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Search results - "centaur"
rjb_car_62.jpg
6259 viewsCarausius 287-93 AD
AE antoninianus
Obv "IMP CARAVSIVS PF AVG"
Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev "LEG II PARTH"
Centaur standing left with trophy
London mint
-/-//ML
RIC 62
mauseus
rjb_car_62cf_01_06.jpg
62cf49 viewsCarausius 287-93AD
Antoninianus
Obv “IMP CARAVSIVS PF AVG”
Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev “LEG II PARTH”
Centaur walking right holding rudder
London mint
-/-//ML
RIC - (62 cf)
mauseus
rjb_2011_04_15.jpg
269cf20 viewsCarausius 287-93AD
Antoninianus
Obv "IMP CARAVSIVS [..........]"
Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev "L[EG II...........]"
Centaur standing left
Camulodunum mint
-/-//MSC
RIC - (cf 269-73)
mauseus
rjb_car_09_06.jpg
27339 viewsCarausius 287-93AD
Antoninianus
Obv "IMP CARAVSIVS PF AVG"
Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev "LEG IIII FLAV"
Centaur standing left holding sceptre
Camulodunum mint
-/-//C
RIC 273
mauseus
Gallienus_RIC_164_Centaur.jpg
7 Gallienus21 viewsGALLIENUS
AE Antoninianus, "Zoo Issue" - Centaur

GALLIENVS AVG, Radiate head right / APOLLINI CONS AVG, Centaur walking left, one forefoot raised, globe in right hand, rudder (or trophy) over shoulder. H in exergue.


Sosius
Kingdom_of_Bithynia__Prusias_II.jpg
Kingdom of Bithynia. Prusias II8 viewsAE22, 4.85 grams
228-149 BC.
Head of Dionysos right, wearing ivy-wreath
ΒΑΖΙΛΕΩΣ ΠΡΟYΣΙΟΥ, centaur Chiron walking right, playing lyre, monogram beneath leg
HGC 7, 629; Rec gén 26;
JBGood
rhes_centaur_elagab.jpg
(0218) ELAGABALUS30 views218 - 222 AD
AE 17.5 mm; 2.66 g
O: Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
R: Centaur galloping right, drawing bow
MESOPOTAMIA. Rhesaena; BMC 4 (cf Plate XVIII #4)
laney
sev_alex_rhes_centaur.jpg
(0222) SEVERUS ALEXANDER29 views222-235 AD
AE 17.5 mm; 2.12 g
O: Laureate, cuirassed bust with paludamentum, right
R: Sagittarius, right; Right hand over right shoulder, bow in left hand
Mesopotamia, Rhesaena; cf. Castelin, Prague, 17A (Plate III); BMC Rhesaena, 9, Pl. XVIII, var. (no Vexillum)
laney
gallienus_centaur.jpg
(0253) Gallienus49 views253 - 268 AD
struck 260 - 268 AD
O: GALLIENVS AVG Laur head R
R: APOLLINI CONS AVG, H IN EXE .Centaur stg L hldg globe & rudder
Rome, Off. 8
AE 20.5 mm 2.87 g
1 commentslaney
gallienus_centaur~0.jpg
(0253) GALLIENUS34 views253 - 268 AD
(struck during sole reign 260 - 268)
O: GALLIENVS AVG
Laur head R
R: APOLLINI CONS AVG, H IN EXE.
Centaur stg L hldg globe & rudder
Rome, Off. 8
AE 20.5 mm 2.87 g
laney
gallienus_centaur_blk_res_b.jpg
(0253) GALLIENUS29 views253 - 268 AD
(struck during sole reign 260 - 268)
O: GALLIENVS AVG
Laur head R
R: APOLLINI CONS AVG, H IN EXE.
Centaur stg L hldg globe & rudder
Rome, Off. 8
AE 20.5 mm 2.87 g
laney
090b_Gallienus,_Roma,_Göbl_735b,_AE-Ant,_GALLIENVS_AVG,_APOLLINI_CONS_AVG,_Z,_RIC-V-I-163,_RSC-72,_AD__Q-001,_5h,_19-21,5mm,_3,16g-s.jpg
090b Gallienus (253-268 A.D.), Sole Reign, RIC V-I 163, Rome, AE-Antoninianus, -/-//Z, APOLLINI CONS AVG, Centaur walking right, #197 views090b Gallienus (253-268 A.D.), Sole Reign, RIC V-I 163, Rome, AE-Antoninianus, -/-//Z, APOLLINI CONS AVG, Centaur walking right, #1
avers: GALLIENVS AVG, Radiate head right.
reverse: APOLLINI CONS AVG, Centaur walking right, one forefoot raised, drawing the bow. Z in exergue.
exergue: -/-//Z, diameter: 19,0-21,5 mm, weight: 3,16g, axes: 5h,
mint: Rome, date: A.D., ref: RIC V-I 163, p-145, RSC-72, Göbl 735b,
Q-001
4 commentsquadrans
Gall-001-s.jpg
090b Gallienus (253-268 A.D.), Sole Reign, RIC V-I 164, Rome, AE-Antoninianus, -/-//???, APOLLINI CONS AVG, Centaur walking left, #1134 views090b Gallienus (253-268 A.D.), Sole Reign, RIC V-I 164, Rome, AE-Antoninianus, -/-//???, APOLLINI CONS AVG, Centaur walking left, #1
avers: GALLIENVS AVG, Radiate head right.
reverse: APOLLINI CONS AVG, Centaur walking left, holding globe and trophy.
exergue: -/-//???, diameter: 18,5-19,5 mm, weight: 3,59g, axes: 5h,
mint: Rome, date: 254-268 A.D., ref: RIC V-I 164, p-145, C-73-74,
Q-001
quadrans
Gallienus_AE-Ant_GALLIENVS-AVG_APOLLINI_CONS_AVG,_Centaur_H_RIC_V-I_164,_Rome,_AE-Antoninianus,__Q-002_6h_18,6-21mm_2,94g-s.jpg
090b Gallienus (253-268 A.D.), Sole Reign, RIC V-I 164, Rome, AE-Antoninianus, -/-//H, APOLLINI CONS AVG, Centaur walking left, #2132 views090b Gallienus (253-268 A.D.), Sole Reign, RIC V-I 164, Rome, AE-Antoninianus, -/-//H, APOLLINI CONS AVG, Centaur walking left, #2
avers: GALLIENVS AVG, Radiate head right.
reverse: APOLLINI CONS AVG, Centaur walking left, holding globe and trophy.
exergue: -/-//H, diameter: 18,6-21,0 mm, weight: 2,94g, axes:6h,
mint: Rome, date: 254-268 A.D., ref: RIC V-I 164, p-145, C-73-74,
Q-002
1 commentsquadrans
LarryW2272.jpg
7266 Prusias II, 185-149 BC115 viewsBronze Ć22, 21mm, 7.08 grams, Nice VF
Head of Dionysos right, wreathed with ivy / [B]AΣIΛEΩΣ ΠPOYΣIOY, centaur Cheiron standing right playing lyre, monogram MT. Dark green patina, photo lightened.
Ex: MediterraneanCoins GmbH
Sear 7266; BMC Pontus, pg 211, #10 and plate 38, #4; SNG Cop 638; SNG von Aulock 256.
Lawrence Woolslayer
Göbl_738b_Antoniniano_Galieno.jpg
82-14 - GALIENO (253 - 268 D.C.)13 viewsAE Antoniniano 20 mm 3.3 gr.

Anv: "GALLIENVS AVG" - Cabeza radiada viendo a derecha.
Rev: "APOLLINI CONS AVG" - Centauro avanzando a izq., portando arco en mano izq. "H" en exergo.

Acuńada 267 - 268 D.C.
Ceca: 8vo. taller de Roma

Referencias: Göbl #738b - RIC Va #164 Pag.145 - Sear RCTV III #10177 Pag.288 - Cohen V #73 Pag.354 - DVM #19/2 Pag.244 - RSC IV #73 Pag.64 - Hunter #95
mdelvalle
Gallienus_32.jpg
A37 viewsGallienus Antoninianus

Attribution: RIC 207k
Date: AD 267-268
Obverse: GALLIENVS AVG; radiate bust r.
Reverse: IOVICONS AVG; goat stg. l.; stigma in exergue
Size: 17 mm
Weight: 2.5 grams

Gallienus’ coinage is perhaps best know by the issuance of his Zoo series. Each coin type depicts a mythical or real animal on the reverse as a dedication to a specific Roman deity: Diana (doe, stag, antelope/gazelle), Apollo (centaur, gryphon), Sol (Pegasus/winged horse, bull), Jupiter (goat), Liber Pater (panther/tigress), Neptune (capricorn, hippocamp), Juno (doe/elk/capreolus), Mercury (hippocamp/criocamp), Hercules (lion, boar).

“The vast majority of Zoo coins were produced at the mint of Rome, with a few rare examples coming from Siscia. Each officina produced a different coin within the series, with some producing a second, less common type also. Occasionally you'll find an animal with the "wrong" officina mark. These are fascinating, and the rarity leads us to believe that they represented mistakes, perhaps when a die engraver was transferred from one workshop to another. He gets the right animal, but the wrong officina. Or maybe one workshop was falling behind, so another was temporarily enlisted to help catch up on the quota?” – from Jim’s page on Coins of Gallienus' Zoo at http://www.ruark.org/coins/Zoo/#ZooLinks
Noah
Gallienus APOLLINI CONS AVG RIC 163~2.jpg
APOLLINI CONS AVG, RIC 164127 viewsAnt, 20mm, 4.04g.

Obverse: GALLIENVS AVG, radiate head R.

Reverse: APOLLINI CONS AVG, Centaur walking R with bow.

Rome, RIC 163, Common.
2 commentsRobert_Brenchley
00480q00.jpg
Carausius19 viewsAE-Antoninianus
IMP CARAVSIVS PF AVG; Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust to right.
LEG II PARTH; Centaur advancing left, holding rudder and globe
Ex: ML
Londinium
RIC 62
Julianus of Pannonia
Gallienus APOLLINI CONS AVG RIC 163.jpg
Centaur498 viewsAnt, GALLIENVS AVG, Radiate head R; APOLLINI CONS AVG, Centaur walking R with bow. N in exe. Rome, RIC 164, Common.Robert_Brenchley
magnetes_centaur~0.jpg
Centaur194 views THESSALY, THE MAGNETES

