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adadd.jpg
25 viewsCeltic, Bastarnae Tribe, Thrace, c. 220 - 160 B.C., Imitative of Macedonian Kingdom Type

The Bastarnae were an important ancient people of uncertain, but probably mixed Germanic-Celtic-Sarmatian, ethnic origin, who lived between the Danube and the Dnieper (Strabo, Geography, VII, 3,17) during the last centuries B.C. and early centuries A.D. The etymology of their name is uncertain, but may mean 'mixed-bloods' (compare 'bastard'), as opposed to their neighbours the East Germanic Scirii, the 'clean-' or 'pure-bloods.'

32899. Bronze AE 16, imitative of SNG Cop 1299 (Macedonian Kingdom, time of Philip V and Perseus, 221 - 168 B.C.), Fair/Fine, 2.168g, 16.3mm, obverse Celtic-style bust of river-god Strymon right; reverse Trident
Patrick O3
Thrace_Dionysos.jpg
25 viewsMaroneia, Thrace. 146-100BC, AE18mm.

Obv. Wreathed head of young Dionysos right. Rev. Dionysos left holding grapes, NARTHEX in right field, monogram in near left field.
Lee S
unknown-provincial.jpg
25 viewsRoman Provincial Trajan, AE23, of Tabae, Caria, 5.1g, 24mm

Obverse: AVK A TPAIANOC APIΓCΔA, Laureate head right.

Reverse: TABHNΩN, Demeter, polos on head, standing left, holding grain ears, bunch of grapes and sceptre.

Reference: SNG Cop 559, Hunter 4.
Gil-galad
Vitellius_RIC_110_no_2.jpg
9 Vitellius Denarius, 69 AD48 viewsVITELLIUS
AR Denarius, 69 AD.

[A VITELLIVS] GERM IMP AVG TR P, Bust right / Anepigraphic. Victory seated left, holding patera and palm

RIC 110, BMCRE 043. aVF
RI0070
2 commentsSosius
sphinx_quad_drach~0.jpg
IONIA, CHIOS12 viewsCa 400-380 BC
AR Drachm 13 mm, 3.63 g
O: Sphinx seated left; amphora surmounted by grapes to left
R: Quadripartite granulated incuse square
Chios; BMC 17-8
ex Roma Numismatics auction
laney
iersab.jpg
Kingdom of JERUSALEM. Struck during the siege of Jerusalem by Sibylla, Queen of Jerusalem and Balian of Ibelin in 1187 . Bi Denier .130 viewsKingdom of Jerusalem . Struck during the siege of Jerusalem by Sibylla, Queen of Jerusalem and Balian of Ibelin in 1187 . Bi Denier .
+ TVRRIS DAVIT (legend retrograde), Tower of David
+ SЄPVLChRVM DOMINI, view of the Church of the Holy Sepulcher
Slocum 288; cf. C.J. Sabine, “Numismatic iconography of the Tower of David and the Holy Sepulchre,” NC 1979, pl. 17, 3; N. du Quesne Bird, “Two deniers from Jerusalem, Jordan,” NumCirc LXXIII.5 (May 1965), p. 109; Metcalf, Crusades, p. 77; CCS 51.
Very Rare . Thirteen known example .
The Ernoul chronicle refers to Balian of Ibelin and the patriarch Heraclius of Jerusalem stripped the silver and gold edicule from the Church of the Holy Sepulcher for striking coins to pay those defending the city at it's last stand .
2 commentsVladislav D
mon3s.jpg
Marcus Aurelius Antoninus “Elagabalus”, 218-222 CE.13 viewsElagabalus, 16 May 218 - 11 March 222 A.D., Markianopolis, Moesia Inferior
Bronze AE
Varbanov 1384, VF, Markianopolis mint, 2.0g, 16mm,
Obverse: AΥT K M AΥΡ ANTΩNINOC, laureate head right.
Reverse:MAΡKIANOΠOΛITΩN, bunch of grapes.
NORMAN K
45y64_024.JPG
Thrace, Maroneia AE16mm (5.6g).89 viewsThrace, Maroneia AE16mm (5.6g).
Obverse: Head of Dionysos, wreathed in ivy
Reverse: Dionysos standing left holding bunch of grapes and thyrsos.2173

2 commentsAntonivs Protti
00008x00~0.jpg
12 viewsROME
PB Tessera (17mm, 5.32 g, 6 h)
Venus standing left, holding mirror and adjusting hair
Bunch of grapes
Rostowzew – (but cf. 484 for a similar type with Fortuna on the obverse)
Ardatirion
Greek_-_Uncertain_Northern_Greek_2.jpg
30 viewsNORTHERN GREECE, Uncertain
PB Tessera (16mm, 3.96 g)
Goat standing right
Bunch of grapes hanging from vine

Ex Classical Numismatics Group 85 (15 September 2010), lot 330b
Ardatirion
islamic_2.jpg
66 viewsEAST AFRICA, Kilwa Sultanate. 'Ali bin al-Hasan. Late 5th century AH / 11th century AD
Æ Fals (21mm, 2.68 g, 3 h). Kilwa Kisiwani mint.
Inscription in two lines; star at center
Inscription in three lines
Album 1180; Walker, Kilwa 12; SICA 10, 589-91; Zeno 87054 (this coin)

Acquired in the 1960's, likely through circulation in Dar-es-Salaam.

Chittick ("On the Chronology of the sultans of Kilwa" in NC 13, 1973), the excavator of Kilwa Kisiwani, notes that these issues were found in the earliest stratigraphic layers and accordingly reassigns them to the first sultan of Kilwa. Walker and Freeman-Grenville gave them to an otherwise unattested 13th century ruler of the same name. However, the picture is muddled by finds from the excavations at Songo Mnara, occupied only between the 14th and 16th centuries, where this type was among the most numerous to be found. The type is unlikely to have remained in circulation for such a long period and may been reissued by subsequent rulers.
Ardatirion
lg004_quad_sm.jpg
"As de Nîmes" or "crocodile" Ӕ dupondius of Nemausus (9 - 3 BC), honoring Augustus and Agrippa36 viewsIMP DIVI F , Heads of Agrippa (left) and Augustus (right) back to back, Agrippa wearing rostral crown and Augustus the oak-wreath / COL NEM, crocodile right chained to palm-shoot with short dense fronds and tip right; two short palm offshoots left and right below, above on left a wreath with two long ties streaming right.

Ӕ, 24.5 x 3+ mm, 13.23g, die axis 3h; on both sides there are remains of what appears to be gold plating, perhaps it was a votive offering? Rough edges and slight scrapes on flan typical for this kind of coin, due to primitive technology (filing) of flan preparation.

IMPerator DIVI Filius. Mint of COLonia NEMausus (currently Nîmes, France). Known as "As de Nîmes", it is actually a dupontius (lit. "two-pounder") = 2 ases (sometimes cut in halves to get change). Dupondii were often made out of a golden-colored copper alloy (type of brass) "orichalcum" and this appears to be such case.

Key ID points: oak-wreath (microphotography shows that at least one leaf has a complicated shape, although distinguishing oak from laurel is very difficult) – earlier versions have Augustus bareheaded, no PP on obverse as in later versions, no NE ligature, palm with short fronds with tip right (later versions have tip left and sometimes long fronds). Not typical: no clear laurel wreath together with the rostral crown, gold (?) plating (!), both features really baffling.

But still clearly a "middle" kind of the croc dupondius, known as "type III": RIC I 158, RPC I 524, Sear 1730. It is often conservatively dated to 10 BC - 10 AD, but these days it is usually narrowed to 9/8 - 3 BC.

It is a commemorative issue, honoring the victory over Mark Antony and conquest of Egypt in 30 BC. The heads of Augustus and Agrippa were probably positioned to remind familiar obverses of Roman republican coins with two-faced Janus. Palm branch was a common symbol of victory, in this case grown into a tree, like the victories of Augustus and Agrippa grown into the empire. The two offshoots at the bottom may mean two sons of Agrippa, Gaius and Lucius, who were supposed to be Augustus' heirs and were patrons of the colony. Palm may also be a symbol of the local Nemausian deity, which was probably worshiped in a sacred grove. When these coins were minted, the colony was mostly populated by the settled veterans of Augustus' campaigns, hence the reminiscence of the most famous victory, but some of the original Celtic culture probably survived and was assimilated by Romans. The crocodile is not only the symbol of Egypt, like in the famous Octavian's coins AEGYPTO CAPTA. It is also a representation of Mark Antony, powerful and scary both in water and on land, but a bit slow and stupid. The shape of the crocodile with tail up was specifically chosen to remind of the shape of ship on very common "legionary" denarius series, which Mark Antony minted to pay his armies just before Actium. It is probably also related to the popular contemporary caricature of Cleopatra, riding on and simultaneously copulating with a crocodile, holding a palm branch in her hand as if in triumph. There the crocodile also symbolized Mark Antony.

Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa was born c. 64-62 BC somewhere in rural Italy. His family was of humble and plebeian origins, but rich, of equestrian rank. Agrippa was about the same age as Octavian, and the two were educated together and became close friends. He probably first served in Caesar's Spanish campaign of 46–45 BC. Caesar regarded him highly enough to send him with Octavius in 45 BC to train in Illyria. When Octavian returned to Rome after Caesar's assassination, Agrippa became his close lieutenant, performing many tasks. He probably started his political career in 43 BC as a tribune of the people and then a member of the Senate. Then he was one of the leading Octavian's generals, finally becoming THE leading general and admiral in the civil wars of the subsequent years.

In 38 as a governor of Transalpine Gaul Agrippa undertook an expedition to Germania, thus becoming the first Roman general since Julius Caesar to cross the Rhine. During this foray he helped the Germanic tribe of Ubii (who previously allied themselves with Caesar in 55 BC) to resettle on the west bank of the Rhine. A shrine was dedicated there, possibly to Divus Caesar whom Ubii fondly remembered, and the village became known as Ara Ubiorum, "Altar of Ubians". This quickly would become an important Roman settlement. Agrippina the Younger, Agrippa's granddaughter, wife of Emperor Claudius and mother of Emperor Nero, would be born there in 15 AD. In 50 AD she would sponsor this village to be upgraded to a colonia, and it would be renamed Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium (colony of Claudius [at] the Altar of Agrippinians – Ubii renamed themselves as Agrippinians to honor the augusta!), abbreviated as CCAA, later to become the capital of new Roman province, Germania Inferior.

In 37 BC Octavian recalled Agrippa back to Rome and arranged for him to win the consular elections, he desperately needed help in naval warfare with Sextus Pompey, the youngest son of Pompey the Great, who styled himself as the last supporter of the republican cause, but in reality became a pirate king, an irony since his father was the one who virtually exterminated piracy in all the Roman waters. He forced humiliating armistice on the triumvirs in 39 BC and when Octavian renewed the hostilities a year later, defeated him in a decisive naval battle of Messina. New fleet had to be built and trained, and Agrippa was the man for the job. Agrippa's solution was creating a huge secret naval base he called Portus Iulius by connecting together lakes Avernus, Avernus and the natural inner and outer harbors behind Cape Misenum at the northern end of the Gulf of Naples. He also created a larger type of ship and developed a new naval weapon: harpax – a ballista-launched grapnel shot with mechanisms that allowed pulling enemy ships close for easy boarding. It replaced the previous boarding device that Romans used since the First Punic War, corvus – effective, but extremely cumbersome. A later defence against it were scythe blades on long poles for cutting ropes, but since this invention was developed in secret, the enemy had no chance to prepare anything like it. It all has proved extremely effective: in a series of naval engagements Agrippa annihilated the fleet of Sextus, forced him to abandon his bases and run away. For this Agrippa was awarded an unprecedented honour that no Roman before or after him received: a rostral crown, "corona rostrata", a wreath decorated in front by a prow and beak of a ship.

That's why Virgil (Aeneid VIII, 683-684), describing Agrippa at Actium, says: "…belli insigne superbum, tempora navali fulgent rostrata corona." "…the proud military decoration, gleams on his brow the naval rostral crown". Actium, the decisive battle between forces of Octavian and Mark Antony, may appear boring compared to the war with Sextus, but it probably turned out this way due to Agrippa's victories in preliminary naval engagements and taking over all the strategy from Octavian.

In between the wars Agrippa has shown an unusual talent in city planning, not only constructing many new public buildings etc., but also greatly improving Rome's sanitation by doing a complete overhaul of all the aqueducts and sewers. Typically, it was Augustus who later would boast that "he had found the city of brick but left it of marble", forgetting that, just like in his naval successes, it was Agrippa who did most of the work. Agrippa had building programs in other Roman cities as well, a magnificent temple (currently known as Maison Carrée) survives in Nîmes itself, which was probably built by Agrippa.

Later relationship between Augustus and Agrippa seemed colder for a while, Agrippa seemed to even go into "exile", but modern historians agree that it was just a ploy: Augustus wanted others to think that Agrippa was his "rival" while in truth he was keeping a significant army far away from Rome, ready to come to the rescue in case Augustus' political machinations fail. It is confirmed by the fact that later Agrippa was recalled and given authority almost equal to Augustus himself, not to mention that he married Augustus' only biological child. The last years of Agrippa's life were spent governing the eastern provinces, were he won respect even of the Jews. He also restored Crimea to Roman Empire. His last service was starting the conquest of the upper Danube, were later the province of Pannonia would be. He suddenly died of illness in 12 BC, aged ~51.

Agrippa had several children through his three marriages. Through some of his children, Agrippa would become ancestor to many subsequent members of the Julio-Claudian dynasty. He has numerous other legacies.
Yurii P
commodus_aug_tria_b.jpg
(0177) COMMODUS--AUGUSTA TRAIANA37 views177 - 192 AD
struck 191-192 AD
AE 29.5 mm; 15.36 g
Magistrate: L. Aemilius Iustus (Legatus Augusti pro praetore provinciae Thraciae)
O: AV KAI [M] AV KOMOΔOC (or similar) Laureate bust right
R: ΗΓΕ Λ ΑΙΜ ΙΟVСΤ ΑVΓΟVСΤΗС ΤΡΑΙΑΝΗС City gate with 3 towers
Thrace, Augusta Traiana
cf RPC online 10823, citing a Freeman & Sear sale of 2005, without picture.
Note: (from C. Clay, 3.21.2015) "Governor Aem. Justus is rare at this mint, yours may be just the second specimen recorded. Not known to Varbanov, or to Stein in his 1926 monograph on Thracian officials. Apparently not in Schoenert-Geiss's Augusta Traiana corpus, or Varbanov would have known it from there."
d.s.
laney
sept_diony.jpg
(0193) SEPTIMIUS SEVERUS25 views193 - 211 AD
AE 27 mm; 13.25 g
O: Laureate draped bust right
R: Dionysos standing left, holding thrysos and grape cluster
Unknown provincial mint
d.s.
laney
geta_pautalia_res.jpg
(0198) GETA27 views198 - 212 AD
AE 19.6 mm, 4.48 g
O: PCENTI GETAC . Bare headed and draped bust right
R: [PAVTA LI] WTWN . Bunch of grapes hanging
(double struck)
Thrace, Pautalia
Rare
laney
ELAGABAL_GRAPES_RES.jpg
(0218) ELAGABALUS20 views218-222 AD
17.5 mm, 2.97 g
O: Laureate head right
R: MARKIANOPOLITWN cluster of grapes on stalk
Markianopolis
laney
titus.jpg
(11) TITUS36 views79 - 81 AD
(struck 80 AD)
AE As 26 mm 9.09 g
O: IMP T CAES VESP AVG P M TR P COS VIII
LAUR HEAD R
R: ANEPIGRAPHIC
SPES ADVANCING LEFT HOLDING FLOWER AND RAISING HEM OF SKIRT, S-C
ROME
laney
DOMITIAN_MINERVA_AE_RES.jpg
(12) DOMITIAN32 views81 - 96 AD
AE As 26 mm 9.62 g
O: CAES DIVI AVG VESP F DOMITIAN COS VII Laureate head right
R: (anepigraphic)Minerva advancing right holding shield and brandishing spear S-C
Cohen 459
laney
P.Licinius Nerva voting.jpg
(500a113) Roman Republic, P. Licinius Nerva, 113-112 B.C.86 viewsROMAN REPUBLIC: P. Licinius Nerva. AR denarius (3.93 gm). Rome, ca. 113-112 BC. Helmeted bust of Roma left, holding spear over right shoulder and shield on left arm, crescent above, * before, ROMA behind / P. NERVA, voting scene showing two citizens casting their ballots in the Comitium, one receiving a ballot from an attendant, the other dropping his ballot into a vessel at right. Crawford 292/1. RSC Licinia 7. RCTV 169. Nearly very fine. Ex Freeman and Sear.

Here is a denarius whose reverse device is one that celebrates the privilege and responsibility that is the foundation of a democratic society; it is a forerunner to the L. Cassius Longinus denarius of 63 B.C. Granted, humanity had a long road ahead toward egalitarianism when this coin was struck, but isn't it an interesting testimony to civil liberty's heritage? "The voter on the left (reverse) receives his voting tablet from an election officer. Horizontal lines in the background indicate the barrier separating every voting division from the others. Both voters go across narrow raised walks (pontes); this is intended to ensure that the voter is seen to cast his vote without influence" (Meier, Christian. Caesar: A Biography. Berlin: Severin and Siedler, 1982. Plate 12). This significant coin precedes the Longinus denarius by 50 years.

J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
2 commentsCleisthenes
LonginusDenarius.jpg
(504c) Roman Republic, L. Cassius Longinus, 63 B.C.69 viewsSilver denarius, Crawford 413/1, RSC I Cassia 10, SRCV I 364, aVF, struck with worn dies, Rome mint, weight 3.867g, maximum diameter 20.3mm, die axis 0o, c. 63 B.C. Obverse: veiled bust of Vesta left, kylix behind, L before; Reverse: LONGIN III V, voter standing left, dropping tablet inscribed V into a cista.

The reverse of this Longinus denarius captures a fascinating moment when a Roman citizen casts his ballot. "The abbreviation III V [ir] indentifies Longinus as one of the three annually appointed mintmasters (officially called tres viri aere argento auro flando feriundo). A citizen is seen casting his vote into the urn. On the ballot is the letter 'U', short for uti rogas, a conventional formula indicating assent to a motion. The picture alludes to the law, requested by an ancestor of the mintmaster, which introduced the secret ballot in most proceedings of the popular court" (Meier, Christian. Caesar, a Biography. Berlin: Severin and Siedler, 1982. Plate 6).

The date that this denarius was struck possesses unique significance for another reason. Marcus Tullius Cicero (politician, philosopher, orator, humanist) was elected consul for the year 63 BC -- the first man elected consul who had no consular ancestors in more than 30 years. A "new man," Cicero was not the descendant of a "patrician" family, nor was his family wealthy (although Cicero married "well"). Cicero literally made himself the man he was by the power of the words he spoke and the way in which he spoke them. A witness to and major player during the decline of the Roman Republic, Cicero was murdered in 43 BC by thugs working for Marc Antony. But Cicero proved impossible to efface.

Cicero's words became part of the bed rock of later Roman education. As Peter Heather notes, every educated young man in the late Roman Empire studied "a small number of literary texts under the guidance of an expert in language and literary interpretation, the grammarian. This occupied the individual for seven or more years from about the age of eight, and concentrated on just four authors: Vergil, Cicero, Sallust and Terence" (Heather, Peter. The Fall of the Roman Empire: A New History of Rome and the Barbarians. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006. 17).


Plutarch: Cicero's Death

But in the meantime the assassins were come with a band of soldiers, Herennius, a centurion, and Popillius, a tribune, whom Cicero had formerly defended when prosecuted for the murder of his father. Finding the doors shut, they broke them open, and Cicero not appearing, and those within saying they knew not where he was, it is stated that a youth, who had been educated by Cicero in the liberal arts and sciences, an emancipated slave of his brother Quintus, Philologus by name, informed the tribune that the litter was on its way to the sea through the close and shady walks. The tribune, taking a few with him, ran to the place where he was to come out. And Cicero, perceiving Herennius running in the walks, commanded his servants to set down the litter; and stroking his chin, as he used to do, with his left hand, he looked steadfastly upon his murderers, his person covered with dust, his beard and hair untrimmed, and his face worn with his troubles. So that the greatest part of those that stood by covered their faces whilst Herennius slew him. And thus was he murdered, stretching forth his neck out of the litter, being now in his sixty-fourth year. Herennius cut off his head, and, by Antony's command, his hands also, by which his Philippics were written; for so Cicero styled those orations he wrote against Antony, and so they are called to this day.

When these members of Cicero were brought to Rome, Antony was holding an assembly for the choice of public officers; and when he heard it, and saw them, he cried out, "Now let there be an end of our proscriptions." He commanded his head and hands to be fastened up over the rostra, where the orators spoke; a sight which the Roman people shuddered to behold, and they believed they saw there, not the face of Cicero, but the image of Antony's own soul. And yet amidst these actions he did justice in one thing, by delivering up Philologus to Pomponia, the wife of Quintus; who, having got his body into her power, besides other grievous punishments, made him cut off his own flesh by pieces, and roast and eat it; for so some writers have related. But Tiro, Cicero's emancipated slave, has not so much as mentioned the treachery of Philologus.

Translation by John Dryden: http://intranet.grundel.nl/thinkquest/moord_cicero_plu.html

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
Greek_Cherronesos.jpg
*SOLD*18 viewsGreek Thracian – Chersonese/Cherronesos AR Hemidrachm

Attribution: Weber 2419, 2434; McClean 4079, BMC 11
Date: 400-350 BC
Obverse: Forepart of lion w/ head reverted and gaping mouth
Reverse: Quadripartite incuse square, alternating depressions with pellet in one and
bunch of grapes in the other
Size: 14 mm
ex-Forvm
Noah
Roma-Heraclea-1.jpg
..SMHε.87 viewsAE3/4 Follis, 2.42 g, 17 mm, 11 h

Obverse: VRBS ROMA
Helmeted (with plume) wearing imperial cloak and ornamental necklace, bust left

Reverse: Anepigraphic

She-wolf to left suckling Romulus and Remus, 2 stars above

Exergue: ..SMHε.

Heraclea mint

RIC VII 134
drjbca
UR .SMHE.jpg
.SMHε59 viewsAE3/4 Follis, 2.48 g, 17 mm, 6 h, 330-333 AD

Obverse: VRBS ROMA
Helmeted (with plume) wearing imperial cloak and ornamental necklace, bust left

Reverse: Anepigraphic
She-wolf to left suckling Romulus and Remus, 2 stars above

Exergue: .SMHε

Heraclea mint

RIC VII 119
drjbca
99104.jpg
009. Vitellius 69 AD155 viewsVITELLIUS. 69 AD.

Without doubt, the most fortuitous moment in Vitellius' political career was his appointment as governor of Lower Germany by the emperor Galba late in 68.

Vitellius has not escaped the hostility of his biographers. While he may well have been gluttonous, his depiction as indolent, cruel, and extravagant is based almost entirely on the propaganda of his enemies. On the other hand, whatever moderating tendencies he did show were overshadowed by his clear lack of military expertise, a deficiency that forced him to rely in critical situations on largely inneffective lieutenants. As a result he was no match for his Flavian successors, and his humiliating demise was perfectly in keeping with the overall failure of his reign.

AR Denarius (20mm, 3.24 gm). Rome mint. Laureate head right / Tripod-lebes; dolphin above, raven below. RIC I 109; RSC 111. Ex-Cng
1 commentsecoli73
0139.jpg
0139 - AE Alexander III the Great 336-23 BC51 viewsObv/ Head of Heracles r. wearing lion-skin headdress.
Rev/ ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ in middle, with goryte, bow and mallet at sides; bunch of grapes and circle on r.

AE, 19.1 mm, 6.33 g
Mint: Macedonia uncertain.
Price -- - Drama 103
ex-CGB, auction 49, lot 155
dafnis
Augustus_RIC_I_86a.jpg
02 Augusts RIC I 86a54 viewsAugustus. 27 B.C.-14 A.D.. Colonia Patricia Mint. 19 B.C. (3.13g, 18.4mm, 2h). Obv: CAESAR AVGSTVS, bare head right. Rev: SIGNIS RECEPTIS, Aquila on l. and standard on r. flanking SPQR arranged around shield inscribed CL V. RIC I 86a, BMC 417, RSC 265.

An important historical type commemorating the return of the legionary eagles lost by Crassus to the Parthians in the battle of Carrhae in 53 B.C. This example has wonderful toning, is perfectly centered, and retains complete legends, even the CL V on the shield is preserved better than the photograph shows.
3 commentsLucas H
Augustus_RIC_359.jpg
02 Augustus RIC I 035960 viewsAugustus 27 B.C.-14 A.D. Moneyer L. Vinicius. Rome Mint. 16 B.C. (3.72g, 18.8m, 5h). Obv: Anepigraphic, bare head right. Rev: L Vinicivs in ex., Triumphal arch inscribed SPQR IMP CAE in two lines sur. by Quadriga bearing Augustus, r. holding laurel-branch, l. scepter; smaller arch on sides w archer on l. and slinger on r. RIC I 359 (R2). RSC 544.

This coin depicts Augustus’ triple arch, perhaps the first in Rome. Beginning as a double arch to commemorate his victory at Actium, the third arch was probably added to commemorate the return of the lost standards from Parthia. For a scarce type, this example is well centered and has good details on the reverse including complete legends.
3 commentsLucas H
02-Tarsus.jpg
02. Persian Empire: Province of Cilicia: City of Tarsos.63 viewsDouble shekel, ca. 351 BC.
Obverse: Baal of Tarsos seated, holding eagle, ear of wheat, bunch of grapes, and sceptre.
Reverse: Lion attacking bull.
10.51 gm., 24 mm.
S. #5650; series V in Myriandros Katisson (E.T. Newell).
2 commentsCallimachus
RI 020b img.jpg
020 - Nero AE As - RIC 543 59 viewsAE As
Obv:– IMP NERO CAESAR AVG P MAX TR P P P (separated with dots), Bare head right with globe at tip
Rev:– -, Victory flying left holding shield inscribed S P Q R, S - C
Minted in Lugdunum. Circa A.D. 66
Reference:– BMCRE 381. RIC Vol I Nero 543

A decent example with a broken patina, a decent portrait, clear legends with the dots in the legends clearly visible.

Please click on the image to see a larger photograph.
2 commentsmaridvnvm
027_Traianus_AE-23_AY_KAI_TRAI-AN-GEDA_TABH-NWN_Moushmov__SNG_Cop_559,_Mionnet__Tabae_-AD_Q-001_0h_22-24mm_9,16g-s~0.jpg
027p Traianus (98-117 A.D.), Caria, Tabae, SNG Cop-559, AE-23, Demeter standing left, 61 views027p Traianus (98-117 A.D.), Caria, Tabae, SNG Cop-559, AE-23, Demeter standing left,
avers:- AY-KAI-TPAIA-NOC-API-ΓEΔA, Laureate head right .
revers:- TABH-NΩN, Demeter, polos on head, standing left, holding corn-ears, bunch of grapes and sceptre.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 22-24 mm, weight: 9,16g, axis: 0h,
mint: Caria, Tabae, date: A.D., ref: SNG Cop-559, SNG Aulock 2718, SNG München 545, Hunter 4; Weber Coll. 6586; BMC 74.
Q-001
quadrans
027_Traianus_AE-20_AVTOK_N_P_TPAIAOS_CEB-T-T-D_PERINQIWN_Moushmov_4438_SNG_Cop_736,_Mionnet_II_1191_Perinthos_-AD_Q-001_7h_20-21mm_3,94g-s~0.jpg
027p Traianus (98-117 A.D.), Thrace, Perinthos, Moushmov-4438, AE-20, Dionysus standing left, 66 views027p Traianus (98-117 A.D.), Thrace, Perinthos, Moushmov-4438, AE-20, Dionysus standing left,
avers:- AVTOKP-N-TPAIAOC-CEB•Γ•Γ•Δ•, Laureate head right, slight drapery on left shoulder.
revers:- ΠEPIN-ΘIΩN•, Dionysus standing left, holding cantharus (or grapes) over lighted altar (or panther), and thyrsus, star on the left field.
exe: */-//--, diameter: 20-21 mm, weight: 3,94g, axis: 7 h,
mint: Thrace, Perinthos, date: A.D., ref: Moushmov-4438, SNG Cop-736, Mionnet-II-1191,
Q-001
quadrans
Caligula_denarius.jpg
04 Gaius (Caligula) RIC I 2224 viewsGaius (Caligula) 37-41 A.D. AR Denarius. Lugdunum (Lyons) Mint 37 AD. (3.3g, 18.5mm, 2h). Obv: C CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR POT COS, bare head right. Rev: anepigraphic, Augustus, radiate head right between two stars. RIC I 2, BMC 4, Sear 1808. Ex personal collection Steve McBride/Incitatus Coins.

Son of Germanicus, Gaius was adopted by Tiberius and was proclaimed Emperor on Tiberius’ death. His reign, marked by cruelty, was ended when he was assassinated by the Praetorian Guard. There is some question when the Imperial Mint was moved from Lugdunum to Rome, but the majority view holds at least Gaius’ early issues were still from Lugdunum.

With more than moderate wear and damage, this coin still has an almost complete obverse legend, and is a decent weight. It was very difficult for me to track down a denarius of Gaius.
2 commentsLucas H
049_Septimius-Severus_AE-18-Hadriannopolis-in-Bithynia_AVK-dot-_-dot-CE_-dot-CEV-dot-H-dot-POC-laureate-head-right_A_PIANO-_OLEITON_Var-II-3354-p-277_Q-001_1h_18mm_3,40g-s.jpg
049p Septimius Severus (193-211 A.D.), Thrace, Hadriannopolis, Varbanov II 3354, AE-18, AΔPIANO-ΠOΛEITON, Bunch of grapes,65 views049p Septimius Severus (193-211 A.D.), Thrace, Hadriannopolis, Varbanov II 3354, AE-18, AΔPIANO-ΠOΛEITON, Bunch of grapes,
avers:- AVK•Λ•CEΠ•CEV•H•POC, Laureate head right.
revers:-AΔPIANO-ΠOΛEITON, Bunch of grapes.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 18mm, weight: 3,40g, axis: 1 h,
mint: Thrace, Hadriannopolis, date: 193-211 A.D., ref:Varbanov II 3354, p-277,
Q-001
quadrans
049_Septimius_Severus_(193-211_A_D_),_AE-18,_Varb-1338,_Thrace,_Philippopolis,_Bunch_of_grapes,_Scarce_Q-001_h_mm_g-s.jpg
049p Septimius Severus (193-211 A.D.), Thrace, Philippopolis, Varb-1338, AE-18, Bunch of grapes, Scarce!61 views049p Septimius Severus (193-211 A.D.), Thrace, Philippopolis, Varb-1338, AE-18, Bunch of grapes, Scarce!
avers:- AY-KAI-CE-CEVHROC, Laurate head left.
revers:- ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΠΟΛΙΤΟΝ, Bunch of grapes.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 18mm, weight: 3,07g, axis: h,
mint: Thrace, Philippopolis, date: 193-211 A.D., ref:Varbanov (engl.) 1338, (private coll. O. Gavrailov,)
Q-001
quadrans
051_Caracalla_(198_-_217_A_D_)_AE-17_Nikopolis_MAR-AV-KAI-ANTONINO_NIKOPOLIS-PROC-ICTRON_HHJ-8_18_8_13-p-187_Q-001_7h_16,5-18mm_2,11ga-s~0.jpg
051p Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), Moesia, Nicopolis Ad Istrum, HHJ-08.18.08.13, AE-17, Bunch of grapes,66 views051p Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), Moesia, Nicopolis Ad Istrum, HHJ-08.18.08.13, AE-17, Bunch of grapes,
avers:- MAP-AV-KAI-ANTΩNINO, Bareheaded-bust-r.
revers:- NIKOΠOΛIT-ΠPOC-ICTPON, Bunch of grapes,
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 16,5-18mm, weight: 2,11g, axis: 7h,
mint: Moesia, Nicopolis Ad Istrum, date: A.D., ref: Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov HHJ-8.18.06.13, p-187
Q-001
quadrans
Bar-Kochba-Hendin-734.jpg
053. 2'nd Jewish (bar Kokhba) Revolt.16 viewsZuz (denarius), attributed to Year 3 (134-35 AD).
Obverse: (Shim'on) / Bunch of Grapes.
Reverse: (For the Freedom of Jerusalem) / Lyre with three strings.
3.19 gm., 18.5 mm.
Mildenberg #205.19 (this coin); Hendin #734.

This coin likely started out as a denarius of one of the Roman emperors between Vespasian and Hadrian. Many coins of the Second Jewish Revolt show traces of the earlier Roman coin. This coin is no exception, and traces of the previous coin can be seen on the obverse in and around the bunch of grapes.

The bunch of grapes on the obverse is an ancient symbol of blessing and fertility. As such it occasionally appears on ancient coins of other areas besides this series. Given the messianic nature of the Bar Kokhba revolt, the bunch of grapes takes on added significance because in Jewish prophetic literature, grapes (and the vine or vineyard) are often symbolic of the restoration of Israel, or even symbolic of Israel itself.

The lyre on the reverse is associated with temple worship, as are trumpets, which are also found on coins of the Bar Kokhba Revolt. King David is mentioned as playing a lyre, and there are numerous Biblical references to praising the Lord with the lyre and trumpets. (The word "kinnor," sometimes translated as "harp," is really a type of lyre.) Even today the lyre is an important Jewish symbol and the state of Israel has chosen to portray it on the half New Israeli Sheqel coin.
Callimachus
53c.jpg
053c Elagabalus. AE 1816 viewsobv: AVT K M AVR ANTONINO C laur. head r.
rev: MAPKIANOTTO ATTON tall basket with grapes
hill132
56_4_PanoramaBlack1.jpg
056/4 Subgroup 85 & 86A AE Triens60 viewsAnonymous. Ae Triens. Apulia. 212-208 BC. (9.08 g, 23.72 g) Obv: Helmeted head of Minerva right, four pellets above. Rev: ROMA, prow right, four pellets below.

Originally defined as Crawford 56/4, this type of Triens have been assigned to subgroup 85 & 86A. This is a Q or H triens, that is missing the Q or H. Andrew McCabe gives the subgroup the number F1 which has the following characteristics:

"Mint: Apulia. Second Punic war. Related to RRC 85 H, and RRC 86 anchor and Q. Obverses are in high relief. The general style, for examples Janus, or Hercules’ truncation, or the regular reverse prow, is like RRC 86 anchor and Q. Reverses of Sextans and Quadrans have either regular, or Luceria style, prows with a club in an elevated fighting platform. On regular reverses, the top and central keel lines join half way across prow. Flans are thin and broad akin to late issues of Luceria. All denominations As through Sextans are known."

"The regular reverse prow is tall (height/width) with a fighting platform and deck structure elevated more than usual, and there is always a line extending either side of the deck structure. The keel-lines are also distinctive, with the middle of the three lines always converging with the top line half way across the prow... These specific design features – especially the middle keel line converging with the upper line half way across the prow – are identical with and typical of the RRC 86A Q series from Apulia58... The obverses of all denominations are in high relief, and show high quality engraving."

"So a close geographic and timing link between the Anchor Q, H, L, L-T, CA and P coins can be posited. These coins are certainly a second Punic war issue from Apulia. It remains open for discussion which city minted these group F1 coins, presumably alongside the RRC 85 and RRC 86 issues."

This is one out of six specimens: "F1 Triens: 6 coins, mean 9.4 grams, heaviest 10.5 grams".

All quotes are from the work of Andrew McCabe.

Link to thread at Forvm Ancient Coins: http://www.forumancientcoins.com/board/index.php?topic=90604.0

On this topic at Andrew McCabe's homepage: http://andrewmccabe.ancients.info/RRC056.html

I would strongly recommend anyone who wants to learn more about Roman Republican coins to give Andrew McCabe's homepage a visit.


1 commentsPaddy
056_Elagabalus_(218-222_A_D_),_AE-17_Nikopolis_AV-K-M-AVP-ANTONINOC__NIKO_OLIT_N-PROC-ICTRON_HHJ-8_26_08_05_Q-001_7h_16,5mm_3,13ga-s.jpg
056p Elagabalus (218-222 A.D.), Moesia, Nicopolis Ad Istrum, HHJ-08.26.08.05, AE-17, Dionysos left,79 views056p Elagabalus (218-222 A.D.), Moesia, Nicopolis Ad Istrum, HHJ-08.26.08.05, AE-17, Dionysos left,
avers:- AV-K-M-AVP-ANTΩNINOC, Laureate, draped and couirassed bust right.
revers:- NIKOΠOΛITΩN-ΠPOC-ICTPON, Dionysos, nude, wearing boots, standing left, resting with left hand on thyrsos and holding in right hand bunch of grapes.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 16,5m, weight: 3,13g, axis: 7h,
mint: Moesia, Nicopolis Ad Istrum, date: A.D., ref: Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov HHJ-08.26.08.05, p-392
Q-001
quadrans
056_Elagabalus_(218-222_A_D_),_AE-17_Nikopolis_AVT-K-M-AVP-ANTONINOC__NIKO_OLIT_N-PROC-ICTRON_HHJ-_Q-001_h_mm_ga-s~0.jpg
056p Elagabalus (218-222 A.D.), Moesia, Nicopolis Ad Istrum, HrHJ (2012) 08.26.08.06., AE-17, NIKOΠOΛITΩN ΠPOC ICTPON, Bunch of grapes, #166 views056p Elagabalus (218-222 A.D.), Moesia, Nicopolis Ad Istrum, HrHJ (2012) 08.26.08.06., AE-17, NIKOΠOΛITΩN ΠPOC ICTPON, Bunch of grapes, #1
avers: AVT K M AVP ANTONINOC, Laureated, cuirassed bust right.
reverse: NIKOΠOΛITΩN ΠPOC ICTPON, Bunch of grapes,
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 16,5mm, weight: 3,36g, axis: 16,5h,
mint: Moesia, Nicopolis Ad Istrum, date: A.D., ref: HrHJ (2012) 08.26.08.06., p-393
Q-001
quadrans
RI_064ja_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 362a29 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG, Laureate head right
Rev:– VICTOR IVST AVG II COS, Victory walking left, holding wreath in right hand, palm in left
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 193
Ref:– BMCRE W338 note. RIC 362a (Rated R2). RSC 740a

2.96g, 18.79mm, 180o

Only one other example known – “reported by Bickford-Smith from Dura Europus 942”
All references cite the same coin from the 3rd Dura Hoard, Num. Notes and Monographs, 55, Pg 46. No. 216
maridvnvm
RI_064tf_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 362a24 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG, Laureate head right
Rev:– VICTOR IVST AVG II COS, Victory walking left, holding wreath in right hand, palm in left
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 193
Ref:– BMCRE W338 note. RIC 362a (Rated R2). RSC 740a

3.03g, 18.28mm, 180o

Only two other examples known – “reported by Bickford-Smith from Dura Europus 942”
All references cite the same coin from the 3rd Dura Hoard, Num. Notes and Monographs, 55, Pg 46. No. 216
Another example from the same die pair in my own collection.
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_064rc_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 376B18 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L CEP(sic) SEV PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– FORT REDVC, Fortuna standing left, holding rudder and cornucopiae
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 194-195
Reference(s) – BMCRE - (Noted as variant of 352 in footnotes). RIC 376B (Rated Scarce). All citing RD paragraph 55, page 44, no. 205
maridvnvm
1299_P_Hadrian_pseudo_RPC736.jpg
0736 THRACE, Bizya, Pseudo-autonomous under Hadrian Tyche standing21 viewsReference.
RPC III, 736; Jurukova 165

Obv. ΔΙΟΝΥСω ΚΤΙСΤΗ
Dionysos seated right on throne, holding grape bunch and a single grape; vine to left

Rev. ΒΙΖΥΗΝΩΝ.
River-god and Tyche; to left, river-god reclining right, resting right arm on water-urn, holding reed in left hand; to right, Tyche standing facing, head left, wearing long garment and kalathos, holding cantharus in right hand and two ears of corn in left hand.

6.59 gr
22 mm
6h
1 commentsokidoki
1182_P_Hadrian_RPC749.jpg
0749 var. THRACE. Philippopolis Hadrian, Apollo standing21 viewsReference.
RPC III, 749 var.

Obv. ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СΕΒΑСΤΟС
Bare-headed and cuirassed bust of Hadrian, r. with paludamentum seen from rear

Rev. ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΠΟΛΕΙΤΩΝ
Apollo standing l., naked but a drapery on his r. shoulder, holding patera in his right hand and an laurel-branche in his l. hand

9.36 gr
24 mm
6h

Note.
Harlan J. Berk
This variant with Apollo holding a branch rather than two arrows in his lowered left hand is not in RPC, though Vabanov 629-30 reports such a reverse type combined with two different (laureate) bust types, citing Mouchmov's monograph on the ancient coins of Philippopolis, nos. 16 and 17
1 commentsokidoki
trajan RIC623-R.jpg
098-117 AD - TRAJAN AE dupondius - struck 112-114 AD137 viewsobv: IMP CAES NERVAE TRAIANO AVG GER DAC PMTRP COS VI PP (radiate bust right with aegis, drapery on far shoulder)
rev: DACIA AVGVST (Dacia seated left on rock, holds aquila. At her side a child holding corn, in front a child holding grapes), PROVINCIA and S-C in ex.
ref: RIC II 623 (S), C.126 (3frcs)
11.36gms, 26mm
Rare

History: D. Terentius Scaurianus, the first governor of Dacia (106–110/112 AD) started to organize the province and it had finished to 112 AD. Scaurianus executed the measures what required to becoming Dacia to the part of the Roman Empire, did the census and the land survey of the conquered areas, even made also several roads. This type of coin is the evidence of that works.
berserker
Soloi_Stater_Amazon.jpg
0a Amazon Stater21 viewsSilver Stater 20mm Struck circa 440-410 B.C.
Soloi in Cilicia

Amazon kneeling left, holding bow, quiver on left hip
ΣOΛEΩN, Grape cluster on vine; A-Θ to either side of stalk, monogram to lower right

Sear 5602 var.; Casabonne Type 3; SNG France 135; SNG Levante

This coin depicts an amazon in historically accurate garb. Unfortunately, the bow is corroded away on this piece, but it is pointed toward her. She wears the Scythian hat, which also has a bit along the top corroded away. The quiver on her hip is an accurate portrayal of the gorytos (quiver), which was nearly two feet long, fashioned of leather, and often decorated. Fortunately, there is redundancy in this image, and a second bow is shown as in its place in the gorytos, which had separate chambers for arrows and the bow, where the archer stored it while not in use. The amazon has just finished stringing her bow and is adjusting the top hook to make sure the strings and limbs are properly aligned. She has strung the bow using her leg to hold one limb in place so she can use both hands to string the weapon. Her recurve bow was made of horn (ibex, elk, ox) wrapped with horse hair, birch bark, or sinew (deer, elk, ox) and glue (animal or fish) wrapped around a wood core. The bow was about 30 inches long. Arrow heads from grave sites come in bone, wood, iron, and bronze with two or three flanges; the shafts were made of reed or wood (willow, birch, poplar) and fletched with feathers. Poisoned arrows were sometimes painted to resemble vipers. A Scythian archer could probably fire 15-20 arrows per minute with accuracy to 200 feet and range to 500-600 feet. Distance archery with modern reconstructions suggests a maximum unaimed flight distance of 1,600 feet. (Mayor 209ff)

Soloi was founded about 700 B.C.and came under Persian rule. According to Diodorus, when the amazons were engaging in conquest in Asia Minor, the Cilicians accepted them willingly and retained their independence. Soloi may be named after Solois, a companion of Theseus, who married the amazon Antiope. The amazon on the coin may well be Antiope. (Mayor, 264-265)
Blindado
0001JUL.jpg
1) Julius Caesar161 viewsDenarius, Rome, Moneyer P. Sepullius Macer, 44 BC, 4.03g. Cr-480/11, Syd-1072; Sear, Imperators-107b. Obv: Wreathed head of Caesar r., CAESAR before, D[IC]T PERPETVO behind. Rx: Venus standing l., looking downwards, holding Victory and scepter resting on star, P SEPVLLIVS behind, MACER downwards before. Same dies as Alfoldi, Caesar in 44 v. Chr., pl. LIII, 6-8. Banker's mark behind Caesar's eye. Good portrait. Some areas of flat striking, otherwise EF

Ex HJB - purchased on the Ides of March, 2011

Gaius Julius Caesar (Classical Latin: [ˈɡaː.i.ʊs ˈjuː.lɪ.ʊs ˈkaj.sar], July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC) was a Roman general, statesman, Consul and notable author of Latin prose. He played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire. In 60 BC, Caesar, Crassus and Pompey formed a political alliance that was to dominate Roman politics for several years. Their attempts to amass power through populist tactics were opposed by the conservative elite within the Roman Senate, among them Cato the Younger with the frequent support of Cicero. Caesar's conquest of Gaul, completed by 51 BC, extended Rome's territory to the English Channel and the Rhine. Caesar became the first Roman general to cross both when he built a bridge across the Rhine and conducted the first invasion of Britain.

These achievements granted him unmatched military power and threatened to eclipse the standing of Pompey, who had realigned himself with the Senate after the death of Crassus in 53 BC. With the Gallic Wars concluded, the Senate ordered Caesar to lay down his military command and return to Rome. Caesar refused, and marked his defiance in 49 BC by crossing the Rubicon with a legion, leaving his province and illegally entering Roman territory under arms. Civil war resulted, from which he emerged as the unrivaled leader of Rome.

After assuming control of government, Caesar began a program of social and governmental reforms, including the creation of the Julian calendar. He centralised the bureaucracy of the Republic and was eventually proclaimed "dictator in perpetuity". But the underlying political conflicts had not been resolved, and on the Ides of March (15 March) 44 BC, Caesar was assassinated by a group of senators led by Marcus Junius Brutus. A new series of civil wars broke out, and the constitutional government of the Republic was never restored. Caesar's adopted heir Octavian, later known as Augustus, rose to sole power, and the era of the Roman Empire began.

Much of Caesar's life is known from his own accounts of his military campaigns, and from other contemporary sources, mainly the letters and speeches of Cicero and the historical writings of Sallust. The later biographies of Caesar by Suetonius and Plutarch are also major sources. Caesar is deemed to be one of the greatest military commanders of history. Source: wikipedia
RM0001
13 commentsSosius
3290446.jpg
104. Antoninus Pius38 viewsAntoninus Pius. AD 138-161. Æ Sestertius (31mm, 24.70 g, 12h). Rome mint. Struck AD 149. Laureate head right / Crossed cornucopias from which a grape bunch flanked by two grain ears hang, surmounted by busts of boy. RIC III 857; Banti 410. Near VF, brown patina, minor surface roughness.

From the Fairfield Collection. Ex Pegasi Auctions 25 (8 November 2011), lot 504.

The infants are thought to be T. Aelius Antoninus and T. Aurelius Antoninus, the twin sons of Marcus Aurelius and Faustina Junior born in AD 149. These were the first male offspring of the couple, offering hope for the establishment of the new dynasty, but both died in infancy.

Ex-CNG Eauction 329 446/150/180
ecoli
coin217.JPG
105b. Lucius Verus27 viewsLucius Verus was a well educated, active participant in military and political affairs. He had a colorful personality. He is reputed to have been one of the most handsome of emperors whose vanity allowed him to highlight his blond hair with gold dust. The letters of Marcus Cornelius Fronto, teacher to Marcus and Lucius, are far gentler in their portrayal of Lucius' personality and grand life style than are the historical accounts of the biographies included in the Historia Augusta. Whether out of true respect or devoted brotherly love, it is evident that Marcus Aurelius treated Lucius as a partner in governing the empire and commanding its military forces. Typical of his tolerance of others, Marcus Aurelius chronically ignored or defused the questionable behavior and friendships of his brother.

