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Search results - "plautilla"
PLAUTILLA-1.jpg
34 viewsPLAVTILLA - Denarius - 204 AD
Obv.:PLAVTILLA AVGVSTA, draped bust right
Rev.: VENVS VICTRIX, Venus standing left holding apple & palm, leaning on shield, Cupid at her feet.
Gs. 3,8 mm. 19,3x20
Cohen 25, RIC 369
Maxentius
Plautilla_RIC_367.jpg
25.5 Plautilla10 viewsPlautilla
AR Denarius. 203 AD

PLAVTILLA AVGVSTA, draped bust right, hair waved and drawn down on neck / PIETAS AVGG, Pietas standing right holding sceptre and child

RSC 16, RIC 367, Sear 7072
Sosius
0191-a00.JPG
Plautilla, overview295 viewsThere are five main types of portrait for Plautilla’s denarii at the Rome mint :

A - With a draped bust right, hair coiled in horizontal ridges and fastened in bun in high position. Her facial expression is juvenile
B - Hair being coiled in vertical ridges, with bun in low position. Plautilla looks here more like a young beautiful woman
C - The third bust shows a thinner face of Plautilla with hair in vertical ridges and no bun but braids covering her neck
D - The fourth type has a similar appearance with the former, but the vertical ridges disappear, hair being plastered down, still showing the right ear
E - Plautilla appears with mid long hair plastered down and covering her ears

In the mean time there are seven different reverses :

1 - CONCORDIAE AETERNAE
2 - PROPAGO IMPERI
3 - CONCORDIA AVGG
4 - CONCORDIA FELIX
5 - PIETAS AVGG
6 – DIANA LVCIFERA

Not every combination exists, but some of the above reverses can be shared by several obverse portraits. Noticeable also is an evolution of the obverse legend, being PLAVTILLAE AVGVSTAE (a) in 202, and becoming PLAVTILLA AVGVSTA (b) soon after

You can see the evolution of this interesting coinage in my Plautilla's gallery.
3 commentsPotator II
pl369.jpg
Plautilla, Denarius, Rome 204 C.E. Wife of Caracalla16 viewsPlautilla ar denarius, Rome RIC IV 369. Struck 204 C.E.
Obverse - PLAVTILLA AVGVSTA. Draped bust right.
Reverse - VENVS VICTRIX. Venus standing left, breast exposed, holding apple and palm and resting left elbow on shield. Cupid standing left at her feet.
19.5 mm diam., 3.0 g. Scarce
sold 2-2018
NORMAN K
plautilla.jpg
(0203) PLAUTILLA22 views(wife of Caracalla)
d. 211 AD
AR DENARIUS 2.05 mm max., 2.87 g
O: PLAVTILLA AVGVSTA
DR. BUST RIGHT
R: VENVS VICTRIX
VENUS STANDING L HOLDING APPLE AND PALM, SHIELD AT SIDE, CUPID HOLDING HELMET AT FEET
laney
0153.jpg
0153 - Denarius Plautilla 202 AC12 viewsObv/ PLAVTILLA AVGVSTA, laureate head of P. r.
Rev/ CONCORDIA AVGG, Concord standing l., holding patera and scepter.

Ag, 19.5 mm, 3.25 g
Mint: Roma.
BMCRE V/411 – RIC IV.1/363a [S]
ex-VAuctions, auction 267, lot 80
dafnis
0159.jpg
0159 - Denarius Plautilla 202-5 AC17 viewsObv/ PLAVTILLA AVGVSTA, draped bust of P. r.
Rev/ VENVS VICTRIX, Venus naked to waist, holding apple and palm, leaning on shield; to the l., Cupid holding helmet.

Ag, 19.1 mm, 3.31 g
Mint: Roma.
BMCRE V/429 – RIC IV.1/369 [S]
ex-CNG, auction e272, lot 390
dafnis
plautillafdc~0.jpg
022. Plautilla Concordia Avgg FDC127 viewsRome mint, Issue II, AD 202. PLAVTILLA AVGVSTA, Bust, draped, hair coiled in ridges, either vertical or horizontal and fastened in bun at back/CONCORDIA AVGG, Concordia standing l., holding patera and scepter. RIC 363a, Sear 7065, BMC 236,411-414, RSC-1, Cohen-1, Hill 583. FDC, full proof like luster.

2 commentsLordBest
RSC1a Plautilla.JPG
022. Plautilla, wife of Caracalla. AR Denarius. Concordia,46 viewsAR Denarius. Rome mint.

Obv. Draped bust right PLAVTILLA AVGVSTA

Rev. Concordia standing left holding patera and sceptre CONCORDIA AVG.

RIC363a. CHEF. RSC1
1 commentsLordBest
Personajes_Imperiales_4.jpg
04 - Personalities of the Empire55 viewsCommodus, Crispina, Pertinax, Didius Julianus, Manlia Scantilla, Didia Clara, Pescennius Níger, Clodius Albinus, Septimius Severus, Julia Domna, Caracalla, Plautilla, Geta and Macrinusmdelvalle
49.jpg
049 Plautilla. AR denarius23 viewsobv: PLAVTILLA AGVSTA dr. bust r.
rev: PIETAS AVGG Pietas std. r. holding scepter and child
"wife of Caracalla"
1 commentshill132
052_Plautilla_RIC_IV-I_359,_AR-Den,_PLAVTILLAE_AVGVSTAE,_CONCORDIA_AVG_G,_RSC-2,_BMC-_Laodicea_mint_202_AD,_Limes,_Q-001,_0h,_17-18mm,_2,30g-sa.jpg
052 Plautilla (?-211 A.D.), Laodicea ad Mare (Limes version!), RIC IV-I 359 (Caracalla), AE-Denarius, CONCORDIA AVG G, Concordia standing left, Scarce, #163 views052 Plautilla (?-211 A.D.), Laodicea ad Mare (Limes version!), RIC IV-I 359 (Caracalla), AE-Denarius, CONCORDIA AVG G, Concordia standing left, Scarce, #1
Wife of Caracalla,
avers: PLAVTILLAE AVGVSTAE, draped bust right, hair coiled in vertical or horizontal ridges and fastened in a bun.
reverse: CONCORDIA AVG G, Concordia standing left, holding patera and scepter.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 17,0-18,0mm, weight: 2,30g, axis: 0h,
mint: Laodicea ad Mare (Limes version!), date: 202 A.D., ref: RIC IV 359 (Caracalla), RSC 2, BMC-,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Plautilla_AR-Den_PLAVTILLA-AVGVSTA_CONCORDIA-FELIX_RIC-365_RSC-12,_Sear-7066_Rome_202-203-AD_Limes-denar_Q-001_7h_17,5-18mm_2,71g-s.jpg
052 Plautilla (?-211 A.D.), Laodicea ad Mare (Limes version!), RIC IV-I 365 (Caracalla), AE-Denarius, CONCORDIA FELIX, Plautilla standing right, clasping hands with Emperor, #192 views052 Plautilla (?-211 A.D.), Laodicea ad Mare (Limes version!), RIC IV-I 365 (Caracalla), AE-Denarius, CONCORDIA FELIX, Plautilla standing right, clasping hands with Emperor, #1
Wife of Caracalla,
avers: PLAVTILLA AVGVSTA, Draped bust right.
reverse: CONCORDIA FELIX, Plautilla standing right, clasping hands with Emperor.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 17,5-18mm, weight: 2,71g, axis: 7h,
mint: Laodicea ad Mare (Limes version!), date: 202-203 A.D., ref: RIC IV 365v. (Caracalla), p-, RSC 12v., Sear 7066v.,
Q-001
quadrans
052_Plautilla_RIC_IV-I_365,_AR-Den,_PLAVTILLA_AVGVSTA,_FELIX,_RSC-12,_BMC-418,_S-7066,_Laodiceia,_202-3_AD,_Sc,_Q-001,_0h,_17,8-18,0mm,_3,19g-s.jpg
052 Plautilla (?-211 A.D.), Laodicea ad Mare, RIC IV-I 365 (Caracalla), AR-Denarius, CONCORDIA FELIX, Plautilla standing right, clasping hands with Emperor, Scarce! #162 views052 Plautilla (?-211 A.D.), Laodicea ad Mare, RIC IV-I 365 (Caracalla), AR-Denarius, CONCORDIA FELIX, Plautilla standing right, clasping hands with Emperor, Scarce! #1
Wife of Caracalla,
avers: PLAVTILLA AVGVSTA, Draped bust right.
reverse: CONCORDIA FELIX, Plautilla standing right, clasping hands with Emperor.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 17,8-18,0mm, weight: 3,19g, axis: 0h,
mint: Laodicea ad Mare, date: 202-203 A.D., ref: RIC IV 365 (Caracalla), p-, RSC-12, Sear-7066,
Q-001
quadrans
052_Plautilla_RIC_IV-I_372,_AR-Den,_PLAVTILLA_AVG,_CONCORDIAE,_RSC-8,_BMC-739,_Laodicea_202_AD,_Q-001,_0h,_18-20mm,_3,39g-s.jpg
052 Plautilla (?-211 A.D.), Laodicea ad Mare, RIC IV-I 372 (Caracalla), AR-Denarius, CONCORDIAE, Concordia seated left, #137 views052 Plautilla (?-211 A.D.), Laodicea ad Mare, RIC IV-I 372 (Caracalla), AR-Denarius, CONCORDIAE, Concordia seated left, #1
Wife of Caracalla,
avers: PLAVTILLA AVG, Draped bust right.
reverse: CONCORDIAE, Concordia seated left, holding patera and double cornucopiae.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 18,0-20,0mm, weight: 3,39g, axis: 0h,
mint: Laodicea ad Mare, date: 202 A.D., ref: RIC IV 372 (Caracalla), RSC, BMC 739, Sear 7068,
Q-001
3 commentsquadrans
052_Plautilla_RIC_IV-I_359,_AR-Den,_PLAVTILLAE_AVGVSTAE,_CONCORDIA_AVG_G,_RSC-2,_BMC-_Laodicea_mint_202_AD,_Limes,_Q-001,_0h,_17-18mm,_2,30g-sa~0.jpg
052 Plautilla (?-211 A.D.), RIC IV-I 359 (Caracalla), Laodicea ad Mare (Limes version!), AE-Denarius, CONCORDIA AVG G, Concordia standing left, Scarce, #160 views052 Plautilla (?-211 A.D.), RIC IV-I 359 (Caracalla), Laodicea ad Mare (Limes version!), AE-Denarius, CONCORDIA AVG G, Concordia standing left, Scarce, #1
Wife of Caracalla,
avers: PLAVTILLAE AVGVSTAE, draped bust right, hair coiled in vertical or horizontal ridges and fastened in a bun.
reverse: CONCORDIA AVG G, Concordia standing left, holding patera and scepter.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 17,0-18,0mm, weight: 2,30g, axis: 0h,
mint: Laodicea ad Mare (Limes version!), date: 202 A.D., ref: RIC-IV-359 (Caracalla), RSC-2, BMC-,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Plautilla_AR-Den_PLAVTILLA-AVGVSTA_CONCORDIA-FELIX_RIC-365_RSC-12,_Sear-7066_Rome_202-203-AD_Limes-denar_Q-001_7h_17,5-18mm_2,71g-s~0.jpg
052 Plautilla (?-211 A.D.), RIC IV-I 365, Laodicea ad Mare (Limes version!), AE-Denarius, CONCORDIA FELIX, Plautilla standing right, clasping hands with Emperor.97 views052 Plautilla (?-211 A.D.), RIC IV-I 365, Laodicea ad Mare (Limes version!), AE-Denarius, CONCORDIA FELIX, Plautilla standing right, clasping hands with Emperor.
Wife of Caracalla,
avers: PLAVTILLA AVGVSTA, Draped bust right.
reverse: CONCORDIA FELIX, Plautilla standing right, clasping hands with Emperor.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 17,5-18mm, weight: 2,71g, axis: 7h,
mint: Laodicea ad Mare (Limes version!), date: 202-203 A.D., ref: RIC IV 365v., p-, RSC 12v., Sear 7066v.,
Q-001
quadrans
Plautilla_AR-Den_PLAVTILLA-AVGVSTA_CONCORDIA-AVGG_RIC-IV-I-359-p-269_C-2_Rome_Q-001_axis-6h_18-19,5mm_2,87g-s.jpg
052 Plautilla (?-211 A.D.), Rome, RIC IV-I 363a (Caracalla), AR-Denarius, CONCORDIA AVG G, Concordia standing left, Scarce, #1100 views052 Plautilla (?-211 A.D.), Rome, RIC IV-I 363a (Caracalla), AR-Denarius, CONCORDIA AVG G, Concordia standing left, Scarce, #1
Wife of Caracalla,
avers: PLAVTILLA AVGVSTA, draped bust right, hair coiled in vertical or horizontal ridges and fastened in a bun.
reverse: CONCORDIA AVG G, Concordia standing left, holding patera and scepter.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 18-19,5mm, weight: 2,87g, axis: 6h,
mint: Rome, date: ?? A.D., ref: RIC IV 363a (Caracalla), p-269, Issue I, C-2.,
Q-001
quadrans
Plautilla_AR-Den_PLAVTILLA-AVGVSTA_CONCORDIA-AVGG_RIC-IV-I-359-p-269_C-2_Rome_AD_Q-002_axis-7h_17,5-19mm_3,08g-s.jpg
052 Plautilla (?-211 A.D.), Rome, RIC IV-I 363a (Caracalla), AR-Denarius, CONCORDIA AVG G, Concordia standing left, Scarce, #291 views052 Plautilla (?-211 A.D.), Rome, RIC IV-I 363a (Caracalla), AR-Denarius, CONCORDIA AVG G, Concordia standing left, Scarce, #2
Wife of Caracalla,
avers: PLAVTILLA AVGVSTA, draped bust right, hair coiled in vertical or horizontal ridges and fastened in a bun.
reverse: CONCORDIA AVG G, Concordia standing left, holding patera and scepter.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 17,5-19,0mm, weight: 3,08g, axis: 7 h,
mint: Rome, date: ?? A.D., ref: RIC IV 363a (Caracalla), p-269, Issue I, C-2.,
Q-002
quadrans
052_Plautilla_RIC_IV-I_363a,_AR-Den,_PLAVTILLA_AVGVSTA,_CONCORDIA_AVG_G,_p-269,_RSC-1,_BMC-411,_Rome_202_AD,_Q-001,_0h,_18-18,5mm,_3,24g-s~0.jpg
052 Plautilla (?-211 A.D.), Rome, RIC IV-I 363av. (Caracalla), AR-Denarius, CONCORDIA AVG G, Concordia standing left, Scarce, #155 views052 Plautilla (?-211 A.D.), Rome, RIC IV-I 363av. (Caracalla), AR-Denarius, CONCORDIA AVG G, Concordia standing left, Scarce, #1
Wife of Caracalla,
avers: PLAVTILLA AVGVSTA, draped bust right, hair coiled in vertical or horizontal ridges and fastened in a bun.
reverse: CONCORDIA AVG G, Concordia standing left, holding patera and scepter.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 18,0-18,5mm, weight: 3,24g, axis: 0h,
mint: Rome, date: 202 A.D., ref: RIC IV 363av. (Caracalla), p-269, RSC 1, BMC 411,
Q-001
quadrans
052_Plautilla_RIC_IV-I_367,_AR-Den,_PLAVTILLA_AVGVSTA,_PIETAS_AVG_G,_RSC-16,_BMC-422,_S-7072,_Rome_203_AD,_Sc,_Q-001,_0h,_17-19,5mm,_3,39g-s.jpg
052 Plautilla (?-211 A.D.), Rome, RIC IV-I 367 (Caracalla), AR-Denarius, PIETAS AVG G, Pietas standing right, Scarce, #163 views052 Plautilla (?-211 A.D.), Rome, RIC IV-I 367 (Caracalla), AR-Denarius, PIETAS AVG G, Pietas standing right, Scarce, #1
Wife of Caracalla,
avers: PLAVTILLA AVGVSTA, Draped bust right, hair waved and drawn down on the neck.
reverse: PIETAS AVG G, Pietas standing right, holding a child and scepter.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 17,0-19,5mm, weight: 3,39g, axis: 0h,
mint: Rome, date: 203 A.D., ref: RIC IV-I 367 (Caracalla), RSC 16, BMC 422, BMC 422, Sear 7072, Scarce!
Q-001
quadrans
Plautilla_AR-Den_PLAVTILLA-AVGVSTA_PIETAS-AVGG_RIC-IV-I-367-p-270_C-15-16_Rome_AD_Q-001_axis-7h_18-19,5mm_3,14g-s.jpg
052 Plautilla (?-211 A.D.), Rome, RIC IV-I 367 (Caracalla), AR-Denarius, PIETAS AVG G, Pietas standing right, Scarce, #292 views052 Plautilla (?-211 A.D.), Rome, RIC IV-I 367 (Caracalla), AR-Denarius, PIETAS AVG G, Pietas standing right, Scarce, #2
Wife of Caracalla,
avers: PLAVTILLA AVGVSTA, Draped bust right, hair waved and drawn down on the neck.
reverse: PIETAS AVG G, Pietas standing right, holding a child and scepter.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 18,0-19,5mm, weight: 3,14g, axis: 7h,
mint: Rome, date: 203 A.D., ref: RIC IV-I 367 (Caracalla), RSC 16, BMC 422, BMC 422, Sear 7072, Scarce!
Q-002
quadrans
Plautilla_AR-Den_PLAVTILLA-AVGVSTA_VENVS-VICTRIX_RIC-IV-I-369-p270_C-24-25_Roma_Q-001_axis-5h_17,5-18,5mm_3,35g-s.jpg
052 Plautilla (?-211 A.D.), Rome, RIC IV-I 369 (Caracalla), AR-Denarius, VENVS VICTRIX, Venus standing left holding apple and palm, Scarce!, #1277 views052 Plautilla (?-211 A.D.), Rome, RIC IV-I 369 (Caracalla), AR-Denarius, VENVS VICTRIX, Venus standing left holding apple and palm, Scarce!, #1
Wife of Caracalla,
avers: PLAVTILLA AVGVSTA, Draped bust right.
reverse: VENVS VICTRIX, Venus standing left holding apple and palm, leaning on shield, Cupid at her feet.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 17,5-18,5mm, weight: 3,35g, axis: 5h,
mint: Rome, date: 204 A.D., ref: RIC IV 369, p-270, Issue II, RSC 24-25., BMC 429, Sear 7074,
Q-001
quadrans
Plautilla_AR-Den_PLAVTILLA-AVGVSTA_VENVS-VICTRIX_RIC-IV-I-369-p270_C-24-25_Roma_Q-002_axis-6h_18-19mm_2,78g-s.jpg
052 Plautilla (?-211 A.D.), Rome, RIC IV-I 369 (Caracalla), AR-Denarius, VENVS VICTRIX, Venus standing left holding apple and palm, Scarce!, #2102 views052 Plautilla (?-211 A.D.), Rome, RIC IV-I 369 (Caracalla), AR-Denarius, VENVS VICTRIX, Venus standing left holding apple and palm, Scarce!, #2
Wife of Caracalla,
avers: PLAVTILLA AVGVSTA, Draped bust right.
reverse: VENVS VICTRIX, Venus standing left holding apple and palm, leaning on shield, Cupid at her feet.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 18,0-19,0mm, weight: 2,78g, axis: 6h,
mint: Rome, date: 204 A.D., ref: RIC IV 369, p-270, Issue II, RSC 24-25., BMC 429, Sear 7074,
Q-002
quadrans
Plautilla_AR-Den_PLAVTILLA-AVGVSTA_VENVS-VICTRIX_RIC-IV-I-369-p270_C-24-25_Roma_Q-x01_axis-6h_18-20mm_3_60gx-s.jpg
052 Plautilla (?-211 A.D.), Rome, RIC IV-I 369 (Caracalla), AR-Denarius, VENVS VICTRIX, Venus standing left holding apple and palm, Scarce!, #3113 views052 Plautilla (?-211 A.D.), Rome, RIC IV-I 369 (Caracalla), AR-Denarius, VENVS VICTRIX, Venus standing left holding apple and palm, Scarce!, #3
Wife of Caracalla,
avers: PLAVTILLA AVGVSTA, Draped bust right.
reverse: VENVS VICTRIX, Venus standing left holding apple and palm, leaning on shield, Cupid at her feet.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 18,0-20,0mm, weight: 3,60g, axis: 6h,
mint: Rome, date: 204 A.D., ref: RIC IV 369, p-270, Issue II, RSC 24-25., BMC 429, Sear 7074,
Q-003
1 commentsquadrans
RI 066bb img.jpg
066 - Caracalla denarius - RIC 124a85 viewsObv:– ANTONINVS PIVS AVG , Laureate bust right, draped
Rev:– CONCORDIA FELIX, Plautilla and Caracalla clasping hands
References:– RIC 124a, RSC 272

SOLD
2 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_067c_img.jpg
067 - Plautilla denarius - RIC 36518 viewsObv:- PLAVTILLA AVGVSTA, Draped bust right
Rev:- CONCORDIA FELIX, Plautilla standing right, clasping right hands with Caracalla, standing, left
Minted in Rome. A.D. 211-217
Reference:- RIC 365. RSC 12
maridvnvm
RI 067b img.jpg
067 - Plautilla denarius - RIC 367 13 viewsObv:– PLAVTILLA AVGVSTA, Draped bust right
Rev:– PIETAS AVGG Pietas standing right holding scepter & child
Minted in Rome
References:– BMCRE 422, RIC 367, RSC 16
maridvnvm
RI 067a img.jpg
067 - Plautilla denarius - RIC 369 15 viewsObv:– PLAVTILLA AVGVSTA, Draped bust right
Rev:– VENUS VICTRIX, Venus left holding apple and palm, resting elbow on shield; Cupid at feet
Minted in Rome, A.D. 204
References:– RIC 369 (Scarce), RCV02 7074, RSC 25
maridvnvm
IMG_8648.JPG
077. Plautilla (Wife of Caracalla)22 viewsAv.: PLAVTILLA AVGVSTA
Rv.: PIETAS AVGG

AR Denarius Ø19 / 2,7g
RIC 367 Rome, Cohen 16
Juancho
Plautilla-RIC-369.jpg
089. Plautilla.16 viewsDenarius, 202-205 AD, Rome mint.
Obverse: PLAVTILLA AVGVSTA / Bust of Plautilla.
Reverse: VENVS VICTRIX / Venus standing, holding apple and palm branch, resting elbow on shield; Cupid at her feet.
3.25 gm., 19.5 mm.
RIC #369; Sear #7004.
Callimachus
rjb_carac_07_08.jpg
19823 viewsCaracalla 198-217 AD
AR denarius
Obv "ANTONINVS PIVS AVG"
Laureate, cuirassed bust right
Rev "CONCORDIA FELIX"
Caracalla and Plautilla stood facing each other clasping hands
Rome mint
RIC 124b
mauseus
CaracallaDenMars.jpg
1bu Caracalla29 views198-217

Denarius

Laureate head, right, ANTONINVS PIVS AVG BRIT
Mars, MARTI PROPVGNATORI

RIC 223

The Historia Augusta, in the life of Severus, records: As he was advancing against Albinus, moreover, and had reached Viminacium 4 on his march, he gave his elder son Bassianus the name Aurelius Antoninus 5 and the title of Caesar, in order to destroy whatever hopes of succeeding to the throne his brother Geta had conceived. His reason for giving his son the name Antoninus was that he had dreamed that an Antoninus would succeed him. It was because of this dream, some believe, that Geta also was called Antoninus, in order that he too might succeed to the throne. . . . [After defeating Niger], he bestowed the. toga virilis on his younger son, Geta, and he united his elder son in marriage with Plautianus' daughter [Plautilla]. . . . Soon thereafter he appointed his sons to the consulship ; also he greatly honored his brother Geta. . . . Severus [in 198] invaded Parthia, defeated the king, and came to Ctesiphon; and about the beginning of the winter season he took the city. For this feat, likewise, the soldiers declared his son, Bassianus Antoninus, co-emperor; he had already been named Caesar and was now in his thirteenth year. And to Geta, his younger son, they gave the name Caesar. . . .

