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r955.jpg
85 viewsJulia Domna
Stobi, Macedonia
2 assaria
Obv. Dr bust r, IVLIA - AVGVSTA round.
Rev. Nike walking r, palm over l shoulder, wreath in raised r hand, MVNIC - S - TOBEN round
6.05 gm, 23 mm
Cohen IV 269, SNG Cop 332, Josifovski 212, same dies (V63, R68), citing Vienna 9885 [from whitetd49]
2 commentsManzikert
DenSerratoMarioCapito.jpg
36 viewsDenarius Serratus - 81 BC. - Rome mint
C. MARIVS C.f. CAPITO - Gens Maria
Obv.: CAPIT CIIII . Bust of Ceres right, wreathed with corn, symbol (torque) below chin.
Rev.:Plowman with yoke of oxen plowing left, same numeral above. In ex., C MARI C.F. / S C.
Gs. 3,7 mm. 19,2
Crawf. 378/1c, Sear RCV 300, Grueber (symbol torque) 2875.



Maxentius
ABM_Postumus.jpg
81 viewsPostumus, Principal Mint, sestertius, 260

IMP C M CASS LAT POST[...],Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
SALVS AVG, Salus standing right, feeding snake held in arms
Weight 15.49g

A very rare early issue with Postumus' full name given on the obverse - normally this only occurs on radiate double-sestertii. This is struck from the same obverse die as a gold medallion in Paris with a SALVS PROVINCIARVM reverse.
Adrianus
Postumus_sestertius_helmeted_bust.jpg
49 viewsPostumus, Principal Mint, double sestertius
IMP C M CASS LAT POSTVMVS P F AVG, Radiate, helmeted and cuirassed bust right
VICTORIA AVG, Victory advancing left, spurning captive
Weight 20.07g

A very rare obverse type - this coin from the same obverse die as the examples illustrated in Bastien
2 commentsAdrianus
britannicus01.jpg
47 viewsAE sestertius. Struck under Claudius, circa 50-54 AD, uncertain eastern provincial mint located in the modern-day Balkans.
Obv : TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG F BRITANNICVS, draped bust left.
Rev : - No legend, Mars advancing left, holding spear and shield, SC in fields. 35mm, 19.4g. Extremely Rare.

Ref : BMCRE 226
Cohen 2
RCV 1908, valued at $32,000 in Fine, which is a few multiples greater than any other sestertius issued during the several centuries the denomination was in use.
A large number of the surviving examples of this series (one may even suggest a majority of them), due to their rarity, have been subjected to modern alteration techniques such as smoothing, tooling, and repatination. As such, it's actually pleasant to see a bit of field roughness and a 'plain brown' patina of old copper on this example, evidence that it is just as ugly as it was the day it was last used in circulation back in Ancient Rome.
Britannicus, originally known as Germanicus after Claudius' older brother, was the emperor's original intended heir and natural son. Machinations by Agrippina II eventually saw Britannicus supplanted by her own son Nero, (by Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus) who took the throne upon Claudius' suspicious death. Britannicus himself died a few years later, reportedly poisoned by his step-brother. The future emperor Titus and Britannicus were close friends, and Titus became quite ill and nearly died after eating from the same poisoned dish that killed Britannicus.
R. Smits, Numismatist for Numismall
REVERSESl.jpg
125 viewsThis "Otho" with "VÍCTORIA PR" reverse is an ingenious fabrication created by the famous forger "Tardani". He had obviously realized that there were a few VICTORIA OTHONIS dies recut from Galba's VICTORIA PR dies and created this fictitious but possible coin with copies of real dies. I used to have this coin and another with the same dies is in the Berlin coin cabinet. Both are overweight, around 3.9 gr. It took some time to find a Galba minted with this particular reverse die but finally I succeeded. The final proof is seen in this coin, there are a few regions were the die has broken, ie before the die ever could have been used for an Otho coin. The coin is quite convincing because of the dies, but the surfaces were a bit strange and the legends unusual in profile.jmuona
Philip_I_antelope_right_VI_june_22_2018.jpg
25 viewsSilver antoninianus, RIC IV 22 (R2), RSC IV 188, SRCV III 8959 var. (antelope left), Hunter III 48 var. (same), Choice aEF, excellent centering on a broad flan, excellent portrait, light toning, some luster, strike slightly soft/flat, some die wear, 6th officina, Rome mint, weight 4.402g, maximum diameter 23.8mm, die axis 0o, 248 A.D.; obverse IMP PHILIPPVS AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, from behind; reverse SAECVLARES AVGG, antelope walking right, VI in exergue; very rare with antelope right (only two on Coin Archives and one sold for $700!; ex Beast Coins; Ex Forum coin and picture1 commentspaul1888
merged.jpg
47 viewsHere is my most recent project, both for the same collector. There are two separate cabinets, one containing 5 drawers each capable of holding 60 slabs. The other was a 45 tray cabinet with a variety of tray configurations, with a total capacity of over 2,200 raw coins. They were shipped in four boxes weighing approximately 215 pounds, total. (The pictures were taken in slightly different lighting conditions, which tends to make them look different in color, but they actually matched quite well.)

www.CabinetsByCraig.net
2 commentscmcdon0923
image~0.jpg
7 Galba35 viewsGalba. A.D.
68-69 AD
Ć as (27 mm, 10.29 g, 6 h). Rome.

O: IMP SER SVLP GALBA CAES AVG TR P, laureate head of Galba right

R: LIBERTAS PVBLICA, S C across fields, Libertas standing left, holding pileus and scepter.

RIC 328 var. (bare head); BMC 144; BN 160 (same dies). Dark brown and green patina, light roughness.

Good fine.

Ex Triskeles Auctions
RI0040
Sosius
Unident_Prov_-_30mm.jpg
25 Caracalla24 viewsCARACALLA
AE 31, Mopsus, Cilicia
Year 265=198 AD

Youthful Caracalla as Augustus, bust r. / Mule standing l., wreath and quiver on his back

SNG Levante 1344 (according to Curtis Clay: could be same obv. die, but different rev. die)

Thanks to FORVM member Curtis Clay for his assistance attributing this coin.
Sosius
Roman_Prov.jpg
26 Geta?21 viewsNever nailed this one down. It was discussed here:

http://www.forumancientcoins.com/board/index.php?topic=70693.msg443086#msg443086

From FORVM member Pscipio:
"Probably Geta as Caesar rather than Caracalla, cf. SNG Aulock 7165 for what looks like an obverse die match (different reverse type). Note that a similar left facing portrait also exists for Caracalla, but laureate, thus as Augustus: SNG Aulock 7162, which is clearly from the same hand and therefore probably belongs to the same emission.

The countermark appears to be Howgego 68."
Sosius
Aurelian_unident_.jpg
3 Aurelian32 viewsAURELIAN
AE Antoninianus, Siscia Mint
SECOND SPECIMEN KNOWN?
IMP CAES L DOM AVRELIANVS AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right (with huge nose) / ANNONA AVG, Annona stg. l., holding corn-ears in r. hand and cornucopiae in l. hand; at feet to l., prow of ship., P in r. field.
RIC temp #1927

Attributed with help from FORVM member Mauseus, who pointed to the following website, which indicates that this may be the second specimen known of this coin: http://www.ric.mom.fr/en/coin/1927

UPDATE: According to S. Estiot & J. Mairat of ric.mom.fr: "It is indeed the second specimen known of RIC temp 1927, and your coin is from the same pair of dies as the coin in Zagreb (Komin hoards)."
1 commentsSosius
rjb_carausius_oriens_473.jpg
47343 viewsCarausius 287-93 AD
AE antoninianus
Obv " IMP C CARAVSIVS PF AVG"
Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev "ORIENS AVG"
Sol standing left, and raised
Uncertain mint
S/P//-
RIC 473
Same reverse die as Hunter 130
mauseus
concord.jpg
755cf37 viewsCarausius 287-93AD
AE antoninianus
Obv "[IMP CARAVS]IVS PF AV"
Radiate, draped & cuirassed bust right
Rev "CONCORD [MILITV]M
Concordia seated left holding patera and cornucopia
Unmarked mint
RIC - (cf 755)
Obverse and reverse legends confirmed from a second specimen from the same dies in my photo file
mauseus
Baktria,_Diodotos_I,_AR_tetradrachm_-_Holt_A6_4_(this_coin)~0.jpg
Baktrian Kingdom, Diodotos I, ca. 255/250-240 BC, AR Tetradrachm 27 viewsDiademed head of Diodotos I right.
ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ANTIOXOY Zeus advancing left hurling thunderbolt, eagle at feet, ΙΔΤ (Iota, Delta, Sampi) monogram in inner left field.

Holt A6.4 (this coin); Kritt A6 (plate 2 A6 this coin); CSE 1294 (this coin); SNG Lockett 3109 (this coin ID: SNGuk_0300_3109); Pozzi 2945 (this coin); ESM 717α (this coin); SNG ANS 77; SC 631.a; Bopearachchi 2E; Mitchiner 64d; Qunduz 6; HGC 9, 243.
Mint "A" - Ai Khanoum

(26 mm, 15.73 g, 6h).
Herakles Numismatics; ex- Houghton Collection (CSE 1294); ex- Lockett Collection (SNGLockett 3109); ex- Pozzi Collection: Naville Sale I (1921) 2945 (sold for CHF 35).

This coin has a very distinguished provenance and has been published as plate coin in four reference works.

The emission with the ΙΔΤ (Iota, Delta Sampi) mint control mark is the most abundant of the Diodotid issues, representing about 13% of known Diodotid precious metal coins. The same control carries over into the early coinage of Euthydemos, although eventually displaced by the PK control monogram after 208/6 BC when Antiochos III captured Ai Khanoum while Euthydemos remained besieged at Baktra, after which it appears that Baktra/Balkh assumed the role of primary royal mint in Baktria. In is notable that the Archaic Greek letter Sampi forms the bottom of the ΙΔΤ monogram. It is an Archaic Greek form of a double Sigma that persisted in Greek dialects of Asia Minor. Many Greek settlers from Asia Minor migrated to Baktria, including the illustrious ruler Euthydemos from Magnesia in either Lydia, or Ionia. The archaic Greek Sampi possibly traveled to Baktria with the earliest Greek settlers from Asia Minor.
n.igma
Gordian-III-RIC-177-87.jpg
Gordian III / RIC 177 over 187, 1'st series.31 viewsAntoninianus, 238-239 AD, Antioch mint.
Obverse: IMP CAES M ANT GORDIANVS AVG / Radiate bust of Gordian.
Reverse: AEQVIT LIBER / Body and feet of Aequitas holding scales; Body and feet of Libertas holding pileus (Liberty cap) .
5.00 gm, 22 mm.
RIC #177 over #187.

This coin has two different reverses: the Aequitas type (RIC #177) is overstruck at 180 degree rotation on top of the Libertas type (RIC #187). Or, perhaps it is the other way around: The Libertas type (RIC #187) is overstruck on top of the Aequitas type (RIC #177).

The T of AEQVITAS AVG is almost flattened out and is just barely visible. At Antioch, Libertas with the pileus always has the legend LIBERALITAS AVG rather than LIBERTAS AVG.

There is a footnote to RIC #231 (vol. IV, part III, p. 39) which is quite intriguing:

"231. A strange Antoninianus (G. B. Pears Coll.) shows rev. type of AEQVIT[AS] apparently overstruck with type of LIBER[TAS] -- obv. of Gordian III, rev. of Philip overstruck with rev. of Trebonianus Gallus (?)."

I posted this coin on Forvmancientcoins.com and got this reply from Curtis Clay:

"A neat example of this error, and one I hadn't been aware of before, despite its mention in the RIC footnote!
As you expected, you now own the coin formerly in the Pears collection: we know because there is a plaster cast of it so labeled in the BM, which is illustrated in Roger Bland's dissertation, pl. 10, 18/21 !
One of the reverse types is Libertas with cap, but its legend must have been LIBERALITAS not LIBERTAS AVG: the Eastern mint always mislabeled its Libertas type as Liberalitas. RIC made the same mistake regarding the reverse legend; corrected by Bland, who lists the coin under the type LIBERALITAS AVG.
I had never heard of G. B. Pears or his collection before, so can supply no information in that regard."
Callimachus
IMG_2204_-_____.JPG
Phoenicia, Akko-Ptolemais Valerian I. 253-260 AD. AE 2663 viewsValerian I. 253-260 AD. AE 26 . Phoenicia, Akko-Ptolemais.
Obv: IMP C P L - [VALERIANVS] AVG Laureate, draped, cuirassed bust right, seen from front.
Rx: COL - P - T - OL Sacred tree between serpents rising from two altars or baskets; to right, winged caduceus. Rare: this type missing in BM, Lindgren, Berk photofile, and Wildwinds. CoinArchives includes a specimen from the same reverse die, but with radiate portrait on obverse: Heritage 357, Long Beach, 9 September 2004, lot 12092. Cohen 374 (de Saulcy Collection). Adjustment marks on obverse.
1 commentsMaritima
003~1.jpg
Γ in rectangular punch298 viewsLYDIA. Thyatira. Elagabalus. Ć 26. A.D. 218-222. Obv: AVTKMAAN-TΩNEINOC. Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right; countermark on lower part of bust. Rev: (ΘVA)TEIP-HNΩN. Tyche standing left, holding cornucopia and rudder. Ref: BMC -; cf. Sear 3072 (same obv. die). Axis: 165°. Weight: 7.92 g. CM: Γ in rectangular punch, 4 x 5 mm. Howgego 772, 774 or 777 (?). Note: The coin is light for 772, has greater greater diamater than 774 and is not as late as 777. Collection Automan.
Automan
171.jpg
Δ and KA (monogram of)295 viewsCILICIA. Seleuceia ad Calycadnum. Severus Alexander. Ć 28. A.D. 222-235. Obv: AV▪K▪M▪AVP▪CEOVHPAΛEZA-NΔPO. Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right; 2 countermarks: (1) on chest, (2) partly under (1). Rev: CEΛE(-YKEΩN)KAΛY-KA-ΔNΩ. Tyche of Seleuceia seated left on rock in distyle shrine, holding grains; river-god Calycadnus swimming left below. Ref: BMC -; SNG Levante Supp. 196 (same obv. die, var. rev. leg.). Axis: 195°. Weight: 9.91 g. CM(1): Δ containing dot, in triangular punch, 6 x 5 mm. Howgego 670 (206 pcs). Note: Not likely to be a denominational countermark. CM(2): Monogram of K and A, in shaped punch, 4 x 5 mm. Howgego 618 (52 pcs). Note: The countermark likely refers to Calycadnum. Collection Automan.Automan
092n.jpg
Δ and NIKO308 viewsMOESIA INFERIOR. Nikopolis ad Istrum. Septimius Severus. Ć 27. A.D. 193-211. Obv: (VK)ΛCEΠ•-CEVHPOC (...) or similar. Laureate bust right; countermark (1) on shoulder. Rev: VΠAVP•ΓAΛΛOV•NIKOΠOΛITΠPOCIC. River-god reclining left, leaning against urn (?), holding branch in right hand; Countermark (2) to left. Ref: BMC -. Axis: 60°. Weight: 11.68 g. CM(1): Δ, incuse punch, 7 x 6 mm. Howgego 782 (3 pcs). CM(2): NIKO, incuse, 14 x 5 mm. Howgego 553 (3 pcs, 2 of which on reverse). Note: All coins that have the Δ c/m apparently also bear the NIKO c/m and vice-versa, so they must have been applied at the same time. Collection Automan.Automan
013n~0.jpg
Δ, six-pointed star, eagle and Nike (6 cmks!)203 viewsCILICIA. Ninica-Claudiopolis. Maximinus I. Ć 27. A.D. 235-238. Obv: OIMPCSIVLVERMAXIMINVS. Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right; 6 countermarks: (1) to right, before bust, (2) on lower part of bust, (3) on neck, (4) behind and on back of head, (5) on upper part of head, (6) before head. Rev: NINIC-OL-CLA-UΔI, OPOLI in ex. Tetrastyle temple containing emperor, standing left, holding patera and spear. Ref: BMC 10; Sear GIC 3548 (same dies). Axis: 360°. Weight: 9.12 g. CM(1): Δ containing dot, all within circle; circular punch, 6 mm. Howgego 669 (49 pcs). Note: Not likely to be a denominational countermark. CM(2): Six-pointed star, incuse, 6 mm from point to point. Howgego 451 (45 pcs). CM(3): Eagle standing right with head left, in shaped punch, c. 4 x 7 mm. Howgego 338 (11 pcs). CM(4): Nike right, in oval punch, c. 5 x 8 mm. Howgego 262 (34 pcs). CM(5): Similar to CM(4). CM(6): Similar to CM(4). Note: The sequence of application appears to have been 669-451-262-338. Automan
108.jpg
ΘY (monogram of)202 viewsLYDIA. Thyatira. Elagabalus. Ć 26. A.D. 218-222. Obv: AVTKMAAN-TΩNEINOC. Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right; countermark on lower part of bust. Rev: (ΘVAT-E-I-)PHNΩN. Athena seated left, holding palladium in right extended arm, resting left arm on spear, wheel-like shield resing against throne. Ref: BMC 114. Axis: 180°. Weight: 7.60 g. Note: Same obverse die as Sear (GIC) 3072. CM: Monogram of Θ and Y, in circular punch, 5 mm. Howgego 617 (11 pcs). Note: Undoubtedly the countermark refers to the city of Thyatira where the host coin was issued. Collection Automan.Automan
8479.jpg
40 viewsROME
PB Tessera (18mm, 4.11 g, 12 h)
Cybele riding right on lion, holding transverse scepter
Attis standing right, wearing Phrygian cap, holding long scepter and ears of grain
Rostowzew 3213, pl. X, 14 var. (no legend); München 631 var. (same); BM 1356-9 var. (same)
1 commentsArdatirion
00018x00~0.jpg
31 viewsROME
PB Tessera (20mm, 4.62 g, 12h)
Diana Ephesia
DIA
Rostowzew 2151, pl. VIII 51 (cast from same mold)
Ardatirion
PB_Roman_Tessera_DP_2.jpg
56 viewsROME
PB Tessera (11 mm, 1.35 g, 12 h)
Fortuna seated left, holding rudder and cornucopia
DP
Rostowzew 2307; Kircheriano 809-9

Cast from same mold as:
http://www.forumancientcoins.com/gallery/displayimage.php?pos=-42319
Ardatirion
PB_Roman_Tessera_DP_1.jpg
62 viewsROME
PB Tessera (11 mm, 1.24 g, 12 h)
Fortuna seated left, holding rudder and cornucopia
DP
Rostowzew 2307; Kircheriano 809-9

Cast from same mold as:
http://www.forumancientcoins.com/gallery/displayimage.php?pos=-42318
1 commentsArdatirion
DSC_0203.jpg
18 viewsROME
PB Tessera (20mm, 5.77 g, 12 h)
Mercury standing facing, holding bag and caduceus
Fortuna standing left, holding rudder and cornucopia
Rostowzew 2647.1 = Rostowzew & Prou 300

The style of this piece is finer than one would expect for a common Roman type. Although difficult to tell without an illustration, Rostowzew 2647.1 is the only listed specimen near the size and is persumably of the same style.
Ardatirion
00008x00~1.jpg
11 viewsROME
PB Tessera (12mm, 1.38 g)
Fortuna standing left, holding rudder and cornucopia
Phallus
Rostovtsev 914 = BM 1181, 1819-21 var. (Fortuna right); Turcan 434 var. (same)
Ardatirion
00012x00.jpg
31 viewsROME. Durmius Successus
PB Tessera (19mm, 2.74 g)
Three aspects of Hekate
DVR/ SVC
Rostowzew 1210, pl. XI 4 (cast from same mold as illustrated specimen); Turcan 174

Ex Mark Staal Three Graces Collection; Classical Numismatic Group Electronic Auction 232, Lot 515 (part of); purchased from Divus Numismatic, May 2007

Rostowzew places this with the "Tesserae nominibus virorum et mulierum signatae."
Ardatirion
00014x00.jpg
24 viewsROME. L. Volusi Primi
PB Tessera (20mm, 3.65 g)
Three aspects of Hekate
LVOLV/ SIPRIMI
Rostowzew 1345, pl. XI 23 (cast from same mold as illustrated specimen); München 237; Kircheriano 405-8; BM 1349-50

Ex Mark Staal Three Graces Collection; Classical Numismatic Group Electronic Auction 232, Lot 515 (part of); purchased from Mediterranean Coins, April 2004

Rostowzew places this with the "Tesserae nominibus virorum et mulierum signatae."
Ardatirion
00003x00~5.jpg
36 viewsIONIA, Ephesos. Alexander.
PB Tessera (17mm, 3.95 g, 4h)
Artemis kneeling right, bathing, within grotto surmounted by half-length figure of Aktaion, wearing antlers and raising arms
Hippocampus right, AΛЄ Ξ around
Gülbay & Kireç –; Gorny & Mosch 212 (5 March 2013), lot 3333 (same dies); Vossen 35 (this coin)

Ex Tom Vossen Collection, 35
2 commentsArdatirion
ephesos_ascleupeus.jpg
25 viewsIONIA, Ephesos.
PB Tessera (15mm, 1.58 g)
Aesculapius standing left, leaning on staff entwined with snakes
Blank
Gülbay & Kireç 3 (same dies) corr. (Aesculapius, not Eirene)
Ardatirion
mercury1.JPG
27 viewsIONIA, Ephesos
PB Tessera (18mm, 7.48 g, 7 h)
Mercury standing left, holding bag and caduceus; altar to left
Bull standing right; star above
Gülbay & Kireç 16/89 (for obv/rev., same dies)
1 commentsArdatirion
_(KGrHqF,!lMFCSjPoI()BQv2mFrJKw~~60_1.jpg
43 viewsIONIA, Ephesos
PB Tessera (15mm, 3.31 g)
Hermit crab right; wheat ear below
Blank
Gülbay & Kireç 40 var. (figure on reverse - same obverse die)
1 commentsArdatirion
hermit.JPG
35 viewsIONIA, Ephesos
PB Tessera (16mm, 4.22 g, 2 h)
Hermit crab right; wheat ear below
Lion advancing right
Gülbay & Kireç 40 var. (figure on reverse – same obverse die)

My special thanks to BCD for withholding his bid and allowing me to acquire this piece.
1 commentsArdatirion
Victory_tessera.JPG
32 viewsIONIA, Ephesos
PB Tessera (16mm, 2.8 g)
Victory advancing right, holding wreath, palm frond over shoulder; VM-NΩ flanking
Gülbay & Kireç 11-2 (same dies)
Ardatirion
islamic_2.jpg
64 viewsEAST AFRICA, Kilwa Sultanate. 'Ali bin al-Hasan. Late 5th century AH / 11th century AD
Ć Fals (21mm, 2.68 g, 3 h). Kilwa Kisiwani mint.
Inscription in two lines; star at center
Inscription in three lines
Album 1180; Walker, Kilwa 12; SICA 10, 589-91; Zeno 87054 (this coin)

Acquired in the 1960's, likely through circulation in Dar-es-Salaam.

Chittick ("On the Chronology of the sultans of Kilwa" in NC 13, 1973), the excavator of Kilwa Kisiwani, notes that these issues were found in the earliest stratigraphic layers and accordingly reassigns them to the first sultan of Kilwa. Walker and Freeman-Grenville gave them to an otherwise unattested 13th century ruler of the same name. However, the picture is muddled by finds from the excavations at Songo Mnara, occupied only between the 14th and 16th centuries, where this type was among the most numerous to be found. The type is unlikely to have remained in circulation for such a long period and may been reissued by subsequent rulers.
Ardatirion
oxy2.jpg
51 viewsEGYPT, Oxyrhynchus
PB Tessera (21mm, 10.52 g, 2h)
Draped bust of Athena right, wearing Corinthian helm and aegis
Athena flying left on globe, holding wreath and palm frond over shoulder
Milne 5291; Dattari (Savio) 11817 (same dies); Köln 3509-17 var. (no letters, no globe)
Ardatirion
Oxyrhynchus_5292.jpg
30 viewsEGYPT, Oxyrhynchus
PB Tessera (21mm, 3.89 g, 12 h)
Draped bust of Athena right, wearing Corinthian helm and aegis; spear before
Nike advancing left, holding palm frond and wreath
Milne 5292-4; Dattari (Savio) -; Köln 3528 (same dies)
Ardatirion
oxy1.jpg
41 viewsEGYPT, Oxyrhynchus
PB Tessera (23mm, 8.65 g)
Athena-Theoris advancing right, fighting serpent
Nike flying left, holding palm branch and wreath; ΟΞ to left
Milne 5310; Dattari (Savio) 6539, 11617; Köln 3540 (same dies)
1 commentsArdatirion
Oxyrhynchus_5312.jpg
23 viewsEGYPT, Oxyrhynchus
PB Tessera (25mm, 9.10 g, 2h)
Athena standing left, holding Nike and long scepter, all within distyle temple with pellet in pediment
Nike advancing left, holding palm frond and wreath; OΞ to left
Milne 5312-4; Dattari (Savio) -; Köln 3534 (same dies)
Ardatirion
Oxyrhynchus_5303.jpg
31 viewsEGYPT, Oxyrhynchus
PB Tessera (26mm, 6.53 g, 1 h)
Athena-theoris advancing right, fighting serpent
Zeus Nicephorus seated left
Milne 5303-6 (same reverse die as illustration); Dattari (Savio) -; Köln 3554 (same dies)
Ardatirion
00032x00~1.jpg
17 viewsEGYPT, Uncertain
PB Tessera (20mm, 3.34 gm 2 h) Dated year 4 of an uncertain era
Bust of Horus right, wearing stylized pschent crown, being crowned by Victory flying left; LΔ (date) to lower right
Nilus recling left on crocodile, holding reeds and cornucopia, being crowned by Victory flying right
Milne 5415 corr. (date); Dattari (Savio) 11642; Köln –; CNG E-353, lot 370 (same dies)
Ardatirion
00070x00.jpg
27 viewsEGYPT, Uncertain
PB Tessera (18mm, 2.83 , 1 h)
Tyche reclining left on couch (hiera klinę, or lectisternium), holding rudder in outstretched right hand and resting head on raised left set on pillow; all within distyle temple with pellet in pediment
Hercules standing left, holding club and small figure of Telesphorus
Milne -; Dattari (Savio) -; Köln -; Roma E-Live 3 (25 October 2018), lot 484 (same dies)
Ardatirion
2900057.jpg
88 viewsTHESSALY, The Oitaioi. Circa 167-146 BC.
AR Hemidrachm (15mm, 2.30 g, 1h)
Herakleia Trachinia mint
Lion’s head left, spear in its jaws
OITAI downward to right, ΩN downward to left, Herakles standing facing, holding club in both hands
Valassiadis 9; BCD Thessaly II 494 (same obverse die)

Ex BCD Collection (Classical Numismatic Group Electronic Auction 290), lot 57; Peus 384 (2 November 2005), lot 199; Vinchon (20 May 1959), lot 483; M. Ratto 11 (16 May 1935), lot 239; R. Ratto (4 April 1927), lot 1023; Naville-Ars Classica V (18 June 1923), lot 1764
2 commentsArdatirion
louis1-obole-melle-lin.JPG
D.613var Louis the Pious (obol, Melle, class 2)34 viewsLouis the Pious, king of the Franks and Holy Roman emperor (813-840)
Obol (Melle, class 2, 819-822)

Silver, 0.74 g, 17 mm diameter, die axis 9 h

O/ LVDO / VVIC
R/ +METALLVM; cross pattée

As the value of a denier was quite important (a sheep typically cost 10 deniers during Charles the Great's reign), a smaller coin was needed. Clearly speaking, an obol is a half-denier. The carolingian coinage is typically one of silver deniers and obols. Obols and deniers were usually produced by pairs of the same kind.

Contrary to the related denier, the name of the ruler is here in the field and the mint name surrounds a cross pattée.
The absence of the imperial title made think that the coin had been struck when Louis was king of Aquitaine (before the death of Charles the Great). However there are similar obols with out of Aquitain mints. The absence of the imperial title (as well as an abbreviated name Lvdovvic instead of Hlvdovvicvs) may be due to a lack of space.
Droger
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D.611 Louis the Pious (denier, Melle, class 2)33 viewsLouis the Pious, king of the Franks and Holy Roman emperor (813-840)
Denier (Melle, class 2, 819-822)

Silver, 1.77 g, 20 mm diameter, die axis 6 h

O/ +HLVDOVVICVS IMP; cross pattée
R/ +METALLVM; cross pattée

The obsverse is similar to the previous denier. The difference is that the mint name is around a cross pattée on the reverse. This type is scarer than the one with the mint name in the field. The presence of both types in a hoard shows that both date from the beginning of Louis' reign and belong to the same Class 2.
Grierson and Blackburn suggest that this difference is due to a misunderstanding of the mint instructions.
Droger
louis1-denier-temple.JPG
D.1179 Louis the Pious (denier, class 3)51 viewsLouis the Pious, king of the Franks and Holy Roman emperor (813-840)
"Temple" denier (unknown mint, class 3, 822-840)

Silver, 1.56 g, 20.5 mm diameter, die axis 3 h

O/ +HLVDOVVICVS IMP; cross pattée with 4 pellets
R/ +XPISTIANA RELIGIO; temple

The XPISTIANA should be read "χρISTIANA", nice mix of greek and latin letters.

This is the most common carolingian coin (Class 3 of Louis' coinage).
The obverse is the same as Class 2. However, the reverse is a signature of the alliance between the Carolingians and the Roman Church, which began with Louis' father (Charles the Great) and the systematic introduction of a cross on coins. Louis carried on...

There is no indication of the mint name on this coinage. This fact is generally interpreted as a reinforcement of the imperial autority. Many people tried to localize the precise location of mints. Simon Coupland proposed an attribution, using stylistic similarities to other coins of well known mints. Some cases are easy to attribute but not this one (maybe Quentovic or Verdun ?)...

Droger
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D.627 Charles II the Bald (denier ?, class 1d, Melle)16 viewsCharles the Bald, king of the Franks (840-877)
Denier (Melle ?, class 1d, 840-864)

Silver, 1.35 g, 20.5 mm diameter, die axis 12h

O/ +CΛRLVS REX R; cross pattée
R/ +METxVLLO; carolingian monogram

The x in METxVLLO on the reverse has been widely discussed.
For instance, Depeyrot understands it as an immobilization/feudal issue. The crude style of theses deniers and the lightly degenerate legend of this one (CARLVS REX R instead of REX FR) seems in coherence with this hypothesis. However, the x is always at the same place.
Moreover, this type of coin has been found in the Brioux hoard, which may be datable to the beginning of Charles the Bald's reign. Grierson and Blackburn suggest that these coins with x were mainly minted in Poitiers. Using the legend of the close Melle mint allowed to take advantage of the reputation of Melle coinage.
Coupland proposes that this METxVLLO type came after the METVLLO type after 860 and until round 925. Then, it was replaced by the MET/ALO type. In order to explain the differences of interpretation, Coupland thinks that several hoards were wrongly dated or described.
Droger
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Dy.001 Hugh Capet: denier (Beauvais)19 viewsHugh Capet, king of the Franks (987-996) and Hervé, Bishop of Beauvais (987-998)
Denier (Beauvais)

Silver, 1.19 g, diameter 21 mm, die axis 9h
O: [HERV]EVS HVGO RE[X] ; cross pattée with 2 pellets
R: BE[LVΛC]VS CIVITΛS ; carolingian monogram KRLS

Although Hugh Capet was the founder of the capetian dynasty, his coinage contains a carolingian monogram. It may have been a way to show the continuity of the royal authority. The presence of the bishop Hervé is not really understood on this nearly only coinage of Hugh Capet as king of the Franks (obols of the same type are also known, as well as a unique denier of Laon).
Droger
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Dy.187 Louis VIII (the Lion) or IX (Saint Louis): denier tournois19 viewsLouis VIII, king of France (1223-1226) or Louis IX, king of France (1226-1270)
Denier tournois (1223-1250)

Billon, 0.81 g, diameter 19 mm, die axis 4h30
O: +LVDOVICVS REX; cross pattée
R: +TVRONVS CIVI; châtel tournois

The question of the attribution of this denier to Louis VIII or to the first part of Louis IX's reign is difficult. Indeed, Louis VIII only ruled for 3 years and both the father and the son have the same name...
Droger
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Dy.225 Philip IV (the Fair): denier tournois with a long 013 viewsPhilip IV, king of France (1285-1314)
Denier tournois with long 0 (1290-1295)

Billon (299 ‰), 0.92 g, diameter 18 mm, die axis 9h
O: +PHILIPPVS REX; cross pattée
R: +TVR0NVS CIVIS; châtel tournois

It is exactly the same type as the denier tournois with round O, but with a long 0, as for the Gros tournois.
Droger
louis3-denier-tours.JPG
D.1041 Louis III (denier, Tours)31 viewsLouis III, king of the Franks (879-882)
Denier (Tours)

Silver, 1.78 g, 19 mm diameter, die axis 12h

O/ +IIISIRICORDIΛ DI REX; Louis' monogram (legend beginning at 3h)
R/ +HTVR◊NES CIVITAS; croix pattée

Louis III became king of West Francia at 16 after his father Louis II died quite young. As he was the only living son of Charles II, Louis II had inherited the full kingdom of West Francia from his father. At opposite, when Louis II died, his sons Louis III and Carloman II divided the kingdom into a northern part for Louis III and a southern part for his brother Carloman II. During his reign, Louis III (in alliance with his brother) achieved military successes, especially against Vikings. However, Louis III's reign didn't last long. Louis III died inadvertently at 19 while chasing a girl on his horse. He hit violently the lintel of a door with his head.
Louis III's coinage is hard to distinguish from Louis II's. Both bear the same name et both reigns were very short. Three kinds of coins can be found:
* coins with legend LVDOVICS REX and a KRLS monogram : these coins have been found for northern and southern mints and are consequently given for Louis II;
* coins with a LVDOVICVS monogram ; they have only been found for the northern mints, and are consequently supposed to be Louis III's;
* coins of Toulouse with LV/DO, imitating the ones of Charles emperor with CA/RL. The attribution to Louis II seems to be straightforward due to the southern position.
The legend of the coin is different from the traditional Gratia di Rex, but still shows a religious origin. However its success remained very limited, with some scare coins of Louis III and Eudes.
3 commentsDroger
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D.abs Rudolph (denier, Orléans)49 viewsRudolph (or Raoul, Radulf), king of the Franks (923-936)
Denier (Orléans)

Silver, 1.14 g, 18 mm diameter, die axis 11h

O/ +CRΛTI[Λ D-I R]EX; monogram (legend beginning at 9h)
R/ +ΛVRELIΛNIS CIVITΛ cross pattée

Same monogram as the previous coin minted in Château-Landon.
Same conclusions: according to Dumas, this coinage may have been struck after Rudolph's dead, by Hugh the Great.

As often in Orléans' coinage, the I after an L in Avrelianis is in the angle of the L.
Droger
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"As de Nîmes" or "crocodile" Ӕ dupondius of Nemausus (9 - 3 BC), honoring Augustus and Agrippa33 viewsIMP DIVI F , Heads of Agrippa (left) and Augustus (right) back to back, Agrippa wearing rostral crown and Augustus the oak-wreath / COL NEM, crocodile right chained to palm-shoot with short dense fronds and tip right; two short palm offshoots left and right below, above on left a wreath with two long ties streaming right.

Ӕ, 24.5 x 3+ mm, 13.23g, die axis 3h; on both sides there are remains of what appears to be gold plating, perhaps it was a votive offering? Rough edges and slight scrapes on flan typical for this kind of coin, due to primitive technology (filing) of flan preparation.

IMPerator DIVI Filius. Mint of COLonia NEMausus (currently Nîmes, France). Known as "As de Nîmes", it is actually a dupontius (lit. "two-pounder") = 2 ases (sometimes cut in halves to get change). Dupondii were often made out of a golden-colored copper alloy (type of brass) "orichalcum" and this appears to be such case.

Key ID points: oak-wreath (microphotography shows that at least one leaf has a complicated shape, although distinguishing oak from laurel is very difficult) – earlier versions have Augustus bareheaded, no PP on obverse as in later versions, no NE ligature, palm with short fronds with tip right (later versions have tip left and sometimes long fronds). Not typical: no clear laurel wreath together with the rostral crown, gold (?) plating (!), both features really baffling.

But still clearly a "middle" kind of the croc dupondius, known as "type III": RIC I 158, RPC I 524, Sear 1730. It is often conservatively dated to 10 BC - 10 AD, but these days it is usually narrowed to 9/8 - 3 BC.

It is a commemorative issue, honoring the victory over Mark Antony and conquest of Egypt in 30 BC. The heads of Augustus and Agrippa were probably positioned to remind familiar obverses of Roman republican coins with two-faced Janus. Palm branch was a common symbol of victory, in this case grown into a tree, like the victories of Augustus and Agrippa grown into the empire. The two offshoots at the bottom may mean two sons of Agrippa, Gaius and Lucius, who were supposed to be Augustus' heirs and were patrons of the colony. Palm may also be a symbol of the local Nemausian deity, which was probably worshiped in a sacred grove. When these coins were minted, the colony was mostly populated by the settled veterans of Augustus' campaigns, hence the reminiscence of the most famous victory, but some of the original Celtic culture probably survived and was assimilated by Romans. The crocodile is not only the symbol of Egypt, like in the famous Octavian's coins AEGYPTO CAPTA. It is also a representation of Mark Antony, powerful and scary both in water and on land, but a bit slow and stupid. The shape of the crocodile with tail up was specifically chosen to remind of the shape of ship on very common "legionary" denarius series, which Mark Antony minted to pay his armies just before Actium. It is probably also related to the popular contemporary caricature of Cleopatra, riding on and simultaneously copulating with a crocodile, holding a palm branch in her hand as if in triumph. There the crocodile also symbolized Mark Antony.

Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa was born c. 64-62 BC somewhere in rural Italy. His family was of humble and plebeian origins, but rich, of equestrian rank. Agrippa was about the same age as Octavian, and the two were educated together and became close friends. He probably first served in Caesar's Spanish campaign of 46–45 BC. Caesar regarded him highly enough to send him with Octavius in 45 BC to train in Illyria. When Octavian returned to Rome after Caesar's assassination, Agrippa became his close lieutenant, performing many tasks. He probably started his political career in 43 BC as a tribune of the people and then a member of the Senate. Then he was one of the leading Octavian's generals, finally becoming THE leading general and admiral in the civil wars of the subsequent years.

In 38 as a governor of Transalpine Gaul Agrippa undertook an expedition to Germania, thus becoming the first Roman general since Julius Caesar to cross the Rhine. During this foray he helped the Germanic tribe of Ubii (who previously allied themselves with Caesar in 55 BC) to resettle on the west bank of the Rhine. A shrine was dedicated there, possibly to Divus Caesar whom Ubii fondly remembered, and the village became known as Ara Ubiorum, "Altar of Ubians". This quickly would become an important Roman settlement. Agrippina the Younger, Agrippa's granddaughter, wife of Emperor Claudius and mother of Emperor Nero, would be born there in 15 AD. In 50 AD she would sponsor this village to be upgraded to a colonia, and it would be renamed Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium (colony of Claudius [at] the Altar of Agrippinians – Ubii renamed themselves as Agrippinians to honor the augusta!), abbreviated as CCAA, later to become the capital of new Roman province, Germania Inferior.

In 37 BC Octavian recalled Agrippa back to Rome and arranged for him to win the consular elections, he desperately needed help in naval warfare with Sextus Pompey, the youngest son of Pompey the Great, who styled himself as the last supporter of the republican cause, but in reality became a pirate king, an irony since his father was the one who virtually exterminated piracy in all the Roman waters. He forced humiliating armistice on the triumvirs in 39 BC and when Octavian renewed the hostilities a year later, defeated him in a decisive naval battle of Messina. New fleet had to be built and trained, and Agrippa was the man for the job. Agrippa's solution was creating a huge secret naval base he called Portus Iulius by connecting together lakes Avernus, Avernus and the natural inner and outer harbors behind Cape Misenum at the northern end of the Gulf of Naples. He also created a larger type of ship and developed a new naval weapon: harpax – a ballista-launched grapnel shot with mechanisms that allowed pulling enemy ships close for easy boarding. It replaced the previous boarding device that Romans used since the First Punic War, corvus – effective, but extremely cumbersome. A later defence against it were scythe blades on long poles for cutting ropes, but since this invention was developed in secret, the enemy had no chance to prepare anything like it. It all has proved extremely effective: in a series of naval engagements Agrippa annihilated the fleet of Sextus, forced him to abandon his bases and run away. For this Agrippa was awarded an unprecedented honour that no Roman before or after him received: a rostral crown, "corona rostrata", a wreath decorated in front by a prow and beak of a ship.

That's why Virgil (Aeneid VIII, 683-684), describing Agrippa at Actium, says: "…belli insigne superbum, tempora navali fulgent rostrata corona." "…the proud military decoration, gleams on his brow the naval rostral crown". Actium, the decisive battle between forces of Octavian and Mark Antony, may appear boring compared to the war with Sextus, but it probably turned out this way due to Agrippa's victories in preliminary naval engagements and taking over all the strategy from Octavian.

In between the wars Agrippa has shown an unusual talent in city planning, not only constructing many new public buildings etc., but also greatly improving Rome's sanitation by doing a complete overhaul of all the aqueducts and sewers. Typically, it was Augustus who later would boast that "he had found the city of brick but left it of marble", forgetting that, just like in his naval successes, it was Agrippa who did most of the work. Agrippa had building programs in other Roman cities as well, a magnificent temple (currently known as Maison Carrée) survives in Nîmes itself, which was probably built by Agrippa.

Later relationship between Augustus and Agrippa seemed colder for a while, Agrippa seemed to even go into "exile", but modern historians agree that it was just a ploy: Augustus wanted others to think that Agrippa was his "rival" while in truth he was keeping a significant army far away from Rome, ready to come to the rescue in case Augustus' political machinations fail. It is confirmed by the fact that later Agrippa was recalled and given authority almost equal to Augustus himself, not to mention that he married Augustus' only biological child. The last years of Agrippa's life were spent governing the eastern provinces, were he won respect even of the Jews. He also restored Crimea to Roman Empire. His last service was starting the conquest of the upper Danube, were later the province of Pannonia would be. He suddenly died of illness in 12 BC, aged ~51.

Agrippa had several children through his three marriages. Through some of his children, Agrippa would become ancestor to many subsequent members of the Julio-Claudian dynasty. He has numerous other legacies.
Yurii P
107-1b-Naville-6-6-2015-wht.jpg
"C", larger head, Denarius, Crawford 107/1b17 viewsDenomination: Denarius
Era: c. 209-208 BC
Metal: AR
Obverse: Helmeted head of Roma r. with splayed visor; “X” behind; Border of dots
Reverse: Dioscuri r.; above, “C” symbol; in linear frame, “ROMA”.
Mint: Etruria(?)
Weight: 4.32 gm.
Reference: Crawford 107/1b
Provenance: Naville auction, 7-MAY-2017

Comments:
This type with a “C” symbol is of the same fundamental style as the staff symbol 106/3c. presumably both issues from the same mint. The type is somewhat scarce, but the most common of the three other “C” sub-varieties.
Near complete on a large flan, GVF.
Steve B5
EpirFake.jpg
"Epirus, the Epeirote Republic, Didrachm size modern fake, genuine drachm prototypes dated 234-168 BC. "69 viewsEpirus, the Epeirote Republic, modern fake, genuine drachm prototypes dated 234-168 BC.,
Didrachm size (ř 22 mm / 8,50 g), silver, axes about coin alignment ↑↓ (ca. 160°), edge: 50 % filed, 50 % hammered,
Obv.: A· , laureate head of Zeus Dodonaios right, A· behind, dotted border.
Rev.: AΠEI / PΩTAN , eagle standing right on thunderbolt, all within oak wreath, dotted border.
for prototype cf. BMC p. 89, no. 14 (drachm size 4,5-5,0 g., AI· -monogram behind head on obverse) ; - Dewing 1444 (same) ; Franke, - Epirus 100 (same) ; - SNG Cop. 108ff. ; for a drachm showing similar style cf. http://www.acsearch.info/search.html?id=748945 (also a fake?) .

1 commentsArminius
a_pius_caly_blk.jpg
(0138) ANTONINUS PIUS23 views138 - 161 AD
25 mm, 8.29 g
O: ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙСΑΡ ΑΔΡΙ ΑΝΤΩΝΙΝοС СƐΒΑ laureate head of Antoninus Pius, r.
R: СƐΛƐVΚΩΝ Τ Π ΚΑΛΥ Τ ΙƐΡ ΑС ΑΥΤ Athena standing, l., holding Nike, resting arm on shield
Seleucia ad Calycadnum, Cilicia
Ref: RPC IV Online 4033 corr. (spear) (same die as pictured RPC 4033)
laney
a_pius_Seleucia_ad_Calycadnum.jpg
(0138) ANTONINUS PIUS--Seleucia ad Calycadnum16 views138 - 161 AD
25 mm, 8.29 g
O: ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙСΑΡ ΑΔΡΙ ΑΝΤΩΝΙΝοС СƐΒΑ laureate head of Antoninus Pius, r.
R: СƐΛƐVΚΩΝ Τ Π ΚΑΛΥ Τ ΙƐΡ ΑС ΑΥΤ Athena standing, l., holding Nike, resting arm on shield
Seleucia ad Calycadnum, Cilicia
Ref: RPC IV Online 4033 corr. (spear) (same die as pictured RPC 4033)
laney
septimius_sev.jpg
(0193) SEPTIMIUS SEVERUS54 views193 - 211 AD
Struck 196-198 AD, under governor Statilius Barbarus
AE 27 mm, 12.31 g
O: AV KAI CE CEVHPOC ΠE Laureate, draped, curiassed bust right
R: HΓE CTA BAPBAPOV ΦIΛIΠΠOΠOΛITΩN Emperor riding a galloping horse right with transverse spear and flowing mantle
Thrace,Philippopolis; cf Varbanov 1193 (same dies; said to be unpublished, in collection of O. Gavrailov)
laney
septimius_horseback.jpg
(0193) SEPTIMIUS SEVERUS21 views193 - 211 AD
Struck 196-198 AD, under governor Statilius Barbarus
AE 27 mm, 12.31 g
O: AV KAI CE CEVHPOC ΠE Laureate, draped, curiassed bust right
R: HΓE CTA BAPBAPOV ΦIΛIΠΠOΠOΛITΩN Emperor riding a galloping horse right with transverse spear and flowing mantle
Thrace,Philippopolis; cf Varbanov 1193 (same dies; said to be unpublished, in collection of O. Gavrailov)
laney
septim_dancers.jpg
(0193) SEPTIMIUS SEVERUS (Corybantes rev.)23 views193 - 211 AD
AE 27 mm; 10.2 g
O: AY K L CEP - CEYHROS Laureate draped bust right
R: MESAMBR - IA[NWN] Two Corybantes performing Pyrrhic dance, holding shield above their helmeted heads and short swords.
Thrace, Mesembria; cf Karayotov Vol. II, Plate CXXXII 19 and 20
note: Karayotov only lists two example from the same pair of dies:
19) Coll. of Metodi Minchev, Burgas
20) Varna, AM, II 19652; Lazarenko 2003, p. 76 Fig 2. (Lazarenko is a reference in a Bulgarian language numismatic journal)
laney
geta_res.jpg
(0198) GETA48 views198 - 212 AD
Struck 209 AD*
AE 29.5 mm 14.99 g
O: AVT K P CEP MIOC GETA laureate head right
R: PAVTA (right) LIAC (below) OVLPIAC (left) Septimius, togate, handing globe to Geta, in military dress, laureate, holding a spear. Between them, a seated captive, hands tied behind back, wearing Phrygian cap.
Pautalia
Varbanov 5404, same dies as this specimen.
Ruzicka, Pautalia 909, recording five specimens from two reverse dies. The reverse he illustrates, pl. VII, is from the same die as this specimen.
Very Rare
*(Geta is Augustus on the obverse, so reverse type probably refers to his promotion to joint emperor late in 209)
laney
geta_pautalia_-_Copyb.jpg
(0198) GETA29 views198 - 212 AD
Struck 209 AD*
AE 29.5 mm 14.99 g
O: AVT K P CEP MIOC GETA laureate head right
R: PAVTA (right) LIAC (below) OVLPIAC (left) Septimius, togate, handing globe to Geta, in military dress, laureate, holding a spear. Between them, a seated captive, hands tied behind back, wearing Phrygian cap.
Pautalia
Varbanov 5404, same dies as this specimen.
Ruzicka, Pautalia 909, recording five specimens from two reverse dies. The reverse he illustrates, pl. VII, is from the same die as this specimen.
Very Rare
*(Geta is Augustus on the obverse, so reverse type probably refers to his promotion to joint emperor late in 209)
laney
macrinus_deult_cerberc.jpg
(0217) MACRINUS43 views217 - 218 AD
AE 25 mm 10.84 g
O: IMP CM OPEL SEV MACRINVS PI Radiate bust right
R: COL FL PAC DEVLT Hades-Serapis seated left, Cerberus at feet on left
Thrace, Deultum
SNG (Bulg.) Ruse 1, Deultum, no. 120, pl. 9 (=Jurukova 46)
(Draganov cites just one die pair, apparently the same as this coin; provincials at Deultum start with Caracalla, so Macrinus is an early issue)
laney
elagab_markianop_lion.jpg
(0218) ELAGABALUS24 views218 - 222 AD
AE 17.5 mm; 2.14 g
O: AVT KM AVP ANTWNEINOC Laureate head right
R: MARKIANOPOLI/ TWN Lion standing left
Moesia Inferior, Markianopolis mint
Ref: (all apparently from the same dies as this coin)
Pfeiffer, Münzen aus Markianopolis, 2nd ed., Kaarst 2013, 443.
AMNG 915: Paris, rev. ill. pl. XX.1; Hristova-Jekov, Marcianopolis, 2006, p. 149, ill. 6; Lanz 82, 1997, lot 546
d.s.

laney
max_thrax_denarius_x.jpg
(0235) MAXIMINUS I THRAX14 views235 - 238 AD
Struck 236 AD--2nd emission
Silver denarius, 20.0 mm; 2.909 g
O: IMP MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG, laureate and draped bust right (no cuirass?), from behind;
R: PAX AVGVSTI (to the peace of the emperor), Pax standing facing, head left, raising olive branch in right hand, transverse scepter in left
Rome mint; RSC III 31b (no cuirass), RIC IV 12 var. (cuirassed), BMCRE VI 70 var. (same), Hunter III 8 var. (same), SRCV III 8310 var. (same)
(ex FORUM)
laney
cm_standing_figure_comb.jpg
(06) NERO--COUNTERMARKED49 views54 - 68 AD
AE 19 mm 3.02 g
Phrygia, Akmoneia (probably L. Servenius Capito and his wife Iulia Severa. Struck circa 65 AD).
O: draped bust right; countermark: Asklepios holding snake-encircled staff
R: Zeus seated left, holding patera and sceptre
cf SNG von Aulock 3375 (same countermark).
laney
galba_antioch.jpg
(07) GALBA19 views68-69 AD
AE22 (7.16 g), Antioch, Syria.
Obv. IMP SER GALBA CAE AVG, Laureate head to right.
Rev. S C within large wreath.
Antioch, Syria. McAlee 314 (same dies); RPC I 4315var (obv. legend)
From the Richard McAlee Collection
Rare, only the second known to McAlee. Very fine.

laney
LPisoFrugiDenarius_S235.jpg
(502a) Roman Republic, L. Calpurnius Piso Frugi, 90 B.C.157 viewsSilver denarius, S 235, Calpurnia 11, Crawford 340/1, Syd 663a, VF, rainbow toning, Rome mint, 3.772g, 18.5mm, 180o, 90 B.C. obverse: laureate head of Apollo right, scorpion behind; Reverse naked horseman galloping right holding palm, L PISO FRVGI and control number CXI below; ex-CNA XV 6/5/91, #443. Ex FORVM.


A portion of the following text is a passage taken from the excellent article “The Calpurnii and Roman Family History: An Analysis of the Piso Frugi Coin in the Joel Handshu Collection at the College of Charleston,” by Chance W. Cook:

In the Roman world, particularly prior to the inception of the principate, moneyers were allotted a high degree of latitude to mint their coins as they saw fit. The tres viri monetales, the three men in charge of minting coins, who served one-year terms, often emblazoned their coins with an incredible variety of images and inscriptions reflecting the grandeur, history, and religion of Rome. Yet also prominent are references to personal or familial accomplishments; in this manner coins were also a means by which the tres viri monetales could honor their forbearers. Most obvious from an analysis of the Piso Frugi denarius is the respect and admiration that Lucius Calpurnius Piso Frugi, who minted the coin, had for his ancestors. For the images he selected for his dies relate directly to the lofty deeds performed by his Calpurnii forbearers in the century prior to his term as moneyer. The Calpurnii were present at many of the watershed events in the late Republic and had long distinguished themselves in serving the state, becoming an influential and well-respected family whose defense of traditional Roman values cannot be doubted.

Lucius Calpurnius Piso Frugi, who was moneyer in 90 B.C., depicted Apollo on the obverse and the galloping horseman on the reverse, as does his son Gaius. However, all of L. Piso Frugi’s coins have lettering similar to “L-PISO-FRVGI” on the reverse, quite disparate from his son Gaius’ derivations of “C-PISO-L-F-FRV.”

Moreover, C. Piso Frugi coins are noted as possessing “superior workmanship” to those produced by L. Piso Frugi.

The Frugi cognomen, which became hereditary, was first given to L. Calpurnius Piso, consul in 133 B.C., for his integrity and overall moral virtue. Cicero is noted as saying that frugal men possessed the three cardinal Stoic virtues of bravery, justice, and wisdom; indeed in the Thesaurus Linguae Latinae, a synonym of frugalitas is bonus, generically meaning “good” but also implying virtuous behavior. Gary Forsythe notes that Cicero would sometimes invoke L. Calpurnius Piso’s name at the beginning of speeches as “a paragon of moral rectitude” for his audience.

L. Calpurnius Piso Frugi’s inclusion of the laureled head of Apollo, essentially the same obverse die used by his son Gaius (c. 67 B.C.), was due to his family’s important role in the establishment of the Ludi Apollinares, the Games of Apollo, which were first instituted in 212 B.C. at the height of Hannibal’s invasion of Italy during the Second Punic War. By that time, Hannibal had crushed Roman armies at Cannae, seized Tarentum and was invading Campania.

Games had been used throughout Roman history as a means of allaying the fears
of the populace and distracting them from issues at hand; the Ludi Apollinares were no different. Forsythe follows the traditional interpretation that in 211 B.C., when C. Calpurnius Piso was praetor, he became the chief magistrate in Rome while both consuls were absent and the three other praetors were sent on military expeditions against Hannibal.

At this juncture, he put forth a motion in the Senate to make the Ludi Apollinares a yearly event, which was passed; the Ludi Apollinares did indeed become an important festival, eventually spanning eight days in the later Republic. However, this interpretation is debatable; H.H. Scullard suggests that the games were not made permanent until 208 B.C. after a severe plague prompted the Senate to make them a fixture on the calendar. The Senators believed Apollo would serve as a “healing god” for the people of Rome.

Nonetheless, the Calpurnii obviously believed their ancestor had played an integral role in the establishment of the Ludi Apollinares and thus prominently displayed
the head or bust of Apollo on the obverse of the coins they minted.

The meaning of the galloping horseman found on the reverse of the L. Calpurnius Piso Frugi coin is more complicated. It is possible that this is yet another reference to the Ludi Apollinares. Chariot races in the Circus Maximus were a major component of the games, along with animal hunts and theatrical performances.

A more intriguing possibility is that the horseman is a reference to C. Calpurnius Piso, son of the Calpurnius Piso who is said to have founded the Ludi Apollinares. This C. Calpurnius Piso was given a military command in 186 B.C. to quell a revolt in Spain. He was victorious, restoring order to the province and also gaining significant wealth in the process.

Upon his return to Rome in 184, he was granted a triumph by the Senate and eventually erected an arch on the Capitoline Hill celebrating his victory. Of course
the arch prominently displayed the Calpurnius name. Piso, however, was not an infantry commander; he led the cavalry.

The difficulty in accepting C. Calpurnius Piso’s victory in Spain as the impetus for the galloping horseman image is that not all of C. Piso Frugi’s coins depict the horseman or cavalryman carrying the palm, which is a symbol of victory. One is inclined to believe that the victory palm would be prominent in all of the coins minted by C. Piso Frugi (the son of L. Calpurnius Piso Frugi) if it indeed signified the great triumph of C. Calpurnius Piso in 186 B.C. Yet the palm’s appearance is clearly not a direct reference to military feats of C. Piso Frugi’s day. As noted, it is accepted that his coins were minted in 67 B.C.; in that year, the major victory by Roman forces was Pompey’s swift defeat of the pirates throughout the Mediterranean.

Chrestomathy: Annual Review of Undergraduate Research at the College of Charleston. Volume 1, 2002: pp. 1-10© 2002 by the College of Charleston, Charleston SC 29424, USA.All rights to be retained by the author.
http://www.cofc.edu/chrestomathy/vol1/cook.pdf


There are six (debatably seven) prominent Romans who have been known to posterity as Lucius Calpurnius Piso:

Lucius Calpurnius Piso Frugi: (d. 261 A.D.) a Roman usurper, whose existence is
questionable, based on the unreliable Historia Augusta.

Lucius Calpurnius Piso Licinianus: deputy Roman Emperor, 10 January 69 to15 January
69, appointed by Galba.

Lucius Calpurnius Piso: Consul in 27 A.D.

Lucius Calpurnius Piso: Consul in 1 B.C., augur

Lucius Calpurnius Piso: Consul in 15 B.C., pontifex

Lucius Calpurnius Piso Caesoninus: Consul in 58 B.C. (the uncle of Julius Caesar)

Lucius Calpurnius Piso Frugi: Moneyer in 90 B.C. (our man)


All but one (or two--if you believe in the existence of "Frugi the usurper" ca. 261 A.D.) of these gentlemen lack the Frugi cognomen, indicating they are not from the same direct lineage as our moneyer, though all are Calpurnii.

Calpurnius Piso Frugi's massive issue was intended to support the war against the Marsic Confederation. The type has numerous variations and control marks.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lucius_Calpurnius_Piso
http://www.forumancientcoins.com/catalog/indexfrm.asp?vpar=55&pos=0

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.


2 commentsCleisthenes
CnCorneliusLentulusMarcellinusARDenariusSear323.jpg
(503f) Cn. Cornelius Lentulus Marcellinus Silver Denarius87 viewsCn. Cornelius Lentulus Marcellinus Silver Denarius, Sear-323, Cr-393/1a, Syd-752, RSC-Cornelia 54, struck 76-75 BC at Spanish Mint, 3.94 grams, 18 mm. EF. Obverse: GPR above Diademed, draped and bearded bust of the Genius of the Roman People facing right, sceptre over shoulder; Reverse: EX in left field, SC in right field; CN LEN Q in exergue, Sceptre with wreath, terrestrial globe and rudder. An exceptional example that is especially well centered and struck on a slightly larger flan than normally encountered with fully lustrous surfaces and a most attractive irridescent antique toning. Held back from the Superb EF/FDC by a small banker's mark in the right obverse field, but still worthy of the finest collection of Roman Republican denarii. Ex Glenn Woods.