O: Laur. head of Zeus, L
R: The Centaur Cheiron prancing R

196 - 146 BC

AE 20mm 9.24 g
laney
fallinghorseOR.jpg
Constantine II era imitative/overstrike17 viewsUnofficial mint, Constantine II era imitative/overstrike, c. 330-335 A.D. AE, 19mm 2.12g, no ref.
O: Blundered legend (or unreadable by me), laureate (blundered) head r.
R: GLOR-IA EXERC-ITVS, 2 soldiers standing facing each other, resting hand on shield, standard between them (instead of the standard, there looks to be either a horse or possibly a centaur falling headfirst from the sky)
Ex: CONSS
1 commentscasata137ec
Domitian_Milne_529.jpg
Domitian11 viewsDOMITIAN
AE Drachm, Alexandria Mint, Dated Year 15 = 95-96 AD.
Bust of Domitian, r. / Domitian driving biga of Centaurs, one of whom is holding Victory.
Milne 529 Giessen 412. VG/aF
Sosius
EB0267b_scaled.JPG
EB0267 Zeus / Centaur4 viewsThessaly, Magnetes, AE 20, 196-146 BC.
Obverse: Laureate head of Zeus right.
Reverse: MAΓN/HTΩN, Centaur walking right holding branch.
References: Cf. BCD 419.9; BMC-7.
Diameter: 20mm, Weight: 5.971g.
Ex: Dr. Roberts collection.
EB
EB0275b_scaled.JPG
EB0275 Dionysos / Centaur3 viewsPrusias II, Bithynia, AE 23, 183-149 BC.
Obverse: Head of Dionysos right wreathed with ivy.
Reverse: Centaur Charon wearing a cloak, and playing a lyre, advancing right, monogram right below raised hoof.
References: BMC 13; Rec Gen 26; SNG Cop 635; Sear 7266.
Diameter: 23mm, Weight: 6.157g.
EB
EB0276b_scaled.JPG
EB0276 Dionysos / Centaur3 viewsPrusias II, Bithynia, AE 20, 183-149 BC.
Obverse: Head of Dionysos right wreathed with ivy.
Reverse: Centaur Charon wearing a cloak, and playing a lyre, advancing right.
References: BMC 13; Rec Gen 26; SNG Cop 635; Sear 7266.
Diameter: 20mm, Weight: 5.51g.
EB
EB0277b_scaled.JPG
EB0277 Dionysos / Centaur3 viewsPrusias II, Bithynia, AE 20, 183-149 BC.
Obverse: Head of Dionysos right wreathed with ivy.
Reverse: Centaur Charon wearing a cloak, and playing a lyre, advancing right.
References: BMC 13; Rec Gen 26; SNG Cop 635; Sear 7266.
Diameter: 20mm, Weight: 6.161g.
EB
EB0278b_scaled.JPG
EB0278 Dionysos / Centaur2 viewsPrusias II, Bithynia, AE 23, 183-149 BC.
Obverse: Head of Dionysos right wreathed with ivy.
Reverse: Centaur Charon wearing a cloak, and playing a lyre, advancing right.
References: BMC 13; Rec Gen 26; SNG Cop 635; Sear 7266.
Diameter: 23.5mm, Weight: 5.491g.
EB
EB0722_scaled.JPG
EB0722 Gordianus Pius III / Tyche8 viewsGordianus Pius 238-244, Singara, Mesopotamia, AE 25.
Obverse: [AVTOK K M] ANT ΓOPΔIANOC CЄB, radiate head right, with slight drapery.
Reverse: AVP CЄΠ KOΛ CINΓAPA, turreted, veiled and draped bust of Tyche right, above her the centaur Sagittarius leaping right shooting bow.
reference: BMC 1; SNG Cop 255.
Diameter: 25.5mm, Weight: 11.921g.
EB
EB0723_scaled.JPG
EB0723 Gordianus and Tranquillina / Tyche9 viewsGordianus Pius III 238-244, Singara, Mesopotamia, AE 33.
Obverse: AVTOK K M ANT ΓOΡΔIANON CAB TPANKVΛΛINA CEB, confronted busts of Gordian on left, laureate, draped and cuirassed, and Tranquillina on right, draped and wearing stephane.
Reverse: AVP CEΠ KOΛ CINΓAPA, Tyche seated left on rock, holding branch; the centaur Sagittarius above to left, discharging arrow, river god swimming left below.
References: BMC Mesopotamia pg. 135, 13; SNG Copenhagen 257; Lindgren & Kovacs 2627.
Diameter: 33.5mm, Weight: 24.34g.
EB
Domitian_BigaCentaurs.jpg
Emmett 0253 - Domitian AE30 (hemi?)drachm Alexandria, Biga of centaurs25 viewsDomitian AE30 (hemi ?) drachm, Alexandria, Egypt. Biga of centaurs. Emmett 253.13 Kampmann-Ganschow 24.210mattpat
Trajan_Centaurs_biga~0.jpg
Emmett 0464 - Trajan AE35 drachm Alexandria, Biga of centaurs24 viewsTrajan 98-117 AD, Drachm, Egypt, Alexandria, Year 11, 20.79g. Rx: Biga of centaurs holding branch and sceptre. . Dattari-734. Emmett 464.11 (R5), Kampmann-Ganschow 27.101mattpat
FH-G-021_(0s).jpg
FH-G-0216 viewsbronze AE19
- Turreted bust of Tyche right.
*ΑΕΑ? 12:00-10:00 - Animal? Horse? Centaur? Facing right
6.67gm / 19.15mm / Axis: 335
Jonathan P
003.JPG
Gallienus22 viewsAugust 253 - 24 March 268 A.D.
Copper antoninianus, radiate head right
2.82 gm, 20 mm
Obv.: GALLIENVS AVG
Rev.: APOLLINI CONS AVG
Centaur walking left, globe in right, trophy in left
? in exergue
RIC V Rome 164 (sole reign)
Rome mint, 260 - 268 A.D.
Jaimelai
RIC_Gallienus_RIC_V-1_(S)_Rome_164.jpg
Gallienus (Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus) (253-268 A.D.)21 viewsSRCV 10178, RIC V S-164, Göbl 738b, CT 1386, Van Meter 19/2

BI Antoninianus, 3.30 g., 21.39 mm. max., 180°

Rome mint, eighth officina, tenth emission, struck during solo reign (260-268 A.D.), in 267-268 A.D.

Obv: GALLIENVS AVG, radiate head right.

Rev: APOLLINI CONS AVG, centaur walking left cradling a trophy/rudder in his left arm and holding a globe in his outstretched right hand. H in exergue.

Issued in 267-268 A.D. to commemorate vows to Apollo invoking his protection against the revolt of Aureolus. The connection between Apollo and the centaur is obscure.

RIC rarity C, Van Meter VB1.
1 commentsStkp
RIC_Gallienus_SRCV_10177_centaur_bow.jpg
Gallienus (Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus) (253-268 A.D.)8 viewsSRCV 10177, RIC V S-163, Göbl 735b, Van Meter 19/1

BI Antoninianus, 3.25 g., 22.40 mm. max., 0°

Rome mint, seventh officina, tenth emission, struck during solo reign (260-268 A.D.), in 267-268 A.D.

Obv: GALLIENVS AVG, radiate head right.

Rev: APOLLINI CONS AVG, centaur walking right drawing bow. Z in exergue.

Issued in 267-268 A.D. to commemorate vows to Apollo invoking his protection against the revolt of Aureolus. The connection between Apollo and the centaur is obscure.

RIC rarity C, Van Meter VB1.
Stkp
Gallienus_Centaur_1a.jpg
Gallienus * Centaur - AE Billon Antoninianus * 253-268 AD.101 views
* Gallienus | Centaur - Billon Antoninianus *

Obv: Radiate head, right. GALLIENVS AVG.
Rev: Centaur walking left, right foreleg raised, holding globe in right hand, arm stretched front and rudder transverse over shoulder in his left hand. APOLLINI CONS AVG

Exergue: H
( Officina 8 )

Mint: Rome
Struck: 260-268 AD.

Size: 22.63 x 20.32 mm.
Weight: 3.32 gms.
Die axis: 180°

Condition: As you see it here. Worn, but still an attractive coin.

Refs:*
RIC 164
Göbl 733

Special thanks to Lars for his kind assistance and sharing his knowledge pertaining to this issue.
Tiathena
ID0095_CENTAUR_MERGED.jpg
Gallienus - Centaur Left65 viewsObverse:- GALLIENVSAVG, Head right with radiate crown
Reverse:- APOLLINICONSAVG, Centaur facing left with globe & rudder
Exergue:- H
3 commentsnogoodnicksleft
ID0087_CENTAUR_MERGED.jpg
Gallienus - Centaur Left49 viewsObverse:- GALLIENVSAVG, Head right with radiate crown
Reverse:- APOLLINICONSAVG, Centaur left with globe but missing the rudder
Exergue:- H

CMR 1a8(A)
1 commentsnogoodnicksleft
ID0016_CENTAUR_MERGED.jpg
Gallienus - Centaur Left47 viewsObverse:- GALLIENVSAVG, Head right with radiate crown
Reverse:- APOLLINICONSAVG, Centaur left with globe and rudder
Exergue:- H (off flan)

CMR 1a8(A)
nogoodnicksleft
0172_Merged.jpg
Gallienus - Centaur Left 21 viewsObverse:- GALLIENVSAVG, Head right with radiate crown
Reverse:- APOLLIN[ICONS]AVG, Centaur facing left with globe & rudder
Exergue:- H
RIC 164 GOBL 738b(2) CUNETIO 1386 CMR 1a8(B)

Much less common variation with both fore feet on the ground. Note there are no examples with the fore feet on the ground shown in Gobl, presumably an oversight, since the variation was known before being published in the Cunetio. I've added the (2) to the Gobl reference number in imitation of the classification of the same difference in the right facing Centaurs i.e. 735b(1) & 735b(2)
nogoodnicksleft
ID0150_MERGED.jpg
Gallienus - Centaur Left45 viewsObverse:- GALLIENVS[AV]G, Head right with radiate crown
Reverse:- APOLLI[NICONSAVG], Centaur left with globe and rudder
Exergue:- H
RIC 164 GOBL 738b CUNETIO 1386 CMR 1a8(A)
2 commentsnogoodnicksleft
0095_merged2.jpg
Gallienus - Centaur Left 19 viewsObverse:- GALLIENVSAVG, Head right with radiate crown
Reverse:- APOLLINICONSAVG, Centaur facing left with globe & rudder
Exergue:- H
RIC 164 GOBL 738b CUNETIO 1386 CMR 1a8(A)
nogoodnicksleft
ID0190_Merged.jpg
Gallienus - Centaur Left20 viewsObverse:- GALLIEN[VSAVG], Head right with radiate crown
Reverse:- APOLLIN[ICONSAVG], Centaur facing left with globe & rudder
Exergue:- H
RIC 164 GOBL 738b(2) CUNETIO 1386 CMR 1a8(B)

Another example of the less common variation with both fore feet on the ground. Again I've added the (2) to the Gobl reference number in imitation of the classification of the same difference that occur in the right facing Centaurs i.e. 735b(1) & 735b(2)
nogoodnicksleft
ID0017_CENTAUR_MERGED.jpg
Gallienus - Centaur Right55 viewsObverse:- GALLIENVSAVG, Head right with radiate crown
Reverse:- APOLLINICO[NSAVG], Centaur right with crossbow
Exergue:- Z
RIC 163 GOBL 735b(1) CUNETIO 1378
1 commentsnogoodnicksleft
ID0130_Merged.jpg
Gallienus - Centaur Right35 viewsObverse:- [GALLI]ENVSAVG, Head right with radiate crown
Reverse:- [AP]OLLINICONSAVG, Centaur right with bow
Exergue:- Z
RIC 163 GOBL 735b(1) CUNETIO 1378 CMR 2a7(A)
Interesting centaur with an unusually shaped raised foreleg, perhaps a die cutters attempt at making the near side leg raised or some remnant of the actual die cutting process.
nogoodnicksleft
ID0099_CENTAUR_MERGED.jpg
Gallienus - Centaur Right57 viewsObverse:- GALLIENVSAVG, Head right with radiate crown
Reverse:- APOLLINICONSAVG, Centaur right with bow, less common variation with both forelegs on the ground
Exergue:- Z
RIC ---- GOBL 735b(2) CUNETIO 1378 CMR 2a7(B)
nogoodnicksleft
ID0107_CENTAUR_MERGED.jpg
Gallienus - Centaur Right36 viewsObverse:- GALLIENVSAVG, Head right with radiate crown
Reverse:- APOLLINICONSAVG, Centaur right with crossbow
Exergue:- Z
Interesting double strike on reverse. On the obverse there seems to be an impressed Centaur of the same type.
RIC 163 GOBL 735b(1) CUNETIO 1378 CMR 2a7(A)
nogoodnicksleft
ID0139_MERGED.jpg
Gallienus - Centaur Right26 viewsObverse:- GALL[I]ENVSAVG, Head right with radiate crown
Reverse:- APOLLINICONSAVG, Centaur right with spear (or perhaps crossbow)
Exergue:- Z
RIC 163 GOBL 735b(1) CUNETIO 1378 CMR 2a7(A)

This is another example where the front fore leg seems to continue round to the back of the Centaur.
nogoodnicksleft
ID0184_Merged.jpg
Gallienus - Centaur Right16 viewsObverse:- GALLIENVSAVG, Head right with radiate crown
Reverse:- APOLLINICONSAVG, Centaur right with bow, less common variation with both forelegs on the ground
Exergue:- Z
RIC ---- GOBL 735b(2) CUNETIO 1378 CMR 2a7(B)
nogoodnicksleft
ID0208_Merged_Centaur_R.jpg
Gallienus - Centaur Right17 viewsObverse:- GALLIEN[V]S[AVG], Head right with radiate crown
Reverse:- APOLLINICONSAV[G], Centaur right with bow
Exergue:- Retrograde Z
RIC 163 GOBL 736b CUNETIO 1382 CMR 2a7(A) var

Second example with a retrograde Z officina
nogoodnicksleft
ID0207_CentaurR_Merged.jpg
Gallienus - Centaur Right13 viewsObverse:- GALLIEN[V]S[AVG], Head right with radiate crown
Reverse:- [AP]OLLINICON[SAV]G, Centaur right with bow
Exergue:- Retrograde Z
RIC 163 GOBL 736b CUNETIO 1382 CMR 2a7(A) var
nogoodnicksleft
centz.JPG
Gallienus - Centaurs27 viewsGhengis_Jon
ID0228.jpg
Gallienus - Doe Right28 viewsObverse:- IMPGAL[LIEN]VSAVG, Head right with radiate crown
Reverse:- [D]IANAECONSA[VG], Doe standing right, looking left
Exergue:- [E]
RIC 176 var GOBL 728z var CUNETIO 1357 var CMR 10bb5

The standard right facing bust with both ties off the shoulder (type F Gobl, type b CMR) is not a very common bust, most examples come from the tigress type, but they have been recorded on left & right facing centaurs, left facing stags and right facing XI gazelles. Now we can add the Doe standing right facing left type to this list.