AR Denarius (2.80 gm). Struck 162/3 AD. Bare head right / Providentia standing left holding globe and cornucopiae. RIC III 491 (Aurelius); RSC 156. VF. EX -CNG
ecoli
Probus_AE-Ant_VIRTV-S-PROBI-AVG-(Gvar-l_)_SALVS-AVG_A_RIC-Not-in_AD_Q-001_0h_23-24,5mm_3,88ga-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II ???, Ticinum, SALVS-AVG, Bust-Gvar-left, A/-//--, Salus seated left, Not in RIC !!!245 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II ???, Ticinum, SALVS-AVG, Bust-Gvar-left, A/-//--, Salus seated left,
avers:- VIRTVS-PROBI-AVG, Radiate, helmeted (Corinthian helmet), cuirassed bust right, without spear and shield. Not in RIC this type of bust !!!
revers:- SALVS-AVG, Salus seated left, feeding serpent rising from altar.
exe: A/-//--, diameter: 23-24,5mm, weight: 3,88g, axis: 0h,
mint: Ticinum, date: ??? A.D., ref: RIC-V-II ???, p-,
Q-001
"Another exceedingly rare coin! No bibliographic reference, you are right. I just know another similar coin, from a private Dutch collection.
Yours is from the same obverse die. You generally have many interesting coins from Siscia. This exception from the Ticinum mint is stunning. Congratulations again,
S. Estiot" Thank you S.Estiot.
4 commentsquadrans
Probus_AE-Ant_IMP-C-M-AVR-PROBVS-P-AVG_VIRTVS-PROBI-AVG_XXI-V_RIC-816var-p-106_Alf-96-No-170_Siscia_282-AD_Bust-and-Offic-NotinRIC_Q-001_axis-0h_22mm_4,00ga-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), Siscia, Alföldi 0096.0170, -/-//XXIP, Bust E2/Gvar., RIC V-II 816, (Bust and officina not in RIC!!!), AE-Antoninianus, VIRTVS PROBI AVG, Mars walking right, Rare!!!155 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), Siscia, Alföldi 0096.0170, -/-//XXIP, Bust E2/Gvar., RIC V-II 816, (Bust and officina not in RIC!!!), AE-Antoninianus, VIRTVS PROBI AVG, Mars walking right, Rare!!!
avers: IMP C M AVR PROBVS P AVG, Radiate, helmeted, cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield, seen from back, shield in front and a spear pointing forward. (E2/Gvar.)
reverse: VIRTVS PR OBI AVG, Mars walking right, holding spear and trophy.
exergue: -/-//XXIV, diameter: 22mm, weight: 4,00g, axis: 0h,
mint: Siscia, date: 282 A.D., ref: RIC V-II 816 var, p-106 Bust and officina not in RIC, Alföldi 0096.0170, Rare!!!
Q-001
"- Quadrans' coin (titulature P AVG) is known to me by 2 other examples, both in Paris: one is the coin quoted by Alföldi 96, 170, the other belonged to the collection of the famous epigraphist H.-G. Pflaum, whose collection has been (partly) bought by the Bibliothèque nationale de France. These 3 coins have been struck from the same obverse die." by S. Estiot.
2 commentsquadrans
antpius sest-.jpg
138-161 AD - ANTONINUS PIUS AE sestertius - struck 149 AD34 viewsobv: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P XII (laureate bust right)
rev: TEMPORVM FELICITAS, COS IIII in exergue, S C across field (crossed cornucopiae from which a grape bunch flanked by two grain ears hang, surmounted by busts of two boys, vis-á -vis)
ref: RIC III 857, Cohen 813 (8frcs), BMC 1825note
23.14gms, 30mm,
Rare

The infants are thought to represent T. Aelius Antoninus and T. Aurelius Antoninus, the twin sons of Marcus Aurelius and Faustina Junior born in 149 AD. These were the first male offspring of the couple, offering hope for the establishment of the new dynasty, but both died in infancy.
The coin is before cleaning.
berserker
000_005.JPG
14 Constans123 viewsConstans, AE2. Silvered Thessalonica. DN CONSTA-NS PF AVG, pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right, holding globe / FEL TEMP RE-PARATIO, soldier standing left, spearing fallen horseman who is bare-headed, forwards, on hands and knees. Mintmark TSA star. RIC VIII Thessalonica 116.

The obv. isnt as bad as it looks, the silvering and glare kinda made it awkward to photograph :)
4 commentsRandygeki(h2)
CtG AE3.jpg
1403a,1, Constantine I (the Great), 307-337 A.D.46 viewsConstantine I (the Great), 307-337 A.D. Bronze AE 3, RIC 16, C -, VF, 2.854g, 19.1mm, 180o, Constantinople mint, 327 A.D. Obverse: CONSTANTI-NVS MAX AVG, rosette diademed head right; Reverse: GLORIA EXERCITVS, Soldier standing left, head right, resting left hand on shield and holding inverted spear in right, G in left field, CONS in exergue; very rare (R3).

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
1 commentsCleisthenes
Const1GlrEx.jpg
1403b, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D.37 viewsConstantine the Great, early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D., Bronze AE 3, RIC 137, VF, Constantinople mint, 1.476g, 16.4mm, 180o, 336 - 337 A.D. Obverse: CONSTANTI-NVS MAX AVG, laurel and rosette-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: GLOR-IA EXERC-ITVS, two soldiers, each holding spear and shield on ground, flanking standard, CONS[ ] in exergue. Ex FORVM.

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
Cleisthenes
CTGDafne.jpg
1403c, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D.49 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC VII 35, choice aEF, Constantinople mint, 3.336g, 20.0mm, 180o, 328 A.D.; Obverse: CONSTANTI-NVS MAX AVG, laurel and rosette diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: CONSTANTINI-ANA DAFNE, Victory seated left on cippus, head right, palm frond in each hand, trophy and captive before, CONS in exergue, B left; scarce. Ex FORVM.

"The information about Constantine's campaign across [the Danube] is obscure and untrustworthy. The question, therefore, of what he achieved by this enterprise was, and is, subject to contradictory interpretations. On the one hand, the Panegyrists claimed that he had repeated the triumphs of Trajan. On the other, his own nephew, Julian the Apostate, spoke for many when he expressed the view that this second 'conquest' of Dacia was incomplete and extremely brief . . . monetary commemoration was accorded to the building, at about the same time [AD 328], of the river frontier fortress of Constantiniana Dafne (Spantov, near Oltenita) . . ." (Grant, Michael. The Emperor Constantine. London: Phoenix, 1998. 58-9).

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
1 commentsCleisthenes
CTGKyzAE3.jpg
1403d, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D. (Cyzicus)37 viewsConstantine the Great, early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D. Bronze AE 3, RIC 199, gVF, corrosion, Cyzicus, 1.402g, 16.2mm, 0o, 336 - 337 A.D. Obverse: CONSTANTI-NVS MAX AVG, laurel and rosette-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: GLOR-IA EXERC-ITVS•, two soldiers, each holding spear and shield on ground, flanking standard, SMKA in exergue.

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
Cleisthenes
CTGVOTXXX.jpg
1403e, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D. (Heraclea)28 viewsConstantine the Great, Bronze AE 3, RIC 69, VF, Heraclea, 3.38g, 19.0mm, 180o, 325 - 326 A.D. Obverse: CONSTAN-TINVS AVG, laureate head right; Reverse: D N CONSTANTINI MAX AVG, VOT XXX in wreath, SMHD in exergue.

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
Cleisthenes
12817p00.jpg
1403f, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D. (Heraclea)20 viewsBronze follis, RIC 5, F/aF, 3.513g, 20.4mm, 180o, Heraclea mint, 313 A.D.; obverse IMP C FL VAL CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, laureate head right; reverse IOVI CONSER-VATORI AVGG, Jupiter standing left holding Victory and scepter, eagle with wreath in beek at feet, B in right field, SMHT in exergue.

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
Cleisthenes
CTGaeFolNico.jpg
1403g, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D. (Nicomedia)22 viewsConstantine the Great, early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D. Bronze follis, RIC 12, aVF, Nicomedia mint, 2.760g, 22.0mm, 0o, 313 - 317 A.D. Obverse: IMP C FL VAL CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, laureate head right; Reverse: IOVI CONS-ERVATORI, Jupiter standing left holding Victory on globe and scepter, eagle with wreath in beak left, G right, SMN in exergue; scarce.

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
Cleisthenes
CTG.jpg
1403h, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D. (Siscia)36 viewsBronze follis, RIC 232b, gVF, Siscia, 3.87g, 23.8mm, 180o, early 313 A.D. Obverse: IMP CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, laureate head right; Reverse: IOVI CONSERVATORI AVGG NN, Jupiter standing left holding Victory on globe and scepter, eagle with wreath in beak left, E right, SIS in exergue.

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
Cleisthenes
CTG_SisCmpGte.jpg
1403i, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D. (Siscia)42 viewsSilvered AE 3, RIC 214, VF, Siscia mint, 3.187g, 19.3mm, 0o, 328 - 329 A.D.
Obverse: CONSTAN-TINVS AVG, laureate head right; Reverse PROVIDEN-TIAE AVGG, campgate with two turrets, star above, ASIS and double crescent in exergue.

Flavius Valerius Constantinus, Constantine the Great, was the son of Helena and the First Tetrarchic ruler Constantius I. Constantine is most famous for his conversion to Christianity and the battle of the Milvian Bridge where he defeated emperor Maxentius. It is reputed that before the battle, he saw the words "In Hoc Signo Victor Eris" (By this sign you shall conquer) emblazoned on the sun around the Chi Rho, the symbol of Christianity. Other sources claim the vision came to Constantine I in a dream. The story continues that after placing this Christogram on the shields of his army, he defeated his opponent and thus ruled the empire through divine providence. Constantine I also shifted the capital of the empire to Constantinople, establishing the foundation for an Empire that would last another 1000 years. He died in 337 and his sons divided the Roman territories.

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power, and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
Cleisthenes
CTG_ThesCmpGte.jpg
1403j, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D. (Thessalonica)26 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC 153, VF, Thessalonica mint, 2.955g, 19.7mm, 0o, 326 - 328 A.D. Obverse: CONSTAN-TINVS AVG, laureate head right; Reverse: PROVIDEN-TIAE AVGG, campgate with two turrets, star above, dot right, SMTSG in exergue.

Flavius Valerius Constantinus, Constantine the Great, was the son of Helena and the First Tetrarchic ruler Constantius I. Constantine is most famous for his conversion to Christianity and the battle of the Milvian Bridge where he defeated emperor Maxentius. It is reputed that before the battle, he saw the words "In Hoc Signo Victor Eris" (By this sign you shall conquer) emblazoned on the sun around the Chi Rho, the symbol of Christianity. Other sources claim the vision came to Constantine I in a dream. The story continues that after placing this Christogram on the shields of his army, he defeated his opponent and thus ruled the empire through divine providence. Constantine I also shifted the capital of the empire to Constantinople, establishing the foundation for an Empire that would last another 1000 years. He died in 337 and his sons divided the Roman territories.

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power, and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
Cleisthenes
Julian2VotXConstantinople.jpg
1409a, Julian II "the Philosopher," February 360 - 26 June 363 A.D.143 viewsJulian II, A.D. 360-363; RIC 167; VF; 2.7g, 20mm; Constantinople mint; Obverse: DN FL CL IVLIANVS P F AVG, helmeted & cuirassed bust right, holding spear & shield; Reverse: VOT X MVLT XX in four lines within wreath; CONSPB in exergue; Attractive green patina. Ex Nemesis.


De Imperatoribus Romanis,
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Julian the Apostate (360-363 A.D.)

Walter E. Roberts, Emory University
Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University

Introduction

The emperor Flavius Claudius Julianus reigned from 360 to 26 June 363, when he was killed fighting against the Persians. Despite his short rule, his emperorship was pivotal in the development of the history of the later Roman empire. This essay is not meant to be a comprehensive look at the various issues central to the reign of Julian and the history of the later empire. Rather, this short work is meant to be a brief history and introduction for the general reader. Julian was the last direct descendent of the Constantinian line to ascend to the purple, and it is one of history's great ironies that he was the last non-Christian emperor. As such, he has been vilified by most Christian sources, beginning with John Chrysostom and Gregory Nazianzus in the later fourth century. This tradition was picked up by the fifth century Eusebian continuators Sozomen, Socrates Scholasticus, and Theodoret and passed on to scholars down through the 20th century. Most contemporary sources, however, paint a much more balanced picture of Julian and his reign. The adoption of Christianity by emperors and society, while still a vital concern, was but one of several issues that concerned Julian.

It is fortunate that extensive writings from Julian himself exist, which help interpret his reign in the light of contemporary evidence. Still extant are some letters, several panegyrics, and a few satires. Other contemporary sources include the soldier Ammianus Marcellinus' history, correspondence between Julian and Libanius of Antioch, several panegyrics, laws from the Theodosian Code, inscriptions, and coinage. These sources show Julian's emphasis on restoration. He saw himself as the restorer of the traditional values of Roman society. Of course much of this was rhetoric, meant to defend Julian against charges that he was a usurper. At the same time this theme of restoration was central to all emperors of the fourth century. Julian thought that he was the one emperor who could regain what was viewed as the lost glory of the Roman empire. To achieve this goal he courted select groups of social elites to get across his message of restoration. This was the way that emperors functioned in the fourth century. By choosing whom to include in the sharing of power, they sought to shape society.

Early Life

Julian was born at Constantinople in 331. His father was Julius Constantius, half-brother of the emperor Constantine through Constantius Chlorus, and his mother was Basilina, Julius' second wife. Julian had two half-brothers via Julius' first marriage. One of these was Gallus, who played a major role in Julian's life. Julian appeared destined for a bright future via his father's connection to the Constantinian house. After many years of tense relations with his three half-brothers, Constantine seemed to have welcomed them into the fold of the imperial family. From 333 to 335, Constantine conferred a series of honors upon his three half-siblings, including appointing Julius Constantius as one of the consuls for 335. Julian's mother was equally distinguished. Ammianus related that she was from a noble family. This is supported by Libanius, who claimed that she was the daughter of Julius Julianus, a Praetorian Prefect under Licinius, who was such a model of administrative virtue that he was pardoned and honored by Constantine.

Despite the fact that his mother died shortly after giving birth to him, Julian experienced an idyllic early childhood. This ended when Constantius II conducted a purge of many of his relatives shortly after Constantine's death in 337, particularly targeting the families of Constantine's half-brothers. ulian and Gallus were spared, probably due to their young age. Julian was put under the care of Mardonius, a Scythian eunuch who had tutored his mother, in 339, and was raised in the Greek philosophical tradition, and probably lived in Nicomedia. Ammianus also supplied the fact that while in Nicomedia, Julian was cared for by the local bishop Eusebius, of whom the future emperor was a distant relation. Julian was educated by some of the most famous names in grammar and rhetoric in the Greek world at that time, including Nicocles and Hecebolius. In 344 Constantius II sent Julian and Gallus to Macellum in Cappadocia, where they remained for six years. In 351, Gallus was made Caesar by Constantius II and Julian was allowed to return to Nicomedia, where he studied under Aedesius, Eusebius, and Chrysanthius, all famed philosophers, and was exposed to the Neo-Platonism that would become such a prominent part of his life. But Julian was most proud of the time he spent studying under Maximus of Ephesus, a noted Neo-Platonic philospher and theurgist. It was Maximus who completed Julian's full-scale conversion to Neo-Platonism. Later, when he was Caesar, Julian told of how he put letters from this philosopher under his pillows so that he would continue to absorb wisdom while he slept, and while campaigning on the Rhine, he sent his speeches to Maximus for approval before letting others hear them. When Gallus was executed in 354 for treason by Constantius II, Julian was summoned to Italy and essentially kept under house arrest at Comum, near Milan, for seven months before Constantius' wife Eusebia convinced the emperor that Julian posed no threat. This allowed Julian to return to Greece and continue his life as a scholar where he studied under the Neo-Platonist Priscus. Julian's life of scholarly pursuit, however, ended abruptly when he was summoned to the imperial court and made Caesar by Constantius II on 6 November 355.

Julian as Caesar

Constantius II realized an essential truth of the empire that had been evident since the time of the Tetrarchy--the empire was too big to be ruled effectively by one man. Julian was pressed into service as Caesar, or subordinate emperor, because an imperial presence was needed in the west, in particular in the Gallic provinces. Julian, due to the emperor's earlier purges, was the only viable candidate of the imperial family left who could act as Caesar. Constantius enjoined Julian with the task of restoring order along the Rhine frontier. A few days after he was made Caesar, Julian was married to Constantius' sister Helena in order to cement the alliance between the two men. On 1 December 355, Julian journeyed north, and in Augusta Taurinorum he learned that Alamannic raiders had destroyed Colonia Agrippina. He then proceeded to Vienne where he spent the winter. At Vienne, he learned that Augustudunum was also under siege, but was being held by a veteran garrison. He made this his first priority, and arrived there on 24 June 356. When he had assured himself that the city was in no immediate danger, he journeyed to Augusta Treverorum via Autessioduram, and from there to Durocortorum where he rendezvoused with his army. Julian had the army stage a series of punitive strikes around the Dieuse region, and then he moved them towards the Argentoratum/Mongontiacum region when word of barbarian incursions reached him.

From there, Julian moved on to Colonia Agrippina, and negotiated a peace with the local barbarian leaders who had assaulted the city. He then wintered at Senonae. He spent the early part of the campaigning season of 357 fighting off besiegers at Senonae, and then conducting operations around Lugdunum and Tres Tabernae. Later that summer, he encountered his watershed moment as a military general. Ammianus went into great detail about Julian's victory over seven rogue Alamannic chieftains near Argentoratum, and Julian himself bragged about it in his later writing. After this battle, the soldiers acclaimed Julian Augustus, but he rejected this title. After mounting a series of follow-up raids into Alamannic territory, he retired to winter quarters at Lutetia, and on the way defeated some Frankish raiders in the Mosa region. Julian considered this campaign one of the major events of his time as Caesar.

Julian began his 358 military campaigns early, hoping to catch the barbarians by surprise. His first target was the Franks in the northern Rhine region. He then proceeded to restore some forts in the Mosa region, but his soldiers threatened to mutiny because they were on short rations and had not been paid their donative since Julian had become Caesar. After he soothed his soldiers, Julian spent the rest of the summer negotiating a peace with various Alamannic leaders in the mid and lower Rhine areas, and retired to winter quarters at Lutetia. In 359, he prepared once again to carry out a series of punitive expeditions against the Alamanni in the Rhine region who were still hostile to the Roman presence. In preparation, the Caesar repopulated seven previously destroyed cities and set them up as supply bases and staging areas. This was done with the help of the people with whom Julian had negotiated a peace the year before. Julian then had a detachment of lightly armed soldiers cross the Rhine near Mogontiacum and conduct a guerilla strike against several chieftains. As a result of these campaigns, Julian was able to negotiate a peace with all but a handful of the Alamannic leaders, and he retired to winter quarters at Lutetia.

Of course, Julian did more than act as a general during his time as Caesar. According to Ammianus, Julian was an able administrator who took steps to correct the injustices of Constantius' appointees. Ammianus related the story of how Julian prevented Florentius, the Praetorian Prefect of Gaul, from raising taxes, and also how Julian actually took over as governor for the province of Belgica Secunda. Hilary, bishop of Poitiers, supported Ammianus' basic assessment of Julian in this regard when he reported that Julian was an able representative of the emperor to the Gallic provincials. There is also epigraphic evidence to support Julian's popularity amongst the provincial elites. An inscription found near Beneventum in Apulia reads:
"To Flavius Claudius Julianus, most noble and sanctified Caesar, from the caring Tocius Maximus, vir clarissimus, for the care of the res publica from Beneventum".

Tocius Maximus, as a vir clarissimus, was at the highest point in the social spectrum and was a leader in his local community. This inscription shows that Julian was successful in establishing a positive image amongst provincial elites while he was Caesar.

Julian Augustus

In early 360, Constantius, driven by jealousy of Julian's success, stripped Julian of many troops and officers, ostensibly because the emperor needed them for his upcoming campaign against the Persians. One of the legions ordered east, the Petulantes, did not want to leave Gaul because the majority of the soldiers in the unit were from this region. As a result they mutinied and hailed Julian as Augustus at Lutetia. Julian refused this acclamation as he had done at Argentoratum earlier, but the soldiers would have none of his denial. They raised him on a shield and adorned him with a neck chain, which had formerly been the possession of the standard-bearer of the Petulantes and symbolized a royal diadem. Julian appeared reluctantly to acquiesce to their wishes, and promised a generous donative. The exact date of his acclamation is unknown, but most scholars put it in February or March. Julian himself supported Ammianus' picture of a jealous Constantius. In his Letter to the Athenians, a document constructed to answer charges that he was a usurper, Julian stated that from the start he, as Caesar, had been meant as a figurehead to the soldiers and provincials. The real power he claimed lay with the generals and officials already present in Gaul. In fact, according to Julian, the generals were charged with watching him as much as the enemy. His account of the actual acclamation closely followed what Ammianus told us, but he stressed even more his reluctance to take power. Julian claimed that he did so only after praying to Zeus for guidance.

Fearing the reaction of Constantius, Julian sent a letter to his fellow emperor justifying the events at Lutetia and trying to arrange a peaceful solution. This letter berated Constantius for forcing the troops in Gaul into an untenable situation. Ammianus stated that Julian's letter blamed Constantius' decision to transfer Gallic legions east as the reason for the soldiers' rebellion. Julian once again asserted that he was an unwilling participant who was only following the desire of the soldiers. In both of these basic accounts Ammianus and Julian are playing upon the theme of restoration. Implicit in their version of Julian's acclamation is the argument that Constantius was unfit to rule. The soldiers were the vehicle of the gods' will. The Letter to the Athenians is full of references to the fact that Julian was assuming the mantle of Augustus at the instigation of the gods. Ammianus summed up this position nicely when he related the story of how, when Julian was agonizing over whether to accept the soldiers' acclamation, he had a dream in which he was visited by the Genius (guardian spirit) of the Roman state. The Genius told Julian that it had often tried to bestow high honors upon Julian but had been rebuffed. Now, the Genius went on to say, was Julian's final chance to take the power that was rightfully his. If the Caesar refused this chance, the Genius would depart forever, and both Julian and the state would rue Julian's rejection. Julian himself wrote a letter to his friend Maximus of Ephesus in November of 361 detailing his thoughts on his proclamation. In this letter, Julian stated that the soldiers proclaimed him Augustus against his will. Julian, however, defended his accession, saying that the gods willed it and that he had treated his enemies with clemency and justice. He went on to say that he led the troops in propitiating the traditional deities, because the gods commanded him to return to the traditional rites, and would reward him if he fulfilled this duty.

During 360 an uneasy peace simmered between the two emperors. Julian spent the 360 campaigning season continuing his efforts to restore order along the Rhine, while Constantius continued operations against the Persians. Julian wintered in Vienne, and celebrated his Quinquennalia. It was at this time that his wife Helena died, and he sent her remains to Rome for a proper burial at his family villa on the Via Nomentana where the body of her sister was entombed. The uneasy peace held through the summer of 361, but Julian concentrated his military operations around harassing the Alamannic chieftain Vadomarius and his allies, who had concluded a peace treaty with Constantius some years earlier. By the end of the summer, Julian decided to put an end to the waiting and gathered his army to march east against Constantius. The empire teetered on the brink of another civil war. Constantius had spent the summer negotiating with the Persians and making preparations for possible military action against his cousin. When he was assured that the Persians would not attack, he summoned his army and sallied forth to meet Julian. As the armies drew inexorably closer to one another, the empire was saved from another bloody civil war when Constantius died unexpectedly of natural causes on 3 November near the town of Mopsucrenae in Cilicia, naming Julian -- the sources say-- as his legitimate successor.

Julian was in Dacia when he learned of his cousin's death. He made his way through Thrace and came to Constantinople on 11 December 361 where Julian honored the emperor with the funeral rites appropriate for a man of his station. Julian immediately set about putting his supporters in positions of power and trimming the imperial bureaucracy, which had become extremely overstaffed during Constantius' reign. Cooks and barbers had increased during the late emperor's reign and Julian expelled them from his court. Ammianus gave a mixed assessment of how the new emperor handled the followers of Constantius. Traditionally, emperors were supposed to show clemency to the supporters of a defeated enemy. Julian, however, gave some men over to death to appease the army. Ammianus used the case of Ursulus, Constantius' comes sacrum largitionum, to illustrate his point. Ursulus had actually tried to acquire money for the Gallic troops when Julian had first been appointed Caesar, but he had also made a disparaging remark about the ineffectiveness of the army after the battle of Amida. The soldiers remembered this, and when Julian became sole Augustus, they demanded Ursulus' head. Julian obliged, much to the disapproval of Ammianus. This seems to be a case of Julian courting the favor of the military leadership, and is indicative of a pattern in which Julian courted the goodwill of various societal elites to legitimize his position as emperor.

Another case in point is the officials who made up the imperial bureaucracy. Many of them were subjected to trial and punishment. To achieve this goal, during the last weeks of December 361 Julian assembled a military tribunal at Chalcedon, empanelling six judges to try the cases. The president of the tribunal was Salutius, just promoted to the rank of Praetorian Prefect; the five other members were Mamertinus, the orator, and four general officers: Jovinus, Agilo, Nevitta, and Arbetio. Relative to the proceedings of the tribunal, Ammianus noted that the judges, " . . . oversaw the cases more vehemently than was right or fair, with the exception of a few . . .." Ammianus' account of Julian's attempt at reform of the imperial bureaucracy is supported by legal evidence from the Theodosian Code. A series of laws sent to Mamertinus, Julian's appointee as Praetorian Prefect in Italy, Illyricum, and Africa, illustrate this point nicely. On 6 June 362, Mamertinus received a law that prohibited provincial governors from bypassing the Vicars when giving their reports to the Prefect. Traditionally, Vicars were given civil authority over a group of provinces, and were in theory meant to serve as a middle step between governors and Prefects. This law suggests that the Vicars were being left out, at least in Illyricum. Julian issued another edict to Mamertinus on 22 February 362 to stop abuse of the public post by governors. According to this law, only Mamertinus could issue post warrants, but the Vicars were given twelve blank warrants to be used as they saw fit, and each governor was given two. Continuing the trend of bureaucratic reform, Julian also imposed penalties on governors who purposefully delayed appeals in court cases they had heard. The emperor also established a new official to weigh solidi used in official government transactions to combat coin clipping.

For Julian, reigning in the abuses of imperial bureaucrats was one step in restoring the prestige of the office of emperor. Because he could not affect all elements of society personally, Julian, like other Neo-Flavian emperors, decided to concentrate on select groups of societal elites as intercessors between himself and the general populace. One of these groups was the imperial bureaucracy. Julian made it very clear that imperial officials were intercessors in a very real sense in a letter to Alypius, Vicar of Britain. In this letter, sent from Gaul sometime before 361, the emperor praises Alypius for his use of "mildness and moderation with courage and force" in his rule of the provincials. Such virtues were characteristic of the emperors, and it was good that Alypius is representing Julian in this way. Julian courted the army because it put him in power. Another group he sought to include in his rule was the traditional Senatorial aristocracy. One of his first appointments as consul was Claudius Mamertinus, a Gallic Senator and rhetorician. Mamertinus' speech in praise of Julian delivered at Constantinople in January of 362 is preserved. In this speech, Claudius presented his consular selection as inaugurating a new golden age and Julian as the restorer of the empire founded by Augustus. The image Mamertinus gave of his own consulate inaugurating a new golden age is not merely formulaic. The comparison of Julian to Augustus has very real, if implicit, relevance to Claudius' situation. Claudius emphasized the imperial period as the true age of renewal. Augustus ushered in a new era with his formation of a partnership between the emperor and the Senate based upon a series of honors and offices bestowed upon the Senate in return for their role as intercessor between emperor and populace. It was this system that Julian was restoring, and the consulate was one concrete example of this bond. To be chosen as a consul by the emperor, who himself had been divinely mandated, was a divine honor. In addition to being named consul, Mamertinus went on to hold several offices under Julian, including the Prefecture of Italy, Illyricum, and Africa. Similarly, inscriptional evidence illustrates a link between municipal elites and Julian during his time as Caesar, something which continued after he became emperor. One concrete example comes from the municipal senate of Aceruntia in Apulia, which established a monument on which Julian is styled as "Repairer of the World."

Julian seems to have given up actual Christian belief before his acclamation as emperor and was a practitioner of more traditional Greco-Roman religious beliefs, in particular, a follower of certain late antique Platonist philosophers who were especially adept at theurgy as was noted earlier. In fact Julian himself spoke of his conversion to Neo-Platonism in a letter to the Alexandrians written in 363. He stated that he had abandoned Christianity when he was twenty years old and been an adherent of the traditional Greco-Roman deities for the twelve years prior to writing this letter.

(For the complete text of this article see: http://www.roman-emperors.org/julian.htm)

Julian’s Persian Campaign

The exact goals Julian had for his ill-fated Persian campaign were never clear. The Sassanid Persians, and before them the Parthians, had been a traditional enemy from the time of the Late Republic, and indeed Constantius had been conducting a war against them before Julian's accession forced the former to forge an uneasy peace. Julian, however, had no concrete reason to reopen hostilities in the east. Socrates Scholasticus attributed Julian's motives to imitation of Alexander the Great, but perhaps the real reason lay in his need to gather the support of the army. Despite his acclamation by the Gallic legions, relations between Julian and the top military officers was uneasy at best. A war against the Persians would have brought prestige and power both to Julian and the army.

Julian set out on his fateful campaign on 5 March 363. Using his trademark strategy of striking quickly and where least expected, he moved his army through Heirapolis and from there speedily across the Euphrates and into the province of Mesopotamia, where he stopped at the town of Batnae. His plan was to eventually return through Armenia and winter in Tarsus. Once in Mesopotamia, Julian was faced with the decision of whether to travel south through the province of Babylonia or cross the Tigris into Assyria, and he eventually decided to move south through Babylonia and turn west into Assyria at a later date. By 27 March, he had the bulk of his army across the Euphrates, and had also arranged a flotilla to guard his supply line along the mighty river. He then left his generals Procopius and Sebastianus to help Arsacius, the king of Armenia and a Roman client, to guard the northern Tigris line. It was also during this time that he received the surrender of many prominent local leaders who had nominally supported the Persians. These men supplied Julian with money and troops for further military action against their former masters. Julian decided to turn south into Babylonia and proceeded along the Euphrates, coming to the fortress of Cercusium at the junction of the Abora and Euphrates Rivers around the first of April, and from there he took his army west to a region called Zaitha near the abandoned town of Dura where they visited the tomb of the emperor Gordian which was in the area. On April 7 he set out from there into the heart of Babylonia and towards Assyria.

Ammianus then stated that Julian and his army crossed into Assyria, which on the face of things appears very confusing. Julian still seems to be operating within the province of Babylonia between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. The confusion is alleviated when one realizes that,for Ammianus, the region of Assyria encompassed the provinces of Babylonia and Assyria. On their march, Julian's forces took the fortress of Anatha, received the surrender and support of several more local princes, and ravaged the countryside of Assyria between the rivers. As the army continued south, they came across the fortresses Thilutha and Achaiachala, but these places were too well defended and Julian decided to leave them alone. Further south were the cities Diacira and Ozogardana, which the Roman forces sacked and burned. Soon, Julian came to Pirisabora and a brief siege ensued, but the city fell and was also looted and destroyed. It was also at this time that the Roman army met its first systematic resistance from the Persians. As the Romans penetrated further south and west, the local inhabitants began to flood their route. Nevertheless, the Roman forces pressed on and came to Maiozamalcha, a sizable city not far from Ctesiphon. After a short siege, this city too fell to Julian. Inexorably, Julian's forces zeroed in on Ctesiphon, but as they drew closer, the Persian resistance grew fiercer, with guerilla raids whittling at Julian's men and supplies. A sizable force of the army was lost and the emperor himself was almost killed taking a fort a few miles from the target city.
Finally, the army approached Ctesiphon following a canal that linked the Tigris and Euphrates. It soon became apparent after a few preliminary skirmishes that a protracted siege would be necessary to take this important city. Many of his generals, however, thought that pursuing this course of action would be foolish. Julian reluctantly agreed, but became enraged by this failure and ordered his fleet to be burned as he decided to march through the province of Assyria. Julian had planned for his army to live off the land, but the Persians employed a scorched-earth policy. When it became apparent that his army would perish (because his supplies were beginning to dwindle) from starvation and the heat if he continued his campaign, and also in the face of superior numbers of the enemy, Julian ordered a retreat on 16 June. As the Roman army retreated, they were constantly harassed by guerilla strikes. It was during one of these raids that Julian got caught up in the fighting and took a spear to his abdomen. Mortally wounded he was carried to his tent, where, after conferring with some of his officers, he died. The date was 26 June 363.

Conclusion

Thus an ignominious end for a man came about who had hoped to restore the glory of the Roman empire during his reign as emperor. Due to his intense hatred of Christianity, the opinion of posterity has not been kind to Julian. The contemporary opinion, however, was overall positive. The evidence shows that Julian was a complex ruler with a definite agenda to use traditional social institutions in order to revive what he saw as a collapsing empire. In the final assessment, he was not so different from any of the other emperors of the fourth century. He was a man grasping desperately to hang on to a Greco-Roman conception of leadership that was undergoing a subtle yet profound change.
Copyright (C) 2002, Walter E. Roberts and Michael DiMaio, Jr. Used by permission.

In reality, Julian worked to promote culture and philosophy in any manifestation. He tried to reduce taxes and the public debts of municipalities; he augmented administrative decentralisation; he promoted a campaign of austerity to reduce public expenditure (setting himself as the example). He reformed the postal service and eliminated the powerful secret police.
by Federico Morando; JULIAN II, The Apostate, http://www.forumancientcoins.com/NumisWiki/view.asp?key=Julian%20II

Flavius Claudius Iulianus was born in 331 or maybe 332 A.D. in Constantinople. He ruled the Western Empire as Caesar from 355 to 360 and was hailed Augustus by his legions in Lutetia (Paris) in 360. Julian was a gifted administrator and military strategist. Famed as the last pagan emperor, his reinstatement of the pagan religion earned him the moniker "the Apostate." As evidenced by his brilliant writing, some of which has survived to the present day, the title "the Philosopher" may have been more appropriate. He died from wounds suffered during the Persian campaign of 363 A.D. Joseph Sermarini, FORVM.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.




2 commentsCleisthenes
RI 146bk img.jpg
146 - Maximianus - RIC V pt II 460 Radiate, helmeted, cuirassed bust left21 viewsObv:– IMP C MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, Radiate, helmeted, cuirassed bust left
Rev:– VIRTVTI AVGG, Hercules, standing right, with club thrown behind him, being crowned by Victory flying right
Minted in Lugdunum (No marks). Emission 5. Officina 3. Autumn A.D. 287 – Autumn A.D. 289
Reference:– RIC V Pt. 2 Lugdunum 460. Bastien 231 (1 example cited)

Fully silvered with very little sign of wear. A very pleasing example in hand. If only I could improve my photography to show how nice the silvering is
maridvnvm
AntoninusPius_PanoramaBlack.jpg
15 Antoninus Pius RIC 23843 viewsAntoninus Pius 138-161 AD. AR Denarius. Rome Mint. 154 - 155 AD. (3.35g, 19.71mm) Obv: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P XVIII, Laureate head right. Rev: COS IIII, Vesta standing left holding simpulum and palladium, altar at feet.
RIC 238; RSC 201

Ex: Romadrome

Difficult to photograph but with the slightest of angle the picture turned out OK.
Paddy
ConsecratioPanoramaBlack.jpg
15 Marcus Aurelius for Divus Antoninus Pius RIC 43647 viewsAntonius Pius. Ar Denarius. Marcus Aurelius for Divus Antoninus Pius. Rome mint. 161 AD. Obv: Obv.: DIVVS ANTONINVS, Bare head of Divus Antoninus Pius right. Rev: CONSECRATIO, Decorated funeral pyre (pyra) of four storeys, decorated with hangings and garlands, surmounted by quadriga.
C 164; RIC 436

Very diffcult coin to photograph, but it turned out decent enough.
Paddy
Saladin_A788.jpg
1701a, Saladin, 1169-11932050 viewsAYYUBID: Saladin, 1169-1193, AR dirham (2.92g), Halab, AH580, A-788, lovely struck, well-centered & bold, Extremely Fine, Scarce.

His name in Arabic, in full, is SALAH AD-DIN YUSUF IBN AYYUB ("Righteousness of the Faith, Joseph, Son of Job"), also called AL-MALIK AN-NASIR SALAH AD-DIN YUSUF I (b. 1137/38, Tikrit, Mesopotamia--d. March 4, 1193, Damascus), Muslim sultan of Egypt, Syria, Yemen, and Palestine, founder of the Ayyubid dynasty, and the most famous of Muslim heroes.

In wars against the Christian crusaders, he achieved final success with the disciplined capture of Jerusalem (Oct. 2, 1187), ending its 88-year occupation by the Franks. The great Christian counterattack of the Third Crusade was then stalemated by Saladin's military genius.

Saladin was born into a prominent Kurdish family. On the night of his birth, his father, Najm ad-Din Ayyub, gathered his family and moved to Aleppo, there entering the service of 'Imad ad-Din Zangi ibn Aq Sonqur, the powerful Turkish governor in northern Syria. Growing up in Ba'lbek and Damascus, Saladin was apparently an undistinguished youth, with a greater taste for religious studies than military training.
His formal career began when he joined the staff of his uncle Asad ad-Din Shirkuh, an important military commander under the amir Nureddin, son and successor of Zangi. During three military expeditions led by Shirkuh into Egypt to prevent its falling to the Latin-Christian (Frankish) rulers of the states established by the First Crusade, a complex, three-way struggle developed between Amalric I, the Latin king of Jerusalem, Shawar, the powerful vizier of the Egyptian Fatimid caliph, and Shirkuh. After Shirkuh's death and after ordering Shawar's assassination, Saladin, in 1169 at the age of 31, was appointed both commander of the Syrian troops and vizier of Egypt.

His relatively quick rise to power must be attributed not only to the clannish nepotism of his Kurdish family but also to his own emerging talents. As vizier of Egypt, he received the title king (malik), although he was generally known as the sultan. Saladin's position was further enhanced when, in 1171, he abolished the Shi'i Fatimid caliphate, proclaimed a return to Sunnah in Egypt, and consequently became its sole ruler.

Although he remained for a time theoretically a vassal of Nureddin, that relationship ended with the Syrian emir's death in 1174. Using his rich agricultural possessions in Egypt as a financial base, Saladin soon moved into Syria with a small but strictly disciplined army to claim the regency on behalf of the young son of his former suzerain.
Soon, however, he abandoned this claim, and from 1174 until 1186 he zealously pursued a goal of uniting, under his own standard, all the Muslim territories of Syria, northern Mesopotamia, Palestine, and Egypt.

This he accomplished by skillful diplomacy backed when necessary by the swift and resolute use of military force. Gradually, his reputation grew as a generous and virtuous but firm ruler, devoid of pretense, licentiousness, and cruelty. In contrast to the bitter dissension and intense rivalry that had up to then hampered the Muslims in their resistance to the crusaders, Saladin's singleness of purpose induced them to rearm both physically and spiritually.

Saladin's every act was inspired by an intense and unwavering devotion to the idea of jihad ("holy war")-the Muslim equivalent of the Christian crusade. It was an essential part of his policy to encourage the growth and spread of Muslim religious institutions.

He courted its scholars and preachers, founded colleges and mosques for their use, and commissioned them to write edifying works especially on the jihad itself. Through moral regeneration, which was a genuine part of his own way of life, he tried to re-create in his own realm some of the same zeal and enthusiasm that had proved so valuable to the first generations of Muslims when, five centuries before, they had conquered half the known world.

Saladin also succeeded in turning the military balance of power in his favour-more by uniting and disciplining a great number of unruly forces than by employing new or improved military techniques. When at last, in 1187, he was able to throw his full strength into the struggle with the Latin crusader kingdoms, his armies were their equals. On July 4, 1187, aided by his own military good sense and by a phenomenal lack of it on the part of his enemy, Saladin trapped and destroyed in one blow an exhausted and thirst-crazed army of crusaders at Hattin, near Tiberias in northern Palestine.

So great were the losses in the ranks of the crusaders in this one battle that the Muslims were quickly able to overrun nearly the entire Kingdom of Jerusalem. Acre, Toron, Beirut, Sidon, Nazareth, Caesarea, Nabulus, Jaffa (Yafo), and Ascalon (Ashqelon) fell within three months.

But Saladin's crowning achievement and the most disastrous blow to the whole crusading movement came on Oct. 2, 1187, when Jerusalem, holy to both Muslim and Christian alike, surrendered to the Sultan's army after 88 years in the hands of the Franks. In stark contrast to the city's conquest by the Christians, when blood flowed freely during the barbaric slaughter of its inhabitants, the Muslim reconquest was marked by the civilized and courteous behaviour of Saladin and his troops. His sudden success, which in 1189 saw the crusaders reduced to the occupation of only three cities, was, however, marred by his failure to capture Tyre, an almost impregnable coastal fortress to which the scattered Christian survivors of the recent battles flocked. It was to be the rallying point of the Latin counterattack.

Most probably, Saladin did not anticipate the European reaction to his capture of Jerusalem, an event that deeply shocked the West and to which it responded with a new call for a crusade. In addition to many great nobles and famous knights, this crusade, the third, brought the kings of three countries into the struggle.

The magnitude of the Christian effort and the lasting impression it made on contemporaries gave the name of Saladin, as their gallant and chivalrous enemy, an added lustre that his military victories alone could never confer on him.

The Crusade itself was long and exhausting, and, despite the obvious, though at times impulsive, military genius of Richard I the Lion-Heart, it achieved almost nothing. Therein lies the greatest-but often unrecognized--achievement of Saladin. With tired and unwilling feudal levies, committed to fight only a limited season each year, his indomitable will enabled him to fight the greatest champions of Christendom to a draw. The crusaders retained little more than a precarious foothold on the Levantine coast, and when King Richard set sail from the Orient in October 1192, the battle was over.

Saladin withdrew to his capital at Damascus. Soon, the long campaigning seasons and the endless hours in the saddle caught up with him, and he died. While his relatives were already scrambling for pieces of the empire, his friends found that the most powerful and most generous ruler in the Muslim world had not left enough money to pay for his own grave.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
H.A.R. Gibb, "The Arabic Sources for the Life of Saladin," Speculum, 25:58-72 (1950). C.W. Wilson's English translation of one of the most important Arabic works, The Life of Saladin (1897), was reprinted in 1971. The best biography to date is Stanley Lane-Poole, Saladin and the Fall of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, new ed. (1926, reprinted 1964), although it does not take account of all the sources.
See: http://stp.ling.uu.se/~kamalk/language/saladin.html
Ed. J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
1 commentsCleisthenes
0030-0210.jpg
1749 - Octavian, Denarius272 viewsItalian mint, possibly Rome, 31-30 BC
Anepigraph, bare head of Octavian left
CAESAR - DIVI F, Victory standing right on globe, holding wreath
3.84 gr
Ref : HCRI # 408, RCV # 1552v, Cohen # 66, RIC # 255
The following comment is taken from CNG, sale 84 # 957 :
"Following his victory at Actium, Octavian ordered a golden statue of Victory, standing on a globe and holding a wreath and palm, to be set up on an altar in the Curia in Rome. This statue had been captured by the Romans from Pyrrhus in 272 BC, and it assumed a somewhat tutelary mystique, protecting the Roman state from dissolution. In AD 382, the emperor Gratian ordered its removal. Two years later, the senator and orator Symmachus urged Valentinian II to replace it, a request that was met with stiff opposition from the bishop of Milan, Ambrose. Though it was briefly returned to its place by the usurper Eugenius, it was again removed following his defeat. Petitions to Theodosius I for its subsequent replacement were refused, on grounds that the once-important symbol of the gods’ blessing on the Roman Empire was now nothing more than a piece of paganism"
11 commentsPotator II
s-pb-tc.jpg
1919 ALEXIUS PB TETARTERON S-Unlisted DOC 37 CLBC 2.5.1 49 viewsOBV Full length figures of John II beardless on r., and st Demetrius, holding between them labarum on long shaft. Emperor wears stemma, divitision, collar piece and jeweled loros of a simplified type. Saint wears short military tunic , breastplate, and saigon; holds sword, point resting on ground, in r. hand.

REV Full length figures of Alexius on l. and of Irene, holding between them cross on long shaft. Both wear stemma, divitision, collar piece and jeweled loros of a simplified type.

Size 18 mm

Weight 6.31 gm

These lead Tetarteron are coronation issues of John II and believed to be the origin of the series of tetartera. Thessalonica Mint

DOC lists 6 examples with weights running from3.33 gm to 6.16 gm and sizes from 17mm to 19mm

My first example that I am able to get good photographs from, most are white lead very difficult to photograph, this example also has much more detail than normal.
Simon
l3~0.jpg
1922D ALEXIUS METROPOLITAN TETARTERON S-1922 DOC 35 CLBC 2.4.3 44 viewsOBV Christ Bearded and nimbate wearing tunic and kolobion, seated on a throne without back; holds gospel in l. hand.

REV: Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision, and chlamys; holds in r. hand scepter cruciger and in l. hand Globus crucifer.

Size 18.35

Weight 3.3gm

Metropolitan Issues were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of 3% and were also issued with a very light silver wash, ,HOWEVER this coin is not the norm of black silver, very grainy and hard to photograph but white silver in color, much higher than what was normal.

DOC catalog lists 9 examples with weights ranging from 2.95gm to 3.72 and size from 16mm to 20mm
Simon
859_P_Sabina_RPC1962.jpg
1962 LYDIA, Mostene Sabina Bipennis, grapes, corn15 viewsReference.
RPC III, 1962; Winterthur 3831; BMC 10

Obv. СΑΒΕΙΝΑ СΕΒΑСΤΗ
Draped bust of Sabina, right

Rev. ΜΟСΤΗΝΩΝ
Double axe (Bipennis) between grapes and ears of corn

2.88 gr
14 mm
6h
okidoki
AgrippaAsNeptune.jpg
1ah Marcus Agrippa37 viewsDied 12 BC
As, minted by Caligula.

Head left wearing rostral crownt, M AGRIPPA L F COS III
Neptune standing facing, head left, naked except for cloak draped behind him & over both arms, holding small dolphin in right hand & vertical trident in left, SC

RIC 58

Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa (c 63 BC–12 BC) was a close friend, and defence minister of the future emperor Augustus. He was responsible for many of his military victories, most notably Actium against the forces of Mark Antony and Cleopatra VII of Egypt. He was son-in-law to Augustus, maternal grandfather of the Emperor Caligula, father-in-law of the Emperors Tiberius and Claudius, and maternal great-grandfather of the Emperor Nero. He probably served in Caesar’s campaign of 46/45 BC against Pompey and Caesar regarded him highly enough to send him with Octavius in 45 BC to study at Apollonia. From then on Agrippa played a major part in Augustus’ career, as military commander and admiral, also undertaking major public works, and writing works on geography (following his survey of the Empire) and other subjects. He erected many fine buildings in Rome, including the original Pantheon on the Campus Martius (during his third consulship 27 BC). He married Claudia Marcella the Elder, daughter of Octavia the Younger in 28 BC, and Julia the Elder in 21 BC, with whom he had five children. His daughter Agrippina Vipsania the Younger the married Tiberius, and his daughter Agrippina Vipsania the Elder married Germanicus. His last campaign initiated the conquest of the upper Danube region, which would become the Roman province of Pannonia in 13 BC. Augustus had Agrippa’s remains placed in his own mausoleum. Ronald Syme offers a compelling case that Agrippa was much more co-ruler of the empire with Augustus than he was a subordinate.
Blindado
AeliusAsAnnona.jpg
1bg Aelius29 viewsCaesar, 136-138

As

Bare head, right, AELIVS CAESAR
Pannonia standing and holding a standard, PANNONIA SC

RIC 1071

According to the Historia Augusta (note: scholars view this biography in the text as among those particularly suspect regarding veracity): Aelius Verus was adopted by Hadrian at the time when, as we have previously said, the Emperor's health was beginning to fail and he was forced to take thought for the succession. He was at once made praetor and appointed military and civil governor of the provinces of Pannonia ; afterwards he was created [in AD 136] consul, and then, because he had been chosen to succeed to the imperial power, he was named for a second consulship. . . . [I]n the province to which he had been appointed he was by no means a failure ; for he carried on a campaign with
success, or rather, with good fortune, and achieved the reputation, if not of a pre-eminent, at least of an
average, commander.

Verus had, however, such wretched health that Hadrian immediately regretted the adoption, and since he often considered others as possible successors, he might have removed him altogether from the imperial family had Verus chanced to live longer. . . .

Verus was a man of joyous life and well versed in letters, and he was endeared to Hadrian, as the malicious say, rather by his beauty than by his character. In the palace his stay was but a short one; in his private life, though there was little to be commended, yet there was little to be blamed. Furthermore, he was considerate of his family, well-dressed, elegant in appearance, a man of regal beauty, with a countenance that commanded respect, a speaker of unusual eloquence, deft at writing verse, and, moreover, not altogether a failure in public life.

This sad little flan looks a bit tubercular, like the subject of the portrait.
Blindado
SeptSevDenFund.jpg
1bs Septimius Severus87 views193-211

Denarius

Laureate head, right, SEVERVS PIVS AVG
Septimius, togate and veiled, standing left holding olive branch, FVNDATOR PACIS

RIC 265

According to the Historia Augusta: After the murder of Didius Julianus, Severus, a native of Africa, gained the empire. His home town was Lepcis Magna, his father was Geta and his ancestors had been Roman knights before citizenship had been given to all. . . . He himself was born on the third day before the Ides of April, when Erucius Clarus, for the second time, and Severus were the consuls [11 April A.D.146]. . . .

After his departure to Germany he conducted himself in such a way in his governorship as to increase his reputation, which had already become noteworthy. Up to this point his military activity was as a private citizen. But then, after it had been learned that Commodus had been murdered and, moreover, that Julianus held the empire amid universal hatred, he was proclaimed emperor by the German legions at Carnuntum, on the Ides of August, although he did put up some resistance to the many who urged him on. He gave the soldiers . . . sesterces each. Then, after strengthening the provinces which he was leaving in his rear, he marched on Rome. All yielded to him wherever he went, while the armies of Illyricum and Gaul, under the pressure of their generals, had already sworn allegiance to him - for he was received by everyone as the avenger of Pertinax. At the same time, on the instigation of Julianus, Septimius Severus was declared a public enemy, and envoys were sent to the army who were to order the soldiers to desert him, on the instructions of the Senate. At first, when Severus heard that the envoys had been sent by authority of a senatorial decree, he was very frightened. Afterwards, by bribing the envoys, he ensured that they spoke in his favour before the army and crossed to his side. Having learned this, Julianus caused a decree ofthe Senate to be passed regarding his sharing of the empire with Severus. It is uncertain whether or not he did this as a trick, since he had already, before this, dispatched certain men, well known for their assassinations of generals, who were to kill Severus. Similarly he had sent men to assassinate Pescennius Niger, who had also assumed the position of emperor in opposition to him, on the instigation of the Syrian armies. But Severus escaped the hands of those that Julianus had sent to murder him and sent a letter to the praetorian guard, giving them the signal either to desertJulianus or to kill him. He was obeyed at once; Julianus was killed in the palace and Severus was invited to Rome. Thus Severus became the victor merely at will - something that had never happened to anyone - and hastened to Rome under arms. . . .

The same emperor, although implacable towards offences, likewise displayed singular judiciousness in encouraging all hard-working persons. He was quite interested in philosophy and the practice of rhetoric, and enthusiastic about learning in general. He took some measures against brigands everywhere. He composed a convincing autobiography dealing with both his private and his public life, making excuses only for the vice of cruelty. With regard to this, the Senate pronounced that either he ought not to have been born or that he ought not to die, since he appeared to be both excessively cruel and excessively useful to the republic. . . . . He died at Eboracum [York] in Britain, having subdued the tribes which appeared hostile to Britain, in the eighteeneh year of his reign, stricken by a very grave illness, now an old man. . . .