In the life of Caracalla, the history continues: He himself in his boyhood was winsome and clever, respectful to his parents and courteous to his parents' friends, beloved by the people, popular with the senate, and well able to further his own interests in winning affection. Never did he seem backward in letters or slow in deeds of kindness, never niggardly in largess or tardy in forgiving at least while under his parents. . . . All this, however, was in his boyhood. For when
he passed beyond the age of a boy, either by his father's advice or through a natural cunning, or because he thought that he must imitate Alexander of Macedonia,he became more reserved and stern and even somewhat savage in expression. . . .

After his father's death he went to the Praetorian Camp and complained there to the soldiers that his brother was forming a conspiracy against him. And so he had his brother slain in the Palace. . . . After this he committed many further murders in the city, causing many persons far and wide to be seized by soldier sand killed, as though he were punishing a rebellion. . . . After doing all this he set out for Gaul and immediately upon his arrival there killed the proconsul of Narbonensis. . . . Then he made ready for a journey to the Orient, but interrupted his march and stopped in Dacia. . . . Then he journeyed through Thrace accompanied by the prefect of the guard. . . . After this, turning to the war with the Armenians and Parthians, he appointed as military commander a man whose character resembled his own. . . . Then he betook himself to Alexandria. . . . [H]e issued an order to his soldiers to slay their hosts and thus caused great slaughter at Alexandria. . . . Next he advanced through the lands of the Cadusii and the Babylonians and waged a guerilla-warfare with the Parthian satraps, in which wild beasts were even let loose against the enemy. He then sent a letter to the senate as though he had won a real victory and thereupon was given the name Parthicus. . . .

After this he wintered at Edessa with the intention of renewing the war against the Parthians. During this time, on the eighth day before the Ides of April, the feast of the Megalensia and his own birthday, while on a journey to Carrhae to do honor to the god Lunus, he stepped aside to satisfy the needs of nature and was thereupon assassinated by the treachery of Macrinus the prefect of the guard, who after his death seized the imperial power.
1 commentsBlindado
PlautillaDenPoropago.jpg
1bv Plautilla20 viewsDraped bust, right, PLAVTILLAE AVGVSTAE
Plautilla & Caracalla, PROPAGO IMPERI

She married Caracalla in 202. The emperor banished her to an island, where she was murdered in 212.

RIC 362
Blindado
RIC_0391[carac]a.jpg
201a. JULIA DOMNA139 viewsJULIA DOMNA, mother of Caracalla.

When Septimius Severus claimed the empire after Didius Julianus had succeeded Pertinax in 193, two serious rivals challenged him, Pescennius Niger in the East and Clodius Albinus in the West. Julia accompanied her husband in the campaign against Pescennius, having been honored with the title mater castrorum. After this successful campaign, there was another campaign in the East, against the Parthians, in 197. Afterwards, she was with Severus on a journey to Egypt and other parts of the empire. She was widely honored with inscriptions throughout this period, and numerous coin issues emphasized her imperial position.

She opposed Plautianus, the praetorian prefect and father-in-law of Caracalla, and was partially responsible for his downfall and his daughter Plautilla's disgrace. She was often accused of adultery; nonetheless, the emperor chose to ignore these charges, if true, and the marriage continued. Among her passions were literature and philosophy; she gathered writers and philosophers in a kind of salon, and urged Philostratus to write the life of Apollonius of Tyana.

In 212, Caracalla murdered Geta while he sought succor in his mother's arms; covered with his blood, she was forbidden by Caracalla to grieve. Her relationship with Caracalla during the six years of his reign was mixed. She had some public duties but largely devoted herself to philosophy. She accompanied Caracalla to the east on campaign against the Parthians in 217; when she learned, in Antioch, that he had been assassinated, she resolved upon death, which followed her refusal to take food.

AR Denarius
(19mm, 2.86 gm). IVLIA PIA FELIX AVG, draped
bust right / VESTA, Vesta, veiled, seated left,
holding simpulum and sceptre. RIC IV 391 (Caracalla); BMCRE 31 (same); RSC 226. EF. Ex-CNG
1 commentsecoli73
rjb_2011_06_07.jpg
20223 viewsPlautilla
AR denarius
Obv "PLAVTILLAE AVGVSTAE"
Draped bust right
Rev "PROPAGO IMPERI"
Caracalla and Plautilla stood facing each other clasping hands
Rome mint
RIC 362
1 commentsmauseus
plautilla_RIC362.jpg
202 AD - PLAUTILLA denarius70 viewsobv: PLAVTILLAE AVGVSTAE (draped bust right)
rev: PROPAGO IMPERI (Caracalla right, Plautilla on left, facing and clasping hands)
ref: RIC IVi 362D, Cohen 21 (4frcs)
mint: Rome
3.58gms, 19mm
Scarce

Struck during the life-time of Severus in honour of his eldest son's marriage (AD202).
1 commentsberserker
plautilla as-RR.jpg
202-205 AD - PLAUTILLA As (cast)62 viewsobv: PLAVTILLA AVGVSTA (draped bust right)
rev: PIETAS AVGG / S.C. (Pietas standing right holding scepter & child)
ref: RIC IVi 581(Caracalla) (R), C.19 (8frcs)
3.32gms, 23mm
Extremely rare
Fulvia Plautilla was the wife of Caracalla (AD202-205). In 205 she was banished to Sicily, later to the isle of Lipari, where was assassinated by Caracalla’s order in 212 AD.
1 commentsberserker
coins123.JPG
202a. Plautilla60 viewsVenus

The Roman goddess of love and beauty, but originally a vegetation goddess and patroness of gardens and vineyards. Later, under Greek influence, she was equated with Aphrodite and assumed many of her aspects. Her cult originated from Ardea and Lavinium in Latium. The oldest temple known of Venus dates back to 293 BCE, and was inaugurated on August 18. Later, on this date the Vinalia Rustica was observed. A second festival, that of the Veneralia, was celebrated on April 1 in honor of Venus Verticordia, who later became the protector against vice. Her temple was built in 114 BCE. After the Roman defeat near Lake Trasum in 215 BCE, a temple was built on the Capitol for Venus Erycina. This temple was officially opened on April 23, and a festival, the Vinalia Priora, was instituted to celebrate the occasion.

Venus is the daughter of Jupiter, and some of her lovers include Mars and Vulcan, modeled on the affairs of Aphrodite. Venus' importance rose, and that of her cult, through the influence of several Roman political leaders. The dictator Sulla made her his patroness, and both Julius Caesar and the emperor Augustus named her the ancestor of their (Julian) family: the 'gens Julia' was Aeneas, son of Venus and the mortal Anchises. Ceasar introduced the cult of Venus Genetrix, the goddess of motherhood and marriage, and built a temple for her in 46 BCE. She was also honored in the temple of Mars Ultor. The last great temple of Venus was built by the emperor Hadrianus near the Colusseum in 135 CE.

Roman statues and portraits of Venus are usually identical to the Greek representations of Aphrodite.

AR Denarius. PLAVTILLA AVGVSTA, draped bust right / VENVS VICTRIX, Venus standing left holding apple & palm, leaning on shield, Cupid at her feet. RSC 25.
ecoli
coin227.JPG
202a. Plautilla62 viewsPlautilla

From the time of his name change to Antoninus, Caracalla was the designated heir of Severus. Less than three years later he was proclaimed emperor, officially joining his father as co-rulers of the empire. At the age of 14 he was married to the daughter of the praetorian prefect Plautianus Publia Fulvia Plautilla, but the teenager despised his wife. The marriage ended less than three years later after the execution of Plautianus for treason, and there were no children.

Rome, AD 202. PLAVTILLAE AVGVSTAE, Draped bust right, with hair not on the neck / CONCORDIAE, Concordia seated left, holding patera & cornucopiae.
ecoli
Denario PLautilla RIC 367.jpg
49-02 - PLAUTILLA (202 - 205 D.C.)26 viewsAR Denario 19 mm 3.1 gr.
Esposa de Caracalla.

Anv: "PLAVTILLA AVGVSTA" - Busto con rodete y vestido viendo a derecha.
Rev: "PIETAS AVGG" - Emperatriz/Pietas (La piedad) velada de pié a derecha, sosteniendo un niño en brazo izquierdo y portando un cetro en el derecho.

Acuñada 203 D.C.
Ceca: Roma

Referencias: RIC Vol.IV Parte I #367 Pag.270 - Sear RCTV Vol.II #7072 Pag.549 - BMCRE #422/6 Pag.237 - Cohen Vol.IV #16 Pag.248 - RSC Vol. III #16 Pag.90 - DVM #7 Pag.200 - Hill CSS#607/8
mdelvalle
RIC_367_Denario_Plautilla.jpg
49-02 - PLAUTILLA (202 - 205 D.C.)13 viewsAR Denario 19 mm 3.1 gr.
Esposa de Caracalla.

Anv: "PLAVTILLA AVGVSTA" - Busto con rodete y vestido viendo a derecha.
Rev: "PIETAS AVGG" - Emperatriz/Pietas (La piedad) velada de pié a derecha, sosteniendo un niño en brazo izquierdo y portando un cetro en el derecho.

Acuñada 203 D.C.
Ceca: Roma

Referencias: RIC IVa #367 P.270, Sear RCTV II #7072 P.549, BMCRE #422/6 P.237, Cohen IV #16 P.248, RSC III #16 P.90, DVM #7 P.200, Hill CSS#607/8, Salgado II/1 #4487.c P.150
mdelvalle
08840p00.jpg
8. Plautilla, Augusta, silver Dearius, marriage issue189 viewsVF 3.21 g, 20.2mm, 180º, Rome Mint, 202 AD
O: PLAVTILLAE AVGUSTAE
R: PROPAGO IMPERI, Carcalla standing l, holding Plautilla's hand, facing r. seems to imply a hope for an imperial child, yet this would be quite difficult, becuase of their mutual hatred of each other.
2 commentsZam
RSC10 Plautilla~0.JPG
aA1. RSC 10. AR Denarius. Concordiae Aeternae.44 viewsAR Denarius. Rome mint.

Obv. Draped bust right. PLAVTILLA AVGVSTAE

Rev. Plautilla and Caracalla standing clasping hands CONCORDIAE AETERNAE.

RIC361. EF. RSC 10.
LordBest
RSC21 Plautilla~0.JPG
aA2. RSC 21. Propago Imperi.30 viewsAR Denarius. Rome mint.

Obv. Draped bust right PLAVTILLA AVGVSTA

Rev. Plautilla and Caracalla standing clasping hands PROPAGO IMPERI.

RIC362, RSC 21. EF.
LordBest
AchaeaAegiraPlautillaZeusEnthroned1a_(exSavoca).jpg
Achaea, Aegira. Plautilla, Augusta. BCD 416; BMC 5.30 viewsAchaea, Aegira. Plautilla, Augusta (AD 202–205). Æ 23.33mm; 4.56 g; 4h.
Obverse: [Φ]ΟΥΛΒΙΑ [•] ΠΛΑΥΤΙΛΛΑ, draped bust right.
Reverse: ΑΙΓЄ – Ι – [Ρ] – ΑΤWΝ, Zeus enthroned left, half nude, holding Nike in right outstretched hand and a long scepter in left.
References: BCD Peloponnesos 416 (same rev. die); BMC Peloponnesus, p. 17, no. 5 (pl. IV, 10) = NCP, pl. S, VI (same dies); Lindgren II 1634 (same dies); SNG Fitzwilliam 3556; Mi Sup. IV, 125.
Ex Savoca Numismatik (eBay), 9-20-2014.
Mark Fox
Plautilla_03_portrait.jpg
AD 202-205 - PLAVTILLA5 viewsPublia Fulvia Plautilla was the wife of the Roman emperor Caracalla.

for obverse, reverse and coin details click here
shanxi
Caracalla,_Anchialus,_agonistic_urns,_AE27.JPG
Anchialus, Happy wedding & agonistic urns10 viewsCaracalla Æ27 of Anchialus, Thrace. 202 AD. AVT M AVRÊLI ANTÔNEINOS, laureate head right / OVLPIANÔN AGSIA-LEÔN, table with two prize urns, SEBERA NYMFIA below. SNGCop 439, Moushmov 2856. Varbanov II 404). Issued for the Wedding (Nympheum) games honoring the marriage of Caracalla and Plautilla in 202 AD. ex areich, photo credit areichPodiceps
RSC1 Plautilla UNC.jpg
bB3. RSC 1. AR Denarius. Concordia Avgg. FDC57 viewsRome mint, Issue II, AD 202. PLAVTILLA AVGVSTA, Bust, draped, hair coiled in ridges, either vertical or horizontal and fastened in bun at back/CONCORDIA AVGG, Concordia standing l., holding patera and scepter. RIC 363a, Sear 7065, BMC 236,411-414, RSC-1, Cohen-1, Hill 583. FDC, full proof like luster.
2 commentsLordBest
RSC1a Plautilla~0.JPG
bC3. RSC 1. AR Denarius. Concordia Avgg.47 viewsAR Denarius. Rome mint.

Obv. Draped bust right PLAVTILLA AVGVSTA

Rev. Concordia standing left holding patera and sceptre CONCORDIA AVG.

RIC363a. CHEF. RSC1
1 commentsLordBest
RSC25 Plautilla~0.JPG
bE6. RSC 25. Venus Victrix.46 viewsAR Denarius. Rome mint.

Obv. Draped bust right PLAVTILLA AVGVSTA

Rev. Venus standing semi-clothed golding apple and leaning on shield, cupid at feet VENVS VICTRIX.

RIC369, RSC 25. EF, lustrous.
LordBest
nikomedia_plautilla_RecGen253.jpg
Bithynia, Nikomedeia, Plautilla, Rec.Gen. 253 var.52 viewsPlautilla, AD 202-211, wife of Caracalla
AE 20, 3.17g, 19.94mm, 225°
obv. FOV PLAV - TILLA CEBA / CTH.
Bust, draped, r.
rev. NEIKOMHDEW - N / DIC NEWKO / RWN
Female ichthyokentaur, diademed, nude, with forefeet of horse and fishtail, ring l. on waves, holding auloi in l. arm and dolphin (?)
in extended r. hand
Rec.Gen. 253 var. (has only CEBA)
extremely rare, good F, nearly black patina (not green!)

For more information please look at the thread 'Coins of mythological interest'
Jochen
plautilla_mv_fac.jpg
Bust of Plautilla - Citta del Vaticano / Musei Vaticani 14 viewsBust of Plautilla
Marble
ca. 202 A.D.
Citta del Vaticano
Musei Vaticani, Museo Pio Clementino, Sala dei Busti
Inv.-No. 687

With special thanks to Prof. A. Nesselrath from the Musei Vaticani who allowed me to visit this amazing girl.
nummis durensis
napoli.jpg
Bust of Plautilla - Museo Archeologico Nazionale di Napoli30 views1 commentsnummis durensis
CaraPlaLaodicea.jpg
CAG and COL193 viewsCaracalla and Plautilla, 202 - 22 January 205 A.D., Laodicea ad Mare, Syria
9074. Bronze AE 32, SNG Cop 367, S -, Lindgren -; c/m Howgego 581 (116 pcs) & 586 (88 pcs), F, Laodicea ad Mare mint, 25.64g, 32.3mm, 0o, obverse legend illegible and unknown from references, ]PET[, jugate heads right of Caracalla, radiate, draped, and cuirassed, and Plautilla, draped, countermarks; reverse [SEPT LLVDIC COLONE METROPLI] (illegible), statue of Artemis Brauronia right, stag behind; all inscriptions are illegible on the SNG Copenhagen coin as well; scarce; $180.00
The countermarks, CAG in rectangular 5 x 3 mm punch (Howgego 581, 116 pcs) and COL in rectangular 6.5 x 3 mm punch (Howgego 586, 88 pcs), were applied after the city became a colony in 197/198, allowing older coins to circulate alongside newer coins with Latin legends. (Although the countermark was also applied to coins Such as this one with Latin inscriptions). All coins countermarked COL also bear CAG. Forum catalog.
whitetd49
RIC124a.JPG
Caracalla (wedding)47 viewsCaracalla Denarius. 211-217 AD. ANTONINVS PIVS AVG, laureate draped bust right / CONCORDIA FELIX, Plautilla standing right clasping hands with Caracalla standing standing left, holding scroll. RSC 23. 1 commentsowellber
Lg006GreekLarge_quad_sm~1.jpg
Caracalla AE provincial, Nikopolis ad Istrum, Moesia Inferior (Nikyup, Bulgaria) (211 - 212 AD)13 viewsΑΥ Κ Μ ΑΥΡ – [ANTΩNINOC], laureate, draped bust right / Y ΦΛ OYΛΠIAN – NIKOΠOΛIT + ΠΡOC I in exergue, Nemesis-Aequitas standing left, holding scales in extended right hand and measuring rod (whip? sceptre?) in the crook of left arm, wheel at foot left.

Ӕ, 26 mm, 9.22 g, die axis 8h (turned coin)

I do not have access to any of the relevant provincial catalogs and cannot check any entries, but based on other similar coin descriptions on this site some numbers that may be close to this type are: AMNG I/1 1576-77, 1877-78; Varbanov (engl.) 3134, 3148, 3248; Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (HrHJ) No. 8.18.35.4-5, 8.18.35.8

AY[TOKPATΩΡ] K[AICAP] = Imperator Caesar, Μ[ΑΡΚΟC] ΑΥ[ΡΗΛΙΟC] ANTΩNINOC = Marcus Aurelius Antoninus aka "Caracalla". NIKOΠOΛIT[ΩN] PROC I[CTPΩN] ("πρός"="toward", but also "near to", like Latin "ad"; Istros = the lower Danube). ΦΛ OYΛΠIAN = Flavius Ulpianus, who was Roman governor of Lower Moesia (Moesia Inferior) starting from 210 to about 213. Before 211 Septimius Severus was still in charge; Caracalla visited the city in 211-212, was displeased with it and closed the mint (it was reopened only after his death), so the likely minting years are 211-212. All governors of Lower Moesia had titles on coins of either ΗΓ[ΕΜΟΝΑΣ] (governor of equestrian rank) or ΥΠ[ΑΤΕΥΟΝΤΟΣ] of the province (ΤΗΣ ΕΠΑΡΧΕΙΑΣ) (consular legate of senatorial rank). Y before the name of Flavius Ulpianus indicates the latter.

Aequitas = justice, equality, conformity, symmetry. Nemesis was originally understood as honest distributor of fortune, neither bad nor good, but in due proportion. Later it gained aspects of justice and divine retribution, but in Nemesis-Aequitas her qualities of honest dealing is emphasized. It symbolizes honesty, equality and justice of the emperor towards his subjects. The scales here mean honest measure rather than justice, the long stick she carries is most probably a measuring rod, but may also be a whip (symbol of punishment) or a sceptre (symbol of imperial power). The wheel may be the Wheel of Fortune (Rota Fortunae), but may also just symbolize equality.