This particular coin has a IMP prefix on the bust legend. As far as I know it is the only recorded example of this f type bust with the IMP GALLIENVS legend.
1 commentsnogoodnicksleft
gallienus_RIC164.jpg
GALLIENUS AE antoninianus - 267-268 AD (sole reign)53 viewsobv: GALLIENVS AVG (radiate head right)
rev: APOLLINI CONS AVG (Centaur walking left, globe in right hand, reversed rudder in left), H in ex.
ref: RIC Vi 164, RSC 74
mint: Rome
3.28gms, 20mm

RIC describes the centaur holding a trophy, but it appears to be a rudder.
1 commentsberserker
gallienus_apollini.png
Gallienus Antoninianus, APOLLINI CONS AVG28 viewsGallienus Antoninianus

Obverse:
GALLIENVS AVG
Radiate bust right

Reverse:
APOLLINI CONS AVG
Centaur walking right, drawing bow

RIC 163(s)
1 commentsHarry G
Gallienus8_opt.jpg
GALLIENUS Antoninianus, RIC 163, Centaur22 viewsOBV: GALLIENVS AVG, radiate bust right
REV: APOLLINI CONS AVG, centaur walking right drawing bow. Z in ex.


Minted at Rome, 267-8 AD, Sole Reign
Legatus
Dscn1499.jpg
Gallienus Centaur477 viewsAny thoughts...?2 commentsMayadigger
coin505.JPG
Gallienus Centaur6 viewsGallienus AE Antoninianus. GALLIENVS AVG, radiate head right / APOLLINI CONS AVG, Centaur walking left holding globe and trophy. Cohen 74, RSC 74. ecoli
GALLIENUS_Centaur.JPG
Gallienus Centaur24 views253-268 AD, Antoninianus, Crisp Centaur, ex HJB, Rome, 267-8 AD, 2.40g. Cunetio Hoard-1378 (143 spec.), RIC-163. Rx: APOLLINI CONS
AVG, Z=Officina 7, Centaur stepping r. about to shoot arrow from bow. Ex HJB 107, 18 March 1999, 345. EF, very sharp; some silvering
The armor is unusual, and could still represent some particular sort of heavy cavalry.
Romanorvm
gallienus_centaure.JPG
gallienus RIC V-1, Rome 16386 viewsAE17-22mm 3.2 grams
OBV :: GALLIENVS AVG. Radiate head right
REV :: APOLLINI CONS AVG. Centaur walking right , drawing back on bow
EX :: not visible
RIC V-1, Rome 163
Purchased 08/2008



2 commentsJohnny
Zoo_opt.jpg
Gallienus' Zoo45 viewsCentaur, Panther, Hippocamp, Antelope, Pegasus, Gryphon, Stag, GoatLegatus
Gallienus_RIC_163.JPG
Gallienus, 253 - 268 AD21 viewsObv: GALLIENVS AVG, radiate head of Gallienus facing right.

Rev: APOLLINI CONS AVG, Centaur walking right drawing a bow; Z in exergue.

Note: Refers to the vows Gallienus made to Apollo seeking his favor in quelling the revolt of Aureolus.

Billon Antoninianus, Rome, 7th Officina, 267 - 268 AD

3.1 grams, 21 x 19 mm, 180°

RIC Vi 163, RSC 72, S10177, VM 19/1
SPQR Coins
0440-211.jpg
Gallienus, Antoninianus88 viewsRome mint, 7th officina, AD 267-268
GALLIENVS AVG, radiate head right
APOLLINI CONS AVG, Centaur walking right, drawing bow. Z at exergue
2.41 gr
Ref : Cohen # 72, RCV # 10177, Göbl # 735b, RIC # 163, Cmr # 2a7
5 commentsPotator II
4609_4610.jpg
Gallienus, Antoninianus, APOLLINI CONS AVG8 viewsAE Antoninianus
Gallienus
Augustus: 253 - 268AD
Issued; 267 - 268AD
22.0 x 20.0mm
O: GALLIENVS AVG; Radiate head, right.
R: APOLLINI CONS AVG; Centaur standing left, holding globe and trophy.
Exergue: H
Rome Mint
RIC V-1 164, H; Cohen 74; RSC 74; Sear 10177.
Aorta: 409: B40, O10, R30, T34, M5.
Holding History Coins #A75
4/10/14 3/7/17
Nicholas Z
273C868E-614A-4B61-8CC9-3BC24392BEBB.jpeg
Gallienus, Centaur18 viewsGALLIENVS AVG,
radiate head right

APOLLINI CONS AVG,
Centaur walking right, drawing bow

Officina letter Z below

RIC 163
1 commentsRobin Ayers
gallienus_164.jpg
Gallienus, Göbl 738b56 viewsGallienus, AD 253-268, sole reign AD 260-268
AR - Antoninianus, 3.10g, 20.51mm, 0°
Rome, after 260
obv. GALLIENVS AVG
Head, radiate, r
rev. APO - LL - INI CONS AVG
Centaur, advancing l., r. fore-foot raised, holding globe in extended r. hand
and rudder over l. shoulder; wave-lines above horse's back
in ex. H
Göbl 738b; RIC V/1, 164; C.73
VF, nice portrait, some damages of the flan edge
Pedigree:
ex Fowler coll.
ex Stacks auction 27. June 1969, lot 659
ex Gerald Gartspein coll.

There are some diffiulties to attribute the item over the l. shoulder! Cohen calls it 'des fleches' (thunderbolt), RIC says 'trophy', but it seems to be a rudder. That would match the wave-lines too!
For more information look at the thread 'Mythological interesting coins'.


1 commentsJochen
Gallienus.jpg
Gallienus, RIC 164, Rome20 viewsObv: GALLIENVS AVG
Bust: Radiate head right
Rev: APOLLINI CONS AVG
Centaur advancing left holding globe and trophy.
Exe: H
Date: 267-268 AD
Denom: Antoninianus
Sole reign, officina 8
1 commentsBluefish
Gallienvs centaur.jpg
GALLIENVS 33 viewsGALLIENVS AVG

Rev.
APPOLINI CONS AVG

Centaur walking left holding globe and trophey

Rome
267-268 AD

RIC 163
Sear 10177

Billon Antoniannus

Issued to commemorate vows made to Appolo ivoking his protection against the revot of Aureolus
Titus Pullo
IMG_4862.JPG
German Notgeld: Nürnberg – Fürther Strassenbahn17 viewsCity: Nürnberg – Fürther Strassenbahn
State: Bavaria
Denomination: 20 Pfennig
Obverse: NÜRNBERG – FÜRTHER STRASSENBAHN, 20 PFENNIG within circle in center.
Reverse: KUNST - BRUNNEN, a depiction of Centaur Fountain at Bahnhofsplatz, FÜRTH in exergue.
Date: No Date
Grade: UNC
Catalog #:
Matt Inglima
collage~4.jpg
Gordian & Tranquilina46 viewsSingara, Mesopotamia

AVTOKMANTGORDIANONCεBTRANKVλλINACεB
Gordian and Tranquillina facing

AVRCεπKOλCINγARA
Tyche seated, turretted with Centaur/sagittarius above head; River god swimming at her feet

ae; 32mm; 24.04g
Lindgren 2627
arizonarobin
Gordian_III_Singara.jpg
Gordian III - Singara10 views242 - II 244 AD
radiate bust right, draped shoulder
AYTOK K M ANT ΓOPΔIANOC CEB
turreted bust of Tyche right, Centaur Sagittarius above
AVP CEΠ__KOΛ CINΓAPA
BMC Arabia 1; SNG Copenhagen 254
10,5g
Johny SYSEL
Gordian_Tranqillina_Singara.jpg
Gordian III - Singara15 views242 - II 244 AD
laureate, draped and cuirassed bust of Gordian III right from behind, confronting draped bust of Tranquillina left wearing stephane
AVTOK K M ANT ΓOPΔIANON CAB TPANKVΛΛINA CEB
City goddess left seated on rocks, holding branch; Centaur Sagittarius above; river-god swimming below
AVP CEΠ KOΛ CINΓAPA
BMC Arabia 8, SGICV 3804
17,4g
Johny SYSEL
Gordian_III_Tyche_Mesopotamia.JPG
Gordian III Tyche Mesopotamia83 viewsBronze AE 26, BMC Mesopotamia 1, VF, Singara mint, 10.682g, 25.1mm, 0o, July 29, 238 - 25 Feb 244 A.D.;
OBV: Radiate bust right, drapery on shoulder
REV: turreted bust of Tyche right, Centaur Sagittarius above;

Per Forvm, In 242 AD, Gordian III, along with his praetorian prefect and father-in-law Timesitheus, began a campaign against the Sasanian king, Shahpur I. After freeing Syria, a decisive battle secured all of Mesopotamia, including Singara and Nisibis. But after Timesitheus died in 243 the Roman advance stalled and they suffered a major defeat. In February 244, Gordian died and Philip was proclaimed emperor. Philip negotiated a truce in order to return to Rome for his Senate confirmation.
Ex Forvm Ancient Coins

SCARCE
Romanorvm
GORDIAN3-9-ROMAN.jpg
Gordian III, Roman Provincial Singara17 viewsAE15 Provincial
Singara mint, 238-244 A.D.
25mm, 11.01g

Obverse:
AYTOK K M ANT ΓOPΔIANOC CEB
Radiate bust right, drapery on left shoulder.

Reverse
AVP CEΠ KOΛ CINΓAPA
Turreted bust of Tyche right, Centaur Sagittarius above.
rubadub
+Velia~0.jpg
GREEK, ITALY, LUCANIA, Velia - AR nomos181 views334-300 BC
Head of Athena left, wearing a crested Phrygian helmet decorated with a centaur
(KE) monogram of Kleudoros
Lion standing left devouring prey
A / Φ
YEΛHTΩN (unreadable)
Williams 328 (O174/R244); HN Italy 1294; SNG ANS 1337
7,19g
2 commentsJohny SYSEL
HUN_Istvan_V_Huszar_355.JPG
Huszár 355a, Unger 266, RĂ©thy I 29583 viewsHungary. Stephen V (István, in Hun.) (1270-1272). AR denar, 12 mm.

Obv: + MONETA • VNGARIE, cross with rosettes between its arms.

Rev: Centaur facing right with sword and shield.

Huszár rarity rating 9.
Stkp
Gallienus-Antoninian-MEDIOLANUM-GÖBL_997r.jpg
II - GALLIENUS -b- Antoninian - MEDIOLANUM - GOEBL 0997r25 viewsAv) GALLIENVS AVG
Radiated and cuirassed bust right

Rv) LEG II PART VI P VI F
Centaur advancing right, holding cube

Weight: 3,8g; Ř: 23mm; Reference: GOEBL 997r
Note: light double strike on the reverse

1 commentssulcipius
rjb_2009_08_43.jpg
Irregular Legionary19 viewsCarausius 287-93AD
Antoninianus
Obv “..........SIVS PF AVG”
Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev “............”
Centaur walking right holding bow and arrow
Irregular mint
mauseus
juliamambostra33.jpg
JULIA MAMAEA37 viewsAE 31. Bostra (Arabia). 222-235 AD. 16,52 grs. Diademed and draped bust right. IVLIA MAMAEA AVGVSTA / City-goddess ( Tyche) standing facing,holding spear with trophy-top and cornucopiae, left foot over river- god, flanked by centaurs, within tetrastyle temple with central arch. N TR A-LEXA-ANDRI-ANAE. In exergue COL BOSTR.
Kindler 39. Spijkerman 55. Rosenberger 45.
Münzen & Medaillen. List 583 # 34.
benito
Screenshot_2019-07-09_18_28_33.png
Kleudoros Group, AR Nomos.15 viewsVelia 334-300 B.C. 6.55g - 20.7mm, Axis 9h.

Obv: Head of Athena left, wearing crested Phrygian helmet decorated with a centaur; KE monogram behind neck.

Rev: YEΛHTΩN - Lion feeding left, Φ below. YEΛHTΩN in ex.

William 343 (O178/R250); SNG ANS 1341 (same dies); HN Italy 1296.
scarli
3395122.jpg
Lucania, Velia24 viewsAR Nomos (19mm, 7.38g)
c. 334-300 B.C.E.
Kleudoros Group

O: Head of Athena left, wearing crested Phrygian helmet, decorated with centauress; monogram behind

R: Lion standing left, feeding; A below; YEΛHTΩN in ex.