Re: CORNELIA 54:

“Cn. Cornelius Lentulus Marcellinus may be the same moneyer whose issues have been already described (no.s 702-704). Mommsen suggested that these coins were struck in 74 B.C. as a special issue, authorized by the Senate, to defray the cost of armaments against Mithridates of Pontus and the Mediterranean pirates. But Grueber’s view that they were struck in 76 B.C. by Cn. Cornelius Lentulus acting in the capacity of quaestor of Pompey, seems more in accordance with the evidence of finds" (see: G. ii, p. 359n and The Coinage of the Roman Republic, by Edward A. Sydenham, 1976, pgs. 1).

H. A. Seaby shows the coin with the smaller head (Roman Silver Coins Vol. I, Republic to Augustus pg. 33) while David R Sear shows a coin sporting a larger version (Roman Coins and Their Values, pg. 132).

“Cn. Lentulus strikes in Spain in his capacity as quaestor to the proconsul Pompey, who had been sent to the peninsula to assist Q. Caecillus Metellus Piusagainst sertorius”(Roman Coins and Their Values, by David Sear, Vol.1, 2000, pg. 132).

This is not an imperatorial minted coin for Pompey. At the time these coins were minted the Procounsel Pompey was sent to Spain to aid in the war against Sertorius. The moneyer Cn Lentulus served as his Quaestor where he continued to mint coins for Rome.

CN = Cneaus; LEN = Lentulus

Cneaus was his first name. His last, or family name is Lentulus and this clan is a lesser clan within the Cornelii, which is what his middle name of Cornelius implies.

Q = This tells us that he was a Quaestor, or Roman magistrate with judicial powers at the time when the coin was issued, with the responsibility for the treasury. Had this been a position that he once held it would be noted on the coin as PROQ or pro [past] Questor.

For Further Reading on the Cornelia 54 & 55:

Coins of the Roman Republic in the British Museum, by H. A. Grueber. London, 1910, Vol. II, pgs. 358, 359, 52, 57

Roman Silver Coins Vol. I, Republic to Augustus, by H.A.Seaby 1952, pgs. 32-33

The Coinage of the Roman Republic, by Edward A. Sydenham, 1976, pgs. 122, 241

Roman Coins and Their Values, by David Sear, Vol.1, 2000, pg. 132, 133

Roman Republican Coinage Volume I by Michael H. Crawford 2001, pg. 407

by Jerry Edward Cornelius, April 2006, THE 81 ROMAN COINS OF THE CORNELIA
http://www.cornelius93.com/Cornelia54.html
1 commentsCleisthenes
MarcusNysaMerge3a.jpg
*Lydia, Nysa. Marcus Aurelius. Regling, Nysa 86 37 viewsĆ23. Lydia, Nysa. Marcus Aurelius (Caesar AD 136–161; Emperor 161–180), laureate head to r., cuirassed bust with paludamentum, back to viewer. ΑΥ ΚΑΙ ΑΝΤΩΝΕΙΝΟC or "Imperator Caesar Antoninus" Rev., Zeus seated, holding patera and long scepter. ΕΠ ΓΡ ΑΣΙΑΤΙΚΟΥ Κ[ΟΡΝ] ΝΥΣΑ[ΕΩΝ]. Asiatikos Korn(eliou), grammateus. Regling, Nysa 86; RPC IV (temporary №) 1455. Ex Collegium Josephinum Bonn 1-9-2010.

Same dies as RPC IV specimen: http://rpc.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/coins/1455/

*Note: Made a slight adjustment to image for brightness, contrast, and intensity.
Mark Fox
Balbinus.jpg
*SOLD*46 viewsBalbinus AE 36

Attribution: SNG Paris 1627 (same dies), Tarsus, rare
Date: AD 238
Obverse: AVT KAIC KAI BALBEINON CEB, laureate and draped bust r.,
Ω / Π in l. and r. fields
Reverse: TA PCOY M HTPO Π O Λ C Ω C, Perseus stg. l. holding head of Gorgon Medusa in r. hand and a harpa in l. hand, A/K in l. field, M/B/ Γ in r. field
Size: 35 mm
Weight: 20.4 grams
Noah
Elagabalus.jpg
*SOLD*40 viewsElagabalus AE26

Attribution: SNG Budapest 177 same obv. die, Hristova/Jekov No.6.26.36.9 var., Markianopolis
Date: AD 218-222
Obverse: AVT KM AVP H Λ I ff ANT Ω NEINOCV, laureate and draped bust r.
Reverse: V Π IOV Λ ANT CE Λ EV KOV MAPKIANO Π O Λ IT Ω N, Homonoia stg. l. holding patera and cornucopiae
Size: 26 mm
Weight: 10.4 grams
2 commentsNoah
coins2.JPG
000c. Sextus Pompey76 viewsSextus Pompeius Magnus Pius, in English Sextus Pompey, was a Roman general from the late Republic (1st century BC). He was the last focus of opposition to the second triumvirate.

Sextus Pompeius was the youngest son of Pompey the Great (Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus) by his third wife, Mucia Tertia. His older brother was Gnaeus Pompeius, from the same mother. Both boys grew up in the shadow of their father, one of Rome's best generals and originally non-conservative politician who drifted to the more traditional faction when Julius Caesar became a threat.

When Caesar crossed the Rubicon in 49 BC, thus starting a civil war, Sextus' older brother Gnaeus followed their father in his escape to the East, as did most of the conservative senators. Sextus stayed in Rome in the care of his stepmother, Cornelia Metella. Pompey's army lost the battle of Pharsalus in 48 BC and Pompey himself had to run for his life. Cornelia and Sextus met him in the island of Mytilene and together they fled to Egypt. On the arrival, Sextus watched his father being killed by treachery on September 29 of the same year. After the murder, Cornelia returned to Rome, but in the following years Sextus joined the resistance against Caesar in the African provinces. Together with Metellus Scipio, Cato the younger, his brother Gnaeus and other senators, they prepared to oppose Caesar and his army to the end.

Caesar won the first battle at Thapsus in 46 BC against Metellus Scipio and Cato, who committed suicide. In 45 BC, Caesar managed to defeat the Pompeius brothers in the battle of Munda. Gnaeus Pompeius was executed, but young Sextus escaped once more, this time to Sicily.

Back in Rome, Julius Caesar was murdered on the Ides of March (March 15) 44 BC by a group of senators led by Cassius and Brutus. This incident did not lead to a return to normality, but provoked yet another civil war between Caesar's political heirs and his assassins. The second triumvirate was formed by Octavian, Mark Antony and Lepidus, with the intention of avenging Caesar and subduing all opposition. Sextus Pompeius in Sicily was certainly a rebellious man, but the Cassius and Brutus faction was the second triumvirate's first priority. Thus, with the whole island as his base, Sextus had the time and resources to develop an army and, even more importantly, a strong navy operated by Sicilian marines.

Brutus and Cassius lost the twin battles of Philippi and committed suicide in 42 BC. After this, the triumvirs turned their attentions to Sicily and Sextus.

But by this time, Sextus was prepared for strong resistance. In the following years, military confrontations failed to return a conclusive victory for either side and in 39 BC, Sextus and the triumvirs signed for peace in the Pact of Misenum. The reason for this peace treaty was the anticipated campaign against the Parthian Empire. Antony, the leader, needed all the legions he could get so it was useful to secure an armistice in the Sicilian front. The peace did not last for long. Octavian and Antony's frequent quarrels were a strong political motivation for resuming the war against Sextus. Octavian tried again to conquer Sicily, but he was defeated in the naval battle of Messina (37 BC) and again in August 36 BC. But by then, Octavian had Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, a very talented general, on his side. Only a month afterwards, Agrippa destroyed Sextus' navy off Naulochus cape. Sextus escaped to the East and, by abandoning Sicily, lost all his base of support.

Sextus Pompeius was caught in Miletus in 35 BC and executed without trial (an illegal act since Sextus was a Roman citizen) by order of Marcus Titius, Antony's minion. His violent death would be one of the weapons used by Octavian against Antony several years later, when the situation between the two became unbearable.

Sicilian Mint
Magn above laureate Janiform head
PIVS above, IMP below, prow of galley right
Sear RCV 348, RPC 671, Sydenham 1044a, Cohen 16
43-36 BC

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105141.jpg
001. MARK ANTONY161 viewsJULIUS CAESAR and MARK ANTONY. 43 BC.

Hardly any of his assassins survived Caesar for more than three years, or died a natural death. They were all condemned, and they perished in various ways---some by shipwreck, some in battle; some took their own lives with the self-same dagger with which they had impiously slain Caesar.

Fourré Denarius (19mm, 3.63 gm).

Obv: Bare head of Mark Antony right; lituus behind
Rev: Laureate head of Julius Caesar right, jug behind.
Ref: Crawford 488/1; CRI 118; Sydenham 1165; RSC 2. Near VF, porous, several large breaks in plating revealing the copper core.
Source: Ex Classical Numismatic Group 55 (13 September 2000), lot 1087.
Ex CNG Electronic Auction 105 lot 141 229/150
BFBV

I don't usually buy fourres; but in reality, I have no chance of owning this popular type given my budget.
1 commentsecoli
Nero.jpg
002 - Nero (54-68 AD), as - RIC 54369 viewsObv: IMP NERO CAESAR AVG P MAX TR P P P, laureate head left.
Rev: S - C, Victory flying left holding shield inscribed S P Q R.
Minted in Lugdunum c. 66 AD.

The shield held by Victory is the golden shield that was dedicated to Augustus by the Senate and Roman People (S. P. Q. R.) in recognition of his classic, cardinal virtues. By placing the shield and Victory on his coin, Nero was claiming these same virtues were part of his regime. (From: Forum Ancient Coin´s catalog nr 28743, after Roman History from Coins by Michael Grant).
3 commentspierre_p77
2CrXTmC384gPtZ9JYce56FzdZ8pRzK.jpg
002d. Julia and Livia, Pergamon, Mysia43 viewsBronze AE 18, RPC I 2359, SNG Cop 467, aF, weight 3.903 g, maximum diameter 18.3 mm, die axis 0o, Pergamon mint, obverse ΛIBIAN HPAN CAPINOΣ, draped bust of Livia right; reverse IOYΛIAN AΦPO∆ITHN, draped bust of Julia right; ex Forum, ex Malter Galleries

Julia was Augustus' only natural child, the daughter of his second wife Scribonia. She was born the same day that Octavian divorced Scribonia, to marry Livia.

Julia's tragic destiny was to serve as a pawn in her father's dynastic plans. At age two, she was betrothed to Mark Antony's ten-year-old son, but the fathers' hostility ended the engagement. At age 14, she was married to her cousin but he died two years later. In 21 B.C., Julia married Agrippa, nearly 25 years her elder, Augustus' most trusted general and friend. Augustus had been advised, "You have made him so great that he must either become your son-in-law or be slain." Agrippa died suddenly in 12 B.C. and Julia was married in 11 B.C. to Tiberius.

During her marriages to Agrippa and Tiberius Julia took lovers. In 2 B.C., Julia was arrested for adultery and treason. Augustus declared her marriage null and void. He also asserted in public that she had been plotting against his own life. Reluctant to execute her, Augustus had her exiled, with no men in sight, forbidden even to drink wine. Scribonia, Julia's mother, accompanied her into exile. Five years later, she was allowed to move to Rhegium but Augustus never forgave her. When Tiberius became emperor, he cut off her allowance and put her in solitary confinement in one room in her house. Within months she died from malnutrition.
ecoli
002_Augustus_Thessaly,_Koinon-AE-21_RPC_I_1425,_Q-001_11h_21-21,5mm_6,75g-s.jpg
002p Augustus (63 B.C.-14 A.D.), Thessaly, Koinon of Thessaly, RPC I 1425, AE-21,Ć Diassarion, Athena Itonia standing left, 143 views002p Augustus (63 B.C.-14 A.D.), Thessaly, Koinon of Thessaly, RPC I 1425, AE-21,Ć Diassarion, Athena Itonia standing left,
avers:- Sosandros, son of Sosandros, strategos. ΣEBAΣTOΣ [ΘE]ΣΣAΛΩN, bare head of Augustus right.
revers:- ΣΩΣANΔPOΣ [ΣΩΣ]ANΔPOY, Athena Itonia standing left, holding Nike and shield set on ground; spear to left, AR monogram and Δ in fields.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 21,0-21,5 mm, weight: 6,75g, axis: 11h,
mint: Thessaly, Koinon of Thessaly, date: 27 B.C.-14 A.D., ref: RPC I 1425, Burrer Em. 1a, Series 1, 2.1 (A1/R2 – this coin, obv. and rev. illustrated on pl. 1); BCD Thessaly II 914.1 var. (rev. legend; same obv. die); CNG: eAuction 299.lot 2., McClean 4994; Leake 4898.,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
NeroDECVRSIOSestertiusRome.JPG
005. Nero 54-68AD. AE Sestertius, Rome mint, 63AD. DECVRSIO. 38.6mm200 viewsObv. Laureate ead right, wearing aegis NERO CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR P IMP P P
Rev. Nero on horseback prancing right, wearing cuirass, short tunic, and billowing cloak, spear in right hand, to right soldier moving right. carrying vexillum; to leftin shallow relief, soldier running right DECVRSIO in ex
BMCRE 155; Cohen 94, RIC I 176 var (obv legend)
38.6mm, 180o, 63 A.D. Rome mint.
This sestertius was an early emission from the Rome Mint, which resumed striking bronze after about 10 years of inactivity. The talented engraver, perhaps with extra time for this initial project, produced one of the best dies in the entire imperial bronze series. The special style, complemented by superior execution, has similarities to later medallions.


The fine expressive portrait has higher relief than the more common Lugdunum issues.
The reverse uses the roundness of the flan and three geometric planes of relief to both present the scene in a format that draws the eye to the emperor and show movement that is lacking on almost all other Roman coins. The rare use of geometric planes was repeated on ADLOCVTIO sestertii of Galba five years later, perhaps the work of the same artist. Rome sestertii after 70 A.D. are of far less impressive style.


The lack of SC leaves the reverse fields uncluttered. SC stood for Senatus Consultum, "By Decree of the Senate" and signified the role of the Senate in the minting of brass and bronze coinage. Many sestertii of Caligula and some brass and bronze of Nero lack SC. Subsequent issues include SC again, until inflation produced the demise of the sestertius under Gallienus, c. 265 AD
5 commentsLordBest
coin312.JPG
005a. Antonia35 viewsAntonia

she exposed a plot between her daughter Livilla and Sejanus, Tiberius's Praetorian Prefect. This led to Sejanus's downfall and to the death of Livilla. Claudius, her biggest disappointment (she once called him a "monster") was the only one of her children to survive her.

She committed suicide in 37 AD on Caligula's orders after expressing unhappiness over the murder of her youngest grandson, Tiberius Gemellus. There is a passage in Suetonius's "Life of Gaius" that mentions how Caligula may have given her poison himself. Renowned for her beauty and virtue, Antonia spent her long life revered by the Roman people and enjoyed many honors conferred upon her by her relatives.

Ć Dupondius (10.61 gm). Struck by Claudius. Draped bust right / Claudius standing left, holding simpulum. RIC I 92 (Claudius); BMCRE 166 (same); Cohen 6. Ex-CNG

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Cuadrante AUGUSTO RIC 443var.jpg
01-40 - AUGUSTO (27 A.C. - 14 D.C.)78 viewsAE Cuadrante (Serie de los Triunviros Monetales) 18 mm 2.7 gr.
4 Legados Monetarios fueron designados cada ańo en 5 y 4 A.C., aunque curiosamente continuaron labrándose “triunviro III VIR”. Las cuńaciones en 5 A.C. (Legados APRONIUS, GALUS, MESSALLA y SISENNA) son desconcertantemente complejas, exhibiendo una multiplicidad de combinaciones de los cuatro nombres en anverso y reverso.

Anv: "MESSALLA SISENNA III VIR" - Leyenda alrededor de un yunque o altar.
Rev: "GALVS APRONIVS A A A F F" - Leyenda alrededor de gran "S C ".

Las leyendas NO coinciden con las listadas en toda la Bibliografía que poseo, solo en RIC Vol.1 Nota de pié de página 77 menciona que CBN #777/8 lista 2 "imitaciones" con la leyenda coincidente con esta moneda, al no lucir como imitaciones RIC las atribuye a simples confusiones de los acuńadores al permutar las leyendas
Acuńada 5 A.C.
Ceca: Roma
Referencias: RIC Vol.1 #447 var Pag.77 - CBN #777/8 (Como Imitaciones) - Sear RCTV #1699-1702 var Pag.333/4 - Cohen Vol.1 #420/25 var Pag.122 - DVM #110 var Pag.71 - BMCRE #258n
mdelvalle
RIC_I_447_Cuadrante_Octavio_Augusto.jpg
01-40 - AUGUSTO (27 A.C. - 14 D.C.)24 viewsAE Cuadrante (Serie de los Triunviros Monetales) 18 mm 2.7 gr.
4 Legados Monetarios fueron designados cada ańo en 5 y 4 A.C., aunque curiosamente continuaron labrándose “triunviro III VIR”. Las cuńaciones en 5 A.C. (Legados APRONIUS, GALUS, MESSALLA y SISENNA) son desconcertantemente complejas, exhibiendo una multiplicidad de combinaciones de los cuatro nombres en anverso y reverso.

Anv: "MESSALLA SISENNA III VIR" - Leyenda alrededor de un yunque o altar.
Rev: "GALVS APRONIVS A A A F F" - Leyenda alrededor de gran "S C ".

Las leyendas NO coinciden con las listadas en toda la Bibliografía que poseo, solo en RIC Vol.1 Nota de pié de página 77 menciona que CBN #777/8 lista 2 "imitaciones" con la leyenda coincidente con esta moneda, al no lucir como imitaciones RIC las atribuye a simples confusiones de los acuńadores al permutar las leyendas

Acuńada 5 A.C.
Ceca: Roma

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 #447 var Pag.77 - CBN #777/8 (Como Imitaciones) - Sear RCTV #1699-1702 var Pag.333/4 - Cohen Vol.1 #420/25 var Pag.122 - DVM #110 var Pag.71 - BMCRE #258n
mdelvalle
144286.jpg
010. Vespasian34 viewsVespasian. AD 69-79. AR Denarius (20mm, 2.96 g). Ephesos mint. Struck AD 71. Laureate head right / Turreted and draped female bust right. RIC II 327 var.; BMCRE 450 var. ; RPC II 828 var.; RSC 293a var. This issue is normally accompanied by a mint mark below the bust on the reverse. No mintmark can be seen on this specimen, but striking weakness could have prevented it from being fully struck in this area. The obverse portrait is almost certainly from the same hand as RPC II 828, an issue marked with a BY monogram. Ex-CNGecoli
Hadrian_denar1.jpg
012 - Hadrian (117-138 AD), denarius - RIC 39b41 viewsObv: IMP CAESAR TRAIAN HADRIANVS AVG, laureate heroic bust right, draped on left shoulder.
Rev: P M TR P COS III and CONCORD in exe, Concordia seated left, holding patera, resting elbow on statue of Spes, cornucopia below throne.
Minted in Rome [119-122 AD?]

This coin has ben donated to Soderakra local historical society (Sweden) as there some years ago was found a denarius of this type in an Iron Age grave at this location. This enables the society to display a coin of the very same type even though the actual grave find is locked up in a central collection.
pierre_p77
Brutus-Syd-907.jpg
013. M. Junius Brutus.58 viewsDenarius, 54 BC, Rome mint.
Obverse: BRVTVS / Bust of L. Junius Brutus.
Reverse: AHALA / Bust of C. Servilius Ahala.
4.09 gm., 19 mm.
Syd. #907; RSC #Junia 30; Sear #398.

The moneyer of this coin is the same Brutus who killed Julius Caesar. However, this coin was minted about a decade earlier. It portrays two ancestors of Brutus:

1. L. Junius Brutus lead the Romans to expel their king L. Tarquinius Superbus. He was one of the founding fathers of the Roman Republic, and was elected one of the first consuls in 509 BC.

2. C. Cervilius Ahala. In 439 BC, during a food shortage in Rome, Spurius Maelius, the richest patrician, bought as much food as he could and sold it cheaply to the people. The Romans, always fearful of kings, thought he wanted to be king. So an emergency was declared and L. Cincinnatus was proclaimed Dictator. Maelius was ordered to appear before Cincinnatus, but refused. So Ahala, as Magister Equitam, killed him in the Forum. Ahala was tried for this act, but escaped condemnation by voluntary exile.
4 commentsCallimachus
KnidosARdrachm.jpg
020a, CARIA, Knidos. Circa 465-449 BC. AR Drachm.65 viewsCARIA, Knidos. Circa 465-449 BC. AR Drachm - 16mm (6.06 g). Obverse: forepart of roaring lion right; Reverse: archaic head of Aphrodite right, hair bound with taenia. Cahn 80 (V38/R53); SNG Helsinki 132 (same dies); SNG Copenhagen 232 (same dies). Toned, near VF, good metal. Ex Barry P. Murphy.

While this coin falls within the time frame that numismatists call "Classical" Greek coinage, I have chosen to place it in both the "Archaic" (coin 020a) and "Classical" Greek sections of my collection. This specimen is one of those wonderful examples of transition--it incorporates many elements of the "Archaic" era, although it is struck during the "Classical" Greek period and anticipates characteristics of the later period.

As noted art historian Patricia Lawrence has pointed out, "[this specimen portrays] A noble-headed lion, a lovely Late Archaic Aphrodite, and [is made from]. . . beautiful metal." The Archaic Aphrodite is reminiscent of certain portraits of Arethusa found on tetradrachms produced in Syracuse in the first decade of the 5th century BC.

Knidos was a city of high antiquity and as a Hellenic city probably of Lacedaemonian colonization. Along with Halicarnassus (present day Bodrum, Turkey) and Kos, and the Rhodian cities of Lindos, Kamiros and Ialyssos it formed the Dorian Hexapolis, which held its confederate assemblies on the Triopian headland, and there celebrated games in honour of Apollo, Poseidon and the nymphs.

The city was at first governed by an oligarchic senate, composed of sixty members, and presided over by a magistrate; but, though it is proved by inscriptions that the old names continued to a very late period, the constitution underwent a popular transformation. The situation of the city was favourable for commerce, and the Knidians acquired considerable wealth, and were able to colonize the island of Lipara, and founded a city on Corcyra Nigra in the Adriatic. They ultimately submitted to Cyrus, and from the battle of Eurymedon to the latter part of the Peloponnesian War they were subject to Athens.

In their expansion into the region, the Romans easily obtained the allegiance of Knidians, and rewarded them for help given against Antiochus by leaving them the freedom of their city.

During the Byzantine period there must still have been a considerable population: for the ruins contain a large number of buildings belonging to the Byzantine style, and Christian sepulchres are common in the neighbourhood.

Eudoxus, the astronomer, Ctesias, the writer on Persian history, and Sostratus, the builder of the celebrated Pharos at Alexandria, are the most remarkable of the Knidians mentioned in history.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cnidus

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
1 commentsCleisthenes
Titus_AE-Dup_T-CAES-VESPAS-dot-IMP-dot-P-dot-TRP-COS-II_S-C_ROMA_RIC-xx_C-xx_Rome_80-AD__Q-001_axes-h_27mm_3,28g-2-s.jpg
022a Titus (69-79 A.D. Caesar, 79-81 A.D. Augustus), AE-Dupondius, RIC Not in !!!, RIC II(1962) Not in !!! (Vespasian), Roma, S-C, ROMA, Roma seated left, Not listed in RIC !!!, Rare !, 514 views022a Titus (69-79 A.D. Caesar, 79-81 A.D. Augustus), AE-Dupondius, RIC Not in !!!, RIC II(1962) Not in !!! (Vespasian), Roma, S-C, ROMA, Roma seated left, Not listed in RIC !!!, Rare !,
avers:- T CAES VESPAS•IMP•P•TRP COS II, Radiate head right.
revers:- Roma seated left, holding wreath and parazonium, S-C across the field, ROMA in exergo.
exerg: S/C//ROMA, diameter: 27mm, weight: x,xxg, axis: h,
mint: Rome, date: 72 A.D., ref: RIC Not in !!!, RIC II(1962) Not in !!! (Vespasian), C-Not in !!!,
Q-001

"Titus' coins with obverse legend T CAES VESPAS IMP P TR P COS II were struck in year 72, first issue.No ROMA reverse is listed in RIC for Titus in this issue, so you may have found a new type! "by FlaviusDomitianus. Thank you FlaviusDomitianus.
""Titus' issue of bronze coins with COS II and the abbreviations CAES VESPAS is altogether rare. RIC 411-417 only lists two sestertius types, R2 and R3; one dupondius type, FELICITAS PVBLICA, R2, unfortunately not illustrated, it would be nice to compare the obverse die with your coin; and four As types, all R2.

The same ROMA reverse die of your coin was apparently also used for dupondii with other obverse legends:

RIC 396, pl. 31, Vespasian COS IIII.

RIC 438, pl. 34, Titus CAES VESPASIAN P TR P COS II; also pl. 34, RIC 436 (rev. only), which should have ROMA around edge and SC in exergue, but in fact has ROMA in exergue and S - C in field, so seems to be another example of RIC 438.

Titus CAES VESPASIAN PON TR POT (instead of P TR P) COS II: my collection ex G. Hirsch 229, 2003, lot 2219; not in RIC."" by Curtis Clay, Thank you Curtis.
5 commentsquadrans
LitraRoma.jpg
026/3 Litra or 1/8 ounce40 viewsAnonymous. Ć Litra or 1/8 ounce. Rome. 234-231 BC. ( 3.43g, 15mm, 5h) Obv: Laureate head of Apollo right Rev: Horse rearing left, wearing bridle, bit, and reins; ROMA below.

Crawford 26/3; Sydenham 29 (Half-litra); Kestner 56-65; BMCRR Romano-Campanian 70-74 (Half-litra)

This coin is attributed as a Litra by Crawford, others define it as half-litra. However, it could be argued that "1/8 ounce piece" is the better description.

First of all, on litra and half-litra:

"According to Crawford, the weight standard of the series 26 litra and half litra are based on a litra of 3.375 grams . The half litra in Crawford is described as having a dog on the reverse rather than a horse, and the average weight of the half litra of several specimens is described as 1.65 grams. BMCRR does refer to these as half litrae; but keep in mind that Grueber was writing circa 1900 and based on older scholarship. Sydenham was writing in the 1950s. Of the three major works cited, Crawford is the most current and likely based on a greater number of more recent finds."

Andrew Mccabe:

"It's very doubtful to me that the word "litra" is correct. Much more likely, these small bronze coins were simply fractions of the Aes Grave cast coinage system, as they come in weights of 1/4, 1/8 and 1/16 ounce, and the Aes Grave coinage generally had denominations from As down to Semuncia (1/2 ounce). So this coin would be 1/8 ounce coin. That's my view, which differs from their long term designation as "Litra", which presume them to be overvalued token bronze coinage on the Sicilian model, whereby bronze coins had value names that indicate a relationship to the silver coinage.

Litra, the word, is from the same stem as Libra, i.e. pound, would suggest a denomination of a (light) Sicilian pound of bronze, which sometimes equates in value to a small silver coin in Sicily weighing about 1/12 didrachm (about 0.6 grams) so by this definition, a Litra = an Obol. But it hardly stands up to scrutiny that such a tiny bronze coin, weighing 3.375 grams, could have been equivalent to a 0.6 gram silver obol. It would imply a massive overvaluation of bronze that just does not seem credible.

So. throw out the Litras, and call these coins 1/8 ounce pieces, and I think we have a sensible answer."

Paddy
augustus RIC344-RRR.jpg
027 BC-14 AD - AUGUSTUS AR denarius - struck by P. Licinius Stolo, moneyer (17 BC)83 viewsobv: AVGVSTVS TR POT (Augustus, laureate, wearing cloak and short tunic, on horseback riding right, holding patera in right hand - banker's mark)
rev: P STOLO III VIR (Salii or priest of Mars's cap (same than apex flaminis) between two studded oval shields (ancilia)).
ref: RIC I 344 (R3); BMCRE 76; RSC 439 (80frcs)
mint: Rome
3.53gms,18-19mm
Extremely rare

History: The Ludi Saeculares were spread over a period of three days (from May 31 to June 3), and Augustus celebrated them to inaugurate the beginning of a new age. On the reverse of this coin the ancilias (sacred shields) symbolised the music at festivals. The "jumping priests" or Salii marched to the Regia, where was the shrine of Mars, in which the ancilia (the sacred shield, and its 11 copies) of Mars were stored. The Salii wearing apex, taking the bronze Ancilia, and danced through the streets carrying poles with the shields mounted on them in their left hands. With their other hand, they banged the shields with a drumstick.
3 commentsberserker
Philip-II-RIC-224.jpg
03. Philip II as Augustus.12 viewsAntoninianus, 248 AD, Rome mint.
Obverse: IMP PHILIPPVS AVG / Radiate bust of Philip II.
Reverse: SAECVLARES AVGG / Goat (or Moose/European Elk) walking; III in exergue.
4.23 gm., 22 mm.
RIC #224; Sear #9275.

The animal on the reverse of this coin is called a goat in most coin catalogues. However, a recent theory suggests that it is a European Elk (same as the American Moose) which is depicted rather than a goat.
Callimachus
RI 030g img.jpg
030 - Vespasian Dupondius - RIC 481 var.73 viewsObv:– IMP CAES VESPASIAN AVG COS III, Radiate head right, globe on neck
Rev:– VICTORIA NAVALIS S - C, Victory standing right on prow, holding wreath and palm
Minted in Lugdunum. A.D. 70-71
References:– Cohen -. RIC II 481 var (Not listed in RIC with this bust and legend combination)

Additional comments coutesy of Curtis Clay:-

“A coin like yours, from the same obv. die, was in M&M's Voirol Sale of 1968, lot 385, ex Hall Sale, 1950, lot 1203. A second spec. from that same die pair is publ. by Giard, Lyon, 42/1a, pl. XLIII, Coll. Gricourt.
BMC 809 pl. 38.7 has obv. CAESAR not CAES and a broader portrait on shorter neck.
Paris doesn't have this type on a COS III dup. of Vesp. at Lugdunum, but their As, Paris 812 pl. LXVII, is from the same rev. die as your dupondius!
Obviously quite a scarce item, and an attractive specimen!”
1 commentsmaridvnvm
Zsigmond,_(1387-1437_AD),_AR-Den,_H-575,_C2-120A,_U-448,_P-116,_mOnETSIGISmVnDI,_REGISVnGARIE_ET_C_,_1387-9AD,_Q-001,_6h,_13,5mm,_0_39g-s.jpg
032 Sigismund, ( Sigismund of Luxemburg)., King of Hungary, (1387-1437 A.D.) AR-Denar, H-575/576, C2-120A/121A, U-448/449, P-116/117, Hybrid variation, Very Rare!!! #0163 views032 Sigismund, ( Sigismund of Luxemburg)., King of Hungary, (1387-1437 A.D.) AR-Denar, H-575/576, C2-120A/121A, U-448/449, P-116/117, Hybrid variation, Very Rare!!! #01
avers: ✠mOnЄT SIGISmVnDI, Patriarchal (short!) cross.
reverse: ✠•RЄGIS VnGARIЄ ЄT C, Four-part shield, Árpádian stripes and Brandenburg eagle. The reverse legend is the same as the Huszár-576, CNH-2-121A, Unger-449, Pohl-117,
exergue, mint mark: -/-//--, diameter: 13,5mm, weight: 0,39g, axis:6h,
mint: Hungary, Buda, Moneyer: Onforio Bardi(?) (by Pohl), date: 1387-1389 A.D. (by Pohl), ref: Huszár-575/576, CNH-2-120A/121, Unger-448/449, Pohl-116/117, Hybrid denar, Very Rare !!!
Q-001

Sigismund of Luxemburg
1 commentsquadrans
RI_035l_img.jpg
035 - Domitian Ae AS - RIC II 385a79 viewsObv:- IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM P M TR P VIII CENS PER P P, Laureate head right
Rev:- COS XIIII LVD SAEC FEC - SC, Domitian , togate,standing left, sacrificing from patera over garlanded altar, on the other side of which are two flute players facing the emperor, one of which is partly obscured by the altar, hexastyle temple of Jupiter Capitolinus in background.

This variety, not distinguished in the catalogues, where the second musician's lower body is obscured by the large altar. see BMC pl. 79.3, with obv. portrait left, is from the same rev. die. On other dies, apparently the normal variety, the altar is narrower and you see the second musician's legs descending to the ground.

Celebrates the Secular Games
4 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_044am_img.jpg
044 - Hadrian denarius - RIC -44 viewsDenarius
Obv:- HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS P P bare head right
Rev:- COS III, Virtus,standing right, holding scepter and parazonium; left foot raised, resting on helmet.
Unknown Eastern Mint. Bust style is very well executed and good enough to be from Rome.
Reference:- RIC -, cf RSC 355, cf BMC Page 380 #25 (Vienna) (draped bare head bust right) same reverse die though the image is very grainy.
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_048o_img.jpg
048 - Antoninus Pius, Ae AS - RIC 910 var 20 viewsObv: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P XVI, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind
Rev: ANNONA AVG COS IIII, Annona standing left, holding modius on low base and vine branch (?); to left basket of fruit
Minted in Rome. A.D. 153
Reference:– BMC P. 322 * var. (Bust type). Cohen 44 var (same). RIC III 910 var (bust type)
maridvnvm
049_BC-_Q__SICINIVS_III__VIR__C__COPONIVS__PR__S__C__Crawford_444-1a__Sydenham_939__RSC_Sicinia_1_Q-001_5h_16,5mm_3,31g-s.jpg
049 B.C., Q. Sicinius and C. Coponius., Denarius, Crawford 444/1a, C•COPONIVS• PR•S•C•, Club of Hercules, arrow and bow,131 views049 B.C., Q. Sicinius and C. Coponius., Denarius, Crawford 444/1a, C•COPONIVS• PR•S•C•, Club of Hercules, arrow and bow,
avers: Q•SICINIVS III•VIR, diademed head of Apollo right, star below.
revers: C•COPONIVS• PR•S•C•, Hercules' club surmounted by lion skin, scalp right, bow on right, arrow on left.
exergo: -/-//--, diameter: 16,5mm, weight: 3,31g, axis: 5h,
mint: Rome, date: 49 B.C., ref: Crawford 444/1a, Sydenham 939, Sicinia 1,
Q-001
"An important type, one of the first of the "Imperatorial" series. Struck at a military mint in the East, 49 B.C., after the moneyer, owing his appointment to Pompey the Great, fled Caesar's advance upon Rome with the Praetor Coponius (commander of the fleet), and part of the Senate (thus the S C on the reverse, to lend legitimacy to the coinage). Coponius is likely the father or grandfather of the man by the same name who served as procurator in Judaea under Augustus, from A.D. 6 to A.D. 9."
quadrans
049_Septimius_Severus_(193-211_A_D_),_AE-17,_Nicopolis_Ad_Istrum,_HHJ-08_14_10_20v_,_AY_KAICER,_CEVHPOC,_NIKOPOLIT_PROCIC,_Hermes,_Q-001,_7h,_17mm,_2,4g-s.jpg
049p Septimius Severus (193-211 A.D.), Moesia, Nicopolis Ad Istrum, (2018) 8.14.10.38 (same dies), AE-17, NIKOΠOΛIT ΠPOCIC, Hermes left, #161 views049p Septimius Severus (193-211 A.D.), Moesia, Nicopolis Ad Istrum, (2018) 8.14.10.38 (same dies), AE-17, NIKOΠOΛIT ΠPOCIC, Hermes left, #1
avers: AY KAICE CEVHPOC, Laureate head right.
reverse: NIKOΠOΛIT ΠPOCIC, Hermes left, holding kerykeinon and purse.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 17,0mm, weight: 2,40g, axes: 7h,
mint: Moesia, Nicopolis Ad Istrum, date: 193-211 A.D., ref: HrHJ (2018) 8.14.10.38 (same dies),
Q-001
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050_Iulia_Domna_(_170-217_A_D_),_AE-23,_Asklepiados,_Archon,_Lydia,_Bagis,_Hygeia_and_Asklepios_Q-001_h_22,5-23,5mm_5,69g-s.jpg
050p Julia Domna (170-217 A.D.), Lydia, Bagis, Lindgen A716A., AE-23, Hygeia and Asklepios,68 views050p Julia Domna (170-217 A.D.), Lydia, Bagis, Lindgen A716A., AE-23, Hygeia and Asklepios,
avers:- Draped bust right, ΙΟΥ ΔΟ ΜΝΑ CΕΒΑ,
revers:- ΕΠΙ ACKΛEΠIAΔOΥ ΑΡX A B /BAΓHNΩN, Hygeia, on left, standing right, holding serpent, facing Asklepios, on right, standing standing left, leaning on serpent-entwined staff.
exergo: -/-// HNΩN, diameter: 22,5-23,5 mm, weight: 5,69g, axis: 6h,
mint: Lydia, Bagis, date: A.D., ref: Lindgen A716A., BMC p. 37, 31 var. (legend), SNG KOP 27 49(1), Lindgren and Kovacs A716A (same dies),
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
caracalla--1-2--den-OK-movie-small.gif
051 Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), Two different Caracalla denarius same obvers die, compare animated gif movie,288 views051 Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), Two different Caracalla denarius same obvers die, compare animated gif movie,
Please click the picture to magnify and start the movie
enjoy
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051_Caracalla_AE-27____W____C_-PIOC-AVGVSTOC_KVNTI_LIANOC_MAPKIAPOLITWN_AMNG_I_648;_Varbanov_975__Q-001_axis-1h_25,5-26,5mm_8,98g-s~0.jpg
051p Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), Moesia, Markianopolis, AMNG-I-648; Varbanov-975,p, AE-23, Garlands Decorated table62 views051p Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), Moesia, Markianopolis, AMNG-I-648; Varbanov-975,p, AE-23, 975,ΚYΝΤΙΛΛΙΑΝΟΥ-ΜΑΡΚΙΑΝΟΠΟΛΙΤΩΝ, Garlands Decorated table
avers:- ΑΝΤΩΝΙΝΟC-ΠIOC-ΑΥΓΟΥCTOC, laureate head of the Caracalla left.
revers:- ΥΠ-ΚYΝΤΙΛΛΙΑΝΟΥ-ΜΑΡΚΙΑΝΟΠΟΛΙΤΩΝ, Garlands Decorated table with lion feet, it altar on which stands an eagle with open wings, left and right a banner.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 25,5-26,5mm, weight: 8,98g, axis: 1h,
mint: Moesia, Markianopolis, date: AD., ref: AMNG-I-648; Varbanov-975,
a) not in AMNG:
rev. AMNG I/1, 648 var. (different legend break)
obv. AMNG I/1, 646 var. (different legend breaks)
b) Hristova/Jekov (2013) 6.18.47.7 (same dies)
c) Pfeiffer (2013) 134 (same dies)
Q-001
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053_Geta_(209-211_A_D_),_AE-17,_Markianopolis,_Moesia,_Varbanov_1107,_Eagle_standing_Q-001_h_mm_g-s.jpg
053p Geta (209-211 A.D.), Moesia, Markianopolis, Hristova-Jekov (2014) 06.22.01.04, AE-17, Eagle standing right, #164 views053p Geta (209-211 A.D.), Moesia, Markianopolis, Hristova-Jekov (2014) 06.22.01.04, AE-17, Eagle standing right, #1
avers: Λ;-CEΠ-ΓETAC, Bust of younger Geta, draped and cuirassed(?), bare-headed, right.
reverse: MARKIANOΠOLITΩN, Eagle with closed wings standing right on staff, head with wreath in beaks left.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 17mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Moesia, Markianopolis, date: Geta as Caesar, 198-209 A.D.,
ref: a) AMNG I/1, 697 (1 Ex., Wien)
b) Varbanov (engl.) 1105 corr. (cites AMNG 697, but writes head r.)
c) Hristova/Jekov (2012) No. 6.22.1.4 (same dies)
d) not in Pfeiffer (2013)
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
054_Macrinus_(217-218_A_D_),AE-27-Pentassarion__AV_K_OPPE_CEV-_Markianopolis-Moesia_Inf_Mus-532_Var1214v__217-18-AD-Q-001_axis-6h_26,5-27,5mm_10,41g-s.jpg
054p Macrinus (217-218 A.D.), Moesia, Markianopolis, Mushmov-532., Varbanov-, AE-27, Pentassarion, 62 views054p Macrinus (217-218 A.D.), Moesia, Markianopolis, Mushmov-532., Varbanov-, AE-27, Pentassarion,
avers:- AY-K-OΠEL-CEV-MAKREINOC-K-M-OΠEL-AN-TΩNEINOC•, Laureate head of Macrinus facing bare-headed bust of Diadumenian.
revers:- VΠ-ΠONTIANOV-MAΡKIANO-ΠOΛEITΩN, Artemis advancing right, holding bow and drawing arrow from quiver on her back, hound running right at foot, retrograde E in left field.
exe: Ǝ/-//ΠOΛIT, diameter: 27-28mm, weight: 12,38g, axis: 6h,
mint: Moesia, Markianopolis, date: 217-218 A.D., ref: Mushmov-532., Varbanov-.,
a) AMNG I/1, 730 (like ex. 3, 4, 5, Paris, St.Petersburg, Wien)
b) Hristova/Jekov (2013) 6.24.13.3 (same dies)
c) not in Pfeiffer (2013)
Q-001
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054_Macrinus_(217-218_A_D_),_AE-27-Pentassarion,__AV_K_OPPE_CEV-__,_Markianopolis-Moesia_Inf_HrJ_(2014)-not_in,_217-18-AD,_Q-001,_7h,_26,5-27,5mm,_14,04g-s.jpg
054p Macrinus (217-218 A.D.), Moesia, Markianopolis, Pfeiffer 218 (same dies), AE-27, Pentassarion, Pontianus, Zeus with an eagle at feet, 64 views054p Macrinus (217-218 A.D.), Moesia, Markianopolis, Pfeiffer 218 (same dies), AE-27, Pentassarion, Pontianus, Zeus with an eagle at feet,
avers: AV K OΠΠEΛ CEV MAKPEINOC•K M OΠEΛ ANTΩNEINOC, Laureate bust of Macrinus facing bare-headed bust of Diadumenian.
reverse: VΠ ΠONTIANOV MAPKIANO/ΠOΛI, Naked Zeus standing left, holding patera and scepter, eagle at his feet.
exergue: Є/-//--, diameter: 26,5-27,5mm, weight:14,04g, axis: 7h,
mint: Moesia, Markianopolis, Pontianus, date: 217-218 A.D., ref: Pfeiffer 218 (same dies), AMNG 715, Varbanov (2005, English) I. 1240, Hristova-Jekov (2014) 06.24.01.??, Not in,
a) Not in Hristova/Jekov (2014):
rev. HJ (2014) 6.24.1.5 (same die)
obv. HJ (2014) 6.24.1. 3 (but writes AVT K OPEL, the depicted coin is very worn)
b) Megaw (2nd ed,) MAR5.59c (but writes AVT K OPEL, the depicted coin is very worn)
Q-001
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056_Elagabalus,_AE-16,_HrHJ_08_26_06_7var,_Laureate_bust_r_,_Serapis_bust_r_,,_218-22_AD,_Q-001,_6h,_15-16mm,_2,22g-s~0.jpg
056p Elagabalus (218-222 A.D.), Moesia, Nicopolis Ad Istrum, HrHJ (2019) 08.26.06.07.(same dies)., AE-16, NIKOΠOΛITΩN ΠPOC ICTPON, Bust of Serapis right, #163 views056p Elagabalus (218-222 A.D.), Moesia, Nicopolis Ad Istrum, HrHJ (2019) 08.26.06.07.(same dies)., AE-16, NIKOΠOΛITΩN ΠPOC ICTPON, Bust of Serapis right, #1
avers: AVT M AVPH ANTΩNINOC, Laureated, bust right.
reverse: NIKOΠOΛITΩ N ΠPOC ICTPON (Legend variation!), Bust of Serapis, draped wearing kalathos right.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 15,0-16,0mm, weight: 2,22g, axis: 6h,
mint: Moesia, Nicopolis Ad Istrum, date: 218-222 A.D.,
ref: HrHJ (2019) 08.26.06.07.(same dies).,
Q-001
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faustina-sr_den_veiled-bust-peacock_2_82gr_feb2012a.JPG
06 - Faustina I - 02 - AR Denarius - Peacock 'CONSECRATIO' - NGC Choice VF56 viewsAncient Roman Empire
Empress Faustina Senior (138 - 141), Wife of Emperor Antoninus Pius (AD 138 - 161).
Silver Denarius, Struck at the Rome Mint by the Emperor Antoninus Pius to consecrate and commemorate his wife after her death.

(All Titles in Latin)
obv: DIVA FAUSTINA - Veiled and Draped bust facing right.
rev: CONSECRATIO - Peacock facing right, head left, standing on scepter with knobs on both ends.
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

*Note how the two head feathers on the top of the Peacock's head seperate the 'R' and the 'A' in " CONSECR ATIO ' on the reverse.
***Less common type with Veiled bust obverse rather than her usual bust with hair wrapped on the top of her head, like on my other example of this type with the same reverse design and titles, and the same obverse titles.
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Certified "Choice Very Fine" by NGC Ancients.
Strike: 4/5
Surface: 4/5
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
>^..^< CLICK PHOTO FOR FULLSIZE IMAGE >^..^
5 commentsrexesq
RI 063f img.jpg
063 - Clodius Albinus As - RIC 59 96 viewsAE As
Obv:– D CL SEPT ALB CAES, Bare headed head right
Rev:– FORT REDVCI COS II, Fortuna, seated left holding rudder and cornucopia
Minted in Rome. A.D. 194 - A.D. 195
Reference:– BMCRE 547 note. RIC 59 (Rare)

Additional information from Curtis Clay:-

"Same dies as J. Hirsch 24, 1909, Weber 1793, Cat. 327 in my Oxford thesis.
The Fortuna Redux type is common on Albinus' sestertii, but rare on his denarii (4 spec. in Reka Devnia hoard) and on his asses. In my thesis I catalogued just eight specimens of the As, from two rev. dies. One of the rev. dies has wheel under seat, the other, from which your coin was struck, omits the wheel. Further specimens have turned up since 1972, but no new rev. dies.
Ragged flan as often and some pitting, but really quite a presentable specimen, in my opinion! "
maridvnvm
RI 063d img.jpg
063 - Clodius Albinus Denarius - RIC - 91 viewsObv:- D CLOD SEPT ALBIN CAES, Bare head right
Rev: FECILITAS COS II, Felicitas standing half left, caduceus in right and scepter in left
Minted in Alexandria. A.D. 194
RIC -. Same devices and legends as RIC 4 but with the disctinctive Alexadrian style.
Rare
maridvnvm
RI_064mg_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus Ae As - RIC 764A43 viewsObv:- SEVERVS PIVS AVG P M TR P XII, Laureate draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:- To left, Bacchus standing right, holding cup and thyrsos, a panther at his feet; to right, Hercules standing left, holding club and lion's skin; on cippus between them, COS / III / LVD / SAEC / FEC , in exergue, S C.
Minted in Rome in A.D. 204 to celebrate the Seacular games with Septimus' hometown gods Liber and Hercules as patrons of his games.
Reference:- RIC IV, Part 1, No. 764A (Rated R2)

A rough example but a rare type.

Curtis Clay's die catalogue includes ten specimens of this coin, all from the same obverse die, nine of them from the same reverse die of this coin, one from a second reverse die.
1 commentsmaridvnvm
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064 - Septimius Severus AS - RIC unlisted39 viewsObv:– L SEPT SEV PERT AVG IMP II, Laureate head right
Rev:– SAL AV[G TR P II] COS II S--C, Salus sanding left, holding sceptre and patera over alter
Minted in Rome. Early A.D. 194
Reference(s) – Cohen -. RIC - (see below)

The following information provided courtesy of Mr. Curtis Clay.
A specimen of this coin is apparently misreported in RIC, p. 182, note *. It's a rare coin, only two such included in Curtis' unpublished 1972 die study of early Severan bronze coins.
Curtis knows the same rev. type muled with both dupondius and As obv. dies of 193 (IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG). It's not impossible that a sestertius with the same type might turn up someday!
Cohen 640 exactly describes this type, though omitting the IMP II in obverse legend, and calling the coin a sestertius.
maridvnvm
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064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -58 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS - I, Laureate head right
Rev:– VICT AVG, Victory advancing left holding wreath and palm
Minted in Emesa, 194 - 195 A.D.
References:– RIC -

2.70g, 17.92mm, 0o 

The following comes from Curtis Clay “That die is under COS I in my cast collection.  I read the wedge on bust as a I, but no second stroke under the bust.
There are some early COS I coins were the reading may be intentional, but yours is one of a smaller later group where COS I is apparently just an error, because by that time COS II was the standard and only correct title.
I have casts of two other coins from the same dies as yours, Oxford and Bickford-Smith coll., and two from the same obv. die with crossed cornucopias rev. type.”
maridvnvm
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064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -82 viewsObv:– L SEPT SEV PERT AVG IMP VII-I, Laureate head right
Rev:– ARAB ADIABENIC, Victory advancing left holding wreath and palm (R of ARAB corrected over B)
Minted in Laodicea-ad-Mare. A.D. 196-197
Ref:– Cohen -, BMCRE -, RIC -.

The reverse refers to victory over Niger. To hide the fact that this was a civil war, it is phrased as victory over Arabs and Adiabenians, who aided Niger's cause.

RIC IV 466 has the same reverse legend, listed as IMP VII but as Curtis points out this legend is probably a mis-reading of IMP VIII probably cause by the last I being after the bust as on this example. RIC 466 however is Victory with wreath and trophy whereas this type is Victory with wreath and palm. RIC and BMCRE cite Cohen 52 (5 Francs) for this coin.
maridvnvm
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064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -50 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG, Laureate head right
Rev:– TR P IIII IMP II COS II, Mars standing right, resting on spear and shield
Minted in Alexandria, A.D. 194
References:– BMCRE -, RIC -, RSC -. RIN (Rivista Italiana di Nvmismatica Vol. XCVI (1994/1995)

2.72g. 17.78mm. 0o

Additional information from Curtis Clay:-
"Die match to example in British Museum, found at the site of a Roman villa in Kent, GB, in 1952. The same obv. die also occurs with the types MONETA AVG and LEG III IT AVG TR P COS.
Bickford-Smith recorded three other specimens, of which I also have plaster casts: his own coll. (probably now in BM), Klosterneuburg, and U.S. private collection. On these the rev. legend apparently ends COS rather than COS II.
This type was clearly struck in 194, when Septimius was TR P II and IMP III or IIII, so TR P IIII IMP II in the rev. legend is an error, the origin of which is obvious: the type is a rote copy of the identical type and legend on denarii of Lucius Verus of 164, Cohen 228-9. The titles apply to Lucius in 164, not Septimius in 194!"
maridvnvm
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064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -28 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SE-V PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– BONA SPEI .., Spes standing holding flower and lifting skirt
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 194
Ref:– BMCRE -. Cf 341 Note for CO II example with same reverse legend. RIC -. RSC 55d (citing Tinchant cat.)
Die axis 180 degrees. Weight 3.23g
maridvnvm
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064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -23 viewsObv:– L SEP SEVERVS PER AVG P M IMP XI, laureate head right
Rev:– PAR AR AD TR P VI COS II P P, Mars advancing right, holding spear and trophy
Minted in Laodicea ad Mare, A.D. 198
References:– BMCRE -. RIC -, RSC -

Additional information from Curtis Clay:-
"The Mars type: R. Mowat, Revue Num. 1901, p. 469, no. 1, in his coll., with engraving. Apparently overlooked by Mattingly in RIC and BMC.

Looks like yours might be from the same rev. die as his, but a different obv. die."
maridvnvm
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064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -28 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG, laureate head right
Rev:– CERER FRVG II COS, Ceres standing left, holding grain ears in right hand, torch in left
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 193
Ref:– BMCRE -. RIC -. RSC -.

3.67g, 17.37mm, 180o

4 specimens known, Budapest, Barry Murphy (2 spec.) and this example, all from the same die pair. The same reverse die muled with an obverse legend ending II C, BM ex Bickford-Smith
maridvnvm
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064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -31 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG II CO, Laureate head right
Rev:- LEG VIII AVO (sic) ? CR P COS, Legionary eagle between two standards
Minted in Emesa, A.D. 194
References:– Cohen -. BMC -. RIC -. RSC -.

This is the only known obverse die with this legend variant.
Possibly the third specimen known. The other examples are Oxford ex Walker, JNG 1978/1979, pl. 9, 4 which are both from the same die pair.
maridvnvm
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064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -21 viewsObv:– IMP CE L . SEP SE-V PERT AVG . CO, laureate head right
Rev:– FOTVNA-E (sic) R-EDVCI, Fortuna standing left, holding rudder in right hand, cornucopia in left
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 194
Reference:– BMCRE -. RIC IV -. RSC -

Possibly only fifth example known. Other examples - BM ex Bickford-Smith and Curtis Clay coll., Vienna, formerly Barry Murphy coll., Triton VI lot (M. Melcher coll.), Doug Smith, all same die pair
maridvnvm
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064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -16 viewsObv:– L SEPT SEV PERT AVG IMP VII-I, Laureate head right
Rev:– ARAB ADIABENIC, Victory advancing left holding wreath and palm (R of ARAB corrected over B)
Minted in Laodicea-ad-Mare. A.D. 196-197
Ref:– Cohen -, BMCRE -, RIC -.

The reverse refers to victory over Niger. To hide the fact that this was a civil war, it is phrased as victory over Arabs and Adiabenians, who aided Niger's cause.

RIC IV 466 has the same reverse legend, listed as IMP VII but as Curtis points out this legend is probably a mis-reading of IMP VIII probably cause by the last I being after the bust as on this example. RIC 466 however is Victory with wreath and trophy whereas this type is Victory with wreath and palm. RIC and BMCRE cite Cohen 52 (5 Francs) for this coin.
1 commentsmaridvnvm
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064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC - (466 corr?)48 viewsObv:– L SEPT SEV PERT AVG IMP VII-I, Laureate head right
Rev:– ARAB ADIABENIC, Victory advancing left holding wreath and palm
Minted in Laodicea-ad-Mare. A.D. 196-197
Ref:– Cohen -, BMCRE -, RIC -.

The reverse refers to victory over Niger. To hide the fact that this was a civil war, it is phrased as victory over Arabs and Adiabenians, who aided Niger's cause.

RIC IV 466 has the same reverse legend, listed as IMP VII but as Curtis points out this legend is probably a mis-reading of IMP VIII probably cause by the last I being after the bust as on this example. RIC 466 however is Victory with wreath and trophy whereas this type is Victory with wreath and palm. RIC and BMCRE cite Cohen 52 (5 Francs) for this coin.
maridvnvm
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064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC - (466 corr?)9 viewsObv:– L SEPT SEV PERT AVG IMP VII-I, Laureate head right
Rev:– ARAB ADIABENIC, Victory advancing left holding wreath and palm
Minted in Laodicea-ad-Mare. A.D. 196-197
Ref:– Cohen -, BMCRE -, RIC -.

The reverse refers to victory over Niger. To hide the fact that this was a civil war, it is phrased as victory over Arabs and Adiabenians, who aided Niger's cause.

RIC IV 466 has the same reverse legend, listed as IMP VII but as Curtis points out this legend is probably a mis-reading of IMP VIII probably cause by the last I being after the bust as on this example. RIC 466 however is Victory with wreath and trophy whereas this type is Victory with wreath and palm. RIC and BMCRE cite Cohen 52 (5 Francs) for this coin.
maridvnvm
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064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 060 var.35 viewsObv:– L SEPT SEV PE-RT AVG IMP V, Laureate draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev– P M TR P III COS II P P, Mars walking right holding spear and trophy
Minted in Rome. A.D. 194
Reference(s) – BMCRE W113 (Citing an anonymous gift from 1924 from the Plevna hoard same obverse die). RIC IV unlisted (RIC 60 var but draped and cuirassed instead of plain head). RSC 396a (citing BMCRE coin)
1 commentsMartin Griffiths
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064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 350D52 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP - SEV PERT AVG, laureate head right
Rev:– P M TR P III COS II, Mars advancing right, holding spear in right hand, trophy over left shoulder
Minted in Alexandria. A.D. 195
Reference:– BMCRE 328 (Same rev die?). RIC 350D (R – B M). RSC 397a.
ex - Barry Murphy collection (sold in 2003).

A rare dated type.
1 commentsmaridvnvm
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064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 362a28 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG, Laureate head right
Rev:– VICTOR IVST AVG II COS, Victory walking left, holding wreath in right hand, palm in left
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 193
Ref:– BMCRE W338 note. RIC 362a (Rated R2). RSC 740a

2.96g, 18.79mm, 180o

Only one other example known – “reported by Bickford-Smith from Dura Europus 942”
All references cite the same coin from the 3rd Dura Hoard, Num. Notes and Monographs, 55, Pg 46. No. 216
maridvnvm
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064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 362a24 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG, Laureate head right
Rev:– VICTOR IVST AVG II COS, Victory walking left, holding wreath in right hand, palm in left
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 193
Ref:– BMCRE W338 note. RIC 362a (Rated R2). RSC 740a

3.03g, 18.28mm, 180o

Only two other examples known – “reported by Bickford-Smith from Dura Europus 942”
All references cite the same coin from the 3rd Dura Hoard, Num. Notes and Monographs, 55, Pg 46. No. 216
Another example from the same die pair in my own collection.
1 commentsmaridvnvm
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064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 38515 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– FORTVNA REDVCI, Fortuna (Pietas) standing left holding patera and cornucopia, sacrificing over altar
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 194-195
Reference:– BMCRE 363 (Same die pair?). RIC 385 (listed variant) (S).
maridvnvm
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064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 40523 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS - (II), Laureate head right
Rev:– MARTI VICT, Mars advancing right carrying spear and trophy
Minted in Emesa, 194 - 195 A.D.
References:– BMCRE W377 (The coin cited for all the references is the same coin, which appears to be a normal COS II obverse that has been tooled to create a NIGER obverse legend, IMP CAE S C PESC NIGER IVST AVG COS II. No other examples of this reverse legend cited for COS II so still quite scarce). RIC 405. RSC 318c .

2.64g, 18.89mm, 180o
maridvnvm
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064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 40520 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS - (II), Laureate head right
Rev:– MARTI VICT, Mars advancing right carrying spear and trophy
Minted in Emesa, 194 - 195 A.D.
References:– BMCRE W377 (The coin cited for all the references is the same coin, which appears to be a normal COS II obverse that has been tooled to create a NIGER obverse legend, IMP CAE S C PESC NIGER IVST AVG COS II. No other examples of this reverse legend cited for COS II so still quite scarce). RIC 405. RSC 318c .
maridvnvm
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064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 405a var.17 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, laureate head right
Rev:– MARTI VICTO, Mars advancing right carrying spear and trophy
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 194-195
References:– BMCRE W 378 note var. RIC 405a var. RSC 318e var.

