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R790_022502_GK.JPG
17 viewsRIC 790; Alföldi type 85, n° 1; Siscia. Bust type C. Denomination: Antoninianus.

OBV.: IMP PROBVS INV AVG
Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from back.
REV.: SPES AVG N
Spes walking left, holding flower and raising robe.

Mintmark: // XXI

Weight: ?
vrtsprb
Sear-653.jpg
15 viewsPhocas. 602-610. Ć Follis – 40 Nummi (32mm, 12.92 g, 6h). Thessalonica mint. Dated RY 5 (606/7). Crowned facing bust, wearing consular robes, holding mappa and cross / Large XXXX; ANNO above, Ч to right; TЄS. DOC 47; MIBE 91; SB 653. Good VF, dark brown-black patina, hint of earthen deposits, cleaning marks. Overstruck on a Nicomedia follis of Maurice Tiberius (SB 512). Quant.Geek
Galba_As_RIC_324.jpg
7 Galba65 viewsGalba.
AD 68-69. Ć As (28mm, 10.30 g, 6h). Rome mint.
Struck circa August–October AD 68.
Laureate head left / Ceres seated left, holding grain ears and caduceus.
RIC I 324 var. (bust right); ACG –. Good Fine, brown patina, porous surfaces. Rare with bust left.
From the Dr. Robert A. Kilmarx Collection.
Ex CNG - Nov 2013
4 commentsSosius
Claudius_Cunetio_2296.jpg
1 Claudius II19 viewsCLAUDIUS II
AE Antoninianus
IMP CLAVDIVS AVG, Radiate, cuirassed bust (small) right / SPES AVG, Spes walking left, holding flower and hitching robe, II in left field
Cunetio hoard 2296, Normanby hoard 1086
aVF/F, Rare
Sosius
Ant_Pius_Hieraopolis-Castabala_BMC7.jpg
17 Antoninus Pius, Hieraopolis-Castabala14 viewsANTONINUS PIUS
AE18 of Hierapolis-Castabala, Cilicia, (3.6g)
138–161 AD
Laureate head of Antoninus Pius, r. / Eagle standing on club, l., ΙΕΡΟΠΟΛΕΙΤΩΝ
Robert 51, BMC 7
RI0079
Sosius
Faustina_Sest_RIC_1081.jpg
17.5 Faustina20 viewsFAUSTINA I
AE Sestertius
FAVSTINA AVG ANTONINI AVG PII P P, draped bust right / VENERI AVGVSTAE S-C, Venus standing right drawing up robe from right shoulder and holding apple.
RIC 1081, Cohen 282, BMC 1120, Sear 4677
RI0090
Sosius
normal_maurice_tiberius~0d.jpg
Maurice Tiberius Follis - Antioch Mint,582-602 AD11 views
Maurice Tiberius Follis - Antioch Mint,582-602 AD - AE Follis (40 Nummi)
Obv: PTINOC ~ ~ TIANTAPPIV Bust of Maurice Tiberius facing, wearing crown with trefoil ornament, consular robes; in right hand, mappa in left hand, eagle-tipped sceptre.
Rev: Large m; cross above; to left A/N/N/O in four lines; to right, II - 2nd regnal year - 586/7 AD; THEuP in exergue.
Britanikus
penny_20.jpg
Robert of Bethune, Alost mint, Mayhew 2195 viewsmauseus
ThoriusBalbus.jpg
#L. Thorius Balbus. 105 BC. AR Denarius32 viewsRome mint. ISMR behind, head of Juno Sospita right, wearing goat skin headdress / L THORIVS below, BALBVS in exergue, bull charging right.

"The obverse refers to the the cult of Juno Sospita at Lanuvium, the moneyer's birthplace. The reverse is likely a play on the moneyer's name (Taurus sounds like Thorius). Cicero described L. Thorius Balbus as a man who lived in such a manner that there was not a single pleasure, however refined or rare, that he did not enjoy. This is one of the most common republican denarii." -- Roman Silver Coins edited by David Sear and Robert Loosley
ancientone
00001x00~9.jpg
39 viewsUNITED STATES, Hard Times. Belleville, New Jersey. John Gibbs, manufacturer
CU Token. Belleville (New Jersey) mint. Dies by John Gibbs. Struck circa 1838.
* AGRICULTURE AND COMMERCE, ship under sail right
J GIBBS MANUFACTURER/ [OF]/ MEDALS/ AND/ TOKENS/ &C/ NJ/ * BELLEVILLE
Rulau HT 202; Low 150

Ex Robert Williams Collection (Steve Hayden, 11 December 2016), lot 363; Steve Hayden (2 December 2012), lot 585
Ardatirion
DSC_4480.JPG
48 viewsUNITED STATES, Native proto-currency. Northern Pacific coast. 18th-early19th century
Shell “kop-kop” (29mm by 6mm, 0.38 g)
Tubular shell of the dentalium genus of mollusks
Robert Stearns, Ethno-conchology: A Study of Primitive Money p. 314-321

Ex Detroit Museum of Art

Kop-kops were smaller or damaged pieces of hi-qua shells and circulated as a fraction of the hi-qua. Use of this shell type as currency ranged from northern California to Alaska.
1 commentsArdatirion
00087x00.jpg
20 viewsUNITED STATES, Trade Tokens. Wooster, Ohio. Archer House. Circa 1878-1966
AL Twenty-five Cent Token (24mm, 1.48 g, 11h)
ARCHER HOUSE -:- around central hole
GOOD FOR/ 25˘/ IN TRADE

Archer House hotel was constructed in 1878 on the corner of Buckeye and Liberty Streets, on the site of the earlier wood frame Washington House tavern. The founders, tailor E.B. Connelly and his sister-in-law Melinda, named the establishment after Melinda's deceased son, Archer. Melinda Connelly later remarried to A.M. Parrish, with whom she would operate the hotel until her death. The property passed to heir great-grandson, on who's behalf it was sold to Dr. Alonzo Smith in 1923. Archer House was finally purchased by Robert Freeman in 1964, and was razed in 1966. Today, a two story professional building stands on the spot.
Ardatirion
00086x00.jpg
21 viewsUNITED STATES, Trade Tokens. Wooster, Ohio. Archer House. Circa 1878-1966.
AL Ten Cent Token (22.5mm, 1.28 g, 2h)
ARCHER HOUSE -:- around central hole
GOOD FOR/ 10˘/ IN TRADE
Lipscomb WO 8051; TC 226639

Archer House hotel was constructed in 1878 on the corner of Buckeye and Liberty Streets, on the site of the earlier wood frame Washington House tavern. The founders, tailor E.B. Connelly and his sister-in-law Melinda, named the establishment after Melinda's deceased son, Archer. Melinda Connelly later remarried to A.M. Parrish, with whom she would operate the hotel until her death. The property passed to heir great-grandson, on who's behalf it was sold to Dr. Alonzo Smith in 1923. Archer House was finally purchased by Robert Freeman in 1964, and was razed in 1966. Today, a two story professional building stands on the spot.
Ardatirion
00085x00.jpg
16 viewsUNITED STATES, Trade Tokens. Wooster, Ohio. Archer House. Circa 1878-1966.
AL Five Cent Token (21.5mm, 1.16 g, 8h)
ARCHER HOUSE -:- around central hole
GOOD FOR/ 5˘/ IN TRADE

Archer House hotel was constructed in 1878 on the corner of Buckeye and Liberty Streets, on the site of the earlier wood frame Washington House tavern. The founders, tailor E.B. Connelly and his sister-in-law Melinda, named the establishment after Melinda's deceased son, Archer. Melinda Connelly later remarried to A.M. Parrish, with whom she would operate the hotel until her death. The property passed to heir great-grandson, on who's behalf it was sold to Dr. Alonzo Smith in 1923. Archer House was finally purchased by Robert Freeman in 1964, and was razed in 1966. Today, a two story professional building stands on the spot.
Ardatirion
DSC_2712.jpg
55 viewsBRITISH TRADE TOKENS, Middlesex. London & Middlesex. Robert Reynolds & Co.
CU Halfpenny Token (31mm, 12.42 g, 6 h)
Dated 1799
LONDON & MIDDLESEX, draped bust of William Shakespeare left
HALFPENNY, Abundatia seated left on bale of cotton, extending hand and holding cornucopia; ship to left; 1799 in exergue
D&H 928
Ardatirion
00030x00.jpg
71 viewsSCOTLAND, Communion Tokens. Dalziel. Robert Clason
Minister, circa 1786-1801
PB Token (20mm, 3.15 g)
Dated 1798
Dalzel/ R C/ 1798
Blank
Barzinski 1873; Brook -

Museum number in india ink on reverse: 5971730 (?)

Ex Lockdale's 83 (27 March 2011), lot 1112
2 commentsArdatirion
00029x00.jpg
32 viewsSCOTLAND, Communion Tokens. Dalziel. Robert Clason
Minister, circa 1786-1801
PB Token (20mm, 3.15 g)
Dated 1798
Dalzel/ R C/ 1798
Blank
Barzinski 1873; Brook -
Ardatirion
hugues-france-denier-orelans~0.JPG
Hugh Magnus: denier (Orléans)11 viewsHugh Magnus (Hugues de France in french) (1007-1025)
Denier (Orléans)

Billon, 1.28 g, diameter 17.5 mm, die axis 12h
O/ +D-I DEXTRA BE; city gate with an H on the left, a V below, a G on the right and a O on the top
R/ +AVRELIANIS CIVITAS; cross pattée

Hugh was the elder son of Robert II (the Pious), second capetian king of the Franks (996-1031). Hugues was crowned as an associate king in 1017. However, he died before his father and consequently he never ruled. No other son of a king of France had been called Hugh.

The obverse legend is a Christian one: dei dextra benedictus (blessed on God's right). As usual for Orléans mint, the I after the L in Avrelianis is in the angle.
Droger
tetricus1-spes-pvblica.JPG
RIC.136 Tetricus I: antoninianus (Spes Pvblica)7 viewsTetricus, Gallic emperor (usurper) (271-274)
Antoninianus: Spes Pvblica (3rd emission, 271-272, Trčves)

Billon, 2.26 g, diameter 17 mm, die axis 1 h

A/ IMP C TETRICVS P F AVG; radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
R/ [SP]ES - P-VBLI[CA]; Spes walking left, holding flower and raising robe

EG.262
Droger
tetricus2-spes-pvblica.JPG
RIC.272 Tetricus II: antoninianus (Spes Pvblica)17 viewsTetricus II, Gallic caesar (usurper) (272-274)
Antoninianus : Spes Pvblica (4th emission, 272-274, Trčves)

Billon, 2.91 g, diameter 20 mm, die axis 7h

A/ C PIV ESV TETRICVS CAES; radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
R/ SPES-P-VBLICA; Spes walking left, holding flower and raising robe

EG.272
Droger
tetricus2-spes-avg.JPG
RIC.270 Tetricus II: antoninianus (Spes Avgg)11 viewsTetricus II, Gallic caesar (usurper) (272-274)
Antoninianus : Spes Avgg (8th emission, 273-274, Cologne)

Billon, 3.19 g, diameter 19 mm, die axis 12h

A/ C PIV ESV TETRICVS CAES; radiate, draped and cuirassed bust left
R/ SPE-S-AVGG; Spes walking left, holding flower and raising robe

EG.315
Droger
tetricus2-spes-g.JPG
RIC.270 Tetricus II: antoninianus (Spes Avgg)11 viewsTetricus II, Gallic caesar (usurper) (272-274)
Antoninianus : Spes Avgg (8th emission, 273-274, Cologne)

Billon, 2.18 g, diameter 19.5 mm, die axis 12h

A/ C PIV ESV TETRICVS CAES; radiate, draped and cuirassed bust left
R/ SPE-S-AV[GG]; Spes walking left, holding flower and raising robe

EG.316
Droger
raoul-denier-paris.JPG
D.774 Rudolph (denier, Paris)9 viewsRudolph (or Raoul, Radulf), king of the Franks (923-936)
Denier (Paris)

Silver, 1.13 g, 18 mm diameter, die axis 11h

O/ +CRATIA DI REX; monogram
R/ + / PΛRISI / CIVITΛ / +

Rudolph was elected king of Franks by noblemen in 923, after his father-in-law (Robert I)'s death.

Although Rudolph wasn't a carolingian, his coinage used a monogram.This monogram is clearly inspired by the habitual KRLS monogram. The letters seem to be R(?)DFS. Anyway, the F on the bottom can be cleary distinguished, and this coin can be attributed to Rudolph.

Droger
allectus_b.jpg
(0293) ALLECTUS28 views293 - 296 AD
Billon quinarius 20.2 mm max.; 2.877 g
O: IMP C ALLECTVS P AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust right;
R: VIRTVS AVG, Galley left, with mast, no waves below, QC in exergue;
Camulodunum (Colchester, England) mint; Rogiet 1043, Burnett, Coinage 216, RIC V 130 var (steersman standing aft); ex Robert T. Golan (Warrenton, NC); scarce
(ex Forum)
laney
byz_one_bkk.jpg
(0602) PHOCAS13 views602-610.
Struck 603-610, 5th officina
Ć Half Follis 25 mm, 5.63 g
O: Crowned facing bust, wearing consular robes, holding mappa and cross
R: Large XX; star above; CONЄ
Constantinople mint DOC 37e; SB 644.
laney
constans_ii_res.jpg
(0641) CONSTANS II41 views641-668 AD
AE Half Follis 18 mm; 4.10 g
O: Beardedbbust facing; wearing consular robes and crown with trefoil ornament, holding mappa and globus cruciger
R: Large cross dividing C-T and X-X; above cross, star between two pellets
CARTHAGE mint
laney
072~0.JPG
(610-641) Heraclius [Sear 871]8 viewsAR Half Siliqua, 0.70 gm. Carthage mint. Struck 617-641 AD. Crowned, draped, and cuirassed bust of Heraclius right / no legend, facing busts of Heraclius Constantine on left, wearing crown and chlamys, and Martina on right, wearing crown with long pendilia, and robes; cross between their heads, sometimes with four dots between their shoulders. DOC 233; MIB 149; SB 871.Ségusiaves
Domitian_AE-AS_CAESAR-AVG-F-DOMITIAN-COS-V_No-legend_S-C_RIC-II-723Vesp_RIC-New-Vesp_C-_Rome-77-78-AD_Q-001_axis-6h_25,5-27,5mm_9,74g-s.jpg
024a Domitian (69-81 A.D. Caesar, 81-96 A.D. Augustus), RIC 1053, RIC II(1962) 0723(Vespasian), AE-As, Rome, No legend, S-C, Spes left, #1233 views024a Domitian (69-81 A.D. Caesar, 81-96 A.D. Augustus), RIC 1053, RIC II(1962) 0723(Vespasian), AE-As, Rome, No legend, S-C, Spes left, #1
avers:- CAESAR-AVG-F-DOMITIAN-COS-V, Laureate head of Domitian right.
revers:- No legend, Spes walking left, in right holding flower, with left raising fold of robe, S-C across the field.
exe: S/C//--, diameter: 25,5-27,5mm, weight: 91,74g, axis: 6h,
mint: Rome ???, date: 77-78 A.D., ref: RIC 1053, RIC II(1962) 0723(Vespasian) p-99,
Q-001
quadrans
029_Károly_Róbert_,_(Charles_Robert_of_Anjou,_Angevin)_,_King_of_Hungary,_(1307-1342_A_D_),_Chronicon_Pictum-s.jpg
029 Károly Róbert., (Charles Robert of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1307-1342 A.D.), Chronicon Pictum60 views029 Károly Róbert., (Charles Robert of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1307-1342 A.D.), Chronicon Pictumquadrans
Anjou_Károly-Robert_(1307-1342_AD),_Denar,_H-473,_C2-029,_U-374b,_Pohl_31-2,__M_REGIS_KARVLI,_Lily_L-I,_Lippa,_1330-AD,_Q-001,_6h,_14,5-14,8mm,_0,63g-s.jpg
029 Károly Róbert., (Charles Robert of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1307-1342 A.D.) AR-Denarius, H-473, CNH-2-029, U-374.b, #01124 views029 Károly Róbert., (Charles Robert of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1307-1342 A.D.) AR-Denarius, H-473, CNH-2-029, U-374.b, #01
avers: ✠•M•REGIS KARVLI, King, facing, helmeted; border of dots.
reverse: Large Lily, L-I, line border.
exergue, mint mark: L/I//--, diameter: 14,5-14,8mm, weight: 0,63g, axis:6h,
mint: Hungary, Lipa, (today Lipova, Romania), date: 1330 (by Pohl) A.D., ref: Huszár-473, CNH-2-029, Unger-374.b, Pohl-31-03,
Q-001


Charles Robert of Anjou
2 commentsquadrans
Karoly-Robert_(1307-1342_AD)_Denar_U-374_C2-029_H-473_M-REGIS-KARVLI_Lily_S-E_Schemnitz_1330-AD_Q-001_9h_13,5mm_0,63g-s.jpg
029 Károly Róbert., (Charles Robert of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1307-1342 A.D.) AR-Denarius, H-473, CNH-2-029, U-374.e, #0197 views029 Károly Róbert., (Charles Robert of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1307-1342 A.D.) AR-Denarius, H-473, CNH-2-029, U-374.e, #01
avers: ✠ M REGIS•KARVLI, King, facing, helmeted; border of dots.
reverse: Large Lily, S-E, line border.
exergue, mint mark: S/E//--, diameter: 13,5mm, weight: 0,63g, axis:9h,
mint: Hungary, Selmecbánya, (Schemnitz, today Banská Štiavnica), date: 1330 (by Pohl) A.D., ref: Huszár-473, CNH-2-029, Unger-374.e, Pohl-31-03,
Q-001
quadrans
Anjou_Károly-Robert_(1307-1342_AD),_Denar,_H-488,_C2-044,_U-385,_Pohl_45,__M_REGIS_KAROLI,_Dragon,_1335_AD,_Q-001,_2h,_11mm,_0,33g-s.jpg
029 Károly Róbert., (Charles Robert of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1307-1342 A.D.) AR-Denarius, H-488, CNH-2-044, U-385, P-45, #0170 views029 Károly Róbert., (Charles Robert of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1307-1342 A.D.) AR-Denarius, H-488, CNH-2-044, U-385, P-45, #01
avers: ✠ M REGIS KARVLI, Inside of the line circle, a shield with Angevin fleur-de-lis and Árpádian stripes, annulets flanking and above, line border.
reverse: Winged dragon advancing right the cross above, the border of dots.
exergue, mint mark: -/-//--, diameter: 11,0mm, weight: 0,33g, axis:2h,
mint: Hungary, date: 1335 (by Pohl) A.D., ref: Huszár-488, CNH-2-044, Unger-385, Pohl-45,
Q-001


Charles Robert of Anjou
2 commentsquadrans
Karoly-Robert_(1308_AD)_Denar_U-356_C2-033_H-449_S-C_Q-001_3h_11,5mm_0,38g-s.jpg
029 Károly Róbert., (Charles Robert of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1307-1342 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-356, #01104 views029 Károly Róbert., (Charles Robert of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1307-1342 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-356, #01
avers: Emperor faceing, crowned head with curly hair, facing, small circle both side of the crown, mint-mark on each side (S-C), circle of dots.
reverse: Four-part Anjou-Hungarian shield, two dots both side, line border.
exergue, mint mark: S/C//--, diameter: 11,5mm, weight: 0,38g, axis: 3h,
mint: Hungary, Zagreb (by Pohl), date: before 1308 A.D. (by Pohl), ref: Unger-356, CNH-2-033, Huszár-449, Pohl-06,
Q-001
quadrans
Karoly-Robert_(1307-1342_AD)_AR-Denar_U-361_C1-381_H-451_C-R-V-X_helmet-left_1319-22-AD_Q-001_6h_11,5mm_0,34g-s.jpg
029 Károly Róbert., (Charles Robert of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1307-1342 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-361, #0198 views029 Károly Róbert., (Charles Robert of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1307-1342 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-361, #01
avers: Cross, lily of each end, C-R-V-X of each corner, line border.
reverse: Helmet left, line border.
exergue, mint mark: -/-//--, diameter: 11,5mm, weight: 0,34g, axis: 6h,
mint: Hungary, , date: 1320 A.D. (by Pohl), ref: Unger-361, CNH-1-381, Huszár-451, Pohl-08,
Q-001
quadrans
Karoly-Robert_U-362_Q-001_mm_g-s.jpg
029 Károly Róbert., (Charles Robert of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1307-1342 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-362, #01107 views029 Károly Róbert., (Charles Robert of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1307-1342 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-362, #01
avers: ✠ MOnETA REGIS KARVLI; Hungarian-Anjou shield in circle of dots; border of dots.
reverse: Lily, bird, crowned head on either side of patriarchal cross, star and circle within crescent above; border of dots.
exergue, mint mark: bird/bird//--, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Hungary, , date: 1324 A.D. (by Pohl), ref: Unger-362, CNH-2-054A, Huszár-446, Pohl-13,
Q-001
"The reverse is in the style of the Slavonian banaldenars."
quadrans
Karuli-1-s.jpg
029 Károly Róbert., (Charles Robert of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1307-1342 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-362b, Reverse shield !!!72 views029 Károly Róbert., (Charles Robert of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1307-1342 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-362b, Reverse shield !!!
avers: ✠ MOnETA REGIS KARVLI; Anjou-Hungarian (!!!) shield in circle of dots; border of dots.
reverse: Lily, bird, crowned head on either side of patriarchal cross, star and circle within crescent above; border of dots.,
exergue, mint mark: bird/bird//-- were struck by Ladislaus Gurhes, diameter: mm, weight: g,
mint: Hungary, Pécs (by Pohl), date: 1323 A.D. (by Pohl), ref: Unger-362b, Reverse shield !!!, CNH-2-054B, Huszár-446B, Pohl-12,
Q-001
"The reverse is in the style of the Slavonian banaldenars."
quadrans
Karoly-Robert_(1307-1342_AD)_AR-Denar_U-365_C2-051_H-459_MONETA-REGIS-KARVLI_Q-001_3h_14mm_0,82g-s.jpg
029 Károly Róbert., (Charles Robert of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1307-1342 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-365, #0183 views029 Károly Róbert., (Charles Robert of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1307-1342 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-365, #01
avers: ✠ MOnETA REGIS KARVLI; Crowned bust facing in circle of dots; border of dots.
reverse: Lily, bird, crowned head on either side of patriarchal cross on base; border of dots.
exergue, mint mark: bird/bird//--, diameter: 14mm, weight: 0,82g, axis: 3h,
mint: Hungary, , date: 1325 (by Pohl) A.D., ref: Unger-365, , CNH-2-051, Huszár-459, Pohl-16,
Q-001
"The reverse is in the style of the Slavonian banaldenars."
quadrans
Karoly-Robert_(1307-1342_AD)_AR-Denar_U-369_C2-013_H-465_K-enthroned_MONETA-RE(G)IS-KARVLI_1327-AD_Q-001_5h_12,9mm_0,46g-s.jpg
029 Károly Róbert., (Charles Robert of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1307-1342 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-369, #01167 views029 Károly Róbert., (Charles Robert of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1307-1342 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-369, #01
avers: King enthroned, facing, holding sceptre and orb, border of dots.
reverse: ✠ MOnЄTA RЄIS KARVLI, Falcon with spread wings standing facing, in circle of dots, head right; border of dots. Without mint-mark.
exergue, mint mark: -/-//--, diameter: 12,9mm, weight: 0,46g, axis:5h,
mint: Hungary, ???, mint mark: No, date: 1327 A.D., ref: Unger-369, CNH-2-013, Huszár-465, Pohl-22,
This emission was referred to in contemporary sources as a denarius cum Aquila.
Q-001
quadrans
Karoly-Robert_(1307-1342_AD)_AR-Denar_U-369_C2-013_H-465_K-enthroned_MONETA-RE(G)IS-KARVLI_1327-AD_Q-002_7h_13,2mm_0,68g-s.jpg
029 Károly Róbert., (Charles Robert of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1307-1342 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-369, #02146 views029 Károly Róbert., (Charles Robert of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1307-1342 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-369, #01
avers: King enthroned, facing, holding sceptre and orb, border of dots.
reverse: ✠ MOnЄTA RЄIS KARVLI, Falcon with spread wings standing facing, in circle of dots, head right; border of dots. Without mint-mark.
exergue, mint mark: -/-//--, diameter: 13,2mm, weight: 0,68g, axis:7h,
mint: Hungary, ???, mint mark: No, date: 1327 A.D., ref: Unger-369, CNH-2-013, Huszár-465, Pohl-22,
This emission was referred to in contemporary sources as a denarius cum Aquila.
Q-002
quadrans
Karoly-Robert_Den_U-376_C2-021_H-476_REX_KAROLVS_-_Q-001_h_15mm_0,92g-s.jpg
029 Károly Róbert., (Charles Robert of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1307-1342 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-376, Stilized Anjou lily, #0198 views029 Károly Róbert., (Charles Robert of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1307-1342 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-376, Stilized Anjou lily, #01
avers: REX•KAROLVS, Crowned bust facing; border of dots.
reverse: Lily; line border.
exergue, mint mark: -/-//--, diameter: 15mm, weight: 0,92g,
mint: Hungary, Pécs ? (Pohl), date: 1332 A.D., ref: Unger-376, CNH-2-021, Huszár-476, Pohl-33,
Q-001
quadrans
Karoly-Robert_(1307-1342_AD)_Denar_U-378_C2-008_H-479_lily-patriarchalcross_KAROLVS_REX_hVNGhARIE_Nicolaus-Szatmari1333-AD_Q-001_7h_15mm_1,08g-s.jpg
029 Károly Róbert., (Charles Robert of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1307-1342 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-378a, #0181 views029 Károly Róbert., (Charles Robert of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1307-1342 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-378a, #01
avers: King enthroned, facing, holding sceptre and orb; Lily-Patriarchal Cross, border of dots.
reverse: ✠ KAROLVS:RЄX:hVnGARIЄ, Shield with Árpádian stripes and Anjevin lilies; line border.
exergue, mint mark: lily/Patriarchal Cross//-- were srucked by Nicolaus Szatmari (by Pohl), diameter: 15mm, weight: 1,08g, axis: 7h,
mint: Hungary, Esztergom, date: 1334 A.D. (by Pohl), ref: Unger-378a, CNH-2-008, Huszár-479, Pohl-36-02,
Q-001
quadrans
Karoly-Robert_(1307-1342_AD)_AR-Denar_U-393n_C2-018_H-495_REGIS_KAROLI_m_REGIS_hVnGARIE_Q-001_11h_15mm_0,70g-s.jpg
029 Károly Róbert., (Charles Robert of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1307-1342 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-393.n, #01112 views029 Károly Róbert., (Charles Robert of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1307-1342 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-393.n, #01
avers: RЄGIS•KAROLI, King enthroned, facing, holding sceptre and orb; border of dots.
reverse: ✠ m•RЄGIS•hVnGARIЄ, Shield with Árpádian stripes and Anjevin lilies, botle(symbols) as (privy marks) to left and righ, border of dots.
exergue, mint mark:botle(symbols)/botle(symbols)//--, diameter: 15mm, weight: 0,70g, axis:11h,
mint: Hungary, , mint mark: botle(symbols)-botle(symbols), date: 1338 (by Pohl) A.D., ref: Unger-393.n, CNH-2-018, Huszár-495, Pohl-52-04,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Karoly-Robert_(1307-1342_AD)_AR-Denar_U-394f_C2-015_H-497_m_REGIS_hVnGARIE_Q-001_6h_14,5mm_0,48g-s.jpg
029 Károly Róbert., (Charles Robert of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1307-1342 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-394.f, #0181 views029 Károly Róbert., (Charles Robert of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1307-1342 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-394.f, #01
avers: King enthroned, facing, holding sceptre and orb; border of dots.
reverse: ✠ m•RЄGIS•hVnGARIЄ, Head of ostrich holding horse-shoe on helmet, mint-mark on each side; line border.
exergue, mint mark: D/R//-- were struck by Leopoldus (Hypolit?) (by Pohl), diameter: 14,5mm, weight: 0,70g, axis: 6h,
mint: Hungary, Körmöcbánya, (Kremnitz, today Slovakia: Kremnica), date: 1339-1342 A.D., ref: Unger-394.f, CNH-2-015, Huszár-497, Pohl-54-07,
Q-001
quadrans
Karoly-Robert_(1307-1342_AD)_AR-Denar_U-394n_C2-015_H-497_m-REGIS-hVnGARIE_Q-001_7h_14,5mm_0,70g-s.jpg
029 Károly Róbert., (Charles Robert of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1307-1342 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-394.n, #0175 views029 Károly Róbert., (Charles Robert of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1307-1342 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-394.n, #01
avers: King enthroned, facing, holding sceptre and orb; border of dots.
reverse: ✠ m•RЄGIS•hVnGARIЄ, Head of ostrich holding horse-shoe on helmet, mint-mark on each side; line border.
exergue, mint mark: lily/lily/lily/lily//-- were struck by Martinus (by Pohl), diameter: 14,5mm, weight: 0,70g, axis: 7h,
mint: Hungary, Szomolnok, (Scmöllnitz, today Slovakia: Smolník), date: 1339-1342 A.D., ref: Unger-394.n, CNH-2-015, Huszár-497, Pohl-54-03,
Q-001
quadrans
Karoly-Robert_Obulus_U-401_C2-009_H-477_REX_KAROLVS_-_Q-001_6h_11,5mm_0,47g-s.jpg
029 Károly Róbert., (Charles Robert of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1307-1342 A.D.) AR-Obulus, U-377, Stilized Anjou lily, #0190 views029 Károly Róbert., (Charles Robert of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1307-1342 A.D.) AR-Obulus, U-377, Stilized Anjou lily, #01
avers: REX•KAROLVS, Crowned bust facing, border of dots.
reverse: Lily, line border.
exergue, mint mark: -/-//--, diameter:11,5mm, weight:0,47g, axis:6h,
mint: Hungary, Pécs ? (Pohl), date: 1332 A.D., ref: Unger-401, CNH-2-009, Huszár-477, Pohl-34,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Karoly-Robert_(1307-1342_AD)_Obulus_U-400_C2-012_H-475_M-REGIS-KARVLI_Q-001_0h_12mm_0_27ga-s.jpg
029 Károly Róbert., (Charles Robert of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1307-1342 A.D.) AR-Obulus, U-400, #0180 views029 Károly Róbert., (Charles Robert of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1307-1342 A.D.) AR-Obulus, U-400, #01
avers: King enthroned, facing, in circle, holding sceptre and orb; border of dots.
reverse: ✠ •M•RЄGIS KARVLI•, Anjou-Hungarian shield in circle of dots, lily above, stylized bird on each side; border of dots.
exergue, mint mark: -/-//--, diameter: 12mm, weight: 0,27g, axis: 0h,
mint: Hungary, Buda, date: 1330-1332 A.D. (by Pohl), ref: Unger-400, CNH-2-012, Huszár-475, Pohl-30,
Q-001
quadrans
Karoly-Robert_(1307-1342_AD)_Obulus_U-400_C2-012_H-475_M-REGIS-KARVLI_Q-002_9h_12mm_0_40g-s.jpg
029 Károly Róbert., (Charles Robert of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1307-1342 A.D.) AR-Obulus, U-400, #02133 views029 Károly Róbert., (Charles Robert of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1307-1342 A.D.) AR-Obulus, U-400, #02
avers: King enthroned, facing, in circle, holding sceptre and orb; border of dots.
reverse: ✠ •M•RЄGIS KARVLI•, Anjou-Hungarian shield in circle of dots, lily above, stylized bird on each side; border of dots.
exergue, mint mark: -/-//--, diameter: 12mm, weight: 0,40g, axis: 9h,
mint: Hungary, Buda, date: 1330-1332 A.D. (by Pohl), ref: Unger-400, CNH-2-012, Huszár-475, Pohl-30,
Q-002
quadrans
Karoly-Robert_(1307-1342_AD)_AR-Obulus_U-403_C2-019_H-496_No-Legend_M_REGIS_KAROLI_Q-001_0h_11,5mm_0,36g-s.jpg
029 Károly Róbert., (Charles Robert of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1307-1342 A.D.) AR-Obulus, U-403.???, New privy mark!!! #01123 views029 Károly Róbert., (Charles Robert of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1307-1342 A.D.) AR-Obulus, U-403.???, New privy mark!!! #01
avers: No legend, King enthroned, facing, holding sceptre and orb, botle(symbols) to left and right Angevin lilies above and belove both sides, border of dots.
reverse: ✠ M•RЄGIS KAROLI•, Shield with Árpádian stripes and Angevin lilies, botle(symbols) as (privy marks) to left and right, border of dots.
exergue, mint mark:botle(symbols)/botle(symbols)//--, diameter: 11,5mm, weight: 0,36g, axis:0h,
mint: Hungary, , mint mark: botle(symbols)-botle(symbols), date: 1338 (by Pohl) A.D., ref: Unger-403.???, CNH-2-019, Huszár-496, Pohl-52-??,
Q-001
quadrans
Karoly-Robert_(1307-1342_AD)_Denar_U-390_C2-034_H-493_x-x_1336AD_Q-001_4h_10,0mm_0,22ga-s.jpg
029 Károly Róbert., (Charles Robert of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1307-1342 A.D.) AR-Parvus, U-390, #0198 views029 Károly Róbert., (Charles Robert of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1307-1342 A.D.) AR-Parvus, U-390, #01
avers: Emperor faceing, Crowned head with curly hair, facing, mint-mark on each side (crown on top of "A"-crown on top of "A"); line border.
reverse: Wings, six-pointed star below, line border.
exergue, mint mark: crown on top of "A"/crown on top of "A"//--, diameter: 10,0mm, weight: 0,22g, axis: 4h,
mint: Hungary, Székesfehérvár (by Pohl), date: 1336 A.D. (by Pohl), ref: Unger-390, CNH-2-034, Huszár-493, Pohl-50,
Q-001
quadrans
Karoly-Robert_(1307-1342_AD)_Denar_U-390_C2-034_H-493_x-x_1336AD_Q-002_h_mm_0,20ga-s.jpg
029 Károly Róbert., (Charles Robert of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1307-1342 A.D.) AR-Parvus, U-390, #0294 views029 Károly Róbert., (Charles Robert of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1307-1342 A.D.) AR-Parvus, U-390, #02
avers: Emperor faceing, Crowned head with curly hair, facing, mint-mark on each side (crown on top of "A"-crown on top of "A"); line border.
reverse: Wings, six-pointed star below, line border.
exergue, mint mark: crown on top of "A"/crown on top of "A"//--, diameter: mm, weight: 0,20g, axis: h,
mint: Hungary, Székesfehérvár (by Pohl), date: 1336 A.D. (by Pohl), ref: Unger-390, CNH-2-034, Huszár-493, Pohl-50,
Q-002
quadrans
Karoly-Robert_(1307-1342_AD)_Denar_U-390_C2-034_H-493_x-x_1336AD_Q-003_h_mm_0,13ga-s.jpg
029 Károly Róbert., (Charles Robert of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1307-1342 A.D.) AR-Parvus, U-390, #0376 views029 Károly Róbert., (Charles Robert of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1307-1342 A.D.) AR-Parvus, U-390, #03
avers: Emperor faceing, Crowned head with curly hair, facing, mint-mark on each side (crown on top of "A"-crown on top of "A"); line border.
reverse: Wings, six-pointed star below, line border.
exergue, mint mark: crown on top of "A"/crown on top of "A"//--, diameter: mm, weight: 0,13g, axis: h,
mint: Hungary, Székesfehérvár (by Pohl), date: 1336 A.D. (by Pohl), ref: Unger-390, CNH-2-034, Huszár-493, Pohl-50,
Q-003
quadrans
Hadrian_AR-Den_HADRIANVS-AVG-COS-III-P-P_VICTO-RIA-AVG_RIC-II-_C-_-AD_Q-001_axis-h_mm_g-s.jpg
032 Hadrianus (117-138 A.D.), RIC II 0282, Rome, AR-Denarius, VICTORIA AVG, Victory (or Nemesis) advancing right,255 views032 Hadrianus (117-138 A.D.), RIC II 0282, Rome, AR-Denarius, VICTORIA AVG, Victory (or Nemesis) advancing right,
avers:-HADRIANVS-AVG-COS-III-P-P, Laureate head right.
revers:-VICTO-RIA-AVG, Victory (or Nemesis) advancing right, drawing out neck of robe, and pointing downward with branch.
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: 18mm, weight: 3,37g, axes: 6h,
mint: Rome, date: 134-138 A.D., ref: RIC II 282, RSC 1454, BMC 757
Q-001
5 commentsquadrans
deciussestdacia~0.JPG
036. Trajan Decius, 249-251AD. AE Sestertius. 43 viewsAE Sestertius. Rome mint.

Obv. Laureate and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind IMP C M Q TRAIANVS DECIVS AVG

Rev. Dacia, wearing robe reaching feet, standing left holding vertical staff topped with a wolf's head DACIA SC.

RIC p. 135, 112b; C 18, , 18.398g, 22.4mm. gVF
LordBest
Pisidia,_Antioch,_049p_Septimius_Severus_(193-211_A_D_),_AE-22___Imitatio,_Q-001,_0h,_22,0mm,_5,25g-s~0.jpg
049p Septimius Severus (193-211 A.D.), Pisidia, Antioch, SNG BN 1117-8, AE-22, ANTIOCH MENCIS CO, Męn wearing a long robe and Phrygian cap,61 views049p Septimius Severus (193-211 A.D.), Pisidia, Antioch, SNG BN 1117-8, AE-22, ANTIOCH MENCIS CO, Męn wearing a long robe and Phrygian cap,
avers: IMP CAES SEP SEV PER A, Laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust left.
reverse: ANTIOCH MENCIS CO, Męn (Lunus), wearing a long robe and Phrygian cap, crescent on the left shoulder, standing slightly right, left foot resting on bucranium, holding Nike with the trophy in left hand and spear in right, rooster at foot left.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 22,0mm, weight: 5,25g, axis: 0h,
mint: Pisidia, Antioch, date: 193-211 A.D., ref: SNG BN 1117-8, Krzyźanowska obv. die XIX.
Q-001
3 commentsquadrans
Caracalla_AR-Ant_ANTONINVS-PIVS-AVG-GERM_TEMPORVM-FELICITAS_Roma-RIC-_Q-001_21-22mm_5_02g-s.jpg
051 Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), RIC IV-I Not in, Caracalla and Ellagabal (plated) fouree Antoninianus contemporary hybrid imitation,83 views051 Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), RIC IV-I Not in, Caracalla and Ellagabal (plated) fouree Antoninianus contemporary hybrid imitation,
"It's a fourree, and it's a contemporary imitation."- by Robert Brenchley- many thanks
avers:- ANTONINVS-PIVS-AVG-GERM, Caracalla (198 - 217), Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right 215? (Rome).
revers:- TEMPORVM-FELICITAS, Ellagaball (218 - 222), Felicitas standing left, holding caduceus and cornucopia. 219-220 (Rome).
exe:-/-//--, diameter: 21-22mm, weight: 5,02g, axis: -h,
mint: ???, date: ??? , ref: ???,
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
Phrygia,_Hadrianopolis-Sebaste,_051_Caracalla,_BMC_4,_SNG_Cop_407,_Caracalla_r_,_Tyche_l_,_Poteitos,_198-217_AD,_Q-001,_6h,_21mm,_5,52ga-s.jpg
051p Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), Phrygia, Hadrianopolis-Sebaste, BMC 4 (?), AE-21, AΔPIA•APX•ΠOTЄITO/V, Tyche standing left, Rare! #187 views051p Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), Phrygia, Hadrianopolis-Sebaste, BMC 4 (?), AE-21, AΔPIA•APX•ΠOTЄITO/V, Tyche standing left, Rare! #1
avers: •M•AV•AN TωNЄIN, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from the back.
reverse: AΔPIA•AP X•ΠOTЄITO/V, Tyche in a long robe and with Kalathos standing left, holding rudder and cornucopiae.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 21,0mm, weight: 5,52g, axis:6h,
mint: Phrygia, Hadrianopolis-Sebaste, Magistrate Poteitos., date: 198-217 A.D.,
ref: BMC 4 (? Radiate !), SNG Cop 407(? Radiate!).
Q-001
Ex: "Münzen & Medaillen GmbH (DE), Auction 22, Lot-1283, 24.05.2007"
1 commentsquadrans
063.jpg
060 LICINIUS I6 viewsEMPEROR: Licinius I
DENOMINATION: AE follis
OBVERSE: AD 317-320. IMP LICI-NIVS AVG, laureate bust left in consular robe, holding globe, sceptre and mappa
REVERSE: IOVI CONS-ERVATORI AVGG, Jupiter standing left, chlamys across left shoulder, holding Victory on globe and eagle-tipped sceptre. Palm branch angled, Z in right field
EXERGUE: SMN
DATE: 317-320 AD
MINT: Nicomedia
WEIGHT: 3.17 g
RIC: RIC VII Nicomedia 24
Barnaba6
LarryW1912.jpg
0640v Focas, 602-61032 viewsĆ follis, 25mm, 8.69g, F
Srtuck 607-608 at Constantinople
DM FOCAS PP AVG (or similar), crowned bust facing wearing consular
robes, holding mappa and cross / XXXX, ANNO (NN retrograde) above, stigma right, CON A
in exg.
Sear 640v, DO 30a v; MIB 69a
Lawrence Woolslayer
RI_065bd_img.jpg
065 - Julia Domna denarius - RIC -26 viewsObv:– IVLIA AVGVSTA, Draped bust right
Rev:– VENVS FELIX, Venus standing left, holding apple in right hand, raising robe with left hand
Minted in Alexandria A.D. 197
Reference:– BMCRE -. Bickford-Smith pl. 1, 10. RIC IV -. cf RIC 580 (Rome).

The most common Alexandrian type from this issue for Domna.
maridvnvm
RI_065be_img.jpg
065 - Julia Domna denarius - RIC -30 viewsObv:– IVLIA DOMNA AVG, Draped bust right
Rev:– VENVS FELIX, Venus standing left, holding apple in right hand, raising robe with left hand
Minted in Alexandria.
Reference(s) – BMCRE -. RIC -, cf RIC 580 (Rome). RSC -.
maridvnvm
RI_065bl_img.jpg
065 - Julia Domna denarius - RIC -28 viewsObv:– IVLIA AVGVSTA, Draped bust right
Rev:– VENVS FELIX, Venus standing left, holding apple in right hand, raising robe with left hand
Minted in Alexandria.
Reference:– BMCRE -. Bickford-Smith pl. 1, 10. RIC IV -. cf RIC 580 (Rome).
maridvnvm
RI_065bn_img.jpg
065 - Julia Domna denarius - RIC -19 viewsObv:– IVLIA AVGVSTA, Draped bust right
Rev:– VENVS FELIX, Venus standing left, holding apple in right hand, raising robe with left hand
Minted in Alexandria A.D. 197
Reference:– BMCRE -. Bickford-Smith pl. 1, 10. RIC IV -. cf RIC 580 (Rome).

The most common Alexandrian type from this issue for Domna.
maridvnvm
RI_065bv_img.jpg
065 - Julia Domna denarius - RIC -19 viewsObv:– IVLIA DOMNA AVG, Draped bust right
Rev:– VENVS FELIX, Venus standing left, holding apple in right hand, raising robe with left hand
Minted in Alexandria.
Reference(s) – BMCRE -. RIC -, cf RIC 580 (Rome). RSC -.
maridvnvm
RI_065bw_img.jpg
065 - Julia Domna denarius - RIC -17 viewsObv:– IVLIA AVGVSTA, Draped bust right
Rev:– VENVS FELIX, Venus standing left, holding apple in right hand, raising robe with left hand
Minted in Alexandria.
Reference:– BMCRE -. Bickford-Smith pl. 1, 10. RIC IV -. cf RIC 580 (Rome).
maridvnvm
LarryW1908.jpg
0654A Focas, 602-61041 viewsĆ half follis, 22.1mm, 6.25g, Nice F
Struck 603-604 at Thessalonica
D N FOCAS PERP AVG (or similar), crowned bust facing, wearing consular robes, holding globus cruciger / X•X, cross above, regnal year I right, TES in exg, scarce
Ex: Forvm Ancient Coins
Sear 654Av; DO -
Lawrence Woolslayer
LarryW1906.jpg
0658 Focas, 602-61043 viewsBronze follis, 32.24mm, 11.51g, gVF
Struck 603-604 at Nicomedia
d m [FOCA - PE]R AVG, bust facing wearing consular robes and crown with cross on circlet, mappa in right, eagle tipped scepter in left / XXXX, ANNO above, II right, NIKO A in exg
Certificate of Authenticity by David R. Sear, ACCS
Ex: Forvm Ancient Coins; Harlan Berk
Unpublished with this date: year 2. cf. Sear 658 (years 3 and 4)
Lawrence Woolslayer
LarryW1909.jpg
0659 Focas, 602-61029 viewsĆ follis, 31.6mm, 11.1g, aF
Struck 606-607 at Nicomedia
DM FOCA PER AVG, bust of facing, wearing crown with pendilia and consular robes, and holding mappa and cross / [X]XXX with ANNO above, regnal year II at right, NIKO A in exg. Overstrike, apparently on follis of Maurice Tiberius
Ex: Glenn W. Woods
Sear 659; MIB 69b
Lawrence Woolslayer
06a-Constantine-Car-051c.jpg
06a. Constantine as Caesar: Carthage follis.52 viewsFollis, Nov. - Dec. 306, Carthage mint.
Obverse: FL VAL CONSTANTINVS NOB CAES / Laureate bust of Constantine.
Reverse: SALVIS AVGG ET CAESS FEL KART / Carthage standing, dressed in long robe, holding fruit in both hands. H in left field.
Mint mark: Γ
9.49 gm., 27 mm.
RIC #51c; PBCC #575; Sear #15551.
1 commentsCallimachus
07m-Constantine-Ant-167c.jpg
07m. Constantine: Antioch follis.41 viewsFollis, 312, Antioch mint.
Obverse: IMP C FL VAL CONSTANTINVS P F AVG / Laureate bust of Constantine.
Reverse: SOLI INVICTO / Sol in long robe, holding head of Serapis; Z in left field; star in right field.
Mint mark: ANT
5.05 gm., 19 mm.
RIC #167c; PBCC #1137; Sear #16044.
1 commentsCallimachus
Gallienus_AR-Ant_IMP-GALLIENVS-P-AVG_CONCOR-MIL_RIC_377corr,_RSC_118corr,_MIR_806o__Viminacium-2nd-emiss_254-255-AD_Q-001_0h_20-21mm_3,06g-s.jpg
090a Gallienus (253-268 A.D.), AR-Antoninianus, RIC V-I 377, Göbl 806o., Viminacium, CONCOR MIL, Concordia standing looking left,101 views090a Gallienus (253-268 A.D.), AR-Antoninianus, RIC V-I 377, Göbl 806o., Viminacium, CONCOR MIL, Concordia standing looking left,
avers:- IMP GALLIENVS P AVG, Radiate bust right, draped and cuirassed.
revers:- CONCOR MIL, Concordia standing looking left, holding cornucopia and raising robe.
exergo: -/-//--, diameter: 20-21mm, weight: 3,06g, axis: 0h,
mint: Viminacium, 2nd emission, date: 254-255 A.D., ref: RIC-V-I-377, p-, Göbl-806o.,
Q-001
quadrans
091_Salonina_(__-_268_A_D_),_Bi-Tetradrachm,_G-2986,_D-5334,_Alexandria,_L_IE_(RY_15),_267-68_AD_Q-001_0h_22,0-23,5mm_10,85g-s.jpg
091p Salonina (? - 268 A.D.), Bi-Tetradrachm, G-2986, D-5334, Egypt, Alexandria, -/IЄ/L//--, Elpis walking left, #1153 views091p Salonina (? - 268 A.D.), Bi-Tetradrachm, G-2986, D-5334, Egypt, Alexandria, -/IЄ/L//--, Elpis walking left, #1
avers:- KOPNHΛIA CAΛωNEINA CEB, Diademed and draped bust right.
revers:- Elpis walking left, holding flower and raising hem of robe. Palm branch upright to left, IЄ over L in right field..
exe: -/IЄ/L//--, diameter: 22,0-23,5 mm, weight:10,85 g, axis: 0h,
mint: Egypt, Alexandria, date: I/ЄL (dated year 15), 267-268 A.D., ref: Geissen-2986, Dattari-5334, Kapmann-Ganschow-91.53-p-324,
Q-001
3 commentsquadrans
RI 096d img~0.jpg
096 - Trajan Decius Antoninianus - RIC 012b35 viewsObv:– IMP C M Q TRAIANVS DECIVS AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– DACIA, Dacia, wearing robe reaching feet, standing left, holding vertical staff with ass’s head
Minted in Rome.
Reference:– RIC 12b. RSC 16
maridvnvm
MariusFundania1Denarius.jpg
0aa Caius Marius40 viewsC. Fundanius, moneyer
101-91 BC

Denarius

Helmeted head of Roma right, control-mark C behind

"Triumphator" (Marius) in quadriga right, holding laurel-branch and staff; a rider sits on near horse, holding laurel-branch, Q above, C FVNDAN in exergue

The reverse shows Marius as triumphator in the quadriga. He holds sceptre and laurel branch. On one of the horses rides his son. The children of the triumphator were - according to tradition - allowed to share the triumph of their father. The Q above refers to the office as quaestor the mintmaster held while minting these coins. FORVM Ancient Coins says of a similar piece, "The reverse refers to Marius triumph after victories over the Cimbri and Teutones. The rider on the near horse is Marius's son, at that time eight years old." Andrew McCabe comments, "The Triumphator on the Fundania denarius is usually taken to be Marius, with his young son on horseback. This would make it the first Roman coin to explicitly portray a living Roman politician. "

Seaby Fundania 1

Marius rose from common origins to become the First Man in Rome. Plutarch in his Life writes: There is a likeness of Marius in stone at Ravenna, in Gaul, which I myself saw quite corresponding with that roughness of character that is ascribed to him. Being naturally valiant and warlike, and more acquainted also with the discipline of the camp than of the city, he could not moderate his passion when in authority. . . . He was born of parents altogether obscure and indigent, who supported themselves by their daily labour; his father of the same name with himself, his mother called Fulcinia. He had spent a considerable part of his life before he saw and tasted the pleasures of the city; having passed previously in Cirrhaeaton, a village of the territory of Arpinum, a life, compared with city delicacies, rude and unrefined, yet temperate, and conformable to the ancient Roman severity. He first served as a soldier in the war against the Celtiberians, when Scipio Africanus besieged Numantia; where he signalized himself to his general by courage far above his comrades, and particularly by his cheerfully complying with Scipio's reformation of his army, being almost ruined by pleasures and luxury. It is stated, too, that he encountered and vanquished an enemy in single combat, in his general's sight. In consequence of all this he had several honours conferred upon him; and once when at an entertainment a question arose about commanders, and one of the company (whether really desirous to know, or only in complaisance) asked Scipio where the Romans, after him, should obtain such another general, Scipio, gently clapping Marius on the shoulder as he sat next him, replied, "Here, perhaps. . . ."

The consul Caecilius Metellus, being declared general in the war against Jugurtha in Africa took with him Marius for lieutenant; where, eager himself to do great deeds and services that would get him distinction, he did not, like others, consult Metellus's glory and the serving his interest, and attributing his honour of lieutenancy not to Metellus, but to fortune, which had presented him with a proper opportunity and theatre of great actions, he exerted his utmost courage. . . . Marius thus employed, and thus winning the affections of the soldiers, before long filled both Africa and Rome with his fame, and some, too, wrote home from the army that the war with Africa would never be brought to a conclusion unless they chose Caius Marius consul. . . .He was elected triumphantly, and at once proceeded to levy soldiers contrary both to law and custom, enlisting slaves and poor people; whereas former commanders never accepted of such, but bestowed arms, like other favours, as a matter of distinction, on persons who had the proper qualification, a man's property being thus a sort of security for his good behavior. . . .

