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CONTINE1-6.jpg
45 viewsConstantinus I - AE3 - 326/328 - Mint of Thessalonica
Ob.: CONSTANTINVS AVG; laureate head right
Rev.: PROVIDENTIAE AVGG; campgate
gs. 3 mm. 18,8
Cohen 454
Maxentius
Litra.jpg
36 viewsAnonymous AE Litra. 241-235 BC. (Grueber, half-litra: 312/290 BC)
Romano-Campanian
Obv.:Helmeted, beardless head of Mars right
Rev.:Head of horse right with bridle. A sickle behind, ROMA below.
Gs. 3,4 mm. 15,2
Crawford 25/3, Sear RCV 594, BMRRC II 64



Maxentius
Hera_1_.jpg
11 viewsAE 3, 16mm/2.95gm, fully silvered, struck c. 318 AD

Obv/ DN VAL LICIN LICINIVS NOB C; laur. and dr. bust r., holding in globe and sceptre in l. hand and mappa in r. hand.
Rev/ PROVIDENTIAE CAESS; Campgate, three towers, lamda in r. field.; SMH gamma in exergue.
Ref/ RIC VOL VII, 49
Mayadigger
sfc-data-dificil-500-rs-1936-rgte-feijo-2-D_NQ_NP_1897-MLB4769578494_082013-F.jpg
9 viewsMOEDA - 500 Réis - 1938 - Regente Feijó
________________________________________
Série Ilustres
Excelente estado de conservação


ANVERSO
O busto do Regente do Império Diogo António Feijó circundado pela inscrição REGENTE FEIJÓ. Em baixo, monograma do gravador Calmon Barreto.

REVERSO
No centro, uma coluna coríntia encimada pela inscrição circular BRASIL entre dois filetes. À esquerda do campo, o valor 500 e, à direita, a palavra RÉIS em posição horizontal. No exergo, a data e, ao lado direito, a sigla do gravador Walter Toledo.

PADRÃO MONETÁRIO
MIL-RÉIS (de 08/10/1833 a 31/10/1942)

PERÍODO POLÍTICO
República, Era Vargas (1930-1945)

ORIGEM
Casa da Moeda, Rio de Janeiro

CARACTERÍSTICAS
Material: bronze alumínio
Diâmetro: 22,5 mm
Peso: 5,00 g
Espessura: 1,80 mm
Bordo: serrilhado
Titulagem: Cu 910, Al 90
Eixo: reverso medalha (EV)
_____________________
Antonivs Protti
constantius_ii_campgate_smts1.jpg
39 viewsThe patina on this one is a beautiful dark green and glossy
Constantine II CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C LDC left
PROVIDEN-TIAE CAESS 2 6 to 8, three seen with a base, two of them with dots in top layer SMTS Delta Thessalonica RIC VII Thessalonica 157 C3 326-328
James b4
Constantine_campgate54657.jpg
35 viewsareich
Constantine_campgate.jpg
17 viewsareich
Constantinus_AE_campgate.JPG
15 viewsAntonivs Protti
Constantinus_Campgate~0.JPG
10 viewsAntonivs Protti
Licinius_I,_AE18,_campgate,_Lamdba_right,_Heraclea,_318-320_AD~0.JPG
10 viewsAntonivs Protti
Sear-847.jpg
11 viewsHeraclius and Heraclius Constantine. A.D. 610-641. AE follis (25.80 mm, 6.21 g, 7 h). Seleucia Isauriae mint, 1st officina. Dated RY 7 (616/7). Crowned and draped facing busts of Heraclius and Heraclius Constantine, each holding globus cruciger / Crowned and draped facing busts of Heraclius and Heraclius Constantine, each holding globus cruciger / Large K; cross above, A below; A/N/N/O ςI (date) across field. SB 847; DOC 182a; MIB 195. VF.



The Seleucia Isauriae mint was in use between 615 and 618 to support Heraclius’ campaigns against the Sasanians
Quant.Geek
Zy4o5EnCf2EqKSe3w9Ft77mQBN8sG6.jpg
6 viewsC. 328-329 AD

Reverse: PROVIDENTIAE AVGG, camp gate, SMNΓ in ex.

Toned with a super portrait and good metal.

Ref: RIC 153

3.13g

20mm
paul1888
Trajan.jpg
65 viewsTrajan AR Denarius. Rome, AD 113-114. IMP TRAIANO OPTIMO AVG GER DAC P M TR P, laureate and draped bust right / COS VI P P SPQR, Trajan's column surmounted by statue of the emperor; at base, two eagles. RIC 307; BMCRE 522; RSC 115. 3.53g, 20mm, 6h.
Of all of the truly monumental buildings and commemorative structures which the emperor Trajan built, only one, the Columna Traiani, has survived in a reasonable state of completeness. Indeed, it appears almost identical in person as it does on coins, except that the statue of Trajan that originally surmounted it was replaced in 1588 with a statue of St. Paul. When completed, the column occupied a prominent place between two libraries, the Basilica Ulpia and the Temple of Trajan and Plotina. The column was massive: it was over 12 feet in diameter at its base, and rose to a height of nearly 130 feet. Its core was comprised of 34 blocks of Carrara white marble that were made hollow so as to accommodate a circular staircase of 185 steps. The most remarkable feature of the column, however, was its ornamentation, for the friezes on its exterior are some of the most inspiring works of art ever produced. Monumental in scope and execution, they record Trajan’s two Dacian campaigns, from 101-3 and 104-6. All told, there are more than 2,500 individually sculpted figures distributed among more than 150 scenes. The emperor himself is represented no less than fifty times – not a surprise considering his penchant for commemorative architecture and his pride in having added Dacia to the provinces of the empire. “ Source: NAC”

Ex Michael Kelly Collection of Roman Silver Coins
4 commentspaul1888
rjb_2010_01_06~0.jpg
293cf21 viewsCrispus, Caesar 317-326 AD
AE Follis
Obv: CRISPVS NOB CAES
Laureate, cuirassed bust right
Rev: VIRTVS CAESS
Camp gate with open doors
TA crescent RL
Arelate Mint
LRBC I - (cf293-4)
RIC (VII) Arles -
mauseus
conicmg.jpg
Constantine I, RIC 24 Cyzicus20 viewsConstantine I Follis
Obverse: CONSTAN-TINVS AVG, laureate head right.
Reverse: PROVIDEN-TIAE AVGG, camp-gate sith one door, six rows of blocks and two turrits on top. One star above.
SMKB in ex. Cyzicus mint. 20.2 mm., 2.52 g.
NORMAN K
conscamp~0.jpg
Constantine II, AE3, Thessalonica, RIC VII, 157, 326-328 CE27 views

Constantine II, AE3, 326-328, Thessalonica, Officina 4
Obverse: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C, Laureate, draped, cuirassed bust left
Reverse: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS, Campgate with six rows, two turrets, no doors, star above, top and bottom rows empty blocks
SMTSD in exergue
19.5mm, 2.7g
RIC VII, 157 nearly full silvering
NORMAN K
crcg.jpg
Crispus RIC VII 69 Thessalonica, 319 CE32 viewsObverse: IVL CRIS-PVS NOB C, laureate and cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: VIRT EXERC, Sol raising right hand and holding globe in left, standing in center of plan of roman camp.
TS dot E dot in ex. Thessalonica mint
19.53mm., 2.2g. rare
The true meaning of this reverse type has never been fully deciphered. The latest theory being the X shaped pattern represents Constantine's vision before the battle of Milvainbridge. This does not seem likely since the type is known on coins of Licinius a pagan and Constantine's enemy
sold 4-2018

NORMAN K
1226peg2.jpg
Gallienus, RIC V 245 Rome, 253 - 268 CE.22 viewsBronze antoninianus
Obverse: GALLIENVS AVG, radiate head right.
Reverse: NEPTVNO CONS AVG, Hippocamp right, N in ex
RIC V 245 (sole reign), Rome mint, 2.7g, 19.2mm
Reverse translation: Neptune god of the seas, preserver Augustus
NORMAN K
Greek_Italy.jpg
Greek Italy, Magna Grecia.25 viewsApulia, Bruttium, Calabria, Campania, Lucania & Samnium.Christian T
DSCF1860.JPG
Neapolis, Campania, Italy, c. 270 - 240 B.C. AE 16-20mm17 views Neapolis, Campania, Italy, c. 270 - 240 B.C.
Obv. Apollo left
Rev. Victory crowning Man Faced Bull right.

( One of my favorite coins I have cleaned myself!! )
Lee S
image02453.jpg
30 viewsROME. Germanicus. Died AD 19.
Æ Tessera (21mm, 3.72 g, 2 h)
Cuirassed bust right, seen from behind; all within wreath
Large III; all within wreath
Buttrey 17/III

Ex Alberto Campana Collection (Numismatica Ars Classica 64, 17 May 2012), lot 2453
Ardatirion
00002x00.jpg
29 viewsROME
PB Tessera (16mm, 2.99 g, 12 h)
Fortuna “Campestris” standing left, holding rudder and cornucopia
C(AMP)
Rostowzew 2168; BM 639

Possibly ex Trau collection
Ardatirion
00003x00~5.jpg
36 viewsIONIA, Ephesos. Alexander.
PB Tessera (17mm, 3.95 g, 4h)
Artemis kneeling right, bathing, within grotto surmounted by half-length figure of Aktaion, wearing antlers and raising arms
Hippocampus right, AΛЄ Ξ around
Gülbay & Kireç –; Gorny & Mosch 212 (5 March 2013), lot 3333 (same dies); Vossen 35 (this coin)

Ex Tom Vossen Collection, 35
2 commentsArdatirion
lanz31.JPG
27 viewsIONIA, Ephesos. Muod-. Grammateus of the Boule, 1st-3rd century AD
PB Tessera (15mm, 3.18 g)
MYOΔ Γ B
Hippocamp swimming right, holding rudder in tail
Blank
Gülbay & Kireç -
1 commentsArdatirion
00084x00.jpg
51 viewsUNITED STATES, Political campaign tokens. William Henry Harrison. President, March 4-April 4 1841.
Æ Political Medallet (23mm, 4.22 g, 12 h)
Belleville (New Jersey) mint. Dually dated 9 February 1773 and 1841
MAJ. GEN. W. H. HARRISON/ * BORN FEB. 9. 1773*
Bust of William Henry Harrison left in military uniform
STEAM BOAT VAN BUREN/ FOR SALT RIVER DIRECT.
Early steamboat sailing right with banner inscribed 1841; LOCO-FOCO/ LINE below. '
With attached contemporary ribbon.
Rulau HT 817; Low -
Ardatirion
Aphroditopolis.jpg
34 viewsEGYPT, Aphroditopolis
PB Tessera (13mm, 1.78 g)
Eros standing left, stooping over bird to left
Head of hippocamp right (or swan right?)
Milne 5325-9; Dattari (Savio) 11856-7; Köln -; Rostowzew & Prou 714 (dolphin)

The reverse type here more closely resembles a swan than it does a hippocamp. While the swan is a symbol of Aphrodite, Dattari (Savio) 11857 clearly shows the head a hippocamp. It is possible that these are two distinct types.
Ardatirion
IMG_1361.JPG
64 viewsUNITED STATES, Native proto-currency. Seneca tribe.
Ganounata village (Honeoye Falls, NY). Circa AD 1625-1687
White wampum beads (apx. 5mm, 0.10g each)
Carved white shell beads with lateral hole for suspension in belt
Cf. William Martin Beauchamp, Wampum and Shell Articles Used by the New York Indians, p. 369

Found at the Dann Farm site in Honeoye Falls, NY.


In 1687 combined French and Huron forces, lead by the Marquis de Denonville, set out to undermine the strength of the Iriquois Confederacy. The main strike was made against Seneca villages in Western New York. Ganounata was burned during the campaign. This episode was only one in a long line of conflicts fought over control of the North American fur trade.

Wampum was used by Native Americans in woven belts of white and black beads. The white beads were crafted from the columella of the Channeled Whelk, the black from the quahog. Traditionally, wampum belts were used as a ceremonial object to initiate a trade contract. It was only with the coming of the Europeans that wampum began to function as coinage. In 1673, New York state officially set the value of wampum at six white beads to the Dutch stuiver, or three black until they fell out of use.
Ardatirion
constantin1-provavgg-plc.JPG
RIC.225 Constantine I (AE3, Providentiae Avgg)16 viewsConstantine I, caesar (306-307), emperor (307-337)
AE3: Providentiae Avgg (324-325, Lyon mint)

bronze, 20mm diameter, 3.13 g, die axis: 12h

A/ CONSTAN-TINVS AVG; pearl-diademed head right
R/ PROVIDEN-TIAE AVGG / PLC in exergue; open camp gate, two turrets, no door and a star above

Ferrando II 479 (C2)
Droger
constantin1-provavgg-arls.JPG
RIC.309 Constantine I (AE3, Providentiae Avgg)19 viewsConstantine I, caesar (306-307), emperor (307-337)
AE3: Providentiae Avgg (327-328, Arles mint)

bronze, 18mm diameter, 2.66 g, die axis: 7h

A/ CONSTAN-TINVS AVG; pearl-diademed head right
R/ PROVIDEN-TIAE AVGG / ARLS in exergue/S|F in field; open camp gate, two turrets, no door and a star above

Ferrando II 479 (C2)
Droger
constantin2-prov-ROT.JPG
RIC.289 Constantine II (AE3, Providentiae Caess)19 viewsConstantine II, caesar (317-337), western emperor (337-340)
AE3 : Providentiae Caess (326, Rome mint)

bronze, 18mm diameter, 2.80 g, die axis: 6h

A/ CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C; pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
R/ PROVIDEN-TIAE CAESS / R(wreath)T in exergue; open camp gate, two turrets, no door and a star above
Droger
constantin2-virtvs-arles-tconst-sf.JPG
RIC.322 Constantine II (AE3, Virtvs Caess)11 viewsConstantine II, caesar (317-337), western emperor (337-340)
AE3 : Providentiae Caess (328-329, Arles mint, 3rd officine)

bronze, 19mm diameter, 3.14 g, die axis: 12h

A/ CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C; pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
R/ VIRTVS - CAESS / TCONST in exergue, S | F in the field; gateway wide wide open doors, four turrets and a star above
Droger
magnus-maximus-spes-romanorvm.JPG
RIC.29a Magnus Maximus (AE4, Spes Romanorvm)24 viewsMagnus Maximus, usurpor (383-384), western roman emperor (384-388)
Nummus AE4 : Spes Romanorvm (383-388, Arles mint)

bronze, 12 mm diameter, 1.40 g, die axis: 5 h,

A/ D N MAG MAXI-MVS P F AVG; pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
R/ SPES RO-MA-NORVM / PCON; open camp-gate with star between its two turrets

RIC.29a
NBD.55515
Ferrando II 1677 (C2)
Droger
fl-victor-spes-romanorvm-smaqs.JPG
RIC.55b2 Flavius Victor (AE4, Spes Romanorvm)4 viewsFlavius Victor, usurpor, Cesar (384-387), western roman emperor (387-388)
Nummus AE4: Spes Romanorvm (387-388, Aquilea mint, 2ond officine)

Bronze, 12-13 mm diameter, 1.40 g, die axis: 1 h

A/ D N FL VIC-TOR P F AVG; pearl diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right
R/ SPES RO-MA-NORVM / AQPS in exergue; open camp-gate with star between its two turrets
Droger
lg004_quad_sm.jpg
"As de Nîmes" or "crocodile" Ӕ dupondius of Nemausus (9 - 3 BC), honoring Augustus and Agrippa33 viewsIMP DIVI F , Heads of Agrippa (left) and Augustus (right) back to back, Agrippa wearing rostral crown and Augustus the oak-wreath / COL NEM, crocodile right chained to palm-shoot with short dense fronds and tip right; two short palm offshoots left and right below, above on left a wreath with two long ties streaming right.

Ӕ, 24.5 x 3+ mm, 13.23g, die axis 3h; on both sides there are remains of what appears to be gold plating, perhaps it was a votive offering? Rough edges and slight scrapes on flan typical for this kind of coin, due to primitive technology (filing) of flan preparation.

IMPerator DIVI Filius. Mint of COLonia NEMausus (currently Nîmes, France). Known as "As de Nîmes", it is actually a dupontius (lit. "two-pounder") = 2 ases (sometimes cut in halves to get change). Dupondii were often made out of a golden-colored copper alloy (type of brass) "orichalcum" and this appears to be such case.

Key ID points: oak-wreath (microphotography shows that at least one leaf has a complicated shape, although distinguishing oak from laurel is very difficult) – earlier versions have Augustus bareheaded, no PP on obverse as in later versions, no NE ligature, palm with short fronds with tip right (later versions have tip left and sometimes long fronds). Not typical: no clear laurel wreath together with the rostral crown, gold (?) plating (!), both features really baffling.

But still clearly a "middle" kind of the croc dupondius, known as "type III": RIC I 158, RPC I 524, Sear 1730. It is often conservatively dated to 10 BC - 10 AD, but these days it is usually narrowed to 9/8 - 3 BC.

It is a commemorative issue, honoring the victory over Mark Antony and conquest of Egypt in 30 BC. The heads of Augustus and Agrippa were probably positioned to remind familiar obverses of Roman republican coins with two-faced Janus. Palm branch was a common symbol of victory, in this case grown into a tree, like the victories of Augustus and Agrippa grown into the empire. The two offshoots at the bottom may mean two sons of Agrippa, Gaius and Lucius, who were supposed to be Augustus' heirs and were patrons of the colony. Palm may also be a symbol of the local Nemausian deity, which was probably worshiped in a sacred grove. When these coins were minted, the colony was mostly populated by the settled veterans of Augustus' campaigns, hence the reminiscence of the most famous victory, but some of the original Celtic culture probably survived and was assimilated by Romans. The crocodile is not only the symbol of Egypt, like in the famous Octavian's coins AEGYPTO CAPTA. It is also a representation of Mark Antony, powerful and scary both in water and on land, but a bit slow and stupid. The shape of the crocodile with tail up was specifically chosen to remind of the shape of ship on very common "legionary" denarius series, which Mark Antony minted to pay his armies just before Actium. It is probably also related to the popular contemporary caricature of Cleopatra, riding on and simultaneously copulating with a crocodile, holding a palm branch in her hand as if in triumph. There the crocodile also symbolized Mark Antony.

Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa was born c. 64-62 BC somewhere in rural Italy. His family was of humble and plebeian origins, but rich, of equestrian rank. Agrippa was about the same age as Octavian, and the two were educated together and became close friends. He probably first served in Caesar's Spanish campaign of 46–45 BC. Caesar regarded him highly enough to send him with Octavius in 45 BC to train in Illyria. When Octavian returned to Rome after Caesar's assassination, Agrippa became his close lieutenant, performing many tasks. He probably started his political career in 43 BC as a tribune of the people and then a member of the Senate. Then he was one of the leading Octavian's generals, finally becoming THE leading general and admiral in the civil wars of the subsequent years.

In 38 as a governor of Transalpine Gaul Agrippa undertook an expedition to Germania, thus becoming the first Roman general since Julius Caesar to cross the Rhine. During this foray he helped the Germanic tribe of Ubii (who previously allied themselves with Caesar in 55 BC) to resettle on the west bank of the Rhine. A shrine was dedicated there, possibly to Divus Caesar whom Ubii fondly remembered, and the village became known as Ara Ubiorum, "Altar of Ubians". This quickly would become an important Roman settlement. Agrippina the Younger, Agrippa's granddaughter, wife of Emperor Claudius and mother of Emperor Nero, would be born there in 15 AD. In 50 AD she would sponsor this village to be upgraded to a colonia, and it would be renamed Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium (colony of Claudius [at] the Altar of Agrippinians – Ubii renamed themselves as Agrippinians to honor the augusta!), abbreviated as CCAA, later to become the capital of new Roman province, Germania Inferior.

In 37 BC Octavian recalled Agrippa back to Rome and arranged for him to win the consular elections, he desperately needed help in naval warfare with Sextus Pompey, the youngest son of Pompey the Great, who styled himself as the last supporter of the republican cause, but in reality became a pirate king, an irony since his father was the one who virtually exterminated piracy in all the Roman waters. He forced humiliating armistice on the triumvirs in 39 BC and when Octavian renewed the hostilities a year later, defeated him in a decisive naval battle of Messina. New fleet had to be built and trained, and Agrippa was the man for the job. Agrippa's solution was creating a huge secret naval base he called Portus Iulius by connecting together lakes Avernus, Avernus and the natural inner and outer harbors behind Cape Misenum at the northern end of the Gulf of Naples. He also created a larger type of ship and developed a new naval weapon: harpax – a ballista-launched grapnel shot with mechanisms that allowed pulling enemy ships close for easy boarding. It replaced the previous boarding device that Romans used since the First Punic War, corvus – effective, but extremely cumbersome. A later defence against it were scythe blades on long poles for cutting ropes, but since this invention was developed in secret, the enemy had no chance to prepare anything like it. It all has proved extremely effective: in a series of naval engagements Agrippa annihilated the fleet of Sextus, forced him to abandon his bases and run away. For this Agrippa was awarded an unprecedented honour that no Roman before or after him received: a rostral crown, "corona rostrata", a wreath decorated in front by a prow and beak of a ship.

That's why Virgil (Aeneid VIII, 683-684), describing Agrippa at Actium, says: "…belli insigne superbum, tempora navali fulgent rostrata corona." "…the proud military decoration, gleams on his brow the naval rostral crown". Actium, the decisive battle between forces of Octavian and Mark Antony, may appear boring compared to the war with Sextus, but it probably turned out this way due to Agrippa's victories in preliminary naval engagements and taking over all the strategy from Octavian.

In between the wars Agrippa has shown an unusual talent in city planning, not only constructing many new public buildings etc., but also greatly improving Rome's sanitation by doing a complete overhaul of all the aqueducts and sewers. Typically, it was Augustus who later would boast that "he had found the city of brick but left it of marble", forgetting that, just like in his naval successes, it was Agrippa who did most of the work. Agrippa had building programs in other Roman cities as well, a magnificent temple (currently known as Maison Carrée) survives in Nîmes itself, which was probably built by Agrippa.

Later relationship between Augustus and Agrippa seemed colder for a while, Agrippa seemed to even go into "exile", but modern historians agree that it was just a ploy: Augustus wanted others to think that Agrippa was his "rival" while in truth he was keeping a significant army far away from Rome, ready to come to the rescue in case Augustus' political machinations fail. It is confirmed by the fact that later Agrippa was recalled and given authority almost equal to Augustus himself, not to mention that he married Augustus' only biological child. The last years of Agrippa's life were spent governing the eastern provinces, were he won respect even of the Jews. He also restored Crimea to Roman Empire. His last service was starting the conquest of the upper Danube, were later the province of Pannonia would be. He suddenly died of illness in 12 BC, aged ~51.

Agrippa had several children through his three marriages. Through some of his children, Agrippa would become ancestor to many subsequent members of the Julio-Claudian dynasty. He has numerous other legacies.
Yurii P
caracalla_poseidon_res.jpg
(0198) CARACALLA40 views198 - 217 AD
AE 21 mm; 6.44 g
O: Laureate bust right
R: Poseidon standing in a facing quadriga driven by four hippocamps, head left, draped and wearing kalathos, a dolphin in his right, trident in his left;
Berytus mint; BMC Phoenicia p. 75, 156, SNG Cop 111; rare
laney
tiberius_emerita_res.jpg
(03) TIBERIUS22 views14 - 37 AD
AE 26 mm 9.14 g
O: LAUREATE HEAD LEFT
R: CAMPGATE
EMERITA, SPAIN
laney
LICINIUS_I_CAMPGATE.jpg
(0308) LICINIUS I20 views308 - 324 AD
Silvered AE 18.5 mm 2.56 g
O: IMP LICINIVS AVG. laur dr cuir bust left with globe and mappa
R: PROVIDENTIAE AVGG, city gate, 3 turrets, HTD in exe
Heraclea
RIC 15
laney
constantine_ii_gate.jpg
(0317) CONSTANTINE II (as Caesar)16 views317 - 337 AD (as Caesar)
337 - 340 AD (as Augustus)
e 19 mm, 1.66 g
O: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
R: Campgate, six layers, two turrets, star above

laney
constantine_ii_cg_res.jpg
(0317) CONSTANTINE II (as Caesar)29 views317 - 337 AD (as Caesar)
337 - 340 AD (as Augustus)
Struck 326-328 AD
O: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C, laureate, draped & cuirassed bust left
R: PROVIDENTIAE CAESS, campgate with six rows, two turrets, no doors and star above; SMTSD in exe
Thessalonica mint; RIC VII 157
laney
csts_ii_gaye_smanth_res.jpg
(0324) CONSTANTIUS II16 views324 - 337 AD (as Caesar)
337 - 361 AD (as Augustus)
AE 18 mm 3.13 g
O: FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C laureate draped cuirassed bust right
R: PROVIDENTIAE CAESS campgate with 2 turrets, star above; SMANTH in exe
Antioch mint
RIC 66 (VII); Officina H=8 (rare)
laney
constantius_ii_cg_5_res.jpg
(0324) CONSTANTIUS II (as Caesar)14 views324 - 337 AD as Caesar
337 - 361 AD as Augustus
AE 19 X 21 mm, 2.76 g
O: FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C diademed bust left
R: PROVIDENTIAE CAESS campgate with 6 rows, no dor; 2 turrets and star above; SMKA pellet in exe.
Cyzicus mint
laney
constantius_ii_cg_l_1_res.jpg
(0324) CONSTANTIUS II (as Caesar)31 views324 - 337 AD as Caesar
337 - 361 AD as Augustus
AE 19.5 mm 2.62 g
O: FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C laureate draped bust left
R: PROVIDENTIAE CAESS campgate with 6 rows, 2 turrets, star above, pellet over doorway.
Trier mint

laney
constantius_ii_cg_r_1_res.jpg
(0324) CONSTANTIUS II (as Caesar)13 views324 - 337 AD as Caesar
337 - 361 AD as Augustus
AE 18.5 mm 3.11 g
O: CONSTANTIVS NOB C bust right
R: PROVIDENTIAE CAE SS campgate, 7 rows with dots in top row; 2 turrets, no door, star above
laney
constantius_cg_r_6_res.jpg
(0324) CONSTANTIUS II (as Caesar)16 views324 - 337 AD as Caesar
337 - 361 AD as Augustus
AE 18 mm, 1.81 g
O: F L IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C, Laureate, draped, cuirassed bust right
R: PROVIDENTIAE CAESS, Camp gate with two turrets, star between; 6 rows with pellets in top row; SMTSB in ex
Thessalonica mint
laney
crispus_campgate.jpg
(0326) CRISPUS12 views326-327 AD
AE follis 19mm, 3.15g
O: FL IVL CRISPVS NOB CAES, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust left
R: PROVIDENTIAE CAESS, Campgate, two turrets, seven layers, star above,no doors, dot in doorway, SMANTZ in exe.
Antioch mint; RIC VII 72
laney
LPisoFrugiDenarius_S235.jpg
(502a) Roman Republic, L. Calpurnius Piso Frugi, 90 B.C.157 viewsSilver denarius, S 235, Calpurnia 11, Crawford 340/1, Syd 663a, VF, rainbow toning, Rome mint, 3.772g, 18.5mm, 180o, 90 B.C. obverse: laureate head of Apollo right, scorpion behind; Reverse naked horseman galloping right holding palm, L PISO FRVGI and control number CXI below; ex-CNA XV 6/5/91, #443. Ex FORVM.


