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112~0.JPG
99 viewsHistory of Thessalian League
The Thessalian League/confederacy was made up of several cities in the Thessalian valley in Northern Greece. This area was completely surrounded by mountains and isolated except for a few passes. It was one of the few areas of Greece self-sufficient in grain and produced livestock and horses. Thessaly had the best calvary in Greece. The league was frequently weakened by intercity rivalries and lost its strength in the 5th century BC. The league was re-established in 374 BC by the tyrant Jason. He was assassinated in 370 BC, when it became evident that he had plans of conquest against the rest of Greece. After the death of Jason, there was infighting in the league and some of the cities requested help from Philip II of Macedon to settle the rivalries, which he accomplished in 353 BC. A few years later (344 BC), Philip II simply took control of the entire area. Thessaly remained under Macedonian control until Macedonia was defeated by the Romans in 197 BC. A new league was established in 196 BC. The league continued until 146 BC, then became part of the Roman province of Macedonia.
Antonivs Protti
Thessalian_League_a.jpg
31 viewsThessalian League Double Victoriatus
Obverse: laureate head of Zeus right
Reverse: Athena standing right
paul1888
Lycian_tetrobol.jpg
24 viewsLycian League; Tetrobol
paul1888
Denarius91BC.jpg
(501i) Roman Republic, D. Junius L.f. Silanus, 91 B.C.58 viewsSilver denarius, Syd 646a, RSC Junia 16, S 225 var, Cr 337/3 var, VF, 3.718g, 18.6mm, 0o, Rome mint, 91 B.C.; obverse head of Roma right in winged helmet, X (control letter) behind; reverse Victory in a biga right holding reins in both hands, V (control numeral) above, D•SILANVS / ROMA in ex; mint luster in recesses. Ex FORVM.

Although the coin itself does not commemorate the event, the date this coin was struck is historically significant.

MARCUS Livius DRUSUS (his father was the colleague of Gaius Gracchus in the tribuneship, 122 B.C.), became tribune of the people in 91 B.C. He was a thoroughgoing conservative, wealthy and generous, and a man of high integrity. With some of the more intelligent members of his party (such as Marcus Scaurus and L. Licinius Crassus the orator) he recognized the need of reform. At that time an agitation was going on for the transfer of the judicial functions from the equites to the senate; Drusus proposed as a compromise a measure which restored to the senate the office of judices, while its numbers were doubled by the admission of 300 equites. Further, a special commission was to be appointed to try and sentence all judices guilty of taking bribes.

The senate was hesitant; and the equites, whose occupation was threatened, offered the most violent opposition. In order, therefore, to catch the popular votes, Drusus proposed the establishment of colonies in Italy and Sicily, and an increased distribution of corn at a reduced rate. By help of these riders the bill was carried.

Drusus now sought a closer alliance with the Italians, promising them the long coveted boon of the Roman franchise. The senate broke out into open opposition. His laws were abrogated as informal, and each party armed its adherents for the civil struggle which was now inevitable. Drusus was stabbed one evening as he was returning home. His assassin was never discovered (http://62.1911encyclopedia.org/D/DR/DRUSUS_MARCUS_LIVIUS.htm).

The ensuing "Social War" (91-88 B.C.) would set the stage for the "Civil Wars" (88-87 & 82-81 B.C.) featuring, notably, Marius & Sulla; two men who would make significant impressions on the mind of a young Julius Caesar. Caesar would cross the Rubicon not thirty years later.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
GI_038a_img.jpg
039 - Nerva Ar Drachm - SNG Cop. 4424 viewsObv:–AVTOKPAT NEPOYAC KAICAP CEBACT, Laureate bust right; L-Y across field
Rev:– YPATOY TRITOY, Two lyres (chelyes), owl above
Minted in Lycia, Lycian League. A.D. 97
Reference:– SNG Cop. 44; SNG von Aulock 4266; BMC Lycia p. 39, 6
 
Some surface lamination issues.
maridvnvm
MaxHercRIC5iiRome.jpg
1302a, Maximian, 285 - 305, 306 - 308, and 310 A.D.50 viewsMaximianus AE Antoninianus. RIC V Part II 506 Bust Type C. Cohen 355; VF; Minted in Rome A.D. 285-286. Obverse: IMP MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, radiate, draped & cuirassed bust right; Rverse: IOVI CONSERVAT AVGG, Jupiter standing left holding thunderbolt & scepter, XXIZ in exergue. Ex maridvnvm.

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Maximian, 285-305, 306-308, and 310 A.D.

Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Salve Regina University

Perhaps born ca. 249/250 A.D. in Sirmium in the area of the Balkans, Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maximianus, more commonly known as Maximianus Herculius (Maximian), had been a soldier before he put on the purple. A fellow soldier with the Emperor Diocletian, he had served in the military during the reigns of Aurelian and Probus.

When the Emperor Diocletian determined that the empire was too large for one man to govern on his own, he made Maximian his Caesar in 285/6 and elevated him to the rank of Augustus in perhaps the spring of 286. While Diocletian ruled in the East, Maximian ruled in the West. In 293, in order to maintain and to strengthen the stability of the empire, Diocletian appointed Constantius I Chlorus to serve Maximian as a Caesar in the West, while Galerius did the same job in the East. This arrangement, called the "Tetrarchy", was meant not only to provide a stronger foundation for the two emperors' rule, but also to end any possible fighting over the succession to the throne once the two senior Augusti had left the throne--a problem which had bedeviled the principate since the time of the Emperor Augustus. To cement the relationship between Maximian and his Caesar, Constantius married Maximian's elder daughter Theodora. A decade later, Constantius' son Constantine would marry Maximia's younger daughter Fausta.

On 1 May 305 Diocletian, at Nicomedeia, and Maximian, at Mediolanum, divested themselves of the purple. Their resignations seem largely due to the almost fatal illness that Diocletian contracted toward the end of 304. Diocletian seems to have forced his colleague to abdicate. In any case, Herculius had sworn an oath at the temple of Capitoline Jupiter to carry out the terms of the abdication. Constantius and Galerius were appointed as Augusti, with Maximinus Daia and Severus as the new Caesars. The retired emperors then returned to private life. Diocletian's retirement was at Salonae in Dalmatia, while Herculius' retreat was either in Lucania or Campania.

Maximian's retirement, however, was of short duration because, a little more than a year later on 28 October 306, his son Maxentius was proclaimed emperor at Rome. To give his regime an aura of legitimacy, Maximian was forced to affirm his son's acclamation. When Galerius learned of Maxentius' rebellion, he sent Severus against him with an army that had formerly been under his father's command. Maxentius invested his father with the purple again to win over his enemy's troops, a ruse which succeeded. Perhaps to strengthen his own position, in 307 Maximian went to Gaul and married his daughter Fausta to Constantine. When Constantine refused to become embroiled in the civil war between Galerius and Maxentius, Maximian returned to Rome in 308 and attempted to depose his son; however, he did not succeed. When Maximian was unable to convince Diocletian to take up the purple again at a meeting in Carnuntum in late 308, he returned to his son-in-law's side in Gaul.

Although Maximian was treated with all of the respect due a former emperor, he still desired to be more than a figurehead. He decided to seize the purple from Constantine when his son-in-law least expected it. His opportunity came in the summer of 310 when the Franks revolted. When Constantine had taken a small part of his army into enemy territory, Maximian proclaimed himself again emperor and paid the soldiers under his command a donative to secure their loyalty. As soon as Constantine received news about Maximian's revolt in July 310, he went south and reached Arelate before his father-in-law could mount a defense of the city. Although Maximian fled to Massilia, his son-in-law seized the city and took Maximian prisoner. Although he was deprived of the purple, he was granted pardon for his crimes. Unable to endure the humiliation of his defeat, he attempted to have Constantine murdered in his bed. The plot failed because he tried to get his daughter Fausta's help in the matter; she chose to reveal the matter to her husband. Because of this attempt on his son-in-law's life Maximian was dead by the end of July either by his own hand or on the orders of his intended victim.

Eutropia was of Syrian extraction and her marriage to Maximian seems to have been her second. She bore him two children: Maxentius and Fausta. An older daughter, Theodora, may have been a product of her first marriage. Fausta became the wife of Constantine I , while her sister Theodora was the second spouse of his father Constantius I Chlorus . Eutropia apparently survived all her children, with the possible exception of her daughter Fausta who seems to have died in 326. Eutropia is also said to have become a Christian.

By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
Max.jpg
1302b, Maximian, 285-305, 306-308, and 310 A.D., commemorative issued by Constantine the Great (Siscia)59 viewsMaximian, 285-305, 306-308, and 310 A.D., commemorative issued by Constantine the Great. Bronze AE3, RIC 41, VF, Siscia, 1.30g, 16.1mm, 0o, 317-318 A.D. Obverse: DIVO MAXIMIANO SEN FORT IMP, laureate and veiled head right; Reverse: REQVIES OPTIMO-RVM MERITORVM, Emperor seated left on curule chair, raising hand and holding scepter, SIS in exergue; scarce (R3).


De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Maximian, 285-305, 306-308, and 310 A.D.

Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Salve Regina University

Perhaps born ca. 249/250 A.D. in Sirmium in the area of the Balkans, Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maximianus, more commonly known as Maximianus Herculius (Maximian), had been a soldier before he put on the purple. A fellow soldier with the Emperor Diocletian, he had served in the military during the reigns of Aurelian and Probus.

When the Emperor Diocletian determined that the empire was too large for one man to govern on his own, he made Maximian his Caesar in 285/6 and elevated him to the rank of Augustus in perhaps the spring of 286. While Diocletian ruled in the East, Maximian ruled in the West. In 293, in order to maintain and to strengthen the stability of the empire, Diocletian appointed Constantius I Chlorus to serve Maximian as a Caesar in the West, while Galerius did the same job in the East. This arrangement, called the "Tetrarchy", was meant not only to provide a stronger foundation for the two emperors' rule, but also to end any possible fighting over the succession to the throne once the two senior Augusti had left the throne--a problem which had bedeviled the principate since the time of the Emperor Augustus. To cement the relationship between Maximian and his Caesar, Constantius married Maximian's elder daughter Theodora. A decade later, Constantius' son Constantine would marry Maximia's younger daughter Fausta.

On 1 May 305 Diocletian, at Nicomedeia, and Maximian, at Mediolanum, divested themselves of the purple. Their resignations seem largely due to the almost fatal illness that Diocletian contracted toward the end of 304. Diocletian seems to have forced his colleague to abdicate. In any case, Herculius had sworn an oath at the temple of Capitoline Jupiter to carry out the terms of the abdication. Constantius and Galerius were appointed as Augusti, with Maximinus Daia and Severus as the new Caesars. The retired emperors then returned to private life. Diocletian's retirement was at Salonae in Dalmatia, while Herculius' retreat was either in Lucania or Campania.

Maximian's retirement, however, was of short duration because, a little more than a year later on 28 October 306, his son Maxentius was proclaimed emperor at Rome. To give his regime an aura of legitimacy, Maximian was forced to affirm his son's acclamation. When Galerius learned of Maxentius' rebellion, he sent Severus against him with an army that had formerly been under his father's command. Maxentius invested his father with the purple again to win over his enemy's troops, a ruse which succeeded. Perhaps to strengthen his own position, in 307 Maximian went to Gaul and married his daughter Fausta to Constantine. When Constantine refused to become embroiled in the civil war between Galerius and Maxentius, Maximian returned to Rome in 308 and attempted to depose his son; however, he did not succeed. When Maximian was unable to convince Diocletian to take up the purple again at a meeting in Carnuntum in late 308, he returned to his son-in-law's side in Gaul.

Although Maximian was treated with all of the respect due a former emperor, he still desired to be more than a figurehead. He decided to seize the purple from Constantine when his son-in-law least expected it. His opportunity came in the summer of 310 when the Franks revolted. When Constantine had taken a small part of his army into enemy territory, Maximian proclaimed himself again emperor and paid the soldiers under his command a donative to secure their loyalty. As soon as Constantine received news about Maximian's revolt in July 310, he went south and reached Arelate before his father-in-law could mount a defense of the city. Although Maximian fled to Massilia, his son-in-law seized the city and took Maximian prisoner. Although he was deprived of the purple, he was granted pardon for his crimes. Unable to endure the humiliation of his defeat, he attempted to have Constantine murdered in his bed. The plot failed because he tried to get his daughter Fausta's help in the matter; she chose to reveal the matter to her husband. Because of this attempt on his son-in-law's life Maximian was dead by the end of July either by his own hand or on the orders of his intended victim.

Eutropia was of Syrian extraction and her marriage to Maximian seems to have been her second. She bore him two children: Maxentius and Fausta. An older daughter, Theodora, may have been a product of her first marriage. Fausta became the wife of Constantine I , while her sister Theodora was the second spouse of his father Constantius I Chlorus . Eutropia apparently survived all her children, with the possible exception of her daughter Fausta who seems to have died in 326. Eutropia is also said to have become a Christian.

By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
GaleriusAugCyz.jpg
1303a, Galerius, 1 March 305 - 5 May 311 A.D.39 viewsGalerius, RIC VI 59, Cyzicus S, VF, Cyzicus S, 6.4 g, 25.86 mm; 309-310 AD; Obverse: GAL MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, laureate bust right; Reverse: GENIO A-VGVS[TI], Genius stg. left, naked but for chlamys over left shoulder, holding patera and cornucopiae. A nice example with sharp detail and nice brown hoard patina. Ex Ancient Imports.


De Imperatoribus Romanis,
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Galerius (305-311 A.D.)

Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Salve Regina University


Caius Galerius Valerius Maximianus, more commonly known as Galerius, was from Illyricum; his father, whose name is unknown, was of peasant stock, while his mother, Romula, was from beyond the Danube. Galerius was born in Dacia Ripensis near Sardica. Although the date of his birth is unknown, he was probably born ca. 250 since he served under Aurelian. As a youth Galerius was a shepherd and acquired the nickname Armentarius. Although he seems to have started his military career under Aurelian and Probus, nothing is known about it before his accession as Caesar on 1 March 293. He served as Diocletian's Caesar in the East. Abandoning his first wife, he married Diocletian's daugher, Valeria.

As Caesar he campaigned in Egypt in 294; he seems to have taken to the field against Narses of Persia, and was defeated near Ctesiphon in 295. In 298, after he made inroads into Armenia, he obtained a treaty from the Persians favorable to the Romans. Between 299-305 he overcame the Sarmatians and the Carpi along the Danube. The Great Persecution of the Orthodox Church, which was started in 303 by the Emperor Diocletian, was probably instigated by Galerius. Because of the almost fatal illness that he contracted toward the end of 304, Diocletian, at Nicomedeia, and Maximianus Herculius, at Mediolanum, divested themselves of the purple on 1 May 305. Constantius and Galerius were appointed as Augusti, with Maximinus Daia and Severus as the new Caesars. Constantius and Severus reigned in the West, whereas Galerius' and Daia's realm was the East. Although Constantius was nominally senior Augustus, the real power was in the hands of Galerius because both Caesars were his creatures.

The balance of power shifted at the end of July 306 when Constantius, with his son Constantine at his side, passed away at York in Britain where he was preparing to face incursions by the Picts; his army proclaimed Constantine his successor immediately. As soon as he received the news of the death of Constantius I and the acclamation of Constantine to the purple, Galerius raised Severus to the rank of Augustus to replace his dead colleague in August 306. Making the best of a bad situation, Galerius accepted Constantine as the new Caesar in the West. The situation became more complicated when Maxentius, with his father Maximianus Herculius acquiesing, declared himself princes on 28 October 306. When Galerius learned about the acclamation of the usurper, he dispatched the Emperor Severus to put down the rebellion. Severus took a large field army which had formerly been that of Maximianus and proceeded toward Rome and began to besiege the city, Maxentius, however, and Maximianus, by means of a ruse, convinced Severus to surrender. Later, in 307, Severus was put to death under clouded circumstances. While Severus was fighting in the west, Galerius, during late 306 or early 307, was campaigning against the Sarmatians.

In the early summer of 307 Galerius invaded Italy to avenge Severus's death; he advanced to the south and encamped at Interamna near the Tiber. His attempt to besiege the city was abortive because his army was too small to encompass the city's fortifications. Not trusting his own troops, Galerius withdrew. During its retreat, his army ravaged the Italian countryside as it was returning to its original base. When Maximianus Herculius' attempts to regain the throne between 308 and 310 by pushing his son off his throne or by winning over Constantine to his cause failed, he tried to win Diocletian and Galerius over to his side at Carnuntum in October and November 308; the outcome of the Conference at Carnuntum was that Licinius was appointed Augustus in Severus's place, that Daia and Constantine were denoted filii Augustorum, and that Herculius was completely cut out of the picture. Later, in 310, Herculius died, having been implicated in a plot against his son-in-law. After the Conference at Carnuntum, Galerius returned to Sardica where he died in the opening days of May 311.

By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University; Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Galerius was Caesar and tetrarch under Maximianus. Although a talented general and administrator, Galerius is better known for his key role in the "Great Persecution" of Christians. He stopped the persecution under condition the Christians pray for his return to health from a serious illness. Galerius died horribly shortly after. Joseph Sermarini, FORVM.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.



Cleisthenes
Constantius1_silvered_follis.jpg
1304a, Constantius I, May 305 - 25 July 306 A.D.52 viewsSilvered follis, RIC 20a, S 3671, VM 25, gVF, Heraclea mint, 10.144g, 27.7mm, 180o, 297 - 298 A.D. Obverse: FL VAL CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES, laureate head right; Reverse GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, modius on head, naked except for chlamys over shoulder, cornucopia in left, pouring liquor from patera, HTD in exergue; some silvering, nice portrait, well centered.



De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Constantius I Chlorus (305-306 A.D.)

Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Salve Regina University

Constantius' Early Life and Marriage

Born March 31st, Emperor Flavius Valerius Constantius may have come into the world ca. 250. His family was from Illyricum. In the army he served as a protector, tribunus, and a praeses Dalmatiarum. During the 270s or the 280s, he became the father of Constantine by Helena, his first spouse. By 288 he was the Praetorian Prefect of the western emperor Maximianus Herculius.

Constantius' Reign as Caesar

On 1 March 293 Diocletian appointed Galerius as his Caesar (junior emperor) in the east and Constantius as the Caesar of Maximianus Herculius. Caesar in the west. Both Caesars had the right of succession. In order to strengthen the dynastic relationship between himself and Herculius., Constantius put aside his wife Helena and married Theodora, the daughter, or perhaps stepdaughter, of Maximianus Herculius.. The union was fruitful and of it there were six issue: Flavius Dalmatius, Julius Constantius, Hannibalianus, Constantia, Anastasia, and Eutropia. To strengthen his bond with Galerius and Diocletian in the east, Constantius allowed Galerius to keep his son Constantine as a hostage for his good behavior.

In the remainder of the time that he was a Caesar, Constantius spent much of his time engaged in military actions in the west. In the summer of 293 Constantius expelled the troops of the usurper Carausius from northern Gaul; after Constantius' attack on Bononia (Boulogne), Carausius was murdered. At the same time he dealt with the unrest of the Germans. In 296 he invaded Britain and put down the revolt of the usurper Allectus. Between 300 and 305 A.D. the Caesar campaigned successfully several times with various German tribes. It is worth noting in passing, that while his colleagues rigidly enforced the "Great Persecution in 303," Constantius limited his action to knocking down a few churches.

Constantius as Augustus and His Untimely Death

On 1 May 305 Diocletian, at Nicomedia, and Maximianus Herculius, at Mediolanum (Milan), divested themselves of the purple, probably because of the almost fatal illness that Diocletian contracted toward the end of 304. Diocletian forced Maximianus to abdicate. They appointed as their successors Constantius and Galerius, with Severus and Maximinus Daia as the new Caesars. The retired emperors then returned to private life. Constantius, as had his predecessor, ruled in the west, while Galerius and Daia ruled in the east. Almost as soon as he was appointed Augustus, he crossed to Britain to face incursions by the Picts where he died at York on 25 July 306 with his son (Constantine I, known to history as “The Great”) at his side.

Copyright (C) 1996, Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
Lcnius1.jpg
1308b, Licinius I, 308 - 324 A.D. (Siscia)62 viewsLicinius I, 11 November 308 - 18 September 324 A.D. Bronze follis, RIC 4, F, Siscia, 3.257g, 21.6mm, 0o, 313 - 315 A.D. Obverse: IMP LIC LICINIVS P F AVG, laureate head right; Reverse IOVI CONSERVATORI AVGG NN, Jupiter standing left holding Victory on globe and scepter, eagle with wreath in beak left, E right, SIS in exergue.



De Imperatoribus Romanis : An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Licinius (308-324 A.D.)

Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Salve Regina University

Licinius' Heritage

Valerius Licinianus Licinius, more commonly known as Licinius, may have been born ca. 265. Of peasant origin, his family was from Dacia. A close friend and comrade of arms of the Emperor Galerius, he accompanied him on his Persian expedition in 297. When campaigns by Severus and Galerius in late 306 or early 307 and in the summer of 307, respectively, failed to dislodge Maxentius who, with the luke warm support of his father Maximianus Herculius, was acclaimed princeps on 28 October 306, he was sent by the eastern emperor to Maxentius as an ambassador; the diplomatic mission, however, failed because the usurper refused to submit to the authority of his father-in-law Galerius. At the Conference of Carnuntum which was held in October or November of 308, Licinius was made an Augustus on 11 November 308; his realm included Thrace, Illyricum, and Pannonia.

Licinius' Early Reign

Although Licinius was initially appointed by Galerius to replace Severus to end the revolt of Maxentius , Licinius (perhaps wisely) made no effort to move against the usurper. In fact, his first attested victory was against the Sarmatians probably in the late spring, but no later than the end of June in 310. When the Emperor Galerius died in 311, Licinius met Maximinus Daia at the Bosporus during the early summer of that year; they concluded a treaty and divided Galerius' realm between them. It was little more than a year later that the Emperor Constantine defeated Maxentius at the Battle of the Milvian Bridge on 28 October 312. After the defeat of the usurper, Constantine and Licinius met at Mediolanum (Milan) where Licinius married the former's sister Constantia; one child was born of this union: Valerius Licinianus Licinius. Licinius had another son, born of a slave woman, whose name is unknown. It appears that both emperors promulgated the so-called Edict of Milan, in which Constantine and Licinius granted Christians the freedom to practice their faith without any interference from the state.

As soon as he seems to have learned about the marital alliance between Licinius and Constantine and the death of Maxentius, who had been his ally, Daia traversed Asia Minor and, in April 313, he crossed the Bosporus and went to Byzantium, which he took from Licinius after an eleven day siege. On 30 April 313 the armies of both emperors clashed on the Campus Ergenus; in the ensuing battle Daia's forces were routed. A last ditch stand by Daia at the Cilician Gates failed; the eastern emperor subsequently died in the area of Tarsus probably in July or August 313. As soon as he arrived in Nicomedeia, Licinius promulgated the Edict of Milan. As soon as he had matters in Nicomedeia straightened out, Licinius campaigned against the Persians in the remaining part of 313 and the opening months of 314.

The First Civil War Between Licinius and Constantine

Once Licinius had defeated Maximinus Daia, the sole rulers of the Roman world were he and Constantine. It is obvious that the marriage of Licinius to Constantia was simply a union of convenience. In any case, there is evidence in the sources that both emperors were looking for an excuse to attack the other. The affair involving Bassianus (the husband of Constantius I's daughter Anastasia ), mentioned in the text of Anonymus Valesianus (5.14ff), may have sparked the falling out between the two emperors. In any case, Constantine' s forces joined battle with those of Licinius at Cibalae in Pannonia on 8 October 314. When the battle was over, Constantine prevailed; his victory, however, was Pyrrhic. Both emperors had been involved in exhausting military campaigns in the previous year and the months leading up to Cibalae and each of their realms had expanded so fast that their manpower reserves must have been stretched to the limit. Both men retreated to their own territory to lick their wounds. It may well be that the two emperors made an agreement, which has left no direct trace in the historical record, which would effectively restore the status quo.

Both emperors were variously engaged in different activities between 315 and 316. In addition to campaigning against the Germans while residing in Augusta Treverorum (Trier) in 315, Constantine dealt with aspects of the Donatist controversy; he also traveled to Rome where he celebrated his Decennalia. Licinius, possibly residing at Sirmium, was probably waging war against the Goths. Although not much else is known about Licinius' activities during this period, it is probable that he spent much of his time preparing for his impending war against Constantine; the latter,who spent the spring and summer of 316 in Augusta Treverorum, was probably doing much the same thing. In any case, by December 316, the western emperor was in Sardica with his army. Sometime between 1 December and 28 February 317, both emperors' armies joined battle on the Campus Ardiensis; as was the case in the previous engagement, Constantine' s forces were victorious. On 1 March 317, both sides agreed to a cessation of hostilities; possibly because of the intervention of his wife Constantia, Licinius was able to keep his throne, although he had to agree to the execution of his colleague Valens, who the eastern emperor had appointed as his colleague before the battle, as well as to cede some of his territory to his brother-in-law.

Licinius and the Christians

Although the historical record is not completely clear, Licinius seems to have campaigned against the Sarmatians in 318. He also appears to have been in Byzantium in the summer of 318 and later in June 323. Beyond these few facts, not much else is known about his residences until mid summer of 324. Although he and Constantine had issued the Edict of Milan in early 313, Licinius turned on the Christians in his realm seemingly in 320. The first law that Licinius issued prevented bishops from communicating with each other and from holding synods to discuss matters of interest to them. The second law prohibited men and women from attending services together and young girls from receiving instruction from their bishop or schools. When this law was issued, he also gave orders that Christians could hold services only outside of city walls. Additionally, he deprived officers in the army of their commissions if they did not sacrifice to the gods. Licinius may have been trying to incite Constantine to attack him. In any case, the growing tension between the two rulers is reflected in the consular Fasti of the period.

The Second Civil War Between Licinius and Constantine and Licinius' Death

War actually broke out in 321 when Constantine pursued some Sarmatians, who had been ravaging some territory in his realm, across the Danube. When he checked a similar invasion of the Goths, who were devastating Thrace, Licinius complained that Constantine had broken the treaty between them. Having assembled a fleet and army at Thessalonica, Constantine advanced toward Adrianople. Licinius engaged the forces of his brother-in-law near the banks of the Hebrus River on 3 July 324 where he was routed; with as many men as he could gather, he headed for his fleet which was in the Hellespont. Those of his soldiers who were not killed or put to flight, surrendered to the enemy. Licinius fled to Byzantium, where he was besieged by Constantine. Licinius' fleet, under the command of the admiral Abantus, was overcome by bad weather and by Constantine' s fleet which was under the command of his son Crispus. Hard pressed in Byzantium, Licinius abandoned the city to his rival and fled to Chalcedon in Bithynia. Leaving Martinianus, his former magister officiorum and now his co-ruler, to impede Constantine' s progress, Licinius regrouped his forces and engaged his enemy at Chrysopolis where he was again routed on 18 September 324. He fled to Nicomedeia which Constantine began to besiege. On the next day Licinius abdicated and was sent to Thessalonica, where he was kept under house arrest. Both Licinius and his associate were put to death by Constantine. Martinianus may have been put to death before the end of 324, whereas Licinius was not put to death until the spring of 325. Rumors circulated that Licinius had been put to death because he attempted another rebellion against Constantine.

Copyright (C) 1996, Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
Licin1AEFolJupiAlex.jpg
1308c, Licinius I, 308-324 A.D. (Alexandria)71 viewsLicinius I, 308-324 A.D. AE Follis, 3.60g, VF, 315 A.D., Alexandria. Obverse: IMP C VAL LICIN LICINIVS P F AVG - Laureate head right; Reverse: IOVI CONS-ERVATORI AVGG - Jupiter standing left, holding Victory on a globe and scepter; exergue: ALE / (wreath) over "B" over "N." Ref: RIC VII, 10 (B = r2) Rare, page 705 - Hunterian Museum, Glasgow, Scotland.


De Imperatoribus Romanis : An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Licinius (308-324 A.D.)

Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Salve Regina University

Licinius' Heritage

Valerius Licinianus Licinius, more commonly known as Licinius, may have been born ca. 265. Of peasant origin, his family was from Dacia. A close friend and comrade of arms of the Emperor Galerius, he accompanied him on his Persian expedition in 297. When campaigns by Severus and Galerius in late 306 or early 307 and in the summer of 307, respectively, failed to dislodge Maxentius who, with the luke warm support of his father Maximianus Herculius, was acclaimed princeps on 28 October 306, he was sent by the eastern emperor to Maxentius as an ambassador; the diplomatic mission, however, failed because the usurper refused to submit to the authority of his father-in-law Galerius. At the Conference of Carnuntum which was held in October or November of 308, Licinius was made an Augustus on 11 November 308; his realm included Thrace, Illyricum, and Pannonia.

Licinius' Early Reign

Although Licinius was initially appointed by Galerius to replace Severus to end the revolt of Maxentius , Licinius (perhaps wisely) made no effort to move against the usurper. In fact, his first attested victory was against the Sarmatians probably in the late spring, but no later than the end of June in 310. When the Emperor Galerius died in 311, Licinius met Maximinus Daia at the Bosporus during the early summer of that year; they concluded a treaty and divided Galerius' realm between them. It was little more than a year later that the Emperor Constantine defeated Maxentius at the Battle of the Milvian Bridge on 28 October 312. After the defeat of the usurper, Constantine and Licinius met at Mediolanum (Milan) where Licinius married the former's sister Constantia; one child was born of this union: Valerius Licinianus Licinius. Licinius had another son, born of a slave woman, whose name is unknown. It appears that both emperors promulgated the so-called Edict of Milan, in which Constantine and Licinius granted Christians the freedom to practice their faith without any interference from the state.

As soon as he seems to have learned about the marital alliance between Licinius and Constantine and the death of Maxentius, who had been his ally, Daia traversed Asia Minor and, in April 313, he crossed the Bosporus and went to Byzantium, which he took from Licinius after an eleven day siege. On 30 April 313 the armies of both emperors clashed on the Campus Ergenus; in the ensuing battle Daia's forces were routed. A last ditch stand by Daia at the Cilician Gates failed; the eastern emperor subsequently died in the area of Tarsus probably in July or August 313. As soon as he arrived in Nicomedeia, Licinius promulgated the Edict of Milan. As soon as he had matters in Nicomedeia straightened out, Licinius campaigned against the Persians in the remaining part of 313 and the opening months of 314.

The First Civil War Between Licinius and Constantine

Once Licinius had defeated Maximinus Daia, the sole rulers of the Roman world were he and Constantine. It is obvious that the marriage of Licinius to Constantia was simply a union of convenience. In any case, there is evidence in the sources that both emperors were looking for an excuse to attack the other. The affair involving Bassianus (the husband of Constantius I's daughter Anastasia ), mentioned in the text of Anonymus Valesianus (5.14ff), may have sparked the falling out between the two emperors. In any case, Constantine' s forces joined battle with those of Licinius at Cibalae in Pannonia on 8 October 314. When the battle was over, Constantine prevailed; his victory, however, was Pyrrhic. Both emperors had been involved in exhausting military campaigns in the previous year and the months leading up to Cibalae and each of their realms had expanded so fast that their manpower reserves must have been stretched to the limit. Both men retreated to their own territory to lick their wounds. It may well be that the two emperors made an agreement, which has left no direct trace in the historical record, which would effectively restore the status quo.

Both emperors were variously engaged in different activities between 315 and 316. In addition to campaigning against the Germans while residing in Augusta Treverorum (Trier) in 315, Constantine dealt with aspects of the Donatist controversy; he also traveled to Rome where he celebrated his Decennalia. Licinius, possibly residing at Sirmium, was probably waging war against the Goths. Although not much else is known about Licinius' activities during this period, it is probable that he spent much of his time preparing for his impending war against Constantine; the latter,who spent the spring and summer of 316 in Augusta Treverorum, was probably doing much the same thing. In any case, by December 316, the western emperor was in Sardica with his army. Sometime between 1 December and 28 February 317, both emperors' armies joined battle on the Campus Ardiensis; as was the case in the previous engagement, Constantine' s forces were victorious. On 1 March 317, both sides agreed to a cessation of hostilities; possibly because of the intervention of his wife Constantia, Licinius was able to keep his throne, although he had to agree to the execution of his colleague Valens, who the eastern emperor had appointed as his colleague before the battle, as well as to cede some of his territory to his brother-in-law.

Licinius and the Christians

Although the historical record is not completely clear, Licinius seems to have campaigned against the Sarmatians in 318. He also appears to have been in Byzantium in the summer of 318 and later in June 323. Beyond these few facts, not much else is known about his residences until mid summer of 324. Although he and Constantine had issued the Edict of Milan in early 313, Licinius turned on the Christians in his realm seemingly in 320. The first law that Licinius issued prevented bishops from communicating with each other and from holding synods to discuss matters of interest to them. The second law prohibited men and women from attending services together and young girls from receiving instruction from their bishop or schools. When this law was issued, he also gave orders that Christians could hold services only outside of city walls. Additionally, he deprived officers in the army of their commissions if they did not sacrifice to the gods. Licinius may have been trying to incite Constantine to attack him. In any case, the growing tension between the two rulers is reflected in the consular Fasti of the period.

The Second Civil War Between Licinius and Constantine and Licinius' Death

War actually broke out in 321 when Constantine pursued some Sarmatians, who had been ravaging some territory in his realm, across the Danube. When he checked a similar invasion of the Goths, who were devastating Thrace, Licinius complained that Constantine had broken the treaty between them. Having assembled a fleet and army at Thessalonica, Constantine advanced toward Adrianople. Licinius engaged the forces of his brother-in-law near the banks of the Hebrus River on 3 July 324 where he was routed; with as many men as he could gather, he headed for his fleet which was in the Hellespont. Those of his soldiers who were not killed or put to flight, surrendered to the enemy. Licinius fled to Byzantium, where he was besieged by Constantine. Licinius' fleet, under the command of the admiral Abantus, was overcome by bad weather and by Constantine' s fleet which was under the command of his son Crispus. Hard pressed in Byzantium, Licinius abandoned the city to his rival and fled to Chalcedon in Bithynia. Leaving Martinianus, his former magister officiorum and now his co-ruler, to impede Constantine' s progress, Licinius regrouped his forces and engaged his enemy at Chrysopolis where he was again routed on 18 September 324. He fled to Nicomedeia which Constantine began to besiege. On the next day Licinius abdicated and was sent to Thessalonica, where he was kept under house arrest. Both Licinius and his associate were put to death by Constantine. Martinianus may have been put to death before the end of 324, whereas Licinius was not put to death until the spring of 325. Rumors circulated that Licinius had been put to death because he attempted another rebellion against Constantine.

Copyright (C) 1996, Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
tiberius as.jpg
14-37 AD - TIBERIUS AE as - struck 22-23 AD39 viewsobv: TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVST IMP VIII (bare head left)
rev: PONTIF MAXIM TRIBVN POTEST XXIII around large S.C.
ref: RIC I 44, C.24 (5 frcs), BMC91
9.44gms, 27mm

In 6 AD Tiberius was in Carnuntum military camp. He led at least eight legions (VIII Augusta from Pannonia, XV Apollinaris and XX Valeria Victrix from Illyricum, XXI Rapax from Raetia, XIII Gemina, XIV Gemina and XVI Gallica from Germania Superior and an unknown unit) against king Maroboduus of the Marcomanni in Bohemia (Czechia). At the same time, I Germanica, V Alaudae, XVII, XVIII and XIX, - led by Caius Sentius Saturninus (governor of Germania) -, moved against Maroboduus along the Elbe. Saturninus led his forces across the country of the Chatti, and, cutting his way through the Hercynian forest, joining Tiberius on the north bank of the Danube, and both wanted to make a combined attack within a few leagues from the Marcomannic capital Boviasmum. It was the most grandiose operation that ever conducted by a Roman army, but a rebellion in Illyria obstructed its final execution.
berserker
Theo1Ae3Ant.jpeg
1505b, Theodosius I, 19 January 379 - 17 January 395 A.D. (Antioch)75 viewsTheodosius I, 19 January 379 - 17 January 395 A.D. Bronze AE 3, RIC 44(b), VF, Antioch, 2.17g, 18.1mm, 180o, 9 Aug 378 - 25 Aug 383 A.D. Obverse: D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG, rosette-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: CONCORDIA AVGGG, Constantinopolis enthroned facing, r. foot on prow, globe in l., scepter in r., Q and F at sides, ANTG in ex; scarce.


De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

THEODOSIUS I (379-395 A.D.)
David Woods
University College of Cork


Origin and Early Career
Flavius Theodosius was born at Cauca in Spain in about 346 to Thermantia and Theodosius the Elder (so-called to distinguish him from his son). Theodosius the Elder was a senior military officer serving in the Western empire and rose to become the magister equitum praesentalis under the emperor Valentinian I from late 368 until his execution in early 375. As the son of a soldier, Theodosius was legally obliged to enter upon a military career. He seems to have served under his father during his expedition to Britain in 367/8, and was the dux Moesiae Primae by late 374. Unfortunately, great controversy surrounds the rest of his career until Gratian had him hailed as his imperial colleague in succession to the emperor Valens at Sirmium on 19 January 379. It is clear that he was forced to retire home to Spain only to be recalled to active service shortly thereafter, but the circumstances of his forced retirement are shrouded in mystery. His father was executed at roughly the same time, and much speculation has centred on the relationship between these events.

[For a very detailed and interesting discussion of the Foreign Policy of Theodosius and the Civil Wars that plagued his reign, please see http://www.roman-emperors.org/theo1.htm]

Family and Succession
Theodosius married twice. His first wife was the Spanish Aelia Flavia Flaccilla. She bore him Arcadius ca. 377, Honorius on 9 September 384, and Pulcheria ca. 385. Theodosius honoured her with the title of Augusta shortly after his accession, but she died in 386. In late 387 he married Galla, daughter of Valentinian I and full-sister of Valentinian II. She bore him Gratian ca. 388, Galla Placidia ca. 388/390, and died in childbirth in 394, together with her new-born son John. Of his two sons who survived infancy, he appointed Arcadius as Augustus on 19 January 383 and Honorius as Augustus on 23 January 393. His promotion of Arcadius as a full Augustus at an unusually young age points to his determination right from the start that one of his own sons should succeed him. He sought to strengthen Arcadius' position in particular by means of a series of strategic marriages whose purpose was to tie his leading "generals" irrevocably to his dynasty. Hence he married his niece and adoptive daughter Serena to his magister militum per Orientem Stilicho in 387, her elder sister Thermantia to a "general" whose name has not been preserved, and ca. 387 his nephew-in-law Nebridius to Salvina, daughter of the comes Africae Gildo. By the time of his death by illness on 17 January 395, Theodosius had promoted Stilicho from his position as one of the two comites domesticorum under his own eastern administration to that of magister peditum praesentalis in a western administration, in an entirely traditional manner, under his younger son Honorius. Although Stilicho managed to increase the power of the magister peditum praesentalis to the disadvantage of his colleague the magister equitum praesentalis and claimed that Theodosius had appointed him as guardian for both his sons, this tells us more about his cunning and ambition than it does about Theodosius' constitutional arrangements.

Theodosius' importance rests on the fact that he founded a dynasty which continued in power until the death of his grandson Theodosius II in 450. This ensured a continuity of policy which saw the emergence of Nicene Christianity as the orthodox belief of the vast majority of Christians throughout the middle ages. It also ensured the essential destruction of paganism and the emergence of Christianity as the religion of the state, even if the individual steps in this process can be difficult to identify. On the negative side, however, he allowed his dynastic interests and ambitions to lead him into two unnecessary and bloody civil wars which severely weakened the empire's ability to defend itself in the face of continued barbarian pressure upon its frontiers. In this manner, he put the interests of his family before those of the wider Roman population and was responsible, in many ways, for the phenomenon to which we now refer as the fall of the western Roman empire.


Copyright (C) 1998, David Woods.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

There is a nice segue here, as we pick-up John Julius Norwich's summation of the reign of Theodosius, "Readers of this brief account of his career may well find themselves wondering, not so much whether he deserved the title of 'the Great' as how he ever came to acquire it in the first place. If so, however, they may also like to ask themselves another question: what would have been the fate of the Empire if, at that critical moment in its history after the battle of Adrianople, young Gratian had not called him from his Spanish estates and put the future of the East into his hands? . . . the probability is that the whole Empire of the East would have been lost, swallowed up in a revived Gothic kingdom, with effects on world history that defy speculation.

In his civil legislation he showed, again and again, a consideration for the humblest of his subjects that was rare indeed among rulers of the fourth century. What other prince would have decreed that any criminal, sentenced to execution, imprisonment or exile, must first be allowed thirty days' grace to put his affairs in order? Or that a specified part of his worldly goods must go to his children, upon whom their father's crimes must on no account be visited? Or that no farmer should be obliged to sell his produce to the State at a price lower than he would receive on the open market?

Had he earned his title? Not, perhaps, in the way that Constantine had done or as Justinian was to do. But, if not ultimately great himself, he had surely come very close to greatness; and had he reigned as long as they did his achievements might well have equalled theirs. He might even have saved the Western Empire. One thing only is certain: it would be nearly a century and a half before the Romans would look upon his like again" (Norwich, John Julius. Byzantium, the Early Centuries. London: Penguin Group, 1990. 116-7;118).

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.



Cleisthenes
Theod1GlrMan.jpg
1505c, Theodosius I, 379 - 395 A.D. (Constantinople)84 viewsTheodosius I (379 - 395 AD) AE3. 388-394 AD, RIC IX 27(a)3, Third Officina. Seventh Period. 20.27 mm. 4.8gm. Near VF with black and earthen patina. Constantinople. Obverse: DN THEODO-SIANVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped, & cuirassed bust right; Reverse: GLORIA-ROMANORVM, Theodosius I standing, facing, holding labarum and globe, CONSB in exergue (scarcer reverse). A Spanish find.



De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

THEODOSIUS I (379-395 A.D.)
David Woods
University College of Cork


Origin and Early Career
Flavius Theodosius was born at Cauca in Spain in about 346 to Thermantia and Theodosius the Elder (so-called to distinguish him from his son). Theodosius the Elder was a senior military officer serving in the Western empire and rose to become the magister equitum praesentalis under the emperor Valentinian I from late 368 until his execution in early 375. As the son of a soldier, Theodosius was legally obliged to enter upon a military career. He seems to have served under his father during his expedition to Britain in 367/8, and was the dux Moesiae Primae by late 374. Unfortunately, great controversy surrounds the rest of his career until Gratian had him hailed as his imperial colleague in succession to the emperor Valens at Sirmium on 19 January 379. It is clear that he was forced to retire home to Spain only to be recalled to active service shortly thereafter, but the circumstances of his forced retirement are shrouded in mystery. His father was executed at roughly the same time, and much speculation has centred on the relationship between these events.

[For a very detailed and interesting discussion of the Foreign Policy of Theodosius and the Civil Wars that plagued his reign, please see http://www.roman-emperors.org/theo1.htm]

Family and Succession
Theodosius married twice. His first wife was the Spanish Aelia Flavia Flaccilla. She bore him Arcadius ca. 377, Honorius on 9 September 384, and Pulcheria ca. 385. Theodosius honoured her with the title of Augusta shortly after his accession, but she died in 386. In late 387 he married Galla, daughter of Valentinian I and full-sister of Valentinian II. She bore him Gratian ca. 388, Galla Placidia ca. 388/390, and died in childbirth in 394, together with her new-born son John. Of his two sons who survived infancy, he appointed Arcadius as Augustus on 19 January 383 and Honorius as Augustus on 23 January 393. His promotion of Arcadius as a full Augustus at an unusually young age points to his determination right from the start that one of his own sons should succeed him. He sought to strengthen Arcadius' position in particular by means of a series of strategic marriages whose purpose was to tie his leading "generals" irrevocably to his dynasty. Hence he married his niece and adoptive daughter Serena to his magister militum per Orientem Stilicho in 387, her elder sister Thermantia to a "general" whose name has not been preserved, and ca. 387 his nephew-in-law Nebridius to Salvina, daughter of the comes Africae Gildo. By the time of his death by illness on 17 January 395, Theodosius had promoted Stilicho from his position as one of the two comites domesticorum under his own eastern administration to that of magister peditum praesentalis in a western administration, in an entirely traditional manner, under his younger son Honorius. Although Stilicho managed to increase the power of the magister peditum praesentalis to the disadvantage of his colleague the magister equitum praesentalis and claimed that Theodosius had appointed him as guardian for both his sons, this tells us more about his cunning and ambition than it does about Theodosius' constitutional arrangements.

Theodosius' importance rests on the fact that he founded a dynasty which continued in power until the death of his grandson Theodosius II in 450. This ensured a continuity of policy which saw the emergence of Nicene Christianity as the orthodox belief of the vast majority of Christians throughout the middle ages. It also ensured the essential destruction of paganism and the emergence of Christianity as the religion of the state, even if the individual steps in this process can be difficult to identify. On the negative side, however, he allowed his dynastic interests and ambitions to lead him into two unnecessary and bloody civil wars which severely weakened the empire's ability to defend itself in the face of continued barbarian pressure upon its frontiers. In this manner, he put the interests of his family before those of the wider Roman population and was responsible, in many ways, for the phenomenon to which we now refer as the fall of the western Roman empire.


Copyright (C) 1998, David Woods.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

There is a nice segue here, as we pick-up John Julius Norwich's summation of the reign of Theodosius, "Readers of this brief account of his career may well find themselves wondering, not so much whether he deserved the title of 'the Great' as how he ever came to acquire it in the first place. If so, however, they may also like to ask themselves another question: what would have been the fate of the Empire if, at that critical moment in its history after the battle of Adrianople, young Gratian had not called him from his Spanish estates and put the future of the East into his hands? . . . the probability is that the whole Empire of the East would have been lost, swallowed up in a revived Gothic kingdom, with effects on world history that defy speculation.

In his civil legislation he showed, again and again, a consideration for the humblest of his subjects that was rare indeed among rulers of the fourth century. What other prince would have decreed that any criminal, sentenced to execution, imprisonment or exile, must first be allowed thirty days' grace to put his affairs in order? Or that a specified part of his worldly goods must go to his children, upon whom their father's crimes must on no account be visited? Or that no farmer should be obliged to sell his produce to the State at a price lower than he would receive on the open market?

Had he earned his title? Not, perhaps, in the way that Constantine had done or as Justinian was to do. But, if not ultimately great himself, he had surely come very close to greatness; and had he reigned as long as they did his achievements might well have equalled theirs. He might even have saved the Western Empire. One thing only is certain: it would be nearly a century and a half before the Romans would look upon his like again" (Norwich, John Julius. Byzantium, the Early Centuries. London: Penguin Group, 1990. 116-7;118).

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
commodus RIC666v(M.Aurelius).jpg
177-192 AD - COMMODUS AR denarius - struck 179 AD40 viewsobv: L AVREL COMMODVS AVG (laureate head right)
rev: TR P IIII IMP III COS II PP (Victory seated left with patera & palm)
ref: RIC III 666 [M.Aurelius] (Var.), C. 775
3.31gms,17mm
Rare

History: December 177 AD Commodus was raised to the rank of Augustus as colleague with Aurelius. Spring 179 AD victory of Tarrutenius Paternus – the Pretorian Prefect - at the Danube in the Expeditio Germanica Secunda. This coin struck in spring of 179 AD and as describe in RIC666 the bust is bare head, but here laureated – not in RIC.
berserker
commodus_RIC74.jpg
177-192 AD - COMMODUS AR denarius - struck 183-184 AD34 viewsobv: M.COMMODVS ANTONINVS AVG PIVS (laureate head right)
rev: TRP VIIII IMP VI COS IIII PP (Felicitas standing left holding caduceus & cornucopiae, modius at foot left)
ref: RIC III 74, RSC 445
3.01gms, 16mm

Commodus was inaugurated in 183 as consul (IV) with Aufidius Victorinus for a colleague and assumed the title 'Pius'. The adoption of the title Pius by Commodus looks like a direct appeal to the memory of the beloved Antoninus.
Felicity's image occurs on almost all the imperial series coins; because the senate professed to wish that all princes should consider it their duty to promote public happiness, and also because those princes themselves were peculiarly desirous of having it regarded as a blessing attached to their own reign.
berserker
Lepidus_Antony_Quinarius.jpg
1af Lepidus_214 viewsQuinarius

M LEP IMP, simpulum, aspergillum, axe (surmounted by wolf's head) & ape

M ANT IMP, lituus, capis (jug) and raven

Military mint with Marcus Aemilius Lepidus & Antony in Transalpine Gaul, 44-42 BC

Cr489/3, Syd 1158a

Lepidus was a member of the Second Triumvirate.

According to Plutarch's Life of Pompey: Sulla, however, was annoyed at seeing to what a height of reputation and power Pompey was advancing, but being ashamed to obstruct his career, he kept quiet. Only, when in spite of him and against his wishes Pompey made Lepidus consul, by canvassing for him and making the people zealously support him through their goodwill towards himself, seeing Pompey going off through the forum with a throng, Sulla said: "I see, young man, that you rejoice in your victory; and surely it was a generous and noble thing for Lepidus, the worst of men, to be proclaimed consul by a larger vote than Catulus, the best of men, because you influenced the people to take this course. Now, however, it is time for you to be wide awake and watchful of your interests; you have made your adversary stronger than yourself." But Sulla showed most clearly that he was not well-disposed to Pompey by the will which he wrote. For whereas he bequeathed gifts to other friends, and made some of them guardians of his son, he omitted all mention of Pompey. And yet Pompey bore this with great composure, and loyally, insomuch that when Lepidus and sundry others tried to prevent the body of Sulla from being buried in the Campus Martius, or even from receiving public burial honours, he came to the rescue, and gave to the interment alike honour and security.

Soon after the death of Sulla, his prophecies were fulfilled, and Lepidus tried to assume Sulla's powers. He took no circuitous route and used no pretence, but appeared at once in arms, stirring up anew and gathering about himself the remnants of faction, long enfeebled, which had escaped the hand of Sulla. His colleague, Catulus, to whom the incorrupt and sounder element in the senate and people attached themselves, was the great Roman of the time in the estimate set upon his wisdom and justice, but was thought better adapted for political than military leadership. The situation itself, therefore, demanded Pompey, who was not long in deciding what course to take. He took the side of the nobility, and was appointed commander of an army against Lepidus, who had already stirred up a large part of Italy and was employing Brutus to hold Cisalpine Gaul with an army.

Other opponents against whom Pompey came were easily mastered by him, but at Mutina, in Gaul, he lay a long while besieging Brutus. Meanwhile, Lepidus had made a hasty rush upon Rome, and sitting down before it, was demanding a second consulship, and terrifying the citizens with a vast throng of followers. But their fear was dissipated by a letter brought from Pompey, announcing that he had brought the war to a close without a battle. For Brutus, whether he himself betrayed his army, or whether his army changed sides and betrayed him, put himself in the hands of Pompey, and receiving an escort of horsemen, retired to a little town upon the Po. Here, after a single day had passed, he was slain by Geminius, who was sent by Pompey to do the deed. And Pompey was much blamed for this. For as soon as the army of Brutus changed sides, he wrote to the senate that Brutus had surrendered to him of his own accord; then he sent another letter denouncing the man after he had been put to death. The Brutus who, with Cassius, killed Caesar, was a son of this Brutus, a man who was like his father neither in his wars nor in his death, as is written in his Life. As for Lepidus, moreover, as soon as he was expelled from Italy, he made his way over to Sardinia. There he fell sick and died of despondency, which was due, as we are told, not to the loss of his cause, but to his coming accidentally upon a writing from which he discovered that his wife was an adulteress.
Blindado
TitusProv.jpg
1ax Titus96 views79-81

AE, Ankyra, Galatia
Laureate head, right AY KAICAP TITOC CEBASTO. . .
Man standing, left, SEBASTHNWN TEKTOSAGWN

RPC 1620

By Suetonius' account: Titus, surnamed Vespasianus like his father, possessed such an aptitude, by nature, nurture, or good fortune, for winning affection that he was loved and adored by all the world as Emperor. . . . He was born on the 30th of December AD41, the very year of Caligula’s assassination, in a little dingy room of a humble dwelling, near the Septizonium. . . .

He was handsome, graceful, and dignified, and of exceptional strength, though of no great height and rather full-bellied. He had an extraordinary memory, and an aptitude for virtually all the arts of war and peace, being a fine horseman, skilled in the use of weapons, yet penning impromptu verses in Greek and Latin with equal readiness and facility. He had a grasp of music too, singing well and playing the harp pleasantly and with ability. . . .

As military tribune in Germany (c57-59AD) and Britain (c60-62), he won an excellent reputation for energy and integrity, as is shown by the large number of inscribed statues and busts of him found in both countries. . . . When his quaestorship ended, he commanded one of his father’s legions in Judaea, capturing the strongholds of Tarichaeae and Gamala (67AD). His horse was killed under him in battle, but he mounted that of a comrade who fell fighting at his side. . . . [Upon] Vespasian’s accession, his father left him to complete the conquest of Judaea, and in the final assault on Jerusalem (70AD) Titus killed twelve of the defenders with as many arrows. . . .

From then on, he acted as his father’s colleague and even protector. He shared in his Judaean triumph (of AD 71), the censorship (AD 73), the exercise of tribunicial power, and in seven of his consulships (AD 70, 72, 74-77, 79). . . .

He died at the same villa as his father, Vespasian, on the 13th of September AD81, at the age of forty-one, after a reign of two years, two months, and twenty days. The people mourned his loss as if he were a member of their own family.
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MarcAurelSestSalus.jpg
1bj Marcus Aurelius98 views161-180

Sestertius

Laureate head, right, IMP CAES M AVREL ANTONINVS AVG PM
Salus stg, SALVTI AVGVSTOR TR P XVII COS III SC

RIC 843

The Historia Augusta relates: He was reared under the eye of Hadrian, who called him Verissimus. . . . And so he was adopted in his eighteenth year, and at the instance of Hadrian exception was made for his age and he was appointed quaestor for the year of the second consulship of Antoninus [Pius], now his father. . . . After Hadrian's death, Pius immediately got his wife to ask Marcus if he would break off his betrothal to the daughter of Lucius Commodus and marry their own daughter Faustina (whom Hadrian had wanted to marry Commodus' son, even though he was badly matched in age). After thinking the matter over, Marcus replied he was willing. And when this was done, Pius designated him as his colleague in the consulship, though he was still only quaestor, gave him the title of Caesar. . . .

When Antoninus Pius saw that the end of his life was drawing near, having summoned his friends and prefects, he commended Marcus to them all and formally named him as his successor in the empire. . . . Being forced by the senate to assume the government of the state after the death of the Deified Pius, Marcus made his brother his colleague in the empire, giving him the name Lucius Aurelius Verus Commodus and bestowing on him the titles Caesar and Augustus.

Eutropius summarizes: They carried on a war against the Parthians, who then rebelled for the first time since their subjugation by Trajan. Verus Antoninus went out to conduct that war, and, remaining at Antioch and about Armenia, effected many important achievements by the agency of his generals; he took Seleucia, the most eminent city of Assyria, with forty thousand prisoners; he brought off materials for a triumph over the Parthians, and celebrated it in conjunction with his brother, who was also his father-in-law. He died in Venetia. . . . After him MARCUS ANTONINUS held the government alone, a man whom any one may more easily admire than sufficiently commend. He was, from his earliest years, of a most tranquil disposition; so that even in his infancy he changed countenance neither for joy nor for sorrow. He was devoted to the Stoic philosophy, and was himself a philosopher, not only in his way of life, but in learning. . . .

Under his rule affairs were successfully conducted against the Germans. He himself carried on one war with the Marcomanni, but this was greater than any in the memory of man,so that it is compared to the Punic wars. . . . Having persevered, therefore, with the greatest labour and patience, for three whole years at Carnuntum,14 he brought the Marcomannic war to an end; a war which the Quadi, Vandals, Sarmatians, Suevi, and all the barbarians in that quarter, had joined with the Marcomanni in raising; he killed several thousand men, and, having delivered the Pannonians from slavery, triumphed a second time at Rome with his son Commodus Antoninus, whom he had previously made Caesar. . . . Having, then, rendered the state happy, both by his excellent management and gentleness of disposition, he died in the eighteenth year of his reign and the sixty-first of his life, and was enrolled among the gods, all unanimously voting that such honour should be paid him.
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DidJulSestConMil.jpg
1bq Didius Julianus93 views193

Sestertius

Laureate head, right, IMP CAES M DID SEVER IVLIAN AVG
Concorde w/ standard, CONCORDIA MILIT SC

RIC 14

According to the Historia Augusta: Didius Julianus. . . was reared at the home of Domitia Lucilla, the mother of the Emperor Marcus. . . . [T]hrough the support of Marcus he attained to the office of aedile [and] praetor. After his praetorship he commanded the XXII Legion, the Primigenia, in Germany, and following that he ruled Belgium long and well. Here, with auxiliaries hastily levied from the provinces, he held out against the Chauci as they attempted to burst through the border; and for these services, on the recommendation of the Emperor, he was deemed worthy of the consulship. He also gained a crushing victory over the Chatti. Next he took charge of Dalmatia and cleared it of the hostile tribes on its borders. Then he governed Lower Germany. . . .

