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ABM_Postumus.jpg
80 viewsPostumus, Principal Mint, sestertius, 260

IMP C M CASS LAT POST[...],Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
SALVS AVG, Salus standing right, feeding snake held in arms
Weight 15.49g

A very rare early issue with Postumus' full name given on the obverse - normally this only occurs on radiate double-sestertii. This is struck from the same obverse die as a gold medallion in Paris with a SALVS PROVINCIARVM reverse.
Adrianus
Deutschland_Medaille_o_J__Aussenminister_Hans_Dietrich_Genscher.jpg
13 viewsDeutschland

Medaille o.J. 1990er Jahre (Kupfer-Nickel, vergoldet)

von Sir Roward Hill

auf Hans-Dietrich Genscher

Durchmesser: 39mm

Gewicht: 27,2g

Erhaltung: stempelglanz _290
Antonivs Protti
Deutschland_Medaille_1912_Krefeld_Polyhymnia_Harfe_Jubelfest.jpg
11 viewsDeutschland

Krefeld

Tragbare Medaille 1912 (Bronze, versilbert)

auf das Goldene Jubelfest d. G.V. Polyhymnia

Vs.: Frau spielt Harfe

Rs.: Schrift

Durchmesser: 34mm

Gewicht: 13,8g

Erhaltung:zaponiert, vorzüglich _1093
Antonivs Protti
Deutschland_Berlin_Medaille_o_J__Gedächtniskirche_Mahnmal.jpg
12 viewsDeutschland

Berlin

Medaille o.J. (Kupfer-Nickel, vergoldet)

von Sir Roward Hill

auf die Gedächtniskirche Berlin

Vs.: Kirche

Rs.: Adler

Gewicht: 26,8g

Durchmesser: 39mm

Erhaltung: stempelglanz _190
Antonivs Protti
PICT0242.JPG
114 viewsAn 18 tray cabinet with doors. This was one of five cabinets I built for this collector to house his collection of ancient electrum and gold.

www.CabinetsByCraig.net
cmcdon0923
3820548.jpg
10 viewsGolden Horde. temp. Töde Möngke (Mengu). AH 679-687 / AD 1280-1287. Ć Yarmaq – Multiple Pul (29mm, 7.08 g, 7h). Qrim (Crimea) mint. Undated issue. Cf. Album G2063; ICV – ; Zeno 44. Quant.Geek
T1118LG.jpg
C POBLICIUS Q F. 80 BC89 viewsHelmeted bust of Roma right / Hercules strangling the Nemean lion; bow and quiver at left; club below. Cr. 380/1.

POBLICIA, a plebian family, but of consular rank. Its cognomen on coins is Malleolus. There are fifteen varieties, all of silver, on some of which a small hammer or mallett is engraved, evidently alluding to the surname Malleolus.

The first of Heracles' twelve labours, set by King Eurystheus (his cousin) was to slay the Nemean lion.

According to one version of the myth, the Nemean lion took women as hostages to its lair in a cave near Nemea, luring warriors from nearby towns to save the damsel in distress. After entering the cave, the warrior would see the woman (usually feigning injury) and rush to her side. Once he was close, the woman would turn into a lion and kill the warrior, devouring his remains and giving the bones to Hades.

Heracles wandered the area until he came to the town of Cleonae. There he met a boy who said that if Heracles slew the Nemean lion and returned alive within 30 days, the town would sacrifice a lion to Zeus; but if he did not return within 30 days or he died, the boy would sacrifice himself to Zeus.[3] Another version claims that he met Molorchos, a shepherd who had lost his son to the lion, saying that if he came back within 30 days, a ram would be sacrificed to Zeus. If he did not return within 30 days, it would be sacrificed to the dead Heracles as a mourning offering.

While searching for the lion, Heracles fetched some arrows to use against it, not knowing that its golden fur was impenetrable; when he found and shot the lion and firing at it with his bow, he discovered the fur's protective property when the arrow bounced harmlessly off the creature's thigh. After some time, Heracles made the lion return to his cave. The cave had two entrances, one of which Heracles blocked; he then entered the other. In those dark and close quarters, Heracles stunned the beast with his club and, using his immense strength, strangled it to death. During the fight the lion bit off one of his fingers. Others say that he shot arrows at it, eventually shooting it in the unarmoured mouth.

After slaying the lion, he tried to skin it with a knife from his belt, but failed. He then tried sharpening the knife with a stone and even tried with the stone itself. Finally, Athena, noticing the hero's plight, told Heracles to use one of the lion's own claws to skin the pelt.

When he returned on the thirtieth day carrying the carcass of the lion on his shoulders, King Eurystheus was amazed and terrified. Eurystheus forbade him ever again to enter the city; in future he was to display the fruits of his labours outside the city gates. Eurystheus warned him that the tasks set for him would become increasingly difficult. He then sent Heracles off to complete his next quest, which was to destroy the Lernaean hydra.

The Nemean lion's coat was impervious to the elements and all but the most powerful weapons. Others say that Heracles' armour was, in fact, the hide of the lion of Cithaeron.
ecoli
GB-HalfSov-1901-029500.jpg
Great Britain: gold half-sovereign of Queen Victoria, 1901, from the Terner Collection28 viewslordmarcovan
iersab.jpg
Kingdom of JERUSALEM. Struck during the siege of Jerusalem by Sibylla, Queen of Jerusalem and Balian of Ibelin in 1187 . Bi Denier .114 viewsKingdom of Jerusalem . Struck during the siege of Jerusalem by Sibylla, Queen of Jerusalem and Balian of Ibelin in 1187 . Bi Denier .
+ TVRRIS DAVIT (legend retrograde), Tower of David
+ SЄPVLChRVM DOMINI, view of the Church of the Holy Sepulcher
Slocum 288; cf. C.J. Sabine, “Numismatic iconography of the Tower of David and the Holy Sepulchre,” NC 1979, pl. 17, 3; N. du Quesne Bird, “Two deniers from Jerusalem, Jordan,” NumCirc LXXIII.5 (May 1965), p. 109; Metcalf, Crusades, p. 77; CCS 51.
Very Rare . Thirteen known example .
The Ernoul chronicle refers to Balian of Ibelin and the patriarch Heraclius of Jerusalem stripped the silver and gold edicule from the Church of the Holy Sepulcher for striking coins to pay those defending the city at it's last stand .
2 commentsVladislav D
KAFFA_PUL_cm.jpg
Pul with Kaffa c/m5 views
CRIMEA, GOLDEN HORDE, (with Genoese countermark)

Anonymous AE - Pul

Obverse: uncertain Ornament, Kaffa Genoese trading colony; Circular countermark arms of Genoa with partitioned portal, within circular frame of dots.

Reverse: uncertain Ornament

Mint: Uncertain (Bulghar?)

Minted: 14th Century (?) cm - 1420 - 1475

Notes: Fair/Fair(c/m a/VF), Crude

Ref: Retowski, Coins with Genoese Countermarks 2


jimbomar
00055x00~0.jpg
46 viewsHAITI, Premier République. Jean Pierre Boyer. President, 1825-1843
Brass 50 Centimes (25.5mm, 4.26 g, 12h)
Contemporary counterfeit. Dated L'An 25 of the Republic (AD 1828/9)
J * BOYER * PRESIDENTE *, AN 25
Bust left
REPUBLIQUE D'HAITI */ 50 * C
Palm tree flanked by cannon and banners
KM 20a; cf. Arroyo 105 (for official issue); Lissade 96; iNumis 25, lot 1352

On 1 June 1835, local officials arrested engraver Joseph Gardner of Belleville on charges of counterfeiting. When searching his house, officials discovered dies for Spanish 8 reales in various states of completion, coining implements, a bag of gold dust, and several bags of "spurious Haytien coppers." Yet Gardner was not the only individual striking illicit Haitian coins. James Bishop of neighboring Bloomfield, New Jersey had been arrested several months before, and a third person was responsible for the issue brought to Haiti by Jeremiah Hamilton.

Today, two distinct issues of counterfeits can be identified: a group of 25 and 50 Centimes, clearly related in fabric, and two different dates of 100 Centimes. The smaller denominations are most often found lacking a silver plating, while the plating year 26 100 Centimes is fine enough to deceive the likes of NGC and Heritage. Additionally, there are a handful year 27 100 centimes overstruck on US large cents. While I have not yet found a regular strike from these dies, they are the most likely candidate for Belleville's production.
Ardatirion
973330.jpg
32 viewsBRITISH TOKENS, Tudor. temp. Mary–Edward VI.1553-1558.
PB Token (27mm, 5.29 g). St. Nicholas (‘Boy Bishop’) type. Cast in East Anglia (Bury St. Edmund’s?)
Mitre, croizer to right; all within border
Long cross pattée with trefoils in angles; scrollwork border
Rigold, Tokens class X.B, 1; Mitchiner & Skinner group Ra, 1

Ex Classical Numismatic Review XXXIX.1 (Spring 2014), no. 973330

Britain in the late middle ages played host to a popular regional variant of the ‘Feast of Fools’ festival. Every year on the feast of St. Nicholas, a boy was elected from among the local choristers to serve as ‘bishop.’ Dressed in mitre and bearing the croizer of his office, the young boy paraded through the city accompanied by his equally youthful ‘priest’ attendants. The ‘bishop’ performed all the ceremonies and offices of the real bishop, save for the actual conducting of mass. Though this practice was extinguished with the Dissolution of the Monasteries in 1539, it was briefly revived under Queen Mary, who took particular interest in the festival, when the lucky boy was referred to as ‘Queen Mary’s Child.’ The celebration of the boy bishop died out completely early in the reign of Elizabeth.

Evidence of this custom is particularly prevalent in East Anglia, specifically at Bury St. Edmunds. Beginning in the late 15th century, the region produced numerous lead tokens bearing the likeness of a bishop, often bearing legends relating to the festival of St. Nicholas. Issued in sizes roughly corresponding to groats, half groats, and pennies, these pieces were undoubtedly distributed by the boy bishop himself, and were likely redeemable at the local abbey or guild for treats and sweetmeats. Considering the endemic paucity of small change in Britain at the time, it is likely that, at least in parts of East Anglia, these tokens entered circulation along with the other private lead issues that were becoming common.
Ardatirion
lg004_quad_sm.jpg
"As de Nîmes" or "crocodile" Ӕ dupondius of Nemausus (9 - 3 BC), honoring Augustus and Agrippa29 viewsIMP DIVI F , Heads of Agrippa (left) and Augustus (right) back to back, Agrippa wearing rostral crown and Augustus the oak-wreath / COL NEM, crocodile right chained to palm-shoot with short dense fronds and tip right; two short palm offshoots left and right below, above on left a wreath with two long ties streaming right.

Ӕ, 24.5 x 3+ mm, 13.23g, die axis 3h; on both sides there are remains of what appears to be gold plating, perhaps it was a votive offering? Rough edges and slight scrapes on flan typical for this kind of coin, due to primitive technology (filing) of flan preparation.

IMPerator DIVI Filius. Mint of COLonia NEMausus (currently Nîmes, France). Known as "As de Nîmes", it is actually a dupontius (lit. "two-pounder") = 2 ases (sometimes cut in halves to get change). Dupondii were often made out of a golden-colored copper alloy (type of brass) "orichalcum" and this appears to be such case.

Key ID points: oak-wreath (microphotography shows that at least one leaf has a complicated shape, although distinguishing oak from laurel is very difficult) – earlier versions have Augustus bareheaded, no PP on obverse as in later versions, no NE ligature, palm with short fronds with tip right (later versions have tip left and sometimes long fronds). Not typical: no clear laurel wreath together with the rostral crown, gold plating (!), both features really buffling.

But still clearly a "middle" kind of the croc dupondius, known as "type III": RIC I 158, RPC I 524, Sear 1730. It is often conservatively dated to 10 BC - 10 AD, but these days it is usually narrowed to 9/8 - 3 BC.

It is a commemorative issue, honoring the victory over Mark Antony and conquest of Egypt in 30 BC. The heads of Augustus and Agrippa were probably positioned to remind familiar obverses of Roman republican coins with two-faced Janus. Palm branch was a common symbol of victory, in this case grown into a tree, like the victories of Augustus and Agrippa grown into the empire. The two offshoots at the bottom may mean two sons of Agrippa, Gaius and Lucius, who were supposed to be Augustus' heirs and were patrons of the colony. Palm may also be a symbol of the local Nemausian deity, which was probably worshiped in a sacred grove. When these coins were minted, the colony was mostly populated by the settled veterans of Augustus' campaigns, hence the reminiscence of the most famous victory, but some of the original Celtic culture probably survived and was assimilated by Romans. The crocodile is not only the symbol of Egypt, like in the famous Octavian's coins AEGYPTO CAPTA. It is also a representation of Mark Antony, powerful and scary both in water and on land, but a bit slow and stupid. The shape of the crocodile with tail up was specifically chosen to remind of the shape of ship on very common "legionary" denarius series, which Mark Antony minted to pay his armies just before Actium. It is probably also related to the popular contemporary caricature of Cleopatra, riding on and simultaneously copulating with a crocodile, holding a palm branch in her hand as if in triumph. There the crocodile also symbolized Mark Antony.

Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa was born c. 64-62 BC somewhere in rural Italy. His family was of humble and plebeian origins, but rich, of equestrian rank. Agrippa was about the same age as Octavian, and the two were educated together and became close friends. He probably first served in Caesar's Spanish campaign of 46–45 BC. Caesar regarded him highly enough to send him with Octavius in 45 BC to train in Illyria. When Octavian returned to Rome after Caesar's assassination, Agrippa became his close lieutenant, performing many tasks. He probably started his political career in 43 BC as a tribune of the people and then a member of the Senate. Then he was one of the leading Octavian's generals, finally becoming THE leading general and admiral in the civil wars of the subsequent years.

In 38 as a governor of Transalpine Gaul Agrippa undertook an expedition to Germania, thus becoming the first Roman general since Julius Caesar to cross the Rhine. During this foray he helped the Germanic tribe of Ubii (who previously allied themselves with Caesar in 55 BC) to resettle on the west bank of the Rhine. A shrine was dedicated there, possibly to Divus Caesar whom Ubii fondly remembered, and the village became known as Ara Ubiorum, "Altar of Ubians". This quickly would become an important Roman settlement. Agrippina the Younger, Agrippa's granddaughter, wife of Emperor Claudius and mother of Emperor Nero, would be born there in 15 AD. In 50 AD she would sponsor this village to be upgraded to a colonia, and it would be renamed Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium (colony of Claudius [at] the Altar of Agrippinians – Ubii renamed themselves as Agrippinians to honor the augusta!), abbreviated as CCAA, later to become the capital of new Roman province, Germania Inferior.

In 37 BC Octavian recalled Agrippa back to Rome and arranged for him to win the consular elections, he desperately needed help in naval warfare with Sextus Pompey, the youngest son of Pompey the Great, who styled himself as the last supporter of the republican cause, but in reality became a pirate king, an irony since his father was the one who virtually exterminated piracy in all the Roman waters. He forced humiliating armistice on the triumvirs in 39 BC and when Octavian renewed the hostilities a year later, defeated him in a decisive naval battle of Messina. New fleet had to be built and trained, and Agrippa was the man for the job. Agrippa's solution was creating a huge secret naval base he called Portus Iulius by connecting together lakes Avernus, Avernus and the natural inner and outer harbors behind Cape Misenum at the northern end of the Gulf of Naples. He also created a larger type of ship and developed a new naval weapon: harpax – a ballista-launched grapnel shot with mechanisms that allowed pulling enemy ships close for easy boarding. It replaced the previous boarding device that Romans used since the First Punic War, corvus – effective, but extremely cumbersome. A later defence against it were scythe blades on long poles for cutting ropes, but since this invention was developed in secret, the enemy had no chance to prepare anything like it. It all has proved extremely effective: in a series of naval engagements Agrippa annihilated the fleet of Sextus, forced him to abandon his bases and run away. For this Agrippa was awarded an unprecedented honour that no Roman before or after him received: a rostral crown, "corona rostrata", a wreath decorated in front by a prow and beak of a ship.

That's why Virgil (Aeneid VIII, 683-684), describing Agrippa at Actium, says: "…belli insigne superbum, tempora navali fulgent rostrata corona." "…the proud military decoration, gleams on his brow the naval rostral crown". Actium, the decisive battle between forces of Octavian and Mark Antony, may appear boring compared to the war with Sextus, but it probably turned out this way due to Agrippa's victories in preliminary naval engagements and taking over all the strategy from Octavian.

In between the wars Agrippa has shown an unusual talent in city planning, not only constructing many new public buildings etc., but also greatly improving Rome's sanitation by doing a complete overhaul of all the aqueducts and sewers. Typically, it was Augustus who later would boast that "he had found the city of brick but left it of marble", forgetting that, just like in his naval successes, it was Agrippa who did most of the work. Agrippa had building programs in other Roman cities as well, a magnificent temple (currently known as Maison Carrée) survives in Nîmes itself, which was probably built by Agrippa.

Later relationship between Augustus and Agrippa seemed colder for a while, Agrippa seemed to even go into "exile", but modern historians agree that it was just a ploy: Augustus wanted others to think that Agrippa was his "rival" while in truth he was keeping a significant army far away from Rome, ready to come to the rescue in case Augustus' political machinations fail. It is confirmed by the fact that later Agrippa was recalled and given authority almost equal to Augustus himself, not to mention that he married Augustus' only biological child. The last years of Agrippa's life were spent governing the eastern provinces, were he won respect even of the Jews. He also restored Crimea to Roman Empire. His last service was starting the conquest of the upper Danube, were later the province of Pannonia would be. He suddenly died of illness in 12 BC, aged ~51.

Agrippa had several children through his three marriages. Through some of his children, Agrippa would become ancestor to many subsequent members of the Julio-Claudian dynasty. He has numerous other legacies.
Yurii P
IMITATIVE OTTOMAN.jpg
*IMITATION OTTOMAN Cedid Mahmudiye965 viewsThis piece came in a bag of modern Foreign coins - 21 pounds! May be gold inside!!!
The dating did not seem right to me! From the experts at Zeno, I found a similar issue..... This attribution from Zeno:
Imitation of gold cedid mahmudiye (KM, Turkey #645) with distorted inscriptions and fantasy regnal year 78. Made for jewelry purposes throughout the 19th and early 20th century, very likely outside Turkey: similar imitations are met in abundance in South Russia and Ukraine, along the shores of Black and Azov seas, where they were widely used for adorning Gypsy and native Greek women's garments.

So, as you see, it is not exactly a FAKE or a COUNTERFEIT - it is an IMITATION, so the makers could not get into trouble. The regnal years alone would show that the coin was not "real" -

An interesting piece that may turn up from time to time!
dpaul7
nurnberg_1_kreuzer_1773.jpg
*SOLD*20 views Nürnberg - 1 Kreuzer

Attribution: KM #367; 'Stadtansichtskreuzer von Nürnberg' (city-view Kreuzer of Nuremberg) is the specific type
Date: AD 1773
Obverse: View of Nuremberg in Bavaria/Germany, Providence of God above, 1773 below
Reverse: Three Coat of Arms of Nuremberg – 1) Top is 'Freie und Reichsstadt' ('Free city and city of the German Empire), the meaning is that Nuremberg has no other ruler above it than
the Emperor himself; 2) right is a half eagle, black on golden field, in the l. half, and six red and six silver oblique stripes in the r. field; 3) left shows a golden harpyia (mythic bird) on a blue field, has a female head and is crowned.
Noah
AugI439.jpg
- 27 BC - 14 AD - Augustus - RIC I 439 - As with "S C" Reverse105 viewsEmperor: Augustus (r. 27 BC - 14 AD)
Date: 6 BC
Condition: Fair
Denomination: As

Obverse: CAESAR AVGVST PONT MAX TRIBVNIC POT
Caesar Augustus Chief Priest Tribune
Bare head right

Reverse: SEX NONIVS QVINCTILIAN IIIVIR AAAFF around S C.
Sex. Nonius Quinctilianus of The Three Men for Striking and Casting Gold, Silver and Bronze by Senatorial Decree.

Rome mint
RIC I Augustus 439
10.07g; 26.5mm; 270°
1 commentsPep
AugI425.jpg
- 27 BC-14 AD - Augustus - RIC I 425 - Cornucopia and Altar Quadrans63 viewsEmperor: Augustus (r. 27 BC - 14 AD)
Date: 8 BC
Condition: VF
Denomination: Quadrans

Obverse: PVLCHER TAVRVS REGVLVS
Pulcher Taurus Regulus (moneyer)
S - C to left and right of cornucopia

Reverse: IIIVIR AAAFF round garlanded altar
The Three Men for Striking and Casting Gold, Silver and Bronze.

Rome mint
RIC I Augustus 425
3.14g; 18.2mm; 15°
Pep
LarryW1828.jpg
- SR 1395 Julius Caesar157 viewsGold aureus, 7.79g, VF
Struck 46 BC at Rome; Aulus Hirtius, Praetor
C CAESAR COS TER, veiled bust of Vesta (?) to right / A HIRTIVS PR, jug between lituus and axe.
Sear 1395; Craw 466/1
5 commentsLawrence Woolslayer
Nero.jpg
002 - Nero (54-68 AD), as - RIC 54369 viewsObv: IMP NERO CAESAR AVG P MAX TR P P P, laureate head left.
Rev: S - C, Victory flying left holding shield inscribed S P Q R.
Minted in Lugdunum c. 66 AD.

The shield held by Victory is the golden shield that was dedicated to Augustus by the Senate and Roman People (S. P. Q. R.) in recognition of his classic, cardinal virtues. By placing the shield and Victory on his coin, Nero was claiming these same virtues were part of his regime. (From: Forum Ancient Coin´s catalog nr 28743, after Roman History from Coins by Michael Grant).
3 commentspierre_p77
Aigina_turtle.jpg
002a, Aigina, Islands off Attica, Greece, c. 510 - 490 B.C.82 viewsSilver stater, S 1849, SNG Cop 503, F, 12.231g, 22.3mm, Aigina (Aegina) mint, c. 510 - 490 B.C.; Obverse: sea turtle (with row of dots down the middle); Reverse: incuse square of “Union Jack” pattern; banker's mark obverse. Ex FORVM.


Greek Turtles, by Gary T. Anderson

Turtles, the archaic currency of Aegina, are among the most sought after of all ancient coins. Their early history is somewhat of a mystery. At one time historians debated whether they or the issuances of Lydia were the world's earliest coins. The source of this idea comes indirectly from the writings of Heracleides of Pontus, a fourth century BC Greek scholar. In the treatise Etymologicum, Orion quotes Heracleides as claiming that King Pheidon of Argos, who died no later than 650 BC, was the first to strike coins at Aegina. However, archeological investigations date the earliest turtles to about 550 BC, and historians now believe that this is when the first of these intriguing coins were stamped.

Aegina is a small, mountainous island in the Saronikon Gulf, about midway between Attica and the Peloponnese. In the sixth century BC it was perhaps the foremost of the Greek maritime powers, with trade routes throughout the eastern half of the Mediterranean. It is through contacts with Greeks in Asia Minor that the idea of coinage was probably introduced to Aegina. Either the Lydians or Greeks along the coast of present day Turkey were most likely the first to produce coins, back in the late seventh century. These consisted of lumps of a metal called electrum (a mixture of gold and silver) stamped with an official impression to guarantee the coin was of a certain weight. Aegina picked up on this idea and improved upon it by stamping coins of (relatively) pure silver instead electrum, which contained varying proportions of gold and silver. The image stamped on the coin of the mighty sea power was that of a sea turtle, an animal that was plentiful in the Aegean Sea. While rival cities of Athens and Corinth would soon begin limited manufacture of coins, it is the turtle that became the dominant currency of southern Greece. The reason for this is the shear number of coins produced, estimated to be ten thousand yearly for nearly seventy years. The source for the metal came from the rich silver mines of Siphnos, an island in the Aegean. Although Aegina was a formidable trading nation, the coins seemed to have meant for local use, as few have been found outside the Cyclades and Crete. So powerful was their lure, however, that an old proverb states, "Courage and wisdom are overcome by Turtles."

The Aeginean turtle bore a close likeness to that of its live counterpart, with a series of dots running down the center of its shell. The reverse of the coin bore the imprint of the punch used to force the face of the coin into the obverse turtle die. Originally this consisted of an eight-pronged punch that produced a pattern of eight triangles. Later, other variations on this were tried. In 480 BC, the coin received its first major redesign. Two extra pellets were added to the shell near the head of the turtle, a design not seen in nature. Also, the reverse punch mark was given a lopsided design.

Although turtles were produced in great quantities from 550 - 480 BC, after this time production dramatically declines. This may be due to the exhaustion of the silver mines on Siphnos, or it may be related to another historical event. In 480 BC, Aegina's archrival Athens defeated Xerxes and his Persian armies at Marathon. After this, it was Athens that became the predominant power in the region. Aegina and Athens fought a series of wars until 457 BC, when Aegina was conquered by its foe and stripped of its maritime rights. At this time the coin of Aegina changed its image from that of the sea turtle to that of the land tortoise, symbolizing its change in fortunes.

The Turtle was an object of desire in ancient times and has become so once again. It was the first coin produced in Europe, and was produced in such great quantities that thousands of Turtles still exist today. Their historical importance and ready availability make them one of the most desirable items in any ancient coin enthusiast's collection.

(Greek Turtles, by Gary T. Anderson .
1 commentsCleisthenes
VHC01-coin.jpg
01- AUSTRALIA: 1 SOVEREIGN, KM13, (1901-M)60 viewsSize: 22.05 mm. Composition: .917 Gold/.2354 oz. Mintage: 3,012,000 ("S" mintmark)- 3,987,000 ("M" mintmark)- 2,889,000 ("P" mintmark).
Grade: PCGS AU58 (Cert. # 5820151).
Comments: Purchased 3/1/10 from eBay seller "akbeez".
lordmarcovan
Augustus_Tarpeia.jpg
02 01 Augustus. Tarpeia111 viewsAugustus. 27 B.C.-14 A.D. AR. Denarius. Rome Mint. 19-18 B.C. 3.5g, 20 mm. Obv: CAESAR AVGVSTS, bare head righ. Rev: TVRPILIANVS III VIR, Tarpeia facing, buried to the waist in shields. RIC I 299. RSC 494, BMC 29.

Tarpeia, daughter of the commander of the citadel, betrayed her fellow Romans to the Sabines when they came to attack Rome. Tarpeia offered to admit the Sabines into the city in return for what they wore on their arms. She had in mind the gold torques the Sabines usually wore. The Sabines agreed, but disgusted by her greed, the gave her the shields they worn on their arms and put her to death by crushing her under their shields. She was then thrown from a high cliff above the city. The Tarpeian Rock, from which traitors were thrown in Rome, is named after her.
4 commentsLucas H
540152_498248696878713_800190106_n.jpg
04 Constantius II71 viewsD N CONSTAN-TIVS P F AVG, diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right, A behind/ FEL TEMP RE-PARATIO soldier spearing falling enemy horseman, hair straight up, reaching backwards, LXXII to left, S between AQS in ex.
RIC Aquileia 193


"The reverse mark LXXII refers to the a standard of 72 coins to the pound. The gold solidus and silver light miliarense were both also struck at this c. 4.5 gram standard."
Randygeki(h2)
LarryW1921.jpg
0620v Focas, 602-61041 viewsGold solidus, 22.29mm, 4.48g, brilliant, Mint State
Struck c. 607-610 at Constantinople
d N FOCAS PERP AV, crowned, draped and cuirased bust facing, holding globus cruciger in raised right hand / VICTORIA AVGU E, angel standing facing, holding long staff surmounted by chi-rho monogram in right hand and orb surmounted by cross (globus cruciger) in left; CONOB in exg.
Certificate of Authenticity by David R. Sear, ACCS
Ex: Glenn W. Woods; Leu Auction 75, Zurich, 25-27 October 1999, lot 1629
cf. Sear 620; DOC 10e 1-5; MIB 9; Wroth (BMC) 10; Tolstoi 8; Ratto 1181 - all with obverse legend ending AVG
Lawrence Woolslayer
LarryW1920.jpg
0631 Focas, 602-61024 viewsGold semissis, 20.03mm, 2.11g, EF
d N FOCAS PER AVG, diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right / VICTORIA AVGU, Victory advancing right, head left, holding wreath and globus cruciger; CONOB in exg.
Scarce, some double-striking
Certificate of Authenticity by David R. Sear, ACCS
Ex: Glenn W. Woods
Sear 631; DO 16; MIB 25; Wroth/BMC 28-9; Tolstoi 29-31; Ratto 1205; CBN 32-4
Lawrence Woolslayer
LarryW1919.jpg
0634 Focas, 602-61044 viewsGold tremissis, 18.18mm, 1.52g, EF
Struck c. 607-610 at Constantinople
dN FOCAS PER AVG, diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right / VICTORI FOCAS AVG, cross potent, CONOB beneath
Certificate of Authenticity by David R. Sear, ACCS
Ex: Glenn W. Woods
Sear 634; DO 19; MIB 27; Wroth/BMC 30-32; Ratto 1206; CBN 40-43
Lawrence Woolslayer
LarryW1918.jpg
0635 Focas, 602-61038 viewsGold half tremissis (1/6 solidus), 14.34mm, 0.72g, aEF
Struck c. 607-610 at Constantinople
dN FOCAS PER AV, diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right, beardless / VICTORI FOCAS AV, cross potent, CONOB beneath.
Extremely rare with three known specimens; the smallest gold denomination in the Byzantine series.
Certificate of Authenticity by David R. Sear, ACCS
Ex: Glenn W. Woods; Frank Kovacs
Sear 635; cf. DOC 20; cf. MIB 29
Lawrence Woolslayer
RI_064pj_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus Sestertius - RIC 74342 viewsObv:- L SEPT SEV PERT AVG IMP X, Laureate head right
Rev:- P M TR P V COS II P P, S-C, Genius, naked, standing front, head left, sacrificing out of patera in right hand over lighted, garlanded altar left and golding two corn ears downwards in left hand
Minted in Rome A.D 197.
Reference:- RIC 743 (Rated Scarce). BMCRE 621 (same reverse die). Cohen 441.
maridvnvm
theodosius2~0.jpg
074. Theodosius II, 402-450AD. AV Solidus.487 viewsAV Solidus. Constantinople mint. Obv: DN THEODO-SIVS PF AVG - Three-quarters bust right, draped, cuirassed, holding spear over right shoulder and shield in left hand Rev: VOT XXX MVLT XXXXS - Constantinopolis seated left, holding cross on globe and scepter, her left foot sits on the prow of a galley and at rear of her throne, a shield sits; in right field, a 'star'. Exe: CONOB : AD 430-440, RIC X, 257 (s) Scarce, page 259/ 4.48 g. Choice FDC.
15 commentsLordBest
LarryW1922.jpg
0956 Contans II, AD 641-66850 viewsGold solidus, 19.44mm, 4.49g, nearly EF
Struck c. 651-654 at Constantinople
d N CONSTAN[TINU]S PP AV, crowned bust facing, with long beard and mustache, wearing chlamys and holding globus cruciger in right hand / VICTORIA AVGU I, cross potent on three steps; CO[NOB] beneath.
Areas of flatness in the striking
Certificate of Authenticity by David R. Sear, ACCS
Ex: Glenn W. Woods
Sear 956; DOC 19j; MIB 23; Wroth/BMC 36; Tolstoi 57; CBN 41
Lawrence Woolslayer
LarryW1925.jpg
0964 Constans II, AD 641-66853 viewsGold solidus, 20mm, 4.31g, EF
[legend blundered and fragmentary], facing busts of Contans II with long beard (on left), and Constantine IV, beardless (on right), each clad in chlamys, Constans wearing plumed crown (or helmet), his son wearing simple crown, cross in upper field between their heads / VICTORIA AVGU Δ, cross potent on three steps between facing standing figures of Heraclius (on left) and Tiberius (on right), both beardless, each wearing crown and chlamys and holding globus cruciger in right hand; CONOB in exergue. Some surface deposits on obverse and a little flatness in the striking affecting both sides.
Certificate of Authenticy by David R. Sear, ACCS
Ex: Forvm Ancient Coins
Sear 964; DOC 30d; MIB 31; Wroth (BMC) 55; Tolstoi 293
Lawrence Woolslayer
Elagabalus-RIC-140.jpg
10. Elagabalus.22 viewsDenarius, 218 - 219 AD, Rome mint.
Obverse: IMP CAES M AVR ANTONINVS AVG / Laureate bust of Elagabalus.
Reverse: SALVS . ANTONINI . AVG / Salus standing, feeding snake held in her arms.
2.96 gm., 19 mm
RIC #140.

At this time in Roman history, people were already looking back to the reigns of Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius as a Golden Age. Later emperors wanted to be associated with them, and to that end Septimius Severus adopted himself into the Antonine Dynasty. His son Caracalla assumed the name Antoninus as his official name, as did Elagabalus. The reverse of this coin pictures Salus, the goddess of good health and well-being. The legend expresses the wish, roughly translated, "Long live the Antonine Emperors."
1 commentsCallimachus
LarryW1853.jpg
100 Constantius II, AD 337-36171 viewsGold solidus, 20mm, 4.00g, gF
Struck AD 355-360 at Arles
FL IVL CONSTAN-TIVS PERP AVG, helmeted, diademed and cuirassed facing bust, spear across shoulder in right, shield on left arm / GLORIA REI-PVBLICAE, Roma and Constantinopolis enthroned, holding wreath with VOT XXX MVLT XXXX in four lines, */KONSTAN in ex (TAN in monogram). Graffiti on obverse fields
Ex: Forum Ancient Coins
RIC 238
Lawrence Woolslayer
coin217.JPG
105b. Lucius Verus27 viewsLucius Verus was a well educated, active participant in military and political affairs. He had a colorful personality. He is reputed to have been one of the most handsome of emperors whose vanity allowed him to highlight his blond hair with gold dust. The letters of Marcus Cornelius Fronto, teacher to Marcus and Lucius, are far gentler in their portrayal of Lucius' personality and grand life style than are the historical accounts of the biographies included in the Historia Augusta. Whether out of true respect or devoted brotherly love, it is evident that Marcus Aurelius treated Lucius as a partner in governing the empire and commanding its military forces. Typical of his tolerance of others, Marcus Aurelius chronically ignored or defused the questionable behavior and friendships of his brother.

AR Denarius (2.80 gm). Struck 162/3 AD. Bare head right / Providentia standing left holding globe and cornucopiae. RIC III 491 (Aurelius); RSC 156. VF. EX -CNG
ecoli
RIC_---_A_---_No_---_112_Probus_AE-Ant_IMP-PROBVS-INV-AVG_FELICITAS-AVG-N_XXI_RIC-(not-in)-V-II-686var_Alf_-32avar-No-_Siscia_2nd-emission_277-AD_Q-001_0h_22,5mm_3_22g-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), Siscia, Alföldi 0032.0000 (This bust Not in from this type !!!), -/-//XXI, Bust A/C, RIC V-II 686var. (This bust not listed in RIC from this type!!!), AE-Antoninianus, FELICITAS AVG N, Felicitas standing left, Extremely Rare!!!123 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), Siscia, Alföldi 0032.0000 (This bust Not in from this type !!!), -/-//XXI, Bust A/C, RIC V-II 686var. (This bust not listed in RIC from this type!!!), AE-Antoninianus, FELICITAS AVG N, Felicitas standing left, Extremely Rare!!!
avers: IMP PROBVS INV AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from front. (This bust not listed in RIC from this type!!!)
reverse: FELICITAS AVG N, Felicitas standing left by altar, holding caduceus and cornucopiae.
exergue: -/-//XXI, diameter: 22,5mm, weight: 3,22g, axis: 0h,
mint: Siscia, 2nd. emission, date: 277 A.D., ref: RIC V-II 686var., (This bust not listed in RIC from this type!!!),
Q-001
"Thank you for showing this very rare coin reverse FELICITAS AVG(usti) N(ostri), Felicitas holding a long caduceus and a cornucopiae: the draped bust seen from front is unlisted in Alföldi's work on the mint of Siscia under Probus (so ref: Alföldi 32, -), I know it from another coin in a private collection, which shares the same obverse die as yours >> unreferenced coin, two specimens, one obverse die.
The new reverses introduced at that time in the Pannonian mint of Siscia celebrate Probus as "Augustus Noster" (Our Emperor) as the emperor is of Pannonian extraction. The marking which omits the officina number is a clue for an issue of common base aureliani minted parallelly with an imperial donativum in gold.
Very nice coin..S. Estiot" Thank you S.Estiot.
1 commentsquadrans
arras.jpg
11a149 viewsThe same image as that used for image 11 in this gallery but with the background painted black and the image colour digitally manipulated to make it gold. The closest I will probably get to owning a specimen of this.3 commentsmauseus
LarryW1801.jpg
120 Honorius, AD 393–423159 viewsGold solidus, 21.2mm, 4.43g, FDC
Struck c. 408-420 at Constantinople
D N HONORI—VS P F AVC, helmeted and cuirassed bust facing slightly right, holding spear over right shoulder and shield with horseman motif on left arm / CONCORDI—A AVCC Γ, Constantinopolis enthroned facing, head right, right foot on ship's prow, holding scepter in right hand, Victory on globe in left. Star in left field, CON OB in exergue.
Certificate of Authenticity by David R. Sear, ACCS
Ex: Forvm Ancient Coins
RIC X, 201; Cohen 3; DO 778v (off B)
1 commentsLawrence Woolslayer
HENRY_III.JPG
1216 – 1272, Henry III, AR Long cross penny, Struck 1248 - 1250 at London, England44 viewsObverse: HENRICVS REX : III. Crowned bust of Henry III facing within circle of pellets. Mintmark: Six pointed star.
Reverse: NICOLE ON LVND. Voided long cross dividing legend into quarters, trefoil in each quarter of inner circle. Moneyer, Nicholas.
Diameter: 19mm | Weight: 1.3gms | Die Axis: 6
SPINK: 1363

The First Barons' War (1215–1217) was a civil war in England in which a group of rebellious barons led by Robert Fitzwalter and supported by a French army under the future Louis VIII of France, waged war against King John of England. The war resulted from King John's refusal to accept and abide by the Magna Carta, which he had been forced to put his seal to on 15th June 1215, as well as from Louis' own ambitions regarding the English throne.
It was in the middle of this war that King John died leaving his son, the nine year old Henry III (who had been moved to safety at Corfe Castle in Dorset along with his mother, Queen Isabella) as his heir.
On his deathbed John appointed a council of thirteen executors to help Henry reclaim the kingdom, requesting that his son be placed into the guardianship of William Marshal, 1st Earl of Pembroke. The loyalists decided to crown Henry immediately to reinforce his claim to the throne. William knighted the boy, and Cardinal Guala Bicchieri, the papal legate to England, then oversaw his coronation at Gloucester Cathedral on 28th October 1216. In the absence of the archbishops of either Canterbury or York, Henry was anointed by the bishops of Worcester and Exeter, and crowned by Peter des Roches, bishop of Winchester. During the civil war the royal crown had been lost, so instead, the ceremony used a simple gold corolla belonging to Queen Isabella. In 1217, Henry's forces, led by William Marshal, finally defeated the rebels at the battles of Lincoln and Sandwich.
Henry's early rule was dominated first by Hubert de Burgh, 1st Earl of Kent and Justiciar of England and Ireland, then by Peter des Roches, and they re-established royal authority after the war. In 1225 Henry promised to abide by the final and definitative version of the Magna Carta, freely authenticated by the great seal of Henry III himself, which protected the rights of the major barons and placed a limit on royal power. It is the clauses of this, the 1225 Magna Carta signed by Henry III, not the King John Magna Carta of 1215, which are on the Statute Books of the United Kingdom today.
4 comments*Alex
LarryW1852.jpg
130 Theodosius II, AD 402-45098 viewsGold solidus, 20.8mm, 4.48g, FDC
Struck AD 408-419 at Constantinople
D N THEODO-SIVS P F AVC, helmeted and cuirassed facing bust holding spear and shield decorated with horseman / CONCORDI-A AVCC Θ, Constantinopolis enthroned facing, head right, foot on prow, holding sceptre and Victory on globe, star left, CONOB in exergue
Ex: Forum Ancient Coins
RIC X, 202
1 commentsLawrence Woolslayer
DiocleAnt.jpg
1301a, Diocletian, 284-305 A.D. (Antioch)92 viewsDIOCLETIAN (284 – 305 AD) AE Antoninianus, 293-95 AD, RIC V 322, Cohen 34. 20.70 mm/3.1 gm, aVF, Antioch. Obverse: IMP C C VAL DIOCLETIANVS P F AVG, Radiate bust right, draped & cuirassed; Reverse: CONCORDIA MILITVM, Jupiter presents Victory on a globe to Diocletian, I/XXI. Early Diocletian with dusty earthen green patina.


De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Diocletian ( 284-305 A.D.)

Ralph W. Mathisen
University of South Carolina


Summary and Introduction
The Emperor Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus (A.D. 284-305) put an end to the disastrous phase of Roman history known as the "Military Anarchy" or the "Imperial Crisis" (235-284). He established an obvious military despotism and was responsible for laying the groundwork for the second phase of the Roman Empire, which is known variously as the "Dominate," the "Tetrarchy," the "Later Roman Empire," or the "Byzantine Empire." His reforms ensured the continuity of the Roman Empire in the east for more than a thousand years.

Diocletian's Early Life and Reign
Diocletian was born ca. 236/237 on the Dalmatian coast, perhaps at Salona. He was of very humble birth, and was originally named Diocles. He would have received little education beyond an elementary literacy and he was apparently deeply imbued with religious piety He had a wife Prisca and a daughter Valeria, both of whom reputedly were Christians. During Diocletian's early life, the Roman empire was in the midst of turmoil. In the early years of the third century, emperors increasingly insecure on their thrones had granted inflationary pay raises to the soldiers. The only meaningful income the soldiers now received was in the form of gold donatives granted by newly acclaimed emperors. Beginning in 235, armies throughout the empire began to set up their generals as rival emperors. The resultant civil wars opened up the empire to invasion in both the north, by the Franks, Alamanni, and Goths, and the east, by the Sassanid Persians. Another reason for the unrest in the army was the great gap between the social background of the common soldiers and the officer corps.

Diocletian sought his fortune in the army. He showed himself to be a shrewd, able, and ambitious individual. He is first attested as "Duke of Moesia" (an area on the banks of the lower Danube River), with responsibility for border defense. He was a prudent and methodical officer, a seeker of victory rather than glory. In 282, the legions of the upper Danube proclaimed the praetorian prefect Carus as emperor. Diocletian found favor under the new emperor, and was promoted to Count of the Domestics, the commander of the cavalry arm of the imperial bodyguard. In 283 he was granted the honor of a consulate.

In 284, in the midst of a campaign against the Persians, Carus was killed, struck by a bolt of lightning which one writer noted might have been forged in a legionary armory. This left the empire in the hands of his two young sons, Numerian in the east and Carinus in the west. Soon thereafter, Numerian died under mysterious circumstances near Nicomedia, and Diocletian was acclaimed emperor in his place. At this time he changed his name from Diocles to Diocletian. In 285 Carinus was killed in a battle near Belgrade, and Diocletian gained control of the entire empire.

Diocletian's Administrative and Military Reforms
As emperor, Diocletian was faced with many problems. His most immediate concerns were to bring the mutinous and increasingly barbarized Roman armies back under control and to make the frontiers once again secure from invasion. His long-term goals were to restore effective government and economic prosperity to the empire. Diocletian concluded that stern measures were necessary if these problems were to be solved. He felt that it was the responsibility of the imperial government to take whatever steps were necessary, no matter how harsh or innovative, to bring the empire back under control.

Diocletian was able to bring the army back under control by making several changes. He subdivided the roughly fifty existing provinces into approximately one hundred. The provinces also were apportioned among twelve "dioceses," each under a "vicar," and later also among four "prefectures," each under a "praetorian prefect." As a result, the imperial bureaucracy became increasingly bloated. He institutionalized the policy of separating civil and military careers. He divided the army itself into so-called "border troops," actually an ineffective citizen militia, and "palace troops," the real field army, which often was led by the emperor in person.

Following the precedent of Aurelian (A.D.270-275), Diocletian transformed the emperorship into an out-and-out oriental monarchy. Access to him became restricted; he now was addressed not as First Citizen (Princeps) or the soldierly general (Imperator), but as Lord and Master (Dominus Noster) . Those in audience were required to prostrate themselves on the ground before him.

Diocletian also concluded that the empire was too large and complex to be ruled by only a single emperor. Therefore, in order to provide an imperial presence throughout the empire, he introduced the "Tetrarchy," or "Rule by Four." In 285, he named his lieutenant Maximianus "Caesar," and assigned him the western half of the empire. This practice began the process which would culminate with the de facto split of the empire in 395. Both Diocletian and Maximianus adopted divine attributes. Diocletian was identified with Jupiter and Maximianus with Hercules. In 286, Diocletian promoted Maximianus to the rank of Augustus, "Senior Emperor," and in 293 he appointed two new Caesars, Constantius (the father of Constantine I ), who was given Gaul and Britain in the west, and Galerius, who was assigned the Balkans in the east.

By instituting his Tetrarchy, Diocletian also hoped to solve another problem. In the Augustan Principate, there had been no constitutional method for choosing new emperors. According to Diocletian's plan, the successor of each Augustus would be the respective Caesar, who then would name a new Caesar. Initially, the Tetrarchy operated smoothly and effectively.

Once the army was under control, Diocletian could turn his attention to other problems. The borders were restored and strengthened. In the early years of his reign, Diocletian and his subordinates were able to defeat foreign enemies such as Alamanni, Sarmatians, Saracens, Franks, and Persians, and to put down rebellions in Britain and Egypt. The easter frontier was actually expanded.

.
Diocletian's Economic Reforms
Another problem was the economy, which was in an especially sorry state. The coinage had become so debased as to be virtually worthless. Diocletian's attempt to reissue good gold and silver coins failed because there simply was not enough gold and silver available to restore confidence in the currency. A "Maximum Price Edict" issued in 301, intended to curb inflation, served only to drive goods onto the black market. Diocletian finally accepted the ruin of the money economy and revised the tax system so that it was based on payments in kind . The soldiers too came to be paid in kind.

In order to assure the long term survival of the empire, Diocletian identified certain occupations which he felt would have to be performed. These were known as the "compulsory services." They included such occupations as soldiers, bakers, members of town councils, and tenant farmers. These functions became hereditary, and those engaging in them were inhibited from changing their careers. The repetitious nature of these laws, however, suggests that they were not widely obeyed. Diocletian also expanded the policy of third-century emperors of restricting the entry of senators into high-ranking governmental posts, especially military ones.

Diocletian attempted to use the state religion as a unifying element. Encouraged by the Caesar Galerius, Diocletian in 303 issued a series of four increasingly harsh decrees designed to compel Christians to take part in the imperial cult, the traditional means by which allegiance was pledged to the empire. This began the so-called "Great Persecution."

Diocletian's Resignation and Death
On 1 May 305, wearied by his twenty years in office, and determined to implement his method for the imperial succession, Diocletian abdicated. He compelled his co-regent Maximianus to do the same. Constantius and Galerius then became the new Augusti, and two new Caesars were selected, Maximinus (305-313) in the east and Severus (305- 307) in the west. Diocletian then retired to his palace at Split on the Croatian coast. In 308 he declined an offer to resume the purple, and the aged ex-emperor died at Split on 3 December 316.

Copyright (C) 1996, Ralph W. Mathisen, University of South Carolina
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

1 commentsCleisthenes
DicletianConcordCyz.jpg
1301b, Diocletian, 20 November 284 - 1 March 305 A.D.56 viewsDiocletian. RIC V Part II Cyzicus 256 var. Not listed with pellet in exegrue
Item ref: RI141f. VF. Minted in Cyzicus (B in centre field, XXI dot in exegrue)Obverse:- IMP CC VAL DIOCLETIANVS AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right. Reverse:- CONCORDIA MILITVM, Diocletian standing right, holding parazonium, receiving Victory from Jupiter standing left with scepter.
A post reform radiate of Diocletian. Ex Maridvnvm.

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Diocletian ( 284-305 A.D.)

Ralph W. Mathisen
University of South Carolina


Summary and Introduction
The Emperor Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus (A.D. 284-305) put an end to the disastrous phase of Roman history known as the "Military Anarchy" or the "Imperial Crisis" (235-284). He established an obvious military despotism and was responsible for laying the groundwork for the second phase of the Roman Empire, which is known variously as the "Dominate," the "Tetrarchy," the "Later Roman Empire," or the "Byzantine Empire." His reforms ensured the continuity of the Roman Empire in the east for more than a thousand years.

Diocletian's Early Life and Reign
Diocletian was born ca. 236/237 on the Dalmatian coast, perhaps at Salona. He was of very humble birth, and was originally named Diocles. He would have received little education beyond an elementary literacy and he was apparently deeply imbued with religious piety He had a wife Prisca and a daughter Valeria, both of whom reputedly were Christians. During Diocletian's early life, the Roman empire was in the midst of turmoil. In the early years of the third century, emperors increasingly insecure on their thrones had granted inflationary pay raises to the soldiers. The only meaningful income the soldiers now received was in the form of gold donatives granted by newly acclaimed emperors. Beginning in 235, armies throughout the empire began to set up their generals as rival emperors. The resultant civil wars opened up the empire to invasion in both the north, by the Franks, Alamanni, and Goths, and the east, by the Sassanid Persians. Another reason for the unrest in the army was the great gap between the social background of the common soldiers and the officer corps.

Diocletian sought his fortune in the army. He showed himself to be a shrewd, able, and ambitious individual. He is first attested as "Duke of Moesia" (an area on the banks of the lower Danube River), with responsibility for border defense. He was a prudent and methodical officer, a seeker of victory rather than glory. In 282, the legions of the upper Danube proclaimed the praetorian prefect Carus as emperor. Diocletian found favor under the new emperor, and was promoted to Count of the Domestics, the commander of the cavalry arm of the imperial bodyguard. In 283 he was granted the honor of a consulate.

In 284, in the midst of a campaign against the Persians, Carus was killed, struck by a bolt of lightning which one writer noted might have been forged in a legionary armory. This left the empire in the hands of his two young sons, Numerian in the east and Carinus in the west. Soon thereafter, Numerian died under mysterious circumstances near Nicomedia, and Diocletian was acclaimed emperor in his place. At this time he changed his name from Diocles to Diocletian. In 285 Carinus was killed in a battle near Belgrade, and Diocletian gained control of the entire empire.

Diocletian's Administrative and Military Reforms
As emperor, Diocletian was faced with many problems. His most immediate concerns were to bring the mutinous and increasingly barbarized Roman armies back under control and to make the frontiers once again secure from invasion. His long-term goals were to restore effective government and economic prosperity to the empire. Diocletian concluded that stern measures were necessary if these problems were to be solved. He felt that it was the responsibility of the imperial government to take whatever steps were necessary, no matter how harsh or innovative, to bring the empire back under control.

Diocletian was able to bring the army back under control by making several changes. He subdivided the roughly fifty existing provinces into approximately one hundred. The provinces also were apportioned among twelve "dioceses," each under a "vicar," and later also among four "prefectures," each under a "praetorian prefect." As a result, the imperial bureaucracy became increasingly bloated. He institutionalized the policy of separating civil and military careers. He divided the army itself into so-called "border troops," actually an ineffective citizen militia, and "palace troops," the real field army, which often was led by the emperor in person.

Following the precedent of Aurelian (A.D.270-275), Diocletian transformed the emperorship into an out-and-out oriental monarchy. Access to him became restricted; he now was addressed not as First Citizen (Princeps) or the soldierly general (Imperator), but as Lord and Master (Dominus Noster) . Those in audience were required to prostrate themselves on the ground before him.

Diocletian also concluded that the empire was too large and complex to be ruled by only a single emperor. Therefore, in order to provide an imperial presence throughout the empire, he introduced the "Tetrarchy," or "Rule by Four." In 285, he named his lieutenant Maximianus "Caesar," and assigned him the western half of the empire. This practice began the process which would culminate with the de facto split of the empire in 395. Both Diocletian and Maximianus adopted divine attributes. Diocletian was identified with Jupiter and Maximianus with Hercules. In 286, Diocletian promoted Maximianus to the rank of Augustus, "Senior Emperor," and in 293 he appointed two new Caesars, Constantius (the father of Constantine I ), who was given Gaul and Britain in the west, and Galerius, who was assigned the Balkans in the east.

By instituting his Tetrarchy, Diocletian also hoped to solve another problem. In the Augustan Principate, there had been no constitutional method for choosing new emperors. According to Diocletian's plan, the successor of each Augustus would be the respective Caesar, who then would name a new Caesar. Initially, the Tetrarchy operated smoothly and effectively.

Once the army was under control, Diocletian could turn his attention to other problems. The borders were restored and strengthened. In the early years of his reign, Diocletian and his subordinates were able to defeat foreign enemies such as Alamanni, Sarmatians, Saracens, Franks, and Persians, and to put down rebellions in Britain and Egypt. The easter frontier was actually expanded.

.
Diocletian's Economic Reforms
Another problem was the economy, which was in an especially sorry state. The coinage had become so debased as to be virtually worthless. Diocletian's attempt to reissue good gold and silver coins failed because there simply was not enough gold and silver available to restore confidence in the currency. A "Maximum Price Edict" issued in 301, intended to curb inflation, served only to drive goods onto the black market. Diocletian finally accepted the ruin of the money economy and revised the tax system so that it was based on payments in kind . The soldiers too came to be paid in kind.

In order to assure the long term survival of the empire, Diocletian identified certain occupations which he felt would have to be performed. These were known as the "compulsory services." They included such occupations as soldiers, bakers, members of town councils, and tenant farmers. These functions became hereditary, and those engaging in them were inhibited from changing their careers. The repetitious nature of these laws, however, suggests that they were not widely obeyed. Diocletian also expanded the policy of third-century emperors of restricting the entry of senators into high-ranking governmental posts, especially military ones.

Diocletian attempted to use the state religion as a unifying element. Encouraged by the Caesar Galerius, Diocletian in 303 issued a series of four increasingly harsh decrees designed to compel Christians to take part in the imperial cult, the traditional means by which allegiance was pledged to the empire. This began the so-called "Great Persecution."

Diocletian's Resignation and Death
On 1 May 305, wearied by his twenty years in office, and determined to implement his method for the imperial succession, Diocletian abdicated. He compelled his co-regent Maximianus to do the same. Constantius and Galerius then became the new Augusti, and two new Caesars were selected, Maximinus (305-313) in the east and Severus (305- 307) in the west. Diocletian then retired to his palace at Split on the Croatian coast. In 308 he declined an offer to resume the purple, and the aged ex-emperor died at Split on 3 December 316.

Copyright (C) 1996, Ralph W. Mathisen, University of South Carolina
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.


Cleisthenes
LarryW1833.jpg
140 Marcian, AD 450-45763 viewsGold solidus, 20.8mm, 4.48g, brilliant, gEF
Struck at Constantinople
D N MARCIA-NVS P F AVG, diademed, helmeted and cuirassed bust facing, head slightly to right, holding spear and shield decorated with horseman spearing a fallen enemy / VICTORI-A AVCCC Z, Victory standing half left holding a long jeweled cross resting on ground, star in right field, CON OB in exergue
Certificate of Authenticity by David R. Sear, ACCS
Ex: Forum Ancient Coins
DOC 481; RIC 510; Sear 4322v
Lawrence Woolslayer
Julian2VotXConstantinople.jpg
1409a, Julian II "the Philosopher," February 360 - 26 June 363 A.D.143 viewsJulian II, A.D. 360-363; RIC 167; VF; 2.7g, 20mm; Constantinople mint; Obverse: DN FL CL IVLIANVS P F AVG, helmeted & cuirassed bust right, holding spear & shield; Reverse: VOT X MVLT XX in four lines within wreath; CONSPB in exergue; Attractive green patina. Ex Nemesis.


De Imperatoribus Romanis,
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Julian the Apostate (360-363 A.D.)

Walter E. Roberts, Emory University
Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University

Introduction

The emperor Flavius Claudius Julianus reigned from 360 to 26 June 363, when he was killed fighting against the Persians. Despite his short rule, his emperorship was pivotal in the development of the history of the later Roman empire. This essay is not meant to be a comprehensive look at the various issues central to the reign of Julian and the history of the later empire. Rather, this short work is meant to be a brief history and introduction for the general reader. Julian was the last direct descendent of the Constantinian line to ascend to the purple, and it is one of history's great ironies that he was the last non-Christian emperor. As such, he has been vilified by most Christian sources, beginning with John Chrysostom and Gregory Nazianzus in the later fourth century. This tradition was picked up by the fifth century Eusebian continuators Sozomen, Socrates Scholasticus, and Theodoret and passed on to scholars down through the 20th century. Most contemporary sources, however, paint a much more balanced picture of Julian and his reign. The adoption of Christianity by emperors and society, while still a vital concern, was but one of several issues that concerned Julian.

It is fortunate that extensive writings from Julian himself exist, which help interpret his reign in the light of contemporary evidence. Still extant are some letters, several panegyrics, and a few satires. Other contemporary sources include the soldier Ammianus Marcellinus' history, correspondence between Julian and Libanius of Antioch, several panegyrics, laws from the Theodosian Code, inscriptions, and coinage. These sources show Julian's emphasis on restoration. He saw himself as the restorer of the traditional values of Roman society. Of course much of this was rhetoric, meant to defend Julian against charges that he was a usurper. At the same time this theme of restoration was central to all emperors of the fourth century. Julian thought that he was the one emperor who could regain what was viewed as the lost glory of the Roman empire. To achieve this goal he courted select groups of social elites to get across his message of restoration. This was the way that emperors functioned in the fourth century. By choosing whom to include in the sharing of power, they sought to shape society.

Early Life

Julian was born at Constantinople in 331. His father was Julius Constantius, half-brother of the emperor Constantine through Constantius Chlorus, and his mother was Basilina, Julius' second wife. Julian had two half-brothers via Julius' first marriage. One of these was Gallus, who played a major role in Julian's life. Julian appeared destined for a bright future via his father's connection to the Constantinian house. After many years of tense relations with his three half-brothers, Constantine seemed to have welcomed them into the fold of the imperial family. From 333 to 335, Constantine conferred a series of honors upon his three half-siblings, including appointing Julius Constantius as one of the consuls for 335. Julian's mother was equally distinguished. Ammianus related that she was from a noble family. This is supported by Libanius, who claimed that she was the daughter of Julius Julianus, a Praetorian Prefect under Licinius, who was such a model of administrative virtue that he was pardoned and honored by Constantine.

Despite the fact that his mother died shortly after giving birth to him, Julian experienced an idyllic early childhood. This ended when Constantius II conducted a purge of many of his relatives shortly after Constantine's death in 337, particularly targeting the families of Constantine's half-brothers. ulian and Gallus were spared, probably due to their young age. Julian was put under the care of Mardonius, a Scythian eunuch who had tutored his mother, in 339, and was raised in the Greek philosophical tradition, and probably lived in Nicomedia. Ammianus also supplied the fact that while in Nicomedia, Julian was cared for by the local bishop Eusebius, of whom the future emperor was a distant relation. Julian was educated by some of the most famous names in grammar and rhetoric in the Greek world at that time, including Nicocles and Hecebolius. In 344 Constantius II sent Julian and Gallus to Macellum in Cappadocia, where they remained for six years. In 351, Gallus was made Caesar by Constantius II and Julian was allowed to return to Nicomedia, where he studied under Aedesius, Eusebius, and Chrysanthius, all famed philosophers, and was exposed to the Neo-Platonism that would become such a prominent part of his life. But Julian was most proud of the time he spent studying under Maximus of Ephesus, a noted Neo-Platonic philospher and theurgist. It was Maximus who completed Julian's full-scale conversion to Neo-Platonism. Later, when he was Caesar, Julian told of how he put letters from this philosopher under his pillows so that he would continue to absorb wisdom while he slept, and while campaigning on the Rhine, he sent his speeches to Maximus for approval before letting others hear them. When Gallus was executed in 354 for treason by Constantius II, Julian was summoned to Italy and essentially kept under house arrest at Comum, near Milan, for seven months before Constantius' wife Eusebia convinced the emperor that Julian posed no threat. This allowed Julian to return to Greece and continue his life as a scholar where he studied under the Neo-Platonist Priscus. Julian's life of scholarly pursuit, however, ended abruptly when he was summoned to the imperial court and made Caesar by Constantius II on 6 November 355.