A portion of the following text is a passage taken from the excellent article “The Calpurnii and Roman Family History: An Analysis of the Piso Frugi Coin in the Joel Handshu Collection at the College of Charleston,” by Chance W. Cook:

In the Roman world, particularly prior to the inception of the principate, moneyers were allotted a high degree of latitude to mint their coins as they saw fit. The tres viri monetales, the three men in charge of minting coins, who served one-year terms, often emblazoned their coins with an incredible variety of images and inscriptions reflecting the grandeur, history, and religion of Rome. Yet also prominent are references to personal or familial accomplishments; in this manner coins were also a means by which the tres viri monetales could honor their forbearers. Most obvious from an analysis of the Piso Frugi denarius is the respect and admiration that Lucius Calpurnius Piso Frugi, who minted the coin, had for his ancestors. For the images he selected for his dies relate directly to the lofty deeds performed by his Calpurnii forbearers in the century prior to his term as moneyer. The Calpurnii were present at many of the watershed events in the late Republic and had long distinguished themselves in serving the state, becoming an influential and well-respected family whose defense of traditional Roman values cannot be doubted.

Lucius Calpurnius Piso Frugi, who was moneyer in 90 B.C., depicted Apollo on the obverse and the galloping horseman on the reverse, as does his son Gaius. However, all of L. Piso Frugi’s coins have lettering similar to “L-PISO-FRVGI” on the reverse, quite disparate from his son Gaius’ derivations of “C-PISO-L-F-FRV.”

Moreover, C. Piso Frugi coins are noted as possessing “superior workmanship” to those produced by L. Piso Frugi.

The Frugi cognomen, which became hereditary, was first given to L. Calpurnius Piso, consul in 133 B.C., for his integrity and overall moral virtue. Cicero is noted as saying that frugal men possessed the three cardinal Stoic virtues of bravery, justice, and wisdom; indeed in the Thesaurus Linguae Latinae, a synonym of frugalitas is bonus, generically meaning “good” but also implying virtuous behavior. Gary Forsythe notes that Cicero would sometimes invoke L. Calpurnius Piso’s name at the beginning of speeches as “a paragon of moral rectitude” for his audience.

L. Calpurnius Piso Frugi’s inclusion of the laureled head of Apollo, essentially the same obverse die used by his son Gaius (c. 67 B.C.), was due to his family’s important role in the establishment of the Ludi Apollinares, the Games of Apollo, which were first instituted in 212 B.C. at the height of Hannibal’s invasion of Italy during the Second Punic War. By that time, Hannibal had crushed Roman armies at Cannae, seized Tarentum and was invading Campania.

Games had been used throughout Roman history as a means of allaying the fears
of the populace and distracting them from issues at hand; the Ludi Apollinares were no different. Forsythe follows the traditional interpretation that in 211 B.C., when C. Calpurnius Piso was praetor, he became the chief magistrate in Rome while both consuls were absent and the three other praetors were sent on military expeditions against Hannibal.

At this juncture, he put forth a motion in the Senate to make the Ludi Apollinares a yearly event, which was passed; the Ludi Apollinares did indeed become an important festival, eventually spanning eight days in the later Republic. However, this interpretation is debatable; H.H. Scullard suggests that the games were not made permanent until 208 B.C. after a severe plague prompted the Senate to make them a fixture on the calendar. The Senators believed Apollo would serve as a “healing god” for the people of Rome.

Nonetheless, the Calpurnii obviously believed their ancestor had played an integral role in the establishment of the Ludi Apollinares and thus prominently displayed
the head or bust of Apollo on the obverse of the coins they minted.

The meaning of the galloping horseman found on the reverse of the L. Calpurnius Piso Frugi coin is more complicated. It is possible that this is yet another reference to the Ludi Apollinares. Chariot races in the Circus Maximus were a major component of the games, along with animal hunts and theatrical performances.

A more intriguing possibility is that the horseman is a reference to C. Calpurnius Piso, son of the Calpurnius Piso who is said to have founded the Ludi Apollinares. This C. Calpurnius Piso was given a military command in 186 B.C. to quell a revolt in Spain. He was victorious, restoring order to the province and also gaining significant wealth in the process.

Upon his return to Rome in 184, he was granted a triumph by the Senate and eventually erected an arch on the Capitoline Hill celebrating his victory. Of course
the arch prominently displayed the Calpurnius name. Piso, however, was not an infantry commander; he led the cavalry.

The difficulty in accepting C. Calpurnius Piso’s victory in Spain as the impetus for the galloping horseman image is that not all of C. Piso Frugi’s coins depict the horseman or cavalryman carrying the palm, which is a symbol of victory. One is inclined to believe that the victory palm would be prominent in all of the coins minted by C. Piso Frugi (the son of L. Calpurnius Piso Frugi) if it indeed signified the great triumph of C. Calpurnius Piso in 186 B.C. Yet the palm’s appearance is clearly not a direct reference to military feats of C. Piso Frugi’s day. As noted, it is accepted that his coins were minted in 67 B.C.; in that year, the major victory by Roman forces was Pompey’s swift defeat of the pirates throughout the Mediterranean.

Chrestomathy: Annual Review of Undergraduate Research at the College of Charleston. Volume 1, 2002: pp. 1-10© 2002 by the College of Charleston, Charleston SC 29424, USA.All rights to be retained by the author.
http://www.cofc.edu/chrestomathy/vol1/cook.pdf


There are six (debatably seven) prominent Romans who have been known to posterity as Lucius Calpurnius Piso:

Lucius Calpurnius Piso Frugi: (d. 261 A.D.) a Roman usurper, whose existence is
questionable, based on the unreliable Historia Augusta.

Lucius Calpurnius Piso Licinianus: deputy Roman Emperor, 10 January 69 to15 January
69, appointed by Galba.

Lucius Calpurnius Piso: Consul in 27 A.D.

Lucius Calpurnius Piso: Consul in 1 B.C., augur

Lucius Calpurnius Piso: Consul in 15 B.C., pontifex

Lucius Calpurnius Piso Caesoninus: Consul in 58 B.C. (the uncle of Julius Caesar)

Lucius Calpurnius Piso Frugi: Moneyer in 90 B.C. (our man)


All but one (or two--if you believe in the existence of "Frugi the usurper" ca. 261 A.D.) of these gentlemen lack the Frugi cognomen, indicating they are not from the same direct lineage as our moneyer, though all are Calpurnii.

Calpurnius Piso Frugi's massive issue was intended to support the war against the Marsic Confederation. The type has numerous variations and control marks.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lucius_Calpurnius_Piso
http://www.forumancientcoins.com/catalog/indexfrm.asp?vpar=55&pos=0

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.


2 commentsCleisthenes
rjb_2011_09_09.jpg
(VII)29315 viewsConstantine I
CONSTANTINVS AVG
Diademed bust right
PROVIDENTIAE AVGG
Camp gate with two turrets, star between
-/-//PLON
RIC (VII) 293
mauseus
rjb_2010_11_01.jpg
(VII)29519 viewsCrispus
FL IVL CRISPVS NOB CAES
Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right viewed from the front
PROVIDENTIAE CAESS
Camp gate with two turrets, star between
-/-//PLON
RIC (VII) 295
1 commentsmauseus
rjb_2009_09_20.jpg
(VII)29627 viewsConstantine II
CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C
Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right viewed from the rear
PROVIDENTIAE CAESS
Camp gate with two turrets, star between, pellet in doorway
-/-//PLON
RIC (VII) 296 note
mauseus
rjb_08_09_f.jpg
(VII)29626 viewsConstantine II
CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C
Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right viewed from the rear
PROVIDENTIAE CAESS
Camp gate with two turrets, star between
-/-//PLON
RIC (VII) 296
mauseus
rjb_2011_04_13.jpg
(VII)29836 viewsConstantius II
FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C
Laureate and cuirassed bust left
PROVIDENTIAE CAESS
Camp gate with two turrets, star between
-/-//PLON
RIC (VII) 298
2 commentsmauseus
Constantine_I.jpg
*SOLD*32 viewsConstantine the Great AE3

Attribution: RIC VII 153, Nicomedia
Date: AD 328-329
Obverse: CONSTAN-TINVS AVG; head r. w/ pearl diadem
Reverse: RPVIDEN-TIAE AVGG; camp gate, two turrets, no doors, star above
Size: 18.54 mm
Weight: 3.1 grams
Noah
Crispus.jpg
*SOLD*45 viewsCrispus AE3

Attribution: RIC VII 201, Siscia, 4th officina
Date: AD 326-327
Obverse: IVL CRISPVS NOB C, laureate bust r.
Reverse: PROVIDEN-TIAE CAESS, campgate with two turrets, no doors & star above,
* Δ SIS * in exergue
Size: 18.4 mm
1 commentsNoah
Crispus_12.jpg
*SOLD*27 viewsCrispus AE3

Attribution: RIC 201, S.3924v, Siscia
Date: AD 317-326
Obverse: IVL CRISPVS NOB C, laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust r.
Reverse: PROVIDENTIAE CAESS, camp gate surmounted by two turrets,
* above, BSIS in exergue
Size: 18.7 mm
Noah
arcadius.jpg
*SOLD*16 viewsArcadius AE4

Attribution: RIC 62 variant, Cohen 8, Thessalonica
Date: AD 383-388
Obverse: D N ARCADIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed & draped bust r.
Reverse: GLORIA REPVBLICE, camp gate with two turrets, Γ to l., TES in exergue
Size: 13 mm
Noah
Denario_M_Aquillius_Sear_336_1_Fourree.jpg
-R-19-01 – Mn. AQUILLIUS Mn.f.Mn.n. (71 A.C.)29 viewsFALSIFICACIÓN ANCIANA,
Denario Aserrado/dentado Forrado 19x17 mm 3.1 gr

Anv: Busto vestido y con yelmo de Virtus, viendo a derecha – ”VIRTVS” adelante y ”III VIR” detrás.
Es la primer aparición en la amonedación del título de Triunviro de un Monetario.
Rev: Guerrero (Mn. Aquillius, Cónsul en el 101 A.C.) de pié de frente, viendo a la derecha, portando un escudo y levantando la figura de Sicilia que está caída hacia la izquierda., "MN AQVIL” (MN en monograma),en campo derecho, "MN F MN N” (ambas MN en monograma),en campo izquierdo y ”SICIL” en el exergo.

Este denario refiere a los éxitos en Sicilia de Man. Aquillius (Cónsul en el 101 A.C.) y el excepcional valor demostrado por Este durante toda la guerra.

Ceca: Roma
Referencias: Sear RCTV Vol.1 #336 Pag.135 - Craw RRC #401/1 - Syd CRR #798 - BMCRR #3364-9 - RSC Vol.1 Aquillia 2 Pag.16
mdelvalle
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000a. L. Sulla and L. Manlius Toruatus33 viewsL. Sulla and L. Manlius Torquatus. 82 BC. AR Denarius (18mm, 3.89 g, 7h). Military mint moving with Sulla. Helmeted head of Roma right / Sulla driving triumphal quadriga right, holding branch and reins, being crowned by Victory flying left. Crawford 367/5; Sydenham 757 or 757a; Manlia 4 or 5. Near VF, toned, a few light scratches on the obverse.

From the Elwood Rafn Collection.

As consul for the year 88 BC, Sulla was awarded the coveted assignment of suppressing the revolt of Mithradates VI of Pontus, but political maneuvers resulted in this assignment being transferred to Marius. In response, Sulla turned his army on Rome, captured it, and reclaimed his command against Mithradates. His prosecution of the first Mithradatic War was successful, but he spared the Pontic king for personal gain. In 83 BC, Sulla returned to Italy as an outlaw, but he was able to win the support of many of the leading Romans. Within a year, he fought his way to Rome, where he was elected dictator. It was during this campaign to Rome that this denarius was struck. The obverse type represents Sulla's claim to be acting in Rome's best interest. The reverse shows Sulla enjoying the highest honor to which a Roman could aspire: the celebration of a triumph at Rome.
ecoli
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000c. Sextus Pompey76 viewsSextus Pompeius Magnus Pius, in English Sextus Pompey, was a Roman general from the late Republic (1st century BC). He was the last focus of opposition to the second triumvirate.

Sextus Pompeius was the youngest son of Pompey the Great (Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus) by his third wife, Mucia Tertia. His older brother was Gnaeus Pompeius, from the same mother. Both boys grew up in the shadow of their father, one of Rome's best generals and originally non-conservative politician who drifted to the more traditional faction when Julius Caesar became a threat.

When Caesar crossed the Rubicon in 49 BC, thus starting a civil war, Sextus' older brother Gnaeus followed their father in his escape to the East, as did most of the conservative senators. Sextus stayed in Rome in the care of his stepmother, Cornelia Metella. Pompey's army lost the battle of Pharsalus in 48 BC and Pompey himself had to run for his life. Cornelia and Sextus met him in the island of Mytilene and together they fled to Egypt. On the arrival, Sextus watched his father being killed by treachery on September 29 of the same year. After the murder, Cornelia returned to Rome, but in the following years Sextus joined the resistance against Caesar in the African provinces. Together with Metellus Scipio, Cato the younger, his brother Gnaeus and other senators, they prepared to oppose Caesar and his army to the end.

Caesar won the first battle at Thapsus in 46 BC against Metellus Scipio and Cato, who committed suicide. In 45 BC, Caesar managed to defeat the Pompeius brothers in the battle of Munda. Gnaeus Pompeius was executed, but young Sextus escaped once more, this time to Sicily.

Back in Rome, Julius Caesar was murdered on the Ides of March (March 15) 44 BC by a group of senators led by Cassius and Brutus. This incident did not lead to a return to normality, but provoked yet another civil war between Caesar's political heirs and his assassins. The second triumvirate was formed by Octavian, Mark Antony and Lepidus, with the intention of avenging Caesar and subduing all opposition. Sextus Pompeius in Sicily was certainly a rebellious man, but the Cassius and Brutus faction was the second triumvirate's first priority. Thus, with the whole island as his base, Sextus had the time and resources to develop an army and, even more importantly, a strong navy operated by Sicilian marines.

Brutus and Cassius lost the twin battles of Philippi and committed suicide in 42 BC. After this, the triumvirs turned their attentions to Sicily and Sextus.

But by this time, Sextus was prepared for strong resistance. In the following years, military confrontations failed to return a conclusive victory for either side and in 39 BC, Sextus and the triumvirs signed for peace in the Pact of Misenum. The reason for this peace treaty was the anticipated campaign against the Parthian Empire. Antony, the leader, needed all the legions he could get so it was useful to secure an armistice in the Sicilian front. The peace did not last for long. Octavian and Antony's frequent quarrels were a strong political motivation for resuming the war against Sextus. Octavian tried again to conquer Sicily, but he was defeated in the naval battle of Messina (37 BC) and again in August 36 BC. But by then, Octavian had Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, a very talented general, on his side. Only a month afterwards, Agrippa destroyed Sextus' navy off Naulochus cape. Sextus escaped to the East and, by abandoning Sicily, lost all his base of support.

Sextus Pompeius was caught in Miletus in 35 BC and executed without trial (an illegal act since Sextus was a Roman citizen) by order of Marcus Titius, Antony's minion. His violent death would be one of the weapons used by Octavian against Antony several years later, when the situation between the two became unbearable.

Sicilian Mint
Magn above laureate Janiform head
PIVS above, IMP below, prow of galley right
Sear RCV 348, RPC 671, Sydenham 1044a, Cohen 16
43-36 BC

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001. Constantine I Campgate Sisicia24 viewsConstantine I Ric Vii Sisicia 214

ecoli
Constantius.jpg
002 - Constantius II (as Caesar 324-337 AD), AE 3 - RIC 38D34 viewsObv: FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust left.
Rev: PROVIDENTIAE CAESS, campgate with two turrets, star above.
Minted in Cyzicus (SMKdelta in exe), officina 4, 325-326 AD.
pierre_p77
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002 Constantine II 40 viewsobv: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C. laur.,dr.and cuir.bust l.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate two turrents star above
fld:/ex: wreath-II/SMAL(dot)
hill132
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003 Constantine II 20 viewsobv: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C laur.,dr.and cuir. bust l.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SMAL(A=alpha=1)
hill132
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004 Constantine I 26 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINVS AVG laur. head r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with two turrents star above
fld:/ex: wreath-A/SMAL
hill132
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005 Constantine I 20 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINVS AVG laur. bust r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with two turrents star above
fld:/ex: wreath/SMALA
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006 Constantine I 17 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINVS AVG laur.bust r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with two turrents star above
fld:/ex: wreath-B/SMAL
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006. Nero (54 AD - 68 AD) 47 viewsNero, last of the Julio-Claudians, had been placed in the difficult position of absolute authority at a young age coupled with the often-contradictory efforts of those in a position to manipulate him. Augustus, however, had not been much older when he began his bid for power, and so a great deal of the responsibility for Nero's conduct must also rest with the man himself. Nero's reign was not without military operations (e.g., the campaigns of Corbulo against the Parthians, the suppression of the revolt of Boudicca in Britain), but his neglect of the armies was a critical error.

Nero As, 26x27 mm, 10.0 g. Obverse: Nero laureate right, NERO CAESAR AVG GERM IMP. Reverse: Temple of Janus, with latticed window to left and closed double doors to right, PACE PR VBIQ PARTA IANVM CLVSIT, SC.

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1 commentsecoli
4140400.jpg
006a. Claudia17 viewsEGYPT, Alexandria. Nero, with Claudia. AD 54-68. BI Tetradrachm (22mm, 10.74 g, 12h). Dated RY 3 (AD 56/57). Laureate head of Nero right / Draped bust of Claudia Octavia right; L Γ (date) below chin. Köln 122-4; Dattari (Savio) 190; K&G 14.7; RPC I 5202; Emmett 127.3. Near VF. Ex - CNG

Furthermore, the carefully contrived marriage between Octavia and Nero was a disaster on a personal level. Nero soon embarked on a serious relationship with a freedman named Acte, and more importantly developed an active dislike for his wife. "Quickly feeling aversion to intimacy with Octavia, he replied to his friends who were finding fault with him that she ought to be satisfied with the outward trappings of a wife." This antipthy was not likely to produce offspring who would unite the Julian and Claudian lines. By 58 Nero was becoming involved with a freeborn mistress, Poppaea, whom he would want to make his empress in exchange for Octavia. But the legitimacy of his principate derived from his relationship with his predecessor, and he was not so secure that he could do without the connection with Claudius provided through his mother and his wife. In 59 he was able to arrange for Agrippina's death, but it was not until 62 that he felt free to divorce Octavia and marry Poppaea. The initial grounds for putting Octavia aside was the charge that she was barren because she had had no children. But a more aggressive attack was needed when opposition arose from those who still challenged Nero's prncipate and remained loyal to Octavia as the last representative of her family. With the connivance of Poppaea, charges of adultery were added, Octavia was banished to Campania and then to the island of Pandataria off the coast, and finally killed. Her severed head was sent to Rome.
2 commentsecoli
antioch1a.jpg
008 Costantine I32 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINVS AVG laur. bust r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with two turrents star above
fld:/ex: dot in doorway / SMANT(r=gamma=3)
1 commentshill132
antioch2a.jpg
009 Constantine II 27 viewsobv: CONSTANTINUS IVN NOB C laur.,dr. and cuir. bust l.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with to turrents star above
fld:/ex: dot in doorway / SMANT(delta=4)
hill132
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01 Julius Caesar, Captives19 viewsJulius Caesar. AR Denarius. Military mint traveling with Caesar in Spain. c. 46-45 B.C. (3.71g, 19.5mm, 6h). Obv: Diademed head of Venus right, Cupid on shoulder. Rev: Gallia seated in attitude of mourning and a Gaulish male captive, hands bound, seated beneath trophy, possibly Vercingetorix. CAESAR in Exergue. RSC 13. Craw. 468/1.

This type was minted during Caesar’s final campaign against Pompeian forces in Spain. The obverse refers to Caesar's mythical descent from the goddess Venus. The reverse refers to Caesar's victories in Gaul and the male Gaulish captive may be Vercingetorix. Not perfect, but well centered, a good state of preservation, with a clear CAESAR on the reverse.
Lucas H
Julius_Caesar_RSC_12.jpg
01 Julius Caesar, Venus39 viewsJulius Caesar. AR Denarius. Military mint traveling with Caesar in North Africa c. 47-46B.C. (3.88, 19.2mm, 6h). Obv: Diademed head of Venus right. Rev: CAESAR, Aeneas walking left, carrying Anchises and the Palladium. Craw. 458/1. RSC 12, Sear RCV 1402.

Minted to pay his legends during their African campaign against the Pomeians, this coin harkens to Caesar’s mythical origin from Venus. Aeneas, a survivor of Troy, was the son of Aphrodite’s liaison with the mortal Anchises. Aeneas lead a group of survivors, the Aeneads, ultimately to the Italian peninsula.
1 commentsLucas H
Denarius Augusto, Cayo y Lucio.jpg
01- 01 - AUGUSTO, CAYO y LUCIO (27 A.C. - 14 D.C.)92 viewsAR Denario 18 mm 3.5 gr.

Anv: "CAESAR AVGVSTVS DIVI F PATER PATRIAE" - Busto laureado a derecha.
Rev: "AVGVSTI F COS DESIG PRINC IVVENT" - Cayo y Lucio sus nietos de pié enfrentados c/u descansando su mano en un escudo redondo y lanza. En el campo centro superior Lituus (Báculo o cayado usado por los augures) a derecha y Simpulum (Copa pequeña) a Izquierda. "C L CAESARES" en exergo.

Acuñada 2 A.C. a 4 D.C.
Ceca: Lungdunum - Lyon Francia
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 #207 Pag.55 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1597 Pag.317 - BMCRE #533 - RSC Vol.1 #43 Pag.134 - Cohen Vol.1 #42 Pag.69 - DVM #51b Pag.67 - CBN #1651
mdelvalle
RIC_207_Denario_Octavio_Augusto.jpg
01- 01 - AUGUSTO, CAYO y LUCIO (27 A.C. - 14 D.C.)39 viewsAR Denario 18 mm 3.5 gr.

Anv: "CAESAR AVGVSTVS DIVI F PATER PATRIAE" - Busto laureado a derecha.
Rev: "AVGVSTI F COS DESIG PRINC IVVENT" - Cayo y Lucio sus nietos de pié enfrentados c/u descansando su mano en un escudo redondo y lanza. En el campo centro superior Lituus (Báculo o cayado usado por los augures) a derecha y Simpulum (Copa pequeña) a Izquierda. "C L CAESARES" en exergo.

Acuñada 2 A.C. a 4 D.C.
Ceca: Lungdunum - Lyon Francia
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 #207 Pag.55 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1597 Pag.317 - BMCRE #533 - RSC Vol.1 #43 Pag.134 - Cohen Vol.1 #42 Pag.69 - DVM #51b Pag.67 - CBN #1651
mdelvalle
Denarius Augusto, Cayo y Lucio 2.jpg
01- 02 - AUGUSTO, CAYO y LUCIO (27 A.C. - 14 D.C.) 103 viewsAR Denario 17 x 16 mm 3.2 gr.

Anv: "CAESAR AVGVSTVS DIVI F PATER PATRIAE" - Busto laureado a derecha.
Rev: "AVGVSTI F COS DESIG PRINC IVVENT" - Cayo y Lucio sus nietos de pié enfrentados c/u descansando su mano en un escudo redondo y lanza. En el campo centro superior Lituus (Báculo o cayado usado por los augures) a izquierda y Simpulum (Copa pequeña) a derecha, "X" debajo. "C L CAESARES" en exergo.

Acuñada 2 A.C. a 4 D.C.
Ceca: Lungdunum - Lyon Francia
Rareza: S

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 #211 Pag.56 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1597 var Pag.317 - BMCRE #537 - RSC Vol.1 #43a Pag.134 - Cohen Vol.1 #43 Pag.69 - DVM #51c Pag.67 - CBN #1651
mdelvalle
RIC_211_Denario_Octavio_Augusto.jpg
01- 02 - AUGUSTO, CAYO y LUCIO (27 A.C. - 14 D.C.) 29 viewsAR Denario 17 x 16 mm 3.2 gr.

Anv: "CAESAR AVGVSTVS DIVI F PATER PATRIAE" - Busto laureado a derecha.
Rev: "AVGVSTI F COS DESIG PRINC IVVENT" - Cayo y Lucio sus nietos de pié enfrentados c/u descansando su mano en un escudo redondo y lanza. En el campo centro superior Lituus (Báculo o cayado usado por los augures) a izquierda y Simpulum (Copa pequeña) a derecha, "X" debajo. "C L CAESARES" en exergo.

Acuñada 2 A.C. a 4 D.C.
Ceca: Lungdunum - Lyon Francia
Rareza: S

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 #211 Pag.56 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1597 var Pag.317 - BMCRE #537 - RSC Vol.1 #43a Pag.134 - Cohen Vol.1 #43 Pag.69 - DVM #51c Pag.67 - CBN #1651
mdelvalle
AS REPUBLICA anónimo.jpg
01-01 - As Emision Anonima (211 - 206 A.C.)143 viewsAE AS 34 mm 34.1 gr
Anv: Cabeza bifronte barbada y laureada de Jano - "I" (Marca de valor = 1 AS) sobre la cabeza.
Rev: Proa de galera a derecha - "ROMA" debajo e "I" en campo derecho.

Ceca: Roma
Referencias: Sear RCTV Vol.1 #627 Pag.191 - Craw RRC #56/2 - Syd CRR #143 - BMCRR #217
mdelvalle
Craw_56_2_AS_Anonimo.jpg
01-01 - As Emision Anonima (211 - 206 A.C.)41 viewsAE AS 34 mm 34.1 gr
Anv: Cabeza bifronte barbada y laureada de Jano - "I" (Marca de valor = 1 AS) sobre la cabeza.
Rev: Proa de galera a derecha - "ROMA" debajo e "I" en campo derecho.

Ceca: Roma
Referencias: Sear RCTV Vol.1 #627 Pag.191 - Craw RRC #56/2 - Syd CRR #143 - BMCRR #217
mdelvalle
Semis Emision anonima.jpg
01-02 - Semis Emision Anonima (211 - 206 A.C.)130 viewsAE Semis 28 mm 17.7 gr
Anv: Cabeza barbada y laureada de Saturno viendo a derecha - "S" (Marca de valor = Semis = 1/2 AS) detrás de la cabeza.
Rev: Proa de galera a derecha - "ROMA" debajo y "S" en campo superior.

Ceca: Roma
Referencias: Sear RCTV Vol.1 #766 Pag.207 - Craw RRC #56/3 - Syd CRR #144a - BMCRR #229 - Hannover #597
1 commentsmdelvalle
Craw_56_3_Semis_Anonimo.jpg
01-02 - Semis Emision Anonima (211 - 206 A.C.)38 viewsAE Semis 28 mm 17.7 gr
Anv: Cabeza barbada y laureada de Saturno viendo a derecha - "S" (Marca de valor = Semis = 1/2 AS) detrás de la cabeza.
Rev: Proa de galera a derecha - "ROMA" debajo y "S" en campo superior.

Ceca: Roma
Referencias: Sear RCTV Vol.1 #766 Pag.207 - Craw RRC #56/3 - Syd CRR #144a - BMCRR #229 - Hannover #597
mdelvalle
BMC_XXVI__62_Augusto_BERYTOS_FENICIA.jpg
01-80 - Beritos - Fenicia - AUGUSTO (27 A.C. - 14 D.C.)19 viewsAE22 22 mm 12.0 gr.
Acuñada a Divo Augusto durante el reinado de Trajano.
La Colonia Iulia Augusta Felix Berytus fue fundada por veteranos de las 5ta. y 8va. legione, probablemente en el 14 A.C.

Anv: " DIVOS AVGVSTVS " Cabeza desnuda de Augusto viendo a derecha.
Rev: "COL·/ IVL " (en campo centro alto), "AVG" (en campo derecho) y , "BER" (en campo izquierdo), rodeando a Fundador velado, arando a derecha con un buey y una vaca .