All these references cite a single coin from the Reka Devnia hoard page 98, which in itself refers to Cohen 324 var. Cohen 324 is MART VICT and has CA and PER as obverse legend variations and so it is implied that this coin also has the same obverse legend variations. Perhaps this interpretation is incorrect and it is simply the regular COS II legend as on my coin, which is think is quite likely.
maridvnvm
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064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 430 corr.23 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– VICTORIA, Victory standing left engraving AV/G on shield to left with right hand, which is resting on a column, holding palm in left hand. Centre dot.
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 194-195
Reference:– BMCRE 402, thought to be SE V, CO and AV/VG but from same die pair as this coin. RIC 430 (Rated R citing BM). RSC 703a.

All the coins cite the BM example which is unclear. This example, whilst suffering from the harsh cleaning method (zapped?) is sufficiently clear to make out the correct COS II obverse legend and the AV/G on the shield.

A rare reverse type.
maridvnvm
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064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 431a19 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, laureate head right
Rev:– VIRTVTE AVG, Virtus standing left, holding Victory in right hand, inverted spear in left
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 194 - 195
Reference:– BMCRE W404 (plate 17.12, same reverse die and quite possibly the same obverse die). RIC 431a (Rated Rare, citing RD, p 106). RSC 771a.
RD contained 1 specimen.

BMCRE notes that the obverse legend break is unknown due to missing middle of legend and the RD coin is noted as having the right hand of the obverse legend missing.
maridvnvm
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064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 432 var12 viewsDenarius
Obv:– IMP CAE L SPE (sic) SEV - PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– TR P III IMP V COS II, captive seated right with peaked cap, hands bound behind, quiver and shields behind, curved sword in ex
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 195
Reference:– RIC 432 var (obv legend). RSC 660 var (same)
maridvnvm
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064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 447 var3 viewsObv:– L SEPT SEV P-ERET AVG IMP II, Laureate head right
Rev:– BONI E-V-ENTVS, Fides standing left holding basket of fruits in right hand, grain ears in left
Minted in Laodicea-ad-Mare. A.D. 194
Reference(s) – BMCRE 427 (Appears to be the same obverse die, different reverse legend break). RIC 447 var (PERT rather than PERET). RSC 67c
maridvnvm
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064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 448 var.8 viewsObv:–L SEPT SEV P-ERET AVG IMP I-I, Laureate head right
Rev:– FORT R-E-DVC, Fortuna standing left holding rudder and cornucopiae
Minted in Laodicea-ad-Mare. A.D. 194
Reference(s) – BMC W429 var (seems to be same obverse die but different reverse legend break cf FORT R-EDVC). RIC 448 var (448 listed for PERT and PERTE)
maridvnvm
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064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 45022 viewsObv:– L SEPT SEV PE[RT AVG IMP] II, Laureate head right
FORT RDEVC, Fortuna, seated left, holding cornucopia and sceptre
Minted in Laodicea-ad-Mare. A.D. 194-195
References:– BMCRE W430 (same reverse die). RIC 450 (S). RSC 153g
maridvnvm
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064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 4504 viewsObv:– L SEPT SEV PE[RT AVG IMP] II, Laureate head right
FORT RDEVC, Fortuna, seated left, holding cornucopia and sceptre
Minted in Laodicea-ad-Mare. A.D. 194-195
References:– BMCRE W430 (same reverse die). RIC 450 (S). RSC 153g
maridvnvm
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064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 48122 viewsObv:– L SEPT SEV PERT AVG IMP VIII, laureate head right
Rev:– LIBER AVG, Liberalitas standing left, holding abacus in right hand, cornucopiae in left
Minted in Laodicea-ad-Mare. A.D. 196-197
Reference:– BMCRE 445 (Same dies?). RIC 481. RSC 288.

Weight 2.71g. 18.69mm.
maridvnvm
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064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 4819 viewsObv:– L SEPT SEV PERT AVG IMP VIII, laureate head right
Rev:– LIBER AVG, Liberalitas standing left, holding abacus in right hand, cornucopiae in left
Minted in Laodicea-ad-Mare. A.D. 196-197
Reference:– BMCRE 445 (Same dies?). RIC 481. RSC 288.

Weight 2.71g. 18.69mm
maridvnvm
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064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC Page 139 (6)27 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SE - V PERT AVG COS I, Laureate head right
Rev:– IOVI PRAE ORBIS, Jupiter, seated left, holding Victory and sceptre, at feet eagle
Minted in Emesa, A.D. 193
References:– RIC Page 139 (6) (Rare), Cohen 240 (6 Francs)

2.87g, 17.33mm, 0o

Shares the same reverse die as a coin in the Doug Smith Collection but his example has the more common COS II obverse die. One of the scarcer reverse types.
maridvnvm
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064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC Page 139 (7b) 33 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SE. - V PERT AVG COS I, Laureate head right
Rev:– MONET.A.E AVG, Moneta standing left, holding scales in right hand, cornucopiae in left
Minted in Emesa, A.D. 194
References:– BMC Page 90 (j), RIC Page 139 (7b) (Scarce), RSC 347c

Shares the same obverse die as a coin in the Doug Smith Denarius with a different reverse die

[SOLD]
maridvnvm
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064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC Page 139 (7b)24 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SE. - V PERT AVG COS I, Laureate head right
Rev:– MONET.A.E AVG, Moneta standing left, holding scales in right hand, cornucopiae in left
Minted in Emesa, A.D. 194
References:– BMC Page 90 (j), RIC Page 139 (7b) (Scarce), RSC 347c

2.53g, 17.61mm, 0o

Shares the same obverse die as a coin in the Doug Smith Denarius with a different reverse die
maridvnvm
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064 - Septimius Severus Sestertius - RIC 74342 viewsObv:- L SEPT SEV PERT AVG IMP X, Laureate head right
Rev:- P M TR P V COS II P P, S-C, Genius, naked, standing front, head left, sacrificing out of patera in right hand over lighted, garlanded altar left and golding two corn ears downwards in left hand
Minted in Rome A.D 197.
Reference:- RIC 743 (Rated Scarce). BMCRE 621 (same reverse die). Cohen 441.
maridvnvm
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065 - Julia Domna denarius - 607a23 viewsObv:– IVLIA DO-MNA AVG, Draped bust right, hair tied in bun behind
Rev:– AEQVITAS II, Aequitas standing left holding scales and cornucopia.
Minted in Alexandria. A.D. 194
Reference:– BMCRE Page 86. RIC IV 607a. RSC 3a.

BMCRE, RIC and RSC all refer to the same coin in Vienna which is queried as being plated.

Curtis provided this additional information however:-
"Bickford-Smith, Mint of Alexandria, unpublished typescript (1993), p. 91: four specimens known to him, in Vienna, Berlin, Basel, and Tbilisi.

BMC and RIC refer to the Vienna specimen, which they are wrong to classify as a plated hybrid: it is a regular, solid-silver coin."
maridvnvm
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066 - Caracalla Ae As - RIC 532b24 viewsObv:- ANTONINVS PIVS AVG GERM, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:- P M TR P XVII IMP III COS IIII P P - S C, Mars, helmeted in military dress, cloak over left arm, standing front, head left, right knee slightly bent, holding branch raised in right hand and vertical spear in left hand. Items on ground. I cannot really make them out but at magnification they look like helmet on left, cuirass between legs and spear resting on shield.

This seems to generally match RIC 532b, which cites Cohen 260. RIC 532a is the same reverse type with a Laureate head right. BMCRE does not include this type with this bust but does include the type in the notes to BMCRE 268. BMCRE 268, which is the Laureate head type is described as right foot on helmet with cuirass? to right.
maridvnvm
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066 - Caracalla Denarius - RIC IV -30 viewsObv:– ANTONINVS AVGVSTVS, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind
Rev:– SEVERI [PII] AVG FIL, Caracalla standing left, holding Victory on globe in right hand, reversed spear in left; captive seated left on ground before
Minted in Laodicea-ad-Mare, A.D. 201.
Reference:– BMC -. RIC -. RSC -. This reverse type not recorded for the mint of Laodicea. See RIC 45 and BMCRE 172 for the same type from Rome.
3 commentsmaridvnvm
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069 - Macrinus Denarius - RIC 002114 viewsObv:– IMP C M OPEL SEV MACRINVS AVG, Laureate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– PONTIF MAX TR P P P, Jupiter, nude, standing front, head left, holding thunderbolt and sceptre
Minted in Rome, September 217 A.D.
References:– RIC 2, RSC 70
Titles PONTIF MAX TR P P P (no COS) are rare on denarii. No specimens of this coin in Reka Devnia hoard, for example. Combined with medium beard length of portrait increases interest. Macrinus was letting his beard grow and the same coin can also be found with either short or long beard! This is second issue, date c. Sept. 217
maridvnvm
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07. Caracalla.23 viewsTetradrachm, 205-207 AD, Laodiceia ad Mare.
Obverse: AVT KAI . ANTΩNEINOC . CE . / Laureate bust of Caracalla.
Reverse: ΔHMAPX EΞ VΠATOC B / Eagle, holding wreath in beak, star between legs.
12.91 gm., 25 mm.
Bellinger #57; Prieur #1144.

When Caracalla went to the East to wage war with the Parthians, he issued vast quantities of tetradrachms to finance the activity. This coin, however, is not from that series; it was minted about 10 years earlier when Septimius Severus was still emperor. The main distinguishing feature of this coin is a bust of Caracalla as an adolescent, with just the beginnings of sideburns. It is a fairly scare type. For more information see "Severan Tetradrachms of Laodiceia" by R. G. McAlee in ANS Museum Notes #29 (1984), pages 43-59.

Prieur #1144 has the same obverse die as this coin. However, the reverse legend of #1144 has a Γ at the end of it. Prieur knew of only one example of this coin. Several years ago CNG had a coin from similar dies with the reverse legend ending in a B. Unfortunately, the last letter of the reverse legend on this coin is not real clear.
Callimachus
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0728 THRACE, Bizya, Hadrian 117-19 AD City gate 32 viewsReference.
RPC III, 728; Jurukova Bizye, pl. 1, 3; 6 (same dies) 1A; Price-Trell p. 247, 83; Varbanov 1421 var.

Magistrate Maec- Nep- (presbeutčs and antistrategos)

Obv. ΑΥΤΟ ΤΡΑΙΑΝΟС ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС ΚΑΙСΑΡ СΕΒ ΓΕΡ
Laureate and cuirassed bust of Hadrian, r., with paludamentum

Rev. ΕΠΙ ΜΑΙ ΝΕΠ ΠΡΕСΒ ΚΑΙ ΑΝΤ ΒΙΖΥΗΝΩΝ
City gate, flanked by two towers, surmounted by a figure in quadriga, r.

18.00 gr
31 mm
6h

Note.
The portrait of Hadrian is based on the features of Trajan, as were the earliest coins of Hadrian in Rome.

ex Numismatik Lanz auction 160, lot 414
ex FORVM
okidoki
072_Gordianus-III__(238-244_A_D_),_AE-27_AVTK____W________C_V__V_CABMO_ECTOVNIKO_O_EIT_N_P_OCICTPON__Nic_ad_Istr__HHJ-08_36_4_-,_M_Inf_Q-001_6h_26,5-28mm_12_2g-s~0.jpg
072p Gordianus-III. (238-244 A.D.), Moesia, Nicopolis Ad Istrum, HrHJ (2012) 08.36.05.??, AE-28, Athena standing frontal,132 views072p Gordianus-III. (238-244 A.D.), Moesia, Nicopolis Ad Istrum, HrHJ (2012) 08.36.05.??, AE-28, Athena standing frontal,
avers:- AVT-K-M-ANT-W-ΓOPΔIANOC-AVΓ (AVΓ ligate), Bust, draped and cuirassed, seen from behind, laureate, right.
revers:- VΠ-CAB-MOΔECTOV-NI-KOΠOΛEITΩN-ΠP (ΠP ligate), in right field one below the other POC [I]C[T]P, in upper left field ON (Γ?), Athena in long girded double chiton, helmeted, standing frontal, head left, resting with raised left hand on inverted spear and holding with lowered right hand shield seen from inside set on ground.
exe: O/N/Γ(?)//O/C/I/C/T/P//--, diameter: 26,5-28mm, weight: 12,2g, axis: 6h,
mint: Moesia, Nicopolis Ad Istrum, Sabinius Modestus (241-244 A.D.,) date: 241-244 A.D.,
ref. a) not in AMNG:
AMNG I/1, 2051 (for the type only)
b) Varbanov (engl.) 4177 (but Varbanov doesn't differentiate between different legend
distributions!)
c) not in Hristova-Hoeft-Jekov (2015)
rev. No. 8. 36.4 (for the depiction only)
obv. e.g. No. 8.36.4.4 (same die)
Q-001
quadrans
075_Otacilia-Severa_AE-22_M-WTAKIL-CEOVHPA_CHVxxxLIWN-NEWKOPWN_Mushm-_Q-001_6h_22mm_4,26g-s.jpg
075p Otacilia Severa (? - 249? A.D.), Ionia, Smyrna, (third Neokoros), BMC 445, AE-22, Herakles,60 views075p Otacilia Severa (? - 249? A.D.), Ionia, Smyrna, (third Neokoros), BMC 445, AE-22, Herakles,
avers: - Μ-ΟΤΑΚΙΛ-CΕΟΥHΡΑ,
revers: - CMΥRNAIΩN Γ NEΩKORΩN, ( Γ are = third Neokoros), Herakles, naked, standing left, holding kantharos and club, lionskin over arm.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 22 mm, weight: 4,26 g, axis: 6 h,
mint: Ionia, Smyrna, date: B.C., ref: SNG Aulock 2232 (same obv. die), same obvers are Gordian III, SNG vA 2230 or BMC 445,
Q-001
quadrans
RI_077bb_img.jpg
077 - Severus Alexander Denarius - RIC 268 var22 viewsDenarius
Obv:– IMP C M AVR SEV ALEXAN AVG, Laureate, draped, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– P M TR P II COS, Fortuna standing left, holding rudder set on globe and cornucopia; star to left
Minted in Antioch, Issue 3, A.D. 223
Reference(s) – RIC IV 268 var (obverse legend, normal legend is C). RSC 237 var (same)

RIC makes mention of a coin of the same type from the previous issue (Issue 2) being known with ALEXAN but I cannot find this in BMCRE. Another example but from a different die pair sold by CNG in 2009
2 commentsmaridvnvm
088p_Valerian-I_(253-260_A_D_),_Mysia,_Kyzikos,_AE-25,_Burning_altar,Q-001_7h_25mm_7,68g-s.jpg
088p Valerian I. (253-260 A.D.), Mysia, Kyzikos, SNG France 858, AE-25, -/-//NEΩKOΡ, Burning altar, #1167 views088p Valerian I. (253-260 A.D.), Mysia, Kyzikos, SNG France 858, AE-25, -/-//NEΩKOΡ, Burning altar, #1
avers: AVK ΛIK Λ VAΛEPIANOC, Laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right .
reverse: CTΡACΩ CTΡATΩY KYZIKEΩN NΩN (retrograde), NEΩKOΡ in ex. Burning altar between two serpent-entwined, burning torches. CΩCTΡATΩY (magistrate).
exergue: -/-//NEΩKOΡ, diameter: 25,0mm, weight: 7,68g, axis: 7h,
mint: Mysia, Kyzikos, date: 253-260 A.D., ref:SNG France 858, CNG e-Auction #68, closed 9 July, 2003, cf. SNG von Aulock 1286 (no altar); cf. SNG Copenhagen (same).
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
V1088.jpg
08a Domitian as Caesar RIC-108886 viewsAR Denarius, 3.14g
Rome Mint, 79 AD (Vespasian)
Obv: CAESAR AVG F DOMITIANVS COS VI; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, l.
Rev: PRINCEPS IVVENTVTIS; Vesta std. l., with Palladium and sceptre
RIC 1088 (R3). BMC p. 46 note. RSC 379. BNC -.
Ex Den of Antiquity (eBay), October 2012.

A very rare (4th known) left facing portrait of the common Vesta and Palladium reverse. It is listed in Cohen as 379 (citing lot 784 of the de Moustier Sale of 1872) , although the new RIC states it is unverified (?). The lone example cited by RIC is in G. Mazzini's Monete imperiali romane, vol. 1. Also, Curtis Clay has a specimen, same die pair as mine. Left facing portraits of Domitian are extremely rare, especially those as Caesar.

Worn but all the major devices are visible.

Thanks to Curtis Clay for additional attribution help!
David Atherton
Vitellius_RIC_I_105.jpg
09 Vitellius RIC I 10581 viewsVitellius. Jan. 2-Dec. 20 69 AD. AR Denarius (2.71 g, 17.6m, 5h). Rome mint. Struck circa April-December AD 69. Obv: A VITELLIVS GERM IMP AVG TR P, laureate head right. Rev: LIBERTAS RESTITVTA, Libertas, draped, standing facing holding pileus & long rod. RIC I 105; RSC 47.

With the same devices as RIC I 81, the difference on this coin is the abbreviated title GERM. Vitellius was commander of the legions in Germania Inferior when the Rhine legions declared him emperor in 69 A.D. He would have resigned as emperor, but was not allowed to do so when Vespasian’s eastern legions marched on Rome, and was ultimately killed and Vespasian was installed as emperor ending the Year of Four Emperors.
Lucas H
00_003.JPG
090 Vespasian37 views"Looks like Vespasian, first issue of 71 with full name VESPASIANVS:

IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG P M T P P P COS III, bust laureate r. resting on globe and with aegis on shoulder

FIDES EXERCITVVM, S C in ex. , clasped hands before legionary eagle on prow.

The obverse die is A23 in Colin Kraay's unpublished Oxford dissertation, the rev. die P75. Kraay didn't know this die combination, but it is recorded by RIC 70 from a single specimen in the Termopolio Hoard from Pompeii, published in 1997.

These are rare types: only one other obv. die of the issue shows this combination of aegis and globe for the bust, and this is the only rev. die of the FIDES EXERCITVVM type used in the issue, though a second such die was used later in the year with Vespasian's name abbreviated VESPASIAN (no -VS).

To see what your dies looked like before the corrosion, see RIC pl. 18, 117 and pl. 16, 71 for the obv. and rev. respectively! These are the same two dies on well preserved specimens in other die combinations."

thanks for the help Curtislclay !

New pic
1 commentsRandygeki(h2)
victorituts.jpg
095/1a Victoriatus52 viewsAnonymous. 211-208B.C. AR Victoriatus. Uncertain Mint. (2.74g, 16mm, 12h). Obv: Laureate head of Jupiter right. Rev: Victory standing right, crowing trophy; VB monogram between. Crawford 95/1a. Sydenham 113, RSC 36m.

An interesting denomination, he Victoriatus circulated at the same time as the denarius but was made of debased silver and could have been valued at ľ a denarius. It was hoarded separately from denarii, and could have been used for trade in southern Italy among the Greek colonies. It was later remade into the Quninarri keeping the victory motif from the old Victoriatus.
1 commentsLucas H
Geta-RSC-220a.jpg
097. Geta.9 viewsDenarius, 209-210, Rome mint.
Obverse: IMP CAES P SEPT GETA PIVS AVG / Laureate bust of Geta.
Reverse: VICTORIAE BRIT / Victory holding wreath and palm.
2.88 gm., 18 mm.
RSC #220a; RIC unlisted.

This coin is a mule, and as such it is a very rare coin. A mule is a coin struck from dies that are normally not used together. In this case, an earlier obverse die with an earlier legend was used with the VICTORIAE BRIT reverse. The obverse legend should read P SEPT GETA PIVS AVG BRIT and is listed that way as RIC #91. Roman Silver Coins (Seaby) lists this mule as #220a based on two offerings of apparently the same specimen in Seaby's Bulletin in 1950 and 1952, not illustrated either time. (Thanks to Curtis Clay for this information.)
Callimachus
V1446dark.jpg
09a Domitian as Caesar RIC 1446113 viewsAR Denarius, 3.04g
Ephesus mint, 71 AD (Vespasian)
Obv: DOMITIANVS CAESAR AVG F; Bust of Domitian, cuirassed, seen from front, Medusa head on breast of cuirass, fold of cloak on left shoulder, head bare, r.
Rev: CONCORDIA AVG; Ceres std. l., on ornate high-backed chair, with corn ears and poppy and cornucopiae; in exergue, EPHE
RIC 1446 (C). BMC 470. RSC 38. RPC 847 (10 spec.). BNC 363.
Acquired from Lucernae, eBay, January 2015.

In Domitian's first imperial coinage issue he was given special treatment regarding the bust type chosen. The engravers at Ephesus depicted him cuirassed with a cloak draped over his left shoulder. Vespasian and Titus were not engraved so elaborately (although at Antioch Titus' bust is draped). Why this is so is a mystery. Unusually Domitian shares the same reverse types as Vespasian and Titus in this series, unlike at Rome where he largely had his own unique types. This Ceres reverse is probably the most common of his Ephesus denarii.

A worn coin to be sure, but the handsome bust shines through the wear.
5 commentsDavid Atherton
V1495.JPG
09d Domitian as Caesar- RIC 1495125 viewsAR Denarius, 3.26g
Ephesus (?) mint, 76 AD (Vespasian)
Obv: CAESAR AVG F DOMITIANVS; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r. 'o' mint mark below neck
Rev: FIDES PVBL; Hands clasped over caduceus, two poppies and two corn ears
RIC 1495 (R). BMC 491. RSC -. RPC 1467 (4 spec.). BNC -.
Ex Solidus, eBay, 29 November 2013.

In 76 AD a mysterious series of denarii appeared in Asia Minor for Vespasian and his sons two years after Ephesus stopped minting denarii. The reverse types were copied from those contemporaneously produced at Rome and featured many mules and blundered legends. Often an 'o' mint mark is visible below the busts, giving rise to the theory that these may be the product of Ephesus. The style is also similar to the last series known from that mint.

Here is a rare reverse type for Domitian as Caesar. At Rome this type is only known for Vespasian and Titus. BMC 491 is listed as no mint mark below bust. A fine style portrait struck on a large flan. Same obverse die as my V1492.
6 commentsDavid Atherton
V1496lg.jpg
09e Domitian as Caesar-RIC 1496110 viewsAR Denarius, 3.17g
Ephesus (?) mint, 76 AD (Vespasian)
Obv: CAESAR AVG F DOMITIANVS; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r. 'o' mint mark below neck
Rev: PON MAX TR P COS IIII; Winged caduceus
RIC 1496 (R2). BMC 489. RSC 369. RPC 1469 (2 spec.). BNC 377.
Acquired from Britaly Coins, April 2016.

The small series struck under Vespasian this coin comes from is quite mysterious. The mint is not known for certain, although Ephesus is a prime suspect. K. Butcher and M. Ponting in The Metallurgy of Roman silver Coinage analysed the Ephesian and 'o' mint series and their data shows both issues are made from the same bullion. Not definitive proof the two series are from the same mint, but good evidence of a strong link. Unlike the Ephesian series, the 'o' issue is full of blundered legends and mules. This denarius struck for Domitian Caesar has a PON MAX reverse legend, an impossible title for the young prince. However, what the mint masters lacked in competency, the engravers made up for in their stylish portraits.

A wonderful portrait struck on a large flan. An obverse die match with my RIC V1494.
6 commentsDavid Atherton
MariusFundania1Denarius.jpg
0aa Caius Marius40 viewsC. Fundanius, moneyer
101-91 BC

Denarius

Helmeted head of Roma right, control-mark C behind

"Triumphator" (Marius) in quadriga right, holding laurel-branch and staff; a rider sits on near horse, holding laurel-branch, Q above, C FVNDAN in exergue

The reverse shows Marius as triumphator in the quadriga. He holds sceptre and laurel branch. On one of the horses rides his son. The children of the triumphator were - according to tradition - allowed to share the triumph of their father. The Q above refers to the office as quaestor the mintmaster held while minting these coins. FORVM Ancient Coins says of a similar piece, "The reverse refers to Marius triumph after victories over the Cimbri and Teutones. The rider on the near horse is Marius's son, at that time eight years old." Andrew McCabe comments, "The Triumphator on the Fundania denarius is usually taken to be Marius, with his young son on horseback. This would make it the first Roman coin to explicitly portray a living Roman politician. "

Seaby Fundania 1

Marius rose from common origins to become the First Man in Rome. Plutarch in his Life writes: There is a likeness of Marius in stone at Ravenna, in Gaul, which I myself saw quite corresponding with that roughness of character that is ascribed to him. Being naturally valiant and warlike, and more acquainted also with the discipline of the camp than of the city, he could not moderate his passion when in authority. . . . He was born of parents altogether obscure and indigent, who supported themselves by their daily labour; his father of the same name with himself, his mother called Fulcinia. He had spent a considerable part of his life before he saw and tasted the pleasures of the city; having passed previously in Cirrhaeaton, a village of the territory of Arpinum, a life, compared with city delicacies, rude and unrefined, yet temperate, and conformable to the ancient Roman severity. He first served as a soldier in the war against the Celtiberians, when Scipio Africanus besieged Numantia; where he signalized himself to his general by courage far above his comrades, and particularly by his cheerfully complying with Scipio's reformation of his army, being almost ruined by pleasures and luxury. It is stated, too, that he encountered and vanquished an enemy in single combat, in his general's sight. In consequence of all this he had several honours conferred upon him; and once when at an entertainment a question arose about commanders, and one of the company (whether really desirous to know, or only in complaisance) asked Scipio where the Romans, after him, should obtain such another general, Scipio, gently clapping Marius on the shoulder as he sat next him, replied, "Here, perhaps. . . ."

The consul Caecilius Metellus, being declared general in the war against Jugurtha in Africa took with him Marius for lieutenant; where, eager himself to do great deeds and services that would get him distinction, he did not, like others, consult Metellus's glory and the serving his interest, and attributing his honour of lieutenancy not to Metellus, but to fortune, which had presented him with a proper opportunity and theatre of great actions, he exerted his utmost courage. . . . Marius thus employed, and thus winning the affections of the soldiers, before long filled both Africa and Rome with his fame, and some, too, wrote home from the army that the war with Africa would never be brought to a conclusion unless they chose Caius Marius consul. . . .He was elected triumphantly, and at once proceeded to levy soldiers contrary both to law and custom, enlisting slaves and poor people; whereas former commanders never accepted of such, but bestowed arms, like other favours, as a matter of distinction, on persons who had the proper qualification, a man's property being thus a sort of security for his good behavior. . . .

[In Marius' fourth consulship,] The enemy dividing themselves into two parts, the Cimbri arranged to go against Catulus higher up through the country of the Norici, and to force that passage; the Teutones and Ambrones to march against Marius by the seaside through Liguria. . . . The Romans, pursuing them, slew and took prisoners above one hundred thousand, and possessing themselves of their spoil, tents, and carriages, voted all that was not purloined to Marius's share, which, though so magnificent a present, yet was generally thought less than his conduct deserved in so great a danger. . . . After the battle, Marius chose out from amongst the barbarians' spoils and arms those that were whole and handsome, and that would make the greatest show in his triumph; the rest he heaped upon a large pile, and offered a very splendid sacrifice. Whilst the army stood round about with their arms and garlands, himself attired (as the fashion is on such occasions) in the purple-bordered robe, and taking a lighted torch, and with both hands lifting it up towards heaven, he was then going to put it to the pile, when some friends were espied with all haste coming towards him on horseback. Upon which every one remained in silence and expectation. They, upon their coming up, leapt off and saluted Marius, bringing him the news of his fifth consulship, and delivered him letters to that effect. This gave the addition of no small joy to the solemnity; and while the soldiers clashed their arms and shouted, the officers again crowned Marius with a laurel wreath, and he thus set fire to the pile, and finished his sacrifice.
Blindado
Aemilia10.jpg
0ac Conquest of Macedonia13 viewsPaullus Aemilius Lepidus, moneyer
109-100 BC

Denarius

Veiled head of Concord, right, PAVLLVS LEPIDVS CONCORDIA
TER above trophy, L. Aemelius Lepidus on right, Perseus and his two sons as prisoners on left, PAVLLVS in ex.

Seaby, Aemelia 10

L. Aemelius Paullus defeated the Macedonians in 168 BC and brought Perseus and his sons to Rome to adorn his triumph.

Three days after the battle Perseus arrived at Amphipolis, and from that city he sent heralds with a caduceus to Paulus. In the meanwhile Hippias, Midon, and Pantauchus, the principal men among the king's friends who had fled from the field of battle to Beroea, went and made their surrender to the Roman consul. In the case of others also, their fears prompted them, one after another, to do the same. The consul sent his son Q. Fabius, together with L. Lentulus and Q. Metellus, with despatches to Rome announcing his victory. He gave the spoils taken from the enemy's army lying on the field of battle to the foot soldiers and the plunder from the surrounding country to the cavalry on condition that they were not absent from the camp more than two nights. The camp at Pydna was shifted to a site nearer the sea. First of all Beroea, then Thessalonica and Pella, and almost the whole of Macedonia, city by city, surrendered within two days.

Livy, History of Rome, 44.45
Blindado
0001JUL.jpg
1) Julius Caesar160 viewsDenarius, Rome, Moneyer P. Sepullius Macer, 44 BC, 4.03g. Cr-480/11, Syd-1072; Sear, Imperators-107b. Obv: Wreathed head of Caesar r., CAESAR before, D[IC]T PERPETVO behind. Rx: Venus standing l., looking downwards, holding Victory and scepter resting on star, P SEPVLLIVS behind, MACER downwards before. Same dies as Alfoldi, Caesar in 44 v. Chr., pl. LIII, 6-8. Banker's mark behind Caesar's eye. Good portrait. Some areas of flat striking, otherwise EF

Ex HJB - purchased on the Ides of March, 2011

Gaius Julius Caesar (Classical Latin: [ˈɡaː.i.ʊs ˈjuː.lɪ.ʊs ˈkaj.sar], July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC) was a Roman general, statesman, Consul and notable author of Latin prose. He played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire. In 60 BC, Caesar, Crassus and Pompey formed a political alliance that was to dominate Roman politics for several years. Their attempts to amass power through populist tactics were opposed by the conservative elite within the Roman Senate, among them Cato the Younger with the frequent support of Cicero. Caesar's conquest of Gaul, completed by 51 BC, extended Rome's territory to the English Channel and the Rhine. Caesar became the first Roman general to cross both when he built a bridge across the Rhine and conducted the first invasion of Britain.

These achievements granted him unmatched military power and threatened to eclipse the standing of Pompey, who had realigned himself with the Senate after the death of Crassus in 53 BC. With the Gallic Wars concluded, the Senate ordered Caesar to lay down his military command and return to Rome. Caesar refused, and marked his defiance in 49 BC by crossing the Rubicon with a legion, leaving his province and illegally entering Roman territory under arms. Civil war resulted, from which he emerged as the unrivaled leader of Rome.

After assuming control of government, Caesar began a program of social and governmental reforms, including the creation of the Julian calendar. He centralised the bureaucracy of the Republic and was eventually proclaimed "dictator in perpetuity". But the underlying political conflicts had not been resolved, and on the Ides of March (15 March) 44 BC, Caesar was assassinated by a group of senators led by Marcus Junius Brutus. A new series of civil wars broke out, and the constitutional government of the Republic was never restored. Caesar's adopted heir Octavian, later known as Augustus, rose to sole power, and the era of the Roman Empire began.

Much of Caesar's life is known from his own accounts of his military campaigns, and from other contemporary sources, mainly the letters and speeches of Cicero and the historical writings of Sallust. The later biographies of Caesar by Suetonius and Plutarch are also major sources. Caesar is deemed to be one of the greatest military commanders of history. Source: wikipedia
RM0001
13 commentsSosius
RI_100d_img.jpg
100 - Trebonianus Gallus - Antoninianus - RIC 79 var 14 viewsAntoninianus
Obv:– IMP C C VIB TREB GALLVS P F AVG, Radiate, draped cuirassed bust right
Rev– ADVNTVS (sic) AVS(sic), Trebonianus Gallus riding on horse left, holding hand high in salute and scepter
Minted in Antioch.
Reference(s) – RIC 79 var (reverse legend).

Rare with these reverse legend errors. Possibly the fourth known example all from the same reverse die.

Ex Private British collection, was purchased from English dealer Peter Mimms in 1976
maridvnvm
LarryW1834.jpg
100 Kingdom of Bosporus, Rhescuporis II (III), AD 211–22688 viewsElectrum stater, 7.84g, nearly EF
Struck AD 215/6 at Panticapaeum
BACIΛEWC PHCKOVΠOPIΔOC, diademed and draped bust right; club before / Laureate and draped bust of bearded Caracalla right, BIΦ below.
Certificate of Authenticity by David R. Sear, ACCS
Ex; Freeman & Sear
MacDonald 555/2; Frolova 200, pl. 45, 14 (same dies); Sear GIC 5482v (date)
2 commentsLawrence Woolslayer
60304LG.jpg
102a. Plotina136 viewsPlotina, wife of Trajan.

Under Trajan, his female relations played enormously important roles in the empire's public life, and received honors perhaps unparalleled. Trajan's wife, Pompeia Plotina, is reported to have said, when she entered the imperial palace in Rome for the first time, that she hoped she would leave it the same person she was when she entered. She received the title Augusta no later than 105. She survived Trajan, dying probably in 121, and was honored by Hadrian with a temple, which she shared with her husband, in the great forum which the latter had built.

Ć trial strike of denarius dies (23 mm, 7.42 g). Rome. [PL]OTINA AVG IMP TRAIANI, diademed and draped bust right, hair in queue down neck / CAES AVG GERMA [D]A[C] COS V[I P P], Vesta seated left, holding palladium in right hand, sceptre in left. Cf. RIC 730 (Trajan); cf. BMC 526 (Trajan); cf. RSC 3. VF, rough green patina. Very unusual and probably unique. Ex Spink 160 (9-10 October 2002), 852.
ecoli73
904_P_Hadrian_Strack49.jpg
103 Hadrian Denarius 128 AD Five stars Eastern Mint19 viewsReference. very rare
cf RIC357; .cf C464. - . BMC - Strack *49(same reverse die)

Obv: HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS P P
Laureate head right


Rev: COS III.
Five stars within crescent.

2.72 gr
18 mm
12h
2 commentsokidoki
coin219.JPG
105. Marcus Aurelius41 viewsMarcus Aurelius

The joint succession may have been motivated by military exigency. During his reign Marcus Aurelius was almost constantly at war with various peoples outside the Empire. Germanic tribes and other peoples launched many raids along the long European border, particularly into Gaul — Germans, in turn, may have been under attack from more warlike tribes farther east. In Asia, a revitalized Parthian Empire renewed its assault. A highly authoritative figure was needed to command the troops, yet the emperor himself could not defend both fronts at the same time. Neither could he simply appoint a general to lead one assault; earlier popular military leaders like Julius Caesar and Vespasian had used the military to overthrow the existing government and install themselves as supreme leaders.

Marcus Aurelius solved the problem by sending Verus to command the legions in the East. He was authoritative enough to command the full loyalty of the troops, but already powerful enough that he had little incentive to overthrow Marcus. The plan succeeded — Verus remained loyal until his death on campaign in 169. This joint emperorship was faintly reminiscent of the political system of the Roman Republic, which functioned according to the principle of collegiality and did not allow a single person to hold supreme power. Joint rule was revived by Diocletian's establishment of the Tetrarchy in the late 3rd century.

Virtus

In Roman mythology, Virtus was the god of bravery and military strength. His Greek equivalent was Arete. The word, "Virtus" is commonly used in mottos of universities and other entities.

Marcus Aurelius, as Caesar, Denarius. 155-156 AD. AVRELIVS CAES ANTON AVG PII F, bare head right / TR POT X COS II, Virtus, helmeted, standing left, holding parazonium & spear. RSC 703. RIC 468
ecoli
T-3203_107_Severina_AE-Ant-Silvered_SEVERINA-PF-AVG_CONCORDIA-AVG_V_XXI_RIC-19v__T-3203_Antioch_iss-7_off-5_275-AD_Q-001_0h_23mm_4,61g-s.jpg
107 Severina (270-275 A.D.), T-3203 (Estiot), RIC V-I 019var, Antioch, AE-Antoninianus, CONCORDIA AVG, V//XXI, Emperor and Empress, R!203 views107 Severina (270-275 A.D.), T-3203 (Estiot), RIC V-I 019var, Antioch, AE-Antoninianus, CONCORDIA AVG, V//XXI, Emperor and Empress, R!
avers:- SEVERINA-PF-AVG, Empress right, diademed, draped, on a lunar crescent. (E2)
revers:- CONCORDIA-AVG, Emperor togate (no laurel crown) standing right, clasping the hand of Empress standing left. (Emperor and Empress 1)
"A very interesting coin from the historical point of view as it belongs to the issues dating from Severina's interregnum after the assassination of Aurelian (september-november 275).
"As far as the organisation of coin production was concerned, we see that from the end of 274, certain officinae in some of the mints struck coins exclusively for Severina: this is the case with issues 2-4 at Lyon, issues 10-11 at Rome and issue 4 at Ticinum. After the death of Aurelian, the officinae are no longer shared between Aurelian and Severina: at Lyon, there is a 5th issue attested by coins in the name of Severina only, and the same applies to the 12th issue at Rome where the empress monopolizes the six active équipes, and the 5th issue at Ticinum, where all six officinae struck coins just for Severina. It is clear that the Empress as regent was exercising alone power and right to coin.
In fact the evidence shows that all eight mints that were active in the autumn of 275 across the Empire were producing issues in the name of Severina alone. The mint at Serdica struck coins for Severina with the legend Severina Augusta.The mint at Antioch exceptionally gave the Empress the titles P(ia) F(elix), normally reserved for emperors; on the reverse, the legend is changed from the plural form Concordia Augg (Augustorum) to the singular Concordia Aug, which may be expanded as Concordia Augustae. The type no longer shows the standard reverse, Aurelian shaking the hand of Concordia, but an anonymous male figure, now without laurel-wreath and sceptre, shaking the hand of Severina, who is easily recognizable by her characteristic hairdress and is shown in a larger size. At Alexandria, coins in the name of Severina continued to be struck as the mint received the news of Aurelian’s assassination, and stopped issuing his coins: the hoards from Karanis have 5 tetradrachms of the 7th year of Aurelian (that is after 29 August 275), but 25 of Severina."
(From the website Monnaies de l'Empire Romain / Roman Imperial Coinage 268-276 AD : http://www.ric.mom.fr/en/info/hist5#severine)"
by S. Estiot. Thank you S. Estiot.
exerg: V//XXI, diameter: 23mm, weight: 4,61g, axes: 0h,
mint: Antioch, iss-7, off-5, date: 275 A.D., ref: RIC-19var., T-3203 (Estiot), C-,
Q-001
quadrans
rjb_car_1094_08_05.jpg
109443 viewsCarausius 287-93AD
Antoninianus
Obv “IMP CARAVSIVS PF AVG”
Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev “VIRTVS AVG”
Woman standing right holding standard clasping hand of emperor standing left
Uncertain mint
-/-//XX
RIC 1094
RIC cites the collection of Sir John Evans for this type and no Webb reference. Webb cites a similar type in the collection of Sir John Evans but with the reverse legend VIRTVS [MILIT?] (Webb 1222). The RIC description appears to be describing the same coin but re-read.
mauseus
Probus_AE-Ant-Silvered_IMP-C-M-AVR-PROBVS-P-F-AVG_SO-LI-N-VICT-O_exe-R_RIC-V-II-204var(Not_in_thisBust)-p-39_Rome_2nd-emiss_277-AD_Q-x01_axis-5h_22-25mm_4,66g-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 204 var, Rome, SOLI INVICTO, Bust-H-var (Not in RIC), Sol in spread quadriga,113 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 204 var, Rome, SOLI INVICTO, Bust-H-var (Not in RIC), Sol in spread quadriga,
avers:- IMP-C-M-AVR-PROBVS-P-F-AVG, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle, and globe in right hand. (H-var Not in RIC)
revers:- SO-LI-IN-VIC-TO, Sol in spread quadriga holding globe and whip.
exergo: -/-//R, diameter: 22-25mm, weight: 4,66g, axis: 5h,
mint: Rome, 2nd emission of Rome, 277, date: 277 A.D., ref: RIC V-II 204var (Not in RIC), p-39,
Q-001
"What is particularly interesting in this coin is that it was unlisted till now with this exergue // R (cf. S. Estiot & Ph. Gysen, L'atelier de Rome au début du rčgne de Probus: corpus et documents inédits, Revue Numismatique 2006, tables p. 254-255)
[downloadable : http://www.academia.edu/1368399/Latelier_de_Rome_au_debut_du_regne_de_Probus_276-277_corpus_et_documents_inedits ]
In fact since our 2006 article has been published, I realized that there was such a coin in Vienna: so Joe's is the second known exemplary; furthermore, it has been struck with the same reverse die as the coin in Vienna. "by S.Estiot, Thank you S. Estiot.
1 commentsquadrans
Probus_AE-Ant_VIRTV-S-PROBI-AVG-(Gvar-l_)_SALVS-AVG_A_RIC-Not-in_AD_Q-001_0h_23-24,5mm_3,88ga-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II ???, Ticinum, SALVS-AVG, Bust-Gvar-left, A/-//--, Salus seated left, Not in RIC !!!245 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II ???, Ticinum, SALVS-AVG, Bust-Gvar-left, A/-//--, Salus seated left,
avers:- VIRTVS-PROBI-AVG, Radiate, helmeted (Corinthian helmet), cuirassed bust right, without spear and shield. Not in RIC this type of bust !!!
revers:- SALVS-AVG, Salus seated left, feeding serpent rising from altar.
exe: A/-//--, diameter: 23-24,5mm, weight: 3,88g, axis: 0h,
mint: Ticinum, date: ??? A.D., ref: RIC-V-II ???, p-,
Q-001
"Another exceedingly rare coin! No bibliographic reference, you are right. I just know another similar coin, from a private Dutch collection.
Yours is from the same obverse die. You generally have many interesting coins from Siscia. This exception from the Ticinum mint is stunning. Congratulations again,
S. Estiot" Thank you S.Estiot.
4 commentsquadrans
Probus_AE-Ant_IMP-DEO-ET-DOMINO-PROBO-AVG_VIRTVS-PROBI-AVG_RIC-not_C--_Serdica-4th-emission-extr-rare_Q-001_h_24mm_3,56g-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II Not in , Serdica, VIRTVS PROBI AVG, Bust-A, -/-//KA•Γ•, Emperor riding right, IMP DEO ET DOMINO PROBO AVG, Extr. rare.!131 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II Not in , Serdica, VIRTVS PROBI AVG, Bust-A, -/-//KA•Γ•, Emperor riding right, IMP DEO ET DOMINO PROBO AVG, Extr. rare.!
Probus (276-282) AE Antoninianus VIRTVS PROBI AVG, Serdica,
"This is a rare coin. I know only 2 other similar coins, both in private hands, none in public collections. One belongs to Philippe Gysen's collection, the other is CNG MBS 69, 8/6/2005, 1699 (the one which appears on Grzegorz's Probus site http://bkgk.powweb.com/probvs/rev-reverses.html ). The three coins appear to share the same pair of dies." by S. Estiot. Many thanks S. Estiot
avers:- IMP-DEO-ET-DOMINO-PROBO-AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from back.
revers:- VIRTVS-PROBI-AVG, Emperor riding right, spearing enemy, shield beneth the horse.
exergo: -/-//KA•Γ•, diameter: 24mm, weight: 3,56g, axes:6h,
mint: Serdica 4ht emission, date: 279 A.D., ref: Not in RIC !!! extr. rare,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
RIC_---_A_---_No_---_112_Probus_AE-Ant_IMP-PROBVS-INV-AVG_FELICITAS-AVG-N_XXI_RIC-(not-in)-V-II-686var_Alf_-32avar-No-_Siscia_2nd-emission_277-AD_Q-001_0h_22,5mm_3_22g-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), Siscia, Alföldi 0032.0000 (This bust Not in from this type !!!), -/-//XXI, Bust A/C, RIC V-II 686var. (This bust not listed in RIC from this type!!!), AE-Antoninianus, FELICITAS AVG N, Felicitas standing left, Extremely Rare!!!125 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), Siscia, Alföldi 0032.0000 (This bust Not in from this type !!!), -/-//XXI, Bust A/C, RIC V-II 686var. (This bust not listed in RIC from this type!!!), AE-Antoninianus, FELICITAS AVG N, Felicitas standing left, Extremely Rare!!!
avers: IMP PROBVS INV AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from front. (This bust not listed in RIC from this type!!!)
reverse: FELICITAS AVG N, Felicitas standing left by altar, holding caduceus and cornucopiae.
exergue: -/-//XXI, diameter: 22,5mm, weight: 3,22g, axis: 0h,
mint: Siscia, 2nd. emission, date: 277 A.D., ref: RIC V-II 686var., (This bust not listed in RIC from this type!!!),
Q-001
"Thank you for showing this very rare coin reverse FELICITAS AVG(usti) N(ostri), Felicitas holding a long caduceus and a cornucopiae: the draped bust seen from front is unlisted in Alföldi's work on the mint of Siscia under Probus (so ref: Alföldi 32, -), I know it from another coin in a private collection, which shares the same obverse die as yours >> unreferenced coin, two specimens, one obverse die.
The new reverses introduced at that time in the Pannonian mint of Siscia celebrate Probus as "Augustus Noster" (Our Emperor) as the emperor is of Pannonian extraction. The marking which omits the officina number is a clue for an issue of common base aureliani minted parallelly with an imperial donativum in gold.
Very nice coin..S. Estiot" Thank you S.Estiot.
1 commentsquadrans
RIC_---_A_036_No_001_112_Probus_AE-Ant_IMP-C-PROBVS-P-F-AVG-(3F)_FORTVNA-REDUX_XXI-T_RIC-V-II-695legendvar_Alf-36_No-01_Siscia_R_Q-001_0h_22,5mm_4,37g-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), Siscia, Alföldi 0036.0001, -/-//XXIT, Bust B/F, RIC V-II Not in !, AE-Antoninianus, FORTVNA REDVX, Fortuna seated left on shield, Extremely Rare!!!147 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), Siscia, Alföldi 0036.0001, -/-//XXIT, Bust B/F, RIC V-II Not in !, AE-Antoninianus, FORTVNA REDVX, Fortuna seated left on shield, Extremely Rare!!!
avers: IMP C PROBVS P F AVG, Radiate, cuirassed bust right. (This avers legend not listed in RIC from this type!!!)
reverse: FORTVNA REDUX, Fortuna seated left on shield, holding baton and cornucopiae.
exergue: -/-//XXIT, diameter: 22,5mm, weight: 4,37g, axis: 0h,
mint: Siscia, 4th. emission, date: 276 A.D. ref: RIC-V-II-Not in, (695var, p91, ???), Alföldi 0036.0001,
Q-001
"This is an extremely rare issue of Probus, which Pink attributes to the 4th emission of Siscia mint. It seems that RIC 695 is incorrectly described: IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, bust type G (radiate helmeted, cuirassed bust l, holding spear and shield), cited from Voetter.
However, Alföldi lists two examples with obverse legend IMP C PROBVS P F AVG: type 36/1 - Radiate, cuirassed bust right (specimen in Frankfurt) and type 36/2 - Radiate, cuirassed bust left (collection Missong, Vienna), in addition, another specimen of Alf 36/1 is kept in British Museum, coming from Gloucester hoard . All examples have -/-//XXIT mintmark. The same obverse is listed by Pink." by Incerum, thank you Incerum.
2 commentsquadrans
Probus_AE-Ant_IMP-C-M-AVR-PROBVS-P-AVG_VIRTVS-PROBI-AVG_XXI-V_RIC-816var-p-106_Alf-96-No-170_Siscia_282-AD_Bust-and-Offic-NotinRIC_Q-001_axis-0h_22mm_4,00ga-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), Siscia, Alföldi 0096.0170, -/-//XXIP, Bust E2/Gvar., RIC V-II 816, (Bust and officina not in RIC!!!), AE-Antoninianus, VIRTVS PROBI AVG, Mars walking right, Rare!!!155 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), Siscia, Alföldi 0096.0170, -/-//XXIP, Bust E2/Gvar., RIC V-II 816, (Bust and officina not in RIC!!!), AE-Antoninianus, VIRTVS PROBI AVG, Mars walking right, Rare!!!
avers: IMP C M AVR PROBVS P AVG, Radiate, helmeted, cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield, seen from back, shield in front and a spear pointing forward. (E2/Gvar.)
reverse: VIRTVS PR OBI AVG, Mars walking right, holding spear and trophy.
exergue: -/-//XXIV, diameter: 22mm, weight: 4,00g, axis: 0h,
mint: Siscia, date: 282 A.D., ref: RIC V-II 816 var, p-106 Bust and officina not in RIC, Alföldi 0096.0170, Rare!!!
Q-001
"- Quadrans' coin (titulature P AVG) is known to me by 2 other examples, both in Paris: one is the coin quoted by Alföldi 96, 170, the other belonged to the collection of the famous epigraphist H.-G. Pflaum, whose collection has been (partly) bought by the Bibliothčque nationale de France. These 3 coins have been struck from the same obverse die." by S. Estiot.
2 commentsquadrans
944Hadrian_RIC352.jpg
113 Hadrian Denarius 134-38 AD Galley right Eastern Mint42 viewsReference
Strack *55 (same die pair);Cohen 445.

Obv. HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS P P
Laureate head of Hadrian to right.

Rev. COS III
Galley with five oarsmen to right; at stern, arched cabin under a curved aplustre.

3.35 gr
19 mm
6h
2 commentsokidoki
RI_115o_img~0.jpg
115 - Postumus - Antoninianus - RIC 33118 viewsAntoninianus
Obv:– IMP C POSTVMVS P F AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– VIRTVS AVG, Emperor (sometimes referred to as Mars) advancing right, holding spear and shield, small captive to right.
Minted in Cologne. A.D. 266
Reference– RIC 331; Elmer 291; AGK (corr.) 103; Cunetio 2427.

A scarcer reverse type

All examples I have been able to find come from the same die pair
maridvnvm
hadrian dup-virtus.jpg
117-138 AD - HADRIAN AE dupondius - struck 119-121 AD54 viewsobv: IMP CAESAR TRAIANVS HADRIANVS AVG PMTRP COS III (radiated head right)
rev: VIRTVTI AVGVSTI (Virtus standing right, holding spear & parazonium), S-C in ex.
ref: RIC II 605, C.1470 (2fr)
12.74gms, 26mm

Hadrian first military service was as a tribune of the Legio II Adiutrix at Aquincum, Pannonia (AD 95). He later became legate of the same legio in Upper Pannonia and eventually governor of the province (AD 107).
berserker
1189_-_1199_Richard_I_AR_Denier.JPG
1189 - 1199, RICHARD I (the lionheart), AR Denier minted at Melle, Poitou, France44 viewsObverse: +RICARDVS REX. Cross pattée within braided inner circle, all within braided outer circle.
Reverse: PIC / TAVIE / NSIS in three lines within braided circle.
Diameter: 20mm | Weight: 1.0gms | Die Axis: 2
SPINK: 8008 | Elias: 8

Poitou was an Anglo-Gallic province in what is now west-central France and its capital city was Poitiers, the mint at this time was however located at Melle. Melle was an active centre of minting during the early Middle Ages due to the important silver mines located under and around the city. This is the only coin issue struck during the reign of Richard I to bear his own name and titles as King of England.

Richard I was King of England from 1189 until his death on 6th April 1199. He also ruled several territories outwith England, and was styled as Duke of Normandy, Aquitaine and Gascony, Lord of Cyprus, Count of Poitiers, Anjou, Maine, and Nantes, as well as being overlord of Brittany at various times during the same period. He was the third of five sons of King Henry II of England and Duchess Eleanor of Aquitaine. He was known as Richard the Lionheart (Richard Cśur de Lion) because of his reputation as a great military leader and warrior when, at the age of 16 and commanding his own army, he had put down rebellions against his father in Poitou.
Richard was a commander during the Third Crusade, and led the campaign after the departure of Philip II of France. However, although he scored several notable victories against the Muslims led by Saladin, he failed to retake Jerusalem from them.
Although Richard was born in England and spent his childhood there before becoming king, he lived most of his adult life in the Duchy of Aquitaine. Following his accession, his life was mostly spent on Crusade, in captivity, or actively defending his lands in France. Rather than regarding England as a responsibility requiring his presence as ruler, he appears to have used it merely as a source of revenue to support his armies. Nevertheless, he was seen as a pious hero by his subjects and he remains one of the few kings of England who is remembered by his epithet rather than by his regnal number, and even today he is still an iconic figure in both England and France.
3 comments*Alex
1205_-_1216_John_AR_Penny_Dublin.JPG
1199-1216, John, AR Penny, Struck 1207 – 1211 at Dublin, Ireland10 viewsObverse: IOHANNES REX around triangle enclosing a crowned and draped facing bust of King John holding, in his right hand, a sceptre tipped with a cross pommée which extends through the side of the triangle into the legend. Quatrefoil to right of bust.
Reverse: ROBERD ON DIVE around triangle containing sun over crescent moon and a star in each angle. Cross pattée at apex of each point of the triangle and above legend on each of the three sides. Moneyer: Roberd, cognate with the modern English name of Robin.
Third issue “REX” coinage, struck to the same weight and fineness as the English standard.
This was the only coinage struck by King John in his own name.
Diameter: 18mm | Weight: 1.2gms | Die Axis: 4
SPINK: 6228

John was King of England from 1199 until his death in 1216. The baronial revolt at the end of John's reign led to the sealing of the first Magna Carta, a document sometimes considered an early step in the evolution of the constitution of the United Kingdom.
John, the youngest of the five sons of Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine, was not expected to inherit significant lands which resulted in him being given the nickname John Lackland. However, after the failed rebellion of his elder brothers between 1173 and 1174, John became Henry's favourite child. He was appointed Lord of Ireland in 1177 and given lands in England and on the continent. John's elder brothers William, Henry and Geoffrey died young and when Richard I became king in 1189, John was the potential heir to the throne. John unsuccessfully attempted a rebellion against Richard's administration whilst his brother was participating in the Third Crusade but despite this, after Richard died in 1199, John was proclaimed King of England.
King John contracted dysentery at Lynn in 1216 but, just before his death, he managed to dictate a brief will. This will still survives and as part of it John requested: "I will that my body be buried in the church of St. Mary and St. Wulfstan of Worcester".
Some of King John's favourite hunting grounds were in Worcester, at Kinver and Feckenham, and he had a special affection for Saint Wulfstan, one of the two great Anglo-Saxon saints whose shrines and tombs were also at Worcester. Both Saint Wulfstan and Saint Oswald can be seen in miniature beside the head of the effigy of King John on his tomb.
Medieval effigies usually show the subject in the prime of life, however the effigy on King John's tomb is unique in that not only is it a life-like image of him, it is also the oldest royal effigy in England.
King John's tomb has been opened twice, once in 1529 and again in 1797. At the first opening it was said that John's head was covered with a monk's cowl, however it is now thought that this was probably his coronation cap. When the tomb was opened for the second time the antiquarians responsible discovered that a robe of crimson damask had originally covered the king's body but, by 1797, most of the embroidery had deteriorated. They also found the remains of a sword which lay down the left side of the body along with parts of its scabbard.
3 comments*Alex
arras.jpg
11a149 viewsThe same image as that used for image 11 in this gallery but with the background painted black and the image colour digitally manipulated to make it gold. The closest I will probably get to owning a specimen of this.3 commentsmauseus
Maximianus-Herculeus_AE-_IMP-MAXIMIANVS-P-AVG_IOVI-CONSERVATORI_RIC-V-II--p_C-AD_Q-001_axis-6h_16mm_1,42g-s.jpg
120 Maximianus Herculeus (285-286 Caesar, 286-305, 307-308 & 310 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC V-II Not in, AE-Quinarius, -/-//--, IOVI CONSERVATORI, Jupiter standing left, Extremly Rare!97 views120 Maximianus Herculeus (285-286 Caesar, 286-305, 307-308 & 310 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC V-II Not in, AE-Quinarius, -/-//--, IOVI CONSERVATORI, Jupiter standing left, Extremly Rare!
avers:- IMP MAXIMIANVS P AVG, Laureate, cuirassed bust right.
revers:- IOVI CONS ERVATORI, Jupiter standing left, holding thunderbolt and scepter.
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: 16mm, weight: 1,42g, axes: 6h,
mint: Siscia , date: 285-286 A.D., ref: RIC-V-II-Not in, C-Not in,
Q-001

"The quinar of maximianus you last showed is also of Siscia mint.
Your coin is the 2nd known.
Paris has another coin in outstanding condition with the same set of dies.
Companions coins for Diocletian also exist. One of them is published and illustrated in Cathy King's publication on Roman Quinarii > Siscia 2 a ( Zagreb collection ) with the same reverse die as your coin !
All these quinarii from Siscia with larger busts ( in my opinion datation around 288-9 AD ) are very rare." by Helveticus, Thank you Helveticus
quadrans
RI_125u_img.jpg
125 - Aurelian Ant. - RIC - Bust Type F130 viewsObv:– IMP C AVRELIANVS AVG, Radiated, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– SOLI INS AVG, Sol standing left raising right hand, holding globe in left hand standing on captive in front, another captive behind
Minted at Ticinum
Reference:– RIC -

This coin is relatively interesting in that it illustrates the use of two different reverse dies being struck with the same obverse die. The coin combines a SOLI INVICTO and and ORIENS AVG, both with star in left field and PXXT in exe from the mint at Ticinum. Shadow strikes can be seen of the other captives and on the head of Sol from the other strike.
1 commentsMartin Griffiths
RI_125ai_img.jpg
125 - Aurelian Ant. - RIC - RIC temp #2671.114 viewsObv:- IMP C L DOM AVRELIANVS P F AVG, Radiate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:- ORIENS AVG, Mars in military dress stg. right, holding long sceptre in left hand, receiving globe from Sol standing left, holding whip in left hand, resting with right foot on a bound captive in oriental dress seated left, head turned right
Minted in Serdica (–/–//XXI(•)P(•)). Issue 7, Phase 2. April – November A.D. 274
Reference:- RIC Unlisted, RIC temp #2671.1 corr. (this coin)

Same reverse die as RIC temp #2672
maridvnvm
12g-Constantine-Her-075.jpg
12g. Constantine: Heraclea follis.36 viewsFollis, 313 - 314, Heraclea mint.
Obverse: IMP C FL VAL CONSTANTINVS P F AVG / Laureate bust of Constantine.
Reverse: IOVI CONSERVATORI AVGG / Jupiter standing, chlamys over left shoulder, holding Victory on globe, leaning on sceptre. Eagle with wreath in its beak at his feet. E in right field.
Mint mark: SMHT
3.95 gm., 22 mm.
RIC #75 (vol VI) and #5 (vol VII); Sear #15958.

This coin seems to be listed twice in RIC: #75 in Volume VI, and #5 in Volume VII.

RIC Volume VI (page 541) assigns this coin to the year 313, just before Maximinus (Daza) occupied the city of Heraclea for a month or so, during which he issued his own different coinage.

RIC Volume VII (page 542) assigns the coin to the period of time just after Maximinus withdrew from Heraclea and into the year 314. Page 533 says the coinage from before Maximinus' occupation continued after his withdrawal "with exactly the same reverse as before the occupation."