Williams 359; HNItaly 1296
Salaethus
3395121.jpg
Lucania, Velia48 viewsAR Nomos (20mm, 7.34g)
334-300 B.C.E.
Kleudoros Group

O: Head of Athena left, wearing crested Phrygian helmet decorated with centauress; monogram behind

R: Lion standing left, feeding; A above, monogram below; YEΛHTΩN in ex.

Williams 331
2 commentsSalaethus
Velia.jpg
Lucania, Velia AR Didrachm134 viewsHelmeted head of Athena left, wearing Phrygian helmet decorated with centauress, KE monogram behind

Lion left, tearing prey, A above, KE monogram below, ΥΕΛΗΤΩΝ in ex.

Circa 334-300 BC

7.22g

Williams 327 (O.174/R.243)
BMC 74; HN Italy 1294.

Ex-Calgary coin

The KE obverse monogram is the signature of Kleudoros, the artist or mint master of Velia.
5 commentsJay GT4
Lucania_Velia_Williams-192.jpg
Lucania. Velia.23 viewsLucania. Velia. 400-350 BC. AR Nomos (7.52 gm). Head of Athena l., wearing Phrygian helmet decorated w. draped female centaur. Monogram ˃Ε behind. / Lion standing l., devouring prey. Λ above, ˃Ε below. ex: VEΛHTΩN. gVF. Bt. Stack's Bowers 2011. CG #931. Williams 359; HN Italy 1296; SNG ANS 1325v (Λ monogram); SNG Cop 1563; HGC 1 1314.Christian T
maionia_sept_severus_BMC43.jpg
Lydia, Maionia, Septimius Severus, BMC 4333 viewsSeptimius Severus, AD 193-211
AE 35, 22.57g
struck under archon Julianus
obv. AV [KAI] L CE - P CEVHR[OC PE]R - TIN
Bust, draped and cuirassed, laureate, r.
rev. EPI IO[VLI]AN - OV [TAAB(??) ARXONTOC]
Dionysos, in long garment, holding thyrsos in l. arm, leaning r. on biga drawn by
two centaurs and resting with r. arm on back; the centaur in front, looking back
to Dionysos, is holding a club in r. arm and a torch in raised l. hand, the other
one a torch in r. hand
in ex. MAI[ONW]N
BMC 43, pl. XIV, no.7 (rev. same die); Lanz 32, April 1985, 633 (same dies)
F+, surfaces with porosity
(Thanks to Curtis Clay for attribution!)

A similar type, AE size 10 with slightly different legends, is in the B.M.
2 commentsJochen
1465_M_Aurelius_Cota.jpg
M. Aurelius Cotta - AR denarius10 viewsRome
ą143 BC
˛139 BC
head of Roma right wearing winged helmet
COTA
X
Hercules in biga of Centaurs right, each of whom holding a branch, Hercules holding club and reins
M·(AVR)ELI
ROMA
ąCrawford 229/1; Sydenham 429; cf. Aurelia 16
˛Mark Passehl - Roman moneyer & coin type chronology, 150 – 50 BC
ex Aurea
Johny SYSEL
Cotta.jpg
M. AURELIUS COTTA AR Denarius28 viewsAR Denarius
OBVERSE: Head of Roma, COTA below, X behind
REVERSE: Hercules holding club in biga of centaurs holding branches; M.AVRELI below, ROMA in ex
Rome 139 BC
4.29g, 16mm
Aurelia 16, BMC.914, Craw.229/1
ex. Pliego Numismatics
2 commentsLegatus
ThessalonicaAE2.JPG
MACEDON: Thessalonika14 viewsMacedonia, Thessalonica. Laureate head of Janus; I above / THESSALONIKES, two Centaurs prancing, back to back, each holding a thyrsos. BMC 34, SNGCop 370.Molinari
Macedonia_Janus_Head_Centaurs.JPG
Macedonia Janus Head Centaurs29 viewsMacedonia, Thessalonica, 18mm, 6.9g, Moushmov 6607, BMC 34
OBV: Laureate head of Janus; I above /
REV: QESSALONIKES, two Centaurs prancing, back to back, each holding a thyrsos.
Romanorvm
Macedonian_Kingdom_16.PNG
Macedonia Thessalonica 88 B.C8 viewsMacedonia Thessalonica 88 B.C

Obverse. Jugate head of Janus

Reverse.QESSALONIKES,two centaurs prancing, back to back each holding a thyrsos.

17mm
Macedonian Warrior
Thessalonikca-Macedonia_Q-050_1h_20-21,5mm_6,90g-s.jpg
Macedonia, Thessalonica, (c.187-31 B.C.), AE-20, SNG Cop 370, ΘΕΣΣΑΛΟΝΙΚΕΣ ,Two Centaurs,66 viewsMacedonia, Thessalonica, (c.187-31 B.C.), AE-20, SNG Cop 370, ΘΕΣΣΑΛΟΝΙΚΕΣ ,Two Centaurs,
avers:- Head of Janus, bearded.
revers:- Two Centaurs prancing, each holding branch, ΘΕΣΣΑΛΟΝΙΚΕΣ, below.
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: 20-21,5mm, weight:6,90g, axes:1h,
mint: Macedonia, Thessalonica, date: c.187-31 B.C., ref: SNG ANS 805, SNG Copenhagen 370, Moushmov 6633,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
janus_centaurs.jpg
MACEDONIA, THESSALONIKA 48 viewsAFTER 88 BC
AE 17mm 5.07g
O: HEAD OF JANUS
R: 2 CENTAURS PRANCING BACK TO BACK
laney
JANUS_CENTAURS_RES.jpg
MACEDONIA, THESSALONIKA28 views1st Century BC
AE 17 mm 5.87 g
O: Laureate head of Janus.
R: Two centaurs prancing back to back, each holding a branch
laney
thessalonika_janus_centaurs_res.jpg
MACEDONIA, THESSALONIKA21 views88 - 31 BC
AE 19 mm 5.05 g
O: Laureate head of Janus
R: Two centaurs prancing back to back, each holding a branch
laney
356_Magnesia.jpg
Magnetes - AE 209 viewsDemetrias
197-146 BC
laureate head of Zeus left
Centaur holding branch right; owl under
MAΓNHTΩN
SNG Cop 160, BMC 34.8-9.
8,75g
ex Divus Numismatik
Johny SYSEL
044.JPG
Magnetes, Thessaly39 views196-146 B.C.
Ć 6.20 gm, 20 mm
Obv.: Laureate head of Zeus left
Rev.: The Centaur Cheiron standing right wearing chlamys (cloak), holding palm over left shoulder, right arm extended, MAΓNHTΩN to left.
BMC vii p.34, 7; Sear 2138var.
Jaimelai
1720mm.JPG
Magnetes, Thessaly. 196-146 BC. AE17-20mm13 viewsMagnetes, Thessaly. 196-146 BC.

Obv. Laureate head of Zeus right.
Rev. Centaur standing right, right hand held before him, holding branch in left.

Ref. Rogers 339.
Lee S
GB62LG.jpg
Mesopotamia, Singara, Gordian III and Tranquillina, BMC 1190 viewsGordian III & Tranquillina, AD 238-244
AE - AE 32, 22.76g,
AD 238-239
obv. AVTO KM ANT GORDIANON SAB TRANKVLLINA SEB
Busts of the imperial pair facing each another, Gordian with Aegis on l. shoulder
rev. AVR SEP KOL SINGARA
Tyche, turreted, with cornears, seated l. on rocks, above her Centaur (or Sagittarius)
jumping l., l. below rivergod swimming l.
BMC 11
VF+, nice green-brown patina, portrait of Tranquillina!
added to www.wildwinds.com

The Centaur was the symbol of the Legio I Parthica located in Singara.
1 commentsJochen
GIC_3790v_238-244_Gordianus_III.jpg
Mesopotamia_Nisibis_Gordianus_III_GIC 3790 var.5 viewsGordianus III.
AE, Mesopotamia, Nisibis
Struck: 242-244 / 24-28 mm / 10,78 g

Av: AYTOK K MANT ΓΟΡΔIANOC CEB
Radiate head right seen from behind, light drapery on left shoulder

Rv: CΕΠ KOΛO NECIBI MHT
Veiled bust of Tyche right, Centaur Sagittarius right below

Reference: GIC 3790 var.
Andicz
BMC_11_238-244_Gordianus_III__01.jpg
Mesopotamia_Singara_Gordianus_III_BMC 8-11_018 viewsGordianus III. and Tranquillina
AE, Mesopotamia, Singara
Struck: 238-239 / 31 mm / 22,60 g

Av: AYTOK K M ANT ΓOPΔIANON CAB TPANKYΔΔINA CEB
Confronted busts of Gordianus on left, laureate, draped and cuirassed, and Tranquillina on right, draped and diademed

Rv: AVP CEΠ KOΛ CINΓAPA
Tyche seated left on rock, holding branch, the centaur Sagittarius above to left, discharging arrow, river god swimming left below

Reference: BMC 8-11
Andicz
BMC_11_238-244_Gordianus_III.jpg
Mesopotamia_Singara_Gordianus_III_BMC 8-11_0211 viewsGordianus III. and Tranquillina
AE, Mesopotamia, Singara
Struck: 238-239 / 30 mm / 22,11 g

Av: AYTOK K M ANT ΓOPΔIANON CAB TPANKYΔΔINA CEB
Confronted busts of Gordianus on left, laureate, draped and cuirassed, and Tranquillina on right, draped and diademed

Rv: AVP CEΠ KOΛ CINΓAPA
Tyche seated left on rock, holding branch, the centaur Sagittarius above to left, discharging arrow, river god swimming left below

Reference: BMC 8-11
Andicz
Mythological_creatures_collage_15.jpg
MYTHOLOGICAL CREATURES44 viewsTop row: Agathodaemon; Griffin; Centaur
Row 2: Capricorn; Sphinx; Hippocamp; Kerberos
Row 3: Gorgon; Horned Panther; Phoenix
Bottom row: Pegasos; Pan; Horned Lion; Chimaera
laney
Mythological_creatures_collage_15~0.jpg
MYTHOLOGICAL CREATURES COLLAGE126 viewsTop row: Agathodaemon; Griffin; Centaur
Row 2: Capricorn; Sphinx; Hippocamp; Kerberos
Row 3: Gorgon; Horned Panther; Phoenix
Bottom row: Pegasos; Pan; Horned Lion; Chimaera
(examples from my collection)
2 commentslaney
D8.jpg
Prusias II (180-149 BC) Kingdom of Bithynia61 viewsObverse:
Head of Dionysos right, wreathed with ivy

Reverse:
The Centaur Chiron right, playing lyre; wears wreath, and chlamys of animal skin
'BASILEWS PROUSIOU'
HY monogram right.

