because of the resistance of the populations of inner Apulia. In 472 BC, Taranto signed an alliance with Rhegion, to counter the Messapii, Peuceti, and Lucanians (see Iapygian-Tarentine Wars), but the joint armies of the Tarentines and Rhegines were defeated near Kailìa (modern Ceglie), in what Herodotus claims to be the greatest slaughter of Greeks in his knowledge, with 3,000 Reggians and uncountable Tarentines killed. In 466 BC, Taranto was again defeated by the Iapyges; according to Aristotle, who praises its government, there were so many aristocrats killed that the democratic party was able to get the power, to remove the monarchy, inaugurate a democracy, and expel the Pythagoreans. Like Sparta, Tarentum was an aristocratic republic, but became democratic when the ancient nobility dwindled.

However, the rise of the democratic party did not weaken the bonds of Taranto and her mother-city Sparta. In fact, Taranto supported the Peloponnesian side against Athens in the Peloponnesian War, refused anchorage and water to Athens in 415 BC, and even sent ships to help the Peloponnesians, after the Athenian disaster in Sicily. On the other side, Athens supported the Messapians, in order to counter Taranto's power.

In 432 BC, after several years of war, Taranto signed a peace treaty with the Greek colony of Thurii; both cities contributed to the foundation of the colony of Heraclea, which rapidly fell under Taranto's control. In 367 BC Carthage and the Etruscans signed a pact to counter Taranto's power in southern Italy.

Under the rule of its greatest statesman, strategist and army commander-in-chief, the philosopher and mathematician Archytas, Taranto reached its peak power and wealth; it was the most important city of the Magna Graecia, the main commercial port of southern Italy, it produced and exported goods to and from motherland Greece and it had the biggest army and the largest fleet in southern Italy. However, with the death of Archytas in 347 BC, the city started a slow, but ineluctable decline; the first sign of the city's decreased power was its inability to field an army, since the Tarentines preferred to use their large wealth to hire mercenaries, rather than leave their lucrative trades.

In 343 BC Taranto appealed for aid against the barbarians to its mother city Sparta, in the face of aggression by the Brutian League. In 342 BC, Archidamus III, king of Sparta, arrived in Italy with an army and a fleet to fight the Lucanians and their allies. In 338 BC, during the Battle of Manduria, the Spartan and Tarentine armies were defeated in front of the walls of Manduria (nowadays in province of Taranto), and Archidamus was killed.

In 333 BC, still troubled by their Italic neighbours, the Tarentines called the Epirotic king Alexander Molossus to fight the Bruttii, Samnites, and Lucanians, but he was later (331 BC) defeated and killed in the battle of Pandosia (near Cosenza). In 320 BC, a peace treaty was signed between Taranto and the Samnites. In 304 BC, Taranto was attacked by the Lucanians and asked for the help of Agathocles tyrant of Syracuse, king of Sicily. Agathocles arrived in southern Italy and took control of Bruttium (present-day Calabria), but was later called back to Syracuse. In 303 BC-302 BC Cleonymus of Sparta established an alliance with Taranto against the Lucanians, and fought against them.

Arnold J. Toynbee, a classical scholar who taught at Oxford and other prestigious English universities and who did original and definitive work on Sparta (e.g. The Journal of Hellenic Studies, vol. xxxiii 1913 p. 246-275) seemed to have some doubts about Tarentum (Taranto) being of Spartan origin.

In his book The Study of History vol. iii p. 52 he wrote: "...Tarentum, which claimed a Spartan origin; but, even if this claim was in accordance with historical fact..." The tentative phrasing seems to imply that the evidence is neither conclusive or even establishes a high degree of probability of the truth that Tarentum (Taranto) was a Spartan colony.

CALABRIA, Tarentum. Circa 302-281 BC. AR Drachm (17mm, 2.91 gm). Helmeted head of Athena right, helmet decorated with Skylla hurling a stone / Owl standing right head facing, on olive branch; Vlasto 1058; SNG ANS 1312; HN Italy 1015. VF.

Ex-Cng eAuction 103 Lot 2 190/150
2 commentsecoli
Campania_Neapolis_Apollo_Man-headed_bull_AE20_5.4g.jpg
Campania, Neapolis, Apollo / Man-headed bull, AE20139 viewsCampania, Neapolis, 270-240 BC
AE 20, 5.38g
Obv: Laureate head of Apollo, three-lined horizontal symbol behind head
Rev: Man-headed bull being crowned by Nike, monogram beneath
SNG ANS-470, BM-218

ex HJB
5 commentsareich
neapolis_campania.jpg
Campania. Neapolis AR Nomos75 viewsCirca 275-250 BC. AR Nomos (21mm, 7.21 g, 11h). Sambon–; HN Italy 586; BMC 87; SNG France–; SNG ANS–. Obverse: Diademed head of nymph left, wearing triple-pendant earring and necklace; to right, Artemis standing right, holding torch in both hands. Reverse: Man-headed bull walking right; above, Nike flying right, placing wreath on bull's head; IΣ below; [N]EOΠOΛITΩN in exergue. Good VF, toned. Scarce symbol for issue.