Acuñada probablemente 98–102 D.C.
Ceca: Beritos - Fenicia

Referencias: RPC I #1651 Pag.308 - Sawaya 2009 #565 Pag.37 - BMC Phoenicia #65-5 Pag.60
mdelvalle
antioch3a.jpg
010 Constantine II21 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINVS AVGG laur.bust r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SMANT(B=beta=2)
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coin214.JPG
010. Vespasian 69 AD - 79 AD36 viewsVespasian

The character of this emperor showed very little, if anything, of the pagan tyrant. Though himself a man of no literary culture, he became the protector of his prisoner of war, the Jewish historian Josephus, a worshipper of the One God, and even permitted him the use of his own family name (Flavius). While this generosity may have been in some degree prompted by Josephus's shrewd prophecy of Vespasian's elevation to the purple, there are other instances of his disposition to reward merit in those with whom he was by no means personally sympathetic. Vespasian has the distinction of being the first Roman Emperor to transmit the purple to his own son; he is also noteworthy in Roman imperial history as having very nearly completed his seventieth year and died a natural death: being in feeble health, he had withdrawn to benefit by the purer air of his native Reate, in the "dewy fields" (rosei campi) of the Sabine country. By his wife, Flavia Domitilla, he left two sons, Titus and Domitian, and a daughter, Domitilla, through whom the name of Vespasian's empress was passed on to a granddaughter who is revered as a confessor of the Faith.

A man of strict military discipline and simple tastes, Vespasian proved to be a conscientious and generally tolerant administrator. More importantly, following the upheavals of A.D. 68-69, his reign was welcome for its general tranquility and restoration of peace. In Vespasian Rome found a leader who made no great breaks with tradition, yet his ability ro rebuild the empire and especially his willingness to expand the composition of the governing class helped to establish a positive working model for the "good emperors" of the second century. In contrast to his immediate imperial predecessors, Vespasian died peacefully - at Aquae Cutiliae near his birthplace in Sabine country on 23 June, A.D. 79, after contracting a brief illness. The occasion is said to have inspired his deathbed quip: "Oh my, I must be turning into a god!"

Denarius. IMP CAES VESP AVG P M COS IIII, laureate head right / VES-TA to either side of Vesta standing left, holding simpulum & scepter. RSC 574
ecoli
antioch4a.jpg
011 Constantine II 18 viewsobv: CONSTANTINVS IVN OB C laur.drp and cuir. bust l.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
fld:/ex: dot in doorway / SMANT(B=beta=2)
hill132
antioch5a.jpg
012 Constantine II 18 viewsobv: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C laur. drp. and cuir.bust l.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
fld:/ex: dot in doorway / SMANT(delta=4)
hill132
antioch6a.jpg
013 Constantine I15 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINVS AVG rosetta dia.bust r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate wit two turrents star above
ex: SMANTZ
hill132
antioch7a.jpg
014 Constanine I11 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINUS AVG laur bust r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with two turrents star above
fld/ex: delta-dot in doorway-epsilon / SMANT
hill132
antioch8a.jpg
015 Constantine II12 viewsobv: CONSTANTIVS NO C laur. drp. and cuir.bust l.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SMANTdelta
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0154.jpg
0154 - Nummus Constantius II 324-5 AC33 viewsObv/ FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C, laureate and draped bust of C. l.
Rev/ PROVIDEN-TIAE CAESS, camp gate with two turrets, star above; PLON in ex.

AE, 19.0 mm, 3.13 g
Mint: Londinium.
RIC VII/298 [C1]
ex-CNG, auction e261, lot 315
dafnis
0156.jpg
0156 - Nummus Constantine II 324-5 AC30 viewsObv/ CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust of C. r.
Rev/ PROVIDEN-TIAE CAESS, camp gate with two turrets, star above, no door; PLON in ex.

AE, 19.2 mm, 3.59 g
Mint: Londinium.
RIC VII/296 [C3]
ex-Harlan J Berk, auction 176, lot 499
dafnis
antioch9a.jpg
016 Constantine I12 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINVS AVG rosetta dia. bust r.
rev: PROVEDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SMANTr
hill132
antioch10a.jpg
017 Constantine II13 viewsobv: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOC C laur. drp. cuir. bust l.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with two turrents star above
fld:/ex: dot in doorway / SMANTS
hill132
antioch11b.jpg
018 Crispus22 viewsobv: FL IVL CRISPVS NOB CAES laur. drp. cuir. bust l.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
fld:/ex: dot in doorway / SMANTZ
hill132
antioch12a.jpg
019 Constantius II14 viewsobv: FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust l.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SMANTH
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Julio_Cesar_Denario.jpg
02 - 01 - Julio Cesar (49 - 44 A.C.)142 viewsAR Denario 18,35 mm de 3,42 gr.

Anv: Emblemas sacerdotales, Simpulum (Copa pequeña con mango), aspergillum/aspersorio (Instrumento para espolvorear o rociar), securix (Hacha sacrificial), apex (gorro/bonete usado por los sacerdotes de Júpiter).
Rev: Elefante pisando un carnix (Instrumento musical galo), CAESAR en exergo.

Acuñada durante los años 49 - 48 A.C.
Ceca: Movil legionaria durante sus campañas probablemente en la Galia, Italia y/o Hispania.

Referencias: Craw. 443/1 - Syd. #1006 - BMCRR #27 - RSC Caesar #49 - Sear RCTV Vol.I #1399

2 commentsmdelvalle
Craw_443_1_Denario_Julius_Caesar.jpg
02 - 01 - Julio Cesar (49 - 44 A.C.)36 viewsAR Denario 18,35 mm de 3,42 gr.

Anv: Emblemas sacerdotales, Simpulum (Copa pequeña con mango), aspergillum/aspersorio (Instrumento para espolvorear o rociar), securix (Hacha sacrificial), apex (gorro/bonete usado por los sacerdotes de Júpiter).
Rev: Elefante pisando un carnix (Instrumento musical galo), CAESAR en exergo.

Acuñada durante los años 49 - 48 A.C.
Ceca: Movil legionaria durante sus campañas probablemente en la Galia, Italia y/o Hispania.

Referencias: Craw. 443/1 - Syd. #1006 - BMCRR #27 - RSC Caesar #49 - Sear RCTV Vol.I #1399
mdelvalle
P1200525b-horz.jpg
02 - 02 - Julio Cesar (49 - 44 A.C.)22 viewsAR Denario 19 mm de 3,9 gr.

Anv: ANEPIGRAFA - Busto diademado de Venus a derecha.
Rev: Eneas (Aeneas) avanzando a izquierda cargando a su Padre Anquises (Anchises) sobre su hombro izq. y portando Palladium en mano der, CAESAR en campo derecho.

Acuñada durante los años 47 - 46 A.C.
Ceca: Movil legionaria durante sus campañas contra Metelo Escipión (Metellus Scipio) y Labieno (Labienus) probablemente en el Norte de África.

Referencias: Babelon Vol.2 Julia #10, Pag.11 - Sear CRI #55 - Craw. 458/1 - Syd. #1013 - BMCRR East #31 - RSC Vol.I Caesar #12 Pag.107 - Sear RCTV Vol.I #1402 Pag.268 - Cohen Vol.I #12 Pag. 9 - Albert #1400 - Catalli #658, Pag.2001
mdelvalle
Craw_458_1_Denario_Julius_Caesar.jpg
02 - 02 - Julio Cesar (49 - 44 A.C.)28 viewsAR Denario 19 mm de 3,9 gr.

Anv: ANEPIGRAFA - Busto diademado de Venus a derecha.
Rev: Eneas (Aeneas) avanzando a izquierda cargando a su Padre Anquises (Anchises) sobre su hombro izq. y portando Palladium en mano der, CAESAR en campo derecho.

Acuñada durante los años 47 - 46 A.C.
Ceca: Movil legionaria durante sus campañas contra Metelo Escipión (Metellus Scipio) y Labieno (Labienus) probablemente en el Norte de África.

Referencias: Babelon Vol.2 Julia #10, Pag.11 - Sear CRI #55 - Craw. 458/1 - Syd. #1013 - BMCRR East #31 - RSC Vol.I Caesar #12 Pag.107 - Sear RCTV Vol.I #1402 Pag.268 - Cohen Vol.I #12 Pag. 9 - Albert #1400 - Catalli #658, Pag.2001
mdelvalle
Denario_de_Julio_Cesar_TROFEO.jpg
02 - 03 - Julio Cesar (49 - 44 A.C.)63 viewsAR Denario 17 mm de 3,51 gr.

Anv: ANEPIGRAFA - Busto diademado de Venus a der. Cupido detrás de su hombro.
Rev: Dos cautivos sentados a los lados de un trofeo de armas Galo, con escudo ovalado y Carnix en cada brazo, CAESAR en exergo.

Acuñada durante los años 46 - 45 A.C.
Ceca: Movil legionaria durante sus campañas probablemente en la Galia, Italia y/o Hispania.

Referencias: Babelon Julia #11 - Sear CRI #58 - Craw. 468/1 - Syd. #1014 - BMCRR Spain #89 - RSC Vol.I Caesar #13 Pag.107 - Sear RCTV Vol.I #1404 Pag.269 - Cohen Vol.I #13 Pag.10

mdelvalle
Craw_468_1_Denario_Julius_Caesar.jpg
02 - 03 - Julio Cesar (49 - 44 A.C.)32 viewsAR Denario 17 mm de 3,51 gr.

Anv: ANEPIGRAFA - Busto diademado de Venus a der. Cupido detrás de su hombro.
Rev: Dos cautivos sentados a los lados de un trofeo de armas Galo, con escudo ovalado y Carnix en cada brazo, CAESAR en exergo.

Acuñada durante los años 46 - 45 A.C.
Ceca: Movil legionaria durante sus campañas probablemente en la Galia, Italia y/o Hispania.

Referencias: Babelon Julia #11 - Sear CRI #58 - Craw. 468/1 - Syd. #1014 - BMCRR Spain #89 - RSC Vol.I Caesar #13 Pag.107 - Sear RCTV Vol.I #1404 Pag.269 - Cohen Vol.I #13 Pag.10
mdelvalle
Craw_467_1a_Denario_Julio_Cesar_1.jpg
02 - 04 - Julio Cesar (49 - 44 A.C.)28 viewsAR Denario 20/18 mm de 3,5 gr.

Anv: COS·TERT·DICT·ITER, Cabeza de Ceres a der.
Rev: AVGVR / PONT MAX , D (Donativum) en campo der., Emblemas sacerdotales, Simpulum (Copa pequeña con mango), aspergillum/aspersorio (Instrumento para espolvorear o rociar), capis y Lituus/lituo (bastón ritual augural).

Esta serie fue acuñada, probablemente, para el pago de las Legiones Victoriosas en la batalla de Thapsus/Tapso (Túnez), en la cual Julio César consiguió una victoria importante sobre Metelo Escipión y el rey númida Juba I, el 6 de abril del 46 A.C.. Por otro lado Ceres es un emblema de África.

Acuñada 46 A.C.
Ceca: Movil legionaria durante sus campañas probablemente en Útica (Norte de África).

Referencias: Craw. 467/1a, Syd. #1023, BMCRR (África)#21, RSC I Caesar #4a P.106, Babelon II Iulia #16 P.14, Sear RCTV I #1403/1 P.268, Cohen I #4 P.8, Sear Imperators #57
mdelvalle
Mac_Escudo_Coronado__Potosi__2_R.jpg
02 - 06 - Virreynato FELIPE II (1556-1598) 112 views"Macuquina del Escudo Coronado"

2 Reales de Plata
27x25 mm

Anv: PHILIPPVS · D · G · HISPANIARVM alrededor del escudo de armas coronado, entre ceca P sobre ensayador R en campo izq. y valor II en campo der.
.
Rev: ET · INDIARVM · REX · alrededor del cuartelado de castillos y leones dentro de orla de ocho lóbulos.

Acuñada: 1572-1576
Ensayador: R - Alonso Rincón
Ceca: Potosí - Hoy ubicada en Bolivia

Referencias:
mdelvalle
Augustus_RIC_288.jpg
02 Augustus RIC 28821 viewsAugusts 27 B.C.- 14 A.D. AR Denarius. Rome mint, 19 B.C. P. Petronius Turpilianus, moneyer. (3.65g, 18.2m, 0h). Obv: TVRPILIANS IIIVIR FERON, Diad. and draped bust of Feronia r. Rev: CAESAR AVGVSTVS SIGN RECE, Parthian kneeling r. presenting standard w. X marked vexillum. RIC 288, BMC 14, RSC 484.

A historical type commemorating the return of the standards lost by Crassus at the battle of Carrhae during his Parthian campaign in 53 B.C. Rome was humiliated by the defeat and loss of several Legionary Eagles. Crassus and several of his generals were killed. Through diplomacy, Augusts secured the return of the Eagles, an important victory to tout on his coinage.

I've been wanting this type for some time because of it's historic significance, but as it's outside of my primary collecting area, I was willing to compromise on condition. This example is worn, but clearly recognizable. The obverse has banker's marks which seem to disappear or become much more scarce on denarii towards the end of the Republic and beginning of the Empire.
Lucas H
AS M.ATILIUS SARANUS.jpg
02-10 - M. ATILIUS SARANUS (148 A.C.)84 viewsAE AS 29 mm 20.4 gr
Anv: Cabeza bifronte barbada y laureada de Jano - "I" (Marca de valor = 1 AS) sobre la cabeza.
Rev: Proa de galera a derecha - "M.ATILI" arriba, "ROMA" debajo e "I" en campo derecho.

Ceca: Roma
Referencias: Sear RCTV Vol.1 #727 Pag.200 - Craw RRC #214/2a - Syd CRR #399 - BMCRR #692
mdelvalle
Craw_214_2a_AS_M_Atilivs.jpg
02-10 - M. ATILIUS SARANUS (148 A.C.)30 viewsAE AS 29 mm 20.4 gr
Anv: Cabeza bifronte barbada y laureada de Jano - "I" (Marca de valor = 1 AS) sobre la cabeza.
Rev: Proa de galera a derecha - "M.ATILI" arriba, "ROMA" debajo e "I" en campo derecho.

Ceca: Roma

Referencias: Sear RCTV Vol.1 #727 Pag.200 - Craw RRC #214/2a - Syd CRR #399 - BMCRR #692
mdelvalle
antioch13.jpg
020 Constantine I12 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINVS AVG laur. bust r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with two turrents star above, base
ex: delta-dot in doorway-epsilon / SMANT
hill132
antioch14.jpg
021 Constantine I39 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINVS AVG rosetta dia. bust r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with two turrents star above
ex: delta-dot in doorway-epsilon / SMANT
1 commentshill132
antioch15.jpg
022 Constantine I 23 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINVS AVGG rosetta dia. bust r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with two turrents star above
ex: delta-dot in doorway-epsilon/SMANT
hill132
antioch16.jpg
023 Constantius II26 viewsobv: FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C laur.drp.cuir.bust l.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SMANT(H=eta=8)
1 commentshill132
antioch17.jpg
024 Constantius II8 viewsobv: FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust l.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SMANTdelta
hill132
antioch18.jpg
025 Constantine I14 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINVS AVGG laur. bust r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with two turrents star above
fld:ex: dot in doorway / SMANTS
hill132
antioch19.jpg
026 Constantius II14 viewsobv: FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust l.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrets star above
ex: SMANTH
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LitraRoma.jpg
026/3 Litra or 1/8 ounce40 viewsAnonymous. Æ Litra or 1/8 ounce. Rome. 234-231 BC. ( 3.43g, 15mm, 5h) Obv: Laureate head of Apollo right Rev: Horse rearing left, wearing bridle, bit, and reins; ROMA below.

Crawford 26/3; Sydenham 29 (Half-litra); Kestner 56-65; BMCRR Romano-Campanian 70-74 (Half-litra)

This coin is attributed as a Litra by Crawford, others define it as half-litra. However, it could be argued that "1/8 ounce piece" is the better description.

First of all, on litra and half-litra:

"According to Crawford, the weight standard of the series 26 litra and half litra are based on a litra of 3.375 grams . The half litra in Crawford is described as having a dog on the reverse rather than a horse, and the average weight of the half litra of several specimens is described as 1.65 grams. BMCRR does refer to these as half litrae; but keep in mind that Grueber was writing circa 1900 and based on older scholarship. Sydenham was writing in the 1950s. Of the three major works cited, Crawford is the most current and likely based on a greater number of more recent finds."

Andrew Mccabe:

"It's very doubtful to me that the word "litra" is correct. Much more likely, these small bronze coins were simply fractions of the Aes Grave cast coinage system, as they come in weights of 1/4, 1/8 and 1/16 ounce, and the Aes Grave coinage generally had denominations from As down to Semuncia (1/2 ounce). So this coin would be 1/8 ounce coin. That's my view, which differs from their long term designation as "Litra", which presume them to be overvalued token bronze coinage on the Sicilian model, whereby bronze coins had value names that indicate a relationship to the silver coinage.

Litra, the word, is from the same stem as Libra, i.e. pound, would suggest a denomination of a (light) Sicilian pound of bronze, which sometimes equates in value to a small silver coin in Sicily weighing about 1/12 didrachm (about 0.6 grams) so by this definition, a Litra = an Obol. But it hardly stands up to scrutiny that such a tiny bronze coin, weighing 3.375 grams, could have been equivalent to a 0.6 gram silver obol. It would imply a massive overvaluation of bronze that just does not seem credible.

So. throw out the Litras, and call these coins 1/8 ounce pieces, and I think we have a sensible answer."

Paddy
arles1.jpg
028 Constantine I48 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINVS AVGG pearl dia. bust r.
rev: VIRTV_S AVGG campgate with four turrents star above, wide open doors
fld:/ex: SF/ARLS
4 commentshill132
severusalexander.jpg
028. Severus Alexander, 222-235. AR Denarius. Victoria.73 viewsAR Denarius. Rome mint. AD 231-235.
Obv. Laureate head right IMP ALEXANDER PIVS AVG
Rev. Victoria standing left, left hand holding palm, right resting on shield, bound captive at feet VICTORIA AVG.

RIC 257, RSC 558a. aEF.

Struck to commemorate the 'victories' over the Persians in the emperors' eastern campaign of 231-233.
2 commentsLordBest
arles2.jpg
029 Constantine I13 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINVS AVG pearl dia.bust r.
rev: VIRTV_S AVGG campgate with four turrents star above,wide open doors
fld:/ex: SF/ARLP
hill132
Mac_Plus_Ultra__Potosi__1_R_1704_Y.jpg
03 - 04 - Virreynato FELIPE V (1700-1746) 79 views"Macuquina con PLVS VLTRA y Columnas sobre ondas de Mar"

1 Real de Plata Ley 917
20x18 mm

Anv: PHILIPPVS V D G HISPANIARVM REX (Felipe V por la gracia de Dios rey de las Españas) la leyenda, al tratarse de una macuquina, no es visible, alrededor de la cruz de Jerusalén con castillos y leones, con I (valor) encima, P (ceca) en campo izq., Y (Ensayador) en campo der. y 704 (fecha) debajo.
Rev: POTOSI EL PERV 1704 La leyenda, al tratarse de una macuquina, no es visible, alrededor de las 2 columnas y entre ellas en 3 líneas valor I entre P (marca de la ceca) e Y (ensayador), 2ª línea PLVS VLTRA, 3ª línea 704 entre Y (ensayador) y P (ceca).

Acuñada: 1704
Ensayador: Y - Diego de Ybarbouro
Ceca: Potosí - Hoy ubicada en Bolivia

Referencias: Maravedis.net #B-042-4
mdelvalle
Mac_Plus_Ultra__Potosi__2_R_1745.jpg
03 - 06 - Virreynato FELIPE V (1700-1746) 87 views"Macuquina con PLVS VLTRA y Columnas sobre ondas de Mar"

2 Reales de Plata Ley 917
22x25 mm

Anv: PHILIPPVS V D G HISPANIARVM REX (Felipe V por la gracia de Dios rey de las Españas) la leyenda, al tratarse de una macuquina, no es visible, alrededor de la cruz de Jerusalén con castillos y leones, con 2 (valor) encima, P (ceca) en campo izq., Q (Ensayador) en campo der. y 745 (fecha) debajo.
Rev: POTOSI AÑO 1745 EL PERV La leyenda, al tratarse de una macuquina, no es visible, alrededor de las 2 columnas y entre ellas en 3 líneas valor 2 entre P (marca de la ceca) e Q (ensayador), 2ª línea PLVS VLTRA, 3ª línea 745 entre Q (ensayador) y P (ceca).

Acuñada: 1745
Ensayador: Q - Luis de Quintanilla
Ceca: Potosí - Hoy ubicada en Bolivia

Referencias: Krause SCWC KM#29a Pag.112 - Maravedis.net #B-055-52
mdelvalle
Nabatea Aretas II Meshorer 1.jpg
03-05 - Aretas III (82-67 A.C.)111 viewsAE 14 x 15 mm 2.9 gr.

Anv: Cabeza de Atenas viendo a derecha, con yelmo y largo cabello de puntos.
Rev: Nike viendo a izquierda, portando un objeto incierto en mano izquierdo y corona en derecha Creciente y "Λ"(A?) en campo izq.

Ceca: Damasco – Syria

Referencias: Meshorer #1
mdelvalle
arles3.jpg
030 Constantius II18 viewsobv: FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C laur. drp. and cuir. bust l.
rev: VIRTVS CAESS campgate with four turrents star above,wide open doors
ex: SF/ARLQ
hill132
arles4.jpg
031 Constantius II15 viewsobv: FL IVL CONSTANTIVS laur. drp. cuir.bust l.
rev: VIRTVS CAESS campgate with four turrents star above, wide open doors
ex: QA(cressent)RL
hill132
arles5.jpg
032 Constantine I13 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINVS AVG peal dia. bust r.
rev: VIRTV_S AVGG campgate with four turrents star above,wide open doors
ex: SF/SCONST
hill132
arles6.jpg
033 Constantine I12 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINUS AVG pearl dia. bust r.
rev: VIRTV_S AVGG campgate with four turrents star above,wide open doors
ex: SF/SCONST
hill132
arles7.jpg
034 Constantine I 12 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINVS AVG pearl dia. bust r.
rev: VIRTV_S AVGG campgate with four turrents star above, wide open doors
ex: SF/SCONST
hill132
arles8.jpg
035 Constantine II17 viewsobv: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust l.
rev: VIRTVS CAESS campgate with four turrents star above, wide open doors
ex: SF/TCONST
hill132
arles9.jpg
036 Constantinus II17 viewsobv: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C laur. drp. and cuir. bust l.
rev: VIRTVS CAESS campgate with four turrents star above
ex: TA(cressent)RL
hill132
arles10.jpg
037 Constantine II13 viewsobv: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust l.
rev: VIRTVS CAESS campgate with four turrents star above, wide open doors
ex: SF/TCONST
hill132
arles11.jpg
038 Constantinus II16 viewsobv: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust l.
rev: VIRTVS CAESS campgate with four turrents star above, wide open doors
ex: SF/ TCONST
hill132
arles12.jpg
039 Constantius II9 viewsobv: FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust l.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SF/QCONST
hill132
Mac_Plus_Ultra__Potosi__2_R_1767.jpg
04 - 06 - Virreynato CARLOS III (1759-1788) 69 views"Macuquina con PLVS VLTRA y Columnas sobre ondas de Mar"

2 Reales de Plata Ley 917
20x22 mm

Anv: CAROLUS III D G HISPANIARVM REX (Carlos III por la gracia de Dios rey de las Españas) la leyenda, al tratarse de una macuquina, no es visible, alrededor de la cruz de Jerusalén con castillos y leones, con 2 (valor) encima, P (ceca) en campo izq., V (Ensayador) en campo der. y 767 (fecha) debajo.
Rev: POTOSI 1767 EL PERV La leyenda, al tratarse de una macuquina, no es visible, alrededor de las 2 columnas y entre ellas en 3 líneas valor 2 entre P (marca de la ceca) e V (ensayador), 2ª línea PLVS VLTRA, 3ª línea 767 entre V (ensayador) y P (ceca).

Acuñada: 1767
Ensayador: V - José de Vargas y Flores
Ceca: Potosí - Hoy ubicada en Bolivia

Referencias: Krause SCWC KM#43 Pag.112 - Maravedis.net #B-302-8
mdelvalle
Denario_Marco_Antonio_LEG_III.jpg
04-03 - MARCO ANTONIO (43 - 30 A.C.)42 views2do. triunvirato (43 - 30 A.C.)
AR denario Legionario 17 mm 3.1 gr.

Anv: Galera Pretoriana navegando a derecha con cetro y estandarte en proa - "ANT AVG" arriba y "III VIR.R.P.C." debajo.
Rev: "LEG III" (Legión III - Gallica) - Aquila (Aguila Legionaria) volando entre dos estandartes militares.

Acuñada 32/31 A.C.
Ceca: Patrae ? - Grecia

Según Sear RCTV Vol.1 Pag.284 : "La celebrada acuñación legionaria de Marco Antorio fue producida con gran probabilidad en los Cuarteles de invierno de Patrae poco antes de la Campaña de Actian. Se realizó honrando a 23 Legiones (Leg.PRI a LEG.XXIII) así como a la Guardia Pretoriana (Guardia Personal de los Emperadores) y la Cohorte de Speculatores (Escuadrón de reconocimiento, mensajería e inteligencia militar)."

Referencias: Craw RRC #544/15 - Syd CRR #1217 - BMCRR (este) #193 - RSC Vol.1 #29 Pag.124 - Cohen Vol.1 #28 Pag.41 - Babelon MRRB#107
mdelvalle
Craw_544_1_Denario_Marco_Antonio.jpg
04-03 - MARCO ANTONIO (43 - 30 A.C.)18 views2do. triunvirato (43 - 30 A.C.)
AR denario Legionario 17 mm 3.1 gr.

Anv: Galera Pretoriana navegando a derecha con cetro y estandarte en proa - "ANT AVG" arriba y "III VIR.R.P.C." debajo.
Rev: "LEG III" (Legión III - Gallica) - Aquila (Aguila Legionaria) volando entre dos estandartes militares.

Acuñada 32/31 A.C.
Ceca: Patrae ? - Grecia

Según Sear RCTV Vol.1 Pag.284 : "La celebrada acuñación legionaria de Marco Antorio fue producida con gran probabilidad en los Cuarteles de invierno de Patrae poco antes de la Campaña de Actian. Se realizó honrando a 23 Legiones (Leg.PRI a LEG.XXIII) así como a la Guardia Pretoriana (Guardia Personal de los Emperadores) y la Cohorte de Speculatores (Escuadrón de reconocimiento, mensajería e inteligencia militar)."

Referencias: Craw RRC #544/15 - Syd CRR #1217 - BMCRR (este) #193 - RSC Vol.1 #29 Pag.124 - Cohen Vol.1 #28 Pag.41 - Babelon MRRB#107
mdelvalle
Denarius Marco Antonio Leg.V.jpg
04-05 - MARCO ANTONIO (43 - 30 A.C.)80 views2do. triunvirato (43 - 30 A.C.)
AR denario Legionario 16 x 18 mm 3.2 gr.
Anv: Galera Pretoriana navegando a derecha con cetro y estandarte en proa - "ANT AVG" arriba y "III VIR.R.P.C." debajo.
Rev: "LEG V" (Legión V - Alaudae) - Aquila (Aguila Legionaria) volando entre dos estandartes militares.

Acuñada 32/31 A.C.
Ceca: Patrae ? - Grecia
Según Sear RCTV Vol.1 Pag.284 : "La celebrada acuñación legionaria de Marco Antorio fue producida con gran probabilidad en los Cuarteles de invierno de Patrae poco antes de la Campaña de Actian. Se realizó honrando a 23 Legiones (Leg.PRI a LEG.XXIII) así como a la Guardia Pretoriana (Guardia Personal de los Emperadores) y la Cohorte de Speculatores (Escuadrón de reconocimiento, mensajería e inteligencia militar)."