Diameter: 21mm

Ref: SNG Cop 635, Aulock 255

Notes:
A great healer, astrologer, and respected oracle, Chiron was said to be the first among centaurs and highly revered as a teacher and tutor. Among his pupils were many heroes: Asclepius, Aristaeus, Ajax, Aeneas, Actaeon, Caeneus, Theseus, Achilles, Jason, Peleus, Telamon, Perseus, sometimes Heracles, Oileus, Phoenix, and in one Byzantine tradition, even Dionysos.
Xerxes King of Kings
Prussia.jpg
Prusias II Cynegos, King of Bithynia ca 182-149 BC. HY monogram.17 viewsPrusias II Cynegos, King of Bithynia AE 20. Wreathed head of Dionysos right / BASILEWS PROUSIOU, Centaur walking right, playing a lyre; HY monogram right.
SNG Cop 635; Aulock 255; RecGen 26, monogram 3.
Antonivs Protti
Prusias_II_-_Group.jpg
Prusias II, King of Bithynia. 182-149 BC37 viewsPrusias II, King of Bithynia AE 17 - 21mm. 182 -149 BC. Ivy-wreathed head of Dionysos right / ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΠΡΟΥΣΙΟΥ, centaur advancing right, playing lyre; monogram below front leg. SNG Cop 639. SNG Cop 635.
(3rd from right white metal, modern)
ddwau
centaur.jpg
Prusias II: Centaur Chieron playing lyre12 viewsKINGS OF BITHYNIA Prusias II, c. 185-149 B.C. Ć 20, 6.3 g. Obv. Head of Dionysos right. Rev. BASILEWS PROUSIOU, The centaur Chieron right playing lyre, monogram in field. Sear GCV 7266.Podiceps
DSCN1607~0.JPG
RIC 163, Z Gallienus, Antoninianus. Sole reign102 viewsRIC 163, Z Gallienus, Antoninianus. Sole reign. Rome mint. GALLIENVS AVG, radiate head right / APOLLINI CONS AVG, Centaur walking right, drawing bow. Officina letter Z below. RIC V-1, 163; RSC 72; Sear5 10177.19mm 1.8gmsjessvc1
04_08_04_13-GallienusCentaurL.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE - Gallienus220 viewsROMAN EMPIRE - Gallienus (253-268 AD) AE Antoninianus. Minted 260-268 AD. Obv.: GALLIENVS AVG, radiate head right. Rev.: APOLLINI CONS AVG, Centaur walking left holding globe and trophy. Mintmark H = Rome Mint. RIC 164; Cohen 74; RSC 74; Sear5 10177. dpaul7
39-Gallienus_centaur_RIC_163_977px.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE - Gallienus14 viewsROMAN EMPIRE - Gallienus (253-268) Antoninianus, minted 267-268 AD. Obv.: Radiate bustright. GALLIENVS AVG Rev.: APOLLINI CONS AVG Centaur walking right, drawing bow.Mintmark Z in exergue. Rome mint. Reference: RIC V-1, Rome 163 (Sole reign).dpaul7
bpP1E1Singara.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE PROVINCIAL, Gordian III & Tranquillina, Singara, Mesopotamia65 viewsObv: ΑVΤΟΚ Κ Μ ΑΝΤ ΓΟΡΔΙΑΝΟΝ CΑΒ ΤΡΑΝΚVΛΛΙΝΑ CЄΒ
Gordian III and Tranquillina as confronted busts.
Rev: ΑVΡ CЄΠ ΚΟΛ CΙΝΓΑΡΑ
Tyche seated left on rock holding branch with river god swimming at her feet. The centaur, Sagittarius, above facing left and discharging bow.
30 gm 32.2 mm 238-244 AD Sear (GIC) 3804
Massanutten
Picture_16~0.png
ROMAN EMPIRE, Gallienus6 viewsGallienus, Antoninianus. Sole reign. Rome mint. GALLIENVS AVG, radiate head right / APOLLINI CONS AVG, Centaur walking right, drawing bow. Officina letter Z below. RIC V-1, 163; RSC 72; Sear5 10177.19mm 1.8gmsjessvc1
Photo_2006_7_18_14_27_50_edited.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Gallienus APOLLINI CONS AVG46 viewsGallienus, 260-268 A.D., Rome.
OBV: GALLIENVS AVG, radiate head right.
REV: APOLLINI CONS AVG, centaur advancing left, holding globe and trophy.
ancientcoins
GallienusCentaur.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE, Gallienus centaur21 viewsgparch
bpS1O4Gallienus.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Gallienus, Antoninianus40 viewsObv: GALLIENVS AVG
Radiate head, right.
Rev: APOLLINI CONS AVG
Centaur drawing bow, right.
Antoninianus, 2 gm, 19.4 mm, Rome RIC 163
History (As sole Augustus, 260-265, Part I): The loss of Valerian led many to believe that the Empire was ripe for their grab of a portion of the imperial power. The first to revolt in the East was Ingenuus, the Governor of Pannonia and Moesia. Proclaimed Emperor by his Legions, he was defeated soon after by Aureolus, one of Gallienus' field generals. Next to rise was Regalianus who quickly realized a similar fate. Also in 260 the family Macriani revolted, taking with them Syria, Egypt and Asia Minor. Again, Aureolus came through by defeating Macrianus in 261 while his younger brother, Quitus, was removed by Odaenathus, the ruler of Palmyra and ally of Rome. Gallienus could do little about the flood of barbarous incursions in the West, short of sending his young and inexperienced son, Saloninus, to establish the Imperial Presence. Postumus, the Governor of Lower Germany, filled the power vacuum by allowing his Legions to declare him Emperor in 260. thus establishing the seed for a breakaway empire that would last for the next fourteen years. Meanwhile back in the East, the next to revolt was the trusted field commander, Aureolus in 262, but he reneged on the gambit through the intercessions of Gallienus. In the following year or perhaps 264, Gallienus and Aureolus, now put in Command of the newly established mobile cavalry, initiated a campaign in the West to depose Postumus. Greatly successful, the campaign came to a sudden halt in 265 when Gallienus was seriously wounded and Aureolus failed to prevent Postumus from escaping. No further action would be taken against Postumus for the remainder of the reign of Gallienus.
Massanutten
zentaur_ges.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Gallienus, Antoninianus, Centaur17 viewsFranz-Josef M
moneta 521.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Gallienus, Rome - RIC V (Part 1) 16342 viewsGallienus Antoninianus
obv: GALLIENVS AVG. Radiate bust right
rev: APOLLINI CONS AVG. Centaur walking right, drawing bow.
exergue: Z
Struck 267-268 A.D. at Rome
RIC V (Part 1) 163
Note: Issued to commemorate vows to Apollo invoking his protection against the revolt of Aureolus.
Jericho
00278q00.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, Collateral Semilibral Struck AE Triens - Crawford 3939 viewsRome. The Republic.
Semilibral Reduction, 217-215 BCE
Ć Triens (54 grams; 37 mm).
Uncertain Italian Mint.

Obverse: Head of Juno (?) right, wearing double-crested diadem, her hair tied in three ringlets down neck; scepter or sword over left shoulder (?); ●●●● (mark of value) behind.

Reverse: Hercules, naked but for lion skin, grasping centaur by hair and preparing to strike him with club; ●●●● (mark of value) before; ROMA in exergue.

References: Crawford 39/1; Sydenham 93 (R6); BMCRR (Romano-Campanian) 113-115.

Provenance: Ex Munzen und Medaillen 47 (1972), Lot 74.

Crawford dates his 39 series of collateral, semilibral struck bronzes to the early years of the Second Punic War, 217-215 BC. The economic hardship on Rome imposed by Hannibal’s invasion led to a rapid decline in the weight of Roman bronze coins, resulting in the adoption of a semi-libral bronze standard (AE As of ˝ Roman pound) and eventual elimination of cast coins. Crawford deduces that Hannibal’s defeat of Rome at Trasimene in 217 B.C. likely tipped the financial scales to the semilibral reduction. He notes that Capua overstruck Roman coinage of the late semi-libral period when Capua joined with Hannibal in 216-215. Further, in Roman Republican Coin Hoards, Crawford reports that hoard #56, found at Capua in 1909, contained three trientes and four sextantes of the “collateral” series; thus the series must have circulated in Capua for a time before the town switched sides to Hannibal in 216-215. It appears that the standard, prow-type semilibral coins (Crawford 38) came first, because hoards containing the Crawford 39 coins almost always contain semilibral prow types as well.

The obverse of this Triens is particularly enigmatic. Both before, during and after production of this series, the goddess depicted on trientes was typically Minerva. In Roman iconography, Minerva’s attributes are the Corinthian helmet, aegis and spear. The goddess on this triens lacks the Corinthian helmet that was used to depict Minerva in previous Aes Grave series of libral and semilibral weight standard (See Crawford 35 and 38 Aes Grave) and on the subsequent, prow-type, struck trientes (Crawford 41 and 56). Some authors are non-committal as to the goddess’ identity (Crawford, for one, in his catalogue; though elsewhere in his text he refers to “Juno”); others attribute the goddess as Juno who, as Jupiter’s consort, is typically rendered with a diadem crown and scepter; and others believe the goddess is Bellona, a war goddess who is typically rendered with helmet and weapon. Firm identification depends, in part, on proper understanding of the headgear. I think attempts to call the headgear a “helmet” or “partial helmet” are misguided efforts to explain the crest. In my opinion, the headgear is a crested diadem. The odd crest attached to the end of the diadem is possibly a misinterpreted element borrowed from portraits of Tanit on Punic coinage, which always show Tanit with a stylized wheat leaf in this location (Tanit’s depiction was likely borrowed by the Carthaginians from Syracusan tetradrachms). There is also some confusion as to what the goddess holds over her left shoulder. Condition issues and poor strikes on some examples often eliminate this aspect of the design. Fortunately, my example is quite clear and one can see the shadowy image on the left shoulder which extends in straight-line behind the left side of the goddess’ head ending in a visible, rounded point above her head. Crawford may have thought the lower part of this element represented the goddess’ far-side curls (“hair falls in tight rolls onto BOTH shoulders” emphasis added), but this interpretation does not explain the point above her head. The point is not likely to represent the opposite crest, as the crest on the visible side does not extend above head-top level. A more plausible theory, proposed by both Grueber and Sydenham, is that the goddess is holding a scepter over her left shoulder, which is consistent with Juno’s attributes. Other possibilities are that she bears a spear, which is an attribute of Minerva, or a sword, which is an attribute of Bellona.

The Series 39 types and their relationship to contemporaneous Second Punic War events are interesting to ponder. Hercules is an important figure, appearing on two of the 10 available sides of the series. Likely this is a paradigm of Roman heroism during the War. In the myth depicted on this Triens, Hercules kills a centaur for assaulting his wife – is this an allegorical reference to Hannibal’s assault on Italy (and the likely response from Rome)?

Despite its beauty, this type would never again be repeated on a Roman coin. However, related imagery can be found on quincunxes of Capua and quadrantes of Larinum, Apulia, immediately following the defection of those towns to Hannibal’s side of the Second Punic War.
3 commentsCarausius
RPC_II_2704_Domitianus.jpg
RPC II 2704 Domitianus29 viewsObv: AYT KAIC ΘEOY YIOC ΔOMIT CEB ΓEPM, Laureate head of Domitian, right
Rev. L IΔ, Emperor in biga of centaurs, right
AE/Drachm (34.43 mm 24.40 g 12h) Struck in Alexandria (Egypt) 94-95 AD
RPC 2704, Emmett 253.14, Milne 523
1 commentsFlaviusDomitianus
series-s-1.jpg
S.814 Anglo-Saxon sceat37 viewsSecondary phase Anglo-Saxon sceat
Mint: ?Essex
Series S
Type 47
S.814
Abramson 68-10
O: Female centaur
R: Clockwise whorl of four wolf heads with interlocked tongues

Originally called series "S" for "Sphinx", the creature is rather a female centaur.

Ex- Shanna Schmidt, Triton XXI (lot 1373), Dr. JDR, CNG 53 (lot 2230)
1 commentsNap
Sergia_1.JPG
Sergia 132 viewsSergia 1 (116/5BC) moneyer M. Sergi Silus

Denarius
Ob: helmeted head of Roma right behind ROMA * in front [EX S ∙ C ∙ ]
Rev: Horseman left holding sword and severed head, before Q (under horse), below
M ∙ SERGI in exergue SILVS

BMCRR II 512

Sydenham 544 (109BC)

Crawford 286/1

Northumberland: Tablet XIV 24

“M. Sergius Silus was urban praetor about B.C. 107; and being the great grandson of the brave Sergius who fought against Hannibal, he here represents his illustrious relative with the glaive in his sinister hand, because he had lost the right one in battle. Eckhel thinks it probable that this device is taken from an equestrian statue erected to the intrepid soldier, who was acknowledged as the representative of valour and fortitude.”


The Sergii boasted their descent from Segestus the Trojan, and they furnished the state with a consul as early as B.C. 437; while Virgil countenances their antiquity in the Aeneid, V 121.”