Ex Gorny & Mosch 125 (13 October 2003), lot 21. Ex Classical Numismatic Review XXXIX No. 2 Summer 2014, lot 979726.

The obverse of early Neapolitan coins represent the siren Parthenope who, according to legend, committed suicide after her failed attempt to seduce Odysseus and his shipmates as they passed the Sorrento peninsula. Her body was washed up on the shore of nearby Megaride, a tiny island in the Bay of Naples. The locals interred her in Mount Echia, now the hill of Pizzofalcone. The Sirens were originally the islands found at the mouth of the river Achelöos in Greece which flowed into the Ionian Sea between Akarnania and Aetolia. The man-headed bull on the reverse of the coins was meant to represent Achelöos, the greatest water god of ancient Greece and father of Parthenope. This coin, however, belongs to a later group known as Class VI (Numismatic Circular, vol. 14, 1906). The latest coins with the obverse head always facing left may well be identified as the head of Dia-Hebe. She is associated with Dionysus Hebon and the Neapolitan bull on the reverse was reinterpreted as the bull with which Dionysus Hebon was always depicted.


3 commentsJason T
Cales4_23g.jpg
CAMPANIA: Cales9 viewsAE 16mm, 4.23g, 280-272 BC. Obv: Laureate head of Apollo right, CALENO before, dotted border, all within circle. Rev: Man-headed bull standing right; lyre above, undetermined symbol below (if any?), CALENO in ex. Sambon 919; Fiorelli 835; MSP I, 156 (this coin illustrated).

Ex. CNG eAuction 305, lot. 466 (part of)
Ex. Colin E. Pitchfork Collection
Molinari
Antiochus.jpg
Cappadocian Kingdom, c. 130 - 80 B.C.; In the Name of the Seleukid King, Antiochos VII70 viewsSilver tetradrachm, Houghton II 655 (same dies), SNG Spaer -, Newell SMA -, gVF, weight 16.157g, maximum diameter 28.8mm, die axis 0o, posthumous, c. 130 - 80 B.C.; obverse diademed head of the Seleukid King Antiochos VII right, fillet border; reverse BASILEWS ANTIOCOU EUERGETOU, Athena standing left, Nike in right, spear and shield in left, ligate DI / A left, A inner left, G inner right, Nike crowns epithet, laurel wreath border; scarce;

Oliver Hoover, in Coins of the Seleucid Empire from the Collection of Arthur Houghton, attributes this type to the Cappadocian Kingdom, c. 130 - 80 B.C. The symbols were used on Cappadocian royal coinage, the coins are found in Cappadocian hoards and a tetradrachm naming the Cappadocian King Ariarathes VII Philometor (116 - 99 B.C.) bears the obverse portrait of Antiochus VII. He notes they may have been struck to pay foreign (Syrian?) mercenaries who preferred the types of Antiochus VII.

Ex Houghton collection
Ex Forum
1 commentsPhiloromaos
ant_pan.jpg
Cappadocian Kingdom, c. 130 - 80 B.C.; In the Name of the Seleukid King, Antiochus VII77 viewsSilver tetradrachm, (Houghton II 642 ff., SNG Spaer 1855, Newell SMA 282), Weight 16.560g, Max. diameter 27.9mm, Obv. diademed head of the Seleukid King Antiochos VII right, fillet border; Rev. BAΣIΛEΩΣ ANTIOXDOY EYEPΠETOY, Athena standing left, Nike in right, spear and shield in left, ligate ΔI / A left, Nike extends wreath into laurel wreath border. Toned, some light scratches.

EX. Forvm Ancient Coins

Background info, courtesy Forvm Ancient Coins;

Oliver Hoover, in Coins of the Seleucid Empire from the Collection of Arthur Houghton, attributes this type to the Cappadocian Kingdom, c. 130 - 80 B.C. The symbols were used on Cappadocian royal coinage, the coins are found in Cappadocian hoards and a tetradrachm naming the Cappadocian King Ariarathes VII Philometor (116 - 99 B.C.) bears the obverse portrait of Antiochus VII. He notes they may have been struck to pay foreign (Syrian?) mercenaries who preferred the types of Antiochus VII.

4 commentsSteve E
Cappadocian Kingdom 1a img.jpg
Cappadocian Kingdom, Tetradrachm, In the Name of the Seleukid King, Antiochos VII59 viewsSilver tetradrachm
Obv:– Diademed head of the Seleukid King Antiochos VII right, fillet border.
Rev:– BASILEWS ANTIOCOU EUERGETOU, Athena standing left, Nike in right, spear and shield in left, ligate DI / A left, Nike extends wreath into laurel wreath border
c. 130 - 80 B.C.; In the Name of the Seleukid King, Antiochos VII, 138 - 129 B.C.
Ref:– Houghton II 642 (same dies), SNG Spaer 1855, Newell SMA 282

Oliver Hoover, in Coins of the Seleucid Empire from the Collection of Arthur Houghton, attributes this type to the Cappadocian Kingdom, c. 130 - 80 B.C. The symbols were used on Cappadocian royal coinage, the coins are found in Cappadocian hoards and a tetradrachm naming the Cappadocian king Ariarathes VII Philometor (116 - 99 B.C.) bears the obverse portrait of Antiochus VII. He notes they may have been struck to pay foreign (Syrian?) mercenaries who preferred the types of Antiochus VII.