Referencias: Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1479 Pag.283 - Sear CRI #354 - Craw RRC #544/18 - Syd CRR #1221 -BMCRR (este) #196 - RSC Vol.1 #32 Pag.124 - Cohen Vol.1 #32 Pag.41 - Babelon MRRB#110
1 commentsmdelvalle
Craw_544_18_Denario_Marco_Antonio.jpg
04-05 - MARCO ANTONIO (43 - 30 A.C.)19 views2do. triunvirato (43 - 30 A.C.)
AR denario Legionario 16 x 18 mm 3.2 gr.

Anv: Galera Pretoriana navegando a derecha con cetro y estandarte en proa - "ANT AVG" arriba y "III VIR.R.P.C." debajo.
Rev: "LEG V" (Legión V - Alaudae) - Aquila (Aguila Legionaria) volando entre dos estandartes militares.

Acuñada 32/31 A.C.
Ceca: Patrae ? - Grecia
Según Sear RCTV Vol.1 Pag.284 : "La celebrada acuñación legionaria de Marco Antorio fue producida con gran probabilidad en los Cuarteles de invierno de Patrae poco antes de la Campaña de Actian. Se realizó honrando a 23 Legiones (Leg.PRI a LEG.XXIII) así como a la Guardia Pretoriana (Guardia Personal de los Emperadores) y la Cohorte de Speculatores (Escuadrón de reconocimiento, mensajería e inteligencia militar)."

Referencias: Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1479 Pag.283 - Sear CRI #354 - Craw RRC #544/18 - Syd CRR #1221 -BMCRR (este) #196 - RSC Vol.1 #32 Pag.124 - Cohen Vol.1 #32 Pag.41 - Babelon MRRB#110
mdelvalle
Denarius Marco Antonio Leg.XI.jpg
04-11 - MARCO ANTONIO (43 - 30 A.C.)37 views2do. triunvirato (43 - 30 A.C.)
AR denario Legionario 18 x 19 mm 3.3 gr.
Anv: Galera Pretoriana navegando a derecha con cetro y estandarte en proa - "ANT AVG" arriba y "III VIR.R.P.C." debajo.
Rev: "LEG XI" (Legión XI) - Aquila (Aguila Legionaria) volando entre dos estandartes militares.

Acuñada 32/31 A.C.
Ceca: Patrae ? - Grecia
Según Sear RCTV Vol.1 Pag.284 : "La celebrada acuñación legionaria de Marco Antorio fue producida con gran probabilidad en los Cuarteles de invierno de Patrae poco antes de la Campaña de Actian. Se realizó honrando a 23 Legiones (Leg.PRI a LEG.XXIII) así como a la Guardia Pretoriana (Guardia Personal de los Emperadores) y la Cohorte de Speculatores (Escuadrón de reconocimiento, mensajería e inteligencia militar)."

Referencias: Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1479 var. Pag.283/284 - Craw RRC #544/25 - Syd CRR #1229 - BMCRR (este) #203 - RSC Vol.1 #39 Pag.124 - Cohen Vol.1 #39 Pag.41 - Babelon MRR B#118
mdelvalle
Craw_544_25_Denario_Marco_Antonio.jpg
04-11 - MARCO ANTONIO (43 - 30 A.C.)15 views2do. triunvirato (43 - 30 A.C.)
AR denario Legionario 18 x 19 mm 3.3 gr.

Anv: Galera Pretoriana navegando a derecha con cetro y estandarte en proa - "ANT AVG" arriba y "III VIR.R.P.C." debajo.
Rev: "LEG XI" (Legión XI) - Aquila (Aguila Legionaria) volando entre dos estandartes militares.

Acuñada 32/31 A.C.
Ceca: Patrae ? - Grecia
Según Sear RCTV Vol.1 Pag.284 : "La celebrada acuñación legionaria de Marco Antorio fue producida con gran probabilidad en los Cuarteles de invierno de Patrae poco antes de la Campaña de Actian. Se realizó honrando a 23 Legiones (Leg.PRI a LEG.XXIII) así como a la Guardia Pretoriana (Guardia Personal de los Emperadores) y la Cohorte de Speculatores (Escuadrón de reconocimiento, mensajería e inteligencia militar)."

Referencias: Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1479 var. Pag.283/284 - Craw RRC #544/25 - Syd CRR #1229 - BMCRR (este) #203 - RSC Vol.1 #39 Pag.124 - Cohen Vol.1 #39 Pag.41 - Babelon MRR B#118
mdelvalle
foto8.jpg
04-12 - Aretas IV (9 A.C. - 40 D.C.)22 viewsEste tipo fue acuñado en nombre de Aretas IV y su esposa/hermana? Shuqailat.
AE 17 x 14 mm 3.0 gr.

Anv: Bustos conjugados laureados y vestidos de Aretas IV y su Reina Shaquilath viendo a derecha."Letras arameas en el campo".
Rev: Dos cornucopias cruzadas. Entre ellas leyenda en arameo "ARETAS, SHUQAILAT" (En 2 líneas entre los cuernos HRTT/SQY y una debajo LT).

Acuñada: 39 - 40 D.C.
Ceca: Petra

Referencias: Sear GICTV #5699 Pag.560 - B.M.C. Vol.28 #15-20 Pag 8 - SNG ANS #6.1438-43 - Meshorer #114 - SNG Copenhagen #127-131
mdelvalle
foto7.jpg
04-14 - Aretas IV (9 A.C. - 40 D.C.)18 viewsEste tipo fue acuñado en nombre de Aretas IV y su esposa/hermana? Shuqailat.
AE 17 x 16 mm 3.8 gr.

Anv: Bustos conjugados laureados y vestidos de Aretas IV y su Reina Shaquilath viendo a derecha."Letras arameas en el campo".
Rev: Dos cornucopias cruzadas. Entre ellas leyenda en arameo "ARETAS, SHUQAILAT" (En 2 líneas entre los cuernos HRTT/SQY y una debajo LT).

Acuñada: 39 - 40 D.C.
Ceca: Petra

Referencias: Sear GICTV #5699 Pag.560 - B.M.C. Vol.28 #15-20 Pag 8 - SNG ANS #6.1438-43 - Meshorer #114 - SNG Copenhagen #127-131
mdelvalle
foto9.jpg
04-16 - Aretas IV (9 A.C. - 40 D.C.)24 viewsEste tipo fue acuñado en nombre de Aretas IV y su esposa/hermana? Shuqailat.
AE 15 x 13 mm 2.4 gr.

Anv: Bustos conjugados laureados y vestidos de Aretas IV y su Reina Shaquilath viendo a derecha."Letras arameas en el campo".
Rev: Dos cornucopias cruzadas. Entre ellas leyenda en arameo "ARETAS, SHUQAILAT" (En 2 líneas entre los cuernos HRTT/SQY y una debajo LT).

Acuñada: 39 - 40 D.C.
Ceca: Petra

Referencias: Sear GICTV #5699 Pag.560 - B.M.C. Vol.28 #15-20 Pag 8 - SNG ANS #6.1438-43 - Meshorer #114 - SNG Copenhagen #127-131
mdelvalle
RIC_33_AS_Tiberio.jpg
04-20 - TIBERIO (14 - 37 D.C.)15 viewsAE AS 27 mm 9.0 gr.

Anv: "CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS IMP VII" - Busto a cabeza desnuda viendo a derecha.
Rev: "PONTIF MAXIM TRIBVN POTEST XVII" - Livia ? sedente en trono a derecha, portando Cetro largo vertical en mano izq. y Patera en su mano der. extendida. "S C " en los campos.

Acuñada 15-16 D.C.
Ceca: Roma
Rareza: R3

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 #33 Pag.96 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1769 var. (Busto) Pag.348 - BMCRE #65 Pag.128 - Cohen Vol.1 (Tiberio) #17 Pag.191 - DVM #15 var. (Busto) Pag.76 - CBN II #39 Pag.44
mdelvalle
arles13.jpg
040 Constantine II15 viewsobv: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust l.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SF/ARLT
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arles14.jpg
041 Constantius II14 viewsobv: FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust l.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SF/ARLQ
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arles15.jpg
042 Constantius II10 viewsobv: FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust l.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with two turrents star above
fld:/ex: SF/ARLP
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arles16.jpg
043 Constantine I12 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINEVS AVG pearl dia. bust r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with two turrents star above, arches at top
fld:/ex: SF/SCONST
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arles17.jpg
044 Constantine I13 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINVS AVG pearl dia.bust r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with two turrents star above
fld:/ex: SF/PCONST
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arles18.jpg
045 Constantine I8 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINVS AVG laur bust r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with two turrents star above
fld:/ex: SF/ARLP
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Trajan-RIC-147.jpg
045. Trajan.15 viewsDenarius, 103-111 AD, Rome mint.
Obverse: IMP TRAIANO AVG GER DAC PM TR P / Laureate bust of Trajan.
Reverse: COS V PP SPQR OPTIMO PRINC / Trophy of arms: two shield, one round, one oval; at base: two swords, two javelins, and two shields.
3.28 gm., 18 mm.
RIC #147.

The conquest of Dacia, the most important military enterprise of Trajan's reign, occupied two campaigns: 101 - 102 AD, and 105 - 106 AD. This coin commemorates the victories of the second of these campaigns.
Callimachus
arles19.jpg
046 Constantine I10 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINVS AVG pearl dia. bust r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with two turrents star above
fld:/ex: SF/PCONST
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arles20.jpg
047 Constantius II. AE311 viewsobv:FL CONSTANTIVS NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
ex: Q*AR dot
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arles21.jpg
048 Constantine I. AE38 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINVS AVG laur. bust r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with two turrents star above
ex: P*AR
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arles22.jpg
049 Constantine I. AE324 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINVS AVG pearl dia. bust r.
rev: VIRTV_S AVGG campgate with four turrents star above wide open doors
fld:/ex: SF/ARLP
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RPC_71_Semis_Druso_ITALICA.jpg
05 - 40 - Cnia. Itálica - DRUSO (20 - 23 D.C.)28 viewsAE Semis 23 mm 4.95 gr.

Anv: "DRVSVS CAESAR TI AVG F" (Leyenda anti-horaria), Cabeza desnuda viendo a derecha.
Rev: Aquila (Águila Legionaria) y Vexillum (Estandarte) entre dos Signa (Insignias militares), "MUNIC ITALIC" (Leyenda anti-horaria), "PE-R / AV-G" en campo centro.

Acuñada 20 - 23 D.C.
Ceca: Cnia. Municipium Itálica, Hispania (Hoy Saltiponce, Sevilla, España)

Referencias: RPC #71, SNG Cop #419, ACIP #3340, Vives Pl.CLXVIII #12, ABH #1596, FAB #1685 P.205, Sear GICV #338 P.31, RAH #2012-20 Pag. 259/60 - DC y P #3 Pag.215, Cohen I #9 Pag.218, Heiss #10 Pag.380
mdelvalle
Seleuco III, Soter Cerauno.jpg
05-02 - Seleuco III, Soter Cerauno (226 - 223 A.C.)52 viewsSeleuco III Sóter Cerauno (? - 223 adC). Rey de la dinastía seleúcida, hijo mayor de Seleuco II Calinico, a quien sucedió. Su apelativo Cerauno significa “el Rayo”. Su reinado fue breve (apenas tres años, desde el 225 adC). Decidió llevar a cabo el plan que su padre no pudo realizar en vida: enfrentar al rey Atalo I de Pérgamo, aliado de Antioco Hierax, hermano de Seleuco Calinico y tio suyo, el cual había muerto hace poco, pero que había ayudado a Atalo, quien había aprovechado la situación para expandir sus fronteras y conquistar toda el Asia Menor.
En el transcurso de esta campaña realizada en la región del Tauro, Seleuco III murió asesinado víctima de la traición de uno de sus oficiales llamado Nicanor, en complicidad con el galo Apaturios (223 adC).
Fue sucedido por su hermano Antíoco III Megas, contando con el apoyo de Aqueo, pariente del difunto rey quien había tenido gran influencia durante su reinado. Aqueo rechazó la corona que le ofrecieron las tropas y prefirió gobernar como regente del imperio. Nombró a Molón gobernador de las provincias superiores y él se reservó el Asia Menor; combatió con éxito contra Atalo I y lo confinó en Pérgamo, de modo que suyo fue el mérito de ganar la guerra que había empezado Seleuco III. (Wikipedia)
AE 12 mm 2.0 gr.

Anv: Busto de Artemisa viendo a der. Grafila de puntos.
Rev: "BAΣIΛEΩΣ ΣEΛEYKOY" - Apolo sentado a izquierda en ónfalo (Piedra semicilíndrica centro del culto de Apolo en Delfos, fetiche de basalto y altar de la madre tierra de la religión micénica) con flecha en mano derecha levantada y apoyando la izquierda en un arco. "CE / Λ" en campo izquierdo y "AP" (Monograma) en exergo.

Ceca: Antioquía en Orontes

Referencias: B.M.C. Vol.4 (Seleucid Kings of Syria) #8 Pag.22 - Sear GCTV Vol.2 #6929 Pag.646 - SNG Spaer #518 - Newell E.T. (Western Seleucid Mints) #1036
mdelvalle
arles23.jpg
050 Constantine I. AE312 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINUS AVG laur. bust r.
rev: VIRTVS AVGG campgate with four turrents star above wide open doors
fld:/ex: SF/ARLS
hill132
arles24.jpg
051 Constantius II. AE314 viewsobv: FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust l.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
fld:/ex: SF/QCONST
hill132
arles25.jpg
052 Constantius II. AE325 viewsobv: FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust l.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
ex: QA(crescent)RL
hill132
arles26.jpg
053 Constantine I. AE311 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINVS AVG laur. bust r.
rev: VIRTV_S AVGG campgate with four turrents star above wide open doors
ex: PA(crescent)RL
hill132
arles27.jpg
054 Constantinus II. AE314 viewsobv: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust l
rev: VIRTVS CAESS campgate with four turrents star above, wide open doors
fld:/ex: SF/ARLT
hill132
arles28.jpg
056 Constantine I. AE312 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINUS AVG pearl dia. bust r.
rev: VIRTV_S AVGG campgate with four turrents star above,wide open doors
fld:/ex:SF/PCONST
hill132
arles29.jpg
057 Constantius II. AE315 viewsobv: FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust l.
rev: VIRTVS CAESS campgate with four turrents star above, wide open doors
ex: QR(crescent)RL
hill132
arles30.jpg
058 Constantine I. AE310 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINVS AVG pearl dia. bust r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with two turrents star above
fld:/ex: SF/PCONST
hill132
arles31.jpg
059 Constantine II. AE331 viewsobv: COSTANTINVS IVN NOB C laur. drp. cuir bust l.
rev: VIRTVS CAESS campgate with four turrents star above wide open doors
ex: TA(crescent)RL
1 commentshill132
AS_Caligula_VESTA_RIC_38.jpg
06-01 - GAIUS (CALIGULA 37 - 41 D.C.)118 viewsAE AS 26,25 mm 9,20 gr.

Anv: "C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT" - Busto a cabeza desnuda viendo a izquierda.
Rev: "VESTA" en campo superior - Vesta sentada en un trono ornamentado a izquierda, portando pátera en mano der. y largo cetro oblicuo en izq. "S C " en los campos.

Acuñada ca. 37 D.C.
Ceca: Roma.

Referencias: RIC Vol.I #38 Pag.111 - Sear RCTV Vol.I #1803 Pag.356 - BMCRE #46 - Cohen Vol.I #27 Pag.240 - DVM #9 Pag.80 - CBN #54
3 commentsmdelvalle
Denarius Octavio RIC 543a.jpg
06-01 - OCTAVIO (32 - 27 A.C.)63 viewsAR Denario 16.5 x 18 mm 3.3 gr.

Anv: Cabeza desnuda de un joven e inmaduro Octavio viendo a derecha.
Rev: Escudo Español (?) circular con tres filas concéntricas de clavos de adorno y un broche central - "IMP" sobre, "CAE" campo izq., "SAR" campo der. y "DIVI F" debajo.

Acuñada 35/34 A.C.
Ceca: Incierta

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 #543a Pag.85 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1546 Pag.299 - Sear CRI #392 - BMCRR (Galia) #119 (= BMCRE #309) - RSC Vol.1 #126 Pag.140 - Cohen Vol.1 #126 Pag.82
mdelvalle
RIC_543a_Denario_Octavio_Augusto.jpg
06-01 - OCTAVIO (32 - 27 A.C.)15 viewsAR Denario 16.5 x 18 mm 3.3 gr.

Anv: Cabeza desnuda de un joven e inmaduro Octavio viendo a derecha.
Rev: Escudo Español (?) circular con tres filas concéntricas de clavos de adorno y un broche central - "IMP" sobre, "CAE" campo izq., "SAR" campo der. y "DIVI F" debajo.

Acuñada 35/34 A.C.
Ceca: Incierta

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 #543a Pag.85 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1546 Pag.299 - Sear CRI #392 - BMCRR (Galia) #119 (= BMCRE #309) - RSC Vol.1 #126 Pag.140 - Cohen Vol.1 #126 Pag.82
mdelvalle
RIC_38_AS_Caligula.jpg
06-10 - GAIUS (CALIGULA 37 - 41 D.C.)19 viewsAE AS 26,25 mm 9,20 gr.

Anv: "C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT" - Busto a cabeza desnuda viendo a izquierda.
Rev: "VESTA" en campo superior - Vesta sentada en un trono ornamentado a izquierda, portando pátera en mano der. y largo cetro oblicuo en izq. "S C " en los campos.

Acuñada ca. 37 D.C.
Ceca: Roma.

Referencias: RIC Vol.I #38 Pag.111 - Sear RCTV Vol.I #1803 Pag.356 - BMCRE #46 - Cohen Vol.I #27 Pag.240 - DVM #9 Pag.80 - CBN #54
mdelvalle
Quinarius OCTAVIO RIC 276.jpg
06-10 - OCTAVIO (32 - 27 A.C.)65 viewsAR Quinario 13 x 15 mm 1.5 gr.
Conmemora el sometimiento de la Provincia de ASIA en el año 30 A.C.

Anv: Cabeza desnuda de Octavio viendo a derecha - "CAESAR" detrás, "IMP VII" delante.
Rev: Victoria de pié a izquierda sobre una cesta mística, flanqueada por dos serpientes erectas, portando corona de laureles en mano derecha y palma sobre hombro izquierdo - "ASIA" campo derecho y "RECEPTA" en campo izquierdo.

Acuñada 29/28 A.C.
Ceca: Brundisium ó Roma

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 #276 Pag.61 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1568 Pag.302 - Sear CRI #429 - BMCRR (este) #240 (= BMCRE #647) - RSC Vol.1 #14 Pag.132 - Cohen Vol.1 #14 Pag.64 - CBM #902 - Babelon MRR B#145
mdelvalle
RIC_276_Quinario_Octavio_Augusto.jpg
06-10 - OCTAVIO (32 - 27 A.C.)15 viewsAR Quinario 13 x 15 mm 1.5 gr.
Conmemora el sometimiento de la Provincia de ASIA en el año 30 A.C.

Anv: Cabeza desnuda de Octavio viendo a derecha - "CAESAR" detrás, "IMP VII" delante.
Rev: Victoria de pié a izquierda sobre una cesta mística, flanqueada por dos serpientes erectas, portando corona de laureles en mano derecha y palma sobre hombro izquierdo - "ASIA" campo derecho y "RECEPTA" en campo izquierdo.

Acuñada 29/28 A.C.
Ceca: Brundisium ó Roma

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 #276 Pag.61 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1568 Pag.302 - Sear CRI #429 - BMCRR (este) #240 (= BMCRE #647) - RSC Vol.1 #14 Pag.132 - Cohen Vol.1 #14 Pag.64 - CBM #902 - Babelon MRR B#145
mdelvalle
RIC_38_AS_Caligula_1.jpg
06-11 - GAIUS (CALIGULA 37 - 41 D.C.)14 viewsAE AS 28.0 mm 9,20 gr.

Anv: "C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT" - Busto a cabeza desnuda viendo a izquierda.
Rev: "VESTA" en campo superior - Vesta sentada en un trono ornamentado a izquierda, portando pátera en mano der. y largo cetro oblicuo en izq. "S C " en los campos.

Acuñada ca. 37 D.C.
Ceca: Roma.

Referencias: RIC Vol.I #38 Pag.111 - Sear RCTV Vol.I #1803 Pag.356 - BMCRE #46 - Cohen Vol.I #27 Pag.240 - DVM #9 Pag.80 - CBN #54
mdelvalle
arles32.jpg
060 Constantine I. AE3 9 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINVS AVG laur. bust r
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SA crescent RL
hill132
arles33.jpg
061 Constantine II10 viewsobv: COSTANTINVS IVN NOB C laur. drp. cuir bust l.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star
fld:/ex: SF/ARLT
hill132
arles34.jpg
062 Constantine I. AE315 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINUS AVG pearl dia. head r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with two turrents star above
fld:/ex: SF/PCONST
hill132
066.jpg
062 CONSTANTINUS II14 viewsEMPEROR: Constantinus II
DENOMINATION: AE reduced follis
OBVERSE: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
REVERSE: PROVIDENTIAE CAESS, campgate, 5 layers, two turrets, no door, star above.
EXERGUE: SMHΓ.
DATE: 325-326 AD
MINT: Heraclea
WEIGHT: 2.05 g
RIC: VII Heraclea 77
Barnaba6
arles35.jpg
063 Constantine I. AE313 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINUS AVG laur. bust r.
rev: VIRTV_S AVGG campgate with four turrents star above,wide open doors
fld:/ex: SF/ARLS
hill132
arles36.jpg
064 Constantine I. AE315 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINVS AVG pearl dia. bust r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with two turrents star above
fld:/ex: SF/ARLS
hill132
arles37.jpg
065 Constantine I. AE321 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINUS AVG laur. bust r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with two turrents star above
fld:/ex: SF/ARLP
hill132
6.jpg
065a CONSTANTIUS II RIC SISCIA 20310 views EMPEROR: Constantius II
DENOMINATION: Ae3
OBVERSE: FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C, laureate, draped bust left
REVERSE: PROVIDENTIAE CAESS, Camp gate with 2 turrets & star
EXERGUE: ΔSIS doublecresent
MINT: SISCIA
RIC VII SISCIA 203
Barnaba6
arles38.jpg
066 Constantine I. AE317 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINUS AVG pearl dia. head r.
rev: VIRTV_S AVGG campgate with four turrents star above wide open doors
ex: SF/PCONST
hill132
arles39.jpg
067 Constantine I. AE318 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINUS AVG pearl dia. head r.
rev: VIRTV_S AVGG campgate with four turrents star above wide open doors
ex: SF/PCONST
hill132
arles40.jpg
068 Constantine II. AE314 viewsobv: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust l
rev: VIRTVS CAESS campgate with four turrents star above wide open doors
ex: TA(crescent)RL
hill132
arles41.jpg
069 Constantine I. AE322 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINUS AVG pearl dia. head r.
rev: VIRTV_S AVGG campgate with four turrents star above wide open doors
ex: SF/ARLP
hill132
arles42~0.jpg
070 Constantine I12 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINVS AVG pearl dia. head r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SF/PCONST
hill132
arles42.jpg
070 Constantine I. AE319 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINUS AVG pearl dia. head r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SF/PCONST
hill132
arles43.jpg
071 Constantius II13 viewsobv: FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust l.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two torrents, star above
ex: SF/ARLQ
hill132
arles44.jpg
072 Constantin I18 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINUS AVG laur. head r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with two turrents, star above
ex: SF/ARLES
hill132
arles45.jpg
073 Constantius II11 viewsobv: FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust l.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents, star above
ex: SF/ARLQ
hill132
aquileia1.jpg
075 Magnus Maximus. AE423 viewsobv: DN MAG MA_XIMVS PF AVG pearl dia. drp. cuir. bust r.
rev: SPES RO_MA_NORVM campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SMAQS
1 commentshill132
aquileia2.jpg
076 Magnus maximus. AE415 viewsobv: DN MAG MA_XIMVS PF AVG pearl dia. drp. cuir. bust r.
rev: SPES RO_MA NORVM campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SMAQP
hill132
arelate1.jpg
078 Magnus maximus. AE420 viewsobv: DN MAG MAXI_NVS PF AVG pearl dia. drp. uir. bust r.
rev: SPES RO_MA NORVM campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SCON
hill132
arelate2.jpg
079 Magnus Maximus AE416 viewsobv: DN MAG MAXI_MVS PF AVG pearl dia. drp. cuir. bust r.
rev: SPES RO_MA_NORVM campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SCON
hill132
Antíoco IV, Epiphanes.jpg
08-02 - Anti­oco IV, Epiphanes (175 - 164 A.C.)68 viewsAntíoco IV Epífanes (Αντίοχος Επιφανής en griego, 215 adC-163 adC) fue rey de Siria de la dinastía Seléucida desde c. 175 adC-164 adC.
Era hijo de Antíoco III Megas y hermano de Seleuco IV Filopator. Originalmente fue llamado Mitríades, pero adoptó el nombre de Antíoco tras su ascensión al trono (o quizás tras la muerte de su hermano mayor, también Antíoco).
Subió al trono tras la muerte de su hermano Seleuco IV Filopátor que gobernó durante poco tiempo antes que él, hasta que Heliodoro, tesorero suyo, lo mató por ambición. Había vivido en Roma según los términos de la paz de Apamea (188 adC), pero acababa de ser intercambiado por el hijo y legítimo heredero de Seleuco IV, el futuro (Demetrio I Sóter). Antíoco se aprovechó de la situación, y junto con su otro hermano Antíoco, se proclamó rey con el apoyo de Eumenes II de Pérgamo y el hermano de éste, Atalo I. Su hermano Antíoco sería asesinado pocos años después.
Por su enfrentamiento con Ptolomeo VI, que reclamaba Coele-Syria, atacó e invadió Egipto, conquistando casi todo el país, con la salvedad de la capital, Alejandría. Llegó a capturar al rey, pero para no alarmar a Roma, decicidió reponerlo en el trono, aunque como su marioneta. Sin embargo, los alejandrinos habían elegido al hermano de éste, Ptolomeo VII Euergetes como rey, y tras su marcha decidieron reinar conjuntamente. Esto le obligó a reinvadir el país, y así el 168 adC, repitiendo la invasión, con su flota conquistaba Chipre. Cerca de Alejandría se encontró con el cónsul romano Cayo Popilio Laenas, instó a abandonar Egipto y Chipre. Cuando Antíoco replicó que debía consultarlo con su consejo, Popilio trazó un círculo en la arena rodeándole y le dijo: "píensalo aquí". Viendo que abandonar el círculo sin haber ordenado la retirada era un desafío a Roma decidió ceder con el fin de evitar una guerra.
A su regreso, organizó una expedición contra Jerusalén, qué saqueo cruelmente. Según él Libro de los Macabeos, promulgó varias ordenanzas de tipo religioso: trató de suprimir el culto a Yahveh, prohibió el judaísmo suspendiendo toda clase de manifestación religiosa y trató de establecer el culto a los dioses griegos. Pero el sacerdote judío Matatías y sus dos hijos llamados Macabeos consiguieron levantar a la población en su contra y lo expulsaron. La fiesta judía de Jánuca conmemora este hecho.
Antíoco, en campaña contra el Imperio Parto, envió varios ejércitos sin éxito. Mientras organizaba una expedición punitiva para retomar Israel personalmente le sobrevino la muerte. Le sucedió su hijo Antíoco V Eupátor.
Su reinado fue la última época de fuerza y esplendor para el Imperio Seleúcida, que tras su muerte se vio envuelto en devastadoras guerras dinásticas. (Wikipedia)

AE (Canto aserrado) 15 mm 3.5 gr.

