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_#31071;_#23527;_#37325;_#23542;.jpg
#31071; #23527; #37325; #23542;89 viewsNorth Sung Dynasty
Emperor HUI TSUNG
AD 1101-1125

CH'UNG-NING CHUNG-PAO
Bronze 10 cash
Orthodox Script
36mm, 11.1g
S622
Nice patina
Samson L2
ming_knife,_400-220_BC.JPG
China - State of Yan, 400-220 BC49 viewsCHINA, Eastern Zhou Dynasty. State of Yan. Circa 400-220 BC .
Æ Knife. Ming type.
Hartill 4.4a
Ardatirion
Yuan_Rebel.jpg
Yuan Dynasty20 viewsYuan Rebel Zhang Shicheng

1354 - 1367 CE

Obverse: Tian You Tong Bao

Reverse: Er(2) in seal script
Pericles J2
AR_Dirhem_of_Harun_al-Rashid_of_the_Abbasid_dynasty,_808_AD_192_AH.JPG
51 views'ABBASID CALIPHATE. temp. Al-Muqtadir. Second reign, AH 296-317 / AD 908-929.
AR Dirhem.
Madinat al-Salam mint. Dated AH 299 (AD 911/2).
Album 246.1
Ardatirion
Anonymous_AR_dirhem_of_the_Muwahhid_dynasty,_Fez_mint,_1129-1242_AD.jpg
85 viewsAL-MAGHREB (North Africa), Almohads (al-Muwahhidun). Anonymous. Circa AD 1160-1269
AR Dirhem. Fez mint
Hazard 1096; Album 497
Ardatirion
hugues-capet-denier-beauvais.JPG
Dy.001 Hugh Capet: denier (Beauvais)19 viewsHugh Capet, king of the Franks (987-996) and Hervé, Bishop of Beauvais (987-998)
Denier (Beauvais)

Silver, 1.19 g, diameter 21 mm, die axis 9h
O: [HERV]EVS HVGO RE[X] ; cross pattée with 2 pellets
R: BE[LVΛC]VS CIVITΛS ; carolingian monogram KRLS

Although Hugh Capet was the founder of the capetian dynasty, his coinage contains a carolingian monogram. It may have been a way to show the continuity of the royal authority. The presence of the bishop Hervé is not really understood on this nearly only coinage of Hugh Capet as king of the Franks (obols of the same type are also known, as well as a unique denier of Laon).
Droger
w14412.jpg
"4 Zhu" Ban Liang of Emperor Wen Di (Western Han Dynasty)42 viewsEmperor Wen Di (minted 175-119 BCE)

Two normal-sized Chinese characters – Ban Liang ("Half an ounce"), large characters (lower part of liang is M shaped), no rims or other marks / Blank, no rims.

24mm, 2.28 grams. BM Chinese coins (Poole) #256ff; Hartill #7.16.
Belisarius
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"8 Zhu" Ban Liang of Qin Kingdom (Eastern Zhou Dynasty)24 viewsMinted 300-220 BCE.

Two huge Chinese characters - Ban Liang ("Half an ounce"), no rims or other marks / Blank, no rims. Unfiled edges.

This very large thin coins of variable weight were made under the very late Zhou dynasty - they are local issues, and might belong either to the late "Warring States" period or the early Qin period.

31mm, 3.52 grams. Hartill #7.4.
Belisarius
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"As de Nîmes" or "crocodile" Ӕ dupondius of Nemausus (9 - 3 BC), honoring Augustus and Agrippa33 viewsIMP DIVI F , Heads of Agrippa (left) and Augustus (right) back to back, Agrippa wearing rostral crown and Augustus the oak-wreath / COL NEM, crocodile right chained to palm-shoot with short dense fronds and tip right; two short palm offshoots left and right below, above on left a wreath with two long ties streaming right.

Ӕ, 24.5 x 3+ mm, 13.23g, die axis 3h; on both sides there are remains of what appears to be gold plating, perhaps it was a votive offering? Rough edges and slight scrapes on flan typical for this kind of coin, due to primitive technology (filing) of flan preparation.

IMPerator DIVI Filius. Mint of COLonia NEMausus (currently Nîmes, France). Known as "As de Nîmes", it is actually a dupontius (lit. "two-pounder") = 2 ases (sometimes cut in halves to get change). Dupondii were often made out of a golden-colored copper alloy (type of brass) "orichalcum" and this appears to be such case.

Key ID points: oak-wreath (microphotography shows that at least one leaf has a complicated shape, although distinguishing oak from laurel is very difficult) – earlier versions have Augustus bareheaded, no PP on obverse as in later versions, no NE ligature, palm with short fronds with tip right (later versions have tip left and sometimes long fronds). Not typical: no clear laurel wreath together with the rostral crown, gold (?) plating (!), both features really baffling.

But still clearly a "middle" kind of the croc dupondius, known as "type III": RIC I 158, RPC I 524, Sear 1730. It is often conservatively dated to 10 BC - 10 AD, but these days it is usually narrowed to 9/8 - 3 BC.

It is a commemorative issue, honoring the victory over Mark Antony and conquest of Egypt in 30 BC. The heads of Augustus and Agrippa were probably positioned to remind familiar obverses of Roman republican coins with two-faced Janus. Palm branch was a common symbol of victory, in this case grown into a tree, like the victories of Augustus and Agrippa grown into the empire. The two offshoots at the bottom may mean two sons of Agrippa, Gaius and Lucius, who were supposed to be Augustus' heirs and were patrons of the colony. Palm may also be a symbol of the local Nemausian deity, which was probably worshiped in a sacred grove. When these coins were minted, the colony was mostly populated by the settled veterans of Augustus' campaigns, hence the reminiscence of the most famous victory, but some of the original Celtic culture probably survived and was assimilated by Romans. The crocodile is not only the symbol of Egypt, like in the famous Octavian's coins AEGYPTO CAPTA. It is also a representation of Mark Antony, powerful and scary both in water and on land, but a bit slow and stupid. The shape of the crocodile with tail up was specifically chosen to remind of the shape of ship on very common "legionary" denarius series, which Mark Antony minted to pay his armies just before Actium. It is probably also related to the popular contemporary caricature of Cleopatra, riding on and simultaneously copulating with a crocodile, holding a palm branch in her hand as if in triumph. There the crocodile also symbolized Mark Antony.

Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa was born c. 64-62 BC somewhere in rural Italy. His family was of humble and plebeian origins, but rich, of equestrian rank. Agrippa was about the same age as Octavian, and the two were educated together and became close friends. He probably first served in Caesar's Spanish campaign of 46–45 BC. Caesar regarded him highly enough to send him with Octavius in 45 BC to train in Illyria. When Octavian returned to Rome after Caesar's assassination, Agrippa became his close lieutenant, performing many tasks. He probably started his political career in 43 BC as a tribune of the people and then a member of the Senate. Then he was one of the leading Octavian's generals, finally becoming THE leading general and admiral in the civil wars of the subsequent years.

In 38 as a governor of Transalpine Gaul Agrippa undertook an expedition to Germania, thus becoming the first Roman general since Julius Caesar to cross the Rhine. During this foray he helped the Germanic tribe of Ubii (who previously allied themselves with Caesar in 55 BC) to resettle on the west bank of the Rhine. A shrine was dedicated there, possibly to Divus Caesar whom Ubii fondly remembered, and the village became known as Ara Ubiorum, "Altar of Ubians". This quickly would become an important Roman settlement. Agrippina the Younger, Agrippa's granddaughter, wife of Emperor Claudius and mother of Emperor Nero, would be born there in 15 AD. In 50 AD she would sponsor this village to be upgraded to a colonia, and it would be renamed Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium (colony of Claudius [at] the Altar of Agrippinians – Ubii renamed themselves as Agrippinians to honor the augusta!), abbreviated as CCAA, later to become the capital of new Roman province, Germania Inferior.

In 37 BC Octavian recalled Agrippa back to Rome and arranged for him to win the consular elections, he desperately needed help in naval warfare with Sextus Pompey, the youngest son of Pompey the Great, who styled himself as the last supporter of the republican cause, but in reality became a pirate king, an irony since his father was the one who virtually exterminated piracy in all the Roman waters. He forced humiliating armistice on the triumvirs in 39 BC and when Octavian renewed the hostilities a year later, defeated him in a decisive naval battle of Messina. New fleet had to be built and trained, and Agrippa was the man for the job. Agrippa's solution was creating a huge secret naval base he called Portus Iulius by connecting together lakes Avernus, Avernus and the natural inner and outer harbors behind Cape Misenum at the northern end of the Gulf of Naples. He also created a larger type of ship and developed a new naval weapon: harpax – a ballista-launched grapnel shot with mechanisms that allowed pulling enemy ships close for easy boarding. It replaced the previous boarding device that Romans used since the First Punic War, corvus – effective, but extremely cumbersome. A later defence against it were scythe blades on long poles for cutting ropes, but since this invention was developed in secret, the enemy had no chance to prepare anything like it. It all has proved extremely effective: in a series of naval engagements Agrippa annihilated the fleet of Sextus, forced him to abandon his bases and run away. For this Agrippa was awarded an unprecedented honour that no Roman before or after him received: a rostral crown, "corona rostrata", a wreath decorated in front by a prow and beak of a ship.

That's why Virgil (Aeneid VIII, 683-684), describing Agrippa at Actium, says: "…belli insigne superbum, tempora navali fulgent rostrata corona." "…the proud military decoration, gleams on his brow the naval rostral crown". Actium, the decisive battle between forces of Octavian and Mark Antony, may appear boring compared to the war with Sextus, but it probably turned out this way due to Agrippa's victories in preliminary naval engagements and taking over all the strategy from Octavian.

In between the wars Agrippa has shown an unusual talent in city planning, not only constructing many new public buildings etc., but also greatly improving Rome's sanitation by doing a complete overhaul of all the aqueducts and sewers. Typically, it was Augustus who later would boast that "he had found the city of brick but left it of marble", forgetting that, just like in his naval successes, it was Agrippa who did most of the work. Agrippa had building programs in other Roman cities as well, a magnificent temple (currently known as Maison Carrée) survives in Nîmes itself, which was probably built by Agrippa.

Later relationship between Augustus and Agrippa seemed colder for a while, Agrippa seemed to even go into "exile", but modern historians agree that it was just a ploy: Augustus wanted others to think that Agrippa was his "rival" while in truth he was keeping a significant army far away from Rome, ready to come to the rescue in case Augustus' political machinations fail. It is confirmed by the fact that later Agrippa was recalled and given authority almost equal to Augustus himself, not to mention that he married Augustus' only biological child. The last years of Agrippa's life were spent governing the eastern provinces, were he won respect even of the Jews. He also restored Crimea to Roman Empire. His last service was starting the conquest of the upper Danube, were later the province of Pannonia would be. He suddenly died of illness in 12 BC, aged ~51.

Agrippa had several children through his three marriages. Through some of his children, Agrippa would become ancestor to many subsequent members of the Julio-Claudian dynasty. He has numerous other legacies.
Yurii P
HuoQuan.jpg
"Huo Quan" of Usurper Wang Mang (Xin Dynasty)11 viewsEmperor Wang Mang

Two large Chinese characters – Huo Quan ("spring of goods"), rim around the central hole, small raised outside rim.

Blank. 17.5mm, 1.04 grams. Hartill #9.65
Belisarius
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(12) DOMITIAN (AGRIPPA II)32 viewsHerodian Dynasty--Agrippa II
55 - 95 AD
Struck under Domitian
AE 19.5 mm 4.77 g
O: Laureate bust of Domitian right
R: Nike standing right, holding shield on knee
"Judaea Capta" issue
Judaea, Caesarea mint
laney
001_vespasian_tet_14_8grams_feb-01-feb-02-2012_o-r.JPG
0 - a - Vespasian Silver Tetradrachm - 14.8 Grams - Antioch, Syria.74 viewsAncient Roman Empire
Antioch, Syria.
Silver Tetradrachm of Emperor Vespasian ( 69 - 79 AD )

(titles in Greek)
obv: Laureate bust of the Emperor facing right.
rev: Eagle, holding a laureate wreath in his beak, standing on club of Hercules facing left, palm branch to left in field.

Size: 28 - 29 mm
Weight: 14.8 Grams.
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6 commentsrexesq
vespasian_silver-denarius_clasped-hands-caduceus-poppies-wheat_obv_09_rev_08_95%.JPG
000 - Vespasian AR Denarius - Clasped Hands 30 viewsVespasian Silver Denarius - Clasped Hands
Rome Mint, AD 73
obv: IMP CAES VESP AVG PM COS IIII CEN - Laureled head right.

rev: FIDES PVBL - Clasped hands holding wheat ears, opium poppies and caduceus.
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A bit off-center, but a beautiful portrait of the Emperor, and great detail on the poppy heads.
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** These photos slightly bright and off-color due to lighting
**More photos of this Vespasian Denarius below, in Alphabetical order...
1 commentsrexesq
V669a.jpg
01 Domitian as Caesar RIC 66927 viewsÆ As, 11.05g
Rome mint, 73-74 AD (Vespasian)
Obv: CAESAR AVG F DOMITIAN COS II; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: PAX AVGVST; S C in field; Pax stg. l., leaning on column, with caduceus and branch
RIC 669 (C). BMC -. BNC 699.
Acquired from Musa Numismatics, August 2019.

The propaganda value of Pax for the Flavian dynasty after the Civil War, the revolt of Civilis, and the Jewish War cannot be underestimated. In her various guises she is one of the most popular types on Vespasian's coinage and shows up quite frequently during the reign on the coins struck for both himself and his sons. This As struck for Domitian as Caesar shows Pax leaning on a column, which likely copies a well known cult image of the goddess.

Tellingly, less than a decade later, Pax would not feature so prominently on Domitian's own coinage as Emperor.

Fine style early portrait.
1 commentsDavid Atherton
coin287.JPG
011. Titus 79-81 AD28 viewsTitus. 79-81 AD.

Titus was the beneficiary of considerable intelligence and talent, endowments that were carefully cultivated at every step of his career, from his early education to his role under his father's principate. Cassius Dio suggested that Titus' reputation was enhanced by his early death. [[17]] It is true that the ancient sources tend to heroicize Titus, yet based upon the evidence, his reign must be considered a positive one. He capably continued the work of his father in establishing the Flavian dynasty and he maintained a high degree of economic and administrative competence in Italy and beyond. In so doing, he solidified the role of the emperor as paternalistic autocrat, a model that would serve Trajan and his successors well.

AR Denarius (3.44 gm). Laureate head right/Radiate figure on rostral column. RIC II 16a; BMCRE 29; RSC 289. Fine. Scarce and interesting reverse type. Ex-CNG
ecoli
0232_Vesp_RIC_II_2_16.jpg
0232 - Denarius Vespasian 70 AC10 viewsObv/ Laureate bust of V. r., around IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG.
Rev/ Confronted heads of Titus to r., and Domitian to l.; around, CAESAR AVG F COS CAESAR AVG F PR.

Ag, 18.9 mm, 3.34 g
Mint: Roma
RIC II.2/16 [R] – BMCRE II/3
ex-CNG, auction e438, lot 491
1 commentsdafnis
V932.jpg
03c Domitian as Caesar RIC 93260 viewsÆ As, 10.65g
Rome mint, 76 AD (Vespasian)
Obv: CAESAR AVG F DOMITIANVS COS IIII; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: S C in field; Spes stg. l., with flower
RIC 932 (C). BMC -. BNC -.
Acquired from Ken Dorney, January 2019.

Spes, the goddess of hope, is seen here as an 'heir apparent' type. She is represented on Roman coins as a young girl, reminiscent of earlier Greek statures depicting Elpis. H. Mattingly in BMCRE II says 'the flower held by Spes is an opening bud, she is raising her skirt in order to hasten forward'. Spes occurs quite commonly throughout the Flavian coinage and is frequently paired up with the young Domitian Caesar, likely expressing a hope or expectation for future dynastic success. It is very Ironic that Spes is often associated with Domitian Caesar on the coinage, considering he would later be the family member most responsible for the dynasty's downfall in 96. Surprisingly, this common Spes type is not in the BM.

The obverse features a quintessential Flavian portrait - unflattering hook nose with full and heavy facial features. Pleasant dark green patina.
2 commentsDavid Atherton
Lotharingiai_Ferenc_(_-1765_AD),_1kr,_1758,_U-1298a_H-1821_K-B_Q-001_0h_15,0mm_0,75g-s.jpg
055 Ferenc of Lotharingia, (Franc I. Habsburg-Lorraine dynasty), Husband of Maria Theresa (Qeen of Hungary), ( -1765 AD A.D.), AR-1 Kreuzer, U-1298a, H-1821, K-B/1758, #01112 views055 Ferenc of Lotharingia, (Franc I. Habsburg-Lorraine dynasty), Husband of Maria Theresa (Qeen of Hungary), ( -1765 AD A.D.), AR-1 Kreuzer, U-1298a, H-1821, K-B/1758, #01
Franc I. was also a Holy Roman Emperor and King in Germany.
avers: FRANC•D:G•R•I• S•A•GE•IER•REX•, Emperor bust right, border of dots.
revers: IN TE DOMINE• -1- SPERAVI •1758•, Crowned two-headed eagle, shield on chest, mint-mark on each side, mark of value "1" below, border of dots.
diameter: 15,0mm, weight: 0,75g, axis: 0h,
mint: Hungary, mint mark: K/B//1, Körmöcbánya, (Kremnitz, today Slovakia: Kremnica),
date: 1758 A.D., ref: Unger-3 1298a/1758, Huszar 1821/1758,
Q-001
quadrans
Lotharingiai_Ferenc_(_-1765_AD),_3kr,_1765,_U-1296a_H-1815_K-B_Q-001_0h_20,0mm_1,67g-s.jpg
055 Ferenc of Lotharingia, (Franc I. Habsburg-Lorraine dynasty), Husband of Maria Theresa (Qeen of Hungary), ( -1765 AD A.D.), AR-3 Kreuzer, U-1296a, H-1815, K-B/1765, #01110 views055 Ferenc of Lotharingia, (Franc I. Habsburg-Lorraine dynasty), Husband of Maria Theresa (Qeen of Hungary), ( -1765 AD A.D.), AR-3 Kreuzer, U-1296a, H-1815, K-B/1765, #01
Franc I. was also a Holy Roman Emperor and King in Germany.
avers: FRANC•D:G•R•I•S•A•GE•IER•R•LO•B•M•H•D, Emperor bust right, border of dots.
revers: IN THE DOMINE• -3- SPERAVI •1765• X, Crowned two-headed eagle, shield on chest, mint-mark on each side, mark of value "3" below; border of dots.
diameter: 20,0mm, weight: 1,67g, axis: 0h,
mint: Hungary, mint mark: K/B//3, Körmöcbánya, (Kremnitz, today Slovakia: Kremnica),
date: 1765 A.D., ref: Unger-3 1296a/1765, Huszar 1815/1765,
Q-001
quadrans
Lotharingiai_Ferenc_(_-1765_AD),_XVIIkr,_1765,_U-1291b_H-1803_K-B_Q-001_0h_28,0mm_5,92g-s.jpg
055 Ferenc of Lotharingia, (Franc I. Habsburg-Lorraine dynasty), Husband of Maria Theresa (Qeen of Hungary), ( -1765 AD A.D.), AR-XVII Kreuzer, U-1291b, H-1803, K-B/1765, #01107 views055 Ferenc of Lotharingia, (Franc I. Habsburg-Lorraine dynasty), Husband of Maria Theresa (Qeen of Hungary), ( -1765 AD A.D.), AR-XVII Kreuzer, U-1291b, H-1803, K-B/1765, #01
Franc I. was also a Holy Roman Emperor and King in Germany.
avers: FRANC•D:G•R•I•S•A•GE•IER•R•LO•B•M•H•D•, Emperor bust right, border of dots.
revers: IN THE DOMINE• -XVII- SPER AVI •1765• X, Crowned two-headed eagle, shield on chest, mint-mark on each side, mark of value XVII below; border of dots.
diameter: 28,0mm, weight: 5,92g, axis: 0h,
mint: Hungary, mint mark: K/B//XVII, Körmöcbánya, (Kremnitz, today Slovakia: Kremnica),
date: 1765 A.D., ref: Unger-3 1291b/1765, Huszar 1803/1765,
Q-001
quadrans
avanti_together.jpg
1..Avantivarman 857-883 AD18 viewsAvantivarman 857-883 AD (1st ruler of Utpala dynasty)
Copper Kaserah or Punchshi 18/19mm (4.70gr)
Obverse- Goddess Ardochsho/Lakshmi seated facing in half lotus position, with Nagari legend 'Aadi' at right
Reverse- King standing facing and sacrificing at altar, with Nagari legend 'Deva' at right
Paul R3
Elagabalus-RIC-140.jpg
10. Elagabalus.22 viewsDenarius, 218 - 219 AD, Rome mint.
Obverse: IMP CAES M AVR ANTONINVS AVG / Laureate bust of Elagabalus.
Reverse: SALVS . ANTONINI . AVG / Salus standing, feeding snake held in her arms.
2.96 gm., 19 mm
RIC #140.

At this time in Roman history, people were already looking back to the reigns of Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius as a Golden Age. Later emperors wanted to be associated with them, and to that end Septimius Severus adopted himself into the Antonine Dynasty. His son Caracalla assumed the name Antoninus as his official name, as did Elagabalus. The reverse of this coin pictures Salus, the goddess of good health and well-being. The legend expresses the wish, roughly translated, "Long live the Antonine Emperors."
1 commentsCallimachus
3290446.jpg
104. Antoninus Pius38 viewsAntoninus Pius. AD 138-161. Æ Sestertius (31mm, 24.70 g, 12h). Rome mint. Struck AD 149. Laureate head right / Crossed cornucopias from which a grape bunch flanked by two grain ears hang, surmounted by busts of boy. RIC III 857; Banti 410. Near VF, brown patina, minor surface roughness.

From the Fairfield Collection. Ex Pegasi Auctions 25 (8 November 2011), lot 504.

The infants are thought to be T. Aelius Antoninus and T. Aurelius Antoninus, the twin sons of Marcus Aurelius and Faustina Junior born in AD 149. These were the first male offspring of the couple, offering hope for the establishment of the new dynasty, but both died in infancy.

Ex-CNG Eauction 329 446/150/180
ecoli
sept-severus_denarius_hercules.jpg
11 - Septimius Severus AR Denarius - ' 'HERCULI DEFENS ' - Hercules81 viewsRoman Empire, Severan Dynasty.
Emperor Septimius Severus (193 - 211 AD) Silver Denarius.

obv: - Laureate head right.
rev: HERCULI DEFENS - Hercules standing facing right, leaning on club, cloaked w/ lionskin.
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Nice reverse!
6 commentsrexesq
septimius-severus_AR-denarius_VICT-PART-MAX_00.jpg
11 - Septimius Severus AR Denarius - AD 202 - 'Total Victory in Parthia'26 viewsRoman Empire, Severan Dynasty.
Emperor Septimius Severus (193 - 211 AD) Silver Denarius.
VICT PART MAX -'Total Victory in Parthia'
"My victory in Parthia was complete"
Struck in AD 202 at the Rome Mint.

obv: SEVERUS PIUS AVG - Laureate head right.
rev: VICT PART MAX - Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm.

2.0 Grams, 20.5 mm.
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Nice portrait, nice bit of obverse toning, well centered.
2 commentsrexesq
RI_136v_img.jpg
136 - Numerian Ant. - RIC -24 viewsObv:- IMP C NVMERIANVS AVG, Radiate bust right wearing imperial mantle and holding eagle-tipped scepter in right hand
Rev:- MARS VICTOR, Mars advancing right with spear and trophy
Minted in Lugdunum (C in right field)
References:- RIC - (not listed with this bust type in RIC). Bastien 562 (3 examples cited)

The consular busts are scarce for this dynasty.
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_136v_img~0.jpg
136 - Numerian Ant. - RIC -20 viewsObv:- IMP C NVMERIANVS AVG, Radiate bust right wearing imperial mantle and holding eagle-tipped scepter in right hand
Rev:- MARS VICTOR, Mars advancing right with spear and trophy
Minted in Lugdunum (C in right field)
References:- RIC - (not listed with this bust type in RIC). Bastien 562 (3 examples cited)

The consular busts are scarce for this dynasty.
maridvnvm
antpius sest-.jpg
138-161 AD - ANTONINUS PIUS AE sestertius - struck 149 AD34 viewsobv: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P XII (laureate bust right)
rev: TEMPORVM FELICITAS, COS IIII in exergue, S C across field (crossed cornucopiae from which a grape bunch flanked by two grain ears hang, surmounted by busts of two boys, vis-á -vis)
ref: RIC III 857, Cohen 813 (8frcs), BMC 1825note
23.14gms, 30mm,
Rare

The infants are thought to represent T. Aelius Antoninus and T. Aurelius Antoninus, the twin sons of Marcus Aurelius and Faustina Junior born in 149 AD. These were the first male offspring of the couple, offering hope for the establishment of the new dynasty, but both died in infancy.
The coin is before cleaning.
berserker
Theo1Ae3Ant.jpeg
1505b, Theodosius I, 19 January 379 - 17 January 395 A.D. (Antioch)70 viewsTheodosius I, 19 January 379 - 17 January 395 A.D. Bronze AE 3, RIC 44(b), VF, Antioch, 2.17g, 18.1mm, 180o, 9 Aug 378 - 25 Aug 383 A.D. Obverse: D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG, rosette-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: CONCORDIA AVGGG, Constantinopolis enthroned facing, r. foot on prow, globe in l., scepter in r., Q and F at sides, ANTG in ex; scarce.


De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

THEODOSIUS I (379-395 A.D.)
David Woods
University College of Cork


Origin and Early Career
Flavius Theodosius was born at Cauca in Spain in about 346 to Thermantia and Theodosius the Elder (so-called to distinguish him from his son). Theodosius the Elder was a senior military officer serving in the Western empire and rose to become the magister equitum praesentalis under the emperor Valentinian I from late 368 until his execution in early 375. As the son of a soldier, Theodosius was legally obliged to enter upon a military career. He seems to have served under his father during his expedition to Britain in 367/8, and was the dux Moesiae Primae by late 374. Unfortunately, great controversy surrounds the rest of his career until Gratian had him hailed as his imperial colleague in succession to the emperor Valens at Sirmium on 19 January 379. It is clear that he was forced to retire home to Spain only to be recalled to active service shortly thereafter, but the circumstances of his forced retirement are shrouded in mystery. His father was executed at roughly the same time, and much speculation has centred on the relationship between these events.

[For a very detailed and interesting discussion of the Foreign Policy of Theodosius and the Civil Wars that plagued his reign, please see http://www.roman-emperors.org/theo1.htm]

Family and Succession
Theodosius married twice. His first wife was the Spanish Aelia Flavia Flaccilla. She bore him Arcadius ca. 377, Honorius on 9 September 384, and Pulcheria ca. 385. Theodosius honoured her with the title of Augusta shortly after his accession, but she died in 386. In late 387 he married Galla, daughter of Valentinian I and full-sister of Valentinian II. She bore him Gratian ca. 388, Galla Placidia ca. 388/390, and died in childbirth in 394, together with her new-born son John. Of his two sons who survived infancy, he appointed Arcadius as Augustus on 19 January 383 and Honorius as Augustus on 23 January 393. His promotion of Arcadius as a full Augustus at an unusually young age points to his determination right from the start that one of his own sons should succeed him. He sought to strengthen Arcadius' position in particular by means of a series of strategic marriages whose purpose was to tie his leading "generals" irrevocably to his dynasty. Hence he married his niece and adoptive daughter Serena to his magister militum per Orientem Stilicho in 387, her elder sister Thermantia to a "general" whose name has not been preserved, and ca. 387 his nephew-in-law Nebridius to Salvina, daughter of the comes Africae Gildo. By the time of his death by illness on 17 January 395, Theodosius had promoted Stilicho from his position as one of the two comites domesticorum under his own eastern administration to that of magister peditum praesentalis in a western administration, in an entirely traditional manner, under his younger son Honorius. Although Stilicho managed to increase the power of the magister peditum praesentalis to the disadvantage of his colleague the magister equitum praesentalis and claimed that Theodosius had appointed him as guardian for both his sons, this tells us more about his cunning and ambition than it does about Theodosius' constitutional arrangements.

Theodosius' importance rests on the fact that he founded a dynasty which continued in power until the death of his grandson Theodosius II in 450. This ensured a continuity of policy which saw the emergence of Nicene Christianity as the orthodox belief of the vast majority of Christians throughout the middle ages. It also ensured the essential destruction of paganism and the emergence of Christianity as the religion of the state, even if the individual steps in this process can be difficult to identify. On the negative side, however, he allowed his dynastic interests and ambitions to lead him into two unnecessary and bloody civil wars which severely weakened the empire's ability to defend itself in the face of continued barbarian pressure upon its frontiers. In this manner, he put the interests of his family before those of the wider Roman population and was responsible, in many ways, for the phenomenon to which we now refer as the fall of the western Roman empire.


Copyright (C) 1998, David Woods.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

There is a nice segue here, as we pick-up John Julius Norwich's summation of the reign of Theodosius, "Readers of this brief account of his career may well find themselves wondering, not so much whether he deserved the title of 'the Great' as how he ever came to acquire it in the first place. If so, however, they may also like to ask themselves another question: what would have been the fate of the Empire if, at that critical moment in its history after the battle of Adrianople, young Gratian had not called him from his Spanish estates and put the future of the East into his hands? . . . the probability is that the whole Empire of the East would have been lost, swallowed up in a revived Gothic kingdom, with effects on world history that defy speculation.

In his civil legislation he showed, again and again, a consideration for the humblest of his subjects that was rare indeed among rulers of the fourth century. What other prince would have decreed that any criminal, sentenced to execution, imprisonment or exile, must first be allowed thirty days' grace to put his affairs in order? Or that a specified part of his worldly goods must go to his children, upon whom their father's crimes must on no account be visited? Or that no farmer should be obliged to sell his produce to the State at a price lower than he would receive on the open market?

Had he earned his title? Not, perhaps, in the way that Constantine had done or as Justinian was to do. But, if not ultimately great himself, he had surely come very close to greatness; and had he reigned as long as they did his achievements might well have equalled theirs. He might even have saved the Western Empire. One thing only is certain: it would be nearly a century and a half before the Romans would look upon his like again" (Norwich, John Julius. Byzantium, the Early Centuries. London: Penguin Group, 1990. 116-7;118).

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.



Cleisthenes
Theod1GlrMan.jpg
1505c, Theodosius I, 379 - 395 A.D. (Constantinople)79 viewsTheodosius I (379 - 395 AD) AE3. 388-394 AD, RIC IX 27(a)3, Third Officina. Seventh Period. 20.27 mm. 4.8gm. Near VF with black and earthen patina. Constantinople. Obverse: DN THEODO-SIANVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped, & cuirassed bust right; Reverse: GLORIA-ROMANORVM, Theodosius I standing, facing, holding labarum and globe, CONSB in exergue (scarcer reverse). A Spanish find.



De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

THEODOSIUS I (379-395 A.D.)
David Woods
University College of Cork


Origin and Early Career
Flavius Theodosius was born at Cauca in Spain in about 346 to Thermantia and Theodosius the Elder (so-called to distinguish him from his son). Theodosius the Elder was a senior military officer serving in the Western empire and rose to become the magister equitum praesentalis under the emperor Valentinian I from late 368 until his execution in early 375. As the son of a soldier, Theodosius was legally obliged to enter upon a military career. He seems to have served under his father during his expedition to Britain in 367/8, and was the dux Moesiae Primae by late 374. Unfortunately, great controversy surrounds the rest of his career until Gratian had him hailed as his imperial colleague in succession to the emperor Valens at Sirmium on 19 January 379. It is clear that he was forced to retire home to Spain only to be recalled to active service shortly thereafter, but the circumstances of his forced retirement are shrouded in mystery. His father was executed at roughly the same time, and much speculation has centred on the relationship between these events.

[For a very detailed and interesting discussion of the Foreign Policy of Theodosius and the Civil Wars that plagued his reign, please see http://www.roman-emperors.org/theo1.htm]

Family and Succession
Theodosius married twice. His first wife was the Spanish Aelia Flavia Flaccilla. She bore him Arcadius ca. 377, Honorius on 9 September 384, and Pulcheria ca. 385. Theodosius honoured her with the title of Augusta shortly after his accession, but she died in 386. In late 387 he married Galla, daughter of Valentinian I and full-sister of Valentinian II. She bore him Gratian ca. 388, Galla Placidia ca. 388/390, and died in childbirth in 394, together with her new-born son John. Of his two sons who survived infancy, he appointed Arcadius as Augustus on 19 January 383 and Honorius as Augustus on 23 January 393. His promotion of Arcadius as a full Augustus at an unusually young age points to his determination right from the start that one of his own sons should succeed him. He sought to strengthen Arcadius' position in particular by means of a series of strategic marriages whose purpose was to tie his leading "generals" irrevocably to his dynasty. Hence he married his niece and adoptive daughter Serena to his magister militum per Orientem Stilicho in 387, her elder sister Thermantia to a "general" whose name has not been preserved, and ca. 387 his nephew-in-law Nebridius to Salvina, daughter of the comes Africae Gildo. By the time of his death by illness on 17 January 395, Theodosius had promoted Stilicho from his position as one of the two comites domesticorum under his own eastern administration to that of magister peditum praesentalis in a western administration, in an entirely traditional manner, under his younger son Honorius. Although Stilicho managed to increase the power of the magister peditum praesentalis to the disadvantage of his colleague the magister equitum praesentalis and claimed that Theodosius had appointed him as guardian for both his sons, this tells us more about his cunning and ambition than it does about Theodosius' constitutional arrangements.

Theodosius' importance rests on the fact that he founded a dynasty which continued in power until the death of his grandson Theodosius II in 450. This ensured a continuity of policy which saw the emergence of Nicene Christianity as the orthodox belief of the vast majority of Christians throughout the middle ages. It also ensured the essential destruction of paganism and the emergence of Christianity as the religion of the state, even if the individual steps in this process can be difficult to identify. On the negative side, however, he allowed his dynastic interests and ambitions to lead him into two unnecessary and bloody civil wars which severely weakened the empire's ability to defend itself in the face of continued barbarian pressure upon its frontiers. In this manner, he put the interests of his family before those of the wider Roman population and was responsible, in many ways, for the phenomenon to which we now refer as the fall of the western Roman empire.


Copyright (C) 1998, David Woods.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

There is a nice segue here, as we pick-up John Julius Norwich's summation of the reign of Theodosius, "Readers of this brief account of his career may well find themselves wondering, not so much whether he deserved the title of 'the Great' as how he ever came to acquire it in the first place. If so, however, they may also like to ask themselves another question: what would have been the fate of the Empire if, at that critical moment in its history after the battle of Adrianople, young Gratian had not called him from his Spanish estates and put the future of the East into his hands? . . . the probability is that the whole Empire of the East would have been lost, swallowed up in a revived Gothic kingdom, with effects on world history that defy speculation.

In his civil legislation he showed, again and again, a consideration for the humblest of his subjects that was rare indeed among rulers of the fourth century. What other prince would have decreed that any criminal, sentenced to execution, imprisonment or exile, must first be allowed thirty days' grace to put his affairs in order? Or that a specified part of his worldly goods must go to his children, upon whom their father's crimes must on no account be visited? Or that no farmer should be obliged to sell his produce to the State at a price lower than he would receive on the open market?

Had he earned his title? Not, perhaps, in the way that Constantine had done or as Justinian was to do. But, if not ultimately great himself, he had surely come very close to greatness; and had he reigned as long as they did his achievements might well have equalled theirs. He might even have saved the Western Empire. One thing only is certain: it would be nearly a century and a half before the Romans would look upon his like again" (Norwich, John Julius. Byzantium, the Early Centuries. London: Penguin Group, 1990. 116-7;118).

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
Philip-I-RIC-058.jpg
16. Philip I.30 viewsAntoninianus, 247 AD, Rome mint.
Obverse: IMP PHILIPPVS AVG / Radiate bust of Philip I.
Reverse: AETERNITAS AVGG / Elephant and mahout.
4.08 gm., 23 mm.
RIC # 58; Sear # 8921.

Issued about the time of the Millennium celebration, the reverse of this coin takes up the theme of eternity and applies it to the ruling dynasty. The Romans were first awed by, and then fascinated by elephants. They thought elephants lived to be several hundred years old, and thus the elephant became a symbol of eternity. The elephant portrayed on this coin was likely part of the festivities held to celebrate the millennium and some numistmatists consider this coin to be part of the set of coins issued to commemorate the event.
1 commentsCallimachus
Saladin_A788.jpg
1701a, Saladin, 1169-11932046 viewsAYYUBID: Saladin, 1169-1193, AR dirham (2.92g), Halab, AH580, A-788, lovely struck, well-centered & bold, Extremely Fine, Scarce.

His name in Arabic, in full, is SALAH AD-DIN YUSUF IBN AYYUB ("Righteousness of the Faith, Joseph, Son of Job"), also called AL-MALIK AN-NASIR SALAH AD-DIN YUSUF I (b. 1137/38, Tikrit, Mesopotamia--d. March 4, 1193, Damascus), Muslim sultan of Egypt, Syria, Yemen, and Palestine, founder of the Ayyubid dynasty, and the most famous of Muslim heroes.

In wars against the Christian crusaders, he achieved final success with the disciplined capture of Jerusalem (Oct. 2, 1187), ending its 88-year occupation by the Franks. The great Christian counterattack of the Third Crusade was then stalemated by Saladin's military genius.

Saladin was born into a prominent Kurdish family. On the night of his birth, his father, Najm ad-Din Ayyub, gathered his family and moved to Aleppo, there entering the service of 'Imad ad-Din Zangi ibn Aq Sonqur, the powerful Turkish governor in northern Syria. Growing up in Ba'lbek and Damascus, Saladin was apparently an undistinguished youth, with a greater taste for religious studies than military training.
His formal career began when he joined the staff of his uncle Asad ad-Din Shirkuh, an important military commander under the amir Nureddin, son and successor of Zangi. During three military expeditions led by Shirkuh into Egypt to prevent its falling to the Latin-Christian (Frankish) rulers of the states established by the First Crusade, a complex, three-way struggle developed between Amalric I, the Latin king of Jerusalem, Shawar, the powerful vizier of the Egyptian Fatimid caliph, and Shirkuh. After Shirkuh's death and after ordering Shawar's assassination, Saladin, in 1169 at the age of 31, was appointed both commander of the Syrian troops and vizier of Egypt.

His relatively quick rise to power must be attributed not only to the clannish nepotism of his Kurdish family but also to his own emerging talents. As vizier of Egypt, he received the title king (malik), although he was generally known as the sultan. Saladin's position was further enhanced when, in 1171, he abolished the Shi'i Fatimid caliphate, proclaimed a return to Sunnah in Egypt, and consequently became its sole ruler.

Although he remained for a time theoretically a vassal of Nureddin, that relationship ended with the Syrian emir's death in 1174. Using his rich agricultural possessions in Egypt as a financial base, Saladin soon moved into Syria with a small but strictly disciplined army to claim the regency on behalf of the young son of his former suzerain.
Soon, however, he abandoned this claim, and from 1174 until 1186 he zealously pursued a goal of uniting, under his own standard, all the Muslim territories of Syria, northern Mesopotamia, Palestine, and Egypt.

This he accomplished by skillful diplomacy backed when necessary by the swift and resolute use of military force. Gradually, his reputation grew as a generous and virtuous but firm ruler, devoid of pretense, licentiousness, and cruelty. In contrast to the bitter dissension and intense rivalry that had up to then hampered the Muslims in their resistance to the crusaders, Saladin's singleness of purpose induced them to rearm both physically and spiritually.

Saladin's every act was inspired by an intense and unwavering devotion to the idea of jihad ("holy war")-the Muslim equivalent of the Christian crusade. It was an essential part of his policy to encourage the growth and spread of Muslim religious institutions.

He courted its scholars and preachers, founded colleges and mosques for their use, and commissioned them to write edifying works especially on the jihad itself. Through moral regeneration, which was a genuine part of his own way of life, he tried to re-create in his own realm some of the same zeal and enthusiasm that had proved so valuable to the first generations of Muslims when, five centuries before, they had conquered half the known world.

Saladin also succeeded in turning the military balance of power in his favour-more by uniting and disciplining a great number of unruly forces than by employing new or improved military techniques. When at last, in 1187, he was able to throw his full strength into the struggle with the Latin crusader kingdoms, his armies were their equals. On July 4, 1187, aided by his own military good sense and by a phenomenal lack of it on the part of his enemy, Saladin trapped and destroyed in one blow an exhausted and thirst-crazed army of crusaders at Hattin, near Tiberias in northern Palestine.

So great were the losses in the ranks of the crusaders in this one battle that the Muslims were quickly able to overrun nearly the entire Kingdom of Jerusalem. Acre, Toron, Beirut, Sidon, Nazareth, Caesarea, Nabulus, Jaffa (Yafo), and Ascalon (Ashqelon) fell within three months.

But Saladin's crowning achievement and the most disastrous blow to the whole crusading movement came on Oct. 2, 1187, when Jerusalem, holy to both Muslim and Christian alike, surrendered to the Sultan's army after 88 years in the hands of the Franks. In stark contrast to the city's conquest by the Christians, when blood flowed freely during the barbaric slaughter of its inhabitants, the Muslim reconquest was marked by the civilized and courteous behaviour of Saladin and his troops. His sudden success, which in 1189 saw the crusaders reduced to the occupation of only three cities, was, however, marred by his failure to capture Tyre, an almost impregnable coastal fortress to which the scattered Christian survivors of the recent battles flocked. It was to be the rallying point of the Latin counterattack.

Most probably, Saladin did not anticipate the European reaction to his capture of Jerusalem, an event that deeply shocked the West and to which it responded with a new call for a crusade. In addition to many great nobles and famous knights, this crusade, the third, brought the kings of three countries into the struggle.

The magnitude of the Christian effort and the lasting impression it made on contemporaries gave the name of Saladin, as their gallant and chivalrous enemy, an added lustre that his military victories alone could never confer on him.

The Crusade itself was long and exhausting, and, despite the obvious, though at times impulsive, military genius of Richard I the Lion-Heart, it achieved almost nothing. Therein lies the greatest-but often unrecognized--achievement of Saladin. With tired and unwilling feudal levies, committed to fight only a limited season each year, his indomitable will enabled him to fight the greatest champions of Christendom to a draw. The crusaders retained little more than a precarious foothold on the Levantine coast, and when King Richard set sail from the Orient in October 1192, the battle was over.

Saladin withdrew to his capital at Damascus. Soon, the long campaigning seasons and the endless hours in the saddle caught up with him, and he died. While his relatives were already scrambling for pieces of the empire, his friends found that the most powerful and most generous ruler in the Muslim world had not left enough money to pay for his own grave.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
H.A.R. Gibb, "The Arabic Sources for the Life of Saladin," Speculum, 25:58-72 (1950). C.W. Wilson's English translation of one of the most important Arabic works, The Life of Saladin (1897), was reprinted in 1971. The best biography to date is Stanley Lane-Poole, Saladin and the Fall of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, new ed. (1926, reprinted 1964), although it does not take account of all the sources.
See: http://stp.ling.uu.se/~kamalk/language/saladin.html
Ed. J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
1 commentsCleisthenes
santogether.jpg
2..Sankaravarman 883-902 AD (Utpala dynasty)15 viewsSankaravarman 883-902 AD (Utpala dynasty)
Copper Kaserah or Punchshi 18mm (5.15gr)
Obverse- Goddess Ardochsho/Lakshmi seated
Reverse- King facing
Paul R3
J29-25 Mil.jpg
25 mils Israel's first coin, 1949124 views25 mil coin of aluminum, 3.5grams, 30 mm, Mintage: 650,000 (total: open link & closed link mintage).

Obverse: Grapes as in Bar-Kochba revolt coinage.
Reverse: Wreath as in Hasmonean dynasty coinage.

Reference: Israel KM8

Added to collection: June 20, 2005
Daniel Friedman
298-1_Caesia.jpg
298/1. Caesia - denarius (112-1 BC)15 viewsAR Denarius (Rome, 112-111 BC)
O/ Bust of Apollo seen from behind, with head turned to left and thunderbolt in right hand; APO on right.
R/ Lares Praestites seated facing, with dog between, each holding staff in left hand; bust of Vulcan with tongs over shoulder above; LA on left; PRE on right; L CAESI in exergue.
3.79 g; 20mm
Crawford 298/1 (50 obverse dies/62 reverse dies)
- Collection of Walter Mirko Stoecklin, Winterthur, Switzerland, acquired prior to 1981. W. M. Stoecklin was the third member of a dynasty of coin collectors based in Switzerland.
- Obolos 9, lot 34.

* Lucius Caesius:

Our moneyer is the first known member of the minor gens Caesia, but the rest of his life is completely unknown. Mommsen (Monnaie Romaine, II, p.370) thought that he could have been the father of Lucius Caesius, praetor in 75 BC (Cicero, In Verrem, II, 1, 130), but there were other Caesii around this time, so they were not necessarily related.

The deity represented on the reverse could be Apollo, as shown by the monogram behind his head, or Vejovis, an obscure god with the attributes of both Apollo and Jupiter (especially the thunderbolt). The reverse depicts the Lares Praestites, the guardians of the city of Rome, whom Ovid described their statues with a dog between them (Ovid, Fasti, v. 129-145).

The bust of Vulcan and the tongs were possibly the emblems of the moneyers.
1 commentsJoss
gtogether.jpg
3..Gopalavarman 902-904 AD (Utpala dynasty)14 viewsGopalavarman 902-904 AD (Utpala dynasty)
Copper Kaserah or Punchshi 18mm (5.8gr)
Obverse- Goddess Ardochsho/Lakshmi seated
Reverse- King facing
Paul R3
Dscn9636.jpg
35 Coins, Uncleaned Lot - Negotin, Serbia Area - 08-28-201515 viewsThis lot consists of late Roman coins during and after the Constantian dynasty. It also has a few Roman Provincial coins, one Medieval coin, some crisis and decline era coins and a few other unknown coins. This lot is not a hoard but a random selection of coins found in random locations in Negotin, Serbia.Gil-galad
satogether.jpg
4..Sugandharani 904-906 AD (Utpala dynasty)14 viewsSugandharani 904-906 AD (Utpala dynasty)
Copper Kaserah or Punchshi 18mm (4.956gr)
Obverse- Goddess Ardochsho/Lakshmi seated
Reverse- King facing
Paul R3
421-1_Nonia2.jpg
421/1. Nonia - denarius (59 BC)21 viewsAR Denarius (Rome, 59 BC)
O/ Head of Saturn right, head of a harpoon and conical stone behind; S C upwards behind; SVFENAS downwards before.
R/ Roma seated left on a pile of trophies, holding sceptre and sword, crowned by Victory standing behind; PR L V P F around; SEX NONI in exergue.
3.90g; 19mm
Crawford 421/1 (56 obverse dies/62 reverse dies)
- Collection of Walter Friedrich Stoecklin, Amriswil, Switzerland, before 1975. W. F. Stoecklin was the second member of a dynasty of coin collectors based in Switzerland.
- Obolos 9, lot 77.

* Marcus Nonius Sex.f. Sufenas:

Sufenas belonged to the plebeian gens Nonia, a relatively new gens at this time. He was the son of son of Sextus Nonius Sufenas, who had played a crucial part in 86 BC by leading the defection to Sulla among Fimbria's troops during the Civil War. Sulla then rewarded him with a praetorship in 81 BC. In turn, Sextus organised the first Victory games celebrating his patron (the Ludi Victoriae Sullanae), as explained on the reverse (Sextus Nonius praetor ludos Victoriae primus fecit).

Marcus Sufenas' career relied on the patronage of Pompey, whom he devotedly served. In 56 he was Tribune of the Plebs, and with the famous Publius Clodius Pulcher, Gaius Porcius Cato, and Lucius Procilius, they sabotaged the consular elections in order to force the choice of Pompey and Crassus as Consuls for 55 (Cassius Dio, Roman History, xxxix. 27-33). Pompey then used his influence to acquit Sufenas (Cicero, Atticus, iv. 15).

Since he was governor of Macedonia or Cyrenaica in 51 (Cicero, Atticus, vi. 1 & viii. 15), Broughton conjectured that he had been Praetor in 52. He was still in his province by 49, so he probably helped Pompey after his flight from Italy. Plutarch mentions him just before the Battle of Pharsalus (Life of Cicero, 38). As he disappears from ancient sources after this, he might have died during the battle.
2 commentsJoss
ptogether.jpg
5..Parthavarman 906-921 AD (Utpala dynasty)14 viewsParthavarman 906-921 AD (Utpala dynasty)
Copper Kaserah or Punchshi 18/19mm (5.26gr)
Obverse- Goddess Ardochsho/Lakshmi seated facing in half lotus position, with Nagari legend 'Partha' to right
Reverse- King standing facing and sacrificing at altar holding trident, with Nagari legend 'Varma' bottom right
Paul R3
56167.jpg
504. CONSTANTIUS II148 viewsFlavius Iulius Constantius, known in English as Constantius II, (7 August 317 - 3 November 361) was a Roman Emperor (337 - 361) of the Constantinian dynasty

Constantius was the second of the three sons of Constantine I and his second wife Fausta. Constantius was born in Sirmium (in Illyricum) and named Caesar by his father. When Constantine died in 337, Constantius II led the massacre of his relatives decended from the second marriage of his grandfather Constantius Chlorus and Theodora, leaving himself, his older brother Constantine II, his younger brother Constans and two cousins (Gallus and his half-brother Julian) as the only surviving adult males related to Constantine. The three brothers divided the Roman Empire among them, according to their father's will. Constantine II received Britannia, Gaul and Hispania; Constans ruled Italia, Africa, and Illyricum; and Constantius ruled the East.

This division changed when Constantine II died in 340, trying to overthrow Constans in Italy, and Constans become sole ruler in the Western half of the empire. The division changed once more in 350 when Constans was killed in battle by forces loyal to the usurper Magnentius. Until this time, Constantius was preoccupied with fighting the Sassanid Empire, and he was forced to elevate his cousin Gallus to Caesar of the East to assist him, while he turned his attention to this usurper.

Constantius eventually met and crushed Magnentius in the Battle of Mursa Major, one of the bloodiest battles in Roman history, in 351. Magnentius committed suicide in 353, and Constantius soon after put his cousin Gallus to death. However, he still could not handle the military affairs of both the Eastern and German frontiers by himself, so in 355 he elevated his last remaining relative, Julian, to Caesar. As Julian was hailed Augustus by the army in Gaul, Constantius saw no alternative but to face the usurper with violent force. As the two armies sought engagement, Constantius died from a fever near Tarsus on November 3, 361, and Julian was hailed Augustus in the whole of the Roman empire.

Constantius took an active part in the affairs of the Christian church, frequently taking the side of the Arians, and he called the Council of Rimini in 359.

Constantius married three times, first to a daughter of Julius Constantius, then to Eusebia, and last to Faustina, who gave birth to a posthumous daughter, Faustina Constantia, who later married Emperor Gratian.

CONSTANTIUS II. 337-361 AD. Æ 18mm (2.41 gm). Siscia mint. Struck 351-355 AD. D N CONSTAN-TIVS P F AVG, diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / FEL TEMP REPARATIO, soldier spearing falling enemy horseman who wears conical hat; at right, shield on ground; ASIS. RIC VIII 350. Good VF, green patina. Ex CNG
1 commentsecoli73
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505. Constantius Gallus51 viewsFlavius Claudius Constantius Gallus (c. 325/326 - 354), better known as Gallus Caesar, was a member of the Constantinian dynasty and Caesar of the Eastern Roman Empire (351-354). Gallus was consul three years, from 352 to 354.