[In Marius' fourth consulship,] The enemy dividing themselves into two parts, the Cimbri arranged to go against Catulus higher up through the country of the Norici, and to force that passage; the Teutones and Ambrones to march against Marius by the seaside through Liguria. . . . The Romans, pursuing them, slew and took prisoners above one hundred thousand, and possessing themselves of their spoil, tents, and carriages, voted all that was not purloined to Marius's share, which, though so magnificent a present, yet was generally thought less than his conduct deserved in so great a danger. . . . After the battle, Marius chose out from amongst the barbarians' spoils and arms those that were whole and handsome, and that would make the greatest show in his triumph; the rest he heaped upon a large pile, and offered a very splendid sacrifice. Whilst the army stood round about with their arms and garlands, himself attired (as the fashion is on such occasions) in the purple-bordered robe, and taking a lighted torch, and with both hands lifting it up towards heaven, he was then going to put it to the pile, when some friends were espied with all haste coming towards him on horseback. Upon which every one remained in silence and expectation. They, upon their coming up, leapt off and saluted Marius, bringing him the news of his fifth consulship, and delivered him letters to that effect. This gave the addition of no small joy to the solemnity; and while the soldiers clashed their arms and shouted, the officers again crowned Marius with a laurel wreath, and he thus set fire to the pile, and finished his sacrifice.
Blindado
Probus_AE-Ant_VIRTVS-PROBI-AVG_SALVS-PVBLIC_Gamma-XXI_Bust-F-square_RIC-569-p-76_Ticinum_282-AD_Scarce_Q-001_axis-6h_21mm_4,15g-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II Not in, Ticinum, SALVS PVBLIC, Bust-Heroic type in "Square shield", -/-//ΓXXI, Salus standing right, Scarce!321 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II Not in, Ticinum, SALVS PVBLIC, Bust-Heroic type in "Square shield", -/-//ΓXXI, Salus standing right, Scarce!
avers:- VIRTVS-PROBI-AVG, Radiate, heroically nude bust left, holding spear and aegis,"Square shield", seen from back.
revers:- SALVS-PVBLIC, Salus standing right, feeding serpent in arms.
exerg: -/-//ΓXXI, diameter: 21mm, weight: 4,15g, axes: 6h,
mint: Ticinum, date: , ref: RIC-V-II-Not in, p-, Heroic Bust Type (Unlisted with this bust type in RIC, Square shield),
Q-001
"Rarity of your coin: there are 10 examples of this type in my documentation (with a high rate of die linking).
I think your coin shares its obverse die with the Glasgow Hunter Coin Cabinet coin (A. S. Robertson n. 174)"
by S.Estiot. Thank you S. Estiot.
1 commentsquadrans
Probus_AE-Ant_IMP-C-M-AVR-PROBVS-AVG_SPES-PROBI-AVG_III_Bust-F_RIC-99-p-29_Lugdunum_7th-em-_282-AD_Scarce_Q-001_6h_21mm_3,48ga-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), Lugdunum, RIC V-II 099.7.3./A-A2, -/-//III, SPES PROBI AVG, AE-Ant., Spes walking left, Rare! #174 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), Lugdunum, RIC V-II 099.7.3./A-A2, -/-//III, SPES PROBI AVG, AE-Ant., Spes walking left, Rare! #1
avers: IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from the back, (A2-C).
reverse: SPES PROBI AVG, Spes walking left, holding the flower and raising robe, (Typ.A).
exergue: -/-//III, diameter: 21,0mm, weight: 3,48g, axis: 6h,
mint: Lugdunum, 7th. em., 3rd. off., date: 281 A.D., ref: RIC V-II 099.7.3./A-A2, p-29, Bastien 324, HO-603, Rare!
Q-001
quadrans
RIC_127,_112_Probus,_AE-Ant,_IMP_C_M_AVR_PROBVS_AVG,_SPES_AVG,_C-,_Bust_A2-C,_Bast-402,_Lugdunum,_9th-em,_3rd-off,_282_AD,_R,_Q-001,_4h,_21-21,5mm,_3,76g-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), Lugdunum, RIC V-II 127.9.3./A-A2, C/-//--, SPES AVG, AE-Ant., Spes standing left, #177 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), Lugdunum, RIC V-II 127.9.3./A-A2, C/-//--, SPES AVG, AE-Ant., Spes standing left, #1
avers: IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right. (A2-C)
reverse: SPES AVG, Spes walking left, holding a flower and raising robe.
exergue: C/-//--, diameter: 21,0-21,5 mm, weight: 3,76g, axis:4h,
mint: Lugdunum, 9th.em., 3rd. off., "C" in left field, date: 01.-08.282 A.D., ref: RIC V-II 127.9.3./A-A2, p-27, Bastien 402,
Q-001
quadrans
RIC_128-9-3a-B,_112_Probus,_AE-Ant,_IMP_C_PROBVS_P_F_AVG,_SPES_AVG,_invC,_Bust_B,_Bast_407,_Lugdunum,_9th-em,_3rd-off,_282_AD,_Q-001,_6h,_21,5-22,5mm,_3,26g-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), Lugdunum, RIC V-II 128.9.3./A-B, Ɔ/-//--, SPES AVG, AE-Ant., Spes standing left, #199 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), Lugdunum, RIC V-II 128.9.3./A-B, Ɔ/-//--, SPES AVG, AE-Ant., Spes standing left, #1
avers: IMP C PROBVS•P•F•AVG, Radiate, cuirassed bust right. (B)
reverse: SPES AVG, Spes walking left, holding a flower and raising robe.(A)
exergue: Ɔ/-//--, diameter: 21,5-22,5 mm, weight: 3,26g, axis:6h,
mint: Lugdunum, 9th.em., 3rd. off., "retrograde C" in left field, date: 01.-08.282 A.D., ref: RIC V-II 128.9.3./A-B, Bastien 407,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
RIC_730,_IMP_PROBVS_INV_AVG,_RESTIT_ILLVRICI,_XXI,_Alf-56,__No-1,_Siscia,_2nd__em_277_AD_Q-001_h,_23mm,_g-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), Siscia, Alföldi 0056.0001, -/-//XXI, Bust A2/C, RIC V-II 730, AE-Antoninianus, RESTIT ILIVRICI, Two women standing back to back, Rare!!! 133 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), Siscia, Alföldi 0056.0001, -/-//XXI, Bust A2/C, RIC V-II 730, AE-Antoninianus, RESTIT ILIVRICI, Two women standing back to back, Rare!!!
avers: IMP PROBVS INV AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from the back. (A2/C).
reverse: RESTIT ILIVRICI, Two women standing back to back, holding ensigns and raising their robes.
exergue: -/-//XXI, diameter: 21,0-22,5mm, weight: 3,41g, axis:0h,
mint: Siscia, 2nd. emission, date: 277 A.D., ref: RIC V-II 730, p-, Alföldi 0056.0001, Rare!!!
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
RIC_V-II_082A,_113_Carus,_AE-Ant_,_IMP_CARVS_P_F_AVG,_SPES_PVBLICA,_SXXI,_2nd_em_,_Ticinum,_282_AD,_Q-001,_11h,_21,5-23,0mm,_4,80g-s.jpg
113 Carus (282-283 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 082A, Ticinum, -/-//SXXI, SPES PVBLICA, Spes left, #162 views113 Carus (282-283 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 082A, Ticinum, -/-//SXXI, SPES PVBLICA, Spes left, #1
avers: IMP CARVS P F AVG, Radiate, cuirassed bust right.
reverse: SPES PVBLICA, Spes walking left with a flower and raising robes, SXXI in ex.
exergue: -/-//SXXI, diameter: 21,5-23,0mm, weight: 4,80g, axes: 11h,
mint: Ticinum, date: 282 A.D., ref: RIC V-II 082A,
Q-001
quadrans
Carus_IMP-CARVS-PF-AVG_SPES-PVBLICA_SXXI_Ticinium-RIC-82F_Q-001_0h_21-23mm_3,04g-s.jpg
113 Carus (282-283 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 082F, Ticinum, -/-//SXXI, SPES PVBLICA, Spes left, #1218 views113 Carus (282-283 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 082F, Ticinum, -/-//SXXI, SPES PVBLICA, Spes left, #1
avers: IMP CARVS P F AVG, radiate, cuirassed bust right.
reverse: SPES PVBLICA, Spes walking left with a flower and raising robes, SXXI in ex.
exergue: -/-//SXXI, diameter: 21-23mm, weight: 3,04g, axes: 0h,
mint: Ticinum, date: , ref: RIC V-II 082F, p-144,
Q-001
quadrans
RIC_V-II_082F_Carus_IMP-CARVS-PF-AVG_SPES-PVBLICA_XXI_Ticinium-RIC-82_Q-x01_3_11g-s.jpg
113 Carus (282-283 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 082F, Ticinum, -/-//SXXI, SPES PVBLICA, Spes left, #280 views113 Carus (282-283 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 082F, Ticinum, -/-//SXXI, SPES PVBLICA, Spes left, #2
avers: IMP CARVS P F AVG, radiate, cuirassed bust right.
reverse: SPES PVBLICA, Spes walking left with a flower and raising robes, SXXI in ex.
exergue: -/-//SXXI, diameter: mm, weight: g, axes: h,
mint: Ticinum, date: , ref: RIC V-II 082F, p-144,
Q-002
quadrans
RIC_V-II_082F_Carus_IMP-CARVS-P-F-AVG_SPES-PVBLICA_SXXI_Ticinium-RIC-82F_Q-002_11h_22-23mm_3,55gx-s.jpg
113 Carus (282-283 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 082F, Ticinum, -/-//SXXI, SPES PVBLICA, Spes left, #3146 views113 Carus (282-283 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 082F, Ticinum, -/-//SXXI, SPES PVBLICA, Spes left, #3
avers: IMP CARVS P F AVG, radiate, cuirassed bust right.
reverse: SPES PVBLICA, Spes walking left with a flower and raising robes, SXXI in ex.
exergue: -/-//SXXI, diameter: 22,0-23,0mm, weight: 3,55g, axes: 11h,
mint: Ticinum, date: 283 A.D., ref: RIC V-II 082F, p-144,
Q-003
quadrans
RIC_V-II_347A_Magnia-Urbica,_AE-Ant,_MAGNIA_VRBICA_AVG,_VENVS_VICTRIX,_SXXIT,_Sear_12423,_C-15,_5th_em,_Ticinum,_283-AD,_S,_Q-001,_6h,_21,6-22,7mm,_3,46gx-s.jpg
116 Magnia Urbica (??? A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 347A, Ticinum, -/-//SXXIT, VENVS VICTRIX, Venus standing left,125 views116 Magnia Urbica (??? A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 347A, Ticinum, -/-//SXXIT, VENVS VICTRIX, Venus standing left,
avers: MAGNIA VRBICA AVG, Diademed bust right on crescent wearing Stephane and richly embroidered robe
reverse: VENVS VICTRIX, Venus standing left, holding helmet and slanted scepter, shield below her left elbow.
exergue: -/-//SXXIT, diameter: 21,6-22,7mm, weight: 3,46g, axis: 6h,
mint: Ticinum, 5th. em., date: 283 A.D., ref: RIC V-II 347A, C-15, Sear 12423,
Q-001
quadrans
Constantius-I_AE-Follis_CONSTANTIVS-NOB-CAES_SALVIS-AVGG-ET-CAESS-FEL-KART_Gamma_RIC_VI_Carthage_32a_298-299-AD_Q-001_11h_28,5-29,5mm_10,17g-s.jpg
121 Constantius I. Chlorus (293-305 A.D. Caesar, 305-306 A.D. Augustus), Carthage, RIC VI 032a, AE-1 Follis, SALVIS AVG G ET CAES S FEL KART, Carthago standing facing, #183 views121 Constantius I. Chlorus (293-305 A.D. Caesar, 305-306 A.D. Augustus), Carthage, RIC VI 032a, AE-1 Follis, SALVIS AVG G ET CAES S FEL KART, Carthago standing facing, #1
avers: CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES, Laureate head right. Larger portarit-head.
revers: SALVIS AVG G ET CAES S FEL KART, Carthago standing facing, head left, in long robe, holding fruits in both hands.
exerg: -/-//Γ, diameter: 28,5-29,5mm, weight: 10,17g, axes:11h,
mint: Carthage, date: 298-299 A.D., ref: RIC VI 032a,
Q-001
quadrans
Galeria-Valeria_AE-26_GAL-VA-LERIA-AVG_VENERI-VICTRICI_crescent-Gamma_SIS_Siscia-309-310_RIC-211_C--_Q-001_26mm_4,98g-s.jpg
123 Galeria-Valeria (?-315 A.D.), Siscia, RIC VI 211var Not in RIC, Crescent/Γ// SIS, AE-Follis, VENERI VICTRICI, Venus standing left,147 views123 Galeria-Valeria (?-315 A.D.), Siscia, RIC VI 211var Not in RIC, Crescent/Γ// SIS, AE-Follis, VENERI VICTRICI, Venus standing left,
Galeria-Valeria, daughter of Diocletian and wife of Galerius, AE-26 Follis
avers: GAL VAL ERIA AVG, Diademed, decorated draped bust right. The robe around the neck of interesting shapes (some of Victoria ??) can be seen.
reverse: VENERI VICTRICI, Venus standing left, holding the apple and raising skirt, crescent left, Γ right.
exergue: Crescent/Γ// SIS, diameter: 26mm, weight: 4,98g, axis: 1h,
mint: Siscia, date: 307-310 A.D., ref: RIC-211var-3rd.off, C-, this bust Not in RIC !!!
Q-001
quadrans
Galeria-Valeria_AE-26_GAL-VA-LERIA-AVG_VENERI-VICTRICI_crescent-Gamma_SIS_Siscia-309-310_RIC-211_C--_Q-001_26mm_4,98g-figures.jpg
123 Galeria-Valeria (?-315 A.D.), Siscia, RIC VI 211var Not in RIC, Crescent/Γ// SIS, AE-Follis, VENERI VICTRICI, Venus standing left, The decoration on the dress the part of the neck.138 views123 Galeria-Valeria (?-315 A.D.), Siscia, RIC VI 211var Not in RIC, Crescent/Γ// SIS, AE-Follis, VENERI VICTRICI, Venus standing left, The decoration on the dress the part of the neck.
avers: GAL VALERIA AVG, Diademed, draped bust right. The robe around the neck of interesting shapes (some of Victoria or Erotes/Cupid ??) can be seen.
reverse: VENERI VICTRICI, Venus standing left, holding the apple and raising skirt, crescent left, Gamma right.
"I would concur that they are Erotes/Cupids. Which, of course, would fit with the reverse type, Erotes being associated with Venus." by Adrianus. Thank you Adrianus.
exergue: -/-//SIS, diameter: 26mm, weight: 4,98g, axis: 1h,
mint: Siscia, date: 307-310 A.D., ref: RIC-211, C-,
Q-001
quadrans
RI 132tp img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC - Bust type H (Rome) (RE)39 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, Radiate bust left in consular robe holding eagle-tipped scepter in left
Rev:– VIRTVS AVG, Soldier (Virtus) standing left, right hand resting on shield, left holding spear
Mint – Rome (RE) Emission 2, Officina 5. A.D. 277
Reference:– Cohen -. RIC - Bust type H (This reverse type is mis-described by RIC, see RIC 229 and this obverse legend isn't listed)
maridvnvm
RI_132yd_img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 099 - Bust Type C (Lugdunum) (III)14 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right; seen from the rear
Rev:– SPES PROBI AVG, Spes walking left, holding flower and raising robe
Minted in Lugdunum (III in exe) Emission 7, Officina 3. A.D. 281
Reference:– Cohen 708. Bastien 324 (12 examples cited). RIC 99 Bust type C (C)

x.x gms
x.x mm
maridvnvm
RI_132bo_img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 100 - Bust Type F (Lugdunum) (III)10 viewsObv:– IMP C PROBVS P F AVG, Radiate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– SPES PROBI AVG, Spes walking left, holding flower and raising robe
Minted in Lugdunum (III in exe) Emission 7, Officina 3. A.D. 281
Reference:– Cohen 708. Bastien 328. RIC 100 Bust type F (Scarce)

3.09 gms
22.60mm
maridvnvm
RI_132ud_img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 127 - Bust Type C (Lugdunum) (C in left field)11 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG, Radiate draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– SPES AVG, Spes standing left, holding flower and raising robe
Minted in Lugdunum (C in left field) Emission 9, Officina 3. January to August A.D. 282
Reference:– Cohen 702. Bastien 402. RIC 127 Bust type C

Weight 3.74g. 23.46mm. 0 degrees
maridvnvm
RI_132sl_img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 127 - Bust Type C (Lugdunum) (C in right field)12 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG, Radiate draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– SPES AVG, Spes standing left, holding flower and raising robe
Minted in Lugdunum (C in right field) Emission 9, Officina 3. January to August A.D. 282
Reference:– Cohen 702. Bastien 414. RIC 127 Bust type C

Weight 3.56g. 23.23mm. 0 degrees
maridvnvm
RI_132yf_img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 127 - Bust Type C (Lugdunum) (Retrograde C in left field)9 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG, Radiate draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– SPES AVG, Spes standing left, holding flower and raising robe
Minted in Lugdunum (Retrograde C in left field) Emission 9, Officina 3. January to August A.D. 282
Reference:– Cohen 702. Bastien 405 (2 examples). RIC 127 Bust type C

Weight 3.43g. 22.25mm. 180 degrees
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_132uw_img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 127 var. - Bust Type C (Lugdunum) (retrograde C in right field)8 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG, Radiate draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– SPES AVG, Spes standing left, holding flower and raising robe
Minted in Lugdunum (retrograde C in right field) Emission 9, Officina 3. January to August A.D. 282
Reference:– Cohen 702. Bastien 419 (3 examples cited). RIC 127 var Bust type C (not listed with retrograde C in right field in RIC)

Weight 3.49g. 22.92mm. 180 degrees

Some minor roughness
maridvnvm
RI_132nt_img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 128 - Bust Type C (Lugdunum) (C in left field)6 viewsObv:– IMP C PROBVS • P • F • AVG, Radiate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– SPES AVG, Spes standing left, holding flower and raising robe
Minted in Lugdunum (C in left field) Emission 9, Officina 3. January to August A.D. 282
Reference:– Cohen 701. Bastien 403. RIC 128 Bust type C

Weight 3.69g. 21.85mm. 180 degrees
maridvnvm
RI_132uy_img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 128 - Bust Type C (Lugdunum) (C in right field)10 viewsObv:– IMP C PROBVS • P • F • AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:–SPES AVG, Spes standing left, holding flower and raising robe
Minted in Lugdunum (_ | C) Emission 9, Officina 3. January to August A.D. 282
Reference(s) – Cohen 701. Bastien 415 (5 examples). RIC 128 Bust type C

Weight 3.2g. 22.57mm. 0 degrees
maridvnvm
RI_132yc_img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 128 - Bust Type C (Lugdunum) (retrograde C in left field) 12 viewsObv:– IMP C PROBVS • P • F • AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– SPE-S AVG, Spes standing left, holding flower and raising robe
Minted in Lugdunum (Retrograde C | _) Emission 9, Officina 3. January to August A.D. 282
Reference(s) – Cohen 701. Bastien 406 (2 examples). RIC 128 Bust type C (C).

Weight 2.48g. 23.42mm. 180 degrees
maridvnvm
RI_132gg_img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 128 - Bust Type F (Lugdunum) (C in left field)11 viewsObv:– IMP C PROBVS • P • F • AVG, Radiate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– SPES AVG, Spes standing left, holding flower and raising robe
Minted in Lugdunum (C in left field) Emission 9, Officina 3. January to August A.D. 282
Reference:– Cohen 700. Bastien 404. RIC 128 Bust type F

Weight 3.43g. 22.58mm. 180 degrees
maridvnvm
RI_132xa_img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 128 - Bust Type F (Lugdunum) (C in left field)29 viewsObv:– IMP C PROBVS • P • F • AVG, Radiate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– SPES AVG, Spes standing left, holding flower and raising robe
Minted in Lugdunum (C in left field) Emission 9, Officina 3. January to August A.D. 282
Reference:– Cohen 700. Bastien 404. RIC 128 Bust type F

Weight 4.74g. 22.85mm. 0 degrees
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_132od_img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 128 - Bust Type F (Lugdunum) (C, retrograde in left field) 6 viewsObv:– IMP C PROBVS • P • F • AVG, Radiate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– SPES AVG, Spes standing left, holding flower and raising robe
Minted in Lugdunum (C, retrograde in left field) Emission 9, Officina 3. January to August A.D. 282
Reference:– Cohen 700. Bastien 407. RIC 128 Bust type F

Weight 4.45g. 23.61mm. 0 degrees
maridvnvm
RI_132bl_img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 128 var. - Bust Type F (Lugdunum) (C, retrograde in right field)10 viewsObv:– IMP C PROBVS • P • F • AVG, Radiate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– SPES AVG, Spes standing left, holding flower and raising robe
Minted in Lugdunum (C, retrograde in right field) Emission 9, Officina 3. January to August A.D. 282
Reference:– Cohen 700. Bastien 421. RIC 128 var. Bust type F
Unlisted in RIC with C retrograde in right field.

Weight 3.20g. 22.53mm. 0 degrees
maridvnvm
RI 132lf img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 235 var. Bust type H (Rome) (R * E)25 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG, Radiate bust left in consular robe holding eagle-tipped scepter in left
Rev:– VIRTVS AVGVSTI, Soldier standing left, right hand resting on shield, left holding spear
Mint – Rome (R * E) Emission 3, Officina 5. A.D. 278
Reference:– Cohen -. RIC 235 var. Bust type H (Unlisted with this bust type, emission and officina in RIC)
maridvnvm
RI 132km img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 386 var - Bust Type H (Ticinum) (VXXT) 26 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG, Radiate bust left in consular robe holding eagle-tipped scepter in left
Rev:– IOVI CONSERVAT, Emperor standing right, receiving globe from Jupiter standing left
Minted in Ticinum (VXXT) Emission 2 Officina 5. A.D. 276
Reference:– RIC 386 var. Bust Type H (Not listed in RIC with this bust type)
maridvnvm
RI 132lr img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 387 - Bust Type H (Ticinum) (VXXT)27 viewsObv:– IMP C PROBVS P F AVG, Radiate bust left in consular robe holding eagle-tipped scepter in left
Rev:– IOVI CONSERVA, Emperor standing right, receiving globe from Jupiter standing left
Minted in Ticinum (VXXT) Emission 2 Officina 5. A.D. 276
Reference:– RIC 387 Bust Type H
maridvnvm
RI 132qy img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 632 - Bust Type H (Siscia) (A/XXI)27 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, Radiate bust left in consular robe holding eagle-tipped scepter in left
Rev:– ADVENTVS PROBI AVG, Emperor riding left, right hand raised, left holding sceptre, captive under horse
Minted in Siscia (A/XXI) Emission 2, Officina 1. A.D. 277
Reference:– Alföldi type 9, n° 14. RIC 632 Bust type H
maridvnvm
RI 132lh img~0.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 632 - Bust Type H (Siscia) (XXIS)37 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, Radiate bust left in consular robe holding eagle-tipped scepter in left
Rev:– ADVENTVS PROBI AVG, Emperor riding left, right hand raised, left holding sceptre, captive under horse
Minted in Siscia (XXIS) Emission 3, Officina 6. A.D. 277
Reference:– Alfoldi type 9, n° 20. RIC 632 Bust type H
maridvnvm
RI 132kq img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 650 - Bust Type H (Siscia) (T / XXI)21 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, Radiate bust left in consular robe holding eagle-tipped scepter in left
Rev:– CONCORD MILIT, Emperor standing right, clasping hand of Concordia
Minted in Siscia (T / XXI)
Reference:– Alfoldi type 26, no 110. RIC 650 Bust Type H
maridvnvm
RI 132le img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 653 var. - Radiate bust left in consular robe (Siscia) (XXIS) 34 viewsObv:– IMP PROBVS P F AVG, Radiate bust left in consular robe
Rev:– CONCORD MILIT, Emperor standing right, clasping hand of Concordia.
Minted in Siscia (XXIS in exe) Emission 5 Officina 2. A.D. 278
Reference:– RIC 653 var. Radiate bust left in consular robe (Not listed with this bust type in RIC). Alföldi type 23, no 48
maridvnvm
RI 132hy img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 739 - Bust Type H (Siscia) (XXIQ)33 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, Radiate bust left in consular robe holding eagle-tipped scepter in left
Rev:– ROMAE AETERNAE, Roma seated in temple, holding globe and sceptre; beside her, shield
Minted in Siscia (XXIQ in exe) Emission 6 Officina 2. A.D. 279
Reference:– RIC 739 Bust type H (Scarce)
Weight 3.17 gms
Size 21.74mm
maridvnvm
RI 132mn img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 739 - Bust Type H (Siscia) (XXIVI)31 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, Radiate bust left in consular robe holding eagle-tipped scepter in left
Rev:– ROMAE AETERNAE, Roma seated in temple, holding globe and sceptre; beside her, shield
Minted in Siscia (XXIVI in exe) Emission 4 Officina 6. A.D. 279
Reference:– RIC 739 Bust type H (Scarce). Alföldi type 60, n° 6
maridvnvm
RI 132mx img~0.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 739 - Radiate, cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield (Siscia) (XXIQ)42 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, Radiate bust left in consular robe holding eagle-tipped scepter in left
Rev:– ROMAE AETERNAE, Roma seated in temple, holding globe and sceptre; beside her, shield
Minted in Siscia (XXIQ in exe) Emission 4 Officina 4. A.D. 279
Reference:– RIC 739 Radiate, cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield (Scarce). Alföldi type 60, n° 9
maridvnvm
RI 132rk img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 787 var - Bust Type C (Siscia) (_|VI/XXI)28 viewsObv:– IMP C PROBVS P F AVG, Radiate draped and cuirassed bust right (seen from rear)
Rev:– SPES AVG, Spes walking left, holding flower and raising robe
Minted in Siscia (VI in right field, XXI in exe) Emission 4 Officina 4. A.D. 278
Reference:– 787 Bust Type C var (Not listed in RIC with this bust type or officina). Alföldi type 84, n° 6
maridvnvm
RI_132wu_img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 911 - Bust Type H14 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, Radiate bust left in consular robe holding eagle-tipped scepter in left
Rev:– SOLI INVICTO, Sol in a spread quadriga facing, radiate, cloak billowing out behind, raising right hand, holding whip in left
Mint – Cyzicus (CM / XXI) Emission 3, Officina 280
Reference:– RIC 911 Bust Type H
maridvnvm
Constantinus-I__AE-Follis_IMP-C-FL-VAL-CONSTANTINVS-PF-AVG_SOLI-IN-VICTO_A_star_ANT_RIC-VI-167c-p-644_Antioch_312-AD_Scarce_Q-001_11h_19,5mm_4,88g-s.jpg
136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Antioch, RIC VI 167c, AE-2 Follis, A/*//ANT, SOLI INVICTO, Sol radiated standing left, Scarce!82 views136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Antioch, RIC VI 167c, AE-2 Follis, A/*//ANT, SOLI INVICTO, Sol radiated standing left, Scarce!
avers:- IMP C FL VAL CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, Laureate bust right.
revers:- SOLI IN VICTO, Sol, rad., stg. l. in long robe, r. raised, l. holding head of Serapis. In left field A, * in right field.
exerg: A/*//ANT, diameter: 19,5mm, weight: 4,88g, axes: 11h,
mint: Antioch, date: 312 A.D., ref: RIC VI 167c, p-644, Scarce!
Q-001
quadrans
Helena_FL-HELENA-AVGVSTA_SECVRITAS-REIPVBLICA_SMKGamma-dot_RIC-VII-39-p-649-(12-E10)_Cyzicus_325-6-AD_R4_Q-001_0h_16,5-18mm_3,09g-s.jpg
139 Helena (? -329 A.D.), AE-3 Follis, Cyzicus, RIC VII 039, -/-//SMKΓ•, SECVRITAS REIPVBLICA, Securitas standing left, R4!!!79 views139 Helena (? -329 A.D.), AE-3 Follis, Cyzicus, RIC VII 039, -/-//SMKΓ•, SECVRITAS REIPVBLICA, Securitas standing left, R4!!!
avers:- FL-HELENA-AVGVSTA, (12,E10), Diademed, draped bust right, with necklace.
revers:- SECVRITAS-REIPVBLICA, Securitas standing left, lowering branch with left hand, raising robe with right hand.
exergo: -/-//SMKΓ•, diameter: 16,5-18mm, weight: 3,09g, axis: 0h,
mint: Cyzicus, date: 325-26 A.D., ref: RIC-VII-039, p-649, R4!!!
Q-001
quadrans
Helena_FL-HELENA-AVGVSTA_SECVRITAS-REIPVBLICA_SMNDelta_RIC-VII-95-p-615-12-E10_R4_Nicomedia_324-25-AD_Q-001_5h_19mm_3,22ga-s.jpg
139 Helena (? -329 A.D.), AE-3 Follis, Heraclea, RIC VII 079, -/-//SMHΔ, SECVRITAS REIPVBLICA, Securitas standing left, R3!!!,62 views139 Helena (? -329 A.D.), AE-3 Follis, Heraclea, RIC VII 079, -/-//SMHΔ, SECVRITAS REIPVBLICA, Securitas standing left, R3!!!,
avers:- FL HELENA AVGVSTA, 12,E10, Diademed, draped bust right.
revers:- SECVRITAS REIPVBLICA, Securitas standing left, lowering branch with left hand, raising robe with the right hand.
exergo: -/-//SMHΔ, diameter: 19mm, weight: 3,22g, axis: 5h,
mint: Heraclea, date: 324-25 A.D., ref: RIC-VII-79, p-551,
Q-001
quadrans
139_Helena_Heracleia_RIC-VII_079_FL-HELENA-AVGVSTA_SECVRITAS-REIPVBLICA_SMHB_p-551-12-E10_325-26-AD_S_Q-001,_11h,_18,5-21,5mm,_3,58g-s.jpg
139 Helena (? -329 A.D.), AE-3 Follis, Heraclea, RIC VII 079, -/-//SMHB, SECVRITAS REIPVBLICA, Securitas standing left, 125 views139 Helena (? -329 A.D.), AE-3 Follis, Heraclea, RIC VII 079, -/-//SMHB, SECVRITAS REIPVBLICA, Securitas standing left,
avers:- FL HELENA AVGVSTA, 12,E10, Diademed, draped bust right.
revers:- SECVRITAS REIPVBLICA, Securitas standing left, lowering branch with left hand, raising robe with the right hand.
exergo: -/-//SMHB, diameter: 18,5-21,5mm, weight: 3,58g, axis: 11h,
mint: Heraclea, date: 325-26 A.D., ref: RIC-VII-79, p-551, Scarce!
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
139_Helena_Heracleia_RIC-VII_079_FL-HELENA-AVGVSTA_SECVRITAS-REIPVBLICA_SMHE_p-551-12-E10_325-26-AD_R2_Q-001_11h_17,5-18mm_3,18ga-s.jpg
139 Helena (? -329 A.D.), AE-3 Follis, Heraclea, RIC VII 079, -/-//SMHE, SECVRITAS REIPVBLICA, Securitas standing left, R2!,97 views139 Helena (? -329 A.D.), AE-3 Follis, Heraclea, RIC VII 079, -/-//SMHE, SECVRITAS REIPVBLICA, Securitas standing left, R2!,
avers:- FL HELENA AVGVSTA, 12,E10, Diademed, draped bust right.
revers:- SECVRITAS REIPVBLICA, Securitas standing left, lowering branch with left hand, raising robe with the right hand.
exergo: -/-//SMHE, diameter: 17,5-18mm, weight: 3,18g, axis: 11h,
mint: Heraclea, date: 325-26 A.D., ref: RIC-VII-79, p-551, R2 !
Q-001
quadrans
Helena_FL-HELENA-AVGVSTA_SECVRITAS-REIPVBLICA_dot-SMHE_RIC-VII-95-p-554-12-E10_c1_Heracleia_327-29-AD_Q-001_5h_18mm_2,67ga-s.jpg
139 Helena (? -329 A.D.), AE-3 Follis, Heraclea, RIC VII 095, -/-//•SMHE, SECVRITAS REIPVBLICA, Securitas standing left, C1!, #164 views139 Helena (? -329 A.D.), AE-3 Follis, Heraclea, RIC VII 095, -/-//•SMHE, SECVRITAS REIPVBLICA, Securitas standing left, C1!, #1
avers:- FL HELENA AVGVSTA, 12,E10, Diademed, draped bust right.
revers:- SECVRITAS REIPVBLICA, Securitas standing left, lowering branch with left hand, raising robe with the right hand.
exergo: -/-//•SMHE, diameter: 18mm, weight: 2,67g, axis: 5h,
mint: Heraclea, date: 327-29 A.D., ref: RIC-VII-95, p-554,
Q-001
quadrans
Helena_FL-HELENA-AVGVSTA_SECVRITAS-REIPVBLICA_dot-SMH__RIC-VII-95-p-554-12-E10_c1_Heracleia_327-29-AD_Q-002_11h_19mm_3,22ga-s.jpg
139 Helena (? -329 A.D.), AE-3 Follis, Heraclea, RIC VII 095, -/-//•SMHE, SECVRITAS REIPVBLICA, Securitas standing left, C1!, #262 views139 Helena (? -329 A.D.), AE-3 Follis, Heraclea, RIC VII 095, -/-//•SMHE, SECVRITAS REIPVBLICA, Securitas standing left, C1!, #2
avers:- FL HELENA AVGVSTA, 12,E10, Diademed, draped bust right.
revers:- SECVRITAS REIPVBLICA, Securitas standing left, lowering branch with left hand, raising robe with the right hand.
exergue: -/-//•SMHE, diameter: 19mm, weight: 3,22g, axis: 11h,
mint: Heraclea, date: 327-29 A.D., ref: RIC-VII-95, p-554,
Q-002
quadrans
139_Helena_Siscia_RIC-VII_204_FL-HELENA-AVGVSTA_SECVRITAS-REIPVBLICA_dot-Gamma-SIS-dot_p-450-12-E10_326-27-AD_S_Q-001_0h_18,5-19,8mm_2,84g-s.jpg
139 Helena (? -329 A.D.), AE-3 Follis, Siscia, RIC VII 204, -/-//•ΓSIS•, SECVRITAS REIPVBLICA, Securitas standing left, Scarce, #1100 views139 Helena (? -329 A.D.), AE-3 Follis, Siscia, RIC VII 204, -/-//•ΓSIS•, SECVRITAS REIPVBLICA, Securitas standing left, Scarce, #1
avers:- FL-HELENA-AVGVSTA, 12,E10, Diademed, draped bust right, with two-row necklace.
revers:- SECVRITAS-REIPVBLICA Securitas standing left, lowering branch with left hand, raising robe with right hand.
exergo: -/-//•ΓSIS•, diameter: 18,5-19,8mm, weight: 2,84g, axis: 0h,
mint: Siscia, date: 326-27 A.D., ref: RIC-VII-204, p-450, Scarce,
Q-001
quadrans
Helena_FL-HELENA-AVGVSTA_SECVRITAS-REIPVBLICA_dot-_-SIS-dot_RIC-VII-204-p-450-12-E10_r1_Siscia_326-27-AD_Q-001_axis-0h_19mm_3,21ga-s.jpg
139 Helena (? -329 A.D.), AE-3 Follis, Siscia, RIC VII 204, -/-//•ESIS•, SECVRITAS REIPVBLICA, Securitas standing left, R1!, #187 views139 Helena (? -329 A.D.), AE-3 Follis, Siscia, RIC VII 204, -/-//•ESIS•, SECVRITAS REIPVBLICA, Securitas standing left, R1!, #1
avers:- FL-HELENA-AVGVSTA, 12,E10, Diademed, draped bust right, with two-row necklace.
revers:- SECVRITAS-REIPVBLICA Securitas standing left, lowering branch with left hand, raising robe with right hand.
exergo: -/-//•ESIS•, diameter: 19mm, weight: 3,21g, axis: 0h,
mint: Siscia, date: 326-27 A.D., ref: RIC-VII-204, p-450, R1,
Q-001
quadrans
Helena_FL-HELENA-AVGVSTA_SECVRITAS-REIPVBLICA_dot-E-SIS-dot_RIC-VII-204-p-450-12-E10_r1_Siscia_326-27-AD_Q-002_0h_20mm_3,24ga-s.jpg
139 Helena (? -329 A.D.), AE-3 Follis, Siscia, RIC VII 204, -/-//•ESIS•, SECVRITAS REIPVBLICA, Securitas standing left, R1!, #265 views139 Helena (? -329 A.D.), AE-3 Follis, Siscia, RIC VII 204, -/-//•ESIS•, SECVRITAS REIPVBLICA, Securitas standing left, R1!, #2
avers:- FL-HELENA-AVGVSTA, 12,E10, Diademed, draped bust right, with two-row necklace.
revers:- SECVRITAS-REIPVBLICA, Securitas standing left, lowering branch with left hand, raising robe with right hand.
exergo: -/-//•ESIS•, diameter: 20mm, weight: 3,24g, axis: 0h,
mint: Siscia, date: 326-27 A.D., ref: RIC-VII-204, p-450, R1,
Q-002
quadrans
139_Helena_Siscia_RIC-VII_204_FL-HELENA-AVGVSTA_SECVRITAS-REIPVBLICA_dot-E-SIS-dot_p-450-12-E10_326-27-AD_R1_Q-002_1h_18-18,5mm_3,35ga-s.jpg
139 Helena (? -329 A.D.), AE-3 Follis, Siscia, RIC VII 204, -/-//•ESIS•, SECVRITAS REIPVBLICA, Securitas standing left, R1!, #399 views139 Helena (? -329 A.D.), AE-3 Follis, Siscia, RIC VII 204, -/-//•ESIS•, SECVRITAS REIPVBLICA, Securitas standing left, R1!, #3
avers:- FL-HELENA-AVGVSTA, 12,E10, Diademed, draped bust right, with two-row necklace.
revers:- SECVRITAS-REIPVBLICA Securitas standing left, lowering branch with left hand, raising robe with right hand.
exergo: -/-//•ESIS•, diameter: 18-18,5mm, weight: 3,35g, axis: 1h,
mint: Siscia, date: 326-27 A.D., ref: RIC-VII-204, p-450, R1,
Q-003
quadrans
Helena_FL-HELENA-AVGVSTA_SECVRITAS-REIPVBLICA_Gamma-SIS-Crescentincrescent_RIC-VII-218-p-453-12-E10_c2_Siscia_328-29-AD_Q-001_h_mm_g-s.jpg
139 Helena (? -329 A.D.), AE-3 Follis, Siscia, RIC VII 218, -/-//ΓSIS Crescent in crescent, SECVRITAS REIPVBLICA, Securitas standing left, C2!,62 views139 Helena (? -329 A.D.), AE-3 Follis, Siscia, RIC VII 218, -/-//ΓSIS Crescent in crescent, SECVRITAS REIPVBLICA, Securitas standing left, C2!,
avers:- FL-HELENA-AVGVSTA, 12,E10, Diademed, draped bust right, with two-row necklace.
revers:- SECVRITAS-REIPVBLICA, Securitas standing left, lowering branch with left hand, raising robe with right hand.
exergo: -/-//ΓSIS Crescent in crescent, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Siscia, date: 328-29 A.D., ref: RIC-VII-218, p-453, C2,
Q-001
quadrans
Helena_FL-HELENA-AVGVSTA_SECVRITAS-REIPVBLICA_E-SIS-crescent-in-crescent_RIC-VII-218-p-453-12-E10_c2_Siscia_328-29-AD_Q-001_0h_18mm_3,05ga-s.jpg
139 Helena (? -329 A.D.), AE-3 Follis, Siscia, RIC VII 218, -/-//ESIS Crescent in crescent, SECVRITAS REIPVBLICA, Securitas standing left, C2!70 views139 Helena (? -329 A.D.), AE-3 Follis, Siscia, RIC VII 218, -/-//ESIS Crescent in crescent, SECVRITAS REIPVBLICA, Securitas standing left, C2!
avers:- FL-HELENA-AVGVSTA, 12,E10, Diademed, draped bust right, with two-row necklace.
revers:- SECVRITAS-REIPVBLICA, Securitas standing left, lowering branch with left hand, raising robe with right hand.
exergo: -/-//ESIS Crescent in crescent, diameter: 18mm, weight: 3,05g, axis: 0h,
mint: Siscia, date: 328-29 A.D., ref: RIC-VII-218, p-453, C2,
Q-001
quadrans
Helena_FL-HELENA-AVGVSTA_SECVRITAS-REIPVBLICA_SMTSA_RIC-VII-159-p-519-12-E10_r2_Thessalonica_326-28-AD_Q-001_0h_19-20mm_3,56g-s.jpg
139 Helena (? -329 A.D.), AE-3 Follis, Thessalonica, RIC VII 159, -/-//SMTSA, SECVRITAS REIPVBLICA, Securitas standing left, #1306 views139 Helena (? -329 A.D.), AE-3 Follis, Thessalonica, RIC VII 159, -/-//SMTSA, SECVRITAS REIPVBLICA, Securitas standing left, #1
avers:- FL-HELENA-AVGVSTA, 12,E10, Diademed, draped bust right, with two-row necklace.
revers:- SECVRITAS-REIPVBLICA, Securitas standing left, lowering branch with left hand, raising robe with right hand.
exergo: -/-//SMTSA, diameter:19- 20mm, weight: 3,22g, axis:0h,
mint: Thessalonica, date: 326-28 A.D., ref: RIC-VII-159, p-519,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Helena_FL-HELENA-AVGVSTA_SECVRITAS-REIPVBLICA_SMTSE_RIC-VII-159-p-519-12-E10_r2_Thessalonica_326-28-AD_Q-001_6h_20mm_3,06ga-s.jpg
139 Helena (? -329 A.D.), AE-3 Follis, Thessalonica, RIC VII 159, -/-//SMTSE, SECVRITAS REIPVBLICA, Securitas standing left, R2!!65 views139 Helena (? -329 A.D.), AE-3 Follis, Thessalonica, RIC VII 159, -/-//SMTSE, SECVRITAS REIPVBLICA, Securitas standing left, R2!!
avers:- FL-HELENA-AVGVSTA, 12,E10, Diademed, draped bust right, with two-row necklace.
revers:- SECVRITAS-REIPVBLICA, Securitas standing left, lowering branch with left hand, raising robe with right hand.
exergo: -/-//SMTSE, diameter: 20mm, weight: 3,22g, axis: 6h,
mint: Thessalonica, date: 326-28 A.D., ref: RIC-VII-159, p-519, R2!!
Q-001
quadrans
Helena_FL-HELENA-AVGVSTA_SECVRITAS-REIPVBLICA_RIC-VII-202-p-387-12-E10_R2_Ticinium_326-AD__Q-001_11h_19mm_2,84ga-s.jpg
139 Helena (? -329 A.D.), AE-3 Follis, Ticinum, RIC VII 202, -/-//Q crescent T, SECVRITAS REIPVBLICA, Securitas standing left, R2!!65 views139 Helena (? -329 A.D.), AE-3 Follis, Ticinum, RIC VII 202, -/-//Q crescent T, SECVRITAS REIPVBLICA, Securitas standing left, R2!!
avers:- FL-HELENA-AVGVSTA, 12,E10, Pearl diademed, draped bust right with necklace.
revers:- SECVRITAS-REIPVBLICA, Securitas standing left, lowering branch with left hand, raising robe with right hand.
exergo: -/-//Q crescent T, diameter: 19mm, weight: 2,84g, axis: 11h,
mint: Ticinum, date: 326 A.D., ref: RIC-VII-202, p-387, R2 !!
Q-001
quadrans
671_P_Hadrian_RPC1395.jpg
1395 Hadrian, Cistophorus PHRYGIA, Hierapolis Apollo standing19 viewsReference.
RPC III, 1395; Metcalf 53; BMCRE 1054; RIC 482

Obv. HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS P P
Bare headed and draped bust right

Rev. COS III
Apollo wearing the robe of a citharoedus holding lyre in left and plectrum in right.

10.19 gr
26.50 mm
6h
okidoki
St.Helena.jpg
1401a, St. Helena, Augusta 8 November 324 - 328 to 330 A.D., mother of Constantine the Great96 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC 148, VF, Alexandria mint, 3.243g, 19.4mm, 165o, 327 - 328 A.D. Obverse: FL HELENA AVGVSTA, diademed and mantled bust right wearing double necklace; Reverse: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICE, Securitas holding branch downward in right and lifting fold of robe in left, wreath left, I right, SMAL in exergue; rare.

The mother of Constantine the Great, born about the middle of the third century, possibly in Drepanum (later known as Helenopolis) on the Nicomedian Gulf; died about 330. She was of humble parentage; St. Ambrose, in his "Oratio de obitu Theodosii", referred to her as a stabularia, or inn-keeper. Nevertheless, she became the lawful wife of Constantius Chlorus. Her first and only son, Constantine, was born in Naissus in Upper Moesia, in the year 274. The statement made by English chroniclers of the Middle Ages, according to which Helena was supposed to have been the daughter of a British prince, is entirely without historical foundation. It may arise from the misinterpretation of a term used in the fourth chapter of the panegyric on Constantine's marriage with Fausta, that Constantine, oriendo (i. e., "by his beginnings," "from the outset") had honoured Britain, which was taken as an allusion to his birth, whereas the reference was really to the beginning of his reign.

On the death of Constantius Chlorus, in 308, Constantine, who succeeded him, summoned his mother to the imperial court, conferred on her the title of Augusta, ordered that all honour should be paid her as the mother of the sovereign, and had coins struck bearing her effigy. Her son's influence caused her to embrace Christianity after his victory over Maxentius. This is directly attested by Eusebius (Vita Constantini, III, xlvii): "She (his mother) became under his (Constantine's) influence such a devout servant of God, that one might believe her to have been from her very childhood a disciple of the Redeemer of mankind". It is also clear from the declaration of the contemporary historian of the Church that Helena, from the time of her conversion had an earnestly Christian life and by her influence and liberality favoured the wider spread of Christianity. Tradition links her name with the building of Christian churches in the cities of the West, where the imperial court resided, notably at Rome and Trier, and there is no reason for rejecting this tradition, for we know positively through Eusebius that Helena erected churches on the hallowed spots of Palestine. Despite her advanced age she undertook a journey to Palestine when Constantine, through his victory over Licinius, had become sole master of the Roman Empire, subsequently, therefore, to the year 324. It was in Palestine, as we learn from Eusebius (loc. cit., xlii), that she had resolved to bring to God, the King of kings, the homage and tribute of her devotion. She lavished on that land her bounties and good deeds, she "explored it with remarkable discernment", and "visited it with the care and solicitude of the emperor himself". Then, when she "had shown due veneration to the footsteps of the Saviour", she had two churches erected for the worship of God: one was raised in Bethlehem near the Grotto of the Nativity, the other on the Mount of the Ascension, near Jerusalem. She also embellished the sacred grotto with rich ornaments. This sojourn in Jerusalem proved the starting-point of the legend first recorded by Rufinus as to the discovery of the Cross of Christ.

Constantine I, in 327, improved Drepanum, his mother's native town, and decreed that it should be called Helenopolis, it is probable that the latter returned from Palestine to her son who was then residing in the Orient. Constantine was with her when she died, at the advanced age of eighty years or thereabouts (Eusebius, "Vita Const.", III, xlvi). This must have been about the year 330, for the last coins which are known to have been stamped with her name bore this date. Her body was brought to Constantinople and laid to rest in the imperial vault of the church of the Apostles. It is presumed that her remains were transferred in 849 to the Abbey of Hautvillers, in the French Archdiocese of Reims, as recorded by the monk Altmann in his "Translatio". She was revered as a saint, and the veneration spread, early in the ninth century, even to Western countries. Her feast falls on 18 August.

(See The Catholic Encyclopedia: http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/07202b.htm)

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1405a, Constans, 9 September 337 - 19 January 350 A.D. (Alexandria)38 viewsBronze AE 4, RIC 37, gVF, Egypt, Alexandria, 1.54g, 15.0mm, 180o, 345-347 A.D. Obverse: D N CONSTANS P F AVG, pearl diademed head right; Reverse: VOT XX MVLT XXX in wreath, SMALA• in exergue.

Flavius Julius Constans, third and youngest son of Constantine I and Fausta, was born between 320 and 323 A.D. Primary sources for the life and reign of Constans I are scarce. To reconstruct his life and career, one must draw on a variety of references in both fourth century and later works. Raised as a Christian, he was made a Caesar on 25 December 333 A.D. Constans I and his two brothers, after the death of their father on 22 May 337 and the subsequent "massacre of the princes" in which many other relatives were purged, met in the first part of September 337 in Pannonia to re-divide the empire among themselves. There they were acclaimed Augusti by the army. Constans' new realm included Italy, Africa, Illyricum, Macedonia, and Achaea. Shortly before his father's death, Constans' engagement to Olympias, the daughter of the Praetorian Prefect Ablabius, was announced; although the match was never solemnized because of political reasons.

It would appear that Constans was successful in the military sphere. Following his accession to the purple in 337, he seems to have won a victory over the Sarmatians. In 340 Constans was able to beat back an attempt by his brother Constantine II to seize some of his realm. The latter died in a battle fought near Aquileia and Constans absorbed his late brother's territory. In 341 and 342 he conducted a successful campaign against the Franci. He also visited Britain in 343, probably on a military campaign.

As an emperor Constans gets mixed reviews. In what may be a topos, sources suggest that the first part of his reign was moderate but in later years, however, he became overbearing. The emperor apparently attempted to obtain as much money as he could from his subjects and sold government posts to the highest bidder. His favorites were allowed to oppress his subjects. Sources also condemn his homosexuality. He did have some military success and, in addition to other military threats, he had to deal with Donatist-related bandits in North Africa.

Like his father Constantine I and his brother Constantius II, Constans had a deep interest in Christianity. Together with Constantius II he issued (or perhaps re-issued) a ban against pagan sacrifice in 341. The next year, they cautioned against the destruction of pagan temples. Unlike his brother Constantius II, who supported the Arian faction, he stood shoulder to shoulder with Athanasius and other members of the Orthodox clique. In fact, it is due to his request that the Council of Serdica was called to deal with the ecclesiastical squabble between Athanasius of Alexandria and Paul of Constantinople on one side and the Arian faction on the other.

When Magnentius was declared emperor in Gaul during January 350, Constans realized his reign was at an end. When he learned of the revolt, he fled toward Helena, a town in the Pyrenees. Constans was put to death by Gaeso and a band of Magnentius' assassins, who dragged their victim from a temple in which he had sought refuge.

By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University and Robert Frakes, Clarion UniversityPublished: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
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1405n, Constans, 9 September 337 - 19 January 350 A.D. (Siscia)54 viewsConstans, 9 September 337 - 19 January 350 A.D. Bronze AE 3, RIC 241, S 3978, VM 69, VF, Siscia, 2.32g, 18.3mm, 180o. Obverse: D N CONSTANS P F AVG, pearl diademed draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Phoenix radiate, standing on rocky mound, GSIS and symbol in ex; nice green patina.

Flavius Julius Constans, third and youngest son of Constantine I and Fausta, was born between 320 and 323 A.D. Primary sources for the life and reign of Constans I are scarce. To reconstruct his life and career, one must draw on a variety of references in both fourth century and later works. Raised as a Christian, he was made a Caesar on 25 December 333 A.D. Constans I and his two brothers, after the death of their father on 22 May 337 and the subsequent "massacre of the princes" in which many other relatives were purged, met in the first part of September 337 in Pannonia to re-divide the empire among themselves. There they were acclaimed Augusti by the army. Constans' new realm included Italy, Africa, Illyricum, Macedonia, and Achaea. Shortly before his father's death, Constans' engagement to Olympias, the daughter of the Praetorian Prefect Ablabius, was announced; although the match was never solemnized because of political reasons.

It would appear that Constans was successful in the military sphere. Following his accession to the purple in 337, he seems to have won a victory over the Sarmatians. In 340 Constans was able to beat back an attempt by his brother Constantine II to seize some of his realm. The latter died in a battle fought near Aquileia and Constans absorbed his late brother's territory. In 341 and 342 he conducted a successful campaign against the Franci. He also visited Britain in 343, probably on a military campaign.

As an emperor Constans gets mixed reviews. In what may be a topos, sources suggest that the first part of his reign was moderate but in later years, however, he became overbearing. The emperor apparently attempted to obtain as much money as he could from his subjects and sold government posts to the highest bidder. His favorites were allowed to oppress his subjects. Sources also condemn his homosexuality. He did have some military success and, in addition to other military threats, he had to deal with Donatist-related bandits in North Africa.

Like his father Constantine I and his brother Constantius II, Constans had a deep interest in Christianity. Together with Constantius II he issued (or perhaps re-issued) a ban against pagan sacrifice in 341. The next year, they cautioned against the destruction of pagan temples. Unlike his brother Constantius II, who supported the Arian faction, he stood shoulder to shoulder with Athanasius and other members of the Orthodox clique. In fact, it is due to his request that the Council of Serdica was called to deal with the ecclesiastical squabble between Athanasius of Alexandria and Paul of Constantinople on one side and the Arian faction on the other.

When Magnentius was declared emperor in Gaul during January 350, Constans realized his reign was at an end. When he learned of the revolt, he fled toward Helena, a town in the Pyrenees. Constans was put to death by Gaeso and a band of Magnentius' assassins, who dragged their victim from a temple in which he had sought refuge.

By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University and Robert Frakes, Clarion University
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
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1405t, Constans, 9 September 337 - 19 January 350 A.D. (Thessalonica )37 viewsConstans, 9 September 337 - 19 January 350 A.D., Bronze AE 3, unattributed; Thessalonica mint, 2.25g, 18.9mm, 0; aVF.

Flavius Julius Constans, third and youngest son of Constantine I and Fausta, was born between 320 and 323 A.D. Primary sources for the life and reign of Constans I are scarce. To reconstruct his life and career, one must draw on a variety of references in both fourth century and later works. Raised as a Christian, he was made a Caesar on 25 December 333 A.D. Constans I and his two brothers, after the death of their father on 22 May 337 and the subsequent "massacre of the princes" in which many other relatives were purged, met in the first part of September 337 in Pannonia to re-divide the empire among themselves. There they were acclaimed Augusti by the army. Constans' new realm included Italy, Africa, Illyricum, Macedonia, and Achaea. Shortly before his father's death, Constans' engagement to Olympias, the daughter of the Praetorian Prefect Ablabius, was announced; although the match was never solemnized because of political reasons.

It would appear that Constans was successful in the military sphere. Following his accession to the purple in 337, he seems to have won a victory over the Sarmatians. In 340 Constans was able to beat back an attempt by his brother Constantine II to seize some of his realm. The latter died in a battle fought near Aquileia and Constans absorbed his late brother's territory. In 341 and 342 he conducted a successful campaign against the Franci. He also visited Britain in 343, probably on a military campaign.

As an emperor Constans gets mixed reviews. In what may be a topos, sources suggest that the first part of his reign was moderate but in later years, however, he became overbearing. The emperor apparently attempted to obtain as much money as he could from his subjects and sold government posts to the highest bidder. His favorites were allowed to oppress his subjects. Sources also condemn his homosexuality. He did have some military success and, in addition to other military threats, he had to deal with Donatist-related bandits in North Africa.

Like his father Constantine I and his brother Constantius II, Constans had a deep interest in Christianity. Together with Constantius II he issued (or perhaps re-issued) a ban against pagan sacrifice in 341. The next year, they cautioned against the destruction of pagan temples. Unlike his brother Constantius II, who supported the Arian faction, he stood shoulder to shoulder with Athanasius and other members of the Orthodox clique. In fact, it is due to his request that the Council of Serdica was called to deal with the ecclesiastical squabble between Athanasius of Alexandria and Paul of Constantinople on one side and the Arian faction on the other.

When Magnentius was declared emperor in Gaul during January 350, Constans realized his reign was at an end. When he learned of the revolt, he fled toward Helena, a town in the Pyrenees. Constans was put to death by Gaeso and a band of Magnentius' assassins, who dragged their victim from a temple in which he had sought refuge.