Julian as Caesar

Constantius II realized an essential truth of the empire that had been evident since the time of the Tetrarchy--the empire was too big to be ruled effectively by one man. Julian was pressed into service as Caesar, or subordinate emperor, because an imperial presence was needed in the west, in particular in the Gallic provinces. Julian, due to the emperor's earlier purges, was the only viable candidate of the imperial family left who could act as Caesar. Constantius enjoined Julian with the task of restoring order along the Rhine frontier. A few days after he was made Caesar, Julian was married to Constantius' sister Helena in order to cement the alliance between the two men. On 1 December 355, Julian journeyed north, and in Augusta Taurinorum he learned that Alamannic raiders had destroyed Colonia Agrippina. He then proceeded to Vienne where he spent the winter. At Vienne, he learned that Augustudunum was also under siege, but was being held by a veteran garrison. He made this his first priority, and arrived there on 24 June 356. When he had assured himself that the city was in no immediate danger, he journeyed to Augusta Treverorum via Autessioduram, and from there to Durocortorum where he rendezvoused with his army. Julian had the army stage a series of punitive strikes around the Dieuse region, and then he moved them towards the Argentoratum/Mongontiacum region when word of barbarian incursions reached him.

From there, Julian moved on to Colonia Agrippina, and negotiated a peace with the local barbarian leaders who had assaulted the city. He then wintered at Senonae. He spent the early part of the campaigning season of 357 fighting off besiegers at Senonae, and then conducting operations around Lugdunum and Tres Tabernae. Later that summer, he encountered his watershed moment as a military general. Ammianus went into great detail about Julian's victory over seven rogue Alamannic chieftains near Argentoratum, and Julian himself bragged about it in his later writing. After this battle, the soldiers acclaimed Julian Augustus, but he rejected this title. After mounting a series of follow-up raids into Alamannic territory, he retired to winter quarters at Lutetia, and on the way defeated some Frankish raiders in the Mosa region. Julian considered this campaign one of the major events of his time as Caesar.

Julian began his 358 military campaigns early, hoping to catch the barbarians by surprise. His first target was the Franks in the northern Rhine region. He then proceeded to restore some forts in the Mosa region, but his soldiers threatened to mutiny because they were on short rations and had not been paid their donative since Julian had become Caesar. After he soothed his soldiers, Julian spent the rest of the summer negotiating a peace with various Alamannic leaders in the mid and lower Rhine areas, and retired to winter quarters at Lutetia. In 359, he prepared once again to carry out a series of punitive expeditions against the Alamanni in the Rhine region who were still hostile to the Roman presence. In preparation, the Caesar repopulated seven previously destroyed cities and set them up as supply bases and staging areas. This was done with the help of the people with whom Julian had negotiated a peace the year before. Julian then had a detachment of lightly armed soldiers cross the Rhine near Mogontiacum and conduct a guerilla strike against several chieftains. As a result of these campaigns, Julian was able to negotiate a peace with all but a handful of the Alamannic leaders, and he retired to winter quarters at Lutetia.

Of course, Julian did more than act as a general during his time as Caesar. According to Ammianus, Julian was an able administrator who took steps to correct the injustices of Constantius' appointees. Ammianus related the story of how Julian prevented Florentius, the Praetorian Prefect of Gaul, from raising taxes, and also how Julian actually took over as governor for the province of Belgica Secunda. Hilary, bishop of Poitiers, supported Ammianus' basic assessment of Julian in this regard when he reported that Julian was an able representative of the emperor to the Gallic provincials. There is also epigraphic evidence to support Julian's popularity amongst the provincial elites. An inscription found near Beneventum in Apulia reads:
"To Flavius Claudius Julianus, most noble and sanctified Caesar, from the caring Tocius Maximus, vir clarissimus, for the care of the res publica from Beneventum".

Tocius Maximus, as a vir clarissimus, was at the highest point in the social spectrum and was a leader in his local community. This inscription shows that Julian was successful in establishing a positive image amongst provincial elites while he was Caesar.

Julian Augustus

In early 360, Constantius, driven by jealousy of Julian's success, stripped Julian of many troops and officers, ostensibly because the emperor needed them for his upcoming campaign against the Persians. One of the legions ordered east, the Petulantes, did not want to leave Gaul because the majority of the soldiers in the unit were from this region. As a result they mutinied and hailed Julian as Augustus at Lutetia. Julian refused this acclamation as he had done at Argentoratum earlier, but the soldiers would have none of his denial. They raised him on a shield and adorned him with a neck chain, which had formerly been the possession of the standard-bearer of the Petulantes and symbolized a royal diadem. Julian appeared reluctantly to acquiesce to their wishes, and promised a generous donative. The exact date of his acclamation is unknown, but most scholars put it in February or March. Julian himself supported Ammianus' picture of a jealous Constantius. In his Letter to the Athenians, a document constructed to answer charges that he was a usurper, Julian stated that from the start he, as Caesar, had been meant as a figurehead to the soldiers and provincials. The real power he claimed lay with the generals and officials already present in Gaul. In fact, according to Julian, the generals were charged with watching him as much as the enemy. His account of the actual acclamation closely followed what Ammianus told us, but he stressed even more his reluctance to take power. Julian claimed that he did so only after praying to Zeus for guidance.

Fearing the reaction of Constantius, Julian sent a letter to his fellow emperor justifying the events at Lutetia and trying to arrange a peaceful solution. This letter berated Constantius for forcing the troops in Gaul into an untenable situation. Ammianus stated that Julian's letter blamed Constantius' decision to transfer Gallic legions east as the reason for the soldiers' rebellion. Julian once again asserted that he was an unwilling participant who was only following the desire of the soldiers. In both of these basic accounts Ammianus and Julian are playing upon the theme of restoration. Implicit in their version of Julian's acclamation is the argument that Constantius was unfit to rule. The soldiers were the vehicle of the gods' will. The Letter to the Athenians is full of references to the fact that Julian was assuming the mantle of Augustus at the instigation of the gods. Ammianus summed up this position nicely when he related the story of how, when Julian was agonizing over whether to accept the soldiers' acclamation, he had a dream in which he was visited by the Genius (guardian spirit) of the Roman state. The Genius told Julian that it had often tried to bestow high honors upon Julian but had been rebuffed. Now, the Genius went on to say, was Julian's final chance to take the power that was rightfully his. If the Caesar refused this chance, the Genius would depart forever, and both Julian and the state would rue Julian's rejection. Julian himself wrote a letter to his friend Maximus of Ephesus in November of 361 detailing his thoughts on his proclamation. In this letter, Julian stated that the soldiers proclaimed him Augustus against his will. Julian, however, defended his accession, saying that the gods willed it and that he had treated his enemies with clemency and justice. He went on to say that he led the troops in propitiating the traditional deities, because the gods commanded him to return to the traditional rites, and would reward him if he fulfilled this duty.

During 360 an uneasy peace simmered between the two emperors. Julian spent the 360 campaigning season continuing his efforts to restore order along the Rhine, while Constantius continued operations against the Persians. Julian wintered in Vienne, and celebrated his Quinquennalia. It was at this time that his wife Helena died, and he sent her remains to Rome for a proper burial at his family villa on the Via Nomentana where the body of her sister was entombed. The uneasy peace held through the summer of 361, but Julian concentrated his military operations around harassing the Alamannic chieftain Vadomarius and his allies, who had concluded a peace treaty with Constantius some years earlier. By the end of the summer, Julian decided to put an end to the waiting and gathered his army to march east against Constantius. The empire teetered on the brink of another civil war. Constantius had spent the summer negotiating with the Persians and making preparations for possible military action against his cousin. When he was assured that the Persians would not attack, he summoned his army and sallied forth to meet Julian. As the armies drew inexorably closer to one another, the empire was saved from another bloody civil war when Constantius died unexpectedly of natural causes on 3 November near the town of Mopsucrenae in Cilicia, naming Julian -- the sources say-- as his legitimate successor.

Julian was in Dacia when he learned of his cousin's death. He made his way through Thrace and came to Constantinople on 11 December 361 where Julian honored the emperor with the funeral rites appropriate for a man of his station. Julian immediately set about putting his supporters in positions of power and trimming the imperial bureaucracy, which had become extremely overstaffed during Constantius' reign. Cooks and barbers had increased during the late emperor's reign and Julian expelled them from his court. Ammianus gave a mixed assessment of how the new emperor handled the followers of Constantius. Traditionally, emperors were supposed to show clemency to the supporters of a defeated enemy. Julian, however, gave some men over to death to appease the army. Ammianus used the case of Ursulus, Constantius' comes sacrum largitionum, to illustrate his point. Ursulus had actually tried to acquire money for the Gallic troops when Julian had first been appointed Caesar, but he had also made a disparaging remark about the ineffectiveness of the army after the battle of Amida. The soldiers remembered this, and when Julian became sole Augustus, they demanded Ursulus' head. Julian obliged, much to the disapproval of Ammianus. This seems to be a case of Julian courting the favor of the military leadership, and is indicative of a pattern in which Julian courted the goodwill of various societal elites to legitimize his position as emperor.

Another case in point is the officials who made up the imperial bureaucracy. Many of them were subjected to trial and punishment. To achieve this goal, during the last weeks of December 361 Julian assembled a military tribunal at Chalcedon, empanelling six judges to try the cases. The president of the tribunal was Salutius, just promoted to the rank of Praetorian Prefect; the five other members were Mamertinus, the orator, and four general officers: Jovinus, Agilo, Nevitta, and Arbetio. Relative to the proceedings of the tribunal, Ammianus noted that the judges, " . . . oversaw the cases more vehemently than was right or fair, with the exception of a few . . .." Ammianus' account of Julian's attempt at reform of the imperial bureaucracy is supported by legal evidence from the Theodosian Code. A series of laws sent to Mamertinus, Julian's appointee as Praetorian Prefect in Italy, Illyricum, and Africa, illustrate this point nicely. On 6 June 362, Mamertinus received a law that prohibited provincial governors from bypassing the Vicars when giving their reports to the Prefect. Traditionally, Vicars were given civil authority over a group of provinces, and were in theory meant to serve as a middle step between governors and Prefects. This law suggests that the Vicars were being left out, at least in Illyricum. Julian issued another edict to Mamertinus on 22 February 362 to stop abuse of the public post by governors. According to this law, only Mamertinus could issue post warrants, but the Vicars were given twelve blank warrants to be used as they saw fit, and each governor was given two. Continuing the trend of bureaucratic reform, Julian also imposed penalties on governors who purposefully delayed appeals in court cases they had heard. The emperor also established a new official to weigh solidi used in official government transactions to combat coin clipping.

For Julian, reigning in the abuses of imperial bureaucrats was one step in restoring the prestige of the office of emperor. Because he could not affect all elements of society personally, Julian, like other Neo-Flavian emperors, decided to concentrate on select groups of societal elites as intercessors between himself and the general populace. One of these groups was the imperial bureaucracy. Julian made it very clear that imperial officials were intercessors in a very real sense in a letter to Alypius, Vicar of Britain. In this letter, sent from Gaul sometime before 361, the emperor praises Alypius for his use of "mildness and moderation with courage and force" in his rule of the provincials. Such virtues were characteristic of the emperors, and it was good that Alypius is representing Julian in this way. Julian courted the army because it put him in power. Another group he sought to include in his rule was the traditional Senatorial aristocracy. One of his first appointments as consul was Claudius Mamertinus, a Gallic Senator and rhetorician. Mamertinus' speech in praise of Julian delivered at Constantinople in January of 362 is preserved. In this speech, Claudius presented his consular selection as inaugurating a new golden age and Julian as the restorer of the empire founded by Augustus. The image Mamertinus gave of his own consulate inaugurating a new golden age is not merely formulaic. The comparison of Julian to Augustus has very real, if implicit, relevance to Claudius' situation. Claudius emphasized the imperial period as the true age of renewal. Augustus ushered in a new era with his formation of a partnership between the emperor and the Senate based upon a series of honors and offices bestowed upon the Senate in return for their role as intercessor between emperor and populace. It was this system that Julian was restoring, and the consulate was one concrete example of this bond. To be chosen as a consul by the emperor, who himself had been divinely mandated, was a divine honor. In addition to being named consul, Mamertinus went on to hold several offices under Julian, including the Prefecture of Italy, Illyricum, and Africa. Similarly, inscriptional evidence illustrates a link between municipal elites and Julian during his time as Caesar, something which continued after he became emperor. One concrete example comes from the municipal senate of Aceruntia in Apulia, which established a monument on which Julian is styled as "Repairer of the World."

Julian seems to have given up actual Christian belief before his acclamation as emperor and was a practitioner of more traditional Greco-Roman religious beliefs, in particular, a follower of certain late antique Platonist philosophers who were especially adept at theurgy as was noted earlier. In fact Julian himself spoke of his conversion to Neo-Platonism in a letter to the Alexandrians written in 363. He stated that he had abandoned Christianity when he was twenty years old and been an adherent of the traditional Greco-Roman deities for the twelve years prior to writing this letter.

(For the complete text of this article see: http://www.roman-emperors.org/julian.htm)

Julian’s Persian Campaign

The exact goals Julian had for his ill-fated Persian campaign were never clear. The Sassanid Persians, and before them the Parthians, had been a traditional enemy from the time of the Late Republic, and indeed Constantius had been conducting a war against them before Julian's accession forced the former to forge an uneasy peace. Julian, however, had no concrete reason to reopen hostilities in the east. Socrates Scholasticus attributed Julian's motives to imitation of Alexander the Great, but perhaps the real reason lay in his need to gather the support of the army. Despite his acclamation by the Gallic legions, relations between Julian and the top military officers was uneasy at best. A war against the Persians would have brought prestige and power both to Julian and the army.

Julian set out on his fateful campaign on 5 March 363. Using his trademark strategy of striking quickly and where least expected, he moved his army through Heirapolis and from there speedily across the Euphrates and into the province of Mesopotamia, where he stopped at the town of Batnae. His plan was to eventually return through Armenia and winter in Tarsus. Once in Mesopotamia, Julian was faced with the decision of whether to travel south through the province of Babylonia or cross the Tigris into Assyria, and he eventually decided to move south through Babylonia and turn west into Assyria at a later date. By 27 March, he had the bulk of his army across the Euphrates, and had also arranged a flotilla to guard his supply line along the mighty river. He then left his generals Procopius and Sebastianus to help Arsacius, the king of Armenia and a Roman client, to guard the northern Tigris line. It was also during this time that he received the surrender of many prominent local leaders who had nominally supported the Persians. These men supplied Julian with money and troops for further military action against their former masters. Julian decided to turn south into Babylonia and proceeded along the Euphrates, coming to the fortress of Cercusium at the junction of the Abora and Euphrates Rivers around the first of April, and from there he took his army west to a region called Zaitha near the abandoned town of Dura where they visited the tomb of the emperor Gordian which was in the area. On April 7 he set out from there into the heart of Babylonia and towards Assyria.

Ammianus then stated that Julian and his army crossed into Assyria, which on the face of things appears very confusing. Julian still seems to be operating within the province of Babylonia between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. The confusion is alleviated when one realizes that,for Ammianus, the region of Assyria encompassed the provinces of Babylonia and Assyria. On their march, Julian's forces took the fortress of Anatha, received the surrender and support of several more local princes, and ravaged the countryside of Assyria between the rivers. As the army continued south, they came across the fortresses Thilutha and Achaiachala, but these places were too well defended and Julian decided to leave them alone. Further south were the cities Diacira and Ozogardana, which the Roman forces sacked and burned. Soon, Julian came to Pirisabora and a brief siege ensued, but the city fell and was also looted and destroyed. It was also at this time that the Roman army met its first systematic resistance from the Persians. As the Romans penetrated further south and west, the local inhabitants began to flood their route. Nevertheless, the Roman forces pressed on and came to Maiozamalcha, a sizable city not far from Ctesiphon. After a short siege, this city too fell to Julian. Inexorably, Julian's forces zeroed in on Ctesiphon, but as they drew closer, the Persian resistance grew fiercer, with guerilla raids whittling at Julian's men and supplies. A sizable force of the army was lost and the emperor himself was almost killed taking a fort a few miles from the target city.
Finally, the army approached Ctesiphon following a canal that linked the Tigris and Euphrates. It soon became apparent after a few preliminary skirmishes that a protracted siege would be necessary to take this important city. Many of his generals, however, thought that pursuing this course of action would be foolish. Julian reluctantly agreed, but became enraged by this failure and ordered his fleet to be burned as he decided to march through the province of Assyria. Julian had planned for his army to live off the land, but the Persians employed a scorched-earth policy. When it became apparent that his army would perish (because his supplies were beginning to dwindle) from starvation and the heat if he continued his campaign, and also in the face of superior numbers of the enemy, Julian ordered a retreat on 16 June. As the Roman army retreated, they were constantly harassed by guerilla strikes. It was during one of these raids that Julian got caught up in the fighting and took a spear to his abdomen. Mortally wounded he was carried to his tent, where, after conferring with some of his officers, he died. The date was 26 June 363.

Conclusion

Thus an ignominious end for a man came about who had hoped to restore the glory of the Roman empire during his reign as emperor. Due to his intense hatred of Christianity, the opinion of posterity has not been kind to Julian. The contemporary opinion, however, was overall positive. The evidence shows that Julian was a complex ruler with a definite agenda to use traditional social institutions in order to revive what he saw as a collapsing empire. In the final assessment, he was not so different from any of the other emperors of the fourth century. He was a man grasping desperately to hang on to a Greco-Roman conception of leadership that was undergoing a subtle yet profound change.
Copyright (C) 2002, Walter E. Roberts and Michael DiMaio, Jr. Used by permission.

In reality, Julian worked to promote culture and philosophy in any manifestation. He tried to reduce taxes and the public debts of municipalities; he augmented administrative decentralisation; he promoted a campaign of austerity to reduce public expenditure (setting himself as the example). He reformed the postal service and eliminated the powerful secret police.
by Federico Morando; JULIAN II, The Apostate, http://www.forumancientcoins.com/NumisWiki/view.asp?key=Julian%20II

Flavius Claudius Iulianus was born in 331 or maybe 332 A.D. in Constantinople. He ruled the Western Empire as Caesar from 355 to 360 and was hailed Augustus by his legions in Lutetia (Paris) in 360. Julian was a gifted administrator and military strategist. Famed as the last pagan emperor, his reinstatement of the pagan religion earned him the moniker "the Apostate." As evidenced by his brilliant writing, some of which has survived to the present day, the title "the Philosopher" may have been more appropriate. He died from wounds suffered during the Persian campaign of 363 A.D. Joseph Sermarini, FORVM.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.




2 commentsCleisthenes
RI_141cj_img.jpg
141 - Diocletian - RIC V pt II Lugdunum 02713 viewsAntoninianus
Obv:– IMP DIOCLETIANVS P AVG, Radiate, cuirassed bust left golding spear and shield
Rev:– IOVI AVGG, Jupiter standing left, holding victory in right hand and leaning on scepter in left hand, at foot eagle
Minted in Lugdunum (//A). Emission 7, Officina 1. Spring A.D. 290 – A.D. 291
Reference(s) – Cohen 161. Bastien 310 (3 examples cited). RIC V Pt 2 27
maridvnvm
LarryW1802.jpg
150 Leo I the Great, AD 457-474105 viewsGold solidus, 21.7mm, 4.50g, Mint State
Struck c. AD 462 or 466 at Constantinople
D N LEO PE—RPET AVC, helmeted and cuirassed bust facing, head slightly right, holding spear over right shoulder and shield with horseman motif on left arm / VICTORI—A AVCCC Θ, Victory standing half left holding long jeweled cross; star to right, CON OB in exg.
Certificate of Authenticity by David R. Sear, ACCS
Ex: Forvm Ancient Coins
RIC 605; DOC 528; MIRB 3b
2 commentsLawrence Woolslayer
RI 160br img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII Lugdunum 113 63 viewsObv:– CONSTAN-TINVS AVG, Laureate bust right
Rev:–. VIRTVS EXERCIT, Two captives seated either side of banner inscribed VOT XX
Minted in Lugdunum (C | R /PLG). A.D. 321
Reference:– Bastien XI 65. RIC VII Lugdunum 113 (R1)

A pleasing fully silvered example with some golden toning to the silvering.
3 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_160gi_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great -AE3 - RIC VII Rome 33 19 viewsAE3
Obv:– IMP CONSTANTINVS PF AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– SOLI IN -VI-CTO COMITI, Sol standing left holding globe in left and raising right, chlamys across left shoulder
Minted in Rome (S | F //RP).
Reference:– RIC VII Rome 33 (C3).

Large flan. Residual golden toned silvering in the fields.

3.49 gms. 21.79 mm generally but 23.55 mm at the sprue
maridvnvm
LarryW1941.jpg
160 Tiberius II Constantine, AD 578-58242 viewsGold solidus, 23mm, 4.36g, gVF
Struck at Constantinople c. AD 579-582
D M Tib CONS-TANT PP AVI, bust facing, wears cuirass and crown with cross and pendilia, holds globus cruciger in right and shield decorated with horseman with left / VICTO(R)I-A AVCC Θ cross potent on four steps, CONOB in exegrue
Ex: Harlan Berk
DOC 4i; Sear 422; Berk 76
Lawrence Woolslayer
LarryW8000.jpg
165 Tiberius II Constantine, AD 578-58245 viewsGold solidus, 21mm, 4.41g, VF
Struck at Constantinople c. AD 579-582
D M Tib CONS-TANT PP AVI, bust facing, wears cuirass and crown with cross and pendilia, holds globus cruciger in right and shield decorated with horseman with left / VICTORI-A AVCC E cross potent on four steps, CONOB in exegrue
Ex: Beast Coins
DOC 4e; Sear 422; Berk 76
Lawrence Woolslayer
LarryW8001.jpg
168 Constans II, AD 641-66834 viewsGold solidus, 18mm, 4.46g, aEF
Struck c. AD 659-662 at Constantinople
[legend blundered and fragmentary], facing busts of Contans II with long beard (on left), and beardless Constantine IV, each clad in chlamys, Constans wearing plumed crown (or helmet), his son wearing simple crown, cross in upper field between their heads / VICTORI-A A-VGU Δ+, long cross on globus between facing standing figures of Heraclius (on left) and Tiberius, both beardless, each wearing crown and chlamys and holding globus cruciger in right hand; CoNoB in exergue. Obverse double struck, reverse flan mark in center.
Ex: Glenn Woods
Sear 963; DOC 29g var; MIB 30
Lawrence Woolslayer
1697_WILLIAM_III_FARTHING.JPG
1697 WILLIAM III AE FARTHING9 viewsObverse: GVLIELMVS•TERTIVS•. Laureate and cuirassed bust of William III facing right.
Reverse: BRITANNIA•. Britannia facing left, seated on shield and holding spear and olive-branch. In exergue, 1697.
Diameter: 23mm | Weight: 4.6gms | Die Axis: 6h
SPINK: 3557

This portrait of William III was designed under John (Jan) Roettier (1631-c.1700) and his sons, Norbert and James. The Roettiers were medallists from a family whose members had distinguished themselves in the art for nearly two centuries. John was born in Antwerp, the eldest son, he learned the art of medal engraving and stone cutting from his father, Philip Roettiers who was a medallist and goldsmith. At an early age John was an assistant at the Antwerp Mint, but left in 1661 to go to London at the invitation of Charles II. In 1670 he became Chief engraver at the royal Mint, London, and remained at that post until 1698. Norbert Roettiers (1665-1727) was the third son of John Roettiers, with whom he apprenticed. In 1690 he was appointed Assistant Engraver at the Royal Mint, together with his brother James. James, however, was removed from his office at the mint in consequence of the theft of dies from the Tower of London and he died in 1698 after falling from his horse.
*Alex
1699_WILLIAM_III_FARTHING~0.JPG
1699 WILLIAM III AE FARTHING11 viewsObverse: GVLIELMVS•TERTIVS•. Laureate and cuirassed bust of William III facing right.
Reverse: BRITANNIA•1699. Britannia facing left, seated on shield and holding spear and olive-branch.
Diameter: 23mm | Weight: 4.3gms | Die Axis: 6h
SPINK: 3558

This portrait of William III was designed under John (Jan) Roettier (1631-c.1700) and his sons, Norbert and James. The Roettiers were medallists from a family whose members had distinguished themselves in the art for nearly two centuries. John was born in Antwerp, the eldest son, he learned the art of medal engraving and stone cutting from his father, Philip Roettiers who was a medallist and goldsmith. At an early age John was an assistant at the Antwerp Mint, but left in 1661 to go to London at the invitation of Charles II. In 1670 he became Chief engraver at the royal Mint, London, and remained at that post until 1698. Norbert Roettiers (1665-1727) was the third son of John Roettiers, with whom he apprenticed. In 1690 he was appointed Assistant Engraver at the Royal Mint, together with his brother James. James, however, was removed from his office at the mint in consequence of the theft of dies from the Tower of London and he died in 1698 after falling from his horse.
*Alex
s-l500.jpg
16th Century Cholas India Gold Fannam Uncirculated 0.30 grams20 views16th Century Cholas India Gold Fannam that grades uncirculated. The coin weighs 0.30 grams with a diameter of 7 mm. The obverse depicts a prancing elephant and the reverse has an inscription.
_46
Antonivs Protti
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170 - Constantius II - AE2 - RIC VIII Constantinople 08234 viewsĆ Centenionalis
Obv:- D N CONSTANTIVS P F AVG, pearl diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:- FEL TEMP R-EPARATIO, Helmeted soldier left, shield on left arm, spearing falling horseman; shield at ground to right. Horseman turns to face the soldier, and reaches his left arm up towards him. He is bare headed and bearded
Minted in Constantinople (G | _ // CONSIA*).
References:- RIC VIII Constantinople 82 (Rare reverse legend break)

4.91g. 23.68 mm. 180 degrees.

Attractive golden toning
2 commentsmaridvnvm
LarryW1929.jpg
170 Constans II, AD 641-66857 viewsGold solidus, 20.2mm, 4.48g, EF
Struck AD 661-663 at Constantinople
[legend blundered and fragmentary], facing busts of Contans II with long beard (on left), and Constantine IV, beardless (on right), each clad in chlamys, Constans wearing plumed crown (or helmet), his son wearing simple crown, cross in upper field between their heads / VICTORIA AVGU H, cross potent on three steps between facing standing figures of Heraclius (on left) and Tiberius, both beardless, each wearing crown and chlamys and holding globus cruciger in right hand; CoNoB in exergue.
Certificate of Authenticity by David R. Sear, ACCS
Sear 964; DOC 30g; Wroth 58; Tolstoi 304; Ratto 1606
Lawrence Woolslayer
LarryW8002.jpg
172 Constans II, AD 641-66838 viewsGold solidus, 20mm, 4.41g, EF
Struck c. AD 661-663 at Constantinople
[legend blundered and fragmentary], facing busts of Contans II with long beard (on left), and beardless Constantine IV, each clad in chlamys, Constans wearing plumed crown (or helmet), his son wearing simple crown, cross in upper field between their heads / VICTORIA AVGU A, cross potent on three steps between facing standing figures of Heraclius (on left) and Tiberius, both beardless, each wearing crown and chlamys and holding globus cruciger in right hand; CoNoB in exergue.
Ex: Glenn Woods
Sear 964; DOC 30a; MIB 31
Lawrence Woolslayer
StUrbainLeopoldILorraineBridge.JPG
1727. Leopold I: Reconstruction Of The Bridge In The Forest Of Haye. 71 viewsObv: Leopold to right, in peruke, wearing armor and the Order of the Golden Fleece LEOPOLDVS. I. D.G. DVX. LOT. BAR. REX. IER
Rev: A traveling horseman going over bridge toward Abundance in countryside. In background landscape a herm of Mercury PROVIDENTIA. PRINCIPIS
Exergue: VIAE. MVNITAE MDCCXXVII Signed: SV.
AE64mm. Ref: Forrer V, p. 309, #6; Slg. Florange 171; Molinari 40/120; Europese Penningen # 1739

Leopold Joseph Charles (Leopold I) (1679-1729), Duke of Lorraine and Bar (1697), was the son of Charles V, Duke of Lorraine and Bar. This medal commemorates further the many reconstruction projects that Leopold I, Duke of Lorraine and Bar, fostered during his reign, in this case, the reconstruction of the bridge in the forest of Haye. The reverse alludes to the fact that the bridge increased commerce (Mercury) in Lorraine and led to more abundance for its inhabitants.
A herm, referred to in this medal, is a statue consisting of the head of the Greek god Hermes mounded on a square stone post. Hermes is the god of commerce, invention, cunning and theft, who also serves as messenger and herald for the other gods.
LordBest
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1749 - Octavian, Denarius269 viewsItalian mint, possibly Rome, 31-30 BC
Anepigraph, bare head of Octavian left
CAESAR - DIVI F, Victory standing right on globe, holding wreath
3.84 gr
Ref : HCRI # 408, RCV # 1552v, Cohen # 66, RIC # 255
The following comment is taken from CNG, sale 84 # 957 :
"Following his victory at Actium, Octavian ordered a golden statue of Victory, standing on a globe and holding a wreath and palm, to be set up on an altar in the Curia in Rome. This statue had been captured by the Romans from Pyrrhus in 272 BC, and it assumed a somewhat tutelary mystique, protecting the Roman state from dissolution. In AD 382, the emperor Gratian ordered its removal. Two years later, the senator and orator Symmachus urged Valentinian II to replace it, a request that was met with stiff opposition from the bishop of Milan, Ambrose. Though it was briefly returned to its place by the usurper Eugenius, it was again removed following his defeat. Petitions to Theodosius I for its subsequent replacement were refused, on grounds that the once-important symbol of the gods’ blessing on the Roman Empire was now nothing more than a piece of paganism"
11 commentsPotator II
Banda_Quran_Manuscript_A001.JPG
1790 Large Gold Banda Koran Leaf Blue Border Medallion 22 viewsA magnificent leaf from a Koran fragment, probably Banda, before AH 1208/1790-1 AD, on paper (387 x 230 mm.). There are eleven lines of strong black natkh script within gold clouds, gold roundels between verses, illuminated marginal medallions, marking every tenth verse, red Persian interlinear translation, sura headings in red, margins with Tafsir written in black and red, final folio with commentary dated 1205.. Verso: eleven lines of strong black natkh script within gold clouds, gold roundels between verses, illuminated marginal medallions, marking every tenth verse, red Persian interlinear translation, sura headings in red, margins with Tafsir written in black and red. The opening flyleaf is inscribed with a note reading: this copy of the Koran, formally the property of the Bahadoor, Nawab of Banda was delivered after the great victory obtained over Rebels and Mutineers by Major General Whitlocks Troops on the 19th of April 1858 to the Reverend A Kinloch, the Chaplain of the Horse and present to him as a slight token of affectionate remembrance to the Reverend George Gleed the Vicar of Chalfont St. Peters, Bucks Branda Palace. April 29th 1858. A further note on the final flyleaf reads: This Copy of the Koran was taken from the apartments of Ali Bahadoor, Nawab of Banda after the occupation of his City and Palace by the Madras Column under Major General Whitlock.SpongeBob
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1794 AE Halfpenny Token. Coventry, Warwickshire.27 viewsObverse: PRO BONO PUBLICO. Lady Godiva riding side-saddle on horse to left; in exergue, 1794.
Reverse: COVENTRY HALFPENNY. Representation of Coventry's old town cross with COV CROSS in small letters at base.
Edge: PAYABLE AT THE WAREHOUSE OF ROBERT REYNOLDS & CO.
Diameter 29.5mm | Axis 12
Dalton & Hamer: 249
RARE

This token was manufactured by William Lutwyche and the dies were engraved by William Mainwaring.
It was issued by Robert Reynolds & Co., who were ribbon weavers with a business in Coventry.

The original Coventry Cross stood at the place where Broadgate met Cross Cheaping, near Spicer Stoke, a very short row which led through from Broadgate to Butcher Row and Trinity church. Though it is likely that a cross had been standing in this place since the 13th century, the first actual record for the building of a cross was on 1st July 1423 when the Mayor, Henry Peyto, officially sanctioned that a new cross should be built. Although it was quite a substantial structure, within a century it was rather the worse for wear, and by 1506 discussions had begun about replacing it.
In 1541, the former mayor of London, Sir William Hollis, left Ł200 in his will toward the building of a new cross, and by 1544 the 57 foot high cross was completed. As well as being brightly painted, the cross was also covered with much gold and it was renowned for its fame and beauty. It was built in four sections, with statues in the top three storeys: the lower of these holding statues of Henry VI, King John, Edward I, Henry II, Richard I and Henry. Above these were Edward III, Henry II, Richard III, St Michael and St George. The top storey held statues of St Peter, St James, St Christopher and two monks, with representations of Liberty and Justice at the highest point. In 1608 repairs were carried out to the cross during which the figure of Christ was replaced with one of Lady Godiva. Possibly the obverse of this token is based on this statue since there is no record of there being any other Lady Godiva memorial statues before 1949.
After standing gloriously for two centuries, decay once more set into the cross and, in 1753 and 1755, the top two stages were removed to avoid the danger of collapse. By 1771 the cross was declared to be in too ruinous a state to retain, and it's demolition was authorised. The remains stood for a short while longer though, at least until after 1778 when a visitor to Coventry wrote that the decayed cross "...has no longer anything to please".
This token is dated 1794, but must depict the cross as it was in it's heyday before it was totally demolished and it's parts reused. Two of the statues from the cross now reside at St. Mary's Guildhall.
A modern replica of the cross was unveiled in 1976, it is situated about 100 metres away from the site of the original one.
*Alex
LarryW1940.jpg
180 Constantine IV Pogonatus, AD 668-68533 viewsGold solidus, 18mm, 4.31g, aEF
Struck at Constantinople c. 674-681
DN C-A-NUS P, bust facing, head slightly to right, wears short beard, cuirass, and helmet with plume and diadem; holds spear over shoulder and shield decorated with horseman / VICT(O)A [AVGU], cross potent on base with three steps between Heraclius (left) and Tiberius; each figure wears chlamys and crown, and holds globus cruciger, CoNoB in exergue
Ex: Harlan Berk
DOC 8 var; Sear 1154v; Berk -
Lawrence Woolslayer
Coin_cabinet_medal.JPG
1843 "BENJAMIN NIGHTINGALE" AE Halfpenny Token. London, Middlesex16 viewsObverse: VILIUS EST ARGENTUM AURO, VIRTUTIBUS AURUM. Female, leaning on books behind her, holding a cornucopia from which coins are spilling, seated facing right in front of an open coin cabinet; in exergue, tudor rose on shield between two branches.
Reverse: BENJAMIN NIGHTINGALE LONDON * PRIVATE TOKEN * 1843 surrounding “BN” monogram in script.
Edge: Plain.
Diameter: 30mm | Weight: 14.2gms | Die Axis: 12
Bell (Middlesex) A3
VERY RARE (Only 72 of these bronzed copper halfpenny tokens were struck)

Privately issued in London by Benjamin Nightingale, the die sinker for this token was William Joseph Taylor (whose initials WJT can be seen to the left below the books on the obverse), following a similar design for halfpennies that he had produced for Matthew Young, a British merchant. Taylor was born in Birmingham in 1802 and was apprenticed to Thomas Halliday in 1818 as the first die-sinker to be trained by him. He set up his own business as a die-sinker, medallist and engraver at 5 Porter Street, Soho, London in 1829, later moving to 3 Lichfield Street, Birmingham. In 1843 the business moved to 33 Little Queen Street and finally, in 1869, to 70 Red Lion Street where, in 1885, Taylor died.
The Soho Mint at Birmingham (founded by Matthew Boulton) closed in 1848, and it's plant and equipment was sold via auction in April 1850. Taylor purchased many of the Soho Mint's hubs and dies from this auction and used them to restrike many of the coins & patterns that the Soho Mint had struck between the 1790's and the 1840's, though he nearly always re-polished or re-engraved elements of the original dies before re-using them.

Benjamin Nightingale was a wine and spirit merchant who lived at 17 Upper Stamford Street, Blackfriars Road in London. He was born in 1806 and died on March 9th, 1862. He was a well known Antiquarian and was a member of the Numismatic Society of London.
In 1863, after his death, Benjamin Nightingale's collection, consisting of 359 lots, was sold over a two day period by Sotheby's. This is from the February 13, 1863 edition of the London Daily News (page 8, column 6).

THE VALUABLE CABINET of COINS and MEDALS of the late BENJAMIN NIGHTINGALE, Esq.
MESSRS S. LEIGH SOTHEBY and WILKINSON, auctioneers of literary property and works illustrative of the fine arts, will SELL BY AUCTION, at their house, No. 13 (late 3), Wellington-street, Strand, W.C., on WEDNESDAY, Feb. 25, and following day, at 1 precisely, the valuable CABINET OF COINS and MEDALS of the late Benjamin Nightingale, Esq.; comprising a few Roman coins in gold, silver, and copper, in the highest state of preservation; a most valuable collection of English medals in all metals; rare and curious jetons, including a very perfect set of those struck to illustrate the history of the low countries; a few remarkable foreign medals, a choice library of numismatic books, several well-made cabinets, & c. – May be viewed two days previous, and catalogues had on receipt of two stamps.

According to Manville and Robertson, prior to his death, Benjamin Nightingale had sold off part of his collection at an auction by Sotheby's on 29th Nov. 1855.
"Benjamin NIGHTINGALE" in ANS copy; Greek, Roman, Tavern Tokens, Town Pieces, 17-18c Tokens, English and Foreign Medals, Books; 165 lots. -Curtis Clay.

The inspiration for these tokens might have been Pye's 1797 halfpenny (Warwickshire 223) which is of a similar design.
*Alex
1875H_VICTORIA_BUN_HEAD_FARTHING_.JPG
1875 "H" VICTORIA BRONZE "BUN HEAD" FARTHING33 viewsObverse: VICTORIA D:G: BRITT:REG:F:D: "Bun head" bust of Queen Victoria with elderly features facing left.
Reverse: FARTHING. Britannia seated facing right, her right hand resting on shield, her left holding a trident; in left background, a lighthouse and in right background, a ship; 1875, small "H" below, in exergue.
Diameter: 20mm
SPINK: 3959

Victoria's "bun head" portrait was designed by Leonard Charles Wyon (1826 - 1891), he was the eldest son of William Wyon, who had previously designed the "young head" portrait of the Queen. The letters L C WYON are incuse amongst the ornamentation of the Queen's dress.

On 1st April 1850 the auction was announced of equipment from the defunct Soho Mint, created by Matthew Boulton around 1788. At the auction, on 29th April, Ralph Heaton II bought Boulton's four steam-powered screw presses and six planchet presses for making blanks from strip metal. These were installed at Heaton's Bath Street works, and his Birmingham Mint began to strike trade tokens for use in Australia. In 1851 copper planchets were made for the Royal Mint to make into pennies, halfpennies, farthings, half-farthings and quarter-farthings.
In 1853 the Royal Mint was overwhelmed with producing silver and gold coins and so Ralph Heaton and Sons won their first contract to strike finished coins for Britain, these coins had no mintmark to identify them as from Birmingham.
In 1860 the firm bought a 1-acre plot on Icknield Street and constructed a three storey red brick factory. Completed in 1862 and employing 300 staff, it was at this time the largest private mint in the world.
From 1874 the Birmingham Mint began striking bronze pennies, halfpennies and farthings for the Royal Mint. This time though, the Birmingham Mint issues are distinguished by an H (for Heaton) mintmark below the date on the reverse. Victorian British coins bearing the H mintmark were produced in 1874, 1875, 1876, 1881 and 1882.
*Alex
Victoria_Halfpenny_1876H.JPG
1876 "H" VICTORIA BRONZE "BUN HEAD" HALFPENNY4 viewsObv: VICTORIA D:G: BRITT:REG:FID:DEF: "Bun head" bust of Queen Victoria with elderly features facing left.
Rev: HALF PENNY. Britannia seated facing right, her right hand resting on shield, her left holding a trident; in left background, a lighthouse and in right background, a ship; 1876, small H below, in exergue.
SPINK: 3957

Victoria's "bun head" portrait was designed by Leonard Charles Wyon (1826 - 1891), he was the eldest son of William Wyon, who had previously designed the "young head" portrait of the Queen. The letters L C WYON are incuse amongst the ornamentation of the Queen's dress.

On 1st April 1850 the auction was announced of equipment from the defunct Soho Mint, created by Matthew Boulton around 1788. At the auction, on 29th April, Ralph Heaton II bought Boulton's four steam-powered screw presses and six planchet presses for making blanks from strip metal. These were installed at Heaton's Bath Street works, and his Birmingham Mint began to strike trade tokens for use in Australia. In 1851 copper planchets were made for the Royal Mint to make into pennies, halfpennies, farthings, half-farthings and quarter-farthings.
In 1853 the Royal Mint was overwhelmed with producing silver and gold coins and so Ralph Heaton and Sons won their first contract to strike finished coins for Britain, these coins had no mintmark to identify them as from Birmingham.
In 1860 the firm bought a 1-acre plot on Icknield Street and constructed a three storey red brick factory. Completed in 1862 and employing 300 staff, it was at this time the largest private mint in the world.
From 1874 the Birmingham Mint began striking bronze pennies, halfpennies and farthings for the Royal Mint. This time though, the Birmingham Mint issues are distinguished by an H (for Heaton) mintmark below the date on the reverse. Victorian British coins bearing the H mintmark were produced in 1874, 1875, 1876, 1881 and 1882.
*Alex
1876H_Victoria_Penny.JPG
1876 "H" VICTORIA BRONZE "BUN HEAD" PENNY7 viewsObv: VICTORIA D:G: BRITT:REG:FID:DEF: "Bun head" bust of Queen Victoria with elderly features facing left.
Rev: ONE PENNY. Britannia seated facing right, her right hand resting on shield, her left holding a trident; in left background, a lighthouse and in right background, a ship; 1876, small H below, in exergue.
SPINK: 3955

Victoria's "bun head" portrait was designed by Leonard Charles Wyon (1826 - 1891), he was the eldest son of William Wyon, who had previously designed the "young head" portrait of the Queen. The letters L C WYON are incuse amongst the ornamentation of the Queen's dress.

On 1st April 1850 the auction was announced of equipment from the defunct Soho Mint, created by Matthew Boulton around 1788. At the auction, on 29th April, Ralph Heaton II bought Boulton's four steam-powered screw presses and six planchet presses for making blanks from strip metal. These were installed at Heaton's Bath Street works, and his Birmingham Mint began to strike trade tokens for use in Australia. In 1851 copper planchets were made for the Royal Mint to make into pennies, halfpennies, farthings, half-farthings and quarter-farthings.
In 1853 the Royal Mint was overwhelmed with producing silver and gold coins and so Ralph Heaton and Sons won their first contract to strike finished coins for Britain, these coins had no mintmark to identify them as from Birmingham.
In 1860 the firm bought a 1-acre plot on Icknield Street and constructed a three storey red brick factory. Completed in 1862 and employing 300 staff, it was at this time the largest private mint in the world.
From 1874 the Birmingham Mint began striking bronze pennies, halfpennies and farthings for the Royal Mint. This time though, the Birmingham Mint issues are distinguished by an H (for Heaton) mintmark below the date on the reverse. Victorian British coins bearing the H mintmark were produced in 1874, 1875, 1876, 1881 and 1882.
*Alex
s-l500_(2).jpg
18th Century Mysore Area India Arabic "H" Gold Fannam Uncirculated 0.30 gram14 views18th Century Mysore Area India Gold Fannam that grades uncirculated. The coin weighs 0.30 grams with a diameter of 7 mm. The obverse has an Arabic "H" and the reverse has an inscription.
_42
Antonivs Protti
olympic2.jpg
1976 Olympic Canadian Memorial Coin66 viewsA gold 1976 Olympic canadian memorial coin.

OBVERSE: Olympians
REVERSE: Queen Elizabeth
aarmale
Cleopatra80DrachEagle.jpg
1ad Cleopatra VII55 views51-29 BC

Alexandria, 80 Drachmai

Diademed, draped bust, right, KLEOPATRAS BASILIS[SHS]
Eagle standing left on thunderbolt, cornucopia in left field, mark of value P (= 80) in right field

Svoronos 1871

Plutarch wrote: [Cleopatra] was to meet Antony in the time of life when women's beauty is most splendid, and their intellects are in full maturity. . . . She received several letters, both from Antony and from his friends, to summon her, but she took no account of these orders; and at last, as if in mockery of them, she came sailing up the river Cydnus, in a barge with gilded stern and outspread sails of purple, while oars of silver beat time to the music of flutes and fifes and harps. She herself lay all along under a canopy of cloth of gold, dressed as Venus in a picture, and beautiful young boys, like painted Cupids, stood on each side to fan her. Her maids were dressed like sea nymphs and graces, some steering at the rudder, some working at the ropes. The perfumes diffused themselves from the vessel to the shore, which was covered with multitudes, part following the galley up the river on either bank, part running out of the city to see the sight. The market-place was quite emptied, and Antony at last was left alone sitting upon the tribunal; while the word went through all the multitude, that Venus was come to feast with Bacchus, for the common good of Asia. On her arrival, Antony sent to invite her to supper. She thought it fitter he should come to her; so, willing to show his good-humour and courtesy, he complied, and went. . . . For her actual beauty, it is said, was not in itself so remarkable that none could be compared with her, or that no one could see her without being struck by it, but the contact of her presence, if you lived with her, was irresistible; the attraction of her person, joining with the charm of her conversation, and the character that attended all she said or did, was something bewitching. It was a pleasure merely to hear the sound of her voice, with which, like an instrument of many strings, she could pass from one language to another; so that there were few of the barbarian nations that she answered by an interpreter. . . .
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FulviaQuinariusLion.jpg
1ae2 Fulvia45 viewsFirst wife of Marc Antony

ca 83-40 BC

AR Quinarius
Bust of Victory right with the likeness of Fulvia, III VIR R P C
Lion right between A and XLI; ANTONI above, IMP in ex

RSC 3, Syd 1163, Cr489/6

Fulvia was the first Roman non-mythological woman to appear on Roman coins. She gained access to power through her marriage to three of the most promising men of her generation, Publius Clodius Pulcher, Gaius Scribonius Curio, and Marcus Antonius. All three husbands were politically active populares, tribunes, and supporters of Julius Caesar. Fulvia married Mark Antony in 47 or 46 BC, a few years after Curio's death, although Cicero suggested that Fulvia and Antony had had a relationship since 58 BC. According to him, while Fulvia and Antony were married, Antony once left a military post to sneak back into Rome during the night and personally deliver a love letter to Fulvia describing his love for her and how he had stopped seeing the famous actress Cytheris. Cicero also suggested that Antony married Fulvia for her money. At the time of their marriage, Antony was an established politician. He had already been tribune in 49 BC, commanded armies under Caesar and was Master of the Horse in 47 BC. As a couple, they were a formidable political force in Rome, and had two sons together, Marcus Antonius Antyllus and Iullus Antonius.

Suetonius wrote, "[Antony] took a wife, Fulvia, the widow of Clodius the demagogue, a woman not born for spinning or housewifery, nor one that could be content with ruling a private husband, but prepared to govern a first magistrate, or give orders to a commander-in-chief. So that Cleopatra had great obligations to her for having taught Antony to be so good a servant, he coming to her hands tame and broken into entire obedience to the commands of a mistress. He used to play all sorts of sportive, boyish tricks, to keep Fulvia in good-humour. As, for example, when Caesar, after his victory in Spain, was on his return, Antony, among the rest, went out to meet him; and, a rumour being spread that Caesar was killed and the enemy marching into Italy, he returned to Rome, and, disguising himself, came to her by night muffled up as a servant that brought letters from Antony. She, with great impatience, before received the letter, asks if Antony were well, and instead of an answer he gives her the letter; and, as she was opening it, took her about the neck and kissed her."

After Julius Caesar was assassinated, Antony became the most powerful man in Rome. Fulvia was heavily involved in the political aftermath. After Caesar's death, the senate realized his popularity and declared that they would pass all of Caesar's planned laws. Antony had attained possession of Caesar's papers, and with the ability to produce papers in support of any law, Fulvia and Antony made a fortune and gained immense power. She allegedly accompanied Antony to his military camp at Brundisium in 44 BC. Appian wrote that in December 44 and again in 41 BC, while Antony was abroad and Cicero campaigned for Antony to be declared an enemy of the state, Fulvia attempted to block such declarations by soliciting support on Antony's behalf.

Antony formed the second triumvirate with Octavian (the future emperor Augustus) and Marcus Aemilius Lepidus on 43 BC and began to conduct proscriptions. To solidify the political alliance, Fulvia's daughter Clodia was married to the young Octavian. Appian and Cassius Dio describe Fulvia as being involved in the violent proscriptions, which were used to destroy enemies and gain badly needed funds to secure control of Rome. Antony pursued his political enemies, chief among them being Cicero, who had openly criticized him for abusing his powers as consul after Caesar's assassination. Though many ancient sources wrote that Fulvia was happy to take revenge against Cicero for Antony's and Clodius' sake, Cassius Dio is the only ancient source that describes the joy with which she pierced the tongue of the dead Cicero with her golden hairpins, as a final revenge against Cicero's power of speech.

In 42 BC, Antony and Octavian left Rome to pursue Julius Caesar's assassins, Marcus Junius Brutus and Gaius Cassius Longinus. Fulvia was left behind as the most powerful woman in Rome. According to Cassius Dio, Fulvia controlled the politics of Rome. Dio wrote that "the following year Publius Servilius and Lucius Antonius nominally became consuls, but in reality it was Antonius and Fulvia. She, the mother-in‑law of Octavian and wife of Antony, had no respect for Lepidus because of his slothfulness, and managed affairs herself, so that neither the senate nor the people transacted any business contrary to her pleasure."

Shortly afterwards, the triumvirs then distributed the provinces among them. Lepidus took the west and Antony went to Egypt, where he met Cleopatra VII. When Octavian returned to Rome in 41 BC to disperse land to Caesar's veterans, he divorced Fulvia's daughter and accused Fulvia of aiming at supreme power. Fulvia allied with her brother-in-law Lucius Antonius and publicly endorsed Mark Antony in opposition to Octavian.

In 41 BC, tensions between Octavian and Fulvia escalated to war in Italy. Together with Lucius Antonius, she raised eight legions in Italy to fight for Antony's rights against Octavian, an event known as the Perusine War. Fulvia fled to Greece with her children. Appian writes that she met Antony in Athens, and he was upset with her involvement in the war. Antony then sailed back to Rome to deal with Octavian, and Fulvia died of an unknown illness in exile in Sicyon, near Corinth, Achaea.
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AugustusDenApollo.jpg
1ai Augustus25 views27 BC-14 AD

Denarius
Laureate head left, AVGVSTVS DIVI F
Apollo stg. Right, IMP XII

Van Meter notes that after about 15 BC, Augustus moved the production of gold and silver to Lugdunum and underscored the end of the moneyer issues by using "IMP" on the reverse.

RIC 180

Suetonius summarized Augusts' life in these words: He lost his father at the age of five (58BC). At twelve he delivered a funeral oration in honour of his grandmother Julia, Julius Caesar’s sister (51BC). At sixteen, having assumed the toga, he was decorated by Caesar during the African triumph (46BC) even though he had been too young to fight. When Caesar went to conquer Pompey’s sons in Spain (in 46BC), Augustus followed, despite still being weak from severe illness, and despite being shipwrecked on the way, with a minimal escort, over roads menaced by the enemy, so endearing himself greatly to Caesar, who quickly formed a high opinion of Augustus’ character, beyond merely his energetic pursuit of the journey.
After recovering the Spanish provinces, Caesar planned an expedition against the Dacians, to be followed by an attack on Parthia, and sent Augustus ahead (in 45BC) to Apollonia in Illyria, where he spent his time studying. When news came of Caesar’s assassination (in 44BC), and that the will named him as the main heir, Augustus considered seeking protection from the legions quartered there. However he decided it would be rash and premature, and chose to return to Rome, and enter on his inheritance, despite the doubts expressed by his mother, and strong opposition from his stepfather, the ex-consul Marcius Philippus.

Augustus went on to levy armies and rule the State; firstly for a twelve-year period (from 43BC to 30BC), initially with Mark Antony and Lepidus and then (from 33BC) with Antony alone; and later by himself for a further forty-four years (to his death in AD14).

In his youth he was betrothed to Servilia, the daughter of Publius Servilius Vatia Isauricus, but on his reconciliation with Mark Antony following their first dispute, the troops begged them to become allied by some tie of kinship, and he married (in 43BC) Claudia, Antony’s stepdaughter, born to Fulvia and Publius Clodius Pulcher, even though Claudia was barely of marriageable age. However he quarrelled with Fulvia, and divorced Claudia before the marriage had been consummated.

Not long afterwards (in 40BC), he married Scribonia, whose previous husbands had been ex-consuls, and to one of whom she had borne a child. He divorced her also ‘tired’, he wrote, ‘of her shrewish ways,’ and immediately took Livia Drusilla from her husband Tiberius Nero though she was pregnant at the time (38BC), loving and esteeming her alone to the end.
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CaligulaAsVesta.jpg
1ao Caligula30 views37-41

As
Bare head, left, C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT
Vesta std, VESTA SC

RIC 38

The son of Germanicus, modern research suggests, was not as bad a ruler as history generally supposes, but the winners write the history, and Caligula had the dubious honor of being the first loser to die in the purple at the hand of assassins.

Suetonius recorded: Gaius Caesar (Caligula) was born on the 31st of August AD12, in the consulship of his father, Germanicus, and Gaius Fonteius Capito. The sources disagree as to his place of birth. Gnaeus Lentulus Gaetulicus claims it was Tibur (Tivoli), Pliny the Elder, says it was among the Treveri in the village of Ambitarvium, above Confluentes (the site of Koblenz) at the junction of the Moselle and Rhine. . . . His surname Caligula (‘Little Boot’) was bestowed on him affectionately by the troops because he was brought up amongst them, dressed in soldier’s gear.

Caligula accompanied his father, Germanicus, to Syria (in AD 19). On his return, he lived with his mother, Agrippina the Elder until she was exiled (in 29 AD), and then with his great-grandmother Livia. When Livia died (in 29 AD), he gave her eulogy from the rostra even though he was not of age. He was then cared for by his grandmother Antonia the Younger, until at the age of eighteen Tiberius summoned him to Capreae (Capri, in AD 31). On that day he assumed his gown of manhood and shaved off his first beard, but without the ceremony that had attended his brothers’ coming of age.

On Capraea, though every trick was tried to lure him, or force him, into making complaints against Tiberius, he ignored all provocation, . . . behaving so obsequiously to his adoptive grandfather, Tiberius, and the entire household, that the quip made regarding him was well borne out, that there was never a better slave or a worse master.

Even in those days, his cruel and vicious character was beyond his control, and he was an eager spectator of torture and executions meted out in punishment. At night, disguised in wig and long robe, he abandoned himself to gluttony and adulterous behaviour. He was passionately devoted it seems to the theatrical arts, to dancing and singing, a taste in him which Tiberius willingly fostered, in the hope of civilizing his savage propensities.

And came near to assuming a royal diadem at once, turning the semblance of a principate into an absolute monarchy. Indeed, advised by this that he outranked princes and kings, he began thereafter to claim divine power, sending to Greece for the most sacred or beautiful statues of the gods, including the Jupiter of Olympia, so that the heads could be exchanged for his own. He then extended the Palace as far as the Forum, making the Temple of Castor and Pollux its vestibule, and would often present himself to the populace there, standing between the statues of the divine brothers, to be worshipped by whoever appeared, some hailing him as ‘Jupiter Latiaris’. He also set up a special shrine to himself as god, with priests, the choicest sacrificial victims, and a life-sized golden statue of himself, which was dressed each day in clothes of identical design to those he chose to wear.

He habitually committed incest with each of his three sisters, seating them in turn below him at large banquets while his wife reclined above. . . . His preferred method of execution was by the infliction of many slight wounds, and his order, issued as a matter of routine, became notorious: ‘Cut him so he knows he is dying.’
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NeroAsGenAug.jpg
1ar Nero52 views54-68

As

Bare head, right, IMP NERO CAESAR AVG P MAX TR P P P
Genius, GENIO AVGVSTI

RIC 86

Suetonius wrote: Nero was born nine months after the death of Tiberius, at Antium, at sunrise on the 15th of December (AD 37). . . . While he was still a young stripling he took part in a successful performance of the Troy Game in the Circus, in which he exhibited great self-possession. At the age of twelve or so (sometime in AD 50), he was adopted by Claudius, who appointed Annaeus Seneca, already a member of the Senate, as his tutor. The following night, it is said, Seneca dreamed that his young charge was really Caligula, and Nero soon proved the dream prophetic by seizing the first opportunity to reveal his cruel disposition. . . . After Claudius’s death (AD 54) had been announced publicly, Nero, who was not quite seventeen years old, decided to address the Guards in the late afternoon, since inauspicious omens that day had ruled out an earlier appearance. After being acclaimed Emperor on the Palace steps, he was carried in a litter to the Praetorian Camp where he spoke to the Guards, and then to the House where he stayed until evening. He refused only one of the many honours that were heaped upon him, that of ‘Father of the Country’, and declined that simply on account of his youth.

Eutropius summarized: To him succeeded NERO, who greatly resembled his uncle Caligula, and both disgraced and weakened the Roman empire; he indulged in such extraordinary luxury and extravagance, that, after the example of Caius Caligula, he even bathed in hot and cold perfumes, and fished with golden nets, which he drew up with cords of purple silk. He put to death a very great number of the senate. To all good men he was an enemy. At last he exposed himself in so disgraceful a manner, that he danced and sung upon the stage in the dress of a harp-player and tragedian. He was guilty of many murders, his brother, wife, and mother, being put to death by him. He set on fire the city of Rome, that he might enjoy the sight of a spectacle such as Troy formerly presented when taken and burned.

In military affairs he attempted nothing. Britain he almost lost; for two of its most noble towns4 were taken and levelled to the ground under his reign. The Parthians took from him Armenia, and compelled the Roman legions to pass under the yoke. Two provinces however were formed under him; Pontus Polemoniacus, by the concession of King Polemon; and the Cottian Alps, on the death of King Cottius.

15 When, having become detestable by such conduct to the city of Rome, and being deserted at the same time by every one, and declared an enemy by the senate, he was sought for to be led to punishment (the punishment being, that he should be dragged naked through the streets, with a fork placed under his head,5 be beaten to death with rods, and then hurled from the Tarpeian rock), he fled from the palace, and killed himself in a suburban villa of one of his freed-men, between the Salarian and Nomentane roads, at the fourth milestone from the city. He built those hot baths at Rome, which were formerly called the Neronian, but now the Alexandrian. He died in the thirty-second year of his age, and the fourteenth year of his reign; and in him all the family of Augustus became extinct.

Having successfully dispatched his scheming mother Agrippina in 59 and survived a decade on the throne, Nero must have felt like a genius when this was minted ca 64 AD!
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VitelliusDenVesta.jpg
1av Vitellius42 views69

Denarius
Portrait, right, A VITELLIVS GERMAN IMP TR P
Vesta std., PONT MAX

RIC 107

According to Suetonius: Lucius’s son Aulus, the future emperor, was born on the 24th of September 15AD, or according to some authorities on the 7th, during the consulship of Drusus Caesar and Norbanus Flaccus. . . . His boyhood and early youth were spent on Capreae (Capri) among Tiberius’s creatures, he himself being marked by the nickname of ‘Spintria’ (sex-token) throughout his life, and suspected of having secured his father’s first promotion to office by surrendering his own chastity. As he grew older, though contaminated by every kind of vice, Vitellius gained and kept a prominent place at court, winning Caligula’s friendship by his devotion to chariot-racing and Claudius’s by his love of dice. With Nero he was even closer. . . .