Grey tone.

Ex-Forvm
1 commentsmaridvnvm
Cappadocian_Kingdom_1a_img.jpg
Cappadocian Kingdom, Tetradrachm, In the Name of the Seleukid King, Antiochos VII18 viewsSilver tetradrachm
Obv:– Diademed head of the Seleukid King Antiochos VII right, fillet border.
Rev:– BASILEWS ANTIOCOU EUERGETOU, Athena standing left, Nike in right, spear and shield in left, ligate DI / A left, Nike extends wreath into laurel wreath border
c. 130 - 80 B.C.; In the Name of the Seleukid King, Antiochos VII, 138 - 129 B.C.
Ref:– Houghton II 642 (same dies), SNG Spaer 1855, Newell SMA 282

Oliver Hoover, in Coins of the Seleucid Empire from the Collection of Arthur Houghton, attributes this type to the Cappadocian Kingdom, c. 130 - 80 B.C. The symbols were used on Cappadocian royal coinage, the coins are found in Cappadocian hoards and a tetradrachm naming the Cappadocian king Ariarathes VII Philometor (116 - 99 B.C.) bears the obverse portrait of Antiochus VII. He notes they may have been struck to pay foreign (Syrian?) mercenaries who preferred the types of Antiochus VII.

Grey tone.

Ex-Forvm

Updated image using new photography setup.
maridvnvm
antiochos_VII_tetra.jpg
Cappadocian Kingdom/ In the name of Antiochos VII; tetradrachm; Nike20 viewsCappadocian Kingdom, c. 130 - 80 B.C.; In the Name of the Seleukid King, Antiochos VII, 138 - 129 B.C. Silver tetradrachm, Houghton II 651 ff. (different dies), SNG Spaer -, Newell SMA -, VF, grainy, 15.919g, 29.4mm, 0o, posthumous, c. 130 - 80 B.C.; obverse diademed head of the Seleukid King Antiochos VII right, fillet border; reverse “BASILEWS ANTIOCOU EUERGETOU”, Athena standing left, Nike in right, spear and shield in left, ligate “DI” / A left, ligate “OD” inner left, K inner right, Nike crowns epithet, laurel wreath border. Oliver Hoover, in Coins of the Seleucid Empire from the Collection of Arthur Houghton, attributes this type to the Cappadocian Kingdom, c. 130 - 80 B.C. The symbols were used on Cappadocian royal coinage, the coins are found in Cappadocian hoards and a tetradrachm naming the Cappadocian King Ariarathes VII Philometor (116 - 99 B.C.) bears the obverse portrait of Antiochus VII. He notes they may have been struck to pay foreign (Syrian?) mercenaries who preferred the types of Antiochus VII. Ex FORVMPodiceps
23712_cappadocia__antiochos_VII_tetratetradrachm,_Houghton_II_644.jpg
Cappadocian Kingdom/ In the name of Antiochos VII; tetradrachm; Nike15 viewsCappadocian Kingdom, c. 130 - 80 B.C.; In the Name of the Seleukid King, Antiochos VII, 138 - 129 B.C. Silver tetradrachm, Houghton II 644 (same dies), SNG Spaer 1855, Newell SMA 282, VF, toned, 16.302g, 29.6mm, 0o, obverse diademed head of the Seleukid King Antiochos VII right, fillet border; reverse “BASILEWS ANTIOCOU EUERGETOU”, Athena standing left holding Nike, spear and shield, “DI” monogram above A left, Nike extends wreath into laurel wreath border. Oliver Hoover, in Coins of the Seleucid Empire from the Collection of Arthur Houghton, attributes this type to the Cappadocian Kingdom, c. 130 - 80 B.C. The symbols were used on Cappadocian royal coinage, the coins are found in Cappadocian hoards and a tetradrachm naming the Cappadocian King Ariarathes VII Philometor (116 - 99 B.C.) bears the obverse portrait of Antiochus VII. He notes they may have been struck to pay foreign (Syrian?) mercenaries who preferred the types of Antiochus VII. Ex FORVM, photo credit FORVMPodiceps
Lg006GreekLarge_quad_sm~1.jpg
Caracalla AE provincial, Nikopolis ad Istrum, Moesia Inferior (Nikyup, Bulgaria) (211 - 212 AD)19 viewsΑΥ Κ Μ ΑΥΡ – [ANTΩNINOC], laureate, draped bust right / Y ΦΛ OYΛΠIAN – NIKOΠOΛIT + ΠΡOC I in exergue, Nemesis-Aequitas standing left, holding scales in extended right hand and measuring rod (whip? sceptre?) in the crook of left arm, wheel at foot left.