By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University and Robert Frakes, Clarion University.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
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1407a, Constantius II, 337-361 A.D. (Antioch)50 viewsAE4, 337-361 A.D. Antioch, aVF/VF,Obv:– DN CONSTANTIVS P F AVG, Pearl and rosette diadem, head right/R: Wreath with VOT XX MVLT XXX, SMANB in exe.RIC VIII Antioch 113,Item ref: RI170b.

AE3, 2.80 grams, 330-333, Heraclea, aVF. Obv: FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C - Laureate bust right, draped and cuirassed. R: GLOR-IA EXERC-ITVS - Two soldiers looking in at each other and both holding a spear; between them, two standards Exe: SMHB.

Constantius II was born in Illyricum in August AD 317, the son of Constantine the Great and Fausta, and was proclaimed Caesar in AD 323.

In AD 337, at the death of his father Constantine, he acceded to the throne together with his two brothers Constantine II and Constans. But this accession by the three brothers was tainted by the murder of their cousins Dalmatius and Hannibalianus, whom Constantine had also intended as joint heirs. These murders are believed to have been masterminded by Constantius II.

Eventually, Constantius II was left as the sole emperor of the Roman empire. Constantius elevated his cousin, Julian, to the rank of Caesar (junior emperor) and gave him his sister Helena in marriage. Julian was assigned the task of dealing with the Frankish leader, Silvanus, who had proclaimed himself emepror at Colonia Agrippina. Julian's success led his men to declare him Augustus. Julian, while reluctant to take the throne, accepted.

Constantius II, therefore, left the Mesopotamian frontier and marched his troops west, seeking to deal with the usurper. As he reached Cilicia in the winter of AD 361, he was overcome by a sudden fever and died at Mopsucrene. Julian, the Apostate, succeded him as Emperor.

Our chief source for Constantius' reign is the great historian Ammianus Marcellinus. He presents a mixed view of that emperor. In some ways a sound administrator and competent general, Constantius is also portrayed as easily influenced by those around him such as his wives, courtiers and the eunuchs of the court (Ammianus 21. 16. 16). Ammianus (21.16.18) also attacks Constantius' great interest in Church affairs--alleging that he bankrupted the courier service with calls for Church councils. Of course, imperial interest in Church affairs was a major policy of his father Constantine and it may be that Constantius was trying to emulate his model (if only with mixed success). Indeed, Constantius II (like his brothers Constantine II and Constans) was raised a Christian. Among his many laws is the famous CTh 16.10.2 of 341 which either prohibited or re-issued his father's prohibition of pagan sacrifices. Sympathetic to Arianism, he spent a great deal of his reign calling Church councils. One of the longest-reigned emperors in Roman history, Constantius is hard for the modern historian to fully understand both due to his own actions and due to the interests of the authors of primary sources for his reign.

By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University & Robert Frakes, Clarion University
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

1 commentsCleisthenes
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1407h, Constantius II, 337-361 A.D. (Heraclea)31 viewsConstantius II 337-361 A.D. AE3, 2.80 grams, 330-333, Heraclea, aVF. Obverse: FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C - Laureate bust right, draped and cuirassed; Reverse: GLOR-IA EXERC-ITVS - Two soldiers looking in at each other and both holding a spear; between them, two standards; SMHB in exergue.

Constantius II was born in Illyricum in August AD 317, the son of Constantine the Great and Fausta, and was proclaimed Caesar in AD 323.

In AD 337, at the death of his father Constantine, he acceded to the throne together with his two brothers Constantine II and Constans. But this accession by the three brothers was tainted by the murder of their cousins Dalmatius and Hannibalianus, whom Constantine had also intended as joint heirs. These murders are believed to have been masterminded by Constantius II.

Eventually, Constantius II was left as the sole emperor of the Roman empire. Constantius elevated his cousin, Julian, to the rank of Caesar (junior emperor) and gave him his sister Helena in marriage. Julian was assigned the task of dealing with the Frankish leader, Silvanus, who had proclaimed himself emepror at Colonia Agrippina. Julian's success led his men to declare him Augustus. Julian, while reluctant to take the throne, accepted.

Constantius II, therefore, left the Mesopotamian frontier and marched his troops west, seeking to deal with the usurper. As he reached Cilicia in the winter of AD 361, he was overcome by a sudden fever and died at Mopsucrene. Julian, the Apostate, succeded him as Emperor.

Our chief source for Constantius' reign is the great historian Ammianus Marcellinus. He presents a mixed view of that emperor. In some ways a sound administrator and competent general, Constantius is also portrayed as easily influenced by those around him such as his wives, courtiers and the eunuchs of the court (Ammianus 21. 16. 16). Ammianus (21.16.18) also attacks Constantius' great interest in Church affairs--alleging that he bankrupted the courier service with calls for Church councils. Of course, imperial interest in Church affairs was a major policy of his father Constantine and it may be that Constantius was trying to emulate his model (if only with mixed success). Indeed, Constantius II (like his brothers Constantine II and Constans) was raised a Christian. Among his many laws is the famous CTh 16.10.2 of 341 which either prohibited or re-issued his father's prohibition of pagan sacrifices. Sympathetic to Arianism, he spent a great deal of his reign calling Church councils. One of the longest-reigned emperors in Roman history, Constantius is hard for the modern historian to fully understand both due to his own actions and due to the interests of the authors of primary sources for his reign.
By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University & Robert Frakes, Clarion University
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
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1407r, Constantius II, 22 May 337 - 3 November 361 A.D.39 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC 272, aVF, 2.203g, 18.1mm, 0o, Rome mint, 352 - 355 A.D.; obverse D N CONSTAN-TIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse FEL TEMP REPARATIO, soldier spearing fallen horseman, RT in ex.

Constantius II was born in Illyricum in August AD 317, the son of Constantine the Great and Fausta, and was proclaimed Caesar in AD 323.

In AD 337, at the death of his father Constantine, he acceded to the throne together with his two brothers Constantine II and Constans. But this accession by the three brothers was tainted by the murder of their cousins Dalmatius and Hannibalianus, whom Constantine had also intended as joint heirs. These murders are believed to have been masterminded by Constantius II.

Eventually, Constantius II was left as the sole emperor of the Roman empire. Constantius elevated Julian to the rank of Caesar (junior emperor) and gave him his sister Helena in marriage. Julian was assigned the task of dealing with the Frankish leader, Silvanus, who had proclaimed himself emepror at Colonia Agrippina. Julian's success lead his men to declare him Augustus. Julian, while reluctant to take the throne, accepted.

Constantius II, therefore left the Mesopotamian frontier and marched his troops west, seeking to deal with the usurper. As he reached Cilicia in the winter of AD 361, he was overcome by a sudden fever and died at Mopsucrene. Julian, the Apostate, succeded him as Emperor.

Our chief source for Constantius' reign is the great historian Ammianus Marcellinus. He presents a mixed view of that emperor. In some ways a sound administrator and competent general, Constantius is also portrayed as easily influenced by those around him such as his wives, courtiers and the eunuchs of the court (Ammianus 21. 16. 16). Ammianus (21.16.18) also attacks Constantius' great interest in Church affairs--alleging that he bankrupted the courier service with calls for Church councils. Of course, imperial interest in Church affairs was a major policy of his father Constantine and it may be that Constantius was trying to emulate his model (if only with mixed success). Indeed, Constantius II (like his brothers Constantine II and Constans) was raised a Christian. Among his many laws is the famous CTh 16.10.2 of 341 which either prohibited or re-issued his father's prohibition of pagan sacrifices. Sympathetic to Arianism, he spent a great deal of his reign calling Church councils. One of the longest-reigned emperors in Roman history, Constantius is hard for the modern historian to fully understand both due to his own actions and due to the interests of the authors of primary sources for his reign.

By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University & Robert Frakes, Clarion University
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.



Cleisthenes
Julian2VotXConstantinople.jpg
1409a, Julian II "the Philosopher," February 360 - 26 June 363 A.D.143 viewsJulian II, A.D. 360-363; RIC 167; VF; 2.7g, 20mm; Constantinople mint; Obverse: DN FL CL IVLIANVS P F AVG, helmeted & cuirassed bust right, holding spear & shield; Reverse: VOT X MVLT XX in four lines within wreath; CONSPB in exergue; Attractive green patina. Ex Nemesis.


De Imperatoribus Romanis,
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Julian the Apostate (360-363 A.D.)

Walter E. Roberts, Emory University
Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University

Introduction

The emperor Flavius Claudius Julianus reigned from 360 to 26 June 363, when he was killed fighting against the Persians. Despite his short rule, his emperorship was pivotal in the development of the history of the later Roman empire. This essay is not meant to be a comprehensive look at the various issues central to the reign of Julian and the history of the later empire. Rather, this short work is meant to be a brief history and introduction for the general reader. Julian was the last direct descendent of the Constantinian line to ascend to the purple, and it is one of history's great ironies that he was the last non-Christian emperor. As such, he has been vilified by most Christian sources, beginning with John Chrysostom and Gregory Nazianzus in the later fourth century. This tradition was picked up by the fifth century Eusebian continuators Sozomen, Socrates Scholasticus, and Theodoret and passed on to scholars down through the 20th century. Most contemporary sources, however, paint a much more balanced picture of Julian and his reign. The adoption of Christianity by emperors and society, while still a vital concern, was but one of several issues that concerned Julian.

It is fortunate that extensive writings from Julian himself exist, which help interpret his reign in the light of contemporary evidence. Still extant are some letters, several panegyrics, and a few satires. Other contemporary sources include the soldier Ammianus Marcellinus' history, correspondence between Julian and Libanius of Antioch, several panegyrics, laws from the Theodosian Code, inscriptions, and coinage. These sources show Julian's emphasis on restoration. He saw himself as the restorer of the traditional values of Roman society. Of course much of this was rhetoric, meant to defend Julian against charges that he was a usurper. At the same time this theme of restoration was central to all emperors of the fourth century. Julian thought that he was the one emperor who could regain what was viewed as the lost glory of the Roman empire. To achieve this goal he courted select groups of social elites to get across his message of restoration. This was the way that emperors functioned in the fourth century. By choosing whom to include in the sharing of power, they sought to shape society.

Early Life

Julian was born at Constantinople in 331. His father was Julius Constantius, half-brother of the emperor Constantine through Constantius Chlorus, and his mother was Basilina, Julius' second wife. Julian had two half-brothers via Julius' first marriage. One of these was Gallus, who played a major role in Julian's life. Julian appeared destined for a bright future via his father's connection to the Constantinian house. After many years of tense relations with his three half-brothers, Constantine seemed to have welcomed them into the fold of the imperial family. From 333 to 335, Constantine conferred a series of honors upon his three half-siblings, including appointing Julius Constantius as one of the consuls for 335. Julian's mother was equally distinguished. Ammianus related that she was from a noble family. This is supported by Libanius, who claimed that she was the daughter of Julius Julianus, a Praetorian Prefect under Licinius, who was such a model of administrative virtue that he was pardoned and honored by Constantine.

Despite the fact that his mother died shortly after giving birth to him, Julian experienced an idyllic early childhood. This ended when Constantius II conducted a purge of many of his relatives shortly after Constantine's death in 337, particularly targeting the families of Constantine's half-brothers. ulian and Gallus were spared, probably due to their young age. Julian was put under the care of Mardonius, a Scythian eunuch who had tutored his mother, in 339, and was raised in the Greek philosophical tradition, and probably lived in Nicomedia. Ammianus also supplied the fact that while in Nicomedia, Julian was cared for by the local bishop Eusebius, of whom the future emperor was a distant relation. Julian was educated by some of the most famous names in grammar and rhetoric in the Greek world at that time, including Nicocles and Hecebolius. In 344 Constantius II sent Julian and Gallus to Macellum in Cappadocia, where they remained for six years. In 351, Gallus was made Caesar by Constantius II and Julian was allowed to return to Nicomedia, where he studied under Aedesius, Eusebius, and Chrysanthius, all famed philosophers, and was exposed to the Neo-Platonism that would become such a prominent part of his life. But Julian was most proud of the time he spent studying under Maximus of Ephesus, a noted Neo-Platonic philospher and theurgist. It was Maximus who completed Julian's full-scale conversion to Neo-Platonism. Later, when he was Caesar, Julian told of how he put letters from this philosopher under his pillows so that he would continue to absorb wisdom while he slept, and while campaigning on the Rhine, he sent his speeches to Maximus for approval before letting others hear them. When Gallus was executed in 354 for treason by Constantius II, Julian was summoned to Italy and essentially kept under house arrest at Comum, near Milan, for seven months before Constantius' wife Eusebia convinced the emperor that Julian posed no threat. This allowed Julian to return to Greece and continue his life as a scholar where he studied under the Neo-Platonist Priscus. Julian's life of scholarly pursuit, however, ended abruptly when he was summoned to the imperial court and made Caesar by Constantius II on 6 November 355.

Julian as Caesar

Constantius II realized an essential truth of the empire that had been evident since the time of the Tetrarchy--the empire was too big to be ruled effectively by one man. Julian was pressed into service as Caesar, or subordinate emperor, because an imperial presence was needed in the west, in particular in the Gallic provinces. Julian, due to the emperor's earlier purges, was the only viable candidate of the imperial family left who could act as Caesar. Constantius enjoined Julian with the task of restoring order along the Rhine frontier. A few days after he was made Caesar, Julian was married to Constantius' sister Helena in order to cement the alliance between the two men. On 1 December 355, Julian journeyed north, and in Augusta Taurinorum he learned that Alamannic raiders had destroyed Colonia Agrippina. He then proceeded to Vienne where he spent the winter. At Vienne, he learned that Augustudunum was also under siege, but was being held by a veteran garrison. He made this his first priority, and arrived there on 24 June 356. When he had assured himself that the city was in no immediate danger, he journeyed to Augusta Treverorum via Autessioduram, and from there to Durocortorum where he rendezvoused with his army. Julian had the army stage a series of punitive strikes around the Dieuse region, and then he moved them towards the Argentoratum/Mongontiacum region when word of barbarian incursions reached him.

From there, Julian moved on to Colonia Agrippina, and negotiated a peace with the local barbarian leaders who had assaulted the city. He then wintered at Senonae. He spent the early part of the campaigning season of 357 fighting off besiegers at Senonae, and then conducting operations around Lugdunum and Tres Tabernae. Later that summer, he encountered his watershed moment as a military general. Ammianus went into great detail about Julian's victory over seven rogue Alamannic chieftains near Argentoratum, and Julian himself bragged about it in his later writing. After this battle, the soldiers acclaimed Julian Augustus, but he rejected this title. After mounting a series of follow-up raids into Alamannic territory, he retired to winter quarters at Lutetia, and on the way defeated some Frankish raiders in the Mosa region. Julian considered this campaign one of the major events of his time as Caesar.

Julian began his 358 military campaigns early, hoping to catch the barbarians by surprise. His first target was the Franks in the northern Rhine region. He then proceeded to restore some forts in the Mosa region, but his soldiers threatened to mutiny because they were on short rations and had not been paid their donative since Julian had become Caesar. After he soothed his soldiers, Julian spent the rest of the summer negotiating a peace with various Alamannic leaders in the mid and lower Rhine areas, and retired to winter quarters at Lutetia. In 359, he prepared once again to carry out a series of punitive expeditions against the Alamanni in the Rhine region who were still hostile to the Roman presence. In preparation, the Caesar repopulated seven previously destroyed cities and set them up as supply bases and staging areas. This was done with the help of the people with whom Julian had negotiated a peace the year before. Julian then had a detachment of lightly armed soldiers cross the Rhine near Mogontiacum and conduct a guerilla strike against several chieftains. As a result of these campaigns, Julian was able to negotiate a peace with all but a handful of the Alamannic leaders, and he retired to winter quarters at Lutetia.

Of course, Julian did more than act as a general during his time as Caesar. According to Ammianus, Julian was an able administrator who took steps to correct the injustices of Constantius' appointees. Ammianus related the story of how Julian prevented Florentius, the Praetorian Prefect of Gaul, from raising taxes, and also how Julian actually took over as governor for the province of Belgica Secunda. Hilary, bishop of Poitiers, supported Ammianus' basic assessment of Julian in this regard when he reported that Julian was an able representative of the emperor to the Gallic provincials. There is also epigraphic evidence to support Julian's popularity amongst the provincial elites. An inscription found near Beneventum in Apulia reads:
"To Flavius Claudius Julianus, most noble and sanctified Caesar, from the caring Tocius Maximus, vir clarissimus, for the care of the res publica from Beneventum".

Tocius Maximus, as a vir clarissimus, was at the highest point in the social spectrum and was a leader in his local community. This inscription shows that Julian was successful in establishing a positive image amongst provincial elites while he was Caesar.

Julian Augustus

In early 360, Constantius, driven by jealousy of Julian's success, stripped Julian of many troops and officers, ostensibly because the emperor needed them for his upcoming campaign against the Persians. One of the legions ordered east, the Petulantes, did not want to leave Gaul because the majority of the soldiers in the unit were from this region. As a result they mutinied and hailed Julian as Augustus at Lutetia. Julian refused this acclamation as he had done at Argentoratum earlier, but the soldiers would have none of his denial. They raised him on a shield and adorned him with a neck chain, which had formerly been the possession of the standard-bearer of the Petulantes and symbolized a royal diadem. Julian appeared reluctantly to acquiesce to their wishes, and promised a generous donative. The exact date of his acclamation is unknown, but most scholars put it in February or March. Julian himself supported Ammianus' picture of a jealous Constantius. In his Letter to the Athenians, a document constructed to answer charges that he was a usurper, Julian stated that from the start he, as Caesar, had been meant as a figurehead to the soldiers and provincials. The real power he claimed lay with the generals and officials already present in Gaul. In fact, according to Julian, the generals were charged with watching him as much as the enemy. His account of the actual acclamation closely followed what Ammianus told us, but he stressed even more his reluctance to take power. Julian claimed that he did so only after praying to Zeus for guidance.

Fearing the reaction of Constantius, Julian sent a letter to his fellow emperor justifying the events at Lutetia and trying to arrange a peaceful solution. This letter berated Constantius for forcing the troops in Gaul into an untenable situation. Ammianus stated that Julian's letter blamed Constantius' decision to transfer Gallic legions east as the reason for the soldiers' rebellion. Julian once again asserted that he was an unwilling participant who was only following the desire of the soldiers. In both of these basic accounts Ammianus and Julian are playing upon the theme of restoration. Implicit in their version of Julian's acclamation is the argument that Constantius was unfit to rule. The soldiers were the vehicle of the gods' will. The Letter to the Athenians is full of references to the fact that Julian was assuming the mantle of Augustus at the instigation of the gods. Ammianus summed up this position nicely when he related the story of how, when Julian was agonizing over whether to accept the soldiers' acclamation, he had a dream in which he was visited by the Genius (guardian spirit) of the Roman state. The Genius told Julian that it had often tried to bestow high honors upon Julian but had been rebuffed. Now, the Genius went on to say, was Julian's final chance to take the power that was rightfully his. If the Caesar refused this chance, the Genius would depart forever, and both Julian and the state would rue Julian's rejection. Julian himself wrote a letter to his friend Maximus of Ephesus in November of 361 detailing his thoughts on his proclamation. In this letter, Julian stated that the soldiers proclaimed him Augustus against his will. Julian, however, defended his accession, saying that the gods willed it and that he had treated his enemies with clemency and justice. He went on to say that he led the troops in propitiating the traditional deities, because the gods commanded him to return to the traditional rites, and would reward him if he fulfilled this duty.

During 360 an uneasy peace simmered between the two emperors. Julian spent the 360 campaigning season continuing his efforts to restore order along the Rhine, while Constantius continued operations against the Persians. Julian wintered in Vienne, and celebrated his Quinquennalia. It was at this time that his wife Helena died, and he sent her remains to Rome for a proper burial at his family villa on the Via Nomentana where the body of her sister was entombed. The uneasy peace held through the summer of 361, but Julian concentrated his military operations around harassing the Alamannic chieftain Vadomarius and his allies, who had concluded a peace treaty with Constantius some years earlier. By the end of the summer, Julian decided to put an end to the waiting and gathered his army to march east against Constantius. The empire teetered on the brink of another civil war. Constantius had spent the summer negotiating with the Persians and making preparations for possible military action against his cousin. When he was assured that the Persians would not attack, he summoned his army and sallied forth to meet Julian. As the armies drew inexorably closer to one another, the empire was saved from another bloody civil war when Constantius died unexpectedly of natural causes on 3 November near the town of Mopsucrenae in Cilicia, naming Julian -- the sources say-- as his legitimate successor.

Julian was in Dacia when he learned of his cousin's death. He made his way through Thrace and came to Constantinople on 11 December 361 where Julian honored the emperor with the funeral rites appropriate for a man of his station. Julian immediately set about putting his supporters in positions of power and trimming the imperial bureaucracy, which had become extremely overstaffed during Constantius' reign. Cooks and barbers had increased during the late emperor's reign and Julian expelled them from his court. Ammianus gave a mixed assessment of how the new emperor handled the followers of Constantius. Traditionally, emperors were supposed to show clemency to the supporters of a defeated enemy. Julian, however, gave some men over to death to appease the army. Ammianus used the case of Ursulus, Constantius' comes sacrum largitionum, to illustrate his point. Ursulus had actually tried to acquire money for the Gallic troops when Julian had first been appointed Caesar, but he had also made a disparaging remark about the ineffectiveness of the army after the battle of Amida. The soldiers remembered this, and when Julian became sole Augustus, they demanded Ursulus' head. Julian obliged, much to the disapproval of Ammianus. This seems to be a case of Julian courting the favor of the military leadership, and is indicative of a pattern in which Julian courted the goodwill of various societal elites to legitimize his position as emperor.

Another case in point is the officials who made up the imperial bureaucracy. Many of them were subjected to trial and punishment. To achieve this goal, during the last weeks of December 361 Julian assembled a military tribunal at Chalcedon, empanelling six judges to try the cases. The president of the tribunal was Salutius, just promoted to the rank of Praetorian Prefect; the five other members were Mamertinus, the orator, and four general officers: Jovinus, Agilo, Nevitta, and Arbetio. Relative to the proceedings of the tribunal, Ammianus noted that the judges, " . . . oversaw the cases more vehemently than was right or fair, with the exception of a few . . .." Ammianus' account of Julian's attempt at reform of the imperial bureaucracy is supported by legal evidence from the Theodosian Code. A series of laws sent to Mamertinus, Julian's appointee as Praetorian Prefect in Italy, Illyricum, and Africa, illustrate this point nicely. On 6 June 362, Mamertinus received a law that prohibited provincial governors from bypassing the Vicars when giving their reports to the Prefect. Traditionally, Vicars were given civil authority over a group of provinces, and were in theory meant to serve as a middle step between governors and Prefects. This law suggests that the Vicars were being left out, at least in Illyricum. Julian issued another edict to Mamertinus on 22 February 362 to stop abuse of the public post by governors. According to this law, only Mamertinus could issue post warrants, but the Vicars were given twelve blank warrants to be used as they saw fit, and each governor was given two. Continuing the trend of bureaucratic reform, Julian also imposed penalties on governors who purposefully delayed appeals in court cases they had heard. The emperor also established a new official to weigh solidi used in official government transactions to combat coin clipping.

For Julian, reigning in the abuses of imperial bureaucrats was one step in restoring the prestige of the office of emperor. Because he could not affect all elements of society personally, Julian, like other Neo-Flavian emperors, decided to concentrate on select groups of societal elites as intercessors between himself and the general populace. One of these groups was the imperial bureaucracy. Julian made it very clear that imperial officials were intercessors in a very real sense in a letter to Alypius, Vicar of Britain. In this letter, sent from Gaul sometime before 361, the emperor praises Alypius for his use of "mildness and moderation with courage and force" in his rule of the provincials. Such virtues were characteristic of the emperors, and it was good that Alypius is representing Julian in this way. Julian courted the army because it put him in power. Another group he sought to include in his rule was the traditional Senatorial aristocracy. One of his first appointments as consul was Claudius Mamertinus, a Gallic Senator and rhetorician. Mamertinus' speech in praise of Julian delivered at Constantinople in January of 362 is preserved. In this speech, Claudius presented his consular selection as inaugurating a new golden age and Julian as the restorer of the empire founded by Augustus. The image Mamertinus gave of his own consulate inaugurating a new golden age is not merely formulaic. The comparison of Julian to Augustus has very real, if implicit, relevance to Claudius' situation. Claudius emphasized the imperial period as the true age of renewal. Augustus ushered in a new era with his formation of a partnership between the emperor and the Senate based upon a series of honors and offices bestowed upon the Senate in return for their role as intercessor between emperor and populace. It was this system that Julian was restoring, and the consulate was one concrete example of this bond. To be chosen as a consul by the emperor, who himself had been divinely mandated, was a divine honor. In addition to being named consul, Mamertinus went on to hold several offices under Julian, including the Prefecture of Italy, Illyricum, and Africa. Similarly, inscriptional evidence illustrates a link between municipal elites and Julian during his time as Caesar, something which continued after he became emperor. One concrete example comes from the municipal senate of Aceruntia in Apulia, which established a monument on which Julian is styled as "Repairer of the World."

Julian seems to have given up actual Christian belief before his acclamation as emperor and was a practitioner of more traditional Greco-Roman religious beliefs, in particular, a follower of certain late antique Platonist philosophers who were especially adept at theurgy as was noted earlier. In fact Julian himself spoke of his conversion to Neo-Platonism in a letter to the Alexandrians written in 363. He stated that he had abandoned Christianity when he was twenty years old and been an adherent of the traditional Greco-Roman deities for the twelve years prior to writing this letter.

(For the complete text of this article see: http://www.roman-emperors.org/julian.htm)

Julian’s Persian Campaign

The exact goals Julian had for his ill-fated Persian campaign were never clear. The Sassanid Persians, and before them the Parthians, had been a traditional enemy from the time of the Late Republic, and indeed Constantius had been conducting a war against them before Julian's accession forced the former to forge an uneasy peace. Julian, however, had no concrete reason to reopen hostilities in the east. Socrates Scholasticus attributed Julian's motives to imitation of Alexander the Great, but perhaps the real reason lay in his need to gather the support of the army. Despite his acclamation by the Gallic legions, relations between Julian and the top military officers was uneasy at best. A war against the Persians would have brought prestige and power both to Julian and the army.

Julian set out on his fateful campaign on 5 March 363. Using his trademark strategy of striking quickly and where least expected, he moved his army through Heirapolis and from there speedily across the Euphrates and into the province of Mesopotamia, where he stopped at the town of Batnae. His plan was to eventually return through Armenia and winter in Tarsus. Once in Mesopotamia, Julian was faced with the decision of whether to travel south through the province of Babylonia or cross the Tigris into Assyria, and he eventually decided to move south through Babylonia and turn west into Assyria at a later date. By 27 March, he had the bulk of his army across the Euphrates, and had also arranged a flotilla to guard his supply line along the mighty river. He then left his generals Procopius and Sebastianus to help Arsacius, the king of Armenia and a Roman client, to guard the northern Tigris line. It was also during this time that he received the surrender of many prominent local leaders who had nominally supported the Persians. These men supplied Julian with money and troops for further military action against their former masters. Julian decided to turn south into Babylonia and proceeded along the Euphrates, coming to the fortress of Cercusium at the junction of the Abora and Euphrates Rivers around the first of April, and from there he took his army west to a region called Zaitha near the abandoned town of Dura where they visited the tomb of the emperor Gordian which was in the area. On April 7 he set out from there into the heart of Babylonia and towards Assyria.

Ammianus then stated that Julian and his army crossed into Assyria, which on the face of things appears very confusing. Julian still seems to be operating within the province of Babylonia between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. The confusion is alleviated when one realizes that,for Ammianus, the region of Assyria encompassed the provinces of Babylonia and Assyria. On their march, Julian's forces took the fortress of Anatha, received the surrender and support of several more local princes, and ravaged the countryside of Assyria between the rivers. As the army continued south, they came across the fortresses Thilutha and Achaiachala, but these places were too well defended and Julian decided to leave them alone. Further south were the cities Diacira and Ozogardana, which the Roman forces sacked and burned. Soon, Julian came to Pirisabora and a brief siege ensued, but the city fell and was also looted and destroyed. It was also at this time that the Roman army met its first systematic resistance from the Persians. As the Romans penetrated further south and west, the local inhabitants began to flood their route. Nevertheless, the Roman forces pressed on and came to Maiozamalcha, a sizable city not far from Ctesiphon. After a short siege, this city too fell to Julian. Inexorably, Julian's forces zeroed in on Ctesiphon, but as they drew closer, the Persian resistance grew fiercer, with guerilla raids whittling at Julian's men and supplies. A sizable force of the army was lost and the emperor himself was almost killed taking a fort a few miles from the target city.
Finally, the army approached Ctesiphon following a canal that linked the Tigris and Euphrates. It soon became apparent after a few preliminary skirmishes that a protracted siege would be necessary to take this important city. Many of his generals, however, thought that pursuing this course of action would be foolish. Julian reluctantly agreed, but became enraged by this failure and ordered his fleet to be burned as he decided to march through the province of Assyria. Julian had planned for his army to live off the land, but the Persians employed a scorched-earth policy. When it became apparent that his army would perish (because his supplies were beginning to dwindle) from starvation and the heat if he continued his campaign, and also in the face of superior numbers of the enemy, Julian ordered a retreat on 16 June. As the Roman army retreated, they were constantly harassed by guerilla strikes. It was during one of these raids that Julian got caught up in the fighting and took a spear to his abdomen. Mortally wounded he was carried to his tent, where, after conferring with some of his officers, he died. The date was 26 June 363.

Conclusion

Thus an ignominious end for a man came about who had hoped to restore the glory of the Roman empire during his reign as emperor. Due to his intense hatred of Christianity, the opinion of posterity has not been kind to Julian. The contemporary opinion, however, was overall positive. The evidence shows that Julian was a complex ruler with a definite agenda to use traditional social institutions in order to revive what he saw as a collapsing empire. In the final assessment, he was not so different from any of the other emperors of the fourth century. He was a man grasping desperately to hang on to a Greco-Roman conception of leadership that was undergoing a subtle yet profound change.
Copyright (C) 2002, Walter E. Roberts and Michael DiMaio, Jr. Used by permission.

In reality, Julian worked to promote culture and philosophy in any manifestation. He tried to reduce taxes and the public debts of municipalities; he augmented administrative decentralisation; he promoted a campaign of austerity to reduce public expenditure (setting himself as the example). He reformed the postal service and eliminated the powerful secret police.
by Federico Morando; JULIAN II, The Apostate, http://www.forumancientcoins.com/NumisWiki/view.asp?key=Julian%20II

Flavius Claudius Iulianus was born in 331 or maybe 332 A.D. in Constantinople. He ruled the Western Empire as Caesar from 355 to 360 and was hailed Augustus by his legions in Lutetia (Paris) in 360. Julian was a gifted administrator and military strategist. Famed as the last pagan emperor, his reinstatement of the pagan religion earned him the moniker "the Apostate." As evidenced by his brilliant writing, some of which has survived to the present day, the title "the Philosopher" may have been more appropriate. He died from wounds suffered during the Persian campaign of 363 A.D. Joseph Sermarini, FORVM.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.




2 commentsCleisthenes
RI 148l img.jpg
148 - Galerius - RIC VI Carthage 39a19 viewsFollis
Obv:– IMP MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, Laureate bust right
Rev:– SALVIS AVGG ET CAESS FEL KART, Carthage standing facing, head left, in long robe, holding fruits in both hands
Minted in Carthage (I | _ / B). July A.D. 1st May A.D. 305 to 25th July A.D. 306
Ref:– RIC VI Carthage 39a
maridvnvm
Val.jpg
1501s, Valentinian I, 25 February 364 - 17 November 375 A.D. (Siscia)97 viewsValentinian I, 25 February 364 - 17 November 375 A.D., Bronze AE 3, S 4103, VF, Siscia mint, 2.012g, 18.7mm, 180o, 24 Aug 367 - 17 Nov 375 A.D.obverse D N VALENTINI-ANVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse SECVRITAS - REIPVBLICAE, Victory advancing left, wreath in right and palm in left, symbols in fields, mintmark in exergue.


De Imperatoribus Romanis, An Online Encyclopedia of the Roman Emperors and their Families

Valentinian I (364-375 AD.)

Walter E. Roberts, Emory University

Valentinian was one of Rome's last great warrior emperors. Flavius Valentinianus, was born in A.D. 321 at Cibalis (modern Vinkovci) in southern Pannonia. His father Gratian was a soldier renowned for his strength and wrestling skills. Gratian had an illustrious career in the army, rising from staff officer to tribune, to comes Africae, and finally [i/comes Britanniae.

The emperor Jovian died on 17 February 364, apparently of natural causes, on the border between Bithynia and Galatia. The army marched on to Nicaea, the nearest city of any consequence, and a meeting of civil and military officials was convened to choose a new emperor. The assembly finally agreed upon Valentinian.

On 26 February 364, Valentinian accepted the office offered to him. As he prepared to make his accession speech, the soldiers threatened to riot, apparently uncertain as to where his loyalties lay. Valentinian reassured them that the army was his greatest priority. Furthermore, to prevent a crisis of succession if he should die prematurely, he agreed to pick a co-Augustus. According to Ammianus, the soldiers were astounded by Valentinian’s bold demeanor and his willingness to assume the imperial authority. His decision to elect a fellow-emperor could also be construed as a move to appease any opposition among the civilian officials in the eastern portion of the empire. By agreeing to appoint a co-ruler, he assured the eastern officials that someone with imperial authority would remain in the east to protect their interests. After promoting his brother Valens to the rank of tribune and putting him in charge of the royal stables on March 1, Valentinian selected Valens as co-Augustus at Constantinople on 28 March 364, though this was done over the objections of Dagalaifus. Ammianus makes it clear, however, that Valens was clearly subordinate to his brother.

Ammianus and Zosimus as well as modern scholars praise Valentinian for his military accomplishments. He is generally credited with keeping the Roman empire from crumbling away by “. . . reversing the generally waning confidence in the army and imperial defense . . ..” Several other aspects of Valentinian's reign also set the course of Roman history for the next century.

Valentinian deliberately polarized Roman society, subordinating the civilian population to the military. The military order took over the old prestige of the senatorial nobility. The imperial court, which was becoming more and more of a military court, became a vehicle for social mobility. There were new ideas of nobility, which was increasingly provincial in character. By this it is meant that the imperial court, not the Senate, was the seat of nobility, and most of these new nobles came from the provinces. With the erosion of the old nobility, the stage was set for the ascendancy of Christianity. Ammianus makes it clear that actions such as these were part of a systematic plan by Valentinian to erode the power and prestige of the senatorial aristocracy. Several pieces of extant legislation seem to confirm Ammianus’ allegations that Valentinian was eroding senatorial prestige.

Valentinian's reign affords valuable insights into late Roman society, civilian as well as military. First, there was a growing fracture between the eastern and western portions of the empire. Valentinian was the last emperor to really concentrate his resources on the west. Valens was clearly in an inferior position in the partnership. Second, there was a growing polarization of society, both Christian versus pagan, and civil versus military. Finally there was a growing regionalism in the west, driven by heavy taxation and the inability of Valentinian to fully exercise military authority in all areas of the west. All of these trends would continue over the next century, profoundly reshaping the Roman empire and western Europe.

By Walter E. Roberts, Emory University
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
1 commentsCleisthenes
ValentGlRom.jpg
1501s, Valentinian I, 25 February 364 - 17 November 375 A.D. (Siscia)53 viewsValentinian I, 25 February 364 - 17 November 375 A.D. Bronze AE 3, RIC 5(a) ii, VF, Siscia, 1.905g, 19.3mm, 0o, 25 Feb 364 - 24 Aug 367 A.D. Obverse: D N VALENTINI-ANVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: GLORIA RO-MANORVM, Emperor dragging captive with right, labarum (chi-rho standard) in left, •GSISC in exergue.


De Imperatoribus Romanis, An Online Encyclopedia of the Roman Emperors and their Families

Valentinian I (364-375 AD.)

Walter E. Roberts, Emory University

Valentinian was one of Rome's last great warrior emperors. Flavius Valentinianus, was born in A.D. 321 at Cibalis (modern Vinkovci) in southern Pannonia. His father Gratian was a soldier renowned for his strength and wrestling skills. Gratian had an illustrious career in the army, rising from staff officer to tribune, to comes Africae, and finally [i/comes Britanniae.

The emperor Jovian died on 17 February 364, apparently of natural causes, on the border between Bithynia and Galatia. The army marched on to Nicaea, the nearest city of any consequence, and a meeting of civil and military officials was convened to choose a new emperor. The assembly finally agreed upon Valentinian.

On 26 February 364, Valentinian accepted the office offered to him. As he prepared to make his accession speech, the soldiers threatened to riot, apparently uncertain as to where his loyalties lay. Valentinian reassured them that the army was his greatest priority. Furthermore, to prevent a crisis of succession if he should die prematurely, he agreed to pick a co-Augustus. According to Ammianus, the soldiers were astounded by Valentinian’s bold demeanor and his willingness to assume the imperial authority. His decision to elect a fellow-emperor could also be construed as a move to appease any opposition among the civilian officials in the eastern portion of the empire. By agreeing to appoint a co-ruler, he assured the eastern officials that someone with imperial authority would remain in the east to protect their interests. After promoting his brother Valens to the rank of tribune and putting him in charge of the royal stables on March 1, Valentinian selected Valens as co-Augustus at Constantinople on 28 March 364, though this was done over the objections of Dagalaifus. Ammianus makes it clear, however, that Valens was clearly subordinate to his brother.

Ammianus and Zosimus as well as modern scholars praise Valentinian for his military accomplishments. He is generally credited with keeping the Roman empire from crumbling away by “. . . reversing the generally waning confidence in the army and imperial defense . . ..” Several other aspects of Valentinian's reign also set the course of Roman history for the next century.

Valentinian deliberately polarized Roman society, subordinating the civilian population to the military. The military order took over the old prestige of the senatorial nobility. The imperial court, which was becoming more and more of a military court, became a vehicle for social mobility. There were new ideas of nobility, which was increasingly provincial in character. By this it is meant that the imperial court, not the Senate, was the seat of nobility, and most of these new nobles came from the provinces. With the erosion of the old nobility, the stage was set for the ascendancy of Christianity. Ammianus makes it clear that actions such as these were part of a systematic plan by Valentinian to erode the power and prestige of the senatorial aristocracy. Several pieces of extant legislation seem to confirm Ammianus’ allegations that Valentinian was eroding senatorial prestige.

Valentinian's reign affords valuable insights into late Roman society, civilian as well as military. First, there was a growing fracture between the eastern and western portions of the empire. Valentinian was the last emperor to really concentrate his resources on the west. Valens was clearly in an inferior position in the partnership. Second, there was a growing polarization of society, both Christian versus pagan, and civil versus military. Finally there was a growing regionalism in the west, driven by heavy taxation and the inability of Valentinian to fully exercise military authority in all areas of the west. All of these trends would continue over the next century, profoundly reshaping the Roman empire and western Europe.

By Walter E. Roberts, Emory University
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
RI_151n_img.jpg
151 - Maximinus II Daia - Follis - RIC VI Antioch 167b29 viewsFollis
Obv:– IMP C GAL VAL MAXIMINVS P F AVG, Laureate head right
Rev:– SOLI IN-VICTO, Sol standing left in long robe, right hand raised, left hand holding head of Serapis
Minted in Antioch (A | * // ANT). A.D. 312
Reference(s) – RIC VI Antioch 167b
2 commentsmaridvnvm
Gratianus,_Antioch,_RIC_IX_45a_E,_AE-3,_DN_GRATIA_NVS_P_F_AVG,_CONCOR_DIA_AVG_G_G,_ANTE,_378-383_AD,_Scarce_Q-001,_6h,_17mm,_2,66g-s.jpg
158 Gratianus (367-383 A.D.), Antioch, RIC IX 045a Є, Θ|Φ/K //ANTЄ, AE-3, CONCORDIA AVG G G, Roma, helmeted, seated facing, Scarce, #1141 views158 Gratianus (367-383 A.D.), Antioch, RIC IX 045a Є, Θ|Φ/K //ANTЄ, AE-3, CONCORDIA AVG G G, Roma, helmeted, seated facing, Scarce, #1
avers: D N GRATIA NVS P F AVG, Pearl-diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right.
reverse: CONCOR DIA AVG G G, Roma, helmeted, seated facing, head left, holding globe and spear, the lower part of which is hidden by the robe, left leg bare.
exergue: Θ|Φ/K //ANTЄ, diameter: 17-17,5mm, weight: 2,66g, axes: 6h,
mint: Antioch, date: 378-383 A.D., ref: RIC IX 045a Є,
Q-001
quadrans
1794_COVENTRY_CROSS_HALFPENNY.JPG
1794 AE Halfpenny Token. Coventry, Warwickshire.27 viewsObverse: PRO BONO PUBLICO. Lady Godiva riding side-saddle on horse to left; in exergue, 1794.
Reverse: COVENTRY HALFPENNY. Representation of Coventry's old town cross with COV CROSS in small letters at base.
Edge: PAYABLE AT THE WAREHOUSE OF ROBERT REYNOLDS & CO.
Diameter 29.5mm | Axis 12
Dalton & Hamer: 249
RARE

This token was manufactured by William Lutwyche and the dies were engraved by William Mainwaring.
It was issued by Robert Reynolds & Co., who were ribbon weavers with a business in Coventry.

The original Coventry Cross stood at the place where Broadgate met Cross Cheaping, near Spicer Stoke, a very short row which led through from Broadgate to Butcher Row and Trinity church. Though it is likely that a cross had been standing in this place since the 13th century, the first actual record for the building of a cross was on 1st July 1423 when the Mayor, Henry Peyto, officially sanctioned that a new cross should be built. Although it was quite a substantial structure, within a century it was rather the worse for wear, and by 1506 discussions had begun about replacing it.
In 1541, the former mayor of London, Sir William Hollis, left Ł200 in his will toward the building of a new cross, and by 1544 the 57 foot high cross was completed. As well as being brightly painted, the cross was also covered with much gold and it was renowned for its fame and beauty. It was built in four sections, with statues in the top three storeys: the lower of these holding statues of Henry VI, King John, Edward I, Henry II, Richard I and Henry. Above these were Edward III, Henry II, Richard III, St Michael and St George. The top storey held statues of St Peter, St James, St Christopher and two monks, with representations of Liberty and Justice at the highest point. In 1608 repairs were carried out to the cross during which the figure of Christ was replaced with one of Lady Godiva. Possibly the obverse of this token is based on this statue since there is no record of there being any other Lady Godiva memorial statues before 1949.
After standing gloriously for two centuries, decay once more set into the cross and, in 1753 and 1755, the top two stages were removed to avoid the danger of collapse. By 1771 the cross was declared to be in too ruinous a state to retain, and it's demolition was authorised. The remains stood for a short while longer though, at least until after 1778 when a visitor to Coventry wrote that the decayed cross "...has no longer anything to please".
This token is dated 1794, but must depict the cross as it was in it's heyday before it was totally demolished and it's parts reused. Two of the statues from the cross now reside at St. Mary's Guildhall.
A modern replica of the cross was unveiled in 1976, it is situated about 100 metres away from the site of the original one.
*Alex
1794_LACKINGTON_HALFPENNY.JPG
1794 AE Halfpenny Token. J. Lackington, London, Middlesex.36 viewsObverse: J. LACKINGTON ✤. Three-quarter facing bust of J.Lackington left, 1794 below.
Reverse: HALFPENNY OF LACKINGTON • ALLEN & Co ★ / CHEAPEST BOOKSELLERS IN THE WORLD • in a double line of text around Fame, portrayed as a winged female figure facing right, head left, holding a laurel-wreath and blowing a trumpet.
Edge: PAYABLE AT THE TEMPLE OF THE MUSES ★ / ★ / ★.
Diameter 29mm | Die Axis 6
Dalton & Hamer: 353

This token was manufactured by William Lutwyche in Birmingham and the dies were engraved by Roger Dixon.
It was issued by James Lackington who was a bookseller with a large business at his premises known as “The Temple of the Muses”, No 32 Finsbury Place South, Finsbury Square, London. This token marked the sale of a 25% interest in his company to Robert Allen.
*Alex
1794_Norwich_halfpenny.JPG
1794 AE Halfpenny, Norwich, Norfolk.40 viewsObverse: R • CAMPIN • HABERDASHER. Stocking and glove above crossed knife and fork; in exergue, •GOAT•LANE•/NORWICH.
Reverse: HALFPENNY. Britannia, portrayed as a helmeted, plumed and draped female figure wearing a breastplate emblazoned with the union flag, seated facing left on tea-chest; her right hand resting on a terrestrial globe and her left arm on an anchor; a crowned lion, it's head turned facing, reclining left at her feet; in exergue, 1794.
Edge: “CURRENT EVERY WHERE ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦".
Diameter: 29mm
Dalton & Hamer: 21

Issued by Robert Campin, a haberdasher with a business in Goat Lane, Norwich, this token was probably manufactured by Peter Kempson in Birmingham, the dies engraved by Thomas Wyon.
*Alex
1795_Petersfield_Halfpenny.JPG
1795 AE Halfpenny Token. Petersfield, Hampshire.32 viewsObverse: PETERSFIELD. Mounted dragoon presenting sword, on horse trotting to left.
Reverse: RULE BRITANNIA. Britannia facing left, seated on globe, her right hand holding spear, her left arm holding laurel-branch and resting on shield at her side; in exergue, 1795.
Edge: PAYABLE IN LONDON, the rest engrailed.
Diameter: 28mm
Dalton & Hamer: 49
RARE

This halfpenny token is one of a series of mules manufactured by Peter Kempson at his works in Birmingham. In the 18th century, token manufacturers often used their dies to their own advantage by striking “mules”, solely with the object of creating rare varieties which were sold to the collectors of the day.

Petersfield is a market town situated on the northern slopes of the South Downs, 17 miles north of Portsmouth, in Hampshire, England. The town is on the crossroads of well-used north–south and east–west routes and it grew in prosperity due to its position as a coach stop as well as it's local sheep farming, and cottage industries of leather and cloth.
The town was founded during the 12th century by William Fitz Robert, 2nd Earl of Gloucester, and confirmed by charter in 1198 by John, Count of Mortain, the later King John.
*Alex
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1795 AE Halfpenny, Glamorgan, South Wales.62 viewsObverse: JESTYN • AP • GWRGAN • TYWYSOG • MORGANWG • 1091•. Crowned and robed bust of Jestyn ap Gwrgan facing left, wearing a small shield bearing the St George's cross suspended on a chain round his neck.
Reverse: Y • BRENHIN • AR • GYFRAITH •. Britannia facing left, seated on a globe, her right hand pointing to a ship, her left supporting a shield and a spear; behind her a cippus with a crown on top and a laurel branch leaning against it; in exergue, 1795.
Edge: "GLAMORGAN HALFPENNY" in raised letters, followed by three leaves.
Diameter: 29mm
Dalton & Hamer:3b (Glamorganshire)

This token is thought to have been engraved and manufactured by John Stubbs Jordan, a Birmingham ironfounder for his father, William Jordan, who had returned to South Wales, possibly to Merthyr Tydfil. The Jordens were of Welsh descent and had come to Staffordshire earlier in the century. The father, William Jorden, a victualler from Weaman Street, Birmingham, retired and moved back to South Wales in the early 1780s and in 1794 his son, John Stubbs Jorden, who had remained back in Birmingham, made this Welsh token for his father as a private piece.
This is the only eighteenth century token with Welsh legends.

Jestyn ap Gwrgan, or Gwrgant, was the last Prince and Lord of Glamorgan of British blood. He was of the royal house of Morganwg, which had a lineage stretching back over five centuries to Tewdrig (c.550-584 C.E.). The members of this royal house had links to the other royal houses of Wales through marriage, and were descendants of the celebrated Rhodri Mawr. Jestyn ap Gwrgan's base is believed to have been at Dinas Powis, south of Cardiff. He probably ruled Glamorgan for a little less than a decade around 1081-1090 C.E.
The popular version of historical events is that Jestyn, following a dispute with his rival Einion ap Collwyn, invited the Norman ruler Robert Fitzhamon, lord of Gloucester, and his twelve knights into the region to settle the matter. Once invited in, the Normans refused to leave, Jestyn was deposed and Fitzhamon, having established a lordship based in Cardiff, subsequently conquered the lowlands of Glamorgan, which was parcelled out to his followers. The undesirable mountainous parts of Glamorgan Fitzhamon left in Welsh control. However this story, dating from at least the 15th century, where it touches known historical facts, is demonstrably wrong.
Nowadays there are many people living in South Wales with the surname of Williams who claim to be descended from Jestyn ap Gwrgan. This is not impossible because Jestyn ap Gwrgan had a large family. Notable people who may have been descended from Jestyn ap Gwrgan are the Tudor Monarchs of England, Oliver Cromwell (whose real surname was Williams) and also, being of Welsh descent, Winston Churchill, Princess Diana and several Presidents of The United States of America.
1 comments*Alex
17p-Crispus-Cyz-10.jpg
17p - Crispus: Cyzicus17 viewsAE3, 317-20, Cyzicus mint.
Obverse: DN FL IVL CRISPVS NOB CAES / laureate bust of Crispus, left, in consular robe; globe and scepter in left hand, mappa in right hand.
Reverse: IOVI CONSERVATORI CAESS / Jupiter standing left; Victory on globe in right hand, scepter in left hand; wreath in left field, Γ in right field.
Mint mark: SMK
18 mm, 2.88 gm.
RIC #10; Sear #16688; PBCC #1071.
Callimachus
1812_BRITISH_NAVAL_HALFPENNY.JPG
1812 AE Non-local Halfpenny Token. Stockton on Tees, Yorkshire.20 viewsObverse: ENGLAND EXPECTS EVERY MAN TO DO HIS DUTY •. Bust of Horatio Nelson facing left.
Reverse: BRITISH NAVAL HALPPENNY (sic). Three masted ship, probably H.M.S. Victory, sailing right, 1812 in panel below.
Edge: Centre Grained.
Diameter 30mm | Die Axis 6
Withers: 1590 | Davis: 150 (Yorkshire)

The dies for this token were, according to some sources, engraved by Thomas Wyon. Though the manufacturer of the token is unknown, it was most likely struck in Birmingham.

Issued from Stockton on Tees, this token seems to have been struck to commemorate the Battle of Trafalgar which took place in 1805, and in which Nelson was killed. The issuer is uncertain but it was probably Robert Christopher and Thomas Jennett.
Robert Christopher & Thomas Jennett were booksellers and printers in Stockton, they were also the Stockton agents for the Sun Fire Office.
Jennett was Christopher's apprentice and on the completion of his indentures, he was taken into partnership. Matching the high standards of his companion, Jennett became well known and much respected, growing to be a man of power and influence. He became a magistrate and was mayor of Stockton three times.
*Alex
1813_STOCKTON_PENNY_TOKEN_.JPG
1813 AE Penny, Stockton-on-Tees, County Durham.36 viewsObverse: CHRISTOPHER & JENNETT * STOCKTON *, incuse letters on a raised rim. View of the bridge over the Tees being crossed by several small figures including a rider on horse, rowing boat containing two figures in river below; in field above, TEES; in field below, 1813.
Reverse: BRITANNIA * ONE PENNY TOKEN *, incuse letters on a raised rim. Britannia seated facing left on shield, holding olive branch and trident, small ship in left background at her feet.
Edge: Centre-grained.
Diameter 34mm | Weight 19.7gms
Davis:6 | Withers:1109

The die engraver for this token was Peter Wyon. It was issued by Robert Christopher & Thomas Jennett who were booksellers and printers in Stockton, they were also the Stockton agents for the Sun Fire Office.
Jennett was Christopher's apprentice and on the completion of his indentures, he was taken into partnership. Matching the high standards of his companion, Jennett became well known and much respected, growing to be a man of power and influence. He became a magistrate and was mayor of Stockton three times.

The bridge shown on this token was the first bridge to serve the growing town of Stockton, it was a five arch stone bridge which was completed in 1769. Before the existence of the bridge at this location, the only way of crossing the Tees was by the Bishop’s Ferry. The bridge was subject to rent to the Bishop of Durham and the costs of building it had to be repaid, so a system of tolls was charged. These were supposed to be abolished as soon as the debt was cleared, but they remained in place until, in 1819, the local people took the law into their own hands, throwing two of the bridge gates into the river and burning the third gate in the High Street. Although the bridge was good news for Stockton’s business, it had a devastating impact on Yarm. As ships were growing in size at this time, the building of the bridge prevented many ships reaching Yarm because they were unable to navigate further up the river. This only heightened shipping in Stockton and affirmed its place as the main port on the Tees before the 1800s. The bridge also halted Yarm’s shipbuilding industry and, since Stockton was unaffected, yards sprang up east of the bridge towards the sea. By 1876 the old bridge was inadequate and in 1881 work was begun on a new bridge. This new bridge, named the ‘Victoria Bridge’ in recognition of Queen Victoria, was opened in 1887 and the old stone bridge was demolished.
*Alex
RI_182d_img.jpg
182 - Valentinian II - AE3 - RIC IX Alexandria 9b 20 viewsAE3
Obv:- DN VALENTINIANVS P F AVG, Pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right.
Rev:- CONCOR-DIA AVGGG, Roma, helmeted, seated facing, head left, holding globe and spear, the lower part of which is hidden by her robe, right leg bare.
Minted in Alexandria (//ALEB) A.D. 378-383
Reference:- RIC IX Alexandria 9b (rated scarce)

2.29 gms. 21.09 mm. 180 degrees

Appears to be overstruck on an earlier SECVRITAS - REIPVBLICAE type with parttial legends from the undertype reverse and the head of Victory visible at the front of the neck of the bust.
1 commentsmaridvnvm
Coin_cabinet_medal.JPG
1843 "BENJAMIN NIGHTINGALE" AE Halfpenny Token. London, Middlesex14 viewsObverse: VILIUS EST ARGENTUM AURO, VIRTUTIBUS AURUM. Female, leaning on books behind her, holding a cornucopia from which coins are spilling, seated facing right in front of an open coin cabinet; in exergue, tudor rose on shield between two branches.
Reverse: BENJAMIN NIGHTINGALE LONDON * PRIVATE TOKEN * 1843 surrounding “BN” monogram in script.
Edge: Plain.
Diameter: 30mm | Weight: 14.2gms | Die Axis: 12
Bell (Middlesex) A3
VERY RARE (Only 72 of these bronzed copper halfpenny tokens were struck)

Privately issued in London by Benjamin Nightingale, the die sinker for this token was William Joseph Taylor (whose initials WJT can be seen to the left below the books on the obverse), following a similar design for halfpennies that he had produced for Matthew Young, a British merchant. Taylor was born in Birmingham in 1802 and was apprenticed to Thomas Halliday in 1818 as the first die-sinker to be trained by him. He set up his own business as a die-sinker, medallist and engraver at 5 Porter Street, Soho, London in 1829, later moving to 3 Lichfield Street, Birmingham. In 1843 the business moved to 33 Little Queen Street and finally, in 1869, to 70 Red Lion Street where, in 1885, Taylor died.
The Soho Mint at Birmingham (founded by Matthew Boulton) closed in 1848, and it's plant and equipment was sold via auction in April 1850. Taylor purchased many of the Soho Mint's hubs and dies from this auction and used them to restrike many of the coins & patterns that the Soho Mint had struck between the 1790's and the 1840's, though he nearly always re-polished or re-engraved elements of the original dies before re-using them.