CARACALLA, *4 April 188 Lugdunum (Lyon, France) † 8 April 217 (aged 29) road between Edessa and Carrhae ‡ 26 Dec 211 – 8 Apr 217 (not counting joint rule with his father and brother)

His birth name was Lucius Septimius Bassianus, then he was renamed Marcus Aurelius Antoninus at the age of 7 as part of his father's attempt at union with the families of Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius. He got the agnomen "Caracalla" after a Gallic hooded tunic that he habitually wore and made fashionable. He was also referred to as Tarautas, after a famously diminutive and violent gladiator of the time. The firstborn of the famous imperial couple Septimius Severus and Julia Domna, he was groomed to be emperor together with his brother Geta. They both were given titles of Caesars and even full Augusti before their father's death. But it was not going to happen, since the brothers hated each other. In 202 Caracalla was forced to marry the daughter of Gaius Fulvius Plautianus, Fulvia Plautilla, he immediately grew to hate them both. By 205 Caracalla had succeeded in having Plautianus executed for treason, probably fabricating the evidence of the plot himself. Then he banished his wife together with his own baby daughter first to Sicily and then to the largest of the Aeolian islands, Lipari. As soon as his father died, Caracalla ordered to strangle them both.

Septimius Severus died on 4 February 211 at Eboracum (present day York) while on campaign in Caledonia, north of Roman Britannia. Caracalla and Geta jointly ended the campaign by concluding a peace that returned the border to the line demarcated by Hadrian's Wall. During the journey back to Rome they continuously argued and finally decided to divide the empire, Caracalla was to rule in the west and Geta -- the east. They were persuaded not to do this, but their hostility was only increasing. On 26 December 211, at a reconciliation meeting arranged by their mother, Caracalla had Geta assassinated by members of the Praetorian Guard loyal to himself, Geta dying in his mother's arms. Caracalla then persecuted and executed most of Geta's supporters and ordered a damnatio memoriae pronounced by the Senate against his brother's memory. Geta's image was removed from all paintings, coins were melted down, statues were destroyed, his name was struck from papyrus records, and it became a capital offence to speak or write Geta's name. In the aftermath of the damnatio memoriae, an estimated 20,000 people were massacred. Those killed were Geta's inner circle of guards and advisers, friends, and other military staff under his employ.

In 213, about a year after Geta's death, Caracalla left Rome never to return. He went north to the German frontier to deal with restless Germanic tribes through wars and diplomacy. While there, Caracalla strengthened the frontier fortifications of Raetia and Germania Superior, collectively known as the Agri Decumates, so that it was able to withstand any further barbarian invasions for another twenty years. Then it became evident that he was preoccupied with Alexander the Great. He began openly mimicking Alexander in his personal style and started planning an invasion of "Persia", the Parthian Empire. He even arranged 16,000 of his men in Macedonian-style phalanxes, despite this foration being obsolete for centuries. Caracalla's mania for Alexander went so far that he persecuted philosophers of the Aristotelian school based on a legend that Aristotle had poisoned Alexander. This was a sign of Caracalla's increasingly erratic behaviour. When the inhabitants of Alexandria heard of Caracalla's claims that he had killed his brother Geta in self-defence, they produced a satire mocking this as well as Caracalla's other pretensions. So in 215 Caracalla travelled to Alexandria and responded to this insult by slaughtering the deputation of leading citizens who had unsuspectingly assembled before the city to greet his arrival, before setting his troops against Alexandria for several days of looting and plunder. Following the massacre at Alexandria, Caracalla moved east into Armenia. By 216 he had pushed through Armenia and south into Parthia and pursued a series of aggressive campaigns in the east against the Parthians, intended to bring more territory under direct Roman control. In the following winter, Caracalla retired to Edessa (Şanlıurfa, south-east Turkey) and began making preparations to renew the campaign by spring. On 8 April 217 Caracalla was travelling to visit a temple near Carrhae (Harran, southern Turkey), where in 53 BC the Romans had suffered a defeat at the hands of the Parthians. After stopping briefly to urinate, Caracalla was approached by a soldier, Justin Martialis, and stabbed to death. Martialis had been incensed by Caracalla's refusal to grant him the position of centurion, and the Praetorian Guard Prefect Macrinus, Caracalla's successor, saw the opportunity to use Martialis to end Caracalla's reign. In the immediate aftermath of Caracalla's death, his murderer, Martialis, was killed as well. Three days later, Macrinus declared himself emperor with the support of the Roman army.

Caracalla's reign was marked by domestic instability, the massacres he enacted against the people of Rome and elsewhere in the empire, and external invasions from the Germanic people. Surprisingly for such a brute, Caracalla was also notable for some statesmanship, perhaps due to some help of his mother, who stayed in Rome and performed many administrative duties in her son's absence. The most famous is the Antonine Constitution (Constitutio Antoniniana), aka the Edict of Caracalla, which granted Roman citizenship to nearly all freemen throughout the Roman Empire. The edict gave all the enfranchised men Caracalla's adopted praenomen and nomen: "Marcus Aurelius". Domestically, Caracalla was known for the construction of the Baths of Caracalla, which became the second-largest baths in Rome, and building a temple to Serapis, Graeco-Egyptian god of healing, whom he thought to be his divine patron, on the Quirinal Hill. The numismatists will always remember him because of the introduction of a new Roman coin denomination, currently designated "antoninianus" after him. The reduced silver purity of the new coins caused people to hoard the old denarii and thanks to this now we can enjoy lots of well-preserved early Roman silver coins.

Caracalla was one of the cruellest and most tyrannical Roman emperors. That was why in the 18th century Caracalla's memory was revived in the works of French artists trying to draw the parallels between him and King Louis XVI. But there were also other narratives surrounding his name: in the 12th century, Geoffrey of Monmouth started the legend of "Bassianus" as the king of Britain, who won the kingship by fighting his brother over it.
Yurii P
Carcalla_(Augusta_Traiana).jpg
Caracalla as co-emperor (r. 198-217; elevated Caesar in 196; joint emperor with his father Septimius Severus from 198; with his brother Geta from 209) - AE 28 - Augusta Traiana (Thrace)41 viewsObv: [AVT K M AVPHΛIOC ANTΩNINOC] - Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev: HΓ CIKINN[IOV KΛAPOV AVΓOVCT] - Plautilla and Caracalla togate standing facing each other, clasping hands
TPAIANHC in exergue

Issued by governor of Thrace Q. Sicinnius Clarus in Augusta Traiana (202 AD ?)
References: Schönert-Geiss Die Münzenprägung von Augusta Traiana und Traianopolis p. 88 #227 (illustrated obverse: Tafel 15, Reverse: Tafel 17); Moushmov 'Augusta Traiana' 3064 (Plate IX, no. 1)
Weight: 13.89 g
(Seller's picture)

(I would like to thank slokind, archivum and Petrus Elmsley for helping me with identification and references)
1 commentskrazy
Caracalla_RIC_124a~0.JPG
Caracalla, 198 - 217 AD24 viewsObv: ANTONINVS PIVS AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust of Caracalla facing right.

Rev: CONCORDIA FELIX, Caracalla standing on the right, holding a scroll and clasping the hand of Plautilla, standing on the left.

Note: Commemorates Caracalla's marriage to Plautilla.

Silver Denarius, Rome mint, 202 AD

3.3 grams, 18 mm, 180°

RIC IVi 124a, RSC 23, S6794, VM 17
SPQR Coins
CaraNikoMarriage.JPG
Caracalla, AE 2720 viewsAV . K . M . AVR . ANTONIN
Bust laureate, right, drapery over left shoulder
VPA AVR GALLOV NIKOPOLITWN / PROC ICTRON
Caracalla, right, clasping hands with Plautilla, left.
Obverse die same as AMNG 1329
Reverse die, AMNG -, Varbanov (Eng) I, -.
whitetd49
0190-205.jpg
Caracalla, Denarius66 viewsRome mint, AD 202
ANTONINVS PIVS AVG, Laureate and draped bust of Caracalla right
CONCORDIA FELIX, Caracalla and Plautilla face to face, shaking hands
3.34 gr
Ref : RCV # 6794 (160), RSC # 23, RIC # 124a
This denarius is "twined" with it's equivalent for Plautilla, showing the same reverse. They both have been minted AD 202 on the occasion of their marriage.
2 commentsPotator II
plautilla.jpg
CONCORDIA AVGG12 viewsDenarius 18 mm Rome AD 204
obv: PLAVTILLA AVGVSTA, draped bust right, hair in nearly vertical waves & drawn into bun at back; rev: CONCORDIA AVGG Concordia, diademed, stg. half-left with patera & scepter.
Sear II: 7065

Podiceps
plautilla~0.jpg
Denarius, PIETAS AVGG, RIC 3678 viewsPlautilla AR Denarius. Rev. PIETAS AVGG, Pietas standing right holding sceptre and child. RIC 367, Sear RCV II: 7072.Podiceps
EpirusCorcyraPlautillaUnidentifiedFemale1_(ex_petrus_fabricius).jpg
Epirus, Corcyra. Plautilla. Mi II, 76.43 viewsEpirus, Corcyra. Plautilla (AD 202–205). Æ 22mm; 6.05 g; 4h.
Obverse: ΠΛΑΥΤΙ – ΛΛΑ CЄΒΑ, draped bust right.
Reverse: ΚΟΡΚ[Υ] – ΡΑΙWΝ, unidentified woman standing and facing with head left and right hand raised.
References: Mi II, 76.
Ex Peter Kovacs, 10-25-2014, from an old collection dating probably back to the early 1990s at the latest.

My thanks to Dane Kurth of Wildwinds for locating the Mionnet reference.
1 commentsMark Fox
2009-03-22_03-29_Sizilien_389_Solunto.jpg
Italy, Sicily, View of Solanto from the ruins of Soluntum (aka Solus, Solous, and Kefra)63 viewsView of Solanto from the ruins of Soluntum (aka Solus, Solous, and Kefra), Sicily

Solus (or Soluntum, near modern Solanto) was an ancient city on the north coast of Sicily, one of the three chief Phoenician settlements on the island, about 16 kilometers (10 miles) east of Panormus (modern Palermo). It lay 183 meters (600 ft) above sea level, on the southeast side of Monte Catalfano 373 meters (1,225 ft), in a naturally strong situation, and commanding a fine view. The date of its founding is unknown. Solus was one of the few colonies that the Phoenicians retained when they withdrew to the northwest corner of the island before the advance of the Greek colonies in Sicily. Together with Panormus and Motya, it allied with the Carthaginians. In 396 B.C. Dionysius took the city but it probably soon broke away again to Carthage and was usually part of their dominions on the island. In 307 B.C. it was given to the soldiers and mercenaries of Agathocles, who had made peace with the Carthage when abandoned by their leader in Africa. During the First Punic War it was still subject to Carthage, and it was not until after the fall of Panormus that Soluntum also opened its gates to the Romans. It continued to under Roman dominion as a municipal town, but apparently one of no great importance, as its name is only slightly and occasionally mentioned by Cicero. But it is still noticed both by Pliny and Ptolemy, as well as at a later period by the Itineraries. Its destruction probably dates from the time of the Saracens.

Excavations have brought to light considerable remains of the ancient town, belonging entirely to the Roman period, and a good deal still remains unexplored. The traces of two ancient roads, paved with large blocks of stone, which led up to the city, may still be followed, and the whole summit of Monte Catalfano is covered with fragments of ancient walls and foundations of buildings. Among these may be traced the remains of two temples, of which some capitals and portions of friezes, have been discovered. An archaic oriental Artemis sitting between a lion and a panther, found here, is in the museum at Palermo, with other antiquities from this site. An inscription, erected by the citizens in honor of Fulvia Plautilla, the wife of Caracalla, was found there in 1857. With the exception of the winding road by which the town was approached on the south, the streets, despite the unevenness of the ground, which in places is so steep that steps have to be introduced, are laid out regularly, running from east to west and from north to south, and intersecting at right angles. They are as a rule paved with slabs of stone. The houses were constructed of rough walling, which was afterwards plastered over; the natural rock is often used for the lower part of the walls. One of the largest of them, with a peristyle, was in 1911, though wrongly, called the gymnasium. Near the top of the town are some cisterns cut in the rock, and at the summit is a larger house than usual, with mosaic pavements and paintings on its walls. Several sepulchres also have been found.

Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soluntum

Photo by Allie Caulfield from Germany.
Joe Sermarini
99101388-41B0-4DAF-BB96-F5D083341C86.jpeg
LACONIA, Asopus. Plautilla. 8 viewsLACONIA, Asopus. Plautilla. Augusta, AD 202-205. Æ Assarion. Struck AD 202-205. Draped bust right / Tyche standing left, holding phiale and cornucopia. BCD Peloponnesos 950 (same obv. die).ecoli
nikopolis_plautilla_Varbanov3189cf.jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 21. Plautilla, HrHJ (2018) 8.21.04.04. (plate coin)74 viewsPlautilla, AD 202-205, wife of Caracalla and killed by him
AE 27, 12.50g, 26.90mm, 45°
struck under governor Aurelius Gallus
obv. FOV PLAV - TILLA CEB
bust, draped, r., hair in her usual 'melon hair-do'
rev. VP A GALL[O - V] NIKOPOLITW / PROC I
Athena, in long garment, wearing Corinthian helmet, stg. facing, head r,
holding reversed spear in raised r. hand and resting with lowered l. hand on
great round shield set on ground.
ref. a) not in AMNG
b) cf. Varbanov (engl.) 3189 (shield on small base, different legend)
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.21.4.4. (plate coin)
rare (R5), VF, nice deep-green glossy patina

Varbanov 3189 has a different legend: FOVL PLAV...(in error listed with FOVLVIA!) and on rev. VP AVR...LITWN) and a different depiction: Shield standing on small base.
2 commentsJochen
nikopolis_plautilla_HrHJ(2015)8_21_14_1var.jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 21. Plautilla, HrHJ (2018) 8.21.14.02 (plate coin)7 viewsPlautilla, AD 202-205
AE 25, 8.73g, 25.12mm, 225°
struck under governor Aurelius Gallus
obv. FOVL.PLAV - TILLA.CEBAC
Bust, draped, seen from front, wearing stephane, r.
rev. VPA AVR GALLOV NEIKOPOLITWN / PROC I
Herakles, nude, except chlamys over l. shoulder, lion's skin over l. arm, standing r., resting with r. hand on his club set on ground and holding in extended r. hand bow
ref. a) AMNG I/1, 1631 var.:
rev. depiction AMNG I/1, 1631
legend AMNG I/1, 1632 (Tyche, writes VP.L, but here VPA with typical A with its small
transverse line)
obv. AMNG I/1, 1632
b) Varbanov (engl.) 3192 var. (= AMNG 1631)
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.21.14.1 (this coin)
scarce, VF, black green patina
Jochen
nikopolis_plautilla_HrHJ(2015)8_21_15_1.jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 21. Plautilla, HrHJ (2018) 8.21.15.018 viewsPlautilla, AD 202-205
AE 26, 13.34g, 26.16mm, 210°
struck under governor Aurelius Gallus
obv. FOVL.PLAV - TILLA CEBAC
Bust, draped, wearing stephane, r.
rev. VPA AVR GALLOV - NEIKOPOLIT PR. / OC IC
Aphrodite Pudica, nude, stg. frontal, covering her private parts with her hands
ref. a) not in AMNG
b) Varbanov (engl.) 3202
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.21.15.1 (same dies)
rare (R6), S+

The statue of Aphrodite Pudica goes back to the statue of Aphrodite of Knidos by Praxiteles, created 350-340 BC. This motive was then taken up by the Capitoline Venus.
Jochen
nikopolis_plautilla_countermark_3.JPG
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, Plautilla (countermark)11 viewsMoesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, Plautilla, AD 202-205
AE 26, 7.20g, 26.16mm, 0°
obv. [...] PLA[...] - [...]
Bust, draped, r.; hair bound in bun
rev. [.....]
Nike advancing l. with palmbranch and wreath
2 countermarks: NIKO (Howgego 553) and Delta (Howgego 782)
ref. Hristova/Jekov (2011) No. 8...2
rare, VF (for countermark)

Delta and NIKO as usual. But a new host coin: Because of the hairdo the bust looks like Plautilla.
Jochen
nikopolis_countermark_#3.jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, X countermark, 21. Plautilla, HrHJ (2018) 8(?)...5 (plate coin)34 viewsAE 26, 7.20g, 26.16mm, 0°
obv. [...] PLA[...] - [...]
Bust, draped, r.; hair bound in bun
rev. [.....]
Nike advancing l. with palmbranch and wreath (Thanks to Pekka)
2 countermarks: NIKO (Howgego 553) and Delta (Howgego 782)
ref. Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8(?)...5 (plate coin)
Rare (R5)

Delta and NIKO as usual. But a new host coin: Because of the hairdo the bust looks like Plautilla.
Jochen
pautillatomis.jpg
Moesia Inferior, Tomis. Plautilla AE25 Dionysos65 viewsAE25. Obv. ΦOYΛ ΠΛAYTIΛΛA ΣЄB. Plautilla bust right. Rev. MHTPO ΠONT TOMЄΩC. Tetrastyle temple with statue of Dionysos with cup and thyrsos. Moushmov 1995.ancientone
0191-a00.jpg
Overview of Plautilla's Coinage by Potator II83 viewsThere are five main types of portrait for Plautilla’s denarii at the Rome mint :

A - With a draped bust right, hair coiled in horizontal ridges and fastened in bun in high position. Her facial expression is juvenile
B - Hair being coiled in vertical ridges, with bun in low position. Plautilla looks here more like a young beautiful woman
C - The third bust shows a thinner face of Plautilla with hair in vertical ridges and no bun but braids covering her neck
D - The fourth type has a similar appearance with the former, but the vertical ridges disappear, hair being plastered down, still showing the right ear
E - Plautilla appears with mid long hair plastered down and covering her ears

In the mean time there are seven different reverses :

1 - CONCORDIAE AETERNAE
2 - PROPAGO IMPERI
3 - CONCORDIA AVGG
4 - CONCORDIA FELIX
5 - PIETAS AVGG
6 - VENVS VICTRIX
7 – DIANA LVCIFERA

Not every combination exists, but some of the above reverses can be shared by several obverse portraits. Noticeable also is an evolution of the obverse legend, being PLAVTILLAE AVGVSTAE (a) in 202, and becoming PLAVTILLA AVGVSTA (b) soon after.

Taken with permission from the gallery of Potator II:
http://www.forumancientcoins.com/gallery/index.php?cat=11724
LordBest
plautilla_sicinn_Klarus_emperor_rev.JPG
Pautalia Plautilla Sicinnius Clarus32 viewsPlautilla

AE 28 vierer

Pautalia

Sicinnius Clarus (202 AD)

ob: ΦOVΛ ΠΛAV | TIΛΛA CEBA
draped and bust right with stephane

rx: HΓ ∙ CIKI ∙ KΛAPOY | O | VΛ[Π ΠAYTA
Ex: ΛIAC
Emperor in military attire standing left holding patera in outstretched right hand, spear in left

Varbanov (E) II -; Mionnet -; BMC-; cf. Ruzicka p. 124 #450 (J Domna) rx; a probable match. I am following Ruzicka’s recording of the right side of legend; although it appears more of the legend is extant on this coin. N.B. break in O | VΛΠ. Ruzicka’s coin from his own collection.
Unpublished reverse obverse die pairing
Petrus Elmsley
pautalia_Asklepios_Sept_sev_bust_KLARUS.JPG
Pautalia Septimius Severus Sicinius Clarus (202 AD)37 viewsAE 28 14.62

Septimius Severus

Pautalia

Sicinnius Clarus (202 AD)

AV K Λ CEΠTI ∙ | CEVHPOC Π
Laureate draped and cuirassed bust right

HΓ CIK[INIOV] KΛAPOY OYΛΠIAC ΠAVTA
Ex: ΛIAC
Asklepios standing facing, head left holding serpent entwined staff in right

Ruzicka -; Varbanov(E) II –; Mionnet Supp. II -; BMC -

This is a reverse die match with the Plautilla in Curtis Clay’s post in Classical numismatics.
Petrus Elmsley
SeptimiusPisidiaAntiochAE22.jpg
Pisidia, Antioch. Septimius Severus. 198-217 AD. 104 viewsPisidia, Antioch. Septimius Severus. 198-217 AD. AE 22mm (5.21 gm). Obverse: Laureate, head left. Reverse: Mên standing facing, head right, foot on bucranium, holding sceptre and Nike on globe; cock at feet left. SNG France 3, 1118. Cleaning scratches, very fine. Ex Tom Vossen.

De Imperatoribus Romanis
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Septimius Severus (193-211 A.D.)

Michael L. Meckler
Ohio State University

Introduction
Lucius Septimius Severus restored stability to the Roman empire after the tumultuous reign of the emperor Commodus and the civil wars that erupted in the wake of Commodus' murder. However, by giving greater pay and benefits to soldiers and annexing the troublesome lands of northern Mesopotamia into the Roman empire, Septimius Severus brought increasing financial and military burdens to Rome's government. His prudent administration allowed these burdens to be met during his eighteen years on the throne, but his reign was not entirely sunny. The bloodiness with which Severus gained and maintained control of the empire tarnished his generally positive reputation.

Severus' Early Life and Acclamation
Severus was born 11 April 145 in the African city of Lepcis Magna, whose magnificent ruins are located in modern Libya, 130 miles east of Tripoli. Septimius Severus came from a distinguished local family with cousins who received suffect consulships in Rome under Antoninus Pius. The future emperor's father seems not to have held any major offices, but the grandfather may have been the wealthy equestrian Septimius Severus commemorated by the Flavian-era poet Statius.

The future emperor was helped in his early career by one of his consular cousins, who arranged entry into the senate and the favor of the emperor Marcus Aurelius. Life as a senator meant a life of travel from one government posting to another. Moorish attacks on his intended post of Baetica (southern Spain) forced Severus to serve his quaestorship in Sardinia. He then traveled to Africa as a legate and returned to Rome to be a tribune of the plebs. Around the year 175 he married Paccia Marciana, who seems also to have been of African origin. The childless marriage lasted a decade or so until her death.