Ӕ, 26 mm, 9.22 g, die axis 8h (turned coin)

I do not have access to any of the relevant provincial catalogs and cannot check any entries, but based on other similar coin descriptions on this site some numbers that may be close to this type are: AMNG I/1 1576-77, 1877-78; Varbanov (engl.) 3134, 3148, 3248; Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (HrHJ) No. 8.18.35.4-5, 8.18.35.8

AY[TOKPATΩΡ] K[AICAP] = Imperator Caesar, Μ[ΑΡΚΟC] ΑΥ[ΡΗΛΙΟC] ANTΩNINOC = Marcus Aurelius Antoninus aka "Caracalla". NIKOΠOΛIT[ΩN] PROC I[CTPΩN] ("πρός"="toward", but also "near to", like Latin "ad"; Istros = the lower Danube). ΦΛ OYΛΠIAN = Flavius Ulpianus, who was Roman governor of Lower Moesia (Moesia Inferior) starting from 210 to about 213. Before 211 Septimius Severus was still in charge; Caracalla visited the city in 211-212, was displeased with it and closed the mint (it was reopened only after his death), so the likely minting years are 211-212. All governors of Lower Moesia had titles on coins of either ΗΓ[ΕΜΟΝΑΣ] (governor of equestrian rank) or ΥΠ[ΑΤΕΥΟΝΤΟΣ] of the province (ΤΗΣ ΕΠΑΡΧΕΙΑΣ) (consular legate of senatorial rank). Y before the name of Flavius Ulpianus indicates the latter.

Aequitas = justice, equality, conformity, symmetry. Nemesis was originally understood as honest distributor of fortune, neither bad nor good, but in due proportion. Later it gained aspects of justice and divine retribution, but in Nemesis-Aequitas her qualities of honest dealing is emphasized. It symbolizes honesty, equality and justice of the emperor towards his subjects. The scales here mean honest measure rather than justice, the long stick she carries is most probably a measuring rod, but may also be a whip (symbol of punishment) or a sceptre (symbol of imperial power). The wheel may be the Wheel of Fortune (Rota Fortunae), but may also just symbolize equality.

CARACALLA, *4 April 188 Lugdunum (Lyon, France) † 8 April 217 (aged 29) road between Edessa and Carrhae ‡ 26 Dec 211 – 8 Apr 217 (not counting joint rule with his father and brother)

His birth name was Lucius Septimius Bassianus, then he was renamed Marcus Aurelius Antoninus at the age of 7 as part of his father's attempt at union with the families of Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius. He got the agnomen "Caracalla" after a Gallic hooded tunic that he habitually wore and made fashionable. He was also referred to as Tarautas, after a famously diminutive and violent gladiator of the time. The firstborn of the famous imperial couple Septimius Severus and Julia Domna, he was groomed to be emperor together with his brother Geta. They both were given titles of Caesars and even full Augusti before their father's death. But it was not going to happen, since the brothers hated each other. In 202 Caracalla was forced to marry the daughter of Gaius Fulvius Plautianus, Fulvia Plautilla, he immediately grew to hate them both. By 205 Caracalla had succeeded in having Plautianus executed for treason, probably fabricating the evidence of the plot himself. Then he banished his wife together with his own baby daughter first to Sicily and then to the largest of the Aeolian islands, Lipari. As soon as his father died, Caracalla ordered to strangle them both.

Septimius Severus died on 4 February 211 at Eboracum (present day York) while on campaign in Caledonia, north of Roman Britannia. Caracalla and Geta jointly ended the campaign by concluding a peace that returned the border to the line demarcated by Hadrian's Wall. During the journey back to Rome they continuously argued and finally decided to divide the empire, Caracalla was to rule in the west and Geta -- the east. They were persuaded not to do this, but their hostility was only increasing. On 26 December 211, at a reconciliation meeting arranged by their mother, Caracalla had Geta assassinated by members of the Praetorian Guard loyal to himself, Geta dying in his mother's arms. Caracalla then persecuted and executed most of Geta's supporters and ordered a damnatio memoriae pronounced by the Senate against his brother's memory. Geta's image was removed from all paintings, coins were melted down, statues were destroyed, his name was struck from papyrus records, and it became a capital offence to speak or write Geta's name. In the aftermath of the damnatio memoriae, an estimated 20,000 people were massacred. Those killed were Geta's inner circle of guards and advisers, friends, and other military staff under his employ.