Benjamin Nightingale was a wine and spirit merchant who lived at 17 Upper Stamford Street, Blackfriars Road in London. He was born in 1806 and died on March 9th, 1862. He was a well known Antiquarian and was a member of the Numismatic Society of London.
In 1863, after his death, Benjamin Nightingale's collection, consisting of 359 lots, was sold over a two day period by Sotheby's. This is from the February 13, 1863 edition of the London Daily News (page 8, column 6).

THE VALUABLE CABINET of COINS and MEDALS of the late BENJAMIN NIGHTINGALE, Esq.
MESSRS S. LEIGH SOTHEBY and WILKINSON, auctioneers of literary property and works illustrative of the fine arts, will SELL BY AUCTION, at their house, No. 13 (late 3), Wellington-street, Strand, W.C., on WEDNESDAY, Feb. 25, and following day, at 1 precisely, the valuable CABINET OF COINS and MEDALS of the late Benjamin Nightingale, Esq.; comprising a few Roman coins in gold, silver, and copper, in the highest state of preservation; a most valuable collection of English medals in all metals; rare and curious jetons, including a very perfect set of those struck to illustrate the history of the low countries; a few remarkable foreign medals, a choice library of numismatic books, several well-made cabinets, & c. – May be viewed two days previous, and catalogues had on receipt of two stamps.

According to Manville and Robertson, prior to his death, Benjamin Nightingale had sold off part of his collection at an auction by Sotheby's on 29th Nov. 1855.
"Benjamin NIGHTINGALE" in ANS copy; Greek, Roman, Tavern Tokens, Town Pieces, 17-18c Tokens, English and Foreign Medals, Books; 165 lots. -Curtis Clay.

The inspiration for these tokens might have been Pye's 1797 halfpenny (Warwickshire 223) which is of a similar design.
*Alex
ChambersSomersetHouseMedal~0.JPG
1857. Sir William Chambers and Somerset House. Taylor 52a.77 viewsObv. Bust of William chambers to right. CHAMBERS 1725-1796 Signed B WYON AFTER WESTMACOTT
Rev. Elevation of Somerset House to the Strand, featuring nine bayed entrance block. SOMERSET HOUSE 1781 SIR WILLIAM CHAMBERS RA ARCHITECT. Signed B WYON. Edge inscription: ART UNION OF LONDON 1857.
AE55. Taylor 52a.

Issued as one of the Art Union series. The medal gives an incorrect date of birth to chambers, 725 as opposed to 1723. The portrait is based on a bust displayed at the Royal Academy in 1797 by Sir Richard Westmacott, this is now in Sir John Soanes museum.
Built under an act of 1775, as a great new administrative centre to house official and academic bodies. Designed by Sir William Chambers, the Surveyor- General, and completed in the nineteenth century by Sir Robert Smirke (eastern extension to Kings College) and Sir James Pennethorne (western extension to Waterloo Bridge). Chambers decided on a central courtyard, approached through a block of narrow frontage, which was to house the learned societies, including the Royal Academy and Society of Antiquaries. It is the Strand façade of this entrance block which is shown on the medal, it was complete by 1781 and incorporated sculpture by fellow Academicians Bacon, Carlini and Wilton.
LordBest
EdwardVIICoronationMedal.JPG
1902. Edward VII and Alexandra, Coronation Medal.81 viewsObv. Crowned and robed bust of Edward VII to right, resting on a wreath. EDWARD VII CROWNED 9 AUGUST 1902
Rev. Crowned, veiled and robed bust of Alexandra to right, resting on wreath, unfurled scroll to lower right. ALEXANDRA QUEEN CONSORT, 9 AUGUST 1902 on wreath.
AE55, in original case of issue.

My favourite King of England, known as the Peacemaker. Also fond of good food and women.
LordBest
Edward_8_Medal_1937.JPG
1937 EDWARD VIII AE CORONATION MEDAL10 viewsObverse: • HIS • MAJESTY • KING • EDWARD • VIII •, Crowned bust of Edward VIII facing right, wearing ceremonial robes, the legend in raised letters on a raised border with each word separated by a rose.
Reverse: CROWNED – A. D. 1937. Britannia standing facing within a distyle arch, holding crown aloft with her right hand and union flag on pole in her left, in background to left, battleship and to right, London riverside scene in which St Paul's Cathedral can be discerned.
Diameter: 45mm

No coins were issued for Edward VIII who became King on the death of his father, George V, on 20th January 1936. Edward's coronation never took place because he abdicated the throne on 11th December that same year after a reign lasting only 326 days.
As Edward VIII was never crowned the coin types bearing the portrait of George V continued to be struck throughout 1936 and up until the coronation in 1937 of Edward's younger brother Albert, who reigned as George VI.

This unsigned medal was struck in 1936 in anticipation of the proposed Coronation of Edward VIII on 12th May, 1937. The same reverse dies were subsequently reused on coronation medals for George VI.
*Alex
194_Septimius_Severus_Dupondius_RIC_680_1.jpg
194_Septimius_Severus_Dupondius_RIC_680_16 viewsSeptimius Severus (193 – 211 AD)
AE Dupondius, Rome, 194 – 195
L SEPT SEV PERT AVG IMP IIII;
Radiate head right
AFRICA, S-C;
Africa, in elephant-skin head-dress, standing right, holding corn-ears in fold of robe(?), lion at feet
10, 04 gr, 24 mm
RIC IVa, 680; BMC V, 523; C. 30
ga77
Republican_Centennial_Medal_1954.JPG
1954 Official Republican Centennial Medal27 viewsObv: REPUBLICAN CENTENNIAL 1854 - 1954, Conjoined busts of Abraham Lincoln and Dwight Eisenhower facing right.

Rev: Two lighted torches, quotes between: "WITH MALICE TOWARD NONE, WITH CHARITY FOR ALL, WITH FIRMNESS IN THE RIGHT, AS GOD GIVES US TO SEE THE RIGHT, LET US STRIVE ON TO FINISH THE WORK WE ARE IN" -Abraham Lincoln. "IN ALL THOSE THINGS WHICH DEAL WITH PEOPLE, BE LIBERAL, BE HUMAN. IN ALL THOSE THINGS WHICH DEAL WITH THE PEOPLE'S MONEY OR THEIR ECONOMY, OR THEIR FORM OF GOVERNMENT, BE CONSERVATIVE." Dwight D. Eisenhower.

Engraver: Gilroy Roberts

Mint: Medallic Art Company, Date: 1954, Bronze, Diameter: 63.6 mm

Note: Gilroy Roberts was already the chief engraver of the United States Mint when he designed this medal. He would go on to design the portrait on the John F. Kennedy half dollar.
Matt Inglima
BrutusDenLictors.jpg
1ag Marcus Junius Brutus64 viewsTook his own life in 42 BC after being defeated at Philippi by Antony and Octavian

Denarius, issued as moneyer, 54 BC
Head of Liberty, right, LIBERTAS
Consul L. Junius Brutus between lictors, preceded by accensus, BRVTVS

Seaby, Junia 31

Plutarch wrote: Marcus Brutus was descended from that Junius Brutus to whom the ancient Romans erected a statue of brass in the capitol among the images of their kings with a drawn sword in his hand, in remembrance of his courage and resolution in expelling the Tarquins and destroying the monarchy. . . . But this Brutus, whose life we now write, having to the goodness of his disposition added the improvements of learning and the study of philosophy, and having stirred up his natural parts, of themselves grave and gentle, by applying himself to business and public affairs, seems to have been of a temper exactly framed for virtue; insomuch that they who were most his enemies upon account of his conspiracy against Caesar, if in that whole affair there was any honourable or generous part, referred it wholly to Brutus, and laid whatever was barbarous and cruel to the charge of Cassius, Brutus's connection and familiar friend, but not his equal in honesty and pureness of purpose. . . . In Latin, he had by exercise attained a sufficient skill to be able to make public addresses and to plead a cause; but in Greek, he must be noted for affecting the sententious and short Laconic way of speaking in sundry passages of his epistles. . . . And in all other things Brutus was partaker of Caesar's power as much as he desired: for he might, if he had pleased, have been the chief of all his friends, and had authority and command beyond them all, but Cassius and the company he met with him drew him off from Caesar. . . . Caesar snatching hold of the handle of the dagger, and crying out aloud in Latin, "Villain Casca, what do you?" he, calling in Greek to his brother, bade him come and help. And by this time, finding himself struck by a great many hands, and looking around about him to see if he could force his way out, when he saw Brutus with his dagger drawn against him, he let go Casca's hand, that he had hold of and covering his head with his robe, gave up his body to their blows.
2 commentsBlindado
CaligulaAsVesta.jpg
1ao Caligula30 views37-41

As
Bare head, left, C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT
Vesta std, VESTA SC

RIC 38

The son of Germanicus, modern research suggests, was not as bad a ruler as history generally supposes, but the winners write the history, and Caligula had the dubious honor of being the first loser to die in the purple at the hand of assassins.

Suetonius recorded: Gaius Caesar (Caligula) was born on the 31st of August AD12, in the consulship of his father, Germanicus, and Gaius Fonteius Capito. The sources disagree as to his place of birth. Gnaeus Lentulus Gaetulicus claims it was Tibur (Tivoli), Pliny the Elder, says it was among the Treveri in the village of Ambitarvium, above Confluentes (the site of Koblenz) at the junction of the Moselle and Rhine. . . . His surname Caligula (‘Little Boot’) was bestowed on him affectionately by the troops because he was brought up amongst them, dressed in soldier’s gear.

Caligula accompanied his father, Germanicus, to Syria (in AD 19). On his return, he lived with his mother, Agrippina the Elder until she was exiled (in 29 AD), and then with his great-grandmother Livia. When Livia died (in 29 AD), he gave her eulogy from the rostra even though he was not of age. He was then cared for by his grandmother Antonia the Younger, until at the age of eighteen Tiberius summoned him to Capreae (Capri, in AD 31). On that day he assumed his gown of manhood and shaved off his first beard, but without the ceremony that had attended his brothers’ coming of age.

On Capraea, though every trick was tried to lure him, or force him, into making complaints against Tiberius, he ignored all provocation, . . . behaving so obsequiously to his adoptive grandfather, Tiberius, and the entire household, that the quip made regarding him was well borne out, that there was never a better slave or a worse master.

Even in those days, his cruel and vicious character was beyond his control, and he was an eager spectator of torture and executions meted out in punishment. At night, disguised in wig and long robe, he abandoned himself to gluttony and adulterous behaviour. He was passionately devoted it seems to the theatrical arts, to dancing and singing, a taste in him which Tiberius willingly fostered, in the hope of civilizing his savage propensities.

And came near to assuming a royal diadem at once, turning the semblance of a principate into an absolute monarchy. Indeed, advised by this that he outranked princes and kings, he began thereafter to claim divine power, sending to Greece for the most sacred or beautiful statues of the gods, including the Jupiter of Olympia, so that the heads could be exchanged for his own. He then extended the Palace as far as the Forum, making the Temple of Castor and Pollux its vestibule, and would often present himself to the populace there, standing between the statues of the divine brothers, to be worshipped by whoever appeared, some hailing him as ‘Jupiter Latiaris’. He also set up a special shrine to himself as god, with priests, the choicest sacrificial victims, and a life-sized golden statue of himself, which was dressed each day in clothes of identical design to those he chose to wear.

He habitually committed incest with each of his three sisters, seating them in turn below him at large banquets while his wife reclined above. . . . His preferred method of execution was by the infliction of many slight wounds, and his order, issued as a matter of routine, became notorious: ‘Cut him so he knows he is dying.’
Blindado
LucillaSestVenus.jpg
1bm Lucilla164 viewsWife of Lucius Verus, executed 182 AD

Sestertius
Draped bust, right, LVCILLAE AVG ANTONINI AVG F
Venus standing facing left holding apple, drawing out robe, VENUS

RIC 1767

Daughter of Marcus Aurelius and Faustina Junior, she married Lucius Verus in 164.

According to Herodian: For the present, however, the memory of his father and his respect for his advisers held Commodus in check. But then a disastrous stroke of ill fortune completely altered his previously mild, moderate disposition. It happened this way. The oldest of the emperor's sisters was Lucilla. She had formerly been married to Lucius Verus Caesar. . . . But after Lucius died, Lucilla, who retained all the privileges of her imperial position, was married by her father to Pompeianus.

Commodus, too, allowed his sister to retain the imperial honors; she continued to occupy the imperial seat at the theaters, and the sacred fire was carried before her. But when Commodus married Crispina, custom demanded that the front seat at the theater be assigned to the empress. Lucilla found this difficult to endure, and felt that any honor paid to the empress was an insult to her; but since she was well aware that her husband Pompeianus was devoted to Commodus, she told him nothing about her plans to seize control of the empire. Instead, she tested the sentiments of a wealthy young nobleman, Quadratus, with whom she was rumored to be sleeping in secret. Complaining constantly about this matter of imperial precedence, she soon persuaded the young man to set in motion a plot which brought destruction upon himself and the entire senate.

Quadratus, in selecting confederates among the prominent senators, prevailed upon Quintianus, a bold and reckless young senator, to conceal a dagger beneath his robe and, watching for a suitable time and place, to stab Commodus; as for the rest, he assured Quintianus that he would set matters straight by bribes.

But the assassin, standing in the entrance to the amphitheater (it was dark there and he hoped to escape detection), drew his dagger and shouted at Commodus that he had been sent by the Senate to kill him. Quintianus wasted time making his little speech and waving his dagger; as a result, he was seized by the emperor's bodyguards before he could strike, and died for his stupidity in revealing the plot prematurely.

This was the initial reason for the young emperor's hatred of the Senate. He took Quintianus' words to heart and, ever mindful of what his attacker had said, now considered the entire Senate his collective enemy.

This incident also gave Perennis sufficient excuse for taking action, for he was always advising the emperor to eliminate and destroy the prominent men. By confiscating their property, Perennis easily made himself the richest man of his time. After the attempt at assassination had been thoroughly investigated by the prefect, Commodus without mercy put to death his sister, all those actually involved in the plot, and any who were under the slightest suspicion as well.
3 commentsBlindado
MaximinusDenPax.jpg
1ch Maximinus51 views235-238

Denarius

Laureate draped bust, right, IMP MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG
Pax stg, PAX AVGVSTI

RIC 12

Herodian recorded: There was in the Roman army a man named Maximinus whose half-barbarian family lived in a village in the most remote section of Thrace. They say that as a boy he was a shepherd, but that in his youthful prime he was drafted into the cavalry because of his size and strength. After a short time, favored by Fortune, he advanced through all the military ranks, rising eventually to the command of armies and the governing of provinces.

Because of his military experience, which I have noted above, Alexander put Maximinus in charge of training recruits for the entire army; his task was to instruct them in military duties and prepare them for service in war. By carrying out his assignments thoroughly and diligently, Maximinus won the affection of the soldiers. He not only taught them their duties; he also demonstrated personally to each man what he was to do. . . .

He won their devotion by giving them all kinds of gifts and rewards. Consequently, the recruits, who included an especially large number of Pannonians, praised the masculinity of Maximinus and despised Alexander as a mother's boy. . . . The soldiers were therefore ready for a change of emperors. . . . They therefore assembled on the drill field for their regular training; when Maximinus took his position before them, either unaware of what was happening or having secretly made prior preparations for the event, the soldiers robed him in the imperial purple and proclaimed him emperor. . . .

When he assumed control of the empire, Maximinus reversed the situation, using his power savagely to inspire great fear. He undertook to substitute for a mild and moderate rule an autocracy in every way barbarous, well aware of the hostility directed toward him because he was the first man to rise from a lowly station to the post of highest honor. His character was naturally barbaric, as his race was barbarian. He had inherited the brutal disposition of his countrymen, and he intended to make his imperial position secure by acts of cruelty, fearing that he would become an object of contempt to the Senate and the people, who might be more conscious of his lowly origin than impressed by the honor he had won. . . .

[A]fter Maximinus had completed three years as emperor, the people of Africa first took up arms and touched off a serious revolt for one of those trivial reasons which often prove fatal to a tyrant. . . . The entire populace of the city quickly assembled when the news was known, and the youths proclaimed Gordian Augustus. He begged to be excused, protesting that he was too old. . . .

[In Rome], the senators met before they received accurate information concerning Maximinus and, placing their trust for the future in the present situation, proclaimed Gordian Augustus, together with his son, and destroyed Maximinus' emblems of honor. . . . Embassies composed of senators and distinguished equestrians were sent to all the governors with letters which clearly revealed the attitude of the Senate and the Roman people. . . . The majority of the governors welcomed the embassies and had no difficulty in arousing the provinces to revolt because of the general hatred of Maximinus. . . .


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Sestertius

Laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust, right, IMP CAES PVPIEN MAXIMVS AVG
Pax seated left with branch & scepter PAX PVBLICA SC

RIC 22b

Herodian, continuing the story of the rebellion against Maximinus, wrote: [Pupienus] led most of these soldiers out to attack Maximinus; the rest remained behind to guard and defend the city. . . . In the meantime, having completed his march, Maximinus was poised on the borders of Italy; after offering sacrifices at all the boundary altars, he advanced into Italy. . . . When no opposition was offered, they crossed the Alps without hindrance. . . . While the army was in the plain, the scouts reported that Aquileia, the largest city in that part of Italy, had closed its gates and that the Pannonian legions which had been sent ahead had launched a vigorous attack upon the walls of this city. In spite of frequent assaults, they were completely unsuccessful. . . .

As time passed, the army of Maximinus grew depressed and, cheated in its expectations, fell into despair. . . . As Maximinus rode about, the [people of Aquileia] shouted insults and indecent blasphemies at him and his son. The emperor became increasingly angry because he was powerless to retaliate. . . . The emperor's soldiers were. . . in need of everything. There was scarcely even sufficient water for them. . . .

Without warning, the soldiers whose camp was near Rome at the foot of Mount Alba, where they had left their wives and children, decided that the best solution was to kill Maximinus and end the interminable siege. . . . [T]he conspirators went to Maximinus' tent about noon. The imperial bodyguard, which was involved in the plot, ripped Maximinus' pictures from the standards; when he came out of his tent with his son to talk to them, they refused to listen and killed them both. . . .

For the rest of the time the two emperors governed in an orderly and well-regulated manner, winning approval on every hand both privately and publicly. The people honored and respected them as patriotic and admirable rulers of the empire. . . . It so happened that the two men were not in complete accord: so great is the desire for sole rule and so contrary to the usual practice is it for the sovereignty to be shared that each undertook to secure the imperial power for himself alone. Balbinus considered himself the more worthy because of his noble birth and his two terms as consul; [Pupienus] felt that he deserved first place because he had served as prefect of Rome and had won a good reputation by his administrative efforts. Both men were led to covet the sole rule because of their distinguished birth, aristocratic lineage, and the size of their families. This rivalry was the basis of their downfall. When [Pupienus] learned that the Praetorian Guard was coming to kill them, he wished to summon a sufficient number of the German auxiliaries who were in Rome to resist the conspirators. But Balbinus, thinking that this was a ruse intended to deceive him (he knew that the Germans were devoted to [Pupienus]), refused to allow [Pupienus] to issue the order. . . . While the two men were arguing, the praetorians rushed in. . . . When the guards at the palace gates deserted the emperors, the praetorians seized the old men and ripped off the plain robes they were wearing because they were at home. Dragging the two men naked from the palace, they inflicted every insult and indignity upon them. Jeering at these emperors elected by the senate, they beat and tortured them. . . . When the Germans learned what was happening, they snatched up their arms and hastened to the rescue. As soon as the praetorians were informed of their approach, they killed the mutilated emperors.
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Son of Tetricus

AE antoninianus

Radiate draped bust, right, C P E TETRICVS CAES
Sacr. Implements, PIETAS AVGVSTOR

RIC 259

According to the Historia Augusta: He,1 when a little lad, received the name of Caesar from Victoria when she herself had been entitled by the army Mother of the Camp. He was, furthermore, led in triumph along with his father, but later he enjoyed all the honours of a senator ; nor was his inheritance diminished, and, indeed, he passed it on to his descendants, and was ever, as Arellius Fuscus reports, a man of distinction. . . . The house of the Tetrici is still standing to-day. . . , and in it Aurelian is depicted bestowing on both the Tetrici the bordered toga and the rank of senator and receiving from them a scepter, a chaplet, and an embroidered robe. This picture is in mosaic, and it is said that the two Tetrici, when they dedicated it, invited Aurelian himself to a banquet.
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AE antoninianus

Radiate, draped & cuirassed bust, right, IMP FLORIANVS AVG
Victory & Flor, CONCORDIA MILITVM

RIC 116Q

Half-brother to Tacitus, he reigned only two months before his troops killed him rather than fight an army under Probus. Concordia Militvm did not really work out for him. Zosimus recorded, "An universal civil disturbance now arose, those of the east chusing Probus emperor, and those at Rome Florianus. The former of these governed all Syria, Phoenicia, Palestine, and Egypt; but the latter was in possession of all the countries from Cilicia to Italy; besides which the homage of all the nations beyond the Alps, the Gauls, Spaniards, Britons, and Africans was paid to him. When both therefore were ready for war, Florianus came to Tarsus, resolving to encamp there, leaving his victory over the Scythians at the Bosphorus unfinished, by which he gave them an opportunity of recovering themselves and returning home, though he had cut off their retreat. Probus protracted the time, because he came with less preparation for a battle. By these means it came to pass, that the weather, being exceedingly hot, a pestilential disorder broke out amongst the troops of Florianus, most of whom were Europeans, and consequently unaccustomed to such excessive heat, by which many were taken off. When Probus understood this, he thought it a proper time to attack the enemy. The soldiers of Florianus, attempting what exceeded their strength, fought some slight skirmishes before the city, but nothing being done worthy of notice, some of the troops of Probus deposed Florianus. Having performed this, he was kept in custody for some time, until his own soldiers said, that it was the will of Probus that he should share the empire. Florianus therefore assumed |32 the purple robe again, until the return of those who were sent to know the true resolution of Probus. On their arrival they caused Florianus to be killed by his own soldiers."
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AE antoninianus

Radiate, draped, cuirassed bust, right, IMP C C VAL DIOCLETIANVS P F AVG
Zeus and Diocletian, CONCORDIA MILITVM

RIC 284B

According to the Historia Augusta, after the death of Numerian: Then a huge assembly was held and a tribunal, too, was constructed. And when the question was asked who would be the most lawful avenger of Numerian and who could be given to the commonwealth as a good emperor, then all, with a heaven-sent unanimity, conferred the title of Augustus on Diocletian. . . . He was at this time in command of the household-troops, an outstanding man and wise, devoted to the commonwealth, devoted to his kindred, duly prepared to face whatever the occasion demanded, forming plans that were always deep though sometimes over-bold, and one who could by prudence and exceeding firmness hold in check the impulses of a restless spirit. This man, then, having ascended the tribunal was hailed as Augustus, and when someone asked how Numerian had been slain, he drew his sword and pointing to Aper, the prefect of the guard, he drove it through him, saying as he did so, "It is he who contrived Numerian's death.''

Eutropius summarized a long and important reign: DIOCLETIAN, a native of Dalmatia, [was] of such extremely obscure birth, that he is said by most writers to have been the son of a clerk, but by some to have been a freedman of a senator named Anulinus. . . . He soon after overthrew Carinus, who was living under the utmost hatred and detestation, in a great battle at Margum, Carinus being betrayed by his own troops, for though he had a greater number of men than the enemy, he was altogether abandoned by them between Viminacium and mount Aureus. He thus became master of the Roman empire; and when the peasants in Gaul made an insurrection, giving their faction the name of Bagaudae, and having for leaders Amandus and Aelianus, he despatched Maximian Herculius, with the authority of Caesar, to suppress them. Maximian, in a few battles of little importance, subdued the rustic multitude, and restored peace to Gaul. . . .

Diocletian promoted MAXIMIAN HERCULIUS from the dignity of Caesar to that of emperor, and created Constantius and Maximian Galerius Caesars, of whom Constantius is said to have been the grand-nephew of Claudius by a daughter, and Maximian Galerius to have been born in Dacia not far from Sardica. That he might also unite them by affinity, Constantius married Theodora the step-daughter of Herculius, by whom he had afterwards six children, brothers to Constantine; while Galerius married Valeria, the daughter of Diocletian; both being obliged to divorce the wives that they had before. . . .

Diocletian, meanwhile, besieging Achilleus in Alexandria, obliged him to surrender about eight months after, and put him to death. He used his victory, indeed, cruelly, and distressed all Egypt with severe proscriptions and massacres. Yet at the same time he made many judicious arrangements and regulations, which continue to our own days. . . .

Diocletian was of a crafty disposition, with much sagacity, and keen penetration. He was willing to gratify his own disposition to cruelty in such a way as to throw the odium upon others; he was however a very active and able prince. He was the first that introduced into the Roman empire a ceremony suited rather to royal usages than to Roman liberty, giving orders that he should be adored, whereas all emperors before him were only saluted. He put ornaments of precious stones on his dress and shoes, when the imperial distinction had previously been only in the purple robe, the rest of the habit being the same as that of other men. . . .

But when Diocletian, as age bore heavily upon him, felt himself unable to sustain the government of the empire, he suggested to Herculius that they should both retire into private life, and commit the duty of upholding the state to more vigorous and youthful hands. With this suggestion his colleague reluctantly complied. Both of them, in the same day, exchanged the robe of empire for an ordinary dress, Diocletian at Nicomedia, Herculius at Milan, soon after a magnificent triumph which they celebrated at Rome over several nations, with a noble succession of pictures, and in which the wives, sisters, and children of Narseus were led before their chariots. The one then retired to Salonae, and the other into Lucania.

Diocletian lived to an old age in a private station, at a villa which is not far from Salonae, in honourable retirement, exercising extraordinary philosophy, inasmuch as he alone of all men, since the foundation of the Roman empire, voluntarily returned from so high a dignity to the condition of private life, and to an equality with the other citizens. That happened to him, therefore, which had happened to no one since men were created, that, though he died in a private condition, he was enrolled among the gods.
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Quarter Follis

Laureate head, right, IMP C M A MAXIMIANVS P F AVG
Genius standing left, with modius on head, cornucopia & patera, GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, SIS in exergue

RIC 146

Eutropius records: [Diocletian] thus became master of the Roman empire; and when the peasants in Gaul made an insurrection, giving their faction the name of Bagaudae, and having for leaders Amandus and Aelianus, he despatched Maximian Herculius, with the authority of Caesar, to suppress them. Maximian, in a few battles of little importance, subdued the rustic multitude, and restored peace to Gaul. . . . While disorder thus prevailed throughout the world, while Carausius was taking arms in Britain and Achilleus in Egypt, while the Quinquegentiani were harassing Africa, and Narseus was making war upon the east, Diocletian promoted MAXIMIAN HERCULIUS from the dignity of Caesar to that "of emperor, and created Constantius and Maximian Galerius Caesars. . . .

Maximian the emperor, brought the war to an end in Africa, by subduing the Quinquegentiani, and compelling them to make peace. . . .

Herculius was undisguisedly cruel, and of a violent temper, and showed his severity of disposition in the sternness of his looks. Gratifying his own inclination, he joined with Diocletian in even the most cruel of his proceedings. But when Diocletian, as age bore heavily upon him, felt himself unable to sustain the government of the empire, he suggested to Herculius that they should both retire into private life, and commit the duty of upholding the state to more vigorous and youthful hands. With this suggestion his colleague reluctantly complied. Both of them, in the same day, exchanged the robe of empire for an ordinary dress, Diocletian at Nicomedia, Herculius at Milan, soon after a magnificent triumph which they celebrated at Rome over several nations, with a noble succession of pictures, and in which the wives, sisters, and children of Narseus were led before their chariots. The one then retired to Salonae, and the other into Lucania.

But after the death of Constantius, CONSTANTINE, his son by a wife of obscure birth, was made emperor in Britain, and succeeded his father as a most desirable ruler. In the meantime the praetorian guards at Rome, having risen in insurrection, declared MAXENTIUS, the son of Maximian Herculius, who lived in the Villa Publica not far from the city, emperor. At the news of this proceeding, Maximian, filled with hopes of regaining the imperial dignity, which he had not willingly resigned, hurried to Rome from Lucania. . . , and stimulated Diocletian by letters to resume the authority that he had laid down, letters which Diocletian utterly disregarded. Severus Caesar, being despatched to Rome by Galerius to suppress the rising of the guards and Maxentius, arrived there with his army, but, as he was laying siege to the city, was deserted through the treachery of his soldiers.

The power of Maxentius was thus increased, and his government established. Severus, taking to flight, was killed at Ravenna. Maximian Herculius, attempting afterwards, in an assembly of the army, to divest his son Maxentius of his power, met with nothing but mutiny and reproaches from the soldiery. He then set out for Gaul, on a planned stratagem, as if he had been driven away by his son, that he might join his son-in-law Constantine, designing, however, if he could find an opportunity, to cut off Constantine, who was ruling in Gaul with great approbation both of the soldiers and the people of the province, having overthrown the Franks and Alemanni with great slaughter, and captured their kings, whom, on exhibiting a magnificent show of games, he exposed to wild beasts. But the plot being made known by Maximian's daughter Fausta, who communicated the design to her husband, Maximian was cut off at Marseilles, whence he was preparing to sail to join his son, and died a well-deserved death. . . .
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Quarter Follis

Laureate head, right, MAXIMIANVS AVG
Genius standing left, modius on head, holding cornucopia & patera, SIS in ex., GENIO POPVLI ROMANI

RIC 169b

Eutropius tells us: Diocletian promoted MAXIMIAN HERCULIUS from the dignity of Caesar to that of emperor, and created Constantius and Maximian Galerius Caesars, of whom Constantius is said to have been the grand-nephew of Claudius by a daughter, and Maximian Galerius to have been born in Dacia not far from Sardica. . . . Galerius married Valeria, the daughter of Diocletian. . . .

Galerius Maximian, in acting against Narseus, fought, on the first occasion, a battle far from successful, meeting him between Callinicus and Carrae, and engaging in the combat rather with rashness than want of courage; for he contended with a small army against a very numerous enemy. Being in consequence defeated, and going to join Diocletian, he was received by him, when he met him on the road, with such extreme haughtiness, that he is said to have run by his chariot for several miles in his scarlet robes.

But having soon after collected forces in Illyricum and Moesia, he fought a second time with Narseus (the grandfather of Hormisdas and Sapor), in Greater Armenia, with extraordinary success, and with no less caution and spirit, for he undertook, with one or two of the cavalry, the office of a speculator. After putting Narseus to flight, he captured his wives, sisters, and children, with a vast number of the Persian nobility besides, and a great quantity of treasure; the king himself he forced to take refuge in the remotest deserts in his dominions. Returning therefore in triumph to Diocletian, who was then encamped with some troops in Mesopotamia, he was welcomed by him with great honour. Subsequently, they conducted several wars both in conjunction and separately, subduing the Carpi and Bastarnae, and defeating the Sarmatians, from which nations he settled a great number of captives in the Roman territories. . . .

Galerius, a man of excellent moral character, and skilful in military affairs, finding that Italy, by Constantius's permission, was put under his government, created two Caesars, MAXIMIN, whom he appointed over the east, and SEVERUS, to whom he committed Italy. He himself resided in Illyricum.
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AE3, Thessalonica

Laureate, cuirassed bust, right, FL DELMATIVS NOB C two soldiers holding spears and shields with two standards between them, O on banner, GLORIA EXERCITVS. Mintmark: SMTSD.

RIC 202D

Zosimus recorded: After Constantine had oppressed and tormented the people in these various modes, he died of a disease, and was succeeded by his three sons, who were not born of Fausta the daughter of Maximianus Herculius, but of another woman, whom he had put to death for adultery. They devoted themselves more to the pleasures of youth than to the service of the state. They began by dividing the nations between them. Constantine the eldest, and Constans the youngest, having for their share all beyond the Alps, together with Italy and Illyricum, the countries bordering on the Euxine sea and all that belonged to Carthage in Africa; Constantius obtained all Asia, the east, and Egypt. There were likewise others who shared in the government; Dalmatius, whom Constantine made Caesar, Constantius his brother, and Hanniballianus, who had all worn robes of purple embroidered with gold, and were promoted to the order of Nobilissimates by Constantine, from respect to their being of his own family. . . . The empire being thus divided, Constantius who appeared to take pains not to fall short of his father in impiety, began by shedding the blood of his nearest relations. He first caused Constantius, his father's brother, to be murdered by the soldiers ; next to whom he treated Dalmatius in the same manner, as also Optatus whom Constantine had raised to the rank of a Nobilissimate.

A great-nephew of Constantine the Great.
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AE3

RIC 93

Rosette diademed, draped & cuirassed bust, right, CONSTANS P F AVG
Two soldiers standing to either side of one standard with chi-rho on banner, GLORIA EXERCITVS, [A]SIS-crescent in ex.

Constans received Italy, Africa, and the Balkans when the empire was divided. He took charge of the remainder of the West after Constantine II imprudently attacked him in 340. Zosimus recorded, "Constans, having thus removed his brother, exercised every species of cruelty toward his subjects, exceeding the most intolerable tyranny. He purchased some well favoured Barbarians, and had others with him as hostages, to whom he gave liberty to harrass his subjects as they pleased, in order to gratify his vicious disposition. In this manner he reduced all the nations that were subject to him to extreme misery. This gave uneasiness to the court guards, who perceiving that he was much addicted to hunting placed themselves under the conduct of Marcellinus prefect of the treasury, and Magnentius who commanded the Joviani and Herculiani (two legions so termed), and formed a plot against him in the following manner. Marcellinus reported that he meant to keep the birth-day of his sons, and invited many of the superior officers to a feast. Amongst the rest Magnentius rose from table and left the room; he presently returned, and as it were in a drama stood before them clothed in an imperial robe. Upon this all the guests saluted him with the title of king, and the inhabitants of Augustodunum, where it was done, concurred in the same sentiment. This transaction being rumoured abroad, the country people flocked into the city; while at the same time a party of Illyrian cavalry who came to supply the Celtic legions, joined themselves with those that were concerned in the enterprize. When the officers of the army were met together, and heard the leaders of the conspiracy proclaim their new emperor, they scarcely knew the meaning of it; they all, however, joined in the acclamation, and saluted Magnentius with the appellation of Augustus. When this became known to Constans, he endeavoured to escape to a small town called Helena, which lies near the Pyrenean mountains. He was taken by Gaison, who was sent with some other select persons for that purpose, and being destitute of all aid, was killed. "
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Centenionalis

Bare-headed, draped, cuirassed bust right, A behind head, D N CONSTANTIVS IVN NOB C
Emperor, diademed and in military dress, standing facing, head left, holding standard with chi-rho banner in each hand. Star above. Left field: III. CONCORDIA MILITVM. Mintmark: star SIRM.

RIC 22

Zosimus noted: Constantius, having so well succeeded in his design against Vetranio, marched against Magnentius, having first conferred the title of Caesar on Gallus, the son of his uncle, and brother to Julian who was afterwards emperor, and given him in marriage his sister Constantia; either in order that he might oppose the Persians, or as seems more probable, that he might have an opportunity of taking him off. He and his brothers were the only remaining persons of the family whom Constantius had not put to death, as I have related. When he had clothed Gallus with the Caesarean robe, and appointed Lucilianus general in the Persian war, he marched towards Magnentius with his own troops and those of Vetranio in one body. Constantius II had him tried and put to death for misrule of the East as Caesar. . . . The state-informers, with which such men are usually surrounded, and which are designed for the ruin of those that are in prosperity, were augmented. These sycophants, when they attempted to effect the downfal of a noble in hopes of sharing his wealth or honours, contrived some false accusation against him. This was the practice in the time of Constantius. Spies of this description, who made the eunuchs of the court their accomplices, flocked about Constantius, and persuaded him that his cousin german Gallus, who was a Caesar, was not satisfied with that honour, but wished to be emperor. They so far convinced him of the truth of this charge, that they made him resolve upon the destruction of Gallus. The contrivers of this design were Dynamius and Picentius, men of obscure condition, who endeavoured to raise themselves by such evil practises. Lampadius also, the Prefect of the court, was in the conspiracy, being a person who wished to engross more of the emperor's favour than any other. Constantius listened to those false insinuations, and Gallus was sent for, knowing nothing of what was intended against him. As soon as he arrived, Constantius first degraded him from the dignity of Caesar, and, having reduced him to private station, delivered him to the public executioners to be put to death.
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AE3

Pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right , D N VALENTINIANVS P F AVG
Emperor in military dress, advancing right, head left, holding labarum, dragging captive behind him. No fieldmarks. Mintmark: dot GSISC, GLORIA ROMANORVM

RIC 5a

According to Zosimus: Several discussions were held among the soldiers and their officers, and various persons were nominated. At length Sallustius, the prefect of the court, was unanimously elected. He excused himself on the pretext of his advanced age, which disabled him from being of service in the present critical circumstances. They then desired that his son might be emperor in lieu of himself. But his son he told them was too young, and from that as well as other causes unable to sustain the weight of an imperial diadem. They thus failed in their wish to appoint so distinguished a person, who was the most worthy of the age. They therefore elected Valentinian, a native of Cibalis in Pannonia. He was an excellent soldier, but extremely illiterate. They sent for him, he being then at some distance: and the state was not long without a ruler. Upon his arrival at the army, at Nicaea in Bithynia, he assumed the imperial authority, and proceeded forward. . . .

I have now to state, that while Valentinian was on his journey towards Constantinople, he was seized with a distemper, which increased his natural choleric temper to a degree of cruelty, and even to madness, so that he falsely suspected his sickness to proceed from some charm or poison which Julian's friends had prepared for him through malice. Accusations to that effect were drawn up against some distinguished persons, which were set aside by the discretion of Sallustius, who still was prefect of the court. After his distemper abated, he proceeded from Nicaea to Constantinople. The army and his friends in that city advised him to choose an associate in the empire, that if occasion should require, he might have some one to assist him, and prevent their again suffering as at the death of Julian. He complied with their advice, and after consideration, selected his brother Valens, whom he thought most likely to prove faithful to him. He declared him associate in the empire. . . . Affairs being thus disposed, Valentinian deemed it most prudent to place the east as far as Egypt, Bithynia, and Thrace, under the care of his brother, and to take charge of Illyricum himself. From thence he designed to proceed to Italy, and to retain in his own possession all the cities in that country, and the countries beyond the Alps, with Spain, Britain, and Africa. The empire being thus divided, Valentinian began to govern more rigorously, correcting the faults of the magistrates. He was very severe in the collection of the imposts, and particularly in observing that the soldiers were duly paid. . . .

Meantime the Barbarians beyond the Rhine, who while Julian lived held the Roman name in terror, and were contented to remain quiet in their own territories, as soon as they heard of his death, immediately marched out of their own country, and prepared for a war with the Romans. Valentinian. on bring informed of this, made a proper disposition of his forces, and placed suitable garrisons in all the towns along the Rhine. Valentinian was enabled to make these arrangements by his experience in military affairs. . . . [T] he emperor Valentinian, having favourably disposed the affairs of Germany, made provisions for the future security of the Celtic nations. . . . Valentinian was now attacked by a disease which nearly cost him his life. Upon his recovery the countries requested him to appoint a successor, lest at his decease the commonwealth should be in danger. To this the emperor consented, and declared his son Gratian emperor and his associate in the government, although he was then very young, and not yet capable of the management of affairs. . . .

Valentinian, thinking he had sufficiently secured himself from a German war, acted towards his subjects with great severity, exacting from them exorbitant tributes, such as they had never before paid; under pretence that the military expenditure compelled him to have recourse to the public. Having thus acquired universal hatred, he became still more severe; nor would he enquire into the conduct of the magistrates, but was envious of all whe had the reputation of leading a blameless life. . . . For this cause, the Africans, who could not endure the excessive avarice of the person who held the military command in Mauritania, gave the purple robe to Firmus, and proclaimed him emperor. This doubtless gave much uneasiness to Valentinian, who immediately commanded some legions from the stations in Pannonia and Moesia, to embark for Africa. On this the Sarmatians and the Quadi, who had long entertained a hatred for Celestius, the governor of those countries, availing themselves, of the opportunity afforded by the departure of the legions for Africa, invaded the Pannonians and Moesians. . . . .

Valentinian, roused by the intelligence of these events, marched from Celtica into Illyricum, for the purpose of opposing the Quadi and the Sarmatians, and consigned the command of his forces to Merobaudes, who was a person of the greatest military experience. The winter continuing unusually late, the Quadi sent ambassadors to him with insolent and unbecoming messages. These so exasperated the emperor, that through the violence of his rage, the blood flowed from his head into his mouth, and suffocated him. He thus died after having resided in Illyricum nearly nine months, and after a reign of twelve years.
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AE3

Diademed, draped & cuirassed bust left, D N PROCOPIVS P F AVG
Procopius standing facing, head right, holding labarum in right hand, left resting on shield set on the ground; Chi-rho in upper right field & unidentified object in left at foot; mintmark CONS Gamma.

RIC 17a

Zosimus tells us: On [Valens'] departure from Constantinople, the rebellion of Procopius commenced. This person had been intrusted by Julian, being one of his relations, with a part of his forces, and had been charged to march with Sebastianus through Adiabene, and to meet Julian, who took another route. Permission, moreover, was given him to wear a purple robe, for a reason which no other person was acquainted with. But the deity being pleased to ordain it otherwise, and Jovian having succeeded to the imperial dignity, Procopius immediately delivered up the imperial robe which he had received from Julian, confessing why it had been given to him, and entreating the emperor to absolve him from his military oath, and to allow him to live in retirement, and to attend to agriculture and his own private affairs. Having obtained this, he went with his wife and children to Caesarea in Cappadocia, intending to reside in that place, where he possessed a valuable estate. During his abode there, Valentinian and Valens being made emperors, and being suspicious of him, sent persons to take him into custody. In that they found no difficulty, for he surrendered himself voluntarily; and desired them to carry him wherever they pleased, if they would suffer him first to see his children. To this they consented, and he prepared an entertainment for them. When he perceived them to be intoxicated, he and his family fled towards the Taurica Chersonesus. Having remained there for some time, he found the inhabitants to he a faithless race, and was apprehensive lest they should deliver him to his persecutors. He, therefore, put himself and his family on board a trading vessel, and arrived in the night at Constantinople. He there resided in the house of an old acquaintance, and making observations on the state of the city after the departure of the emperor, he attempted to raise himself to the empire, and formed his design on the following incident.

A eunuch, named Eugenius, had not long before been discharged from the court, who entertained but little friendship for the emperors. Procopius therefore won this man to his interest. . . . Their first attempt was to bribe the court guards, which consisted of two legions. Then arming the slaves, and collecting with ease a considerable multitude, chiefly volunteers, they sent them in the night into the city, and occasioned a general commotion; the people issuing from their houses, and gazing on Procopiusas on a king made in a theatre. But the city being in general confusion, and no person being sufficiently collected in mind by reason of the surprise to know how to act, Procopius imagined his design to be still undiscovered, and that he might secure the empire if the enterprise were no further revealed. Having then seized on Cesarius, whom the emperors had made prefect of the city, and on Nebridius, who was appointed to succeed Sallustius in tbe prefecture of the court, he compelled them to write to the subjects of the empire whatever he wished. He also kept them separate, that they might not consult with each other. Having formed these projects, he proceeded in a splendid manner towards the palace. Ascending a tribunal before the gate, he gave the people great hopes and promises. He then entered the palace to provide for the remainder of his affairs.

The new emperors having divided the army between them, Procopius determined to send persons to the soldiers, who were as yet in confusion, and went by the command of the emperors from place to place without any order. He thus hoped to seduce some of them to his party. Nor did he fail of accomplishing his purpose with ease by distributing money amongst the soldiers and their officers; by which means he collected a considerable force, and prepared to make an open attack on the enemy. Procopius then sent Marcellus into Bithynia with an army against Serenianus and the imperial cavalry that was under his command, in hope of cutting them to pieces. This force having fled to Cyzicus, Marcellus, whose army was superior to theirs both by sea and land, took possession of that town; and having taken Serenianus, who fled into Lydia, put him to death. Procopius was so elevated by this fortunate commencement, that his forces considerably augmented, many being of opinion that he was able to contend with the emperors. Both the Roman legions and the Barbarian troops now flocked to his standard. Besides the reputation of being related to Julian, and of having accompanied him in all the wars he had ever been engaged in, attracted many partizans. He likewise sent ambassadors to the chief of Scythia beyond the Ister, who sent to his assistance ten thousand men. The other Barbarian nations likewise sent auxiliaries to share in the expedition. Procopius however considered that it would be imprudent in him to engage with both emperors together, and therefore thought it best to advance against him who was nearest, and afterwards deliberate on what course to pursue.

Thus was Procopius employed; while the emperor Valens, who heard of this insurrection at Galatia in Phrygia, was filled with consternation at the news. Arbitrio having encouraged him not to despair, he prepared the troops that were with him for war, and sent to his brother to inform him of the designs of Procopius. Valentinian however was little disposed for sending auxiliaries to one who was incapable of defending the empire committed to his charge. Valens was therefore under the necessity of. preparing for war, and appointed Arbitrio to the command of his army. When the armies were ready to engage, Arbitrio circumvented Procopius by a stratagem, and thereby seduced from him a great number of his men, from whom he received previous information of the designs of Procopius. On the advance of the emperor and Procopius towards each other, the two armies met near Thyatira. Procopius at first appeared to have the advantage, by which he would have gained the supreme authority, Hormisdas in the engagement having overpowered the enemy. But Gomarius, another of the commanders of Procopius, imparting his intention to all the soldiers of Procopius who were attached to the emperor, in the midst of the battle cried out Augustus, and gave a signal for them to imitate his example. Thus the most of the troops of Procopius went over to Valens.

After having obtained this victory, Valens marched to Sardes, and from thence into Phrygia, where he found Procopius in a town called Nacolia. Affairs having been ordered for the advantage of the emperor by Naplo, an officer of Procopius, Valens again prevailed, and took him prisoner, and soon afterwards Marcellus, both of whom he put to death.
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AE3

Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right, D N GRATIANVS P F AVG
Gratian standing right, holding labarum with Chi-rho on banner, and holding captive by hair, GLORIA ROMANORVM; Q to left, K over P to right, DSISCR in ex.

RIC 14c

Zosimus reports: [T] he emperor Valentinian, having favourably disposed the affairs of Germany, made provisions for the future security of the Celtic nations. . . . Valentinian was now attacked by a disease which nearly cost him his life. Upon his recovery the countries requested him to appoint a successor, lest at his decease the commonwealth should be in danger. To this the emperor consented, and declared his son Gratian emperor and his associate in the government, although he was then very young, and not yet capable of the management of affairs. . . .

When the affairs of the empire were reduced to this low condition, Victor, who commanded the Roman cavalry, escaping the danger with some of his troops, entered Macedon and Thessaly. From thence he proceeded into Moesia and Pannonia, and informed Gratian, who was then in that quarter, of what had occurred, and of the loss of the emperor [Valens] and his army. Gratian received the intelligence without uneasiness, and was little grieved at the death of his uncle, a disagreement having existed between them. Finding himself unable to manage affairs, Thrace being ravaged by the Barbarians, as were likewise Pannonia and Moesia, and the towns upon the Rhine being infested by the neighbouring Barbarians without controul, he chose for his associate in the empire, Theodosius, who was a native of a town called Cauca, in the part of Spain called Hispania Callaecia, and who possessed great knowledge and experience of military affairs. Having given him the government of Thrace and the eastern provinces, Gratian himself proceeded to the west of Gaul, in order, if possible, to compose affairs in that quarter. . . .

While the affairs of Thrace were, thus situated, those of Gratian were in great perplexity. Having accepted the counsel of those courtiers who usually corrupt the manners of princes, he gave a reception to some fugitives called Alani, whom he not only introduced into his army, but honoured with valuable presents, and confided to them his most important secrets, esteeming his own soldiers of little value. This produced among his soldiers a violent hatred against him, which being gradually inflamed and augmented incited in them a disposition for innovation, and most particulary in that part of them which was in Britain, since they were the most resolute and vindictive. In this spirit they were encouraged by Maximus, a Spaniard, who had been the fellow-soldier of Theodosius in Britain. He was offended that Theodosius should be thought worthy of being made emperor, while he himself had no honourable employment. He therefore cherished the animosity of the soldiers towards the emperor. They were thus easily induced to revolt and to declare Maximus emperor. Having presented to him the purple robe and the diadem, they sailed to the mouth of the Rhine. As the German army, and all who were in that quarter approved of the election, Gratian prepared to contend against Maximus, with a considerable part of the army which still adhered to him. When the armies met, there were only slight skirmishes for five days; until Gratian, |115 perceiving that the Mauritanian cavalry first deserted from him and declared Maximus Augustus, and afterwards that the remainder of his troops by degrees espoused the cause of his antagonist, relinquished all hope, and fled with three hundred horse to the Alps. Finding those regions without defence, he proceeded towards Rhaetia, Noricum, Pannonia, and the Upper Moesia. When Maximus was informed of his route, he was not negligent of the opportunity, but detached Andragathius, commander of the cavalry, who was his faithful adherent, in pursuit of Gratian. This officer followed him with so great speed, that he overtook him when he was passing the bridge at Sigidunus, and put him to death.
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TheodosAE4VotMult~0.jpg
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AE4

Pearl diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right, D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG
VOT V MVLT X within wreath, ASISC in ex

RIC 29d

Zosimus recorded: [Valentinian] commanded some legions from the stations in Pannonia and Moesia, to embark for Africa [to crush a rebellion]. On this the Sarmatians and the Quadi. . . , availing themselves, of the opportunity afforded by the departure of the legions for Africa, invaded the Pannonians and Moesians. . . . The barbarians therefore revenged themselves by plundering all the country along the Ister, carrying off all that they found in the towns. The Pannonians were by these means exposed to the cruelty of the barbarians, while the soldiers were extremely negligent in the defence of their towns, and committed as much mischief as the Barbarians themselves in all places on this side of the river. But Moesia was free from harm, because Theodosius, who commanded the forces there, courageously resisted the Barbarians, and routed them when they attacked him. By that victory he not only acquired great renown, but subsequently attained the imperial dignity. . . .

When the affairs of the empire were reduced to this low condition, Victor, who commanded the Roman cavalry, escaping the danger with some of his troops, entered Macedon and Thessaly. From thence he proceeded into Moesia and Pannonia, and informed Gratian, who was then in that quarter, of what had occurred, and of the loss of the emperor [Valens] and his army. Gratian received the intelligence without uneasiness, and was little grieved at the death of his uncle, a disagreement having existed between them. Finding himself unable to manage affairs, Thrace being ravaged by the Barbarians, as were likewise Pannonia and Moesia, and the towns upon the Rhine being infested by the neighbouring Barbarians without controul, he chose for his associate in the empire, Theodosius, who was a native of a town called Cauca, in the part of Spain called Hispania Callaecia, and who possessed great knowledge and experience of military affairs. Having given him the government of Thrace and the eastern provinces, Gratian himself proceeded to the west of Gaul, in order, if possible, to compose affairs in that quarter. . . .

During the stay of the new emperor, Theodosius, at Thesslonica, a great concourse arrived there from all parts of persons soliciting him on business, both public and private; who having obtained of him whatever he could conveniently grant, returned, to their homes. As a great multitude of the Scythians beyond the Ister, the Gotthi, and the Taiphali, and other tribes that formerly dwelt among them, had crossed the river, and were driven to infest the Roman dominions, because the Huns, had expelled them from their own country, the emperor Theodosius prepared for war with all his forces. . . . The army having made this good use of the occasion afforded by fortune, the affairs of Thrace, which had been on the brink of ruin, were now, the Barbarians being crushed beyond all hope, re-established in peace. . . .

Meanwhile, the emperor Theodosius, residing in Thessalonica, was easy of access to all who wished to see him. Having commenced his reign in luxury and indolence, he threw the magistracy into disorder, and increased the number of his military officers. . . . As he squandered the public money without consideration, bestowing it on unworthy persons, he consequently impoverished himself. He therefore sold the government of provinces to any who would purchase them, without regard to the reputation or ablity of the persons, esteeming him the best qualified who brought him the most gold or silver. . . .