Honoured, as these emperors’ favourite, with high office in the priesthood, as well as political power, he governed Africa (under Nero, in 60/61AD) as proconsul, and was then Curator of Public Works (in 63AD), employing a contrasting approach, and with a contrasting effect on his reputation. In his province he acted with outstanding integrity over two successive years, since he served as deputy also to his brother who succeeded him (61/62AD) yet during his administration of the City he was said to have stolen various temple offerings and ornaments, and substituted brass and tin for the gold and silver in others. . . .

Contrary to all expectations, Galba appointed Vitellius to Lower Germany (in 68AD). Some think it was brought about by Titus Vinius, whose influence was powerful at that time, and whose friendship Vitellius had previously won through their mutual support for the ‘Blues’ in the Circus. But it is clear to everyone that Galba chose him as an act of contempt rather than favour, commenting that gluttons were among those least to be feared, and Vitellius’s endless appetite would now be able to sate itself on a province. . . .

He entered Rome to the sound of trumpets, surrounded by standards and banners, wearing a general’s cape, sword at his side, his officers in their military cloaks also, and the men with naked blades. With increasing disregard for the law, human or divine, he then assumed the office of High Priest on the anniversary of the Allia (18th July), arranged the elections for the next ten years, and made himself consul for life. . . .

Vitellius’s worst vices were cruelty and gluttony. . . . By the eighth month of his reign (November 69AD) the legions in Moesia and Pannonia had repudiated Vitellius, and sworn allegiance to Vespasian despite his absence, following those of Syria and Judaea who had done so in Vespasian’s presence. . . .

The vanguard of Vespasian’s army had now forced its way into the Palace, unopposed, and the soldiers were ransacking the rooms, in their usual manner. They hauled Vitellius, unrecognised, from his hiding place, asked his name and where the Emperor might be. He gave some lying answer, but was soon identified, so he begged for safe custody, even if that meant imprisonment, claiming he had important information for Vespasian regarding his security. However his arms were bound behind him and a noose flung over his head, and he was dragged along the Sacred Way to the Forum, amid a hail of mockery and abuse, half-naked, with his clothes in tatters. His head was held back by the hair, like a common criminal and, with a sword-point under his chin so that he was forced to look up and reveal his face, he was pelted with filth and dung, denounced as arsonist and glutton, and taunted with his bodily defects by the crowd. For, Vitellius was exceptionally tall, and his face was usually flushed from some drinking bout. He had a huge belly, too, and one thigh crippled by a blow from a four-horse chariot which struck him when he was in attendance on Caligula who was driving. At last, after being tormented by a host of cuts from the soldiers’ swords, he was killed on the Gemonian Stairs, and his body dragged with a hook to the Tiber.
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TrajanSestCeres~0.jpg
1bc Trajan48 views98-117

Sestertius
Laureate head, right, IMP CAES NERVAE TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P M TR P COS V PP
Roma and kneeling Dacian, SPQR OPTIMO PRINCIPI SC

RIC 485

Eutropius enthused: To [Nerva] succeeded ULPIUS CRINITUS TRAJANUS, born at Italica in Spain, of a family rather ancient than eminent for his father was the first consul in it. He was chosen emperor at Agrippina, a city of Gaul. He exercised the government in such a manner, that he is deservedly preferred to all the other emperors. He was a man of extraordinary skill in managing affairs of state, and of remarkable courage. The limits of the Roman empire, which, since the reign of Augustus, had been rather defended than honourably enlarged, he extended far and wide. He rebuilt some cities in Germany; he subdued Dacia by the overthrow of Decebalus, and formed a province beyond the Danube, in that territory which the Thaiphali, Victoali, and Theruingi now occupy. This province was a thousand miles in circumference.

He recovered Armenia, which the Parthians had seized, putting to death Parthamasires who held the government of it. He gave a king to the Albani. He received into alliance the king of the Iberians, Sarmatians, Bosporani, Arabians, Osdroeni, and Colchians. He obtained the mastery over the Cordueni and Marcomedi, as well as over Anthemusia, an extensive region of Persia. He conquered and kept possession of Seleucia, Ctesiphon, Babylon, and the country of the Messenii. He advanced as far as the boundaries of India, and the Red Sea, where he formed three provinces, Armenia, Assyria, and Mesopotamia, including the tribes which border on Madena. He afterwards, too, reduced Arabia into the form of a province. He also fitted out a fleet for the Red Sea, that he might use it to lay waste the coasts of India.

Yet he went beyond his glory in war, in ability and judgment as a ruler, conducting himself as an equal towards all, going often to his friends as a visitor, either when they were ill, or when they were celebrating feast days, and entertaining them in his turn at banquets where there was no distinction of rank, and sitting frequently with them in their chariots; doing nothing unjust towards any of the senators, nor being guilty of any dishonesty to fill his treasury; exercising liberality to all, enriching with offices of trust, publicly and privately, every body whom he had known even with the least familiarity; building towns throughout the world, granting many immunities to states, and doing every thing with gentleness and kindness; so that during his whole reign, there was but one senator condemned, and he was sentenced by the senate without Trajan's knowledge. Hence, being regarded throughout the world as next to a god, he deservedly obtained the highest veneration both living and dead. . . .

After having gained the greatest glory both in the field and at home, he was cut off, as he was returning from Persia, by a diarrhoea, at Seleucia in Isauria. He died in the sixty-third year, ninth month, and fourth day of his age, and in the nineteenth year, sixth month, and fifteenth day of his reign. He was enrolled among the gods, and was the only one of all the emperors that was buried within the city. His bones, contained in a golden urn, lie in the forum which he himself built, under a pillar whose height is a hundred and forty-four feet. So much respect has been paid to his memory, that, even to our own times, they shout in acclamations to the emperors, "More fortunate than Augustus, better than Trajan!"
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FaustinaSestVesta.jpg
1bi Faustina22 viewsWife of Antoninus Pius, died 141

Sestertius

Draped bust, right, DIVA FAVSTINA
Vesta stg, AVGVSTA SC

RIC 1178

The Historia Augusta recounts: On the death of his wife Faustina, in the third year of his reign, the senate deified her, and voted her games and a temple and priestesses and statues of silver and of gold. These the Emperor accepted, and furthermore granted permission that her statue be erected in all the circuses ; and when the senate voted her a golden statue, he undertook to erect it himself.
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FaustinaIIAsJuno.jpg
1bk Faustina Junior147 viewsWife of Marcus Aurelius. 131-176

As
Draped bust, left, FAVSTINA AVG PII AVG FIL
Juno seated left holding the three graces and scepter, peacock at feet, IVNO SC

The daughter of Antoninus Pius, wife of Aurelius, and mother of Commodus, Faustina had a box seat to witness the end of the Golden Age. She bore Aurelius at least 13 children and accompanied him on his military campaigns, yet years later had her reputation impuned for alleged adultery.

The reverse is RIC 1400, for which only right-facing busts are listed.

From Curtis Clay: "This is a rev. type that used to be very rare, even with bust right, but quite a few specimens have emerged from Bulgaria since the fall of the Iron Curtain.

I had a specimen with bust left myself, acquired from Baldwin's c. 1970, which is now in the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford.

A VF specimen with bust left, from the same dies as yours, was in CNG E54, 4 Dec. 2002, 145 = CNG 57, 4 April 2001, 1292.

Still an interesting and scarce reverse type, and rare with bust left, a variety that is hard to find on any Roman coin of Faustina II !" Thank you, Curtis!
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SevAlexDenSevAlex.jpg
1ce Severus Alexander27 views222-235

Denarius

Laureate draped bust, right, IMP C M AVR SEV ALEXAND AVG
Sev. Alex in armor, P M TR P III COS P P

RIC 74

Herodian recorded: [The soldiers] were more favorably disposed toward Alexander, for they expected great things of a lad so properly and modestly reared. They kept continual watch upon the youth when they saw that Elagabalus was plotting against him. His mother Mamaea did not allow her son to touch any food or drink sent by the emperor, nor did Alexander use the cupbearers or cooks employed in the palace or those who happened to be in their mutual service; only those chosen by his mother, those who seemed most trustworthy, were allowed to handle Alexander's food.

Mamaea secretly distributed money to the praetorians to win their good will for her son; it was to gold that the praetorians were particularly devoted. . . . . Maesa, the grandmother of them both, foiled all his schemes; she was astute in every way and had spent much of her life in the imperial palace. As the sister of Severus' wife Julia, Maesa had always lived with the empress at the court. . . .

When Alexander received the empire, the appearance and the title of emperor were allowed him, but the management and control of imperial affairs were in the hands of his women, and they undertook a more moderate and more equitable administration. . . . At any rate, he entered the fourteenth year of his reign without bloodshed, and no one could say that the emperor had been responsible for anyone's murder. Even though men were convicted of serious crimes, he nevertheless granted them pardons to avoid putting them to death, and not readily did any emperor of our time, after the reign of Marcus, act in this way or display so much concern for human life.

In the fourteenth year, however, unexpected dispatches from the governors of Syria and Mesopotamia revealed that Artaxerxes, the Persian king, had conquered the Parthians and seized their Eastern empire, killing Artabanus [IV], who was formerly called the Great King and wore the double diadem. Artaxerxes then subdued all the barbarians on his borders and forced them to pay tribute. He did not remain quiet, however, nor stay on his side of the Tigris River, but, after scaling its banks and crossing the borders of the Roman empire, he overran Mesopotamia and threatened Syria.

Traveling rapidly, he came to Antioch, after visiting the provinces and the garrison camps in Illyricum; from that region he collected a huge force of troops. While in Antioch he continued his preparations for the war, giving the soldiers military training under field conditions. . . . The Romans suffered a staggering disaster; it is not easy to recall another like it, one in which a great army was destroyed, an army inferior in strength and determination to none of the armies of old.

Now unexpected messages and dispatches upset Alexander and caused him even greater anxiety: the governors in Illyria reported that the Germans [the Alamans] had crossed the Rhine and the Danube rivers, were plundering the Roman empire. . . . Although he loathed the idea, Alexander glumly announced his departure for Illyria. . . . Alexander undertook to buy a truce rather than risk the hazards of war. . . .

The soldiers, however, were not pleased by his action, for the time was passing without profit to them, and Alexander was doing nothing courageous or energetic about the war; on the contrary, when it was essential that he march out and punish the Germans for their insults, he spent the time in chariot racing and luxurious living. . . . They plotted now to kill Alexander and proclaim Maximinus emperor and Augustus. . . . Alexander's troops deserted him for Maximinus, who was then proclaimed emperor by all. . . . Maximinus sent a tribune and several centurions to kill Alexander and his mother, together with any of his followers who opposed them.
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DelmatiusAE3GlorEx.jpg
1eg Delmatius21 viewsCaesar 335-337

AE3, Thessalonica

Laureate, cuirassed bust, right, FL DELMATIVS NOB C two soldiers holding spears and shields with two standards between them, O on banner, GLORIA EXERCITVS. Mintmark: SMTSD.

RIC 202D

Zosimus recorded: After Constantine had oppressed and tormented the people in these various modes, he died of a disease, and was succeeded by his three sons, who were not born of Fausta the daughter of Maximianus Herculius, but of another woman, whom he had put to death for adultery. They devoted themselves more to the pleasures of youth than to the service of the state. They began by dividing the nations between them. Constantine the eldest, and Constans the youngest, having for their share all beyond the Alps, together with Italy and Illyricum, the countries bordering on the Euxine sea and all that belonged to Carthage in Africa; Constantius obtained all Asia, the east, and Egypt. There were likewise others who shared in the government; Dalmatius, whom Constantine made Caesar, Constantius his brother, and Hanniballianus, who had all worn robes of purple embroidered with gold, and were promoted to the order of Nobilissimates by Constantine, from respect to their being of his own family. . . . The empire being thus divided, Constantius who appeared to take pains not to fall short of his father in impiety, began by shedding the blood of his nearest relations. He first caused Constantius, his father's brother, to be murdered by the soldiers ; next to whom he treated Dalmatius in the same manner, as also Optatus whom Constantine had raised to the rank of a Nobilissimate.

A great-nephew of Constantine the Great.
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TheodosAE4VotMult~0.jpg
1eu Theodosius24 views379-395

AE4

Pearl diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right, D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG
VOT V MVLT X within wreath, ASISC in ex

RIC 29d

Zosimus recorded: [Valentinian] commanded some legions from the stations in Pannonia and Moesia, to embark for Africa [to crush a rebellion]. On this the Sarmatians and the Quadi. . . , availing themselves, of the opportunity afforded by the departure of the legions for Africa, invaded the Pannonians and Moesians. . . . The barbarians therefore revenged themselves by plundering all the country along the Ister, carrying off all that they found in the towns. The Pannonians were by these means exposed to the cruelty of the barbarians, while the soldiers were extremely negligent in the defence of their towns, and committed as much mischief as the Barbarians themselves in all places on this side of the river. But Moesia was free from harm, because Theodosius, who commanded the forces there, courageously resisted the Barbarians, and routed them when they attacked him. By that victory he not only acquired great renown, but subsequently attained the imperial dignity. . . .

When the affairs of the empire were reduced to this low condition, Victor, who commanded the Roman cavalry, escaping the danger with some of his troops, entered Macedon and Thessaly. From thence he proceeded into Moesia and Pannonia, and informed Gratian, who was then in that quarter, of what had occurred, and of the loss of the emperor [Valens] and his army. Gratian received the intelligence without uneasiness, and was little grieved at the death of his uncle, a disagreement having existed between them. Finding himself unable to manage affairs, Thrace being ravaged by the Barbarians, as were likewise Pannonia and Moesia, and the towns upon the Rhine being infested by the neighbouring Barbarians without controul, he chose for his associate in the empire, Theodosius, who was a native of a town called Cauca, in the part of Spain called Hispania Callaecia, and who possessed great knowledge and experience of military affairs. Having given him the government of Thrace and the eastern provinces, Gratian himself proceeded to the west of Gaul, in order, if possible, to compose affairs in that quarter. . . .

During the stay of the new emperor, Theodosius, at Thesslonica, a great concourse arrived there from all parts of persons soliciting him on business, both public and private; who having obtained of him whatever he could conveniently grant, returned, to their homes. As a great multitude of the Scythians beyond the Ister, the Gotthi, and the Taiphali, and other tribes that formerly dwelt among them, had crossed the river, and were driven to infest the Roman dominions, because the Huns, had expelled them from their own country, the emperor Theodosius prepared for war with all his forces. . . . The army having made this good use of the occasion afforded by fortune, the affairs of Thrace, which had been on the brink of ruin, were now, the Barbarians being crushed beyond all hope, re-established in peace. . . .

Meanwhile, the emperor Theodosius, residing in Thessalonica, was easy of access to all who wished to see him. Having commenced his reign in luxury and indolence, he threw the magistracy into disorder, and increased the number of his military officers. . . . As he squandered the public money without consideration, bestowing it on unworthy persons, he consequently impoverished himself. He therefore sold the government of provinces to any who would purchase them, without regard to the reputation or ablity of the persons, esteeming him the best qualified who brought him the most gold or silver. . . .

Maximus, who deemed his appointments inferior to his merits, being only governor of the countries formerly under Gratian, projected how to depose the young Valentinian from the empire. . . . This so much surprised Valentinian, and rendered his situation so desperate, that his courtiers were alarmed lest he should be taken by Maximus and put to death. He, therefore, immediately embarked,and sailed to Thessalonica with his mother Justina. . . . [A]rriving at Thessalonica, they sent messengers to the emperor Theodosius, intreating him now at least to revenge the injuries committed against the family of Valentinian. . . . The emperor, being delivered from this alarm, marched with great resolution with his whole army against Maximus. . . . Theodosius, having passed through Pannonia and the defiles of the Appennines, attacked unawares the forces of Maximus before they were prepared for him. A part of his army, having pursued them with the utmost speed, forced their way through the gates of Aquileia, the guards being too few to resist them. Maximus was torn from his imperial throne while in the act of distributing money to his soldiers, and being stripped of his imperial robes, was brought to Theodosius, who, having in reproach enumerated some of his crimes against the commonwealth, delivered him to the common executioner to receive due punishment. . . . The emperor Theodosius, having consigned Italy, Spain, Celtica, and Libya to his son Honorius, died of a disease on his journey towards Constantinople.
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LarryW1931.jpg
210 Basil II Bulgaroktonos, AD 976-102567 viewsGold histamenon nomisma, 25mm, 4.40g, aEF
Struck at Constantinople c. AD 1005-1025
+ IhS CIS REX REGNANTIhM, bust of Christ facing, wears pallium, colobium, and nimbus cruciger with crescents; raised right hand, Gospels in left; triple border / + bASIL C CONSTANT b R, facing crowned busts of Basil wearing loros of square pattern (left) and Constantine wearing jeweled chlamys; holding between them with right hands a long plain cross; manus Dei above Basil's head; triple border
Certificate of Authenticity by David R. Sear, ACCS
DOC 6a; Sear 1800; Wroth 12-13
Lawrence Woolslayer
LarryW1937.jpg
215 Constantine VIII, AD 1025-102858 viewsGold histamenon nomisma, 25mm, 4.37g, gVF
Struck at Constantinople
+IhS XIS REX REGNANThM, bust of Christ Pantocrator facing, wears tunic, himation, and nimbus cruciger with crescents; right hand raised, Gospels in left; triple border / + CWhSTAhTIh BASILEUS ROM, crowned bust facing with long beard; wears loros, holds labarum with pellet on shaft with right, akakia in left; triple border. Scarce.
Certificate of Authenticity by David R. Sear, ACCS
DOC 2; Sear 1815
1 commentsLawrence Woolslayer
LarryW1938.jpg
220 Romanus III Argyrus, AD 1028-103462 viewsGold histamenon nomisma, 26mm, 4.37g, VF
Struck at Constantinople AD 1028-1029
+IhS REX REGNANTINM, Christ enthroned facing, wears nimbus cruciger and colobium, raises right hand and holds Gospels with left; double border / ΘCE bOHΘ RWMANW MΘ, the figures of Romanus (left) and the Virgin standing facing; bearded Romanus wears saccos and loros, and holds globus cruciger; the nimbate Virgin wears pallium and maphorum, and with right hand crowns the emperor; double border
Ex: Harlan Berk
DOC 1d; Sear 1819; Berk 296
Lawrence Woolslayer
24e-Constantine-Her-092.jpg
24e. Constantine: Heraclea.17 viewsAE3, 327 - 329, Heraclea mint.
Obverse: CONSANTINVS AVG / Diademed bust of Constantine, "Eyes to God."
Reverse: D N CONSTANTINI MAX AVG / Laurel wreath enclosing VOT XXX.
Mint mark: .SMHB
3.42 gm., 18.5 mm.
RIC #92; LRBC #887; Sear #16231.

Eusebius stated that Constantine had himself depicted in the attitude of prayer on his coins. Since early Christians prayed looking up to Heaven, this obverse portrait is the one which Eusebius saw. Thus the phrase "Eyes to God" became associated with this portrait. We have no proof that Eusebius' statement is true; indeed the portrait could have been based on the way various Hellenistic kings portrayed themselves on their own coins. However, Eusebius' statement likely reflected the popular opinion of his time.

The "Eyes to God" portrait was used intermittently on gold and silver coinages from 324 to 337. It's use on the bronze coinage is limited to just three mints: Constantinople (Daphne coinage, 328), Cyzicus (Campgate coinage 328-29), and Heraclea (VOT XXX coinage, 325-26, 327-329).
Callimachus
VHC29-coin.jpg
29- GREAT BRITAIN, 1/2 SOVEREIGN, KM784 (Terner pedigree).21 viewsSize: 19.30 mm. Composition: .917 Gold/.1177 oz. Mintage: 2,037,999.
Grade: PCGS MS64, with Terner pedigree on label (Cert. #90089936).
Comments: Ex-Dimitri Gotzamanis and the Dr. Jacob Terner collection.
lordmarcovan
image~5.jpg
3) The Tyrannicides: Brutus47 viewsGold stater, BMCRR II p. 474, 48; RPC I 1701A (Thracian Kings); BMC Thrace p. 208, 1 (same); SNG Cop 123 (Scythian Dynasts), military mint, weight 8.39g, 44 - 42 B.C.; obverse Roman consul L. Junius Brutus (traditional founder of the Republic) in center, accompanied by two lictors, KOΣΩN in ex, BR (Brutus) monogram left; reverse eagle standing left on scepter, wings open, raising wreath in right talon; ex CNG Store

From the Elwood Rafn Collection.

2 commentsSosius
coin259.JPG
318. Florian28 viewsAfter Tacitus died, the army chose Florian to succeed him. His full name as Emperor was Imperator Caesar Marcus Annius Florianus Pius Felix Invictus Augustus. The Historia Augusta characterizes the succession as a dynastic coup in which the Senate was ignored, but since Florian like Tacitus issued coins inscribed SC, advertising the Senate's authority for minting them, the Historia Augusta's complaint may be factitious. Most of this biography is.

Florian had hardly assumed office when the armies and provinces of Phoenicia, Palestine, Syria and Egypt declared for Probus. Florian turned from pursuing the the Eruli north to return to Cilicia and confront Probus and his army. Florian appears to have had the larger army, but Probus, an experienced general, held back. After a few weeks of sporadic fighting, Florian was assassinated by his own troops near Tarsus. He had reigned about 88 days.

Florian's different nomen, Annius rather than Claudius, means that he cannot have been Tacitus's full brother as the Historia Augusta implies; but one passage identifies him as Tacitus's half brother by the same mother, which might be true. Some historians doubt, however, whether any blood connexion existed at all. Little can be said about Florian's reign. One inscription assigns him a consulate. Though neither reigned long, both Tacitus and Florian had a large and varied coinage, "lively with hope for a golden age neither emperor ever realized."



Florian, Antoninianus 276 AD 2.77g
Obv: Bust of Florian right 'IMP FLORIANVS AVG'
Rev: Victory presenting a wreath to Florian 'CONCORDIA MILITVM' 'T' in ex.
RIC 116
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344/2b L. Titurius L.f. Sabinus 24 viewsL. Titurius L.f. Sabinus 89 B.C. AR Denarius. Rome Mint. 89 B.C. (3.9 g, 17.48 mm, 9h). Obv: Head of Tatius right, SABIN behind, palm branch below chin. Rev: Tarpeia buried to her waist in shields, fending off two soldiers about to throw shields on her, LTITV[RI] in ex. Tituria 4, Craw. 344/2b, Syd 699.

Tarpeia, daughter of the commander of the citadel, betrayed her fellow Romans to the Sabines when they came to attack Rome. Tarpeia offered to admit the Sabines into the city in return for what they wore on their arms. She had in mind the gold torques the Sabines usually wore. The Sabines agreed, but disgusted by her greed, the gave her the shields they worn on their arms and put her to death by crushing her under their shields. She was then thrown from a high cliff above the city. The Tarpeian Rock, from which traitors were thrown in Rome, is named after her.

This type was later used by Augustus, possibly to demonstrate his ties to the times of the Republic (RIC I 299).
1 commentsLucas H
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5.0 Gold Fanam - India106 viewstiny gold coin
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5.01 Gold Fanam - India86 viewstiny gold coin
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501. Constantine I Cyzicus GLORIA EXERCITVS29 viewsCyzicus

Cyzicus was an ancient town of Mysia in Asia Minor, situated on the shoreward side of the present peninsula of Kapu-Dagh (Arctonnesus), which is said to have been originally an island in the Sea of Marmara, and to have been artificially connected with the mainland in historic times.

It was, according to tradition, occupied by Thessalian settlers at the coming of the Argonauts, and in 756 BC the town was founded by Greeks from Miletus.

Owing to its advantageous position it speedily acquired commercial importance, and the gold staters of Cyzicus were a staple currency in the ancient world till they were superseded by those of Philip of Macedon. (For more information on ancient coinage click here) During the Peloponnesian War (431-404 BC) Cyzicus was subject to the Athenians and Lacedaemonians alternately, and at the peace of Antalcidas (387 BC), like the other Greek cities in Asia, it was made over to Persia.

The history of the town in Hellenistic times is closely connected with that of the Attalids of Pergamon, with whose extinction it came into direct relations with Rome. Cyzicus was held for the Romans against Mithradates in 74 BC till the siege was raised by Lucullus: the loyalty of the city was rewarded by an extension of territory and other privileges. Still a flourishing centre in Imperial times, the place appears to have been ruined by a series of earthquakes —the last in AD 1063— and the population was transferred to Artaki at least as early as the 13th century, when the peninsula was occupied by the Crusaders.

The site is now known as Bal-Kiz and entirely uninhabited, though under cultivation. The principal extant ruins are the walls, which are traceable for nearly their whole extent, a picturesque amphitheatre intersected by a stream, and the substructures of the temple of Hadrian. Of this magnificent building, sometimes ranked among the seven wonders of the ancient world, thirty-one immense columns still stood erect in 1444. These have since been carried away piecemeal for building purposes.

RIC VII Cyzicus 110 R5

Ex-Varangian

ecoli
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516a Johannes41 viewsAfter the death of Honorius on August 15, 423, his closest male relative was Valentinian, son of Galla Placidia. Valentinian was currently at Constantinople. This power vacuum allowed Ioannes, the primicerius notariorum (chief notary) to seize power in the west. Virtually nothing is known of Ioannes himself, though he was said to have had a mild character. He was supported by the magister militum Castinus and by Aetius, son of the magister militum Gaudentius. After his acclamation at Rome, Ioannes transferred his capital to Ravenna. Ioannes' rule was accepted in Gaul, Spain and Italy, but not in Africa. Ioannes' attempts to negotiate with the eastern emperor Theodosius II were unsuccessful. He seems not to have had a firm grasp of power and this encouraged eastern intervention. In 425, Theodosius II sent an expedition under the command of Ardabur the Elder to install Valentinian as emperor in the west. Ardabur was captured, but treated well, as Ioannes still hoped to be able to negotiate with Theodosius. Ardabur, however, persuaded some of Ioannes' officials to betray him. After his capture, Ioannes was taken to Aquileia where he was mutilated, then executed. Three days after Ioannes's execution, one of his generals, Aetius, arrived in Italy with a large force of Huns. Rather than continue the war, Valentinian bought off the Huns with gold and Aetius with the office of comes.
1 commentsecoli
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704a, Caligula, 16 March 37 - 24 January 41 A.D.100 viewsCaligula, 37 - 41 AD, Ionia, Smyrna. AE 17mm. Klose, Smyrna 27a. RPC 2473. 2.89 gm. Fine. Menophanes, Aviola, Procos, 37-38 AD. Obverse: AION, laureate head right; Reverse: Nike holding wreath right. Ex Tom Vossen.


De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

GAIUS (CALIGULA) (A.D. 37-41)

Garrett G. Fagan
Pennsylvania State University

Gaius Caesar Augustus Germanicus (Caligula) was born on 31 August, A.D. 12, probably at the Julio-Claudian resort of Antium (modern Anzio), the third of six children born to Augustus's adopted grandson, Germanicus, and Augustus's granddaughter, Agrippina. Caligula was the Roman Emperor between A.D. 37-41). Unfortunately, his is the most poorly documented reign of the Julio-Claudian dynasty. The literary sources for these four years are meager, frequently anecdotal, and universally hostile.[[1]] As a result, not only are many of the events of the reign unclear, but Gaius himself appears more as a caricature than a real person, a crazed megalomaniac given to capricious cruelty. Although some headway can be made in disentangling truth from embellishment, the true character of the youthful emperor will forever elude us.

As a baby he accompanied his parents on military campaigns in the north and was shown to the troops wearing a miniature soldier's outfit, including the hob-nailed sandal called caliga, whence the nickname by which posterity remembers him. His childhood was not a happy one, spent amid an atmosphere of paranoia, suspicion, and murder. Instability within the Julio-Claudian house, generated by uncertainty over the succession, led to a series of personal tragedies.

When Tiberius died on 16 March A.D. 37, Gaius was in a perfect position to assume power, despite the obstacle of Tiberius's will, which named him and his cousin Tiberius Gemellus joint heirs. (Gemellus's life was shortened considerably by this bequest, since Gaius ordered him killed within a matter of months.) Backed by the Praetorian Prefect Q. Sutorius Macro, Gaius asserted his dominance. He had Tiberius's will declared null and void on grounds of insanity, accepted the powers of the Principate as conferred by the Senate, and entered Rome on 28 March amid scenes of wild rejoicing. His first acts were generous in spirit: he paid Tiberius's bequests and gave a cash bonus to the Praetorian Guard, the first recorded donativum to troops in imperial history.

The ancient sources are practically unanimous as to the cause of Gaius's downfall: he was insane. The writers differ as to how this condition came about, but all agree that after his good start Gaius began to behave in an openly autocratic manner, even a crazed one. The sources describe his incestuous relations with his sisters, laughable military campaigns in the north, the building of a pontoon bridge across the Bay at Baiae, and the plan to make his horse a consul. Their unanimous hostility renders their testimony suspect, especially since Gaius's reported behavior fits remarkably well with that of the ancient tyrant, a literary type enshrined in Greco-Roman tradition centuries before his reign. Further, the only eye-witness account of Gaius's behavior, Philo's Embassy to Gaius, offers little evidence of outright insanity, despite the antagonism of the author, whom Gaius treated with the utmost disrespect.

The conspiracy that ended Gaius's life was hatched among the officers of the Praetorian Guard, apparently for purely personal reasons. It appears also to have had the support of some senators and an imperial freedman. As with conspiracies in general, there are suspicions that the plot was more broad-based than the sources intimate, and it may even have enjoyed the support of the next emperor Claudius, but these propositions are not provable on available evidence. On 24 January A.D. 41 the praetorian tribune Cassius Chaerea and other guardsmen caught Gaius alone in a secluded palace corridor and cut him down. He was 28 years old and had ruled three years and ten months.

Whatever damage Tiberius's later years had done to the carefully crafted political edifice created by Augustus, Gaius multiplied it a hundredfold. When he came to power in A.D. 37 Gaius had no administrative experience beyond his honorary quaestorship, and had spent an unhappy early life far from the public eye. He appears, once in power, to have realized the boundless scope of his authority and acted accordingly. For the elite, this situation proved intolerable and ensured the blackening of Caligula's name in the historical record they would dictate. The sensational and hostile nature of that record, however, should in no way trivialize Gaius's importance. His reign highlighted an inherent weakness in the Augustan Principate, now openly revealed for what it was -- a raw monarchy in which only the self-discipline of the incumbent acted as a restraint on his behavior. That the only means of retiring the wayward princes was murder marked another important revelation: Roman emperors could not relinquish their powers without simultaneously relinquishing their lives.

Copyright © 1997, Garrett G. Fagan.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Ancient Smyrna

The 5,000 year-old city of Izmir is one of the oldest cities of the Mediterranean basin. The original city was established in the third millennium BC (at present day Bayraklı), at which time it shared with Troy the most advanced culture in Anatolia.


Greek settlement is attested by the presence of pottery dating from about 1000 BC. In the first millennium BC Izmir, then known as Smyrna, ranked as one of the most important cities of the Ionian Federation. During this period, it is believed that the epic poet Homer resided here.

Lydian conquest of the city around 600 BC brought this golden age to an end. Smyrna was little more than a village throughout the Lydian and subsequent sixth century BC Persian rule. In the fourth century BC a new city was built on the slopes of Mt. Pagos (Kadifekale) during the reign of Alexander the Great. Smyrna's Roman period, beginning in the first century BC, was its second great era.

In the first century AD, Smyrna became one of the earliest centers of Christianity and it was one of the Seven Churches of Revelation. Both Revelation and the Martyrdom of Polycarp indicate the existence of a Jewish community in Smyrna as early as the 1st and 2nd centuries AD. The letter to the church at Smyrna in Revelation indicates that the Christians were spiritually "rich" and apparently in conflict with the Jews (2:9).

The origins of the Christian community there, which was established in the 1st century, are unknown. Ignatius of Antioch stopped at Smyrna on his way to martyrdom in Rome in 107 AD, and he sent a letter back to the Christians there from later in his journey. Smyrna's bishop, Polycarp, was burned at the stake in Smyrna's stadium around 156 AD.

Byzantine rule came in the fourth century and lasted until the Seljuk conquest in 11th century. In 1415, under Sultan Mehmed Çelebi, Smyrna became part of the Ottoman Empire.

The city earned its fame as one of the most important port cities of the world during the 17th to 19th centuries. The majority of its population were Greek but merchants of various origins (especially Greek, French, Italian, Dutch, Armenian, Sephardi and Jewish) transformed the city into a cosmopolitan portal of trade. During this period, the city was famous for its own brand of music (Smyrneika) as well as its wide range of products it exported to Europe (Smyrna/Sultana raisins, dried figs, carpets, etc.).

Today, Izmir is Turkey's third largest city and is nicknamed "the pearl of Aegean." It is widely regarded as the most Westernized city of Turkey in terms of values, ideology, gender roles, and lifestyle.
© 2005-08 Sacred Destinations. All rights reserved.
http://www.sacred-destinations.com/turkey/izmir-history.htm

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
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706a, Nero, 13 October 54 - 9 June 68 A.D.73 views6, Nero, 13 October 54 - 9 June 68 A.D. AE setertius, Date: 66 AD; RIC I 516, 36.71 mm; 25.5 grams; aVF. Obverse: IMP NERO CAESAR AVG PONT MAX TR POT PP, Laureate bust right; Reverse: S C, ROMA, Roma seated left, exceptional portrait and full obverse legends. Ex Ancient Imports.

NERO (54-68 A.D.)

It is difficult for the modern student of history to realize just how popular Nero actually was, at least at the beginning of his reign. Rome looked upon her new Emperor with hope. He was the student of Seneca, and he had a sensitive nature. He loved art, music, literature, and theatre. He was also devoted to horses and horse racing—a devotion shared by many of his subjects. The plebs loved their new Emperor. As Professor of Classics Judith P. Hallett (University of Maryland, College Park) says, “It is not clear to me that Nero ever changed or that Nero ever grew-up, and that was both his strength and his weakness. Nero was an extraordinarily popular Emperor: he was like Elvis” (The Roman Empire in the First Century, III. Dir. Margaret Koval and Lyn Goldfarb. 2001. DVD. PBS/Warner Bros. 2003).

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Herbert W. Benario
Emory University

Introduction and Sources
The five Julio-Claudian emperors are very different one from the other. Augustus dominates in prestige and achievement from the enormous impact he had upon the Roman state and his long service to Rome, during which he attained unrivaled auctoritas. Tiberius was clearly the only possible successor when Augustus died in AD 14, but, upon his death twenty-three years later, the next three were a peculiar mix of viciousness, arrogance, and inexperience. Gaius, better known as Caligula, is generally styled a monster, whose brief tenure did Rome no service. His successor Claudius, his uncle, was a capable man who served Rome well, but was condemned for being subject to his wives and freedmen. The last of the dynasty, Nero, reigned more than three times as long as Gaius, and the damage for which he was responsible to the state was correspondingly greater. An emperor who is well described by statements such as these, "But above all he was carried away by a craze for popularity and he was jealous of all who in any way stirred the feeling of the mob." and "What an artist the world is losing!" and who is above all remembered for crimes against his mother and the Christians was indeed a sad falling-off from the levels of Augustus and Tiberius. Few will argue that Nero does not rank as one of the worst emperors of all.

The prime sources for Nero's life and reign are Tacitus' Annales 12-16, Suetonius' Life of Nero, and Dio Cassius' Roman History 61-63, written in the early third century. Additional valuable material comes from inscriptions, coinage, papyri, and archaeology.


Early Life
He was born on December 15, 37, at Antium, the son of Cnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbusand Agrippina. Domitius was a member of an ancient noble family, consul in 32; Agrippina was the daughter of the popular Germanicus, who had died in 19, and Agrippina, daughter of Agrippa, Augustus' closest associate, and Julia, the emperor's daughter, and thus in direct descent from the first princeps. When the child was born, his uncle Gaius had only recently become emperor. The relationship between mother and uncle was difficult, and Agrippina suffered occasional humiliation. But the family survived the short reign of the "crazy" emperor, and when he was assassinated, it chanced that Agrippina's uncle, Claudius, was the chosen of the praetorian guard, although there may have been a conspiracy to accomplish this.

Ahenobarbus had died in 40, so the son was now the responsibility of Agrippina alone. She lived as a private citizen for much of the decade, until the death of Messalina, the emperor's wife, in 48 made competition among several likely candidates to become the new empress inevitable. Although Roman law forbade marriage between uncle and niece, an eloquent speech in the senate by Lucius Vitellius, Claudius' closest advisor in the senatorial order, persuaded his audience that the public good required their union. The marriage took place in 49, and soon thereafter the philosopher Seneca [[PIR2 A617]] was recalled from exile to become the young Domitius' tutor, a relationship which endured for some dozen years.

His advance was thereafter rapid. He was adopted by Claudius the following year and took the name Tiberius Claudius Nero Caesar or Nero Claudius Caesar Drusus Germanicus, was preferred to Claudius' natural son, Britannicus, who was about three years younger, was betrothed to the emperor's daughter Octavia, and was, in the eyes of the people, the clear successor to the emperor. In 54, Claudius died, having eaten some poisoned mushrooms, responsibility for which was believed to be Agrippina's, and the young Nero, not yet seventeen years old, was hailed on October 13 as emperor by the praetorian guard.


The First Years of Rule
The first five years of Nero's rule are customarily called the quinquennium, a period of good government under the influence, not always coinciding, of three people, his mother, Seneca, and Sextus Afranius Burrus, the praetorian prefect. The latter two were allies in their "education" of the emperor. Seneca continued his philosophical and rhetorical training, Burrus was more involved in advising on the actualities of government. They often combined their influence against Agrippina, who, having made her son emperor, never let him forget the debt he owed his mother, until finally, and fatally, he moved against her.

Nero's betrothal to Octavia was a significant step in his ultimate accession to the throne, as it were, but she was too quiet, too shy, too modest for his taste. He was early attracted to Poppaea Sabina, the wife of Otho, and she continually goaded him to break from Octavia and to show himself an adult by opposing his mother. In his private life, Nero honed the musical and artistic tastes which were his chief interest, but, at this stage, they were kept private, at the instigation of Seneca and Burrus.

As the year 59 began, Nero had just celebrated his twenty-first birthday and now felt the need to employ the powers which he possessed as emperor as he wished, without the limits imposed by others. Poppaea's urgings had their effect, first of all, at the very onset of the year, with Nero's murder of his mother in the Bay of Naples.

Agrippina had tried desperately to retain her influence with her son, going so far as to have intercourse with him. But the break between them proved irrevocable, and Nero undertook various devices to eliminate his mother without the appearance of guilt on his part. The choice was a splendid vessel which would collapse while she was on board. As this happened, she swam ashore and, when her attendant, having cried out that she was Agrippina, was clubbed to death, Agrippina knew what was going on. She sent Nero a message that she was well; his response was to send a detachment of sailors to finish the job. When she was struck across the head, she bared her womb and said, "Strike here, Anicetus, strike here, for this bore Nero," and she was brutally murdered.

Nero was petrified with fear when he learned that the deed had been done, yet his popularity with the plebs of Rome was not impaired. This matricide, however, proved a turning point in his life and principate. It appeared that all shackles were now removed. The influence of Seneca and Burrus began to wane, and when Burrus died in 62, Seneca realized that his powers of persuasion were at an end and soon went into retirement. Britannicus had died as early as 55; now Octavia was to follow, and Nero became free to marry Poppaea. It may be that it had been Burrus rather than Agrippina who had continually urged that Nero's position depended in large part upon his marriage to Octavia. Burrus' successor as commander of the praetorian guard, although now with a colleague, was Ofonius Tigellinus, quite the opposite of Burrus in character and outlook. Tigellinus became Nero's "evil twin," urging and assisting in the performance of crimes and the satisfaction of lusts.


Administrative and Foreign Policy
With Seneca and Burrus in charge of administration at home, the first half-dozen years of Nero's principate ran smoothly. He himself devoted his attention to his artistic, literary, and physical bents, with music, poetry, and chariot racing to the fore. But his advisors were able to keep these performances and displays private, with small, select audiences on hand. Yet there was a gradual trend toward public performance, with the establishment of games. Further, he spent many nights roaming the city in disguise, with numerous companions, who terrorized the streets and attacked individuals. Those who dared to defend themselves often faced death afterward, because they had shown disrespect for the emperor. The die was being cast for the last phases of Nero's reign.


The Great Fire at Rome and The Punishment
of the Christians
The year 64 was the most significant of Nero's principate up to this point. His mother and wife were dead, as was Burrus, and Seneca, unable to maintain his influence over Nero without his colleague's support, had withdrawn into private life. The abysmal Tigellinus was now the foremost advisor of the still young emperor, a man whose origin was from the lowest levels of society and who can accurately be described as criminal in outlook and action. Yet Nero must have considered that he was happier than he had ever been in his life. Those who had constrained his enjoyment of his (seemingly) limitless power were gone, he was married to Poppaea, a woman with all advantages save for a bad character the empire was essentially at peace, and the people of Rome enjoyed a full measure of panem et circenses. But then occurred one of the greatest disasters that the city of Rome, in its long history, had ever endured.

The fire began in the southeastern angle of the Circus Maximus, spreading through the shops which clustered there, and raged for the better part of a week. There was brief success in controlling the blaze, but then it burst forth once more, so that many people claimed that the fires were deliberately set. After about a fortnight, the fire burned itself out, having consumed ten of the fourteen Augustan regions into which the city had been divided.

Nero was in Antium through much of the disaster, but his efforts at relief were substantial. Yet many believed that he had been responsible, so that he could perform his own work comparing the current fate of Rome to the downfall of Troy. All his efforts to assist the stricken city could not remove the suspicion that "the emperor had fiddled while Rome burned." He lost favor even among the plebs who had been enthusiastic supporters, particularly when his plans for the rebuilding of the city revealed that a very large part of the center was to become his new home.

As his popularity waned, Nero and Tigellinus realized that individuals were needed who could be charged with the disaster. It so happened that there was such a group ready at hand, Christians, who had made themselves unpopular because of their refusal to worship the emperor, their way of life, and their secret meetings. Further, at this time two of their most significant "teachers" were in Rome, Peter and Paul. They were ideal scapegoats, individuals whom most Romans loathed, and who had continually sung of the forthcoming end of the world.

Their destruction was planned with the utmost precision and cruelty, for the entertainment of the populace. The venue was Nero's circus near the Mons Vaticanus. Christians were exposed to wild animals and were set ablaze, smeared with pitch, to illuminate the night. The executions were so grisly that even the populace displayed sympathy for the victims. Separately, Peter was crucified upside down on the Vatican hill and Paul was beheaded along the Via Ostiensis. But Nero's attempt, and hope, to shift all suspicion of arson to others failed. His popularity even among the lower classes was irrevocably impaired.

[For a detailed and interesting discussion of Nero’s reign please see http://www.roman-emperors.org/nero.htm]

The End - Nero's Death and its Aftermath
Nero's and Tigellinus' response to the conspiracy was immediate and long-lasting. The senatorial order was decimated, as one leading member after another was put to death or compelled to commit suicide. The year 66 saw the suicides of perhaps the most distinguished victims of the "reign of terror," Caius Petronius and Thrasea Paetus. Petronius, long a favorite of Nero because of his aesthetic taste, had been an able public servant before he turned to a life of ease and indolence. He was recognized as the arbiter elegantiae of Nero's circle, and may be the author of the Satyricon. At his death, he left for Nero a document which itemized many of the latter's crimes. Thrasea, a staunch Stoic who had been for some years an outspoken opponent of Nero's policies, committed suicide in the Socratic manner. This scene is the last episode in the surviving books of Tacitus' Annals.

In the year 68, revolt began in the provinces. . . the end of Nero's reign became inevitable. Galba claimed the throne and began his march from Spain. Nero panicked and was rapidly abandoned by his supporters. He finally committed suicide with assistance, on June 9, 68, and his body was tended and buried by three women who had been close to him in his younger days, chief of whom was Acte. His death scene is marked above all by the statement, "Qualis artifex pereo," (What an artist dies in me.) Even at the end he was more concerned with his private life than with the affairs of state.

The aftermath of Nero's death was cataclysmic. Galba was the first of four emperors who revealed the new secret of empire, that an emperor could be made elsewhere than in Rome. Civil war ensued, which was only ended by the victory of the fourth claimant, Vespasian, who established the brief dynasty of the Flavians. The dynasty of the Julio-Claudians was at an end.

Nero's popularity among the lower classes remained even after his death.

. . . .

It is not excessive to say that he was one of the worst of Rome's emperors in the first two centuries and more of the empire. Whatever talents he had, whatever good he may have done, all is overwhelmed by three events, the murder of his mother, the fire at Rome, and his savage treatment of the Christians.

Precisely these qualities are the reasons that he has remained so well known and has been the subject of many writers and opera composers in modern times. These works of fiction particularly merit mention: Henryk Sienkiewicz's Quo Vadis, one of the finest works of the 1907 Nobel Laureate in Literature, and John Hersey's The Conspiracy. Nero unquestionably will always be with us.

Copyright (C) 2006, Herbert W. Benario.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

1 commentsCleisthenes
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708a, Otho64 viewsOtho (69 A.D.)
John Donahue
College of William and Mary

Introduction
In January 69 Otho led a successful coup to overthrow the emperor Galba. Upon advancing to the throne, he hoped to conciliate his adversaries and restore political stability to the Empire. These ambitions were never to be realized. Instead, our sources portray a leader never fully able to win political confidence at Rome or to overcome military anarchy abroad. As a result, he was defeated in battle by the forces of Vitellius, his successor, and took his own life at the conclusion of the conflict. His principate lasted only eight weeks.
Early Life and Career
Marcus Salvius Otho was born at Ferentium on 28 April 32 A. D. His grandfather, also named Marcus Salvius Otho, was a senator who did not advance beyond the rank of praetor. Lucius Otho, his father, was consul in 33 and a trusted administrator under the emperors Tiberius, Gaius and Claudius. His mother, Albia Terentia, was likely to have been nobly born as well. The cognomen "Otho" was Etruscan in origin, and the fact that it can be traced to three successive generations of this family perhaps reflects a desire to maintain a part of the Etruscan tradition that formed the family's background.
Otho is recorded as being extravagant and wild as a youth - a favorite pastime involved roving about at night to snare drunkards in a blanket. Such behavior earned floggings from his father, whose frequent absences from home on imperial business suggest little in the way of a stabilizing parental influence in Otho's formative years. These traits apparently persisted: Suetonius records that Otho and Nero became close friends because of the similarity of their characters; and Plutarch relates that the young man was so extravagant that he sometimes chided Nero about his meanness, and even outdid the emperor in reckless spending.
Most intriguing in this context is Otho's involvement with Nero's mistress, Poppaea Sabina, the greatest beauty of her day. A relationship between the two is widely cited in the ancient sources, but the story differs in essential details from one account to the next. As a result, it is impossible to establish who seduced whom, whether Otho ever married Poppaea, and whether his posting to Lusitania by Nero should be understood as a "banishment" for his part in this affair. About the only reliable detail to emerge is that Otho did indeed become governor of Lusitania in 59, and that he assumed the post as a quaestor, a rank below that of praetor or consul, the minimum usually required for the office. From here he would launch his initial thrust towards the imperial throne.
Overthrow of Galba
Nero's suicide in June 68 marked the end of the Julio-Claudian dynasty and opened up the principate to the prerogatives of the military beyond Rome. First to emerge was Servius Sulpicius Galba, governor of Hispania Tarraconensis, who had been encouraged to revolt by the praetorians and especially by Nymphidius Sabinus, the corrupt and scheming praetorian prefect at Rome. By this time Otho had been in Spain for close to ten years. His record seems to have been a good one, marked by capable administration and an unwillingness to enrich himself at the expense of the province. At the same time, perhaps seeing this as his best chance to improve his own circumstances, he supported the insurrection as vigorously as possible, even sending Galba all of his gold and his best table servants. At the same time, he made it a point to win the favor of every soldier he came in contact with, most notably the members of the praetorian guard who had come to Spain to accompany Galba to Rome. Galba set out from Spain in July, formally assuming the emperorship shortly thereafter. Otho accompanied him on the journey.
Galba had been in Rome little more than two months when on 1 January 69 the troops in Upper Germany refused to declare allegiance to him and instead followed the men stationed in Lower Germany in proclaiming their commander, Aulus Vitellius, as the new ruler. To show that he was still in charge Galba adopted his own successor, Lucius Calpurnius Piso Frugi Licinianus, an aristocrat completely without administrative or military experience. The choice meant little to the remote armies, the praetorians or the senate and particularly angered Otho, who had hoped to succeed Galba. Otho quickly organized a conspiracy among the praetorians with promise of a material reward, and on 15 January 69 they declared him emperor and publicly killed Galba; Piso, dragged from hiding in the temple of Vesta, was also butchered. On that same evening a powerless senate awarded Otho the imperial titles.
Otho's Principate in Rome
It is not possible to reconstruct a detailed chronology of Otho's brief eight and a half weeks as princeps in Rome (15 January-15 March). Even so, Galba's quick demise had surely impressed upon Otho the need to conciliate various groups. As a result, he continued his indulgence of the praetorian guard but he also tried to win over the senate by following a strict constitutionalist line and by generally keeping the designations for the consulship made by Nero and Galba. In the provinces, despite limited evidence, there are some indications that he tried to compensate for Galba's stinginess by being more generous with grants of citizenship. In short, Otho was eager not to offend anyone.
Problems remained, however. The praetorians had to be continually placated and they were always suspicious of the senate. On the other hand, the senate itself, along with the people, remained deeply disturbed at the manner of Otho's coming to power and his willingness to be associated with Nero. These suspicions and fears were most evident in the praetorian outbreak at Rome. Briefly, Otho had decided to move from Ostia to Rome a cohort of Roman citizens in order to replace some of Rome's garrison, much of which was to be utilized for the showdown with Vitellius. He ordered that weapons be moved from the praetorian camp in Rome by ship to Ostia at night so that the garrison replacements would be properly armed and made to look as soldierly as possible when they marched into the city. Thinking that a senatorial counter-coup against Otho was underway, the praetorians stormed the imperial palace to confirm the emperor's safety, with the result that they terrified Otho and his senatorial dinner guests. Although the praetorians' fears were eventually calmed and they were given a substantial cash payment, the incident dramatically underscored the unease at Rome in the early months of 69.
Otho's Offensive against Vitellius
Meanwhile, in the Rhineland, preparations for a march on Rome by the military legions that had declared for Vitellius were far advanced. Hampered by poor intelligence gathering in Gaul and Germany and having failed to negotiate a settlement with Vitellius in early 69, Otho finally summoned to Italy his forces for a counterattack against the invading Vitellian army. His support consisted of the four legions of Pannonia and Dalmatia, the three legions of Moesia and his own imperial retinue of about 9,000. Vitellius' own troops numbered some 30,000, while those of his two marshals, Aulus Caecina Alienus and Fabius Valens, were between 15,000 and 20,000 each.
Otho's strategy was to make a quick diversionary strike in order to allow time for his own forces to assemble in Italy before engaging the enemy. The strategy worked, as the diversionary army, comprised of urban cohorts, praetorians and marines all from Rome or nearby, was successful in Narbonese Gaul in latter March. An advance guard sent to hold the line on the Po River until the Danubian legions arrived also enjoyed initial success. Otho himself arrived at Bedriacum in northern Italy about 10 April for a strategy session with his commanders. The main concern was that the Vitellians were building a bridge across the Po in order to drive southward towards the Apennines and eventually to Rome. Otho decided to counter by ordering a substantial part of his main force to advance from Bedriacum and establish a new base close enough to the new Vitellian bridge to interrupt its completion. While en route, the Othonian forces, strung out along the via Postumia amid baggage and supply trains, were attacked by Caecina and Valens near Cremona on 14 April. The clash, know as the Battle of Bedriacum, resulted in the defeat of the Othonian forces, their retreat cut off by the river behind them. Otho himself, meanwhile, was not present, but had gone to Brixellum with a considerable force of infantry and cavalry in order to impede any Vitellian units that had managed to cross the Po.
The plan had backfired. Otho's strategy of obtaining victory while avoiding any major battles had proven too risky. Realizing perhaps that a new round of fighting would have involved not only a significant re-grouping of his existing troops but also a potentially bloody civil war at Rome, if Vitellius' troops reached the capital, Otho decided that enough blood had been shed. Two weeks shy of his thirty-seventh birthday, on 16 April 69, he took his own life.
Assessment
To be sure, Otho remains an enigma - part profligate Neronian wastrel and part conscientious military commander willing to give his life for the good of the state. Our sources are at a loss to explain the paradox. Perhaps, like Petronius, he saw it was safer to appear a profligate in Nero's court? In the final analysis, Otho proved to be an organized and efficient military commander, who appealed more to the soldier than to the civilian. He also seems to have been a capable governor, with administrative talents that recalled those of his father. Nevertheless, his violent overthrow of Galba, the lingering doubts that it raised about his character, and his unsuccessful offensive against Vitellius are all vivid reminders of the turbulence that plagued the Roman world between the reigns of Nero and Vespasian. Regrettably, the scenario would play itself out one more time before peace and stability returned to the empire.
Copyright (C) 1999, John Donahue
Edited by J.P.Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
VespasianPax_RICii10.jpg
710a, Vespasian, 1 July 69 - 24 June 79 A.D.133 viewsSilver denarius, RIC II, 10, aVF, 3.5 g, 18mm, Rome mint, 69-71 AD; Obverse: IMP CAESA[R] VESPASIANV[S AV]G - Laureate head right; Reverse: COS ITER [T]R POT - Pax seated left holding branch and caduceus. Ex Imperial Coins.


De Imperatoribus Romanis:
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Titus Flavius Vespasianus (A.D. 69-79)

John Donahue
College of William and Mary

Introduction

Titus Flavius Vespasianus (b. A.D. 9, d. A.D. 79, emperor A.D. 69-79) restored peace and stability to an empire in disarray following the death of Nero in A.D. 68. In the process he established the Flavian dynasty as the legitimate successor to the Imperial throne. Although we lack many details about the events and chronology of his reign, Vespasian provided practical leadership and a return to stable government - accomplishments which, when combined with his other achievements, make his emperorship particularly notable within the history of the Principate.

Early Life and Career

Vespasian was born at Falacrina near Sabine Reate on 17 November, A.D. 9, the son of T. Flavius Sabinus, a successful tax collector and banker, and Vespasia Polla. Both parents were of equestrian status. Few details of his first fifteen years survive, yet it appears that his father and mother were often away from home on business for long periods. As a result, Vespasian's early education became the responsibility of his paternal grandmother, Tertulla. [[1]] In about A.D. 25 Vespasian assumed the toga virilis and later accepted the wearing of the latus clavus, and with it the senatorial path that his older brother, T. Flavius Sabinus, had already chosen. [[2]] Although many of the particulars are lacking, the posts typically occupied by one intent upon a senatorial career soon followed: a military tribunate in Thrace, perhaps for three or four years; a quaestorship in Crete-Cyrene; and the offices of aedile and praetor, successively, under the emperor Gaius. [[3]]

It was during this period that Vespasian married Flavia Domitilla. Daughter of a treasury clerk and former mistress of an African knight, Flavia lacked the social standing and family connections that the politically ambitious usually sought through marriage. In any case, the couple produced three children, a daughter, also named Flavia Domitilla, and two sons, the future emperors Titus and Domitian . Flavia did not live to witness her husband's emperorship and after her death Vespasian returned to his former mistress Caenis, who had been secretary to Antonia (daughter of Marc Antony and mother of Claudius). Caenis apparently exerted considerable influence over Vespasian, prompting Suetonius to assert that she remained his wife in all but name, even after he became emperor. [[4]]

Following the assassination of Gaius on 24 January, A.D. 41, Vespasian advanced rapidly, thanks in large part to the new princeps Claudius, whose favor the Flavians had wisely secured with that of Antonia, the mother of Germanicus, and of Claudius' freedmen, especially Narcissus. [[5]] The emperor soon dispatched Vespasian to Argentoratum (Strasbourg) as legatus legionis II Augustae, apparently to prepare the legion for the invasion of Britain. Vespasian first appeared at the battle of Medway in A.D. 43, and soon thereafter led his legion across the south of England, where he engaged the enemy thirty times in battle, subdued two tribes, and conquered the Isle of Wight. According to Suetonius, these operations were conducted partly under Claudius and partly under Vespasian's commander, Aulus Plautius. Vespasian's contributions, however, did not go unnoticed; he received the ornamenta triumphalia and two priesthoods from Claudius for his exploits in Britain. [[6]]

By the end of A.D. 51 Vespasian had reached the consulship, the pinnacle of a political career at Rome. For reasons that remain obscure he withdrew from political life at this point, only to return when chosen proconsul of Africa about A.D. 63-64. His subsequent administration of the province was marked by severity and parsimony, earning him a reputation for being scrupulous but unpopular. [[7]] Upon completion of his term, Vespasian returned to Rome where, as a senior senator, he became a man of influence in the emperor Nero's court. [[8]] Important enough to be included on Nero's tour of Greece in A.D. 66-67, Vespasian soon found himself in the vicinity of increasing political turbulence in the East. The situation would prove pivotal in advancing his career.

Judaea and the Accession to Power

In response to rioting in Caesarea and Jerusalem that had led to the slaughter in the latter city of Jewish leaders and Roman soldiers, Nero granted to Vespasian in A.D. 66 a special command in the East with the objective of settling the revolt in Judaea. By spring A.D. 67, with 60,000 legionaries, auxiliaries, and allies under his control, Vespasian set out to subdue Galilee and then to cut off Jerusalem. Success was quick and decisive. By October all of Galilee had been pacified and plans for the strategic encirclement of Jerusalem were soon formed. [[9]] Meanwhile, at the other end of the empire, the revolts of Gaius Iulius Vindex, governor of Gallia Lugdunensis, and Servius Sulpicius Galba , governor of Hispania Tarraconensis, had brought Nero's reign to the brink of collapse. The emperor committed suicide in June, A.D. 68, thereby ensuring chaos for the next eighteen months, as first Galba and then Marcus Salvius Otho and Aulus Vitellius acceded to power. Each lacked broad-based military and senatorial support; each would be violently deposed in turn. [[10]]

Still occupied with plans against Jerusalem, Vespasian swore allegiance to each emperor. Shortly after Vitellius assumed power in spring, A.D. 69, however, Vespasian met on the border of Judaea and Syria with Gaius Licinius Mucianus, governor of Syria, and after a series of private and public consultations, the two decided to revolt. [[11]] On July 1, at the urging of Tiberius Alexander, prefect of Egypt, the legions of Alexandria declared for Vespasian, as did the legions of Judaea two days later. By August all of Syria and the Danube legions had done likewise. Vespasian next dispatched Mucianus to Italy with 20,000 troops, while he set out from Syria to Alexandria in order to control grain shipments for the purpose of starving Italy into submission. [[12]] The siege of Jerusalem he placed in the hands of his son Titus.