Severus' career continued to flourish as the empire passed from Marcus to Commodus. The young senator held a praetorship, then served in Spain, commanded a legion in Syria and held the governorships of Gallia Lugdunensis (central France), Sicily and Upper Pannonia (easternmost Austria and western Hungary). While in Gallia Lugdunensis in 187, the now-widowed future emperor married Julia Domna, a woman from a prominent family of the Syrian city of Emesa. Two sons quickly arrived, eleven months apart: Bassianus (known to history as Caracalla) in April of the year 188, and Geta in March 189.

News of Pertinax's assassination 28 March 193 in an uprising by the praetorian guard quickly reached Pannonia, and only twelve days later on 9 April 193, Severus was proclaimed emperor. Septimius Severus had the strong support of the armies along the Rhine and Danube, but the loyalty of the governor of Britain, Clodius Albinus, was in doubt. Severus' envoys from Pannonia offered Albinus the title of Caesar, which he accepted.

The Civil Wars with Albinus, Niger, and Didius Julianus
In the city of Rome, Didius Julianus gained the support of the praetorian troops and was promoted as the successor to Pertinax. Although Julianus' authority did not extend much beyond Italy, Severus understood that legitimacy for a Roman emperor meant having one's authority accepted in Rome. He and his army began a swift march to the city. They met practically no resistance on their advance from Pannonia into northern Italy, as Julianus' supporters defected. By the beginning of June when Severus reached Interamna, 50 miles north of Rome, even the praetorian guard stationed in the capital switched sides. Didius Julianus was declared a public enemy and killed. Septimius Severus entered Rome without a fight.

Civil war was not yet over. Another provincial governor also had his eyes on the throne. In Syria, Pescennius Niger had been proclaimed emperor on news of Pertinax's death, and the eastern provinces quickly went under his authority. Byzantium became Niger's base of operations as he prepared to fight the armies of the west loyal to Severus.

Niger was unable to maintain further advances into Europe. The fighting moved to the Asian shore of the Propontis, and in late December 193 or early January 194, Niger was defeated in a battle near Nicaea and fled south. Asia and Bithynia fell under Severus' control, and Egypt soon recognized Severus' authority. By late spring, Niger was defeated near Issus and the remainder of his support collapsed. Syria was pacified. Niger was killed fleeing Antioch. Byzantium, however, refused to surrender to Severan forces. Niger's head was sent to the city to persuade the besieged citizens to give up, but to no avail. The Byzantines held out for another year before surrender. As punishment for their stubbornness, the walls of their city were destroyed.

Severus' Eastern Campaigns
During the fighting, two of the peoples of upper Mesopotamia -- the Osrhoeni and the Adiabeni -- captured some Roman garrisons and made an unsuccessful attack on the Roman-allied city of Nisibis. After the defeat of Niger, these peoples offered to return Roman captives and what remained of the seized treasures if the remaining Roman garrisons were removed from the region. Severus refused the offer and prepared for war against the two peoples, as well as against an Arabian tribe that had aided Niger. In the spring of 195, Severus marched an army through the desert into upper Mesopotamia. The native peoples quickly surrendered, and Severus added to his name the victorious titles Arabicus and Adiabenicus. Much of the upper third of Mesopotamia was organized as a Roman province, though the king of Osrhoene was allowed to retain control of a diminished realm.

The tottering Parthian empire was less and less able to control those peoples living in the border regions with Rome. Rome's eastern frontier was entering a period of instability, and Severus responded with an interventionist policy of attack and annexation. Some senators feared that increased involvement in Mesopotamia would only embroil Rome in local squabbles at great expense. The emperor, however, would remain consistent in his active eastern policy.

Legitimization of the Severan Dynasty
Severus also took steps to cement his legitimacy as emperor by connecting himself to the Antonine dynasty. Severus now proclaimed himself the son of Marcus Aurelius, which allowed him to trace his authority, through adoption, back to the emperor Nerva. Julia Domna was awarded the title "Mother of the Camp" (mater castrorum), a title only previously given to the empress Faustina the Younger, Marcus' wife. Bassianus, the emperor's elder son, was renamed Marcus Aurelius Antoninus and given the title Caesar. It was this last step that marked a decisive break with Albinus.

Albinus had remained in Britain as governor during the struggles between Severus and Niger. Although Albinus had not attempted open revolt against the emperor, he seems to have been in communication with senators about future moves. By the end of 195, Albinus was declared a public enemy by Severus. The governor of Britain responded by proclaiming himself emperor and invading Gaul.

A weary Roman populace used the anonymity of the crowd at the chariot races to complain about renewed civil war, but it was Gaul that bore the brunt of the fighting. Albinus and his supporters were able to inflict losses on the occasion of the initial attacks, but disorder was so great that opportunistic soldiers could easily operate on their own within the lands under Albinus' nominal control.

The tide began to turn early in 197, and after a Severan victory at Tournus, Albinus found himself and his army trapped near Lyon. A battle broke out 19 February 197. In the initial fighting, Albinus' troops forced the Severans into retreat, during which Severus fell off his horse. When the Severan cavalry appeared, however, Albinus' army was routed. Lyon was sacked and Albinus, who was trapped in a house along the river Rhône, committed suicide. Severus ordered Albinus' head to be cut off and sent to Rome for display. Many of Albinus' supporters were killed, including a large number of Spanish and Gallic aristocrats. Albinus' wife and children were killed, as were many of the wives of his supporters. Tradition also told of the mutilation of bodies and denial of proper burial. The emperor revealed a penchant for cruelty that troubled even his fervent supporters. A purge of the senate soon followed. Included among the victims was Pertinax's father-in-law, Sulpicianus.

Severus and the Roman Military
Severus brought many changes to the Roman military. Soldiers' pay was increased by half, they were allowed to be married while in service, and greater opportunities were provided for promotion into officer ranks and the civil service. The entire praetorian guard, discredited by the murder of Pertinax and the auctioning of their support to Julianus, was dismissed. The emperor created a new, larger praetorian guard out of provincial soldiers from the legions. Increases were also made to the two other security forces based in Rome: the urban cohorts, who maintained order; and the night watch, who fought fires and dealt with overnight disturbances, break-ins and other petty crime. These military reforms proved expensive, but the measures may well have increased soldiers' performance and morale in an increasingly unsettled age.

One location that remained unsettled was the eastern frontier. In 197 Nisibis had again been under siege, and the emperor prepared for another eastern campaign. Three new legions were raised, though one was left behind in central Italy to maintain order. The Roman armies easily swept through upper Mesopotamia, traveling down the Euphrates to sack Seleucia, Babylon and Ctesiphon, which had been abandoned by the Parthian king Vologaeses V. On 28 January 198 -- the centenary of Trajan's accession -- Severus took the victorious title Parthicus Maximus and promoted both of his sons: Caracalla to the rank of Augustus and Geta to the rank of Caesar.

Before embarking on the eastern campaign, the emperor had named Gaius Fulvius Plautianus as a praetorian prefect. Plautianus came from the emperor's home town of Lepcis, and the prefect may even have been a relative of the emperor. The victories in Mesopotamia were followed by tours of eastern provinces, including Egypt. Plautianus accompanied Severus throughout the travels, and by the year 201 Plautianus was the emperor's closest confidant and advisor. Plautianus was also praetorian prefect without peer after having arranged the murder of his last colleague in the post.

Upon the return to Rome in 202, the influence of Plautianus was at its height. Comparisons were made with Sejanus, the powerful praetorian prefect under the emperor Tiberius. Plautianus, who earlier had been adlected into the senate, was now awarded consular rank, and his daughter Plautilla was married to Caracalla. The wealth Plautianus had acquired from his close connection with the emperor enabled him to provide a dowry said to have been worthy of fifty princesses. Celebrations and games also marked the decennalia, the beginning of the tenth year of Severus' reign. Later in the year the enlarged imperial family traveled to Lepcis, where native sons Severus and Plautianus could display their prestige and power.

The following year the imperial family returned to Rome, where an arch, still standing today, was dedicated to the emperor at the western end of the Forum. Preparations were also being made for the Secular Games, which were thought to have originated in earliest Rome and were to be held every 110 years. Augustus celebrated the Secular Games in 17 B.C., and Domitian in A.D. 88, six years too early. (Claudius used the excuse of Rome's 800th year to hold the games in A.D. 47.) In 204 Severus would preside over ten days of ceremonies and spectacles.

By the end of 204, Plautianus was finding his influence with the emperor on the wane. Caracalla was not happy to be the husband of Plautilla. Julia Domna resented Plautianus' criticisms and investigations against her. Severus was tiring of his praetorian prefect's ostentation, which at times seemed to surpass that of the emperor himself. The emperor's ailing brother, Geta, also denounced Plautianus, and after Geta's death the praetorian prefect found himself being bypassed by the emperor. In January 205 a soldier named Saturninus revealed to the emperor a plot by Plautianus to have Severus and Caracalla killed. Plautianus was summoned to the imperial palace and executed. His children were exiled, and Caracalla divorced Plautilla. Some observers suspected the story of a plot was merely a ruse to cover up long-term plans for Plautianus' removal.

Severus and Roman Law
Two new praetorian prefects were named to replace Plautianus, one of whom was the eminent jurist Papinian. The emperor's position as ultimate appeals judge had brought an ever-increasing legal workload to his office. During the second century, a career path for legal experts was established, and an emperor came to rely heavily upon his consilium, an advisory panel of experienced jurists, in rendering decisions. Severus brought these jurists to even greater prominence. A diligent administrator and conscientious judge, the emperor appreciated legal reasoning and nurtured its development. His reign ushered in the golden age of Roman jurisprudence, and his court employed the talents of the three greatest Roman lawyers: Papinian, Paul and Ulpian.

The order Severus was able to impose on the empire through both the force of arms and the force of law failed to extend to his own family. His now teenaged sons, Caracalla and Geta, displayed a reckless sibling rivalry that sometimes resulted in physical injury. The emperor believed the lack of responsibilities in Rome contributed to the ill-will between his sons and decided that the family would travel to Britain to oversee military operations there. Caracalla was involved in directing the army's campaigns, while Geta was given civilian authority and a promotion to joint emperor with his father and brother.

Severus was now into his 60s. Chronic gout limited his activities and sapped his strength. The emperor's health continued to deteriorate in Britain, and he became ever more intent on trying to improve the bitter relationship between his two sons. He is reported to have given his sons three pieces of advice: "Get along; pay off the soldiers; and disregard everyone else." The first piece of advice would not be heeded.

Severus died in York on 4 February 211 at the age of 65. His reign lasted nearly 18 years, a duration that would not be matched until Diocletian. Culturally and ideologically Septimius Severus connected his reign to the earlier Antonine era, but the reforms he enacted would eventually alter the very character of Roman government. By creating a larger and more expensive army and increasing the influence of lawyers in administration, Severus planted the seeds that would develop into the highly militaristic and bureaucratic government of the later empire.

Copyright (C) 1998, Michael L. Meckler. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis, An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors; http://www.roman-emperors.org/sepsev.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
PlautVenVic.JPG
Plautilla85 viewsPLAVTILLA AVGVSTA
VENVS VICTRIX
Rome, 204 AD
RIC IV 369d, BM 429, C 25
whitetd49
8a.jpg
PLAUTILLA23 viewsAR denarius. 202-203 AD. 3,34 grs. Draped bust right. PLAVTILLA AVGUSTA / Venus standing facing, head left, holding apple and palm, and leaning upon round shield to right.To left Cupid standing left, holding helmet.
RIC 369 (Caracalla). RSC 25.
benito
00161-Plautilla.JPG
Plautilla18 viewsPlautilla Denarius
19 mm 3.49 gm
O: PLAVTILLA AVGVSTA
Draped bust of Plautilla right.
R: PROPAGO IMPERI
Plautilla and Caracalla standing, clasping hands.
Koffy
00plautilla~0.jpg
PLAUTILLA17 viewsAR denarius. 202-205 AD. 3,35 grs. Draped bust right. PLAVTILLA AVGVSTA / Concordia standing left, holding patera and sceptre. CONCORDIA AVGG.
RIC 363 b.
benito
00plautilla.jpg
PLAUTILLA35 viewsAR denarius. 202-205 AD. 3,35 grs. Draped bust right. PLAVTILLA AVGVSTA / Concordia standing left, holding patera and sceptre. CONCORDIA AVGG.
RIC 363 b.
2 commentsbenito
Plautilla_RIC_362_neu.jpg
Plautilla23 viewsDenarius (3,11g - 19mm)
obv. PLAVTILLAE AVGVSTAE
draped bust right
rev. PROPAGO IMPERI
Caracalla and Plautilla clasping hands
Rome mint AD 202-205
RIC 362
HG
PlautillaPropagoImperi.jpg
PLAUTILLA denarius PROPAGO IMPERI125 viewsPLAUTILLAE AVGVSTAE
Draped bust right with hair in horizontal wawes and drawn into bun at the back.

R/PROPAGO IMPERI
Caracalla and Plautilla standing hand in hand, the former holds roll.

denarius struck 202 in Rom

C.21 - RIC.362
6 commentsgb29400
Plautilla.jpg
Plautilla (198-212 AD) AR Denarius54 viewsRoman Imperial, Plautilla (198-212 AD) AR Denarius, 3.3g, 18mm

Obverse: PLAVTILLA AVGVSTA, Draped bust right, hair in nearly vertical waves & drawn into bun at back.

Reverse: CONCORDIA AVGG Concordia, diademed, stg. half-left with patera & sceptre.

Reference: RIC 363, RSC 1, BMC 411, Sear RCV 2000 - 7065

Ex: Calgary Coins +photo
2 commentsGil-galad
rom0124plaupiet~0.jpg
Plautilla (202 - 205 A.D)32 viewsAR Denarius
O: PLAVTILLA AVGVSTA, Draped bust right.
R: PIETAS AVGG, Pietas standing front, head right, holding a child.
Rome
3.4g
18.5mm
RIC 367 RSC 16
1 commentsMat
a11.jpg
Plautilla (202 - 205 A.D.)59 viewsAR Denarius
O: PLAVTILLAE AVGVSTAE, Draped bust right, hair in bun behind.
R: HILARITAS, Hilaritas standing, holding palm branch and cornucopia.
Laodicea Mint
3.3g
18mm
RIC IV 371 (Caracalla) RSC 14

Scarce
5 commentsMat
Plautilla_(202-205)_denarius_(AR).jpg
Plautilla (202-205) denarius (AR)86 viewsObv.: PLAVTILLA AVGVSTA (Draped bust of empress) Rev.: CONCORDIA AVGG (Concordia standing with patera and sceptre) Weight: 2,74 g Diameter: 19 mm RIC 363 (a)3 commentsNick.vdw
Plautilla_(202-205)_denarius_(AR).png
Plautilla (202-205) denarius (AR)17 viewsObv.: PLAVTILLA AVGVSTA (Draped bust of empress) Rev.: CONCORDIA AVGG (Concordia standing with patera and sceptre) Diameter: 19 mm Weight: 2,74 g RIC 363 (a)

The marriage between Caracalla and Plautilla was an unhappy one, as the partners loathed one another. Plautilla was exiled in 205 and six years later she was executed.

Nick.vdw
W8.png
Plautilla (wife of Caracalla) AR Denarius.8 viewsRome, AD 202-205. PLAVTILLA AVGVSTA, draped bust right / PIETAS AVGG, Pietas standing right, holding scepter and child. RIC 367 (Caracalla). 3.50g, 19mm, 6h.Very Fine.Chris C2
Plautilla_PIETAS_AVGG.jpg
Plautilla - AR denarius3 viewsRome
203 AD
draped bust right
PLAVTILLA__AVGVSTA
Pietas standing right holding scepter and child
PIETAS__AVG G
RIC IV 367, RSC III 16
3,69g
Johny SYSEL
P2.jpg
Plautilla - Concordia Felix88 viewsDenarius 202
O/ PLAUTILLA - AUGUSTA Draped bust right with hair in nearly vertical waves and drawn into coiled plait on neck
R/ CONCORDIA - FELIX Caracalla and Plautilla standing hand in hand, the former holds roll
C 12 - RIC 365a
Mint: Rome (15th emission)
1 commentsseptimus
Plautille.jpg
Plautilla - denarius25 viewsPLAVTILLAE AVGVSTAE
PROPAGO IMPERI , Plautilla standing right holding hand of her husband Caracalla, wearing toga and standing left.

RIC 362
Ginolerhino
Plautilla_Den_RIC_361.jpg
Plautilla - denarius RIC 36130 viewsPlautilla. AR Denarius, minted in Rome, 202-205 AD; 3.11g; obv. PLAVTILLAE AVGVSTAE, draped bust right; rev. CONCORDIAE AETERNAE (ironical, because the marriage was unhappy and Carcalla, becoming sole Augustus in 212, had murdered his wife Plautilla), Caracalla and Plautilla standing hand-in-hand. RIC IV 361.1 commentsBartosz A
Plautilla_Den_RIC_369.jpg
Plautilla - denarius RIC 36913 viewsPlautilla. AR Denarius, minted in Rome, ca 204 AD; 3.22g; obv. PLAVTILLA AVGVSTA, draped bust right; rev. VENVS VICTRIX, Venus standing left holding apple & palm, leaning on shield, Cupid at her feet. RIC IV 369; RSC 25.Bartosz A
laodicea_3.jpg
Plautilla - HILARITAS 53 viewsPlautilla
Denarius
202 A.D.
Laodicea ad Mare
Av.: PLAVTILLAE - AVGVSTAE / draped bust right (Hill: Eii)
Rev.: HIL - A - RITAS / Hilaritas standing left, holding long palm and cornucopiae
3,26 Gr., 12 h die axis
RIC 371, Coh. 14
2 commentsnummis durensis
sub_1.jpg
Plautilla - PIETAS7 viewsPlautilla
AE-Denarius
ca. 203 A.D.
irregular mint
Av.: PLAVTILLA - AVGVSTA / draped bust right (Hill: Lii)
Rev.: PIETAS - AVGG / Pietas standing right, holding sceptre and child
2,87 Gr., 6 h die axis
(RIC 367, Coh. 16, Hill 608)
nummis durensis
sub_2.jpg
Plautilla - PROPAGO IMPERI (No. 1)8 viewsPlautilla
AE-Denarius
ca. 202 A.D.
irregular mint
Av.: PLAVTILLAE - AVGVSTAE / draped bust right (Hill: Ei)
Rev.: PROPAGO IM - PERI / Plautilla and Caracalla standing facing each other, clasping hands.
3,13 Gr., 12 h die axis
(RIC 362, Coh. 21, Hill 575B)
nummis durensis
sub_3.jpg
Plautilla - PROPAGO IMPERI (No. 2)10 viewsPlautilla
subaerate Denarius
ca 202 A.D.
irregular mint
Av.: PLAVTILLAE AVGVSTAE / draped bust right (Hill: Ei)
Rev.: PRO - PAGO IMPE - RI / Plautilla and Caracalla standing facing each other, clasping hands.
2,89 Gr., 12 h die axis
(RIC 362, Coh. 21, Hill 575B)

Interesting Revers-Legend splitting.
nummis durensis
P3.jpg
Plautilla - The Posterity of the Empire105 viewsDenarius 202
O/ PLAUTILLAE AUGUSTAE Draped bust right with hair in horizontal waves and drawn into large bun at back
R/ PROPAGO IMPERI Caracalla and Plautilla standing hand in hand, the former holds roll
C 21 - RIC 362
Rome (2nd off., special emission: wedding)
2 commentsseptimus
P1.JPG
Plautilla - Venus and Cupid64 viewsDenarius 204
O/ PLAUTILLA - AUGUSTA Draped bust right with hair in horizontal waves and drawn into coiled plait on neck
R/ VENUS - VI-CTRIX Venus, naked to waist, standing half-left, holding apple and palm; at side, shield; before, Cupid standing, holding helmet
C 25 - RIC 369
Mint: Rome (7th off., 17th emission)
septimus
limes_as.jpg
Plautilla - Æ As Limesfalsum17 viewsPlautilla
Æ As - Limesfalsum
202 - 205 AD.
Av.: PLAVTILLA – AVGVSTA / Draped bust to r.
Rev.: PIETAS – AVGG / Pietas standing to r., holding sceptre in r. hand and child in l. arm, S – C in field
4,12 Gr., 6 h die axis
RIC 581 (As), Coh. 19
nummis durensis
jula3.jpg
Plautilla 211 denarius23 viewsOb. PLAUTILLA AVGSTA Head Right
Rev. VENUS VICTRIX Venus standing left holding apple and palm, resting on shield & cupid
Ref. RIC 369

-:Bacchus:-
Bacchus
plautilla.jpg
Plautilla and Caracalla55 viewsRIC (Car.)361, Plautilla AR Denarius. 202 AD. PLAVTILLAE AVGVSTAE, draped bust right / CONCORDIAE AETERNAE, Plautilla & Caracalla clasping hands. RSC 10owellber
rom32-pla-ac.jpg
Plautilla AR Denarius88 viewsReally nice portrait. Isnt is?2 commentsIstinpolin
Plautilla_opt.jpg
PLAUTILLA AR Denarius RIC 361, Marriage Scene32 viewsOBV: PLAVTILLAE AVGVSTAE, draped bust right
REV: CONCORDIAE AETERNAE, Plautilla & Caracalla clasping hands
2.83g

Minted at Rome, 202 AD
1 commentsLegatus
Plautilla_AR_denarius,_198-217_AD,_Rome.JPG
Plautilla AR denarius, 198-217 AD, Rome31 viewsPlautilla
AR denarius – 19mm
Rome, 198-217 AD
draped bust r.
PLAVTILLA AVGVSTA
Venus standing left holding apple & palm, leaning on shield, Cupid at her feet
RIC IV 369
Ardatirion
Plautilla_AR_denier.jpg
Plautilla AR Denarius, Superb.46 viewsRef Plautilla Denarius, RIC 369, RSC 25, BMC 429
Plautilla AR Denarius. PLAVTILLA AVGVSTA, draped bust right / VENVS VICTRIX, Venus standing left holding apple & palm, leaning on shield, Cupid at her feet. RSC 25.
2,57g.,19mm, _9353

2 commentsAntonivs Protti
pcount1ORweb.jpg
Plautilla Base Metal Contemporary Counterfeit Denarius, imitation of RIC IV 35922 viewsUnknown “mint”, Plautilla Base Metal Contemporary Counterfeit Denarius, 202 A.D.(?) AE, 18mm 2.60g, imitation of RIC IV 359
O: PLAVTILLAE AVGVSTAE, draped bust right
R: CONCO(R)DIA AVG(G), Concordia standing left, holding patera and scepter

*I have the actual denarius that this coin was imitating in my Severan Wing - Silver, Billon gallery
casata137ec
Plaut.JPG
Plautilla Bronze Denarius Struck in the mint of Caracalla 202-203 AD 30 viewsObverse:
PLAVTILLAEAVGVSTAE - Draped bust right.
Reverse:
HILARITAS - Hilaritas standing left, holding palm and cornucopia
Reference: RIC 371 (Caracalla), BMC 737, S 7071, C 14
19 mm.
Marjan E
Plautilla.jpg
Plautilla denarius39 viewsCONCORDIA AVGG
wife of Caracalla
tibsi67
Plautilla3.jpg
Plautilla Denarius16 viewsPlautilla AR Denarius. Rome
Obv: PLAVTILLA AVGVSTA, draped bust right
Rev: VENVS VICTRIX, Venus standing left holding apple & palm, leaning on shield, Cupid at her feet.