Maximus, who deemed his appointments inferior to his merits, being only governor of the countries formerly under Gratian, projected how to depose the young Valentinian from the empire. . . . This so much surprised Valentinian, and rendered his situation so desperate, that his courtiers were alarmed lest he should be taken by Maximus and put to death. He, therefore, immediately embarked,and sailed to Thessalonica with his mother Justina. . . . [A]rriving at Thessalonica, they sent messengers to the emperor Theodosius, intreating him now at least to revenge the injuries committed against the family of Valentinian. . . . The emperor, being delivered from this alarm, marched with great resolution with his whole army against Maximus. . . . Theodosius, having passed through Pannonia and the defiles of the Appennines, attacked unawares the forces of Maximus before they were prepared for him. A part of his army, having pursued them with the utmost speed, forced their way through the gates of Aquileia, the guards being too few to resist them. Maximus was torn from his imperial throne while in the act of distributing money to his soldiers, and being stripped of his imperial robes, was brought to Theodosius, who, having in reproach enumerated some of his crimes against the commonwealth, delivered him to the common executioner to receive due punishment. . . . The emperor Theodosius, having consigned Italy, Spain, Celtica, and Libya to his son Honorius, died of a disease on his journey towards Constantinople.
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MagnMaxAE2RepReip.jpg
1ew Magnus Maximus45 views383-388

AE2

Diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right, D N MAG MAXIMVS P F AVG
Emperor standing left, raising kneeling female; mintmarks PCON, SCON and TCON known, REPARATIO REIPVB

RIC 26a

Zosimus reports: While the affairs of Thrace were, thus situated, those of Gratian were in great perplexity. Having accepted the counsel of those courtiers who usually corrupt the manners of princes, he gave a reception to some fugitives called Alani, whom he not only introduced into his army, but honoured with valuable presents, and confided to them his most important secrets, esteeming his own soldiers of little value. This produced among his soldiers a violent hatred against him, which being gradually inflamed and augmented incited in them a disposition for innovation, and most particulary in that part of them which was in Britain, since they were the most resolute and vindictive. In this spirit they were encouraged by Maximus, a Spaniard, who had been the fellow-soldier of Theodosius in Britain. He was offended that Theodosius should be thought worthy of being made emperor, while he himself had no honourable employment. He therefore cherished the animosity of the soldiers towards the emperor. They were thus easily induced to revolt and to declare Maximus emperor. Having presented to him the purple robe and the diadem, they sailed to the mouth of the Rhine. As the German army, and all who were in that quarter approved of the election, Gratian prepared to contend against Maximus, with a considerable part of the army which still adhered to him. When the armies met, there were only slight skirmishes for five days; until Gratian, |115 perceiving that the Mauritanian cavalry first deserted from him and declared Maximus Augustus, and afterwards that the remainder of his troops by degrees espoused the cause of his antagonist, relinquished all hope, and fled with three hundred horse to the Alps. Finding those regions without defence, he proceeded towards Rhaetia, Noricum, Pannonia, and the Upper Moesia. When Maximus was informed of his route, he was not negligent of the opportunity, but detached Andragathius, commander of the cavalry, who was his faithful adherent, in pursuit of Gratian. This officer followed him with so great speed, that he overtook him when he was passing the bridge at Sigidunus, and put him to death. . . .

The reign of Gratian being thus terminated, Maximus, who now considered himself firmly fixed in the empire, sent an embassy to the emperor Theodosius, not to intreat pardon for his treatment of Gratian, but rather to increase his provocations. The person employed in this mission was the imperial chamberlain (for Maximus would not suffer an eunuch to preside in his court), a prudent person, with whom he had been familiarly acquainted from his infancy. The purport of his mission was to propose to Theodosius a treaty of amity, and of alliance, against all enemies who should make war on the Romans, and on refusal, to declare against him open hostility. Upon this, Theodosius admitted Maximus to a share in the empire, and in the honour of his statues and his imperial title. . . .

Affairs being thus situated in the east, in Thrace, and in Illyricum, Maximus, who deemed his appointments inferior to his merits, being only governor of the countries formerly under Gratian, projected how to depose the young Valentinian from the empire, if possible totally, but should he fail in the whole, to secure at least some part. . . . he immediately entered Italy without; resistance, and marched to Aquileia. . . .

Theodosius, having passed through Pannonia and the defiles of the Appennines, attacked unawares the forces of Maximus before they were prepared for him. A part of his army, having pursued them with the utmost speed, forced their way through the gates of Aquileia, the guards being too few to resist them. Maximus was torn from his imperial throne while in the act of distributing money to his soldiers, and being stripped of his imperial robes, was brought to Theodosius, who, having in reproach enumerated some of his crimes against the commonwealth, delivered him to the common executioner to receive due punishment. Such was the end of Maximus and of his usurpation. Having fraudulently overcome Valentinian, he imagined that he should with ease subdue the whole Roman empire. Theodosius, having heard, that when Maximus came from beyond the Alps he left his son Victor, whom he had dignified with the title of Caesar, he immediately sent for his general, named Arbogastes, who deprived the youth both of his dignity and life.
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HonoriusAE3Emperors.jpg
1fa Honorius19 views393-423

AE3

RIC 403

Pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right, DN HONORIVS PF AVG
Two emperors standing facing, heads turned to one another, each holding spear and resting hand on shield, GLORIA ROMANORVM. Mintmark SMKA.

Zosimus wrote: [Theodosius] proceeded with his army to the war [against Eugenius], leaving behind him his son Arcadius, who had some time previously been made emperor. . . . Having done this, he took with him his younger son Honorius, quickly passed through the intermediate countries, and having exceded his expectations in crossing the Alps, arrived where the enemy was stationed. . . . The emperor Theodosius after these successes proceeded to Rome, where he declared his son Honorius emperor, and appointing Stilico to the command of his forces there, left him as guardian to his son. . . . The emperor Theodosius, having consigned Italy, Spain, Celtica, and Libya to his son Honorius, died of a disease on his journey towards Constantinople. . . .

THE whole empire being vested in Arcadius and Honorius, they indeed appeared by their title to possess the sovereign authority, although the universal administration of affairs was under Rufinus in the east, and under Stilico in the west. By these all causes were determined, at their own pleasure; for whoever bribed plentifully, or by any other means of friendship or consanguinity could make the judge his advocate, was sure to succeed in the process. From hence it happened that most of those great estates, which cause the possessors to be generally esteemed fortunate, devolved to these two; since some endeavoured by gifts to avoid false accusations, and others relinquished all their possessions to obtain an office, or in any other manner to purchase the ruin of particular cities. While iniquity of every kind presided, therefore, in the respective cities, the money from all quarters flowed into the coffers of Rufinus and Stilico ; while on the reverse, poverty preyed on the habitations of those who had formerly been rich. Nor were the emperors acquainted with anything that was done, but thought all that Rufinus and Stilico commanded was done by virtue of some unwritten law. . . .

After the autumn was terminated, and winter had commenced, Bassus and Philippus being chosen consuls, the emperor Honorius, who had long before lost his wife Maria, desired to marry her sister Thermantia. But Stilico appeared not to approve of the match, although it was promoted by Serena, who wished it to take place from these motives. When Maria was about to be married to Honorius, her mother, deeming her too young for the marriage-state and being unwilling to defer the marriage, although she thought that to submit so young and tender a person to the embraces of a man was offering violence to nature, she had recourse to a woman who knew how to manage such affairs, and by her means contrived that Maria should live with the emperor and share his bed, but that he should not have the power to deprive her of virginity. In the meantime Maria died a virgin, and Serena, who, as may readily be supposed, was desirous to become the grandmother of a young emperor or empress, through fear of her influence being diminished, used all her endeavours to marry her other daughter to Honorius. This being accomplished, the young lady shortly afterwards died in the same manner as the former. . . . .

For Stilico was desirous of proceeding to the east to undertake the management of the affairs of Theodosius, the son of Arcadius, who was very young, and in want of a guardian. Honorius himself was also inclined to undertake the same journey, with a design to secure the dominions of that emperor. But Stilico, being displeased at that, and laying before the emperor a calculation of the immense sum of money it would require to defray the expence of such an expedition, deterred him from the enterprise. . . .

In the mean time, the emperor Honorius commanded his wife Thermantia to be taken from the imperial throne, and to be restored to her mother, who notwithstanding was without suspicion. . . . Alaric began his expedition against Rome, and ridiculed the preparations made by Honorius. . . . The emperor Honorius was now entering on the consulship, having enjoyed that honour eight times, and the emperor Theodosius in the east three times. At this juncture the rebel Constantine sent some eunches to Honorius, to intreat pardon from him for having accepted of the empire. When the emperor heard this petition, perceiving that it was not easy for him, since Alaric and his barbarians were so near, to prepare for other wars ; and consulting the safety of his relations who were in the hands of the rebel, whose names were Verenianus and Didymius; he not only granted his request, but likewise sent him an imperial robe. . . .

Note: No ancient source reports the sack of Rome by the Goths in 410, they having besieged the city three times, all while Honorius huddled in a besieged Ravenna. Honorius retained his nominal capacity until he died in 423.
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BOTLAUREL_2013.JPG
201339 viewsTHIS YEAR'S WINNERS
CLICK ON A COIN FOR ITS DETAILS

*Alex
22117.jpg
22117 Elagabalus/Sacrificing10 viewsElagabalus/Emperor Sacrificing
Obv: IMP. ANTONINUS PIUS AUG.
Bust of Elagabalus laureate and draped bust right, horn above forehead.
Rev: SVMMVS SACERDOS AVG
Elagabalus, in Syrian priestly robes, standing left, sacrificing out of patera in right hand over tripod, holding branch downwards in left hand; in field, star
Mint: Rome 18mm 3.02g
RIC IV Elagabalus 146 Sear 7549
Ex: Savoca Auction 16th Blue Auction
Blayne W
carus RIC082f.jpg
282-283 AD - CARUS AE antoninianus12 viewsobv: IMP.CARVS.P.F.AVG (radiate, draped & cuirassed bust right)
rev: SPES.PVBLICA (Spes walking left with flower & raising robes), SXXI in ex
ref: RIC82f, C.79
mint: Ticinum, struck 283 AD
3.21gms, 22mm
berserker
1214_P_Hadrian_RPC3360_6.jpg
3360 CILICIA, Mopsus Hadrian Tetradrachm, Sabina20 viewsReference.
Prieur –; SNG BN –; SNG Levante –; RPC III 3360.6 (this coin, illustrated on pl. 152)

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙ ΘΕ ΤΡΑ ΠΑΡ ΥΙ ΘΕ ΝΕΡ ΥΙ ΤΡ ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟϹ Ϲ, Π Π (in field)
laureate and cuirassed bust of Hadrian, r., with paludamentum

Rev. ϹΑΒΕΙΝΑ ϹΕΒ ΑΔΡΙ ΜΟΨΕΑΤωΝ ΠΟΛΕωϹ
Draped bust of Sabina as Artemis on crescent, r. with stephane and quiver on shoulder

Note.
From the Michel Prieur Collection. Ex Robert O. Ebert Collection.

13.15 gr
27 mm
6h
3 commentsokidoki
1213_P_Hadrian_RPC3805.jpg
3805 SELEUCIS Laodicea ad Mare. Hadrian Tetradrachm 123-24 AD Tyche 37 viewsReference.
RPC III, 3805/6; Prieur 1109; Adra 1562-5; Paris 1157

Issue Year 170 (OP)

Obv. ΑΥΤΟΚΡ ΚΑΙСΑΡ ΤΡΑΙΑΝΟС ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СΕΒΑСΤ
Laureate and cuirassed bust of Hadrian right, with gorgoneion on breastplate

Rev. ΙΟΥΛΙΕωΝ ΤωΝ ΚΑΙ ΛΑΟΔΙΚΕωΝ
Turreted and draped bust of Tyche, right; in field, right, ΟΡ soldiers arming the battlements/towers on Tyche's head

13 gr
25 mm
12h

Note.
From the Michel Prieur Collection. Ex Robert O. Ebert Collection (Part I, Stack’s Bowers & Ponterio 174, 11 January 2013), lot 5142; Numismatica Ars Classica 1 (39 March 1989), lot 862; Münzen und Medaillen AG FPL 279 (August 1967), no. 40.
7 commentsokidoki
423-1_Servilia2.jpg
423/1. Servilia - denarius (57 BC)26 viewsAR Denarius (Rome, 57 BC)
O/ Head of Flora right; lituus behind; FLORAL PRIMVS before.
R/ Two soldiers facing each other and presenting swords; C SERVEIL in exergue; C F upwards on right.
3.87g; 18mm
Crawford 423/1 (99 obverse dies/110 reverse dies)
- ROMA Numismatics, E-Sale 42, lot 484.
- Artemide Aste, 11-12 June 2016, lot 253.

* Gaius Servilius C.f. (Brocchus?):

The gens Servilia was originally patrician, but our moneyer was most likely a plebeian because at this time, the only remaining patrician branch of the gens was the Caepiones. The Servilii Gemini, likewise patricians at first, lost their status during the Second Punic War for an unknown reason and their descendants had erratic cognomina, making it difficult to reconstruct the genealogical tree of the gens. The one given by Crawford for RRC 239 is dubious, although possible.

Crawford also says that our moneyer was perhaps a brother of Marcus Servilius C.f., Tribune of the Plebs in 43 BC. He was possibly the Gaius Servilius Brocchus, son of Gaius, mentioned as Military Tribune by Flavius Josephus (Jewish Antiquities, xiv. 229), who tells that he served under the Consul L. Cornelius Lentulus Crus in Asia. It would match a career started in the 50, during which the Pompeian party was dominating, and continued as Pompey's supporter during the Civil War.

The meaning of his denarius has been debated. According to Crawford, the obverse legend refers to the priesthood of Flora, probably held by the gens, contradicting the view of Mommsen, who thought it was celebrating the establishment of the Ludi Florales in 173. This view has been in turn challenged by Robert Palmer, but without giving an explanation of his own*. It should also be mentioned that Pliny the Elder tells that there were statues of Flora, Triptolemus and Ceres by Praxiteles in the "Servilian gardens" (Natural History, xxxvi. 4), which obviously belonged to the gens, showing that Flora was of special importance for the Servilii.

The reverse reuses a common theme on Servilii's denarii: the duels of Marcus Servilius Pulex Geminus, Consul in 202, who was famous for his 23 victories in single combats (Plutarch, Aemilius Paullus, 31). The scene was depicted with variations on RRC 264 (horseback duel), RRC 327 (duel on foot), and RRC 370 (rider charging). It is also possible that RRC 239 shows another duel on horse, but disguised as the Dioscuri riding apart. The fact that our moneyer used this theme links him to the other direct descendants of Servilius Pulex Geminus, thus supporting Crawford's theory that he was a grandchild of Gaius Servilius, Praetor in 102.

* "Flora and the Sybil", in Ten Years of the Agnes Kirsopp Lake Michels Lectures at Bryn Mawr College, edited by Suzanne B. Faris, Lesley E. Lundeen, Bryn Mawr, 2006, pp. 58-70.
3 commentsJoss
Plautius.jpg
47 BC L Plautius Plancus106 viewsL PLAVTIVS
Head of Medusa facing

PLANCVS
Victory facing, her wings spread, conducting four rearing horses

Rome 47 BC
Sear 429, RSC Plautia 14-15c, RRC 453/1
4.00g

ex Roberto Pedoni Roma
2 commentsJay GT4
20-Galerius-Car-32b.jpg
49 Galerius as Caesar: Carthage follis.27 viewsFollis, 299 - 303 AD, Carthage mint.
Obverse: MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES / Laureate bust of Galerius.
Reverse: SALVS AVGG ET CAES FEL KART / Carthage standing, dressed in long robe, holding fruits in both hands.
Mint mark: Δ
11.02 gm,, 29 mm.
RIC #32b; Sear #14411.
1 commentsCallimachus
582-602 Maurice Tibčre S534 an4.jpg
582-602 Maurice Tiberius - half-follis from Antioch26 viewsBlundered legend (?) , bust facing wearing consular robe, holding mappa and scepter xith eagle
ANNO / IIII , Large XX ; exergue R

Sear 534
Ginolerhino
Cassius.jpg
63 BC L. Cassius Longinus51 viewsVeiled and diad. head of Vesta left, two-handled cup behind, control letter "A" before

LONGIN III V
Togate citizen standing left depositing ballot inscribed V in voting box

Rome 63 BC
3.75 g

Sear 364, RRC 413/1, RSC Cassia 10

Ex Roberto Pedoni


On the obverse below the chin of Vesta is a control letter. The only letters employed on this issue are L, C, A, S, S (inverted) and I. If you collect enough coins of this moneyer, you can spell the moneyer's name in full: L. CASSI
4 commentsJay GT4
galba denar.jpg
68-69 AD - GALBA AR denarius - struck July 68- Jan. 69 AD56 viewsobv: IMP SER GALBA CAESAR AVG (laureate head right)
rev: DIVA AVGVSTA (A woman dressed in the stola and long robe, holding a patera and hasta)
ref: RIC I 186, C.8 (10frcs)
3.20gms, 17,5mm
Rare

Galba, who was grently indebted to Livia (wife of Augustus), on which account he held her memory in gratitude, and caused her image to be struck on his coins.
1 commentsberserker
TiberiusTributePennyRICI30RSCII16aSRCV1763.jpg
703a, Tiberius, 19 August 14 - 16 March 37 A.D., Tribute Penny of Matthew 22:20-2144 viewsSilver denarius, RIC I 30, RSC II 16a, SRCV 1763, gVF, Lugdunum mint, 3.837g, 18.7mm, 90o, 16 - 37 A.D.; obverse TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS, laureate head right; reverse PONTIF MAXIM, Pax/Livia seated right holding scepter and branch, legs on chair ornamented, feet on footstool; toned. Ex FORVM.


De Imperatoribus Romanis
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Tiberius (A.D. 14-37)

Garrett G. Fagan
Pennsylvania State University

Introduction
The reign of Tiberius (b. 42 B.C., d. A.D. 37, emperor A.D. 14-37) is a particularly important one for the Principate, since it was the first occasion when the powers designed for Augustus alone were exercised by somebody else. In contrast to the approachable and tactful Augustus, Tiberius emerges from the sources as an enigmatic and darkly complex figure, intelligent and cunning, but given to bouts of severe depression and dark moods that had a great impact on his political career as well as his personal relationships.

. . . .

Early life (42-12 B.C.)
Tiberius Claudius Nero was born on 16 November 42 B.C. to Ti. Claudius Nero and Livia Drusilla. Both parents were scions of the gens Claudia which had supplied leaders to the Roman Republic for many generations. . . [I]n 39 B.C., his mother Livia divorced Ti. Claudius Nero and married Octavian, thereby making the infant Tiberius the stepson of the future ruler of the Roman world. Forever afterward, Tiberius was to have his name coupled with this man, and always to his detriment.

. . . .

Accession and Early Reign (A.D. 14 - 23)
The accession of Tiberius proved intensely awkward. After Augustus had been buried and deified, and his will read and honored, the Senate convened on 18 September to inaugurate the new reign and officially "confirm" Tiberius as emperor. Such a transfer of power had never happened before, and nobody, including Tiberius, appears to have known what to do. Tacitus's account is the fullest. . . Rather than tactful, he came across to the senators as obdurate and obstructive. He declared that he was too old for the responsibilities of the Principate, said he did not want the job, and asked if he could just take one part of the government for himself. The Senate was confused, not knowing how to read his behavior. Finally, one senator asked pointedly, "Sire, for how long will you allow the State to be without a head?" Tiberius relented and accepted the powers voted to him, although he refused the title "Augustus."

. . . .

Tiberius allowed a trusted advisor to get too close and gain a tremendous influence over him. That advisor was the Praetorian Prefect, L. Aelius Sejanus, who would derail Tiberius's plans for the succession and drive the emperor farther into isolation, depression, and paranoia.

Sejanus (A.D. 23-31)
Sejanus hailed from Volsinii in Etruria. He and his father shared the Praetorian Prefecture until A.D. 15 when the father, L. Seius Strabo, was promoted to be Prefect of Egypt, the pinnacle of an equestrian career under the Principate. Sejanus, now sole Prefect of the Guard, enjoyed powerful connections to senatorial houses and had been a companion to Gaius Caesar on his mission to the East, 1 B.C. - A.D. 4. Through a combination of energetic efficiency, fawning sycophancy, and outward displays of loyalty, he gained the position of Tiberius's closest friend and advisor.

. . . .

[I]n a shocking and unexpected turn of events, [a] letter sent by Tiberius from Capri initially praised Sejanus extensively, and then suddenly denounced him as a traitor and demanded his arrest. Chaos ensued. Senators long allied with Sejanus headed for the exits, the others were confused -- was this a test of their loyalty? What did the emperor want them to do? -- but the Praetorian Guard, the very troops formerly under Sejanus's command but recently and secretly transferred to the command of Q. Sutorius Macro, arrested Sejanus, conveyed him to prison, and shortly afterwards executed him summarily. A witch-hunt followed. . . All around the city, grim scenes were played out, and as late as A.D. 33 a general massacre of all those still in custody took place.

Tiberius himself later claimed that he turned on Sejanus because he had been alerted to Sejanus's plot against Germanicus's family. This explanation has been rejected by most ancient and modern authorities, since Sejanus's demise did nothing to alleviate that family's troubles.

. . . .

The Last Years (A.D. 31-37)
The Sejanus affair appears to have greatly depressed Tiberius. A close friend and confidant had betrayed him; whom could he trust anymore? His withdrawal from public life seemed more complete in the last years. Letters kept him in touch with Rome, but it was the machinery of the Augustan administration that kept the empire running smoothly. Tiberius, if we believe our sources, spent much of his time indulging his perversities on Capri.

. . . .

Tiberius died quietly in a villa at Misenum on 16 March A.D. 37. He was 78 years old. There are some hints in the sources of the hand of Caligula in the deed, but such innuendo can be expected at the death of an emperor, especially when his successor proved so depraved. The level of unpopularity Tiberius had achieved by the time of his death with both the upper and lower classes is revealed by these facts: the Senate refused to vote him divine honors, and mobs filled the streets yelling "To the Tiber with Tiberius!" (in reference to a method of disposal reserved for the corpses of criminals).

Tiberius and the Empire
Three main aspects of Tiberius's impact on the empire deserve special attention: his relative military inertia; his modesty in dealing with offers of divine honors and his fair treatment of provincials; and his use of the Law of Treason (maiestas).

. . . .

Conclusion
. . . Tiberius's reign sporadically descended into tyranny of the worst sort. In the right climate of paranoia and suspicion, widespread denunciation led to the deaths of dozens of Senators and equestrians, as well as numerous members of the imperial house. In this sense, the reign of Tiberius decisively ended the Augustan illusion of "the Republic Restored" and shone some light into the future of the Principate, revealing that which was both promising and terrifying.

[For the entire article please refer to http://www.roman-emperors.org/tiberius.htm]

Copyright © 1997, Garrett G. Fagan. Used by permission.

"Some of the things he did are hard to believe. He had little boys trained as minnows to chase him when he went swimming and to get between his legs and nibble him. He also had babies not weaned from their mother breast suck at his chest and groin . . . "
(Suetonius. The Twelve Caesars. Trans. Robert Graves. London: Penguin Books, 1979. XLIV).

Jesus, referring to a "penny" asked, "Whose is this image and superscription?" When told it was Caesar, He said, ''Render therefore unto Caesar the things which are Caesar's and unto God the things that are God's" (Matthew 22:20-21). Since Tiberius was Caesar at the time, this denarius type is attributed by scholars as the "penny" referred to in the Bible(Joseph Sermarini).


Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
CLAUD34LG.jpg
705a, Claudius, 25 January 41 - 13 October 54 A.D.61 viewsClaudius. 42-43 AD. AE As.
Claudius. 42-43 AD. AE As (29 mm, 10.87 g). Obverse: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP P P, bare head right; Reverse: CONSTANTIAE AVGVSTI / S - C, Constantiae in military dress standing left, holding spear; RIC I, 111; aVF. Ex Imperial Coins.



De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

CLAUDIUS (41-54 A.D.)

Garrett G. Fagan
Pennsylvania State University

Ti. Claudius Nero Germanicus (b. 10 BC, d. 54 A.D.; emperor, 41-54 A.D.) was the third emperor of the Julio-Claudian dynasty. His reign represents a turning point in the history of the Principate for a number of reasons, not the least for the manner of his accession and the implications it carried for the nature of the office. During his reign he promoted administrators who did not belong to the senatorial or equestrian classes, and was later vilified by authors who did. He followed Caesar in carrying Roman arms across the English Channel into Britain but, unlike his predecessor, he initiated the full-scale annexation of Britain as a province, which remains today the most closely studied corner of the Roman Empire. His relationships with his wives and children provide detailed insights into the perennial difficulties of the succession problem faced by all Roman Emperors. His final settlement in this regard was not lucky: he adopted his fourth wife's son, L. Domitius Ahenobarbus, who was to reign catastrophically as Nero and bring the dynasty to an end. Claudius's reign, therefore, was a mixture of successes and failures that leads into the last phase of the Julio-Claudian line.

Robert Graves' fictional characterization of Claudius as an essentially benign man with a keen intelligence has tended to dominate the wider public's view of this emperor. Close study of the sources, however, reveals a somewhat different kind of man. In addition to his scholarly and cautious nature, he had a cruel streak, as suggested by his addiction to gladiatorial games and his fondness for watching his defeated opponents executed. He conducted closed-door (in camera ) trials of leading citizens that frequently resulted in their ruin or deaths -- an unprecedented and tyrannical pattern of behavior. He had his wife Messalina executed, and he personally presided over a kangaroo court in the Praetorian Camp in which many of her hangers-on lost their lives. He abandoned his own son Britannicus to his fate and favored the advancement of Nero as his successor. While he cannot be blamed for the disastrous way Nero's rule turned out, he must take some responsibility for putting that most unsuitable youth on the throne. At the same time, his reign was marked by some notable successes: the invasion of Britain, stability and good government in the provinces, and successful management of client kingdoms. Claudius, then, is a more enigmatic figure than the other Julio-Claudian emperors: at once careful, intelligent, aware and respectful of tradition, but given to bouts of rage and cruelty, willing to sacrifice precedent to expediency, and utterly ruthless in his treatment of those who crossed him. Augustus's suspicion that there was more to the timid Claudius than met the eye was more than fully borne out by the events of his unexpected reign.

The possibility has to be entertained that Claudius was a far more active participant in his own elevation than traditional accounts let on. There is just reason to suspect that he may even have been involved in planning the murder of Gaius (Caligula). Merely minutes before the assassination of Gaius, Claudius had departed for lunch; this appears altogether too fortuitous. This possibility, however, must remain pure speculation, since the ancient evidence offers nothing explicit in the way of support. On the other hand, we can hardly expect them to, given the later pattern of events. The whole issue of Claudius's possible involvement in the death of Gaius and his own subsequent acclamation by the Praetorian Guard must, therefore, remain moot . . . yet intriguing

Copyright 1998, Garrett G. Fagan.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
DomitianARDenariusHorseman.jpg
712a, Domitian, 13 September 81 - 18 September 96 A.D.157 viewsDomitian, as Caesar, AR Denarius. 77-78 AD; RIC 242, VF, 18mm, 3.18grams. Obverse: CAESAR AVG F DOMITIA[NVS], laureate head right ; Reverse: COS V below man with hand raised out behind him on horse prancing right. RSC 49a. Scarce. Ex Zuzim Judaea.

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Titus Flavius Domitianus(A.D. 81-96)

John Donahue
College of William and Mary

Domitian was born in Rome on 24 October A.D. 51, the youngest son of Vespasian, Roman emperor (A.D. 69-79) and Domitilla I, a treasury clerk's daughter. Little is known about Domitian in the turbulent 18 months of the four (five?) emperors, but in the aftermath of the downfall of Vitellius in A.D. 69 he presented himself to the invading Flavian forces, was hailed as Caesar, and moved into the imperial residence.

As emperor, Domitian was to become one of Rome's foremost micromanagers, especially concerning the economy. Shortly after taking office, he raised the silver content of the denarius by about 12% (to the earlier level of Augustus), only to devaluate it in A.D. 85, when the imperial income must have proved insufficient to meet military and public expenses.

Domitian's reach extended well beyond the economy. Late in A.D. 85 he made himself censor perpetuus, censor for life, with a general supervision of conduct and morals. The move was without precedent and, although largely symbolic, it nevertheless revealed Domitian's obsessive interest in all aspects of Roman life. An ardent supporter of traditional Roman religion, he also closely identified himself with Minerva and Jupiter, publicly linking the latter divinity to his regime through the Ludi Capitolini, the Capitoline Games, begun in A.D.86. Held every four years in the early summer, the Games consisted of chariot races, athletics and gymnastics, and music, oratory and poetry.

Beyond Rome, Domitian taxed provincials rigorously and was not afraid to impose his will on officials of every rank. Consistent with his concern for the details of administration, he also made essential changes in the organization of several provinces and established the office of curator to investigate financial mismanagement in the cities. Other evidence points to a concern with civic improvements of all kinds, from road building in Asia Minor, Sardinia and near the Danube to building and defensive improvements in North Africa.

While the military abilities of Vespasian and Titus were genuine, those of Domitian were not. Partly as an attempt to remedy this deficiency, Domitian frequently became involved in his own military exploits outside of Rome. He claimed a triumph in A.D. 83 for subduing the Chatti in Gaul, but the conquest was illusory. Final victory did not really come until A.D. 89. In Britain, similar propaganda masked the withdrawal of Roman forces from the northern borders to positions farther south, a clear sign of Domitian's rejection of expansionist warfare in the province.

Domitian's autocratic tendencies meant that the real seat of power during his reign resided with his court. The features typically associated with later courts - a small band of favored courtiers, a keen interest in the bizarre and the unusual (e.g., wrestlers, jesters, and dwarves), and a highly mannered, if somewhat artificial atmosphere, characterized Domitian's palace too, whether at Rome or at his Alban villa, some 20 kilometers outside of the capital.

On 18 September, A.D. 96, Domitian was assassinated and was succeeded on the very same day by M. Cocceius Nerva, a senator and one of his amici. The sources are unanimous in stressing that this was a palace plot, yet it is difficult to determine the level of culpability among the various potential conspirators.
In many ways, Domitian is still a mystery - a lazy and licentious ruler by some accounts, an ambitious administrator and keeper of traditional Roman religion by others. As many of his economic, provincial, and military policies reveal, he was efficient and practical in much that he undertook, yet he also did nothing to hide the harsher despotic realities of his rule. This fact, combined with his solitary personality and frequent absences from Rome, guaranteed a harsh portrayal of his rule. The ultimate truths of his reign remain difficult to know.

Copyright (C) 1997, John Donahue.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Perhaps the reverse of this Domitian/Horseman specimen depicts Domitian as he rode a white horse behind his father, Vespasian, and his brother, Titus, during their joint triumph celebrating their victory over Judaea (see: Suetonius. The Twelve Caesars. Trans. Robert Graves. London: Penguin, 2003. 304).

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
a17.jpg
9.10 Elagabalus Denarius39 viewsRome Mint 221-222 AD
obv. ANTONINVS PIVS AVG
rev. INVICTVS SACERDOS AVG Elagabalus in priestly robes sacrificing a bull on the alter, holding cyress branch, star in left field
Sear 7518
Zam
Valens_33.jpg
A123 viewsValens AE3

Attribution: RIC IX, 12b, Antioch
Date: AD 364-378
Obverse: DN VALENS PF AVG, pearl diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust r.
Reverse: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE, Victory advancing l. holding wreath and palm, ANTH in exergue
Size: 18 mm

Approximately one month after his ascension, Valentinian I appointed his younger brother, Valens, joint Augustus and placed him in charge of the eastern provinces including the eastern half of the Balkan Peninsula, Greece, Egypt, Syria and Anatolia as far east as Persia. As a dedicated Christian and anti-intellectual, Valens chose those close to him as his officers and ministers. He did not follow the traditional aristocratic ways. The Visigoths along the Danube frontier were being pushed towards the borders of the empire by the Huns. They requested asylum, which was not entirely granted by the emperor. Valens left a small group of riparian commanders to oversee the entry of a small group of Visigoths, but the barbarians crossed into the empire by the tens of thousands. When the riparian commanders began abusing the Visigoths under their charge, they revolted in early AD 377 and defeated the Roman units in Thrace outside of Marcianople. Interestingly, but AD 378, the Visigoths were actually joined by the Ostrogoths, Alans, and Huns, to form a formidable force which the Romans now had to contend with. The emperor of the West, Gratian, pleaded with his uncle, emperor Valens, to wait for his reinforcements to arrive prior to engaging the barbarians. In an act of superciliousness, Valens decided to take care of the problem himself due to his jealousy of his nephew’s successes. Valens sallied forth to the confrontation which would later be called the Battle of Adrianople. Here the hasty emperor met his fate. There are two accounts of his death given by Ammianus. The first states that he was mortally wounded by an arrow and died on the battlefield. The second account tells of how the wounded Valens fled to a wooden hut which was then burned down by Gothic troops who were unaware of his presence inside. Still a third account of his death was specified by the church historian Socrates (see quote below). The Romans never recovered from this debacle; this marked the beginning of the end for the empire. Gratian, only 19 at the time, chose a Spanish officer named Theodosius to take the position vacated by his uncle Valens.

“Some have asserted that he was burnt to death in a village whither he had retired, which the barbarians assaulted and set on fire. But others affirm that having put off his imperial robe he ran into the midst of the main body of infantry; and that when the cavalry revolted and refused to engage, the infantry were surrounded by the barbarians, and completely destroyed in a body. Among these it is said the emperor fell, but could not be distinguished, in consequence of his not having on his imperial habit.” – Church Historian Socrates The Ecclesiastical History VI.38
1 commentsNoah
R4916_souvignyabotts1080_1213_19mm83g.jpg
Abbots of Souvigny 1080-1213 AR denier 12 viewsObv SILVIMIA.CO cross
Rev. SES.MAIOLNS facing portrait of saint Maieur
Mint:Souvigny
Date: 1080-1213
19mm
.83g
Roberts 4916
wileyc
sear_537~0.jpg
AE Decanummium Maurice Tiberius42 viewsObverse: DN MAY CN P AY( or similar) Bust facing, wearing crown with trefoil ornament and consular robes, in r. hand, mappa; in l., eagle tipped sceptre.
Reverse: Large I between ANNP and regnal year (X, I), cross above THEUP in ex
Mint: Theoupolis (Antioch)
Date: 593/4 CE
Sear 537 DO 203-12
wileyc
sear_536.jpg
AE Decanummium Maurice Tiberius, SB 53638 viewsObverse: Legend is normally a blundered form of Tiberius in this case a nATST - MAV, bust facing, wearing crown with trefoil ornament and consular robes, in r. hand, mappa; in l. hand a eagle tipped sceptre.
Reverse: LArge X between ANNO and regnal yr (G) 6, cross above P or R below.
Mint: Constantinople
Date: 587/8 CE
Sear 536 DO 194-201
3.22gm
1 commentswileyc
sear_537.jpg
AE Decanummium Maurice Tiberius, SB 53716 viewsObverse: DN MAY CN P AY( or similar) Bust facing, wearing crown with trefoil ornament and consular robes, in r. hand, mappa; in l., eagle tipped sceptre.
Reverse: Large I between ANNP and regnal year (X), cross above THEUP in ex
Mint: Theoupolis (Antioch)
Date: 591/2 CE
Sear 537 DO 203-12
17mm 2.46gm
wileyc
sear_537a.jpg
AE Decanummium Maurice Tiberius, SB 53717 viewsObverse: DN MAY CN P AY( or similar) Bust facing, wearing crown with trefoil ornament and consular robes, in r. hand, mappa; in l., eagle tipped sceptre.
Reverse: Large I between ANNP and regnal year (X IIII), cross above THEUP in ex
Mint: Theoupolis (Antioch)
Date: 595/6 CE
Sear 537 DO 203-12
16mm 2.66gm
wileyc
sear_537~1.jpg
AE Decanummium Maurice Tiberius, SB 58018 viewsObverse: DN MAY CN P AY( or similar) Bust facing, wearing crown with trefoil ornament and consular robes, in r. hand, mappa; in l., eagle tipped sceptre.
Reverse: Large I between ANNP and regnal year (X, u), cross above THEUP in ex
Mint: Theoupolis (Antioch)
Date: 597/8 CE
Sear 537 DO 203-12
17mm 2.68gm
wileyc
sear_495.jpg
AE follis Maurice Tiberius, SB 49535 viewsObverse: DN MAVRICI TIbER PP AVG (or similar) Crowned bust facing, searing consular robes and holding mappa and eagle tipped sceptre.
Reverse: Large M, ANNO, regnal year,(XX) 10, P headed cross above, CON in ex
Mint: Constantinople
Date 591/2 CE
Sear 495 DO 44-5
30mm 12.35
wileyc
sear_532.jpg
AE follis Maurice Tiberius, SB 53330 viewsObverse: Blundered form of TIANTAPPIV or similar, bust facing wearing crown, with trefoil ornament and consular robes, in r. hand mappa, in l. hand eagle tipped sceptre
Reverse: Large M, between ANNO and regnal yr IIII, cross above,THEUP' in ex.
Mint: Theoupolis (Antioch)
Date: 584/6 CE
Sear 532 DO 152-60
29mm 10.15gm
wileyc
sear_533.jpg
AE follis Maurice Tiberius, SB 53455 viewsObverse: DN MAUTI CN P AYT or similar bust facing wearing crown, with trefoil ornament and consular robes, in r. hand mappa, in l. hand eagle tipped sceptre
Reverse: Large M, between ANNO and regnal yr X, cross above, Officina "A", THEUP in ex.
Mint: Theoupolis (Antioch)
Date:591/2 CE
Sear 533 DO 161-63
28mm11.60
wileyc
sear_430.jpg
AE follis Tiberius II Constantine, SB 43035 viewsObverse: DM TIb CONSTANTANT PP AVI or similar, Crowned bust facing wearing consular robes, and holding mappa and eagle tipped sceptre above eagle, cross
Reverse: Large M, ANNO to l., cross above, regnal tr to l., GI (7), CON officina letter "gamma" to rt.
Mint: Constantinople
Date: 580/1 CE
Sear 430 DO 11-14
30mm 12.84
wileyc
sear_534.jpg
AE half follis Maurice Tiberius26 viewsObverse: Legend is normally a blundered form of Tiberius bust facing, wearing crown with trefoil ornament and consular robes, in r. hand, mappa; in l. hand a eagle tipped sceptre.
Reverse: Large XX with pellet inbetween, between ANNO and regnal yr III Y (8) cross above. R below.
Mint: Constantinople
Date: 589/90 CE
Sear 534 DO 174-83
5.75gm
1 commentswileyc
sear_534a.jpg
AE half follis Maurice Tiberius, SB 53432 viewsObverse: Legend is normally a blundered form of Tiberius bust facing, wearing crown with trefoil ornament and consular robes, in r. hand, mappa; in l. hand a eagle tipped sceptre.
Reverse: Large XX with pellet inbetween, between ANNO and regnal yr IIII (4) cross above. R below.
Mint: Constantinople
Date: 585/6 CE
Sear 534 DO 174-83
5.72gm
1 commentswileyc
sear_535.jpg
AE half follis Maurice Tiberius, SB 53532 viewsObverse:DN MAU(gamma)I. CN AUT or similarrarely with cross in field to l. bust facing, wearing crown with trefoil ornament and consular robes, in r. hand, mappa; in l. hand a eagle tipped sceptre
Reverse: Large K between ANNO and regnal yr. (X) 10, cross above
R below
Mint: Constantinople
Date: 591/2 CE
Sear 535 DO 184-93
5.80gm
wileyc
sear_535~0.jpg
AE half follis Maurice Tiberius, SB 53515 viewsObverse:DN MAU(gamma)I. CN AUT or similarrarely with cross in field to l. bust facing, wearing crown with trefoil ornament and consular robes, in r. hand, mappa; in l. hand a eagle tipped sceptre
Reverse: Large K between ANNO and regnal yr. (IIX) 10, cross above
R below
Mint: Constantinople
Date: 593/4 CE
Sear 535 DO 184-93
20mm 5.48gm
wileyc
sear_535~1.jpg
AE half follis Maurice Tiberius, SB 53515 viewsObverse: TIANTAPPIV blundered, Bust facing wearing crown with trefoil ornament and consular robes; in r. hand mappa; in L., eagle sceptre
Reverse: Large K, between ANNO and to r. regnal year (XX) 20, R in ex
Mint: Constantinople
Date: 601/2 CE
Sear 535 DO 184-93
21mm 4.42 gm
wileyc
sear_535~2.jpg
AE half follis Maurice Tiberius, SB 53518 viewsObverse: TIANTAPPIV blundered, Bust facing wearing crown with trefoil ornament and consular robes; in r. hand mappa; in L., eagle sceptre
Reverse: Large K between ANNO and regnal yr IIX, R below, cross above
Mint: Constantinople
Date: 588/9 CE
Sear 535 DO 184-93
19mm 4.45
wileyc
sear_643.jpg
AE half follis Phocas29 viewsObverse: DN FOCA PERP AVG crowned bust facing, wearing consular robes, holding mappa and cross
Reverse: Large XX, cross above. in ex CON with unk Officina letter following
Mint: Constantinople
Date 602-610 CE
Sear 643
24 mm 5.69 gm
wileyc
sear_663.jpg
AE half follis Phocas21 viewsObverse: DM FOCA PER AVG or similar, crowned, bust facing wearing consular robes and holding mappa and cross
Reverse: XX, cross above, III (regnal yr) to r. NIKO in ex
Mint: Nicomedia
Date: 604/5 CE
Sear 663 DO 63-8
25mm 3.47
Thin ragged flan
wileyc
aelius_-_ric_1067.jpg
Aelius - RIC 1067 c27 viewsAelius Caesar
AE Dupondius.
L AELIVS CAESAR, bare-headed, draped bust right /
TR POT COS II S-C, Spes standing left, holding flower and raising hem of robe.
xokleng
00691.jpg
Aelius, under Hadrian (RIC 435, Coin #691)7 viewsRIC 435 (Sarce), AR Denarius, Rome 136 - 138 AD.
OBV: L AELIVS CAESAR; Bare head right.
REV: T R POT COS II; Spes walking left holding flower and raisning robe.
SIZE: 19.2mm, 2.74g
MaynardGee
altd.jpg
Alexander III of Macedon AR Tetradrachm ca 310 BC62 viewsOBV: Head of Herakles with lionskin headdress
REV: Zeus Ateophotos seated left holding eagle and scepter, ALEXANDROY vertical to right of scepter. Obscure date or mintmark under eagle.

The style of the coin strongly suggests the Ake mint (possibly Price 3301 or similar) with bellcovers on the throne legs and the slanted footstool on which Zeus rests his feet. The posture and arrangement of his robes also was typical of Ake tetradrachmae in the decade following Alexander's death in 323 BC. The weight of Ake tetradrachms is almost uniformly 17.1 gm ( Newell: The Dated Alexander Coinage of Sidon and Ake) corresponding exactly to this coin.

Bought at the Baltimore coin show 2010

Diam 26 mm, wt 17.1 gm
1 commentsdaverino
772_after.jpg
ALFOLDI 005.042 laureal wreath on cuirass - after cleaning33 viewsOBVERSE: IMP C PROBVS P F AVG
REVERSE: ADVENTVS AVG
BUST TYPE: F1
FIELD / EXERGUE MARKS: -/-//XXIP
WEIGHT 3.45g / AXIS: 5h / WIDTH 20-21mm
RIC 626
ALFOLDI 005.042
COLLECTION NO. 772

Note: extremely rare cuirass decoration in the form of a laurel wreath (probably corona triumphalis). In the coinage of Probus such laurel wreath is typically represented only on consular robe (toga picta + tunica palmata) not on cuirass. Apparently only the second known specimen.
1 commentsBarnaba6
1317~0.jpg
ALFOLDI 006.004 new photo8 viewsOBVERSE: IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG
REVERSE: ADVENTVS AVG (Emperor on horse with right hand raised, holding sceptre in left hand; captif at horse's feet)
BUST TYPE: H2 = Radiate bust left in consular robe, holding scipio
FIELD / EXERGUE MARKS: -/Δ//XXI
WEIGHT 3.56 / AXIS: 6h / DIAMETER: 21-24,5 mm
RIC 624
ALFOLDI 006.004 (3 EX.)
COLLECTION NO. 1317

Extremely rare variant (Alfoldi reverse type 6) of this otherwise popular reverse type in which there is additionally a captif at horse's feet (which is not depicted on the typical ADVENTVS AVG reverse - see Alfoldi type 5).

Only the 4th specimen of this type known to me (the other 3 are cited by Alfoldi)

Ex Ph. Gysen collection
Barnaba6
10~2.jpg
ALFOLDI 007.001 ADVENTVS AVGVSTI19 viewsOBVERSE: IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG
REVERSE: ADVENTVS AVGVSTI
BUST TYPE: H2 = radiate bust left in consular robe, holding scipio
FIELD / EXERGUE MARKS: -/Δ //XXI
WEIGHT: 3.61g / AXIS: 12h / DIAMETER: 20,5-22mm
RIC: 631
ALFOLDI: 007.001 (5 EX.)
COLLECTION NO. 1104
Ex Gianni collection; ex. Agora 64 lot 258; ex BLACKMOOR HOARD
Rare and desirable reverse type
Barnaba6
1326~0.jpg
ALFOLDI 017.011 new photo13 viewsOBVERSE: IMP C M AVR PROBVS P AVG
REVERSE: CLEMENTIA TEMP
BUST TYPE: H26 = Radiate bust left in consular robe, holding scipio and globe
FIELD / EXERGUE MARKS: P//KA
WEIGHT 4.14 / AXIS: 12h / DIAMETER: 20-24 mm
RIC 646 VAR. (H26 BUST UNLISTED)
ALFOLDI 017.011 (1 EX. MISSONG)
COLLECTION NO. 1326

Extremely rare and desirable bust type!

ONLY 4TH SPECIMEN OF THIS TYPE KNOWN TO ME

Ex Ph. Gysen collection = Ex Lanz 86 (1998), 700
Barnaba6
1325~0.jpg
ALFOLDI 022.059 new photo6 viewsOBVERSE: IMP C PROBVS P AVG
REVERSE: CONCORDIA AVG
BUST TYPE: H26 = Radiate bust left in consular robe, holding scipio and globe
FIELD / EXERGUE MARKS: -/VII//XXI
WEIGHT 4.57 / AXIS: 6h / DIAMETER: 21 mm
RIC 662
ALFOLDI 022.059 (5 EX.)
COLLECTION NO. 1325

Very rare obverse legend !

Only 6th specimen known to me (the other 5 are cited by Alfoldi)

Ex Ph. Gysen collection
Barnaba6
1390.jpg
ALFOLDI 027 / - UNLISTED7 viewsOBVERSE: IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG
REVERSE: CONSERVAT AVG
BUST TYPE: H2 = Radiate bust left in consular robe, holding eagle-tipped sceptre (scipio)
FIELD / EXERGUE MARKS: -/-//XXP
WEIGHT 3.80g / AXIS: 6h / WIDTH 21-22mm
RIC 670
ALFOLDI 027 / - UNLISTED
COLLECTION NO. 1391
Barnaba6
11~0.jpg
ALFOLDI 076.018 15 viewsOBVERSE: IMP PROBVS P F AVG
REVERSE: SOLI INVICTO
BUST TYPE: H (BASTIEN'S CLASSIFICATION) = radiate bust left in consular robe
FIELD / EXERGUE MARKS: -/-//XXIS
WEIGHT g / AXIS: h / WIDTH mm
RIC 770 VAR. (BUST H UNLISTED)
ALFOLDI 076.018 (2 EX.)
COLLECTION NO. 1100
VERY RARE BUST !
Barnaba6
40~3.jpg
ALFOLDI 076.06214 viewsOBVERSE: IMP C PROBVS AVG
REVERSE: SOLI INVICTO (Quadriga left)
BUST TYPE: H2 = radiate bust left in consular robe, holding eagle-tipped sceptre (scipio)
FIELD / EXERGUE MARKS: -/-//TXXI
WEIGHT 3.75g / AXIS: 1h / DIAMETER: 21-22mm
RIC: 771 VAR. (H2 bust and TXXI mintmark unlisted)
ALFOLDI 076.062 (3 ex. including 1 in La Venera hoard)
COLLECTION NO. 1142

NOTE: Very rare mintmark TXXI. This coin is part of a very rare and brief emission struck by the third officina with the letter T before the reform mark XXI (sometimes the letter "t" is in the field). Only Adventvs and Soli invicto reverses were struck during this brief emission at Siscia.

Ex Gianni collection
Barnaba6
1259.jpg
ALFOLDI 092.00534 viewsOBVERSE: IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG
REVERSE: VIRTVS AVGVSTI (Emperor on horse to right spearing enemy)
BUST TYPE: H2 = radiate bust left in consular robe, holding scipio
FIELD / EXERGUE MARKS: -/-//XXIE
WEIGHT 4.07g / AXIS: 12h / WIDTH 22mm
RIC 806
ALFOLDI 092.005 (2 EX.)
COLLECTION NO. 1259

Ex S.Luethi collection

Very rare and desirable reverse type. The variant with emperor on horse to RIGHT is much more common than the variant with emperor on horse to left (see my collection no. 1260)

Only 6th ex. known to me
1 commentsBarnaba6
1260.jpg
ALFOLDI 092.00732 viewsOBVERSE: IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG
REVERSE: VIRTVS AVGVSTI (Emperor on horse to left spearing enemy)
BUST TYPE: H2 = radiate bust left in consular robe, holding scipio
FIELD / EXERGUE MARKS: Δ//XXI
WEIGHT 3.21g / AXIS: 12h / WIDTH 21mm
RIC 806
ALFOLDI 092.007 (2 EX.)
COLLECTION NO. 1260

Ex S.Luethi collection

Very rare and desirable reverse type. The variant with emperor on horse to left is much rarer than the variant with emperor on horse to right

Only 3rd ex. known to me (the other two cited by Alfoldi are in public collections; C. Oliva has a similar example but with different depiction of the enemy which Alfoldi lists under no. 092.006)
Barnaba6
30~6.jpg
ALFOLDI 095.001 VAR. - UNLISTED WITH Q IN FIELD17 viewsOBVERSE: IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG
REVERSE: VIRTVS PROBI AVG (Mars in military attire walking right, holding trophy)
BUST TYPE: H2 = radiate bust left in consular robe, holding eagle-tipped sceptre (scipio)
FIELD / EXERGUE MARKS: -/Q//XXI
WEIGHT 3.52g / AXIS: 7h / WIDTH 19,5-21mm
RIC 811 (RIC does not distinguish between Mars in military attire and Mars nude)
ALFOLDI 095 / - (095.001 VAR. - UNLISTED WITH Q IN FIELD)
COLLECTION NO. 1160

Very rare variant of this otherwise popular reverse type in which Mars is in military attire instead of nude, as usual.

This is the only example of this type in my database. Possibly an unicum!

Ex. M. Griffiths collection
Barnaba6
1322~0.jpg
ALFOLDI 096 / - UNLISTED WITHOUT ANY MINTMARKS new photo7 viewsOBVERSE: IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG
REVERSE: VIRTVS PROBI AVG
BUST TYPE: H2 = Radiate bust left in consular robe, holding scipio.
FIELD / EXERGUE MARKS: -/-//-
WEIGHT 3.52 / AXIS: 6h / DIAMETER: 21-21,5 mm
RIC 810 VAR. (UNLISTED WITH NO MINTMARKS)
ALFOLDI 096 / - (unlisted without mintmarks in exergue)
COLLECTION NO. 1322

Probus antoninianii without mintmarks were either trial coins or (much more often) donativa coins. Their attribution to a given mint is based on careful analysis of the coin's style and die links.

This is the only example of this exact type in my database. Possibly an unicum! The coin shares however its reverse die without any mintmarks with my coin no. 1161 (but with E1 bust)

Ex Ph. Gysen collection
Barnaba6
1394.jpg
ALFOLDI 096.1718 viewsOBVERSE: IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG
REVERSE: VIRTVS PROBI AVG
BUST TYPE: H2 = Radiate bust left in consular robe, holding scipio
FIELD / EXERGUE MARKS: -/P//XXI
WEIGHT 4.09g / AXIS: 6h / WIDTH 21 mm
RIC 810
ALFOLDI 096.171 (25 EX.)
COLLECTION NO. 1394
Barnaba6
American_Legion_School_Award.JPG
American Legion School Award24 viewsObv: FOR GOD & COUNTRY (the first four words of the American Legion's Constitution), a soldier and a sailor bearing arms, standing before a seascape that transitions into the French countryside, SEMPER FIDELIS in exergue.

Rev: An eagle with wings spread stands above the legend: AMERICAN LEGION / SCHOOL AWARD / COURAGE HONOR SERVICE / LEADERSHIP SCHOLARSHIP. In the lower third of the reverse is the American Legion seal above a sunburst.

Originally, the award was given to a boy of exceptional character in the graduating class of every grammar school in the state where there were at least ten male graduates. In 1925 an award of a different design was made for girls.

Designer: Robert Tait McKenzie

Produced by the Medallic Art Company, ca. 1922 - 1950, Bronze, Diameter: 76 mm
Matt Inglima
Anglesey_462.jpg
Anglesey 462, Mule41 viewsObv: THE ANGLESEY MINES FARTHING, a cipher, P M CO, 1788 above.

Rev: ROBERT ORCHARD 1796, bust facing left, wearing a hat, JACOBS below.

Edge: Milled

Note: A very rare, possibly unique, token.

Farthing Conder Token

Dalton & Hamer: Anglesey 462
SPQR Coins
Eleanor_of_Aquitaine.JPG
Anglo-Gallic - Eleanor of Aquitaine, AR denier, 1189-1204 AD31 viewsEleanor of Aquitaine
Anglo-Gallic
AR denier
1189-1204 AD
+DVCISIT
M and A and two crosses around central pellet
+AGVITANIE
Cross
Elias 11b; Poey d'Avant 2546; Roberts 3886
Ardatirion
253-3-horz.jpg
Anglo-Gallic Coinage, Edward The Black Prince, 1355-1375 Aquitaine30 viewsPoitiers Mint

Hardi d'Argent (type of coin) - Roberts #6832

Edward of Woodstock, Prince of Wales, Duke of Cornwall, Prince of Aquitaine, KG (1330 –1376) was the eldest son of King Edward III of England and his wife Philippa of Hainault as well as father to King Richard II of England.