This emperor wore such meagre clothing that even his tunic scarcely had any purple, while he covered his shoulders with a shaggy cloak. He ate sparingly, being very addicted to his native vegetable, sometimes fond of wine, often abstaining from meat. His person was handsome, he was of huge size,(Dio Cassius, who knew Severus personally, says that he was small) with a long beard and curly white hair. His face inspired reverence, his voice was resonant but with a trace of an African accent right up to his old age. He was equally beloved after his death, when envy, or the fear of his cruelty, had disappeared.
Blindado
coin57~0.JPG
201. Septimus Severus; Pautalia, Thrace20 viewsSeptimus Severus AE19 of Pautalia. AV K L CEP CEVHPOC, laureate head right / OVLPIAC PAVTALIAC, bunch of grapes on a stem. Moushmov 4164. No.3179.

ecoli
Alexunlistedsep.jpg
2016AV ALEXIUS III ANGELUS-COMNENUS AE HALF TETARTERON S-2016 DOC 7 CLBC 8.4.4 Unlisted Variation50 viewsOBV Bust of St. George , beardless and nimbate , wearing tunic, breastplate wearing tunic, breastplate, and sagion; holds spear in r. hand resting on RIGHT shoulder and in l. hand. Scroll or hilt of sword ( This one with such an exceptional Obv makes it clear it is a hilt of sword, also no others mention spear resting on right shoulder.))

REV Full length figure of emperor wearing stemma, divitision, and chlamys; holds in r. hand labarum on long shaft and in l. Globus cruciger cr. Manus Dei ( Hands of God) in upper right field.

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron

Size 16/14mm

Weight 2.3gm

DOC lists 6 examples with weights from 1.2 to 1.9 gm and sizes 15x11 to 17mm

Half tetartera are rare for Alexius III, this example has and excellent obv and the reverse is attributable in hand but does not photograph well.

Both of my Alexius III half tetartera are very odd shaped flans.
Simon
3290481.jpg
202. Septimius Severus55 viewsThe Caledonians are next mentioned in 209, when they are said to have surrendered to the emperor Septimius Severus after he personally led a military expedition north of Hadrian's Wall, in search of a glorious military victory. Herodian and Dio wrote only in passing of the campaign but describe the Caledonians ceding territory to Rome as being the result. Cassius Dio records that the Caledonians inflicted 50,000 Roman casualties due to attrition and unconventional tactics such as guerrilla warfare. Dr. Colin Martin has suggested that the Severan campaigns did not seek a battle but instead sought to destroy the fertile agricultural land of eastern Scotland and thereby bring about genocide of the Caledonians through starvation.

By 210 however, the Caledonians had re-formed their alliance with the Maeatae and joined their fresh offensive. A punitive expedition led by Severus' son, Caracalla, was sent out with the purpose of slaughtering everyone it encountered from any of the northern tribes. Severus meanwhile prepared for total conquest but was already ill; he died at Eboracum (modern day York) in Britannia in 211. Caracalla attempted to take over command but when his troops refused to recognise him as emperor, he made peace with the Caledonians and retreated south of Hadrian's Wall to press his claim for the throne. Sheppard Frere suggests that Caracalla briefly continued the campaign after his father's death rather than immediately leaving, citing an apparent delay in his arrival in Rome and indirect numismatic and epigraphic factors that suggest he may instead have fully concluded the war but that Dio's hostility towards his subject led him to record the campaign as ending in a truce. Malcolm Todd however considers there to be no evidence to support this. Nonetheless the Caledonians did retake their territory and pushed the Romans back to Hadrians Wall.

In any event, there is no further historical mention of the Caledonians for a century save for a c. AD 230 inscription from Colchester which records a dedication by a man calling himself the nephew (or grandson) of "Uepogenus, [a] Caledonian". This may be because Severus' campaigns were so successful that the Caledonians were wiped out, however this is highly unlikely. In 305, Constantius Chlorus re-invaded the northern lands of Britain although the sources are vague over their claims of penetration into the far north and a great victory over the "Caledones and others" (Panegyrici Latini Vetares, VI (VII) vii 2). The event is notable in that it includes the first recorded use of the term 'Pict' to describe the tribes of the area.

Septimius Severus. AD 193-211. Æ As (25mm, 11.07 g, 7h). “Victoria Britannica” issue. Rome mint. Struck AD 211. Laureate head right / Victory standing right, holding vexillum; seated captives flanking. RIC IV 812a. Near VF, brown surfaces with touches of green and red, porous. Rare.

From the Fairfield Collection.

ex-cng EAuction 329 481/100/60
1 commentsecoli
SNG_Cop_379_AE_Lydia_DOMICIA.jpg
22-20 - Philadelphia en Lydia - DOMICIA (81 - 96 D.C.)17 viewsAE15 - 1/2 Assarión (Provincial)
14 mm 2,86 gr 0 hr.

Anv: Busto a derecha
Rev: EΠI ΛAΓETA ΦIΛAΔEΛΦ,-[EWN], Racimo de uvas.

Domicia Longina (siglo I) fue una emperatriz romana, esposa del emperador Domiciano a quien dio en 73 D.C. su primer hijo Vespasiano, muere joven.
El emperador la repudia al enterarse de que mantenía relaciones con un comediógrafo de nombre Paris, pero sin embargo años más tarde la vuelve a llamar a su lado y tienen un segundo hijo, en el 90 D.C., al que también llaman Vespasiano, lamentablemente muere muy tempranamente, a los cinco años de edad.
Tras la muerte de este segundo hijo, Domicia encabezó la conjura que acabó con la vida de su marido y llevó al poder a Nerva. Domicia murió en tiempos de Trajano. (Fuente Wikipedia)

Acuñada 82 - 96 D.C.
Ceca: Philadelphia en Lydia - Lagetas Magistrado

Referencias: RPC II #1336; SNG München -; SNG Copenhagen # 379; BMC Lydia # 64 pag. 198,
mdelvalle
J29-25 Mil.jpg
25 mils Israel's first coin, 1949124 views25 mil coin of aluminum, 3.5grams, 30 mm, Mintage: 650,000 (total: open link & closed link mintage).

Obverse: Grapes as in Bar-Kochba revolt coinage.
Reverse: Wreath as in Hasmonean dynasty coinage.

Reference: Israel KM8

Added to collection: June 20, 2005
Daniel Friedman
1033_P_Hadrian_RPC2952.jpg
2952 CAPPADOCIA, Tyana. Hadrian 117-18 AD Tyche seated on throne15 viewsReference.
RPC III, 2952; SNG Leypold 2821

Issue Year 2

Obv. AVTO KAIC TPAIA AΔPIANOC CЄBACTOC.
Laureate head right.

Rev. ΤΥΑΝΕωΝ ΤΗС ΙΕΡΑС ΑСΥΛΟΥ ΑΥΤΟΝΟΜΟΥ
Tyche seated l., holding ears of corn and bunch of grapes in her r. hand; below, river-god l.; in field, l. and r., ΕΤ Β

11.05 gr
25 mm
12h
okidoki
1359_P_Hadrian_RPC2952.jpg
2952 CAPPADOCIA, Tyana. Hadrian 117-18 AD Tyche seated on throne12 viewsReference.
RPC III, 2952/12; SNG Leypold 2821

Issue Year 2

Obv. ΑΥΤΟ ΚΑΙ ΤΡΑΙΑ ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СΕΒΑСΤΟY (sic)
Laureate head of Hadrian, right

Rev. ΤΥΑΝΕωΝ ΤΗС ΙΕΡΑС ΑСΥΛΟΥ ΑΥΤΟΝΟΜΟΥ
Tyche seated l., holding ears of corn and bunch of grapes in her r. hand; below, river-god l.; in field, l. and r., ΕΤ Β

10.96 gr
24 mm
12h
okidoki
1262_P_Hadrian_RPC2952.jpg
2952 CAPPADOCIA, Tyana. Hadrian 117-18 AD Tyche seated on throne9 viewsReference.
RPC III, 2952; SNG Leypold 2821

Issue Year 2

Obv. ΑΥΤΟ ΚΑΙ ΤΡΑΙΑ ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СΕΒΑСΤΟС
Laureate head of Hadrian, right

Rev. ΤΥΑΝΕωΝ ΤΗС ΙΕΡΑС ΑСΥΛΟΥ ΑΥΤΟΝΟΜΟΥ
Tyche seated l., holding ears of corn and bunch of grapes in her r. hand; below, river-god l.; in field, l. and r., ΕΤ Β

10.15 gr
25 mm
12h
okidoki
390_P_Hadrian.jpg
2955 CAPPADOCIA, Tyana. Hadrian 135-36 AD Tyche seated on throne40 viewsReference.
RPC III, 2955; SNG von Aulock 6538-9; Lindgren I 1735; cf SNG Cop 316.

Issue Year 20

Obv. AVTO KAIC TPAIA AΔPIANOC CЄBACTOC.
Laureate head right.

Rev. TVANЄΩN TΩN T T IЄP ACV AVT. ЄT K across field
Tyche seated l. on rocks, holding ears of corn and buch of grapes in her r. hand, her l. resting on seat; below, river god, holding club, l.; in field, l. and r., ΕΤ Κ; (crescent in right field above K)

11.04 gr
25 mm
12h

Note.
ex Lindgren 1735
1 commentsokidoki
21_P_Hadrian__SNG_von_Aulock_6538-9.jpg
2955 CAPPADOCIA, Tyana. Hadrian 135-36 AD Tyche seated on throne28 viewsReference.
RPC III, 2955; SNG von Aulock 6538-9; Lindgren I 1735; cf SNG Cop 316.

Issue Year 20

Obv. AVTO KAIC TPAIA AΔPIANOC CЄBACTOC.
Laureate head right.

Rev. TVANЄΩN TΩN T T IЄP ACV AVT. ЄT K (date) across field
Tyche seated left on throne decorated with sphinx, holding grain ears and bunch of grapes; below, river god swimming left, head facing, holding club

10.2 gr
25 mm
12h
okidoki
1035_P_Hadrian_RPC2955.jpg
2955 CAPPADOCIA, Tyana. Hadrian 135-36 AD Tyche seated on throne21 viewsReference.
RPC III, 2955/25; cf SNG von Aulock 6538-9; Lindgren I 1735; cf SNG Cop 316. (crescent)

Issue Year 20

Obv. AVTO KAIC TPAIA AΔPIANOC CЄBACTOC.
Laureate head right.

Rev. TVANЄΩN TΩN T T IЄP ACV AVT. ЄT K (date) across field
Tyche seated left on throne decorated with sphinx, holding grain ears and bunch of grapes and below crescent; below, river god swimming left, head facing, holding club

11.15 gr
26 mm
12h
okidoki
937_P_Hadrian_RPC2955.JPG
2955 CAPPADOCIA, Tyana. Hadrian Æ 135-36 AD Tyche seated on throne18 viewsReference.
RPC III, 2955; SNG von Aulock 6538-9; Lindgren I 1735; cf SNG Cop 316.

Issue Year 20

Obv. AVTO KAIC TPAI AΔPIANOC CЄBACTOC.
Laureate head right.

Rev. TVANЄΩN TΩN T T IЄP ACV AVT. ЄT K (date) across field
Tyche seated left on throne decorated with sphinx, holding grain ears and bunch of grapes; below, river god swimming left, head facing, holding club

11.26 gr
25 mm
12h
okidoki
jbk107.jpg
3.0 Bar Kokhba small bronze, year 3 (134-135 CE)172 viewsBar Kokhba rebellion (second Jewish Revolt against Rome)
Year 3 (134-135 CE)
small bronze (19.5 mm)
VF+/VF
Hendin 739

obv. seven branched palm tree, symbolizing Judaea (like Menorah?)
SHIMON (Simon [Bar Kokhba]) in field below tree
rev. Bunch of grapes L'CHAROT YERUSHALAYIM (For the Freedom of Jerusalem) around
5 commentsZam
coin185.JPG
304a. Otacilia Severa28 viewsVery little is known about the wife of Philip I. In A. D. 237, she gave birth to a son who was later to become the emperor Philip II. Even the reverses of the coins struck in her name do not tell us very much about this woman but are simply typical reverses for a female personality of the mid Third Century.

No reliable accounts of the events of this time period have been found. It is generally accepted by scholars that the Historia Augusta is unreliable as history from about A. D. 222 onward. At this point, it assumes the character of a collection of fairy tales and anecdotes of mystical or supernatural happenings. There are short biographical sketches of the Roman rulers and amily members in many of the Roman coin reference books, but even these scholarly works are in disagreement as to what happened to Otacilia Severa. On one point, the scholars seem to agree. Philip II was killed in her arms by the Praetorian Guard in A. D. 249 near Rome or Verona. She was then either killed also or allowed to go into retirement.

Otacilia Severa AR Antoninianus. MARCIA OTACIL SEVERA AVG, diademed, draped bust right on crescent / CONCORDIA AVGG, Concordia seated left with patera & double cornucopiae. RIC 119b, RSC 9.
ecoli
coin259.JPG
318. Florian28 viewsAfter Tacitus died, the army chose Florian to succeed him. His full name as Emperor was Imperator Caesar Marcus Annius Florianus Pius Felix Invictus Augustus. The Historia Augusta characterizes the succession as a dynastic coup in which the Senate was ignored, but since Florian like Tacitus issued coins inscribed SC, advertising the Senate's authority for minting them, the Historia Augusta's complaint may be factitious. Most of this biography is.

Florian had hardly assumed office when the armies and provinces of Phoenicia, Palestine, Syria and Egypt declared for Probus. Florian turned from pursuing the the Eruli north to return to Cilicia and confront Probus and his army. Florian appears to have had the larger army, but Probus, an experienced general, held back. After a few weeks of sporadic fighting, Florian was assassinated by his own troops near Tarsus. He had reigned about 88 days.

Florian's different nomen, Annius rather than Claudius, means that he cannot have been Tacitus's full brother as the Historia Augusta implies; but one passage identifies him as Tacitus's half brother by the same mother, which might be true. Some historians doubt, however, whether any blood connexion existed at all. Little can be said about Florian's reign. One inscription assigns him a consulate. Though neither reigned long, both Tacitus and Florian had a large and varied coinage, "lively with hope for a golden age neither emperor ever realized."



Florian, Antoninianus 276 AD 2.77g
Obv: Bust of Florian right 'IMP FLORIANVS AVG'
Rev: Victory presenting a wreath to Florian 'CONCORDIA MILITVM' 'T' in ex.
RIC 116
ecoli
707_P_Hadrian_RPC3246.jpg
3246 CILICIA, Pompeiopolis (Soli), Pseudo-autonomous under Hadrian 131-32 AD Eight-rayed star11 viewsReference. Very rare.
RPC III, 3246; Levante 886; SNG Pfälzer 1128

Issue Year 197 (ΖЧΡ)

Obv. ΖЧΡ
two bunches of grapes on stalk

Rev.
Eight-rayed star

3.00 gr
15.8 mm
okidoki
676_P_Hadrian_RPC3280A.jpg
3279A CILICIA, Tarsus Hadrian, Tyche of Tarsus left30 viewsReference.
RPC III, 3279A; BMC -; SNG France -; Coll. Weber -; SNG Copenhagen 358 var. (Laureate obv. bust).

Obv. AYTO KAΙ AΔPIANOY CEB ΟΛΥNΔΙΟC.
Bare head right, slight drapery on far shoulder.

Rev: AΔΡΙΑΝΗC TARCOY MHTPOΠOΛΕΩC.
Veiled and turreted Tyche seated left on a sphinx decorated diphros, holding bunch of grapes and grain ears; at her feet to left, river god Kydnos swimming left.

10.88 gr
26 mm
12h
okidoki
353.jpg
353.jpg31 viewsRemi in Gallia, Région de Reims, ca. 60-40 BC.,
Æ 21 (19-21 mm / 5,45 g), bronze, axes irregular alignment ↑↖ (ca. 320°),
Obv.: [AT]ISOS (downwards before) / [RE]MOS (downwards behind) , beardless head facing left, four-pointed floral ornament behind - Tête à gauche, un torque au cou. Légende devant et derrière la tête. Fleur à quatre pétales derrière la nuque, grènetis.
Rev.: lion at bay left, dolphin below - Anépigraphe. Lion élancé à gauche, la queue entre les pattes et enroulée jusqu'au-dessus du dos. Une esse au-dessus de la croupe, grènetis.
DT. 596 ; LT. 8054 var. ; BMC Celtic 71 ; Scheers 147 ; Allen 'Coins of the Celts', illustrated as nos. 446 and 447 .

thanks to Alan ("Manzikert") for the id

Les Rèmes étaient l'un des peuples les plus puissants de la Gaule et les fidèles alliés des Romains. Le territoire des Rèmes s'étendait sur l'actuelle Champagne, le long de l'Aisne. Ils avaient pour voisins les Atuatuques, les Trévires, les Médiomatriques, les Lingons, les Suessions, les Bellovaques et les Nerviens. Ils dénoncèrent à César la coalition des peuples belges de 57 avant J.-C. dont faisaient partie, les Suessions qui partageaient les mêmes lois et les mêmes magistrats. Leur principal oppidum était Bibrax. La capitale de la civitas à l'époque gallo-romaine était Durocortorum (Reims).

The Remi were a Belgic people of north-eastern Gaul (Gallia Belgica). The Romans regarded them as a civitas, a major and influential polity of Gaul, The Remi occupied the northern Champagne plain, on the southern fringes of the Forest of Ardennes, between the rivers Mosa (Meuse) and Matrona (Marne), and along the river valleys of the Aisne and its tributaries the Aire and the Vesle.
Their capital was at Durocortum (Reims, France) the second largest oppidum of Gaul, on the Vesle. Allied with the Germanic tribes of the east, they repeatedly engaged in warfare against the Parisii and the Senones. They were renowned for their horses and cavalry.
During the Gallic Wars in the mid-1st century BC, they allied themselves under the leadership of Iccius and Andecombogius with Julius Caesar. They maintained their loyalty to Rome throughout the entire war, and were one of the few Gallic polities not to join in the rebellion of Vercingetorix.
Arminius
329_Hadrian_RIC364.JPG
364 Hadrian Denarius Roma 134-38 AD Liberalitas standing.46 viewsReference.
RIC 364

Obv. HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS P P
Head of Hadrian, laureate, right

Rev. LIBERALITAS AVG in ex COS III
Liberalitas, draped, standing left, holding cornucopiae in both hands as if about to empty it

3.16 gr
18 mm
6h

Note from Curtis Clay.
This denarius is rare with Liberalitas standing left rather than right as usual.

Cohen 916 cites this variant from a private collection, Elberling, that was published in 1864. That identical Elberling coin, as one can tell from the accurate line drawing, then came to the BM, BMC 524, pl. 57.8, as part of the Blacas collection in 1867. Your specimen is from the same pair of dies as this BM specimen ex Blacas and Elberling. Strack 201 knew only two specimens of this coin, the BM one and another in Vienna. This variant was missing from the Reka Devnia hoard, compared to seven specimens with Liberalitas standing right. I have a specimen with Liberalitas left myself, from different dies than yours and the BM's.

The old RIC of 1926, pp. 316-7, champions a quite impossible date for Hadrian's HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS P P issue: Mattingly didn't think it fit in 128-9 AD, so proposed that it was a posthumous issue of 138-9, struck by Antoninus Pius as propaganda while he was quarreling with the Senate over Hadrian's deification! Strack objected strongly and correctly in his Hadrian monograph of 1933, and in BMC III of 1936 Mattingly had no choice but to relent and abandon his "posthumous" attribution. This issue is beyond question simply Hadrian's earliest issue with the title Pater Patriae, struck between Hadrian's acceptance of that title in 128 and c. 129 AD.
okidoki
Coin5.jpg
5 grams, 20mm33 viewsIf there's one thing I dislike intensely at the moment, it's that my iPhone cannot take better pictures, and that I don't possess an actual camera. Humor me and Rorschach this one while you read this. I see a radiate bust facing right on the obverse. I jumped to Tyche in my mind, because that's the first thing that popped up, but if I can get more detail gleaned out of here, I might have to reevaluate. I know some later emperors were radiate also...

The lack of reverse detail means I can't make heads or tails of it (Anyone else laughing at my usage of that? Just me? Okay...). Something is there, and I think it's a someone, but I can't tell what's up or down, or anything, so I don't have a die axis. Boo. I really do love this, I promise it looks better in hand than in this frankly bad photograph, but I've got a feeling it's going to be tricky to pin down with certainty. -sigh-
EvaJupiterSkies
coin555.JPG
501. CONSTANTINE I Siscia SOLI INVICTO COMIT14 viewsSol Invictus ("the undefeated Sun") or, more fully, Deus Sol Invictus ("the undefeated sun god") was a religious title applied to three distinct divinities during the later Roman Empire, El Gabal, Mithras, and Sol.

Unlike the earlier, agrarian cult of Sol Indiges ("the native sun" or "the invoked sun" - the etymology and meaning of the word "indiges" is disputed), the title Deus Sol Invictus was formed by analogy with the imperial titulature pius felix invictus ("dutiful, fortunate, unconquered").

A festival of the birth of the Unconquered Sun (or Dies Natalis Solis Invicti) was celebrated when the duration of daylight first begins to increase after the winter solstice,—the "rebirth" of the sun.

Christianity adopted some of the attributes of the Sol Invictus religion, as apparent in the first examples of Christian iconography, depicting Christ with solar attributes such as the radiated crown or, in a few instances, a solar chariot.

Sol Invictus had been adopted by the Church of Rome as evidenced by Christ as Apollo-Helios in a mausoleum discovered under St. Peter's Basilica and dated to 250[1], and, from the beginning of the third century, "Sun of Justice" was used as a title of Christ[2].

The date for Christmas may also bear a relation to the sun worship. According to the Syriac bishop Jacob Bar-Salibi, writing in the twelth century:

"It was a custom of the Pagans to celebrate on the same 25 December the birthday of the Sun, at which they kindled lights in token of festivity. In these solemnities and revelries the Christians also took part. Accordingly when the doctors of the Church perceived that the Christians had a leaning to this festival, they took counsel and resolved that the true Nativity should be solemnised on that day." (cited in "Christianity and Paganism in the Fourth to Eighth Centuries", Ramsay MacMullen. Yale:1997, p155])
Christianity designated Sunday as the "Lord's Day" and the day of rest, rather than Saturday, the Jewish Sabbath.


CONSTANTINE I

RIC VII Siscia 32 R3

ecoli
coins432.JPG
501b. Crispus29 viewsIn 326, Crispus was suddenly executed according to the orders of his own father in Pola, Istria. Though the decision of Constantine was certainly cruel and unexpected, historians remain more interested in the motivation leading to it.

Zosimus in the 5th century and Joannes Zonaras in the 12th century both reported that Fausta, step-mother of Crispus, was extremely jealous of him. She was reportedly afraid that Constantine would put aside the sons she bore him. So, in order to get rid of Crispus, Fausta set him up. She reportedly told the young Caesar that she was in love with him and suggested an illegitimate love affair. Crispus denied the immoral wishes of Fausta and left the palace in a state of a shock. Then Fausta said to Constantine that Crispus had no respect for his father, since the Caesar was in love with his father's own wife. She reported to Constantine that she dismissed him after his attempt to rape her. Constantine believed her and, true to his strong personality and short temper, executed his beloved son. A few months later, Constantine reportedly found out the whole truth and then executed his wife Fausta at the end of 326.

This version of events has become the most widely accepted, since all other reports are even less satisfactory.

A treason against Constantine jointly plotted by Fausta and Crispus is rejected by most historians. They would have nothing to gain considering their positions as favourites of Constantine.

Another version suggests that Constantine killed Crispus because as an illegitimate son, he would cause a crisis in the order of succession to the throne. However, Constantine had kept him at his side for twenty years without any such decision. Constantine also had the authority to appoint his younger, legitimate sons as his heirs. Nevertheless, Crispus' status as a legitimate or illegitimate son remains uncertain.

Some reports claimed that Constantine was envious of the success of his son and afraid of him. This seems improbable, given that Constantine had twenty years of experience at Emperor while Crispus was still a young Caesar. Similarly, there seems to be no evidence that Crispus had any ambitions to harm or displace his father.

So while the story of Zosimus and Zonaras seems the most believable one, there are also problems relating to their version of events.

Constantine's reaction suggest that he suspected Crispus of a crime so terrible that death was not enough. Crispus also suffered damnatio memoriae, meaning his name was never mentioned again and was deleted from all official documents and monuments. Crispus, his wife Helena and their son were never to be mentioned again in historical records. The eventual fate of Helena and her son is a mystery.

Constantine may have been eventually convinced of Crispus' innocence. But he did not restore his son's innocence and name, as he probably would have on learning of his son's innocence. Perhaps Constantine's pride or shame at having executed his son prevented him from publicly admitting having made a mistake.

Beyond doubt there was a connections between the executions of Crispus and Fausta. Both happened too close in time to be coincidental. Such agreement among different sources connecting the two deaths is extremely rare in itself. A number of modern historians have suggested that Crispus and Fausta really did have an illegitimate affair. When Constantine found out, his reaction was executing both of them. What delayed the death of Fausta may have been a pregnancy. Since the years of birth for the two known daughters of Constantine and Fausta remain unknown, one of their births may have delayed their mother's execution.


Crispus, 316-326, Bronze Reduced Anepigraphic Follis, RIC-VII-53-R5, struck 324-325 at Antioch, 1.87 grams, 17.9 mm. Nice VF

Obv: Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust of Crispus facing left
Rev: CRISPVS CAESAR SMANTZ - Legend and mint signature in three lines, star above, dot below

An excessively rare coin of Crispus. Nicely centered and struck with even wear to both surfaces. Important and MUCH nicer than the image projects.

Ex-Glenn Woods
ecoli
coin420.JPG
502. Constantine II Anepigraphic Antioch 18 viewsConstantine II, Caesar 317-337
Constantine II Caesar, Anepigraphic Follis
Obv: No Legend, bust left
Rev: CONSTAN / TINVS / CAESAR in three lines, SMANTA in exergue
cf. S.3945, Rare
ecoli
1053_P_Hadrian_RPC5050.jpg
5050 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Tetradrachm 117-18 AD Dikaiosyne standing21 viewsReference.
RPC III, 5050 (this coin). Dattari-Savio Pl. 65, 1347 (this coin).Emmett 833.2

Issue L B = year 2

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙС ΤΡΑΝΟС (sic) ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СƐΒ
Laureate head of Hadrian, r., drapery on l. shoulder

Rev. L Β
Dikaiosyne standing facing, head l., holding scales and cornucopia

12.52 gr
25 mm
12h

Note.
From the Dattari collection.

In ancient Greek culture, Dikē (/ˈdiːkeɪ/ or /ˈdɪkiː/; Greek: Δίκη, English translation: "justice") was the goddess of justice and the spirit of moral order and fair judgement based on immemorial custom, in the sense of socially enforced norms and conventional rules. According to Hesiod (Theogony, l. 901), she was fathered by Zeus upon his second consort, Themis. She and her mother were both personifications of justice. She is depicted as a young, slender woman carrying a physical balance scale and wearing a laurel wreath while her Roman counterpart (Justitia) appears in a similar fashion but blind-folded. She is represented in the constellation Libra which is named for the Latin name of her symbol (Scales). She is often associated with Astraea, the goddess of innocence and purity. Astraea is also one of her epithets referring to her appearance in the nearby constellation Virgo which is said to represent Astraea. This reflects her symbolic association with Astraea, who too has a similar iconography.

The sculptures of the Temple of Zeus at Olympia have as their unifying iconographical conception the dikē of Zeus, and in poetry she is often the attendant (paredros) of Zeus.
In the philosophical climate of late 5th century Athens, dikē could be anthropomorphised as a goddess of moral justice.
She was one of the three second-generation Horae, along with Eunomia ("order") and Eirene ("peace")
okidoki
AnthonyLegPanoramaBlack~0.jpg
544/21 Mark Anthony 35 viewsMarc Antony Legionary Denarius- Legion VIII. Patrae(?) Mint 32-31 BC. (3.42 g, 16.73 mm) Obv: ANT AVG III VIR R P C, Praetorian galley. Rev: LEG VIII, legionary eagle between two standards.
Sydenham 1225, RSC 35, Crawford 544/21

Ex: Private Collection

Description from Forvm Ancient Coins:

"The legionary denarii were struck by Antony for the use of his fleet and legions, most likely at his winter headquarters at Patrae just before the Actian campaign. They may have been struck with silver from Cleopatra's treasury. The legionary denarii provide an interesting record of the 23 legions, praetorian cohorts and the chort of speculatores of which Antony's army was composed. Some of them give the name as well as the number of the legion honored. They have a lower silver content than the standard of the time. As a result they were rarely hoarded, heavily circulated and are most often found in very worn condition."

Unfortunately from what I understand VIII Leg has no equivelant among the imperial legions.

This specific coin was fun to photograph, it seemed like no matter how you turned and twisted it still turned out great. A photogenic coin, in other words!
Paddy
JuliusCaesarARdenarius.jpg
601, Julius Caesar, Imperator and Dictator, assassinated 15 March 44 B.C.55 viewsJulius Caesar AR Denarius 40 B.C. 20 mm, 3.6 gm; aVF; Moving mint. 49-48 BC. Obverse: Pontifical emblems culullus, aspergillum, axe, and apex. Reverse: elephant right trampling dragon; CAESAR in exergue. Ex Windsor Antiquities.


It is not possible to adequately discuss Gaius Julius Caesar within the constraints of this gallery. He was born on either the 12th or the 13th of July in 100 B.C. [most scholars agree upon this date, but it is debated], and he was assassinated on 15 March 44 B.C.

Caesar is arguably the most important figure in Roman history; only Augustus and, perhaps, Constantine the Great made contributions of equivalent magnitude. Caesar was a truly gifted writer, orator, politician and soldier .

Library and book store shelves are crowded with a variety of biographies on the great man. Christian Meier, professor of Ancient History at the University of Munich, has written a scholarly as well as intriguing biography of Caesar. It is simply titled Caesar. It was first published in Germany in 1982, and a recently published paper back translation by David McLintock is now available from Fontana Press (a subsidiary of HarperCollins Publishers).

Caesar is fascinating.

J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
1 commentsCleisthenes
1020_P_Hadrian_RPC6485_18.jpg
6485 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Nome Obol 126-27 AD Onuris-Shu standing20 viewsReference.
RPC III, 6485.18 (this coin). Dattari-Savio Pl. 311, 11148 (this coin); Emmett 1217

Issue Sebennyte inferior

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙ ΤΡΑΙ ΑΔΡΙΑ СΕΒ
Laureate head of Hadrian, r., drapery on l. shoulder

Rev. СΕΒΕ Κ, L ΙΑ
Onuris-Shu standing, l., wearing military dress and helmet, holding spear in l. hand, and bunch of grapes in r. hand

4.60 gr
19 mm
12h

Note.
From the Dattari collection.
2 commentsokidoki
JuliusCaesar.jpg
701a, Julius Caesar, Imperator and Dictator, assassinated 15 March 44 B.C.196 viewsJulius Caesar

Of the great man, Joseph Sermarini states,"Gaius Julius Caesar is one of the most famous men in history. At the end of his brilliant military and political career he had gained control of the Roman state. His puppet senate heaped more and more honors upon him. In February 44 B.C. the senate named him dictator for life. Many senators, however, feared that he wished to become king, ending the Republic. On the 15th of March 44 B.C., 63 senators attacked him with knives they had hidden in the folds of their togas. This most famous of assassinations plunged the Roman Republic into 17 years of civil war, after which it would re-emerge as the Roman Empire."

It is not possible to adequately discuss Gaius Julius Caesar within the constraints of this gallery. He was born on either the 12th or the 13th of July in 100 B.C. [most scholars agree upon this date, but it is debated], and he was assassinated on 15 March 44 B.C.

Caesar is arguably the most important figure in Roman history; only Augustus and, perhaps, Constantine the Great made contributions of equivalent magnitude. Caesar was a truly gifted writer, orator, politician and soldier .

Library and book store shelves are crowded with a variety of biographies on this historical giant. Christian Meier, professor of Ancient History at the University of Munich, has written a scholarly as well as intriguing biography of Caesar. It is simply titled Caesar. It was first published in Germany in 1982, and a recently published paper back translation by David McLintock is now available from Fontana Press (a subsidiary of HarperCollins Publishers).

Caesar is fascinating.

J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
TiberiusHierapolis.jpg
703b, Tiberius, 19 August 14 - 16 March 37 A.D., Hierapolis, Phrygia111 viewsBronze AE 16, RPC I 2966 (1 specimen), F, Phrygia, Hierapolis, 3.300g, 15.6mm, 0o; Obverse: TIBEPIOC KAISAR, laureate head right; Reverse: IERAPOLEITWN ZOSIMOS [...], Apollo Archegetes (Lairbenos) standing left, playing lyre; reverse countermarked with star of six rays, in oval punch, 2.5 x 3.5 mm, Howgego 445 (3 pcs, 1 of which from this magistrate); dark patina; very rare. Ex FORVM.

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

TIBERIUS (A.D. 14-37)

Garrett G. Fagan
Pennsylvania State University

The reign of Tiberius Claudius Nero (b. 42 B.C., d. A.D. 37, emperor A.D. 14-37) is a particularly important one for the Principate, since it was the first occasion when the powers designed for Augustus alone were exercised by somebody else. In contrast to the approachable and tactful Augustus, Tiberius emerges from the sources as an enigmatic and darkly complex figure, intelligent and cunning, but given to bouts of severe depression and dark moods that had a great impact on his political career as well as his personal relationships. His reign abounds in contradictions. Despite his keen intelligence, he allowed himself to come under the influence of unscrupulous men who, as much as any actions of his own, ensured that Tiberius's posthumous reputation would be unfavorable; despite his vast military experience, he oversaw the conquest of no new region for the empire; and despite his administrative abilities he showed such reluctance in running the state as to retire entirely from Rome and live out his last years in isolation on the island of Capri. His reign represents, as it were, the adolescence of the Principate as an institution. Like any adolescence, it proved a difficult time.

. . . .

It is all but inevitable that any historical assessment of Tiberius will quickly devolve into a historiographical assessment of Tacitus. So masterful is Tacitus's portrayal of his subject, and so influential has it been ever since, that in all modern treatments of Tiberius, in attempting to get at the man, must address the issue of Tacitus's historiographical methods, his sources, and his rhetoric. The subject is too vast to address here, but some points are salient. Tacitus's methods, especially his use of innuendo and inference to convey notions that are essentially editorial glosses, makes taking his portrayal of Tiberius at face value inadvisable. Further, his belief in the immutable character of people -- that one's character is innate at birth and cannot be changed, although it can be disguised -- prevents him from investigating the possibility that Tiberius evolved and developed over his lifetime and during his reign. Instead, Tacitus's portrayal is one of peeling back layers of dissimulation to reach the "real" Tiberius lurking underneath.

Overall, Tiberius's reign can be said to show the boons and banes of rule by one man, especially a man as dark, awkward, and isolated as Tiberius. For the people of the provinces, it was a peaceful and well-ordered time. Governors behaved themselves, and there were no destructive or expensive wars. In the domestic sphere, however, the concentration of power in one person made all the greater the threat of misbehavior by ambitious satellites like Sejanus or foolish friends like Piso. Furthermore, if the emperor wished to remain aloof from the mechanics of power, he could do so. Administrators, who depended on him for their directions, could operate without his immediate supervision, but their dealings with a man like Sejanus could lead to disaster if that man fell from grace. As a result, although he was not a tyrant himself, Tiberius's reign sporadically descended into tyranny of the worst sort. In the right climate of paranoia and suspicion, widespread denunciation led to the deaths of dozens of Senators and equestrians, as well as numerous members of the imperial house. In this sense, the reign of Tiberius decisively ended the Augustan illusion of "the Republic Restored" and shone some light into the future of the Principate, revealing that which was both promising and terrifying.

[For the complete article please refer to http://www.roman-emperors.org/tiberius.htm]

By Garrett G. Fagan, Pennsylvania State University.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.


Hierapolis in History

Usually said to be founded by Eumenes II, king of Pergamum (197-159 BC), Hierapolis may actually have been established closer to the 4th century BC by the Seleucid kings.

The name of the city may derive from Hiera, the wife of Telephus (son of Hercules and grandson of Zeus), the mythical founder of Pergamum. Or it may have been called the "sacred city" because of the temples located at the site. (The name Pamukkale is sometimes used just to refer to the white terraces, but the modern name of the whole area is also Pamukkale.)

With Colossae and Laodicea, Hierapolis became part of the tri-city area of the Lycus River valley. Hierapolis was located across the river from the other two cities and was noted for its textiles, especially wool. The city was also famous for its purple dye, made from the juice of the madder root.

The hot springs at Hierapolis (which still attract visitors today) were believed to have healing properties, and people came to the city to bathe in the rich mineral waters in order to cure various ailments.

Hierapolis was dedicated to Apollo Lairbenos, who was said to have founded the city. The Temple of Apollo that survives in ruins today dates from the 3rd century AD, but its foundations date from the Hellenistic period.

Also worshipped at Hierapolis was Pluto, god of the underworld, probably in relation to the hot gases released by the earth (see the Plutonium, below). The chief religious festival of ancient Hierapolis was the Letoia, in honor of the the goddess Leto, a Greek form of the Mother Goddess. The goddess was honoured with orgiastic rites.

Hierapolis was ceded to Rome in 133 BC along with the rest of the Pergamene kingdom, and became part of the Roman province of Asia. The city was destroyed by an earthquake in 60 AD but rebuilt, and it reached its peak in the 2nd and 3rd centuries AD.

Famous natives of Hierapolis include the Stoic philosopher Epictetus (c.55-c.135 AD) and the philosopher and rhetorician Antipater. Emperor Septimus hired Antipater to tutor his sons Caracalla and Geta, who became emperors themselves.

Hierapolis had a significant Jewish population in ancient times, as evidence by numerous inscriptions on tombs and elsewhere in the city. Some of the Jews are named as members of the various craft guilds of the city. This was probably the basis for the Christian conversion of some residents of Hierapolis, recorded in Colossians 4:13.

In the 5th century, several churches as well as a large martyrium dedicated to St. Philip (see "In the Bible," below) were built in Hierapolis. The city fell into decline in the 6th century, and the site became partially submerged under water and deposits of travertine. It was finally abandoned in 1334 after an earthquake. Excavations began to uncover Hierapolis in the 19th century.

Hierapolis in the Bible

Hierapolis is mentioned only once in the Bible, when St. Paul praises Epaphras, a Christian from Colossae, in his letter to the Colossians. Paul writes that Epaphras "has worked hard for you and for those in Laodicea and in Hierapolis" (Colossians 4:12-13). Epaphras was probably the founder of the Christian community at Hierapolis.

Ancient tradition also associates Hierapolis with a biblical figure, reporting that Philip died in Hierapolis around 80 AD. However, it is not clear which Philip is menat. It could be Philip the Apostle, one of the original 12 disciples, who is said to have been martyred by upside-down crucifixion (Acts of Philip) or by being hung upside down by his ankles from a tree.

Or Philip could be Philip the Evangelist, a later disciple who helped with administrative matters and had four virgin-prophetess daughters (Acts 6:1-7; 21:8-9). Early traditions say this Philip was buried in Hierapolis along with his virgin daughters, but confusingly call him "Philip the Apostle"! In any case, it seems a prominent person mentioned in Acts did die in Hierapolis.
http://www.sacred-destinations.com/turkey/hierapolis-pamukkale.htm

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
VitelliusARdenariusVesta.jpg
709a, Vitellius, 2 January - 20 December 69 A.D.44 viewsVITELLIUS AR silver denarius. RSC 72, RCV 2200. 19mm, 3.2 g. Obverse: A VITELLIVS GERM IMP AVG TR P, laureate head right; Reverse - PONT MAXIM, Vesta seated right, holding scepter and patera. Quite decent. Ex. Incitatus Coins. Photo courtesy of Incitatus Coins.

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Vitellius (69 A.D.)

John F. Donahue
College of William and Mary


It is often difficult to separate fact from fiction in assessing the life and reign of Vitellius. Maligned in the ancient sources as gluttonous and cruel, he was also a victim of a hostile biographical tradition established in the regime of the Flavians who had overthrown him. Nevertheless, his decision to march against Rome in 69 was pivotal, since his subsequent defeat signalled the end of military anarchy and the beginning of an extended period of political stability under Vespasian and his successors.

Early Life and Career

Aulus Vitellius was born in September, 15 AD, the son of Lucius Vitellius and his wife Sestilia. One of the most successful public figures of the Julio-Claudian period, Lucius Vitellius was a three-time consul and a fellow censor with the emperor Claudius. Aulus seems to have moved with equal ease in aristocratic circles, successively winning the attention of the emperors Gaius, Claudius, and Nero through flattery and political skill.

Among his attested public offices, Vitellius was a curator of public works, a senatorial post concerned with the maintenance and repair of public buildings in Rome, and he was also proconsul of North Africa, where he served as a deputy to his brother, perhaps about 55 A. D. In addition, he held at least two priesthoods, the first as a member of the Arval Brethren, in whose rituals he participated from 57 A.D., and the second, as one of the quindecemviri sacris faciundis, a sacred college famous for its feasts.

With respect to marriage and family, Vitellius first wed a certain Petroniana, the daughter of a consul, sometime in the early to mid thirties A.D. The union produced a son, Petronianus, allegedly blind in one eye and emancipated from his father's control as a result of being named his mother's heir. Tradition records that Vitellius killed the boy shortly after emancipation amid charges of parricide; the marriage soon ended in divorce. A second marriage, to Galeria Fundana, daughter of an ex-praetor, was more stable than the first. It produced another son, who was eventually killed by the Flavians after the overthrow of Vitellius, as well as a daughter. Galeria is praised by Tacitus for her good qualities, and in the end it was she who saw to Vitellius' burial.

Rise to Power and Emperorship

Without doubt, the most fortuitous moment in Vitellius' political career was his appointment as governor of Lower Germany by the emperor Galba late in 68. The decision seemed to have caught everybody by surprise, including Vitellius himself, who, according to Suetonius, was in straitened circumstances at the time. The choice may have been made to reduce the possibility of rebellion by the Rhine armies, disaffected by Galba's refusal to reward them for their part in suppressing the earlier uprising of Julius Vindex. Ironically, it was Vitellius' lack of military achievement and his reputation for gambling and gluttony that may have also figured in his selection. Galba perhaps calculated that a man with little military experience who could now plunder a province to satisfy his own stomach would never become disloyal. If so, it was a critical misjudgement by the emperor.

The rebellion began on January 1, 69 ("The Year of the Four Emperors"), when the legions of Upper Germany refused to renew their oath of allegiance to Galba. On January 2, Vitellius' own men, having heard of the previous day's events, saluted him as emperor at the instigation of the legionary legate Fabius Valens and his colleagues. Soon, in addition to the seven legions that Vitellius now had at his command in both Germanies, the forces in Gaul, Britain, and Raetia also came over to his side. Perhaps aware of his military inexperience, Vitellius did not immediately march on Rome himself. Instead, the advance was led by Valens and another legionary general, Aulus Caecina Alienus, with each man commanding a separate column. Vitellius would remain behind to mobilize a reserve force and follow later.

Caecina was already one hundred fifty miles on his way when news reached him that Galba had been overthrown and Otho had taken his place as emperor. Undeterred, he passed rapidly down the eastern borders of Gaul; Valens followed a more westerly route, quelling a mutiny along the way. By March both armies had successfully crossed the Alps and joined at Cremona, just north of the Po. Here they launced their Batavian auxiliaries against Otho's troops and routed them in the First Battle of Bedriacum. Otho killed himself on April 16, and three days later the soldiers in Rome swore their allegience to Vitellius. The senate too hailed him as emperor.

When Vitellius learned of these developments, he set out to Rome from Gaul. By all accounts the journey was a drunken feast marked by the lack of discipline of both the troops and the imperial entourage. Along the way he stopped at Lugdunum to present his six-year-old son Germanicus to the legions as his eventual successor. Later, at Cremona, Vitellius witnessed the corpse-filled battlefield of Otho's recent defeat with joy, unmoved by so many citizens denied a proper burial.

The emperor entered Rome in late June-early July. Conscious of making a break with the Julio-Claudian past, Vitellius was reluctant to assume the traditional titles of the princes, even though he enthusiastically made offerings to Nero and declared himself consul for life. To his credit, Vitellius did seem to show a measure of moderation in the transition to the principate. He assumed his powers gradually and was generally lenient to Otho's supporters, even pardoning Otho's brother Salvius Titianus, who had played a key role in the earlier regime. In addition, he participated in Senate meetings and continued the practice of providing entertainments for the Roman masses. An important practical change involved the awarding of posts customarily held by freedmen to equites, an indication of the growth of the imperial bureaucracy and its attractiveness to men of ambition.

In other matters, he replaced the existing praetorian guard and urban cohorts with sixteen praetorian cohorts and four urban units, all comprised of soldiers from the German armies. According to Tacitus, the decision prompted a mad scramble, with the men, and not their officers, choosing the branch of service that they preferred. The situation was clearly unsatisfactory but not surprising, given that Vitellius was a creation of his own troops. To secure his position further, he sent back to their old postings the legions that had fought for Otho, or he reassigned them to distant provinces. Yet discontent remained: the troops who had been defeated or betrayed at Bedriacum remained bitter, and detachments of three Moesian legions called upon by Otho were returned to their bases, having agitated against Vitellius at Aquileia.

Flavian Revolt

The Vitellian era at Rome was short-lived. By mid-July news had arrived that the legions of Egypt under Tiberius Julius Alexander had sworn allegiance to a rival emperor, Titus Flavius Vespasianus, the governor of Judaea and a successful and popular general. Vespasian was to hold Egypt while his colleague Mucianus, governor of Syria, was to invade Italy. Before the plan could be enacted, however, the Danube legions, former supporters of Otho, joined Vespasian's cause. Under the leadership of Antonius Primus, commander of the Sixth legion in Pannonia, and Cornelius Fuscus, imperial procurator in Illyricum, the legions made a rapid descent on Italy.

Although his forces were only half of what Vitellius commanded in Italy, Primus struck first before the emperor could muster additional reinforcements from Germany. To make matters worse for the Vitellians, Valens was ill, and Caecina, now consul, had begun collaborating with the Flavians. His troops refused to follow his lead, however, and arrested him at Hostilia near Cremona. They then joined the rest of the Vitellian forces trying to hold the Po River. With Vitellius still in Rome and his forces virtually leaderless, the two sides met in October in the Second Battle of Bedriacum. The emperor's troops were soundly defeated and Cremona was brutally sacked by the victors. In addition, Valens, whose health had recovered, was captured while raising an army for Vitellius in Gaul and Germany; he was eventually executed.

Meanwhile, Primus continued towards Rome. Vitellius made a weak attempt to thwart the advance at the Apennine passes, but his forces switched to the Flavian side without a fight at Narnia in mid-December. At Rome, matters were no better. Vespasian's elder brother, Titus Flavius Sabinus, the city prefect, was successful in an effort to convince Vitellius to abdicate but was frustrated by the mob in Rome and the emperor's soldiers. Forced to flee to the Capitol, Sabinus was set upon by Vitellius' German troops and soon killed, with the venerable Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus set ablaze in the process. Within two days, the Flavian army fought its way into Rome. In a pathetic final move, Vitellius disguised himself in dirty clothing and hid in the imperial doorkeeper's quarters, leaning a couch and a mattress against the door for protection. Dragged from his hiding place by the Flavian forces, he was hauled off half-naked to the Forum, where he was tortured, killed, and tossed into the Tiber. The principate could now pass to Vespasian.

Assessment

Vitellius has not escaped the hostility of his biographers. While he may well have been gluttonous, his depiction as indolent, cruel, and extravagant is based almost entirely on the propaganda of his enemies. On the other hand, whatever moderating tendencies he did show were overshadowed by his clear lack of military expertise, a deficiency that forced him to rely in critical situations on largely inneffective lieutenants. As a result he was no match for his Flavian successors, and his humiliating demise was perfectly in keeping with the overall failure of his reign.

Copyright (C) 1999, John Donahue.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
VespasianPax_RICii10.jpg
710a, Vespasian, 1 July 69 - 24 June 79 A.D.138 viewsSilver denarius, RIC II, 10, aVF, 3.5 g, 18mm, Rome mint, 69-71 AD; Obverse: IMP CAESA[R] VESPASIANV[S AV]G - Laureate head right; Reverse: COS ITER [T]R POT - Pax seated left holding branch and caduceus. Ex Imperial Coins.


De Imperatoribus Romanis:
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Titus Flavius Vespasianus (A.D. 69-79)

John Donahue
College of William and Mary

Introduction

Titus Flavius Vespasianus (b. A.D. 9, d. A.D. 79, emperor A.D. 69-79) restored peace and stability to an empire in disarray following the death of Nero in A.D. 68. In the process he established the Flavian dynasty as the legitimate successor to the Imperial throne. Although we lack many details about the events and chronology of his reign, Vespasian provided practical leadership and a return to stable government - accomplishments which, when combined with his other achievements, make his emperorship particularly notable within the history of the Principate.