RIC IV, pt I, Caracalla 369, RSC 25.

Scarce
Tanit
rome_3.jpg
Plautilla Denarius - Rome - Concordia - No.311 viewsPlautilla
Denarius
202 A.D.
Rome
Av.: PLAVTILLAE AVGVSTAE / draped bust right (Hill: Ei)
Rev.: CONCORDIA AVGG / Concordia standing left with patera and sceptre
2,89 Gr., 6 h die axis
RIC 359, Coh. 2, Hill -
nummis durensis
rome_4.jpg
Plautilla Denarius - Rome - Concordia - No.417 viewsPlautilla
Denarius
202 A.D.
Rome
Av.: PLAVTILLAE AVGVSTAE / draped bust right (Hill: Eii)
Rev.: CONCORDIA AVGG / Concordia standing left with patera and sceptre
3,20 Gr., 6 h die axis
RIC 359, Coh. 2, Hill 582
nummis durensis
rome_5.jpg
Plautilla Denarius - Rome - Concordia - No.514 viewsPlautilla
Denarius
202 A.D.
Rome
Av.: PLAVTILLA - AVGVSTA / draped bust right (Hill: Eii)
Rev.: CONCORDIA AVGG / Concordia standing left with patera and sceptre
3,32 Gr., 6 h die axis
RIC 363a, Coh. 1, Hill 583
nummis durensis
rome_7.jpg
Plautilla Denarius - Rome - Concordia - No.717 viewsPlautilla
Denarius
202 A.D.
Rome
Av.: PLAVTILLA - AVGVSTA / draped bust right (Hill: Eii Var.)
Rev.: CONCORDIA AVGG / Concordia standing left with patera and sceptre
2,91 Gr., 12 h die axis
RIC 363a, Coh. 1, Hill 585

Ex. Collection Prof. J.E.Seaver, Kansas
nummis durensis
rome_8.jpg
Plautilla Denarius - Rome - Concordia Felix - No. 817 viewsPlautilla
Denarius
202 A.D.
Rome
Av.: PLAVTILLA - AVGVSTA / draped bust right (Hill: Eii Var.)
Rev.: CONCORDIA - FELIX / Plautilla and Caracalla standing facing each other, clasping hands
3,03 Gr., 6 h die axis
RIC 365b, Coh. 12, Hill 586
nummis durensis
rome_9.jpg
Plautilla Denarius - Rome - Concordia Felix - No. 917 viewsPlautilla
Denarius
203 A.D.
Rome
Av.: PLAVTILLA - AVGVSTA / draped bust right (Hill: Lii)
Rev.: CONCORDIA - FELIX / Plautilla and Caracalla standing facing each other, clasping hands
3,03 Gr., 6 h die axis
RIC 365a, Coh. 12, Hill -
nummis durensis
rome_1.jpg
Plautilla Denarius - Rome - Concordiae Aeternae - No.116 viewsPlautilla
Denarius
202 A.D.
Rome
Av.: PLAVTILLAE AVGVSTAE / draped bust right (Hill: Ei)
Rev.: CONCORDIA - AETERNAE / Plautilla and Caracalla standing facing each other, clasping hands
3,26 Gr., 12 h die axis
RIC 361, Coh. 10, Hill 575A
nummis durensis
rome_14.jpg
Plautilla Denarius - Rome - Diana Lucifera - No.1421 viewsPlautilla
Denarius
205 A.D.
Rome
Av.: PLAVTILLA - AVGVSTA / draped bust right (Hill: Lii)
Rev.: DIANA - LVCIFERA / Diana standing left, bow on back, holding torch with both hand
3,55 Gr., 12 h die axis
RIC 366, Coh. 13, Hill 702

The last and rarest denarii issue for Plautilla in early 205, before she was exiled.
nummis durensis
rome_10.jpg
Plautilla Denarius - Rome - Pietas - No.1025 viewsPlautilla
Denarius
203 A.D.
Rome
Av.: PLAVTILLA - AVGVSTA / draped bust right (Hill: Li)
Rev.: PIETAS - AVGG / Pietas standing right, holding sceptre and child
3,11 Gr., 12 h die axis
RIC 367, Coh. 16, Hill 607
nummis durensis
P1070894.jpg
Plautilla Denarius - Rome - Pietas - No.10 (Variante II)52 viewsPlautilla
Denarius
202 / 203 A.D.
Rome
Av.: PLAVTILLA - AVGVSTA / draped bust right (Hill: Eii Var.)
Rev.: PIETAS - AVGG / Pietas standing right, holding sceptre and child
3,49 Gr., 6 h die axis
RIC -, Coh. -, Hill -

A rare and interesting coin which combines the 'Pietas'-reverse with an older hairstyle-avers.
2 commentsnummis durensis
pietas_unique_fac.jpg
Plautilla Denarius - Rome - Pietas - No.10 (Variante)26 viewsPlautilla
Denarius
203 A.D.
Rome
Av.: PLAVTILLA - AVGVSTA / draped bust right
Rev.: PIETAS - AVGG / Pietas standing right, holding sceptre and child
3,24 Gr., 6 h die axis
RIC 367, Coh. 16

An unusual portrait of this issue which combines two hairstyles!
nummis durensis
rome_11.jpg
Plautilla Denarius - Rome - Pietas - No.1114 viewsPlautilla
Denarius
203 A.D.
Rome
Av.: PLAVTILLA - AVGVSTA / draped bust right (Hill: Lii)
Rev.: PIETAS - AVGG / Pietas standing right, holding sceptre and child
3,10 Gr., 6 h die axis
RIC 367, Coh. 16, Hill 608
nummis durensis
rome_2.jpg
Plautilla Denarius - Rome - Propago Imperi - No.29 viewsPlautilla
Denarius
202 A.D.
Rome
Av.: PLAVTILLAE AVGVSTAE / draped bust right (Hill: Ei)
Rev.: PROPAGO IMPERI / Plautilla and Caracalla standing facing each other, clasping hands.
3,11 Gr., 6 h die axis
RIC 362, Coh. 21, Hill 575B
nummis durensis
rome_12.jpg
Plautilla Denarius - Rome - Venus Victrix - No.1222 viewsPlautilla
Denarius
204 A.D.
Rome
Av.: PLAVTILLA - AVGVSTA / draped bust right (Hill: Lii)
Rev.: VENVS - VICTRIX / Plautilla as Venus Victrix standing left, holding apple and palm frond, resting arm on shield set on ground; to left, Cupid standing left, holding helmet
2,90 Gr., 6 h die axis
RIC 369, Coh. 25, Hill 661
nummis durensis
rome_15.jpg
Plautilla Denarius - Rome - Venus Victrix - No.12 (Variante)39 viewsPlautilla
Denarius
204 A.D.
Rome
Av.: PLAVTILLA - AVGVSTA / draped bust right (Hill: Li)
Rev.: VENVS . VICTRIX / Plautilla as Venus Victrix standing left, holding apple and palm frond, resting arm on shield set on ground; to left, Cupid standing left, holding helmet
3,27 Gr., 12 h die axis
RIC -, Coh. -

An unusual hairstyle for this reverse-type
1 commentsnummis durensis
ricIV359ORweb.jpg
Plautilla Denarius RIC IV 35946 viewsLaodicea mint, Plautilla Denarius, 202 A.D. AR 17.5mm 2.69g, RIC IV 359, RSC 2
O: PLAVTILLAE AVGVSTAE, draped bust right
R: CONCORDIA AVGG, Concordia standing left, holding patera and scepter
1 commentscasata137ec
0191-a01s.JPG
Plautilla overview128 viewsA virtual tray showing obverses and reverses of all the silver coins minted for Plautilla that I could find.
Including 14 types of denarii from Rome featuring all the known variations of hairdo and reverses, 3 types of denarii from Laodicaea, and as a bonus, a drachm from Caesarea
5 commentsPotator II
Plautilla_Pietas~0.JPG
Plautilla Pietas16 viewsPlautilla, 203 AD, BMC 422, RSC 16, Sear 5 - 7072,
OBV: PLAVTILLA AVGVSTA, draped bust right, hair on neck
REV: PIETAS AVGG, Pietas standing right holding sceptre & child
Wife of Caracalla

SCARCE
Romanorvm
plautilla_362.jpg
Plautilla RIC IV, 36235 viewsPlautilla, died AD 212, wife of Caracalla
AR - Denar, 2.94g, 18.45mm
Rome AD 202(?)
obv. PLAVTILLAE AVGVSTAE
Bust, draped, r., hair in seven waves and bun behind
rev. PROPAGO IMPERI
Plautilla stg. l. and Caracalla stg. r., facing each another and clasping hands
RIC IV/1, 362; C.22
Scarce, EF, lightly toned

The depicted scene is canting. Actually the Imperial pair was hating one another!
Jochen
plautilla_369.jpg
Plautilla RIC IV, 36952 viewsPlautilla, killed 212, wife of Caracalla
AR - Denar, 3.6g, 18mm
Rome AD 204(?), struck under Septimius Severus
obv. PLAVTILLA - AVGVSTA
draped bust, bare head r.
rev. VENVS VICTRIX
Venus bare to waist, standing l., holding apple and palmbranch, and
resting left elbow on shield; at her feet l., Cupido, holding helmet
RIC IV/1, 369; C.25; BMCR. 429
Scarce; about VF

Plautilla came from Africa, was very proud and immeasurable rich. When her father was killed she was exiled to the Lipari islands and killed AD 212 by Caracalla. Her face on this coin is horrible!
BTW Due to Patricia Lawrence it is the only known issue where Cupido holds a helmet!
Jochen
PLAUTTOGETHER.jpg
Plautilla RIC#36923 viewsPlautilla AR Denarius. 20mm/2.66gr minted 204 AD

Obverse-PLAVTILLA AVGVSTA, draped bust right

Reverse- VENVSVICTRIX, Venus standing left holding apple (pomegranite) & palm, leaning on shield,winged Cupid at her feet holding apple or pomegranite or helmet?

RIC# 369
1 commentsPaul R3
Plautilla_Venus_Victrix.jpg
Plautilla Venus Victrix22 viewsPlautilla Denarius, 3g, 20mm, RSC 25, RIC 369, SEAR 7074
OBV: PLAVTILLA AVGVSTA, draped bust right
REV: VENVS VICTRIX, Venus standing left holding apple & palm, leaning on shield, Cupid at her feet

SCARCE
Romanorvm
Plautilla.jpg
Plautilla – RIC-369 (Caracalla)46 viewsPlautilla, wife of Caracalla. Augusta, 202-205 AD. AR Denarius (20mm - 3.43 g). Rome mint. Struck 202 AD. PLAVTILLA AVGVSTA, draped bust right / VENVS VICTRIX, Venus standing left, shield at her side, holding apple and palm, Cupid before. RIC IV 369 (Caracalla); BMCRE 429; RSC 25; RCV 7074Bud Stewart
plautilla.jpg
Plautilla, AR Denarius28 viewsPlautilla, AR Denarius, 202-205, Issue I, Rome
PLAVTILLAE AVGVSTAE
Draped bust right, hair coiled in ridges and fastened in large two-coil bun at back, ear exposed
PROPAGO IMPERI
Caracalla standing left, clasping hands with Plautilla standing right
18mm x 19mm, 2.93g
RIC IV, Part I, 362 (Caracalla)
Ex Beast, Ex Vel Garnett Collection
Scotvs Capitis
028-3-horz.jpg
Plautilla, AR Denarius13 viewsAD 202 – 205
2.94 grams
Obv. PLAVTILLA AVGVSTA draped bust of Plautilla right.
Rev. VENVS VICTRIX, Venus with Cupid at feet.
RIC 369 (A scarce variety): Sear #7074
Purchased on eBay
NGC AU Strike: 5/5 Surface: 4/5
Richard M10
Plautilla.jpg
Plautilla, Augusta 202 - 22 January 205 A.D., Wife of Caracalla30 viewsPlautilla, Augusta 202 - 22 January 205 A.D., Wife of Caracalla
Silver denarius . 3.85 g . Rome mint, 202 - 205 A.D
Obverse: PLAVTILLA AVGVSTA, draped bust of Plautilla right
Reverse: VENVS VICTRIX, Venus standing left, holding apple & palm, resting her left elbow upon a shield. At her feet a Cupid stands facing left, holding a helmet.
RIC 369
Ex GB Collection
Vladislav D
66B278C04940406F99CEF28898EB1217.jpg
Plautilla, Augusta 202 - 22 January 205 A.D., Wife of Caracalla30 viewsPlautilla, Augusta 202 - 22 January 205 A.D., Wife of Caracalla
Silver denarius . 3.15 g ; 21 mm . Rome mint, 202 - 205 A.D
Obverse: PLAVTILLA AVGVSTA, draped bust of Plautilla right
Reverse: VENVS VICTRIX, Venus standing left, holding apple & palm, resting her left elbow upon a shield. At her feet a Cupid stands facing left, holding a helmet.
RIC 369
Vladislav D
0191_Pautalia.np_noir~0.jpg
Plautilla, Bronze53 viewsBronze minted in Pautalia, Thrace
PHOYL TTLAVTILLA CEBA, diademed and draped bust right
HTE CIKI KLAPOV OVATTI TTAUTALIAC, river god seated left
12,4 gr
Ref : Ruzicka, Pautalia # 771a, G&M #134/1849, same obverse die
Ex Optimus
Potator II
collage~2.jpg
Plautilla, Concordia61 viewsPlautilla
Ar Denarius; 2.29g; 18mm

PLAVTILLA - AVGVSTA
Draped bust right

CONCORDIA - AVGG
Concordia standing left holding a patera and sceptre

RIC 363; S 7054; RSC 1 Rome Mint
arizonarobin
plautilla092408a.jpg
Plautilla, Concordia50 viewsPlautilla
Ar denarius; 18.5mm; 3.13g; Laodicea Ad Mare

PLAVTILLA AVG
Draped bust right

CONCORDIAE
Concordia seated left, patera in right hand, double cornucopiae in left

BMC 739; Coh. 8; RIC 372
arizonarobin
2013-02-01_oldnikon.jpg
Plautilla, Concordia40 viewsPlautilla
Ar Denarius;

PLAVTILLAE AVGVSTAE
draped bust right

CONCORDIAE
Concordia seated left holding patera and double cornucopiae

RIC 370
4 commentsRobin Ayers
1-2014-11-11_coinsnov20141.jpg
Plautilla, Concordia24 viewsAr Denarius; 18mm; 3.18g

PLAVTILLA-AVGVSTA
draped bust right, hair coiled on neck, ear showing

CONCORDIA-AVGG
Concordia standing left holding patera in right hand; staff in left

RIC 363
Robin Ayers
0191-7072np_noir~0.jpg
Plautilla, Denarius42 viewsDenarius struck in Rome in AD 203
PLAVTILLA AVGVSTA, Bust of Plautilla right
PIETAS AVGG, Pietas standing, holding child
3.62 gr
Ref : RCV #7072, Cohen #16
Potator II
0191-7067.jpg
Plautilla, Denarius61 viewsLaodicea mint, AD 202
PLAVTILLAE AVGVSTAE, draped bust right
CONCORDIAE, Concordia seated left holding patera and double cornucopia
3,71 gr,
Ref : RCV #7068
Ex Noble roman coins
Potator II
0191-7071.jpg
Plautilla, Denarius - 010080 viewsLaodicea mint, AD 202
PLAVTILLAE AVGVSTAE, draped bust right
HIL - A - RITAS, Hilaritas standing left, holding long palm and cornucopia.
3.7 gr
Ref : RIC # 371, Cohen # 14, RCV # 7071

Peu courant
1 commentsPotator II
0191-7068np_noir.jpg
Plautilla, Denarius - 022098 viewsLaodicea mint, AD 202
PLAVTILLA AVG, draped bust right
CONCORDIAE, Concordia seated left holding patera and double cornucopia
3,33 gr, 19 mm
Ref : RCV #7068, Cohen #8, Monnaies XXI #2831

Rare en cet etat
Potator II
0191-aA1.jpg
Plautilla, Denarius - aA1 - 012085 viewsRome mint, AD 202
PLAVTILLAE AVGVSTAE, draped bust right, hair coiled in ridges and fastened in bun
CONCORDIAE AETERNAE, Caracalla and Plautilla face to face, shaking hands
2.70 gr
Ref : RCV # 7069, Cohen # 10, RIC IV # 361
0145
2 commentsPotator II
0191-7073.jpg
Plautilla, Denarius - aA2 - *107 viewsRome mint, AD 202
PLAVTILLAE AVGVSTAE, draped bust right, hair coiled in ridges and fastened in bun
PROPAGO IMPERI, Caracalla and Plautilla face to face, shaking hands
3.45 gr, 18 mm
Ref : RCV # 7073, Cohen # 21, RIC IV # 362
Ex CNG-from the J.S. Vogelaar collection
1 commentsPotator II
0191-7065c1-np_noir.jpg
Plautilla, Denarius - aA3 - 022085 viewsRome mint, AD 202
PLAVTILLAE AVGVSTAE, draped bust right, hair coiled in ridges and fastened in bun
CONCORDIA AVGG, Concordia standing left, holding patera and sceptre
3,43 gr, 20 mm
Ref : RIC # 269, RCV # --, Cohen # 2
See Künker auction 03/8/2004 # 2406, same obverse die

According to Curtisclay, the hairdo is similar to those seen on the early denari of Plautilla (Propago Imperi and Concordia Aeternae) before a change in style of the obverse of the Concordia emission
0240
Potator II
0191-7065c2-np_noir.jpg
Plautilla, Denarius - aB397 viewsRome mint, AD 202-205
PLAVTILLAE AVGVSTAE, draped bust right, with hair fasten in a bun
CONCORDIA AVGG, Concordia standing left, holding patera and sceptre
3,43 gr
Ref : RCV -, Cohen #2
Ex bp Murphy collection
Potator II
0191-7065b-np_noir.jpg
Plautilla, Denarius - bB3 - 012059 viewsRome mint, AD 202
PLAVTILLA AVGVSTA, draped bust right
CONCORDIA AVGG, Concordia standing left, holding patera and sceptre
3.5 gr, 18.9 mm
Ref : RCV #7065, RIC IV #363, Cohen #1
Potator II
0191-bB4.jpg
Plautilla, Denarius - bB444 viewsRome mint
PLAVTILLA AVGVSTA, draped bust right
CONCORDIA FELIX, Caracalla and Plautilla face to face, shaking hands
3.38 gr
Ref : RCV #7066 var, RSC # 12, RIC # 365b, BMC # 419, Hill # 584
Now in Septimus' collection
Potator II
0191-bB4-2.jpg
Plautilla, Denarius - bB4 - 016090 viewsRome mint
PLAVTILLA AVGVSTA, draped bust right
CONCORDIA FELIX, Caracalla and Plautilla face to face, shaking hands
3.30 gr
Ref : RCV #7066 var, RSC # 12, RIC # 365b, BMC # 419, Hill # 584
4 commentsPotator II
0191-bC3.jpg
Plautilla, Denarius - bC3 - 009052 viewsRome mint
PLAVTILLA AVGVSTA, draped bust right
CONCORDIA AVGG, Concordia standing left, holding patera and sceptre
3.5 gr
Ref : RCV #7065, RSC # 1, RIC # 363b, BMC # 414-415, Hill # 585
Potator II
0191-7066np_noir.jpg
Plautilla, Denarius - bC4 - 012085 viewsRome mint, AD 202-205
PLAVTILLA AVGVSTA, draped bust right
CONCORDIA FELIX, Caracalla and Plautilla face to face, shaking hands
3.0 gr
Ref : RCV #7066, Cohen #12
Potator II
0191-bC5.jpg
Plautilla, Denarius - bC566 viewsRome mint
PLAVTILLA AVGVSTA, draped bust right
PIETAS AVGG, Pietas standing, holding child
3.19 gr 19 mm
Ref : RCV #7072, Cohen #16