Sergestusque, domus tenet a quo Sergia nomen,
Centaro invehitur magna,…

And Sergestus, from whom the house held the Sergia name,
He rode in on a great centaur (navis) JPW

Crawford: Not the father of Catilina but a member of a collateral branch of the family.
Reverse depicts the exploits of the moneyer’s grandfather, who was praetor in 197 BC and in his youth fought left-handed after losing his right hand in battle.
(Pliny NH vii 104-6)

Nice old dark toning
1 commentsPetrus Elmsley
Gallienus_centaur.JPG
Struck A.D.267 - 268. GALLIENUS. AE ANTONINIANUS of Rome20 viewsObverse: GALLIENVS AVG. Radiate head of Gallienus facing right.
Reverse: APOLLINI CONS AVG. Centaur walking right, drawing bow.
RIC V i : 163
2 comments*Alex
BMC_532_244-249_Philippus_I__Arabs.jpg
Syria_Seleukis and Pieria_Antiochia_Philippus_Arabs_BMC 5326 viewsPhilippus Arabs
AE, Syria, Seleukis and Pieria, Antiochia
Struck: 244-249 / 29 mm / 12,75 g

Av: ΑΥΤΟΚ Κ Μ ΙΟΥΑΙ ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟC CΕΒ
Radiate, cuirassed and draped bust left with shield seen from the front,
Emperor on horse and two more figures on shield

Rv: ANTIOXEΩN - MHTPOKOΔΩN
Veiled and turreted bust of Tyche right, Centaur Sagittarius to right above

In Fields: Δ Ε S C

Reference: BMC 532
Andicz
BMC_537_244-249_Philippus_I__Arabs.jpg
Syria_Seleukis and Pieria_Antiochia_Philippus_Arabs_BMC 53712 viewsPhilippus Arabs and Philippus II.
AE, Syria, Seleukis and Pieria, Antiochia
Struck: 244-249 / 30-32 mm / 18,92 g

Av: ΑΥΤΟΚ Κ Μ ΙΟΥΑΙ ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΙ CΕΒ
Radiate, cuirassed and draped bust of Philippus Arabs right seen from behind,
behind him laureate and draped bust of Philippus II. right seen from behind

Rv: ANTIOXEΩN - MHTPOKOΔΩN
Veiled and turreted bust of Tyche right, Centaur Sagittarius to right above

In Fields: Δ Ε S C

Reference: BMC 537
Andicz
SNGCop_272_244-249_Philippus_I__Arabs.jpg
Syria_Seleukis and Pieria_Antiochia_Philippus_Arabs_SNGCop 2727 viewsPhilippus Arabs
AE, Syria, Seleukis and Pieria, Antiochia
Struck: 244-249 / 28-28,5 mm / 15,55 g

Av: ΑΥΤΟΚ Κ Μ ΙΟΥΑΙ ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟC CΕΒ
Laureate, cuirassed and draped bust right seen from the front

Rv: ANTIOXEΩN - MHTPOKOΔΩN
Veiled and turreted bust of Tyche right, Centaur Sagittarius to right above

In Fields: Δ Ε S C

Reference: SNGCop 272
Andicz
SNGCop_277v_247-249_Philippus_II.jpg
Syria_Seleukis and Pieria_Antiochia_Philippus_II_SNGCop 277 var.7 viewsPhilippus II.
AE, Syria, Seleukis and Pieria, Antiochia
Struck: 244-247 / 29-30 mm / 11,39 g

Av: MAP IOYΛ ΦIΛIΠΠOC KAICAP
Cuirassed and draped bust left with shield seen from behind

Rv: ANTIOXEΩN - MHTPOKOΔΩN
Veiled and turreted bust of Tyche right, Centaur Sagittarius to right above

In Fields: Δ Ε S C

Reference: SNGCop 277 var.
Andicz
66065p00.jpg
The Magnetes, Thessaly, Greece, c. 140 - 130 B.C.20 viewsBronze tetrachalkon, 8.370g, 20.8mm, 270o, Magnetes' mint, c. 140 - 130 B.C.
Obv: Laureate head of Zeus.
Rev: MAGNHTON, centaur Cheiron standing right, right hand extended, branch in left over shoulder.
Ref: cf. Rogers Thessaly 342; BCD Thessaly II 418.5; Lindgren II 1402; SNG Cop 159.
VF
1 commentsmjabrial
thessconfOR.jpg
Thessalian Confederacy, Larissa(?) mint, The Numismatic Chronicle and Journal of the Numismatic Society, Third Series, XVIII, 1898, Pl. XIX. 1.70 viewsThessalian Confederacy, Larissa(?) mint, 196-146 B.C. AE, 23mm 11.04g, The Numismatic Chronicle and Journal of the Numismatic Society, Third Series, XVIII, 1898, Pl. XIX. 1., Weber 2945
O: Head of Zeus r., laureate
R: to left ΘEΣΣA to right ΛΩN above EYBIOTOY below ..TPΛIO(?), Monster, like a centaur, except that the animal part of him is of a bull, not of a horse, rearing r., and seizing by the bridle a horse rearing r.
1 commentscasata137ec
Thessalonian_Stater.jpg
Thessalian League Stater -- 196-146 BC45 views6.13 g, 23 mm, 330°
Minted in Thessaly (Likely Larisssa)
Silver Stater
During the Time of the Strategoi Simios and the Magistrate Pole-
BCD Thessaly II 822 (Same Dies)

Obverse: Head of Zeus Wearing Laurel Wreath Right; ΣΙΜΙΟΥ to left.
Reverse: Athena Itonia Right, Star to Upper Right; Π-Ο/Λ-Ε Across Central Field; ΘΕΣΣΑ-ΛΩΝ at Sides.

The land of Thessaly is ancient and was known as Aeolia during Mycenaean times. In mythology, the great heroes Achilles and Jason are said to be from Thessaly as are the centaurs, Lapiths, and Myrmidons. Philip II was appointed Archon of Thessaly and the land was afterwords closely associated with Macedonia. Following the Roman victory in the Second Macedonian War (197 BC), all of Greece was declared "free". The Thessalian League, a loose connection of Thessalian poleis, was revived and a federal council, the synedrion, was created which annually changed officers. The seat of the league was in the largest Thessalian city, Larissa. The League continued to exist even after Thessaly became part of the new Roman province of Macedonia in 146 BCE. The names appearing on these issues are of the Strategoi of the League (Obverse) and Magistrates (Reverse).
2 commentsHydro
magnetes_centaurb~0.jpg
THESSALY, MAGNETES22 views196 - 146 BC
AE 20mm 9.24 g
O: Laur. head of Zeus, L
R: The Centaur Cheiron prancing R
laney
magnetes_chiron_2resb.jpg
THESSALY, MAGNETES19 viewsTHESSALY, MAGNETES
196 - 146 BC
AE 21.5 max., 7.70 g
O: Laur. head of Zeus, L
R: The Centaur Cheiron prancing R
laney
magnetes_chir_resc.jpg
THESSALY, MAGNETES22 viewsTHESSALY, MAGNETES
196 - 146 BC
AE 20mm 9.24 g
O: Laur. head of Zeus, L
R: The Centaur Cheiron prancing R
laney
magnes_zeus_chiron_1.jpg
THESSALY, MAGNETES12 views196 - 146 BC
AE 21.5 max., 7.70 g
O: Laur. head of Zeus, L
R: The Centaur Cheiron prancing R, carrying palm branch over shoulder, arms raised
laney
magnetes_centaurb.jpg
THESSALY, THE MAGNETES24 views196 - 146 BC
AE 20mm 9.24 g
O: Laur. head of Zeus, L
R: The Centaur Cheiron prancing R
laney
Trajan_Centaurs_biga.jpg
Trajan AE35 drachm Alexandria, Biga of centaurs18 viewsTrajan 98-117 AD, Drachm, Egypt, Alexandria, Year 11, 20.79g. Rx: Biga of centaurs holding branch and sceptre. . Dattari-734. Emmett 464.11 (R5), Kampmann-Ganschow 27.101mattpat
singara_k.jpg
Tranquillina, AD 241-244. 10 viewsĆ25, 10.7g, 12h. MESOPOTAMIA, Singara.
Obv.: SAB TRANQVILLINA AVG; Diademed and draped bust right.
Rev.: AVP CЄΠ KOΛ CINΓAPA; Veiled bust of Tyche right; Centaur Sagittarius leaping right and discharging bow above.
Reference: BMC Arabia p. 136, 14; SNG Copenhagen 258 / 17-304-70
John Anthony
1212_003.JPG
Tranquillina, Augusta 241-244 A.D., Singara, Mesopotamia51 views
Bronze AE 26, S 3867, BMC 14, Singara mint 241 - 244 A.D.; obverse CAB TPANKVΛΛINA CEB, diademed and draped bust right; reverse CVP CEΠ KOΛ CINΓAPA, veiled and turreted bust of Tyche right, centaur Sagittarius above, discharging bow; rare
2 commentsRandygeki(h2)
turiaso_.jpg
Turiaso?, Spain, c. 1st Century B.C. Bronze AE30.3mm; centaur?48 viewsTuriaso?, Spain, c. 1st Century B.C. Bronze AE 26, cf. RPC I 402 (horseman reverse), F, 9.629g, 30.3mm, 180o, obverse female head right; reverse, Centaur(?) right, linear circle border. Found in Spain. Ex FORVMPodiceps
Velia.jpg
Velia - AR nomos7 views334-300 BC
Head of Athena left, wearing a crested Phrygian helmet decorated with a Centaur
(KE) monogram of Kleudoros
Lion standing left devouring prey
A / Φ
YEΛHTΩN on raised platform (unreadable)
Williams 328 (O174/R244); HN Italy 1294; SNG ANS 1337
7,19g
ex Lanz
Johny SYSEL
Valerian1RIC232.jpg
[1112a] Valerian I, October 253 - c. June 260 A.D.72 viewsSilver antoninianus, RIC 232, RSC 10, VF, worn die reverse, Mediolanum mint, 3.909g, 22.2mm, 180o, 257 A.D.; Obverse: IMP VALERIANVS P AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: AETERNITATI AVGG, Sol standing left, raising right, globe in left; nice portrait, good silver for the reign. Ex FORVM.


De Imperatoribus Romanis,
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors and their Families

Valerian (A.D. 253-260) and Gallienus (A.D. 253-268)

Richard D. Weigel
Western Kentucky University


P. Licinius Valerianus, or Valerian, was unusual for his time period in that he was an emperor who came from an old Roman senatorial family. He was likely born shortly before 200 A.D., but little is known of his early life. Valerian married Egnatia Mariniana and had two sons, Gallienus and Valerian Junior. Gallienus was born around 218. Valerian makes his first appearance in the sources in 238 A.D. as an ex-consul and princeps senatus negotiating with (more likely than serving on) the embassy sent to Rome by Gordian I's African legions to secure senatorial approval of Gordian's rebellion against and replacement of Maximinus Thrax as emperor. The Scriptores Historiae Augustae probably report accurately that Trajan Decius, on the recommendation of the Senate, offered Valerian the censorship in 251. Although the senatus consultum cited and the specific office are of doubtful authenticity, the high reputation Valerian possessed in the Senate and his association with the government under Decius probably are truthful aspects of the story. In 253 Valerian was apparently commanding in Raetia and Noricum when Trebonianus Gallus sent him to bring legions from Gaul and Germany to Italy for the struggle with the forces of Aemilianus. After Gallus' troops killed him and his son and joined Aemilianus, Valerian's men proclaimed their general emperor and their arrival in Italy caused Aemilianus' soldiers to desert and kill their commander and join Valerian's forces in acclaiming Valerian as emperor.

The Senate presumably was pleased to ratify the position of Valerian, one of their own, as emperor and they also accepted his son and colleague, P. Licinius Egnatius Gallienus, as Augustus, rather than just as Caesar. Valerian apparently realized the necessity of sharing power equally with his son and of dividing their efforts geographically, with Gallienus responsible for the West and Valerian himself concentrating on the East. The biographies of Valerian and Gallienus in the Scriptores Historiae Augustae, attributed to Trebellius Pollio, are not especially helpful in putting together an account of their joint reign. The life of Valerian is fragmentary and that of Gallienus projects an extremely biased negative interpretation of his career.

Gallienus in the early years of the joint reign concentrated, with some success, on protecting Gaul and the Rhine frontier by driving back Germanic tribes and fortifying cities such as Cologne and Trier. In a move which would characterize later diplomacy with Germans, Gallienus concluded an alliance with one of their chieftains, presumably to assist the Romans in protecting the empire from other Germanic tribes. The invasions increased in number around 257-258 as the Franks entered Gaul and Spain, destroying Tarraco (Tarragona), and the Alamanni invaded Italy. Gallienus defeated the Alamanni at Milan, but soon was faced with the revolts in Pannonia and Moesia led first by his general there, Ingenuus, and then by Regalianus, commander in Illyricum. Gallienus put down these rebellions by 260 and secured stability in the region by concluding an alliance with the Marcomannic king, whose daughter Pipa the emperor apparently accepted as his concubine although he was still married to Cornelia Salonina.

In the East, Valerian had succeeded by A.D. 257 in rescuing Antioch in Syria from Persian control, at least temporarily, but was soon faced with a major invasion of the Goths in Asia Minor. The Scriptores Historiae Augustae biography of Aurelian has Valerian appear to speak in the Baths at Byzantium to publicly commend Aurelian for his success in driving back the Goths and reward him with the consulship and even with adoption as imperial successor. However, it is not clear that Valerian even reached Byzantium because he sent Felix to that city while he remained to protect the eastern section of Asia Minor and then returned to Antioch to guard it against renewed Persian attacks. It was at this point, around 259, that Valerian moved to defend Edessa and his troops lost significant numbers to the plague. Valerian tried to negotiate a peace with the Persian king, Sapor, but was captured by treachery and taken into captivity. The ultimate humiliation of a Roman emperor by a foreign leader was enacted through Sapor's use of Valerian as a human stepping-stool to assist the Persian king in mounting his horse and Valerian's body was later skinned to produce a lasting trophy of Roman submission.