Early Life and Career

Vespasian was born at Falacrina near Sabine Reate on 17 November, A.D. 9, the son of T. Flavius Sabinus, a successful tax collector and banker, and Vespasia Polla. Both parents were of equestrian status. Few details of his first fifteen years survive, yet it appears that his father and mother were often away from home on business for long periods. As a result, Vespasian's early education became the responsibility of his paternal grandmother, Tertulla. [[1]] In about A.D. 25 Vespasian assumed the toga virilis and later accepted the wearing of the latus clavus, and with it the senatorial path that his older brother, T. Flavius Sabinus, had already chosen. [[2]] Although many of the particulars are lacking, the posts typically occupied by one intent upon a senatorial career soon followed: a military tribunate in Thrace, perhaps for three or four years; a quaestorship in Crete-Cyrene; and the offices of aedile and praetor, successively, under the emperor Gaius. [[3]]

It was during this period that Vespasian married Flavia Domitilla. Daughter of a treasury clerk and former mistress of an African knight, Flavia lacked the social standing and family connections that the politically ambitious usually sought through marriage. In any case, the couple produced three children, a daughter, also named Flavia Domitilla, and two sons, the future emperors Titus and Domitian . Flavia did not live to witness her husband's emperorship and after her death Vespasian returned to his former mistress Caenis, who had been secretary to Antonia (daughter of Marc Antony and mother of Claudius). Caenis apparently exerted considerable influence over Vespasian, prompting Suetonius to assert that she remained his wife in all but name, even after he became emperor. [[4]]

Following the assassination of Gaius on 24 January, A.D. 41, Vespasian advanced rapidly, thanks in large part to the new princeps Claudius, whose favor the Flavians had wisely secured with that of Antonia, the mother of Germanicus, and of Claudius' freedmen, especially Narcissus. [[5]] The emperor soon dispatched Vespasian to Argentoratum (Strasbourg) as legatus legionis II Augustae, apparently to prepare the legion for the invasion of Britain. Vespasian first appeared at the battle of Medway in A.D. 43, and soon thereafter led his legion across the south of England, where he engaged the enemy thirty times in battle, subdued two tribes, and conquered the Isle of Wight. According to Suetonius, these operations were conducted partly under Claudius and partly under Vespasian's commander, Aulus Plautius. Vespasian's contributions, however, did not go unnoticed; he received the ornamenta triumphalia and two priesthoods from Claudius for his exploits in Britain. [[6]]

By the end of A.D. 51 Vespasian had reached the consulship, the pinnacle of a political career at Rome. For reasons that remain obscure he withdrew from political life at this point, only to return when chosen proconsul of Africa about A.D. 63-64. His subsequent administration of the province was marked by severity and parsimony, earning him a reputation for being scrupulous but unpopular. [[7]] Upon completion of his term, Vespasian returned to Rome where, as a senior senator, he became a man of influence in the emperor Nero's court. [[8]] Important enough to be included on Nero's tour of Greece in A.D. 66-67, Vespasian soon found himself in the vicinity of increasing political turbulence in the East. The situation would prove pivotal in advancing his career.

Judaea and the Accession to Power

In response to rioting in Caesarea and Jerusalem that had led to the slaughter in the latter city of Jewish leaders and Roman soldiers, Nero granted to Vespasian in A.D. 66 a special command in the East with the objective of settling the revolt in Judaea. By spring A.D. 67, with 60,000 legionaries, auxiliaries, and allies under his control, Vespasian set out to subdue Galilee and then to cut off Jerusalem. Success was quick and decisive. By October all of Galilee had been pacified and plans for the strategic encirclement of Jerusalem were soon formed. [[9]] Meanwhile, at the other end of the empire, the revolts of Gaius Iulius Vindex, governor of Gallia Lugdunensis, and Servius Sulpicius Galba , governor of Hispania Tarraconensis, had brought Nero's reign to the brink of collapse. The emperor committed suicide in June, A.D. 68, thereby ensuring chaos for the next eighteen months, as first Galba and then Marcus Salvius Otho and Aulus Vitellius acceded to power. Each lacked broad-based military and senatorial support; each would be violently deposed in turn. [[10]]

Still occupied with plans against Jerusalem, Vespasian swore allegiance to each emperor. Shortly after Vitellius assumed power in spring, A.D. 69, however, Vespasian met on the border of Judaea and Syria with Gaius Licinius Mucianus, governor of Syria, and after a series of private and public consultations, the two decided to revolt. [[11]] On July 1, at the urging of Tiberius Alexander, prefect of Egypt, the legions of Alexandria declared for Vespasian, as did the legions of Judaea two days later. By August all of Syria and the Danube legions had done likewise. Vespasian next dispatched Mucianus to Italy with 20,000 troops, while he set out from Syria to Alexandria in order to control grain shipments for the purpose of starving Italy into submission. [[12]] The siege of Jerusalem he placed in the hands of his son Titus.

Meanwhile, the Danubian legions, unwilling to wait for Mucianus' arrival, began their march against Vitellius ' forces. The latter army, suffering from a lack of discipline and training, and unaccustomed to the heat of Rome, was defeated at Cremona in late October. [[13]] By mid-December the Flavian forces had reached Carsulae, 95 kilometers north of Rome on the Flaminian Road, where the Vitellians, with no further hope of reinforcements, soon surrendered. At Rome, unable to persuade his followers to accept terms for his abdication, Vitellius was in peril. On the morning of December 20 the Flavian army entered Rome. By that afternoon, the emperor was dead. [[14]]

Tacitus records that by December 22, A.D. 69, Vespasian had been given all the honors and privileges usually granted to emperors. Even so, the issue remains unclear, owing largely to a surviving fragment of an enabling law, the lex de imperio Vespasiani, which conferred powers, privileges, and exemptions, most with Julio-Claudian precedents, on the new emperor. Whether the fragment represents a typical granting of imperial powers that has uniquely survived in Vespasian's case, or is an attempt to limit or expand such powers, remains difficult to know. In any case, the lex sanctioned all that Vespasian had done up to its passing and gave him authority to act as he saw fit on behalf of the Roman people. [[15]]

What does seem clear is that Vespasian felt the need to legitimize his new reign with vigor. He zealously publicized the number of divine omens that predicted his accession and at every opportunity he accumulated multiple consulships and imperial salutations. He also actively promoted the principle of dynastic succession, insisting that the emperorship would fall to his son. The initiative was fulfilled when Titus succeeded his father in A.D. 79.[[16]]

Emperorship

Upon his arrival in Rome in late summer, A.D. 70, Vespasian faced the daunting task of restoring a city and a government ravaged by the recent civil wars. Although many particulars are missing, a portrait nevertheles emerges of a ruler conscientiously committed to the methodical renewal of both city and empire. Concerning Rome itself, the emperor encouraged rebuilding on vacated lots, restored the Capitol (burned in A.D. 69), and also began work on several new buildings: a temple to the deified Claudius on the Caelian Hill, a project designed to identify Vespasian as a legitimate heir to the Julio-Claudians, while distancing himself from Nero ; a temple of Peace near the Forum; and the magnificent Colosseum (Flavian Amphitheatre), located on the site of the lake of Nero 's Golden House. [[17]]

Claiming that he needed forty thousand million sesterces for these projects and for others aimed at putting the state on more secure footing, Vespasian is said to have revoked various imperial immunities, manipulated the supply of certain commodities to inflate their price, and increased provincial taxation. [[18]] The measures are consistent with his characterization in the sources as both obdurate and avaricious. There were occasional political problems as well: Helvidius Priscus, an advocate of senatorial independence and a critic of the Flavian regime from the start, was exiled after A.D. 75 and later executed; Marcellus Eprius and A. Alienus Caecina were condemned by Titus for conspiracy, the former committing suicide, the latter executed in A.D. 79.
As Suetonius claims, however, in financial matters Vespasian always put revenues to the best possible advantage, regardless of their source. Tacitus, too, offers a generally favorable assessment, citing Vespasian as the first man to improve after becoming emperor. [[19]] Thus do we find the princeps offering subventions to senators not possessing the property qualifications of their rank, restoring many cities throughout the empire, and granting state salaries for the first time to teachers of Latin and Greek rhetoric. To enhance Roman economic and social life even further, he encouraged theatrical productions by building a new stage for the Theatre of Marcellus, and he also put on lavish state dinners to assist the food trades. [[20]]

In other matters the emperor displayed similar concern. He restored the depleted ranks of the senatorial and equestrian orders with eligible Italian and provincial candidates and reduced the backlog of pending court cases at Rome. Vespasian also re-established discipline in the army, while punishing or dismissing large numbers of Vitellius ' men. [[21]]
Beyond Rome, the emperor increased the number of legions in the East and continued the process of imperial expansion by the annexation of northern England, the pacification of Wales, and by advances into Scotland and southwest Germany between the Rhine and the Danube. Vespasian also conferred rights on communities abroad, especially in Spain, where the granting of Latin rights to all native communities contributed to the rapid Romanization of that province during the Imperial period. [[22]]

Death and Assessment

In contrast to his immediate imperial predecessors, Vespasian died peacefully - at Aquae Cutiliae near his birthplace in Sabine country on 23 June, A.D. 79, after contracting a brief illness. The occasion is said to have inspired his deathbed quip: "Oh my, I must be turning into a god!" [[23]] In fact, public deification did follow his death, as did his internment in the Mausoleum of Augustus alongside the Julio-Claudians.

A man of strict military discipline and simple tastes, Vespasian proved to be a conscientious and generally tolerant administrator. More importantly, following the upheavals of A.D. 68-69, his reign was welcome for its general tranquility and restoration of peace. In Vespasian Rome found a leader who made no great breaks with tradition, yet his ability ro rebuild the empire and especially his willingness to expand the composition of the governing class helped to establish a positive working model for the "good emperors" of the second century.

Bibliography

Since the scholarship on Vespasian is more comprehensive than can be treated here, the works listed below are main accounts or bear directly upon issues discussed in the entry above. A comprehensive modern anglophone study of this emperor is yet to be produced.

Atti congresso internazionale di studi Flaviani, 2 vols. Rieti, 1983.

Atti congresso internazionale di studi Vespasianei, 2 vols. Rieti, 1981.

Bosworth, A.B. "Vespasian and the Provinces: Some Problems of the Early 70s A.D." Athenaeum 51 (1973): 49-78.

Brunt, P. A. "Lex de imperio Vespasiani." JRS (67) 1977: 95-116.

D'Espèrey, S. Franchet. "Vespasien, Titus et la littérature." ANRW II.32.5: 3048-3086.

Dudley, D. and Webster, G. The Roman Conquest of Britain. London, 1965.

Gonzalez, J. "The Lex Irnitana: A New Copy of the Flavian Municipal Law." JRS 76 (1986): 147-243.

Grant, M. The Roman Emperors: A Biographical Guide to the Rulers of Rome, 31 B.C. - A.D. 476. New York, 1985.

Homo, L. Vespasien, l'Empereur du bons sens (69-79 ap. J.-C.). Paris, 1949.

Levi, M.A. "I Flavi." ANRW II.2: 177-207.

McCrum, M. and Woodhead, A. G. Select Documents of the Principates of the Flavian Emperors Including the Year of the Revolution. Cambridge, 1966.

Nicols, John. Vespasian and the Partes Flavianae. Wiesbaden, 1978.

Scarre, C. Chronicle of the Roman Emperors. The Reign-by-Reign Record of the Rulers of Imperial Rome. London, 1995.

Suddington, D. B. The Development of the Roman Auxiliary Forces from Caesar to Vespasian, 49 B.C. - A.D. 79. Harare: U. of Zimbabwe, 1982.

Syme, R. Tacitus. Oxford, 1958.

Wardel, David. "Vespasian, Helvidius Priscus and the Restoration of the Capitol." Historia 45 (1996): 208-222.

Wellesley, K. The Long Year: A.D. 69. Bristol, 1989, 2nd ed.


Notes

[[1]] Suet. Vesp. 2.1. Suetonius remains the major source but see also Tac. Hist. 2-5; Cass. Dio 65; Joseph. BJ 3-4.

[[2]] Suetonius (Vesp. 2.1) claims that Vespasian did not accept the latus clavus, the broad striped toga worn by one aspiring to a senatorial career, immediately. The delay, however, was perhaps no more than three years. See J. Nicols, Vespasian and the Partes Flavianae (Wiesbaden, 1978), 2.

[[3]] Military tribunate and quaestorship: Suet. Vesp. 2.3; aedileship: ibid., 5.3, in which Gaius, furious that Vespasian had not kept the streets clean, as was his duty, ordered some soldiers to load him with filth;,they complied by stuffing his toga with as much as it could hold. See also Dio 59.12.2-3; praetorship: Suet. Vesp. 2.3, in which Vespasian is depicted as one of Gaius' leading adulators, an account consistent with Tacitus' portrayal (Hist 1.50.4; 2.5.1) of his early career. For a more complete discussion of these posts and attendant problems of dating, see Nicols, Vespasian, 2-7.

[[4]] Marriage and Caenis: Suet. Vesp. 3; Cass. Dio 65.14.

[[5]] Nicols, Vespasian, 12-39.

[[6]] Suet. Vesp. 4.1 For additional details on Vespasian's exploits in Britain, see D. Dudley and G. Webster, The Roman Conquest of Britain (London, 1965), 55 ff., 98.

[[7]] Concerning Vespasian's years between his consulship and proconsulship, see Suet. Vesp. 4.2 and Nicols, Vespasian, 9. On his unpopularity in Africa, see Suet. Vesp. 4.3, an account of a riot at Hadrumentum, where he was once pelted with turnips. In recording that Africa supported Vitellius in A.D. 69, Tacitus too suggests popular dissatisfaction with Vespasian's proconsulship. See Hist. 2.97.2.

[[8]] This despite the fact that the sources record two rebukes of Vespasian, one for extorting money from a young man seeking career advancement (Suet. Vesp. 4.3), the other for either leaving the room or dozing off during one of the emperor's recitals (Suet. Vesp. 4.4 and 14, which places the transgression in Greece; Tac. (Ann. 16.5.3), who makes Rome and the Quinquennial Games of A.D. 65 the setting; A. Braithwaite, C. Suetoni Tranquilli Divus Vespasianus, Oxford, 1927, 30, who argues for both Greece and Rome).

[[9]] Subjugation of Galilee: Joseph. BJ 3.65-4.106; siege of Jerusalem: ibid., 4.366-376, 414.

[[10]] Revolt of Vindex: Suet. Nero 40; Tac. Ann. 14.4; revolt of Galba: Suet. Galba 10; Plut. Galba, 4-5; suicide of Nero: Suet. Nero 49; Cass. Dio 63.29.2. For the most complete account of the period between Nero's death and the accession of Vespasian, see K. Wellesley, The Long Year: A.D. 69, 2nd. ed. (Bristol, 1989).

[[11]] Tac. Hist. 2.76.

[[12]] Troops in support of Vespasian: Suet. Vit. 15; Mucianus and his forces: Tac. Hist. 2.83; Vespasian and grain shipments: Joseph. BJ 4.605 ff.; see also Tac. Hist. 3.48, on Vespasian's possible plan to shut off grain shipments to Italy from Carthage as well.

[[13]] On Vitellius' army and its lack of discipline, see Tac. Hist. 2.93-94; illness of army: ibid., 2.99.1; Cremona: ibid., 3.32-33.

[[14]] On Vitellius' last days, see Tac. Hist. 3.68-81. On the complicated issue of Vitellius' death date, see L. Holzapfel, "Römische Kaiserdaten," Klio 13 (1913): 301.

[[15]] Honors, etc. Tac. Hist. 4.3. For more on the lex de imperio Vespasiani, see P. A. Brunt, "Lex de imperio Vespasiani," JRS (67) 1977: 95-116.

[[16]] Omens: Suet. Vesp. 5; consulships and honors: ibid., 8; succession of sons: ibid., 25.

[[17]] On Vespasian's restoration of Rome, see Suet. Vesp. 9; Cass. Dio 65.10; D. Wardel, "Vespasian, Helvidius Priscus and the Restoration of the Capitol," Historia 45 (1996): 208-222.

[[18]] Suet. Vesp. 16.

[[19]] Ibid.; Tac. Hist. 1.50.

[[20]] Suet. Vesp. 17-19.

[[21]] Ibid., 8-10.

[[22]] On Vespasian's exploits in Britain, see esp. Tac., Agricola, eds. R. M. Ogilvie and I. A. Richmond (1967), and W. S. Hanson, Agricola and the Conquest of the North (1987); on the granting of Latin rights in Spain, see, e.g., J. Gonzalez, "The Lex Irnitana: a New Copy of the Flavian Municipal Law." JRS 76 (1986): 147-243.

[[23]] For this witticism and other anecdotes concerning Vespasian's sense of humor, see Suet. Vesp. 23.

Copyright (C) 1998, John Donahue. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis, an Online Encyplopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families.
http://www.roman-emperors.org/vespasia.htm
Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.





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aa Lydia, Magnesia ad Sipylum. Pseudo-autonomous AE1638 viewsPRO: LYDIA
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VT : HEAD MAN R / ZEUS
VA : BEARD
Reverse
RSG: ..GNHTWN
RT : MAN RECUMBENT L(1) / RIVER-GOD HERMOS(1)
RA : CORN-EARS(1) / CORNUCOPIAE(1) / VASE
Technical details
M : AE
GR : 16.51(1)
Bibliographical references
ZIT: BMC 16 S141,22(1)
Additional remarks
FR : VS: MAGNHTWN RS: ..GNHTWN
ancientone
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aa Mysia, Parium. Geta. AE15. 61 viewsPRO: MYSIA
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TIL: C / G / I / H
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VA : CLOTHES
Reverse
RSL: C G I H PA
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Technical details
M : AE
GEW: 1.88(1)
Bibliographical references
ZIT: SNG AUL 1341(1)
Additional remarks
FR : VS: SEP GETAS CAI RS: C G I H PA
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Achaea. Zacynthus, Island off Elis. Marcus Aurelius AE20. Pan with infant Dionysus98 viewsZacynthus; Achaea; Peleponnessus (District: Zacynthus). Date 161–180. Obverse design laureate head of Marcus Aurelius, r. Obverse inscription ΑΥ ΚΑΙ Μ ΑΥ ΑΝΤΩΝΕΙΝ ΑΥ
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Reverse inscription ΖΑΚΥΝΘΙΩΝ
BMC 93-4

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Acinipo, grapes and wheat17 viewsAs. ACINIPO
Obverse: L. FOLCE AEDILE, around bunch of grapes, star top left.
Reverse: ACINIPO, two pins on right & border points.
24.54mm., 7.7 g.
VILL-393.12. I-59. V 105.1. MBC Very scarce
Acinipo was a city created for retired soldiers from the
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A/ DIVO CONS-TANTINO [P], buste voilé à droite,

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Al.cofribas N
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Aeolis, Temnus9 viewsAE10, 4th-3rd Centuries BC.
Obverse: Bearded, laureate head of Dionysos left.
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References: SNG Cop 246, Plant 1850, BMC 1, Winterthur 2851.
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Aeolis, Temnus. 4th Century BC, AE10mm11 viewsAeolis, Temnus. 4th Century BC
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AEOLIS. Temnos14 viewsAEOLIS. Temnos. Ae (3rd century BC).
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Agrippa- Anepigraphic79 viewsAgrippa – 63- 12 BC, Military commander and friend of Augustus

Obverse:

Head left wearing a rostral crown.

M.(Marcus) AGRIPPA L.F. (Lucius Filius = son of Lucius) COS. III (Consul for the third time.)

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Reverse:

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Domination: AS, Copper, 29 mm

Mint: Rome. This AS of Agrippa is struck under Caligula.

AGRIPPA
63 - 12 BC
Roman General
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AGRIPPINA the elder166 viewsAE Sestertius. 28.08 gm, 7h. Rome mint. Struck under Claudius, 42-54 AD. Draped bust right . AGRIPPINA M F GERMANICI CAESARIS / TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG GERM PM TRP IMP PP around large S C . RIC I 102 (Claudius); von Kaenel Type 78; BMCRE 219 (Claudius); Cohen 3.
CNG 69 Lot 1519.
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Aigina19 viewsAigina. 404-350 BC. AR Stater (12.16 gm). Tortise. Bankers mark in center. / Anepigraphic. Incuse square w/ lg skew pattern. aVF. HGC 6 #437 (S); SNG Cop 516ff; Meadows Gp IIIb.Christian T
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Aiolis, Temnos48 viewsAiolis, Temnos, 350-300 B.C.
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Rx: T - A to left and right of bunch of grapes on tendrilled vine.
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CNG Bulk Lot
ecoli
temnus_grapes.jpg
AIOLIS, TEMNOS18 views300 - 250 BC
AE 12 mm; 1.72 g
O: Wreathed head of Dionysos right
R: T/A Grape bunch on vine with tendrils; flower to left
cf. SNG Copenhagen 251-3 var. (no flower)
Aiolis, Temnos (Temnus)
laney
temnus.jpg
AIOLIS, TEMNUS16 viewsca. 2nd Century BC
AE 16 X 18 mm 4.48 g
O: Head of Dionysius right
R: Athena Nikephoros standing facing, head left, holding grape bunch, spear, and shield set on ground
BMC 10







laney
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Akarnaia Leukas AR circa 375-350 BC 22mm 8.22 g 11h Pegasi 6215 viewsPegasos flying left./Head of Athena left,wearing Corinthian helmet,behind grapes on vine.Grant H
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Akarnania Leukas AR circa 405-345 BC 23 mm 8.16g 6h49 viewsPegasos flying right, mintmark below.Rev helmeted head of Athena right,bunch of grapes behind, E above.
ex Gorny & Mosch 138,lot 1294 3-7-05
Grant H
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Akarnania Leukas AR Stater circa 320-280 BC 19 mm 8.46g30 viewsPegasos flying right with pointed wings.Rev head of Athena to left wearing pearl necklace and Corinthian helmet,with leather neck guard,in right field grapes on vine above amphora.Grant H
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Akarnania Leukas AR Stater circa 320-280 BC 20mm 8.35g19 viewsPegasos flying left mintmark below/helmeted head of Athena left behind grapes and amphora. Grant H
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Akarnania Leukas AR Stater circa 320-280 BC 21 mm 8.25 g 11h Pegasi 1286 viewsPegasos flying right./Head of Athena right,wearing Corianthian helmet,behind neckguard ,grape vine above amphora.
From a European collection formed before 2005.
1 commentsGrant H
sHQ48GbDZyW3iJ6cT54goxX9FN7anH.jpg
Akarnania Leukas AR Stater circa 320-280 BC 21mm 8.43g39 viewsPegasos flying right with pointed wing.Rev head of Athena right wearing Corinthian helmet,grapes above amphora in left field and Lambda .Grant H
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Akarnania Leukas AR Stater circa 320-280 BC 21mm 8.73g 7h BMC 90.23 viewsPegasos flying right/Helmeted head of Athena to right,behind neck A,behind head grape vine with bunch of grapes over the mouth of a tall amphora on a stand.very rare with the longer ethnic on the obverse.
From the Vineyard Collection.
1 commentsGrant H
4001_178_2_1~0.jpg
Akarnania Leukas AR Stater circa 320-280 BC 22mm 8.75g 7h BCD 275,BMC 90.11 viewsPegasos flying right with longer ethnic below/Helmeted head of Athena right,behind A,and grape vine with bunch of grapes over tall amphora on stand.
very rare with longer ethnic
Grant H
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Akarnania Leukas AR Stater circa 320-280 BC 8.40g 21mm 3h Pegasi 12816 viewsPegasos flying right./Helmeted head of Athena right,A behind amphora below with grapes hanging on vine in left field.Grant H
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Akarnania Leukas AR Stater circa 375-350 BC 24mm 8.53g36 viewsPegasos flying leftLambda below.Rev head of Athena in Corinthian helmet left, vine with four bunches of grapes behind.Grant H
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Akarnania Leukas AR Stater circa 375-350 BC 25mm 8.31 g 8h35 viewsPegasos flying left.Rev helmeted head of Athena left,four grape bunches on vine to right.
Rare control mark and overstruck onuncertain type.
Grant H
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Akarnania, Leukas, 87 BC, AR Didrachm47 viewsCult statue of the goddess Aphrodite Aeneias with stag standing right, holding aplustre, bird on standard behind; all within a laurel wreath.
ΛΕΥΚΑΔΙΩΝ ΦΙΛΑΝΔΡΟΣ (Leukadion Philandros) above prow of galley right.

de Callataÿ Didrachms of Leukas 195-212 dies O31/R2; BCD Akarnania 313-314; BMC 180, 101-103; Postolokas, Lambros 67, 688 var.

(23 mm, 7.90 g, 11h)
Forestier & Lambert.

Based on the study of de Callataÿ, Didrachms of Leukas, this coin was struck in the summer and autumn of 87 BC as a contribution to Sulla’s campaign against Mithrades Eupator. De Callataÿ connected it with the encampment of Sulla’s troops at Leukas that year and argued that the coinage is a pseudo-civic Greek coinage issued by and for for the Romans. This is reflected in the reverse iconography where the galley prow is distinctively Roman, identifieable as such by the wolf head on the prow, above the ram, a decorative element unknown on Greek vessels.

This coin was struck when the Hellenistic age was in advanced decline, succumbing to the expansionary drive of Rome. The coins of this issue were often struck from relatively crude dies in an advanced state of wear. Yet they retain a charm and aesthetic that in some sense seems to speak of the last gasps of a dying Hellenistic age. The obverse image is thought to depict the cult statue of Aphrodite Aeneias, whose sanctuary was situated near the town of Leukas, overlooking the shipping canal that separated the island from the mainland.
2 commentsn.igma
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Akarnania, Leukas.25 viewsAkarnania, Leukas. 320-280 BC. AR Stater (8.57 gm) on Corinthian standard. Pegasos flying right; Λ below / Helmeted head of Athena right; behind, A and grapes above amphora. VF. Pegasi 128; BCD Akarnania 275; SNG Cop 355; BMC 68; HGC 827. cf Pegasi 128 #85.Christian T
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Alexander II Zebina51 viewsSerrated AE 15, Syria, Alexander II Zebina, ca. 128-123 B.C. Obv: Head of Dionysos facing right. Rev: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ around winged Tyche wearing modius with anchor and cornucopiae, grape cluster and monogram. Dark brown patina with some base metal exposed, gVF. Lindgren III, pl.63, 1111, SC 2242, Hoover HGC 9, 1166 (R1).Molinari
Alexander_III_Chios.jpg
Alexander III - AR drachm13 viewsChios
c. 290-275 BC
head of young Heracles in lionskin right
Zeus enthroned left, holding eagle and scepter; grape bunch
AΛEΞANΔPOY
(ΠYPΦ)
Price 2322; HGC 6, 1134
ex Lanz
Johny SYSEL
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Alexander III The Great, Macedonian Kingdom, 336 - 323 B.C., Lifetime Issue, Silver tetradrachm, Price 3599 (same dies)61 viewsSilver tetradrachm
Obv:- Head of (Alexander the Great as) Herakles right, wearing lion skin headdress knotted at base of neck
Rev:- ALEXANDROU, Zeus seated left, holding eagle in right hand and scepter in left, monogram and M below throne;
Price 3599 (same dies), Müller 67, 17.206g, 25.9mm, 255o, Babylon mint, lifetime issue, c. 325 - 323 B.C.;
EF, obverse off-center;

Dies by 'The Alexander Dekadrachm Master'. From the same highly-skilled hand as the famous dekadrachms, including Price 3598, with which this shares all symbols and their arrangement. A massive issue of coinage was struck for the mass-weddings of the soldiers of Alexander the Great to Persian women, and their subsequent return to Macedonia. The best style of the lengthy issue of Alexander coinage

Ex-Forum

Updated image using new photography setup.
maridvnvm
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Alexander III ‘the Great’. KINGS of MACEDON. AR Tetradrachm. Struck under Antipater, circa 332-326 BC.27 viewsAmphipolis mint. (25mm, 16.91 g). Head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin / Zeus Aëtophoros seated left; grape bunch in left field. Price 29.Ruslan K
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Alexander III, 336-323 BC; Chios 290-275 BC74 viewsAR drachm, 17.7mm, 4.15g, VF
Head Herakles right, clad in lion's skin knotted at neck / [AΛEΞANΔPOY] behind Zeus seated left on throne with back, holding eagle and sceptre. M within O above bunch of grapes with tendril in left field. Scarce.
Ex: Harlan Berk
Price 2324, Müller 1529
Certificate of Authenticity from David R. Sear, ACCS
Consigned to Forvm
Lawrence Woolslayer
Jannaeus_Prutah.jpg
Alexander Jannaeus Prutah22 viewsOBV:Wheel, or star, with eight rays surrounded by beaded diadem,
Anepigraphic
REV: BAΣIΛEΩΣ AΛEΞANΔΡOY, legend in Greek surrounding Seleucid anchor within a circle
Hendin-472 103 B.C. - 76 B.C.
Danny Jones
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Alexander tetradrachm Price 302547 viewsAlexander lifetime Tarsos. Plough to the left. Bunch of grapes under the throne.2 commentsChance Vandal
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Alexander the Great69 viewsAlexander III "The Great". 336-323 BC. AR Tetradrachm, struck circa 325-323 BC.
Obverse: Head of Herakles right, wearing lion's skin headdress.
Reverse: Zeus seated left, holding eagle in right hand, sceptre in left; grapes and M before, monogram below throne.
Price 3641b (same obverse die); Müller 692. 26mm, 16.62 g. Babylon mint.
b70
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Alexandre III de Macédoine (de 336 à 323 av. J.-C.)15 viewsTétradrachme d'Alexandre III de Macédoine
(Alexandre le Grand)
frappé à Sidé en Pamphylie
non daté (approximativement entre 325-320 avant JC)
16,96g
27mm
PRICE 2951
MUELLER 217 Dium en Pieriae

Avers anépigraphe, tête d'Héraklès (Hercule) à droite, coiffée de la léonté.
Revers, Zeus (Jupiter) aétophore (porteur d'aigle) assis à gauche sur un trône avec dossier, les jambes parallèles, nu jusqu'à la ceinture, tenant un aigle posé sur sa main droite et un long sceptre bouleté de la gauche. ΔI dans le champ gauche. Un monogramme sous le siège.
AΛEΞANΔPOY BAΣIΛEΩΣ
ALEXANDROU BASILEWS
Alexandre roi
PYL
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Alexandria, Egypt. Nero. 54-68 AD. Æ Dichalkon 20 viewsObv: Anepigraphic; laureate head right.
Rev: Large I within wreath.
12mm. and 1.1gm.
RPC I 5262.

ancientone
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Alexius I CLBC 2.5.331 viewsAlexius I Comnenus (1081 – 1118 CE) Pb Tetarteron (?), weight 4.57g, diameter 16mm.

This type is something of a mystery. The two other lead varieties produced under Alexius I exhibit ‘family’ iconography and are credibly linked to a special event, the coronation of John II as co-emperor in 1092. But here the standard busts of Christ and of Alexius I hardly mark the issue out as ‘ceremonial’.

And the question arises: what was their actual function? DOC IV designates them ‘lead tetartera’ from an uncertain mint (Thessalonica or Constantinople); Grierson suggests half-tetartera originating in Constantinople. But there is no Byzantine tradition of pure lead coinage, so CLBC argues for the alternative, that they were sphragidia, i.e. tokens exchangeable on a once-only basis, marking participation in some celebratory event or perhaps entitling the bearer to a food distribution. Since lead coins in circulation quickly become featureless lumps, this sphragidion explanation seems not implausible.

Ex FORVM.
Abu Galyon
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Amatokos II, AE23; Grapes/ Double axe21 viewsThracian (Scythian) King Amatokos II, ca. 359 - 351 B.C. 16,6g. 23mm. Bronze. obs: AMATOKO. Double axe. Rev: Grapes. Peter, Dynasten S. 134. Jurukova, TC Tf. 9, 47.Podiceps
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Ancient Judaea, Procuratorial: Valerius Gratus (15-26 CE) Æ Prutah, Jerusalem, RY 4 of Tiberius (Hendin 1336; TJC 326)10 viewsObv: IOY ΛIA; vine leaf and small bunch of grapes
Rev: Narrow-necked amphora with scroll handles; across field, L Δ
Quant.Geek
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ANONYMOUS14 viewsAR denarius. 86 AD. 4.05 grs. Anepigraphic. Laureate head of Apollo right. Thunderbolt below. / Jupiter in quadriga right.
Craw 373/1a. RSC 226
benito
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ANONYMOUS 38 viewsAR denarius. 86 AD. 4.05 grs. Anepigraphic. Laureate head of Apollo right. Thunderbolt below. / Jupiter in quadriga right.
Craw 373/1a. RSC 226
1 commentsbenito
vrbs_roma.jpg
Anonymous Issue during the reign of Constantine I, AE3, 334-335369 viewsAnonymous Issue during the reign of Constantine I, AE3, 334-335, Siscia, Officina 3
VRBS-ROMA
Helmeted with plume, bust left in imperial mantle
(Anepigraphic)
She-wolf standing left, head right, suckling Remus and Romulus
17mm x 18mm, 2.67g
RIC VII, 240
8 commentsb70
005_(1).JPG
Anonymous Æ Semuncia61 views
Anonymous Æ Semuncia. Rome, 217-215 BC. Bust of Mercury right, wearing winged petasos / Prow of galley right; ROMA above.


Much better in hand and not easy to photograph for me, but I'm happy with the coin :)
2 commentsRandygeki(h2)
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Antiochos VI Dionysos - drachm21 viewsHead of Antiochos VI right, diademed, radiate as Helios
[BAΣIΛEΩΣ] / ANTIOXOY / EΠIΦANOYΣ / ΔIONYΣOY , naked Apollo seated left on omphalos, holding arrow and resting on bow. Between his feet : K ; in field to left grapes.
Ginolerhino
1062786-copy.jpg
ANTIQUITIES, Roman, Mold-blown glass flask23 viewsRoman glass flask, blown and molded in two parts. The molded decoration represents flowers or perhaps a grapevine. 1st century A.D.
Height, 10cm; width, 3.5cm.
Extremely rare.
collectantic
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Antoninus Pius 6 views
Antoninus Pius. AD 138-161. Æ Dupondius (27mm, 10.58 g, 11h). Rome mint. Struck AD 159. Radiate head right / TEMPLVM DIV AVG REST, octastyle temple within which are the seated figures of Divus Augustus and Livia. RIC III 1017. VF, dark brown surfaces with touches of green, some pitting and minor smoothing.


The second Temple of Divus Augustus, commenced under Tiberius and dedicated by Caligula in August AD 37, suffered during the great fire of 80, which began on the Capitoline Hill and spread into the Forum and onto the Palatine. It was possibly restored or rebuilt under Domitian, although it is not mentioned in the Chronographia. It received further restoration under Antoninus Pius in 158. The temple under Antoninus was Corinthian octastyle and contained the seated figures of Divus Augustus and Livia within, generally drawn on the coinage at an elevated level to suggest perspective.
Ancient Aussie
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Antoninus Pius, AD 138-161.4 viewsÆ23, 8.3g, 12h; CAPPADOCIA. Tyana.
Obv.: ΑΥΤΟΚ ΑΝΤWΝЄΙΝΟС СЄΒΑСT; Laureate head right.
Rev.: ΤΥΑΝЄWΝ Τ Π Τ ΙЄΡ ΑCΥ ΑΥΤ / ЄΤ / Θ; Tyche seated left, holding grain ears and bunch of grapes; foot resting on river god Euphrates swimming left; seat decorated with griffin.
Reference: RPC IV online 5741 / 17-300-30
John Anthony
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Antoninus Pius, AE24, Tyana, Cappadocia, Tyche & River-God12 viewsAntoninus Pius
Augustus, 138-161 A.D.

Coin: AE24

Obverse: ANTωNЄINOC CЄBACTOC, laureate bust facing right.
Reverse: TYANЄωN TΠT IЄPA, Tyche of Tyana, seated left upon a Chair ornamented with a Griffin, holding Wheat-ears and Grapes, her foot resting upon a River-God swimming to the left below. ЄT-IB across fields.

Weight: 7.96g, Diameter: 24 mm, Die axis: 180°, Mint: Tyana in Cappadocia, Regnal Year: 15 (ЄT-IB = 153-154 A.D.), Reference: BMC 4 page 97
Masis
AntoSe65-4.jpg
Antoninus Pius, RIC 1004, Sestertius of AD 159 (Temple of Divus Augustus)25 viewsÆ Sestertius (22.23g, Ø30mm, 12h). Rome mint. Struck AD 159.
Obv.: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P XXII laureate head of Antoninus Pius facing right.
Rev.: TEMPLVM DIV AVG REST (around) COS IIII (in ex.) S C (in field), Octastyle temple of Divus Augustus with statues of Augustus and Livia. The temple stands on a podium of three steps. Both statues in the centre, standing on a base, have the right arms raised. There are statues to the left near the foot of the steps and other statues of soldiers on pedestals at each side of the top step. The statuary on the roof can be identified as Augustus in quadriga flanked by Romulus on the right and Aeneas carrying Anchises on the left. Unidentified statuary in the pediment.

RIC 1004 (S); BMCRE 2063; Cohen 805; Strack 1167; Banti (I Grandi Bronzi Imperiali II-3) 406; Sear (Roman Coins and their Values II) 4235.
ex Triton VI (2003)

The second Temple of Divus Augustus, commenced under Tiberius and dedicated by Caligula in August AD 37, suffered during the great fire of 80 which began on the Capitoline Hill and spread into the Forum and onto the Palatine. It was possibly restored or rebuilt under Domitian, although it is not mentioned in the Chronographia, and it certainly received further restoration under Antoninus Pius in 158. The temple under Antoninus was Corinthian octastyle and contained the seated figures of Divus Augustus and Livia within, generally drawn on the coinage at an elevated level to suggest perspective.
Charles S
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Antonius - Legionary Coinage, Legio V Alaudae52 viewsObv. [ANT AVG] IIIVIR RPC, galley right, mast with banners at prow;
Rev. LEG V, legionary eagle between two standards;
18mm, 3,40 gr.
Patrae, military mint of Antony, 31 B.C.
References: RRC544, RSC 32, Sear 1479

Legio V Alaudae was the first legion to be raised from non-Romans. These men were transalpine Gauls, enrolled by Caesar in 52 B.C, and took to wearing lark's feathers on their helmets - hence their epithet, Alaudae, "the Larks". The Fifth was long believed to have been destroyed in, or dissolved after the Batavian Revolt of 69/70 AD, where they participated with the rest of the Rhine legions and the Treveri and Lingones in the uprising. However, epigraphic material now indicates the presence of the Fifth on the Danube in Flavian times. Records disappear again soon afterward, and it may have been lost in the Dacian Wars under Domitian.
Syltorian
manbull.jpg
AR Nomos of Neapolis, Campania c340-241 BC68 viewsOBV: Head of nymph facing right, bunch of grapes(?) to left
REV: Man-faced Bull walking right, Victory overhead crowning with wreath.

Sambon 436, SNG ANS 366, weight 7.3 gms; 18 mm

A coin which has all the things that I like about the ancient Greeks - beautiful sense of natural form, balanced design, and whimsical imagination. The small flan cuts off some elements of the overall design and put it in range of my budget.
4 commentsdaverino
wrestlers.jpg
AR Stater of Aspendos in Pamphylia 420-370 BC19 viewsObverse: Two wrestlers grappling, dotted circular border
Reverse: Slinger throwing right with triskeles in field. Square dotted border. {ES} TFED{PYS} the ethnic name of Aspendos in vertical letters to left.

The activities depict Olympic events of the time. The weight of 10.9 grams represents 2 siglos(~5.5 gm), the Persian standard of weight rather than the Greek drachm standard. SNGFr 54 (ref. Wildwinds)
daverino
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AR Stater of Tarsos, Cilicia in the name of the Satrap Mazaios 361-334BC23 viewsOBVERSE: Baal of Tarsos enthroned left, holding eagle, corn-ear with bunch of grapes in right hand and lotus-headed scepter in left; Aramaic legend to right Baal Tarz.
REVERSE: Lion on the back of a kneeling bull which it attacks with teeth and claws., above is Aramaic legend Mazdai all within circles of dots.
Sear 5650 B.M.C. 21.171,21

Mazaios was the Satrap of Cilicia under the Persian monarchs. He made the wise decision of allying himself with Alexander when he showed up on the frontier of his territory. Alexander could be very generous to local rulers when they saw things his way and Mazaios was given a position in the new order. The coin is particularly interesting because the mage of Baal is clearly the prototype for 'Zeus Aetophoros' on the subsequent Alexandrine coinage.
Most test cuts are probably done by striking with a sharp chisel. The very deep and shaped cut here must have been done with some kind of highly levered tool like a modern bolt cutter.
Weight 10.8 grams
daverino
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AR Tetrobol of Euboea, Histiaea58 viewsObverse: Head of maenad, wreathed w/grapevine
Reverse: Nymph on prow of galley holding standard, AEIWN
Sear2496; 267-168 BC; 2.44gm
Boston Coin Show 2010

Interesting examples of die defects. On the reverse are a die crack and a die cud (missing piece) on the galley prow. On the obverse the frosted appearance is likely due to die rust.
1 commentsdaverino
Augustus_RIC_359~0.jpg
ARCH, Augustus, RIC 359201 viewsAugustus 27 B.C.-14 A.D. Moneyer L. Vinicius. Rome Mint. 16 B.C. (3.72g, 18.8m, 5h). Obv: Anepigraphic, bare head right. Rev: L Vinicivs in ex., Triumphal arch inscribed SPQR IMP CAE in two lines sur. by Quadriga bearing Augustus, r. holding laurel-branch, l. scepter; smaller arch on sides w archer on l. and slinger on r. RIC I 359 (R2). RSC 544.

This coin depicts Augustus’ triple arch, perhaps the first in Rome. Beginning as a double arch to commemorate his victory at Actium, the third arch was probably added to commemorate the return of the lost standards from Parthia. For a scarce type, this example is well centered and has good details on the reverse including complete legends.
1 commentsLucas H
CeolnothBiarnred1.jpg
Archbishop of Canterbury, Ceolnoth111 viewsStruck c.865-868AD Kent, Canterbury mint. AR Penny 1.20g Ceolnoth Group III. Floriated Cross type. Obv tonsured bust facing, breaking inner circle 'ARCHIEP- CEOLNOD'; Rev 'BIARNRED MONETA' (Moneyer Beornraed) around, in inner circle a floriated cross. S.895? (Group III) N.247.

There are 58 recorded coins of Ceolnoth at the SCBI/EMC but only 3 coins of this moneyer for him. He also struck 6 more recorded coins for Alfred, Edward the Elder and some Danish imitative Alfred coins from East Anglia. This actual type is not listed in the corpus. However, a fragment at the British Museum, see BNJ28 CE Blunt 'A new coin of Ceolnoth' and JJ North plate III/9, is likely the same. Infact, I believe these coins are of the same dies and moneyer. Blunt & North describe 'LD' in the fragmented moneyer legend though it is likely 'ED' with the top half of the 'E' missing at the break. The Floriated Cross design is also found on coins of Aethelberht for the moneyers Dudda and Oshere but only 4 on database (N.621). In superb condition, a single find from the Driffield area in Yorkshire. This coin is potentially the only complete specimum and should be considered a great rarity. It is now recorded in the 2011 'The Coinage of Southern England' by Rory Naismith, Volume 1 Plate 65 C218.2b.

Gareth Williams at the British Museum kindly commented:

'I agree with your reading of the coin, and think that it is probably from the same dies as our fragment 1947, 14-4, 6, as you suggest, although it's difficult to be absolutely certain - the angle of the D on the reverse in particular looks slightly different, but that may just be the lighting on the photograph'

Rory Naismith from the Fitzwilliam Museum in Cambridge is studying the period for his PhD dissertation. He kindly commented as below:

'The Ceolnoth in particular is quite spectacular: not only is it, as you say, the only known whole floreate cross penny of Ceolnoth, but it is also a stunning coin of considerable historical importance. There is some reason to believe that it was found as part of a small hoard comprising at least three floreate cross pennies, the other two both being of Aethelberht by the moneyer Dudda. One is unfortunately only a small fragment, but the other is beautifully preserved. As the only known hoard of floreate cross coins, this is understandably a find of some significance, although it is odd to find it deposited so far north. A trawl through the BM and as many other catalogues and find records as I could find turned up only a total of nineteen floreate cross pennies, including yours, struck by seven moneyers. It was probably a lot larger than this meagre record seems to suggest: were it not for the large Dorking hoard of 1817 the preceding Inscribed Cross phase would be almost as little-known, and many moneyers who produced this type reappeared in the Lunettes coinage, so they may well have continued over the intervening period as well'.

The initial coinage of Group III has as the reverse motif a cross crosslet with pellets in the angles [coin 1, illustrated above]. Those of Ceolnoth are of good style and feature a neater tonsured bust of the archbishop possibly wearing his pallium. Those of Aethelwulf for the same period, Phase II at Canterbury, tend to have a rather crude right facing bust with thick lettering in the legend - although a few are of better style. Not all of Aethelwulf's coins of this type have pellets in the angles of the cross crosslet. This type was struck until c.852, when it was replaced by a coinage that was to become standard at Canterbury throughout the remainder of Aethelwulf's reign and the majority of the reign of his son Aethelberht. The Inscribed Cross coinage, struck only by Ceolnoth and the two aforementioned kings, have an identical reverse with a large voided cross that contains the moneyers name within and in the angles. Comparitively large numbers of these coins survive and they have been the subject of much study with regard to dating, reduced silver content and so on. Toward the end of his reign, c.854, Aethelberht minted a new coinage mirrored by Ceolnoth, the extremely rare Floriate Cross issue. These coins as would be expected have a large floriated cross on the reverse and had a very limited striking - perhaps as little as a year. Less than ten examples survive today for the king and archbishop. Illustrated below is the only known complete example of the Floriate Cross type of archbishop Ceolnoth.


AlexB
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Argilos "Therma". 470-460 BC. AR 1/48 stater 5 viewsMacedon, Argilos "Therma." 470-460 BC. AR 1/48 stater (0.24 gm). Forepart of Pegasos flying r. Anepigraphic. / Quadripartite incuse square.  VF.  SNG ANS 7 #763; ACNAC Rosen #116; Babelon Traite II #1782 (Maronee, plate LVII #6); BMC p. 138 #10-12; HGC 3.1 #486; Liampi Argilos 101-117, 122-127; SNG Cop 2 #344; SNG Ashmolean 2393; Svoronos Macedoine XXV #13 (Crestoniens, plate XIV #18); Weber 1856. Anaximander
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Argolis. Argos 79 viewsArgolis. Argos AR Triobol / Wolf
Attribution: BCD Peloponnesos 1075
Date: 330-270 BC
Obverse: Forepart of wolf at bay left
Reverse: N - I flanking large A, club below, grapes to left, all in incuse square
Size: 14.02mm
Weight: 2.62 grams
7 commentsRandygeki(h2)
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Ariobarzanes III Drachm 23 viewsAR Drachm
Size: 17mm, Weight: 3.53 grams, Die Axis: 12h

Cappadocian Kingdom, Ariobarzanes III Eusebes
Circa 52 – 42 BCE

Obverse: Anepigraphic.
Diademed bust to right.

Reverse: BAΣIΛEΩΣ APIOBAPZANOY EYΣEBOYΣ KAI ΦIΛOPΩMAIOY (of King Ariobarzanes, pious and friend of the Romans)
Athena Nikephoros standing left, spear and grounded shield to right. Star in crescent monogram to left, monogram to right, and IA date in exergue (year 11, 42 BCE).

Notes:
-Ariobarzanes III was the grandson of Mithradates VI of Pontos, and adopted the Pontic royal symbol of a star in crescent.
-Ariobarzanes III was allied with Pompey, but was allowed to keep his position under Julius Caesar. Following Caesar's assassination, he refused to aid Cassius. Cappadocia was invaded, and Ariobarzanes III was executed.

Ex Forvm Ancient Coins, 2016
Pharsalos
Pheneos_AE_Dichalkon.jpg
Arkadia, Pheneos, ca. 300-240 BC, Æ Dichalkon 17 viewsWreathed bust of Artemis Heurippa right, with bow and quiver over shoulder.
ΦENEΩN Mare grazing right; AP monogram below, HP monogram in exergue.

HGC 5, 988; BCD Peloponnesos 1626; SNG Copenhagen 274; BMC 24.

(16 mm, 3.07 g, 3h)
Gorny & Mosch 216, 16 October 2013, 2446.

Amongst the finest examples of the type known, with a beautifully detailed bust of Artemis.

Pheneos lies at the foot of Mount Kyllene, located near the modern village of Kalyvia and in the ancient region of Arkadia in the Peloponnese. It served as an important cultural centre, notably for holding the Hermaea, a series of ancient Greek festivals in honour of Hermes. The latter god figures prominently on most of the coinage of Pheneos. However, the basis for the iconography of this rare coin is the tradition that Odysseus discovered his lost mares in Phenean territory. In gratitude he erected a temple to Artemis Heurippa (the finder of horses). The legend is recounted by Pausanius (8.14.5) "There stands also a bronze Poseidon, surnamed Horse, whose image, it is said, was dedicated by Odysseus. The legend is that Odysseus lost his mares, traversed Greece in search of them, and on the site in the land of Pheneos where he found his mares founded a sanctuary of Artemis, calling the goddess Horse-finder (Heurippa), and also dedicated the image of Horse Poseidon." Little remains of the ancient city of Pheneos. Like many ancient cities, its coinage, which is of limited volume, remains the most tangible evidence of its existence.
n.igma
IMG_1487.JPG
Artabanos III, AE Chalkous24 viewsAE Chalkous
Parthia, Artabanos III, 10-38 CE
Diameter: 12 mm Weight: 1.45 grams Die axis: 12h

Obverse: Diademed bust to left.

Reverse: King on horseback to right.