This combination of the third portrait of Plautilla (hair in vertical ridges and no bun but braids covering her neck) with the Pietas reverse is very rare. Usually this reverse is associated with the last portrait of hers, like on bE6 or bE7 specimens, and sometimes with the fourth one, like on bD5, as shown in my Plautilla's gallery
Potator II
0191-7072np_noir.jpg
Plautilla, Denarius - bD5 - 018079 viewsRome mint, AD 202-205
PLAVTILLA AVGVSTA, Draped bust of Plautilla right
PIETAS AVGG, Pietas standing, holding child
3.62 gr
Ref : RCV #7072, Cohen #16
Potator II
0191-bE4.jpg
Plautilla, Denarius - bE477 viewsRome mint
PLAVTILLA AVGVSTA, draped bust right
CONCORDIA FELIX, Caracalla and Plautilla face to face, shaking hands
3.41 gr, 18 mm
Ref : RCV #7066 var, Cohen #12, RSC # 12, RIC-, BMC -, Hill –

I believe this type should be considered as transitionnal or an hybrid (as is the aA3) associating a 202 reverse type to a 204-205 bust type
1 commentsPotator II
0191-bE5.jpg
Plautilla, Denarius - bE5 - 015081 viewsRome mint
PLAVTILLA AVGVSTA, draped bust right
PIETAS AVGG, Pietas standing, holding child
3.25 gr
Ref : RCV #7072, Cohen #16

This is the most common PIETAS AVGG type, featuring the last portrait of Plautilla
1 commentsPotator II
0191-7074.jpg
Plautilla, Denarius - bE661 viewsRome mint, AD 204
PLAVTILLA AVGVSTA, Draped bust right
VENVS VICTRIX, Venus standing left, leaning on shield, Cupid at her feet
3.4 gr
Ref : RCV # 7074, RIC IV # 369
Potator II
0191-7070.jpg
Plautilla, Denarius - bE7128 viewsRome mint, AD 205
PLAVTILLA AVGVSTA, draped bust right, hair waved & drawn down on neck
DIANA LVCIFERA, Diana standing left, holding torch in both hands.
3.3 gr
Ref : RIC IV # 366, Cohen # 13, RCV #7070
See G&M auction # 170/2507, same dies
Ex. arizonarobin collection
4 commentsPotator II
4574_4575.jpg
Plautilla, Denarius, PIETAS AVGG24 viewsAR Denarius
Plautilla
Augusta: 202 - 205AD
Issued: 203AD
19.2mm 3.67gr, 6h
O: PLAVTILLA AVGVSTA; Draped bust, right.
R: PIETAS AVGG; Pietas standing right, holding infant and a scepter.
Rome Mint
RIC 367; BMCRE 422; RSC 16.
Aorta: 13: B1, O2, R7, T6, M2.
Agora Auctions, Auction #32, Lot 175.
5/12/15 4/4/17
2 commentsNicholas Z
plautilla.jpg
Plautilla, Denarius, Rome 204 A.D.94 viewsPlautilla AR Denarius Rome RIC IV 369. Struck 204 A.D. 18 mm diam.
Obverse - PLAVTILLA AVGVSTA. Draped bust right
Reverse - VENVS VICTRIX. Venus standing left, brease exposed, holding apple and palm and resting left elbow on shield. Cupid standing left at her feet. Scarce
1 commentsNORMAN K
plautilladiana.jpg
Plautilla, Diana64 viewsPlautilla
Ar Denarius Rome

PLAVTILLA AVGVSTA,
draped bust right, hair waved & drawn down on neck

DIANA LVCIFERA,
Diana standing left, holding torch in both hands.

RIC 366
5 commentsarizonarobin
C1168.jpg
Plautilla, Hilaritas73 viewsPlautilla
AR Denarius, 18-20mm, 3.13g, 202-205, Issue I, Laodicea Ad Mare

PLAVTILLAE- AVGVSTAE
Draped bust right, hair coiled in ridges and fastened in large bun at back of head, ear exposed

HIL_A_RITAS
Hilaritas standing facing, head left, long vertical palm in right hand, cornucopiae in left

RIC 371
3 commentsarizonarobin
collage7~3.jpg
Plautilla, Marriage Issue75 viewsPlautilla, 202 - 205 AD
AR Denarius; 18-19mm;2.94g

PLAVTILLAE AVGVSTAE
Draped bust right

CONCORDIAE AETERNAE
Caracalla and Plautilla standing hand-in-hand

RIC 361
arizonarobin
plautilla030802.jpg
Plautilla, Marriage issue64 viewsPlautilla
Ar Denarius 18mm; 3.28g

PLAVTILLAE AVGVSTAE
draped bust right

PROPAG-O IM-PERI
Caracalla and Plautilla clasping hands

RIC IV 362, BMCRE 406, RSC 21
1 commentsarizonarobin
13-2014-10-034.JPG
Plautilla, Nikopolis34 viewsAe 27mm; 12.36g
Nikopolis, Moesia
Legate Gallus

FOYL PLAVTILLA CEB
draped bust right

VP AVP GALLOV NIKO POLIWPOLIT
Nike/Victory walking left, holding wreath and palm

HrHJ (2018) 8.21.9.2
1 commentsRobin Ayers
plautilla030801.jpg
Plautilla, Nikopolis ad Istrum59 viewsPlautilla
Ae 26mm; 10.60g; Moesia Inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum
Magistrate Gallus

FOU PLAUTILLA CEB
draped bust right

UP AV GALLOU NIKOPOLITWN PROC IC
Hermes, nude, standing left holding purse, mantle hanging from left arm.

HrHJ (2018) 8.21.10.1 (this coin), very rare (R8)
2 commentsarizonarobin
plautilla1.jpg
Plautilla, Nikopolis ad Istrum Zeus27 viewsPlautilla
Ae 26-28mm; 11.18g; Nikopolis ad Istrum (legate Aurelius Gallus)

FOUL PLAUTILLA SEB
draped bust right

UP AUR GALLOU NIKOPOLITW
Zeus seated right holding long scepter and patera
PROCI

Varbanov (E) #3186; AMNG- ;HrHJ (2018) 8.21.1.1
arizonarobin
2012-12-29_coinsoldnikontestdec2012.jpg
Plautilla, Pietas67 viewsPlautilla
AR Denarius

PLAVTILLA AVGVSTA
Draped bust of Plautilla right

PIETAS AVGG
Pietas standing facing, head right, holding child

RIC 367
4 commentsRobin Ayers
65888.jpg
Plautilla, Prov. Bithynia, Nicomedia41 viewsBITHYNIA, Nicomedia.
Plautilla, wife of Caracalla. Augusta, AD 202-205.

Æ 26mm (10.75 g). Diademed and draped bust right / Eagle standing right on altar between two standards. RG -; SNG von Aulock -; SNG Copenhagen 572 var. (same obverse die, eagle’s head turned left). Near VF, dark brown patina, rough surfaces.

From The John A. Seeger Collection. EX-CNG

arizonarobin
collage~10.jpg
Plautilla, Prov. Nicomedia, Bithynia108 viewsPlautilla; Nicomedia, Bithynia
198-217 AD

FOU PLAUTILLA CEBACTH; draped bust right;
legend in five lines within wreath; NEI/KOMHD/EWN DIC / NEWKO/RWN

20.52mm;4.2g
unpublished type. Not in SNG Cop, Mionnet, BMC, Lindgren, RecGen etc.
3 commentsarizonarobin
0191_Caesarea.jpg
Plautilla, Provincial - Caesaraea drachm71 viewsCappadocia, Caesaraea - Eusebia), AD 205.
ΦΟΥΛΟΥΙ ΠΛΑΥ ΑΥ, draped bust right
ΜΗΤΡΟ ΚΑΙCΑ, Agalma of Mt. Argaeus with star. In ex., CΤΙΓ : regnal year 13 of Sept. Severus, 205 AD
2.69 g, 19mm
Ref : Sydenham -; SNG Copenhagen -; Sear 2775v.
Sydenham-Malloy, p. 152, no. 496b
cf. Lanz auction # 117/956
thanks to Curtis Clay for additionnal information
Potator II
0191_Pautalia.np_noir.jpg
Plautilla, Provincial - Pautalia bronze51 viewsBronze minted in Pautalia, Thrace
PHOYL TTLAVTILLA CEBA, diademed and draped bust right
HTE CIKI KLAPOV OVATTI TTAUTALIAC, river god seated left
12,4 gr
Ref : Ruzicka, Pautalia # 771a, G&M #134/1849, same obverse die
Ex Optimus
Potator II
Plautilla_RIC_363~0.JPG
Plautilla, RIC 36334 viewsPLAVTILLA AVGVSTA
AR denarius, 19mm, 3.26g
Draped bust right, hair arranged in nearly vertical waves and drawn into tight bun
CONCORDIA AVGG
Concordia standing left holding patera and scepter
novacystis
Plautillaobvrev.jpg
Plautilla, the wife of Caracalla. Augusta AD 202 - 205. AR Denarius44 viewsSize: 3.61g
AD 204 Rome
Obverse: PLAVTILLA AVGVSTA, her draped bust rt
Reverse: VENVS VICTRIX, Venus standing lt., resting on shield, holding an apple and palm, Cupid before
RIC 369; BMCRE 429; RSC 25
1 commentsMarjan E
plautilla092308a.jpg
Plautilla, Venus62 viewsPlautilla,
Ar Denarius; Rome mint

PLAVTILLA-AVGVSTA
draped bust right

VENVS-VICTRIX
Venus standing left, holding apple in right hand, palm in left, leaning on shield, cupid before

RIC 369
2 commentsarizonarobin
Plautilla_RIC_C369.JPG
Plautilla, wife of Caracalla22 viewsObv: PLAVTILLA AVGVSTA, draped bust of Plautilla facing right, hair drawn into a coiled plait on neck.

Rev: VENVS VICTRIX, Venus, naked to waste, standing half left holding an apple and a palm, Cupid stands before her holding a helmet, a shield is at her side.

Silver Denarius, Rome mint, 204 AD

3.2 grams, 19.36 mm, 180°

RIC IVi Caracalla 369, RSC 25, S7074, VM 9
1 commentsSPQR Coins
Plautilla_RIC_C363b~0.JPG
Plautilla, wife of Caracalla 13 viewsObv: PLAVTILLA AVGVSTA, draped bust of Plautilla facing right, hair firmly waved and drawn down on neck.

Rev: CONCORDIA AVGG, Concordia standing left, holding patera and scepter.

Silver Denarius, Rome mint, 202 AD

3.4 grams 18 mm, 180°

RIC IVi Caracalla 363b, RSC 1, S7065
SPQR Coins
PLAUTIL-1.jpg
Plautilla, wife of Caracalla, killed 211 CE.149 viewsAR Denarius (19 mm, 3.13 gm), Rome mint, struck 202 CE.
Obv: PLAVTILLA AVGVSTA, draped bust of empress right, hair in nearly vertical waves and drawn into large bun at back.
Rev: CONCORDIA AVGG, Concordia, wearing diadem, standing. half-left, holding patera and scepter.
RIC 363a; BMC 236, 411; Cohen 1; Sear 7065; Hill 585.
EmpressCollector
Plautilla_PROPAGO_IMPERI.jpg
Plautilla_Denar_PROPAGO_IMPERI6 viewsNumis-Student
Plautilla_VENVS_VICTRIX.jpg
Plautilla_Denar_VENVS_VICTRIX7 viewsNumis-Student
Plautilla_06.jpg
RIC 4a, p.269, 361 - Plautilla, CONCORDIAE AETERNAE17 viewsPlautilla
AR-Denar, Rome
Obv.: PLAVTILLAE AVGVSTA, draped bust right
Rev.: CONCORDIAE AETERNAE, Caracalla and Plautilla standing vis-à-vis, clasping hands.
Ag, 3.31g, 19.6mm
Ref.: RIC 361, CRE 435 [C]
shanxi
Plautilla_1.jpg
RIC 4a, p.269, 362 - Plautilla, PROPAGO IMPERI 21 viewsPlautilla
AR Denarius. Rome, AD 202
Obv.: Draped bust right, PLAVTILLAE AVGVSTAE
Rev.: Plautilla and Caracalla clasping hands, PROPAGO IMPERI
Ar, 3.58g
Ref.: RIC 362, RSC 21
Ex HJB, Sale 128, CRE 436 [C]
shanxi
Plautilla_04.jpg
RIC 4a, p.269, 363a - Plautilla, Concordia standing35 viewsPlautilla
AR Denarius, Rome
Obv.: PLAVTILLA AVGVSTA, draped bust right
Rev.: CONCORDIA AVGG, Concordia standing left, patera in right hand, long scepter in left
Ag, 3.36g
Ref.: RIC IVa 363a, CRE 421 [S]
Ex Münzen & Medaillen GmbH, Auction 42, Lot 302
shanxi
Plautilla_03.jpg
RIC 4a, p.270, 367 - Plautilla, Pietas31 viewsPlautilla
AR Denarius, Rome
Obv.: PLAVTILLA AVGVSTA, Draped bust right, ear not visible.
Rev: PIETAS AVGG, Pietas standing right, holding sceptre and child.
Ag, 3.48g, 18.5mm
Ref.: RIC IVa, 367 (Hill hairstyle Lii), CRE 431 [C]
shanxi
Plautilla_02.jpg
RIC 4a, p.270, 367 - Plautilla, Pietas25 viewsPlautilla
AR Denarius, Rome
Obv.: PLAVTILLA AVGVSTA, Draped bust right, ear not visible
Rev: PIETA-S AVGG, Pietas standing right, holding sceptre and child.
Ag, 3.61g, 18mm
Ref.: RIC IVa, 367 (Hill hairstyle Lii), CRE 431 [C]

shanxi
Plautilla_08.jpg
RIC 4a, p.270, 367 - Plautilla, Pietas 25 viewsPlautilla
AR Denarius, Rome
Obv.: PLAVTILLA AVGVSTA, Draped bust right.
Rev: PIETAS AVGG, Pietas standing right, holding sceptre and child.
Ag, 2,79g, 17.5mm
Ref.: RIC IVa, 367, (Hill hairstyle Eii, var.), CRE 429 [R3]
1 commentsshanxi
Plautilla_05.jpg
RIC 4a, p.270, 369 - Plautilla, Venus, Cupid21 viewsPlautilla
AR Denarius, Rome
Obv.: PLAVTILLA AVGVSTA, draped bust right
Rev.: VENVS VICTRIX, Venus standing left, holding apple and palm and resting elbow on shield (no image on shield), at her feet Cupid
AR, 18mm, 3.39g
Ref.: RIC IVa 369, CRE 446 [C]
shanxi
Plautilla_07.jpg
RIC 4a, p.270, 369var. - Plautilla, Venus, Cupid 13 viewsPlautilla
AR Denarius, Rome
Obv.: PLAVTILLA AVGVSTA, draped bust right
Rev.: VENVS • VICTRIX, Venus standing left, holding apple and palm and resting elbow on shield (no image on shield), at her feet Cupid
AR, 19mm, 3.23g
Ref.: RIC IVa 369var. (dot in reverse legend), CRE 446 var. (same)
shanxi
Plautilla_R678_fac.jpg
RIC 4a, p.270, 370 - Plautilla, Concordia13 viewsPlautilla
AR Denarius, Laodicea
Obv.: PLAVTILLAE AVGVSTAE, draped bust of Plautilla right
Rev.: CONCORDIAE, Concordia seated left on backless throne, holding patera and double cornucopiae.
Ref.: RIC IVa 370, CRE 426 [S]
AR, 3.20g
Ex Freeman & Sear, Manhattan Sale I, Lot 371 (2010)
Ex A. Lynn Collection
Ex Leu Numismatik AG, Auction 83, Lot 794, (2002)
2 commentsshanxi
image~6.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE PROVINCIAL, Septimius Severus9 viewsSeptimius Severus - Roman Emperor: 193-211 A.D. -
Bronze 26mm (11.92 grams) Struc circa: 193-211 A.D.
under Legate Aurelius Galllus of Nicopolis ad Istrum, Moesia Inferior
AVT Λ CEΠTI CEVHPOC Π, laureate, draped and cuirassed head of Septimius right.
VΠ AVP ΓΑΛΛΟV NIKOΠOLITΩ ΠPOC ICTPO, Marriage scene of Caracalla and Plautilla clasping hands and exchanging vows.
Tabletopmaster
bpS1C7Plautilla.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Plautilla45 viewsObv: PLAVTILLA AVGVSTA
Draped bust, right.
Rev: VENVS VICTRIX
Venus standing, left, holding apple and palm while resting arm on shield. Cupid stands at her feet with arms extended forward and holding a helmet.
Denarius, 2.9 gm, 18.5 mm, Rome RIC 369
Comment: Wife to Caracalla. Struck 204 A.D.
Massanutten
052_Plautilla_RIC_IV-I_363a,_AR-Den,_PLAVTILLA_AVGVSTA,_CONCORDIA_AVG_G,_p-269,_RSC-1,_BMC-411,_Rome_202_AD,_Q-001,_0h,_18-18,5mm,_3,24g-s.jpg
Roman Empire, Plautilla (?-211 A.D.), RIC IV-I 363a (Caracalla), Rome, AR-Denarius, CONCORDIA AVG G, Concordia standing left, Scarce, #1 155 viewsRoman Empire, Plautilla (?-211 A.D.), RIC IV-I 363a (Caracalla), Rome, AR-Denarius, CONCORDIA AVG G, Concordia standing left, Scarce, #1
Wife of Caracalla,
avers: PLAVTILLA AVGVSTA, draped bust right, hair coiled in vertical or horizontal ridges and fastened in a bun.
reverse: CONCORDIA AVG G, Concordia standing left, holding patera and scepter.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 18,0-18,5mm, weight: 3,24g, axis: 0h,
mint: Rome, date: 202 A.D., ref: RIC-IV-363a (Caracalla), p-269, RSC-1, BMC-411,
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
Plautilla_AR-Den_PLAVTILLA-AVGVSTA_CONCORDIA-FELIX_RIC-365_RSC-12,_Sear-7066_Rome_202-203-AD_Q-001_0h_17,8-18,0mm_3,19g-s.jpg
Roman Empire, Plautilla (?-211 A.D.), RIC IV-I 365, Rome, AR-Denarius, CONCORDIA FELIX, Plautilla standing right, clasping hands with Emperor.131 viewsRoman Empire, Plautilla (?-211 A.D.), RIC IV-I 365, Rome, AR-Denarius, CONCORDIA FELIX, Plautilla standing right, clasping hands with Emperor.
Wife of Caracalla,
avers: PLAVTILLA AVGVSTA, Draped bust right.
reverse: CONCORDIA FELIX, Plautilla standing right, clasping hands with Emperor.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 17,8-18,0mm, weight: 3,19g, axis: 0h,
mint: Laodicea ad Mare, date: 202-203 A.D., ref: RIC-IV-365, p-, RSC-12, Sear-7066,
Q-001
quadrans
plautillafdc.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Plautilla AR Denarius Superb UNC718 viewsRome mint, Issue II, AD 202. PLAVTILLA AVGVSTA, Bust, draped, hair coiled in ridges, either vertical or horizontal and fastened in bun at back/CONCORDIA AVGG, Concordia standing l., holding patera and scepter. RIC 363a, Sear 7065, BMC 236,411-414, RSC-1, Cohen-1, Hill 583. UNC, full proof like luster.9 commentsLordBest
moneta 529r~0.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Plautilla Denarius 43 viewsobv: PLAVTILLAE AVGVSTAE
rev: CONCORDIA AVGG Concordia standing left, holding patera in right hand, scetpre in left.
Struck 203 A.D. at ?
Jericho
0191-aA3.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, PLAUTILLA Denarius RIC 26973 viewsRome mint, AD 202
PLAVTILLAE AVGVSTAE, draped bust right, hair coiled in ridges and fastened in bun
CONCORDIA AVGG, Concordia standing left, holding patera and sceptre
3,43 gr, 20 mm
RIC # 269, RCV # --, Cohen # 2
See Künker auction 03/8/2004 # 2406, same obverse die
3 commentsPotator II
0191-aA2.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, PLAUTILLA Denarius RIC 362105 viewsRome mint, AD 202
PLAVTILLAE AVGVSTAE, draped bust right, hair coiled in ridges and fastened in bun
PROPAGO IMPERI, Caracalla and Plautilla face to face, shaking hands
3.45 gr, 18 mm
Ref : RCV # 7073, Cohen # 21, RIC IV # 362
Ex CNG-from the J.S. Vogelaar collection
3 commentsPotator II
0191-bE7.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, PLAUTILLA Denarius RIC 36655 viewsRome mint, AD 205
PLAVTILLA AVGVSTA, draped bust right, hair waved & drawn down on neck
DIANA LVCIFERA, Diana standing left, holding torch in both hands.
3.3 gr
Ref : RIC IV # 366, Cohen # 13, RCV #7070
See G&M auction # 170/2507, same dies
Ex. arizonarobin collection
Potator II
0191-bE6.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, PLAUTILLA Denarius RIC 36974 viewsRome mint, AD 204
PLAVTILLA AVGVSTA, Draped bust right
VENVS VICTRIX, Venus standing left, leaning on shield, Cupid at her feet
3.4 gr
Ref : RCV # 7074, RIC IV # 369
2 commentsPotator II
Plautilla1.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Plautilla, Denarius55 viewsPlautilla

Obv: PLAVTILLA AVGVSTA
Rev: VENVS VICTRIX
RIC 369
Barry
Plautilla2.jpg
Roman Plautilla Denarius19 viewsPlautilla Denarius. Laodicea mint, 202 AD. PLAVTILLA AVG, draped bust right / CONCORDIAE, Concordia seated left, holding patera & double cornucopiae.

RIC 372 , RSC 8.