Anv: Busto velado de Laodicea IV (Esposa de Seleuco IV y Hermana de Antíoco IV) viendo a der. Grafila de puntos.
Rev: "BAΣIΛEΩΣ ANTIOXOY" - Cabeza de elefante a izquierda, proa de galera a izquierda (El elefante simboliza las aspiraciones orientales de los reyes de Seleucia además de ser una de las grandes armas de su arsenal y la proa su importancia como ciudad puerto).

Ceca: Seleucia de Pieria (Costa N. de Siria - Puerto de Antioquía) o Akke Ptolomais

Referencias : B.M.C. Vol.4 (Seleucid Kings of Syria) #3 Pag.43 - SC#1477.2 - Houghton #113 - HGS #684-6 Pag.9 - SNG Spaer #1017-40 - SNG Cop #184 - Hoover #685
1 commentsmdelvalle
arelate3.jpg
080 Flavius Victor. AE418 viewsobv: DN FL VIC_TOR PF AVG pearl dia. drp. cuir. bust r.
rev: SPES RO_MA_NORVM campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SCON
hill132
constantinople1.jpg
082 Constantine II19 viewsobv: FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust l.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star between, base at bottom
ex: B/CONS
hill132
constantinople1~0.jpg
082 Constantius II15 viewsobv: FL IVL CONSTANTINV NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust l.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star between, with base
ex: B/CONS
hill132
constantinople2.jpg
083 Constantine II15 viewsobv: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
ex: r/CONS
hill132
constantinople3.jpg
084 Constantine I 17 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINUS AVG laur. head r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with two turrents star above
ex: A.CONS
hill132
constantinople4.jpg
085 Constantine I15 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINUS AVG laur. head r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with two turrents star above
ex: A/CONS
hill132
cyzicus1.jpg
087 Constantine I14 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINUS AVG laur. head r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with two turrents star above
ex: .SMK(DELTA).
hill132
cyzicus2.jpg
088 Constantine I12 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINUS AVG laur. head r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with two turrents star above
ex: ./SMK(epsilon)
hill132
cyzicus3.jpg
089 Constantine I13 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINVS AVG dotted dia. head r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SMKB.
hill132
cyzicus4.jpg
090 Constantius II15 viewsobv: FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust l.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
ex: .SMK(DELTA).
hill132
cyzicus5.jpg
091 Constantine I14 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINVS AVG plain dia. head r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SMKB.
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cyzicus6.jpg
092 Constantine I12 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINUS AVG laur. head r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with two turrents star above
ex: .SMKr.
hill132
cyzicus7.jpg
093 Constantine I9 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINUS AVG laur. head r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SMKr.
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cyzicus8.jpg
094 Constantine I11 viewsobv: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust l.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SMKA.
hill132
cyzicus9.jpg
095 Constantine II15 viewsobv: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust l.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SMKB
hill132
cyzicus10.jpg
096 Constantine II14 viewsobv: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust l.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SMKA.
hill132
cyzicus11.jpg
097 Constantine I15 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINUS AVG laur. head r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SMKr.
hill132
cyzicus12.jpg
098 Constantine I14 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINUS AVG laur. head r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SMKA.
hill132
MariusFundania1Denarius.jpg
0aa Caius Marius40 viewsC. Fundanius, moneyer
101-91 BC

Denarius

Helmeted head of Roma right, control-mark C behind

"Triumphator" (Marius) in quadriga right, holding laurel-branch and staff; a rider sits on near horse, holding laurel-branch, Q above, C FVNDAN in exergue

The reverse shows Marius as triumphator in the quadriga. He holds sceptre and laurel branch. On one of the horses rides his son. The children of the triumphator were - according to tradition - allowed to share the triumph of their father. The Q above refers to the office as quaestor the mintmaster held while minting these coins. FORVM Ancient Coins says of a similar piece, "The reverse refers to Marius triumph after victories over the Cimbri and Teutones. The rider on the near horse is Marius's son, at that time eight years old." Andrew McCabe comments, "The Triumphator on the Fundania denarius is usually taken to be Marius, with his young son on horseback. This would make it the first Roman coin to explicitly portray a living Roman politician. "

Seaby Fundania 1

Marius rose from common origins to become the First Man in Rome. Plutarch in his Life writes: There is a likeness of Marius in stone at Ravenna, in Gaul, which I myself saw quite corresponding with that roughness of character that is ascribed to him. Being naturally valiant and warlike, and more acquainted also with the discipline of the camp than of the city, he could not moderate his passion when in authority. . . . He was born of parents altogether obscure and indigent, who supported themselves by their daily labour; his father of the same name with himself, his mother called Fulcinia. He had spent a considerable part of his life before he saw and tasted the pleasures of the city; having passed previously in Cirrhaeaton, a village of the territory of Arpinum, a life, compared with city delicacies, rude and unrefined, yet temperate, and conformable to the ancient Roman severity. He first served as a soldier in the war against the Celtiberians, when Scipio Africanus besieged Numantia; where he signalized himself to his general by courage far above his comrades, and particularly by his cheerfully complying with Scipio's reformation of his army, being almost ruined by pleasures and luxury. It is stated, too, that he encountered and vanquished an enemy in single combat, in his general's sight. In consequence of all this he had several honours conferred upon him; and once when at an entertainment a question arose about commanders, and one of the company (whether really desirous to know, or only in complaisance) asked Scipio where the Romans, after him, should obtain such another general, Scipio, gently clapping Marius on the shoulder as he sat next him, replied, "Here, perhaps. . . ."

The consul Caecilius Metellus, being declared general in the war against Jugurtha in Africa took with him Marius for lieutenant; where, eager himself to do great deeds and services that would get him distinction, he did not, like others, consult Metellus's glory and the serving his interest, and attributing his honour of lieutenancy not to Metellus, but to fortune, which had presented him with a proper opportunity and theatre of great actions, he exerted his utmost courage. . . . Marius thus employed, and thus winning the affections of the soldiers, before long filled both Africa and Rome with his fame, and some, too, wrote home from the army that the war with Africa would never be brought to a conclusion unless they chose Caius Marius consul. . . .He was elected triumphantly, and at once proceeded to levy soldiers contrary both to law and custom, enlisting slaves and poor people; whereas former commanders never accepted of such, but bestowed arms, like other favours, as a matter of distinction, on persons who had the proper qualification, a man's property being thus a sort of security for his good behavior. . . .

[In Marius' fourth consulship,] The enemy dividing themselves into two parts, the Cimbri arranged to go against Catulus higher up through the country of the Norici, and to force that passage; the Teutones and Ambrones to march against Marius by the seaside through Liguria. . . . The Romans, pursuing them, slew and took prisoners above one hundred thousand, and possessing themselves of their spoil, tents, and carriages, voted all that was not purloined to Marius's share, which, though so magnificent a present, yet was generally thought less than his conduct deserved in so great a danger. . . . After the battle, Marius chose out from amongst the barbarians' spoils and arms those that were whole and handsome, and that would make the greatest show in his triumph; the rest he heaped upon a large pile, and offered a very splendid sacrifice. Whilst the army stood round about with their arms and garlands, himself attired (as the fashion is on such occasions) in the purple-bordered robe, and taking a lighted torch, and with both hands lifting it up towards heaven, he was then going to put it to the pile, when some friends were espied with all haste coming towards him on horseback. Upon which every one remained in silence and expectation. They, upon their coming up, leapt off and saluted Marius, bringing him the news of his fifth consulship, and delivered him letters to that effect. This gave the addition of no small joy to the solemnity; and while the soldiers clashed their arms and shouted, the officers again crowned Marius with a laurel wreath, and he thus set fire to the pile, and finished his sacrifice.
Blindado
Cornelia51QuinVict.jpg
0aa Defeat of Hannibal on Sicily, 222 BC11 viewsCn. Lentulus, moneyer
90-85 BC

Quinarius

Laureled head of Jupiter, right
Victory crowning trophy, CN LENT in ex

Seaby, Cornelia 51

Possibly a reference to this event: [Q. Fabius Maximus, afterwards called Cunctator] broke up his camp at Suessula and decided to begin by an attack on Arpi. . . . Now at last the enemy was roused; there was a lull in the storm and daylight was approaching. Hannibal's garrison in the city amounted to about 5000 men, and the citizens themselves had raised a force of 3000. These the Carthaginians put in front to meet the enemy, that there might be no attempt at treachery in their rear. The fighting began in the dark in the narrow streets, the Romans having occupied not only the streets near the gate but the houses also, that they might not be assailed from the roofs. Gradually as it grew light some of the citizen troops and some of the Romans recognised one another, and entered into conversation. The Roman soldiers asked what it was that the Arpinians wanted, what wrong had Rome done them, what good service had Carthage rendered them that they, Italians-bred and born, should fight against their old friends the Romans on behalf of foreigners and barbarians, and wish to make Italy a tributary province of Africa. The people of Arpi urged in their excuse that they knew nothing of what was going on, they had in fact been sold by their leaders to the Carthaginians, they had been victimised and enslaved by a small oligarchy. When a beginning had been once made the conversations became more and more general; at last the praetor of Arpi was conducted by his friends to the consul, and after they had given each other mutual assurances, surrounded by the troops under their standards, the citizens suddenly turned against the Carthaginians and fought for the Romans. A body of Spaniards also, numbering something less than a thousand, transferred their services to the consul upon the sole condition that the Carthaginian garrison should be allowed to depart uninjured. The gates were opened for them and they were dismissed, according to the stipulation, in perfect safety, and went to Hannibal at Salapia. Thus Arpi was restored to the Romans without the loss of a single life, except in the case of one man who had long ago been a traitor and had recently deserted. The Spaniards were ordered to receive double rations, and the republic availed itself on very many occasions of their courage and fidelity.

Livy, History of Rome, 24.46-47
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Aemilia10.jpg
0ac Conquest of Macedonia13 viewsPaullus Aemilius Lepidus, moneyer
109-100 BC

Denarius

Veiled head of Concord, right, PAVLLVS LEPIDVS CONCORDIA
TER above trophy, L. Aemelius Lepidus on right, Perseus and his two sons as prisoners on left, PAVLLVS in ex.

Seaby, Aemelia 10

L. Aemelius Paullus defeated the Macedonians in 168 BC and brought Perseus and his sons to Rome to adorn his triumph.

Three days after the battle Perseus arrived at Amphipolis, and from that city he sent heralds with a caduceus to Paulus. In the meanwhile Hippias, Midon, and Pantauchus, the principal men among the king's friends who had fled from the field of battle to Beroea, went and made their surrender to the Roman consul. In the case of others also, their fears prompted them, one after another, to do the same. The consul sent his son Q. Fabius, together with L. Lentulus and Q. Metellus, with despatches to Rome announcing his victory. He gave the spoils taken from the enemy's army lying on the field of battle to the foot soldiers and the plunder from the surrounding country to the cavalry on condition that they were not absent from the camp more than two nights. The camp at Pydna was shifted to a site nearer the sea. First of all Beroea, then Thessalonica and Pella, and almost the whole of Macedonia, city by city, surrendered within two days.

Livy, History of Rome, 44.45
Blindado
0001JUL.jpg
1) Julius Caesar160 viewsDenarius, Rome, Moneyer P. Sepullius Macer, 44 BC, 4.03g. Cr-480/11, Syd-1072; Sear, Imperators-107b. Obv: Wreathed head of Caesar r., CAESAR before, D[IC]T PERPETVO behind. Rx: Venus standing l., looking downwards, holding Victory and scepter resting on star, P SEPVLLIVS behind, MACER downwards before. Same dies as Alfoldi, Caesar in 44 v. Chr., pl. LIII, 6-8. Banker's mark behind Caesar's eye. Good portrait. Some areas of flat striking, otherwise EF

Ex HJB - purchased on the Ides of March, 2011

Gaius Julius Caesar (Classical Latin: [ˈɡaː.i.ʊs ˈjuː.lɪ.ʊs ˈkaj.sar], July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC) was a Roman general, statesman, Consul and notable author of Latin prose. He played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire. In 60 BC, Caesar, Crassus and Pompey formed a political alliance that was to dominate Roman politics for several years. Their attempts to amass power through populist tactics were opposed by the conservative elite within the Roman Senate, among them Cato the Younger with the frequent support of Cicero. Caesar's conquest of Gaul, completed by 51 BC, extended Rome's territory to the English Channel and the Rhine. Caesar became the first Roman general to cross both when he built a bridge across the Rhine and conducted the first invasion of Britain.

These achievements granted him unmatched military power and threatened to eclipse the standing of Pompey, who had realigned himself with the Senate after the death of Crassus in 53 BC. With the Gallic Wars concluded, the Senate ordered Caesar to lay down his military command and return to Rome. Caesar refused, and marked his defiance in 49 BC by crossing the Rubicon with a legion, leaving his province and illegally entering Roman territory under arms. Civil war resulted, from which he emerged as the unrivaled leader of Rome.

After assuming control of government, Caesar began a program of social and governmental reforms, including the creation of the Julian calendar. He centralised the bureaucracy of the Republic and was eventually proclaimed "dictator in perpetuity". But the underlying political conflicts had not been resolved, and on the Ides of March (15 March) 44 BC, Caesar was assassinated by a group of senators led by Marcus Junius Brutus. A new series of civil wars broke out, and the constitutional government of the Republic was never restored. Caesar's adopted heir Octavian, later known as Augustus, rose to sole power, and the era of the Roman Empire began.

Much of Caesar's life is known from his own accounts of his military campaigns, and from other contemporary sources, mainly the letters and speeches of Cicero and the historical writings of Sallust. The later biographies of Caesar by Suetonius and Plutarch are also major sources. Caesar is deemed to be one of the greatest military commanders of history. Source: wikipedia
RM0001
13 commentsSosius
tyre.jpg
1/12 Shekel, Hippocamp/ Owl42 viewsPhoenicia, Tyre, c. 332-275 BC, 1/12 Shekel, 0.66g. SG-5916, BM-43. Obv: Hippocamp l. Rx: Owl stg. l., crook and flail under wing. Ex John Twente Animal Collection, purchased from Amphora, 1/26/79. VF; area of weak strike. Ex Twente & H.J.BerkPodiceps
RIC_111_AS_Imitativo_Claudio_I.jpg
10-12 - CLAUDIO (41 - 54 D.C.)14 viewsCeca No Oficial
AE AS 26 mm 9.7 gr.

Anv: "TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP P P" - Busto a cabeza desnuda viendo a izquierda.
Rev: "CONSTANTIAE AVGVSTI" - Constantia estante a izquierda, apoyada en su cetro con brazo izquierdo y elevando su mano derecha, grandes "S C" en ambos campos.

Acuñada ca. 41 - 43 D.C.
Ceca: Incierta, muy probablemente Hispánica.

Referencias: RIC Vol.I #111 Pag.129 - Sear RCTV Vol.I #1858 Pag.367 - BMCRE #199/201 - Cohen Vol.I #14 Pag.251 - DVM #15 Pag.82 - von Kaenel Type 76
mdelvalle
cyzicus14a.jpg
100 Constantine II10 viewsobv: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB CAESS laur. drp. cuir. bust l.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
ex: .SMKr.
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cyzicus15a.jpg
101 Constantine II18 viewsobv: CONSTANTINVS IVN OB C laur. drp. cuir. bust l.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SMKr.
1 commentshill132
cyzicus16a.jpg
102 Constantine II13 viewsobv: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust l.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SMK(epsilon)
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coin218.JPG
102. Trajan41 viewsTrajan

Hadrian saw to it that Trajan received all customary honors: the late emperor was declared a divus, his victories were commemorated in a great triumph, and his ashes were placed in the base of his column. Trajan's reputation remained unimpaired, in spite of the ultimate failure of his last campaigns. Early in his principate, he had unofficially been honored with the title optimus, "the best," which long described him even before it became, in 114, part of his official titulature. His correspondence with Pliny enables posterity to gain an intimate sense of the emperor in action. His concern for justice and the well-being of his subjects is underscored by his comment to Pliny, when faced with the question of the Christians, that they were not to be sought out, "nor is it appropriate to our age."

Denarius. IMP CAES NERVA TRAIAN AVG GERM, laureate head right / P M TR P COS II P P, Vesta seated left, veiled, holding patera & torch. RSC 203.
1 commentsecoli
cyzicus17a.jpg
103 Constantius II9 viewsobv: FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C laur drp. cuir. bust l.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
ex: ./SMK(epsilon)
hill132
cyzicus18a.jpg
104 Constanine I14 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINVS AVG laur. head r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SMKB.
hill132
cyzicus19a.jpg
105 Constantine II9 viewsobv: CONSTANTINVS IVN OB C laur. drp. cuir. bust l.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SMK(delta).
hill132
coin219.JPG
105. Marcus Aurelius41 viewsMarcus Aurelius

The joint succession may have been motivated by military exigency. During his reign Marcus Aurelius was almost constantly at war with various peoples outside the Empire. Germanic tribes and other peoples launched many raids along the long European border, particularly into Gaul — Germans, in turn, may have been under attack from more warlike tribes farther east. In Asia, a revitalized Parthian Empire renewed its assault. A highly authoritative figure was needed to command the troops, yet the emperor himself could not defend both fronts at the same time. Neither could he simply appoint a general to lead one assault; earlier popular military leaders like Julius Caesar and Vespasian had used the military to overthrow the existing government and install themselves as supreme leaders.

Marcus Aurelius solved the problem by sending Verus to command the legions in the East. He was authoritative enough to command the full loyalty of the troops, but already powerful enough that he had little incentive to overthrow Marcus. The plan succeeded — Verus remained loyal until his death on campaign in 169. This joint emperorship was faintly reminiscent of the political system of the Roman Republic, which functioned according to the principle of collegiality and did not allow a single person to hold supreme power. Joint rule was revived by Diocletian's establishment of the Tetrarchy in the late 3rd century.

Virtus

In Roman mythology, Virtus was the god of bravery and military strength. His Greek equivalent was Arete. The word, "Virtus" is commonly used in mottos of universities and other entities.

Marcus Aurelius, as Caesar, Denarius. 155-156 AD. AVRELIVS CAES ANTON AVG PII F, bare head right / TR POT X COS II, Virtus, helmeted, standing left, holding parazonium & spear. RSC 703. RIC 468
ecoli
coin286.JPG
105a. Faustina II38 viewsFaustina Jr

Originally promised by Hadrian to Lucius Verus, Atoninus betrothed her to his cousin Marcus Aurelius in 139; they married in 145. She was raised to an Augusta the following year. She was said to have had a lively personality, but the late and unreliable Augustan History impugns her character, relating stories of adultery with sailors and gladiators, suggesting that Commodus was either the son of a gladiator (as explanation for his interest in gladiatorial combat), or that Faustina washed herself with the blood of an executed gladiator and then lay with Aurelius in that state. Faustina went with Aurelius on his campaign to the north (170-174) and then to the East, where she died (175). Aurelius consecrated her and founded a second Puellae Faustinianae in her name.

Denarius. FAVSTINA AVGVSTA, draped bust right / IVNO, Juno stg. front, head left, holding scepter, feeding peacock at feet out of patera. RIC 688, RSC 120
ecoli
cyzicus20a.jpg
106 Constantine I 9 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINVS AVG laur. head r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with two turrents star above
ex: .SMKr.
hill132
cyzicus21.jpg
107 Constantine I11 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINVS AVG laur. head r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIE AVGG campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SMKA.
hill132
cyzicus22.jpg
108Constantine I 11 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINVS AVGG laur. head r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SMKA
hill132
cyzicus23.jpg
109 Constantine I14 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINVS AVG laur. head r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SMKB.
hill132
cyzicus24.jpg
110 Constantine I 9 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINVS AVG laur. head r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with two turrents star above
ex: .SMK(delta).
hill132
rjb_con_1108_11_05.jpg
1108 Nicomedia39 viewsLRBC I 1108
RIC VII 153
1 commentsmauseus
cyzicus25.jpg
111 Constantine I15 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINVS AVG laur. head r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SMKB.
hill132
cyzicus26.jpg
112 Constantine II 17 viewsobv: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
ex: .SMKr.
hill132
cyzicus26~0.jpg
112 Constantine II12 viewsobv: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust l.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
ex: .SMKr.
hill132
cyzicus27.jpg
113 Constantine I17 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINVS AVG laur. head r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with two turrents star above
ex: .SMK(delta).
hill132
cyzicus28.jpg
114 Constantius II12 viewsobv: FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust l.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with to turrents star above
ex: SMKr.
hill132
TrajSe43-2.jpg
115 AD: Trajan's conquest of Armenia and Mesopotamia 171 viewsOrichalcum sestertius (26.2g, 33mm, 7h). Rome mint. Struck AD 116-117.
IMP CAES NER TRAIANO OPTIMO AVG GER DAC PARTHICO PM TRP COS VI PP laureate and draped bust of Trajan facing right
ARMENIA ET MESOPOTAMIA POTESTATEM PR REDACTAE [around] S C [in field] Trajan standing right, holding spear and parazonium; on the ground, the reclining figures of Armenia, the Euphrates and the Tigris
RIC 642 [R]; Cohen 39; Foss (Roman Historical Coins): 105/71

Coin minted between 116 spring and 117 aug (PARTHICO in legend) on the occasion of the conquest of Mesopotamia in 115. Beginning in 114 AD, Trajan began his campaign against Parthia which had deposed the pro-Roman king of Armenia. By 115 AD Trajan had turned Armenia into a Roman province. He then moved southward through Mesopotamia, capturing the Parthian capital, Ctesiphon, in 116 AD.
Charles S
cyzicus29.jpg
115 Constantine II12 viewsobv: CONSTANTINVS VN NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust l.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SMKB.
hill132
cyzicus30.jpg
116 Constantine I12 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINVS AVG laur. head r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with two turrents star above
ex: .SMK(delta).
hill132
cyzicus31.jpg
117 Constantine II16 viewsobv: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust l.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SMK(delta).
hill132
hadrian_RIC546b.jpg
117-138 AD - HADRIAN AE as - struck 118 AD53 viewsobv: IMP.CAES.DIVI.TRA.PARTH.F.DIVI NER.NEP.TRAIANO.HADRIANO.AVG (laureate bust right, drapery on left shoulder)
rev: PONT.MAX.TR.POT.COS.II (legionary eagle between two standards), S-C in ex.
ref: RIC II 546b (S), C.1182 (5frcs)
mint: Rome
8.68gms, 28mm
Scarce

History: Quintus Marcius Turbo (who was governor of Pannonia [117-118] and later became Hadrian's praetorian prefect) successfully led II Adiutrix against the Sarmatians in 118, this coin probably commemorated the succesfull campaign.
1 commentsberserker
cyzicus32.jpg
118 Constantine I14 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINVS AVG laur. head r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SMKA.
hill132
1189_-_1199_Richard_I_AR_Denier.JPG
1189 - 1199, RICHARD I (the lionheart), AR Denier minted at Melle, Poitou, France44 viewsObverse: +RICARDVS REX. Cross pattée within braided inner circle, all within braided outer circle.
Reverse: PIC / TAVIE / NSIS in three lines within braided circle.
Diameter: 20mm | Weight: 1.0gms | Die Axis: 2
SPINK: 8008 | Elias: 8

Poitou was an Anglo-Gallic province in what is now west-central France and its capital city was Poitiers, the mint at this time was however located at Melle. Melle was an active centre of minting during the early Middle Ages due to the important silver mines located under and around the city. This is the only coin issue struck during the reign of Richard I to bear his own name and titles as King of England.

Richard I was King of England from 1189 until his death on 6th April 1199. He also ruled several territories outwith England, and was styled as Duke of Normandy, Aquitaine and Gascony, Lord of Cyprus, Count of Poitiers, Anjou, Maine, and Nantes, as well as being overlord of Brittany at various times during the same period. He was the third of five sons of King Henry II of England and Duchess Eleanor of Aquitaine. He was known as Richard the Lionheart (Richard Cœur de Lion) because of his reputation as a great military leader and warrior when, at the age of 16 and commanding his own army, he had put down rebellions against his father in Poitou.
Richard was a commander during the Third Crusade, and led the campaign after the departure of Philip II of France. However, although he scored several notable victories against the Muslims led by Saladin, he failed to retake Jerusalem from them.
Although Richard was born in England and spent his childhood there before becoming king, he lived most of his adult life in the Duchy of Aquitaine. Following his accession, his life was mostly spent on Crusade, in captivity, or actively defending his lands in France. Rather than regarding England as a responsibility requiring his presence as ruler, he appears to have used it merely as a source of revenue to support his armies. Nevertheless, he was seen as a pious hero by his subjects and he remains one of the few kings of England who is remembered by his epithet rather than by his regnal number, and even today he is still an iconic figure in both England and France.
3 comments*Alex
cyzicus33.jpg
119 Constantine I11 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINVS AVG laur. head r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SMKr.
hill132
cyzicus34.jpg
120 Constantine II12 viewsobv: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C laur. drp.cuir. bust l.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SMK(delta)
hill132
cyzicus35.jpg
121 Constantius II11 viewsobv: FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust l.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SMKr
hill132
cyzicus36.jpg
122 Constantine II 14 viewsobv: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C laur. drp. cuir bust l.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SMKA.
hill132
cyzicus37.jpg
123 Constantine I11 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINVS AVG laur. head r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SMK(delta)
hill132
cyzicus38.jpg
124 Constantine I13 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINVS AVG laur. head r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SMKB.
hill132
heraclea1.jpg
126 Licinius I17 viewsobv: IMP LICI_NIVS AVG laur. cuir. bust r. holding mappa
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with three turrents no star
ex: -(delta)//SMHB
hill132
heraclea2.jpg
127 Licinius I13 viewsobv: IMP LICIN_IVS AVG laur. drp. bust l. holding mappa and globe
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with three turrents no star
ex: MHT(delta)
hill132
1305_-1306_Edward_I_LONDON_PENNY.JPG
1272 - 1307, EDWARD I, AR Penny, Struck 1305 - 1306 at London, England14 viewsObverse: + EDWAR ANGL DNS HYB. Crowned bust of Edward I facing within circle of pellets. Cross pattée in legend.
Reverse: CIVITAS LONDON. Long cross dividing legend into quarters, trefoil in each quarter of inner circle.
Undated Penny, type 10cf1
Diameter: 18.5mm | Weight: 1.2gms | Die Axis: 9
SPINK: 1410

Edward I began a major recoinage in 1279 which consisted not only of pennies and new round half-pennies and farthings, but also introduced a new denomination, a fourpenny piece called the "Groat".