Meanwhile, the Danubian legions, unwilling to wait for Mucianus' arrival, began their march against Vitellius ' forces. The latter army, suffering from a lack of discipline and training, and unaccustomed to the heat of Rome, was defeated at Cremona in late October. [[13]] By mid-December the Flavian forces had reached Carsulae, 95 kilometers north of Rome on the Flaminian Road, where the Vitellians, with no further hope of reinforcements, soon surrendered. At Rome, unable to persuade his followers to accept terms for his abdication, Vitellius was in peril. On the morning of December 20 the Flavian army entered Rome. By that afternoon, the emperor was dead. [[14]]

Tacitus records that by December 22, A.D. 69, Vespasian had been given all the honors and privileges usually granted to emperors. Even so, the issue remains unclear, owing largely to a surviving fragment of an enabling law, the lex de imperio Vespasiani, which conferred powers, privileges, and exemptions, most with Julio-Claudian precedents, on the new emperor. Whether the fragment represents a typical granting of imperial powers that has uniquely survived in Vespasian's case, or is an attempt to limit or expand such powers, remains difficult to know. In any case, the lex sanctioned all that Vespasian had done up to its passing and gave him authority to act as he saw fit on behalf of the Roman people. [[15]]

What does seem clear is that Vespasian felt the need to legitimize his new reign with vigor. He zealously publicized the number of divine omens that predicted his accession and at every opportunity he accumulated multiple consulships and imperial salutations. He also actively promoted the principle of dynastic succession, insisting that the emperorship would fall to his son. The initiative was fulfilled when Titus succeeded his father in A.D. 79.[[16]]

Emperorship

Upon his arrival in Rome in late summer, A.D. 70, Vespasian faced the daunting task of restoring a city and a government ravaged by the recent civil wars. Although many particulars are missing, a portrait nevertheles emerges of a ruler conscientiously committed to the methodical renewal of both city and empire. Concerning Rome itself, the emperor encouraged rebuilding on vacated lots, restored the Capitol (burned in A.D. 69), and also began work on several new buildings: a temple to the deified Claudius on the Caelian Hill, a project designed to identify Vespasian as a legitimate heir to the Julio-Claudians, while distancing himself from Nero ; a temple of Peace near the Forum; and the magnificent Colosseum (Flavian Amphitheatre), located on the site of the lake of Nero 's Golden House. [[17]]

Claiming that he needed forty thousand million sesterces for these projects and for others aimed at putting the state on more secure footing, Vespasian is said to have revoked various imperial immunities, manipulated the supply of certain commodities to inflate their price, and increased provincial taxation. [[18]] The measures are consistent with his characterization in the sources as both obdurate and avaricious. There were occasional political problems as well: Helvidius Priscus, an advocate of senatorial independence and a critic of the Flavian regime from the start, was exiled after A.D. 75 and later executed; Marcellus Eprius and A. Alienus Caecina were condemned by Titus for conspiracy, the former committing suicide, the latter executed in A.D. 79.
As Suetonius claims, however, in financial matters Vespasian always put revenues to the best possible advantage, regardless of their source. Tacitus, too, offers a generally favorable assessment, citing Vespasian as the first man to improve after becoming emperor. [[19]] Thus do we find the princeps offering subventions to senators not possessing the property qualifications of their rank, restoring many cities throughout the empire, and granting state salaries for the first time to teachers of Latin and Greek rhetoric. To enhance Roman economic and social life even further, he encouraged theatrical productions by building a new stage for the Theatre of Marcellus, and he also put on lavish state dinners to assist the food trades. [[20]]

In other matters the emperor displayed similar concern. He restored the depleted ranks of the senatorial and equestrian orders with eligible Italian and provincial candidates and reduced the backlog of pending court cases at Rome. Vespasian also re-established discipline in the army, while punishing or dismissing large numbers of Vitellius ' men. [[21]]
Beyond Rome, the emperor increased the number of legions in the East and continued the process of imperial expansion by the annexation of northern England, the pacification of Wales, and by advances into Scotland and southwest Germany between the Rhine and the Danube. Vespasian also conferred rights on communities abroad, especially in Spain, where the granting of Latin rights to all native communities contributed to the rapid Romanization of that province during the Imperial period. [[22]]

Death and Assessment

In contrast to his immediate imperial predecessors, Vespasian died peacefully - at Aquae Cutiliae near his birthplace in Sabine country on 23 June, A.D. 79, after contracting a brief illness. The occasion is said to have inspired his deathbed quip: "Oh my, I must be turning into a god!" [[23]] In fact, public deification did follow his death, as did his internment in the Mausoleum of Augustus alongside the Julio-Claudians.

A man of strict military discipline and simple tastes, Vespasian proved to be a conscientious and generally tolerant administrator. More importantly, following the upheavals of A.D. 68-69, his reign was welcome for its general tranquility and restoration of peace. In Vespasian Rome found a leader who made no great breaks with tradition, yet his ability ro rebuild the empire and especially his willingness to expand the composition of the governing class helped to establish a positive working model for the "good emperors" of the second century.

Bibliography

Since the scholarship on Vespasian is more comprehensive than can be treated here, the works listed below are main accounts or bear directly upon issues discussed in the entry above. A comprehensive modern anglophone study of this emperor is yet to be produced.

Atti congresso internazionale di studi Flaviani, 2 vols. Rieti, 1983.

Atti congresso internazionale di studi Vespasianei, 2 vols. Rieti, 1981.

Bosworth, A.B. "Vespasian and the Provinces: Some Problems of the Early 70s A.D." Athenaeum 51 (1973): 49-78.

Brunt, P. A. "Lex de imperio Vespasiani." JRS (67) 1977: 95-116.

D'Espčrey, S. Franchet. "Vespasien, Titus et la littérature." ANRW II.32.5: 3048-3086.

Dudley, D. and Webster, G. The Roman Conquest of Britain. London, 1965.

Gonzalez, J. "The Lex Irnitana: A New Copy of the Flavian Municipal Law." JRS 76 (1986): 147-243.

Grant, M. The Roman Emperors: A Biographical Guide to the Rulers of Rome, 31 B.C. - A.D. 476. New York, 1985.

Homo, L. Vespasien, l'Empereur du bons sens (69-79 ap. J.-C.). Paris, 1949.

Levi, M.A. "I Flavi." ANRW II.2: 177-207.

McCrum, M. and Woodhead, A. G. Select Documents of the Principates of the Flavian Emperors Including the Year of the Revolution. Cambridge, 1966.

Nicols, John. Vespasian and the Partes Flavianae. Wiesbaden, 1978.

Scarre, C. Chronicle of the Roman Emperors. The Reign-by-Reign Record of the Rulers of Imperial Rome. London, 1995.

Suddington, D. B. The Development of the Roman Auxiliary Forces from Caesar to Vespasian, 49 B.C. - A.D. 79. Harare: U. of Zimbabwe, 1982.

Syme, R. Tacitus. Oxford, 1958.

Wardel, David. "Vespasian, Helvidius Priscus and the Restoration of the Capitol." Historia 45 (1996): 208-222.

Wellesley, K. The Long Year: A.D. 69. Bristol, 1989, 2nd ed.


Notes

[[1]] Suet. Vesp. 2.1. Suetonius remains the major source but see also Tac. Hist. 2-5; Cass. Dio 65; Joseph. BJ 3-4.

[[2]] Suetonius (Vesp. 2.1) claims that Vespasian did not accept the latus clavus, the broad striped toga worn by one aspiring to a senatorial career, immediately. The delay, however, was perhaps no more than three years. See J. Nicols, Vespasian and the Partes Flavianae (Wiesbaden, 1978), 2.

[[3]] Military tribunate and quaestorship: Suet. Vesp. 2.3; aedileship: ibid., 5.3, in which Gaius, furious that Vespasian had not kept the streets clean, as was his duty, ordered some soldiers to load him with filth;,they complied by stuffing his toga with as much as it could hold. See also Dio 59.12.2-3; praetorship: Suet. Vesp. 2.3, in which Vespasian is depicted as one of Gaius' leading adulators, an account consistent with Tacitus' portrayal (Hist 1.50.4; 2.5.1) of his early career. For a more complete discussion of these posts and attendant problems of dating, see Nicols, Vespasian, 2-7.

[[4]] Marriage and Caenis: Suet. Vesp. 3; Cass. Dio 65.14.

[[5]] Nicols, Vespasian, 12-39.

[[6]] Suet. Vesp. 4.1 For additional details on Vespasian's exploits in Britain, see D. Dudley and G. Webster, The Roman Conquest of Britain (London, 1965), 55 ff., 98.

[[7]] Concerning Vespasian's years between his consulship and proconsulship, see Suet. Vesp. 4.2 and Nicols, Vespasian, 9. On his unpopularity in Africa, see Suet. Vesp. 4.3, an account of a riot at Hadrumentum, where he was once pelted with turnips. In recording that Africa supported Vitellius in A.D. 69, Tacitus too suggests popular dissatisfaction with Vespasian's proconsulship. See Hist. 2.97.2.

[[8]] This despite the fact that the sources record two rebukes of Vespasian, one for extorting money from a young man seeking career advancement (Suet. Vesp. 4.3), the other for either leaving the room or dozing off during one of the emperor's recitals (Suet. Vesp. 4.4 and 14, which places the transgression in Greece; Tac. (Ann. 16.5.3), who makes Rome and the Quinquennial Games of A.D. 65 the setting; A. Braithwaite, C. Suetoni Tranquilli Divus Vespasianus, Oxford, 1927, 30, who argues for both Greece and Rome).

[[9]] Subjugation of Galilee: Joseph. BJ 3.65-4.106; siege of Jerusalem: ibid., 4.366-376, 414.

[[10]] Revolt of Vindex: Suet. Nero 40; Tac. Ann. 14.4; revolt of Galba: Suet. Galba 10; Plut. Galba, 4-5; suicide of Nero: Suet. Nero 49; Cass. Dio 63.29.2. For the most complete account of the period between Nero's death and the accession of Vespasian, see K. Wellesley, The Long Year: A.D. 69, 2nd. ed. (Bristol, 1989).

[[11]] Tac. Hist. 2.76.

[[12]] Troops in support of Vespasian: Suet. Vit. 15; Mucianus and his forces: Tac. Hist. 2.83; Vespasian and grain shipments: Joseph. BJ 4.605 ff.; see also Tac. Hist. 3.48, on Vespasian's possible plan to shut off grain shipments to Italy from Carthage as well.

[[13]] On Vitellius' army and its lack of discipline, see Tac. Hist. 2.93-94; illness of army: ibid., 2.99.1; Cremona: ibid., 3.32-33.

[[14]] On Vitellius' last days, see Tac. Hist. 3.68-81. On the complicated issue of Vitellius' death date, see L. Holzapfel, "Römische Kaiserdaten," Klio 13 (1913): 301.

[[15]] Honors, etc. Tac. Hist. 4.3. For more on the lex de imperio Vespasiani, see P. A. Brunt, "Lex de imperio Vespasiani," JRS (67) 1977: 95-116.

[[16]] Omens: Suet. Vesp. 5; consulships and honors: ibid., 8; succession of sons: ibid., 25.

[[17]] On Vespasian's restoration of Rome, see Suet. Vesp. 9; Cass. Dio 65.10; D. Wardel, "Vespasian, Helvidius Priscus and the Restoration of the Capitol," Historia 45 (1996): 208-222.

[[18]] Suet. Vesp. 16.

[[19]] Ibid.; Tac. Hist. 1.50.

[[20]] Suet. Vesp. 17-19.

[[21]] Ibid., 8-10.

[[22]] On Vespasian's exploits in Britain, see esp. Tac., Agricola, eds. R. M. Ogilvie and I. A. Richmond (1967), and W. S. Hanson, Agricola and the Conquest of the North (1987); on the granting of Latin rights in Spain, see, e.g., J. Gonzalez, "The Lex Irnitana: a New Copy of the Flavian Municipal Law." JRS 76 (1986): 147-243.

[[23]] For this witticism and other anecdotes concerning Vespasian's sense of humor, see Suet. Vesp. 23.

Copyright (C) 1998, John Donahue. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis, an Online Encyplopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families.
http://www.roman-emperors.org/vespasia.htm
Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.





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711a, Titus, 24 June 79 - 13 September 81 A.D. 108 viewsTITUS AUGUSTUS AR silver denarius. Struck at Rome, 80 AD. IMP TITVS CAESAR VESPASIAN AVG PM, laureate head right. Reverse - TRP IX IMP XV COS VIII PP, elephant walking left. Fully legible legends, about Very Fine, nice golden toning. Commemmorates the completion and dedication of the Colosseum and the opening of games. SCARCE. RCV 2512, valued at $544 in EF. 17mm, 3.1g. Ex Incitatus.

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Titus Flavius Vespasianus (A.D. 79-81)

John Donahue
College of William and Mary

Titus Flavius Vespasianus was born on December 30, 39 A.D. He was the oldest of the three children of the founder of the Flavian Dynasty, Vespasian. Beginning in the year 70 Titus was named Cćsar and coregent; he was highly educated and a brilliant poet and orator in both Latin and Greek. He won military fame during the Jewish Revolt of 69-70. In April, 70, he appeared before the walls of Jerusalem, and conquered and destroyed the city after a siege of five months. He wished to preserve the Temple, but in the struggle with the Jews who rushed out of it a soldier threw a brand into the building. The siege and taking of the city were accompanied by barbarous cruelties. The next year Titus celebrated his victory by a triumph; to increase the fame of the Flavian dynasty the inscription on the triumphal arch represented the overthrow of the helpless people as a heroic achievement. Titus succeeded his father as Emperor in 79.

Before becoming emperor, tradition records that Titus was feared as the next Nero, a perception that may have developed from his association with Berenice, his alleged heavy-handedness as praetorian prefect, and tales of sexual debauchery. Once in office, however, both emperor and his reign were portrayed in universally positive terms. The suddenness of this transformation raises immediate suspicions, yet it is difficult to know whether the historical tradition is suspect or if Titus was in fact adept at taking off one mask for another. What is clear, however, is that Titus sought to present the Flavians as the legitimate successors of the Julio-Claudian dynasty. Proof came through the issuing of a series of restoration coins of previous emperors, the most popular being Augustus and Claudius. In A.D. 80 Titus also set out to establish an imperial cult in honor of Vespasian. The temple, in which cult (the first that was not connected with the Julio-Claudians) was housed, was completed by Domitian and was known as the Temple of Vespasian and Domitian.
Legitimacy was also sought through various economic measures, which Titus enthusiastically funded. Vast amounts of capital poured into extensive building schemes in Rome, especially the Flavian Amphitheater, popularly known as the Colosseum. In celebration of additions made to the structure, Titus provided a grand 100-day festival, with sea fights staged on an artificial lake, infantry battles, wild beast hunts, and similar activities. He also constructed new imperial baths to the south-east of the Amphitheater and began work on the celebrated Arch of Titus, a memorial to his Jewish victories. Large sums were directed to Italy and the provinces as well, especially for road building. In response to the eruption of Vesuvius in A.D. 79, Titus spent large sums to relieve distress in that area; likewise, the imperial purse contributed heavily to rebuilding Rome after a devastating fire destroyed large sections of the city in A.D. 80. As a result of these actions, Titus earned a reputation for generosity and geniality. For these reasons he gained the honourable title of "amor et delicić generis humani" (the darling and admiration of the human race). Even so, his financial acumen must not be under-estimated. He left the treasury with a surplus, as he had found it, and dealt promptly and efficiently with costly natural disasters. The Greek historian of the third-century A.D., Cassius Dio, perhaps offered the most accurate and succinct assessment of Titus' economic policy: "In money matters, Titus was frugal and made no unnecessary expenditure." In other areas, the brevity of Titus' reign limits our ability to detect major emphases or trends in policy. As far as can be discerned from the limited evidence, senior officials and amici were well chosen, and his legislative activity tended to focus on popular social measures, with the army as a particular beneficiary in the areas of land ownership, marriage, and testamentary freedom. In the provinces, Titus continued his father's policies by strengthening roads and forts in the East and along the Danube.

Titus died in September, A.D. 81 after only 26 months in office. Suetonius recorded that Titus died on his way to the Sabine country of his ancestors in the same villa as his father. A competing tradition persistently implicated his brother and successor, Domitian, as having had a hand in the emperor's demise, but the evidence is highly contradictory and any wrongdoing is difficult to prove. Domitian himself delivered the funeral eulogy and had Titus deified. He also built several monuments in honor of Titus and completed the Temple of Vespasian and Titus, changing the name of the structure to include his brother's and setting up his cult statue in the Temple itself.

Titus was the beneficiary of considerable intelligence and talent, endowments that were carefully cultivated at every step of his career, from his early education to his role under his father's principate. Cassius Dio suggested that Titus' reputation was enhanced by his early death. It is true that the ancient sources tend to heroicize Titus, yet based upon the evidence, his reign must be considered a positive one. He capably continued the work of his father in establishing the Flavian Dynasty and he maintained a high degree of economic and administrative competence in Italy and beyond. In so doing, he solidified the role of the emperor as paternalistic autocrat, a model that would serve Trajan and his successors well. Titus was used as a model by later emperors, especially those known as the Five Good Emperors (Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius).

Copyright (C) 1997, John Donahue.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Catholic Encyclopedia, http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/14746b.htm

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
Titus_Colosseum_Commem_AR_denarius.jpg
711a, Titus, 24 June 79 - 13 September 81 A.D.136 viewsTitus, 24 June 79 - 13 September 81 A.D. AR denarius, RCV 2512, aVF, struck at Rome, 80 A.D., 17.5mm, 3.4g. Obverse: IMP TITVS CAESAR VESPASIAN AVG PM, laureate head right; Reverse: TRP IX IMP XV COS VIII PP, elephant walking left. Fully legible legends; nice golden toning. This coin was struck in order to commemorate the completion and dedication of the Flavian Amphitheatre (the Colosseum) and its opening games. Very scarce. Ex Incitatus; photo courtesy Incitatus.

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Titus Flavius Vespasianus (A.D. 79-81)

John Donahue
College of William and Mary

Titus Flavius Vespasianus was born on December 30, 39 A.D. He was the oldest of the three children of the founder of the Flavian Dynasty, Vespasian. Beginning in the year 70 Titus was named Cćsar and coregent; he was highly educated and a brilliant poet and orator in both Latin and Greek. He won military fame during the Jewish Revolt of 69-70. In April, 70, he appeared before the walls of Jerusalem, and conquered and destroyed the city after a siege of five months. He wished to preserve the Temple, but in the struggle with the Jews who rushed out of it a soldier threw a brand into the building. The siege and taking of the city were accompanied by barbarous cruelties. The next year Titus celebrated his victory by a triumph; to increase the fame of the Flavian dynasty the inscription on the triumphal arch represented the overthrow of the helpless people as a heroic achievement. Titus succeeded his father as Emperor in 79.

Before becoming emperor, tradition records that Titus was feared as the next Nero, a perception that may have developed from his association with Berenice, his alleged heavy-handedness as praetorian prefect, and tales of sexual debauchery. Once in office, however, both emperor and his reign were portrayed in universally positive terms. The suddenness of this transformation raises immediate suspicions, yet it is difficult to know whether the historical tradition is suspect or if Titus was in fact adept at taking off one mask for another. What is clear, however, is that Titus sought to present the Flavians as the legitimate successors of the Julio-Claudian dynasty. Proof came through the issuing of a series of restoration coins of previous emperors, the most popular being Augustus and Claudius. In A.D. 80 Titus also set out to establish an imperial cult in honor of Vespasian. The temple, in which cult (the first that was not connected with the Julio-Claudians) was housed, was completed by Domitian and was known as the Temple of Vespasian and Domitian.
Legitimacy was also sought through various economic measures, which Titus enthusiastically funded. Vast amounts of capital poured into extensive building schemes in Rome, especially the Flavian Amphitheater, popularly known as the Colosseum. In celebration of additions made to the structure, Titus provided a grand 100-day festival, with sea fights staged on an artificial lake, infantry battles, wild beast hunts, and similar activities. He also constructed new imperial baths to the south-east of the Amphitheater and began work on the celebrated Arch of Titus, a memorial to his Jewish victories. Large sums were directed to Italy and the provinces as well, especially for road building. In response to the eruption of Vesuvius in A.D. 79, Titus spent large sums to relieve distress in that area; likewise, the imperial purse contributed heavily to rebuilding Rome after a devastating fire destroyed large sections of the city in A.D. 80. As a result of these actions, Titus earned a reputation for generosity and geniality. For these reasons he gained the honourable title of "amor et delicić generis humani" (the darling and admiration of the human race). Even so, his financial acumen must not be under-estimated. He left the treasury with a surplus, as he had found it, and dealt promptly and efficiently with costly natural disasters. The Greek historian of the third-century A.D., Cassius Dio, perhaps offered the most accurate and succinct assessment of Titus' economic policy: "In money matters, Titus was frugal and made no unnecessary expenditure." In other areas, the brevity of Titus' reign limits our ability to detect major emphases or trends in policy. As far as can be discerned from the limited evidence, senior officials and amici were well chosen, and his legislative activity tended to focus on popular social measures, with the army as a particular beneficiary in the areas of land ownership, marriage, and testamentary freedom. In the provinces, Titus continued his father's policies by strengthening roads and forts in the East and along the Danube.

Titus died in September, A.D. 81 after only 26 months in office. Suetonius recorded that Titus died on his way to the Sabine country of his ancestors in the same villa as his father. A competing tradition persistently implicated his brother and successor, Domitian, as having had a hand in the emperor's demise, but the evidence is highly contradictory and any wrongdoing is difficult to prove. Domitian himself delivered the funeral eulogy and had Titus deified. He also built several monuments in honor of Titus and completed the Temple of Vespasian and Titus, changing the name of the structure to include his brother's and setting up his cult statue in the Temple itself.

Titus was the beneficiary of considerable intelligence and talent, endowments that were carefully cultivated at every step of his career, from his early education to his role under his father's principate. Cassius Dio suggested that Titus' reputation was enhanced by his early death. It is true that the ancient sources tend to heroicize Titus, yet based upon the evidence, his reign must be considered a positive one. He capably continued the work of his father in establishing the Flavian Dynasty and he maintained a high degree of economic and administrative competence in Italy and beyond. In so doing, he solidified the role of the emperor as paternalistic autocrat, a model that would serve Trajan and his successors well. Titus was used as a model by later emperors, especially those known as the Five Good Emperors (Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius).

Copyright (C) 1997, John Donahue.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Catholic Encyclopedia, http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/14746b.htm

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
3 commentsCleisthenes
Abdera.JPG
Abdera, Thrace19 views352-323 BC
AE Dichalkon (14.5mm, 4.19g)
O: Griffin lying right on club; [star] above, MENAN (magistrate) below.
R: Laureate head of Apollo right within linear square; AB∆-HPI-TE-[ΩN] around.
SNG Cop 374; AMNG II 221; BMC Thrace 75; 83v (MEN)
ex Forvm Ancient Coins

“Beware of the sharp-beaked hounds of Zeus that do not bark, the Grypes (Griffins) who dwell about the flood of Plouton's stream that flows with gold. Do not approach them.”
~ Aeschylus (Prometheus Bound)
1 commentsEnodia
agd1.jpg
Adegu “AGD”98 viewsObverse: Bust facing forward. Garment draped on shoulders. Crowned with a diadem with centre gilded. Ge’ez legend (King of Aksum).
Reverse: Arch supported by columns with a cross within, inlaid with gold. Ge’ez legend (The King who exalts the saviour).
Mint :
Date : AD. 7th C
Reference : M-H 126, V61
Grade : VG
Weight : 1.57g
Metal : AR
Comments : AR 16mm, Die Axis ?°.
2 commentsBolayi
AE-Weight_with_Gold-Chi-Rho_AD-Q-051_27x25x4mm_17,83g-s.jpg
AE weight (4 nomismata), marked with Golden color Chi-Rho #51,205 viewsAE weight (4 nomismata), marked with Golden color Chi-Rho #51,
type: AE four-cornered weight, engraved square inside Christogram (Chi-Rho, marked with golden color), both side unredable symbols (hope Α-Ω ). In addition to the ich lines outside the 4 points (mean 4 nomismata ?).
size: 27x25x4mm,
weight: 17,83g, (4 nomismata, exactly 17.84g; 4x4,46 = 17.84g).
date: 6th-8th cent. A.D.,
ref: Not official, may be hommade,
distribution: Byzatine ?,
Q-051
"This is really a beautiful and rare weight. Congratulations!
From my point of view it is a nominal to 4 nomismata, exactly 17.83 g (4x4,46 = 17.84 g). Each side of the weight is separately punched with 4 points which means lettering for 4 nomismata.
Within the Christogram the letters Α-Ω are to be read. These were engraved faulty. No official weight, but a homemade version (see Simon Bendall). The Christogam was marked with golden color no gold inlay!
dated approx. 6th-8th cent. AD
similar weights were found in Bulgaria. by Basil, Thanks "

3 commentsquadrans
AE-Application_Gold-plated_Bird-left_Q-001_27x27x0,8mm_2,72g-s.jpg
AE-very-thin Application, Single sided, Gold plated, #188 viewsAE-very-thin Application, Single sided, Gold plated, #1
avers: Bird left
revers: negativ pictures,
exe:-/-//--, diameter: 27x27x0,8mm, weight: 2,72g, axis: -h,
mint: ???, date: 8th-10th (???) centuries A.D., ref: ???,
Q-001
quadrans
Aelia_Flaccilla~0.jpg
Aelia Flaccilla 217 viewsAelia Flaccilla AE2. Struck 383 AD, Constantinople mint.

AEL FLACCILLA AVG, mantled bust right in elaborate headdress & necklace / SALVS REIPVBLICAE, Victory seated right, inscribing a christogram on shield resting on small column. T in right field, mintmark CON Epsilon. RIC 81 var (RIC lists T in left field only).

FLACILLA (Aelia), the first wife of Theodosius the Great; born in Spain, daughter of Antonius, prefect of Gaul, she was celebrated for her piety, and for her benevolence to the poor. Arcadius and Honorius were her sons by the above named emperor, who married her before his accession to the imperial throne.

She died in Thrace, A. D. 388. Her brass coins are of the lowest degree of rarity, her gold and silver most rare.

A half aureus of this empress's, on which she is styled AEL FLACILLA AVG, bears her head crowned with a diadem enriched with precious stones. - SALVS REIPVBLICAE is the legend, and a victory inscribing on a shield the monogram of Christ, is the type of the reverse.
2 commentssuperflex
Agathokles_Lion_2b.jpg
Agathokles * Lion and Club, Period II - 317-289 BC. Æ 22122 views
Agathokles * Lion and Club, Period II * Ć 22.

Obv: Portrait head of Agathokles, hair bound with tainia, right-facing.
Rev: Male lion running right, olive branch club above.

Exergue: Γ (or ligate Γ and T)

Mint: Syracuse
Struck: 310-304 BC.

Size: 22.64 x 20.93 mm.
Weight: 8.21 grams
Die axis: Near 180°

Condition: Beautiful coin, much nicer than photo. Exquisite olive-gold patina. Well-centered and moderately forceful strike. Although the dealer addressed an "area of weak strike" on the reverse, I don't see it, unless it be the area of the exergue, though this looks more like wear to me. In all, a truly lovely coin.

Refs:*
Calciati II, S. 291, Em. 151.

Most descriptions I've seen of this coin-type, identify the obverse head as (the juvenile) Herakles. I stick with my conventional sensibilities, unable to see this beardless and 'realistic' portrait as such, but rather regard it as depicting Agathokles himself.

Ex-Harlan J. Berk.
1 commentsTiathena
Hahn-36_2.jpg
Aksumite Empire: Anonymous (ca. 440-470) Ć Unit (Hahn, Aksumite 36.2; Munro-Hay Type 76; BMC Axum 316)31 viewsObv: Crowned bust right, holding cruciform scepter
Rev: Greek cross within circle, central element with gold inlay
1 commentsQuant.Geek
Walid_gold.jpg
Al-Walid I13 viewsarash p
artet1.JPG
Alexander III551 viewsAlexander III AR Tetradrachm. ‘Amphipolis’ mint. Struck under Kassander, circa 316-314 BC. Head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin headdress / Zeus Aëtophoros seated left; shield in left field, pellet-in-Π below throne. 17.1 g.

Price 136; Troxell, Studies, issue L8.

Thanks for the atribution Lloyd!


Most lifetime issues of Alexander the Great were usualy bulky/thick, which did not alow for the entire design of the die to imprint on the coin. IMO looked better then the wide thin flan. (edit: though this one is Struck under Kassander)

The coin was hand stuck with a die/avil. Dies were usually made of Bronze because it was sofeter and easier to work with then iron, (though some were made of iron as well) then the was anealed to make it stronger and less brittle.

The planchets were made by pouring molten metal into a mold and saved until needed. When it was ready to be used, they heated it just below melting point and placed it between the dies and the punch die was struck with a hammer.


-----------------------------


"Building upon his father's success in Greece, Alexander III (Alexander the Great, reigned 336-323 BC) set about the conquest of the Achaemenid Persian Empire. By the time of his death at the age of 31, he ruled most of the known world from Greece to Afghanistan. Initially Alexander continued to mint Philip's gold and silver coins. Soon, however, the need for a silver coinage that could be widely used in Greece caused him to begin a new coinage on the Athenian weight-standard. His new silver coins, with the head of Herakles on one side and a seated figure of Zeus on the other, also became one of the staple coinages of the Greek world. They were widely imitated within the empire he had forged."

--------------------------------------

"......Alexander seems to have liked Amphipolis, because one of his last plans was to spend no less than 315 ton silver for a splendid new temple in the city that was to be dedicated to Artemis Tauropolus. It was never built, but after Alexander's death on 11 June 323 in Babylon, his wife queen Roxane settled in Amphipolis, which appears to have become one of the residences of the Macedonian royals. In 179, king Philip V died in the town."


------------------

Amphipolis , ancient city of Macedonia, on the Strymon (Struma) River near the sea and NE of later Thessaloníki. The place was known as Ennea Hodoi [nine ways] before it was settled and was of interest because of the gold and silver and timber of Mt. Pangaeus (Pangaion), to which it gave access. Athenian colonists were driven out (c.464 BC) by Thracians, but a colony was established in 437 BC Amphipolis became one of the major Greek cities on the N Aegean. This colony was captured by Sparta, and Brasidas and Cleon were both killed in a battle there in 422 BC After it was returned to Athens in 421 BC, it actually had virtual independence until captured (357 BC) by Philip II of Macedon. He had promised to restore it to Athens, and his retention of Amphipolis was a major cause of the war with Athens. In 148 BC it became the capital of the Roman province of Macedonia. Paul, Silas, and Timothy passed through Amphipolis (Acts 17.1). Nearby is the modern Greek village of Amfípolis."

--------------------------------

"A quick look at the WildWinds database( http://www.wildwinds.com/coins/greece/macedonia/kings/alexander_III/t.html ) indicates that the style and monograms are consistent with an Amphipolis issue, with perhaps a little less care than usual in the engraving of the reverse. The closest I could locate with a quick look is Price 133 (variant), although yours appears to have a shield rather than dolphin in the left field reverse."
16 commentsrandy h2
alexbrz.JPG
Alexander III of Macedon AE18 336-323 BC49 viewsAlexander III bronze unit, 4.8 gms.
OBV: Head of Herakles with lionskin headdress
REV: Bow and quiver above and left-facing club below. ALEXANDROY in between.
EXERGUE: Delta in field above the quiver and bow. Below the club is a a trident. Both marks are weak and partially obscured.
Price 280 ( courtesy, Reid Goldsborough)
2 commentsdaverino
Lifetime_Issue!_Signed_by_the_artist_EX_FORVM~0.jpg
Alexander III The Great Lifetime Issue Drachm ! Signed by the artist 122 viewsMacedonian Kingdom, Alexander III The Great, 336 - 323 B.C.




Silver drachm, Price 2090A, ADM I 80 (same dies), VF, 4.214g, 16.0mm, 0o, Miletos mint, lifetime issue, c. 325 - 323 B.C.; obverse Herakles' head right, clad in Nemean lion scalp headdress tied at neck, K on lion's jaw behind Herakles' ear; reverse ALEXANDROU, Zeus seated left, legs uncrossed, right leg forward, feet on footstool, eagle in extended right, long scepter vertical behind in left, monogram before;

EX; FORVM Ancient Coins ' Shop.


Lifetime Issue! Signed by the artist!(?) The K behind Herakles ear had traditionally been identified as the signature of the artist. Matt Kreuzer, however, believes the K (the Greek numeral 20) was used c. 325 B.C. to introduce the Attic drachm to Miletos by indicating either that 20 of these was equal to a gold stater, or that one of these drachm was equal to 20 of the 3 to 4 gram bronzes circulating at the time.


*With my sincere thank and appreciation , Photo and Description courtesy of FORVM Ancient Coins Staff.

**This coin is considered as Best of The Type :
http://www.forumancientcoins.com/gallery/displayimage.php?pos=-108526


From The Sam Mansourati Collection.
Sam
Alexander_III_Herakles-Weapons.jpg
Alexander the Great * Macedonia, 337 to 323 BC. Bronze drachm151 views
Obv: Alexander III guised as Herakles in lion skin headdress, right-facing, enclosed within ornamental dotted circle.
Rev: (Top to bottom) * Lighting bolt, knotted Olive-branch club right-facing, AΛEXANΔΡ[OY], Unstrung bow in ornamented traveling/storage case, Monogram Δ.

Exergue: (N/A) Monogram Δ present in undefined exergual space.

Mint: (Pella?)
Struck: 337-323 BC.

Size: 18.50 mm.
Weight: 6.38 gms.
Die axis: 360°

Condition: XF. Exceptionally lovely coin, more-so in hand. Superb high relief and all details distinct and present.
Beautiful tone, rather dark-golden in the higher relief’s contrast delightfully against a yet-darker gold background in the lower areas of the flan. The flat area around the portrait and within the dotted circle is a strong, accentuating black-olive (not well-communicated by the present image).
Exquisite example of the type.

Refs:*
Not found in Sear GCATV.
Sear 6739, is an Ć 20. Partially descriptive.
4 commentsTiathena
116.jpg
Anastasius I Gold Semissis133 viewsSBCV 6, DOC I 8 Constantinople
2.09 g, 18.1 mm
D N ANASTASIVS P P AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
VICTORIA AVGGG, Victory seated right on shield and cuirass, inscribing XXXX on shield set on knee, star left, inverted P right
CONOB in exergue
Ex: FORVM
Scarce
5 commentsMark Z2
s-l1600_(10).jpg
ANCIENT - SOUTH INDIAN - GOLD FANAM - 9 viewsWeight : 0.40 gm.
Diameter : 06 mm
_28.00
Antonivs Protti
s-l1600_(32)~0.jpg
ANCIENT - SOUTH INDIAN - GOLD FANAM - 11 viewsWeight : 0.39 gm.
Diameter : 10 mm
_21.50
Antonivs Protti
s-l500_(5).jpg
ANCIENT - SOUTH INDIAN - GOLD FANAM - RARE COIN #HK14 WEIGHT - 0.36 gm. DIAMETER - 08 mm17 viewsANCIENT - SOUTH INDIAN - GOLD FANAM - RARE COIN #HK14
WEIGHT - 0.36 gm.
DIAMETER - 08 mm
_33
Antonivs Protti
AncientByzantineEmpire-AV-tremissis-JustinianI-035863.jpg
Ancient Byzantine Empire: gold tremissis of Justinian I, ca. 527-565 AD20 viewslordmarcovan
s-l1600_(35).jpg
ANCIENT-VIJAYANAGAR-VIRARAYA PANA-GOLD FANAM _230018 viewsAntonivs Protti
Varimundus_ab.jpg
Anglo-Saxon Early Transitional Type - Varimundus Type B285 viewsAnglo-Saxon transitional silver coin by thrymsa moneyer Varimundus, AR (1.22 g, 12 mm) minted circa 675-685. Obverse: diademed bust right holding sceptre. Reverse: Cross within double ring, cross TMVSNVMVCO. S. 774.

This coin type was minted in both pale gold (containing < 40% gold) and silver and represents the transition from gold thrymsas to silver sceattas in Anglo-Saxon Britain c.650-685. The gold content of the present coin remains to be determined.
1 commentsJan (jbc)
Ezanas_Christ.JPG
Anonymous (Ezanas Christian)519 viewsObverse: Bust rt. Garment draped on shoulders, v-neck collar, wearing a head cloth. Within a beaded border. Greek inscription BAX ACA (Interpretation uncertain)
Reverse: Greek cross in beaded inner circle, cross inlaid with gold. Greek inscription outside circle TOYTOAP[CHTHXWPA (May this please the country/people)
Date : AD.330-358
Reference : M-H 50, V27
Grade : EF
Weight : 0.73g
Metal : Silver

Comments : AR 13mm, Die Axis 0°, Aksum has claims to be the first civilization anywhere to use Christian imagery on its coins. King Ezanas became a Christian early in his reign and quickly made Christianity the official state religion. Around A.D. 330 he began to use the cross on his coinage as propaganda to spread his new religion, this is type is thought to be the first of those issues.
Bolayi
Ezanas_Christ1.jpg
Anonymous (Ezanas Christian)47 viewsObverse: Bust rt. Garment draped on shoulders, v-neck collar, wearing a head cloth. Within a beaded border. Greek inscription BAX ACA (Interpretation uncertain)
Reverse: Greek cross in beaded inner circle, cross inlaid with gold. Greek inscription outside circle TOYTOAP[CHTHXWPA (May this please the country/people)
Date : AD.330-358
Reference : M-H 50, V27
Grade : EF
Weight : 0.73g
Metal : AR

Comments : 13mm, Die Axis 0°, Aksum has claims to be the first civilization anywhere to use Christian imagery on its coins. King Ezanas became a Christian early in his reign and quickly made Christianity the official state religion. Around A.D. 330 he began to use the cross on his coinage as propaganda to spread his new religion, this is type is thought to be the first of those issues.
1 commentsBolayi
AnDid.jpg
Anonymous Didrachm / Quadrigatus **SOLD**122 viewsAnonymous. Silver Didrachm (6.80g, 22.5mm), ca. 225-214 BC. Uncertain mint.

O: Laureate head of Janus (Dioscuri?), two annulets atop head.
R: ROMA incuse on solid tablet in exergue, Jupiter, hurling thunderbolt and holding scepter, in galloping quadriga right driven by Victory.

- ex Dr. Busso Peus Nachf., Crawford ?

"Silver Quadrigatus Roman coinage was fortified during the Second Punic War. In addition to gold coins, the Romans issued copper and silver coins, sometimes in enormous quantities. The principal silver coin of the war was a reduced-weight didrachm called a "quadrigatus" after its reverse design, a four-horse chariot (quadriga) bearing Victory and Jupiter. There are many varieties of quadrigati, as revealed by differences in die engraving, metal purity and production standards, not to mention subtle variations of the main design. This suggests that several mints issued quadrigati at different times, and under quite different circumstances. The double-head on the obverse usually is described as the god Janus because of its distinctive form, but the faces are of young men, and it more likely represents the Dioscuri, the gods Castor and Pollux, who were credited with saving Rome at the Battle of Lake Regillus nearly three centuries before." - David Vagi
3 commentsNemonater
0125.jpg
Anonymous. Ć Semuncia9 viewsAnonymous. Ć Semuncia

RRC: 38/7
27-215 b.c.
5,67 gr

Av: Head of Mercury right, wearing winged petasus.
Rv: [R]OMA above, prow of galley right.

EX Ira & Larry Goldberg Coins & Collectibles, Inc., Auction 96, 14 - 15 February 2017, Lot 1922; as ex Numismatic Fine Arts/Bank Leu, 16-18 May 1984), 924 (part)
Norbert
Antoninus Pius.jpg
Antoninus Pius32 viewsTitus Aurelius Fulvius Boionius Arrius Antoninus was born around 86 A.D. to a distinguished family. After a typical senatorial career he made a name for himself as proconsul of Asia. He was adopted as Emperor Hadrian`s heir in February 138 A.D. and succeeded soon after. His reign was long and peaceful, a Golden Age of tranquility and prosperity. He died in 161 A.D., leaving Marcus Aurelius as his successor.

Silver denarius, RIC 175, RSC 284, BMC 657, F, Rome mint, 2.669g, 17.7mm, 0o, 148 - 149 A.D.; obverse ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P XII, laureate head right; reverse COS IIII, Annona standing left holding corn-ears over modius left and anchor; fire damaged, slightly wavy flan;
Dumanyu2
AntoSec3-2.jpg
Antoninus Pius, RIC 586, Sestertius of AD 139 (Aurum Coronarium: Parthia)81 viewsĆ Sestertius (24.27g, Ř33mm, 6h). Rome mint. Struck AD 139.
Obv.: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P, laureate head of Antoninus Pius facing right.
Rev.: PARTHIA (round edge) COS II (in ex.) S C (in field), Parthia, towered headdress, standing left, holding crown and bow and quiver with arrows resting on ground.
RIC 586 (R); Cohen 572; BMCRE IV 1191; Strack 792 (4 collections); Banti (I Grandi Bronzi Imperiali II-3) 253 (2 spec.); Sear (Roman Coins and their Values II) 4198
ex Aegean Numismatics

Part of a series celebrating Antoninus' remission of half of the special tax (aurum coronarium) normally levied on the provinces at the time of the accession of an emperor. Remark from Sear: "The remarkable inclusion of a rival state in this series commemorating provincial tax relief would seem to suggest that the Parthians were subject to some form of financial obligation to the Roman government consequent of Trajan's capture of Ctesiphon in AD 115 and the loss of the celebrated golden throne of the Arsacids"
Charles S
antose63~0.jpg
Antoninus Pius, RIC 623, Sestertius of AD 141-144 (Temple of Venus and Roma)45 viewsĆ sestertius (25.11, 6h) Rome mint. Struck AD 141-144.
ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P COS III laureate head of Antoninus Pius facing right
ROMAE AETERNAE (around) S C (in field below) ornamented dekastyle temple with the statue of Roma inside; tympanum adorned with high relief statues; quadriga (suggested) at top and statues at each side.
RIC 623 (scarce); Cohen 703 (12 Fr.); BMCRE 1279; Strack 849; Banti (I Grandi Bronzi Imperiali III) 336 (4 spec.); Foss (Roman Historical Coins) 125:24a
ex CNG EAuction 52 (2002)

The temple of Roma was designed by Hadrian (himself) in AD 121 and completed by Antoninus Pius in 141. It stood facing the forum, and was built back to back with the temple of Venus, which faced the Flavian Amphitheater. The two temples in one building were referred to as the Temple of Venus and Roma ("Templum Veneris et Romae"). Hadrian had to have the colossal statue of Nero removed in order to make room for the temples, which were built on the site of the vestibule of Nero's golden house. (He had Nero's statue placed near the entrance to the Ampitheater, and this provided the nickname, "Colloseum".) Their ruins prove both temples consisted of ten colums, and the coins suggest many decorative details.
Charles S
AntoSe63-2.jpg
Antoninus Pius, RIC 623, Sestertius of AD 141-144 (Temple of Venus and Roma)35 viewsĆ sestertius (25.11g, 31.5mm 6h) Rome mint. Struck AD 141-144.
ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P COS III laureate head of Antoninus Pius facing right
ROMAE AETERNAE (around) S C (ex.) ornamented dekastyle temple with the statue of Roma inside; tympanum adorned with high relief statues; quadriga (suggested) at top and statues at each side.
RIC 623 (scarce); Cohen 703 (12 Fr.); BMCRE 1279; Strack 849; Banti (I Grandi Bronzi Imperiali II-3) 336 (4 spec.); Sear(Roman Coins and their Values II) 4212 var. (rev. no figure of Roma); Foss (Roman Historical Coins) 125:24a
ex CNG EAuction 52 (2002)

The temple of Roma was designed by Hadrian (himself) in AD 121 and completed by Antoninus Pius in 141. It stood facing the forum, and was built back to back with the temple of Venus, which faced the Flavian Amphitheater. The building with the two temples was referred to as the Temple of Venus and Roma ("Templum Veneris et Romae"). Hadrian had to have the colossal statue of Nero (Colossus) removed in order to make room for the temples, which were built on the site of the vestibule of Nero's golden house. (He had the Colossus placed near the entrance to the amphitheater, and this provided the nickname, "Colosseum".) The ruins show that both temples consisted of ten colums, and the coins suggest many decorative details.
1 commentsCharles S
antoas18-2.jpg
Antoninus Pius, RIC 693a, As of AD 140-144 (Janus) 27 viewsĆ As (9.8g, Ř27mm, 5h). Rome mint. Struck AD 140-144.
Obv.: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P, laureate head of Antoninus Pius facing right.
Rev.: TR POT COS III (around), S C (in field), Janus draped, naked to waist, standing front, holding long sceptre.
RIC 693a (S); BMC 1369; Cohen 882

Type belonging to a series depicting scenes from ancient Roman legends, struck just prior to 900th anniversary of Rome in AD 147. Janus was supposedly the first king of Italy, and inventor of civilisation before he became a god. He also stands here as a symbol of the new, golden, age.
Charles S
AP_comp_(2).jpg
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 38 - Silver Drachm 53 views480/478 – 470 B.C.
3.12 gm., 14 mm.
Obv: Anchor; blank to left, crayfish to right
Rev.: Gorgon head facing in archaic Ionian style with hair in pellets
Topalov Apollonia p. 584, 38
BMC Mysia p.8, 3, Pl.II, 2

Topalov Type: Upright Anchor - Gorgon's Head: First Early Issues (480/478-470 B.C)
Obv.: Upright anchor with large flukes on a curved stock. Image of a crab viewed from above on the right between the fluke and the stock. Letter “A” missing.
Rev.: Full-face Gorgon's head in the archaic Ionian style with a low narrow forehead, projecting eyebrows and eyes, a short flat nose, abnormaly open mouth, long teeth and toungue. Instead of hair there are snakes with thin bodies. The image in a concave circle.

Description from Topalov Apollonia 2007

WARNING! Possible Black Cabinet candidate - very similar to Reid Goldsborough Apollonia Pontika New York Hoard Specimen # 40.
Jaimelai
arcadius_const_29.jpg
Arcadius RIC X, 29160 viewsArcadius 383 - 408, son of Theodosius I
AV - Solidus, 4.40g, 21mm
Constantinopolis 9.officina, ca. 403 - 408
obv. DN ARCADI - VS PF AVG
bust cuirassed, laureate, helmeted and pearl-diademed
head 3/4 r., with spear across r. shoulder and shield with
horseman spearing enemy at l. shoulder
rev. NOVA SPES REI PVBLICAE
Victory sitting r. on cuirass, shield behind, with l. hand holding shield
on l. knee, scribing with r. hand XX above XXX on it.
field: star and Theta
exergue: CONOB
RIC X, 29
R2; good VF
added to www.wildwinds.com

OB, possibly from Greek obryzon = refined (gold). In the later Roman Empire the word was regularly used to describe gold which had been melted down and testet before being returned for minting
Jochen
Nabataean_Kingdom,_Aretas_IV,_9_B_C__-_40_A_D__eagle.jpg
Aretas IV, 9 B.C. - 40 A.D. 33056. Bronze AE 11, Meshorer Nabataean 9311 viewsNabataean Kingdom, Aretas IV, 9 B.C. - 40 A.D. Bronze AE 11, Meshorer Nabataean 93, F, Petra mint, 0.982g, 11.2mm, 0o, 5 - 6 A.D.; obverse Aretas' Aramaic monogram O / H (ayin / het) within wreath; reverse , eagle standing left, wings closed, H (Aramaic het) behind. Aretas' daughter was married to Herod Antipas, Herod the Great's son, and the Tetrarch of Galilee. This coin resembles a coin minted by King Herod and the reverse probably depicts the golden bird Herod placed above the entrance to the Jerusalem Temple. Ex FORVM, photo credit FORVMPodiceps
Armah.jpg
Armah29 viewsObverse: King seated right in a high-backed chair holding a staff topped with a cross. Triple pellet behind the neck. Legend is divided into 2 either side of figure, King (left) Armah (right).
Reverse: Cross framed by two wheat stalks with gold inlaid hole at centre. Ge’ez legend (Let there be joy to the people).
Mint :
Date : AD. 7th C
Reference : M-H 147-8, V68
Cost : R360
Grade : F+
Weight : 2.3g
Comments : 20mm, Die Axis 0°.
Bolayi
01035AB.jpg
Arsinoë II Philadelphos - 1st daughter of Pharaoh Ptolemy I Soter315 viewsPTOLEMAIC KINGS of EGYPT, ALEXANDRIA, 253 - 252 BC, Struck under Ptolemy II.
AV Octodrachm (Mnaďeion) - 27mm, 27.69 g, 12h

O - Arsinoë II head right, veiled and wearing stephane; lotus-tipped scepter in background, Θ to left
R - APΣINOHΣ ΦIΛAΔEΛΦOY, double cornucopia bound with fillet.

Svoronos 460; Troxell, Arsinoe, Transitional to Group 3, p. 43 and pl. 6, 2-3 (same obv. die); SNG Copenhagen 134.

Arsinoe II married Lysimachus at the age of 15. After Lysimachus' death in battle in 281 BC, she fled to Cassandreia and married her paternal half-brother Ptolemy Keraunos. As he became more powerful, she conspired against him leading to the killing of her sons, Lysimachus and Philip. After their deaths, she fled to Alexandria, Egypt to seek protection from her brother, Ptolemy II Philadelphus; whom she later married. As a result, both were given the epithet "Philadelphoi" ("Sibling-loving (plural)") by the presumably scandalized Greeks.

Arsinoe II Philadelphos, died 270-268 BC.
4 commentsrobertpe
Siglos_king_dagger_bow.jpg
Artaxerxes II - Darius III183 viewsPersian Empire, Lydia, Anatolia, Artaxerxes II - Darius III, c. 375 - 340 B.C., Silver siglos, 5.490 g, maximum diameter 15.1 mm, die axis 0, Carradice Type IV (late) C, 46 ff.; BMC Arabia 172 ff.; SNG Kayhan 1031; SGCV II 4683; Rosen 674; Klein 763; Carradice Price p. 77 and pl. 20, 387 ff.

Following Darius II came Artaxerxes II (called Mnemon), during whose reign Egypt revolted and relations with Greece deteriorated. His reign (dated as from 404 to 359 B.C.E.) was followed by that of his son Artaxerxes III (also called Ochus), who is credited with some 21 years of rule (358-338 B.C.E.) and is said to have been the most bloodthirsty of all the Persian rulers. His major feat was the reconquest of Egypt.
This was followed by a two-year rule for Arses and a five-year rule for Darius III (Codomannus), during whose reign Philip of Macedonia was murdered (336 B.C.E.) and was succeeded by his son Alexander. In 334 B.C.E. Alexander began his attack on the Persian Empire.

Siglos was the Greek transliteration of the Semitic denomination ""shekel"" which became a standard weight unit for silver in the Achaemenid Persian Empire after the conquest of Babylonia by Cyrus the Great in 539 B.C. Ironically, silver sigloi seem to have been struck primarily in the western part of the empire and the standard went on to influence several Greek civic and royal coinages in the fifth and fourth centuries B.C. There is endless debate about whether the figure on the obverse represents the Persian Great King or an anonymous royal hero, but since the Greeks regularly referred to the parallel gold denomination as the ""daric"" it seems clear that at least some contemporaries considered it a depiction of the king. Of course, whether this is what the Persian authorities intended or an example of interpretatio Graeca must remain an open question.
4 commentsNemonater
Aspendos_Pamphylia_Greek_Wrestlers.jpg
Aspendos Pamphylia Greek Wrestlers69 viewsPamphylia, Aspendos mint, silver stater, 370 - 333 BC, 10.383g, 22.5mm, die axis 0o, SNG Cop 233, SNG Paris 87, SNG Von Aulock -, SGCV II 5398 var
OBV: Two wrestlers, the left one holds the wrist of his opponent with his right and right forearm with his left hand, ∆Α between their legs
REV: ΕΣΤΦΕ∆ΙΙΥΣ on left, slinger, wearing short chiton, discharging sling to right, triskeles on right with feet clockwise, no trace of incuse square

In 333 B.C., after Alexander took Perga peacefully, Aspendos sent envoys to offer surrender if he would not take the taxes and horses formerly paid as tribute to the Persian king.
Agreeing, Alexander went on to Side, leaving a garrison behind. When he learned they had failed to ratify the agreement their own evnvoys had proposed, Alexander marched to the city.
The Aspendians retreated to their acropolis and again sent envoys to sue for peace. This time, however, they had to agree to harsh terms -
they would host a Macedonian garrison and pay 100 gold talents and 4.000 horses annually.

EX: Forvm Ancient Coins
4 commentsRomanorvm
Aspendos,_Pamphylia,.jpg
Aspendos, Pamphylia, 333 - 250 B.C.78 viewsWith the influence of the Olympics games.

Silver stater, Tekin Series 5, SNGvA 4578, SNG BnF 122, SNG Cop -, Arslan-Lightfoot -, gF, weight 9.107g, maximum diameter 24.8mm, die axis 0o, Aspendos mint, 330 - 250 B.C.; obverse two wrestlers, on left holds the right wrist of his opponent with his right hand and right forearm with his left hand, E between their legs, rounded edge; reverse EΣTΦE∆IY, slinger, wearing short chiton, discharging sling to right, O between legs, triskeles above club on right, round border of dots; scarce;

EX FORVM ANCIENT COIN SHOP

After Alexander took Perga peacefully, Aspendos sent envoys to offer surrender if he would not take the taxes and horses formerly paid as tribute to the Persian king. Agreeing, Alexander went on to Side, leaving a garrison behind. When he learned they had failed to ratify the agreement their own evnvoys had proposed, Alexander marched to the city. The Aspendians retreated to their acropolis and again sent envoys to sue for peace. This time, however, they had to agree to harsh terms - they would host a Macedonian garrison and pay 100 gold talents and 4.000 horses annually.

This type is a late example and likely among the last of the wrestler and slinger staters. Struck during economic crisis, perhaps resulting from the harsh terms set by Alexander after their treachery, the flans are underweight, crudely cast and appear to be of debased silver. The wrestlers and slinger are carelessly depicted. It is not as attractive as earlier examples but it is certainly much scarcer.

From The Sam Mansourati Collection.


*With my sincere thank , Photo and Description courtesy of FORVM Ancient Coins Staff.
2 commentsSam
Aspendos,_Pamphylia,_333_-_250_B_C_.jpg
Aspendos, Pamphylia, 333 - 250 B.C.85 viewsAspendos, Pamphylia, 333 - 250 B.C.
With the influence of the Olympics games.

Silver stater, Tekin Series 5, SNGvA 4578, SNG BnF 122, SNG Cop -, Arslan-Lightfoot -, VF, weight 8.97 gr., maximum diameter 24.8mm, die axis 0o.
Aspendos mint . Struck between 330 - 250 B.C.
Obverse ; two wrestlers, on left holds the right wrist of his opponent with his right hand and right forearm with his left hand, E between their legs, rounded edge.
Reverse ; EΣTΦE∆IY, slinger, wearing short chiton, discharging sling to right, O between legs, triskeles above club on right, round border of dots; very rare.

From The Sam Mansourati Collection. NO. AGAP 3324
After Alexander the great took Perga peacefully, Aspendos sent envoys to offer surrender if he would not take the taxes and horses formerly paid as tribute to the Persian king. Agreeing, Alexander went on to Side, leaving a garrison behind. When he learned they had failed to ratify the agreement their own evnvoys had proposed, Alexander marched to the city. The Aspendians retreated to their acropolis and again sent envoys to sue for peace. This time, however, they had to agree to harsh terms - they would host a Macedonian garrison and pay 100 gold talents and 4.000 horses annually.

This type is a late example and likely among the last of the wrestler and slinger staters. Struck during economic crisis, perhaps resulting from the harsh terms set by Alexander after their treachery, the flans are underweight, crudely cast and appear to be of debased silver. The wrestlers and slinger are carelessly depicted. It is not as attractive as earlier examples but it is certainly much scarcer.




1 commentsSam
athenowl.jpg
Athens AR Classical Tetradrachm 454-431 BC14 viewsOBVERSE: Helmeted head of Athena right
REVERSE: Owl perched right, Olive leaves and crescent moon in left field; ethnic [AOE] in right field obscured by obverse test punch.

This type of owl is from the high point of Athens' domination of the Greek world. According to Reid Goldsborough's classification it is distinguished by the confident smile on the face of Athena, her full rounded features and, on the reverse, the short legged owl. The coin is somewhat crystallized as seen by the surfaces and its low conductivity. Crystallization is rarely found in Owls, I suspect because their high relief required heating the planchet strongly before striking. Not a perfect coin but the character of Athena nicely represents the opinion that the Athenians had of themselves in their heyday.

weight 16.95 gms
daverino
Augustus~0.jpg
Augustus86 viewsAugustus, 16 January 27 B.C. - 19 August 14 A.D.

Obverse:

Augustus with his bare head right

CAESAR AVGVST PONT MAX TRIBVNIC POT

CAESAR: Ceasar, emperor
AVGVST: Agustus
PONT MAX: Pontifix Maximus,
TRIBVNIC: Tribunicia, tribunal
POT: POTESTAS, the people

Reverse:

M MAECILIVS TVLLVS III VIR A A A F F

M: Marcus
MAECILLIS: Maelcilius
TVLLVS: Tullus
IIIVIR: Triumviri
AAAFF: Auro, Argento, Aeri, Flando, Feriundo,

S . C, Senatus Consultum

I think the dots were used as centering devices, one see them sometimes on Soldiers/Standards coins although on this coin it is certainly a large dot.

Domination: AS, Copper

Mint: Rome

The Roman Moneyers (or you may prefer the title of Mint Magistrates) were also responsible for the minting of gold, silver and bronze coinage and they reported to the Senate. They were known as the Triumviri Monetales or Triumviri Auro, Argento, Aeri, Flando, Feriundo which is abbreviated as III VIR. A.A.A. F.F. which may be translated as 'Commision (or college) of three men under whom gold, silver and bronze coins were struck'. (Note that the order of the metals varies according to different references.) The title 'III VIR. A.A.A. F.F.' occurs rarely on Republic coins and when it is present it is usually seen in an abbreviated form such as 'III VIR'. It is interesting to note that the full title occurs frequently on the reverses of Augustan Aes

The College of the Three Moneyers was a revived republican tradition. This coin was struck under the supervision of Marcus Salvius Otho, an ancestor of the future emperor Otho. Later, the number of members was increased to four, and their names were not included on the coins.

TRP = This is short for tribunicia potestate - "with the power of the Tribune of the Plebs." The government of Rome was split into the Patricians (who were Senators) and the Plebians. Nine Tribunes of the Plebs were elected by both Plebs and Patricians every year to be in charge of the Plebian assembly. These Tribunes could not be injured because it could be punishable by death. They had veto powers, and they could prevent a law from being passed or an election. An emperor cannot technically rule on the Plebian assembly since he is a Patrician, but by taking the title he could be free from injury. On a coin, if this symbol is followed by a number, it depicts how many times he has been elected Tribune of the Plebs.
John Schou
Augustus_RIC_86a.jpg
Augustus - [RIC 86a, BMC 41, CBN 1132, Cohen 19]86 viewsSilver denarius, 3.13g, 18.44mm, 90 degree, Colonia Patricia mint, 19 B.C.

Obv. - CAESAR AVGVSTVS, bare head right

Rev. - SIGNIS RECEPTIS, Aquila on left and standard on right flanking S P Q R arranged around shield inscribed CL V

A superb piece with a particularly beautiful portrait and an attractive tone.

This famous and historically important denarius of Augustus commemorates the reconquest of the legionary eagles from the Parthians. These signa where lost, when Crassus was defeated at the battle of Carrhae and their return back to Rome was one of the greatest diplomatic successes Augustus had.