I can not tell the difference between these two listings and have to conclude they are the same coin. Either way, it is a nice coin from turbulent times in the history of Heraclea. The original silvering is still under that patina.
Callimachus
14-Gordian-III-RIC-116.jpg
13. Gordian III / RIC 116.24 viewsDenarius, 240 AD, Rome mint.
Obverse: IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG / Laureate bust of Gordian.
Reverse: VIRTVTI AVGVSTI / Hercules standing, resting right hand on hip and left hand club set on rock; lion-skin beside club.
3.58 gm., 20 mm.
RIC #116; Sear #8684.

The chronology of the denarii coinage of Gordian III has been poorly understood because Roman Imperial Coinage (RIC) has it mixed up in its listings. For example, it will tell you that 5 denarii (Diana, Pietas, Salus, Securitas, and Venus) were issued in the summer of 241 to commemorate the marriage of Gordian and Tranquillina. Recent thinking tells another entirely different story. The following summary is based on a posting by Curtis Clay, November 25, 2011, on the Forum Ancient Coins Classical Numismatics Discussion Board.
Although antoniniani were issued for a while under Caracalla and Elagabalus, the denarius was the standard silver denomination throughout the reigns of Severus Alexander, Maximinus Thrax, and into the first part of the joint reign of Balbinus & Pupienus. (This, by the way, is when the PIETAS AVGG denarius of Gordian as Caesar was issued.) Sometime during the short reign of Balbinus & Pupienus, the antoninianus supplanted the denarius as the standard silver denomination. When Gordian III became emperor (July 238), his administration continued to follow the then current practice of issuing only antoniniani.

Early in 240, Gordian apparently decided to revert back to the traditional coinage of the Empire and began to issue only denarii. The denarii issued at this time were the following:

P M TR P III COS P P / Horseman
DIANA LVCIFERA
PIETAS AVGVSTI
SALVS AVGVSTI
SECVRITAS PVBLICA
VENVS VICTRIX

No antoniniani exist with these reverse types.

The next issue of denarii was issued in the summer of 240 after Gordian became COS II, and consists of these types:

P M TR P III COS II P P / Emperor standing
P M TR P III COS II P P / Apollo seated
AETERNITATI AVG
IOVIS STATOR
LAETITIA AVG N
VIRTVTI AVGVSTI

Within a short time, however, it was decided to go back to having the antoninianus as the standard silver denomination. Antoniniani were issued again, at first with the same reverse types as the second issue of denarii. That is why these reverse types exist on denarii and antoniniani even though they were not issued at the same time.

So the period the mint issued denarii rather than antoniniani as the standard silver denomination lasted from about March through August, 240. This was the last time denarii were issued for general circulation. The antoninianus lasted until Diocletian’s coinage reform of 295, after which Roman coinage was so vastly different that there was no question of returning to the denarius.

The 13 denarii of Gordian III are presented in this album in this order:
Gordian III as Caesar denarius - 1 coin.
First issue of denarii - 6 coins.
Second issue of denarii - 6 coins.
Callimachus
RI 130s img.jpg
130 - Tacitus Antoninianus - Cyzicus mint unlisted46 viewsObv:– IMP C M CL TACITVS AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– CONSERVATOR MILITVM, Mars standing right, presenting globe to Tacitus, who stands left
Minted in Cyzicus (E in centre field / KA in exe) Emission 1, Officina 5
References:– Unlisted in Cohen, unlisted in RIC. Venera Hoard 2405 pl. 20 (apparently same rev. die as this specimen), further specimens in Vienna (ill. pl. 32, no. 46) and Paris cited on p. 33.
maridvnvm
RI_130ax_img.jpg
130 - Tacitus Antoninianus - RIC unlisted Bust Type C28 viewsObv:– CL TACITVS AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– CONSERVAT MILIT, Mars standing right, holding spear, handing globe to emeperor, standing left, in military dress, holding a sceptre.
Minted in Serdica (//S) Emission 1 Officina 2.
Reference(s) – Cohen -. LV -. (No coins with this short obverse legend in LV, LV 2386 is the same type but with IMP C M CL TACITVS AVG). RIC unlisted Bust type C var (RIC doesn’t include this short legend, RIC doesn’t include this set of officina marks for Serdica).

The following information came courtesy of Barry Murphy:-

This is recorded by Estiot and a specimen is illustrated on pl. 95, #449. Estiot's source is Zanchi, "Quelques nouveaux antoniens de Serdica (274-277)," in SchweizerMunzblatter 120 (1980)
This obverse legend is also recorded with the reverse CONSERVATOR MILITVM.
maridvnvm
DiocleAnt.jpg
1301a, Diocletian, 284-305 A.D. (Antioch)94 viewsDIOCLETIAN (284 – 305 AD) AE Antoninianus, 293-95 AD, RIC V 322, Cohen 34. 20.70 mm/3.1 gm, aVF, Antioch. Obverse: IMP C C VAL DIOCLETIANVS P F AVG, Radiate bust right, draped & cuirassed; Reverse: CONCORDIA MILITVM, Jupiter presents Victory on a globe to Diocletian, I/XXI. Early Diocletian with dusty earthen green patina.


De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Diocletian ( 284-305 A.D.)

Ralph W. Mathisen
University of South Carolina


Summary and Introduction
The Emperor Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus (A.D. 284-305) put an end to the disastrous phase of Roman history known as the "Military Anarchy" or the "Imperial Crisis" (235-284). He established an obvious military despotism and was responsible for laying the groundwork for the second phase of the Roman Empire, which is known variously as the "Dominate," the "Tetrarchy," the "Later Roman Empire," or the "Byzantine Empire." His reforms ensured the continuity of the Roman Empire in the east for more than a thousand years.

Diocletian's Early Life and Reign
Diocletian was born ca. 236/237 on the Dalmatian coast, perhaps at Salona. He was of very humble birth, and was originally named Diocles. He would have received little education beyond an elementary literacy and he was apparently deeply imbued with religious piety He had a wife Prisca and a daughter Valeria, both of whom reputedly were Christians. During Diocletian's early life, the Roman empire was in the midst of turmoil. In the early years of the third century, emperors increasingly insecure on their thrones had granted inflationary pay raises to the soldiers. The only meaningful income the soldiers now received was in the form of gold donatives granted by newly acclaimed emperors. Beginning in 235, armies throughout the empire began to set up their generals as rival emperors. The resultant civil wars opened up the empire to invasion in both the north, by the Franks, Alamanni, and Goths, and the east, by the Sassanid Persians. Another reason for the unrest in the army was the great gap between the social background of the common soldiers and the officer corps.

Diocletian sought his fortune in the army. He showed himself to be a shrewd, able, and ambitious individual. He is first attested as "Duke of Moesia" (an area on the banks of the lower Danube River), with responsibility for border defense. He was a prudent and methodical officer, a seeker of victory rather than glory. In 282, the legions of the upper Danube proclaimed the praetorian prefect Carus as emperor. Diocletian found favor under the new emperor, and was promoted to Count of the Domestics, the commander of the cavalry arm of the imperial bodyguard. In 283 he was granted the honor of a consulate.

In 284, in the midst of a campaign against the Persians, Carus was killed, struck by a bolt of lightning which one writer noted might have been forged in a legionary armory. This left the empire in the hands of his two young sons, Numerian in the east and Carinus in the west. Soon thereafter, Numerian died under mysterious circumstances near Nicomedia, and Diocletian was acclaimed emperor in his place. At this time he changed his name from Diocles to Diocletian. In 285 Carinus was killed in a battle near Belgrade, and Diocletian gained control of the entire empire.

Diocletian's Administrative and Military Reforms
As emperor, Diocletian was faced with many problems. His most immediate concerns were to bring the mutinous and increasingly barbarized Roman armies back under control and to make the frontiers once again secure from invasion. His long-term goals were to restore effective government and economic prosperity to the empire. Diocletian concluded that stern measures were necessary if these problems were to be solved. He felt that it was the responsibility of the imperial government to take whatever steps were necessary, no matter how harsh or innovative, to bring the empire back under control.

Diocletian was able to bring the army back under control by making several changes. He subdivided the roughly fifty existing provinces into approximately one hundred. The provinces also were apportioned among twelve "dioceses," each under a "vicar," and later also among four "prefectures," each under a "praetorian prefect." As a result, the imperial bureaucracy became increasingly bloated. He institutionalized the policy of separating civil and military careers. He divided the army itself into so-called "border troops," actually an ineffective citizen militia, and "palace troops," the real field army, which often was led by the emperor in person.

Following the precedent of Aurelian (A.D.270-275), Diocletian transformed the emperorship into an out-and-out oriental monarchy. Access to him became restricted; he now was addressed not as First Citizen (Princeps) or the soldierly general (Imperator), but as Lord and Master (Dominus Noster) . Those in audience were required to prostrate themselves on the ground before him.

Diocletian also concluded that the empire was too large and complex to be ruled by only a single emperor. Therefore, in order to provide an imperial presence throughout the empire, he introduced the "Tetrarchy," or "Rule by Four." In 285, he named his lieutenant Maximianus "Caesar," and assigned him the western half of the empire. This practice began the process which would culminate with the de facto split of the empire in 395. Both Diocletian and Maximianus adopted divine attributes. Diocletian was identified with Jupiter and Maximianus with Hercules. In 286, Diocletian promoted Maximianus to the rank of Augustus, "Senior Emperor," and in 293 he appointed two new Caesars, Constantius (the father of Constantine I ), who was given Gaul and Britain in the west, and Galerius, who was assigned the Balkans in the east.

By instituting his Tetrarchy, Diocletian also hoped to solve another problem. In the Augustan Principate, there had been no constitutional method for choosing new emperors. According to Diocletian's plan, the successor of each Augustus would be the respective Caesar, who then would name a new Caesar. Initially, the Tetrarchy operated smoothly and effectively.

Once the army was under control, Diocletian could turn his attention to other problems. The borders were restored and strengthened. In the early years of his reign, Diocletian and his subordinates were able to defeat foreign enemies such as Alamanni, Sarmatians, Saracens, Franks, and Persians, and to put down rebellions in Britain and Egypt. The easter frontier was actually expanded.

.
Diocletian's Economic Reforms
Another problem was the economy, which was in an especially sorry state. The coinage had become so debased as to be virtually worthless. Diocletian's attempt to reissue good gold and silver coins failed because there simply was not enough gold and silver available to restore confidence in the currency. A "Maximum Price Edict" issued in 301, intended to curb inflation, served only to drive goods onto the black market. Diocletian finally accepted the ruin of the money economy and revised the tax system so that it was based on payments in kind . The soldiers too came to be paid in kind.

In order to assure the long term survival of the empire, Diocletian identified certain occupations which he felt would have to be performed. These were known as the "compulsory services." They included such occupations as soldiers, bakers, members of town councils, and tenant farmers. These functions became hereditary, and those engaging in them were inhibited from changing their careers. The repetitious nature of these laws, however, suggests that they were not widely obeyed. Diocletian also expanded the policy of third-century emperors of restricting the entry of senators into high-ranking governmental posts, especially military ones.

Diocletian attempted to use the state religion as a unifying element. Encouraged by the Caesar Galerius, Diocletian in 303 issued a series of four increasingly harsh decrees designed to compel Christians to take part in the imperial cult, the traditional means by which allegiance was pledged to the empire. This began the so-called "Great Persecution."

Diocletian's Resignation and Death
On 1 May 305, wearied by his twenty years in office, and determined to implement his method for the imperial succession, Diocletian abdicated. He compelled his co-regent Maximianus to do the same. Constantius and Galerius then became the new Augusti, and two new Caesars were selected, Maximinus (305-313) in the east and Severus (305- 307) in the west. Diocletian then retired to his palace at Split on the Croatian coast. In 308 he declined an offer to resume the purple, and the aged ex-emperor died at Split on 3 December 316.

Copyright (C) 1996, Ralph W. Mathisen, University of South Carolina
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

1 commentsCleisthenes
DicletianConcordCyz.jpg
1301b, Diocletian, 20 November 284 - 1 March 305 A.D.59 viewsDiocletian. RIC V Part II Cyzicus 256 var. Not listed with pellet in exegrue
Item ref: RI141f. VF. Minted in Cyzicus (B in centre field, XXI dot in exegrue)Obverse:- IMP CC VAL DIOCLETIANVS AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right. Reverse:- CONCORDIA MILITVM, Diocletian standing right, holding parazonium, receiving Victory from Jupiter standing left with scepter.
A post reform radiate of Diocletian. Ex Maridvnvm.

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Diocletian ( 284-305 A.D.)

Ralph W. Mathisen
University of South Carolina


Summary and Introduction
The Emperor Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus (A.D. 284-305) put an end to the disastrous phase of Roman history known as the "Military Anarchy" or the "Imperial Crisis" (235-284). He established an obvious military despotism and was responsible for laying the groundwork for the second phase of the Roman Empire, which is known variously as the "Dominate," the "Tetrarchy," the "Later Roman Empire," or the "Byzantine Empire." His reforms ensured the continuity of the Roman Empire in the east for more than a thousand years.

Diocletian's Early Life and Reign
Diocletian was born ca. 236/237 on the Dalmatian coast, perhaps at Salona. He was of very humble birth, and was originally named Diocles. He would have received little education beyond an elementary literacy and he was apparently deeply imbued with religious piety He had a wife Prisca and a daughter Valeria, both of whom reputedly were Christians. During Diocletian's early life, the Roman empire was in the midst of turmoil. In the early years of the third century, emperors increasingly insecure on their thrones had granted inflationary pay raises to the soldiers. The only meaningful income the soldiers now received was in the form of gold donatives granted by newly acclaimed emperors. Beginning in 235, armies throughout the empire began to set up their generals as rival emperors. The resultant civil wars opened up the empire to invasion in both the north, by the Franks, Alamanni, and Goths, and the east, by the Sassanid Persians. Another reason for the unrest in the army was the great gap between the social background of the common soldiers and the officer corps.

Diocletian sought his fortune in the army. He showed himself to be a shrewd, able, and ambitious individual. He is first attested as "Duke of Moesia" (an area on the banks of the lower Danube River), with responsibility for border defense. He was a prudent and methodical officer, a seeker of victory rather than glory. In 282, the legions of the upper Danube proclaimed the praetorian prefect Carus as emperor. Diocletian found favor under the new emperor, and was promoted to Count of the Domestics, the commander of the cavalry arm of the imperial bodyguard. In 283 he was granted the honor of a consulate.

In 284, in the midst of a campaign against the Persians, Carus was killed, struck by a bolt of lightning which one writer noted might have been forged in a legionary armory. This left the empire in the hands of his two young sons, Numerian in the east and Carinus in the west. Soon thereafter, Numerian died under mysterious circumstances near Nicomedia, and Diocletian was acclaimed emperor in his place. At this time he changed his name from Diocles to Diocletian. In 285 Carinus was killed in a battle near Belgrade, and Diocletian gained control of the entire empire.

Diocletian's Administrative and Military Reforms
As emperor, Diocletian was faced with many problems. His most immediate concerns were to bring the mutinous and increasingly barbarized Roman armies back under control and to make the frontiers once again secure from invasion. His long-term goals were to restore effective government and economic prosperity to the empire. Diocletian concluded that stern measures were necessary if these problems were to be solved. He felt that it was the responsibility of the imperial government to take whatever steps were necessary, no matter how harsh or innovative, to bring the empire back under control.

Diocletian was able to bring the army back under control by making several changes. He subdivided the roughly fifty existing provinces into approximately one hundred. The provinces also were apportioned among twelve "dioceses," each under a "vicar," and later also among four "prefectures," each under a "praetorian prefect." As a result, the imperial bureaucracy became increasingly bloated. He institutionalized the policy of separating civil and military careers. He divided the army itself into so-called "border troops," actually an ineffective citizen militia, and "palace troops," the real field army, which often was led by the emperor in person.

Following the precedent of Aurelian (A.D.270-275), Diocletian transformed the emperorship into an out-and-out oriental monarchy. Access to him became restricted; he now was addressed not as First Citizen (Princeps) or the soldierly general (Imperator), but as Lord and Master (Dominus Noster) . Those in audience were required to prostrate themselves on the ground before him.

Diocletian also concluded that the empire was too large and complex to be ruled by only a single emperor. Therefore, in order to provide an imperial presence throughout the empire, he introduced the "Tetrarchy," or "Rule by Four." In 285, he named his lieutenant Maximianus "Caesar," and assigned him the western half of the empire. This practice began the process which would culminate with the de facto split of the empire in 395. Both Diocletian and Maximianus adopted divine attributes. Diocletian was identified with Jupiter and Maximianus with Hercules. In 286, Diocletian promoted Maximianus to the rank of Augustus, "Senior Emperor," and in 293 he appointed two new Caesars, Constantius (the father of Constantine I ), who was given Gaul and Britain in the west, and Galerius, who was assigned the Balkans in the east.

By instituting his Tetrarchy, Diocletian also hoped to solve another problem. In the Augustan Principate, there had been no constitutional method for choosing new emperors. According to Diocletian's plan, the successor of each Augustus would be the respective Caesar, who then would name a new Caesar. Initially, the Tetrarchy operated smoothly and effectively.

Once the army was under control, Diocletian could turn his attention to other problems. The borders were restored and strengthened. In the early years of his reign, Diocletian and his subordinates were able to defeat foreign enemies such as Alamanni, Sarmatians, Saracens, Franks, and Persians, and to put down rebellions in Britain and Egypt. The easter frontier was actually expanded.

.
Diocletian's Economic Reforms
Another problem was the economy, which was in an especially sorry state. The coinage had become so debased as to be virtually worthless. Diocletian's attempt to reissue good gold and silver coins failed because there simply was not enough gold and silver available to restore confidence in the currency. A "Maximum Price Edict" issued in 301, intended to curb inflation, served only to drive goods onto the black market. Diocletian finally accepted the ruin of the money economy and revised the tax system so that it was based on payments in kind . The soldiers too came to be paid in kind.

In order to assure the long term survival of the empire, Diocletian identified certain occupations which he felt would have to be performed. These were known as the "compulsory services." They included such occupations as soldiers, bakers, members of town councils, and tenant farmers. These functions became hereditary, and those engaging in them were inhibited from changing their careers. The repetitious nature of these laws, however, suggests that they were not widely obeyed. Diocletian also expanded the policy of third-century emperors of restricting the entry of senators into high-ranking governmental posts, especially military ones.

Diocletian attempted to use the state religion as a unifying element. Encouraged by the Caesar Galerius, Diocletian in 303 issued a series of four increasingly harsh decrees designed to compel Christians to take part in the imperial cult, the traditional means by which allegiance was pledged to the empire. This began the so-called "Great Persecution."

Diocletian's Resignation and Death
On 1 May 305, wearied by his twenty years in office, and determined to implement his method for the imperial succession, Diocletian abdicated. He compelled his co-regent Maximianus to do the same. Constantius and Galerius then became the new Augusti, and two new Caesars were selected, Maximinus (305-313) in the east and Severus (305- 307) in the west. Diocletian then retired to his palace at Split on the Croatian coast. In 308 he declined an offer to resume the purple, and the aged ex-emperor died at Split on 3 December 316.

Copyright (C) 1996, Ralph W. Mathisen, University of South Carolina
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.


Cleisthenes
MaxHercRIC5iiRome.jpg
1302a, Maximian, 285 - 305, 306 - 308, and 310 A.D.47 viewsMaximianus AE Antoninianus. RIC V Part II 506 Bust Type C. Cohen 355; VF; Minted in Rome A.D. 285-286. Obverse: IMP MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, radiate, draped & cuirassed bust right; Rverse: IOVI CONSERVAT AVGG, Jupiter standing left holding thunderbolt & scepter, XXIZ in exergue. Ex maridvnvm.

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Maximian, 285-305, 306-308, and 310 A.D.

Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Salve Regina University

Perhaps born ca. 249/250 A.D. in Sirmium in the area of the Balkans, Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maximianus, more commonly known as Maximianus Herculius (Maximian), had been a soldier before he put on the purple. A fellow soldier with the Emperor Diocletian, he had served in the military during the reigns of Aurelian and Probus.

When the Emperor Diocletian determined that the empire was too large for one man to govern on his own, he made Maximian his Caesar in 285/6 and elevated him to the rank of Augustus in perhaps the spring of 286. While Diocletian ruled in the East, Maximian ruled in the West. In 293, in order to maintain and to strengthen the stability of the empire, Diocletian appointed Constantius I Chlorus to serve Maximian as a Caesar in the West, while Galerius did the same job in the East. This arrangement, called the "Tetrarchy", was meant not only to provide a stronger foundation for the two emperors' rule, but also to end any possible fighting over the succession to the throne once the two senior Augusti had left the throne--a problem which had bedeviled the principate since the time of the Emperor Augustus. To cement the relationship between Maximian and his Caesar, Constantius married Maximian's elder daughter Theodora. A decade later, Constantius' son Constantine would marry Maximia's younger daughter Fausta.

On 1 May 305 Diocletian, at Nicomedeia, and Maximian, at Mediolanum, divested themselves of the purple. Their resignations seem largely due to the almost fatal illness that Diocletian contracted toward the end of 304. Diocletian seems to have forced his colleague to abdicate. In any case, Herculius had sworn an oath at the temple of Capitoline Jupiter to carry out the terms of the abdication. Constantius and Galerius were appointed as Augusti, with Maximinus Daia and Severus as the new Caesars. The retired emperors then returned to private life. Diocletian's retirement was at Salonae in Dalmatia, while Herculius' retreat was either in Lucania or Campania.

Maximian's retirement, however, was of short duration because, a little more than a year later on 28 October 306, his son Maxentius was proclaimed emperor at Rome. To give his regime an aura of legitimacy, Maximian was forced to affirm his son's acclamation. When Galerius learned of Maxentius' rebellion, he sent Severus against him with an army that had formerly been under his father's command. Maxentius invested his father with the purple again to win over his enemy's troops, a ruse which succeeded. Perhaps to strengthen his own position, in 307 Maximian went to Gaul and married his daughter Fausta to Constantine. When Constantine refused to become embroiled in the civil war between Galerius and Maxentius, Maximian returned to Rome in 308 and attempted to depose his son; however, he did not succeed. When Maximian was unable to convince Diocletian to take up the purple again at a meeting in Carnuntum in late 308, he returned to his son-in-law's side in Gaul.

Although Maximian was treated with all of the respect due a former emperor, he still desired to be more than a figurehead. He decided to seize the purple from Constantine when his son-in-law least expected it. His opportunity came in the summer of 310 when the Franks revolted. When Constantine had taken a small part of his army into enemy territory, Maximian proclaimed himself again emperor and paid the soldiers under his command a donative to secure their loyalty. As soon as Constantine received news about Maximian's revolt in July 310, he went south and reached Arelate before his father-in-law could mount a defense of the city. Although Maximian fled to Massilia, his son-in-law seized the city and took Maximian prisoner. Although he was deprived of the purple, he was granted pardon for his crimes. Unable to endure the humiliation of his defeat, he attempted to have Constantine murdered in his bed. The plot failed because he tried to get his daughter Fausta's help in the matter; she chose to reveal the matter to her husband. Because of this attempt on his son-in-law's life Maximian was dead by the end of July either by his own hand or on the orders of his intended victim.

Eutropia was of Syrian extraction and her marriage to Maximian seems to have been her second. She bore him two children: Maxentius and Fausta. An older daughter, Theodora, may have been a product of her first marriage. Fausta became the wife of Constantine I , while her sister Theodora was the second spouse of his father Constantius I Chlorus . Eutropia apparently survived all her children, with the possible exception of her daughter Fausta who seems to have died in 326. Eutropia is also said to have become a Christian.

By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
Max.jpg
1302b, Maximian, 285-305, 306-308, and 310 A.D., commemorative issued by Constantine the Great (Siscia)55 viewsMaximian, 285-305, 306-308, and 310 A.D., commemorative issued by Constantine the Great. Bronze AE3, RIC 41, VF, Siscia, 1.30g, 16.1mm, 0o, 317-318 A.D. Obverse: DIVO MAXIMIANO SEN FORT IMP, laureate and veiled head right; Reverse: REQVIES OPTIMO-RVM MERITORVM, Emperor seated left on curule chair, raising hand and holding scepter, SIS in exergue; scarce (R3).


De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Maximian, 285-305, 306-308, and 310 A.D.

Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Salve Regina University

Perhaps born ca. 249/250 A.D. in Sirmium in the area of the Balkans, Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maximianus, more commonly known as Maximianus Herculius (Maximian), had been a soldier before he put on the purple. A fellow soldier with the Emperor Diocletian, he had served in the military during the reigns of Aurelian and Probus.

When the Emperor Diocletian determined that the empire was too large for one man to govern on his own, he made Maximian his Caesar in 285/6 and elevated him to the rank of Augustus in perhaps the spring of 286. While Diocletian ruled in the East, Maximian ruled in the West. In 293, in order to maintain and to strengthen the stability of the empire, Diocletian appointed Constantius I Chlorus to serve Maximian as a Caesar in the West, while Galerius did the same job in the East. This arrangement, called the "Tetrarchy", was meant not only to provide a stronger foundation for the two emperors' rule, but also to end any possible fighting over the succession to the throne once the two senior Augusti had left the throne--a problem which had bedeviled the principate since the time of the Emperor Augustus. To cement the relationship between Maximian and his Caesar, Constantius married Maximian's elder daughter Theodora. A decade later, Constantius' son Constantine would marry Maximia's younger daughter Fausta.

On 1 May 305 Diocletian, at Nicomedeia, and Maximian, at Mediolanum, divested themselves of the purple. Their resignations seem largely due to the almost fatal illness that Diocletian contracted toward the end of 304. Diocletian seems to have forced his colleague to abdicate. In any case, Herculius had sworn an oath at the temple of Capitoline Jupiter to carry out the terms of the abdication. Constantius and Galerius were appointed as Augusti, with Maximinus Daia and Severus as the new Caesars. The retired emperors then returned to private life. Diocletian's retirement was at Salonae in Dalmatia, while Herculius' retreat was either in Lucania or Campania.

Maximian's retirement, however, was of short duration because, a little more than a year later on 28 October 306, his son Maxentius was proclaimed emperor at Rome. To give his regime an aura of legitimacy, Maximian was forced to affirm his son's acclamation. When Galerius learned of Maxentius' rebellion, he sent Severus against him with an army that had formerly been under his father's command. Maxentius invested his father with the purple again to win over his enemy's troops, a ruse which succeeded. Perhaps to strengthen his own position, in 307 Maximian went to Gaul and married his daughter Fausta to Constantine. When Constantine refused to become embroiled in the civil war between Galerius and Maxentius, Maximian returned to Rome in 308 and attempted to depose his son; however, he did not succeed. When Maximian was unable to convince Diocletian to take up the purple again at a meeting in Carnuntum in late 308, he returned to his son-in-law's side in Gaul.

Although Maximian was treated with all of the respect due a former emperor, he still desired to be more than a figurehead. He decided to seize the purple from Constantine when his son-in-law least expected it. His opportunity came in the summer of 310 when the Franks revolted. When Constantine had taken a small part of his army into enemy territory, Maximian proclaimed himself again emperor and paid the soldiers under his command a donative to secure their loyalty. As soon as Constantine received news about Maximian's revolt in July 310, he went south and reached Arelate before his father-in-law could mount a defense of the city. Although Maximian fled to Massilia, his son-in-law seized the city and took Maximian prisoner. Although he was deprived of the purple, he was granted pardon for his crimes. Unable to endure the humiliation of his defeat, he attempted to have Constantine murdered in his bed. The plot failed because he tried to get his daughter Fausta's help in the matter; she chose to reveal the matter to her husband. Because of this attempt on his son-in-law's life Maximian was dead by the end of July either by his own hand or on the orders of his intended victim.

Eutropia was of Syrian extraction and her marriage to Maximian seems to have been her second. She bore him two children: Maxentius and Fausta. An older daughter, Theodora, may have been a product of her first marriage. Fausta became the wife of Constantine I , while her sister Theodora was the second spouse of his father Constantius I Chlorus . Eutropia apparently survived all her children, with the possible exception of her daughter Fausta who seems to have died in 326. Eutropia is also said to have become a Christian.

By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
Constantius1_silvered_follis.jpg
1304a, Constantius I, May 305 - 25 July 306 A.D.48 viewsSilvered follis, RIC 20a, S 3671, VM 25, gVF, Heraclea mint, 10.144g, 27.7mm, 180o, 297 - 298 A.D. Obverse: FL VAL CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES, laureate head right; Reverse GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, modius on head, naked except for chlamys over shoulder, cornucopia in left, pouring liquor from patera, HTD in exergue; some silvering, nice portrait, well centered.



De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Constantius I Chlorus (305-306 A.D.)

Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Salve Regina University

Constantius' Early Life and Marriage

Born March 31st, Emperor Flavius Valerius Constantius may have come into the world ca. 250. His family was from Illyricum. In the army he served as a protector, tribunus, and a praeses Dalmatiarum. During the 270s or the 280s, he became the father of Constantine by Helena, his first spouse. By 288 he was the Praetorian Prefect of the western emperor Maximianus Herculius.

Constantius' Reign as Caesar

On 1 March 293 Diocletian appointed Galerius as his Caesar (junior emperor) in the east and Constantius as the Caesar of Maximianus Herculius. Caesar in the west. Both Caesars had the right of succession. In order to strengthen the dynastic relationship between himself and Herculius., Constantius put aside his wife Helena and married Theodora, the daughter, or perhaps stepdaughter, of Maximianus Herculius.. The union was fruitful and of it there were six issue: Flavius Dalmatius, Julius Constantius, Hannibalianus, Constantia, Anastasia, and Eutropia. To strengthen his bond with Galerius and Diocletian in the east, Constantius allowed Galerius to keep his son Constantine as a hostage for his good behavior.

In the remainder of the time that he was a Caesar, Constantius spent much of his time engaged in military actions in the west. In the summer of 293 Constantius expelled the troops of the usurper Carausius from northern Gaul; after Constantius' attack on Bononia (Boulogne), Carausius was murdered. At the same time he dealt with the unrest of the Germans. In 296 he invaded Britain and put down the revolt of the usurper Allectus. Between 300 and 305 A.D. the Caesar campaigned successfully several times with various German tribes. It is worth noting in passing, that while his colleagues rigidly enforced the "Great Persecution in 303," Constantius limited his action to knocking down a few churches.

Constantius as Augustus and His Untimely Death

On 1 May 305 Diocletian, at Nicomedia, and Maximianus Herculius, at Mediolanum (Milan), divested themselves of the purple, probably because of the almost fatal illness that Diocletian contracted toward the end of 304. Diocletian forced Maximianus to abdicate. They appointed as their successors Constantius and Galerius, with Severus and Maximinus Daia as the new Caesars. The retired emperors then returned to private life. Constantius, as had his predecessor, ruled in the west, while Galerius and Daia ruled in the east. Almost as soon as he was appointed Augustus, he crossed to Britain to face incursions by the Picts where he died at York on 25 July 306 with his son (Constantine I, known to history as “The Great”) at his side.

Copyright (C) 1996, Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
Edward_2_Crozier.JPG
1307 - 1327, EDWARD II, AR Penny, Struck 1311 - 1316 at Durham, England21 viewsObverse: + EDWAR ANGL DNS hYB. Crowned and draped bust of Edward II facing within circle of pellets. Cross pattee in legend.
Reverse: CIVITAS DVNELM. Long cross, the upper limb of which is in the form of a bishop's crozier, dividing legend into quarters, trefoil in each quarter of inner circle.
Diameter: 18mm | Weight: 1.2gms | Die Axis: 7
Rare
SPINK: 1469

Undated Penny, Class 11a, struck under Bishop Kellawe. Bishop Kellawe was enthroned as Bishop of Durham in 1311 but he died in 1316 so this coin was struck during the five years between those two dates. These coins were sometimes called “poker pennies” because the shape of the crozier on the reverse is reminiscent of an old iron fireside poker. It's an unfortunate nickname considering the reputed manner of the King's death.

Edward II
Edward II was crowned King of England when his father, Edward I, died in 1307. However Edward II caused discontent among the barons by his close relationship with Piers Gaveston and in 1311 the barons pressured the King into agreeing to wide-ranging reforms which included Gaveston being banished. Angered, Edward responded by revoking the reforms and recalling his favourite, but in 1312 a group of barons, led by the Earl of Lancaster, seized and executed Gaveston.
The war with Scotland was not going well either, the English forces were pushed back and in 1314 Edward was decisively defeated by the Scottish King, Robert the Bruce, at the Battle of Bannockburn.
When this was followed by a widespread famine in England opposition to Edward II's reign grew until, in 1325, when Edward's wife, Isabella, was sent to France to negotiate a peace treaty she turned against Edward, allied herself with the exiled Roger Mortimer, and refused to return. In 1326, Mortimer and Isabella invaded England with a small army. Edward's regime collapsed and he fled into Wales, but he was soon captured and in January 1327 he was forced to relinquish his crown in favour of his fourteen-year-old son, Edward III. Edward II died in Berkeley Castle on 21 September the same year, reputedly horrifically murdered on the orders of the new regime by having a red hot poker inserted into his rectum.

Bishop Kellawe, Bishop of Durham
Richard de Kellawe was sub-prior at St. Cuthbert's, Durham, and on the death of Antony Bek in 1311, Kellawe was chosen to replace him as Bishop of Durham by the monks. The palatinate of Durham was at this time in a deplorable condition owing to the Scottish wars, and in 1312 Kellawe even received a papal dispensation for not attending the council at Vienne in consideration of the state of his province. Troubles with the Scots continued after Bannockburn and the Palatinate was now so exhausted that it could not even provide for its own defence and Bishop Kellawe had to purchase peace with a levy of fifteen hundred men and a gift of one thousand marks.
On 10th October 1316, at Middleham, Bishop Kellawe died. He was buried in the chapter-house at Durham. His grandly adorned tomb was destroyed when the chapter house was demolished in 1796.
2 comments*Alex
MaxentiusRIC163.jpg
1307a, Maxentius, February 307 - 28 October 312 A.D.60 viewsBronze follis, RIC 163, aEF, Rome mint, 5.712g, 25.6mm, 0o, summer 307 A.D.; obverse MAXENTIVS P F AVG, laureate head right; reverse CONSERVATO-RES VRB SVAE, Roma holding globe and scepter, seated in hexastyle temple, RT in ex; rare. Ex FORVM; Ex Maridvnvm


De Imperatoribus Romanis : An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Maxentius (306-312 A.D.)

Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Salve Regina University

Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maxentius, more commonly known as Maxentius, was the child of the Emperor Maximianus Herculius and the Syrian, Eutropia; he was born ca. 278 A.D. After Galerius' appointment to the rank of Caesar on 1 March 293, Maxentius married Galerius' daughter Valeria Maximilla, who bore him a son named Romulus and another son whose name is unknown. Due to his haughty nature and bad disposition, Maxentius could seldom agree with his father or his father-in-law; Galerius' and Maximianus Herculius' aversion to Maxentius prevented the young man from becoming a Caesar in 305. Little else is known of Maxentius' private life prior to his accession and, although there is some evidence that it was spent in idleness, he did become a Senator.

On 28 October 306 Maxentius was acclaimed emperor, although he was politically astute enough not to use the title Augustus; like the Emperor Augustus, he called himself princeps. It was not until the summer of 307 that he started using the title Augustus and started offending other claimants to the imperial throne. He was enthroned by the plebs and the Praetorians. At the time of his acclamation Maxentius was at a public villa on the Via Labicana. He strengthened his position with promises of riches for those who helped him obtain his objective. He forced his father Maximianus Herculius to affirm his son's acclamation in order to give his regime a facade of legitimacy. His realm included Italy, Africa, Sardinia, and Corsica. As soon as Galerius learned about the acclamation of Herculius' son, he dispatched the Emperor Severus to quell the rebellion. With the help of his father and Severus' own troops, Maxentius' took his enemy prisoner.

When Severus died, Galerius was determined to avenge his death. In the early summer of 307 the Augustus invaded Italy; he advanced to the south and encamped at Interamna near the Tiber. His attempt to besiege the city was abortive because his army was not large enough to encompass the city's fortifications. Negotiations between Maxentius and Galerius broke down when the emperor discovered that the usurper was trying to win over his troops. Galerius' troops were open to Maxentius' promises because they were fighting a civil war between members of the same family; some of the soldiers went over to the enemy. Not trusting his own troops, Galerius withdrew. During its retreat, Galerius' army ravaged the Italian countryside as it was returning to its original base. If it was not enough that Maxentius had to deal with the havoc created by the ineffectual invasions of Severus and Galerius, he also had to deal with his father's attempts to regain the throne between 308 and 310. When Maximianus Herculius was unable to regain power by pushing his son off his throne, he attempted to win over Constantine to his cause. When this plan failed, he tried to win Diocletian over to his side at Carnuntum in October and November 308. Frustrated at every turn, Herculius returned to his son-in-law Constantine's side in Gaul where he died in 310, having been implicated in a plot against his son-in-law. Maxentius' control of the situation was weakened by the revolt of L. Domitius Alexander in 308. Although the revolt only lasted until the end of 309, it drastically cut the size of the grain supply availble for Rome. Maxentius' rule collapsed when he died on 27 October 312 in an engagement he had with the Emperor Constantine at the Milvian Bridge after the latter had invaded his realm.

Copyright (C) 1996, Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
1 commentsCleisthenes
Lcnius1.jpg
1308b, Licinius I, 308 - 324 A.D. (Siscia)59 viewsLicinius I, 11 November 308 - 18 September 324 A.D. Bronze follis, RIC 4, F, Siscia, 3.257g, 21.6mm, 0o, 313 - 315 A.D. Obverse: IMP LIC LICINIVS P F AVG, laureate head right; Reverse IOVI CONSERVATORI AVGG NN, Jupiter standing left holding Victory on globe and scepter, eagle with wreath in beak left, E right, SIS in exergue.



De Imperatoribus Romanis : An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Licinius (308-324 A.D.)

Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Salve Regina University

Licinius' Heritage

Valerius Licinianus Licinius, more commonly known as Licinius, may have been born ca. 265. Of peasant origin, his family was from Dacia. A close friend and comrade of arms of the Emperor Galerius, he accompanied him on his Persian expedition in 297. When campaigns by Severus and Galerius in late 306 or early 307 and in the summer of 307, respectively, failed to dislodge Maxentius who, with the luke warm support of his father Maximianus Herculius, was acclaimed princeps on 28 October 306, he was sent by the eastern emperor to Maxentius as an ambassador; the diplomatic mission, however, failed because the usurper refused to submit to the authority of his father-in-law Galerius. At the Conference of Carnuntum which was held in October or November of 308, Licinius was made an Augustus on 11 November 308; his realm included Thrace, Illyricum, and Pannonia.

Licinius' Early Reign

Although Licinius was initially appointed by Galerius to replace Severus to end the revolt of Maxentius , Licinius (perhaps wisely) made no effort to move against the usurper. In fact, his first attested victory was against the Sarmatians probably in the late spring, but no later than the end of June in 310. When the Emperor Galerius died in 311, Licinius met Maximinus Daia at the Bosporus during the early summer of that year; they concluded a treaty and divided Galerius' realm between them. It was little more than a year later that the Emperor Constantine defeated Maxentius at the Battle of the Milvian Bridge on 28 October 312. After the defeat of the usurper, Constantine and Licinius met at Mediolanum (Milan) where Licinius married the former's sister Constantia; one child was born of this union: Valerius Licinianus Licinius. Licinius had another son, born of a slave woman, whose name is unknown. It appears that both emperors promulgated the so-called Edict of Milan, in which Constantine and Licinius granted Christians the freedom to practice their faith without any interference from the state.

As soon as he seems to have learned about the marital alliance between Licinius and Constantine and the death of Maxentius, who had been his ally, Daia traversed Asia Minor and, in April 313, he crossed the Bosporus and went to Byzantium, which he took from Licinius after an eleven day siege. On 30 April 313 the armies of both emperors clashed on the Campus Ergenus; in the ensuing battle Daia's forces were routed. A last ditch stand by Daia at the Cilician Gates failed; the eastern emperor subsequently died in the area of Tarsus probably in July or August 313. As soon as he arrived in Nicomedeia, Licinius promulgated the Edict of Milan. As soon as he had matters in Nicomedeia straightened out, Licinius campaigned against the Persians in the remaining part of 313 and the opening months of 314.

The First Civil War Between Licinius and Constantine

Once Licinius had defeated Maximinus Daia, the sole rulers of the Roman world were he and Constantine. It is obvious that the marriage of Licinius to Constantia was simply a union of convenience. In any case, there is evidence in the sources that both emperors were looking for an excuse to attack the other. The affair involving Bassianus (the husband of Constantius I's daughter Anastasia ), mentioned in the text of Anonymus Valesianus (5.14ff), may have sparked the falling out between the two emperors. In any case, Constantine' s forces joined battle with those of Licinius at Cibalae in Pannonia on 8 October 314. When the battle was over, Constantine prevailed; his victory, however, was Pyrrhic. Both emperors had been involved in exhausting military campaigns in the previous year and the months leading up to Cibalae and each of their realms had expanded so fast that their manpower reserves must have been stretched to the limit. Both men retreated to their own territory to lick their wounds. It may well be that the two emperors made an agreement, which has left no direct trace in the historical record, which would effectively restore the status quo.

Both emperors were variously engaged in different activities between 315 and 316. In addition to campaigning against the Germans while residing in Augusta Treverorum (Trier) in 315, Constantine dealt with aspects of the Donatist controversy; he also traveled to Rome where he celebrated his Decennalia. Licinius, possibly residing at Sirmium, was probably waging war against the Goths. Although not much else is known about Licinius' activities during this period, it is probable that he spent much of his time preparing for his impending war against Constantine; the latter,who spent the spring and summer of 316 in Augusta Treverorum, was probably doing much the same thing. In any case, by December 316, the western emperor was in Sardica with his army. Sometime between 1 December and 28 February 317, both emperors' armies joined battle on the Campus Ardiensis; as was the case in the previous engagement, Constantine' s forces were victorious. On 1 March 317, both sides agreed to a cessation of hostilities; possibly because of the intervention of his wife Constantia, Licinius was able to keep his throne, although he had to agree to the execution of his colleague Valens, who the eastern emperor had appointed as his colleague before the battle, as well as to cede some of his territory to his brother-in-law.

Licinius and the Christians

Although the historical record is not completely clear, Licinius seems to have campaigned against the Sarmatians in 318. He also appears to have been in Byzantium in the summer of 318 and later in June 323. Beyond these few facts, not much else is known about his residences until mid summer of 324. Although he and Constantine had issued the Edict of Milan in early 313, Licinius turned on the Christians in his realm seemingly in 320. The first law that Licinius issued prevented bishops from communicating with each other and from holding synods to discuss matters of interest to them. The second law prohibited men and women from attending services together and young girls from receiving instruction from their bishop or schools. When this law was issued, he also gave orders that Christians could hold services only outside of city walls. Additionally, he deprived officers in the army of their commissions if they did not sacrifice to the gods. Licinius may have been trying to incite Constantine to attack him. In any case, the growing tension between the two rulers is reflected in the consular Fasti of the period.

The Second Civil War Between Licinius and Constantine and Licinius' Death

War actually broke out in 321 when Constantine pursued some Sarmatians, who had been ravaging some territory in his realm, across the Danube. When he checked a similar invasion of the Goths, who were devastating Thrace, Licinius complained that Constantine had broken the treaty between them. Having assembled a fleet and army at Thessalonica, Constantine advanced toward Adrianople. Licinius engaged the forces of his brother-in-law near the banks of the Hebrus River on 3 July 324 where he was routed; with as many men as he could gather, he headed for his fleet which was in the Hellespont. Those of his soldiers who were not killed or put to flight, surrendered to the enemy. Licinius fled to Byzantium, where he was besieged by Constantine. Licinius' fleet, under the command of the admiral Abantus, was overcome by bad weather and by Constantine' s fleet which was under the command of his son Crispus. Hard pressed in Byzantium, Licinius abandoned the city to his rival and fled to Chalcedon in Bithynia. Leaving Martinianus, his former magister officiorum and now his co-ruler, to impede Constantine' s progress, Licinius regrouped his forces and engaged his enemy at Chrysopolis where he was again routed on 18 September 324. He fled to Nicomedeia which Constantine began to besiege. On the next day Licinius abdicated and was sent to Thessalonica, where he was kept under house arrest. Both Licinius and his associate were put to death by Constantine. Martinianus may have been put to death before the end of 324, whereas Licinius was not put to death until the spring of 325. Rumors circulated that Licinius had been put to death because he attempted another rebellion against Constantine.

Copyright (C) 1996, Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
Licin1AEFolJupiAlex.jpg
1308c, Licinius I, 308-324 A.D. (Alexandria)66 viewsLicinius I, 308-324 A.D. AE Follis, 3.60g, VF, 315 A.D., Alexandria. Obverse: IMP C VAL LICIN LICINIVS P F AVG - Laureate head right; Reverse: IOVI CONS-ERVATORI AVGG - Jupiter standing left, holding Victory on a globe and scepter; exergue: ALE / (wreath) over "B" over "N." Ref: RIC VII, 10 (B = r2) Rare, page 705 - Hunterian Museum, Glasgow, Scotland.


De Imperatoribus Romanis : An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Licinius (308-324 A.D.)

Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Salve Regina University

Licinius' Heritage

Valerius Licinianus Licinius, more commonly known as Licinius, may have been born ca. 265. Of peasant origin, his family was from Dacia. A close friend and comrade of arms of the Emperor Galerius, he accompanied him on his Persian expedition in 297. When campaigns by Severus and Galerius in late 306 or early 307 and in the summer of 307, respectively, failed to dislodge Maxentius who, with the luke warm support of his father Maximianus Herculius, was acclaimed princeps on 28 October 306, he was sent by the eastern emperor to Maxentius as an ambassador; the diplomatic mission, however, failed because the usurper refused to submit to the authority of his father-in-law Galerius. At the Conference of Carnuntum which was held in October or November of 308, Licinius was made an Augustus on 11 November 308; his realm included Thrace, Illyricum, and Pannonia.

Licinius' Early Reign

Although Licinius was initially appointed by Galerius to replace Severus to end the revolt of Maxentius , Licinius (perhaps wisely) made no effort to move against the usurper. In fact, his first attested victory was against the Sarmatians probably in the late spring, but no later than the end of June in 310. When the Emperor Galerius died in 311, Licinius met Maximinus Daia at the Bosporus during the early summer of that year; they concluded a treaty and divided Galerius' realm between them. It was little more than a year later that the Emperor Constantine defeated Maxentius at the Battle of the Milvian Bridge on 28 October 312. After the defeat of the usurper, Constantine and Licinius met at Mediolanum (Milan) where Licinius married the former's sister Constantia; one child was born of this union: Valerius Licinianus Licinius. Licinius had another son, born of a slave woman, whose name is unknown. It appears that both emperors promulgated the so-called Edict of Milan, in which Constantine and Licinius granted Christians the freedom to practice their faith without any interference from the state.

As soon as he seems to have learned about the marital alliance between Licinius and Constantine and the death of Maxentius, who had been his ally, Daia traversed Asia Minor and, in April 313, he crossed the Bosporus and went to Byzantium, which he took from Licinius after an eleven day siege. On 30 April 313 the armies of both emperors clashed on the Campus Ergenus; in the ensuing battle Daia's forces were routed. A last ditch stand by Daia at the Cilician Gates failed; the eastern emperor subsequently died in the area of Tarsus probably in July or August 313. As soon as he arrived in Nicomedeia, Licinius promulgated the Edict of Milan. As soon as he had matters in Nicomedeia straightened out, Licinius campaigned against the Persians in the remaining part of 313 and the opening months of 314.

The First Civil War Between Licinius and Constantine

Once Licinius had defeated Maximinus Daia, the sole rulers of the Roman world were he and Constantine. It is obvious that the marriage of Licinius to Constantia was simply a union of convenience. In any case, there is evidence in the sources that both emperors were looking for an excuse to attack the other. The affair involving Bassianus (the husband of Constantius I's daughter Anastasia ), mentioned in the text of Anonymus Valesianus (5.14ff), may have sparked the falling out between the two emperors. In any case, Constantine' s forces joined battle with those of Licinius at Cibalae in Pannonia on 8 October 314. When the battle was over, Constantine prevailed; his victory, however, was Pyrrhic. Both emperors had been involved in exhausting military campaigns in the previous year and the months leading up to Cibalae and each of their realms had expanded so fast that their manpower reserves must have been stretched to the limit. Both men retreated to their own territory to lick their wounds. It may well be that the two emperors made an agreement, which has left no direct trace in the historical record, which would effectively restore the status quo.

Both emperors were variously engaged in different activities between 315 and 316. In addition to campaigning against the Germans while residing in Augusta Treverorum (Trier) in 315, Constantine dealt with aspects of the Donatist controversy; he also traveled to Rome where he celebrated his Decennalia. Licinius, possibly residing at Sirmium, was probably waging war against the Goths. Although not much else is known about Licinius' activities during this period, it is probable that he spent much of his time preparing for his impending war against Constantine; the latter,who spent the spring and summer of 316 in Augusta Treverorum, was probably doing much the same thing. In any case, by December 316, the western emperor was in Sardica with his army. Sometime between 1 December and 28 February 317, both emperors' armies joined battle on the Campus Ardiensis; as was the case in the previous engagement, Constantine' s forces were victorious. On 1 March 317, both sides agreed to a cessation of hostilities; possibly because of the intervention of his wife Constantia, Licinius was able to keep his throne, although he had to agree to the execution of his colleague Valens, who the eastern emperor had appointed as his colleague before the battle, as well as to cede some of his territory to his brother-in-law.

Licinius and the Christians

Although the historical record is not completely clear, Licinius seems to have campaigned against the Sarmatians in 318. He also appears to have been in Byzantium in the summer of 318 and later in June 323. Beyond these few facts, not much else is known about his residences until mid summer of 324. Although he and Constantine had issued the Edict of Milan in early 313, Licinius turned on the Christians in his realm seemingly in 320. The first law that Licinius issued prevented bishops from communicating with each other and from holding synods to discuss matters of interest to them. The second law prohibited men and women from attending services together and young girls from receiving instruction from their bishop or schools. When this law was issued, he also gave orders that Christians could hold services only outside of city walls. Additionally, he deprived officers in the army of their commissions if they did not sacrifice to the gods. Licinius may have been trying to incite Constantine to attack him. In any case, the growing tension between the two rulers is reflected in the consular Fasti of the period.

The Second Civil War Between Licinius and Constantine and Licinius' Death

War actually broke out in 321 when Constantine pursued some Sarmatians, who had been ravaging some territory in his realm, across the Danube. When he checked a similar invasion of the Goths, who were devastating Thrace, Licinius complained that Constantine had broken the treaty between them. Having assembled a fleet and army at Thessalonica, Constantine advanced toward Adrianople. Licinius engaged the forces of his brother-in-law near the banks of the Hebrus River on 3 July 324 where he was routed; with as many men as he could gather, he headed for his fleet which was in the Hellespont. Those of his soldiers who were not killed or put to flight, surrendered to the enemy. Licinius fled to Byzantium, where he was besieged by Constantine. Licinius' fleet, under the command of the admiral Abantus, was overcome by bad weather and by Constantine' s fleet which was under the command of his son Crispus. Hard pressed in Byzantium, Licinius abandoned the city to his rival and fled to Chalcedon in Bithynia. Leaving Martinianus, his former magister officiorum and now his co-ruler, to impede Constantine' s progress, Licinius regrouped his forces and engaged his enemy at Chrysopolis where he was again routed on 18 September 324. He fled to Nicomedeia which Constantine began to besiege. On the next day Licinius abdicated and was sent to Thessalonica, where he was kept under house arrest. Both Licinius and his associate were put to death by Constantine. Martinianus may have been put to death before the end of 324, whereas Licinius was not put to death until the spring of 325. Rumors circulated that Licinius had been put to death because he attempted another rebellion against Constantine.

Copyright (C) 1996, Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
RI_132xx_img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 035 - Bust Type F (Lugdunum) (-)23 viewsObv:– IMP C PROBVS P F AVG, Radiate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– MARS VICTOR, Mars walking right, holding spear and trophy; at foot, captive.
Minted in Lugdunum (unmarked) Emission 7 Officina -. Summer A.D. 281
Reference(s) – RIC 35 Bust Type F (Scarce)

From aureus reverse dies. Same reverse die as aureus - Bastien 301

Weight 4.12g. 22.42mm. 0 degrees
maridvnvm
RI_132wv_img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 064 - Bust Type G var39 viewsObv:– VIRTVS PROBI AVG, Radiate, helmeted, cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield
Rev:– ADVENTVS PROBI AVG, Emperor, riding left, right hand raised, left holding sceptre; at foot, captive
Mint – Lugdunum (//III) Emission 5, Officina 3. End A. D. 277 to Early A.D. 278
Reference:– RIC 64 Bust Type G var (officina), Cohen 69, Bastien 226 (1 ex. same dies)

3.35 gms. 180 degrees. 22.19 mm.
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_132uu__img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 069 var - Bust Type F (Lugdunum) (I)12 viewsObv:– IMP C PROBVS • P • F • AVG, Radiate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– COMITI PORBI(sic) AVG, Minerva standing left, holding olive-branch and spear and resting left hand on shield
Mint – Lugdunum (I in exe) Emission 7 Officina 1. A.D. 280
Reference:– Cohen -. Bastien 315 (example c). RIC 69 Bust type F var (PORBI in error not listed in RIC)

One of the examples cited by Bastien of 315 - the standard PROBI coin, 315c - Voetter, is also PORBI from the same reverse die. No examples cited in Bastien Suppl. II.

Weight 4,11g. 22.16mm. 0 degrees
maridvnvm
RI_132xk_img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 069 var - Bust Type F (Lugdunum) (I)35 viewsObv:– IMP C PROBVS • P • F • AVG, Radiate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– COMITI PORBI(sic) AVG, Minerva standing left, holding olive-branch and spear and resting left hand on shield
Mint – Lugdunum (I in exe) Emission 7 Officina 1. A.D. 280
Reference:– Cohen -. Bastien 315 (example c). RIC 69 Bust type F var (PORBI in error not listed in RIC)

One of the examples cited by Bastien of 315 - the standard PROBI coin, 315c - Voetter, is also PORBI from the same reverse die. No examples cited in Bastien Suppl. II.

3.76 gms
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_132wd_img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 071 Bust Type C 26 viewsObv:– IMP C PROBVS P F AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– COMITI PR-OBI AVG, Hercules standing left, holding olive-branch, club and lion skin
Minted in Lugdunum (//IIII) Emission 7, Officina 4. Summer A.D. 281 (Bastien dating)
Reference:– Cohen -. Bastien 332 (1 example cited). RIC 71 Bust Type C.

4.11 gms

Note Bastien 331 is with dots and cites 4 examples, 333 (3), 334(4) are bust Type F. This coin from Obverse die of 332a and same reverse die as 331a, 333a, 333b. Only a small number of reverse dies for this type are known.
maridvnvm
RI 137c img.jpg
137 - Carinus Ant. - RIC 247 Bust Type C42 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR CARINVS AVG, Radiate, draped, cuirassed bust right, seen from the front
Rev:– AETERNIT AVGG, Aeternitas standing left, holding globe surmounted by pheonix
Minted in Rome (KAG in exe.) early Sept. A.D. 283-early Jan. A.D. 284
Reference:– Cohen 16, RIC 247 Bust type C. Gricourt, Venera Hoard, 2709-2771 (63 specimens) One of the specimens illustrated has a small Aeternitas like this example and may even be from the same reverse die.
maridvnvm
ROBERT_II_AR_Groat_of_Perth.JPG
1371 – 1390, Robert II, AR Groat minted at Perth, Scotland4 viewsObverse: + ROBERTVS DEI GRA REX SCOTORVM. Crowned bust of Robert II facing left, sceptre topped with a lis and with a star at its base before, within double tressure of six arches broken at the king's neck, small trefoils in spandrels, surrounded by beaded inner circle. Mintmark, cross pattée in legend and small crosses in spaces between words. The whole within beaded outer circle.
Reverse: + DnS PTECTOR MS ┼ LIBATOR MS (God is my protector and redeemer) / VILLA DE PERTh X. Long cross pattée dividing two concentric legends separated by two beaded circles into quarters, pierced mullet in each quarter of inner circle. Mintmark, cross pattées in both inner and outer legends, but cross set as saltire in inner legend, small cross over crescent after DnS in outer legend. The whole within beaded outer circle.
Diameter: 30mm | Weight: 3.87gms | Die Axis: 12
SPINK: 5136 | SCBI: 35, 460-72

Robert II's coinage was maintained at the same standard and in the same general style as that of David’s last issue, but coins were struck at Perth and Dundee in addition to those of the Edinburgh mint.

Robert II was the first Scottish king of the Stewart line, he was the son of Walter, the sixth hereditary High Steward of Scotland, and of Marjorie Bruce, daughter of Robert the Bruce. Robert II acted as regent during part of the period of imprisonment in England of David II and was himself imprisoned in England when Edward III was declared to be David’s successor. The Scots never accepted this arrangement and, after several years of secret negotiations between David II and Edward III, in 1370 Robert was released. He peacefully succeeded to the throne on David II's death the following year.
Robert II succeeded to the throne at the age of 54 and was viewed by many in his kingdom as past his best. In November 1384 he was effectively deposed by his eldest son John, Earl of Carrick. John, however, was seriously injured after being kicked by a horse, and Robert II's second son, Robert, Earl of Fife, later the Duke of Albany, was appointed as Guardian of Scotland instead. Robert II died at Dundonald Castle on 19 April 1390, and was buried at Scone. He was succeeded by his son John, who confusingly took the name Robert III, probably because in Scotland "John" was a name too closely associated with John Balliol, the erstwhile protégé of Edward I.
*Alex
tiberius as.jpg
14-37 AD - TIBERIUS AE as - struck 22-23 AD39 viewsobv: TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVST IMP VIII (bare head left)
rev: PONTIF MAXIM TRIBVN POTEST XXIII around large S.C.
ref: RIC I 44, C.24 (5 frcs), BMC91
9.44gms, 27mm

In 6 AD Tiberius was in Carnuntum military camp. He led at least eight legions (VIII Augusta from Pannonia, XV Apollinaris and XX Valeria Victrix from Illyricum, XXI Rapax from Raetia, XIII Gemina, XIV Gemina and XVI Gallica from Germania Superior and an unknown unit) against king Maroboduus of the Marcomanni in Bohemia (Czechia). At the same time, I Germanica, V Alaudae, XVII, XVIII and XIX, - led by Caius Sentius Saturninus (governor of Germania) -, moved against Maroboduus along the Elbe. Saturninus led his forces across the country of the Chatti, and, cutting his way through the Hercynian forest, joining Tiberius on the north bank of the Danube, and both wanted to make a combined attack within a few leagues from the Marcomannic capital Boviasmum. It was the most grandiose operation that ever conducted by a Roman army, but a rebellion in Illyria obstructed its final execution.
berserker
100_1635.JPG
140 Hadrian41 viewsSestertius, 134-8 A.D. Rome.
bare head,draped, bust l.; HADRIANVS AVG COS III PP. Rv. Togate emperor standing l. receiving Achaea who kneels before him, vase between them; RESTITVTORI ACHAIAE, S C in ex. RIC 938; BMC 1783(same obv. die ?); Cohen 1220

If the patina had remaind, this would be an impressive coin, I got it as is and dont know how it was cleaned, but its a good example of why patina is good.
randy h2
CTGDafne.jpg
1403c, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D.49 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC VII 35, choice aEF, Constantinople mint, 3.336g, 20.0mm, 180o, 328 A.D.; Obverse: CONSTANTI-NVS MAX AVG, laurel and rosette diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: CONSTANTINI-ANA DAFNE, Victory seated left on cippus, head right, palm frond in each hand, trophy and captive before, CONS in exergue, B left; scarce. Ex FORVM.