Son of Julius Constantius by his first wife Galla, Gallus' paternal grandparents were Western Roman Emperor Constantius Chlorus and his second wife Flavia Maximiana Theodora. Julius Constantius was also a half-brother of Roman Emperor Constantine I, and thus Gallus was a first cousin of Roman Emperors Constantine II, Constantius II and Constans.

Born in Massa Veternensis, Italia, young Gallus saw his father killed by order of his cousin Constantius II.

Gallus became Caesar of the East on March 15 351, added the name of Constantius to his own, and set up residence in Antioch. In order to create a loyality bond with his Caesar, Constantius gave him his elder sister Constantina as wife. Gallus ruled the city in such a severe way that people complained to Constantius, who had him arrested. On the way to his summons he was executed.

His youger half-brother Julian became later Emperor.

Constantius Gallus. 351-354 AD. DN CONSTANTIVS IVN NOB C, bare head bust right, draped & cuirassed / FEL TEMP REPARATIO, soldier spearing fallen horseman, ASIS in ex. RIC 351
2 commentsecoli
030437LG.jpg
512. Procopius151 viewsProcopius (326 - May 27, 366), was a Roman usurper against Valentinian I, and member of the Constantinian dynasty.

According to Ammianus Marcellinus, Procopius was a native of Cilicia. On his mother's side, Procopius was cousin of Emperor Julian.

Procopius took part in the emperor Julian's campaign against the Persian Empire in 363. He was entrusted of leading 30,000 men towards Armenia, joining King Arsaces, and later return to Julian camp. At the time of Julian's death, there were rumors that he had intended Procopius to be his successor, but when Jovian was elected emperor by the Roman army, Procopius went into hiding to preserve his life. The ancient historians differ on the exact details of Procopius' life in hiding, but agree that he returned to public knowledge at Chalcedon before the house of the senator Strategius suffering from starvation and ignorant of current affairs.

By that time, Jovianus was dead, and Valentinian I shared the purple with his brother Valens. Procopius immediately moved to declare himself emperor. He bribed two legions that were resting at Constantinople to support his efforts, and took control of the imperial city. Shortly after this he proclaimed himself Emperor on September 28, 365, and quickly took control of the provinces of Thrace, and later Bithynia.

Valens was left with the task of dealing with this rebel, and over the next months struggled with both cities and units that wavered in their allegiance. Eventually their armies met at the Battle of Thyatira, and Procopius' forces were defeated. He fled the battlefield, but was betrayed to Valens by two of his remaining followers. Valens had all three executed May 27, 366.


Procopius - Usurper in the east, 365-6 , AE-3, Nicomedia mint


2.90g

Obv: Bust of Procopius, beared left "DN PROCOPIVS PF AVG"

Rev: Procopius standing head right, foot resting on a prow and leaning on a shield. "REPARATIO FEL TEMP" "SMNG" in the exergue.

RIC 10
ecoli73
tog.jpg
6..Kshemagupta 950-957/8 AD (Utpala dynasty)16 viewsKshemagupta 950-957/8 AD
Copper Kaserah or Punchshi 18mm
Obverse- Goddess Ardochsho/Lakshmi seated facing in half lotus position, with Nagari legend 'Di' to left 'kshema' to right
Reverse- King standing facing and sacrificing at altar holding trident, with Nagari legend 'Gupta' bottom right
Paul R3
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602a. Valentinian III31 viewsIn the early years of his reign, Valentinian was overshadowed by his mother. After his marriage in 437, moreover, much of the real authority lay in the hands of the Patrician and Master of Soldiers Aetius. Nor does Valentinian seem to have had much of an aptitude for rule. He is described as spoiled, pleasure-loving, and influenced by sorcerers and astrologers. He divided his time primarily between Rome and Ravenna. Like his mother, Valentinian was devoted to religion. He contributed to churches of St. Laurence in both Rome and Ravenna. He also oversaw the accumulation of ecclesiastical authority in the hands of the bishop of Rome as he granted ever greater authority and prestige to pope Leo the Great (440-461) in particular.

Valentinian's reign saw the continued dissolution of the western empire. By 439, nearly all of North Africa was effectively lost to the Vandals; Valentinian did attempt to neutralize that threat by betrothing his sister Placidia to the Vandal prince Huneric. In Spain, the Suevi controlled the northwest, and much of Gaul was to all intents and purposes controlled by groups of Visigoths, Burgundians, Franks, and Alans. In 454, Valentinian murdered his supreme general Aetius, presumably in an attempt to rule in his own right. But in the next year, he himself was murdered by two members of his bodyguard, ex-partisans of Aetius.

Although Valentinian was ineffectual as a ruler, his legitimate status and connection to the old ruling dynasty provided a last vestige of unity for the increasingly fragmented Roman empire. After his death, the decay of the west accelerated. The different regions of the west went their own way, and the last several western emperors, the so-called "Shadow" or "Puppet" Emperors, not only were usually overshadowed by one barbarian general or other, but also were limited primarily to Italy.
ecoli
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61..Kshemagupta 950-957/8 AD (Utpala dynasty)30 viewsKshemagupta 950-957/8 AD
Copper Kaserah or Punchshi 17.50mm
Obverse- Goddess Ardochsho/Lakshmi seated facing in half lotus position, with Nagari legend 'Di' to left 'kshema' to right
Reverse- King standing facing and sacrificing at altar holding trident, with Nagari legend 'Gupta' bottom right
1 commentsPaul R3
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7..Abhimanyu AD 957/8-971/2 (Utpala dynasty)15 viewsAbhimanyu AD 957/8-971/2 (Utpala dynasty)
Copper Kaserah or Punchshi 17mm (5.74gr)
Obverse- Goddess Ardochsho/Lakshmi seated
Reverse- King facing
Paul R3
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704a, Caligula, 16 March 37 - 24 January 41 A.D.101 viewsCaligula, 37 - 41 AD, Ionia, Smyrna. AE 17mm. Klose, Smyrna 27a. RPC 2473. 2.89 gm. Fine. Menophanes, Aviola, Procos, 37-38 AD. Obverse: AION, laureate head right; Reverse: Nike holding wreath right. Ex Tom Vossen.


De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

GAIUS (CALIGULA) (A.D. 37-41)

Garrett G. Fagan
Pennsylvania State University

Gaius Caesar Augustus Germanicus (Caligula) was born on 31 August, A.D. 12, probably at the Julio-Claudian resort of Antium (modern Anzio), the third of six children born to Augustus's adopted grandson, Germanicus, and Augustus's granddaughter, Agrippina. Caligula was the Roman Emperor between A.D. 37-41). Unfortunately, his is the most poorly documented reign of the Julio-Claudian dynasty. The literary sources for these four years are meager, frequently anecdotal, and universally hostile.[[1]] As a result, not only are many of the events of the reign unclear, but Gaius himself appears more as a caricature than a real person, a crazed megalomaniac given to capricious cruelty. Although some headway can be made in disentangling truth from embellishment, the true character of the youthful emperor will forever elude us.

As a baby he accompanied his parents on military campaigns in the north and was shown to the troops wearing a miniature soldier's outfit, including the hob-nailed sandal called caliga, whence the nickname by which posterity remembers him. His childhood was not a happy one, spent amid an atmosphere of paranoia, suspicion, and murder. Instability within the Julio-Claudian house, generated by uncertainty over the succession, led to a series of personal tragedies.

When Tiberius died on 16 March A.D. 37, Gaius was in a perfect position to assume power, despite the obstacle of Tiberius's will, which named him and his cousin Tiberius Gemellus joint heirs. (Gemellus's life was shortened considerably by this bequest, since Gaius ordered him killed within a matter of months.) Backed by the Praetorian Prefect Q. Sutorius Macro, Gaius asserted his dominance. He had Tiberius's will declared null and void on grounds of insanity, accepted the powers of the Principate as conferred by the Senate, and entered Rome on 28 March amid scenes of wild rejoicing. His first acts were generous in spirit: he paid Tiberius's bequests and gave a cash bonus to the Praetorian Guard, the first recorded donativum to troops in imperial history.

The ancient sources are practically unanimous as to the cause of Gaius's downfall: he was insane. The writers differ as to how this condition came about, but all agree that after his good start Gaius began to behave in an openly autocratic manner, even a crazed one. The sources describe his incestuous relations with his sisters, laughable military campaigns in the north, the building of a pontoon bridge across the Bay at Baiae, and the plan to make his horse a consul. Their unanimous hostility renders their testimony suspect, especially since Gaius's reported behavior fits remarkably well with that of the ancient tyrant, a literary type enshrined in Greco-Roman tradition centuries before his reign. Further, the only eye-witness account of Gaius's behavior, Philo's Embassy to Gaius, offers little evidence of outright insanity, despite the antagonism of the author, whom Gaius treated with the utmost disrespect.

The conspiracy that ended Gaius's life was hatched among the officers of the Praetorian Guard, apparently for purely personal reasons. It appears also to have had the support of some senators and an imperial freedman. As with conspiracies in general, there are suspicions that the plot was more broad-based than the sources intimate, and it may even have enjoyed the support of the next emperor Claudius, but these propositions are not provable on available evidence. On 24 January A.D. 41 the praetorian tribune Cassius Chaerea and other guardsmen caught Gaius alone in a secluded palace corridor and cut him down. He was 28 years old and had ruled three years and ten months.

Whatever damage Tiberius's later years had done to the carefully crafted political edifice created by Augustus, Gaius multiplied it a hundredfold. When he came to power in A.D. 37 Gaius had no administrative experience beyond his honorary quaestorship, and had spent an unhappy early life far from the public eye. He appears, once in power, to have realized the boundless scope of his authority and acted accordingly. For the elite, this situation proved intolerable and ensured the blackening of Caligula's name in the historical record they would dictate. The sensational and hostile nature of that record, however, should in no way trivialize Gaius's importance. His reign highlighted an inherent weakness in the Augustan Principate, now openly revealed for what it was -- a raw monarchy in which only the self-discipline of the incumbent acted as a restraint on his behavior. That the only means of retiring the wayward princes was murder marked another important revelation: Roman emperors could not relinquish their powers without simultaneously relinquishing their lives.

Copyright © 1997, Garrett G. Fagan.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Ancient Smyrna

The 5,000 year-old city of Izmir is one of the oldest cities of the Mediterranean basin. The original city was established in the third millennium BC (at present day Bayraklı), at which time it shared with Troy the most advanced culture in Anatolia.


Greek settlement is attested by the presence of pottery dating from about 1000 BC. In the first millennium BC Izmir, then known as Smyrna, ranked as one of the most important cities of the Ionian Federation. During this period, it is believed that the epic poet Homer resided here.

Lydian conquest of the city around 600 BC brought this golden age to an end. Smyrna was little more than a village throughout the Lydian and subsequent sixth century BC Persian rule. In the fourth century BC a new city was built on the slopes of Mt. Pagos (Kadifekale) during the reign of Alexander the Great. Smyrna's Roman period, beginning in the first century BC, was its second great era.

In the first century AD, Smyrna became one of the earliest centers of Christianity and it was one of the Seven Churches of Revelation. Both Revelation and the Martyrdom of Polycarp indicate the existence of a Jewish community in Smyrna as early as the 1st and 2nd centuries AD. The letter to the church at Smyrna in Revelation indicates that the Christians were spiritually "rich" and apparently in conflict with the Jews (2:9).

The origins of the Christian community there, which was established in the 1st century, are unknown. Ignatius of Antioch stopped at Smyrna on his way to martyrdom in Rome in 107 AD, and he sent a letter back to the Christians there from later in his journey. Smyrna's bishop, Polycarp, was burned at the stake in Smyrna's stadium around 156 AD.

Byzantine rule came in the fourth century and lasted until the Seljuk conquest in 11th century. In 1415, under Sultan Mehmed Çelebi, Smyrna became part of the Ottoman Empire.

The city earned its fame as one of the most important port cities of the world during the 17th to 19th centuries. The majority of its population were Greek but merchants of various origins (especially Greek, French, Italian, Dutch, Armenian, Sephardi and Jewish) transformed the city into a cosmopolitan portal of trade. During this period, the city was famous for its own brand of music (Smyrneika) as well as its wide range of products it exported to Europe (Smyrna/Sultana raisins, dried figs, carpets, etc.).

Today, Izmir is Turkey's third largest city and is nicknamed "the pearl of Aegean." It is widely regarded as the most Westernized city of Turkey in terms of values, ideology, gender roles, and lifestyle.
© 2005-08 Sacred Destinations. All rights reserved.
http://www.sacred-destinations.com/turkey/izmir-history.htm

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
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705a, Claudius, 25 January 41 - 13 October 54 A.D.62 viewsClaudius. 42-43 AD. AE As.
Claudius. 42-43 AD. AE As (29 mm, 10.87 g). Obverse: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP P P, bare head right; Reverse: CONSTANTIAE AVGVSTI / S - C, Constantiae in military dress standing left, holding spear; RIC I, 111; aVF. Ex Imperial Coins.



De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

CLAUDIUS (41-54 A.D.)

Garrett G. Fagan
Pennsylvania State University

Ti. Claudius Nero Germanicus (b. 10 BC, d. 54 A.D.; emperor, 41-54 A.D.) was the third emperor of the Julio-Claudian dynasty. His reign represents a turning point in the history of the Principate for a number of reasons, not the least for the manner of his accession and the implications it carried for the nature of the office. During his reign he promoted administrators who did not belong to the senatorial or equestrian classes, and was later vilified by authors who did. He followed Caesar in carrying Roman arms across the English Channel into Britain but, unlike his predecessor, he initiated the full-scale annexation of Britain as a province, which remains today the most closely studied corner of the Roman Empire. His relationships with his wives and children provide detailed insights into the perennial difficulties of the succession problem faced by all Roman Emperors. His final settlement in this regard was not lucky: he adopted his fourth wife's son, L. Domitius Ahenobarbus, who was to reign catastrophically as Nero and bring the dynasty to an end. Claudius's reign, therefore, was a mixture of successes and failures that leads into the last phase of the Julio-Claudian line.

Robert Graves' fictional characterization of Claudius as an essentially benign man with a keen intelligence has tended to dominate the wider public's view of this emperor. Close study of the sources, however, reveals a somewhat different kind of man. In addition to his scholarly and cautious nature, he had a cruel streak, as suggested by his addiction to gladiatorial games and his fondness for watching his defeated opponents executed. He conducted closed-door (in camera ) trials of leading citizens that frequently resulted in their ruin or deaths -- an unprecedented and tyrannical pattern of behavior. He had his wife Messalina executed, and he personally presided over a kangaroo court in the Praetorian Camp in which many of her hangers-on lost their lives. He abandoned his own son Britannicus to his fate and favored the advancement of Nero as his successor. While he cannot be blamed for the disastrous way Nero's rule turned out, he must take some responsibility for putting that most unsuitable youth on the throne. At the same time, his reign was marked by some notable successes: the invasion of Britain, stability and good government in the provinces, and successful management of client kingdoms. Claudius, then, is a more enigmatic figure than the other Julio-Claudian emperors: at once careful, intelligent, aware and respectful of tradition, but given to bouts of rage and cruelty, willing to sacrifice precedent to expediency, and utterly ruthless in his treatment of those who crossed him. Augustus's suspicion that there was more to the timid Claudius than met the eye was more than fully borne out by the events of his unexpected reign.

The possibility has to be entertained that Claudius was a far more active participant in his own elevation than traditional accounts let on. There is just reason to suspect that he may even have been involved in planning the murder of Gaius (Caligula). Merely minutes before the assassination of Gaius, Claudius had departed for lunch; this appears altogether too fortuitous. This possibility, however, must remain pure speculation, since the ancient evidence offers nothing explicit in the way of support. On the other hand, we can hardly expect them to, given the later pattern of events. The whole issue of Claudius's possible involvement in the death of Gaius and his own subsequent acclamation by the Praetorian Guard must, therefore, remain moot . . . yet intriguing

Copyright 1998, Garrett G. Fagan.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
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706a, Nero, 13 October 54 - 9 June 68 A.D.73 views6, Nero, 13 October 54 - 9 June 68 A.D. AE setertius, Date: 66 AD; RIC I 516, 36.71 mm; 25.5 grams; aVF. Obverse: IMP NERO CAESAR AVG PONT MAX TR POT PP, Laureate bust right; Reverse: S C, ROMA, Roma seated left, exceptional portrait and full obverse legends. Ex Ancient Imports.

NERO (54-68 A.D.)

It is difficult for the modern student of history to realize just how popular Nero actually was, at least at the beginning of his reign. Rome looked upon her new Emperor with hope. He was the student of Seneca, and he had a sensitive nature. He loved art, music, literature, and theatre. He was also devoted to horses and horse racing—a devotion shared by many of his subjects. The plebs loved their new Emperor. As Professor of Classics Judith P. Hallett (University of Maryland, College Park) says, “It is not clear to me that Nero ever changed or that Nero ever grew-up, and that was both his strength and his weakness. Nero was an extraordinarily popular Emperor: he was like Elvis” (The Roman Empire in the First Century, III. Dir. Margaret Koval and Lyn Goldfarb. 2001. DVD. PBS/Warner Bros. 2003).

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Herbert W. Benario
Emory University

Introduction and Sources
The five Julio-Claudian emperors are very different one from the other. Augustus dominates in prestige and achievement from the enormous impact he had upon the Roman state and his long service to Rome, during which he attained unrivaled auctoritas. Tiberius was clearly the only possible successor when Augustus died in AD 14, but, upon his death twenty-three years later, the next three were a peculiar mix of viciousness, arrogance, and inexperience. Gaius, better known as Caligula, is generally styled a monster, whose brief tenure did Rome no service. His successor Claudius, his uncle, was a capable man who served Rome well, but was condemned for being subject to his wives and freedmen. The last of the dynasty, Nero, reigned more than three times as long as Gaius, and the damage for which he was responsible to the state was correspondingly greater. An emperor who is well described by statements such as these, "But above all he was carried away by a craze for popularity and he was jealous of all who in any way stirred the feeling of the mob." and "What an artist the world is losing!" and who is above all remembered for crimes against his mother and the Christians was indeed a sad falling-off from the levels of Augustus and Tiberius. Few will argue that Nero does not rank as one of the worst emperors of all.

The prime sources for Nero's life and reign are Tacitus' Annales 12-16, Suetonius' Life of Nero, and Dio Cassius' Roman History 61-63, written in the early third century. Additional valuable material comes from inscriptions, coinage, papyri, and archaeology.


Early Life
He was born on December 15, 37, at Antium, the son of Cnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbusand Agrippina. Domitius was a member of an ancient noble family, consul in 32; Agrippina was the daughter of the popular Germanicus, who had died in 19, and Agrippina, daughter of Agrippa, Augustus' closest associate, and Julia, the emperor's daughter, and thus in direct descent from the first princeps. When the child was born, his uncle Gaius had only recently become emperor. The relationship between mother and uncle was difficult, and Agrippina suffered occasional humiliation. But the family survived the short reign of the "crazy" emperor, and when he was assassinated, it chanced that Agrippina's uncle, Claudius, was the chosen of the praetorian guard, although there may have been a conspiracy to accomplish this.

Ahenobarbus had died in 40, so the son was now the responsibility of Agrippina alone. She lived as a private citizen for much of the decade, until the death of Messalina, the emperor's wife, in 48 made competition among several likely candidates to become the new empress inevitable. Although Roman law forbade marriage between uncle and niece, an eloquent speech in the senate by Lucius Vitellius, Claudius' closest advisor in the senatorial order, persuaded his audience that the public good required their union. The marriage took place in 49, and soon thereafter the philosopher Seneca [[PIR2 A617]] was recalled from exile to become the young Domitius' tutor, a relationship which endured for some dozen years.

His advance was thereafter rapid. He was adopted by Claudius the following year and took the name Tiberius Claudius Nero Caesar or Nero Claudius Caesar Drusus Germanicus, was preferred to Claudius' natural son, Britannicus, who was about three years younger, was betrothed to the emperor's daughter Octavia, and was, in the eyes of the people, the clear successor to the emperor. In 54, Claudius died, having eaten some poisoned mushrooms, responsibility for which was believed to be Agrippina's, and the young Nero, not yet seventeen years old, was hailed on October 13 as emperor by the praetorian guard.


The First Years of Rule
The first five years of Nero's rule are customarily called the quinquennium, a period of good government under the influence, not always coinciding, of three people, his mother, Seneca, and Sextus Afranius Burrus, the praetorian prefect. The latter two were allies in their "education" of the emperor. Seneca continued his philosophical and rhetorical training, Burrus was more involved in advising on the actualities of government. They often combined their influence against Agrippina, who, having made her son emperor, never let him forget the debt he owed his mother, until finally, and fatally, he moved against her.

Nero's betrothal to Octavia was a significant step in his ultimate accession to the throne, as it were, but she was too quiet, too shy, too modest for his taste. He was early attracted to Poppaea Sabina, the wife of Otho, and she continually goaded him to break from Octavia and to show himself an adult by opposing his mother. In his private life, Nero honed the musical and artistic tastes which were his chief interest, but, at this stage, they were kept private, at the instigation of Seneca and Burrus.

As the year 59 began, Nero had just celebrated his twenty-first birthday and now felt the need to employ the powers which he possessed as emperor as he wished, without the limits imposed by others. Poppaea's urgings had their effect, first of all, at the very onset of the year, with Nero's murder of his mother in the Bay of Naples.

Agrippina had tried desperately to retain her influence with her son, going so far as to have intercourse with him. But the break between them proved irrevocable, and Nero undertook various devices to eliminate his mother without the appearance of guilt on his part. The choice was a splendid vessel which would collapse while she was on board. As this happened, she swam ashore and, when her attendant, having cried out that she was Agrippina, was clubbed to death, Agrippina knew what was going on. She sent Nero a message that she was well; his response was to send a detachment of sailors to finish the job. When she was struck across the head, she bared her womb and said, "Strike here, Anicetus, strike here, for this bore Nero," and she was brutally murdered.

Nero was petrified with fear when he learned that the deed had been done, yet his popularity with the plebs of Rome was not impaired. This matricide, however, proved a turning point in his life and principate. It appeared that all shackles were now removed. The influence of Seneca and Burrus began to wane, and when Burrus died in 62, Seneca realized that his powers of persuasion were at an end and soon went into retirement. Britannicus had died as early as 55; now Octavia was to follow, and Nero became free to marry Poppaea. It may be that it had been Burrus rather than Agrippina who had continually urged that Nero's position depended in large part upon his marriage to Octavia. Burrus' successor as commander of the praetorian guard, although now with a colleague, was Ofonius Tigellinus, quite the opposite of Burrus in character and outlook. Tigellinus became Nero's "evil twin," urging and assisting in the performance of crimes and the satisfaction of lusts.


Administrative and Foreign Policy
With Seneca and Burrus in charge of administration at home, the first half-dozen years of Nero's principate ran smoothly. He himself devoted his attention to his artistic, literary, and physical bents, with music, poetry, and chariot racing to the fore. But his advisors were able to keep these performances and displays private, with small, select audiences on hand. Yet there was a gradual trend toward public performance, with the establishment of games. Further, he spent many nights roaming the city in disguise, with numerous companions, who terrorized the streets and attacked individuals. Those who dared to defend themselves often faced death afterward, because they had shown disrespect for the emperor. The die was being cast for the last phases of Nero's reign.


The Great Fire at Rome and The Punishment
of the Christians
The year 64 was the most significant of Nero's principate up to this point. His mother and wife were dead, as was Burrus, and Seneca, unable to maintain his influence over Nero without his colleague's support, had withdrawn into private life. The abysmal Tigellinus was now the foremost advisor of the still young emperor, a man whose origin was from the lowest levels of society and who can accurately be described as criminal in outlook and action. Yet Nero must have considered that he was happier than he had ever been in his life. Those who had constrained his enjoyment of his (seemingly) limitless power were gone, he was married to Poppaea, a woman with all advantages save for a bad character the empire was essentially at peace, and the people of Rome enjoyed a full measure of panem et circenses. But then occurred one of the greatest disasters that the city of Rome, in its long history, had ever endured.

The fire began in the southeastern angle of the Circus Maximus, spreading through the shops which clustered there, and raged for the better part of a week. There was brief success in controlling the blaze, but then it burst forth once more, so that many people claimed that the fires were deliberately set. After about a fortnight, the fire burned itself out, having consumed ten of the fourteen Augustan regions into which the city had been divided.

Nero was in Antium through much of the disaster, but his efforts at relief were substantial. Yet many believed that he had been responsible, so that he could perform his own work comparing the current fate of Rome to the downfall of Troy. All his efforts to assist the stricken city could not remove the suspicion that "the emperor had fiddled while Rome burned." He lost favor even among the plebs who had been enthusiastic supporters, particularly when his plans for the rebuilding of the city revealed that a very large part of the center was to become his new home.

As his popularity waned, Nero and Tigellinus realized that individuals were needed who could be charged with the disaster. It so happened that there was such a group ready at hand, Christians, who had made themselves unpopular because of their refusal to worship the emperor, their way of life, and their secret meetings. Further, at this time two of their most significant "teachers" were in Rome, Peter and Paul. They were ideal scapegoats, individuals whom most Romans loathed, and who had continually sung of the forthcoming end of the world.

Their destruction was planned with the utmost precision and cruelty, for the entertainment of the populace. The venue was Nero's circus near the Mons Vaticanus. Christians were exposed to wild animals and were set ablaze, smeared with pitch, to illuminate the night. The executions were so grisly that even the populace displayed sympathy for the victims. Separately, Peter was crucified upside down on the Vatican hill and Paul was beheaded along the Via Ostiensis. But Nero's attempt, and hope, to shift all suspicion of arson to others failed. His popularity even among the lower classes was irrevocably impaired.

[For a detailed and interesting discussion of Nero’s reign please see http://www.roman-emperors.org/nero.htm]

The End - Nero's Death and its Aftermath
Nero's and Tigellinus' response to the conspiracy was immediate and long-lasting. The senatorial order was decimated, as one leading member after another was put to death or compelled to commit suicide. The year 66 saw the suicides of perhaps the most distinguished victims of the "reign of terror," Caius Petronius and Thrasea Paetus. Petronius, long a favorite of Nero because of his aesthetic taste, had been an able public servant before he turned to a life of ease and indolence. He was recognized as the arbiter elegantiae of Nero's circle, and may be the author of the Satyricon. At his death, he left for Nero a document which itemized many of the latter's crimes. Thrasea, a staunch Stoic who had been for some years an outspoken opponent of Nero's policies, committed suicide in the Socratic manner. This scene is the last episode in the surviving books of Tacitus' Annals.

In the year 68, revolt began in the provinces. . . the end of Nero's reign became inevitable. Galba claimed the throne and began his march from Spain. Nero panicked and was rapidly abandoned by his supporters. He finally committed suicide with assistance, on June 9, 68, and his body was tended and buried by three women who had been close to him in his younger days, chief of whom was Acte. His death scene is marked above all by the statement, "Qualis artifex pereo," (What an artist dies in me.) Even at the end he was more concerned with his private life than with the affairs of state.

The aftermath of Nero's death was cataclysmic. Galba was the first of four emperors who revealed the new secret of empire, that an emperor could be made elsewhere than in Rome. Civil war ensued, which was only ended by the victory of the fourth claimant, Vespasian, who established the brief dynasty of the Flavians. The dynasty of the Julio-Claudians was at an end.

Nero's popularity among the lower classes remained even after his death.

. . . .

It is not excessive to say that he was one of the worst of Rome's emperors in the first two centuries and more of the empire. Whatever talents he had, whatever good he may have done, all is overwhelmed by three events, the murder of his mother, the fire at Rome, and his savage treatment of the Christians.

Precisely these qualities are the reasons that he has remained so well known and has been the subject of many writers and opera composers in modern times. These works of fiction particularly merit mention: Henryk Sienkiewicz's Quo Vadis, one of the finest works of the 1907 Nobel Laureate in Literature, and John Hersey's The Conspiracy. Nero unquestionably will always be with us.

Copyright (C) 2006, Herbert W. Benario.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

1 commentsCleisthenes
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708a, Otho64 viewsOtho (69 A.D.)
John Donahue
College of William and Mary

Introduction
In January 69 Otho led a successful coup to overthrow the emperor Galba. Upon advancing to the throne, he hoped to conciliate his adversaries and restore political stability to the Empire. These ambitions were never to be realized. Instead, our sources portray a leader never fully able to win political confidence at Rome or to overcome military anarchy abroad. As a result, he was defeated in battle by the forces of Vitellius, his successor, and took his own life at the conclusion of the conflict. His principate lasted only eight weeks.
Early Life and Career
Marcus Salvius Otho was born at Ferentium on 28 April 32 A. D. His grandfather, also named Marcus Salvius Otho, was a senator who did not advance beyond the rank of praetor. Lucius Otho, his father, was consul in 33 and a trusted administrator under the emperors Tiberius, Gaius and Claudius. His mother, Albia Terentia, was likely to have been nobly born as well. The cognomen "Otho" was Etruscan in origin, and the fact that it can be traced to three successive generations of this family perhaps reflects a desire to maintain a part of the Etruscan tradition that formed the family's background.
Otho is recorded as being extravagant and wild as a youth - a favorite pastime involved roving about at night to snare drunkards in a blanket. Such behavior earned floggings from his father, whose frequent absences from home on imperial business suggest little in the way of a stabilizing parental influence in Otho's formative years. These traits apparently persisted: Suetonius records that Otho and Nero became close friends because of the similarity of their characters; and Plutarch relates that the young man was so extravagant that he sometimes chided Nero about his meanness, and even outdid the emperor in reckless spending.
Most intriguing in this context is Otho's involvement with Nero's mistress, Poppaea Sabina, the greatest beauty of her day. A relationship between the two is widely cited in the ancient sources, but the story differs in essential details from one account to the next. As a result, it is impossible to establish who seduced whom, whether Otho ever married Poppaea, and whether his posting to Lusitania by Nero should be understood as a "banishment" for his part in this affair. About the only reliable detail to emerge is that Otho did indeed become governor of Lusitania in 59, and that he assumed the post as a quaestor, a rank below that of praetor or consul, the minimum usually required for the office. From here he would launch his initial thrust towards the imperial throne.
Overthrow of Galba
Nero's suicide in June 68 marked the end of the Julio-Claudian dynasty and opened up the principate to the prerogatives of the military beyond Rome. First to emerge was Servius Sulpicius Galba, governor of Hispania Tarraconensis, who had been encouraged to revolt by the praetorians and especially by Nymphidius Sabinus, the corrupt and scheming praetorian prefect at Rome. By this time Otho had been in Spain for close to ten years. His record seems to have been a good one, marked by capable administration and an unwillingness to enrich himself at the expense of the province. At the same time, perhaps seeing this as his best chance to improve his own circumstances, he supported the insurrection as vigorously as possible, even sending Galba all of his gold and his best table servants. At the same time, he made it a point to win the favor of every soldier he came in contact with, most notably the members of the praetorian guard who had come to Spain to accompany Galba to Rome. Galba set out from Spain in July, formally assuming the emperorship shortly thereafter. Otho accompanied him on the journey.
Galba had been in Rome little more than two months when on 1 January 69 the troops in Upper Germany refused to declare allegiance to him and instead followed the men stationed in Lower Germany in proclaiming their commander, Aulus Vitellius, as the new ruler. To show that he was still in charge Galba adopted his own successor, Lucius Calpurnius Piso Frugi Licinianus, an aristocrat completely without administrative or military experience. The choice meant little to the remote armies, the praetorians or the senate and particularly angered Otho, who had hoped to succeed Galba. Otho quickly organized a conspiracy among the praetorians with promise of a material reward, and on 15 January 69 they declared him emperor and publicly killed Galba; Piso, dragged from hiding in the temple of Vesta, was also butchered. On that same evening a powerless senate awarded Otho the imperial titles.
Otho's Principate in Rome
It is not possible to reconstruct a detailed chronology of Otho's brief eight and a half weeks as princeps in Rome (15 January-15 March). Even so, Galba's quick demise had surely impressed upon Otho the need to conciliate various groups. As a result, he continued his indulgence of the praetorian guard but he also tried to win over the senate by following a strict constitutionalist line and by generally keeping the designations for the consulship made by Nero and Galba. In the provinces, despite limited evidence, there are some indications that he tried to compensate for Galba's stinginess by being more generous with grants of citizenship. In short, Otho was eager not to offend anyone.
Problems remained, however. The praetorians had to be continually placated and they were always suspicious of the senate. On the other hand, the senate itself, along with the people, remained deeply disturbed at the manner of Otho's coming to power and his willingness to be associated with Nero. These suspicions and fears were most evident in the praetorian outbreak at Rome. Briefly, Otho had decided to move from Ostia to Rome a cohort of Roman citizens in order to replace some of Rome's garrison, much of which was to be utilized for the showdown with Vitellius. He ordered that weapons be moved from the praetorian camp in Rome by ship to Ostia at night so that the garrison replacements would be properly armed and made to look as soldierly as possible when they marched into the city. Thinking that a senatorial counter-coup against Otho was underway, the praetorians stormed the imperial palace to confirm the emperor's safety, with the result that they terrified Otho and his senatorial dinner guests. Although the praetorians' fears were eventually calmed and they were given a substantial cash payment, the incident dramatically underscored the unease at Rome in the early months of 69.
Otho's Offensive against Vitellius
Meanwhile, in the Rhineland, preparations for a march on Rome by the military legions that had declared for Vitellius were far advanced. Hampered by poor intelligence gathering in Gaul and Germany and having failed to negotiate a settlement with Vitellius in early 69, Otho finally summoned to Italy his forces for a counterattack against the invading Vitellian army. His support consisted of the four legions of Pannonia and Dalmatia, the three legions of Moesia and his own imperial retinue of about 9,000. Vitellius' own troops numbered some 30,000, while those of his two marshals, Aulus Caecina Alienus and Fabius Valens, were between 15,000 and 20,000 each.
Otho's strategy was to make a quick diversionary strike in order to allow time for his own forces to assemble in Italy before engaging the enemy. The strategy worked, as the diversionary army, comprised of urban cohorts, praetorians and marines all from Rome or nearby, was successful in Narbonese Gaul in latter March. An advance guard sent to hold the line on the Po River until the Danubian legions arrived also enjoyed initial success. Otho himself arrived at Bedriacum in northern Italy about 10 April for a strategy session with his commanders. The main concern was that the Vitellians were building a bridge across the Po in order to drive southward towards the Apennines and eventually to Rome. Otho decided to counter by ordering a substantial part of his main force to advance from Bedriacum and establish a new base close enough to the new Vitellian bridge to interrupt its completion. While en route, the Othonian forces, strung out along the via Postumia amid baggage and supply trains, were attacked by Caecina and Valens near Cremona on 14 April. The clash, know as the Battle of Bedriacum, resulted in the defeat of the Othonian forces, their retreat cut off by the river behind them. Otho himself, meanwhile, was not present, but had gone to Brixellum with a considerable force of infantry and cavalry in order to impede any Vitellian units that had managed to cross the Po.
The plan had backfired. Otho's strategy of obtaining victory while avoiding any major battles had proven too risky. Realizing perhaps that a new round of fighting would have involved not only a significant re-grouping of his existing troops but also a potentially bloody civil war at Rome, if Vitellius' troops reached the capital, Otho decided that enough blood had been shed. Two weeks shy of his thirty-seventh birthday, on 16 April 69, he took his own life.
Assessment
To be sure, Otho remains an enigma - part profligate Neronian wastrel and part conscientious military commander willing to give his life for the good of the state. Our sources are at a loss to explain the paradox. Perhaps, like Petronius, he saw it was safer to appear a profligate in Nero's court? In the final analysis, Otho proved to be an organized and efficient military commander, who appealed more to the soldier than to the civilian. He also seems to have been a capable governor, with administrative talents that recalled those of his father. Nevertheless, his violent overthrow of Galba, the lingering doubts that it raised about his character, and his unsuccessful offensive against Vitellius are all vivid reminders of the turbulence that plagued the Roman world between the reigns of Nero and Vespasian. Regrettably, the scenario would play itself out one more time before peace and stability returned to the empire.
Copyright (C) 1999, John Donahue
Edited by J.P.Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
VespasianPax_RICii10.jpg
710a, Vespasian, 1 July 69 - 24 June 79 A.D.135 viewsSilver denarius, RIC II, 10, aVF, 3.5 g, 18mm, Rome mint, 69-71 AD; Obverse: IMP CAESA[R] VESPASIANV[S AV]G - Laureate head right; Reverse: COS ITER [T]R POT - Pax seated left holding branch and caduceus. Ex Imperial Coins.


De Imperatoribus Romanis:
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Titus Flavius Vespasianus (A.D. 69-79)

John Donahue
College of William and Mary

Introduction

Titus Flavius Vespasianus (b. A.D. 9, d. A.D. 79, emperor A.D. 69-79) restored peace and stability to an empire in disarray following the death of Nero in A.D. 68. In the process he established the Flavian dynasty as the legitimate successor to the Imperial throne. Although we lack many details about the events and chronology of his reign, Vespasian provided practical leadership and a return to stable government - accomplishments which, when combined with his other achievements, make his emperorship particularly notable within the history of the Principate.

Early Life and Career

Vespasian was born at Falacrina near Sabine Reate on 17 November, A.D. 9, the son of T. Flavius Sabinus, a successful tax collector and banker, and Vespasia Polla. Both parents were of equestrian status. Few details of his first fifteen years survive, yet it appears that his father and mother were often away from home on business for long periods. As a result, Vespasian's early education became the responsibility of his paternal grandmother, Tertulla. [[1]] In about A.D. 25 Vespasian assumed the toga virilis and later accepted the wearing of the latus clavus, and with it the senatorial path that his older brother, T. Flavius Sabinus, had already chosen. [[2]] Although many of the particulars are lacking, the posts typically occupied by one intent upon a senatorial career soon followed: a military tribunate in Thrace, perhaps for three or four years; a quaestorship in Crete-Cyrene; and the offices of aedile and praetor, successively, under the emperor Gaius. [[3]]

It was during this period that Vespasian married Flavia Domitilla. Daughter of a treasury clerk and former mistress of an African knight, Flavia lacked the social standing and family connections that the politically ambitious usually sought through marriage. In any case, the couple produced three children, a daughter, also named Flavia Domitilla, and two sons, the future emperors Titus and Domitian . Flavia did not live to witness her husband's emperorship and after her death Vespasian returned to his former mistress Caenis, who had been secretary to Antonia (daughter of Marc Antony and mother of Claudius). Caenis apparently exerted considerable influence over Vespasian, prompting Suetonius to assert that she remained his wife in all but name, even after he became emperor. [[4]]

Following the assassination of Gaius on 24 January, A.D. 41, Vespasian advanced rapidly, thanks in large part to the new princeps Claudius, whose favor the Flavians had wisely secured with that of Antonia, the mother of Germanicus, and of Claudius' freedmen, especially Narcissus. [[5]] The emperor soon dispatched Vespasian to Argentoratum (Strasbourg) as legatus legionis II Augustae, apparently to prepare the legion for the invasion of Britain. Vespasian first appeared at the battle of Medway in A.D. 43, and soon thereafter led his legion across the south of England, where he engaged the enemy thirty times in battle, subdued two tribes, and conquered the Isle of Wight. According to Suetonius, these operations were conducted partly under Claudius and partly under Vespasian's commander, Aulus Plautius. Vespasian's contributions, however, did not go unnoticed; he received the ornamenta triumphalia and two priesthoods from Claudius for his exploits in Britain. [[6]]

By the end of A.D. 51 Vespasian had reached the consulship, the pinnacle of a political career at Rome. For reasons that remain obscure he withdrew from political life at this point, only to return when chosen proconsul of Africa about A.D. 63-64. His subsequent administration of the province was marked by severity and parsimony, earning him a reputation for being scrupulous but unpopular. [[7]] Upon completion of his term, Vespasian returned to Rome where, as a senior senator, he became a man of influence in the emperor Nero's court. [[8]] Important enough to be included on Nero's tour of Greece in A.D. 66-67, Vespasian soon found himself in the vicinity of increasing political turbulence in the East. The situation would prove pivotal in advancing his career.

Judaea and the Accession to Power

In response to rioting in Caesarea and Jerusalem that had led to the slaughter in the latter city of Jewish leaders and Roman soldiers, Nero granted to Vespasian in A.D. 66 a special command in the East with the objective of settling the revolt in Judaea. By spring A.D. 67, with 60,000 legionaries, auxiliaries, and allies under his control, Vespasian set out to subdue Galilee and then to cut off Jerusalem. Success was quick and decisive. By October all of Galilee had been pacified and plans for the strategic encirclement of Jerusalem were soon formed. [[9]] Meanwhile, at the other end of the empire, the revolts of Gaius Iulius Vindex, governor of Gallia Lugdunensis, and Servius Sulpicius Galba , governor of Hispania Tarraconensis, had brought Nero's reign to the brink of collapse. The emperor committed suicide in June, A.D. 68, thereby ensuring chaos for the next eighteen months, as first Galba and then Marcus Salvius Otho and Aulus Vitellius acceded to power. Each lacked broad-based military and senatorial support; each would be violently deposed in turn. [[10]]

Still occupied with plans against Jerusalem, Vespasian swore allegiance to each emperor. Shortly after Vitellius assumed power in spring, A.D. 69, however, Vespasian met on the border of Judaea and Syria with Gaius Licinius Mucianus, governor of Syria, and after a series of private and public consultations, the two decided to revolt. [[11]] On July 1, at the urging of Tiberius Alexander, prefect of Egypt, the legions of Alexandria declared for Vespasian, as did the legions of Judaea two days later. By August all of Syria and the Danube legions had done likewise. Vespasian next dispatched Mucianus to Italy with 20,000 troops, while he set out from Syria to Alexandria in order to control grain shipments for the purpose of starving Italy into submission. [[12]] The siege of Jerusalem he placed in the hands of his son Titus.

Meanwhile, the Danubian legions, unwilling to wait for Mucianus' arrival, began their march against Vitellius ' forces. The latter army, suffering from a lack of discipline and training, and unaccustomed to the heat of Rome, was defeated at Cremona in late October. [[13]] By mid-December the Flavian forces had reached Carsulae, 95 kilometers north of Rome on the Flaminian Road, where the Vitellians, with no further hope of reinforcements, soon surrendered. At Rome, unable to persuade his followers to accept terms for his abdication, Vitellius was in peril. On the morning of December 20 the Flavian army entered Rome. By that afternoon, the emperor was dead. [[14]]

Tacitus records that by December 22, A.D. 69, Vespasian had been given all the honors and privileges usually granted to emperors. Even so, the issue remains unclear, owing largely to a surviving fragment of an enabling law, the lex de imperio Vespasiani, which conferred powers, privileges, and exemptions, most with Julio-Claudian precedents, on the new emperor. Whether the fragment represents a typical granting of imperial powers that has uniquely survived in Vespasian's case, or is an attempt to limit or expand such powers, remains difficult to know. In any case, the lex sanctioned all that Vespasian had done up to its passing and gave him authority to act as he saw fit on behalf of the Roman people. [[15]]

What does seem clear is that Vespasian felt the need to legitimize his new reign with vigor. He zealously publicized the number of divine omens that predicted his accession and at every opportunity he accumulated multiple consulships and imperial salutations. He also actively promoted the principle of dynastic succession, insisting that the emperorship would fall to his son. The initiative was fulfilled when Titus succeeded his father in A.D. 79.[[16]]

Emperorship

Upon his arrival in Rome in late summer, A.D. 70, Vespasian faced the daunting task of restoring a city and a government ravaged by the recent civil wars. Although many particulars are missing, a portrait nevertheles emerges of a ruler conscientiously committed to the methodical renewal of both city and empire. Concerning Rome itself, the emperor encouraged rebuilding on vacated lots, restored the Capitol (burned in A.D. 69), and also began work on several new buildings: a temple to the deified Claudius on the Caelian Hill, a project designed to identify Vespasian as a legitimate heir to the Julio-Claudians, while distancing himself from Nero ; a temple of Peace near the Forum; and the magnificent Colosseum (Flavian Amphitheatre), located on the site of the lake of Nero 's Golden House. [[17]]

Claiming that he needed forty thousand million sesterces for these projects and for others aimed at putting the state on more secure footing, Vespasian is said to have revoked various imperial immunities, manipulated the supply of certain commodities to inflate their price, and increased provincial taxation. [[18]] The measures are consistent with his characterization in the sources as both obdurate and avaricious. There were occasional political problems as well: Helvidius Priscus, an advocate of senatorial independence and a critic of the Flavian regime from the start, was exiled after A.D. 75 and later executed; Marcellus Eprius and A. Alienus Caecina were condemned by Titus for conspiracy, the former committing suicide, the latter executed in A.D. 79.
As Suetonius claims, however, in financial matters Vespasian always put revenues to the best possible advantage, regardless of their source. Tacitus, too, offers a generally favorable assessment, citing Vespasian as the first man to improve after becoming emperor. [[19]] Thus do we find the princeps offering subventions to senators not possessing the property qualifications of their rank, restoring many cities throughout the empire, and granting state salaries for the first time to teachers of Latin and Greek rhetoric. To enhance Roman economic and social life even further, he encouraged theatrical productions by building a new stage for the Theatre of Marcellus, and he also put on lavish state dinners to assist the food trades. [[20]]

In other matters the emperor displayed similar concern. He restored the depleted ranks of the senatorial and equestrian orders with eligible Italian and provincial candidates and reduced the backlog of pending court cases at Rome. Vespasian also re-established discipline in the army, while punishing or dismissing large numbers of Vitellius ' men. [[21]]
Beyond Rome, the emperor increased the number of legions in the East and continued the process of imperial expansion by the annexation of northern England, the pacification of Wales, and by advances into Scotland and southwest Germany between the Rhine and the Danube. Vespasian also conferred rights on communities abroad, especially in Spain, where the granting of Latin rights to all native communities contributed to the rapid Romanization of that province during the Imperial period. [[22]]

Death and Assessment

In contrast to his immediate imperial predecessors, Vespasian died peacefully - at Aquae Cutiliae near his birthplace in Sabine country on 23 June, A.D. 79, after contracting a brief illness. The occasion is said to have inspired his deathbed quip: "Oh my, I must be turning into a god!" [[23]] In fact, public deification did follow his death, as did his internment in the Mausoleum of Augustus alongside the Julio-Claudians.

A man of strict military discipline and simple tastes, Vespasian proved to be a conscientious and generally tolerant administrator. More importantly, following the upheavals of A.D. 68-69, his reign was welcome for its general tranquility and restoration of peace. In Vespasian Rome found a leader who made no great breaks with tradition, yet his ability ro rebuild the empire and especially his willingness to expand the composition of the governing class helped to establish a positive working model for the "good emperors" of the second century.

Bibliography

Since the scholarship on Vespasian is more comprehensive than can be treated here, the works listed below are main accounts or bear directly upon issues discussed in the entry above. A comprehensive modern anglophone study of this emperor is yet to be produced.

Atti congresso internazionale di studi Flaviani, 2 vols. Rieti, 1983.

Atti congresso internazionale di studi Vespasianei, 2 vols. Rieti, 1981.

Bosworth, A.B. "Vespasian and the Provinces: Some Problems of the Early 70s A.D." Athenaeum 51 (1973): 49-78.

Brunt, P. A. "Lex de imperio Vespasiani." JRS (67) 1977: 95-116.

D'Espèrey, S. Franchet. "Vespasien, Titus et la littérature." ANRW II.32.5: 3048-3086.

Dudley, D. and Webster, G. The Roman Conquest of Britain. London, 1965.

Gonzalez, J. "The Lex Irnitana: A New Copy of the Flavian Municipal Law." JRS 76 (1986): 147-243.

Grant, M. The Roman Emperors: A Biographical Guide to the Rulers of Rome, 31 B.C. - A.D. 476. New York, 1985.

Homo, L. Vespasien, l'Empereur du bons sens (69-79 ap. J.-C.). Paris, 1949.

Levi, M.A. "I Flavi." ANRW II.2: 177-207.

McCrum, M. and Woodhead, A. G. Select Documents of the Principates of the Flavian Emperors Including the Year of the Revolution. Cambridge, 1966.

Nicols, John. Vespasian and the Partes Flavianae. Wiesbaden, 1978.

Scarre, C. Chronicle of the Roman Emperors. The Reign-by-Reign Record of the Rulers of Imperial Rome. London, 1995.

Suddington, D. B. The Development of the Roman Auxiliary Forces from Caesar to Vespasian, 49 B.C. - A.D. 79. Harare: U. of Zimbabwe, 1982.

Syme, R. Tacitus. Oxford, 1958.

Wardel, David. "Vespasian, Helvidius Priscus and the Restoration of the Capitol." Historia 45 (1996): 208-222.

Wellesley, K. The Long Year: A.D. 69. Bristol, 1989, 2nd ed.


Notes

[[1]] Suet. Vesp. 2.1. Suetonius remains the major source but see also Tac. Hist. 2-5; Cass. Dio 65; Joseph. BJ 3-4.

[[2]] Suetonius (Vesp. 2.1) claims that Vespasian did not accept the latus clavus, the broad striped toga worn by one aspiring to a senatorial career, immediately. The delay, however, was perhaps no more than three years. See J. Nicols, Vespasian and the Partes Flavianae (Wiesbaden, 1978), 2.

[[3]] Military tribunate and quaestorship: Suet. Vesp. 2.3; aedileship: ibid., 5.3, in which Gaius, furious that Vespasian had not kept the streets clean, as was his duty, ordered some soldiers to load him with filth;,they complied by stuffing his toga with as much as it could hold. See also Dio 59.12.2-3; praetorship: Suet. Vesp. 2.3, in which Vespasian is depicted as one of Gaius' leading adulators, an account consistent with Tacitus' portrayal (Hist 1.50.4; 2.5.1) of his early career. For a more complete discussion of these posts and attendant problems of dating, see Nicols, Vespasian, 2-7.

[[4]] Marriage and Caenis: Suet. Vesp. 3; Cass. Dio 65.14.

[[5]] Nicols, Vespasian, 12-39.

[[6]] Suet. Vesp. 4.1 For additional details on Vespasian's exploits in Britain, see D. Dudley and G. Webster, The Roman Conquest of Britain (London, 1965), 55 ff., 98.

[[7]] Concerning Vespasian's years between his consulship and proconsulship, see Suet. Vesp. 4.2 and Nicols, Vespasian, 9. On his unpopularity in Africa, see Suet. Vesp. 4.3, an account of a riot at Hadrumentum, where he was once pelted with turnips. In recording that Africa supported Vitellius in A.D. 69, Tacitus too suggests popular dissatisfaction with Vespasian's proconsulship. See Hist. 2.97.2.

[[8]] This despite the fact that the sources record two rebukes of Vespasian, one for extorting money from a young man seeking career advancement (Suet. Vesp. 4.3), the other for either leaving the room or dozing off during one of the emperor's recitals (Suet. Vesp. 4.4 and 14, which places the transgression in Greece; Tac. (Ann. 16.5.3), who makes Rome and the Quinquennial Games of A.D. 65 the setting; A. Braithwaite, C. Suetoni Tranquilli Divus Vespasianus, Oxford, 1927, 30, who argues for both Greece and Rome).

[[9]] Subjugation of Galilee: Joseph. BJ 3.65-4.106; siege of Jerusalem: ibid., 4.366-376, 414.

[[10]] Revolt of Vindex: Suet. Nero 40; Tac. Ann. 14.4; revolt of Galba: Suet. Galba 10; Plut. Galba, 4-5; suicide of Nero: Suet. Nero 49; Cass. Dio 63.29.2. For the most complete account of the period between Nero's death and the accession of Vespasian, see K. Wellesley, The Long Year: A.D. 69, 2nd. ed. (Bristol, 1989).

[[11]] Tac. Hist. 2.76.

[[12]] Troops in support of Vespasian: Suet. Vit. 15; Mucianus and his forces: Tac. Hist. 2.83; Vespasian and grain shipments: Joseph. BJ 4.605 ff.; see also Tac. Hist. 3.48, on Vespasian's possible plan to shut off grain shipments to Italy from Carthage as well.