Eusebius discusses the policy of Valerian toward the Christians and says that, after initially treating them most positively, Valerian was persuaded by Macrianus to lead another persecution against them. Valerian in fact after his brutal imprisonment and death in Persia would serve as a negative moral exemplum for some Latin Christian writers who gleefully pointed out that those who oppose the true God receive their just desserts.

Eusebius also credits Gallienus with reversing his father's policy and establishing peace with the Church, citing imperial edicts which established freedom of worship and even restored some lost property. Paul Keresztes claims that Gallienus in fact established a peace with Christians that lasted for forty-three years, from A.D. 260 until 303, and gave the community a kind of legal status which they had previously lacked.

Andreas Alföldi details a growing separation between Gallienus and his father which goes well beyond the geographical one which had developed out of military necessity. In addition to the strikingly different policies, just described, which they pursued toward the Christians, Gallienus began to make his military independence clear through changes in coin inscriptions and by 258 he had created his central cavalry unit and stationed it at Milan. This independent force, which was under the command of a man of equestrian rank and soon stood on a level at least equal to that of the Praetorian Guard, would play a significant role in Gallienus' upcoming battles and, of course, was a foretoken of a new trend for military organization in the future. Alföldi cites as evidence of the increasing separation between the joint emperors the statement that Gallienus did not even seek his father's return from captivity, which Lactantius of course interpreted as part of Valerian's divine punishment, but one wonders what indeed Gallienus might have done and his "indifference" may have been instead his attempt to reassert confidence in his armies and not dwell on the depressing and humiliating servitude and ultimate death of Valerian. Another reform which Alföldi discusses as part of Gallienus' independent stand is his exclusion of the senatorial class from major military commands. H.M.D. Parker credits Gallienus with beginning to separate the civil and military functions of Rome's provincial governors, thus making senatorial governors purely civil administrators and starting to replace them even in this reduced role by equestrians. The disappearance in this period of the S.C. stamp of senatorial authority on bronze coins was probably also seen as an attack on the prestige of the order, although the debasement of the silver coinage had by this time practically reached the point where the "silver" coins were themselves essentially bronze and the change may have been more for economic than for political reasons. Gallienus' exclusion of senators from military command further broke down class distinctions because sons of centurions were by this time regularly given equestrian rank and the move further accelerated the alienation of Rome as center of the Empire. In addition, the bitterness of the senatorial class over Gallienus' policy most likely explains the hatred of Latin writers toward this particular emperor.

Although Gallienus' military innovations may have made his forces more effective, he still had to face numerous challenges to his authority.In addition to systemic invasions and revolts, the plague wreaked havoc in Rome and Italy and probably in several provinces as well. It must have seemed that every commander he entrusted to solve a problem later used that authority to create another threat. When Gallienus was involved in putting down the revolt of Ingenuus in Pannonia, he put Postumus in charge of the armies guarding the Rhine and Gaul. There is some doubt about which of Gallienus' sons, Cornelius Valerianus or P. Cornelius Licinius Saloninus, was left in Cologne under the care of the Praetorian Prefect Silvanus and perhaps also Postumus. In any case, when Postumus revolted and proclaimed his independent Gallic Empire, Silvanus and one of the emperor's sons were killed. Gallienus probably restricted Postumus' expansion, but he never gained the personal revenge that, according to one source, drove him to challenge Postumus to single combat. While Gallienus was thus engaged, and after Valerian's capture by the Persians, Macrianus had his soldiers proclaim his sons, Macrianus and Quietus, emperors in Syria, Asia Minor, and Egypt. Gallienus sent Aureolus to defeat Macrianus and one son in the area of Illyria and Thrace; Odenathus of Palmyra defeated the other son and restored stability in Syria and, with Gallienus' approval, followed that up with a victory over the Persians. After Odenathus' assassination ca. 267, his wife Zenobia continued to rule the independent Palmyrene section of the Empire.

In A.D. 262 Gallienus concluded his tenth year in office by celebrating in Rome his Decennalia with a spectacular procession involving senators, equestrians, gladiators, soldiers, representatives of foreign peoples, and many other groups. This festival included feasts, games, entertainment, and spectacle which probably reminded Romans of the millennial Secular Games celebrations of Philip I and likely were intended to secure popular support at home for Gallienus. Over the next five years little is known about specific activities of the emperor and he presumably spent more time in Rome and less along the frontiers.

Gallienus and Salonina as rulers patronized a cultural movement which collectively is known as the Gallienic Renaissance. The imperial patrons are most directly connected with the philosophical aspects of this movement because Porphyry testifies to their friendship for the Neoplatonic philosopher Plotinus. Porphyry goes on to say that Plotinus asked Gallienus to rebuild an abandoned former city of philosophers in Campania, rename it Platonopolis, and govern it as a kind of Platonic Republic, but that the jealousy and spite of others at court scuttled the plan. In addition to Neoplatonic philosophy, according to Gervase Matthew, the Gallienic Renaissance included the "upward glance" and other stylistic changes in imperial sculpture and religious beliefs that were characterized by "an overwhelming sense of the transcendent and immutable." Matthew points out both the return to artistic models of Augustus, Hadrian, and even Severus Alexander and also "a new Romantic tension" which breaks with the past and points toward a new and very different world. The Hellenic character of much of the Gallienic Renaissance is also stressed in the emperor's trip to Athens where he, likely in imitation of Hadrian, became eponymous archon and received initiation into the Eleusinian cult of Demeter.
Late in his reign, Gallienus issued a series of coins in Rome which honored nine deities as Conservator Augusti or protector of the emperor by pairing his portrait with reverses picturing an animal or animals symbolic of each deity. Included in this group of celestial guardians are Apollo, Diana, Hercules, Jupiter, Juno, Liber Pater, Mercury, Neptune, and Sol. For example, Apollo's coin-types portray a centaur, a gryphon, or Pegasus; Hercules is represented by either the lion or the boar. It appears that Gallienus was issuing the "animal series" coins both to secure, through some religious festival, the aid of Rome's protective gods against continuing invasions, revolts, and plague and to entertain the Roman populace with pageantry and circus games, thus to divert their attention away from the same problems and maintain the security of the regime in power.

In A.D. 268, Gallienus saw his third son, Marinianus, become consul, but in the spring another Gothic invasion brought the emperor back to Greece. He defeated the invaders at Naissus in Moesia , but was deterred from pursuing them further by a revolt of the commander of his elite cavalry, Aureolus. He besieged this last rebel emperor in Milan, but a plot involving his Praetorian Prefect and two future emperors, Claudius and Aurelian, all three men Illyrians popular with many of the soldiers, lured Gallienus away from the city on a false pretext and assassinated him.The emperor's brother Valerian and young son Marinianus were also murdered. In spite of the bitter resentment which many of the senators must have felt toward the dead emperor and his reform policies, Claudius II, perhaps only to legitimize his own reign, persuaded the Senate to deify Gallienus.

Copyright Richard D. Weigel, 2007. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis,
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors and their Families

Valerian I was proclaimed emperor after the death of Trajan Decius. He successfully repulsed many barbarian incursions but the standard of living declined and would never recover. In 260 A.D., after four years of war during which Roman forces suffered great losses in battle and to plague, he arranged for peace talks. He set off with a small group to discuss terms with the Sassinian emperor Sapor and was never seen again. The date of his death is unknown, but in Rome it was rumored that he had been murdered and that Sapor was using his stuffed body as a footstool. Joseph Sermarini, FORVM.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
GalllienusRIC163.jpg
[1113a] Gallienus, August 253 - 24 March 268 A.D.72 viewsBronze antoninianus, RIC 163, RSC 72, choice EF, Rome mint, 3.716g, 21.6mm, 180o, 268 A.D.; Obverse: GALLIENVS AVG, radiate head right; Reverse: APOLLINI CONS AVG, centaur walking right drawing bow, Z in exergue; struck on a full and round flan, rare this nice. Commemorates vows to Apollo invoking his protection against the revolt of Aureolus. Ex FORVM.


De Imperatoribus Romanis,
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors and their Families

Valerian (A.D. 253-260) and Gallienus (A.D. 253-268)

Richard D. Weigel
Western Kentucky University


P. Licinius Valerianus, or Valerian, was unusual for his time period in that he was an emperor who came from an old Roman senatorial family. He was likely born shortly before 200 A.D., but little is known of his early life. Valerian married Egnatia Mariniana and had two sons, Gallienus and Valerian Junior. Gallienus was born around 218. Valerian makes his first appearance in the sources in 238 A.D. as an ex-consul and princeps senatus negotiating with (more likely than serving on) the embassy sent to Rome by Gordian I's African legions to secure senatorial approval of Gordian's rebellion against and replacement of Maximinus Thrax as emperor. The Scriptores Historiae Augustae probably report accurately that Trajan Decius, on the recommendation of the Senate, offered Valerian the censorship in 251. Although the senatus consultum cited and the specific office are of doubtful authenticity, the high reputation Valerian possessed in the Senate and his association with the government under Decius probably are truthful aspects of the story. In 253 Valerian was apparently commanding in Raetia and Noricum when Trebonianus Gallus sent him to bring legions from Gaul and Germany to Italy for the struggle with the forces of Aemilianus. After Gallus' troops killed him and his son and joined Aemilianus, Valerian's men proclaimed their general emperor and their arrival in Italy caused Aemilianus' soldiers to desert and kill their commander and join Valerian's forces in acclaiming Valerian as emperor.

The Senate presumably was pleased to ratify the position of Valerian, one of their own, as emperor and they also accepted his son and colleague, P. Licinius Egnatius Gallienus, as Augustus, rather than just as Caesar. Valerian apparently realized the necessity of sharing power equally with his son and of dividing their efforts geographically, with Gallienus responsible for the West and Valerian himself concentrating on the East. The biographies of Valerian and Gallienus in the Scriptores Historiae Augustae, attributed to Trebellius Pollio, are not especially helpful in putting together an account of their joint reign. The life of Valerian is fragmentary and that of Gallienus projects an extremely biased negative interpretation of his career.

Gallienus in the early years of the joint reign concentrated, with some success, on protecting Gaul and the Rhine frontier by driving back Germanic tribes and fortifying cities such as Cologne and Trier. In a move which would characterize later diplomacy with Germans, Gallienus concluded an alliance with one of their chieftains, presumably to assist the Romans in protecting the empire from other Germanic tribes. The invasions increased in number around 257-258 as the Franks entered Gaul and Spain, destroying Tarraco (Tarragona), and the Alamanni invaded Italy. Gallienus defeated the Alamanni at Milan, but soon was faced with the revolts in Pannonia and Moesia led first by his general there, Ingenuus, and then by Regalianus, commander in Illyricum. Gallienus put down these rebellions by 260 and secured stability in the region by concluding an alliance with the Marcomannic king, whose daughter Pipa the emperor apparently accepted as his concubine although he was still married to Cornelia Salonina.

In the East, Valerian had succeeded by A.D. 257 in rescuing Antioch in Syria from Persian control, at least temporarily, but was soon faced with a major invasion of the Goths in Asia Minor. The Scriptores Historiae Augustae biography of Aurelian has Valerian appear to speak in the Baths at Byzantium to publicly commend Aurelian for his success in driving back the Goths and reward him with the consulship and even with adoption as imperial successor. However, it is not clear that Valerian even reached Byzantium because he sent Felix to that city while he remained to protect the eastern section of Asia Minor and then returned to Antioch to guard it against renewed Persian attacks. It was at this point, around 259, that Valerian moved to defend Edessa and his troops lost significant numbers to the plague. Valerian tried to negotiate a peace with the Persian king, Sapor, but was captured by treachery and taken into captivity. The ultimate humiliation of a Roman emperor by a foreign leader was enacted through Sapor's use of Valerian as a human stepping-stool to assist the Persian king in mounting his horse and Valerian's body was later skinned to produce a lasting trophy of Roman submission.

Eusebius discusses the policy of Valerian toward the Christians and says that, after initially treating them most positively, Valerian was persuaded by Macrianus to lead another persecution against them. Valerian in fact after his brutal imprisonment and death in Persia would serve as a negative moral exemplum for some Latin Christian writers who gleefully pointed out that those who oppose the true God receive their just desserts.

Eusebius also credits Gallienus with reversing his father's policy and establishing peace with the Church, citing imperial edicts which established freedom of worship and even restored some lost property. Paul Keresztes claims that Gallienus in fact established a peace with Christians that lasted for forty-three years, from A.D. 260 until 303, and gave the community a kind of legal status which they had previously lacked.