"The information about Constantine's campaign across [the Danube] is obscure and untrustworthy. The question, therefore, of what he achieved by this enterprise was, and is, subject to contradictory interpretations. On the one hand, the Panegyrists claimed that he had repeated the triumphs of Trajan. On the other, his own nephew, Julian the Apostate, spoke for many when he expressed the view that this second 'conquest' of Dacia was incomplete and extremely brief . . . monetary commemoration was accorded to the building, at about the same time [AD 328], of the river frontier fortress of Constantiniana Dafne (Spantov, near Oltenita) . . ." (Grant, Michael. The Emperor Constantine. London: Phoenix, 1998. 58-9).

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
1 commentsCleisthenes
CrispusRIC17.jpg
1404a, Crispus, Caesar 317 - 326 A.D. 38 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC 17, aEF, Cyzicus mint, 3.196g, 19.9mm, 315o, 321 - 324 A.D.; Obverse: D N FL IVL CRISPVS NOB CAES, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: IOVI CONSERVATORI, Jupiter standing left holding Victory on globe in right and scepter in left, eagle with wreath in beak to left, X / IIG and captive right, SMKD in exergue; scarce (RIC R3). Ex FORVM.


De Imperatoribus Romanis;
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors and their Families

Crispus Caesar (317-326 A.D.)

Hans Pohlsander
SUNY Albany

Crispus was the oldest son of the emperor Constantine I and played a fairly important role in the political and military events of the early fourth century. The regular form of his full name is Flavius Iulius Crispus, although the forms Flavius Claudius Crispus and Flavius Valerius Crispus also occur. His mother was a woman named Minervina, with whom Constantine had a relationship, probably illegitimate, before he married Fausta in 307. When Minervina died or when Constantine put her aside we do not know. Nor do we know when she gave birth to Crispus; we may assume, of course, that it was before 307. Some modern authorities, on good grounds, think that it was in 305. Crispus' place of birth must have been somewhere in the East, and it is not known when he was brought to Gaul and when, where, or under what circumstances he was separated from his mother.

Constantine entrusted the education of his son to the distinguished Christian scholar Lactantius, thereby giving a clear sign of his commitment to Christianity. We are not told when Lactantius assumed his duties, but a date before 317 seems likely. Nor do we know how successful he was in instilling Christian beliefs and values in his imperial pupil. No later than January of 322 Crispus must have married a woman named Helena -- not to be confused with Constantine's mother or daughter by the same name- and this woman bore him a child in October of 322. Constantine, we learn, was pleased.

Crispus' official career began at an early age and is well documented. On March 1 of 317, at Serdica (modern Sofia), his father appointed him Caesar. The consulship was his three times, in 318, 321, and 324. While nominally in charge of Gaul, with a prefect at his side, he successfully undertook military operations against the Franks and Alamanni in 320 and 323.

In 324, during the second war between Constantine and Licinius, he excelled as commander of Constantine's fleet in the waters of the Hellespont, the Propontis, and the Bosporus, thus making a significant contribution to the outcome of that war. The high points of his career are amply reflected in the imperial coinage. In addition to coins, we have his portrait, with varying degrees of certainty, in a number of sculptures, mosaics, cameos, etc. Contemporary authors heap praises upon him. Thus the panegyrist Nazarius speaks of Crispus' "magnificent deeds," and Eusebius calls him "an emperor most dear to God and in all regards comparable to his father."

Crispus' end was as tragic as his career had been brilliant. His own father ordered him to be put to death. We know the year of this sad event, 326, from the Consularia Constantinopolitana, and the place, Pola in Istria, from Ammianus Marcellinus. The circumstances, however, are less clear. Zosimus (6th c.) and Zonaras (12th c.) both report that Crispus and his stepmother Fausta were involved in an illicit relationship. There may be as much gossip as fact in their reports, but it is certain that at some time during the same year the emperor ordered the death of his own wife as well, and the two cases must be considered together. That Crispus and Fausta plotted treason is reported by Gregory of Tours, but not very believable. We must resolutely reject the claim of Zosimus that it was Constantine's sense of guilt over these deeds which caused him to accept Christianity, as it alone promised him forgiveness for his sins. A similar claim had already been made by Julian the Apostate. We must also, I think, reject the suggestion of Guthrie that the emperor acted in the interest of "dynastic legitimacy," that is, that he removed his illegitimate first-born son in order to secure the succession for his three legitimate younger sons. But Crispus must have committed, or at least must have been suspected of having committed, some especially shocking offense to earn him a sentence of death from his own father. He also suffered damnatio memoriae, his honor was never restored, and history has not recorded the fate of his wife and his child (or children).

Copyright (C) 1997, Hans A. Pohlsander. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis;An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors and their Families:
http://www.roman-emperors.org/crispus.htm


What If?

St. Nectarios, in his book, The Ecumenical Synods, writes "Hellenism spread by Alexander paved the way for Christianity by Emperor Constantine the Great."

Constantine's upward gaze on his "Eyes to Heaven" coins recall the coin portraits of Alexander the Great (namely coins struck by the Diodochi), which served as prototypes for the divine ruler portraiture of much of the Hellenistic age. The diadem, of which this is the most elaborate type, was adopted by Constantine and the members of his house as a new symbol of sovereignty.

In the Greek Orthodox Church, Constantine the Great is revered as a Saint.

Is it just possible? Constantine, knowing what happened (or thinking that he does) to Phillip II of Macedon—assassinated on the eve of his greatness, in a plot that most likely involved his wife—and possibly his son. . . isn’t it just possible that Constantine is growing obsessively jealous of his ever more successful and adulated son? Imagine the Constantine who has proven time and again (think: Licinius) that he is a completely self-serving liar and a murderer, decides to murder again? Why "must we resolutely reject the claim of Zosimus that it was Constantine's sense of guilt over these deeds which caused him to accept Christianity, as it alone promised him forgiveness for his sins [?] (see: above). A similar claim had already been made by Julian the [Philosopher]."

Perhaps it is time to cease being apologists for the sometime megalomaniacal Constantine. As Michael Grant notes, "It is a mocking travesty of justice to call such a murderer Constantine the Great . . ." (Grant, Michael. The Emperor Constantine. London: Phoenix Press, 1998. 226).


Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.


Cleisthenes
crispus_votV.jpg
1404b, Crispus, Caesar 317 - 326 A.D. (Thessalonica)35 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC 118, VF, Thessalonica mint, 2.740g, 18.0mm, 180o, 320 - 321 A.D. Obverse: FL IVL CRISPVS NOB CAES, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust left; Reverse: CAESARVM NOSTRORVM, VOT V in wreath, TSDVI in exergue.

Flavius Julius Crispus was the son of Constantine I by his first wife. A brilliant soldier, Crispus was well loved by all until 326 A.D., when Constantine had him executed. It is said that Fausta, Crispus stepmother, anxious to secure the succession for her own sons falsely accused Crispus of raping her. Constantine, learning of Fausta`s treachery, had her executed too.


De Imperatoribus Romanis;
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors and their Families

Crispus Caesar (317-326 A.D.)

Hans Pohlsander
SUNY Albany

Crispus was the oldest son of the emperor Constantine I and played a fairly important role in the political and military events of the early fourth century. The regular form of his full name is Flavius Iulius Crispus, although the forms Flavius Claudius Crispus and Flavius Valerius Crispus also occur. His mother was a woman named Minervina, with whom Constantine had a relationship, probably illegitimate, before he married Fausta in 307. When Minervina died or when Constantine put her aside we do not know. Nor do we know when she gave birth to Crispus; we may assume, of course, that it was before 307. Some modern authorities, on good grounds, think that it was in 305. Crispus' place of birth must have been somewhere in the East, and it is not known when he was brought to Gaul and when, where, or under what circumstances he was separated from his mother.

Constantine entrusted the education of his son to the distinguished Christian scholar Lactantius, thereby giving a clear sign of his commitment to Christianity. We are not told when Lactantius assumed his duties, but a date before 317 seems likely. Nor do we know how successful he was in instilling Christian beliefs and values in his imperial pupil. No later than January of 322 Crispus must have married a woman named Helena -- not to be confused with Constantine's mother or daughter by the same name- and this woman bore him a child in October of 322. Constantine, we learn, was pleased.

Crispus' official career began at an early age and is well documented. On March 1 of 317, at Serdica (modern Sofia), his father appointed him Caesar. The consulship was his three times, in 318, 321, and 324. While nominally in charge of Gaul, with a prefect at his side, he successfully undertook military operations against the Franks and Alamanni in 320 and 323.

In 324, during the second war between Constantine and Licinius, he excelled as commander of Constantine's fleet in the waters of the Hellespont, the Propontis, and the Bosporus, thus making a significant contribution to the outcome of that war. The high points of his career are amply reflected in the imperial coinage. In addition to coins, we have his portrait, with varying degrees of certainty, in a number of sculptures, mosaics, cameos, etc. Contemporary authors heap praises upon him. Thus the panegyrist Nazarius speaks of Crispus' "magnificent deeds," and Eusebius calls him "an emperor most dear to God and in all regards comparable to his father."

Crispus' end was as tragic as his career had been brilliant. His own father ordered him to be put to death. We know the year of this sad event, 326, from the Consularia Constantinopolitana, and the place, Pola in Istria, from Ammianus Marcellinus. The circumstances, however, are less clear. Zosimus (6th c.) and Zonaras (12th c.) both report that Crispus and his stepmother Fausta were involved in an illicit relationship. There may be as much gossip as fact in their reports, but it is certain that at some time during the same year the emperor ordered the death of his own wife as well, and the two cases must be considered together. That Crispus and Fausta plotted treason is reported by Gregory of Tours, but not very believable. We must resolutely reject the claim of Zosimus that it was Constantine's sense of guilt over these deeds which caused him to accept Christianity, as it alone promised him forgiveness for his sins. A similar claim had already been made by Julian the Apostate. We must also, I think, reject the suggestion of Guthrie that the emperor acted in the interest of "dynastic legitimacy," that is, that he removed his illegitimate first-born son in order to secure the succession for his three legitimate younger sons. But Crispus must have committed, or at least must have been suspected of having committed, some especially shocking offense to earn him a sentence of death from his own father. He also suffered damnatio memoriae, his honor was never restored, and history has not recorded the fate of his wife and his child (or children).

Copyright (C) 1997, Hans A. Pohlsander. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis;An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors and their Families:
http://www.roman-emperors.org/crispus.htm


What If?

St. Nectarios, in his book, The Ecumenical Synods, writes "Hellenism spread by Alexander paved the way for Christianity by Emperor Constantine the Great."

Constantine's upward gaze on his "Eyes to Heaven" coins recall the coin portraits of Alexander the Great (namely coins struck by the Diodochi), which served as prototypes for the divine ruler portraiture of much of the Hellenistic age. The diadem, of which this is the most elaborate type, was adopted by Constantine and the members of his house as a new symbol of sovereignty.

In the Greek Orthodox Church, Constantine the Great is revered as a Saint.

Is it just possible? Constantine, knowing what happened (or thinking that he does) to Phillip II of Macedon—assassinated on the eve of his greatness, in a plot that most likely involved his wife—and possibly his son. . . isn’t it just possible that Constantine is growing obsessively jealous of his ever more successful and adulated son? Imagine the Constantine who has proven time and again (think: Licinius) that he is a completely self-serving liar and a murderer, decides to murder again? Why "must we resolutely reject the claim of Zosimus that it was Constantine's sense of guilt over these deeds which caused him to accept Christianity, as it alone promised him forgiveness for his sins [?] (see: above). A similar claim had already been made by Julian the [Philosopher]."

Perhaps it is time to cease being apologists for the sometime megalomaniacal Constantine. As Michael Grant notes, "It is a mocking travesty of justice to call such a murderer Constantine the Great . . ." (Grant, Michael. The Emperor Constantine. London: Phoenix Press, 1998. 226).


Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
Julian2VotXConstantinople.jpg
1409a, Julian II "the Philosopher," February 360 - 26 June 363 A.D.143 viewsJulian II, A.D. 360-363; RIC 167; VF; 2.7g, 20mm; Constantinople mint; Obverse: DN FL CL IVLIANVS P F AVG, helmeted & cuirassed bust right, holding spear & shield; Reverse: VOT X MVLT XX in four lines within wreath; CONSPB in exergue; Attractive green patina. Ex Nemesis.


De Imperatoribus Romanis,
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Julian the Apostate (360-363 A.D.)

Walter E. Roberts, Emory University
Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University

Introduction

The emperor Flavius Claudius Julianus reigned from 360 to 26 June 363, when he was killed fighting against the Persians. Despite his short rule, his emperorship was pivotal in the development of the history of the later Roman empire. This essay is not meant to be a comprehensive look at the various issues central to the reign of Julian and the history of the later empire. Rather, this short work is meant to be a brief history and introduction for the general reader. Julian was the last direct descendent of the Constantinian line to ascend to the purple, and it is one of history's great ironies that he was the last non-Christian emperor. As such, he has been vilified by most Christian sources, beginning with John Chrysostom and Gregory Nazianzus in the later fourth century. This tradition was picked up by the fifth century Eusebian continuators Sozomen, Socrates Scholasticus, and Theodoret and passed on to scholars down through the 20th century. Most contemporary sources, however, paint a much more balanced picture of Julian and his reign. The adoption of Christianity by emperors and society, while still a vital concern, was but one of several issues that concerned Julian.

It is fortunate that extensive writings from Julian himself exist, which help interpret his reign in the light of contemporary evidence. Still extant are some letters, several panegyrics, and a few satires. Other contemporary sources include the soldier Ammianus Marcellinus' history, correspondence between Julian and Libanius of Antioch, several panegyrics, laws from the Theodosian Code, inscriptions, and coinage. These sources show Julian's emphasis on restoration. He saw himself as the restorer of the traditional values of Roman society. Of course much of this was rhetoric, meant to defend Julian against charges that he was a usurper. At the same time this theme of restoration was central to all emperors of the fourth century. Julian thought that he was the one emperor who could regain what was viewed as the lost glory of the Roman empire. To achieve this goal he courted select groups of social elites to get across his message of restoration. This was the way that emperors functioned in the fourth century. By choosing whom to include in the sharing of power, they sought to shape society.

Early Life

Julian was born at Constantinople in 331. His father was Julius Constantius, half-brother of the emperor Constantine through Constantius Chlorus, and his mother was Basilina, Julius' second wife. Julian had two half-brothers via Julius' first marriage. One of these was Gallus, who played a major role in Julian's life. Julian appeared destined for a bright future via his father's connection to the Constantinian house. After many years of tense relations with his three half-brothers, Constantine seemed to have welcomed them into the fold of the imperial family. From 333 to 335, Constantine conferred a series of honors upon his three half-siblings, including appointing Julius Constantius as one of the consuls for 335. Julian's mother was equally distinguished. Ammianus related that she was from a noble family. This is supported by Libanius, who claimed that she was the daughter of Julius Julianus, a Praetorian Prefect under Licinius, who was such a model of administrative virtue that he was pardoned and honored by Constantine.

Despite the fact that his mother died shortly after giving birth to him, Julian experienced an idyllic early childhood. This ended when Constantius II conducted a purge of many of his relatives shortly after Constantine's death in 337, particularly targeting the families of Constantine's half-brothers. ulian and Gallus were spared, probably due to their young age. Julian was put under the care of Mardonius, a Scythian eunuch who had tutored his mother, in 339, and was raised in the Greek philosophical tradition, and probably lived in Nicomedia. Ammianus also supplied the fact that while in Nicomedia, Julian was cared for by the local bishop Eusebius, of whom the future emperor was a distant relation. Julian was educated by some of the most famous names in grammar and rhetoric in the Greek world at that time, including Nicocles and Hecebolius. In 344 Constantius II sent Julian and Gallus to Macellum in Cappadocia, where they remained for six years. In 351, Gallus was made Caesar by Constantius II and Julian was allowed to return to Nicomedia, where he studied under Aedesius, Eusebius, and Chrysanthius, all famed philosophers, and was exposed to the Neo-Platonism that would become such a prominent part of his life. But Julian was most proud of the time he spent studying under Maximus of Ephesus, a noted Neo-Platonic philospher and theurgist. It was Maximus who completed Julian's full-scale conversion to Neo-Platonism. Later, when he was Caesar, Julian told of how he put letters from this philosopher under his pillows so that he would continue to absorb wisdom while he slept, and while campaigning on the Rhine, he sent his speeches to Maximus for approval before letting others hear them. When Gallus was executed in 354 for treason by Constantius II, Julian was summoned to Italy and essentially kept under house arrest at Comum, near Milan, for seven months before Constantius' wife Eusebia convinced the emperor that Julian posed no threat. This allowed Julian to return to Greece and continue his life as a scholar where he studied under the Neo-Platonist Priscus. Julian's life of scholarly pursuit, however, ended abruptly when he was summoned to the imperial court and made Caesar by Constantius II on 6 November 355.

Julian as Caesar

Constantius II realized an essential truth of the empire that had been evident since the time of the Tetrarchy--the empire was too big to be ruled effectively by one man. Julian was pressed into service as Caesar, or subordinate emperor, because an imperial presence was needed in the west, in particular in the Gallic provinces. Julian, due to the emperor's earlier purges, was the only viable candidate of the imperial family left who could act as Caesar. Constantius enjoined Julian with the task of restoring order along the Rhine frontier. A few days after he was made Caesar, Julian was married to Constantius' sister Helena in order to cement the alliance between the two men. On 1 December 355, Julian journeyed north, and in Augusta Taurinorum he learned that Alamannic raiders had destroyed Colonia Agrippina. He then proceeded to Vienne where he spent the winter. At Vienne, he learned that Augustudunum was also under siege, but was being held by a veteran garrison. He made this his first priority, and arrived there on 24 June 356. When he had assured himself that the city was in no immediate danger, he journeyed to Augusta Treverorum via Autessioduram, and from there to Durocortorum where he rendezvoused with his army. Julian had the army stage a series of punitive strikes around the Dieuse region, and then he moved them towards the Argentoratum/Mongontiacum region when word of barbarian incursions reached him.

From there, Julian moved on to Colonia Agrippina, and negotiated a peace with the local barbarian leaders who had assaulted the city. He then wintered at Senonae. He spent the early part of the campaigning season of 357 fighting off besiegers at Senonae, and then conducting operations around Lugdunum and Tres Tabernae. Later that summer, he encountered his watershed moment as a military general. Ammianus went into great detail about Julian's victory over seven rogue Alamannic chieftains near Argentoratum, and Julian himself bragged about it in his later writing. After this battle, the soldiers acclaimed Julian Augustus, but he rejected this title. After mounting a series of follow-up raids into Alamannic territory, he retired to winter quarters at Lutetia, and on the way defeated some Frankish raiders in the Mosa region. Julian considered this campaign one of the major events of his time as Caesar.

Julian began his 358 military campaigns early, hoping to catch the barbarians by surprise. His first target was the Franks in the northern Rhine region. He then proceeded to restore some forts in the Mosa region, but his soldiers threatened to mutiny because they were on short rations and had not been paid their donative since Julian had become Caesar. After he soothed his soldiers, Julian spent the rest of the summer negotiating a peace with various Alamannic leaders in the mid and lower Rhine areas, and retired to winter quarters at Lutetia. In 359, he prepared once again to carry out a series of punitive expeditions against the Alamanni in the Rhine region who were still hostile to the Roman presence. In preparation, the Caesar repopulated seven previously destroyed cities and set them up as supply bases and staging areas. This was done with the help of the people with whom Julian had negotiated a peace the year before. Julian then had a detachment of lightly armed soldiers cross the Rhine near Mogontiacum and conduct a guerilla strike against several chieftains. As a result of these campaigns, Julian was able to negotiate a peace with all but a handful of the Alamannic leaders, and he retired to winter quarters at Lutetia.

Of course, Julian did more than act as a general during his time as Caesar. According to Ammianus, Julian was an able administrator who took steps to correct the injustices of Constantius' appointees. Ammianus related the story of how Julian prevented Florentius, the Praetorian Prefect of Gaul, from raising taxes, and also how Julian actually took over as governor for the province of Belgica Secunda. Hilary, bishop of Poitiers, supported Ammianus' basic assessment of Julian in this regard when he reported that Julian was an able representative of the emperor to the Gallic provincials. There is also epigraphic evidence to support Julian's popularity amongst the provincial elites. An inscription found near Beneventum in Apulia reads:
"To Flavius Claudius Julianus, most noble and sanctified Caesar, from the caring Tocius Maximus, vir clarissimus, for the care of the res publica from Beneventum".

Tocius Maximus, as a vir clarissimus, was at the highest point in the social spectrum and was a leader in his local community. This inscription shows that Julian was successful in establishing a positive image amongst provincial elites while he was Caesar.

Julian Augustus

In early 360, Constantius, driven by jealousy of Julian's success, stripped Julian of many troops and officers, ostensibly because the emperor needed them for his upcoming campaign against the Persians. One of the legions ordered east, the Petulantes, did not want to leave Gaul because the majority of the soldiers in the unit were from this region. As a result they mutinied and hailed Julian as Augustus at Lutetia. Julian refused this acclamation as he had done at Argentoratum earlier, but the soldiers would have none of his denial. They raised him on a shield and adorned him with a neck chain, which had formerly been the possession of the standard-bearer of the Petulantes and symbolized a royal diadem. Julian appeared reluctantly to acquiesce to their wishes, and promised a generous donative. The exact date of his acclamation is unknown, but most scholars put it in February or March. Julian himself supported Ammianus' picture of a jealous Constantius. In his Letter to the Athenians, a document constructed to answer charges that he was a usurper, Julian stated that from the start he, as Caesar, had been meant as a figurehead to the soldiers and provincials. The real power he claimed lay with the generals and officials already present in Gaul. In fact, according to Julian, the generals were charged with watching him as much as the enemy. His account of the actual acclamation closely followed what Ammianus told us, but he stressed even more his reluctance to take power. Julian claimed that he did so only after praying to Zeus for guidance.

Fearing the reaction of Constantius, Julian sent a letter to his fellow emperor justifying the events at Lutetia and trying to arrange a peaceful solution. This letter berated Constantius for forcing the troops in Gaul into an untenable situation. Ammianus stated that Julian's letter blamed Constantius' decision to transfer Gallic legions east as the reason for the soldiers' rebellion. Julian once again asserted that he was an unwilling participant who was only following the desire of the soldiers. In both of these basic accounts Ammianus and Julian are playing upon the theme of restoration. Implicit in their version of Julian's acclamation is the argument that Constantius was unfit to rule. The soldiers were the vehicle of the gods' will. The Letter to the Athenians is full of references to the fact that Julian was assuming the mantle of Augustus at the instigation of the gods. Ammianus summed up this position nicely when he related the story of how, when Julian was agonizing over whether to accept the soldiers' acclamation, he had a dream in which he was visited by the Genius (guardian spirit) of the Roman state. The Genius told Julian that it had often tried to bestow high honors upon Julian but had been rebuffed. Now, the Genius went on to say, was Julian's final chance to take the power that was rightfully his. If the Caesar refused this chance, the Genius would depart forever, and both Julian and the state would rue Julian's rejection. Julian himself wrote a letter to his friend Maximus of Ephesus in November of 361 detailing his thoughts on his proclamation. In this letter, Julian stated that the soldiers proclaimed him Augustus against his will. Julian, however, defended his accession, saying that the gods willed it and that he had treated his enemies with clemency and justice. He went on to say that he led the troops in propitiating the traditional deities, because the gods commanded him to return to the traditional rites, and would reward him if he fulfilled this duty.

During 360 an uneasy peace simmered between the two emperors. Julian spent the 360 campaigning season continuing his efforts to restore order along the Rhine, while Constantius continued operations against the Persians. Julian wintered in Vienne, and celebrated his Quinquennalia. It was at this time that his wife Helena died, and he sent her remains to Rome for a proper burial at his family villa on the Via Nomentana where the body of her sister was entombed. The uneasy peace held through the summer of 361, but Julian concentrated his military operations around harassing the Alamannic chieftain Vadomarius and his allies, who had concluded a peace treaty with Constantius some years earlier. By the end of the summer, Julian decided to put an end to the waiting and gathered his army to march east against Constantius. The empire teetered on the brink of another civil war. Constantius had spent the summer negotiating with the Persians and making preparations for possible military action against his cousin. When he was assured that the Persians would not attack, he summoned his army and sallied forth to meet Julian. As the armies drew inexorably closer to one another, the empire was saved from another bloody civil war when Constantius died unexpectedly of natural causes on 3 November near the town of Mopsucrenae in Cilicia, naming Julian -- the sources say-- as his legitimate successor.

Julian was in Dacia when he learned of his cousin's death. He made his way through Thrace and came to Constantinople on 11 December 361 where Julian honored the emperor with the funeral rites appropriate for a man of his station. Julian immediately set about putting his supporters in positions of power and trimming the imperial bureaucracy, which had become extremely overstaffed during Constantius' reign. Cooks and barbers had increased during the late emperor's reign and Julian expelled them from his court. Ammianus gave a mixed assessment of how the new emperor handled the followers of Constantius. Traditionally, emperors were supposed to show clemency to the supporters of a defeated enemy. Julian, however, gave some men over to death to appease the army. Ammianus used the case of Ursulus, Constantius' comes sacrum largitionum, to illustrate his point. Ursulus had actually tried to acquire money for the Gallic troops when Julian had first been appointed Caesar, but he had also made a disparaging remark about the ineffectiveness of the army after the battle of Amida. The soldiers remembered this, and when Julian became sole Augustus, they demanded Ursulus' head. Julian obliged, much to the disapproval of Ammianus. This seems to be a case of Julian courting the favor of the military leadership, and is indicative of a pattern in which Julian courted the goodwill of various societal elites to legitimize his position as emperor.

Another case in point is the officials who made up the imperial bureaucracy. Many of them were subjected to trial and punishment. To achieve this goal, during the last weeks of December 361 Julian assembled a military tribunal at Chalcedon, empanelling six judges to try the cases. The president of the tribunal was Salutius, just promoted to the rank of Praetorian Prefect; the five other members were Mamertinus, the orator, and four general officers: Jovinus, Agilo, Nevitta, and Arbetio. Relative to the proceedings of the tribunal, Ammianus noted that the judges, " . . . oversaw the cases more vehemently than was right or fair, with the exception of a few . . .." Ammianus' account of Julian's attempt at reform of the imperial bureaucracy is supported by legal evidence from the Theodosian Code. A series of laws sent to Mamertinus, Julian's appointee as Praetorian Prefect in Italy, Illyricum, and Africa, illustrate this point nicely. On 6 June 362, Mamertinus received a law that prohibited provincial governors from bypassing the Vicars when giving their reports to the Prefect. Traditionally, Vicars were given civil authority over a group of provinces, and were in theory meant to serve as a middle step between governors and Prefects. This law suggests that the Vicars were being left out, at least in Illyricum. Julian issued another edict to Mamertinus on 22 February 362 to stop abuse of the public post by governors. According to this law, only Mamertinus could issue post warrants, but the Vicars were given twelve blank warrants to be used as they saw fit, and each governor was given two. Continuing the trend of bureaucratic reform, Julian also imposed penalties on governors who purposefully delayed appeals in court cases they had heard. The emperor also established a new official to weigh solidi used in official government transactions to combat coin clipping.

For Julian, reigning in the abuses of imperial bureaucrats was one step in restoring the prestige of the office of emperor. Because he could not affect all elements of society personally, Julian, like other Neo-Flavian emperors, decided to concentrate on select groups of societal elites as intercessors between himself and the general populace. One of these groups was the imperial bureaucracy. Julian made it very clear that imperial officials were intercessors in a very real sense in a letter to Alypius, Vicar of Britain. In this letter, sent from Gaul sometime before 361, the emperor praises Alypius for his use of "mildness and moderation with courage and force" in his rule of the provincials. Such virtues were characteristic of the emperors, and it was good that Alypius is representing Julian in this way. Julian courted the army because it put him in power. Another group he sought to include in his rule was the traditional Senatorial aristocracy. One of his first appointments as consul was Claudius Mamertinus, a Gallic Senator and rhetorician. Mamertinus' speech in praise of Julian delivered at Constantinople in January of 362 is preserved. In this speech, Claudius presented his consular selection as inaugurating a new golden age and Julian as the restorer of the empire founded by Augustus. The image Mamertinus gave of his own consulate inaugurating a new golden age is not merely formulaic. The comparison of Julian to Augustus has very real, if implicit, relevance to Claudius' situation. Claudius emphasized the imperial period as the true age of renewal. Augustus ushered in a new era with his formation of a partnership between the emperor and the Senate based upon a series of honors and offices bestowed upon the Senate in return for their role as intercessor between emperor and populace. It was this system that Julian was restoring, and the consulate was one concrete example of this bond. To be chosen as a consul by the emperor, who himself had been divinely mandated, was a divine honor. In addition to being named consul, Mamertinus went on to hold several offices under Julian, including the Prefecture of Italy, Illyricum, and Africa. Similarly, inscriptional evidence illustrates a link between municipal elites and Julian during his time as Caesar, something which continued after he became emperor. One concrete example comes from the municipal senate of Aceruntia in Apulia, which established a monument on which Julian is styled as "Repairer of the World."

Julian seems to have given up actual Christian belief before his acclamation as emperor and was a practitioner of more traditional Greco-Roman religious beliefs, in particular, a follower of certain late antique Platonist philosophers who were especially adept at theurgy as was noted earlier. In fact Julian himself spoke of his conversion to Neo-Platonism in a letter to the Alexandrians written in 363. He stated that he had abandoned Christianity when he was twenty years old and been an adherent of the traditional Greco-Roman deities for the twelve years prior to writing this letter.

(For the complete text of this article see: http://www.roman-emperors.org/julian.htm)

Julian’s Persian Campaign

The exact goals Julian had for his ill-fated Persian campaign were never clear. The Sassanid Persians, and before them the Parthians, had been a traditional enemy from the time of the Late Republic, and indeed Constantius had been conducting a war against them before Julian's accession forced the former to forge an uneasy peace. Julian, however, had no concrete reason to reopen hostilities in the east. Socrates Scholasticus attributed Julian's motives to imitation of Alexander the Great, but perhaps the real reason lay in his need to gather the support of the army. Despite his acclamation by the Gallic legions, relations between Julian and the top military officers was uneasy at best. A war against the Persians would have brought prestige and power both to Julian and the army.

Julian set out on his fateful campaign on 5 March 363. Using his trademark strategy of striking quickly and where least expected, he moved his army through Heirapolis and from there speedily across the Euphrates and into the province of Mesopotamia, where he stopped at the town of Batnae. His plan was to eventually return through Armenia and winter in Tarsus. Once in Mesopotamia, Julian was faced with the decision of whether to travel south through the province of Babylonia or cross the Tigris into Assyria, and he eventually decided to move south through Babylonia and turn west into Assyria at a later date. By 27 March, he had the bulk of his army across the Euphrates, and had also arranged a flotilla to guard his supply line along the mighty river. He then left his generals Procopius and Sebastianus to help Arsacius, the king of Armenia and a Roman client, to guard the northern Tigris line. It was also during this time that he received the surrender of many prominent local leaders who had nominally supported the Persians. These men supplied Julian with money and troops for further military action against their former masters. Julian decided to turn south into Babylonia and proceeded along the Euphrates, coming to the fortress of Cercusium at the junction of the Abora and Euphrates Rivers around the first of April, and from there he took his army west to a region called Zaitha near the abandoned town of Dura where they visited the tomb of the emperor Gordian which was in the area. On April 7 he set out from there into the heart of Babylonia and towards Assyria.

Ammianus then stated that Julian and his army crossed into Assyria, which on the face of things appears very confusing. Julian still seems to be operating within the province of Babylonia between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. The confusion is alleviated when one realizes that,for Ammianus, the region of Assyria encompassed the provinces of Babylonia and Assyria. On their march, Julian's forces took the fortress of Anatha, received the surrender and support of several more local princes, and ravaged the countryside of Assyria between the rivers. As the army continued south, they came across the fortresses Thilutha and Achaiachala, but these places were too well defended and Julian decided to leave them alone. Further south were the cities Diacira and Ozogardana, which the Roman forces sacked and burned. Soon, Julian came to Pirisabora and a brief siege ensued, but the city fell and was also looted and destroyed. It was also at this time that the Roman army met its first systematic resistance from the Persians. As the Romans penetrated further south and west, the local inhabitants began to flood their route. Nevertheless, the Roman forces pressed on and came to Maiozamalcha, a sizable city not far from Ctesiphon. After a short siege, this city too fell to Julian. Inexorably, Julian's forces zeroed in on Ctesiphon, but as they drew closer, the Persian resistance grew fiercer, with guerilla raids whittling at Julian's men and supplies. A sizable force of the army was lost and the emperor himself was almost killed taking a fort a few miles from the target city.
Finally, the army approached Ctesiphon following a canal that linked the Tigris and Euphrates. It soon became apparent after a few preliminary skirmishes that a protracted siege would be necessary to take this important city. Many of his generals, however, thought that pursuing this course of action would be foolish. Julian reluctantly agreed, but became enraged by this failure and ordered his fleet to be burned as he decided to march through the province of Assyria. Julian had planned for his army to live off the land, but the Persians employed a scorched-earth policy. When it became apparent that his army would perish (because his supplies were beginning to dwindle) from starvation and the heat if he continued his campaign, and also in the face of superior numbers of the enemy, Julian ordered a retreat on 16 June. As the Roman army retreated, they were constantly harassed by guerilla strikes. It was during one of these raids that Julian got caught up in the fighting and took a spear to his abdomen. Mortally wounded he was carried to his tent, where, after conferring with some of his officers, he died. The date was 26 June 363.

Conclusion

Thus an ignominious end for a man came about who had hoped to restore the glory of the Roman empire during his reign as emperor. Due to his intense hatred of Christianity, the opinion of posterity has not been kind to Julian. The contemporary opinion, however, was overall positive. The evidence shows that Julian was a complex ruler with a definite agenda to use traditional social institutions in order to revive what he saw as a collapsing empire. In the final assessment, he was not so different from any of the other emperors of the fourth century. He was a man grasping desperately to hang on to a Greco-Roman conception of leadership that was undergoing a subtle yet profound change.
Copyright (C) 2002, Walter E. Roberts and Michael DiMaio, Jr. Used by permission.

In reality, Julian worked to promote culture and philosophy in any manifestation. He tried to reduce taxes and the public debts of municipalities; he augmented administrative decentralisation; he promoted a campaign of austerity to reduce public expenditure (setting himself as the example). He reformed the postal service and eliminated the powerful secret police.
by Federico Morando; JULIAN II, The Apostate, http://www.forumancientcoins.com/NumisWiki/view.asp?key=Julian%20II

Flavius Claudius Iulianus was born in 331 or maybe 332 A.D. in Constantinople. He ruled the Western Empire as Caesar from 355 to 360 and was hailed Augustus by his legions in Lutetia (Paris) in 360. Julian was a gifted administrator and military strategist. Famed as the last pagan emperor, his reinstatement of the pagan religion earned him the moniker "the Apostate." As evidenced by his brilliant writing, some of which has survived to the present day, the title "the Philosopher" may have been more appropriate. He died from wounds suffered during the Persian campaign of 363 A.D. Joseph Sermarini, FORVM.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.




2 commentsCleisthenes
RI_141br_img.jpg
141 - Diocletian - Follis - RIC VI Trier 677a (corr. Cyzicus)70 viewsObv:– D N DIOCLETIANO FELICISSIMO SEN AVG, laureate bust right in imperial mantle, olive branch in right hand, mappa in left
Rev:– PROVIDENTIA DEORVM QVIES AVGG, Providentia standing right, extending right hand to Quies standing left, branch upward in right hand, vertical sceptre in left
Minted in Cyzicus (not Trier) ( S | F / KS //PTR)
Reference:– RIC VI Trier 677a (R) (see notes)
Notes:- This is perhaps one of the most unusual issues in the entire follis series. It is nearly always attributed to Trier (Treveri), but a comparison of portrait styles and an examination of follis hoards reveals that this issue was not struck in Trier but in Cyzicus. Two officinae struck this issue, and the KS in the field between the two figures is actually the mintmark, not the PTR. A look at the coins of Cyzicus (RIC 22-23) shows that the same two officinae struck this issue without the PTR also. The Senior Augustus issues of Diocletian and Maximianus were struck at every mint currently in operation. Apparently, the first coins of this type were prepared at Trier and examples were sent to the various mints for the individual mints to copy. At Cyzicus, the die engravers copied everything, including the Trier mintmark and put their own mintmark in the field. Eventually someone soon realized the mistake and new dies were prepared with the mintmark in its proper location.

Nicely silvered with little / no visible wear.
maridvnvm
1302_P_Hadrian_RPC1410.jpg
1410 Hadrian, Cistophorus Uncertain mint in Asia Minor, Bundle of grain four ears19 viewsReference.
RPC III, 1410; Metcalf 66; (same die pair as M303 plate)

Obv. HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS
Laureate bust right, drapery on left shoulder,

Rev. COS III (across top)
Poppy and four grain stalks in bundle

9.26 gr
28 mm
1h
1 commentsokidoki
RI_146dr_img.jpg
146 - Maximianus Herculius - RIC VI Antioch 112c34 viewsFollis
Obv:– IMP C M AVR VAL MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– GENIO IMP-ERATORIS, Genius standing left holding patera and cornucopia
Minted in Antioch (_ | Theta / E //ANT Dot). Early to Later A.D. 309
Reference:– RIC VI Antioch 112c (R) (Citing Oxford; Apparently a rare issue for Maximianus Herculius and only issued from this officina)
 
6.39 gms. 26.19 mm. 0 degrees. Better than the RIC plate coin (reverse only illustrated).
 
From RIC Notes "A very remarkable innovation, peculiar to this issue, is the reappearance of Herculius (with the long legend Imp C M Aur Val Maximianus P F Aug matching those of Galerius and Licinus, and with cuirassed bust) on rare coins with Genio Imperatoris; this is parallelled at the same time (see RIC VI page 656). Expelled from Italy c. April 308, and rejected at the Carnuntum conference in November 308, Herculius had received ample share in the coinage of Constantine's mints, and it seems that Maximinus (now antagonisitc to both Galerius and Licinius) may have been momentarily willing to demontsrate his hostility by including the name of the man who might still play and anti-Galerian part in the west."
2 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_146cr_img.jpg
146 - Maximianus Herculius, Antoninianus - RIC 40215 viewsObv:– IMP C MAXIMIANVS P AVG, Radiate, draped bust left (seen from rear), holding shield and spear
Rev:– PAX AVGG, Pax standing left, with Victory on globe and scepter
Minted in Lugdunum (//S). Emission 6, Officina 2. Autumn A.D. 289 to start A.D. 290
Reference:– Cohen 455. Bastien 281 (2 all from same obverse die). RIC 402.

Looking through Bastien this bust would only appear to come from a single die for Maximianus Herculius with just two examples cited so it would appear to be quite scarce.
maridvnvm
James_III_AE_Crux_Pellit_Threepenny_Penny.JPG
1460 – 1488, JAMES III, AE Threepenny Penny struck c.1470–1480 at an unidentified mint, Scotland7 viewsObverse: + IACOBVS ‡ DEI ‡ GRA ‡ REX ‡ . Orb with rosette at centre, tilted upwards, within pelleted circle. Cross hummetty in legend.
Reverse: + CRVX ‡ PELLIT ‡ OIE ‡ CRI (Crux pellit omne crimen = The cross drives away all sin). Latin cross within quatrefoil with trefoils on cusps, within pelleted circle. Cross hummetty in legend.
Diameter: 20mm | Weight: 1.9gms | Die Axis: 9
SPINK: 5311 Type III
Very Rare

Once regarded as Ecclesiastical and connected to Bishop James Kennedy of St Andrews by earlier scholars, these coins are now, after extensive research in the second half of the twentieth century by J E L Murray of the British Numismatic Society, believed to have been a regal issue whose place of mintage has not as yet been certainly identified. During his reign James III took an interest in the coinage and introduced several new denominations. The thistle-head made its first appearance as a Scottish emblem on coins during his reign and a further innovation of his coinage were coins bearing a likeness of the king himself in the new renaissance style which predated similarly styled English coins by several years.
The 'Crux pellit' coins are often known as ‘Crossraguel’ issues, so called after a hoard containing 51 of them was found in a drain at Crossraguel Abbey, Ayrshire in 1919. J E L Murray identified these coins with those referred to in contemporary documents as “three-penny pennies” or “Cochrane's Placks”, which appear to have been greatly devalued in 1482. Cochrane's Placks comes from Robert Cochrane, one of James III's main favourites. Cochrane played a major part in the government during the 1470's and he is said to have advised the king to debase the coinage in order to raise cash.

James III was crowned at Kelso Abbey in 1460 at the age of 9, he was the son of James II and Mary of Guelders. During his childhood, the government was led by successive factions until 1469 when he began to rule for himself. That same year he married Princess Margaret of Denmark. Margaret's father, King Christian I of Denmark and Norway was unable to raise the full amount of her dowry so pledged his lands and rights in Orkney and Shetland as security for the remainder. But Christian I was never able to redeem his pledge, and Orkney and Shetland have remained Scottish possessions ever since.
Soon after his marriage, James faced great difficulties in restoring a strong central government. His preference for the company of scholars, architects and artists coupled with his extravagance and partiality to favourites alienated him from the loyalty of his nobles. Even his own brothers, Alexander, Duke of Albany and John, Earl of Mar regarded him with jealousy verging on hatred. In 1479, James' brothers were arrested on suspicion of conspiring against the Crown. John Stewart, the Earl of Mar, died in suspicious circumstances, whilst Alexander Stewart, the Duke of Albany, escaped and fled to England.
The ever-present English threat had been temporarily solved by a truce with Edward IV in 1463 but James' estrangement from his brothers and a strong faction within the Scottish nobility led to the final loss of Berwick.
Although James had tried to settle his differences with Alexander, Duke of Albany, his brother again tried to take his throne in a coup after Edward IV recognised him as Alexander IV of Scotland in 1482. Some minor members of James III's household were hanged, including Robert Cochrane, the king's favourite. But James was removed to Edinburgh Castle where he survived and Alexander was exiled to France.
After his queen's death in 1486, James lived in increasing isolation amidst the growing resentment of the nobility. Finally, in 1488, the Scottish nobles seized James' eldest son, also called James, placed him at their head, and rose against the king. At the Battle of Sauchieburn, three miles from Stirling, James III, defeated, was thrown from his horse as he fled from the field. He was carried into a nearby cottage where he was set upon and stabbed to death.
James III was buried at Cambuskenneth Abbey near Stirling and his son, the figurehead of the revolt against him, was hailed as James IV.
1 comments*Alex
511_P_Hadrian_unpub_.jpg
1461A Hadrian, Cistophorus Uncertain mint in Asia Minor. 128 AD Five grain ears tied in a bundle46 viewsReference.
RPC III, 1461A; cf Metcalf 107; RIC II 518 var. (six grain ears); Metcalf, Cistophori -; Pinder 87 var. (same); BMCRE pg. 391, note var. (same); RSC 441 var. (same).

Obv. HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS P P
Laureate head right.

Rev. COS III
bundle of five grain stalks splayed

10.65 gr
26 mm
6h

note.
Ex
Heidelberger Münzhandlung Herbert Grün
Auction 66 2015 Lot 134

Ex. Fritz Rudolf Künker GmbH
Auction 153 2009 Lot 8735
Ex. CNG 2004
Sale: CNG 66, Lot: 1488
4 commentsokidoki
RI_148ai_img.jpg
148 - Galerius - RIC VI London 50 9 viewsFollis
Obv:– IMP MAXIMIANVS P F IN AVG, Laureate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– GENIO POPV-LI ROMANI, Genius standing left, modius on head, naked but for chlamys over left shoulder, left hand holding cornucopiae and right hand holding patera
Minted in London (_). Group II - i. May A.D. 305 - Late A.D. 306 or into Early A.D. 307
Reference(s) – Cohen ?. RIC VI London 50 (R, citing Voetter with a footnote stating that confirmation is needed). LMCC (page 126) 4.03.012

Same die pair as LMCC plate coin and BM example (BM B.54, 9.98g, 6h. ex De Salis 1860)

9.77 gms. 29.01 mm diameter. 180 degree die orientation.
maridvnvm
13594p00.jpg
1502c, Valens, 28 March 364 - 9 August 378 A.D. (Cyzikus)53 viewsBronze AE 3, S 4118, 2.42g, 16.5mm, 180o,Cyzikus, F/F, obverse D N VALENS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE, Victory advancing left, wreath in right, palm frond in left, SMK L(?) in exergue. Ex FORVM.


De Imperatoribus Romanis, An Online Encyclopedia of the Roman Emperors and their Families

Valens (365-369 AD.)

Noel Linski, University of Colorado

Valens was the brother of Valentinian I. On March 28, 364, precisely one month after his accession by Roman reckoning, Valentinian appointed his brother Flavius Valens co-emperor at the Hebdomon, the first in a long line of emperors proclaimed there. Themistius was present and later recounted the occasion in his Or. 6. After only two months of co-rulership, the two departed from Constantinople for their native Illyricum. Outside Naissus, in Moesia, they divided their administrative staff between them and at Sirmium they did the same with their mobile forces. Valens was to rule the east, from Thrace in the North and Cyrenaica in the South eastward to the Persian frontier. Valentinian ruled the west. They did not spend long in Sirmium. By late August 365 Valentinian had moved on toward Milan, where he resided for the following year before moving on to Trier, which remained his capital until 375. Similarly, Valens was back in Constantinople by December 364.and he was declared Augustus in 364 A.D. He was given command of the Eastern provinces, where he spent much of his time campaigning against the Goths and Persians.

In 376 A.D., Valens allowed Gothic tribes, who were being driven forward by the Huns to settle in the Danube provinces. The Goths were so badly treated by the Romans that they rebelled. Valens marched against the confederated barbarian army, and on August 9, 378, the two forces met at Adrianople. Although negotiations were attempted, these broke down when a Roman unit sallied forth and carried both sides into battle. The Romans held their own early on but were crushed by the surprise arrival of Greuthungi cavalry which split their ranks.

In one historical account, Valens was wounded in battle but escaped to a nearby farmstead where he was burned to death in a tower by Gothic marauders. The fourth century A.D. Roman historian Ammianus Marcellinus does not seem to concur with this story. Regardless, when the battle was over Valens' body was never recovered, 10,000 roman soldiers lay dead and the perception of Roman military invincibility was destroyed.

Adrianople was the most significant event in Valens' career. Though he displayed some talent as an administrator, Valens' persecutions of Nicene Christians and pagan philosophers, his halting efforts at military achievement and his obtuse personality rendered him a less than glorious emperor. To have died in so inglorious a battle has thus come to be regarded as the nadir of an unfortunate career. This is especially true because of the profound consequences of Valens' defeat.

Adrianople spelled the beginning of the end for Roman territorial integrity in the late empire and this fact was recognized even by contemporaries. The Roman historian Ammianus (325-391 AD) understood that it was the worst defeat in Roman history since Cannae. Rufinus (340–410 CE), monk, historian, and theologian; called it "the beginning of evils for the Roman empire then and thereafter."

Noel Lenski, University of Colorado
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
Valens.jpg
1502h, Valens, 364-378 A.D. (Heraclea)47 viewsValens, 364-378 A.D., Heraclea mint, VF, Chi-Rho standard reverse.


De Imperatoribus Romanis, An Online Encyclopedia of the Roman Emperors and their Families

Valens (365-369 AD.)

Noel Linski, University of Colorado

Valens was the brother of Valentinian I. On March 28, 364, precisely one month after his accession by Roman reckoning, Valentinian appointed his brother Flavius Valens co-emperor at the Hebdomon, the first in a long line of emperors proclaimed there. Themistius was present and later recounted the occasion in his Or. 6. After only two months of co-rulership, the two departed from Constantinople for their native Illyricum. Outside Naissus, in Moesia, they divided their administrative staff between them and at Sirmium they did the same with their mobile forces. Valens was to rule the east, from Thrace in the North and Cyrenaica in the South eastward to the Persian frontier. Valentinian ruled the west. They did not spend long in Sirmium. By late August 365 Valentinian had moved on toward Milan, where he resided for the following year before moving on to Trier, which remained his capital until 375. Similarly, Valens was back in Constantinople by December 364.and he was declared Augustus in 364 A.D. He was given command of the Eastern provinces, where he spent much of his time campaigning against the Goths and Persians.

In 376 A.D., Valens allowed Gothic tribes, who were being driven forward by the Huns to settle in the Danube provinces. The Goths were so badly treated by the Romans that they rebelled. Valens marched against the confederated barbarian army, and on August 9, 378, the two forces met at Adrianople. Although negotiations were attempted, these broke down when a Roman unit sallied forth and carried both sides into battle. The Romans held their own early on but were crushed by the surprise arrival of Greuthungi cavalry which split their ranks.

In one historical account, Valens was wounded in battle but escaped to a nearby farmstead where he was burned to death in a tower by Gothic marauders. The fourth century A.D. Roman historian Ammianus Marcellinus does not seem to concur with this story. Regardless, when the battle was over Valens' body was never recovered, 10,000 roman soldiers lay dead and the perception of Roman military invincibility had been destroyed.

Adrianople was the most significant event in Valens' career. Though he displayed some talent as an administrator, Valens' persecutions of Nicene Christians and pagan philosophers, his halting efforts at military achievement and his obtuse personality rendered him a less than glorious emperor. To have died in so inglorious a battle has thus come to be regarded as the nadir of an unfortunate career. This is especially true because of the profound consequences of Valens' defeat.

Adrianople spelled the beginning of the end for Roman territorial integrity in the late empire and this fact was recognized even by contemporaries. The Roman historian Ammianus (325-391 AD) understood that it was the worst defeat in Roman history since Cannae. Rufinus (340–410 CE), monk, historian, and theologian; called it "the beginning of evils for the Roman empire then and thereafter."

Noel Lenski, University of Colorado
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
1 commentsCleisthenes
Theo1Ae3Ant.jpeg
1505b, Theodosius I, 19 January 379 - 17 January 395 A.D. (Antioch)70 viewsTheodosius I, 19 January 379 - 17 January 395 A.D. Bronze AE 3, RIC 44(b), VF, Antioch, 2.17g, 18.1mm, 180o, 9 Aug 378 - 25 Aug 383 A.D. Obverse: D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG, rosette-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: CONCORDIA AVGGG, Constantinopolis enthroned facing, r. foot on prow, globe in l., scepter in r., Q and F at sides, ANTG in ex; scarce.


De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

THEODOSIUS I (379-395 A.D.)
David Woods
University College of Cork


Origin and Early Career
Flavius Theodosius was born at Cauca in Spain in about 346 to Thermantia and Theodosius the Elder (so-called to distinguish him from his son). Theodosius the Elder was a senior military officer serving in the Western empire and rose to become the magister equitum praesentalis under the emperor Valentinian I from late 368 until his execution in early 375. As the son of a soldier, Theodosius was legally obliged to enter upon a military career. He seems to have served under his father during his expedition to Britain in 367/8, and was the dux Moesiae Primae by late 374. Unfortunately, great controversy surrounds the rest of his career until Gratian had him hailed as his imperial colleague in succession to the emperor Valens at Sirmium on 19 January 379. It is clear that he was forced to retire home to Spain only to be recalled to active service shortly thereafter, but the circumstances of his forced retirement are shrouded in mystery. His father was executed at roughly the same time, and much speculation has centred on the relationship between these events.

[For a very detailed and interesting discussion of the Foreign Policy of Theodosius and the Civil Wars that plagued his reign, please see http://www.roman-emperors.org/theo1.htm]

Family and Succession
Theodosius married twice. His first wife was the Spanish Aelia Flavia Flaccilla. She bore him Arcadius ca. 377, Honorius on 9 September 384, and Pulcheria ca. 385. Theodosius honoured her with the title of Augusta shortly after his accession, but she died in 386. In late 387 he married Galla, daughter of Valentinian I and full-sister of Valentinian II. She bore him Gratian ca. 388, Galla Placidia ca. 388/390, and died in childbirth in 394, together with her new-born son John. Of his two sons who survived infancy, he appointed Arcadius as Augustus on 19 January 383 and Honorius as Augustus on 23 January 393. His promotion of Arcadius as a full Augustus at an unusually young age points to his determination right from the start that one of his own sons should succeed him. He sought to strengthen Arcadius' position in particular by means of a series of strategic marriages whose purpose was to tie his leading "generals" irrevocably to his dynasty. Hence he married his niece and adoptive daughter Serena to his magister militum per Orientem Stilicho in 387, her elder sister Thermantia to a "general" whose name has not been preserved, and ca. 387 his nephew-in-law Nebridius to Salvina, daughter of the comes Africae Gildo. By the time of his death by illness on 17 January 395, Theodosius had promoted Stilicho from his position as one of the two comites domesticorum under his own eastern administration to that of magister peditum praesentalis in a western administration, in an entirely traditional manner, under his younger son Honorius. Although Stilicho managed to increase the power of the magister peditum praesentalis to the disadvantage of his colleague the magister equitum praesentalis and claimed that Theodosius had appointed him as guardian for both his sons, this tells us more about his cunning and ambition than it does about Theodosius' constitutional arrangements.

Theodosius' importance rests on the fact that he founded a dynasty which continued in power until the death of his grandson Theodosius II in 450. This ensured a continuity of policy which saw the emergence of Nicene Christianity as the orthodox belief of the vast majority of Christians throughout the middle ages. It also ensured the essential destruction of paganism and the emergence of Christianity as the religion of the state, even if the individual steps in this process can be difficult to identify. On the negative side, however, he allowed his dynastic interests and ambitions to lead him into two unnecessary and bloody civil wars which severely weakened the empire's ability to defend itself in the face of continued barbarian pressure upon its frontiers. In this manner, he put the interests of his family before those of the wider Roman population and was responsible, in many ways, for the phenomenon to which we now refer as the fall of the western Roman empire.


Copyright (C) 1998, David Woods.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

There is a nice segue here, as we pick-up John Julius Norwich's summation of the reign of Theodosius, "Readers of this brief account of his career may well find themselves wondering, not so much whether he deserved the title of 'the Great' as how he ever came to acquire it in the first place. If so, however, they may also like to ask themselves another question: what would have been the fate of the Empire if, at that critical moment in its history after the battle of Adrianople, young Gratian had not called him from his Spanish estates and put the future of the East into his hands? . . . the probability is that the whole Empire of the East would have been lost, swallowed up in a revived Gothic kingdom, with effects on world history that defy speculation.

In his civil legislation he showed, again and again, a consideration for the humblest of his subjects that was rare indeed among rulers of the fourth century. What other prince would have decreed that any criminal, sentenced to execution, imprisonment or exile, must first be allowed thirty days' grace to put his affairs in order? Or that a specified part of his worldly goods must go to his children, upon whom their father's crimes must on no account be visited? Or that no farmer should be obliged to sell his produce to the State at a price lower than he would receive on the open market?

Had he earned his title? Not, perhaps, in the way that Constantine had done or as Justinian was to do. But, if not ultimately great himself, he had surely come very close to greatness; and had he reigned as long as they did his achievements might well have equalled theirs. He might even have saved the Western Empire. One thing only is certain: it would be nearly a century and a half before the Romans would look upon his like again" (Norwich, John Julius. Byzantium, the Early Centuries. London: Penguin Group, 1990. 116-7;118).

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.



Cleisthenes
Theod1GlrMan.jpg
1505c, Theodosius I, 379 - 395 A.D. (Constantinople)79 viewsTheodosius I (379 - 395 AD) AE3. 388-394 AD, RIC IX 27(a)3, Third Officina. Seventh Period. 20.27 mm. 4.8gm. Near VF with black and earthen patina. Constantinople. Obverse: DN THEODO-SIANVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped, & cuirassed bust right; Reverse: GLORIA-ROMANORVM, Theodosius I standing, facing, holding labarum and globe, CONSB in exergue (scarcer reverse). A Spanish find.



De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

THEODOSIUS I (379-395 A.D.)
David Woods
University College of Cork


Origin and Early Career
Flavius Theodosius was born at Cauca in Spain in about 346 to Thermantia and Theodosius the Elder (so-called to distinguish him from his son). Theodosius the Elder was a senior military officer serving in the Western empire and rose to become the magister equitum praesentalis under the emperor Valentinian I from late 368 until his execution in early 375. As the son of a soldier, Theodosius was legally obliged to enter upon a military career. He seems to have served under his father during his expedition to Britain in 367/8, and was the dux Moesiae Primae by late 374. Unfortunately, great controversy surrounds the rest of his career until Gratian had him hailed as his imperial colleague in succession to the emperor Valens at Sirmium on 19 January 379. It is clear that he was forced to retire home to Spain only to be recalled to active service shortly thereafter, but the circumstances of his forced retirement are shrouded in mystery. His father was executed at roughly the same time, and much speculation has centred on the relationship between these events.

[For a very detailed and interesting discussion of the Foreign Policy of Theodosius and the Civil Wars that plagued his reign, please see http://www.roman-emperors.org/theo1.htm]

Family and Succession
Theodosius married twice. His first wife was the Spanish Aelia Flavia Flaccilla. She bore him Arcadius ca. 377, Honorius on 9 September 384, and Pulcheria ca. 385. Theodosius honoured her with the title of Augusta shortly after his accession, but she died in 386. In late 387 he married Galla, daughter of Valentinian I and full-sister of Valentinian II. She bore him Gratian ca. 388, Galla Placidia ca. 388/390, and died in childbirth in 394, together with her new-born son John. Of his two sons who survived infancy, he appointed Arcadius as Augustus on 19 January 383 and Honorius as Augustus on 23 January 393. His promotion of Arcadius as a full Augustus at an unusually young age points to his determination right from the start that one of his own sons should succeed him. He sought to strengthen Arcadius' position in particular by means of a series of strategic marriages whose purpose was to tie his leading "generals" irrevocably to his dynasty. Hence he married his niece and adoptive daughter Serena to his magister militum per Orientem Stilicho in 387, her elder sister Thermantia to a "general" whose name has not been preserved, and ca. 387 his nephew-in-law Nebridius to Salvina, daughter of the comes Africae Gildo. By the time of his death by illness on 17 January 395, Theodosius had promoted Stilicho from his position as one of the two comites domesticorum under his own eastern administration to that of magister peditum praesentalis in a western administration, in an entirely traditional manner, under his younger son Honorius. Although Stilicho managed to increase the power of the magister peditum praesentalis to the disadvantage of his colleague the magister equitum praesentalis and claimed that Theodosius had appointed him as guardian for both his sons, this tells us more about his cunning and ambition than it does about Theodosius' constitutional arrangements.

Theodosius' importance rests on the fact that he founded a dynasty which continued in power until the death of his grandson Theodosius II in 450. This ensured a continuity of policy which saw the emergence of Nicene Christianity as the orthodox belief of the vast majority of Christians throughout the middle ages. It also ensured the essential destruction of paganism and the emergence of Christianity as the religion of the state, even if the individual steps in this process can be difficult to identify. On the negative side, however, he allowed his dynastic interests and ambitions to lead him into two unnecessary and bloody civil wars which severely weakened the empire's ability to defend itself in the face of continued barbarian pressure upon its frontiers. In this manner, he put the interests of his family before those of the wider Roman population and was responsible, in many ways, for the phenomenon to which we now refer as the fall of the western Roman empire.