The CL V on the reverse of this issue represents the clipeus virtutis, which was - according to the Res Gestae Divi Augusti, the funerary inscription giving the achievements of Augustus - a golden shield displayed in the Curia Iulia that was given to Augustus by the Senate and the Roman people (Senatus PopulusQue Romanus) in commemoration of his virtue, piety, justice and clemency. Even though it seems to be obvious that Augustus must have been awarded the shield right after he achieved absolute power and declared the restoration of the Republic, Sydenham suggests "that there is no decisive evidence as to the exact date at which the golden shield was conferred, but the coins on which it is represented are of later date than the year BC 27". When, in 19 BC, the Parthians returned the standards they had captured from Crassus in 53, there would have been an excellent opportunity to once again recall Augustus' pietas, one of the virtues recorded on the clipeus.
___________

Purchased from VCoins seller Ancient Artifacts & Treasures, Inc. at the 2013 BRNA Dalton, GA coin show

Sold 25Apr2015 to Lucas Harsh Collection
2 commentsrenegade3220
IMG_6476e.JPG
Augustus Denarius - Gaius and Lucius (RIC 211)62 viewsAR Denarius
Lugdunum, 27 BC - 14 AD

Obv: Laureate head of Augustus (R)
CAESAR AVGVSTVS DIVI F PATER PATRIAE

Rev: Gaius & Lucius standing front, each with a hand resting on a round shield, a spear, & in field above,
simpulum right & lituus left in "b9" formation, X between
AVGVSTI F COS DESIG PRINC IVVENT, C L CAESARES below

RIC 211, BMC 537, RSC 43a.

ex. Baldwins
Ira & Larry Goldberg Coins & Collectibles Auction 59, Lot 2425, 30/05/10
ex. CNG Mail Bid Sale 81, Lot 979, 20/05/09
3 commentsKained but Able
augustus_379.jpg
Augustus RIC I, 37995 viewsAugustus 27 BC - 14 AC
AE - AS, 10.65g, 27mm
Rome 16 BC(?)
obv. TRIBVNIC POTEST CAESAR AVG
bare head r.
rev. C GALLVS LVPERC IIIVIR AAAFF
around SC
RIC I, 379; C.436; BMCR.174
good F

IIIvir AAAFF = Triumvir aere argento auro flando feriundo, man-of-three for bronze-silver-gold casting-striking, one of three Mint Magistrates of Rome, elected annually by the Senate. The last person certainly known to have held this position became consul in AD 235.
Jochen
augustus_467_3.jpg
Augustus RIC I, 46723 viewsAugustus 27 BC - AD 14
AE - Quadrans, 3.37g, 13.4mm
Rome 4 BC
obv.: C RVBELLIVS BLANDVS
around SC
rev.: IIIVIR AAAFF
garlanded altar with bowl-shaped top
RIC I, 467; cf. C.511; BMCR. 269
Scarce; good F

IIIVIRI MONETALES = the three mint magistrates, elected by the Senatus
(In this case really IVviri monetales!)
AAAFF = aere argento auro flando feriundo, for the casting and striking of bronze, silver and gold
Jochen
Aurelian_Mars_Presentation.jpg
Aurelian * Emperor and Mars, 270-275 AD. Æ Antoninianus.81 views
Aurelian * Emperor and Mars * Bronze Antoninianus.

Obv: IMP AVRELIANVS AVG * radiate, cuirassed bust right facing.
Rev: RESTITVTOR EXERCITI, Mars the aggressor on the left facing right, presents Aurelian the globe (..the world) with his right hand; Aurelian standing opposite on his right, left-facing * Mars holding a spear in left hand, Emperor receiving the globe with his right hand, holding scepter in his left hand.
Officina letter Γ below globe, between the warriors.

Exergue: XXI

Mint: Cyzicus
Struck: 274-275 AD.

Size: 24 mm.
Weight: 4.64 grams
Die axis: 0°

Condition: Quite superb, although with some effacing of the Legends on both sides.
Letter A effaced from [A]VRELIANVS, on the Obv.
Rev. shows – EX[ERC]ITI
In all, beautiful condition; superb, well-centered strike. Lovely universal bronze-gold patina, and excellent details.

Refs:*
Cohen 206
RIC Vi, 366F (s) Scarce, page 306
(Rated Scarce by RIC).

Tiathena
MISC_Austria_Albrecht_II_L_140.JPG
Austria. Albert II (the Wise), Duke of Austria and Styria (1330-1358)633 viewsLuschin/Szego 140, CNA B 236.

AR Pfennig, Vienna mint, 14-15 mm.

Obv: Hare facing left.

Rev: Shield.

“Until the 12th century, coins were needed above all for exports; daily transactions were generally barter transactions. As the economy began to operate increasingly on the principle of the division of labor and as cities began to grow, money started to acquire more and more importance for regional trade. Municipal records show that even in Austria under Babenberg rule, money payments to feudal lords began to replace payments in kind. The growing monetarization of society ushered in a new phase in the history of coins. Monetary systems became regionalized. The denar, formerly used for external trade and exports, was replaced by the regional pfennig. New monetary borders came into existence, within which the rulers with coinage rights tried to enforce the compulsory, exclusive use of their own coins. Under Babenberg rule, the Vienna pfennig was accorded the role of regional money used in Austria. The Vienna pfennig came into its own when the mint was moved from Krems to Vienna at the end of the 12th century. It served as a means of payment for daily monetary transactions and remained a monetary unit even when large foreign coins were used to settle the growing volume of trade transactions – gold coins such as the Venetian or Florentine ducat and large silver coins like the Prague groschen. In the course of the 14th century, it became established as a currency in nearly the entire area covered by modern-day Austria, with the exception of Tyrol and Vorarlberg.” (“Money and Trade during the Era of the Silver Pfennig.” Oesterreichische Nationalbank

“It is assumed that most of the 13th and 14th century reverses are not legible at all. This is entirely normal as the obverses were usually struck after the reverses.” (Szego, at 52). The reverse of this issue was the arms of mintmaster Heinrich Schucheler (per Jean Elsen, List 263 Lot 395).
Stkp
MISC_Austria_Frederick_III_L_159.JPG
Austria. Frederich the Handsome, Duke of Austria and Styria (1308-1330). 28 viewsLuschin/Szego 159.

AR Pfennig, Wiener Neustadt mint, 15-16 mm.

Obv: Austrian shield inside six-petalled rose.

Rev: Shield of Austria between two panthers.

“Until the 12th century, coins were needed above all for exports; daily transactions were generally barter transactions. As the economy began to operate increasingly on the principle of the division of labor and as cities began to grow, money started to acquire more and more importance for regional trade. Municipal records show that even in Austria under Babenberg rule, money payments to feudal lords began to replace payments in kind. The growing monetarization of society ushered in a new phase in the history of coins. Monetary systems became regionalized. The denar, formerly used for external trade and exports, was replaced by the regional pfennig. New monetary borders came into existence, within which the rulers with coinage rights tried to enforce the compulsory, exclusive use of their own coins. Under Babenberg rule, the Vienna pfennig was accorded the role of regional money used in Austria. The Vienna pfennig came into its own when the mint was moved from Krems to Vienna at the end of the 12th century. It served as a means of payment for daily monetary transactions and remained a monetary unit even when large foreign coins were used to settle the growing volume of trade transactions – gold coins such as the Venetian or Florentine ducat and large silver coins like the Prague groschen. In the course of the 14th century, it became established as a currency in nearly the entire area covered by modern-day Austria, with the exception of Tyrol and Vorarlberg.” (“Money and Trade during the Era of the Silver Pfennig.” Oesterreichische Nationalbank

“It is assumed that most of the 13th and 14th century reverses are not legible at all. This is entirely normal as the obverses were usually struck after the reverses.” (Szego, at 52).

Frederick the Handsome (Friedrich der Schöne), from the House of Habsburg, was Duke of Austria and Styria from 1308 as Frederick I as well as King of Germany (King of the Romans) from 1314 (antiking until 1325) as Frederick III until his death.
Stkp
AUST_NETH_1797_QUART_KRONTHL.jpg
AUSTRIAN NETHERLANDS742 viewsAUSTRIAN NETHERLANDS - Francis II (1792-1835) AR 1/4 Kronenthaler, 1797-B (Kremnitz Mint). Obv.: Bust of emperor right. "FRANC.II.D.G.R.I.S.A.GER.HIE.HVN.BOH.REX." Mintmark B below bust. Reverse: Cruciform figure, with crowns in top, right & left angles; Order of the Golden Fleece hangs at bottom angle. "ARCH.AVST.DVX.BVRG.LOTH.BRAB.COM.FLAN.1797. Reference: KM#60.dpaul7
AUST_NETH_1797_KRONENTHALER.jpg
AUSTRIAN NETHERLANDS531 viewsAUSTRIAN NETHERLANDS - Francis II (1792-1835) AR Kronenthaler, 1797. B=Kremnitz mint. Obv.: Head of Emperor facing right. FRANC.II.D.G.R.I.S.A.GER.HIE.HVN.BOH.REX.. Rev.: Cruciform figure, with crowns in top, right & left angles; Order of the Golden Fleece hangs at bottom angle. ARCH.AVST.DVX.BVRG.LOTH.BRAB.COM.FLAN.1797. Referenc: KM#62.2.dpaul7
Strap-end,_Avar,_gold-plated,_Q-001,_27x12,5x,5mm,_7,07g-s.jpg
Avar, Strap-end, looking two "cats" or "dogs" AE-Gold-plated. Medieval, #11121 viewsAvar, Strap-end, looking two "cats" or "dogs" AE-Gold-plated. Medieval, #11
Maybe the 6th or 8th Centuries??? ,
size: 27x12,5x5mm,
weight:7,07g,
Q-011
quadrans
Baktria_Agathokles_Pedigree_Tet_.jpg
Baktrian Kingdom, Agathokles I, ca. 185-170 BC, AR Tetradrachm 13 viewsEYΘYΔHMOY ΘEOY (Euthydemos God) Diademed head of Euthydemos right.
ΒΑΣΙΛΕYONTOΣ AΓAΘOKΛEOYΣ ΔIKAIOY (of King Agathokles the Just) Herakles seated on rock, holding club set on rocks; ΦΩΛ monogram lower right field.

Bopearachchi 16B; SNG ANS 261, Mitchiner 145; HGC 12, 87.
This coin referenced in Frank L. Holt Lost World of the Golden King: In Search of Ancient Afghanistan p.203 and Chapter 8 end note 75.

(31 mm, 16.67 g, 12h).

Agathokles and Antimachos issued “pedigree” tetradrachms in the later years of the struggle for regency with Eukratides. Such coins sought to assert the legitimacy of the incumbent Euthydemid rulers through association with forbears and even unrelated predecessors back to Alexander.

An iron pin pierces this coin accompanied by the remains of an iron suspension loop that has been incompletely removed. This is the remains of an attachment placed in a manner to avoid defacing the image of Euthydemos. The careful attachment of this coin for its use as an item of display may have been an overt statement of loyalty to the Euthydemid line during the struggle with Eukratides.
n.igma
jerusalem_1.JPG
BCC 561 viewsCrusader Kingdom of Jerusalem
Amalricus Rex 1162-1174 CE
Rev: [D]E IER[VSALEM+]
Octastyle temple (Dome of the Rock)
10mm approx 0.9 g.
I have seen fragments with the same reverse
issued by his brother, Baldwin III 1144-1162 CE.
(or perhaps his son Baldwin IV)
I think all of these are extremely rare.
1 commentsv-drome
st__gaudens_.jpg
BCC 5037 viewsSt. Guadens $20 Gold
1909 S
v-drome
amaury_I.JPG
BCC 694 viewsCrusader Kingdom of Jerusalem
Amalricus Rex 1162-1174 CE
Obv:AMA[L]RICV[S]RE[X +]
Six pointed star of David
original diameter. approx.25mm.
original weight perhaps 8 to 10 grams.
These coins were apparently never issued
whole, and may have been cut up before leaving the mint. They
may have been intended as offerings for pilgrims. Any comments or
information would be appreciated. (the coin fragments match types
but are clearly from different individual coins).
2 commentsv-drome
Islamic_Weight_BW13.jpg
BCC BW1359 viewsIslamic Weight
Bronze - 10 Dirham
Obv: Marked with flower? design,
possibly inlaid with gold leaf. The inside
pattern may represent a crescent moon.
Rev: Three incuse concentric circles.
Barrel shape: Dia.: 19.25mm. Ht.:13.5mm.
Weight: 29.58gm.
1 commentsv-drome
Pan-Mercury_BCC_g10.jpg
BCC g1071 viewsRoman Gem Stone
Caesarea Maritima
Intaglio
1-3rd Cent CE?     
Gryllos with dual heads of Mercury? and
or Pan? and or Wolf?
Gem size:10.0x11.5mm
Banded Jasper? in an iron setting,
probably originally covered in gold leaf.
v-drome
islamic_gold_.jpg
BCC IC133 viewsIslamic - Fatimid Dynasty
al-Mustansir Billah
18th Imam, of Cairo, Egypt.
427-487AH (1036-1095CE)
AV 1/4 Dinar
14.5mm. 0.68gm.
Date and mint off-flan.
Contemporary accounts and recent excavations
indicate that Caesarea was a thriving agricultural
town in this period.
v-drome
RSC25 Plautilla~0.JPG
bE6. RSC 25. Venus Victrix.46 viewsAR Denarius. Rome mint.

Obv. Draped bust right PLAVTILLA AVGVSTA

Rev. Venus standing semi-clothed golding apple and leaning on shield, cupid at feet VENVS VICTRIX.

RIC369, RSC 25. EF, lustrous.
LordBest
817212.jpg
Behold! We have Gold, Silver, Wheat and Wine.29 viewsThrace, Pautalia, Caracalla 198-217 Ć29mm (or Pentassarion).
Obv: AΥT K M AΥΡH – ANTΩNINOC, Laureate head of Caracalla right,
Rev: OΥΛΠIAC ΠAΥTAΛIAC, The River-god Strymon reclining left on urn from
which water flows, resting right hand on a rocky outcrop and holding a grape
vine with several grape bunches.
Four youths (or less correctly 'erotes') around; APΓY/POC (Argyros = silver)
emerging to the left, out of the cave in the mountain, with a small basket over
his shoulder; BOTPY (Botry = grapes) standing right on top of the mountain,
supporting one of the grape bunches; to right of waterfall, XPY/COC (Chrysos
= gold) seated left; in exergue, CTAXY (Stachy = grain ear) standing left and
holding sickle, harvesting ears of grain, probably wheat.
16.6g, Ruzicka 634; Mouchmov 4286; Varbanov 5174.

ex: Numismatik Lanz 163/374, where it had an estimate of €1,500- Euros.

Also: Schow (1789) p.6; Sestini (1796) 37, p.67; Mionnet (1822) 1108, p.388;
Eckhel (1839) Part 1, Vol.II, p.38; Von Sallet (1888) p.202-3; Imhoof-Blumer
(1908) 459, p.163-4, pl.X, 28.

"In the field of numismatics, there is no other coin upon which a city proclaims
the products of its territory so exquisitely". - Joseph H. Eckhel.

Also, see this recent article:
Behold! We have Gold, Silver, Wheat and Wine. by Walter C. Holt, M.A.
Australasian Coin and Banknote Magazine "2017 Yearbook", Volume 20.11,
December 2017/January 2018, pp.72-75 (illustrated).
1 commentsOldMoney
Boar-s.jpg
Belt ornament, Avar, Boar head's left, Medieval, #05, 143 viewsBelt ornament, Avar, Boar head's left, Medieval, #05,
Gold plated belt ornament looking "Boar" head left.
May be the 6th or 8th Centuries??? ,
size:
weight:
Q-005
1 commentsquadrans
Boar_Q-002_38x12,5x5mm_5,77g-s.jpg
Belt ornament, Avar, Boar head's left, Medieval, #0696 viewsBelt ornament, Avar, Boar head's left, Medieval, #06,
Gold plated belt ornament looking "Boar" head left.
May be the 6th or 8th Centuries??? ,
size:38x12,5x5mm,
weight:5,77g,
Q-006
1 commentsquadrans
GeorgeIIIJubileeA.JPG
BHM 0684. King George III, Golden Jubilee of his Reign, 1810.115 viewsObv. Laureate, draped bust of George III, left with short hair.
GEORGIUS III . D : G . BRITANNIARUM REX . FID . DEFEN.
Scroll under bust inscribed: 25 OCT . 1810.

Rev. Arms of Salisbury supported by two double headed eagles.
LUSTRA DECEM COMPLEVIT . REGNAT ADHUC; REGNET QUE DIU. (He has completed fifty years, he still reigns; may he reign long).
AE 48mm. BHM 684.

This medal was produced at the request of Lord Radnor to celebrate the Jubilee in Salisbury. On the 11 August 1810 Lord Radnor ordered six specimens (later reduced to five) in gold, 56 silver gilt, 24 silver and 500 copper bronzed. It should be noted that this piece is the only Küchler medal that cannot have been restruck since the dies were cancelled on completion of the order. See G. Pollard, 'Matthew Boulton and C. H. Küchler', Numismatic Chronicle, 1970, p. 315. See also note to No. 641.
-British Historical Medals 1760-1960, Volume I, pp. 167
1 commentsLordBest
GeorgeIIIJubileeD.JPG
BHM 0685. King George III, Golden Jubilee of his Reign, 1810.81 viewsObv. Cuirassed, draped bust of George III, bare head, right. GOD SAVE THE KING
Rev. GEO III COMPLETED THE FIFTIETH YEAR OF HIS REIGN OCTBOER 25 1810 Attributes of Time etc. entwined with a ribbon on which reads WE PRAISE THEE O GOD.

White Metal 42mm. BHM 685
LordBest
SoaneBankofEnglandTaylor106a.JPG
BHM 1662. 1834. Sir John Soane, Architect. Bank of England. Taylor 106a.102 viewsObv. Portrait head right JOHN SOANE Signed W WYON A B A MINT
Rev. Elevation of the "Tivoli Corner" of the Bank building A TRIBUTE OF RESPECT FROM THE BRITISH ARCHITECTS MDCCCXXXIV.

AE58.

A gold example of this medal was presented to Sir John Soane, one of Britains premiere architects, in 1834.
LordBest
nikaia_geta_AE15_unbekannt.jpg
Bithynia, Nikaia, Geta, Rec.Gen. 51550 viewsGeta AD 198-209
AE 15, 2.31g
obv. GETAC - KAICAR
Bust, draped and cuirassed, laureate, r.
rev. NIK - AIEWN
Nike, in short chiton over long chiton, advancing r., holding wreath in raised r.
hand and long palm (or trophy?) over l. shoulder
Rec.Gen., p. 463, 515 & pl. LXXX, #21 (Thanks to Lawrence Woolslayer!)
F+/about VF, black-green patina

Nike here wears as hair-do a so-called lampadion often seen on the gold stateres of Alexander III.
1 commentsJochen
105034.jpg
BOEOTIA, Thebes171 viewsIn the late 6th century BC the Thebans were brought for the first time into hostile contact with the Athenians, who helped the small village of Plataea to maintain its independence against them, and in 506 repelled an inroad into Attica. The aversion to Athens best serves to explain the unpatriotic attitude which Thebes displayed during the Persian invasion of Greece (480–479 BC). Though a contingent of 700 was sent to Thermopylae and remained there with Leonidas until just before the last stand when they surrendered to the Persians[1], the governing aristocracy soon after joined King Xerxes I of Persia with great readiness and fought zealously on his behalf at the battle of Plataea in 479 BC. The victorious Greeks subsequently punished Thebes by depriving it of the presidency of the Boeotian League, and an attempt by the Spartans to expel it from the Delphic amphictyony was only frustrated by the intercession of Athens.

In 457 Sparta, needing a counterpoise against Athens in central Greece, reversed her policy and reinstated Thebes as the dominant power in Boeotia. The great citadel of Cadmea served this purpose well by holding out as a base of resistance when the Athenians overran and occupied the rest of the country (457–447). In the Peloponnesian War the Thebans, embittered by the support which Athens gave to the smaller Boeotian towns, and especially to Plataea, which they vainly attempted to reduce in 431, were firm allies of Sparta, which in turn helped them to besiege Plataea and allowed them to destroy the town after its capture in 427 BC. In 424 at the head of the Boeotian levy they inflicted a severe defeat upon an invading force of Athenians at the Battle of Delium, and for the first time displayed the effects of that firm military organization which eventually raised them to predominant power in Greece.

After the downfall of Athens at the end of the Peloponnesian War the Thebans, finding that Sparta intended to protect the states which they desired to annex, broke off the alliance. In 404 they had urged the complete destruction of Athens, yet in 403 they secretly supported the restoration of its democracy in order to find in it a counterpoise against Sparta. A few years later, influenced perhaps in part by Persian gold, they formed the nucleus of the league against Sparta. At the battles of Haliartus (395) and Coronea (394) they again proved their rising military capacity by standing their ground against the Spartans. The result of the war was especially disastrous to Thebes, as the general settlement of 387 stipulated the complete autonomy of all Greek towns and so withdrew the other Boeotians from its political control. Its power was further curtailed in 382, when a Spartan force occupied the citadel by a treacherous coup-de-main. Three years later the Spartan garrison was expelled, and a democratic constitution definitely set up in place of the traditional oligarchy. In the consequent wars with Sparta the Theban army, trained and led by Epaminondas and Pelopidas, proved itself the best in Greece. Some years of desultory fighting, in which Thebes established its control over all Boeotia, culminated in 371 in a remarkable victory over the pick of the Spartans at Leuctra. The winners were hailed throughout Greece as champions of the oppressed. They carried their arms into Peloponnesus and at the head of a large coalition permanently crippled the power of Sparta. Similar expeditions were sent to Thessaly and Macedon to regulate the affairs of those regions.

However the predominance of Thebes was short-lived; the states which she protected refused to subject themselves permanently to her control, and the renewed rivalry of Athens, which had joined with Thebes in 395 in a common fear of Sparta, but since 387 had endeavoured to maintain the balance of power against her ally, prevented the formation of a Theban empire. With the death of Epaminondas at Mantinea in 362 the city sank again to the position of a secondary power. In a war with the neighbouring state of Phocis (356–346) it could not even maintain its predominance in central Greece, and by inviting Philip II of Macedon to crush the Phocians it extended that monarch's power within dangerous proximity to its frontiers. A revulsion of feeling was completed in 338 by the orator Demosthenes, who persuaded Thebes to join Athens in a final attempt to bar Philip's advance upon Attica. The Theban contingent lost the decisive battle of Chaeronea and along with it every hope of reassuming control over Greece. Philip was content to deprive Thebes of her dominion over Boeotia; but an unsuccessful revolt in 335 against his son Alexander was punished by Macedon and other Greek states by the severe sacking of the city, except, according to tradition, the house of the poet Pindar.

BOEOTIA, Thebes. Circa 395-338 BC. AR Stater (21mm, 11.98 gm). Boeotian shield / Amphora; magistrate AM-FI. Hepworth, "The 4th Century BC Magistrate Coinage of the Boiotian Confederacy," in Nomismatika Xronika (1998), 2; BMC Central Greece -. Fine.

Ex-Cng eAuction 105, Lot: 34 225/200

2 commentsecoli
233689_l.jpg
Boeotia, Thebes (Circa 379-368 BC)20 viewsAR Stater

22 mm, 11.44 g

Obverse: Boeotian shield

Reverse: Amphora; ΠO-ΘI (Pothi - magistrate) across field.

Hepworth 81; BCD Boiotia 515; HGC 4, 1331

Thebes was the largest city of the ancient region of Boeotia. It was a major rival of ancient Athens, and sided with the Persians during the 480 BC invasion under Xerxes and Sparta during the Peloponnesian war (431-404 BC). In 404 BC, they had urged the complete destruction of Athens; yet, in 403 BC, they secretly supported the restoration of its democracy in order to find in it a counterpoise against Sparta. A few years later, influenced perhaps in part by Persian gold, they formed the nucleus of the league against Sparta. The result of the war was disastrous to Thebes, and by 382 BC a Spartan force was occupying its citadel. Three years later, the Spartan garrison was expelled and a democratic constitution was set up in place of the traditional oligarchy. In the consequent wars with Sparta, the Theban army, trained and led by Epaminondas and Pelopidas, proved itself formidable. Years of desultory fighting, in which Thebes established its control over all Boeotia, culminated in 371 BC in a remarkable victory over the Spartans at Leuctra.
Nathan P
Bronze_stater_of_King_Harsha_(1089-1101_AD),_Kashmir,_North_India.jpg
Bronze stater of King Harsha (1089-1101 AD), Kashmir, North India94 viewsEnthroned Ardoxsho facing; Nagari legend: "Harsha Raja" / King standing, Nagari legend "Deva". 19mm, 5.5 grams. Very attractive. Mitchiner NIS 188-189.

These remarkable and attractive coins are the descendants of the gold and silver Kushan staters, and have a distinction of being the longest-minted issue in history - the Goddess/King design remained virtually unchanged in the 1300+ years history of this issue.

From 1089 to 1101 A. D., King Harsha ruled Kashmir. Versed in many languages, a good poet, lover of music and art, he started his rule in a remarkable way, and became famous in northern India. His court was a centre of luxury and splendour. He introduced new fashions in dress and ornaments. His ministers were gorgeously dressed, wore earrings and head dresses, previously reserved for the members of ruling families only. But strangely enough, Harsha's career became a record of follies and misdeeds. The people also suffered from famine, and plague as well, and a considerable section of people became victims of these calamities. A confusion followed these misfortunes, leading to a general rising of the people under two royal princes Uccalia and Succalla. Harsha along with his son Bhoja were murdered, and the Kashmir throne passed into the hands of two princes respectively. Both the princes met the fate of Harsha and when our great historian Kalhan completed his 'Rajatarangini' in 1149 - 50 King Jaisimha, the last great ruler of the Hindu times was ruling the state.

Antonio Protti
spain_I_F_coinweight.jpg
Bronze weight for a gold excellente, busts of Ferdinand and Isabella31 viewsBronze coin weight, c. 1500. Bronze weights, Bronze weight for a gold excellente, 2.856g, 21.3mm, obverse confronted busts of Ferdinand and Isabella in a circle of parallel dashes; reverse, shield. Probably made in the Low Countries, but found in England. Ex FORVMPodiceps
Brutus_Koson.jpg
Brutus Gold Stater 183 viewsRoman Consul Brutus in center accompanied by two lictors
KOΣΩN in ex. BR monogram on left.

Eagle standing left on scepter, wings open raising wreath in left claw.

Eastern mint, Dacia? 43-42 B.C.

8.38g

Choice aUNC

RPC I 1701; BMC Thrace p. 208, 1; BMCRR II 48; Crawford 433/1

Ex-ANE, Ex CNG

Clickable for larger image

For an excellent write up/ theory on these coins including a fascinating metalurgy report:
http://www.calgarycoin.com/reference/articles/koson/koson.htm

And of course the numiswiki article:
http://www.forumancientcoins.com/numiswiki/view.asp?key=Koson
15 commentsJay GT4
Constans_II_Gold_solidus.jpg
Byzantine Empire, Constans II, September 641 - 15 July 668 A.D.45 viewsGold solidus, DOC II-2 Heraclonas 1c (not in the coll., refs. T.), Hahn MIB 3a, Tolstoi 13, Sommer 12.1, SBCV 936, Wroth BMC -, Morrison BnF -; Ratto -, VF, well centered, double strike, some legend weak, light scratches and bumps, 8th officina, Constantinople (Istanbul, Turkey) mint, weight 4.479g, maximum diameter 20.6mm, die axis 180o, Sep 641 - 642/644 A.D.; obverse d N CONSTANTINYS P P AVG, crowned and cuirassed beardless bust facing, small head, wearing chlamys, crown ornamented with cross on circlet, globus cruciger in right hand; reverse VICTORIA AVGY H, cross potent on three steps, CONOB in exergue.

FORVM / The Sam Mansourati Collection.

In 641, when Heraclius died, he was succeeded by his sons Constantine III and Heracleonas. When Constantine III died after only a few months, the Byzantine people suspected that Heracleonas had poisoned him. Heracleonas was deposed, mutilated and banished. Constans II, the son of Constantine III, became emperor. This type is attributed to Heraclonas in DOC II-2 and Morrison BnF but today it is accepted as the first issue of Constantine II.
5 commentsSam
Justinianus D.jpg
Byzantine Justinian I - Solidus110 viewsJustinian I (AD 527-565). Gold solidus. Constantinople, ca. AD 527-537. D N IVSTINI-ANVS PP AVG, Helmeted, cuirassed bust three-quarters right, holding spear over right shoulder, shield on left shoulder / VICTORI-A AVGGG S, angel standing facing, holding long cross in right hand and globus cruciger in left, star in right field, CONOB in exergue.

DO 3f. MIB 5. Sear 137.
1 commentsTanit
e3~1.jpg
Byzantine, Alexius I Comnenus, AU Hyperpyron SBCV-191377 viewsAlexius I Comnenus, 1081-1118. Hyperpyron (Gold, 31 mm, 4.30 g, 6 h)

Constantinople, post-reform coinage, 1092-1118. +ΚЄ ROHΘЄI Christ, nimbate, seated facing on throne, raising his right hand in benediction and holding book of Gospels in his left; in fields, IC - XC. Rev. A/ΛЄ/ΖΙω / ΔЄC/ΠΟ/ΤΗ; in right field, Tω / KO/MNH/Nω Alexius I standing facing, wearing crown, divitision and exaggerated jeweled chlamys, holding labarum with his right hand and globus cruciger with his left; in upper right field, manus Dei to left
This coin came with an original ticket for a dealer in Amsterdam. Jacques Schulman. From a sale in 1956
1 commentsSimon
8597b.JPG
BYZANTINE, Heraclius, Heraclius Constantine and Heraclonas Solidus287 viewsHeraclius AD 610-641, with Heraclius Constantine and Heraclonas. Gold Solidus Constantinopolis, 5th officina, AD 638/9-641
Heraclius (in centre), Heraclius Constantine (on r.) and Heraclonas (on l.), all standing facing, holding globus cruciger
VICTORIA AVGЧE; cross potent set on three steps, monogram to left; CONOB in ex
Sear 769; 4.46g; 20mm

This coin is resting at least 75 years in private collections, as it came with a ticket dated 8th of May 1936, Robert Ball Nchf., Berlin, Germany.
2 commentsGert
6.jpg
BYZANTINE, Heraclius, Solidus12 viewsHeraclius and Heraclius Constantine Solidus. Circa 616-625 AD. Gold (21mm, 4.30g). Constantinople mint. Large bust of Heraclius with simple crown and small bust of Heraclius Constantine, facing / Cross on three steps. Sear 738, MIB-11gapalp
John II.jpg
BYZANTINE, John II, 1118 - 1143, Electrum Aspron Trachy92 viewsElectrum aspron trachy, clipped, 1.512g, 24.6mm, 180o, Constantinople mint.
Obverse: Christ seated facing on throne without back, raising right hand in benediction, book of Gospels in left hand, IC right, XC left.
Reverse: + Iw DECPO / TH - Q / EG / RW [...], John (wearing crown, divitision and chlamys) and St. George (nimbate, in military dress, holding sword) standing facing, holding patriarchal cross with globus at base.
Sear 1941; DO 8b; Scarce.
ex Edward J. Waddell, appears slightly more golden in hand
goldcoin
LeoIIIgold~0.jpg
BYZANTINE, Leo III & Constantine V, AV Solidus, Constantinople c.A.D.737-741.83 views
Leo III, the Isaurian, 717-741 AD. ruling with Constantine V, 720-741 AD. Struck at Constantinople c.A.D.737 - 741.
Obv: Crowned facing bust of Leo, holding globus cruciger and akakia; d N O LEO-N PA MUl.
Rev: Crowned facing bust of Constantine, holding globus and akakia; d N CONST-ANTINuS.
Sear 1504, DOC III 7b.
4.37gm.
goldcoin
Manuel 1~0.jpg
BYZANTINE, Manuel I, 1143 - 1180, AV Hyperpyron, Sear 155657 viewsA brave general but even more skillful diplomat and statesman. Impregnated with the idea of a universal Empire with passion for theological debate he was also perhaps the only chivalrous Emperor-Knight of Byzantine. He is a representitive of a new kind of Byzantine rulers that were influenced by the contact with the western crusaders. The customs kept in his court were not inspired by the traditional Byzantine opulence. He loved western customs and arranged jousting matches, even participating in them, an unusual and discomforting sight for the Byzantines.

Having distinguished himself in his father's war against the Seljuk Turks, he was nominated emperor in preference to his elder surviving brother. Endowed with a fine physique and great personal courage, he devoted himself whole-heartedly to a military career. He endeavoured to restore by force of arms the predominance of the Byzantine Empire in the Mediterranean countries, and so was involved in conflict with his neighbours on all sides.

[edit]
Second Crusade
In 1144 he brought back Raymond of Antioch to his allegiance, and in the following year drove the Seljuk Turks out of Isauria. In 1147 he granted a passage through his dominions to two armies of the Second Crusade under Conrad III of Germany and Louis VII of France; but the numerous outbreaks of overt or secret hostility between the Franks and the Greeks on their line of march, for which both sides were to blame, nearly precipitated a conflict between Manuel and his guests.

goldcoin
zb~1.jpg
C.MARIUS C.f. CAPITO37 viewsAR denarius. 81 BC. 3.75 gr. Draped bust of Ceres right,head bound with corn wreath. CAPIT CXXXXI behind,symbol before. / Plowman with yoke of oxen left. CXXXXI above; C.MARI.C.F./SC in exergue.
RSC Maria 9; Craw. 378/1c.
I & L Goldberg 2002. Ex Lejeune collection.

benito
cmari.jpg
C.MARIUS C.f. CAPITO70 viewsAR denarius. 81 BC. 3.75 gr. Draped bust of Ceres right,head bound with corn wreath. CAPIT CXXXXI behind,symbol (jellyfish) before. / Plowman with yoke of oxen left. CXXXXI above; C.MARI.C.F./SC in exergue. Border of dots.
RSC Maria 9; Craw. 378/1c.
I & L Goldberg 2002. Ex Lejeune collection.
1 commentsbenito
fausti2~0.jpg
C.MEMMIUS C.f.47 viewsAR denarius. 56 BC. Laureate and bearded head of Quirinus right. C MEMMI C F before. / Ceres seated right holding corn stalks and ears. MEMMIVS AED CERIALIA PREIMUS FECIT.
Craw 427/2. RSC Memmia 9.
I & L Goldberg 2002
1 commentsbenito
00sulpgalba10.jpg
C.SULPICIUS C.f. GALBA.30 viewsAR denarius. 106 BC. 3,93 grs. Laureate heads of the Dei Penates conjoined left. D.P.P. before. / Two soldiers swearing oath over over sow.Letter N above. C.SVLPICI.C.F in exergue.
Craw 312/1. RSC Sulpicia 1.
EX Roma Numismatics. I.& L. Goldberg 59,lot 2304. Malter, Ridge collection, lot 1613.
benito
00sulpgalba10~0.jpg
C.SULPICIUS C.f. GALBA. 28 viewsAR denarius. 106 BC. 3,93 grs. Laureate heads of the Dei Penates conjoined left. D.P.P. before. / Two soldiers swearing oath over over sow.Letter N above. C.SVLPICI.C.F in exergue.
Craw 312/1. RSC Sulpicia 1.
I.& L. Goldberg 59,lot 2304. Malter, Ridge collection, lot 1613.
benito
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-3qs59GR6xcPDlCaligula_2.jpg
Caligula (Augustus) Coin: Brass Dupondius 10 viewsNERO ET DRVSVS CAESARES - Nero and Drusus on horseback riding right
C. CAESAR. DIVI. AVG. PRON. AVG. P. M. TR. P. III. P. P. around large S. C. - Legend surrounding large S C
Mint: Rome (39-40 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 13.04g / 32mm / 6h
Rarity: R3
References:
RIC I 42 (Gaius)
BMCRE p. 156, n. ‡
Provenances:
Artemide Aste
Acquisition/Sale: Artemide Aste Internet 46e #266 $0.00 02/19

The Gary R. Wilson Collection

The TR P III (39-40 AD) date of Caligula's base coinage is the scarcest of all his dates. The TR P (37-38 AD) is the most common followed by his TR P IIII (40-41 AD). Caligula did not issue base coinage from Rome with the TR P II (38-39 AD) date.

From: Incitatus Coins
Nero and Drusus were the elder brothers of Caligula, and the sons of Germanicus. Both were heirs of Tiberius and both were killed by the machinations of Sejanus. Caligula survived Sejanus, and the subsequent years, to become emperor. He immediately proclaimed his informed uncle Claudius as his co-consul, an appointment made so that Caligula could, in essence, rule as sole consul. Claudius was given the modest
task of preparing a celebration of Caligula's brothers, including statues in their honor. According to 'I Claudius', Claudius encountered difficulty in completing these statues on time. The completed statues appear on this coinage.

ODERINT, DUM METUANT (LET THEM HATE, SO LONG AS THEY FEAR). — CALIGULA


From Joe Geranio:
The dupondii issues of the brothers of Caligula , Nero and Drusus Caesar was no doubt to remind the Roman populace about the Dioscuri the saviors of the Roman state. The Dioscuri won a miraculous battle in 496 B.C. and then on the same day appear in the Roman Forum to tell the populace about the victory, no doubt Caligula wanted to associate himself with the Dioscuri with this issue of the gods represented as Nero and Drusus Caesars galloping on their horses with ease as though the wind is blowing in their hair. This familial propaganda would cement that the sons of Germanicus and Agrippina would reign and were in control.

This type was issued by Caligula for his two deceased brothers, Nero Julius Caesar and Drusus Julius Caesar Germanicus. Nero Caesar was Tiberius' oldest adoptive grandson and was the emperor's most obvious successor until 29 A.D. when he was accused of treason along with his mother, Agrippina the Elder. He was exiled to the island of Ponza where he was either induced to commit suicide or starved to death before October 31. In 30, his brother Drusus Caesar was also accused of treason and exiled and imprisoned. He starved to death in prison in 33, reduced to chewing the stuffing of his bed.

From Suetonius:
But he (Claudius) was exposed also to actual dangers. First in his very consulship, when he was all but deposed, because he had been somewhat slow in contracting for and setting up the statues of Nero and Drusus, the emperor's brothers.


From COINWEEK:
THE ANNALS OF THE ROMAN HISTORIAN TACITUS (56 – 117 CE) survived in one damaged medieval manuscript at the Monte Cassino monastery. The section covering the reign of Emperor Caligula is missing, and we rely largely on fragmentary chapters of Cassius Dio’s Roman History (155-235 CE) and the Twelve Caesars of Suetonius (c.69 – 140 CE), a gossip writer who was the Perez Hilton of Imperial Rome. There are few contemporary eyewitness sources – some passages in the writings of Seneca (4 BCE – 65 CE) and Philo of Alexandria (c. 25 BCE – 50 CE ).

The story is not a happy one.

The future emperor was born on August 31 in the year 12, probably at Antium (Anzio) south of Rome. His father Germanicus, nephew of Emperor Tiberius, was a successful and popular general. His mother, Agrippina “the Elder”, was the daughter of Marcus Agrippa, the brilliant organizer who was largely responsible for Octavian’s victory in the Roman civil war (32-30 BCE).

“Caligula” is a nickname. It means “little boot” in Latin, because as a child he wore a miniature military uniform including tiny hobnailed boots, much to the delight of his father’s veteran legionaries. He grew up to dislike it. His given name, which appears on his coins, variously abbreviated, was Gaius (or Caius) Julius Caesar Germanicus. “Caesar” here is not a title, but a personal name, inherited through Germanicus Julius Caesar, grandson of Emperor Augustus, the adopted son of the famous Julius Caesar (100 – 44 BCE).

A New Hope
“TO MAKE AN INEXPERIENCED AND ALMOST UNKNOWN YOUNG MAN, BROUGHT UP UNDER A SERIES OF AGED AND REPRESSIVE GUARDIANS, MASTER OF THE WORLD, ALMOST LITERALLY OVERNIGHT, ON THE SOLE RECOMMENDATION THAT HIS FATHER HAD BEEN A THOROUGHLY DECENT FELLOW WAS TO COURT DISASTER IN A QUITE IRRESPONSIBLE FASHION.”
–BARRETT, CALIGULA: THE CORRUPTION OF POWER (1990)

When the reclusive, miserly and increasingly paranoid Emperor Tiberius died on March 16, 37 CE at the age of 78, most Romans greeted Caligula’s accession joyfully. Caligula’s early coinage celebrates his descent from his great-grandfather, the deified Augustus.

Caligula’s laurel-crowned portrait appears on the obverse of his gold aurei and silver denarii surrounded by his titles. On one reverse, which bears no inscription, the head of Augustus, wearing the sun god’s spiky radiate crown, appears between two stars. Another type omits the stars and adds the inscription, “Divine Augustus, Father of the Nation”. On some examples, the portrait seems to have the features of the unpopular Tiberius, who was never deified by the Senate. Perhaps the mint engravers, who had copied and recopied the portrait of Tiberius for 22 years, automatically reproduced a familiar face.

On his birthday in the year 37, Caligula dedicated the Temple of Augustus, which had been under construction for over two decades in the Roman forum. The event is commemorated on a magnificent brass sestertius. On the obverse a veiled seated figure is labeled PIETAS (“piety”) – an untranslatable Latin term for the Roman virtue that combined profound respect for ancestral traditions and meticulous observance of ritual obligations. The reverse shows Caligula in his role as Pontifex Maximus, high priest of the state religion, sacrificing an ox before a richly decorated temple. The finest known example of this coin sold for over $269,000 USD in a November 2013 Swiss auction.

Addressing the Guards
The orderly succession and survival of any Roman emperor depended on the Praetorian Guard, an elite force of bodyguards stationed in the capital. It was organized into nine battalions, or “cohorts”, each of 500 to 1,000 men.

On his accession, one of Caligula’s first official acts was to present each guardsman with a thousand sestertii bequeathed by Tiberius in his will, adding another thousand of his own. The reverse of a rare bronze sestertius, which may have been specially struck for this payment, shows Caligula standing on a platform with his arm raised in a formal gesture of greeting to a rank of guards. The abbreviated inscription ADLOCUT COH means “Address to the Cohorts”. Remarkably, this coin lacks the inscription SC (“by decree of the Senate”), which normally appeared on all Roman bronze coinage. An outstanding example of this type (“undoubtedly the finest specimen known”) brought over $634,000 in a 2014 European auction.

Family Ties
Caligula issued numerous types honoring the memory of his parents. Some of these continued under the reign of his uncle and successor, Claudius.

A handsome brass dupondius (worth half a sestertius or two asses) shows Germanicus riding in a chariot, celebrating his triumph (May 26, 17 CE) over German tribes. On the reverse, Germanicus stands in armor, holding an eagle-tipped scepter as a symbol of command. The inscription reads, “Standards Regained From the Defeated Germans”. This commemorates the return of sacred eagle standards captured when Roman legions of P. Quinctilius Varus were ambushed and annihilated eight years previously (September, 9 CE) in the Teutoburg Forest of north-central Germany. Examples of this type have sold for $500 to $3,000 in recent auctions.

Agrippina the Elder, mother of Caligula, was honored on a bronze sestertius. The obverse inscription surrounding her strong, dignified portrait translates: “Agrippina, daughter of Marcus, mother of emperor Gaius Caesar”. On the reverse, the legend “To the Memory of Agrippina” appears beside a carpentum, a ceremonial cart drawn by two mules that paraded an image of Agrippina on special occasions.

A superb, pedigreed example of this coin (“Very rare and among the finest specimens known. A delicate portrait of sublime style, Tiber tone”) sold for over $98,000 in a November 2013 Swiss auction. More typical examples sell for $1,000 to $3,000.

Perhaps the best-known coin of Caligula is a rare sestertius that depicts his three sisters, Agrippina the Younger, Drusilla and Julia Livilla as the personifications of Securitas, Concordia and Fortuna respectively. Caligula was close to his sisters, and lavished public honors on them in a way that shocked traditional Roman values. This inevitably led later writers to charge the emperor with incestuous relations, a rumor that is almost certainly false.

In recent auctions, exceptional examples of this type have sold for prices ranging from $15,000 to 21,000. Worn or corroded examples that have been “tooled” to improve the detail can sometimes be found for under $2,000. Cast forgeries are common, mostly modern, some dating back to the Renaissance that are collectable in their own right.

Small Change
Perhaps the most enigmatic coin of Caligula’s reign was the smallest regular Roman denomination, the quadrans. It took 64 of these little coppers to equal the value of one silver denarius – a day’s pay for a manual worker. On the obverse, the emperor’s name and titles surround a “liberty cap” – the felt hat worn by freed slaves – bracketed by the letters “SC”. The reverse inscription continues the emperor’s titles, surrounding the large letters “RCC”.

For many years, the consensus of numismatic scholars was that this abbreviation stood for remissa ducentesima, celebrating Caligula’s repeal of an unpopular one-half percent sales tax (“one part in two hundred” – “CC” being the Roman numeral for 200). A brilliant 2010 study by David Woods argues that this interpretation is unlikely, and RCC probably stands for something like res civium conservatae (“the interests of citizens have been preserved”).

The quadrans is probably the most affordable coin of Caligula, with decent examples appearing at auction for under $100.

The Making of a Monster
SO MUCH FOR CALIGULA THE EMPEROR; THE REST OF THIS HISTORY MUST NEEDS DEAL WITH CALIGULA THE MONSTER.
— SUETONIUS, THE TWELVE CAESARS, 22.1

Caligula fell seriously ill in October, 37 CE. After he recovered, his personality (always rather dark) took a decided turn for the worse. He became increasingly paranoid, ordering the execution or forcing the suicide of many who were previously close to him. He reportedly took special delight in having people tortured to death in his presence. As his increasingly bizarre expenditures emptied the treasury, he had wealthy Romans executed in order to seize their assets. Nevertheless, Suetonius reports that Caligula was devoted and faithful to his fourth and last wife, Milonia Caesonia, “who was neither beautiful nor young”.



The Death of Caligula

On January 24, 41 CE, conspirators including Cassius Chaerea, an officer of the Praetorian Guard, stabbed Caligula to death as he left a theatrical performance. Caesonia and her young daughter were also murdered. The only certainly identifiable contemporary portrait of Caesonia appears on a rare provincial bronze issued by Caligula’s childhood friend, Herod Agrippa I (11 BCE – 44 CE), the Roman client-king of Judaea.

Collecting the Monster
Gold and silver issues of Caligula are scarce, and in high demand from collectors, especially those determined to complete a set of the “Twelve Caesars” – all the Roman rulers from Julius Caesar to Domitian. Some of the bronzes are quite common, particularly the bronze as with Vesta reverse – decent examples can be found at auction for well under $200. For bronzes in the highest grades, with pristine surfaces and untouched patinas, the sky’s the limit.

For an emperor who was supposedly feared and hated by the Romans by the end of his short reign – only three years and 10 months – Caligula’s coins seem to have a good survival rate, and few that reach the numismatic market are mutilated. Some have the first ‘C’ of the emperor’s personal name filed off or scratched out, but it is rare to find deliberate ancient gouges or cuts across the portrait.

Any collector approaching the coinage of Caligula seeking evidence of madness, decadence and depravity will be disappointed. Coinage is conservative, and these coins present an idealized portrait of a rather dorky young man, along with a series of stock images reflecting the conventions of classical art that the Romans adopted from the Greeks
Gary W2
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-8hDqgyvl4MzVjv-Agrippina.jpg
Caligula (Augustus) Coin: Brass Sestertius (Agrippina I)7 viewsAGRIPPINA M F MAT C CAESARIS AVGVSTI - Bust of Agrippina the Elder, right, her hair falling in queue down her neck
SPQR MEMORIAE AGRIPPINAE - Carpentum, with ornamented cover and sides, drawn right by two mules
Mint: Rome (37-41AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 22.00g / 34mm / 180
Rarity: Common
References:
RIC 1-Gaius 55
Trillmich Group II; BMCRE 81-5 (Caligula)
BN 128 (Caligula)
BMCRE 86-7 (Caligula)
Cohen 1
Acquisition/Sale: sesterc1975 Ebay

The Gary R. Wilson Collection

Caligula's mother.

ODERINT, DUM METUANT (LET THEM HATE, SO LONG AS THEY FEAR). — CALIGULA

Agrippina Sr.,one of the most tragically unfortunate women of Roman history. Agrippina was destined to achieve the highest possible status that did not happen. In 29AD she was deprived of her freedom, and in 33AD of life itself. This sestertii dedicated to Agrippina was produced by her son Caligula, The inscription, SPQR MEMORIAE AGRIPPINAE, is itself dedicatory from the Senate and the Roman people to the memory of Agrippina.

Of this coin, minted at Rome, in gold and silver, Agrippina occupies the most distinguished place, namely the obverse side. She styles herself (by implication) the wife of Claudius, and, in direct terms, the mother of Nero; as though the government of the empire had been in her hands, and her son only Caesar. It is on this account that Tacitus (Ann. 23), asks -- What help is there in him, who is governed by a woman? It is not to be wondered at therefore, adds Vaillant, if the oaken garland was decreed to this woman and to her son, as it had already been to Caligula and to Claudius, ob cives servatos, by the Senate, whom she assembled in the palace, where she sat discreetly veiled. Praest. Num. Impp. ii. 60.

Agrippina the Elder, mother of Caligula, was honored on a bronze sestertius. The obverse inscription surrounding her strong, dignified portrait translates: “Agrippina, daughter of Marcus, mother of emperor Gaius Caesar.” On the reverse, the legend “To the Memory of Agrippina” appears beside a carpentum, a ceremonial cart drawn by two mules that paraded an image of Agrippina on special occasions.

Three issues of sestertii were struck in honour of Agrippina Senior, one of the most tragically unfortunate women of
Roman history. She began life as a favoured member of the Julio-Claudian family during the reign of her grandfather
Augustus, and upon her marriage to Livia’s grandson Germanicus, she seemed destined to achieve the highest possible
status.
However, upon the death of Augustus and the accession of Tiberius, her life took a turn for the worse: supreme power had
shifted from the bloodlines of the Julii to the Claudii. Though her marriage represented and ideal union of Julian and
Claudian, it was not destined to survive Tiberius’ reign. Germanicus died late in 19 under suspicious circumstances, after
which Agrippina devoted the next decade of her life to openly opposing Tiberius until in 29 he deprived her of freedom,
and in 33 of life itself.
The sestertii dedicated to Agrippina are easily segregated. The first, produced by her son Caligula, shows on its reverse a
carpentum; the second, issued by her brother Claudius, shows SC surrounded by a Claudian inscription, and the third is
simply a restoration of the Claudian type by Titus, on which the reverse inscription is instead dedicated to that emperor.
Though both Caligula and Claudius portrayed Agrippina, each did so from their own perspective, based upon the nature of
their relationship with her. The inscription on Caligula’s coin, AGRIPPINA M F MAT C CAESARIS AVGVSTI, describes
her as the daughter of Marcus (Agrippa) and the mother of Gaius (Caligula). While Claudius also identifies her as
Agrippa’s daughter, his inscription ends GERMANICI CAESARIS, thus stressing her role as the wife of his brother
Germanicus. It is also worth noting that on the issue of Caligula Agrippina has a slender profile like that of her son,
whereas on Claudius’ sestertii her face is more robust, in accordance with his appearance.
The carpentum reverse is not only a superbly executed type, but has a foundation in the recorded events of the day.
Suetonius (Gaius 15) describes the measures taken by Caligula to honour his family at the outset of his reign, which
included gathering the ashes of his mother and brothers, all victims of persecution during the reign of Tiberius. Upon
returning to Rome, Caligula, with his own hands, transferred to an urn his mother’s ashes “with the utmost reverence”; he
then instituted Circus games in her honour, at which “…her image would be paraded in a covered carriage.”
There can be little doubt that the carpentum on this sestertius relates to the special practice initiated by Caligula. The
inscription, SPQR MEMORIAE AGRIPPINAE, is itself dedicatory from the Senate and the Roman people to the memory
of Agrippina.
Gary W2
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-zg2aP0ewwCVrhb-Caligula_damnatio.jpg
Caligula (Augustus) Coin: Bronze AS12 viewsC CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT - Bare head left
Vesta SC - Vesta, veiled and draped, seated left, on throne with ornamented back and legs, holding patera in right hand and long transverse sceptre in left
Exergue:



Mint: Rome (37-38 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 10.40g / 28mm / 6h
Rarity: Common
References:
RIC I 38
BMCRE 46
BN 54
Cohen 27
Acquisition/Sale: indalocolecciones eBay

The Gary R. Wilson Collection

DAMNATIO MEMORIAE: This coin seems to have suffered a 'Damnatio Memoriae'. It looks as if the portrait has had cut marks applied to the jaw and neck areas. Interestingly, the ancient writers said that on his assassination, the first strike to Caligula was to his jaw or neck/shoulder areas. Damnatio memoriae is a modern Latin phrase meaning "condemnation of memory", i.e., that a person is to be excluded from official accounts.


ODERINT, DUM METUANT (LET THEM HATE, SO LONG AS THEY FEAR). — CALIGULA

From The Dictionary of Roman Coins:
Caligula, the grand nephew and murderer of Tiberius, most worthy to succeed that emperor, because of an equally infamous, though not so able a tyrant, reigned from A.D. 37 to A.D. 41.

His real appellation was Caius Caesar, but about the time of Augustus' death, he, still a child, being with the army of the lower Rhine, the soldiers, with whom he was a great favorite, were accustomed in the joking parlance of the camp, to give him the nickname of Caligula (from Caligae) because he constantly appeared in the usual military leggings.

Hence Ausonius, in his poem, referring to this cruel wretch, says --

Post hunc castrensis caligae cognomine
Caesar Successit, saevo saevior ingenio.

As emperor, however, he was always called Caius, and he considered himself insulted by the name of Caligula.

He was the youngest son of Germanicus, the nephew of Tiberius and Agrippina; born in 12 A.D. on the day before the calends of September, at Antium, as Suetonius has proved at great length (in Caligula, ch. 8). In 17 A.D., he went into Syria with his father, at whose death, within two years, he returned to Rome with his mother. After she was banished, he was transferred to his great grand-mother Julia and when she diet to his grand-mother Antonia.

In 31 A.D., after the violent deaths of his brothers Nero and Drusus, and also of Sejanus, whose plots he alone had escaped he was he was the apparent successor to the empire and invested with the Pontificate.

In 33 A.D., on the same day he assumed the toga he laid aside his beard, he was nominated questor and Tiberius invited him to Capraea. He moved in with Tiberius, feigning ignorance or indifference, regarding the murder of his relations, as though it did not concern him. He so obsequiously obeyed Tiberius the it was a common expression, that "there never was a better servant, or a worse master." (Sueton, ch. 10)

In 37 A.D., Tiberius was attacked with a severe illness from which he was recovering when Caligula, at the instigation of Maero, the praetorian prefect, put and end to his life by smothering him.

Caligula entered Rome after Tiberius' death and compelled the Senate to join him, by a Senatus Consultum, in depriving Tiberius, son Drusus junior and the elder Tiberius' heir in his last will, of his right to the empire.

The funeral ceremonies of were performed with due pomp by Caligula.

On the eighth month of his reign he was attacked with severe sickness. On his recovery, he adopted his brother Tiberius, gave him the title of Princeps Juventutis, and afterwards put him to death.

In the calends of July he entered upon the office of Consul Suffectus, as colleague to his uncle Claudius, and after two months resigned it.

In 38 A.D. he conceded to Soaemus, the kingdom of Arabians of Ituraea; to Cotys, Armenia Minor; to Polemon, the son of Polemon, his father's dominions.

Dion wrote, "In a short time he assumed so much the air of a king, that all those honors, which Augustus had accepted only when duly arrived at the sovereignty, and even then with hesitation as they were decreed from time to time, and many of which Tiberius altogether declined, were by Caligula grasped in one day, with the exception only of Pater Patriae, which, however was not long deferred."

In 39 A.D., in the calends of January, he entered his second Consulate and resigned the office in thirty days. (Sueton ch. 17)

Having exhausted the treasury by his profuse expenditure on public spectacles and other extravagances, he endeavoured to repair the deficiency by the slaughter of wealthy citizens; and then proceeded to Gaul, their to practice the like system of murder and spoliation.

The name of Germanicus does not appear on coins of this year, nor ever subsequently.

In 40 A.D., Caligula, without a colleague, entered his third consulate, at Lugdunum (Lyon), in Gaul; and resigned it on the ides of January. (Sueton. ch. 17)

Having invited over from Africa, Ptolemy, the son of Juba, he put him to death on the pretence of the young prince's ostentatious bearing. (Dion, B. lix. 25)

Proceeding to the ocean, as if about to invade Britain, he ordered his soldiers to gather shell-fish, and returned as a conqueror, laden with the spoils of the sea. (Sueton. ch. 46)

L. Vitellius, prefect of Syria, the same year, gave such a lesson to Artabanus, the Persian, who was threatening an invasion of Armenia that the later abandoned his design, and paid his adoration to the statues of Augustus and of Caligula. (Dion, I. e.)

In 41 A.D., he began hid fourth consulate, on the 7th of the ides of January. Shortly afterwards (viz. on the 9th of the calends of February), he was assassinated by the conspirators Cassius Chaerea and Cornelius Sabinus.

Caligula's accession to the empire was hailed with joy by the Roman people; but their satisfaction was based on no solid foundations, being the result rather of their deep-rooted attachment to his father Germanicus. He seeming, indeed, responded to the fond wishes of the nation, by many acts of piety, justice, and moderation. But it too soon became apparent that these virtues were not of natural growth but owed their exhibition to the policy of Tiberius, who wished through their influences to consolidate his own power in the empire. For there was not act of cruelty, folly, meanness or infamy, which this monster and madman did not delight in perpetrating. He caused his horse, whom he called Incitatus, to be introduced at dinner time, setting before him gilded corn, and drinking his health in golden cups; and he would have created him consul, had he lived long enough. He imitated all the gods and goddesses, in the adoration which he caused to be paid to him, becoming by turns Jupiter, Bacchus, Hercules, Juno, Diana, and Venus. He constructed a bridge of vessels joined together from Puteoli to Baiae, and crossing over with his troops invaded puteoli and then recrossed it in a kind of triumph, delighting in hearing himself called Alexander the Great. By his absurd and extravagant undertakings of this kind, before the year was fully expired, he had squandered the enormous sums of money left by Tiberius. (Vicies ae septics millies IIS. -- See Sestertium).

He both claimed and receive divine worship, and was the greatest blasphemer that ever lived; yet he quailed in the conviction of a deity, and crept under his bed whenever he heard thunder. With savage inhumanity he attended executions in person, and made parents behold the merciless torments inflicted on their children. He contracted and dissolved marriages with equal caprice and dishonesty. Besides his incestuous union with Drusilla, he seized and repudiated three wives, and was at last permanently attached to Caesonia a mother of children by another man, and without your or beauty, but of depravity corresponding with his own.

Other instances of his incredible cruelty and lust may be found in Suetonius, Philo, and Dion. Such infatuations are evident tokens not only of a brutal nature, but also of a distempered intellect. Nor is it possible to entertain other than supreme contempt for the base servility of the Romans, who could offer solemn adoration to a wretch openly guilty of the most detestable and unnatural crimes; and whose adage was oderint, dum metuant (Let them hate so long as they fear).

The gold and silver coins of Caligula are of considerable rarity. Sestertii are also rare. Ases are more common, yet still expensive due to popularity of collecting the infamous emperor and because they generally exhibit good workmanship. When Caligula was destroyed, the dastardly senators, who had so recently sacrificed to him, ordered all his statues to be demolished, his acts abrogated, his money melted down and his inscriptions defaced, in order that his memory might be extinguished forever. Yet this sentence has not prevented a considerable number of his coins from reaching us, though consequently, except for ases, they are of considerable rarity when in good preservation. The coins of Caligula, minted at Rome, do not exhibit Imperator as a surname. This title is used on colonial coins. The only imperial coin of Caligula bearing IMP is a denarius.

On his coins, Caligula resembles his grandfather, but is less noble and has a malignant expression. He was at great pains to cherish this horrid index of his cruel disposition.