His consulship he served with Pertinax; in the proconsulship of Africa, moreover, he succeeded him. Pertinax always spoke of him as his colleague and successor. After [Pertinax'] death, when Sulpicianus was making plans to be hailed emperor in the camp, Julianus, together with his son-in-law, . . . discovered two tribunes, Publius Florianus and Vectius Aper, who immediately began urging him to seize the throne; and. . . conducted him to the praetorian camp. When they arrived at the camp, however, Sulpicianus, the prefect of the city and the father-in-law of Pertinax, was holding an assembly and claiming the empire himself, and no one would let Julianus inside, despite the huge promises he made from outside the wall. Julianus then . . . wrote on placards that he would restore the good name of Commodus; so he was admitted and proclaimed emperor. . . .

Julianus had no fear of either the British or the Illyrian army; but being chiefly afraid of the Syrian army, he despatched a centurion of the first rank with orders to murder Niger. Consequently Pescennius Niger in Syria and Septimius Severus in Illyricum, together with the armies which they commanded, revolted from Julianus. But when he received the news of the revolt of Severus, whom he had not suspected, then he was greatly troubled and came to the senate and prevailed upon them to declare Severus a public enemy. . . . Severus was approaching the city with a hostile army. . . and the populace hated and laughed at him more and more every day.

In a short time Julianus was deserted by all and left alone in the Palace with one of his prefects, Genialis, and with Repentinus, his son-in-law. Finally, it was propose'd that the imperial power be taken away from Julianus by order of the senate. This was done, and Severus was forthwith acclaimed emperor, while it was given out that Julianus had taken poison. Nevertheless, the senate despatched a delegation and through their efforts Julianus was slain in the Palace by a common soldier. . . .
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1cy Gallienus17 views253-268

Bronze antoninianus

Radiate, draped bust, right, GALLINVS AVG
Mars standing left, holding globe in right hand and spear in left hand, P in right field, VIRTVS AVG

RIC 317

Gallienus oversaw a period of disintegration of the empire and lost control over the East, Gaul, Spain, and Britain.

Zosimus observed: [When Valerian left for the East] As the Germans were the most troublesome enemies, and harrassed the Gauls in the vicinity of the Rhine, Gallienus marched against them in person, leaving his officers to repel with the forces under their command any others that should enter Italy, Illyricum, and Greece. With these designs, he possessed himself of and defended the passages of the Rhine, at one time preventing their crossing, and at another engaging them as soon as they had crossed it. But having only a small force to resist an immense number, he was at a loss how to act, and thought to secure himself by a league with one of the German princes. He thus not only prevented the other Barbarians from so frequently passing the Rhine, but obstructed the access of auxiliaries.

Eutropius recorded: Gallienus, who was made emperor when quite a young man, exercised his power at first happily, afterwards fairly, and at last mischievously. In his youth he performed many gallant acts in Gaul and Illyricum, killing Ingenuus, who had assumed the purple, at Mursa, and Regalianus. He was then for a long time quiet and gentle; afterwards, abandoning himself to all manner of licentiousness, he relaxed the reins of government with disgraceful inactivity and carelesness. The Alemanni, having laid waste Gaul, penetrated into Italy. Dacia, which had been added to the empire beyond the Danube, was lost. Greece, Macedonia, Pontus, Asia, were devastated by the Goths. Pannonia was depopulated by the Sarmatians and Quadi. The Germans made their way as far as Spain, and took the noble city of Tarraco. The Parthians, after taking possession of Mesopotamia, began to bring Syria under their power.

Zosimus resumes: Gallienus in the mean time still continued beyond the Alps, intent on the German war, while the Senate, seeing Rome in such imminent danger, armed all the soldiers that were in the city, and the strongest of the common people, and formed an army, which exceeded the Barbarians in number. This so alarmed the Barbarians, that they left Rome, but ravaged all the rest of Italy. At this period, when Illyricum groaned under the oppression of the Barbarians, and the whole Roman empire was in such a helpless state as to be on the very verge of ruin, a plague happened to break out in several of the towns, more dreadful than any that had preceded it. The miseries inflicted on them by the Barbarians were thus alleviated, even the sick esteeming themselves fortunate. The cities that had been taken by the Scythians were thus deserted.

Gallienus, being disturbed by these occurrences, was returning to Rome to relieve Italy from the war which the Scythians were thus carrying on. It was at this time, that Cecrops, a Moor, Aureolus and Antoninus, with many others, conspired against him, of whom the greater part were punished and submitted. Aureolus alone retained his animosity against the emperor.

The Scythians, who had dreadfully afflicted the whole of Greece, had now taken Athens, when Gallienus advanced against those who were already in possession of Thrace, and ordered Odonathus of Palmyra, a person whose ancestors had always been highly respected by the emperors, to assist the eastern nations which were then in a very distressed condition. . . .

While affairs were thus situated in the east, intelligence was brought to Gallienus, who was then occupied in the Scythian war, that Aurelianus, or Aureolus, who was commander of the cavalry posted in the neighbourhood of Milan to watch the motions of Posthumus, had formed some new design, and was ambitious to be emperor. Being alarmed at this he went immediately to Italy, leaving the command against the Scythians with Marcianus, a person of great experience in military affairs. . . . Gallienus, in his journey towards Italy, had a plot formed against him by Heraclianus, prefect of the court, who communicated his design to Claudius, in whom the chief management of affairs was vested. The design was to murder Gallienus. Having found a man very ready for such an undertaking, who commanded a troop of Dalmatians, he entrusted the action to him. To effect it, the party stood by Gallienus at supper and informed him that some of the spies had brought intelligence, that Aureolus and his army were close at hand. By this they considerably alarmed him. Calling immediately for his horse and arms, he mounted, ordering his men to follow him in their armour, and rode away without any attendance. Thus the captain finding him alone killed him.
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1dg Tetricus33 views270-273

AE antoninianus

Radiate draped bust, right, IMP C TETRICVS P F AVG
Virtus standing left with shield & spear, VIRTVS AVGG

RIC 148

According to the Historia Augusta: After Victorinus and his son were slain, his mother Victoria (or Vitruvia) urged Tetricus, a Roman senator then holding the governorship of Gaul, to take the imperial power, for the reason, many relate, that he was her kinsman; she then caused him to be entitled Augustus and bestowed on his son the name of Caesar. But after Tetricus had done many deeds with success and had ruled for a long time he was defeated by Aurelian, and, being unable to bear the impudence and shamelessness of his soldiers, he surrendered of his own free will to this prince most harsh and severe. . . . Aurelian, nevertheless, exceedingly stern though he was, overcome by a sense of shame, made Tetricus, whom lie had led in his triumph, supervisor over the whole of Italy,' that is, over Campania, Samnium, Lucania, Bruttium, Apulia, Calabria, Etruria and Umbria, Picenum and the Flaminian district, and the entire grain-bearing region, and suffered him not only to retain his life but also to remain in the highest position, calling him frequently colleague, sometimes fellow-soldier, and sometimes even emperor.
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1ds Diocletian13 views284-305

AE antoninianus

Radiate, draped, cuirassed bust, right, IMP C C VAL DIOCLETIANVS P F AVG
Zeus and Diocletian, CONCORDIA MILITVM

RIC 284B

According to the Historia Augusta, after the death of Numerian: Then a huge assembly was held and a tribunal, too, was constructed. And when the question was asked who would be the most lawful avenger of Numerian and who could be given to the commonwealth as a good emperor, then all, with a heaven-sent unanimity, conferred the title of Augustus on Diocletian. . . . He was at this time in command of the household-troops, an outstanding man and wise, devoted to the commonwealth, devoted to his kindred, duly prepared to face whatever the occasion demanded, forming plans that were always deep though sometimes over-bold, and one who could by prudence and exceeding firmness hold in check the impulses of a restless spirit. This man, then, having ascended the tribunal was hailed as Augustus, and when someone asked how Numerian had been slain, he drew his sword and pointing to Aper, the prefect of the guard, he drove it through him, saying as he did so, "It is he who contrived Numerian's death.''

Eutropius summarized a long and important reign: DIOCLETIAN, a native of Dalmatia, [was] of such extremely obscure birth, that he is said by most writers to have been the son of a clerk, but by some to have been a freedman of a senator named Anulinus. . . . He soon after overthrew Carinus, who was living under the utmost hatred and detestation, in a great battle at Margum, Carinus being betrayed by his own troops, for though he had a greater number of men than the enemy, he was altogether abandoned by them between Viminacium and mount Aureus. He thus became master of the Roman empire; and when the peasants in Gaul made an insurrection, giving their faction the name of Bagaudae, and having for leaders Amandus and Aelianus, he despatched Maximian Herculius, with the authority of Caesar, to suppress them. Maximian, in a few battles of little importance, subdued the rustic multitude, and restored peace to Gaul. . . .

Diocletian promoted MAXIMIAN HERCULIUS from the dignity of Caesar to that of emperor, and created Constantius and Maximian Galerius Caesars, of whom Constantius is said to have been the grand-nephew of Claudius by a daughter, and Maximian Galerius to have been born in Dacia not far from Sardica. That he might also unite them by affinity, Constantius married Theodora the step-daughter of Herculius, by whom he had afterwards six children, brothers to Constantine; while Galerius married Valeria, the daughter of Diocletian; both being obliged to divorce the wives that they had before. . . .

Diocletian, meanwhile, besieging Achilleus in Alexandria, obliged him to surrender about eight months after, and put him to death. He used his victory, indeed, cruelly, and distressed all Egypt with severe proscriptions and massacres. Yet at the same time he made many judicious arrangements and regulations, which continue to our own days. . . .

Diocletian was of a crafty disposition, with much sagacity, and keen penetration. He was willing to gratify his own disposition to cruelty in such a way as to throw the odium upon others; he was however a very active and able prince. He was the first that introduced into the Roman empire a ceremony suited rather to royal usages than to Roman liberty, giving orders that he should be adored, whereas all emperors before him were only saluted. He put ornaments of precious stones on his dress and shoes, when the imperial distinction had previously been only in the purple robe, the rest of the habit being the same as that of other men. . . .

But when Diocletian, as age bore heavily upon him, felt himself unable to sustain the government of the empire, he suggested to Herculius that they should both retire into private life, and commit the duty of upholding the state to more vigorous and youthful hands. With this suggestion his colleague reluctantly complied. Both of them, in the same day, exchanged the robe of empire for an ordinary dress, Diocletian at Nicomedia, Herculius at Milan, soon after a magnificent triumph which they celebrated at Rome over several nations, with a noble succession of pictures, and in which the wives, sisters, and children of Narseus were led before their chariots. The one then retired to Salonae, and the other into Lucania.

Diocletian lived to an old age in a private station, at a villa which is not far from Salonae, in honourable retirement, exercising extraordinary philosophy, inasmuch as he alone of all men, since the foundation of the Roman empire, voluntarily returned from so high a dignity to the condition of private life, and to an equality with the other citizens. That happened to him, therefore, which had happened to no one since men were created, that, though he died in a private condition, he was enrolled among the gods.
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MaximianusFollisGenio.jpg
1dt Maximianus22 views286-305, 306-308, 310

Quarter Follis

Laureate head, right, IMP C M A MAXIMIANVS P F AVG
Genius standing left, with modius on head, cornucopia & patera, GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, SIS in exergue

RIC 146

Eutropius records: [Diocletian] thus became master of the Roman empire; and when the peasants in Gaul made an insurrection, giving their faction the name of Bagaudae, and having for leaders Amandus and Aelianus, he despatched Maximian Herculius, with the authority of Caesar, to suppress them. Maximian, in a few battles of little importance, subdued the rustic multitude, and restored peace to Gaul. . . . While disorder thus prevailed throughout the world, while Carausius was taking arms in Britain and Achilleus in Egypt, while the Quinquegentiani were harassing Africa, and Narseus was making war upon the east, Diocletian promoted MAXIMIAN HERCULIUS from the dignity of Caesar to that "of emperor, and created Constantius and Maximian Galerius Caesars. . . .

Maximian the emperor, brought the war to an end in Africa, by subduing the Quinquegentiani, and compelling them to make peace. . . .

Herculius was undisguisedly cruel, and of a violent temper, and showed his severity of disposition in the sternness of his looks. Gratifying his own inclination, he joined with Diocletian in even the most cruel of his proceedings. But when Diocletian, as age bore heavily upon him, felt himself unable to sustain the government of the empire, he suggested to Herculius that they should both retire into private life, and commit the duty of upholding the state to more vigorous and youthful hands. With this suggestion his colleague reluctantly complied. Both of them, in the same day, exchanged the robe of empire for an ordinary dress, Diocletian at Nicomedia, Herculius at Milan, soon after a magnificent triumph which they celebrated at Rome over several nations, with a noble succession of pictures, and in which the wives, sisters, and children of Narseus were led before their chariots. The one then retired to Salonae, and the other into Lucania.

But after the death of Constantius, CONSTANTINE, his son by a wife of obscure birth, was made emperor in Britain, and succeeded his father as a most desirable ruler. In the meantime the praetorian guards at Rome, having risen in insurrection, declared MAXENTIUS, the son of Maximian Herculius, who lived in the Villa Publica not far from the city, emperor. At the news of this proceeding, Maximian, filled with hopes of regaining the imperial dignity, which he had not willingly resigned, hurried to Rome from Lucania. . . , and stimulated Diocletian by letters to resume the authority that he had laid down, letters which Diocletian utterly disregarded. Severus Caesar, being despatched to Rome by Galerius to suppress the rising of the guards and Maxentius, arrived there with his army, but, as he was laying siege to the city, was deserted through the treachery of his soldiers.

The power of Maxentius was thus increased, and his government established. Severus, taking to flight, was killed at Ravenna. Maximian Herculius, attempting afterwards, in an assembly of the army, to divest his son Maxentius of his power, met with nothing but mutiny and reproaches from the soldiery. He then set out for Gaul, on a planned stratagem, as if he had been driven away by his son, that he might join his son-in-law Constantine, designing, however, if he could find an opportunity, to cut off Constantine, who was ruling in Gaul with great approbation both of the soldiers and the people of the province, having overthrown the Franks and Alemanni with great slaughter, and captured their kings, whom, on exhibiting a magnificent show of games, he exposed to wild beasts. But the plot being made known by Maximian's daughter Fausta, who communicated the design to her husband, Maximian was cut off at Marseilles, whence he was preparing to sail to join his son, and died a well-deserved death. . . .
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1ea Licinius17 views308-324

Follis

Laureate head, right, IMP LIC LICINIVS P F AVG
Jupiter standing left with thunderbolt and sceptre, eagle at foot with wreath in its beak, A over μ (Mu) over dot in right field, dot SIS dot in ex, IOVI CONSERVATORI

RIC 225a var

According to Zonaras: Maximinus took as colleague in his rule Licinius, who derived his lineage from the Dacians and was the brother-in-law of Constantine the Great. After he had made him colleague in his sovereignty and left him in Illyricum to defend the Thracians, who were being plundered by barbarians, he himself proceeded to Rome, to battle against Maxentius. Then, being suspicious of his own soldiers and fearing lest they desert to the enemy, he desisted from battle and departed. He regretted his appointment of Licinius, first plotted secretly against him, and then openly joined battle with him. He attacked him, was repulsed, defeated, and fled, and in his flight did away with himself. . . .

Eutropius adds: CONSTANTINE, being a man of great energy, bent upon effecting whatever he had settled in his mind, and aspiring to the sovereignty of the whole world, proceeded to make war on Licinius, although he had formed a connexion with him by marriage, for his sister Constantia was married to Licinius. And first of all be overthrew him, by a sudden attack, at Cibalae in Pannonia, where he was making vast preparations for war; and after becoming master of Dardania, Maesia, and Macedonia, took possession also of several other provinces.

There were then various contests between them, and peace made and broken. At last Licinius, defeated in a battle at Nicomedia by sea and land, surrendered himself, and, in violation of an oath taken by Constantine, was put to death, after being divested of the purple, at Thessalonica.
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308. Valerian I23 viewsRIC 209 Valerian I 253-260 AD AR Antoninianus of Moesia. Radiate draped bust/Aequitas standing holding balance and cornucopia.

Publius Licinius Valerianus (ca. 200-260), known in English as Valerian, was Roman emperor from 253 to 260. His full Latin title was IMPERATOR · CAESAR · PVBLIVS · LICINIVS · VALERIANVS · PIVS FELIX · INVICTVS · AVGVSTVS — in English, "Emperor Caesar Publius Licinus Valerianus Pious Lucky Undefeated Augustus."

Unlike the majority of the usurpers of the crisis of the third century, Valerian was of a noble and traditional Senatorial family. Details of his early life are elusive, but his marriage to Egnatia Mariniana who gave him two sons: Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus and Valerianus Minor is known.

In 238 he was princeps senatus, and Gordian I negotiated through him for Senatorial acknowledgement for his claim as Emperor. In 251, when Decius revived the censorship with legislative and executive powers so extensive that it practically embraced the civil authority of the Emperor, Valerian was chosen censor by the Senate. Under Decius he was nominated governor of the Rhine provinces of Noricum and Raetia and retained the confidence of his successor, Trebonianus Gallus, who asked him for reinforcements to quell the rebellion of Aemilianus in 253. Valerian headed south, but was too late: Gallus' own troops killed him and joined Aemilianus before his arrival. The Raetian soldiers then proclaimed Valerian emperor and continued their march towards Rome. At the time of his arrival in September, Aemilianus' legions defected, killing him and proclaiming Valerian emperor. In Rome, the Senate quickly acknowledged him, not only for fear of reprisals, but also because he was one of their own.

Valerian's first act as emperor was to make his son Gallienus colleague. In the beginning of his reign the affairs in Europe went from bad to worse and the whole West fell into disorder. In the East, Antioch had fallen into the hands of a Persian vassal, Armenia was occupied by Shapur I (Sapor). Valerian and Gallienus split the problems of the Empire between the two, with the son taking the West and the father heading East to face the Persian threat.

By 257, Valerian had already recovered Antioch and returned the Syrian province to Roman control but in the following year, the Goths ravaged Asia Minor. Later in 259, he moved to Edessa, but an outbreak of plague killed a critical number of legionaries, weakening the Roman position. Valerian was then forced to seek terms with Shapur I. Sometime towards the end of 259, or at the beginning of 260, Valerian was defeated and made prisoner by the Persians (making him the only Roman Emperor taken captive). It is said that he was subjected to the greatest insults by his captors, such as being used as a human stepladder by Shapur when mounting his horse. After his death in captivity, his skin was stuffed with straw and preserved as a trophy in the chief Persian temple. Only after Persian defeat in last Persia-Roman war three and a half centuries later was his skin destroyed.
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4) Antony and Octavian Denarius37 viewsMark Antony and Octavian
AR Denarius, 2.97g
Ephesus, spring/summer, 41 BC

M ANT IMP AVG III VIR R P C M BARBAT Q P (MP and AV in monogram), Bare hd of Mark Antony right / CAESAR IMP PONT III VIR R P C, Bare head of Octavian right

Sear 1504

This series of coins commemorates the establishment of the second Triumvirate of November 43 B.C. between Antony, Octavian and Lepidus. Both sides bear the inscription "III VIR R P C", meaning "One of Three Men for the Regulation of the Republic. Within a few years Antony would depart Italy for the Eastern provinces.

The moneyer for this coin is M. Barbatius Pollio who was also a Questor in 41 BC. Barbatius bears the title of "Quaestor pro praetore" abbreviated to QP a distinction shared by his colleague L. Gelllius.

Photo and text credit goes to FORVM member Jay GT4, from whom I purchased the coin in 2011. Thanks, Jay!
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1 commentsSosius
0001SOS.jpg
4) Antony: Sosius52 viewsGAIUS SOSIUS
General to Antony
Æ 26mm (14.5 g). ~ 38 BC.
Cilicia, Uncertain Mint.

Bare head right / Fiscus, sella, quaestoria and hasta; Q below.

Coin has been attributed to multiple rulers, including Julius Caesar, Augustus and Brutus. Now believed to be Sosius, General to Antony and Governor of Syria.

RPC I 5409; Laffaille 324; Grant, FITA, pg. 13. aFine, brown patina, scratches. Rare.
0001SOS


Sosius was wily and accomplished man. A talented general, he received a triumph. However, he consistently picked the wrong side in Rome's Civil Wars (Senate vs. Caesar, then Antony vs. Octavian) yet somehow managed to keep his head.

According to Wikipedia:

Gaius Sosius was a Roman general and politician.

Gaius Sosius was elected quaestor in 66 BC and praetor in 49 BC. Upon the start of the civil war, he joined the party of the Senate and Pompey. Upon the flight of Pompey to Greece, Sosius returned to Rome and submitted to Julius Caesar.

After the assassination of Caesar, Sosius joined the party of Mark Antony, by whom in 38 BC he was appointed governor of Syria and Cilicia in the place of Publius Ventidius. As governor, Sosius was commanded by Antony to support Herod against Antigonus the Hasmonean, when the latter was in possession of Jerusalem. In 37 BC, he advanced against Jerusalem and after he became master of the city, Sosius placed Herod upon the throne. In return for this services, he was awarded a triumph in 34 BC, and he became consul along with Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus as his colleague in 32 BC.

When civil war broke out between Antony and Octavian, Sosius espoused the cause of Antony and violently attacked Octavian in the senate, for which he was forced to flee to the east. In 31 BC, Sosius commanded a squadron in Mark Antony's fleet with which he managed to defeat the squadron of Taurius Rufus – according to Dio 50.14 – and put it to flight, but when the latter was reinforced by Marcus Agrippa, Sosius's ally Tarcondimotus – the king of Cilicia – was killed and Sosius himself was forced to flee. At Actium, Sosius commanded the left wing of Antony's fleet. After the battle, from which he managed to escape, his hiding place was detected and Sosius was captured and brought before Octavian but, at the intercession of Lucius Arruntius, Octavian pardoned him. He returned to Rome and completed his building project on the temple of Apollo Medicus (begun in 34 BC), dedicating it in Octavian's name.

Unknown sons, but two daughters : Sosia and Sosia Galla, possibly by an Asinia,[1] a Nonia or an Aelia. However the name reappears with Q. Sosius Senecio, (consul in 99 and 107).[2] and Saint Sosius (275-305 AD).

Sosius attended the Ludi Saeculares in 17 according to an inscription CIL 6.32323 = ILS 5050 as a quindecimvir.
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4 commentsSosius
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402. Maximianus54 viewsMarcus Aurelius Valerius Maximianus Herculius (c. 250 - July, 310), known in English as Maximian, was Roman Emperor (together with Diocletian) from March 1, 286 to 305.

Born to a poor family near Sirmium (city in Pannonia), Maximian made a career in the army until 285, when the new emperor Diocletian, a friend of his, made him caesar (sub-emperor) and the ruler of the western part of the empire. The next year Maximian became augustus next to Diocletian, and in 293, when Diocletian introduced the Tetrarchy, Constantius Chlorus became Maximian's caesar and married Maximian's daughter Flavia Maximiana Theodora.

During his reign, Maximianus had several military successes, against the Alemanni and Burgundians in northern Germany, against the Carpi on the Danube frontier and against Carausius, who had rebelled in Britain and declared himself emperor there. He also strengthened the frontier defenses in Africa.

On May 1, 305, Diocletian and Maximian retired together; it is clear that this was not a voluntary act of Maximian's, but that he was forced to do so by Diocletian. Galerius and Constantius Chlorus became the new emperors; Flavius Valerius Severus and Maximinus Daia became their caesars. When Constantius died the next year, Maximian's son Maxentius took the western emperorship, and named Maximian to be his augustus. Maximian resolved the conflicts around this emperorship by defeating Severus and Galerius in battle and bringing Constantius' son Constantine on his side by having Constantine marry his daughter Fausta.

However, in 308 Maximian rebelled against his own son, and marched upon Rome, but was beaten and forced to find refuge with Constantine in Gaul. In 310 he declared himself emperor for the third time, but was unable to defend himself against Constantine, who forced him to commit suicide.

For his own and his colleagues' victories, Maximian received the titles Germanicus Maximus V, Sarmaticus Maximus III, Armeniacus Maximus, Medicus Maximus, Adiabenicus Maximus, Persicus Maximus II, Carpicus Maximus, Britannicus Maximus.

Maximianus 286-305, Reform Follis - Siscia Mint
9.16g
Obv: Bust of Maximianus right "IMP MAXIMIANVS PF AVG"
Rev: Moneta standing left holding a scale and cornucopiae "SACRA MONET AVGG E CAESS NOSTR" "SIS" in the exergue.
RIC 134b
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403. Carausius37 viewsMarcus Aurelius Mausaeus Carausius (d. 293) was a Roman usurper in Britain and northern Gaul (286–293, Carausian Revolt).

Carausius was a man of humble origin, a Menapian from Belgic Gaul who distinguished himself during Maximian's campaign against the Bagaudae rebels in Gaul in 286. As a result, he was appointed to command the Classis Britannica, a fleet based in the English Channel, with the responsibility of eliminating Frankish and Saxon pirates who had been raiding the coast. However, he was suspected of keeping captured treasure for himself, and even of allowing the pirates to carry out raids and enrich themselves before taking action against them, and Maximian ordered his execution. In late 286 or early 287 Carausius learned of this sentence and responded by declaring himself Emperor of Britain and northern Gaul.

He could count on the alliegance of the three legions based in Britain, as well as one in northern Gaul. How he was able to win support from the army when his command had been sea-based is uncertain. The emperor briefly assumed the title Britannicus Maximus in 285, and the British towns of Wroxeter and Caistor by Norwich towns show signs of destruction around this time, so it is possible Carausius won the army's support during military action in Britain shortly before his rebellion. Alternatively, if the accusations of larceny are true, he could perhaps afford to buy their loyalty. He also appears to have appealed to native British dissatisfaction with Roman rule: he issued coins with legends such as Restitutor Britanniae (Restorer of Britain) and Genius Britanniae (Spirit of Britain).

Maximian, busy with wars on the Rhine, was unable to challenge him immediately, but in the Autumn of 288 he began massing troops and ships for an invasion. In 289 an invasion of Britain intended to dislodge him failed badly due to storms, although a naval defeat is also possible. An uneasy peace continued until 293, during which Rome prepared for a second effort to retake the province, while Carausius began to entertain visions of legitimacy and official recognition. He minted his own coins and brought their value in to line with Roman issues as well as acknowledging and honouring Maximian and then Diocletian. Coinage is the main source of information about the rogue emperor; his issues were initially crude but soon became more elaborate and were issued from mints in Londinium, Rotomagnus and a third site, possibly Colonia Claudia Victricensis. A milestone from Carlisle with his name on it suggests that the whole of Roman Britain was in Carausius' grasp.

It has been speculated (namely, by the historian Sheppard Frere) that the rebellion of Carausius endangered Diocletian's vision of a strong, centralized government based on his tetrarchy. In any case, by early 293 Constantius Chlorus had gained control of northern Gaul, including the rebel's stronghold and port of Bononia, on which Carausius was heavily dependent. Constantius built a mole across the harbour mouth to ensure it did not receive maritime aid.

Constantius also regained the allegiance of the rebellious Gallic legion and defeated the Franks of the Rhine mouth who seem to have been working in league with Carausius. Weakened by these setbacks, Carausius was assassinated, possibly at York, by his treasurer, Allectus.

aVF/aVF Carausius Antoninianus / Pax / Green Patina and Nice Style

Attribution: RIC 895
Date: 287-293 AD
Obverse: IMP CARAVSIVS P F AVG, radiate and draped bust right
Reverse: PAX AVG, Pax standing left, holding branch and transverse sceptre.
Size: 20.91 mm
Weight: 3 grams
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405. CONSTANTIUS I, as Caesar53 viewsBorn March 31st, Emperor Flavius Valerius Constantius may have come into the world ca. 250. His family was from Illyricum. In the army he served as a protector, tribunus, and a praeses Dalmatiarum. During the 270s or the 280s, he became the father of Constantine by Helena, his first spouse. By 288 he was the Praetorian Prefect of the western emperor Maximianus Herculius.

On 1 March 293 Diocletian appointed Galerius as his Caesar (junior emperor) in the east and Constantius as the Caesar of Maximianus Herculius. Caesar in the west. Both Caesars had the right of succession. In order to strengthen the dynastic relationship between himself and Herculius., Constantius put aside his wife Helena and married Theodora, the daughter, or perhaps stepdaughter, of Maximianus Herculius. The union was fruitful and of it there were six issue: Flavius Dalmatius, Julius Constantius, Hannibalianus, Constantia, Anastasia, and Eutropia. To strengthen his bond with Galerius and Diocletian in the east, Constantius allowed Galerius to keep his son Constantine as a hostage for his good behavior.

In the remainder of the time that he was a Caesar, Constantius spent much of his time engaged in military actions in the west. In the summer of 293 Constantius expelled the troops of the usurper Carausius from northern Gaul; after Constantius' attack on Bononia (Boulogne), Carausius was murdered. At the same time he dealt with the unrest of the Germans. In 296 he invaded Britain and put down the revolt of the usurper Allectus. Between 300 and 305 A.D. the Caesar campaigned successfully several times with various German tribes. It is worth noting in passing, that while his colleagues rigidly enforced the "Great Persecution in 303," Constantius limited his action to knocking down a few churches.

On 1 May 305 Diocletian, at Nicomedia, and Maximianus Herculius, at Mediolanum (Milan), divested themselves of the purple, probably because of the almost fatal illness that Diocletian contracted toward the end of 304. Diocletian forced Maximianus to abdicate. They appointed as their successors Constantius and Galerius, with Severus and Maximinus Daia as the new Caesars. The retired emperors then returned to private life. Constantius, as had his predecessor, ruled in the west, while Galerius and Daia ruled in the east. Almost as soon as he was appointed Augustus, he crossed to Britain to face incursions by the Picts where he died at York on 25 July 306 with his son at his side.


CONSTANTIUS I, as Caesar. 293-305 AD. Æ Follis (9.24 gm). Lugdunum mint. Struck 301-303 AD. CONSTANTIVS NO[B CAE]S, laureate and draped bust right, holding spear over right shoulder and shield at left / [GENIO POPV]LI ROMANI; altar-B/PLC. RIC VI 136a. VF, brown patina, some silvering. Ex CNG
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406. Galerius40 viewsChristians had lived in peace during most of the rule of Diocletian. The persecutions that began with an edict of February 24, 303, were credited by Christians to the influence of Galerius. Christian houses of assembly were destroyed, for fear of sedition in secret gatherings.

Detail of the Arch of Galerius in Thessaloniki.In 305, on the abdication of Diocletian and Maximian, he at once assumed the title of Augustus, with Constantius his former colleague, and having procured the promotion to the rank of Caesar of Flavius Valerius Severus, a faithful servant, and (Maximinus II Daia), his nephew, he hoped on the death of Constantius to become sole master of the Roman world. Having Constantius' son Constantine as guest at Galerius' court in the east helped to secure his position.

His schemes, however, were defeated by the sudden elevation of Constantine at Eboracum (York) upon the death of his father, and by the action of Maximianus and his son Maxentius, who were declared co-Augusti in Italy.

After an unsuccessful invasion of Italy in 307, he elevated his friend Licinius to the rank of Augustus, and moderating his ambition, he retired to the city Felix Romuliana (near present day Gamzigrada,Serbia/Montenegro)built by him to honor his mother Romula, and devoted the few remaining years of his life "to the enjoyment of pleasure and to the execution of some works of public utility."

It was at the instance of Galerius that the last edicts of persecution against the Christians were published, beginning on February 24, 303, and this policy of repression was maintained by him until the appearance of the general edict of toleration, issued from Nicomedia in April 311, apparently during his last bout of illness, in his own name and in those of Licinius and Constantine. Lactantius gives the text of the edict in his moralized chronicle of the bad ends to which all the persecutors came, De Mortibus Persecutorum ("On the Deaths of the Persecutors", chapters 34, 35). This marked the end of official persecution of Christians.

Galerius as Caesar, 305-311AD. GENIO POPVLI ROMANI reverse type with Genius standing left holding scales and cornucopia
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410. Licinius I43 viewsFlavius Galerius Valerius Licinianus Licinius (c. 250 - 325) was Roman emperor from 308 to 324.

Of Dacian peasant origin, born in Moesia Superior, Licinius accompanied his close friend the Emperor Galerius on the Persian expedition in 297. After the death of Flavius Valerius Severus, Galerius elevated Licinius to the rank of Augustus in the West on November 11, 308. He received as his immediate command the provinces of Illyricum, Thrace and Pannonia.

On the death of Galerius, in May 311, Licinius shared the entire empire with Maximinus Daia, the Hellespont and the Bosporus being the dividing line.

In March 313 he married Flavia Julia Constantia, half-sister of Constantine, at Mediolanum (now Milan), the occasion for the jointly-issued "Edict of Milan" that restored confiscated properties to Christian congregations though it did not "Christianize" the Empire as is often assumed, although it did give Christians a better name in Rome. In the following month (April 30), Licinius inflicted a decisive defeat on Maximinus at Battle of Tzirallum, after Maximinus had tried attacking him. He then established himself master of the East, while his brother-in-law, Constantine, was supreme in the West.

In 314 his jealousy led him to encourage a treasonable enterprise in favor of Bassianus against Constantine. When his actions became known, a civil war ensued, in which he was first defeated at the battle of Cibalae in Pannonia (October 8, 314), and next some 2 years later (after naming Valerius Valens co-emperor) in the plain of Mardia (also known as Campus Ardiensis) in Thrace. The outward reconciliation left Licinius in possession of Thrace, Asia Minor, Syria and Egypt, but he later added numerous provinces to Constantine's control.

In 324 Constantine, tempted by the "advanced age and unpopular vices" of his colleague, again declared war against him, and, having defeated his army at the battle of Adrianople (July 3, 324), succeeded in shutting him up within the walls of Byzantium. The defeat of the superior fleet of Licinius by Flavius Julius Crispus, Constantine’s eldest son, compelled his withdrawal to Bithynia, where a last stand was made; the battle of Chrysopolis, near Chalcedon (September 18), resulted in his final submission. He was interned at Thessalonica under a kind of house arrest, but when he attempted to raise troops among the barbarians Constantine had him and his former co-emperor Martinianus assassinated.

O: IMP LICINIVS AVG; Emperor, facing left, wearing imperial mantle, holding mappa and globe.
R: IOVI CONSERVATORI AVGG; Jupiter standing left holding Victory; palm to left, epsilon in right field, SMN in exergue. Sear 3804, RIC Nicomedia 24 (Scarce), Failmezger #278. Remarkable detail on this nicely silvered Late Roman bronze, ex Crisp Collection.

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4100 ARABIA, Petra. Hadrian Tyche26 viewsReference.
RPC III, 4100; Spijkerman 3; SNG ANS 1360-3 var. (bust type)

Issue Petra metropolis

Obv. ΑΥΤΟΚΡΑΤΩΡ ΚΑΙСΑΡ ΤΡΑΙΑΝΟС ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟϹ СƐΒΑϹΤΟС
Laureate and draped bust of Hadrian (seen from rear), r.

Rev. ΠƐΤΡΑ ΜΗΤΡΟΠΟΛΙС
Turreted and veiled Tyche seated l. on rock, l., her r. hand extended, holding trophy in l.

13.35 gr
26 mm
6h

Note.
The Decapolis ("Ten Cities"; Greek: deka, ten; polis, city) was a group of ten cities on the eastern frontier of the Roman Empire in Jordan, Israel and Syria. The ten cities were not an official league or political unit, but they were grouped together because of their language, culture, location, and political status, with each possessing a certain degree of autonomy and self-rule. The Decapolis cities were centers of Greek and Roman culture in a region that was otherwise Semitic (Nabatean, Aramean, and Jewish). With the exception of Damascus, Hippos and Scythopolis, the "Region of the Decapolis" was located in modern-day Jordan.

Petra (GreekΠέτρα, Petra, meaning "stone";
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465/2b. Considia - denarius (46 BC)9 viewsAR Denarius (Rome, 46 BC)
O/ Laureate head of Apollo right; A behind; no border.
R/ Curule chair, garlanded, on which lies wreath; C CONSIDI above; PAETI in exergue.
3.6g
Crawford 465/2b (93 obverse dies/103 reverse dies, two varieties)
- Rollin & Feuardent, 1903, Collection Charvet de Beauvais, lot 265 (together with 3 other Considia). Sold for Fr.19 with lots 264 and 266.

* Gaius Considius Paetus:

Like the other two moneyers for 46 BC (Titus Carisius and Manius Cordius Rufus), Paetus belonged to a small gens. The Considii are indeed unattested before the 1st century, apart from a Tribune of the Plebs in 476. The gens came to prominence in the 50s, when two of its members became Praetors: Gaius Considius Longus between 58-52, and Marcus Considius Nonianus between 54-50.

Like his colleagues, Paetus was doubtlessly a supporter of Caesar. The curule chair on the reverse alludes to Caesar's right to sit on a curule chair between the Consuls in the Senate (Cassius Dio, xliii. 14). There is therefore a chance that he was the same person as the Gaius Considius mentioned in the Pseudo-Caesar's 'De Bello Africo' (§89) as the son of the Praetor of 54-50 -- a supporter of Pompey who died after Thapsus -- nonetheless absolved by Caesar after the war. This theory fits well with Caesar's policy of generously granting pardon to his former enemies, and was accepted by Mommsen, following Borghesi (cf. Mommsen, 1860, p. 657). However, Crawford did not mention this possibility.
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510. Valentinian I56 viewsFlavius Valentinianus, known in English as Valentinian I, (321 - November 17, 375) was a Roman Emperor (364 - 375). He was born at Cibalis, in Pannonia, the son of a successful general, Gratian the Elder.

He had been an officer of the Praetorian guard under Julian and Jovian, and had risen high in the imperial service. Of robust frame and distinguished appearance, he possessed great courage and military capacity. After the death of Jovian, he was chosen emperor in his forty-third year by the officers of the army at Nicaea in Bithynia on February 26, 364, and shortly afterwards named his brother Valens colleague with him in the empire.

The two brothers, after passing through the chief cities of the neighbouring district, arranged the partition of the empire at Naissus (Nissa) in Upper Moesia. As Western Roman Emperor, Valentinian took Italia, Illyricum, Hispania, the Gauls, Britain and Africa, leaving to Eastern Roman Emperor Valens the eastern half of the Balkan peninsula, Greece, Aegyptus, Syria and Asia Minor as far as Persia. They were immediately confronted by the revolt of Procopius, a relative of the deceased Julian. Valens managed to defeat his army at Thyatria in Lydia in 366, and Procopius was executed shortly afterwards.

During the short reign of Valentinian there were wars in Africa, in Germany and in Britain, and Rome came into collision with barbarian peoples never of heard before, specifically the Burgundians, and the Saxons.

Valentinian's chief work was guarding the frontiers and establishing military positions. Milan was at first his headquarters for settling the affairs of northern Italy. The following year (365) Valentinian was at Paris, and then at Reims, to direct the operations of his generals against the Alamanni. These people, defeated at Scarpona (Charpeigne) and Catelauni (Châlons-en-Champagne) by Jovinus, were driven back to the German bank of the Rhine, and checked for a while by a chain of military posts and fortresses. At the close of 367, however, they suddenly crossed the Rhine, attacked Moguntiacum (Mainz) and plundered the city. Valentinian attacked them at Solicinium (Sulz am Neckar, in the Neckar valley, or Schwetzingen) with a large army, and defeated them with great slaughter. But his own losses were so considerable that Valentinian abandoned the idea of following up his success.

Later, in 374, Valentinian made peace with their king, Macrianus, who from that time remained a true friend of the Romans. The next three years he spent at Trier, which he chiefly made his headquarters, organizing the defence of the Rhine frontier, and personally superintending the construction of numerous forts.

During his reign the coasts of Gaul were harassed by the Saxon pirates, with whom the Picts and Scots of northern Britain joined hands, and ravaged the island from the Antonine Wall to the shores of Kent. In 368 Count Theodosius was sent to drive back the invaders; in this he was completely successful, and established a new British province, called Valentia in honour of the emperor.

In Africa, Firmus, raised the standard of revolt, being joined by the provincials, who had been rendered desperate by the cruelty and extortions of Comes Romanus, the military governor. The services of Theodosius were again requisitioned. He landed in Africa with a small band of veterans, and Firmus, to avoid being taken prisoner, committed suicide.

In 374 the Quadi, a Germanic tribe in what is now Moravia and Slovakia, resenting the erection of Roman forts to the north of the Danube in what they considered to be their own territory, and further exasperated by the treacherous murder of their king, Gabinius, crossed the river and laid waste the province of Pannonia. The emperor in April, 375 entered Illyricum with a powerful army. But during an audience to an embassy from the Quadi at Brigetio on the Danube (near Komárom, Hungary), Valentinian suffered a burst blood vessel in the skull while angrily yelling at the people gathered. This injury resulted in his death on November 17, 375.

His general administration seems to have been thoroughly honest and able, in some respects beneficent. If Valentinian was hard and exacting in the matter of taxes, he spent them in the defence and improvement of his dominions, not in idle show or luxury. Though himself a plain and almost illiterate soldier, Valentinian was a founder of schools. He also provided medical attendance for the poor of Rome, by appointing a physician for each of the fourteen districts of the city.

Valentinian was a Christian but permitted absolute religious freedom to all his subjects. Against all abuses, both civil and ecclesiastical, Valentinian steadily set his face, even against the increasing wealth and worldliness of the clergy. His chief flaw was his temper, which at times was frightful, and showed itself in its full fierceness in the punishment of persons accused of witchcraft, fortune-telling or magical practices.

Valentinian I; RIC IX, Siscia 15(a); C.37; second period: 24 Aug. 367-17 Nov. 375; common. obv. DN VALENTINI-ANVS PF AVG, bust cuir., drap., r., rev. SECVRITAS-REI PVBLICAE, Victory advancing l., holding wreath and trophy. l. field R above R with adnex, r. field F, ex. gamma SISC rev.Z dot (type xxxv)
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59 Galeria Valeria: Serdica follis.16 viewsFollis, 307 - 308 AD, Serdica mint.
Obverse: FAL VALERIA AVG / Bust of Galeria Valeria.
Reverse: VENERI VICTRICI / Venus standing, holding up apple, raising drapery over left shoulder, * in left field, Δ in right field.
Mint mark: . SM . SD .
7.07 gm., 26.5 mm.
RIC #41; PBCC #852; Sear #14591.

She was the daughter of Diocletian and Prisca. Her father married her off to his colleague Galerius.
This coin is from the last group of coins issued from the Serdica mint before it was closed in 308.
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706a, Nero, 13 October 54 - 9 June 68 A.D.74 views6, Nero, 13 October 54 - 9 June 68 A.D. AE setertius, Date: 66 AD; RIC I 516, 36.71 mm; 25.5 grams; aVF. Obverse: IMP NERO CAESAR AVG PONT MAX TR POT PP, Laureate bust right; Reverse: S C, ROMA, Roma seated left, exceptional portrait and full obverse legends. Ex Ancient Imports.

NERO (54-68 A.D.)

It is difficult for the modern student of history to realize just how popular Nero actually was, at least at the beginning of his reign. Rome looked upon her new Emperor with hope. He was the student of Seneca, and he had a sensitive nature. He loved art, music, literature, and theatre. He was also devoted to horses and horse racing—a devotion shared by many of his subjects. The plebs loved their new Emperor. As Professor of Classics Judith P. Hallett (University of Maryland, College Park) says, “It is not clear to me that Nero ever changed or that Nero ever grew-up, and that was both his strength and his weakness. Nero was an extraordinarily popular Emperor: he was like Elvis” (The Roman Empire in the First Century, III. Dir. Margaret Koval and Lyn Goldfarb. 2001. DVD. PBS/Warner Bros. 2003).

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Herbert W. Benario
Emory University

Introduction and Sources
The five Julio-Claudian emperors are very different one from the other. Augustus dominates in prestige and achievement from the enormous impact he had upon the Roman state and his long service to Rome, during which he attained unrivaled auctoritas. Tiberius was clearly the only possible successor when Augustus died in AD 14, but, upon his death twenty-three years later, the next three were a peculiar mix of viciousness, arrogance, and inexperience. Gaius, better known as Caligula, is generally styled a monster, whose brief tenure did Rome no service. His successor Claudius, his uncle, was a capable man who served Rome well, but was condemned for being subject to his wives and freedmen. The last of the dynasty, Nero, reigned more than three times as long as Gaius, and the damage for which he was responsible to the state was correspondingly greater. An emperor who is well described by statements such as these, "But above all he was carried away by a craze for popularity and he was jealous of all who in any way stirred the feeling of the mob." and "What an artist the world is losing!" and who is above all remembered for crimes against his mother and the Christians was indeed a sad falling-off from the levels of Augustus and Tiberius. Few will argue that Nero does not rank as one of the worst emperors of all.

The prime sources for Nero's life and reign are Tacitus' Annales 12-16, Suetonius' Life of Nero, and Dio Cassius' Roman History 61-63, written in the early third century. Additional valuable material comes from inscriptions, coinage, papyri, and archaeology.


Early Life
He was born on December 15, 37, at Antium, the son of Cnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbusand Agrippina. Domitius was a member of an ancient noble family, consul in 32; Agrippina was the daughter of the popular Germanicus, who had died in 19, and Agrippina, daughter of Agrippa, Augustus' closest associate, and Julia, the emperor's daughter, and thus in direct descent from the first princeps. When the child was born, his uncle Gaius had only recently become emperor. The relationship between mother and uncle was difficult, and Agrippina suffered occasional humiliation. But the family survived the short reign of the "crazy" emperor, and when he was assassinated, it chanced that Agrippina's uncle, Claudius, was the chosen of the praetorian guard, although there may have been a conspiracy to accomplish this.

Ahenobarbus had died in 40, so the son was now the responsibility of Agrippina alone. She lived as a private citizen for much of the decade, until the death of Messalina, the emperor's wife, in 48 made competition among several likely candidates to become the new empress inevitable. Although Roman law forbade marriage between uncle and niece, an eloquent speech in the senate by Lucius Vitellius, Claudius' closest advisor in the senatorial order, persuaded his audience that the public good required their union. The marriage took place in 49, and soon thereafter the philosopher Seneca [[PIR2 A617]] was recalled from exile to become the young Domitius' tutor, a relationship which endured for some dozen years.

His advance was thereafter rapid. He was adopted by Claudius the following year and took the name Tiberius Claudius Nero Caesar or Nero Claudius Caesar Drusus Germanicus, was preferred to Claudius' natural son, Britannicus, who was about three years younger, was betrothed to the emperor's daughter Octavia, and was, in the eyes of the people, the clear successor to the emperor. In 54, Claudius died, having eaten some poisoned mushrooms, responsibility for which was believed to be Agrippina's, and the young Nero, not yet seventeen years old, was hailed on October 13 as emperor by the praetorian guard.


The First Years of Rule
The first five years of Nero's rule are customarily called the quinquennium, a period of good government under the influence, not always coinciding, of three people, his mother, Seneca, and Sextus Afranius Burrus, the praetorian prefect. The latter two were allies in their "education" of the emperor. Seneca continued his philosophical and rhetorical training, Burrus was more involved in advising on the actualities of government. They often combined their influence against Agrippina, who, having made her son emperor, never let him forget the debt he owed his mother, until finally, and fatally, he moved against her.

Nero's betrothal to Octavia was a significant step in his ultimate accession to the throne, as it were, but she was too quiet, too shy, too modest for his taste. He was early attracted to Poppaea Sabina, the wife of Otho, and she continually goaded him to break from Octavia and to show himself an adult by opposing his mother. In his private life, Nero honed the musical and artistic tastes which were his chief interest, but, at this stage, they were kept private, at the instigation of Seneca and Burrus.

As the year 59 began, Nero had just celebrated his twenty-first birthday and now felt the need to employ the powers which he possessed as emperor as he wished, without the limits imposed by others. Poppaea's urgings had their effect, first of all, at the very onset of the year, with Nero's murder of his mother in the Bay of Naples.

Agrippina had tried desperately to retain her influence with her son, going so far as to have intercourse with him. But the break between them proved irrevocable, and Nero undertook various devices to eliminate his mother without the appearance of guilt on his part. The choice was a splendid vessel which would collapse while she was on board. As this happened, she swam ashore and, when her attendant, having cried out that she was Agrippina, was clubbed to death, Agrippina knew what was going on. She sent Nero a message that she was well; his response was to send a detachment of sailors to finish the job. When she was struck across the head, she bared her womb and said, "Strike here, Anicetus, strike here, for this bore Nero," and she was brutally murdered.

Nero was petrified with fear when he learned that the deed had been done, yet his popularity with the plebs of Rome was not impaired. This matricide, however, proved a turning point in his life and principate. It appeared that all shackles were now removed. The influence of Seneca and Burrus began to wane, and when Burrus died in 62, Seneca realized that his powers of persuasion were at an end and soon went into retirement. Britannicus had died as early as 55; now Octavia was to follow, and Nero became free to marry Poppaea. It may be that it had been Burrus rather than Agrippina who had continually urged that Nero's position depended in large part upon his marriage to Octavia. Burrus' successor as commander of the praetorian guard, although now with a colleague, was Ofonius Tigellinus, quite the opposite of Burrus in character and outlook. Tigellinus became Nero's "evil twin," urging and assisting in the performance of crimes and the satisfaction of lusts.


Administrative and Foreign Policy
With Seneca and Burrus in charge of administration at home, the first half-dozen years of Nero's principate ran smoothly. He himself devoted his attention to his artistic, literary, and physical bents, with music, poetry, and chariot racing to the fore. But his advisors were able to keep these performances and displays private, with small, select audiences on hand. Yet there was a gradual trend toward public performance, with the establishment of games. Further, he spent many nights roaming the city in disguise, with numerous companions, who terrorized the streets and attacked individuals. Those who dared to defend themselves often faced death afterward, because they had shown disrespect for the emperor. The die was being cast for the last phases of Nero's reign.


The Great Fire at Rome and The Punishment
of the Christians
The year 64 was the most significant of Nero's principate up to this point. His mother and wife were dead, as was Burrus, and Seneca, unable to maintain his influence over Nero without his colleague's support, had withdrawn into private life. The abysmal Tigellinus was now the foremost advisor of the still young emperor, a man whose origin was from the lowest levels of society and who can accurately be described as criminal in outlook and action. Yet Nero must have considered that he was happier than he had ever been in his life. Those who had constrained his enjoyment of his (seemingly) limitless power were gone, he was married to Poppaea, a woman with all advantages save for a bad character the empire was essentially at peace, and the people of Rome enjoyed a full measure of panem et circenses. But then occurred one of the greatest disasters that the city of Rome, in its long history, had ever endured.

The fire began in the southeastern angle of the Circus Maximus, spreading through the shops which clustered there, and raged for the better part of a week. There was brief success in controlling the blaze, but then it burst forth once more, so that many people claimed that the fires were deliberately set. After about a fortnight, the fire burned itself out, having consumed ten of the fourteen Augustan regions into which the city had been divided.

Nero was in Antium through much of the disaster, but his efforts at relief were substantial. Yet many believed that he had been responsible, so that he could perform his own work comparing the current fate of Rome to the downfall of Troy. All his efforts to assist the stricken city could not remove the suspicion that "the emperor had fiddled while Rome burned." He lost favor even among the plebs who had been enthusiastic supporters, particularly when his plans for the rebuilding of the city revealed that a very large part of the center was to become his new home.

As his popularity waned, Nero and Tigellinus realized that individuals were needed who could be charged with the disaster. It so happened that there was such a group ready at hand, Christians, who had made themselves unpopular because of their refusal to worship the emperor, their way of life, and their secret meetings. Further, at this time two of their most significant "teachers" were in Rome, Peter and Paul. They were ideal scapegoats, individuals whom most Romans loathed, and who had continually sung of the forthcoming end of the world.

Their destruction was planned with the utmost precision and cruelty, for the entertainment of the populace. The venue was Nero's circus near the Mons Vaticanus. Christians were exposed to wild animals and were set ablaze, smeared with pitch, to illuminate the night. The executions were so grisly that even the populace displayed sympathy for the victims. Separately, Peter was crucified upside down on the Vatican hill and Paul was beheaded along the Via Ostiensis. But Nero's attempt, and hope, to shift all suspicion of arson to others failed. His popularity even among the lower classes was irrevocably impaired.

[For a detailed and interesting discussion of Nero’s reign please see http://www.roman-emperors.org/nero.htm]

The End - Nero's Death and its Aftermath
Nero's and Tigellinus' response to the conspiracy was immediate and long-lasting. The senatorial order was decimated, as one leading member after another was put to death or compelled to commit suicide. The year 66 saw the suicides of perhaps the most distinguished victims of the "reign of terror," Caius Petronius and Thrasea Paetus. Petronius, long a favorite of Nero because of his aesthetic taste, had been an able public servant before he turned to a life of ease and indolence. He was recognized as the arbiter elegantiae of Nero's circle, and may be the author of the Satyricon. At his death, he left for Nero a document which itemized many of the latter's crimes. Thrasea, a staunch Stoic who had been for some years an outspoken opponent of Nero's policies, committed suicide in the Socratic manner. This scene is the last episode in the surviving books of Tacitus' Annals.

In the year 68, revolt began in the provinces. . . the end of Nero's reign became inevitable. Galba claimed the throne and began his march from Spain. Nero panicked and was rapidly abandoned by his supporters. He finally committed suicide with assistance, on June 9, 68, and his body was tended and buried by three women who had been close to him in his younger days, chief of whom was Acte. His death scene is marked above all by the statement, "Qualis artifex pereo," (What an artist dies in me.) Even at the end he was more concerned with his private life than with the affairs of state.

The aftermath of Nero's death was cataclysmic. Galba was the first of four emperors who revealed the new secret of empire, that an emperor could be made elsewhere than in Rome. Civil war ensued, which was only ended by the victory of the fourth claimant, Vespasian, who established the brief dynasty of the Flavians. The dynasty of the Julio-Claudians was at an end.

Nero's popularity among the lower classes remained even after his death.

. . . .

It is not excessive to say that he was one of the worst of Rome's emperors in the first two centuries and more of the empire. Whatever talents he had, whatever good he may have done, all is overwhelmed by three events, the murder of his mother, the fire at Rome, and his savage treatment of the Christians.

Precisely these qualities are the reasons that he has remained so well known and has been the subject of many writers and opera composers in modern times. These works of fiction particularly merit mention: Henryk Sienkiewicz's Quo Vadis, one of the finest works of the 1907 Nobel Laureate in Literature, and John Hersey's The Conspiracy. Nero unquestionably will always be with us.

Copyright (C) 2006, Herbert W. Benario.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

1 commentsCleisthenes
VitelliusARdenariusVesta.jpg
709a, Vitellius, 2 January - 20 December 69 A.D.44 viewsVITELLIUS AR silver denarius. RSC 72, RCV 2200. 19mm, 3.2 g. Obverse: A VITELLIVS GERM IMP AVG TR P, laureate head right; Reverse - PONT MAXIM, Vesta seated right, holding scepter and patera. Quite decent. Ex. Incitatus Coins. Photo courtesy of Incitatus Coins.

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Vitellius (69 A.D.)

John F. Donahue
College of William and Mary


It is often difficult to separate fact from fiction in assessing the life and reign of Vitellius. Maligned in the ancient sources as gluttonous and cruel, he was also a victim of a hostile biographical tradition established in the regime of the Flavians who had overthrown him. Nevertheless, his decision to march against Rome in 69 was pivotal, since his subsequent defeat signalled the end of military anarchy and the beginning of an extended period of political stability under Vespasian and his successors.