Copyright (C) 1998, David Woods.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

There is a nice segue here, as we pick-up John Julius Norwich's summation of the reign of Theodosius, "Readers of this brief account of his career may well find themselves wondering, not so much whether he deserved the title of 'the Great' as how he ever came to acquire it in the first place. If so, however, they may also like to ask themselves another question: what would have been the fate of the Empire if, at that critical moment in its history after the battle of Adrianople, young Gratian had not called him from his Spanish estates and put the future of the East into his hands? . . . the probability is that the whole Empire of the East would have been lost, swallowed up in a revived Gothic kingdom, with effects on world history that defy speculation.

In his civil legislation he showed, again and again, a consideration for the humblest of his subjects that was rare indeed among rulers of the fourth century. What other prince would have decreed that any criminal, sentenced to execution, imprisonment or exile, must first be allowed thirty days' grace to put his affairs in order? Or that a specified part of his worldly goods must go to his children, upon whom their father's crimes must on no account be visited? Or that no farmer should be obliged to sell his produce to the State at a price lower than he would receive on the open market?

Had he earned his title? Not, perhaps, in the way that Constantine had done or as Justinian was to do. But, if not ultimately great himself, he had surely come very close to greatness; and had he reigned as long as they did his achievements might well have equalled theirs. He might even have saved the Western Empire. One thing only is certain: it would be nearly a century and a half before the Romans would look upon his like again" (Norwich, John Julius. Byzantium, the Early Centuries. London: Penguin Group, 1990. 116-7;118).

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
1526_-_1530_Henry_VIII_AR_Halfgroat.JPG
1509 - 1547, HENRY VIII, AR Half-groat, Struck 1515 - 1530 at York, England under Archbishop Thomas (Cardinal) Wolsey3 viewsObverse: HENRIC•VIII•D•G•R•AGL•Z•F•. Youthful profile crowned bust of Henry VIII facing right within circle of pellets. Mint-mark: Voided cross.
Reverse: CIVITAS EBORACI. Shield bearing coat-of-arms on cross fourchée; T - W in upper field divided by shield; galero (cardinal's hat) below.
Diameter: 19mm | Weight: 1.0gm | Die Axis: 8
Virtually uncirculated but with a dark, almost black, tone
SPINK: 2346

The T W on the reverse of this coin refers to Thomas Wolsey, known to posterity as Cardinal Wolsey, one of the most powerful figures at the court of Henry VIII. Although this coin is undated, the issue of Henry VIII's second coinage only began in 1526 and so, since Cardinal Wolsey died in 1530, it must have been struck between those two dates.

Cardinal Wolsey
When Henry VIII became King of England in 1509 he appointed Thomas Wolsey to the post of Almoner, a position that gave him a seat on the Privy Council and an opportunity for establishing a personal rapport with the King to such an extent that by 1514 Wolsey had become the controlling figure in virtually all matters of state. In 1515, he was awarded the title Archbishop of York and this, followed by his appointment that same year as Cardinal by Pope Leo X, gave him precedence over all other English clerics. His ecclesiastical power advanced even further in 1523 when the Bishop of Durham, a post with wide political powers, was added to his titles.
After Wolsey attained the position of Lord Chancellor, the King's chief adviser, he had achieved more power than any other Crown servant in English history and during his fourteen years of chancellorship Wolsey, who was often alluded to as an alter rex (other king), used his power to neutralise the influence of anyone who might threaten his position..
In spite of having made many enemies, Cardinal Wolsey retained Henry VIII's confidence until, in 1527, the King decided to seek an annulment of his marriage to Catherine of Aragon so that he could marry Anne Boleyn. Henry asked Wolsey to negotiate the annulment with the Pope and in 1528 the Pope decided to allow two papal legates, Wolsey himself and Cardinal Campeggio, to decide the outcome in England. Wolsey was confident of the outcome, but Campeggio took a long time to arrive, and then he delayed proceedings so much, that the case had to be suspended and the Pope decided that the official decision should therefore be made in Rome and not in England.
After his failure to negotiate the annulment, Wolsey fell out of favour with Henry and in 1529 he was stripped of his government office and property, including the magnificent Palace of Hampton Court, which Henry took as his own main London residence.
Wolsey was however permitted to retain the title of Archbishop of York and so he travelled to Yorkshire, for the first time in his career, to carry out those duties.
Now that he was no longer protected by Henry, Wolsey's enemies, including it is rumoured, Ann Boleyn, conspired against him and Henry had him arrested and recalled to London to answer to charges of treason. But Wolsey, now in great distress, fell ill on the journey back to the capital and at Leicester, on 29 November 1530, aged about 57, he died from natural causes before he could be beheaded.
*Alex
1542_-1548_MARY_Queen_of_Scots_AR_Bawbee.JPG
1542 - 1567, Mary I “Queen of Scots”, AR billon Bawbee (sixpence), Struck 1542 - 1558 at Edinburgh, Scotland20 viewsObverse: +MARIA•D•G•R•SCOTORVM. Crowned thistle, M to left, R to right, beaded circles and legend surrounding. Greek cross in legend.
Reverse: OPPIDVM•EDINBVRGI, retrograde N in legend. Crown over voided saltire cross, cinquefoil on either side, beaded circles and legend surrounding, fleur-de-lis within legend above.
Diameter: 22mm | Weight: 1.8gms | Die Axis: 10
SPINK: 5433

First period issue, before Mary's marriage to the French Dauphin, Francis. The cinquefoils refer to the Earl of Arran who acted as Regent until Mary came of age.

Mary I is one of the most well known, romantic and tragic figures in Scottish history. She was the only surviving child of King James V of Scotland and became queen on the death of her father when she was only six or seven days old. Mary was brought up in the Catholic faith and educated in France along with the French royal children, while Scotland was ruled in her name by regents, principally the Earl of Arran. In 1558 Mary married the French Dauphin, Francis, and following his accession in 1559 she became Queen consort of France and he King consort of Scotland. However, when Francis died in 1560 Mary was devastated and in 1561 she returned to Scotland. Four years later, in 1565, she married her half-cousin, Lord Darnley and the following year she bore him a son, who would later become James I of England. When in 1567, Darnley's house in Edinburgh was destroyed by an explosion and he was found murdered in the grounds, suspicion implicated Mary and her favourite, the Earl of Bothwell. When later that same year Mary married Bothwell those suspicions were not allayed, and following an uprising against her, she was imprisoned in Loch Leven Castle and forced to abdicate in favour of her one year old son. After an unsuccessful attempt to regain her throne and defeat at the battle of Langside in 1568, Mary fled south to England, only to be imprisoned by Elizabeth I who perceived her as a threat to the throne of England. For over eighteen years Elizabeth had Mary confined in various castles and manor houses throughout England until, in 1587, after being accused of numerous intrigues and plots against Elizabeth, Mary was beheaded at Fotheringhay Castle.
3 comments*Alex
1188_P_Hadrian_RPC--.jpg
1550B MYSIA. Lampsacus Hadrian, Priapus standing13 viewscf RPC III, -- 1550 Trajan; same SNG France 1272; BMC Mysia -, SNG BnF -, SNG Cop

Obv. AΔIANOC KAICAP
Laureate and cuirassed bust of Hadrian right

Rev. ΛΑΜΨΑΚΗΝωΝ
ithyphallic Priapus standing left, right hand raised, left hand on hip

1.55 gr
15 mm
6h

Note.
Priapus or Priapos was a minor rustic fertility god, protector of livestock, fruit plants, gardens and male genitalia. Priapus is marked by his absurdly oversized permanent erection, which gave rise to the medical term priapism. He became a popular figure in Roman erotic art and Latin literature, and is the subject of the often humorously obscene collection of verse called the Priapeia. Statues of Priapus were sometimes placed on boundaries and hung with signs which threatened sexual assault on trespassers.
FORVM coin
okidoki
Bela-III_U-115_C1-101_H-073_Q-001_23,0mm_2,05ga-s.jpg
16.17.?. Béla III., King of Hungary, (1172-1196 A.D.), Cu-23, CÁC I. 16.17.?., (avers same as 16.16.32.,), H--, CNH I.--, U--, #01108 views16.17.?. Béla III., King of Hungary, (1172-1196 A.D.), Cu-23, CÁC I. 16.17.?., (avers same as 16.16.32.,), H--, CNH I.--, U--, #01
avers: Illegible Kufic legend-imitation, a similar legend in lines in a circle of dots, a border of dots.
reverse: Illegible Kufic legend-imitation, a similar legend in lines in a circle of dots, a border of dots. (with IOI).
exergue:-/-//IOI, diameter: 23,0 mm, weight: 2,05g, axis: h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár--, CNH I.--, Unger--, Tóth-Kiss-Fekete: CÁC I.(Catalog of Árpadian Coinage I./Opitz I.), Privy-Mark/Szigla: 16.17.?., (avers same as 16.16.32.,), New subtype/sigla variation!
Q-001
quadrans
BELA-III__H-73a_CNH-I_-103_U--_TKF-14-Q-001_1,28ga-s.jpg
16.19. Béla III., King of Hungary, (1172-1196 A.D.), Cu-23, CÁC I. 16.19./a1.?./?., (avers same as 16.20./a1.14./15.,), H-073A, CNH I.-103, U--, Rare!, #01120 views16.19. Béla III., King of Hungary, (1172-1196 A.D.), Cu-23, CÁC I. 16.19./a1.?./?., (avers same as 16.20./a1.14./15.,), H-073A, CNH I.-103, U--, Rare!, #01
avers: Illegible Kufic legend-imitation, a similar legend in lines in a circle of dots, a border of dots.
reverse: Illegible Kufic legend-imitation, a similar legend in lines in a circle of dots, a border of dots. (with JOJ).
exergue: -/-//JOJ, diameter: 23,0 mm, weight: 1,28, axis: h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-073A, Unger--, CNH I.-103, Tóth-Kiss-Fekete: CÁC I.(Catalog of Árpadian Coinage I./Opitz I.), Privy-Mark/Szigla: 16.19./a1.?./?., (avers same as 16.20./a1.14./15.,), New subtype/sigla variation!,
Q-001
quadrans
BELA-III__H-73a_CNH-I_-103_U--_TKF-xx--Q-002,_6h,_22mm,_1,22g-s.jpg
16.19. Béla III., King of Hungary, (1172-1196 A.D.), Cu-23, CÁC I. 16.19./a1.?./??., (avers same as 16.20./a1.06./07.), H-073A, CNH I.-103, U--, Rare!, #01139 views16.19. Béla III., King of Hungary, (1172-1196 A.D.), Cu-23, CÁC I. 16.19./a1.?./??., (avers same as 16.20./a1.06./07.), H-073A, CNH I.-103, U--, Rare!, #01
avers: Illegible Kufic legend-imitation, a similar legend in lines in a circle of dots, a border of dots.
reverse: Illegible Kufic legend-imitation, a similar legend in lines in a circle of dots, a border of dots. (with JOJ).
exergue: -/-//JOJ, diameter: 22,0 mm, weight: 1,22, axis: 6h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-073A, Unger--, CNH I.-103, Tóth-Kiss-Fekete: CÁC I.(Catalog of Árpadian Coinage I./Opitz I.), Privy-Mark/Szigla: 16.19./a1.?./??., (avers same as 16.20./a1.06./07.), New subtype/sigla variation!,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
rjb_2017_07_s20a.jpg
161a8 viewsFaustina II (“Junior”)
Sestertius
Rome mint
Obv: FAVSTINA AVG PII AVG FIL
Draped bust left
Rev: VENVS SC
Venus standing left holding apple and sceptre
BMC 2185 note, citing Hess, Lucerne, 15 Feb. 1934, lot 698 (same obv. die, different rev. die).
Strack 1322, citing Hess Lucerne 211, 9 May 1932, lot 1014, which is the same coin as the one in their 1934 sale cited by BMC.
1 commentsmauseus
rjb_vers_02_07.jpg
161b60 viewsLucius Verus 161-9 AD
AE sestertius
Obv "IMP CAES L AVREL VERVS AVG"
Draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev "COS II SC"
Aurelius and Verus seated left on a rostrum, attendant standing left below
Rome mint
RIC 1299 (plate XIII, no. 255 same dies), BMC 1071a, C 64
3 commentsmauseus
Flavius-Victor_DN-FL-VIC-TOR-P-F-AVG_SPES-ROMA-NORVM_P-CON_RIC-IX-47a_p-_5th-em_Arleate_387-388-AD_Q-001_11h_14mm_1,29ga-s.jpg
163 Flavius Victor (387-388 A.D.), AE-4 Follis, RIC IX 047a, Arleate, SPES ROMANORVM, Campgate, Rare! Modern Fake !!!105 views163 Flavius Victor (387-388 A.D.), AE-4 Follis, RIC IX 047a, Arleate, SPES ROMANORVM, Campgate, Rare! Modern Fake !!!
Avers:- DN-FL-VIC-TOR-P-F-AVG, Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
revers:- SPES-ROMA-NORVM, Campgate, 2 turrets, 4 layers plus 1 layer on turrets, star above, no doors.
exerg:-|-//P-CON, diameter: 14mm, weight: 1,29g, axes: 11h,
mint: Arleate, date: 387-388 A.D., ref: RIC IX 47a, Rare !
Q-001
by "postvmvs":
"Identified in the Forvm thread on the eBay seller 'Romanseller' (ca. Aug. 2005) but never listed here. An example struck from the same dies (but not the same coin) appeared as Lot 788 of Auction 384-385 (Nov. 2005) by Dr. Busso Peus Nachfolger estimated at 175 EUR, where it was identified as a fake before the end of the sale."

Thank you postvmvs, maridvnvm and Pscipio !!!
quadrans
0023-070np_noir.jpg
1641 - Mark Antony and Lucius Antonius, Denarius237 viewsDenarius minted in Ephesus in 41 BC
M ANT IMP AVG III VIR RPCM NERVA PROQ P, Bare head of Mark Antony right
L ANTONIUS COS, Bare head of Lucius Antonius right
3.58 gr
Ref : HCRI # 246, RCV #1509, Cohen #2
Following description taken from NAC auction 40, #617, about an other example of the same coin :
"This denarius, depicting the bare heads of Marc Antony and his youngest brother Lucius Antony, is a rare dual-portrait issue of the Imperatorial period. The family resemblance is uncanny, and one wonders if they truly looked this much alike, or if it is another case of portrait fusion, much like we observe with the dual-portrait billon tetradrachms of Antioch on which the face of the Egyptian queen Cleopatra VII takes on the square dimensions of Marc Antony. When Antony fled Rome to separate himself from Octavian and to take up his governorship in Gaul, Lucius went with him, and suffered equally from the siege of Mutina. This coin, however, was struck in a later period, when Lucius had for a second time taken up arms against Octavian in the west. Marc Antony was already in the east, and that is the region from which this coinage emanates. Since Lucius lost the ‘Perusine War’ he waged against Octavian, and was subsequently appointed to an office in Spain, where he died, it is likely that he never even saw one of his portrait coins."
3 commentsPotator II
617_Eastern_RSC335d.jpg
167 Hadrian Denarius 134-38 AD Genius standing Eastern mint35 viewsReference.
RIC -; Strack-; BMCRE pg. 379, 22, pl. 69, 20 (same dies) Paris.

Obv. HADRIANVS AVG COS III P P,
Laureate head right

Rev. COS III
Genius standing left, sacrificing from patera over lighted altar, holding cornucopia in left arm.

2.57 gr
17 mm
7h
1 commentsokidoki
Saladin_A788.jpg
1701a, Saladin, 1169-11932046 viewsAYYUBID: Saladin, 1169-1193, AR dirham (2.92g), Halab, AH580, A-788, lovely struck, well-centered & bold, Extremely Fine, Scarce.

His name in Arabic, in full, is SALAH AD-DIN YUSUF IBN AYYUB ("Righteousness of the Faith, Joseph, Son of Job"), also called AL-MALIK AN-NASIR SALAH AD-DIN YUSUF I (b. 1137/38, Tikrit, Mesopotamia--d. March 4, 1193, Damascus), Muslim sultan of Egypt, Syria, Yemen, and Palestine, founder of the Ayyubid dynasty, and the most famous of Muslim heroes.

In wars against the Christian crusaders, he achieved final success with the disciplined capture of Jerusalem (Oct. 2, 1187), ending its 88-year occupation by the Franks. The great Christian counterattack of the Third Crusade was then stalemated by Saladin's military genius.

Saladin was born into a prominent Kurdish family. On the night of his birth, his father, Najm ad-Din Ayyub, gathered his family and moved to Aleppo, there entering the service of 'Imad ad-Din Zangi ibn Aq Sonqur, the powerful Turkish governor in northern Syria. Growing up in Ba'lbek and Damascus, Saladin was apparently an undistinguished youth, with a greater taste for religious studies than military training.
His formal career began when he joined the staff of his uncle Asad ad-Din Shirkuh, an important military commander under the amir Nureddin, son and successor of Zangi. During three military expeditions led by Shirkuh into Egypt to prevent its falling to the Latin-Christian (Frankish) rulers of the states established by the First Crusade, a complex, three-way struggle developed between Amalric I, the Latin king of Jerusalem, Shawar, the powerful vizier of the Egyptian Fatimid caliph, and Shirkuh. After Shirkuh's death and after ordering Shawar's assassination, Saladin, in 1169 at the age of 31, was appointed both commander of the Syrian troops and vizier of Egypt.

His relatively quick rise to power must be attributed not only to the clannish nepotism of his Kurdish family but also to his own emerging talents. As vizier of Egypt, he received the title king (malik), although he was generally known as the sultan. Saladin's position was further enhanced when, in 1171, he abolished the Shi'i Fatimid caliphate, proclaimed a return to Sunnah in Egypt, and consequently became its sole ruler.

Although he remained for a time theoretically a vassal of Nureddin, that relationship ended with the Syrian emir's death in 1174. Using his rich agricultural possessions in Egypt as a financial base, Saladin soon moved into Syria with a small but strictly disciplined army to claim the regency on behalf of the young son of his former suzerain.
Soon, however, he abandoned this claim, and from 1174 until 1186 he zealously pursued a goal of uniting, under his own standard, all the Muslim territories of Syria, northern Mesopotamia, Palestine, and Egypt.

This he accomplished by skillful diplomacy backed when necessary by the swift and resolute use of military force. Gradually, his reputation grew as a generous and virtuous but firm ruler, devoid of pretense, licentiousness, and cruelty. In contrast to the bitter dissension and intense rivalry that had up to then hampered the Muslims in their resistance to the crusaders, Saladin's singleness of purpose induced them to rearm both physically and spiritually.

Saladin's every act was inspired by an intense and unwavering devotion to the idea of jihad ("holy war")-the Muslim equivalent of the Christian crusade. It was an essential part of his policy to encourage the growth and spread of Muslim religious institutions.

He courted its scholars and preachers, founded colleges and mosques for their use, and commissioned them to write edifying works especially on the jihad itself. Through moral regeneration, which was a genuine part of his own way of life, he tried to re-create in his own realm some of the same zeal and enthusiasm that had proved so valuable to the first generations of Muslims when, five centuries before, they had conquered half the known world.

Saladin also succeeded in turning the military balance of power in his favour-more by uniting and disciplining a great number of unruly forces than by employing new or improved military techniques. When at last, in 1187, he was able to throw his full strength into the struggle with the Latin crusader kingdoms, his armies were their equals. On July 4, 1187, aided by his own military good sense and by a phenomenal lack of it on the part of his enemy, Saladin trapped and destroyed in one blow an exhausted and thirst-crazed army of crusaders at Hattin, near Tiberias in northern Palestine.

So great were the losses in the ranks of the crusaders in this one battle that the Muslims were quickly able to overrun nearly the entire Kingdom of Jerusalem. Acre, Toron, Beirut, Sidon, Nazareth, Caesarea, Nabulus, Jaffa (Yafo), and Ascalon (Ashqelon) fell within three months.

But Saladin's crowning achievement and the most disastrous blow to the whole crusading movement came on Oct. 2, 1187, when Jerusalem, holy to both Muslim and Christian alike, surrendered to the Sultan's army after 88 years in the hands of the Franks. In stark contrast to the city's conquest by the Christians, when blood flowed freely during the barbaric slaughter of its inhabitants, the Muslim reconquest was marked by the civilized and courteous behaviour of Saladin and his troops. His sudden success, which in 1189 saw the crusaders reduced to the occupation of only three cities, was, however, marred by his failure to capture Tyre, an almost impregnable coastal fortress to which the scattered Christian survivors of the recent battles flocked. It was to be the rallying point of the Latin counterattack.

Most probably, Saladin did not anticipate the European reaction to his capture of Jerusalem, an event that deeply shocked the West and to which it responded with a new call for a crusade. In addition to many great nobles and famous knights, this crusade, the third, brought the kings of three countries into the struggle.

The magnitude of the Christian effort and the lasting impression it made on contemporaries gave the name of Saladin, as their gallant and chivalrous enemy, an added lustre that his military victories alone could never confer on him.

The Crusade itself was long and exhausting, and, despite the obvious, though at times impulsive, military genius of Richard I the Lion-Heart, it achieved almost nothing. Therein lies the greatest-but often unrecognized--achievement of Saladin. With tired and unwilling feudal levies, committed to fight only a limited season each year, his indomitable will enabled him to fight the greatest champions of Christendom to a draw. The crusaders retained little more than a precarious foothold on the Levantine coast, and when King Richard set sail from the Orient in October 1192, the battle was over.

Saladin withdrew to his capital at Damascus. Soon, the long campaigning seasons and the endless hours in the saddle caught up with him, and he died. While his relatives were already scrambling for pieces of the empire, his friends found that the most powerful and most generous ruler in the Muslim world had not left enough money to pay for his own grave.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
H.A.R. Gibb, "The Arabic Sources for the Life of Saladin," Speculum, 25:58-72 (1950). C.W. Wilson's English translation of one of the most important Arabic works, The Life of Saladin (1897), was reprinted in 1971. The best biography to date is Stanley Lane-Poole, Saladin and the Fall of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, new ed. (1926, reprinted 1964), although it does not take account of all the sources.
See: http://stp.ling.uu.se/~kamalk/language/saladin.html
Ed. J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
1 commentsCleisthenes
GermanI.jpg
1789/90-1865 AD - Johann Jacob Lauer - Rechenpfenning (Jeton)527 viewsMaker: Johann Jacob Lauer (1789/90-1865 AD)
Date: Early-Mid 1800's AD
Condition: Very Fine
Type: Rechenpfenning (Jeton)

Obverse: PLUS ULTRA (Going Further)
Ship with four masts.

Reverse: IOH : LAUER * RECN * PF
Johann Lauer Rechenpfenning
Five stars with a crescent moon above.

Struck in Neurenberg
Note: Slight possibility this was struck by grandson of same name later in the century.
0.47g; 13.5mm; 90°
Pep
ELIZABETH_I_1794.JPG
1794 AE Halfpenny Token. Chichester, Sussex15 viewsObverse: QUEEN ELIZABETH •. Three-quarter facing crowned bust of Queen Elizabeth I right, sceptre resting on her right shoulder.
Reverse: CHICHESTER HALFPENNY •. View of Chichester Cross; in exergue, 1794.
Edge: PAYABLE AT DALLY'S CHICHESTER + + + +.
Diameter 29mm | Die Axis 6
Dalton & Hamer: 15

This token was manufactured by Peter Kempson in Birmingham and the dies were engraved by Thomas Wyon. Little is known about the issuer of the token, seemingly to have been Dally and Son who were drapers in Chichester in the 18th century.

Chichester Cross is an elaborate perpendicular market cross standing at the intersection of the four principal streets in the centre of the city of Chichester, West Sussex. According to the inscription upon it, this cross was built by Edward Story, Bishop of Chichester from 1477 to 1503, but little is known for certain and the style and ornaments of the building suggest that it may date from the reign of Edward IV. It was apparently built so that the poor people should have somewhere to sell their wares, and as a meeting point. An earlier wooden cross had been erected on the same site by Bishop Rede (1369-1385). The stone cross, which underwent repairs during the reign of Charles II and again in 1746, still stands to this day.
3 comments*Alex
Norwich_halfpenny_1811.JPG
1811 AE HALFPENNY, Norwich, Norfolk.42 viewsObverse: NORWICH MDCCCXI. The arms of Norwich consisting of a heraldic shield containing a three towered castle above a lion passant.
Reverse: NEWTON SILVERSMTH AND JEWELLER. Britannia standing facing right, holding spear and shield, behind her, at her side, lion walking right.
Edge: Centre grained.
Diameter: 27mm
Davis 26 | Withers 923

Issued by Francis Newton, a silversmith and Jeweller in Norwich. This is possibly the same Francis Newton (or a close relative) who, in a circular to bankers, was declared bankrupt by solicitors Messrs Bignold, Pulley and Mawe of New Bridge Street, at a meeting in the Rampant Horse Inn, Norwich on 5th August, 1835.

Norwich is situated on the River Wensum and is the regional administrative centre and county town of Norfolk. During the 11th century, Norwich was the largest city in England after London, and one of the most important places in the kingdom. Until the Industrial Revolution, Norwich was the capital of the most populous county in the country and vied with Bristol as England's second city.
*Alex
LouisXVIII1815.JPG
1815. Louis XVIII. The Holy Alliance.98 viewsObv. Bust left LVDOVICVS XVIII FRANC ET NAV REX, ANDRIEU F on truncation.
Rev. REGNIS EVROPAE CONCORDIA STABILIENDIS, on shield at centre GALLIA AVSTRIA BORVSS (Prussia) ANGLIA RVSSIA, SACRO FOEDERE IVNCTAE, in exergue ACCESSIT GALLIA NOVEMB MDCCCXV, signed F GATTEAUX Allegorical figures of France and ? facing in each in front of shield and a group of standards bearing the arms of the Great Powers involved in the Napoleonic Wars (Britains, interestingly enough, is at the back, half covered) with a unicorn behind the right figure.
AE50.

This is a confusing medal. It depicts the nations of Austria, Great Britain, France, Prussia and Russia as part of the Holy Alliance. Yet many historical sources say Great Britain never joined due to distaste and constitutional incompatibility with the others reactionary policies. But other sources say Britain did join at the same time as France (November 20, 1815). Who is right? If Britain did not join why are they on the medal, but if they did why is there so much written to the contrary?
LordBest
644_Hadrian_Eastern_Strack76.jpg
181A2 Hadrian, Denarius 134-138 AD, Italia Eastern Mint33 viewsReference.
Strack *76 (Vienna), pl. XX (same dies).

Obv: HADRIANVS - AVG COS III P P
Bust laureate r., fold of cloak on front shoulder.

Rev: ITA - LIA
Italia standing l. holding long scepter and cornucopia.

3.20 gr
19 mm
6h

Notes.
Ex Curtis L. Clay Collection; ex CNG Esale 302, 8 May 2013, lot 371. Very rare in Eastern style. Strack knew only one specimen, in Vienna; this is from the same die pair.
2 commentsokidoki
966_P_Hadrian_RPC1885.jpg
1885 AEOLIS, Elaea. Hadrian, Basket with Poppies26 viewsReference.
RPC III, 1885; Sear 1161v; BMC 42 (pag. 129); SNGvA 1611; SNG Munchen 424, SNG Cop -

Obv. ΑΥΤΟ ΤΡΑΙ ΑΔΡΙ
Laureate, draped & cuirassed bust right.

Rev. ΕΛΑΙΤΩΝ
Basket containing ears of corn & poppy-heads.

3.20 gr
16 mm
12h

Note.
FORVM, from the Butte College Foundation, ex Lindgren

laea was the ancient port of Pergamum, located near the modern town of Zeytindag, Izmir Province, Turkey. The name of Elaea occurs in the history of the kings of Pergamum. According to Strabo, from Livy (xxxv. 13), travelers who would reach Pergamum from the sea, would land at Elaea. One of the passages of Livy shows that there was a small hill near Elaea, and that the town was in a plain and walled. Elaea was damaged by an earthquake in the reign of Trajan, at the same time that Pitane suffered. The ruins of the silted port's breakwater can be seen on satellite photos.
1 commentsokidoki
998_P_Hadrian_RPC--.jpg
1926B AEOLIS. Aegae. Pseudo-autonomous under Hadrian Ae 18 statue of Apollo Chresterios10 viewsReference.
RPC --; RPC III, 1926B

Magistrate Oul. Polemôn (agô(nothete) (?))

Obv: IЄPA CVNKΛHTOC.
Laureate and draped youthful bust of the Senate right.

Rev: ЄΠI AΓΩ OVΛ ΠOΛЄMON / AI - ΓA.
Facing statue of Apollo Chresterios, with branch in hand.

3.84 gr
18 mm
12h

Note.
RPC III - (though cf. 1926 for a coin of Sabina from the same magistrate)

Agonothetes was a magistrate whose duty was the superintendence of games.

Aigai was the centre of the worshipping of Apollo Chresterios, meaning the foresayer, the prophet. It is known from an inscription that about 250 BC the inhabitants of Istros have sent a delegation to Aigai asking wether the oracle would tolerate the introducing of Serapis to Istros.
okidoki
a9.jpg
1929D ALEXIUS AE TETARTERON S-1929 DOC 38 CLBC 2.4.5 Imitation 39 viewsOBV Bust of Christ, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds gospels open in l. hand. Pellet in each limb of nimbus cross.

REV. Bust facing wearing stemma, divitision, and chlamys; holds in r. hand scepter cruciger, and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 19.91mm
Weight 1.9gm

This is an imitation of Sear 1929, better to say it was not produced to the same standards as coins from the other mints. Interesting enough , imitations only seem to occur under Alexius rule and the Manuel's rule, I have never seen an imitation of John II coinage, that leaves me to believe these were authorized in some way by Alexius. Perhaps to help the introduction of the new coinage.

DOC lists 9 examples with weight s running from 1.82gm to 5.10gm and size from 18mm to 22mm
Simon
d3.jpg
1931A ALEXIUS AE TETARTERON S-1931 DOC 40 CLBC 2.4.7 19 views
OBV Jeweled radiate Cross, decorated at the end of each limb with one large globule and two smaller, all on two steps.

REV. Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision and jeweled loros of traditional type; holds in r. hand scepter cruciger and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 23/20mm

Weight 5.2gm

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron. This coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

DOC lists 25 examples with weights running from1.09gm to 4.22gm and sizes ranging from 17mm to 23mm

I have another example in my collection that has a weight of 6.2 gm and 25mm This coin is its brother being purchased from the same dealer at the same auction.
Simon
Edward_8_Medal_1937.JPG
1937 EDWARD VIII AE CORONATION MEDAL11 viewsObverse: • HIS • MAJESTY • KING • EDWARD • VIII •, Crowned bust of Edward VIII facing right, wearing ceremonial robes, the legend in raised letters on a raised border with each word separated by a rose.
Reverse: CROWNED – A. D. 1937. Britannia standing facing within a distyle arch, holding crown aloft with her right hand and union flag on pole in her left, in background to left, battleship and to right, London riverside scene in which St Paul's Cathedral can be discerned.
Diameter: 45mm

No coins were issued for Edward VIII who became King on the death of his father, George V, on 20th January 1936. Edward's coronation never took place because he abdicated the throne on 11th December that same year after a reign lasting only 326 days.
As Edward VIII was never crowned the coin types bearing the portrait of George V continued to be struck throughout 1936 and up until the coronation in 1937 of Edward's younger brother Albert, who reigned as George VI.

This unsigned medal was struck in 1936 in anticipation of the proposed Coronation of Edward VIII on 12th May, 1937. The same reverse dies were subsequently reused on coronation medals for George VI.
*Alex
1938.jpg
1938 JOHN II HYPERPYRON NOMISMA IV DOC 1 Constantinople First Coinage SBCV-193826 viewsOBV Christ Bearded and Nimbate , wearing tunic and kolobion, seated upon a throne without back: r. hand raised in benediction , holds gospels in l.

REV Half length figure of emperor on l. and of Virgin , holding between them Partriarcghal cross on long shaft. Emperor wears stemma, divitision, collar piece, and paneled loros of simplified type; holds anexikakia in r. hand. Virgin wears tunic and maphorion. Manus Dei in upeer left field.

Size 30mm

Weight 4.0gm
.
DOC lists 17 examples with weights from 4.04gm to 4.40gm and sizes ranging from 30mm to 36mm

Not a perfect example but had a wonderful Provenance, has original ticket from J Schulman coin dealers in Amsterdam before WWII, (From the start Jacques Schulman kept meticulous records of every coin and medal in his inventory, sales, and auctions. These were index cards that formed a database in the exact same way libraries kept their catalogue card index for books, and other printed materials.
Simon
rjb_sev_06_07.jpg
193b32 viewsSeptimius Severus 193-211 AD
AR denarius
Obv "L SEPT SEV PERET AVG IMP II"
Laureate bust right
Rev "INVICTO IMPER"
Trophy of arms
Laodicea mint
RIC -; BMC -

Curtis Clay "The BM, new acquisition, has a similar coin, but on rev. only INVICTO - IMPE (not IMPER). Another specimen from the same dies was in Berk stock."
mauseus
septsev_RIC40.jpg
194-195 AD - SEPTIMIUS SEVERUS AR denarius26 viewsobv: L.SEPT.SEV.PERT.AVG.IMP.IIII (laureate head right)
rev: APOLLINI AGVSTO (sic!) (Apollo standing left, holding patera and lyre)
ref: RIC IVi 40 (S), C.42 (3frcs)
mint: Rome
2.30gms, 17mm
Scarce

The reverse legend is APOLLINI AGVSTO instead of APOLLINI AVGVSTO.
It was in memory of the veneration rendered by Augustus to Apollo, that this coin was struck, in which the name itself of Augustus is given to that deity, who is represented in the same costume and attitude. (Numiswiki)
See also my Antoninus Pius AE As (RIC III 824)
1 commentsberserker
s-1945c.jpg
1945B JOHN II Metropolitan Tetarteron S-1945 DOC 12 CLBC 3.4.1 15 viewsOBV Full length figure of Christ standing on a dais, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds Gospels in l. hand.

REV Full length figure of Emperor wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece and jeweled loros of a simplified type. Holds in r. hand scepter cruciger and in l. hand gl. cr.

Size 18/19mm

Weight 3.8gm

Cosmopolitan Issue were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of 3% and were also issued with a very light silver wash (Silver traces are common on Cosmopolitan issues but intact fully silvered coins are very rare.) These more than likely were tariffed at a higher rate than the Thessalonica issues that have been shown to have no silver content. Cosmopolitan issue are in general far scarcer than the Thessalonica issues.

DOC lists 27 examples with weights from 2,79gm to 4.69gm and sizes ranging from 18mm to 22mm

John IIs Metro tetartera are easy to come by, the do not have the same rarity as the other emperors metro issues. This one has been in my collection near the beginning , it grades as fine an evenly worn.
Simon
s6~0.jpg
1947 JOHN II HYPERPYRON NOMISMA IV DOC 1 Thessalonica First Coinage SBCV-194716 views JOHN II HYPERPYRON NOMISMA IV DOC 1 Thessalonica First Coinage SBCV-1947
OBV Christ Bearded and Nimbate , wearing tunic and kolobion, seated upon a throne without back: r. hand raised in benediction , holds gospels in l.

REV Half length figure of emperor on l. and of Virgin , holding between them Partriarcghal cross on long shaft. Emperor wears stemma, divitision, collar piece, and paneled loros of simplified type; holds anexikakia in r. hand. Virgin wears tunic and maphorion. Manus Dei in upeer left field.

Size 29mm

Weight 4.5gm

Thicker metal than Constantinople issue, very difficult to differentiate between the same issue from different mints.
Simon
rjb_stobi_07_07.jpg
19831 viewsCaracalla 198-217 AD
AE 22 mm
Stobi
Nike walking right stepping onto globe
Same reverse die (R146) as Josifovski 452
Displays the same obverse error as whited49's specimen HERE.
mauseus
rjb_2012_07_09.jpg
19834 viewsCaracalla
Denarius
Obv: ANTONINVS AVGVSTVS
Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right viewed from front
Rev: PONTIF TRP III
Sol standing facing, head left, holding globe and spear
Rome mint
RIC - (cf 30)
Note from Curtis L Clay:
Denarii with bust seen from front in this era are very unusual.

With obv. legend ANTONINVS - AVGVSTVS I had previously been aware of only a single bust-front denarius obv. die: with rev. SECVRIT ORBIS in coll. of Forvm member septimus, used as his avatar, and with rev. PONT TR P II, same Securitas seated rev. type, in Oxford (Evans), from the East of England hoard of 1898.

Your coin is a new bust variety to my knowledge, of 200 AD and thus, as was to be expected, from a different obv. die than those two other bust-front denarii of 199.
mauseus
LiviaAE23Tyche.jpg
1aj Livia16 viewsDied 29 AD

AE23 of Cilicia, Augusta
23–24 AD

ΙΟΥΛΙΑ [Σ]ΕΒΑΣΤΗ, Portrait, right
ΑΥΓΟΥCTA—NW—N, Tyche std., river god Saros at feet

This is one of my favorite pieces because I picked it up for a couple of bucks from a market stall in an Aegean country.

RPC I 4013-4014
Same design as RPC 4009v, but larger

According to Suetonius, "The last words [Augustus] spoke were to his wife: ‘Livia, keep the memory of our marriage alive, and farewell!’ and died the very moment he was kissing her."
Blindado
CaligulaAE27Caesonia.jpg
1ao2 Caesonia (?)19 viewsAE 27 of Carthago Nova, Spain

Laureate head of Caligula, right, C CAESAR AVG GERMANIS
Draped bust of Caesonia (as Salus) right, DN ATEL FLAC CN POM FLAC II VIR Q V I N C, SAL AVG across field

Generally held to portray the fourth wife of Caligula.

Sear 624

Caesonia, Milonia, (d41AD) was the fourth and last wife of Caligula. Her younger half-brother was the Consul Gnaeus Domitius Corbulo. Her niece, Domitia Longina, married Domitian. In 41, Caligula was assassinated and Caesonia and her daughter Julia Drusilla murdered.

Suetonius states: As for Caesonia, who was neither young nor beautiful, had three daughters by another man, and was wildly promiscuous and extravagant, he not only loved her more passionately for it, but also more faithfully, taking her out riding, and showing her to the soldiers, dressed in a cloak with helmet and shield: while he exhibited her to his friends stark naked. He did not honour her with the title of wife until she had given him a child, announcing his paternity and the marriage on the very same day. This child, whom he named Julia Drusilla, he carried round all the temples of the goddesses, before finally entrusting her to Minerva’s lap, calling on that goddess to nurture and educate his daughter. Nothing persuaded him more clearly that she was his own issue than her violent temper, which was so savage the infant would tear at the faces and eyes of her little playmates. . . .

And as [Caligula] kissed the neck of wife or sweetheart, he never failed to say: ‘This lovely thing will be slit whenever I say.’ Now and then he even threatened his dear Caesonia with torture, if that was the only way of discovering why he was so enamoured of her. . . . Some think that Caesonia his wife administered a love potion that had instead the effect of driving him mad.
Blindado
Caligula_Drusilla_AE20.jpg
1ao3 Julia Drusilla33 viewsAE 20 of Smyrna (Izmir, Turkey)
Laureate head of Caligula, right, ΓAION KAICAPA EΠI AOYIOΛA
Drusilla as Persephone seated left, poppies between two stalks of grain in right hand, long scepter vertical behind in left hand, ∆POYCIΛΛAN ZMYPNAIΩN MHNOΦANHC

Caligula’s sister

Klose XXVIII, 27 (Vs4/Rs10); RPC I 2472; SNG Cop 1343; SNGvA 2202; BMC Ionia p. 269, 272

According to Suetonius’ salacious account: Germanicus had married Agrippina the Elder, daughter of Marcus Agrippa and Julia the Elder, and she had borne him nine children. Two died in infancy, another in early childhood. . . .

The other children survived their father: three girls, Agrippina the Younger, Drusilla and Livilla, born in successive years; and three boys, Nero, Drusus, and Gaius Caesar (Caligula). . . . [Caligula] habitually committed incest with each of his three sisters, seating them in turn below him at large banquets while his wife reclined above. It is believed that he violated Drusilla’s virginity while a minor, and been caught in bed with her by his grandmother Antonia, in whose household they were jointly raised. Later, when Drusilla was married to Lucius Cassius Longinus, an ex-consul, he took her from him and openly treated her as his lawful married wife. When he fell ill he made her heir to his estate and the throne.

When Drusilla died (in 38AD) he declared a period of public mourning during which it was a capital offense to laugh, or bathe, or to dine with parents, spouse or children. Caligula himself was so overcome with grief that he fled the City in the middle of the night, and travelled through Campania, and on to Syracuse, returning again with the same degree of haste, and without cutting his hair or shaving. From that time forwards whenever he took an important oath, even in public or in front of the army, he always swore by Drusilla’s divinity.
Blindado
ClaudiusMessalinaAE20.jpg
1ap_2 Messalina36 viewsThird wife of Claudius, married in 38 (?)

AE 20, Knossos mint

Bare head of Claudius left, CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS

Draped bust of Messalina right, VALERIA MESSALINA [CAPITONE CYTHERONTE IIVIR] or [CYTHERO CAPITONE] (end of legend off flan)

According to Suetonius: [Claudius] was betrothed twice at an early age: to Aemilia Lepida, great-granddaughter of Augustus, and to Livia Medullina, who also had the surname of Camilla and was descended from the ancient family of Camillus the dictator. He put away the former before their marriage, because her parents had offended Augustus; the latter was taken ill and died on the very day which had been set for the wedding. He then married Plautia Urgulanilla, whose father had been honoured with a triumph, and later Aelia Paetina, daughter of an ex-consul. He divorced both these, Paetina for trivial offences, but Urgulanilla because of scandalous lewdness and the suspicion of murder. Then he married Valeria Messalina, daughter of his cousin Messala Barbatus. But when he learned that besides other shameful and wicked deeds she had actually married Gaius Silius, and that a formal contract had been signed in the presence of witnesses, he put her to death and declared before the assembled praetorian guard that inasmuch as his marriages did not turn out well, he would remain a widower, and if he did not keep his word, he would not refuse death at their hands. . . . [He later married Agrippina Jr.]

He had children by three of his wives: by Urgulanilla, Drusus and Claudia; by Paetina, Antonia; by Messalina, Octavia and a son, at first called Germanicus and later Britannicus. . . .

But it is beyond all belief, that at the marriage which Messalina had contracted with her paramour Silius he signed the contract for the dowry with his own hand, being induced to do so on the ground that the marriage was a feigned one, designed to avert and turn upon another a danger which was inferred from certain portents to threaten the emperor himself. . . .

He was so terror-stricken by unfounded reports of conspiracies that he had tried to abdicate. When, as I have mentioned before, a man with a dagger was caught near him as he was sacrificing, he summoned the senate in haste by criers and loudly and tearfully bewailed his lot, saying that there was no safety for him anywhere; and for a long time he would not appear in public. His ardent love for Messalina too was cooled, not so much by her unseemly and insulting conduct, as through fear of danger, since he believed that her paramour Silius aspired to the throne. . . .

Appius Silanus met his downfall. When Messalina and Narcissus had put their heads together to destroy him, they agreed on their parts and the latter rushed into his patron's bed-chamber before daybreak in pretended consternation, declaring that he had dreamed that Appius had made an attack on the emperor. Then Messalina, with assumed surprise, declared that she had had the same dream for several successive nights. A little later, as had been arranged, Appius, who had received orders the day before to come at that time, was reported to be forcing his way in, and as if were proof positive of the truth of the dream, his immediate accusation and death were ordered. . . .


1 commentsBlindado
NeroAsGenAug.jpg
1ar Nero52 views54-68

As

Bare head, right, IMP NERO CAESAR AVG P MAX TR P P P
Genius, GENIO AVGVSTI

RIC 86

Suetonius wrote: Nero was born nine months after the death of Tiberius, at Antium, at sunrise on the 15th of December (AD 37). . . . While he was still a young stripling he took part in a successful performance of the Troy Game in the Circus, in which he exhibited great self-possession. At the age of twelve or so (sometime in AD 50), he was adopted by Claudius, who appointed Annaeus Seneca, already a member of the Senate, as his tutor. The following night, it is said, Seneca dreamed that his young charge was really Caligula, and Nero soon proved the dream prophetic by seizing the first opportunity to reveal his cruel disposition. . . . After Claudius’s death (AD 54) had been announced publicly, Nero, who was not quite seventeen years old, decided to address the Guards in the late afternoon, since inauspicious omens that day had ruled out an earlier appearance. After being acclaimed Emperor on the Palace steps, he was carried in a litter to the Praetorian Camp where he spoke to the Guards, and then to the House where he stayed until evening. He refused only one of the many honours that were heaped upon him, that of ‘Father of the Country’, and declined that simply on account of his youth.

Eutropius summarized: To him succeeded NERO, who greatly resembled his uncle Caligula, and both disgraced and weakened the Roman empire; he indulged in such extraordinary luxury and extravagance, that, after the example of Caius Caligula, he even bathed in hot and cold perfumes, and fished with golden nets, which he drew up with cords of purple silk. He put to death a very great number of the senate. To all good men he was an enemy. At last he exposed himself in so disgraceful a manner, that he danced and sung upon the stage in the dress of a harp-player and tragedian. He was guilty of many murders, his brother, wife, and mother, being put to death by him. He set on fire the city of Rome, that he might enjoy the sight of a spectacle such as Troy formerly presented when taken and burned.

In military affairs he attempted nothing. Britain he almost lost; for two of its most noble towns4 were taken and levelled to the ground under his reign. The Parthians took from him Armenia, and compelled the Roman legions to pass under the yoke. Two provinces however were formed under him; Pontus Polemoniacus, by the concession of King Polemon; and the Cottian Alps, on the death of King Cottius.

15 When, having become detestable by such conduct to the city of Rome, and being deserted at the same time by every one, and declared an enemy by the senate, he was sought for to be led to punishment (the punishment being, that he should be dragged naked through the streets, with a fork placed under his head,5 be beaten to death with rods, and then hurled from the Tarpeian rock), he fled from the palace, and killed himself in a suburban villa of one of his freed-men, between the Salarian and Nomentane roads, at the fourth milestone from the city. He built those hot baths at Rome, which were formerly called the Neronian, but now the Alexandrian. He died in the thirty-second year of his age, and the fourteenth year of his reign; and in him all the family of Augustus became extinct.

Having successfully dispatched his scheming mother Agrippina in 59 and survived a decade on the throne, Nero must have felt like a genius when this was minted ca 64 AD!
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NeroTetPoppaea.jpg
1as Poppaea38 viewsWife of Nero, died 65 AD

Tetradrachm

Radiate head, right, NERW LKAU KAIS SEB GER AV
Poppaea, portrait right, POPPAIA SEBASTH, LIA to rt

Milne 209

Poppaea Sabina (AD 30-65) after AD 63 known as Poppaea Augusta Sabina and sometimes referred to as Poppaea Sabina the Younger to differentiate her from her mother of the same name, was the second wife of the Emperor Nero from AD 62. Prior to this she was the wife of the future Emperor Otho. Suetonius noted, "He married two wives after Octavia. The first was Poppaea Sabina (from AD 62), daughter of an ex-quaestor, married at that time to a Roman knight. . . . Nero doted on Poppeia, whom he married twelve days after divorcing Octavia, yet he caused her death by kicking her when she was pregnant and ill, because she complained of his coming home late from the races. She had borne him a daughter, Claudia Augusta, who died in infancy."
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TitusProv.jpg
1ax Titus96 views79-81

AE, Ankyra, Galatia
Laureate head, right AY KAICAP TITOC CEBASTO. . .
Man standing, left, SEBASTHNWN TEKTOSAGWN

RPC 1620

By Suetonius' account: Titus, surnamed Vespasianus like his father, possessed such an aptitude, by nature, nurture, or good fortune, for winning affection that he was loved and adored by all the world as Emperor. . . . He was born on the 30th of December AD41, the very year of Caligula’s assassination, in a little dingy room of a humble dwelling, near the Septizonium. . . .

He was handsome, graceful, and dignified, and of exceptional strength, though of no great height and rather full-bellied. He had an extraordinary memory, and an aptitude for virtually all the arts of war and peace, being a fine horseman, skilled in the use of weapons, yet penning impromptu verses in Greek and Latin with equal readiness and facility. He had a grasp of music too, singing well and playing the harp pleasantly and with ability. . . .

As military tribune in Germany (c57-59AD) and Britain (c60-62), he won an excellent reputation for energy and integrity, as is shown by the large number of inscribed statues and busts of him found in both countries. . . . When his quaestorship ended, he commanded one of his father’s legions in Judaea, capturing the strongholds of Tarichaeae and Gamala (67AD). His horse was killed under him in battle, but he mounted that of a comrade who fell fighting at his side. . . . [Upon] Vespasian’s accession, his father left him to complete the conquest of Judaea, and in the final assault on Jerusalem (70AD) Titus killed twelve of the defenders with as many arrows. . . .

From then on, he acted as his father’s colleague and even protector. He shared in his Judaean triumph (of AD 71), the censorship (AD 73), the exercise of tribunicial power, and in seven of his consulships (AD 70, 72, 74-77, 79). . . .

He died at the same villa as his father, Vespasian, on the 13th of September AD81, at the age of forty-one, after a reign of two years, two months, and twenty days. The people mourned his loss as if he were a member of their own family.
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HadrianSestFortuna.jpg
1be Hadrian44 views117-138

Sestertius
Laureate head, right, HADRIANVUS AVG COS III PP
Fortuna standing left with rudder on globe and cornucopia, FORTVNA AVG

RIC 759

According to the Historia Augusta, "Bereft of his father at the age of ten, he became the ward of Ulpius Trajanus, his cousin, then of praetorian rank, but afterwards emperor, and of Caelius Attianus, a knight. He then grew rather deeply devoted to Greek studies, to which his natural tastes inclined so much that some called him 'Greekling. . . .' In the 105-106 second Dacian war, Trajan appointed him to the command of the First Legion, the Minervia, and took him with him to the war; and in this campaign his many remarkable deeds won great renown. . . . On taking possession of the imperial power
Hadrian at once resumed the policy of the early emperors and devoted his attention to maintaining peace throughout the world. . . . [I]n this letter to the Senate he apologized because he had not left it the right to decide regarding his accession, explaining that the unseemly haste of the troops in acclaiming him emperor was due to the belief that the state could not be without an emperor. . . . He was, in the same person, austere and genial, dignified and playful, dilatory and quick to act, niggardly and generous, deceitful and straightforward, cruel and merciful, and always in all things changeable. . . . Hadrian's memory was vast and his ability was unlimited ; for instance, he personally dictated his speeches and gave opinions on all questions. He was also very witty. . . ."

After this Hadrian departed for Baiae, leaving Antoninus at Rome to carry on the government. But he received no benefit there, and he thereupon
sent for Antoninus, and in his presence he died there at Baiae on the sixth day before the Ides of July.

According to Eutropius: After the death of Trajan, AELIUS HADRIAN was made emperor, not from any wish to that effect having been expressed by Trajan himself, but through the influence of Plotina, Trajan's wife; for Trajan in his life-time had refused to adopt him, though he was the son of his cousin. He also was born at Italica in Spain. Envying Trajan's glory, he immediately gave up three of the provinces which Trajan had added to the empire, withdrawing the armies from Assyria, Mesopotamia, and Armenia, and deciding that the Euphrates should be the boundary of the empire. When he was proceeding, to act similarly with regard to Dacia, his friends dissuaded him, lest many Roman citizens should be left in the hands of the barbarians, because Trajan, after he had subdued Dacia, had transplanted thither an infinite number of men from the whole Roman world, to people the country and the cities; as the land had been exhausted of inhabitants in the long war maintained by Decebalus.

He enjoyed peace, however, through the whole course of his reign; the only war that he had, he committed to the conduct of a governor of a province. He went about through the Roman empire, and founded many edifices. He spoke with great eloquence in the Latin language, and was very learned in the Greek. He had no great reputation for clemency, but was very attentive to the state of the treasury and the discipline of the soldiers. He died in Campania, more than sixty years old, in the twenty-first year, tenth month, and twenty-ninth day of his reign. The senate was unwilling to allow him divine honours; but his successor Titus Aurelius Fulvius Antonius, earnestly insisting on it, carried his point, though all the senators were openly opposed to him.
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FaustinaIIAsJuno.jpg
1bk Faustina Junior147 viewsWife of Marcus Aurelius. 131-176

As
Draped bust, left, FAVSTINA AVG PII AVG FIL
Juno seated left holding the three graces and scepter, peacock at feet, IVNO SC

The daughter of Antoninus Pius, wife of Aurelius, and mother of Commodus, Faustina had a box seat to witness the end of the Golden Age. She bore Aurelius at least 13 children and accompanied him on his military campaigns, yet years later had her reputation impuned for alleged adultery.

The reverse is RIC 1400, for which only right-facing busts are listed.

From Curtis Clay: "This is a rev. type that used to be very rare, even with bust right, but quite a few specimens have emerged from Bulgaria since the fall of the Iron Curtain.

I had a specimen with bust left myself, acquired from Baldwin's c. 1970, which is now in the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford.

A VF specimen with bust left, from the same dies as yours, was in CNG E54, 4 Dec. 2002, 145 = CNG 57, 4 April 2001, 1292.

Still an interesting and scarce reverse type, and rare with bust left, a variety that is hard to find on any Roman coin of Faustina II !" Thank you, Curtis!
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CommodusSestRoma.jpg
1bn Commodus28 views177-192

Sestertius

Laureate head, right, M COMMOD ANT P FELIX AVG BRIT PP

Roma seated left, ROM FEL PM TR P XVI COS VI

RIC 224

The Historia Augusta reports: As for Commodus himself, he was born, with his twin brother Antoninus, at Laiiuvium where his mother's father was born, it is said on the day before the Kalends of September, while his father and uncle were consuls. . . . Marcus tried to educate Commodus by his own teaching and by that of the greatest and the best of men. . . . However, teachers in all these studies profited him not in the least such is the power, either of natural character, or of the tutors maintained in a palace. For even from his earliest years he was base and dis- honorable, and cruel and lewd, defiled of mouth, moreover, and debauched. . . . While yet a child he was given the name of Caesar, along with his brother Verus. . . .

[After Marcus died], He abandoned the war which his father had almost finished and submitted to the enemy's terms, and then he returned to Rome. . . . After he had come back to Rome, he led the triumphal procession with Saoterus, his partner in depravity, seated in his chariot, and from time to time he would turn around and kiss him openly, repeating this same performance even in the orchestra. And not only was he wont to drink until dawn and squander the resources of the Roman Empire, but in the evening he would ramble through taverns and brothels. 6 He sent out to rule the provinces men who were either his companions in crime or were recommended to him by criminals. He became so detested by the senate that he in his turn was moved with cruel passion for the destruction of that great order, and from having been despised he became bloodthirsty. . . . He was called also the Roman Hercules, on the ground that he had killed 192 wild beasts in the amphitheatre at Lanuvium. . . . He engaged in gladiatorial combats, and accepted
the names usually given to gladiators 5 with as much pleasure as if he had been granted triumphal decorations. . . .

Because of these things but all too late Quintus Aemilius Laetus, prefect of the guard, and Marcia, his concubine, were roused to action and entered into a conspiracy against his life. First they gave him poison; and when this proved ineffective they had him strangled by the athlete with whom he was accustomed to exercise.
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ClodAlbDenRoma.jpg
1br Clodius Albinus38 views195-197

Denarius

Bare head, right, D CL SEPT ALBIN CAES
Roma seated on shield holding Palladium and scepter, ROMAE AETERNAE

RIC 11

According to the Historia Augusta, which in the case of Albinus is thought to be of dubious veracity: After the death of Pertinax, who was slain at Albinus' advice, various men were hailed emperor at about one and the same time by the senate Julianus at Rome, and by the armies, Septimius Severus in Illyricum, Pescennius Niger in the East, and Clodius Albinus in Gaul. According to Herodian, Clodius had been named Caesar by Severus. But as time went on, each chafed at the other's rule, and the armies of Gaul and Germany demanded an emperor of their own naming, and so all parts of the empire were thrown into an uproar. . . .

It is an undeniable fact, moreover, and Marius Maximus also relates it, that Severus at first intended to name Pescennius Niger and Clodius Albinus as his successors, in case aught befell him. Later, as it happened, in the interest of his growing sons, and through envy of the affection in which Albinus was held, and most of all becau-e of his wires entreaties, he changed his purpose and crushed both of them in war. But he did name Albinus consul, and this he never would have done had not Aibinus been a worthy man, since he was ever most careful in his choice of magistrate. . . .

As soon as he came of age he entered military service, and by the aid of Lollius Serenus, Baebius Maecianus and Ceionius Postumianus, all his kinsmen, he gained the notice of the Antonines. In the capacity of a tribune he commanded a troop of Dalmatian horse: he also commanded soldiers of the I and the IV legions. At the time of Avidius' revolt he loyally held the Bithynian army to its allegiance. Next, Commodus transferred him to Gaul; and here he routed the tribes from over the Rhine and made his name illustrious among both Romans and barbarians. This aroused Commodus' interest, and he offered Albinus the name of Caesar and the privilege, too, of giving the soldiers a present and wearing the scarlet cloak. But all these offers Albinus wisely refused, for Commodus, he said, was only looking for a man who would perish with him, or whom he could reasonably put to death. . . .

[A]fter a decisive engagement, where countless of his soldiers fell, and very many fled, and many, too, surrendered, Albinus also fled away and, according to some, stabbed himself, according to others, was stabbed by a slave. At any rate, he was brought to Severus only half alive. . . . Albinus' head was cut off and paraded on a pike, and finally sent to Rome.
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SeptSevDenFund.jpg
1bs Septimius Severus87 views193-211

Denarius

Laureate head, right, SEVERVS PIVS AVG
Septimius, togate and veiled, standing left holding olive branch, FVNDATOR PACIS

RIC 265

According to the Historia Augusta: After the murder of Didius Julianus, Severus, a native of Africa, gained the empire. His home town was Lepcis Magna, his father was Geta and his ancestors had been Roman knights before citizenship had been given to all. . . . He himself was born on the third day before the Ides of April, when Erucius Clarus, for the second time, and Severus were the consuls [11 April A.D.146]. . . .