Edward I was King of England from 1272 – 1307. He was the eldest surviving son of Henry III and Eleanor of Provence. The contests between his father and the barons led by Simon de Montfort called Edward early into active life when he restored the royal authority within months by defeating and killing de Montfort at the battle of Evesham in 1265. He then proceeded to Palestine, where no conquest of any importance was achieved. After further campaigns in Italy and France he returned to England on his father's death and was crowned at Westminster Abbey in 1274.
Edward was popular because he identified himself with the growing tide of nationalism sweeping the country, displayed later in his persecution and banishment of the Jews which was the culmination of many years of anti-semitism in England.
Edward now turned his attention to the mountainous land to the west which had never been completely subdued. So, following a revolt in the Principality of Wales against English influence, Edward commenced a war which ended in the annexation of the Principality to the English Crown in 1283. He secured his conquest by building nine castles to watch over it and created his eldest son, Edward the Prince of Wales in 1301.
Edward's great ambition, however, was to gain possession of Scotland, but the death of Margaret, the Maid of Norway, who was to have been married to Edward's son, for a time frustrated the king's designs. However the sudden death of the King of Scotland, Alexander III, and the contested succession soon gave him the opportunity to intervene. He was invited by the Scots to arbitrate and choose between the thirteen competitors for the Scottish throne. Edward's choice, John Balliol, who he conceived as his puppet, was persuaded to do homage for his crown to Edward at Newcastle but was then forced to throw off Edward's overlordship by the indignation of the Scottish people. An alliance between the French and the Scots now followed, and Edward, then at war with the French king over possession of Gascony, was compelled to march his army north. Edward invaded Scotland in 1296 and devastated the country, which earned him the sobriquet 'Hammer of the Scots'. It was at this time that the symbolic Stone of Destiny was removed from Scone. Edward's influence had tainted Balliol's reign and the Scottish nobility deposed him and appointed a council of twelve to rule instead. Balliol abdicated and was eventually sent to France where he retired into obscurity, taking no more part in politics. Scotland was then left without a monarch until the accession of Robert the Bruce in 1306.
Meanwhile Edward assumed the administration of the country. However the following summer a new opposition to Edward took place under William Wallace whose successes, notably at Stirling Bridge, forced Edward to return to Scotland with an army of 100,000 men. Although he defeated Wallace's army at Falkirk, and Wallace himself was betrayed, Edward's unjust and barbaric execution of him as a traitor in London made Wallace a national hero in Scotland, and resistance to England became paramount among the people. All Edward's efforts to reduce the country to obedience were unravelling, and after the crowning of Robert Bruce, Earl of Carrick, as Robert I of Scotland in 1306 an enraged Edward assembled another army and marched yet again against the Scots. However, Edward only reached Burgh-on-Sands, a village near Carlisle, when he died. His body was taken back to London and he was buried at Westminster Abbey.
Edward I was married twice: to Eleanor of Castile, by whom he had sixteen children, and Margaret of France by whom he had three. Twelve memorials to his first wife stood between Nottingham and London to mark the journey taken by her funeral cortege. Three of those memorials, known as “Eleanor Crosses”, can still be seen today at Geddington, Hardingstone near Northampton and Waltham Cross. London's Charing Cross is also named after one, but the original was demolished in 1647 and the monument seen there today is a Victorian replica.
1 comments*Alex
heraclea3.jpg
128 Licinius I12 viewsobv: IMP LICI_NIVS AVG laur. drp. bust l. holding mappa and globe
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with three turrents no star
ex: HT(epsilon)
hill132
heraclea4.jpg
129 Licinius I12 viewsobv: IMP LICI_NIVS AVG laur. drp. bust l. holding mappa an scepter with globe
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with three turrents no star
ex: -.//SMHA
hill132
heraclea5.jpg
130 Licinius I13 viewsobv: IMP LICI_NIVS AVG laur. drp. bust r. holding mappa and scepter with globe
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with three turrents no star
ex: -(delta)// SMHA
hill132
DiocleAnt.jpg
1301a, Diocletian, 284-305 A.D. (Antioch)94 viewsDIOCLETIAN (284 – 305 AD) AE Antoninianus, 293-95 AD, RIC V 322, Cohen 34. 20.70 mm/3.1 gm, aVF, Antioch. Obverse: IMP C C VAL DIOCLETIANVS P F AVG, Radiate bust right, draped & cuirassed; Reverse: CONCORDIA MILITVM, Jupiter presents Victory on a globe to Diocletian, I/XXI. Early Diocletian with dusty earthen green patina.


De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Diocletian ( 284-305 A.D.)

Ralph W. Mathisen
University of South Carolina


Summary and Introduction
The Emperor Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus (A.D. 284-305) put an end to the disastrous phase of Roman history known as the "Military Anarchy" or the "Imperial Crisis" (235-284). He established an obvious military despotism and was responsible for laying the groundwork for the second phase of the Roman Empire, which is known variously as the "Dominate," the "Tetrarchy," the "Later Roman Empire," or the "Byzantine Empire." His reforms ensured the continuity of the Roman Empire in the east for more than a thousand years.

Diocletian's Early Life and Reign
Diocletian was born ca. 236/237 on the Dalmatian coast, perhaps at Salona. He was of very humble birth, and was originally named Diocles. He would have received little education beyond an elementary literacy and he was apparently deeply imbued with religious piety He had a wife Prisca and a daughter Valeria, both of whom reputedly were Christians. During Diocletian's early life, the Roman empire was in the midst of turmoil. In the early years of the third century, emperors increasingly insecure on their thrones had granted inflationary pay raises to the soldiers. The only meaningful income the soldiers now received was in the form of gold donatives granted by newly acclaimed emperors. Beginning in 235, armies throughout the empire began to set up their generals as rival emperors. The resultant civil wars opened up the empire to invasion in both the north, by the Franks, Alamanni, and Goths, and the east, by the Sassanid Persians. Another reason for the unrest in the army was the great gap between the social background of the common soldiers and the officer corps.

Diocletian sought his fortune in the army. He showed himself to be a shrewd, able, and ambitious individual. He is first attested as "Duke of Moesia" (an area on the banks of the lower Danube River), with responsibility for border defense. He was a prudent and methodical officer, a seeker of victory rather than glory. In 282, the legions of the upper Danube proclaimed the praetorian prefect Carus as emperor. Diocletian found favor under the new emperor, and was promoted to Count of the Domestics, the commander of the cavalry arm of the imperial bodyguard. In 283 he was granted the honor of a consulate.

In 284, in the midst of a campaign against the Persians, Carus was killed, struck by a bolt of lightning which one writer noted might have been forged in a legionary armory. This left the empire in the hands of his two young sons, Numerian in the east and Carinus in the west. Soon thereafter, Numerian died under mysterious circumstances near Nicomedia, and Diocletian was acclaimed emperor in his place. At this time he changed his name from Diocles to Diocletian. In 285 Carinus was killed in a battle near Belgrade, and Diocletian gained control of the entire empire.

Diocletian's Administrative and Military Reforms
As emperor, Diocletian was faced with many problems. His most immediate concerns were to bring the mutinous and increasingly barbarized Roman armies back under control and to make the frontiers once again secure from invasion. His long-term goals were to restore effective government and economic prosperity to the empire. Diocletian concluded that stern measures were necessary if these problems were to be solved. He felt that it was the responsibility of the imperial government to take whatever steps were necessary, no matter how harsh or innovative, to bring the empire back under control.

Diocletian was able to bring the army back under control by making several changes. He subdivided the roughly fifty existing provinces into approximately one hundred. The provinces also were apportioned among twelve "dioceses," each under a "vicar," and later also among four "prefectures," each under a "praetorian prefect." As a result, the imperial bureaucracy became increasingly bloated. He institutionalized the policy of separating civil and military careers. He divided the army itself into so-called "border troops," actually an ineffective citizen militia, and "palace troops," the real field army, which often was led by the emperor in person.

Following the precedent of Aurelian (A.D.270-275), Diocletian transformed the emperorship into an out-and-out oriental monarchy. Access to him became restricted; he now was addressed not as First Citizen (Princeps) or the soldierly general (Imperator), but as Lord and Master (Dominus Noster) . Those in audience were required to prostrate themselves on the ground before him.

Diocletian also concluded that the empire was too large and complex to be ruled by only a single emperor. Therefore, in order to provide an imperial presence throughout the empire, he introduced the "Tetrarchy," or "Rule by Four." In 285, he named his lieutenant Maximianus "Caesar," and assigned him the western half of the empire. This practice began the process which would culminate with the de facto split of the empire in 395. Both Diocletian and Maximianus adopted divine attributes. Diocletian was identified with Jupiter and Maximianus with Hercules. In 286, Diocletian promoted Maximianus to the rank of Augustus, "Senior Emperor," and in 293 he appointed two new Caesars, Constantius (the father of Constantine I ), who was given Gaul and Britain in the west, and Galerius, who was assigned the Balkans in the east.

By instituting his Tetrarchy, Diocletian also hoped to solve another problem. In the Augustan Principate, there had been no constitutional method for choosing new emperors. According to Diocletian's plan, the successor of each Augustus would be the respective Caesar, who then would name a new Caesar. Initially, the Tetrarchy operated smoothly and effectively.

Once the army was under control, Diocletian could turn his attention to other problems. The borders were restored and strengthened. In the early years of his reign, Diocletian and his subordinates were able to defeat foreign enemies such as Alamanni, Sarmatians, Saracens, Franks, and Persians, and to put down rebellions in Britain and Egypt. The easter frontier was actually expanded.

.
Diocletian's Economic Reforms
Another problem was the economy, which was in an especially sorry state. The coinage had become so debased as to be virtually worthless. Diocletian's attempt to reissue good gold and silver coins failed because there simply was not enough gold and silver available to restore confidence in the currency. A "Maximum Price Edict" issued in 301, intended to curb inflation, served only to drive goods onto the black market. Diocletian finally accepted the ruin of the money economy and revised the tax system so that it was based on payments in kind . The soldiers too came to be paid in kind.

In order to assure the long term survival of the empire, Diocletian identified certain occupations which he felt would have to be performed. These were known as the "compulsory services." They included such occupations as soldiers, bakers, members of town councils, and tenant farmers. These functions became hereditary, and those engaging in them were inhibited from changing their careers. The repetitious nature of these laws, however, suggests that they were not widely obeyed. Diocletian also expanded the policy of third-century emperors of restricting the entry of senators into high-ranking governmental posts, especially military ones.

Diocletian attempted to use the state religion as a unifying element. Encouraged by the Caesar Galerius, Diocletian in 303 issued a series of four increasingly harsh decrees designed to compel Christians to take part in the imperial cult, the traditional means by which allegiance was pledged to the empire. This began the so-called "Great Persecution."

Diocletian's Resignation and Death
On 1 May 305, wearied by his twenty years in office, and determined to implement his method for the imperial succession, Diocletian abdicated. He compelled his co-regent Maximianus to do the same. Constantius and Galerius then became the new Augusti, and two new Caesars were selected, Maximinus (305-313) in the east and Severus (305- 307) in the west. Diocletian then retired to his palace at Split on the Croatian coast. In 308 he declined an offer to resume the purple, and the aged ex-emperor died at Split on 3 December 316.

Copyright (C) 1996, Ralph W. Mathisen, University of South Carolina
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

1 commentsCleisthenes
DicletianConcordCyz.jpg
1301b, Diocletian, 20 November 284 - 1 March 305 A.D.59 viewsDiocletian. RIC V Part II Cyzicus 256 var. Not listed with pellet in exegrue
Item ref: RI141f. VF. Minted in Cyzicus (B in centre field, XXI dot in exegrue)Obverse:- IMP CC VAL DIOCLETIANVS AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right. Reverse:- CONCORDIA MILITVM, Diocletian standing right, holding parazonium, receiving Victory from Jupiter standing left with scepter.
A post reform radiate of Diocletian. Ex Maridvnvm.

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Diocletian ( 284-305 A.D.)

Ralph W. Mathisen
University of South Carolina


Summary and Introduction
The Emperor Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus (A.D. 284-305) put an end to the disastrous phase of Roman history known as the "Military Anarchy" or the "Imperial Crisis" (235-284). He established an obvious military despotism and was responsible for laying the groundwork for the second phase of the Roman Empire, which is known variously as the "Dominate," the "Tetrarchy," the "Later Roman Empire," or the "Byzantine Empire." His reforms ensured the continuity of the Roman Empire in the east for more than a thousand years.

Diocletian's Early Life and Reign
Diocletian was born ca. 236/237 on the Dalmatian coast, perhaps at Salona. He was of very humble birth, and was originally named Diocles. He would have received little education beyond an elementary literacy and he was apparently deeply imbued with religious piety He had a wife Prisca and a daughter Valeria, both of whom reputedly were Christians. During Diocletian's early life, the Roman empire was in the midst of turmoil. In the early years of the third century, emperors increasingly insecure on their thrones had granted inflationary pay raises to the soldiers. The only meaningful income the soldiers now received was in the form of gold donatives granted by newly acclaimed emperors. Beginning in 235, armies throughout the empire began to set up their generals as rival emperors. The resultant civil wars opened up the empire to invasion in both the north, by the Franks, Alamanni, and Goths, and the east, by the Sassanid Persians. Another reason for the unrest in the army was the great gap between the social background of the common soldiers and the officer corps.

Diocletian sought his fortune in the army. He showed himself to be a shrewd, able, and ambitious individual. He is first attested as "Duke of Moesia" (an area on the banks of the lower Danube River), with responsibility for border defense. He was a prudent and methodical officer, a seeker of victory rather than glory. In 282, the legions of the upper Danube proclaimed the praetorian prefect Carus as emperor. Diocletian found favor under the new emperor, and was promoted to Count of the Domestics, the commander of the cavalry arm of the imperial bodyguard. In 283 he was granted the honor of a consulate.

In 284, in the midst of a campaign against the Persians, Carus was killed, struck by a bolt of lightning which one writer noted might have been forged in a legionary armory. This left the empire in the hands of his two young sons, Numerian in the east and Carinus in the west. Soon thereafter, Numerian died under mysterious circumstances near Nicomedia, and Diocletian was acclaimed emperor in his place. At this time he changed his name from Diocles to Diocletian. In 285 Carinus was killed in a battle near Belgrade, and Diocletian gained control of the entire empire.

Diocletian's Administrative and Military Reforms
As emperor, Diocletian was faced with many problems. His most immediate concerns were to bring the mutinous and increasingly barbarized Roman armies back under control and to make the frontiers once again secure from invasion. His long-term goals were to restore effective government and economic prosperity to the empire. Diocletian concluded that stern measures were necessary if these problems were to be solved. He felt that it was the responsibility of the imperial government to take whatever steps were necessary, no matter how harsh or innovative, to bring the empire back under control.

Diocletian was able to bring the army back under control by making several changes. He subdivided the roughly fifty existing provinces into approximately one hundred. The provinces also were apportioned among twelve "dioceses," each under a "vicar," and later also among four "prefectures," each under a "praetorian prefect." As a result, the imperial bureaucracy became increasingly bloated. He institutionalized the policy of separating civil and military careers. He divided the army itself into so-called "border troops," actually an ineffective citizen militia, and "palace troops," the real field army, which often was led by the emperor in person.

Following the precedent of Aurelian (A.D.270-275), Diocletian transformed the emperorship into an out-and-out oriental monarchy. Access to him became restricted; he now was addressed not as First Citizen (Princeps) or the soldierly general (Imperator), but as Lord and Master (Dominus Noster) . Those in audience were required to prostrate themselves on the ground before him.

Diocletian also concluded that the empire was too large and complex to be ruled by only a single emperor. Therefore, in order to provide an imperial presence throughout the empire, he introduced the "Tetrarchy," or "Rule by Four." In 285, he named his lieutenant Maximianus "Caesar," and assigned him the western half of the empire. This practice began the process which would culminate with the de facto split of the empire in 395. Both Diocletian and Maximianus adopted divine attributes. Diocletian was identified with Jupiter and Maximianus with Hercules. In 286, Diocletian promoted Maximianus to the rank of Augustus, "Senior Emperor," and in 293 he appointed two new Caesars, Constantius (the father of Constantine I ), who was given Gaul and Britain in the west, and Galerius, who was assigned the Balkans in the east.

By instituting his Tetrarchy, Diocletian also hoped to solve another problem. In the Augustan Principate, there had been no constitutional method for choosing new emperors. According to Diocletian's plan, the successor of each Augustus would be the respective Caesar, who then would name a new Caesar. Initially, the Tetrarchy operated smoothly and effectively.

Once the army was under control, Diocletian could turn his attention to other problems. The borders were restored and strengthened. In the early years of his reign, Diocletian and his subordinates were able to defeat foreign enemies such as Alamanni, Sarmatians, Saracens, Franks, and Persians, and to put down rebellions in Britain and Egypt. The easter frontier was actually expanded.

.
Diocletian's Economic Reforms
Another problem was the economy, which was in an especially sorry state. The coinage had become so debased as to be virtually worthless. Diocletian's attempt to reissue good gold and silver coins failed because there simply was not enough gold and silver available to restore confidence in the currency. A "Maximum Price Edict" issued in 301, intended to curb inflation, served only to drive goods onto the black market. Diocletian finally accepted the ruin of the money economy and revised the tax system so that it was based on payments in kind . The soldiers too came to be paid in kind.

In order to assure the long term survival of the empire, Diocletian identified certain occupations which he felt would have to be performed. These were known as the "compulsory services." They included such occupations as soldiers, bakers, members of town councils, and tenant farmers. These functions became hereditary, and those engaging in them were inhibited from changing their careers. The repetitious nature of these laws, however, suggests that they were not widely obeyed. Diocletian also expanded the policy of third-century emperors of restricting the entry of senators into high-ranking governmental posts, especially military ones.

Diocletian attempted to use the state religion as a unifying element. Encouraged by the Caesar Galerius, Diocletian in 303 issued a series of four increasingly harsh decrees designed to compel Christians to take part in the imperial cult, the traditional means by which allegiance was pledged to the empire. This began the so-called "Great Persecution."

Diocletian's Resignation and Death
On 1 May 305, wearied by his twenty years in office, and determined to implement his method for the imperial succession, Diocletian abdicated. He compelled his co-regent Maximianus to do the same. Constantius and Galerius then became the new Augusti, and two new Caesars were selected, Maximinus (305-313) in the east and Severus (305- 307) in the west. Diocletian then retired to his palace at Split on the Croatian coast. In 308 he declined an offer to resume the purple, and the aged ex-emperor died at Split on 3 December 316.

Copyright (C) 1996, Ralph W. Mathisen, University of South Carolina
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.


Cleisthenes
MaxHercRIC5iiRome.jpg
1302a, Maximian, 285 - 305, 306 - 308, and 310 A.D.47 viewsMaximianus AE Antoninianus. RIC V Part II 506 Bust Type C. Cohen 355; VF; Minted in Rome A.D. 285-286. Obverse: IMP MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, radiate, draped & cuirassed bust right; Rverse: IOVI CONSERVAT AVGG, Jupiter standing left holding thunderbolt & scepter, XXIZ in exergue. Ex maridvnvm.

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Maximian, 285-305, 306-308, and 310 A.D.

Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Salve Regina University

Perhaps born ca. 249/250 A.D. in Sirmium in the area of the Balkans, Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maximianus, more commonly known as Maximianus Herculius (Maximian), had been a soldier before he put on the purple. A fellow soldier with the Emperor Diocletian, he had served in the military during the reigns of Aurelian and Probus.

When the Emperor Diocletian determined that the empire was too large for one man to govern on his own, he made Maximian his Caesar in 285/6 and elevated him to the rank of Augustus in perhaps the spring of 286. While Diocletian ruled in the East, Maximian ruled in the West. In 293, in order to maintain and to strengthen the stability of the empire, Diocletian appointed Constantius I Chlorus to serve Maximian as a Caesar in the West, while Galerius did the same job in the East. This arrangement, called the "Tetrarchy", was meant not only to provide a stronger foundation for the two emperors' rule, but also to end any possible fighting over the succession to the throne once the two senior Augusti had left the throne--a problem which had bedeviled the principate since the time of the Emperor Augustus. To cement the relationship between Maximian and his Caesar, Constantius married Maximian's elder daughter Theodora. A decade later, Constantius' son Constantine would marry Maximia's younger daughter Fausta.

On 1 May 305 Diocletian, at Nicomedeia, and Maximian, at Mediolanum, divested themselves of the purple. Their resignations seem largely due to the almost fatal illness that Diocletian contracted toward the end of 304. Diocletian seems to have forced his colleague to abdicate. In any case, Herculius had sworn an oath at the temple of Capitoline Jupiter to carry out the terms of the abdication. Constantius and Galerius were appointed as Augusti, with Maximinus Daia and Severus as the new Caesars. The retired emperors then returned to private life. Diocletian's retirement was at Salonae in Dalmatia, while Herculius' retreat was either in Lucania or Campania.

Maximian's retirement, however, was of short duration because, a little more than a year later on 28 October 306, his son Maxentius was proclaimed emperor at Rome. To give his regime an aura of legitimacy, Maximian was forced to affirm his son's acclamation. When Galerius learned of Maxentius' rebellion, he sent Severus against him with an army that had formerly been under his father's command. Maxentius invested his father with the purple again to win over his enemy's troops, a ruse which succeeded. Perhaps to strengthen his own position, in 307 Maximian went to Gaul and married his daughter Fausta to Constantine. When Constantine refused to become embroiled in the civil war between Galerius and Maxentius, Maximian returned to Rome in 308 and attempted to depose his son; however, he did not succeed. When Maximian was unable to convince Diocletian to take up the purple again at a meeting in Carnuntum in late 308, he returned to his son-in-law's side in Gaul.

Although Maximian was treated with all of the respect due a former emperor, he still desired to be more than a figurehead. He decided to seize the purple from Constantine when his son-in-law least expected it. His opportunity came in the summer of 310 when the Franks revolted. When Constantine had taken a small part of his army into enemy territory, Maximian proclaimed himself again emperor and paid the soldiers under his command a donative to secure their loyalty. As soon as Constantine received news about Maximian's revolt in July 310, he went south and reached Arelate before his father-in-law could mount a defense of the city. Although Maximian fled to Massilia, his son-in-law seized the city and took Maximian prisoner. Although he was deprived of the purple, he was granted pardon for his crimes. Unable to endure the humiliation of his defeat, he attempted to have Constantine murdered in his bed. The plot failed because he tried to get his daughter Fausta's help in the matter; she chose to reveal the matter to her husband. Because of this attempt on his son-in-law's life Maximian was dead by the end of July either by his own hand or on the orders of his intended victim.

Eutropia was of Syrian extraction and her marriage to Maximian seems to have been her second. She bore him two children: Maxentius and Fausta. An older daughter, Theodora, may have been a product of her first marriage. Fausta became the wife of Constantine I , while her sister Theodora was the second spouse of his father Constantius I Chlorus . Eutropia apparently survived all her children, with the possible exception of her daughter Fausta who seems to have died in 326. Eutropia is also said to have become a Christian.

By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
Max.jpg
1302b, Maximian, 285-305, 306-308, and 310 A.D., commemorative issued by Constantine the Great (Siscia)55 viewsMaximian, 285-305, 306-308, and 310 A.D., commemorative issued by Constantine the Great. Bronze AE3, RIC 41, VF, Siscia, 1.30g, 16.1mm, 0o, 317-318 A.D. Obverse: DIVO MAXIMIANO SEN FORT IMP, laureate and veiled head right; Reverse: REQVIES OPTIMO-RVM MERITORVM, Emperor seated left on curule chair, raising hand and holding scepter, SIS in exergue; scarce (R3).


De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Maximian, 285-305, 306-308, and 310 A.D.

Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Salve Regina University

Perhaps born ca. 249/250 A.D. in Sirmium in the area of the Balkans, Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maximianus, more commonly known as Maximianus Herculius (Maximian), had been a soldier before he put on the purple. A fellow soldier with the Emperor Diocletian, he had served in the military during the reigns of Aurelian and Probus.

When the Emperor Diocletian determined that the empire was too large for one man to govern on his own, he made Maximian his Caesar in 285/6 and elevated him to the rank of Augustus in perhaps the spring of 286. While Diocletian ruled in the East, Maximian ruled in the West. In 293, in order to maintain and to strengthen the stability of the empire, Diocletian appointed Constantius I Chlorus to serve Maximian as a Caesar in the West, while Galerius did the same job in the East. This arrangement, called the "Tetrarchy", was meant not only to provide a stronger foundation for the two emperors' rule, but also to end any possible fighting over the succession to the throne once the two senior Augusti had left the throne--a problem which had bedeviled the principate since the time of the Emperor Augustus. To cement the relationship between Maximian and his Caesar, Constantius married Maximian's elder daughter Theodora. A decade later, Constantius' son Constantine would marry Maximia's younger daughter Fausta.

On 1 May 305 Diocletian, at Nicomedeia, and Maximian, at Mediolanum, divested themselves of the purple. Their resignations seem largely due to the almost fatal illness that Diocletian contracted toward the end of 304. Diocletian seems to have forced his colleague to abdicate. In any case, Herculius had sworn an oath at the temple of Capitoline Jupiter to carry out the terms of the abdication. Constantius and Galerius were appointed as Augusti, with Maximinus Daia and Severus as the new Caesars. The retired emperors then returned to private life. Diocletian's retirement was at Salonae in Dalmatia, while Herculius' retreat was either in Lucania or Campania.

Maximian's retirement, however, was of short duration because, a little more than a year later on 28 October 306, his son Maxentius was proclaimed emperor at Rome. To give his regime an aura of legitimacy, Maximian was forced to affirm his son's acclamation. When Galerius learned of Maxentius' rebellion, he sent Severus against him with an army that had formerly been under his father's command. Maxentius invested his father with the purple again to win over his enemy's troops, a ruse which succeeded. Perhaps to strengthen his own position, in 307 Maximian went to Gaul and married his daughter Fausta to Constantine. When Constantine refused to become embroiled in the civil war between Galerius and Maxentius, Maximian returned to Rome in 308 and attempted to depose his son; however, he did not succeed. When Maximian was unable to convince Diocletian to take up the purple again at a meeting in Carnuntum in late 308, he returned to his son-in-law's side in Gaul.

Although Maximian was treated with all of the respect due a former emperor, he still desired to be more than a figurehead. He decided to seize the purple from Constantine when his son-in-law least expected it. His opportunity came in the summer of 310 when the Franks revolted. When Constantine had taken a small part of his army into enemy territory, Maximian proclaimed himself again emperor and paid the soldiers under his command a donative to secure their loyalty. As soon as Constantine received news about Maximian's revolt in July 310, he went south and reached Arelate before his father-in-law could mount a defense of the city. Although Maximian fled to Massilia, his son-in-law seized the city and took Maximian prisoner. Although he was deprived of the purple, he was granted pardon for his crimes. Unable to endure the humiliation of his defeat, he attempted to have Constantine murdered in his bed. The plot failed because he tried to get his daughter Fausta's help in the matter; she chose to reveal the matter to her husband. Because of this attempt on his son-in-law's life Maximian was dead by the end of July either by his own hand or on the orders of his intended victim.

Eutropia was of Syrian extraction and her marriage to Maximian seems to have been her second. She bore him two children: Maxentius and Fausta. An older daughter, Theodora, may have been a product of her first marriage. Fausta became the wife of Constantine I , while her sister Theodora was the second spouse of his father Constantius I Chlorus . Eutropia apparently survived all her children, with the possible exception of her daughter Fausta who seems to have died in 326. Eutropia is also said to have become a Christian.

By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
GaleriusAugCyz.jpg
1303a, Galerius, 1 March 305 - 5 May 311 A.D.35 viewsGalerius, RIC VI 59, Cyzicus S, VF, Cyzicus S, 6.4 g, 25.86 mm; 309-310 AD; Obverse: GAL MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, laureate bust right; Reverse: GENIO A-VGVS[TI], Genius stg. left, naked but for chlamys over left shoulder, holding patera and cornucopiae. A nice example with sharp detail and nice brown hoard patina. Ex Ancient Imports.


De Imperatoribus Romanis,
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Galerius (305-311 A.D.)

Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Salve Regina University


Caius Galerius Valerius Maximianus, more commonly known as Galerius, was from Illyricum; his father, whose name is unknown, was of peasant stock, while his mother, Romula, was from beyond the Danube. Galerius was born in Dacia Ripensis near Sardica. Although the date of his birth is unknown, he was probably born ca. 250 since he served under Aurelian. As a youth Galerius was a shepherd and acquired the nickname Armentarius. Although he seems to have started his military career under Aurelian and Probus, nothing is known about it before his accession as Caesar on 1 March 293. He served as Diocletian's Caesar in the East. Abandoning his first wife, he married Diocletian's daugher, Valeria.

As Caesar he campaigned in Egypt in 294; he seems to have taken to the field against Narses of Persia, and was defeated near Ctesiphon in 295. In 298, after he made inroads into Armenia, he obtained a treaty from the Persians favorable to the Romans. Between 299-305 he overcame the Sarmatians and the Carpi along the Danube. The Great Persecution of the Orthodox Church, which was started in 303 by the Emperor Diocletian, was probably instigated by Galerius. Because of the almost fatal illness that he contracted toward the end of 304, Diocletian, at Nicomedeia, and Maximianus Herculius, at Mediolanum, divested themselves of the purple on 1 May 305. Constantius and Galerius were appointed as Augusti, with Maximinus Daia and Severus as the new Caesars. Constantius and Severus reigned in the West, whereas Galerius' and Daia's realm was the East. Although Constantius was nominally senior Augustus, the real power was in the hands of Galerius because both Caesars were his creatures.