Early Life and Career

Aulus Vitellius was born in September, 15 AD, the son of Lucius Vitellius and his wife Sestilia. One of the most successful public figures of the Julio-Claudian period, Lucius Vitellius was a three-time consul and a fellow censor with the emperor Claudius. Aulus seems to have moved with equal ease in aristocratic circles, successively winning the attention of the emperors Gaius, Claudius, and Nero through flattery and political skill.

Among his attested public offices, Vitellius was a curator of public works, a senatorial post concerned with the maintenance and repair of public buildings in Rome, and he was also proconsul of North Africa, where he served as a deputy to his brother, perhaps about 55 A. D. In addition, he held at least two priesthoods, the first as a member of the Arval Brethren, in whose rituals he participated from 57 A.D., and the second, as one of the quindecemviri sacris faciundis, a sacred college famous for its feasts.

With respect to marriage and family, Vitellius first wed a certain Petroniana, the daughter of a consul, sometime in the early to mid thirties A.D. The union produced a son, Petronianus, allegedly blind in one eye and emancipated from his father's control as a result of being named his mother's heir. Tradition records that Vitellius killed the boy shortly after emancipation amid charges of parricide; the marriage soon ended in divorce. A second marriage, to Galeria Fundana, daughter of an ex-praetor, was more stable than the first. It produced another son, who was eventually killed by the Flavians after the overthrow of Vitellius, as well as a daughter. Galeria is praised by Tacitus for her good qualities, and in the end it was she who saw to Vitellius' burial.

Rise to Power and Emperorship

Without doubt, the most fortuitous moment in Vitellius' political career was his appointment as governor of Lower Germany by the emperor Galba late in 68. The decision seemed to have caught everybody by surprise, including Vitellius himself, who, according to Suetonius, was in straitened circumstances at the time. The choice may have been made to reduce the possibility of rebellion by the Rhine armies, disaffected by Galba's refusal to reward them for their part in suppressing the earlier uprising of Julius Vindex. Ironically, it was Vitellius' lack of military achievement and his reputation for gambling and gluttony that may have also figured in his selection. Galba perhaps calculated that a man with little military experience who could now plunder a province to satisfy his own stomach would never become disloyal. If so, it was a critical misjudgement by the emperor.

The rebellion began on January 1, 69 ("The Year of the Four Emperors"), when the legions of Upper Germany refused to renew their oath of allegiance to Galba. On January 2, Vitellius' own men, having heard of the previous day's events, saluted him as emperor at the instigation of the legionary legate Fabius Valens and his colleagues. Soon, in addition to the seven legions that Vitellius now had at his command in both Germanies, the forces in Gaul, Britain, and Raetia also came over to his side. Perhaps aware of his military inexperience, Vitellius did not immediately march on Rome himself. Instead, the advance was led by Valens and another legionary general, Aulus Caecina Alienus, with each man commanding a separate column. Vitellius would remain behind to mobilize a reserve force and follow later.

Caecina was already one hundred fifty miles on his way when news reached him that Galba had been overthrown and Otho had taken his place as emperor. Undeterred, he passed rapidly down the eastern borders of Gaul; Valens followed a more westerly route, quelling a mutiny along the way. By March both armies had successfully crossed the Alps and joined at Cremona, just north of the Po. Here they launced their Batavian auxiliaries against Otho's troops and routed them in the First Battle of Bedriacum. Otho killed himself on April 16, and three days later the soldiers in Rome swore their allegience to Vitellius. The senate too hailed him as emperor.

When Vitellius learned of these developments, he set out to Rome from Gaul. By all accounts the journey was a drunken feast marked by the lack of discipline of both the troops and the imperial entourage. Along the way he stopped at Lugdunum to present his six-year-old son Germanicus to the legions as his eventual successor. Later, at Cremona, Vitellius witnessed the corpse-filled battlefield of Otho's recent defeat with joy, unmoved by so many citizens denied a proper burial.

The emperor entered Rome in late June-early July. Conscious of making a break with the Julio-Claudian past, Vitellius was reluctant to assume the traditional titles of the princes, even though he enthusiastically made offerings to Nero and declared himself consul for life. To his credit, Vitellius did seem to show a measure of moderation in the transition to the principate. He assumed his powers gradually and was generally lenient to Otho's supporters, even pardoning Otho's brother Salvius Titianus, who had played a key role in the earlier regime. In addition, he participated in Senate meetings and continued the practice of providing entertainments for the Roman masses. An important practical change involved the awarding of posts customarily held by freedmen to equites, an indication of the growth of the imperial bureaucracy and its attractiveness to men of ambition.

In other matters, he replaced the existing praetorian guard and urban cohorts with sixteen praetorian cohorts and four urban units, all comprised of soldiers from the German armies. According to Tacitus, the decision prompted a mad scramble, with the men, and not their officers, choosing the branch of service that they preferred. The situation was clearly unsatisfactory but not surprising, given that Vitellius was a creation of his own troops. To secure his position further, he sent back to their old postings the legions that had fought for Otho, or he reassigned them to distant provinces. Yet discontent remained: the troops who had been defeated or betrayed at Bedriacum remained bitter, and detachments of three Moesian legions called upon by Otho were returned to their bases, having agitated against Vitellius at Aquileia.

Flavian Revolt

The Vitellian era at Rome was short-lived. By mid-July news had arrived that the legions of Egypt under Tiberius Julius Alexander had sworn allegiance to a rival emperor, Titus Flavius Vespasianus, the governor of Judaea and a successful and popular general. Vespasian was to hold Egypt while his colleague Mucianus, governor of Syria, was to invade Italy. Before the plan could be enacted, however, the Danube legions, former supporters of Otho, joined Vespasian's cause. Under the leadership of Antonius Primus, commander of the Sixth legion in Pannonia, and Cornelius Fuscus, imperial procurator in Illyricum, the legions made a rapid descent on Italy.

Although his forces were only half of what Vitellius commanded in Italy, Primus struck first before the emperor could muster additional reinforcements from Germany. To make matters worse for the Vitellians, Valens was ill, and Caecina, now consul, had begun collaborating with the Flavians. His troops refused to follow his lead, however, and arrested him at Hostilia near Cremona. They then joined the rest of the Vitellian forces trying to hold the Po River. With Vitellius still in Rome and his forces virtually leaderless, the two sides met in October in the Second Battle of Bedriacum. The emperor's troops were soundly defeated and Cremona was brutally sacked by the victors. In addition, Valens, whose health had recovered, was captured while raising an army for Vitellius in Gaul and Germany; he was eventually executed.

Meanwhile, Primus continued towards Rome. Vitellius made a weak attempt to thwart the advance at the Apennine passes, but his forces switched to the Flavian side without a fight at Narnia in mid-December. At Rome, matters were no better. Vespasian's elder brother, Titus Flavius Sabinus, the city prefect, was successful in an effort to convince Vitellius to abdicate but was frustrated by the mob in Rome and the emperor's soldiers. Forced to flee to the Capitol, Sabinus was set upon by Vitellius' German troops and soon killed, with the venerable Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus set ablaze in the process. Within two days, the Flavian army fought its way into Rome. In a pathetic final move, Vitellius disguised himself in dirty clothing and hid in the imperial doorkeeper's quarters, leaning a couch and a mattress against the door for protection. Dragged from his hiding place by the Flavian forces, he was hauled off half-naked to the Forum, where he was tortured, killed, and tossed into the Tiber. The principate could now pass to Vespasian.

Assessment

Vitellius has not escaped the hostility of his biographers. While he may well have been gluttonous, his depiction as indolent, cruel, and extravagant is based almost entirely on the propaganda of his enemies. On the other hand, whatever moderating tendencies he did show were overshadowed by his clear lack of military expertise, a deficiency that forced him to rely in critical situations on largely inneffective lieutenants. As a result he was no match for his Flavian successors, and his humiliating demise was perfectly in keeping with the overall failure of his reign.

Copyright (C) 1999, John Donahue.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
Thelpusa.jpg
Achaea. Arcadia, Thelpusa. Septimius Severus AE17. Unpublished106 viewsPeloponnesus. Thelpusa, Arcadia. Septimius Severus bust rt., Θ Ε Λ in wreath. Obverse die and reverse type not listed in BCD. BCD Pelop. I -; BCD Pelop II -; SNG Cop -; BMC -.

Thelpusa or Thelpousa (Greek: Θέλπουσα, also known as Telphusa/Τέλφουσα or Thelphusa/Θέλφουσα) was an ancient city-state in Azania in Arcadia.

The city was built on the left bank of the Ladon and bounded with Kleitor and Psophis. The name comes from the nymph Thelpousa or Thelpusa, daughter of Ladon. The city contained the temple of Eleusinian Demeter, and nearby, a stone statue of the goddess of the daughter and Dionysus and Ongius, chief of Thelpousa and the son of Apollo, Asclepius' children with the memory of Trygon and the temple of the twelve gods. When Pausanias] visited the city, Thelpousa was abandoned and ruined for many years. In 352 BC, its city residents took part with the Lacedaemonians. It was a member of the Achaean League and was cut off from the rights of law. Thelpusa was the patriot of Asclepius and Artion.
ancientone
Antigoneia_Mantinea.jpg
Achaean league - AR hemidrachm7 viewsAntigoneia (Mantinea)
c. 188-180 BC
head of laureate Zeus right
(AX) monogram all within wreath
A_N

Benner 5; BCD Peloponnesos 1492.2; HGC 5, 926
ex Lanz
Johny SYSEL
Megalopolis.jpg
Achaean league - AR hemidrachm15 viewsMegalopolis
160-146 BC
laureate head of Zeus right
monogram, thunderbolt below, all within wreath
ΞB
K (AX) A
M
Benner 17; BCD Peloponnesos 1551.1; HGC 5, 953
ex Roma numismatics
Johny SYSEL
Dyme~0.jpg
Achaean league - AR hemidrachm7 viewsDyme
c. 86 BC
head of laureate Zeus right
fish under (AX) monogram all within wreath
(APT) left / ΔY up
Clerk 55; BCD Peloponnesos 482
2,20g

ex Forum Ancient Coins
ex Jiří Militký
Johny SYSEL
Megara.jpg
Achaean league - AR hemidrachm8 viewsMegara
c. 175-168 BC
laureate head of Zeus Amarios right
lyre above (AX) monogram, all within wreath
ΔΩ_PO
BCD Peloponessos 27.1; McClean 6431-2, Benner S. 78, 4; HGC 4, 1805
ex Lanz
Johny SYSEL
1322_Pallantion.jpg
Achaean league - AR hemidrachm8 viewsPallantion
100-80 BC
Peloponnesos
laureate head of Zeus right
(AX) monogram, trident below, all within wreath
A
Π_Λ
(YE)
BCD Peloponnesos 1593.2; Benner 4; HGC 5, 969
ex Rauch
Johny SYSEL
Silver_Coin.jpg
Achaean League - Sparta (Laconia) 192/146 BC26 viewsSparta (Laconia) Hemidrachm - Achaean League 192/146 BC. Ae 14, Weight 2.48g. Obv: Head of Zeus / monograms, Dioscuri caps all within wreath. Clerk, Achaean League pl. XIII, 6 http://www.acsearch.info/record.html?id=166481
Also listed an almost identical coin by Forum Member (Lloyd T) as:
Lakonia, Lakedaimon (Sparta), ca. 85 BC, AR Hemidrachm: in the style of the Achaean League
Laureate and bearded head of Zeus right . / Central AX monogram, pilei of the Dioskouri flanking, ΛAI monogram above and ΩΠMY monogram below, all within laurel wreath.
HGC 5, 643 (S); Clerk 319; BCD Peloponnesos 865.4; SNG Copenhagen 320.
(13 mm, 2.36 g, 6h)
ex-BCD Collection; ex- Johan Chr. Holm (Denmark) 1976.
ddwau
archean3.jpg
Achaean League Hemidrachm144 viewsAchaean League Hemidrachm. Elis. Mid First Century BC.

Obv: Laureate Zeus to Right.
Rx: Achaean League Monogram with FA to left, Monogram above, Monogram to right, thunderbolt below, all within laurel wreath. Clerk 256 var. BCD 684. Weight: 2.30 gm. Diameter: 17 mm.
Adrian S
Achaean_League_Paterae_Silver_Hemidrachm~0.jpg
Achaean League Paterae Silver Hemidrachm 33 viewsAchaean League Paterae Peloponnesus after 150 BC Silver hemidrachm 2.1 gram
Obverse: Head of Zeus Right
Reverse: Ax monogram Dolphin below _10000


Antonivs Protti
AchaeanLeague_Antigoneia_Benner148-9.jpg
Achaean League, Antigoneia.19 viewsAchaean League, Antigoneia in Arkadia (fka Mantineia). 196-146 BC. AR Hemidrachm (2.27 gm). Laureate head of Zeus Amarios, r. / Large AX monogram. A - N on l. & r., magistrate CΩ below, all in laurel wreath. gF/VF. Benner p. #47, #5; BCD Peloponessos 1492.2; SNG Cop 283-284; Clerk 197, Pl VIII, #6; HGC 5 #926; Agrinon 370-392; BMC 10.100.Christian T
AchaeanLeague_Antigoneia_Benner47-5.jpg
Achaean League, Antigoneia.13 viewsAchaean League, Antigoneia in Arkadia (fka Mantineia). 196-146 BC. AR Hemidrachm (2.37 gm). Laureate head of Zeus Amarios, r. / Large AX monogram. ΑN above, magistrate ΕΥ monogram below. VF. Benner p. 48 #9; Clerk 183 #1; SNG Cop 280; Peloponessos 1492; HGC 5 #926.Christian T
AchaeanLeague_Elis_Benner11.jpg
Achaean League, Elis16 viewsAchaean League, Elis. 196-146 BC. AR Hemidrachm (2.41 gm). Laureate head of Zeus Amarios, r. / Large AX monogram, with magistrate A - N on either side, FA above, nothing below. VF. Benner #11; HGC 5 #536; BCD Peloponessos 665.2; SNG Cop -.Christian T
GRK_Achaean_League_Elis_hemidrachm.JPG
Achaean League, Elis.8 viewsSear 2993 var., BMC Peloponnesus p. 4.

AR hemidrachm, 13-13.5 mm, circa 196 - 146 B.C.

Obv: laureate head of Zeus facing right.

Rev: AX monogram in laurel wreath, F - A at sides, CΩ/CIAC below.

The period of mintage begins with the Roman general, T. Quinctius Flamininus' proclamation of the "Freedom of Greece" in 196 B.C. and ends with the destruction of the League and the sack of Corinth by the Romans in 146 B.C. During this short period the league was the dominant state in Greece.
Stkp
AchaeanLeague_Megalopolis_Benner15.jpg
Achaean League, Megalopolis.14 viewsAchaean League, Megalopolis in Arkadia. 196-146 BC. AR Hemidrachm (2.34 gm). Laureate head of Zeus Amarios, r. / Large AX monogram, with Ξ above, magistrate K- I t l. & r., Syrinx below. VF. Benner 15; BCD Peloponessos 1550; HGC 5 #953; Clerk pl VIII #8; SNG Cop 285.Christian T
AchaeanLeague_Messene_Benner14.jpg
Achaean League, Messene.14 viewsAchaean League, Messene. 196-146 BC. AR Hemidrachm (2.40 gm). Laureate head of Zeus Amarios, r. / Large AX monogram, with X above and m below. VF. Benner 14; BCD Peloponessos 722.8; HGC 5 #596; Clerk pl XII 4, #297; SNG Cop 317.Christian T
AchaeanLeague_Pallantion_Benner4.jpg
Achaean League, Pallantion.14 viewsAchaean League, Pallantion in Arkadia. 196-146 BC. AR Hemidrachm (2.15 gm). Laureate head of Zeus Amarios, r. / Large AX monogram. Π-Α-Λ to l., top, & r. Below: ΕΥ monogram w/ trident. EF. Benner 4; BCD Peloponessos 1593.2; HGC 5 #969; Clerk pl IX, 3 #219; SNG Cop 290; BMC 124-6.Christian T
AchaeanLeague_Patrai_Benner49.jpg
Achaean League, Patrai.14 viewsAchaean League, Patrai in Achaia . 196-146 BC. AR Hemidrachm (2.32 gm). Laureate head of Zeus Amarios, r. / Large AX monogram, ΦI above, Ξ to l., ΠA to r., and dolphin below. nEF. Benner 49; BCD Peloponessos 508.4-5; HGC 5 #55; SNG Cop 253.Christian T
AchaeanLeague_Sparta_Benner6.jpg
Achaean League, Sparta.14 viewsAchaean League, Sparta in Laconia. 196-146 BC. AR Hemidrachm (1.80 gm). Laureate head of Zeus Amarios, r. / Large AX monogram, with AI monogram above, Pilei of Dioscuri l & r., and monogram (#24) below. VF. Benner 6; BCD Peloponessos 865.4; HGC 5 #643; SNG Cop 3320; Clerk pl XIII, 6.Christian T
AchaeanLeague_Teaga_Benner5.jpg
Achaean League, Teaga.15 viewsAchaean League, Teaga in Arkadia. c. 196-146 BC. AR Hemidrachm (2.38 gm). Laureate head of Zeus Amarios, r. / Large AX monogram, T - E to l. & r., ΘΗ monogram (#27) above. gVF. Pegasi A22 #136. Benner 5; BCD Peloponessos 17446; HGC 5 #1075; Clerk pl IX 4 #226; BMC 130-131; SNG Cop 295.Christian T
al.JPG
ACHAIA, ACHAEAN LEAGUE, a, (Anonymous) Mid III Century BC.114 views AR Hemidrachm (2.63 gm).
Obv: Head of Zeus of fine style
Rev: Monogram within wreath.
Toned aVF, some porosity.
BCD.374. ex BCD Collection.
Rare.
Dino
aegira.jpg
ACHAIA, Achaean League, Aigeira. c. 167-146 BC231 viewsAR Hemidrachm, Obv: Laureate head of Zeus r. Rx: Forepart of goat r. over monograms Achaean League AX monogram with AL to left, KI to right; all within laurel wreath, tied below. Rare. Ex John Twente Animal Collection; ex Craig Whitford NBD Bank Money Museum Collection Part II, lot 87. VF/EF, 2.49g. BCD-399 (same rev. die), Agrinion-571a, Clerk-16, Benner-Aigeira-5. HJBerk BBS 159, lot 166.2 commentsCGPCGP
aigiewn.JPG
ACHAIA, Achaean League, Aigieon. ca. 88-30 BC.139 viewsAR Hemidrachm (2.17 g.).
obv: Laureate head of Zeus right. AIGIEWN.
rev: Achaian League monogram;CTO to left, API above, DA right, MOC below;all within laurel-wreath, tied below.
Sear-2973;BMC 24f.; SNG Cop. 235; BCD 430; Benner-Aigion-20.
Gorny & Mosch
1 commentsCGPCGP
IMG_0003.jpg
ACHAIA, Achaean League, Aigieon. ca. 88-30 BC.84 viewsAR Hemidrachm 15mm (2.2 g.).
obv: Laureate head of Zeus right. AIGIEWN.
rev: Achaian League monogram;CTO to left, API above, DA right, MOC below;all within laurel-wreath, tied below.
Sear-2973;BMC 24f.; SNG Cop. 235; BCD 430; Benner-Aigion-20.
3 commentsDino
ant~0.JPG
ACHAIA, Achaean League, Antigoneia (Mantineia). Circa 188-180 BC217 viewsAR Hemidrachm (13mm, 2.43 g). Laureate head of Zeus right / Monogram; A-N across field, monogram below; all within wreath tied at the bottom. Clerk 195; BCD Peloponnesos 1491; SNG Copenhagen 281. VF, toned. ex BCD Collection (not in LHS sale); Benner-Antigoneia-2. CNG auction 179 lot 40.CGPCGP
greek6.JPG
ACHAIA, Achaean League, Antigoneia (Mantineia). Circa 188-180 BC.73 viewsAR Hemidrachm (13mm, 2.32 g). Laureate head of Zeus right / Monogram; A-N across field, monogram below; all within wreath tied at the bottom. Clerk 195; BCD Peloponnesos 1491; SNG Copenhagen 281; Benner-Antigoneia-2. Toned. CGPCGP
Argosal.jpg
ACHAIA, Achaean League, Argos. 175-168BC 59 viewsAR Hemidrachm (15mm, 2.4g). Laureate head of Zeus left / AX Monogram: Harpa above; Monogram below; all within wreath tied above. Agrinion 307; Benner-Argos-9.
CGPCGP
argos1.jpg
Achaia, Achaean League, Argos. 195-188 BC.66 viewsAR Triobol or Hemidrachm (15mm, 2.40 g, 6h).

Obv: Laureate head of Zeus left
Rev: AX monogram; TK monogram above; below, wolf’s head right; all within laurel wreath.

Benner 3; Clerk 141/5; BCD Peloponnesos 1130; HGC 5, 714.

From the BCD Collection (not in previous sales).

CNG e-auction 288, Lot: 156.
Dino
DSC06579.JPG
Achaia, Achaean League, Argos. 196-146 BC.64 viewsAR Hemidrachm. Laureate head of Zeus left / AX monogram, AKT monogram above, wolf head right below.CGPCGP
argos221.jpg
ACHAIA, Achaean League, Argos. Circa 160-146 BC. 48 viewsAR Hemidrachm (16mm, 2.33 g, 11h). Laureate head of Zeus right / Monogram of the Achaian League; above, club right; to right, TK monogram; all within laurel wreath. Benner 16; BCD Peloponnesos 1137. VF, toned.

Ex BCD Collection (not in previous sales); Coin Galleries FPL (Winter 1981-1982), no. 51; CNG 221, lot 79
Dino
corinth.JPG
ACHAIA, Achaean League, Corinth. c. 167-146 BC279 viewsAR Hemidrachm, Obv: Laureate head of Zeus l. Rx: Pegasus flying r. over AX monogram with A-K-S across fields; all within laurel wreath, tied left. Ex John Twente Animal Collection; ex HJB Buy or Bid, 2/17/1981. About VF, 2.27g. BCD-73.2, Agrinion-583, Clerk-111; Benner-Korinth-11. HJBerk BBS 159, lot 167.3 commentsCGPCGP
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ACHAIA, Achaean League, Corinth. Circa 195-188 BC.62 viewsAR Hemidrachm (14mm, 2.31 g, 10h).
obv: Laureate head of Zeus right
rev: Monogram of the Achaian League; to left, koppa; below, monogram; all within laurel wreath.

Benner 6; BCD Peloponnesos 71. VF, toned.

Ex BCD Collection (not in previous sales); CNG 221, lot 82.
1 commentsDino
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Achaia, Achaean League, Dyme. 88-30 BC.138 viewsAR Hemidrachm. Obv: Laureate head of Zeus r. Rx: Monograms above and to left of AX monogram F to right, fish r. below; all within laurel wreath. Ex John Twente Animal Collection; ex CNA Mail Bid Sale XXI, June 26, 1992, lot 674 (part). VF, 2.36g. BM-30, Clerk-53; Benner-Dyme-16. HJBerk BBS 159, lot 165.1 commentsCGPCGP
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ACHAIA, Achaean League, Elis. c. 188-180 B.C.70 viewsSilver hemidrachm, BMC Peloponnesus p. 4, 46; S 3003 var, VF, Elis mint, 2.312g, 12.8mm, 315o, c. 196 - 146 B.C.; obverse laureate head of Zeus right; reverse large AX monogram in laurel wreath, F - A at sides, CW/CIAC below; Agrinion 334a; BCD 665.1; Benner-Elis-5. ex Coin Galleries auction, 23 November 1963, #423; ex Forum.CGPCGP
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ACHAIA, Achaean League, Elis. 167-146 BC.135 viewsAR Hemidrachm. 2.30g. Laureate Head of Zeus right/ AX, F-A across, LY above, Sigma Omega below; all within laurel wreath. Dark toning. EFBCD-664, Agrinion-349a, Clerk-281; BCD 664; Benner-Elis-27. HJBerk BBS 160, lot 105.4 commentsCGPCGP
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ACHAIA, Achaean League, Elis. 175-168 BC62 viewsAR hemidrachm. Laureate head of Zeus right/Achaian League monogram. A - FA - N monograms across fields. All within wreath tied at bottom. Clerk 290; Agrinion-337c; BCD 665.2; Benner-Elis-11.CGPCGP
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ACHAIA, Achaean League, Elis. 88-30BC.78 viewsAR hemidrachm.
Zeus right KALLIPOS behind.
XA with monograms around. Thunderbolt below.
BCD 689, Benner Elis 42.
1 commentsDino
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ACHAIA, Achaean League, Elis. Circa 175-168 BC.109 viewsAR hemidrachm. 15mm, 2.3g. Laureate head of Zeus right / AX monogram, F-A across, LY above; all within wreath tied at the bottom. BCD 665.5. Clerk 280.CGPCGP
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ACHAIA, Achaean League, Elis. Circa 175-168 BC. Bronze dichalkon?134 viewsBronze Dichalkon? (16mm). Laureate head of Zeus right / AX monogram, F-A across, LY above; all within wreath tied at the bottom.

If fourree core - Imitating BCD 665.5/Clerk 280?
CGPCGP
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ACHAIA, Achaean League, Elis. Circa 191-188 BC. 86 viewsAR Hemidrachm (16mm, 2.42 g, 6h).
obv: Laureate head of Zeus right
rev: Monogram of the Achaian League; above, eagle standing right; in fields, N-I/Σ-Ω; below, FA; all within laurel wreath.

Benner 1; BCD Peloponnesos 663; Agrinion Hoard 331a (same obverse die)
VF, toned.

Ex BCD Collection (not in previous sales); CNG 221, lot 89.
2 commentsDino
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ACHAIA, Achaean League, Elis. Circa 88-30 BC.83 viewsAR hemidrachm. Laureate head of Zeus right/Achaian League monogram. 14 mm 2.2g. FA DWE XE monograms across fields. Thunderbolt below. All within wreath tied at bottom. BCD 680-1; Clerk 259; Benner-Elis-52. Toned. ex. Christopher Morcom collection. ex CNG auction 173 lot 219.CGPCGP
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ACHAIA, Achaean League, Lakedaimon, Sparta 88-30 BC.113 viewsAR hemidrachm. Laureate head Zeus right/Achaian League monogram. Caps of the dioscuri across fields. Monograms above and below All enclosed within laurel wreath tied at bottom. Clerk 318a; Benner-Sparta-6. exHCC, Inc.1 commentsCGPCGP
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ACHAIA, Achaean League, Megalopolis. Circa 160-150 BC. Bronze dichalkon 81 viewsBronze dichalkon or fourree core. 14.2mm. 2.27 g.
Obverse: Laureate head of Zeus right
Reverse: Large X with ΞB above, K-A across, M and thunderbolt below, all within wreath

Attribution: cf. BCD Peloponnesos 1551.1 Date: 160-150 BC

Ex BCD with tag. Note from BCD stating that this is a bronze coin struck from an identified offical die for a hemidrachm. This would make it possibly a test strike in bronze or a fouree core from a stolen die.
1 commentsDino
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ACHAIA, Achaean League, Megara. 175-168 BC.115 views AR Hemidrachm. Laureate head of Zeus right / DW Monogram on left and PO Monogram on right side of Large AX monogram; above, lyre; all within laurel-wreath, tied below. Clerk 120; BCD 27.1; Benner-Megara-4.3 commentsCGPCGP
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ACHAIA, Achaean League, Messenia-Messena. Circa 175-168 BC.103 viewsAR Hemidrachm (18mm, 2.46 g).
Laureate head of Zeus right / Monogram; O-OP-N across field, M below; all within wreath tied at bottom.
Agrinion 325d-e; Clerk 304; BCD 722.7, 724; Benner-Messene-23 (same obverse die).

exBeast Coins.
2 commentsCGPCGP
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ACHAIA, Achaean League, Pallantium. 88-30 BC.70 viewsAR Hemidrachm (12mm, 1.89 g). Laureate head of Zeus right / Monogram; P - A - L across field, Trident and AN monogram below; all within wreath tied at the bottom. Toned. Clerk 220; BCD 1593.1; Benner-Pallantion-3.CGPCGP
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ACHAIA, Achaean League, Patrai-Patras. 167-146 BC. 125 views AR hemidrachm. 16mm 2.55g.
Laureate head Zeus right/ Achaian league monogram. Monogram A-TEI-N across fields. dolphin below. All within laurel wreath tied at bottom.
Agrinion Hoard 553a (same rev. die); Clerk 82a; Benner-Patrai-29 (this coin).
exBeast Coins.
4 commentsCGPCGP
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ACHAIA, Achaean League, Patrai-Patras. 167-146 BC. 52 viewsAR hemidrachm.
obv: Laureate head Zeus right
rev: Achaian league monogram. Monogram X-Theta E-E across fields. dolphin below. All within laurel wreath tied at bottom.

Agrinion 560-563; McClean 6411; SNG Cop. 249; Hunterian 14; Dewing 1845, Clerk 80/18; Benner-Patrai-32.
CGPCGP
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ACHAIA, Achaean League, Patrai-Patras. 175-168 BC.202 viewsAR Hemidrachm (2.31 g.).
Obv: Laureate head Zeus right
Rev: Achaian League monogram; D left, M above, I right, trident below facing right; all within laurel wreath tied below.
Clerk 186/3; McClean 6461; Benner-Patrai-22.

exGorny & Mosch

SNG Cop. 274f. ; BMC 98
3 commentsCGPCGP
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ACHAIA, Achaean League, Patrai-Patras. 195-188 BC.92 viewsAR Hemidrachm (15.3mm, 2.36g). Laureate head of Zeus right / AX Monogram; Monograms to left and right; Trident below; all within wreath tied at the bottom. Clerk 47(Ceryneia); Agrinion Hoard 270; Benner-Patrai-4.

exAmphora Coins.
CGPCGP
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ACHAIA, Achaean League, Patrai-Patras. 88-30 BC.70 views AR hemidrachm. 15mm 2.16g.
Laureate head Zeus right/ Achaian league monogram. XE SW PA across fields. dolphin below. All within laurel wreath tied at bottom.
VF. Toned. BCD 508.7 (this coin); Clerk 81; Benner-Patrai-51 (this coin). exBeast Coins.
2 commentsCGPCGP
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ACHAIA, Achaean League, Patrai-Patras. 88-30 BC.53 viewsAR hemidrachm. 16mm 2.4g
obv: Laureate head Zeus right
rev: Achaian league monogram. Monograms and letters across fields. dolphin below. All within laurel wreath tied at bottom.

BMC 42; McClean 6409-10; SNG Cop 252; Leake 3643-5; Clerk 77/15 & 78/16; BCD 508.6.

3 commentsDino
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ACHAIA, Achaean League, Sikyon. Circa 160-146 BC.44 viewsAR Hemidrachm (16mm, 2.34 g, 6h).
obv: Laureate head of Zeus right
rev: Monogram of the Achaian League; above, ME monogram; in fields, N-I; below, dove flying right; all within laurel wreath.

Benner 18; BCD Peloponnesos 322.1. Near VF, toned, a little porous.

Ex BCD Collection (not in previous sales); CNG 221, lot 156.
1 commentsDino
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ACHAIA, Achaean League, Sikyon. Circa 195-188 BC. 49 viewsAR Hemidrachm (14mm, 2.42 g, 10h).
obv: Laureate head of Zeus right
rev: Monogram of the Achaian League; in fields, Σ-I; below, EY; all within laurel wreath.

Benner 3; BCD Peloponnesos 321.2. VF, toned.

Ex BCD Collection (not in previous sales); CNG 221, lot 152.
Dino
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ACHAIA, Achaean League, Tegea. 88-30 BC. 138 viewsAR Hemidrachm (2.49 g, 8h). Laureate head of Zeus right / XA monogram; T-E across field; all within wreath. Clerk 223; BCD 1744; SNG Copenhagen 293; Benner-Tegea-4. Toned.

From Collection C.P.A. Ex Tkalec (24 October 2003), lot 94.

exCNG 78, lot 695.
4 commentsCGPCGP
ACHAIA,_Achaian_League__Tegea__Early_1st_century_BC__AR_Triobol_or_Hemidrachm_(15mm,_2_31_g,_9h).jpg
Achaia, Achaian League AR Triobol or Hemidrachm12 viewsACHAIA, Achaian League. Tegea. Early 1st century BC. AR Triobol or Hemidrachm (15mm, 2.31 g, 9h) Laureate head of Zeus right/ Achaian League monogram; T-E across field; all within wreath. Benner 4; BCD Peolponnesos 1744; HCG 6, 1075. VF, tonedOctopus Grabus
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Achaia, Achaian League. Pallantion AR Triobol or Hemidrachm12 viewsACHAIA, Achaian League. Pallantion. Early 1st century BC. AR Triobol or Hemidrachm (15mm, 2.03 g, 1h) Laureate head of Zeus right / AX monogram; in field, Π-Α-Λ; below, EY monogram and trident; all within laurel wreath. VF, some tooling and fields lightly smoothed on the obverseOctopus Grabus
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ACHAIA, Achaian League. Patra c. 86 B.C.12 viewsACHAIA, Achaian League. Patrai. Circa 86 B.C. AR Triobol – Hemidrachm (14.2mm, 2.30 g,). Obv: Laureate head of Zeus right. Rev: Achaian League monogram; above, AP monogram; ΞE and ΠA flanking; below, dolphin swimming right; all within laurel wreath. Benner 47; BCD Peloponnesos 508.6; HGC 5, 55.ddwau
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ACHAIA, Aigieon. 37-31 BC.71 viewsAE hexachalkon (5.67 g)
Theoxios and Kletaios, magistrates.
obv: Laureate head of Zeus right
rev: Zeus standing right, holding eagle on outstretched arm and preparing to cast thunderbolt; ΘEOΞIOΣ KΛHTAIOΣ around. Kroll, Bronze 2; BCD Peloponnesos 436.

Located along the northern coast of the Peloponnesos, Achaia was a narrow territory between Sicyon and Elis. One theory suggests that Achaia’s original inhabitants were driven to the area from Achaia Phthoitis, which itself was located across the Gulf of Corinth in southern Thessaly. A number of prehistoric and Mycenaean ruins in the western part of the Achaia indicate that the district was long inhabited, even into remote antiquity. Twelve city-states were located there: Aigai, Aigira, Aigion, Bura, Dyme, Helike, Olenos, Patrai, Pherai, Pelene, Rhypes, and Tritaia. Achaian colonies were established in Magna Graecia at Kroton, Kaulonia, Metapontion, and Sybaris. From the mid-5th century onward, much of the history of Achaia is interconnected with the Achaian League.
Dino
Argolis,_Argos,_Hemidrachm_.jpg
Achaian League, Argos, ca. 195-188 BC, AR Hemidrachm 19 views Laureate head of Zeus left.
Wreath surrounding AX monogram; TK monogram above and wolf’s head below.

HGC 5, 714 (this coin) (R1); BCD Peloponnesos 1130 (this coin); Agrinion 302 (b) (same dies); Clerk 141.

(15 mm, 2.43 g, 6h).
Kirk Davis Classical Numismatics Catalogue 50, Fall 2006, 46; ex-BCD Collection: LHS Numismatics 96, 8 May 2006, 1130; ex-Coin Galleries Winter FPL 1981/82, 52.
1 commentsn.igma
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Achaian League, Elis, 40-30 BC, AR Hemidrachm 7 viewsLaureate head of Zeus right, ΘPACYΛEΩN behind.
Wreath surrounding AX monogram in centre; FA monogram to left, ANTK monogram above and XE monogram to right, thunderbolt below.

BCD Peloponnesos 688; HGC 5, 541 (R1); Clerk 272; BMC 70; Sear GCV 2994.

(16 mm, 2.19 g, 11h).
John Jencek Ancient Coins & Antiquities; ex- Frank Kovacs Collection.
n.igma
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Achaian League, Elis, ca. 50 BC, AR Hemidrachm 11 viewsLaureate head of Zeus right, KA monogram in outer right field.
Wreath surrounding AX monogram in centre; FA monogram to left, Ω above ELIΣ monogram (Elis) in upper field and XE monogram to right, thunderbolt below.

BCD Peloponnesos 685 (this coin); HGC 5, 540 (R2); Clerk 261; SNG Copenhagen 306.

(15 mm, 2.39 g, 6h).
Classical Numismatic Group e-Auction 160, 14 March 2007, 44; ex- BCD collection: LHS Auction 96, 8-9 May 2006, 685; ex- Danish National Museum, Copenhagen (c.f. SNG Cop 306 deaccessioned duplicate).
n.igma
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Achaian League, Messene, 191-183 BC, AR Hemidrachm7 viewsLaureate head of Zeus left.
Large AX monogram, Ξ-E across fields, ΠAY monogram above and ligate ME below, all within laurel wreath.

HGC 5, 595 (this coin); BCD Peloponnesos 706 (this coin); Agrinion 314 (same obverse die); Clerk 310.

(14 mm, 2.50 g, 1h)
Auctiones GmbH 1, 19 December 2011, 28; ex- BCD Collection: LHS 96, 8-9 May 2006, 706; ex- de Nicola, May 1982.
n.igma
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Achaian League, Patrai, ca. 86 BC, AR Hemidrachm 6 viewsLaureate head of Zeus right.
Wreath surrounding AX monogram in centre; ΦΙ above, ΞE to left, ΠA to right, dolphin swimming right below.

BCD Peloponnesos 508.4; HGC 5, 55.

(15 mm, 2.32 g, 11h).
Jencek Historical Enterprise; ex- BCD Collection (private sale); ex- Coin Art, Feb. 1974 per BCD ticket.
n.igma
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Achaian League. Dyme 15 viewsAchaian League, Dyme in Achaia. Circa 86 BC. AR Hemidrachm (2.32 gm). Laureate head of Zeus Amarios, r. / League AX monogram; ΧΔ monogram above, T to left, ΑΡ monogram to right, fish below; all within wreath. gVF. CNG EA 254 #115. Benner 17; BCD Peloponnesos 488; HGC 5 #41; SNG Cop 240; Clerk pl 111 #3. Christian T
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Achaian League. Elis. Hemidrachm6 viewsACHAIA, Achaian League. Elis. Circa 45-30 BC. AR Hemidrachm. Kallippos, magistrate. Laureate head of Zeus right; [KAΛΛIΠΠ]OΥ (magistrate) behind / Monogram; FA to left, Φ above and X to right, thunderbolt below; all within wreath tied at the bottom. Clerk 273 var. (name in genitive); BCD Peloponnesos 690; SNG Copenhagen 298. 1 commentsPodiceps
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Achain league, Pallantion Ar Tetrobol92 views1st cent. BC
Obv.: Laureate head of Zeus.
Rev.: Monogram of the Achaian League.
BCD Peloponnesos 1593.2
2 commentsMinos
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AE Trichalkon of the Thessalian League, 196-146 BC83 viewsObv: Laureate head of Apollo right
Rev: Th E S S A/ L O N in vertical columns; Apollo Itonia standing right, throwing spear w/right arm and holding shield w/left. On top of Athena's spear to left the Greek letters Th R A and to right an Owl.
References: BMC 49; Rogers 20; Nomos 4, 1385
Diameter 19 mm, Wt 7.6 gms

The Thessalian League was a confederacy of northern Greek city-states centered in Larissa. The letters above Athena's spear refer to the authorizing magistrate - in this case (Th R A)sylos whose complete name is given on silver staters of the period. A die match to lot 838 in the Triton XV sale (ACsearch)
1 commentsdaverino
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AEOLIS, Aigai 50 viewsAigai is an ancient Greek site in Turkey, situated at a rather high altitude almost on top of the Mount Gün (Dağı), part of the mountain chain of Yunt (Dağları) in western Anatolia in the location of the present village of Yuntdağı Köseler, depending Manisa central district, although the easier road to the site departs from İzmir's Aliağa district center, though the bifurcation for Şakran township. Aigai lived its brightest period under the Attalid dynasty that ruled from nearby Pergamon in the 3rd century and 2nd century B.C.

Aeolis (Ancient Greek Αιολίς Aiolís) or Aeolia (IPA [iːˈoʊlɪə]) (Ancient Greek Αιολία Aiolía) was an area that comprised the west and northwestern region of Asia Minor, mostly along the coast, and also several offshore islands (particularly Lesbos), where the Aeolian Greek city-states were located. Aeolis incorporated the southern parts of Mysia which bounded it to the north, Ionia to the south, and Lydia to the east. In early times, the Aeolians' twelve most important cities were independent, and formed a league: Cyme (also called Phriconis), Larissae, Neonteichos, Temnus, Cilla, Notium, Aegiroessa, Pitane, Aegeaeae, Myrina, Gryneia, and Smyrna (Herodotus, 1.149).

According to Homer's description, Odysseus, after his stay with the Cyclopes, reached the island of Aiolos, who provided him with the west wind Zephyr.

AEOLIS, Aigai. Circa 3rd Century BC. Laureate head of Apollo right / Head of goat right. SNG Copenhagen 4

Ebay
ecoli
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Aetolian League, 279-168 B.C. AE 17; Apollo/ spearhead, grapes & boar jaw8 viewsAetolian League, 279-168 B.C. Bronze AE 17, BMC Aetolia p. 198, 43 ff.; SNG Cop 28, F, porous, weight 4.937g, maximum diameter 17.6mm, die axis 90o, 211 - 196 B.C.; obverse laureate head of Apollo right; reverse ΑΙΤΩΛΩΝ, spearhead right over a small bunch of grapes and a boar jaw; Ex FORVM, photo credit FORVMPodiceps
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Aitolian League 8 viewsAitolian League Æ20. Circa 205-150 BC. Helmeted head of Athena right / Herakles to front holding club and lion’s skin. Tsangari, cf. 1446. 6.23,ecoli
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Akanthos, Macedon Obol25 viewsAR Obol
Size: 9 mm Weight: .60grams Die axis: 12h

Akanthos, Macedon
390 - 382 BCE

Obverse: Laureate head of Apollo to right.

Reverse: Seven-stringed lyre, around which AKANΘION

Notes:
- Akanthos was a colony of the Aegean Island of Andros.
- Situated on the Chalkidike peninsula, Akanthos was an important and powerful city. The city was never willing to join the Chalkidian League, 430 – 348 BCE, a federation based on Akanthos’ rival Olynthos. The Chalkidian league’s famous lyre coinage is well known, and bears the name of magistrates rather than city epithets. Yet the use of the lyre on this coin, along with the inscription AKANΘION, indicates there was at one time some significant cooperative arrangement between Akanthos and the Chalkidian League.

Ex eBay USA, 2004
Pharsalos
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Akarnanian League62 viewsAE 20, 5.68g, Akarnanian Federal Coinage, Thyreeion Mint, c. 250 BC. Obv: Athena to left in helm. Rev: Acheloios as a man-faced bull facing left. Dark green patina with some earthen encrustation. SNG Cop 423; BMC Thessaly p. 170, no. 21-4; BCD Akarnania 41-3; MSP I, 460.Molinari
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Ancient Greek Coin Collection From Sixth to First Centuries B.C.314 viewsHere are the coins I started collecting from 2012 to present. As Aristotle wrote two millennia ago that the whole is greater than the sum of its parts, there is no better way to present a collection of Greeks than to put them all together in a single shot. (Please click on picture for bigger resolution and to show greater details on coins).

Top row from left to right: AEOLIS, MYRINA. AR "Stephanophoric" Tetradrachm. Circa 150 BC**ILLYRIA, DYRRHACHION. AR Stater. Circa 340-280 BC**IONIA, SMYRNA. AR “Stephanophoric” Tetradrachm. Circa 150-145 BC** PELOPONNESOS, SIKYON. AR Stater. Circa 335-330 BC**ATTICA, ATHENS. “New style” Tetradrachm. Circa 169 BC.

Fifth row: BACTRIA, Antialkidas. AR Drachm. Circa 145-135 BC**CAPPADOCIA. Ariobarzanes I AR Drachm. Circa 96-63 BC**THRACE, ABDERA. AR Tetrobol. Circa 360-350 BC**THRACE, CHERSONESSOS. AR Hemidrachm. Circa 386-338 BC.

Fourth row: LUCANIA, METAPONTION. AR Stater. Circa 510-480 BC**THESSALIAN LEAGUE. AR Stater. Circa 196-146 BC**MACEDONIA. Kassander AR Tetradrachm. Circa 317-315 BC**AKARNANIA, LEUKAS. AR Stater. Circa 320-280 BC**PAMPHYLIA, ASPENDOS. AR Stater. Circa 330-300 BC.

Third row: SELEUKID SYRIA. Antiochos VI AR Drachm. Circa 144-143 BC**LUCANIA, METAPONTION. AR Stater. Circa 340-330 BC**LUCANIA, VELIA. AR Stater. Circa 280 BC**PARTHIA. Mithradates II AR Drachm. Circa 121-91 BC.

Second row: MYSIA, PERGAMMON. Eumenes I AR Tetradrachm. Circa 263-241 BC**CILICIA, TARSOS. Mazaios AR Stater. Circa 361-334 BC**THRACE. Lysimachos AR Tetradrachm. Circa 297-281 BC**CILICIA, TARSOS. Pharnabazos AR Stater. Circa 380-374 BC**THRACE, MARONEIA. AR Tetradrachm. Mid 2nd cent. BC.

Bottom row: SELEUKID SYRIA. Antiochos Euergetes VII AR Tetradrachm. Circa 138-129 BC**MACEDON. Alexander III AR Tetradrachm. Circa 325-315 BC**CILICIA, AIGEAI. AR Tetradrachm. Circa 30 BC**PAIONIA. Patraos AR Tetradrachm. Circa 335-315 BC**PAMPHYLIA, SIDE. AR Tetradrachm. Circa 155-36 BC.
10 commentsJason T
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Arcadian League, Megalopolis obol23 viewsArcadian League, Megalopolis obol 370-280 BC.

Head of pan left, monograms.
1 commentsCANTANATRIX
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Argolis, Epidauros ca. 250-240 BC, AR Hemidrachm22 viewsLaureate head of Asklepios left; Θ re-cut over an effaced E behind.
EΠ monogram within wreath.

HGC 5, 729; Requier Monnayage Series 4 [2], 202 (this coin) dies D2/R3, weight recorded as 2.34 g on BCD tag = Requier 2, 202); BCD Peloponnesos 1243-44 (same dies); Dewing 1931 (same dies).

(16 mm, 2.35 g, 7h).

Struck from worn dies as are all examples of this the last civic hemidrachm issue of Epidauros.

CNG Classical Numismatic Review XXXIX, 1, Spring 2014, 976803 from the BCD Collection; ex-1979/80 Epidauros Hoard (CH VII, 69).

This emission was the last civic silver issue struck by Epidauros. It was struck on a reduced weight standard that was adopted throughout most of the Peloponnesos from around 250 BC. It utilized an obverse die from the preceding emission on which the Θ mint control (D2) was re-cut over the earlier E mint control (D1). In 243 BC the last of pro-Macedonian tyrants that had ruled Epidauros for the previous fifty years was forced to step aside by Aretos of Sikyon, the strategos of the Achaean League. This event probably bought to an end the civic silver issues of Epidauros, although bronze civic coinage continued down to ca. 200 BC. After this, a few Epidauran issues in silver and bronze, conforming to Achaean League standards, were made in the period leading up to the defeat of the League by Rome in 146 BC
1 commentsn.igma
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Arkadia Arkadian League Silver Triobol35 viewsArkadia Arkadian League
Silver triobol 2.3 gram
Obverse: Head of Zeus Left
Reverse: Naked pan standing Left on rock_7500

Antonivs Protti
Arkadia,_Arkadian_League,_Kleitor,_ca_460-450_BC__AR_Hemidrachm_.jpg
Arkadia, Arkadian League, Kleitor, ca. 460-450 BC. AR Hemidrachm19 viewsZeus Lykaios seated right, holding scepter and thunderbolt; [eagle flying right from his arm].
ARKA-ΔIKON Head of Kallisto right, wearing tainia, within incuse square.

Williams, Confederate, period III, - (O111/R97 [unlisted combination]); HGC 5, -; BCD Peloponnesos -; SNG Copenhagen 173 (same obv. die); Gans FPL 29, no. 7198 (same rev. die). Reverse of fine style. Very rare. Reverse of fine style. Very rare.

(15 mm, 2.88 g, 4h).
Classical Numismatic Group Mail Bid Sale 81, 20 May 2009, 2566; ex- BCD Collection (not in LHS sale), purchased from Davissons, September 1994.

This rare coin is from an unlisted die combination which according to the BCD tag accompanying the coin consists of the obverse die 111 used to strike Williams 163, while the reverse is from reverse die 97 used to strike Williams 157.
n.igma
Arkadia,_Arkadian_League,_AE_Dichalkon,_Megalopolis_Mint.jpg
Arkadia, Arkadian League, Megalopolis, ca. 300-275 BC, Æ Dichalkon 10 viewsLaureate head of Zeus left.
League monogram APK above syrinx; AP-T[I] across upper field, ME to right, thunderbolt below.

HGC 5, 941; BCD Peloponnesos 1539.4.
Megalopolis mint.
Extremely rare, one of two known with the AP-TI/ME reverse mint controls.

(18 mm, 4.16 g, 12h).
CNG; ex- BCD collection; ex- A. H. Baldwin, May 1970.
n.igma
Arkadian_League,_Megalopolis,_AR_Triobol.jpg
Arkadia, Arkadian League, Megalopolis, ca. 330-275 BC, AR Triobol 22 viewsLaureate head of Zeus right.
Pan seated left on rock, holding lagobolon and raising hand; APK monogram to left, X to right.

HGC 5, 929 (S); BCD Peloponnesos 1526 (same dies); Dengate period I, issue 3, 13 (same obverse die).
A rare example of the first series issue, struck on the heavier Aeginitic weight standard.

(15 mm, 2.81 g, 10h)
CNG: ex- BCD Collection (not in LHS sale).
1 commentsn.igma
arkadianleagueOR.jpg
Arkadia, Megalopolis, BMC Peloponnesus pg 174, 62-6349 viewsArkadia, Megalopolis mint, Arkadian League Trichalkon, c. 330-275 B.C. AE, 19mm 6.04g, BCD Peloponnesus (Megalopolis) 1533, BMC Peloponnesus pg 174, 62-63
O: Horned head of Pan r.
R: Large APk monogram of solid form; A to left, syrinx below
4 commentscasata137ec
Arkadian_League_Megalopolis_SNG-Cop194v.jpg
Arkadian League .13 viewsArkadian League . 175-168 BC. AR Hemidrachm (2.40 gm) of Megalopolis, Symmachic standard. Laur. Head of Zeus l. / Youthful Pan seated l. on rock, r. hand raised, holding lagobolon; eagle above knee, A-Δ. gVF. BCD Peloponnesos 1547.5; Dengate 1967 Gp 1 Pd IIB Issue 4; HGC 5 #932; BMC 78; SNG ANS 866v (monogram); SNG Cop 194v (same). Christian T
Arkadian_League_Peloponnesus_Megalopolis_Silver_Triobol.jpg
Arkadian League Peloponnesus Megalopolis Silver Triobol38 viewsArkadian League Peloponnesus Megalopolis
Silver triobol 2.2 gram good silver
Arkadian League. AR Triobol. 195-188 BC. . Laureate head of Zeus left. / Naked Pan seated left on rock, right hand raised, holding lagobolon in left, before him eagle flying left, AΡK monogram in left field, Δelta in right field. Sear SG 2690; BCD 1547.5; Agrinion hoard 230. _12500

Antonivs Protti
Arkadian_League_Arkadia_BCD1407v.jpg
Arkadian League.30 viewsArkadian League . 460-450 BC. AR Hemidrachm (2.88 gm) of Kleitor, Aiginetic standard. Zeus Lykaios seated, holding scepter, eagle flying over outstretched arm / Head of Kallisto r. with profile eye, wearing taina, all w/in incuse square. ARKA-ΔΙΚΟΝ. VF. Pegasi A34 #146. HGC 5 #860 (R2); BCD Peloponnesos 1407; SNG Cop -; BMC 39; Williams Confederate Pd III #3. Rare.1 commentsChristian T
Arkadian_League_Megalopolis_BCP-Pelop1552.jpg
Arkadian League.13 viewsArkadian League. 175-168 BC. AR Hemidrachm or Triobol (2.28 gm) of Megalopolis. Laur. Head of Zeus l. / Pan seated l. on rock, r. hand raised, holding lagobolon in l; eagle to l. MEΓ and Δ monograms. EF. BCD Pelop.1552 (same rev. die); HGC 932.Christian T
Arkadia.jpg
Arkadian League. Circa 175-168 BC. AR Triobol54 viewsARKADIA, Arkadian League. Circa 175-168 BC. AR Triobol or Hemidrachm (15mm, 2.45 g, 10h). Megalopolis mint. Laureate head of Zeus left / Pan seated left, holding lagobolon; eagle on knee, monogram to left, Δ to right. Dengate IIB; BCD Peloponnesos 1547.4; HGC 5, 932Nick T
x1__Arkadia_Pan.jpg
Arkadian League; 280-234 BC29 viewsAR-Hemidrachm
Obv: Laureate head of Zeus left.
Rev: Naked Pan, horned, seated left on rock, right hand outstretched,
Left arm cradling lagobolon.
to left at knee, eagle with wings spread; Α below; to right, ∆ above Λ.
Size: 16.28mm;2.4 gms
Ref: BMC Peloponnesus, vol.10,XXXIII. Arcadia,Pg 188,No.1-5 var.
Sear-2690
2 commentsBrian L
coriosolites.jpg
Armorican League48 viewsArmorican League, Gaul, Billon Stater, 1st Century BC.
Obverse- Bust with pointed nose right.
Reverse- Stylized horse right with an even more stylized charioteer behind.
SCBC 15, 6.57g
1 commentsb70
Lycian_League_01_artemis.jpg
Artemis, Lykia, Masikytes3 viewsLykia, Masikytes
Obv.: Draped bust of Artemis left, bow and quiver over shoulder.
AR, 0.92g, 12mm


for obverse, reverse and coin details click here
shanxi
Masikytes_01.jpg
Asia Minor, Lykia, Masikytes, Apollo, Lyre19 viewsMasikytes
Asia Minor, Lykian League
Ar Hemidrachm
Obv.: Laureate head of Apollo right.
Rev.: M-A, Lyre; tripod to right; all within incuse square.
Ag, 1.62g, 16mm
Ref.: RPC 3310, Troxell Period IV, Series 6
Ex G&M, auction 220, Lot 1388
Ex Pecunem Gitbud&Naumann auction 19, Lot 289
shanxi
Lycian_League_01.jpg
Asia Minor, Lykia, Masikytes, Artemis, Quiver 26 viewsMasikytes
Asia Minor, Lykian League
AR Hemidrachm
Obv.: Draped bust of Artemis left, bow and quiver over shoulder
Rev.: Λ - Y / M - A, Quiver within incuse square.
Ag, 0.92g, 12mm
Ref.: Troxell Period IV 135, RPC 3311 var. (symbols on reverse).
Ex Pecunem Gitbud&Naumann auction 26, Lot 292
1 commentsshanxi
PAMPHYLIA__Aspendos__Stater_.jpg
Aspendos, Pamphylia, 370 - 333 B.C.226 viewsWith the influence of the Olympics games.

Obverse : two wrestlers, the left one holds the wrist of his opponent with his right and right forearm with his left hand, KI between their legs.

Reverse : EΣTΦE∆IIYΣ on left, slinger, wearing short chiton, discharging sling to right, triskeles on right with feet clockwise,


Extremely fine Silver Stater . Weight: 10.62 g. Max Diameter: 23 mm. Mint : Aspendos (in our days , Antalya province of Turkey)
SNG France 104. Struck from fresh , artistic and well executed dies.

Historical and Numismatic Note:

Pamphylia (/pæmˈfɪliə/) was the region in the south of Asia Minor, between Lycia and Cilicia, extending from the Mediterranean to Mount Taurus (modern-day Antalya province, Turkey).

Aspendos or Aspendus (Greek: Ἄσπενδος) was an ancient Greco-Roman city in Antalya province of Turkey. Aspendos is about 40 km east of Antalya, Turkey about 16 km inland on the Eurymedon River. In 546 B.C. it fell to Persia. After a Persian defeat in 467, the city joined the Attic-Delos Maritime League. Persia took it again in 411 B.C., Alexander in 333 B.C., and Rome in 190 B.C. Although often subject to powerful empires, the city usually retained substantial autonomy.


The Sam Mansourati Collection. NO. AGAP 3121.