Mint: Ekbatana (Hamadan, Iran)

Notes:
- Charles Deetz was an American geographer
- Sellwood type 63.21, Shore 575
- NGC certification number 4372348-009

Ex Pars Coins 2017, Ex Stack's November 1946 (Sale of the Charles H. Deetz Collection), lot 249
Pharsalos
Nercessian-93.jpg
Artaxiads of Armenia: Tigranes II the Great (95-56 BC) Æ Two Chalci (Nercessian-93)31 viewsObv: Finely executed portrait of Tigranes facing right. Tiara has five sharp spikes. Tiara has one star between two eagles.
Rev: Cornucopia with the upper half to the right. Above to the left and to the right of cornucopia marks resembling bunch of grapes. Legend to right downward - ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ; to left downward - ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΝ / ΤΙΓΡΑΝΟΥ. Various field marks.
SpongeBob
Domitia_01.jpg
Asia Minor, Lydia, Philadelphia, Domitia10 viewsDomitia
Lydia, Philadelphia
Obv.: ΔOMITIA AYΓΟΥCΤΑ Draped bust right
Rev.: EΠΙ ΛΑΓΕT ΦΙΛΑΔΕΛΦΕωN, Bunch of grapes
AE, 3.14g, 15.1mm
Ref.: SNG München 1336
shanxi
Pergamon_04.jpg
Asia Minor, Mysia, Pergamon, Attalos I 26 viewsKings of Pergamon
Attalos I, 241-197 BC
AR Tetradrachm
Obv.: Laureate head of Philetairos right.
Rev.: ΦIΛETAIPOY, Athena seated left, holding spear, left elbow on shield, wreath held in right hand; in right field, bow; in left, bunch of grapes, between monogram A
Ag, 16.96g, 27.6mm
Ref.: Westermark, Ph. 62, Gruppe IV:B, Winterthur 2617
shanxi
Antandros_01.jpg
Asia Minor, Troas, Antandros 31 viewsAntandros
Asia Minor, Troas
Ae10, 350-250 BC
Obv.: Laureate head of Apollo right
Rev.: ANTAN , Head of a roaring lion right, grapes above A
AE, 0.99g, 9.60mm
Ref.: SNG Copenhagen 218 var. (no grapes), BMC Troas pg. 34, 8
Ex Gitbud&Naumann
2 commentsshanxi
Aspendos_stater_sm.jpg
Aspendos stater85 viewsca. 380/75-330/25 BC
21mm, 10.78 g, 12h
obv: wo wrestlers grappling; AΦ between
rev: Slinger in throwing stance right; triskeles to right; all within pelleted square border
SNG Paris 83 (Tekin Series 4)
2 commentsareich
pamphylia02LG.jpg
ASPENDOS, PAMPHYLIA31 viewsASPENDOS, PAMPHYLIA, AR silver stater. Struck circa 370-330 BC.
Two wrestlers grappling; LF between. Reverse - ESTFEDIIUS, slinger
to right; triskeles in field. SNGvA 4565. SNG Cop 227. 23mm, 10.95g.
1 commentsCurtis H2
Aspendos_Pamphylia_GCV_5398.JPG
Aspendos, Pamphylia Wrestlers89 viewsObv: Two naked wrestlers grappling, the athlete on the left holds his opponent's wrist with his right hand and his forearm with his left; KI between their legs.

Rev: EΣTΦEΔIIYΣ on left, slinger standing in throwing stance right, wearing a short chiton, discharging sling; clockwise triskeles on right all within a beaded square.

Silver Stater, Aspendos mint, c. 370 - 333 BC

10.74 grams, 23.2 mm, 0°

GCV 5398 (var.), SNG Coppenhagen 226, SNG Von Aulock 4557

Ex: FORVM
1 commentsSPQR Coins
PAMPHYLIA_Aspendos_23.jpg
Aspendos, Pamphylia.156 viewsCirca 380/75-330/25 BC.
With the influence of the Olympics games , Silver Stater.
Obverse : Two wrestlers grappling; LΦ between, below.
Reverse : Slinger in throwing stance right; EΣTFEΔIIYΣ to left, counterclockwise triskeles of legs to right , Small eagle's head banker mark.
Mint : Aspendos (in our days , Antalya province of Turkey).
Ref ; Tekin Series 4; Arslan & Lightfoot 61–72 (same dies); Izmir 413 (same dies); SNG von Aulock 4565; SNG France 105 (same obv. die); SNG Copenhagen 227.
Extremely fine . 10.86 Gr . Max Dia 23 mm . Struck from fresh , artistic and well executed dies.

The Sam Mansourati Collection.
3 commentsSam
Athen_owl_Tetradrachm_.jpg
Athena and her owl 182 viewsIn Greek mythology, a Little Owl baby (Athene noctua) traditionally represents or accompanies Athena, the virgin goddess of wisdom, or Minerva, her syncretic incarnation in Roman mythology. Because of such association, the bird often referred to as the "owl of Athena" or the "owl of Minerva" has been used as a symbol of knowledge, wisdom, perspicacity and erudition throughout the Western world.
The reasons behind the association of Athena and the owl are lost in time. Some mythographers, such as David Kinsley and Martin P. Nilsson suggest that she may descend from a Minoan palace goddess associated with birds and Marija Gimbutas claim to trace Athena's origins as an Old European bird and snake goddess.
On the other hand, Cynthia Berger theorizes about the appeal of some characteristics of owls such as their ability to see in the dark to be used as symbol of wisdom while others, such as William Geoffrey Arnott, propose a simple association between founding myths of Athens and the significant number of Little Owls in the region (a fact noted since antiquity by Aristophanes in The Birds and Lysistrata).
In any case, the city of Athens seems to have adopted the owl as proof of allegiance to its patron virgin goddess, which according to a popular etiological myth reproduced on the West pediment of the Parthenon, secured the favor of its citizens by providing them with a more enticing gift than Poséidon.
Owls were commonly reproduced by Athenians in vases, weights and prize amphoras for the Panathenaic Games. The owl of Athena even became the common obverse of the Athenian tetradrachms after 510 BC and according to Philochorus, the Athenian tetradrachm was known as glaux throughout the ancient world and "owl" in present day numismatics. They were not, however, used exclusively by them to represent Athena and were even used for motivation during battles by other Greek cities, such as in the victory of Agathocles of Syracuse over the Carthaginians in 310 B.C. in which owls flying through the ranks were interpreted as Athena’s blessing or in the Battle of Salamis, chronicled in Plutarch's biography of Themistocles.
(Source: Wikipédia)
moneta romana
g_041.JPG
Athens79 viewsAttika,Athens "new style" 168-50 b.c
Tetradrachm 115 - 114 BC

Obverse:Head of Athena,wearing helmet
Reverse:Owl standing right on amphora;ΑΘΕ magistrates names ΜΗΤΡΟΔΩΡΟΣ ΚΑΛΛΗ at left and ΔΗΜΟΣΘΕ right;grapes right;ΣΦ under amphora

28.67mm 16.71gm

Sear 1 pages 239-240 , Thompson 635
3 commentsmaik
NOW_BOTH_GRAPES~0.jpg
Athens New Style Tetradrachm 115/4 BC7 viewsbs: Athena Parthenos right in tri-form helmet
16.56g 29mm Thompson issue 50
Thompson catalogue : Obs 639 : Rev ? (altered)
Rev : ΑΘΕ ethnic
Owl standing on overturned panathenaic amphora on
which month mark Γ/Β/Α control ΣΦ below
3 magistrates : METRODOROS DEMOSTHE(N) KALLIPH / PYRROS
RF symbol : Bunch of Grapes on vine leaf
All within a surrounding olive wreath
cicerokid
Athens_1c_img~0.jpg
Athens, Silver tetradrachm35 viewsObv:– Head of Athena right, droopy eye, crested helmet with olive leaves and bent-back palmette, wire necklace, round earring, hair in parallel curves.
Rev:– ΑΘΕ, right, owl standing right, head facing, erect in posture, olive sprig and crescent left, all within incuse square;
Minted in Athens from . B.C. 449 - 413.
Reference:– SNG Cop 31 ff., SGCV I 2526

Test cut on Athena's neck, bankers mark on jaw with graffiti on cheek. Small test cut through eye of owl and running in the field to the right of the owl through the leg.

17.06g, 23.32mm, 90o

Updated image using new photography setup.
1 commentsmaridvnvm
Athens_1a_img.jpg
Athens, Silver tetradrachm 39 viewsObv:– Head of Athena right, droopy eye, crested helmet with olive leaves and bent-back palmette, wire necklace, round earring, hair in parallel curves.
Rev:– ΑΘΕ, right, owl standing right, head facing, erect in posture, olive sprig and crescent left, all within incuse square;
Minted in Athens from . B.C. 449 - 413.
Reference:– SNG Cop 31 ff., SGCV I 2526

Ex- Forum Ancient Coins where they graded it gVF, "X" Graffiti on obverse, test cut on reverse.

17.070g, 26.1mm, 270o

Updated image using new photography setup.
2 commentsmaridvnvm
AthensTetradrachmNewStyle.jpg
Attica, Athens Silver Tetradrachm, New Style, c. 115/114 B.C.35 viewsAttica, Athens Silver Tetradrachm, New Style, c. 115/114 B.C.
31.4mm, 16.61 grams.
Obv: Head of Athena to right, wearing triple-crested Attic helmet decorated with a palmette and gryphon.
Rev: Owl standing three-quarters right, head facing, on amphora, cluster of grapes on vine in right field, Δ on amphora, ΠE below.
Ref: Thompson 633g.
About Extremely Fine.
1 commentsmjabrial
G_294_Athens_fac.jpg
Attica, Athens, Athena, Owl, Hemiobol29 viewsAttica. Athens
Hemiobol (after 449)
Obv: Helmeted head of Athena right.
Rev: A Θ Ε, Owl standing right, olive spring.
Ag, 0.33g, 7mm
Ref.: Kroll 14, SNG Copenhagen 59
Ex E.E. Clain-Stefanelli collection

photographic image (top) and electron microscopic image (bottom)

1 commentsshanxi
000a~0.jpg
AUGUSTUS152 views AR Denarius (3.95 g, 7h). Tarraco. Struck 18 BC. Toga picta over tunica palmata flanked on left by aquila and on right by wreath. S P Q R PARENT / CONS SVO . Triumphal quadriga advancing right, ornamented with one Victory and surmounted by a small galloping quadriga. CAESARI above, AVGVSTO in exergue. RIC I 99; RSC 78b; BN 1187-90. Toned.
CNG 253383.
CNG photograph.
8 commentsbenito
00augquad.jpg
AUGUSTUS70 viewsAR Denarius (3.95 g, 7h). Tarraco. Struck 18 BC. Toga picta over tunica palmata flanked on left by aquila and on right by wreath. S P Q R PARENT / CONS SVO . Triumphal quadriga advancing right, ornamented with one Victory and surmounted by a small galloping quadriga. CAESARI above, AVGVSTO in exergue. RIC I 99; RSC 78b; BN 1187-90. Toned.
CNG.Coin shop.253383.
CNG photograph.

2 commentsbenito
ric_126_augustus.jpg
Augustus RIC 0126 75 viewsAugustus (27 BC-AD 14), Denarius, Uncertain Spanish mint (Colonia Patricia?), 17-16 BC, (19 mm 3.73 g).
Obv: Bare head right
Rev: Augustus, Capricorn right, holding globe attached to rudder between front hooves; cornucopia above its back.
RIC I 126; RSC 21 SRCV (2000) 1592.
Purchased October 28, 2016 from vcoins store London Coin Galleries Ltd.




Although Augustus was the second Caesar covered by Suetonius, he really was the first ruler of the new Roman empire. Originally known by the name Octavian, he became Augustus as the new ruler of the empire.

The coin below is special to me for two reasons. First, I love the
anepigraphic (no legend) obverse. I feel this gives an elegant look to the portrait and make the portrait the focus of the coin. Many emperors were very particular as to how their images appeared on their coins and Augustus was no exception. It is difficult to tell when a coin of Augustus was issued by the portrait alone because his portraits did not age very much from his beginnings as emperor until his death.

Another reason I like this coin is the reverse. It depicts a Capricorn with globe and rudder. These devices appear on other coins of Augustus, and other emperors used them as well. Augustus would be associated with the image of the Capricorn for much of his rule.

Although this is not a perfect coin because of its imperfect flan shape, the combination of a great portrait and the Capricorn meant I had to have it.
4 commentsorfew
leBon.jpg
Auxonne in France, 1424-1427 AD., Duchy of Burgundy, Philippe le Bon, Blanc aux écus, Poey d'Avant # 5735.97 viewsFrance, Duchy of Burgundy, Auxonne mint (?), Philip the Good (Philippe le Bon, 1419-1467), struck 1424-1427 AD.,
AR blanc aux écus (26-28 mm / 3,27 g),
Obv.: + DVX : ET : COMES : BVRGVDIE , Ecus accolés de Bourgogne nouveau et Bourgogne ancien sous PhILIPVS.
Rev.: + SIT : NOMEN : DNI : BENEDICTVM , Croix longue entre un lis et un lion, au-dessus de PhILIPVS.
B., 1230 ; Dumas, 15-7-1 ; Poey d'Avant # 5735.

"PotatorII": "This coin is atributed to Auxonne mint because of the presence of a "secret dot" under the first letter (S) on reverse."

Rare

Imitation du blanc aux écus d'Henri VI d'Angleterre, frappé en France à partir de novembre 1422.

Philip the Good (French: Philippe le Bon), also Philip III, Duke of Burgundy (July 31, 1396 – June 15, 1467) was Duke of Burgundy from 1419 until his death. He was a member of a cadet line of the Valois dynasty (the then Royal family of France). During his reign Burgundy reached the height of its prosperity and prestige and became a leading center of the arts. Philip is known in history for his administrative reforms, patronage of Flemish artists such as Jan van Eyck, and the capture of Joan of Arc. During his reign he alternated between English and French alliances in an attempt to improve his dynasty's position.
Born in Dijon, he was the son of John the Fearless and Margaret of Bavaria-Straubing. On the 28 January 1405, he was named Count of Charolais in appanage of his father and probably on the same day he was engaged to Michele of Valois (1395–1422), daughter of Charles VI of France and Isabeau of Bavaria. They were married in June of 1409.
Philip subsequently married Bonne of Artois (1393–1425), daughter of Philip of Artois, Count of Eu, and also the widow of his uncle, Philip II, Count of Nevers, in Moulins-les-Engelbert on November 30, 1424. The latter is sometimes confused with Philip's biological aunt, also named Bonne (sister of John the Fearless, lived 1379 - 1399), in part due to the Papal Dispensation required for the marriage which made no distinction between a marital aunt and a biological aunt.
His third marriage, in Bruges on January 7, 1430 with Isabella of Portugal (1397 - December 17, 1471), daughter of John I of Portugal and Philippa of Lancaster, produced three sons:
* Antoine (September 30, 1430, Brussels – February 5, 1432, Brussels), Count of Charolais
* Joseph (April 24, 1432 – aft. May 6, 1432), Count of Charolais
* Charles (1433–1477), Count of Charolais and Philip's successor as Duke, called "Charles the Bold" or "Charles the Rash"
Philip also had some eighteen illegitimate children, including Antoine, bastard of Burgundy, by twenty four documented mistresses [1]. Another, Philip of Burgundy (1464-1524), bishop of Utrecht, was a fine amateur artist, and the subject of a biography in 1529.
Philip became duke of Burgundy, count of Flanders, Artois and Franche Comté when his father was assassinated in 1419. Philip accused Charles, the Dauphin of France and Philip's brother-in-law of planning the murder of his father which had taken place during a meeting between the two at Montereau, and so he continued to prosecute the civil war between the Burgundians and Armagnacs. In 1420 Philip allied himself with Henry V of England under the Treaty of Troyes. In 1423 the alliance was strengthened by the marriage of his sister Anne to John, Duke of Bedford, regent for Henry VI of England.
In 1430 Philip's troops captured Joan of Arc at Compiègne and later handed her over to the English who orchestrated a heresy trial against her, conducted by pro-Burgundian clerics. Despite this action against Joan of Arc, Philip's alliance with England was broken in 1435 when Philip signed the Treaty of Arras (which completely revoked the Treaty of Troyes) and thus recognised Charles VII as king of France. Philip signed for a variety of reasons, one of which may have been a desire to be recognised as the Premier Duke in France. Philip then attacked Calais, but this alliance with Charles was broken in 1439, with Philip supporting the revolt of the French nobles the following year (an event known as the Praguerie) and sheltering the Dauphin Louis.
Philip generally was preoccupied with matters in his own territories and seldom was directly involved in the Hundred Years' War, although he did play a role during a number of periods such as the campaign against Compiegne during which his troops captured Joan of Arc. He incorporated Namur into Burgundian territory in 1429 (March 1, by purchase from John III, Marquis of Namur), Hainault and Holland, Frisia and Zealand in 1432 (with the defeat of Countess Jacqueline in the last episode of the Hook and Cod wars); inherited the duchy of Brabant and Limburg and the margrave of Antwerp in 1430 (on the death of his cousin Philip of Saint-Pol); and purchased Luxembourg in 1443 from Elisabeth of Bohemia, Duchess of Luxembourg. Philip also managed to ensure his illegitimate son, David, was elected Bishop of Utrecht in 1456. It is not surprising that in 1435, Philip began to style himself "Grand Duke of the West". In 1463 Philip returned some of his territory to Louis XI. That year he also created an Estates-General based on the French model. The first meeting of the Estates-General was to obtain a loan for a war against France and to ensure support for the succession of his son, Charles I, to his dominions. Philip died in Bruges in 1467.

my ancient coin database
1 commentsArminius
mazaios~0.jpg
Baal or Zeus (Interpretatio Graecia) on Cilician Stater of Satrap Mazaios266 viewsCirca 361-334 B.C. AR Stater (10.88g, 24mm, 5h). cf. SNG Levant-106; SNG Paris-. Obverse Baal of Tarsos enthroned left, head facing, holding club, bunch of grapes, wheat ear, and eagle in right hand, lotus-headed scepter in left hand, B’LTRZ (Baaltarz) in Aramaic behind, M below throne, all within a circle of dots. Reverse lion bringing down bull, attacking with teeth and claws, MZDI (Mazdai) in Aramaic above, unlisted ankh symbol, wheat ear below, all within a circle of dots. Sharply struck on an excellent metal with areas of flat strikes on high points. Choice superb EF/EF. Toned, lustrous.

Ex Ponterio and Associates Sale No. 84, November 1996, lot 141. Ex Stacks Bowers and Ponterio Sale No. 172, November 2012, lot 11680. Ex Pars Coins.

The depiction of Phoenician-Canaanite god Baal on Cilician coinage suggests the preeminence of his cult in Tarsos. He is shown enthroned, most probably on Mount Zaphon. The symbols corn-ear/barley and grapes suggest Baal’s capacity as a god involved in the seasonal cycles of life and death, or a more specific reference to Cilicia’s fertile plains. The iconography of this late coinage is also a syncretic mixture of other cultures, including Greek. The treatment of the god’s body gives us a hint of the extent of influence of Hellenic culture exerted in Eastern Asia Minor long before Alexander’s conquest, and it is said that Baal could be equated with Zeus in the Greek context. After the conquest of Alexander III of the East, Mazaios was appointed governor of Babylon. The new coinage of Alexander was strongly influenced by Mazaios’ pre-Alexandrine coinage (the Zeus Aetophoros commonly found on the reverses of his tetradrachmai is a direct descendant of this). The reverse depicts the City’s Emblem and clearly has an underlying meaning now lost to us. Some say it symbolizes the victory of Day over Night, while others suggest military conquest and subjugation of the enemies by the Persian Empire. Marvin Tameanko has persuasively argued (see Celator, Jan. 1995, pp. 6-11) that the kneeling bull (without the lion) is symbolic of Zeus, as attested on scores of later Greek and Roman coins; and the lion is symbolic of the supreme god Baal of the Cilicians. This concludes the lion-over-bull motif on this coin delivers a message that is blatantly direct and simple, if the argument put forward is to be believed.
4 commentsJason T
Pergamon.jpg
Bacchus, Cista Mystica367 viewsTetradrachm of Pergamon, Mysia (133-67 B.C.)
Obv: Cista mystica containing serpent, all within wreath (of grapes?).
Anepigraphic.
Rev: Bow case between two coiled serpents, MOE above, snake entwined Asklepian staff to right, mint monogram to left.
25.8 mm 12.2 gm

They can keep the snakes, but a healthy glass of wine about now would be a winner!
Massanutten
1 commentsMassanutten
1475_Bactria_didrachm.jpg
Baktria - AR didrachm16 viewsuncertain mint in Oxus region
295/3-285/3 BC
head of Athena right, wearing earring, necklace and crested Attic helmet decorated with three olive leaves over visor and spiral palmette on the bowl wire necklace, round earring
monogram
owl standing right, grape bunch over tail; prow above
AΘE
Roma XIV, 331; Bopearachchi, Sophytes Series 1A; SNG ANS 6; N&A 43-45
ex Roma

From the 1960s Andragoras-Sophytes Group, present in Germany in 1975, subsequently exported to the USA.
Johny SYSEL
1399_Baktria_drachm2.jpg
Baktria - AR drachm6 viewsuncertain mint in Oxus region
305-294 BC
head of Athena right wearing earring, necklace, and crested Attic helmet decorated with three olive leaves over visor and a spiral palmette on the bowl
eagle standing left, head right, grape cluster on vine with leaf above
Roma XIV, 334; Bopearachchi, Sophytes Series 2A; SNG ANS 14-16; Mitchiner 26c; N&A 52-57

ex Roma numismatics
From the 1960s Andragoras-Sophytes Group, present in Germany in 1975, subsequently exported to the USA.
Johny SYSEL
1398_Baktria3.jpg
Baktria - AR tetradrachm11 viewsuncertain mint in Oxus region
295/3-285/3 BC
head of Athena right, wearing earring, necklace and crested Attic helmet decorated with three olive leaves over visor and spiral palmette on the bowl wire necklace, round earring
monogram
owl standing right, grape bunch over tail; olive sprig and crescent above
AΘE
Roma XIV, 354; Bopearachchi, Sophytes Series 1A; Mitchiner 13e; N&A 13-15; SNG ANS -; Svoronos pl. 109, 8; Leu 83, 263
17,0g
ex Roma

From the 1960s Andragoras-Sophytes Group, present in Germany in 1975, subsequently exported to the USA.
Johny SYSEL
Baktria_AthenianOwlImitation_SNGANS9-9_bg.jpg
Baktria, Athenian owl imitation3 viewsAthenian owl imitation. 393-300 BC. AR Hemidrachm (1.46 gm) on Aryandi stdd. Head of Athena r., crested helmet ornamented with olive leaves. Bunch of grapes on vine behind. / Owl stdg r., wings closed, olive twig to l. AΘE to r. VF. SNG ANS 9 #9-10; Boperachchi Sophytes (1996) Séries 1A; HGC 12 #9; Svornos pl 17 #34-36; MIG -. cf HGC 4 #1644. Anaximander
Baktria_Sophytes_SNGANS9-4_bg.jpg
Baktria. Sophytes. AR Didrachm8 viewsBaktria. Sophytes. 295/3-285/3 BC. AR Didrachm (18mm, 7.91 gm) of the Oxus region. Helmeted head of Athena r.; monogram to l. / Owl standing r., head facing; to upper l., prow of galley r. above grape bunch. ΑΘΕ. VF. CNG EA 459 #398. Nomisma Coll. SNG ANS 9 #4; HGC 12 #3; SMAK pp. 64-70; cf. Nicolet-Pierre & Amandry 47/48 (for obv./rev. dies); cf. Bopearachchi Sophytes Group 1A and pl. I, 8 (tetradrachm).
3 commentsAnaximander
Baltic_Amber_Cicada_Nymph.jpg
Baltic Amber with Cicada Nymph107 viewsLocation: Baltic Russia
Date: circa 50 million years old
Size: amber is 4.39 cm long (maximum),
cicada nymph is 9 mm long (rare inclusion)

This is a piece of pre-historic Baltic amber containing a beautifully presented cicada nymph inclusion. This piece of amber was collected from the Primorkoje Mine in Yantarnvi, Kaliningrad, Russia near the Baltic Sea. The territory, the northern part of the former East Prussia, borders on NATO and EU members Poland and Lithuania. The site now occupied by Kaliningrad was previously the site of the German city of Königsberg, founded in 1255. During World War II the city was largely destroyed. Königsberg was renamed Kaliningrad in 1946 after the death of Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR Mikhail Kalinin, one of the original Bolsheviks. The German population was expelled and the city was repopulated with Soviet citizens. German was replaced by Russian as the language of everyday life. The city was rebuilt, and went through industrialization and modernization. As the westernmost territory of the USSR, the Kaliningrad Oblast became a strategically important area during the Cold War. Kaliningrad is the only Russian Baltic Sea port that is ice-free all year round and hence plays an important role in maintenance of the Baltic Fleet. Due to the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, the Kaliningrad Oblast became an exclave, geographically separated from the rest of Russia.
3 commentsNoah
img217.jpg
Banque Royale - 10 livres tournois6 viewsBanque Royale de Law, billet typographié.
émission du 1er juillet 1720
10 livres tournois
Dim. : 157 x 88 mm
Réfs : Lafaurie 93
Gabalor
img216.jpg
Banque Royale - 100 livres tournois7 viewsBanque Royale de Law, billet typographié.
émission du 1er janvier 1720 (second type)
100 livres tournois
Dim. : 170 x 105 mm
Réfs : Lafaurie 90
Gabalor
img214.jpg
Banque Royale - 1000 livres tournois5 viewsBanque Royale de Law, billet typographié.
émission du 1er janvier 1720 (second type)
1000 livres tournois
Dim. 165 x 111 mm
Réfs : Lafaurie 91

Gabalor
img215.jpg
Banque Royale - 1000 livres tournois4 viewsBanque Royale de Law, billet typographié.
émission du 1er janvier 1720 (second type)
1000 livres tournois, faux d'époque
Dim. : 167 x 109 mm
Réfs : Lafaurie 91
Gabalor
IMG_4616.JPG
BAR KOCHBA REBELLION, AE25MM. YEAR 225 viewsBAR KOCHBA REBELLION, AE25MM. YEAR 2
Hebrew legend, For the Freedom of Jerusalem Grape leaves.
/ Hebrew legend, Simon Palm tree with seven branches.
Maritima
Islamic_Weight_BW14_.jpg
BCC BW1445 viewsIslamic Weight BCC BW14
Abbasid Caliphate 750-1258 CE
Bronze - 1 Dinar
Obv:Arabic inscription: لله
"LILLAH” late Abbasid calligraphy.
Rev: One punch mark within
incuse concentric circle.
Disk shape: Diameter: 11.0mm.
Height:6.25mm. Weight: 4.03gm.
v-drome
polychrome_glass_fragments.jpg
BCC cg4 (11pcs.)39 viewsPolychrome glass fragments from the
dunes and beach at Caesarea Maritima
in the early 1970's. Approximate size
1.0 - 4.0 cm. These were surface finds
not related to any structure or stratigraphic
context, and I do not have references with
which to date them based on style. My
guess would be the middle Roman to early
Byzantine periods.
v-drome
grapevine_gem.jpg
BCC g7x122 viewsRoman Gem Stone
Grape Vine, Grapes, and Tendrils
11.5 x 8mm.
Translucent Carnelian
"Coins with... vine leaf on the...reverse were
struck in Palestine three times - during the first and second wars
against Rome, and by the Procurators in 17/18 CE. The latter coins
were probably struck at Caesarea, where this issue was certainly current"
Anit Hamburger, Gems From Caesarea Maritima, Atiqot,
English Series, Vol. VIII, 1968 p. 21.
(click on Pic for higher resolution)
1 commentsv-drome
Islamic_gem_BCC_g8.jpg
BCC g861 viewsIslamic Gem Stone
Caesarea Maritima
7th - 11th Century CE
Koranic Inscription, Kufic Calligraphy,
inscribed in the negative.
"li-kull ajal kitab" "لكل أجل كتاب"
everyones' end is determined
(fated) previously (by Allah)
14 x 10 mm.
Red Carnelian
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scorpion_grapes.jpg
BCC gr1X79 viewsGreek Autonomous
Paros, Cyclades 300-200 BCE
Obv: scorpion
Rev: ΠΑΡΙ grapes
"Choix de monnaies grecques du
cabinet de F. Imhoof-Blumer", No. 90
Plate III. Very Rare.
Surface find on the beach, north of
Caesarea Maritima, 1971. Caesarea
was built near the ruins of an earlier
Greek settlement.
AE 11.5mm 2.08gm. Axis:0
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bcc_j11_revolt.jpg
BCC j1127 viewsJudaea AE Prutah
1st Revolt 67/68CE
Jerusalem Mint
Obv: Sha Na T Sh Ti I M (Year Two)
Amphora with broad rim and two handles.
Rev: He R U T Z I O N (Freedom of Zion)
Grape vine leaf .
17mm. 3.23gm. Axis:150
Hendin 661
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revolt_BCC_j12.jpg
BCC j1230 viewsJudaean
1st Revolt 67/68CE
AE Prutah-Jerusalem Mint
Obv: Sha Na T Sh Ti I M (Year Two)
Amphora w/ broad rim and two handles.
Rev: He R * T Z I O N (Freedom of Zion)
Grape vine leaf .
17mm. 2.49gm. Axis:150
Hendin 661
v-drome
BCC_j13_revolt.jpg
BCC j1328 viewsJudaea
1st Revolt 68/69CE
AE Prutah-Jerusalem Mint
Obv: [Sha Na T] Sha L O Sh (Year Three)
Amphora w/ broad rim, two handles and cover.
Rev: He R U T [Z I O N ](Freedom of Zion)
Grape vine leaf.
15x16mm. 1.63gm. Axis:180
Hendin 664
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revolt_BCC_j14.jpg
BCC j1432 viewsJudaean
1st Revolt 68/69CE
AE Prutah-Jerusalem Mint
Obv: Sha Na T Sha [L O Sh] (Year Three)
Amphora w/ broad rim, two handles and cover.
Rev: He R U T [Z I O N ](Freedom of Zion)
Grape vine leaf.
15x17mm. 2.60gm. Axis:150
Hendin 664
v-drome
BCC_J35_Herod_Archelaus.jpg
BCC J3517 viewsJudaea - AE Prutah
Caesarea Maritima
Herod Archelaus 4BCE - 6CE
Ethnarch of Judaea, Samaria, and Idumaea
Mint of Jerusalem
Obv:HPω∆OY
Bunch of grapes, vine leaf to left.
Rev:[EΘNAPXOY]
Tall military helmet, facing,
with crest and cheek straps,
caduceus, below left.
17mm. 2.33gm. Axis:90
Hendin III 505
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BCC_J36_Herod_Archelaus.jpg
BCC J3614 viewsJudaea - AE Prutah
Caesarea Maritima
Herod Archelaus 4BCE - 6CE
Ethnarch of Judaea, Samaria,
and Idumaea. Mint of Jerusalem
Obv:[HPω∆OY] Bunch of grapes,
vine leaf to left.
Rev:[EΘNAPXOY] Tall military
helmet, facing, w/ crest and
cheek straps. Caduceus, below left.
Irregular, crude type, very rare
15mm. 1.15gm. Axis:0
cf. Hendin III 505, TJC: 73e, 73f
J. Berlin Caesarea Collection
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BCC_J37_Archelaus.jpg
BCC J3711 viewsJudaea - AE Prutah
Caesarea Maritima
Herod Archelaus 4BCE - 6CE
Mint of Jerusalem
Obv:HPω∆OY
Bunch of grapes, vine leaf to left.
Rev:[EΘNAPXOY]
Tall military helmet, facing,
with crest and cheek straps,
caduceus, below left.
17.5mm. 2.40gm. Axis:150
Hendin III 505
J. Berlin Caesarea Collection
v-drome
BCC_J38_Archelaus.jpg
BCC J3824 viewsJudaea - AE Prutah
Caesarea Maritima
Herod Archelaus 4BCE - 6CE
Mint of Jerusalem
Obv:HP[ω∆OY]
Bunch of grapes, vine leaf to left.
Rev:EΘNAPXOY
Tall military helmet, facing,
with crest and cheek straps,
caduceus, below left.
18mm. 2.71gm. Axis:180
Hendin III 505
J. Berlin Caesarea Collection
1 commentsv-drome
BCC_J39_Archelaus.jpg
BCC J399 viewsJudaea - AE Prutah
Caesarea Maritima
Herod Archelaus 4BCE - 6CE
Mint of Jerusalem
Obv:HPω∆[OY]
Bunch of grapes, vine leaf to left.
Rev:EΘNAPXOY
Tall military helmet, facing,
with crest and cheek straps,
caduceus, below left.
15.5mm. 1.28gm. Axis:330
Broken, worn. Hendin III 505
J. Berlin Caesarea Collection
v-drome
BCC_J40_Archelaus.jpg
BCC J4011 viewsJudaea - AE Prutah
Caesarea Maritima
Herod Archelaus 4BCE - 6CE
Mint of Jerusalem
Obv:HPω∆OY
Bunch of grapes, vine leaf to left.
Rev:EΘNAPXOY
Tall military helmet, facing,
with crest and cheek straps,
caduceus, below left.
18 x 16mm. 2.68gm. Axis:315
Hendin III 505
J. Berlin Caesarea Collection
v-drome
gratus_prutah.jpg
BCC j546 viewsJudaea AE Prutah
Valerius Gratus- Tiberius 15-26 C.E.
OBV:Vine leaf with grapes.
above, [IΟΥΛΙΑ] (Livia)
REV:narrow necked amphora
with scroll handles flanked
by date: L Δ (year 4)
16mm. 2.42g. Axis:180
Hendin 643
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grapes_tess_BCC_LT5a.jpg
BCC LT5 (LT5a)38 viewsLead Token
Caesarea Maritima
Obv: Bunch of Grapes
Rev: blank
cf. BCC LT85 (LT5x)
Truncated conical shape
Pb 11.5 x 10mm. 1.68gm.
v-drome
BCC_LT58_BAP_epigraphic_tessera.jpg
BCC LT5816 viewsLead Tessera
Caesarea Maritima
Uncertain Date
Obv: Epigraphic type: BAP? (retrograde)
Rev: Blank?
17.5 x 16 x 1.5mm. 2.57gm.
Hamburger lists only a very few
examples of epigraphic tessera
from this site. The inscription
could be Greek, or Latin, but Greek
was in common use there throughout
the Roman and early Byzantine periods.
v-drome
lead_grapes.jpg
BCC LT85 (Lt5x)38 viewsLead Token
Obv: Bunch of Grapes
Rev: blank
Truncated conical shape
similar to BCC LT5 (LT5a)
Pb 10x11mm. 1.96gm.
v-drome
BCC_m51.jpg
BCC m5157 viewsCaesarea Minima BCC m51
Mint: unknown. Possibly
Jerusalem or Caesarea?
Revolt Imitation or
minima Prutah
Obv: Pomegranate? or grain stalk?
Rev: Grape vine leaf
AE12mm.0.84g.Axis:270?
1 commentsv-drome
BCC_m52.jpg
BCC m5235 viewsCaesarea Minima BCC m52
Mint: unknown. Possibly
Jerusalem or Caesarea?
Revolt Imitation or
Jewish Prutah minima.
Obv: Amphora with two
handles, no lid? in wreath
Rev:Grape vine leaf. Scratched in antiquity.
AE11.5mm.0.77g.Axis:0
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BCC_m53.jpg
BCC m5351 viewsCaesarea Minima BCC m53
Mint: unknown. Possibly
Jerusalem or Caesarea?
Revolt Imitation or
Jewish Prutah minima
Obv:Uncertain object with-in border of dots.
Rev:Grape vine leaf with-in border of dots.
AE12mm.0.92g.Axis:?
1 commentsv-drome
BCC_m54.jpg
BCC m5453 viewsCaesarea Minima BCC m54
Mint: unknown. Possibly
Jerusalem or Caesarea?
Revolt Imitation or
Jewish Prutah minima.
Obv:Three ears of wheat
Rev:Grape vine leaf.
AE11.5mm.0.82g.Axis:0
1 commentsv-drome
817212.jpg
Behold! We have Gold, Silver, Wheat and Wine.32 viewsThrace, Pautalia, Caracalla 198-217 Æ29mm (or Pentassarion).
Obv: AΥT K M AΥΡH – ANTΩNINOC, Laureate head of Caracalla right,
Rev: OΥΛΠIAC ΠAΥTAΛIAC, The River-god Strymon reclining left on urn from
which water flows, resting right hand on a rocky outcrop and holding a grape
vine with several grape bunches.
Four youths (or less correctly 'erotes') around; APΓY/POC (Argyros = silver)
emerging to the left, out of the cave in the mountain, with a small basket over
his shoulder; BOTPY (Botry = grapes) standing right on top of the mountain,
supporting one of the grape bunches; to right of waterfall, XPY/COC (Chrysos
= gold) seated left; in exergue, CTAXY (Stachy = grain ear) standing left and
holding sickle, harvesting ears of grain, probably wheat.
16.6g, Ruzicka 634; Mouchmov 4286; Varbanov 5174.

ex: Numismatik Lanz 163/374, where it had an estimate of €1,500- Euros.

Also: Schow (1789) p.6; Sestini (1796) 37, p.67; Mionnet (1822) 1108, p.388;
Eckhel (1839) Part 1, Vol.II, p.38; Von Sallet (1888) p.202-3; Imhoof-Blumer
(1908) 459, p.163-4, pl.X, 28.

"In the field of numismatics, there is no other coin upon which a city proclaims
the products of its territory so exquisitely". - Joseph H. Eckhel.

Also, see this recent article:
Behold! We have Gold, Silver, Wheat and Wine. by Walter C. Holt, M.A.
Australasian Coin and Banknote Magazine "2017 Yearbook", Volume 20.11,
December 2017/January 2018, pp.72-75 (illustrated).
1 commentsOldMoney
Macedon_Berge_SNG-ANS_952_gf.jpg
Berge 'Lete'. 5250-480 BC. 3 viewsMacedon, Berge 'Lete'. 5250-480 BC. AR Stater (9.43 gm). Ithyphallic satyr stdg r., grasping wrist of nymph fleeing r., looking back. Pellet(s) in fields. Anepigraphic. / Diagonally divided incuse square.  VF.  SNG ANS 7 #952ff; HGC 3.1 #531; ACNAC: Davis 69, Dewing 1022, Rosen 152; AMNG III/2 p. 69 #14 (Lete, plate XIV #29); Babelon Traite I #1569 (Lete, plate L #10); Peykov Thrace A0020; SNG Delepierre 880-881; Svoronos Macedoine pp. 81-82 #16 (plate VIII #1-9). cf. Triton VIII #119, XVIII #430, XXII #175. Anaximander
kios_SNGcop382.jpg
Bithynia, Kios, civic issue, SNG Copenhagen 38258 viewsAE 13, 1.57g
struck 325-300 BC
obv. (anepigraphic)
Head of Mithras, wearing 'tiara orthe', r.
rev. K - I
Kantharos with two vine-grape hanging down on each side, all in wreath of
grain-ears
SNG Copenhagen 382
very rare, about VF, deep black-green patina

For more information please look at the thread 'Mythological interesting coins'!
Jochen
sevalexnicomedia2.jpg
Bithynia, Nicomedia. Severus Alexander AE24. Athena55 viewsPRO: BITHYNIA
PO : NICOMEDIA
PZ : Between 222 and 235
TIG: NEWKORWN TRIS
Obverse
VSG: M AYR SEYH ALEXANDROS S
VT : PORTRAIT MAN R / SEV. ALEXANDER
VA : RADIATE / CLOTHES
Reverse
RSG: NIKOMHDEWN TRIS NEWKORWN
RT : WOMAN STANDING HL(1) / ATHENA(1)
RA : PATERA(1) / HELMET / SPEAR(1) / SHIELD
Technical details
M : AE
GR : 27(1)
Bibliographical references
ZIT: WADD RG S554,290(1) / COLL FLORENZ(1)
Additional remarks
FR : VS: M AYR SEYH ALEXANDROS S RS: NIKOMHDEWN TRIS NEWKORWN
ancientone
prusiasII_SNGcop639_#1.jpg
Bithynia, Prusias I, SNG Copenhagen 639 #165 viewsKingdom of Bithynia, Prusias I., 183-149 BC
AE 20, 6.38g
obv. (anepigraphic)
Head of Dionysos, with ivy-wreath, r.
rev. Kentaur Cheiron, stg. r., holding Lyra with both hands, waving chlamys behind him
Monogram in lower r. field
SNG Copenhagen 639; BMC 9; SG 7266
about VF

For more information look at the thread 'Mythological interesting coins'
Jochen
prusiasII_SNGcop639_#2.jpg
Bithynia, Prusias I, SNG Copenhagen 639 #265 viewsKingdom of Bithynia, Prusias I., 183-149 BC
AE 20, 5.00g
obv. (anepigraphic)
Head of Dionysos, with ivy-wreath, r.
rev. Kentaur Cheiron, stg. r., holding Lyra with both hands, waving chlamys behind him
Monogram in lower r. field
SNG Copenhagen 639; BMC 9; SG 7266
about VF

For more information look at the thread 'Mythological interesting coins'
Jochen
FotorCreated~28.jpg
Boeotia Thebes AR Hemiobol circa 405-395 BC 7mm 0.29g21 viewsHalf of Boeotian shield.Rev grape bunch on vine all within incuse concave circle.Grant H
Boeotia_Tanagra_AR-Obol_Boeotian_shield_Forepart-of-a-horse-right_T-A_SNG-Cop-225_BMC-43_C-387-374_BC_Q-001_axis-01h_9,5-10mm_0,85g-s.jpg
Boeotia, Tanagra, (c.387-374 B.C.), AR-Obol, SNG Cop 225, Forepart of a horse right, 146 viewsBoeotia, Tanagra, (c.387-374 B.C.), AR-Obol, SNG Cop 225, Forepart of a horse right,
avers:- Boeotian shield,
revers:- Forepart of a horse right, T left - A right, brunch of grapes below.
exerg: T/A//--, diameter: 9,5-10mm, weight: 0,85 g, axes: 1 h,
mint: Boeotia, Tanagra, date: c. 387-374 B.C., ref: SNG-Cop-225, BMC-43,
Q-001
quadrans
Boiotia_stater.jpg
Boiotia, stater54 viewsca. 363-338 BC
24x19mm, 12.15g
obv: Boiotian shield
rev: Amphora; grape bunch on vine above, ΦI-ΔO across field
1 commentsareich
100~7.JPG
Bronze du type ADCANAUNOS, -75/-5013 viewsBronze, 1,52 g, 17 mm.
A/ Tête à gauche, pas de trace de légende.
R/ Cheval au pas à gauche, volute dessus, trois anneaux et un pentagone dessous.
Réfs : Dicomon ARV-3868 var. ; DT série 1211. Cette série pentagone/anneaux semble anépigraphe.
Gabalor
033~9.JPG
Bronze du type ADCANAUNOS, -75/-5019 viewsBronze, 1,37 g, 16,5 mm
A/ Tête à gauche, pas de trace de légende.
R/ Cheval au pas à gauche, volute dessus, trois anneaux et un pentagone dessous.
Réfs : Dicomon ARV-3868 var. ; DT série 1211. Cette série pentagone/anneaux semble anépigraphe.
Gabalor
aCb6M9k3jgJ2f5iB7XbTn9K83ReXzA.jpg
Bronze prutah of Herod Archelaus, mint of Jerusalem. 7 viewsObv.: Vine branch with bunch of grapes and small leaf. Above it, a Greek inscription HPWΔOY (of Herod). Rev.: Crested helmet with two cheek pieces. Below it, a small caduceus and inscription EΘNAPXO (of the Ethnarch). The letter Y (of EΘNAPXOY) is missing.

4 B.C.E. – 6 C.E. 2.40 grams, 17 mm, axis 12. Cf. Ya'akov Meshorer, A Treasury of Jewish Coins (New York 2001), pl. 48, no. 73a
Antonivs Protti
Vibo.jpg
Bruttium Vibo Valentia Semis79 views Bronze semis

head of Juno (Hera) right, wearing stephane, S (mark of value) behind

VALENTIA
Double cornucopia overflowing with grain and grapes, carnyx (control symbol) and S (mark of value) on right


Vibo Valentia mint, 193 - 150 B.C.

3.57g, 18.1 mm 270o

Mensitieri Valentia 211; HN Italy 2263; SNG ANS 483, SNG Cop 1849; BMC Italy p. 361, 16 (control described as staff ending in boar's head)

Ex-Forum from the Andrew McCabe Collection
6 commentsJay GT4
HN_Italy_2497.jpg
Bruttium, Rhegion, 415-387 B.C., Drachm 28 views14mm, 3.89 grams
Reference: Sear 502; B.M.C.1.38
Lion's scalp facing.
PHΓINON, Laureate head of Apollo right, olive-sprig behind.

"Dionysios I, after concluding a peace with the Carthaginians, went about securing his power in the island of Sicily. His troops, however, rebelled against him and sought help from, among others, the city of Rhegion (Diod. Sic. 14.8.2). In the ensuing campaigns, Dionyios I proceeded to enslave the citizens of Naxos and Katane, with whom the Rhegians shared a common history and identity (Diod. Sic. 14.40.1). This association was a source of anger and fear for the inhabitants of Rhegion. The Syracusan exiles living there also encouraged the Rhegians to go to war with Syracuse (Diod. Sic. 14.40.3). The overarching strategy of Dionysios I included extending his power into Italy by using Rhegion as a stepping stone to the rest of the peninsula. In 387 BC, after a siege that lasted eleven months, the Rhegians, on the brink of starvation, surrendered to Dionysus. Indeed, we are told that by the end of the siege, a medimnos of wheat cost about five minai (Diod. Sic. 14.111.2). Strabo remarks that, following Dionysios' capture of the city, the Syracusan “destroyed the illustrious city” (Strabo 6.1.6).

The next decade or so of the history of Rhegion is unclear, but sometime during his reign, Dionysios II, who succeeded his father in 367 BC, rebuilt the city, giving it the new name of Phoibia (Strabo 6.1.6). Herzfelder argues that this issue was struck by Dionysios II of Syracuse after he rebuilt the city, and dates it to the period that Dionysios II is thought to have lived in the city. Due to civil strife at Syracuse, Dionysios II was forced to garrison Region, but was ejected from the city by two of his rivals circa 351 BC (Diod. Sic. 16.45.9).

The coin types of Rhegion, founded as a colony of Chalcis, are related to its founding mythology. Some of the earliest tetradrachms of the city, from the mid-5th century BC, depict a lion’s head on the obverse, and a seated figure on the reverse. J.P. Six (in NC 1898, pp. 281-5) identified the figure as Iokastos, the oikistes (founder) of Rhegion (Diod. Sic. 5.8.1; Callimachus fr. 202). Head (in HN), suggested Aristaios, son of Apollo. Iokastos was one of six sons of Aiolos, ruler of the Aeolian Islands. All of the sons of Aiolos secured their own realms in Italy and Sicily, with Iokastos taking the region around Rhegion. Aristaios, born in Libya, discovered the silphium plant, and was the patron of beekeepers (mentioned by Virgil), shepherds, vintners, and olive growers. He also protected Dionysos as a child, and was the lover of Eurydike. The replacement of the seated figure type with the head of Apollo circa 420 BC also suggests the figure could be Aristaios. An anecdote from the first-century BC geographer Strabo (6.1.6 and 6.1.9), which connects Rhegion’s founding to the orders of the Delphic Oracle and Apollo, as the reason for the advent of the new type could be simply serendipitous.

Different theories exist for the lion’s head on the coins of Rhegion. The lion’s head (or mask as it is sometimes described) first appeared on the coinage of Rhegion at the start of the reign of Anaxilas, in about 494 BC. E.S.G. Robinson, in his article “Rhegion, Zankle-Messana and the Samians” (JHS vol. 66, 1946) argues that the lion was a symbol of Apollo. He makes a comparison to the coinage of the nearby city of Kaulonia, “At Kaulonia Apollo’s animal was the deer; if at Rhegion it was the lion, the early appearance and persistence of that type is explained. The lion is a certain, though infrequent, associate of Apollo at all periods.” The link, he suggests, is that the lion was associated with the sun, as was Apollo himself.

The lion’s head could also relate to the exploits of Herakles, who had some significance for the city. The extant sources tell us that Herakles stopped at southern Italy near Rhegion on his return with the cattle of Geryon (Diod. Sic. 4.22.5). It was here that supposedly a bull broke away from the rest of the herd and swam to Sicily (Apollod. 2.5.10). Though but a passing reference in Apollodorus, it is very possible that the Rhegians venerated Herakles. Indeed, Herakles was a very important figure throughout the entire area. Dionysios of Halicarnassus says that “in many other places also in Italy [besides Rome] precincts are dedicated to this god [Herakles] and altars erected to him, both in cities and along highways; and one could scarcely find any place in Italy in which the god is not honoured” (I.40.6). As the skin of the Nemean Lion was one of the main attributes of Herakles, the lion’s head may refer to him through metonymic association."
1 commentsLeo
BrettianJupiter.jpg
Bruttium, The Bretti, drachm100 viewsVeiled head of Hera Lakinia right, wearing polos; scepter over shoulder, feather to left

ΒΡΕΤΤΙΩΝ
Zeus standing left, right foot on ionic capital, holding scepter; crab to left, [tiny Γ between foot and scepter].

Second Punic War issue. Circa 216-214 BC.
3.88 g.

Arslan dies 12/17’; Scheu 68–77 var. (obv. symbol);

HN Italy 1969. VF, toned, struck with worn dies.

Rare issue with feather on obverse, unknown to Scheu.

Ex-CNG 407 lot 14, From the B. H. Webb Collection. Ex-Pipito Collection

Tough to photograph, much better in hand.
5 commentsJay GT4
Brettian.jpg
Bruttium; the Bretti43 viewsLaureate head of Zeus right, at left thunderbolt

BPETTIΩN
Warrior standing right, holding shield and spear, below bunch of grapes.

Bruttium, circa 211-208 BC.

8.51g

HN Italy 1988; SNG ANS 106.