[[13]] On Vitellius' army and its lack of discipline, see Tac. Hist. 2.93-94; illness of army: ibid., 2.99.1; Cremona: ibid., 3.32-33.

[[14]] On Vitellius' last days, see Tac. Hist. 3.68-81. On the complicated issue of Vitellius' death date, see L. Holzapfel, "Römische Kaiserdaten," Klio 13 (1913): 301.

[[15]] Honors, etc. Tac. Hist. 4.3. For more on the lex de imperio Vespasiani, see P. A. Brunt, "Lex de imperio Vespasiani," JRS (67) 1977: 95-116.

[[16]] Omens: Suet. Vesp. 5; consulships and honors: ibid., 8; succession of sons: ibid., 25.

[[17]] On Vespasian's restoration of Rome, see Suet. Vesp. 9; Cass. Dio 65.10; D. Wardel, "Vespasian, Helvidius Priscus and the Restoration of the Capitol," Historia 45 (1996): 208-222.

[[18]] Suet. Vesp. 16.

[[19]] Ibid.; Tac. Hist. 1.50.

[[20]] Suet. Vesp. 17-19.

[[21]] Ibid., 8-10.

[[22]] On Vespasian's exploits in Britain, see esp. Tac., Agricola, eds. R. M. Ogilvie and I. A. Richmond (1967), and W. S. Hanson, Agricola and the Conquest of the North (1987); on the granting of Latin rights in Spain, see, e.g., J. Gonzalez, "The Lex Irnitana: a New Copy of the Flavian Municipal Law." JRS 76 (1986): 147-243.

[[23]] For this witticism and other anecdotes concerning Vespasian's sense of humor, see Suet. Vesp. 23.

Copyright (C) 1998, John Donahue. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis, an Online Encyplopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families.
http://www.roman-emperors.org/vespasia.htm
Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.





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711a, Titus, 24 June 79 - 13 September 81 A.D. 110 viewsTITUS AUGUSTUS AR silver denarius. Struck at Rome, 80 AD. IMP TITVS CAESAR VESPASIAN AVG PM, laureate head right. Reverse - TRP IX IMP XV COS VIII PP, elephant walking left. Fully legible legends, about Very Fine, nice golden toning. Commemmorates the completion and dedication of the Colosseum and the opening of games. SCARCE. RCV 2512, valued at $544 in EF. 17mm, 3.1g. Ex Incitatus.

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Titus Flavius Vespasianus (A.D. 79-81)

John Donahue
College of William and Mary

Titus Flavius Vespasianus was born on December 30, 39 A.D. He was the oldest of the three children of the founder of the Flavian Dynasty, Vespasian. Beginning in the year 70 Titus was named Cæsar and coregent; he was highly educated and a brilliant poet and orator in both Latin and Greek. He won military fame during the Jewish Revolt of 69-70. In April, 70, he appeared before the walls of Jerusalem, and conquered and destroyed the city after a siege of five months. He wished to preserve the Temple, but in the struggle with the Jews who rushed out of it a soldier threw a brand into the building. The siege and taking of the city were accompanied by barbarous cruelties. The next year Titus celebrated his victory by a triumph; to increase the fame of the Flavian dynasty the inscription on the triumphal arch represented the overthrow of the helpless people as a heroic achievement. Titus succeeded his father as Emperor in 79.

Before becoming emperor, tradition records that Titus was feared as the next Nero, a perception that may have developed from his association with Berenice, his alleged heavy-handedness as praetorian prefect, and tales of sexual debauchery. Once in office, however, both emperor and his reign were portrayed in universally positive terms. The suddenness of this transformation raises immediate suspicions, yet it is difficult to know whether the historical tradition is suspect or if Titus was in fact adept at taking off one mask for another. What is clear, however, is that Titus sought to present the Flavians as the legitimate successors of the Julio-Claudian dynasty. Proof came through the issuing of a series of restoration coins of previous emperors, the most popular being Augustus and Claudius. In A.D. 80 Titus also set out to establish an imperial cult in honor of Vespasian. The temple, in which cult (the first that was not connected with the Julio-Claudians) was housed, was completed by Domitian and was known as the Temple of Vespasian and Domitian.
Legitimacy was also sought through various economic measures, which Titus enthusiastically funded. Vast amounts of capital poured into extensive building schemes in Rome, especially the Flavian Amphitheater, popularly known as the Colosseum. In celebration of additions made to the structure, Titus provided a grand 100-day festival, with sea fights staged on an artificial lake, infantry battles, wild beast hunts, and similar activities. He also constructed new imperial baths to the south-east of the Amphitheater and began work on the celebrated Arch of Titus, a memorial to his Jewish victories. Large sums were directed to Italy and the provinces as well, especially for road building. In response to the eruption of Vesuvius in A.D. 79, Titus spent large sums to relieve distress in that area; likewise, the imperial purse contributed heavily to rebuilding Rome after a devastating fire destroyed large sections of the city in A.D. 80. As a result of these actions, Titus earned a reputation for generosity and geniality. For these reasons he gained the honourable title of "amor et deliciæ generis humani" (the darling and admiration of the human race). Even so, his financial acumen must not be under-estimated. He left the treasury with a surplus, as he had found it, and dealt promptly and efficiently with costly natural disasters. The Greek historian of the third-century A.D., Cassius Dio, perhaps offered the most accurate and succinct assessment of Titus' economic policy: "In money matters, Titus was frugal and made no unnecessary expenditure." In other areas, the brevity of Titus' reign limits our ability to detect major emphases or trends in policy. As far as can be discerned from the limited evidence, senior officials and amici were well chosen, and his legislative activity tended to focus on popular social measures, with the army as a particular beneficiary in the areas of land ownership, marriage, and testamentary freedom. In the provinces, Titus continued his father's policies by strengthening roads and forts in the East and along the Danube.

Titus died in September, A.D. 81 after only 26 months in office. Suetonius recorded that Titus died on his way to the Sabine country of his ancestors in the same villa as his father. A competing tradition persistently implicated his brother and successor, Domitian, as having had a hand in the emperor's demise, but the evidence is highly contradictory and any wrongdoing is difficult to prove. Domitian himself delivered the funeral eulogy and had Titus deified. He also built several monuments in honor of Titus and completed the Temple of Vespasian and Titus, changing the name of the structure to include his brother's and setting up his cult statue in the Temple itself.

Titus was the beneficiary of considerable intelligence and talent, endowments that were carefully cultivated at every step of his career, from his early education to his role under his father's principate. Cassius Dio suggested that Titus' reputation was enhanced by his early death. It is true that the ancient sources tend to heroicize Titus, yet based upon the evidence, his reign must be considered a positive one. He capably continued the work of his father in establishing the Flavian Dynasty and he maintained a high degree of economic and administrative competence in Italy and beyond. In so doing, he solidified the role of the emperor as paternalistic autocrat, a model that would serve Trajan and his successors well. Titus was used as a model by later emperors, especially those known as the Five Good Emperors (Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius).

Copyright (C) 1997, John Donahue.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Catholic Encyclopedia, http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/14746b.htm

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
Titus_Colosseum_Commem_AR_denarius.jpg
711a, Titus, 24 June 79 - 13 September 81 A.D.136 viewsTitus, 24 June 79 - 13 September 81 A.D. AR denarius, RCV 2512, aVF, struck at Rome, 80 A.D., 17.5mm, 3.4g. Obverse: IMP TITVS CAESAR VESPASIAN AVG PM, laureate head right; Reverse: TRP IX IMP XV COS VIII PP, elephant walking left. Fully legible legends; nice golden toning. This coin was struck in order to commemorate the completion and dedication of the Flavian Amphitheatre (the Colosseum) and its opening games. Very scarce. Ex Incitatus; photo courtesy Incitatus.

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Titus Flavius Vespasianus (A.D. 79-81)

John Donahue
College of William and Mary

Titus Flavius Vespasianus was born on December 30, 39 A.D. He was the oldest of the three children of the founder of the Flavian Dynasty, Vespasian. Beginning in the year 70 Titus was named Cæsar and coregent; he was highly educated and a brilliant poet and orator in both Latin and Greek. He won military fame during the Jewish Revolt of 69-70. In April, 70, he appeared before the walls of Jerusalem, and conquered and destroyed the city after a siege of five months. He wished to preserve the Temple, but in the struggle with the Jews who rushed out of it a soldier threw a brand into the building. The siege and taking of the city were accompanied by barbarous cruelties. The next year Titus celebrated his victory by a triumph; to increase the fame of the Flavian dynasty the inscription on the triumphal arch represented the overthrow of the helpless people as a heroic achievement. Titus succeeded his father as Emperor in 79.

Before becoming emperor, tradition records that Titus was feared as the next Nero, a perception that may have developed from his association with Berenice, his alleged heavy-handedness as praetorian prefect, and tales of sexual debauchery. Once in office, however, both emperor and his reign were portrayed in universally positive terms. The suddenness of this transformation raises immediate suspicions, yet it is difficult to know whether the historical tradition is suspect or if Titus was in fact adept at taking off one mask for another. What is clear, however, is that Titus sought to present the Flavians as the legitimate successors of the Julio-Claudian dynasty. Proof came through the issuing of a series of restoration coins of previous emperors, the most popular being Augustus and Claudius. In A.D. 80 Titus also set out to establish an imperial cult in honor of Vespasian. The temple, in which cult (the first that was not connected with the Julio-Claudians) was housed, was completed by Domitian and was known as the Temple of Vespasian and Domitian.
Legitimacy was also sought through various economic measures, which Titus enthusiastically funded. Vast amounts of capital poured into extensive building schemes in Rome, especially the Flavian Amphitheater, popularly known as the Colosseum. In celebration of additions made to the structure, Titus provided a grand 100-day festival, with sea fights staged on an artificial lake, infantry battles, wild beast hunts, and similar activities. He also constructed new imperial baths to the south-east of the Amphitheater and began work on the celebrated Arch of Titus, a memorial to his Jewish victories. Large sums were directed to Italy and the provinces as well, especially for road building. In response to the eruption of Vesuvius in A.D. 79, Titus spent large sums to relieve distress in that area; likewise, the imperial purse contributed heavily to rebuilding Rome after a devastating fire destroyed large sections of the city in A.D. 80. As a result of these actions, Titus earned a reputation for generosity and geniality. For these reasons he gained the honourable title of "amor et deliciæ generis humani" (the darling and admiration of the human race). Even so, his financial acumen must not be under-estimated. He left the treasury with a surplus, as he had found it, and dealt promptly and efficiently with costly natural disasters. The Greek historian of the third-century A.D., Cassius Dio, perhaps offered the most accurate and succinct assessment of Titus' economic policy: "In money matters, Titus was frugal and made no unnecessary expenditure." In other areas, the brevity of Titus' reign limits our ability to detect major emphases or trends in policy. As far as can be discerned from the limited evidence, senior officials and amici were well chosen, and his legislative activity tended to focus on popular social measures, with the army as a particular beneficiary in the areas of land ownership, marriage, and testamentary freedom. In the provinces, Titus continued his father's policies by strengthening roads and forts in the East and along the Danube.

Titus died in September, A.D. 81 after only 26 months in office. Suetonius recorded that Titus died on his way to the Sabine country of his ancestors in the same villa as his father. A competing tradition persistently implicated his brother and successor, Domitian, as having had a hand in the emperor's demise, but the evidence is highly contradictory and any wrongdoing is difficult to prove. Domitian himself delivered the funeral eulogy and had Titus deified. He also built several monuments in honor of Titus and completed the Temple of Vespasian and Titus, changing the name of the structure to include his brother's and setting up his cult statue in the Temple itself.

Titus was the beneficiary of considerable intelligence and talent, endowments that were carefully cultivated at every step of his career, from his early education to his role under his father's principate. Cassius Dio suggested that Titus' reputation was enhanced by his early death. It is true that the ancient sources tend to heroicize Titus, yet based upon the evidence, his reign must be considered a positive one. He capably continued the work of his father in establishing the Flavian Dynasty and he maintained a high degree of economic and administrative competence in Italy and beyond. In so doing, he solidified the role of the emperor as paternalistic autocrat, a model that would serve Trajan and his successors well. Titus was used as a model by later emperors, especially those known as the Five Good Emperors (Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius).

Copyright (C) 1997, John Donahue.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Catholic Encyclopedia, http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/14746b.htm

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
3 commentsCleisthenes
btogether.jpg
90..Bhimagupta 974/5-980 AD (Utpala dynasty)13 viewsBhimagupta 974/5-980 AD (Utpala dynasty)
Copper Kaserah or Punchshi 18mm
Obverse- Goddess Ardochsho/Lakshmi seated
Reverse- King facing
Paul R3
DTOGETHER.jpg
91..Diddarani 980-1003 AD (Yashaskara dynasty)16 viewsDiddarani 980-1003 AD
Copper Kaserah or Punchshi 18mm (5.62gr)
Obverse- Goddess Ardochsho/Lakshmi seated facing in half lotus position, with Nagari legend 'Sri to left 'didda' to right
Reverse- Queen standing facing and sacrificing at altar holding trident, with Nagari legend 'Diva' bottom right
Paul R3
ddnew.jpg
911..Diddarani 980-1003 AD (Yashaskara dynasty)15 viewsDiddarani 980-1003 AD
Copper Kaserah or Punchshi 18mm (5.90gr)
Obverse- Goddess Ardochsho/Lakshmi seated facing in half lotus position, with Nagari legend 'Sri to left 'didda' to right
Reverse- Queen standing facing and sacrificing at altar holding trident, with Nagari legend 'Diva' bottom right
Paul R3
STOGETHER.jpg
92..Samgrama (Sangrama) 1003-1028 AD (Start of 1st Lohara dynasty)14 viewsSamgrama (Sangrama) 1003-1028 AD (Start of 1st Lohara dynasty)
Copper Kaserah or Punchshi 18mm (5.45gr)
Obverse- Goddess Ardochsho/Lakshmi seated facing in half lotus position, with Nagari legend 'Sa to left 'm(n)gramara' to right
Reverse- King standing facing and sacrificing at altar holding trident, with Nagari legend 'jadeva' bottom right
Paul R3
ANTOGETHER.jpg
93..Ananta deva 1028-1063 AD (1st Lohara dynasty)16 viewsAnanta deva 1028-1076 AD (1st Lohara dynasty)
Copper Kaserah or Punchshi 18mm (5.92gr)
Obverse- Goddess Ardochsho/Lakshmi seated
Reverse- King facing
Paul R3
ktogether.jpg
94..Kalasa 1063-1089 AD (1st Lohara dynasty)14 viewsKalasa 1076-1089 AD (1st Lohara dynasty)
Copper Kaserah or Punchshi 18mm (5.52gr)
Obverse- Goddess Ardochsho/Lakshmi seated
Reverse- King facing
Paul R3
new_harsha_coin.jpg
945..Harsha 1089-1101 AD (1st Lohara dynasty)13 viewsHarsha 1089-1101 AD (1st Lohara dynasty)
Copper Kaserah or Punchshi 18mm (6.14gr)
Obverse- Goddess Ardochsho/Lakshmi seated facing in half lotus position, with Nagari legend 'Ha' to left 'rsha' to right
Reverse- King standing facing and sacrificing at altar holding trident, with Nagari legend 'Deva' bottom
right
Paul R3
htogether.jpg
95..Harsha 1089-1101 AD (1st Lohara dynasty)18 viewsHarsha 1089-1101 AD (1st Lohara dynasty)
Copper Kaserah or Punchshi 18mm (6.23gr)
Obverse- Goddess Ardochsho/Lakshmi seated facing in half lotus position, with Nagari legend 'Ha' to left 'rsha' to right
Reverse- King standing facing and sacrificing at altar holding trident, with Nagari legend 'Deva' bottom
right
Paul R3
ucch.jpg
951..Uccala (Uchchala) (1101-11 A.D.) Start of the 2nd Lohara dynasty9 viewsUccala (Uchchala) (1101-11 A.D.)
Copper Kaserah or Punchshi 17.5mm (5.76gr)
Obverse- Goddess Ardochsho/Lakshmi seated facing in half lotus position, with Nagari legend '(U) chcha' to left 'la' to right
Reverse- King standing facing and sacrificing at altar holding trident.
Paul R3
Bacchivs.jpg
A. Plautius70 viewsA. Plautius 54 BCE, denarius, 21mm., Rome mint. O: Turreted head of Cybele right, A PLAVTIVS before, AED CVR SC behind. R: Bacchius (Aristobulus II) kneeling right, extending olive branch, camel at side, BACCHIVS in exergue, IVDAEVS on right. Hendin 1443

The 'Bacchius the Jew' kneeling on the reverse is most likely Judah Aristobulus II, who usurped the throne of Judea from his brother John Hyrcanus II between 67 and 63 BC. In 63 BCE, Pompey the Great sided with Hyrcanus and subjected Jerusalem to a brutal siege and sacking, deposing Aristobulus II. Pompey went so far as to enter the Holy of Holies, defiling the sanctuary and marking the end of the great Hasmonean dynasty.

The Romans now had a foot in the door and were not about to remove it. Hyrcanus became a Roman ethnarch, one who ruled by the grace of the Romans, dependent on their goodwill and support to retain his throne.

Aristobulus was permitted to live as a hostage in Rome, but later escaped and tried to resume the throne, only to be defeated again by M. Aemilius Scaurus. This issue celebrates this unsuccessful attempt to regain control of Judaea.

Behind the scenes, a rich Idumaean chieftain named Antipater continued to manipulate Hyrcanus and to pander to Rome, building influence and power. This set the stage for the eventual rise to power of his infamous son, Herod the Great.

Except for the inscription, this coin is of the same reverse type as Hendin 1441.
2 commentsNemonater
Julia_Mamaea_R696_portrait.jpg
AD 225–235 - IVLIA MAMAEA3 viewsJulia Avita Mamaea was a Syrian noble woman and a Roman regent of the Severan dynasty. She was the mother of Roman Emperor Severus Alexander and served as regent of Rome during his reign.

for obverse, reverse and coin details click here
shanxi
7779LG.jpg
AE 100 Cash Szechuan 19th Century80 viewsGiant AE 100 Cash, Szechuan, Ch'ing dynasty. VG+.
Enormous and heavy.
Size: 56 mm

From Vcoin dealer Ecin
ecoli73
Lg007_quad_sm.jpg
AE provincial, Saitta, Lydia (Sidas Kaleh, Turkey), Senate/River-God (mid-2nd to early 3d century AD) 5 viewsIЄΡA - [CYNKΛHTOC], bare-headed youthful draped bust of Senate right / CAIT[THNΩN] + [ЄPMOC] in exergue, River-God Hermos reclining left, holding reed and cornucopiae, resting arm on urn (hydria) from which waters flow.

Ӕ (base metal yellow, orichalcum?), 22 mm, 5.68 g, die axis 6.5h (coin alignment)

It is difficult to read the name of the river. I think that ЄPMOC is more likely, but VΛΛΟС is also possible, representing the other important local river, Hyllos.

Possible catalog references are BMC Lydia 25 (or 26-27?), SNG Copenhagen 398, SNG München 439.
For the Hyllos reverse, Leypold 1153.

To emphasize the autonomy of certain Hellenistic polises, even under the Roman rule they sometimes used allegorical figures of Senate or Demos on obverses of their coins instead of imperial portraits. Saitta was issuing similar-looking coins with busts of emperors and their family as well, but in this issue the town Senate is honoured as the ruler. IЄΡA CYNKΛHTOC = Holy Senate. CAITTHNΩN = Saitta, ЄPMOC = Hermos, the name of the river and its god.

River-Gods or Potamoi (Ποταμοί) were the gods of the rivers and streams of the earth, all sons of the great earth-encirling river Okeanos (Oceanus) and his wife Tethys. Their sisters were the Okeanides (Oceanids), goddesses of small streams, clouds and rain, and their daughters were the Naiades, nymphs of springs and fountains. A River-God was depicted in one of three forms: as a man-headed bull; a bull-horned man with the tail of a serpentine-fish in place of legs; or as a reclining man with an arm resting upon a pitcher pouring water, which we see in this case. The addition of cornucopia symbolizes the blessings that a particular river bestows on those who live near it.

Saitta or Saittae (Σαίτται, Ptolemy 5.2.21: Σέτται, Σάετται) was a polis in eastern Lydia (aka Maeonia), in the rivers' triangle between the upper Hyllus (modern Demirci Çayı, c. 12 km to the west) and the Hermus or Hermos (modern Gediz Nehri, c. 20 km to the south). In Roman imperial times it belonged to the "conventus" of Sardis in the Roman province of Asia (conventus was a territorial unit of a Roman province, mostly for judicial purposes).

Now its ruins are known now as Sidas Kaleh or Sidaskale in Turkey, near the village of İçikler (İcikler Mahallesi, 45900 Demirci/Manisa). They were never excavated, so are little known or cared for. Ruins of a stadium and a theatre survive, together with remains of some temples and tombs.

Not much is known about it. It was a regional centre for the production of textiles. In 124 AD the town was probably visited by emperor Hadrianus. During the Roman period the cult of the moon god Mēn Axiottenus was very popular in the city. Because of its reference to "angels" (both literally as the Greek word and by their function as god's messengers) it was possibly close to the more general Asia Minor cult of Theos Hypsistos, Θεος ὕψιστος, "the highest god" (200 BC – 400 AD), which in turn was perhaps related to the gentile following of the Second Temple in Jerusalem.

Known Roman provincial coins issued by this city feature portraits of emperors from Hadrian to Gallienus, thus covering the period from 117 to 268 AD, with the peak around the Severan dynasty. The semi-autonomous issues are usually dated from mid-2nd to mid-3d century AD.

Later Saittae was the seat of a Byzantine bishopric. Bishop Limenius signed the Chalcedon Creed, while Bishop Amachius spoke at the Council of Chalcedon. Although an Islamic area now, Saittae remains a titular see of the Roman Catholic Church.
Yurii P
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AEOLIS, Aigai 50 viewsAigai is an ancient Greek site in Turkey, situated at a rather high altitude almost on top of the Mount Gün (Dağı), part of the mountain chain of Yunt (Dağları) in western Anatolia in the location of the present village of Yuntdağı Köseler, depending Manisa central district, although the easier road to the site departs from İzmir's Aliağa district center, though the bifurcation for Şakran township. Aigai lived its brightest period under the Attalid dynasty that ruled from nearby Pergamon in the 3rd century and 2nd century B.C.

Aeolis (Ancient Greek Αιολίς Aiolís) or Aeolia (IPA [iːˈoʊlɪə]) (Ancient Greek Αιολία Aiolía) was an area that comprised the west and northwestern region of Asia Minor, mostly along the coast, and also several offshore islands (particularly Lesbos), where the Aeolian Greek city-states were located. Aeolis incorporated the southern parts of Mysia which bounded it to the north, Ionia to the south, and Lydia to the east. In early times, the Aeolians' twelve most important cities were independent, and formed a league: Cyme (also called Phriconis), Larissae, Neonteichos, Temnus, Cilla, Notium, Aegiroessa, Pitane, Aegeaeae, Myrina, Gryneia, and Smyrna (Herodotus, 1.149).

According to Homer's description, Odysseus, after his stay with the Cyclopes, reached the island of Aiolos, who provided him with the west wind Zephyr.

AEOLIS, Aigai. Circa 3rd Century BC. Laureate head of Apollo right / Head of goat right. SNG Copenhagen 4

Ebay
ecoli
AlexanderTheGreate.jpg
Alexander III The Great15 viewsArgead Dynasty

Kingdom of Macedon (336 - 323 BC)

Obverse: Herakle's head right, clad in Nemean lion scalp, headdress tied at neck.

Reverse: Bow, quiver and club, Basilews written between.
Pericles J2
Alexandria.jpg
Alexandria11 viewsAlexandria was one of the most famous cities in the world. It was founded around a small pharaonic town c. 331 BC by Alexander the Great. It remained Egypt's capital for nearly a thousand years, until the Muslim conquest of Egypt in AD 641, when a new capital was founded at Fustat (Fustat was later absorbed into Cairo). Alexandria was known because of its Lighthouse of Alexandria (Pharos), one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World; its library (the largest library in the ancient world); and the Catacombs of Kom el Shoqafa, one of the Seven Wonders of the Middle Ages. Ongoing maritime archaeology in the harbor of Alexandria, which began in 1994, is revealing details of Alexandria both before the arrival of Alexander, when a city named Rhacotis existed there, and during the Ptolemaic dynasty.ancientone
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ANCIENT - Panchala Dynasty - DHRUVAMITRA - 4.66gm - 65-50 BCE - HALF KARSHAPANA15 viewsObverse Lord Indra standing on a pedestal
Reverse Three Panchala symbols in a row, with name below in Brahmi script: Indramitrasa
Date c. 1st century BCE - 1st century CE (highly uncertain)
Weight 4.78 gm.
Diameter 16 mm.
Die axis 5 o'clock
Reference MAC 4539, Shrimali Type A
Comments The Panchala series is one of the most interesting of the ancient India coin series, because it is quite long and the kings are named on them. Unfortunately, we know very little about the chronology. The order of kings is not known and even the dates of the series are still debated. It appears the series belongs in the post-Mauryan period, but further details are still unavailable.

You can see a catalog of Panchala coins on the CoinIndia website.
Antonivs Protti
Hartill-1_1.jpg
Ancient China: Shou and Zhang Dynasty (18th-6th Century BCE) Cowrie Shells (Hartill-1.1)21 viewsSpongeBob
s-l1600_(8).jpg
ANCIENT INDIA - GADHAYA DYNASTY - KINGS PORTRAIT - SILVER 9 viewsWeight : 4.03 gm.
Diameter : 17 mm
_7.50
Antonivs Protti
s-l1600_(14).jpg
ANCIENT INDIA - GADHAYA DYNASTY - KINGS PORTRAIT - SILVER 12 viewsWeight : 4.18 gm.
Diameter : 16 mm
_8.50
Antonivs Protti
Quang_Trung_Thong_Bao-viet-nam-1788-1792.jpg
Annam (Vietnam) Cash, Tây Sơn Dynasty Rebellion, Quang Trung (1788-1792 AD), AE24 Cash43 viewsAnnam (Vietnam) Cash, Tây Sơn Dynasty Rebellion, Quang Trung (1788-1792 AD), AE24 Cash, 1.95g, 24mm

Obverse: QUANG TRUNG THONG BAO, 光中通寶, Thick outer rim, thin rim around square hole.

Reverse: No legend. Thick outer rim, four crescents in field surrounding square hole with thin rim.

Reference: Toda 193, Barker 93.28

Ex: Kayser-i Rum Numismatics

https://www.zeno.ru/showphoto.php?photo=169633
1 commentsGil-galad
annam-minh-mang.jpg
Annam (Vietnam), Nguyen Dynasty, Minh Mang (1820-1841 AD)12 viewsAnnam (Vietnam), Nguyen Dynasty, Minh Mang (1820-1841 AD), AE Cash

Obverse: MIHN MANG THONG BAO, 明命通寶, Four characters flanking a square hole, thick rims.

Reverse: No legend, thick rims.

Reference: Toda 228

Ex: Kayser-i Rum Numismatics
Gil-galad
nguyen.jpg
Annam - Nguyen Phong, 1251-1258 AD26 viewsANNAM, Trần dynasty. Trần Thái Tông. AD 1225-1258.
Æ Van. Cast AD 1251-1258.
Toda 17
Ardatirion
Annam,_Tu_Duc_Thong_Boa,_1_van,_1847-1883_AD.jpg
Annam - Tu Duc, 1847-1883 AD37 viewsANNAM, Nguyễn Dynasty. Tự Đức, AD 1847-1883.
ZI Van. (23mm; 2.27 g)
Tu Duc Thong Bao
Barker 103.11; Toda -
Ardatirion
Antimachos_I_(185-170_BCE)_tetradrachm_(AR).jpg
Antimachos I (185-170 BCE) tetradrachm (AR)72 viewsObv.: Draped bust of Antimachos I r., wearing kausia Rev.: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΘΕΟΥ ΑΝΤΙΜΑΧΟΥ (Poseidon stg. facing, holding trident and palm branch; in lower r. field, monogram.) Struck at Pushkalavati (174-165 BCE) Weight: 16.98 g. Diameter: 32.4 mm Reference: Mitchiner 124ff., Bopearachchi série 1A, HGCS 12/106 Provenance: Ex Numismatica Ars Classica 84/2 (2015)

Very little is known about this enigmatic Bactrian king, although he likely belonged to the Euthydemid dynasty and was subsequently defeated by Eukratides. The kausia, a typical Macedonian hat, underlined Antimachos' Macedonian lineage, thus boosting his legitimacy. While Poseidon's appearance on the coins of a landlocked nation is remarkable, he may have been connected to the Oxus river flowing through Bactria or the numerous earthquakes that to this day plague Afghanistan.
1 commentsNick.vdw
1__Scarab.jpg
ANTIQUITIES, Egypt, Scarab of Sesostris III, 1836 - 1818 B.C.70 views- Scarabée, Egypte Sesostris III, 1800 av.-JC. (Stéatite) 312
Amulette-sceau de 20 mm en forme de coléoptère, hiéroglyphes gravés sur l’abdomen : scarabée ….

Sesostris III was a Pharaoh of the 12th dynasty (which lasted from c.1938–c. 1756 B.C.) and during his reign he completely reshaped Egypt’s government and extended his dominion in Nubia, the land immediately south of Egypt.
Roger D2
Scarab.jpg
Antiquity New Kingdom Scarab of Tuthmosis III53 viewsNew Kingdom. 18th Dynasty. Tuthmosis III (circa 1504-1450 BC). Steatite scarab (14x10mm). Base engraved with the cartouche of Tuthmosis III; on the left, a Maat father and the crown of Lower Egypt. Intact, once glazed, pierced for mounting. Ex David Hendin collection. CNG Auction 93.

Scarabs were used as lucky and magical charms in ancient Egypt. Scarabs, such as this one, with the names of pharos, were particularly powerful, and were produced as protective amulets for the public. Hendin’s collection of scarabs were collected by him in Israel in the 1970s and 1980s.
2 commentsLucas H
Apollo_Delphios.jpg
Apollo Delphios214 viewsApollo seated on the omphalos (Apollo Delphios) was the patron god of the Seleukids from the time of Antiochos I Soter who established this reverse coin image, which was to become emblematic of the early Seleukid dynasty.

This coin was issued by Antiochos II Theos 261-241 BC and is a previously undocumented emission of Antioch on the Orontes

Further background and attribution http://www.forumancientcoins.com/gallery/displayimage.php?pos=-62107
1 commentsLloyd T
khusro.jpg
AR Drachm of Khusro II, 618 AD29 viewsOBVERSE: Right facing crowned bust of Khusro II whose name appears in Pahlavi script to his right and honorifics to the left. Astral symbols (star and crescent at 3,6 and 9 o'clock. Two rings surrounding.
REVERSE: Fire Altar with two attendants with hands resting on swords. To the right is mintmark SW (Khuzistan) and to the left is the regnal year 28 which dates the coin to 618 AD. Three rings surrounding

Weight 3.0 grams. The coin has been severely clipped since these usually weigh about 4 grams.
The Sassanid were succesors to the Parthian (Arsacid) dynasty which they conquered in the third century AD. The Sassanids were Zoroastrians who followed the teachings of their prophet Zoroaster (Zarathustra) and their God was Ahura-Mazda - the God of light (or fire) and hence the reverse theme on Sassanid coins. Their rule was centered in what is Iraq and Iran and extended eastward. It lasted until the coming of Islam in the later 7th century. The ancient cultural heritage of Persia is quite distinct from that of their Semitic neighbors to the west and has repercussions in the religous and political conflicts of today.

daverino
afghan.JPG
AR Drachma of the Shahi, ca 900 AD53 views"Bull and Horseman" silver drachm of the Shahi dynasty and Kings of Kabul. OBV; Seated Humped bull with the Sanskrit legend "Sri Semanta Deva" meaning "military commander" above, a trident on the bull's rump.
REV: Horseman with lance.

The Shahi were a Buddhist/Hindu dynasty that ruled from Kabul in the 9th and 10th centuries AD. The Bull (a Hindu symbol) and Horseman drachmas were an enduring type minted in good silver that was mined in the Panjshir Valley of Afghanistan. The Shahi were gradually pushed eastward to Kashmir by Islam until they disappeared as a political group in the 12th century.
2 commentsdaverino
attalusI.jpg
Attalus I AR Tetradrachm 241-197 BC28 viewsOBV: Diademed head of Philetairos, founder of the Pergamene dynasty, to right
REV: Athena enthroned left resting left arm on shield and placing a wreath on the name of PHILETAIROY with her extended right arm. 'A' in field below Athena's arm - likely Sear 7720
Philetairos was a eunuch trusted by Seleukos to guard the treasury at Pergamon. This he did for many years before eventually striking out on his own and founding a dynasty by adoption. Attalus I, one of his successors was a loyal ally of Rome in its wars with Macedon.
The coin is worn but it still retains much of its original portrait quality. The engravers of royal Greek tetradrachms often tried to capture a subtle atmospheric effect by fading the profile into the fields.
Diam 27.6 mm, wt 15.6 gm
1 commentsdaverino
PtolemyREX.jpg
AUGUSTUS & PTOLEMY OF NUMIDIA AE semis175 viewsAVGVSTVS DIVI F
bare head of Augustus right

C LAETILIVS APALVS II V Q, REX PTOL (Ptolemy, King) within diadem

Carthago Nova, Spain, under sole 'duovir quinqunennales' C Laetilius Apalus.

18.5mm, 5.3g.
RPC 172.

Ex-Incitatus

Ptolemy of Numidia was the son of King Juba II of Numidia and Cleopatra Selene II. He was also the grandson of Mark Antony and Cleopatra VII on his mohter's side. He was named in honor of the memory of Cleopatra VII, the birthplace of his mother and the birthplace of her relatives. In choosing her son's name, Cleopatra Selene II created a distinct Greek-Egyptian tone and emphasized her role as the monarch who would continue the Ptolemaic dynasty. She by-passed the ancestral names of her husband. By naming her son Ptolemy instead of a Berber ancestral name, she offers an example rare in ancient history, especially in the case of a son who is the primary male heir, of reaching into the mother's family instead of the father's for a name. This emphasized the idea that his mother was the heiress of the Ptolemies and the leader of a Ptolemaic government in exile.

Through his parents he received Roman citizenship and was actually educated in Rome. Amazingly he grew up in the house of his maternal aunt, and Antony's daughter Antonia Minor, the youngest daughter of Mark Antony and the youngest niece of Augustus. Antonia was also a half-sister of Ptolemy's late mother, also a daughter of Mark Antony. Antonia Minor's mother was Octavia Minor, Mark Antony's fourth wife and the second sister of Octavian (later Augustus). Ptolemy lived in Rome until the age of 21, when he returned to the court of his aging father in Mauretania.

Ptolemy was a co-ruler with his father Juba II until Juba's death and was the last semi-autonomous ruler of Africa. On a visit to Rome in 40 AD he was seen by the Emperor Caligula in an amphitheather wearing a spectacular purpal cloak. A jealous Caligula had him murdered for his fashionable purple cloak.

Sold to Calgary Coin Feb 2017
2 commentsJay GT4
leBon.jpg
Auxonne in France, 1424-1427 AD., Duchy of Burgundy, Philippe le Bon, Blanc aux écus, Poey d'Avant # 5735.97 viewsFrance, Duchy of Burgundy, Auxonne mint (?), Philip the Good (Philippe le Bon, 1419-1467), struck 1424-1427 AD.,
AR blanc aux écus (26-28 mm / 3,27 g),
Obv.: + DVX : ET : COMES : BVRGVDIE , Ecus accolés de Bourgogne nouveau et Bourgogne ancien sous PhILIPVS.
Rev.: + SIT : NOMEN : DNI : BENEDICTVM , Croix longue entre un lis et un lion, au-dessus de PhILIPVS.
B., 1230 ; Dumas, 15-7-1 ; Poey d'Avant # 5735.

"PotatorII": "This coin is atributed to Auxonne mint because of the presence of a "secret dot" under the first letter (S) on reverse."

Rare

Imitation du blanc aux écus d'Henri VI d'Angleterre, frappé en France à partir de novembre 1422.

Philip the Good (French: Philippe le Bon), also Philip III, Duke of Burgundy (July 31, 1396 – June 15, 1467) was Duke of Burgundy from 1419 until his death. He was a member of a cadet line of the Valois dynasty (the then Royal family of France). During his reign Burgundy reached the height of its prosperity and prestige and became a leading center of the arts. Philip is known in history for his administrative reforms, patronage of Flemish artists such as Jan van Eyck, and the capture of Joan of Arc. During his reign he alternated between English and French alliances in an attempt to improve his dynasty's position.
Born in Dijon, he was the son of John the Fearless and Margaret of Bavaria-Straubing. On the 28 January 1405, he was named Count of Charolais in appanage of his father and probably on the same day he was engaged to Michele of Valois (1395–1422), daughter of Charles VI of France and Isabeau of Bavaria. They were married in June of 1409.
Philip subsequently married Bonne of Artois (1393–1425), daughter of Philip of Artois, Count of Eu, and also the widow of his uncle, Philip II, Count of Nevers, in Moulins-les-Engelbert on November 30, 1424. The latter is sometimes confused with Philip's biological aunt, also named Bonne (sister of John the Fearless, lived 1379 - 1399), in part due to the Papal Dispensation required for the marriage which made no distinction between a marital aunt and a biological aunt.
His third marriage, in Bruges on January 7, 1430 with Isabella of Portugal (1397 - December 17, 1471), daughter of John I of Portugal and Philippa of Lancaster, produced three sons:
* Antoine (September 30, 1430, Brussels – February 5, 1432, Brussels), Count of Charolais
* Joseph (April 24, 1432 – aft. May 6, 1432), Count of Charolais
* Charles (1433–1477), Count of Charolais and Philip's successor as Duke, called "Charles the Bold" or "Charles the Rash"
Philip also had some eighteen illegitimate children, including Antoine, bastard of Burgundy, by twenty four documented mistresses [1]. Another, Philip of Burgundy (1464-1524), bishop of Utrecht, was a fine amateur artist, and the subject of a biography in 1529.
Philip became duke of Burgundy, count of Flanders, Artois and Franche Comté when his father was assassinated in 1419. Philip accused Charles, the Dauphin of France and Philip's brother-in-law of planning the murder of his father which had taken place during a meeting between the two at Montereau, and so he continued to prosecute the civil war between the Burgundians and Armagnacs. In 1420 Philip allied himself with Henry V of England under the Treaty of Troyes. In 1423 the alliance was strengthened by the marriage of his sister Anne to John, Duke of Bedford, regent for Henry VI of England.
In 1430 Philip's troops captured Joan of Arc at Compiègne and later handed her over to the English who orchestrated a heresy trial against her, conducted by pro-Burgundian clerics. Despite this action against Joan of Arc, Philip's alliance with England was broken in 1435 when Philip signed the Treaty of Arras (which completely revoked the Treaty of Troyes) and thus recognised Charles VII as king of France. Philip signed for a variety of reasons, one of which may have been a desire to be recognised as the Premier Duke in France. Philip then attacked Calais, but this alliance with Charles was broken in 1439, with Philip supporting the revolt of the French nobles the following year (an event known as the Praguerie) and sheltering the Dauphin Louis.
Philip generally was preoccupied with matters in his own territories and seldom was directly involved in the Hundred Years' War, although he did play a role during a number of periods such as the campaign against Compiegne during which his troops captured Joan of Arc. He incorporated Namur into Burgundian territory in 1429 (March 1, by purchase from John III, Marquis of Namur), Hainault and Holland, Frisia and Zealand in 1432 (with the defeat of Countess Jacqueline in the last episode of the Hook and Cod wars); inherited the duchy of Brabant and Limburg and the margrave of Antwerp in 1430 (on the death of his cousin Philip of Saint-Pol); and purchased Luxembourg in 1443 from Elisabeth of Bohemia, Duchess of Luxembourg. Philip also managed to ensure his illegitimate son, David, was elected Bishop of Utrecht in 1456. It is not surprising that in 1435, Philip began to style himself "Grand Duke of the West". In 1463 Philip returned some of his territory to Louis XI. That year he also created an Estates-General based on the French model. The first meeting of the Estates-General was to obtain a loan for a war against France and to ensure support for the succession of his son, Charles I, to his dominions. Philip died in Bruges in 1467.

my ancient coin database
1 commentsArminius
ISL_Ayyubid_Abu_Bakr_I_Album_803.jpg
Ayyubid Dynasty. Al-Adil Abu Bakr I (Al-Adil Saif al-Din Abu-Bakr Ahmed ibn Najm ad-Din Ayyub) (592-615 A.H. = 1196-1218 A.D.)44 viewsAlbum 803 (variant without central annulets)

AR dirham, 2.78 g., 21.14 mm. max, 0°. Struck at the Dimashq mint (Damascus), in 598-608 A.H. (= 1201-1211 A.D.).

Obv: Imam (= the religious leader) al-Nasir / li-Din Allah amir (= commander), on middle two lines; al-mu' / minin (= of the faithful), above and below, fleur at bottom, all within double intertwined trefoil.

Rev: al-malik (= the king) al-'Adil / Abu Bakr ibn Ayyub, on middle two lines; al-din / saif (= sword of the faith), above and below, fleur at bottom, all within double intertwined trefoil.

As is typical with this type, the marginal legends (kalima / mint and date) are off the flan.

The obverse legend cites to the Abbasid Caliph, al-Nasir li-Din Allah (575/6-622 A.H. = 1180-1225 A.D.). The reverse legend cites to the Sultan of Egypt and Syria, al-Adil Saif al-Din Abu Bakr ibn Ayyub, who was the brother of Saladin. From his honorific title Saif al-Din ("Sword of Faith"), he was known to the Crusaders as Saphadin.
Stkp
ISL_Ayyubid_Al_Zahir_Ghazi_Ghiyath.jpg
Ayyubids, Branch at Aleppo (Halab), al-Zahir Ghiyath al-Din Ghazi ibn Yusuf (al-Zahir Ghazi) (emir of Aleppo 1186-1216 A.D = 582-613 A.H.)5 viewsBalog 671, 674 or 676, most probably Balog 674; Album 838.4

AE fals, Halab mint, dated 604 A.H. = 1207/08 A.D., 607 A.H. = 1210/11 A.D. or 609 A.H. = 1211/12 A.D., most likely 607 A.H. (scarce with legible date, per Album); 4.39 g., 23.08 mm. max. 180°

Obv.: Border of pellets within which is an eight-pointed star, within which is an eight-pointed star of pellets; al-malik / al-Zahir in two lines in center; mint and date (counterclockwise) in margin segments.

Rev.: Border of pellets within which is an eight-pointed star, within which is an eight-pointed star of pellets; al-imam / al-Nasir (refering to caliph al-Nasir [1180-1225 A.D. = 575-622 A.H.]) in two lines in center; Kalima (counterclockwise) in margin segments.

al-Zahir Ghazi was the third son of al-Nasir Salah al-Din Yusuf ibn Ayyub (Saladin) (1169-1193 A.D. = 564-589 A.H.), the first sultan of Egypt and Syria and founder of the Ayyubid dynasty.

Album rarity C

Dating assistance courtesy of Alex Koifman.
Stkp
Bactria,_Agathokles_Nickel_Double_Unit_.jpg
Baktrian Kingdom, Agathokles I, ca. 185-170 BC, Copper-Nickel Dichalkon 15 viewsHead of Dionysos right, wearing ivy wreath, thyrsos over left shoulder
ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ AΓAΘOKΛEOYΣ (of King Agathokles) Panther standing right with bell around neck, touching vine with raised paw, monogram ΦI to left

HGC 12, 94; Bopearachchi Series 5B; SNG ANS 9, 236; Mitchiner 147b (this coin illustrated); Sear GCV 7557 var.

(21 mm, 8.8 g, 12h).
Ancient Numismatic Enterprise; ex Duplicates of the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford.

Agathokles, Euthydemos II, and Pantaleon minted copper-nickel coins in the period ca. 185-170 BC, the first such alloy coins to be produced. Nickel was not used again in coin production until the 19th century. The nickel content in these coins is variable in the range 7.5% to 20.2%. It is probable that locally available, rich deposits of copper-nickel ore were mined and smelted to produce the coinage. The short period of time in which such coins were minted suggests that the source of nickel rich copper was rapidly depleted. The silver appearance of the coinage probably enhanced its perceived value at a time when the Euthydemid Dynasty was struggling for survival against the usurper Eukratides. It may have even been considered a substitute for silver at a time when the latter was in short supply due to the conflict with Eukratides.
n.igma
Bactria,_Apollodotos_AE_Unit_.jpg
Baktrian Kingdom, Apollodotos I, ca. 175-165 BC Æ Quadruple Unit27 viewsΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ AΠΟΛΛΟΔΟΤΟY ΣΩΤHPOΣ (of King Apollodotos Savior) Apollo standing facing holding bow and arrow.
Tripod on stand in dotted square border outside which Maharajas Apaladasta Iradasa (of King Apollodotos Savior) in Kharoshthi script (reverse image in photo above is inverted).

Mitchiner 209a; Bopearachchi 6A; SNG ANS 9, 346; HGC 12, 41; Sear GCV 7594.

(22 x 21 mm, 12h).
CNG e-Auction 162, 11 Apr. 2007, 134.

Apollodotos was a contemporary of the later Euthydemid rulers, Agathokles, Pantaleon and Antimachos. His Greek coinage is rare with only less than a dozen portrait tetradrachm specimens known. Almost all of his coinage adhered to south Indian traditions, with bi-lingual Greek and Kharoshthi legends and non-portrait types struck on square flans, either elephant and bull on his silver, or Apollo and tripod on the bronze. From this coinage, which comprises the only evidence for his reign, it appears that Apollodotos administered his territories south of the Hindu Kush. The imagery on Apollodotos’ coins breaks with the tradition of the Euthydemid dynasty, portraying seated Athena on the tetradrachms (in the style of the reverse of Lysimachos coinage) and a standing Apollo on AE issues, reminiscent of the Seleukid coinage. Eukratides may have retained him as a provincial ruler through the struggle for power.
1 commentsn.igma
73000535.jpg
Baktrian Kingdom, Eukratides I, ca. 171-145 BC, AR Tetradrachm 32 viewsDiademed bust of a youthful Eukratides right.
ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ EYKPATIΔOY (of King Eukratides) Dioskouroi on horseback charging right, carrying spears and palm branches, PK monogram to lower right.

Bopearachchi Series1B; SNG ANS 9, 431; Mitchiner 168(f); Qunduz 108-114; HGC 12, 130; Sear GCV 7568.

(32 mm, 16.75 g, 12h).
From LWHT Col.; CNG 73, 13 Sep. 2006, 535.

Eukratides I came to power in a revolt against the Euthydemid dynasty commencing around 171 BC and continuing for a decade. He extended his dominion to include all of Baktria and its realms both north and south of the Hindu Kush. Around 145 BC, Eukratides was murdered by his one of his own sons, probably Plato. By this time Baktria was weakened by the protracted struggle for power. The demise of Eukratides provided a catalyst for Scythian nomads to cross the Oxus, eventually to overrun Baktria. The city of Ai Khanoum appears to have been amongst the first to fall to invaders. This is evidenced by the fact that no coins later than those of Eukratides have been found in the excavations at Ai Khanoum. Within a decade Baktria had fragmented, overrun by Scythian nomads from the north, with the possible exception of a small Greek enclave in the eastern foothills of the Hindu Kush and the associated valley passes that led to the south and the Kabul Valley. A small remnant Greek civilization remained for another century to the south of the Hindu Kush before being overrun.
2 commentsn.igma
Bactria,_Euthydemos_1_Tetradrachm_-_youthful_portrait.jpg
Baktrian Kingdom, Euthydemos I, ca. 230-200 BC, AR Tetradrachm 15 viewsDiademed youthful head right.
ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ EYΘYΔHMOY (of King Euthydemos). Herakles seated left on rocks, holding club set on rocks; monogram lower right field.

Kritt A1; Bopearachchi 5B; SNG ANS 9,125; HGC 12, 40; Mitchiner 85c; Qunduz 10-11.
Mint “A” - Ai Khanoum ca. 230 BC.

(28 mm, 16.38 g, 6h).
CNG eAuction 170, 8 Aug. 2007, 138.

Euthydemos I overthrew Diodotos II around 230 BC. This coin is amongst the first issued by Euthydemos. The inverted die axes convention with which it was struck is a characteristic of Mint “A” (Ai Khanoum) in the preceding Diodotid era. This was changed to parallel die axes convention in the early years of the reign of Euthydemos. Late in Euthydemos reign, Antiochos III the Great, sought to reimpose Seleukid authority over Baktria. Euthydemos withstood a two year siege by Antiochos at the fortress city of Baktra in 208-206 BC at the conclusion of which Antiochos was forced to recognize an independent Baktria. Demetrios, the son of Euthydemos, succeeded the latter around 200 BC and extended the kingdom south into the Kabul Valley and northwest Pakistan. However, the Euthydemid dynasty was destroyed by Eukratides I who progressively deposed the successors of Demetrios I.

The reverse image of a “weary Herakles” on the Euthydemos series of tetradrachms is noteworthy for its antecedents in the Lydian issues of Antiochus II. The ancient historian Polybius noted that Euthydemos came from Magnesia. However, which of three possible cities or regions called Magnesia remains uncertain. Based on the similarity of the reverse image of Euthydemos’ silver coins with those of the Lydian types, it is inferred that he may have come from Magnesia ad Sipylum in Lydia where he could have been exposed to the” weary Herakles” issues prior to his migration to Baktria. Such being the case, Euthydemos could not have been born much later than 270 BC, in which case he would have been in his seventies at the time of his death. The aged portrait on the last of his coinage tends to confirm this inference.
n.igma
Ban_Liang_Hartill_7_7.jpg
Ban Liang - Qin Dynasty (300-200 B.C.)23 viewsChina, Qin Dynasty
300-200 B.C.
Ban Liang 31mm 6.4g
Hartill 7.7
Matteo
11C10.JPG
Barbarous imitation of FEL TEMP REPARATIO Fallen Horseman ( Constantine dynasty ) AE10mm18 viewsObv. Bust right.
Rev. Something involving a Spear and a horse!!!

UK Detector find.
Lee S
IMG_0415.JPG
Barbarous imitation of FEL TEMP REPARATIO Fallen Horseman ( Constantine dynasty ) AE11mm12 viewsBarbarous imitation of FEL TEMP REPARATIO Fallen Horseman ( Constantine dynasty )
Obv. Bust right.
Rev. Rev. Soldier spearing fallen horseman.
Uk Detector find
Lee S
16C12.JPG
Barbarous imitation of FEL TEMP REPARATIO Fallen Horseman ( Constantine dynasty ) AE12mm16 viewsObv. Pearl diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev. Soldier spearing fallen horseman.

UK Detector find.
Lee S
13C12.JPG
Barbarous imitation of FEL TEMP REPARATIO Fallen Horseman ( Constantine dynasty ) AE12mm11 viewsObv. Pearl diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev. Soldier spearing fallen horseman.