2 commentsSam
EmerGTetAttica.jpg
Athens Emergency Issue Plated Tetradrachm Circa 406-404 BC950 viewsQuote from David Sear:

"Athens was the greatest power in the Greek world throughout most of the 5th century BC. Its famous 'owl' coinage, principally of silver tetradrachms, possibly commenced in 510 BC on the occasion of the downfall of the tyrant Hippias. On these celebrated coins the helmeted head of the goddess Athena was accompanied by her attendant owl and the first three letters of the ethnic 'AQE'. Later, a diadem of olive leaves was added to Athena's helmet and a cresent moon was placed in the reverse field, though the precise chronological significance of these changes remains uncertain. To the intense chagrin of the Spartans Athens became the leader of the Greek states, including those of Ionia, in the epic struggle against the expansionist policies of the Achaemenid Persian Empire. The victories at Salamis (480 BC) and the Eurymedon (circa 467) clearly established the Athenian supremacy in the Aegean world. Initially, the Delian League (founded in 477) was an alliance of independent states sharing a common cause under the leadership of Athens. It gradually developed into an Athenian maritime empire with the member cities obliged to pay an annual tribute into the League's treasury on Delos. In 454 this treasury, amounting to 5,000 talents of silver, was actually removed to Athens and the vast wealth was openly employed for the aggrandizement of the city, now under the leadership of the great statesman Pericles. Vast building projecdts, such as the monumental edifices on the Acropolis, were financed in this way. From 431, however, Athens became embroiled in the protracted Peloponnesian War and increasingly the wealth of the state was dissipated in this futile cause. This attractive tetradrachm belongs to the exceptionally large ouput of Athenian 'owls' made during the second half of the 5th century. In contrast to the artistic development taking place at mints in other parts of the Mediterranean world, the late archaic style of the earlier 5th century became 'frozen' on these issues which represent the first truly imperial coinage of the Greek world. As Athens restricted or forbade the issue of independent currency at many of the cities within her sphere of influence the 'owls' came to circulate over an increasingly wide area. But this all came to an end with the defeat of Athens by Sparta in 404 BC and during the period immediately preceding this catastrophe the Athenians were reduced to the desperate expedient of issuing bronze tetradrachms and drachms with a thin surface coating of silver. This specimen is an excellent example of this emergency coinage the production of which drew contemporary comment from Aristophanes who, in his play Frogs (717ff), compares the decline in the quality of the leading citizens with the recent debasement of the Athenian coinage."
3 commentsGunner
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Attica, Athens. (Circa 454-449 BC)30 viewsAR Tetradrachm

25 mm, 17.20 g

This is a transitional Owl tetradrachm that bridges the early classical owls (minted from 478-454) with the subsequent mass classical (standardized) coinage, which really got going in the early 440s BC to finance Pericles' building projects like the Parthenon and then later the Peloponnesian War (431-404 BC) vs. Sparta. The 454 date is critical in that it was the year that Athens moved the treasury of the Delian league (confederation of Greek states led by Athens to defend against the Persian threat) from Delos to Athens.

This coin shares many attributes of Starr V early classical coinage (465-454 BC). On the obverse, the olive leaves on Athena's helmet connect to her diadem with small stems (which disappear in the mass coinage). In addition, the palmette leaves on Athena's helmet are smaller, less decorative, and more realistic. Finally, Athena is smiling (she starts to frown as the war with Sparta goes badly) and is more beautifully depicted than in the more hastily produced mass coinage.

On the reverse, like with the Starr V coins, the incuse is quite noticeable and the AOE (short for AOENAION, or "Of the Athenians") is written in smaller letters (they are much bigger in the mass coinage). Also, the owl is stouter, has smaller eyes, and his head is at an angle rather than parallel to the ground like all later issues.

The only difference between the Starr V owls and this example is in the owl's tail - in Starr V it ends with three small feathers. On this coin and all subsequent coinage the owl's tail ends in a single prong. Given all the other similarities to Starr V it is likely this coin was minted soon after the Treasury's move from Delos to Athens - perhaps 454/453.
2 commentsNathan P
IMG_0083.JPG
ATTICA, Athens. AR Tetradrachm95 viewsCirca 454-404 B.C. 17.15 grams. Obverse: archaizing head of Athena right. Reverse: owl standing right, olive sprig left upper corner with crescent moon below, ethnic to right field, all within incuse square. Kroll 8. HGC 4, 1597. SNG Copenhagen 31. SNG Munchen 49. Dewing 1591-7. Gulbenkian 519-21. Kraay & Hirmer 362. Choice EF, well centered, high relief (as usual).
Ex CNG
The quintessential "Old Style" or "Classical Style" silver tetradrachm representative coin of Classical Athens called "glaukes" or owls. Silver probably came from the mines of Laurion or from member city states of the Delian League. Countless articles and exhaustive studies had been made regarding the enormous output of these coins during its remarkable existence. One of the early trade coins of the ancient world and undeniably well travelled from the Pillars of Hercules to ancient India, hence its ubiquitous nature. What more could be said of it?
3 commentsJason T
43.jpg
Augustus, 27 BC-AD 1461 viewsLYCIAN LEAGUE, Masicytus.

AR drachm, 19.65mm (3.54 gm).

Bare head right, Λ to left, Y to right / Cithara; aphlaston to left. Struck 27-20 BC.

RPC I, Supp. 1, S-3308A (this coin, plate 8).
1 commentssocalcoins
105034.jpg
BOEOTIA, Thebes171 viewsIn the late 6th century BC the Thebans were brought for the first time into hostile contact with the Athenians, who helped the small village of Plataea to maintain its independence against them, and in 506 repelled an inroad into Attica. The aversion to Athens best serves to explain the unpatriotic attitude which Thebes displayed during the Persian invasion of Greece (480–479 BC). Though a contingent of 700 was sent to Thermopylae and remained there with Leonidas until just before the last stand when they surrendered to the Persians[1], the governing aristocracy soon after joined King Xerxes I of Persia with great readiness and fought zealously on his behalf at the battle of Plataea in 479 BC. The victorious Greeks subsequently punished Thebes by depriving it of the presidency of the Boeotian League, and an attempt by the Spartans to expel it from the Delphic amphictyony was only frustrated by the intercession of Athens.

In 457 Sparta, needing a counterpoise against Athens in central Greece, reversed her policy and reinstated Thebes as the dominant power in Boeotia. The great citadel of Cadmea served this purpose well by holding out as a base of resistance when the Athenians overran and occupied the rest of the country (457–447). In the Peloponnesian War the Thebans, embittered by the support which Athens gave to the smaller Boeotian towns, and especially to Plataea, which they vainly attempted to reduce in 431, were firm allies of Sparta, which in turn helped them to besiege Plataea and allowed them to destroy the town after its capture in 427 BC. In 424 at the head of the Boeotian levy they inflicted a severe defeat upon an invading force of Athenians at the Battle of Delium, and for the first time displayed the effects of that firm military organization which eventually raised them to predominant power in Greece.

After the downfall of Athens at the end of the Peloponnesian War the Thebans, finding that Sparta intended to protect the states which they desired to annex, broke off the alliance. In 404 they had urged the complete destruction of Athens, yet in 403 they secretly supported the restoration of its democracy in order to find in it a counterpoise against Sparta. A few years later, influenced perhaps in part by Persian gold, they formed the nucleus of the league against Sparta. At the battles of Haliartus (395) and Coronea (394) they again proved their rising military capacity by standing their ground against the Spartans. The result of the war was especially disastrous to Thebes, as the general settlement of 387 stipulated the complete autonomy of all Greek towns and so withdrew the other Boeotians from its political control. Its power was further curtailed in 382, when a Spartan force occupied the citadel by a treacherous coup-de-main. Three years later the Spartan garrison was expelled, and a democratic constitution definitely set up in place of the traditional oligarchy. In the consequent wars with Sparta the Theban army, trained and led by Epaminondas and Pelopidas, proved itself the best in Greece. Some years of desultory fighting, in which Thebes established its control over all Boeotia, culminated in 371 in a remarkable victory over the pick of the Spartans at Leuctra. The winners were hailed throughout Greece as champions of the oppressed. They carried their arms into Peloponnesus and at the head of a large coalition permanently crippled the power of Sparta. Similar expeditions were sent to Thessaly and Macedon to regulate the affairs of those regions.

However the predominance of Thebes was short-lived; the states which she protected refused to subject themselves permanently to her control, and the renewed rivalry of Athens, which had joined with Thebes in 395 in a common fear of Sparta, but since 387 had endeavoured to maintain the balance of power against her ally, prevented the formation of a Theban empire. With the death of Epaminondas at Mantinea in 362 the city sank again to the position of a secondary power. In a war with the neighbouring state of Phocis (356–346) it could not even maintain its predominance in central Greece, and by inviting Philip II of Macedon to crush the Phocians it extended that monarch's power within dangerous proximity to its frontiers. A revulsion of feeling was completed in 338 by the orator Demosthenes, who persuaded Thebes to join Athens in a final attempt to bar Philip's advance upon Attica. The Theban contingent lost the decisive battle of Chaeronea and along with it every hope of reassuming control over Greece. Philip was content to deprive Thebes of her dominion over Boeotia; but an unsuccessful revolt in 335 against his son Alexander was punished by Macedon and other Greek states by the severe sacking of the city, except, according to tradition, the house of the poet Pindar.

BOEOTIA, Thebes. Circa 395-338 BC. AR Stater (21mm, 11.98 gm). Boeotian shield / Amphora; magistrate AM-FI. Hepworth, "The 4th Century BC Magistrate Coinage of the Boiotian Confederacy," in Nomismatika Xronika (1998), 2; BMC Central Greece -. Fine.

Ex-Cng eAuction 105, Lot: 34 225/200

2 commentsecoli
233689_l.jpg
Boeotia, Thebes (Circa 379-368 BC)20 viewsAR Stater

22 mm, 11.44 g

Obverse: Boeotian shield

Reverse: Amphora; ΠO-ΘI (Pothi - magistrate) across field.

Hepworth 81; BCD Boiotia 515; HGC 4, 1331

Thebes was the largest city of the ancient region of Boeotia. It was a major rival of ancient Athens, and sided with the Persians during the 480 BC invasion under Xerxes and Sparta during the Peloponnesian war (431-404 BC). In 404 BC, they had urged the complete destruction of Athens; yet, in 403 BC, they secretly supported the restoration of its democracy in order to find in it a counterpoise against Sparta. A few years later, influenced perhaps in part by Persian gold, they formed the nucleus of the league against Sparta. The result of the war was disastrous to Thebes, and by 382 BC a Spartan force was occupying its citadel. Three years later, the Spartan garrison was expelled and a democratic constitution was set up in place of the traditional oligarchy. In the consequent wars with Sparta, the Theban army, trained and led by Epaminondas and Pelopidas, proved itself formidable. Years of desultory fighting, in which Thebes established its control over all Boeotia, culminated in 371 BC in a remarkable victory over the Spartans at Leuctra.
Nathan P
Boeotia_Thebes_BCD-Boiotia93.jpg
Boeotia, Thebes.31 viewsBoeotia, Thebes. Third Boeothian League 221-197 BC. AR Drachm or 1/2 Stater (4.98 gm) on reduced Aiginetic standard. Head of Persephone slightly r., wreathed with grain. / Poseidon stdg facing, looking right, holding dolphin & trident. ΒΟΙΩΤΩΝ to l, ΔΙ to r. & Boeotian shield below. VF. BMC Central p 42 #90; BCD Boiotia 93; HGC 4 #1174; SNG Cop 83 var (I not ̶Ι); SNG Lockett 1773.1 commentsChristian T
GRK_Boetia_Thespiae_Sear_2458.jpg
Boeotia. Thespiae9 viewsSGCV 2458; BMC Central Greece pg. 90, 4; SNG Copenhagen 401-402

AR obol, .63 g., 9.78 mm. max.

Struck ca. 431-424 B.C.

Obv: Boeotian shield

Rev: ΘEΣ, upward-facing crescent comprised of three lines.

Thespiae was a member of the Boeotian League. In 424 B.C. during the Peloponnesian War, the Thespian contingent of the Boeotian army sustained heavy losses in the Athenian invasion of Boeotia at the Battle of Delium. In 423 B.C. the Thebans dismantled the walls of Thespiae, apparently as a measure to prevent a democratic revolution. The terminus of this emission coincides with these events.

The crescent on the reverse of this coin refers to Aphrodite Melainis, who was worshipped at Thespiai as a moon goddess. The legend is an abbreviation for ΘΕΣΠΙΕΩΝ of Thespians.
Stkp
thebes.jpg
BOEOTIA. Thebes. AR Stater.54 viewsCirca 425-400 B.C. AR Stater (12.08gm, 20mm, 5h). BCD Boiotia-388; Head Pg. 36-classy, pl. III#8; SNG Cop. 286. Obverse: Boeotian shield with club across lower half. Reverse: Volute amphora with fluted shoulders, Θ-E across fields, all within incuse square. Well struck on a very good metal. Struck in high relief. Scarce variety. Choice aEF.

Ex Pars Coins

The coins of Boeotia prominently feature the Boeotian shield on its obverse. This particular coin we have from the city-state of Thebes was minted between 425-400 B.C. during the Peloponnesian War. Thebes, at that time, alongside the rest of the 10 Boeotian poleis, sided with the Peloponnesian League under the hegemony of Sparta against the Athenian Empire. The Boeotian Confederation instituted a form of federal coinage based on the Aeginetic standard. A particular period of Theban coinage reached its numismatic artistic merit at around the same period that this coin was minted (425-400 B.C). Although the obverse always shows the shield, the reverse features the head of Dionysos, Herakles or a volute amphora. The amphora eventually became more popular after 400 B.C on the reverse of most Boeotian coin. Early staters showing the amphora on the reverse could be identified by a rounder vase and the city ethnic in the field and all are contained within a square incuse. Later coinage features the same amphora on the reverse and generally includes various magistrates name and less of the city’s ethnic and all are within a round incuse. The obverse also has a more distinct rounder shield on later coinage. At this later date in the mid- 4th century B.C. Thebes was the leading power in Greece and almost united all the Greek city states, freed Messene from Sparta and subdued the latter. Ironically, this paved the way for Macedonian conquest of Greece and in the process, destroyed Thebes and sold its population into slavery by Alexander the Great in 335 B.C.

1 commentsJason T
Brutti.jpg
Brettian league - AE drachm13 viewsBruttium
c. 216-203 BC
laureate head of Zeus right, stalk of grain behind
eagle standing left on lightning, cornucopia right, star above
BPET_TIΩN
SNG ANS 44; SNG Cop 1663; Pfeiler p. 22, 1; HN Italy 1942
ex Dionysos
Johny SYSEL
phig.jpg
Bronze - ACHAIA, Achaean League, Phigaleia, 208 BC80 viewsÆ Tetrachalkon
Attribution: SNG Cop 345, BMC 169
Date: 208 BC
Obverse: Zeus standing left
Reverse: Achaia seated left
Size: 20.15 mm
Weight: 5 grams
Rarity: 8
Description: A very nice example of this rare and crude issue
CGPCGP
DSC08118.jpg
Bronze - ACHAIA, Achaean League, Phlius. Circa 191-146 BC.38 viewsÆ Tetrachalkon (18mm, 4.6 g).
obv: Zeus standing left, holding Nike and scepter; monogram in left field
rev: Female figure (Achaia) seated left, holding wreath and scepter.

BMC 146. BCD 147.

Ex BCD Collection (with BCD tag, not in previous sales)
Dino
Sikyon~1.jpg
Bronze - ACHAIA, Achaean League, Sikyon14 viewsBronze tetrachalkon, BCD Peloponnesos 323; BMC Peloponnesus p. 13, 147; Clerk 20; Benner 4; HGC 5 285 (S), F, dark patina, tight flan, marks, scrape on reverse, corrosion, 4.581g, 17.9mm, 45o, Sikyon mint, 191 -146 B.C.; obverse Zeus standing left, nude, Nike in extended right hand, long scepter vertical in left hand, DA monogram lower left; reverse AXAIWN SIKYWNIWN, Achaia seated left, wreath in extended right hand, long scepter vertical in left hand; ex J. Cohen Collection, ex BCD Collection (acquired from old German collection in Oct. 1993); rareDino
ALS.jpg
Bronze - ACHAIA, Achaean League, Sikyon. ca. 251 B.C.78 viewsÆ Tetrachalkon
20x17.5.
Obv. Zeus Amarios standing l. holding Nike and scepter, AT monogram before.
Rv. Demeter Panachaea seated l. holding wreath and scepter; AXAIΩN (ΣI) KYΩN(ΩN). Cf.SNG Cop 330-1. Rare. Upper margin flatly struck. Olive-brown. Very Fine.

ex Stack's St. Ludovico and Firth of Clyde Collection sale, lot 1100.
CGPCGP
sikyonb221.jpg
Bronze - ACHAIA, Achaean League, Sikyon. Circa 191-146 BC. 57 viewsÆ Tetrachalkon (19mm, 5.49 g, 10h).
obv: Zeus standing left, holding Nike and scepter; monogram in left field
rev: Female figure (Achaia) seated left, holding wreath and scepter.

Warren, Bronze 4a; Benner 4; BCD Peloponnesos 323. Near VF, green patina.

Ex BCD Collection (not in previous sales); CNG 221, lot 154.
Dino
DSC08141.jpg
Bronze - ACHAIA, Achaean League, Sikyon. Circa 191-146 BC.41 viewsÆ Tetrachalkon (19mm, 5.3 g).
obv: Zeus standing left, holding Nike and scepter; monogram in left field
rev: Female figure (Achaia) seated left, holding wreath and scepter.

Warren, Bronze 4a; Benner 4; BCD Peloponnesos 323. Near VF, green patina.

Ex BCD Collection (not in previous sales)
Dino
DSC08143.jpg
Bronze - ACHAIA, Achaean League, Sikyon. Circa 191-146 BC.92 viewsÆ Tetrachalkon (19mm, 5.0 g).
obv: Zeus standing left, holding Nike and scepter; monogram in left field
rev: Female figure (Achaia) seated left, holding wreath and scepter.

Warren, Bronze 4a; Benner 4; BCD Peloponnesos 323.

Ex BCD Collection (not in previous sales)
1 commentsDino
Tegea~0.jpg
Bronze - ACHAIA, Achaean League, Tegea17 viewsBronze tetrachalkon, cf. BCD Peloponnesos 1325, BMC Peloponnesus p. 15, 171 ff., Clerk 89 ff., SNG Cop 347 ff., aF/VF, 4.511g, 18.6mm, 90o, Tegea (Alea, Arcadia, Peloponnese, Greece) mint, 191 -146 B.C.; obverse Zeus Amarios standing left, nude, Nike in right hand, long vertical scepter in left hand, obscure magistrates name downward behind; reverse AXAIWN - TEGEA-TWN, Achaia seated left, wreath in her right hand, long scepter vertical in her left hand; ex Gitbud & Naumann auction 23 (5 Oct 2014), lot 254Dino
2010069.jpg
Bronze - ACHAIA, Achaean League, Tegea. Circa 191-146 BC. 116 viewsÆ Tetrachalkon
20mm (4.99 g, 3h).
obv: Zeus Homarios standing left, holding Nike and scepter
rev: Achaia seated left, holding wreath and scepter.

Warren, Bronze 836 (this coin); BCD Peloponnesos 70; SNG Copenhagen 348. CNG Sale 201, Lot: 69. Fine, brown patina, rough.

From the J. S. Wagner Collection.

CNG
1 commentsCGPCGP
Achaean_League.jpg
Bronze - ACHAIA, Achaean League. Anonymous. Circa 250 BC.81 viewsÆ Dichalkon (13mm, 2.54 g, 2h).
obv: Laureate head of Zeus right
rev: League monogram within wreath . Benner 5; BCD Peloponnesos 377; SNG Copenhagen 229.
Near VF, rough green patina, encrustation.

CNG Electronic Auction 215, Lot: 172.
CGPCGP
Brutt_0020_Ns.jpg
Bruttium, AE18 40 viewsBrettian league, c. 215-205 BC
Bust of Nike right
Zeus riding a biga, holding thunderbolt and sceptre
3.6 gr, 18 mm
Ref : Sear #706
2 commentsPotator II
Brutt_0010_Ns.jpg
Bruttium, AE26 74 viewsBrettian league, c. 215-205 BC
Head of Ares left
BPETTIWN, Hera Hoplosmia going right, holding spear and shield, cow's head ? under shield
14.44 gr, 26 mm
Ref : Sear #702v
3 commentsPotator II
bruttium_bret_leag.jpg
BRUTTIUM, BRETTIAN LEAGUE35 views211-208 BC (time of Hannibal)
AE Half Unit 17mm; 4.47 g
O: Winged bust of Nike left, thunderbolt beneath;
R: BPETTION Zeus driving galloping biga left; torch below.
cf. Scheu 47; Rutter, HN 1989. Rare
laney
Brettian.jpg
BRUTTIUM, BRETTIAN LEAGUE34 views215 - 205 BC
AE 17mm 4.47 g
O: NIKE, DIADEMED HEAD L, WINGED
R: ZEUS IN GALLOPING BIGA, L, HURLING THUNDERBOLT
SG706 var
(ex Guy Clark)
laney
103002.jpg
CALABRIA, Tarentum186 viewsTaranto was founded in 706 BC by Dorian immigrants as the only Spartan colony, and its origin is peculiar: the founders were Partheniae, sons of unmarried Spartan women and perioeci (free men, but not citizens of Sparta); these unions were decreed by the Spartans to increase the number of soldiers (only the citizens of Sparta could become soldiers) during the bloody Messenian Wars, but later they were nullified, and the sons were forced to leave. According to the legend Phalanthus, the Parthenian leader, went to Delphi to consult the oracle and received the puzzling answer that he should found a city where rain fell from a clear sky. After all attempts to capture a suitable place to found a colony failed, he became despondent, convinced that the oracle had told him something that was impossible, and was consoled by his wife. She laid his head in her lap and herself became disconsolate. When Phalanthus felt her tears splash onto his forehead he at last grasped the meaning of the oracle, for his wife's name meant clear sky. The harbour of Taranto in Apulia was nearby and he decided this must be the new home for the exiles. The Partheniae arrived and founded the city, naming it Taras after the son of the Greek sea god, Poseidon, and the local nymph Satyrion. A variation says Taras was founded in 707 BC by some Spartans, who, the sons of free women and enslaved fathers, were born during the Messenian War. According to other sources, Heracles founded the city. Another tradition indicates Taras himself as the founder of the city; the symbol of the Greek city (as well as of the modern city) is Taras riding a dolphin. Taranto increased its power, becoming a commercial power and a sovereign city of Magna Graecia, ruling over the Greek colonies in southern Italy.

In its beginning, Taranto was a monarchy, probably modelled on the one ruling over Sparta; according to Herodotus (iii 136), around 492 BC king Aristophilides ruled over the city. The expansion of Taranto was limited to the coast because of the resistance of the populations of inner Apulia. In 472 BC, Taranto signed an alliance with Rhegion, to counter the Messapii, Peuceti, and Lucanians (see Iapygian-Tarentine Wars), but the joint armies of the Tarentines and Rhegines were defeated near Kailìa (modern Ceglie), in what Herodotus claims to be the greatest slaughter of Greeks in his knowledge, with 3,000 Reggians and uncountable Tarentines killed. In 466 BC, Taranto was again defeated by the Iapyges; according to Aristotle, who praises its government, there were so many aristocrats killed that the democratic party was able to get the power, to remove the monarchy, inaugurate a democracy, and expel the Pythagoreans. Like Sparta, Tarentum was an aristocratic republic, but became democratic when the ancient nobility dwindled.

However, the rise of the democratic party did not weaken the bonds of Taranto and her mother-city Sparta. In fact, Taranto supported the Peloponnesian side against Athens in the Peloponnesian War, refused anchorage and water to Athens in 415 BC, and even sent ships to help the Peloponnesians, after the Athenian disaster in Sicily. On the other side, Athens supported the Messapians, in order to counter Taranto's power.

In 432 BC, after several years of war, Taranto signed a peace treaty with the Greek colony of Thurii; both cities contributed to the foundation of the colony of Heraclea, which rapidly fell under Taranto's control. In 367 BC Carthage and the Etruscans signed a pact to counter Taranto's power in southern Italy.

Under the rule of its greatest statesman, strategist and army commander-in-chief, the philosopher and mathematician Archytas, Taranto reached its peak power and wealth; it was the most important city of the Magna Graecia, the main commercial port of southern Italy, it produced and exported goods to and from motherland Greece and it had the biggest army and the largest fleet in southern Italy. However, with the death of Archytas in 347 BC, the city started a slow, but ineluctable decline; the first sign of the city's decreased power was its inability to field an army, since the Tarentines preferred to use their large wealth to hire mercenaries, rather than leave their lucrative trades.

In 343 BC Taranto appealed for aid against the barbarians to its mother city Sparta, in the face of aggression by the Brutian League. In 342 BC, Archidamus III, king of Sparta, arrived in Italy with an army and a fleet to fight the Lucanians and their allies. In 338 BC, during the Battle of Manduria, the Spartan and Tarentine armies were defeated in front of the walls of Manduria (nowadays in province of Taranto), and Archidamus was killed.

In 333 BC, still troubled by their Italic neighbours, the Tarentines called the Epirotic king Alexander Molossus to fight the Bruttii, Samnites, and Lucanians, but he was later (331 BC) defeated and killed in the battle of Pandosia (near Cosenza). In 320 BC, a peace treaty was signed between Taranto and the Samnites. In 304 BC, Taranto was attacked by the Lucanians and asked for the help of Agathocles tyrant of Syracuse, king of Sicily. Agathocles arrived in southern Italy and took control of Bruttium (present-day Calabria), but was later called back to Syracuse. In 303 BC-302 BC Cleonymus of Sparta established an alliance with Taranto against the Lucanians, and fought against them.

Arnold J. Toynbee, a classical scholar who taught at Oxford and other prestigious English universities and who did original and definitive work on Sparta (e.g. The Journal of Hellenic Studies, vol. xxxiii 1913 p. 246-275) seemed to have some doubts about Tarentum (Taranto) being of Spartan origin.

In his book The Study of History vol. iii p. 52 he wrote: "...Tarentum, which claimed a Spartan origin; but, even if this claim was in accordance with historical fact..." The tentative phrasing seems to imply that the evidence is neither conclusive or even establishes a high degree of probability of the truth that Tarentum (Taranto) was a Spartan colony.

CALABRIA, Tarentum. Circa 302-281 BC. AR Drachm (17mm, 2.91 gm). Helmeted head of Athena right, helmet decorated with Skylla hurling a stone / Owl standing right head facing, on olive branch; Vlasto 1058; SNG ANS 1312; HN Italy 1015. VF.

Ex-Cng eAuction 103 Lot 2 190/150
2 commentsecoli
Chalkidian_League_Olynthos_AR8_0_24g.jpg
Chalkidian league, Olynthos, hemiobol45 viewsChalkidian league (432-348 BC)
8mm, 0.24g
obv: laureate head of Apollo left
rev: XAΛKI; tripod
1 commentsareich
Macedon_Chalkidian_SNGCop_822_gf.jpg
Chalkidian League. c. 420-390 BC. AR Trihemiobol 2 viewsMacedon, Chalkidian League. c. 420-390 BC. AR Trihemiobol (0.38 gm) of Olynthos. Laureate head of Apollo l. / Laurel branch in incuse square, value mark (not ethnic) T-P | [H-I] on either side.  gVF.  Pegasi A38 #71. Rare. Ex Clain-Stefanelli coll. SNG Cop 7 #822 (Thrace, Trie(ros?)); Babelon Traite II #1198 (Trieros, plate CCCXXV #16); Klein KM 99; HGC 3.1 #507; Pozzi 758; SNG Stockholm 793; SNG Berry 498 (Trierus); SNG Fitzwilliam II #1792 (Cimmerian Bosporus); Weber Coll. 2399. Anaximander
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Charles de Bourbon “Charles X” (1589 - 1590)35 viewsFRANCE, Paris Catholic League Coinage
AR Quart d'ecu
O: CAROLVS. X. D: G. FRANCO. REX, Short cross with fleurs at the ends. Date around, with an initial mark of a cross.
R: . SIT. NOMEN. DOMINI. BENEDICTVM., Crowned arms flanked by II on both sides, with an initial mark of a rose.
30 mm
9.53g
Reference: DuP 1177
2 commentsMat
Cherronesos_Thrace.jpg
Cherronesos, Thrace, c. 400 - 350 B.C.39 viewsSilver hemidrachm, SNG Berry 502; BMC Thrace p. 183, 8 ff. var (reverse symbols), aVF, toned, etched surfaces, obverse strike uneven, Cherronesos mint, 2.294 grams, 12.8 mm, c. 400 - 350 B.C.; obverse lion forepart right, head turned back left; reverse quadripartite incuse square, helmet and pellet in the sunk quadrants.

Cherronesos is Greek for `peninsula` and several cities used the name. The city in Thracian Chersonesos (the Gallipoli peninsula) that struck these coins is uncertain. The coins may have been struck at Cardia by the peninsula as a league, or perhaps they were struck by lost city on the peninsula named Cherronesos.

From The Sam Mansourati Collection.

New Owner : Miss. Arianna Parrillo.

*With my sincere thank and appreciation , Photo and Description courtesy of FORVM Ancient Coins Staff.
Sam
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CILICIA, Kelenderis. AR Stater75 viewsCirca 430-420 B.C. 10.63 grams. Obverse: nude youth (ephebus) dismounting from horse rearing left. Reverse: goat kneeling left, head turned right, ivy branch above. Casabonne Type 2, Celenderis 14 (same dies). SNG BN 48 (same dies, but letter removed on obverse). SNG von Aulock 5624 (same dies). Near EF, lightly toned. Well struck.
Ex CNG
One of the most underrated Ancient Greek coin because of its static iconography and (seemingly) insignificance of the place where it came from (only few ancient sources mentioned the city of Kelenderis located in Cilicia in Asia Minor-aside from few facts we know that it was the easternmost member of the Delian League and founded by the Greeks from Samos in the 8th century B.C. on an earlier Phoenician settlement). One need to take another glance to discover and marvel at the remarkable level of artistry put into the design on these series of coins of Kelenderis that might otherwise get overlooked.
4 commentsJason T
10039b.jpg
Crusader States, Normans of Sicily, William II, AD 1166-1189, AE Trifollaro, Spahr 117.75 viewsCrusader States, Sicily, William II, AD 1166-1189, AE Trifollaro (24-25 mm), 8,82 g.
Obv.: Facing head of lioness within circle of dots.
Re.: Palm tree with five branches and two bunches of dates, within circle of dots.
Biaggi 1231, Spahr 117 ; Grie 210 (Roger II); Thom 2480 .

William II of Sicily (1153-1189), called the Good, was king of Sicily and Naples from 1166 to 1189.
William was only thirteen years old at the death of his father William I, when he was placed under the regency of his mother, Margaret of Navarre.
Until the king came of age in 1171 the government was controlled first by the chancellor Stephen du Perche, cousin of Margaret (1166-1168), and then by Walter Ophamil, archbishop of Palermo, and Matthew of Ajello, the vice-chancellor.
William's character is very indistinct. Lacking in military enterprise, secluded and pleasure-loving, he seldom emerged from his palace life at Palermo. Yet his reign is marked by an ambitious foreign policy and a vigorous diplomacy. Champion of the papacy and in secret league with the Lombard cities he was able to defy the common enemy, Frederick I Barbarossa. In 1174 and 1175 he made treaties with Genoa and Venice and his marriage in February 1177 with Joan, daughter of Henry II of England and Eleanor of Aquitaine, marks his high position in European politics.
In July 1177, he sent a delegation of Archbishop Romuald of Salerno and Count Roger of Andria to sign the Treaty of Venice with the emperor. To secure the peace, he sanctioned the marriage of his aunt Constance, daughter of Roger II, with Frederick's son Henry, afterwards the emperor Henry VI, causing a general oath to be taken to her as his successor in case of his death without heirs. This step, fatal to the Norman kingdom, was possibly taken that William might devote himself to foreign conquests.
Unable to revive the African dominion, William directed his attack on Egypt, from which Saladin threatened the Latin kingdom of Jerusalem. In July 1174, 50,000 men were landed before Alexandria, but Saladin's arrival forced the Sicilians to re-embark in disorder. A better prospect opened in the confusion in Byzantine affairs which followed the death of Manuel Comnenus (1180), and William took up the old design and feud against Constantinople. Durazzo was captured (June 11, 1185). Afterwards while the army marched upon Thessalonica, the fleet sailed towards the same target capturing on their way the Ionian islands of Corfu, Cephalonia,Ithaca and Zakynthos. In August Thessalonica surrendered to the joint attack of the Sicilian fleet and army.
The troops then marched upon the capital, but the troop of the emperor Isaac Angelus overthrew the invaders on the banks of the Strymon (September 7, 1185). Thessalonica was at once abandoned and in 1189 William made peace with Isaac, abandoning all the conquests. He was now planning to induce the crusading armies of the West to pass through his territories, and seemed about to play a leading part in the Third Crusade. His admiral Margarito, a naval genius equal to George of Antioch, with 60 vessels kept the eastern Mediterranean open for the Franks, and forced the all-victorious Saladin to retire from before Tripoli in the spring of 1188.
In November 1189 William died, leaving no children. Though Orderic Vitalis records a (presumably short-lived) son in 1181: Bohemond, Duke of Apulia. His title of "the Good" is due perhaps less to his character than to the cessation of internal troubles in his reign. The "Voyage" of Ibn Jubair, a traveller in Sicily in 1183-1185, shows William surrounded by Muslim women and eunuchs, speaking and reading Arabic and living like "a Moslem king."

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

my ancient coin database
1 commentsArminius
115.jpg
Domitian, AD 81-9617 viewsTHESSALY, Thessalian League.

1 Assarion, 19.86 mm (7.92 gm).

ΔOMITIANON KAIΣAPA ΘEΣΣAΛOI, laureate head of Domitian right / ΔOMITIAN ΣEBAΣΣTHN, draped bust of Domitia right. Struck AD 81-96.

RPC II, 277; BCD, 1407 (this coin); Rogers, 88.

From the BCD collection.
socalcoins
EB0014_scaled.JPG
EB0014 Nike / Dionysos16 viewsBrettian League, BRUTTIUM, AR drachm, 216-214 BC.
Obverse: Diademed bust of Nike right.
Reverse: BPETTIΩN , Dionysos standing facing, crowning himself with his right hand, holding sceptre in his left; incense altar to right.
References: SNG ANS 18.
Diameter: 20mm, Weight: 4.634g.
1 commentsEB
EB0027b_scaled.JPG
EB0027 Aitolia / Boar7 viewsAitolia, Aitolian League, AR (plated) Hemidrachm 279-168 BC.
Obverse: Head of Aitolia right, wearing kausia, with hair hanging loose.
Reverse: AITΩΛΩN, boar at bay right; monogram below, [spearhead in ex].
References: SNG Cop 13ff.
Diameter: 15mm, Weight: 2.264g.
EB
EB0028b_scaled.JPG
EB0028 Aitolia / Boar9 viewsAitolia, Aitolian League, AR Hemidrachm 279-168 BC.
Obverse: Head of Aitolia right, wearing kausia, with hair hanging loose.
Reverse: AITΩΛΩN, boar at bay right; monograms left and below.
References: SNG Cop 13ff.
Diameter: 16mm, Weight: 2.456g.
EB
EB0047b.JPG
EB0047 Zeus / AX Monogram9 viewsAchaean League, Aegira Peloponessos, Hemidrachm, 196-146 BC.
Obverse: Head of Zeus right.
Reverse: Large AX monogram, forepart of goat above, AΛ-KI, all in wreath.
References: Agrinion Hoard 323.
Diameter: 17mm, Weight: 2.347g.
EB
EB0048b.JPG
EB0048 Zeus / AX monogram8 viewsAchaean League (Unidentified), Hemidrachm, 196-146 BC.
Obverse: Laureate head of Zeus right.
Reverse: Large AX monogram, (various symbols), dolphin below, all in wreath.
References: -.
Diameter: 17mm, Weight: 2.33g.
EB
EB0050b_scaled.JPG
EB0050 Zeus / AX monogram10 viewsAchaean League. Patrai. Hemidrachm (Circa 175-168).
Obverse: Laureate head of Zeus right.
Reverse: AX monogram; A-P across; above, ΛY; below, dolphin; all within laurel wreath.
References: Benner 27.
Diameter: 17mm, Weight: 2.369g.
EB
EB0171b_scaled.JPG
EB0171 Ares / Nike11 viewsBrettian League, BRUTTIUM, AE 26, 215-205 BC.
Obverse: Helmeted head of Ares left.
Reverse: BΡETTIΩN, Nike crowning trophy left, caduceus between.
References: Scheu 6; SG 701; BMC 65; SNG ANS 34.
Diameter: 26.5mm, Weight: 15.315g.
1 commentsEB
165BEEF3-ACCE-4436-B2DE-2682FE9984C6.jpeg
Ephesos, Ionia, c. 48 - 27 B.C.6 viewsEphesos, on the west coast of Anatolia, was one of the 12 cities of the Ionian League. It was famous for its Temple of Artemis, completed around 550 B.C., one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. The usual symbols of this nature-goddess are the torch, stag, and the bee. Coins of Ephesos most frequently depict a bee on the obverse. The high-priest of the temple of Artemis was called the King Bee, while the virgin priestesses were called honey-bees (Melissae). Ephesus was one of the seven churches of Asia cited in the Book of Revelation and the Gospel of John may have been written there.
GB88324. Bronze AE 16, SNG Cop 350 - 351, SNG München 92, Head Ephesus p. 76, BMC Ionia -, SNGvA -, SNG München -, SNG Kayhan -, F, dark green patina with buff earthen highlighting, slightly off center, scratches, Ephesos mint, weight 3.305g, maximum diameter 16.1mm, die axis 0o, magistrate Iason, c. 48 - 27 B.C.; obverse bee with straight wings seen from above, tiny E-Φ flanking head inside forelegs, all within laurel wreath; reverse stag standing right, head right, fillet in mouth, grounded long torch on far side of stag in center background, IAΣΩN (magistrate's name) in exergue; ex Münzhandlund Ritter
Mark R1
LarryW2331.jpg
Euboia, Eretria, Euboian League. c.304-290 BC45 viewsAR drachm, 17mm, 3.9g, Nice VF
Head of the nymph Euboea left, hair rolled and wearing earring / EY, head and neck of bull ¾ right, fillets hanging from horns. Kantharos in right field.
Ex: BCD Collection (private treaty).
Sear 2467; BMC Central Greece, pg 95, #8, Wallace 74ff (c. 321 BC)
2 commentsLawrence Woolslayer
GRK_Euboia_Histiaia_tetrobol.JPG
Euboia, Hisiaia.13 viewsSear 2496, BCD Euboia 378-424, BMC 24 ff.

AR tetrobol, 12-13 mm, 3rd-2nd centuries B.C.

Obv: Wreathed head of nymph Histiaia with her hair rolled facing right.

Rev: ΙΣΤ--AIEΩN; nymph Histiaia seated right on stern of galley, wing on side of galley,control symbol(s), if any, below (off flan).

Histiaia, named after its patron nymph, commanded a strategic position overlooking the narrows leading to the North Euboian Gulf. In the Illiad, Homer describes the surrounding plain as “rich in vines.” In 480 B.C. the city was overrun by the Persians. After the Persian Wars it became a member of the Delian Confederacy. In 446 the Euboians revolted, seized an Athenian ship and murdered its crew. They were promptly reduced by Athens. Perikles exiled the population to Macedonia and replaced them with Athenians. The exiled population probably returned at the end of the Peloponnesian War in 404; thereafter they seem to have been largely under the control of Sparta until they joined the Second Athenian Confederacy in 376-375. The city appears to have become a member (for the first time) of the reconstituted league of Euboian cities in 340, but its allegiance during most of the 4th century seems to have vacillated between Athens and Macedonia. It was pro-Macedonian during the 3rd century, for which it was attacked in 208 and captured in 199 by a Roman-Pergamene force. The Roman garrison was removed in 194. To judge from the wide distribution of its coinage, Histiaia continued to prosper. Little is known of its later history, but finds at the site indicate it continued to be inhabited in Roman, Byzantine, and later times. (per NumisWiki)

The date of this extensive coinage is difficult to determine and is the subject of controversy. The bulk of it would appear to belong to the latter part of the third century B.C., and it may have commenced with the cessation of silver issues for the Euboian League circa 267 B.C. There are numerous imitations, of poor style and rough execution, which would seem to have been produced in Macedon just prior to the Roman victory over Perseus in 168 B.C. (per Sear)

Ref: Numismatik Lanz. Münzen von Euboia: Sammlung BCD. Auction 111 (November 25, 2002). Munich.
Stkp
euboi_leag_cow.jpg
EUBOIAN LEAGUE19 views304 - 290 BC
AE 16.5 mm; 2.96 g
O: Cow standing left, star above, magistrate's monogram below, in a circle of dots
R: EY-BO-[EWN] Two bunches of grapes, and three tendrils, star above
EUBOEA, Eretria
Ref: Wallace S. 128, 2; also cf BMC 34,Taf. XVII, 15. Picard S. 169, Em. 17
laney
Gela,_Sicily,_c__430_-_425_B_C_.jpg
Gela, Sicily, c. 430 - 425 B.C.60 viewsSilver litra, Jenkins Gela, group VI, 401 - 453; SNG Cop 275; BMC Sicily p. 71, 52; HGC 2 374 (R1), aF, dark toning, scratches, corrosion, flan cracks, Gela mint, weight 0.563g, maximum diameter 13.3mm, die axis 45o, c. 430 - 425 B.C.; obverse bearded cavalryman charging left on horseback, helmeted, armed with shield and couched spear; reverse CEΛAΣ, forepart of a man-faced bull (river god) swimming right; from a Northern Florida collector.

EX FORVM . With my sincere thank and appreciation , Photo and Description courtesy of FORVM Ancient Coins Staff.

Gela, named after the river Gela, was founded around 688 BC by colonists from Rhodos (Rhodes) and Crete, 45 years after the founding of Syracuse. In 424 B.C., the Congress of Gela established a platform of "Sicily for the Sicilians" and formed a league that pushed back the Athenian attempt to conquer the island.
2 commentsSam
geta_79.jpg
Geta RIC IV, 7940 viewsGeta, AD 209-211
AR - denar, 19.8mm, 3.02g, 0°
Rome, AD 211
obv. P SEPT GETA PIVS AVG BRIT
laureate head, bearded, r.
rev. TR P III COS II PP
Janus(?), in himation, nude to waist, draping over l. arm, stg. frontal, his two faces looking r. and l., holding in l. arm thunderbolt
and resting with raised r. hand on reversed spear
ref. RIC IV/1, 79; C. 197; BMCR 13
VF, slightly toned
From Forum Ancient Coins, thanks!

With the thunderbolt Janus strongly resembles Jupiter. Cohen writes 'Janus or Jupiter'. Mattingly (BMCR): The 'Janus' with thunderbolt and sceptre is certainly a fanciful expression of the duality of the Empire. The imperial Jupiter is now 'biceps'. It was assuredly a fancy that pleased Geta more than his brother. Caracalla hated the idea of full equality of rule and was always insisting on his own seniority. In the long run he was unwilling to brook a colleague on any terms.
For more information please take a look at the referring article in the Mythology Thread (coming soon!)
3 commentsJochen
Kassope.jpg
Greece, Epirus, Kassope Street in Kassope and view to the south25 viewsGreece, Epirus, Kassope Street in Kassope and view to the south

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Kassope_2016-05-09_13.06.21.jpg
9 May 2016 Rjdeadly

Kassope or Cassope was an ancient Greek city in Epirus. Kassope occupies a magnificent and remote site on a high platform overlooking the sea, the Ambracian Gulf and the fertile lands to the south, and with the slopes of the Zalongo mountain to the north. It is considered one of the best remaining examples of a city built on a rectilinear street grid of a Hippodamian plan in Greece. The first settlements on the site are from the Paleolithic. However the city of Kassope was founded in the middle of the 4th century B.C. as the capital of the Kassopaeans, a sub-tribe of the Thesprotians. It belonged to the Aetolian League. Cassope or Cassopia is mentioned in the war carried on by Cassander against Alcetas II of Epirus, in 312 B.C. The city flourished in the 3rd century BC, when large public buildings were built. Kassope also minted its own coins. It was destroyed by Roman forces in 168-167 B.C. Kassope was abandoned in 31 B.C. when the remaining inhabitants resettled to Nikopolis the region’s new capital. The visible remains include the Cyclopean walls, an agora, a theater, the prytaneion.
Joe Sermarini
Arkadian_League.jpg
Greek - Arkadian League0 viewsMetal/Size: AR17; Weight: 2.5 grams; Denomination: Triobol; Mint: Megalopolis, Arkadia; Date: 370-280 BCE; Obverse: Laureate head of Zeus left. Reverse: Pan seated left holding lagobolon - APK monogram in left field. References: BMC #52; Sear #2687.museumguy
thessalian.jpg
greek - Thessalian League AE22 bronze BC196-14617 viewsobv: Laureate head of Apollo right
rev: Athena Itonia standing right, with sheild & about to hurl spear, ThESS - ALWN to sides, magistrate's name above
ref: SG2237
6.01g, 22mm
berserker
thessalian league AE18.jpg
greek - Thessaly, Thessalian League AE16 - 196-146 BC29 viewsobv:Head of Pallas Athene right
rev: Horse trotting right, above ΘΕΣΣΑ
ref: BMC 2, SG 2235
3.36g, 16mm
berserker
aigieon.jpg
GREEK, Achaean League, Aigieon. ca. 88-30 BC.150 views AR Hemidrachm 15mm (2.2 g.).
obv: Laureate head of Zeus right. AIGIEWN.
rev: Achaian League monogram;CTO to left, API above, DA right, MOC below;all within laurel-wreath, tied below.
Sear-2973;BMC 24f.; SNG Cop. 235; BCD 430; Benner-Aigion-20.
Dino
Achaia,_Archean_League,_Argos_AR_Hemidrachm_-_CNG_160__Lot_43.jpg
GREEK, Achaean League, Argos, ca. 175-168 BC, AR Hemidrachm - Agrinion 308292 viewsLaureate head of Zeus right. / Wreath surrounding AX monogram in centre; TK monogram above and Harpa right below.
BCD Peloponnesos 1136 (this coin); Clerk 147; Agrinion 308 (same dies).
(17 mm, 2.47 g, 12h)
ex- BCD Collection; LHS 96, Lot 1136 (8 May 2006); ex- Empire Coins Fixed Price List 76 (September 1995).

One of the more refined images of Zeus on this series of Achaian League emissions, complimented by the slightly oval flan.
3 commentsLloyd T
corinth~0.jpg
GREEK, Achaean League, Corinth. c. 167-146 BC 160 viewsAR Hemidrachm, Obv: Laureate head of Zeus l. Rx: Pegasus flying r. over AX monogram with A-K-S across fields; all within laurel wreath, tied left. Ex John Twente Animal Collection; ex HJB Buy or Bid, 2/17/1981. About VF, 2.27g. BCD-73.2, Agrinion-583, Clerk-111; Benner-Korinth-11.
HJBerk BBS 159, lot 167.
2 commentsDino
elis221~0.jpg
GREEK, Achaean League, Elis. Circa 191-188 BC. 142 viewsAR Hemidrachm (16mm, 2.42 g, 6h).
obv: Laureate head of Zeus right
rev: Monogram of the Achaian League; above, eagle standing right; in fields, N-I/Σ-Ω; below, FA; all within laurel wreath.

Benner 1; BCD Peloponnesos 663. VF, toned.

Ex BCD Collection (not in previous sales); CNG 221, lot 89.
1 commentsDino
Messene__-_BCD_723_this_coin~0.jpg
GREEK, Achaean League, Messene, 175-168 BC, AR Hemidrachm 167 viewsLaureate head of Zeus Hamarios left.
Large AX monogram; N - Φ across fields, M below; all within wreath.
HGC 5, 597 (this coin); Benner 23 (this coin); BCD Peloponnesos 723 (this coin); Agrinon 323g (same dies); Clerk 216 (Megalopolis); SNG Copenhagen 315.
(15 mm, 2.44 g, 5h)
ex- BCD Collection: LHS 96 (8-9 May 2006) Lot 723
3 commentsLloyd T
messene.jpg
GREEK, Achaean League, Messenia-Messena. Circa 175-168 BC. 152 viewsAR Hemidrachm (18mm, 2.46 g).
Laureate head of Zeus right / Monogram; O-OP-N across field, M below; all within wreath tied at bottom.
Agrinion 325d-e; Clerk 304; BCD 722.7, 724; Benner-Messene-23 (same obverse die).

exBeast Coins.
1 commentsDino
patras.jpg
GREEK, Achaean League, Patrai-Patras. 167-146 BC. 315 viewsAR hemidrachm. 16mm 2.55g.
Laureate head Zeus right/ Achaian league monogram. Monogram A-TEI-N across fields. dolphin below. All within laurel wreath tied at bottom.
Agrinion Hoard 553a (same rev. die); Clerk 82a; Benner-Patrai-29 (this coin).
exBeast Coins.
1 commentsDino
troizen~0.jpg
GREEK, Achaean League, Patrai-Patras. 175-168 BC.285 viewsAR Hemidrachm (2.31 g.).
Obv: Laureate head Zeus right
Rev: Achaian League monogram; D left, M above, I right, trident below facing right; all within laurel wreath tied below.
Clerk 186/3; McClean 6461; Benner-Patrai-22.

exGorny & Mosch

SNG Cop. 274f. ; BMC 98
5 commentsDino
teg~0.jpg
GREEK, Achaean League, Tegea. 88-30 BC. 110 viewsAR Hemidrachm (2.49 g, 8h). Laureate head of Zeus right / XA monogram; T-E across field; all within wreath. Clerk 223; BCD 1744; SNG Copenhagen 293; Benner-Tegea-4.

From Collection C.P.A. Ex Tkalec (24 October 2003), lot 94.

exCNG 78, lot 695.

1 commentsDino
patras2_(1).jpg
Greek, ACHAIA, Achaean League, Patrai-Patras. 88-30 BC.143 viewsAR hemidrachm. 15mm 2.16g.
Laureate head Zeus right/ Achaian league monogram. XE SW PA across fields. dolphin below. All within laurel wreath tied at bottom.
VF. Toned. BCD 508.7 (this coin); Clerk 81; Benner-Patrai-51 (this coin). exBeast Coins.
Dino
Brettian_League,_Bruttium,_Italy,_c__211_-_208_B_C_.jpg
GREEK, Brettian League, Bruttium. c. 211 - 208 B.C. 25 viewsBrettian League, Bruttium. c. 211 - 208 B.C. Bronze reduced semuncia, VF, dark green patina, 3.739g, 18.2mm. Obv: diademed bust of winged Nike left, fulmen below, dot border. Rev: BRETTIWN, Zeus in galloping biga left, grapes below. Ref: SNG Cop 1685, Head HN 1989. RareBard Gram Okland
kragos.jpg
GREEK, Lycia, Lycian league, Kragos, AR drachm or hemidrachm135 viewsObv: Laureate head of Apollo right.
Rev: K-R to left and right of lyre.
2 commentsOptimus
greek77.jpg
GREEK, Lycian League AR Hemidrachm103 viewsMasikytes mint (30-27 BC).
Obv.: Laureate head of Apollo.
Rev.: Lyre; palm tied with fillets to left.
Troxell, Lycian League, 107.
1 commentsMinos
chalkidian.jpg
GREEK, MACEDON, Chalkidian League. Circa 383/2 BC. 171 viewsAR Tetrobol (13mm, 2.4 g, 9h).
Olynthos mint.
Laureate head of Apollo left / Kithara.
SNG ANS 524
2 commentsDino
Stater_League_Zeus.jpg
GREEK, Thessalian Confederacy, Double AR Victoriatus34 viewsObverse: Head of Zeus r., crowned with oak.

Reverse: Athena Itonia advancing r. brandishing javelin and holding shield.

Optimus
Thessalian_drachm~0.jpg
GREEK, Thessalian League Apollo Drachm80 views196-146 B.C.
4.15 gm, 18.5 mm
Obv: Laureate head of Apollo right, ΓAYANA (magistrate) behind
Rev: Athena Itonia standing right, with shield and about to hurl spear, ΘEΣΣA - ΛΩN to sides, bunch of grapes on vine right, Π-O / Λ-Y (magistrate) across lower fields
Sear 2234 var.; BMC Thessaly p.4, 36-37; (SNG Cop 300)
Jaimelai
thess_shield_lyre_2~1.jpg
Greek, THESSALIAN LEAGUE--SHIELD/LYRE (possibly unpublished Rogers 4 var.)159 viewsAE 14 mm 3.24 g
302 - 294 BCE
OBV: MACEDONIAN SHIELD WITH CENTRAL STAR
REV: ThESSA (r. down) )/LWN (l. down) AT SIDES OF LYRE
ROGERS 4 var.
POSSIBLY UNPUBLISHED VARIETY (IN ROGERS 4, ARRANGEMENT OF ETHNIC IS DOWN WITH OPEN END OF LYRE FACING DOWN)
1 commentslaney
athenun1.JPG
GREEK, Thessaly, Thessalian League17 viewsThessaly, Thessalian League, c. 196 - 27 B.C.
Bronze (AE) Thessaly mint, 6.55 grams, 19 mm,
Obverse laureate head of Apollo right; reverse ΘEΣΣAΛΩN,
Reverse Athena Itonia advancing right, holding shield and wielding spear
superflex
Photo_2006_6_3_17_38_1_edited.jpg
GREEK, Thessaly, Thessalian League, 196-146 B.C.56 viewsThessalian League, 196-146 B.C.
OBV: Head of Athena right, wearing Corinthian helmet.
REV: Horse prancing right, monograms around.
ancientcoins
Photo_2006_6_3_17_29_4_edited.jpg
GREEK, Thessaly, Thessalian League, 196-146 B.C.44 viewsThessalian League, 196-146 B.C.
OBV: Head of Apollo right.
REV: Athena Itonia right with shield and spear, monograms around.
ancientcoins
D6.jpg
Gros tournois of Philip IV, King of France38 viewsObverse:
+PHILIPPVS REX in the inner circle. BENEDICTV:SIT:NOMEN:DNI:NRI:DEI:REXPI, outer circle, cross in the center

Reverse:
TRONVS CIVIS, tournois in the center

Diameter: 25mm

Notes:
Philip IV le Bel ("The Fair") ruled France from 1268 until 1314 AD. In league with the current Pope, Philip oversaw the arrest, torture, and execution of hundreds of Knights Templar.
He challenged Pope Bonifice VIII and suppressed the wealthy and powerful Knights Templar with the support of 'his' captive pope, Clement V. As he was being burned, Jacques de Molay, KT, cursed both Clement and Philip. Clement died within a month and Philip within the year. Horne's characterization: he "prove(d) one of France's most unpleasant and disastrous kings, leaving in his wake catastrophe for the country and misery in Paris. Under him a new depth of savagery manifested itself in the life of Paris, a dark retreat from the enlightenment of Sugur and Philippe Auguste."
Xerxes King of Kings
Hadrian_ThessalianLeague_AE21_4_95g.jpg
Hadrian, Thessalian league, Athena Ionia, AE2125 views21mm, 4.95g
obv: AΔPIANON KAICAP AΘECCA&Lambda,OI; laureate head (with slight drapery?) right;
rev: OX NI-KO MAXOY; Athena Ionia right

Lindgren II 1415; BMC 7 #77
areich
Herakleia_Owl.JPG
Herakleia, Lucania109 views281-278 BC
AR Drachm (16.5mm, 3.82g)
O: Head of Athena, three-quarters facing right, wearing crested Attic helmet decorated with Scylla throwing stone; Φ behind.
R: Owl with wings closed, standing right on olive branch; club to right, |-HPAKΛEIΩN above, ΣΩΣI to left.
Van Keuren 114; HN Italy 1411
Scarce
ex NAC

The colony of Herakleia was a joint venture between the cities of Taras and Thurii, founded in 432 BC and intended to encourage peace between the two embattled polis’ and show a united front against the indigenous tribes of southern Italy. To this end Herakleia became the center of the newly formed Italiote League, probably around 380. This alliance consisted of emissaries from the Greek cities of Kroton, Metapontum, Velia, Thurii, and most notably Taras.
A century later, the period of this coin, Pyrrhus defeated the Roman Consul Laevinius near here, causing the Romans to try a different strategy. A political treaty was struck in 278, granting very favorable terms to the Greek city, and Herakleia became an ally of Rome. As a result the headquarters of the Italiote League was moved to Taras.
8 commentsEnodia
coin147.JPG
Ionia, Colophon27 viewsColophon (/ˈkɒləfɒn/;[1] Ancient Greek: Κολοφών) was an ancient city in Ionia. Founded around the turn of the first millennium BC, it was likely one of the oldest of the twelve cities of the Ionian League. In ancient times it was located between Lebedos (120 stadia to the west) and Ephesus (70 stadia to its south). Today the ruins of the city can be found south of the town Değirmendere Fev in the Menderes district of Izmir Province, Turkey.