Scarce
2 commentsJay GT4
053n.jpg
Bust right in oval punch203 viewsPHOENICIA. Aradus. Trajan. Æ 24. A.D. 115-117 (year 374 or 375). Obv: (AYTOKPNEPTPAIANOCAPICTKAICCEBΓEPΔAKΠAPΘ) or similar. Laureate bust right; countermark on neck. Rev: (Δ or E)OT to left, 9 to right, (APADIWN) beneath. Tyche, nude to the waist, seated left on rudder, her right hand on the tiller, her left holding cornucopia with bunch of grapes. Ref: BMC 371-373 or 378. Axis: 360°. Weight: 11.03 g. CM: Bust right in oval punch, 5 x 6.5 mm. Howgego 171-172 (?). Note: Howgego notes two coins from Aradus (Domitian and Marcus Aurelius/Lucius Verus) bearing somewhat similar countermarks. Collection Automan.Automan
[Byzantine_Empire]_Anonymous_Lead_Seal_(11th-12th_Century)_(2).jpg
Byzantine Empire: Anonymous Lead Seal (11th-12th Century)161 viewsByzantine Empire: Anonymous Lead Seal (11th-12th Century)

Obv: +OV | CΦPA | ΓIC EI | MI in four lines
Rev: THN | ΓPAΦ, | RΛEΠ | NOEI in four lines
Size: 21mm
Wgt: 9.34g

Cf. Orghidan 556 (same legend on an iconographical seal);

(“Ou sphragis eimi, tèn graphèn blepòn noei” – “Observe the document to see whose seal I am”)
SpongeBob
image00532.jpg
Byzantine Empire: Justinian I (527-565) Pb Imperial Seal (Zacos–Veglery 3a, BZS.1958.106.563)180 viewsObv: Nimbate, beardless bust of Justinian I, facing forward, wearing both a helmet with diadem, trefoil ornament, and pendilia, and a chlamys. A circular inscription beginning at left. Border of dots.

D N IVSTINI ANVS PP AVG - Dominus noster Iustinianus perpetuus augustus (Our lord Justinian, eternal augustus)

Rev: Winged Victory advancing, wearing a long chiton and holding a victory wreath in each hand. A small cross visible at left and right. No epigraphy. Border of dots.
1 commentsSpongeBob
Byzantium-lead-seal-011-IVSTINIANVS-s.jpg
Byzantine Lead Seal, IVSTINIANVS-I, (527-565 A.D.), Pb Imperial Seal (Zacos–Veglery 3a, BZS.1958.106.563), #01186 viewsByzantine Lead Seal, IVSTINIANVS-I, (527-565 A.D.), Pb Imperial Seal (Zacos–Veglery 3a, BZS.1958.106.563), #01
avers: - D N IVSTINI ANVS PP AVG - (Dominus noster Iustinianus perpetuus augustus (Our lord Justinian, eternal augustus)), Nimbate, beardless bust of Justinian I, facing forward, wearing both a helmet with diadem, trefoil ornament, and pendilia, and a chlamys. A circular inscription beginning at left. Border of dots.
revers:- Winged Victory advancing, wearing a long chiton and holding a victory wreath in each hand. A small byzatian cross visible at left and right. No epigraphy. Border of dots.
diameter: 17-19,5 mm,
weight: 5,49 g,
mint:
date:
ref:Zacos–Veglery 3a, BZS.1958.106.563
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Byzantium-lead-seal-012-IVSTINVS-s.jpg
Byzantine Lead Seal, IVSTINIANVS-I, (527-565 A.D.), Pb Imperial Seal (Zacos–Veglery 3a, BZS.1958.106.563), #02,76 viewsByzantine Lead Seal, IVSTINIANVS-I, (527-565 A.D.), Pb Imperial Seal (Zacos–Veglery 3a, BZS.1958.106.563), #02,
avers: - D N IVSTINI ANVS PP AVG - (Dominus noster Iustinianus perpetuus augustus (Our lord Justinian, eternal augustus)), Nimbate, beardless bust of Justinian I, facing forward, wearing both a helmet with diadem, trefoil ornament, and pendilia, and a chlamys. A circular inscription beginning at left. Border of dots.
revers:- Winged Victory advancing, wearing a long chiton and holding a victory wreath in each hand. A small byzatian cross visible at left and right. No epigraphy. Border of dots.
diameter: 19-22 mm,
weight: 6,48 g,
mint:
date:
ref:Zacos–Veglery 3a, BZS.1958.106.563
Q-002
quadrans
Lead_Seal.jpg
Byzantine Lead Seal: Anonymous Iconographic Seal (ca. 10-12th Century)198 viewsObv: Bust of St. John Prodromos with cross nimbus
Rev: In a wreath, a cross with curved arms and serifs
2 commentsSpongeBob
JustinianS279.JPG
BYZANTINE, Justinian I 527-565 Carthage65 viewsObv: ...INA... (blundered legend)
Rev: VOT XIIII
Sear 279
8-9 mm and very hard to photograph!
Laetvs
latintrachy.JPG
BYZANTINE, Latin Trachy 1204-1261 Constantinople133 viewsObv: Bust of Christ
Rev: St Michael
Large Module
Sear 2036
(Most coins of this type are clipped or poorly struck; not this one. I love this coin; it is my favorite and, to me, embodies the best in late Byzantine numismatic art and iconography.)
3 commentsLaetvs
square phocas.jpg
BYZANTINE, Phocas, AE Decanummium, A.D.602 - 610. 97 viewsObv: om FOCA PP AVG. Crowned, draped and cuirassed bust facing.
Rev: Large X, cross above. (The reverse is upside down in the photograph above).

Sear: 646
Jericho
ben2~0.jpg
C. COELIUS CALDUS52 viewsAR denarius. 51 BC. 3.91 gm, 8h . Bare head of the Consul C. Coelius Caldus right; C. COEL. CALDVS before, COS below, tablet inscribed L D behind / Radiate head of Sol right; S above oval shield ornamented with thunderbolt behind ; round shield below chin. CALDVS III VIR before . Crawford 437/1b; Sydenham 892; RSC Coelia 5. Toned.
Triton VIII, Lot: 927. Ex Claude collection.
CNG photograph.
1 commentsbenito
lim_mam_res.jpg
C. MAMILIUS LIMETANUS 55 viewsC. MAMILIUS LIMETANUS
82 BC
AR Denarius 19 mm 3.7 g
O: anepigraphic; Bust of Mercury right, caduceus behind
R: C. Mamil LIMEAN; Ulysses advancing in beggar's garb, holding staff, his dog Argus standing before
Syd 741 Cr 362/1
laney
mamilius_limetanus_b.jpg
C. MAMILIUS LIMETANUS21 viewsC. MAMILIUS LIMETANUS
82 BC
AR Denarius 19 mm 3.7 g
O: Anepigraphic, bust of Mercury right, caduceus behind
R: C. Mamil LIMEAN; Ulysses advancing in beggar's garb, holding staff, his dog Argus standing before
Syd 741 Cr 362/1
laney
Calabria.jpg
Calabria Nomos92 viewsAR Nomos
Helmeted warrior on horse left, holding shield ornamented with eight-rayed star & two spears behind him

Dionysiac Taras astride dolphin left, holding distaff & grape-bunch

Calabria, Tarentum
ca 281-272 BC

5.58g

Vlasto 789 (SNG ANS 1133)
Ex-Calgary coins

SOLD!
4 commentsJay GT4
FotorCreated~77.jpg
Calabria Tarentum AR Nomos circa 272-235 BC 18 mm 6.19 g 6h24 viewsNaked boy rider crowning horse standing left, and lifting off foreleg,EY above horse.Rev TAPAE in field under Taras astride dolphinto left,holding trident in left hand and with right hand extending small wreath bearing Nike,in field to right bunch of grapes with small leaf.Grant H
Taras_didrachm.jpg
Calabria, Taras didrachm78 viewsHorseman riding left, holding shield and bridle.

Taras seated on dolphin left TAPAΣ beneath.

Tarentum, Calabria 390-385 BC

7.40g

Scarce

Vlasto 384, Period III, 380-345 BC (Age of Archytas); ; Fischer-Bossert 428, gives date of 390-380 and corresponds to SNG ANS 901.

Ex-Calgary Coin; Ex-Alberta Coin;

Tarentum, the only Spartan colony ever to be established, was founded in 706 BC by the Partheniae - Spartan children born to unmarried women as a product of Spartan desperation to ensure the survival and continuation of their demographic during the bloody Messenian wars, who were later disowned and expelled by the state - and Perioeci (subjects, but not citizens of Sparta), under the leadership of the Parthenian Phalanthos. According to legend, Phalanthos consulted the oracle at Delphi, and was told that he should found his new city 'where rain fell from a clear sky'. After much searching, and despairing of finding a suitable location for a city, Phalanthos was consoled by his wife Aethra who laid his head in her lap, and as her tears splashed upon his forehead he understood the oracle's words for his wife's name itself meant 'clear sky', and thus he determined to make the nearby harbour the site of their new home, which they named after Taras, the son of Poseidon and the nymph Satyrion.
4 commentsJay GT4
Vlasto_797.jpg
CALABRIA, Taras, AR Nomos72 viewsCirca 280-272 BC. (21.5mm, 6.28 g, 10h). Warror, holding shield and two spears, on horse galloping left; ZΩ to right, [A]ΠOΛΛΩ below / Phalanthos, holding grape bunch and distaff, astride dolphin left; ANΘ to left. Vlasto 797; HN Italy 1013. VF, toned.2 commentsLeo
vlasto_842.jpg
CALABRIA, Taras, c. 272-240 BC. AR Nomos 38 views6.57g, 3h
Nude rider on horse standing to left, crowning his horse; to right, ; below, .
Rev. Phalanthos, nude, riding on dolphin to left, holding Nike with his right hand and trident with his left; to right, bunch of grapes.
Evans VIII A, 10. HN III 1026. SNG Paris 2006 ff. Vlasto 842-4.
Extremely fine.
1 commentsLeo
calabria_1a_img.jpg
Calabria, Taras, Nomos, Vlasto 85337 viewsSilver Nomos
Obv:– Naked boy-horseman prancing right, crowning horse with right, AGAQA/RCOX below.
Rev:– Taras naked seated on dolphin left, extending kantharos in right, cornucopia in left, TARAS below, race torch behind
Minted in Calabria, Taras from .c. 270 - 240 B.C.
Reference:– HN Italy 1028, Vlasto 853, SGCV I 375 var

Slabbed by ICG - EF40

Ex-Forum

Photographed through slab. Still deciding whether to free it from the tomb.
1 commentsmaridvnvm
211114_l.jpg
Calabria. Tarentum. Nomos (Circa 302-280 BC)27 viewsAR Nomos

21 mm, 7.78 g

Obv: Youth, holding shield, on horse rearing left; ΣΛ to right, ΦΙΛΩΝ below.
Rev: TAPAΣ.
Phalanthos, holding crowning Nike, riding dolphin left; waves below.

Vlasto 684-5; HN Italy 964.

In Greek mythology, Phalanthos (Φάλανθος) is a divine hero, the leader of the Spartan Partheniae and the founder of Taranto. In Ancient Greece, the Partheniae or Parthenians were a lower ranking Spartiate population which, according to tradition, left Laconia to go to Magna Graecia and founded Taras, modern Taranto, in the current region of Apulia, in southern Italy. In Greek mythology, Phalanthos is a divine hero, and the leader of the Spartan Partheniae.

At least three distinct traditions carry the origins of the Parthenians. The oldest is that of Antiochus of Syracuse, according to which the Spartiates, during the first Messenian war (end of the 8th century BC), had rejected like cowards those who had not fought, along with their descendants:

"Antiochus says that, during the Messenian war, those Lacedemonians which did not take part with the mission shall be declared as slaves and called Helots; as for the children born during the mission, we shall call them Parthenians and deny them of all legal rights."

The Parthenians were therefore the first tresantes ("trembling"), a category which gathers the cowards and thus excludes themselves from the community of the Homoioi, the Peers. Thereafter, Parthenians plotted against the Peers and, discovered, would have been driven out of Sparta, from which they departed for Italy and founded Taras, whose date is traditionally fixed in 706 BC - which archaeology does not deny.

In the second tradition, according to Ephorus (4th century BC), the Spartiates swore during the Messenian War, not to return home as long as they had not attained victory. The war prolonged and Sparta's demography being threatened, the Spartiates let the young Spartans who had not sworn the oath return home. These were ordered to copulate with all the girls available. The children who were born from these unions were named Parthenians. Their mothers, since they were compelled by the state to procreate, were legally considered unmolested and fit to marry once the war was over.

Lastly, a third tradition, made the Parthenians bastards who had resulted from the unions of Spartan women and their slaves, always during the Messenian war. The same tradition is told to explain the origins of Locri, also in Magna Graecia.
Nathan P
Claigula_Vesta_2a.jpg
Caligula | Vesta * Æ As - 37-41 AD.58 views
Caligula Gaius | Vesta, Copper As

Obv: Bare head left: C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT
Rev: Vesta seated left holding patera in right hand and scepter in left hand, semi-transverse resting on left shoulder: S-C.

Exergue: None

Mint: Rome
Struck: 37-38 AD

Size: 26.90 grm.
Weight: 10.44 mm.
Die axis: 180°

Condition: A well worn coin, far more pleasant to the eye in hand. A challenge to photograph for like impression.

Refs:*
BN, 54
RIC I, 38
Cohen, 27
BMCRE, 46
Tiathena
Standing_Caliph_Amman.jpg
Caliphate of Abd al-Malik75 viewsAbd al-Malik ibn Marwan (685 – 705 CE) ‘Standing Caliph’ type, mint of Amman. Fals, weight 3.0g, diameter 17mm.

Obverse: Standing bearded figure wearing headdress and long robe, with right hand on hilt of sword. Inscription: abd allah abd al-malik amir al-mu’minin (“The servant of God, Abd al-Malik, commander of the faithful”). The last word of the legend is divided, with the letters minin appearing in the right field above the caliph’s shoulder.

Reverse: Object resembling Greek Φ, with globule on top and resting on four steps; large star in left field; mint designation, amman, in right field. Inscription: the shahada (“There is no God but God alone and Muhammad is God’s prophet.”)

This type is part of the last series of Umayyad coins to feature images, and is generally attributed to the years 692 – 696. From 697 the coinage becomes aniconic and purely epigraphic.

Reference: Foss p.78 and D.O. 107
Abu Galyon
Neapolis_1.jpg
Campania, Neapolis25 viewsNeapolis
Didrachm
Obv.: Head of Nymph Parthenope, wearing broad headband, earring and necklace, ΣTA below, behind, bunch of grapes.
Rev.: Man-headed bull walking r., crowned by Nike, K below, in exergue, NEOPOLIT[HS].
Ref.: SNG ANS 354
Ex-CNG
shanxi
Neaopolisnymphnomos2.jpg
Campania, Neapolis. AR Nomos.59 viewsCampania, Neapolis. AR Nomos.
Obverse:Head of water nymph right, wearing diadem, earring and necklace, bunch of grapes
behind, legend below truncation of neck.
Reverse: Man-headed bull right,
head facing, Nike flying right above, crowning him., legend below.
1 commentsCANTANATRIX
Neaopolisnymphnomos1.jpg
Campania, Neapolis. AR Nomos.50 viewsCampania, Neapolis. AR Nomos.
7.3g, 18mm.
Obverse:Head of water nymph right, wearing diadem, earring and necklace, bunch of grapes
behind, legend below truncation of neck.
Reverse: Man-headed bull right,
head facing, Nike flying right above, crowning him., legend below.
CANTANATRIX
001~0.jpg
Cantharos201 viewsTHRACE. Maroneia. Julia Domna. Æ 23 (3 Assaria). A.D. 198-217. Obv: IOYΛIA-ΔOMNACEB. Draped bust right; countermark on bust, below chin. Rev: MAPΩN-EITΩN. Naked figure of Dionysus standing, facing left, holding bunch of grapes in right hand, arrows and drapery in left. Ref: BMC -; Moushmov 3966. 30°, 8.15 g. Very rare. Cm: Vase or cantharos (?) in circular punch, 5 mm, Howgego 485 (2 pcs). Maroneia was commonly associated with Dionysus, and one of Dionysus’ attributes was the cantharos, so the identification of the countermark as such is logical.Automan
comp.jpg
Cappadocia, Ariarathes VII ca 110-99 BC, AR Tetradrachm in the name of Antiochos VII (138-129 BC)205 viewsDiademed head of Antiochos VII right, fillet border / ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ ΕΥΕΡΓΕΤΟΥ Athena standing half-left in crested helmet on short ground line, confronting Nike held in right hand and with left arm balancing a spear while holding a grounded shield decorated with a Gorgoneion head, primary controls ΔI (in ligature) over A in outer left field, secondary controls O-Λ in inner fields, laurel crown around.
Lorber and Houghton, NC 2006, ser. 1, iss. 3 (A1/P1 - coin 12 - this coin); HGC 9 1069; SC 2148; SMA 298; SNG Spaer 1873 (same obverse die).
Uncertain Cappadocian mint, probably Ariaratheia or Eusebeia-Tyana.
From the same obverse die as the first issue to bear a reverse legend in the name of Ariarthes VII with the same O-Λ mint controls (second coin in image).
(28 mm, 16.63 gm, 12h)
ex- Commerce (‘Antiochus VII Posthumous’ Hoard) 2005

This coin is from an extensive imitative series struck by the Cappadocian Kings during the internecine wars for power that plagued the region in the early first century BC. The exact reason as to why coinage imitating that of the deceased Seleukid Syrian ruler Antiochos VII was struck is unknown. However, the utilization of the coinage to pay Syrian mercenaries in familiar coin appears most likely. This coin is most significant in that the obverse die from which it was struck was used to strike a unique coin of similar iconography and with identical mint controls, bearing the name Ariarathes VII in the legend ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ APIAPAΘOY ΦIΛOMHTOPOΣ (image below). This die linkage (only recognized in 2002) confirmed that many of the Antiochos VII issues previously attributed to Syria were posthumous issues made by the Cappadocian Kings commencing with Ariathes VI and continuing through the reigns of Ariarathes VII – IX and Ariobazanes I.

Ariarathes VII who was responsible for the striking of this coin was a hapless pawn in the power struggle for control of Cappadocia between Mithradates VI of Pontus and Nikomedes III of Bithynia. Ariarathes VII was the product of the marriage of Mithradates older sister Laodike to Ariarathes VI. When the latter began to exhibit a degree of independence, Mithradates had him murdered, then appointed Laodike as regent for her young son Ariarathes VII. When Laodike married Nikomedes III of Bithynia, Mithradates expelled her and the Bithynian army from Cappadocia and placed his young nephew Ariarathes VII directly on the throne of Cappadocia. Later, when Ariarathes VII rejected Mithradates offer of his confidant Gordius as an advisor, Mithradates moved with his army to depose Ariarathes VII. The armies of Mithradates and Ariarathes met prepared for battle. At this point Mithradates called for an unarmed discussion meeting with his nephew Ariarathes in the middle ground of the battlefield. In front of the two assembled armies, Mithradates drew a concealed blade and slit his nephew’s throat, thus avoiding battle and clearing the way for a new puppet, his stepson, to be appointed as King Ariarathes VIII.
2 commentsLloyd T
tyana_ant_pius_SNGaulock6540.jpg
Cappadocia, Tyana, Antoninus Pius, SNG von Aulock 654016 viewsAntoninus Pius, AD 138-161
AE 23, 9.22g, 22.58mm, 0°
struck AD 155/56 (RY 19)
obv. A - NTWNEIN - OC CEBACT - OC
laureate head r.
rev, TYANEWN T - PT IER ACV AVTO
in l. field one below the other ET / QI (RY 19)
Tyche of Tyana in long garment and wearing mural crown enthroned l. on throne
decorated with gryphon, resting with l. hand on seat and holding in extended r. hand
grain ears and bunch of grapes; below river god Euphrates(?) swimming l.
ref. SNG von Aulock 6540; SNG Copenhagen 317
rare, about VF

TPT = TWN PROC TAVRW
Jochen
Cappadocian_Kingdom_1a_img.jpg
Cappadocian Kingdom, Tetradrachm, In the Name of the Seleukid King, Antiochos VII18 viewsSilver tetradrachm
Obv:– Diademed head of the Seleukid King Antiochos VII right, fillet border.
Rev:– BASILEWS ANTIOCOU EUERGETOU, Athena standing left, Nike in right, spear and shield in left, ligate DI / A left, Nike extends wreath into laurel wreath border
c. 130 - 80 B.C.; In the Name of the Seleukid King, Antiochos VII, 138 - 129 B.C.
Ref:– Houghton II 642 (same dies), SNG Spaer 1855, Newell SMA 282

Oliver Hoover, in Coins of the Seleucid Empire from the Collection of Arthur Houghton, attributes this type to the Cappadocian Kingdom, c. 130 - 80 B.C. The symbols were used on Cappadocian royal coinage, the coins are found in Cappadocian hoards and a tetradrachm naming the Cappadocian king Ariarathes VII Philometor (116 - 99 B.C.) bears the obverse portrait of Antiochus VII. He notes they may have been struck to pay foreign (Syrian?) mercenaries who preferred the types of Antiochus VII.

Grey tone.

Ex-Forvm

Updated image using new photography setup.
maridvnvm
za.jpg
CARACALLA112 viewsAR Tetradrachm. Seleucia ad Calycadnum. 10.59 gr. Laureate and cuirassed bust right seen from behind. AV K M AVR ANTΩNINOC. / Herakles standing right, wearing lion's skin and holding quiver by strap in right hand,club in his left. CEΛEYKEΩN TΩN ΠPOC TΩ KAΛYKAD CE in two circles around. Toned. SNG Levante 745 (this coin); Prieur 745. CP 1498.
Triton VII, Lot: 786. Leu 22 (8-9 May 1979), lot 306.
CNG photograph.
4 commentsbenito
newunknown com.JPG
Caracalla Touria, greece57 viewsAE 20 mm 3.8 grams 198-211 AD
OBV :: AVTO MAR ANTONINO. Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
REV :: (Θ)OVI PI-ATU(Upsidedown U ) N. Athene standing, facing , head turned right. Holding nike in right hand, spear in left hand
(Λ) in left field, A in right field
Minted in Thuria on the Pelononnesus peninsula in Greece

the following is an exerpt from http://www.snible.org/coins/hn/peloponnesus.html#Thuria

Imperial—Severus to Geta. Inscr., ΘΟΥΡΙΑΤΩΝ. Types—Zeus, Athena, Asklepios, &c., all with letters ΛΑ in the field, indicating that Thuria, although geographically situated in Messenia, belonged at this time politically to Laconia (cf. Paus. iv. 31. 1).

This coin, as it stands, is unlisted in RIC, Wildwinds, coinarchives, coincatalog , and roman coins and their values , BMC, and the ANS database online,

link to forum discussion on this coin

http://www.forumancientcoins.com/board/index.php?topic=43876.0
Johnny
Caracalla_Dionysus_1a.jpg
Caracalla * Dionysus - Hadrianopolis, Æ23 - 198-217 AD.125 views
Caracalla * Dionysus - Hadrianopolis, Thrace * Provincial bronze.
2 or 3 assaria.

Obv: Laureate, right facing, seen from behind. AVT K M AVP CEV ANTΩNEINOC
Rev: Dionysus standing left holding bunch of grapes in outstretched right, & thyrsus which he grasps near the top in his upraised left. AΔRIANOΠO | ΛEITΩN

Exergue: None

Mint: Hadrianopolis, Thrace
Struck: 211-217 AD.

Size: 23.56 mm.
Weight: 7.12 grm.
Die axis: 0°

Condition: Quite much as shown in image but cleaner and less rough viewed in hand. Quite lovely patina considerably darker than shown here and towards a deep olive-green.

Refs:*
Jurukova, no. 373, pl. XXXV

One of three known specimens.
Two in Bulgaria, Sofia & Sliven respectively.

(Much thanks to Curtis Clay for this reference, & to Whitetd49 for his numerous kind clarifications).
2 commentsTiathena
caracalla~0.jpg
Caracalla Prov48 viewsFrom Isegrim per archivum (http://www.forumancientcoins.com/board/index.php?topic=42896.0)

PRO: BITHYNIA
PO : NICAEA
PZ : Between 198 and 217
Obverse
VSG: AYT K M AYRH ANTWNEINOS AYG
VT : PORTRAIT MAN R / CARACALLA
VA : WREATH LAUREL
VG : ROUND / WOMAN STANDING HR / NIKE
Reverse
RSG: EIS AIWNA TOYS KYRIOYS NIKAIEWN
RT : PERSONS 3 / MAN STANDING HR(1) / EMPEROR(1) / MAN STANDING HL(2) / EMPEROR(2) / ALTAR / WOMAN STANDING HL(3) / HOMONOIA(3)
RA : STAFF(1-3) / CLASPING HANDS(1-2) / PATERA(3)
Technical details
M : AE
GEW: 13.39(1)
Bibliographical references
ZIT: SNG AUL 590(1) / WEISER SLG KOELN S345,17(1)
Additional remarks
FR : VS: AYT K M AYRH ANTWNEINOS AYG RS: EIS AIWNA TOYS KYRI NIKAIEWN

Thanks to achivum/slokind/Jochen/Curtis Clay for attribution help!
fordicus
Caracalla_Denarius.jpg
Caracalla RIC IV 3029 viewsObverse: ANTONINVS AVGVSTVS, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, from behind
Reverse: PONTIF TR P III, Sol standing half left, globe in right, leaning on reversed spear in left
Size: 2.501g, 19.8mm, 180o Mint: Rome, 200 A.D.
Id's: RIC IV 30, Cohen 413, BMCRE V 179, SRCV II 6857
Remarks: 1. Purchased from Forum Coins 2011
2. Frosty surface makes this hard to photograph. Nicer in hand
ickster
CARACAL-7-ROMAN~0.jpg
Caracalla, Roman Provincial Trajanopolis15 viewsAE15 Provincial
Trajanopolis mint, 196-217 A.D.
15mm, 1.86g

Obverse:
[AVT K M AVP ANTΩNINOC]
Laureate head right.

Reverse:
TPAIANOΠOΛITΩN
Grape cluster.
rubadub
Caria.jpg
Caria7 viewsAs part of the Roman Empire the name of Caria was still used for the geographic region but the territory administratively belonged to the province of Asia. During the administrative reforms of the 4th century this province was abolished and divided into smaller units. Caria became a separate province as part of the Diocese of Asia.

ancientone
Antiochia_ad_Maeandrum.jpg
Caria, Antiochia ad Maeandrum. AE20 Pseudo-autonomous130 viewsPRO: CARIA
PO : ANTIOCHEIA
PZ : Between -30 and 276
Obverse
VSG: IERA SYNKLHTOS
VT : HEAD MAN R / SENATE
VA : CLOTHES
Reverse
RSG: ANTIOC'EWN
RT : WOMAN STANDING HL(1) / ATHENA(1) / ALTAR LE(2)
RA : PATERA(1) / HELMET / SPEAR(1) / SHIELD / FLAMING(2)
Technical details
M : AE
Bibliographical references
ZIT: SNG KOP 25 40(1)
Additional remarks
FR : VS: IERA SYNKLHTOS RS: ANTIOC'EWN
ancientone
027_Traianus_AE-23_AY_KAI_TRAI-AN-GEDA_TABH-NWN_Moushmov__SNG_Cop_559,_Mionnet__Tabae_-AD_Q-001_0h_22-24mm_9,16g-s.jpg
Caria, Tabae, 027 Traianus (98-117 A.D.), SNG Cop-559, AE-23, Demeter standing left, 173 viewsCaria, Tabae, 027 Traianus (98-117 A.D.), SNG Cop-559, AE-23, Demeter standing left,
avers:- AY-KAI-TPAIA-NOC-API-ΓEΔA, Laureate head right .
revers:- TABH-NΩN, Demeter, polos on head, standing left, holding corn-ears, bunch of grapes and sceptre.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 22-24 mm, weight: 9,16g, axis: 0h,
mint: Caria, Tabae, date: A.D., ref: SNG Cop-559, SNG Aulock 2718, SNG München 545, Hunter 4; Weber Coll. 6586; BMC 74.
Q-001
quadrans
trajantabae.jpg
Caria, Tabae. Trajan AE24 Demeter40 viewsTrajan, 98-117 AD. AE24 (10.38g, 12h). AV KA TPAIAN API ΓЄ ΔA, laureate head right / TABHNΩN, Demeter standing facing, head left, wearing kalathos holding scepter, grapes and corn ears. Rare.ancientone
191715LG.jpg
CARIA. Rhodos, Rhodes157 viewsISLANDS off CARIA. Rhodos, Rhodes. Circa 125-88 BC. AR Hemidrachm (14mm, 1.25 gm). Magistrate Melantas. Radiate head of Helios facing slightly right / P-O, rose; MELANTAS above, grape bunch to right; all within incuse square. Jenkins, Rhodian, Group D, Series 98; cf. SNG Helsinki 668; SNG Copenhagen -. Near EF. Ex-CNG(295) B127V1272 commentsecoli73
01011AB.jpg
CARIAN ISLANDS, RHODES, 125-88 BC76 viewsHemidrachm, 13mm, 1.32g

O. Radiate head of Helios facing slightly right
R. Rose with bud to left; ANTAIOΣ above, P-O flanking rose, grape bunch to lower right; all within incuse square.

Jenkins group D, 86; HGC 6, 1463; SNG Keckman 664 var. (control), Karl 604 var. (obv. type); SNG von Aulock 8194 var. (same); SNG Copenhagen -; BMC 292 var. (same); SNG München -.

Plinthophoric issue. Antaios, magistrate. Rare symbol for this issue.

Ex Sayles and Lavender
Ex Triton XII
4 commentsAZRobbo
b12~0.jpg
CASSIUS28 viewsAR denarius. 42 BC. Military mint (Smyrna?). Filleted tripod surmounted by cortina and two laurel branches,on either side depends a fillet. C CASSI left,IMP right. / Jug and lituus. LENTVLVS SPINTER below. Craw 500/1. RSC Cassius 7.
CNG. EA 192. Lot 213.
CNG photograph.
benito
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Celtic Britain, Atrebates & Regni, Commius16 viewsCeltic Britain, Atrebates & Regni, Commius. c. 55-45 BC. AV Quarter Stater (1.40 gm). Anepigraphic. Celicized and devolved head of Apollo r. / Disjointed triple-tailed horse r., wheel below, with three pellets in rings around. VF. Bt. Apollo Coins 1999. SCBI Mack 72; Van Arsdell 228; BMC 519; Bean QcTM 1-1a; CCI 67.0065. cf. Spink SCBC 65 (for type). ℞ is similar to Spink SCBC 67; Mack 83; Van Arsdell 353ff.Christian T
CelticBritain_Iceni_SCBC436.jpg
Celtic Britain, Iceni18 viewsCeltic Britain, Iceni. c. 10-61 AD. AR unit (1.31 gm). ECEN symbol, East Anglian type J. Anepigraphic. Sylized ecen corn ear w/ two opposing crescents & two pellets b/w, superimposed upon band of three lines / Sylized horse r. w/ long, thin legs. Three pellets on line, below gVF. Bt. Old Town Coin 1998. SCBC 436; Van Arsdell 754-1. cf. SCBI Mack 429; ABC 1681; BMC 4297ff; BIAC 4299.
Christian T
CelticBritain_Durotriges_SCBC367.jpg
Celtic Britain, the Durotriges17 viewsCeltic Britain, the Durotriges. c. 60 BC-20 AD AR BI Stater (3.83 gm). Cranborne Chase type. Anepigraphic. Celticized Head of Apollo r. / Very abstract disjointed horse l. reduced to mostly pellets. gVF. Bt. Coral Gables, 1999. Spink SCBC 367 (or 371); Sear Greek 172; SCBI Mack 317-318; Van Arsdell 1235, 1252-1254, 1290; ABC 2157; Seaby (Sear Celtic) 60.Christian T
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CELTIC, Gaul, Aulerci Eburovices electrum Hemistater (60-50 BC)179 viewso/ Stylized human head left, hair represented by three parallel lines; behind, a serie of dots and a little cross; below, a jewel; beaded cord around the cheek and a small boar upside down at the base of the neck
r/ Stylized horse leaping left, with the remains of the auriga above the horse, a boar left between the legs, a sort of Y before the horse's chest.
Titulature avers : Anépigraphe.
Description avers : Tête humaine stylisée à gauche, les cheveux figurés par trois lignes parallèles ; derrière, séries de globules et une croisette ; au-dessous, un fleuron ; cordon perlé entourant la joue ; un petit sanglier à l’envers à la base du cou.
Titulature revers : Anépigraphe.
Description revers : Cheval stylisé bondissant à gauche, avec les restes de l'aurige au-dessus du cheval ; un sanglier à chauche entre les jambes ; une sorte de Y devant le poitrail du cheval.
Extremely rare (horse left).
19mm. 2.79g
DT 2406
1 commentsAugustin Caron
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CELTIC, Imitative Greek silver drachm of Philip III.149 views2.6 gm 17 mm Struck 100-50 BC.
Anepigraphic obverse with stylized head of Philip III, right.
Reverse: Zeus seated left on backless throne, his legs parallel; holding eagle and sceptre. Inscription to right.
Attibuted to Pannonian (Thracian) Celts.
Massanutten
28175_Celts,_Danube_Region,_Imitative_of_Thasos,_1st_Century_B_C_.jpg
Celts, Danube Region, Imitative of Thasos, 1st Century B.C. Silver tetradrachm16 viewsCelts, Danube Region, Imitative of Thasos, 1st Century B.C. Silver tetradrachm, SGCV I 215, ICG F15, obverse head of Dionysos right, wreathed in ivy and grapes; reverse “ΗΡΑΚΛΕΟΥΣ ΣΟΤΗΡΟΣ ΘΑΣΙΩΝ”, Hercules, nude, standing half left, resting right on grounded club, lion's skin on left arm, HM monogram inner left; Imitates an issue of Thasos, Thrace under Roman rule, 146 - 45 B.C. This example is close to the original. Some of the Celtic imitations are so abstract that they hardly resemble the original type from Thasos. Ex FORVM, photo credit FORVMPodiceps
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Chalkis under Mount Libano27 viewsAE 15, Syria, Chalkis under Mount Libanos, 73/2 B.C., Obv: Artemis right, bow and quiver at shoulder. Rev: Anepigraphic. Nike standing left, holding wreath and palm branch,. Seleukid era date LMS (73/2 BC) to right, all within wreath, aF. Herman 2, Hoover HGC 9, 1442 (S).Molinari
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Cherronesos Hemidrachm 480-350 BC44 viewsOBV:Forepart of lion facing right, head turned.
REV: Quadripartite incuse square, pellet and bunch of grapes in sunken quarters,
BMC 11 (ref. Wildwinds)

A near XF coin but flatly struck at 3 o'clock so that details of the lion's mane are not evident. The chisel marks around the lion's eyes and face are still sharp and clear. My oldest coin.
2 commentsdaverino
Cherronesos_Thrace_Lion_Triobol~0.jpg
Cherronesos Thrace Lion Triobol49 viewsSilver triobol, BMC Thrace p. 183, 11, VF, Cherronesos mint, weight 2.292g, maximum diameter 12.7mm, c. 400 - 350 B.C.
OBV: lion forepart right, head turned back left;
REV: quadripartite incuse, pellet and bunch of grapes in opposite sunk quadrants;

ex: Forvm Ancient Coins
2 commentsRomanorvm
lion.jpg
Cherronesos, Thrace52 views400-350 B.C.
Silver hemidrachm
2.24 gm, 12.5 mm
Obverse: Forepart of lion right, looking back.
Reverse: Quadripartite incuse square with a pellet and
bunch of grapes in lower quadrants
BMC Thrace pg. 183, 11; Weber 2419, 2434; McClean 4079
3 commentsJaimelai
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Cherronesos, Thrace41 views400-350 B.C.
Silver hemidrachm
2.24 gm, 12.5 mm
Obverse: Forepart of lion right, looking back.
Reverse: Quadripartite incuse square with pellet and
figure (grapes?)
BMC Thrace pg. 183, 11; Weber 2419, 2434; McClean 4079
Jaimelai
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Chersonese, Thrace, AR hemidrachm, Ca. 400-338 BC. 13 viewsObv. Forepart of lion rearing right, head reverted and roaring.
Rev. Quadripartite incuse square, pellet and grape bunch in opposing lowered quadrants.
References: McClean 4079.
12mm, 2.4 grams.
Canaan
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Chersonese, Thrace, AR hemidrachm, Ca. 400-338 BC.20 viewsObv. Forepart of lion rearing right, head reverted and roaring.
Rev. Quadripartite incuse square, pellet and grape bunch in opposing lowered quadrants.
References: McClean 4079.
12mm, 2.4 grams.
1 commentsCanaan
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CHINA - DA GUAN164 viewsCash coin, Northern Song Dynasty - Emperor Hui Zong - Da Guan Reign (1107-1110). Calligraphy is very admired; it is Slender Gold Script - the Emperor's personal calligraphy. H-16.418. S-629.dpaul7
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CHINA - Fake Song Dynasty!177 viewsXing Zhao Zhong Bao, 3 wen - Denomination: 3 wen - Metal: AE From ZENO: #1: Hua Huangpu, 3-vol edition, page 804. However, presented coin looks bad - calligraphy is wrong, and metal and patina color are similar to the modern production fakes. #2: This is one of three coins in this series. There is a similar piece with "Tang Wu" (value 5) on the reverse, and there is a smaller coin with the character "Pao" abbreviated on the obverse and with the cyclical date "Jen Shen" on the reverse. As far as I can determine, the small coin was first published in 1877 in the supplement to Ku Ch'uan Hui by Li Tso-hsien. The other two coins were first published in the 1920's or 1930's - making them a little suspicious. Ting Fu-pao's Encyclopedia (1938) shows the small dated coin, but quotes Cheng Chia-hsiang who mentions the other two coins. Another Value 3 is shown in Ku Ch'ien Hsin Tien (Guqian Xindian) [English title: New Illustrative Plates of Chinese Ancient Coins] by Chu Huo (Zhu Huo). published in 1991 and in Hua Kuang-p'u (Hua Guangpu) catalog of old Chinese coins (I have the 1999 edition). All of these Value 3 illustrations are of the same calligraphy, which is entirely different from the calligraphy of the coin shown here. The different references to these coins do not agree on the dating, attribution or even the reading of the inscription. Some read it Hsing Chao Chung Pao (Xingzhao Zhongbao) because this looks like a coin inscription -- even though this reading starts on the left, something never seen on Chinese coins. But most read it Chao Pao Chung Hsing, and this is how it is listed in Arthur Coole's index of cash coin inscriptions in Volume 1 of his Encyclopedia of Chinese Coins. Li Tso-hsien mentions a Chung Hsing reign title, but this was used in Annam from 1285 to 1293, and would require starting on the right and reading crosswise, then top to bottom. Most works date the coins to the end of the Sung dynasty, issued by loyalist generals. Zhu Huo, however, lists these coins under the Yuan dynasty and apparently believes they were made in the 1300's. The cyclical date on the small coin could be 1272 AD - near the end of the Sung dynasty - or 1332 during the Yuan dynasty. It could also be 1152 or 1212, but this seems less likely. What does the inscription mean? The top character, Chao, is the family name of the Sung emperors. Hsing means to raise up. I think the intention of the inscription is: "raise up (or restore) the Chao family (of emperors)". Grammatically it should read "Hsing Chao", but in printed works, any reference to the emperor must begin one line above the rest of the text, so the family name was put at the top. The only way I can think of using the other two characters is "chung pao", meaning simply "heavy currency". Pao could be an adjective for Chao ("precious Chao"), but then how does the "chung" fit in the inscription? So I think the correct reading is "Hsing Chao Chung Pao" or "Chao Hsing Chung Pao".
dpaul7
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CHINA - Hu-Peh Province COUNTERFEIT363 viewsCHINA - Hu-Peh Province COUNTERFEIT - Counterfeit of an Emperor Zai Tian - Guang Xu Reign (1875-1908) 20 cents from Hu Peh province, reference KM#125.1. Notice the dragon's face! Also, the garbled and mis-spelled/mis-shaped English letters. The calligraphy in Chinese is not correct for these coins, also! But still an interesting collectible example of a counterfeit!dpaul7
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CILICIA, Corycus. Valerian I34 viewsCILICIA, Corycus. Valerian I. AD 253-260. Æ (29mm, 17.00 g, 5h). Radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right / Dionysus standing left, holding grape bunch over panther and thyrsus; in left field, table carrying prize crown inscribed [ΘEMIA] and containing a caduceus, palm, and aplustre. SNG France 1122 (same dies); SNG Levante 820 (same dies). Good Fine, green patina, roughness. 1 commentsecoli
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Cilicia, Diocaesarea13 viewstime of Hadrian or later, after AD 117
18mm, 4.41 g, 12h
obv: draped bust of Hermes, right, caduceus over shoulder
rev: grape bunch on vine
(Staffieri Diocaesaria 10 (Marcus Aurelius) = SNG Levante 666 (this coin); SNG France 857 (same dies))

ex CNG 269, Lot 259
areich
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CILICIA, Hierapolis-Castabala. Marcus Aurelius & Lucius Verus.29 viewsCILICIA, Hierapolis-Castabala. Marcus Aurelius & Lucius Verus. AD 161-169. Æ (30mm, 14.82 g, 6h). Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus standing vis-à-vis clasping right hands / Wreathed bust of Dionysos right, thyrsos over shoulder; grapes before. SNG France 2229-30; SNG Levante -. Near VF, dark green patina, flan flaw on reverse.

Castabala (Greek: Καστάβαλα), also known as Hieropolis and Hierapolis [ad Pyramum] (Ίεράπολις) was a city in Cilicia (modern southern Turkey), near the Ceyhan River (anc. Pyramus). During Late Antiquity, it was a suffragan bishopric to Anazarbus, the metropolis of the province of Cilicia Secunda. It is also a titular see of the Catholic Church.

Ex-CNG Esale 239 lot 316
170/150
ecoli
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Cilicia, Hierapolis-Kastabala. Pseudo-autonomous AE29.12 viewsObv: IEPOΠOΛITΩN KACTABAΛEΩN, Bust of Dionysos right, wearing ivy wreath and holding thyrsos over shoulder; in right field, bunch of grapes.
Rev: AYT K Λ CEΠ CEYHPOC ΠEP CE, Emperor in military dress standing left, holding sceptre and Nike on globe.
Time of Septimius Severus.
AE29, 11.9g.
ancientone
kastabala_sept_severus_SNGlev1589.jpg
Cilicia, Hieropolis-Kastabala, Septimius Severus, SNG Levante 158932 viewsSeptimius Severus, AD 193-211
AE 30, 15.97g
obv. AVT KAI L C - EP CEVHROC PER CE
Emperor in military cloak and wearing parazonium(?), stg. l., resting with l. hand on
spear and holding in outstretched r. hand Nike on globe, holding wreath and
palm-branch
rev. IE - ROPOLI - TWN KACTABALEW - N
Bust of young Dionysos, wearing ivy wreath and clad in panther skin, r.,
thyrsos over l. shoulder and vine-grape before.
SNG Levante 1589; SNG Paris 2339
about VF, corrosion in upper field of obv.

It's interesting that here the portrait is not the emperor's. Therefore I think it's on the rev.!
Jochen
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CILICIA, Kelenderis. AR Stater75 viewsCirca 430-420 B.C. 10.63 grams. Obverse: nude youth (ephebus) dismounting from horse rearing left. Reverse: goat kneeling left, head turned right, ivy branch above. Casabonne Type 2, Celenderis 14 (same dies). SNG BN 48 (same dies, but letter removed on obverse). SNG von Aulock 5624 (same dies). Near EF, lightly toned. Well struck.
Ex CNG
One of the most underrated Ancient Greek coin because of its static iconography and (seemingly) insignificance of the place where it came from (only few ancient sources mentioned the city of Kelenderis located in Cilicia in Asia Minor-aside from few facts we know that it was the easternmost member of the Delian League and founded by the Greeks from Samos in the 8th century B.C. on an earlier Phoenician settlement). One need to take another glance to discover and marvel at the remarkable level of artistry put into the design on these series of coins of Kelenderis that might otherwise get overlooked.
4 commentsJason T
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Cilicia, Korykos, Valerian I, BMC 2140 viewsValerian I, AD 253-260
AE 32, 22.19g, 32.07mm, 135°
obv. AV K PO - LIK OVALERIAN / OC
Bust, draped and cuirassed, radiate, r.
rev. KWRV (in ex.) KIW TW - N AV NAVAR, in r. field XI / C
Decorated price-urn inscribed QEMIA, with palmbranch between caduceus l.,
and aphlaston r., stg. on table with Dolphin shaped feet, wine pitcher under table; Dionysos,
nude, nebris around hip, wesring boots, stg. l., holding vine-grapes in r. hand and resting on tyrsos with raised l.
hand; l. at feet panther l., head turned r., raising r. foot.
ref. BMC 21; SNG Levante 820; SNG Copenhagen 123; SNG Paris 1123; SNG von Aulock 5686; Klose & Stumpf 259
about VF/VF
Jochen
Cilicia_Nagidos_SNG-ANS1778.jpg
Cilicia, Nagidos9 viewsNagidos. 374-356 BC. AR Stater (10.70 gm). Aphrodite enthroned l., feet on stool, holding phiale over circular altar; Eros stg l. behind, holding branch. / Dionysos stg. l. holding bunch of grapes and thyrsos; NAΓIΔEΩN. EF.   Lederer Nagidos 25; SNG ANS 178-179; SNG France 21; Casabonne Type 4. cf SNG Levante 9; BMC 21.111,12 Christian T
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Cilicia, Nagidos Ar Stater62 views(400-385 BC)
Obv.: Aphrodite seated, holding phiale over altar, Eros standing behind, crowning her with wreath.
Rev.: Dionysos holding grape bunch on vine and thyrsos, A in wreath to left.
Casabonne type 4, Lederer 26.
Minos
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Cilicia, Nagidos Ar Stater34 views(385-375 BC)
Obv.: Aphrodite seated, holding phiale over altar, Eros standing behind, crowning her with wreath.
Rev.: Dionysos holding grape bunch on vine and thyrsos.
SNG France 21.
Minos
Cilicia_Satraps_Mazaios_SNG-Fr331~1.jpg
Cilicia, Satraps9 viewsTarsos 361-334 BC AR Stater (11.07 gm).  Mazaios Satrap. Baaltars seated l., head facing; holding grapes, grain ear and eagle in right hand, lotus head scepter in l. / Lion bringing down bull to l. EF. Triton III #589. Sear 5650, SNG Levante 105 var.; SNG France 2 #331 Christian T
Cilicia_Satraps_Balkros_Issos_SNG-France420.jpg
Cilicia, Satraps. Balakros10 viewsBalakros. 333-323 BC. AR Stater (10.90 gm) of Issos. Baaltars seated l., grapes and grain ear before, holding lotus head scepter. I (=Issos) beneath seat. B (=Balakros) behind. / Facing bust of Athena, three-quarter facing to left, wearing triple crested Attic helmet. EF.  Triton III #592. SNG France 2 #420 (same dies); Casabonne series 2 (D12/R1); SNG Levante -; Traité, Tf. CXIII, 13. Christian T
soloi_grapes_res.jpg
CILICIA, SOLOI18 views430 - 390 BC
AE 16 mm; 3.6 g
O: Head of Athena right; countermark of mongram in circle to left
R: ΣOΛEΩN (on left), cluster of grapes; monogram to right
Soloi; SNG Lev. 856 Rare
laney
Cilicia,_Soloi_(Pompeiopolis),_AR-Hemiobol_or_Tetartemorion,_BMC_24,_410-375_BC_,_Q-001,_0h,_6mm,_0,27g-s.jpg
Cilicia, Soloi (Pompeiopolis), (c. 410-375 B.C.), BMC 024, AR-Hemiobol/Tetartemorion, Bunch of grape,65 viewsCilicia, Soloi (Pompeiopolis), (c. 410-375 B.C.), BMC 024, AR-Hemiobol/Tetartemorion, Bunch of grape,
avers: Helmeted head of Athena right.
reverse: Grape bunch within a linear circle.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 6,0mm, weight: 0,27g, axes: 6h,
mint: Cilicia, Soloi (Pompeiopolis), date: c. 410-375 B.C., ref: BMC 024,
Q-001
3 commentsquadrans
Athena_grapes_Soloi_AR8_0_69g.jpg
Cilicia, Soloi, Athena/grapes, obol95 views8mm, 0.69g
obv: helmeted head of Athena right
rev: [ΣΟΛΕΩΝ]; bunch of grapes
1 commentsareich
Cilicia_Soloi.jpg
Cilicia, Soloi, Athena/grapes, obol41 viewsca. 410-375 BC
10mm, 0.65g
obv: helmeted head of Athena right
rev: grape bunch with tendril to left

(Göktürk 3 var. (tendril to right) and 4 var. (border of dots); SNG France 186-7; SNG Levante 47)
CNG eAuction 262, Lot 141
1 commentsareich
Cilicia,_Tarsos.jpg
Cilicia, Tarsos14 viewsAR 3/4 Obol
361-334 B.C.
10mm, .59g
GCV-5660

Obverse:
Baal seated left, holding corn-ear with bunch of grapes, and sceptre.