He was called Edward of Woodstock in his early life, after his birthplace, and has more recently been popularly known as the Black Prince. He was an exceptional military leader, and his victories over the French at the Battles of Crécy and Poitiers made him very popular during his lifetime. In 1348 he became the first Knight of the Garter, of whose Order he was one of the founders.

Edward died one year before his father, becoming the first English Prince of Wales not to become King of England. The throne passed instead to his son Richard II, a minor, upon the death of Edward III.

Edward was created Earl of Chester on 18 May 1333, Duke of Cornwall on 17 March 1337 (the first creation of an English duke) and finally invested as Prince of Wales on 12 May 1343 when he was almost thirteen years old.

The seller of this coin sent it to me in the dealer envelope it was purchased in many decades ago. The price on the envelope was $2.25 and it was graded UNC.

Purchased on eBay

NGC XF-45 – An exceptional grade

Cost $315
1 commentsRichard M10
Antoninus_Pius_As_Felicitas.jpg
Antoninus Pius As Felicitas35 viewsObv.
ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P XII
Laureate head right

Rev.
FELICITAS AVG
COS IIII in ex.
SC
Felicitas standing right holding long caduceus & corn ears in fold of her robe

RIC 860 (S)
ancientdave
Antoninus_Pius_Felicitas_Avg.jpg
Antoninus Pius felicitas Avg53 viewsAntoninus Pius, AE As, Rome, 148 - 149 AD, RIC III pg 134 - 860a, Cohen 369,
OBV: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P XII, laureate head right
REV: FELICITAS AVG, COS-IIII, S-C both in fields, Felicitas standing right,
holding long caduceus and corn ears in fold of robe

SCARCE
2 commentsRomanorvm
aps.jpg
Antoninus Pius RIC 1332 Rome15 viewsObverse: AVRELIVS CAES ANTON AVG PII F, bare head right
Reverse: TR POT X COS II S-C, Fortuna standing right, raising robe and holding rudder
Size: 35mm, Weight: 23.05g Mint: Rome
Date: 155-156 AD
Ref: RIC 1332
sold 2-2018
NORMAN K
017A.jpg
Antoninus Pius Sestertius73 viewsRIC III 626; Cohen 754; Sear 4223
27.23 g, 33 mm
ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P COS III, Laureate head right
S C, Spes advancing left, holding flower and raising hem of robe
Mark Z2
AntoSed8.JPG
Antoninus Pius, RIC 574, Sestertius of AD 139 (Aurum Coronarium: Africa)61 viewsĆ Sestertius (22.43g, Ř32mm, 12h). Rome mint. Struck AD 139.
Obv.: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P, laureate head of Antoninus Pius facing right.
Rev.: AFRICA (around) COS II (in ex.) S C (in field), Africa, draped, wearing elephant skin headdress, standing left, holding a diadem of pearls and cornucopiae.
RIC 574 (R); BMCRE IV 1177; Cohen 24; Strack 773 (4 collections); Banti 10 (1 specimen: this one illustrated); Sear (Roman Coins and their Values II) 4145 var.

ex CNG printed auction 93; ex Robert O. Ebert Collection; ex Walter Niggeler Collection (Part 3, Leu: Münzen und Medaillen AG, 2 November 1967, lot 1290).

Part of a series celebrating Antoninus' remission of half of the special tax (aurum coronarium) normally levied on the provinces at the time of the accession of an emperor.
(photo: CNG)
Charles S
Apollo_Citharoedus.JPG
Apollo kitharoidos, Vatican Museum, a 2nd-century AD colossal marble statue by an unknown Roman sculptor.79 viewsAn Apollo Citharoedus is a statue or other image of Apollo with a Kithara (lyre). Among the best-known examples is this Apollo Citharoedus of the Vatican Museums, a 2nd-century AD colossal marble statue by an unknown Roman sculptor. Apollo is shown crowned with laurel and wearing the long, flowing robe of the Ionic bard. The statue was found in 1774, with seven statues of the Muses, in the ruins of Gaius Cassius Longinus' villa near Tivoli, Italy. The sculptures are preserved in the Hall of the Muses, in the Museo Pio-Clementino of the Vatican Museums. Joe Sermarini
Anglo-Gallic_Eleanor_of_Aquitaine.JPG
AQUITAINE - Eleanor, as Regent196 viewsAQUITAINE - Eleanor, as Regent, 1189-1204. Billon Denier. Obv.: + DVCISIT. Two crosses; above: omega, below, alpha. Reverse: + AQVITANIE. around cross. Reference: Elias 11b; Poey d'Avant 2546; Roberts 3886. Ex-Ardatirion collection.dpaul7
2010-09-25.jpg
AR half Siliqua Heraclius, SB 87128 viewsObverse: DN :Greek_epsilon:RAC :Greek_Lambda:IO PP AV or similar, Crowned, dr, and cuir bust facing beardless
Reverse: No legend, facing busts of Heraclius Constantine on L., and Martina on r., the former wearing crown and Chlamys, the other latter , crown with long pendilla and robes, between thier heads, cross and with four dots between down lower.
Mint: Carthage
Date: 610-641 CE
Sear 871
.66gm 9mm
wileyc
ASCSALON.jpg
ASCALON138 viewsASCALON - AE-14, , time of Domitian. Dated Year 198 = 94-95 AD, which is the Local Asclon city Era. ACK, turreted & veiled bust of Tyche right / war galley right, date H9P above. Rosenberger 58. SNGANS 694, Hendin 826v.
MANY THANKS to Robert Brenchley, Salem Alshdaifat, & Jochen of Ancient Coin Forum, an d Avelino Nascimen of Forum dos Numismatas for help in identification!
dpaul7
Philippus_II_4.jpg
Asia Minor, Pamphylia, Perge, Philip II 13 viewsPhilippus II
Pamphylia, Perge
AE24
Obv.: … K M IOY CEOY ΦIΛIΠΠOC CE, Laureate and draped bust right, set on globe
Rev.: ΠEP - ΓAI – ΩN, Money Chest surmounted by three purses
AE, 8.10g, 23.85mm
Ref.: SNG France 511-4; SNG von Aulock 4708, BMC 60, SNG Cop. 350
Ex collection of Dr. Robert Friedinger-Pranter
with the original old collectors label
shanxi
Ath_dek_elect_w.jpg
Athens, dekadrachm125 viewsThis is a British Museum electrotype (made by Robert Ready in the late 19th century with his RR mark on the edge) of the largest circulating Greek coin. With the price of these at about $500,000 dollars when they come on the market a good quality reproduction like this is the nearest most of us will come to handling one of them.
48.21 gm, 34 mm; original weighs 42.7 gm.
Manzikert
Augustus_Secular_games_17_BC.jpg
Augustus, 16 January 27 B.C. - 19 August 14 A.D.98 views Silver denarius, RIC I 340 (R2), RSC I Julius Caesar 6, BnF I 273, BMCRE I 70, SRCV I 1622, VF, scratch on cheek, pitting, 3.572g, 19.8mm, 180o, Rome mint, moneyer M. Sanquinius, 17 B.C.; obverse AVGVST DIVI F LVDOS SAE (Augustus son of the divine [Julius Caesar], [has made the] secular games), Herald standing left, wearing helmet with two feathers and long robe, winged caduceus in right hand, round shield decorated with six-pointed star on his left arm; reverse M SANQVINIVS III VIR, youthful laureate head (the deified Julius Caesar or Genius Saeculari Novi?) right, above, four-rayed comet (sidus Iulium) with tail; ex CNG auction 145 (9 Aug 2006), lot 254. Very rare.

This type was struck to commemorate the Ludi Saeculares, the Secular Games held by Augustus in 17 B.C. to mark the commencement of a new age inaugurated by the divine Julius Caesar and led by his heir Augustus. The reverse portrait is traditionally identified as the head of a youthful divine Julius Caesar, however, it actually resembles Augustus and may be Genius Saeculari Novi, the personification of the new age.

EX; FORVM Ancient Coins.

*With my sincere thank and appreciation , Photo and Description courtesy of FORVM Ancient Coins Staff.
Per FORVM ; an EF example of this type recently sold on 26 May 2014 for 20,000 CHF (approximately $25,575) plus fees.

From The Sam Mansourati Collection.
4 commentsSam
Augustus_RIC_I_171a.jpg
Augustus, AR Denarius, RIC I 171a4 viewsAugustus
27 B.C. – 14 A.D.

Coin: AR Denarius, commemorating Augustus' Victory at Actium in 31 B.C.

Obverse: AVGVSTVS - DIVI ● F, Bare headed bust facing right.
Reverse: Apollo Citharoedus, standing, facing left, wearing a long Robe, holding a Plectrum in his right hand and a Lyre with his left. IMP-X across the fields, ACT in exergue.

Weight: 3.57 g, Diameter: 18 x 17.3 x 1.3 mm, Die axis: 110°, Mint: Lugdunum, struck between 15-13 B.C. Reference: RIC I 171a
Masis
Tib-Constant-578-582-AD_AE-36_dM-TIB-CON-STANT-P-P-AVG_m_ANNO_VI_CON-A_SB-430-p-108_Constantinopolis_578-79-AD_Q-001_7h_30-32mm_13,25g-s.jpg
B 007 Tiberius II. Constantine (578-582 A.D.), SB 0430, -/CONA, AE-Follis (40 Nummia), Constantinopolis, Year UI,138 viewsB 007 Tiberius II. Constantine (578-582 A.D.), SB 0430, -/CONA, AE-Follis (40 Nummia), Constantinopolis, Year UI,
avers:- dM TIb CON STANT P P AVG, Facing bust of Tiberius, holding mappa and eagle tipped scepter, wearing consular robes.
revers:- Large M Exe: CON A - Cross above, regnal date to right (6-th year, 578/79 A.D.) and ANNO to left. (Constantinopolis).
exe: A/N/N/O/VI//CONA, diameter: 30-32mm, weight: 13,25g, axis-7h,
mint: Constantinopolis, date: 578-79 A.D., ref: SB-430,
Q-001
quadrans
Tib-Constant_AE-36_DN-TIB-CONS-TANT-P-P-AVG_m_ANNO_VI_NIKO-B_SB-441_Q-001_36mm_17_06g-s.jpg
B 007 Tiberius II. Constantine (578-582 A.D.), SB 0441, -/NIKOB, AE-Follis (40 Nummia), Nicomedia, Year UI,292 viewsB 007 Tiberius II. Constantine (578-582 A.D.), SB 0441, -/NIKOB, AE-Follis (40 Nummia), Nicomedia, Year UI,
avers:- Dn TIb CONS TANT P P AVG, Facing bust of Tiberius, holding mappa and eagle tipped scepter, wearing consular robes.
revers:- Large M Exe: NIKO-B - Cross above, regnal date to right (6-th year, 579/80 A.D.) and ANNO to left. (Nicomedia).
exe: A/N/N/O/VI//NIKOB, diameter: 36mm, weight: 17,06g, axis-h,
mint: Nicomedia, date: 579-80 A.D., ref: SB-441,
Q-001
3 commentsquadrans
B_010_Phocas,_SB_0640,_off-4_,_Year-6,_DM_FOCAE_PP_AVG,_XXXX,_ANNO-UI,_COND,_Q-001,_7h,_28-31mm,_12,43g-s.jpg
B 010 Phocas (602-610 A.D.), Constantinopolis, SB 0640, -/CONΔ, AE-Follis (40 Nummia), Year 6(Ч), 105 viewsB 010 Phocas (602-610 A.D.), Constantinopolis, SB 0640, -/CONΔ, AE-Follis (40 Nummia), Year 6(Ч),
avers: (Dm POCAS) PERP AVG (or similar), Crowned bust facing, wearing consular robes, and holding mappa and cross (or mappa and eagle-tipped sceptre).
reverse: Large XXXX, ANNO above, regnal year to right (Ч), mintmark CON and officina letter (Δ).
exergue: ANNO/XXXXЧ//CONΔ, diameter: 28,0-31,0mm, weight:12,43g, axis:7h,
mint: Constantinopolis, date: 608? A.D., ref: Sear 0640, p-145, MIB 61-62.
Q-001
quadrans
1147737_10151779450296764_663776536_o.jpg
Barbaric imitative of Tetricus I SPES PVBLICA. AE 15mm. C271 AD.31 viewsBarbaric imitation of Imitative of Tetricus I SPES PVBLICA. C.271 AD.

Obv. radiate draped bust right

Rev. SPES PVBLICA, Spes walking left, holding flower in right hand and raising robe with left hand.

Uk Find.

1 commentsLee S
1281~0.jpg
BASTIEN SUPPLEMENT II 371α UNICUM !!! new photo12 viewsOBVERSE: IMP C PROBVS P F AVG
REVERSE: FELICIT TEMP
BUST TYPE: H6 = Radiate bust left in consular robe, holding victoriola
FIELD / EXERGUE MARKS: retrograde B/-//-
WEIGHT 3.18g / AXIS 12h / DIAMETER: 20-21 mm
RIC: 117 var. (unlisted with h6 bust and b retrograde mintmark)
BASTIEN: (-) Bastien Suppl. II 371α (this example)
COLLECTION NO: 1281

NOTE: very rare and desirable bust type, especially for Lugudnunum's 9th emmission in combination with an atypical reverse depicting a figure typical for the TEMPOR FELICIT reverse but with a FELICIT TEMP obverse legend. Unicum !!!

ex Ph. Gysen collection
Barnaba6
1282~0.jpg
BASTIEN SUPPLEMENT II 372β new photo16 viewsOBVERSE: IMP C PROBVS AVG
REVERSE: TEMPOR FELICIT
BUST TYPE: H3 = Radiate bust left in consular robe with right hand raised
FIELD / EXERGUE MARKS: -/B//-
WEIGHT 3.63g / AXIS 12h / DIAMETER: 20-23 mm
RIC: 130 VAR. (UNLISTED WITH H3 BUST)
BASTIEN: (-) BASTIEN SUPPLEMENT II 372β (THIS EXAMPLE)
COLLECTION NO: 1282

NOTE: extremely rare and desirable bust type !

Only the second known specimen in the world! (the other being in M. Vosper's collection - see coin no. 493 on probuscoins.fr)

Ex Ph. Gysen collection
Barnaba6
half_follis_BCC_B10.jpg
BCC B1019 viewsByzantine Period
Maurice Tiberius 582-602 CE
AE Half Follis, Antioch Mint
Obv:Facing bust, wearing consular robe
and crown, holding eagle-tipped scepter
and mappa. Legend blundered.
Rev:XX , above, cross, to left
ANNO, to right III/U, (year 8=589-90 CE),
below R.
22mm. 6.27gm. Axis:180
SB 534
v-drome
Phocas_Antioch_BCC_B17.jpg
BCC B1715 viewsByzantine Period
Phocas 602-610 CE
AE Follis, Antioch
Obv:DN [FOCA NE PE A V]
Facing bust, crowned, wearing consular
robes, holding mappa and eagle-tipped scepter.
Rev:Large M (lower case), cross above;
to left, ANNO; to right, G/III (year 8)
In exergue: THEUP’
27mm. 9.33gm. Axis:180
SB 672
v-drome
robert_Taranto_2011-02-131.jpg
Billion Soldino 25 viewsObverse: + FRA DAN DVLO DVX Doge kneeling l., holding banner
Reverse: + S MARCVS VENTI Lion of St MArk l., holding banner
Mint: tentatively to mint of Glarentza
Date 1333-1364 CE
Malloy p. 370. 61, Cox, caparelli Hoard, I, 8-12
12mm


The Frankish states in Greece likely began minting sometime after 1255. Rather similar to french tournois and Venetian grossi as in the example above, and rather unlike the Byzantine types of Constantinople and Thessalonica, possibly they represent likely a coinage for the Franks who were living in the new Western capital of Morea after the fall of Constantinople in 1204. Though in the past these coins as above have been attributed to Robert of Taranto due to site finds, Malloy admits that Metcalf proposes that these imitation grossi are possibly Serbian or another Balkan power. Perhaps more evidence will be uncovered,
wileyc
20110425-2059331sb2027.jpg
Billion trachy lg module, clipped type G SB 202765 viewsObverse:MP-OV barred upper fields. Virgin nimbate, seated on throne with back, holds beardless nimbate of Christ on breast.
Reverse: MANOVH delta, ECN? Full length figure of emperor on l., and beardless, nimbate military saint between them a labarum on a long shaft. Emp wears stemma, div, and chlamys; r. hand sc. cr. Saint wears short miltary tunic and sagion; l. hand jewelled sc.
Mint: Constantinople
Date: 1219-28 mostly Robert de Courtenai
15mm
Sear 2027, Hendy type G
wileyc
2010-12-11_SB_2049.jpg
Billion trachy small module as SB 205728 viewsObverse: Christ seated
Reverse: St Helena and St Constantine stg holding patriarchal cross between them
Date: Middle period? Robert de Courtenai? 1219-28 CE
Sear 2049
18 mm 1.26gm
wileyc
Boiotia_stater_AR21_9_19g.jpg
Boeotia stater128 views21mm, 9.19g

Robert Ready electrotype, stamped RR on edge
5 commentsareich
leo_vi_const.jpg
BYZANTINE EMPIRE - Leo VI92 viewsBYZANTINE EMPIRE - Leo VI (28 August AD 886 to 11 May AD 912) AE Follis. Obv: LEON bASILEVS ROMI - Facing bust wearing crown and robes. Rev: + LEON/ EheEObA/ SILEVS-R/ OMEOn. Constantinople mint. Sear Byzantine coins and their value, p. 331, 1729 , 6.78 g. 1 commentsdpaul7
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BYZANTINE EMPIRE - TIBERIUS II CONSTANTINE129 viewsTIBERIUS II CONSTANTINE AE follis. Tiberius II Constantine, DNTibCONS TANT PP AVC; crowned and cuirassed bust facing, holding cross on globe and shield, cross to right bust facing/Large M ANNO II, cross, tHeuP (Antioch) in exurge. SB447, DOC 39
Facing bust of Tiberius II wearing crown with cross and consular robes, holding mappa and scepter. Struck regnal year 2, 580 AD. 30mm, 12.2g. Nice desert patina. Antioch was nearly razed by an earthquake in November, 528 AD. Afterwards, the city adopted the name Theupolis.
1 commentsdpaul7
Sear-669.jpg
Byzantine Empire: Phocas (602-610) Ć Half Follis, Cyzicus (Sear 669; DOC 82; MIBE 80b)7 viewsObv: Crowned facing bust, wearing consular robes, holding mappa and cross
Rev: Large XX; star above; KYZA in exergue



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Byzantine Empire: Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus (913-959) Ć Unit, Cherson (Sear 1771; DOC 29)7 viewsObv: Facing bust of Constantine VII, beardless, wearing robes and crown with trefoil ornament
Rev: Large K over ω
Dim:18.28 mm, 2.64g
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Byzantine Empire: Maurice Tiberius (582-602 CE) Ć Decannumium, Theoupolis, RY16 (Sear 537; DOC 209; MIBE 102)6 viewsObv: Bust of Maurice Tiberius facing, wearing crown with trefoil ornament and consular robes, holding mappa and eagle-tipped scepter
Rev: Large I between A/N/N/O and X/ЧI; above, cross, in exergue, THЄЧp'
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Byzantine Empire: Maurice Tiberius (582-602) AR 1/2 Siliqua, Carthage (Sear-553; DOC 241; MIBE 61)12 viewsObv: D N MAVR Tb PP; helmeted and draped bust of Maurice Tiberius facing, wearing consular robes, holding mappa and globus cruciger
Rev: Cross potent on three steps, flanked by A-ω; all within circular pelleted border surrounded by laurel wreath
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Byzantine Empire: Maurice Tiberius (582-602) Ć Follis, Antioch (Sear 532; DOC 153; MIBE 95b)44 viewsObv: Crowned facing bust, wearing consular robe, holding mappa and eagle-tipped sceptre
Rev: Large m between A/N/N/O and II; above, cross; in exergue, THЄЧP'
Dim: 30 mm, 12.3 g
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Sear-533(2).jpg
Byzantine Empire: Maurice Tiberius (582-602) Ć Follis, Antioch (Sear 533; DOC 165a; MIB 96)12 viewsObv: Bust of Maurice Tiberius facing, wearing crown with trefoil ornament and consular robes, holding mappa in his right hand and eagle-tipped scepter with his left
Rev: Large M between A/N/N/O and X/III; above, cross; below, A; in exergue, THЄЧP'
Dim: 29 mm, 11.39 g, 5 h
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Sear-533(1).jpg
Byzantine Empire: Maurice Tiberius (582-602) Ć Follis, Antioch (Sear 533; DOC 172d; MIB 96)6 viewsObv: Bust of Maurice Tiberius facing, wearing crown with trefoil ornament and consular robes, holding mappa in his right hand and eagle-tipped scepter with his left
Rev: Large M between A/N/N/O and X/X; above, cross; below, S; in exergue, THЄЧP'
Dim: 27 mm, 11.43 g, 7 h
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Byzantine Empire: Nicephorus II Phocas (963-969) Ć Follis, Constantinople (Sear 1782; DOC 8)19 viewsObv: 🞢ҺICIFRb ASILЄVRШ; Crowned bust of Nicephorus II facing, bearded, wearing robe with V-shaped opening and crown with cross and pendilia; in right hand, cross scepter; in left, globus surmounted by trefoil
Rev: 🞢ҺICHF / ЄҺΘЄШbA / SILЄVRШ / MAIШҺ in four lines
Dim: 23.5mm, 6.03g, 6h



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Byzantine Empire: Nicephorus II Phocas (963-969) Ć Follis, Constantinople (Sear 1783; DOC 7)27 viewsObv: 🞢ҺICIFRb ASILЄVRШ; Crowned bust of Nicephorus II facing, bearded, wearing robe with V-shaped opening and crown with cross and pendilia; in right hand, cross scepter; in left, globus surmounted by trefoil
Rev: 🞢ҺICHF / ЄҺΘЄШbA / SILЄVRШ / MAIШҺ in four lines
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Byzantine Empire: Nicephorus II Phocas (963-969) Ć Follis, Constantinople (Sear 1783; DOC 7)10 viewsObv: 🞢ҺICIFRb ASILЄVRШ; Crowned bust of Nicephorus II facing, bearded, wearing robe with V-shaped opening and crown with cross and pendilia; in right hand, cross scepter; in left, globus surmounted by trefoil
Rev: 🞢ҺICHF / ЄҺΘЄШbA / SILЄVRШ / MAIШҺ in four lines
Dim: 27.7mm, 8.86g, 6h
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Sear-676var.jpg
Byzantine Empire: Phocas (602-610) Ć Decanummium, Antioch? (cf Sear 676; cf DOC 104)9 viewsObv: Crowned bust facing, wearing consular robes and holding globus cruciger and mappa
Rev: Large X; cross above
Dim: 16mm, 2.40g, 12h
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Sear-665.jpg
Byzantine Empire: Phocas (602-610) Ć Follis, Cyzicus, RY 7 (Sear-665; DOC 74; MIBE 76)10 viewsObv: Crowned bust facing, wearing consular robes, holding mappa and cross; small cross to left
Rev: Large XXXX; date to right; KYZB in exergue
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Byzantine Empire: Phocas (602-610) Ć Follis, Cyzicus, RY 7 (Sear-665; DOC 74; Wroth BMC 90; Tolstoi 77; Ratto 1237; Morrisson BnF 6; Hahn MIB 76)13 viewsObv: D N FOCA PERP AVΓ, bust facing, wearing crown with pendilia and consular robes, mappa in right, cross in left, small cross in left field
Rev: XXXX (40 nummi), ANNO above, G (year 6) right, KYZA in exergue;
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Byzantine Empire: Phocas (602-610) Ć Follis, Nicomedia (MIBE V69a; CNR 18/3, p. 6)11 viewsObv: dmFOCA[S P]ЄR [AVG]; crowned bust of Focas facing, wearing consular robes, holding mappa and eagle-tipped scepter; crown with pendilia; all within wreath border
Rev: Large XXXX; ANNO above, III right; NIKOA in exergue
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Sear-686.jpg
Byzantine Empire: Phocas (602-610) Ć Half Follis, Carthage, RY5 (Sear-686; DOC 116; MIBE-98a)13 viewsObv: Crowned bust facing, wearing consular robes and holding mappa and cruciform scepter
Rev: Large X•X; cross above, star to left, Є to right; KRTς

From the Prue Morgan Fitts Collection
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Byzantine Empire: Phocas (602-610) Ć Half Follis, Cyzicus (Sear-670; DOC 79-80; MIBE 79)11 viewsObv: Crowned bust facing, wearing consular robes and holding mappa and cross
Rev: Large XX; cross above, III (date) to right; KYZA in exergue


ex Prue Morgan Fitts Collection; ex Classical Numismatic Group Electronic Auction 355, 15 July 2015, Lot 663
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Byzantine Empire: Phocas (602-610) Ć Half Follis, Cyzicus, RY 2 (Sear-668; DOC 79a; MIBE 80a)10 viewsObv: Crowned bust facing, wearing consular robes, and holding mappa and cross
Rev: Large XX; cross above; II to right; KYZA in exergue
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Sear-441.jpg
Byzantine Empire: Tiberius II Constantine (578-582) AE Follis, Nicomedia (Sear-441)23 viewsObv: D m TIb CONSTANT P P AVC.
Crowned bust facing, wearing consular robes and holding mappa and eagle-tipped sceptre; above eagle, cross.
Rev: Large m between A/N/N/O and GI; above, cross; in exergue, NIKO B.
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Sear-430.jpg
Byzantine Empire: Tiberius II Constantine (578-582) Ć Follis, Constantinople, RY 6 (Sear 430; DOC 1c; MIBE 25)38 viewsObv: Crowned facing bust of Tiberius II Constantine, wearing consular robes, holding mappa and eagle-tipped scepter
Rev: Large M between A/N/N/O and Ч; above, cross; in exergue, CONЄ
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Byzantine Empire: Tiberius II Constantine (578-582) Ć Follis, Constantinople, RY 6 (Sear 430; DOC 1c; MIBE 25)15 viewsObv: Crowned facing bust of Tiberius II Constantine, wearing consular robes, holding mappa and eagle-tipped scepter
Rev: Large M between A/N/N/O and Ч; above, cross; in exergue, CONΓ
Dim: 35 mm, 16.70 g, 12 h
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Sear-430(1).jpg
Byzantine Empire: Tiberius II Constantine (578-582) Ć Follis, Constantinople, RY 7 (Sear 430; DOC 13c; MIBE 25)9 viewsObv: Crowned facing bust, wearing consular robes, holding mappa and eagle-tipped scepte with eagle. Cross above eagle. Legend around - D m TIb CONSTANT PP AVG
Rev: Large M between A/N/N/O and ЧI; above, cross; in exergue, CONΓ
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Byzantine Empire: Tiberius II Constantine (578-582) Ć Follis, Theopolis, RY 6 (Sear 448; DOC 41; MIBE 47)12 viewsObv: Crowned facing bust of Tiberius II Constantine, wearing crown surmounted with cross and consular robes, holding mappa and eagle-tipped scepter
Rev: Large M between A/N/N/O and Ч; above, cross; in exergue, THЄЧP'
Dim: 31 mm, 14.59 g, 7 h
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Sear-448.jpg
Byzantine Empire: Tiberius II Constantine (578-582) Ć Follis, Theopolis, RY 9 (Sear 448; DOC 44; MIBE 47)15 viewsObv: Crowned facing bust of Tiberius II Constantine, wearing crown surmounted with cross and consular robes, holding mappa and eagle-tipped scepter
Rev: Large M between A/N/N/O and ЧIII; above, cross; in exergue, THЄЧP'

From the Iconodule Collection
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Byzantine Empire: Tiberius II Constantine (578-582) Ć Half Follis, Theoupolis/Antioch, RY 8 (Sear 452; DOC 49; MIB 54)6 viewsObv: Crowned bust facing, wearing consular robes, holding mappa and eagle-tipped scepter; crown with cross
Rev: Large X • X; cross above, A/N/N/O ςII across field; mintmark below


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Byzantine, Focas, Follis, Nicomedia, Unpublished year II consular type with mappa and eagle-scepter1427 viewsBronze follis, Hahn 69a (only years 3 and 4 noted), DO 56-60 (lists only years 3 - 7), gVF, 11.48g, 32.0mm, 45o, Nicomedia mint, 603-604 A.D.; obverse d N FOCAS PERP AVG, bust facing wearing consular robes and crown with cross on circlet, mappa in right, eagle tipped scepter in left; reverse XXXX, ANNO above, II right, NIKOA in exergue1 comments
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BYZANTINE, Heraclius, Heraclius Constantine and Heraclonas Solidus287 viewsHeraclius AD 610-641, with Heraclius Constantine and Heraclonas. Gold Solidus Constantinopolis, 5th officina, AD 638/9-641
Heraclius (in centre), Heraclius Constantine (on r.) and Heraclonas (on l.), all standing facing, holding globus cruciger
VICTORIA AVGЧE; cross potent set on three steps, monogram to left; CONOB in ex
Sear 769; 4.46g; 20mm

This coin is resting at least 75 years in private collections, as it came with a ticket dated 8th of May 1936, Robert Ball Nchf., Berlin, Germany.
2 commentsGert
maurice tiberius follis antioch.jpg
Byzantine, Maurice Tiberius, AE Follis, Antioch110 viewsObv: Bust facing, wearing crown and consular robes. Mappa in right hand, eagle-tipped sceptre in left.
Struck 582-602 A.D. at Antioch.
BCV: 532
1 commentsJericho
Caligula_and_Agripin.jpg
Caligula (Augustus) Coin: Bronze Fourre Denarius Fourree4 viewsC CAESAR AVG PON M TR POT III COS III - Laureate head right
AGRIPPINA MAT C CAES AVG GERM - Draped bust of Agrippina right
Mint: Rome (40AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 2.85g / 18mm / 180
Rarity: Rare
References:
RIC I 22 (official)
Lyon 179 (official)
RSC 6 (official)
Acquisition/Sale: numismaticaprados Ebay

The Gary R. Wilson Collection

The reverse legend translates: 'Agrippina mother of Gaius Caesar Augustus Germanicus'

ODERINT, DUM METUANT (LET THEM HATE, SO LONG AS THEY FEAR). — CALIGULA

The accession of Gaius (Caligula) to the imperial throne on the death of his great-uncle Tiberius signalled a kind of "golden age" in that for the first time, not only did a direct biological descendant of Augustus become emperor, but one who could also claim a direct link with several important Republican figures. Through his mother, Agrippina Sr., Gaius was descended from Augustus, and also Agrippa, the victor of Actium. Gaius' father Germanaicus was the son of Nero Claudius Drusus and nephew of Tiberius, sons of Augustus' widow, Livia. Through his mother Antonia, Germanicus was the grandson of Mark Antony and Octavia, the sister of Augustus. Accordingly, many of his coins recall his dynastic connections to both the Julians and the Claudians as well as his own family, and included in their designs his mother and his three sisters.

“TO MAKE AN INEXPERIENCED AND ALMOST UNKNOWN YOUNG MAN, BROUGHT UP UNDER A SERIES OF AGED AND REPRESSIVE GUARDIANS, MASTER OF THE WORLD, ALMOST LITERALLY OVERNIGHT, ON THE SOLE RECOMMENDATION THAT HIS FATHER HAD BEEN A THOROUGHLY DECENT FELLOW WAS TO COURT DISASTER IN A QUITE IRRESPONSIBLE FASHION.”
–BARRETT, CALIGULA: THE CORRUPTION OF POWER (1990)

THE ASSASSINATION OF CALIGULA
THE emperor Caligula came to his death in the following manner:

Of course his wanton and remorseless tyranny often awakened very deep feelings of resentment, and very earnest desires for revenge in the hearts of those who suffered by it; but yet so absolute and terrible was his power, that none dared to murmur or complain. The resentment, however, which the cruelty of the emperor awakened, burned the more fiercely for being thus restrained and suppressed, and many covert threats were made, and many secret plots were formed, from time to time, against the tyrant's life.

Among others who cherished such designs, there was a man named Cassius Chćrea, an officer of the army, who, though not of high rank, was nevertheless a man of considerable distinction. He was a captain, or, as it was styled in those days, a centurion. His command, therefore, was small, but it was in the prćtorian cohort, as it was called, a sort of body-guard of the commander-in-chief, and consequently a very honorable corps. Chćrea was thus a man of considerable distinction on account of the post which he occupied, and his duties, as captain in the life guards, brought him very frequently into communication with the emperor. He was a man of great personal bravery, too, and was on this account held in high consideration by the army. He had performed an exploit at one time, some years before, in Germany, which, had gained him great fame. It was at the time of the death of Augustus, the first emperor. Some of the German legions, and among them one in which Chćrea was serving, had seized upon the occasion to revolt. They alledged many and grievous acts of oppression as the grounds of their revolt, and demanded redress for what they had suffered, and security for the future. One of the first measures which they resorted to in the frenzy of the first outbreak of the rebellion, was to seize all the centurions in the camp, and to beat them almost to death. They gave them sixty blows each, one for each of their number, and then turned them, bruised, wounded, and dying, out of the camp. Some they threw into the Rhine. They revenged themselves thus on all the centurions but one. That one was Chćrea. Chćrea would not suffer himself to be taken by them, but seizing his sword he fought his way through the midst of them, slaying some and driving others before him, and thus made his escape from the camp. This feat gained him great renown.

One might imagine from this account that Chćrea was a man of great personal superiority in respect to size and strength, inasmuch as extraordinary muscular power, as well as undaunted courage, would seem to be required to enable a man to make his way against so many enemies. But this was not the fact. Chćrea was of small stature and of a slender and delicate form. He was modest and unassuming in his manners, too, and of a very kind and gentle spirit. He was thus not only honored and admired for his courage, but he was generally beloved for the amiable and excellent qualities of his heart.

The possession of such qualities, however, could not be expected to recommend him particularly to the favor of the emperor. In fact, in one instance it had the contrary effect. Caligula assigned to the centurions of his guard, at one period, some duties connected with the collection of taxes. Chćrea, instead of practicing the extortion and cruelty common on such occasions, was merciful and considerate, and governed himself strictly by the rules of law and of justice in his collections. The consequence necessarily was that the amount of money received was somewhat diminished, and the emperor was displeased. The occasion was, however, not one of sufficient importance to awaken in the monarch's mind any very serious anger, and so, instead of inflicting any heavy punishment upon the offender, he contented himself with attempting to tease and torment him with sundry vexatious indignities and annoyances.

It is the custom sometimes, in camps, and at other military stations, for the commander to give every evening, what is called the parole or password, which consists usually of some word or phrase that is to be communicated to all the officers, and as occasion may require to all the soldiers, whom for any reason it may be necessary to send to and fro [38] about the precincts of the camp during the night. The sentinels, also, all have the password, and accordingly, whenever any man approaches the post of a sentinel, he is stopped and the parole is demanded. If the stranger gives it correctly, it is presumed that all is right, and he is allowed to pass on,—since an enemy or a spy would have no means of knowing it.

Now, whenever it came to Chćrea's turn to communicate the parole, the emperor was accustomed to give him some ridiculous or indecent phrase, intended not only to be offensive to the purity of Chćrea's mind, but designed, also, to exhibit him in a ridiculous light to the subordinate officers and soldiers to whom he would have to communicate it. Sometimes the password thus given was some word or phrase wholly unfit to be spoken, and sometimes it was the name of some notorious and infamous woman; but whatever it was, Chćrea was compelled by his duty as a soldier to deliver it to all the corps, and patiently to submit to the laughter and derision which his communication awakened among the vile and wicked soldiery.

If there was any dreadful punishment to be inflicted, or cruel deed of any kind to be performed, Caligula took great pleasure in assigning the duty to Chćrea, knowing how abhorrent to his nature it must be. At one time a senator of great distinction named Propedius, was accused of treason by one of his enemies. His treason consisted, as the accuser alledged, of having spoken injurious words against the emperor. Propedius denied that he had ever spoken such words. The accuser, whose name was Timidius, cited a certain Quintilia, an actress, as his witness. Propedius was accordingly brought to trial, and Quintilia was called upon before the judges to give her testimony. She denied that she had ever heard Propedius utter any such sentiment as Timidius attributed to him. Timidius then said that Quintilia was testifying falsely: he declared that she had heard Propedius utter such words, and demanded that she should be put to the torture to compel her to acknowledge it. The emperor acceded to this demand, and commanded Chćrea to put the actress to the torture.

It is, of course, always difficult to ascertain the precise truth in respect to such transactions as those that are connected with plots and conspiracies against tyrants, since every possible precaution is, of course, taken by all concerned to conceal what is done. It is probable, however, in this case, that Propedius had cherished some hostile designs against Caligula, if he had not uttered injurious words, and that Quintilia was in some measure in his confidence. It is even possible that Chćrea may have been connected with them in some secret design, for it is said that when he received the orders of Caligula to put Quintilia to the torture he was greatly agitated and alarmed. If he should apply the torture severely, he feared that the unhappy sufferer might be induced to make confessions or statements at least, which would bring destruction on the men whom he most relied upon for the overthrow of Caligula. On the other hand, if he should attempt to spare her, the effect would be only to provoke the anger of Caligula against himself, without at all shielding or saving her. As, however, he was proceeding to the place of torture, in charge of his victim, with his mind in this state of anxiety and indecision, his fears were somewhat relieved by a private signal given to him by Quintilia, by which she intimated to him that he need feel no concern,—that she would be faithful and true, and would reveal nothing, whatever might be done to her.

This assurance, while it allayed in some degree Chćrea's anxieties and fears, must have greatly increased the mental distress which he endured at the idea of leading such a woman to the awful suffering which awaited her. He could not, however, do otherwise than to proceed. Having arrived at the place of execution, the wretched Quintilia was put to the rack. She bore the agony which she endured while her limbs were stretched on the torturing engine, and her bones broken, with patient submission, to the end. She was then carried, fainting, helpless, and almost dead, to Caligula, who seemed now satisfied. He ordered the unhappy victim of the torture to be taken away, and directed that Propedius should be acquitted and discharged.

Of course while passing through this scene the mind of Chćrea was in a tumult of agitation and excitement,—the anguish of mind which he must have felt in his compassion for the sufferer, mingling and contending with the desperate indignation which burned in his bosom against the author of all these miseries. He was wrought up, in fact, to such a state of frenzy by this transaction, that as soon as it was over he determined immediately to take measures to put Caligula to death. This was a very bold and desperate resolution. Caligula was the greatest and most powerful potentate on earth. Chćrea was only a captain of his guard, without any political influence or power, and with no means whatever of screening himself from the terrible consequences which might be expected to follow from his attempt, whether it should succeed or fail.

So thoroughly, however, was he now aroused, that he determined to brave every danger in the attainment of his end. He immediately began to seek out among the officers of the army such men as he supposed would be most likely to join him,—men of courage, resolution, and faithfulness, and those who, from their general character or from the wrongs which they had individually endured from the government, were to be supposed specially hostile to Caligula's dominion. From among these men he selected a few, and to them he cautiously unfolded his designs. All approved of them. Some, it is true, declined taking any active part in the conspiracy, but they assured Chćrea of their good wishes, and promised solemnly not to betray him.

The number of the conspirators daily increased. There was, however, at their meetings for consultation, some difference of opinion in respect to the course to be pursued. Some were in favor of acting promptly and at once. The greatest danger which was to be apprehended, they thought, was in delay. As the conspiracy became extended, some one would at length come to the knowledge of it, they said, who would betray them. Others, on the other hand, were for proceeding cautiously and slowly. What they most feared was rash and inconsiderate action. It would be ruinous to the enterprise, as they maintained, for them to attempt to act before their plans were fully matured.

Chćrea was of the former opinion. He was very impatient to have the deed performed. He was ready himself, he said, to perform it, at any time; his personal duties as an officer of the guard, gave him frequent occasions of access to the emperor, and he was ready to avail himself of any of them to kill the monster. The emperor went often, he said, to the capitol, to offer sacrifices, and he could easily kill him there. Or, if they thought that that was too public an occasion, he could have an opportunity in the palace, at certain religious ceremonies which the emperor was accustomed to perform there, and at which Chćrea himself was usually present. Or, he was ready to throw him down from a tower where he was accustomed to go sometimes for the purpose of scattering money among the populace below. Chćrea said that he could easily come up behind him on such an occasion, and hurl him suddenly over the parapet down to the pavement below. All these plans, however, seemed to the conspirators too uncertain and dangerous, and Chćrea's proposals were accordingly not agreed to.

At length, the time drew near when Caligula was to leave Rome to proceed to Alexandria in Egypt, and the conspirators perceived that they must prepare to act, or else abandon their design altogether. It had been arranged that there was to he a grand celebration at Rome previous to the emperor's departure. This celebration, which was to consist of games, and sports, and dramatic performances of various kinds, was to continue for three days, and the conspirators determined, after much consultation and debate, that Caligula should be assassinated on one of those days.

After coming to this conclusion, however, in general, their hearts seemed to fail them in fixing the precise time for the perpetration of the deed, and two of the three days passed away accordingly without any attempt being made. At length, on the morning of the third day, Chćrea called the chief conspirators together, and urged them very earnestly not to let the present opportunity pass away. He represented to them how greatly they increased the danger of their attempts by such delays, and he seemed himself so full of determination and courage, and addressed them with so much eloquence and power, that he inspired them with his own resolution, and they decided unanimously to proceed.

The emperor came to the theater that day at an unusually early hour, and seemed to be in excellent spirits and in an excellent humor. He was very complaisant to all around him, and very lively, affable, and gay. After performing certain ceremonies, by which it devolved upon him to open the festivities of the day, he proceeded to his place, with his friends and favorites about him, and Chćrea, with the other officers that day on guard, at a little distance behind him.

The performances were commenced, and every thing went on as usual until toward noon. The conspirators kept their plans profoundly secret, except that one of them, when he had taken his seat by the side of a distinguished senator, asked him whether he had heard any thing new. The senator replied that he had not. "I can then tell you something," said he, "which perhaps you have not heard, and that is, that in the piece which is to be acted to-day, there is to be represented the death of a tyrant." "Hush!" said the senator, and he quoted a verse from Homer, which meant, "Be silent, lest some Greek should overhear."

It had been the usual custom of the emperor, at such entertainments, to take a little recess about noon, for rest and refreshments. It devolved upon Chćrea to wait upon him at this time, and to conduct him from his place in the theater to an adjoining apartment in his palace which was connected with the theater, where there was provided a bath and various refreshments. When the time arrived, and Chćrea perceived, as he thought, that the emperor was about to go, he himself went out, and stationed himself in a passage-way leading to the bath, intending to intercept and assassinate the emperor when he should come along. The emperor, however, delayed his departure, having fallen into conversation with his courtiers and friends, and finally he said that, on the whole, as it was the last day of the festival, he would not go out to the bath, but would remain in the theater; and then ordering refreshments to be brought to him there, he proceeded to distribute them with great urbanity to the officers around him.

In the mean time, Chćrea was patiently waiting in the passage-way, with his sword by his side, all ready for striking the blow the moment that his victim should appear. Of course the conspirators who remained behind were in a state of great suspense and anxiety, and one of them, named Minucianus, determined to go out and inform Chćrea of the change in Caligula's plans. He accordingly attempted to rise, but Caligula put his hand upon his robe, saying, "Sit still, my friend. You shall go with me presently." Minucianus accordingly dissembled his anxiety and agitation of mind still a little longer, but presently, watching an opportunity when the emperor's attention was otherwise engaged, he rose, and, assuming an unconcerned and careless air, he walked out of the theater.

He found Chćrea in his ambuscade in the passage-way, and he immediately informed him that the emperor had concluded not to come out. Chćrea and Minucianus were then greatly at a loss what to do. Some of the other conspirators, who had followed Minucianus out, now joined them, and a brief but very earnest and solemn consultation ensued. After a moment's hesitation, Chćrea declared that they must now go through with their work at all hazards, and he professed himself ready, if his comrades would sustain him in it, to go back to the theater, and stab the tyrant there in his seat, in the midst of his friends. Minucianus and the others concurred in this design, and it was resolved immediately to execute it.

The execution of the plan, however, in the precise form in which it had been resolved upon was prevented by a new turn which affairs had taken in the theater. For while Minucianus and the two or three conspirators who had accompanied him were debating in the passage-way, the others who remained, knowing that Chćrea was expecting Caligula to go out, conceived the idea of attempting to persuade him to go, and thus to lead him into the snare which had been set for him. They accordingly gathered around, and without any appearance of concert or of eagerness, began to recommend him to go and take his bath as usual. He seemed at length disposed to yield to these persuasions, and rose from his seat; and then, the whole company attending and following him, he proceeded toward the doors which conducted to the palace. The conspirators went before him, and under pretense of clearing the way for him they contrived to remove to a little distance all whom they thought would be most disposed to render him any assistance. The consultations of Chćrea and those who were with him in the inner passage-way were interrupted by the coming of this company.

Among those who walked with the emperor at this time were his uncle Claudius and other distinguished relatives. Caligula advanced along the passage, walking in company with these friends, and wholly unconscious of the fate that awaited him, but instead of going immediately toward the bath he turned aside first into a gallery or corridor which led into another apartment, where there were assembled a company of boys and girls, that had been sent to him from Asia to act and dance upon the stage, and who had just arrived. The emperor took great interest in looking at these performers, and seemed desirous of having them go immediately into the theater and let him see them perform. While talking on this subject Chćrea and the other conspirators came into the apartment, determined now to strike the blow.

Chćrea advanced to the emperor, and asked him in the usual manner what should be the parole for that night. The emperor gave him in reply such an one as he had often chosen before, to insult and degrade him. Chćrea instead of receiving the insult meekly and patiently in his usual manner, uttered words of anger and defiance in reply; and drawing his sword at the same instant he struck the emperor across the neck and felled him to the floor. Caligula filled the apartment with his cries of pain and terror; the other conspirators rushed in and attacked him on all sides; his friends,—so far as the adherents of such a man can be called friends,—fled in dismay. As for Caligula's uncle Claudius, it was not to have been expected that he would have rendered his nephew any aid, for he was a man of such extraordinary mental imbecility that he was usually considered as not possessed even of common sense; and all the others who might have been expected to defend him, either fled from the scene, or stood by in consternation and amazement, leaving the conspirators to wreak their vengeance on their wretched victim, to the full.

In fact though while a despot lives and retains his power, thousands are ready to defend him and to execute his will, however much in heart they may hate and detest him, yet when he is dead, or when it is once certain that he is about to die, an instantaneous change takes place and every one turns against him. The multitudes in and around the theater and the palace who had an hour before trembled before this mighty potentate, and seemed to live only to do his bidding, were filled with joy to see him brought to the dust. The conspirators, when the success of their plans and the death of their oppressor was once certain, abandoned themselves to the most extravagant joy. They cut and stabbed the fallen body again and again, as if they could never enough wreak their vengeance upon it. They cut off pieces of the body and bit them with their teeth in their savage exultation and triumph. At length they left the body where it lay, and went forth into the city where all was now of course tumult and confusion.

The body remained where it had fallen until late at night. Then some attendants of the palace came and conveyed it away. They were sent, it was said, by Cćsonia, the wife of the murdered man. Cćsonia had an infant daughter at this time, and she remained herself with the child, in a retired apartment of the palace while these things were transpiring. Distracted with grief and terror at the tidings that she heard, she clung to her babe, and made the arrangements for the interment of the body of her husband without leaving its cradle. She imagined perhaps that there was no reason for supposing that she or the child were in any immediate danger, and accordingly she took no measures toward effecting an escape. If so, she did not understand the terrible frenzy to which the conspirators had been aroused, and for which the long series of cruelties and indignities which they had endured from her husband had prepared them. For at midnight one of them broke into her apartment, stabbed the mother in her chair, and taking the innocent infant from its cradle, killed it by beating its head against the wall.
Atrocious as this deed may seem, it was not altogether wanton and malignant cruelty which prompted it. The conspirators intended by the assassination of Caligula not merely to wreak their vengeance on a single man, but to bring to an end a hated race of tyrants; and they justified the murder of the wife and child by the plea that stern political necessity required them to exterminate the line, in order that no successor might subsequently arise to re-establish the power and renew the tyranny which they had brought to an end. The history of monarchies is continually presenting us with instances of innocent and helpless children sacrificed to such a supposed necessity as this.
Gary W2
Standing_Caliph_Amman.jpg
Caliphate of Abd al-Malik70 viewsAbd al-Malik ibn Marwan (685 – 705 CE) ‘Standing Caliph’ type, mint of Amman. Fals, weight 3.0g, diameter 17mm.

Obverse: Standing bearded figure wearing headdress and long robe, with right hand on hilt of sword. Inscription: abd allah abd al-malik amir al-mu’minin (“The servant of God, Abd al-Malik, commander of the faithful”). The last word of the legend is divided, with the letters minin appearing in the right field above the caliph’s shoulder.

Reverse: Object resembling Greek Φ, with globule on top and resting on four steps; large star in left field; mint designation, amman, in right field. Inscription: the shahada (“There is no God but God alone and Muhammad is God’s prophet.”)

This type is part of the last series of Umayyad coins to feature images, and is generally attributed to the years 692 – 696. From 697 the coinage becomes aniconic and purely epigraphic.

Reference: Foss p.78 and D.O. 107
Abu Galyon
Standing_Caliph_Homs.jpg
Caliphate of Abd al-Malik29 viewsAbd al-Malik ibn Marwan (685 – 705 CE) ‘Standing Caliph’ type, mint of Homs. Fals, weight 3.70g, diameter 21mm.

Obverse: Standing bearded figure wearing headdress and long robe, with right hand on hilt of sword. Inscription: abd allah abd al-malik amir al-mu’minin (“The servant of God, Abd al-Malik, commander of the faithful”).

Reverse: Object resembling Greek Φ, resting on four steps; mint designation, bi-hims, in right field. Inscription: the shahada (“There is no God but God alone and Muhammad is God’s prophet.”). This type often (but not always) has a star in the left field, but on this specimen it’s hard to tell if the star is present.

Reference: Foss p.78 and D.O. 108-111
Abu Galyon
Arab-Byzantine_Standing_Caliph_Sarmin.jpg
Caliphate of Abd al-Malik23 viewsAbd al-Malik ibn Marwan (685 – 705 CE) ‘Standing Caliph’ type, mint of Sarmin. Fals, weight 2.91g, diameter 20mm.

Obverse: Standing bearded figure wearing headdress and long robe, with right hand on hilt of sword. Inscription: abd allah abd al-malik amir al-mu’minin (“The servant of God, Abd al-Malik, commander of the faithful”).

Reverse: Object resembling Greek Φ, resting on four steps; mint designation in field downwards on either side, to right, sar, to left min. Inscription: the shahada (“There is no God but God alone and Muhammad is God’s prophet.”).

Reference: Foss p.80 and D.O. 128
Abu Galyon
Standing_Caliph_Qinnasrin.jpg
Caliphate of Abd al-Malik20 viewsAbd al-Malik ibn Marwan (685 – 705 CE) ‘Standing Caliph’ type, mint of Qinnasrin [Chalcis]. Fals, weight 2.56g, diameter 22mm.

Obverse: Standing bearded figure wearing headdress and long robe, with right hand on hilt of sword. Inscription: abd allah abd al-malik amir al-mu’minin (“The servant of God, Abd al-Malik, commander of the faithful”).

Reverse: Object resembling Greek Φ, resting on four steps; To left, upwards, wāfin (“full value”); to right, downwards, mint designation, bi-qinnasrin. Inscription: the shahada (“There is no God but God alone and Muhammad is God’s prophet.”).

Mint of Qinnasrin [Chalcis]. Reference: Goodwin [2005] p.43, Foss p.79 and D.O. 112-114
Abu Galyon
Caracalla_AE_(2).JPG
Caracalla AE30 of Serdica, Thrace. 27 viewsAVT K M AVP CEVH ANTWNINOC, laureate head right / OVLPIAC CEPDIKIC, Tyche/Fortuna standing left with rudder & cornucopiae. Moushmov 4899 30 mm, 16.8 grams

THE OBVERSE MATCHES THIS ONE: Caracalla, AE28 of Serdica, Thrace. AVT K M AVRH ANTWNINOC, laureate head right / OVLPIAC CER-DIKHC, Tyche, wearing kalathos and long robe, standing left, holding rudder on globe and cornucopiae. Ruzicka 319; Sofia 2391. Ruzicka 319 sold
Antonivs Protti
Caracalla_Serdica.JPG
Caracalla AE30 Serdica Ruzicka 11822 viewsCaracalla, AE30 of Serdica, Thrace. AVT K M AVP CEV ANTWNEINOC, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right / OULPIAC CERDIKHC, Serapis, kalathos on head, standing left in long robe, holding sceptre and raising right hand. Ruzicka 118; H&J 12.18.6.4; Varbanov 2435 var (obverse legend).Britanikus
Caracalla_serdica_.jpg
Caracalla AE30 Serdica Ruzicka 11841 viewsCaracalla, AE30 of Serdica, Thrace. AVT K M AVP CEV ANTWNEINOC, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right / OULPIAC CERDIKHC, Serapis, kalathos on head, standing left in long robe, holding sceptre and raising right hand. Ruzicka 118; H&J 12.18.6.4; Varbanov 2435 var (obverse legend). 1 commentsBritanikus
CardinalMazarinbyWarin.JPG
Cardinal Mazarin, Treaty of the Pyrenees, 1660. 214 viewsObv. Bust of Cardinal Mazarin in his cardinals robes. IVLIVS CARDINALIS MAZARINVS
Rev. Radiant sun over landscape HINC ORDO HINC COPIA RERVM 1660

AE54. Original strike. Unsigned, but engraved by Warin.

Allegedly commemorates the Treaty of the Pyrenees signed in 1659.