The city's name comes from the word κολοφών, "summit", which is also the origin of the bibliographic term "colophon", in the metaphorical sense of a 'crowning touch', as it was sited along a ridgeline. The term "colophony" for rosin comes from the term colophonia resina, that is, resin from the pine trees of Colophon, which was highly valued for the strings of musical instruments.

Ionia, Colophon, c. 389-350 BC, 0.80g. ANSNNM 96, Milne, Kolophon-57. Obv: Head of Apollo l. Rx: Lyre.
ecoli
3340093.jpg
IONIA, Phokaia.38 viewsThe ancient Greek geographer Pausanias says that Phocaea was founded by Phocians under Athenian leadership, on land given to them by the Aeolian Cymaeans, and that they were admitted into the Ionian League after accepting as kings the line of Codrus. Pottery remains indicate Aeolian presence as late as the 9th century BC, and Ionian presence as early as the end of the 9th century BC. From this an approximate date of settlement for Phocaea can be inferred.

According to Herodotus the Phocaeans were the first Greeks to make long sea-voyages, having discovered the coasts of the Adriatic, Tyrrhenia and Spain. Herodotus relates that they so impressed Arganthonios, king of Tartessus in Spain, that he invited them to settle there, and, when they declined, gave them a great sum of money to build a wall around their city.

Their sea travel was extensive. To the south they probably conducted trade with the Greek colony of Naucratis in Egypt, which was the colony of their fellow Ionian city Miletus. To the north, they probably helped settle Amisos (Samsun) on the Black Sea, and Lampsacus at the north end of the Hellespont (now the Dardanelles). However Phocaea's major colonies were to the west. These included Alalia in Corsica, Emporiae and Rhoda in Spain, and especially Massalia (Marseille) in France.

Phocaea remained independent until the reign of the Lydian king Croesus (circa 560–545 BC), when they, along with the rest of mainland Ionia, first, fell under Lydian control[8] and then, along with Lydia (who had allied itself with Sparta) were conquered by Cyrus the Great of Persia in 546 BC, in one of the opening skirmishes of the great Greco-Persian conflict.

Rather than submit to Persian rule, the Phocaeans abandoned their city. Some may have fled to Chios, others to their colonies on Corsica and elsewhere in the Mediterranean, with some eventually returning to Phocaea. Many however became the founders of Elea, around 540 BC.

In 500 BC, Phocaea joined the Ionian Revolt against Persia. Indicative of its naval prowess, Dionysius, a Phocaean was chosen to command the Ionian fleet at the decisive Battle of Lade, in 494 BC. However, indicative of its declining fortunes, Phocaea was only able to contribute three ships, out of a total of "three hundred and fifty three". The Ionian fleet was defeated and the revolt ended shortly thereafter.

After the defeat of Xerxes I by the Greeks in 480 BC and the subsequent rise of Athenian power, Phocaea joined the Delian League, paying tribute to Athens of two talents. In 412 BC, during the Peloponnesian War, with the help of Sparta, Phocaea rebelled along with the rest of Ionia. The Peace of Antalcidas, which ended the Corinthian War, returned nominal control to Persia in 387 BC.

In 343 BC, the Phocaeans unsuccessfully laid siege to Kydonia on the island of Crete.

During the Hellenistic period it fell under Seleucid, then Attalid rule. In the Roman period, the town was a manufacturing center for ceramic vessels, including the late Roman Phocaean red slip.

It was later under the control of Benedetto Zaccaria, the Genoan ambassador to Byzantium, who received the town as a hereditary lordship; Zaccaria and his descendants amassed a considerable fortune from his properties there, especially the rich alum mines. It remained a Genoese colony until it was taken by the Turks in 1455. It is a titular see of the Roman Catholic Church.

IONIA, Phokaia. Circa 521-478 BC. AR Hemidrachm (9mm, 1.54 g). Head of griffin left / Quadripartite incuse square. SNG Copenhagen –; SNG von Aulock 2116; SNG Kayhan 512-6. VF, dark toning.
ecoli
Thasos.jpg
ISLAND OFF THRACE. Thasos62 viewsCirca 480-463 B.C. AR Stater (21mm, 8.80gm). Le Rider, Thassienes 5; HPM pl. X, 12; HGC 6, 331; SNG Copenhagen 1010-2. Obverse: Ithyphallic satyr advancing right, carrying off protesting nymph. Reverse: quadripartite incuse square. VF, toned.

Ex CNG

The motif of the satyr abducting a maenad appears on several northern Greek coins. In the case of Thasos, an island just off the coast of Thrace in northern Greece, this Dionysiac motif serves to promote the island's famous wine. Satyrs belong to the retinue of Dionysos, the god of wine. They are only interested in drinking wine and having sex, usually with the maenads, the female followers of Dionysos. Satyrs are commonly represented as half-man, half-horse or goat, often with a horse tail and pointy horse ears. On the obverse of this coin, however, the satyr has mostly human traits, except for his goat legs. In addition, his bestial nature is made clear by means of his nudity (which visibly contrasts with the maenad's modest chiton), his obvious sexual arousal, and the fact that he is trying to abduct a maenad against her will, as evidenced by raising her right arm in protest (and about to slap her abductor!). The overtly sexual displays seen on many early Greek coins can be disconcerting to the modern eye, viewing them through the lens of centuries of Christian fulminations against ‘paganism’ and its erotic excesses. These scenes are at their most graphic in northern Greece, for example, on the archaic coins of Lete and the island of Thasos, showing the interplay of nymphs and satyrs. The towns and tribes of this region were only newly introduced to the ‘civilizing’ influences of the south, and were still close to their roots in farming and herding cultures. Their gods were not the Olympian super beings, but the spirits of nature, and the emphasis was on celebrating the fecundity of fields and flocks. Thasos gained its enormous wealth by virtue of its local silver mines as well as mines it controlled on the Thracian mainland opposite the island city-state. According to Herodotos (VI, 46), the city derived 200-300 talents annually from her exploitation of this mineral wealth. Such source of the sought-after white metal attracted foreign interest on the mines. The famous of these was when Athens attacked Thasos, ironically one of its members in the Delian League, in 465 B.C. with a single purpose in taking control of these mines. Additionally, Thasos gained much material wealth as a producer and exporter of high quality wines, which was tightly regulated by the government, and it was perhaps due to this trade in wine that her coinage spread throughout the Aegean making it a widely recognized and accepted coinage in distant lands.

2 commentsJason T
Ancient_ruins_of_Beit_She__an.JPG
Israel, Beth Shean, Ancient Ruins14 viewsBeit She'an, better known in English as Beth Shean, is a city in the Northern District of Israel. It has played an important role in history due to its geographical location at the junction of the Jordan River Valley and the Jezreel Valley. In the Biblical account of the battle of the Israelites against the Philistines on Mount Gilboa, the bodies of King Saul and three of his sons were hung on the walls of Beit She'an (1 Samuel 31:10-12). In Hellenistic and Roman times, the city was named Scythopolis and was the leading city of the Decapolis, a league of pagan cities. The ancient city ruins are now protected within the Beit She'an National Park. Joe Sermarini
ROMAN_THEATER_BEIT_SHE__AN2.JPG
Israel, Beth Shean, The Roman Theater17 viewsBeit She'an, better known in English as Beth Shean, is a city in the Northern District of Israel. It has played an important role in history due to its geographical location at the junction of the Jordan River Valley and the Jezreel Valley. In the Biblical account of the battle of the Israelites against the Philistines on Mount Gilboa, the bodies of King Saul and three of his sons were hung on the walls of Beit She'an (1 Samuel 31:10-12). In Hellenistic and Roman times, the city was named Scythopolis and was the leading city of the Decapolis, a league of pagan cities. The ancient city ruins are now protected within the Beit She'an National Park. Joe Sermarini
Myus - Ionia.jpg
JONIA (Ionia) - MYOS 25 viewsUna de las doce mayores Ciudades-Estado que componían la Confederación Jónica, llamada Liga Jónica (Ionian League).

AE Chalkus 10 mm 1.3 gr.

Anv: Cabeza laureada de POSEIDON viendo a derecha
Rev: Delfín nadando a derecha, debajo un tridente y sobre el "MY".

Acuñada: 383 - 300 A.C.
Ceca: Myos - Ionia (También llamada Myus o Myous, ubicada en la costa oeste del Asia Menor, al sur de Avsar Turquía).

Referencias: Sear GCTV Vol.2 #4524 Pag.413 - SNG Copenhagen #1022 (Myus) - SNG Von Aulock #2114-5 - SNG Tübingen #3115 (Myus) - SNG Keckman Vol.I #235 (Caria, Myndos) - SNG Kayhan #847/8 (Caria, Myndos)
mdelvalle
Gerasa.JPG
Jordan, Jerash (Ancient Gerasa), The Oval Forum in Jerash, and the Cardo Maximus6 viewsThe Greco-Roman city of Gerasa, the Oval Forum in Jerash, and the Cardo Maximus, with modern Jerash in the background.

Ancient Greek inscriptions from the city support that the city was founded by Alexander the Great and his general Perdiccas, who allegedly settled aged Macedonian soldiers there during the spring of 331 BC, when he left Egypt and crossed Syria en route to Mesopotamia. However, other sources, namely the city's former name of "Antioch on the Chrysorrhoas, point to a founding by Seleucid King Antioch IV, while still others attribute the founding to Ptolemy II of Egypt.

After the Roman conquest in 63 BC, Jerash and the land surrounding it were annexed to the Roman province of Syria, and later joined the Decapolis league of cities. The historian Josephus mentions the city as being principally inhabited by Syrians, and also having a small Jewish community.[19] In AD 106, Jerash was absorbed into the Roman province of Arabia, which included the city of Philadelphia (modern day Amman). The Romans ensured security and peace in this area, which enabled its people to devote their efforts and time to economic development and encouraged civic building activity.[20]

Jerash is considered one of the largest and most well-preserved sites of Roman architecture in the world outside Italy. And is sometimes misleadingly referred to as the "Pompeii of the Middle East" or of Asia, referring to its size, extent of excavation and level of preservation.

Jerash was the birthplace of the mathematician Nicomachus of Gerasa (Greek: Νικόμαχος) (c. 60 – c. 120 AD).

In the second half of the 1st century AD, the city of Jerash achieved great prosperity. In AD 106, the Emperor Trajan constructed roads throughout the province, and more trade came to Jerash. The Emperor Hadrian visited Jerash in AD 129–130. The triumphal arch (or Arch of Hadrian) was built to celebrate his visit.

The city finally reached a size of about 800,000 square meters within its walls. The Persian invasion in AD 614 caused the rapid decline of Jerash. Beneath the foundations of a Byzantine church that was built in Jerash in AD 530 there was discovered a mosaic floor with ancient Greek and Hebrew-Aramaic inscriptions. The presence of the Hebrew-Aramaic script has led scholars to think that the place was formerly a synagogue, before being converted into a church.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jerash

Source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Place_ovale_de_Gerasa_new.JPG
Azurfrog, 2 November 2013
Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license.
Joe Sermarini
Corinth,_Price_703_.jpg
Kings of Macedon, Philip V, 221-179 BC, AR Tetradrachm – Corinth 220-217 BC28 viewsHead of Herakles right wearing lion skin headdress.
AΛEΞANΔPOY Zeus Aëtophoros seated left on a throne with a backrest topped by two Nikai, in left field Athena advancing left, shield over shoulder, holding spear on which is perched an owl, ΘE beneath throne.

Troxell Peloponnesian Alexanders pl. XVII, 3 (same obverse die); Price 703 (same obverse die); Noe ANSNS 6, 60.

(27 mm, 16.83 g, 1h).
Jencek Historical Enterprise.

Struck ca. 220-217 BC in Corinth, part of the Achaean League contribution to the maintenance of the army of Philip V of Macedon during the Social War. Obverse struck from a worn die.
n.igma
Philip_II.jpg
Kings of Macedon. Amphipolis. Philip II. 359-336 BC. (Circa 355-349/8 BC)50 viewsAR Tetradrachm

23mm., 13,99g.

Obverse: Laureate head of Zeus right

Reverse: ΦIΛIΠ ΠOY (FILIPPOU, "Of Philip"), Philip II on horse left, wearing kausia, short tunic and chiton around the neck, he raises the hand in salutation, bow beneath the front legs of the horse.

Le Rider D71, R -; SNG Cop 545 var.

Philip's revolutionary silver tetradrachms aimed to replace those of the Chalcidian League after his capture of the League's capital, Olynthus, in 348 BC. The horseman on the reverse was the type which had traditionally marked coinage of fine silver in Macedonia. The reverse type exists in two versions. One shows a bearded horseman wearing kausia and chlamys (this coin), very like the horseman on the coins of the fifth-century Macedonian kings; here no doubt Philip himself is represented. The other is a mounted jockey carrying the palm branch of victory, which certainly commemorates the success of Philip's horse in the Olympic games of 356 BC.

From sculptures uncovered in the excavation of Philip’s tomb in 1977, it is evident that the artist adopted some of Philip’s facial attributes in the depiction of Zeus on the obverse of his tetradrachms, which would help assert Philip’s divinity and claim to the broader throne of Greece.
1 commentsNathan P
Philip_II~0.jpg
Kings of Macedon. Philip II (Circa 359-336 BC)20 viewsAE 16, 6.23 g

Obverse: Head of Apollo right

Reverse: "ΦIΛIΠΠOY" (FILIPPOY) above naked youth on horse right, theta p control mark below

SNG ANS 927

The rise of Macedon during the reign of Philip II was achieved in part by his reformation of the Ancient Macedonian army, establishing the Macedonian phalanx that proved critical in securing victories on the battlefield. After defeating Athens and Thebes at the Battle of Chaeronea in 338 BC, Philip II led the effort to establish a federation of Greek states known as the League of Corinth, with him as the elected hegemon and commander-in-chief of a planned invasion of the Achaemenid Empire of Persia. However, his assassination in 336 BC (perhaps orchestrated by one of his wives, Olympias, and son, Alexander the Great) led to the immediate succession of Alexander.
Nathan P
AchaeanLeague_Lakonia.jpg
Lakonia (Sparta)10 viewsLakonia (Sparta).  196-146 BC. AR Hemidrachm. Laureate head of Zeus Hamarios / AX monogram.
Not found in inventory 2017-12
Christian T
Lakonia,_Lakedaimon_(Sparta)_AR_Hemidrachm_85_BC.jpg
Lakonia, Lakedaimon (Sparta), ca. 85 BC, AR Hemidrachm - in the style of the Achaian League 12 viewsLaureate head of Zeus right.
Central AX monogram; pilei of the Dioskouri flanking, ΛAI monogram above and ΩΠMY monogram below, all within laurel wreath.

HGC 5, 643 (S); Clerk 319; BCD Peloponnesos 865.4; SNG Cop 320.

(13 mm, 2.36 g, 6h).
Classical Numismatic Group, August 2007; from BCD Collection (not in LHS sale); ex-Johan Christian Holm (Denmark) 1976.

Although this coin is in the style of the Achaian League style, it was issued at a time when Sparta was not a member of the League. It is believed that the issue of this coin type was a “voluntary” contribution to the Roman campaign when Sulla was fighting Mithradates VI. This issue was struck the style of the coinage of the League, which was more acceptable to the Greek mercenaries who received it as pay while engaged by Rome. Sparta also issued autonomous silver coinage (example below) around the same time and for the following thirty years.
n.igma
Lampsakos_Mysia_Silver_diobol.jpg
Lampsakos, Mysia, c. 4th - 3rd Centuries B.C.57 viewsSilver diobol, Baldwin Lampsakos, Group B, Type I, pl. VI, 6; SNG Ashmolean 660; SNG BnF 1195; SNG Cop 191; SNGvA 1295; BMC Mysia p. 83, 36 ff., VF, well centered on a tight flan, toned, 1.458g, 11.7mm, 315o, Lampsakos (Lapseki, Turkey) mint, c. 4th - 3rd Centuries B.C.; obverse Janiform female head, wearing taenia and disk earring; reverse LA-M-Y (clockwise, starting above), helmeted head of Athena right, in a shallow round incuse.

A very valuable example from FORVM.

Lampsakos was founded by Greek colonists from Phocaea in the 6th century B.C. Soon afterward it became a main competitor of Miletus, controlling the trade roots in the Dardanelles. During the 6th and 5th centuries B.C., Lampsacus was successively dominated by Lydia, Persia, Athens, and Sparta; Artaxerxes I assigned it to Themistocles with the expectation that the city supply the Persian king with its famous wine. When Lampsacus joined the Delian League after the battle of Mycale in 479 B.C., it paid a tribute of twelve talents, a testimony to its wealth.
Sam
Saturninus_P.jpg
Lucius Appuleius Saturninus - AR denarius9 viewsRome
²101 BC
¹104 BC
helmeted head of Roma left
Saturn in quadriga right holding harpa and reins
.
·P
L·SATVRN
¹Crawford 317/3a, SRCV I 193, Sydenham 578, RSC I Appuleia 1
²Mark Passehl - Roman moneyer & coin type chronology, 150 – 50 BC
3,66g 19-17mm

According Richard Schaefer it's the first known example of these dies. Dies differ from ·P thus there, most probably, is dot above P although unfortunately off flan.

As quaestor Saturninus superintended the imports of grain at Ostia, but had been removed by the Roman Senate (an unusual proceeding), and replaced by Marcus Aemilius Scaurus, one of the chief members of the Optimates. Standard view is that injustice of his dismissal drove him into the arms of the Populares. In 103 BC he was elected tribune. Marius, on his return to Rome after his victory over the Cimbri, finding himself isolated in the senate, entered into a compact with Saturninus and his ally Gaius Servilius Glaucia, and the three formed a kind of triumvirate, supported by the veterans of Marius and many of the common people. By the aid of bribery and assassination Marius was elected (100 BC) consul for the sixth time, Glaucia praetor, and Saturninus tribune for the second time. Marius, finding himself overshadowed by his colleagues and compromised by their excesses, thought seriously of breaking with them, and Saturninus and Glaucia saw that their only hope of safety lay in their retention of office. Saturninus was elected tribune for the third time for the year beginning December 10, 100, and Glaucia, although at the time praetor and therefore not eligible until after the lapse of 2 years, was a candidate for the consulship. Marcus Antonius Orator was elected without opposition; the other Optimate candidate, Gaius Memmius, who seemed to have the better chance of success, was beaten to death by the hired agents of Saturninus and Glaucia, while the voting was actually going on. This produced a complete revulsion of public feeling. The Senate met on the following day, declared Saturninus and Glaucia public enemies, and called upon Marius to defend the State. Marius had no alternative but to obey. Saturninus, defeated in a pitched battle in the Roman Forum (December 10), took refuge with his followers in the Capitol, where, the water supply having been cut off, they were forced to capitulate. Marius, having assured them that their lives would be spared, removed them to the Curia Hostilia, intending to proceed against them according to law. But the more impetuous members of the aristocratic party climbed onto the roof, stripped off the tiles, and stoned Saturninus and many others to death. Glaucia, who had escaped into a house, was dragged out and killed. (wikipedia)
Johny SYSEL
Saturninus_T~0.jpg
Lucius Appuleius Saturninus - AR denarius18 viewsRome
²101 BC
¹104 BC
helmeted head of Roma left
Saturn in quadriga right holding harpa and reins
·T·
L·SATVRN
¹Crawford 317/3a, SRCV I 193, Sydenham 578, RSC I Appuleia 1
²Mark Passehl - Roman moneyer & coin type chronology, 150 – 50 BC
3,44g 19,5-18,5mm

As quaestor Saturninus superintended the imports of grain at Ostia, but had been removed by the Roman Senate (an unusual proceeding), and replaced by Marcus Aemilius Scaurus, one of the chief members of the Optimates. Standard view is that injustice of his dismissal drove him into the arms of the Populares. In 103 BC he was elected tribune. Marius, on his return to Rome after his victory over the Cimbri, finding himself isolated in the senate, entered into a compact with Saturninus and his ally Gaius Servilius Glaucia, and the three formed a kind of triumvirate, supported by the veterans of Marius and many of the common people. By the aid of bribery and assassination Marius was elected (100 BC) consul for the sixth time, Glaucia praetor, and Saturninus tribune for the second time. Marius, finding himself overshadowed by his colleagues and compromised by their excesses, thought seriously of breaking with them, and Saturninus and Glaucia saw that their only hope of safety lay in their retention of office. Saturninus was elected tribune for the third time for the year beginning December 10, 100, and Glaucia, although at the time praetor and therefore not eligible until after the lapse of 2 years, was a candidate for the consulship. Marcus Antonius Orator was elected without opposition; the other Optimate candidate, Gaius Memmius, who seemed to have the better chance of success, was beaten to death by the hired agents of Saturninus and Glaucia, while the voting was actually going on. This produced a complete revulsion of public feeling. The Senate met on the following day, declared Saturninus and Glaucia public enemies, and called upon Marius to defend the State. Marius had no alternative but to obey. Saturninus, defeated in a pitched battle in the Roman Forum (December 10), took refuge with his followers in the Capitol, where, the water supply having been cut off, they were forced to capitulate. Marius, having assured them that their lives would be spared, removed them to the Curia Hostilia, intending to proceed against them according to law. But the more impetuous members of the aristocratic party climbed onto the roof, stripped off the tiles, and stoned Saturninus and many others to death. Glaucia, who had escaped into a house, was dragged out and killed. (wikipedia)
Johny SYSEL
Lucius.jpg
Lucius Pomponius Cneo Filius2 viewsLucius Pomponius Cneo Filius. Serrated denarius.
Obv. Helmeted head of Roma right, L•POMPONI CN F, X behind head
Rev. naked gallic warrior in biga right, holding spear, shield and carnyx,
L•LIC•CN•DOM in exergue
20 mm. 3.86 g
Cr.282/4.

This issue with serratus edges, was minted at the newly-founded city of Narbo, the first Roman colony in gaul. The two principal magistrates Licinius Crassus and Domitius Ahenobarbus produced their coins in association with five junior colleagues, in this case L. Pomponius.

Marsman
Trajan_Lycia.jpg
Lycia24 viewsAR Drachm, Lycian League, AD 98-117
Obv: AYT KAIC NEP TPAIANOC CEB ΓEPM
Laureate head right
Rev: ΔHM EΞ-YPAT B (= COS II)
Two lyres with owl above.
2.92g, 17-18mm

BMC Lycia pg. 39, 10; SNG Copenhagen 45; SNG von Aulock 4268.
1 commentsklausklage
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Lycia, Masozytes, Trajan SGIC 109660 viewsTrajan 98 - 117
AR - Drachme, 3.53g, 18.7mm
Masozytes/Lycia 98 - 99
obv. AYT KAIC NEP TPAIANOC CEB ΓEPM
laureate head r.
rev. ΔHM EΞ - YΠAT B (=COS II)
two three-stringed lyres side by side, owl above, a foot on each lyre
SGIC 1096; SNG von Aulock 4268; SNG Copenhagen 45
nice EF, mint luster, fine, bold portrait!
From Forum Ancient Coins, thanks!

MASOZYTES, together with Kragoi, was one of the main regions of the
Lycian League. Apollo/Lyre was the type of their coins
3 commentsJochen
unk_head_fac_1_res.jpg
LYCIA, XANTHOS (LYCIAN LEAGUE)18 viewsAfter 168 BC
AE 9 mm, 0.75 g
O: Head of Apollo (?) facing
R: ΛΥΚΙΩΝ, Bow and quiver
LYCIA, XANTHOS
BMC 19. 38,1; Sear #5378 (SGCV II)


laney
lycia_xanthos_res.jpg
LYCIA, XANTHOS (LYCIAN LEAGUE)13 viewsAfter 168 BC
AE 8.5 mm; 1.23 g
O: Head of Apollo (?) facing
R: ΛΥΚΙΩΝ, Bow and quiver
LYCIA, XANTHOS
cf. BMC 19. 38,1; Sear #5378 (SGCV II)
laney
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Lycian League6 viewsLycian League, late 1st Century BCE

Head of Apollo right/Lyre within wreath. M-A within field.

AE
Belisarius
lyc_50.jpg
Lycian League51 views48 – 25 B.C.
Silver Hemidrachm
1.57 gm, 16 mm
Obv.: Head of Apollo right; Λ – Υ to either side of neck
Rev.: Kithara; M to left, A to right; tripod lower right

Troxell 110 Period IV, Series 6
Sear 5295
BMC Lycia p. 64, 14-18
SNG Cop. 84
Masicytus District mint
c. 28/27 to 19/18 B.C.
2 commentsJaimelai
greek75.jpg
Lycian League AR Hemidrachm32 viewsMasikytes mint (30-27 BC).
Obv.: Laureate head of Apollo.
Rev.: Lyre; palm tied with fillets to left.
Troxell, Lycian League, 107.
Minos
Lycia_hemidrachm_AR15-18_1_54g.jpg
Lycian League, Hemidrachm22 viewstime of Augustus, ca. 27-20 BC
15-18mm, 1.54g
obv: Λ - Υ, laureate head of Apollo right
rev: M - A, Lyre, tripod in right field
Masikytes (District)
Periode IV, 6th series, c. BC 27-20
Troxell 110, RPC 3310
areich
Lycia_Kragos_SNG-Cop59_.jpg
Lycian League, Kragos7 viewsLycian League, Kragos After 168 BC. AR Hemidrachm (1.68 gm). Laureate head of Apollo r. / Kithara (lyre), K-P across lower field, all within incuse square.  VF.  Bt. Old Town Coin, 1999. SNG Cop 6 59; RPC I 3301; Dewing 2453; Sear 5267; Troxell, Lycian 84.40. Christian T
Lycia_Masekytes_RPC1_3303.jpg
Lycian League, Masikytes31 viewsLycian League, Masikytes. c. 40-35 BC. AR Hemidrachm (1.70 gm). Laureate head of Apollo r. / Kithara (lyre), M-A across fields, serpent coiled around omphalos to l., all within incuse square.  EF.  CNG EA 447 #118. Ex-Dr. Erik Miller Coll. RPC I #3303; Troxell, Lycian, Period IV, Series 3 #97; McClean 8875.
In Greek myths, Apollo slayed the great serpent Python so that he could establish his oracular temple at Delphi. An omphalos marked the spot where he slayed Python and is depicted on ancient coins as an omphalos stone with a serpent wound around it.
2 commentsChristian T
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Lycian League, Rhodiapolis 7 viewsLycian League Rhodiapolis After 168 BC. AR Drachm (2.89 gm). Rare mint.. Laureate head of Apollo r., bow and quiver over shoulder / Kithara (lyre), P-O across fields, fillet to l., all within incuse square.  EF.   CNG 51 #479. SNG Cop. 132 (same obv. die); BMC 1 (same); Troxell, Lycian 40 (18 known, most in museums); Weber 7301 (same). cf. CNG EA 265 #163 Christian T
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LYCIAN LEAGUE. Masicytes. Ca. 32-30 BC.26 viewsLYCIAN LEAGUE. Masicytes. Ca. 32-30 BC. AR hemidrachm (15mm, 1.78 gm, 12h). XF. Head of Apollo right, wearing taenia / ΛΥΚΙΩΝ, cithara; M-A/Σ-I across fields, all within incuse square. RPC I 3304. Troxell, LL, 104-109. 1 commentsMark R1
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MACEDON, Chalkidian League. Circa 383/2 BC.130 viewsAR Tetrobol (13mm, 2.4 g, 9h).
Olynthos mint.
Laureate head of Apollo left / Kithara.
SNG ANS 524
8 commentsDino
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MACEDON, Chalkidian League. Circa 383/2 BC.50 viewsAR Tetrobol (16mm, 2.30 g).
Olynthos mint.
Laureate head of Apollo right / Kithara.
SNG ANS 527.
2 commentsDino
LarryW2273.jpg
Macedon, Olynthos, Chalkdian League, 432-348 BC143 viewsSilver tetrobol, 14.9mm, 2.26g, Nice VF
Struck c. 410-401 BC
Laureate head Apollo right, circle of dots around / XAΛK[IA]EΩN around lyre with seven strings, all within incuse.
BMC 5, 68, 13; SNG Cop 235v
3 commentsLawrence Woolslayer
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Macedonia, Mende. 400-350 BC.56 viewsCHALKIDIAN LEAGUE

Head of young Dionysus with ivy wreath nr
Rv. MEND / AI ivy wreath around an Amphora. 5.7 g.
SNG ANS 385th AMNG III, 2, 78, 31
1 commentsDino
GRK_Macedonia_Philip_tetradrachm.JPG
Macedonian Kingdom32 viewsSear 6684 var., Le Rider pl. 47, 18 var. (without the I to the right of the Δ).

AR Tetradrachm (23-24 mm.), struck in the name of Philip II (359-336 B.C.) under Cassander (Regent 317-305 B.C.; King 305-297 B.C.) or his sons, Philip IV (297 B.C.) and Alexander V (297-294 B.C.) at Amphipolis, ca. 315-294 B.C. (per Le Rider) or ca. 320-315 B.C. (per Price).

Obv: Laureate head of Zeus right.

Rev: ΦIΛΙΠ-ΠΟΥ above young naked jockey astride racehorse prancing right, carrying long palm frond of victory in right hand and holding reins in left hand; Λ above race-torch below horse; Δ below horse’s foreleg.

Philip II claimed descent from Zeus, and hence adopted the head of Zeus for his obverse. The image is thought to possibly be inspired by the great statue of Zeus by Phidias at Olympia, which was one of the seven wonders of the ancient world. The reverse celebrates Philip's victories at the Olympic games, where his racehorses were victorious in the games of 356 B.C. and possibly again in 348 B.C.

Philip adopted the Chalcidian weight standard (c. 14.45 g.) for his tetradrachm, in an effort to replace the Chalcidian League's coinage at that standard after his sacking of Olynthus in Chalcidice in 348 B.C. The expansion of Macedonia under Philip resulted in its coinage overtaking Athenian owls as the leading currency of the Greek world. The type continued to be struck long after the death of Philip. The type was imitated in tribal lands north of Macedonia up to the first century B.C.
1 commentsStkp
PhilipIIMacedonLifetimeTet.jpg
Macedonian Kingdom, Philip II, 359 - 336 B.C., Lifetime Issue146 viewsSilver tetradrachm, Le Rider 233 (D130/R188); SNG ANS 385 ff., VF, Pella, 14.163g, 25.4mm, 225o, 342 - 336 B.C.; obverse laureate head of Zeus right; reverse "FILIPPOU", naked youth on horse pacing right on horseback holding palm, thunderbolt below; ex CNG 214, 82; very high relief sculptural portrait, nice style, lifetime issue. Ex FORVM.

Philip II expanded the size and influence of the Macedonian Kingdom, but is perhaps best known as the father of Alexander the Great. He personally selected the design of his coins.

Philip II of Macedon (382 BC–336 BC; in Greek Φίλιππος = φίλος (friend) + ίππος (horse), transliterated Philippos) was the King of Macedon from 359 BC until his assassination. He was the father of Alexander the Great, Phillip III Arrhidaeus, and possibly Ptolemy I Soter, founder of the Ptolemaic dynasty.

Born in Pella, Philip was the youngest son of King Amyntas III and Eurydice. In his youth, (ca. 368 BC–365 BC) Philip was a hostage in Thebes, which was the leading city of Greece during the Theban hegemony. While a captive there, Philip received a military and diplomatic education from Epaminondas, was involved in a pederastic relationship with Pelopidas and lived with Pammenes, who was an enthusiastic advocate of the Sacred Band of Thebes. In 364 BC, Philip returned to Macedonia. The deaths of Philip's elder brothers, King Alexander II and Perdiccas III, allowed him to take the throne in 359 BC. Originally appointed regent for his infant nephew Amyntas IV, who was the son of Perdiccas III, Philip managed to take the kingdom for himself that same year.

Philip's military skills and expansionist vision of Macedonian greatness brought him early success. The hill tribes were broken by a single battle in 358 BC, and Philip established his authority inland as far as Lake Ohrid. He used the Social War as an opportunity for expansion. In 357 BC, he took the Athenian colony of Amphipolis, which commanded the gold mines of Mount Pangaion. That same year Philip married the Epirote princess Olympias, who was the daughter of the king of the Molossians. In 356 BC, Philip conquered the town of Crenides and changed its name to Philippi. Philip also attacked Abdera and Maronea, on the Thracian sea-board. Also in 356 Alexander was born and his race horse won in the Olympics in He took Methone in 354 BC, a town which had belonged to Athens. During the siege of Methone, Philip lost an eye.

Not until his armies were opposed by Athens at Thermopylae in 352 BC did Philip face any serious resistance. Philip did not attempt to advance into central Greece because the Athenians had occupied Thermopylae. Also in 352 BC, the Macedonian army won a complete victory over the Phocians at the Battle of Crocus Field. This battle made Philip tagus of Thessaly, and he claimed as his own Magnesia, with the important harbour of Pagasae.
Hostilities with Athens did not yet take place, but Athens was threatened by the Macedonian party which Philip's gold created in Euboea. From 352 to 346 BC, Philip did not again come south. He was active in completing the subjugation of the Balkan hill-country to the west and north, and in reducing the Greek cities of the coast as far as the Hebrus (Maritza). For the chief of these coastal cities, Olynthus, Philip continued to profess friendship until its neighboring cities were in his hands.

In 349 BC, Philip started the siege of Olynthus. Olynthus at first allied itself with Philip, but later shifted its allegiance to Athens. The Athenians did nothing to help Olynthus. Philip finally took Olynthus in 348 BC and razed the city to the ground. In 346 BC, he intervened effectively in the war between Thebes and the Phocians, but his wars with Athens continued intermittently.

Macedonia and the regions adjoining it having now been securely consolidated, Philip celebrated his Olympic games at Dium. In 347 BC, Philip advanced to the conquest of the eastern districts about the Hebrus, and compelled the submission of the Thracian prince Cersobleptes. Meanwhile, Athens had made overtures for peace, and when Philip, in 346 BC, again moved south, peace was sworn in Thessaly. With key Greek city-states in submission, Philip turned to Sparta; he sent them a message, "You are advised to submit without further delay, for if I bring my army into your land, I will destroy your farms, slay your people, and raze your city." Their reply was "If." Philip and Alexander would both leave them alone. Later, the Macedonian arms were carried across Epirus to the Adriatic Sea. In 342 BC, Philip led a great military expedition north against the Scythians, conquering the Thracian fortified settlement Eumolpia to give it his name, Philippoupolis (modern Plovdiv).

In 340 BC, Philip started the siege of Perinthus. Philip began another siege in 339 BC of the city of Byzantium. After unsuccessful sieges of both cities, Philip's influence all over Greece was compromised. However, Philip successfully reasserted his authority in the Aegean by defeating an alliance of Thebans and Athenians at the Battle of Chaeronea in 338 BC. He erected a memorial of a marble lion to the Sacred Band of Thebes for their bravery that still stands today. Philip created and led the League of Corinth in 337 BC. Members of the League agreed never to wage war against each other, unless it was to suppress revolution. Philip was elected as leader (hegemon) of the army of invasion against the Persian Empire. In 336 BC, when the invasion of Persia was in its very early stage, Philip was assassinated, and was succeeded on the throne of Macedon by his son Alexander the Great.

Philip’s Assassination

The murder happened in October of 336 BC, at Aegae, the ancient capital of the kingdom of Macedon. The court had gathered there for the celebration of the marriage between Alexander of Epirus and Philip's daughter. While the king was entering unprotected into the town's theatre (highlighting his approachability to the Greek diplomats present), he was killed by Pausanias of Orestis, one of Philip's seven bodyguards. The assassin immediately tried to escape and reach his associates who were waiting for him with horses at the entrance of Aegae. He was pursued by three of Philip's bodyguards and died by their hands.
The reasons for Pausanias' assassination of Phillip are difficult to fully expound, since there was controversy already among ancient historians. The only contemporary account in our possession is that of Aristotle, who states rather tersely that Philip was killed because Pausanias had been offended by the followers of Attalus, the king's father-in-law.

Whatever else that may be written about Philip II it must be recognized that he was responsible for making Macedon the ascendant Greek power. He reorganized the Macedonian army. It was this army that Alexander the Great inherited. Phillip II trained some of Alexander’s best generals: Antigonus Cyclops, Antipater, Nearchus, Parmenion, and Perdiccas.

According to the Greek historian Theopompus of Chios, Europe had never seen a man like king Philip of Macedonia, and he called his history of the mid-fourth century BCE the Philippic History. Theopompus had a point. Not even his better known son Alexander has done so much to change the course of Greek history. Philip reorganized his kingdom, gave it access to the sea, expanded its power so that it could defeat the Achaemenid Empire, and subdued the Greek city-states, which never regained their independence again. To achieve this, he modernized the Macedonian economy, improved the army, and concluded several marital alliances. The result was a superpower with one weakness: it was as strong as its king. When Philip's son Alexander died, the institutions were too weak, and Macedonia never recovered.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philip_II_of_Macedon
http://www.livius.org/phi-php/philip/philip_ii.htm
Ed. by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
1 commentsCleisthenes
AntonyOctavian.jpg
Marcus Antonius and Octavian Denarius213 viewsM ANT IMP AVG III VIR R P C M BARBAT Q P (MP and AV in monogram)
Bare hd of Mark Antony right

Rev
CAESAR IMP PONT III VIR R P C
Bare head of Octavian right

Ephesus spring/summer 41 BC

3.54g

Sear 1504

This series of coins commemorates the establishment of the second Triumvirate of November 43 B.C. between Antony, Octavian and Lepidus. Both sides bear the inscription "III VIR R P C", meaning "One of Three Men for the Regulation of the Republic. Within a few years Antony would depart Italy for the Eastern provinces.

The moneyer for this coin is M. Barbatius Pollio who was also a Questor in 41 BC. Barbatius bears the title of "Quaestor pro praetore" abbreviated to QP a distinction shared by his colleague L. Gelllius.

From the Enrico collection
6 commentsJay GT4
Antony_and_Octavian_001.jpg
Mark Antony and Octavian 147 viewsM ANT IMP AVG III VIR R P C M BARBAT Q P (MP and AV in monogram)
Bare hd of Mark Antony right

Rev
CAESAR IMP PONT III VIR R P C
Bare head of Octavian right

Ephesus spring/summer 41 BC

2.97g

Sear 1504

This series of coins commemorates the establishment of the second Triumvirate of November 43 B.C. between Antony, Octavian and Lepidus. Both sides bear the inscription "III VIR R P C", meaning "One of Three Men for the Regulation of the Republic. Within a few years Antony would depart Italy for the Eastern provinces.

The moneyer for this coin is M. Barbatius Pollio who was also a Questor in 41 BC. Barbatius bears the title of "Quaestor pro praetore" abbreviated to QP a distinction shared by his colleague L. Gelllius.


SOLD!
1 commentsTitus Pullo
mark.jpg
Mark Antony and Octavian (41 B.C.)66 viewsAR Denarius
M. Barbatius Pollio, quaestor pro praetore
O: Bare head of Mark Antony right.
R: Bare head of Octavian right, wearing slight beard.
Ephesus mint, Spring-early summer 41 B.C.
3.5g
20mm
Crawford 517/2; CRI 243; Sydenham 1181

This series of coins commemorates the establishment of the second Triumvirate of November 43 B.C. between Antony, Octavian and Lepidus. Both sides bear the inscription "III VIR R P C", meaning "One of Three Men for the Regulation of the Republic. Within a few years Antony would depart Italy for the Eastern provinces.

The moneyer for this coin is M. Barbatius Pollio who was also a Questor in 41 BC. Barbatius bears the title of "Quaestor pro praetore" abbreviated to QP a distinction shared by his colleague L. Gelllius.
6 commentsMat
Antony_Fleet_galley.jpg
Mark Antony Fleet coinage160 viewsMarcus Antonius Fleet coinage (Light Series)

M ANT IMP TERT COS DESIG ITER ET TERT III VIR RPC
Conjoined heads of Marcus Antonius and Octavia right

M OPPIVS CAPITO PRO PR PRAEF CLASS FC
Galley under sail right

Tarentum (?) summer 37 BC
4.13g

Sear 1497, RPC 1470, CRI 296,

Very rare in any condition

Cleaned by Kevin at NRC.

The legendary Fleet coinage of Antony belongs to two series, heavy and light. The "light series" is thought to have been minted at a later date, possibly just after Antony returned from his conference with Octavian in 37 BC. The meeting saw the Pact of Tarentum. Part of that agreement saw Antony loan 120 ships to Octavian along with his Admirals Altratinus and Capito.

A fine insight into Antony's administrative abilities can be seen by his fleet coinage that came in sestertius, dupondius and as denominations. Of note is that Antony's "Fleet Coinage" shows the appearance of the first sestertius in bronze rather than silver. When Octavian (Augustus) reformed the coinage 20 years later he maintained the exact same denominations; sestertius, dupondius and as. After Actium Octavian also kept many if not all of the client Kings in their positions and territories. A strong case for Antony's capabilities as an administrator.

M. Oppius Capito occupied an important position in Antony's inner circle although little is known of him. Capito's coins are more abundant than those of his colleagues and only Capito's coins include the title "Praefectus classis" (Prefect of the fleet). Most of his coins are found in Greece and were probably minted in Piraeus, the harbor complex of Athens. Athens at this time was the home of Antony and Octavia so it is likely that Capito's mint would be located here.

Sold to Calgary Coin Jan 2016
4 commentsJay GT4
Messene.jpg
Messenia, Messene - Achaean League c. 280 - 146 B.C.9 viewsMessenia, Messene - hemidrachm of Achaean League (Silver, 2.42g. 15.4~16mm.), c. 280 - 146 B.C. Obv: Laureate head of Zeus to right. Rev: AX monogram, M below, XP above, all within laurel wreath.ddwau
rhodes_pan.jpg
Mylasa, Caria, c. 170 - 130 B.C.87 views Silver Pseudo-Rhodian (drachm*), Ashton NC 1992, 255, SNG Kayhan 846, weight 2.2 g, maximum diameter 15.86 mm, Mylasa mint, c. 170 - 130 B.C.; Obv. facing head of Helios with eagle superimposed on r. cheek, hair loose; Rev. rose with bud/stem to right,(left bud off flan**) monogram left, ΠΕ & A to right. Same obv. die as Ashton 255 & Kayhan 846. Some surface roughness on top of both sides.

*Ashton, Kayhan, & Sear all describe this denom. as "drachm", though considerably underweight according to the Rhodian standard. Apparently these immitatives use the lower weight.

**Kayhan 846 plate shows stems and buds going both left and right. (but only describes the bud to the left), Ashton's plate also shows on both sides, and describes as such when in combination with letters /monograms. My example, is an Obv. die match, though the Rev. is not an exact die match, but is very close (probably same hand), and shows the right stem and bud clearly, but the left is off flan. Ashton identifies 107 Obv. dies in this series, and none of the rest are even close to the style of #255. This Obv. is shown with one other Rev. type(different letters).

Note; Ashton concludes the top two letters (on these later type with 4-5 letters/monograms) are abbrieviations for the month they were struck by the particular magistrate. (1st two letters in the Macedonian calender months used in Mylasa at the time) In my coin ΠΕ are for ΠΕΡΙΘΙOΣ or Peritios, the 10th month. He also concludes the monogram and lower letter abbrieviate the magistrate's name. Also, though he knows of no metrological analysis, the the quality of the silver seems to be somewhat debased compared to the Rhodian and early Pseudo-Rhodian issues.(most of the CH 4 hoard were of this later type, and were covered in a thick black patina{that were harshly cleaned}, the few earlier series and the one Rhodian type didn't have this patina and seemed to be of higher quality silver)

Historical background; courtsey Forvm Ancient Coins

Mylasa (Milas, Turkey today) was often mentioned by ancient writers. The first mention is from early 7th century B.C., when Arselis, a Carian leader from Mylasa, helped Gyges in his fight for the Lydian throne. Under Persia, Mylasa was the chief city of Caria. Mylasa joined the Delian League c. 455 B.C., but Persian rule was restored by 400. Mylasa was the hometown and first capital of the Hecatomnid dynasty, nominally Persian satraps, but practically kings of Caria and the surrounding region, 377 - 352 B.C. In the Hellenistic era, the city was contested by Alexander's successors, but prospered. Mylasa was severely damaged in the Roman Civil War in 40 B.C., but again regained prosperity under Roman rule.



Ex. Aegean Nunismatics
2 commentsSteve E
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Nerva Drachm - Lyre and Olive Branch 112 viewsAR Drachm
Lycia, Lycian League, Year 3 = 97 AD
3.60g

Obv: Laureate bust of Nerva (R)
AYTOKPAT NEPOYAC — KAICAP CEBACT
Λ—Y in field

Rev: 4 stringed LYRE (Phorminx) with OLIVE BRANCH to right
YΠATOY — TPITOY

(Reverse also listed for Domitian)
3 commentsKained but Able
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Nerva, 18 September 96 - 25 January 98 A.D., Antioch, Syria195 viewsBronze AE 26, BMC Syria, p. 182, 261, aVF, Antioch mint, weight 13.524g, maximum diameter 25.0mm, die axis 0o, Jan - Sep 97 A.D.; Obverse: IMP CAESAR NERVA AVG III COS, laureate head right; Reverse: large S C in wreath, D below; unbelievable portrait. Ex FORVM. Photo courtesy FORVM.

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families
Nerva (96-98 A.D.)

David Wend

Introduction
Although short, the reign of Marcus Cocceius Nerva (A.D. 96-98) is pivotal. The first of Edward Gibbon's so-called "Five Good Emperors," Nerva is credited with beginning the practice of adopting his heir rather than selecting a blood relative. Claimed as an ancestor by all the emperors down to Severus Alexander, he has traditionally been regarded with much good will at the expense of his predecessor, Domitian.

Ancestry
Nerva could claim eminent ancestry on both sides of his family. On the paternal side, his great-grandfather, M. Cocceius Nerva, was consul in 36 B.C.; his grandfather, a distinguished jurist of the same name, accompanied Tiberius on his retirement to Capri in 26 A.D. On his mother's side an aunt, Rubellia Bassa, was the great-granddaughter of Tiberius. In addition, a great-uncle, L. Cocceius Nerva, played a part in the negotiations that secured a treaty between Octavian and Antony in 40 B.C

Early Career and Life under Domitian
Nerva was born on 8 November, 30 A.D. Little is known of his upbringing beyond the fact that he belonged to a senatorial family and pursued neither a military nor a public speaking career. On the other hand, he did hold various priesthoods and was a praetor-designate. More importantly, as praetor designate in 65, Nerva was instrumental in revealing the conspiracy of Piso against the emperor Nero.

As a result, he received triumphal ornaments and his statue was placed in the palace. Following Nero's fall in 68, Nerva must have realized that support of Vespasian and the Flavian cause was in his best interests. In 71 his loyalty was rewarded with a joint consulship with the emperor, the only time that Vespasian ever held the office without his son Titus. It was under the reign of Vespasian's other son, Domitian, that Nerva's political fortunes were ultimately determined, however. He shared the ordinary consulship with Domitian in 90, an honor that was perhaps the result of his alerting the emperor about the revolt of Antonius Saturninus, the governor of Upper Germany, in 89. Even so, like so many others of the senatorial class, Nerva came under scrutiny in the final years of Domitian's reign, when the emperor was unwilling to tolerate any criticism.

Whether or not Nerva was forced to withdraw from public life during Domitian's final years remains an open question. What is not in dispute is that he was named emperor on the same day that Domitian was assassinated in September, 96. Indeed, in some respects the accession was improbable, since it placed the Empire under the control of a feeble sexagenarian and long-time Flavian supporter with close ties to the unpopular Domitian. On the other hand, Nerva had proven to be a capable senator, one with political connections and an ability to negotiate. Moreover, he had no children, thereby ensuring that the state would not become his hereditary possession.

Imperial Initiatives
Upon taking office, Nerva made immediate changes. He ordered the palace of Domitian to be renamed the House of the People, while he himself resided at the Horti Sallustiani, the favorite residence of Vespasian. More significantly, he took an oath before the senate that he would refrain from executing its members. He also released those who had been imprisoned by Domitian and recalled exiles not found guilty of serious crimes. Nevertheless, Nerva still allowed the prosecution of informers by the senate, a measure that led to chaos, as everyone acted in his own interests while trying to settle scores with personal enemies.

In the area of economic administration Nerva, like Domitian, was keen on maintaining a balanced budget. In early 97, after appointing a commission of five consular senators to give advice on reducing expenditures, he proceeded to abolish many sacrifices, races, and games. Similarly, he allowed no gold or silver statues to be made of himself. Even so, there was some room for municipal expenditure. For the urban poor of Italy he granted allotments of land worth 60 million sesterces, and he exempted parents and their children from a 5% inheritance tax. He also made loans to Italian landowners on the condition that they pay interest of 5% to their municipality to support the children of needy families. These alimentary schemes were later extended by Trajan, Antoninus Pius, and Marcus Aurelius.

Because he reigned only briefly, Nerva's public works were few. By early 98 he dedicated the forum that Domitian had built to connect the Forum of Augustus with the Forum of Peace. It became known as the Forum of Nerva, or the Forum Transitorium. Nerva also built granaries, made repairs to the Colosseum when the Tiber flooded, and continued the program of road building and repairs inaugurated under the Flavians. In addition, pantomime performances, supressed by Domitian, were restored.

In the military realm, Nerva established veterans' colonies in Africa, a practice that was continued by the emperor Trajan. Normal military privileges were continued and some auxiliary units assumed the epithet Nervia or Nerviana. We are not well informed beyond these details, and any military action that may have occurred while Nerva was emperor is known sketchy at best.

Nature of Nerva's Government
Nerva's major appointments favored men whom he knew and trusted, and who had long served and been rewarded by the Flavians. Typical was Sextus Julius Frontinus. A consul under Vespasian and governor of Britain twenty years earlier, Frontinus came out of retirement to become curator of the water supply, an office that had long been subject to abuse and mismanagement. He helped to put an end to the abuses and published a significant work on Rome's water supply, De aquis urbis Romae. As a reward for his service, Frontinus was named consul for the second time in 98. Similarly, the emperor's own amici were often senators with Flavian ties, men who, by virtue of their links to the previous regime, were valuable to Nerva for what they knew. Thus do we find the likes of A. Didius Gallus Fabricius Veiiento, one of Domitian's ill-reputed counselors, seated next to Nerva at an imperial dinner. Nerva was less willing to consult the Senate as a whole. In many cases he preferred the opinions of his own consilium, and was less submissive than many senators would have liked. This attitude may have been responsible for hostile discontent among several senators.

Mutiny of the Praetorians and the Adoption of Trajan
It was not long before the assassination of Domitian came to work against the new emperor. Dissatisfied that Domitian had not been deified after his death, the praetorian guards mutinied under Casperius Aelianus in October 97. Taking the emperor as hostage, they demanded that Nerva hand over Domitian's murderers. The emperor not only relented, but was forced to give a public speech of thanks to the mutineers for their actions. His authority compomised, Nerva used the occasion of a victory in Pannonia over the Germans in late October, 97 to announce the adoption of Marcus Ulpius Traianus, governor of Upper Germany, as his successor. The new Caesar was immediately acclaimed imperator and granted the tribunicia potestas. Nerva's public announcement of the adoption settled succession as fact; he allowed no time to oppose his decision. From the German victory, Nerva assumed the epithet Germanicus and conferred the title on Trajan as well. He also made Trajan his consular colleague in 98.

Death and Deification
On January 1, 98, the start of his fourth consulship, Nerva suffered a stroke during a private audience. Three weeks later he died at his villa in the Gardens of Sallust. From his headquarters at Cologne, Trajan insisted that Nerva's ashes be placed in the mausoleum of Augustus and asked the senate to vote on his deification. We are further told that he dedicated a temple to Nerva, yet no trace of it has ever been found. Nor was a commemorative series of coins issued for the Deified Nerva in the wake of his death, but only ten years later.

Conclusion
Nerva's reign was more concerned with the continuation of an existing political system than with the birth of a new age. Indeed, his economic policies, his relationship with the senate, and the men whom he chose to govern and to offer him advice all show signs of Flavian influence. In many respects, Nerva was the right man at the right time. His immediate accession following Domitian's murder prevented anarchy and civil war, while his age, poor health and moderate views were perfect attributes for a government that offered a bridge between Domitian's stormy reign and the emperorships of the stable rulers to follow.

Copyright (C) 1998, David Wend.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
olynthos.jpg
Olynthos Chalkidian League.143 viewsAR Tetrobol. 420-393 BC. 2.4 gm.
Obverse- Laureate head of Apollo left.
Reverse- Lyre in linear square.
Sear 1425 (v.)
3 commentsb70
036a.jpg
Olynthos, Macedonia26 viewsChalkidian League
432-348 B.C.
Bronze AE 15
3.05 gm, 15 mm
Obv.: Laureate head of Apollo right
Rev.: X-A-Λ-KIΔ-EΩN around lyre
Sear 1433; BMC Macedonia p. 69, 29-30
1 commentsJaimelai
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Olynthos, Macedonia43 viewsChalkidian League
432-348 B.C.
Bronze AE 15
4.42 gm, 15.5 mm
Obv.: Laureate head of Apollo right
Rev.: X-A-Λ-KIΔ-EΩN around lyre
Sear 1433; BMC Macedonia p. 69, 29-30
2 commentsJaimelai
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Pantheon of Greek Gods164 viewsHere are some of the Greek gods depicted in full length form. As you might expect Athena seems to be a favorite deity as attested by these ancient coins. All are found on the reverse side except the stater coin from Tarsos.

Top Row: Zeus on Alexander III Tetradrachm; Apollo on Myrina Stephanophoric Tetradrachm; Dionysos on Maroneia Tetradrachm; Baal on Tarsos Stater.
Middle Row: Zeus on Bactrian Drachm; Athena Itona on Thessalian League Stater; Nike on Side Tetradrachm; Apollo on Seleukid Drachm; Athena on Cappadocian Drachm.
Bottom Row: Athena on Pergammon Tetradrachm; Athena on Seleukid Tetradrachm; Athena on Lysimachos Tetradrachm; Athena on Aigeaian Tetradrachm.
Jason T
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Papiria 130 viewsPapiria 7 (122BC) moneyer Cn. Papirius Carbo cos. 113BC

Denarius
Ob: Helmeted head of Roma with curl on shoulder; behind X, border of dots
Rev: Jupiter in quadriga holding reigns and scepter in left hand and hurling fulmen in right (fulminans); below CARBO in exergue ROMA. Line border

BMCRR II 449

Sydenham 415

Crawford 279

Ex: Colesseum Coin Exchange 2006; toned

Northumberland refers to this incredibly informative letter:

Ad Fam IX 21 to TO PAPIRIUS PAETUS (AT NAPLES) 46BC

Well, but letting that pass, how did it come into your head, my dear Paetus, to say that there never was a Papirius who was not a plebeian? For, in fact, there were patrician Papirii, of the lesser houses, of whom the first was L. Papirius Mugillanus, censor with L. Sempronius Atratinus--having already been his colleague in the consulship--in the 312th year of the city. But in those days they were called Papisii. After him thirteen sat in the curule chair before L. Papirius Crassus, who was the first to drop the form Papisius. This man was named dictator, with L. Papirius Cursor as Master of the Horse, in the 415th year of the city, and four years afterwards was consul with Kaeso Duilius. Cursor came next to him, a man who held a very large number of offices; then comes L. Masso, who rose to the aedileship; then a number of Massones. The busts of these I would have you keep--all patricians. Then follow the Carbones and Turdi. These latter were plebeians, whom I opine that you may disregard. For, except the Gaius Carbo who was assassinated by Damasippus, there has not been one of the Carbones who was a good and useful citizen. We knew Gnaeus Carbo and his brother the wit: were there ever greater scoundrels? About the one who is a friend of mine, the son of Rubrius, I say nothing. There have been those three brothers Carbo-Gaius, Gnaeus, Marcus. Of these, Marcus, a great thief, was condemned for malversation in Sicily on the accusation of Publius Flaccus: Gaius, when accused by Lucius Crassus, is said to have poisoned himself with cantharides; he behaved in a factious manner as tribune, and was also thought to have assassinated Publius Africanus. As to the other, who was put to death by my friend Pompey at Lilybaeum, there was never, in my opinion, a greater scoundrel. Even his father, on being accused by M. Antonius, is thought to have escaped condemnation by a dose of shoemaker's vitriol. Wherefore my opinion is that you should revert to the patrician Papirii: you see what a bad lot the plebeians were. (trans. Evelyn Shuckburgh)
Petrus Elmsley
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Pisidia, Antioch. Septimius Severus. 198-217 AD. 105 viewsPisidia, Antioch. Septimius Severus. 198-217 AD. AE 22mm (5.21 gm). Obverse: Laureate, head left. Reverse: Mên standing facing, head right, foot on bucranium, holding sceptre and Nike on globe; cock at feet left. SNG France 3, 1118. Cleaning scratches, very fine. Ex Tom Vossen.