UK Detector find
Lee S
7C10.JPG
Barbarous imitation of Roman coin ( Constantine dynasty ) AE10mm12 viewsBarbarous imitation of Roman coin C.300-350AD

UK Metal detector find
Lee S
3C11.JPG
Barbarous imitation of Roman coin ( Constantine dynasty ) AE11mm12 viewsBarbarous imitation of Roman coin C.300-350AD

UK Metal detector find
Lee S
BARB_HORSEMAN_FOLLIS.jpg
BARBAROUS IMITATIVE28 views BARBAROUS IMITATIVE, FALLEN HORSEMAN
4th Century AD
Imitative of Constantinian dynasty FEL TEMP REPARATIO type
AE 21 mm, 4.89 g
O: Bust right
R: Soldier spearing fallen horseman
laney
BARB_HORSEMAN_RUMP.jpg
BARBAROUS IMITATIVE24 views BARBAROUS IMITATIVE, FALLEN HORSEMAN
4th Century AD
Crude Imitative of Constantinian dynasty FEL TEMP REPARATIO type
AE 11 mm, 0.92 g
O: Bust right
R: Soldier spearing fallen horseman
laney
BARB_HORSEMAN_NOSE.jpg
BARBAROUS IMITATIVE20 views BARBAROUS IMITATIVE, FALLEN HORSEMAN
4th Century AD
Imitative of Constantinian dynasty FEL TEMP REPARATIO type
AE 18 X 20 mm, 3.08 g
O: Bust right
R: Soldier spearing fallen horseman
laney
imit_horseman.jpg
BARBAROUS IMITATIVE, FALLEN HORSEMAN28 views4th Century AD
Crude Barbarous Imitative of Constantinian Dynasty FEL TEMP REPARATIO type
AE 12.5 mm, 0.73 g
O: Head right
R: Soldier spearing fallen horseman
laney
barb_horseman.jpg
BARBAROUS IMITATIVE, FALLEN HORSEMAN33 views4th Century AD
AE 11 mm, 1.23 g
Crude Barbarous Imitative of Constantinian Dynasty FEL TEMP REPARATIO type
O: Head right
R: Soldier spearing fallen horseman
laney
islamic_gold_.jpg
BCC IC135 viewsIslamic - Fatimid Dynasty
al-Mustansir Billah
18th Imam, of Cairo, Egypt.
427-487AH (1036-1095CE)
AV 1/4 Dinar
14.5mm. 0.68gm.
Date and mint off-flan.
Contemporary accounts and recent excavations
indicate that Caesarea was a thriving agricultural
town in this period.
v-drome
small_Islamic_IC4.jpg
BCC IC421 viewsIslamic -Fatimid Dynasty
al-Mustansir billah
18th Imam of Cairo, Egypt.
AH427-487 (1036-1094 CE)
Debased Alloy Fractional Dirham
Obv: Kufic Arabic inscription
Rev: al-Imam Ma’add الإمام معد
10x8mm. 0.41gm. Axis:210 (7h)
Date and mint off-flan.
v-drome
new_bhima.jpg
Bhima Gupta Deva 974/5-980 AD (Utpala dynasty)4 viewsBhimagupta 974/5-980 AD (Utpala dynasty)
Copper Kaserah or Punchshi 18mm (5.55gr)
Obverse- Goddess Ardochsho/Lakshmi seated facing in half lotus position, with Nagari legend 'Bhi' to left 'ma Gu' to right
Reverse- King standing facing and sacrificing at altar holding trident in left hand, with Nagari legend 'pta Deva' bottom right
Paul R3
s-l1600_(77).jpg
Billon tanka of Sikandar Shah Lodi (1488-1517 AD), AH 918 (1512) AD, Sultanate of Delhi, India10 views18mm, 9.3 grams
Notes: Persian inscriptions on both sides: Al-mutawakkil alal rahman sikandarshah bahlul shah sultan / fi zaman amir al-mu minin khulidat khilafatuhu. Dated to AH 918 (1512) AD. Angular style and no mint-name. "The Coins of the Indian Sultanates" D706.
The Delhi Sultanate, or Sulthanath-e-Hind/Sulthanath-e-Dilli refers to the various dynasties that ruled in India from 1210 to 1526. Several Turko-Afghan dynasties ruled from Delhi: the Slave dynasty (1206-90), the Khilji dynasty (1290-1320), the Tughluq dynasty (1320-1413), the Sayyid dynasty (1414-51), and the Lodi (1451-1526).
Antonivs Protti
Caligula_RIC_16.jpg
Caligula RIC 001677 viewsSH86638. Silver denarius, RIC I 16 (R2, Rome), RSC I 2, Lyon 167, BnF II 21, BMCRE I 17, cf. SRCV I 1807 (aureus), VF, toned, attractive portraits, bumps and marks, some pitting, lamination defects, ex jewelry, Lugdunum (Lyon, France) mint, weight 3.443g, maximum diameter 18.2mm, die axis 180o, 2nd emission, 37 - 38 A.D.; obverse C CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR POT (counterclockwise from lower right), laureate head of Caligula right; reverse DIVVS AVG PATER PATRIAE (counterclockwise from lower right), radiate head of Divus Augustus right; ex Classical Numismatic Group, e-auction 69 (23 July 2003), lot 90
Ex: Forum Ancient coins, March 2, 2018.


This is my second denarius of Gaius. I was extremely happy to get this one. I know the surfaces are a bit rough, but it is still a VF example of a rare coin. Denarii of Caligula do not show up for sale very often outside of large auction houses. When they do appear they are often very expensive. I waited for about 2 1/2 years for a coin like this to show up. As soon as it did I bought it.

I want to share a quick word about where I bought this coin. It was a purchase from Forum Ancient Coins. Coins are guaranteed authentic for eternity, and the service is second to none. Forum is also an incredible source of information concerning ancient coins. If you have a question about ancient coins, chances are that question has been asked and answered on Forum Ancient Coins. Many experts frequent this site and they are always willing to share their expertise.

Anyone trying to assemble a set of the 12 Caesars in silver will need to find a denarius of Gaius. His is one of the most difficult to add along with denarii of Claudius and Otho. It has also been suggested by some that it is the fault of 12 Caesars collectors that drives the prices so high. While true that there is a lot of competition for these coins when they appear, it is also true that there are alternatives to the denarii of Gaius. One popular choice is the Vesta As. These are quite common and can be had in nice condition for reasonable prices.

On the obverse we have the typical portrait of Gaius, while on the reverse we see a portrait of his great grandfather Augustus. Augustus is depicted as a Divus or god. The reverse legend "Pater Patriae" refers to Augustus as the father of the country. One reason Augustus was on the reverse was to remind the people of Rome of their emperor's connection to the Julio-Claudian ruling dynasty.

Why are denarii of Gaius so scarce? One explanation is has to do with Gresham's law or bad money drives out good money. The theory is that the monetary reforms of Nero, which debased to coinage in both weight and fineness, caused people to hoard the older more valuable coins of emperors like Caligula and Claudius. The problem with this explanation is that there are plenty of "tribute penny" denarii of Tiberius. The other possibility is that perhaps smaller numbers of Gaius' denarii were originally minted. Maybe there was already enough silver coinage circulating and therefore fewer were needed. Whatever the real reason, we are unlikely to ever get a satisfactory answer.
5 commentsorfew
Cappadocia.JPG
Cappadocia13 viewsThe Cappadocians, supported by Rome against Mithridates VI of Pontus, elected a native lord, Ariobarzanes, to succeed (93 BC); but in the same year Armenian troops under Tigranes the Great (Tigran) entered Cappadocia, dethroned king Ariobarzanes and crowned Gordios as the new client-king of Cappadocia, thus creating a buffer zone against the encroaching Romans. It was not until Rome had deposed the Pontic and Armenian kings that the rule of Ariobarzanes was established (63 BC). In the civil wars Cappadocia was now for Pompey, now for Caesar, now for Antony, now against him. The Ariobarzanes dynasty came to an end and a certain Archelaus reigned in its stead, by favour first of Antony and then of Octavian, and maintained tributary independence until AD 17, when the emperor Tiberius, on Archelaus' death in disgrace, reduced Cappadocia at last to a Roman province. Much later it was a region of the Byzantine Empire.ancientone
caracalla_AR-Ant_jupiter_UK-find_01.jpg
Caracalla AR Antoninianus - Silver Antoninianus - Jupiter29 viewsAncient Roman Empire
Severan Dynasty, Emperor Caracalla (212 - 217AD)
Silver Antoninianus (double Denarius). Struck at the Rome Mint.

obv: ANTONINUS PIUS AUG GERM - Radiate bust right, draped and cuirassed. Seen from behind.
rev: PM TR P XVIIII COS IIII P P - Jupiter standing, head facing left, holding thunderbolt and sceptre.

Weight: 4.5 Grams
Size: 25.5 x 26 mm
-----

*Coin originally found in the UK.
rexesq
abm_caracalla_british_victory_as.jpg
Caracalla, as, RIC IV.1, 457a, AD 210.33 viewsANTONINVS PIVS AVG, Laureate head right.
PONTIF TR P XIII COS III, S C, Victory standing right inscribing shield.
RIC 457a, AD 210.
Commemorative issue to celebrate the Severan dynasty's alleged British victories.
1 commentsAdrianus
9965.jpg
Carrhae in Mesopotamia, Septimius Severus, AE 24, Lindgren 2557122 viewsCarrhae in Mesopotamia, Septimius Severus, AE 24, 193-211 AD
Av.: CEΠTIMIOC [CE]OY.... , naked (laureate?) bust of Septimius Severus right
Rv.: ..Λ]OY KAPPH ΛKA... , front view of a tetrastyle temple, the temple of the moon god Sin, in the middle a sacred stone on tripod, on top of stone: crescent, standards (with crescents on top) on both sides inside the building; another crescent in the pediment.
Lindgren 2557 ; BMC p. 82, #4

The city and the region played an important role in roman history.

Carrhae / Harran, (Akkadian Harrânu, "intersecting roads"; Latin Carrhae), an ancient city of strategic importance, an important town in northern Mesopotamia, famous for its temple of the moon god Sin, is now nothing more than a village in southeastern Turkey with an archeological site.
In the Bible it is mentioned as one of the towns where Abraham stayed on his voyage from Ur to the promised land. Abraham's family settled there when they left Ur of the Chaldeans (Genesis 11:31-32).
Inscriptions indicate that Harran existed as early as 2000 B.C. In its prime, it controlled the point where the road from Damascus joins the highway between Nineveh and Carchemish. This location gave Harran strategic value from an early date. It is frequently mentioned in Assyrian inscriptions about 1100 BC, under the name Harranu, or "Road" (Akkadian harrānu, 'road, path, journey' ).
During the fall of the Assyrian Empire, Harran became the stronghold of its lasts king, Ashur-uballit II, being besiged and conquered by Nabopolassar of Babylon at 609 BC. Harran became part of Median Empire after the fall of Assyria, and subsequently passed to the Persian Achaemenid dynasty.
The city remained Persian untill in 331 BC when the soldiers of the Macedonian king Alexander the Great entered the city.
After the death of Alexander on 11 June 323 BC, the city was claimed by his successors: Perdiccas, Antigonus Monophthalmus and Eumenes. These visited the city, but eventually, it became part of the Asian kingdom of Seleucos I (Nicator), the Seleucid empire, and capital of a province called Osrhoene (the Greek term for the old name Urhai).
The Seleucids settled Macedonian veterans at Harran. For a century-and-a-half, the town flourished, and it became independent when the Parthian dynasty of Persia occupied Babylonia. The Parthian and Seleucid kings both needed the buffer state of Osrhoene which was part of the larger Parthian empire and had nearby Edessa as its capital. The dynasty of the Arabian Abgarides, technically a vassal of the Parthian "king of kings" ruled Osrhoene for centuries.

Carrhae was the scene of a disastrous defeat of the Roman general Crassus by the Parthians. In 53 BC. Crassus, leading an army of 50.000, conducted a campaign against Parthia. After he captured a few cities on the way, he hurried to cross the Euphrates River with hopes of receiving laurels and the title of “Emperor”. But as he drove his forces over Rakkan towards Harran, Parthian cavalry besieged his forces in a pincers movement. In the ensuing battle, the Roman army was defeated and decimated. The battle of Carrhae was the beginning of a series of border wars with Parthia for many centuries. Numismatic evidence for these wars or the corresponding peace are for instance the "Signis Receptis" issues of Augustus and the “Janum Clusit” issues of Nero.
Later Lucius Verus tried to conquer Osrhoene and initially was successful. But an epidemic made an annexation impossible. However, a victory monument was erected in Ephesus, and Carrhae/Harran is shown as one of the subject towns.
Septimius Severus finally added Osrhoene to his realms in 195. The typical conic domed houses of ancient Harran can be seen on the Arch of Septimius Severus on the Forum Romanum.
Harran was the chief home of the moon-god Sin, whose temple was rebuilt by several kings. Sin was one of the great gods of the Assurian-Babylonian pantheon.
Caracalla gave Harran the status of a colonia (214 AD) and visited the city and the temple of the moon god in April 217. Meanwhile the moon god (and sacred stones) had become a part of the Roman pantheon and the temple a place to deify the roman emperors (as the standards on both sides of the temple indicate).

Caracalla was murdered while he was on his way from Temple to the palace. If this had been arranged by Macrinus - the prefect of the Praetorian guard who was to be the new emperor – is not quite clear. On the eighth of April, the emperor and his courtiers made a brief trip to the world famous temple of the moon god. When Caracalla halted to perform natural functions, he was assassinated by one of his bodyguards, Julius Martialis, who had a private grudge against the ruler, because he had not been given the post of centurion.

In 296 AD Roman control was again interrupted when nearby Carrhae the emperor Galerius was defeated by the king Narses / the Sasanid dynasty of Persia. The Roman emperor Julianus Apostata sacrificed to the moon god in 363 AD, at the beginning of his ill-fated campaign against the Sassanid Persians. The region continued to be a battle zone between the Romans and Sassanids. It remained Roman (or Byzantine) until 639, when the city finally was captured by the Muslim armies.

At that time, the cult of Sin still existed. After the arrival of the Islam, the adherents of other religions probably went to live in the marshes of the lower Tigris and Euphrates, and are still known as Mandaeans.
The ancient city walls surrounding Harran, 4 kilometer long and 3 kilometer wide, have been repaired throughout the ages (a.o. by the Byzantine emperor Justinian in the sixth century), and large parts are still standing. The position of no less than 187 towers has been identified. Of the six gates (Aleppo gate, Anatolian, Arslanli, Mosul, Baghdad, and Rakka gate), only the first one has remained.

A citadel was built in the 14th century in place of the Temple of Sin. This lies in the south-west quarter of the ancient town. Its ruin can still be visited.

my ancient coin database
1 commentsArminius
_#24120;_#24179;_#20116;_#37526;.jpg
CH'ANG PING WU SHU13 viewsChina
NORTHERN CH'I DYNASTY
AD 550-577

The Northern Ch'i Dynasty was founded by Wen Hsuan Ti, the Son of a general who helped overthrow the Northern Wei in AD 535 and the Eastern Wei in AD 550. They existed alongside the Northern Zhou Dynasty, which was established under similar circumstances by a different general, until conquered by them in AD 577

2.4mm, 4g
S-242
Samson L2
_#20094;_#32113;_#20803;_#23542;.jpg
CH'IEN-T'UNG Y'UNG-PAO19 viewsLiao Dynasty (foreign tribe to China)
Bronze 1 cash,
Minted by Emperor T'IEN CHA,
reign title: CH'IEN-T'UNG, AD 1101-1110
23mm, 2.9g
S-1073
Samson L2
_#28165;_#23527;_#36890;_#23542;.jpg
CH'ING-NING T'UNG-PAO24 viewsLiao Dynasty (foreign tribe to China)
Bronze 1 cash
Minted under Emperor TAO TSUNG,
reign title: CH'ING-NING, AD 1055-1064
24.9mm, 3.85g
S1066

The Liao were a Tartar Dynasty known as the Ch'i-tan or Ki-tan Tartars, first established by T'ai Tsu in AD 907 during the period of the 5 dynasties. The dynasty lasted for 218 years until AD 1125, ruling from their capital at Beijing. For most of their existence they existed along side the Northern Sung Dynasty, in what appears to be somewhat less than peaceful co-existance.

Samson L2
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CH'UNG CHEN29 viewsEmperor CHUANG LIEH
AD 1628-1644
reign title: CH'UNG CHEN
Ming Dynasty
Minted at Nanjing
Reverse: Horse
23mm, 2.1G
Samson L2
chabuwubai.jpg
Cha Bu Wu Bai16 viewsXin Dynasty
Emperor Wang Mang

7 - 23 CE
AE 500 Cash
Part of "Ten spades" series cast from 10 - 14 CE

Obverse: Cha Bu Wu Bai (Servant Spade) Five Hundred.

Reverse: Blank

Length: 42mm
(Harthill 9.24)
Pericles J2
AXE_CHARM_85MM_X_66_MM.jpg
CHARM, Pendant Style299 viewsCHARM, Pendant Style - Obverse legend refers to the Xuan De reign of the Ming Dynasty... 大明宣德年製 means the charm was made during the xuan-de reign of ming dynasty
年 = NIAN, Year
製 = ZHI, made.
大 = DA (BIG, GREAT)
明 = MING (DYNASTY NAME)
宣= XUAN 德 = DE
The charm is 85mm long x 66 mm high. It weighs about 83g.

It is a late Qing Dynasty fake, about 100 years old, per Leseulunique, based on the patina and style.
1 commentsdpaul7
Childebert_ab.jpg
Childebert I, Frankish King of Paris, Merovingian Dynasty85 viewsChildebert I (c. 497-558), Merovingian dynasty, Frankish king of Paris (511-558) and Orleans (524-558). Æ (14 mm, 0.81 g). Obverse: EL/DEBER/TIR (first R retrograde) in three lines. Reverse: chi-rho. Prou 36, Belfort 5454.

The coin type may have been minted in Marseille after 536. Witiges, king of the Ostrogoths, ceded Provence to the Franks in 535. The possession of Arles and Marseilles was guaranteed to Childebert by his brothers and the annexation of the province was completed in the winter of 536–537. The type with the king's name and title in three or more lines resembles contemporary Ostrogothic coins.
1 commentsJan (jbc)
Childebert2_ab.jpg
Childebert I, Frankish King of Paris, Merovingian Dynasty83 viewsChildebert I (c. 497-558), Merovingian dynasty, Frankish king of Paris (511-558) and Orleans (524-558). Æ (15 mm, 0.94 g). Obverse: chi-rho. Reverse: cross. Belfort 5459.2 commentsJan (jbc)
QIN_DYN_H_7-8.jpg
CHINA - Ban Liang105 viewsCHINA - AE Ban Liang Qin/Han Dynasty Style. (220-180 B.C.) Obverse: BAN LIANG (Half Ounce). Reverse: Plain and flat. Hartill #7.8dpaul7
mould.jpg
China - Ceramic mold for Wang Mang spades56 viewsWang Mang
Xin Dynasty
Ceramic coin mold
For "Da Bu Heng Quan", valued at 1 liang
Cf. Hartill 9.29
2 commentsArdatirion
20-122.jpg
China - Cheng Zu, 1403-1424 AD31 viewsCHINA, Ming Dynasty. Chéngzǔ. Yong Le reign, 1402-1424
Æ Wen. Yong Le Tong Bao
Hartill 20.122; Ming 546
Ardatirion
da guan.jpg
CHINA - DA GUAN164 viewsCash coin, Northern Song Dynasty - Emperor Hui Zong - Da Guan Reign (1107-1110). Calligraphy is very admired; it is Slender Gold Script - the Emperor's personal calligraphy. H-16.418. S-629.dpaul7
da zhong a.jpg
CHINA - DA ZHONG93 viewsZhu Yuanzhang (Prince of Wu) - Later to become First Ming Dynasty Emperor - Reign Title Da Zhong (1361-1368). Cash. H-20.1 - S-1127.dpaul7
e_han_wu_zhu_bar_rev.jpg
CHINA - Eastern Han Dynasty82 viewsCHINA - Eastern Han Dynasty, Wu Zhu, attributed to Emperor Ling Di (168-189). Onv.: WU ZHU. Reverse: 4 rays emanating from hole corners. Reference: Hartill #10.3.dpaul7
Wu_Zhu.jpg
China - Eastern Han Dynasty, Wu Zhu type under Guang Wu Di, 25-56 AD40 viewsEastern Han Dynasty
Wu Zhu type, under Guang Wudi, 25-56 AD
Hartill 10.2; Thierry 46
Ardatirion
wuzhu2.jpg
China - Eastern Han Dynasty, Wu Zhu type, 144-200 AD27 viewsEastern Han Dynasty
Wu Zhu type 144-200 AD
Hartill 10.2; Thierry 54
Ardatirion
Eastern_Jin_Dynasty,_wu_zhu_type,_265-316_AD_Thierry_60.jpg
China - Eastern Jin Dynasty, wu zhu type, 265-316 AD30 viewsEastern Jin Dynasty
Wu Zhu type, dot at top right, 265-316 AD
Hartill 10.17; Thierry 60
Ardatirion
shao xi.jpg
CHINA - EMPEROR GUANG ZONG - SHAO XI REIGN101 viewsEMPEROR GUANG ZONG (1190-1194) Shao Xi Reign (1190-1194). Southern Song Dynasty. Shao Xi Tong Bao iron coin, issued by the Qichun mint in AD 1192 in China. Valued at 2 cash. In seal script. Hartill #17.369 or Fisher's Ding #1241 or Schjoth #782. The 2 characters on reverse of this iron coin are CHUN SAN or CHUN 3, which represented that this coin was cast in Qichun mint in AD 1192, the 3rd year of Shao Xi. dpaul7
jia tai.jpg
CHINA - EMPEROR NING ZONG - JIA TAI REIGN107 viewsEmperor Ning Zong (1195-1224) Jia Tai Reign (1201-1204). Jia Tai Tong Bao iron coin - cast at Tong'an mint in AD 1202 in China .Southern Song Dynasty (AD 1127-1280). Diameter: about 25 mm. Valued at 1-cash. It is much scarcer than the 2-cash Jia Tai. The 2 Chinese characters on the reverse of this iron coin are Tong Er or Tong 2, which represented that this coin was cast in the Tong'an mint in AD 1202, the 2nd year of Jia Tai. Hartill #17.490. dpaul7
zhi zheng.jpg
CHINA - EMPEROR SHUN (TOGHUN TEMUR) - ZHI ZHENG REIGN TITLE126 viewsYuan (Mongol) Dynasty - Emperor Shun (Toghon Temur) 1333-1368, Zhi Zheng reign title (1341-1368) Coin made between 1350-1354. Beautiful obverse; reverse too worn to make out year character. H-19.9X -- S-1127.dpaul7
ruckser-COIN1.jpg
CHINA - Fake Song Dynasty!177 viewsXing Zhao Zhong Bao, 3 wen - Denomination: 3 wen - Metal: AE From ZENO: #1: Hua Huangpu, 3-vol edition, page 804. However, presented coin looks bad - calligraphy is wrong, and metal and patina color are similar to the modern production fakes. #2: This is one of three coins in this series. There is a similar piece with "Tang Wu" (value 5) on the reverse, and there is a smaller coin with the character "Pao" abbreviated on the obverse and with the cyclical date "Jen Shen" on the reverse. As far as I can determine, the small coin was first published in 1877 in the supplement to Ku Ch'uan Hui by Li Tso-hsien. The other two coins were first published in the 1920's or 1930's - making them a little suspicious. Ting Fu-pao's Encyclopedia (1938) shows the small dated coin, but quotes Cheng Chia-hsiang who mentions the other two coins. Another Value 3 is shown in Ku Ch'ien Hsin Tien (Guqian Xindian) [English title: New Illustrative Plates of Chinese Ancient Coins] by Chu Huo (Zhu Huo). published in 1991 and in Hua Kuang-p'u (Hua Guangpu) catalog of old Chinese coins (I have the 1999 edition). All of these Value 3 illustrations are of the same calligraphy, which is entirely different from the calligraphy of the coin shown here. The different references to these coins do not agree on the dating, attribution or even the reading of the inscription. Some read it Hsing Chao Chung Pao (Xingzhao Zhongbao) because this looks like a coin inscription -- even though this reading starts on the left, something never seen on Chinese coins. But most read it Chao Pao Chung Hsing, and this is how it is listed in Arthur Coole's index of cash coin inscriptions in Volume 1 of his Encyclopedia of Chinese Coins. Li Tso-hsien mentions a Chung Hsing reign title, but this was used in Annam from 1285 to 1293, and would require starting on the right and reading crosswise, then top to bottom. Most works date the coins to the end of the Sung dynasty, issued by loyalist generals. Zhu Huo, however, lists these coins under the Yuan dynasty and apparently believes they were made in the 1300's. The cyclical date on the small coin could be 1272 AD - near the end of the Sung dynasty - or 1332 during the Yuan dynasty. It could also be 1152 or 1212, but this seems less likely. What does the inscription mean? The top character, Chao, is the family name of the Sung emperors. Hsing means to raise up. I think the intention of the inscription is: "raise up (or restore) the Chao family (of emperors)". Grammatically it should read "Hsing Chao", but in printed works, any reference to the emperor must begin one line above the rest of the text, so the family name was put at the top. The only way I can think of using the other two characters is "chung pao", meaning simply "heavy currency". Pao could be an adjective for Chao ("precious Chao"), but then how does the "chung" fit in the inscription? So I think the correct reading is "Hsing Chao Chung Pao" or "Chao Hsing Chung Pao".
dpaul7
17-316.jpg
China - Guang Zong, 1191 AD25 viewsCHINA, Southern Song Dynasty. Guāngzōng, AD 1189-1194.
Shàoxī reign, AD 1190-1194.
Æ Wen. (24 mm; 2.77 g)
Shao Xi Yuan Bao, regular script. Dated RY 2 (AD 1191)
Hartill 17.316
Ardatirion
Jin.jpg
China - Hai Ling, 1149-1161 AD 28 viewsCHINA, Jin Dynasty. Hǎilíngwáng, AD 1149-1161.
Æ Wen. Zheng Long Yuan Bao.
Hartill 18.40
Ardatirion
hong xi.jpg
CHINA - HONG XI90 viewsCash Coin, Ming Dynasty, Emperor Xiao Zong - Hong Zhi Reign - 1488-1505. H-20.124. S-1176.dpaul7
huang song.jpg
CHINA - Huang Song Reign123 viewsCHINA - Southern Song Dynasty, Emperor Li Zong (1225-1264), Huang Song Reign (1253-1258), 2 Cash, Year 1 (1253), H-17.821, S-1030.dpaul7
16-359.jpg
China - Hui Zong, 1101-1106 AD28 viewsCHINA, Northern Song Dynasty. Huīzōng, AD 1100-1125.
Chóngníng reign, 1102-1106.
Æ Wen. Sheng Song Yuan Bao, seal script. Cast 1102-1106.
Hartill 16.359
Ardatirion
16-407.jpg
China - Hui Zong, 1102-1106 AD33 viewsCHINA, Northern Song Dynasty. Huīzōng, AD 1100-1125.
Chóngníng reign, 1102-1106.
Æ 10 Wen. Chong Ning Zhong Bao, li script. Cast 1102-1106.
Hartill 16.359
Ardatirion
16-442.jpg
China - Hui Zong, 1111-1117 AD26 viewsCHINA, Northern Song Dynasty. Huīzōng, AD 1100-1126.
Zhènghé reign, 1111-1118.
Æ Wen. Zheng He Tong Bao, li script. Cast 1111-1117.
Hartill 16.442

Ardatirion
IMG_1375.JPG
China - Hui Zong, 1119-112539 viewsCHINA, Northern Song Dynasty. Huīzōng, AD 1100-1126
Xuānhé reign, 1119-1125
Æ Wen. (25mm ; 3.38 g)
Xuan He Tong Bao, li script. Mother coin.
Hartill 16.486
Ardatirion
jia xi.jpg
CHINA - Jia Xi Reign105 viewsCHINA - Southern Song Dynasty, Emperor Li Zong (1225-1264), Jia Xi Reign (1237-1240); 2 Cash, Year 3 (1239). H-17.757, S. 997.dpaul7
Jin_Zheng_Long_Yuan_Bao.jpg
CHINA - JIN DYNASTY79 viewsCHINA - JIN DYNASTY Emperor WAN YAN LIANG - ZHENG LONG Reign 1156-1160. Also known as King HAI LING WANG. This Zheng Long Yuan Bao or Cheng-lung Tung-pao was cast from AD 1156 to1161 in China - Jin Dynasty (AD 1115-1260) founded by Nu-chen Tartars. Diameter: about 25 mm. Schjoth #1083 or David Hartill #18.40. Recently found in Jilin Province.dpaul7
S1086 DA DING.jpg
CHINA - JIN DYNASTY - DA DING72 viewsJin (Tartar) Dynasty - Emperor Shi Zong (1161-1190) -- Da Ding reign (1178-1189) Cash. S-1086. H-18.42.dpaul7
KAI XI.jpg
CHINA - Kai Xi Reign73 viewsCHINA - Southern Song Dynasty, Emperor Ning Zong (1195-1224), Kai Xi Reign (1205-1207), 2 Cash, Year 1 (1205). H-17.517, S-860. dpaul7
KANG_XI_POEM_CHANG.jpg
CHINA - Kang Xi "Poem Cash"127 viewsCHINA - Qing Dynasty, Emperor Sheng Zu, Kang Xi Reign (1662-1722). AE Cash made 1667-1670. KANG XI TONG BAO/Reverse: CHANG character. Wuchang, Hebei mint. Hartill #22.110. A number of cash with various reverse characters can be laid out to form a poem; hence "Poem Cash".dpaul7
ban_liang1.jpg
China - Late Qin to Early Han Dynasty, Ban Liang type, c. 300-187 BC18 viewsLate Qin to early Han Dynasty
Ban Liang type c. 300-187 BC
31mm, 5.94g
Hartill 7.7

Dating follows the Han Histories, based on a standard of 0.65g to the shu. Hartill dates this type to 300-200 BC.
Ardatirion
ban_liang2.jpg
China - Late Qin to Early Han Dynasty, Ban Liang type, c. 300-187 BC 26 viewsLate Qin to early Han Dynasty
Ban Liang type c. 300-187 BC
31mm, 6.61g
Hartill 7.7

Dating follows the Han Histories, based on a standard of 0.65g to the shu. Hartill dates this type to 300-200 BC.
Ardatirion
S_Han,_Emperor_Lie_Zu,_917-942_AD,_Guangzhou,_H_15-109.jpg
China - Lie Zu, 917-942 AD30 viewsLie Zu
Southern Han Dynasty
1 cash, lead, 917-942 AD
Guangzhou, Guangdong
Hartill 15.109
Ardatirion
LONG XING.jpg
CHINA - Long Xing Reign75 viewsChina, Southern Song Dynasty, Emperor Xioa Zong (1163-1190); Long Xing Reign (1163-1164) 2-Cash. H-17.76, S-699.dpaul7
yong chang.jpg
CHINA - MING REBELS - LI ZICHENG85 viewsLarge Yong Chang Tong Bao - 1644 - China Ming Dynasty rebel leader Li Zi-cheng, who overthrew the Ming Dynasty and was overthrown by Qing Dynasty. Diameter: about 36 mm. Valued at 5-cash. Plain reverse. It is Schjoth #1325 or Fisher's Ding #2136 or David Jen #626 or KM #165. dpaul7
da shun.jpg
CHINA - MING REBELS - ZHANG XIANZHONG57 viewsThis rare Da Shun Tong Bao was cast in AD 1644 by China Ming Dynasty rebel leader Zhang Xianzhong. Diameter: about 27.5 mm. This coin has a character HU on reverse. It is Schjoth #1327 or KM #169 or Hartill #21.6. very sharp and very clear characters. Very high grade.dpaul7
S489 MING TAO.jpg
CHINA - N. SONG DYNASTY - MING DAO54 viewsNorthern Song Dynasty - Emperor Ren Zong (1022-1063) -- Ming Dao reign (1032-1033) Cash. S-489. H-16.82.dpaul7
S451 SUNG YUAN.jpg
CHINA - N. SONG DYNASTY - SONG YUAN49 viewsNorthern Song Dynasty - Emperor Tai Zu (960-976) -- Song Yuan issue (960-976). Cash. S-451. H-16.1.dpaul7
S460 TAI PING.jpg
CHINA - N. SONG DYNASTY - TAI PING52 viewsNorthern Song Dynasty -- Emperor Tai Zong (976-997) -- Tai Ping reign (976-989). Cash. S-460. H-16.17.dpaul7
S604 YUAN FU.jpg
CHINA - N. SONG DYNASTY - YUAN FU61 viewsNorthern Song Dynasty - Emperor Zhe Zong (1086-1100) -- Yuan Fu reign (1098-1100) 2 Cash. S-604, H-16.335.dpaul7
s639 ZHENG HE.jpg
CHINA - N. SONG DYNASTY - ZHENG HE55 viewsNorthern Song Dynasty - Emperor Hui Zong (1101-1125) -- Zheng He reign (1111-1117) Cash. S-639, H-16.437.dpaul7
CHANG_PING_WU_ZHU_-_WEN_XUAN.jpg
CHINA - Northern Qi Dynasty53 viewsCHINA - Northern Qi Dynasty: Northern & Southern Dynasties Period. Emperor Wen Xuan (550+559) AE 5 Zhu. Chang Ping Wu Zhu. (5 Zhu). Hartill #13.27.dpaul7
CHINA  XUAN HE REV SHAN.jpg
CHINA - Northern Song Dynasty - HUI ZONG - XUAN HE REIGN55 viewsCHINA - Northern Song Dynasty - HUI ZONG (1101-1125) - XUAN HE REIGN (1119-1125) Iron Cash. XUAN HE TONG BAO - reverse: SHAN. (Shaanxi region). Slender Gold Script. Hartill #16.504dpaul7
n_wei_yong_an.jpg
CHINA - Northern Wei Dynasty42 viewsCHINA - Northern Wei Dynasty - Emperor Xiao Zhuang, Yongan Reign (528-534) AE Wu Zhu. Obv.: Legend YONG AN WU ZHU (Young An Period 5 Zhu). Nail mark top reverse. Hartil #13.23 var.
dpaul7
Northern_Wei_Dynasty,_Xuanwudi,_c_510_AD,_Thierry_72.jpg
China - Northern Wei Dynasty, Wu Zhu type under Xuan Wu, c. 510 AD26 viewsCHINA, Northern Wei Dynasty. Xuānwǔ, AD 499-515.
Æ (22mm; 0.73 g)
Wu Zhu. Cast circa AD 510.
Hartill 10.23; Thierry 72
Ardatirion
QIAN_LONG_CHILI_MINT.jpg
CHINA - Qian Long Reign107 viewsCHINA - Qing Dynasty, Emperor Gao Zong, Qian Long Reign (1736-1795). AE 1 Cash, Baoding, Zhili Province. Hartill #22.360.dpaul7
CHINA_QIN_DYN_BAN_LIANG.jpg
CHINA - QIN DYNASTY61 viewsCHINA - QIN DYNASTY Ban Liang. 32 mm, 7 g. c. 300-200 B.C.E. Hartil #7.7.dpaul7
CHINA HSEIN FENG TAIWAN.jpg
CHINA - Qing Dynasty - Xian Feng110 viewsCHINA - Qing Dynasty - Emperor Wen Zong - Xian Feng Reign (1851-1861) XIAN FENG TONG BAO - Taiwan Mint. Hartill #22.982.dpaul7
CHINA_MULTIPLE_CASH_QING_DYNASTY.jpg
CHINA - Qing Dynasty, Emperor Wen Zong, Xian Feng Reign28 viewsCHINA - Qing Dynasty, Emperor Wen Zong, Xian Feng Reign (1851-1861) AE 10 Cash. Obv.: XIAN FENG ZHONG BAO Rev.: BOO DUNG left and right; DANG SHI (Value Ten) above and below. Dongchuan Mint, Yunnan Province. 38 mm. Reference: Hartill #22.1024dpaul7
QING LI.jpg
CHINA - QING LI53 viewsCash Coin, Northern Song Dynasty. Emperor Ren Zong - Qing Li Reign (1041-1048). H-16.128. S-504.dpaul7
Rashidin_Khan_1_cash.JPG
China - Rashidin Khan, 1864 AD34 viewsCHINA, Qing Dynasty. Rashidin Khan. Rebel in Xinjiang, 1864
CU Wen. Kucha mint. Dated RY 1 (AD 1864).
Hartill 22.1267
Ardatirion
Ren_Zong,_1078-1085_AD.JPG
China - Ren Zong, 1039-1054 AD31 viewsRen Zong, Huang Song reign
Northern Song Dynasty
1 cash, 1039-1054 AD
seal script
Hartill 16.93
Ardatirion
16-99.jpg
China - Ren Zong, 1039-1054 AD17 viewsRen Zong, Huang Song reign
Northern Song Dynasty
1 cash, 1039-1054 AD
seal script
Hartill 16.99
Ardatirion
Ren_Zong,_1796-1820,_Board_of_Works_Mint~0.jpg
China - Ren Zong, 1796-1830 AD51 viewsRen Zong
Qing Dynasty
1 cash, 1796-1820
Board of Revenue Mint
Hartill 22.481
Ardatirion
s-722 chun xi.jpg
CHINA - S. SONG DYNASTY - CHUN XI65 viewsSouthern Song Dynasty - Emperor Xiao Xong (1163-1190) - Chun Xi reign (1174-1189). Cash. Year 14 - 1187. S-722. H-17.196.dpaul7
s1042 jing ding.jpg
CHINA - S. SONG DYNASTY - JING DING55 viewsSouthern Song Dynasty - Emperor Li Zong (1225-1264) -- Jing Ding reign (1260-1264). Cash. Year 1 - 1260. S-1042. H-17.836.dpaul7
s1050 zian chun.jpg
CHINA - S. SONG DYNASTY - XIAN CHUN45 viewsSouthern Song Dynasty - Emperor Du Zong (1265-1274) -- Xian Chun reign (1265-1274). Cash. Year 2 - 1266. S-1050. H-17.842.dpaul7
16-177.jpg
China - Shen Zong, 1068-1077 Ad22 viewsShen Zong, Xi Ning reign
Northern Song Dynasty
1 cash, 1068-1077 AD
seal script
Hartill 16.177
Ardatirion
16-200.jpg
China - Shen Zong, 1071-1077 AD17 viewsShen Zong, Xi Ning reign
Northern Song Dynasty
10 cash, 1071-1077 AD
regular script
Hartill 16.200
Ardatirion
Shen_Zong_cash,_1078-1085_AD.jpg
China - Shen Zong, 1078-1085 AD43 viewsShen Zong, Yuan Fen reign
Northern Song Dynasty
1 cash, 1078-1085 AD
running script
Hartill 16.237
Ardatirion
China_-_Shen_Zong,_1078-1085_AD.JPG
China - Shen Zong, 1078-1085 AD22 viewsShen Zong, Yuan Feng reign
Northern Song Dynasty
1 cash, 1078-1085 AD
seal script
Hartill 16.211
Ardatirion
Song.jpg
China - Shen Zong, Yuan Feng reign, large cash, 1078-1085 AD26 viewsShen Zong, Yuan Feng reign
Northern Song Dynasty
Large cash, 1078-1085 AD
Running script
Hartill 16.248
Ardatirion
Kangxi,_1_cash,_1680-1899,_Board_of_Works_mint.jpg
China - Sheng Zu, Kang Xi reign, 1 cash, 1680-1699 AD, Board of Works Mint63 viewsCHINA, Qing Dynasty. Shèngzǔ, AD 1661-1722.
Kāngxī reign, 1661-1722.
Æ Wen. (24mm; 2.35g; 12h)
Kang Xi Tong Bao
Board of Works mint. Cast 1680-circa 1690.
Hartill 22.95; Hartill Qing 6.22 var. (diameter)
Ardatirion
Ming.jpg
China - Si Zong, Chong Zhen reign, 1628-1644 AD19 viewsSi Zong, Chong Zhen reign
Ming Dynasty
1 cash, 1628-1644 AD
Hartill 20.302
Ardatirion
CHINA_Southern_Dyn__Chen_WuZhu_cast_from_562AD.jpg
CHINA - Southern Dynasties Period, Chen Dynasty, Emperor Wen25 viewsCHINA - Southern Dynasties Period, Chen Dynasty, Emperor Wen (559-566 AD) AE Wu Zhu. Stout outer rim, no inner rim. Crossing lines of wu almost straight. 24.43 mm., 2.7 g. Attributed to Emperor Wen of the Southern Dynasties Chen Dynasty. Cast from 562. Reference: Hartill #10.22dpaul7
normal_wuwu.jpg
China - Southern Han Dynasty32 viewsSouthern Han Kingdom, Wu Wu type, lead, c. 900-971 AD. 21.97 mm 2.0 g. Reference: Hartill 15.145. Ex Ardatirion collection.
Southern Han was a kingdom that existed during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period (907-960) along China’s southern coast from 917 to 971. The Kingdom greatly expanded her capital city Hing Wong Fu, namely present-day Guangzhou. The Five Dynasties ended in 960 when the Song Dynasty was founded to replace the Later Zhou Dynasty. Through the 960s and 970s, the Song increased its influence in the south until finally it was able to force the Southern Han dynasty to submit to its rule in 971. The coinage produced by the Southern Hans is quite unique - the main coinage was lead, with 1 lead cash fixed in value as 1/100th of a copper cash. The circulation of the lead coins was restricted to towns (even nowadays, these lead coins are found mainly in large towns, most commonly in Guangzhou) while the copper coins are found in the coutryside. Many types of these lead coins are known. The coins are all scarce to very rare, with most of them surviving in low quality because of the hot wet climate of the regions.
dpaul7
wuwu.jpg
China - Southern Han Dynasty, Wu Wu type20 viewsSouthern Han Kingdom
Wu Wu type, lead, c. 900-971
Hartill 15.145

Based off of the Wu Zhu of the Western Han. A brilliant example of Chinese political continuity.
Ardatirion
LI_YOU_SOUTH_TANG_KAI_YUAN_SEAL_SCR.jpg
CHINA - Southern Tang Dynasty - Emperor LI HOUZHU49 viewsCHINA - Southern Tang Dynasty - Emperor LI HOUZHU (961-975 AD) AE Cash. KAI YUAN TONG BAO in Seal script. Hartill #15.99dpaul7
14-8.jpg
China - Southern Tang Dynasty, Kai Yuan type under Li Yu, 961-978 AD31 viewsCHINA, Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms. Southern Tang Dynasty. Lǐ Hòuzhǔ, AD 961-975
Æ (25mm; 3.50 g)
Kai Yuan tong bao
Hartill 15.101
Ardatirion
Spade_money,_state_of_Zhao,_Lin_mint,_350-250_BC.jpg
China - State of Zhao, Lin mint, 350-250 BC83 viewsCHINA, Eastern Zhou Dynasty. State of Zhao, Lin. Circa 350-250 BC.
Æ Spade. (27 mm x 45 mm; 5.05 g)
Hartill 3.331

Ex C. B. Dodge Collection
1 commentsArdatirion
16-33.jpg
China - Tai Zong, 990-994 AD25 viewsCHINA, Northern Song Dynasty. Tàizōng. AD 976-977.
Chúnhuà reign, 990-994. Chung Hua Yuan Bao, in grass script.
Hartill 16.33; Gorny 464a.04
Ardatirion
TANG_KAI_YUAN_2.jpg
CHINA - Tang Dynasty58 viewsCHINA - Tang Dynasty KAI YUAN TONG BAO (732-907 AD). Hartill #14.8dpaul7
KAI_YUAN_LATE_14-6ab.jpg
CHINA - TANG DYNASTY Kai Yuan68 viewsCHINA - TANG DYNASTY (618-907 AD) Cash, Kai Yuan Tong Bao legend. Late style (732-907 AD). Crescent "nail mark" on reverse, at 9 o'clock. Reference: Hartil #14.6ab. Kai Yuan means "Inaugural Currency", and was one of the main currencies issued by the Tang Dynasty.
Late period pieces are distinguished by: The JING 井 component of KAI 開 character touches the hole; longer top dash on YUAN 元 character; 2 middle strokes of the BAO 寳 touch the sides. Regarding crescent mark: (per Hartill) Legend states the Empress Wende inadvertently stuck one of her fingernails into the wax model of the coin as it was presented to her; and the resulting mark was reverentially retained. Other imperial ladies have also been proposed as the source of these marks! Hartill also states that it was more than likely a control mark used by mint staff!
dpaul7
LAI_YUAN_early__14-2.jpg
CHINA - TANG DYNASTY Kai Yuan61 viewsCHINA - TANG DYNASTY (618-907 AD) 1 Cash, Kai Yuan Tong Bao. Early Period coin (621-718). Reference: Hartill #14.2. Slightly larger size than normal. In early period coins, the JING 井 component of KAI 開 does NOT touch the hole; the head of TONG 通 is small; the top stroke of YUAN 元 is short. dpaul7
kai_yuan_rosette_hole.jpg
CHINA - TANG DYNASTY Kai Yuan83 viewsCHINA - TANG DYNASTY (618-907 AD) Cash coin, Kai Yuan Tong Bao. Probably late period (732-907), degenerate specimen, with Rosette or "Flower" hole. (Believed to be lucky!) Probably Hartill #14.7 variety. dpaul7
KAI_YUAN_MIDDLE_14+4.jpg
CHINA - TANG DYNASTY Kai Yuan65 viewsCHINA - TANG DYNASTY (618-907 AD) 1 Cash, Kai Yuan Tong Bao. Middle Style (718-732). Left hook on shsoulder of YUAN character. Reference: Hartill #14.4. Middle style is distinguished by the following: The JING 井 component of KAI 開 touches the hole; the central horizontal strokes of BAO 寳 do NOT touch the hole; longer upper stroke on YUAN 元. The ER 尓 part of BAO shows distinct vertical lines.dpaul7
xia xia tian sheng.jpg
CHINA - TIAN SHENG74 viewsCash Coin, Xi Xia (Western Xia) Dynasty - Xia Emperor Ren Zong - Tian Sheng Reign (1149-1169). H-18.97. S-1078. dpaul7
wang mang.jpg
CHINA - WANG MANG174 viewsCHINA -- Wang Mang (王莽) interregnum - 7-23 AD

Coin is AE Huo Qian - 14-23 AD (Second coinage reform). These coins are usually about 23 mm - but they can range larger or smaller. No special mintmarks on these coins. They were unpopular with most of the people - and his coinage was one of the things that led to the rebellion that brought down his XIN (New) Dynasty. (新朝)
dpaul7
CHUAN_VAL_1_WANG_MANG.jpg
CHINA - Wang Mang Interregnum78 viewsCHINA - Wang Mang Interregnum (Xin Dynasty) 7-23AD. AE Xiao Qian Zhi Yi. "Small Qian Value One. Made 9-14 AD. Hartil #9.14.1 commentsdpaul7
Wang_Mang.jpg
China - Wang Mang, 14-23 AD33 viewsWang Mang
Xin Dynasty
AE huo quan, 14-23 AD
Hartill 9.34
Ardatirion
Ban_Liang.jpg
China - Western Han Dynasty, Ban Liang type, 179-136 BC41 viewsWestern Han Dynasty
Ban Liang type 179-136 BC
24mm, 2.87g
Hartill 7.16

Dating follows the Han Histories, based on a standard of 0.65g to the shu. Hartill dates this type to 175-119 BC.
Ardatirion
wuzhu1.jpg
China - Western Han Dynasty, Wu Zhu type under Han Wudi, 115-113 BC51 viewsCHINA, Western Hàn dynasty. Wǔdì. 141-87 BC.
Æ (25mm; 2.94 g) Cast circa 115-113 BC.
Wu Zhu in early Hánzi
Blank
Hartill 8.9; Thierry 3
Ardatirion
wu_zhu~0.jpg
China - Western Han Dynasty, Wu Zhu type under Liu Xuan, 23-25 AD34 viewsWestern Han Dynasty
Wu Zhu type under Liu Xuan, 23-25 AD
Hartill 8.9; Thierry 41 var. (dot in upper half of Wu)
Ardatirion
CHINA_Western_Wei_Da_Tong_Wu_Zhu_540AD.jpg
CHINA - Western Wei Dynasty, Da Tong 27 viewsCHINA - Western Wei Dynasty, Da Tong (535-556 AD) AE Whu Zhu, 540 AD. Stout outer rim, inner rim only by the wu. Crossing lines of wu straight. A heavier coin (>3.7 f.) than later issue. 23.9 mm 2.4 g. Reference: Hartill #10.24dpaul7
iron.jpg
China - Xiao Zong, Qian Dao reign, 1165-1173 AD16 viewsXiao Zong, Qian Dao reign
Southern Song Dynasty
Iron cash, 1165-1173 AD
Regular script
Hartill 17.110
Ardatirion
xuan de.jpg
CHINA - XUAN DE82 viewsCash coin, Ming Dynasty - Emperor Zuan Zong - Xuan De Reign (1426-1435). H-10.123. S-1170.dpaul7
yong li B.jpg
CHINA - YONG LI (YONGMING, PRINCE OF GUI)62 viewsSouthern Ming Dynasty - Price of Gui Yongming (Yong Li Reign Title) - 1646-1659. H-21.45. S-1296. Small letter variety.dpaul7
yong li A.jpg
CHINA - YONG LI (YONGMING, PRINCE OF GUI)68 viewsSouthern Ming Dynasty, Yongming, Prince of Gui - Yong Li Reign Title, 1646-1659. Large Letter variety. H-21.45, S-1296. dpaul7
16-260.jpg
China - Zhe Zong, 1086-1093 AD14 viewsZhe Zong, Yuan You reign
Northern Song Dynasty
1 cash, 1086-1093 AD
seal script
Hartill 16.260
Ardatirion
jade_cowry.jpg
China - Zhou Dynasty - Jade imitation cowry28 viewsZhou Dynasty
Jade imitation cowry
Holes at top and bottom, single channel carved down center
Filed reverse
Hartill –
Ardatirion
Zhu_Yuanzhang_as_Prince_of_Wu,_1361-1368_AD,_H_20-45.jpg
China - Zhu Yuanzhang as Prince of Wu, 1361-1368 AD40 viewsCHINA, Ming Dynasty. Zhū Yuánzhāng, as Prince of Wu. 1352-1368.
Æ 10 Wen. Zhong Tong Bao. Cast 1361-1368.
Hartill 20.45; Ming 51

Zhu later became the first emperor of the Ming dynasty, Ming Tai Zu.
Ardatirion
H-20-267.jpg
CHINA -- Emperor Si Zong - Chong Zhen Reign42 viewsCHINA -- Ming Dynasty. Emperor Si Zong - Chong Zhen Reign (1628-1644) Chong Zhen tong bao 元德 通寳 Rev.: 新 above. New Mint. Reference: I THINK it is Hartill #20.267. dpaul7
State_of_Yan,_330-220_BC.JPG
China – State of Yan, 330-220 BC35 viewsCHINA, Eastern Zhou Dynasty. State of Yan, circa 330-220 BC.
Æ (26mm; 2.3 g)
Ming Hua
Hartill 6.21
Ardatirion
china2.JPG
China, Great Wall902 viewsMutianyu Great Wall located in Huairou County, Beijing. Built on older pre-existing walls during the Ming Dynasty.Bolayi
China_circa_206BC-220AD_Cash.jpg
CHINA, Han Dynasty Cash32 viewscirca 206 BC to 220 AD, "Wu Chu" inscription

I may have scanned it upside down or sideways, I really have no idea!
2 commentsBilly Kingsley
Ming_Dinasty_Emperor_Shen_Zong.jpg
CHINA, Ming Dynasty, Emperor Shen Zong, 1573 - 1620 AD22 viewsChina, Ming Dynasty, Emperor Shen Zong, 1573 - 1620 AD
AE Cash, 25mm.
Obv: Wan Li Tong Bao.
Ref: Hartill20.140
Jorge C
0410-2-2LG.jpg
China, Northern Song Dynasty, Emperor Hui Zong89 viewsChina, Northern Song Dynasty, Emperor Hui Zong, AD 1101-1126, Large AE 10 Cash (41mm • 18.22gm).