Gary W2
Gary W2
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-2WcIZv40JXVImci-Caligula_69.jpg
Caligula (Augustus) Coin: Bronze As11 viewsC CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT - Bare head left
VESTA SC - Vesta Seated Left, Holding Patera & Sceptre
Exergue:



Mint: Rome (37-38AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 11.61g / 29mm / 180
Rarity: Common
References:
RIC I 38
Acquisition/Sale: timeman21 Ebay

The Gary R. Wilson Collection

ODERINT, DUM METUANT (LET THEM HATE, SO LONG AS THEY FEAR). — CALIGULA

From The Dictionary of Roman Coins:
Caligula, the grand nephew and murderer of Tiberius, most worthy to succeed that emperor, because of an equally infamous, though not so able a tyrant, reigned from A.D. 37 to A.D. 41.

His real appellation was Caius Caesar, but about the time of Augustus' death, he, still a child, being with the army of the lower Rhine, the soldiers, with whom he was a great favorite, were accustomed in the joking parlance of the camp, to give him the nickname of Caligula (from Caligae) because he constantly appeared in the usual military leggings.

Hence Ausonius, in his poem, referring to this cruel wretch, says --

Post hunc castrensis caligae cognomine
Caesar Successit, saevo saevior ingenio.

As emperor, however, he was always called Caius, and he considered himself insulted by the name of Caligula.

He was the youngest son of Germanicus, the nephew of Tiberius and Agrippina; born in 12 A.D. on the day before the calends of September, at Antium, as Suetonius has proved at great length (in Caligula, ch. 8). In 17 A.D., he went into Syria with his father, at whose death, within two years, he returned to Rome with his mother. After she was banished, he was transferred to his great grand-mother Julia and when she diet to his grand-mother Antonia.

In 31 A.D., after the violent deaths of his brothers Nero and Drusus, and also of Sejanus, whose plots he alone had escaped he was he was the apparent successor to the empire and invested with the Pontificate.

In 33 A.D., on the same day he assumed the toga he laid aside his beard, he was nominated questor and Tiberius invited him to Capraea. He moved in with Tiberius, feigning ignorance or indifference, regarding the murder of his relations, as though it did not concern him. He so obsequiously obeyed Tiberius the it was a common expression, that "there never was a better servant, or a worse master." (Sueton, ch. 10)

In 37 A.D., Tiberius was attacked with a severe illness from which he was recovering when Caligula, at the instigation of Maero, the praetorian prefect, put and end to his life by smothering him.

Caligula entered Rome after Tiberius' death and compelled the Senate to join him, by a Senatus Consultum, in depriving Tiberius, son Drusus junior and the elder Tiberius' heir in his last will, of his right to the empire.

The funeral ceremonies of were performed with due pomp by Caligula.

On the eighth month of his reign he was attacked with severe sickness. On his recovery, he adopted his brother Tiberius, gave him the title of Princeps Juventutis, and afterwards put him to death.

In the calends of July he entered upon the office of Consul Suffectus, as colleague to his uncle Claudius, and after two months resigned it.

In 38 A.D. he conceded to Soaemus, the kingdom of Arabians of Ituraea; to Cotys, Armenia Minor; to Polemon, the son of Polemon, his father's dominions.

Dion wrote, "In a short time he assumed so much the air of a king, that all those honors, which Augustus had accepted only when duly arrived at the sovereignty, and even then with hesitation as they were decreed from time to time, and many of which Tiberius altogether declined, were by Caligula grasped in one day, with the exception only of Pater Patriae, which, however was not long deferred."

In 39 A.D., in the calends of January, he entered his second Consulate and resigned the office in thirty days. (Sueton ch. 17)

Having exhausted the treasury by his profuse expenditure on public spectacles and other extravagances, he endeavoured to repair the deficiency by the slaughter of wealthy citizens; and then proceeded to Gaul, their to practice the like system of murder and spoliation.

The name of Germanicus does not appear on coins of this year, nor ever subsequently.

In 40 A.D., Caligula, without a colleague, entered his third consulate, at Lugdunum (Lyon), in Gaul; and resigned it on the ides of January. (Sueton. ch. 17)

Having invited over from Africa, Ptolemy, the son of Juba, he put him to death on the pretence of the young prince's ostentatious bearing. (Dion, B. lix. 25)

Proceeding to the ocean, as if about to invade Britain, he ordered his soldiers to gather shell-fish, and returned as a conqueror, laden with the spoils of the sea. (Sueton. ch. 46)

L. Vitellius, prefect of Syria, the same year, gave such a lesson to Artabanus, the Persian, who was threatening an invasion of Armenia that the later abandoned his design, and paid his adoration to the statues of Augustus and of Caligula. (Dion, I. e.)

In 41 A.D., he began hid fourth consulate, on the 7th of the ides of January. Shortly afterwards (viz. on the 9th of the calends of February), he was assassinated by the conspirators Cassius Chaerea and Cornelius Sabinus.

Caligula's accession to the empire was hailed with joy by the Roman people; but their satisfaction was based on no solid foundations, being the result rather of their deep-rooted attachment to his father Germanicus. He seeming, indeed, responded to the fond wishes of the nation, by many acts of piety, justice, and moderation. But it too soon became apparent that these virtues were not of natural growth but owed their exhibition to the policy of Tiberius, who wished through their influences to consolidate his own power in the empire. For there was not act of cruelty, folly, meanness or infamy, which this monster and madman did not delight in perpetrating. He caused his horse, whom he called Incitatus, to be introduced at dinner time, setting before him gilded corn, and drinking his health in golden cups; and he would have created him consul, had he lived long enough. He imitated all the gods and goddesses, in the adoration which he caused to be paid to him, becoming by turns Jupiter, Bacchus, Hercules, Juno, Diana, and Venus. He constructed a bridge of vessels joined together from Puteoli to Baiae, and crossing over with his troops invaded puteoli and then recrossed it in a kind of triumph, delighting in hearing himself called Alexander the Great. By his absurd and extravagant undertakings of this kind, before the year was fully expired, he had squandered the enormous sums of money left by Tiberius. (Vicies ae septics millies IIS. -- See Sestertium).

He both claimed and receive divine worship, and was the greatest blasphemer that ever lived; yet he quailed in the conviction of a deity, and crept under his bed whenever he heard thunder. With savage inhumanity he attended executions in person, and made parents behold the merciless torments inflicted on their children. He contracted and dissolved marriages with equal caprice and dishonesty. Besides his incestuous union with Drusilla, he seized and repudiated three wives, and was at last permanently attached to Caesonia a mother of children by another man, and without your or beauty, but of depravity corresponding with his own.

Other instances of his incredible cruelty and lust may be found in Suetonius, Philo, and Dion. Such infatuations are evident tokens not only of a brutal nature, but also of a distempered intellect. Nor is it possible to entertain other than supreme contempt for the base servility of the Romans, who could offer solemn adoration to a wretch openly guilty of the most detestable and unnatural crimes; and whose adage was oderint, dum metuant (Let them hate so long as they fear).

The gold and silver coins of Caligula are of considerable rarity. Sestertii are also rare. Ases are more common, yet still expensive due to popularity of collecting the infamous emperor and because they generally exhibit good workmanship. When Caligula was destroyed, the dastardly senators, who had so recently sacrificed to him, ordered all his statues to be demolished, his acts abrogated, his money melted down and his inscriptions defaced, in order that his memory might be extinguished forever. Yet this sentence has not prevented a considerable number of his coins from reaching us, though consequently, except for ases, they are of considerable rarity when in good preservation. The coins of Caligula, minted at Rome, do not exhibit Imperator as a surname. This title is used on colonial coins. The only imperial coin of Caligula bearing IMP is a denarius.

On his coins, Caligula resembles his grandfather, but is less noble and has a malignant expression. He was at great pains to cherish this horrid index of his cruel disposition.
Gary W2
Caligula_and_Agripin.jpg
Caligula (Augustus) Coin: Bronze Fourre Denarius Fourree6 viewsC CAESAR AVG PON M TR POT III COS III - Laureate head right
AGRIPPINA MAT C CAES AVG GERM - Draped bust of Agrippina right
Mint: Rome (40AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 2.85g / 18mm / 180
Rarity: Rare
References:
RIC I 22 (official)
Lyon 179 (official)
RSC 6 (official)
Acquisition/Sale: numismaticaprados Ebay

The Gary R. Wilson Collection

The reverse legend translates: 'Agrippina mother of Gaius Caesar Augustus Germanicus'

ODERINT, DUM METUANT (LET THEM HATE, SO LONG AS THEY FEAR). — CALIGULA

The accession of Gaius (Caligula) to the imperial throne on the death of his great-uncle Tiberius signalled a kind of "golden age" in that for the first time, not only did a direct biological descendant of Augustus become emperor, but one who could also claim a direct link with several important Republican figures. Through his mother, Agrippina Sr., Gaius was descended from Augustus, and also Agrippa, the victor of Actium. Gaius' father Germanaicus was the son of Nero Claudius Drusus and nephew of Tiberius, sons of Augustus' widow, Livia. Through his mother Antonia, Germanicus was the grandson of Mark Antony and Octavia, the sister of Augustus. Accordingly, many of his coins recall his dynastic connections to both the Julians and the Claudians as well as his own family, and included in their designs his mother and his three sisters.

“TO MAKE AN INEXPERIENCED AND ALMOST UNKNOWN YOUNG MAN, BROUGHT UP UNDER A SERIES OF AGED AND REPRESSIVE GUARDIANS, MASTER OF THE WORLD, ALMOST LITERALLY OVERNIGHT, ON THE SOLE RECOMMENDATION THAT HIS FATHER HAD BEEN A THOROUGHLY DECENT FELLOW WAS TO COURT DISASTER IN A QUITE IRRESPONSIBLE FASHION.”
–BARRETT, CALIGULA: THE CORRUPTION OF POWER (1990)

THE ASSASSINATION OF CALIGULA
THE emperor Caligula came to his death in the following manner:

Of course his wanton and remorseless tyranny often awakened very deep feelings of resentment, and very earnest desires for revenge in the hearts of those who suffered by it; but yet so absolute and terrible was his power, that none dared to murmur or complain. The resentment, however, which the cruelty of the emperor awakened, burned the more fiercely for being thus restrained and suppressed, and many covert threats were made, and many secret plots were formed, from time to time, against the tyrant's life.

Among others who cherished such designs, there was a man named Cassius Chćrea, an officer of the army, who, though not of high rank, was nevertheless a man of considerable distinction. He was a captain, or, as it was styled in those days, a centurion. His command, therefore, was small, but it was in the prćtorian cohort, as it was called, a sort of body-guard of the commander-in-chief, and consequently a very honorable corps. Chćrea was thus a man of considerable distinction on account of the post which he occupied, and his duties, as captain in the life guards, brought him very frequently into communication with the emperor. He was a man of great personal bravery, too, and was on this account held in high consideration by the army. He had performed an exploit at one time, some years before, in Germany, which, had gained him great fame. It was at the time of the death of Augustus, the first emperor. Some of the German legions, and among them one in which Chćrea was serving, had seized upon the occasion to revolt. They alledged many and grievous acts of oppression as the grounds of their revolt, and demanded redress for what they had suffered, and security for the future. One of the first measures which they resorted to in the frenzy of the first outbreak of the rebellion, was to seize all the centurions in the camp, and to beat them almost to death. They gave them sixty blows each, one for each of their number, and then turned them, bruised, wounded, and dying, out of the camp. Some they threw into the Rhine. They revenged themselves thus on all the centurions but one. That one was Chćrea. Chćrea would not suffer himself to be taken by them, but seizing his sword he fought his way through the midst of them, slaying some and driving others before him, and thus made his escape from the camp. This feat gained him great renown.

One might imagine from this account that Chćrea was a man of great personal superiority in respect to size and strength, inasmuch as extraordinary muscular power, as well as undaunted courage, would seem to be required to enable a man to make his way against so many enemies. But this was not the fact. Chćrea was of small stature and of a slender and delicate form. He was modest and unassuming in his manners, too, and of a very kind and gentle spirit. He was thus not only honored and admired for his courage, but he was generally beloved for the amiable and excellent qualities of his heart.

The possession of such qualities, however, could not be expected to recommend him particularly to the favor of the emperor. In fact, in one instance it had the contrary effect. Caligula assigned to the centurions of his guard, at one period, some duties connected with the collection of taxes. Chćrea, instead of practicing the extortion and cruelty common on such occasions, was merciful and considerate, and governed himself strictly by the rules of law and of justice in his collections. The consequence necessarily was that the amount of money received was somewhat diminished, and the emperor was displeased. The occasion was, however, not one of sufficient importance to awaken in the monarch's mind any very serious anger, and so, instead of inflicting any heavy punishment upon the offender, he contented himself with attempting to tease and torment him with sundry vexatious indignities and annoyances.

It is the custom sometimes, in camps, and at other military stations, for the commander to give every evening, what is called the parole or password, which consists usually of some word or phrase that is to be communicated to all the officers, and as occasion may require to all the soldiers, whom for any reason it may be necessary to send to and fro [38] about the precincts of the camp during the night. The sentinels, also, all have the password, and accordingly, whenever any man approaches the post of a sentinel, he is stopped and the parole is demanded. If the stranger gives it correctly, it is presumed that all is right, and he is allowed to pass on,—since an enemy or a spy would have no means of knowing it.

Now, whenever it came to Chćrea's turn to communicate the parole, the emperor was accustomed to give him some ridiculous or indecent phrase, intended not only to be offensive to the purity of Chćrea's mind, but designed, also, to exhibit him in a ridiculous light to the subordinate officers and soldiers to whom he would have to communicate it. Sometimes the password thus given was some word or phrase wholly unfit to be spoken, and sometimes it was the name of some notorious and infamous woman; but whatever it was, Chćrea was compelled by his duty as a soldier to deliver it to all the corps, and patiently to submit to the laughter and derision which his communication awakened among the vile and wicked soldiery.

If there was any dreadful punishment to be inflicted, or cruel deed of any kind to be performed, Caligula took great pleasure in assigning the duty to Chćrea, knowing how abhorrent to his nature it must be. At one time a senator of great distinction named Propedius, was accused of treason by one of his enemies. His treason consisted, as the accuser alledged, of having spoken injurious words against the emperor. Propedius denied that he had ever spoken such words. The accuser, whose name was Timidius, cited a certain Quintilia, an actress, as his witness. Propedius was accordingly brought to trial, and Quintilia was called upon before the judges to give her testimony. She denied that she had ever heard Propedius utter any such sentiment as Timidius attributed to him. Timidius then said that Quintilia was testifying falsely: he declared that she had heard Propedius utter such words, and demanded that she should be put to the torture to compel her to acknowledge it. The emperor acceded to this demand, and commanded Chćrea to put the actress to the torture.

It is, of course, always difficult to ascertain the precise truth in respect to such transactions as those that are connected with plots and conspiracies against tyrants, since every possible precaution is, of course, taken by all concerned to conceal what is done. It is probable, however, in this case, that Propedius had cherished some hostile designs against Caligula, if he had not uttered injurious words, and that Quintilia was in some measure in his confidence. It is even possible that Chćrea may have been connected with them in some secret design, for it is said that when he received the orders of Caligula to put Quintilia to the torture he was greatly agitated and alarmed. If he should apply the torture severely, he feared that the unhappy sufferer might be induced to make confessions or statements at least, which would bring destruction on the men whom he most relied upon for the overthrow of Caligula. On the other hand, if he should attempt to spare her, the effect would be only to provoke the anger of Caligula against himself, without at all shielding or saving her. As, however, he was proceeding to the place of torture, in charge of his victim, with his mind in this state of anxiety and indecision, his fears were somewhat relieved by a private signal given to him by Quintilia, by which she intimated to him that he need feel no concern,—that she would be faithful and true, and would reveal nothing, whatever might be done to her.

This assurance, while it allayed in some degree Chćrea's anxieties and fears, must have greatly increased the mental distress which he endured at the idea of leading such a woman to the awful suffering which awaited her. He could not, however, do otherwise than to proceed. Having arrived at the place of execution, the wretched Quintilia was put to the rack. She bore the agony which she endured while her limbs were stretched on the torturing engine, and her bones broken, with patient submission, to the end. She was then carried, fainting, helpless, and almost dead, to Caligula, who seemed now satisfied. He ordered the unhappy victim of the torture to be taken away, and directed that Propedius should be acquitted and discharged.

Of course while passing through this scene the mind of Chćrea was in a tumult of agitation and excitement,—the anguish of mind which he must have felt in his compassion for the sufferer, mingling and contending with the desperate indignation which burned in his bosom against the author of all these miseries. He was wrought up, in fact, to such a state of frenzy by this transaction, that as soon as it was over he determined immediately to take measures to put Caligula to death. This was a very bold and desperate resolution. Caligula was the greatest and most powerful potentate on earth. Chćrea was only a captain of his guard, without any political influence or power, and with no means whatever of screening himself from the terrible consequences which might be expected to follow from his attempt, whether it should succeed or fail.

So thoroughly, however, was he now aroused, that he determined to brave every danger in the attainment of his end. He immediately began to seek out among the officers of the army such men as he supposed would be most likely to join him,—men of courage, resolution, and faithfulness, and those who, from their general character or from the wrongs which they had individually endured from the government, were to be supposed specially hostile to Caligula's dominion. From among these men he selected a few, and to them he cautiously unfolded his designs. All approved of them. Some, it is true, declined taking any active part in the conspiracy, but they assured Chćrea of their good wishes, and promised solemnly not to betray him.

The number of the conspirators daily increased. There was, however, at their meetings for consultation, some difference of opinion in respect to the course to be pursued. Some were in favor of acting promptly and at once. The greatest danger which was to be apprehended, they thought, was in delay. As the conspiracy became extended, some one would at length come to the knowledge of it, they said, who would betray them. Others, on the other hand, were for proceeding cautiously and slowly. What they most feared was rash and inconsiderate action. It would be ruinous to the enterprise, as they maintained, for them to attempt to act before their plans were fully matured.

Chćrea was of the former opinion. He was very impatient to have the deed performed. He was ready himself, he said, to perform it, at any time; his personal duties as an officer of the guard, gave him frequent occasions of access to the emperor, and he was ready to avail himself of any of them to kill the monster. The emperor went often, he said, to the capitol, to offer sacrifices, and he could easily kill him there. Or, if they thought that that was too public an occasion, he could have an opportunity in the palace, at certain religious ceremonies which the emperor was accustomed to perform there, and at which Chćrea himself was usually present. Or, he was ready to throw him down from a tower where he was accustomed to go sometimes for the purpose of scattering money among the populace below. Chćrea said that he could easily come up behind him on such an occasion, and hurl him suddenly over the parapet down to the pavement below. All these plans, however, seemed to the conspirators too uncertain and dangerous, and Chćrea's proposals were accordingly not agreed to.

At length, the time drew near when Caligula was to leave Rome to proceed to Alexandria in Egypt, and the conspirators perceived that they must prepare to act, or else abandon their design altogether. It had been arranged that there was to he a grand celebration at Rome previous to the emperor's departure. This celebration, which was to consist of games, and sports, and dramatic performances of various kinds, was to continue for three days, and the conspirators determined, after much consultation and debate, that Caligula should be assassinated on one of those days.

After coming to this conclusion, however, in general, their hearts seemed to fail them in fixing the precise time for the perpetration of the deed, and two of the three days passed away accordingly without any attempt being made. At length, on the morning of the third day, Chćrea called the chief conspirators together, and urged them very earnestly not to let the present opportunity pass away. He represented to them how greatly they increased the danger of their attempts by such delays, and he seemed himself so full of determination and courage, and addressed them with so much eloquence and power, that he inspired them with his own resolution, and they decided unanimously to proceed.

The emperor came to the theater that day at an unusually early hour, and seemed to be in excellent spirits and in an excellent humor. He was very complaisant to all around him, and very lively, affable, and gay. After performing certain ceremonies, by which it devolved upon him to open the festivities of the day, he proceeded to his place, with his friends and favorites about him, and Chćrea, with the other officers that day on guard, at a little distance behind him.

The performances were commenced, and every thing went on as usual until toward noon. The conspirators kept their plans profoundly secret, except that one of them, when he had taken his seat by the side of a distinguished senator, asked him whether he had heard any thing new. The senator replied that he had not. "I can then tell you something," said he, "which perhaps you have not heard, and that is, that in the piece which is to be acted to-day, there is to be represented the death of a tyrant." "Hush!" said the senator, and he quoted a verse from Homer, which meant, "Be silent, lest some Greek should overhear."

It had been the usual custom of the emperor, at such entertainments, to take a little recess about noon, for rest and refreshments. It devolved upon Chćrea to wait upon him at this time, and to conduct him from his place in the theater to an adjoining apartment in his palace which was connected with the theater, where there was provided a bath and various refreshments. When the time arrived, and Chćrea perceived, as he thought, that the emperor was about to go, he himself went out, and stationed himself in a passage-way leading to the bath, intending to intercept and assassinate the emperor when he should come along. The emperor, however, delayed his departure, having fallen into conversation with his courtiers and friends, and finally he said that, on the whole, as it was the last day of the festival, he would not go out to the bath, but would remain in the theater; and then ordering refreshments to be brought to him there, he proceeded to distribute them with great urbanity to the officers around him.

In the mean time, Chćrea was patiently waiting in the passage-way, with his sword by his side, all ready for striking the blow the moment that his victim should appear. Of course the conspirators who remained behind were in a state of great suspense and anxiety, and one of them, named Minucianus, determined to go out and inform Chćrea of the change in Caligula's plans. He accordingly attempted to rise, but Caligula put his hand upon his robe, saying, "Sit still, my friend. You shall go with me presently." Minucianus accordingly dissembled his anxiety and agitation of mind still a little longer, but presently, watching an opportunity when the emperor's attention was otherwise engaged, he rose, and, assuming an unconcerned and careless air, he walked out of the theater.

He found Chćrea in his ambuscade in the passage-way, and he immediately informed him that the emperor had concluded not to come out. Chćrea and Minucianus were then greatly at a loss what to do. Some of the other conspirators, who had followed Minucianus out, now joined them, and a brief but very earnest and solemn consultation ensued. After a moment's hesitation, Chćrea declared that they must now go through with their work at all hazards, and he professed himself ready, if his comrades would sustain him in it, to go back to the theater, and stab the tyrant there in his seat, in the midst of his friends. Minucianus and the others concurred in this design, and it was resolved immediately to execute it.

The execution of the plan, however, in the precise form in which it had been resolved upon was prevented by a new turn which affairs had taken in the theater. For while Minucianus and the two or three conspirators who had accompanied him were debating in the passage-way, the others who remained, knowing that Chćrea was expecting Caligula to go out, conceived the idea of attempting to persuade him to go, and thus to lead him into the snare which had been set for him. They accordingly gathered around, and without any appearance of concert or of eagerness, began to recommend him to go and take his bath as usual. He seemed at length disposed to yield to these persuasions, and rose from his seat; and then, the whole company attending and following him, he proceeded toward the doors which conducted to the palace. The conspirators went before him, and under pretense of clearing the way for him they contrived to remove to a little distance all whom they thought would be most disposed to render him any assistance. The consultations of Chćrea and those who were with him in the inner passage-way were interrupted by the coming of this company.

Among those who walked with the emperor at this time were his uncle Claudius and other distinguished relatives. Caligula advanced along the passage, walking in company with these friends, and wholly unconscious of the fate that awaited him, but instead of going immediately toward the bath he turned aside first into a gallery or corridor which led into another apartment, where there were assembled a company of boys and girls, that had been sent to him from Asia to act and dance upon the stage, and who had just arrived. The emperor took great interest in looking at these performers, and seemed desirous of having them go immediately into the theater and let him see them perform. While talking on this subject Chćrea and the other conspirators came into the apartment, determined now to strike the blow.

Chćrea advanced to the emperor, and asked him in the usual manner what should be the parole for that night. The emperor gave him in reply such an one as he had often chosen before, to insult and degrade him. Chćrea instead of receiving the insult meekly and patiently in his usual manner, uttered words of anger and defiance in reply; and drawing his sword at the same instant he struck the emperor across the neck and felled him to the floor. Caligula filled the apartment with his cries of pain and terror; the other conspirators rushed in and attacked him on all sides; his friends,—so far as the adherents of such a man can be called friends,—fled in dismay. As for Caligula's uncle Claudius, it was not to have been expected that he would have rendered his nephew any aid, for he was a man of such extraordinary mental imbecility that he was usually considered as not possessed even of common sense; and all the others who might have been expected to defend him, either fled from the scene, or stood by in consternation and amazement, leaving the conspirators to wreak their vengeance on their wretched victim, to the full.

In fact though while a despot lives and retains his power, thousands are ready to defend him and to execute his will, however much in heart they may hate and detest him, yet when he is dead, or when it is once certain that he is about to die, an instantaneous change takes place and every one turns against him. The multitudes in and around the theater and the palace who had an hour before trembled before this mighty potentate, and seemed to live only to do his bidding, were filled with joy to see him brought to the dust. The conspirators, when the success of their plans and the death of their oppressor was once certain, abandoned themselves to the most extravagant joy. They cut and stabbed the fallen body again and again, as if they could never enough wreak their vengeance upon it. They cut off pieces of the body and bit them with their teeth in their savage exultation and triumph. At length they left the body where it lay, and went forth into the city where all was now of course tumult and confusion.

The body remained where it had fallen until late at night. Then some attendants of the palace came and conveyed it away. They were sent, it was said, by Cćsonia, the wife of the murdered man. Cćsonia had an infant daughter at this time, and she remained herself with the child, in a retired apartment of the palace while these things were transpiring. Distracted with grief and terror at the tidings that she heard, she clung to her babe, and made the arrangements for the interment of the body of her husband without leaving its cradle. She imagined perhaps that there was no reason for supposing that she or the child were in any immediate danger, and accordingly she took no measures toward effecting an escape. If so, she did not understand the terrible frenzy to which the conspirators had been aroused, and for which the long series of cruelties and indignities which they had endured from her husband had prepared them. For at midnight one of them broke into her apartment, stabbed the mother in her chair, and taking the innocent infant from its cradle, killed it by beating its head against the wall.
Atrocious as this deed may seem, it was not altogether wanton and malignant cruelty which prompted it. The conspirators intended by the assassination of Caligula not merely to wreak their vengeance on a single man, but to bring to an end a hated race of tyrants; and they justified the murder of the wife and child by the plea that stern political necessity required them to exterminate the line, in order that no successor might subsequently arise to re-establish the power and renew the tyranny which they had brought to an end. The history of monarchies is continually presenting us with instances of innocent and helpless children sacrificed to such a supposed necessity as this.
Gary W2
Constantine_Bronze_1~0.jpg
CAMPGATE, Constantine I, Antioch217 viewsConstantine I the Great
3.55g 19mm 8o
Bronze, dark tone, silvered
kypros84
MOD_from_1900-Canada-3.jpg
Canada 4 views1985 National Parks Commemorative

$100 - 1/2 Oz. Gold

Census: NGC certified has so far certified 48 of this coins, 6 lower, 3 at this grade and 39 in higher grades

I wanted this coin because for many years my nick name was Ram which come from my initials (RAM)
Richard M10
HGH-Canada-Newfie-Gold-_2_00-1881.JPG
Canada (Newfoundland), gold 2-dollar piece, 188166 viewsA sweet little gold Vickie.lordmarcovan
olympic1.jpg
Canada Olympic 100$ Coin49 viewsA gold 1976 Olympic canadian memorial coin.

OBVERSE: Flowers
REVERSE: Queen Elizabeth
aarmale
Caracalla Carth denier.jpg
Caracalla - denarius26 viewsANTONINVS PIVS AVG. , Bust of young Caracalla laureate, draped and cuirassed
INDVLGENTIA AVGG. / IN CARTH. , Caelestis golding thunderbolt and riding jumping lion right, above stream of water.
Ginolerhino
1692do.jpg
Carlos II - 169223 viewsValencia mint (Spain)

1692

Silver with a gold bath

Ex. Vico auction, 2013.

http://dieciochenos.wordpress.com/2013/12/12/carlos-ii-1692-recubrimiento-dorado/
rmon
Durotriges.JPG
Celtic Britain, Durotriges (Circa 58 BC-45 AD)17 viewsStater, Abstract (Cranborne Chase) type

5.26g

Obverse: Devolved head of Apollo right

Reverse: Disjointed horse left; pellets above, [pellet below], pellet in lozenge above tail, [zigzag and pellet pattern between two parallel exergue lines].

Van Arsdell 1235-1; BMC 2525-54.

The Durotriges ("dwellers by the water" or, perhaps, "water-rat kings") were well known for their continental trade and hill forts. They were the only tribe who did not add inscriptions to their coins, perhaps indicative of decentralized rule among multiple hill-fort based tribes using a common currency, and the only tribe to strike a stater in silver.

The history of the Durotriges can be divided into two broad phases, an early phase, roughly 100-60 B.C. and a late phase from 60 B.C. until the Roman conquest. The early phase was a time of rapid development brought about by overseas trade, while the late phase was a time of retraction, isolation and economic impoverishment. The economic decline is dramatically portrayed by the progressive debasement of their coinage, particularly when you compare the magnificent white-gold Craborne Chase staters of ca. 50-40 B.C. with the crude cast bronze Hengistbury coins of ca. A.D. 10-43.

The Durotriges resisted Roman invasion in AD 43, and the historian Suetonius records some fights between the tribe and the second legion Augusta, then commanded by Vespasian. By 70 AD, the tribe was already Romanised and securely included in the Roman province of Britannia.
2 commentsNathan P
Celtic_Ring_Money.jpg
Celtic Bronze Ring Proto-Money 45 viewsAttribution: Quiggin, page 281, Plate 28, Hungary
Date: 800-500 BC
Size: 22.8 mm
(Marble statue of injured Gallic/Celtic warrior: Louvre, Paris)

Before the Celts settled in Wales, Scotland, Brittany, and Ireland, their territory extended to most of Europe. Although ancient Roman historians say the barbarian Celts had no coined money, there is evidence that they had ring-money made of bronze, silver, and gold. The rings vary in weight, but they are all exact multiples of a standard unit, showing the uniform principle regulated their size. This points to their use as current coinage.
Noah
Celts_RingMoney.jpg
Celtic Ring Money9 viewsCelts 7th-1st c. BC. Three rings (3.67 gm, 3.54 gm, 2.55 gm). Plain ring, proto-money, made of unusual material. / Similar to gold & silver proto-money rings. VF. cf van Arsdell 1-3.Christian T
MCSI-825.jpg
Ceylon: Anonymous Gold Kahavanu (Sri Lamka Vibhu Type III-B, MCSI-825)36 views1 commentsSpongeBob
da guan.jpg
CHINA - DA GUAN163 viewsCash coin, Northern Song Dynasty - Emperor Hui Zong - Da Guan Reign (1107-1110). Calligraphy is very admired; it is Slender Gold Script - the Emperor's personal calligraphy. H-16.418. S-629.dpaul7
CHINA  XUAN HE REV SHAN.jpg
CHINA - Northern Song Dynasty - HUI ZONG - XUAN HE REIGN55 viewsCHINA - Northern Song Dynasty - HUI ZONG (1101-1125) - XUAN HE REIGN (1119-1125) Iron Cash. XUAN HE TONG BAO - reverse: SHAN. (Shaanxi region). Slender Gold Script. Hartill #16.504dpaul7
WangMang2.jpg
China: Han Interregnum, Usurper Wang Mang, 7-22 A.D.88 viewsChina: Han Interregnum, Usurper Wang Mang, 7-22 A.D. AE24 mm, Cash. Obv: Huo Chuan. Schjoth-165.

"As soon as his [Wang Mang's] power was sufficiently consolidated, 3 years after his return to court, lists of his political opponents were drawn up, and hundreds were executed. Shortly after this he established a new penal colony in Tibet in the far West, a sort of ancient gulag. Unfortunately we have no direct account as to the nature of the crimes of those exiled to Tibet. In 6 AD the reins of power were still more firmly in his grasp, and Mang ordered his first reform of the coinage. Fundamentally this was a stratagem to nationalize the gold stocks, and put the empire back on a copper standard. Gold was requisitioned and exchanged against very high value bronze tokens. Two years later the tokens were demonetized. The cash assets of the aristocracy and the wealthy merchants must have been largely wiped out overnight. It is in the first couple of years of Mang's independent reign that the astonishing breadth of his reform proposals appear. His reforms include:

1) the abolition of slavery.
2) the nationalization of land.
3) standard plots of arable land for all adult males who wished to work them.
4) farming families grouped in hamlets of 6 or 8, with a common tax assessment.
5) a national bank offering fair rates of interest to all.
6) government market activity to counteract cornering and monopolization.
7) a new currency system in 15 denominations - circulating by government fiat.
8) defeat of the Huns

His new taxes include

taxes to be paid in cash or kind on cultivated land (one tenth)

triple rates to be paid on uncultivated land (parks and gardens etc.)

c) all self-employed or professional people outside farming shall register for income tax, which will be universally levied at 10% per annum. Those avoiding registration, or submitting false accounts to be sentenced to one years hard labour.

d) the state monopolies on iron, salt, silk, cloth and coinage to be retained

e) a new state monopoly on wine to be introduced.

Discussion of the proposals

1) Events in his private life show Mang's abhorrence of slavery. He vilified the political system of the legalists, established in the Chin dynasty (221-206 BC) specifically by alluding to the manner in which they established market places for male and female slaves, "putting human beings in auction pens as if they were cattle."

Reforms 2, 3, 5 & 6) The nationalization of land and its distribution amongst the peasant farmers themselves is of course one solution to the central economic problem in all pre-modern civilizations, (which presumably finds its roots in the bronze age and persisting right down to the machine age). Peasants must have security of tenure and just returns for their labour, otherwise they will not be encouraged to work effectively - and the state and all within it will thereby be impoverished. However if they are made private landowners then clever, unscrupulous, hard-working individuals within and outwith the peasantry will begin to gain land at the expense of their neighbours. The chief mechanisms of this gradual monopolization of the land by a class of people distinguished by their wealth are:

Preying upon private 'misfortune', (illness, death, and marriage expenses) by loansharking.
Preying upon public misfortunes (bad harvests) by loansharking.
Creating shortages by rigging the markets, exacerbating private and public misfortunes, and then loansharking.

Unfairly biasing tax assessments, creating and exacerbating private and public misfortunes, and then loansharking.

The end result of this tendency is likely to be that the bulk of farmers lack security of tenure and or just returns, and cease to work effectively, to the impoverishment of all. Reforms 2, 3 & 5 bear on this problem in an obvious way.

Reform 6 - the "Five Equalizations" is a little more complicated, so I shall explain it at greater length. Fundamentally it required the installation of government officials at the five important markets of the empire who would "buy things when they were cheap and sell them when they were dear." In more detail: "The superintendent of the market, in the second month of each of the four seasons, shall determine the true price of the articles under their responsibility, and shall establish high, middle and low prices for each type of item. When there are unsold goods on the market, the superintendent shall buy them up at the cost (low?) price. When goods become expensive (ie exceed the high price?) the superintendent shall intervene to sell goods from the official store (and thereby reduce the price)." The regulation thus allows markets to operate, but provides for state intervention to stop speculation . . . Mang's regulations allow for a review and revision of the trading bands four times a year.

4). In resettling the people securely on the land, Mang choose to group them into "chings" of 6 or 8 families - attempting to restore the traditional "well field" system. This provided for the regular exchange of land between the families, to give all a go at the best ground, and for joint responsibility for a common tax demand. The ching system was believed, by the Confucian party in the 1st century BC at least, to have been destroyed by the growth of mercantilist exploitation under the Chin legalists. There are hints that the state went on to use the ching structure in crime prevention measures, by making all members of the ching culpable for the unreported crime of any single member. The installation of a land nationalization scheme under the banner of a return to the ancient Chou system of 'chings' had a great deal of propaganda value amongst the Confucian elite which surrounded Mang. A sentimental view of rural working class life seems to be a common weakness amongst aristocratic and middle class intellectuals of all periods. Mang's own observations of the labouring poor would necessarily have been made at a distance - perhaps he too shared in this sentimental myopia. The evidence suggests that the peasantry did not welcome this aspect of the reforms

7) Food was the first concern of Confucian government, but coinage was the second. Only fair prices could encourage the farmers. Only markets could create fair prices. Only with coins could markets exist. Mang introduced a rational set of 15 denominations of coin, valued from 1 to 1,000 cash and circulated by government fiat. Mang did not invent the idea of fiat or fiduciary currency, a brief attempt had been made to circulate one in China a century earlier. However Mang was the first to systematically think through the matter in a practical context, and to apply it over a protracted period. Future successful ancient and medieval experiments with fiat currency, first in China, then in Japan and Central Asia, and unsuccessful ones in medieval India and Persia all looked back - directly or indirectly - to Mang. The first successful fully fiduciary currencies in Europe are products of the 20th century, more than 700 years after Europeans became aware of Chinese practices. (I am neglecting a great deal of late Roman copper coin here of course. I am by no means knowledgeable on such coins, but my understanding is that in principle, if not in practice, Rome was generally on the silver or the gold standard, and copper was exchangeable on demand.) On my own reading of the text, Mang's main concern is to get gold and silver off the market, so they could not be used to bid his tokens down - his coinage was intended to replace gold coinage, not supplement it."--Robert Tye

For a more complete study of Wang Mang, see Robert Tye's compositon about this enigmatic leader at http://www.anythinganywhere.com/info/tye/Wang%20Mang.htm
Cleisthenes
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-RxkXwWaOx2TyMMi-Claudius_Spes.jpg
Claudius (Augustus) Coin: Brass Sestertius3 viewsTI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG PM TR P IMP - Head of Claudius, laureate, right
SPES AVGVSTA S C - Spes, draped, advancing left, holding flower in right hand and raising skirt with left
Exergue:


Mint: Rome (41-50AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 24.20g / 33mm / 180
Rarity: Common
References:
RIC 1-Claudius 99
Acquisition/Sale: numismatellussxtabilita Ebay

"Nobody is familiar with his own profile, and it comes as a shock, when one sees it in a portrait, that one really looks like that to people standing beside one. For one's full face, because of the familiarity that mirrors give it, a certain toleration and even affection is felt; but I must say that when I first saw the model of the gold piece that the mint-masters were striking for me I grew angry and asked whether it was intended to be a caricature. My little head with its worried face perched on my long neck, and the Adam's apple standing out almost like a second chin, shocked me. But Messalina said: "No, my dear, that's really what you look like. In fact, it is rather flattering than otherwise." -- From the novel "Claudius the God: And His Wife Messalina" by Robert Graves

The fact that Claudius choses Spes, the goddess of hope, to occupy such a prominent place on his coinage, makes it clear
that she was present in his thoughts. Carson suggests the type was introduced in the accession year of 41 because his own
birthday, August 1, was the day of the vota to Spes, and in that accession year, Claudius invoked her assistance on behalf
of his newborn son, Britannicus.
Spes was also the goddess of the future, which gave her a prominent role in certain kinds of occasions, especially weddings
and births, the latter of which made her valuable to children. With all of this in mind, his choice of Spes was especially
appropriate during the event-filled year of 41.
Carson notes that the Spes type afterward became a standard dynastic type for imperial heirs. In this case the reverse
inscription, SPES AVGVSTA, takes on a more complete dimension by suggesting hope for the empire through the
imperial family. Kent notes that by the time the later Spes sestertii were minted by Claudius, the “hope” of the Imperial
succession had been transferred from Britannicus to his adopted son, Nero.
The existence of numerous temples and altars to Spes in the capital, and the fine renderings of the goddess on Claudius’
sestertii suggest they are based upon a statuary prototype – perhaps one of great antiquity, considering its archaizing
qualities.
Gary W2
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-AOy7GVWJFbuo-Claudius.jpg
Claudius (Augustus) Coin: Bronze AS 5 viewsTI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG PM TR P IMP P P - Bare head left
(NO LEGEND) SC - Minerva advancing right, holding shield and brandishing a javelin, S-C across fields.
Exergue:



Mint: Rome (42-54 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 10.00g / 27mm / 6h
References:
RIC I (second edition), 116
BMC 206
Cohen 84
von Kaenel Type 60
BN 233-5
Acquisition/Sale: amarso66 eBay $0.00 04/19
Notes: Apr 12, 19 - The Gary R. Wilson Collection

Claudius, 25 January 41 - 13 October 54 A.D.
Claudius was one of the most capable, yet unlikely emperors. Shunned as an idiot by his family due to a limp and embarrassing stutter, Claudius spent the first decades of his life absorbed in scholarly studies until the death of his nephew Caligula. After Caligula's murder, the Praetorian Guard found him hiding behind a curtain in the Imperial Palace, expecting to be murdered. Instead, the guard proclaimed him emperor. His reign was marred by personal catastrophes, most notably promiscuity and betrayal by his first wife. He governed well and conquered the troublesome island of Britain. He was poisoned by his second wife, Agrippina Jr., mother of Nero.

"Nobody is familiar with his own profile, and it comes as a shock, when one sees it in a portrait, that one really looks like that to people standing beside one. For one's full face, because of the familiarity that mirrors give it, a certain toleration and even affection is felt; but I must say that when I first saw the model of the gold piece that the mint-masters were striking for me I grew angry and asked whether it was intended to be a caricature. My little head with its worried face perched on my long neck, and the Adam's apple standing out almost like a second chin, shocked me. But Messalina said: "No, my dear, that's really what you look like. In fact, it is rather flattering than otherwise." -- From the novel "Claudius the God: And His Wife Messalina" by Robert Graves

per Curtis Clay:
At ROME, bronze coins were struck for Claudius in two large issues, the first without P P and the second with P P, that is the first between his accession on 25 Jan. 41 and his acceptance of the title Pater Patriae less than a year later, between 1 and 12 Jan. 42, and the second after early January 42.

The types were the same in both issues:

sestertii of Claudius with types legend in wreath OB CIVES SERVATOS, SPES AVGVSTA, and legend of Nero Claudius Drusus around triumphal arch;

sestertius of Nero Claudius Drusus with rev. legend of Claudius around Claudius seated on curule chair set on globe among arms;

dupondius of Claudius with rev. CERES AVGVSTA;

dupondius of Antonia with rev. legend of Claudius around standing togate emperor;

asses of Claudius with rev. CONSTANTIAE AVGVSTI, LIBERTAS AVGVSTA, and Minerva fighting r.;

quadrantes of Claudius with types Modius and PNR, hand holding scales.

PROVINCIAL MINTS, official and unofficial, on the other hand, struck these same types for Claudius, usually without the quadrantes, almost exclusively without P P, so apparently during the first year of his reign. There were only two exceptions of provincial mints striking these standard types of Claudius after he became P P:

1. The Spanish mint, defined by the many sestertii and dupondii of this particular style, including dozens of die duplicates, found in the Pobla de Mafumet Hoard, struck most of its bronze coins for Claudius without P P, but, alone of the early provincial mints, continued to strike for him early in 42, now with P P, this however being a much smaller issue which probably lasted only a month or two.

I show below a "Pobla" dupondius of Claudius, this one of 41 (no P P), with the characteristic letter forms (particularly the Rs and Ms), often dots left and right of S C in rev. exergue, and the characteristic portrait with spikey hair locks. For comparison I also add a Rome-mint dupondius of the second issue, with P P. (Both images from CoinArchives)

curtislclay:
2. Thracian mint, later in reign, which had NOT struck bronzes for Claudius before he became P P. This mint copied the Roman types, but in slightly cruder style. Its dupondii often have central cavities on their flans, which never occur at Rome or at any of the other provincial mints; see the specimen that I illustrate below from CoinArchives.

Other features which suggest a Thracian or possibly Bithynian location of the mint: (a) quite a few bronze coins of this style have turned up in the flood of ancient coins that emerged from Bulgaria after the fall of the Iron Curtain. (b) Some of the sestertii in this style have Eastern countermarks, for example the SPES AVGVSTA sestertius shown below, from the website Museum of Countermarks on Roman Coins, with countermark Capricorn above rudder on globe. I think most of the Claudian bronzes known with this rare countermark are from our Thracian mint, though it can also occur on Roman and Spanish bronzes of Claudius, which had presumably found their way into circulation in Thrace or Bithynia.

What types did this mint strike? Well, sestertii of Claudius with Legend in wreath and SPES AVGVSTA, but no Arch of Drusus sestertii have yet been observed; CERES AVGVSTA dupondii of Claudius, but I haven't yet noted any dupondii of Antonia; asses of Claudius with all three normal types; no quadrantes.

curtislclay:
Unfortunately these different mints for bronze coins of Claudius are hardly recorded in the standard catalogues!

Laffranchi, in an article written in 1948, was the first to recognize and separate from Rome two of the main provincial mints striking bronzes for Claudius early in his reign, including the Spanish mint mentioned above. But Sutherland, revising RIC I in 1983, was unable to see the stylistic differences pointed out by Laffranchi, so attributed all of Claudius' bronze coins to Rome. The same RIC numbers, therefore, cover Rome and at least three major provincial mints without P P, and Rome, the Spanish mint, and the Thracian mint with P P!

Von Kaenel, in his 1986 monograph on the coinage of Claudius, recognized the two early provincial mints for bronze coins pointed out by Laffranchi, and attributed certain middle bronzes to yet a third provincial mint, though he wrongly located all of these mints in Rome, as auxiliarly mints to the main public one, rather than in the western provinces. He did not recognize the Thracian mint from later in the reign that I have treated above. His catalogue, no. 1888, pl. 43, indeed includes a Thracian CERES AVGVSTA dupondius with central indentations, but he misattributed it to the early Spanish mint, the only early provincial mint to produce bronze coins for Claudius as P P.

Giard, in his Paris catalogue of 1988, ignored both Laffranchi and von Kaenel, and, like RIC, attributed all official bronze coins of Claudius to the mint of Rome!

Individual Thracian mint coins have been recognized as such in various sale catalogues since the 1990s, but this mint has not been treated in any academic article or museum catalogue as far as I know.
Gary W2
Claude II 1.jpg
Claudius II - antoninianus10 viewsIMP. CLAVDIVS AVG.
VICTORIA AVG. , Victoria standing left golding wreath and palm
Ginolerhino
Claudius_II___Virtus.png
Claudius II 268- 270 / Antoninianus 32 viewsAntoninianus, Claudius II right / Virtus walking right, Trophy on left shoulder, spear in right hand.
Nice portrait.

**The Golden Legend of 1260 AD recounts how St. Valentine refused to deny Christ before the "Emperor Claudius" in 270 AD ( in some ref ; 269 AD as he was beheaded in that year 269 AD ,per Sam) and as a result was beheaded. Since then, February 14 marks Valentine's Day, a day set aside by the Christian church in memory of the Roman priest and physician.

2 commentsSam
Claudius_RIC_99.JPG
Claudius, 41 - 54 AD40 viewsObv: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG (PM TRP IMP), laureate head of Claudius facing right.

Rev: SPES (AVGVSTA), Spes advancing left, holding a flower in right hand; S C in exergue.

Note: This coin was not an official issue of the Roman mint it was produced my a provincial mint most likely in Britain or Spain. During the reign of Claudius the Roman mint mainly focused on producing silver and gold coins and the lesser copper and bronze pieces were produced early on. The neglect of small denomination coinage created a serious shortage in the provinces until the locals began producing their own. Some of these local coins were legitimized and circulated freely.

Brass imitation sestertius, Provincial mint, ca. mid First Century AD

18.3 grams, 34 mm, 180°

RIC I 99, S1853, VM 13
1 commentsSPQR Coins
Clothing_or_belt_clip_Griff_or___AE-enamelled-and_Gold_plated_Q-001_37x34mm_21,11g-s.jpg
Clothing or belt clip, Enamelled and Gold plated, Griff or ??? animal #0167 viewsClothing or belt clip, Enamelled and Gold plated, Griff or ??? animal #01
type:AE-Clip Enamelled and Gold plated
size: 37x34mm,
weight: 21,11g,
date: ??? A.D.,
ref: ???
distribution: ???,
Q-001
quadrans
gord2~2.jpg
Cn.PLANCIUS50 viewsAR denarius. 55 BC. 3.52 gr. Head of Macedonia right, wearing kausia. CN PLANCIUS before. AED CVR S C behind. / Cretan goat standing right, bow and quiver behind. Craw. 432/1. RSC Plancia 1. Smyth XII/14.
I & L Goldberg.2002.
2 commentsbenito
WashingtonBeforeBoston.JPG
Comitia Americana - Washington before Boston, 1776.123 viewsObv. Bust of George Washington right, GEORGIO WASHINGTON SVPREMO DVCI EXERCITVVM ADSERTORI LIBERTATIS COMITA AMERICANA [at neck truncation] DU VIVIER / PARIS . F.
Rev. Siege of Boston, HOSTIBUS PRIMO FUGATIS [in exergue] BOSTONIUM RECUPERATUM / XVII MARTII / MDCCLXXVI [at bottom right of canon in the foreground] DU VIV
AE68. 20th century US mint striking.

One of the most encouraging early victories during the Revolutionary War was the British evacuation of Boston on March 17, 1776. During the harsh winter months Henry Knox had transported a number of canon from Fort Ticonderoga in western New York to Boston. As soon as this heavy artillery arrived Washington mounted the canons on Dorchester Heights overlooking the city. Under the threat of bombardment the British troops quickly fled, making Boston the first major city liberated from British occupation. Eight days later, on March 25, 1776, the Continental Congress authorized a medal to commemorate this event. Up through 1787 Congress authorized ten additional medals commemorating war heroes, however no medals were actually produced until 1790. In that year the federal Congress commissioned the Paris mint to produce these long overdue items. The Washington Before Boston medal was considered the most important and was the largest in the series, which is now referred to as the Comitia Americana (or American Congress) medal series. A gold example was presented to Washington along with a collection of eleven silver medals (nine of which were from the eleven medals authorized by congress); the gold exampe is now in the Boston Public Library while Washington's collection of eleven silver medals now resides in the Massachusetts Historical Society.
1 commentsLordBest
byzant_gold_1.jpg
Constans II Solidus31 viewsConstans II AV Solidus. Carthage mint. (645/6 AD).

Obv: DN CONS TATIN P, beardless facing bust, in crown & chlamys, holding globus cruciger / VICTO RIAVGGG, cross potent on three steps; P in right field; /CONOB.

Sear 1030
Tanit
Constantine_I_RIC_92.JPG
Constantine I "the Great," 307 - 337 AD 27 viewsObv: CONSTANTINVS AVG, diademed head of Constantine I facing right, gazing upward.

Rev: D N CONSTANTINI MAX AVG around, VOT / XXX within a laurel wreath; •SMHA in exergue.

Note: A passage from Eusebius mentions this “eyes to the heavens” bust: "How deeply his soul was impressed by the power of divine faith may be understood from the circumstance that he directed his likeness to be stamped on the golden coin of the empire with eyes uplifted as in the posture of prayer to God: and this money became current throughout the Roman world." (Eusebius IV.15)

Billon Centenionalis, Heraclea mint, 1st Officina, 327 - 329 AD

3.2 grams, 18 mm, 180°

RIC VII Heraclea 92, S16231, VM 80
SPQR Coins
Constantine_I_RIC_32.JPG
Constantine I "the Great," 307 - 337 AD57 viewsObv: CONSTANTINVS MAX AVG, diademed head of Constantine facing right, gazing upward.

Rev: CONSTANTINIANA DAFNE, Victory seated left on a cippus, a palm branch in each hand, before her stands a trophy at the foot of which is a kneeling captive being spurned by Victory, Є in left field; CONS in exergue.

Note: Refers to the erection of a fort in Daphne along the Danube River.

A passage from Eusebius mentions this “eyes to the heavens” bust: "How deeply his soul was impressed by the power of divine faith may be understood from the circumstance that he directed his likeness to be stamped on the golden coin of the empire with eyes uplifted as in the posture of prayer to God: and this money became current throughout the Roman world." (Eusebius IV.15)

Billon Follis, Constantinople mint, 328 AD

2.9 grams, 20 mm, 180°

RIC VII Constantinople 32, S16191
1 commentsSPQR Matt
w4~0.JPG
Constantinople CONSS66 viewsConstantine had altogether more ambitious plans. Having restored the unity of the empire, now overseeing the progress of major governmental reforms and sponsoring the consolidation of the Christian church, Constantine was well aware that Rome had become an unsatisfactory capital for several reasons. Located in central Italy, Rome lay too far from the eastern imperial frontiers, and hence also from the legions and the Imperial courts. Moreover, Rome offered an undesirable playground for disaffected politicians; it also suffered regularly from flooding and from malaria.

It seemed impossible to many that the capital could be moved. Nevertheless, Constantine identified the site of Byzantium as the correct place: a city where an emperor could sit, readily defended, with easy access to the Danube or the Euphrates frontiers, his court supplied from the rich gardens and sophisticated workshops of Roman Asia, his treasuries filled by the wealthiest provinces of the empire.

Constantine laid out the expanded city, dividing it into 14 regions, and ornamenting it with great public works worthy of a great imperial city. Yet initially Constantinople did not have all the dignities of Rome, possessing a proconsul, rather than a prefect of the city. Furthermore, it had no praetors, tribunes or quaestors. Although Constantinople did have senators, they held the title clarus, not clarissimus, like those of Rome. Constantinople also lacked the panoply of other administrative offices regulating the food supply, police, statues, temples, sewers, aqueducts or other public works. The new program of building was carried out in great haste: columns, marbles, doors and tiles were taken wholesale from the temples of the empire and moved to the new city. Similarly, many of the greatest works of Greek and Roman art were soon to be seen in its squares and streets. The emperor stimulated private building by promising householders gifts of land from the imperial estates in Asiana and Pontica, and on 18 May 332 he announced that, as in Rome, free distributions of food would be made to citizens. At the time the amount is said to have been 80,000 rations a day, doled out from 117 distribution points around the city.

Constantinople was a Greek Orthodox Christian city, lying in the most Christianised part of the Empire. Justinian ordered the pagan temples of Byzantium to be deconstructed, and erected the splendid Church of the Holy Wisdom, Sancta Sophia (also known as Hagia Sophia in Greek), as the centrepiece of his Christian capital. He oversaw also the building of the Church of the Holy Apostles, and that of Hagia Irene.

Constantine laid out anew the square at the middle of old Byzantium, naming it the Augusteum. Sancta Sophia lay on the north side of the Augusteum. The new senate-house (or Curia) was housed in a basilica on the east side. On the south side of the great square was erected the Great Palace of the emperor with its imposing entrance, the Chalke, and its ceremonial suite known as the Palace of Daphne. Located immediately nearby was the vast Hippodrome for chariot-races, seating over 80,000 spectators, and the Baths of Zeuxippus (both originally built in the time of Septimius Severus). At the entrance at the western end of the Augusteum was the Milion, a vaulted monument from which distances were measured across the Eastern Empire.

From the Augusteum a great street, the Mese, led, lined with colonnades. As it descended the First Hill of the city and climbed the Second Hill, it passed on the left the Praetorium or law-court. Then it passed through the oval Forum of Constantine where there was a second senate-house, then on and through the Forum of Taurus and then the Forum of Bous, and finally up the Sixth Hill and through to the Golden Gate on the Propontis. The Mese would be seven Roman miles long to the Golden Gate of the Walls of Theodosius.

Constantine erected a high column in the middle of the Forum, on the Second Hill, with a statue of himself at the top, crowned with a halo of seven rays and looking towards the rising sun.

RIC VII Constantinople 61 C1
ecoli
image~1.jpg
Constantius ii21 viewsGold solidus nicomedia mint 351 adCaesarincarnate
image~2.jpg
Constantius ii25 viewsGold solidus nicomedia mint 351 ad,ric 74, obv pearl-diademed draped cuirassed bust of Constantius ii facing right, rev Gloria Rei pvblicae Roma seated facing, constantinopolis facing left, supporting between them wreath containing vot xxx mvlt xxxx in four lines, Roma holding spear in left.Caesarincarnate
Constantius_II.jpg
Constantius II Gold solidus83 viewsDN CONSTANTIVS P F AVG
Diademed head of Constantius II right.

GLORIA REI PVBLICAE
Roma and Constantinopolis enthroned, facing each other, supporting wreath inscribed VOT XXXX, ANTΘ in exergue.

Antioch, 9th officina, ca. AD 355-361

3.96g

RIC VIII 172; Depeyrot 12/1.

Freed from an NGC holder! Quite a lovely coin in hand.

SOLD to Calgary Coin June 2017

4 commentsJay GT4
Constantius II solidus, Antioch, 337-361 AD.jpg
Constantius II solidus, Antioch, 337-361 AD177 viewsConstantius II
AV – Solidus, 21 mm, 4.05g
Antioch, 337-361 AD
FL IVL CONSTAN-TIVS PERP AVG
draped, cuirassed bust r.
GLORIA REI-PVBLICAE
Roma and Constantinopolis seated holding hield with VOT/XX/MVLT/XXX
SMANI in ex.
RIC VIII Antioch 83
3 commentsArdatirion
chola.jpg
Copper Massa of Chola Sinhalese Dynasty 1208-9 AD22 viewsObverse: King standing and sniffing lotus blossom in left hand and carrying lamp in right hand. Five balls or golas to right.
Reverse: Sitting king with lotus blossom and to right in 4 lines of Nagari script Sri Dharmasoka

Dharmasoka was a short-lived infant king of the Ponnaruwa kingdom which ruled Ceylon from the eighth to 13th centuries

The massa was a copper unit of about 4 grams. The basic design was retained for centuries and was used on both silver and gold issues as well. This coin is an exceptionally well preserved example of the type
daverino
armorica_quart.jpg
Coriosolite Bi "boar" stater, region: Armorica (Brittany and Channel Islands), c. 56 BC24 viewsSlightly oval shape, obverse convex, reverse a bit concave. 19-20+mm, 2+mm thick, 5.05g, die axis 6h (coin alignment), material: billon of unknown silver and other metal content.

Obverse: stylized head of a god right (Celtic "Apollo", most probably a Sun or sky god) with three plaits of curly hair forming the triskelion-like spiral pattern, reverse: stylized charioteer driving a chariot right with a boar right under the horse and a curl and leaf device in front of it.

The design is loosely based on golden staters of Philip II of Macedon with laureate head of Apollo right on obverse and a charioteer driving a biga (Mediterranean two-horse chariot) right on reverse.

ID: since the obverse is worn off, it is impossible to determine exactly the variety of this coin. but the reverse features such as no reins, chariot driver's head has no long "nose" and even the weak obverse and strong clear reverse all point to series Y. The pellet eye of the pony, no ears, characteristic shape of the pony's head, "weird" driver and the leaf and curl rather than the quadrilateral banner all point to class I (roman numeral), most probably its middle group I (letter), but earlier group H or later transitional groups J or even K of class III are also possible (only the shape of the eye and nose on the obverse would have allowed to tell definitely). This is a well-developed middle chronological type, minted somewhere west of the river Rance.

Mythological and symbolic connotations of this design are very complex. The spirals (here present in the god's hair and as the device before the horse) were one of the most important Celtic symbols, with its main meaning related to the Sun and life (e. g. the Sun's "growing" from winter to summer solstice and then dwindling back, growing from child to adult, leaves and vines unfolding etc.) The double spiral meant life and death or death and rebirth, the cycle of seasons, that sort of thing. The triple spiral or triskelion was probably of the biggest mystical significance, connected to the godhead, with meaning like past+present+future = eternity or morning + day + evening = time. It definitely had to do with the change of seasons, flow of time, power over life and death. Thus the god's hear all made out of spirals with three main spiral branches. The charioteer also probably represents a deity, probably the same deity representing light and life, hunting the boar representing darkness and death. The boar symbol (if one looks closely, there is a rising or setting sun symbol -- a pellet within a circle over a line -- between the boar's legs) is connected to the darkness because boars are dark and their tusks look like crescent moons. They are also parts of many myths, e. g. Greek darkish stories of the Calydonian Boar hunted by Meleager and his many hero comrades or the Erymanthian boar killed by Heracles as his fourth (by some counts) labor: Celts shared the Greek mythological tradition, but probably imbued it with many of their own mythological connotations. God hunting the boar probably symbolizes the same as the spirals in the obverse: changing of seasons, passing of time, life and rebirth etc.