Andreas Alföldi details a growing separation between Gallienus and his father which goes well beyond the geographical one which had developed out of military necessity. In addition to the strikingly different policies, just described, which they pursued toward the Christians, Gallienus began to make his military independence clear through changes in coin inscriptions and by 258 he had created his central cavalry unit and stationed it at Milan. This independent force, which was under the command of a man of equestrian rank and soon stood on a level at least equal to that of the Praetorian Guard, would play a significant role in Gallienus' upcoming battles and, of course, was a foretoken of a new trend for military organization in the future. Alföldi cites as evidence of the increasing separation between the joint emperors the statement that Gallienus did not even seek his father's return from captivity, which Lactantius of course interpreted as part of Valerian's divine punishment, but one wonders what indeed Gallienus might have done and his "indifference" may have been instead his attempt to reassert confidence in his armies and not dwell on the depressing and humiliating servitude and ultimate death of Valerian. Another reform which Alföldi discusses as part of Gallienus' independent stand is his exclusion of the senatorial class from major military commands. H.M.D. Parker credits Gallienus with beginning to separate the civil and military functions of Rome's provincial governors, thus making senatorial governors purely civil administrators and starting to replace them even in this reduced role by equestrians. The disappearance in this period of the S.C. stamp of senatorial authority on bronze coins was probably also seen as an attack on the prestige of the order, although the debasement of the silver coinage had by this time practically reached the point where the "silver" coins were themselves essentially bronze and the change may have been more for economic than for political reasons. Gallienus' exclusion of senators from military command further broke down class distinctions because sons of centurions were by this time regularly given equestrian rank and the move further accelerated the alienation of Rome as center of the Empire. In addition, the bitterness of the senatorial class over Gallienus' policy most likely explains the hatred of Latin writers toward this particular emperor.

Although Gallienus' military innovations may have made his forces more effective, he still had to face numerous challenges to his authority.In addition to systemic invasions and revolts, the plague wreaked havoc in Rome and Italy and probably in several provinces as well. It must have seemed that every commander he entrusted to solve a problem later used that authority to create another threat. When Gallienus was involved in putting down the revolt of Ingenuus in Pannonia, he put Postumus in charge of the armies guarding the Rhine and Gaul. There is some doubt about which of Gallienus' sons, Cornelius Valerianus or P. Cornelius Licinius Saloninus, was left in Cologne under the care of the Praetorian Prefect Silvanus and perhaps also Postumus. In any case, when Postumus revolted and proclaimed his independent Gallic Empire, Silvanus and one of the emperor's sons were killed. Gallienus probably restricted Postumus' expansion, but he never gained the personal revenge that, according to one source, drove him to challenge Postumus to single combat. While Gallienus was thus engaged, and after Valerian's capture by the Persians, Macrianus had his soldiers proclaim his sons, Macrianus and Quietus, emperors in Syria, Asia Minor, and Egypt. Gallienus sent Aureolus to defeat Macrianus and one son in the area of Illyria and Thrace; Odenathus of Palmyra defeated the other son and restored stability in Syria and, with Gallienus' approval, followed that up with a victory over the Persians. After Odenathus' assassination ca. 267, his wife Zenobia continued to rule the independent Palmyrene section of the Empire.

In A.D. 262 Gallienus concluded his tenth year in office by celebrating in Rome his Decennalia with a spectacular procession involving senators, equestrians, gladiators, soldiers, representatives of foreign peoples, and many other groups. This festival included feasts, games, entertainment, and spectacle which probably reminded Romans of the millennial Secular Games celebrations of Philip I and likely were intended to secure popular support at home for Gallienus. Over the next five years little is known about specific activities of the emperor and he presumably spent more time in Rome and less along the frontiers.

Gallienus and Salonina as rulers patronized a cultural movement which collectively is known as the Gallienic Renaissance. The imperial patrons are most directly connected with the philosophical aspects of this movement because Porphyry testifies to their friendship for the Neoplatonic philosopher Plotinus. Porphyry goes on to say that Plotinus asked Gallienus to rebuild an abandoned former city of philosophers in Campania, rename it Platonopolis, and govern it as a kind of Platonic Republic, but that the jealousy and spite of others at court scuttled the plan. In addition to Neoplatonic philosophy, according to Gervase Matthew, the Gallienic Renaissance included the "upward glance" and other stylistic changes in imperial sculpture and religious beliefs that were characterized by "an overwhelming sense of the transcendent and immutable." Matthew points out both the return to artistic models of Augustus, Hadrian, and even Severus Alexander and also "a new Romantic tension" which breaks with the past and points toward a new and very different world. The Hellenic character of much of the Gallienic Renaissance is also stressed in the emperor's trip to Athens where he, likely in imitation of Hadrian, became eponymous archon and received initiation into the Eleusinian cult of Demeter.

Late in his reign, Gallienus issued a series of coins in Rome which honored nine deities as Conservator Augusti or protector of the emperor by pairing his portrait with reverses picturing an animal or animals symbolic of each deity. Included in this group of celestial guardians are Apollo, Diana, Hercules, Jupiter, Juno, Liber Pater, Mercury, Neptune, and Sol. For example, Apollo's coin-types portray a centaur, a gryphon, or Pegasus; Hercules is represented by either the lion or the boar. It appears that Gallienus was issuing the "animal series" coins both to secure, through some religious festival, the aid of Rome's protective gods against continuing invasions, revolts, and plague and to entertain the Roman populace with pageantry and circus games, thus to divert their attention away from the same problems and maintain the security of the regime in power.

In A.D. 268, Gallienus saw his third son, Marinianus, become consul, but in the spring another Gothic invasion brought the emperor back to Greece. He defeated the invaders at Naissus in Moesia , but was deterred from pursuing them further by a revolt of the commander of his elite cavalry, Aureolus. He besieged this last rebel emperor in Milan, but a plot involving his Praetorian Prefect and two future emperors, Claudius and Aurelian, all three men Illyrians popular with many of the soldiers, lured Gallienus away from the city on a false pretext and assassinated him.The emperor's brother Valerian and young son Marinianus were also murdered. In spite of the bitter resentment which many of the senators must have felt toward the dead emperor and his reform policies, Claudius II, perhaps only to legitimize his own reign, persuaded the Senate to deify Gallienus.

Copyright (C) 1998, Richard D. Weigel. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis,
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/gallval.htm. Used by permission.


Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus was born in about AD 213. This means that he was about 40 years old when his father Valerian, in AD 253, was hailed emperor by his troops in Raetia. Gallienus was made Caesar immediately by his father. But within a month, when Valerian got to Rome, Gallienus received the rank of Augustus.

Compared to other Roman emperors of the age, Gallienus was an exception, as far as he was not a soldier-emperor. He was rather a thoughtful, intellectual ruler, possessing sophisticated Greek tastes. However, this made him deeply unpopular with the gritty Danubian generals, who very much understood it as their right to choose a leader among their own ranks to rule the empire.

If the Danubian military elite didn't like Gallienus, then he certainly soon proved that he was a capable military leader. Between AD 254 to AD 256 he campaigned along the Danube, securing this troubled frontier against the barbarians. In AD 256 he then moved west to fight the Germans along the Rhine.

Then by autumn AD 260 the message of Valerian's capture by the Persians reached Gallienus. If Gallienus had always been unpopular among the military leaders, then now with his father gone and Roman authority crumbling, rebellion was in the air.

On a night in September, AD 268, at the siege of Mediolanum (Milan), an alarm was suddenly raised in the camp of the emperor. In the brief moment of confusion, Gallienus was struck down in the dark as he emerged from his tent.

During his reign, Gallienus began numerous reforms and military campaigns to defend the empire, as much from usurpers as from barbarians. In doing so, he perhaps saved the empire from oblivion. At the same time he presided over perhaps the last flowering of classical Roman culture, patronizing poets, artists and philosophers.

As a last gesture of disrespect to this, most unfortunate of emperors, the Romans should lay Gallienus to rest not in one of the great mausoleums in Rome, but in a tomb nine miles south of the capital, along the Via Appia.

Ironically, he was deified by the senate at the request of Claudius II Gothicus, one of the men who must be held accountable for the assassination of Gallienus.
See: http://www.roman-empire.net/decline/gallienus.html


Gallienus was the son of Valerian I and was named Caesar at his father's accession to the throne in 253 A.D. Upon his father's capture by the Parthians he assumed the rank of Augustus and began numerous reforms and military campaigns to defend the empire, as much from usurpers as from barbarians. At the same time he presided over perhaps the last flowering of classical Roman culture, patronizing poets, artists and philosophers. Gallienus was assassinated while besieging Milan. Joseph Sermarini, FORVM.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
AsclepiosAE16SNGBNParis1828.jpg
[2470] Asclepios AE16, Pergamon (Mysia), 133 BC - Imperial Times. 63 viewsMysia, Pergamon. 133 BC - Imperial Times. SNG BN Paris 1828. AE 16mm (3.76 gm). Very fine. Obverse: head Asclepios right. Reverse: [A]ΣKΛHΠIO[Y] - [ΣΩ]THP[OΣ], Serpent curled around scepter of Asclepios. Ex Tom Vossen.

Asclepius
by Ron Leadbetter

Asclepius was a Greek hero who later become the Greek god of medicine and healing. The son of Apollo and Coronis, Asclepius had five daughters, Aceso, Iaso, Panacea, Aglaea and Hygieia. He was worshipped throughout the Greek world but his most famous sanctuary was located in Epidaurus which is situated in the northeastern Peloponnese. The main attribute of Asclepius is a physician's staff with an Asclepian snake wrapped around it; this is how he was distinguished in the art of healing, and his attribute still survives to this day as the symbol of the modern medical profession. The cock was also sacred to Asclepius and was the bird they sacrificed as his altar.

The mother of Asclepius, Coronis, was a mortal, the daughter of Phlegyas, a king of Thessaly. Coronis was unfaithful to Apollo, and Artemis, Apollo's twin sister, killed her for her unfaithfulness. Coronis was placed upon a funeral pyre. (One version says that Apollo cast her into the fires of his own anger.) As her body started to burn, Apollo felt sorrow for his unborn son and snatched the child Asclepius from his mother's corpse, saving him from death. Apollo then handed Asclepius to the Centaur Chiron who became his tutor and mentor.

Chiron taught Asclepius the art of healing. According to Pindar (Pythian Odes), Asclepius also acquired the knowledge of surgery, the use of drugs, love potions and incantations, and according to Apollodorus (the Library), Athena gave Asclepius a magic potion made from the blood of the Gorgon. Legend tells that the blood of the Gorgon has a different effect depending from which side the blood was taken. If taken from the right side of the Gorgon, it has a miraculous effect and is said to be able to bring the dead back to life, but taken from the left side it is a deadly poison.

With these gifts Asclepius exceeded the fringes of human knowledge. However, he offended the great god Zeus by accepting money in exchange for raising the dead. (In one version it was the goddess Artemis who implored Asclepius to resurrect Hippolytus, a favourite of hers.) In the eyes of Zeus, Asclepius' action upset the natural order of the universe - a mere mortal helping man evade death. With one swift action, the great Zeus sent down a thunderbolt killing both men. (In some versions Zeus only killed Asclepius.)
Realising the good Asclepius had brought to man, the great Zeus made him into a god, placing him among the stars, transforming Asclepius into the constellation Ophiuchus (the serpent-bearer). The snake was used in the healing ritual; non-poisonous snakes were left in the dormitory where the sick slept overnight on the bare ground.

The cult of Asclepius became very popular during the 300s BCE and the cult centres (known as an Asclepieion) were used by priests to cure the sick. Invalids also came to the shrines of Asclepius to find cures for their ailments (in the same fashion pilgrims visit Lourdes today.) The process of healing was known as incubation. The patient would spend the night in a dormitory. During the night they would supposedly be visited by the god in a dream. Priests would interpret the dreams and then recommend a remedy or give advice on how they could be cured with perhaps a recommended visit to the baths and gymnasiums. There were many centres and schools of medicine, from Trikkis in Thessaly to the island of Cos. It is believed that Hippocrates, a great doctor of antiquity, plied his trade on the island of Cos. It is also said that Hippocrates was a descendant of Asclepius.

The Romans adopted the cult of Asclepius, but changed his name to Latin; they called him Aesculapius.

"Asclepius." Encyclopedia Mythica. 2008. Encyclopedia Mythica Online.
10 Apr. 2008 .

The Asklepion of Pergamon dates from the 4th century BC. This therapeutic center was of the same type as the one in Kos- a large health center. Most of the remains today of this center belong to the changes that were carried out by Emperor Hadrian.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.




Cleisthenes
 
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