Reverse:
Forepart of wolf right, crescent in field to left.
rubadub
Cilicia_Tarsos_SNG-Lev223.jpg
Cilicia, Tarsos7 viewsTarsos 4C BC. AR Obol (0.64 gm). Baal seated l., holding corn ears with bunch of grapes & scepter. / Forepart of wolf r., crescent facing down behind, pellet above. VF.  SNG Cop 6 #317-318; SNG France 2 #451; SNG Levante 223 Christian T
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Cilicia, Tarsos10 viewsTarsos, 361-333 BC AR Obol (0.54 gm) Baaltars seated l., head facing; holding corn ear with bunch of grapes and scepter. / Forepart of wolf r., crescent above. gVF. SNG Cop 6 #317; SNG Levante 223; SNG France 2 #451; SNG v Aulock 5422; BMC 21.176, 86. cf Babylon Traité II/2 707, pl. CXIII #4. Christian T
Cilicia_Tarsos_Balakros_stater_AR25_10_95g.jpg
Cilicia, Tarsos, Balakros, stater122 viewsBalakros (333 - 323 BC)
25mm, 10.95g
obv: draped bust of Athena, wearing Attic helmet, facing
rev: Baaltars enthroned left, holding lotus scepter, ear of grain and bunch of grapes left, B over ivy leaf right, T under throne
(SNG BN 367)
2 commentsareich
Cilicia,_Tarsos,_Mazaios_(Satrap_of_Cilicia,_361-0-334_B_C_),_Baaltars_seated_l_,_Lion_and_Stag_l__,SNG_Levante_107-8var_,_AR-Stater,_Q-001,_11h,_22-23mm,_10,61g-s.jpg
Cilicia, Tarsos, Mazaios (Satrap of Cilicia, 361/0-334/3 B.C.), SNG Levante 107-8var., AR-Stater, Lion bringing down stag to left, #198 viewsCilicia, Tarsos, Mazaios (Satrap of Cilicia, 361/0-334/3 B.C.), SNG Levante 107-8var., AR-Stater, Lion bringing down stag to left, #1
avers: Baaltars seated left on throne, holding scepter, grain ear and grape bunch; grape bunch (symbol) below throne, the Aramaic legend "BLTRZ" to right.
reverse: Lion bringing down stag to left, the Aramaic legend "MZDI" above, Aramaic letter "M" below; all within an incuse square with a dotted border.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 22,0mm, weight: 10,61g, axes: 0h,
mint: Cilicia, Mazaios (Satrap of Cilicia), date: 361/0-334/3 B.C., ref: SNG Levante 107-8var.(control below throne), SNG BN 326-7,
Q-001
5 commentsquadrans
ciliciawolf1OR.jpg
Cilicia, Tarsos, SNG Levante 22420 viewsCilicia, Tarsos mint, silver obol, Satrap Mazaios, c. 361 - 334 B.C. AR, 10mm 0.38g, SNG Levante 224
O: Baal seated left, stalk of grain and bunch of grapes in right, long vertical scepter in left
R: Wolf forepart right, crescent above with horns downward, circle border of dots
casata137ec
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Cilicia, Tarsos. Mazaios29 viewsCilicia, Tarsos. Mazaios. Satrap of Cilicia, 361/0-334 B.C. AR stater (24.30 mm, 10.76 g, 7 h). Baaltars seated left, holding eagle, grain ear, grape bunch and scepter / Lion attacking bull to left. SNG France 340; SNG Levante 102. gVF, a few scratches.3 commentsecoli
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CILICIA, Tarsos. Mazaios. Satrap of Cilicia, 361/0-334 BC241 viewsSNG Copenhagen 313, Casabonne series 2, group C, 23.2mm, 10.94 grams, Struck 361 - 334 B.C.
 
Obverse: Baaltars seated left, holding eagle, grain ear, grapes, and scepter, Aramaic letters to right and left
Reverse: Lion attacking Bull to left, Aramaic letters above from right to left MZDI for Satrap Mazdai , Mazaios or Mazaeus ).

Incredible reverse , one of the best ever known if not the best , and incredible Aramaic art.

(Under Study)
A superb beauty from the Sam Mansourati Collection.
2 commentsSam
mazaios.jpg
Cilicia, Tarsos. Satrap Mazaios. AR Stater.128 viewsCirca 361-334 B.C. AR Stater (10.88gm, 24mm, 5h). cf. SNG Levant-106; SNG Paris-. Obverse Baal of Tarsos enthroned left, head facing, holding club, bunch of grapes, wheat ear, and eagle in right hand, lotus-headed scepter in left hand, B’LTRZ (Baaltarz) in Aramaic behind, M below throne, all within a circle of dots. Reverse lion bringing down bull, attacking with teeth and claws, MZDI (Mazdai) in Aramaic above, unlisted ankh symbol, wheat ear below, all within a circle of dots. Sharply struck on an excellent metal with areas of flat strike. Choice superb EF/EF. Toned, lustrous.

Ex Ponterio and Associates Sale No. 84, November 1996, lot 141. Ex Stacks Bowers and Ponterio Sale No. 172, November 2012, lot 11680. Ex Pars Coins.

The depiction of Phoenician-Canaanite god Baal on Cilician coinage suggests the preeminence of his cult in Tarsos. He is shown enthroned, most probably on Mount Zaphon. The symbols corn-ear/barley and grapes suggest Baal’s capacity as a god involved in the seasonal cycles of life and death, or a more specific reference to Cilicia’s fertile plains. The iconography of this late coinage is also a syncretic mixture of other cultures, including Greek. The treatment of the god’s body gives us a hint of the extent of influence of Hellenic culture exerted in Eastern Asia Minor even before Alexander’s conquest, and it is said that Baal could be equated with Zeus in the Greek context. After the conquest of Alexander III of the East, Mazaios was appointed governor of Babylon. The new coinage of Alexander was strongly influenced by Mazaios’ pre-Alexandrine coinage (the Zeus Aetophoros commonly found on the reverses of his tetradrachmai is a direct descendant of this). The reverse depicts the City’s Emblem and clearly has an underlying meaning now lost to us. Some say it symbolizes the victory of Day over Night, while others suggest military conquest and subjugation of the enemies by the Persian Empire. Marvin Tameanko has persuasively argued (see Celator, Jan. 1995, pp. 6-11) that the kneeling bull (without the lion) is symbolic of Zeus, as attested on scores of later Greek and Roman coins; and the lion is symbolic of the supreme god Baal of the Cilicians. This concludes the lion-over-bull motif on this coin delivers a message that is both blatantly direct and simple, if the argument put forward is to be believed.
6 commentsJason T
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CILICIA. Hierapolis-Castabala. Marcus Aurelius (AD 161–180).24 viewsObv. I—EROΠOLI—TΩN TΩN ΠROC TΩ ΠΥΡΑ—M, draped bust of Dionysus right, wearing mitra and crown of ivy, holding thyrsus over left shoulder, long locks falling on near shoulder, bunch of grapes on stem before.
Rev. AYT K M AYP ANTΩ—NEIN—OC CEB, togate Marcus Aurelius seated left on curule chair, holding globe in right hand and being crowned by Victory.
References: SNG von Aulock 8677.
30mm, 13.15 grams Very rare.
Uncleaned, earth deposits, green patina.
Canaan
nagidos.jpg
Cilicia. Nagidos AR Stater50 viewsCirca 400-385/4 BC. (24mm, 10.76 g, 11h). Casabonne Type 6; Lederer 23; SNG France 25 (same dies); SNG Levante –. Obverse: Aphrodite seated left, holding phiale, left arm around the shoulders of Eros, who stands left behind her, with his arms extended. Reverse: Dionysos standing left, holding grape bunches on vine and thyrsos; Π in exergue. Superb EF, lightly toned, a touch of die wear on obverse.

Ex CNG Inventory 93935 (c. Jan 1990-Jan 1993). Ex CNG Electronic Auction 347, Lot 252.

The prominence of Aphrodite on coins of Nagidos indicates that an important sanctuary must have existed in that ancient colony of Samos. It must be noted that there were two forms of Aphrodite in the ancient Greek pantheon (or at least in literature). The first was Aphrodite Ourania signifying the “heavenly” or “spiritual” as opposed to the more “earthly” aspect of her, better known as Aphrodite Pandemos “for all the people.” On the coins of Nagidos, she is paired with her son Eros, the god of earthly passion. The representation of the two deities together on the coins of Nagidos denotes that, even in ancient times, the Greeks already categorized the earthly, physical and carnal type of love (represented by Eros) to that of the celestial love of body and soul (Aphrodite Ourania). The subordination of Eros in the iconography of the coin, represented as a juvenile winged figure, under the guidance and protection of the goddess, tells us the superiority of the spiritual aspect of love over the physical representations of it.
1 commentsJason T
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CILICIA. Soloi. Balacros, as Satrap (ca. 333-323 BC). AR stater (24mm, 6h).4 viewsCILICIA. Soloi. Balacros, as Satrap (ca. 333-323 BC). AR stater (24mm, 6h). NGC Choice XF, scratches. Baaltars seated left on backless throne, scepter surmounted by lotus in right hand; grain ear and grape bunch in left field, B in right field, Σ below strut / Draped bust of Athena facing, turned slightly left, wearing triple-crested helmet and necklace. SNG France 2, 197. SNG von Aulock 5873 var. (field marks).3 commentsMark R1
Cilicia_Satraps_Datames_SNGvAulock5948.jpg
Cilician Satraps, Datames10 viewsDatames. 379-374 BC. AR Stater (10.64 gm) of Tarsos. Struck during the Satraps' Revolt, c. 369/8-361/0 BC..  Baaltars seated r., torso facing; holding grapes, grain ear in r. hand, eagle-tipped scepter in l.; thymiterion r.  BLTRZ in Aramaic l. / Sun god Ana facing and pointing towards Datames l, thymiaterion b/w. Aramiac ANA to l., TRKMW (Tarkumuwa = Datames) in center. VF.  CNG 60 #874. Casabonne Type 3; Moysey issue 5; Pozzi 2852; SNG Levante 83 var. (inscr.); SNG France 2, 298 var. (eagle under throne); SNG von Aulock 5948-9; SNG Cop 6 #301-302. Christian T
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Cilician Satraps, Datames11 viewsDatames. 369/8-361/0 BC. AR Stater (10.48 gm) of Tarsos. Baaltars seated r. holding eagle-tipped sceptre, grain ear & grapes; thymiterion r. "BLTRZ" in Aramaic l. All w/in crenellated wall./ Deity Ana facing Datames, pointing, thymiaterion between, "TRDMW" (Tarkumuwa = Datames) in Aramaic. EF.  Ponterio 132 #2193. Pozzi 2852; SNG Levante 83; SNG France 2 #292; SNG Cop 6 #300; SNG v Aulock 5943.  Christian T
Cilicia_Satraps_Mazaios_10_86_SNG-Lev-106var.jpg
Cilician Satraps, Mazaios8 viewsMazaios. 361-334 BC. AR Stater (10.86 gm) of Tarsos. Baaltars seated l., head facing; holding grapes, grain ear and eagle in r. hand, lotus head scepter in l.; M under throne. BLTRZ in Aramaic behind. / Lion bringing down bull to l., ydzm (MZDI=Mazaios) in Aramaic above, monogram below. Choice EF.  Triton III #590. Casabonne series 2, group C; SNG Cop 6 #313; SNG Levante 106 var.; SNG France 2 #335 var. cf. SNG Cop 6 #312. See Numiswiki article on Baal (plate coin is same type as this): Christian T
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Cilician Satraps, Mazaios10 viewsSatraps, Mazaios. 361-334 BC. AR Stater (10.50 gm) of Tarsos. Baaltars seated l., wearing himation from waist; holding grapes & grain ear in r. hand, lotus head scepter in l.; monogram below throne., BAALTRZ in Aramaic behind. / Lion bringing down stag to l. MZDI (Mazaios) in Aramaic above, Aramaic letter and O below. VF.  Casabonne series 1, grp. B; SNG Levante 111; SNG France 2 #314-317; SNG von Aulock 5954. Christian T
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City Commemorative46 viewsConstantine I - City Commemorative - Nicodemia Mint - Officina 1 - AE3 - RIC VII 196

O: CONSTAN-TINOPOLI, helmeted, laureate head left in imperial mantle, holding reversed spear

R: Anepigraphic, Victory, wings spread, standing left on prow, holding sceptre & resting left hand on shield, SMNA in exergue

2.1g, 18mm, 0 degree die axis, 330-335AD
3 commentsBiancasDad
CITY_COMM_YELLOW.JPG
City Commemorative38 viewsConstantine I - City Commemorative - Rome Mint - Officina 5 - AE3 - RIC VII 332

O: CONSTANTI-NOPOLIS, bust of Constantinopolis left wearing a laureated crested helmet and imperial mantle; sceptre over left shoulder

R: Anipegraphic, Victory standing left on prow, holding transverse scepter in right hand, and resting left hand on shield , RFε in exergue

2.2g, 15.9/17.5mm, 180 degree die axis, 330 AD
BiancasDad
Claudius.jpg
Claudius138 viewsClaudius Denarius. Struck 41/2 AD. Rome mint. (19mm 3.51g) TI CLAVD CAESAR AVG P M TR P, laureate head right / PACI AVGVSTAE, Nemesis walking right, holding caduceus in left hand, serpent before. RIC 10

What a difficult coin to photograph! Much better in hand.
6 commentsNemonater
ben15.jpg
CNAEUS POMPEIUS MAGNUS Pompey the Great.58 viewsAR denarius. (4.51 gr). 49-48 BC. Uncertain mint in Greece. Diademed head of Numa Pompilius right. CN PISO PRO Q. / Prow right, MAGN above, PRO COS below. Crawford 446/1; RSC 4. Smyth XII/35. Iridescent toning .
CNG 64, Lot: 812
CNG photograph
1 commentsbenito
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Commemoratives - Urbs Roma117 viewsCentenionalis (AE3) 331-334
O/ URBS - ROMA Roma helmeted, draped and cuirassed left
R/ Unepigraphic Wolf standing left, suckling Romulus and Remus; two stars above
Ex/ SMKS
C 17 - RIC 90d
Mint: Cyzicus (2nd off.)
1 commentsseptimus
Commodus_Tmolos-Aureliopolis_Tyche_Tmolos_AE30_13_34_g.jpg
Commodus, Tmolos-Aureliopolis, Tmolos crowning Tyche, AE3042 viewsCommodus, 177-192 AD, Tmolos-Aureliopolis / Tmolus-Aureliopolis, Lydia

30mm, 13.34g

obv: AV K M AVP KOMMOΔOC; laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind; countermark Δ on head
rev: AΠOΛΛΩNIΔHC CTPA ANЄΘ / AVPHΛIO / TMΩ; city-goddess, turreted, seated right, holding on her knee cista mystica; behind, mountain-god Tmolos, naked but for nebris round body, advancing right, placing a wreath upon her head with his right and holding in left over his shoulder a branch of wine with three bunches of grapes (?)

BMC Lydia, p. 324, No. 5, SNG Aulock -, SNG Leypold -, SNG Righetti -, Imhoof-Blumer KM -, Lydische Stadtmünzen -, Lindgren I + III -, Sear GIC –

ex R&W
areich
CSA_10_Chemicograph_Rear.jpg
Confederate States of America: $10 Chemicograph Back Intended for 1864 Confederate Currency4 viewsOriginally issued as a set of "notes" that consisted of six Chemicograph backs with designs that were intended for the 1864 issues of the $5, $10, $20, $50, $100, and $500 denominations. Back plates with these designs were ordered by the Confederate Treasury from S. Straker & Sons of London. The plates were made and shipped from London in early January 1864, only to disappear. Several more shipments were made, but none of these got through the Union blockade. Examples of the plates were found 75 years later and were donated to the Smithsonian Institution.Quant.Geek
CSA_10_Chemicograph_Front.jpg
Confederate States of America: $10 Chemicograph Back Intended for 1864 Confederate Currency14 viewsOriginally issued as a set of "notes" that consisted of six Chemicograph backs with designs that were intended for the 1864 issues of the $5, $10, $20, $50, $100, and $500 denominations. Back plates with these designs were ordered by the Confederate Treasury from S. Straker & Sons of London. The plates were made and shipped from London in early January 1864, only to disappear. Several more shipments were made, but none of these got through the Union blockade. Examples of the plates were found 75 years later and were donated to the Smithsonian Institution.Quant.Geek
CSA_100_Chemicograph_Rear.jpg
Confederate States of America: $100 Chemicograph Back Intended for 1864 Confederate Currency7 viewsOriginally issued as a set of "notes" that consisted of six Chemicograph backs with designs that were intended for the 1864 issues of the $5, $10, $20, $50, $100, and $500 denominations. Back plates with these designs were ordered by the Confederate Treasury from S. Straker & Sons of London. The plates were made and shipped from London in early January 1864, only to disappear. Several more shipments were made, but none of these got through the Union blockade. Examples of the plates were found 75 years later and were donated to the Smithsonian Institution.SpongeBob
CSA_100_Chemicograph_Front.jpg
Confederate States of America: $100 Chemicograph Back Intended for 1864 Confederate Currency 11 viewsOriginally issued as a set of "notes" that consisted of six Chemicograph backs with designs that were intended for the 1864 issues of the $5, $10, $20, $50, $100, and $500 denominations. Back plates with these designs were ordered by the Confederate Treasury from S. Straker & Sons of London. The plates were made and shipped from London in early January 1864, only to disappear. Several more shipments were made, but none of these got through the Union blockade. Examples of the plates were found 75 years later and were donated to the Smithsonian Institution.SpongeBob
CSA_20_Chemicograph_Back.jpg
Confederate States of America: $20 Chemicograph Back Intended for 1864 Confederate Currency7 viewsOriginally issued as a set of "notes" that consisted of six Chemicograph backs with designs that were intended for the 1864 issues of the $5, $10, $20, $50, $100, and $500 denominations. Back plates with these designs were ordered by the Confederate Treasury from S. Straker & Sons of London. The plates were made and shipped from London in early January 1864, only to disappear. Several more shipments were made, but none of these got through the Union blockade. Examples of the plates were found 75 years later and were donated to the Smithsonian Institution.
SpongeBob
CSA_20_Chemicograph_Front.jpg
Confederate States of America: $20 Chemicograph Back Intended for 1864 Confederate Currency40 viewsOriginally issued as a set of "notes" that consisted of six Chemicograph backs with designs that were intended for the 1864 issues of the $5, $10, $20, $50, $100, and $500 denominations. Back plates with these designs were ordered by the Confederate Treasury from S. Straker & Sons of London. The plates were made and shipped from London in early January 1864, only to disappear. Several more shipments were made, but none of these got through the Union blockade. Examples of the plates were found 75 years later and were donated to the Smithsonian Institution.
1 commentsSpongeBob
CSA_5_Chemicograph_Rear.jpg
Confederate States of America: $5 Chemicograph Back Intended for 1864 Confederate Currency 3 viewsOriginally issued as a set of "notes" that consisted of six Chemicograph backs with designs that were intended for the 1864 issues of the $5, $10, $20, $50, $100, and $500 denominations. Back plates with these designs were ordered by the Confederate Treasury from S. Straker & Sons of London. The plates were made and shipped from London in early January 1864, only to disappear. Several more shipments were made, but none of these got through the Union blockade. Examples of the plates were found 75 years later and were donated to the Smithsonian Institution.Quant.Geek
CSA_5_Chemicograph_Front.jpg
Confederate States of America: $5 Chemicograph Back Intended for 1864 Confederate Currency 10 viewsOriginally issued as a set of "notes" that consisted of six Chemicograph backs with designs that were intended for the 1864 issues of the $5, $10, $20, $50, $100, and $500 denominations. Back plates with these designs were ordered by the Confederate Treasury from S. Straker & Sons of London. The plates were made and shipped from London in early January 1864, only to disappear. Several more shipments were made, but none of these got through the Union blockade. Examples of the plates were found 75 years later and were donated to the Smithsonian Institution.Quant.Geek
CSA_50_Chemicograph_Rear.jpg
Confederate States of America: $50 Chemicograph Back Intended for 1864 Confederate Currency3 viewsOriginally issued as a set of "notes" that consisted of six Chemicograph backs with designs that were intended for the 1864 issues of the $5, $10, $20, $50, $100, and $500 denominations. Back plates with these designs were ordered by the Confederate Treasury from S. Straker & Sons of London. The plates were made and shipped from London in early January 1864, only to disappear. Several more shipments were made, but none of these got through the Union blockade. Examples of the plates were found 75 years later and were donated to the Smithsonian Institution.Quant.Geek
CSA_50_Chemicograph_Front.jpg
Confederate States of America: $50 Chemicograph Back Intended for 1864 Confederate Currency8 viewsOriginally issued as a set of "notes" that consisted of six Chemicograph backs with designs that were intended for the 1864 issues of the $5, $10, $20, $50, $100, and $500 denominations. Back plates with these designs were ordered by the Confederate Treasury from S. Straker & Sons of London. The plates were made and shipped from London in early January 1864, only to disappear. Several more shipments were made, but none of these got through the Union blockade. Examples of the plates were found 75 years later and were donated to the Smithsonian Institution.Quant.Geek
CSA_500_Chemicograph_Front.jpg
Confederate States of America: $500 Chemicograph Back Intended for 1864 Confederate Currency12 viewsOriginally issued as a set of "notes" that consisted of six Chemicograph backs with designs that were intended for the 1864 issues of the $5, $10, $20, $50, $100, and $500 denominations. Back plates with these designs were ordered by the Confederate Treasury from S. Straker & Sons of London. The plates were made and shipped from London in early January 1864, only to disappear. Several more shipments were made, but none of these got through the Union blockade. Examples of the plates were found 75 years later and were donated to the Smithsonian Institution.SpongeBob
CSA_500_Chemicograph_Rear.jpg
Confederate States of America: $500 Chemicograph Back Intended for 1864 Confederate Currency5 viewsOriginally issued as a set of "notes" that consisted of six Chemicograph backs with designs that were intended for the 1864 issues of the $5, $10, $20, $50, $100, and $500 denominations. Back plates with these designs were ordered by the Confederate Treasury from S. Straker & Sons of London. The plates were made and shipped from London in early January 1864, only to disappear. Several more shipments were made, but none of these got through the Union blockade. Examples of the plates were found 75 years later and were donated to the Smithsonian Institution.SpongeBob
Constans.jpg
Constans AE325 viewsObv: CONSTAN-SPFAVG, rosette-diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right
Rev: VICTORIAE DD AVGGQ NN, two Victories standing facing each other, each holding wreath & palm, HR monogram between, ASIS in ex.
Id: RIC VIII 192, page 363 Siscia
Mint: Siscia, 347-348 AD
Size: 16mm, 1.6gm
Note: From un-cleaned lot 2010. This coin is a great example of how tough some of these can be to photograph. In hand, the coin is excellent. Good centering and clear details. In photos, however, it looks terrible :-(
1 commentsickster
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CONSTANS PF AVG / GLORIA EXERCITVS AE4 follis (337-350 A.D.)25 viewsCONSTAN-S PF AVG, laurel and rosette-diademed, draped (and cuirassed?) bust right / GLOR-IA EXERC-ITVS, two soldiers facing each other, holding spears and shields, with one standard between them, O ("dot"?) on banner. Mintmark: BSIS* in exergue.

AE4, 15.5mm, 1.41g, die axis 6 (coin alignment), material: bronze/copper-based alloy.

P F AVG = Pius Felix Augustus = the pius (dutiful) and fortunate (happy) emperor. Gloria Exercitus (noun + genitive) "The Glory of the Army" BSIS* = officina B (workshop #2), SIScia mint (now Sisak, Croatia), issue mark *

Mintmark BSIS* corresponds to only one type, RIC VIII Siscia 78 with the description matching this coin (except the banner device is described as "dot").
I in SIS missing due to clogged die or just got lost due to damage? Minting years mentioned for this coin are 346-348 A.D.

CONSTANS, * c. 323 † February 350 (aged ~27) in Vicus Helena, southwestern Gaul (Elne, southern France)
‡ 25 December 333 – 337 (as Caesar in Constantinople under his father); 337 – 340 (joint emperor with Constantius II and Constantine II, over Italia and Africa); 340 – 350 (after defeating Constantine II, Western Emperor, together with Constantius II in the East).

More biographical info in http://www.forumancientcoins.com/gallery/displayimage.php?pos=-147486
Yurii P
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CONSTANS PF AVG / GLORIA EXERCITVS AE4 follis, 346-348 10 viewsCONSTAN - S PF AVG, laureate, draped, cuirassed bust left, the laurel leaves are denoted as longish shapes / GLOR - IA EXERC - ITVS, two soldiers, helmeted, draped, cuirassed, standing front, heads turned toward each another, each holding inverted spear in outer hand and resting inner hand on shield; between them, a standard, device on banner large dot, with 3 badges. Mintmark AQS in exergue, palm branch "upright" in both left and right fields.

Ӕ4, 15.5mm, 1.10g, die axis 6h (coin alignment), material: bronze/copper-based alloy

RIC VIII Aquileia 22: ID straightforward thanks to unusual obverse and palm branches in the fields, even if the mintmark were unclear.

P F AVG = Pius Felix Augustus = the pius (dutiful) and fortunate (happy) emperor. Gloria Exercitus (noun + genitive) "The Glory of the Army" AQuileia mint, S = officina #2.

CONSTANS, * c. 323 † February 350 (aged ~27) in Vicus Helena, southwestern Gaul (Elne, southern France)
‡ 25 December 333 – 337 (as Caesar in Constantinople under his father); 337 – 340 (joint emperor with Constantius II and Constantine II, over Italia and Africa); 340 – 350 (after defeating Constantine II, Western Emperor, together with Constantius II in the East).

More biographical info in http://www.forumancientcoins.com/gallery/displayimage.php?pos=-147486
Yurii P
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CONSTANTIN Ier LE GRAND50 viewsTitulature avers : DV CONSTANTI-NVS PT AVGG .
Description avers : Buste voilé et drapé de Constantin Ier à droite, vu de trois quarts en avant (K°3) .
Traduction avers : “Divus Constantinus Pater Augustorum”, (Divin Constantin père des augustes) .
Titulature revers : Anépigraphe// CONS .
Description revers : Constantin dans un QUADRIGE au galop à droite, tendant la main droite à une autre main qui descend du ciel pour le recevoir .
CONSTANTIN Ier LE GRAND
(+337) Divus Flavius Valerius Constantinus
Restitution par Constantin II, Constans et Constance II
Constantin était devenu progressivement favorable aux Chrétiens au cours de son règne. Il proclama d'abord la liberté religieuse avec Licinius par le rescrit de Milan en 313. Lactance, chargé de l'éducation de Crispus, fit du songe de Constantin, la veille de la bataille du Pont Milvius, une prophétie chrétienne. Néanmoins, Constantin ne se fit baptiser que sur son lit de mort à Nicomédie le 22 mai 337. Il fut le dernier empereur divinisé après sa mort.
C.760 - RIC.37 - LRBC.1041 - RC.3889
R1
icos
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Constantin II, nummus38 viewsMint of Antioch
Anepigraph - Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust left.
*/CONSTAN/TINVS/CAESAR // SMANTS - Legend in three lines.

324/325

Ref:RIC.54
byzancia
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Constantine I RIC VII Rome 40 17 viewsAE 19.98mm 3.2 grams 315-316 AD
OBV :: IMP CONSTANTINVS PF AVG. Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
REV :: SOLI IN-VI-CTO COMITI. Sol standing left chalmy over right arm wich is holding globe. left arm raised. C in left, R in right fields
EX :: RS ( Rome)
RIV VII Rome 40
from uncleaned lot 10/2007

This coin is beautiful in hand with a near full bark brown patina with only a few spots of discoloration, but will not let itself be photographed or scanned for some reason
Johnny
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Constantine I AE Follis - CONSTANTINIANA DAFNE, Anepigraphic49 viewsA/CONS, Constantinople mint. Struck 328 AD.
Unpublished, this bust type is unlisted in RIC
Extremely rare
moneta_auction
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Constantine II 337-340 A.D.34 views
Metal: Bronze
Diam: 16 mm.
Weight: 1.6 gr.

OBV: Constantine II, Elder son of Constantine The Great :Diademed and cuirassed bust facing Right
OBV-LEGEND: CONSTANTINVSIVNNOBC
Marks-OBV: None

REV: Two helmeted soldiers standing with spears & shields, facing one standard between them.
REV-LEGEND : GLOR IAEXER ITUS
Marks-REV: In Exergue: SMNA also Alignment shifted 180 (Obv and Rev. are upside down one to aother)

Source : N/A
Age: 337-340 A.D.
Mint: Nicomedia *
*Nicomedia Nicomedia (Greek: Νικομήδεια, modern İzmit in Turkey) was founded by Nicomedes I of Bithynia at the head of the Gulf of Astacus which opens to the Propontis. The city was founded in 712 BC and, in early Antiquity, was called Astacus or Olbia. After being destroyed, it was rebuilt by Nicomedes I in 264 BC under the name of Nicomedia, and has ever since been one of the most important cities in northwestern Asia Minor. Hannibal came to Nicomedia in his final years and committed suicide in nearby Libyssa (Diliskelesi, Gebze). The historian Arrian was born there. Nicomedia was the metropolis of Bithynia under the Roman Empire, and Diocletian made it the eastern capital city of the Roman Empire in 286 when he introduced the Tetrarchy system. Nicomedia remained as the eastern (and most senior) capital of the Roman Empire until co-emperor Licinius was defeated by Constantine the Great at the Battle of Chrysopolis (Üsküdar) in 324. Constantine mainly resided in Nicomedia as his interim capital city for the next six years, until in 330 he declared the nearby Byzantium as Nova Roma, which eventually became known as Constantinople (present-day Istanbul). Constantine died in a royal villa at the vicinity of Nicomedia in 337. Owing to its position at the convergence of the Asiatic roads leading to the new capital, Nicomedia retained its importance even after the foundation of Constantinople.[1]

However, a major earthquake on 24 August 358 caused extensive devastation to Nicomedia and was followed by a fire which completed the catastrophe. Nicomedia was rebuilt, but on a smaller scale.[2] In the sixth century under Emperor Justinian the city was extended with new public buildings. Situated on the roads leading to the capital, the city remained a major military center, playing an important role in the Byzantine campaigns against the Caliphate.[3]

From the 840s on, Nicomedia was the capital of the thema of the Optimatoi. By that time, most of the old, seawards city had been abandoned and is described by the Arab geographer Ibn Khurdadhbeh as lying in ruins. The settlement had obviously been restricted to the hilltop citadel.[3] In the 1080s, the city served as the main military base for Alexios I Komnenos in his campaigns against the Seljuk Turks, and the First and Second Crusades both encamped there. The city was held by the Latin Empire between 1204 and ca. 1240, when it was recovered by John III Vatatzes. It remained in Byzantine control for a further century, but following the Byzantine defeat at the Battle of Bapheus in 1302, it was threatened by the rising Ottoman beylik. The city was twice blockaded by the Ottomans (in 1304 and 1330) before finally succumbing in 1337.[3]



Ref : Ric VII 189
Michel C2
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Constantine the Great58 viewsConstantine I - Cyzicus Mint - Officina 3 - AE4 - RIC VIII 25

O: DV CONSTANTI-NVS PT AVGG, veiled head right

R: Anepigraphic, Constantine in Quadriga right, hand of God reaching down from heaven from upper right, SMKΓx in exergue

1.5g, 15.6mm, 315 degree die axis, 337-340AD
5 commentsBiancasDad
CTGeyes2GodRIC7.jpg
Constantine the Great, early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D.46 viewsSilvered AE 3, RIC VII 92, EF, 3.456g, 18.1mm, 0o, Heraclea mint, 327 - 329 A.D.; Obverse: CONSTAN-TINVS AVG, diademed head right, eyes to God; Reverse: D N CONSTANTINI MAX AVG, VOT XXX in wreath, •SMHB in exergue.

As leading numismatist Joseph Sermarini notes, "The 'looking upwards' portraits of Constantine are often described as 'gazing to Heaven (or God).' The model of these portraits is of course that of the Deified Alexander the Great
(https://www.forumancientcoins.com/ssl/myforum.asp).

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power, and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement; so, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.

Which brings us to Crispus.
Whenever I am engaged in any discussion concerning Constantine I, Crispus is never far from my mind. As historian Hans Pohlsander from SUNY notes, "Crispus' end was as tragic as his career had been brilliant. His own father ordered him to be put to death. We know the year of this sad event, 326, from the Consularia Constantinopolitana, and the place, Pola in Istria, from Ammianus Marcellinus. The circumstances, however, are less clear. Zosimus (6th c.) and Zonaras (12th c.) both report that Crispus and his stepmother Fausta were involved in an illicit relationship." And Pohlsander continues with, "There may be as much gossip as fact in their reports, but Crispus must have committed, or at least must have been suspected of having committed, some especially shocking offense to earn him a sentence of death from his own father. He also suffered damnatio memoriae, his honor was never restored, and history has not recorded the fate of his wife and his child (or children)(Copyright (C) 1997, Hans A. Pohlsander. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis;An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors and their Families:http://www.roman-emperors.org/crispus.htm).

But there is something terribly illogigical about Constantinian apologetics. In 294 BC, prior to the death of his father, Seleucus I; Antiochus married his step-mother, Stratonice, daughter of Demetrius Poliorcetes. His elderly father reportedly instigated the marriage after discovering that his son was in danger of dying of lovesickness. If this is the way a "Pagan" father is able to express love for his son, then would not a saintly Christian love his son in at least similar measure? This particular Christian father, about whom St. Nectarios writes, "Hellenism spread by Alexander, paved the way for Christianity by the Emperor Constantine the Great," is unique. It is important to our discussion to take note of the fact that in the Greek Orthodox Church, Constantine the Great is revered as a Saint.

Now would be an appropriate time to recall what Joseph Sermarini noted above, "The 'looking upwards' portraits of Constantine are often described as 'gazing to Heaven (or God).' The model of these portraits is of course that of the Deified Alexander the Great(https://www.forumancientcoins.com/ssl/myforum.asp).

Isn’t it all too possible--even probable--that Constantine had been growing obsessively jealous of his ever more successful and adulated son? It is completely out of character for Constantine to merely acquiesce to being Philip to Crispus' Alexander. Remember the Constantine who has proven time and again (recall Constantine's disingenuous promise of clemency to Licinius) that he is a completely self-serving liar and a murderer, and Constantine decides to murder again. Why "must we, "as Pohlsander adamantly suggests, "resolutely reject the claim of Zosimus that it was Constantine's sense of guilt over these deeds which caused him to accept Christianity, as it alone promised him forgiveness for his sins? A similar claim had already been made by Julian the Apostate [Philosopher]."

Perhaps it is time to cease being apologists for the sometime megalomaniacal Constantine. As Michael Grant notes, "It is a mocking travesty of justice to call such a murderer Constantine the Great . . ." (Grant, Michael. The Emperor Constantine. London: Phoenix Press, 1998. 226).

Keep in mind that the obverse device of this coin shows Constantine I "gazing toward God" and was struck within a year or possibly two of Constantine I murdering his first-born son and condemning him to damnatio memoriae.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
1 commentsCleisthenes
0640-510np_noir.jpg
Constantine the Great, Posthumous AE3136 viewsNicomedia mint, 2nd officina
D V CONSTANTINVS PT AVGG, veiled bust right
Anepigraph, Constantine the great in a Quadriga right, SMNS at exergue
2.19 gr
Ref : Cohen # 760, LRBC # 1132
1 commentsPotator II
0649-310np_noir.jpg
Constantinopolis, AE 3197 viewsAE 3 struck in Siscia, 2nd officina
CONSTANTINOPOLIS, Helmeted Constantinopolis left
Anepigraph, Victory left leaning on shield, BSIS at exergue
2.64 gr
Ref : RC #3890 var, Cohen #21
2 commentsPotator II
constantinopolis_XP.jpg
Constantinopolis, Nummus22 viewsMint of Arles
CONSTANTINOPOLIS - helmeted bust left, in imperial mantle and with reverted spear over shoulder
Anepigraphic - Victory standing left with sceptre and shield /XP// PCONST

Ref: RIC VII 401
byzancia
constantinopolis_lyon.jpg
Constantinopolis, Nummus13 viewsMint of Lugdunum
CONSTANTINOPOLIS - laureate, helmeted bust of Constantinopolis left, in imperial mantle, holding reversed spear.
Anepigraphic - Victory standing facing, head left, foot on prow, wings spread, holding sceptre, resting left hand on shield // * PLG

Ref: RIC VII 266
byzancia
constantin_anepi.jpg
Constantinus I, Nummus40 viewsMint of Trier
Anepigraphic - Laureate bust right
CONSTAN/TINVS/AVG // STR - Inscription in three lines; laurel wreath above
2,05gr
Ref:Cohen 110

It's difficult to find this type for Trier
3 commentsbyzancia
coin14_quad_sm.jpg
CONSTANTIVS PF AVG (the 2nd) / VICTORIAE DD AVGGQ NN, AE4 follis, Siscia, 347-348 6 viewsCONSTANTI - VS PF AVG, pearl-diademed with rosettes, draped and cuirassed bust right/ VICTORIAE DD AVGGQ NN, two winged Victories facing each other, each holding wreath and palm branch; between them: a palm branch upright. Mintmark ЄSIS in exergue.

Ӕ4, 15-16mm, 1.39g, die axis 6h (coin alignment), material: bronze/copper-based alloy

RIC VIII Siscia 194. Palm branch upright between the victories is a very specific feature, that immediately narrows the search down, and together with ЄSIS mintmark it gives RIC 194 type.

P F AVG = Pius Felix Augustus = the pius (dutiful) and fortunate (happy) emperor, VICTORIAE DD AVGGQ NN = victoriae dominorum augustorum que nostrorum = victories of our lords and emperors (lit. ...which (are) ours), triumphal wreath and palm branch were common attributes of Victories; officina #5 (epsilon) of SIScia mint (Sisak, Croatia).

CONSTANTIVS II, * 317 in Sirmium, Pannonia (Sremska Mitrovica, Serbia) † 3 November 361 (aged 44) in Mopsuestia, Cilicia (near Adana, southern Turkey) ‡ 13 November 324 – 22 May 337: Caesar under his father, Constantine I; 337 – 340: co-Augustus (ruled Asian provinces & Egypt) with Constantine II and Constans; 340 – 350: co-Augustus (ruled Asian provinces & Egypt) with Constans; 350 – 3 November 361: mostly (see below) sole Augustus of the Roman Empire.

More biographical info in http://www.forumancientcoins.com/gallery/displayimage.php?pos=-147501
Yurii P
constans glor exer com.JPG
Constants RIC VII Thessalonica 22671 viewsAE 16 mm 1.9 grams
OBV :: FL CONSTANS NOB CAES. Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
REV :: GLORI-A EXER-CITVS. Two soldiers standing with shields and spears on ground, single standard between them
EX :: SMTS delta ( Thessalonica )
RIC VII Thessalonica 226
RIC rated R4
from uncleaned lot 10/2007

This coin would not let itself be photographed, or scanned so the image is edited slightly, and the coin is pictured propped up slightly. the coin itself has beautiful black patina. will re-post pics when I can get them to come out better.
Johnny
074~5.JPG
Convention - 1 sol - 1793 Dijon.5 views1 sol à la table de loi, cuivre, 10,99 g, 28 mm.
A/ REPUBLIQUE FRANCOISE // L'AN II, table des droits de l'Homme sous un oeil avec LES HOMMES SONT EGAUX DEVANT LA LOI, grappe de raisin à gauche, épi de blé à droite.
R/ LIBERTE EGALITE // 1 S // 1793 D, balance sommée d'un bonnet phrygien dans une couronne de feuillages.
Réfs : Révolution, R. 71-9.
Gabalor
239.JPG
Convention - 1 sol - 1793 Marseille6 views1 sol à la table de loi, cuivre, 11,83 g, 29 mm.
A/ REPUBLIQUE FRANCOISE // L'AN II, table des droits de l'Homme sous un oeil avec LES HOMMES SONT EGAUX DEVANT LA LOI, grappe de raisin à gauche, épi de blé à droite.
R/ LIBERTE EGALITE // 1 S // 1793 MA, balance sommée d'un bonnet phrygien dans une couronne de feuillages.
Réfs : Révolution, R. 71-15.
Gabalor
289.JPG
Convention - 1 sol - 1793 Metz.3 views1 sol à la table de loi, cuivre, 11,45 g, 29 mm.
A/ REPUBLIQUE FRANCOISE // L'AN II, table des droits de l'Homme sous un oeil avec LES HOMMES SONT EGAUX DEVANT LA LOI, grappe de raisin à gauche, épi de blé à droite.
R/ LIBERTE EGALITE // 1 S // 1793 AA, balance sommée d'un bonnet phrygien dans une couronne de feuillages.
Réfs : Révolution, R. 71-3.
Gabalor
218.JPG
Convention - 2 sols - 1793 Limoges.5 views2 sols à la table de loi, cuivre, 26,35 g, 34 mm.
A/ REPUBLIQUE FRANCOISE // L'AN II, table des droits de l'Homme sous un oeil avec LES HOMMES SONT EGAUX DEVANT LA LOI, grappe de raisin à gauche, épi de blé à droite.
R/ LIBERTE EGALITE // 2 S // 1793 I, balance sommée d'un bonnet phrygien dans une couronne de feuillages.
Réfs : Révolution, R. 74-7.
Gabalor
105~2.JPG
Convention - 2 sols - Limoges.4 views2 sols à la table de loi non daté, cuivre, 25,44 g, 34 mm.
A/ REPUBLIQUE FRANCOISE // L'AN II, table des droits de l'Homme sous un oeil avec LES HOMMES SONT EGAUX DEVANT LA LOI, grappe de raisin à gauche, épi de blé à droite.
R/ LIBERTE EGALITE // 2 S // I, balance sommée d'un bonnet phrygien dans une couronne de feuillages.
Réfs : Révolution, R. 76-2.
Gabalor
120.JPG
Convention - Demi sol - 1793 la Rochelle (refrappe).8 views1/2 sol à la table de loi, cuivre, 4,89 g, 25 mm.
A/ REPUBLIQUE FRANCOISE // L'AN II, table des droits de l'Homme sous un oeil avec LES HOMMES SONT EGAUX DEVANT LA LOI, grappe de raisin à gauche, épi de blé à droite.
R/ LIBERTE EGALITE // 1/2 S // 1793 H, balance sommée d'un bonnet phrygien dans une couronne de feuillages.
Réfs : Révolution, R. 70.3.
Gabalor
216~1.JPG
Convention - Demi sol - 1793 la Rochelle.3 views1/2 sol à la table de loi, cuivre, 5,33 g, 25 mm.
A/ REPUBLIQUE FRANCOISE // L'AN II, table des droits de l'Homme sous un oeil avec LES HOMMES SONT EGAUX DEVANT LA LOI, grappe de raisin à gauche, épi de blé à droite.
R/ LIBERTE EGALITE // 1/2 S // 1793 H, balance sommée d'un bonnet phrygien dans une couronne de feuillages.
Réfs : Révolution, R. 70.1
Gabalor
0110-Sol_bal.jpg
Convention - Sol aux balances 1793 AA55 viewsAtelier de Metz (AA) refrappe
REPUBLIQUE FRANCOISE, la table de la loi, avec gravé LES HOMMES SONT EGAUX DEVANT LA LOI en cinq lignes, de part et d'autre une grappe de raisin et des epis de blé, a l'exergue L'AN II
LIBERTE EGALITE, balance surmontée d'un bonnet phrygien, entourée d'une couronne de chêne, au centre I . S a l'exergue AA 1793 en deux lignes
10.89 gr
Ref : Gadoury 2003 # 19
The King is no more present (he's had been executed on jan 21st the same year), and "humans are equals towards Law"
03-305
1 commentsPotator II
Corinth_Melikertes.JPG
Corinth, Corinthia17 views14-37 AD (Reign of Tiberius)
AE Semis (14mm, 3.03g)
O: Pegasus flying right.
R: Melikertes naked, swimming with dolphin left, left hand holding dorsal fin.
Amandry XVI63
ex Agora Auctions

Melikertes was the mortal son of Ino who, while fleeing from her insane husband, flung herself and her son into the ocean from a high cliff near Megara. The two were immediately transformed into sea dieties, and Melikertes was brought ashore to Corinth by a dolphin. Melikertes became Palaimon the patron of sailors, and identified with the Roman god of harbors Portunus.
Melikertes is sometimes depicted with a fish tail and has been associated with the Phoenician god Malquart. It is very easy to see an iconographic similarity between Melikertes and Arion of Corinth or Phalanthos of Taras.
Enodia
1~1.JPG
Coriosolites18 viewsStatère de billon
classe III au nez en epsilon
4,1g
Avers anépigraphe, tête humaine à droite, chevelure en trois rouleaux, les cheveux divisés en grosses mèches en forme de S, le nez en trompette, l’œil rond.
Revers anépigraphe, cheval stylisé, à tête androcéphale, galopant à droite ; au-dessus, restes de la tête de l'aurige et bras tendu avec les restes d'un vexillum, entre les jambes, un sanglier à droite
LATOUR 6614
PYL
2~0.JPG
Coriosolites13 viewsStatère de billon
classe IV b
6,47g
23-21mm
Avers anépigraphe, Tête humaine à droite, chevelure en trois rouleaux, les cheveux divisés en grosses mèches en forme de S, le nez réaliste, pointu, l’œil ovale.
Avers anépigraphe, Cheval androcéphale bridé, galopant à droite ; au-dessus, restes de la tête de l'aurige tenant un vexilum ; entre les jambes, une lyre.
Provient du trésor de Trébry.
LATOUR 6703
PYL
3~0.JPG
Coriosolites17 viewsStatère de billon
classe II au nez pointé
6,13g
24,5mm
Avers anépigraphe, tête humaine à droite, chevelure en trois rouleaux, les cheveux divisés en grosses mèches en forme de S, le nez réaliste, l’œil est en amande.
Revers anépigraphe, cheval stylisé, à tête aviforme, galopant à droite ; au-dessus, restes de la tête de l'aurige ; entre les jambes, un sanglier à droite
LATOUR 6634
PYL
coriosolites.JPG
Coriosolites12 viewsStatère de billon
classe IV b
6,45g
Avers anépigraphe, tête humaine à droite, nez pointu et orné, cheveux en trois rouleaux avec de grosses mèches en S, et l’œil ovale.
Revers anépigraphe, Cheval androcéphale (à tête humaine) et de sa bouche sort une langue démesuré, l'aurige n'est pas visible mais on distingue bien une partie de sa main qui tient un harnachement, entre les jambes du cheval une lyre
Et en dessous de la lyre, une ligne, et sous celle-ci ... une barrière ? une pointe de flèche ?
PYL
193.jpg
Cornucopiae151 viewsSYRIA: SELEUCIS & PIERIA. Antiochia ad Orontem. Domitian. Æ 26 (Large denomination, dupondius?). A.D. 81-83. Obv: IMPDO(MITI)-ANVSC(AESAVG). Laureate head left; countermark (1) on shoulder, countermark (2) to right of bust. Rev: S C, Δ beneath, all within laurel-wreath. Ref: RPC 2023. Axis: 360°. Weight: 14.73 g. CM: Cornucopiae containing two bunches of grapes, in circular punch, 7 mm. Howgego 402 (3 pcs). Collection Automan.Automan
425G392GargEtc.png
Cr 350A/2 "Gargilius, Ogulnius & Vergilius"9 views86 BCE
o: Laureate head of Apollo (Vejovis?) right, thunderbolt below
r: Jupiter in quadriga right, hurling thunderbolt and holding reins
Crawford 350A/2. RSC Anonymous 226.
3.84gg. (4h)
My view is this: Although in many respects this coin is boring and cold, it has an interesting virtue of being anepigraphic in an era of relative verbosity. The obverse is sometimes attributed as "Vejovis" and sometimes as "Apollo Vejovis" and sometimes just "Apollo". Vejovis seems to have been one of the most ancient gods, among the group that the Romans themselves often got confused as to origin-story and attributes. The fragmented sources do not make it much better and his odd name implying something like "un-Jupiter" is no help. (The anti-Jupiter implication --- darkest, weakest, least interested in nymphs -- being somewhat also at odds with the frequent association with Apollo.) Given the relative infrequency of Vejovis on coins, this ambiguity seems to extend to moneyers.
On the other hand, there is no equivalent Roman practice of the modern minting practice of issuing coins in a series simply to sell coins as "collect them all", so we can presume the moneyers expected a meaningful message to be conveyed.
This coin is much better in hand than the photo.
PMah
Republik_3.jpg
Cr. 385/3, Republic, 75BC, M. Volteius M.F., Ceres, Snakes, Rudder31 viewsM. Volteius M.F.
AR Denarius, 75 BC
Obv.: Head of Liber right wearing wreath of ivy and grapes
Rev.: M. VOLTEI. M.F. in exergue, Ceres in biga right driven by two serpents; rudder behind.
Ag, 18mm, 3.9g
Ref.: Crawford 385/3, Sydenham 776, Volteia 3
Ex Lanz Numismatik
1 commentsshanxi
2010-10-28~0.jpg
Cubo-Octahedral weights20 viewstetradecagon (14 sided) Anepigraphic weight
16mm x 16mm x 15mm 29.32
Eastern European origin, Hendin attributes them as a possible Islamic scale weight
wileyc
2010-10-29.jpg
Cubo-Octahedral weights19 viewstetradecagon (14 sided) Anepigraphic weight
20mm x 21mm x 21mm - 61.7g

Eastern European origin, Hendin attributes them as a possible Islamic scale weight
wileyc
datames.jpg
Datames stater62 views384-361/0 BC
25 mm, 10.57 g
obv: Baaltars seated right; holding grain ear and grape bunch, resting on eagle-tipped scepter; thymiaterion to left, branch under throne; all within crenellated wall
rev: Satrap seated right, wearing Persian dress, holding arrow; winged solar disk upper right, bow lower right
(Casabonne series 2; SNG Levante 86 = SNG von Aulock 5951 (this coin); SNG France 288ff var. (symbol under throne on obverse))
4 commentsareich
DatamesStater.jpg
Datames, Satrap of Cilicia and Cappadocia, Stater44 viewsCILICIA, Tarsos. Datames, Satrap of Cilicia and Cappadocia. 384-362 BC. AR Stater (21.3 x 25.6mm, 9.89 gm). Struck 378-372 BC.
O: Baaltars seated right, torso facing, holding grain ear and grape-bunch in left hand, eagle-tipped sceptre in right arm; 'BLTRZ' in Aramaic to left, thymiaterion to right; all within crenellated wall
R: Ana, nude, and Datames standing facing each other, both have their right arms raised; thymiaterion and 'TRDMW' (Datames) in Aramaic between them; all within square dotted border within linear border.
- SNG Levante 83; SNG France 292; BMC Lycaonia pg. 168, 35; SNG Copenhagen 300; SNG von Aulock 5943.