Coriosolites were a Gallic tribe. In the 1st century BC they were living in the so called "Armorica" (ar mor = by the sea) -- a region of modern Brittany around the river Rance roughly to the south of Jersey. They probably migrated there from Rhineland, running away from the Germanic expansion, since they share some cultural features with the Celtic tribes of the Rhine. This tribe on its own was hardly of much significance compared to the other neighboring Gallic tribes (Unelli, Osismii, Veneti, Redones, Abrincatui etc.), but their coin making is among the best studied of all the Celts because several huge hoards of their coins were discovered in Brittany and Jersey, and studied in detail. When Romans led by Julius Caesar came to conquer Gaul, Coriosolites were actively resisting, first on their own, then as a part of the local tribal union and, finally, contributed to Vercingetorix's war effort. The minting of these coins and hoarding them was probably related to these war activities and subsequent defeat, so since series Y is in the middle of the chronology, it can probably be dated around the middle of the Gallic wars (58 - 50 BC), but since the main event in Armorica, the stand off with Viridovix, happened in 57-56 BC, that's probably the best guess.

In addition to Caesar himself, two other Roman generals who fought Coriosolites should be mentioned: Publius Licinius Crassus (86|82? - 53 BC), a son of Marcus Licinius Crassus, Caesar's co-triumvir, who led the initial assault on Armorica, and Quintus Titurius Sabinus, who defeated the union of three Gallic tribes (Unelli, Curiosolitae, and Lexovii) under the chieftain Viridovix in 56 BC. Ironically to our discussion, when Crassus went back to Rome, his first office there was a monetalis, i. e. a Republican official with authority to issue coins.

A lot more about this type of coins can be learned here:
http://www.writer2001.com/exp0002.htm
Yurii P
839NN368.jpg
Cr 393/1b AR Denarius Cn. Cornelius Lentulus9 viewsSpain (?) 76-75 BCE 3.62gm. 17 mm.
o: Draped bust of the Genius Populi Romani r., hair tied with band and sceptre over shoulder; above, [G·P·R]
r: Sceptre with wreath, globe and rudder; EX – S·C. Below, [LE]NT [monogram NT] CVR * FL.
Cornelia 55; Sydenham 752a; Crawford 393/1b.
This nice and beautifully toned but not spectacular example of this type illustrates a few of the conundrums that come with it. One is the use of the office title on the reverse, Curator [* = for Denarii] Flandorum, which is uncommon even though, theoretically, the vast majority of the moneyers held a variation on that title -- especially the majority who did not strike Bronze and certainly not Gold. Another, the very tight flan, which cuts off the almost certain "LE" on rev. and part of the L -- tight flans are common, but the main elements of the obverse and reverse design are mostly present, so this flan/blank could be the runt of the mint, although it is a full 17 MM. The "Genius" head could be any lesser male diety, so the loss of the GPR is unfortunate. From Lentulus's perspective, of course, the key element of his full name was obscured. Good thing that there was almost always a Cornelius on the ballot, so, as is known, he moved ahead. The Spanish mint attribution is based in part on the "1a" type, which has "Q" for Quaestor instead of "Curator...", suggesting a non-standard appointment. Andrew McCabe illustrates a nice "1a".
PMah
image00066Nomos.jpg
Cr 401/1 AR Denarius Mn. Aquillius Mn.f. Mn.n34 viewso: VIRTVS - III VIR Helmeted and draped bust of Virtus to right, with large head
r: MN F MN N / MN AQVIL / SICIL. Mn. Aquilius (Cos. 101) raising fallen Sicily
65 BCE  Denarius Serratus (19 mm, 3.82 g, 6 h), Rome.
Babelon (Aquilia) 2. Crawford 401/1. Sydenham 798. Toned and struck on a broad flan.
This coin is somewhat unintentionally ironic. The moneyer's honored grandfather was accused of fleecing the people of Sicily, when he was governor of the province after the slave revolts. He later managed to antagonize Mithridates VI of Pontus, leading to widespread slaughter of Romans in Asia.
As Wikipedia summarizes the aftermath: "Mithridates defeated Aquillius in 88 near Protostachium. Aquillius was attempting to make his way back to Italy and managed to make it to Lesbos, where he was delivered to Mithridates by the inhabitants of Mytilene. After being taken to the mainland, he was then placed on a donkey and paraded back to Pergamon. On the trip, he was forced to confess his supposed crimes against the peoples of Anatolia. Aquillius's father, the elder Manius Aquillius, was a former Roman governor of Pergamon and was hated for the egregious taxes that he imposed. It was generally thought that Manius Aquillius the younger would follow in the footsteps of his father as a tax profiteer and was hated by some of the local peoples."
Grandpa was thereafter killed by Mithridates by having molten gold poured down his throat.
2 commentsPMah
c-25-1-Goldberg-69-lot3233.jpg
Crawford 25/1 Didrachm19 viewsDenomination: Didrachm
Era: c. 241-235 BC
Metal: AR
Obverse: Helmeted head of beardless Mars r. Helmet decorated with gryphon.
Reverse: Horse’s head r.; behind, sickle; below truncation, ROMA.
Weight: 6.57 gm.
Reference: Crawford 25/1
Provenance: Goldberg 69 lot 3233, 31-MAY-2012

Comments: Both sides centered, but slightly short flan leaves no trace of border on either side. Tiny obverse planchet void below chin; almost imperceptible fine cleaning marks below ROMA on reverse. Otherwise, strong VF.

2 commentsSteve B5
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CRIMEA, GOLDEN HORDE, JUJID (with Genoese countermark)10 viewsAnonymous AE-Pul

Obverse: Inscription
Kaffa Genoese trading colony "Christogram" countermark

Reverse: Ornament (pentagram?)

Mint: Uncertain (Bulghar?)

Minted: 14th Century (?) cm - 1420 - 1475

Wt.: 1.78g

Ref: Lunardi -; Zeno #167674 ff; Retowski -
jimbomar
cr21.JPG
CRISPUS small bust Iovi Conservatori AVGG61 viewsDN FL IVL CRISPVS NOB CAES
Laureated , draped bust left with globe, sceptre in left hand and mappa in right hand
IOVI CONS - ERVATORI AVGG
Wreath/A/SMK
Cyzicus mint
RIC. VII UNLISTED strucked with Constantinus reverse die
listed in Cohen VII, crispus num 78 (10 gold francs)
gb29400
Darius_I_-_Xerxes_II_Siglos.jpg
Darius I-Xerxes II Siglos --485-420 BC9 views5.54 g, 14 mm
Silver Siglos; Bright Surfaces
Minted sometime between reigns of Darius I and Xerxes II
Carradice Type IIIb A/B (plate XII 16-26); BMC Arabia plate XXV, 17

Obverse: Persian King or Hero in Kneeling-Running Stance Right, Holding Spear and Bow.
Reverse: Rectangular Incuse Punch.

Cyrus the Great conquered the Lydian kingdom of Kroisos in 546 BC. The Persian Empire first struck coins with Lydian types until 510, when the Daric and Siglos were introduced, each bearing the same obverse design that earned the coinage its nickname, “Archers”. The gold Daric (8.3 g) and the silver Siglos (5.3 g) continued the Lydian weight standard, circulating mostly in Asia Minor. Over nearly two centuries their archaic types hardly changed; as they bear no legends, attribution by reign can be difficult. After Alexander the Great conquered the Persian Empire in 330 BC, Persians used Greek coins - first Alexander's imperial coinage, and then the royal Seleukid coinage that succeeded it.
_______________________
Not exactly a Greek coin, but the Persian Wars are incredibly significant in Greek history and inspired me to add this Siglos to my collection.
Hydro
_T2eC16N,!zEE9s3!WpO7BRcfHD6C4g~~60_58.jpg
Deutschland Paderborn Medaille 1957 (Bronzeguss, vergoldet)13 viewsauf das 3. Bundessportfest
Vs.: Köpfe der Prälaten Wolker und Mosterts nach recht
Rs.: Sportler
Gewicht: 48,5g. Durchmesser: 50mm
Erhaltung: sehr schön _391
Antonivs Protti
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Diocletian | Jupiter and Emperor * Æ antoninianus, 284-305 AD.47 views
Diocletian | Jupiter and Emperor, bronze antoninianus.

Obv: Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right-facing: IMP C C VAL DIOCLETIANVS AVG
Rev: Diocletian standing on the left, right-facing, holding parazonium, receiving Victory from Jupiter standing to his right, left-facing, with scepter in hand; A in center, below Victory & globe: CONCORDIA MI-LITVM

Exergue: XXI ·

Mint: Cyzicus
Struck: 284-294 AD.

Size: 21.525 mm.
Weight: 4.25 grm.
Die axis: 180°

Condition: As shown in photos, but darker. Deep golden-olive patina, with traces believed to be silvering.

Refs:*
RIC V, pt. 2, 306 (var).
Tiathena
Domitian_(81-96)__Ć_As_(27mm,_9_67g,_6h)__Secular_Games_issue__Rome,_AD_88.jpg
Domitian (Augustus) Coin: Bronze AS 14 viewsIMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM P M TR P VIII CENS PER P P - Laureate head right
COS XIIII LVD SAEC FEC - Domitian standing left, sacrificing from patera over garlanded altar, two attendants standing right, playing lyre and pan-pipes before him, hexastyle temple in background, with wreath in pediment.
Exergue: SC


Mint: Rome (88 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 9.67g / 27mm / 6h
References:
RIC II 623
Sear'88 #910
Cohen 85
Provenances:
London Ancient Coins (LAC)
Acquisition/Sale: London Ancient Coins (LAC) Internet LAC Price List 2 #445 $0.00 07/19
Notes: Jul 19, 19 - The Gary R. Wilson Collection

Secular Games of 88 AD issue.

From CNG: Honoring the original system for the celebration of the games, Domitian held the Ludi Saeculares in October AD 88, coming close to the traditional 110-year standard. The reverses of the gold and silver issues typically employ a herald of the games, while the bronze issues convey the various events which occurred before and during the celebration. The legend LVDi SAECulares FECit is used throughout, and conveys the emperor as bringing the celebration of the games to the city.

The reverse type employed on some of these issues is alluded to by a passage in Suetonius in which heralds are described as going around the city, inviting people to a spectacle which “ ... [they] had never seen and would not see again.” He also states the fallacy of this event however, since the games had just been held 40 years earlier during the reign of Claudius in a break from past celebrations
Gary W2
Domitian_RIC_266_(Titus).jpg
Domitian - [RIC II part 1 Titus 266, RSC II 397a; BMCRE II Titus 92; BnF III 76; SRCV I 2676]88 viewsSilver denarius, choice VF, 3.456g, 17.9mm, 180 degree, Rome mint, as caesar 80 - 81 A.D.

Obv. - CAESAR DIVI F DOMITIANVS COS VII, laureate head right

Rev. - PRINCEPS IVVENTVTIS, flaming and garlanded altar

Excellent Titus-like portrait, slight golden tone around legend on obverse, and perfect centering.
___________

Purchased from Forum Ancient Coins

Ex. FORVM Dealer Photo
2 commentsrenegade3220
Domitian_RIC_435_.jpg
Domitian AR Denarius89 viewsDOMITIAN, (A.D. 81-96), silver denarius, Rome mint, issued A.D. 86, Second Issue
(3.47 g),
Obv. laureate head of Domitian to right, around IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM P M TR P V,
Rev. around IMP XII COS XII CENS P P P, Minerva standing to right, fighting, holding javelin and shield,
(RIC 435, RSC 201b BMC 93).
Attractive blue and gold patina, extremely fine.
Ex Dr V.J.A. Flynn Collection. With old dealer's ticket.
Noble Numismatics Auction 120 Lot 3217 April 4, 2019.
10 commentsorfew
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Domitian Caesar / Titus Judaea Capta Sestertius Mule84 viewsDomitian Caesar / Titus Judaea Capta Ć Sestertius Mule, 25.38 g. Rome mint, struck 80/81

O: [CAES DIVI] AVG VESP F DOMITIAN[VS COS VII] - RIC II 288-306 (Titus)
R: IVD CAP across fields; SC in field below; mourning Jewess to left of palm on pile of arms; Jew on right with hands bound, arms on ground. - Titus RIC 153 (Perhaps a die match); Hendin 1593b; Upcoming addenda Titus 287A.

The only known sestertius mule under Titus.

From the patina it was likely found in eastern Europe, perhaps Bulgaria, a rich find spot for a lot of the judaea sestertii.

What evidence points to RIC II 288 / 306?

As noted by Curtis Clay, "Obverse legends beginning CAESAR are rare, and so far only known with portrait laur. left, according to RIC 275-7. Legends beginning CAES are very much more common.

With the N of DOMITIAN placed before Domitian's mouth, too much space seems to remain for just COS VII. We almost need that added VS to fill out the space.

Flavian mules in gold or silver occur with some regularity, though they are all rare individually.

It's not surprising, however, that very few sestertius mules occurred.

1. Vespasian struck c. 90% of the sestertii of his reign in the single year 71. Mules were impossible, because he hadn't yet begun striking sestertii for Titus and Domitian!

2. Later, when sestertii were being struck for Titus and Domitian too, the rev. types were not usually personalized, for example by carrying on the imperial titulature of each emperor, but were general and could be shared among the emperors, for example S C Spes advancing, or PAX AVGVSTI S C. Virtually all of the rev. types were appropriate for all three emperors, so there could be no mules!

Under Titus the possibilities for mules increased, since more types were introduced that were apparently meant for just one of the two imperial brothers, for example:

Titus: the Judaea Capta types, ANNONA AVG without S C, FELICIT PVBLIC, PIETAS AVGVST (Titus and Dom. shaking hands), PROVIDENT AVGVST (Vesp. hands globe to Titus), S C (Roma hands Palladium to Titus on horseback)

Domitian: S C (Minerva fighting right)."
3 commentsNemonater
Domitian_RIC_II_141.jpg
Domitian RIC II 014126 viewsDomitian 81-96 A.D. AR Denarius. Rome Mint 82 A.D. (3.45g, 19.9mm, 6h). Obv: IMP CAES DOMITIANVS AVG PM, laureate head right. Rev: TR POT IMP II COS VIII DES VIIII PP, Fortuna stg. l., with rudder and cornucopiae. RIC II 141, BMC 34 RSC 610. Ex Warren Esty.

This is part of the first series of Domitian’s reform coinage restoring the fineness and weight of silver and gold to the standards of Augustus. Given the finances of the time, this experiment did not last long. This example has a wonderfully formed flan, little wear, and is a pleasure to hold in hand.
Lucas H
domsalus1.jpg
Domitian RIC-14590 viewsAR Denarius, 3.50g
Rome mint, 82-83 AD
RIC 145 (R). BMC 54. RSC 412.
Obv: IMP CAES DOMITIANVS AVG P M; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: SALVS AVGVST; Salus std. l., with corn ears and poppy

In 82 AD Domitian banished his a rationibus Tiberius Julius and then proceeded to increase the fineness of both the silver and gold coins to pre-Neronian standards. The portraits also became more refined, prompting C. H. V. Sutherland to remark they possessed an expression of 'critical disdain, of a kind familiar to the medalist of Louis XLV'.

This denarius dates to 82-83 AD when Domitian improved the quality of the precious metal coinage. The reverse depicts Salus holding grain ears and poppies, an attribute H. Mattingly speculated may refer to Domitian's care for Italian agriculture. The coin itself is darkly toned with hints of a rainbow patina.


2 commentsDavid Atherton
D221.jpg
Domitian RIC-22145 viewsĆ As, 10.23g
Rome mint, 84 AD
RIC 221 (C2). BMC 288. BNF 304.
Obv: IMP CAES DOMITIAN AVG GERM COS X; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r., with aegis
Rev: MONETA AVGVST; S C in field; Moneta stg. l., with scales and cornucopiae
Acquired from Marti Classical Numismatics, September 2018.

In 82 Domitian reformed the coinage by increasing the weight of the gold and fineness of the silver. Production of the bronze coinage was suspended while the mint was reorganised and resumed in 84 with new reverse types. Appropriately, one of the first types struck on the bronze after the coinage reform was Moneta, 'mint goddess of the emperor'. Mattingly believes Moneta in this context can be seen as symbolising Domitian's control of the mint and as paymaster to the empire. A fitting reverse design for an emperor who cared so much for his coinage.

Superb portrait and nice brown patina.
1 commentsDavid Atherton
D516_zpsoack8r5q~original.jpg
Domitian RIC-51690 viewsAR Quinarius, 1.54g
Rome mint, 87 AD
RIC 516 (C). BMC 109. RSC 220.
Obv: IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM P M TR P VI; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: IMP XIIII COS XIII CENS P P P; Victory std. l., with wreath and palm
Acquired from Praefectus Coins, November 2016. Ex Roma Auction XII, 29 September 2016, lot 712.

Although this quinarius is listed as 'common' in RIC, compared to denarii the output of quinarii was meagre during the Flavian era. Struck in the first issue of 87, 1 January to 13 September. Interestingly, the corresponding gold quinarius with these titles is unique.

Well centred with full legends and darkly toned.
6 commentsDavid Atherton
ri663LG.jpg
Domitian RIC-59694 viewsAR Denarius, 3.34g
Rome mint, 88 AD
RIC 596 (C2). BMC 131. RSC 76/77.
Obv: IMP CAES DOMIT AVG - GERM P M TR P VIII; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: COS XIIII LVD SAEC FEC; Herald adv. l., with wand and shield
Acquired from Zuzim Judaea, June 2011.

A denarius which was minted to commemorate the Secular Games Domitian held in October of 88 AD. Here we see a herald announcing the games. This reverse is the most common type of the Secular Games series and was minted in both gold and silver.

This is a wonderful coin in hand with iridescent toning and a large flan.
2 commentsDavid Atherton
D751.jpg
Domitian RIC-75151 viewsĆ Sestertius, 23.75g
Rome mint, 92-94 AD
RIC 751 (C2). BMC 464. BNF 491.
Obv: IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM COS XVI CENS PER P P; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: IOVI VICTORI; S C in exergue; Jupiter std. l., with Victory and sceptre
Acquired from eBay, May 2019. Ex Degani Coin Shop.

Just like the silver and gold, Domitian's aes coinage in the mid 80s settled down to a few predicable reverse types that were annually struck throughout the reign. The Sestertii were dominated by Victory crowning the emperor and the seated Jupiter with Victory, as seen on this coin. 'Jupiter the giver of Victory' was an important propaganda type because of the periodic conflicts on the Northern frontier that flared up form time to time. Domitian did not renew the consulship until 95, so these COS XVI sestertii are imprecisely dated between 92-94, which accounts for their extreme commonness.

A well worn example with a good portrait and fine olive green patina.
3 commentsDavid Atherton
D841.JPG
Domitian RIC-841151 viewsAR Cistophorus, 9.81g
Rome mint (for Asia), 82 AD
RIC 841 (C). BMC 251. RSC 23. RPC 864 (8 spec.).
Obv: IMP CAES DOMITIAN AVG P M COS VIII; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: CAPIT across field, RESTIT in exergue; Temple of Capitoline Jupiter with 4 columns enclosing figures of Juno, seated Jupiter and Minverva
Acquired from Tom Cederlind, February 2013.

In 80 AD while Titus was away in Campania surveying the damage Vesuvius had caused in the region the previous Fall, a devastating fire broke out in Rome, damaging much of the city center. One of the most important buildings affected by the fire was the Temple of Capitoline Jupiter, rebuilt recently by Vespasian. It being the most sacred and important building in Rome, Titus began rebuilding it immediately. Construction was still ongoing when Titus died of natural causes in September of 81. Domitian completed the structure the following year and it was said no expense was spared. The building Domitian dedicated was a lavish structure, magnificent in appearance featuring Pentelic marble, gold plated doors, and a roof of gilded bronze.

This cistophorus minted in Rome for export to Asia Minor commemorates the new Temple of Jupiter Domitian bestowed on Rome. Curiously, although the building featured six columns, only four are seen here. Statues of the deities Juno, Jupiter (seated) and Minverva can be seen between the columns.

A most wonderful coin in hand.
8 commentsDavid Atherton
Domitian_RIC_238.JPG
Domitian(us) as Caesar99 viewsDomitian, denarius.
RIC II 921 (Vespasian), RSC 47.
Rome mint, 76 A.D.
Obv. CAESAR AVG F DOMITIANVS, head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, right.
Rev. COS IIII, winged Pegasus, standing right with raising left foreleg.

The usual descriptions say that Pegasus is'stepping right', but he isn't moving at all – just raising one foreleg – although this does vary from coin to coin. Perhaps Pegasus is greeting Domitian, who was quite willing to link himself to Minerva, the goddess who produced the golden bridle that tamed Pegasus (source: What I like about ancient coins).

I couldn't resist this one! An attractive portrait of the young caesar and a charming reverse.
1 commentsMarsman
Domitian_Dupondius_Fortuna_AE28_10.1g.jpg
Domitian, Dupondius, Fortuna, Rome74 viewsDupondius (AE 27-28mm) Rome, 86 AD. IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM COS (XII CENS) PER PP Bust laureate left, with aegis (FORT)VNAE - AVGVST(I) / S - C Fortuna standing l. holding rudder and cornucopiae. 10,10gr. Almost very fine. Rare. Nice golden-brown patina.
C.124; BMC p.382, 383 and pl. 75.9; RIC p.195, 326(b).

ex Dr. Martina Dieterle
4 commentsareich
gemellus.jpg
Drusus with Tiberius and Germanicus Gemellus. AE Sestertius24 viewsDrusus, with Tiberius and Germanicus Gemellus. AE Sestertius, Rome, 22-23 A.D. Struck under Tiberius. Crossed cornuacopiae, each surmounted by bare-headed bust of a boy facing one another, winged caduceus between. / DRVSVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N PONT TR POT II, Legend around large S C. RIC 42. Ex. GoldbergHolding_History
convex_quad_sm.jpg
Durotrigan Bi "Durotrigan E" or "Cranbourne Chase" type stater, region: South Britain (Dorset), c. 58 BC - 43 AD11 viewsFlan roughly circular, obverse convex, reverse concave.
18.5mm, 1.5+mm thick, 2.82g
Die axis: ~3h (Greek), assuming traditional diagonal wreath position with "eyes" right
Material: billon of unknown silver and other metal content.

Obverse: devolved head of a god (Celtic "Apollo") right , reverse: disjointed horse / chariot left with 12 pellets above and 1 below (possibly indicating 12+1 lunar months in a solar year)

The design is loosely based on golden staters of Philip II of Macedon with laureate head of Apollo on obverse and a charioteer driving a biga (Mediterranean two-horse chariot) on reverse.

References: Durotrigan E, Cranbourne Chase type, BMC 2525-2731, Mack 317-318, Sp 367, RDVA 1235-1237 etc.

Peculiarities in this case: small flan, so most of design does not fit onto it, probably indicating very late production, no usual correspondence between the "crook" crossing the "wreath" and the "left eye", pellets large and flat, obverse significantly off center, ornaments left to "cheek" clearly visible.

The Durotriges were one of the Celtic (possibly even pre-Celtic) tribes living in Britain prior to the Roman invasion. The tribe lived in modern Dorset, south Wiltshire, south Somerset and Devon east of the River Axe and the discovery of an Iron Age hoard in 2009 at Shalfleet, Isle of Wight gives evidence that they lived in the western half of the island. After the Roman conquest, their main civitates, or settlement-centred administrative units, were Durnovaria (modern Dorchester, "the probable original capital") and Lindinis (modern Ilchester, "whose former, unknown status was thereby enhanced"). Their territory was bordered to the west by the Dumnonii; and to the east by the Belgae.

Durotriges were more a tribal confederation than a tribe. They were one of the groups that issued coinage before the Roman conquest, part of the cultural "periphery" round the "core group" of Britons in the south. These coins were rather simple and had no inscriptions. The Durotriges presented a settled society, based in the farming of lands surrounded and controlled by strong hill forts that were still in use in 43 AD. Maiden Castle is a preserved example of one of these hill forts.

The area of the Durotriges is identified in part by coin finds: few Durotrigan coins are found in the "core" area, where they were apparently unacceptable and were reminted. To their north and east were the Belgae, beyond the Avon and its tributary Wylye: "the ancient division is today reflected in the county division between Wiltshire and Somerset." Their main outlet for the trade across the Channel, strong in the first half of the 1st century BC, when the potter's wheel was introduced, then drying up in the decades before the advent of the Romans, was at Hengistbury Head. Numismatic evidence shows progressive debasing of the coinage, suggesting economic retrenchment accompanying the increased cultural isolation. Analysis of the body of Durotrigan ceramics suggests that the production was increasingly centralised, at Poole Harbour. Burial of Durotriges was by inhumation, with a last ritual meal provided even under exiguous circumstances, as in the eight burials at Maiden Castle, carried out immediately after the Roman attack.

Not surprisingly, the Durotriges resisted Roman invasion in AD 43, and the historian Suetonius records some fights between the tribe and the second legion Augusta, then commanded by Vespasian. By 70 AD, the tribe was already Romanised and securely included in the Roman province of Britannia. In the tribe’s area, the Romans explored some quarries and supported a local pottery industry.

The Durotriges, and their relationship with the Roman Empire, form the basis for an ongoing archaeological research project (https://research.bournemouth.ac.uk/project/the-durotriges-project/) directed by Paul Cheetham, Ellen Hambleton and Miles Russell of Bournemouth University. The Durotriges Project has, since 2009, been reconsidering the Iron Age to Roman transition through a detailed programme of field survey, geophysical investigation and targeted excavation.
Yurii P
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Dutch Pulicat Narasimha Type, Malabar Coast Gold Fanam Uniface Vira Raya c.1600's 166 viewsDutch Pulicat Narasimha Type, Malabar Coast Gold Fanam Uniface Vira Raya c.1600's
Gold Coin Size: 9 mm Weight: 0.5 grams Fine Gold
Reference: http://lakdiva.org/coins/medievalindian/hoysalas_fanam_au.html
Obv: Stylistic Lion (Sardula) standing right with large crescent above. The legs represented by 2 rows, each of 4 dots. The lower 4 dots with downward spikes. 4 more dots separated from this group to right. Concave surface
Rev: Stylistic Boar standing right. The legs represented by the 3 rows, each of 4 dots. Convex surface.
Pulicat (Dutch) Gold Fanam Anon. Narasimha Type. Herrli 3.20/3.35.
Dynasty & Reign Acheh Sultans, Sultana Kamalat Shah Zinat al-Din (Queen)
Denomination AV 1/4 Mas or Kupang
Date Struck 1688-1699 Mint Acheh/ Atjeh
Obverse Paduka Seri Sultanah Kamalat Shah
Reverse Zinat al-Din Shah Berdaulat
Weight 0.4 gm Diameter 9 mm Grade GVF to EF, sharp and fully legible
Comments Zinat al-Din Kamalat Shah, born as Putri Raja Setia, was the great-granddaughter of Sultan Mukmin who ruled in the late 16th century. Her brother was married to her predecessor, Sultana Zaquiyat.

The 1886 Elliot description of his 189-192 Viraraya fanams as obv:(?): Transverse bar, sometimes with the end turned up, or simply elongated like a crocodile or saurin above three lines of dots and a reverse design not explained. He says The many varieties of gold fanams, through no longer current are found in considerable numbers, many of them having curious devices, without legends.

Note that this example is probably much more recent than the original Hoysalas fanam illustrated in Mitchiner. The animal figures are more stylistic. The angle between two sets of dots on the obverse in this example is much less than 90 degrees while it is more than that in the Hoysalas fanam. The two groups of dots in the obverse merge in the Viraraya fanam, to 2 arcs, each of 6 dots.

According to Elliot (page 148), small coins were measured or counted by means of a chakram board, a small square wooden plate with a given number of holes the exact size and depth of a chakram. A small handful of coins is thrown on the board, which is then shaken gently from side to side so as to cause a single chakram to fall into each cavity, and the surplus, if any swept off with the hand. A glance at the board, when filled, shows that it contains the exact number of coins for which it was intended. The rapid manipulation of this simple but ingenious implement requires some practice, but the Government clerks and native merchants are exceedingly expert and exact in its performance.
Text from
* 1998 Coinage and history of Southern India, vol. 2: TamilNadu - Kerala. Michael Mitchiner Page 252.

 

1 commentsAntonio Protti
Ebana.jpg
Ebana66 viewsChristian kings of Aksum, Ebana

Obverse: Head and shoulders bust right, crowned with a tiara, in beaded circle. Greek legend: EB ANA.
Reverse: Central lozenge inlaid with gold, with four crosses attached to the extremities, forming a cross-crosslet with the letter of the legend interspersed between them. Greek legend: +BC+LC+IL+EY.
Date : circa CE 450
Reference : Cf. Munro-Hay (BMC) Type 74; Munro-Hay (1984) Ebana AR 1
Grade : F
Weight : 0.9 g
Metal : Silver
Acquired: 19/07/03
Comment: AR Unit,
1 commentsBolayi
Edgar_Allan_Poe_Hall_of_Fame.JPG
Edgar Allan Poe, 1963 NYU Hall of Fame Medal22 viewsObv: THE HALL OF FAME FOR GREAT AMERICAN EDGAR ALLAN POE above a bust of Poe facing left. AT NEW YORK UNIVERSITY 1809 - 1849, depictions of a Raven and a Gold Bug alluding to Poe's writings.

Rev: "NEVERMORE" depictions of Poe's fiction: the Angel Israfel, Lenore, The Fall of the House of Usher, The Masque of the Red Death, The Black Cat, MS. Found in the Bottle, The Pit and the Pendulum. The Pegasus, symbolic of poetry and art, unfolds a nightmare of dreams and death.

Designer: Michael Lantz, Mint: Medallic Art Company

Bronze, 44.48 mm
Matt Inglima
Egyptian_Alabaster_Mace_Head_37.jpg
Egyptian Alabaster Mace Head111 viewsDate: circa 3850-3650 BC (pre-dynastic)
Size: 40 mm (smaller example)

The mace was developed during the Upper Paleolithic from the simple club, then adding sharp spikes of flint or obsidian. It was the first weapon designed specifically for killing humans (as opposed to hunting weapons). In ancient Egypt, stone mace heads were first used nearly 6,000 years ago in the pre-dynastic period. The earliest known are disc maces with oddly formed stones mounted perpendicularly to their handle. The Narmer Palette shows a king swinging a mace. The problem with early maces was that their stone heads shattered easily and it was difficult to fix the head to the wooden handle reliably. The Egyptians attempted to give them a disk shape in the pre-dynastic period (about 3850-3650 BC) in order to increase their impact and even provide some cutting capabilities, but this seems to have been a short lived improvement. A rounded pear form of mace head known as a "piriform" replaced the disc mace in the Naqada II period of pre-dynastic Upper Egypt (3600-3250 BC) and was used throughout the Naqada III period (3250-3100 BC). Similar mace heads were also used in Mesopotamia around 2450-1900 BC. The Assyrians used maces probably about 19th century B.C. and in their campaigns; the maces were usually made of stone or marble and furnished with gold or other metals, but were rarely used in battle unless fighting heavily armored infantry.
1 commentsNoah
60319LG.jpg
Elis, Olympia191 viewsOlympia (Greek: Ολυμπία Olympí'a or Ολύμπια Olýmpia, older transliterations, Olimpia, Olimbia), a sanctuary of ancient Greece in Elis, is known for having been the site of the Olympic Games in classical times, comparable in importance to the Pythian Games held in Delphi. Both games were held every olympiad (i.e. every four years), the Olympic Games dating back possibly further than 776 BC. In 394 emperor Theodosius I, or possibly his grandson Theodosius II in 435, abolished them because they were reminiscent of paganism.

The sanctuary itself consists of an unordered arrangement of various buildings. To the north of the sanctuary can be found the prytaneion and the Philippeion, as well as the array of treasuries representing the various city states. The metroon lies to the south of these treasuries, with the Echo Stoa to the East. To the south of the sanctuary is the South Stoa and the Bouleuterion, whereas the West side houses the palaistra, the workshop of Pheidias, the Gymnasion and the Leonidaion. Enclosed within the temenos are the temples of Hera and Zeus, the Pelopion and the area of the altar, where the sacrifices were made. The hippodrome and later stadium were also to the East.

Olympia is also known for the gigantic ivory and gold statue of Zeus that used to stand there, sculpted by Pheidias, which was named one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World by Antipater of Sidon. Very close to the temple of Zeus (see photo of ruins below) which housed this statue, the studio of Pheidias was excavated in the 1950s. Evidence found there such as sculptor's tools, corroborates this opinion.

Excavation of the Olympia temple district and its surroundings began with a French expedition in 1829. German archaeologists continued the work in the latter part of the 19th century. The latter group uncovered, intact, the Hermes of Praxiteles statue, among other artifacts. In the middle of the 20th Century, the stadium where the running contests took place was excavated.

The Olympic flame of the modern-day Olympic Games is lit by reflection of sunlight in a parabolic mirror at the restored Olympia stadium and then transported by a torch to the place where the games are held.

When the modern Olympics came to Athens in 2004, the men's and women's shot put competition was held at the restored stadium.

The ancient ruins sits north of the Alfeios River and lies next to Cronius or Kronios hill (the hill of Kronos, or Saturn). Kladeos, a tributary of Alfeios, flows around the area.

The town has a school and a square (plateia). Tourism is popular throughout the late-20th century. The city has a train station and is the easternmost terminus of the line of Olympia-Pyrgos (Ilia). The train station which the freight yard is west of it is about 300 m east of the town centre.

It is linked by GR-74 and the new road was opened in the 1980s, the next stretch N and NE of Olympia will open in around 2005. Distance from Pyrgos is 20 km E(old: 21 km), about 50 km SW of Lampeia, W of Tripoli and Arcadia and 4 km north of Krestena and N of Kyparissia and Messenia. The highway passed north of the ancient ruins.

A reservoir is located 2 km southwest damming up the Alfeios river and has a road from Olympia and Krestena which in the late-1990s has been closed.

The area is hilly and mountainous, most of the area within Olympia is forested.

Elis, Olympia. After ca. 340/30-late 3rd century B.C. Ć unit (20 mm, 5.99 g). Laureate head of Zeus right / FA above, horse trotting right; [L]U below. BCD 339.3 (this coin). Near VF, dark brown patina.
Ex BCD Collection. Ex-John C Lavender G18
ecoli73
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Empire of Nicaea: John III Ducas-Vatazes (1222-1254) Ć Tetarteron, Magnesia (Sear-2116; DOC 58)29 viewsObv: Bust of St. George, beardless and nimbate, wearing runic, breastplate, and sagion; golds in right hand spear, resting over shoulder, and in left, shield
Rev: Legend in two columnar groups. Full-length figure of emperor wearing stemma, divitsion, collar-piece, jeweled loros of simplified type, and sagion; holds in right hand labarum on long shaft, and in left, anexikakia
SpongeBob
Sear-2141.jpg
Empire of Nicaea: Theodore II Ducas-Lascaris (1254-1258) AE Trachy, Magnesia (Sear-2141) 8 viewsObv: IC XC in field; Full-length figure of Christ bearded and nimbate, standing on dais; right hand raised in benediction; left hand on Gospel; B B in field
Rev: ΘЄOΔШPOC ΔЄCΠOTHC ΔϪΚΑC ΛΑCΚAΡΙC in two columnar groups; Full-length figure of emperor on left, crowned by Virgin nimbate; Emperor wars stemma, divitision, jeweled loros of simplified type and sagion; right hand holds scepter cruciger; left hand golds globus cruciger

Quant.Geek
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English; Edward IV gold quarter ryal; reverse A, hand (for Antwerp)40 viewsEnglish Coin Weight, c. 1470. English coin weight, aF, brown patina, Antwerp mint, 1.852g, 19.6mm, obverse quatrefoil pattern similar to 1.9g English Edward IV gold quarter ryal; reverse A, hand (for Antwerp). Produced in the Low Countries. Found in the UK. Ex FORVMPodiceps
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Ephesus, Ionia; Salonina16 viewsEphesus, Ionia; Salonina

CΑΛΩΝ ΧPΥCΟΓΟΝΗ CEBAC
ΕΦΕCΙΩΝ ΠΡΩΤΩΝ ΑCΙΑC
ΧPΥCΟΓΟΝΗ = Chrysogona "golden child"
Artemis in reverse.
ΠΡΩΤΩΝ ΑCΙΑC = "First (city) of Asia"
ecoli
horsessssssssss_050.JPG
Extremely rare! Gold 1/2 fanam (1/4 rupee in gold), Shah Alam II (1759-1806) as "Shahi Gohar Alam", mintless type, Mughal Empire89 viewsExtremely rare! Gold 1/2 fanam (1/4 rupee in gold), Shah Alam II (1759-1806) as "Shahi Gohar Alam", mintless type, Mughal Empire

Notes: Persian inscription divided with a line: Shah Gohari / Alam * and date ((11)83=1768 AD) / Blank. Mintless type. 7mm, 0.18 grams. Herrli "Gold Fanams" - (listed for a fanam as #8.08.05, mentioned as existing for 1/2 fanam but not illustrated (same die as this half fanam?)).

"Gohar Shah" was the title Shah Alam II used as a Prince (also, the Marathas sometimes struck coins giving this name to Shah Alam II). Herrli could not find an example with a readable word in the second line ("Alam") and reported it as "unread text" - this word is very clear on this coin, completing the reading of the inscriptions on this type.

Gold fanams (weighing 0.36 grams and equal to 1/32nd of a mohur or 1/2 rupee in gold) in the name of various Mughal Emperors are perhaps the most obscure Mughal coins, poorly studied and mostly unlisted in various catalogues. They were issued in various mints, but are often difficult to attribute because of the mint is not readable or absent. This difficulty in attribution is evident from the fact that these coins were attributed to different States, dynasties, people and governors by various scholars.

Half-fanams (weighing about 0.17-0.18 grams and equal to 1/64th mohur or 1/4 rupee in gold) are much more rare and more obscure than the whole fanams. They are unpublished in all catalogues, but were recently mentioned by Herrli in "Gold fanams" for the first time, though not illustrated. These 1/2 fanams were struck from the same dies as the whole fanams, but are much scarcer and extremely difficult to find.
Antonio Protti
horsessssssssss_049.JPG
Extremely rare! Gold 1/2 fanam (1/4 rupee in gold), Shah Alam II (1759-1806) as "Shahi Gohar Alam", mintless type, Mughal Empire75 viewsExtremely rare! Gold 1/2 fanam (1/4 rupee in gold), Shah Alam II (1759-1806) as "Shahi Gohar Alam", mintless type, Mughal Empire

Notes: Persian inscription divided with a line: Shah Gohari / Alam * and date ((11)83=1768 AD) / Blank. Mintless type. 7mm, 0.18 grams. Herrli "Gold Fanams" - (listed for a fanam as #8.08.05, mentioned as existing for 1/2 fanam but not illustrated (same die as this half fanam?)).

"Gohar Shah" was the title Shah Alam II used as a Prince (also, the Marathas sometimes struck coins giving this name to Shah Alam II). Herrli could not find an example with a readable word in the second line ("Alam") and reported it as "unread text" - this word is very clear on this coin, completing the reading of the inscriptions on this type.

Gold fanams (weighing 0.36 grams and equal to 1/32nd of a mohur or 1/2 rupee in gold) in the name of various Mughal Emperors are perhaps the most obscure Mughal coins, poorly studied and mostly unlisted in various catalogues. They were issued in various mints, but are often difficult to attribute because of the mint is not readable or absent. This difficulty in attribution is evident from the fact that these coins were attributed to different States, dynasties, people and governors by various scholars.

Half-fanams (weighing about 0.17-0.18 grams and equal to 1/64th mohur or 1/4 rupee in gold) are much more rare and more obscure than the whole fanams. They are unpublished in all catalogues, but were recently mentioned by Herrli in "Gold fanams" for the first time, though not illustrated. These 1/2 fanams were struck from the same dies as the whole fanams, but are much scarcer and extremely difficult to find.
Antonio Protti
horsessssssssss_036.JPG
Extremely rare! Gold 1/2 fanam (1/4 rupee in gold), Shah Alam II (1759-1806) as "Shahi Gohar Alam", mintless type, Mughal Empire79 viewsExtremely rare! Gold 1/2 fanam (1/4 rupee in gold), Shah Alam II (1759-1806) as "Shahi Gohar Alam", mintless type, Mughal Empire

Notes: Persian inscription divided with a line: Shah Gohari / Alam * and date ((11)83=1768 AD) / Blank. Mintless type. 7mm, 0.18 grams. Herrli "Gold Fanams" - (listed for a fanam as #8.08.05, mentioned as existing for 1/2 fanam but not illustrated (same die as this half fanam?)).

"Gohar Shah" was the title Shah Alam II used as a Prince (also, the Marathas sometimes struck coins giving this name to Shah Alam II). Herrli could not find an example with a readable word in the second line ("Alam") and reported it as "unread text" - this word is very clear on this coin, completing the reading of the inscriptions on this type.

Gold fanams (weighing 0.36 grams and equal to 1/32nd of a mohur or 1/2 rupee in gold) in the name of various Mughal Emperors are perhaps the most obscure Mughal coins, poorly studied and mostly unlisted in various catalogues. They were issued in various mints, but are often difficult to attribute because of the mint is not readable or absent. This difficulty in attribution is evident from the fact that these coins were attributed to different States, dynasties, people and governors by various scholars.

Half-fanams (weighing about 0.17-0.18 grams and equal to 1/64th mohur or 1/4 rupee in gold) are much more rare and more obscure than the whole fanams. They are unpublished in all catalogues, but were recently mentioned by Herrli in "Gold fanams" for the first time, though not illustrated. These 1/2 fanams were struck from the same dies as the whole fanams, but are much scarcer and extremely difficult to find.
Antonio Protti
00sulla3~1.jpg
Faustus Cornelius Sulla169 viewsAR denarius. 56 BC. 4.05 g, 9h. Head of young Hercules right, wearing lion's skin headdress, paws knotted below his chin; SC above FAVSTVS monogram behind. / Globe surrounded by four wreaths, the larger jewelled and tied with fillet; aplustre and stalk of grain below. Crawford 426/4a. RSC Cornelia 61 .
This coin is one of ten million denarii that the Senate of Rome commissioned for the purchase of wheat in the year 56 BC. All those extra denarii, struck alongside the normal coin issues, bear the letters S.C for "Senatus Consulto" (by decree of the Senate) on their obverse, behind the head of Hercules. The ligated letters FAVS refer to the moneyer, Faustus Cornelius Sulla.

The ear of grain on the reverse illustrates that this denarius was indeed minted in connection with the purchase of wheat. Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus, who transacted the business, was the father in law of the moneyer Sulla, and effectually used his son in law's position to advertise himself. Three of the wreaths on the reverse commemorate the three triumphs of Pompey: He was the first Roman to celebrate a triumph on each of the three then-known continents. With this Pompey had made Rome a world power, which is symbolized by the globe in the middle. The fourth wreath, larger than the others, stands for the extraordinary honor that Pompey was bestowed with in 63 BC, when he was allowed to wear a golden headdress when going to the circus or the theater.
1 commentsbenito
Collection3.jpg
Fourth page of album66 viewsThis album page has a gold olymipic coin from 1976 and a 100th anaversary of winnepeg 1$ silver coin.aarmale
JET_Monneron_Confidence_Token.jpg
France. Monneron Confidence Token10 viewsAE/copper token; valued at 2 Sols; designed by Augustin Dupré and minted in 1791 (the first pieces leaving the mint on November 3, 1791) on the Watt steam presses of Matthew Boulton’s Soho Mint, Birminghan, England, for Frčres Monneron; 18.28 gr. (minted at 27 to the pound), 32 mm., 180°.

KM France TN23; Guilloteau.233l; Mazard153; Brandon 217c; Droulers.62; Bouchert 54/1; Hennin 342. Pl. 32.

Obv: France in the guise of Liberty seated, facing left, raising a spear surmounted by a Phrygian cap leaning on a tablet bearing the inscription DROITS / DE / L'HOMME / ARTIC. / V. (representing the Declaration of the Rights of Man), rooster on a pillar behind her, LIBERTE SOUS LA LOI (= Liberty Under the Law), L'AN III DE LA LIBERTE (= Year III/1791 of Liberty) in exergue.

Rev: MONNERON FRERES NEGOCIANS A PARIS (= Moneron Brothers, Merchats of Paris), MEDALLE / DE CONFIANCE / DE DEUX SOLS A / ECHANGER CONTRE / DES ASSIGNATS DE / 50L ET AU DESSUS / 1791 (= Medal of Confidence of Two Sols, to be Exchanged for Assignats of 50 Livres or Above, 1791).

Edge: ⁕ BON POUR BORD MARSEI ⁕. LYON ROUEN ⁕ NANT ET STRASB (= Good for Bordeaux, Marseilles, Lyon, Rouen, Nantes and Strasbourg).

Although the Bastille was stormed in 1789, the coinage of Louis XVI continued to be struck until 1792, with a new constitutional coinage in copper or bell-metal, silver and gold commencing in 1791. Thar coinage circulated alongside the ancien régime pieces, but did little to alleviate the shortage of specie. A short-term solution was attempted by the introduction of the assignats, which were paper money backed by confiscated church properties and land. Produced in vast quantities, the assignats eventually depreciated to the point of worthlessness. The tokens of Frčres Monneron were issued in response to this situation.

The Monneron brothers, Jean-Louis (1742-1805), Pierre-Antoine (1747-1811), and Joseph-François-Augustin (1756-1824), were the sons of a Huguenot lawyer from Annonay, who made his fortune by buying the rights to receive the gabelle (salt tax) for the town of Annonay. By 1791, Joseph-François-Augustin obtained the right to strike copper token coinage. Production began in late 1791. However, in March 1792, Frčres Monneron went bankrupt and Pierre-Antoine fled. His Francois-Augustin resumed the business, but a law of enacted on May 3, 1792 prohibited the manufacture of private coins. These currencies of necessity circulated only until the end of 1793.

The tokens were designed by the greatest engraver of the revolutionary era, Augustin Dupré (1748-1833), who had made his name as a medalist, producing many medals commemorating the American Revolution before becoming the Engraver General of the French mints in 1791.
Stkp
JET_Capture_of_Fontarabie.jpg
France. The Taking of Fontarabie7 viewsFeuardent cf. 13216-13223; La Tour cf. 2181-2187

Jeton, brass; minted in Nuremburg, 24 mm, 180°

Obv: LUD • XV D • G FR • -- ET N • REX, bust of Louis XV (1715-1774) facing left.

Rev: PACIS FIRMANDĆ EREPTUM PIGNUS (= peace strengthened, recovered, assured), Helmeted France on the left, standing to the right facing helmeted Spain, holding out an olive branch.

The jeton commemorates the capture of Fontarabie/Hondarribia (in the Spanish Basque country, on the French border) on June 16, 1719 by James I Fitz-James, Duke of Berwick, during the War of the Quadruple Alliance (1718–1720). By the Peace of Utrecht, the War of the Spanish Succession (1702-1714) ended with the Spanish inheritance divided between the Austrian Habsburgs and Spain to create a balance of power in Europe. Soon thereafter, Spain invaded Italy in an attempt to regain territories lost to the Habsburgs. Britain, France, the Dutch Republic and Austria formed the Quadruple Alliance to prevent Spanish revanchism.

Berwick (1670-1734) was the illegitimate son of James II Stuart, King of England and Scotland. He became a French citizen in 1703, Marshal of France in 1706 and Knight of the Golden Fleece in 1714, after his storming of Barcelona that year, essentially ending the War of the Spanish Succession. He resigned his titles in 1718 in favor of his son but remained in office by commission. Following the War of the Quadruple Alliance, Berwick was not called to serve in the field again until, 1733, when he led the Army of the Rhine in the War of the Polish Succession. He was decapitated by a cannonball during the Siege of Philippsburg in 1734.
Stkp
_T2eC16F,!)!E9s2f!GJMBRce9(s14!~~60_58.jpg
Frankreich Medaille 1962 (Silber, vergoldet) von Borrel12 viewsVs.: Büste der Marianne nach links
Rs.: Für L.Fournier, gestiftet vom Arbeitsminister
Gewicht: 10,0g. Durchmesser: 27mm
Erhaltung: zaponiert, vorzüglich _913
Antonivs Protti
za~0.jpg
GALBA48 viewsAR denarius. 69 AD. Laureate head right. IMP SER GALBA CAESAR AVG / Livia standing left, holding patera and scepter.DIVA AVGVSTA . RIC 186. RSC 55.
Ex I & L Goldberg.
benito
Coin1001_quad_sm.jpg
Galerius Concordia Militum Ӕ post-reform radiate fraction (295 - 299), Cyzicus mint5 viewsGAL VAL MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES, radiate, draped (?) and cuirassed bust right / CONCORDIA MI-LITVM + KB in lower centre, Prince (the left figure) standing right in military dress, holding parazonium or baton of imperium, receiving small Victory with a wreath and palm branch on globe from naked Jupiter (the right figure) standing left holding tall scepter.

Ӕ, 20mm, 2.36g, die axis 6h, base metal seems red, high copper content.

Galerius ruled as Caesar from 293 to 305, but most sources give minting years for this type of coin as 295-299.

RIC VI Cyzicus 19b (18b?), Sear 3713. 19b has cuirassed and draped bust, 18b -- only cuirassed. I think the edge of the military cape on the shoulder means it is draped in this case, but distinction seems very vague to me. Looking at coins identified as 18b and 19b I cannot see any clear pattern, it seems that many are confused in this respect just like myself.

GALerius VALerius MAXIMIANUS NOBilitas CAESar (in this era the title of "junior" emperor while Augustus was a "senior" one), CONCORDIA MILITVM = [Dedicated to] harmony with the soldiers, K = Kysikos (Cyzicus) mint, B = officina Beta (workshop #2). The figure to the right is naked except for a cape, so it is a god, the sceptre points to him being Jupiter, the ruler of gods. Jupiter is also typically associated with Victory, he was often depicted with Victory in the right hand and sceptre in the left. The line across his head probably designates a wreath, also a common feature of Jupiter. Victory holds her common attributes, the triumphal wreath and a palm branch, the orb she stands on represents the world (thus meaning dominion over it). Round Earth was a firmly established concept in Roman times. The left figure, the prince (Galerius in this case) is identified by his full battle dress and the hand-held short elongated shape, which is either the ivory baton of imperium (the high command) or, more likely, a parazonium, a long triangular dagger, typically cradled in the bearer's left arm. A Roman parazonium blade tended to be leaf shape and approximately 15"-19" long. It was a ceremonial weapon, a mark of high rank, used to rally the troops.

GALERIUS, * c. 250, near Serdica, Dacia Ripensis (Sofia, Bulgaria) or in a Dacian place later called Felix Romuliana (Gamzigrad, Serbia) † late Apr or early May 311 (aged ~60), Serdica, Dacia Ripensis (Sofia, Bulgaria) ‡ 1 Mar or 21 May 293 – 1 May 305 (as Eastern Caesar, under Diocletian), 1 May 305 – late Apr or early May 311 (as Eastern Augustus with many co-emperors).

Galerius was born of humble parentage and had a distinguished military career. On March 1, 293, he was nominated as Caesar by Diocletian, the supreme ruler of the empire, to help him govern the East. Galerius divorced his wife and married Diocletian’s daughter, Valeria. After ruling from Egypt from 293 to 295, Galerius assumed command of defensive operations against the Sasanians in 297. After being defeated, he then won a decisive victory that increased his influence with Diocletian. Galerius next proceeded to the Balkans and won numerous victories in the region. A staunch pagan, he persuaded the emperor to initiate the persecution of the Christians at Nicomedia in 303.

When Diocletian abdicated on May 1, 305, Galerius became Augustus of the East, ruling the Balkans and Anatolia. Since Galerius had arranged the appointment of two of his favourites, Maximinus (his nephew) and Flavius Valerius Severus, to be Caesars in both East and West, he was in effect the supreme ruler. When Constantius Chlorus died in 306, Galerius insisted that Severus govern the West as Augustus, but he grudgingly conceded the subordinate title of caesar to Chlorus’s son, Constantine, who was correctly suspected of Christian sympathies. Galerius’s supremacy was, however, short-lived. Severus was soon overthrown (306) and killed by Maxentius (son of the former emperor Maximian). Galerius invaded Italy but was forced to retreat. In 308 he induced Diocletian and Maximian to meet him at Carnuntum on the Danube and to declare Maxentius a usurper. On November 11, Galerius proclaimed as Augustus of the West his friend Licinius, who had effective control only in the region of the Danube.

A ruthless ruler, Galerius imposed the poll tax on the urban population and maintained the persecution of the Christians. In the winter of 310–311, however, he became incapacitated with a horrible disease. Fearing, perhaps, that his illness was the vengeance of the Christian God, he issued on April 30, 311, an edict grudgingly granting toleration. Shortly afterward he died. He was succeeded by his nephew Maximinus Daia.

Diocletian's money reform of 293.

Trying to fight the runaway inflation that he did not understand and to return people's faith in Roman coins, Diocletian did a complete overhaul of the Roman monetary system. He introduced a new theoretical base monetary unit called the denarius communis or d.c. (only rarely represented by actual coins, one example being old pre-Aurelian antoniniani still in circulation, valued now at 1 d. c., another – minted only on a small scale 1.5g coin with the reverse legend VTILITAS PVBLICA, "for public use"). Then he started minting new types of coins including a gold aureus of new purity and weight standard (1/60 pound of pure gold), a quality silver coin, argenteus, roughly similar to the early imperial denarius in size and weight, a new billon coin, of a copper alloy but with a small fraction of silver mostly in the form of coating, roughly similar to the old antoninianus when it was just introduced, however bearing now a laureate rather than a radiate bust. This type of coin is now commonly referred to as a follis or a nummus. Finally, a new radiate bronze coin, now referred to as a "radiate fraction" or a radiatus was introduced, similar to the early imperial aes in value, but much smaller in weight and size. There were also rare issues of ˝ and Ľ nummus coins, mostly in connection to some celebration. Interestingly, the obverses of these new coins were chosen to represent some identical "generic" image of a "good emperor" independent of the actual likeness of the August or Caesar in whose name they were issued, thus affirming the unity of all the tetrarchy rulers. Very roughly one may think of a new radiatus as a price of one loaf of bread, a new argenteus as a very good daily wage, and a new aureus as a price of a good horse. An approximate relationship between these units was as follows: 1 aureus ≈ 20 argentei ≈ 1000 d.c. (some scholars prefer 25 argentei and 1250 d.c.); 1 argenteus ≈ 5 nummi ≈ 50 d.c.; 1 nummus ≈ 5 radiati ≈ 10 d.c.; 1 radiatus ≈ 2 d.c. Of course we know that this reform was ineffective and inflation continued, so all these values were constantly shifting due to changing markets. Diocletian himself stopped minting argenteus in c. 305, and Constantine in his monetary reforms only re-established a new and highly successful gold standard, solidus (1/72 pound of pure gold, surprisingly actually first introduced also by Diocletian in 301, but only as a pilot version). As for billon and bronze coins, "folles" or "nummi", they were minted in all shapes and sizes all over the 4th century, often horribly debased by inflation, and their values at each point can only be guessed. It seems that in later times up to 1000 small bronze coins were sealed in a leather pouch to produce a reasonable unit of payment, thus giving rise to the name follis (lit. "bag" in Latin), which is now anachronistically applied to many billon and bronze coins of the late 3d and 4th century.
Yurii P
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Gallienus (Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus) (253-268 A.D.)27 viewsSRCV 10345, RIC V S-656 var. (reverse legend and bust type), Göbl 1626c, Alföldi, Weltkrise p. 159, Van Meter 251.

AR Antoninianus, 21 mm., 180°

Antioch mint, struck during solo reign (260-268 A.D.), in 264 or 265 A.D.

Obv: GALLIENVS AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust facing right.

Rev: SAECVLARHS AVG (Greek H [eta] instead of Latin E), stag standing right, palm branch in exergue.

The reverse legend means means “the Secular (Games) of the Emperor.” The Secular Games (Latin Ludi Saeculares) was a pagan celebration, involving sacrifices and theatrical performances, held for three days and nights to mark the end of a saeculum (supposedly the longest possible length of human life, considered to be either 100 or 110 years in length) and the beginning of the next. The only clearly attested celebrations under the Roman Republic took place in 249 B.C. and in the 140s B.C. The Games were revived in 17 B.C. by Augustus, who observed the traditional 110-year cycle. Claudius, however, introduced an alternative cycle for the games in 47 A.D. on the 800th anniversary of Rome's foundation, based on a century instead of a 110-year cycle, and from that point onward there were essentially two sets of games. Domitian followed Augustus in 88 A.D. using the traditional 110-year cycle, albeit with his games being six years ahead of schedule. Antoninus Pius followed the Claudian “century cycle” in 147/8 A.D. (though without his using the term saecular). Septimius Severus restored the 110-year cycle of Augustus in 204 A.D. Philip the Arab, whose Games of 247/8 marked the millennium of Rome, followed the Claudian cycle.

Alföldi, followed by Göbl, thinks this type proves that Gallienus intended to perform Saecular Games in 264 A.D. The repetition of Saecular games only sixteen years after Philip's games fits with the strong desire at the time to depict every emperor as the restorer of good times and the founder of a new Golden Age.

The stag refers to Diana as patroness of the Saecular Games and divine protectress of Gallienus. The palm branch symbol used with the type is also appropriate for anniversary celebrations.
1 commentsStkp
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Gallienus (Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus) (253-268 A.D.)27 viewsSRCV 10362, RIC V S-283, Göbl 712b, CT 1337, Van Meter 270

BI Antoninianus, 3.20 g., 21.58 mm. max., 180°

Rome mint, first officina, tenth emission, struck during solo reign (260-268 A.D.), in 267-268 A.D.

Obv: GALLIENVS AVG, radiate head right.

Rev: SOLI CONS AVG, winged horse springing right., A in exergue.

Issued in 267-268 A.D. to commemorate vows to Sol invoking his protection against the revolt of Aureolus. A team of four winged horses drew Sol's golden chariot across the sky each day.

RIC rarity C, Van Meter VB1.
1 commentsStkp
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GALLIENUS AR antoninianus - 267 AD (sole reign)23 viewsobv: GALLIENVS AVG (radiate, draped & cuirassed bust right)
rev: AETERNITAS AVG (Saturn standing right holding scythe), PXV in ex.
ref: RIC Vi 606, RSC.44 (PXV = short for TR P XV)
mint: Antioch
1.92gms, 20mm, billon

Saturn, under the form of a man with a beard, veiled, and wearing the toga, who standing holds the harpa in his left hand, appears on coins of Valerianus and of Gallienus, as a symbol of Eternity. HARPA (scythe) is one of the symbols of Saturn who, according to a horrid myth, used it to mutilate (castrate) his father, Uranus. (See the famous paint of Giorgio Vasari: The Mutiliation of Uranus by Saturn).
While Cronus was considered a cruel and tempestuous deity to the Greeks, his nature under Roman influence became more innocuous, with his association with the Golden Age eventually causing him to become the god of "human time", and celebrated him in Saturnalias.
berserker
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George V Gold Sovereign155 views1919-C
Obv. Left Facing King George, GEORGIVS V D.C. OMN:REX F.D.IND:IMP
Rev. St. George on horseback slaying dragon

Sold - Vienna Coin show, Fall 2010.
1 commentsCGPCGP
IMG_4787.JPG
German Notgeld: Düren, Rhineland19 viewsCity: Düren
State: Rhineland
Denomination: ˝ Mark
Obverse: STADT DÜREN, 1/2 MARK in center, 1919 in exergue.
Reverse: KOHLE BRINGT GOLD, head of a miner facing left, wearing cap, and resting pickaxe on left shoulder.
Date: 1919
Grade: VF
Catalog #: L101.12
Matt Inglima
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German Notgeld: Nürnberg – Fürther Strassenbahn17 viewsCity: Nürnberg – Fürther Strassenbahn
State: Bavaria
Denomination: 20 Pfennig
Obverse: NÜRNBERG – FÜRTHER STRASSENBAHN, 20 PFENNIG within circle in center.
Reverse: WENZEL JAMNITZER, bust of goldsmith Wenzel Jamnitzer, facing right.
Date: No Date
Grade: UNC
Catalog #:
Matt Inglima
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German States Prussia. Odd. Possible reproduction. Sold as a medal. Wilhelm, 1796.103 viewsGerman States Prussia. Odd. Possible reproduction. Sold as a medal. Wilhelm, 1796. FREIDRICH WILHELM KONIG VON PARUSSEN, bust right / crowned eagle over date and mint-mark. 1796 A

most similar to KM 93, a gold coin. But the weight should be over 6 grams and my coin is about 3.5 grams.