O: Da Guan Tong Bao. R: Plain. Jen 282. Good VF.
1 commentsecoli
Song_Dynasty_Emperor_Ren_Zong.jpg
CHINA, Northern Song Dynasty, Emperor Ren Zong, 1022 - 1063 AD21 viewsChina, Northern Song Dynasty, Emperor Ren Zong, 1022 - 1063 AD
AE Cash, 24mm. ObvL Zhi He Yuan Bao.
Ref: Hartill16.130
Jorge C
Song_Dynasty_Emperor_Tai_Zong.jpg
CHINA, Northern Song Dynasty, Emperor Tai Zong, 976 - 997 AD27 viewsChina, Northern Song Dynasty, Emperor Tai Zong, 976 - 997 AD
AE Cash, 25mm. Obv: Zhi Dao Yuan Bao.
Ref: Hartill16.37
Jorge C
Qing_Dynasty_Charm.jpg
CHINA, Qing Dynasty, circa 17th - 19th Century AD24 viewsAE26mm Charm. Obv: Nian Nian Ru Yi. Rx: Zhao Cai Jin Bao.
Classic Chinese Charms #1131 & 1177 for obverse, 1271 for reverse.
Jorge C
0410-2-3LG.jpg
China, Qing Dynasty, Emperor Wen Zong, 1851-186164 viewsChina, Qing Dynasty, Emperor Wen Zong, 1851-1861, AE 10 Cash (33mm • 14.51gm), Zhili (Chihli) Province.

O: Xian Feng Tong Bao. R: "Value 10, Bao Zhi". F-VF.
1 commentsecoli
0406-1-3LG.jpg
China, Southern Song Dynasty, Emperor Guang Zong, AD 1190-119562 viewsChina, Southern Song Dynasty, Emperor Guang Zong, AD 1190-1195, Iron Cash (4.39gm), Quchun Mint, Hubei, year 5.

Song script. O: Shao Xi Yuan Bao. R: Chun and numeral 5. Cf. Jen 1167+. Good VF.
ecoli
0406-1-4LG.jpg
China, Southern Song Dynasty, Emperor Guang Zong, AD 1190-1195, Iron 2 Cash (7.24gm), Tongan Mint, Anhui, year 3.81 viewsSong script. O: Shao Xi Yuan Bao. R: Tong and numeral 3. Cf. Jen 1171. VF.
ecoli73
Song_Dynasty_Empeor_Li_Zong.jpg
CHINA, Southern Song Dynasty, Emperor Li Zong, 1225 - 1264 AD27 viewsChina, Southern Song Dynasty, Emperor Li Zong, 1225 - 1264 AD
AE Cash, 25mm. Obv: Huang Song Yuan Bao. Rx: Yuan.
Ref: Hartill17.813
Jorge C
0406-11-3LG.jpg
China, Tang Dynasty, Emperor Su Zong, AD 756-763, Large AE 5 Cash (35mm • 14,79gm). Double Rim Reverse.89 viewsO: Qian Yuan Zhong Bao. R: Double rim. Jen 144v. Nice VF with attractive green and earthen patina.
ecoli73
WangMang2.jpg
China: Han Interregnum, Usurper Wang Mang, 7-22 A.D.89 viewsChina: Han Interregnum, Usurper Wang Mang, 7-22 A.D. AE24 mm, Cash. Obv: Huo Chuan. Schjoth-165.

"As soon as his [Wang Mang's] power was sufficiently consolidated, 3 years after his return to court, lists of his political opponents were drawn up, and hundreds were executed. Shortly after this he established a new penal colony in Tibet in the far West, a sort of ancient gulag. Unfortunately we have no direct account as to the nature of the crimes of those exiled to Tibet. In 6 AD the reins of power were still more firmly in his grasp, and Mang ordered his first reform of the coinage. Fundamentally this was a stratagem to nationalize the gold stocks, and put the empire back on a copper standard. Gold was requisitioned and exchanged against very high value bronze tokens. Two years later the tokens were demonetized. The cash assets of the aristocracy and the wealthy merchants must have been largely wiped out overnight. It is in the first couple of years of Mang's independent reign that the astonishing breadth of his reform proposals appear. His reforms include:

1) the abolition of slavery.
2) the nationalization of land.
3) standard plots of arable land for all adult males who wished to work them.
4) farming families grouped in hamlets of 6 or 8, with a common tax assessment.
5) a national bank offering fair rates of interest to all.
6) government market activity to counteract cornering and monopolization.
7) a new currency system in 15 denominations - circulating by government fiat.
8) defeat of the Huns

His new taxes include

taxes to be paid in cash or kind on cultivated land (one tenth)

triple rates to be paid on uncultivated land (parks and gardens etc.)

c) all self-employed or professional people outside farming shall register for income tax, which will be universally levied at 10% per annum. Those avoiding registration, or submitting false accounts to be sentenced to one years hard labour.

d) the state monopolies on iron, salt, silk, cloth and coinage to be retained

e) a new state monopoly on wine to be introduced.

Discussion of the proposals

1) Events in his private life show Mang's abhorrence of slavery. He vilified the political system of the legalists, established in the Chin dynasty (221-206 BC) specifically by alluding to the manner in which they established market places for male and female slaves, "putting human beings in auction pens as if they were cattle."

Reforms 2, 3, 5 & 6) The nationalization of land and its distribution amongst the peasant farmers themselves is of course one solution to the central economic problem in all pre-modern civilizations, (which presumably finds its roots in the bronze age and persisting right down to the machine age). Peasants must have security of tenure and just returns for their labour, otherwise they will not be encouraged to work effectively - and the state and all within it will thereby be impoverished. However if they are made private landowners then clever, unscrupulous, hard-working individuals within and outwith the peasantry will begin to gain land at the expense of their neighbours. The chief mechanisms of this gradual monopolization of the land by a class of people distinguished by their wealth are:

Preying upon private 'misfortune', (illness, death, and marriage expenses) by loansharking.
Preying upon public misfortunes (bad harvests) by loansharking.
Creating shortages by rigging the markets, exacerbating private and public misfortunes, and then loansharking.

Unfairly biasing tax assessments, creating and exacerbating private and public misfortunes, and then loansharking.

The end result of this tendency is likely to be that the bulk of farmers lack security of tenure and or just returns, and cease to work effectively, to the impoverishment of all. Reforms 2, 3 & 5 bear on this problem in an obvious way.

Reform 6 - the "Five Equalizations" is a little more complicated, so I shall explain it at greater length. Fundamentally it required the installation of government officials at the five important markets of the empire who would "buy things when they were cheap and sell them when they were dear." In more detail: "The superintendent of the market, in the second month of each of the four seasons, shall determine the true price of the articles under their responsibility, and shall establish high, middle and low prices for each type of item. When there are unsold goods on the market, the superintendent shall buy them up at the cost (low?) price. When goods become expensive (ie exceed the high price?) the superintendent shall intervene to sell goods from the official store (and thereby reduce the price)." The regulation thus allows markets to operate, but provides for state intervention to stop speculation . . . Mang's regulations allow for a review and revision of the trading bands four times a year.

4). In resettling the people securely on the land, Mang choose to group them into "chings" of 6 or 8 families - attempting to restore the traditional "well field" system. This provided for the regular exchange of land between the families, to give all a go at the best ground, and for joint responsibility for a common tax demand. The ching system was believed, by the Confucian party in the 1st century BC at least, to have been destroyed by the growth of mercantilist exploitation under the Chin legalists. There are hints that the state went on to use the ching structure in crime prevention measures, by making all members of the ching culpable for the unreported crime of any single member. The installation of a land nationalization scheme under the banner of a return to the ancient Chou system of 'chings' had a great deal of propaganda value amongst the Confucian elite which surrounded Mang. A sentimental view of rural working class life seems to be a common weakness amongst aristocratic and middle class intellectuals of all periods. Mang's own observations of the labouring poor would necessarily have been made at a distance - perhaps he too shared in this sentimental myopia. The evidence suggests that the peasantry did not welcome this aspect of the reforms

7) Food was the first concern of Confucian government, but coinage was the second. Only fair prices could encourage the farmers. Only markets could create fair prices. Only with coins could markets exist. Mang introduced a rational set of 15 denominations of coin, valued from 1 to 1,000 cash and circulated by government fiat. Mang did not invent the idea of fiat or fiduciary currency, a brief attempt had been made to circulate one in China a century earlier. However Mang was the first to systematically think through the matter in a practical context, and to apply it over a protracted period. Future successful ancient and medieval experiments with fiat currency, first in China, then in Japan and Central Asia, and unsuccessful ones in medieval India and Persia all looked back - directly or indirectly - to Mang. The first successful fully fiduciary currencies in Europe are products of the 20th century, more than 700 years after Europeans became aware of Chinese practices. (I am neglecting a great deal of late Roman copper coin here of course. I am by no means knowledgeable on such coins, but my understanding is that in principle, if not in practice, Rome was generally on the silver or the gold standard, and copper was exchangeable on demand.) On my own reading of the text, Mang's main concern is to get gold and silver off the market, so they could not be used to bid his tokens down - his coinage was intended to replace gold coinage, not supplement it."--Robert Tye

For a more complete study of Wang Mang, see Robert Tye's compositon about this enigmatic leader at http://www.anythinganywhere.com/info/tye/Wang%20Mang.htm
Cleisthenes
chinese_charm_pan.jpg
Chinese Charm with coin inscription from Later Zhou Dynasty 951 - 960 A.D.85 viewsCast Bronze Chinese Charm, Weight 8.8g, Max diameter 26.8mm, Obv. 周 元通宝 zhou yuan tong bao "Zhou First Currency", Rev. Dragon on left, Warrior with sword on right (depicting "Zhou Chu killing the dragon"), Rich brown patina.

Background info courtsey Primaltrek.com

In addition to official coinage, China also has a long history of producing "coin-like" charms, amulets and talismans.

Coins, as a form of money, represent power. Coin-shaped charms are, therefore, a very compact form of power. They are filled with symbolism and are believed by the multitude of Chinese to have vast powers.

Cast throughout the centuries, these ancient charms, informally referred to by the Chinese as "ya sheng coins" (压胜钱), "flower coins" (huaqian 花钱) or "play coins" (wanqian 玩钱), were not used as money but rather to suppress evil spirits, bring "good luck", "good fortune" and to avert misfortune.

For the most part, all these old charms,...were privately cast and their quantities and dates are almost impossible to determine. Nevertheless, they serve as important cultural artifacts from the life of the common Chinese throughout the centuries.

Emperor Shizong did cast coins in earnest beginning in 955 AD, the second year of his Xiande (显德) reign, with the inscription zhou yuan tong bao (周 元通宝). To obtain the copper to make the coins, Emperor Shizong ordered the confiscation of bronze statues from 3,336 Buddhist temples. He also mandated that citizens turn in to the government all bronze utensils with the exception of bronze mirrors.

Zhou yuan tong bao coins are very well made and still exist in large quantities. Because the coins were made from Buddhist statues, they are considered to have special powers. For example, it was believed that the zhou yuan tong bao coin could cure malaria and help women going through a difficult labor.

Because of the common belief that the coin has special powers, the zhou yuan tong bao became very popular as the basis for charms and amulets. There are many charms with the inscription zhou yuan tong bao on the obverse and a dragon and phoenix on the reverse. Images of the Buddha, zodiac animals, and other auspicious objects can also be found on the reverse sides of zhou yuan tong bao charms.

The theme of this charm is "Zhou Chu killing the dragon".

A folk story about Zhou Chu appeared in the 430AD book "A New Account of the Tales of the World" and proved to be very popular. The story claims that Zhou Chu was such a hot-headed bully in his younger days that he was called one of the "Three Scourges" by the villagers in his hometown (in today's Yixing), along with a dragon and a tiger. Upon hearing the term, Zhou Chu went on to kill the tiger and the dragon. After he and the dragon disappeared for 3 days fighting in Lake Tai, the villagers celebrated wildly, just when Zhou Chu returned with the dragon's head. That was when he realized that he was the last scourge that the villagers feared. Determined to mend his old ways, he sought out Eastern Wu generals Lu Ji and Lu Yun, and received encouragement. Eventually he became an accomplished general beloved by his people~Wikipedia
3 commentsSteve E
rebel1.jpg
Ching Dynasty45 viewsOb. Abkai fulingga han jiha
Rev. Blank
Size 24mm
Weight 4.85g
Ref. Schjoth 1355
date pre-1627
Very scarce

Manchu legend ' the Imperial coin of the Heavenly mandate'

-:Bacchus:-
Bacchus
s Coat of Arms.jpg
Chulalongkorn Coat of Arms16 viewsChulalongkorn (Rama V--Chakri Dynasty) Coat of Arms

Origin/Meaning:
The arms of the Kingdom of Siam were created during the reign of King Chulalongkorn the Great, Rama V, when the Kingdom was exposed to Western traditions, ideas, and also European threat of colonialism. King Chulalongkorn, who visited Europe twice, modernized Siam and adopted many of the European traditions to his court, including the use of heraldry.

On the top of the coat of arms is the Great Victory Crown of Thailand, the most important royal regalia and the symbol of kingship. Under the crown is the symbol of the Royal House of Chakri, the King's royal family, which is a disc intersected with a trident. The royal multi-tiered umbrellas of state are also present on either side of the crown. To both sides of the coat of arms are the other regalia, the royal sword and the royal baton. In the background is the draped robe - either the Royal robe of the King or the robe of the Order of Chulachomklao - an order created by the King. The supporters are two (again) mythical creatures, one is the Royal Lion, rajasiha, and the other is Elephant Lion, gaja-siha.

The shield itself is partitioned into three parts, signifying the Thai part of the Kingdom (the 3-headed elephant) on the top, the Laotian suzerainty (another elephant), and the Malay suzerainty (two "kris", or Malayan short swords).

The chain under the Arms is a necklace that is a part of the Order of Chulachomklao.
The ribbon under the Arms is inscribed with the motto (in Pali, the language of the Buddhist canon) which may be translated as "Unity brings happiness".

When the present seal (the Garuda) was made the State symbol, King Chulalongkorn's great arms were no longer used as a State symbol, however, it still adorns the hats of Thai police officers to this day.
Literature : Information provided by Apirat Sugondhabhirom
________________________________________
Sitemap © Ralf Hartemink 1996, -
Cleisthenes
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-JnMHlEsnxln.jpg
Cimmerian Bosporos. Panticapaeum. (Circa 325-310 BC)22 viewsAE17 (4.07 gm)

Obverse: Head of bearded satyr left

Reverse: Π-A-N, head of bull left.

MacDonald 67. Anokhin 132.

Panticapaeum (Ancient Greek: Παντικάπαιον, translit. Pantikápaion, Russian: Пантикапей, translit. Pantikapei) was an ancient Greek city on the eastern shore of Crimea, which the Greeks called Taurica. The city was built on Mount Mithridat, a hill on the western side of the Cimmerian Bosporus. It was founded by Milesians in the late 7th or early 6th century BC.

This area eventually came to be ruled by the Spartocids, a Hellenized Thracian dynasty that ruled the Hellenistic Kingdom of Bosporus between the years 438–108 BC. They had usurped the former dynasty, the Archaeanactids, a Greek dynasty of the Bosporan Kingdom who were tyrants of Panticapaeum from 480 - 438 BC that were usurped from the Bosporan throne by Spartokos I in 438 BC, whom the dynasty is named after.

Spartokos I is often thought to have been a Thracian mercenary who was hired by the Archaeanactids, and that he usurped the Archaeanactids becoming "king" of the Bosporan Kingdom, then only a few cities, such as Panticapaeum. Spartokos was succeeded by his son, Satyros I, who would go on to conquer many cities around Panticapaeum such as Nymphaeum and Kimmerikon. Satyros's son, Leukon I, would go to conquer and expand the kingdom beyond boundaries his father ever thought of.

Ultimately, the Bosporan Kingdom entered into a decline due to numerous attacks from nomadic Scythian tribes in the subsequent centuries leading up to its fall.
Nathan P
chola.jpg
Copper Massa of Chola Sinhalese Dynasty 1208-9 AD27 viewsObverse: King standing and sniffing lotus blossom in left hand and carrying lamp in right hand. Five balls or golas to right.
Reverse: Sitting king with lotus blossom and to right in 4 lines of Nagari script Sri Dharmasoka

Dharmasoka was a short-lived infant king of the Ponnaruwa kingdom which ruled Ceylon from the eighth to 13th centuries

The massa was a copper unit of about 4 grams. The basic design was retained for centuries and was used on both silver and gold issues as well. This coin is an exceptionally well preserved example of the type
daverino
Cowrie.jpg
Cowrie5 viewsWestern Zhou dynasty (1046-771 BCE)

Primitive deer-bone cowrie-shell imitation.

19mm, 2.40 grammes. Hartill type #1.2.
Belisarius
663aa192combo.jpg
Cr 293/1 AR Denarius L. Philippus25 views113 to 111-ish BCE
o: Head of Philip of Macedon right, wearing royal Macedonian helmet; under chin, Φ; behind, ROMA monogram
r: Equestrian statue right, base inscribed L. PHILIPPVS; below horse, flower; in exergue, XVI [mono]
Marcia 12. 3.92 gm 21.00 mm
The obverse oddly depicts Philip V of Macedon, sometime ally and sometime opponent of Rome, and seems to point to an earlier claim by the Marcii Philippi to a connection to the Macedonian dynasty. The reverse likely depicts a statue of another Marcius in the Roman Forum. There are monograms, flowers, and other elements to round out an array of meanings. The bronze issues, a quadrans and uncia, are also a bit busy and a bit scarcer.

This is a really nice coin, with a bit of deposit at 9:00 obverse, but I just can't get enthusiastic about the type.
3 commentsPMah
432G407Aemilia.jpg
Cr 415/1 AR Denarius L. Aemilius Lepidus Paullus10 views62 BCE Rome mint
o: Veiled and diademed head of Concord right, PAVLLVS LEPIDVS- CONCORDIA around
r: L. Aemilius Paullus erecting trophy before three captives, PAVLLVS in ex., TE - R above
Crawford 415/1; Aemilia 10
3.99gg. (6h).
The reverse depicts King Perseus of Macedon and his sons, the non-winners at Paullus' victory at Pydna in 168 BCE, which ended the Macedonian dynasty and was not particularly healthy for the enslaved and looted cities, either.
The moneyer was likely engaged in a bit of counter-adoption, as the great general's agnate family technically died out upon his death.
PMah
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De Yi Yuan Bao & Shuntian Yuan Bao44 viewsIssued by rebel army Shi Si'ming. Tang Dynasty. Around 750 ADsamwyi
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DELHI SULTAN - LODY DYNASTY - ONE TANKA _1509 viewsWEIGHT : 9.16 GRAM
DIAMETER : 18 MM
Antonivs Protti
s-l500_(22).jpg
DELHI SULTAN - LODY DYNASTY - ONE TANKA _2006 viewsWEIGHT - 10.02 gm.
DIAMETER - 18 mm
Antonivs Protti
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DELHI SULTAN - LODY DYNASTY - ONE TANKA - 11 viewsDELHI SULTAN - LODY DYNASTY - ONE TANKA - RARE COIN #HL55
WEIGHT - 9.62 gm.
DIAMETER - 18 mm
_5
Antonivs Protti
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DELHI SULTANATE15 viewsDELHI SULTANATE - Ghiyath al-Din Balban (1266-1287). Ghorid Dynasty. Billon Dugani. D-0165.dpaul7
delhi_ala_aldin_muhammad.jpg
DELHI SULTANATE16 viewsDELHI SULTANATE - Ala al-Din Muhammad (1296-1316), Khaljis Dynasty. Billon 2 Gani. D-0233. dpaul7
s-l1600_(43).jpg
DELHI SULTANATE-ALAUDDIIN MOHAMMED KHILJI-ONE RUPEE-SILVER COIN _360017 viewsSilver tanka of Muhammad II (1296-1316 AD), Sultanate of Delhi, India
Size:26mm wide, 2 mm thick, weight - 11.1g.
Notes: Persian inscriptions within a square / Persian inscriptions. Mint of Delhi.
The Delhi Sultanate, or Sulthanath-e-Hind / Sulthanath-e-Dilli refers to the various dynasties that ruled in India from 1210 to 1526.
Ala ud-Din Khilji (died 1316), born Juna Muhammad Khilji,was the second ruler of the Khilji dynasty reigning from 1296 to 1316. He is considered to be one of the most powerful rulers of Delhi Sultanate.
Attribution: H. N. Wright #308
Antonivs Protti
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Dutch Pulicat Narasimha Type, Malabar Coast Gold Fanam Uniface Vira Raya c.1600's 166 viewsDutch Pulicat Narasimha Type, Malabar Coast Gold Fanam Uniface Vira Raya c.1600's
Gold Coin Size: 9 mm Weight: 0.5 grams Fine Gold
Reference: http://lakdiva.org/coins/medievalindian/hoysalas_fanam_au.html
Obv: Stylistic Lion (Sardula) standing right with large crescent above. The legs represented by 2 rows, each of 4 dots. The lower 4 dots with downward spikes. 4 more dots separated from this group to right. Concave surface
Rev: Stylistic Boar standing right. The legs represented by the 3 rows, each of 4 dots. Convex surface.
Pulicat (Dutch) Gold Fanam Anon. Narasimha Type. Herrli 3.20/3.35.
Dynasty & Reign Acheh Sultans, Sultana Kamalat Shah Zinat al-Din (Queen)
Denomination AV 1/4 Mas or Kupang
Date Struck 1688-1699 Mint Acheh/ Atjeh
Obverse Paduka Seri Sultanah Kamalat Shah
Reverse Zinat al-Din Shah Berdaulat
Weight 0.4 gm Diameter 9 mm Grade GVF to EF, sharp and fully legible
Comments Zinat al-Din Kamalat Shah, born as Putri Raja Setia, was the great-granddaughter of Sultan Mukmin who ruled in the late 16th century. Her brother was married to her predecessor, Sultana Zaquiyat.

The 1886 Elliot description of his 189-192 Viraraya fanams as obv:(?): Transverse bar, sometimes with the end turned up, or simply elongated like a crocodile or saurin above three lines of dots and a reverse design not explained. He says The many varieties of gold fanams, through no longer current are found in considerable numbers, many of them having curious devices, without legends.

Note that this example is probably much more recent than the original Hoysalas fanam illustrated in Mitchiner. The animal figures are more stylistic. The angle between two sets of dots on the obverse in this example is much less than 90 degrees while it is more than that in the Hoysalas fanam. The two groups of dots in the obverse merge in the Viraraya fanam, to 2 arcs, each of 6 dots.

According to Elliot (page 148), small coins were measured or counted by means of a chakram board, a small square wooden plate with a given number of holes the exact size and depth of a chakram. A small handful of coins is thrown on the board, which is then shaken gently from side to side so as to cause a single chakram to fall into each cavity, and the surplus, if any swept off with the hand. A glance at the board, when filled, shows that it contains the exact number of coins for which it was intended. The rapid manipulation of this simple but ingenious implement requires some practice, but the Government clerks and native merchants are exceedingly expert and exact in its performance.
Text from
* 1998 Coinage and history of Southern India, vol. 2: TamilNadu - Kerala. Michael Mitchiner Page 252.

 

1 commentsAntonio Protti
39-diebreak.jpg
Eastern Han Dynasty47 viewsThis Wu Zhu was issued in China Eastern Han Dynasty (AD 25-221) in AD 186. Diameter: close to 25.5 mm. There are 4 strokes radiating to the outer rim on reverse. It is Schjoth #179 or DJ-92 or FD-512. The excessive copper on the character WU on the right of obvese indicates a big die break for the pottery mould. ecoli
alexandria_arsinoites_hadrian_Milne1229.jpg
Egypt, Nome Arsinoites, Hadrian, Milne 122988 viewsHadrian, AD 117-138
AE - Obol, 4.52g, 19.19mm, o°
126/127 (year 11)
obv. AVT KAI - TRAI ADRIANOC
Bust, slightly draped on far shoulder, laureate, r.
rev. ARCI - LIA (year 11)
Head of pharao Amenemhet III r., wearing nemes head-cloth and Uraeus
ref. Milne 1229; Dattari 6210; Emmett 1221; Geissen 3381/3382; BMC 72/73; SNG Copenhagen 1083/1084
rare, good F

The nome coins have been struck in Alexandria for the other districts of Egypt. They are considered as rare. Often they show local deities.
The Arsinoites nome corresponds to the oasis Fayum called crocodile district too. Amenemhet III, a pharao from the 12th dynasty, has cultivated and drained that oasis. A local cult for this pharao was wide spread in Fayum.
The nemes head-cloth is known from the famous bust of Tutenkhamun too.
Jochen
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Egyptian Faience Dwarf with Large Phallus151 viewsA Large Faience Egyptian Amulet of a Dwarf. A large faience amulet of a dwarf with large phallus, Late Period, c. 664 - 30 BC, seated with his knees drawn up before him, tufts of hair on each side of his head. He holds his enormous engorged phallus against his chest with both hands, resting his chin on the end. Suspension loop at the back of his head. H: 46 mm. Intact, glaze fade though traces of black still on the hair. Ex Negus collection, UK, late 19th Century.
Ex Agora Auctions #1 - Nov 2013

Great info from FORVM member Russ (thanks!):
These items represent the ancient Egyptian god Min, and date from the XXVIth Dynasty to Roman times. See:
1. Andrews, Carol. Amulets of Ancient Egypt. Avon/Austin, 1994: pages 11, 16, 17, 88; Figs 5a and 11b.
2. Blanchard, R.H. Handbook of Egyptian Gods and Mummy Amulets. Cairo, 1909 (reprinted by Attic Books, no date): page 19, Figs. 193 & 194, Plate XXXVII. Blanchard notes " Min, Minu or Khem, the ithyphalic god of procreation and harvest. He was allied to Amen and wears the two feathers. He hoolds aloft the flail with his right arm. He was the son of Isis, father of Ra, and husband of his mother. Min was the original of the Greek god Pan, and was worshipped at Akhmim, or the Panopolis of the Greeks."
3. Petrie, W.M.F. Amulets, London, 1914, reprinted 1974: page 37, Section 161, Plate XXX.
4 commentsSosius
ushabti1.jpg
Egyptian Ushabti. 26th dynasty. 685-525 BC80 viewsUshabti (also called shabti or shawabti, with a number of variant spellings) were funerary figurines used in Ancient Egypt. They were placed in tombs among the grave goods and were intended to act as substitutes for the deceased, should he/she be called upon to do manual labor in the afterlife. They were used from the Middle Kingdom (around 1900 BC) until the end of the Ptolemaic Period nearly 2000 years later.4 commentsancientone
Elagabalus_3.jpg
Elagabalus100 viewsRIC 88, RSC 61.
Elagabalus, denarius.
19 mm 3,12 g.
Obv. IMP ANTONINVS PIVS AVG, laureate, horned, draped and bearded bust right.
Rev. INVICTVS SACERDOS AVG, Elagabalus standing half left, branch in left, offering from patera in right over altar, recumbent bull behind altar, star left.

Elagabalus (c. 203 – March 11, 222), also known as Heliogabalus or Marcus Aurelius Antoninus, was a Roman Emperor of the Severan dynasty who reigned from 218 to 222. This reverse refers to Elagabalus' role as priest of the Syrian god from whom he took his nickname. His religious fanaticism was a primary cause of his downfall.

This coin immediately became one of my favourites, because of the detailed obverse and reverse (watch the bull!) and the history behind the coin. The coin also has a beautiful dark toning.
3 commentsmars1112
Elymais,_--__AD_,_AE-Drachme,_Van__t_Haaff_--_Q-001_6h,13,5-16,5mm,_3,85g-s.jpg
Elymais, van't Haaff 12.3.1-1A, Arsacid dynasty. Kamnaskires-Orodes (early-mid 2nd Century A.D.), AE-Drachm, Parallel dashes, #172 viewsElymais, van't Haaff 12.3.1-1A, Arsacid dynasty. Kamnaskires-Orodes (early-mid 2nd Century A.D.), AE-Drachm, Parallel dashes, #1
avers: Bust facing forward without small hair tuft on top, and large curly hair tufts on each side in horizontally-oriented rows, to right pellet within crescent above anchor with two crossbars at the top, the border of dots.
reverse: Field of regular, parallel dashes, no border.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 13,5-16,5mm, weight: 3,85g, axes: 6h,
mint: , date: early-mid 2nd Century A.D., ref: van't Haaff 12.3.1-1A, De Morgan 50, BMC plate XLI, 4-9, Sear GICV 5910, Alram ??,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Elymais,_Arsacid_dynasty__Kamnaskires-Orodes__--AD_,_AE-Drachme,_Van__t_Haaff_--_Q-001_h,14,5-15,5mm,_3,89g-s.jpg
Elymais, van't Haaff 12.3.1-2A1, Arsacid dynasty. Kamnaskires-Orodes (early-mid 2nd Century A.D.), AE-Drachm, Parallel dashes, #180 viewsElymais, van't Haaff 12.3.1-2A1, Arsacid dynasty. Kamnaskires-Orodes (early-mid 2nd Century A.D.), AE-Drachm, Parallel dashes, #1
avers: Bust facing forward without small hair tuft on top, and large curly hair tufts on each side in horizontally-oriented rows, to right pellet within crescent above anchor with two crossbars at the top, the border of dots.
reverse: Field of regular, parallel dashes, no border.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 14,5-15,5mm, weight: 3,89g, axes: h,
mint: , date: early-mid 2nd Century A.D., ref: van't Haaff 12.3.1-2A1, De Morgan 50, BMC plate XLI, 4-9, Sear GICV 5910, Alram ??,
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
Elymais,_Orodes_II_,_AE-Drachme,_Arsacid_dynasty,___BMC_plate_XL,10,_Q-001_h,_14-15mm,_3,4gx-s.jpg
Elymais, van't Haaff 13.2.1-1B, Arsacid dynasty. Orodes II. (early-mid 2nd century A.D.), AE-Drachm, Small radiate bust of Belos facing forward, 125 viewsElymais, van't Haaff 13.2.1-1B, Arsacid dynasty. Orodes II. (early-mid 2nd century A.D.), AE-Drachm, Small radiate bust of Belos facing forward,
avers: Bust facing forward, with no large hair tufts at sides, wearing tiara with central vertical line and dots at rim, diadem band below tiara; to right dot within crescent above anchor with one crossbar at top; pellet border.
revers: Small radiate bust of Belos facing forward with no facial features, with hair tufts on sides and two horns; Aramaic legend URUD MALKA BARI URUD (= King Orodes, Son of Orodes) reading counter clockwise; pellet border.
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: 14,0-15,0mm, weight: 3,4g, axes: h,
mint:Elymais, (Under Parthian Authority), date: early-mid 2nd century A.D. (undated), ref: van't Haaff 13.2.1-1B, De Morgan 44-45, BMC plate XL, 10, Sear GICV 5904; Alram 478,
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
Elymais,Arsacid_dynasty__Phraates,__AD_,_AE-Drachme,_Van__t_Haaff_14_2_1-2A_Q-001_0h,13,5-15mm,_3,69g-s.jpg
Elymais, van't Haaff 14.2.1-2A, Arsacid dynasty. Phraates (early-mid 2nd Century A.D.), AE-Drachm, Eagle standing left, wings spread, #172 viewsElymais, van't Haaff 14.2.1-2A, Arsacid dynasty. Phraates (early-mid 2nd Century A.D.), AE-Drachm, Eagle standing left, wings spread, #1
avers: Bust facing forward, wearing a tiara, to right, pellet in crescent above anchor with one crossbar at the top, the border of dots.
reverse: Eagle standing left, wings spread, talons facing downward, the border of dots.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 13,5-15,0mm, weight: 3,69g, axes: 0h,
mint: , date: early-mid 2nd Century A.D., ref: van't Haaff 14.2.1-2A, De Morgan 37, 39, BMC plate XLI, 24, Sear GICV 5900, Alram ??,
Q-001
quadrans
Elymais,Arsacid_dynasty__Phraates,__AD_,_AE-Drachme,_Van__t_Haaff_14_4_1-1A_Q-001_0h,14-15mm,_3,07g-s.jpg
Elymais, van't Haaff 14.4.1-1A, Arsacid dynasty. Phraates (early-mid 2nd Century A.D.), AE-Drachm, Plain diadem of two bands, #181 viewsElymais, van't Haaff 14.4.1-1A, Arsacid dynasty. Phraates (early-mid 2nd Century A.D.), AE-Drachm, Plain diadem of two bands, #1
avers: Bust facing forward, wearing a tiara with two pellets in crescents and dotted rim, two diadem bands below tiara, to right, pellet in crescent above anchor with one or two crossbars at the top, the border of dots.
reverse: Plain diadem of two bands, pellet-in-crescents facing upward, the border of dots.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 14,0-15,0mm, weight: 3,07g, axes: 0h,
mint: , date: early-mid 2nd Century A.D., ref: van't Haaff 14.4.1-1A, De Morgan 40, BMC plate XLI, 26-27, Sear GICV 5901, Alram ??,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Elymais,_Orodes_IV_,_2nd_half_of_2nd_cent__AD_,_AE-Drachme,_Emp_Faceing,_Artemis_l_,_Anchor_,_Van__t_Haaff_17_2_1-1b,_Q-001_1h,_13-13,5mm,_3,39g-s.jpg
Elymais, van't Haaff 17.2.1-1b, Arsacid dynasty. Orodes IV. (2nd half of 2nd cent. A.D. (undated)), AE-Drachm, Female bust, left, (Artemis?), #184 viewsElymais, van't Haaff 17.2.1-1b, Arsacid dynasty. Orodes IV. (2nd half of 2nd cent. A.D. (undated)), AE-Drachm, Female bust, left, (Artemis?), #1
avers: Bare-headed bust, facing, w/diadem, and 2 loops; 2 round tufts of hair on sides, one smaller oblong tuft on top of the head, mustache, chin beard, necklace.
reverse: Female bust, left, (Artemis?) w/helmet (?), along with crest pellets on stalks, diadem, and 2 ribbons, a bunch of frontal hair, earring, necklace, 1 top bar and 1 bottom bar anchor in right field.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 13,5mm, weight: 3,39g, axes: 1h,
mint: Elymais, Susa, date: 2nd half of 2nd cent. A.D. (undated),
ref: van't Haaff 17.2.1-1b, Alram -,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Elymais,_Arsacid_dynasty__Prince_A___AD_,_AE-Drachme,_Van__t_Haaff_19_1_1-1A,_Q-001_0h,11-12mm,_1,72g-s.jpg
Elymais, van't Haaff 19.1.1-1A, Arsacid dynasty. Prince A (early-mid 2nd Century A.D.), AE-Drachm, Artemis standing right, #180 viewsElymais, van't Haaff 19.1.1-1A, Arsacid dynasty. Prince A (early-mid 2nd Century A.D.), AE-Drachm, Artemis standing right, #1
avers: Bust facing left, wearing diadem of two bands, row of dots above, side whiskers as a double row of dots, hair tuft at the back of the head, the border of dots.
reverse: Artemis standing right, holding the bow in one hand, plucking an arrow from her quiver with the other hand, the border of dots.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 11,0-12,0mm, weight: 1,72g, axes: 0h,
mint: , date: early-mid 2nd Century A.D., ref: van't Haaff 19.1.1-1A, de Morgan 58-59, BMC plate XLII, 13-18, page 286, 18, Sear GICV 5918-5919, Alram ??,
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
Elymais,_Arsacid_dynasty__Prince_A___AD_,_AE-Drachme,_Van__t_Haaff_19_1_1-1A,_Q-002_2h,13,5-15mm,_3,14g-s.jpg
Elymais, van't Haaff 19.1.1-1A, Arsacid dynasty. Prince A (late 2nd to early 3rd Century A.D.), AE-Drachm, Artemis standing right, #234 viewsElymais, van't Haaff 19.1.1-1A, Arsacid dynasty. Prince A (late 2nd to early 3rd Century A.D.), AE-Drachm, Artemis standing right, #2
avers: Bust facing left, w/2-strand diadem, loop, and 2 ribbons, top hair consisting of 1 row of dots and a small tuft in the front, a large rolled-up bun in the back of the neck, no side-whiskers, medium-long beard consisting of 2 rows of dots, mustache, the collar of tunic.
reverse: Artemis standing right, holding the bow in one hand, plucking an arrow from her quiver with the other hand, the border of dots.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 13,5-15,0mm, weight: 3,14g, axes: 2h,
mint: Susa, date: late 2nd to early 3rd Century A.D., ref: van't Haaff 19.1.1-1A, de Morgan 58-59, BMC plate XLII, 13-18, page 286, 18, Sear GICV 5918-5919, Alram ??,
Q-002
2 commentsquadrans
GRK_Elymais_GICV_5904_Orodes_II_2_bars.JPG
Elymais. Arsacid dynasty. Orodes II (early-mid 2nd century A.D.)24 viewsvan't Haaff 13.2.1-1B; De Morgan 44-45; BMC plate XL, 10; Sear GICV 5904; Alram 478

AE drachm, 3.78 g., 14.10 mm. max., 0°

Obv: Bust facing forward, with no large hair tufts at sides, wearing tiara with central vertical line and dots at rim, diadem band below tiara; to right dot within crescent above anchor with double crossbar at top; pellet border.

Rev: Small radiate bust of Belos facing forward with no facial features, with hair tufts on sides and two horns; Aramaic legend URUD MALKA BARI URUD (= King Orodes, Son of Orodes) reading counter clockwise; pellet border.
Stkp
GRK_Elymais_GICV_5904_Orodes_II_1_Bar.JPG
Elymais. Arsacid dynasty. Orodes II (early-mid 2nd century A.D.)21 viewsvan't Haaff 13.2.1-2B; De Morgan 44-45, BMC plate XL, 10; Sear GICV 5904; Alram 478

AE drachm, 3.66 g., 16.40 mm. max., 180°

Obv: Bust facing forward, with no large hair tufts at sides, wearing tiara with central vertical line and dots at rim, diadem band below tiara; to right dot within crescent above anchor with one crossbar at top; pellet border.

Rev: Small radiate bust of Belos facing forward with no facial features, with hair tufts on sides and two horns; Aramaic legend URUD MALKA BARI URUD (= King Orodes, Son of Orodes) reading counter clockwise; pellet border.
Stkp
GRK_Elymais_SGICV_5905_Orodes_II_SGICV.JPG
Elymais. Arsacid dynasty. Orodes II (early-mid 2nd century A.D.)15 viewsvan't Haaff 13.3.2-2A; De Morgan 46; BMC plate XL, 13; Sear GICV 5905; Alram --

AE drachm, 4.10 g., 14.49 mm. max.

Obv: Bust facing forward, wearing tiara without crest with central vertical line and dots at rim, two diadem bands below tiara with row of pearls; to right star within crescent above anchor with one crossbar at top; pellet border.

Rev: Dashes with regular pattern; no border.
Stkp
ELYMAIS_13_1_1-1_Orodes_II.jpg
Elymais. Arsacid dynasty. Orodes II (early-mid 2nd century A.D.)20 viewsvan't Haaff 13.1.1-1; De Morgan 49; BMC plate XLI, 2; Sear GICV 5908-5909; Alram 485

AE drachm, 4.14 g., 16.80 mm. max., 0°

Obv: Diademed bust facing forward, with small hair tuft on top, and large curly hair tufts on each side in three vertical rows of dots; to right, pellet within crescent above anchor with two crossbars; pellet border.

Rev: Radiate bust of Belos facing forward, with large hair tufts to each side, two horns and tied hair on top of the head; Aramaic legend around (WRWD MLK' BRY WRWD = King Orodes, Son of Orodes), starting after six o'clock, reading counter-clockwise; pellet border.

According to van't Haaff, the side tufts on the coins with two crossbars above the anchor are comprised of two vertical rows of dots, yet this coins has three irregular rows of dots.
Stkp
ELYMAIS_13_3_2-2B_Orodes_II.jpg
Elymais. Arsacid dynasty. Orodes II (early-mid 2nd century A.D.)19 viewsvan't Haaff 13.3.2-2B; De Morgan 46; BMC plate XL, 13; Sear GICV 5905; Alram --

AE drachm, 3.96 g., 15.20 mm. max.

Obv: Bust facing forward, wearing tiara with crest of rays with central vertical line and dots at rim, two diadem bands below tiara with row of pearls; to right dot within crescent above anchor with one crossbar at top; pellet border.

Rev: Dashes with regular pattern; no border.
Stkp
GRK_Sear_GICV_5896_Elymais_Orodes_II.JPG
Elymais. Arsacid dynasty. Orodes III (2nd century A.D.)10 viewsvan't Haaff 16.4.2-1A; De Morgan 28; BMC plate XL, 6-7; Sear GICV 5896 (Orodes I); Alram --

AE drachm, 3.56 g., 14.90 mm. max., 0°

Obv: Slender bust of better style facing left, wearing tiara with anchor and dotted rim, diadem band below tiara, ribbon falling behind bust from dot; pellet within crescent above anchor with one crossbar at top; pellet border.

Rev: Field of regular, parallel dashes.
Stkp
GRK_Sear_GICV_5892_Elymais_Orodes_II.JPG
Elymais. Arsacid dynasty. Orodes III (2nd century A.D.)18 viewsvan't Haaff 16.1.1-3A; De Morgan 23-24; BMC plate XXXIX, 12-16; Sear GICV 5892 (Orodes I); Alram 469-470 (Orodes I)

AE drachm, 3.30 g., 14.23 mm. max., 0°

Obv: Bust (refined style) facing left, wearing tiara with anchor and dotted rim, diadem band below tiara, ribbon falling behind bust from dot; to right pellet within crescent above anchor with one crossbar at top; pellet border.

Rev: Bust of Artemis right, wearing calathus; around her neck corrupted Greek legend, BACIΛEYK on the left, reading outside-in, YPωΔHC (= Orodes) on the right, reading inside-out; pellet border.
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GRK_Elymais_SGICV_5895_Orodes_III.JPG
Elymais. Arsacid dynasty. Orodes III (2nd century A.D.)19 viewsvan't Haaff 16.3.2-1A; De Morgan 27; BMC plate XL, 1-5; Sear GICV 5895 (Orodes I); Alram --

AE drachm, 3.92 g., 13.51 mm. max., 0°

Obv: Slender bust facing left, wearing tiara with anchor and dotted rim, diadem band below tiara, ribbon falling behind bust from dot; to right pellet within crescent above anchor with one crossbar at top; pellet border.

Rev: Anchor in field of regular parallel dashes; no border.
1 commentsStkp
GRK_Elymais_SGICV_--_Orodes_III.jpg
Elymais. Arsacid dynasty. Orodes III (2nd century A.D.)15 viewsvan't Haaff 16.2.1-2A; De Morgan 25-26; BMC plate XXXIX, 17-20, page 257 46-47; Sear GICV 5893-5894 (Orodes I); Alram --

AE drachm, 3.64 g., 13.61 mm. max., 0°

Obv: Bust facing left, wearing tiara with anchor and dotted rim, diadem band below tiara, ribbon falling behind bust from dot; to right pellet within crescent above anchor with one crossbar at top; pellet border.

Rev: Bust of Belos, left, with bead necklace and earings; cornucopia behind; pellet border.
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ELYMAIS_16_1_1-1_Orodes_III.jpg
Elymais. Arsacid dynasty. Orodes III (2nd century A.D.)17 viewsvan't Haaff 16.1.1-1; De Morgan 23-24; BMC plate XXXIX, 12-16; Sear GICV 5892; Alram 469-470

AE drachm, 3.68 g., 14.64 mm. max., 0°

Obv: Bust (refined style) facing left, wearing tiara with anchor and dotted rim, diadem band below tiara, ribbon falling behind bust from dot; to right pellet within crescent above anchor with one crossbar at top; pellet border.

Rev: Bust of Artemis right, wearing calathus; around her corrupted Greek legend, YPωΔHC (= Orodes) on the left, reading inside-out, BACIΛEYK on the right, reading outside-in; pellet border.
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ELYMAIS_16_3_2-1__Orodes_III.jpg
Elymais. Arsacid dynasty. Orodes III (2nd century A.D.)19 viewsvan't Haaff 16.3.2-1_; De Morgan 27; BMC plate XL, 1-5; Sear GICV 5895; Alram --

AE drachm, 2.66 g., 15.81 mm. max., 0°

Obv: Slender bust facing left, wearing tiara with anchor and dotted rim, diadem band below tiara, ribbon falling behind bust from dot; to right pellet within crescent above anchor with one crossbar at top; pellet border.

Rev: Anchor in field of irregular, perpendicular V-shaped and inverted T-shaped marks; no border.
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ELYMAIS_16_2_1-1_Orodes_III.jpg
Elymais. Arsacid dynasty. Orodes III (2nd century A.D.)20 viewsvan't Haaff 16.2.1-1; De Morgan 25-26; BMC plate XXXIX, 17-20, page 257 46-47; Sear GICV 5893-5894; Alram --

AE drachm, 3.53 g., 13.68 mm. max., 0°

Obv: Bust facing left, wearing tiara with anchor and dotted rim, diadem band below tiara, ribbon falling behind bust from dot; to right pellet within crescent above anchor with one crossbar at top; pellet border.

Rev: Bust of Belos, right, with bead necklace and earrings; cornucopia behind; pellet border.
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ELYMAIS_17_2_1-1_Orodes_IV.jpg
Elymais. Arsacid dynasty. Orodes IV (ca. 2nd half of 2nd century A.D.)22 viewsvan't Haaff 17.2.1-1; de Morgan 54; BMC plate XLII, 2; Sear GICV 5914; Alram --

AE drachm, 3.11 g., 14.12 mm. max., 0°

Obv: Bust facing forward, wearing diadem band, with large hair tuft on top and sides of head; pellet border.

Rev: Bust of Artemis facing left, wearing low tiara with crest of dots; to right, anchor with one crossbar on top; pellet border.
1 commentsStkp
ELYMAIS_17_3_1-1_Orodes_IV.jpg
Elymais. Arsacid dynasty. Orodes IV (ca. 2nd half of 2nd century A.D.)17 viewsvan't Haaff 17.3.1-1; de Morgan 55; BMC plate XLII, 1; Sear GICV 5915; Alram --

AE drachm, 2.82 g., 13.38 mm. max., 0°

Obv: Bust facing forward, wearing diadem band, with large hair tufts on the sides of head, top hair as pellets; pellet border.

Rev: Anchor with pellet-in-crescent to either side; all within wreath; no border.
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ELYMAIS_17_1_1-2_Orodes_IV.jpg
Elymais. Arsacid dynasty. Orodes IV (ca. 2nd half of 2nd century A.D.)35 viewsvan't Haaff 17.1.1-2; de Morgan 52-53; BMC plate XLII, 5-6; Sear GICV 5912-5913; Alram 488-489

AE drachm, 2.44 g., 13.95 mm. max., 0°

Obv: Bust facing left, wearing broad diadem band, with large hair tufts on top of and on side of head, flowing backward; to left anchor; pellet border.

Rev: Bust of female (Queen Ulfan) left, hair tied above, with long braid falling behind; to left incomplete Aramaic legend (wip'n = Ulfan); pellet border.
1 commentsStkp
ELYMAIS_17_1_1-1_Orodes_IV.jpg
Elymais. Arsacid dynasty. Orodes IV (ca. 2nd half of 2nd century A.D.)19 viewsvan't Haaff 17.1.1-1; de Morgan 52-53; BMC plate XLII, 5-6; Sear GICV 5912-5913; Alram 488-489

AE drachm, 3.19 g., 15.74 mm. max., 0°

Obv: Bust facing left, wearing broad diadem band, with large hair tufts on top of and on side of head, flowing backward; to left Aramaic legend (wrwd MLK = King Orodes); pellet border.

Rev: Bust of female (Queen Ulfan) left, hair tied above, with long braid falling behind; to left incomplete Aramaic legend (wip'n = Ulfan); pellet border.
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GRK_Elymais_SGICV_5917_Orodes_V.jpg
Elymais. Arsacid dynasty. Orodes V (late 2nd -- early 3rd centuries A.D.)18 viewsvan't Haaff 18.1.1-2A; de Morgan 56-57 (Orodes IV); BMC plate XLII, 7-8, page 282, 1, 6; Sear GICV 5916-5917; Alram 490

AE drachm, 2.23 g., 15.18 mm. max., 0°

Obv: Bust facing left, diademed, with hair tuft on top of head; pellet border.

Rev: Bust of Artemis facing left, wearing low tiara with crest of dots; pellet border.
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ELYMAIS_18_1_1-2A_Orodes_V_2.jpg
Elymais. Arsacid dynasty. Orodes V (late 2nd -- early 3rd centuries A.D.)15 viewsvan't Haaff 18.1.1-2A; de Morgan 56-57 ((Orodes IV); BMC plate XLII, 7-8, page 282, 1, 6; Sear GICV 5916-5917; Alram 490

AE drachm, 3.01 g., 13.86 mm. max., 0°

Obv: Bust facing left, diademed, with hair tuft on top of head; anchor; pellet border.

Rev: Bust of Artemis facing left, wearing low tiara with crest of dots; pellet border.
Stkp
ELYMAIS_18_1_1-1A_Orodes_V.jpg
Elymais. Arsacid dynasty. Orodes V (late 2nd -- early 3rd centuries)17 viewsvan't Haaff 18.1.1-1A; de Morgan 56-57 (Orodes IV); BMC plate XLII, 7-8, page 282, 1, 6; Sear GICV 5916-5917; Alram 490

AE drachm, 2.52 g., 12.72 mm. max., 0°

Obv: Bust facing left, diademed, with hair tuft on top of head; to left, incomplete Aramaic legend wrwd MLK (= King Orodes); pellet border.

Rev: Bust of Artemis facing left, wearing low tiara with crest of dots; pellet border.
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GRK_Elymais_GICV_5898_Phraates.JPG
Elymais. Arsacid dynasty. Phraates (early-mid 2nd century A.D.)19 viewsvan't Haaff 14.1.1-1B; De Morgan 33; BMC plate XLI, 22; Sear GICV 5898; Alram 474-476

AE drachm, 3.85 g., 16.40 mm. max., 0°

Obv: Bust facing forward, wearing tiara with two pellets-in-crescent, diadem band below tiara; to left, Greek legend ΦPA; to right, pellet in crescent above anchor with two crossbars at top; pellet border.

Rev: Artemis standing right, holding bow in one hand, plucking arrow from quiver with other hand, Greek legend ΦPAATHC (= Phraates) on the left, BACIΛEVC on the right (both reading outside-in).
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GRK_Elymais_GICV_5901_Phraates.jpg
Elymais. Arsacid dynasty. Phraates (early-mid 2nd century A.D.)19 viewsvan't Haaff 14.4.1-1A; De Morgan 40; BMC plate XLI, 26-27; Sear GICV 5901; Alram --

AE drachm, 2.44 g., 14.46 mm. max., 90°

Obv: Bust facing forward, wearing tiara with two pellets in crescents and dotted rim, two diadem bands below tiara; to right, pellet in crescent above anchor with one or two crossbars at top; pellet border.

Rev: Plain diadem of two bands, pellet-in-crescents facing upward; pellet border.
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GRK_Elymais_SGICV_5902_var_Phraates.JPG
Elymais. Arsacid dynasty. Phraates (early-mid 2nd century A.D.)9 viewsvan't Haaff 14.7.2-1; De Morgan 36.2-3; BMC plate XLI, 17-21; Sear GICV 5902; Alram --

AE drachm, 3.48 g., 14.66 mm. max.

Obv: Small, narrow bust facing left, wearing tiara with pellet-in-crescent, diadem band below tiara; to right, pellet in crescent above anchor with one crossbar at top; pellet border.

Rev: Dashes in regular, parallel or perpendiculat pattern, no border.
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GRK_Elymais_SGICV_5899_Phraates.JPG
Elymais. Arsacid dynasty. Phraates (early-mid 2nd century A.D.)14 viewsvan't Haaff 14.6.1-3; De Morgan 34-35; BMC plate XLI, 10; Sear GICV 5899; Alram 473

AE drachm, 3.86 g., 16.83 mm. max., 0°

Obv: Bust facing left, wearing tiara with pellet-in-crescent and dotted rim, diadem band below tiara; to left, Greek legend ΦPA; to right, pellet in crescent above anchor with one crossbar at top; pellet border.