Scarce
Tanit
Plautilla1_.jpg
Roman Plautilla Denarius20 viewsPlautilla AR Denarius. Rome
Obv: PLAVTILLA AVGVSTA, draped bust right
Rev: VENVS VICTRIX, Venus standing left holding apple & palm, leaning on shield, Cupid at her feet.

RIC IV, pt I, Caracalla 369, RSC 25.

Scarce

Tanit
Septimius_Severus_AE27_Anchialus-Thrace.jpg
Septimius Severus AE26 of Anchialus, Thrace. 47 viewsAV K L CEP CEVHPOC. laureate, draped & cuirassed bust right / OVLPIANWN AGCIALEWN, palm branch in urn set on table, between legs of which is two line inscription CEBHPIA NVMFIA. 27 mm.,10,82g.
Moushmov 2830
*The inscription under the table refers to the Wedding ("NYMPHILIA") games
held in honor of the wedding of Caracalla and Plautilla in 202 AD.

Antonivs Protti
collage_II.jpg
The hairstyle of Plautilla denarii39 viewsThe different hairstyles of Plautilla denarii in accordance with Philipp V. Hill "The Coinage of Septimus Severus and His Family of the Mint of Rome, A.D.193-217"

1 - Hill: Ei
2 - Hill: Eii
3 - Hill: Eii var.
4 - Hill: Li
5 - Hill: Lii
1 commentsnummis durensis
plautilla_369~0.jpg
Venus Victrix272 viewsPlautilla, killed 212, wife of Caracalla
AR - Denar, 3.6g, 18mm
Rome AD 204(?), struck under Septimius Severus
obv. PLAVTILLA - AVGVSTA
draped bust, bare head r.
rev. VENVS VICTRIX
Venus bare to waist, standing l., holding apple and palmbranch, and
resting left elbow on shield; at her feet l., Cupido, holding helmet
RIC IV/1, 369; C.25; BMCR. 429
Scarce; about VF

VENUS VICTRIX, the victorious Venus. It was first Sulla who in a dream saw Venus with the weapons of Mars as Venus Victrix and made her to his personal patroness. Pompeius then was inaugurating the cult of Venus Victrix in Rome. In the night before the battle of Pharsalus 48 BC Pompeius was dreaming of Venus Victrix - seemingly a lucky sign -, whereas Caesar was sacrifying to Venus Genetrix, but issued as watchword 'Venus Victrix', and defeated Pompeius!
2 commentsJochen
SeptSeverus.jpg
[1001a] Septimius Severus, 9 April 193 - 4 February 211 A.D.63 viewsSilver denarius, RIC 32, RSC 301, VF, 2.966g, 16.8mm, 180o, Rome mint, 194 A.D.; obverse L SEPT SEV PERT AVG IMP III, laureate head right; reverse LIBERO PATRI, Liber (Bacchus) standing left, in right ocnochoe over panther, thysus in left; excellent portrait; scarce. Ex FORVM.

De Imperatoribus Romanis
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Septimius Severus (193-211 A.D.)

Michael L. Meckler
Ohio State University

Introduction
Lucius Septimius Severus restored stability to the Roman empire after the tumultuous reign of the emperor Commodus and the civil wars that erupted in the wake of Commodus' murder. However, by giving greater pay and benefits to soldiers and annexing the troublesome lands of northern Mesopotamia into the Roman empire, Septimius Severus brought increasing financial and military burdens to Rome's government. His prudent administration allowed these burdens to be met during his eighteen years on the throne, but his reign was not entirely sunny. The bloodiness with which Severus gained and maintained control of the empire tarnished his generally positive reputation.

Severus' Early Life and Acclamation
Severus was born 11 April 145 in the African city of Lepcis Magna, whose magnificent ruins are located in modern Libya, 130 miles east of Tripoli. Septimius Severus came from a distinguished local family with cousins who received suffect consulships in Rome under Antoninus Pius. The future emperor's father seems not to have held any major offices, but the grandfather may have been the wealthy equestrian Septimius Severus commemorated by the Flavian-era poet Statius.

The future emperor was helped in his early career by one of his consular cousins, who arranged entry into the senate and the favor of the emperor Marcus Aurelius. Life as a senator meant a life of travel from one government posting to another. Moorish attacks on his intended post of Baetica (southern Spain) forced Severus to serve his quaestorship in Sardinia. He then traveled to Africa as a legate and returned to Rome to be a tribune of the plebs. Around the year 175 he married Paccia Marciana, who seems also to have been of African origin. The childless marriage lasted a decade or so until her death.

Severus' career continued to flourish as the empire passed from Marcus to Commodus. The young senator held a praetorship, then served in Spain, commanded a legion in Syria and held the governorships of Gallia Lugdunensis (central France), Sicily and Upper Pannonia (easternmost Austria and western Hungary). While in Gallia Lugdunensis in 187, the now-widowed future emperor married Julia Domna, a woman from a prominent family of the Syrian city of Emesa. Two sons quickly arrived, eleven months apart: Bassianus (known to history as Caracalla) in April of the year 188, and Geta in March 189.

News of Pertinax's assassination 28 March 193 in an uprising by the praetorian guard quickly reached Pannonia, and only twelve days later on 9 April 193, Severus was proclaimed emperor. Septimius Severus had the strong support of the armies along the Rhine and Danube, but the loyalty of the governor of Britain, Clodius Albinus, was in doubt. Severus' envoys from Pannonia offered Albinus the title of Caesar, which he accepted.

The Civil Wars with Albinus, Niger, and Didius Julianus
In the city of Rome, Didius Julianus gained the support of the praetorian troops and was promoted as the successor to Pertinax. Although Julianus' authority did not extend much beyond Italy, Severus understood that legitimacy for a Roman emperor meant having one's authority accepted in Rome. He and his army began a swift march to the city. They met practically no resistance on their advance from Pannonia into northern Italy, as Julianus' supporters defected. By the beginning of June when Severus reached Interamna, 50 miles north of Rome, even the praetorian guard stationed in the capital switched sides. Didius Julianus was declared a public enemy and killed. Septimius Severus entered Rome without a fight.

Civil war was not yet over. Another provincial governor also had his eyes on the throne. In Syria, Pescennius Niger had been proclaimed emperor on news of Pertinax's death, and the eastern provinces quickly went under his authority. Byzantium became Niger's base of operations as he prepared to fight the armies of the west loyal to Severus.

Niger was unable to maintain further advances into Europe. The fighting moved to the Asian shore of the Propontis, and in late December 193 or early January 194, Niger was defeated in a battle near Nicaea and fled south. Asia and Bithynia fell under Severus' control, and Egypt soon recognized Severus' authority. By late spring, Niger was defeated near Issus and the remainder of his support collapsed. Syria was pacified. Niger was killed fleeing Antioch. Byzantium, however, refused to surrender to Severan forces. Niger's head was sent to the city to persuade the besieged citizens to give up, but to no avail. The Byzantines held out for another year before surrender. As punishment for their stubbornness, the walls of their city were destroyed.

Severus' Eastern Campaigns
During the fighting, two of the peoples of upper Mesopotamia -- the Osrhoeni and the Adiabeni -- captured some Roman garrisons and made an unsuccessful attack on the Roman-allied city of Nisibis. After the defeat of Niger, these peoples offered to return Roman captives and what remained of the seized treasures if the remaining Roman garrisons were removed from the region. Severus refused the offer and prepared for war against the two peoples, as well as against an Arabian tribe that had aided Niger. In the spring of 195, Severus marched an army through the desert into upper Mesopotamia. The native peoples quickly surrendered, and Severus added to his name the victorious titles Arabicus and Adiabenicus. Much of the upper third of Mesopotamia was organized as a Roman province, though the king of Osrhoene was allowed to retain control of a diminished realm.

The tottering Parthian empire was less and less able to control those peoples living in the border regions with Rome. Rome's eastern frontier was entering a period of instability, and Severus responded with an interventionist policy of attack and annexation. Some senators feared that increased involvement in Mesopotamia would only embroil Rome in local squabbles at great expense. The emperor, however, would remain consistent in his active eastern policy.

Legitimization of the Severan Dynasty
Severus also took steps to cement his legitimacy as emperor by connecting himself to the Antonine dynasty. Severus now proclaimed himself the son of Marcus Aurelius, which allowed him to trace his authority, through adoption, back to the emperor Nerva. Julia Domna was awarded the title "Mother of the Camp" (mater castrorum), a title only previously given to the empress Faustina the Younger, Marcus' wife. Bassianus, the emperor's elder son, was renamed Marcus Aurelius Antoninus and given the title Caesar. It was this last step that marked a decisive break with Albinus.

Albinus had remained in Britain as governor during the struggles between Severus and Niger. Although Albinus had not attempted open revolt against the emperor, he seems to have been in communication with senators about future moves. By the end of 195, Albinus was declared a public enemy by Severus. The governor of Britain responded by proclaiming himself emperor and invading Gaul.

A weary Roman populace used the anonymity of the crowd at the chariot races to complain about renewed civil war, but it was Gaul that bore the brunt of the fighting. Albinus and his supporters were able to inflict losses on the occasion of the initial attacks, but disorder was so great that opportunistic soldiers could easily operate on their own within the lands under Albinus' nominal control.

The tide began to turn early in 197, and after a Severan victory at Tournus, Albinus found himself and his army trapped near Lyon. A battle broke out 19 February 197. In the initial fighting, Albinus' troops forced the Severans into retreat, during which Severus fell off his horse. When the Severan cavalry appeared, however, Albinus' army was routed. Lyon was sacked and Albinus, who was trapped in a house along the river Rhône, committed suicide. Severus ordered Albinus' head to be cut off and sent to Rome for display. Many of Albinus' supporters were killed, including a large number of Spanish and Gallic aristocrats. Albinus' wife and children were killed, as were many of the wives of his supporters. Tradition also told of the mutilation of bodies and denial of proper burial. The emperor revealed a penchant for cruelty that troubled even his fervent supporters. A purge of the senate soon followed. Included among the victims was Pertinax's father-in-law, Sulpicianus.

Severus and the Roman Military
Severus brought many changes to the Roman military. Soldiers' pay was increased by half, they were allowed to be married while in service, and greater opportunities were provided for promotion into officer ranks and the civil service. The entire praetorian guard, discredited by the murder of Pertinax and the auctioning of their support to Julianus, was dismissed. The emperor created a new, larger praetorian guard out of provincial soldiers from the legions. Increases were also made to the two other security forces based in Rome: the urban cohorts, who maintained order; and the night watch, who fought fires and dealt with overnight disturbances, break-ins and other petty crime. These military reforms proved expensive, but the measures may well have increased soldiers' performance and morale in an increasingly unsettled age.

One location that remained unsettled was the eastern frontier. In 197 Nisibis had again been under siege, and the emperor prepared for another eastern campaign. Three new legions were raised, though one was left behind in central Italy to maintain order. The Roman armies easily swept through upper Mesopotamia, traveling down the Euphrates to sack Seleucia, Babylon and Ctesiphon, which had been abandoned by the Parthian king Vologaeses V. On 28 January 198 -- the centenary of Trajan's accession -- Severus took the victorious title Parthicus Maximus and promoted both of his sons: Caracalla to the rank of Augustus and Geta to the rank of Caesar.

Before embarking on the eastern campaign, the emperor had named Gaius Fulvius Plautianus as a praetorian prefect. Plautianus came from the emperor's home town of Lepcis, and the prefect may even have been a relative of the emperor. The victories in Mesopotamia were followed by tours of eastern provinces, including Egypt. Plautianus accompanied Severus throughout the travels, and by the year 201 Plautianus was the emperor's closest confidant and advisor. Plautianus was also praetorian prefect without peer after having arranged the murder of his last colleague in the post.

Upon the return to Rome in 202, the influence of Plautianus was at its height. Comparisons were made with Sejanus, the powerful praetorian prefect under the emperor Tiberius. Plautianus, who earlier had been adlected into the senate, was now awarded consular rank, and his daughter Plautilla was married to Caracalla. The wealth Plautianus had acquired from his close connection with the emperor enabled him to provide a dowry said to have been worthy of fifty princesses. Celebrations and games also marked the decennalia, the beginning of the tenth year of Severus' reign. Later in the year the enlarged imperial family traveled to Lepcis, where native sons Severus and Plautianus could display their prestige and power.

The following year the imperial family returned to Rome, where an arch, still standing today, was dedicated to the emperor at the western end of the Forum. Preparations were also being made for the Secular Games, which were thought to have originated in earliest Rome and were to be held every 110 years. Augustus celebrated the Secular Games in 17 B.C., and Domitian in A.D. 88, six years too early. (Claudius used the excuse of Rome's 800th year to hold the games in A.D. 47.) In 204 Severus would preside over ten days of ceremonies and spectacles.

By the end of 204, Plautianus was finding his influence with the emperor on the wane. Caracalla was not happy to be the husband of Plautilla. Julia Domna resented Plautianus' criticisms and investigations against her. Severus was tiring of his praetorian prefect's ostentation, which at times seemed to surpass that of the emperor himself. The emperor's ailing brother, Geta, also denounced Plautianus, and after Geta's death the praetorian prefect found himself being bypassed by the emperor. In January 205 a soldier named Saturninus revealed to the emperor a plot by Plautianus to have Severus and Caracalla killed. Plautianus was summoned to the imperial palace and executed. His children were exiled, and Caracalla divorced Plautilla. Some observers suspected the story of a plot was merely a ruse to cover up long-term plans for Plautianus' removal.

Severus and Roman Law
Two new praetorian prefects were named to replace Plautianus, one of whom was the eminent jurist Papinian. The emperor's position as ultimate appeals judge had brought an ever-increasing legal workload to his office. During the second century, a career path for legal experts was established, and an emperor came to rely heavily upon his consilium, an advisory panel of experienced jurists, in rendering decisions. Severus brought these jurists to even greater prominence. A diligent administrator and conscientious judge, the emperor appreciated legal reasoning and nurtured its development. His reign ushered in the golden age of Roman jurisprudence, and his court employed the talents of the three greatest Roman lawyers: Papinian, Paul and Ulpian.

The order Severus was able to impose on the empire through both the force of arms and the force of law failed to extend to his own family. His now teenaged sons, Caracalla and Geta, displayed a reckless sibling rivalry that sometimes resulted in physical injury. The emperor believed the lack of responsibilities in Rome contributed to the ill-will between his sons and decided that the family would travel to Britain to oversee military operations there. Caracalla was involved in directing the army's campaigns, while Geta was given civilian authority and a promotion to joint emperor with his father and brother.

Severus was now into his 60s. Chronic gout limited his activities and sapped his strength. The emperor's health continued to deteriorate in Britain, and he became ever more intent on trying to improve the bitter relationship between his two sons. He is reported to have given his sons three pieces of advice: "Get along; pay off the soldiers; and disregard everyone else." The first piece of advice would not be heeded.

Severus died in York on 4 February 211 at the age of 65. His reign lasted nearly 18 years, a duration that would not be matched until Diocletian. Culturally and ideologically Septimius Severus connected his reign to the earlier Antonine era, but the reforms he enacted would eventually alter the very character of Roman government. By creating a larger and more expensive army and increasing the influence of lawyers in administration, Severus planted the seeds that would develop into the highly militaristic and bureaucratic government of the later empire.

Copyright (C) 1998, Michael L. Meckler. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis, An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors; http://www.roman-emperors.org/sepsev.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
1 commentsCleisthenes
SeptSevArDen.jpg
[1001b] Septimius Severus, 9 April 193 - 4 February 211 A.D.45 viewsSeptimius Severus, 9 April 193 - 4 February 211 A.D., Silver denarius, RIC 119A. aF. Rome. Obverse: L. SEP. SEVERVS PER. AVG. P. M. IMP. XI, His bearded and laureated head right. Reverse: SALVTI AVGG. Salus seated left feeding serpent arising from altar(?). Scarce. Ex FORVM.


De Imperatoribus Romanis
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Septimius Severus (193-211 A.D.)

Michael L. Meckler
Ohio State University

Introduction
Lucius Septimius Severus restored stability to the Roman empire after the tumultuous reign of the emperor Commodus and the civil wars that erupted in the wake of Commodus' murder. However, by giving greater pay and benefits to soldiers and annexing the troublesome lands of northern Mesopotamia into the Roman empire, Septimius Severus brought increasing financial and military burdens to Rome's government. His prudent administration allowed these burdens to be met during his eighteen years on the throne, but his reign was not entirely sunny. The bloodiness with which Severus gained and maintained control of the empire tarnished his generally positive reputation.

Severus' Early Life and Acclamation
Severus was born 11 April 145 in the African city of Lepcis Magna, whose magnificent ruins are located in modern Libya, 130 miles east of Tripoli. Septimius Severus came from a distinguished local family with cousins who received suffect consulships in Rome under Antoninus Pius. The future emperor's father seems not to have held any major offices, but the grandfather may have been the wealthy equestrian Septimius Severus commemorated by the Flavian-era poet Statius.

The future emperor was helped in his early career by one of his consular cousins, who arranged entry into the senate and the favor of the emperor Marcus Aurelius. Life as a senator meant a life of travel from one government posting to another. Moorish attacks on his intended post of Baetica (southern Spain) forced Severus to serve his quaestorship in Sardinia. He then traveled to Africa as a legate and returned to Rome to be a tribune of the plebs. Around the year 175 he married Paccia Marciana, who seems also to have been of African origin. The childless marriage lasted a decade or so until her death.

Severus' career continued to flourish as the empire passed from Marcus to Commodus. The young senator held a praetorship, then served in Spain, commanded a legion in Syria and held the governorships of Gallia Lugdunensis (central France), Sicily and Upper Pannonia (easternmost Austria and western Hungary). While in Gallia Lugdunensis in 187, the now-widowed future emperor married Julia Domna, a woman from a prominent family of the Syrian city of Emesa. Two sons quickly arrived, eleven months apart: Bassianus (known to history as Caracalla) in April of the year 188, and Geta in March 189.

News of Pertinax's assassination 28 March 193 in an uprising by the praetorian guard quickly reached Pannonia, and only twelve days later on 9 April 193, Severus was proclaimed emperor. Septimius Severus had the strong support of the armies along the Rhine and Danube, but the loyalty of the governor of Britain, Clodius Albinus, was in doubt. Severus' envoys from Pannonia offered Albinus the title of Caesar, which he accepted.

The Civil Wars with Albinus, Niger, and Didius Julianus
In the city of Rome, Didius Julianus gained the support of the praetorian troops and was promoted as the successor to Pertinax. Although Julianus' authority did not extend much beyond Italy, Severus understood that legitimacy for a Roman emperor meant having one's authority accepted in Rome. He and his army began a swift march to the city. They met practically no resistance on their advance from Pannonia into northern Italy, as Julianus' supporters defected. By the beginning of June when Severus reached Interamna, 50 miles north of Rome, even the praetorian guard stationed in the capital switched sides. Didius Julianus was declared a public enemy and killed. Septimius Severus entered Rome without a fight.

Civil war was not yet over. Another provincial governor also had his eyes on the throne. In Syria, Pescennius Niger had been proclaimed emperor on news of Pertinax's death, and the eastern provinces quickly went under his authority. Byzantium became Niger's base of operations as he prepared to fight the armies of the west loyal to Severus.

Niger was unable to maintain further advances into Europe. The fighting moved to the Asian shore of the Propontis, and in late December 193 or early January 194, Niger was defeated in a battle near Nicaea and fled south. Asia and Bithynia fell under Severus' control, and Egypt soon recognized Severus' authority. By late spring, Niger was defeated near Issus and the remainder of his support collapsed. Syria was pacified. Niger was killed fleeing Antioch. Byzantium, however, refused to surrender to Severan forces. Niger's head was sent to the city to persuade the besieged citizens to give up, but to no avail. The Byzantines held out for another year before surrender. As punishment for their stubbornness, the walls of their city were destroyed.

Severus' Eastern Campaigns
During the fighting, two of the peoples of upper Mesopotamia -- the Osrhoeni and the Adiabeni -- captured some Roman garrisons and made an unsuccessful attack on the Roman-allied city of Nisibis. After the defeat of Niger, these peoples offered to return Roman captives and what remained of the seized treasures if the remaining Roman garrisons were removed from the region. Severus refused the offer and prepared for war against the two peoples, as well as against an Arabian tribe that had aided Niger. In the spring of 195, Severus marched an army through the desert into upper Mesopotamia. The native peoples quickly surrendered, and Severus added to his name the victorious titles Arabicus and Adiabenicus. Much of the upper third of Mesopotamia was organized as a Roman province, though the king of Osrhoene was allowed to retain control of a diminished realm.

The tottering Parthian empire was less and less able to control those peoples living in the border regions with Rome. Rome's eastern frontier was entering a period of instability, and Severus responded with an interventionist policy of attack and annexation. Some senators feared that increased involvement in Mesopotamia would only embroil Rome in local squabbles at great expense. The emperor, however, would remain consistent in his active eastern policy.

Legitimization of the Severan Dynasty
Severus also took steps to cement his legitimacy as emperor by connecting himself to the Antonine dynasty. Severus now proclaimed himself the son of Marcus Aurelius, which allowed him to trace his authority, through adoption, back to the emperor Nerva. Julia Domna was awarded the title "Mother of the Camp" (mater castrorum), a title only previously given to the empress Faustina the Younger, Marcus' wife. Bassianus, the emperor's elder son, was renamed Marcus Aurelius Antoninus and given the title Caesar. It was this last step that marked a decisive break with Albinus.

Albinus had remained in Britain as governor during the struggles between Severus and Niger. Although Albinus had not attempted open revolt against the emperor, he seems to have been in communication with senators about future moves.[[3]] By the end of 195, Albinus was declared a public enemy by Severus. The governor of Britain responded by proclaiming himself emperor and invading Gaul.