In 213, about a year after Geta's death, Caracalla left Rome never to return. He went north to the German frontier to deal with restless Germanic tribes through wars and diplomacy. While there, Caracalla strengthened the frontier fortifications of Raetia and Germania Superior, collectively known as the Agri Decumates, so that it was able to withstand any further barbarian invasions for another twenty years. Then it became evident that he was preoccupied with Alexander the Great. He began openly mimicking Alexander in his personal style and started planning an invasion of "Persia", the Parthian Empire. He even arranged 16,000 of his men in Macedonian-style phalanxes, despite this foration being obsolete for centuries. Caracalla's mania for Alexander went so far that he persecuted philosophers of the Aristotelian school based on a legend that Aristotle had poisoned Alexander. This was a sign of Caracalla's increasingly erratic behaviour. When the inhabitants of Alexandria heard of Caracalla's claims that he had killed his brother Geta in self-defence, they produced a satire mocking this as well as Caracalla's other pretensions. So in 215 Caracalla travelled to Alexandria and responded to this insult by slaughtering the deputation of leading citizens who had unsuspectingly assembled before the city to greet his arrival, before setting his troops against Alexandria for several days of looting and plunder. Following the massacre at Alexandria, Caracalla moved east into Armenia. By 216 he had pushed through Armenia and south into Parthia and pursued a series of aggressive campaigns in the east against the Parthians, intended to bring more territory under direct Roman control. In the following winter, Caracalla retired to Edessa (Şanlıurfa, south-east Turkey) and began making preparations to renew the campaign by spring. On 8 April 217 Caracalla was travelling to visit a temple near Carrhae (Harran, southern Turkey), where in 53 BC the Romans had suffered a defeat at the hands of the Parthians. After stopping briefly to urinate, Caracalla was approached by a soldier, Justin Martialis, and stabbed to death. Martialis had been incensed by Caracalla's refusal to grant him the position of centurion, and the Praetorian Guard Prefect Macrinus, Caracalla's successor, saw the opportunity to use Martialis to end Caracalla's reign. In the immediate aftermath of Caracalla's death, his murderer, Martialis, was killed as well. Three days later, Macrinus declared himself emperor with the support of the Roman army.

Caracalla's reign was marked by domestic instability, the massacres he enacted against the people of Rome and elsewhere in the empire, and external invasions from the Germanic people. Surprisingly for such a brute, Caracalla was also notable for some statesmanship, perhaps due to some help of his mother, who stayed in Rome and performed many administrative duties in her son's absence. The most famous is the Antonine Constitution (Constitutio Antoniniana), aka the Edict of Caracalla, which granted Roman citizenship to nearly all freemen throughout the Roman Empire. The edict gave all the enfranchised men Caracalla's adopted praenomen and nomen: "Marcus Aurelius". Domestically, Caracalla was known for the construction of the Baths of Caracalla, which became the second-largest baths in Rome, and building a temple to Serapis, Graeco-Egyptian god of healing, whom he thought to be his divine patron, on the Quirinal Hill. The numismatists will always remember him because of the introduction of a new Roman coin denomination, currently designated "antoninianus" after him. The reduced silver purity of the new coins caused people to hoard the old denarii and thanks to this now we can enjoy lots of well-preserved early Roman silver coins.

Caracalla was one of the cruellest and most tyrannical Roman emperors. That was why in the 18th century Caracalla's memory was revived in the works of French artists trying to draw the parallels between him and King Louis XVI. But there were also other narratives surrounding his name: in the 12th century, Geoffrey of Monmouth started the legend of "Bassianus" as the king of Britain, who won the kingship by fighting his brother over it.
Yurii P
criciv214ORweb.jpg
Caracalla denarius, RIC IV 21414 viewsRome mint, Caracalla denarius, 212 A.D. AR, 3.248g, 19.3mm, RIC IV 214, RSC III 104, BMCRE V 73
O: ANTONINVS PIVS AVG BRIT, laureate bust right, from behind;
R: INDVLG FECVNDAE, Julia Domna as Indulgentia seated left on curule chair, wearing polos, extending right hand, scepter on left arm

Note: Curtis Clay has a theory about the type: "This type probably commemorates Caracalla's generosity (Indulgentia) in extending the Roman citizenship to all inhabitants of the Roman empire. Hence the World, towered as on Hadrian's RESTITVTORI ORBIS TERRARVM sestertius, is depicted sitting on the curule chair, symbolic of the consulship, praetorship, and curule aedileship, the highest offices open to Roman citizens."
casata137ec
DSC07280.JPG
Caracalla Tetradrachmai - 4x - with US Quarter - obverse8 views4 x Tetradrachmai of the Emperor Caracalla (212 - 217 AD)

The three (3) on the top, the ones at 12 o'clock, 3 o'clock and 9 o'clock around the US Quarter Dollar were struck at the Mint at Antioch, Syria.

The one on the bottom, at 6 o'clock directly below the US Quarter Dollar is from Tyre, Phoenicia. - note the murex shell between the legs of the eagle on this coin, also the eagle is standing on a club rather than on the thigh and leg of a sacrificial animal like it is on the other three from Antioch. The Murex shell and the club were used as symbols of Tyre.
rexesq
DSC07295.JPG
Caracalla Tetradrachmai - 4x - with US Quarter - reverse7 views4 x Tetradrachmai of the Emperor Caracalla (212 - 217 AD)

The three (3) on the top row are from the Mint at Antioch, Syria.

The one on the bottom row to the left of the US Quarter Dollar is from Tyre, Phoenicia. - note the murex shell between the legs of the eagle on this coin, also the eagle is standing on a club rather than on the thigh and leg of a sacrificial animal like it is on the other three from Antioch. The Murex shell and the club were used as symbols of Tyre.
rexesq
DSC07292.JPG
Caracalla Tetradrachmai - 4x - with US Quarter - reverse9 views4 x Tetradrachmai of the Emperor Caracalla (212 - 217 AD)

The three (3) on the top row are from the Mint at Antioch, Syria.