Jules Cardinal Mazarin, (1602-1661), was the first minister of France after Cardinal Richelieu's death in 1642. During the early years of King Louis XIV, he completed Richelieu's work of establishing France's supremacy among the European powers and crippling the opposition to the power of the monarchy at home.
LordBest
carinus.jpg
Carinus (283 - 285 A.D.)43 views Ć(S) Antoninianus
O: IMP CARINVS P F AVG, radiate, draped, cuirassed bust right.
R: AETERNT AVGG, Aeternitas standing left, holding phoenix on globe, lifting hem of robe with left hand. KAΓ in ex.
Rome Mint. 284 - 285 A.D.
22 mm
3.8 g
RIC 248

Reverse engraver's error, missing "I"!
2 commentsMat
00093.jpg
Carinus (RIC 243, Coin #93)10 viewsRIC 243 (C), AE Antoninianus, Rome, 283-285 AD.
Obv: IMP C M AVR CARINVS AVG Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: AETERNIT AVGG (KA gamma) Aeternitas standing left holding Phoenix on globe and raising robe.
Size: 23.0mm 3.68gm
MaynardGee
Carinus_AE_antoninianus,_284-285_AD,_Rome.JPG
Carinus AE antoninianus, 284-285 AD, Rome24 viewsCarinus
AE antoninianus – 22mm
Rome, 284-185 AD
radiate, cuirassed bust r.
IMP CARINVS PF AVG
Aeternitas standing l., holding phoenix on globe and lifting robe
AETERNIT AVGG
KA crescent 
RIC Vb 244var
Ardatirion
AAGCb_small.png
Carinus AE Antoninianus. 12 viewsCarinus. 283-285 AD.

Rome, 283-285 AD.

21mm., 3.25g.

IMP CARINVS P F AVG. Bust of Carinus, radiate, draped, cuirassed, right, or bust of Carinus, radiate, cuirassed, right

AETERNIT AVGG. Aeternitas, draped, standing left, holding phoenix on globe in right hand and lifting robe with left hand

References: RIC V Carus 248

AAGC
RL
00597.jpg
Carus (RIC 82, Coin #597)9 viewsCarus, RIC 82, AE Antoninianus, Ticinum, 228 AD.
Obv: IMP CARVS P F AVG Radiate and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: SPES PVBLICA (SXXI) Spes walking left holding flower and raising robe.
Size: 21.7mm 3.24g
MaynardGee
artikel_pic382.JPG
Carus Ticinum14 viewsIMP CARVS P F AVG, Radiate and cuirassed bust right.
SPES PVBLICA, Spes walking left with flower & raising robe.
RIC82F

Ex. SXXI

20mm, 3.9gr, Die 180.

2nd emission Dec. 282.
Ed D
104~1.JPG
Charles IX, Roi de France (1560-1574) - Sol6 viewsSol parisis, argent, 1,28 g.
Point sous la cinquičme lettre pour Toulouse, B avant la date pour B. et J. Robert
A/ CAROLVS IX DI G FRAN REX, écu de France couronné
R/ + SIT NOMEN DNI BENEDIC b 1569, croix fleurdelisée formée de 4 C.
Réfs : Sb-4460
Gabalor
dauphin_new.jpeg
Charles VII (as Dauphin)26 viewsCHARLES VII (1422-1440) DAUPHINÉ - DAUPHINS DU VIENNOIS - Denier dentillé n.d.
Romans R1 billon
(20.24 mm, 1,20 g,)
Obverse : KARO-LVS - FRAn - REX Croix coupant la légende
Reverse : + DALPhS [VI]EnESIS Dauphin ŕ gauche dans un polylobe
Ref : Bd.- Morinn° 71 p. 265, (pl. 16/6) PA.4963 (110/9) Roberts 6577.
Purchased from Ebay November 28, 2016.
1 commentsorfew
WangMang2.jpg
China: Han Interregnum, Usurper Wang Mang, 7-22 A.D.88 viewsChina: Han Interregnum, Usurper Wang Mang, 7-22 A.D. AE24 mm, Cash. Obv: Huo Chuan. Schjoth-165.

"As soon as his [Wang Mang's] power was sufficiently consolidated, 3 years after his return to court, lists of his political opponents were drawn up, and hundreds were executed. Shortly after this he established a new penal colony in Tibet in the far West, a sort of ancient gulag. Unfortunately we have no direct account as to the nature of the crimes of those exiled to Tibet. In 6 AD the reins of power were still more firmly in his grasp, and Mang ordered his first reform of the coinage. Fundamentally this was a stratagem to nationalize the gold stocks, and put the empire back on a copper standard. Gold was requisitioned and exchanged against very high value bronze tokens. Two years later the tokens were demonetized. The cash assets of the aristocracy and the wealthy merchants must have been largely wiped out overnight. It is in the first couple of years of Mang's independent reign that the astonishing breadth of his reform proposals appear. His reforms include:

1) the abolition of slavery.
2) the nationalization of land.
3) standard plots of arable land for all adult males who wished to work them.
4) farming families grouped in hamlets of 6 or 8, with a common tax assessment.
5) a national bank offering fair rates of interest to all.
6) government market activity to counteract cornering and monopolization.
7) a new currency system in 15 denominations - circulating by government fiat.
8) defeat of the Huns

His new taxes include

taxes to be paid in cash or kind on cultivated land (one tenth)

triple rates to be paid on uncultivated land (parks and gardens etc.)

c) all self-employed or professional people outside farming shall register for income tax, which will be universally levied at 10% per annum. Those avoiding registration, or submitting false accounts to be sentenced to one years hard labour.

d) the state monopolies on iron, salt, silk, cloth and coinage to be retained

e) a new state monopoly on wine to be introduced.

Discussion of the proposals

1) Events in his private life show Mang's abhorrence of slavery. He vilified the political system of the legalists, established in the Chin dynasty (221-206 BC) specifically by alluding to the manner in which they established market places for male and female slaves, "putting human beings in auction pens as if they were cattle."

Reforms 2, 3, 5 & 6) The nationalization of land and its distribution amongst the peasant farmers themselves is of course one solution to the central economic problem in all pre-modern civilizations, (which presumably finds its roots in the bronze age and persisting right down to the machine age). Peasants must have security of tenure and just returns for their labour, otherwise they will not be encouraged to work effectively - and the state and all within it will thereby be impoverished. However if they are made private landowners then clever, unscrupulous, hard-working individuals within and outwith the peasantry will begin to gain land at the expense of their neighbours. The chief mechanisms of this gradual monopolization of the land by a class of people distinguished by their wealth are:

Preying upon private 'misfortune', (illness, death, and marriage expenses) by loansharking.
Preying upon public misfortunes (bad harvests) by loansharking.
Creating shortages by rigging the markets, exacerbating private and public misfortunes, and then loansharking.

Unfairly biasing tax assessments, creating and exacerbating private and public misfortunes, and then loansharking.

The end result of this tendency is likely to be that the bulk of farmers lack security of tenure and or just returns, and cease to work effectively, to the impoverishment of all. Reforms 2, 3 & 5 bear on this problem in an obvious way.

Reform 6 - the "Five Equalizations" is a little more complicated, so I shall explain it at greater length. Fundamentally it required the installation of government officials at the five important markets of the empire who would "buy things when they were cheap and sell them when they were dear." In more detail: "The superintendent of the market, in the second month of each of the four seasons, shall determine the true price of the articles under their responsibility, and shall establish high, middle and low prices for each type of item. When there are unsold goods on the market, the superintendent shall buy them up at the cost (low?) price. When goods become expensive (ie exceed the high price?) the superintendent shall intervene to sell goods from the official store (and thereby reduce the price)." The regulation thus allows markets to operate, but provides for state intervention to stop speculation . . . Mang's regulations allow for a review and revision of the trading bands four times a year.

4). In resettling the people securely on the land, Mang choose to group them into "chings" of 6 or 8 families - attempting to restore the traditional "well field" system. This provided for the regular exchange of land between the families, to give all a go at the best ground, and for joint responsibility for a common tax demand. The ching system was believed, by the Confucian party in the 1st century BC at least, to have been destroyed by the growth of mercantilist exploitation under the Chin legalists. There are hints that the state went on to use the ching structure in crime prevention measures, by making all members of the ching culpable for the unreported crime of any single member. The installation of a land nationalization scheme under the banner of a return to the ancient Chou system of 'chings' had a great deal of propaganda value amongst the Confucian elite which surrounded Mang. A sentimental view of rural working class life seems to be a common weakness amongst aristocratic and middle class intellectuals of all periods. Mang's own observations of the labouring poor would necessarily have been made at a distance - perhaps he too shared in this sentimental myopia. The evidence suggests that the peasantry did not welcome this aspect of the reforms

7) Food was the first concern of Confucian government, but coinage was the second. Only fair prices could encourage the farmers. Only markets could create fair prices. Only with coins could markets exist. Mang introduced a rational set of 15 denominations of coin, valued from 1 to 1,000 cash and circulated by government fiat. Mang did not invent the idea of fiat or fiduciary currency, a brief attempt had been made to circulate one in China a century earlier. However Mang was the first to systematically think through the matter in a practical context, and to apply it over a protracted period. Future successful ancient and medieval experiments with fiat currency, first in China, then in Japan and Central Asia, and unsuccessful ones in medieval India and Persia all looked back - directly or indirectly - to Mang. The first successful fully fiduciary currencies in Europe are products of the 20th century, more than 700 years after Europeans became aware of Chinese practices. (I am neglecting a great deal of late Roman copper coin here of course. I am by no means knowledgeable on such coins, but my understanding is that in principle, if not in practice, Rome was generally on the silver or the gold standard, and copper was exchangeable on demand.) On my own reading of the text, Mang's main concern is to get gold and silver off the market, so they could not be used to bid his tokens down - his coinage was intended to replace gold coinage, not supplement it."--Robert Tye

For a more complete study of Wang Mang, see Robert Tye's compositon about this enigmatic leader at http://www.anythinganywhere.com/info/tye/Wang%20Mang.htm
Cleisthenes
s Coat of Arms.jpg
Chulalongkorn Coat of Arms15 viewsChulalongkorn (Rama V--Chakri Dynasty) Coat of Arms

Origin/Meaning:
The arms of the Kingdom of Siam were created during the reign of King Chulalongkorn the Great, Rama V, when the Kingdom was exposed to Western traditions, ideas, and also European threat of colonialism. King Chulalongkorn, who visited Europe twice, modernized Siam and adopted many of the European traditions to his court, including the use of heraldry.

On the top of the coat of arms is the Great Victory Crown of Thailand, the most important royal regalia and the symbol of kingship. Under the crown is the symbol of the Royal House of Chakri, the King's royal family, which is a disc intersected with a trident. The royal multi-tiered umbrellas of state are also present on either side of the crown. To both sides of the coat of arms are the other regalia, the royal sword and the royal baton. In the background is the draped robe - either the Royal robe of the King or the robe of the Order of Chulachomklao - an order created by the King. The supporters are two (again) mythical creatures, one is the Royal Lion, rajasiha, and the other is Elephant Lion, gaja-siha.

The shield itself is partitioned into three parts, signifying the Thai part of the Kingdom (the 3-headed elephant) on the top, the Laotian suzerainty (another elephant), and the Malay suzerainty (two "kris", or Malayan short swords).

The chain under the Arms is a necklace that is a part of the Order of Chulachomklao.
The ribbon under the Arms is inscribed with the motto (in Pali, the language of the Buddhist canon) which may be translated as "Unity brings happiness".

When the present seal (the Garuda) was made the State symbol, King Chulalongkorn's great arms were no longer used as a State symbol, however, it still adorns the hats of Thai police officers to this day.
Literature : Information provided by Apirat Sugondhabhirom
________________________________________
Sitemap © Ralf Hartemink 1996, -
Cleisthenes
rjb_2010_05_02.jpg
Cilicia30 viewsAE 16mm
Hierapolis Castabala, Cilicia
IEPAΠ KACT
Dupont-Sanmer & Robert 39
2 commentsmauseus
ConstanCommRIC63_ConstantinopleMint.jpg
City of Constantinople Commemorative, 330 - 333 A.D.79 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC 63, VF, Constantinople, 2.524g, 18.5mm, 0o, 330 - 333 A.D.; Obverse: CONSTAN-TINOPOLI, Constantinopolis' helmeted bust left in imperial cloak and holding scepter across left shoulder; Reverse: Victory standing left, right foot on prow, scepter in right, resting left on grounded shield, CONSZ in exergue; nice style. Ex FORVM.

Constantinople Commemoratives minted by the actual city of Constantinople mint are much scarcer than those minted by other Eastern mints.

The village that was to become the site of Byzantium/Constantinople/Istambul was founded c. 658 B. C. by a Greek colony from Megara; the site was then occupied by the Thracian village of Lygos. The chief of the Megarian expedition was Byzas, after whom the city was naturally called Byzantion (Lat. Byzantium). Despite its perfect situation, the colony did not prosper at first; it suffered much during the Medic wars, chiefly from the satraps of Darius and Xerxes. Later on, its control was disputed by Lacedćmonians and Athenians; for two years (341-339 B. C.) it held out against Philip of Macedon. It succeeded in maintaining its independence even against victorious Rome, was granted the title and rights of an allied city, and its ambassadors were accorded at Rome the same honours as those given to allied kings; it enjoyed, moreover, all transit duties on the Bosporus. Cicero defended it in the Roman Senate, and put an end to the exactions of Piso.

The city continued prosperous to the reign of Septimius Severus, when it sided with his rival, Pescennius Niger. After a siege of three years (193-196) Severus razed to the ground its walls and public monuments, and made it subject to Perinthus or Heraclea in Thrace. But he soon forgave this resistance, restored its former privileges, built there the baths of Zeuxippus, and began the hippodrome. It was devastated again by the soldiers of Gallienus in 262, but was rebuilt almost at once. In the long war between Constantine and Licinius (314-323) it embraced the fortunes of the latter, but, after his defeat at Chrysopolis (Scutari), submitted to the victor.

Constantine had chosen this city as the new capital of the Roman Empire, but owing to his wars and the needs of the State, he rarely resided there.

(The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume IV; Copyright © 1908 by Robert Appleton Company;Online Edition Copyright © 2003 by K. Knight).

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
1 commentsCleisthenes
14106p00.jpg
City of Constantinopolis Commemorative, 330-346 A.D. (Cyzikus)48 viewsConstantinopolis City Commemorative, issued by CONSTANTINE THE GREAT AND HIS SONS, of the period AD 330-346, commemorating the transfer of the Seat of the Empire from Rome to Constantinople, AE3/4, aVF, Cyzikus. Obverse: CONSTAN-TINOPOLI, Constantinopolis wearing imperial mantle, holding inverted spear, laureate helmet, bust L.; Reverse: No legend; Victory stg. L., right foot on prow, holding scepter and leaning on shield; star?pellet?SMK pellet? in exergue.

The village that was to become the site of Byzantium/Constantinople/Istambul was founded c. 658 B. C. by a Greek colony from Megara; the site was then occupied by the Thracian village of Lygos. The chief of the Megarian expedition was Byzas, after whom the city was naturally called Byzantion (Lat. Byzantium). Despite its perfect situation, the colony did not prosper at first; it suffered much during the Medic wars, chiefly from the satraps of Darius and Xerxes. Later on, its control was disputed by Lacedćmonians and Athenians; for two years (341-339 B. C.) it held out against Philip of Macedon. It succeeded in maintaining its independence even against victorious Rome, was granted the title and rights of an allied city, and its ambassadors were accorded at Rome the same honours as those given to allied kings; it enjoyed, moreover, all transit duties on the Bosporus. Cicero defended it in the Roman Senate, and put an end to the exactions of Piso.

The city continued prosperous to the reign of Septimius Severus, when it sided with his rival, Pescennius Niger. After a siege of three years (193-196) Severus razed to the ground its walls and public monuments, and made it subject to Perinthus or Heraclea in Thrace. But he soon forgave this resistance, restored its former privileges, built there the baths of Zeuxippus, and began the hippodrome. It was devastated again by the soldiers of Gallienus in 262, but was rebuilt almost at once. In the long war between Constantine and Licinius (314-323) it embraced the fortunes of the latter, but, after his defeat at Chrysopolis (Scutari), submitted to the victor.

Constantine had chosen this city as the new capital of the Roman Empire, but owing to his wars and the needs of the State, he rarely resided there.

(The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume IV; Copyright © 1908 by Robert Appleton Company;Online Edition Copyright © 2003 by K. Knight).

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-RxkXwWaOx2TyMMi-Claudius_Spes.jpg
Claudius (Augustus) Coin: Brass Sestertius2 viewsTI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG PM TR P IMP - Head of Claudius, laureate, right
SPES AVGVSTA S C - Spes, draped, advancing left, holding flower in right hand and raising skirt with left
Exergue:


Mint: Rome (41-50AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 24.20g / 33mm / 180
Rarity: Common
References:
RIC 1-Claudius 99
Acquisition/Sale: numismatellussxtabilita Ebay

"Nobody is familiar with his own profile, and it comes as a shock, when one sees it in a portrait, that one really looks like that to people standing beside one. For one's full face, because of the familiarity that mirrors give it, a certain toleration and even affection is felt; but I must say that when I first saw the model of the gold piece that the mint-masters were striking for me I grew angry and asked whether it was intended to be a caricature. My little head with its worried face perched on my long neck, and the Adam's apple standing out almost like a second chin, shocked me. But Messalina said: "No, my dear, that's really what you look like. In fact, it is rather flattering than otherwise." -- From the novel "Claudius the God: And His Wife Messalina" by Robert Graves

The fact that Claudius choses Spes, the goddess of hope, to occupy such a prominent place on his coinage, makes it clear
that she was present in his thoughts. Carson suggests the type was introduced in the accession year of 41 because his own
birthday, August 1, was the day of the vota to Spes, and in that accession year, Claudius invoked her assistance on behalf
of his newborn son, Britannicus.
Spes was also the goddess of the future, which gave her a prominent role in certain kinds of occasions, especially weddings
and births, the latter of which made her valuable to children. With all of this in mind, his choice of Spes was especially
appropriate during the event-filled year of 41.
Carson notes that the Spes type afterward became a standard dynastic type for imperial heirs. In this case the reverse
inscription, SPES AVGVSTA, takes on a more complete dimension by suggesting hope for the empire through the
imperial family. Kent notes that by the time the later Spes sestertii were minted by Claudius, the “hope” of the Imperial
succession had been transferred from Britannicus to his adopted son, Nero.
The existence of numerous temples and altars to Spes in the capital, and the fine renderings of the goddess on Claudius’
sestertii suggest they are based upon a statuary prototype – perhaps one of great antiquity, considering its archaizing
qualities.
Gary W2
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-AOy7GVWJFbuo-Claudius.jpg
Claudius (Augustus) Coin: Bronze AS 4 viewsTI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG PM TR P IMP P P - Bare head left
(NO LEGEND) SC - Minerva advancing right, holding shield and brandishing a javelin, S-C across fields.
Exergue:



Mint: Rome (42-54 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 10.00g / 27mm / 6h
References:
RIC I (second edition), 116
BMC 206
Cohen 84
von Kaenel Type 60
BN 233-5
Acquisition/Sale: amarso66 eBay $0.00 04/19
Notes: Apr 12, 19 - The Gary R. Wilson Collection

Claudius, 25 January 41 - 13 October 54 A.D.
Claudius was one of the most capable, yet unlikely emperors. Shunned as an idiot by his family due to a limp and embarrassing stutter, Claudius spent the first decades of his life absorbed in scholarly studies until the death of his nephew Caligula. After Caligula's murder, the Praetorian Guard found him hiding behind a curtain in the Imperial Palace, expecting to be murdered. Instead, the guard proclaimed him emperor. His reign was marred by personal catastrophes, most notably promiscuity and betrayal by his first wife. He governed well and conquered the troublesome island of Britain. He was poisoned by his second wife, Agrippina Jr., mother of Nero.

"Nobody is familiar with his own profile, and it comes as a shock, when one sees it in a portrait, that one really looks like that to people standing beside one. For one's full face, because of the familiarity that mirrors give it, a certain toleration and even affection is felt; but I must say that when I first saw the model of the gold piece that the mint-masters were striking for me I grew angry and asked whether it was intended to be a caricature. My little head with its worried face perched on my long neck, and the Adam's apple standing out almost like a second chin, shocked me. But Messalina said: "No, my dear, that's really what you look like. In fact, it is rather flattering than otherwise." -- From the novel "Claudius the God: And His Wife Messalina" by Robert Graves

per Curtis Clay:
At ROME, bronze coins were struck for Claudius in two large issues, the first without P P and the second with P P, that is the first between his accession on 25 Jan. 41 and his acceptance of the title Pater Patriae less than a year later, between 1 and 12 Jan. 42, and the second after early January 42.

The types were the same in both issues:

sestertii of Claudius with types legend in wreath OB CIVES SERVATOS, SPES AVGVSTA, and legend of Nero Claudius Drusus around triumphal arch;

sestertius of Nero Claudius Drusus with rev. legend of Claudius around Claudius seated on curule chair set on globe among arms;

dupondius of Claudius with rev. CERES AVGVSTA;

dupondius of Antonia with rev. legend of Claudius around standing togate emperor;

asses of Claudius with rev. CONSTANTIAE AVGVSTI, LIBERTAS AVGVSTA, and Minerva fighting r.;

quadrantes of Claudius with types Modius and PNR, hand holding scales.

PROVINCIAL MINTS, official and unofficial, on the other hand, struck these same types for Claudius, usually without the quadrantes, almost exclusively without P P, so apparently during the first year of his reign. There were only two exceptions of provincial mints striking these standard types of Claudius after he became P P:

1. The Spanish mint, defined by the many sestertii and dupondii of this particular style, including dozens of die duplicates, found in the Pobla de Mafumet Hoard, struck most of its bronze coins for Claudius without P P, but, alone of the early provincial mints, continued to strike for him early in 42, now with P P, this however being a much smaller issue which probably lasted only a month or two.

I show below a "Pobla" dupondius of Claudius, this one of 41 (no P P), with the characteristic letter forms (particularly the Rs and Ms), often dots left and right of S C in rev. exergue, and the characteristic portrait with spikey hair locks. For comparison I also add a Rome-mint dupondius of the second issue, with P P. (Both images from CoinArchives)

curtislclay:
2. Thracian mint, later in reign, which had NOT struck bronzes for Claudius before he became P P. This mint copied the Roman types, but in slightly cruder style. Its dupondii often have central cavities on their flans, which never occur at Rome or at any of the other provincial mints; see the specimen that I illustrate below from CoinArchives.

Other features which suggest a Thracian or possibly Bithynian location of the mint: (a) quite a few bronze coins of this style have turned up in the flood of ancient coins that emerged from Bulgaria after the fall of the Iron Curtain. (b) Some of the sestertii in this style have Eastern countermarks, for example the SPES AVGVSTA sestertius shown below, from the website Museum of Countermarks on Roman Coins, with countermark Capricorn above rudder on globe. I think most of the Claudian bronzes known with this rare countermark are from our Thracian mint, though it can also occur on Roman and Spanish bronzes of Claudius, which had presumably found their way into circulation in Thrace or Bithynia.

What types did this mint strike? Well, sestertii of Claudius with Legend in wreath and SPES AVGVSTA, but no Arch of Drusus sestertii have yet been observed; CERES AVGVSTA dupondii of Claudius, but I haven't yet noted any dupondii of Antonia; asses of Claudius with all three normal types; no quadrantes.

curtislclay:
Unfortunately these different mints for bronze coins of Claudius are hardly recorded in the standard catalogues!

Laffranchi, in an article written in 1948, was the first to recognize and separate from Rome two of the main provincial mints striking bronzes for Claudius early in his reign, including the Spanish mint mentioned above. But Sutherland, revising RIC I in 1983, was unable to see the stylistic differences pointed out by Laffranchi, so attributed all of Claudius' bronze coins to Rome. The same RIC numbers, therefore, cover Rome and at least three major provincial mints without P P, and Rome, the Spanish mint, and the Thracian mint with P P!

Von Kaenel, in his 1986 monograph on the coinage of Claudius, recognized the two early provincial mints for bronze coins pointed out by Laffranchi, and attributed certain middle bronzes to yet a third provincial mint, though he wrongly located all of these mints in Rome, as auxiliarly mints to the main public one, rather than in the western provinces. He did not recognize the Thracian mint from later in the reign that I have treated above. His catalogue, no. 1888, pl. 43, indeed includes a Thracian CERES AVGVSTA dupondius with central indentations, but he misattributed it to the early Spanish mint, the only early provincial mint to produce bronze coins for Claudius as P P.

Giard, in his Paris catalogue of 1988, ignored both Laffranchi and von Kaenel, and, like RIC, attributed all official bronze coins of Claudius to the mint of Rome!

Individual Thracian mint coins have been recognized as such in various sale catalogues since the 1990s, but this mint has not been treated in any academic article or museum catalogue as far as I know.
Gary W2
Claudius_3__opt.jpg
CLAUDIUS Denarius, RIC 39, Nemesis131 viewsOBV: TI CLAVD CAESAR AVG P M TR P VI IMP XI, laureate head right
REV: PACI AVGVSTAE, Pax-Nemesis advancing right, drawing out fold of robe at neck, holding caduceus above serpent preceding her
3.6g, 19mm

Minted at Rome, 46-7 AD
7 commentsLegatus
coin459.JPG
Claudius II9 viewsClaudius II Gothicus AE Antoninianus. IMP C CLAVDIVS AVG, radiate, cuirassed bust right / SPES PVBLICA, Spes walking left, holding flower & raising robe. RIC 102, Cohen 281.ecoli
O6_1_copy.jpg
Claudius II ("Gothicus") 268-270 AD9 viewsRef: RIC V,1-169
Denom: AE antoninianus; Mint: Milan
OBV: IMP C CLAVDIVS AVG- Radiate, bust left
REV: SPES PVBLICA-Spes walking left,
holding flowers and hitching robe
Size: 21.5 mm
cleaned
brian l
Claudius_Gothicus.jpg
Claudius II (Gothicus)18 viewsObverse: IMP C CLAVDIVS AVG, radiate, cuirassed bust right
Reverse: SPES PVBLICA, Spes walking left, holding flower and raising robe
Size: 23mm Weight: 2.78 grams
Id: RIC 102, Cohen 281, cf Sear 11374
Mint: Rome, 268-269AD
ickster
spes1.JPG
Claudius II (Gothicus) AE Antoninianus 268-270 AD41 viewsOBV: IMP C CLAVDIVS AVG; Radiate Cuirassed Bust Right
REV: SPES PVBLICA; Spes standing left, holding a flower with one hand and raising her robe with the other.

RIC 102 (Ref. W'winds) Rome mint. Nice obverse portrait on a rough flan - typical for the times.
daverino
Claudius_II_opt.jpg
CLAUDIUS II (Gothicus) Antoninianus RIC 168, Spes25 viewsOBV: IMP CLAVDIVS P F AVG, radiate, draped bust right
REV: SPES PVBLICA, Spes walking left, holding flower and raising robe, P in ex.
2.8g, 19.9mm

Minted at Mediolanum, 268-9 AD
Legatus
Claudius_II_4_opt.jpg
CLAUDIUS II (Gothicus) Antoninianus RIC 191, Spes22 viewsOBV: IMP CLAVDIVS AVG, radiate draped bust right
REV: SPES AVG, Spes walking left holding flower and raising hem of robe
4.0g, 19mm

Minted at Siscia, 268-69 AD
Legatus
claudius-spes-reshoot.jpg
Claudius II Gothicus AE Antoninianus, 268-270 AD16 viewsRoman Imperial, Claudius II Gothicus AE Antoninianus, (268-270 AD), 4.1g, 19mm

Obverse: IMP CLAVDIVS AVG. Radiate, cuirassed, draped bust right.

Reverse: SPES AVG. Spes walking left, holding flower and raising hem of robe.

Reference: RIC 191

Ex: Bing
Gil-galad
claudius_II_publica.JPG
Claudius II RIC V-1 Milan 16828 viewsAE 18 mm 3.8 grams
OBV :: IMP CLAVDIVS PF AVG. Radiate draped bust right
REV :: SPES PVBLICA Spes walking left holding flower and raising hem of robe
EX :: P or S ??
REF :: RIC V-1, 168 Milan
Johnny
8103.jpg
Claudius II- SPES PVBLICA34 viewsClaudius II AE Antoninianus. Milan. 268-269 AD. IMP CLAVDIVS PF AVG, radiate, draped bust right / SPES PVBLICA, Spes walking left, holding flower and raising hem of robe. Officina letter P in exergue. 3.63g, 19mm.

RIC V-1, 168 Milan; Sear 11374.
SkySoldier
claudius_38.jpg
Claudius RIC I, 38769 viewsClaudius, AD 41 - 54
AV - Aureus, 7.71g, 18mm
Rome 46/47
obv. TI CLAVD CAESAR AVG PM TRP VI IMP XI
laureate head r.
rev. PACI AVGVSTAE
Pax/Nemesis walking r., holding with l. hand caduceus
and point with it at snake at her feet; holding fold of the
robe before her chin
RIC I, 38; C.57; von Kaenel 628 (this specimen!)
R2; about VF
One of my favorite coins due to its pedigree:
ex. coll. Moritz Simon, Berlin
ex. Glandining & Co., London 1929, Nr.666
ex. Cahn, Ffm. 1930, Nr.232
ex. M&M, Basel

from Curtis Clay: Herbert Cahn, one of the greatest
German coin houses, had to flee from the Nazis to Switzerland

1 NEMESIS, Goddess of rightful distribution
2 CADUCEUS, holding caduceus to snake = welfare
3 The interpretation of N.'s gesture, holding fold of the robe to the chin as spitting in the neck and symbol for happiness, is doubtful. Rossbach thinks it may be a gesture of modesty!
This all stands for the politics of Claudius!
15 commentsJochen
Claudius.jpg
Claudius – RIC-5287 viewsClaudius Denarius 41 -53 AD (18 mm 3.49 gm) Lugdunum Mint Struck 50 -51 AD. TI CLAVD CAESAR AVG P M TR P X IMP PP, laureate head right / PACI AVGVSTAE, Pax-Nemesis, winged, advancing right, pointing at snake with winged caduceus, drawing out fold of robe below chin. RIC 52; RSC 65; BMC 62; Sear 18463 commentsBud Stewart
commodus_05.jpg
Commodus AR Denarius27 viewsObv: M COMM ANT P FEL AVG BRIT P P - Laureate head right.
Rev: APOL PAL P M TR P XVI COS VI - Apollo, laureate, wearing a long robe, stands holding a plectum, resting his lyre on a column.
Date: 190 - 191 AD
Ref: RSC II 25, RIC III 218
Rarity: Extremely rare
oa
commodus_261corr.jpg
Commodus RIC III, 261 corr.35 viewsCommodus, AD 177-192
AR - denarius, 20g, 19mm
Rome AD 191/92
obv. L AEL AVREL CO - MM AVG P FEL
Laureate head r.
rev. SERAPI - DI CONSERV AVG
Serapis in long robe, modius on head, stg. frontal, head l., holding long vertical sceptre in
l. hand and raising r. hand in greeting attitude
ref. RIC III, 261 corr., pl. XV, 312 (writes "Serapis, radiate" and "holding branch"); C. 703;
BMCR IV, 59-361 var. (different legend breaks, writes "holding branch")
scarce, about SS

I think it is not a branch but only the typical long fingers of his r. hand. And RIC has misinterpreted flow lines as "radiated head".

This is the first Roman imperial coin showing Serapis in his standard position (There is a coin from Domitian with Serapis in a temple too).
2 commentsJochen
Constantine_Robed.jpg
Constantine I the Great posthumous commemorative83 viewsConstantine I the Great
Posthumous commemorative
c. 347-348
Obv: DV CONSTANTINVS PT AVGG, Veiled bust right.
Rev: Veiled and togate emperor standing right, VN MR across fields. Exergue: SMANE

mihali84
4821_4822.jpg
Constantine I, Follis, BEATA TRANQVILLITAS3 viewsAE Follis/AE3
Constantine I
Caesar: 306 - 307AD
Augustus: 307 - 337AD
Issued: 322AD
18.58mm 2.75gr
O: CONSTANTINVS AVG; Laureate bust left, holding eagle tipped scepter and wearing consular robes.
R: BEATA TRANQVILLITAS; Altar with VO/TIS/XX, globe above with three stars.
Exergue: STR(Dot)
Trier Mint
Aorta: 1254: B54, O4, R12, T5, M19.
RIC VII Trier 343.
detectorfinds 181130012930
5/6/13 2/19/17
Nicholas Z
constantinI_8.jpg
Constantine I, RIC VII, Cyzikus 853 viewsConstantine I the Great, 307 - 337
AE - AE 3, 3.68g, 18mm
Cyzikus 6. officina, 317 - 320
obv. IMP CONSTA - NTINVS AVG
bust with consular robe, laureate head l., globe and sceptre in l., mappa in r. hand
rev. IOVI CONS - ERVATORI AVGG
Jupiter standing l., chlamys across l. shoulder, holding sceptre and
Victory on globe
field: wreath and S
exergue: SMK
RIC VII, 8; cf. C.300
Rare; good VF, partially silvered, flan crack at 7 o'clock
1 commentsJochen
Constantine II- VOT V.jpg
Constantine II- VOT V56 viewsConstantine II , 22 May 337 - March or April 340 A.D.

Obverse:
Laureate bust right.

CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C

CONSTANTINVS: Constantine
IYN: Junior
NOB: Noble
C: Caesar


Reverse:
CAESARVM NOSTRORVM, our emperor

CAESARVM: Emperor
NOSTRORVM: Our
VOT V in wreath, Vows of the five years


Domination: Bronze AE 3, size 19 mm

Exe: The most common of them would be from Siscia, RIC VII Siscia 163, with ASIS* through to ESIS* in exe. RIC 163

In the Id- section there was a small funny discussion about Constantine being nude, and here is the final answer:

The conventional usage had better be kept, and is as Robert says. Sculpture shows that from the mid-1st century onward, a 'head' showing the naked shoulders (or after c. 100 the pectorals as well), is the 'short' equivalent to a nude or semi-nude (half-draped) statue: i.e., it is at least vaguely divinized. Often, both on the coins and on the sculptures, there was a bit of drapery on one shoulder, which would be the 'short' version of semi-nude. The point is that real, live Romans didn't go around that way; they even wore a tunic under the toga, and we know what they thought about bare feet!
But Head to r. is shorter than Heroic Bust to r. (which many wouldn't understand, anyhow) in listing coins. In discussing a coinage, of course, one may need to discuss some in terms of divinizing or heroizing, but in lists the 'Head' usage is established, more than established; besides, for the Republic it is accurate: family portraits were just heads with little more than the neck.
Pat L.
John Schou
186- Constantine II-Siscia, RIC 118.JPG
Constantine II-Siscia, RIC 11848 viewsAE3, Siscia Mint, 320 AD
Obv: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C, Laureate bust left in Conuslar robe, holding Victory on Globe and mappa.
Rev: VIRTVS EXERCIT, Standard inscribed VOT / X, flanked by a captive on each side. S left , F right.
BSIS* in exergue
19mm, 2.49gm
Ex Aiello Collection.
jdholds
Constantius_I_2_opt.jpg
CONSTANTIUS I CHLORUS, AE Follis RIC VI 32a, Carthago29 viewsOBV: CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES, laureate head right (large head type)
REV: SALVIS AVGG ET CAESS FEL KART, Carthago standing facing, head left, in long robe, holding fruits in both hands. Mintmark Gamma
7.41g, 28mm

Minted at Carthage, 298-99 AD
1 commentsLegatus
constantiusI_carthago_32.jpg
Constantius I Chlorus, RIC VI, Carthago 32(a)17 viewsConstantius I Chlorus, AD 293-305, father of Constantin I the Great
AE - Follis, 27mm, 8.48g
Carthago, AD 298/9
obv. CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES
Head, laureate, r.
rev. SALVIS AVGG ET CAESS FEL KART
Personification of Carthago, wearing long robe, stg. facing, head l., holding fruits
in each hand.
in ex. Gamma
RIC VI, Carthago 32(a), C. 271
VF, rev. with thick green patina

The rev. legend is the famous ablativus absolutus meaning 'The emperors are well, Carthago is happy'.
Jochen
csriciv39aOR.jpg
Constantius I, RIC VI 39a14 viewsCarthage mint, Constantius I, 305-306 A.D. AE, 29mm 9.54g, RIC VI 39a
O: IMP CONSTANTIVS P F AVG, Laureate head right
R: SALVIS AVGG ET CAESS FEL KART, Carthage standing facing, head left, in long robe holding fruit in both hands, H in left field
Ex: A
casata137ec
B2-Coronet Cent.jpg
Coronet Cent36 viewsCoronet Cent, 1851 (normal date)

Minted 1816 - 1857, 10.89 gr., 29mm, plain edge, copper, Designer: Robert Scot.

1851, V.G., 9,889,707 minted.

Reference: KM 67v2
Daniel Friedman
689CN444.jpg
Cr 244/3 Ć Quadrans C. Aburius Geminus10 viewsRome, 134 BCE
o: Head of Hercules right, wearing lion’s skin headdress; ••• (mark of value) behind, [club below]
r: Prow of galley right; C • (ABVR)I/GEM above, ••• (mark of value) to right
Sydenham 491a; Type as RBW 1008
18.5mm 4.29 gm

This coin, as with the other 3 posted at same time, is vastly better in hand. This coin also has a Republic-nerd pedigree to die for: From the Andrew McCabe Collection. Ex RBW Collection Duplicate; purchased by RBW from Roberto Russo.
PMah
bwld.jpg
CRUSADER STATES . County of Edessa. Baldwin II , (1108-1118) . Ć Follis55 viewsCRUSADER STATES . County of Edessa. Baldwin II , (1108-1118) . Ć Follis
2.1 gr.
Obverse : Half length figure holding sword and orb .
Reverse : Legend ?XH??B???
Very rare.
Roberto Pesant " Barbaric Coins of the Crusader Counts of Edessa " Spink Numismatic Circular 96 ( 1988) , p. 115- 116 .
Ex . MPO Auctions
Vladislav D
31339q00.jpg
Crusaders, Frankish Greece, Principality of Achaea, Robert of Taranto, 1333 - 1364 Billon denier tournois29 viewsCrusaders, Frankish Greece, Principality of Achaea, Robert of Taranto, 1333 - 1364 Billon denier tournois
0.873g, 18.9mm, 0o, Clarentza mint, obverse + ROBT P AChE, cross pattée; reverse + CLARENCIA, castle tournois, R below;
CCS 75
Ex Alex G. Malloy Ex A.J. Seltman Ex FORUM
Vladislavs D
31337q00.jpg
Crusaders, Frankish Greece, Principality of Achaea, Robert of Taranto, 1333 - 1364 Billon denier tournois38 viewsCrusaders, Frankish Greece, Principality of Achaea, Robert of Taranto, 1333 - 1364 Billon denier tournois
uneven strike, 0.808g, 18.2mm, 270o, Clarentza mint, obverse + ROBT P AChE, cross pattée, annulet left in upper right quarter; reverse + CLARENCIA, castle tournois .
CCS 70
Ex Alex G. Malloy Ex A.J. Seltman Ex FORUM
Vladislavs D
31336q00.jpg
Crusaders, Frankish Greece, Principality of Achaea, Robert of Taranto, 1333 - 1364 Billon denier tournois29 viewsCrusaders, Frankish Greece, Principality of Achaea, Robert of Taranto, 1333 - 1364 Billon denier tournois
0.808g, 19.4mm, 180o, Clarentza mint, obverse + ROBT P AChE, cross pattée; reverse + CLARENCIA, castle tournois, R below
CCS 75
Ex Alex G. Malloy Ex A.J. Seltman Ex FORUM
Vladislavs D
31341q00.jpg
Crusaders, Frankish Greece, Principality of Achaea, Robert of Taranto, 1333 - 1364 Billon denier tournois29 viewsCrusaders, Frankish Greece, Principality of Achaea, Robert of Taranto, 1333 - 1364 Billon denier tournois
0.837g, 18.5mm, 180o, Clarentza mint, obverse + ROBT P AChE, cross pattée; reverse + CLARENCIA, castle tournois, R below
CCS 75
Ex Alex G. Malloy Ex A.J. Seltman Ex FORUM
Vladislavs D
31394q00.jpg
Crusaders, Frankish Greece, Principality of Achaea, Robert of Taranto, 1333 - 1364 Billon denier tournois27 viewsCrusaders, Frankish Greece, Principality of Achaea, Robert of Taranto, 1333 - 1364 Billon denier tournois
uneven strike, 0.743g, 19.4mm, Corinth mint .
Obverse : + IOhS P ACh'E, cross pattée, crescent right in upper right quarter .
Reverse : + CLARENCIA, castle tournois .
CCS 73 (this coin) , of great rarity .
Ex Alex G. Malloy Ex A.J. Seltman Ex FORUM
This is the line drawing coin in Malloy, Preston and Seltman's "Coins of the Crusader States."
Vladislav D
31344q00.jpg
Crusaders, Frankish Greece, Principality of Achaea, Robert of Taranto, 1333 - 1364 Billon denier tournois82 viewsCrusaders, Frankish Greece, Principality of Achaea, Robert of Taranto, 1333 - 1364 Billon denier tournois
0.799g, 18.8mm, Clarentza mint .
Obverse + ROBT P AChE, cross pattée
Reverse + CLARENCIA, castle tournois, R below
CCS 75 very rare
Ex Alex G. Malloy Ex A.J. Seltman Ex FORUM
Vladislav D
RI 096d img.jpg
Dacia274 viewsTrajan Decius Antoninianus
Obv:– IMP C M Q TRAIANVS DECIVS AVG, Radiate, draped, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– DACIA, Dacia, wearing robe reaching feet, standing left, holding vertical staff with ass’s head
Minted in Rome. A.D. 249 - 251
Reference:– RIC 12b. RSC 16

Personification of the province of Dacia
maridvnvm
sev_alex_fouree.jpg
Denarius (limes); SPES PVBLICA18 viewsSeverus Alexander Limes Denarius, Spes publica, Unofficial mint, after 231 A.D. 18x20mm, 1.69g. 
Obverse: IMP ALEXANDER PIVS AVG 
Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right. 
Reverse: SPES PVBLICA 
Spes walking left, holding out a flower in her right hand, lifting the hem of her robe with her left. 
Reference for the official: Sear RCV 7927; RIC IV 254d. A base metal or billon version of the original silver denarius, in good style, made around the same time as the original. Ex MoremothPodiceps
DiadF.jpg
Diadumenian130 viewsDiadumenian, as Caesar. 218 AD. AR Denarius 3.04 g. 2nd emission, July AD 217-March 218

O: M OPEL ANT DIADVMENIAN CAES, bare-headed and draped bust right
R: PRINC IVVENTVTIS, Diadumenian standing half-left, head right, holding standard and sceptre; two standards behind.
RIC IV 102 (Macrinus); BMCRE 87 (Macrinus); RSC 3.

Marcus Opellius Diadumenianus was born in 208. According to Aelius Lampridius, quoted below, the boy was so named because he was born with a diadem formed by a rolled caul.

“Now let us proceed to the omens predicting his imperial power — which are marvellous enough in the case of others, but in his case beyond the usual wont. 4 On the day of his birth, his father, who then chanced to be steward of the greater treasury, was inspecting the purple robes, and those which he approved as being brighter in hue he ordered to be carried into a certain chamber, in which two hours later Diadumenianus was born. 2 Furthermore, whereas it usually happens that children at birth are provided by nature with a caul, which the midwives seize and sell to credulous lawyers (for it is said that this bring luck to those who plead), 3 this child, instead of a caul, had a narrow band like a diadem, so strong that it could not be broken, for the fibres were entwined in the manner of a bow-string. 4 The child, they say, was accordingly called Diadematus, but when he grew older, he was called Diadumenianus from the name of his mother's father, though the name differed little from his former appellation Diadematus.”

His father Macrinus was hailed as Augustus in 217. Diadumenian, in turn, received the titles of Caesar and Prince of the Youth. He was also given the name Antoninus after the assassinated emperor Caracalla.

These titles are seen on this example as ANT and PRINC IVVENTVTIS.

When the armies of Elagabalus revolted at Emesa on May 16, 218, Macrinus traveled to the praetorian fortress at Apamaea to shore up (buy) support and to raise Diadumenian to the rank of Augustus. Still, Macrinus’ armies were defeated outside Antioch in less than a month.

10 year old Diadumenian was captured while fleeing to Zeugma and executed shortly thereafter. He reigned as Caesar for 13 months and as Augustus for less than one.

Although the Senate never confirmed Diadumenian’s title as Augustus, there is extremely rare silver (one or two pieces?) with Diadumenian as emperor. It is believed that a large issue was struck, only to be immediately recalled and melted down when the news of Macrinus’ defeat reached Rome.
5 commentsNemonater
DiadumenianStandards.jpg
DIADUMENIAN64 viewsDIADUMENIAN (Caesar, 217-218). Denarius. 2.53 g. 20mm, Rome mint.
O: M OPEL DIADVMENIAN CAES, Bareheaded, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: PRINC IVVENTVTIS, Diadumenian standing left, holding baton; two signa to right.
-RIC 107.

1st emission of Macrinus, AD 217, only three examples in the Reka Devnia hoard.

Diadumenian's three main types as Caesar exactly correspond to Macrinus' three issues, which for their part can be approximately dated on the basis of the titles they bear and their volumes of issue as revealed by the Reka Devnia hoard. So Diadumenian's dates derive from those estimated for Macrinus.

Marcus Opellius Diadumenianus was born in 208. According to Aelius Lampridius, quoted below, the boy was so named because he was born with a diadem formed by a rolled caul.

“Now let us proceed to the omens predicting his imperial power — which are marvellous enough in the case of others, but in his case beyond the usual wont. 4 On the day of his birth, his father, who then chanced to be steward of the greater treasury, was inspecting the purple robes, and those which he approved as being brighter in hue he ordered to be carried into a certain chamber, in which two hours later Diadumenianus was born. 2 Furthermore, whereas it usually happens that children at birth are provided by nature with a caul, which the midwives seize and sell to credulous lawyers (for it is said that this bring luck to those who plead), 3 this child, instead of a caul, had a narrow band like a diadem, so strong that it could not be broken, for the fibres were entwined in the manner of a bow-string. 4 The child, they say, was accordingly called Diadematus, but when he grew older, he was called Diadumenianus from the name of his mother's father, though the name differed little from his former appellation Diadematus.”

His father Macrinus was hailed as Augustus on April 8, 217. Dio Cassius tells us that Diadumenian was named Caesar and Prince of the Youth by the Senate in May 217 as soon as news of Macrinus' accession reached Rome. A little later, Dio continues, news arrived that Diadumenian had independently been proclaimed Caesar by the soldiers at Zeugma, as he was on his way from Antioch to join Macrinus in Mesopotamia, and that he had also assumed Caracalla's name Antoninus. Hence this first short issue of coins in Rome is with the titles Caesar and Prince of the Youth, but still without Antoninus.

When the armies of Elagabalus revolted at Emesa on May 16, 218, Macrinus traveled to the praetorian fortress at Apamaea to shore up (buy) support and to raise Diadumenian to the rank of Augustus. Still, Macrinus’ armies were defeated outside Antioch in less than a month.

10 year old Diadumenian was captured while fleeing to Zeugma and executed shortly thereafter. He reigned as Caesar for 13 months and as Augustus for less than one.

Although the Senate never confirmed Diadumenian’s title as Augustus, there is extremely rare silver (one or two pieces?) with Diadumenian as emperor. It is believed that a large issue was struck, only to be immediately recalled and melted down when the news of Macrinus’ defeat reached Rome.
5 commentsNemonater
coin75.jpg
Diocletian Potin Tetradrachm of Alexandria15 viewsDiocletian Potin Tetradrachm of Alexandria.
Year , 285/286 AD. Obv: A K GOYA L DIOKLHTIANOC
CEB, laureate draped bust right Rev: LB, Elpis standing
left, holding flower, a long sash (?) hanging from
her arm, & clutching hem of robe. Coin #75

cars100
diocletian_ticinum56a.JPG
Diocletian RIC VI, Ticinum 56(a)64 viewsDiocletian, 284-305
AE - Follis, 8.12g, 26mm
Ticinum, 3rd officina, c. 305
obv. DN DIOCLETIANO BAEATISSIMO SEN AVG (sic!)
Laureate bust right in consular robe, olive branch in right hand, mappa in left
rev. PROVIDENTIA DEORVM QVIES AVGG
Providentia standing right, extending right hand to Quies standing left, branch
downward in right hand, leaning left on vertical scepter
in right field pellet
in exergue: TT
RIC VI, Ticinum 56a; C.422
VF+, nice green patina, some silvering below
ex Tony Hardy Coll.
added to www.wildwinds.com

The pellet for the Augusti was in the r. field, for the Caesars in the l. field.
2 commentsJochen
Diocletian4_opt.jpg
DIOCLETIAN Tetradrachm Milne 4750, Elpis15 viewsOBV: A K GOYA L DIOKLHTIANOC CEB, laureate draped bust right
REV: LA, Elpis standing left, holding flower, a long sash (?) hanging from her arm, & clutching hem of robe
20mm

Minted at Alexandria, 284-85 AD
Legatus
DIOCLET-1-ROMAN.jpg
Diocletian, Carthage RIC VI-031a(A)22 viewsAE Follis
Carthage mint, 299-303 A.D.
7.81g, 31mm
RIC VI-31a

Obverse:
IMP DIOCLETIANVS P F AVG
Laureate head right.

Reverse:
SALVIS AVGG ET CAESS FEL KART
A
Carhtigo standing facing, head left, in long robe, holding fruits in both hands.
rubadub
tet~0.JPG
Diocletian, Roman Provincial Egypt, Billon Tetradrachm, 284 - 285 A.D. (Year 1)29 viewsDiocletian Potin Tetradrachm of Alexandria. Year 1 = 284/285 AD.
Obv: A K GOYA L DIOKLHTIANOC CEB, laureate draped bust right
Rev: LA, Elpis standing left, holding flower, a long sash hanging from her arm, & clutching hem of robe.

Curtis 1980; Alexandria Milne 4750
Dino
Domitian_RIC_233.JPG
Domitian (as Caesar), 69 - 81 AD33 viewsObv: CAES AVG F DOMIT COS III, laureate head of Domitian facing right.

Rev: PRINCEPS IVVENTVT, Spes advancing left holding a flower and raising her robe.

Silver Denarius, Rome mint, 74 AD

3.2 grams, 19.25 x 17.4 mm, 180°

RIC II Vespasian 233, RSC 375, S2640, VM 54
1 commentsSPQR Coins
Domitian_OBV.JPG
Domitian As Obv17 viewsDomitian; AD 81-96
AE Dupondius, 28mm/9.2 g
Obv: CAESAR AVG F DOMITIAN COS II; Domitian laureate & draped head right
Rev: S-C, Spes advancing left, holding flower and raising hem of robe
(RIC II 699)
Philip G
Domitian_Rev.JPG
Domitian As Rev13 viewsDomitian; AD 81-96
AE As, 28mm/9.2 g
Obv: CAESAR AVG F DOMITIAN COS II; Domitian laureate & draped head right
Rev: S-C, Spes advancing left, holding flower and raising hem of robe
(RIC II 699)
Philip G
Domitian_unlisted_As_Spes.jpg
Domitian As Spes41 viewsObv: IMP CAESAR DOMITIANVS AVG P M, Laureate head right
Rev: S C (in field), Spes walking left holding flower and raising her robe
AE/As (26.58 mm 8.25 g5h) Struck in Uncertain Western mint about 81 A.D.
FlaviusDomitianus
Domias14-1.jpg
Domitian, RIC 478 & 493, As of AD 86 (double reverse)51 viewsĆ As (11,2g, Ř 30mm, 6h), Rome, AD 86
Obv.: IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM.COS XII CENS PER P P, laureate head right, aegis
Rev.: M[ONETA] AVGVSTI, Moneta standing left, holding scales and cornucopiae, struck over [F]IDEI [PVBLICAE] (around), S C (field), Fides standing right with corn ears and plate of fruits (of which only the head is visible).
RIC II,1:478 & 493
ex G.Henzen (1998)

The double struck reverse is composed of parts from two different dies: upper left third: (F)IDEI (PVBLICAE) and head of Fides turned r. (RIC 478); other two thirds: M(ONETA) AVGVSTI (RIC 493). Curtis Clay gives a plausible and interesting explanation for this strange phenomenon: "Roman imperial bronze coins with perfect obverses, but two dies of the same or different types overstruck on each other on the reverse, occur with some regularity; large public collections like BM or Vienna probably possess 50-100 of them each and I've been able to buy maybe 10-15 for my personal collection over a period of about 30 years. What I don't doubt is the correct explanation which was suggested to me by Colin Kraay c. 1972, when showing me an As of Caracalla of that sort that the Ashmolean Museum had just acquired: might it not have been quicker to employ two mobile rev. dies alternately at each obv. die set in its anvil, so that while one worker was removing his coin and getting a new blank, the second would be striking his own coin at the same obv. die? The overstrikes in question resulted from failure to remove the coin from the obv. die after the first strike! Robert Kokotailo suggested to me a year or two ago that such an alternation might also have prevented the reverse dies from overheating. Many modern scholars have proposed that different rev. types were struck at different officinae or workshops within the mint, so it's rather neat to be able to point out that in fact different types were often struck alternately at one and the same obverse die, Fides-Moneta-Fides-Moneta-Fides-Moneta and so on until there was some reason to stop work or replace the dies!"
1 commentsCharles S
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-reCiIurqi8PJzgw-Livia.jpg
Drusus (Caesar) Coin: Brass Dupondius3 viewsDRVSVS CAESAR TI AVGVSTI F TR POT ITER around large S C - Legend around S C
Exergue:



Mint: Rome (22-23AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 12.07g / 29mm / 180
Rarity: Scarce
References:
RIC I 43
BMCRE 98 (Tiberius)
BN 74
Cohen 1 (Livia)
Acquisition/Sale: sculptor17 Ebay

Livia Draped bust of Livia as Pietas. Livia was the powerful second wife of Augustus. By her first marriage, Livia is the mother of Tiberius (Emperor) and Drusus (husband of Antonia) and grandmother of Claudius (old friend of Alexander the Alabarch). SR 1731

From Marvin Tameanko:
As usual, there was much vicious gossip and slander surrounding Livia and today it is impossible to separate fact from fiction. In all fairness, one must assume she was neither as good nor as evil as ancient and modern authors say. Tacitus, the 1st century Roman historian, was her worst critic and accused her in his book The Annals, Book 1.3 and 1.6, of causing the murder of the adopted heirs of Augustus, Caius and Lucius, to clear the way for her own son, Tiberius. The historian, Cassius Dio, writing in the 2nd century AD, repeated this ugly rumor in his book, Roman History, Book 53, 33.4, 55, 32 and 57, 3.6. Both these authors are usually dependable, and not know to be falsifiers of history or slanderers, but they both despised the emperor Tiberius and could attack his reputation only by maligning his mother. Today, most historians reject their terrible and outrageous accusation that Livia murdered Augustus by poisoning his dessert of fresh figs. (Tacitus, The Annals Book 1.5 and Dio, History, 55.22.2, and 56.30). This horror story was made popular by the 20th century author, Robert Graves, in his historical novel, I Claudius, but both Tacitus and Dio had devious political agendas that overrode their duties to be honest reporters. However, Livia’s busts on the ancient coins struck by her son, the Emperor Tiberius, although considered to be merely propaganda images, offer kinder assessments of her character. One extraordinary coin portrays Livia as the deity Pietas, goddess of piety, affection and dutifulness.
Divinities were often used to personify the sterling qualities of an ideal Roman matron so, as the ‘First Lady’ of the Empire, Livia Augusta, representing these divinities, became the textbook example of Roman womanhood. To cultivate this image, Livia was shown in sculpture and on coins dressed and posed as various goddesses. Most remarkably, Tiberius struck a series of dupondii, low denominations of currency and therefore coins that would come frequently into the hands of many Romans, depicting the Augusta as various divine personifications. For example, she is portrayed as the deity Pietas, representing the piety of the people, as Justitia, for the Justice administered to the citizens, and as Salus, symbolic of the Good Health or Well Being of the nation.