Rev: Artemis (not radiate) standing right, holding bow in one hand, plucking arrow from her quiver with other hand, Greek legend BACIΛEVC on the left (reading outside-in), ΠPAATHC (= Phraates) on the right (reading inside-outside), both retrograde.
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ELYMAIS_14_2_1A_Phraates.jpg
Elymais. Arsacid dynasty. Phraates (early-mid 2nd century A.D.)11 viewsvan't Haaff 14.2.1-2A; De Morgan 37, 39; BMC plate XLI, 24; Sear GICV 5900; Alram --

AE drachm, 2.56 g., 14.01 mm. max., 0°

Obv: Bust facing forward, wearing tiara; to right, pellet in crescent above anchor with one crossbar at top; pellet border.

Rev: Eagle standing left, wings spread, talons facing downward; pellet border.

According to van't Haaff, the differentiating feature for Phraates' coins is the decoration of the tiara with one or two pellet-in-crescents. He notes that this feature is not always visible, and assigns to Phraates all coins with the eagle reverse type. He describes the bust in Type 14.2 as wearing tiara and dotted rim, one or two diadem bands below tiara with two pellet-in-crescents. None of these features are not visible on this coin, on which the bust appears to only be wearing a diadem.
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ELYMAIS_14_5_1-1_Phraates.jpg
Elymais. Arsacid dynasty. Phraates (early-mid 2nd century A.D.)10 viewsvan't Haaff 14.5.1-1; De Morgan --; BMC plate XLI, 19; Sear GICV --; Alram --

AE drachm, 2.64 g., 14.80 mm. max., 270° (assuming crescents orient upward)

Obv: Bust facing forward, wearing tiara with two pellet-in-crescents, dotted rim and diadem band below; to right, pellet in crescent above anchor with one crossbar at top; pellet border.

Rev: Crescents in regular pattern; no border.
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ELYMAIS_van__t_Haaff_14_1_1-1C_var__(tiara)_Phraates.jpg
Elymais. Arsacid dynasty. Phraates (early-mid 2nd century A.D.)36 viewsvan't Haaff 14.1.1-1C var. (tiara); De Morgan 33; BMC plate XLI, 22; Sear GICV 5898; Alram 474-476

AE drachm, 3.64 g., 16.83 mm. max., 0°

Obv: Bust facing forward, wearing tiara with two large pellets-in-crescent but without the border of the tiara, diadem band below tiara; to left, Greek legend ΦPA; to right, pellet in crescent above anchor with two crossbars at top; pellet border.

Rev: Artemis standing right, holding bow in one hand, plucking arrow from quiver with other hand, Greek legend BACIΛEVC on the left, ΠPAATHC (= Phraates) on the right (both reading inside-out).
1 commentsStkp
Elymais_14_1_1-2C_phraates.jpg
Elymais. Arsacid dynasty. Phraates (late 1st century to early 2nd century A.D.)23 viewsvan't Haaff 14.1.1-2C; De Morgan 33; BMC plate XLI, 22; Sear GICV 5898; Alram 474-476

AE drachm, 3.59 g., 15.42 mm. max., 0°

Obv: Bust facing forward, wearing tiara with two pellets-in-crescent, diadem band below tiara; to left, Greek legend ΦPA; to right, pellet in crescent above anchor with one crossbar at top; pellet border.

Rev: Artemis standing right, holding bow in one hand, plucking arrow from quiver with other hand, Greek legend BACIΛEVC on the left, ΠPAATHC (= Phraates) on the right (both retrograde, reading outside-in).
1 commentsStkp
ELYMAIS_14_1_1-2A_Phraates.jpg
Elymais. Arsacid dynasty. Phraates (late 1st century to early 2nd century A.D.)16 viewsvan't Haaff 14.1.1-2A; De Morgan 33; BMC plate XLI, 22; Sear GICV 5898; Alram 474-476

AE drachm, 3.29 g., 14.64 mm. max., 0°

Obv: Bust facing forward, wearing tiara with two pellets-in-crescent, diadem band below tiara; to left, Greek legend ΦPA; to right, pellet in crescent above anchor with one crossbar at top; pellet border.

Rev: Artemis standing right, holding bow in one hand, plucking arrow from quiver with other hand, Greek legend BACIΛEVC on the left, ΦPΔΔTHC (= Phraates) on the right (both reading inside-out).
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ELYMAIS_14_7_2-2A_Phraates.jpg
Elymais. Arsacid dynasty. Phraates (late 1st century to early 2nd century A.D.)16 viewsvan't Haaff 14.7.2-2A; De Morgan 36.2-3; BMC plate XLI, 17-21; Sear GICV 5902; Alram --

AE drachm, 3.49 g., 15.96 mm. max.

Obv: Small, narrow bust facing left, wearing tiara with pellet-in-crescent, diadem band below tiara; to right, pellet in crescent above anchor with one crossbar at top; pellet border.

Rev: Dashes in parallel lines of V-shaped pattern, no border.
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ELYMAIS_19_1_var_Prince_A.jpg
Elymais. Arsacid dynasty. Prince A (late 2nd to early 3rd centuries A.D.)47 viewsvan't Haaff 19.1 var.; de Morgan 58-59; BMC plate XLII, 13-18, page 286, 18; Sear GICV 5918-5919; Alram --

Elymais. Arsacid dynasty. Prince A (late 2nd to early 3rd centuries A.D.)
AE drachm, 1.54 g., 11.01 mm. max., 0°

Obv: Bust facing left, wearing diadem of two bands, row of dots above, side whiskers as double row of dots, hair tuft at back of head; to left anchor with at least one crossbar; pellet border.

Rev: Artemis standing right, holding bow in one hand, plucking arrow from her quiver with the other hand; pellet border.

According to van't Haaf, the varieties with a hair tuft are "always" accompanied by a dot or star in crescent above and an anchor to the right, although these symbols are often struck off the flan. This is an unrecorded variety in which the anchor is to the left.
2 commentsStkp
ELYMAIS_19_1_1-1B_Prince_A.jpg
Elymais. Arsacid dynasty. Prince A (late 2nd to early 3rd centuries A.D.)23 viewsvan't Haaff 19.1.1-1B; de Morgan 58-59; BMC plate XLII, 13-18, page 286, 18; Sear GICV 5918-5919; Alram --

AE drachm, 1.30 g., 11.55 mm. max., 0°

Obv: Bust facing left, wearing diadem of two bands, row of dots above, side whiskers of one row of dots, hair tuft at back of head; pellet border.

Rev: Artemis standing right, holding bow in one hand, plucking arrow from her quiver with the other hand; single dot to her right; pellet border.

According to van't Haaf, the varieties with a hair tuft are "always" accompanied by a dot or star in crescent above and an anchor to the right, although these symbols are often struck off the flan. These symbols are not present on this coin. Tracing the probable arc of the pellet border, there does not appear to be space in the off-flan fields to accommodate these symbols, or, for that matter, to accommodate a chin/beard.
1 commentsStkp
ELYMAIS_19_1_1-1A_Prince_A.jpg
Elymais. Arsacid dynasty. Prince A (late 2nd to early 3rd centuries A.D.)19 viewsvan't Haaff 19.1.1-1A; de Morgan 58-59; BMC plate XLII, 13-18, page 286, 18; Sear GICV 5918-5919; Alram --

AE drachm, 2.29 g., 12.87 mm. max., 0°

Obv: Bust facing left, wearing diadem of two bands, row of dots above, side whiskers as double row of dots, hair tuft at back of head; pellet border.

Rev: Artemis standing right, holding bow in one hand, plucking arrow from her quiver with the other hand; single dot to her right; pellet border.

According to van't Haaf, the varieties with a hair tuft are "always" accompanied by a dot or star in crescent above and an anchor to the right, although these symbols are often struck off the flan. These symbols are not present on this coin.

Unusually crude. Possibly imitative?
Stkp
ELYMAIS_19_1_1-2_Prince_A.jpg
Elymais. Arsacid dynasty. Prince A (late 2nd to early 3rd centuries A.D.)11 viewsvan't Haaff 19.1.1-2; de Morgan 58-59; BMC plate XLII, 13-18, page 286, 18; Sear GICV 5918-5919; Alram --

AE drachm, 2.09 g., 13.34 mm. max., 0°

Obv: Bust facing left, wearing diadem of two bands, row of dots above, side whiskers of one row of dots, no hair tuft at back of head; pellet border.

Rev: Artemis standing right, holding bow in one hand, plucking arrow from her quiver with the other hand; pellet border.
Stkp
ELYMAIS_19_1_1-1A_Prince_A~0.jpg
Elymais. Arsacid dynasty. Prince A (late 2nd to early 3rd centuries A.D.)36 viewsvan't Haaff 19.1.1-1A; de Morgan 58-59; BMC plate XLII, 13-18, page 286, 18; Sear GICV 5918-5919; Alram --

AE drachm, 2.64 g., 15.19 mm. max., 0°

Obv: Bust facing left, wearing diadem of two bands, row of dots above, side whiskers as double row of dots, hair tuft at back of head; to right anchor with one crossbar; pellet border.

Rev: Artemis standing right, holding bow in one hand, plucking arrow from her quiver with the other hand; two dots to her right; pellet border.

According to van't Haaf, the varieties with a hair tuft are "always" accompanied by a dot or star in crescent above and an anchor to the right, although these symbols are often struck off the flan. The crescent and anchor are present on this coin.
2 commentsStkp
ELYMAIS_19_1_1-1A_e-g_Prince_A.jpg
Elymais. Arsacid dynasty. Prince A (late 2nd to early 3rd centuries A.D.)26 viewsvan't Haaff 19.1.1-1A var. e-g; de Morgan 58-59; BMC plate XLII, 13-18, page 286, 18; Sear GICV 5918-5919; Alram --

AE drachm, 1.78 g., 12.50 mm. max., 0°

Obv: Bust facing left, wearing diadem of two bands, row of dots above, side whiskers as double row of dots, hair tuft at back of head; to right anchor with one crossbar; pellet border.

Rev: Artemis standing right, holding bow in one hand, plucking arrow from her quiver with the other hand; two dots to her right; crescent to the left; pellet border.

According to van't Haaf, the varieties with a hair tuft are "always" accompanied by a dot or star in crescent above and an anchor to the right, although these symbols are often struck off the flan.
1 commentsStkp
GRK_Elymais_SGICV_5921_Prince_B.jpg
Elymais. Arsacid dynasty. Prince B (3rd century A.D.)11 viewsvan't Haaff 20.1.1-1A; de Morgan 60; BMC plate XLII, 19-20, page 287, 4-6; Sear GICV 5920; Alram --

AE drachm, 2.89 g., 14.25 mm. max., 0°

Obv: Bust facing left, wearing diadem of two bands, hair tuft on top of head tied with ribbons, its ends flowing behind, another hair tuft at back of head; to right, pellet-in-crescent above anchor; pellet border.

Rev: Athena standing right, holding spear in right hand, and shield in left; pellet border.
Stkp
ELYMAIS_20_1_1-1B_Prince_B.jpg
Elymais. Arsacid dynasty. Prince B (3rd century A.D.)28 viewsvan't Haaff 20.1.1-1B; de Morgan 60; BMC plate XLII, 19-20, page 287, 4-6; Sear GICV 5920; Alram --

AE drachm, 2.69 g., 14.30 mm. max., 0°

Obv: Bust facing left, wearing diadem of two bands, hair tuft on top of head tied with ribbons, its ends flowing behind, another hair tuft at back of head; to right, pellet-in-crescent above anchor; pellet border.

Rev: Athena standing facing forward, head left, holding spear in right hand, and shield in left; pellet border.
1 commentsStkp
ELYMAIS_20_1_1-1A_Prince_B.jpg
Elymais. Arsacid dynasty. Prince B (3rd century A.D.)25 viewsvan't Haaff 20.1.1-1A; de Morgan 60; BMC plate XLII, 19-20, page 287, 4-6; Sear GICV 5920; Alram --

AE drachm, 3.01 g., 15.05 mm. max., 90°

Obv: Bust facing left, wearing diadem of two bands, hair tuft on top of head tied with ribbons, its ends flowing behind, another hair tuft at back of head; to right, pellet-in-crescent above anchor; pellet border.

Rev: Athena standing right, holding spear in right hand, and shield in left; pellet border.

According to van't Haaff, the pellet-in-crescent and anchor are often off the flan, as in this coin.
1 commentsStkp
ELYMAIS_Unidentified_King.jpg
Elymais. Arsacid dynasty. Probably a contemporary regional counterfeit struck during the reign of Prince A (late 2nd to early 3rd centuries A.D.), or later.52 viewsvan't Haaff --; De Morgan --; BMC --; Sear GICV --; Alram --

AE unit (denomination undetermined), 2.51 g., 12.59 mm. max., 0°

Obv.: Bust facing left, side whiskers as double row of dots.

Rev.: Plain diadem of two bands with fine lines, pellet border.

The obverse bust most closely resembles Prince A (late 2nd to early 3rd centuries A.D.), van't Haaff 19.1.1-1A, whereas the reverse mirrors Phraates (early-mid 2nd century A.D.), van't Haaff 14.4.1-2). Due to the decades between these rulers, the coin is probably not a mule. The coins of Phraates may have remained in circulation during the reign of Prince A, and beyond. The coin is probably a contemporary regional counterfeit inspired by the Phraates reverse. However, the diadem on the reverse is a reference to sky god Bel, and the possibility that the coin is an unrecorded official coin, issued by Prince A with the revived iconography of Phraates, cannot be excluded.

Attribution assistance courtesy of Pieter Anne van't Haaff (thanks to Robert L3), and Robert L3.
2 commentsStkp
ELYMAIS_10_4_2-4a_Uncertain_Early_Arsacid_Kings.jpg
Elymais. Arsacid dynasty. Uncertain Early Arsacid Kings (late 1st century B.C. to early 2nd century A.D.)27 viewsvan't Haaff 10.4.2-4A; de Morgan --; BMC --; Sear GICV --; Alram --

AE drachm, 3.86 g., 16.19 mm. max.

Obv: Bust of decent style facing left, with long, curly, pointed beard, and curly hair dressed in a curved pattern frome forehead to nape of the neck, topped by a tuft of hair bound with a diadem, its ties falling behind; pellet in crescent above anchor with one crossbar; no pellet above anchor; pellet border.

Rev: Diademed, bearded head left, degenerated to dashes of irregular style.
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ELYMAIS_10_4_2-4a_Uncertain_Early_Arsacid_Kings_crude~0.jpg
Elymais. Arsacid dynasty. Uncertain Early Arsacid Kings (late 1st century B.C. to early 2nd century A.D.)24 viewsvan't Haaff 10.3.2-1 var. (pellet); de Morgan --; BMC --; Sear GICV --; Alram --

AE drachm, 3.56 g., 16.02 mm. max.

Obv: Bust of crude style facing left, with beard and curly hair dressed in a curved pattern from forehead to nape of the neck, topped by a tuft of hair bound with a diadem, its ties falling behind; cross-like form in crescent above anchor with one crossbar; pellet [?] to right of anchor; pellet border.

Rev: Diademed, bearded head left, degraded legend around, degenerated to dashes of irregular style.

Attribution assistance courtesy of Robert L3 (http://www.forumancientcoins.com/board/index.php?topic=112957.msg697503;topicseen#msg697503 message 2/22/18)
Stkp
ELYMAIS_10_4_2-3_Uncertain_Early_Arsacid_Kings.jpg
Elymais. Arsacid dynasty. Uncertain Early Arsacid Kings (late 1st century B.C. to early 2nd century A.D.)15 viewsvan't Haaff 10.4.2-3; de Morgan --; BMC --; Sear GICV --; Alram --

AE drachm, 3.87 g., 16.68 mm. max., ?°

Obv: Bust of decent style facing left, with long, curly, pointed beard, and curly hair dressed in a curved pattern from forehead to nape of the neck, topped by a tuft of hair bound with a diadem, its ties falling behind; pellet in crescent above anchor with one crossbar; no pellet above anchor; pellet border.

Rev: Diademed, bearded head left, highly degenerated style.
Stkp
ELYMAIS_21_2_1-1_Unidentified_King.jpg
Elymais. Arsacid dynasty. Unidentified King (uncertain dates)15 viewsvan't Haaff 21.2.1-1 var. (pellets); de Morgan --; BMC plate XLII, 22-25; Sear GICV --; Alram --

AE unit (denomination undetermined), 1.73 g., 10.68 mm. max., 0°

Obv: Abstract bust facing right, details unclear.

Rev: Upturned crescent with dot above and below, all within wreath.

According to van't Haaff, too few of these coins are known to determine their denomination. Apparently, on the few coins that are known, too little detail on the obverse remains to obtain a complete description; the photo in van't Haaff is unclear. Those that are known to van't Haaff have three dots below the crescent and none above, although these coins appear as well with a single dot above and another below.

Attribution confirmation coutesy of Robert L3 (http://www.forumancientcoins.com/board/index.php?topic=112957.new;topicseen#new)
Stkp
ELYMAIS_21_1_1-1_unidentified_king.jpg
Elymais. Arsacid dynasty. Unidentified King (uncertain dates)15 viewsvan't Haaff 21.1.1-1; de Morgan --; BMC --; Sear GICV --; Alram --

AE unit (denomination undetermined), 1.08 g., 10.18 mm. max., 270°

Obv: Bust facing left, details unclear.

Rev: Anchor with one crossbar at top, all within wreath.

According to van't Haaf, too few of these coins are known to determine their denomination.
Stkp
ELYMAIS_21_1_1-2_Unidentified_King.jpg
Elymais. Arsacid dynasty. Unidentified King (uncertain dates)20 viewsvan't Haaff 21.1.1-2; de Morgan --; BMC --; Sear GICV --; Alram --

AE unit (denomination undetermined), 1.45 g., 11.23 mm. max., 0°

Obv: Bust facing left, side whiskers of one row of dots, hair tuft at back of head.

Rev: Anchor with two crossbars at top, all within wreath.

According to van't Haaf: (a) too few of these coins are known to determine their denomination; (b) the details of the bust are "unclear," yet this bust is similar to van't Haaff Type 19.1 (Prince A); and (c) the reverse border is a wreath whereas this border looks like the pellets that are typical on the borders of so many Elymaean types.
Stkp
ELYMAIS_21_1_1-2_var_Unidentified_King_left.jpg
Elymais. Arsacid dynasty. Unidentified King (uncertain dates)34 viewsvan't Haaff 21.2.1-1 var. (facing left and dots on reverse); de Morgan --; BMC plate XLII, 22-25 var.; Sear GICV --; Alram --

AE unit (denomination undetermined), 1.90 g., 10.89 mm. max., 0°

Obv: Bust facing left, side whiskers, hair tuft at back of head

Rev: Upturned crescent with dot above and below, all within wreath

According to van't Haaf, too few of these coins are known to determine their denomination. Further, on the few coins that were then known, too little detail on the obverse remained to obtain a complete description, other than that the bust faces right. There are now sufficient examples from which to do so. This coin is unusual in that the bust faces left. Those that were then known have three dots below the crescent and none above. Yet the type appears to be more common with one dot above and another below.
2 commentsStkp
IMG_2494.JPG
Faience Eye of Horus Amulet (Wedjat), VI Dynasty to Ptolemaic Period 29 viewsFaience Eye of Horus Amulet (Wedjat), VI Dynasty to Ptolemaic Period

Eye of Horus Amulet, Light blue Faience, no black detail, looking right, 15mm.
The 'sound' eye that restores life. Petrie 138
2 commentsRandygeki(h2)
Shabti2.jpg
Faience Ushabti46 viewsEgyptian Faience Ushabti.

Head band and Basket on reverse, farming tools in hands.


21st Dynasty

1069-945 BC

95mm; 23.34g

Ex-Zurqieh
3 commentsJay GT4
Tut3.PNG
Fragment of seal ring used by/for King Tutankhamun. pharaoh of the 18th dynasty (ruled c. 1332–1323 BC)45 views Half of a glazed faience ring bezel.The part of the inscription that survives reads "Prince of Hermonthis", a title used by/for King Tutankhamun.
References: H.R. Hall's Catalogue. Nos 1968 and 1972.
3 commentsCanaan
fuchang123.JPG
Fu Chang Tong Bao33 viewsIssued by Liu Yu, Dummy Emperor by Jing Dynasty. 1125 ADsamwyi
Geta_175_225_Comp.jpg
Geta (as Augustus), 209–11 CE82 viewsAR denarius, Rome, 210 CE; 3.08g. BMCRE 68, C 219 (3 Fr.), RIC 92. Obv: P SEPT GETA PIVS AVG BRIT; head laureate right. Rx: VICTORI – AE BRIT; Victory standing left, naked to waist, holding wreath and palm.

Notes: Second special issue of the joint reign of Severus, Caracalla, and Geta commemorating victories in Britain. Scarce; fewer than thirty specimens in the hoards studied by P.V. Hill (twenty in Reka Devnia).

Provenance: Ex Berk BBS 175 (May 2011), lot 225; ex Empire 9 (30 April 1988), lot 337; ex Glendining sale (21 November 1984), lot 220, hammer price £125; from the G.R. Arnold Collection, Burford, England.

Literature: H. A. Seaby (1898–1979), Roman Silver Coins, 2nd ed. (London: Seaby Publications Ltd., 1969; revised 1982), vol. 3, p. 99, no. 219 (this specimen illustrated), and Glendining & Co. and B.A. Seaby, Ltd., The G.R. Arnold Collection of Silver Coins of the Severan Dynasty (London, 21 November 1984), pl. IX, no. 220 (this specimen illustrated).
4 commentsMichael K5
ISL_Ghaznavids_Mahmud.png
Ghaznavids. Yamin al-Dawla Abu'l-Qasim Mahmud (998-1030 A.D. / 388-421 A.H.)44 viewsAlbum 1611.1

AR (broad) dirham, Nishapur (Naysabur) mint, date off flan. 20 mm.

Obv: (Kufic) La Ilaha Illa / Allah WahDahu / La Sharik Lahu (Kalima Shahada in three lines) [= There is no god except Allah; He is Alone/Unique, there is no partner to Him], Adil [= Justice] above, symbol below. Margin [?]: bism allah duriba hadha’l-dirham bi- Naysabur sana [date off flan]" [= “in the name of God this dirham was struck in the year [off flan].”

Rev: (Kufic) Lillah [= for Allah] / Muhammad Rasool Allah [=Muhammad is the prophet of Allah] / Al-Qadir Billah [= name of the Abbassid Caliph overlord] / Yamin Al-Dawlah wa Amin al-Milla [= Mahmud's title, meaning Right Hand of the Empire]. Margin _______.

Ghaznavid dirhams were usually struck on planchets that were smaller than the dies, so that the marginal legends are frequently off the flan.

The Ghaznavids started as Turkish mamluk (slave) governors of the Samanids in the Afghanistan area around Ghazna. They became independent of the Samanids in 999 A.D. (389 A.H.). Mahmud greatly expanded the Ghaznavid empire beyond Afghanistan. He expanded his territory into Pakistan from Sind to Peshawar. His forays went as far as Mathura in India. The dynasty ended in 1186 A.D. (582 A.H.), when it was conquered by the Ghorids.

Attribution assistance from Vladimir Belyaev and Alex Koifman.
Stkp
Gold_Tara,_Vijayanagar_feudatory_in_Uttara_Kannada,_Saluva_dynasty_(1486-1505),_South_India2.jpg
Gold Tara, Vijayanagar feudatory in Uttara Kannada, Saluva dynasty (1486-1505), South India82 viewsGold Tara (or half-fanam). Deer standing left, semi-circle with a dot inside above (crescent moon and star?) / Brahmi letter "Ra" (corrupt and only partially seen). 5mm, 0.25 grams. Unpublished.

These coins are published as silver taras, but are seemingly unknown in gold. They (in silver) are sometimes found in the Uttara Kannada (Gerusoppe region) where the feudatory dynasty of Vijayanagara the Saluva ruled. The short-lived Saluva dynasty included only 2 rulers - Narasimha Saluva (1486-1492) and Immadi Narasimha (1492-1505).

Antonio Protti
Gold_Tara,_Vijayanagar_feudatory_in_Uttara_Kannada,_Saluva_dynasty_(1486-1505),_South_India.jpg
Gold Tara, Vijayanagar feudatory in Uttara Kannada, Saluva dynasty (1486-1505), South India82 viewsGold Tara (or half-fanam). Deer standing left, semi-circle with a dot inside above (crescent moon and star?) / Brahmi letter "Ra" (corrupt and only partially seen). 5mm, 0.25 grams. Unpublished.

These coins are published as silver taras, but are seemingly unknown in gold. They (in silver) are sometimes found in the Uttara Kannada (Gerusoppe region) where the feudatory dynasty of Vijayanagara the Saluva ruled. The short-lived Saluva dynasty included only 2 rulers - Narasimha Saluva (1486-1492) and Immadi Narasimha (1492-1505).


Antonio Protti
10383b.jpg
Greece, 100 Drachmai 1992, KM # 159.74 viewsGreece,
100 Drachmes, brass (29 mm / 10.00 g), 1992,
Obv.: EΛΛHNIKH ΔHMOKPATIA / 1992 - BEPΓINA / 100 / ΔPAXMEΣ , the Vergina sun or star of Vergina.
Rev.: MEΓAΣ AΛEΞANΔPOΣ / BAΣIΛEYΣ MAKEΔONΩN , diademed head of Alexander The Great with horn of Ammon right.
KM # 159.

The Vergina Sun or Star of Vergina is a symbol of a stylised star with sixteen rays. It was found in archaeological excavations in Vergina, in northern Greece, where it was discovered on a golden larnax found in 1977 in the tombs of the kings of the ancient kingdom of Macedon.
The significance of the Vergina Sun is unclear. Archaeologists do not agree whether the sun was a symbol of Macedon, an emblem of Philip's Argead dynasty, a religious symbol, or simply a decorative design.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vergina_Star

my ancient coin database
Arminius
Greece,_Mysia,_Pergamum,_Cistophoric_Tetradrachm,_12_57g,_28mm,_166-67_BC,_issued_76_BC.jpg
GREEK, Mysia, Pergamon, Cistophoric Tetradrachm81 viewsGreece, Mysia, Pergamon, Cistophoric Tetradrachm, 12.57g, 28mm, 166-67 BC, issued 76 BC

Obv: Cista Mystica containing serpent escaping, all within an ivy wreath.

Rev: Bow case between 2 serpents. Pergamon monogram at left. Snake entwined Asklepian staff at right. "AP" above.

Near the West coast of present day Turkey, Pergamon, in the province of Mysia, was an insignificant city under the Persian empire. After Alexander the Great died, his bodyguard "Lysimachus" was given Thrace and north western Asia. After the battle of Ipsus "Lysimachus" secured Alexander's treasury worth over 25,000 talents. Pergamon was located in a natural fortress and "Lysimachus" strengthened the city and deposited his Asian treasure (9000 talents) in the city along with a military guard under his loyal follower "Philetaerus". "Lysimachus" died in 281 BC and Pergamon officially fell under Seulcid control. "Philetaerus" played the part of a faithful governor, but all the time he used the money to strengthen the city's defenses and founded the Attalid dynasty of the kingdom of "Pergamon". The kingdom successfully withstood attempts by Seulicid rulers to regain control. In 190 BC, Pergamon assisted the Romans to defeat Antiochus III of Syria. At this time, Rome had no territorial desires in Asia and they gave all the territories to Pergamon. Pergamon prospered and soon ranked as one of the major Greek cultural centers. Pergamon's library ranked second only to the library of Alexandria. But, to Rome's surprize the Pergamon King Attalus III (138 - 133 BC) gave the kingdom to Rome upon his death in 133 BC. During the confusion a certain "Aristonicus" seized the throne and changed his name to "Eumenes III". This forced the Romans to intervene and they seized the kingdom and made it the capital of the Roman province of Asia.

Pergamon first issued this coin under Eumenes II, who likely required a new currency after the treaty with Apameia in 188 BC expanded his economic and political territory. The new coinage is the first time a king’s portrait and name are omitted from Hellenistic currency. The cistophori (basket bearers) were the chief currency in Asia Minor for about 300 years. Originally introduced by king Eumenes II of Pergamon around 166 BCE, the obverse of these coins shows a cista mystica, i.e., a woven basket containing the sacred objects of a mystery cult. In the case of the cistophori, the basket contains snakes associated with the worship of Dionysus (Bacchus), the Greek god of wine and ecstasy. In the Dionysian mysteries a serpent, representing the god, was carried in a box called a cista on a bed of vine leaves. This may be the Cista mentioned by Clement of Alexandria which was exhibited as containing the phallus of Dionysus. The depiction on this famous type is what gives the coin its name - the Cistophorus. It was one of the most widely minted coin types in the ancient world. It seems that the Asian Greek states in what is now Turkey minted this coin in unison from around 150 BC. Some scholars believe this was undertaken for the common good, so traders could be confident in a coin of uniform weight and value, representing the collective wealth of Asian Greekdom.

The ivy wreath and the thyrsos staff on the reverse are also references to this god whom the Attalid kings of Pergamon claimed as their ancestor. The bow case (gorytos) on the reverse points to Herakles, the father of Telephos, the legendary founder and first king of Pergamon. Taken together, the obverse and reverse scenes appear to capture allegorical acts one and two of the Dionysian Cista fertility mythology in progress.

When the last Attalid king, Attalos III, died in 133 BCE, he left his entire kingdom to the Roman people. At the same time, his last will declared Pergamon and the other important cities of his realm "free cities", which meant that they did not have to pay tribute to Rome. Not surprisingly, Pergamon and the other cities continued to mint cistophori in grateful tribute to their former ruler. The city of Pergamum continued issue of cistophoric tetradrachm for eight decades after the city was willed to Rome in 133 BC.

1 cistophor equaled 3 Attic drachms, the currency of Athens, which had become the world's key currency during the campaigns of Alexander the Great. Later, 1 cistophor was equivalent to 3 Roman denarii. Because they were so easy to convert into the key currencies, 16 Anatolian towns soon minted cistophors, forming a kind of monetary union. When Pergamum became Roman about 133 BC, the Romans continued to mint cistophors.

Under the Attalids, Pergamon was not only the capital of an empire that soon stretched over most of Asia Minor, but also the seat of the second most famous library of the ancient world with more than 200,000 book rolls. When the kings of Egypt, the Ptolemies, whose capital, Alexandria, boasted the only comparable library, cut off Pergamene access to papyrus, the most important writing material, the Pergamenes invented pergamentum, i.e., parchment or vellum made from animal skins.

Today, the city is called Bergama and belongs to Turkey.
mitresh
ptolemy2~0.jpg
Greek, Ptolemy II Philadelphus AR Tetradrachm126 viewsObverse: Diademed head of Ptolemy I Soter
Reverse: Eagle with folded wings standing on thunderbolts. PTOLEMAIOY SOTHROS; Regnal Year 31 (255/54 BC) of Ptolemy II (285-246 BC) Monograms and control marks of the Gaza mint in the fields

Many of the portraits of Ptolemy Soter (the Savior) are little more than caricatures on the tetradrachms that are commonly for sale. Perhaps after engraving the same features for centuries the man behind the image became lost. I think this coin portrait has great quality and I imagine it looks a lot like the original Ptolemy I although cut about thirty years after his death. Ptolemy I may have been regarded as the George Washington of his day and the the notion of "father of his country" is exemplified in this portrait.
It is ironic that his patron, Alexander, overthrew the Persian God-Kings and was a major factor in preserving the role of the individual in Western values. Ptolemy's dynasty generally followed the Egyptian model with family members succeeding family members for over two centuries rather than the highly competitive and dynamic model that shaped Western politics and history.

Gaza mint; Svoronos 828; wt 13.7 gm
daverino
GUPTA_EMPIRE_KUMARAGUPTA_I.jpg
GUPTA EMPIRE - Kumaragupta I29 viewsGUPTA EMPIRE - Kumaragupta I (414-455 AD) AR drachm. Roughly 13 mm., 2.9 g. Crude portrait on obverse, Garuda bird and legends on reverse. The coin resembles earlier issues of a different dynasty on the obverse; but the Guptas used the Garuda bird on the reverse.dpaul7
Deyell-8.jpg
Gurjara-Pratihara Dynasty: Bhoja I (ca. 836-885 AD) Adivaraha Dramma (MNI-335; Deyell#8)57 viewsObv: King Bhoja as Varaha standing triumphant right, foot resting on lion below, various vaishnavite symbols at right
Rev: Remanent of fire altar; two-line legend - srimad adi / varaha
1 commentsSpongeBob
TANG_Kai_Yuan_Hartill_4_1.jpg
Hartill 14.1, Schjoth 312 ff23 viewsTang Dynasty: Kai Yuan (Early Type, 621-718)

1 cash (cast bronze), nominal weight 1 to 1.1 qian (= 3.73 to 4.103 g.), 2.23 g., 23.70 mm.

Obv: Kai Yuan tong bao

Rev: Blank

The Kai Yuan was the main coin issued by the Tang. It was cast for most of the dynasty, nearly 300 years. It was first issued by the Emperor Gao Zu in the Autumn of the fourth year of the Wu De Period (August 621). This early type is known as the Wu De Kai Yuan. The inscription Kai Yuan tong bao (the Inaugural Currency) is the first to include the phrase tong bao. The Kai Yuan became the prototype for subsequent Chinese coinage.

Hartill rarity 14

ex Forvm Ancient Coins
Stkp
TANG_Kai_Yuan_Hartill_4_4.jpg
Hartill 14.4 Schjoth 312 ff15 viewsTang Dynasty: Kai Yuan (Middle Type, 718-732)

1 cash (cast bronze), 3.57 g., 24.50 mm.

Obv: Kai Yuan tong bao (left shoulder Yuan)

Rev: Blank

The Kai Yuan was the main coin issued by the Tang. It was cast for most of the dynasty, nearly 300 years. It was first issued by the Emperor Gao Zu in the Autumn of the fourth year of the Wu De Period (August 621). The inscription Kai Yuan tong bao (the Inaugural Currency) is the first to include the phrase tong bao. The Kai Yuan became the prototype for subsequent Chinese coinage.

Hartill rarity 13

ex Forvm Ancient Coins
Stkp
TANG_Kai_Yuan_Hartill_4_8.jpg
Hartill 14.8 Schjoth 312 ff17 viewsTang Dynasty: Kai Yuan (Late Type, 732-907)

1 cash (cast bronze), 2.29 g., 23.37 mm.

Obv: Kai Yuan tong bao (left shoulder Yuan)

Rev: Blank

The Kai Yuan was the main coin issued by the Tang. It was cast for most of the dynasty, nearly 300 years. It was first issued by the Emperor Gao Zu in the Autumn of the fourth year of the Wu De Period (August 621). The inscription Kai Yuan tong bao (the Inaugural Currency) is the first to include the phrase tong bao. The Kai Yuan became the prototype for subsequent Chinese coinage.

Hartill rarity 13

ex Forvm Ancient Coins
Stkp
RENZONG_H_16_103_S_499.JPG
Hartill 16.103, Schjoth 49926 viewsNorthern Song Dynasty: Emperor Renzong (1022-1063), Dynastic Title Huangsong (1039-1054).

1 cash (cast bronze), 24.5 mm.

Obv: Huang song tong bao (Tong in Li script, top of Huang square).

Rev: Blank.

Hartill rarity 15.
Stkp
RENZONG_H_16_105_S_499_var_.JPG
Hartill 16.105, Schjoth 499 var.19 viewsNorthern Song Dynasty: Emperor Renzong (1022-1063), Dynastic Title Huangsong (1039-1054).

1 cash (cast bronze), 24.5 mm.

Obv: Huang song tong bao (Tong in Li script, top of Huang regular).

Rev: Blank.

Hartill rarity 15.
Stkp
SONG_Ren_Zong_Hartill_16_114.jpg
Hartill 16.114, Schjoth --14 viewsNorthern Song Dynasty: Emperor Ren Zong (1022-1063), Reign Title Huang Song (1039-1054)

1 cash (cast bronze), 2.94 g., 25.30 mm.

Obv: Huang Song tong bao (all characters regular script; dot in tong not distinct)

Rev: Blank

Hartill rarity 15

ex Forvm Ancient Coins (bulk lot)
Stkp
SONG_Jia_You_H_16_153.jpg
Hartill 16.153, Schjöth --, Fisher's Ding 9367 viewsNorthern Song Dynasty: Emperor Ren Zong (1022-1063), Reign Title Jia You (1056-1063)

1 cash (cast bronze), 3.37 g., 24.45 mm.

Obv: Jia You tong bao (Li script)

Rev: Blank

Hartill rarity 14

ex Forvm Ancient Coins (bulk lot)
Stkp
YINGZONG_H_16_156-157_S_519.JPG
Hartill 16.156-157, Schjoth 51920 viewsNorthern Song Dynasty: Emperor Yingzong (1064-1067), Reign Title Zhiping (1064-1067).

1 cash (cast bronze), 23 mm.

Obv: Zhi pin yuan bao (seal script).

Rev: Blank.

Hartill rarity 15.
Stkp
YINGZONG_H_16_160-161_S_523.JPG
Hartill 16.160-161, Schjoth 52314 viewsNorthern Song Dynasty: Emperor Yingzong (1064-1067), Reign Title Zhiping (1064-1067).

1 cash (cast bronze), 24 mm.

Obv: Zhi pin yuan bao (regular script).

Rev: Blank.

Hartill rarity 15.
Stkp
SONG_Zhi_Ping_H_16_167.jpg
Hartill 16.167, Schjöth 526, Fisher's Ding 9427 viewsNorthern Song Dynasty: Emperor Ying Zong (1064-1067), Reign Title Zhi Ping (1064-1067)

1 cash (cast bronze), 2.82 g., 25.54 mm.

Obv: Zhi Ping tong bao (Li script)

Rev: Blank

Hartill rarity 15

ex Forvm Ancient Coins (bulk lot)
Stkp
SHENZONG_H_16_170_S_527.JPG
Hartill 16.170, Schjoth 52715 viewsNorthern Song Dynasty: Emperor Shenzong (1068-1085), Reign Title Xining (1068-1077).

1 cash (cast bronze), 24 mm.

Obv: Xi ning yuan bao (seal script, ning written with a curved stroke at the bottom).

Rev: Blank.

Hartill rarity 15.
Stkp
SHENZONG_H_16_173_S_529_var.JPG
Hartill 16.173, Schjoth 529 var., Fisher's Ding 94511 viewsNorthern Song Dynasty: Emperor Shenzong (1068-1085), Reign Title Xining (1068-1077).

1 cash (cast bronze), 23 mm.

Obv: Xi ning yuan bao (seal script, small ning written with four parallel vertical strokes at the bottom).

Rev: Blank.

Hartill rarity 14.
Stkp
SHENZONG_H_16_183_S_532.JPG
Hartill 16.183, Schjoth 531 var. & 534 var.6 viewsNorthern Song Dynasty: Emperor Shenzong (1068-1085), Reign Title Xining (1068-1077).

1 cash (cast bronze), 25 mm.

Obv: Xi ning yuan bao (regular script, left hand stroke of Xi toughing the balance of Xi at the bottom).

Rev: Blank.

Hartill rarity 15.
Stkp
SHENZONG_H_16_184_S_531.JPG
Hartill 16.184, Schjoth 53113 viewsNorthern Song Dynasty: Emperor Shenzong (1068-1085), Reign Title Xining (1068-1077).

1 cash (cast bronze), 23 mm.

Obv: Xi ning yuan bao (regular script, left hand stroke of Xi incorporated within the balance of Xi).

Rev: Blank.

Hartill rarity 15.
Stkp
SONG_Shen_Zong_Hartill_16_210.jpg
Hartill 16.210, Schjoth 54519 viewsNorthern Song Dynasty: Emperor Shen Zong (1068-1085), Reign Title Yuan Feng (1078-1085)

1 cash (cast bronze), 3.46 g., 24.16 mm.

Obv: Yuan Feng tong bao (seal script; regular characters)

Rev: Blank

Hartill rarity 15

ex Forvm Ancient Coins
Stkp
SONG_Shen_Zong_Hartill_16_212.jpg
Hartill 16.212, Schjoth 54515 viewsNorthern Song Dynasty: Emperor Shen Zong (1068-1085), Reign Title Yuan Feng (1078-1085)

1 cash (cast bronze), 3.41 g., 24.15 mm.

Obv: Yuan Feng tong bao (seal script; small characters)

Rev: Blank

Hartill rarity 15

ex Forvm Ancient Coins
Stkp
SHENZONG_H_16_235_S_547.JPG
Hartill 16.235, Schjoth 547, Fisher's Ding 96332 viewsNorthern Song Dynasty: Emperor Shenzong (1068-1085), Reign Title Yuanfeng (1078-1085).

1 cash (cast bronze), 25 mm.

Obv: Yuan feng tong bao (running script, large characters).

Rev: Blank.

Hartill rarity 15.
Stkp
SONG_Yuan_Feng_Hartel_16_236.jpg
Hartill 16.236, Schjoth 547 var., Fisher's Ding 963 var.4 viewsNorthern Song Dynasty: Emperor Shen Zong (1068-1085), Reign Title Yuan Feng (1078-1085)

1 cash (cast bronze), 4.36 g., 24.77 mm. max.

Obv: Yuan feng tong bao (running script, small characters)

Rev: Blank

Hartill rarity 15

ex Forvm Ancient Coins
Stkp
SONG_Yuan_You_Hartill_16_262.jpg
Hartill 16.262, Schjoth 56616 viewsNorthern Song Dynasty: Emperor Zhe Zong (1086-1100), Reign Title Yuan You (1086-1093)
1 cash (cast bronze), 4.12 g., 24.74 mm.

Obv: Yuan You tong bao (seal script; small bei)

Rev: Blank

Hartill rarity 15

ex Forvm Ancient Coins
Stkp
ZHEZONG_H_16_274_S_567.JPG
Hartill 16.274, Schjoth 567 19 viewsNorthern Song Dynasty: Emperor Zhezong (1086-1100), Reign Title Yuanyou (1086-1093).

1 cash (cast bronze), 24 mm.

Obv: Yuan you tong bao (running script, spread feet bao).

Rev: Blank.

Hartill rarity 15.
Stkp
ZHEZONG_H_16_275_S_567var.JPG
Hartill 16.275, Schjoth 567 var.14 viewsNorthern Song Dynasty: Emperor Zhezong (1086-1100), Reign Title Yuanyou (1086-1093).

1 cash (cast bronze), 24 mm.

Obv: Yuan you tong bao (running script, small bei).

Rev: Blank.

Hartill rarity 15.
Stkp
SONG_Yuan_You_Hartell_16_276.jpg
Hartill 16.276, Schjöth 567 var.5 viewsNorthern Song Dynasty: Emperor Zhe Zong (1086-1100), Reign Title Yuan You (1086-1093).

1 cash (cast bronze), 3.38 g., 24.75 mm. max.

Obv: Yuan you tong bao (running script, claw feet bao).

Rev: Blank.

Hartill rarity 15.

ex Forvm Ancient Coins
Stkp
ZHEZONG_H_16_290_S_585.JPG
Hartill 16.290, Schjoth 585, Fisher's Ding 99016 viewsNorthern Song Dynasty: Emperor Zhezong (1086-1100), Reign Title Shaosheng (1094-1097).

1 cash (cast bronze), 24.5 mm.

Obv: Shao sheng yong bao (clockwise; seal script, large bao).

Rev: Blank.

Hartill rarity 15.
Stkp
SONG_Shao_Shang_H_16_291~0.jpg
Hartill 16.291, Schjoth 585 var., Fisher's Ding 990 var.18 viewsNorthern Song Dynasty: Emperor Zhe Zong (1086-1100), Reign Title Shao Sheng (1094-1097)

1 cash (cast bronze), 3.35 g., 23.87 mm.

Obv: Shao Sheng yuan bao (clockwise; seal script; small bao)

Rev: Blank

Hartill rarity 15

ex Forvm Ancient Coins (bulk lot)
1 commentsStkp
ZHEZONG_H_16_307-309_S_586.JPG
Hartill 16.307-309, Schjoth 586, Fisher's Ding 99111 viewsNorthern Song Dynasty: Emperor Zhezong (1086-1100), Reign Title Shaosheng (1094-1097).

1 cash (cast bronze), 25 mm.

Obv: Shao sheng yong bao (running script, large bao).

Rev: Blank.

Hartill rarity 15.
Stkp
SONG_Yuan_Fu_Hartill_16_328.jpg
Hartill 16.328, Schjoth 59919 viewsNorthern Song Dynasty: Emperor Zhe Zong (1086-1100), Reign Title Yuan Fu (1098-1100)

1 cash (cast bronze), 3.39 g., 24.73 mm.

Obv: Yuan Fu tong bao (seal script; large bao)

Rev: Blank

Hartill rarity 15

ex Forvm Ancient Coins
Stkp
ZHEZONG_H_16_329_S_599_var.JPG
Hartill 16.329, Schjoth 599 var., Fisher's Ding 1005 var.14 viewsNorthern Song Dynasty: Emperor Zhezong (1086-1100), Reign Title Yuanfu (1098-1100).

1 cash (cast bronze), 24.5 mm.

Obv: Yuan Fu tong bao (seal script, small bao).

Rev: Blank.

Hartill rarity 15.
Stkp
HUIZONG_H_16_355_S_607.JPG
Hartill 16.354-360 (probably 16.355), Schjoth 607, Fisher's Ding 101720 viewsNorthern Song Dynasty: Emperor Huizong (1101-1125), Reign Title Shengsong (1101-1106 [?]).

1 cash (cast bronze), 24 mm.

Obv: Shen song yuan bao (seal script).

Rev: Blank.

Hartill rarity 15.
Stkp
HUIZONG_H_16_360_S_607.JPG
Hartill 16.354-360 (probably 16.360), Schjoth 607, Fisher's Ding 101719 viewsNorthern Song Dynasty: Emperor Huizong (1101-1125), Reign Title Shengsong (1101-1106 [?]).

1 cash (cast bronze), 24.5 mm.

Obv: Shen song yuan bao (seal script).

Rev: Blank.

Hartill rarity 15.
Stkp
SONG_Sheng_Song_H_16_377.jpg
Hartill 16.377, Schjoth 60911 viewsNorthern Song Dynasty: Emperor Hui Zong (1101-1125), Reign Title Sheng Song (1101-1106)

1 cash (cast bronze), 3.45 g., 23.78 mm.

Obv: Sheng Song yuan bao (clockwise; running script; spread feet bao)

Rev: Blank

Hartill rarity 15

ex Forvm Ancient Coins (bulk lot)
Stkp
HUIZONG_H_16_379_S_609_var.JPG
Hartill 16.379, Schjoth 609 var., Fisher's Ding 1018 var.17 viewsNorthern Song Dynasty: Emperor Huizong (1101-1125), Reign Title Shengsong (1101-1106 [?]).

1 cash (cast bronze), 24 mm.

Obv: Shen song yuan bao (running script, claw feet bao).

Rev: Blank.

Hartill rarity 15.
Stkp
SONG_Sheng_Song_H_16_380.jpg
Hartill 16.380, Schjoth 609 var.12 viewsNorthern Song Dynasty: Emperor Hui Zong (1101-1125), Reign Title Sheng Song (1101-1106)

1 cash (cast bronze), 3.89 g., 23.94 mm.

Obv: Sheng Song yuan bao (clockwise; running script; knotted style Sheng)

Rev: Blank

Hartill rarity 12

ex Forvm Ancient Coins (bulk lot)
Stkp
TAIZONG_H_16_41_S_468.JPG
Hartill 16.41, Schjoth 46825 viewsNorthern Song Dynasty: Emperor Taizong (976-997), Reign Title Zhidao (995-997).

1 cash (cast bronze), nominal weight 1 qian (= 3.73 g.), 25 mm.

Obv: Zhi dao yuan bao (in grass script).

Rev: Blank.

The inscription was written by the emperor himself, who was a noted scholar and calligrapher.

Hartill rarity 14.
1 commentsStkp
ZHENZONG_H_16_43_S_469.JPG
Hartill 16.43, Schjöth 46919 viewsNorthern Song Dynasty: Emperor Zhenzong (998-1022), Reign Title Xianping (998-1003).

1 cash (cast bronze), 24 mm.

Obv: Xian ping yuan bao (ordinary script).

Rev: Blank.

Hartill rarity 15.
Stkp
SONG_Zheng_He_H_16_441.jpg
Hartill 16.441, Schjoth 635, Fisher's Ding 107110 viewsNorthern Song Dynasty: Emperor Hui Zong (1101-1125), Reign Title Zheng He (1111-1117)

1 cash (cast bronze), 3.71 g., 25.43 mm.

Obv: Zheng He tong bao (Li script; head of tong merged with the body, large characters)

Rev: Blank

Hartill rarity 15

ex Forvm Ancient Coins (bulk lot)
Stkp
HUIZONG_H_16_458_S_636.JPG
Hartill 16.458, Schjoth 636, Fisher's Ding 1018 var.21 viewsNorthern Song Dynasty: Emperor Huizong (1101-1125), Reign Title Zhenghe (1111-1117).

1 cash (cast bronze), 24.5 mm.

Obv: Zheng he tong bao (regular script).

Rev: Blank.

Hartill rarity 11.
Stkp
ZHENZONG_H_16_49_S_471.JPG
Hartill 16.49, Schjoth 47121 viewsNorthern Song Dynasty: Emperor Zhenzong (998-1022), Reign Title Jingde (1004-1007).

1 cash (cast bronze), 24 mm.

Obv: Jing de yuan bao (ordinary script).

Rev: Blank.

Hartill rarity 15.
Stkp
ZHENZONG_H_16_52_S_474.JPG
Hartill 16.52, Schjoth 47423 viewsNorthern Song Dynasty: Emperor Zhenzong (998-1022), Reign Title Xiangfu (1008-1016).

1 cash (cast bronze), 24.5 mm.

Obv: Xiang fu yuan bao (ordinary script).

Rev: Blank.

Hartill rarity 15.
Stkp
SONG_Tian_Xi_H_16_68.jpg
Hartill 16.68, Schjoth 480, Fisher's Ding 8939 viewsNorthern Song Dynasty: Emperor Zhen Zong (998-1022), Reign Title Tian Xi (1017-1022)

1 cash (cast bronze), 3.56 g., 25.66 mm.

Obv: Tian Xi tong bao (clockwise; regular script; feet of bao spread, one dot tong)

Rev: Blank

Hartill rarity 15

ex Forvm Ancient Coins (bulk lot)
Stkp
SONG_Tian_Xi_H_16_70.jpg
Hartill 16.70, Schjoth 480 var., Fisher's Ding 8945 viewsNorthern Song Dynasty: Emperor Zhen Zong (998-1022), Reign Title Tian Xi (1017-1022)

1 cash (cast bronze), 3.55 g., 24.13 mm.

Obv: Tian Xi tong bao (clockwise; regular script; feet of bao straight, one dot tong)

Rev: Blank

Hartill rarity 14

ex Forvm Ancient Coins (bulk lot)
Stkp
RENZONG_H_16_76_S_486.JPG
Hartill 16.76, Schjoth 48626 viewsNorthern Song Dynasty: Emperor Renzong (1022-1063), Reign Title Tiansheng (1023-1031).

1 cash (cast bronze), 25 mm.

Obv: Tian sheng yuan bao (regular script, feet of bao spread).

Rev: Blank.

Hartill rarity 15.
Stkp
SONG_ming_dao_16_82.jpg
Hartill 16.82, Schjoth 4899 viewsNorthern Song Dynasty: Emperor Zhen Zong (998-1022), Reign Title Ming Dao (1032-1033)

1 cash (cast bronze), 3.50 g., 25.27 mm.

Obv: Ming Dao yuan bao (clockwise; seal script)

Rev: Blank

Hartill rarity 14

ex Forvm Ancient Coins (bulk lot)
Stkp
RENZONG_H_16_89_S_494.JPG
Hartill 16.89, Schjoth 49424 viewsNorthern Song Dynasty: Emperor Renzong (1022-1063), Reign Title Jingyou (1034-1038).