De Imperatoribus Romanis
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Septimius Severus (193-211 A.D.)

Michael L. Meckler
Ohio State University

Introduction
Lucius Septimius Severus restored stability to the Roman empire after the tumultuous reign of the emperor Commodus and the civil wars that erupted in the wake of Commodus' murder. However, by giving greater pay and benefits to soldiers and annexing the troublesome lands of northern Mesopotamia into the Roman empire, Septimius Severus brought increasing financial and military burdens to Rome's government. His prudent administration allowed these burdens to be met during his eighteen years on the throne, but his reign was not entirely sunny. The bloodiness with which Severus gained and maintained control of the empire tarnished his generally positive reputation.

Severus' Early Life and Acclamation
Severus was born 11 April 145 in the African city of Lepcis Magna, whose magnificent ruins are located in modern Libya, 130 miles east of Tripoli. Septimius Severus came from a distinguished local family with cousins who received suffect consulships in Rome under Antoninus Pius. The future emperor's father seems not to have held any major offices, but the grandfather may have been the wealthy equestrian Septimius Severus commemorated by the Flavian-era poet Statius.

The future emperor was helped in his early career by one of his consular cousins, who arranged entry into the senate and the favor of the emperor Marcus Aurelius. Life as a senator meant a life of travel from one government posting to another. Moorish attacks on his intended post of Baetica (southern Spain) forced Severus to serve his quaestorship in Sardinia. He then traveled to Africa as a legate and returned to Rome to be a tribune of the plebs. Around the year 175 he married Paccia Marciana, who seems also to have been of African origin. The childless marriage lasted a decade or so until her death.

Severus' career continued to flourish as the empire passed from Marcus to Commodus. The young senator held a praetorship, then served in Spain, commanded a legion in Syria and held the governorships of Gallia Lugdunensis (central France), Sicily and Upper Pannonia (easternmost Austria and western Hungary). While in Gallia Lugdunensis in 187, the now-widowed future emperor married Julia Domna, a woman from a prominent family of the Syrian city of Emesa. Two sons quickly arrived, eleven months apart: Bassianus (known to history as Caracalla) in April of the year 188, and Geta in March 189.

News of Pertinax's assassination 28 March 193 in an uprising by the praetorian guard quickly reached Pannonia, and only twelve days later on 9 April 193, Severus was proclaimed emperor. Septimius Severus had the strong support of the armies along the Rhine and Danube, but the loyalty of the governor of Britain, Clodius Albinus, was in doubt. Severus' envoys from Pannonia offered Albinus the title of Caesar, which he accepted.

The Civil Wars with Albinus, Niger, and Didius Julianus
In the city of Rome, Didius Julianus gained the support of the praetorian troops and was promoted as the successor to Pertinax. Although Julianus' authority did not extend much beyond Italy, Severus understood that legitimacy for a Roman emperor meant having one's authority accepted in Rome. He and his army began a swift march to the city. They met practically no resistance on their advance from Pannonia into northern Italy, as Julianus' supporters defected. By the beginning of June when Severus reached Interamna, 50 miles north of Rome, even the praetorian guard stationed in the capital switched sides. Didius Julianus was declared a public enemy and killed. Septimius Severus entered Rome without a fight.

Civil war was not yet over. Another provincial governor also had his eyes on the throne. In Syria, Pescennius Niger had been proclaimed emperor on news of Pertinax's death, and the eastern provinces quickly went under his authority. Byzantium became Niger's base of operations as he prepared to fight the armies of the west loyal to Severus.

Niger was unable to maintain further advances into Europe. The fighting moved to the Asian shore of the Propontis, and in late December 193 or early January 194, Niger was defeated in a battle near Nicaea and fled south. Asia and Bithynia fell under Severus' control, and Egypt soon recognized Severus' authority. By late spring, Niger was defeated near Issus and the remainder of his support collapsed. Syria was pacified. Niger was killed fleeing Antioch. Byzantium, however, refused to surrender to Severan forces. Niger's head was sent to the city to persuade the besieged citizens to give up, but to no avail. The Byzantines held out for another year before surrender. As punishment for their stubbornness, the walls of their city were destroyed.

Severus' Eastern Campaigns
During the fighting, two of the peoples of upper Mesopotamia -- the Osrhoeni and the Adiabeni -- captured some Roman garrisons and made an unsuccessful attack on the Roman-allied city of Nisibis. After the defeat of Niger, these peoples offered to return Roman captives and what remained of the seized treasures if the remaining Roman garrisons were removed from the region. Severus refused the offer and prepared for war against the two peoples, as well as against an Arabian tribe that had aided Niger. In the spring of 195, Severus marched an army through the desert into upper Mesopotamia. The native peoples quickly surrendered, and Severus added to his name the victorious titles Arabicus and Adiabenicus. Much of the upper third of Mesopotamia was organized as a Roman province, though the king of Osrhoene was allowed to retain control of a diminished realm.

The tottering Parthian empire was less and less able to control those peoples living in the border regions with Rome. Rome's eastern frontier was entering a period of instability, and Severus responded with an interventionist policy of attack and annexation. Some senators feared that increased involvement in Mesopotamia would only embroil Rome in local squabbles at great expense. The emperor, however, would remain consistent in his active eastern policy.

Legitimization of the Severan Dynasty
Severus also took steps to cement his legitimacy as emperor by connecting himself to the Antonine dynasty. Severus now proclaimed himself the son of Marcus Aurelius, which allowed him to trace his authority, through adoption, back to the emperor Nerva. Julia Domna was awarded the title "Mother of the Camp" (mater castrorum), a title only previously given to the empress Faustina the Younger, Marcus' wife. Bassianus, the emperor's elder son, was renamed Marcus Aurelius Antoninus and given the title Caesar. It was this last step that marked a decisive break with Albinus.

Albinus had remained in Britain as governor during the struggles between Severus and Niger. Although Albinus had not attempted open revolt against the emperor, he seems to have been in communication with senators about future moves. By the end of 195, Albinus was declared a public enemy by Severus. The governor of Britain responded by proclaiming himself emperor and invading Gaul.

A weary Roman populace used the anonymity of the crowd at the chariot races to complain about renewed civil war, but it was Gaul that bore the brunt of the fighting. Albinus and his supporters were able to inflict losses on the occasion of the initial attacks, but disorder was so great that opportunistic soldiers could easily operate on their own within the lands under Albinus' nominal control.

The tide began to turn early in 197, and after a Severan victory at Tournus, Albinus found himself and his army trapped near Lyon. A battle broke out 19 February 197. In the initial fighting, Albinus' troops forced the Severans into retreat, during which Severus fell off his horse. When the Severan cavalry appeared, however, Albinus' army was routed. Lyon was sacked and Albinus, who was trapped in a house along the river Rhône, committed suicide. Severus ordered Albinus' head to be cut off and sent to Rome for display. Many of Albinus' supporters were killed, including a large number of Spanish and Gallic aristocrats. Albinus' wife and children were killed, as were many of the wives of his supporters. Tradition also told of the mutilation of bodies and denial of proper burial. The emperor revealed a penchant for cruelty that troubled even his fervent supporters. A purge of the senate soon followed. Included among the victims was Pertinax's father-in-law, Sulpicianus.

Severus and the Roman Military
Severus brought many changes to the Roman military. Soldiers' pay was increased by half, they were allowed to be married while in service, and greater opportunities were provided for promotion into officer ranks and the civil service. The entire praetorian guard, discredited by the murder of Pertinax and the auctioning of their support to Julianus, was dismissed. The emperor created a new, larger praetorian guard out of provincial soldiers from the legions. Increases were also made to the two other security forces based in Rome: the urban cohorts, who maintained order; and the night watch, who fought fires and dealt with overnight disturbances, break-ins and other petty crime. These military reforms proved expensive, but the measures may well have increased soldiers' performance and morale in an increasingly unsettled age.

One location that remained unsettled was the eastern frontier. In 197 Nisibis had again been under siege, and the emperor prepared for another eastern campaign. Three new legions were raised, though one was left behind in central Italy to maintain order. The Roman armies easily swept through upper Mesopotamia, traveling down the Euphrates to sack Seleucia, Babylon and Ctesiphon, which had been abandoned by the Parthian king Vologaeses V. On 28 January 198 -- the centenary of Trajan's accession -- Severus took the victorious title Parthicus Maximus and promoted both of his sons: Caracalla to the rank of Augustus and Geta to the rank of Caesar.

Before embarking on the eastern campaign, the emperor had named Gaius Fulvius Plautianus as a praetorian prefect. Plautianus came from the emperor's home town of Lepcis, and the prefect may even have been a relative of the emperor. The victories in Mesopotamia were followed by tours of eastern provinces, including Egypt. Plautianus accompanied Severus throughout the travels, and by the year 201 Plautianus was the emperor's closest confidant and advisor. Plautianus was also praetorian prefect without peer after having arranged the murder of his last colleague in the post.

Upon the return to Rome in 202, the influence of Plautianus was at its height. Comparisons were made with Sejanus, the powerful praetorian prefect under the emperor Tiberius. Plautianus, who earlier had been adlected into the senate, was now awarded consular rank, and his daughter Plautilla was married to Caracalla. The wealth Plautianus had acquired from his close connection with the emperor enabled him to provide a dowry said to have been worthy of fifty princesses. Celebrations and games also marked the decennalia, the beginning of the tenth year of Severus' reign. Later in the year the enlarged imperial family traveled to Lepcis, where native sons Severus and Plautianus could display their prestige and power.

The following year the imperial family returned to Rome, where an arch, still standing today, was dedicated to the emperor at the western end of the Forum. Preparations were also being made for the Secular Games, which were thought to have originated in earliest Rome and were to be held every 110 years. Augustus celebrated the Secular Games in 17 B.C., and Domitian in A.D. 88, six years too early. (Claudius used the excuse of Rome's 800th year to hold the games in A.D. 47.) In 204 Severus would preside over ten days of ceremonies and spectacles.

By the end of 204, Plautianus was finding his influence with the emperor on the wane. Caracalla was not happy to be the husband of Plautilla. Julia Domna resented Plautianus' criticisms and investigations against her. Severus was tiring of his praetorian prefect's ostentation, which at times seemed to surpass that of the emperor himself. The emperor's ailing brother, Geta, also denounced Plautianus, and after Geta's death the praetorian prefect found himself being bypassed by the emperor. In January 205 a soldier named Saturninus revealed to the emperor a plot by Plautianus to have Severus and Caracalla killed. Plautianus was summoned to the imperial palace and executed. His children were exiled, and Caracalla divorced Plautilla. Some observers suspected the story of a plot was merely a ruse to cover up long-term plans for Plautianus' removal.

Severus and Roman Law
Two new praetorian prefects were named to replace Plautianus, one of whom was the eminent jurist Papinian. The emperor's position as ultimate appeals judge had brought an ever-increasing legal workload to his office. During the second century, a career path for legal experts was established, and an emperor came to rely heavily upon his consilium, an advisory panel of experienced jurists, in rendering decisions. Severus brought these jurists to even greater prominence. A diligent administrator and conscientious judge, the emperor appreciated legal reasoning and nurtured its development. His reign ushered in the golden age of Roman jurisprudence, and his court employed the talents of the three greatest Roman lawyers: Papinian, Paul and Ulpian.

The order Severus was able to impose on the empire through both the force of arms and the force of law failed to extend to his own family. His now teenaged sons, Caracalla and Geta, displayed a reckless sibling rivalry that sometimes resulted in physical injury. The emperor believed the lack of responsibilities in Rome contributed to the ill-will between his sons and decided that the family would travel to Britain to oversee military operations there. Caracalla was involved in directing the army's campaigns, while Geta was given civilian authority and a promotion to joint emperor with his father and brother.

Severus was now into his 60s. Chronic gout limited his activities and sapped his strength. The emperor's health continued to deteriorate in Britain, and he became ever more intent on trying to improve the bitter relationship between his two sons. He is reported to have given his sons three pieces of advice: "Get along; pay off the soldiers; and disregard everyone else." The first piece of advice would not be heeded.

Severus died in York on 4 February 211 at the age of 65. His reign lasted nearly 18 years, a duration that would not be matched until Diocletian. Culturally and ideologically Septimius Severus connected his reign to the earlier Antonine era, but the reforms he enacted would eventually alter the very character of Roman government. By creating a larger and more expensive army and increasing the influence of lawyers in administration, Severus planted the seeds that would develop into the highly militaristic and bureaucratic government of the later empire.

Copyright (C) 1998, Michael L. Meckler. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis, An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors; http://www.roman-emperors.org/sepsev.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
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Pontos, Amisos (as Peiraieos). (Circa 435-370 BC)35 viewsAR Siglos

17 mm, 5.75 g

Persic standard. Aristeos, magistrate.

Obverse: Head of Hera left, wearing ornate stephane, earring, and necklace

Reverse: [ΠEIPA] in exergue, owl with spread wings standing facing on shield; across field in to lines, magistrate's name: A-PIΣ/TE-OΣ.

Malloy 1v; HGC 7, 229.

Amisos, situated on the southern shore of the Black Sea, was originally settled by the Milesians, perhaps as far back as the 8th century BC. The city was captured by the Persians in 550 BC and became part of Cappadocia (satrapy). In the 5th century BC, Amisos became a free state and one of the members of the Delian League led by the Athenians; it was then renamed Peiraieos under Pericles. In the 4th century BC the city came under the control of the Kingdom of Pontus.
2 commentsNathan P
Marcus_Aurelius_39.jpg
Q134 viewsMarcus Aurelius Sestertius

Attribution: RIC III 964
Date: AD 168-169
Obverse: M ANTONINVS AVG TR P XXIII, laureate head r.
Reverse: SALVTI AVG COS III, Salus stg. l. feeding snake wrapped around altar, and holding scepter, S-C across fields
Size: 30-34 mm
Weight: 25.93 grams
(Image of Marcus Aurelius courtesy Phillip Harland: Archaeological Museum, Selçuk, Turkey)

“He studied philosophy with ardor, even as a youth. For when he was twelve years old he adopted the dress and, a little later, the hardiness of a philosopher, pursuing his studies clad in a rough Greek cloak and sleeping on the ground; at his mother’s solicitation, however, he reluctantly consented to sleep on a couch strewn with skins.” – Historia Augusta Life of Marcus II.6

Marcus Aurelius assumed the role of emperor upon the death of the Deified Antoninus Pius in AD 161. He quickly made his brother, Lucius Verus, joint emperor. This partnership endured successfully until the death of Verus in AD 169. Unfortunately, Marcus’ rule was one beleaguered by warfare (i.e. the Parthian War) made worse by the plague (brought back from the war), invasion (the Germanic Quadi and Marcomanni on the Danube front), and insurrection (the revolt of Cassius, governor of Syria). Marcus sought solace in his philosophical meanderings. His writings were not bright and cheerful, because, after all, they came from a man latent with preoccupations. During another campaign against the Germanic Quadi in AD 179-180, Marcus fell ill. He had dealt with stomach and chest problems for a few years prior to this (some historians speculate it was cancer). He took the drug theriac to endure the pain. Theriac contains opium, so Marcus may have been addicted to this “medication”. He lived only one week after the inception of this final malady. He died near Sirmium on March 17, AD 180. His body was placed in the Mausoleum of Hadrian, and he was subsequently deified by the senate.

“The first rule is, to keep an untroubled spirit; for all things must bow to Nature’s law, and soon enough you must vanish into nothingness, like Hadrian and Augustus. The second is to look things in the face and know them for what they are, remembering that it is your duty to be a good man. Do without flinching what man’s nature demands; say what seems to you most just – though with courtesy, modesty, and sincerity.” – Marcus Aurelius Meditations (To Myself) VIII.5
4 commentsNoah
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Roman Provincial, Claudius I (41-54 AD), Lycian League, AE11 viewsRoman Provincial, LYCIA, Lycian League. Claudius. AD 41-54. Æ 31

Bare head left.

Cult statue of Artemis Eleuthera in distyle temple.

RPC 3342; Troxell C9
Gil-galad
RPC_II_1503_Domitianus.jpg
RPC II 1503 Domitianus16 viewsObv: AYT KAIC ΔOMITIANOC CEBACTOC ΓEPM - Laureate head right.
Rev: ΕTOYC IΔ YΠΑΤΟΥ IZ - Two lyres with owl perched on top.
AR/Drachm - mm. 20,23 - gr 3,78 - die axis 6 - Rome (for Lycian League) 95 a.D.
FlaviusDomitianus
RPC_II_1504_Domitianus.jpg
RPC II 1504 Domitianus14 viewsObv: AYT KAIC ΔOMITIANOC CEBACTOC ΓEPM - Laureate head right
Rev: ETOYC IΔ YPATOY I Z - Caduceus between two lyres.
AR/Drachm - mm 20,50 - gr 2,96 - die axis 6 - 95 a.D. Rome (For Lycian League)
FlaviusDomitianus
RRC422-1.jpg
RRC422/1 (M. Aemilius Scaurus, P. Plautius Hypsaeus)89 viewsObv. King Aretas of Nabatea kneeling beside camel, raising olive branche with fillet; M SCAVR(VS) | AED CVR above, [E]X – SC at sides; [R]EX ARETAS in exergue
Rev. Jupiter in quadriga left, reins in right, hurling thunderbolt with left, horses trampling scorpion; P HYPSAEVS | AED CV(R) above, CAPTV[M] on right, C HYPSAE COS | PREIVER(NVM) in exergue
18 mm, 3.80 grams
Rome, 58 B.C.

Allusions: Scaurus refers to his own deed on the obverse, the first time a Roman dared to do so on a coin. In 62 B.C., he had defeated Haritha (Aretha) III of Nabatea, who was marching on Jerusalem, to help the rightful king John Hyrcanus II. Scaurus, a lieutenant of Pompey's, was bribed by Aristoboulos with 400 talents, then took another 300 from Aretas to spare the Nabetean capital of Petra (Josephus, BJ I.127, Ant. Jud. 14.2, 14.5). His colleague chose a more distant motive: C. Plautius Decianus had captured the Volscian city of Privernum (Piperno) in 329 B.C. Any direct relations between Hypsaeus and Decianus are most likely invented, however.

Moneyers: The moneyers of this coin were not the IIIViri Monetales, but the Curule Aediles of 58 B.C., M. Aemilius Scaurus and P. Plautius Hypsaeus. Both were Pompeian supporters ultimately dropped by their patron in 52 B.C. M. Scaurus, stepsone of Sulla, who had already battled in Judaea and Nabatea (where his massacred are mentioned in the Dead Sea Scrolls) would rise to be praetor in 56 B.C. and propraetor of Sardinia the following year. Accused of extortion, he was defended by Cicero and aquitted, only to be exiled on the charge of ambitus in 52. B.C. He was also the first major Roman collector of engraved gemstones, put together in a dactyliotheca exceeding even that of Mithridates of Pontus (Pliny, NH 37.5.11). Less is known about his colleague during his aedileship. P. Plautius Hypsaeus rose to the praetorship in 55 B.C. but was tried for bribery in 52 B.C. whilst standing for consul. He convicted and fled into exile.

On this issue: M. Aemilius Scaurus' aedileship is known and can be securely dated. It became famous for the unparalleled lavishness of its games. These included the construction of an artificial lake to show off crocodiles and hippopotamuses; Scaurus also brought a huge skeleton from Joppa, believed to be the monster to which Andromeda was to be sacrificed (Pliny NH 9.4.11). He also had a temporary theatre capable of holding 80,000 spectators built, standing for just one month, and adorned with all kinds of luxuries (Pliny, NH 36.2.5; 36.24.113ss). After the games, he had the huge marble columns transferred to his house, for which the sewer contractors demanded a hefty security fee, in case their weight caused the drains to cave in (ibid. 36.2.6). According to Pliny, the remains of the theatre alone were worth 30 million sesterces (or 7,500,000 denarii).
Syltorian
IMG_9265.JPG
Sparta11 viewsACHAIA, Achaian League. Lakedaimon (Sparta). Circa 85 BC. AR Hemidrachm (15mm, 2.32 g, 8h). Laureate head of Zeus right / Achaian League monogram; monogram above, piloi of the Dioskouroi flanking, ΠY below; all within laurel wreath. Benner 15; BCD Peloponnesos 865.1; HGC 5, 643. Good VF, tone, slightly off center. Good metal.

From the J. Cohen Collection.

A note from the previous collector:

This collection of Peloponnesian coins was born from my personal interest in ancient Greek history and inspired primarily by the BCD sales. The collection was formed as a study of the varying coinage types produced through the ruling cycles of the Peloponnese. Initial focus of the collection was on Sparta, the coinage produced under Roman rule and issues produced bearing the iconography of the Achaean League. Given the less than amicable relationship between the League and Sparta, this area proved highly interesting to collect. The initial phase of collecting Sparta/Lacedaemon pieces set the groundwork for the evolution of the collection.

The collection was then expanded to Sparta's immediate neighbor in Messene and then to the entire Peloponnese. As I moved through the wider Peloponnesian regions I aimed, where possible, to collect an example of Achaean League coinage of the respective City States, examples of the Greek Imperial coinage and finally, Roman Provincial coinage. The goal being to develop a snapshot of the evolution of coins issued within the Peloponnese. Collecting in this way allowed for a timeline of both political and artistic change throughout the Peloponnese to be mapped out. The uniform coinage, both in silver and bronze of the Achaean league can be compared against the unique iconography of the corresponding Imperial issues and the later, highly stylized Roman issues. From a historical perspective, the evolution and membership of the League as well as the wars within the region can also be viewed through the issuing of coinage.

Numismatically, the primary goals of this collection have been broadly achieved by focusing on the smaller issues of the City States within the Peloponnese, no large silver issues beyond the enigmatic Tetradrachms have representation within the collection. The product of my labors is what I believe to be a highly diverse, interesting and accessible group of coins which provides an insight into one of the most interesting periods and regions of the Ancient world.
ecoli
LOUIS_XIV_AE__NEC_PACE_MINOR.JPG
Struck c.1699, LOUIS XIV (1643 – 1715), AE (Brass) Jeton5 viewsObverse: LVDOVICVS•MAGNVS•REX•. Head of Louis XIV facing right; T•B in small letters below head.
Reverse: NEC•PACE•MINOR•. Hercules standing facing, head left, leaning on club in his left hand and holding cloak at his hip with his right; in exergue, crossed palms.

Struck at unidentified mint, possibly Caen, France
Die engraver: Thomas Bernard
Dimensions: 26.5mm | Weight: 5.1gms | Die Axis: 6
Ref. Feuardent: 12788

Thomas Bernard entered the King's service while still young and from 1685 to 1688 famously engraved dies to produce a history of Louis XIV in gold medallions. He was Engraver General at the Caen mint between 1693 and 1703.

This jeton was struck under the authority of the “Extraordinaire des Guerres” in commemoration of the signing of the “Peace of Rijswijk” on the 20th of September 1697. This treaty settled the War of the League of Augsburg (Nine Years' War), which had seen France pitted against the Grand Alliance of England, Spain, the Holy Roman Empire and the United Provinces.

Louis XIV was unusual by taking particular pleasure from having a large collection of coins and medals, claiming that he used his coins to instruct himself in classical history. He enjoyed his coin collection so much that, at Versailles, he had his cabinet of coins and medals placed where visitors passed every day, between the grand staircase and his apartments, so that he could see them and show them off.
*Alex
V1236.JPG
Taras, Calabria47 views334-302 BC
AR Diobol (12mm, 1.06g)
O: Head of Athena left, wearing crested Attic helmet decorated with Skylla.
R: Herakles standing right, strangling the Nemean lion.
Vlasto 1236; Cote 248; SNG Cop 994; McGill II, 148; SNG ANS 1359; HN Italy 914
From the Colin E. Pitchfork collection. ex CNG

The image of Herakles wrestling the Nemean lion on this series was inspired by the coinage of Herakleia, a Tarentine colony in Lucania and the headquarters of the Italiote League during the first half of the 4th century BC.
After the conquest of Herakleia by the Massapians in 356 leadership of the League was transferred to Taras, who began minting these diobols as a federal issue. It became almost as ubiquitous as the dolphin rider type, circulating as small change throughout southern Italy.
1 commentsEnodia
Thasos_tet.JPG
Thasos, Thrace134 viewsafter 148 BC
AR Tetradrachm (33mm, 16.86g)
O: Head of young Dionysus right, wreathed in ivy and flowers.
R: Herakles standing nude left, holding club and lion's skin; ΣΩTHPOΣ left, HPAKΛOYΣ right, ΘAΣIΩN in ex.
SNG Cop 1040; Sear 1759

Inhabited since prehistoric times, the island of Thasos is said to be the mythological home of the Sirens.
Phoenician traders occupied Thasos by the late ninth century BC, drawn by her prolific gold mines. A hundred years later Greek colonists from Paros settled on the island and prospered from Thasos’ gold and marble production, as well as her fertile vineyards. Thasian wine was renowned throughout the Mediterranean, for which they honored Dionysus on their coinage.
A brush with the Persian army under King Darius at the beginning of the fifth century caused Thasos to increase her production of war ships, and after the defeat of Xerxes in 480 BC Thasos joined the Delian League. However a dispute with Athens over mining interests on the Thracian mainland led Thasos to revolt in 465 BC, only to submit after the Athenians destroyed her ships and razed the city walls.
The island was occupied by Sparta from 404 until 393 BC, when Thasos fell to Athens, who eventually granted her independence. Thasos then came under the control of Phillip II of Macedonia around 340 BC, who immediately seized the gold mines. Thasos remained a part of the Macedonian Empire until falling under Roman rule in 197 BC.
4 commentsEnodia
heraclius_imm.jpg
The Earl Caliphate Cyprus Imitation (638-ca.645)82 viewsObv: Three imperial figures standing wearing chlamys and crown with cross, holding long cross. over struck on coin with legand to rt.
Reverse: Large M, A (retrograde N's) O to left, A below,
6.77gm, 27/16 mm

This is the second of two main series struck as a imitative coinage usually derived from coins of Foca, Heraclius and Constans II. They do not employ a dating system and the officina and date they do have are considered meaning less at this time. Clive Foss from in "Arab -Byzantine coins" reports that a analyses by Pottier and colleagues concluded that they do correspond to a Byzantine standard and the most probable date of them was from 638-643. They are therefore considered some of the first identifiable Arab_Byzantine coins under the governorship of Mu'awiya.

1 commentswileyc
e489_1_b.jpg
THESSALIAN LEAGUE95 viewsThessalian League, 196-146 BC, bronze of 16.5 mm, 4.47 grams. Probably struck at Larissa. Obverse: Helmeted head of Athena to right. Reverse: Horse trotting right, city name in Greek. Reference: Sear I-2235.
dpaul7
a30.jpg
Thessalian League25 views196-146 B.C.
AE 7.19 gm, 20 mm.
Obv: Laureate head of Apollo right
Rev: Athena Itonia standing right, with shield & about to hurl spear
ΘEΣΣA - ΛΩN to sides, magistrate's name above
Sear vol. 1, p.213, 2237; B.M.C. 7, p.5, 50,51
Jaimelai
039.JPG
Thessalian League39 views196-146 B.C.
AE 7.20 gm, 19 mm
Obv: Laureate head of Apollo right
Rev: Athena Itonia standing right, with shield & about to hurl spear
ΘEΣΣA - ΛΩN to sides, magistrate's name above
Sear 2237; B.M.C. 7, p.5, 50,51
2 commentsJaimelai
009_(3).JPG
Thessalian League31 views196-146 B.C.
AE 6.08 gm, 20 mm
Obv: Laureate head of Apollo right
Rev: Athena Itonia standing right, with shield and
about to hurl spear
ΘEΣΣA - ΛΩN to sides, A monogram to left
magistrate's name above
Sear 2237
B.M.C. 7, p.5, 50,51
1 commentsJaimelai
446048779.JPG
Thessalian League40 views196-146 B.C.
AE 6.53 gm, 19 mm
Obv: Laureate head of Apollo right
Rev: Athena Itonia standing right, with shield and about to hurl spear
ΘEΣΣA - ΛΩN to sides, monogram to right
Sear 2237; B.M.C. 7, p.5, 50,51
1 commentsJaimelai
017.JPG
Thessalian League40 views196-146 B.C.
Bronze Half Unit
AE 2.87 gm, 14 mm
Obv: Laureate head of Apollo right
Rev: Athena Itonia standing right, with shield on left arm and about to hurl spear with right
ΘEΣΣA - ΛΩN to sides, magistrate's name above spear IΠΠ-[AIT]
BMC Thessaly p.5, 58; SNG Cop 320

Same or similar dies as CNG Auction 97, Lot 37
1 commentsJaimelai
Thessalian_drachm.jpg
Thessalian League81 views196-146 B.C.
Silver Drachm
4.15 gm, 18.5 mm
Obv: Laureate head of Apollo right, ΓAYANA (magistrate) behind
Rev: Athena Itonia standing right, with shield and about to hurl spear, ΘEΣΣA - ΛΩN to sides, bunch of grapes on vine right, Π-O / Λ-Y (magistrate) across lower fields
Sear 2234 var.; BMC Thessaly p.4, 36-37; (SNG Cop 300)
5 commentsJaimelai
Thessalian_stater_50_2.jpg
Thessalian League28 views196-146 B.C.
Silver Stater (Double Victoriatus)
5.45 gm, 23 mm
Obv: Head of Zeus right wearing oak wreath, [EΠI ANΔPO] ΣΘENOYΣ (struck under Strategos Androsthenes) to left
Rev: Athena Itonia striding right, hurling spear held in her right hand with shield on her left arm, AΡ-IΣ above spear, ΘEΣΣA - ΛΩN to sides; TO/HΣ-KΛ (Aristokles magistrate) across center field
BMC Thessaly II, 837.3;
Sear 2231 var.;
BMC 7, 1-35 var.;
[SNG Copenhagen 280; McClean 4862]
Jaimelai
rjb_2016_01_02.jpg
Thessalian League10 viewsAR hemiobol
c.470-460 BC
O - Head of horse right
R - ΦEΘA, club in incuse square
BCD 21.2-3
mauseus
thessalian_league_k.jpg
Thessalian League3 viewsÆ Trichalkon, 20mm, 5.3g, 12h; Second half of 2nd Century BC
Obv.: Laureate head of Apollo right.
Rev.: ΘEΣΣA / ΛΩN, Athena Itonia striding right, hurling spear held in her right hand, shield on her left arm; ΘΡA in right field above, owl in left.
Reference: Rogers 20; jwt.
John Anthony
Thessalian_league.jpg
Thessalian League - AE 20 (trichalkon)40 viewsc. 150-100 BC
head of Apollo right
Athena Itonia right throwing spear holding shield
ΘEΣΣA / ΛΩN
ΦIΛOK
A / Σ _ OP
(ΓA)
Rogers 21; Sear #2238; Lindgren II 1413
6,68g 20-18 mm
Johny SYSEL
Thessalian_League_2.PNG
Thessalian League 196-146 BC 2 viewsThessalian League 196-146 BC

Obverse. Head of Apollo right

Reverse. Athena Itonia advancing right, brandishing spear and holding shield

18mm
Macedonian Warrior
unknwngrk1_.jpg
Thessalian League AE 9 viewsThessaly , AE bronze, 199-146 BC. Apollo right. Reverse Athena standing right , brandishing a spear and holding a shield. Attributed by Forvm member.Banjaxed
75FA6AD6-1BFA-4304-A0A2-754ECC025DE3.jpeg
THESSALIAN LEAGUE AR Drachm. VF+. Apollo - Athena Itonia.43 viewsObverse: Laureate head of Apollo to right; to left, monogram of ΛΕΥ.
Reverse: ΘΕΣΣΑ / ΛΩΝ. Athena Itonia striding right, hurling spear with her right hand and extending shield in her left; in field to left and right, Α-Ν.

Very nice thessalian drachm, in VF+ condition.

BMC 41, SNG Munich 212. Thessalian mint, Second half 2nd century BC. 4,1 g - 19 mm
2 commentsMark R1
Thessalonian_Stater.jpg
Thessalian League Stater -- 196-146 BC45 views6.13 g, 23 mm, 330°
Minted in Thessaly (Likely Larisssa)
Silver Stater
During the Time of the Strategoi Simios and the Magistrate Pole-
BCD Thessaly II 822 (Same Dies)

Obverse: Head of Zeus Wearing Laurel Wreath Right; ΣΙΜΙΟΥ to left.
Reverse: Athena Itonia Right, Star to Upper Right; Π-Ο/Λ-Ε Across Central Field; ΘΕΣΣΑ-ΛΩΝ at Sides.

The land of Thessaly is ancient and was known as Aeolia during Mycenaean times. In mythology, the great heroes Achilles and Jason are said to be from Thessaly as are the centaurs, Lapiths, and Myrmidons. Philip II was appointed Archon of Thessaly and the land was afterwords closely associated with Macedonia. Following the Roman victory in the Second Macedonian War (197 BC), all of Greece was declared "free". The Thessalian League, a loose connection of Thessalian poleis, was revived and a federal council, the synedrion, was created which annually changed officers. The seat of the league was in the largest Thessalian city, Larissa. The League continued to exist even after Thessaly became part of the new Roman province of Macedonia in 146 BCE. The names appearing on these issues are of the Strategoi of the League (Obverse) and Magistrates (Reverse).
2 commentsHydro
Zeus_Athena_S1obrv~0.jpg
Thessalian League Zeus / Athena, Silver Stater84 views
Zeus / Athena AR Stater
Thessaly / Thessalian League
Date: 196-146 BC.

Obverse: Bearded Head of Zeus*, Crowned with Oak-wreath, Facing Right.
Reverse: Thessalian Athena* Itonia (Paus. x. 1. 10) in fighting attitude, Standing Right, Brandishing Spear in Right Hand, Holding Shield on Left Arm.

Weight: 6.1 gms.
Size: 22mm.

* Olympian

2 commentsTiathena
Thessalian_League.jpg
THESSALIAN LEAGUE, AR Drachm, BMC 36, Apollo14 viewsObv: Laureate head of Apollo right, ΓAYANA (magistrate) behind
Rev: Athena Itonia standing right, with shield and about to hurl spear, ΘEΣΣA - ΛΩN to sides, bunch of grapes on vine right, Π-O / Λ-Y (magistrate) across lower fields
4.0g, 16 mm

Struck at Larissa 196-146 BC
Legatus
thessal_liga_SNGcop291.jpg
Thessalian League, BMC 2116 viewsThessalian League, 196-27 BC
AR – Stater, 5.79g, 24.83mm, 0°
struck under strategoi Polyxenos nd Eukolos, c. 44-40 BC
obv. Head of Zeus of Dodona with oak-wreath r.
rev. l. and r. QESSA - LWN
Athena Itonia, in long girded double chiton with Aegis on breast, helmeted, stg. r., holding with l. hand shield horizontally upwards and in raised r. hand spear ready for thrust
above spear [P]OLY – ZEN[OY]
in ex. EVKOLO[S]
ref. SNG Copenhagen 291; BMC Thessaly 21; BCD 878.1
VF, toned
Jochen
4227_4228.jpg
Thessalian League, Thessaly, Dichalkon, ΘΕΣ-ΣΑΛΩΝ9 viewsAE Dichalkon
Greek Provincial
Thessalian League, Thessaly
Magistrate Mnesimachos
Issued: Late 2nd to Mid 1st Centuries BC
18.0mm
O: NO LEGEND; Head of Athena, right, in crested Corinthian helmet.
R: ΘΕΣ-ΣΑΛΩΝ; Horse trotting, right; grain of ear standing upright in right field.
Exergue: Obverse: MNH, above helmet.
BCD Thessaly II 904.3
The Time Machine
ANA Show Rosemont, IL 2013 4/30/17
Nicholas Z
o_017.JPG
Thessalian League, Thessaly, Greece, c. 196 - 27 B.C.65 viewsThessalian League, Thessaly, Greece, c. 196 - 27 B.C.

Bronze AE 18, BMC Thessaly p. 5, 62 - 63; SNG Cop 324 - 328?? , Thessaly mint, IPP[A]/TAS, helmeted head of Athena right; reverse QES-S-LWN, horse trotting right

new photo
1 commentsRandygeki(h2)
19785.jpg
Thessalian League, Thessaly; Domitian9 viewsThessaly, Thessalian League. Domitian, with Domitia. A.D. 81-96. Æ diassarion (19 mm, 5.37 g, 6 h). ΔOMITIANON KAICAPA ΘECCAΛOI, laureate head of Domitian right; star before neck / ΔOMITIAN CEBAΣTHN, draped bust of Domitia right. Burrer emission 2, 53 (A16/R43?); BCD Thessaly II 947; cf. Rogers 89 (direction of legends); RPC 284. Fine, green patina.

The types of the Thessalian League bronzes of Domitian with Domitia come in several minor varieties: with and without a star in the obverse right field, the direction of the legend, and the form of the Greek letter sigma (Σ, lunate C, angular C). This coin has the star in the obverse field, the normal left-to-right direction of the legend, and angular Cs with the exception of the second sigma in Domitia's titlature, where it appears as a normal Σ. Unless it has been tooled, which it does not appear to have been, then this is a new variety of this type (or perhaps better described as an error of an old variety). Unfortunately the reverse die photographed in Burrer, R43, is too poorly preserved to shed any light on this legend anomaly.
ecoli
confed__thess_.jpg
Thessalian League.8 views19 mm, 7,2 g.
Laureate head of Apollo right.
Athena Itonia advancing right, brandishing javelin & holding shield.
SNG cop 313
xokleng
ThessalianLeague_BCD-ThessalyII-870.jpg
Thessalian League.14 viewsThessaly, Larissa. Thessalian League. Mid-first C. BC. AR Double Victoriatus (6.04 gm). Head of Zeus r. crowned with oak wreath. / Athena Itonia advancing r., brandishing spear & shield. ΘΕΣΣΑ-ΛΩΝ to l. & r. Magistrates ΔΑ-ΜΟΘΟΙ & ΦΙΛΟΞΕΝΙ (Damothoinos & Philoxenides) above & below. gVF. ex-CNG. BCD Thessaly II 870.3-.4; BMC Thessaly 7 13, 14; HGC 4 #210; McClean 4746; SNG Ashmolean 3790; SNG Cop -.Christian T
ThessalianLeague_Larissa_BCD-ThessalyII-818.jpg
Thessalian League.13 viewsThessaly, Larissa Thessalian League. 196-146 BC. AR Drachm, Attic standard (gm). Laureate head of Apollo r., EY monogram (magistrate EU..) behind. / Athena Itonia advancing right, brandishing spear and shield. ΘΕΣΣΑ-ΛΩΝ to l. and r., ΠΟΛΥ in fields (magistrate Poly..). gVF. BCD Thessaly II 818; HGC 4 #213 (S); Hunterian 13. cf BMC 7. 38 or 40; SNG Cop 300.Christian T
Clipboard11~0.jpg
Thessalian League. Augustus. 27 BC-AD 14. AE20. Sosandros Sosandrou, magistrate.24 viewsAE20, 9.0gm. Sosandrou Sosandros , magistrate.
Bare head right / Athena standing left, holding Nike and resting hand on shield; spear resting against her arm; monogram in left field. Rare. Rogers 69. RPC 1425 var.
ancientone
Thessalian_League_Mid-late_2nd_century_AR_drachm.jpg
Thessalian League. Zo– and Poly–, magistrates. 4 viewsAR Drachm
17mm, 3.88 grams
Mid-late 2nd century BC
Laureate head of Apollo right; monogram to left
ΘEΣΣA ΛΩN, Athena Itonia right; Π-O/Λ-Y across central field.
BCD Thessaly II 817 (same dies)
jaseifert
Thessstater.jpg
Thessalian League: AR Stater, 196 - 146 bc69 views22 mm 6.69 gm

Obv. Head. of Zeus right, crowned with oak wreath

Rev. Athena Itonia, right.

Theta epsilon Sigma Sigma Alpha Lambda Omega Nu in left and right fields

Theta Rho Alpha Sigma Upsilon Lambda Omicron Sigma above

Monogram far right
Sear G2232v: BMC 7, 9
4 commentsCGPCGP
thessa_league_athena_horse.jpg
Thessalian League; AE17; Athena/ horse trotting, right, ΘΕΣ ΣΑΛΩΝ16 viewsThessaly, Thessalian Confederacy, 200-100 B.C. Bronze. 4,7g. 17mm. Obv. ΝΥΣ-ΣΑΝ-ΔΡΟΥ, Head of Athena, right. Rev.: horse trotting, right, ΘΕΣ ΣΑΛΩΝ. SNG Copenhagen 324; Rogers p23, 45v (corn); Winterthur 1740. Podiceps
thessal_L_itonia.jpg
Thessalian League; AE20; Apollo/ Athena Itonia, right, ΘΕΣΣΑΛΩΝ15 viewsThessaly, Thessalian Confederacy, 196 - First Century B.C. Bronze. 7g. 20mm. Obv. Apollo, right. Rev.: Athena Itonia, right, ΘΕΣΣΑΛΩΝ. Sng. Cop.: 313. Podiceps
42830_Tiberius_Thessalian_League.jpg
Thessalian League; Athena standing r.9 viewsTiberius, 19 August 14 - 16 March 37 A.D., Thessalian League. Bronze AE 21, RPC I 1435, gF, Thessalian mint, 7.092g, 24.2mm, 270o, obverse “ΘΕΣΣΑΛΟΩΝ ΣΕΒΑΣΤΗΩΝ”, bare head of Tiberius left; reverse “ΣΤΡΑΤΗΓΟΥ ΑΝΤΙΓΟΝΟΥ”, Athena standing right, spear in right, shield in left, monogram in right field; patina flaking in some spots. Ex FORVM, photo credit FORVMPodiceps
n4.jpg
Thessaly43 viewsThessalian League 196-27 BC
Drachm 44-40 BC

Obverse:Laureate head of Apollo right;ΓΛΥΑΝΑ magistrates name behind
Reverse:ΘΕΣΣΑΛΩΝ to sides;Athena Itonia advancing right holding shield and brandishing spear;ΠΟΛΥ magistrates name to sides

17.50mm 3.89gm

BMC Thessally page 4 - 36; SNG Cop 300
maik
n3.jpg
Thessaly 73 viewsThessalian League 196-27 BC
Silver Stater

Obverse:Laureate head of Zeus right
Reverse:ΘΕΣΣΑΛΩΝ ;Athena advancing right,bearing raised spear and shield

21.91mm 6.17gm

Sear 2233
3 commentsmaik
45y64_118.JPG
Thessaly - Thessalian Confederacy 196-146BC AE15mm (4.2). 45 viewsObverse: Helmeted head of Athena right
Reverse: QES-SALWN above and below bridled horse trotting right. 3320

History of Thessalian League
The Thessalian League/confederacy was made up of several cities in the Thessalian valley in Northern Greece. This area was completely surrounded by mountains and isolated except for a few passes. It was one of the few areas of Greece self-sufficient in grain and produced livestock and horses. Thessaly had the best calvary in Greece. The league was frequently weakened by intercity rivalries and lost its strength in the 5th century BC. The league was re-established in 374 BC by the tyrant Jason. He was assassinated in 370 BC, when it became evident that he had plans of conquest against the rest of Greece. After the death of Jason, there was infighting in the league and some of the cities requested help from Philip II of Macedon to settle the rivalries, which he accomplished in 353 BC. A few years later (344 BC), Philip II simply took control of the entire area. Thessaly remained under Macedonian control until Macedonia was defeated by the Romans in 197 BC. A new league was established in 196 BC. The league continued until 146 BC, then became part of the Roman province of Macedonia.
1 commentsAntonivs Protti
45y64_063.JPG
Thessaly - Thessalian Confederacy 196-146BC AE21mm, (6.9g).26 viewsHead of Apollo, laureate, right /
QESSA-LON, Thessalian Pallas Itonia advancing right, hurling javelin and holding shield. 1356 sold

History of Thessalian League
The Thessalian League/confederacy was made up of several cities in the Thessalian valley in Northern Greece. This area was completely surrounded by mountains and isolated except for a few passes. It was one of the few areas of Greece self-sufficient in grain and produced livestock and horses. Thessaly had the best calvary in Greece. The league was frequently weakened by intercity rivalries and lost its strength in the 5th century BC. The league was re-established in 374 BC by the tyrant Jason. He was assassinated in 370 BC, when it became evident that he had plans of conquest against the rest of Greece. After the death of Jason, there was infighting in the league and some of the cities requested help from Philip II of Macedon to settle the rivalries, which he accomplished in 353 BC. A few years later (344 BC), Philip II simply took control of the entire area. Thessaly remained under Macedonian control until Macedonia was defeated by the Romans in 197 BC. A new league was established in 196 BC. The league continued until 146 BC, then became part of the Roman province of Macedonia.
2 commentsAntonivs Protti
thessalyapollo1.JPG
Thessaly Apollo Athena c. 196-146 B.C.12 viewsThessalian League, AE Trichalkon, 23mm, 7.1 grams Thessaly, 196-146 B.C.
Obv: Laureate head of Apollo right.
Rev: QESSA/ΛΩN. Athena Itonia holding shield, hurling spear.
Ref: Sear 2237-8, BMC 49 var.
mjabrial
Thessaly,_Thessalian_League.jpg
THESSALY THESSALIAN LEAGUE ATHENA HELMET HORSE TROTTING BRONZE. 12 viewsLate 2nd – mid 1st century BC. 17 mm / 4,1 g.
Obverse: Helmeted head of Athena right;
Reverse: TES/S/ALO-N, horse trotting right. _1235
Antonivs Protti
peuma_Rogers442.jpg
Thessaly, Peuma, Rogers 442 var.16 viewsThessaly, Peuma, c.302-286 BC
AE - Chalkis, 1.93g, 13.39mm, 0°
obv. laureate head of Achilles r.
rev. PEY - MA - TIWN
monogram AX, at his r. side Phrygian helmet
ref. Rogers 442 var. (position of the rev. legend); BCD Thessaly 565; RBN 1967, pp. 1-9, 1-4;
Moustaka 154
very rare, about VF, black-brown patina

Peuma (Rogers always writes Peumata!) has issued a great number of these small bronzes, where the legend starts at different places. The obv. dies too are numerous. The rarer variant shows no Phrygian helmet.

Heyman has done a remarkable amount of work on the identification of the head on the obverse. Sometimes the head is termed as Nymph (so Head), some thinking it could be Thetis, but the hairstyle seems definitely masculine. Since Achilles was venerated in this area, he is the likely candidate. This opinion was adopted by BCD too. Thus AX here could be the monogram for Achilles, not for the Achaean League (so Head). This monogram bears e.g. a rare coin of Achilleion/Troas, which was not member of the Achaean League.
Jochen
thess_lea_2X.jpg
THESSALY, THESSALEAN LEAGUE21 views196-146 BC
AE 18.5 mm,7.36 g
O: Laureate Head of Apollo, R
R: ΘΕΣΣΑ/ΛΩΝ Athena Itonia Standing R, Brandishing Spear and Holding Shield
laney
c32.jpg
Thessaly, Thessalian 31 viewsTHESSALY - THESSALIAN LEAGUE - AE - HEAD OF APOLLO - ATHENA HURLING SPEAR - MAGISTRATE: HIPPOLOCHOS
Obv.: Laureate head of Apollo right
Rev.: QECCA /LWN /IPP-OLO; Athena standing right, holding shield, hurling spear

ecoli
normal_thessa_1~1.jpg
THESSALY, THESSALIAN LEAGUE15 views196-146 BC
AE 17.5 mm; 5.5 g
O: Laureate head of Apollo, right
R: ΘΕΣΣΑ/ΛΩΝ Athena Itonia standing right, brandishing spear and holding shield; ΦI-ΛOK above spear, _P/monogram in inner right field.
cf. Rogers 30.
laney
thessa_1.jpg
THESSALY, THESSALIAN LEAGUE55 views196-146 BC
AE 17.5 mm; 5.5 g
O: Laureate head of Apollo, right
R: ΘΕΣΣΑ/ΛΩΝ Athena Itonia standing right, brandishing spear and holding shield; ΦI-ΛOK above spear, _P/monogram in inner right field.
cf. Rogers 30.
1 commentslaney
thes_keag010815.jpg
THESSALY, THESSALIAN LEAGUE15 views196 - 27 BC
AE 14 mm 3.55 g
THESSALIAN LEAGUE
O: APOLLO, LAUR HEAD R
R: ΘΕΣΣΑ/ΛΩΝ ATHENA ITONIA ADV R WIELDING SPEAR & HLDG SHIELD
laney
rogers52comb.jpg
THESSALY, THESSALIAN LEAGUE55 views16mm 4.61g
O: Laureate head Zeus to right.
R: QESSA / LWN Athena Itonia to right
ROGERS 52
laney
rog52B.jpg
THESSALY, THESSALIAN LEAGUE46 views17 mm 4.39 g
Laureate head Zeus right
R: Athena Itonia right
Rogers 52
laney
thes_athena_horse_#2Bresized.jpg
THESSALY, THESSALIAN LEAGUE50 viewsAE 18X20mm 6.24 g
THESSALIAN LEAGUE 196 BCE - 146 BCE
O: HEAD OF ATHENA ITONIA WEARING CRESTED HELMET R, LETTERS ABOVE HELMET
R: QES -SALWN HORSE PRANCING R
laney
thes_league_1resized.jpg
THESSALY, THESSALIAN LEAGUE 98 viewsAE 21 mm 8.31 g
196 - 146 BCE
THESSALIAN LEAGUE
O: APOLLO, LAUR HEAD R
R: ATHENA ITONIA ADV R WIELDING SPEAR & HLDG SHIELD;
QESSA TO L, LWN TO R, OWL ABOVE SPEAR AT R; SIA ABOVE SPEAR AT LEFT

3 commentslaney
thes_athena_horse_#1_cro_roundresized~0.jpg
THESSALY, THESSALIAN LEAGUE45 viewsAE 18mm 5.73 g
THESSALIAN LEAGUE 196 BCE - 146 BCE
O: HEAD OF ATHENA ITONIA WEARING CRESTED HELMET R, NYS AT TOP OF HELMET
R: ThES-SALWN HORSE PRANCING R
laney
thes_league_02_20_1.jpg
THESSALY, THESSALIAN LEAGUE48 viewsAE 19mm 7.07 g
196 - 146 BC
THESSALIAN LEAGUE
O: APOLLO, LAUR HEAD R, T/M - I/A
R: ATHENA ITONIA ADV R WIELDING SPEAR & HLDG SHIELD;
QESSA TO L, LWN TO R

(jr)
laney
thess_leag_red.jpg
THESSALY, THESSALIAN LEAGUE24 views196-146 BCAE 17.5 mm, 4.6 g
O: Laureate Head of Apollo, R
R: Athena Itonia Standing R, Brandishing Spear and Holding Shield, QESSA-LWN vertically, at sides;
laney
thes_ath_horse.jpg
THESSALY, THESSALIAN LEAGUE47 viewsca. 199 - 146 BC
AE 17 mm 4.36 g
O: HELMETED HEAD OF ATHENA RIGHT (magistrate's name on obv., including portions comprising the crest of the helmet)
R: ΘΕΣ−Σ−ΛΩΝ, bridled horse trotting right
BMC Thessaly p. 5, 62 - 63; SNG Cop 324 - 328 var (various magistrates on obv)
1 commentslaney
thes_lea_1X.jpg
THESSALY, THESSALIAN LEAGUE52 views196-146 BC
AE 20 mm, 6.61 g
O: Laureate Head of Apollo, R
R: Athena Itonia Standing R, Brandishing Spear and Holding Shield, QESSA-LWN vertically, at sides
1 commentslaney
thes_leag2res.jpg
THESSALY, THESSALIAN LEAGUE30 views196 - 27 BC
AE 17 mm 4.25 g
THESSALIAN LEAGUE
O: APOLLO, LAUR HEAD R
R: ATHENA ITONIA ADV R WIELDING SPEAR & HLDG SHIELD;
QESSA TO L, LWN TO R
laney
thes_leag_1res.jpg
THESSALY, THESSALIAN LEAGUE22 views196 - 27 BC
AE 18 mm max. 4.30 g
THESSALIAN LEAGUE
O: APOLLO, LAUR HEAD R, T/M - I/A
R: ATHENA ITONIA ADV R WIELDING SPEAR & HLDG SHIELD;
QESSA TO L, LWN TO R
laney
thes_leag5res.jpg
THESSALY, THESSALIAN LEAGUE19 views196 - 27 BC
AE 13.5 mm 2.75 g
THESSALIAN LEAGUE
O: APOLLO, LAUR HEAD R
R: ΘΕΣΣΑ/ΛΩΝ, ATHENA ITONIA ADV R WIELDING SPEAR & HLDG SHIELD;
laney
thes_leag4res.jpg
THESSALY, THESSALIAN LEAGUE22 views196 - 27 BC
AE 14 mm 3.55 g
THESSALIAN LEAGUE
O: APOLLO, LAUR HEAD R
R: ΘΕΣΣΑ/ΛΩΝ ATHENA ITONIA ADV R WIELDING SPEAR & HLDG SHIELD;
laney
thes_leag3res.jpg
THESSALY, THESSALIAN LEAGUE20 views196 - 27 BC
AE 14 mm 4.18 g
THESSALIAN LEAGUE
O: APOLLO, LAUR HEAD R, T/M - I/A
R: ΘΕΣΣΑ/ΛΩΝ ATHENA ITONIA ADV R WIELDING SPEAR & HLDG SHIELD;
laney
THESS_LEA_5_BLK.jpg
THESSALY, THESSALIAN LEAGUE22 views196-146 BC
AE 19 mm, 7.94 g
O: Laureate Head of Apollo, R
R: Athena Itonia Standing R, Brandishing Spear and Holding Shield, QESSA-LWN vertically, at sides;
laney
thess_lea_3.jpg
THESSALY, THESSALIAN LEAGUE22 views196-146 BC
AE 16 mm, 4.44 g
O: Laureate Head of Apollo, R
R: Athena Itonia Standing R, Brandishing Spear and Holding Shield, QESSA-LWN vertically, at sides;
laney
thess_leag_3010715res.jpg
THESSALY, THESSALIAN LEAGUE20 views196-146 BC
AE 16 mm, 4.44 g
O: Laureate Head of Apollo, R
R: Athena Itonia Standing R, Brandishing Spear and Holding Shield, QESSA-LWN vertically, at sides
laney
Thessalian_League_1.PNG
Thessaly, Thessalian League4 viewsThessaly, Thessalian League 196-146 BC