The balance of power shifted at the end of July 306 when Constantius, with his son Constantine at his side, passed away at York in Britain where he was preparing to face incursions by the Picts; his army proclaimed Constantine his successor immediately. As soon as he received the news of the death of Constantius I and the acclamation of Constantine to the purple, Galerius raised Severus to the rank of Augustus to replace his dead colleague in August 306. Making the best of a bad situation, Galerius accepted Constantine as the new Caesar in the West. The situation became more complicated when Maxentius, with his father Maximianus Herculius acquiesing, declared himself princes on 28 October 306. When Galerius learned about the acclamation of the usurper, he dispatched the Emperor Severus to put down the rebellion. Severus took a large field army which had formerly been that of Maximianus and proceeded toward Rome and began to besiege the city, Maxentius, however, and Maximianus, by means of a ruse, convinced Severus to surrender. Later, in 307, Severus was put to death under clouded circumstances. While Severus was fighting in the west, Galerius, during late 306 or early 307, was campaigning against the Sarmatians.

In the early summer of 307 Galerius invaded Italy to avenge Severus's death; he advanced to the south and encamped at Interamna near the Tiber. His attempt to besiege the city was abortive because his army was too small to encompass the city's fortifications. Not trusting his own troops, Galerius withdrew. During its retreat, his army ravaged the Italian countryside as it was returning to its original base. When Maximianus Herculius' attempts to regain the throne between 308 and 310 by pushing his son off his throne or by winning over Constantine to his cause failed, he tried to win Diocletian and Galerius over to his side at Carnuntum in October and November 308; the outcome of the Conference at Carnuntum was that Licinius was appointed Augustus in Severus's place, that Daia and Constantine were denoted filii Augustorum, and that Herculius was completely cut out of the picture. Later, in 310, Herculius died, having been implicated in a plot against his son-in-law. After the Conference at Carnuntum, Galerius returned to Sardica where he died in the opening days of May 311.

By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University; Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Galerius was Caesar and tetrarch under Maximianus. Although a talented general and administrator, Galerius is better known for his key role in the "Great Persecution" of Christians. He stopped the persecution under condition the Christians pray for his return to health from a serious illness. Galerius died horribly shortly after. Joseph Sermarini, FORVM.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.



Cleisthenes
Constantius1_silvered_follis.jpg
1304a, Constantius I, May 305 - 25 July 306 A.D.48 viewsSilvered follis, RIC 20a, S 3671, VM 25, gVF, Heraclea mint, 10.144g, 27.7mm, 180o, 297 - 298 A.D. Obverse: FL VAL CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES, laureate head right; Reverse GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, modius on head, naked except for chlamys over shoulder, cornucopia in left, pouring liquor from patera, HTD in exergue; some silvering, nice portrait, well centered.



De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Constantius I Chlorus (305-306 A.D.)

Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Salve Regina University

Constantius' Early Life and Marriage

Born March 31st, Emperor Flavius Valerius Constantius may have come into the world ca. 250. His family was from Illyricum. In the army he served as a protector, tribunus, and a praeses Dalmatiarum. During the 270s or the 280s, he became the father of Constantine by Helena, his first spouse. By 288 he was the Praetorian Prefect of the western emperor Maximianus Herculius.

Constantius' Reign as Caesar

On 1 March 293 Diocletian appointed Galerius as his Caesar (junior emperor) in the east and Constantius as the Caesar of Maximianus Herculius. Caesar in the west. Both Caesars had the right of succession. In order to strengthen the dynastic relationship between himself and Herculius., Constantius put aside his wife Helena and married Theodora, the daughter, or perhaps stepdaughter, of Maximianus Herculius.. The union was fruitful and of it there were six issue: Flavius Dalmatius, Julius Constantius, Hannibalianus, Constantia, Anastasia, and Eutropia. To strengthen his bond with Galerius and Diocletian in the east, Constantius allowed Galerius to keep his son Constantine as a hostage for his good behavior.

In the remainder of the time that he was a Caesar, Constantius spent much of his time engaged in military actions in the west. In the summer of 293 Constantius expelled the troops of the usurper Carausius from northern Gaul; after Constantius' attack on Bononia (Boulogne), Carausius was murdered. At the same time he dealt with the unrest of the Germans. In 296 he invaded Britain and put down the revolt of the usurper Allectus. Between 300 and 305 A.D. the Caesar campaigned successfully several times with various German tribes. It is worth noting in passing, that while his colleagues rigidly enforced the "Great Persecution in 303," Constantius limited his action to knocking down a few churches.

Constantius as Augustus and His Untimely Death

On 1 May 305 Diocletian, at Nicomedia, and Maximianus Herculius, at Mediolanum (Milan), divested themselves of the purple, probably because of the almost fatal illness that Diocletian contracted toward the end of 304. Diocletian forced Maximianus to abdicate. They appointed as their successors Constantius and Galerius, with Severus and Maximinus Daia as the new Caesars. The retired emperors then returned to private life. Constantius, as had his predecessor, ruled in the west, while Galerius and Daia ruled in the east. Almost as soon as he was appointed Augustus, he crossed to Britain to face incursions by the Picts where he died at York on 25 July 306 with his son (Constantine I, known to history as “The Great”) at his side.

Copyright (C) 1996, Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
MaxentiusRIC163.jpg
1307a, Maxentius, February 307 - 28 October 312 A.D.60 viewsBronze follis, RIC 163, aEF, Rome mint, 5.712g, 25.6mm, 0o, summer 307 A.D.; obverse MAXENTIVS P F AVG, laureate head right; reverse CONSERVATO-RES VRB SVAE, Roma holding globe and scepter, seated in hexastyle temple, RT in ex; rare. Ex FORVM; Ex Maridvnvm


De Imperatoribus Romanis : An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Maxentius (306-312 A.D.)

Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Salve Regina University

Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maxentius, more commonly known as Maxentius, was the child of the Emperor Maximianus Herculius and the Syrian, Eutropia; he was born ca. 278 A.D. After Galerius' appointment to the rank of Caesar on 1 March 293, Maxentius married Galerius' daughter Valeria Maximilla, who bore him a son named Romulus and another son whose name is unknown. Due to his haughty nature and bad disposition, Maxentius could seldom agree with his father or his father-in-law; Galerius' and Maximianus Herculius' aversion to Maxentius prevented the young man from becoming a Caesar in 305. Little else is known of Maxentius' private life prior to his accession and, although there is some evidence that it was spent in idleness, he did become a Senator.

On 28 October 306 Maxentius was acclaimed emperor, although he was politically astute enough not to use the title Augustus; like the Emperor Augustus, he called himself princeps. It was not until the summer of 307 that he started using the title Augustus and started offending other claimants to the imperial throne. He was enthroned by the plebs and the Praetorians. At the time of his acclamation Maxentius was at a public villa on the Via Labicana. He strengthened his position with promises of riches for those who helped him obtain his objective. He forced his father Maximianus Herculius to affirm his son's acclamation in order to give his regime a facade of legitimacy. His realm included Italy, Africa, Sardinia, and Corsica. As soon as Galerius learned about the acclamation of Herculius' son, he dispatched the Emperor Severus to quell the rebellion. With the help of his father and Severus' own troops, Maxentius' took his enemy prisoner.

When Severus died, Galerius was determined to avenge his death. In the early summer of 307 the Augustus invaded Italy; he advanced to the south and encamped at Interamna near the Tiber. His attempt to besiege the city was abortive because his army was not large enough to encompass the city's fortifications. Negotiations between Maxentius and Galerius broke down when the emperor discovered that the usurper was trying to win over his troops. Galerius' troops were open to Maxentius' promises because they were fighting a civil war between members of the same family; some of the soldiers went over to the enemy. Not trusting his own troops, Galerius withdrew. During its retreat, Galerius' army ravaged the Italian countryside as it was returning to its original base. If it was not enough that Maxentius had to deal with the havoc created by the ineffectual invasions of Severus and Galerius, he also had to deal with his father's attempts to regain the throne between 308 and 310. When Maximianus Herculius was unable to regain power by pushing his son off his throne, he attempted to win over Constantine to his cause. When this plan failed, he tried to win Diocletian over to his side at Carnuntum in October and November 308. Frustrated at every turn, Herculius returned to his son-in-law Constantine's side in Gaul where he died in 310, having been implicated in a plot against his son-in-law. Maxentius' control of the situation was weakened by the revolt of L. Domitius Alexander in 308. Although the revolt only lasted until the end of 309, it drastically cut the size of the grain supply availble for Rome. Maxentius' rule collapsed when he died on 27 October 312 in an engagement he had with the Emperor Constantine at the Milvian Bridge after the latter had invaded his realm.

Copyright (C) 1996, Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
1 commentsCleisthenes
Lcnius1.jpg
1308b, Licinius I, 308 - 324 A.D. (Siscia)59 viewsLicinius I, 11 November 308 - 18 September 324 A.D. Bronze follis, RIC 4, F, Siscia, 3.257g, 21.6mm, 0o, 313 - 315 A.D. Obverse: IMP LIC LICINIVS P F AVG, laureate head right; Reverse IOVI CONSERVATORI AVGG NN, Jupiter standing left holding Victory on globe and scepter, eagle with wreath in beak left, E right, SIS in exergue.



De Imperatoribus Romanis : An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Licinius (308-324 A.D.)

Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Salve Regina University

Licinius' Heritage

Valerius Licinianus Licinius, more commonly known as Licinius, may have been born ca. 265. Of peasant origin, his family was from Dacia. A close friend and comrade of arms of the Emperor Galerius, he accompanied him on his Persian expedition in 297. When campaigns by Severus and Galerius in late 306 or early 307 and in the summer of 307, respectively, failed to dislodge Maxentius who, with the luke warm support of his father Maximianus Herculius, was acclaimed princeps on 28 October 306, he was sent by the eastern emperor to Maxentius as an ambassador; the diplomatic mission, however, failed because the usurper refused to submit to the authority of his father-in-law Galerius. At the Conference of Carnuntum which was held in October or November of 308, Licinius was made an Augustus on 11 November 308; his realm included Thrace, Illyricum, and Pannonia.

Licinius' Early Reign

Although Licinius was initially appointed by Galerius to replace Severus to end the revolt of Maxentius , Licinius (perhaps wisely) made no effort to move against the usurper. In fact, his first attested victory was against the Sarmatians probably in the late spring, but no later than the end of June in 310. When the Emperor Galerius died in 311, Licinius met Maximinus Daia at the Bosporus during the early summer of that year; they concluded a treaty and divided Galerius' realm between them. It was little more than a year later that the Emperor Constantine defeated Maxentius at the Battle of the Milvian Bridge on 28 October 312. After the defeat of the usurper, Constantine and Licinius met at Mediolanum (Milan) where Licinius married the former's sister Constantia; one child was born of this union: Valerius Licinianus Licinius. Licinius had another son, born of a slave woman, whose name is unknown. It appears that both emperors promulgated the so-called Edict of Milan, in which Constantine and Licinius granted Christians the freedom to practice their faith without any interference from the state.

As soon as he seems to have learned about the marital alliance between Licinius and Constantine and the death of Maxentius, who had been his ally, Daia traversed Asia Minor and, in April 313, he crossed the Bosporus and went to Byzantium, which he took from Licinius after an eleven day siege. On 30 April 313 the armies of both emperors clashed on the Campus Ergenus; in the ensuing battle Daia's forces were routed. A last ditch stand by Daia at the Cilician Gates failed; the eastern emperor subsequently died in the area of Tarsus probably in July or August 313. As soon as he arrived in Nicomedeia, Licinius promulgated the Edict of Milan. As soon as he had matters in Nicomedeia straightened out, Licinius campaigned against the Persians in the remaining part of 313 and the opening months of 314.

The First Civil War Between Licinius and Constantine

Once Licinius had defeated Maximinus Daia, the sole rulers of the Roman world were he and Constantine. It is obvious that the marriage of Licinius to Constantia was simply a union of convenience. In any case, there is evidence in the sources that both emperors were looking for an excuse to attack the other. The affair involving Bassianus (the husband of Constantius I's daughter Anastasia ), mentioned in the text of Anonymus Valesianus (5.14ff), may have sparked the falling out between the two emperors. In any case, Constantine' s forces joined battle with those of Licinius at Cibalae in Pannonia on 8 October 314. When the battle was over, Constantine prevailed; his victory, however, was Pyrrhic. Both emperors had been involved in exhausting military campaigns in the previous year and the months leading up to Cibalae and each of their realms had expanded so fast that their manpower reserves must have been stretched to the limit. Both men retreated to their own territory to lick their wounds. It may well be that the two emperors made an agreement, which has left no direct trace in the historical record, which would effectively restore the status quo.

Both emperors were variously engaged in different activities between 315 and 316. In addition to campaigning against the Germans while residing in Augusta Treverorum (Trier) in 315, Constantine dealt with aspects of the Donatist controversy; he also traveled to Rome where he celebrated his Decennalia. Licinius, possibly residing at Sirmium, was probably waging war against the Goths. Although not much else is known about Licinius' activities during this period, it is probable that he spent much of his time preparing for his impending war against Constantine; the latter,who spent the spring and summer of 316 in Augusta Treverorum, was probably doing much the same thing. In any case, by December 316, the western emperor was in Sardica with his army. Sometime between 1 December and 28 February 317, both emperors' armies joined battle on the Campus Ardiensis; as was the case in the previous engagement, Constantine' s forces were victorious. On 1 March 317, both sides agreed to a cessation of hostilities; possibly because of the intervention of his wife Constantia, Licinius was able to keep his throne, although he had to agree to the execution of his colleague Valens, who the eastern emperor had appointed as his colleague before the battle, as well as to cede some of his territory to his brother-in-law.

Licinius and the Christians

Although the historical record is not completely clear, Licinius seems to have campaigned against the Sarmatians in 318. He also appears to have been in Byzantium in the summer of 318 and later in June 323. Beyond these few facts, not much else is known about his residences until mid summer of 324. Although he and Constantine had issued the Edict of Milan in early 313, Licinius turned on the Christians in his realm seemingly in 320. The first law that Licinius issued prevented bishops from communicating with each other and from holding synods to discuss matters of interest to them. The second law prohibited men and women from attending services together and young girls from receiving instruction from their bishop or schools. When this law was issued, he also gave orders that Christians could hold services only outside of city walls. Additionally, he deprived officers in the army of their commissions if they did not sacrifice to the gods. Licinius may have been trying to incite Constantine to attack him. In any case, the growing tension between the two rulers is reflected in the consular Fasti of the period.

The Second Civil War Between Licinius and Constantine and Licinius' Death

War actually broke out in 321 when Constantine pursued some Sarmatians, who had been ravaging some territory in his realm, across the Danube. When he checked a similar invasion of the Goths, who were devastating Thrace, Licinius complained that Constantine had broken the treaty between them. Having assembled a fleet and army at Thessalonica, Constantine advanced toward Adrianople. Licinius engaged the forces of his brother-in-law near the banks of the Hebrus River on 3 July 324 where he was routed; with as many men as he could gather, he headed for his fleet which was in the Hellespont. Those of his soldiers who were not killed or put to flight, surrendered to the enemy. Licinius fled to Byzantium, where he was besieged by Constantine. Licinius' fleet, under the command of the admiral Abantus, was overcome by bad weather and by Constantine' s fleet which was under the command of his son Crispus. Hard pressed in Byzantium, Licinius abandoned the city to his rival and fled to Chalcedon in Bithynia. Leaving Martinianus, his former magister officiorum and now his co-ruler, to impede Constantine' s progress, Licinius regrouped his forces and engaged his enemy at Chrysopolis where he was again routed on 18 September 324. He fled to Nicomedeia which Constantine began to besiege. On the next day Licinius abdicated and was sent to Thessalonica, where he was kept under house arrest. Both Licinius and his associate were put to death by Constantine. Martinianus may have been put to death before the end of 324, whereas Licinius was not put to death until the spring of 325. Rumors circulated that Licinius had been put to death because he attempted another rebellion against Constantine.

Copyright (C) 1996, Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
Licin1AEFolJupiAlex.jpg
1308c, Licinius I, 308-324 A.D. (Alexandria)66 viewsLicinius I, 308-324 A.D. AE Follis, 3.60g, VF, 315 A.D., Alexandria. Obverse: IMP C VAL LICIN LICINIVS P F AVG - Laureate head right; Reverse: IOVI CONS-ERVATORI AVGG - Jupiter standing left, holding Victory on a globe and scepter; exergue: ALE / (wreath) over "B" over "N." Ref: RIC VII, 10 (B = r2) Rare, page 705 - Hunterian Museum, Glasgow, Scotland.


De Imperatoribus Romanis : An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Licinius (308-324 A.D.)

Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Salve Regina University

Licinius' Heritage

Valerius Licinianus Licinius, more commonly known as Licinius, may have been born ca. 265. Of peasant origin, his family was from Dacia. A close friend and comrade of arms of the Emperor Galerius, he accompanied him on his Persian expedition in 297. When campaigns by Severus and Galerius in late 306 or early 307 and in the summer of 307, respectively, failed to dislodge Maxentius who, with the luke warm support of his father Maximianus Herculius, was acclaimed princeps on 28 October 306, he was sent by the eastern emperor to Maxentius as an ambassador; the diplomatic mission, however, failed because the usurper refused to submit to the authority of his father-in-law Galerius. At the Conference of Carnuntum which was held in October or November of 308, Licinius was made an Augustus on 11 November 308; his realm included Thrace, Illyricum, and Pannonia.

Licinius' Early Reign

Although Licinius was initially appointed by Galerius to replace Severus to end the revolt of Maxentius , Licinius (perhaps wisely) made no effort to move against the usurper. In fact, his first attested victory was against the Sarmatians probably in the late spring, but no later than the end of June in 310. When the Emperor Galerius died in 311, Licinius met Maximinus Daia at the Bosporus during the early summer of that year; they concluded a treaty and divided Galerius' realm between them. It was little more than a year later that the Emperor Constantine defeated Maxentius at the Battle of the Milvian Bridge on 28 October 312. After the defeat of the usurper, Constantine and Licinius met at Mediolanum (Milan) where Licinius married the former's sister Constantia; one child was born of this union: Valerius Licinianus Licinius. Licinius had another son, born of a slave woman, whose name is unknown. It appears that both emperors promulgated the so-called Edict of Milan, in which Constantine and Licinius granted Christians the freedom to practice their faith without any interference from the state.

As soon as he seems to have learned about the marital alliance between Licinius and Constantine and the death of Maxentius, who had been his ally, Daia traversed Asia Minor and, in April 313, he crossed the Bosporus and went to Byzantium, which he took from Licinius after an eleven day siege. On 30 April 313 the armies of both emperors clashed on the Campus Ergenus; in the ensuing battle Daia's forces were routed. A last ditch stand by Daia at the Cilician Gates failed; the eastern emperor subsequently died in the area of Tarsus probably in July or August 313. As soon as he arrived in Nicomedeia, Licinius promulgated the Edict of Milan. As soon as he had matters in Nicomedeia straightened out, Licinius campaigned against the Persians in the remaining part of 313 and the opening months of 314.

The First Civil War Between Licinius and Constantine

Once Licinius had defeated Maximinus Daia, the sole rulers of the Roman world were he and Constantine. It is obvious that the marriage of Licinius to Constantia was simply a union of convenience. In any case, there is evidence in the sources that both emperors were looking for an excuse to attack the other. The affair involving Bassianus (the husband of Constantius I's daughter Anastasia ), mentioned in the text of Anonymus Valesianus (5.14ff), may have sparked the falling out between the two emperors. In any case, Constantine' s forces joined battle with those of Licinius at Cibalae in Pannonia on 8 October 314. When the battle was over, Constantine prevailed; his victory, however, was Pyrrhic. Both emperors had been involved in exhausting military campaigns in the previous year and the months leading up to Cibalae and each of their realms had expanded so fast that their manpower reserves must have been stretched to the limit. Both men retreated to their own territory to lick their wounds. It may well be that the two emperors made an agreement, which has left no direct trace in the historical record, which would effectively restore the status quo.

Both emperors were variously engaged in different activities between 315 and 316. In addition to campaigning against the Germans while residing in Augusta Treverorum (Trier) in 315, Constantine dealt with aspects of the Donatist controversy; he also traveled to Rome where he celebrated his Decennalia. Licinius, possibly residing at Sirmium, was probably waging war against the Goths. Although not much else is known about Licinius' activities during this period, it is probable that he spent much of his time preparing for his impending war against Constantine; the latter,who spent the spring and summer of 316 in Augusta Treverorum, was probably doing much the same thing. In any case, by December 316, the western emperor was in Sardica with his army. Sometime between 1 December and 28 February 317, both emperors' armies joined battle on the Campus Ardiensis; as was the case in the previous engagement, Constantine' s forces were victorious. On 1 March 317, both sides agreed to a cessation of hostilities; possibly because of the intervention of his wife Constantia, Licinius was able to keep his throne, although he had to agree to the execution of his colleague Valens, who the eastern emperor had appointed as his colleague before the battle, as well as to cede some of his territory to his brother-in-law.

Licinius and the Christians

Although the historical record is not completely clear, Licinius seems to have campaigned against the Sarmatians in 318. He also appears to have been in Byzantium in the summer of 318 and later in June 323. Beyond these few facts, not much else is known about his residences until mid summer of 324. Although he and Constantine had issued the Edict of Milan in early 313, Licinius turned on the Christians in his realm seemingly in 320. The first law that Licinius issued prevented bishops from communicating with each other and from holding synods to discuss matters of interest to them. The second law prohibited men and women from attending services together and young girls from receiving instruction from their bishop or schools. When this law was issued, he also gave orders that Christians could hold services only outside of city walls. Additionally, he deprived officers in the army of their commissions if they did not sacrifice to the gods. Licinius may have been trying to incite Constantine to attack him. In any case, the growing tension between the two rulers is reflected in the consular Fasti of the period.

The Second Civil War Between Licinius and Constantine and Licinius' Death

War actually broke out in 321 when Constantine pursued some Sarmatians, who had been ravaging some territory in his realm, across the Danube. When he checked a similar invasion of the Goths, who were devastating Thrace, Licinius complained that Constantine had broken the treaty between them. Having assembled a fleet and army at Thessalonica, Constantine advanced toward Adrianople. Licinius engaged the forces of his brother-in-law near the banks of the Hebrus River on 3 July 324 where he was routed; with as many men as he could gather, he headed for his fleet which was in the Hellespont. Those of his soldiers who were not killed or put to flight, surrendered to the enemy. Licinius fled to Byzantium, where he was besieged by Constantine. Licinius' fleet, under the command of the admiral Abantus, was overcome by bad weather and by Constantine' s fleet which was under the command of his son Crispus. Hard pressed in Byzantium, Licinius abandoned the city to his rival and fled to Chalcedon in Bithynia. Leaving Martinianus, his former magister officiorum and now his co-ruler, to impede Constantine' s progress, Licinius regrouped his forces and engaged his enemy at Chrysopolis where he was again routed on 18 September 324. He fled to Nicomedeia which Constantine began to besiege. On the next day Licinius abdicated and was sent to Thessalonica, where he was kept under house arrest. Both Licinius and his associate were put to death by Constantine. Martinianus may have been put to death before the end of 324, whereas Licinius was not put to death until the spring of 325. Rumors circulated that Licinius had been put to death because he attempted another rebellion against Constantine.

Copyright (C) 1996, Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
heraclea6.jpg
131 Licinius I12 viewsobv: IMP LICI_NIVS AVG laur. drp. bust l. holding scepter and mappa
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with three turrents no star
ex: .SMHB
hill132
heraclea7~0.jpg
132 Licinius I11 viewsobv: IMP LICI_NIVS AVG laur. drp. bust r. holding scepter and mappa
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with three turrents no star
ex: -(delta)//SMHA
hill132
Licinius-I_AE-3-Follis_IMP-LICI-NIVS-AVG-2--_PROVIDEN-TIAE-AVGG_7-lay_HT-E_RIC-VII-15_Heraclea_316-17-AD_R2_Q-001_6h_19mm_3,59g-s~1.jpg
132 Licinius l. (308-324 A.D.), Heraclea, RIC VII 015, AE-3 Follis, -/-//HTЄ, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate with tree turrets, R2!!107 views132 Licinius l. (308-324 A.D.), Heraclea, RIC VII 015, AE-3 Follis, -/-//HTЄ, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate with tree turrets, R2!!
avers: IMP LICI NIVS AVG, 2, J1l., Laureate, draped bust left, holding mappa and sceptre on globe.
reverse: PROVIDEN TIAE AVG G, Campgate with three turrets, no dors, 7 layers of stones.
exergue: -/-//HTЄ, diameter: 19mm, weight: 3,59g, axis: 6h,
mint: Heraclea, 5th. off., date: 316-317 A.D., ref: RIC VII 015, p544, R2!!
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Licinius-I_AE-3-Follis_IMP-LICI-NIVS-AVG-2-J1_l_PROVIDEN-TIAE-AVGG_MHT-Epsilon_7layer_RIC-VII-17-p545-5th-off_Heraclea_316-17-AD_R4_Q-001_axis-5h_19mm_2,51ga-s.jpg
132 Licinius l. (308-324 A.D.), Heraclea, RIC VII 017, AE-3 Follis, -/-//MHTЄ, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate with tree turrets, R4!!!280 views132 Licinius l. (308-324 A.D.), Heraclea, RIC VII 017, AE-3 Follis, -/-//MHTЄ, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate with tree turrets, R4!!!
avers: IMP LICI NIVS AVG, 2, J1l., Laureate, draped bust left, holding mappa and sceptre on globe.
reverse: PROVIDEN TIAE AVG G, Campgate with three turrets, no dors, 7 layers of stones.
exergue: -/-//MHTЄ, diameter: 19mm, weight: 2,51g, axis: 5h,
mint: Heraclea, 5th. off., date: 316-317 A.D., ref: RIC VII 017, p545, R4!!!
Q-001
quadrans
Licinius_I__Heraclea,_RIC_VII_17A,_AE-3-Follis,_IMP_LICI_NIVS_AVG_2-J1_l,_PROVIDEN_TIAE_AVG_G,_MHTA,_5_layer,_1st_off,_317_AD,_Q-001,_6h,_18,5-19,5mm,_2,52-s.jpg
132 Licinius l. (308-324 A.D.), Heraclea, RIC VII 017, AE-3 Follis, -/-//MHTA, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate with tree turrets, #1119 views132 Licinius l. (308-324 A.D.), Heraclea, RIC VII 017, AE-3 Follis, -/-//MHTA, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate with tree turrets, #1
avers: IMP LICI NIVS AVG, 2, J1l., Laureate, draped bust left, holding mappa and sceptre on globe.
reverse: PROVIDEN TIAE AVG G, Campgate with three turrets, no dors, 5 layers of stones.
exergue: -/-//MHTA, diameter: 18,5-19,5mm, weight: 2,52g, axis: 6h,
mint: Heraclea, 1st. off., date: 316-317 A.D., ref: RIC VII 017, p545,
Q-001
quadrans
132_Licinius_l_,_Heraclea_RIC_VII_039,_AE-3,_IMP_LICINIVS_AVG,_PROVIDENTIAE_AVG_G,_SMHA,__318-20_AD,R4_Q-001,_0h,_18-19mm,_3,60gx-s.jpg
132 Licinius l. (308-324 A.D.), Heraclea, RIC VII 039, AE-3 Follis, -/-//SMHA, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate with tree turrets, R4! #1102 views132 Licinius l. (308-324 A.D.), Heraclea, RIC VII 039, AE-3 Follis, -/-//SMHA, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate with tree turrets, R4! #1
avers: IMP LICI NIVS AVG, 2, J1l., Laureate, draped bust left, holding mappa and scepter on globe.
reverse: PROVIDEN TIAE AVG G, Campgate with three turrets, no dors, 6 layers of stones.
exergue: -/-//SMHA, diameter: 18,0-19,0mm, weight: 3,60g, axis: 0h,
mint: Heraclea, date: 318-320 A.D., ref: RIC VII 039, R4!
Q-001
quadrans
Licinius-I_AE-3-Follis_IMP-LICI-NIVS-AVG-2--_PROVIDEN-TIAE-AVGG-_-_SMH-B_RIC-VII-48var-pxx-2nd-off__Heraclea_318-20-AD__Q-001_axis-0h_18-19mm_3,10g-s.jpg
132 Licinius l. (308-324 A.D.), Heraclea, RIC VII 048var., AE-3 Follis, -/Λ//SMHB, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate, #179 views132 Licinius l. (308-324 A.D.), Heraclea, RIC VII 048var., AE-3 Follis, -/Λ//SMHB, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate, #1
avers: IMP LICI NIVS AVG, 2, J1r., Laureate, draped bust right(left are RIC error), holding mappa and sceptre on globe.
reverse: PROVIDEN TIAE AVG G, Campgate with three turrets, no dors, 6 layers of stones and Λ in right in the field.
exergue: -/Λ//SMHB, diameter: 18-19mm, weight: 3,10g, axis: 0h,
mint: Heraclea, 2nd. off., date: 318-320 A.D., ref: RIC VII 048var., (RIC err. not left, right), p547, c1,
Q-001
quadrans
Licinius-I_AE-3-Follis_IMP-LICI-NIVS-AVG-2--_PROVIDEN-TIAE-AVGG-_-_SMH-B_RIC-VII-48var-pxx-2nd-off__Heraclea_318-20-AD__Q-001_h_mm_ga-s.jpg
132 Licinius l. (308-324 A.D.), Heraclea, RIC VII 048var., AE-3 Follis, -/Λ//SMHB, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate, #277 views132 Licinius l. (308-324 A.D.), Heraclea, RIC VII 048var., AE-3 Follis, -/Λ//SMHB, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate, #2
avers: IMP LICI NIVS AVG, 2, J1r., Laureate, draped bust right(left are RIC error), holding mappa and sceptre on globe.
reverse: PROVIDEN TIAE AVG G, Campgate with three turrets, no dors, 6 layers of stones and Λ in right in the field.
exergue: -/Λ//SMHB, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Heraclea, 2nd. off., date: 318-320 A.D., ref: RIC VII 048var., (RIC err. not left, right), p547, c1,
Q-002
quadrans
Edward_III_AR_Penny.JPG
1327 - 1377, EDWARD III, AR Penny, Treaty Period, struck 1361 – 1369 at London, England9 viewsObverse: + EDWARDVS REX ANGLI. Crowned bust of Edward III facing within circle of pellets. Cross pattée in legend.
Reverse: CIVITAS LONDON. Long cross dividing legend into quarters, trefoil and annulet in each quarter of inner circle.
This coin was struck during the period of the Treaty of Brétigny under which Edward III renounced his claim to the French throne.
Diameter: 19mm | Weight: 1.0gms | Die Axis: 10
SPINK: 1630