1 cash (cast bronze), 24.5 mm.

Obv: Jing you yuan bao (regular coin).

Rev: Blank.

Hartill rarity 15.
Stkp
SONG_Huang_Song_H_16_93.jpg
Hartill 16.93, Schjöth 497, Fisher's Ding 9043 viewsNorthern Song Dynasty: Emperor Ren Zong (1022-1063), Reign Title Huang Song (1056-1063)
1 cash (cast bronze), 3.60 g., 25.11 mm.

Obv: Huang Song tong bao (Seal script; top of Huang curved, bao a rounded square)

Rev: Blank

Hartill rarity 15

ex Forvm Ancient Coins (bulk lot)
Stkp
RENZONG_H_16_99_S_498.JPG
Hartill 16.99, Schjoth 49835 viewsNorthern Song Dynasty: Emperor Renzong (1022-1063), Dynastic Title Huangsong (1039-1054).

1 cash (cast bronze), 24.5 mm.

Obv: Huang song tong bao (top of Huang square).

Rev: Blank.

Hartill rarity 15.
Stkp
MING_cheng_zu_20_121.jpg
Hartill 20.121, Schjoth 1166, Fisher's Ding 195812 viewsMing Dynasty: Emperor Cheng Zu (1403-1424), Reign Title Yong Le (1403-1424)

1 cash (cast bronze), 2.91 g., 24.82 mm.

Obv: Yong Le tong bao

Rev: Blank

Hartill rarity 14

ex Forvm Ancient Coins (bulk lot)
Stkp
herm.JPG
Hermaios of Bactria AR Drachm30 viewsOBV: BASILEUS SUTHPOS EPMAIOY; Draped and diademed bust of Hermaios right.
REV: 'Maharaja Tratarasa Hermayasa' in Kharosthi script; Zeus enthroned left and holding sceptre, Monogram in left field.
Silver drachm of Hermaios (90-70 BC) last of the Indo-Greek dynasty.
Bop_17B (Ref. W'winds)
17 mm, 1.7 gm
daverino
_#23459;_#32113;_#36890;_#23542;_#22823;_#26679;.jpg
Hsuan-T'ung 49 viewsThe Ching Dynasty,
Emperor PUYE
AD 1908-1912
1 cash
Reverse: "BOO" on the left and "CIOWAN" (Board of Revenue mint) on the right.
24.2mm, 4.63g

Puye was the last emperor of China. He was only three years old when he come to the throne, then was forced to abdicate to the forces of the Republic 1912, but continued to live in the Imperial palace until 1924. In 1932 when the Japanese made him president of Manchukuo, and then changed his title to Emperor of Manchukuo in 1934, with reign title: K'ANG-TE.

Samson L2
Hui_Zong,_10_cash,_1101-1125_AD.jpg
Hui Zong, Chong Ning reign, 10 cash, 1102-1106 AD38 viewsCHINA, Northern Song Dynasty. Huīzōng, AD 1100-1125.
Chóngníng reign, 1102-1106.
Æ 10 Wen. Chong Ning Tong Bao, slender gold script .
Hartill 16.399


"Slender gold" script was the personal calligraphy style of the Emperor Huīzōng.
Ardatirion
bela iv hungary.jpg
HUNGARY - Bela IV185 viewsBela IV (1235-70), King of Hungary and Croatia, member of the legendary Arpad dynasty, silver denar.
King seated on his throne, "BELA REX"/Jerusalem cross, "REGIS P HVNGARI{}". Husz-320.
dpaul7
Stephen V Hungary.jpg
HUNGARY - Stephen V128 viewsStephen V (1270-72), King of Hungary and Croatia, member of the legendary Arpad dynasty. 'Hebrew' AR Denar. King's portrait, "MONETA VNGARIE"/Hebrew letter 'Aleph' between eagles
dpaul7
HUNG_STEPHEN_V_AR.jpg
HUNGARY - Stephen V68 viewsHUNGARY - Stephen V (1270-72), King of Hungary and Croatia, member of the legendary Arpad dynasty. AR Denar. Obv.: King's bust f acing, holding orb and scepter, 2 stars above, mintmark right and left (M-*). Rev.: *S*/TEPh/ANRE/*X* . Huszar #343. 1.2 cm, weight: 0.44 g.dpaul7
HM1502d,_HEPHTHALITE,_c__475-576_AD,_AR-drachm,_MA-1502plus,_bust_r__with_bull_head_crown,_Napki_Malka_in_Pahlavi,_fire_altar,_Kabul-ZabulQ-001_h,_mm,_g-s.jpg
Huns, Hephthalites or "White Huns", Napki Malka, (cc. 475-575 A.D.), AR-Drachm, M. 1502, Göbl 198, King left on throne, #1187 viewsHuns, Hephthalites or "White Huns", Napki Malka, (cc. 475-575 A.D.), AR-Drachm, M. 1502, Göbl 198, King left on throne, #1
avers: Bust of Napki Malka in winged bull's head crown right.
revers: Fire altar flanked by two Hepthalite tankas, sun-wheels above their heads.
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: 28,0mm, weight: 2,66g, axes: 3h,
mint: Huns, Hephthalites, Kabul/Zabul, date: cc. 475-575 A.D., ref: M.1502, Göbl 198,
Q-001
"Napki Malka was a Hephthalite king of the 6th-7th century, and possibly the founder of a dynasty bearing the same name. On his coins, his name appears in Pahlavi script as "npky MLK". He was ruling in the area of Kabul , modern Afghanistan."
1 commentsquadrans
__.jpg
HUO CH'UAN36 viewsHSIN DYNASTY
Interregnum of Wang Mang, AD 7-23
23.1mm, 3.3g
S-149
Samson L2
w16871.jpg
Huo Quan of Emperor Wang Mang (Xin Dynasty)35 viewsEmperor Wang Mang (later part of his reign - minted 14-23 CE)

Two large Chinese characters – Huo Quan ("spring of goods"), single rim around the central hole, raised outside rim.

Blank. 17.5mm, 1.04 grams. Hartill #9.37 (small-sized.
Belisarius
Hartill-22_1055.jpg
Imperial China, Ch'ing Dynasty: Xian Feng (1851-1861) FE 10 Cash, Baoding Mint (Hartill-22.1055)19 viewsObv: 咸豐重寶 Xian Feng zhong bao
Rev: Numbers for denomination above and below, mint left and right in Manchu; 當十 ᠪᠣᠣ ᡷᡳ; Dang Shi (Value Ten) Boo jyi
SpongeBob
Hartill-22_737.jpg
Imperial China, Ch'ing Dynasty: Xian Feng (1851-1861) FE 10 Cash, Board of Revenue, Peking (Hartill-22.737)17 viewsObv: 咸豐重寶 Xian Feng zhong bao
Rev: Numbers for denomination above and below, mint left and right in Manchu; 當十 ᠪᠣᠣ ᠴᡠᠸᠠᠨ; Dang shi (Value Ten) Boo chiowan
SpongeBob
Hartill-22_702.jpg
Imperial China, Ch'ing Dynasty: Xian Feng (1851-1861) FE 50 Cash, Board of Revenue, Peking (Hartill-22.702)22 viewsObv: 咸豐重寶 Xian Feng zhong bao
Rev: Numbers for denomination above and below, mint left and right in Manchu; 當十五 ᠪᠣᠣ ᠴᡠᠸᠠᠨ; Dang wushi (Value Fifty) Boo chiowan
SpongeBob
Hartill-18_43.jpg
Imperial China, Jin Dynasty: Shi Zong (1161-1190) AE 1 Cash (Hartill-18.43)10 viewsObv: 大定通寶 Da Ding tong bao (1178-1189)
Rev: 申Shen above
SpongeBob
Hartill-20_44.jpg
Imperial China, Ming Dynasty: Da Zhong (1361-1368) AE 10 Cash (Hartill-20.44)15 viewsObv: 大中通寶 Da Zhong zhong bao
Rev: Numbers for denomination above; 十; Dang shi (Value Ten)
SpongeBob
Hartill-20_226.jpg
Imperial China, Ming Dynasty: Tian Qi (1621-1627) AE 10 Cash (Hartill-20.226)10 viewsObv: 天啓通寶 Tian Qi tong bao
Rev: 十 Shi (10) above
SpongeBob
Hartill-16_408.jpg
Imperial China, Northern Song Dynasty: Chong Ning (1101-1125) AE Ten Cash (Hartill-16.408)11 viewsObv: 崇宁重宝 Chong Ning zhong bao. Li script (1102-06). Large Ten Cash with thin characters
Rev: Blank
SpongeBob
Hartill-13_30.jpg
Imperial China, Northern Zhou Dynasty: Emperor Wu (574-576) Cash (Hartill-13.30)18 viewsObv: 五行大布 Wu Xing Da Bu (The Large Coin of the Five Elements [metal, wood, water, fire and water]).
Rev: Blank

Issued in 574 by Emperor Wu. Intended to be worth ten Bu Quans. Illegal coining soon produced specimens of a reduced weight, and the authorities banned the use of this coin in 576. This inscription is frequently found in amulets.
1 commentsSpongeBob
Hartill-7_6.jpg
Imperial China, Qin Dynasty: Anonymous (300-200 BCE) AE Cash (Hartill-7.6)14 viewsObv: 半两 Ban Liang
Rev: Plain and flat
SpongeBob
Hartill-22_2.jpg
Imperial China, Qing Dynasty: Abkai Fulingga (1616-1625) AE Cash (Hartill-22.2) 11 viewsObv: Abkai Fulingga han jiha (Abkai-fulingga Khan's Money) left, right, top, bottom
Rev: Plain
SpongeBob
Hartill-14_101.jpg
Imperial China, Tang Dynasty: Emperor Su Zong (758-759) 10 Cash (Hartill-14.101; Schjöth-352)10 viewsObv: 乾元重寳 Qian Yuan zhong bao
Rev: Blank
SpongeBob
Hartill-14_101a.jpg
Imperial China, Tang Dynasty: Emperor Su Zong (758-759) 10 Cash (Hartill-14.101; Schjöth-352)5 views Obv: 乾元重寳 Qian Yuan zhong bao
Rev: Blank
SpongeBob
Hartill-14_101b.jpg
Imperial China, Tang Dynasty: Emperor Su Zong (758-759) 10 Cash (Hartill-14.101; Schjöth-352)10 viewsObv: 乾元重寳 Qian Yuan zhong bao
Rev: Blank
SpongeBob
Hartill-7_32.jpg
Imperial China, Western Han Dynasty: Ban Liang (136-119BC) Four Zhu (Hartill-7.32)11 viewsObv: 半两 Ban Liang (Half Ounce). Bottom of liang like M. Fine workmanship.
Rev: Plain and flat.
SpongeBob
Hartill19_46.jpg
Imperial China, Yuan Dynasty: Emperor Wu Zong 10 Cash, 1310-1311 (Hartill-19.46)25 viewsObv: Ta Üen tung baw in Phags-Pa (ꡈꡝ ꡝꡦꡦꡋ ꡉꡟꡃ ꡎꡓ) = 大元通寶 Da Yuan tong bao
Rev: Blank

Note: Phags-Pa is written top-down and hence the whole inscription needs to be rotated 90 degrees clockwise. To mimic this behavior, Unicode encodes the letters rotated 90 degrees counter-clockwise. Finally, the inscription on the coin is read top, bottom, left and then right...
SpongeBob
Hartill-19_100.jpg
Imperial China, Yuan Dynasty: Zhi Zheng (1352) AE 2 wen (Hartill-19.100; Schjöth-1104)34 viewsObv: 至正通寶 Zhi Zheng tong bao
Rev: Mongol word on reverse above for the cyclical characters for the year of casting: ꡚꡞꡋ (Shin) for 壬辰 ren-chen (1352)
2 commentsSpongeBob
Hartill-19_105a.jpg
Imperial China, Yuan Dynasty: Zhi Zheng (1352) AE 3 wen (Hartill-19.105; Schjöth-1107)12 viewsObv: 至正通寶 Zhi Zheng tong bao
Rev: Mongol word on reverse above for the cyclical characters for the year of casting: ꡚꡞꡋ (Shin) for 壬辰 ren-chen (1352)
SpongeBob
gupta.jpg
INDIA, Gupta Dynasty, Kamargupta I or Mahendraditga, A.D.414-455.25 viewsWest India. Gupta Dynasty. Kumargupta I or Mahendraditga 414 - 455 A.D. Helmeted King in Kshatrapa style right, OHOH in degraded Greek behind / Gauda standing facing with wings open. BMC pl. XVII 1-31. oneill6217
haluni.jpg
INDIA, Independent Kingdoms, Deccan Sultanates, Nizam Shah Dynasty Copper 1/2 Unit 1007 - 1016 A.H.18 viewsIndia. Independent Kingdoms. Deccan Sultanates. Nizam Shah Dynasty Copper 1/2 Unit 1007 - 1016 A.H. Murtaza II as Mughal vassal 1007 - 1016 A.H. / 1598 - 1607 A.D.
7 grams , 15 mm
KM 12.2
oneill6217
amadnagar3c.jpg
INDIA, Independent Kingdoms, Deccan Sultanates, Nizam Shah Dynasty Copper 3/4 Unit 1007 - 1016 A.H.36 viewsIndia. Independent Kingdoms. Deccan Sultanates. Nizam Shah Dynasty Copper 3/4 Unit. Ahmadnagar, Murtaza II as Mughal vassal 1007 - 1016 H.H. / 1598 - 1607 A.D.

KM 12.2
oneill6217
amhadnagar.jpg
INDIA, Independent Kingdoms. Deccan Sultanates. Ahmadnagar, Nizam Shah Dynasty. Copper 3/4 unit14 viewsIndia. Independent Kingdoms. Deccan Sultanates. Ahmadnagar, Nizam Shah Dynasty. Murtaza II as Mughal vassal 1007 - 1016 A.H. / 1598 - 1607 A.D. Copper 3/4 unit.

16 mm , 9.6 grams
KM 12.2
oneill6217
ggf.jpg
INDIA, Independent Kingdoms. Deccan Sultanates. Ahmadnagar, Nizam Shah Dynasty. type 15 Copper 3/4 unit12 viewsIndia. Independent Kingdoms. Deccan Sultanates. Ahmadnagar, Nizam Shah Dynasty. Burhan III as Mughal vassal 1019 - 1041 A.H. / 1610 - 1631 A.D. type 15 Copper 3/4 unit, Daulatabad mint.
16.5 mm , 9.34 grams
KM 15.2
oneill6217
ahmand.jpg
INDIA, Independent Kingdoms. Deccan Sultanates. Nizam Shah Dynasty Copper 3/4 Unit.15 viewsIndia. Independent Kingdoms. Deccan Sultanates. Nizam Shah Dynasty Copper 3/4 Unit. Ahmadnagar, Murtaza II as Mughal vassal 1007 - 1016 H.H. / 1598 - 1607 A.D.
9.6 grams, 17 mm
KM 12.2
oneill6217
khaljic.jpg
INDIA, KHALJI (Gharzai Dynasty). ALA-UD-DIN Muhammad Shah Khilji (Juna Khan). Two Gani. Year: AH 696-711, 716 (1297-1316). 114 viewsKHALJI (Gharzai Dynasty). ALA-UD-DIN Muhammad Shah Khilji (Juna Khan). Two Gani. Year: AH 696-711, 716 (1297-1316). Weight: 2.63g [3.50g]. Metal: Billion. Diameter: 16.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Coin. Mint: N/A. Obverse: al-sultan al-a'zam 'ala al-dunya wa'l din. Reverse: muhammad shah (in center double circles). sri sultan alavadin (in Nagari around). Mintage: N/A.

Goron D233 / R895, 990 / NW342-359 / T419
oneill6217
adada.jpg
INDIA, Vijayasena I CE 239-250 AR Drachm11 viewsIndia; Western Satraps or Kshatrapas CE 35-405 Bhadramukhas or Kardamaka dynasty
Family of Chastana:

Vijayasena I CE 239-250 AR Drachm, 16mm 2.25 g. Bust of Vijayasena, with corrupted Greek legend (Indo-Greek style), date in Brahmi numerals behind / Three-arched hill or Chaitya, with river, crescent and sun, within legend in Brahmi Rajno Mahaksatrapasa Damasenasaputrasa Rajno Mahaksatrapasa Vijayasanasa.
oneill6217
kumar.jpg
INDIA, Western Satraps. Gupta Dynasty. KumarGupta I or Mahendraditya 414 - 455 A.D. AR Drachma 12-13 mm17 viewsIndia. Western Satraps. Gupta Dynasty. KumarGupta I or Mahendraditya 414 - 455 A.D. AR Drachma 12-13 mm. King's head right, degraded Greek legend: "OH-OH" behind / Garuda standing facing with wings spread.

BMC PL. XVII 1 - 31 Many variations
oneill6217
nagar23.jpg
India. Independent Kingdoms. Deccan Sultanates. Nizam Shah Dynasty Copper 3/4 Unit.14 viewsIndia. Independent Kingdoms. Deccan Sultanates. Nizam Shah Dynasty, Amadnagar king Burhan III A.H. 1019 - 1041 / A.D. 1610 - 1631 Copper 3/4 Unit. Sultan's Name / Mint Name. Dualatabad mint.

KM 15
oneill6217
nagalfkfkf.jpg
India. Independent Kingdoms. Deccan Sultanates. Ahmadnagar, Nizam Shah Dynasty. Anonymous Copper Unit.18 viewsIndia. Independent Kingdoms. Deccan Sultanates. Ahmadnagar, Nizam Shah Dynasty. Anonymous Copper Unit 1598 - 1631 A.D. Unlisted type.

17 mm , 10 grams
oneill6217
mahabdhj.jpg
India. Independent Kingdoms. Deccan Sultanates. Ahmadnagar, Nizam Shah Dynasty. Copper 3/4 unit 1019 - 1041 A.H.11 viewsIndia. Independent Kingdoms. Deccan Sultanates. Ahmadnagar, Nizam Shah Dynasty. Burham III as Mughal vassal, A.H. 1019 - 1041 / A.D. 1610 - 1631. Type 15 Copper 3/4 unit, Daulatabad mint.
16 mm , 9.5 grams
KM 15.2
oneill6217
nagaroiai.jpg
India. Independent Kingdoms. Deccan Sultanates. Nizam Shah Dynasty.13 viewsIndia. Independent Kingdoms. Deccan Sultanates. Nizam Shah Dynasty. Murtaza II as Mughal vassal. A.H. 1007 - 1016 / A.D. 1598 - 1607. Type 11 3/4 Unit, Ahmadnagar mint.
15 mm , 9.4 grams
KM 11.2
oneill6217
India_Punchmark_Silver.JPG
India: Mauryan Dynasty Punchmark Silver, c.320-270 BC22 viewsKings: Chandragupta Maurya (322-298 BC) and Bindusara (298-273 BC)

Obverse: Symbols of a sun, a six armed figure, a bull with a royal standard above its back, a three arched hill with a crescent on top and a square fish tank with four fish in it.

Reverse: Banker's marks

3.4 grams, 14.4 x 13.0 mm

G&H No.533 , Series VIa, type VI II D 22

Reference: Ancient Indian Silver Punchmarked Coins of the Maghada-Maurya Karshapana Series by Gupta and Hardaker (1985).

Special thanks to Forvm Members Manzikert and PeterD for their generous help with identifying this piece.
SPQR Matt
gondopores_i_res.jpg
INDO-PARTHIAN, GONDOPHARID DYNASTY, GONDOPHARES27 viewsGondophares
ca. 40 BC - 5 BC; or possibly 5 BC - 20 AD
AR Tetradrachm 22.5 mm, 8.5 g
O: King mounted with arm raised, right; 'Gondopharan' symbol with pellet in right field.
R: Zeus right; Monogram to left, and Kharosthi control letters Vhre and Bu to right. Small Nandipada symbol below sceptre.
Senior ISCH 220.11T
Gandhara
laney
IMGP0239_Pakbrtdrcombo(1).jpg
Indo-Parthians, Orthagnes, Gondopharid Dynasty, 1st half of 1st cent. AD13 viewsAE tdr, 8,56gr, 22mm;
Senior 257, 21-22; Mitch. ACW 2556;
mint: Arachiosa, axis: 9h;
obv.: bare-headed bust, left, w/diadem, triangular bow, and ribbons; medium-long hair in bun at the side, mustache, short beard; chain-link type necklace; cuirass/tunic, torso facing; circular lettering around rim;
rev.: winged Nike, standing right, w/diadem in extended hand; 2 control marks in lower right and left field; circular Karoshti legend around rim;

ex: CNG e-Auction 241, #180.
Schatz
IMGP0382Paktdrcombo.jpg
Indo-Parthians: Pakoros, mid to late 1st cent. AD, Gondopharid Dynasty29 viewsAE unit, 10,26gr, 26mm;
Senior 269 1aT
mint: unknown in Arachiosa, axis: 13h;
obv.: bust, left, w/diadem and 2 ribbons linked at end; large tuft of top hair, large bunch of curls in back of neck, mustache, med.-long beard; 2-stand necklace w/center medallion; padded (?) shoulder armor; around rim Greek legend: BAΣIΛE ... rest barely legible;
rev: winged Nike, standing right, holding out diadem; ‘gi’ in Karoshti to left, ‘pu’ to right; around rim Karoshti legend;
black surfaces on both sides;

ex: CNG e-Auction 409, # 358; ex: Dr. Wilfried Pieper Collection.
1 commentsSchatz
Indo-Scythian_Western_Kshatrapas,_Kshaharata_Dynasty,_Nahapana,_(c__1st__century_AD_),_Mitchiner_2682,_AR_Drachm,_Q-001,_7h,_15-16mm,_2,08g-s.jpg
Indo-Scythian Western Kshatrapas, Kshaharata Dynasty, Nahapana, (c.1st. century A.D.), Mitchiner 2682, AR-Drachm, Arrow and thunderbolt, #153 viewsIndo-Scythian Western Kshatrapas, Kshaharata Dynasty, Nahapana, (c.1st. century A.D.), Mitchiner 2682, AR-Drachm, Arrow and thunderbolt, #1
avers: Head of king right blundered Greek legend around.
reverse: Arrow and thunderbolt, Brahmi and Kharoshthi legends around: Brahmi: 11:30 clockwise: Rajno Kshaharatasa Na(hapanasa), Kharoshthi, at 11, anti-clockwise: Rajno Chaharatasa Nahapanasa.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 15,0-16,0mm, weight: 2,08g, axes: 7h,
mint: Nahapana, date: c.1st. century A.D.,
ref: Mitchiner 2682,
Q-001
quadrans
s-l1600_(23).jpg
INDORE STATE-SHIVAJIRAO HOLKAR-ONE RUPEE-BIG SUNFACE18 viewsMaharajadhiraja Raj Rajeshwar Sawai Shri Sir Shivaji Rao Holkar Bahadur XII[1] (Indore, 11 November 1859 – Maheshwar, 13 October 1908) was the Maharaja of Indore (Hokar State) belonging to the Holkar dynasty of the Marathas. Antonivs Protti
Album-2744_1.jpg
Iran, Afsharid Dynasty: Nadir Shah (1736–1747) AR Rupi, AH1158 (Album-2744.1; KM#385.11)4 viewsSpongeBob
Hamadan_-_Mausoleum_of_Esther_and_Mordechai.jpg
Iran, Hamadan, the tomb of the biblical Esther and her cousin Mordechai63 viewsThe tomb in the photo, located in Hamadan, is believed by some to hold the remains of the biblical Esther and her cousin Mordechai.

Hamedan, Iran, is believed to be among the oldest cities in the world. Hamadan was established by the Medes and was the capital of the Median empire. It then became one of several capital cities of the Achaemenid Dynasty. Hamadan is mentioned in the biblical book of Ezra as the place where a scroll was found giving the Jews permission from King Darius to rebuild the temple in Jerusalem. (Ezra 6:2). Its ancient name of Ecbatana is used in the Ezra text. Because it was a mile above sea level, it was a good place to preserve leather documents.
Joe Sermarini
Album-C2593.jpg
Iran, Safavid Dynasty: Tahmasp I (1524-1576) AV ¼ Heavy Ashrafi, Herat Mint (Album-C2593)8 viewsSpongeBob
Album-2816.jpg
Iran, Zand Dynasty: 'Ali Murad Khan (1781-1785) AR Type A Rupi, Shiraz Mint (Album-2816; KM#560.4)11 viewsObv: Persian legend around beaded border, شد آفتاب و ماه زر و سیم در جهان از سکه امام بحق صاحب زمان; (Silver and Gold through all the world have now become the moon and sun, Thanks to the true Imam's imprint the Age's Lord (the rightful one))
Rev: Mint and date inside cartouche with ruler's evocation in Persian, یا علی ضرب دارالعلم شیراز ۱۱۹۸; (Ya Ali, Struck at Shiraz, AH1198)
SpongeBob
MBT.jpg
ISLAMIC, Delhi Sultanate, Muhammed Bin Tughlaq, AV Dinar43 viewsDelhi Sultanate, Muhammad Bin Tughlaq, 1325-51 AD, Gold Heavy Dinar, 24mm, 12.8g, AH 726 / 1326 AD, Hazrat Delhi mint

References: Rajgor; T1206, Goron and Goenka; D343

Legend Description & Translation
Obverse: 'al-wathiq bi-ta'yid al-rahman muhammad shah al-sultan' (invocation in the name of the Abbassid Caliph Al-Wathiq (Ibn Mutasim) together with the name of Mohd Shah (Tughlaq) and his title (Sultan).

Reverse: Within inner circle: 'ashhad an la illah illa allah wa ashhad an muhammad 'abdahu wa rasuluhu' (invocation of the Islamic faith - Kalima/Shahada - stating 'there is no God other than Allah and Muhammad is His Messenger').

Reverse: around outer margin: 'darb hazah al-dinar ba-hadrat Dehli sanh sitta wa ashrin wa sab'amayah' (this coin of the denomination dinar was struck in Venerable Delhi in the Year 726).

Mohammad bin Tughlaq was formally crowned in AH 725 (1325 AD), when his father (Ghiyas-ud-din Tughlaq, founder of the Tughlaq dynasty) met an accidental death in which Muhammad was implicated. Muhammad Bin Tughlaq is best remembered as a ruler who undertook a number of bold experiments, including coinage, and many administrative reforms that mostly failed due to his impatience and lack of judgement earning him the moniker of a 'wise fool' and an entry in the Urdu language dictionary where the word 'Tughlaqi' is immortalized as meaning 'eccentricity'. The famous Arab traveller from Morocco, Ibn Batuta, spent the maximum years of his travel in the court of Muhammad Bin Tughlaq as a 'Qazi' (Islamic Judge) from 1334-1343 AD ie 10 years, and documented his experience in his book 'Rahla' (The Journey).

Soon after his accession in 1325 AD, Muhammad experimented first with the weightage of the coins. The large influx of gold from his plunder of the South Indian campaign led him to increase the weight of the gold dinar from the standard of 172 grains (11g) to 202 grains (13g), however, due to the ensuing confusion between the weight differential of the standard vs heavy weight series, lack of popularity and acceptance among his subjects, the heavy weight series was soon withdrawn after 3 years.

The weight of these heavy series coins range from 12.7 to 13.0 grams and only 2 mints are known - Dehli and Shahr Sultanpur in Telangana (Deccan). The known dates for these coins is AH 725, 726 & 727 corresponding to the first 3 years of his reign ie 1325-27 AD. The featured coin is dated AH 726.

This coin type is indicated as the most rare of all Mohd Bin Tughlaq coins by Goron. Certainly, the calligraphy style is beautiful and the strike is full, bold and sharp with complete die impressions on both Obv & Rev. A lovely specimen of a remarkable but troubled ruler!
mitresh
Fatimids,_al-Mustansir_Billah,_Gold_Dinar,_21mm,_4_12_g,_Misr_(Cairo)_mint,_dated_AH_472_(AD_1079,1080).jpg
ISLAMIC, Fatimids, Caliph al-Mustansir Billah, AV Dinar, Misr (Cairo) mint65 viewsFatimids, Caliph al-Mustansir Billah, Gold Dinar, 21mm, 4.12 g, Misr (Cairo) mint, dated AH 472 (AD 1079 / 1080)

The featured specimen is a lovely example and the most distinctive of the "bulls-eye" type coinage introduced by the Fatimid's. It is visually very striking and immediately grabs attention with its unusual legend arrangement and calligraphy. This coin is of the type first used by al-Mustansir Billah's great-great grandfather, al-Mu‘izz.

Legends

Obverse

Inner circle
la ilah illa allah muhammad rasul allah
“no god but God, Muhammad is the messenger of God”

Middle circle
wa ‘ali afdal al-wasiyyin wa wazir khayr al-mursilin
“and ‘Ali is the most excellent of the caretakers and the vizier of the best of the messengers”

Outer circle
muhammad rasul allah arsalahu bi’l-huda wa din al-haqq li-yuzhirahu ‘ala al-din kullihi wa law kariha al-mushrikun
“Muhammad is the messenger of God who sent him with guidance and the religion of truth that he might make it supreme over all other religions, even though the polytheists detest it” Sura 9 (al-Tawba) v. 33

Reverse

Inner circle
al-mustansir billah amir al-mu’minin
“al-Mustansir billah, Commander of the Faithful”

Middle circle
da’a al-imam ma’add li-tawhid illa lahu al-samad
“the Imam Ma‘add summons all to confess the unity of God the eternal”.

Outer circle
bism allah duriba hadha’l-dinar bi-misr sana ith'nain‘ wa sab'ain wa arba‘mi’a
“in the name of God, this dinar was struck in Misr the year two and seventy and four hundred”


Al-Mustansir’s sixty-year reign was one of the longest in the history of Islam. He was only seven years old at the time of his accession, but was led by his wazir Abu’l-Qasim al-Jarjara‘i until he was old enough to rule on his own.

During his reign new dynasties emerged, while others either disappeared from the scene or shifted their alliances. The Zirids in the Maghrib, for so long allies of the Fatimids, transferred their allegiance to the Abbasid caliph in Baghdad.

In 447 H (1055 AD) the Saljuq dynasty of Iran and Iraq took the place of the Buyids, who, in 334 (946), had brought an end to the Abbasids’ temporal power. For a short time the Fatimids took advantage of this situation.

Ever since their arrival in Egypt in 358 (969) they had coveted the city of Baghdad, and in 450 (1058) a Saljuq military officer by the name of al-Basasiri took up the Fatimid cause.

Using money and supplies provided by al-Mustansir, he marched into Baghdad while the Saljuq leader Tughril Beg was away, and had the khutba (the imam’s speech before Friday prayer) read and coins struck in al-Mustansir’s name.

This proved to be a brief adventure, for the next year al-Mustansir withdrew his financial support, and an angry Tughril Beg drove al-Basasiri out of Baghdad. When his successor Alp Arslan occupied Aleppo in 473 (1080) he caused the Fatimid caliph’s name to be omitted from the khutba in the holy cities of Mecca and Medina.

While there were internal disturbances and frequent wars throughout al-Mustansir’s long reign, Fatimid Egypt was well administered and prosperous, thanks to rich revenues and gold from Africa. Industry and agriculture thrived, and it was a time of intellectual, literary and artistic brilliance. It was then that the first university was established in the Muslim world, al-Ahzar, which is still active today.
mitresh
Hafsid,_Abu_Zakariya_Yahya_I,_1230-49_AD,_AV_Dinar,_4_76g,_Tilimsan_(Tlemçen),_Album-499_2,_H-548.jpg
ISLAMIC, Islamic Dynasties, Hafsids, Abu Zakariya Yahya I, AV Dinar54 viewsIslamic Dynasties, Hafsids, Abu Zakariya Yahya I, AV Dinar, 4.76g, Tilimsan mint, minted 1242-49 AD

Obverse

Central square
al-wahid allah / muhammad rasul allah / al-mahdi khalifat allah / tilimsan
“the one God, Muhammad is the messenger of God, al-Mahdi is the Viceroy of God, Tilimsan (in tiny letters)”

Marginal segments
12:00 o’clock: bism allah al-rahman al-rahim, 9:00 o'clock: salla allah ’ala sayyidna muhammad, 6:00 o'clcok: wa ilahukum ilah wahid, 3:00 o'clock: la ilah illa huwwa al-rahman ’ala sayyidna muhammad,
“in the name of God, the Merciful, the Compassionate, God’s blessing be upon Muhammad, and your god is a single god, no god but He, the Merciful, the Compassionate”

Reverse

In central square
al-shukr lillah / wa’l-minna lilla / wa’l-hawl wa al-hul wa’ al-quwwa billah
“thanks be to God and Grace be to God and power and strength be to God”

Marginal segments
12:00 o’clock: al-amir al-ajall, 9:00 o'clock: abu zakariyya yahya, 6:00 o'clock: ibn abu muhammad, 3:00 o'clock: ibn abu hafs
“the Great Prince, Abu Zakariyya Yahya, bin Abu Muhammad, bin Abu Hafs”


The Hafsids were descended from Shaykh Abu Hafs ‘Umar, who was a companion and helper of Ibn Tumart, known as al-Mahdi, in the early years of Almohad growth. Abu Zakariya Yahya I was the first ruler of the dynasty, which ruled in Algeria, Tunisia and Tripoli for over three and a half centuries from 627 to 982 H/1230-1574 AD. He began his claim to independence by omitting the Almohad ruler’s name from the khutba (the imam’s speech before Friday prayer) on the grounds that he was undermining the purity of his dynasty’s traditions, and took the title Amir. At this time the Maghrib was divided into three, with the town of Tilimsan (Tlemcen) held by the Ziyanids, Fas (Fez) by the Marinids and Tunis, the Hafsid capital, by Abu Zakariya Yahya. However, Yahya went on to conquer all of Ifriqiya, annex Algiers and capture Tilimsan, which he immediately returned to the Ziyanids on condition that they gave him their allegiance.

By the time of his death in 647 (1249) Yahya’s overlordship was acknowledged by the entire Maghrib, including northern Morocco as well as part of Spain. Yahya’s reign was a time of peace and prosperity, with treaties made with European states and Spanish Muslim craftsmen and scholars settling in the Maghrib.

There were three stages in the development of the coinage of Yahya I, the first from 627-634, when he was still serving as an Almohad governor, the second from 634 to 640 when he placed the name of the Almohad ruler as well as his own on the coinage, and the third, this coin, from 640 to 647 when only his name appeared, with the title al-amir al-ajall (the Great Prince), although he continued to recognise the spiritual ties to the Almohad doctrine of al-Mahdi.

The superb quality of both the calligraphy and magnificent striking of this coin suggests that Yahya considered it to be of particular importance in promoting public recognition of his power and prestige.
mitresh
Shaybaniden_compl.jpg
ISLAMIC, Shaybanid, Abdal Latif bin Kochkunju, AE Falus, Kunduz mint11 viewsAbdal Latif (AH 947-959) 1539-1540 AD. AE Falus struck (AH 959) 1540 AD, Kunduz (Qunduz), Uzbekistan.

The Shaybanids were a Persianized dynasty of Turco-Mongol origin in Central Asia. They were the patrilineal descendants of Shiban, the fifth son of Jochi and grandson of Genghis Khan. Until the mid-14th century, they acknowledged the authority of the descendants of Batu Khan and Orda Khan. The Shaybanid horde was converted to Islam in 1282 AD and gradually assumed the name of Uzbeks. At its height, the khanate included parts of modern-day Iran, Afghanistan and parts of central Asia.
Franz-Josef M
MISC_Italy_Genoa_Republic_denaro.JPG
Italian States. Genoa. Republic.38 viewsBiaggi 835, MIR II Varesi 16, CNI III p3, 1 et seq.;

AR denaro; 81 g., 16.43 mm. max., 180°

The type struck from 1139-1339 in the name of Conrad III (1138-1152). The silver content ranged from a fineness of up to 0.366 gr. in 1441 to up to 0.176 gr. in 1335. This coins is a Baldassarri Group IIIa (=Metcalf IIIc) and was struck ca. 1210-1240.

Obv: + • I A • N V • A •, central castle.

Rev: CVNRADI REX, central cross pattée.

"The symbol in the obverse field of Genoa’s denaro is referred to variously as a castle or gateway, but it was almost certainly a gate rather than a castle . . . In Latin, the term ‘Ianua’ simply means ‘gate’ or ‘gateway,’ and the image was no doubt intended as a symbolic representation of the city’s name." Day, William R. Jr. "The Petty Coinage Of Genoa Under The Early Doges, 1339-1396," XIII Congreso internacional de numismática (Madrid, 15-19 septiembre 2003): Actas – Proceedings – Actes, eds C. Alfaro, C. Marcos & P. Otero, 2 vols (Madrid: Ministerio de cultura, 2005), 1295-1304, at 1296 n.3.

Conrad III, founder of the Hohenstaufen dynasty, was never crowned Holy Roman Emperor, and styled himself “King of the Romans.” In 1139 he granted Genoa the right to mint coins.
Stkp
Italy- Rome- The Arch of Constantine The Great and view of the arches.jpg
Italy- Rome- The Arch of Constantine The Great and view of the arches26 viewsArch of Constantine
Rome, Italy
AD 306-337

Constantine's Arch

Immediately after the Battle of the Milvian Bridge, Constantine erected a great triple-passageway arch in the shadow of the Coliseum to commemorate his victory over Maxentius. The arch was the largest to be erected in the capital since the end of the Severan dynasty nearly a century before, but the achievement is less impressive when it is revealed that much of the sculptural program of the arch was taken from earlier monuments of Trajan, Hadrian, and Marcus Aurelius, and that the columns and other architectural
members also date to an earlier era. The second-century reliefs were, however, refashioned to honor Constantine by recutting the heads of the earlier emperors with the features of the new ruler and by adding labels to the old reliefs.

The reuse of second-century sculptures by the Constantinian artists has frequently been cited as evidence of a decline in creativity and technical skill in the waning years of the pagan Roman Empire. While such a judgment is in large part deserved, it ignores the fact that the reused sculptures were carefully selected in order to associate Constantine with the "good emperors" of the second century.

Details of the arch:

The eight sculptures above the side arches depicting hunting scenes and sacrifices date from the time of Hadrian (117-138) and the portrait of Hadrian have been replaced by those of Constantine and Licinius.


The figures of prisoners on the architraves above the columns date from the time of Trajan (98-117)


as do the two reliefs on the narrow sides of the attic story and those inside the main arch;


the eight reliefs on the long sides of the attic storey showing scenes of war and triumphs date from the time of Marcus Aurelius (161-180).
However, the long and narrow friezes that run right round the arch are of Constantine's time and differ from the others in artistic concept. They portray various episodes in the Emperor's campaign against Maxentius; they no longer obey realistic rules of perspective, but the figures are frontally placed and their dimensions are dictated by their position in the hierarchy; the Emperor stands out from the rest because of his much larger size.
John Schou
建炎重宝.jpg
Jian Yan Zhong Bao72 viewsSouth Song Dynasty, Emperor Zhao Gou, 1127-1162 AD
Minted for a very short term. Scarce.
2 commentssamwyi
DSC01680.JPG
John Hyrcanus I (Yehohanan) 134 - 104 B.C.51 viewsHasmonean Dynasty, 14mm Bronze Prutah, Jerusalem mint
Obverse: Hebrew inscription, Yehonanan the High Priest and Head of the Council of the Jews, surrounded by wreath
Reverse: Double cornucopia adorned with ribbons, pomegranate between horns
3 commentsDk0311USMC
agrippa_II_domitian_judaea_capta_nike_bow_res.jpg
Judaea Capta--AGRIPPA II (under Domitian)23 viewsDOMITIAN (AGRIPPA II)
Herodian Dynasty--Agrippa II
55 - 95 AD
Struck under Domitian
AE 19.5 mm 4.77 g
O: Laureate bust of Domitian right
R: Nike standing right, holding shield on knee
"Judaea Capta" issue
Judaea, Caesarea mint
laney
Herod_I_the_great.jpg
JUDAEAN, Herodian Dynasty, Herod I the Great 40/4 BC13 viewsJudea, Herodian Dynasty, Herod I the Great 40/4 BC, AE double prutah
Obv: X surrounded by an open diadem; HPΩΔOY BAΣIΛEΩC
Rev: Tripod table flanked by palm branches
Ref: Hendin 490a; Meshorer 49;
2.28g; 18mm; VF
Jorge C
bpGB1S2Judaea2.jpg
JUDAEAN, Judean Kingdom, Alexander Jannaeus, 103 - 76 B.C.55 viewsAe Prutah, .9 gm, 12 mm, 103-76 BC, Hendin 467, Sear (GC) 6086
Obv: YEHONATAN THE KING (in Hebrew script)
Lily with inscription around.
Rev: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΑΡΟΥ
Inscription (OF KING ALEXANDER) around circle containing inverted anchor.
Comment: First of the Hasmonaean dynasty to openly declare himself King.
Massanutten
ARI-Julia_Maesa-3.jpg
Julia Maesa AD 218-224/517 viewsAR DENARIUS, RIC 254, Sear #7750

Grade: AU: Strike 4/5: Surface 5/5

Obv.: IVLIA MAESA AVG, draped bust right, in stephane.

Rev.: IVNO, Juno standing left, holding patera and sceptre.

Julia, like her younger sister Julia Domna, was among the most important women to exercise power behind the throne in the Roman empire. Following the death of Caracalla, Julia Maesa rescued the Severan dynasty from the usurper Macrinus.
Richard M10
194.jpg
Julia Mamaea Denarius - Felicitas (RIC 335)36 viewsAR Denarius
Rome, 222-235 AD
3.43g

Obv: Diademed and draped bust of Julia Mamaea (R)
IVLIA MAMAEA AVG

Rev: Felicitas standing front, head to left, legs crossed, holding caduceus in her right hand and leaning on column with her left elbow.
FELICITAS PVBLICA

RIC 335, BMC 483, Cohen 17

Leu Numismatik Web Auction 6, Lot 1062
ex. Maggiore Collection, formed in the late 1970s to early 2000s.

Julia Avita Mamaea (180–235) was the second daughter of Julia Maesa, a powerful Roman woman of Syrian origin, and Syrian noble Gaius Julius Avitus Alexianus. She was a niece of empress Julia Domna and sister of Julia Soaemias Bassiana (mother of Elegabalus). She was born and raised in Emesa (modern Homs, Syria). She was the mother of Roman Emperor Alexander Severus and served as regent of Rome and de facto ruler during her son's reign.

In 232, mother and son were sent north to deal with a German attack. Alexander so alienated the Rhine legions by his lack of military prowess and his inflexibility towards pay that the troops proclaimed Maximinus Thrax as emperor in 235. Troops sent to kill Alexander found him clinging to his mother in a tent. Mother and son were butchered together, ending the Severan dynasty.
3 commentsOptimo Principi
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K'ANG-HSI 22 viewsEmperor SHENG TSU
AD 1662-1722
reign title: K'ANG-HSI
The Ching Dynasty
Reverse "NING" (Ningpo in Chekiang)
S-1433
Samson L2
khiilji_k.jpg
Khilji Dynasty, Ala’ al-Din Muhammad Khilji6 viewsAR tanka, 27mm, 11.0g, 12h; Delhi, AD 1296-1316
Obv.: Legend in Persian: Al-sultan al-a'zam / 'ala al-dunya wa'l din / abu'l muzaffar muhammad shah / al-sultan. (The Sultan, the magnificent / excellence of the world and of faith / supreme conqueror, Muhammad Shah / the Sultan)
Rev.: Margin (starting at 12 o'clock, from right to left): "Zarb Hazihi Al-Fizzat [Bi-Hazrat Dehli Fi Sanat date] (This silver coin was struck at honorable Delhi in Year xxx); Legend in Persian: Sikandar al-thani / yamin al-khilafa / nasir / amir al-mu'minin (Second Alexander / defender / right hand of the caliphate / commander of the faithful)
Reference: DR# 994, GG# D226, 16-352-39
John Anthony
khusro.jpg
Khushrou II, 590-628 B.C. Sasanian Dynasty of Iran; AR Drachm9 viewsSilver Drachm of Khushrou II, 590-628 B.C. Sasanian Dynasty of Iran. Obverse: Facing bust, head right, wearing winged crown with star and crescent, inside double dotted-border, crescents with stars; 
Pahlavi legend. 
Reverse: Fire altar with two attendants, both hands on sword hilts, crescents on heads, inside triple dotted-border, crescents with stars. 
Pahlavi legend. I am not sure about the date (information welcome).Podiceps
elam.jpg
Kingdom of Elymais, Orodes II Arsacid Dynasty, AE 15 Drachm, Circa 100 AD.15 viewsAncient Greek, Kingdom of Elymais, Orodes II Arsacid Dynasty, AE 15 Drachm, Circa (100 AD)

Obverse: Facing diademmed head of Orodes II, long beard, anchor to right, star within crescent above.

Reverse: Field with dashes and dots.

Reference: Van't Haaff 13.3 subtype 2-2A

Ex: Sphinx Numismatics
Gil-galad
ELYMAIS_12_3_1-2A2_kamnaskires-orodes.jpg
Kingdom of Elymais. Arsacid dynasty. Kamnaskires-Orodes (early mid 2nd Century A.D.)13 viewsvan't Haaff 12.3.1-2A2; De Morgan 50; BMC plate XLI, 4-9; Sear GICV 5910 (Kamnaskires-Orodes III); Alram --

AE drachm, 3.44 g., 14.23 mm. max.

Obv: Bust facing forward with small hair tuft on top, and large curly hair tufts on each side in upward-oriented rows; to right pellet within crescent above anchor with one crossbar at top; pellet border.

Rev: Dashes; no border.
Stkp
ELYMAIS_12_3_1-1A_Kamnaskires-Orodes.jpg
Kingdom of Elymais. Arsacid dynasty. Kamnaskires-Orodes (early mid 2nd Century A.D.)21 viewsvan't Haaff 12.3.1-1A; De Morgan 50; BMC plate XLI, 4-9; Sear GICV 5910; Alram --

AE drachm, 3.41 g., 15.96 mm. max.

Obv: Bust facing forward without small hair tuft on top, and large curly hair tufts on each side in horizontally-oriented rows; to right pellet within crescent above anchor with two crossbars at top; pellet border.

Rev: Dashes; no border.
Stkp
ELYMAIS_12_2_1-1A_Kamnaskires-Orodes.jpg
Kingdom of Elymais. Arsacid dynasty. Kamnaskires-Orodes (early mid 2nd Century A.D.)17 viewsvan't Haaff 12.2.1-1A; De Morgan 48; BMC plate XLI, 1; Sear GICV 5907; Alram 482-484

AE drachm, 3.82 g., 15.95 mm. max., 0°

Obv: Diademed bust facing forward without small hair tuft on top, and large curly hair tufts on each side in horizontally-oriented rows; to right pellet within crescent above anchor with three crossbars at top; pellet border.

Rev: Radiate bust of Belos facing forward, with large hair tufts, on each side two horns and tied hair tuft; Aramaic legend (knmkyr wrwd MLK = King Kamnaskires-Orodes) starting at three o'clock, reading counter clockwise.
Stkp
GRK_Elymais_SRICV_5910_Kamnaskires-Orodes.JPG
Kingdom of Elymais. Arsacid dynasty. Kamnaskires-Orodes (early-mid 2nd century A.D.)23 viewsvan't Haaff 12.3.1-2A1; De Morgan 50; BMC plate XLI, 4-9; Sear GICV 5910 (Kamnaskires-Orodes III); Alram --

AE drachm, 4.04 g., 15.38 mm. max.

Obv: Bust facing forward with small hair tuft on top, and large curly hair tufts on each side in upward-oriented rows; to right pellet within crescent above anchor with two crossbars at top; pellet border.

Rev: Dashes; no border.
Stkp
GRK_Elymais_SRICV_5910_Kamnaskires-Orodes_1-bar.jpg
Kingdom of Elymais. Arsacid dynasty. Kamnaskires-Orodes (early-mid 2nd century A.D.)19 viewsvan't Haaff 12.3.1-1B; De Morgan 50; BMC plate XLI, 4-9; Sear GICV 5910 (Kamnaskires-Orodes III); Alram --

AE drachm, 3.54 g., 15.38 mm. max.

Obv: Bust facing forward without small hair tuft on top, and large curly hair tufts on each side in horizontally-oriented rows; to right pellet within crescent above anchor with one crossbar at top; pellet border.

Rev: Dashes; no border.
Stkp
ELYMAIS_12_3_1-2A1c-e_Kamnaskares-Orodes.jpg
Kingdom of Elymais. Arsacid dynasty. Kamnaskires-Orodes (early-mid 2nd century A.D.) 20 viewsvan't Haaff 12.3.1-2A1 var. c-e; De Morgan 50; BMC plate XLI, 4-9; Sear GICV 5910 (Kamnaskires-Orodes III); Alram --

AE drachm, 3.78 g., 15.74 mm. max.

Obv: Bust facing forward with small hair tuft on top, and large curly hair tufts on each side in upward-oriented rows; to right pellet within crescent above anchor with two crossbars at top; pellet between bust and anchor; pellet border.

Rev: Dashes; no border.
Stkp
ELYMAIS_12_3_1-2B1g_Kamnaskires-Orodes.jpg
Kingdom of Elymais. Arsacid dynasty. Kamnaskires-Orodes (early-mid 2nd century A.D.) 16 viewsvan't Haaff 12.3.1-2B1 var. g; De Morgan 50; BMC plate XLI, 4-9; Sear GICV 5910 (Kamnaskires-Orodes III); Alram --

AE drachm, 3.61 g., 15.73 mm. max.

Obv: Bust facing forward with small hair tuft on top, and large curly hair tufts on each side in horizontal-oriented rows; to right pellet within crescent above anchor with two crossbars at top; small symbol between bust and anchor; pellet border.

Rev: Dashes; no border.
Stkp
EJYMAIS_12_3_1-2B1_Kamnaskires-Orodes.jpg
Kingdom of Elymais. Arsacid dynasty. Kamnaskires-Orodes (early-mid 2nd century A.D.)15 viewsvan't Haaff 12.3.1-2B1; De Morgan 50; BMC plate XLI, 4-9; Sear GICV 5910 (Kamnaskires-Orodes III); Alram --

AE drachm, 3.29 g., 15.24 mm. max.

Obv: Bust facing forward with small hair tuft on top, and large curly hair tufts on each side in horizontal-oriented rows; to right pellet within crescent above anchor with two crossbars at top; pellet border.

Rev: Dashes; no border.
Stkp
TriteLion.jpg
Kingdom of Lydia Alyattes II EL Trite80 viewsKingdom of Lydia. Alyattes II EL Trite. 610-560 BC. Sardes mint, 4.67g, 13mm.
O: Confronted lion’s heads (only the right is visible); walwet (partially off flan) between.
R: Double incuse square punch. Weidauer 93.

The Kingdom of Lydia under the Mermnad dynasty may well have been the originator of coinage in the Mediterranean world. It possessed rich deposits of electrum, an alloy of gold and silver, which was the only metal used for coin production in its earliest stages. While most of these coins are anepigraphic, a small number of types bear either the the inscription walwet or kukalim in Lydian, the former thought to be the name of the Mermnad king known from Greek sources as Alyattes.