Obverse:Head of Pallas Athene right

Reverse: Horse trotting right,

16mm 3.36g
Macedonian Warrior
thes_leag_ap_0923_5res.jpg
THESSALY, THESSALIAN LEAGUE22 viewsTHESSALY, THESSALIAN LEAGUE
AE 18.5 mm; 7.36 g
O: Laureate head of Apollo right
R: ΘEΣΣA/ΛΩN, Athena Itonia striding right, hurling spear held in her right hand, shield on her left arm
laney
thes_leag_ap_0923_4_res.jpg
THESSALY, THESSALIAN LEAGUE24 views199 BC - 146 BC
THESSALIAN LEAGUE
AE 18 mm; 6.48 g
O: Laureate head of Apollo, right
R: ΘΕΣΣΑ/ΛΩΝ Athena Itonia holding shield and brandishing spear; ΦI-ΛOK above spear
Thessaly; Rogers 30 ff
laney
thes_leag_ap_0923_3_res.jpg
THESSALY, THESSALIAN LEAGUE27 views199 BC - 146 BC
THESSALIAN LEAGUE
AE 19 mm; 7.32 g
O: Laureate head of Apollo, right
R: ΘΕΣΣΑ/ΛΩΝ Athena Itonia holding shield and brandishing spear;T-I / M-A across fields; star above spear to left, owl above to right
Thessaly; cf Rogers 15 v.
laney
thes_leag_ap_0923_1_res.jpg
THESSALY, THESSALIAN LEAGUE19 views199 BC - 146 BC
THESSALIAN LEAGUE
AE 21 mm; 9.59 g
O: Laureate head of Apollo, right
R: ΘΕΣΣΑ/ΛΩΝ Athena Itonia holding shield and brandishing spear; monogram on each side of Athena
Thessaly; Rogers 18

laney
thes_leag_ap_resx_0923_2.jpg
THESSALY, THESSALIAN LEAGUE24 views199 BC - 146 BC
THESSALIAN LEAGUE
AE 18 mm; 7.71 g
O: Laureate head of Apollo, right
R: ΘΕΣΣΑ/ΛΩΝ Athena Itonia holding shield and brandishing spear; ΦI-ΛOK above spear
Thessaly; Rogers 30 ff
laney
thes_leag_ap_0923_9res.jpg
THESSALY, THESSALIAN LEAGUE24 views196 - 146 BC
AE 14.5 mm; 4.67 g
O: Laureate head of Apollo right
R: ΘEΣΣA/ΛΩN, Athena Itonia striding right, hurling spear held in her right hand, shield on her left arm; Φ-EPE above spear, grain ear in outer right field.
Rogers 41.
laney
thes_leag_ap_0923_8jpgres.jpg
THESSALY, THESSALIAN LEAGUE21 viewsca. 196-27 BC
18 mm; 5.7 g
O: Laureate head of Apollo right
R: ΘEΣΣA-ΛΩN, Athena Itonia advancing right brandishing spear and shield, ΘPA - owl perched on spear
Rogers 20
laney
thes_leag_ap_0923_6res.jpg
THESSALY, THESSALIAN LEAGUE23 views199 BC - 146 BC
THESSALIAN LEAGUE
AE 18.5 mm; 6.04 g
O: Laureate head of Apollo, right
R: ΘΕΣΣΑ/ΛΩΝ Athena Itonia holding shield and brandishing spear;T-I / M-A across fields
Rogers 42
laney
thes_le_3_9242014_res.jpg
THESSALY, THESSALIAN LEAGUE18 views199 BC - 146 BC
THESSALIAN LEAGUE
AE 19 mm; 7.4 g
O: Laureate head of Apollo, right
R: ΘΕΣΣΑ/ΛΩΝ Athena Itonia holding shield and brandishing spear; ΦI-ΛOK above spear
Thessaly; Rogers 30 ff
laney
thes_le_2_9242014_res.jpg
THESSALY, THESSALIAN LEAGUE17 views197-146 BC
AE 20 mm; 7.0 g
O:Laureate head of Apollo right
R: QESSA-LWN to sides, _VO-WN (magistrate's name) above spear, Athena Itonia advancing right holding shield & brandishing spear, tripod to right.
Sear 2237; Rogers 29
laney
thes_le_1_9242014_res.jpg
THESSALY, THESSALIAN LEAGUE20 viewsTHESSALY, THESSALIAN LEAGUE
199 BC - 146 BC
THESSALIAN LEAGUE
AE 19 mm; 5.1 g
O: Laureate head of Apollo, right
R: ΘΕΣΣΑ/ΛΩΝ Athena Itonia holding shield and brandishing spear;T-I / M-A across fields
Rogers 42
laney
thes_lea_d_09272014res.jpg
THESSALY, THESSALIAN LEAGUE17 views199 BC - 146 BC
THESSALIAN LEAGUE
AE 14.5 mm; 4.20 g
O: Laureate head of Apollo, right
R: ΘΕΣΣΑ/ΛΩΝ Athena Itonia holding shield and brandishing spear
laney
thes_lea_c_09272014res.jpg
THESSALY, THESSALIAN LEAGUE17 views199 BC - 146 BC
THESSALIAN LEAGUE
AE 19 X 21 mm; 5.38 g
O: Laureate head of Apollo, right
R: ΘΕΣΣΑ/ΛΩΝ Athena Itonia holding shield and brandishing spear;T-I / M-A across fields
Rogers 42
laney
thes_lea_b_09272014res.jpg
THESSALY, THESSALIAN LEAGUE18 views199 BC - 146 BC
THESSALIAN LEAGUE
AE 19 X 20 mm; 5.53 g
O: Laureate head of Apollo right
R: ΘEΣΣA/ΛΩN, Athena Itonia striding right, hurling spear held in her right hand, shield on her left arm; IΠΠ-OΛO above spear; below shield, owl standing right
Rogers 20a or 20b
laney
thes_lea_a_09272014res.jpg
THESSALY, THESSALIAN LEAGUE20 views199 BC - 146 BC
THESSALIAN LEAGUE
AE 17 mm; 5.36 g
O: Laureate head of Apollo, right
R: ΘΕΣΣΑ/ΛΩΝ Athena Itonia holding shield and brandishing spear;T-I / M-A across fields
Rogers 42
laney
thess_lea_010815.jpg
THESSALY, THESSALIAN LEAGUE16 views196 - 27 BC
AE 17 mm 4.25 g
THESSALIAN LEAGUE
O: APOLLO, LAUR HEAD R
R: ATHENA ITONIA ADV R WIELDING SPEAR & HLDG SHIELD;
QESSA TO L, LWN TO R
laney
normal_thes_leag5resx.jpg
THESSALY, THESSALIAN LEAGUE11 views196 - 27 BC
AE 13.5 mm 2.75 g
THESSALIAN LEAGUE
O: APOLLO, LAUR HEAD R
R: ΘΕΣΣΑ/ΛΩΝ, ATHENA ITONIA ADV R WIELDING SPEAR & HLDG SHIELD;
laney
thess_leag_w_owl01072015.jpg
THESSALY, THESSALIAN LEAGUE19 views196 - 146 BCE
AE 21 mm 8.31 g
THESSALIAN LEAGUE
O: APOLLO, LAUR HEAD R
R: ATHENA ITONIA ADV R WIELDING SPEAR & HLDG SHIELD;
QESSA TO L, LWN TO R, OWL ABOVE SPEAR AT R; SIA ABOVE SPEAR AT LEFT
laney
thes_leag_1resbk010815.jpg
THESSALY, THESSALIAN LEAGUE14 views196 - 27 BC
AE 18 mm max. 4.30 g
THESSALIAN LEAGUE
O: APOLLO, LAUR HEAD R, T/M - I/A
R: ATHENA ITONIA ADV R WIELDING SPEAR & HLDG SHIELD;
QESSA TO L, LWN TO R
laney
thess_leag_2010715.jpg
THESSALY, THESSALIAN LEAGUE14 views196 - 146 BC
AE 19mm 7.07 g
O: APOLLO, LAUR HEAD R, T/M - I/A
R: ATHENA ITONIA ADV R WIELDING SPEAR & HLDG SHIELD;
QESSA TO L, LWN TO R
laney
thes_leag_08.jpg
THESSALY, THESSALIAN LEAGUE15 views196-146 BC
AE 17 mm; 4.63 g
O: Laureate head of Apollo, right
R: Athena Itonia standing right, brandishing spear and holding shield
laney
08A3AC52-3EB5-4762-B2AE-B4A1223DC314.jpeg
Thessaly, Thessalian league7 viewsKoinon of Thessaly. AE17 mm, dichalkon. 172-171 BC. Magistrate Hippaitas. IΠΠAI-TAΣ above and beneath helmeted head of Athena right / ΘEΣ-ΣAΛΩN above and beneath horse trotting right. Rogers 44; BCD Thessaly 840.ecoli
thessalianleague.jpg
THESSALY, THESSALIAN LEAGUE 10 views199 BC - 146 BC
THESSALIAN LEAGUE
AE 19.5 mm; 7.11 g
O: Laureate head of Apollo, right
R: ΘΕΣΣΑ/ΛΩΝ Athena Itonia holding shield and brandishing spear;
Thessaly
laney
thes_lea_2_gryres.jpg
THESSALY, THESSALIAN LEAGUE (a)24 views199 - 146 BC
AE 19 mm, 6.67 g
O: Head of Athena Itonia in crested Corinthian helmet right, NYS above helmet SAN downward at left, DROY under
R: QES above and SALWN below bridled horse prancing right; ear of corn before
Rogers 45
laney
thes_horse_e_res.jpg
THESSALY, THESSALIAN LEAGUE (b)20 views199 - 146 BC
Thessalian League
AE 17.5 mm; 4.81 g
O: HELMETED HEAD OF ATHENA RIGHT (magistrate's name on obv., including portions comprising the crest of the helmet)
R: ΘΕΣ−Σ−ΛΩΝ, bridled horse trotting right
BMC Thessaly p. 5, 62 - 63; SNG Cop 324 - 328 var (various magistrates on obv)
laney
thes_horse_d2res.jpg
THESSALY, THESSALIAN LEAGUE (b)19 views199 - 146 BC
Thessalian League
AE 17 mm; 4.31 g
O: HELMETED HEAD OF ATHENA RIGHT (magistrate's name on obv., including portions comprising the crest of the helmet)
R: ΘΕΣ−Σ−ΛΩΝ, bridled horse trotting right
BMC Thessaly p. 5, 62 - 63; SNG Cop 324 - 328 var (various magistrates on obv)
laney
thes_horse_c_res.jpg
THESSALY, THESSALIAN LEAGUE (b)26 views199 - 146 BC
Thessalian League
AE 17 mm; 5.20 g
O: HELMETED HEAD OF ATHENA RIGHT (magistrate's name on obv., including portions comprising the crest of the helmet)
R: ΘΕΣ−Σ−ΛΩΝ, bridled horse trotting right
BMC Thessaly p. 5, 62 - 63; SNG Cop 324 - 328 var (various magistrates on obv)
laney
thes_horse_b_res.jpg
THESSALY, THESSALIAN LEAGUE (b)18 views199 - 146 BC
Thessalian League
AE 18 mm; 4.296 g
O: HELMETED HEAD OF ATHENA RIGHT (magistrate's name on obv., including portions comprising the crest of the helmet)
R: ΘΕΣ−Σ−ΛΩΝ, bridled horse trotting right
BMC Thessaly p. 5, 62 - 63; SNG Cop 324 - 328 var (various magistrates on obv)
laney
thes_horse_a_res.jpg
THESSALY, THESSALIAN LEAGUE (b)22 views199 - 146 BC
Thessalian League
AE 17.0 mm; 3.85 g
O: HELMETED HEAD OF ATHENA RIGHT (magistrate's name on obv., including portions comprising the crest of the helmet)
R: ΘΕΣ−Σ−ΛΩΝ, bridled horse trotting right
BMC Thessaly p. 5, 62 - 63; SNG Cop 324 - 328 var (various magistrates on obv)
laney
thes_horse_g_res.jpg
THESSALY, THESSALIAN LEAGUE (b)16 views199 - 146 BC
Thessalian League
AE 16.5 mm; 3.66 g
O: HELMETED HEAD OF ATHENA RIGHT (magistrate's name on obv., including portions comprising the crest of the helmet)
R: ΘΕΣ−Σ−ΛΩΝ, bridled horse trotting right
BMC Thessaly p. 5, 62 - 63; SNG Cop 324 - 328 var (various magistrates on obv)
laney
thes_horse_f_res.jpg
THESSALY, THESSALIAN LEAGUE (b)18 views199 - 146 BC
Thessalian League
AE 16.5 mm; 4.29 g
O: HELMETED HEAD OF ATHENA RIGHT (magistrate's name on obv., including portions comprising the crest of the helmet)
R: ΘΕΣ−Σ−ΛΩΝ, bridled horse trotting right
BMC Thessaly p. 5, 62 - 63; SNG Cop 324 - 328 var (various magistrates on obv)
laney
thes_le_horse_res.jpg
THESSALY, THESSALIAN LEAGUE (b)37 views196 - 146 BC
AE 18X20mm 6.24 g
O: HEAD OF ATHENA ITONIA WEARING CRESTED HELMET R, LETTERS ABOVE HELMET
R: QES -SALWN HORSE PRANCING R
1 commentslaney
thess_leag_athena_horse_res.jpg
THESSALY, THESSALIAN LEAGUE (b)18 views199 - 146 BC
AE 19 mm, 6.67 g
O: Head of Athena Itonia in crested Corinthian helmet right, NYS above helmet SAN downward at left, DROY under
R: QES above and SALWN below bridled horse prancing right; ear of corn before
Rogers 45
laney
thess_horse_010815.jpg
THESSALY, THESSALIAN LEAGUE (b)19 viewsThessalian League, c. 100-50 BC
AE 17 mm, 4.36 g
Hippaitas, magistrate. Helmeted head of Athena r. R/ Horse trotting r. cf. BCD Thessaly 903.1; Rogers 43.
laney
thes_horse_a_010815.jpg
THESSALY, THESSALIAN LEAGUE (b)14 views2nd Half of 2nd Century BC
AE 18 mm; 5.73 g
Helmeted head of Athena r. / Horse advancing r., grain ear before. Rogers 46; BCD 903
Nysandros, magistrate
laney
thes_lea.jpg
THESSALY, THESSALIAN LEAGUE (b)13 views199 - 146 BC
Thessalian League
AE 16.5 mm max; 5.23 g
O: Helmeted head of Athena right (magistrate's name on obv., including portions comprising the crest of the helmet)
R: ΘΕΣ−Σ−ΛΩΝ, bridled horse trotting right
BMC Thessaly p. 5, 62 - 63; SNG Cop 324 - 328 var (various magistrates on obv)
laney
thes_lea_ath.jpg
THESSALY, THESSALIAN LEAGUE (b)14 views199 - 146 BC
Thessalian League
AE 16.5 mm max;4.49 g
O: Helmeted head of Athena right (magistrate's name on obv., including portions comprising the crest of the helmet)
R: Bridled horse trotting right
BMC Thessaly p. 5, 62 - 63; SNG Cop 324 - 328 var (various magistrates on obv)
laney
thes_leag_ap_0923_7res.jpg
THESSALY, THESSALIAN LEAGUE (Zeus)36 views16mm 4.61g
O: Laureate head Zeus to right.
R: QESSA / LWN Athena Itonia to right
ROGERS 52 Rare
1 commentslaney
thess_league_zeusresb.jpg
THESSALY, THESSALIAN LEAGUE (Zeus)18 views196 - 146 BC
17 mm 4.39 g
Laureate head Zeus right
R: Athena Itonia right
Rogers 52
laney
Thessaly.jpg
Thessaly, Thessalian League 150-100 B.C. AR Drachm, BCD Thessaly 893.2 (this coin)23 viewsLaureate head of Apollo right / ΘΕΣΣΑ/ΛΩΝ, Athena Itonia striding right, hurling spear held in her right hand, shield on her left arm; ΔIO-KΛ[HΣ] above spear, NK monogram to lower left, grain ear to right. Diokles, magistrate.
Maximum Diameter: 18.0 mm
Weight: 3.97 g

ex BCD collection (Triton XV, 3 January 2012), 893.2.
1 commentsTheEmpireNeverEnded
thessalian.jpg
Thessaly, Thessalian League AE22. Apollo / Athena Itonia 25 viewsThessalian League AE22. 196-146 B.C. Laureate head of Apollo right / Athena Itonia standing right, with sheild & about to hurl spear, THESS - ALWN to sides, magistrate's name above. ancientone
thess_shield_lyre_2.jpg
THESSALY, THESSALIAN LEAGUE, SHIELD/LYRE39 viewsAE 14 mm 3.24 g
302 - 294 BCE
OBV: MACEDONIAN SHIELD WITH CENTRAL STAR
REV: QESSA (r. down) )/LWN (l. down) AT SIDES OF LYRE
ROGERS 4 var.; alternative reverse description is Dart sling (κεστροσφενδόνη) with dart inside (see note below)
POSSIBLY UNPUBLISHED VARIETY (IN ROGERS 4, ARRANGEMENT OF ETHNIC IS DOWN WITH OPEN END OF LYRE FACING DOWN)

Note: according to description by CNG of similar coin, While Rogers thought that the object on the reverse of this coin was a lyre, Jennifer Warren has argued that it represents a powerful new weapon - the dart sling, or κεστροσφενδόνη - first introduced during the Third Macedonian War between Rome and Perseus of Macedon. The weapon is described by the Achaean Polybius (xxvii, 9), who was taken to Rome as a prisoner following the war: “The form of the dart was as follows. It was two palms long, the tube being of the same length as the point. Into the former was fitted a wooden shaft a span in length a finger’s breadth in thickness. Into the middle of this were wedged three quite short wooden wings. The two thongs of the sling were unequal in length, and the missile was so fitted into the center of the sling that it was easily freed. While the thongs were whirled round and taut, it remained fixed there, but when at the moment of the discharge one of the thongs was released, it left the loop and was shot like a leaden bullet from the sling.” Livy (xlii, 65, 9-10) adds that: “They (the Roman army) suffered particularly from the dart-slings.”
laney
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Thessaly, Thessalian League, (196-146 B.C.), AE-20, BMC-49, Thessalian Pallas -Itonia- advancing right,142 viewsThessaly, Thessalian League, (196-146 B.C.), AE-20, BMC-49, Thessalian Pallas -Itonia- advancing right,
avers: Head of Apollo, laureate, right,
revers: ΘΕΣΣΑΛΩΝ,Thessalian Pallas Itonia advancing right, hurling javelin and holding shield.
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: 20,5mm, weight: 6,5g, axes: 0h,
mint: Thessaly, Thessalian League, date: 196-146 B.C., ref: BMC 49,
Q-001
quadrans
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THESSALY, THESSALIAN LEAGUE, 196-27 BC72 viewsStater (20mm, 6.15 g, 1h)

Kraterophron and Amynandros, magistrates. Struck early 1st century BC.

O - Head of Zeus right, wearing laurel wreath
R - Athena Itonia advancing right; KPA-TEPO/ΦPO-NOΣ above spear and across lower field, Λ above monogram to inner right, AMYNANΔPOY in exergue.

McClean 4725 (same obv. die); SNG Copenhagen -; SNG München -; BMC -.
3 commentsrobertpe
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Thessaly, Thessalian League, c. 196 - 27 B.C.26 viewsThessaly mint, 7.190g, 19.9mm, 0°, obverse laureate head of Apollo right; reverse ΘEΣΣAΛΩN, Athena Itonia advancing right, holding shield and wielding spear; magistrate name above; AE 20, SNG Cop 315. 1 commentsancientone
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Thessaly, Thessalian League.33 viewsAE, Helmeted head of Athena right / QES-SALWN above and below bridled horse trotting right. Grain stalk to right.

BMC 43.
1 commentsDino
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THESSALY, Thessalian League.6 viewsAR Stater, 21mm, 5.7g, 12h; 196-146 BC.
Obv.: Laureate head of Zeus right.
Rev.: ΘEΣΣA-ΛΩN; Athena Itonia walking right, brandishing spear and holding shield; magistrates ΣΩΣI-ΠATΡOΣ above, ΓOΡΓΩΠAΣ below.
Reference: BMC 25.
John Anthony
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Thessaly, Thessalian League. AR Stater.67 viewsCirca 196-146 BC (6.38g, 21mm, 3h). McClean 4953; BMC Thessaly-; SNG Copenhagen-. Obverse Head of Zeus right, wearing oak wreath; monogram behind. Reverse Athena Itona advancing right, brandishing spear and holding shield; ethnic ΘΕΣΣΑ-ΛΩ[Ν] around field, K-OT-T-Y below. Nicely struck from high relief dies. Attractive style. Excellent metal. Choice EF.

Ex Pars Coins.

After the Roman Republic’s defeat of Macedon at Kynoskephalai in 197 BC, T. Quinctius Flamininus, the victorious general, headed a senatorial commission set up to establish a protectorate in Greece and he pronounced at the Isthmian Games in July of the following year that those Greek areas (including Thessaly) which were formerly under Macedonian control were now free. Flamininus then revived an independent Thessalian League, which was founded in around the year 1000 BC and was later disbanded after Phillip II of Macedon conquered much of the Greek world in the last quarter of the 4th century BC. Under the new League, the coinage comprised solely of silver in three denominations (stater, drachm, and hemidrachm/obol), and could be considered the first truly Thessalian League "federal" coinage. All issues bore the ethnic ΘΕΣΣΑΛΩΝ, along with the responsible magistrates' names, and were likely minted at Larissa, the capital of the League.
1 commentsJason T
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Thessaly, Thessalian League. Ca. 196-146 B.C.18 viewsObverse- Helmeted head of Athena right.
Reverse- Horse walking right.
b70
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THESSALY, Thessalian League. Eubiotos and Petraios, magistrates.3 viewsÆ Tetrachalkon or Trihemiobol, 29mm, 12.2g;, Mid-late 1st century BC.
Obv.: Head of Zeus right, wearing oak wreath.
Rev.: ΘEΣΣA ΛΩN to left and right, Taurokathapsia scene: The hero Thessalos jumping from his horse, in background galloping right, onto a bull running right, the head of which he restrains with a band held in both of his hands; EYBIOTOY above, ΠETPAIOΣ below.
Reference: BCD II 897.4 (this coin); 16-339-202
From the BCD collection.
John Anthony
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THESSALY, Thessalian League. Late 2nd-mid 1st centuries BC. Æ Trichalkon Gennippos, magistrate.5 viewsReference.
BCD Thessaly II 901.6; HGC 4, 226.; Rogers 35 var. (spelling of magistrate’s name)

Obv. Laureate head of Apollo right
ΓEN N[I] across field

Rev. ΘEΣΣA ΛΩN around from lower left, Athena Itonia right
[Γ]EN NIΠΠ above; below, piloi of the Dioskouroi surmounted by stars.

6.96 gr
22mm
12h

From the BCD Collection.
okidoki
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Thessaly, Thessalian League: Anonymous (ca. 170 BCE) Æ Chalkous (Rogers-4var; BCD Thessaly II 24.2; HGC 4, 236)30 viewsObv: Macedonian shield with star in center
Rev: ΘEΣΣA ΛΩN above and below, dart–sling (κεστροσφενδóνη) with dart inside
2 commentsSpongeBob
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Thessaly, Thessalian League: Philippos and Themistogenes, Magistrates (mid-late 1st century BCE) AR Stater (BCD Thessaly II 883.2; cf. SNG Copenhagen 296)27 viewsObv: Head of Zeus right, wearing oak wreath
Rev: ΘEΣΣA-ΛΩN; Athena Itonia advancing right right, wielding spear and holding forth shield on outstretched arm; above and in exergue, magistrate's names: ΦIΛIΠ-ΠOY and [ΘH]MIΣTO[ΓENHΣ]; in outer right field, Ennodia running right, holding two torches
1 commentsQuant.Geek
GRK_Thessalian_League_Sear_2237.jpg
Thessaly. Thessalian League7 viewsSear 2237; Rogers 4-42 var. (unlisted magistrate's symbol).

AE trichalkon, 7.99 g., 21.85 mm. max., 270°

Struck 196 - 27 B.C., probably in Larisa.

Obv.: Laureate head of Apollo right.

Rev: Athena Itonia striding right, hurling spear held in her right hand, shield on her left arm, ΘEΣΣA -- ΛΩN flanking, uncertain magistrate's symbol to near right.

The Thessalian League was a loose confederacy of city-states and tribes in the Thessalian valley in northern Greece. Philip II of Macedon took control of Thessaly in 344 B.C. After the Second Macedonian War (200-197 B.C.), the victorious Roman general T. Quinctius Flamininus declared all of Greece "free." He reorganized the Thessalian league, creating a federal council, the synedrion, and annually changing officers, strategoi. The seat of the league was in the largest Thessalian city, Larisa. It continued to exist even after Thessaly became part of the new Roman province of Macedonia in 146 B.C., although it then had little autonomy.

The Apollo head on the obverse reflects Thessaly's long-standing involvement in the Delphic Amphictyony, an association of Greek states that administered and protected the temple and oracle of Apollo at Delphi.

Athena Itonia, was the patron deity of Thessaly, whose sanctuary was located between Larisa Kremaste and Pherae. The image probably represents the cult statue of the goddess. Athena is depicted as an Athena Promachos (the Forefighter), advancing in full armor with spear and shield. Athena Itonia was not only a war goddess, but a goddess of the arts of peace, especially poetry.
Stkp
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Thessaly. Thessalian League31 viewsSGCV --, Franke, Geschicte 4; BCD Thessaly II 15

AR Obol. .45 g., 7.43 mm. max., 180°

Struck ca. 470s-460s B.C.

Obv: Head and neck of bridled horse right

Rev: AΘ- ΦΕ, Grain ear in incuse square

The Thessalian League was a loose confederacy of city-states and tribes in the Thessalian valley in Northern Greece. The seat of the Thessalian diet was Larissa.
2 commentsStkp
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Thessaly. Thessalian League13 viewsSear GCV 2238; SNG Cop. 324 ff.; Rogers 44-47; BCD Thessaly II 904 ff.

AE dichalkon. Late 2nd to mid 1st centuries B.C.; 3.48 g., 18.04 mm. max., 0°

Obv: Helmeted head of Athena right in crested Corinthian helmet, magistrate's name (obscure) above.

Rev: Horse trotting right, ΘEΣ / ΣAΛΩ-N above and below.
1 commentsStkp
thessaly.jpg
Thessaly. Thessalian League: Zeus/ Athena Itonia46 viewsThessaly. Thessalian League c. 196-146 B.C. Double victoriatus, 5,59 g, perf., Obv: Head of Zeus, crowned with oak. Rev: THESSA LWN behind and before Athena Itonia right advancing right, brandishing spear and holding shield; KAIP POS across upper field, GORGWPAS in ex, BMC 7,13,14. Sear GCV I: 2232.1 commentsPodiceps
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Thrace, Mesembria124 viewsThrace, Mesembria.

Originally a Thracian settlement, known as Menebria, the town became a Greek colony when settled by Dorians from Megara at the beginning of the 6th century BC, and was an important trading centre from then on and a rival of Apollonia (Sozopol). It remained the only Dorian colony along the Black Sea coast, as the rest were typical Ionian colonies. At 425-424 BC the town joined the Delian League, under the leadership of Athens. Remains from the Hellenistic period include the acropolis, a temple of Apollo, and an agora. A wall which formed part of the fortifications can still be seen on the north side of the peninsula. Bronze and silver coins were minted in the city since the 5th century BC and gold coins since the 3rd century BC. The town fell under Roman rule in 71 BC, yet continued to enjoy privileges such as the right to mint its own coinage.

GR4 Circa Fourth Century BC. AR Diobol (1.18 gm) 11.25 mm. Crested helmet / Radiate wheel of four spokes; M-E-T-A within. SNG BM Black Sea 268. Very fine.
2 commentsecoli
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Thrace. Cherronesos.7 viewsSear 1602-1606 var., SNG Copenhagen 843, BMC Thrace 14; McClean 4076-4077

AR hemidrachm, ca. 480-350 B.C. (per Head, SNG Copenhagen, McClean); 400-350 B.C. (per Sear), ca. 350-300 B.C. (per SNG Lewis, SNG Manchester, SNG Aarhus), ca 4th century BC (per Kraay), 2.34 g., 13.82 mm. max, 0°

Obv.: Forepart of lion right, head reverted.

Rev.: Quadripartite incuse square with alternating raised and sunken quarters; pellet and wreath in opposite sunken quarters.

Gallipoli peninsula) that struck these coins is uncertain. The coins may have been struck at Cardia by the peninsula as a league, or perhaps they were struck by lost city on the peninsula named Cherronesos. The area was under the control of Athens from 560 B.C. to 338 BC, except for a brief period when it was controlled by Persia. It was taken over by Philip II in 338 B.C.

The frequent test cuts found on these coins attests to their use as an intercity trade currency.
Stkp
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Trajan Decius Antoninianus41 viewsOb. IMP C M Q TRAIANVS DECIVS AVG, radiate, draped & cuirassed bust right
Rev. DACIA, Personification of Dacia stands left, holding a staff surmounted with the head of a dragon

Ref. RIC 2b, RSC13
Weight 3.7g

-:Bacchus:-

Gaius Messius Quintus Decius was born in a village near the Danube River. He married well, to the aristocratic Etruscilla, and later became Senator, then Consul. Decius served the usurper, Philip I, then became (perhaps unwillingly) a usurper himself when his troops proclaimed him Augustus. After he defeated Philip and executed him, the Senate quickly flattered him with Trajan's respected name. At the time, Rome was beleaguered by the Goths, and the Christian church was seen as a secondary threat. Decius attacked both Christianity (executing Pope Fabianus) and the Goths. Though devastatingly successful against the former, the Goths defeated his army, and Decius became the first Roman Emperor to be killed by a foreign army.


Note the allusion that this is a male is due to worn dies - the robes and other attributes all indicate this is female
Bacchus
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TROAS, Kebren31 viewsThe earliest Greek archaeological remains found at Cebren date to the mid-7th and early 6th century BCE and were found together with indigenous pottery, suggesting that to begin with the city was a mixed Greco-Anatolian community. Writing in the early 4th century BCE, Xenophon implies that the population of Cebren ca. 400 BCE still consisted of both Greek and Anatolian elements, indicating that the two ethnic groups co-existed long after the period of Greek colonization. Sources dating to the mid-4th century BCE considered the city an Aeolian Greek foundation, and the historian Ephorus of Cyme claimed that its founders were in fact from his own city, although this statement needs to be treated with some caution, since Ephorus was notorious in antiquity for exaggerating his hometown's importance. While we cannot ascertain the truth of Ephorus' statement, we can be sure that the early settlers were Aeolians, since a grave inscription for a citizen of Kebren written in the Aeolic dialect has been found at nearby Gergis.

In the 5th century BCE Cebren was a member of the Delian League and is listed in the Hellespontine district paying a tribute to Athens of 3 Talents from 454/3 down to 425/4, except in 450/49 when it only paid 8,700 drachmas. Following the defeat of Athens at the end of the Peloponnesian War in 404 BCE, Cebren came under the control of Zenis, the tyrant of Dardania, and his wife Mania who together controlled the Troad on behalf of the Persian satrap Pharnabazos. Cebren was captured by the Spartan commander Dercylidas in 399 BCE, but soon after returned to Persian control. In 360/59, the Greek mercenary commander Charidemus briefly captured the city before being repelled by the Persian satrap Artabazos. At some point in the 4th century BCE Cebren produced coinage depicting a satrap's head as the obverse type, indicating the city's close relationship with its Persian overlords. Cebren ceased to exist as an independent city ca. 310 when Antigonus I Monophthalmus founded Antigonia Troas (after 301 BCE renamed Alexandria Troas) and included Cebren in the synoecism.

TROAS, Kebren. Circa 387-310 BC. AR Obol (6mm, 0.43 g, 6h). Ram’s head right / Youthful male head right. SNG Ashmolean –; SNG Copenhagen –; SNG von Aulock 7621; Klein 313. VF, toned. Good metal.
ecoli
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Turkey, Antalya Province, Limyra - Theater31 viewsLimyra was a small city in Lycia on the southern coast of Asia Minor, on the Limyrus River, about 5 1/2 KM from the mouth of that river. The ruins are about 5 km northeast of the town of Finike (ancient Phoenicus) in Antalya Province, Turkey. It was a prosperous city, and one of the oldest cities in Lycia. It had rich and abundant soil, and gradually became one of the finest trade settlements in Greece. Pericles adopted it as the capital of the Lycian League. The city came under control of the Persian Empire after it was conquered by Cyrus the Great. He later annexed Lydia and its territories after a decisive victory at the Battle of Thymbra and the Siege of Sardis, where he defeated armies twice as large as his. Cyrus then got his greatest general: Harpagus of Media to conquer the much smaller kingdoms in Anatolia, while he went to conquer the Neo-Babylonian Empire. Anatolia would become an important place for the Persian monarchs who succeeded Cyrus. The massive Royal road constructed by Darius went from the Persian capital of Persepolis, to the Anatolian city of Sardis. Limyra would stay under Persian control until it was conquered and sacked by Alexander the Great. It is mentioned by Strabo (XIV, 666), Ptolemy (V, 3, 6) and several Latin authors. Gaius Caesar, adopted son of Augustus, died there (Velleius Paterculus, II, 102). Ruins consist of a theater, tombs, sarcophagi, bas-reliefs, Greek and Lycian inscriptions etc. About 3 km east of the site is the Roman Bridge at Limyra, one of the oldest segmented arch bridges of the world.

Source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:LimyraTheater1.jpg
Photo by Kpisimon, 8 May 1988
Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported
Joe Sermarini
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Turkey, Priene, The Temple of Athena at Priene94 viewsThe Temple of Athena at Priene was started by Mausolus but completed by Alexander the Great, who hired the great Greek architect Pytheos to complete the design and construction. It is the largest temple in Priene. Pytheos situated the temple so that it had (and still has) a beautiful view over the valley and river below Alexander the Great invested heavily into rebuilding all of the Greek cities of the Ionic league following the defeat of the Persians. This classic Greek temple was done in the Ionic style and had no frieze around the top. Instead, a dentil design sat above the columns and architrave. The statue of Athena that was originally inside the temple was based on the famous statue by Phidias in the Parthenon of Athens.Joe Sermarini
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University Class, circa 1350--Laurentius de Voltolina138 viewsStudents in the front row are attentive; those near the window are chatting, and there is a student asleep in the third row-foreground. This is quite similar to my 12th grade International Baccalaureate English Literature class. As my colleague on the FORVM Disccusion Boad, G. Moneti notes, "I guess people don't change all that much after all" (http://www.forumancientcoins.com/board/index.php?topic=31329.msg219475#msg219475). Cleisthenes
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YEAR-END REVIEW OF GREEK COLLECTION (OBVERSE)111 viewsClick on picture for bigger resolution.

Top row from left to right: MYSIA, PERGAMMON. Eumenes I AR Tetradrachm. Circa 263-241 BC **ILLYRIA, DYRRHACHION. AR Stater. Circa 340-280 BC**IONIA, SMYRNA. AR “Stephanophoric” Tetradrachm. Circa 150-145 BC** PELOPONNESOS, SIKYON. AR Stater. Circa 335-330 BC**ATTICA, ATHENS. “New style” Tetradrachm. Circa 169 BC.

Sixth row: BACTRIA, Antialkidas. AR Drachm. Circa 145-135 BC**CAPPADOCIA. Ariobarzanes I AR Drachm. Circa 96-63 BC**THRACE, ABDERA. AR Tetrobol. Circa 360-350 BC**THRACE, CHERSONESSOS. AR Hemidrachm. Circa 386-338 BC.

Fifth row: IONIA, EPHESOS. AR Tetradrachm. Circa 405-390 BC**CILICIA, TARSOS. Mazaios AR Stater. Circa 361-334 BC **MACEDONIA. Kassander AR Tetradrachm. Circa 317-315 BC**AKARNANIA, LEUKAS. AR Stater. Circa 320-280 BC**PAMPHYLIA, ASPENDOS. AR Stater. Circa 330-300 BC.

Fourth row: SELEUKID SYRIA. Antiochos VI AR Drachm. Circa 144-143 BC**LUCANIA, METAPONTION. AR Stater. Circa 340-330 BC**LUCANIA, VELIA. AR Stater. Circa 280 BC**PARTHIA. Mithradates II AR Drachm. Circa 121-91 BC.

Third row: AEOLIS, MYRINA. AR "Stephanophoric" Tetradrachm. Circa 150 BC**CARIA. Pixodaros AR Didrachm. Circa 341-335 BC**THRACE. Lysimachos AR Tetradrachm. Circa 297-281 BC**CILICIA, TARSOS. Pharnabazos AR Stater. Circa 380-374 BC**THRACE, MARONEIA. AR Tetradrachm. Mid 2nd cent. BC.

Second Row: LUCANIA, METAPONTION. AR Stater. Circa 510-480 BC** THESSALIAN LEAGUE. AR Stater. Circa 196-146 BC**CAMPANIA, NEAPOLIS. AR Nomos. Circa 275-250 BC**LYCIA, PRE-DYNASTIC. AR Stater. Circa 520-460 BC.

Bottom row: SELEUKID SYRIA. Antiochos Euergetes VII AR Tetradrachm. Circa 138-129 BC**MACEDON. Alexander III AR Tetradrachm. Circa 325-315 BC**CILICIA, AIGEAI. AR Tetradrachm. Circa 30 BC**PAIONIA. Patraos AR Tetradrachm. Circa 335-315 BC**PAMPHYLIA, SIDE. AR Tetradrachm. Circa 155-36 BC.
1 commentsJason T
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YEAR-END REVIEW OF GREEK COLLECTION (REVERSE)118 viewsTHE LESS OFTEN DISPLAYED SIDE OF MY COINS.
Please click on picture for bigger resolution.

Top row from left to right: MYSIA, PERGAMMON. Eumenes I AR Tetradrachm. Circa 263-241 BC **ILLYRIA, DYRRHACHION. AR Stater. Circa 340-280 BC**IONIA, SMYRNA. AR “Stephanophoric” Tetradrachm. Circa 150-145 BC** PELOPONNESOS, SIKYON. AR Stater. Circa 335-330 BC**ATTICA, ATHENS. “New style” Tetradrachm. Circa 169 BC.

Sixth row: BACTRIA, Antialkidas. AR Drachm. Circa 145-135 BC**CAPPADOCIA. Ariobarzanes I AR Drachm. Circa 96-63 BC**THRACE, ABDERA. AR Tetrobol. Circa 360-350 BC**THRACE, CHERSONESSOS. AR Hemidrachm. Circa 386-338 BC.

Fifth row: IONIA, EPHESOS. AR Tetradrachm. Circa 405-390 BC**CILICIA, TARSOS. Mazaios AR Stater. Circa 361-334 BC **MACEDONIA. Kassander AR Tetradrachm. Circa 317-315 BC**AKARNANIA, LEUKAS. AR Stater. Circa 320-280 BC**PAMPHYLIA, ASPENDOS. AR Stater. Circa 330-300 BC.

Fourth row: SELEUKID SYRIA. Antiochos VI AR Drachm. Circa 144-143 BC**LUCANIA, METAPONTION. AR Stater. Circa 340-330 BC**LUCANIA, VELIA. AR Stater. Circa 280 BC**PARTHIA. Mithradates II AR Drachm. Circa 121-91 BC.

Third row: AEOLIS, MYRINA. AR "Stephanophoric" Tetradrachm. Circa 150 BC**CARIA. Pixodaros AR Didrachm. Circa 341-335 BC**THRACE. Lysimachos AR Tetradrachm. Circa 297-281 BC**CILICIA, TARSOS. Pharnabazos AR Stater. Circa 380-374 BC**THRACE, MARONEIA. AR Tetradrachm. Mid 2nd cent. BC.

Second Row: LUCANIA, METAPONTION. AR Stater. Circa 510-480 BC** THESSALIAN LEAGUE. AR Stater. Circa 196-146 BC**CAMPANIA, NEAPOLIS. AR Nomos. Circa 275-250 BC**LYCIA, PRE-DYNASTIC. AR Stater. Circa 520-460 BC.

Bottom row: SELEUKID SYRIA. Antiochos Euergetes VII AR Tetradrachm. Circa 138-129 BC**MACEDON. Alexander III AR Tetradrachm. Circa 325-315 BC**CILICIA, AIGEAI. AR Tetradrachm. Circa 30 BC**PAIONIA. Patraos AR Tetradrachm. Circa 335-315 BC**PAMPHYLIA, SIDE. AR Tetradrachm. Circa 155-36 BC.
1 commentsJason T
SeptSeverus.jpg
[1001a] Septimius Severus, 9 April 193 - 4 February 211 A.D.63 viewsSilver denarius, RIC 32, RSC 301, VF, 2.966g, 16.8mm, 180o, Rome mint, 194 A.D.; obverse L SEPT SEV PERT AVG IMP III, laureate head right; reverse LIBERO PATRI, Liber (Bacchus) standing left, in right ocnochoe over panther, thysus in left; excellent portrait; scarce. Ex FORVM.

De Imperatoribus Romanis
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Septimius Severus (193-211 A.D.)

Michael L. Meckler
Ohio State University

Introduction
Lucius Septimius Severus restored stability to the Roman empire after the tumultuous reign of the emperor Commodus and the civil wars that erupted in the wake of Commodus' murder. However, by giving greater pay and benefits to soldiers and annexing the troublesome lands of northern Mesopotamia into the Roman empire, Septimius Severus brought increasing financial and military burdens to Rome's government. His prudent administration allowed these burdens to be met during his eighteen years on the throne, but his reign was not entirely sunny. The bloodiness with which Severus gained and maintained control of the empire tarnished his generally positive reputation.

Severus' Early Life and Acclamation
Severus was born 11 April 145 in the African city of Lepcis Magna, whose magnificent ruins are located in modern Libya, 130 miles east of Tripoli. Septimius Severus came from a distinguished local family with cousins who received suffect consulships in Rome under Antoninus Pius. The future emperor's father seems not to have held any major offices, but the grandfather may have been the wealthy equestrian Septimius Severus commemorated by the Flavian-era poet Statius.

The future emperor was helped in his early career by one of his consular cousins, who arranged entry into the senate and the favor of the emperor Marcus Aurelius. Life as a senator meant a life of travel from one government posting to another. Moorish attacks on his intended post of Baetica (southern Spain) forced Severus to serve his quaestorship in Sardinia. He then traveled to Africa as a legate and returned to Rome to be a tribune of the plebs. Around the year 175 he married Paccia Marciana, who seems also to have been of African origin. The childless marriage lasted a decade or so until her death.

Severus' career continued to flourish as the empire passed from Marcus to Commodus. The young senator held a praetorship, then served in Spain, commanded a legion in Syria and held the governorships of Gallia Lugdunensis (central France), Sicily and Upper Pannonia (easternmost Austria and western Hungary). While in Gallia Lugdunensis in 187, the now-widowed future emperor married Julia Domna, a woman from a prominent family of the Syrian city of Emesa. Two sons quickly arrived, eleven months apart: Bassianus (known to history as Caracalla) in April of the year 188, and Geta in March 189.

News of Pertinax's assassination 28 March 193 in an uprising by the praetorian guard quickly reached Pannonia, and only twelve days later on 9 April 193, Severus was proclaimed emperor. Septimius Severus had the strong support of the armies along the Rhine and Danube, but the loyalty of the governor of Britain, Clodius Albinus, was in doubt. Severus' envoys from Pannonia offered Albinus the title of Caesar, which he accepted.

The Civil Wars with Albinus, Niger, and Didius Julianus
In the city of Rome, Didius Julianus gained the support of the praetorian troops and was promoted as the successor to Pertinax. Although Julianus' authority did not extend much beyond Italy, Severus understood that legitimacy for a Roman emperor meant having one's authority accepted in Rome. He and his army began a swift march to the city. They met practically no resistance on their advance from Pannonia into northern Italy, as Julianus' supporters defected. By the beginning of June when Severus reached Interamna, 50 miles north of Rome, even the praetorian guard stationed in the capital switched sides. Didius Julianus was declared a public enemy and killed. Septimius Severus entered Rome without a fight.

Civil war was not yet over. Another provincial governor also had his eyes on the throne. In Syria, Pescennius Niger had been proclaimed emperor on news of Pertinax's death, and the eastern provinces quickly went under his authority. Byzantium became Niger's base of operations as he prepared to fight the armies of the west loyal to Severus.

Niger was unable to maintain further advances into Europe. The fighting moved to the Asian shore of the Propontis, and in late December 193 or early January 194, Niger was defeated in a battle near Nicaea and fled south. Asia and Bithynia fell under Severus' control, and Egypt soon recognized Severus' authority. By late spring, Niger was defeated near Issus and the remainder of his support collapsed. Syria was pacified. Niger was killed fleeing Antioch. Byzantium, however, refused to surrender to Severan forces. Niger's head was sent to the city to persuade the besieged citizens to give up, but to no avail. The Byzantines held out for another year before surrender. As punishment for their stubbornness, the walls of their city were destroyed.

Severus' Eastern Campaigns
During the fighting, two of the peoples of upper Mesopotamia -- the Osrhoeni and the Adiabeni -- captured some Roman garrisons and made an unsuccessful attack on the Roman-allied city of Nisibis. After the defeat of Niger, these peoples offered to return Roman captives and what remained of the seized treasures if the remaining Roman garrisons were removed from the region. Severus refused the offer and prepared for war against the two peoples, as well as against an Arabian tribe that had aided Niger. In the spring of 195, Severus marched an army through the desert into upper Mesopotamia. The native peoples quickly surrendered, and Severus added to his name the victorious titles Arabicus and Adiabenicus. Much of the upper third of Mesopotamia was organized as a Roman province, though the king of Osrhoene was allowed to retain control of a diminished realm.

The tottering Parthian empire was less and less able to control those peoples living in the border regions with Rome. Rome's eastern frontier was entering a period of instability, and Severus responded with an interventionist policy of attack and annexation. Some senators feared that increased involvement in Mesopotamia would only embroil Rome in local squabbles at great expense. The emperor, however, would remain consistent in his active eastern policy.

Legitimization of the Severan Dynasty
Severus also took steps to cement his legitimacy as emperor by connecting himself to the Antonine dynasty. Severus now proclaimed himself the son of Marcus Aurelius, which allowed him to trace his authority, through adoption, back to the emperor Nerva. Julia Domna was awarded the title "Mother of the Camp" (mater castrorum), a title only previously given to the empress Faustina the Younger, Marcus' wife. Bassianus, the emperor's elder son, was renamed Marcus Aurelius Antoninus and given the title Caesar. It was this last step that marked a decisive break with Albinus.

Albinus had remained in Britain as governor during the struggles between Severus and Niger. Although Albinus had not attempted open revolt against the emperor, he seems to have been in communication with senators about future moves. By the end of 195, Albinus was declared a public enemy by Severus. The governor of Britain responded by proclaiming himself emperor and invading Gaul.

A weary Roman populace used the anonymity of the crowd at the chariot races to complain about renewed civil war, but it was Gaul that bore the brunt of the fighting. Albinus and his supporters were able to inflict losses on the occasion of the initial attacks, but disorder was so great that opportunistic soldiers could easily operate on their own within the lands under Albinus' nominal control.

The tide began to turn early in 197, and after a Severan victory at Tournus, Albinus found himself and his army trapped near Lyon. A battle broke out 19 February 197. In the initial fighting, Albinus' troops forced the Severans into retreat, during which Severus fell off his horse. When the Severan cavalry appeared, however, Albinus' army was routed. Lyon was sacked and Albinus, who was trapped in a house along the river Rhône, committed suicide. Severus ordered Albinus' head to be cut off and sent to Rome for display. Many of Albinus' supporters were killed, including a large number of Spanish and Gallic aristocrats. Albinus' wife and children were killed, as were many of the wives of his supporters. Tradition also told of the mutilation of bodies and denial of proper burial. The emperor revealed a penchant for cruelty that troubled even his fervent supporters. A purge of the senate soon followed. Included among the victims was Pertinax's father-in-law, Sulpicianus.

Severus and the Roman Military
Severus brought many changes to the Roman military. Soldiers' pay was increased by half, they were allowed to be married while in service, and greater opportunities were provided for promotion into officer ranks and the civil service. The entire praetorian guard, discredited by the murder of Pertinax and the auctioning of their support to Julianus, was dismissed. The emperor created a new, larger praetorian guard out of provincial soldiers from the legions. Increases were also made to the two other security forces based in Rome: the urban cohorts, who maintained order; and the night watch, who fought fires and dealt with overnight disturbances, break-ins and other petty crime. These military reforms proved expensive, but the measures may well have increased soldiers' performance and morale in an increasingly unsettled age.

One location that remained unsettled was the eastern frontier. In 197 Nisibis had again been under siege, and the emperor prepared for another eastern campaign. Three new legions were raised, though one was left behind in central Italy to maintain order. The Roman armies easily swept through upper Mesopotamia, traveling down the Euphrates to sack Seleucia, Babylon and Ctesiphon, which had been abandoned by the Parthian king Vologaeses V. On 28 January 198 -- the centenary of Trajan's accession -- Severus took the victorious title Parthicus Maximus and promoted both of his sons: Caracalla to the rank of Augustus and Geta to the rank of Caesar.

Before embarking on the eastern campaign, the emperor had named Gaius Fulvius Plautianus as a praetorian prefect. Plautianus came from the emperor's home town of Lepcis, and the prefect may even have been a relative of the emperor. The victories in Mesopotamia were followed by tours of eastern provinces, including Egypt. Plautianus accompanied Severus throughout the travels, and by the year 201 Plautianus was the emperor's closest confidant and advisor. Plautianus was also praetorian prefect without peer after having arranged the murder of his last colleague in the post.

Upon the return to Rome in 202, the influence of Plautianus was at its height. Comparisons were made with Sejanus, the powerful praetorian prefect under the emperor Tiberius. Plautianus, who earlier had been adlected into the senate, was now awarded consular rank, and his daughter Plautilla was married to Caracalla. The wealth Plautianus had acquired from his close connection with the emperor enabled him to provide a dowry said to have been worthy of fifty princesses. Celebrations and games also marked the decennalia, the beginning of the tenth year of Severus' reign. Later in the year the enlarged imperial family traveled to Lepcis, where native sons Severus and Plautianus could display their prestige and power.

The following year the imperial family returned to Rome, where an arch, still standing today, was dedicated to the emperor at the western end of the Forum. Preparations were also being made for the Secular Games, which were thought to have originated in earliest Rome and were to be held every 110 years. Augustus celebrated the Secular Games in 17 B.C., and Domitian in A.D. 88, six years too early. (Claudius used the excuse of Rome's 800th year to hold the games in A.D. 47.) In 204 Severus would preside over ten days of ceremonies and spectacles.

By the end of 204, Plautianus was finding his influence with the emperor on the wane. Caracalla was not happy to be the husband of Plautilla. Julia Domna resented Plautianus' criticisms and investigations against her. Severus was tiring of his praetorian prefect's ostentation, which at times seemed to surpass that of the emperor himself. The emperor's ailing brother, Geta, also denounced Plautianus, and after Geta's death the praetorian prefect found himself being bypassed by the emperor. In January 205 a soldier named Saturninus revealed to the emperor a plot by Plautianus to have Severus and Caracalla killed. Plautianus was summoned to the imperial palace and executed. His children were exiled, and Caracalla divorced Plautilla. Some observers suspected the story of a plot was merely a ruse to cover up long-term plans for Plautianus' removal.

Severus and Roman Law
Two new praetorian prefects were named to replace Plautianus, one of whom was the eminent jurist Papinian. The emperor's position as ultimate appeals judge had brought an ever-increasing legal workload to his office. During the second century, a career path for legal experts was established, and an emperor came to rely heavily upon his consilium, an advisory panel of experienced jurists, in rendering decisions. Severus brought these jurists to even greater prominence. A diligent administrator and conscientious judge, the emperor appreciated legal reasoning and nurtured its development. His reign ushered in the golden age of Roman jurisprudence, and his court employed the talents of the three greatest Roman lawyers: Papinian, Paul and Ulpian.

The order Severus was able to impose on the empire through both the force of arms and the force of law failed to extend to his own family. His now teenaged sons, Caracalla and Geta, displayed a reckless sibling rivalry that sometimes resulted in physical injury. The emperor believed the lack of responsibilities in Rome contributed to the ill-will between his sons and decided that the family would travel to Britain to oversee military operations there. Caracalla was involved in directing the army's campaigns, while Geta was given civilian authority and a promotion to joint emperor with his father and brother.

Severus was now into his 60s. Chronic gout limited his activities and sapped his strength. The emperor's health continued to deteriorate in Britain, and he became ever more intent on trying to improve the bitter relationship between his two sons. He is reported to have given his sons three pieces of advice: "Get along; pay off the soldiers; and disregard everyone else." The first piece of advice would not be heeded.

Severus died in York on 4 February 211 at the age of 65. His reign lasted nearly 18 years, a duration that would not be matched until Diocletian. Culturally and ideologically Septimius Severus connected his reign to the earlier Antonine era, but the reforms he enacted would eventually alter the very character of Roman government. By creating a larger and more expensive army and increasing the influence of lawyers in administration, Severus planted the seeds that would develop into the highly militaristic and bureaucratic government of the later empire.

Copyright (C) 1998, Michael L. Meckler. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis, An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors; http://www.roman-emperors.org/sepsev.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
1 commentsCleisthenes
SeptSevArDen.jpg
[1001b] Septimius Severus, 9 April 193 - 4 February 211 A.D.45 viewsSeptimius Severus, 9 April 193 - 4 February 211 A.D., Silver denarius, RIC 119A. aF. Rome. Obverse: L. SEP. SEVERVS PER. AVG. P. M. IMP. XI, His bearded and laureated head right. Reverse: SALVTI AVGG. Salus seated left feeding serpent arising from altar(?). Scarce. Ex FORVM.


De Imperatoribus Romanis
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Septimius Severus (193-211 A.D.)

Michael L. Meckler
Ohio State University

Introduction
Lucius Septimius Severus restored stability to the Roman empire after the tumultuous reign of the emperor Commodus and the civil wars that erupted in the wake of Commodus' murder. However, by giving greater pay and benefits to soldiers and annexing the troublesome lands of northern Mesopotamia into the Roman empire, Septimius Severus brought increasing financial and military burdens to Rome's government. His prudent administration allowed these burdens to be met during his eighteen years on the throne, but his reign was not entirely sunny. The bloodiness with which Severus gained and maintained control of the empire tarnished his generally positive reputation.

Severus' Early Life and Acclamation
Severus was born 11 April 145 in the African city of Lepcis Magna, whose magnificent ruins are located in modern Libya, 130 miles east of Tripoli. Septimius Severus came from a distinguished local family with cousins who received suffect consulships in Rome under Antoninus Pius. The future emperor's father seems not to have held any major offices, but the grandfather may have been the wealthy equestrian Septimius Severus commemorated by the Flavian-era poet Statius.

The future emperor was helped in his early career by one of his consular cousins, who arranged entry into the senate and the favor of the emperor Marcus Aurelius. Life as a senator meant a life of travel from one government posting to another. Moorish attacks on his intended post of Baetica (southern Spain) forced Severus to serve his quaestorship in Sardinia. He then traveled to Africa as a legate and returned to Rome to be a tribune of the plebs. Around the year 175 he married Paccia Marciana, who seems also to have been of African origin. The childless marriage lasted a decade or so until her death.

Severus' career continued to flourish as the empire passed from Marcus to Commodus. The young senator held a praetorship, then served in Spain, commanded a legion in Syria and held the governorships of Gallia Lugdunensis (central France), Sicily and Upper Pannonia (easternmost Austria and western Hungary). While in Gallia Lugdunensis in 187, the now-widowed future emperor married Julia Domna, a woman from a prominent family of the Syrian city of Emesa. Two sons quickly arrived, eleven months apart: Bassianus (known to history as Caracalla) in April of the year 188, and Geta in March 189.

News of Pertinax's assassination 28 March 193 in an uprising by the praetorian guard quickly reached Pannonia, and only twelve days later on 9 April 193, Severus was proclaimed emperor. Septimius Severus had the strong support of the armies along the Rhine and Danube, but the loyalty of the governor of Britain, Clodius Albinus, was in doubt. Severus' envoys from Pannonia offered Albinus the title of Caesar, which he accepted.

The Civil Wars with Albinus, Niger, and Didius Julianus
In the city of Rome, Didius Julianus gained the support of the praetorian troops and was promoted as the successor to Pertinax. Although Julianus' authority did not extend much beyond Italy, Severus understood that legitimacy for a Roman emperor meant having one's authority accepted in Rome. He and his army began a swift march to the city. They met practically no resistance on their advance from Pannonia into northern Italy, as Julianus' supporters defected. By the beginning of June when Severus reached Interamna, 50 miles north of Rome, even the praetorian guard stationed in the capital switched sides. Didius Julianus was declared a public enemy and killed. Septimius Severus entered Rome without a fight.

Civil war was not yet over. Another provincial governor also had his eyes on the throne. In Syria, Pescennius Niger had been proclaimed emperor on news of Pertinax's death, and the eastern provinces quickly went under his authority. Byzantium became Niger's base of operations as he prepared to fight the armies of the west loyal to Severus.