A weary Roman populace used the anonymity of the crowd at the chariot races to complain about renewed civil war, but it was Gaul that bore the brunt of the fighting. Albinus and his supporters were able to inflict losses on the occasion of the initial attacks, but disorder was so great that opportunistic soldiers could easily operate on their own within the lands under Albinus' nominal control.

The tide began to turn early in 197, and after a Severan victory at Tournus, Albinus found himself and his army trapped near Lyon. A battle broke out 19 February 197. In the initial fighting, Albinus' troops forced the Severans into retreat, during which Severus fell off his horse. When the Severan cavalry appeared, however, Albinus' army was routed. Lyon was sacked and Albinus, who was trapped in a house along the river Rhône, committed suicide. Severus ordered Albinus' head to be cut off and sent to Rome for display. Many of Albinus' supporters were killed, including a large number of Spanish and Gallic aristocrats. Albinus' wife and children were killed, as were many of the wives of his supporters. Tradition also told of the mutilation of bodies and denial of proper burial. The emperor revealed a penchant for cruelty that troubled even his fervent supporters. A purge of the senate soon followed. Included among the victims was Pertinax's father-in-law, Sulpicianus.

Severus and the Roman Military
Severus brought many changes to the Roman military. Soldiers' pay was increased by half, they were allowed to be married while in service, and greater opportunities were provided for promotion into officer ranks and the civil service. The entire praetorian guard, discredited by the murder of Pertinax and the auctioning of their support to Julianus, was dismissed. The emperor created a new, larger praetorian guard out of provincial soldiers from the legions. Increases were also made to the two other security forces based in Rome: the urban cohorts, who maintained order; and the night watch, who fought fires and dealt with overnight disturbances, break-ins and other petty crime. These military reforms proved expensive, but the measures may well have increased soldiers' performance and morale in an increasingly unsettled age.

One location that remained unsettled was the eastern frontier. In 197 Nisibis had again been under siege, and the emperor prepared for another eastern campaign. Three new legions were raised, though one was left behind in central Italy to maintain order. The Roman armies easily swept through upper Mesopotamia, traveling down the Euphrates to sack Seleucia, Babylon and Ctesiphon, which had been abandoned by the Parthian king Vologaeses V. On 28 January 198 -- the centenary of Trajan's accession -- Severus took the victorious title Parthicus Maximus and promoted both of his sons: Caracalla to the rank of Augustus and Geta to the rank of Caesar.

Before embarking on the eastern campaign, the emperor had named Gaius Fulvius Plautianus as a praetorian prefect. Plautianus came from the emperor's home town of Lepcis, and the prefect may even have been a relative of the emperor. The victories in Mesopotamia were followed by tours of eastern provinces, including Egypt. Plautianus accompanied Severus throughout the travels, and by the year 201 Plautianus was the emperor's closest confidant and advisor. Plautianus was also praetorian prefect without peer after having arranged the murder of his last colleague in the post.

Upon the return to Rome in 202, the influence of Plautianus was at its height. Comparisons were made with Sejanus, the powerful praetorian prefect under the emperor Tiberius. Plautianus, who earlier had been adlected into the senate, was now awarded consular rank, and his daughter Plautilla was married to Caracalla. The wealth Plautianus had acquired from his close connection with the emperor enabled him to provide a dowry said to have been worthy of fifty princesses. Celebrations and games also marked the decennalia, the beginning of the tenth year of Severus' reign. Later in the year the enlarged imperial family traveled to Lepcis, where native sons Severus and Plautianus could display their prestige and power.

The following year the imperial family returned to Rome, where an arch, still standing today, was dedicated to the emperor at the western end of the Forum. Preparations were also being made for the Secular Games, which were thought to have originated in earliest Rome and were to be held every 110 years. Augustus celebrated the Secular Games in 17 B.C., and Domitian in A.D. 88, six years too early. (Claudius used the excuse of Rome's 800th year to hold the games in A.D. 47.) In 204 Severus would preside over ten days of ceremonies and spectacles.

By the end of 204, Plautianus was finding his influence with the emperor on the wane. Caracalla was not happy to be the husband of Plautilla. Julia Domna resented Plautianus' criticisms and investigations against her. Severus was tiring of his praetorian prefect's ostentation, which at times seemed to surpass that of the emperor himself. The emperor's ailing brother, Geta, also denounced Plautianus, and after Geta's death the praetorian prefect found himself being bypassed by the emperor. In January 205 a soldier named Saturninus revealed to the emperor a plot by Plautianus to have Severus and Caracalla killed. Plautianus was summoned to the imperial palace and executed. His children were exiled, and Caracalla divorced Plautilla. Some observers suspected the story of a plot was merely a ruse to cover up long-term plans for Plautianus' removal.

Severus and Roman Law
Two new praetorian prefects were named to replace Plautianus, one of whom was the eminent jurist Papinian. The emperor's position as ultimate appeals judge had brought an ever-increasing legal workload to his office. During the second century, a career path for legal experts was established, and an emperor came to rely heavily upon his consilium, an advisory panel of experienced jurists, in rendering decisions. Severus brought these jurists to even greater prominence. A diligent administrator and conscientious judge, the emperor appreciated legal reasoning and nurtured its development. His reign ushered in the golden age of Roman jurisprudence, and his court employed the talents of the three greatest Roman lawyers: Papinian, Paul and Ulpian.

The order Severus was able to impose on the empire through both the force of arms and the force of law failed to extend to his own family. His now teenaged sons, Caracalla and Geta, displayed a reckless sibling rivalry that sometimes resulted in physical injury. The emperor believed the lack of responsibilities in Rome contributed to the ill-will between his sons and decided that the family would travel to Britain to oversee military operations there. Caracalla was involved in directing the army's campaigns, while Geta was given civilian authority and a promotion to joint emperor with his father and brother.

Severus was now into his 60s. Chronic gout limited his activities and sapped his strength. The emperor's health continued to deteriorate in Britain, and he became ever more intent on trying to improve the bitter relationship between his two sons. He is reported to have given his sons three pieces of advice: "Get along; pay off the soldiers; and disregard everyone else." The first piece of advice would not be heeded.

Severus died in York on 4 February 211 at the age of 65. His reign lasted nearly 18 years, a duration that would not be matched until Diocletian. Culturally and ideologically Septimius Severus connected his reign to the earlier Antonine era, but the reforms he enacted would eventually alter the very character of Roman government. By creating a larger and more expensive army and increasing the influence of lawyers in administration, Severus planted the seeds that would develop into the highly militaristic and bureaucratic government of the later empire.

Copyright (C) 1998, Michael L. Meckler. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis, An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors; http://www.roman-emperors.org/sepsev.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
JuliaDomnaRICIV560.jpg
[1003c] Julia Domna, Augusta 194 - 8 April 217 A.D.25 viewsAR Denarius; RIC IV 560; 16.89 mm, 3.5 grams; AD 196-202; VF, Rome mint; Obverse: IVLIA AVGVSTA, Draped bust right; Reverse: IVNO REGINA, Juno standing left holding patera and sceptre, peacock at feet. A nice denarius on a smallish flan. Ex Ancient Imports.

De Imperatoribus Romanis, An On-Line Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Severan Julias (A.D. 193-235)

Herbert W. Benario
Emory University

Julia Domna was born about 170 A.D., in Emesa of Syria. She was the youngest daughter of Julius Bassianus, priest of the sun god Elagabal. As such, she was part of the local aristocracy from a plebian family. Having come to the attention of Severus because of her promising horoscope, he married her, probably in 187 A.D. She gave birth to their first child, Bassianus, the future emperor M. Aurelius Antoninus, known as Caracalla, on 4 April 188. About thirteen months later, she gave birth to a second son, Geta.

When Septimius Severus claimed the empire after Didius Julianus had succeeded Pertinax in 193 A.D., two serious rivals challenged him, Pescennius Niger in the East and Clodius Albinus in the West. Julia Domna accompanied her husband in the campaign against Pescennius, having been honored with the title mater castrorum. After this successful campaign, there was another campaign in the East, against the Parthians, in 197 A.D. She was widely honored with inscriptions throughout this period, and numerous coin issues emphasized her imperial position. Julia Domna was, perhaps, more influential in the political life of the empire than any of her imperial predecessors.

She opposed Plautianus, the praetorian prefect and father-in-law of Caracalla, and was partially responsible for his downfall and his daughter Plautilla's disgrace. She was often accused of adultery; nonetheless, the emperor chose to ignore these charges, if true, and the marriage continued.

Among her passions were literature and philosophy; she gathered writers and philosophers in a kind of salon (among whom was Galen of Pergamum), and urged Philostratus to write the life of Apollonius of Tyana.

She once again accompanied her husband, with the two sons present as well, on campaign, against the Britons in 208 A.D. When Severus died at York in early 211 A.D., she returned to Rome with Caracalla and Geta, having gained the full title of mater castrorum et senatus et patriae, with the frequent addition of et Augustorum. She persuaded the two sons to share the rule, as the emperor had wished on his deathbed, but, since the brothers hated each other, this arrangement was doomed to failure. In 212 A.D., Caracalla murdered Geta while he sought succor in his mother's arms; covered with his blood, she was forbidden by Caracalla to grieve.

Her relationship with Caracalla during the six years of his reign was mixed. She had some public duties but largely devoted herself to philosophy. She accompanied Caracalla to the east on campaign against the Parthians in 217 A.D. When she learned, in Antioch, that he had been assassinated, she resolved upon death, which followed her refusal to take food. Her remains were ultimately placed in Hadrian's Mausoleum, at the insistence of Maesa, her sister. She was deified, and was known as Diva Iulia Domna or Diva Iulia Augusta. She was worshipped in various parts of the empire with local titles, such as Dea Caelestis in Carthage and Venus Caelestis in Puteoli.

By Herbert W. Benario, Emory University
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

If you are interested in Julia Domna, visit Ernie Thompson’s site: The Life, Family and Coinage of Julia Domna (http://juliadomna.ancients.info/).
1 commentsCleisthenes
Carac1stCaes.jpg
[1004a] Caracalla, 28 January 198 - 8 April 217 A.D.29 viewsSilver denarius, RIC 2, gF, Rome, 2.662g, 17.2mm, 0o; type from his first issue as Caesar., 196 A.D. Obverse: M AVR ANTONINVS CAES, boy's bare-headed, draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: SECVRITAS PERPETVA (Security Everlasting), Minerva with aegis on breast, standing left, holding spear in left and resting right on shield on the ground; well centered on a tight flan; scarce. Ex FORVM.

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Marcus Aurelius Antoninus (Caracalla)

Michael L. Meckler,
Ohio State University

Caracalla was born 4 April 188 in Lyon, where his father was serving as governor of the province of Gallia Lugdunensis under the emperor Commodus. The child's name originally seems to have been Lucius Septimius Bassianus, the cognomen commemorating the family of the boy's Syrian mother, Julia Domna. When he was seven years old, his name was changed to Marcus Aurelius Antoninus. The name change was a way of connecting the family of Severus to that of the Antonines. Caracalla was a nickname taken from the name of a type of cloak popularized by the emperor, but this nickname, originally derisive, was never used officially.


From the time of his name change to Antoninus, Caracalla was the designated heir of Severus. Less than three years later he was proclaimed emperor, officially joining his father as co-rulers of the empire. At the age of 14 he was married to the daughter of the praetorian prefect Plautianus Publia Fulvia, Plautilla, but the teenager despised his wife. The marriage ended less than three years later after the execution of Plautianus for treason, and there were no children.

Squabbling and rivalry developed between Caracalla and Geta, who was only 11 months younger than his brother. Severus felt the lack of responsibilities in Rome contributed to the ill-will between his sons and decided that the family would travel to Britain to oversee military operations there. Caracalla was involved in directing the army's campaigns, while Geta was given civilian authority and a promotion to joint emperor with his father and brother. Within two years of the imperial family's arrival in Britain, Severus' health began to deteriorate, but his sons' relationship showed no signs of improvement. Severus died 4 February 211. Caracalla was 22 years old, Geta 21.

The brothers returned to Rome as joint emperors, but they eyed each other with suspicion and failed to cooperate on government appointments and policy decisions. Caracalla was being advised to have Geta murdered, and after at least one unsuccessful attempt, Geta was killed in late December 211. The murder led to a wholesale slaughter of Geta's supporters and sympathizers, and soldiers were allowed to wreak havoc on the residents of Rome. The looting and bloodshed lasted for at least two weeks, and one contemporary source claims 20,000 people were killed.

The year 212 saw a flurry of administrative reforms under the young emperor's leadership. Soldiers received increases in pay and in legal rights, but the most noteworthy change was the bestowal of Roman citizenship upon all free residents of the empire. This grant of universal citizenship, called by scholars the Constitutio Antoniniana, allowed for greater standardization in the increasingly bureaucratic Roman state. Construction was also well underway on the magnificant baths in Rome that would bear the emperor's name. The main building seems to have been completed four years later, but the entire complex was not finished until the reign of Alexander Severus.

Caracalla spent little time in Rome after the spring of 213. A visit to Gaul and a military campaign along the borders of Upper Germany and Raetia occupied much of the rest of the year. Winter may have been spent in Rome, but the following year Caracalla made a journey to the East in preparation for a war against the Parthians. Along the way, the emperor displayed an increasing fascination and identification with Alexander the Great. Like the Macedonian prince, however, Caracalla would not survive an expedition to the East. Only his ashes would return to Rome.

Civil war in the Parthian realm between brothers and rival kings Vologaeses VI and Artabanus V brought instability to the entire region, and Caracalla wished to take advantage of that instability to increase Roman control. Osroene was annexed in 213, but an attempt in the same year to take over Armenia backfired. Caracalla's campaigns in the East seemed designed to harass the Parthians more than anything else. In 215, Caracalla suspended plans to invade Parthia after Vologaeses handed over two political refugees, although Roman troops were sent into Armenia. The following year the emperor led his troops into Mesopotamia after being rebuffed in his request to marry the daughter of Artabanus. Roman armies were generally unopposed in their forays, the Parthian forces having retreated farther east. The Romans returned back across the Euphrates, wintering in Edessa.

Between campaigning seasons, Caracalla made a notorious visit to Alexandria in the fall and winter of 215-16. Rioting accompanied the imperial visit, and retribution was swift. The governor of Egypt was executed as were thousands of the city's young men. Alexandria was cordoned off into zones to prevent the free movement of residents, and games and privileges were revoked.

The emperor visited Alexandria for intellectual and religious reasons, staying at The Serapeum and being present at the temple's sacrifices and cultural events. Earlier, during the German war, the emperor visited the shrine of the Celtic healing-god Grannus. Caracalla also visited the famous temple of Asclepius in Pergamum and fully participated in its program, which involved sleeping inside the temple compound and having his dreams interpreted.

It was this religious devotion that led to Caracalla's murder in 217. Although suspicious of the praetorian prefect Macrinus, Caracalla allowed himself to be accompanied by only a small, select corps of bodyguards on an early spring trip from the camp at Edessa to the temple of the moon-god at Carrhae, about 25 miles away. During the journey back on 8 April 217, Caracalla was killed. The returning guards claimed the emperor was ambushed while defecating, and that the alleged assassin was one of their own, a soldier named Martialis. Martialis was himself killed by the avenging guards, or so the story went. Suspicion was strong that Macrinus arranged the entire affair.

Caracalla's violent end seemed appropriate for an emperor who, early in his reign, had his own brother killed. Yet the moralizing about fratricide by both ancient and modern historians obscures the energetic, reformist and even intellectual character of Caracalla's reign. Some of the reforms, especially the pay raise for soldiers, would prove burdensome for future emperors, but the changes brought about in the little more than five years of Caracalla's sole rule would have long-lasting implications throughout the empire for generations to come.


Copyright (C) 1998, Michael L. Meckler. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis, An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors; http://www.roman-emperors.org/sepsev.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.


Cleisthenes
CaracallaRIC108.jpg
[1004b] Caracalla, 28 January 198 - 8 April 217 A.D.29 viewsSilver denarius, RIC 108, RSC 510, VF, 2.967g, 19.2mm, 180o, Rome mint, 208 A.D.; obverse ANTONINVS PIVS AVG, laureate head right; reverse PROF PONTIF TR P XI COS III, Emperor on horseback right, captive at feet; scarce. Ex FORVM.

This coin refers to the departure of Caracalla, Septimius, and Geta on their British expedition. Our dating of this departure to the year 208 depends on these coins dated TR P XI for Caracalla and TR P XVI for Septimius (Joseph Sermarini).

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Marcus Aurelius Antoninus (Caracalla)

Michael L. Meckler,
Ohio State University

Caracalla was born 4 April 188 in Lyon, where his father was serving as governor of the province of Gallia Lugdunensis under the emperor Commodus. The child's name originally seems to have been Lucius Septimius Bassianus, the cognomen commemorating the family of the boy's Syrian mother, Julia Domna. When he was seven years old, his name was changed to Marcus Aurelius Antoninus. The name change was a way of connecting the family of Severus to that of the Antonines. Caracalla was a nickname taken from the name of a type of cloak popularized by the emperor, but this nickname, originally derisive, was never used officially.


From the time of his name change to Antoninus, Caracalla was the designated heir of Severus. Less than three years later he was proclaimed emperor, officially joining his father as co-rulers of the empire. At the age of 14 he was married to the daughter of the praetorian prefect Plautianus Publia Fulvia, Plautilla, but the teenager despised his wife. The marriage ended less than three years later after the execution of Plautianus for treason, and there were no children.

Squabbling and rivalry developed between Caracalla and Geta, who was only 11 months younger than his brother. Severus felt the lack of responsibilities in Rome contributed to the ill-will between his sons and decided that the family would travel to Britain to oversee military operations there. Caracalla was involved in directing the army's campaigns, while Geta was given civilian authority and a promotion to joint emperor with his father and brother. Within two years of the imperial family's arrival in Britain, Severus' health began to deteriorate, but his sons' relationship showed no signs of improvement. Severus died 4 February 211. Caracalla was 22 years old, Geta 21.

The brothers returned to Rome as joint emperors, but they eyed each other with suspicion and failed to cooperate on government appointments and policy decisions. Caracalla was being advised to have Geta murdered, and after at least one unsuccessful attempt, Geta was killed in late December 211. The murder led to a wholesale slaughter of Geta's supporters and sympathizers, and soldiers were allowed to wreak havoc on the residents of Rome. The looting and bloodshed lasted for at least two weeks, and one contemporary source claims 20,000 people were killed.

The year 212 saw a flurry of administrative reforms under the young emperor's leadership. Soldiers received increases in pay and in legal rights, but the most noteworthy change was the bestowal of Roman citizenship upon all free residents of the empire. This grant of universal citizenship, called by scholars the Constitutio Antoniniana, allowed for greater standardization in the increasingly bureaucratic Roman state. Construction was also well underway on the magnificant baths in Rome that would bear the emperor's name. The main building seems to have been completed four years later, but the entire complex was not finished until the reign of Alexander Severus.

Caracalla spent little time in Rome after the spring of 213. A visit to Gaul and a military campaign along the borders of Upper Germany and Raetia occupied much of the rest of the year. Winter may have been spent in Rome, but the following year Caracalla made a journey to the East in preparation for a war against the Parthians. Along the way, the emperor displayed an increasing fascination and identification with Alexander the Great. Like the Macedonian prince, however, Caracalla would not survive an expedition to the East. Only his ashes would return to Rome.

Civil war in the Parthian realm between brothers and rival kings Vologaeses VI and Artabanus V brought instability to the entire region, and Caracalla wished to take advantage of that instability to increase Roman control. Osroene was annexed in 213, but an attempt in the same year to take over Armenia backfired. Caracalla's campaigns in the East seemed designed to harass the Parthians more than anything else. In 215, Caracalla suspended plans to invade Parthia after Vologaeses handed over two political refugees, although Roman troops were sent into Armenia. The following year the emperor led his troops into Mesopotamia after being rebuffed in his request to marry the daughter of Artabanus. Roman armies were generally unopposed in their forays, the Parthian forces having retreated farther east. The Romans returned back across the Euphrates, wintering in Edessa.

Between campaigning seasons, Caracalla made a notorious visit to Alexandria in the fall and winter of 215-16. Rioting accompanied the imperial visit, and retribution was swift. The governor of Egypt was executed as were thousands of the city's young men. Alexandria was cordoned off into zones to prevent the free movement of residents, and games and privileges were revoked.

The emperor visited Alexandria for intellectual and religious reasons, staying at The Serapeum and being present at the temple's sacrifices and cultural events. Earlier, during the German war, the emperor visited the shrine of the Celtic healing-god Grannus. Caracalla also visited the famous temple of Asclepius in Pergamum and fully participated in its program, which involved sleeping inside the temple compound and having his dreams interpreted.

It was this religious devotion that led to Caracalla's murder in 217. Although suspicious of the praetorian prefect Macrinus, Caracalla allowed himself to be accompanied by only a small, select corps of bodyguards on an early spring trip from the camp at Edessa to the temple of the moon-god at Carrhae, about 25 miles away. During the journey back on 8 April 217, Caracalla was killed. The returning guards claimed the emperor was ambushed while defecating, and that the alleged assassin was one of their own, a soldier named Martialis. Martialis was himself killed by the avenging guards, or so the story went. Suspicion was strong that Macrinus arranged the entire affair.

Caracalla's violent end seemed appropriate for an emperor who, early in his reign, had his own brother killed. Yet the moralizing about fratricide by both ancient and modern historians obscures the energetic, reformist and even intellectual character of Caracalla's reign. Some of the reforms, especially the pay raise for soldiers, would prove burdensome for future emperors, but the changes brought about in the little more than five years of Caracalla's sole rule would have long-lasting implications throughout the empire for generations to come.


Copyright (C) 1998, Michael L. Meckler. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis, An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors; http://www.roman-emperors.org/sepsev.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
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