On trites such as this coin, the oversized die features two confronted lion's heads, with the inscription between them, although only the right or left lion is ever fully visible. It would seem the dies were initially produced for the striking of staters, although none survive.
Nemonater
Korean.jpg
Korea - Sukjong. 2 Mun. 1679-1695.83 viewsKOREA, Joseon Dynasty. Sukjong. AD 1675-1720.
Æ Two Mun. (31mm; 6.48 g)
Chinhyulch'ŏng (Charity Office of Seoul) mint. Cast AD 1679-1695.
Sang P'yŏng T'ong Bo.
Mandel 17.11.0
Ardatirion
Korea,_Yi_Gong,_1_mon,_Military_Training_Command,_1832_AD.jpg
Korea - Sunjo. 1 Mun. AD 1832.87 viewsKOREA, Joseon Dynasty. Sunjo. AD 1800-1834.
Æ Mun (24mm; 4.60 g)
Hullyŏndogam (Military Training Command) mint. Cast AD 1832.
Sang P'yŏng T'ong Bo
Mandel 28.19.1
1 commentsArdatirion
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KUTCH STATE-SHREE PRAGMALJI-ONE KORI- SILVER COIN14 viewsRao Pragmalji I was the Rao of Cutch belonging to Jadeja Rajput dynasty, who ruled Princely State of Cutch as from 1698 to 1715. He established current lineage of rulers of the state in 1698. _750Antonivs Protti
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L SEPT SEV PERT AVG IMP [VIIII?] / P M TR P V COS II P P / Septimius Severus Fortuna denarius (197 AD) 17 viewsL SEPT SEV PERT AVG IMP [VIIII?], laureate head right / P M TR P V COS II P P, Fortuna standing left, holding rudder on globe in right hand, cornucopiae in left.

AR (post 196 mint, so probably 54% purity), 17 mm, 3.48g, die axis 12h.

Both small flan and image style (bust, wreath, shape of the rudder etc.) point towards the mint of Rome rather than the Eastern one. A bit heavier than expected (the standard supposed to be 3.41g), but WildWinds reports a 3.63g denarius of this type. Unfortunately it is impossible to read the number after IMP (it can be either VIIII or X for TR P V), but based on the spacing and, perhaps, a hint of V I think it is VIIII. So this must be RIC IV 104, BMCRE 229, RSC 442 type. Two other, less probable ID possibilities: RIC 115A (Rome, IMP X) and RIC 493 (Eastern mint, Laodicea ad Mare(?) IMP VIIII).

Lucius SEPTimius SEVeverus PERTinax AVGustus IMPerator (in this case not just an imperial title, but a military one, "invested with the Nth imperial acclaim", a victorious general, the number refers to important victories when the title was renewed); Pontifex Maximus (the high priest, starting with Augustus the emperor was always the head of state religion) TRibunitia Potestas (Tribunal power, the function of the tribune of the people, originally an important republican official, was "hijacked" by Augustus when he was building the imperial structure of power and subsequently became another emperor's title, renewed every year and thus very useful for dating coins) V (5th year means 193+4=197, give or take the actual date of renewing the title), COnSul (under the Empire, the office of Consul remained of some importance and was held by the Emperor with some frequency) II (during or after the consulship of 194 and before next one in 202), Pater Patriae (Father of his Country, the title was held by most Augusti but was usually not assumed at the very beginning of the reign). Denarius was the staple of Roman monetary system from 211 BC to mid 3d century AD.

SEPTIMIUS SEVERUS, *11 Apr 145 in Leptis Magna (Khoms, Libya) † 4 Feb 211 (aged 65) Eboracum (York, England) ‡ 14 April 193 – 4 February 211

Septimius Severus was born in the Roman province of Africa. He came from a wealthy and distinguished family of equestrian rank, had Roman ancestry on his mother's side (gens Fulvia was one of the most famous plebeian clans in Rome) and descended from Punic, and perhaps also Libyan, forebears on his father's side. Several members of his family held important imperial offices (although, strangely, not his father who seemed to have no career to speak about). He was trilingual, speaking Punic, Latin and Greek, and got some classical education, but probably less than he wanted to. At 17 he was helped by his influential relatives to relocate to Rome, to be presented to the Emperor Marcus Aurelius, and start his political career. With some difficulty he started to advance through the cursus honorum, holding a variety of offices. His career was helped by the Antonine Plague of 166, Septimius avoided it by returning to Leptis Magna for a while, and when he was back in Rome he found his competition conveniently thinned out. Despite him going through an impressive number of offices in a very short time there is very little record of his actual accomplishments in 170s and 180s.

In 191 Severus was appointed governor of Pannonia Superior (one of the provinces on Danube frontier) by Emperor Commodus (on advice from one of Septimius' friends). When the hell was unleashed by the assassination of Commodus on 31 December 192 and 193, , the infamous Year of the Five Emperors started, as a general in charge of significant army Severus was able to fight for the highest office. While he moved on Rome, Pertinax, the first Emperor of 193, was killed by the Praetorian Guard, and the next one, Didius Julianus, who famously bought the emperorship at an auction, was condemned by the Senate and executed, so Septimius entered Rome virtually unopposed. He then wisely appeased the powerful governor of Britannia, Clodius Albinus, who was also proclaimed the Emperor, by offering him the title of Caesar, which implied some degree of co-ruling and a chance to succession (Albinus did not give up that easy, reasserting his claim in three years, but then he was easily dealt with at the Battle of Lugdunum in Gaul). Afterwards he had to fight off the final pretender, Pescennius Niger, the former governor of Syria, who was proclaimed the Emperor by the eastern legions. Losing no time, Severus sent a considerable vanguard force to the East and, later, joined in with additional armies. In a series of battles in 193-195 Niger and his supporters were defeated. The last to surrender was Byzantium, which held even after the head of Niger was sent there. It is interesting to note that during this campaign Septimius visited the tomb of his famous fellow countryman, Hannibal Barca in Libyssa (Gebze, Turkey) and ordered to cover it with fine marble. Severus also took an opportunity to wage a short punitive campaign beyond the eastern frontier, annexing the Kingdom of Osroene as a new province.

After consolidating his rule over the western provinces, Severus waged another brief, more successful war in the east against the Parthian Empire, sacking their capital Ctesiphon in 197 and expanding the eastern frontier to the Tigris. He then enlarged and fortified the Limes Arabicus in Arabia Petraea. In 202 he campaigned in Africa and Mauretania against the Garamantes; capturing their capital Garama and expanding the Limes Tripolitanus along the southern desert frontier of the empire. In 208 he travelled to Britain, strengthening Hadrian's Wall and reoccupying the Antonine Wall. In the same year he invaded Caledonia (modern Scotland), but his ambitions were cut short when he fell fatally ill in late 210, dying in early 211 at Eboracum (York, England), and was succeeded by his sons Caracalla and Geta, thus founding the Severan dynasty. It was the last dynasty of the Roman empire before the Crisis of the Third Century.

In the context of this coin it is interesting to note, that, due to huge military expenses, upon his accession Severus decreased the silver purity of the denarius from 81.5% to 78.5%, although the silver weight actually increased, rising from 2.40 grams to 2.46 grams. Nevertheless, the following year he debased the denarius again because of rising military expenditures. The silver purity decreased from 78.5% to 64.5% – the silver weight dropping from 2.46 grams to 1.98 grams. In 196 he reduced the purity and silver weight of the denarius again, to 54% and 1.82 grams respectively [corresponds to this issue]. Severus' currency debasement was the largest since the reign of Nero.
Yurii P
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Leo VI (SBCV 1729, Coin #787)9 viewsMacedonian Dynasty, SBCV 1729, AE Follis, Constantinople, 870 - 920 AD
OBV: + LEOn bASILVS Rom, Bust facing, with short beard, wearing crown with cross and chlamys, holding akakia in left hand.
REV: + LEOn/En ΘEO bA/SILEVS R/OMEOn, Inscription in four lines.
SIZE: 26.2mm, 8.22g
MaynardGee
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Long Feng Tong Bao46 viewsIssued by rebellion Han Lin'er, late Yuan Dynasty.. 1355 AD. Scarce.samwyi
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Macedon, Alexander III, 336-323 BC212 viewsAlexander the Great (Greek:Μέγας Αλέξανδρος[1], Megas Alexandros; July 356 BC — June 11, 323 BC), also known as Alexander III, king of Macedon (336–323 BC), is considered one of the most successful military commanders in history, conquering most of his known world before his death; he is frequently included in a list along with Napoleon Bonaparte, Julius Caesar, and Ghengis Khan, as the greatest military strategists and tacticians who ever lived. Alexander is also known in the Zoroastrian Middle Persian work Arda Wiraz Nāmag as "the accursed Alexander" due to his conquest of the Persian Empire and the destruction of its capital Persepolis. He is known as Eskandar in Persian and even acclaimed during the construction of the Great Wall Sadd-e Eskandar by the Parthian Dynasty[citation needed]. He is often identified as Dhul-Qarnayn in Middle Eastern traditions and is called al-Iskandar al-Kabeer in Arabic, Sikandar-e-azam in Urdu, Skandar in Pashto, Dul-Qarnayim in Hebrew, and Tre-Qarnayia in Aramaic (the two-horned one), apparently due to an image on coins minted during his rule that seemingly depicted him with the two ram's horns of the Egyptian god Ammon. He is known as Sikandar in Urdu and Hindi, a term also used as a synonym for "expert" or "extremely skilled".

Following the unification of the multiple city-states of ancient Greece under the rule of his father, Philip II of Macedon, (a labour Alexander had to repeat twice because the southern Greeks rebelled after Philip's death), Alexander would conquer the Persian Empire, including Anatolia, Syria, Phoenicia, Gaza, Egypt, Bactria and Mesopotamia and extend the boundaries of his own empire as far as the Punjab. Alexander integrated foreigners (non-Macedonians, non-Greeks known as the Successors[2]) into his army and administration, leading some scholars to credit him with a "policy of fusion." He encouraged marriage between his army and foreigners, and practised it himself. After twelve years of constant military campaigning, Alexander died, possibly of malaria, typhoid, or viral encephalitis. His conquests ushered in centuries of Greek settlement and rule over distant areas, a period known as the Hellenistic Age. Alexander himself lived on in the history and myth of both Greek and non-Greek cultures. Already during his lifetime, and especially after his death, his exploits inspired a literary tradition in which he appears as a legendary hero in the tradition of Achilles.

Alexander III, 336-323 BC, Bronze AE18, Price-275, struck 336-323BC at Macedonia, 7.09 grams, 17.3 mm. Choice VF

Obv: Head of Herakles with a lion scalp headdress
Rev: Club above legend with bow and quiver below, thunderbolt above club, 'Delta' below quiver

A wonderful bronze issue from the lifetime of Alexander III 'the Great.' Perfectly centered and struck with minimal, if any, actual wear. Highly attractive.
Ex-Glenn Woods g28
ecoli
PhilipIIMacedonLifetimeTet.jpg
Macedonian Kingdom, Philip II, 359 - 336 B.C., Lifetime Issue134 viewsSilver tetradrachm, Le Rider 233 (D130/R188); SNG ANS 385 ff., VF, Pella, 14.163g, 25.4mm, 225o, 342 - 336 B.C.; obverse laureate head of Zeus right; reverse "FILIPPOU", naked youth on horse pacing right on horseback holding palm, thunderbolt below; ex CNG 214, 82; very high relief sculptural portrait, nice style, lifetime issue. Ex FORVM.

Philip II expanded the size and influence of the Macedonian Kingdom, but is perhaps best known as the father of Alexander the Great. He personally selected the design of his coins.

Philip II of Macedon (382 BC–336 BC; in Greek Φίλιππος = φίλος (friend) + ίππος (horse), transliterated Philippos) was the King of Macedon from 359 BC until his assassination. He was the father of Alexander the Great, Phillip III Arrhidaeus, and possibly Ptolemy I Soter, founder of the Ptolemaic dynasty.

Born in Pella, Philip was the youngest son of King Amyntas III and Eurydice. In his youth, (ca. 368 BC–365 BC) Philip was a hostage in Thebes, which was the leading city of Greece during the Theban hegemony. While a captive there, Philip received a military and diplomatic education from Epaminondas, was involved in a pederastic relationship with Pelopidas and lived with Pammenes, who was an enthusiastic advocate of the Sacred Band of Thebes. In 364 BC, Philip returned to Macedonia. The deaths of Philip's elder brothers, King Alexander II and Perdiccas III, allowed him to take the throne in 359 BC. Originally appointed regent for his infant nephew Amyntas IV, who was the son of Perdiccas III, Philip managed to take the kingdom for himself that same year.

Philip's military skills and expansionist vision of Macedonian greatness brought him early success. The hill tribes were broken by a single battle in 358 BC, and Philip established his authority inland as far as Lake Ohrid. He used the Social War as an opportunity for expansion. In 357 BC, he took the Athenian colony of Amphipolis, which commanded the gold mines of Mount Pangaion. That same year Philip married the Epirote princess Olympias, who was the daughter of the king of the Molossians. In 356 BC, Philip conquered the town of Crenides and changed its name to Philippi. Philip also attacked Abdera and Maronea, on the Thracian sea-board. Also in 356 Alexander was born and his race horse won in the Olympics in He took Methone in 354 BC, a town which had belonged to Athens. During the siege of Methone, Philip lost an eye.

Not until his armies were opposed by Athens at Thermopylae in 352 BC did Philip face any serious resistance. Philip did not attempt to advance into central Greece because the Athenians had occupied Thermopylae. Also in 352 BC, the Macedonian army won a complete victory over the Phocians at the Battle of Crocus Field. This battle made Philip tagus of Thessaly, and he claimed as his own Magnesia, with the important harbour of Pagasae.
Hostilities with Athens did not yet take place, but Athens was threatened by the Macedonian party which Philip's gold created in Euboea. From 352 to 346 BC, Philip did not again come south. He was active in completing the subjugation of the Balkan hill-country to the west and north, and in reducing the Greek cities of the coast as far as the Hebrus (Maritza). For the chief of these coastal cities, Olynthus, Philip continued to profess friendship until its neighboring cities were in his hands.

In 349 BC, Philip started the siege of Olynthus. Olynthus at first allied itself with Philip, but later shifted its allegiance to Athens. The Athenians did nothing to help Olynthus. Philip finally took Olynthus in 348 BC and razed the city to the ground. In 346 BC, he intervened effectively in the war between Thebes and the Phocians, but his wars with Athens continued intermittently.

Macedonia and the regions adjoining it having now been securely consolidated, Philip celebrated his Olympic games at Dium. In 347 BC, Philip advanced to the conquest of the eastern districts about the Hebrus, and compelled the submission of the Thracian prince Cersobleptes. Meanwhile, Athens had made overtures for peace, and when Philip, in 346 BC, again moved south, peace was sworn in Thessaly. With key Greek city-states in submission, Philip turned to Sparta; he sent them a message, "You are advised to submit without further delay, for if I bring my army into your land, I will destroy your farms, slay your people, and raze your city." Their reply was "If." Philip and Alexander would both leave them alone. Later, the Macedonian arms were carried across Epirus to the Adriatic Sea. In 342 BC, Philip led a great military expedition north against the Scythians, conquering the Thracian fortified settlement Eumolpia to give it his name, Philippoupolis (modern Plovdiv).

In 340 BC, Philip started the siege of Perinthus. Philip began another siege in 339 BC of the city of Byzantium. After unsuccessful sieges of both cities, Philip's influence all over Greece was compromised. However, Philip successfully reasserted his authority in the Aegean by defeating an alliance of Thebans and Athenians at the Battle of Chaeronea in 338 BC. He erected a memorial of a marble lion to the Sacred Band of Thebes for their bravery that still stands today. Philip created and led the League of Corinth in 337 BC. Members of the League agreed never to wage war against each other, unless it was to suppress revolution. Philip was elected as leader (hegemon) of the army of invasion against the Persian Empire. In 336 BC, when the invasion of Persia was in its very early stage, Philip was assassinated, and was succeeded on the throne of Macedon by his son Alexander the Great.

Philip’s Assassination

The murder happened in October of 336 BC, at Aegae, the ancient capital of the kingdom of Macedon. The court had gathered there for the celebration of the marriage between Alexander of Epirus and Philip's daughter. While the king was entering unprotected into the town's theatre (highlighting his approachability to the Greek diplomats present), he was killed by Pausanias of Orestis, one of Philip's seven bodyguards. The assassin immediately tried to escape and reach his associates who were waiting for him with horses at the entrance of Aegae. He was pursued by three of Philip's bodyguards and died by their hands.
The reasons for Pausanias' assassination of Phillip are difficult to fully expound, since there was controversy already among ancient historians. The only contemporary account in our possession is that of Aristotle, who states rather tersely that Philip was killed because Pausanias had been offended by the followers of Attalus, the king's father-in-law.

Whatever else that may be written about Philip II it must be recognized that he was responsible for making Macedon the ascendant Greek power. He reorganized the Macedonian army. It was this army that Alexander the Great inherited. Phillip II trained some of Alexander’s best generals: Antigonus Cyclops, Antipater, Nearchus, Parmenion, and Perdiccas.

According to the Greek historian Theopompus of Chios, Europe had never seen a man like king Philip of Macedonia, and he called his history of the mid-fourth century BCE the Philippic History. Theopompus had a point. Not even his better known son Alexander has done so much to change the course of Greek history. Philip reorganized his kingdom, gave it access to the sea, expanded its power so that it could defeat the Achaemenid Empire, and subdued the Greek city-states, which never regained their independence again. To achieve this, he modernized the Macedonian economy, improved the army, and concluded several marital alliances. The result was a superpower with one weakness: it was as strong as its king. When Philip's son Alexander died, the institutions were too weak, and Macedonia never recovered.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philip_II_of_Macedon
http://www.livius.org/phi-php/philip/philip_ii.htm
Ed. by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
1 commentsCleisthenes
ISL_MAMLUK_Balog_562_Barquq.jpg
Mamluk (Burji). Barquq (al-Zahir Sayf al-Din Abu Sa`id Barquq) (1st reign 784-791 A.H. = 1382-1389 A.D.; 2nd reign 792-801 A.H. = 1390-1399 A.D.)30 viewsBalog 562 Plate XXIII 562; SNAT Damascus __; Album 975

AE fals; Dimashq/Damascus mint, dated 790 A.H.? = 1388 A.D.? (1st reign); 2.63 g., 17.92 mm. max., 270°

Obv.: Apparently no border. السلطان / الملك الظاهر / ابو سعيد سيف / الدنيا و الدين (al-Sultan / al-Malik al-Zahir / Abu Sa'id Sayf / ______) in center; Clockwise marginal legend الدنيا و الدين ضرب بدمشق سنة ثسعين وسبعماية (= ___________ duriba bi-Dimashq sanat thaseayn wasabeimaya = ________ struck in Damascus in the year 90)

Rev.: Solid linear border. Circle of big dots, برقوق (= Barquq) in center.

Barquq, who was of Circassian origin and acquired as a slave, became the first sultan of the Mamluk Burji dynasty. A member of the faction behind the throne during the reigns of Sha'ban II's young sons, 'Ali II and Hajji II, Barquq consolidated power and siezed the throne in 1382. He was deposed in 1389 and Hajji restored as sultan. By early 1390, Barquq reclaimed his title. During his second reign, the Mongol warlord Timur invaded and defeated the Mamluks at Damascus and sacked it along with Aleppo in 1399.

Attribution courtesy of altaycoins and Alex Koifman.
3 commentsStkp
ISL_Mamluk_Balog_609a_Barquq.jpg
Mamluk (Burji). Barquq (al-Zahir Sayf al-Din Abu Sa`id Barquq) (1st reign 784-791 A.H. = 1382-1389 A.D.; 2nd reign 792-801 A.H. = 1390-1399 A.D.)6 viewsBalog 609a Plate XXV 609; Album 975

AE fals; unknown mint, undated (2nd reign); 1.74 g., 16.52 mm. max.

Obv.: Circular line border in a border of pellets. Field divided by horizontal line: الملك (al-Malik) / الظاهر (al-Zahir).

Rev.: Circular line border in a border of pellets. In the field, six-petaled rosette.

Barquq, who was of Circassian origin and acquired as a slave, became the first sultan of the Mamluk Burji dynasty. A member of the faction behind the throne during the reigns of Sha'ban II's young sons, 'Ali II and Hajji II, Barquq consolidated power and siezed the throne in 1382. He was deposed in 1389 and Hajji restored as sultan. By early 1390, Barquq reclaimed his title. During his second reign, the Mongol warlord Timur invaded and defeated the Mamluks at Damascus and sacked it along with Aleppo in 1399.
Stkp
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Manuel I Comnenus Billon Aspron Trachy 27 viewsManuel I Comnenus
Billon Aspron Trachy

Attribution: Sear 1966
Date: AD 1143-1180
Obverse: Christ enthroned,
throne w/o back; bearded, w/nimbus
cross, wearing pallium & colobium;
in field, IC (left) and XC (right).
Reverse: MANH Λ Δ
Ε C Π OTH (or similar). The Virgin
(nimbate, right) crowns Manuel (left). Both
standing, facing: the BVM wears pallium and
maphorium, the emperor wears loros and
divitision and holds labarum (right hand) and
globus cruciger (left hand); in field between their
heads M and to right Θ V.
Size: 30 mm

Manuel, who was influenced by his contact with western Crusaders, enjoyed the reputation of "the most blessed emperor of Constantinople" in parts of the Latin world as well. Modern historians, however, have been less enthusiastic about him. Some of them assert that the great power he wielded was not his own personal achievement, but that of the dynasty he represented; they also argue that, since Byzantine imperial power declined catastrophically after Manuel's death, it is only natural to look for the causes of this decline in his reign.
Noah
Mattatayah_Antigonus.jpg
Mattatayah Antigonus33 viewsBronze prutah, 14mm, 1.53g. Jerusalem mint. O: Retrograde Paleo-Hebrew inscription, Mattatayah, surrounded by wreath and border of dots. R: Double cornucopia adorned with ribbons, barley grain between horns, border of dots. Hendin 1164

In 40 BCE, Mattatayah Antigonus, youngest son of Aristobulus II, bribed the Parthians to assist him in his invasion of Jerusalem. Josephus reports that after their conquest, Mattatayah tore into Hyrcanus II ears with his teeth in order to permanently disqualify him from being High Priest. Later this same year, the Roman Senate and Octavian appointed Herod King of Judaea.

After years of fighting, Herod, with the help of Roman troops under Gaius Sosius, took Jerusalem and captured Antigonus in 37 BCE. His later execution at Antioch ended five generations of Hasmonean rule, now replaced by what would become the Herodian Dynasty.
1 commentsNemonater
MAURYAN_EMPIRE.jpg
MAURYAN EMPIRE19 viewsMAURYAN EMPIRE - 3rd Century BC - AR Karshapana. 13.4 MM, 3.40 Grams.
Punch marks; especially note the sun and the 6-armed figure, trademarks of Mauryan coinage.

The coins issued by the Mauryans are mostly silver in various shapes, sizes and weights and which have one or more symbols punched on them. The most common symbols are the elephant, the tree in railing symbol and the mountain. The technique of producing such coins was generally that the metal was cut first and then the device was punched. These symbols are said to have either represented the Royal insignia or the symbol of the local guild that struck the coin. Some coins had Shroff marks on them indicating that older coins were often re-issued.
One of the greatest empires in the history of India was the Mauryan Empire. It approximately lasted from 322 - 185 B.C. Most of India was united as a single entity by the great emperor Chandragupta Maurya. His son Bindusara extended the kingdom of Mauryas over almost the entire sub-continent. The Mauryan Empire had the most powerful military force in ancient India. The greatest emperor of the Mauryan dynasty was Ashoka. An able administrator and a skillful warrior, Ashoka converted to Buddhism after the gruesome Battle of Kalinga.
The Mauryan Empire had smooth administration and efficient rulers. The government was hierarchical and centralized with a lot of staff to make sure that work was carried on smoothly and efficiently. Taxes were collected regularly, trade and commerce was carried on smoothly, citizens were taken care of and the army was always ready for any sort of external aggression or threat. Every province had its own officials who managed administration at grassroots level. The economy was agrarian and the main economic activity of people was agriculture. The capital city of Magadha was beautifully decorated and had all facilities that any modern city would have.
1 commentsdpaul7
pic007.jpg
MEDIEVAL, JERUSALEM, Guy de Lusignan31 viewsAE denier
Obv: facing bust of Guy
Rev:Holy Sepulchre

Guy of Lusignan was a French Poitevin knight, son of Hugh VIII of the Lusignan dynasty. He was king of the crusader state of Jerusalem from 1186 to 1192 by right of marriage to Sibylla of Jerusalem, and of Cyprus from 1192 to 1194. Having arrived in the Holy Land (where his brother Amalric was already prominent) at an unknown date, Guy was hastily married to Sibylla in 1180 to prevent a political incident within the kingdom. Guy was appointed regent of Jerusalem and at Sibylla's succession to the throne in 1186 she gave the crown to Guy as her king-consort. Guy's reign was marked by increased hostilities with the Ayyubids ruled by Saladin, culminating in the Battle of Hattin in July 1187, during which Guy was captured, and the fall of Jerusalem itself three months later.
seaotter
hongwutongbao.jpg
Ming Dynasty32 viewsTai Zu Emperor

1368 - 1398 CE

Obverse: Hong Wu Tong Bao

Reverse: Plain

Tai Zu is the founder of the Ming dynasty

Kublai Khan had conquered China and established the Yuan Dynasty in 1279. Kublai Khan died in 1291. He had no able successors, and the weakness and tyranny of the next five Yuan emperors roused the people to revolt. One of these factions was led by Zhu Yuanzhang, the son of a peasant family. He had risen through the ranks after joining as a common soldier, by distinguishing himself in battle, and succeeded to command the rebel troops on the death of his predecessor. He declared himself emperor Ming Taizu (T`ai Tsu) in 1368, and set about conquering the rest of China. By 1387 the conquest of China was complete.
2 commentsPericles J2
Tai_Zu_Ming.jpg
Ming Dynasty - Tai Zu Bronze Cash 59 viewsAttribution: Hartill 20.60; Schjöth #1142
Date: AD 1368-1398, Ming Dynasty, China
Obverse: Four Chinese Characters – Hong, Wu, Tong, & Bao
(one-dot Tong)
Reverse: Yi Qian to the
r. of the hole (one qian refers to the weight of the issue)
Size: 23.9 mm
Weight: 3.40 grams

The Ming Dynasty or Empire of the Great Ming , was the ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644, following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan Dynasty. The Ming, one of the greatest eras of orderly government and social stability in human history, was the last dynasty in China ruled by ethnic Hans. Ming rule saw the construction of a vast navy and a standing army of one million troops. The Ming dynasty is often regarded as both a high point in Chinese civilization as well as a dynasty in which early signs of capitalism emerged. Although the Ming capital Beijing fell in 1644 to a rebellion led by Li Zicheng, which was itself soon replaced by the Manchu-led Qing Dynasty, regimes loyal to the Ming throne (collectively called the Southern Ming) survived until 1662.
Noah
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Mylasa, Caria, c. 170 - 130 B.C.86 views Silver Pseudo-Rhodian (drachm*), Ashton NC 1992, 255, SNG Kayhan 846, weight 2.2 g, maximum diameter 15.86 mm, Mylasa mint, c. 170 - 130 B.C.; Obv. facing head of Helios with eagle superimposed on r. cheek, hair loose; Rev. rose with bud/stem to right,(left bud off flan**) monogram left, ΠΕ & A to right. Same obv. die as Ashton 255 & Kayhan 846. Some surface roughness on top of both sides.

*Ashton, Kayhan, & Sear all describe this denom. as "drachm", though considerably underweight according to the Rhodian standard. Apparently these immitatives use the lower weight.

**Kayhan 846 plate shows stems and buds going both left and right. (but only describes the bud to the left), Ashton's plate also shows on both sides, and describes as such when in combination with letters /monograms. My example, is an Obv. die match, though the Rev. is not an exact die match, but is very close (probably same hand), and shows the right stem and bud clearly, but the left is off flan. Ashton identifies 107 Obv. dies in this series, and none of the rest are even close to the style of #255. This Obv. is shown with one other Rev. type(different letters).

Note; Ashton concludes the top two letters (on these later type with 4-5 letters/monograms) are abbrieviations for the month they were struck by the particular magistrate. (1st two letters in the Macedonian calender months used in Mylasa at the time) In my coin ΠΕ are for ΠΕΡΙΘΙOΣ or Peritios, the 10th month. He also concludes the monogram and lower letter abbrieviate the magistrate's name. Also, though he knows of no metrological analysis, the the quality of the silver seems to be somewhat debased compared to the Rhodian and early Pseudo-Rhodian issues.(most of the CH 4 hoard were of this later type, and were covered in a thick black patina{that were harshly cleaned}, the few earlier series and the one Rhodian type didn't have this patina and seemed to be of higher quality silver)

Historical background; courtsey Forvm Ancient Coins

Mylasa (Milas, Turkey today) was often mentioned by ancient writers. The first mention is from early 7th century B.C., when Arselis, a Carian leader from Mylasa, helped Gyges in his fight for the Lydian throne. Under Persia, Mylasa was the chief city of Caria. Mylasa joined the Delian League c. 455 B.C., but Persian rule was restored by 400. Mylasa was the hometown and first capital of the Hecatomnid dynasty, nominally Persian satraps, but practically kings of Caria and the surrounding region, 377 - 352 B.C. In the Hellenistic era, the city was contested by Alexander's successors, but prospered. Mylasa was severely damaged in the Roman Civil War in 40 B.C., but again regained prosperity under Roman rule.



Ex. Aegean Nunismatics
2 commentsSteve E
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Mysia, Pergamon, BMC Mysia p. 119, 5434 viewsMysia, Pergamon mint, c. 282 - 133 B.C. AE, 12mm 2.25g, BMC Mysia p. 119, 54
O: head of Athena right, wearing helmet decorated with a griffin
R: ΦIΛE /TAIΡOΥ, strung bow

The regal bronze coinage of Pergamon is all inscribed in the name of the dynasty's founder, Philetairos. Attribution to specific reigns is not yet possible. – Forvm addendum
casata137ec
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Mysia. Kings of Pergamon. Eumenes I AR Tetradrachm.89 viewsStruck circa 263-255/50 BC (30mm, 17.02g, 2h). Westermark Group III, obv. die V.XXIV; SNG France 1606-9; SNG von Aulock 1355 (same obverse die); SNG Copenhagen 334. Obverse: Head of Philetairos right, wearing laurel wreath bound with a broad ribbon with wide hemmed borders. Reverse: ΦIΛETAIPOY in right field, Athena enthroned left, right hand resting on shield set at her feet, left elbow resting on small sphinx seated right; transverse spear in background, ivy leaf above knee, monogram on throne, bow to right. EF, toned. High relief portrait.

Ex CNG: Classical Numismatic Review XXXIX.1 Spring 2014 lot 929022.

The coinage of Pergamon under Eumenes I crystalized the design of the kingdom’s tetradrachmai for almost 100 years. It features on the obverse a realistic portrait of the eunuch Philetairos, who was initially a treasurer for the diadoch Lysimachos. He entrusted to the eunuch 6000 talents of silver (and gold) for safekeeping in Sardis. However, Philetairos switched allegiance to Seleukos shortly before the Battle of Korupedion in 281 BC, when Seleukos defeated Lysimachos. Seleukos, in turn, was assassinated roughly a year later. The newly created kingdom enjoyed autonomy from the Seleukids and the fortress city of Pergamon was built with Philetairos as its “king”, although he was never publicly crowned as such. Philetairos coined at least three different types of tetradrachmai, which were influenced by his allegiance to different rulers. First, he minted Lysimachos-type coins for his master Lysimachos. After the latter’s defeat and death he next minted coins of the Alexander-type either with the legend Alexandrou or Seleukou. Lastly, in a show of self-assurance and independence, he minted coins with the obverse portrait of Seleukos and the reverse directly copied from the earlier Lysimachos-type coin with Athena seated. However, the similarity ends there: instead of putting a dominating diadoch’s name, he boldly put his name on the coins. After his death, the administration passed on to his adopted nephew Eumenes I. The new ruler was able to liberate his realm from the dominion of the Seleukids when he revolted, at the instigation of Ptolemy II of Egypt, and rather unexpectedly, defeated Antiochos I in Sardis in 261 BC. He greatly expanded his territory and founded several cities. His coinage initiated a type which showed a highly realistic and unflattering portrait of his predecessor Philetairos and showed him as diademed, heavy-set and ostensibly obese whose face dominates the whole space of the obverse of the coin. At this point, there is no need of legitimizing current rulers by reference to Alexander. They could either put their own portraits or the likeness of the founder of a dynasty which they belong. This would eventually become the norm for most coins of third century BC Hellenistic kingdoms. The design on Eumenes’ coins would remain unchanged for the next century and would be adopted by succeeding rulers Attalos I ((241-197 BC) and Eumenes II (197-160 BC). It was estimated that it required 200 obverse dies to mint the coins during those span of time of its existence. As for any long-lived (and much copied) designs of any ancient coin (i.e. coins of Phillip II, Alexander III and Lysimachos), the various Philetairou-type coins could be assigned to a particular ruler according to symbols and monograms and level of artistry.
6 commentsJason T
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Nerva Aequitas Ӕ As (c. 97 A.D.)8 viewsIMP NERVA CAES [AVG P M TR P ? COS ? P P], laureate head right / AEQVITAS AVGVST + S - C across fields, Aequitas standing left, holding scales and cornucopiae

Ӕ, oval 25+ to 28mm, 10.23g, die axis 7.5h, base metal seems yellow, orichalcum? Can it be a dupontius?

Mint: Rome. Regnal period is end 96 – Jan 98 AD, so 97 is the most probable minting year.

End of the obverse legend is missing, so TR P and COS numbers are unknown. Thus three types are possible:

TR P COS II --> RIC II 51, Sear 3060 var
TR P COS III --> RIC II 77, Cohen 7, BMC 127, Sear 3060
TR P II COS III --> RIC II 94, Cohen 10

IMPerator NERVA CAESar AVGustus Pontifex Maximus (the high priest, starting with Augustus the emperor was always the head of state religion) TRibunitia Potestas (Tribunal power, the function of the tribune of the people, originally an important republican official, was "hijacked" by Augustus when he was building the imperial structure of power and subsequently became another emperor's title, renewed every year and thus very useful for dating coins, no number means first year of reign, II second), COnSul (under the Empire, the office of Consul remained of some importance and was held by the Emperor with some frequency) II or III (Nerva started his 3d consulship in 97, so II would mean minting year of 96, he also became a consul for 98, but since he died in January, COS IIII is very rare), Pater Patriae (Father of his Country, the title was held by most Augusti but usually not at the very beginning of the reign, in this case it was probably assumed immediately because of Nerva's old age). Aequitas = justice, equality, conformity, symmetry. Nemesis was originally understood as honest distributor of fortune, neither bad nor good, but in due proportion. Later it gained aspects of justice and divine retribution, but in Nemesis-Aequitas her qualities of honest dealing is emphasized. Aequitas Augusti symbolizes honesty, equality and justice of the emperor towards his subjects. The scales here mean honest measure rather than justice, and the cornucopia is self explanatory. SC = [Ex] Senatus Consulto (Senatus is genitive, Consulto is ablative of Consultum) = by decree of the Senate, i. e. the authority of the Senate approved minting of this coin (necessary to justify issue of copper alloy coins for which the intrinsic value was not obvious). As or assarius – the basic Roman bronze coin, reintroduced and firmly established for centuries by Augustus (often minted of pure red copper).

On the obverse to the right of the neck there is a mysterious symbol (looks like a special field mint mark in LRB, but these were not used before 4th century I think), which is too far in to be a distorted letter of the legend.

NERVA, *8 Nov 30 (or 35) AD (Narni, central Italy) † 27 Jan 98 AD (aged 67 or 62) Gardens of Sallust, Rome ‡ 18 Sep 96 – 27 Jan 98 (effectively abdicated in autumn 97 naming Trajan as his successor)

Marcus Cocceius Nerva was born in the village of Narni, 50 kilometers north of Rome. Ancient sources report the date as either 30 or 35. He had at least one attested sister, named Cocceia, who married Lucius Salvius Titianus Otho, the brother of the earlier Emperor Otho. Like Vespasian, the founder of the Flavian dynasty, Nerva was a member of the Italian nobility rather than one of the elite of Rome. Nevertheless, the Cocceii were among the most esteemed and prominent political families of the late Republic and early Empire, attaining consulships in each successive generation. The direct ancestors of Nerva on his father's side, all named Marcus Cocceius Nerva, were associated with imperial circles from the time of Augustus.

Not much of Nerva's early life or career is recorded, but it appears he did not pursue the usual administrative or military career. He was praetor-elect in the year 65 and, like his ancestors, moved in imperial circles as a skilled diplomat and strategist. He received many high honors during the reign of Nero and Flavians, including two ordinary (!) consulships of 71 and 90, usually for services that remained unclear, so probably of highly delicate and clandestine nature, e. g. he played a prominent role of uncovering at least two major conspiracies against the ruling emperors. During 69, the transitional Year of the Four Emperors he was nowhere to be seen, but then emerged on the winning Flavian side, which was quite a feat for a former Neronian loyalist and a relative of one of the defeated emperors, Otho. It is also known that Nerva had excellent literary abilities praised by his contemporaries.

On 18 September, 96, Domitian was assassinated in a palace conspiracy organised by court officials. The same day the Senate proclaimed Nerva emperor in somewhat obscure circumstances. Modern historians believe Nerva was proclaimed Emperor solely on the initiative of the Senate, within hours after the news of the assassination broke, to avoid the inevitable civil unrest, and neither him nor the Senate had anything to do with the conspiracy. The change of government was welcome particularly to the senators, who had been harshly persecuted during Domitian's reign. As an immediate gesture of goodwill towards his supporters, Nerva publicly swore that no senators would be put to death as long as he remained in office. He called an end to trials based on treason, released those who had been imprisoned under these charges, and granted amnesty to many who had been exiled. All properties which had been confiscated by Domitian were returned to their respective families. Nerva also sought to involve the Senate in his government, but this was not entirely successful.

Nerva had to introduce a number of measures to gain support among the Roman populace. As was the custom by this time, a change of emperor was to bring with it a generous payment of gifts and money to the people and the army. This was followed by a string of economic reforms intended to alleviate the burden of taxation from the most needy Romans. Furthermore, numerous taxes were remitted and privileges granted to Roman provinces. Before long, Nerva's expenses strained the economy of Rome and necessitated the formation of a special commission of economy to drastically reduce expenditures. The most superfluous religious sacrifices, games and horse races were abolished, while new income was generated from Domitian's former possessions. Because he reigned only briefly, Nerva's public works were few, instead completing projects which had been initiated under Flavian rule. This included extensive repairs to the Roman road system and the expansion of the aqueducts. The only major landmarks constructed under Nerva were a granary, known as the Horrea Nervae, and a small Imperial Forum begun by Domitian, which linked the Forum of Augustus to the Temple of Peace.

Despite Nerva's measures to remain popular with the Senate and the Roman people, support for Domitian remained strong in the army, which led to problems. Upon his accession, he had ordered a halt to treason trials, but at the same time allowed the prosecution of informers by the Senate to continue. This measure led to chaos, as everyone acted in his own interests while trying to settle scores with personal enemies.

The situation was further aggravated by the absence of a clear successor, made more pressing because of Nerva's old age and sickness. In October 97 these tensions came to a head when the Praetorian Guard laid siege to the Imperial Palace and took Nerva hostage. He was forced to submit to their demands, agreeing to hand over those responsible for Domitian's death. Nerva was unharmed in this assault, but his authority was damaged beyond repair. He realized that his position was no longer tenable without the support of an heir who had the approval of both the army and the people. Shortly thereafter, he announced the adoption of Trajan as his successor, and with this decision all but abdicated.

On 1 January, 98, at the start of his fourth consulship, Nerva suffered a stroke during a private audience. Shortly thereafter he was struck by a fever and died. His largest legacies were avoiding the civil war after the fall of Flavians and establishing a new dynasty that ruled almost until the end of the 2nd century and achieved "the golden age" of the Roman empire.
Yurii P
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Nikopolis ad Istrum, Elagabalus31 viewsNicopolis ad Istrum was a Roman and Early Byzantine town founded by Emperor Trajan around 101–106, at the junction of the Iatrus (Yantra) and the Rositsa rivers, in memory of his victory over the Dacians. Its ruins are located at the village of Nikyup, 20 km north of Veliko Tarnovo in northern Bulgaria. The town reached its floruit during the reigns of Trajan, Hadrian, the Antonines and the Severan dynasty.

The classical town was planned according to the orthogonal system. The network of streets, the forum surrounded by an Ionic colonnade and many buildings, a two-nave room later turned into a basilica and other public buildings have been uncovered. The rich architectures and sculptures show a similarity with those of the ancient towns in Asia Minor. Nicopolis ad Istrum had issued coins, bearing images of its own public buildings.

In 447 AD, the town was destroyed by Attila's Huns. Perhaps it was already abandoned before the early 5th century. In the 6th century, it was rebuilt as a powerful fortress enclosing little more than military buildings and churches, following a very common trend for the cities of that century in the Danube area.[4] The largest area of the extensive ruins (21.55 hectares) of the classical Nicopolis was not reoccupied since the fort covered only one fourth of it (5.75 hectares), in the southeastern corner. The town became an episcopal centre during the early Byzantine period. It was finally destroyed by the Avar invasions at the end of the 6th century. A Bulgarian medieval settlement arose upon its ruins later (10th-14th century).

Nicopolis ad Istrum can be said to have been the birthplace of Germanic literary tradition. In the 4th century, the Gothic bishop, missionary and translator Ulfilas (Wulfila) obtained permission from Emperor Constantius II to immigrate with his flock of converts to Moesia and settle near Nicopolis ad Istrum in 347-8. There, he invented the Gothic alphabet and translated the Bible from Greek to Gothic.

Elagabalus, Nikopolis ad Istrum.
rev. VPA.NOB.ROVFOV NIKOPOLITWN PROC, in l. and r. field ICT - RON
AMNG I/1, 1893 (1 ex., Löbbecke)
1 commentsecoli
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North Africa, Andalus, Almuwahideen dynasty Almahdi Ben Tumart 555 AH9 viewsالوجه :
لا الاه الا الله
الأمر كله لله
لا قوة الا بالله

الخلف :
الله ربنا
محمد رسولنا
المهدي امامنا
Silver dirham Mitch. 421, 1.5 grams
Canaan
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Northern Song Dynasty13 viewsEmperor Huizong

1100–1125 CE

Obverse: Xuan He Tong Bao

Reverse: Blank
Pericles J2
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Northern Song Dynasty AD 1038 to 103940 viewsThis Huang Song Tong Bao IRON coin was issued in China Northern Song Dynasty from AD 1038 to 1039. Diameter: 27.5 mm. Schjoth #502ecoli
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Northern Wei Dynasty49 viewsThis famous Yong An Wu Zhu or Yung-an Wu-shu was cast in China Northern Wei Dynasty from AD 528 to 529. Diameter: about 23.5 mm. It is Schjoth #239, or David Jen #125, or Fisher's Ding #608. ecoli
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Palas Dynasty Sri Vigra dramma16 viewsPalas Dynasty Bengal 850-988AD Sri Vigra dramma 18.5mm/3.78gr
Vigrahapala I, 861-866?
Obverse-King's bust to right (I really like the style of this portrait)
Reverse-Fire altar
MNI# 385
Paul R3
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Parthia. Orodes II (57-38 B.C.)24 viewsAR Drachm, Nisa mint, 18 mm.

Sear 7442, Sellwood Type 46_, Shore 233 var. (per dealer's attribution)

Obv: Short-bearded bust left wearing diadem and pellet-ended torque, crescent behind; wart not visible on forehead; circular border of pellets cannot be confirmed.

Rev: Beardless archer (Arsakes I) wearing bashlyk and cloak seated right on throne, holding bow in right hand; _______ behind archer; NI below bow [mintmark]; no border; seven-line Greek inscription (ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΝ [above] ΑΡΣΑΚΟΥ [to right] ΕΥΕΡΓΕΤΟΥ ΔΙΚΑΙΟΥ [below] ΕΠΙΦΑΝΟΥΣ ΦΙΛΕΛΛΗΝΟΣ [to left]) (= Of the King of Kings, Arsakes [founder of the Arsacid Dynasty] ...).

Orodes was a son of Phraates III, whom he murdered in 57 B.C., with the assistance of his brother Mithridates III. In the power struggle that ensued, Mithridates allied himself with Rome, but was captured and slain in 54 B.C. In 53 B.C., Marcus Licinius Crassus invaded Parthia in belated support of Mithridates, but was defeated at the Battle of Carrhae and killed. His severed head was presented to Orodes II during a performance of Euripides' tragedy, The Bacchae, where it was used as a prop, carried by one of the actors in the play.
Stkp
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PARTHIA/PERSIA, Arsakes I, 247 - 211 BC62 viewsAR dr., 4,09gr. 18mm; Sellwood 3.2, Shore 2var., Sunrise -- ;
mint: Mithradatkart/Nisa ?; axis: 12h;
obv.: beardless bust, left, w/bashlyk; lock of hair on forehead, bunch of hair in neck; earring;
rev.: archer, left, on backless throne, w/bow in right hand; one-line legend right field: APΣAKOY, letters KRNY left field;

ex: Triton XIII, ex: Todd Ballen coll., ex: Peus 376, ex: W. Derfler Collection;
A portrait of the founder of the Parthian Empire and the Arsacid dynasty.
2 commentsSchatz
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Pergamene Kingdom60 viewsPergamene Kingdom, 282 - 133 B.C.

The regal bronze coinage of Pergamon is all inscribed in the name of the dynasty's founder, Philetairos. Attribution to specific reigns is not yet possible.

Bronze AE 15, cf. SGCV II 7228 (magistrate on obverse), aVF, Pergamon mint,282 - 133 B.C.;

obverse helmeted head of Athena right, magistrate's name below; reverse ΦIΛETAIΡOΥ, coiled snake right;
ecoli
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Pergamon54 viewsThe oldest section of Pergamon, the acropolis or upper city, sits on an impressive steep ridge between two tributaries of the Caicus river. The ridge is naturally fortified on all but the S side which slopes down to the Caicus valley floor. The Caicus valley provides access from Pergamon to the Aegean coast and the port town of Elaea in the W and the Persian Royal Road to the E.

The upper city, which was fortified in the 4th or 3rd century B.C. contains the 3rd century Sanctuary of Athena, the oldest cult center of the city as well as palace quarters, barracks, and arsenals. In the 2nd century B.C. the 10,000 seat theater, the library adjacent to the Sanctuary of Athena, and the Great Altar of Zeus and Athena were added. In the 2nd century A.D. the monumental Trajaneum was erected on what must have been an earlier unknown cult center. From the upper agora a paved main street leads S and downslope to the middle city.

The city of Pergamon began to extend down the S slope in the 3rd century B.C. and during the 2nd century a massive building program completely transformed the entire lower slope. The major construction in the area was the gigantic gymnasium complex which extended down three large terraces linked by vaulted stairways and passages. The complex encorporated three open training courts, a covered track or xystus, a small theater or odeum, several shrines, and two large baths. Other major sections of the middle city included the Sanctuary of Demeter and Kore and, below the gymnasium along the main street leading to the Eumenes' Gate, the lower agora. North and E of the gymnasium massive terraces support the streets and houses of the residential quarter. In the first half of the 2nd century B.C. Eumenes II strengthened the entire fortification system of Pergamon and enclosed all of the middle city, which extended almost to the base of the south slope, within the new walls.

During the Roman Imperial period the city continued to expand southward and spread over the plain and the area occuppied by modern Bergama. The large Sanctuary of the Egyptian Gods (the "Kizil Avlu"), numerous bridges, and remains of the Roman stadium, theater, and amphitheater remain visible today.

Pergamon emerged as a power during the struggle for territorial control following the death of Alexander the Great in 323 B.C. By the middle of the 3rd century Pergamon had been established as an independent state under the leadership of the Attalid dynasty. The power of the Attalids and the city grew as a result of successful battles against the Gauls of central Anatolia and careful political alliances with Rome.

The peak period of Pergamene power and achievement was reached during the reign of Eumenes II (197-159 B.C.). The kingdom had grown to include most of western Anatolia and was rich in agriculture and industry. Noted industrial exports included textiles, fine pottery, and "Pergamene paper" or parchment. The last industry developed when Ptolemy, reportedly jealous of the growing fame of the library in Pergamon, prohibited the export of papyrus from Egypt. Eumenes II enlarged the city of Pergamon to include all of the southern slope and enclosed the city with a new and stronger fortification wall. In addition to the major new constructions in the lower city Eumenes also commissioned the Great Altar of Zeus and Athena, the theater, and the new library in the upper city.

In the 2nd century B.C. Pergamon rivalled Athens and Alexandria as centers of Hellenic culture. The city possessed one of the greatest libraries of antiquity, monumental gymnasia, and numerous religious sanctuaries, including the Asklepion outside the city walls. Pergamon was a haven for noted philosophers and artists and was the center of a major movement in Hellenistic sculpture. The Attalids supported the arts and learning in Pergamon and elsewhere and made major donations, such as the Stoa of Attalos II in Athens.

The last Attalid ruler, Attalos III, bequeathed the kingdom of Pergamon to Rome in 133 B.C. During Roman rule the prosperity of Pergamon continued and the city had a period of commercial expansion. The city itself expanded to the plain S and W of the acropolis across the flat land now occuppied by modern Bergama.

See: http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/siteindex?lookup=Pergamon

Cleisthenes
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Pergamon, Mysia33 viewsPergamon or Pergamum (Greek: Πέργαμος, modern day Bergama in Turkey, 39°7′N 27°11′E) was an ancient Greek city, in Mysia, northwestern Anatolia, 16 miles from the Aegean Sea, located on a promontory on the north side of the river Caicus (modern day Bakırçay), that became an important kingdom during the Hellenistic period, under the Attalid dynasty, 282-129 BC. G34

The Attalids, the descendants of Attalus, the father of Philetaerus who came to power in 282 BC, were among the most loyal supporters of Rome among the Hellenistic successor states. Under Attalus I, they allied with Rome against Philip V of Macedon, during the first and second Macedonian Wars, and again under Eumenes II, against Perseus of Macedon, during the Third Macedonian War. For support against the Seleucids, the Attalids were rewarded with all the former Seleucid domains in Asia Minor.

The Attalids ruled with intelligence and generosity. Many documents survive showing how the Attalids would support the growth of towns through sending in skilled artisans and by remitting taxes. They allowed the Greek cities in their domains to maintain nominal independence. They sent gifts to Greek cultural sites like Delphi, Delos, and Athens. They defeated the invading Celts. They remodeled the acropolis of Pergamum after the Acropolis in Athens. The Great Altar of Pergamon is in the Pergamon Museum of Berlin.

Pergamon had the second best library in the ancient Greek civilisation, after Alexandria. When the Ptolemies stopped exporting papyrus, partly because of competitors and partly because of shortages, the Pergamenes invented a new substance to use in codices, called pergaminus or parchment after the city. This was made of fine calf skin, a predecessor of vellum.

When Attalus III died without an heir in 133 BC he bequeathed Pergamon to Rome, in order to prevent a civil war.

Close to the city was a sanctuary of Asclepius, the god of healing. In this place people with health problems could bath in the water of the sacred spring, and in the patients' dreams Asklepios would appear in a vision to tell them how to cure their illness. Archeology has found lots of gifts and dedications that people would make afterwards, such as small terracotta body parts, no doubt representing what had been healed.

In the first century AD, the Christian Church at Pergamon was one of the Seven Churches to which the Book of Revelation was addressed (Revelation 1:11, NRSV).

Pergamon, Mysia, struck by Philetairos, 282-263 BC.
Obv: head of athena wearing attic helmet right.
Rev: FILETAIROU, Asklepios seated left, feeding snake from patera.
SNG BN 1643 ff.

ecoli
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Persian siglos coin - 375-340 BC103 viewsobv: King advancing right, bearing dagger and bow
rev: Oblong punch & bankers' marks (the mark showed the coin to be good silver [not fourree])
ref: SG4683, Carradice Type IV
5.38gms, 15mm
Artaxerxes II Memnon (404–359 BC) or Artaxerxes III Ochus (358–338 BC) - Kings of Achaemenian Dynasty (559 - 330 BC), Kingdom of Persia.
berserker
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PHARONIC KINGS OF EGYPT, Nektanebo II, 360-343 BC40 viewsAE