Niger was unable to maintain further advances into Europe. The fighting moved to the Asian shore of the Propontis, and in late December 193 or early January 194, Niger was defeated in a battle near Nicaea and fled south. Asia and Bithynia fell under Severus' control, and Egypt soon recognized Severus' authority. By late spring, Niger was defeated near Issus and the remainder of his support collapsed. Syria was pacified. Niger was killed fleeing Antioch. Byzantium, however, refused to surrender to Severan forces. Niger's head was sent to the city to persuade the besieged citizens to give up, but to no avail. The Byzantines held out for another year before surrender. As punishment for their stubbornness, the walls of their city were destroyed.

Severus' Eastern Campaigns
During the fighting, two of the peoples of upper Mesopotamia -- the Osrhoeni and the Adiabeni -- captured some Roman garrisons and made an unsuccessful attack on the Roman-allied city of Nisibis. After the defeat of Niger, these peoples offered to return Roman captives and what remained of the seized treasures if the remaining Roman garrisons were removed from the region. Severus refused the offer and prepared for war against the two peoples, as well as against an Arabian tribe that had aided Niger. In the spring of 195, Severus marched an army through the desert into upper Mesopotamia. The native peoples quickly surrendered, and Severus added to his name the victorious titles Arabicus and Adiabenicus. Much of the upper third of Mesopotamia was organized as a Roman province, though the king of Osrhoene was allowed to retain control of a diminished realm.

The tottering Parthian empire was less and less able to control those peoples living in the border regions with Rome. Rome's eastern frontier was entering a period of instability, and Severus responded with an interventionist policy of attack and annexation. Some senators feared that increased involvement in Mesopotamia would only embroil Rome in local squabbles at great expense. The emperor, however, would remain consistent in his active eastern policy.

Legitimization of the Severan Dynasty
Severus also took steps to cement his legitimacy as emperor by connecting himself to the Antonine dynasty. Severus now proclaimed himself the son of Marcus Aurelius, which allowed him to trace his authority, through adoption, back to the emperor Nerva. Julia Domna was awarded the title "Mother of the Camp" (mater castrorum), a title only previously given to the empress Faustina the Younger, Marcus' wife. Bassianus, the emperor's elder son, was renamed Marcus Aurelius Antoninus and given the title Caesar. It was this last step that marked a decisive break with Albinus.

Albinus had remained in Britain as governor during the struggles between Severus and Niger. Although Albinus had not attempted open revolt against the emperor, he seems to have been in communication with senators about future moves.[[3]] By the end of 195, Albinus was declared a public enemy by Severus. The governor of Britain responded by proclaiming himself emperor and invading Gaul.

A weary Roman populace used the anonymity of the crowd at the chariot races to complain about renewed civil war, but it was Gaul that bore the brunt of the fighting. Albinus and his supporters were able to inflict losses on the occasion of the initial attacks, but disorder was so great that opportunistic soldiers could easily operate on their own within the lands under Albinus' nominal control.

The tide began to turn early in 197, and after a Severan victory at Tournus, Albinus found himself and his army trapped near Lyon. A battle broke out 19 February 197. In the initial fighting, Albinus' troops forced the Severans into retreat, during which Severus fell off his horse. When the Severan cavalry appeared, however, Albinus' army was routed. Lyon was sacked and Albinus, who was trapped in a house along the river Rhône, committed suicide. Severus ordered Albinus' head to be cut off and sent to Rome for display. Many of Albinus' supporters were killed, including a large number of Spanish and Gallic aristocrats. Albinus' wife and children were killed, as were many of the wives of his supporters. Tradition also told of the mutilation of bodies and denial of proper burial. The emperor revealed a penchant for cruelty that troubled even his fervent supporters. A purge of the senate soon followed. Included among the victims was Pertinax's father-in-law, Sulpicianus.

Severus and the Roman Military
Severus brought many changes to the Roman military. Soldiers' pay was increased by half, they were allowed to be married while in service, and greater opportunities were provided for promotion into officer ranks and the civil service. The entire praetorian guard, discredited by the murder of Pertinax and the auctioning of their support to Julianus, was dismissed. The emperor created a new, larger praetorian guard out of provincial soldiers from the legions. Increases were also made to the two other security forces based in Rome: the urban cohorts, who maintained order; and the night watch, who fought fires and dealt with overnight disturbances, break-ins and other petty crime. These military reforms proved expensive, but the measures may well have increased soldiers' performance and morale in an increasingly unsettled age.

One location that remained unsettled was the eastern frontier. In 197 Nisibis had again been under siege, and the emperor prepared for another eastern campaign. Three new legions were raised, though one was left behind in central Italy to maintain order. The Roman armies easily swept through upper Mesopotamia, traveling down the Euphrates to sack Seleucia, Babylon and Ctesiphon, which had been abandoned by the Parthian king Vologaeses V. On 28 January 198 -- the centenary of Trajan's accession -- Severus took the victorious title Parthicus Maximus and promoted both of his sons: Caracalla to the rank of Augustus and Geta to the rank of Caesar.

Before embarking on the eastern campaign, the emperor had named Gaius Fulvius Plautianus as a praetorian prefect. Plautianus came from the emperor's home town of Lepcis, and the prefect may even have been a relative of the emperor. The victories in Mesopotamia were followed by tours of eastern provinces, including Egypt. Plautianus accompanied Severus throughout the travels, and by the year 201 Plautianus was the emperor's closest confidant and advisor. Plautianus was also praetorian prefect without peer after having arranged the murder of his last colleague in the post.

Upon the return to Rome in 202, the influence of Plautianus was at its height. Comparisons were made with Sejanus, the powerful praetorian prefect under the emperor Tiberius. Plautianus, who earlier had been adlected into the senate, was now awarded consular rank, and his daughter Plautilla was married to Caracalla. The wealth Plautianus had acquired from his close connection with the emperor enabled him to provide a dowry said to have been worthy of fifty princesses. Celebrations and games also marked the decennalia, the beginning of the tenth year of Severus' reign. Later in the year the enlarged imperial family traveled to Lepcis, where native sons Severus and Plautianus could display their prestige and power.

The following year the imperial family returned to Rome, where an arch, still standing today, was dedicated to the emperor at the western end of the Forum. Preparations were also being made for the Secular Games, which were thought to have originated in earliest Rome and were to be held every 110 years. Augustus celebrated the Secular Games in 17 B.C., and Domitian in A.D. 88, six years too early. (Claudius used the excuse of Rome's 800th year to hold the games in A.D. 47.) In 204 Severus would preside over ten days of ceremonies and spectacles.

By the end of 204, Plautianus was finding his influence with the emperor on the wane. Caracalla was not happy to be the husband of Plautilla. Julia Domna resented Plautianus' criticisms and investigations against her. Severus was tiring of his praetorian prefect's ostentation, which at times seemed to surpass that of the emperor himself. The emperor's ailing brother, Geta, also denounced Plautianus, and after Geta's death the praetorian prefect found himself being bypassed by the emperor. In January 205 a soldier named Saturninus revealed to the emperor a plot by Plautianus to have Severus and Caracalla killed. Plautianus was summoned to the imperial palace and executed. His children were exiled, and Caracalla divorced Plautilla. Some observers suspected the story of a plot was merely a ruse to cover up long-term plans for Plautianus' removal.

Severus and Roman Law
Two new praetorian prefects were named to replace Plautianus, one of whom was the eminent jurist Papinian. The emperor's position as ultimate appeals judge had brought an ever-increasing legal workload to his office. During the second century, a career path for legal experts was established, and an emperor came to rely heavily upon his consilium, an advisory panel of experienced jurists, in rendering decisions. Severus brought these jurists to even greater prominence. A diligent administrator and conscientious judge, the emperor appreciated legal reasoning and nurtured its development. His reign ushered in the golden age of Roman jurisprudence, and his court employed the talents of the three greatest Roman lawyers: Papinian, Paul and Ulpian.

The order Severus was able to impose on the empire through both the force of arms and the force of law failed to extend to his own family. His now teenaged sons, Caracalla and Geta, displayed a reckless sibling rivalry that sometimes resulted in physical injury. The emperor believed the lack of responsibilities in Rome contributed to the ill-will between his sons and decided that the family would travel to Britain to oversee military operations there. Caracalla was involved in directing the army's campaigns, while Geta was given civilian authority and a promotion to joint emperor with his father and brother.

Severus was now into his 60s. Chronic gout limited his activities and sapped his strength. The emperor's health continued to deteriorate in Britain, and he became ever more intent on trying to improve the bitter relationship between his two sons. He is reported to have given his sons three pieces of advice: "Get along; pay off the soldiers; and disregard everyone else." The first piece of advice would not be heeded.

Severus died in York on 4 February 211 at the age of 65. His reign lasted nearly 18 years, a duration that would not be matched until Diocletian. Culturally and ideologically Septimius Severus connected his reign to the earlier Antonine era, but the reforms he enacted would eventually alter the very character of Roman government. By creating a larger and more expensive army and increasing the influence of lawyers in administration, Severus planted the seeds that would develop into the highly militaristic and bureaucratic government of the later empire.

Copyright (C) 1998, Michael L. Meckler. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis, An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors; http://www.roman-emperors.org/sepsev.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
MacrinusDiadumenian_Hygeia_Marcianopolis.jpg
[1006a] Macrinus, 11 April 217 - 8 June 218 A.D.; Diadumenian, mid May - 8 June 218 A.D.26 viewsMacrinus and Diadumenian, AMNG 750, 217-218 AD, 12.4 g, 27.25 mm; Moesia Inferior Marcianopolis; aVF; Obverse: Busts of Macrinus and Diadumenian facing each other; Reverse: Rv.: Asklepios standing left, with snake coiled on staff, lovely jade green patina; Ex Colosseum; Ex Ancient Imports.


De Imperatoribus Romanis,
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Macrinus (217-218 A.D.)

Michael L. Meckler
Ohio State University


Marcus Opellius Macrinus was the first emperor who was neither a senator nor of a senatorial family at the time of his accession. His 14-month reign was spent entirely in the East, where he proved unable to maintain the influence gained in the region by the campaigns of his predecessor, Caracalla, nor was Macrinus able to shake the suspicion that he was responsible for Caracalla's murder.

Macrinus was born in Caesarea in Mauretania around the year 165 AD. While it is highly conjectural that, as a young man, the future emperor was the dedicatee of Ampelius' encyclopedic Liber memoralis, Macrinus undoubtedly received a literary education that enabled him to rise high as a bureaucrat in the imperial service during the reign of the emperor Severus. Caracalla made Macrinus a praetorian prefect, an equestrian post that was second to the emperor in power. Macrinus shared the position with the experienced soldier Adventus, and the pair served Caracalla during the emperor's campaigns in the East.

By the end of the second campaigning season in the winter of 216-17, rumors were flying both in Rome and in the East that Macrinus was promoting himself as a possible future emperor. Caracalla must have been aware of the rumors concerning Macrinus, for the contemporary historian Cassius Dio notes the emperor was already reassigning members of Macrinus' staff. Such personnel moves may have accelerated Macrinus' plot.

Shortly before the campaigning season was to begin, Caracalla paid a visit to a temple near Carrhae. The emperor was accompanied by a hand-picked corps of bodyguards. The guards returned with Caracalla's murdered body, along with the body of one of the guards and a story that the dead guard killed the dead emperor. Not everyone was convinced, but Macrinus was able to translate his authority as praetorian prefect into that of emperor, being proclaimed by the troops on 11 April 217. Macrinus soon named his son, Diadumenianus, as Caesar and heir. The new emperor also got his former colleague, Adventus, out of the way by sending him back to Rome as urban prefect.

Macrinus straightaway sent conciliatory messages to the Parthian ruler Artabanus V, but Artabanus sensed weakness and raised an army to avenge his losses from the previous year's campaign. Macrinus hoped to avoid a battle with the Parthians, but fighting erupted between the armies while both sides were encamped around Nisibis. The Parthians gained victory and, during the following autumn and winter, peace negotiations were held. Macrinus ended up paying the Parthians large bribes and reparations. Settlements were also reached with the Armenians, and, in the lower Danube, with the Dacians, who had launched attacks on the Romans after learning of Caracalla's death.

By not returning to Rome in 217, Macrinus opened himself to criticism. Dissatisfaction was especially high in the city after a particularly violent, late-August thunderstorm started a fire that damaged much of the Colosseum and caused widespread flooding, especially in the Forum. Adventus proved himself incompetent as urban prefect and had to be replaced.

But grumblings in Rome were insignificant compared to the growing unease among the soldiers on campaign in the East. The defeat at Nisibis disheartened troops. Macrinus also introduced an unpopular, two-tier pay system in which new recruits received less money than veterans. The move was a way to save money after the pay raise granted by Caracalla, but it lowered morale as well.

Earlier, Caracalla's mother, Julia Domna, had toyed with the idea of raising a rebellion against Macrinus shortly after her son's murder, but the empress was uncertain of success and already suffering from breast cancer. She chose to starve herself to death instead.

The grandchildren of her sister, Julia Maesa, would become the focus of the successful uprising that began on 15 May 218. Her 14-year-old grandson Avitus (known to history as Elagabalus) was proclaimed emperor by one the legions camped near the family's hometown of Emesa. Other troops quickly joined the rebellion, but Macrinus marshalled loyal soldiers to crush the revolt. Macrinus also promoted his son to the rank of emperor.

The forces met in a village outside Antioch on 8 June 218. Despite the inexperience of the leaders of the rebel army, Macrinus was defeated. He sent his son, Diadumenianus, with an ambassador to the Parthian king, while Macrinus himself prepared to flee to Rome. Macrinus traveled across Asia Minor disguised as a courier and nearly made it to Europe, but he was captured in Chalcedon. Macrinus was transported to Cappadocia, where he was executed. Diadumenianus had also been captured (at Zeugma) and was similarly put to death.

Contemporaries tended to portray Macrinus as a fear-driven parvenu who was able to make himself emperor but was incapable of the leadership required by the job. An able administrator, Macrinus lacked the aristocratic connections and personal bravado that might have won him legitimacy. His short reign represented a brief interlude of Parthian success during what would prove the final decade of the Parthian empire.

Copyright (C) 1997, Michael L. Meckler. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis, An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors;http://www.roman-emperors.org/macrinus.htm. Used by permission.

Diadumenian
Much of what we know of Diadumenianus comes to us from the unreliable Scriptores Historiae Augustae. While it is true that Curtius does give the boy-Emperor some copy, suffice it to say that Diadumenian was the son of Macrinus and made Caesar at the age of nine in 217 A.D. and Augustus in 218. After his father's defeat he fled towards Parthia but was overtaken and executed.
http://www.forumancientcoins.com/catalog/roman-and-greek-coins.asp?vpar=573&pos=0

A very minor player in the history of Rome, Diadumenian is most conspicuous because of his impressive issue of Greek Imperial (Roman Privincial) coinage, most notably in Moesia Inferior.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
1 commentsCleisthenes
SeverusAlexanderRIC70RSC325s.jpg
[1009a] Severus Alexander, 13 March 222 - March 235 A.D.83 viewsSilver denarius, RIC 70, RSC 325, S -, EF, Rome mint, 2.803g, 20.7mm, 0o, 227 A.D.; Obverse: IMP C M AVR SEV ALEXAND AVG, laureate and draped bust right; Reverse: P M TR P VI COS II P P, Emperor standing left, sacrificing from patera in right over a tripod, scroll in left; cameo-like obverse with toned portrait and legend and bright fields, slightly frosty surfaces, details of head on reverse figure unstruck, slightly irregular flan. Ex FORVM.

In this year Ardashir invaded Parthia and established the Sassanid Dynasty, which claimed direct descent from Xerxes and Darius. The Eastern power grew stronger and the threat to the Romans immense.

Marcus Aurelius Severus Alexander was promoted from Caesar to Augustus after the murder of his cousin, Elagabalus. His reign was marked by great economic prosperity, and he enjoyed great success against the barbarian tribes. His mother Julia Mamaea was the real power in the empire, controlling her son's policies and even his personal life with great authority. Severus had an oratory where he prayed under the edict, written on the wall, "Do not unto others what you would not have done to yourself" and the images of various prophets including Mithras, Zoroaster, Abraham and Jesus. Mutinous soldiers led by Maximinus I murdered both Severus Alexander and his mother (Joseph Sermarini).

De Imeratoribus Romanis,
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Alexander Severus (A.D. 222-235)

Herbert W. Benario
Emory University

Introduction and Sources
"But as Alexander was a modest and dutiful youth, of only seventeen years of age, the reins of government were in the hands of two women, of his mother Mamaea, and of Maesa, his grandmother. After the death of the latter, who survived but a short time the elevation of Alexander, Mamaea remained the sole regent of her son and of the empire." (Gibbon, Decline and Fall, chap. 6: Modern Library Edition, p. 130)

"As the imperial system developed, it disclosed its various arcana one by one. How much does the personality of the ruler matter? Less and less, it should seem. Be he boy, buffoon, or philosopher, his conduct may not have much effect on the administration. Habit and routine took over, with groups and grades of bureaucrats at hand to fill the posts." (Syme, Emperors and Biography, 146)

The passages quoted above emphasize two important aspects of the principate of Severus Alexander (or Alexander Severus), his youth and the influence of women during his reign. The significance of the latter invites brief discourse about the four women known as the "Severan Julias," whose origin was Syria. Julia Domna became the second wife of Septimius Severus and bore him two sons, the later emperors Caracalla and Geta. Her role in the administration of her husband was significant, which her expansive titulature, "mother of the camp and the senate and the country," reflected. Her sister, Julia Maesa, had two daughters, each of whom produced a son who was to become emperor. Julia Soaemias was the mother of Elagabalus, and shared his fate when he was assassinated. Julia Mamaea bore Alexander, who succeeded his cousin; he was very young and hence much under the control of grandmother and mother. For the first time in its imperial history, the empire of Rome was de facto, though not de iure, governed by women.

The literary sources, while numerous, are limited in value. Chief among them, at least in scope, is the biography in the Historia Augusta, much the longest of all the lives in this peculiar collection. Though purporting to be the work of six authors in the early fourth century, it is now generally considered to have been produced by one author writing in the last years of this century. Spacious in its treatment of the emperor and extremely favorable to him on the whole, it has little historical merit, seeming rather an extended work of fiction. It must be used with the utmost caution.

Herodian, whose history covered the period 180-238, was a contemporary of Severus Alexander, and his coverage of the latter's reign is extensive. Another contemporary, Dio Cassius, who was consul in 229 and whose judgments would have been most valuable, is unfortunately useless here, since his history survives only in abbreviated form and covers barely a page of printed text for the whole reign (Book 80). Aurelius Victor, Eutropius, the Epitome de Caesaribus, and other Latin sources are extremely brief, informing us of only the occasional anecdote. Christian writers make minimal contribution; legal texts offer much instruction, particularly those dealing with or stemming from Ulpian; coins, inscriptions, papyri, and archaeology help fill the gaps left by the literary sources.

Early Life and Education
The future emperor was born in Arca Caesarea in Phoenicia on October 1, 208 although some sources put the date three years earlier (as Gibbon assumed, see above), the son of Gessius Marcianus, whose career advanced in the equestrian cursus, and of Julia Mamaea, niece of the then empress, Julia Domna, wife of Septimius Severus. He was raised quietly and well educated, at the instance of his mother. He came into the public eye only in 218, when, after Macrinus' murder of Caracalla and accession to the purple, he and his mother were declared hostes publici. In June of that year, Elagabalus defeated Macrinus and succeeded him as emperor. Alexander and Mamaea were soon rehabilitated. As his cousin's activities, religious, political, and personal, became increasingly unacceptable, Alexander was drawn ever more into public life. In mid 221, he assumed the toga virilis, was adopted by Elagabalus as a colleague, was granted the name Alexander, and elevated to the rank of Caesar. There had been talk that he was the illegitimate child of Caracalla, which won him support among the army, and this was confirmed, at least for public consumption, by his filiation in the official titulature back to Septimius. He was now styled Imp. Caes. M. Aurelii Antonini Pii Felicis Aug. fil., divi Antonini Magni Pii nepos, divi Severi pronepos M. Aurelius Alexander, nobilissimus Caesar imperi et sacerdotis, princeps iuventutis. The connection with Septimius Severus was crucial, since he was the only one of these predecessors who had been deified. Alexander was about 12½ years old. Less than a year later, on March 13, 222, with the murder of Elagabalus, Alexander was hailed as emperor by the army. He considered this date as his dies imperii. He became thereby the youngest emperor in Rome's history. He was immediately thereafter given the titles of Augustus, pater patriae, and pontifex maximus.

His Principate; Grandmother, Mother, Ulpian
Having had no experience in government, the young emperor was largely dependent upon the two senior women in his life to guide his actions. His grandmother, Julia Maesa, may well have died as early as 223, so that his mother, Julia Mamaea, played the major role in the empire's administration from early on until the end. The only other figures who could rival her were the two Praetorian Prefects, both eminent jurists, Ulpian and Paulus, who are well-known to us because of the numerous citations of their legal views and administrative decisions preserved in the Corpus Iuris Civilis. Both were members of Alexander's consilium. Alexander attempted to restore some of the senate's prestige and functions, but with little success. He was even unable to protect Ulpian against the anger of the praetorians, who then murdered the jurist in 223.

Had his principate been peaceful, he might have developed into a significant emperor, certainly in comparison with his immediate predecessors. He was married once, in 225 to Sallustia Orbiana, who received the official titulature Sallustia Barbia Orbiana Augusta, but she was banished to Libya two years later. Her father, L. Seius Sallustius, was perhaps raised to the rank of Caesar by Alexander and was put to death in 227 on a charge of attempted murder of the emperor. The only other recorded uprising against Alexander is that of Taurinus, who was hailed as Augustus but drowned himself in the Euphrates.

According to the HA life, Alexander was a "good" person, and his mother certainly attempted to guide him well, but much of the last decade of his reign was preoccupied with serious military threats against the empire's prestige, nay existence. In those dangerous circumstances, his abilities, which had not earlier been honed, proved inadequate.

Domestic Policy
Perhaps the greatest service which Alexander furnished Rome, certainly at the beginning of his reign, was the return to a sense of sanity and tradition after the madness and fanaticism of Elagabalus. He is said to have honored and worshipped a variety of individuals, including Christ. His amiability assisted his relationship with the senate, which gained in honor under him without any real increase in its power. Besides jurists in high office, literary figures were also so distinguished; Marius Maximus, the biographer, and Dio Cassius, the historian, gained second consulships, the former in 223, the latter in 229.

The emperor's building program made its mark upon the face of Rome. The last of the eleven great aqueducts, the aqua Alexandrina, was put into service in 226; he also rebuilt the thermae Neronianae in the Campus Martius in the following year and gave them his own name. Of the other constructions, perhaps the most intriguing are the Diaetae Mammaeae, apartments which he built for his mother on the Palatine.

The Persian and German Wars
The first great external challenge appeared in the east, where the Parthian dynasty, which had ruled the Iranian plateau and other large areas for centuries, and who for long had been one of Rome's great rivals, was overthrown by the Persian family of the Sassanids by 227. They aspired to restore their domain to include all the Asian lands which had been ruled in the glory days of the Persian Empire. Since this included Asia Minor as well as all other eastern provinces, the stage was set for continuing clashes with Rome.

These began late in the decade, with significant success early on for the Sassanids. But Rome gradually developed a defense against these incursions, and ultimately the emperor, with his mother and staff, went to the east in 231. There actual military command rested in the hands of his generals, but his presence gave additional weight to the empire's policy. Persia's early successes soon faded as Rome's armies brought their power and experience to bear. The result was an acceptance of the status quo rather than a settlement between the parties. This occurred in 233 and Alexander returned to Rome. His presence in the west was required by a German threat, particularly along the Rhine, where the tribes took advantage of the withdrawal of Roman troops for the eastern war.

In 234, Alexander and Julia Mammaea moved to Moguntiacum (Mainz), the capital of Upper Germany. The military situation had improved with the return of troops from the east, and an ambitious offensive campaign was planned, for which a bridge was built across the Rhine. But Alexander preferred to negotiate for peace by buying off the enemy. This policy outraged the soldiers, who mutinied in mid March 235 and killed the emperor and his mother. He had reached the age of 26½ years and had been emperor for almost precisely half his life. He was deified by the senate and received other posthumous honors. With the accession of Maximinus Thrax, the Severan dynasty came to an end.

Death and Evaluation
Tacitus' famous dictum about Galba, that he was properly considered capax imperii, capable of being emperor, until he showed, when emperor, that he was not, could never have been applied to Severus Alexander. A child when chance brought him to the principate, with only two recommendations, that he was different from Elagabalus and that he was part of the Severan family, he proved to be inadequate for the challenges of the time. Military experience was the prime attribute of an emperor now, which Alexander did not have, and that lack ultimately cost him his life. Guided by his mother and employing the services of distinguished men, he returned dignity to the imperial household and to the state. He did the best he could, but that best was not good enough in the early decades of the third century A.D., with the great threats from east and north challenging Rome's primacy and, indeed, existence.

Copyright (C) 2001, Herbert W. Benario. Published on De Imeratoribus Romanis, An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors; http://www.roman-emperors.org/alexsev.htm . Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
SevAl.jpg
[1009b] Severus Alexander, 13 March 222 - March 235 A.D.110 viewsSilver denarius, RIC 19, S -, aF, Rome, 2.806g, 20.0mm, 0o, 223 A.D.; obverse IMP C M AVR SEV ALEXAND AVG, laureate and draped bust right; reverse P M TR P II COS P P, Jupiter standing left cloak over arms, holding long scepter and thunderbolt. Nice portrait. Ex FORVM.

Marcus Aurelius Severus Alexander was promoted from Caesar to Augustus after the murder of his cousin, Elagabalus. His reign was marked by great economic prosperity, and he enjoyed great success against the barbarian tribes. His mother Julia Mamaea was the real power in the empire, controlling her son's policies and even his personal life with great authority. Severus had an oratory where he prayed under the edict, written on the wall, "Do not unto others what you would not have done to yourself" and the images of various prophets including Mithras, Zoroaster, Abraham and Jesus. Mutinous soldiers led by Maximinus I murdered both Severus Alexander and his mother (Joseph Sermarini).


De Imeratoribus Romanis,
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Alexander Severus (A.D. 222-235)

Herbert W. Benario
Emory University

Introduction and Sources
"But as Alexander was a modest and dutiful youth, of only seventeen years of age, the reins of government were in the hands of two women, of his mother Mamaea, and of Maesa, his grandmother. After the death of the latter, who survived but a short time the elevation of Alexander, Mamaea remained the sole regent of her son and of the empire." (Gibbon, Decline and Fall, chap. 6: Modern Library Edition, p. 130)

"As the imperial system developed, it disclosed its various arcana one by one. How much does the personality of the ruler matter? Less and less, it should seem. Be he boy, buffoon, or philosopher, his conduct may not have much effect on the administration. Habit and routine took over, with groups and grades of bureaucrats at hand to fill the posts." (Syme, Emperors and Biography, 146)

The passages quoted above emphasize two important aspects of the principate of Severus Alexander (or Alexander Severus), his youth and the influence of women during his reign. The significance of the latter invites brief discourse about the four women known as the "Severan Julias," whose origin was Syria. Julia Domna became the second wife of Septimius Severus and bore him two sons, the later emperors Caracalla and Geta. Her role in the administration of her husband was significant, which her expansive titulature, "mother of the camp and the senate and the country," reflected. Her sister, Julia Maesa, had two daughters, each of whom produced a son who was to become emperor. Julia Soaemias was the mother of Elagabalus, and shared his fate when he was assassinated. Julia Mamaea bore Alexander, who succeeded his cousin; he was very young and hence much under the control of grandmother and mother. For the first time in its imperial history, the empire of Rome was de facto, though not de iure, governed by women.

The literary sources, while numerous, are limited in value. Chief among them, at least in scope, is the biography in the Historia Augusta, much the longest of all the lives in this peculiar collection. Though purporting to be the work of six authors in the early fourth century, it is now generally considered to have been produced by one author writing in the last years of this century. Spacious in its treatment of the emperor and extremely favorable to him on the whole, it has little historical merit, seeming rather an extended work of fiction. It must be used with the utmost caution.

Herodian, whose history covered the period 180-238, was a contemporary of Severus Alexander, and his coverage of the latter's reign is extensive. Another contemporary, Dio Cassius, who was consul in 229 and whose judgments would have been most valuable, is unfortunately useless here, since his history survives only in abbreviated form and covers barely a page of printed text for the whole reign (Book 80). Aurelius Victor, Eutropius, the Epitome de Caesaribus, and other Latin sources are extremely brief, informing us of only the occasional anecdote. Christian writers make minimal contribution; legal texts offer much instruction, particularly those dealing with or stemming from Ulpian; coins, inscriptions, papyri, and archaeology help fill the gaps left by the literary sources.

Early Life and Education
The future emperor was born in Arca Caesarea in Phoenicia on October 1, 208 although some sources put the date three years earlier (as Gibbon assumed, see above), the son of Gessius Marcianus, whose career advanced in the equestrian cursus, and of Julia Mamaea, niece of the then empress, Julia Domna, wife of Septimius Severus. He was raised quietly and well educated, at the instance of his mother. He came into the public eye only in 218, when, after Macrinus' murder of Caracalla and accession to the purple, he and his mother were declared hostes publici. In June of that year, Elagabalus defeated Macrinus and succeeded him as emperor. Alexander and Mamaea were soon rehabilitated. As his cousin's activities, religious, political, and personal, became increasingly unacceptable, Alexander was drawn ever more into public life. In mid 221, he assumed the toga virilis, was adopted by Elagabalus as a colleague, was granted the name Alexander, and elevated to the rank of Caesar. There had been talk that he was the illegitimate child of Caracalla, which won him support among the army, and this was confirmed, at least for public consumption, by his filiation in the official titulature back to Septimius. He was now styled Imp. Caes. M. Aurelii Antonini Pii Felicis Aug. fil., divi Antonini Magni Pii nepos, divi Severi pronepos M. Aurelius Alexander, nobilissimus Caesar imperi et sacerdotis, princeps iuventutis. The connection with Septimius Severus was crucial, since he was the only one of these predecessors who had been deified. Alexander was about 12½ years old. Less than a year later, on March 13, 222, with the murder of Elagabalus, Alexander was hailed as emperor by the army. He considered this date as his dies imperii. He became thereby the youngest emperor in Rome's history. He was immediately thereafter given the titles of Augustus, pater patriae, and pontifex maximus.

His Principate; Grandmother, Mother, Ulpian
Having had no experience in government, the young emperor was largely dependent upon the two senior women in his life to guide his actions. His grandmother, Julia Maesa, may well have died as early as 223, so that his mother, Julia Mamaea, played the major role in the empire's administration from early on until the end. The only other figures who could rival her were the two Praetorian Prefects, both eminent jurists, Ulpian and Paulus, who are well-known to us because of the numerous citations of their legal views and administrative decisions preserved in the Corpus Iuris Civilis. Both were members of Alexander's consilium. Alexander attempted to restore some of the senate's prestige and functions, but with little success. He was even unable to protect Ulpian against the anger of the praetorians, who then murdered the jurist in 223.

Had his principate been peaceful, he might have developed into a significant emperor, certainly in comparison with his immediate predecessors. He was married once, in 225 to Sallustia Orbiana, who received the official titulature Sallustia Barbia Orbiana Augusta, but she was banished to Libya two years later. Her father, L. Seius Sallustius, was perhaps raised to the rank of Caesar by Alexander and was put to death in 227 on a charge of attempted murder of the emperor. The only other recorded uprising against Alexander is that of Taurinus, who was hailed as Augustus but drowned himself in the Euphrates.

According to the HA life, Alexander was a "good" person, and his mother certainly attempted to guide him well, but much of the last decade of his reign was preoccupied with serious military threats against the empire's prestige, nay existence. In those dangerous circumstances, his abilities, which had not earlier been honed, proved inadequate.

Domestic Policy
Perhaps the greatest service which Alexander furnished Rome, certainly at the beginning of his reign, was the return to a sense of sanity and tradition after the madness and fanaticism of Elagabalus. He is said to have honored and worshipped a variety of individuals, including Christ. His amiability assisted his relationship with the senate, which gained in honor under him without any real increase in its power. Besides jurists in high office, literary figures were also so distinguished; Marius Maximus, the biographer, and Dio Cassius, the historian, gained second consulships, the former in 223, the latter in 229.

The emperor's building program made its mark upon the face of Rome. The last of the eleven great aqueducts, the aqua Alexandrina, was put into service in 226; he also rebuilt the thermae Neronianae in the Campus Martius in the following year and gave them his own name. Of the other constructions, perhaps the most intriguing are the Diaetae Mammaeae, apartments which he built for his mother on the Palatine.

The Persian and German Wars
The first great external challenge appeared in the east, where the Parthian dynasty, which had ruled the Iranian plateau and other large areas for centuries, and who for long had been one of Rome's great rivals, was overthrown by the Persian family of the Sassanids by 227. They aspired to restore their domain to include all the Asian lands which had been ruled in the glory days of the Persian Empire. Since this included Asia Minor as well as all other eastern provinces, the stage was set for continuing clashes with Rome.

These began late in the decade, with significant success early on for the Sassanids. But Rome gradually developed a defense against these incursions, and ultimately the emperor, with his mother and staff, went to the east in 231. There actual military command rested in the hands of his generals, but his presence gave additional weight to the empire's policy. Persia's early successes soon faded as Rome's armies brought their power and experience to bear. The result was an acceptance of the status quo rather than a settlement between the parties. This occurred in 233 and Alexander returned to Rome. His presence in the west was required by a German threat, particularly along the Rhine, where the tribes took advantage of the withdrawal of Roman troops for the eastern war.

In 234, Alexander and Julia Mammaea moved to Moguntiacum (Mainz), the capital of Upper Germany. The military situation had improved with the return of troops from the east, and an ambitious offensive campaign was planned, for which a bridge was built across the Rhine. But Alexander preferred to negotiate for peace by buying off the enemy. This policy outraged the soldiers, who mutinied in mid March 235 and killed the emperor and his mother. He had reached the age of 26½ years and had been emperor for almost precisely half his life. He was deified by the senate and received other posthumous honors. With the accession of Maximinus Thrax, the Severan dynasty came to an end.

Death and Evaluation
Tacitus' famous dictum about Galba, that he was properly considered capax imperii, capable of being emperor, until he showed, when emperor, that he was not, could never have been applied to Severus Alexander. A child when chance brought him to the principate, with only two recommendations, that he was different from Elagabalus and that he was part of the Severan family, he proved to be inadequate for the challenges of the time. Military experience was the prime attribute of an emperor now, which Alexander did not have, and that lack ultimately cost him his life. Guided by his mother and employing the services of distinguished men, he returned dignity to the imperial household and to the state. He did the best he could, but that best was not good enough in the early decades of the third century A.D., with the great threats from east and north challenging Rome's primacy and, indeed, existence.

Copyright (C) 2001, Herbert W. Benario. Published on De Imeratoribus Romanis, An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors; http://www.roman-emperors.org/alexsev.htm . Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
Phil2AE21.jpeg
[103b] Macedonian Kingdom, Philip II, 359 - 336 B.C.56 viewsMacedonian Kingdom, Philip II, 359 - 336 B.C. Bronze AE 21, Heavy or Double Unit, SNG ANS 833, aVF, 8.40g, 21.2mm, 0o, lifetime issue. Obverse: head Apollo right, wearing tania; Reverse: FILIPPOU, young male rider right, right hand raised, E right.
Ex FORVM.

Philip II expanded the size and influence of the Macedonian Kingdom, but is perhaps best known as the father of Alexander the Great. He personally selected the design of his coins.

Struck in commemoration of Philip's Olympic victory. This is one of his earliest issues in bronze.

Philip II of Macedon (382 BC–336 BC; in Greek Φίλιππος = φίλος (friend) + ίππος (horse), transliterated Philippos) was the King of Macedon from 359 BC until his assassination. He was the father of Alexander the Great, Phillip III Arrhidaeus, and possibly Ptolemy I Soter, founder of the Ptolemaic dynasty.

Born in Pella, Philip was the youngest son of King Amyntas III and Eurydice. In his youth, (ca. 368 BC–365 BC) Philip was a hostage in Thebes, which was the leading city of Greece during the Theban hegemony. While a captive there, Philip received a military and diplomatic education from Epaminondas, was involved in a pederastic relationship with Pelopidas and lived with Pammenes, who was an enthusiastic advocate of the Sacred Band of Thebes. In 364 BC, Philip returned to Macedonia. The deaths of Philip's elder brothers, King Alexander II and Perdiccas III, allowed him to take the throne in 359 BC. Originally appointed regent for his infant nephew Amyntas IV, who was the son of Perdiccas III, Philip managed to take the kingdom for himself that same year.

Philip's military skills and expansionist vision of Macedonian greatness brought him early success. The hill tribes were broken by a single battle in 358 BC, and Philip established his authority inland as far as Lake Ohrid. He used the Social War as an opportunity for expansion. In 357 BC, he took the Athenian colony of Amphipolis, which commanded the gold mines of Mount Pangaion. That same year Philip married the Epirote princess Olympias, who was the daughter of the king of the Molossians. In 356 BC, Philip conquered the town of Crenides and changed its name to Philippi. Philip also attacked Abdera and Maronea, on the Thracian sea-board. Also in 356 Alexander was born and his race horse won in the Olympics in He took Methone in 354 BC, a town which had belonged to Athens. During the siege of Methone, Philip lost an eye.

Not until his armies were opposed by Athens at Thermopylae in 352 BC did Philip face any serious resistance. Philip did not attempt to advance into central Greece because the Athenians had occupied Thermopylae. Also in 352 BC, the Macedonian army won a complete victory over the Phocians at the Battle of Crocus Field. This battle made Philip tagus of Thessaly, and he claimed as his own Magnesia, with the important harbour of Pagasae.
Hostilities with Athens did not yet take place, but Athens was threatened by the Macedonian party which Philip's gold created in Euboea. From 352 to 346 BC, Philip did not again come south. He was active in completing the subjugation of the Balkan hill-country to the west and north, and in reducing the Greek cities of the coast as far as the Hebrus (Maritza). For the chief of these coastal cities, Olynthus, Philip continued to profess friendship until its neighboring cities were in his hands.

In 349 BC, Philip started the siege of Olynthus. Olynthus at first allied itself with Philip, but later shifted its allegiance to Athens. The Athenians did nothing to help Olynthus. Philip finally took Olynthus in 348 BC and razed the city to the ground. In 346 BC, he intervened effectively in the war between Thebes and the Phocians, but his wars with Athens continued intermittently.

Macedonia and the regions adjoining it having now been securely consolidated, Philip celebrated his Olympic games at Dium. In 347 BC, Philip advanced to the conquest of the eastern districts about the Hebrus, and compelled the submission of the Thracian prince Cersobleptes. Meanwhile, Athens had made overtures for peace, and when Philip, in 346 BC, again moved south, peace was sworn in Thessaly. With key Greek city-states in submission, Philip turned to Sparta; he sent them a message, "You are advised to submit without further delay, for if I bring my army into your land, I will destroy your farms, slay your people, and raze your city." Their reply was "If." Philip and Alexander would both leave them alone. Later, the Macedonian arms were carried across Epirus to the Adriatic Sea. In 342 BC, Philip led a great military expedition north against the Scythians, conquering the Thracian fortified settlement Eumolpia to give it his name, Philippoupolis (modern Plovdiv).

In 340 BC, Philip started the siege of Perinthus. Philip began another siege in 339 BC of the city of Byzantium. After unsuccessful sieges of both cities, Philip's influence all over Greece was compromised. However, Philip successfully reasserted his authority in the Aegean by defeating an alliance of Thebans and Athenians at the Battle of Chaeronea in 338 BC. He erected a memorial of a marble lion to the Sacred Band of Thebes for their bravery that still stands today. Philip created and led the League of Corinth in 337 BC. Members of the League agreed never to wage war against each other, unless it was to suppress revolution. Philip was elected as leader (hegemon) of the army of invasion against the Persian Empire. In 336 BC, when the invasion of Persia was in its very early stage, Philip was assassinated, and was succeeded on the throne of Macedon by his son Alexander the Great.

Philip’s Assassination

The murder happened in October of 336 BC, at Aegae, the ancient capital of the kingdom of Macedon. The court had gathered there for the celebration of the marriage between Alexander of Epirus and Philip's daughter. While the king was entering unprotected into the town's theatre (highlighting his approachability to the Greek diplomats present), he was killed by Pausanias of Orestis, one of Philip's seven bodyguards. The assassin immediately tried to escape and reach his associates who were waiting for him with horses at the entrance of Aegae. He was pursued by three of Philip's bodyguards and died by their hands.
The reasons for Pausanias' assassination of Phillip are difficult to fully expound, since there was controversy already among ancient historians. The only contemporary account in our possession is that of Aristotle, who states rather tersely that Philip was killed because Pausanias had been offended by the followers of Attalus, the king's father-in-law.

Whatever else that may be written about Philip II it must be recognized that he was responsible for making Macedon the ascendant Greek power. He reorganized the Macedonian army. It was this army that Alexander the Great inherited. Phillip II trained some of his Alexander’s best generals: Antigonus Cyclops, Antipater, Nearchus, Parmenion, and Perdiccas.

While Alexander was a bold and charismatic leader, he owes much of his success to his father.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philip_II_of_Macedon
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.


Cleisthenes
Phillip2Ae.jpg
[103c] Macedonian Kingdom, Philip II, 359 - 336 B.C.44 viewsBronze AE Unit, SNG ANS 896, SNG Cop 589, F, 5.554g, 16.8mm, 0o, Macedonian mint, c. 359 - 336 B.C.; lifetime issue. Obverse: head Apollo right wearing tania; Reverse: FILIPPOU, young male riding horse prancing to right, AI below. Ex FORVM.


Philip II expanded the size and influence of the Macedonian Kingdom, but is perhaps best known as the father of Alexander the Great. He personally selected the design of his coins.

Philip II of Macedon (382 BC–336 BC; in Greek Φίλιππος = φίλος (friend) + ίππος (horse), transliterated Philippos) was the King of Macedon from 359 BC until his assassination. He was the father of Alexander the Great, Phillip III Arrhidaeus, and possibly Ptolemy I Soter, founder of the Ptolemaic dynasty.

Born in Pella, Philip was the youngest son of King Amyntas III and Eurydice. In his youth, (ca. 368 BC–365 BC) Philip was a hostage in Thebes, which was the leading city of Greece during the Theban hegemony. While a captive there, Philip received a military and diplomatic education from Epaminondas, was involved in a pederastic relationship with Pelopidas and lived with Pammenes, who was an enthusiastic advocate of the Sacred Band of Thebes. In 364 BC, Philip returned to Macedonia. The deaths of Philip's elder brothers, King Alexander II and Perdiccas III, allowed him to take the throne in 359 BC. Originally appointed regent for his infant nephew Amyntas IV, who was the son of Perdiccas III, Philip managed to take the kingdom for himself that same year.

Philip's military skills and expansionist vision of Macedonian greatness brought him early success. The hill tribes were broken by a single battle in 358 BC, and Philip established his authority inland as far as Lake Ohrid. He used the Social War as an opportunity for expansion. In 357 BC, he took the Athenian colony of Amphipolis, which commanded the gold mines of Mount Pangaion. That same year Philip married the Epirote princess Olympias, who was the daughter of the king of the Molossians. In 356 BC, Philip conquered the town of Crenides and changed its name to Philippi. Philip also attacked Abdera and Maronea, on the Thracian sea-board. Also in 356 Alexander was born and his race horse won in the Olympics in He took Methone in 354 BC, a town which had belonged to Athens. During the siege of Methone, Philip lost an eye.

Not until his armies were opposed by Athens at Thermopylae in 352 BC did Philip face any serious resistance. Philip did not attempt to advance into central Greece because the Athenians had occupied Thermopylae. Also in 352 BC, the Macedonian army won a complete victory over the Phocians at the Battle of Crocus Field. This battle made Philip tagus of Thessaly, and he claimed as his own Magnesia, with the important harbour of Pagasae.
Hostilities with Athens did not yet take place, but Athens was threatened by the Macedonian party which Philip's gold created in Euboea. From 352 to 346 BC, Philip did not again come south. He was active in completing the subjugation of the Balkan hill-country to the west and north, and in reducing the Greek cities of the coast as far as the Hebrus (Maritza). For the chief of these coastal cities, Olynthus, Philip continued to profess friendship until its neighboring cities were in his hands.

In 349 BC, Philip started the siege of Olynthus. Olynthus at first allied itself with Philip, but later shifted its allegiance to Athens. The Athenians did nothing to help Olynthus. Philip finally took Olynthus in 348 BC and razed the city to the ground. In 346 BC, he intervened effectively in the war between Thebes and the Phocians, but his wars with Athens continued intermittently.

Macedonia and the regions adjoining it having now been securely consolidated, Philip celebrated his Olympic games at Dium. In 347 BC, Philip advanced to the conquest of the eastern districts about the Hebrus, and compelled the submission of the Thracian prince Cersobleptes. Meanwhile, Athens had made overtures for peace, and when Philip, in 346 BC, again moved south, peace was sworn in Thessaly. With key Greek city-states in submission, Philip turned to Sparta; he sent them a message, "You are advised to submit without further delay, for if I bring my army into your land, I will destroy your farms, slay your people, and raze your city." Their reply was "If." Philip and Alexander would both leave them alone. Later, the Macedonian arms were carried across Epirus to the Adriatic Sea. In 342 BC, Philip led a great military expedition north against the Scythians, conquering the Thracian fortified settlement Eumolpia to give it his name, Philippoupolis (modern Plovdiv).

In 340 BC, Philip started the siege of Perinthus. Philip began another siege in 339 BC of the city of Byzantium. After unsuccessful sieges of both cities, Philip's influence all over Greece was compromised. However, Philip successfully reasserted his authority in the Aegean by defeating an alliance of Thebans and Athenians at the Battle of Chaeronea in 338 BC. He erected a memorial of a marble lion to the Sacred Band of Thebes for their bravery that still stands today. Philip created and led the League of Corinth in 337 BC. Members of the League agreed never to wage war against each other, unless it was to suppress revolution. Philip was elected as leader (hegemon) of the army of invasion against the Persian Empire. In 336 BC, when the invasion of Persia was in its very early stage, Philip was assassinated, and was succeeded on the throne of Macedon by his son Alexander the Great.

Philip’s Assassination

The murder happened in October of 336 BC, at Aegae, the ancient capital of the kingdom of Macedon. The court had gathered there for the celebration of the marriage between Alexander of Epirus and Philip's daughter. While the king was entering unprotected into the town's theatre (highlighting his approachability to the Greek diplomats present), he was killed by Pausanias of Orestis, one of Philip's seven bodyguards. The assassin immediately tried to escape and reach his associates who were waiting for him with horses at the entrance of Aegae. He was pursued by three of Philip's bodyguards and died by their hands.
The reasons for Pausanias' assassination of Phillip are difficult to fully expound, since there was controversy already among ancient historians. The only contemporary account in our possession is that of Aristotle, who states rather tersely that Philip was killed because Pausanias had been offended by the followers of Attalus, the king's father-in-law.

Whatever else that may be written about Philip II it must be recognized that he was responsible for making Macedon the ascendant Greek power. He reorganized the Macedonian army. It was this army that Alexander the Great inherited. Phillip II trained some of his Alexander’s best generals: Antigonus Cyclops, Antipater, Nearchus, Parmenion, and Perdiccas.

While Alexander was a bold and charismatic leader, he owes much of his success to his father.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philip_II_of_Macedon
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
TisnaiosSNGCop283.jpg
[103tis] Tisna, Aiolis, 350 - 300 B.C.171 viewsBronze AE 17, SNG Cop 283, choice gVF, 3.960g, 16.7mm, 180o; Obverse: horned head of river-god Tisnaios left, slightly facing; Reverse :TIS/NAION either side of one-handled cup; superb and unusual style!; rare. Ex FORVM.


The following research was done by Jochen (Tribunus Plebis, 2006; Procurator Caesaris; Caesar), a member extraordinaire of the FORVM Discussion Boards, and the originator and leading contributor to our Coins of Mythological Interest Board:

"Von Mogens Herman Hansen, Thomas Heine, An Inventory of Archaic and Classical Poleis, Oxford University Press, p.1051: 835. *Tisna (Tisnaia) Map 56. Lat. 38-45, long. 27.05 but see 'infra' C:? The toponym Tisna can be reconstructed from the city-ethnic attested by C4 coin legends (infra). Presumably the community took its name from the river Tisna, a personification of which was depicted on Tisna's coins. Tisna struck bronze coins in C4. Types: obv. beardless male head l., horned (river god Tisnaios); rev. one-handle vase, or spearhead, or sword in sheath; legend TISNAI or TISNAIO or TISNAIOS or TISNAION (Imhoof-Blumer (1883) 275 nos.241-42; Head, HN2 557; Robert (1937) 189; BMC Troas 149; SNG Cop Aeolis 283). The book I found under books.google.de It is the first lexicon of all identifiable Greek city states of the Archaic and Classical period (c. 650-325 BC).

You can see that Tisna must be a small city in Aiolis known only by its coins. It is not mentioned in 'Der kleine Pauly' nor depicted in my Historical Atlas.
[The emphasis is mine, J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.]


Aeolis (Ancient Greek Αιολίς Aiolís) or Aeolia was an area that comprised the west and northwestern region of Asia Minor, mostly along the coast, and also several offshore islands (particularly Lesbos), where the Aeolian Greek city-states were located. Aeolis incorporated the southern parts of Mysia which bounded it to the north, Ionia to the south, and Lydia to the east. In early times, the Aeolians' twelve most important cities were independent, and formed a league: Cyme (also called Phriconis), Larissae, Neonteichos, Temnus, Cilla, Notium, Aegiroessa, Pitane, Aegae, Myrina, Gryneia, and Smyrna.

According to Homer's description, Odysseus, after his stay with the Cyclopes, reached the island of Aeolus, who provided him with the west wind Zephyr.

Aeolis was an ancient district on the western coast of Asia Minor. It extended along the Aegean Sea from the entrance of the Hellespont (now the Dardanelles) south to the Hermus River (now the Gediz River). It was named for the Aeolians, some of whom migrated there from Greece before 1000 BC. Aeolis was, however, an ethnological and linguistic enclave rather than a geographical unit. The district often was considered part of the larger northwest region of Mysia.

By the 8th century BC, twelve of the southern Aeolian city-states were grouped together in a league. The most celebrated of the cities was Smyrna (modern Izmir, Turkey), but in 699 BC, Smyrna became part of an Ionian confederacy. The remaining cities were conquered by Croesus, king of Lydia (reigned 560-546 BC). Later they were held successively by the Persians, Macedonians, Seleucids, and Pergamenes. Attalus III, the last king of Pergamum, bequeathed Aeolis to Rome in 133 BC. Shortly afterward, it was made part of the Roman province of Asia. At the partition of the Roman Empire (395 AD), Aeolis was assigned to the East Roman (Byzantine) empire and remained under Byzantine rule until the early 1400s, when the Ottoman Turks occupied the area.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aeolis

Ed. by J.P.Fitzgerald, Jr.

Thank you, Jochen.
Cleisthenes
Philip1.jpg
[1107a] Philip I, 244-249 A.D.46 viewsPhilip I. 244-249 AD. AE Sestertius (33mm, 17.09 gm). Struck 248 AD. RIC IV 164.
Commemorative issue.

Philip I. 244-249 AD. AE Sestertius (33mm, 17.09 gm). Struck 248 AD. Obv.: Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right. Rev.: Octastyle temple with statue of Roma. RIC IV 164; Banti 52; Cohen 201. aVF. This issue commemorates the millenial anniversary of Rome.


De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Philip the Arab (244-249 A.D.)

Michael L. Meckler
Ohio State University

Marcus Julius Philippus rose from obscure origins to rule for five and one-half years as Rome's emperor. Only sketchy details of his life and reign have survived in the historical record. One of those details -- his ethnicity -- was latched onto by later historians, who called the emperor by the name Philip the Arab.

Background and Early Career
Philip the Arab seems to have been born sometime during the reign of Septimius Severus. He was born in the Roman province of Arabia, in what today is the village of Shahba, roughly 55 miles south-southeast of Damascus. The village was obscure at the time of Philip's birth, though once he became emperor, Philip renamed the community Philippopolis and embarked on a major building campaign. Little is known of Philip's father, save the name Julius Marinus. This name, however, indicates that the family held Roman citizenship and must have been locally prominent. Nothing is known of Philip's mother. At some point, probably in the 230s, Philip married Marcia Otacilia Severa. A son was born by 238 and named Marcus Julius Severus Philippus. Philip's early career is also obscure, though it was undoubtedly helped by that of his brother, Julius Priscus. Priscus was appointed praetorian prefect by Gordian III and had previously served as prefect of the Roman province of Mesopotamia. If a fragmentary inscription from Rome can be connected to Priscus, Philip's brother rose quickly during Gordian III's reign through a variety of equestrian offices, including procurator of Macedonia, vice prefect of Egypt, and judge at Alexandria.

Priscus' appointment as praetorian prefect probably came at the beginning of the Roman campaign to reconquer upper Mesopotamia in the spring of 242. The success of the campaign must have reflected well on Priscus, and when his colleague Timesitheus (who was also Gordian III's father-in-law) died the following year, Priscus' brother Philip joined him as praetorian prefect. The brothers remained the young emperor's most powerful deputies during the disastrous campaign against the Persians in the winter of 243-44. On the retreat back up the Euphrates after the Roman defeat at Misikhe, Gordian was killed sometime during the winter months of 244. Most sources state that Philip was involved in Gordian's death; some claim that Philip engineered a mutiny by diverting the grain that was supposed to feed Gordian's troops.

The Emperor and the Military
Philip was acclaimed the new emperor and was firmly in control by late winter 244. Like his predecessor Macrinus, Philip faced, as his first important task, the problem of ending a war in the East. Philip was more fortunate in his negotiations than Macrinus had been. Philip made a peace treaty with the Persian king Shapur in which Philip agreed to pay the equivalent of 50 million sesterces, and possibly an annual tribute. The treaty enabled the new emperor to travel westward to Rome. It remains unknown why Philip was displayed before the soldiers as their new emperor instead of his more accomplished brother Priscus, but Priscus went on to have extraordinary power in the East during the new regime. Priscus is described in one inscription as rector Orientis, and he exercised supreme authority over armies and provinces from his headquarters in Antioch.

The following year the Carpi, a people native to the northern bank of the lower Danube, crossed the river and attacked settlements in the Roman province of Moesia (today, northern Bulgaria), where Philip's brother-in-law Severianus had been put in command. Fighting lasted several years and may have spread westward into Pannonia because of incursions by German tribes. Victory was proclaimed in 248, but the legions in Moesia and Pannonia were dissatisfied with the war's results. The armies there revolted, proclaiming Tiberius Claudius Marinus Pacatianus as emperor. While Philip could point to some success on the Danube frontier, he could not claim victory in his battles with the Moors. The emperor preferred to pay for an ignominious peace rather than lose an ignominious war. The heavy-handedness of his brother Priscus in collecting taxes in the East caused another revolt, this one led by a man named Iotapianus, who claimed to be a kinsman of Severus Alexander. Coins that may also be from this period show two other men who tried to become emperors, Silbannacus and Sponsianus. Neither is otherwise attested, and each revolt must have been short-lived.

The Millennium and Christianity
Despite growing instability in the provinces, Romans in the year 248 were fascinated by the celebrations of the 1,000th anniversary of their city's foundation. The festivities may have been patterned after the Secular Games (last held under Septimius Severus 44 years earlier) and included magnificent spectacles for the arena. Millennarianism extended into the literary world, with the author Asinius Quadratus honoring the event by writing his Thousand-Year History.

Philip's religious beliefs have garnered the most attention from modern historians. Writing but 75 years after Philip's reign, the Church father Eusebius relayed a report that Philip was a Christian who was once compelled by a church official to confess his sins before being allowed to attend an Easter service. Later sources locate the story in Antioch and connect the tale to Babylas, a bishop later martyred in the persecution mounted by Philip's successor, Decius. The Decian persecution is itself blamed by Eusebius on Decius' personal hatred for Philip. Eusebius also reported that the Christian teacher and apologist Origen wrote one letter to Philip and another to Otacilia Severa. While it is quite likely that Ph