Not sure.
oneill6217
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Germany, Nurnberg- silver ducat klippe, 165031 viewsThis is one of my favorite non-gold holeys. I had long wanted a klippe and I still want more, but they aren't always cheap. I traded a high grade (unholed) Spanish colonial 2-reales piece for this one, and have been very happy with the swap. You've got to love the little boy with a stick horse. When I saw the design, I simply HAD to have this. lordmarcovan
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GG, Antiochos Theos, 261-246 BC438 viewsGold stater, 18.46mm, 8.37g, EF
Struck before c. 250 BC under Diodotos I at Ai Khanoum(?) [Baktria] mint
Diademed middle-aged head of Diodotus I right / BAΣIΛEΩΣ ANTIOXOY, naked Zeus striding left, aegis over extended left arm, about to hurl fulmen with raised right arm; eagle at feet, N inner left field. RCOA
Ex: Glenn Woods
Newell, ESM 713; Mitchner p. 39, 63
7 commentsLawrence Woolslayer
LarryW2401.jpg
GG, Metapontion, c 340-330 BC (Time of Alexander the Molossian)149 viewsGold third-stater, 13.65mm, 2.57g, aVF
Head of Hera right, wearing stephane / METAΠON, ear of barley with leaf to right upon which bird is perched, its wings folded. RCOA
Ex: Forvm Ancient Coins
HN Italy 1578; Noe-Johnston 3, G1 and pl 18.
1 commentsLawrence Woolslayer
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GG, Ptolemaic, Arsinoe II, died c. 268 BC86 viewsGold oktadrachm, 28mm, 27.7g, VF
Postumous strike by Ptolemy Philadelphos at Alexandria, c. 268 - 250 BC
Veiled head of Arsinoe right, wears stephane and cow's horn, holds sceptre; K behind, circle of dots around / APΣINOHΣ ΦIΛAΔEΛΦOY, double cornuacopiae with fillets; circle of dots around
Svoronos 475
1 commentsLawrence Woolslayer
LarryW8025.jpg
GG, Ptolemy Philadelphos, 282-246 BC124 viewsGold tetradrachm, 13.8g, VF
Struck at Alexandria c. 270-261 BC
AΔEΛΦΩN, diademed and draped busts of Ptolemy Philadelphos and Arsinoe II; shield behind / ΘEΩN, diademed and draped busts of Ptolemy Soter and Berenike I
Svoronos 604
4 commentsLawrence Woolslayer
LarryW2400.jpg
GG, Ptolemy Soter, 305-283 BC310 viewsGold pentadrachm, 22.82mm, 17.82g, EF
Postumous strike under Ptolemy Philadelphos at Tyre c. 271-267 BC
Diademed head of Ptolemy Soter right, wearing aegis / ΠTOΛEMAIOY BAΣIΛEΩΣ, eagle standing half left atop a thunderbolt, wings closed, H above club in left field. RCOA
Ex: Forvm Ancient Coins
Svoronos 636 (citing 8 specimens); BMC p. 9,74 (same obv die)
5 commentsLawrence Woolslayer
LarryW2404.jpg
GG, Taras, c. 280 BC (Time of Pyrrhos)163 viewsGold quarter-stater, 11.7mm, 2.13g, aVF
Laureate head Apollo to right, with long hair; AP behind / Eagle with wings spread standing half left atop wingless fulmen; AP and TAPANTINΩN before. RCOA
Ex: Hess-Leu, 27th March 1956, lot 12
Fischer-Bossert p. 370, G59g and pl. 68 (this coin); HN Italy 986; Vlasto 49; SNG ANS 1043
4 commentsLawrence Woolslayer
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Gilded buckle21 viewsSome gold foil still visible close to the rimphilippe B2
Constantine I, Gloria Romanorvm.jpg
Gloria Romanorvm- Constantinople- RIC 23287 viewsObv: CONSTANTINVS MAX AVG
Rev: GLORIA ROMANORVM Roma seated l. holding Victory on globe and scepter;
CONS in ex., in field l..

Constantinople
327-8 AD, 3.11g. officina =3(s),
RIC-23, C-263 (3 Fr.).
Reduced follis.
Ex. HJB

Scarce reverse type which was used on bronze coins only at Constantinople and on gold coins (mostly multiples) at Constantinople, Trier and Nicomedia. 0
4 commentswolfgang336
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Gold "Kanthirava" fanam, ca.1650, Dutch VOC company, Southern India11 viewsNarasimha in the "Yogabhanda" post holding a chakra and a sankh / Degraded Nagari inscription "Sri Kamthi Rava", with the letter "OC" (from VOC?) visible in the middle line. 6mm, 0.34 grams. KM 212; Herrli #6.03.01 . SKU 42274

The coins with a visible letters "OC" in the central line are generally attributed to the Dutch VOC company. The Kanthirava (or "Narasimha") fanams were first minted by the Kanthirava Narasa Raa Wodeyar (1638-1659) of Mystore. His successors in Mysore kept minting these coins without any design changes until the state fell in 1761. The Dutch also issued this type in Pulicat (until ca.1750) and in Tuticorin (from ca.1658 to 1759), the British EIC issued this type in Madras in the 17th and 18th century. After the death of Tipu Sultan in Mysore, this type was again issued in Mysore by the Wodeyar rulers. There is also some evidence that many petty rulers on the Coromandel coast issued Narasimha fanams as well. All these issues are very similar, though dozens of small varieties do exist. Unfortunately, we do not know enough about them to distinguish between the different issues and attribute them to a certain ruler or period, though some coins might show the Dutch VOC initials on the reverse.
_13
Antonivs Protti
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Gold Cast imitating Alexander Stater113 viewsReal gold. Weighs just over 5 grams. Casting bubbles apparent on coin along with fileds that are very rough compared to real issues. Finally the edges appear to be filed.

Traded to Reid Goldsborough.
1 commentsCGPCGP
85001656.jpg
Gold earrings. Roman, 1st-3rd centuries AD. 26 viewsGold earrings. Roman, 1st-3rd centuries AD. Plain loops, save for central discus-like protrusion between two pendants, each ornamented with band of globules. Height: 2.4cm. Hooks missing, additional pendant ornaments were perhaps attached as well. Otherwise well-preserved.
1 commentsTLP
Gold_Tara,_Vijayanagar_feudatory_in_Uttara_Kannada,_Saluva_dynasty_(1486-1505),_South_India2.jpg
Gold Tara, Vijayanagar feudatory in Uttara Kannada, Saluva dynasty (1486-1505), South India82 viewsGold Tara (or half-fanam). Deer standing left, semi-circle with a dot inside above (crescent moon and star?) / Brahmi letter "Ra" (corrupt and only partially seen). 5mm, 0.25 grams. Unpublished.

These coins are published as silver taras, but are seemingly unknown in gold. They (in silver) are sometimes found in the Uttara Kannada (Gerusoppe region) where the feudatory dynasty of Vijayanagara the Saluva ruled. The short-lived Saluva dynasty included only 2 rulers - Narasimha Saluva (1486-1492) and Immadi Narasimha (1492-1505).

Antonio Protti
Gold_Tara,_Vijayanagar_feudatory_in_Uttara_Kannada,_Saluva_dynasty_(1486-1505),_South_India.jpg
Gold Tara, Vijayanagar feudatory in Uttara Kannada, Saluva dynasty (1486-1505), South India82 viewsGold Tara (or half-fanam). Deer standing left, semi-circle with a dot inside above (crescent moon and star?) / Brahmi letter "Ra" (corrupt and only partially seen). 5mm, 0.25 grams. Unpublished.

These coins are published as silver taras, but are seemingly unknown in gold. They (in silver) are sometimes found in the Uttara Kannada (Gerusoppe region) where the feudatory dynasty of Vijayanagara the Saluva ruled. The short-lived Saluva dynasty included only 2 rulers - Narasimha Saluva (1486-1492) and Immadi Narasimha (1492-1505).


Antonio Protti
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Golden Horde. AR Asper. Hajji-Giray Khan. (1441-1466).1 viewsCaffa mint. Italian communities.

Weight, g: 0.7
Size, mm: 12

Genoese-tatar silver coin Retowski, plate V.
Ruslan K
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Golden Horde: Toqtu (1291-1312) AR Dirham, Khwarizm, AH699 (Album-2023A)14 viewsSpongeBob
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Great Britain97 viewsKing George V Sovereign Gold, 1912, Weight: 7.99 gm. Mintage: 4.4 million 1 commentsDaniel Friedman
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Great Britain, "Spade" type half-guinea of George III, 178938 viewsOld British gold is always fun. I wish I could afford a full guinea, but these days that seems less and less likely. Truth is, I wouldn't be able to afford all the gold that's on my hat now, and wouldn't have it I hadn't bought it back in the early- to mid-2000s when bullion was a lot cheaper.lordmarcovan
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Great Britain, Captain James Cook Medal (Ć) by Lewis Pingo for the Royal Society 178411 viewsLeft-facing bust of Captain James Cook (1728-1779) in his naval uniform. IAC. COOK OCEANI INVESTIGATOR ACERRIMVS (James Cook the most intrepid investigator of the seas) around the border. REG. SOC.LOND. / SOCIO. SVO (The Royal Society London, to its Fellow) below; signed L.P.F. (Lewis Pingo fecit) beneath the truncation of the shoulder.

The personified figure of Fortune leaning against a rostral column, holding a rudder resting on a globe; shield bearing Union Jack leaning against rostra column. NIL INTENTATVM NOSTRI LIQUERE (Our men have left nothing unattempted) around the border. In exergue AUSPICIIS / GEORGII / III (Under the auspices of George III).

MH 374; BHM 258; Betts 553; Eimar 780.

(43 mm, 12h).

On 14 February 1779, the world’s greatest navigator and maritime explorer, Captain James Cook (1728-1779), was killed in a skirmish with the Hawaiian inhabitants at Kealakekua Bay, on the big island. News of his death took almost a year to reach England. On receiving the news, the Chairman of the Royal Society, Sir Joseph Banks, sought designs for a medal to celebrate Cook’s achievements. Many artisans submitted ideas for consideration. However, it was the design of the chief engraver of the London Mint, Lewis Pingo (1743-1830) that won the sanction of the Royal Society. Work on the dies commenced on 15 June 1780 although it was to be more than three years before Sir Joseph Banks announced that the engraving was complete in November 1783. The medal was struck the following year in gold (22 copies), silver (322 copies) and bronze (577 copies). The bronze strikes were distributed free to the Fellows of the Royal Society, while gold and silver were by subscription only, with several of the gold medals reserved for dignitaries, including the King George III and James Cook’s widow Elizabeth.

The portrayal of Cook on the medal is derived from the famous portrait by Nathaniel Dance. The accompanying Latin legend translates to ‘James Cook the most intrepid explorer of the seas.' The reverse celebrates Cook's journeys, with the image of Fortune holding a rudder over the globe and a motto in Latin, which translated reads 'Our men have left nothing unattempted'.
n.igma
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Great Britain. To Hanover (Cumberland Jack)10 viewsGame counter, gilded bronze; 21.5 mm., 0°

Obv: VICTORIA -- REGINA, bust of Victoria facing left

Rev: TO HANOVER, figure of monkey riding a horse to the right, leaping over a dragon (in the style of St George slaying the dragon), 1837 in exergue.

Edge: milled

When William IV died in 1837, Victoria was crowned Queen of Great Britain. However she was prevented by Salic law, which barred a female from acceding the throne, from also being crowned Queen of Hanover. There was agitation in Britain for the repeal of Hanover's Salic law, to no avail. Her unpopular uncle, Ernest Augustus, the Duke of Cumberland, who was William's oldest male heir, was sent off to Hanover as king. For the first time since the accession of George I in 1714, the unified British and Hanoverian monarchies were split. Ernest's income as King of Hanover was considerably greater than his modest allowance as Duke of Hanover. He therefore hastened to occupy his new throne, and to collect his revenues.

The gaming tokens (commonly known as "jacks") bearing the words "To Hanover" (commonly known as Cumberland Jacks) are satirical pieces. They are usually found with Victoria's portrait on the obverse and the year 1837, in which she and Ernest acceded to their thrones, in the exergue on the reverse. The reverse design is based on that of St. George slaying the dragon found on Britain's gold sovereigns. Instead, they depict Ernest (usually with the face of a monkey) riding a horse and leaping over the dragon in his haste to claim his throne. They express the sentiment that Britain is pleased to welcome Victoria to the throne but bids good riddance to Ernest. They were produced from around the time of Victoria's ascension in 1837 until their production was made illegal in 1883.
Stkp
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Greece, 100 Drachmai 1992, KM # 159.74 viewsGreece,
100 Drachmes, brass (29 mm / 10.00 g), 1992,
Obv.: EΛΛHNIKH ΔHMOKPATIA / 1992 - BEPΓINA / 100 / ΔPAXMEΣ , the Vergina sun or star of Vergina.
Rev.: MEΓAΣ AΛEΞANΔPOΣ / BAΣIΛEYΣ MAKEΔONΩN , diademed head of Alexander The Great with horn of Ammon right.
KM # 159.

The Vergina Sun or Star of Vergina is a symbol of a stylised star with sixteen rays. It was found in archaeological excavations in Vergina, in northern Greece, where it was discovered on a golden larnax found in 1977 in the tombs of the kings of the ancient kingdom of Macedon.
The significance of the Vergina Sun is unclear. Archaeologists do not agree whether the sun was a symbol of Macedon, an emblem of Philip's Argead dynasty, a religious symbol, or simply a decorative design.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vergina_Star

my ancient coin database
Arminius
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GREEK, Arsinoe II, Wife of Ptolemy II Philadelphos, 285 - 246 B.C., Gold oktodrachm39 viewsSH24847. Gold oktodrachm, Svoronos 475; BMC Ptolemies p. 43, 10 and pl. VIII, 4; SGCV II 7768, gVF, weight 27.702 g, maximum diameter 28.4 mm, die axis 0o, Alexandria mint, c. 253 - 246 B.C.; obverse diademed and veiled head or Arsinoe II right, K behind; reverse APΣINOHΣ ΦIΛA∆EΛΦOY, double cornucopia bound with fillet1 commentsJoe Sermarini
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GREEK, Attica, Athens, Owl Tetradrachm57 viewsGreece, Attica, Athens, "Athenian Owl" Tetradrachm, 25 mm, 17.14g, 454-404 BC

Please also see the wonderful and comprehensive write up on the "Athenian Owl" at the link below:
http://athenianowlcoins.reidgold.com/
mitresh
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GREEK, Baktrian Kingdom, Eukratides Megas - Tetradrachm168 viewsObv: Within a circular bead-and-reel border, Diademed and draped bust right, wearing crested helmet adorned with bull's horn and ear.

Rev: Dioskouroi on rearing horses right, holding palm fronds and spears; monogram in lower right field, Greek semi-circular legend on top "BAΣIΛEΩΣ MEΓAΛOY" and at bottom "EYKPATIΔOY" meaning '(of) Great King Eucratides'.

Bopearachchi 6W, SNG ANS 469-471

The helmeted Eucratides tetradrachm is one of the most popular and sought-after coins of the Bactrian series. Certainly it boasts one of the best Hellenistic portrait of all times. Eukratides also minted the largest known Gold Coin of Antiquity, a massive 20 Stater coin weighing 169.2g with a huge flan size of 58mm. Perhaps it was a commemorative victory medal to celebrate Eucratides's conquest of "India," presumably some land south of the Hindu Kush, perhaps Gandhara.
4 commentsmitresh
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GREEK, Kingdom of Thrace, Lysimachos, 305 - 281 B.C., Portrait of Alexander the Great, Gold stater25 viewsSH30334. Gold stater, apparently unpublished, Müller -, EF, weight 8.652 g, maximum diameter 19.5 mm, die axis 0o, uncertain mint, obverse diademed head of Alexander the Great right wearing the horn of Ammon; reverse BAΣIΛEΩΣ ΛYΣIMAXOY, Athena seated left, Victory in extended right, resting left elbow on shield, XA monogram left; sharp details with some luster, obverse slightly double-struck, ex Numismatica Ars Classica/NAC AG LondonJoe Sermarini
48867q00.jpg
GREEK, Kingdom of Thrace, Lysimachos, 305 - 281 B.C., Portrait of Alexander the Great, Gold stater23 viewsSH48867. Gold stater, Müller 162; SNG Cop 1086 ff. var. (monogram), EF, weight 8.544 g, maximum diameter 17.6 mm, die axis 180o, Byzantion (Istanbul, Turkey) mint, posthumous, c. 250 - 150 B.C.; obverse diademed head of Alexander the Great right wearing the horn of Ammon; reverse BAΣIΛEΩΣ ΛYΣIMAXOY, Athena seated left, Victory in extended right, resting left elbow on shield, monogram inner left, BY on throne, trident in exergue ornamented with two small dolphins; extraordinary mint luster, high relief, nice style, fantastic coin!Joe Sermarini
09059q00.jpg
GREEK, Kingdom of Thrace, Lysimachos, 305 - 281 B.C., Portrait of Alexander the Great, Gold stater21 viewsSH09059. Gold stater, Thompson 164, EF, weight 8.50 g, maximum diameter 18.2 mm, die axis 180o, Ephesus mint, posthumous, 305 - 297 B.C.; obverse diademed head of Alexander the Great right wearing the horn of Ammon; reverse BAΣIΛEΩΣ ΛYΣIMAXOY, Athena seated left, resting elbow on shield and holding Victory, bee and E-Φ in left field; struck with beautiful dies, mint luster!Joe Sermarini
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Greek, Macedonian Kingdom, Alexander III The Great, 336 - 323 B.C.271 viewsSilver drachm, Price 2090A, ADM I 80 (same dies), VF, 4.214g, 16.0mm, 0o, Miletos mint, lifetime issue, c. 325 - 323 B.C.; obverse Herakles' head right, clad in Nemean lion scalp headdress tied at neck, K on lion's jaw behind Herakles' ear; reverse ΑΛΕΞΑΝ∆ΡΟΥ ( means " Of Alexander " in Ancient Greek ), Zeus seated left, legs uncrossed, right leg forward, feet on footstool, eagle in extended right, long scepter vertical behind in left, monogram before;

EX; FORVM Ancient Coins.
Lifetime Issue! Signed by the artist!(?) The K behind Herakles ear had traditionally been identified as the signature of the artist. Matt Kreuzer, however, believes the K (the Greek numeral 20) was used c. 325 B.C. to introduce the Attic drachm to Miletos by indicating either that 20 of these was equal to a gold stater, or that one of these drachm was equal to 20 of the 3 to 4 gram bronzes circulating at the time.
*With my sincere thank and appreciation , Photo and Description courtesy of FORVM Ancient Coins Staff.

From The Sam Mansourati Collection.
8 commentsSam
48868q00.jpg
GREEK, Macedonian Kingdom, Alexander III the Great, 336 - 323 B.C.17 viewsSH48868. Gold stater, Price 177, Müller Alexander 196, gVF, weight 8.595 g, maximum diameter 17.7 mm, die axis 0o, Amphipolis mint, c. 330 - 320 B.C.; obverse head of Athena right wearing earring, necklace, and crested Corinthian helmet decorated with a coiled snake; reverse AΛEΞAN∆POY, Nike standing left, wreath in right hand, stylus in left, kantharos left, ΛO monogram lower left; nice style, high relief, good strike, and mint lusterJoe Sermarini
56812q00.jpg
GREEK, Macedonian Kingdom, Alexander III the Great, 336 - 323 B.C.24 viewsSH56812. Gold stater, Price 2633; Müller Alexander 30, aEF, rev die wear, fine style, Lydia, Sardes (Sart, Turkey) mint, weight 8.597g, maximum diameter 17.0mm, die axis 180o, c. 323 - 319 B.C.; obverse head of Athena right in crested Corinthian helmet decorated with a coiled snake, wearing necklace and pendant earring; reverse AΛEΞAN∆[POY], Nike standing half left, wreath in extended right, stylus in left, race torch left below wing, monogram off flan below right wing; a few small die breaks, lustrous fields, superb bust of AthenaJoe Sermarini
32292q00.jpg
GREEK, Macedonian Kingdom, Alexander III the Great, 336 - 323 B.C., Gold stater22 viewsSH32292. Gold stater, Price 898 var. (monogram; cf. Price 927 tetradrachm), EF, weight 8.443 g, maximum diameter 18.5 mm, die axis 0o, Kallatis (Mangalia, Romania) mint, c. 250 - 225 B.C.; obverse head of Athena right in crested Corinthian helmet decorated with a coiled snake; reverse AΛEΞAN∆P[OY], Nike standing half left, wreath in extended right, stylus in left, KAΛ monogram to left; high relief, bold, mint luster and a rare variety, small scratch on reverseJoe Sermarini
77066q00.jpg
GREEK, Macedonian Kingdom, Alexander III the Great, 336 - 323 B.C., Gold stater21 viewsSH77066. Gold stater, Price 172, Müller 105, Choice aEF, mint luster, superb style, high relief, good strike, weight 8.580 g, maximum diameter 18.4 mm, die axis 270o, Macedonia, Amphipolis mint, c. 327 - 325 B.C.; obverse head of Athena right wearing earring, necklace, and crested Corinthian helmet decorated with a coiled snake; reverse AΛEΞAN∆POY, Nike standing left, wreath in right hand, stylus in left hand, trident-head downward (control symbol) in left field, struck during the lifetime of Alexander the Great.Joe Sermarini
59889q00.jpg
GREEK, Macedonian Kingdom, Alexander III the Great, 336 - 323 B.C., Gold stater22 viewsSH59889. Gold stater, Price 164, Müller Alexander 2, SNG Cop 625, gVF, weight 8.593 g, maximum diameter 17.9 mm, die axis 180o, Amphipolis mint, possibly a lifetime issue, c. 325 - 320 B.C; obverse head of Athena right wearing earring, necklace, and crested Corinthian helmet decorated with a coiled snake; reverse AΛEΞAN∆POY, Nike standing left, wreath in right hand, stylus in left, fulmen (thunderbolt) in left field; ex CNG, auction 90, lot 441; high-relief and fine styleJoe Sermarini
33207q00.jpg
GREEK, Macedonian Kingdom, Alexander III the Great, 336 - 323 B.C., Gold stater24 viewsSH33207. Gold stater, Price 2533, Müller Alexander 293, VF, weight 8.496 g, maximum diameter 18.2 mm, die axis 0o, Sardes (Sart, Turkey) mint, c. 334 - 323 B.C.; obverse head of Athena right wearing earring, necklace, and crested Corinthian helmet decorated with a coiled snake, hair in ringlets; reverse AΛEΞAN∆POY, Nike standing left, wreath in right hand, stylus in left, griffin head leftJoe Sermarini
33180q00.jpg
GREEK, Macedonian Kingdom, Alexander III the Great, 336 - 323 B.C., Gold stater23 viewsSH33180. Gold stater, Price 2114b, Müller Alexander 577, Choice EF, weight 8.575 g, maximum diameter 18.1 mm, die axis 0o, Miletos (near Balat, Turkey) mint, c. 311 - 305 B.C.; obverse head of Athena right wearing earring, necklace, and crested Corinthian helmet decorated with a coiled snake, hair in ringlets; reverse BAΣIΛEΩΣ AΛEΞAN∆POY, Nike standing left, wreath in right hand, stylus in left, KH monogram left, labrys lower rightJoe Sermarini
50029q00.jpg
GREEK, Macedonian Kingdom, Alexander III the Great, 336 - 323 B.C., Gold stater27 viewsSH50029. Gold stater, Price 1358, Müller Alexander 394, IGC EF45, Lampsakos (Lapseki, Turkey) mint, c. 328 - 323 B.C.; obverse head of Athena right wearing earring, necklace, and crested Corinthian helmet decorated with a coiled snake, hair in ringlets; reverse AΛEΞAN∆POY, Nike standing left, wreath in right hand, stylus in left, foreparts of conjoined horses in left field, monogram below left wing; certified (slabbed) by ICGJoe Sermarini
28064q00.jpg
GREEK, Macedonian Kingdom, Alexander III the Great, 336 - 323 B.C., Lifetime Issue, Gold stater29 viewsSH28064. Gold stater, Price 2084, Müller Alexander -, gVF, weight 8.578 g, maximum diameter 18.3 mm, die axis 180o, Miletos (near Balat, Turkey) mint, 325 - 323 B.C.; obverse head of Athena right in crested Corinthian helmet, thunderbolt below; reverse AΛEΞAN∆POY, Nike standing left holding wreath and ship's mast, H∆ monogram in lower right field; nicely centered; rare varietyJoe Sermarini
Makedonia-Königreich_Alexander_III__336-323.jpg
Greek, Macedonian Kingdom, Alexander III the Great, 336-323 BC, Gold Stater108 viewsAV Stater 336-323 BC, Sardes. Athena Av. Athena, rv. . Nike standing to the right! w/ wreath and stylis, Sun (star), 8,53 g. Price 2644. 2 commentsAkeo
Alex gold Stater.jpg
GREEK, MACEDONIAN KINGDOM, Alexander the Great. Stater79 viewsAlexander the Great.
336-323 BC.
Gold Stater.
Ex. Spink London.
Jan Terje R
68354p00.jpg
GREEK, Macedonian Kingdom, Philip II, 359 - 336 B.C., Gold stater17 viewsSH68354. Gold stater, Le Rider p. 146 & pl. 58. 157 (D42/R112), SNG ANS 172 ff., SNG Cop 529, SNG Alpha Bank -, EF, perfect centering, weight 8.602 g, maximum diameter 18.0 mm, die axis 0o, Pella mint, posthumous, 323 - 317 B.C.; obverse laureate head of Apollo right; reverse ΦIΛIΠΠOY (in exergue), charioteer driving biga right, kentron in right, reins in left, kantharos below; ex Gorny & Mosch auction 215, lot 758Joe Sermarini
57285q00.jpg
GREEK, Macedonian Kingdom, Philip II, 359 - 336 B.C., Gold stater23 viewsSH57285. Gold stater, Le Rider 339 (D62/R259), SNG ANS 144 ff., Choice aEF, weight 8.554 g, maximum diameter 18.4 mm, die axis 180o, Amphipolis mint, c. 340 - 328 B.C.; obverse laureate head of Apollo right; reverse charioteer in biga right, trident head below horses, ΦIΛIΠΠOY exergue; ex Harlan Berk, attractive style, perfect centeringJoe Sermarini
70337q00.jpg
GREEK, Macedonian Kingdom, Philip II, 359 - 336 B.C., Gold stater20 viewsSH70337. Gold stater, Le Rider 341 (D152/R260), SNG ANS 154, Choice gVF, attractive style, perfect centering, light marks, weight 8.513 g, maximum diameter 19.1 mm, die axis 270o, Amphipolis mint, c. 340 - 328 B.C.; obverse laureate head of Apollo right; reverse charioteer in biga right, trident head below horses, ΦIΛIΠΠOY exergueJoe Sermarini
57441p00.jpg
GREEK, Macedonian Kingdom, Philip II, 359 - 336 B.C., Gold stater20 viewsSL57441. Gold stater, Le Rider 170 ff., SNG ANS 144 ff., ICG - AU55, Amphipolis mint, c. 340 - 328 B.C.; obverse laureate head of Apollo right; reverse charioteer in biga right, trident head below horses, ΦIΛIΠΠOY exergue; ICG certified (slabbed) about uncirculated; sharp, attractive fine style, bold high-reliefJoe Sermarini
50028p00.jpg
GREEK, Macedonian Kingdom, Philip III Arrhidaeus and Alexander IV, 323 - 317 B.C., Gold stater22 viewsSH50028. Gold stater, Thompson Philip 13; SNG ANS 318, NGC Choice Uncirculated, weight 8.58 g, Teos (near Sigacik, Turkey) mint, c. 323 - 316 B.C.; obverse laureate head of Apollo right; reverse charioteer driving biga right, holding kentron in right hand, reins in left, star and filleted branch below horses, ΦIΛIΠΠOY and spear head in exergue; certified (slabbed) by NGC Ch AU, Strike 4/5, Surface 3/5Joe Sermarini
54774q00.jpg
GREEK, Macedonian Kingdom, Philip III Arrhidaeus and Alexander IV, 323 - 317 B.C., Gold stater23 viewsSH54774. Gold stater, Price P203, Müller Alexander P116, aEF, weight 8.564 g, maximum diameter 18.0 mm, die axis 90o, Babylon mint, c. 323 - 317 B.C.; obverse head of Athena right in crested Corinthian helmet ornamented with Griffin; reverse BAΣIΛEΩΣ ΦIΛIΠΠOY, Nike standing left, wreath in right hand, facing head of Helios below left, [KY] below right; Struck under Archon, Dokimos, or Seleukos I, circa 323-318/7 BC.Joe Sermarini
68257q00.jpg
GREEK, Macedonian Kingdom, Ptolemy I, Satrap of Egypt, 323 - 305 B.C., In the Name of Alexander the Great, Gold stater22 viewsSH68257. Gold stater, Svoronos 11, Price 3975, Müller Alexander 6, SNG Cop 643, EF, weight 8.554 g, maximum diameter 19.1 mm, die axis 0o, Egypt, Memphis mint, reign of Philip III, c. 323 - 316 B.C.; obverse head of Athena right wearing earring, necklace, and crested Corinthian helmet decorated with a coiled snake, hair in ringlets; reverse AΛEΞAN∆POY, Nike standing left, wreath in right hand, stylus in left, thunderbolt left, small ∆I at feet on left; ex Gorny & Mosch auction 215, lot 775Joe Sermarini
86428q00.jpg
GREEK, Metapontion, Lucania, Italy, 334 - 330 B.C., Gold 1/3 stater18 viewsSH86428. Gold 1/3 stater, SNG Lockett 406; SNG ANS 395; HN Italy 1578; Noe-Johnston 3, G1 and pl. 18; SNG Lloyd -; SNG Cop -; Jameson -; Gulbenkian -; Pozzi -; Weber -, aVF+, fine style, marks, reverse double struck, weight 2.574 g, maximum diameter 13.6 mm, die axis 180o, Metapontion mint, c. 334 - 332 B.C.; obverse head of Demeter right, wearing stephane and pendant earring; reverse METAΠON, barley stalk, bird right on leaf to right; ex Forum (2007), ex Christie's Auction (1993) ; very rareJoe Sermarini
MYSIA,_Kyzikos.jpg
Greek, MYSIA, Kyzikos.119 viewsRarity otherwise unpublished
MYSIA, Kyzikos. 5th-4th centuries BC. EL Hekte – 1/6 Stater (Gold - 9mm, about 2.49 g). Kithara (lyre) ; below, tunny right / Quadripartite incuse square. Cf. Von Fritze I 181 (stater); cf. SNG France 325 (1/12 Stater); Hurter & Liewald II 181. Fine. Rarity.
Same coin listed at Wildwinds.

Sam Mansourati Collection / CNG.
Photo and Description , courtesy of Classical Numismatic Group, Inc.
2 commentsSam
12093q00.jpg
GREEK, Pontic Kingdom, Mithradates VI, c. 120 - 63 B.C., Lysimachos Type, Gold stater21 viewsSH12093. Gold stater, SNG Cop 1089 var. (monogram), Choice EF, weight 8.232 g, maximum diameter 23.0 mm, die axis 0o, Byzantium (Istanbul, Turkey) mint, c. 100 - 85 B.C; obverse diademed head of Alexander the Great (with the features of Mithradates VI), wearing the horn of Ammon; reverse BAΣIΛEΩΣ ΛYΣIMAXOY, Athena enthroned left, holding Nike and resting left arm on shield, transverse spear against her side, BY on throne, AP monogram under right arm, trident and two dolphins in exergue; fantastic style with superb portrait of Mithradates as Alexander the Great!Joe Sermarini
24848q00.jpg
GREEK, Ptolemaic Kingdom, Ptolemy II Philadelphos, 285 - 246 B.C., Gold tetradrachm17 viewsSH24848. Gold tetradrachm, Svoronos 604; BMC Ptolemies p. 40, 4 - 5; SNG Cop 133; SGCV II 7790, superb aEF, weight 13.813 g, maximum diameter 20.0 mm, die axis 0o, Alexandria mint, 265 - 260 B.C.; obverse A∆EΛΦΩN, jugate busts of Ptolemy II Philadelphos, diademed and draped, and Arsinoe II, diademed and veiled, shield behind; reverse ΘEΩN, jugate busts of Ptolemy I Soter, diademed and wearing aegis, and Berenike I, diademed and veiledJoe Sermarini
Ptolemy_tyre_tet~0.jpg
Greek, Ptolemy II Tetradrachm 201 viewsSilver tetradrachm, Svoronos 626 var (no monogram) or Svoronos 644 var (D behind ear), VF, Phoenicia, Tyre mint, weight 14.076g, maximum diameter 27.4mm, die axis 0o, obverse diademed head of Ptolemy I right wearing aegis; reverse PTOLEMAIOU BASILEWS, eagle standing left on thunderbolt, Tyre monogram and club left; rare;

Ex Forvm

Svoronos' description for tetradrachm 626 is the "same as the gold pentadrachm." In the notes for the pentadrachm he notes the type sometimes has a Tyre monogram, but the notes for the tetradrachm 626 discuss only countermarks and not a monogram. The monogram is absent on the plate coin.

Svoronos 644 is be marked with a tiny D behind Ptolemy's ear. On this coin the mark appears to be absent.

Philoromaos
balanea_leucas_pseudoautonom_Lindgren2178+.jpg
Greek, Syria, Seleukia and Piereia, Balanea Leucas, pseudo-autonomous, Lindgren & Kovacs 2178 (plate coin)72 viewsAE 16, 3.3g
struck 2nd century AD
obv. LEVKADIE - WN
Nike stg. l., holding palm-branch and wreath
rev. XRYSOROAC - KLAVDIEW - N
Upper part of body of river-god Chrysoroas, looking frontal, left hand raised
ref. RPCI 4465B var. (different legend); SNG Copenhagen 303; Lindgren-Kovacs 2178 (this coin!)
about VF

Chrysoroas (the golden river), today Jerash river.
Jochen
Guaramala.jpg
Guatemala69 viewsKM616.2 - 1 Peso - 1860 (Gold)Daniel Friedman
Guatemala.jpg
Guatemala52 viewsKm238.2 - 5 Centavos - 1929
Km276.4 - 5 Centavos - 1991
Km277.6 - 10 Centavos - 1991
Km152 - ˝ real - 1879-D
Km176 - ˝ Real - 1901
Km177 - 1 Real - 1911
Km167 - 2 Real - 1894-H
Km616.2 - 1 gold Peso - 1860-R
Daniel F
Hacksilber.jpg
Hacksilber Fragment, Earliest Coinage Period, Holy Land94 viewsHacksilber Ingot, c. 8-6 centuries BC, Israel. 21 x 14 x 5 mm, 8.4 grams. Cut in antiquity from a larger piece. Possibly an overweight Pym or underweight Nezef?

Similar ingots were found at Ein Gedi, Israel in a terra cotta cooking pot, hidden in a building destroyed near the end of Iron Age II, early 6th century BC (Avi-Yonah Encylcopedia of the Holy Land, volume 2, p. 374.)

The basic weight in use was the shekel, weighing 11.4 g on average. Other weight groups include, but are not limited to, the following:

(1) Beqa, a half shekel (Ex. 38:26), 5.7 g. (2) Nezef, averaging 9.12 g. The Judaean equivalent to an Egyptian qedet. (3) Pym, 7.6 g. (1 Samuel 13:21) The Judaean equivalent to the Phoenician shekel.

The weight of this ingot is identical to the Mesopotamian shekel. During the 9th to 6th centuries BCE in the Assyrian and Babylonian empires, the common form of expressing prices was in quantities equivalent to one shekel (8.4 g) of silver.

In ancient times, livestock were often used in barter. Indicative of this is the fact that the Latin word for money (pecunia) is drawn from pecus, meaning “cattle.” However, livestock (Ge 47:17) and foodstuffs (1Ki 5:10, 11) were obviously not a convenient medium of exchange.

Instead, pieces of precious metals began to be used, the weight being checked at the time the transaction was made.

Ge 23:16 "Abraham weighed out to E′phron the amount of silver that he had spoken in the hearing of the sons of Heth, four hundred silver shekels current with the merchants."; Jer 32:10 "Then I wrote in a deed and affixed the seal and took witnesses as I went weighing the money in the scales."

The usual Hebrew term translated as “money,” keseph, literally means “silver.” (Ge 17:12) There was no coined money in Israel during the First Temple Period (1006-586 BCE). Rather, it consisted of cut pieces of silver and gold, or molded for convenience into bars, rings, bracelets, having a specific weight. - Ge 24:22

At Judges 5:19, bâtsa‛ keseph, which is commonly rendered as, “No gain of silver did they take,” literally means to break off or cut off silver.
Nemonater
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-ICvmYUEhNj7ZxW-Hadrian_dupondius.jpg
Hadrian (Augustus) Coin: Brass Dupondius 4 viewsHADRIANVS AVGVSTVS - Radiate head right, with slight drapery
COS SC below - Pegasus running right
Exergue:


Mint: Rome (124-128 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 11.15g / 25mm / 180
References:
RIC II 658
Cohen 436cf
BMC 1330
Acquisition/Sale: adamfrisco eBay $0.00 02/18
Notes: Oct 10, 18 - The Gary R. Wilson Collection

One look at Medusa would turn a man to stone. Bellerophon slew Medusa with one blow of his sword. From her blood sprang Pegasus. Minerva gave Bellerophon a golden bridle with which he caught Pegasus. Later he placed the head of Medusa on Minerva's shield to repay her. But Bellerophon grew proud and sought to ride Pegasus to the Palace of Jupiter in the heavens. Angered, Jupiter, sent an insect to sting Pegasus, causing the winged steed to throw Bellerophon to his death.
Gary W2
Hadrian_Sestertius_with_Galley_89_99.jpg
Hadrian (Augustus) Coin: Brass Sestertius 9 viewsHADRIANVS AVGVSTVS - Laureate and draped bust right.
FELICITATI AVG - galley rowed left over waves, five oarsmen, steersman under an arched shelter at the stern, vexillum on prow, S - C flanking ship, COS III P P in ex.
Exergue: COS III P P



Mint: Rome (132-135 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 23.65g / 33mm / 12
References:
RIC 706
Cohen 664
Acquisition/Sale: emperorashur eBay $0.00 07/18

From Numiswiki:

FELICITATI AVG means: "To the happiness of the emperor."

FELICITATI AVG COS III P P S C (Felicitati Augusti Consulis tertium, Patris Patriae, Senatus Consulto). First Brass of Hadrian.




"A pretorian galley, full of men, impelled along both by oars and a large square sail, across which the inscription is written, in the taste then prevalent; for we are assured, that, in the time of Trajan, it was not uncommon to have the name of the emperor embroidered on the sails, in gold and silver. Besides being the type of felicity, this medal is supposed to allude to the prudent government of Hadrian; for as in a ship, though the officers and crew are liable to the same hazard, the success of the voyage will chiefly depend on the skill and judgment of the commander, so in the management of the State, the happiness and prosperity of the community depend upon the wisdom and prudence of the sovereign at the helm of affairs. The sail to this ship, this 'navis velis ventique,' is stretched to a yard supported by lifts; it is deep roached, with both sheets aft, in token of auspicious winds; the emblem of happiness..."

This reverse seems to have had for its object to record the vows made by the senate for the success of one of Hadrian's sea voyages, but which in particular is not known.

On a brass medallion of the same emperor, Minerva fills the place here occupied by Neptune, whilst dolphins disport themselves in the waves around this magnificent ship as it glides along.

From Roma:
The galley appears on several types of Hadrian's, and was struck in both silver and bronze. It is thought to have celebrated the safe return to Rome of the emperor after his second great tour of the empire, but it has been suggested that it is imbued with further symbolism than a standard type representing the arrival of the emperor: the legend of FELICITATI AVG is used to convey the good tidings not only of Hadrian's arrival, but also the happiness, security and prosperity that he has carried with him to the provinces of the empire.
Gary W2
hadras15-2.jpg
Hadrian, RIC 662, As of AD 125-128 (Janus)6 viewsĆ As (10.3, 17mm, 6h). Rome mint. Struck AD 125-128.
Obv.: HADRIANVS AVGUSTVS, laureate head right.
Rev.: COS III around, S | C, Janus standing holding sceptre in right hand left hand on hip.
RIC 662 (C); Cohen 281; Strack 601; RHC 117/75

Issued on the occasion of the tenth anniversary of the reign in 127 AD, celebrated as the renewal of the golden age (Foss, RHC)
Charles S
P3-Half Eagle.jpg
Half Eagle102 viewsHalf Eagle (5 dollar) coin, 1907-D

Coronet type (variety 2), minted 1866-1908, 8.36 gr., 21.6 mm, .900 gold, .100 copper, reeded edge, Designer: Christian Gobrecht.

1907-D, E. Fine, 888,000 minted.

Reference: KM 101
3 commentsDaniel Friedman
Helena_Augusta_Ć_Follis.png
Helena. Augusta, AD 324-328/30. Ć Follis 42 viewsHelena. Augusta, AD 324-328/30. Ć Follis (19mm). Siscia mint
Diademed and mantled bust right / Securitas standing left, holding branch and raising robe; ЄSIS(double crescent).
RIC VII 218.
Superb golden brown patina. Ch aEF.
6 commentsSam
41348Syracuse,_Sicily,_c__405_B_C_,_KIMON_.jpg
Hemilitron, c. 405 B.C. Arethusa/ wheel of four spokes, “SU-RA” & two dolphins; KIMON?10 viewsSyracuse, Sicily, c. 405 B.C., KIMON? Bronze hemilitron, SGCV I 1186; Calciati II p. 45, 19, VF, Syracuse mint, 2.833g, 15.9mm, 270o, c. 405 B.C.; obverse head of Arethusa left, hair bound with ampyx and sphendone, signature KIM in low field to right; reverse, wheel of four spokes, “ΣΥ−ΡΑ” in upper quarters, two dolphins in lower quarters. The master-engravers who signed their work in gold and silver also engraved dies for bronze coins. This coin is unsigned or the signature is off flan. While the engraver is uncertain, this beautiful coin does exhibit the superb style of Kimon. Ex FORVM, photo credit FORVMPodiceps
Herod,_h_1190.jpg
Hendin 1190: Herod the Great, Eagle Lepton62 viewsHerod the Great. 37-4 B.C.. AE half-prutah. Jerusalem Mint. Hendin 1190. Obverse: (Of King Herod in Greek), single cornucopia. Reverse: Eagle standing right. Ex Amphora.

The first coin by a Jewish ruler to depict a graven image. This could be a reference to the golden bird King Herod placed at the Second Temple in Jerusalem.
Lucas H
image00598.jpg
Hephthalites: Vasu Deva (early 7th Century) AR Tri-lingual Drachm (Göbl Hunnen Em.244, MACW-1560)45 viewsObverse: Bust of Vasu Deva right in Persian style. Bull head above crown ; tamgha countermark, gold plug countermark. Brahmi legend in field. Cursive Bactrian Greek Legend around.
Reverse: Zoroastrian fire altar and attendants. Pahlavi legend in fields, Cursive Bactrian Greek Legend around.
1 commentsSpongeBob
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Heraclius and Sons Gold Solidus31 views70051. Gold solidus, Wroth BMC 76; Tolstoi 410; DOC II part 1, 44f (no examples in the collection, refs Wroth); SBCV 770; Hahn MIB 53; Sommer 11.35; Morrisson BnF -, aEF, luster, tight flan, graffiti on obverse and reverse, 4.336g, 19.3mm, 180o, 8th officina, Constantinople mint, 639(?) - 641;

obverse Heraclius in center taller with mustache, long beard; standing with Heraclius Constantine on right, Heraclonas on left, sons beardless and equal height, all wear crown, chlamys and tablion ornamented with pellets, and hold globus cruciger in right;

reverse VICTORIA AVGu H, cross potent on three steps, Heraclian monogram left, E right, CONOB in ex

In 632, Heraclonas, Heraclius younger son, was designated Caesar and added to the coinage. Heraclonas was seven years old. The Heraclian monogram on the reverse replaces the more typical obverse inscription.
Colby S
Heraclius_Gold_Solidus_SB_741~0.jpg
Heraclius Gold Solidus SB 74128 viewsHeraclius, with Heraclius Constantine, Gold Solidus, Constantinople 9th Officina,
Struck 616 - 625 AD, 20mm, 4.37g, 7h, DOC 16c; MIB 20; SB 741,
OBV: dd NN hERACLIUS ET hERA CONST PP AVG, Crowned facing busts of Heraclius and Heraclius Constantine; cross above
REV: VICTORIA AVGUΘ, Cross potent set on three steps, Θ to right, CONOB

EX: CNG ESALE 270, Lot 362
Romanorvm
Heraclius_Gold_Solidus_SB_749~0.jpg
Heraclius Gold Solidus SB 74933 viewsHeraclius, with Heraclius Constantine, Gold solidus, Constantinople, 7th officina, 610 - 641, 20mm, 4.34g, 6h, Struck 629-632 DOC 26g var., (Z not retrograde), MIB 29, SB 749
20mm, 4.34g, 6h, Struck 629-632 DOC 26g var., (Z not retrograde), MIB 29, SB 749
OBV: ddNNhERACLIYSEThERACONSPPA, Crowned facing busts of Heraclius and Heraclius Constantine, cross above
REV: VICTORIA-AVGUZ, Cross potent set on three steps; retrograde Z//CONOB

EX: CNG ESALE 270, Lot 364
1 commentsRomanorvm
herac D.jpg
Heraclius Solidus56 viewsAU Solidus
Obv. Crowned & cuir bust facing holding gl. cr., D.N. ERAC [Greek_Lambda] IO PP [Greek_Delta] I (=yr 14 indiction, 625-6 AD)
Rev. Cross potent on two steps, VICTORIA AVGG IE (=yr 15 indiction, 626-7 AD), CONOB in ex.

S.866 from Carthage

Sear notes that some of these coins have different years on obverse and reverse.
Tanit
gord2~1.jpg
Hercules292 viewsThis medallion of Gordian III represents the third labour of Hercules. This labour was to capture the Hind of Cerynaea, the hind was known as Cerynitis. Eurystheus bestowed this task upon Heracles knowing full well that the animal was the sacred property of Artemis, that meant he would be committing impiety against the goddess. Artemis found a small herd of five while out hunting, she captured four to harness to her chariot, but the fifth escaped to Mount Cerynaea which borders Arcadia and Achaea. The animal was larger than a bull, brazen-hoofed also with huge golden horns or antlers of a stag.
With the hind being swift of foot it took Heracles a whole year to get close to the creature. He tracked the hind through Greece and into Thrace, (in some versions it says the chase took Heracles as far as Istria and the northern lands of the Hyperboreans). Never daunted by the long chase, Heracles was waiting for the hind to tire, this was not to be, and the hind seemed to have plenty of stamina and agility left.
Heracles knew he must disable the creature in some way, then by chance the hind stopped to drink at a river. Taking an arrow and removing the blood of the Hydra from the tip, Heracles took aim and hit the hind in the leg, making it lame, this made catching the creature much easier. Heracles bound the wound and then set off on his long journey home. On the way to the palace of Eurystheus he was met by the goddess Artemis and her twin brother Apollo. On seeing the Ceryneian Hind, the huntress accused Heracles of sacrilege. Heracles pleaded with them, saying it was a necessity to return the sacred hind to the court of king Eurystheus, as he was bound by the labor imposed on him. Artemis granted Heracles forgiveness and he was allowed to carry the hind alive to the palace.
Upon bringing the hind to Eurystheus, he was told that it was to become part of the King's menagerie. Heracles knew that he had to return the hind as he had promised, so he agreed to hand it over on the condition that Eurystheus himself come out and take it from him. The King came out, but the moment Heracles let the hind go, it sprinted back to its mistress, and Heracles left saying that Eurystheus had not been quick enough

5 commentsbenito
Copy_of_herennius-etruscus_AR-antoninianus_implements_3_86gr_inside-flip_obv_15_flash.JPG
Herennius Etruscus AR Antoninianus - Implements - Obverse 1514 viewsHERENNIUS ETRUSCUS AR Antoninianus, 3.86gr.
As Caesar under Trajan Decius, AD 250-251.

obv: Q HER ETR MES DECIVS NOB C - His young radiate draped bust right.
rev: PIETAS AVGVSTORVM - around five sacrificial implements. Sprinkler/whip, ladle(simpulum?), jug, patera, lituus.
------------------
*Note photo may be a bit brighter and golden toned due to lighting, Flash.
rexesq
Herod I H501.jpg
Herod I (37-4BC) Hendin 501 TJC 6641 viewsLepton, 11x13mm, 0.70g.

Obverse: Single cornucopia, BACIL/HRWD in dotted circle.

Reverse: Eagle standing R, pellet in L field, in dotted circle.

Hendin 501

Treasury of Jewish Coins 66.

The eagle was doubtless intended as a Jewish, rather than Roman, symbol, being one of the animals supporting YHVH's throne in Ezekiel. It probably relates to the golden eagle erected by Herod over the Temple gate. How long this stood is uncertain, but in his last year, as his power weakened, it became the centre of a riot which ended in its destruction as an idolatrous image. There is no record of any protest against the coins.
1 commentsRobert_Brenchley
herodes_eagle.jpg
Herod the Great, 37 - 4 B.C. Bronze lepton, Hendin 501; Golden bird8 viewsJudean Kingdom, Herod the Great, 37 - 4 B.C. Bronze lepton, Hendin 501, Meshorer 23, RPC I 4909, aVF, Jerusalem mint, 1.033g, 14.0mm, 180o, obverse “HRWD BASIL”, cornucopia; reverse , eagle standing; scarce. This is the first Jewish coin to feature a graven image, the golden bird at the gate of the temple. Ex FORVMPodiceps
Honorius_Gold_Solidus_Bust.jpg
Honorius12 viewsCut out from a picture of my coin using a photoshop type program. Romanorvm
Honorius_Gold_Solidus~0.JPG
Honorius Gold Solidus45 viewsHonorius Gold solidus, RIC X 1328, VF, Ravenna, 4.350g, 20.4mm, die axis 180o, 412 - 422 A.D.
OBV: D N HONORI-VS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right;
REV: VICTORI-A AVGGG, Honorius standing right, active stance, standard in right, Victory on globe in left, left foot treading on captive with bent knees;
R-V across fields, COMOB in ex;

EX: Forvm Ancient Coins
Romanorvm
Honorius2.jpg
Honorius Silver Not Official33 viewsAncient not official Silver Imitation of Gold Solidus.
(Size, 19.7 mm ; Weight: 1.6 g.)

Honorius. (393-423 AD). Gold solidus. Ravenna, 402-406 AD.
D N HONORI—VS P F AVG, bust draped, cuirassed right, seen from front, wearing pearl diadem / VICTORIA AVGGG, emperor standing right placing foot on captive and holding labarum and Victory on globe, R—V in fields, COMOB in exergue.

RIC 1287. Cohen 44
1 commentsTanit
Hui_Zong,_10_cash,_1101-1125_AD.jpg
Hui Zong, Chong Ning reign, 10 cash, 1102-1106 AD38 viewsCHINA, Northern Song Dynasty. Huīzōng, AD 1100-1125.
Chóngníng reign, 1102-1106.
Ć 10 Wen. Chong Ning Tong Bao, slender gold script .
Hartill 16.399


"Slender gold" script was the personal calligraphy style of the Emperor Huīzōng.
Ardatirion
HUNGARY FR JOS GOLD.jpg
HUNGARY - Franz Josef158 viewsHUNGARY - Franz Josef 10 Koruna, Gold, 1910. KM#485.dpaul7
Kashmiri_Quran_Manuscript_A001.JPG
Illuminated Kashmiri Qur'an, 19th Century8 viewsA leaf from a Qur'an, Kashmir, 19th Century, Manuscripts on gold sprinkled paper, with fourteen lines of black Naskh script within gold rules, illuminated marginal medallions, Sura headings in white within gold panels (240 x 145 mm. or 9.45" x 5.7")SpongeBob
Qajar_Quran_Manuscript_A002.JPG
Illuminated Qur'an Manuscript: Early Qajar Persia (AH 1224/1809-10 AD) Anonymous Scribe7 viewsAn Illuminated manuscript leaf from a large Koran on polish ivory paper measuring 310x190 mm with twelve lines of black naskh script between gold rules, gold roundels between verses, Sura headings in red on gold panels with polychrome floral spandrels, red Persian interlinear translation, extensive marginal commentary within gold clouds, elsewhere in the form of Cyprus trees and finial shapes and magnificent medallions in gold in filled with polychrome. SpongeBob
Qajar_Quran_Manuscript_A001.JPG
Illuminated Qur'an Manuscript: Early Qajar Persia (AH 1224/1809-10 AD) Anonymous Scribe19 viewsAn Illuminated manuscript leaf from a large Koran on polish ivory paper measuring 310x190 mm with twelve lines of black naskh script between gold rules, gold roundels between verses, Sura headings in red on gold panels with polychrome floral spandrels, red Persian interlinear translation, extensive marginal commentary within gold clouds, elsewhere in the form of Cyprus trees and finial shapes and magnificent medallions in gold in filled with polychrome. SpongeBob
Qajar_Quran_Manuscript_A003.JPG
Illuminated Qur'an Manuscript: Early Qajar Persia (AH 1224/1809-10 AD) Anonymous Scribe11 viewsAn Illuminated manuscript leaf from a large Koran on polish ivory paper measuring 310x190 mm with twelve lines of black naskh script between gold rules, gold roundels between verses, Sura headings in red on gold panels with polychrome floral spandrels, red Persian interlinear translation, extensive marginal commentary within gold clouds, elsewhere in the form of Cyprus trees and finial shapes and magnificent medallions in gold in filled with polychrome.
SpongeBob
Qajar_Quran_Manuscript_A004.JPG
Illuminated Qur'an Manuscript: Early Qajar Persia (AH 1224/1809-10 AD) Anonymous Scribe13 viewsAn Illuminated manuscript leaf from a large Koran on polish ivory paper measuring 310x190 mm with twelve lines of black naskh script between gold rules, gold roundels between verses, Sura headings in red on gold panels with polychrome floral spandrels, red Persian interlinear translation, extensive marginal commentary within gold clouds, elsewhere in the form of Cyprus trees and finial shapes and magnificent medallions in gold in filled with polychrome. SpongeBob
Qajar_Quran_Manuscript_B003.JPG
Illuminated Qur'an Manuscript: Early Qajar Persia (AH 1263/1846-47 AD), Scribed by Muhammad 'Ali ibn Muhammad Baqir4 viewsA leaf from a large Koran, Qajar Iran, AH 1263 (1846-7 AD) on fine paper (345 x 200 mm.) There are fifteen lines of black naskh script, gold rosettes between verses, sura headings in red on illuminated panels, large polychrome medallions in borders, borders ruled in gold, red Persian interlinear translation, colophon signed by the scribe Muhammad 'Ali ibn Muhammad Baqir, Persian translation dated 1263.

Passages from Surah Al-Infitar (The Cleaving) Verses 82:2 to 82:19 and Surah Al-Mutaffifin (The Defrauding) Verses 83:1 onward...
SpongeBob
Qajar_Quran_Manuscript_B002.JPG
Illuminated Qur'an Manuscript: Early Qajar Persia (AH 1263/1846-47 AD), Scribed by Muhammad 'Ali ibn Muhammad Baqir2 viewsA leaf from a large Koran, Qajar Iran, AH 1263 (1846-7 AD) on fine paper (345 x 200 mm.) There are fifteen lines of black naskh script, gold rosettes between verses, sura headings in red on illuminated panels, large polychrome medallions in borders, borders ruled in gold, red Persian interlinear translation, colophon signed by the scribe Muhammad 'Ali ibn Muhammad Baqir, Persian translation dated 1263.

Passages from the Surah Az-Zukhruf (The Ornaments of Gold). Verses 43:23 onward...
SpongeBob
Qajar_Quran_Manuscript_B001.JPG
Illuminated Qur'an Manuscript: Early Qajar Persia (AH 1263/1846-47 AD), Scribed by Muhammad 'Ali ibn Muhammad Baqir10 viewsA leaf from a large Koran, Qajar Iran, AH 1263 (1846-7 AD) on fine paper (345 x 200 mm.) There are fifteen lines of black naskh script, gold rosettes between verses, sura headings in red on illuminated panels, large polychrome medallions in borders, borders ruled in gold, red Persian interlinear translation, colophon signed by the scribe Muhammad 'Ali ibn Muhammad Baqir, Persian translation dated 1263.

Passages from the Surah Az-Zukhruf (The Ornaments of Gold). Verses 43:23 onward...



SpongeBob
Safavid_Quran_Manuscript_A001.JPG
Illuminated Qur'an Manuscript: Safavid Persia (ca. 1575 AD) Anonymous Scribe11 viewsA leaf from an illuminated Safavid Koran, Persia, circa 1575 A.D., Arabic manuscript on paper, (155 x 90 mm.) There are twelve lines of text to the page in black strong hand of Naskhi script with full vowels and diacritical signs, gold ruled borders, sura headings in white ornamental ruja' script on a gold ground within illuminated panels, blue centered gold roundels mark the 5th and 10th verses and marginal annotations in gold and red and poly-chromed marginal medallions. Verso: twelve lines of text to the page in black strong hand of Naskhi script with full vowels and diacritical signs, gold ruled borders, sura headings in white ornamental ruja' script on a gold ground within illuminated panels, blue centered gold roundels mark the 5th and 10th verses and marginal annotations in gold and red and poly-chromed marginal medallions.
SpongeBob
lg2_quart_sm.jpg
IMP CAES M ANT GORDIANVS AVG / P M S COL VIM / Ӕ30 (239-240 AD)18 viewsIMP CAES M ANT GORDIANVS AVG, laureate, draped, cuirassed bust right / P M S CO - L VIM, personification of Moesia standing facing, head left, arms outstretched over a lion (right) and a bull (left). AN • I • in exergue.

Ӕ, 29-30+mm, 16.75g, die axis 1h (slightly turned medal alignment), material: looks like red copper.

IMP CAES M ANT GORDIANVS AVG = Imperator Caesar Marcus Antonius Gordianus Augustus, P M S COL VIM = Provinciae Moesiae Superioris Colonia Viminacium = Colony of Viminacium, in the province of Upper Moesia, AN•I• = the first year. 238 AD was the infamous "year of the 6 emperors", so 239-240 was the first sole ruling year of Gordian III. The bull is the symbol of Legio VII Claudia, based in the capital of Moesia Superior, Viminacium itself, and the lion is the symbol of Legio IV Flavia Felix based in another city of Moesia Superior, Singidunum (modern Belgrade). Due to size this is most probably a sestertius, but large dupondius is another possibility, since it is clearly made of red copper and sestertii were typically made of expensive "gold-like" orichalcum, a kind of brass (but in this time of civil strife they could have used a cheaper replacement). Literature fails to clearly identify the denomination of this type.

A straightforward ID