The one on the bottom row to the left of the US Quarter Dollar is from Tyre, Phoenicia. - note the murex shell between the legs of the eagle on this coin, also the eagle is standing on a club rather than on the thigh and leg of a sacrificial animal like it is on the other three from Antioch. The Murex shell and the club were used as symbols of Tyre.
rexesq
DSC07287.JPG
Caracalla Tetradrachmai - 4x - with US Quarter - reverse8 views4 x Tetradrachmai of the Emperor Caracalla (212 - 217 AD)

The three (3) on the top, the ones at 12 o'clock, 3 o'clock and 9 o'clock around the US Quarter Dollar were struck at the Mint at Antioch, Syria.

The one on the bottom, at 6 o'clock directly below the US Quarter Dollar is from Tyre, Phoenicia. - note the murex shell between the legs of the eagle on this coin, also the eagle is standing on a club rather than on the thigh and leg of a sacrificial animal like it is on the other three from Antioch. The Murex shell and the club were used as symbols of Tyre.
rexesq
Caria.jpg
Caria (Uncertain City)28 views400-340 B.C.
Silver Hemiobol
0.39 gm, 8 mm
Obv: Head of lion facing slightly left
Rev: Head of bull left, Carian symbol on neck.
Konuk, Coins M38;
SNG Kayhan 990 (no symbol);
SNG Keckman I, 862 var.;
[cf. Troxell, Mildenberg 4]
Jaimelai
rjb_2014_05_06.jpg
Caria - Rhodes26 viewsAR Diobol
c.230-205 BC
O - Radiate head of Helios right
R - P O, two rose buds with symbol between
cf SNG Kayhan 916-7
1 commentsmauseus
FotorCreated~105.jpg
Caria Rhodes AR Drachm circa 166-188 BC 2.65g31 viewsHead of Helios to right radiate.Rev shallow incuse square within which PO rose with budding branch, on either side,magistrates name above,symbol at right headdress of Isis left.Grant H
cariahalhemiOR3.jpg
Caria, Halikarnassos(?) mint, SNG Keckman 869 ff54 viewsCaria, Halikarnassos(?) mint, 5th Century B.C. AR hemiobol, 8.4mm 0.30g, SNG Keckman 869 ff. (various symbols on reverse)
O: rams head right
R: male head right within incuse square

*extremely successful cleaning project...was 0.036g before cleaning
2 commentscasata137ec
rhodesOR.jpg
Caria, Rhodes mint, BMC Caria p. 240, 10934 viewsRhodes mint, c. 350 - 300 B.C. AE, 10mm 1.18g, BMC Caria p. 240, 109; SNG Keckman 384 - 425 var (symbol), 0.864g, 9.6mm,
O: Diademed head of Rhodos right;
R: PO, rose
1 commentscasata137ec
01011AB.jpg
CARIAN ISLANDS, RHODES, 125-88 BC76 viewsHemidrachm, 13mm, 1.32g

O. Radiate head of Helios facing slightly right
R. Rose with bud to left; ANTAIOΣ above, P-O flanking rose, grape bunch to lower right; all within incuse square.

Jenkins group D, 86; HGC 6, 1463; SNG Keckman 664 var. (control), Karl 604 var. (obv. type); SNG von Aulock 8194 var. (same); SNG Copenhagen -; BMC 292 var. (same); SNG München -.

Plinthophoric issue. Antaios, magistrate. Rare symbol for this issue.

Ex Sayles and Lavender
Ex Triton XII
4 commentsAZRobbo
100511LG.jpg
Carian tetradrachm - Royal issue ?92 viewsCARIA, Achaemenid Period. Circa 350-334 BC. AR Tetradrachm (23mm, 14.83 g).
Struck circa 350-341 BC. Persian king or hero in kneeling-running stance right, drawing bow / Persian satrap on horseback right, thrusting spear held in his right hand, left hand on rein.
Konuk, Influences, Group 2; SNG Copenhagen (Persian Empire) 290-291 var. (symbol on rev.); Traité II 128; Babelon, Perses 623 var. (symbols on obv.); Pixodarus 1-11.

The archer-horseman tetradrachms are one of the most enigmatic Persian coinages struck in Asia Minor prior to the invasion of Alexander the Great. Though various symbols and letters occur in the fields, no inscription exists to help us identify the issuer, mint, or purpose of issue. Konuk, however, identified two series, with and without subsidiary symbols on the reverse. Also, analysis of the Pixodarus Hoard has allowed the coinage to be dated from the decade beginning circa 350 BC. Additionally, as only the earlier, non-symbol, type is represented, Meadows concluded that the date of deposit of the Pixodarus hoard, 341 BC, served as a tentative divider between the two series.
Caffaro
Carthage.jpg
Carthage, Second Punic War (220-215 BC)28 viewsAE Trishekel

29 mm, 18.21 g

Obverse: Head of Tanit left, wearing wreath of grain ears and single-pendant earring

Reverse: Horse standing right; palm tree in background to left.