After his departure to Germany he conducted himself in such a way in his governorship as to increase his reputation, which had already become noteworthy. Up to this point his military activity was as a private citizen. But then, after it had been learned that Commodus had been murdered and, moreover, that Julianus held the empire amid universal hatred, he was proclaimed emperor by the German legions at Carnuntum, on the Ides of August, although he did put up some resistance to the many who urged him on. He gave the soldiers . . . sesterces each. Then, after strengthening the provinces which he was leaving in his rear, he marched on Rome. All yielded to him wherever he went, while the armies of Illyricum and Gaul, under the pressure of their generals, had already sworn allegiance to him - for he was received by everyone as the avenger of Pertinax. At the same time, on the instigation of Julianus, Septimius Severus was declared a public enemy, and envoys were sent to the army who were to order the soldiers to desert him, on the instructions of the Senate. At first, when Severus heard that the envoys had been sent by authority of a senatorial decree, he was very frightened. Afterwards, by bribing the envoys, he ensured that they spoke in his favour before the army and crossed to his side. Having learned this, Julianus caused a decree ofthe Senate to be passed regarding his sharing of the empire with Severus. It is uncertain whether or not he did this as a trick, since he had already, before this, dispatched certain men, well known for their assassinations of generals, who were to kill Severus. Similarly he had sent men to assassinate Pescennius Niger, who had also assumed the position of emperor in opposition to him, on the instigation of the Syrian armies. But Severus escaped the hands of those that Julianus had sent to murder him and sent a letter to the praetorian guard, giving them the signal either to desertJulianus or to kill him. He was obeyed at once; Julianus was killed in the palace and Severus was invited to Rome. Thus Severus became the victor merely at will - something that had never happened to anyone - and hastened to Rome under arms. . . .

The same emperor, although implacable towards offences, likewise displayed singular judiciousness in encouraging all hard-working persons. He was quite interested in philosophy and the practice of rhetoric, and enthusiastic about learning in general. He took some measures against brigands everywhere. He composed a convincing autobiography dealing with both his private and his public life, making excuses only for the vice of cruelty. With regard to this, the Senate pronounced that either he ought not to have been born or that he ought not to die, since he appeared to be both excessively cruel and excessively useful to the republic. . . . . He died at Eboracum [York] in Britain, having subdued the tribes which appeared hostile to Britain, in the eighteeneh year of his reign, stricken by a very grave illness, now an old man. . . .

This emperor wore such meagre clothing that even his tunic scarcely had any purple, while he covered his shoulders with a shaggy cloak. He ate sparingly, being very addicted to his native vegetable, sometimes fond of wine, often abstaining from meat. His person was handsome, he was of huge size,(Dio Cassius, who knew Severus personally, says that he was small) with a long beard and curly white hair. His face inspired reverence, his voice was resonant but with a trace of an African accent right up to his old age. He was equally beloved after his death, when envy, or the fear of his cruelty, had disappeared.
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MacrinDenProvid.jpg
1bx Macrinus38 views217-218

Denarius

Laureate draped bust, right, IMP C M OPEL SEV MACRINVS AVG
Providentia stg, PROVIDENTIA DEORVM

RIC 80

According to the Historia Augusta, which concedes that almost nothing was known about Macrinus: Though of humble origin and shameless in spirit as well as in countenance, and though hated by all, both civilians and soldiers, he nevertheless proclaimed himself now Severus and now Antoninus. Then he set out at once for the Parthian war and thus gave no opportunity either for the soldiers to form an opinion of him, or for the gossip by which he was beset to gain its full strength. The senators, however, out of hatred for Antoninus Bassianus, received him as emperor gladly. . . . Now to his son, previously called Diadumenianus, he gave the name Antoninus (after he had himself assumed the appellation Felix) in order to avert the suspicion of having slain Antoninus. This same name was afterwards taken by Varius Elagabalus also, who claimed to be the son of Bassianus, a most filthy creature and the son of a harlot. . . .

And so, having been acclaimed emperor, Macrinus assumed the imperial power and set out against the Parthians with a great array, eager to blot out the lowliness of his family and the infamy of his early life by a magnificent victory. But after fighting a battle with the Parthians he was killed in a revolt of the legions, which had deserted to Varius Elagabalus. He reigned, however, for more than a year.

Macrinus, then, was arrogant and bloodthirsty and desirous of ruling in military fashion. He found fault even with the discipline of former times and lauded Severus alone above all others. For he even crucified soldiers and always used the punishments meted out to slaves, and when he had to deal with a mutiny among the troops, he usually decimated the soldiers but sometimes he only centimated them. This last was an expression of his own, for he used to say that he was merciful in putting to death only one in a hundred. . . .

This is one of my favorite pieces because I bought it completely covered with crud and set about cleaning it. Boy was I surprised!
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JuliaSoaemDenVenusCal.jpg
1cc Julia Soaemias11 viewsDenarius

Draped bust, right, IVLIA SOAEMIAS AVG

Venus std, VENVS CAELESTIS

The mother of Elegabalus, she died at the same time as her son.

RIC 243
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OrbianaAnyConc.jpg
1cf Orbiana23 viewsDenarius

Draped bust, right, SALL BARBIA ORBIANA AVG
Concord std, CONCORDIA AVGG

RIC 319

Orbiana married Severus Alexander about 235, but her mother-in-law convinced him to banish her to Africa. Herodian recorded: Mamaea secured for Alexander a wife from the aristocracy. Although he loved the girl and lived with her, she was afterward banished from the palace by his mother, who, in her egotistic desire to be sole empress, envied the girl her title. So excessively arrogant did Mamaea become that the girl's father, though Alexander esteemed him highly, could no longer endure the woman's insolence toward him and his daughter; consequently, he took refuge in the praetorian camp, fully aware of the debt of gratitude he owed Alexander for the honors he had received from him, but complaining bitterly about Mamaea's insults. Enraged, Mamaea ordered him to be killed and at the same time drove the girl from the palace to exile in Libya. She did this against Alexander's wishes and in spite of his displeasure, but the emperor was dominated by his mother and obeyed her every command.
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ValerianAntVict.jpg
1cx Valerian38 views253-260

Antoninianus

Radiate draped and cuirassed bust, right, IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS AVG
Victory standing left, holding wreath and palm, VICTORIA AVGG

RIC 125

Persians surrounded Valerian's army in the East in 260 and took the emperor prisoner. He died on an unknown date in captivity.

Zosimus noted: The nations subject to the Romans being unable to endure [Maximinus'] monstrous cruelty, and greatly distressed by the ravages he committed, the Africans proclaimed Gordianus and his son, of the same name, emperors, and sent ambassadors to Rome, one of whom was Valerianus, a man of consular rank, who afterwards himself became emperor. . . .

Aemilianus advanced with great speed into Italy, and the armies were very near to each other, when the soldiers of Gallus, reflecting that his force was much inferior to the enemy both in number and strength, and likewise that he was a negligent indolent man, put him and his son to death, and going over to the party of Aemilianus, appeared to establish his authority. But Valerianus brought into Italy from beyond the Alps a vast army, with which he deemed himself secure of conquering Aemilianus. The soldiers of Aemilianus, who saw that his conduct was more like that of a private sentinel than of an emperor, now put him to death as a person unfit for so weighty a charge.

By these means Valerianus became emperor with universal consent, and employed himself in the regulation of affairs. But the excursions of the Scythians, and of the Marcomanni, who made an inroad into all the countries adjacent to the empire, reduced Thessalonica to extreme danger; and though they were with muct difficulty compelled to raise the siege by the brave defence of those within, yet all Greece was in alarm. The Athenians repaired their walls, which they had never thought worth their care since Sylla threw them down. The Peloponnesians likewise fortified the Isthmus, and all Greece put itself upon its guard for the general security.

Valerianus, perceiving the empire in danger on every side, associated his son Gallienus with himself in the government! and went himself into the east to oppose the Persians. He entrusted to his son the care of the forces in Europe, thus leaving him to resist the Barbarians who poured in upon him in every direction. . . .

Valerianus had by this time heard of the disturbances in Bithynia, but his district would not allow him to confide the defence of it to any of his generals. He therefore sent Felix to Byzantium, and went in person from Antioch into Cappadocia, and after he had done some injury to every city by which he passed, he returned homeward. But the plague then attacked his troops, and destroyed most of them, at the time when Sapor made an attempt upon the east, and reduced most of it into subjection. In the mean time, Valerianus became so effeminate and indolent, that he dispaired of ever recovering from the present ill state of affairs, and would have concluded the war by a present of money; had not Sapor sent back the ambasadors who were sent to him with that proposal, without their errand, desiring the emperor to come and speak with him in person concerning the affairs he wished to adjust; To which he most imprudently consented, and going without consideration to Sapor with a small retinue, to treat for a peace, was presently laid hold of by the enemy, and so ended his days in the capacity of a slave among the Persians, to the disgrace of the Roman name in all future times.
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SaloninusAntSacrImplts.jpg
1db Saloninus37 views259

Son of Gallienus

Antoninianus

Radiate draped bust, right, SALON VALERIANVS NOB CAES
Sacrificial implements, PIETAS AVG

RIC 9

Zosimus recorded Saloninus' fate: After this, Posthumus, who commanded the Celtic army, was also inclined towards innovation, and accompanied some soldiers that revolted at the same time to Agrippina, which is the principal city on the Rhine, in which he besieged Saloninus, the son of Gallienus, threatening to remain before the walls until he was given up to him. On this account the soldiers found it necessary to surrender both him and Silvanus, whom his father had appointed his guardian, both of whom Posthumus put to death, and made himself sovereign of the Celtae.
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AurelianusAntPietas.jpg
1dk Aurelian28 views270-275

Radiate, cuirassed bust, right, IMP AVRELIANVS AVG
Aurelian & Severina or priest standing facing each other, each holding short sceptre, sacrificing at altar between them, S in ex, PIETAS AVG

Zosimus recorded: Aurelianus, having regulated the empire, went from Rome to Aquileia, and from thence into Pannonia, which he was informed the Scythians were preparing to invade. For this reason he sent orders to the inhabitants of that country to carry into the towns all their corn and cattle, and every thing that could be of use to the enemy, in order to distress them with famine, with which they were already afflicted. The Barbarians having crossed the river into Pannonia had an engagement, the result of which was nearly equal. But the same night, the Barbarians recrossed the river, and as soon as day appeared, sent ambassadors to treat for peace. |25

The Emperor, hearing that the Alemanni and the neighbouring nations intended to over-run Italy, was with just reason more concerned for Rome and the adjacent places, than for the more remote. Having therefore ordered a sufficient force to remain for the defence of Pannonia, he marched towards Italy, and on his route, on the borders of that country, near the Ister, slew many thousands of the Barbarians in one battle. Several members of the senate being at this time accused of conspiring against the emperor were put to death ; and Rome, which before had no walls, was now surrounded with them. This work was begun in the reign of Aurelianus, and was finished by Probus. At the same time Epitimius, Urbanus, and Domitianus, were likewise suspected as innovators, and were immediately apprehended and punished. During these occurrences in Italy and Pannonia, the emperor prepared to march against the Palmyrenians, who had subdued all Egypt, and the east, as far as Ancyra in Galatia, and would have acquired Bithynia even as far as Chalcedon, if the inhabitants of that country had not learned that Aurelianus was made emperor, and so shook off the Palmyrenian yoke. As soon as the emperor was on his march thither, Ancyra submitted to the Romans, and afterwards Tuana, and all the cities between that and Antioch. There finding Zenobia with a large army ready to engage, as he himself also was, he met and engaged her as honour obliged him [an defeated the enemy. . . .

[Having crushed Palmyra and razed it] He then entered Rome in triumph, where he was most magnificiently received by the senate and people. At this period also be erected that sumptuous temple of the sun, which he ornamented with all the sacred spoils that he brought from Palmyra; placing in it the statues of the sun and Belus. After this he easily reduced Tatricus with his rebellious accomplices, whom he brought to signal punishment. He likewise called in all the counterfeit money, and issued new, to avoid confusion in trade. Besides which he bestowed on the people a gift of bread, as a mark of his favour; and having arranged all affairs set out on a journey from Rome. . . .

During his stay at Perinthus, now called Heraclea, a conspiracy was thus formed against him. There was in the court a man named Eros, whose office was to carry out the answers of the emperor. This man had been for some fault threatened by the emperor, and put in great fear. Dreading therefore lest the emperor should realize his menaces by actions, he went to some of the guard, whom he knew to be the boldest men in the court; be told them a plausible story, and shewed them a letter of his own writing, in the character of the emperor (which he had long before learned to counterfeit), and persuading them first that they themselves were to be put to death, [h]e endeavoured to prevail on them to murder the emperor. The deception answered. Observing Aurelianus to go out of the city with a small retinue, they ran out upon him and murdered him.

RIC 138
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DiocletianAntConcordMil.jpg
1ds Diocletian13 views284-305

AE antoninianus

Radiate, draped, cuirassed bust, right, IMP C C VAL DIOCLETIANVS P F AVG
Zeus and Diocletian, CONCORDIA MILITVM

RIC 284B

According to the Historia Augusta, after the death of Numerian: Then a huge assembly was held and a tribunal, too, was constructed. And when the question was asked who would be the most lawful avenger of Numerian and who could be given to the commonwealth as a good emperor, then all, with a heaven-sent unanimity, conferred the title of Augustus on Diocletian. . . . He was at this time in command of the household-troops, an outstanding man and wise, devoted to the commonwealth, devoted to his kindred, duly prepared to face whatever the occasion demanded, forming plans that were always deep though sometimes over-bold, and one who could by prudence and exceeding firmness hold in check the impulses of a restless spirit. This man, then, having ascended the tribunal was hailed as Augustus, and when someone asked how Numerian had been slain, he drew his sword and pointing to Aper, the prefect of the guard, he drove it through him, saying as he did so, "It is he who contrived Numerian's death.''

Eutropius summarized a long and important reign: DIOCLETIAN, a native of Dalmatia, [was] of such extremely obscure birth, that he is said by most writers to have been the son of a clerk, but by some to have been a freedman of a senator named Anulinus. . . . He soon after overthrew Carinus, who was living under the utmost hatred and detestation, in a great battle at Margum, Carinus being betrayed by his own troops, for though he had a greater number of men than the enemy, he was altogether abandoned by them between Viminacium and mount Aureus. He thus became master of the Roman empire; and when the peasants in Gaul made an insurrection, giving their faction the name of Bagaudae, and having for leaders Amandus and Aelianus, he despatched Maximian Herculius, with the authority of Caesar, to suppress them. Maximian, in a few battles of little importance, subdued the rustic multitude, and restored peace to Gaul. . . .

Diocletian promoted MAXIMIAN HERCULIUS from the dignity of Caesar to that of emperor, and created Constantius and Maximian Galerius Caesars, of whom Constantius is said to have been the grand-nephew of Claudius by a daughter, and Maximian Galerius to have been born in Dacia not far from Sardica. That he might also unite them by affinity, Constantius married Theodora the step-daughter of Herculius, by whom he had afterwards six children, brothers to Constantine; while Galerius married Valeria, the daughter of Diocletian; both being obliged to divorce the wives that they had before. . . .

Diocletian, meanwhile, besieging Achilleus in Alexandria, obliged him to surrender about eight months after, and put him to death. He used his victory, indeed, cruelly, and distressed all Egypt with severe proscriptions and massacres. Yet at the same time he made many judicious arrangements and regulations, which continue to our own days. . . .

Diocletian was of a crafty disposition, with much sagacity, and keen penetration. He was willing to gratify his own disposition to cruelty in such a way as to throw the odium upon others; he was however a very active and able prince. He was the first that introduced into the Roman empire a ceremony suited rather to royal usages than to Roman liberty, giving orders that he should be adored, whereas all emperors before him were only saluted. He put ornaments of precious stones on his dress and shoes, when the imperial distinction had previously been only in the purple robe, the rest of the habit being the same as that of other men. . . .

But when Diocletian, as age bore heavily upon him, felt himself unable to sustain the government of the empire, he suggested to Herculius that they should both retire into private life, and commit the duty of upholding the state to more vigorous and youthful hands. With this suggestion his colleague reluctantly complied. Both of them, in the same day, exchanged the robe of empire for an ordinary dress, Diocletian at Nicomedia, Herculius at Milan, soon after a magnificent triumph which they celebrated at Rome over several nations, with a noble succession of pictures, and in which the wives, sisters, and children of Narseus were led before their chariots. The one then retired to Salonae, and the other into Lucania.

Diocletian lived to an old age in a private station, at a villa which is not far from Salonae, in honourable retirement, exercising extraordinary philosophy, inasmuch as he alone of all men, since the foundation of the Roman empire, voluntarily returned from so high a dignity to the condition of private life, and to an equality with the other citizens. That happened to him, therefore, which had happened to no one since men were created, that, though he died in a private condition, he was enrolled among the gods.
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Quarter Follis

Laureate head, right, IMP C M A MAXIMIANVS P F AVG
Genius standing left, with modius on head, cornucopia & patera, GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, SIS in exergue

RIC 146

Eutropius records: [Diocletian] thus became master of the Roman empire; and when the peasants in Gaul made an insurrection, giving their faction the name of Bagaudae, and having for leaders Amandus and Aelianus, he despatched Maximian Herculius, with the authority of Caesar, to suppress them. Maximian, in a few battles of little importance, subdued the rustic multitude, and restored peace to Gaul. . . . While disorder thus prevailed throughout the world, while Carausius was taking arms in Britain and Achilleus in Egypt, while the Quinquegentiani were harassing Africa, and Narseus was making war upon the east, Diocletian promoted MAXIMIAN HERCULIUS from the dignity of Caesar to that "of emperor, and created Constantius and Maximian Galerius Caesars. . . .

Maximian the emperor, brought the war to an end in Africa, by subduing the Quinquegentiani, and compelling them to make peace. . . .

Herculius was undisguisedly cruel, and of a violent temper, and showed his severity of disposition in the sternness of his looks. Gratifying his own inclination, he joined with Diocletian in even the most cruel of his proceedings. But when Diocletian, as age bore heavily upon him, felt himself unable to sustain the government of the empire, he suggested to Herculius that they should both retire into private life, and commit the duty of upholding the state to more vigorous and youthful hands. With this suggestion his colleague reluctantly complied. Both of them, in the same day, exchanged the robe of empire for an ordinary dress, Diocletian at Nicomedia, Herculius at Milan, soon after a magnificent triumph which they celebrated at Rome over several nations, with a noble succession of pictures, and in which the wives, sisters, and children of Narseus were led before their chariots. The one then retired to Salonae, and the other into Lucania.

But after the death of Constantius, CONSTANTINE, his son by a wife of obscure birth, was made emperor in Britain, and succeeded his father as a most desirable ruler. In the meantime the praetorian guards at Rome, having risen in insurrection, declared MAXENTIUS, the son of Maximian Herculius, who lived in the Villa Publica not far from the city, emperor. At the news of this proceeding, Maximian, filled with hopes of regaining the imperial dignity, which he had not willingly resigned, hurried to Rome from Lucania. . . , and stimulated Diocletian by letters to resume the authority that he had laid down, letters which Diocletian utterly disregarded. Severus Caesar, being despatched to Rome by Galerius to suppress the rising of the guards and Maxentius, arrived there with his army, but, as he was laying siege to the city, was deserted through the treachery of his soldiers.

The power of Maxentius was thus increased, and his government established. Severus, taking to flight, was killed at Ravenna. Maximian Herculius, attempting afterwards, in an assembly of the army, to divest his son Maxentius of his power, met with nothing but mutiny and reproaches from the soldiery. He then set out for Gaul, on a planned stratagem, as if he had been driven away by his son, that he might join his son-in-law Constantine, designing, however, if he could find an opportunity, to cut off Constantine, who was ruling in Gaul with great approbation both of the soldiers and the people of the province, having overthrown the Franks and Alemanni with great slaughter, and captured their kings, whom, on exhibiting a magnificent show of games, he exposed to wild beasts. But the plot being made known by Maximian's daughter Fausta, who communicated the design to her husband, Maximian was cut off at Marseilles, whence he was preparing to sail to join his son, and died a well-deserved death. . . .
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Follis

Laureate, draped, cuirassed bust right, IMP CONSTANTINVS PF AVG
Sol standing left, chlamys across left shoulder, raising right hand and holding globe in left hand, captive to left. Mintmark RQ.

RIC VII 52

According to Zonaras: Constans, in the eleventh year of his reign since he had been proclaimed Caesar, having ruled gently and mildly, came to the end of his life while residing in Britain, having, because of his goodness, bequeathed grief for himself among those he ruled, first having appointed successor the elder of his own sons, namely Constantine the Great, whom he begat by his first wife. He also had by his second wife, Herculius’ daughter Theodora, other sons, Constantinus, Hannibalianus, and Constantius. Constantine the Great was preferred over them, since they were judged by their father to be unsuited for sovereignty. . . . Constantine, when he was still a lad, was actually given by his father as a hostage to Gallerius, in order that, serving as a hostage, at the same time he be trained in the exercise of the soldierly art.

Eutropius summarizes: CONSTANTINE, being a man of great energy, bent upon effecting whatever he had settled in his mind, and aspiring to the sovereignty of the whole world, proceeded to make war on Licinius, although he had formed a connexion with him by marriage,5 for his sister Constantia was married to Licinius. And first of all be overthrew him, by a sudden attack, at Cibalae in Pannonia, where he was making vast preparations for war; and after becoming master of Dardania, Maesia, and Macedonia, took possession also of several other provinces.

There were then various contests between them, and peace made and broken. At last Licinius, defeated in a battle at Nicomedia by sea and land, surrendered himself, and, in violation of an oath taken by Constantine, was put to death, after being divested of the purple, at Thessalonica.

At this time the Roman empire fell under the sway of one emperor and three Caesars, a state of things which had never existed before; the sons of Constantine ruling over Gaul, the east, and Italy. But the pride of prosperity caused Constantine greatly to depart from his former agreeable mildness of temper. Falling first upon his own relatives, he put to death his son, an excellent man; his sister's son, a youth of amiable disposition; soon afterwards his wife, and subsequently many of his friends.

He was a man, who, in the beginning of his reign, might have been compared to the best princes; in the latter part of it, only to those of a middling character. Innumerable good qualities of mind and body were apparent in him; he was exceedingly ambitious of military glory, and had great success in his wars; a success, however, not more than proportioned to his exertions. After he had terminated the Civil war, he also overthrew the Goths on various occasions, granting them at last peace, and leaving on the minds of the barbarians a strong remembrance of his kindness. He was attached to the arts of peace and to liberal studies, and was ambitious of honourable popularity, which he, indeed, sought by every kind of liberality and obligingness. Though he was slow, from suspicion, to serve some of his friends,6 yet he was exceedingly generous towards others, neglecting no opportunity to add to their riches and honours.

He enacted many laws, some good and equitable, but most of them superfluous, and some severe. He was the first that endeavoured to raise the city named after him to such a height as to make it a rival to Rome. As he was preparing for war against the Parthians, who were then disturbing Mesopotamia, he died in the Villa Publica, at Nicomedia, in the thirty-first year of his reign, and the sixty-sixth of his age.

Zosimus described Constantine's conversion to Christianity: For he put to death his son Crispus, stiled (as I mentioned) Caesar, on suspicion of debauching his mother-in-law Fausta, without any regard to the ties of nature. And when his own mother Helena expressed much sorrow for this atrocity, lamenting the young man's death with great bitterness, Constantine under pretence of comforting her, applied a remedy worse than the disease. For causing a bath to be heated to an extraordinary degree, he shut up Fausta in it, and a short time after took her out dead. Of which his conscience accusing him, as also of violating his oath, he went to the priests to be purified from his crimes. But they told him, that there was no kind of lustration that was sufficient to clear him of such enormities. A Spaniard, named Aegyptius, very familiar with the court-ladies, being at Rome, happened to fall into converse with Constantine, and assured him, that the Christian doctrine would teach him how to cleanse himself from all his offences, and that they who received it were immediately absolved from all their sins. Constantine had no sooner heard this than he easily believed what was told him, and forsaking the rites of his country, received those which Aegyptius offered him ; and for the first instance of his impiety, suspected the truth of divination.
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AE3, Thessalonica

Laureate, draped & cuirassed bust, right, D N FL IVL CRISPVS NOB CAES
Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm, VICTORIA CAESS NN. Mintmark dot TS dot epsilon dot.

Zosimus recorded Crispus' elevation to Caesar: "Constantine, having taken Cibalis, and Sirmium, and all the towns that Licinius had abandoned, sent five thousand men in pursuit of him. But as these were ignorant of the course he had taken, they could not overtake him. Constantine however, having rebuilt the bridge over the Saus, which Licinius had broken down, was with his army almost at his heels. Having entered Thrace, he arrived at the plain where Licinius lay encamped. On the night of his arrival there he marshalled his army, and gave orders for his soldiers to be ready for battle by day-break. As soon as it was light, Licinius, perceiving Constantine with his army, drew up his forces also, having been joined by Valens, whom he styled Caesar, after the battle of Cibalis. When the armies engaged, they first fought with bows at a distance ; but when their arrows were spent, they began to use their javelins, and poignards. Thus the battle continued very obstinately for a considerable time, until those whom Constantine had sent in pursuit of Licinius descended from an eminence upon the armies while they were engaged. These wheeled round the hill |46 before they arrived at them, deeming it best to join their own party from the higher ground, and to encompass the enemy. The troops of Licinius, being aware of them, courageously withstood against them all, so that many thousands were slain on both sides, and the advantage was equal, till the signal was given for both to retire. Next day they agreed on a truce, and entered into an alliance with each other, on condition that Constantine should possess Illyricum and all the nations westward, and that Licinius should have Thrace and the east; but that Valens, whom Licinius had made Caesar, should be put to death, because be was said to be the author of all the mischief which had happened. Having done this, and sworn on both sides to observe the conditions, Constantine conferred the rank and title of Caesar on Crispus, his son by a concubine called Minervina, who was as yet but a youth, and on Constantine, who was born but a few days before at Arelatum. At the same time Licinianus, the son of Licinius, who was twenty months of age, was declared Caesar, Thus ended the second war."

According to Zonaras, "By a concubine he also had another son, called Crispus, older than his other sons, who distinguished himself often in the war against Licinius. His stepmother Fausta, being erotically obsessed with him, since she did not find him compliant, denounced him to his father as being in love with her and as having often attempted to use force against her. Hence, Crispus was condemned to death by his father, who had been persuaded by his spouse."

Constantine had his son strangled to death in Pula.

RIC 62
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AE3, Thessalonica

Laureate, cuirassed bust, right, FL DELMATIVS NOB C two soldiers holding spears and shields with two standards between them, O on banner, GLORIA EXERCITVS. Mintmark: SMTSD.

RIC 202D

Zosimus recorded: After Constantine had oppressed and tormented the people in these various modes, he died of a disease, and was succeeded by his three sons, who were not born of Fausta the daughter of Maximianus Herculius, but of another woman, whom he had put to death for adultery. They devoted themselves more to the pleasures of youth than to the service of the state. They began by dividing the nations between them. Constantine the eldest, and Constans the youngest, having for their share all beyond the Alps, together with Italy and Illyricum, the countries bordering on the Euxine sea and all that belonged to Carthage in Africa; Constantius obtained all Asia, the east, and Egypt. There were likewise others who shared in the government; Dalmatius, whom Constantine made Caesar, Constantius his brother, and Hanniballianus, who had all worn robes of purple embroidered with gold, and were promoted to the order of Nobilissimates by Constantine, from respect to their being of his own family. . . . The empire being thus divided, Constantius who appeared to take pains not to fall short of his father in impiety, began by shedding the blood of his nearest relations. He first caused Constantius, his father's brother, to be murdered by the soldiers ; next to whom he treated Dalmatius in the same manner, as also Optatus whom Constantine had raised to the rank of a Nobilissimate.

A great-nephew of Constantine the Great.
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AE3

RIC 93

Rosette diademed, draped & cuirassed bust, right, CONSTANS P F AVG
Two soldiers standing to either side of one standard with chi-rho on banner, GLORIA EXERCITVS, [A]SIS-crescent in ex.

Constans received Italy, Africa, and the Balkans when the empire was divided. He took charge of the remainder of the West after Constantine II imprudently attacked him in 340. Zosimus recorded, "Constans, having thus removed his brother, exercised every species of cruelty toward his subjects, exceeding the most intolerable tyranny. He purchased some well favoured Barbarians, and had others with him as hostages, to whom he gave liberty to harrass his subjects as they pleased, in order to gratify his vicious disposition. In this manner he reduced all the nations that were subject to him to extreme misery. This gave uneasiness to the court guards, who perceiving that he was much addicted to hunting placed themselves under the conduct of Marcellinus prefect of the treasury, and Magnentius who commanded the Joviani and Herculiani (two legions so termed), and formed a plot against him in the following manner. Marcellinus reported that he meant to keep the birth-day of his sons, and invited many of the superior officers to a feast. Amongst the rest Magnentius rose from table and left the room; he presently returned, and as it were in a drama stood before them clothed in an imperial robe. Upon this all the guests saluted him with the title of king, and the inhabitants of Augustodunum, where it was done, concurred in the same sentiment. This transaction being rumoured abroad, the country people flocked into the city; while at the same time a party of Illyrian cavalry who came to supply the Celtic legions, joined themselves with those that were concerned in the enterprize. When the officers of the army were met together, and heard the leaders of the conspiracy proclaim their new emperor, they scarcely knew the meaning of it; they all, however, joined in the acclamation, and saluted Magnentius with the appellation of Augustus. When this became known to Constans, he endeavoured to escape to a small town called Helena, which lies near the Pyrenean mountains. He was taken by Gaison, who was sent with some other select persons for that purpose, and being destitute of all aid, was killed. "
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Centenionalis

RIC 210?

Pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed bust, right, CONSTANTIVS P F AVG
Soldier spearing fallen horseman who is kneeling forwards on ground on hands and knees. Star in right field, FEL TEMP REPARATIO. Mintmark BSIS?

Constantius II got the East when the empire was divided after Constantine the Great's death. Zosimus recorded, "The empire being thus divided, Constantius who appeared to take pains not to fall short of his father in impiety, began by shedding the blood of his nearest relations. He first caused Constantius, his father's brother, to be murdered by the soldiers; next to whom he treated Dalmatius in the same manner, as also Optatus whom Constantine had raised to the rank of a Nobilissimate. Constantine indeed first introduced that order, and made a law, that every Nobilissimate should have precedence over of the prefects of the court. At that time, Ablabius prefect of the court was also put to death; and fate was just in his punishment, because he had concerted the murder of Sopatrus the philosopher, from envy of his familiarity with Constantine. Being unnatural towards all his relations, he included Hanniballianus with the rest, suborning the solders to cry out, that they would have no governors but the children of Constantine. Such were the exploits of Constantius." He defeated the usurper Magnentius in 351-353. He died of fever while marching to confront Julian the Apostate, who had been declared emperor in Paris.
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Centenionalis

Bare-headed, draped & cuirassed bust, right, D N MAGNEN-TIVS P F AVG
Two victories, VICTORIAE DD NN AVG ET CAES

RIC 173

Zosimus recorded: Magnentius thus gained the empire, and possessed himself all the nations beyond the Alps, and the whole of Italy. Vetranio, general of the Pannonian army, upon hearing of the good fortune of Magnentius, was himself inflamed with the same desire, and was declared emperor by the legions that were with him, at Mursa, a city of Pannonia. While affairs were thus situated, the Persians plundered the eastern countries, particularly Mesopotamia. But Constantine, though he was defeated by the Persians, yet resolved to subdue the factions of Magnentius and Vetranio. . . . Constantius advanced from the east against Magnentius, but deemed it best first to win over Vetranio to his interest, as it was difficult to oppose two rebels at once. On the other hand, Magnentius used great endeavours to make Vetranio his friend, and thus to put an end to the war against Constantius. Both therefore sent agents to Vetranio, who chose to adopt the friendship of Constantius rather than that of Magnentius. The ambassadors of Magnentius returned without effecting their purpose. Constantius desired that both armies might join, to undertake the war against Magnentius. To which proposal Vetranio readily assented. . . . When the soldiers heard this, having been previously corrupted by valuable presents, they cried out, that they would have no mock emperors, and immediately began to strip the purple from Vetranio, and pulled him from the throne with the determination to reduce him to a private station. . . . Constantius, having so well succeeded in his design against Vetranio, marched against Magnentius, having first conferred the title of Caesar on Gallus, the son of his uncle, and brother to Julian who was afterwards emperor, and given him in marriage his sister Constantia. . . .

Constantius now gaining the victory, by the army of Magnentius taking to flight, a terrible slaughter ensued. Magnentius, therefore being deprived ofall hope, and apprehensive lest the remnant of his army should deliver him to Constantius, deemed it best to retire from Pannonia, and to enter Italy, in order to raise an army there for another attempt. But when he heard that the people of Rome were in favour of Constantius, either from hatred to himself, or because they had heard of the event of the battle, he resolved to cross the Alps, and .seek for himself a refuge among the nations on that side. Hearing however that Constantius had likewise engaged the Barbarians near the Rhine against him, and that |65 he could not enter Gaul, as some officers had obstructed his passage thither in order to make their court to Constantius, nor through Spain into Mauritania, on account of the Roman allies there who studied to please Constantius. In these circumstances he preferred a voluntary death to a dishonourable life, and chose rather to die by his own hand than by that of his enemy.

Thus died Magnentius, having been emperor three years and six months. He was of Barbarian extraction, but lived among the Leti, a people of Gaul. He understood Latin, was bold when favoured by fortune, but cowardly in adversity, ingenious in concealing his natural evil disposition, and deemed by those who did not know him to be a man of candour and goodness. I have thought it just to make these observations concerning Magnentius, that the world may be acquainted With his true character, since it has been the opinion of some that he performed much good, who never in his life did any thing with a good intention.
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AE3

Pearl-diademed, helmeted, cuirassed bust left, holding shield & spear, D N FL CL IVLIANVS P F AVG
VOT X MVLT XX in four lines within wreath, palm branch-BSIS-palm branch in ex [?].

RIC 415

According to Zosimus: Constantius, having so well succeeded in his design against Vetranio, marched against Magnentius, having first conferred the title of Caesar on Gallus, the son of his uncle, and brother to Julian who was afterwards emperor, and given him in marriage his sister Constantia. . . . CONSTANTIUS, after having acted towards Gallus Caesar in the manner I have related, left Pannonia to proceed into Italy. . . . He scarcely thought himself capable of managing affairs at this critical period. He was unwilling, however, to associate any one with himself in the government, because he so much desired to rule alone, and could esteem no man his friend. Under these circumstances he was at a loss how to act. It happened, however, that when the empire was in the greatest danger, Eusebia, the wife of Constantius, who was a woman of extraordinary learning, and of greater wisdom than her sex is usually endowed with, advised him to confer the government of the nations beyond the Alps on Julianus Caesar, who was brother to Gallus, and grandson to Constantius. As she knew that the emperor was suspicious of all his kindred, she thus circumvented him. She observed to him, that Julian was a young man unacquainted with the intrigues of state, having devoted himself totally to his studies; and that he was wholly inexperienced in worldly business. That on this account he would be more fit for his purpose than any other person. That either he would be fortunate, and his success would be attributed to the emperor's conduct, or that he would fail and perish; and that thus Constantius would have none of the imperial family to succeed to him.

Constantius, having approved her advice, sent for Julian from Athens, where he lived among the philosophers, and excelled all his masters in every kind of learning. Accordingly, Julian returning from Greece into Italy, Constantius declared him Caesar, gave him in marriage his sister Helena, and sent him beyond the Alps. . . .

Constantius, having thus disposed of Julian, marched himself into Pannonia and Moesia, and having there suppressed the Quadi and the Sarmatians, proceeded to the east, and was provoked to war by the inroads of the Persians. Julian by this time had arrived beyond the Alps into the Gallic nations which he was to rule. Perceiving that the Barbarians continued committing the same violence, Eusebia, for the same reasons as before, persuaded Constantius to place the entire management of those countries into the hands of Julian. . . . Julian finding the military affairs of Gallia Celtica in a very ruinous state, and that the Barbarians pased the Rhine without any resistance, even almost as far as the sea-port towns, he took a survey of the remaining parts of the enemy. And understanding that the people of those parts were terrified at the very name of the Barbarians, while those whom Constantius had sent along with him, who were not more than three hundred and sixty, knew nothing more, as he used to say, than how to say their prayers, he enlisted as many more as he could and took in a great number of volunteers. He also provided arms, and finding a quantity of old weapons in some town he fitted them up, and distributed them among the soldiers. The scouts bringing him intelligence, that an immense number of Barbarians had crossed the river near the city of Argentoratum (Strasburg) which stands on the Rhine, he no sooner heard of it, than he led forth his army with the greatest speed, and engaging with the enemy gained such a victory as exceeds all description.

After these events he raised a great army to make war on the whole German nation; He was opposed however by the Barbarians in vast numbers. Caesar therefore would not wait while they came up to him, but crossed the Rhine, preferring that their country should be the seat of war, and not that of the Romans, as by that means the cities would escape being again pillaged by the Barbarians. A most furious battle therefore took place; a great number of the Barbarians being slain on the field of battle, while the rest fled, and were pursued by Caesar into the Hercynian forest, and many of them killed. . . .

But while Julian was at Parisium, a small town in Germany, the soldiers, being ready to march, continued at supper till midnight in a place near the palace, which they so called there. They were as yet ignorant of any design against Caesar [by Constantius], when some tribunes, who began to suspect the contrivance against him, privately distributed a number of anonymous billets among the soldiers, in which they represented to them, that Caesar, by his judicious conduct had so managed affairs, that almost all of them had erected trophies over the Barbarians ; that he had always fought like a private soldier, and was now in extreme danger from the emperor, who would shortly deprive him of his whole army, unless they prevented it. Some of the soldiers having read these billets, and published the intrigue to the whole army, all were highly enraged. They suddenly rose from their seats in great commotion, and with the cups yet in their hands went to the palace. Breaking open the doors without ceremony, they brought out Caesar, and lifting him on a shield declared him emperor and Augustus. They then, without attending to his reluctance, placed a diadem upon his head. . . .

Arriving at Naisus, he consulted the soothsayers what measures to pursue. As the entrails signified that he must stay there for some time, he obeyed, observing likewise the time that was mentioned in his dream. When this, according to the motion of the planets, was arrived, a party of horsemen arrived from Constantinople at Naisus, with intelligence that Constantius was dead, and that the armies desired Julian to be emperor. Upon this he accepted what the gods had bestowed upon him, and proceeded on his journey. On his arrival at. Byzantium, he was received with joyful acclamations. . . .

[After slashing through Persia and crossing the Tigris,] they perceived the Persian army, with which they engaged, and having considerably the advantage, they killed a great number of Persians. Upon the following day, about noon, the Persians drew up in a large body, and once more attacked the rear of the Roman army. The Romans, being at that time out of their ranks, were surprised and alarmed at the suddenness of the attack, yet made a stout and spirited defence. The emperor, according to his custom, went round the army, encouraging them to fight with ardour. When by this means all were engaged, the emperor, who sometimes rode to the commanders and tribunes, and was at other times among the private soldiers, received a wound in the heat of the engagement, and was borne on a shield to his tent. He survived only till midnight. He then expired, after having nearly subverted the Persian empire.

Note: Julian favored the pagan faith over Christianity and was tarred by the church as "the apostate."
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AR siliqua

Bearded, pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed bust rightt, DN EVGENIVS PF AVG
Roma seated left on cuirass, MDPS below, VIRTVS ROMANORVM

RIC 32c

Zosimus reports: Eugenius became the sincere friend of Arbogastes, who had no secret which he did not confide to him. Recollecting Eugenius, therefore, at this juncture, who by his extraordinary learning and the gravity of his conversation seemed well-adapted for the management of an empire, he communicated to him his designs. But finding him not pleased with the proposals, he attempted to prevail on him by all the arts he could use, and entreated him not to reject what fortune so favourably offered. Having at length persuaded him, he deemed it advisable in the first place to remove Valentinian, and thus to deliver the sole authority to Eugenius. With this view he proceeded to Vienna, a town in Gaul, where the emperor resided; and as he was amusing himself near the town in some sports with the soldiers, apprehending no danger, Arbogastes gave him a mortal wound. To this audacious action the soldiers quietly submitted, not only because he was so brave and warlike a person, but because they were attached to him through his contempt of riches. As soon as he had performed this action, he declared Eugenius emperor, and infused into them the most favourable hopes that he would prove an excellent ruler, since he possessed such extraordinary qualifications. . . .

[Theodosius marched against Eugenius.] The emperor (having mourned for [his just deceased wife] a whole day, according to the rule of Homer), proceeded with his army to the war, leaving behind him his son Arcadius, who had some time previously been made emperor. This prince being young, his father, in order to amend the defects of his nonage, left with him Rufinus, who was prefect of the court, and acted as he pleased, even as much as the power of sovereignty enabled the emperor himself to do. Having done this, he took with him his younger son Honorius, quickly passed through the intermediate countries, and having exceded his expectations in crossing the Alps, arrived where the enemy was stationed : Eugenius being astonished at seeing him there whom he so little expected. But as he was arrived there, and consequently was under the necessity of engaging, he judged it most prudent to place the Barbarian troops in front, and to expose them first. He ordered Gaines with the troops under his command to make the first attack, and the other commanders of Barbarian soldiers to follow him, either cavalry, horse archers, or infantry. Eugenius then drew out his forces. When the two armies were engaged, so great an eclipse of the sun happened, that for more than half the time of the action it appeared rather to be night than day. As they fought therefore a kind of nocturnal battle, so great a slaughtor was made, that in the same day the greater part of the allies of Theodosius were slain, with their commander Bacurius, who fought very courageously at their head, while the other commanders escaped very narrowly with the remainder. When night came on and the armies had rallied, Eugenius was so elated with his victory, that he distributed money among those who had behaved with the greatest gallantry in the battle, and gave them time to refresh themselves, as if after such a defeat there was no probability of another engagement As they were thus solacing themselves, the emperor Theodosius about break of day fell suddenly on them with his whole forces, while they were still reclined |129 on the ground, and killed them before they knew of the approach of an enemy. He then proceeded to the tent of Eugenius, where he attacked those who were around him, killing many of them, and taking some of them in their flight, among whom was Eugenius. When they had got him in their power, they cut off his head, and carried it on a long spear around the camp, in order to shew those who still adhered to him, that it was now their interest to be reconciled to the emperor, inasmuch as the usurper was removed.
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1ey Arcadius20 views383-408

AE4

Pearl-diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right, D N ARCADIVS P F AVG
Emperor advancing right, seizing bound captive by the hair & carrying labarum, BSISC in ex., GLORIA ROMANORVM

RIC 38c2

Zosimus recorded, [Theodosius] proceeded with his army to the war [against Eugenius], leaving behind him his son Arcadius, who had some time previously been made emperor. . . .

THE whole empire being vested in Arcadius and Honorius, they indeed appeared by their title to possess the sovereign authority, although the universal administration of affairs was under Rufinus in the east, and under Stilico in the west. By these all causes were determined, at their own pleasure; for whoever bribed plentifully, or by any other means of friendship or consanguinity could make the judge his advocate, was sure to succeed in the process. From hence it happened that most of those great estates, which cause the possessors to be generally esteemed fortunate, devolved to these two; since some endeavoured by gifts to avoid false accusations, and others relinquished all their possessions to obtain an office, or in any other manner to purchase the ruin of particular cities. While iniquity of every kind presided, therefore, in the respective cities, the money from all quarters flowed into the coffers of Rufinus and Stilico ; while on the reverse, poverty preyed on the habitations of those who had formerly been rich. Nor were the emperors acquainted with anything that was done, but thought all that Rufinus and Stilico commanded was done by virtue of some unwritten law. After they had amassed immense wealth, Rufinus began to concert the means of becoming emperor, by making his own daughter, who was now marriageable. . . . [A different cabal persuaded Arcadius to marry a different girl.]. . . .

Before this juncture a report had been circulated at Rome, that the emperor Arcadius was dead, which was confirmed after the departure of Arcadius for Ravenna. Stilico being at Ravenna while the emperor was at a city of Aemilia, called Bononia, about seventy miles distant, the emperor sent for him to chastise the soldiers, who mutinied amongst each other by the way. Stilico, therefore, having collected the mutinous troops together, informed them that the emperor had commanded him to correct them for their disobedience, and to punish them by a decimation, or putting to death every tenth man. At this they were in such consternation, that they burst into tears, and desiring him to have compassion on them, prevailed on him to promise them a pardon from the emperor. The emperor having performed what Stilico had promised, they applied themselves to public business. For Stilico was desirous of proceeding to the east to undertake the management of the affairs of Theodosius, the son of Arcadius, who was very young, and in want of a guardian. Honorius himself was also inclined to undertake the same journey, with a design to secure the dominions of that emperor. But Stilico, being displeased at that, and laying before the emperor a calculation of the immense sum of money it would require to defray the expence of such an expedition, deterred him from the enterprise.
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1fa Honorius19 views393-423

AE3

RIC 403

Pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right, DN HONORIVS PF AVG
Two emperors standing facing, heads turned to one another, each holding spear and resting hand on shield, GLORIA ROMANORVM. Mintmark SMKA.

Zosimus wrote: [Theodosius] proceeded with his army to the war [against Eugenius], leaving behind him his son Arcadius, who had some time previously been made emperor. . . . Having done this, he took with him his younger son Honorius, quickly passed through the intermediate countries, and having exceded his expectations in crossing the Alps, arrived where the enemy was stationed. . . . The emperor Theodosius after these successes proceeded to Rome, where he declared his son Honorius emperor, and appointing Stilico to the command of his forces there, left him as guardian to his son. . . . The emperor Theodosius, having consigned Italy, Spain, Celtica, and Libya to his son Honorius, died of a disease on his journey towards Constantinople. . . .

THE whole empire being vested in Arcadius and Honorius, they indeed appeared by their title to possess the sovereign authority, although the universal administration of affairs was under Rufinus in the east, and under Stilico in the west. By these all causes were determined, at their own pleasure; for whoever bribed plentifully, or by any other means of friendship or consanguinity could make the judge his advocate, was sure to succeed in the process. From hence it happened that most of those great estates, which cause the possessors to be generally esteemed fortunate, devolved to these two; since some endeavoured by gifts to avoid false accusations, and others relinquished all their possessions to obtain an office, or in any other manner to purchase the ruin of particular cities. While iniquity of every kind presided, therefore, in the respective cities, the money from all quarters flowed into the coffers of Rufinus and Stilico ; while on the reverse, poverty preyed on the habitations of those who had formerly been rich. Nor were the emperors acquainted with anything that was done, but thought all that Rufinus and Stilico commanded was done by virtue of some unwritten law. . . .

After the autumn was terminated, and winter had commenced, Bassus and Philippus being chosen consuls, the emperor Honorius, who had long before lost his wife Maria, desired to marry her sister Thermantia. But Stilico appeared not to approve of the match, although it was promoted by Serena, who wished it to take place from these motives. When Maria was about to be married to Honorius, her mother, deeming her too young for the marriage-state and being unwilling to defer the marriage, although she thought that to submit so young and tender a person to the embraces of a man was offering violence to nature, she had recourse to a woman who knew how to manage such affairs, and by her means contrived that Maria should live with the emperor and share his bed, but that he should not have the power to deprive her of virginity. In the meantime Maria died a virgin, and Serena, who, as may readily be supposed, was desirous to become the grandmother of a young emperor or empress, through fear of her influence being diminished, used all her endeavours to marry her other daughter to Honorius. This being accomplished, the young lady shortly afterwards died in the same manner as the former. . . . .

For Stilico was desirous of proceeding to the east to undertake the management of the affairs of Theodosius, the son of Arcadius, who was very young, and in want of a guardian. Honorius himself was also inclined to undertake the same journey, with a design to secure the dominions of that emperor. But Stilico, being displeased at that, and laying before the emperor a calculation of the immense sum of money it would require to defray the expence of such an expedition, deterred him from the enterprise. . . .

In the mean time, the emperor Honorius commanded his wife Thermantia to be taken from the imperial throne, and to be restored to her mother, who notwithstanding was without suspicion. . . . Alaric began his expedition against Rome, and ridiculed the preparations made by Honorius. . . . The emperor Honorius was now entering on the consulship, having enjoyed that honour eight times, and the emperor Theodosius in the east three times. At this juncture the rebel Constantine sent some eunches to Honorius, to intreat pardon from him for having accepted of the empire. When the emperor heard this petition, perceiving that it was not easy for him, since Alaric and his barbarians were so near, to prepare for other wars ; and consulting the safety of his relations who were in the hands of the rebel, whose names were Verenianus and Didymius; he not only granted his request, but likewise sent him an imperial robe. . . .

Note: No ancient source reports the sack of Rome by the Goths in 410, they having besieged the city three times, all while Honorius huddled in a besieged Ravenna. Honorius retained his nominal capacity until he died in 423.
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2 Countermarks on obverse of Geta ΠCEΠT-ΓETA•KA AE24282 viewsARABIA PETRAEA. Petra. Geta. Ć 24. A.D. 198-209. Obv: (ΠCEΠT-ΓETA•KA) or similar. Bare-headed, draped and cuirassed bust right; 2 countermarks, (1) on bust, (2) behind bust. Rev: (AΔPIΠETP-AMHTPOΠ) or similar. Tyche seated left on rock, holding trophy in right hand and stele in extended left hand (?). Ref: Spijkerman 48. Axis: 360°. Weight: 7.28 g. CM(1): •Δ• in circular punch, 5.5 mm.Howgego 801 (19 pcs). CM(2): Second application of same CM. Collection Automan.Automan
2014-051-3_ProbusRomaeAternaeRomaTemple-Forum.jpg
2014.051.341 viewsSiscia, 3.25 g

Obverse: IMP C M AVR PROBVS PF AVG; Radiate, wearing helmet, cuirassed bust right; holding spear in right over right shoulder; shield with Pegasus left and other decorations on left shoulder.
Reverse: ROMAE AETERNAE; XXIP in exergue; Roma seated left in hexa-style temple; holding globe(?) in extended right; scepter in left; shield beneath seat; wreath in pediment.
Ref: RIC 739; Alfoldi Type 60, no 14, though type 14 does not show the same decorated shield, only Pegasus shown and not additional decorations.
gordian_guy
RIC_0391[carac]a.jpg
201a. JULIA DOMNA139 viewsJULIA DOMNA, mother of Caracalla.

When Septimius Severus claimed the empire after Didius Julianus had succeeded Pertinax in 193, two serious rivals challenged him, Pescennius Niger in the East and Clodius Albinus in the West. Julia accompanied her husband in the campaign against Pescennius, having been honored with the title mater castrorum. After this successful campaign, there was another campaign in the East, against the Parthians, in 197. Afterwards, she was with Severus on a journey to Egypt and other parts of the empire. She was widely honored with inscriptions throughout this period, and numerous coin issues emphasized her imperial position.

She opposed Plautianus, the praetorian prefect and father-in-law of Caracalla, and was partially responsible for his downfall and his daughter Plautilla's disgrace. She was often accused of adultery; nonetheless, the emperor chose to ignore these charges, if true, and the marriage continued. Among her passions were literature and philosophy; she gathered writers and philosophers in a kind of salon, and urged Philostratus to write the life of Apollonius of Tyana.

In 212, Caracalla murdered Geta while he sought succor in his mother's arms; covered with his blood, she was forbidden by Caracalla to grieve. Her relationship with Caracalla during the six years of his reign was mixed. She had some public duties but largely devoted herself to philosophy. She accompanied Caracalla to the east on campaign against the Parthians in 217; when she learned, in Antioch, that he had been assassinated, she resolved upon death, which followed her refusal to take food.

AR Denarius
(19mm, 2.86 gm). IVLIA PIA FELIX AVG, draped
bust right / VESTA, Vesta, veiled, seated left,
holding simpulum and sceptre. RIC IV 391 (Caracalla); BMCRE 31 (same); RSC 226. EF. Ex-CNG
1 commentsecoli73
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201c. Pescennius Niger127 viewsGaius Pescennius Niger was governor of Syria in the year 193 when he learned of the emperor Pertinax's murder. Niger's subsequent attempt to claim the empire for himself ended in failure in Syria after roughly one year. His life before becoming governor of Syria is not well known. He was born in Italy to an equestrian family. He seems to have been older than his eventual rival Septimius Severus, so his birth should perhaps be placed ca. AD 135-40. Niger may have held an important position in the administration of Egypt. He won renown, along with Clodius Albinus, for participation in a military campaign in Dacia early in Commodus' reign. Although Niger could have been adlected into the senate before the Dacian campaign, he was by now pursuing a senatorial career and must have been held in high esteem by Commodus. Niger was made a suffect consul, probably in the late 180s, and he was sent as governor to the important province of Syria in 191.

Niger was a well-known and well-liked figure to the Roman populace. After Pertinax became emperor at the beginning of 193, many in Rome may have hoped that the elderly Pertinax would adopt Niger as his Caesar and heir, but Pertinax was murdered without having made succession plans. When Didius Julianus arrived at the senate house on 29 March 193, his first full day as emperor, a riot broke out among the Roman crowd. The rioters took over the Circus Maximus, from which they shouted for Niger to seize the throne. The rioters dispersed the following day, but a report of their demonstration may well have arrived in the Syrian capital, Antioch, with the news that Pertinax had been murdered and replaced by Julianus.

Spurred into action by the news, Niger had himself proclaimed emperor in Antioch. The governors of the other eastern provinces quickly joined his cause. Niger's most important ally was the respected proconsul of Asia, Asellius Aemilianus, and support began to spread across the Propontis into Europe. Byzantium welcomed Niger, who now was preparing further advances. Niger took the additional cognomen Justus, "the Just." Justice was promoted as the theme of his intended reign, and personifications of Justice appeared on his coins.

Other provincial governors, however, also set their sights on replacing Julianus. Albinus in Britain and Septimius Severus in Upper Pannonia (western Hungary) had each aspired to the purple, and Severus was marching an army on Rome. Severus was still 50 miles from the city when the last of Julianus' dwindling authority disappeared. Julianus was killed in Rome 1 June 193.

Niger sent messengers to Rome to announce his acclamation, but those messengers were intercepted by Severus. A deal was struck between Severus and Albinus that kept Albinus in Britain with the title of Caesar. The larger armies of the western provinces were now united in their support for Severus. Niger's support was confined to the east. Severus had Niger's children captured and held as hostages, and a legion was sent to confront Niger's army in Thrace.

The first conflict between the rival armies took place near Perinthus. Although Niger's forces may have inflicted greater casualties on the Severan troops, Niger was unable to secure his advance; he returned to Byzantium. By the autumn of 193, Severus had left Rome and arrived in the region, though his armies there continued to be commanded by supporters. Niger was offered the chance of a safe exile by Severus, but Niger refused.

Severan troops crossed into Asia at the Hellespont and near Cyzicus engaged forces supporting Niger under the command of Aemilianus. Niger's troops were defeated. Aemilianus attempted to flee but was captured and killed. Not long after, in late December 193 or early January 194, Niger was defeated in a battle near Nicaea and fled south to Antioch. Eastern provincial governors now switched their loyalty to Severus, and Niger faced revolts even in Syria. By late spring 194, the Severan armies were in Cilicia preparing to enter Syria. Niger and his army met the Severan troops near Issus. The battle was a decisive defeat for Niger, who fled back to Antioch. The Syrian capital that only one year earlier had cheered as Niger was proclaimed emperor now waited in fear for the approach of its new master. Niger prepared to flee once more, but outside Antioch he was captured and killed.

Despite his popularity with the Roman mob, Pescennius Niger lacked both the strong loyalty of other senatorial commanders and the number of soldiers that his rival Severus enjoyed. Niger was ultimately unable to make himself the true avenger of Pertinax, and his roughly one-year control of the eastern provinces never qualified him to be reckoned a legitimate emperor.

BITHYNIA, Caesarea. Pescennius Niger. AD 193-194. Ć 22mm (6.35 g). Laureate head right / KAICAREIAC GERMANIKHC, coiled serpent left. RG p. 282, 9, pl. XLIV, 8 (same dies); SNG Copenhagen -; SNG von Aulock -. Near VF, brown patina, rough surfaces. Very rare. Ex-CNG
2 commentsecoli
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202. Caracalla; Ancyra21 viewsThis reverse seems to be unknown for a left-facing Caracalla.

The following two might have the same reverse type (Vexillum, with eagle, between two standards with capricorns

Caracalla, facing right, SNG Aul 6162 and 6178 (n.v.)

Similar reverse:
Julia Domna, SNG France 2494, SNG Hunter 2168
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204d. Aquilia Severa65 viewsAquilia Severa

As part of this marriage of gods, Elagabalus married one of the Vestal Virgins, Julia Aquilia Severa (AD 220). In earlier days sexual relations with a Vestal Virgins meant the immediate death penalty for both her and her lover, then this marriage of the emperor only further enraged public opinion. Although the marriage between Elagabalus and Aquilia Severa went ahead, the emperor's religious aspirations for El-Gabal had to be abandoned, for fear of the public's reaction. Instead the god El-Gabal, by now known to the Romans as Elagabalus - the same name used for their emperor, - was 'married' to the less controversial moon goddess Urania.

EGYPT, Alexandria. Potin Tetradrachm (25mm, 14.54 gm). Dated year 5 (221/222 AD). Draped bust right / Eagle standing left, head right, wreath in beak. Köln 2374; Dattari 4188; Milne 2868; Curtis 1016; Emmett 3010. VF, brown patina, rough surfaces. From the Tony Hardy Collection. Ex-CNG
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205a. Julia Mamaea37 viewsJulia Avita Mamaea (180–235) was the daughter of Julia Maesa, a powerful Roman woman of Syrian origin, and Julius Avitus. She was a niece of emperor Septimius Severus and sister of Julia Soaemias Bassiana.

She was married to Gessius Marcianus had a son, later emperor Alexander Severus. Unlike her sister, Julia Mamaea was reported to be a virtuous woman, never involved in scandals. As a member of the Imperial Roman family, she watched closely the death of her cousin Caracalla and the ascent to power of her nephew Heliogabalus, the oldest grandson of Julia Maesa and her choice to the throne. But eventually Heliogabalus and his mother Julia Soaemias proved incompetent rulers and favour fell on Alexander, Julia's son. He became emperor in 222, following Heliogabalus's murder by the Praetorian Guard. Julia and her mother became regents in the name of Alexander, then 14 years old. Upon adulthood, Alexander confirmed his esteem for his mother and named her consors imperii (imperial consort). It was in this condition that she accompanied her son in his campaigns: a custom started with Julia Domna (Septimius Severus's wife). Thus she travelled to the East, for the campaign against the Parthian empire, and to the Germania provinces. Julia Mamaea was with Alexander in Moguntiacum (modern Mainz), capital of Germania Superior, when he was assassinated by his troops. She suffered the same fate.

Julia Mamaea Denarius. IVLIA MAMAEA AVG, diademed & draped bust right / VESTA, Vesta standing half-left, holding palladium & scepter. RSC 81.
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207/1. Decimia or Flavia? - denarius (150 BC)10 viewsAR Denarius (Rome, 150 BC)
O/ Helmeted head of Roma right; X behind.
R/ Luna in biga right, holding whip & reins; FLAVS below; ROMA in exergue.
3.95g; 19mm
Crawford 207/1 (61 obverse dies/76 reverse dies)
- Collection of Frederick Sydney Clark (1923-2016), British collector in East Sussex.
- Toovey's, 01/11/2017, Lot 701.

* Decimius Flavus or Gaius Flavius Fimbria:

This issue has been given to a member of the plebeian gens Decimia, of Samnite origin. The gens was relatively new at the time since its first identified member Numerius Decimius distinguished himself during the Second Punic War (Livy, xxii. 24), and probably received the Roman citizenship as a result. Two Decimii used the cognomen Flavus: a military tribune in 207 named Gaius Decimius Flavus (Livy, xxvii. 14), and his probable son of the same name, who was Urban Praetor in 184, but died immediately after his election (Livy, xxxix. 38).