From CNG:
Claudia Julia Livia, nicknamed Livilla (”Little Livia”), was the daughter of Nero Claudius Drusus and Antonia Minor, and sister to Germanicus and the future emperor Claudius. Though Roman historians describe her as remarkably beautiful and charming, they also condemn her as a power-hungry adulteress and murderess. Tacitus accuses her of conspiring with her lover, the Praetorian Prefect Sejanus, to poison her husband, the imperial heir Drusus Caesar, who died in AD 23. This coin, struck in the name of Drusus shortly before his death, depicts on the obverse a veiled and classically beautiful woman as Pietas, goddess of religious piety and dutifulness. David Vagi has argued convincingly that the head represents Livilla, given that the other bronze coins issued the same year depict Drusus himself and the couple’s twin sons, forming a “family set.”
Gary W2
EB0267b_scaled.JPG
EB0267 Zeus / Centaur3 viewsThessaly, Magnetes, AE 20, 196-146 BC.
Obverse: Laureate head of Zeus right.
Reverse: MAΓN/HTΩN, Centaur walking right holding branch.
References: Cf. BCD 419.9; BMC-7.
Diameter: 20mm, Weight: 5.971g.
Ex: Dr. Roberts collection.
EB
EB0433_scaled.JPG
EB0433 Aelius Caesar13 viewsAelius Caesar AE Dupondius or As.
Obv: L AELIVS CAESAR, bare-headed, draped bust right
Rev: TR POT COS II S-C, Spes standing left, holding flower and raising hem of robe
References: RIC 1067c, Cohen 57
Diameter: 25mm, Weight: 13.051 grams
EB
EB0498_scaled.JPG
EB0498 Elagabalus / Sacrificing6 viewsElagabalus, AE AS, 218-222 AD.
Obv: IMP CAES M AVR ANTONINVS PIVS AVG, laureate, draped bust right.
Rev: S-C [P M] TR P IIII COS III P P: Elagabalus, in Syrian priestly robes, standing left, sacrificing out of patera in right hand over lighted altar, holding club in left hand; behind altar, bull crouching; star in left field.
References: RIC IV 329.
Diameter: 24mm, Weight: 8.787 grams.
EB
EB0746_scaled.JPG
EB0746 Constantius I / Carthago17 viewsConstantius I 293-305, AE Follis, Carthage 298-299 AD.
Obverse: CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES, laureate head right (large head type).
Reverse: SALVIS AVGG ET CAESS FEL KART, Carthago standing facing, head left, in long robe, holding fruits in both hands. Mintmark Γ.
References: RIC VI Carthage 32a.
Diameter: 29.5mm, Weight: 9.859g.
EB
EB0759_scaled.JPG
EB0759 Maximinus II / Sol Invicto10 viewsMaximinus II 310-313, AE Follis, Nicomedia 311-313 AD.
Obverse: IMP C GAL VAL MAXIMINVS P F AVG, laureate head right.
Reverse: SOLI INVICTO, Sol standing left in long robe, with raised right hand and holding up head of Serapis in left, A to left, star to right, [mintmark SMN].
References: Cf. RIC VI 77b (star over A to left).
Diameter: 22.5mm, Weight: 3.669g.
EB
EB0790_scaled.JPG
EB0790 Helena / Securitas11 viewsHelena, mother of Constantine I, AE Follis of Antioch. 325-326.
Obverse: FL HELENA AVGVSTA, diademed, mantled bust right, hair in a crest, single row of pearls.
Reverse: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICE, Securitas standing left holding branch and raising robe, mintmark SMANTB.
References: RIC VII 67, B.
Diameter: 19mm, Weight: 3.077g.
EB
EB0853_scaled.JPG
EB0853 Claudius Gothicus / Spes4 viewsClaudius Gothicus 268-270, AE Antoninianus, Milan mint, 268-269 AD.
Obverse: IMP CLAVDIVS P F AVG, radiate, draped (cuirassed?) bust right.
Reverse: SPES PVBLICA, Spes walking left, holding flower and raising robe, S in ex.
References: RIC 168 var (bust type); Cunetio 2240; Normanby 1004; Sear 11374 var (bust type).
Diameter: 19.5mm, Weight: 4.1g.
EB
EB0864_scaled.JPG
EB0864 Carus / Spes8 viewsCarus 282-283, Antoninianus, Ticinum Mint.
Obverse: IMP CARVS P F AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Reverse: SPES PVBLICA, Spes walking left with flower and raising robes. Mintmark SXXI.
References: RIC 82, Cohen 79; Sear 12180.
Diameter: 23.5mm, Weight: 3.985g.
EB
091_Salonina_(__-_268_A_D_),_Bi-Tetradrachm,_G-2986,_D-5334,_Alexandria,_L_IE_(RY_15),_267-68_AD_Q-001_0h_22,0-23,5mm_10,85g-s~0.jpg
Egypt, Alexandria, 091 Salonina (? - 268 A.D.), Bi-Tetradrachm, G-2986, D-5334, -/IЄ/L//--, Elpis walking left, #1139 viewsEgypt, Alexandria, 091 Salonina (? - 268 A.D.), Bi-Tetradrachm, G-2986, D-5334, -/IЄ/L//--, Elpis walking left, #1
avers: KOPNHΛIA CAΛωNEINA CEB, Diademed and draped bust right.
reverse: Elpis walking left, holding flower and raising hem of robe. Palm branch upright to left, IЄ over L in right field..
exergue: -/IЄ/L//--, diameter: 22,0-23,5 mm, weight:10,85 g, axis: 0h,
mint: Egypt, Alexandria, date: I/ЄL (dated year 15), 267-268 A.D., ref: Geissen-2986, Dattari-5334, Kapmann-Ganschow-91.53-p-324,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
elagabal_131.jpg
Elagabal RIC IV, 131128 viewsElagabal 218 - 222
AR - Denar, 3.04g, 19mm
Rome AD 221
obv. IMP ANTONINVS PIVS AVG
draped bust, laureate head r., with 'horn' on forehead
rev. SACERD DEI SOLIS ELAGAB
Elagabal, laureate, in Syrian priestly robe, standing r. at lighted altar, holding club l. and
patera r.
star in r. field
RIC IV, 131; C.246
EF, uncirculated
From Forum Ancient Coins, thanks!

STAR in field here always means mint of Rome!
1 commentsJochen
elagabal_88.jpg
Elagabal RIC IV, 8882 viewsElagabal 218 - 228
AR - Denar, 3.51g, 18mm
Rome 220 - 222
obv. IMP ANTONINVS PIVS AVG
draped bust, laureate head r., with 'horn' on forehead
rev. INVICTVS SACERDOS AVG
Elagabal in Syrian priestly robe standing l., holding with r. hand
patera over lightened altar and club in l. hand; behind altar
resting bull
star in l. field
RIC IV, 88; C.61
about EF

Syrian priestly robe with long sleeves and a big decorative buckle before his stomach (pointed out by Curtis Clay).
BTW The interpretation of the 'horn' as a bull-penis is very doubtful!
Jochen
CollageMaker_20180531_123207829.jpg
Elagabalus7 viewsAR Denarius, Rome Mint, Struck 220-222 AD
Obverse: IMP ANTONINVS PIVS AVG (no break), Horned, laureate, draped and bearded bust right.
Reverse: INVICTVS SACERDOS AVG, Elagabalus, in Syrian priestly robes, standing half left, sacrificing holding patera in right hand over lighted altar, a club or cypress in his left hand. A recumbent bull sits behind the altar, star in left field.
References: RIC IV 88b, RSC 61, BMCRE 212
Justin L
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-GOFq8naFsc8HyDoE-Elagabalus_denarius.jpg
Elagabalus (Augustus) Coin: Silver Denarius 3 viewsIMP ANTONINVS PIVS AVG - Laureate, horned, draped bust right.
INVICTVS SACERDOS AVG - Elagabalus, in Syrian priestly robes, standing left, sacrificing out of patera in right hand over tripod, holding club in left hand; behind tripod, bull lying down; in field, star
Exergue:



Mint: Rome (220-222 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 2.77g / 18.6mm / 12h
References:
RIC 88b
RSC 61
BMC 212
Provenances:
Ex. Richard Weigel
Acquisition/Sale: ancientgalleonllc eBay $0.00 01/19
Notes: Feb 20, 19 - The Gary R. Wilson Collection

Per Curtis Clay: "The star apparently stood for his sun god, to whom the emperor was depicted sacrificing, and therefore it should have been placed before him...".
Gary W2
elag271.jpg
Elagabalus Sestertius98 viewsElagabalus --AE Sestertius. R: Elagabalus in priestly robes, standing left, holding patera over lighted altar, with cypress branch in left hand, legend: P M TR P IIII COS III P P, S C. RIC 326, Cohen 2001 commentsfeatherz
Elagabalus_RIC_146_(h)~0.JPG
Elagabalus, 218 - 222 AD12 viewsObv: IMP ANTONINVS PIVS AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust of Elagabalus, bearded, with horn over forehead, facing right, seen from the front.

Rev: SVMMVS SACERDOS AVG, Elagabalus in priestly robes standing left, sacrificing from a patera over a lighted tripod altar, holding a cypress branch in left hand; star in field to left.

Silver Denarius, Rome mint, 222 AD

3.2 grams, 18 mm, 180°

RIC IVii 146 (horned), RSC 276, S7549, VM 63/1
Matt Inglima
Elagabalus_RIC_52.JPG
Elagabalus, 218 - 222 AD20 viewsObv: IMP ANTONINVS PIVS AVG, laureate, draped bust of Elagabalus facing right, seen from front.

Rev: PM TRP V COS IIII PP, Elagabalus standing left, dressed in priestly robes, sacrificing over a lighted altar, holding a patera in his right hand and a club in his left; a star in left field.

Silver Denarius, Rome mint, 222 AD

3 grams, 19 mm, 0°

RIC IVii 52, RSC 213a, S7538, VM 52 (var.)
SPQR Coins
Elagabalus_RIC_146~0.JPG
Elagabalus, 218 - 222 AD12 viewsObv: IMP ANTONINVS PIVS AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust of Elagabalus, bearded, facing right, seen from the front.

Rev: SVMMVS SACERDOS AVG, Elagabalus in priestly robes standing left, sacrificing from a patera over a lighted tripod altar, holding a cypress branch in left hand; star in field to left.

Silver Denarius, Rome mint, 222 AD

3.5 grams, 19 mm, 0°

RIC IVii 146 (no horn), RSC 276b, S7549, VM 63/1
Matt Inglima
Elagabalus_RIC_88.JPG
Elagabalus, 218 - 222 AD32 viewsObv: IMP ANTONINVS PIVS AVG, laureate, draped bust of Elagabalus, horned, facing right and seen from the front.

Rev: INVICTVS SACERDOS AVG, Elagabalus, in priestly robes, standing left, sacrificing over a lighted altar, holding a patera in right hand and a club in his left, the carcass of a bull lies on the ground behind the altar; star in field.

Silver Denarius, Rome mint, 221 - 222 AD

3.0 grams, 20.9 mm, 0°

RIC IVii 88, RSC III 61, S7518, VM 36/2
Matt Inglima
Elagabalus-RIC-195~0.jpg
Elagabalus.125 viewsDenarius, 218-219 AD, Antioch mint.
Obv: ANTONINVS PIVS FEL AVG / Laureate bust of Elagabalus.
Rev: SANCT DEO SOLI ELAGABAL / Slow quadriga bearing the conical stone of Emesa, on which is an eagle, surrounded by four parasols.
2.41 gm., 17 mm.
RIC #195.

Elagabalus was a high priest of the local ba'al of Emesa, Syria, at the time he was proclaimed emperor. This deity was named El-Gabal, and was worshiped in the form of a large, black, conical-shaped stone, which was probably a meteorite. When Elagabalus moved to Rome, he took this god with him. After a long overland journey from Emesa, Elagabalus and his entourage entered Rome in 219. The black stone was carried on a cart pulled by white horses. It was decorated with an eagle, and shaded by four parasols. Elagabalus, dressed in his priestly robes, walked backwards in front of this cart to show his reverence for his deity.

The entry of their new emperor into the city shocked the people of Rome. They soon realized that he fully intended to continue in his duties as High Priest to El-Gabal, and that his worship was to be imposed on the whole Empire. The the temple of Jupiter (Jove) in Rome was turned into the temple of El-Gabal. The religious excesses of the reign finally ended with the murder of Elagabalus. Under the new emperor, Severus Alexander, the temple was cleansed, rededicated to Jupiter, and El-Gabal sent back home to Emesa.

This coin commemorates the journey of El-Gabal to Rome and his entrance into the city. The legend on the reverse translates "Holy Sun-God Elagabal." Silver denarii with this reverse type all seem to be in the "Eastern" style so numismatists generally assign them to the mint at Antioch. It is possible, though, that they could have been minted by a mint that traveled with Elagabalus on his journey from Emesa to Rome, spending the winter of 218-219 in Nicomedia.
1 commentsCallimachus
ELYMAIS_Unidentified_King.jpg
Elymais. Arsacid dynasty. Probably a contemporary regional counterfeit struck during the reign of Prince A (late 2nd to early 3rd centuries A.D.), or later.44 viewsvan't Haaff --; De Morgan --; BMC --; Sear GICV --; Alram --

AE unit (denomination undetermined), 2.51 g., 12.59 mm. max., 0°

Obv.: Bust facing left, side whiskers as double row of dots.

Rev.: Plain diadem of two bands with fine lines, pellet border.

The obverse bust most closely resembles Prince A (late 2nd to early 3rd centuries A.D.), van't Haaff 19.1.1-1A, whereas the reverse mirrors Phraates (early-mid 2nd century A.D.), van't Haaff 14.4.1-2). Due to the decades between these rulers, the coin is probably not a mule. The coins of Phraates may have remained in circulation during the reign of Prince A, and beyond. The coin is probably a contemporary regional counterfeit inspired by the Phraates reverse. However, the diadem on the reverse is a reference to sky god Bel, and the possibility that the coin is an unrecorded official coin, issued by Prince A with the revived iconography of Phraates, cannot be excluded.

Attribution assistance courtesy of Pieter Anne van't Haaff (thanks to Robert L3), and Robert L3.
2 commentsStkp
ELYMAIS_10_4_2-4a_Uncertain_Early_Arsacid_Kings_crude~0.jpg
Elymais. Arsacid dynasty. Uncertain Early Arsacid Kings (late 1st century B.C. to early 2nd century A.D.)22 viewsvan't Haaff 10.3.2-1 var. (pellet); de Morgan --; BMC --; Sear GICV --; Alram --

AE drachm, 3.56 g., 16.02 mm. max.

Obv: Bust of crude style facing left, with beard and curly hair dressed in a curved pattern from forehead to nape of the neck, topped by a tuft of hair bound with a diadem, its ties falling behind; cross-like form in crescent above anchor with one crossbar; pellet [?] to right of anchor; pellet border.

Rev: Diademed, bearded head left, degraded legend around, degenerated to dashes of irregular style.

Attribution assistance courtesy of Robert L3 (http://www.forumancientcoins.com/board/index.php?topic=112957.msg697503;topicseen#msg697503 message 2/22/18)
Stkp
ELYMAIS_21_2_1-1_Unidentified_King.jpg
Elymais. Arsacid dynasty. Unidentified King (uncertain dates)15 viewsvan't Haaff 21.2.1-1 var. (pellets); de Morgan --; BMC plate XLII, 22-25; Sear GICV --; Alram --

AE unit (denomination undetermined), 1.73 g., 10.68 mm. max., 0°

Obv: Abstract bust facing right, details unclear.

Rev: Upturned crescent with dot above and below, all within wreath.

According to van't Haaff, too few of these coins are known to determine their denomination. Apparently, on the few coins that are known, too little detail on the obverse remains to obtain a complete description; the photo in van't Haaff is unclear. Those that are known to van't Haaff have three dots below the crescent and none above, although these coins appear as well with a single dot above and another below.

Attribution confirmation coutesy of Robert L3 (http://www.forumancientcoins.com/board/index.php?topic=112957.new;topicseen#new)
Stkp
00008.jpg
Faustina I (RIC 362, Coin #8)9 viewsRIC 362 (C), AR Denarius, Rome, 148-161 AD.
Obv: DIVA FAVSTINA Draped bust right.
Rev: AVGVSTA Ceres, standing half left, holding long torch in right and raising robe with left.
Size: 18.0mm 3.32gm
MaynardGee
Faustina_I_362.jpg
Faustina I - AR denarius19 viewsRome
147-161 AD
draped bust right
DIVA__FAVSTINA
veiled Ceres standing left, holding torch, raising robe
AVG_VSTA
RIC III 362, BMCRE IV 421, RSC II 104, SRCV II 4584
3,21g 18-17 mm
Johny SYSEL
FaustinaI_Augusta_~0.jpg
Faustina I AR denarius (148 AD)126 viewso/ DIVA-FAVSTINA, draped bust to the right, hair arranged in a chignon on top of the head.
r/ AVGV-STA, Ceres, veiled, standing left, holding long torch and raising robe with left hand.
3,28g. 17x18mm. 6h.
RIC III.362
1 commentsAugustin Caron
Faustina_5_opt.jpg
FAUSTINA I Denarius RIC 362, Ceres12 viewsOBV: DIVA FAVSTINA, draped bust right
REV: AVGVSTA, Ceres, veiled, standing left, holding torch & raising robe


Minted at Rome, 141-161 AD
Legatus
Faustina_Junior.jpg
Faustina Junior – RIC-507a (Pius)43 viewsFaustina Jr d. 175, Denarius (2.96g) Rome 148-152 AD Daughter of Antonius Pius and Faustina I, Wife of Marcus Aurelius and mother of Commodus. Head of Faustina Jr right. Her hair in a diadem "FAVSTINA AVG PII" Puducitia veiled standing front, head left drawing out her robe in front of her face, and gathering up her skirt. RIC 507a, RSC 176a, BMC 1051, RCV 47061 commentsBud Stewart
Diva Faustina.jpg
Faustina Sr.21 viewsObverse: DIVA FAVSTINA
Obverse type: Draped bust right.
Reverse: AVGVSTA
Reverse type: Ceres veiled standing left holding long torch in right and a fold in robes with left.
Date: 140-161AD
Mint: Rome
Size: 18 mm
Axis: 6
Weight: 3.49 grams
Reference: RIC 362
Reference: RSC 104
Reference: Ex CNG
Marjan E
2599LG.jpg
FAUSTINA Sr. (138 - 141 AD)258 viewsAR Denarius

Lifetime Issue

O: FAVSTINA AVGVSTA, Draped bust right.
R: IVNONI REGINAE, Peacock seated on throne and scepter behind.
Rome
18mm
3.5g
RIC-340, RSC-221 BMC (Antoninus Pius) 145 (same reverse die)

Ex Robert Kutcher Collection (Triton X, 8 January 2007), lot 1606 (part of)

Ex.Hixenbaugh Ancient Art Ltd

Published on Wildwinds!

Thank you Curtis Clay for the following info!

It's in Cohen 221, citing Paris, and hence in RIC 340, citing Cohen.
BM 145 has one from the Bank of England Coll., pl. 4.7, same rev. die as yours.
Strack 221 cites specimens in BM, Paris, and Vienna, plus one with portrait left, in Berlin, ill. pl. VI.
None in Reka Devnia hoard, an indication of rarity.
14 commentsMat
florianus_47.jpg
Florianus, Estiot 191653 viewsFlorianus AD 276, half-brother of Tacitus
AE - Antoninianus, 3.75g, 22mm, 0°
Rome 6. officina
obv. IMP C FLORIANVS AVG
Bust, draped and cuirassed, seen from behind, radiate, r.
rev. VIRTVS - AVG
Emperor in military robe standing r., holding globe and transverse spear
exergue XXI Digamma
RIC V/1, 47; C.97; Estiot no.1916, pl.68
Rare; about VF
Jochen
Maurice Tibčre 2.jpg
Follis of Maurice Tiberius44 viewsMinted in Theoupolis (Antioch), in 589-90. The emperor is wearing the consular robe, holding the mappa and the eagle-sceptre.
Ginolerhino
Maurice Tibčre.jpg
Follis of Maurice Tiberius44 viewsMinted in Theoupolis (Antioch) in 595-6. The emperor is wearing the consular robe.
Ginolerhino
FF_Champagne_Provins___Sens.JPG
France (Feudal): Champagne, Provins and Sens, Anonymous, 11th and 12th Centuries23 viewsRoberts 4097 & 4724, Poey d'Avant 5966 var., Boudeau 1754-1755 var.

AR denier, Sens mint, ca. 1050-1125, 20 mm.

Obv: + RIL DVNS CATO [Castle of Provins], wool comb in lower field formed by circle of dots, o+o above (legend begins at 9 o’clock).

Rev: + SEEI OMS CIVI [City of Sens], cross in circle of dots, pellets in two quadrants, possible alpha and omega in other quadrants.

The field (champ) and comb (peigne) on the reverse is a visual pun on the name of the region.

Provins was home to two of the six Champagne and Brie fairs, which were the keys to its prosperity. The May Fair began on the Tuesday before Ascension and ran for 46 days, and the Fair of St. Ayoul began on the Exaltation of the Cross (September 14).
Stkp
FF_Maine.jpg
France (Feudal): Counts of Maine, by and in the name of Count Herbert I Éveille-Chien/Wakedog (1014-1035)11 viewsRoberts 4121, Poey d'Avant 1546-1598 Plate XXIX/16-XXX/5, Boudeau 171 (1f), Legros 572.

Billon denier, Le Mans mint, 1014-1246 (immobilized type): 1.16 g. 20.79 mm. max., 0

Obv.: + COMES CENOMANIS (ME ligature) (= Counts of Maine), degenerate monogram of Count Herbert I Éveille-Chien/Wakedog.

Rev.: + SIGNVM DEI VIVI (= Signe de Dieu vivant = Sign of the Living God), cross with pellets in the upper quadrants and alpha and omega in the lower.

Herbert was, at times, a nominal vassal of his neighbor Fulk III Nerra, Count of Anjou but otherwise considered himself independent. He obtained his nickname "Wake-dog" for having to constantly resist the intrusions of his Angevin neighbors to the south.
Stkp
FF_Brittany_John_the_Red.JPG
France (Feudal): Duchy of Brittany. John I, “the Red” (1237-1286)36 viewsRoberts 4611 var., Poey d'Avant 356 var. (plate 11, no. 14), Boudeau 36-37 var. , Duplessy 73 var. (apparently no pellet on obverse after the X in the sources)

AR denier, Vannes mint [?], ca. 1250 [?], 19 mm.

Obv: + IOhANNES•DVX•, central cross.

Rev: + B-RIT-ANI-E, triangular shield of the house of Dreux in Brittany consisting of three spots and field of ermine.

John I (c. 1217/18–1286), known as John the Red due to the color of his beard, was the son of Duke Peter I, Duke of Brittany jure uxoris and Alix of Thouars, hereditary Duchess of Brittany. He was hereditary duke from 1221, upon his mother’s death, but his father ruled as regent until he reached adulthood. He experienced a number of conflicts with the Bishop of Nantes and the Breton clergy. In 1240, he issued an edict expelling Jews from the duchy and cancelling all debts to them. He joined Louis IX of France in the Eighth Crusade (1270), and survived the plague that killed the king. The duchy of Brittany experienced a century of peace, beginning with John I and ending with Duke John III's reign in 1341.
1 commentsStkp
FF_Aquitaine_William_X_Roberts_4311.JPG
France (Feudal): Dukes of Aquitaine. William X, the “Saint” (1127-1137).35 viewsRoberts, 4311, Boudeau 464, Poey d'Avant 2735

AR denier, Bordeaux mint, 18 mm.

Obv: + CLVILILMO [first L retrograde] (Guillaume), four crosslets forming a cross.

Rev: + BVRDECIILA (Bordeaux, Burdigalae in Latin), cross pattée.

William X (1099–1137), was Duke of Aquitaine, Duke of Gascony, and Count of Poitou (as William VIII). He was the son of Duke William IX by his second wife, Philippa of Toulouse. He was born in Toulouse when his father was briefly the Count. Shortly after his birth his father went on Crusade, and he was raised in Poitiers by his mother. His father later abandoned her, and took Dangerose, the wife of one of his vassals, as mistress. This caused strain between father and son, until William married Aenor de Châtellerault, daughter of Dangerose, in 1121. They had three children, one of whom was Eleanor of Aquitaine, his heiress.

William was a lover of the arts and a warrior. He became involved in conflicts with Normandy and France. Inside his borders, he faced an alliance of the Lusignans and the Parthenays against him, an issue he resolved by the total destruction of his enemies. William X initially supported antipope Anacletus II in the papal schism of 1130, against the will of his own bishops. In 1134 Saint Bernard of Clairvaux convinced William to drop his support of Anacletus and to embrace Pope Innocent II.

In 1137 William joined the pilgrimage to Santiago de Compostela, but died of suspected food poisoning during the trip. He left the dukedom and the care of his 15-year-old daughter to King Louis VI of France. Louis VI accepted this guardianship and married Eleanor to his son, Louis VII.
1 commentsStkp
FF_Gien.JPG
France (Feudal): Gien (County of Donzy). Geoffrey III (1120-1160) or Herve III (1160-1194).24 viewsBoudeau 297, Poey d'Avant 1998 (p. 42 no. 21), Duplessy 605, Legros 1565, Roberts 1497-8

AR denier, struck 1120-1191, 19 mm.

Obv: + GOSEDVS COS (Geoffroi, count), cross with staff and hammer in second angle and triangles in other three angles.

Rev: + GIEMIS CA (Castle of Gien), degraded monogram of Fulk of Anjou (legend begins at 9 o’clock).

The deniers of Gien were derived from those of Angers and bear a degraded monogram of Fulk of Angers. The reason for this is unclear as the regions are far apart and there is no connection between them. Standards of weight and fineness appear to have been similar, as records from 1202-3 value the denier giennois at 1.5 deniers parisis and the denier angevin at 1.46 d.p.

The deniers are struck in the name of a Count Geoffrey, and the type may have begun under Geoffrey II (1169-1184) or more probably Geoffrey III (1120-1160), but was immobilized after 1160. The coin is variously attributed to either or both of them, and also to Herve III (1160-1194). It ceased to be minted in 1191 when King Phillip II Augustus (1180-1223) acquired Gien and closed its mint.
Stkp
FF_Provence.jpg
France (Feudal): Marquisate of Provence. Raymond VI (1156-1222)6 viewsRoberts 4356, Boudeau 785, Poey d'Avant 3723 LXXXI, 17, Duplessy 1604A

AR denier, Pont-de-Sorgues mint, struck 1200-1220; 74 g., 16.59 mm. max., 0°

Obv: + R • COMES (=Raymond, count; beginning at 6 o'clock), sun between two pellets, crescent moon below.

Rev: D-V-X-M (=Duke, marquis), Toulouse cross dividing legend.

To accommodate the longstanding claims of the count of Toulouse, in 1125 Provence was divided along the Durance River. Lands north of the river constituted the Marquisate of Provence, ruled by Toulouse, and south of the river was the county proper, ruled by the House of Barcelona. Raymond VI (1156-1222) was Count of Toulouse, Duke of Narbonne, Marquis of Provence, Count of Quercy and Albi.
Stkp
FF_Strasbourg_Gla_Roberts_9070.JPG
France (Feudal): Strasbourg (Municipality of Strasbourg), 1482-166754 viewsRoberts 9070, Boudeau 1335, Engel-Lehr 398-401

AR kreuzer (two deniers), 17 mm.

Obv: + GLA • IN EXCELS DO, central lily.

Rev: + MONETA • ARGEN, central lily.

The obverse legend is an abbreviated form of “GLORIA IN EXCELSIS DEO” ("Glory to God in the highest”), which are the words sung by the angels at the birth of Jesus in Luke 2:14. The words entered the Roman Catholic liturgy as the title and first words of a hymn known as the Great Doxology and the Hymnus Angelicus.
Stkp
FF_Valence_Bishops_PDA_4690_2.JPG
France (Feudal): Valence (Bishops of Valence and Die), 12th – 13th Century38 viewsPoey d’Avant 4690, Roberts 4782 var., Boudeau 1021, Belaubre 965

AR denier, 18 mm.

Obv: + VRBS VALENTIAI, angel with spread wings, resembling an eagle, facing.

Rev: + S APOLLINARS, cross with annulet in second quarter.

In 1275 the bishoprics of Valence and Die were merged. The reverse legend refers to St. Apollinaris, who is the patron saint of the cathedral in Valence.

Valence deniers are found in significant quantities in coin hoards from the Crusader possessions in the east. For this reason, the emission is also catalogued as Metcalf (Crusades & Latin East), 39-40, Metcalf Group Di. It is possible that some of the cruder varieties, such as this, are in fact eastern imitations of the French issue.
Stkp
FF_Vienne.jpg
France (Feudal): Vienne, Archbishopric, 11th and 12th Centuries6 viewsRoberts 5045, Poey d'Avant 4828 Plate CVI/17, Boudeau 1046.

Billon denier, Vienne mint, ca. 1200-1250: .82 g. 17.35 mm. max., 270

Obv.: + S • M • VIENNA • (= Saint Maurice of Vienne), bearded head of St. Maurice left.

Rev.: MAXIMA GALL (= Greater Gaul), cross with pellets.

Vienne was the first bishopric of Gaul, occupied by the legendary St. Crescens. The bishops became archbishops around 450 A.D. Its archbishops and those of Lyon disputed the title of "Primate of All the Gauls" based on the dates of founding of the cities compared to the dates of founding of the bishoprics.
Stkp
FF_Campagne_Thibaut_Roberts_4726.JPG
France (Feudal): Champagne, Provins. Count Thibaut II, The Great (1125-1152)9 viewsRoberts 4726, Poey d'Avant 5971 Plate CXXXVIII/18, Boudeau --

AR denier, Provins mint, .80 g., 19.88 mm. max., 180°

Obv: [+] TEBAL[T] COMES (= Count Thibaut), Cross, pellets in two quadrants, alpha and omega in other quadrants.

Rev: (beginning at 9 o'clock) CASTRI P[VVI]NS (=Chateau/Castle Provins), Wool comb; T on V flanked by two annulets.

The field (champ) and comb (peigne) on the reverse is a visual pun on the name of the region.

Provins was home to two of the six Champagne and Brie fairs, which were the keys to its prosperity. The May Fair began on the Tuesday before Ascension and ran for 46 days, and the Fair of St. Ayoul began on the Exaltation of the Cross (September 14).

Thibaut II of Champagne and Thibaut IV of Blois was born about 1090 and died January 10, 1152. He was Count of Blois, Chartres, Meaux, Châteaudun lord of Sancerre between 1102 and 1152 and Count of Troyes and Champagne between 1125 and 1152.
Stkp
FF_Melgeuil.jpg
France (Feudal): County of Melgueil (Languedoc), Bishops of Maguelonne (ca. 1080-1120)6 viewsRoberts 4336 var. (central pellet), Boudeau 753 var. (same), Poey d'Avant 3842 var. (same) cf. LIIIV, 17

AR denier, Narbonne mint, .94 g., 18.44 mm. max., 270°

Obv: RAMVNDS (=Raymond; degenerate legend), cross formed from a fasces and bishop's mitres, pellet in upper left quarter.

Rev: NAIDONA (=Narbonne; degenerate legend), four annulets.

The obverse legend refers to Raymond, the first bishop who first issued these coins. The three large bars at 3 o'clock are the "M", the "o" at 8 o'clock is the "D,". and the other letters correspond accordingly. The fasces is a symbol of Rome, and the mitres symbolize the ecclesiastical authority of the bishop, whose ultimate authority resides in Rome.
Stkp
FF_Strasbourg_Roberts_9069.jpg
France (Feudal): Strasbourg (Municipality of Strasbourg)12 viewsRoberts 9069, Boudeau 1334

Billon kreuzer (= 2 deniers), 15th to 16th centuries; .66 g., 18.80 mm. max., 90°

Obv: + DEO * GLORIA (= thanks to God), surrounding inner circle enclosing fleur-de-lis.

Rev: + ARGENTINA (=Argentoratum = Latin for Strasbourg), surrounding inner circle enclosing fleur-de-lis.
Stkp
FF_Strasbourg_bracteate.jpg
France (Feudal): Strasbourg (Municipality of Strasbourg)7 viewsBoudeau 1329; Roberts 9052; Saurma 1980, plate XXXII 977; Engel & Lehr page 186, 318, plate XXXII II.

Billon hohlpfennig (bracteate), after 1334, probably 15th century; .35 g., 15.35 mm. max.

Obv: Fleur de lis with cross-type base and four pellets, surrounded by pearled border.

Rev.: Incuse.
Stkp
francst.jpg
France (Feudal): Vienne, Archbishopric, 11th and 12th Centuries26 viewsBillon Denier
O: + S • M • VIENNA • (= Saint Maurice of Vienne), bearded head of St. Maurice left.
R: MAXIMA GALL (= Greater Gaul), cross with pellets.
Vienne mint, (1200-1250 A.D.)
18mm
.80g
Roberts 5045, Poey d'Avant 4828 Plate CVI/17, Boudeau 1046.
1 commentsMat
MISC_France_Francois_I_Liard.JPG
France (Royal). Francis I (1515-1547)11 viewsBillon (179 parts per million AR) liard (valued at 3 deniers tournois). Struck 1541 in Limoges. .81 g., 16.51 mm. max., 0°

Cianni 1181, LaFaurie 790, Duplessy 930, Sombart 4290, Roberts 3331

Obv.: + FRAN : D : G : FRANC : REX : D . . . (pellet under 2nd N [10th letter], signifying Limoges), crowned F.

Rev.: + SIT : NOMEN DNI : BENEDIC . . . (= Blessed be the name of the Lord) (pellet under 2nd N [10th letter], signifying Limoges), cross with I (= Limoges mintmark) beneath.
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FR_Philip_IV_gros_tournois.png
France (Royal). Philippe IV, le Bel (the Fair) (1285-1314)25 viewsAR Gros Tournois ŕ l’O rond (958‰ fineness). Struck 1285-1290. 3.81 g., 24.76 mm. max. (clipped), 0°

Ciani 206, LaFaurie 218, Duplessy 214, Dhénin 258, Roberts 2461

Obv.: + BNDICTV: SIT: NOmE: DNI: nRI: DEI: IhV. XPI with 3-pellet stops (= Benedictum Sit Nomen Domini Nostri Dei Ihesu Christus = Blessed in the name of our Lord, Jesus Christ) around + PhILIPPVS REX around cross pattée.

Rev.: + TVRONVS CIVIS (= City of Tours) around châtel tournois, surrounded by floral border of twelve embedded lis.

Van Hengel (1997) Group 200 (PhILLIPPVS legend with no punctuation marks in PhILLIPVS REX and TVRONVS CIVITAS). Van Hengel initially hesitated over whether this group is imitative, i.e., the work of professional moneyers and struck by a minting authority with the right to mint coins, somewhere. He later (1999) concluded that the group is imitative. The variable letter characteristics of the coin, according to the Van Hengel system, are:
• The first three Ns in the obverse outer legend appear as Hs, which is a later development;
• The M in NOME is open, as per Tyler-Smith letter form 2 var., another late development;
• There is no single pellet stop before XPI;
• The R in PhILLIPVS is a variant letter form not depicted by Tyler-Smith;
• The T on the reverse is a non-specific variant letter form depicted but not numbered by Tyler-Smith;
• The Vs on the reverse are a variant letter form not depicted by Tyler-Smith;
• The N on the reverse is Tyler-Smith variant letter form 2 (retrograde).
2 commentsStkp
BURGUNDY.jpg
FRANCE - FEUDAL, BURGUNDY128 viewsFEUDAL FRANCE. Duchy of Burgundy. Hugh V, 1305-1315 AD. Billon Denier of Dijon. DVX on annille / Cross. Roberts.5784. Obv.: + VDO DVX BVRG:DIE. Rev.: + DIVIONENSIS. dpaul7
henri iv.jpg
FRANCE - HENRI IV159 viewsRoyal France, Henri IV, 1602 (reigned, 1589-1610), AR 1/4 Ecu (27x28mm), F+/VF, similar to Ciani 1517 and Roberts 3263. Obv. + HENRICVS IIII D G FRANC E NAVA REX 1602 (with beginning corss of globe), flowered cross. Rev. + SIT NOMEN DOMINI BENEDICTVM, crowned coat of arms with three fleurs de lis, between II and II. The images are well struck, with some weakness, and a little bit of double striking on the reverse. Henri IV was a protestant during the French Wars of Religion, but became Catholic when he inherited the throne. Henri granted official toleration for protestants through the Eidct of Nantes, but was assassinated.dpaul7
259-3-horz.jpg
France – Flanders, Charles the Bold: 1467 – 7710 viewsDouble Gros, Roberts #7982

Charles the Bold (or Charles the Rash) was baptised Charles Martin and was Duke of Burgundy from 1467 to 1477. Known as Charles the Terrible to his enemies, he was the last Valois Duke of Burgundy and his early death was a pivotal, if under-recognised, moment in European history.

After his death, his domains began an inevitable slide towards division between France and the Habsburgs (who through marriage to his heiress Mary became his heirs). Neither side was satisfied with the results and the disintegration of the Burgundian state was a factor in most major wars in Western Europe for more than two centuries.

Charles’ end came at the Battle of Nancy. Charles formed a new army and arrived in the dead of winter before the walls of Nancy. Having lost many of his troops through the severe cold, it was with only a few thousand men that he met the joint forces of the Lorrainers and the Swiss, who had come to the relief of the town, at the Battle of Nancy (5 January 1477). Charles perished in the fight, his naked and disfigured body being discovered some days afterward frozen into the nearby river. Charles' head had been cleft in two by a halberd, lances were lodged in his stomach and loins, and his face had been so badly mutilated by wild animals that only his physician was able to identify him by his long fingernails and the old battle scars on his body.

Purchased on eBay

NGC Ch AU-55

Cost $197
Richard M10
MED-France-Char__the_Bold-3.jpg
France, Charles the Bald 840-8753 viewsDenier, Orleans Roberts #1421

NGC Grade: XF-45

Purchased on eBay

My cost was $169
Richard M10
MED-France-Francis_XII-3.jpg
France, Louis XII, (1498-1514) 5 viewsSilver Douzain

NGC graded AU-58

Roberts #3104

Purchased on eBay

My cost for this coin was $76.00
Richard M10
valence.jpg
France, Valence - Bishops of Valence - (1157 - 1276 A.D.)27 viewsAR Denier
O: + VRBS VΛLЄNTIΛI, angel standing facing with wings displayed.
R: S ΛP◊LLINΛRS, cross; annulet in fourth quarter.
.9g
18mm
Robert 4783
1 commentsMat
MIsc_Achaea.jpg
Frankish Greece. Princes of Achaea (Glarentza and Corinth mints), William II of Villehardouin (1246-1278)8 viewsRoberts 5302, Malloy 8a or 10a

Billon denier tournois. .53 g., 17.35 mm. max. 0◦.

Obv: + • G PRINCEPS •, cross patee.

Rev: + CLARENCIA, Crusader-style castle tournois, spire surmounted by cross.
Stkp
FrenchHenryII_11181_1189_comb.jpg
French Henry II Count Of Champagne14 viewsEarly Feudal Comb type from Proving region.
Traders at the famous Champagne fairs gave them wide geographical range.
Count Henry hosted six major fairs in the region.
Obv.: CASTRI PRVVINS. Comb of Champagne, 'V' made of three triangles above, annulet on either side, legend begining at 10hr.
REV: +HENRI COMES Pattee with annulet in all 4 quarters
Date;1181-1197 AD
Mint: Provins
20mm
1.03g
Roberts 4726
wileyc
Medieval_Q-001_h_17,5mm_0,81g-s.jpg
French, Melgueil, Bishop of Maguelonne, AR-Denarius, Roberts 4336.119 viewsFrench, Melgueil, Bishop of Maguelonne, AR-Denarius, Roberts 4336.
avers:-RAMVNDS (?), Two mitres, bar.
revers:- NAIDONA (?), Four annulets.
diameter: 17,5mm, weight: 0,81g, axis:h,
mint: France, mint mark: - ,
date: XI-XII Century, A.D., ref: B.753. Roberts 4336. D.1578.,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
fed~0.jpg
Friedrich von Pluvoise (1171-1173 A.D.)30 viewsFRANCE, Provincial
Metz (évęché)
AR Denier
O: FRIDERICS, Bareheaded and draped bust left.
R: (rose) METE[N]SIS, Cross path with central pellet; crescent in second quarter, rosette in third quarter.
.76g
15mm
Robert 1; Boudeau 1623; Roberts 8856

AKA Frédéric de Pluvoise
2 commentsMat
Julius_Caesar.jpg
Gaius Julius Caesar204 viewsFebruary-March 44 BC. AR Denarius (19mm, 3.90 g, 5h). Rome mint. P. Sepullius Macer, moneyer. Laureate and veiled head right / Venus standing left, holding Victory and scepter; shield at base of scepter. Crawford 480/13; CRI 107d; Sydenham 1074; RSC 39. From the Jörg Müller Collection.

Alföldi arranges Crawford 480 series coins in (44 BC) month order as follows:

RRC 480/1, Buca - January
RRC 480/2, DICT QVART - early February
RRC 480/3/4/5, CAESAR IMP - late February
RRC 480/6/7/8/9/10/11/12/13/14, DICT PERPETVO - early to mid March
RRC 480/17/18, CAESAR IMPER - late March
RRC 480/19/20, PARENS PATRIAE - April
RRC 480/15/16, MARIDIANVS - April
RRC 480/21/22, CLEMENTIAE CAESARIS and Mark Antony - April

"Iconography, historical meaning:

The rev. can be understand easily: The Iulians ascribed their gens back to Aeneas who was the son of Venus (Aphrodite) and Anchises.Venus was the tutelary goddess of the gens Iulia and hence of Caesar. 46 BC Caesar has consecrated together with his new built forum also the temple of Venus Genetrix, the ancestress of his gens. On this denarius with Victory, spear and shield it is rather Venus Victrix.

The portrait on obv. is imposing by its realistic depiction. It was for the first time that a living ruler was pictured on a Roman coin. This too raised suspicion that Caesar - even if he wasn't acclaimed king - would behave as such.

Caesar's portrait attracts attention by the wreath he is wearing. It protrudes notable wide beyond his forehead. Furthermore it is padded and very ragged. This characteristic received too little attention until now. There is every indication that it is not a usual wreath but a corona graminea, a Grass or Blockade crown. This crown was dedicated by the army to that commander who has freed them from an encirclement and saved them from certain death. The crown was composed from flowers and tuft of grass which was plucked at the location of their liberation. This crown was regarded as the highest of all crowns! Pliny (nat. 22, 6) has known only of 8 persons with this honour:
1. Lucius Siccius Dentatus, tribunus plebis 454 BC
2. Publius Decius Mus, 343 BC, 1st Samnite War, dedicated even by 2 armies!
3. Marcus Calpurnius Flamma, 258 BC, at Carmina on Sicily
4. Quintus Fabius Maximus, after the departure of the Carthaginians from Italy, 203 BC
(dedicated by the Senate and the people of Rome, possibly posthumous)
5. Scipio Aemilianus Africanus
6. Gnaeus Petreius Atinas, centurio during the war against the Cimbri
7. Lucius Cornelius Sulla, during the Allied War at Nola 89 BC
8. Quintus Sertorius, 97 BC aa military tribune in Spain under Titu Ddius.
To Caesar and Augustus the crown was dedicated by the Senate!

The veil Caesar is wearing as Pontifex Maximus for lifetime.

DICTATOR PERPETVVS

During Republican times a dictator was designated when the state was in an emergency situation. His position was always temporally limited, yes, sometimes designated only for a single task. In the beginning Caesar too was dictator limited to 1 year and had to be designated again for the next year. Already 46 BC Caesar has been nominated dictator for 10 years but the title had to be renewed each year. So we know of coins with DICT, DICT ITER (= again, for the second time), IC TER (for the third time) and DICT QVART.

Since the proclamation as king has failed the title dictator disappeared from the denarii and were replaced by IMP. But soon behind Caesar's head appeares a star, a crescent, or Victory's spear stands on a star. These celestial signs - and that was understod by all - stand for divinity and should raise Caesar high above all Romans. Incompatible with the idea of a republican constituted Rome.

The point of culmination in this series is the legend DICT PERPETVO of this coin. Now the title of dictator was no more temporally limited but was valid like his office as Pontifex Maximus for all his life and it no more was necessary to confirm the title each year. That actually was a spectacular violation of the Roman constitution! The fact that he appeared at the Lupercalia on February 15. 44 BC in the ancient robe of kings strengthened the suspicion that he was looking for the kingship. In fact he has publicly
refused the royal crown that was offered to him by Marcus Antonius, but his authority to exert power was equal a king even without bearing the title of king. That was the most hateful title of the Roman Republic.

Now he has passed a line that his republican enimies couldn't tolerate any more if they still wanted to be taken seriously. So this coin actually led to his murder by the conspirators. So "The coin that kills Caesar" is by no means an exaggeration.

The planned Parthian War:

Caesar has planned a war against the Parthians. In March 44 BC he wanted to start for a campaign to the east. His assassination inhibited this intention. In science disputed are the goals which Caesar has had in mind with his war. They are reaching from a boundary adjustment, as Mommsen suggested, to world domination like Alexander the Great, as Plutarch is writing: According to him Caesar after the submission of the Parthians would go across Hyrcania at the Caspian Sea, then round the Black Sea via the Caucasus, invade the land of the Scyths, attack Germania and would finally return to Italy through the land of the Celts. In this way he would have conquered the world known to the Ancients and his limits were only the shores of the surrounding Okeanos.

Probably Sueton who was sitting directly at the sources was more realistic. And we know of the campaigns of Marcus Antonius and Augustus who surely have known Caesar's plans and have used them for their own purposes. It's clear that Caesar doesn't want to repeat the errors of Crassus who perished at Carrhae, and has tried to avoid he Parthian cavalry units. Therefore a route through Lesser Armenia is most probable. And there was hope that the Mesopotamian cities would raise against the Parthians. Caesar had gathered an army of 16(!) legions, a huge power that alone by its mere bigness would ensure the victory. Caesar was no gambler, rather a cautious and prudential commander.The famous "veni, vidi, vici" doesn't exist longer. What he actually had in mind we don't know. It's speculative. But there is every indication that it was a reorganisation of the east. And that rather by establishing client-kingdoms than creating new Roman provinces.

Probably the conspirators were afraid of Caesar's Parthian War, because a victory, which was possible or even probable, would have strengthen Caesar's position and has made him practically invulnerable." - Jochen
4 commentsNemonater
00349-GaleriaValeria.JPG
Galeria Valeria24 viewsGaleria Valeria Follis
26 mm 7.15 gm
O: GAL VALERIA AVG
Diademed bust right, wearing embroidered robes.
R: VENERI VICTRICI
Venus standing facing, head left, holding up apple in right hand and raising drapery over shoulder with left.
2 commentsKoffy
00445b~0.jpg
Galeria Valeria (RIC 110, Coin #445)135 views
RIC 110, AE Follis, Alexandria, 308 - 310 AD.
Obv: GAL VALERIA AVG Draped & diademed bust right.
Rev: VENERI VICTRICI (ALE) Venus standing left, holding apple
and lifting robe. K - Gamma over P in fields.
Size: 24.4mm 6.82gm

1 commentsMaynardGee
GALVALTOGETHER.jpg
Galeria Valeria AD 305-311, AE follis of Thessalonica. RIC VI#3622 views
Galeria Valeria AD 305-311, AE follis of Thessalonica. 27.63mm/ 5.79 grams

Obverse > GAL VALE-RIA AVG, Diademed bust facing, head right, hair weaved in rows and curled around side of head at base of neck, wearing embroidered robes with two necklaces.

Reverse > VENERI V-ICTRICI,Venus standing facing, head left, apple in uplifted right hand, raising drapery over left shoulder with left hand. Star in left field,Gamma in right field.

Mintmark > dot SM dot TS dot. RIC VI #36 Thessalonica ; Officina 3, AD December 308- May 310.


1 commentsPaul R3
galeria_k.jpg
Galeria Valeria, Augusta, AD 293(?)-311 3 viewsĆ Follis, 25mm, 6.4g, 12h; Siscia mint, 1st officina. Struck circa AD 309-310.
Obv.: GAL VALERIA AVG; Diademed bust right, wearing embroidered robes.
Rev.: VENERI V-ICTRICI; Venus standing facing, head left, lifting dress and holding apple; (crescent) / A // SIS.
Reference: RIC VI 204, p. 479
John Anthony
TETR II.jpg
GALLIC EMPIRE/ROME - TETRICUS II36 viewsPortrait of Tetricus II - Spes on reverse. Obv: EP ESV TETRICVS CAES; Radiate draped bust right. Rev.: SPES AVGG - Spess advancing left holding flower and raising robe. RIC V-II, 271. AD 273-274.dpaul7
coin89.JPG
Gallienus6 viewsGallienus

GALLIENVS AVG
SPES PVBLICA
Spes walking left, holding flower and lifting robe
RIC V-1 (S), Siscia 584 c
ecoli
00412.jpg
Gallienus (RIC 611, Coin #412)19 viewsRIC 611 (C), BI Antoninianus, Antioch, 267 AD.
Obv: GALLIENVS AVG Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: SOLI INVICTO (PXV) Sol standing left wearing long robe, raising right, globe in left.
Size: 20.7mm 3.16gm
MaynardGee
gallienus_403.jpg
Gallienus, Göbl 827q (Viminacium)90 viewsGallienus 253 - 268
AR - Antoninianus, 4.24g, 22mm, 45°
Viminacium, AD 257
obv. IMP GALLIENVS P AVG
draped bust, radiate head r.
rev. SPES PVBLICA
Spes advancing l., holding flower r. and lifting robe with l.
Göbl 827q (Viminacium); RIC V, 403 (Mediolanum); C.990
about VF, flan crack at 6 o'clock
added to www.wildwinds.com

99% of the types with P AVG are from Viminacium. Spes depicted antique-like as usual.
3 commentsJochen
constantine_I_369_trier.jpg
Globe on altar; RIC VII 369 Trier8 viewsConstantine the Great, early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D. Bronze AE 3, RIC VII 369, EF, Trier mint, 3.359g, 19.7mm, 180o, 322 - 323 A.D.; obverse CONSTAN-TINVS AVG, laureate bust right in consular robe holding eagle-tipped scepter in right; reverse BEATA TRANQVILLITAS, globe on altar inscribed VO/TIS / XX, three stars above, •PTR• in ex; sharp, minor rough spots. Ex FORVMPodiceps
Gratian_367_-_383_AD.jpg
Gratian 367 - 383 AD30 viewsBronze AE 3 (19 mm) 3.0 gram
Obverse: Bust Right
Reverse: Constantinopolis seated holding globe and spear_12.50

Antioch
RIC 45a Gratian, AE3, 17mm, Antioch. 378-383 AD. DN GRATIA-NVS PF AVG, pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right / CONCOR-DIA AVGGG, Roma, helmeted, seated facing, head left, holding globe and spear, the lower part of which is hidden by robe, left leg bare. Theta (Q) in left field, phi (F)over K in right field. Mintmark ANT delta. RIC IX Antioch 45a.
1 commentsAntonivs Protti
Gratianus_AE_Antioxia_TimeMachine.JPG
Gratian AE3. 378-383 AD. Antioch10 viewsD N GRATIANVS P F AVG, rosette-diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right / CONCORDIA AVGGG, Roma, helmeted, seated facing, holding globe & spear, the lower part of which is hidden by her robe, her right leg bare; Q in left field, F over K in right field, ANTA in ex. Antioch RIC 46b Antonivs Protti
Gratianus_AE.JPG
Gratian, AE3, 17mm, Antioch. 378-383 AD. <