MAA 84; Müller, Afrique 147; SNG Copenhagen 344.

The Second Punic War formally began when the Carthaginian general Hannibal and his army crossed the Alps in November of 218 BC and descended into Northern Italy. Battles raged on Italian soil for nearly 15 years until Hannibal and what remained of his army sailed for North Africa in the summer or fall of 203 BC. Shown above is a typical example of what would have been a lower-value coin issued by the Carthaginians in the early stages of the war.

Carthage was a Phoenician colony, and as such the Carthaginians were related to the Hebrews and the Canaanites (among others). Culturally they had much in common, including the use of the shekel as the primary unit of money. Likewise, the Carthaginians worshipped a variety of deities from the ancient Middle East. One in particular was the goddess Tanit. A Phoenician (Punic) goddess of war, Tanit was also a virgin mother goddess and a fertility symbol.
2 commentsNathan P
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Carthage, Zeugitania, North Africa, 201 - 175 B.C.15 viewsBronze trishekel, SNG Cop 409 ff. (various symbols), Fair, 11.078g, 26.8mm, 0o, Carthage mint, 201 - 175 B.C.; obverse head of Tanit left, wreathed in grain; reverse horse striding right, Punic letter below; scarceMagisterRiggs
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castelin037 viewsElagabalus or Caracalla
Rhesaena, Mesopotamia

Obv: Laureate head right, below eagle flying right.
Rev: Vexillum, in left field, unclear symbol/reverse P; in right field, IIII/S.
15 mm, 4.76 gms

Castelin 3
Charles M
565c.jpg
castelin044 viewsElagabalus or Caracalla
Rhesaena, Mesopotamia

Obv: AVT … ANTΩ, laureate head right.
Rev: Vexillum with A like symbol, in left field, unclear symbol/reverse S, in right field, I/P.
15 mm, 4.28 gms

Castelin 4
Charles M
560c.jpg
castelin04_24 viewsElagabalus or Caracalla
Rhesaena, Mesopotamia

Obv: Laureate head right.
Rev: Vexillum with A like symbol, in left field, unclear symbol/reverse S, in right field, II/P.
15 mm, 5.11 gms

Castelin 4
Charles M
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castelin04_var5 viewsElagabalus or Caracalla
Rhesaena, Mesopotamia

Obv: … AN..., laureate draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from front.
Rev: Vexillum with unclear symbol, in left field, unclear symbol/reverse P.
18 mm, 6.31 gms

Castelin 4 variant (bust type)
Charles M
559c.jpg
castelin05var5 viewsElagabalus or Caracalla
Rhesaena, Mesopotamia

Obv: AVT KM(…), laureate draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: Vexillum with Sagittarius right; in left field, III/ unclear symbol; in right field, reverse C/P.
17mm, 5.56 gms

Castelin 5 variant (Bust type and no eagle on obverse)
Charles M
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castelin124 viewsElagabalus or Caracalla
Rhesaena, Mesopotamia

Obv: Laureate head left, below eagle flying right.
Rev: Vexillum; in left field, unclear symbol/unclear symbol; in right field, IIII/unclear symbol.
15 mm, 4.50 gms

Castelin 12
Charles M
Castulo.jpg
Castulo - AE quadrans15 viewslate 2nd century BC
diademed head right
boar right, star (comet)* above
KaŚTiLO
Villaronga p. 337, 50; SNG BM Spain 1358
ex Lucernae