Three other Decimii are then known: Marcus, Gaius, and Lucius, all ambassadors in Greece in 172-171 (Livy, xlii. 19, 35, 37 respectively). They were possible sons of the Praetor of 184, in which case our moneyer was the son of one of them, although nothing is known of him. However, none of them had a cognomen and Flavus simply meant "blond hair", a rather common cognomen unlikely to feature alone on a coin.

So the name could refer to another gens; it is indeed possible to read it as FLAVIVS. This name, widespread during the Empire after Vespasian, was nevertheless uncommon in the second century and therefore distinctive enough so that the moneyer did not need to add the rest of his name. Besides, only one Flavius is known in this century: the Popularis Gaius Flavius C.f. Fimbria, Consul in 104 alongside Marius. Fimbria was therefore born no later than 146 (the Consulship was reserved to men aged at least 42 years old), a date which would remarkably fit with his father moneyer in 150 and therefore in his 20s. As Fimbria was a novus homo, the moneyership held by his father would testify the ascension of the family before him.
Joss
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217-215 BC Roman Republic AE Semi uncia 19 viewsThe semuncia (Latin half-ounce) was an ancient Roman bronze coin valued at one-twenty-fourth of an as produced during the Roman Republic. It was made during the beginning of Roman cast bronze coinage as the lowest valued denomination. The most common obverse types were a bust of Mercury or an acorn (occasionally marked with Σ), and the most common reverse types were a prow or a caduceus. It was issued until ca. 210 BC, at about the time the same time as the denarius was introduced.

Cr. 38/7
217-215 BC
Obverse: Head of Mercury right, wearing winged petasus
Reverse: ROMA above prow right

From Ebay(UK seller - George Clegg)

Check
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22. Celtic Alexander Tetradrachm (?)45 viewsTetradrachm, ca 2'nd century BC, Danube region.
Obverse: Head of Alexander as Herakles, wearing lion's skin headdress.
Reverse: ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ / Zeus sitting, holding his attendant eagle and sceptre. Tripod at left.
17.25 gm., 28 mm.

In researching this coin, I found five coins which are from the same pair of dies as this one. These are the only examples of this type (tripod on reverse) that I've been able to find.

1. Palladium sale #10 (Nov. 1995), attributed to the mint at Pella and catalogued as Muller #146.

2. Palladium sale #11 (April 1996), described as "unlisted in Price, and apparently unknown before a recent hoard find. Variant of Price 633."

3. CNG sale #54, lot 99, described as a Celtic imitation of Alexander's coinage from the Danube region, ca 2'nd century BC. c.f. Goble, OTA, 566. This is the coin pictured above.

4. CNG sale #72, lot 13, described as "Celtic, Lower Danube, uncertain tribe, early 3'rd century BC . . . . Unpublished in the standard references . . . . By virtue of its style, fabric, and weight, this Alexander imitation is certainly an early issue, probably struck during the first decades of the third century BC."

5. Harlan J Berk 156th Buy or Bid Sale (Oct. 2007), lot 75, described as "Possibly unpublished . . . Somewhat unusual style on the obverse."

Five coins from the same pair or dies, five different attributions. I will agree, though, with the last statement of coin #4 above, that this appears to be an early issue. This coin is on a thick flan resembling coins minted during Alexander's lifetime and immediately thereafter and is made from good silver. There is something a bit barbaric about the style of this coin, although there are genuine Alexander coins listed and pictured in Martin J. Price's book which are more barbaric than this one. An interesting coin.
1 commentsCallimachus
761Hadrian_RIC225var_.jpg
227 var. Hadrian Denarius Roma 134-38 AD Hadrian & Roma standing26 viewsReference.
Strack 218; RIC cf 227; C.cf 94; BMCR cf 584

Obv. HADRIANVS AVG COS III P P
Bare head right

Rev. ADVENTVS AVGVSTI
Roma standing left, holding spear, and parazonium on hip?? and clasping hands with Hadrian standing right, holding a roll.

3.35 gr
18 mm
7h

Note.
Strack saw two similar coins in Vienna and Sofia with same die pair.

This denarius was Rome struck during the latter part of Hadrian’s reign, and which fall into three classes or categories: 1) a series of coins commemorating the visit or arrival (adventus) of the emperor to each province; 2) another series which commemorates the restoration (restitutor) of the province by the emperor; and 3) an additional series which commemorates the military strength (exercitus) of province, for those provinces which had legions stationed within them. In addition to these three categories of commemorative issues that are collectively known as Hadrian’s ‘travel’ series, there are a further two related groups of coins. The first is quite extensive and simply commemorates the various provinces, with the provinces of Egypt, Africa, Hispania and Gallia being the most common. Then there is a much smaller issue which commemorates the emperor’s final return (adventus) to Rome, after his subjugation of the Jewish zealots under Simon Bar Kochba led to the pacification of the province of Judaea, of which this coin is a particularly handsome specimen. After spending more than half his reign on the road, and especially after having just inflicted such a crushing defeat on the recalcitrant Jews, Hadrian’s homecoming was a momentous occasion in the capital which was warmly welcomed by the citizens. The reverse shows the city of Rome personified as the goddess Roma, helmeted and draped in military attire, holding a spear and clasping the hand of the now elderly emperor who is depicted togate and holding a roll in the guise of a citizen, standing before her. The legend which appears on the obverse of this coin was only employed ca. A.D. 134-138. As Hadrian returned to Italy during A.D. 136 and died not two years later, this coin belongs to the very last issue of coinage struck at Rome during his principate.
1 commentsokidoki
236_Maximinus_Dupondius_RIC_65note_1.jpg
236_Maximinus_Dupondius_RIC_65note_110 viewsMaximinus I (235 – 238 AD)
AE Dupondius, Rome, 236
IMP MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG;
Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
SALVS AVGVSIT, SC in exergue;
Salus seated left, feeding serpent rising from altar
11,11 gr, 24 mm
RIC IVb, 65 note; BMC VI, 102 var. (rev. legend misspelled); C. 90 var. (same)
ga77
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236_Maximinus_Dupondius_RIC_65note_28 viewsMaximinus I (235 – 238 AD)
AE Dupondius, Rome, 236
IMP MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG;
Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
SALVS AVGVSIT, SC in exergue;
Salus seated left, feeding serpent rising from altar
8,83 gr, 24 mm
RIC IVb, 65 note; BMC VI, 102 var. (rev. legend misspelled); C. 90 var. (same)
ga77
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24. Seleukos I.101 viewsTetradrachm, ca 305 - 304 BC, Seleuceia ad Tigram mint.
Obverse: Head of Alexander as Herakles, wearing lion's skin headdress.
Reverse: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΟΣ ΣΕΛΕΥΚΟΥ / Zeus sitting, holding his attendant eagle and sceptre. Monogram at left, ΔΙ under throne.
16.93 gm., 26 mm.
Houghton #941; ESM #4; BMC 4.1, 5.

In Eastern Seleucid Mints, E.T. Newell has this coin in Series 1, Group A. He suggests a date of 305 - 304 BC. Martin J. Price lists a coin in the name of Alexander the Great (#3784) with the exact same monograms. He suggests a date of ca 295 BC for the coin, but admits the whole attribution is very tentative.
2 commentsCallimachus
rjb_2012_08_08.jpg
24735 viewsPhilip II 247-9 AD
AE 30mm
Zeugma
Obv Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right viewed from the front
Rev Tetrastyle temple on top of rocky hill, buildings at base and colonnades or steps up the sides, Capricorn right below
Butcher CRS –
Not recorded with this bust type.
The coins of Zeugma would seem to be struck at the same location as those of Antioch, Cyrrhus, Hierapolis, Philippopolis and Samosata. It is likely that an obverse die duplicate may exist among the coinages of those cities
mauseus
131Hadrian__RIC248var.jpg
248a Hadrian Denarius Roma 134-38 AD Hadrian & Fortuna 30 viewsReference.
RIC II, 248a; BMCRE 653 var. (same); RSC 789d

Obv. HADRIANVS-AVG COS III P P
Laureate bust right, slight drapery on left shoulder.

Rev. FORTVNAE REDVCI
Hadrian standing right, clasping hands with Fortuna standing left, cornucopiae on left arm. (no leaning on rudder)

3.24 gr
18 mm

ex Beast coins
okidoki
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2520 PHRYGIA, Tiberiopolis Ae20 Pseudo-autonomous under Hadrian9 viewsReference.
RPC III, 2520; vA, Phryg. 1187-99; SNG Copenhagen 753; BMC 3
same die pair as nr 5 on RPC 2520

Magistrate T. Ailius Flavianus Sôsthenes (archon)

Obv. ΙΕΡΑ СΥΝΚΛΗΤΟС
Draped bust of Senate, right

Rev. ΕΠΙ CΩCΘΕΝΟΥC ΑΡΧΟΝΤΟC ΤΙΒΕΡΙ (missing character)
Cult statue of Artemis Ephesia with supports between two stags

3.92 gr
20 mm
6h
okidoki
1002Hadrian_RIC276var_.jpg
276var. Hadrian Denarius Roma 134-38 AD Tellus standing24 viewsReference.
Strack 275; RIC 276; RSC 1427 var. (two grain ears on ground).

Obv. HADRIANVS. AVG COS III P P
Laureate head right.

Rev. TELLVS STABIL.
Tellus standing left, holding plow and rake.

3.27 gr
18 mm
6h

Note.
Variant for no corn ears in ground to right and pellet in obverse legend, same die pair as on beastcoins.com
2 commentsokidoki
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28229 viewsCarus 282-3 AD
AE antoninianus
IMP C M AVR CARVS PF AVG
Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
VIRTVS AVG
Mars stg right, leaning on shield
-/-//-
RIC -
RIC ascribes this coin to Lugdunum (RIC 27), but that is an attribution I am uncomfortable with. The lettering style is quite clearly not Lugdunum. The mint is that of Ticinum and the type unrecorded in RIC although at least one other example from the same reverse die is known (Thanks Ed D and Curtis).
mauseus
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28416 viewsDiocletian 284-305 AD
AE antoninianus
Obv: IMP DIOCLETIANVS P AVG
Radiate, cuirassed bust left holding shield
Rev: SALVS AVGG
Salus standing right feeding snake in arms
-/-//C
Lugdunum Mint
RIC - (cf 86ff)
From Curtis: Bastien Supplement I, p. 29, 396a, pl. IV, two spec., Marchovalette Hoard and D. Gricourt Coll., both same obv. die as yours, the second same rev. die too.
mauseus
Treb-Gallus-RIC-032.jpg
29. Trebonianus Gallus.58 viewsAntoninianus, ca 252 AD, Rome mint.
Obverse: IMP CAES VIB TREB GALLVS AVG / Radiate bust of Gallus.
Reverse: APOLL SALVTARI / Apollo standing, holding branch and a lyre set on a rock.
3.82 gm., 20 mm.
RIC #32; Sear #9627.

In his book The Fate of Rome: Climate, Disease, & the End of an Empire, author Kyle Harper suggests the plague described by Cyprian, Bishop of Carthage, was not a localized plague of some sort, but was one and the same with the plague that ravaged the Roman Empire during the reign of Trebonianus Gallus and several of his successors.

The plague was first reported in Alexandria in 249 AD, and by 251 AD it had made its way to Rome where the boy emperor Hostilian died from it. Harper says (p, 138), “The Plague of Cyprian is in the background of imperial history from ca. AD 249 to AD 262, possibly with even later effects around AD 270.”

Harper also presents a case that the plague was either pandemic influenza (similar to that of 1918) or a viral hemorrhagic fever (similar to the Ebola virus of today).

Coins with the reverse legend APOLL SALVTARI (“Apollo the Healer”) exist on coins of Trebonianus Gallus, Volusian, Aemilian, and Valerian I. This reverse type is certainly to be interpreted as an appeal to Apollo for deliverance from the plague that was spreading through the Empire at this time.
3 commentsCallimachus
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2986 Hadrian Denarius 124-27 AD Aequitas-Moneta standing Eastern Mint52 viewsReference.
RIC III, 2986; Strack *12 same die pair

Bust A2

Obv. HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS
Laureate bust with drapery

Rev. COS III
Aequitas-Moneta standing left, wearing polos Crown, holding scales and cornucopia

3.31 gr
19 mm
h
1 commentsokidoki
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2995A Hadrian Denarius 125-28 AD Roma seated left Eastern Mint38 viewsReference.
RIC III, 2995A; RIC II -; BMC -; Strack *-- cf (Taf. XIX, 40 und XX, 14).

Bust B1

Obv. HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS
Laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right.

Rev. COS III
Roma seated left on curule chair holding Victory and sceptre

2.82 gr
17 mm
6h

Note.
Same obverse die as http://www.forumancientcoins.com/gallery/displayimage.php?pos=-149088
3 commentsokidoki
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3) The Tyrannicides: Brutus50 viewsGold stater, BMCRR II p. 474, 48; RPC I 1701A (Thracian Kings); BMC Thrace p. 208, 1 (same); SNG Cop 123 (Scythian Dynasts), military mint, weight 8.39g, 44 - 42 B.C.; obverse Roman consul L. Junius Brutus (traditional founder of the Republic) in center, accompanied by two lictors, KOΣΩN in ex, BR (Brutus) monogram left; reverse eagle standing left on scepter, wings open, raising wreath in right talon; ex CNG Store

From the Elwood Rafn Collection.

2 commentsSosius
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302. BALBINUS129 viewsBALBINUS. 238 AD.

The relation between Balbinus and Pupienus had been clouded with suspicion from the start, with both fearing an assassination from the other. They were planning an enormous double campaign, Pupienus against the Parthians and Balbinus against the Carpians, but they quarrelled frequently. It was during one of these heavy discussions, on July 29, that the Praetorian guard decided to intervene. They stormed into the room containing the emperors and killed them both. On the same day, Gordian III, only 13 years old, was proclaimed emperor.

Together they ruled a little more than three months. Coins from their short reign show one of them on one side and two clasped hands on the other to show their joint power.

AR Denarius (21mm, 2.92 gm). Laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right / Victory standing facing, head left, holding wreath and palm. RIC IV 8; BMCRE 37; RSC 27. Good VF, toned, Ex- CNG
1 commentsecoli
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302a Pupienus79 viewsPupienus, born about 178, was an example of ascension in the Roman hierarchical system due to military success. He started as a primus pilus and became a military tribune, praetor, consul (twice) and governor of several Roman provinces including the troublesome Germania Inferior. In 234 he was prefect of Rome and gained a reputation for severity.

The relation between Balbinus and Pupienus had been clouded with suspicion from the start, with both fearing an assassination from the other. They were planning an enormous double campaign, Pupienus against the Parthians and Balbinus against the Carpians, but they quarrelled frequently. It was during one of these heavy discussions, on July 29, that the Praetorian guard decided to intervene. They stormed into the room containing the emperors and killed them both. On the same day, the boy Caesar, generally known in English as Gordian III, was proclaimed emperor.

Pupienus. AD 238. Ć Sestertius (31mm, 25.78 g). Rome mint. Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right / Victory standing left, holding wreath and palm. RIC IV 23. Fair, brown patina.

Ex-CNG sale 141, lot 207, 215/100

Check
1 commentsecoli
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304. Philip I26 viewsPhilip I

Philip the Arabian remains an enigmatic figure because different authors evaluated his reign with wildly divergent interpretations. Christian authors of late antiquity praised the man they regarded as the first Christian emperor. Pagan historians saw Philip as indecisive, treacherous and weak. Our lack of detailed knowledge about the reign makes any analysis highly speculative. Nonetheless, Philip's provincial and administrative background represents continuity with features of Severan government. His career has its closest parallel with that of Macrinus, an equestrian from the provinces who, a quarter of a century earlier, capped an administrative career by moving from the office of praetorian prefect to that of emperor. Unfotunately, they also shared the same fate - Philip only lasted half a decade.

AR Antoninianus. IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG, radiate, draped & cuirassed bust right / AEQVITAS AVGG, Aequitas standing left with scales & cornucopia. RIC 27b, RSC 9
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309. Gallienus33 viewsOne of the key characteristics of the Crisis of the Third Century was the inability of the Emperors to maintain their hold on the Imperium for any marked length of time. An exception to this rule was the reign of the Emperor Gallienus. The fact that Gallienus served as junior Emperor with his father, Valerian, from 253 to 260 may have had something to do with his successes. Father and son each wielded his authority over a smaller area, thus allowing for more flexible control and imperial presence. Another, more probable reason, lay in Gallienus's success in convincing Rome that he was the best man for the job. However, Gallienus had to handle many rebellions of the so-called "Gallienus usurpers".

In 260, Valerian was taken prisoner by Sapor, King of Persia while trying to negotiate a peace settlement. Although aware that his father had been taken alive (the only Emperor to have suffered this fate), Gallienus did not make public Valerian's death until a year later. His decision hinged on the fact that Romans believed that their fate rose and fell with the fate of the Emperor, which in turn depended upon his demonstrating the proper amount of piety (Latin pietas) to the gods and maintaining their favor. A defeated Emperor would surely have meant that the gods had forsaken Valerian and, by extension, Gallienus.

Gallienus's chief method of reinforcing his position is seen in the coinage produced during his reign (see Roman currency). The coinage provides clear evidence of a successful propaganda campaign. Gallienus took pains to make sure that he was regularly represented as victorious, merciful, and pious. The people who used these coins on a daily basis saw these messages and, with little evidence to the contrary, remained supportive of their Emperor.

There were, however, those who knew better. During Gallienus' reign, there was constant fighting on the western fringes of the Empire. As early as 258, Gallienus had lost control over a large part of Gaul, where another general, Postumus, had declared his own realm (typically known today as the Gallic Empire). As Gallienus' influence waned, another general came to the fore. In time-honored tradition, Claudius II Gothicus gained the loyalty of the army and succeeded Gallienus to the Imperium.

In the months leading up to his mysterious death in September of 268, Gallienus was ironically orchestrating the greatest achievements of his reign. An invasion of Goths into the province of Pannonia was leading to disaster and even threatening Rome, while at the same time, the Alamanni were raising havoc in the northern part of Italy. Gallienus halted the Allamanic progress by defeating them in battle in April of 268, then turned north and won several victories over the Goths. That fall, he turned on the Goths once again, and in September, either he or Claudius, his leading general, led the Roman army to victory (although the cavalry commander Aurelian was the real victor) at the Battle of Naissus.

At some time following this battle, Gallienus was murdered during the siege of usurper Aureolus in Mediolanum; many theories abound that Claudius and Aurelian conspired to have the emperor killed. Be that as it may, Claudius spared the lives of Gallienus' family — Gallienus' wife, Iulia Cornelia Salonina, had given him three sons: Valerianus (who died in 258), Saloninus (died in 260 after becoming co-emperor), and Egnatius Marinianus — and had the emperor deified.

Gallienus Antoninianus - Minerva
OBVERSE: GALLIENVS AVG, radiate, cuirassed bust right
REVERSE: MINERVA AVG, Minerva standing right with spear and shield.
23mm - 3.7 grams
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311a. Aureolus8 viewsAureolus. Romano-Gallic Usurper, AD 267-268. Antoninianus (19mm, 2.17 g, 7h). Struck in the name of Postumus. Mediolanum (Milan) mint, 2nd officina. 3rd emission, mid AD 268. Radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust of Postumus right / Concordia standing left, holding patera and rudder; prow of galley to left; S. RIC V (Postumus) 373; Mairat 215-21; AGK (Postumus) 6b; RSC (Postumus) 19. Near VF, dark brown patina.

Aureolus was an extraordinarily capable general who served under Valerian and Gallienus. Around AD 258, Gallienus stationed a new cavalry unit at Mediolanum that was to serve as a quick reaction force against any new invasions along the frontier of the central empire. Aureolus was given command of this unit. In AD 260-261 his forces defeated the armies of the usurpers Ingenuus and Macrianus, and recovered the province of Raetia. Following these victories, Gallienus and Aureolus led a Roman army against the breakaway Gallic provinces under Postumus. Gallienus was forced to leave the field after being injured in battle, and left the campaign in the hands of Aureolus. Aureolus ended the campaign shortly thereafter, and while the reason is uncertain, the historical record suggests it was due to either his incompetence or else treachery (he had come to a secret agreement with Postumus). While the former seems unlikely, given Aureolus’ record, the latter is possible, as there are indications that he had been preparing for a revolt as early as AD 262. Regardless, at some point in AD 267, Aureolus revolted and established his base at Mediolanum, where Gallienus besieged him in AD 268. The details of the revolt are unclear, but it appears that Aureolus first appealed to Postumus for aid, and, failing to gain the Gallic Emperor’s support, declared himself emperor. About the same time, Gallienus was murdered, and was succeeded by Claudius II Gothicus, who continued to beseige Mediolanum. Soon, though, it appeared that an agreement was reached, and Aureolus emerged from the city to meet Claudius. Any such concord, however, was simply a ruse, as Aureolus was taken into custody and executed.
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313 - 2013 Edictum Mediolanense - Edict of Milan 28 viewsIn February 313, Emperor Constantine I, who controlled the western part of the Roman Empire, and Licinius, who controlled the Balkans, met in Milan and, among other things, agreed to treat the Christians benevolently.

When I, Constantine Augustus, as well as I, Licinius Augustus, fortunately met near Mediolanurn (Milan), and were considering everything that pertained to the public welfare and security, we thought, among other things which we saw would be for the good of many, those regulations pertaining to the reverence of the Divinity ought certainly to be made first, so that we might grant to the Christians and others full authority to observe that religion which each preferred; whence any Divinity whatsoever in the seat of the heavens may be propitious and kindly disposed to us and all who are placed under our rule. And thus by this wholesome counsel and most upright provision we thought to arrange that no one whatsoever should be denied the opportunity to give his heart to the observance of the Christian religion, of that religion which he should think best for himself, so that the Supreme Deity, to whose worship we freely yield our hearts) may show in all things His usual favor and benevolence. Therefore, your Worship should know that it has pleased us to remove all conditions whatsoever, which were in the rescripts formerly given to you officially, concerning the Christians and now any one of these who wishes to observe Christian religion may do so freely and openly, without molestation. We thought it fit to commend these things most fully to your care that you may know that we have given to those Christians free and unrestricted opportunity of religious worship. When you see that this has been granted to them by us, your Worship will know that we have also conceded to other religions the right of open and free observance of their worship for the sake of the peace of our times, that each one may have the free opportunity to worship as he pleases; this regulation is made we that we may not seem to detract from any dignity or any religion. Moreover, in the case of the Christians especially we esteemed it best to order that if it happens anyone heretofore has bought from our treasury from anyone whatsoever, those places where they were previously accustomed to assemble, concerning which a certain decree had been made and a letter sent to you officially, the same shall be restored to the Christians without payment or any claim of recompense and without any kind of fraud or deception, Those, moreover, who have obtained the same by gift, are likewise to return them at once to the Christians. Besides, both those who have purchased and those who have secured them by gift, are to appeal to the vicar if they seek any recompense from our bounty, that they may be cared for through our clemency. All this property ought to be delivered at once to the community of the Christians through your intercession, and without delay. And since these Christians are known to have possessed not only those places in which they were accustomed to assemble, but also other property, namely the churches, belonging to them as a corporation and not as individuals, all these things which we have included under the above law, you will order to be restored, without any hesitation or controversy at all, to these Christians, that is to say to the corporations and their conventicles: providing, of course, that the above arrangements be followed so that those who return the same without payment, as we have said, may hope for an indemnity from our bounty. In all these circumstances you ought to tender your most efficacious intervention to the community of the Christians, that our command may be carried into effect as quickly as possible, whereby, moreover, through our clemency, public order may be secured. Let this be done so that, as we have said above, Divine favor towards us, which, under the most important circumstances we have already experienced, may, for all time, preserve and prosper our successes together with the good of the state. Moreover, in order that the statement of this decree of our good will may come to the notice of all, this rescript, published by your decree, shall be announced everywhere and brought to the knowledge of all, so that the decree of this, our benevolence, cannot be concealed.
From Lactantius, De Mort. Pers., ch. 48. opera, ed. 0. F. Fritzsche, II, p 288 sq. (Bibl Patr. Ecc. Lat. XI).
Bohemian
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313a. Tetricus II31 viewsTetricus II was the son of Tetricus I and had exactly the same name as his father: C. Pius Esuvius Tetricus. His date of birth as well as the name of his mother are unknown. In 273 AD Tetricus II was elevated by his father to the rank of Caesar and given the title of princeps iuventutis. On 1 January 274 AD he entered in Augusta Treverorum (Trier) upon his first consulship, which he shared with his father.

After the defeat in autumn of 274 AD near Châlons-sur-Marne and subsequent surrender of his father Tetricus I to the emperor Aurelian, Tetricus II was put on display in Rome together with his father during Aurelian's triumph, but then pardoned. All literary sources agree on the fact that his life was spared; according to Aurelius Victor and the Scriptores Historiae Augustae, he even retained his senatorial rank and occupied later on many senatorial offices

Tet II obverse muled with his father's COMES AVG reverse.
1 commentsecoli
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314. Claudius II37 viewsMarcus Aurelius Claudius Gothicus (May 10, 213/214 - January, 270), more often referred to as Claudius II, ruled the Roman Empire for less than two years (268 - 270), but during that brief time, he was so successful and beloved by the people of Rome that he attained divine status.

His origin is uncertain. Claudius was either from Syrmia (Sirmium; in Pannonia Inferior) or from Dardania (in Moesia Superior). Claudius was the commander of the Roman army that defeated decisively the Goths at the battle of Naissus, in September 268; in the same month, he attained the throne, amid charges, never proven, that he murdered his predecessor Gallienus. However, he soon proved to be less than bloodthirsty, as he asked the Roman Senate to spare the lives of Gallienus' family and supporters. He was less magnanimous toward Rome's enemies, however, and it was to this that he owed his popularity.

Claudius, like Maximinus Thrax before him, was of barbarian birth. After an interlude of failed aristocratic Roman emperors since Maximinus's death, Claudius was the first in a series of tough soldier-emperors who would eventually restore the Empire from the Crisis of the third century.

At the time of his accession, the Roman Empire was in serious danger from several incursions, both within and outside its borders. The most pressing of these was an invasion of Illyricum and Pannonia by the Goths. Not long after being named emperor (or just prior to Gallienus' death, depending on the source), he won his greatest victory, and one of the greatest in the history of Roman arms.

At the Battle of Naissus, Claudius and his legions routed a huge Gothic army. Together with his cavalry commander, the future Emperor Aurelian, the Romans took thousands of prisoners, destroyed the Gothic cavalry as a force and stormed their chariot laager (a circular alignment of battle-wagons long favored by the Goths). The victory earned Claudius his surname of "Gothicus" (conqueror of the Goths), and that is how he is known to this day. More importantly, the Goths were soon driven back across the Danube River, and a century passed before they again posed a serious threat to the empire.

While this was going on, the Germanic tribe known as the Alamanni had crossed the Alps and attacked the empire. Claudius responded quickly and swiftly, routing the Alamanni at the Battle of Lake Benacus in the late fall of 268, a few months after the battle of Naissus. He then turned on the "Gallic Empire", ruled by a pretender for the past 15 years and encompassing Britain, Gaul and Spain. He won several victories and soon regained control of Spain and the Rhone river valley of Gaul. This set the stage for the ultimate destruction of the Gallic Empire under Aurelian.

However, Claudius did not live long enough to fulfill his goal of reuniting all the lost territories of the empire. Late in 269 he was preparing to go to war against the Vandals, who were raiding in Pannonia. However, he fell victim to an epidemic of plague and died early in January of 270. Before his death, he is thought to have named Aurelian as his successor, although Claudius' brother Quintillus briefly seized power.

The Senate immediately deified Claudius as "Divus Claudius Gothicus", making him one of the few Roman emperors of the period to be so honored.

Historia Augusta reports Claudius and Quintillus having another brother named Crispus and through him a niece. Said niece Claudia reportedly married Eutropius and was mother to Constantius Chlorus. Historians however suspect this account to be a genealogical fabrication by Constantine the Great.

Claudius II Gothicus AE Antoninianus. Cyzicus mint. IMP CLAVDIVS P F AVG, radiate, draped bust right / FORTUNA REDUX, Fortuna standing left with rudder & cornucopiae. RIC 234, Cohen 88.
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3168A CAPPADOCIA, Hierapolis (Comana). Hadrian Didrachm Tyche37 viewsReference.
RPC III, 3168A (Same obverse die)

Obv: ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СЄΒΑСΤΟС.
Laureate head right.

Rev: ΥΠΑΤΟС Γ ΠΑΤΗΡ ΠΑΤΡΙ.
Tyche seated left on throne, holding rudder and cornucopia.

5.83 gr
21 mm
12h
1 commentsokidoki
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318. Florian28 viewsAfter Tacitus died, the army chose Florian to succeed him. His full name as Emperor was Imperator Caesar Marcus Annius Florianus Pius Felix Invictus Augustus. The Historia Augusta characterizes the succession as a dynastic coup in which the Senate was ignored, but since Florian like Tacitus issued coins inscribed SC, advertising the Senate's authority for minting them, the Historia Augusta's complaint may be factitious. Most of this biography is.

Florian had hardly assumed office when the armies and provinces of Phoenicia, Palestine, Syria and Egypt declared for Probus. Florian turned from pursuing the the Eruli north to return to Cilicia and confront Probus and his army. Florian appears to have had the larger army, but Probus, an experienced general, held back. After a few weeks of sporadic fighting, Florian was assassinated by his own troops near Tarsus. He had reigned about 88 days.

Florian's different nomen, Annius rather than Claudius, means that he cannot have been Tacitus's full brother as the Historia Augusta implies; but one passage identifies him as Tacitus's half brother by the same mother, which might be true. Some historians doubt, however, whether any blood connexion existed at all. Little can be said about Florian's reign. One inscription assigns him a consulate. Though neither reigned long, both Tacitus and Florian had a large and varied coinage, "lively with hope for a golden age neither emperor ever realized."



Florian, Antoninianus 276 AD 2.77g
Obv: Bust of Florian right 'IMP FLORIANVS AVG'
Rev: Victory presenting a wreath to Florian 'CONCORDIA MILITVM' 'T' in ex.
RIC 116
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3243 CILICIA, Olba Hadrian Ae 22. Thunderbolt11 viewsReference.
RPC III, 3243; SNG Levante 652 (same die); SNG France - ; Staffieri 44

Obv. ΑΥΤΟ ΚΑΙС ΤΡ ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС
Laureate head of Hadrian, right

Rev. ΟΛΒΕ(to r.)-ΩΝ(to l.)
Thunderbolt

8.90 gr
22 mm
okidoki
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3269A CILICIA, Tarsus Hadrian Tridrachm Apollo standing vis ŕ vis with Perseus 47 viewsReference.
RPC III -, cf. 3269-70 (both with differing bust type). Prieur 770 var. (differing bust type).
same bust type as 3267

Issue Second group

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙ ΘΕ ΤΡΑ ΠΑΡ ΥΙ ΘΕ ΝΕΡ ΥΙ ΤΡΑΙ ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟϹ ϹΕ
Laureate head of Hadrian, r. with balteus and drapery on l. shoulder.

Rev. ΤΑΡϹΕΩΝ ΜΗΤΡΟΠΟΛΕΩϹ
Apollo, naked and on left, standing right, holding laurel branch in his left hand, left elbow resting on tripod snake inside, clasping right hands with Perseus, naked and on right, standing left, holding harpa in his left hand.

10.61 gr
27 mm
12h
3 commentsokidoki
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3394 CILICIA, Epiphanea Hadrian, 137-38 AD Sabina2 views
Reference.
RPC III, 3394; BMC 1; P: 2004/164; SNG France –; SNG Levante 1816 (same obv. die); SNG von Aulock –; for c/m: Howgego 104.

Issue Year 205 (EC)

Obv. AYTO KAIC TPAI AΔPIANOC Ϲ[ΕΒΑϹΤΟ]Ϲ
Laureate and draped bust of Hadrian, right
c/m male head r.

Rev. ϹΑΒΕΙΝΑ ϹΕΒΑϹΤΗ ΕΠΙΦΑΝΕⲰΝ, ΕⳞ (in l. or r. field)
Draped bust of Sabina, r., wearing stephane

11.78 gr
28 mm
1 commentsokidoki
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3394 CILICIA, Epiphanea Hadrian, 137-38 AD Sabina 6 viewsReference.
RPC III, 3394; BMC 1; P: 2004/164; SNG France –; SNG Levante 1816 (same obv. die); SNG von Aulock –; for c/m: Howgego 104.

Issue Year 205 (EC)

Obv. AYTO KAIC TPAI AΔPIANOC Ϲ[ΕΒΑϹΤΟ]Ϲ
Laureate and draped bust of Hadrian, right
c/m male head r.

Rev. ϹΑΒΕΙΝΑ ϹΕΒΑϹΤΗ ΕΠΙΦΑΝΕⲰΝ, ΕⳞ (in l. or r. field)
Draped bust of Sabina, r., wearing stephane

11.78 gr
28 mm
12h
okidoki
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3473 SYRIA, Chalcis ad Belum Hadrian, laurel wreath K E31 viewsReference.
RPC III, 3473/5; Butcher 16; SNG Milan 6; SNG Hunterian 2712 var (drapery only on far shoulder); BMC Galatia -; SNG München -; SNG Cop -; Lindgren

Issue K E

Obv. ΑΥΤΟΚΡ ΚΑΙС ΤΡΑΙΑ-ΝΟС ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС
laureate and draped bust right.

Rev. ΦΛ ΧΑΛ/ΚΙΔΕωΝ (FL CAL/KIDEWN) / KE in three lines (KE indicating year 25 of the era of Chalkis)
All within laurel wreath of eight bunches of leaves, closed at the top with a pellet.

14.192 gr
22.3 mm
45o

Note from FORVM
Trajan's last coinage struck at Chalcis ad Belum used the same reverse, also dated KE. The era of the city of Chalkis began in Autumn 92 A.D. Year 25 of the local era was Autumn 116 - Autumn 117 A.D. This reverse was used for Hadrian's coinage only for the short time after the mint learned he was the new emperor until the local New Year's day (29 August?). When the New Year began the date was changed to B referring to Hadrian's second regnal year (a new regnal year began on New Year's day, not the one year anniversary of rule).

Ex FORVM
from Butte College Foundation
ex Lindgren
1 commentsokidoki
34b-Aethelred-II-N766.jpg
34a. Aethelred II.47 viewsPenny, 979-985, First Hand type, York mint.
Obverse: +ĆĐELRED REX ANGLOX / Diademed bust of Aethelred, right.
Reverse: +ZTYR M-O EOFER / Hand of Christ between A and ω .
Moneyer: Ztyr.
1.42 gm., 21 mm.
North #766; Seaby #1144.

The moneyer Ztyr is not listed as being a moneyer for Aethelred's First Hand type from York. However, there is a moneyer named Styr at York who coined for Edward the Martyr, 975-978. Ztyr is probably the same man.
2 commentsCallimachus
1229Hadrian_RIC107c.jpg
351 Hadrian Quinarius Roma 119-23AD Victory19 viewsReference.
RIC III, 351 RIC II, 107c; C.1135; Strack 133 (same reverse die as plate)

Obv. IMP CAESAR TRAIAN HADRIANVS AVG
Laureate, draped, cuirassed bust right, seen from rear

Rev. P M TR P COS III
Victory standing right, resting foot on helmet, inscribing shield set on palm

1.45 gr
14 mm
6h
2 commentsokidoki
185Hadrian_RIC362var.jpg
362 Hadrian Denarius Roma 134-38 AD Justitia20 viewsReference.
RIC 362 var; Strack 199 (same die pair); C. 882

Obv. HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS P P
Bare head, draped bust right, seen from back

Rev. IVSTITIA AVG, COS III in ex,
Justitia, draped, seated left on throne, holding patera in extended right hand and vertical sceptre in left.

2.96 gr
18 mm
6h
okidoki
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364 Hadrian Denarius Roma 134-38 AD Liberalitas standing.45 viewsReference.
RIC 364

Obv. HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS P P
Head of Hadrian, laureate, right

Rev. LIBERALITAS AVG in ex COS III
Liberalitas, draped, standing left, holding cornucopiae in both hands as if about to empty it

3.16 gr
18 mm
6h

Note from Curtis Clay.
This denarius is rare with Liberalitas standing left rather than right as usual.

Cohen 916 cites this variant from a private collection, Elberling, that was published in 1864. That identical Elberling coin, as one can tell from the accurate line drawing, then came to the BM, BMC 524, pl. 57.8, as part of the Blacas collection in 1867. Your specimen is from the same pair of dies as this BM specimen ex Blacas and Elberling. Strack 201 knew only two specimens of this coin, the BM one and another in Vienna. This variant was missing from the Reka Devnia hoard, compared to seven specimens with Liberalitas standing right. I have a specimen with Liberalitas left myself, from different dies than yours and the BM's.

The old RIC of 1926, pp. 316-7, champions a quite impossible date for Hadrian's HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS P P issue: Mattingly didn't think it fit in 128-9 AD, so proposed that it was a posthumous issue of 138-9, struck by Antoninus Pius as propaganda while he was quarreling with the Senate over Hadrian's deification! Strack objected strongly and correctly in his Hadrian monograph of 1933, and in BMC III of 1936 Mattingly had no choice but to relent and abandon his "posthumous" attribution. This issue is beyond question simply Hadrian's earliest issue with the title Pater Patriae, struck between Hadrian's acceptance of that title in 128 and c. 129 AD.
okidoki
1185Hadrian_RIC365.jpg
365 Hadrian Denarius Roma 134-38 AD Patientia27 viewsReference.
RIC 365; Strack 202; Cohen 1010

Obv. HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS P P
Laureate head right.

Rev. PATIENTIA AVGVSTI COS III
Patientia, seated left on low seat, holding out right hand and holding transverse sceptre in left

3.18 gr
17 mm
6h

Note.
BMCRE 525, pl. 57.9 (same reverse die). Cohen 1010 ;RIC II 365
The Reka Devnia hoard contained two specimens of this type, one like ours and one with a draped bust. Strack 202 records the two Reka Devnia coins in Sofia, BMCRE 525, two specimens in Paris, and only three others: Gnecchi Collection, L.A. Lawrence, and Ball VI, 1932, lot 1355. This is the sole appearance of the personification Patientia on Roman coins. Apparently her name was not well received, because it was very soon changed to INDVLGENTIA AVG, and with the new name the identical type, seated female figure extending right hand and holding scepter, was struck in substantial quantity. As Strack and Mattingly suggested, the sense of the Patientia type, since it was soon to be renamed Indulgentia, may have been "endurance of other people's troubles rather than one's own" (BMCRE III, p. cxli).
2 commentsokidoki
37-Constantius-II-Sis-301.jpg
37. Constantius II / Emperor and 2 standards.27 viewsMaiorina (Larger AE 2), 350-351, Siscia mint.
Obverse: DN CONSTANTIVS P F AVG / Diademed bust of Constantius. A behind bust.
Reverse: CONCORDIA MILITVM / Emperor standing, star above, holding two standards, each with a Christogram. III in left field.
Mint mark: ASIS (crescent)
5.16 gm., 23 mm.
RIC #301; LRBC #1187; Sear #18085.

The CONCORDIA MILITVM reverse type was not one of the original reverse types in the coinage reform of 348. Each reverse type was personal (or belongs) to one emperor, but was used on coins of all the emperors. CONCORDIA MILITVM was Vetranio's reverse type, but it was also used on coins of Constantius II while Vetranio was emperor, and immediately following his abdication.

Vetranio was proclaimed emperor in the Balkans in March of 350 about the same time the usurper Magnentius gained control of the western part of the Empire. This was apparently done at the suggestion of a sister of Constantius II, who was off fighting the Persians at the time, so that a legitimate emperor could deal with Magnentius. Vetranio was apparently loyal to Constantius II, and when Constantius II was able to get to the Balkans several months later, Vetranio abdicated on Christmas Day and was allowed to live out the rest of his life in retirement. While he was emperor, Vetranio minted coins in his own name and that of Constantius II with this reverse type.

RIC suggests a date of December 25, 350 - August 351 for this coin. This is the time period immediately following Vetranio's abdication.
Callimachus
1091_P_Hadrian_RPC3740.jpg
3740 SYRIA, Antioch. Pseudo-autonomous. under Hadrian. 128-29 AD Boule seated19 viewsReference.
RPC III, 3740; McAlee 126(c) (rare, same dies); Butcher 270; BMC Galatia 117; SNG Cop 117,

Obv. ΑΝΤΙΟΧΕΩΝ ΤΗС ΜΗΤΡΟΠΟΛΕωС
Laureate head of Zeus, right

Rev. ΕΤ ΖΟΡ
Boule of Antioch seated, l., dropping pebble into voting urn; Γ (in field, r.)

4.18 gr
18 mm
12h

Note.
In the cities of ancient Greece, a bouleutai was a member of the boule, a council of citizens appointed to run daily affairs of the city. Originally a council of nobles advising a king, boulai evolved according to the constitution of the city; in oligarchies boule positions might be hereditary, while in democracies members were typically chosen by lot and served for one year.
okidoki
379-1_Procilia.jpg
379/1. Procilia - denarius (80 BC)8 viewsAR Denarius (Rome, 80 BC)
O/ Laureate head of Jupiter right; S C downwards behind.
R/ Juno Sospita standing right, holding shield and hurling spear; snake before; L PROCILI/F downwards behind.
3.57g
Crawford 379/1 (104 obverse dies/116 reverse dies)

* Lucius Procilius:

The life of Procilius is sparsely known. Besides, he is the only recorded member of the gens Procilia for the Republic and the lack of a cognomen further indicates a humble origin. Dictionaries often record two different Procilius (a historian and a politician), but they were possibly the same person. Since there are 35 years between this denarius and the dated events of Procilius' life, the moneyer could have been the father of the politician and historian.

Regarding Procilius the historian, none of his writings has survived, even as fragments, but he is quoted by Varro about the origin of the Lacus Curtius on the Forum (Latin Language, v. 148), Pliny the Elder on a text related to Pompey (Natural History, viii. 2), and Cicero alludes that he wrote on Greek constitutions (Atticus, ii. 2). The scope of his works must have therefore been quite extensive. In the aforementioned letter, Cicero shows his dislike for Procilius, which is perhaps related to Procilius' political role.

Indeed, in other letters, Cicero mentions that Procilius was also a Tribune of the Plebs in 56, and that he was allied to Gaius Porcius Cato (Cato the Younger's cousin) and Marcus Nonius Sufenas, also Tribunes that year. They supported Publius Clodius Pulcher, Tribune in 59 and Aedile in 56, who -- as Tribune -- had banned Cicero from Rome for his repression of the Catiline Conspiracy, hence the animosity of Cicero towards Procilius. In 56, Pulcher and the three tribunes, including Procilius, prevented the elections from taking place, in order to force an interregnum, so that Crassus and Pompey could be chosen consuls for 55 (Cassius Dio, Roman History, xxxix. 27-33).

They used violence and bribery to prevent this election and were therefore sued. Cato and Sufenas were acquitted, but Procilius was found guilty on 4 July 54 (Cicero, Atticus, iv. 15). Apparently, he was not condemned for the complete illegality of his deeds, but because he had killed a man in his house; and Cicero complains that 22 judges on 49 still wanted to absolve him. In the following letter to Atticus (ii. 16), Cicero adds that there are rumors about Sufenas and his judges, possibly about corruption, but does not give more details.

The use of Juno Sospita refers to the town of Lanuvium, where she was worshiped, probably the hometown of Procilius.

Joss
405_P_Hadrian.jpg
3912 Phoenicia, Acco-Ptolemaďs. Hadrian. Ć 21 Hadrian, as founder plowing44 viewsReference.
RPC III, 3912; Kadman 103; cf. Rosenberger 48 (head right); cf. Rouvier 1000 (same).; Hendin 819

Obv. IMP TRA HADRIA[NO CAESAR]
Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from front.

Rev. DIVOS CLAV above, C-O-L/PT-OL in two lines across field. (COL PTOL=Colonia Ptolemais)
Claudius, as founder plowing right with yoked bull and cow; in background, four standards.

11.02 gr
21 mm
12 h

Agora Auctions.
From the Kenneth Miller Collection of Ake-Ptolemaďs and Related Biblical Coins.
2 commentsokidoki
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4 zhu ban liang stone mould68 viewsreign of Wu Di because of iron traces in the coins cavities (141-118 BC)

2 part of same moulds
leseullunique
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4. Antoninus Pius145 views Antoninus Pius, AR Denarius, 145-161, Rome
ANTONINVS-AVG PIVS P P
Laureate head right
COS-IIII
Thunderbolt on draped table
18mm x 19mm, 2.91g
RIC III, 137
Note: RIC describes the reverse as winged thunderbolt, however, plate II, 27 shows the same reverse type without wings as this example.
b70
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4.4 Hadrian denarius58 views132-134 CE
Rome Mint
18.8 mm, 2.841 g

obv. HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS
rev. TRANQUILLITAS AVG COS III PP Tranquillitas, goddess of tranquillity, is closely associated with Peace, and is often depicted in the same way.
Ironically, this coin was minted during the height of the Second Jewish War (132-135), a disastrous event for the Romans, who suffered severe losses, including the elimination of the entire legion XXII. 12 legions were needed to subdue the rebellion over the course of three years.
1 commentsEcgţeow
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405. CONSTANTIUS I, as Caesar53 viewsBorn March 31st, Emperor Flavius Valerius Constantius may have come into the world ca. 250. His family was from Illyricum. In the army he served as a protector, tribunus, and a praeses Dalmatiarum. During the 270s or the 280s, he became the father of Constantine by Helena, his first spouse. By 288 he was the Praetorian Prefect of the western emperor Maximianus Herculius.

On 1 March 293 Diocletian appointed Galerius as his Caesar (junior emperor) in the east and Constantius as the Caesar of Maximianus Herculius. Caesar in the west. Both Caesars had the right of succession. In order to strengthen the dynastic relationship between himself and Herculius., Constantius put aside his wife Helena and married Theodora, the daughter, or perhaps stepdaughter, of Maximianus Herculius. The union was fruitful and of it there were six issue: Flavius Dalmatius, Julius Constantius, Hannibalianus, Constantia, Anastasia, and Eutropia. To strengthen his bond with Galerius and Diocletian in the east, Constantius allowed Galerius to keep his son Constantine as a hostage for his good behavior.

In the remainder of the time that he was a Caesar, Constantius spent much of his time engaged in military actions in the west. In the summer of 293 Constantius expelled the troops of the usurper Carausius from northern Gaul; after Constantius' attack on Bononia (Boulogne), Carausius was murdered. At the same time he dealt with the unrest of the Germans. In 296 he invaded Britain and put down the revolt of the usurper Allectus. Between 300 and 305 A.D. the Caesar campaigned successfully several times with various German tribes. It is worth noting in passing, that while his colleagues rigidly enforced the "Great Persecution in 303," Constantius limited his action to knocking down a few churches.

On 1 May 305 Diocletian, at Nicomedia, and Maximianus Herculius, at Mediolanum (Milan), divested themselves of the purple, probably because of the almost fatal illness that Diocletian contracted toward the end of 304. Diocletian forced Maximianus to abdicate. They appointed as their successors Constantius and Galerius, with Severus and Maximinus Daia as the new Caesars. The retired emperors then returned to private life. Constantius, as had his predecessor, ruled in the west, while Galerius and Daia ruled in the east. Almost as soon as he was appointed Augustus, he crossed to Britain to face incursions by the Picts where he died at York on 25 July 306 with his son at his side.


CONSTANTIUS I, as Caesar. 293-305 AD. Ć Follis (9.24 gm). Lugdunum mint. Struck 301-303 AD. CONSTANTIVS NO[B CAE]S, laureate and draped bust right, holding spear over right shoulder and shield at left / [GENIO POPV]LI ROMANI; altar-B/PLC. RIC VI 136a. VF, brown patina, some silvering. Ex CNG
1 commentsecoli
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408. Maxentius34 viewsMarcus Aurelius Valerius Maxentius, more commonly known as Maxentius, was the child of the Emperor Maximianus Herculius and the Syrian Eutropia; he was born ca. 278 A.D. After Galerius' appointment to the rank of Caesar on 1 March 293, Maxentius married Galerius' daughter Valeria Maximilla, who bore him a son named Romulus and another son whose name is unknown. Due to his haughty nature and bad disposition, Maxentius could seldom agree with his father or his father-in-law; Galerius' and Maximianus Herculius' aversion to Maxentius prevented the young man from becoming a Caesar in 305. Little else is known of Maxentius' private life prior to his accession and, alth ough there is some evidence that it was spent in idleness, he did become a Senator.

On 28 October 306 Maxentius was acclaimed emperor, although he was politcally astute enough not to use the title Augustus; like the Emperor Augustus, he called himself princeps. It was not until the summer of 307 that he started usi ng the title Augustus and started offending other claimants to the imperial throne. He was enthroned by the plebs and the Praetorians. At the time of his acclamation Maxentius was at a public villa on the Via Labicana. He strengthened his position with promises of riches for those who helped him obtain his objective. He forced his father Maximianus Herculius to affirm his son's acclamation in order to give his regime a facade of legitimacy. His realm included Italy, Africa, Sardinia, and Corsica. As soon as Galerius learned about the acclamation of Herculius' son, he dispatched the Emperor Severus to quell the rebellion. With the help of his father and Severus' own troops, Maxentius' took his enemy prisoner.

When Severus died, Galerius was determined to avenge his death. In the early summer of 307 the Augustus invaded Italy; he advanced to the south and encamped at Interamna near the Tiber. His attempt to besiege the city was abortive because his army was not large enough to encompass the city's fortifications. Negotiations between Maxentius and Galerius broke down when the emperor discovered that the usurper was trying to win over his troops. Galerius' troops were open to Maxentius' promises because they were fighting a civil war between members of the same family; some of the soldiers went over to the enemy. Not trusting his own troops, Galerius withdrew. During its retreat, Galerius' army ravaged the Italian countryside as it was returning to its original base. If it was not enough that Maxentius had to deal with the havoc created by the ineffectual invasions of Severus and Galerius, he also had to deal with his father's attempts to regain the throne between 308 and 310. When Maximianus Herculius was unable to regain power by pushing his son off his throne, he attempted to win over Constantine to his cause. When this plan failed, he tried to win Diocletian over to his side at Carnuntum in October and November 308. Frustrated at every turn, Herculius returned to his son-in-law Constantine's side in Gaul where he died in 310, having been implicated in a plot against his son-in-law. Maxentius' control of the situation was weakened by the revolt of L. Domitius Alexander in 308. Although the revolt only lasted until the end of 309, it drastically cut the size of the grain supply availble for Rome. Maxentius' rule collapsed when he died on 27 October 312 in an engagement he had with the Emperor Constantine at the Milvian Bridge after the latter had invaded his realm.

Maxentius Follis. Ostia mint. IMP C MAXENTIVS P F AVG, laureate head right / AETE-RNITAS A-VGN, Castor and Pollux standing facing each other, each leaning on sceptre and holding bridled horse.
ecoli
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409. Maximinus II Daza37 viewsCaius Valerius Galerius Maximinus, more commonly known as Maximinus Daia or Daza, was from Illyricum and was of peasant origin. He was born 20 November perhaps in the year 270. Daia was the son of Galerius' sister and had served in the army as a scutarius, Protector, and tribunus. He had been adopted by Galerius ; his name had been Daia even before that time. He had a wife and daughter, whose names are unknown, while his son's name was Maximus. When Diocletian and Maximianus Herculius resigned their posts of emperor on 1 May 305, they were succeeded by Constantius I Chlorus and Galerius as Augusti; their new Caesars were Severus and Maximinus Daia respectively. Constantius and Severus ruled in the West, whereas Galerius and Daia served in the East. Specifically, Daia's realm included the Middle East and the southern part of Asia Minor.[[1]]

Immediately after his appointment to the rank of Caesar, he went east and spent his first several years at Caesarea in Palestine. Events of the last quarter of 306 had a profound effect on the Emperor Galerius and his Caesar Daia. When Constantius I Chlorus died in July 306, the eastern emperor was forced by the course of events to accept Constantius' son Constantine as Caesar in the West; on 28 October of the same year, Maxentius , with the apparent backing of his father Maximianus Herculius, was acclaimed princeps. Both the attempt to dislodge Maxentius by Severus, who had been appointed Augustus of the West by Galerius after the death of Constantius in late 306 or early 307, and the subsequent campaign of Galerius himself in the summer of 307 failed. Because of the escalating nature of this chain of events, a Conference was called at Carnuntum in October and November 308; Licinius was appointed Augustus in Severus's place and Daia and Constantine were denoted filii Augustorum. Daia, however, unsatisfied with this sop tossed to him by Galerius, started calling himself Augustus in the spring of 310 when he seems to have campaigned against the Persians.[[2]] Although, as Caesar, he proved to be a trusted servant of Galerius until the latter died in 311, he subsequently seized the late emperor's domains. During the early summer of that year, he met with Licinius at the Bosporus; they concluded a treaty and divided Galerius' realm between them. Several yea rs later, after the death of Daia, Licinius obtained control of his domain. Like his mentor the late emperor, Daia had engaged in persecution of the Christians in his realm.[[3]]

In the autumn of 312, while Constantine was engaged against Maxentius, Daia appears to have been campaigning against the Armenians. In any case, he was back in Syria by February 313 when he seems to have learned about the marital alliance which had been forged by Constantine and Licinius. Disturbed by this course of events and the death of Maxentius, who had been his ally, Daia left Syria and reached Bythinia, although the harsh weather had seriously weakened his army. In April 313, he crossed the Bosporus and went to Byzantium, garrisoned by Licinius' troops; when the city refused to surrender, he took it after an eleven day siege. He moved to Heraclea, which he captured after a short siege; he then moved his forces to the first posting station. With only a small contingent of men, Licinius arrived at Adrianople while Daia was besieging Heraclea. On 30 April 313 the two armies clashed on the Campus Ergenus; in the ensuing battle Daia's forces were routed. Divesting himself of the purple and dressing like a slave, Daia fled to Nicomdeia. Subsequently, Daia attempted to stop the advance of Licinius at the Cilician Gates by establishing fortifications there; Licinius' army succeeded in breaking through, and Daia fled to Tarsus where he was hard pressed on land and sea. Daia died, probably in July or August 313, and was buried near Tarsus. Subsequently, the victorious emperor put Daia's wife and children to death.

Maximinus II Daza. 309-313 AD. ? Follis. Laureate head right / Genius standing left holding cornucopiae.
ecoli
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41. Severus Alexander year X.12 viewsDenarius, 231 AD, Rome mint.
Obverse: IMP ALEXANDER PIVS AVG / Laureate bust of Severus Alexander.
Reverse: P M TR P X COS III P P / Sol standing, holding globe.
2.53 gm, 18.5 mm
RIC #109; Sear #7913.

This coin and the previous one are catalogued as the same coin, but there are differences in the way Sol is wearing his cloak. Sol is usually depicted with his cloak thrown over one shoulder or elbow, as on the previous coin. However, on this coin the cloak is over both shoulders and hangs down behind him, almost to his knees. This is not an major difference, and is likely an example of the celator taking "artistic license" with the subject he was engraving.
Callimachus
465-2b_Considia.jpg
465/2b. Considia - denarius (46 BC)9 viewsAR Denarius (Rome, 46 BC)
O/ Laureate head of Apollo right; A behind; no border.
R/ Curule chair, garlanded, on which lies wreath; C CONSIDI above; PAETI in exergue.
3.6g
Crawford 465/2b (93 obverse dies/103 reverse dies, two varieties)
- Rollin & Feuardent, 1903, Collection Charvet de Beauvais, lot 265 (together with 3 other Considia). Sold for Fr.19 with lots 264 and 266.

* Gaius Considius Paetus:

Like the other two moneyers for 46 BC (Titus Carisius and Manius Cordius Rufus), Paetus belonged to a small gens. The Considii are indeed unattested before the 1st century, apart from a Tribune of the Plebs in 476. The gens came to prominence in the 50s, when two of its members became Praetors: Gaius Considius Longus between 58-52, and Marcus Considius Nonianus between 54-50.

Like his colleagues, Paetus was doubtlessly a supporter of Caesar. The curule chair on the reverse alludes to Caesar's right to sit on a curule chair between the Consuls in the Senate (Cassius Dio, xliii. 14). There is therefore a chance that he was the same person as the Gaius Considius mentioned in the Pseudo-Caesar's 'De Bello Africo' (§89) as the son of the Praetor of 54-50 -- a supporter of Pompey who died after Thapsus -- nonetheless absolved by Caesar after the war. This theory fits well with Caesar's policy of generously granting pardon to his former enemies, and was accepted by Mommsen, following Borghesi (cf. Mommsen, 1860, p. 657). However, Crawford did not mention this possibility.
Joss
Philip-II-RIC-213.jpg
48. Philip II as Caesar.15 viewsAntoninianus, ca 245 - 247AD, "Branch mint" (?)
Obverse: M IVL PHILIPPVS CAES / Radiate bust of Philip II.
Reverse: IOVI CONSERVAT / Jupiter standing, holding thunderbolt and sceptre.
3.46 gm., 24.5 mm.
RIC #213; Sear #9238.

RIC and Sear both list this coin as being minted in Rome. RIC, however, has a footnote that it may be from Antioch. One of the reasons there is doubt about this coin (and the one of Marcia Otacilia Severa, RIC 127) is that there are no sestertii with the same reverse type -- something that happens with coins from the mint of Rome. Recent scholarship suggests this coin may be from a "branch mint" set up to produce coinage for Philip's Carpic Campaign of 245-47.
Callimachus
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49. Philp II, year 5.10 viewsTetradrachm, Year 5 (247 / 248 AD), Alexandria, Egypt.
Obverse: A K M IOΥ ΦIΛIΦΦOC E / Bust of Philip II.
Reverse: L E / Homonoia (Concordia) standing, hand extended, holding double cornucopiae.
13.97 gm.,
22.5 mm.

During the last few years of the reign of Philip I, both father and son shared the same titles. Coin portraits of father and son can often be distinguished from each other since Philip I is usually portrayed with a beard and Philip II is not. This coin was purchased as a tetradrachm of Philip I, but is being attributed here as a coin of Philip II since there is no trace of a beard on the portrait.
Callimachus
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501. CONSTANTINE I Siscia SOLI INVICTO COMIT14 viewsSol Invictus ("the undefeated Sun") or, more fully, Deus Sol Invictus ("the undefeated sun god") was a religious title applied to three distinct divinities during the later Roman Empire, El Gabal, Mithras, and Sol.

Unlike the earlier, agrarian cult of Sol Indiges ("the native sun" or "the invoked sun" - the etymology and meaning of the word "indiges" is disputed), the title Deus Sol Invictus was formed by analogy with the imperial titulature pius felix invictus ("dutiful, fortunate, unconquered").

A festival of the birth of the Unconquered Sun (or Dies Natalis Solis Invicti) was celebrated when the duration of daylight first begins to increase after the winter solstice,—the "rebirth" of the sun.

Christianity adopted some of the attributes of the Sol Invictus religion, as apparent in the first examples of Christian iconography, depicting Christ with solar attributes such as the radiated crown or, in a few instances, a solar chariot.

Sol Invictus had been adopted by the Church of Rome as evidenced by Christ as Apollo-Helios in a mausoleum discovered under St. Peter's Basilica and dated to 250[1], and, from the beginning of the third century, "Sun of Justice" was used as a tit