Datames, the son of Kamisares and a Scythian mother, served as a member of the Persian king's bodyguard before he became satrap of Cilicia and Cappadocia upon his father's death in 384 BC. Throughout his early career, he put down a revolt in Lydia, defeated the rebel governor Thyos in Paphlagonia, and briefly occupied the city of Sinope. Because of these successes, the Persian king placed him in charge of the second war against Egypt, along with Pharnabazos and Tithraustes, satrap of Caria.
When Datames' enemies in Artaxerxes' court accused him, perhaps falsely, of intending to revolt against the Great King, he then became, in fact, the first of the Satraps to revolt. His initial success in this endeavor prompted the revolt of other satraps across the empire. Datames' success, however, was short-lived. Distrust among the satraps disintegrated their rebellion and his own son's desertion to Artaxerxes was the beginning of the end. Datames himself was assassinated by Mithradates, the son of Ariobarzanes, satrap of Phrygia, in 362 BC.
1 commentsNemonater
Macedonian_Kingdom_1c_img~1.jpg
Demetrios Poliorketes, Macedonian Kingdom, c. 289 - fall 288 B.C., Silver tetradrachm, Newell p. 97, 9156 viewsObv:– Demetrios diademed head right with horns of a bull, the animal sacred to Demetrios' patron deity
Rev:– BASILEOS DEMETRIOY, Poseidon standing left, right foot on rock, trident in left (apparently inspired by the Lateran Poseidon, a statue by Lysippos, court sculptor of Alexander), monogram left
Minted in Pella, c. 289 - fall 288 B.C.
Reference:– Newell p. 97, 91 and pl. VIII, 12, SNG Cop 1179 var.
17.0192g, 29.3mm, 45o

Ex-Harlan Berk. Ex-Forvm, where it was described as gVF, superb portrait, tight flan.

Updated image using new photography setup.
1 commentsmaridvnvm
Rhodian_Dependency_AR_Hemidrachm_-_Rose_+_L.jpg
Dependency of Island of Rhodes off Caria AR Hemidrachm 13mm 1.58g ca 3rd century BC.87 viewsO: Hd Helios facing 3/4 r.
R: Rose with bud to r., grape bunch + L to l., uncertain magistrate above.
Unlisted in Sear, SNG Cop or online references. _4001
Antonivs Protti
1564_Woodblock.jpg
der Cosmography (xxxiii) / Das Erste Buch (xxxiiii)107 viewsDate: AD 1564
Size:Sheet measures c. 8" W x 12" H
Woodblock measures c. 3 x 3", 5 x 3"

2 woodblocks depicting ships sailing, globe with lattitude / longitude measurements.
Original woodblock print(s) contained on this original 1564 leaf from Munsters "Cosmographia- Beschreibng"
Noah
Diadumenian_Nikopolis_GrapesAE16.jpg
Diadumenian, Nikopolis ad Istrum, bunch of grapes, AE 1631 viewsObv.: bare-headed, draped bust right, []ΔOVMENIA[?]
Rev.: NIKOΠOΛITΩN ΠPOC ICTPON around bunch of grapes
1 commentsareich
augustus~1.jpg
Dionysopolis Phrygia Tiberius31 viewsLeaded bronze, 18 mm, Dionysopolis, Phrygia,

CEBACTOC / DIONYCOPOLITWN XARIZENOC XAR TOY XAR,

Dionysos standing left holding grapes and thyrsos.

RPC I 3120
1 commentsTanit
Moesia_zpsb70a7928.jpg
Dionysopolis, Moesia Inferior17 views3rd century BC. AE
Head of Dionysis right, wreathed in ivy./ DIONY grapes with EY below
Moushmov 77-2
DarkRain
Maroneia.jpg
Dionysos on Maroneian AR Tetradrachm178 viewsLate 2nd-mid 1st centuries B.C. AR Tetradrachm, 16.18g, 31mm, 12h. Schonert-Geiss-1150 (V51/R158); SNG Copenhagen-; Dewing-1296 (same as obverse die). Obverse wreathed head of young Dionysos right. Reverse Dionysos standing half left, holding grapes and narthex stalks; monogram to inner left & right. Near EF, toned, minor die wear on reverse.

Ex CNG 88 (14 Sept. 2011) lot 52. Ex CNG e-Auction 286 lot 22.

Maroneia, together with Thasos and other Thracian poleis, was famous for its excellent wine in the ancient world. Therefore, it is no wonder that that the god of wine Dionysos is so prominent on their coins.
2 commentsJason T
Dionysus_x2a.jpg
Dionysus * Dionysus, Maroneia * Thrace * AR Tetradrachm * After 148 BC155 views
Dionysus / Front & Back, AR Tetradrachm, Maroneia

Obverse: Beautiful head of Dionysos* wreathed in ivy, right.
Reverse: Nude Dionysus standing left, holding cluster of grapes in right hand, and two narthex wands in his left hand; DIONYSO[Y] to his right; two monograms, one each to the left & the right; [T]WTHPOS, to the left (with test cut through the first letter)

Exe: MARWNIT[WN]
Weight: 16.0 grams
Size: 33 mm.

Sear Greek Coins and their Values:
Vol. 1, p.163, 1635

“After 148 BC (following the defeat of Andriscus and the organization of Macedonia into a Roman Province, the output of the great silver mines was sent to the Thracian mints of Maroneia and Thasos for conversion to coin)

B.M.C. 3, 48-63
These issues were imitated by the Danubian Celts of the interior.”
~ D. Sear, Ibid.

* Olympian

2 commentsTiathena
coin15_quad_sm.jpg
DN CONSTANS PF AVG / GLORIA EXERCITVS AE4 follis, Constantinople, 346-348 6 viewsDN CONSTA - NS PF AVG, pearl and rosette-diademed head only, right / GLOR - IA EXERC - ITVS, two soldiers facing each other, holding spears and shields, with one standard between them, device on banner large "o"? Mintmark CONSS (or CONSI?) in exergue.

AE4, 15.5mm, 1.35g, die axis 6h (coin alignment), material: bronze/copper-based alloy

RIC VIII Constantinople 45? Obverse legend crystal clear, reverse not so much, but seems no trailing dot, definitely pearls, rosettes – unclear, a pity, because in this type they are special "square pearl rosettes with a pearl in the centre"; device is most probably "o", weird shape due to damage (but I would not completely disregard "star" or "chi-rho" possibility); CONSS almost certain, but CONSI may be possible. This most probably narrows the type down to RIC 45. But if we allow CONSI, it allows for another, more exotic possibility of * device on banner (RIC 54).

DN = Dominus Noster = Our Lord, P F AVG = Pius Felix Augustus = the pius (dutiful) and fortunate (happy) emperor. Gloria Exercitus (noun + genitive) "The Glory of the Army" CONStantinopolis, S = officina #6.

CONSTANS, * c. 323 † February 350 (aged ~27) in Vicus Helena, southwestern Gaul (Elne, southern France)
‡ 25 December 333 – 337 (as Caesar in Constantinople under his father); 337 – 340 (joint emperor with Constantius II and Constantine II, over Italia and Africa); 340 – 350 (after defeating Constantine II, Western Emperor, together with Constantius II in the East).

More biographical info in http://www.forumancientcoins.com/gallery/displayimage.php?pos=-147486
Yurii P
Coin013_quad_sm.jpg
DN CONSTANTIVS PF AVG (the 2nd) / SPES REIPVBLICAE AE3/4 follis, Sirmium, 355-361 7 viewsDN CONSTAN-TIVS PF AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right/ SPES [REI - PVBLICAE], emperor helmeted, draped, cuirassed, standing left, holding globe in right hand and spear in left hand. -S- in the left field, [dot in the right field? all other examples of this type have it, but here it is difficult to say] Mintmark BSIRM in exergue.

AE3/4, 16mm, 1.43g, die axis 1h (slightly turned medal alignment), material: bronze/copper-based alloy

Seems RIC VIII Sirmium 86 (mint mark BSIRM and –S- in the left field are enough to narrow the search down even with unclear legends), but other similar types are 80 (with clear fields and the most common) and 82, 88, 90 (no idea what they are, cannot find examples or descriptions). Mint years are probably late, 355-361, because issued together with caesar Julian coins (Julian became caesar in 355).

DN = Dominus Noster = Our Lord, P F AVG = Pius Felix Augustus = the pius (dutiful) and fortunate (happy) emperor, SPES REIPVBLICAE = The hope of the Republic, officina #2 (beta) of SIRMium mint (Sremska Mitrovica, Serbia).

CONSTANTIVS II, * 317 in Sirmium, Pannonia (Sremska Mitrovica, Serbia) † 3 November 361 (aged 44) in Mopsuestia, Cilicia (near Adana, southern Turkey) ‡ 13 November 324 – 22 May 337: Caesar under his father, Constantine I; 337 – 340: co-Augustus (ruled Asian provinces & Egypt) with Constantine II and Constans; 340 – 350: co-Augustus (ruled Asian provinces & Egypt) with Constans; 350 – 3 November 361: mostly (see below) sole Augustus of the Roman Empire.

More biographical info in http://www.forumancientcoins.com/gallery/displayimage.php?pos=-147501
Yurii P
T294.jpg
Domitian as Caesar RIC-29481 viewsÆ Sestertius, 24.01g
Rome mint, 80-81 AD (Titus)
Obv: CAES DIVI AVG VESP F DOMITIANVS COS VII; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: S C in field; Minerva adv. r., with spear and shield
RIC 294 (C). BMC 231. BNC 238.
Acquired from Olding, MA Shops, May 2019 = Olding, List 96, March 2019, Sammlung Fritz Reusing, no. 177. From the collection of Fritz Reusing (1874-1956), inherited and continued by Reusing's nephew Paul Schürer (1890-1976).

An exquisite sestertius struck for Domitian as Caesar under Titus featuring his patron deity Minerva. DIVI AVG VESP F tells us the coin was struck after Vespasian's deification. The date of Vespasian's consecratio is dated by the epigraphic evidence sometime between September 8, 79 - May 29, 80, so this sestertius could not have been struck much earlier than June 80. The Minerva reverse was one of the more common types struck during this second bronze issue for Domitian Caesar under Titus.

Although fine portraits can occasionally be seen in silver, it is on the larger canvas of the bronze where the full flower of Roman imperial portraiture can be seen. This sestertius has one of the finest portraits of Domitian I've come across. A superb example of the imperial engraver's art.
6 commentsDavid Atherton
D183.jpg
Domitian RIC-183332 viewsAR Denarius, 2.90g
Rome mint, 84 AD
Obv: IMP CAES DOMITIANVS AVG GERMANIC; Bust of Domitian, laureate, draped, bearded, l.
Rev: P M TR POT III IMP V COS X P P; Minerva stg. r. on capital of rostral column, with spear and shield; to r., owl (M2)
RIC 183 (R3). BMC -. RSC -. BNC -.
Acquired from Forvm Ancient Coins, April 2014.

84 AD probably saw the peak of artistic quality with Domitian's precious metal coinage. Two years previous, the fineness of the denarius was increased and the style radically changed from the earlier issues. Upon Domitian's accession the veristic style of Vespasian and Titus still dominated, after the reform it became more idealised and much finer. By 84 the style had evolved to such a high degree that the mint was able to produce these finely engraved draped busts, albeit in small quantities. This extremely rare coin struck in 84 is an exquisite example of the new idealised style. This is the second known specimen of the type. Much experimentation was going on at the mint at this time with reverse types, busts, and style. I assume the amount of time an engraver spent on rendering these highly polished pieces was considerable, which could perhaps explain why they were not struck more commonly. RIC theorises the drapery represents a military cloak commemorating Domitian's recent German victory. Afterwards, the style remained idealised and fine but the finer portraits would sometimes appear with an aegis, the draped busts consigned to an experimental cul-de-sac. The idealised style would continue to evolve throughout the reign reaching baroque proportions by 88. It's a shame that this fine portrait bust was struck sparingly.

Ian Carradice speculated in his 1983 monograph Coinage and Finances in the Reign of Domitian that the same engraver who did this piece may have worked on an earlier left facing portrait from 81 (see my Domitian RIC 75). Although left facing portraits are extremely rare in Domitian's reign and it is not out of the realm of possibility that the same engraver was working at the mint three years later and produced another left facing bust, to my eyes the styles seem too different to warrant that conclusion.

The bust of Domitian here is superbly rendered, one of the finest portraits of Domitian I've ever seen on a denarius. Same obverse die as the unique specimen cited in RIC.

13 commentsDavid Atherton
D574.JPG
Domitian RIC-574173 viewsAR Denarius, 3.12g
Rome mint, 88 AD
Obv: IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM P M TR P VII; Bust of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r. with aegis
Rev: IMP XIIII COS XIIII CENS P P P; Minerva adv. r., with spear and shield (M1)
RIC 574 (R2). BMC -. RSC -. BNC -.
Ex Lanz, eBay, 20 October 2013.

Early in 88 AD a special series of denarii were issued by Domitian. Style wise they are very fine and feature some rare obverse variants. I wish to present a denarius from the series which shows Domitian with aegis, the first time seen on his precious metal coinage since 84-85. Several other types in the series fully spell out "GERMAN" in the obverse instead of using the more frequent abbreviated "GERM". Why does this series contain the only example of Domitian with aegis after 85? Is there a special purpose for it?

If one is to look for anything of importance that occurred in 88, one would be hard pressed to find anything more important than the Secular Games - which indeed has known reverse types that commemorate it. Does the fine style of the series in question, combined with the only known aegis portrait issued after 85, and other coins fully spelling "GERMAN" point to a Secular Games commemorative issue? Perhaps this is the first series which commemorates the event before the specific reverse types (herald and cippus) were drawn up.

Needless to say the coin is very rare. Ian Carradice did not record the type in his 1983 monograph 'Coinage and Finances in the Reign of Domitian'. Shares the same aureus reverse die as the RIC 571 plate coin. Another example of the type from different dies was recently sold in the Harry Sneh Gemini X auction and in June 2015 Forvm member timka posted an example. These are the only three I've ever seen in trade.

Struck on a large flan (20mm) in excellent metal with dark toning.
4 commentsDavid Atherton
D709a.jpg
Domitian RIC-70929 viewsÆ As, 10.61g
Rome mint, 90-91 AD
Obv: IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM COS XV CENS PER P P; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: VIRTVTI AVGVSTI; S C in field; Virtus stg. r., foot on helmet, with spear and parazonium
RIC 709 (C2). BMC 452. BNC 482.
Acquired from Prafectus Coins, August 2019.

The Virtus type was struck repeatedly on Domitian's middle bronze from 84 onwards. I. Carradice in his 1983 monograph on Domitian's coinage says the following concerning the type - 'Virtus is a military type, symbolic of the courage of Domitian and the mutual devotion between the army and emperor.' Virtus first appears on the coinage in the flurry of Germania Capta types that were struck soon after Domitian's German triumph. She is depicted in traditional Amazon attire.

A superb example in fine style.
1 commentsDavid Atherton
Rhodos_drachm,_Helios___rose.JPG
Drachm, Ca. 200-168 B.C. Helios/ Hibiscus; ΣΤΡΑΤΩΝ8 viewsRhodos, Caria, drachm ca. 200 - 168 BC. 15mm, 2.57g. Obverse: radiate head of Helios facing slightly to the right. Reverse: ΣΤΡΑΤΩΝ above hibiscus, grape to right. Ashton, NC 148, 1988, p.24 ( - / P 39). ex Numismatik Lanz, ex Gorny & Mosch, Auction 169. ex areich, photo credit areichPodiceps
greek-illyiria-dyrrhachion.jpg
Dyrrhachium, Illyria AR Drachm (250-200 BC), Magistrates; Theodotos36 viewsAncient Greek, Dyrrhachium, Illyria AR Drachm (250-200 BC), Magistrates; Theodotos, Philonos 19.6 mm, 3.37, 3h

Obverse: ΘƐOΔOTOΣ, Cow standing right, looking left, suckling calf, vine branch, leaves and bunches of grapes below.

Reverse: ΔΥΡ ΦI-ΛΩ-NOΣ, Double stellate pattern.

Reference: Ceke 230, Maier 392

Ex: Tom Mullally
Gil-galad
066n.jpg
Ear of corn180 viewsSARMATIA. Tyra. Domitian. Æ 19. A.D. 81-96. Obv: KAICAPΔOMETI(AN)OC. Laureate head right; countermark before head. Rev: T-Y-P-A-NWN. City ethnic around club. Ref: BMC -. Axis: 15°. Weight: 2.97 g. CM: Ear of corn, in rectangular punch, 4 x 8 mm. Howgego 407 (5 pcs). Note: The countermark was likely applied between the reigns of Domitian and Hadrian when no coins were struck in Tyra, this type being applied to small and medium denominations, while larger denominations were countermarked with a bunch of grapes. Collection Automan.Automan
SealBox.JPG
Early Christian Seal Box52 viewsRoman Christian Seal Box, 2nd-3rd Century AD. Bronze, 5.33g, about 20mm maximum diameter and about 5mm thick. The figure has a halo (nimbate) and her(?) hands are raised in praise (orans pose). There are three attachment holes on the reverse. Found near the Balkans. A rare example of early Christian iconography and possibly unique for seal boxes.

The seal box was an extra-secure way of ensuring that the contents of a package were not compromised when sending important goods or information from one place to another.
3 commentsMolinari
EB0071d_scaled.JPG
EB0071 Wrestlers / Slinger11 viewsAspendos, PAMPHYLIA, AR Stater, Circa 330-250 BC.
Obverse: Two wrestlers grappling; E between.
Reverse: EΣTFΔIY to left, Slinger standing right; triskeles, club before, O between legs.
References: BMC. XIX, 63 var.; S. 5399 var.; SNG Copenhagen 240 var.
Diameter: 25mm, Weight: 10.44g.
EB
EB0077b_scaled.JPG
EB0077 Athena / Grapes9 viewsSoloi, CILICIA, AR Stater. Circa 385-350 BC.
Obverse: Head of Athena right, wearing Attic helmet decorated with griffin.
Reverse: ΣO-ΛI, grape bunch with leaf to left all in incuse square.
References: SNG France 176.
Diameter: 20.5mm, Weight: 9.469g.
EB
EB0202b_scaled.JPG
EB0202 Dionysos / Dionysos Standing8 viewsMaroneia, THRACE, AE 17, after 148 BC.
Obverse: Head of Dionysos right, wreathed in ivy.
Reverse: MAΡΩNITΩN, Dionysos wearing short chiton, standing left, holding bunch of grapes and two spears.
References: Cf. Moushmov 3942.
Diameter: 17mm, Weight: 6.13g.
EB
EB0202_1b_scaled.JPG
EB0202.1 Dionysos / Dionysos Standing7 viewsMaroneia, THRACE, AE 22, after 148 BC.
Obverse: Head of Dionysos right, wreathed in ivy.
Reverse: MAΡΩNITΩN, Dionysos wearing short chiton, standing left, holding bunch of grapes and two spears; monogram in lower left field.
References: Cf. Moushmov 3942.
Diameter: 21mm, Weight: 6.862g.
EB
EB0247b_scaled.JPG
EB0247 Grapes / Helmet6 viewsJUDAEA, HEROD ARCHELAUS, AE 16 (prutah ?), 4-6 AD.
Obverse: HPWDOY, bunch of grapes on vine with small leaf on left.
Reverse: EQNARCOU, tall helmet with crest & cheek straps, viewed from front, caduceus below.
References: Meshorer 61; Hendin 505.
Diameter: 16.5mm, Weight: 2.142g.
Note: Sold.
EB
EB0268b_scaled.JPG
EB0268 Histiaia / Grapes4 viewsEuboia, Histiaia, AE 15, 338-146 BC.
Obverse: Head of nymph Histiaia right, wreathed with vine, hair rolled.
Reverse: Bunch of grapes, IΣTIAI EΩN and monograms around.
References: Seaby 975; SNG Copenhagen 547; cf. BMC 134.
Diameter: 15.5mm, Weight: 4.181g.
EB
EB0281b_scaled.JPG
EB0281 Hektor / Infant Dionysos3 viewsOphrynion, Troas, AE 12, 350-300 BC.
Obverse: Bearded head of Hektor, facing slightly right, wearing triple crested helmet.
Reverse: OΦΡY, The infant Dionysos kneeling right, holding grape cluster in right hand.
References: Sear 4124; SNG Cop 456; SNG von Aulock 1559; BMC 2-6; Luynes 2516; McClean 7849-7850; Weber 5423-5422.
Diameter: 12mm, Weight: 1.315g.
EB
EB0587_scaled.JPG
EB0587 Nero / Wreath I10 viewsNero, AE Dichalkon of Alexandria.
Obv: Anepigraphic; L-I (Year 10 = 63/64 AD), laureate head right.
Rev: Large I within wreath.
References: Dattari 283.
Diameter: 11mm, Weight: 1.07 grams.
EB
alexandria_hadrian_Milne1361.jpg
Egypt, Alexandria, Hadrian, Milne 136131 viewsHadrian AD 117-138
AE - drachm (AE 37), 23.65g
struck L IZ = year 17 = AD 132/33
obv. AVT KAIC TRAIAN (dot) - ADRIANOC CEB
bust, draped and cuirassed(?), laureate, r.
rev. (anepigraphic)
Athena, in peplos, helmeted, stg.l., holding in r. hand two corn-ears and spear in l.
hand, r. beside great round shield
in l. field LI Z
Milne 1361; Köln 1072; Dattari 1642; BMC 691
F+/VF-, nice blue patina

Meaning something like Athena protects our grain supply from Egypt.
Jochen
Egypt1a_img.jpg
Egypt, Athens Imitative, Silver tetradrachm165 viewsObv:– Head of Athena right, droopy eye, crested helmet with olive leaves and bent-back palmette, wire necklace, round earring, hair in parallel curves.
Rev:– ΑΘΕ, right, owl standing right, head facing, erect in posture, olive sprig and crescent left, all within incuse square;
Minted in Egypt from . B.C. 420 - 380.
Reference:– cf. SNG Cop 31 ff., SGCV I 2526 (Athens),

Ex- Forum Ancient Coins where they graded it VF. The metal did not fill the die completely on the obverse resulting in the rough flat high area near Athena's temple. A test cut on the reverse was filled with pitch in antiquity.

The silver is quite bright making it relatively tricky to photograph.

From the Harald Ulrik Sverdrup Collection. Ex CNG. From a small hoard of 5 Athenian and 4 Athenian imitative issues.

Comment provided by Forum -
"Athenian tetradrachms with this droopy eye and bent back palmette have been identified as Egyptian imitative issues because they are most frequently found in Egypt and rarely in Greece.

Early in his reign the Egyptian Pharaoh Hakor, who ruled from 393 to 380 B.C., revolted against his overlord, the Persian King Artaxerxes. In 390 B.C. Hakor joined a tripartite alliance with Athens and King Evagoras of Cyprus. Persian attacks on Egypt in 385 and 383 were repulsed by Egyptian soldiers and Greek mercenaries under the command of the Athenian general Chabrias. Perhaps these coins were struck to pay the general and his Greek mercenaries."

17.157g, 25.3mm, 270o
3 commentsmaridvnvm
Egypt_1a_img.jpg
Egypt, Athens Imitative, Silver tetradrachm34 viewsObv:– Head of Athena right, droopy eye, crested helmet with olive leaves and bent-back palmette, wire necklace, round earring, hair in parallel curves.
Rev:– ΑΘΕ, right, owl standing right, head facing, erect in posture, olive sprig and crescent left, all within incuse square;
Minted in Egypt from . B.C. 420 - 380.
Reference:– cf. SNG Cop 31 ff., SGCV I 2526 (Athens),

Ex- Forum Ancient Coins where they graded it VF. The metal did not fill the die completely on the obverse resulting in the rough flat high area near Athena's temple. A test cut on the reverse was filled with pitch in antiquity.

The silver is quite bright making it relatively tricky to photograph.

From the Harald Ulrik Sverdrup Collection. Ex CNG. From a small hoard of 5 Athenian and 4 Athenian imitative issues.

Comment provided by Forum -
"Athenian tetradrachms with this droopy eye and bent back palmette have been identified as Egyptian imitative issues because they are most frequently found in Egypt and rarely in Greece.

Early in his reign the Egyptian Pharaoh Hakor, who ruled from 393 to 380 B.C., revolted against his overlord, the Persian King Artaxerxes. In 390 B.C. Hakor joined a tripartite alliance with Athens and King Evagoras of Cyprus. Persian attacks on Egypt in 385 and 383 were repulsed by Egyptian soldiers and Greek mercenaries under the command of the Athenian general Chabrias. Perhaps these coins were struck to pay the general and his Greek mercenaries."

17.157g, 25.3mm, 270o

Updated image using new photography setup.
maridvnvm
Macedon_Eion_SNG-ANS_272_gf.jpg
Eion. c. 480-470 BC. AR Diobol 2 viewsMacedon, Eion. c. 480-470 BC. AR Diobol (1.21 gm). Goose stdg r., looking back. Anepigraphic. / Quadripartite incuse punch, diagonals in square.  VF.   Bt. Guy Clark 1998. SNG ANS 7 #272; AMNG III/2 pg 129 #35-36 (plate XXVII #16-17); Babelon Traite 1724 (plate IX #5-7); BMC 5 (Eion?); ACNAC Dewing 1017; HGC 3.1 #519; SNG Cop 2 #174; Svoronos Macedoine p. 88 #5-7. cf. Rosen 94-95 (sq. punch); Roma Num. E-39 #113; CNG EA 244 #23. Anaximander
elag_k.jpg
Elagabalus, AD 218-2227 viewsAE15, 3.4g, 6h; Marcianopolis.
Obv.: AYT K M AYP ANTΩNINOC; Laureate head right.
Rev.: MAΡKIANOΠOΛITΩN, bunch of grapes.
Reference: Moushmov 638
John Anthony
ARP_-_Elagabalus(3)-3.jpg
Elagabalus, AE19, Issue of Nikopolis ad Istrum 10 viewsAD 218 – 222
4.55 grams
Obv.: AV K M AVP ANTWNINOC, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev.: NIKOPOLITWN PROCICTP, bunch of grapes, N to left, O to right.
BMC 73
Purchased on eBay
NGC XF: Strike 4/5: Surface 4/5
Richard M10
Elagabal_Markianopolis_Grapes.jpg
Elagabalus, Markianopolis, Grapes, AE1626 views15.58 mm, 2.8 g
obv.: laureate head right
rev.: MAPKIANOΠOΛITΩN around bunch of grapes
1 commentsareich
emarOR.jpg
Elagabalus, Varbanov 138413 viewsMarkianopolis mint, Elagabalus, 218-222 A.D. AE, 2.03g, 17mm, Varbanov 1384
O: AΥT K M AΥΡ ANTΩNINOC, laureate head right;
R: MAΡKIANOΠOΛITΩN, bunch of grapes
casata137ec
Elis,_Olympia_111th-110th_Olympiad_336-2_BC_AR_Hemidrachm.jpg
Elis, Olympia, 113th -115th Olympiad ca. 328-320 BC, AR Hemidrachm 13 viewsHead of the nymph Olympia right.
Eagle standing right with open wings, F in right field.

BCD Olympia 336.10 (this coin) – previously unrecorded type. HGC 5, 454 - same obverse die with unrecorded reverse type (reverse variant – eagle standing left head reverted, F in left field); Seltman -.
Olympia, Hera mint.

(15 mm, 2.82 g, 6h).
ex- CNG e-Auction 144, 26 July 2006, 108; ex- CNG e-Auction 115, 25 May 2005, 66; ex- BCD collection: Leu Numismatik AG 90, 10 May 2004, 336.10 ; ex- Professor Athanasios Rhousopooulos (1823-1898) Collection.

This is a unique and unrecorded example of the last output of the Hera mint in the Olympia. Although from the same obverse die as HGC 5, 454 the reverse iconography involving a right facing eagle and right field ethnic is unrecorded by Hoover (Handbook of Greek Coinage) or Seltman (Temple Coins).
n.igma
IMGP4788Elbrcombo.jpg
Elymais -- Orodes II., 1st half of 2nd cent. AD,41 viewsAE dr., 3,59gr., 14,47mm;
Van’t Haaff 13.1.1-2, Alram 478var.;
mint: ? ; axis: 12h
obv.: bare-headed, facing, w/2-strand , diadem, 1 loop and ribbons; emblem in center of top hair, large, grape like bunch of hair on either side, the vertical lines of dots pointing upward, mustache, med.-long beard; double necklace; in right field anchor w/2 crossbars, crescent w/ pellet above, traces of border above crescent;
rev: radiate (?) bust of Belos w/2 horns, side bunches; Aramaic or Pahlavi legend around rim meaning King Orodes son of Orodes;

ex: J. Elsen, BEL.
1 commentsSchatz
IMGP4794Elbrcombo.jpg
Elymais -- Kamnaskires Orodes, 1st half of 2nd cent. AD19 viewsAE dr., 4,04gr., 15,23mm;
mint: ? , axis: 12H;
Van’t Haaff 12.2.1.-1B, Alram 482-485var. (rev.);
obv.: bare-headed, facing, w/2-strand diadem, 2 loops and ribbons; large, grape like bunch of hair on either side of head, mustache, med.-long beard; double necklace w/center medallions; tunic; in right field anchor w/2 crossbars, crescent w/pellet above;
rev.: field of seemingly random letters and symbols.
Schatz
IMGP4850Elbrcombo.jpg
Elymais -- Kamnaskires Orodes, 1st half of 2nd cent. AD,16 viewsAE dr., 3,97gr., 15,02mm;
Van’t Haaff 12.3.1-2A1c-e; Alram 482-485var. (rev.);
mint: ? , Axis: 12h;
obv.: bare-headed, facing, w/diadem; small tuft in center of top hair, large, grape like bunch of hair on either side, the vertical lines of dots pointing upward, mustache, med.long beard; necklace; in right field anchor w/2 crossbars and crescent w/pellet above; left of anchor pellet (and unidentified object below?); dotted border 5 - 14:30h;
rev.: vertical slashes;

ex: Vienna Coin Show, VA.
Schatz
IMGP3815ElAEtdrcombo2.jpg
Elymais -- Kamnaskires Orodes, 1st half of 2nd cent. AD,19 viewsAE tdr., 14,80gr., 28,72mm;
Van’t Haaff 12.1.1-1B or C, Alram 479;
mint: Seleukia on the Hedyphon, axis: 12h;
obv.: bare-headed, facing, w/diadem, 2 loops, and ribbons; large, grape like bunch of hair on either side of head, mustache, med.-long beard; double necklace; tunic; in right field anchor w/2 crossbars, crescent w/star above; from 7:30 - 12:30h Aramaic or Pahlavi legend meaning King Kamnaskires Orodes son of King Orodes; traces of dotted border on right rim;
rev.: severely degenerated head w/surrounding legend;

ex: H.D. Rauch, Summer Auction 2009, Lot 321.
Schatz
IMGP3813ElAEtdrcombo2.jpg
Elymais -- Kamnaskires Orodes, 1st half of 2nd cent. AD,43 viewsAE tdr., 15,23gr., 26,96mm;
Van’t Haaff 12.1.1-1Ab (this coin), Alram 479;
mint: Seleukia on the Hedyphon, axis: 12h;
obv.: bare-headed, facing, w/diadem, 2 loops and ribbons; hair in large grape like bunches on either side of head, mustache, medium size rounded beard; double necklace; tunic; in right field anchor w/2 crossbars, crescent and star above; 7:30 - 13:30 Aramaic or Pahlavi legend meaning King Kamnaskires Orodes; dotted border 11 - 15h;
rev.: dashes and v’s strewn over entire surface;

ex: Triton VII,, CNG, lot 534; ex: Vecchi 8 (12/97), lot 147.
2 commentsSchatz
ELYMAIS_Unidentified_King.jpg
Elymais. Arsacid dynasty. Probably a contemporary regional counterfeit struck during the reign of Prince A (late 2nd to early 3rd centuries A.D.), or later.54 viewsvan't Haaff --; De Morgan --; BMC --; Sear GICV --; Alram --

AE unit (denomination undetermined), 2.51 g., 12.59 mm. max., 0°

Obv.: Bust facing left, side whiskers as double row of dots.

Rev.: Plain diadem of two bands with fine lines, pellet border.

The obverse bust most closely resembles Prince A (late 2nd to early 3rd centuries A.D.), van't Haaff 19.1.1-1A, whereas the reverse mirrors Phraates (early-mid 2nd century A.D.), van't Haaff 14.4.1-2). Due to the decades between these rulers, the coin is probably not a mule. The coins of Phraates may have remained in circulation during the reign of Prince A, and beyond. The coin is probably a contemporary regional counterfeit inspired by the Phraates reverse. However, the diadem on the reverse is a reference to sky god Bel, and the possibility that the coin is an unrecorded official coin, issued by Prince A with the revived iconography of Phraates, cannot be excluded.

Attribution assistance courtesy of Pieter Anne van't Haaff (thanks to Robert L3), and Robert L3.
2 commentsStkp
Balkerne_Gate%2C_Colchester_-_geograph_org_uk_-_189116.jpg
England, Colchester, Balkerne Gate285 viewsBalkerne Gate, Colchester. The largest Roman arch in Britain. Colchester and its wall were rebuilt by the Romans after Queen Boudica led a rebellion in AD 60 and detroyed the town. Image source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CamulodunumJoe Sermarini
19th_century_photograph_of_the_Roman_Baths,_Bath_.jpg
England, Roman Baths, Bath (1)163 viewsThese celebrated Roman Baths were unknown until, in 1880, sewer workers uncovered the first glimpse of Roman structures under the Georgian Spa. This led to the discovery of the Roman Baths and their treasures.

The walls, columns and parapet that surround the Great Bath today were built in the Victorian period, and the "Roman" statues that gaze down upon the pool from the upper walkway are also Victorian.

This photograph was taken in the 19th century not long after the Baths were discovered and before the Victorian structures we see today were built.
*Alex
Roman_Baths_c1900.jpg
England, Roman Baths, Bath (2)150 viewsThis is a Photochrome print of the Roman Baths, Bath, England taken sometime between 1895 and 1905.
It shows the new Victorian embellishments added to the Baths since their discovery in the 1880's and which, for the most part, are the works that visitors to the site see today.
The familiar green hue of the pool seen by modern visitors is caused by algae, resulting from the water's exposure to the open air. In Roman times the pool was roofed over and its waters, while perhaps not crystal clear, would almost certainly not have been green.

Photochrome prints are coloured images produced from black-and-white photographic negatives via the direct photographic transfer of a negative onto lithographic printing plates.
*Alex
Enna_Litra.JPG
Enna, Sicily50 views450-440 BC
AR Litra (13mm, 0.69g)
O: Demeter driving slow biga right, holding grain ears.
R: Demeter standing facing, holding torch over altar to left; [HE]NNAI[ON] to right. 
HGC 2, 391; Sear 777
Very rare
ex Aegean Numismatics

Enna, known in antiquity as ‘The Naval of Sicily’, was located in the geographic center of Sicily on a high plateau which served as a natural fortress. It is said that one could see all three Sicilian coasts from the city’s heights.
Perhaps more important than its strategic location however was Enna’s religious significance, for it was here that Persephone was abducted by Hades and here that the cult of Her mother Demeter thrived.

"In the interior [of Sicily] is Enna, where is the temple of Demeter, with only a few inhabitants; it is situated on a hill, and is wholly surrounded by broad plateaus that are tillable." 
~ Strabo, Geography 6.2.6
2 commentsEnodia
P1180957.jpg
Eryx - Bronze / Denomination D24 viewsSICILY
Eryx
Punic Occupation
Ca. 330 - 260 BC
Denomination D
Av.: Female head left
Rev.: Anepigraphic. Horse prancing right
4,95 Gr.
BC. CNS I. p. 286, nos. 20-21 st 1., HGC 2 - 328 (R1)
nummis durensis
Etenna.png
Etenna, Pisidia16 viewsEtenna, Pisidia. AE15. 1st C. BC. Two male figures, naked, chlamys over shoulders, each holding bipennis (double axe) and sickle or crooked knives, running side-by-side / Female figure advancing right, grappling with snake which is rearing up, attacking her. Overturned amphora to left. Von Aulock, Pisidia II, 433; SNG BN Paris 1533. Rob D
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ETRURIA, Central Italy Uncertain City AE26, 300-250BC.66 viewsETRURIA, Central Italy Uncertain City AE26, 300-250BC. Male figure with Scepter (or lance) and Patera n. l. standing. Dog Rt. Holding a Aryballos in the muzzle hanging on cords for R. 10.17 G. SNG Cop. 44. P. Visonà, Due monete etrusche inedite e rare into collezioni italiane, SNR 79 (2000), 30, fig. 5. Very rare. Dark Green patina.

The Etruscan civilization was responsible for much of the Greek culture imported into early Republican Rome, including the twelve Olympian gods, the growing of olives and grapes, the Latin alphabet (adapted from the Greek alphabet), and architecture like the arch, sewerage and drainage systems.
1 commentsancientone
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Euboea, Eretria18 viewsAE13
400-200 B.C.
13mm, 1.89g

Obverse:
Bull standing right, club above.

Reverse:
EVBOI
Bunch of grapes on vine branch.
rubadub
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Euboia, Histiaia, BMC 128, 30ff.64 viewsEuboia, Histiaia, 196-146 BC
AR - tetrobol, 13.37mm, 2.3g
obv. Bust of nymph Histiaia, draped, wearing necklace and ear-ring, hair rolled up,
decorated with wine-grapes, r.
rev. [ISTI] - AIEWN
Nymph Histiaia, in long garment, holding stylis, std. r. on stern of galley,
ornamented with wings
beneath monogram (ME?) and trident
ref. BMC 128, 30ff.
VF, rev. slightly off flan

The stylis was a staff for a sail on the stern of a galley. So it can't be the prow on the rev. although it is often seen in the description.

Unusual porrtait! According to Pat Lawrence the style of the nymph seems to be from the late Hellenistic time ('Hellenistic Rokoko"), never from the 4th century BC.

This issue commemorated the expulsion of the pro-Macedonian tyrant Philistides in 340 BC. The next issue of Histiaean coins probably took place after the Euboean towns declared themselves independent in BC 313, but it does not seem to have been of long duration.
2 commentsJochen
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Euboia, Histiaia, BMC 30ff. #21 viewsEuboia, Histiaia, 196-143 BC
AR - Tetrobol, 1.32g, 13.91mm, 315°
obv. Bust of nymph Histiaia, draped, with necklace and earring, hair rolled in sphendone, wreathed with winegrapes
rev. [ISTI] - AIEWN (from lower right counterclockwise)
Nymph Histiaia in long garment, std. r. on stern of galley decorated with wing, resting with r. hand on ship's rail
and holding with extended l. hand stylis
ref. BMC 128, 30ff.; SNG Copenhagen 517 var.
VF/F+, small irregular flan
Jochen
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EUBOIA, Histiaia. 4th-3rd centuries BC. 34 viewsAE 14mm.

Wreathed head of the nymph Histiaia right

Bull standing right, head facing; grape bunches on vine in background; labrys before.

BCD Euboia 445; SNG Copenhagen 510 var.; Laffaille 121.
1 commentsDino
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EUBOIAN LEAGUE19 views304 - 290 BC
AE 16.5 mm; 2.96 g
O: Cow standing left, star above, magistrate's monogram below, in a circle of dots
R: EY-BO-[EWN] Two bunches of grapes, and three tendrils, star above
EUBOEA, Eretria
Ref: Wallace S. 128, 2; also cf BMC 34,Taf. XVII, 15. Picard S. 169, Em. 17
laney
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First Jewish War, AD 66-7013 viewsAE Prutah, 17mm, 3g, 6h; Jerusalem, AD 68/9.
Obv.: שנת שלוש (Year Three); Amphora with broad, fringed rim and two handles.
Rev.: חרות ציונ (Freedom of Zion); Grape leaf on vine.
Reference: Hendin 1363.
Notes: ex-Zuzim, electronic sale 3/16/15, 46.
John Anthony
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flaviopolis001a1 viewsElagabalus
Flaviopolis, Cilicia

Obv: M AVP ANTΩNƐINOC CƐ-B. laureate draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind.
Rev: ΦΛΑVΙΟΠΟΛƐΙΤΩΝ ƐΤ ϚΜΡ. Draped bust of Dionysus, right, wearing wreath and holding thyrsus over shoulder; to right, bunch of grapes.
26 mm, 8.83 gms

RPC Online 7452; SNG Levante---.

From Gorny & Mosch Auction 265, lot 1076.
1 commentsCharles M
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flaviopolis001b0 viewsElagabalus
Flaviopolis, Cilicia

Obv: M AVP ANTΩNƐINO-C CƐB. laureate head right.
Rev: ΦΛΑVΙΟΠΟΛƐΙΤΩΝ ƐΤ ϚΜΡ. Draped bust of Dionysus, right, wearing wreath and holding thyrsus over shoulder; to right, bunch of grapes.
27 mm, 13.16 gms

RPC Online 7451; SNG Levante---.

From Ares Numismatics Web Auction 5, lot 532.
Charles M
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Fonteia 942 viewsFonteia 9 (85BC) moneyer Mn. Fonteius (brother of Crawford 347?)

Denarius
Ob:Laureate head of Apollo right below fulmen behind MN(ligate) ∙ FONTEI ∙ C ∙ F (NT(ligate) downwards before monogram for Apollo (?), border of dots
Rev: Cupid on goat right above pilei in exergue thyrsus around laurel wreath, border of dots

BMCRR I 2476

Sydenham 724a

Crawford 353/1a

Northumberland Tablet VII 21
obv note “…has been designated Apollo vejovius. But as Ovid alludes to his not having the fulmen till the conflict with the Titans, and as Eckhel produces a copy with EX before AP- and reads it ex argento publico- the meaning is uncertain.”
Rev note: “This has been called Cupid, but there is no attribute of bow or arrow, whence Havercamp is of the opinion that the thyrsus denotes Bacchus, while Eckhel thinks it is the Etruscan Vejovius himself- the goat being a sacrifice peculiar to him.
On the whole the device seems to elude to the native haunts of the moneyer, for the curetes who guarded the little Jupiter were the Dioscuri, whose pilei and myrtle are here seen, and who were worshipped at Tusculum with special honor. Moreover, although the thyrsus is certainly an attribute of Bacchus, the myrtle belongs to the twins, and they may therefore have been considered the Dii Penates of the gens.”

Crawford: Monogram under chin Apollo; reverse is clearly Dionysiac. Grueber and Sydenham believe that the monogram under obverse head is Roma not Apollo. Head also Vejovis with winged genius on reverse.

Ex: CNG ex: Harry Strickhausen (misattributed by CNG; monograph under chin faint, but legible) 19mm, 3.93g
2 commentsPetrus Elmsley
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France, La Turbie - Trophée des Alpes229 viewsThis Augustan trophy towers over the French Riviera and Monaco. It celebrates Augustus' pacification of the Alps and his victory over 45 tribes. (also mentioned by Pliny, Nat. Hist. III,136-137) Pity about the rainy weather when this photograph was taken.
Syltorian
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French Henry II Count Of Champagne15 viewsEarly Feudal Comb type from Proving region.
Traders at the famous Champagne fairs gave them wide geographical range.
Count Henry hosted six major fairs in the region.
Obv.: CASTRI PRVVINS. Comb of Champagne, 'V' made of three triangles above, annulet on either side, legend begining at 10hr.
REV: +HENRI COMES Pattee with annulet in all 4 quarters
Date;1181-1197 AD
Mint: Provins
20mm
1.03g
Roberts 4726
wileyc
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Gaius Julius Caesar212 viewsFebruary-March 44 BC. AR Denarius (19mm, 3.90 g, 5h). Rome mint. P. Sepullius Macer, moneyer. Laureate and veiled head right / Venus standing left, holding Victory and scepter; shield at base of scepter. Crawford 480/13; CRI 107d; Sydenham 1074; RSC 39. From the Jörg Müller Collection.

Alföldi arranges Crawford 480 series coins in (44 BC) month order as follows:

RRC 480/1, Buca - January
RRC 480/2, DICT QVART - early February
RRC 480/3/4/5, CAESAR IMP - late February
RRC 480/6/7/8/9/10/11/12/13/14, DICT PERPETVO - early to mid March
RRC 480/17/18, CAESAR IMPER - late March
RRC 480/19/20, PARENS PATRIAE - April
RRC 480/15/16, MARIDIANVS - April
RRC 480/21/22, CLEMENTIAE CAESARIS and Mark Antony - April

"Iconography, historical meaning:

The rev. can be understand easily: The Iulians ascribed their gens back to Aeneas who was the son of Venus (Aphrodite) and Anchises.Venus was the tutelary goddess of the gens Iulia and hence of Caesar. 46 BC Caesar has consecrated together with his new built forum also the temple of Venus Genetrix, the ancestress of his gens. On this denarius with Victory, spear and shield it is rather Venus Victrix.

The portrait on obv. is imposing by its realistic depiction. It was for the first time that a living ruler was pictured on a Roman coin. This too raised suspicion that Caesar - even if he wasn't acclaimed king - would behave as such.

Caesar's portrait attracts attention by the wreath he is wearing. It protrudes notable wide beyond his forehead. Furthermore it is padded and very ragged. This characteristic received too little attention until now. There is every indication that it is not a usual wreath but a corona graminea, a Grass or Blockade crown. This crown was dedicated by the army to that commander who has freed them from an encirclement and saved them from certain death. The crown was composed from flowers and tuft of grass which was plucked at the location of their liberation. This crown was regarded as the highest of all crowns! Pliny (nat. 22, 6) has known only of 8 persons with this honour:
1. Lucius Siccius Dentatus, tribunus plebis 454 BC
2. Publius Decius Mus, 343 BC, 1st Samnite War, dedicated even by 2 armies!
3. Marcus Calpurnius Flamma, 258 BC, at Carmina on Sicily
4. Quintus Fabius Maximus, after the departure of the Carthaginians from Italy, 203 BC
(dedicated by the Senate and the people of Rome, possibly posthumous)
5. Scipio Aemilianus Africanus
6. Gnaeus Petreius Atinas, centurio during the war against the Cimbri
7. Lucius Cornelius Sulla, during the Allied War at Nola 89 BC
8. Quintus Sertorius, 97 BC aa military tribune in Spain under Titu Ddius.
To Caesar and Augustus the crown was dedicated by the Senate!

The veil Caesar is wearing as Pontifex Maximus for lifetime.

DICTATOR PERPETVVS

During Republican times a dictator was designated when the state was in an emergency situation. His position was always temporally limited, yes, sometimes designated only for a single task. In the beginning Caesar too was dictator limited to 1 year and had to be designated again for the next year. Already 46 BC Caesar has been nominated dictator for 10 years but the title had to be renewed each year. So we know of coins with DICT, DICT ITER (= again, for the second time), IC TER (for the third time) and DICT QVART.

Since the proclamation as king has failed the title dictator disappeared from the denarii and were replaced by IMP. But soon behind Caesar's head appeares a star, a crescent, or Victory's spear stands on a star. These celestial signs - and that was understod by all - stand for divinity and should raise Caesar high above all Romans. Incompatible with the idea of a republican constituted Rome.

The point of culmination in this series is the legend DICT PERPETVO of this coin. Now the title of dictator was no more temporally limited but was valid like his office as Pontifex Maximus for all his life and it no more was necessary to confirm the title each year. That actually was a spectacular violation of the Roman constitution! The fact that he appeared at the Lupercalia on February 15. 44 BC in the ancient robe of kings strengthened the suspicion that he was looking for the kingship. In fact he has publicly
refused the royal crown that was offered to him by Marcus Antonius, but his authority to exert power was equal a king even without bearing the title of king. That was the most hateful title of the Roman Republic.

Now he has passed a line that his republican enimies couldn't tolerate any more if they still wanted to be taken seriously. So this coin actually led to his murder by the conspirators. So "The coin that kills Caesar" is by no means an exaggeration.

The planned Parthian War:

Caesar has planned a war against the Parthians. In March 44 BC he wanted to start for a campaign to the east. His assassination inhibited this intention. In science disputed are the goals which Caesar has had in mind with his war. They are reaching from a boundary adjustment, as Mommsen suggested, to world domination like Alexander the Great, as Plutarch is writing: According to him Caesar after the submission of the Parthians would go across Hyrcania at the Caspian Sea, then round the Black Sea via the Caucasus, invade the land of the Scyths, attack Germania and would finally return to Italy through the land of the Celts. In this way he would have conquered the world known to the Ancients and his limits were only the shores of the surrounding Okeanos.

Probably Sueton who was sitting directly at the sources was more realistic. And we know of the campaigns of Marcus Antonius and Augustus who surely have known Caesar's plans and have used them for their own purposes. It's clear that Caesar doesn't want to repeat the errors of Crassus who perished at Carrhae, and has tried to avoid he Parthian cavalry units. Therefore a route through Lesser Armenia is most probable. And there was hope that the Mesopotamian cities would raise against the Parthians. Caesar had gathered an army of 16(!) legions, a huge power that alone by its mere bigness would ensure the victory. Caesar was no gambler, rather a cautious and prudential commander.The famous "veni, vidi, vici" doesn't exist longer. What he actually had in mind we don't know. It's speculative. But there is every indication that it was a reorganisation of the east. And that rather by establishing client-kingdoms than creating new Roman provinces.

Probably the conspirators were afraid of Caesar's Parthian War, because a victory, which was possible or even probable, would have strengthen Caesar's position and has made him practically invulnerable." - Jochen
4 commentsNemonater
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Galen of Pergamum (ca. 130-ca. 200)17 viewsGalen of Pergamum (ca. 130-ca. 200)

Greek physician considered second only to Hippocrates of Cos in his importanc