* In 135 BC bright comet appeared and star symbol has appeared on many coins through mediterranean since then.
Johny SYSEL
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Celtic Britain, Iceni18 viewsCeltic Britain, Iceni. c. 10-61 AD. AR unit (1.31 gm). ECEN symbol, East Anglian type J. Anepigraphic. Sylized ecen corn ear w/ two opposing crescents & two pellets b/w, superimposed upon band of three lines / Sylized horse r. w/ long, thin legs. Three pellets on line, below gVF. Bt. Old Town Coin 1998. SCBC 436; Van Arsdell 754-1. cf. SCBI Mack 429; ABC 1681; BMC 4297ff; BIAC 4299.
Christian T
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Celtic, Unknown tribe of southern Gaul(?), imitating Massalian drachm. Potentially unrecorded.30 viewsCeltic, Unknown tribe of southern Gaul(?). Circa 2nd century BC. AR Drachm, 16mm (4.42 g.), 6h. Imitating Massalia.
Obverse: Wreathed head of nymph right; her pendant earring having possibly been reinterpreted as hair(!).
Reverse: ΜΑΣΣΑ, lion walking right; diamond-shaped symbol below.
References: Cf. Triton IX, lot 666, for likely prototype.
Comments: Found in Whitfield, in Kent, England, probably in early or mid January of 2011. A very heavy, early imitation that is superior to the average work of the Insubres and/or Salluvi. Cut in antiquity for possible recycling. The bright silvery interior indicates the coin is silver through and through.
Ex solidv-x2, 1-29-2011.
Mark Fox
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Ceylon: Raja Raja Chola (ca. 985-1014) AV Kahavanu (MNI-825)36 viewsObv: King seated right, with arm on right raised and holding sankh shell; Devanagari legend on right, below raised arm - श्री रज रज (Sri Raja Raja)
Rev: Standing king with ancillary symbols, to left and right
SpongeBob
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Chaulukyas of Gujarat, Silver drachm. Fire altar. A.D. 1030-112012 viewsChaulukyas of Gujarat, Silver drachm. Fire altar. A.D. 1030-1120. 15mm, 4.09g. 
Obverse: Stylised head of anonymous ruler imitating Peroz. Sun and moon symbol above. 
Reverse: Stylised fire altar. 
Reference: Deyell 158. The design of this coin was influenced by Sasanian coins, probably at second or third hand as knowledge of the coins of that very successful empire spread. Coins of the Sasanian Peroz were brought into Northern India by invading Huns in the 6th Century. Ex MoremothPodiceps
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Cherronesos, Thrace20 views400-350 B.C.
Silver hemidrachm (triobol)
2.36 gm, 13 mm
Obverse: Forepart of lion right, looking back with paws raised
Reverse: Quadripartite incuse square with alternate depressions deeper, in depressions symbol Kantharos and monogram I with pellet above
Sear 1602v
Shraer, Plate 49, Coin 291
Jaimelai
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Cherronesos, Thrace15 views400-350 B.C.
Silver hemidrachm (triobol)
2.22 gm, 12.5 mm
Obverse: Forepart of lion right, looking back with paws raised
Reverse: Quadripartite incuse square; alternate depressions deeper, in depressions Poppy symbol and Pellet; monogram H on raised to right
Shraer Plate 76, Coin 451
Sear 1602 var.
Jaimelai
lion_50.jpg
Cherronesos, Thrace14 views400-350 B.C.
Silver hemidrachm (triobol)
2.22 gm, 13 mm
Obv.: Forepart of lion right, looking back with paws raised
Rev.: Quadripartite incuse square; alternate depressions deeper, in depressions Ivy Leaf symbol and Pellet
Shraer Plate 47, Coin 282
Sear 1602 var.
Jaimelai
Cherronesos_Thrace.jpg
Cherronesos, Thrace, c. 400 - 350 B.C.39 viewsSilver hemidrachm, SNG Berry 502; BMC Thrace p. 183, 8 ff. var (reverse symbols), aVF, toned, etched surfaces, obverse strike uneven, Cherronesos mint, 2.294 grams, 12.8 mm, c. 400 - 350 B.C.; obverse lion forepart right, head turned back left; reverse quadripartite incuse square, helmet and pellet in the sunk quadrants.

Cherronesos is Greek for `peninsula` and several cities used the name. The city in Thracian Chersonesos (the Gallipoli peninsula) that struck these coins is uncertain. The coins may have been struck at Cardia by the peninsula as a league, or perhaps they were struck by lost city on the peninsula named Cherronesos.

From The Sam Mansourati Collection.

New Owner : Miss. Arianna Parrillo.

*With my sincere thank and appreciation , Photo and Description courtesy of FORVM Ancient Coins Staff.
Sam
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Chimaera and Dove 253 viewsSikyonia, Sikyon, 330/20-280 BC, AR Triobol
Chimaera standing left; ΣI below. / Dove flying left; Δ above tail feathers. BCD Peloponnesos 298 (this coin); BMC 112 var.; SNG Copenhagen 61 var. (ΔI on reverse) - very rare variant.
(15 mm, 2.99 g, 7h)
CNG; ex- BCD Collection; LHS 96 (8 May 2006) Lot 298.

The Chimaera, featured on the obverse of this coin, was a mythical fire-breathing beast; a composite of a lion, a goat and a snake. In myth, it inhabited Lycia in Asia Minor. It’s sighting was considered to be a portent or omen of storms, shipwrecks and natural disasters. The Chimaera’s representation in the arts is wholly Greek. It evolved to become a decorative motif in the region around Corinth. The pairing of a motif that forebodes disaster on the obverse, with a dove, the symbol of Aphrodite, goddess of love on the reverse is curious. Perhaps this was a metaphor for the ancients’ view of the double-sided nature of life?
2 commentsLloyd T
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Chinese Charm with coin inscription from Later Zhou Dynasty 951 - 960 A.D.87 viewsCast Bronze Chinese Charm, Weight 8.8g, Max diameter 26.8mm, Obv. 周 元通宝 zhou yuan tong bao "Zhou First Currency", Rev. Dragon on left, Warrior with sword on right (depicting "Zhou Chu killing the dragon"), Rich brown patina.

Background info courtsey Primaltrek.com

In addition to official coinage, China also has a long history of producing "coin-like" charms, amulets and talismans.

Coins, as a form of money, represent power. Coin-shaped charms are, therefore, a very compact form of power. They are filled with symbolism and are believed by the multitude of Chinese to have vast powers.

Cast throughout the centuries, these ancient charms, informally referred to by the Chinese as "ya sheng coins" (压胜钱), "flower coins" (huaqia