Edward III was King of England from January 1327 until his death. He is noted for his military success and for restoring royal authority after the disastrous and unorthodox reign of his father, Edward II. During his long reign Edward III transformed the Kingdom of England into one of the most formidable military powers in Europe. His reign also saw vital developments in legislation and government, in particular the evolution of the English parliament, though it also saw the ravages of the Black Death.
Edward was crowned at the age of fourteen after his father was deposed by his mother, Isabella of France, and her lover Roger Mortimer. But at the age of seventeen he led a successful coup d'état against Mortimer, whom he executed, and began his personal reign.
In 1337, after a successful campaign in Scotland, Edward declared himself the rightful heir to the French throne which started what was to become known as the Hundred Years' War. Following some initial setbacks, the first part of this war went exceptionally well for England, the victories at Crécy and Poitiers led to the highly favourable Treaty of Brétigny in which, though Edward renounced his claim to the French throne, England made great territorial gains. However Edward's later years were marked by international failure and domestic strife, largely as a result of his inactivity and poor health.
Around 29 September 1376 Edward fell ill with a large abscess and, after a brief period of recovery, the king died of a stroke at Sheen on 21 June. He was succeeded by his ten-year-old grandson, King Richard II, since the Black Prince, Edward's son and Richard's father, had predeceased Edward on 8 June 1376.
2 comments*Alex
heraclea8.jpg
133 Licinius I9 viewsobv: IMP LICI_NIVS AVG laur. drp. bust l. holding scepter and mappa
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with three turrents no star
ex: SMH(delta)
hill132
Licinius-II_AE-3-Follis_DN-VAL-LICIN-LICINIVS-NOB-C-6b-J1-l__PROVIDEN-TIAE-CAESS_MHT-_-_RIC-19-p545-4th_-off_-c2_Heracleia_317-AD__Q-001_axis-11h_19mm_2,81g-s.jpg
133 Licinius II. (317-324 A.D.), Heraclea, RIC VII 019, AE-3 Follis, -/-//MHTΔ, PROVIDENTIAE CAESS, Campgate with three turrets, C2! #1178 views133 Licinius II. (317-324 A.D.), Heraclea, RIC VII 019, AE-3 Follis, -/-//MHTΔ, PROVIDENTIAE CAESS, Campgate with three turrets, C2! #1
avers: D N VAL LICIN LICINIVS NOB C, 6b, J1l., Laureate, draped bust left, holding mappa and sceptre on globe.
reverse: PROVIDEN TIAE CAES S, Campgate with three turrets, 6 layers of stone.
exergue: -/-//MHTΔ, diameter: 19mm, weight: 2,81g, axis: 11h,
mint: Heraclea, 4th. off., date: 317 A.D., ref: RIC VII 019, p545, C2,
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
heraclea9~0.jpg
134 Licinius II11 viewsobv: DN VAL LICIN LICINIVS NOB C laur. drp. bust l. holding scepter and mappa
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with three turrents no star
ex: MHT(delta)
hill132
heraclea10.jpg
135 Licinius I10 viewsobv: IMP LICI_NIVS AVGG laur. drp. bust l. holding scepter and mappa
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with three turrents no star
ex: -.//SMHA
hill132
Constantinus-I__AE-Follis_CONSTAN-TINVS-AVG-1_PROVIDEN-TIAE-AVG-G-B1-6layers_dot_SMANTA_RIC-63-p-688_Antioch_326-327-AD_S_Q-001_h_mm_g-s.jpg
136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Antioch, RIC VII 063, AE-3 Follis, -/-//SMANTA, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate with two turrets, Scarce!65 views136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Antioch, RIC VII 063, AE-3 Follis, -/-//SMANTA, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate with two turrets, Scarce!
avers: CONSTAN TINVS AVG, 1, B1, Laureate, bust right.
reverse: PROVIDEN TIAE AVG G, 6 layers, Campgate, no door, with two turrets star above.
exergue: -/-//SMANTA, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis:h,
mint: Antioch, date: 325-326 A.D., ref: RIC VII 063, p-688, Scarce!
Q-001
quadrans
Constantinus-I__AE-Follis_CONSTAN-TINVS-AVG-1_PROVIDEN-TIAE-AVG-G-B1-8layers_dot_SMANTZ_RIC-71-p-690_Antioch_326-327-AD_R2_Q-001_h_mm_gx-s.jpg
136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Antioch, RIC VII 071, AE-3 Follis, •//SMANTA, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate with two turrets, R2!!65 views136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Antioch, RIC VII 071, AE-3 Follis, •//SMANTA, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate with two turrets, R2!!
avers: CONSTAN TINVS AVG, 1, B1, Laureate, bust right.
reverse: PROVIDEN TIAE AVG G, 8 layers, Campgate, no door, with two turrets star above.
exergue: •//SMANTA, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis:h,
mint: Antioch, date: 326-327 A.D., ref: RIC VII 071, p-690, R2!!
Q-001
quadrans
Constantinus-I__AE-Follis_CONSTAN-TINVS-AVG-1_PROVIDEN-TIAE-AVG-G-B1-6layers_SACrescRL_RIC-_p-_Arles_326-327-AD_Q-001_h_mm_g-s.jpg
136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Arleate, RIC VII 286, AE-3 Follis, -/-//SAᴗRL, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate with two turrets, Scarce!78 views136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Arleate, RIC VII 286, AE-3 Follis, -/-//SAᴗRL, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate with two turrets, Scarce!
avers: CONSTAN TINVS AVG, 1, B1, Laureate, bust right.
reverse: PROVIDEN TIAE AVG G, Campgate, two turrets, no doors, star above 6th levels of stone layers.
exergue: -/-//SAᴗRL, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis:h,
mint: Arleate, date: 326-327 A.D., ref: RIC VII 286, p-264, Scarce!
Q-001
quadrans
Constantinus-I__AE-Follis_CONSTAN-TINVS-AVG-1_PROVIDEN-TIAE-AVG-G-B1-6layers_SMKDelta_RIC-24-p-647_Cyzicus_324-5-AD_Q-001_h_mm_g-s.jpg
136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Cyzicus, RIC VII 024, AE-3 Follis, -/-//SMKΔ, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate with two turrets,62 views136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Cyzicus, RIC VII 024, AE-3 Follis, -/-//SMKΔ, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate with two turrets,
avers: CONSTAN TINVS AVG, 1, B1, Laureate, bust right.
reverse: PROVIDEN TIAE AVG G, 6 layers, Campgate, no door, with two turrets star above.
exergue: -/-//SMKΔ, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis:h,
mint: Cyzicus, date: 325-326 A.D., ref: RIC VII 024, p-647,
Q-001
quadrans
Constantinus-I__AE-Follis_CONSTAN-TINVS-AVG-1_PROVIDEN-TIAE-AVG-G-B1-8layers_SMKGamm-dot_RIC-34-p-648_Cyzicus_325-6-AD_Q-001_h_mm_g-s.jpg
136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Cyzicus, RIC VII 034, AE-3 Follis, -/-//SMKΓ•, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate with two turrets,66 views136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Cyzicus, RIC VII 034, AE-3 Follis, -/-//SMKΓ•, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate with two turrets,
avers: CONSTAN TINVS AVG, 1, B1, Laureate, bust right.
reverse: PROVIDEN TIAE AVG G, 8 layers, Campgate, no door, with two turrets star above.
exergue: -/-//SMKΓ•, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis:h,
mint: Cyzicus, date: 325-326 A.D., ref: RIC VII 034, p-648,
Q-001
quadrans
136_Constantinus_I_,_,_RIC_VII_34A,_Cyzicus_,_AE-Follis,_CONSTAN_TINVS_AVG,_PROVIDENTIAE_AVGG,_SMKAdot,_325-6_AD,_Q-001,_11h,_17,5-18,5mm,_3,05g-s.jpg
136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Cyzicus, RIC VII 034A, AE-3 Follis, -/-//SMKA•, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate with two turrets, #1124 views136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Cyzicus, RIC VII 034A, AE-3 Follis, -/-//SMKA•, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate with two turrets, #1
avers: CONSTAN TINVS AVG, 1, B1, Laureate, bust right.
reverse: PROVIDEN TIAE AVG G, 8 layers, Campgate, no door, with two turrets star above.
exergue: -/-//SMKA•, diameter: 17,5-18,5mm, weight: 3,05g, axis:11h,
mint: Cyzicus, date: 325-326 A.D., ref: RIC VII 034A, p-648,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Constantinus-I__AE-Follis_IMP-CONSTA-NTINVS-AVG-1_PROVIDEN-TIAE-AVG-G-J1_l_-6-layers_MHTA_RICVII-16v(or38v)-not-off-A_Heraclea_317-320-AD_Q-001_6h_19,5-20mm_3,25g-s.jpg
136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Heraclea, RIC VII 016var.(or 038var.), AE-3 Follis, -/-//MHTA, PROVIDEN TIAE AVG G, Campgate with 3 turrets, "A" off not in RIC !!!72 views136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Heraclea, RIC VII 016var.(or 038var.), AE-3 Follis, -/-//MHTA, PROVIDEN TIAE AVG G, Campgate with 3 turrets, "A" off not in RIC !!!
avers: IMP CONSTA NTINVS AVG, 1, J1 l., Laureate, draped bust left, holding mappa and sceptre on globe.
reverse: PROVIDEN TIAE AVG G, Campgate with 3 turrets, 6 layers, no doors, no star above.
exergue: -/-//MHTA, diameter: 19,5-20mm, weight: 3,25g, axis: 6h,
mint: Heraclea, date: 317-320 A.D., ref: RIC VII 16ver.(or38ver.???), p-544, "A" off not in RIC !!!
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Constantinus-I__AE-Follis_CONSTA-N-TINVS-AVG-1-D6_VIRTV-S-AVG-G_3-turrets-6-layers_P-R_RT_3-off_RIC-VII-166-p-315_Rome_318-319-AD_R5_Q-001_5h_17,5-18mm_2,75ga-s.jpg
136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Rome, RIC VII 166, AE-3 Follis, P/R//R-T, VIRTVS AVG G, Campgate with three turrets, R5!!! 123 views136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Rome, RIC VII 166, AE-3 Follis, P/R//R-T, VIRTVS AVG G, Campgate with three turrets, R5!!!
avers: CONSTA N TINVS AVG, Laureate helmeted cuirassed bust right. 1-D6,
reverse: VIRTV S AVG G, Campgate, three turrets, six layers no doors; P-R across fields, RT in ex.
exergue: P/R//R-T, diameter: 17,5-18mm, weight: 2,75g, axes: 5h,
mint: Rome, date: 318-319 A.D., ref: RIC VII 166, p-315, R5!!!,
Q-001
3 commentsquadrans
Constantinus-I__AE-Follis_CONSTAN-TINVS-AVG-1_PROVIDEN-TIAE-AVG-G-B1-6-layers_dot-G-SIS-dot-_RIC-200_Siscia_326-327-AD_Q-001_6h_18-20mm_2,71g-s.jpg
136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VII 200, AE-3 Follis, -/-//•ΓSIS•, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate with two turrets, #169 views136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VII 200, AE-3 Follis, -/-//•ΓSIS•, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate with two turrets, #1
avers: CONSTAN TINVS AVG, 1, B1, Laureate head right.
reverse: PROVIDEN TIAE AVG G, 6 layers, Campgate with two turrets star above.
exergue: -/-//•ΓSIS•, diameter: 18,0-21,0mm, weight: 2,71g, axis: 6h,
mint: Siscia, date: 326-327 A.D., ref: RIC VII 200, p-449, 2nd.-off.,
Q-001
quadrans
Constantinus-I__AE-Follis_CONSTAN-TINVS-AVG-1_PROVIDEN-TIAE-AVG-G-B1-5layers_dot-Delta-SIS-dot-2-off__RIC-200_C-x_Siscia_326-327-AD__Q-001_19mm_2_24g-s.jpg
136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VII 200, AE-3 Follis, -/-//•ΔSIS•, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate with two turrets, #166 views136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VII 200, AE-3 Follis, -/-//•ΔSIS•, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate with two turrets, #1
avers: CONSTAN TINVS AVG, 1, B1, Laureate head right.
reverse: PROVIDEN TIAE AVG G, 5 layers, Campgate with two turrets star above.
exergue: -/-//•ΔSIS•, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Siscia, date: 326-327 A.D., ref: RIC VII 200, p-449, 2nd.-off.,
Q-001
quadrans
Constantinus-I__AE-Follis_CONSTAN-TINVS-AVG-1_PROVIDEN-TIAE-AVG-G-B1-7layers_dot-A-SIS-dot-x-off__RIC-200_C-x_Siscia_326-327-AD_Q-001_h_mm_gx-s.jpg
136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VII 200, AE-3 Follis, -/-//•ASIS•, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate with two turrets, #162 views136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VII 200, AE-3 Follis, -/-//•ASIS•, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate with two turrets, #1
avers: CONSTAN TINVS AVG, 1, B1, Laureate head right.
reverse: PROVIDEN TIAE AVG G, 6 layers, Campgate with two turrets star above.
exergue: -/-//•ASIS•, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Siscia, date: 326-327 A.D., ref: RIC VII 200, p-449, 2nd.-off.,
Q-001
quadrans
Constantinus-I__AE-Follis_CONSTAN-TINVS-AVG-1_PROVIDEN-TIAE-AVG-G-B1-6layers_dot-B-SIS-dot-2-off__RIC-200_C-x_Siscia_326-327-AD__Q-001_19mm_2_24g-s.jpg
136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VII 200, AE-3 Follis, -/-//•BSIS•, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate with two turrets, #1112 views136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VII 200, AE-3 Follis, -/-//•BSIS•, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate with two turrets, #1
avers: CONSTAN TINVS AVG, 1, B1, Laureate head right.
reverse: PROVIDEN TIAE AVG G, 6 layers, Campgate with two turrets star above.
exergue: -/-//•BSIS•, diameter: 19mm, weight: 3,24g, axis: 7h,
mint: Siscia, date: 326-327 A.D., ref: RIC VII 200, p-449, 2nd.-off.,
Q-001
quadrans
Constantinus-I__AE-Follis_CONSTAN-TINVS-AVG-1_PROVIDEN-TIAE-AVG-G-B1-6layers_dot-B-SIS-dot-_RIC-200_Siscia_326-327-AD_Q-001_h_mm_g-s.jpg
136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VII 200, AE-3 Follis, -/-//•BSIS•, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate with two turrets, #264 views136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VII 200, AE-3 Follis, -/-//•BSIS•, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate with two turrets, #2
avers: CONSTAN TINVS AVG, 1, B1, Laureate head right.
reverse: PROVIDEN TIAE AVG G, 6 layers, Campgate with two turrets star above.
exergue: -/-//•BSIS•, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Siscia, date: 326-327 A.D., ref: RIC VII 200, p-449, 2nd.-off.,
Q-002
quadrans
Constantinus-I__AE-Follis_CONSTAN-TINVS-AVG-1_PROVIDEN-TIAE-AVG-G-B1-6-layers_dot-B-SIS-dot-_RIC-200_Siscia_326-327-AD_Q-003_1h_18-20mm_2,81g-s.jpg
136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VII 200, AE-3 Follis, -/-//•BSIS•, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate with two turrets, #365 views136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VII 200, AE-3 Follis, -/-//•BSIS•, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate with two turrets, #3
avers: CONSTAN TINVS AVG, 1, B1, Laureate head right.
reverse: PROVIDEN TIAE AVG G, 6 layers, Campgate with two turrets star above.
exergue: -/-//•BSIS•, diameter: 18-20mm, weight: 2,81g, axis: 1h,
mint: Siscia, date: 326-327 A.D., ref: RIC VII 200, p-449, 2nd.-off.,
Q-003
1 commentsquadrans
Constantinus-I__AE-Follis_CONSTAN-TINVS-AVG-1_PROVIDEN-TIAE-AVG-G-B1-9layers_GammaSISCrecincresc_RIC-214_p-452_Siscia_326-327-AD_Q-001_h_mm_g-s.jpg
136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VII 214, AE-3 Follis, -/-//ΓSISᴗ in ᴗ, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate with two turrets, #162 views136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VII 214, AE-3 Follis, -/-//ΓSISᴗ in ᴗ, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate with two turrets, #1
avers: CONSTAN TINVS AVG, 1, B1, Laureate head right.
reverse: PROVIDEN TIAE AVG G, 9 layers, Campgate, no door, with two turrets star above.
exergue: -/-//ΓSISᴗ in ᴗ, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Siscia, date: 328-329 A.D., ref: RIC VII 214, p-452, 2nd.-off.,
Q-001
quadrans
Constantinus-I__AE-Follis_CONSTAN-TINVS-AVG-1_PROVIDEN-TIAE-AVG-G-B1-9layers_B-SIS-crescincresc_RIC-_Siscia_326-327-AD_Q-001_h_mm_g-s.jpg
136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VII 214, AE-3 Follis, -/-//BSISᴗ in ᴗ, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate with two turrets, #169 views136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VII 214, AE-3 Follis, -/-//BSISᴗ in ᴗ, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate with two turrets, #1
avers: CONSTAN TINVS AVG, 1, B1, Laureate head right.
reverse: PROVIDEN TIAE AVG G, 9 layers, Campgate, no door, with two turrets star above.
exergue: -/-//BSISᴗ in ᴗ, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Siscia, date: 328-329 A.D., ref: RIC VII 214, p-452, 2nd.-off.,
Q-001
quadrans
Constantinus-I__AE-Follis_CONSTAN-TINVS-AVG-1_PROVIDEN-TIAE-AVG-G-B1-9layers_BSISCrecincresc_RIC-214_p-452_Siscia_326-327-AD_Q-001_h_mm_gx-s.jpg
136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VII 214, AE-3 Follis, -/-//BSISᴗ in ᴗ, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate with two turrets, #267 views136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VII 214, AE-3 Follis, -/-//BSISᴗ in ᴗ, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate with two turrets, #2
avers: CONSTAN TINVS AVG, 1, B1, Laureate head right.
reverse: PROVIDEN TIAE AVG G, 9 layers, Campgate, no door, with two turrets star above.
exergue: -/-//BSISᴗ in ᴗ, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Siscia, date: 328-329 A.D., ref: RIC VII 214, p-452, 2nd.-off.,
Q-002
quadrans
Constantinus-I__AE-Follis_CONSTAN-TINVS-AVG-1_PROVIDEN-TIAE-AVG-G-B1-6layers_dot-SMTSE_RIC-153_p-518_Thesalonica_326-327-AD_Q-001_h_mm_gx-s.jpg
136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Thessalonica, RIC VII 153, AE-3 Follis, -/•//SMTSЄ, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate with two turrets, #162 views136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Thessalonica, RIC VII 153, AE-3 Follis, -/•//SMTSЄ, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate with two turrets, #1
avers: CONSTAN TINVS AVG, 1, B1, Laureate, bust right.
reverse: PROVIDEN TIAE AVG G, 6 layers, Campgate, no door, with two turrets star above.
exergue: -/•//SMTSЄ, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis:h,
mint: Thessalonica, date: 326-327 A.D., ref: RIC VII 153, p-518,
Q-001
quadrans
heraclea11.jpg
136 Crispus16 viewsobv: DN FL IVL CRISPVS NOB CAES laur. drp. bust l. holding scepter and mappa
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with three turrents no star
ex: -.//SMHr
hill132
heraclea12.jpg
137 Constantine I16 viewsobv: IMP CONSTA_TINVS AVG laur. drp. bust l. holding scepter and mappa
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with three turrents no star
ex: MHTB
hill132
heraclea13.jpg
138 Constantine I14 viewsobv: IMP CONSTAN_TINVS AVG laur. drp. bust l. holding scepter and mappa
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with three turrents no star
ex: MHTB
hill132
antpius RIC111.jpg
138-161 AD - ANTONINUS PIUS AR denarius - struck 143-144 AD38 viewsobv: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P COS III (laureate head right)
rev: IMPERATOR II (Victory standing front, head left, holding wreath and palm)
ref: RIC III 111, RSC 437, BMC 496
3.40gms, 18mm,

History: Quintus Lollius Urbicus was made governor of Roman Britain in 138. He evidently campaigned against several British tribes: the northern Brigantes, the Votadini, the Selgovae, the Damnonii and the Novantae. Lollius probably also oversaw the initial construction of the Antonine Wall and refurbished many forts. The reverse commemorates Antoninus' second imperatorial acclamation which he accepted in 143 AD for Q. Lollius Urbicus' victory over the Brigantes in Britannia.
berserker
heraclea14.jpg
139 Constantine I15 viewsobv: IMP CONSTAN_TINVS AVG laur. drp. bust l. holding scepter and mappa
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with three turrents no star
ex: MHTB
hill132
De_Busto_Carlos_IV_1_4_real_1808.jpg
14 - 02 - Virreynato CARLOS IV (1788 -1806) 109 views"Cuartillo"
1/4 de Real de Plata Ley 903
13 mm

Anv: Castillo con 1808(fecha) debajo, PTSmonograma POTOSÍ(ceca)en campo izq. y 1/4 (Valor) en campo der.

Rev: Anepigrafa León rampante a izquierda.

Acuñada: 1808
Ensayador: Pedro Narciso de Mazondo.
Ceca: Potosí - Hoy ubicada en Bolivia

Referencias: Krause SCWC(1801-1900) KM#82 Pag.95 - Maravedis.net #B-418
mdelvalle
drusus as.jpg
14-37 AD - DRUSUS memorial AE As - struck under Tiberius (23 AD)50 viewsobv: DRVSVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N (bare head left)
rev: PONTIF TRIBVN POTEST ITER around large S-C
ref: RIC I 45 (Tiberius), C.2 (2frcs)
10.14gms, 29mm

Drusus (also called Drusus Junior or Drusus the Younger), the only son of Tiberius, became heir to the throne after the death of Germanicus. One of his famous act connected to the mutiny in Pannonia, what broke out when the death of Augustus (19 August 14) was made known. Drusus left Rome to deal with the mutiny before the session of the Senate on the 17 September, when Tiberius was formally adopted him as princeps. He have reached the military camp in Pannonia in the time for the eclipse of the moon in the early hours of the 27 September wich so daunted the mutineers. He was also governor of Illyricum from 17 to 20 AD. Ancient sources concur that Livilla, his wife poisoned him.
berserker
tiberius as.jpg
14-37 AD - TIBERIUS AE as - struck 22-23 AD39 viewsobv: TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVST IMP VIII (bare head left)
rev: PONTIF MAXIM TRIBVN POTEST XXIII around large S.C.
ref: RIC I 44, C.24 (5 frcs), BMC91
9.44gms, 27mm

In 6 AD Tiberius was in Carnuntum military camp. He led at least eight legions (VIII Augusta from Pannonia, XV Apollinaris and XX Valeria Victrix from Illyricum, XXI Rapax from Raetia, XIII Gemina, XIV Gemina and XVI Gallica from Germania Superior and an unknown unit) against king Maroboduus of the Marcomanni in Bohemia (Czechia). At the same time, I Germanica, V Alaudae, XVII, XVIII and XIX, - led by Caius Sentius Saturninus (governor of Germania) -, moved against Maroboduus along the Elbe. Saturninus led his forces across the country of the Chatti, and, cutting his way through the Hercynian forest, joining Tiberius on the north bank of the Danube, and both wanted to make a combined attack within a few leagues from the Marcomannic capital Boviasmum. It was the most grandiose operation that ever conducted by a Roman army, but a rebellion in Illyria obstructed its final execution.
berserker
heraclea15~0.jpg
140 Constantine II18 viewsobv: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust r.
rev: PROVIDE_TIAE CAESS campgate with three turrents star above
ex: .SMH(epsilon).
hill132
CTGDafne.jpg
1403c, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D.49 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC VII 35, choice aEF, Constantinople mint, 3.336g, 20.0mm, 180o, 328 A.D.; Obverse: CONSTANTI-NVS MAX AVG, laurel and rosette diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: CONSTANTINI-ANA DAFNE, Victory seated left on cippus, head right, palm frond in each hand, trophy and captive before, CONS in exergue, B left; scarce. Ex FORVM.

"The information about Constantine's campaign across [the Danube] is obscure and untrustworthy. The question, therefore, of what he achieved by this enterprise was, and is, subject to contradictory interpretations. On the one hand, the Panegyrists claimed that he had repeated the triumphs of Trajan. On the other, his own nephew, Julian the Apostate, spoke for many when he expressed the view that this second 'conquest' of Dacia was incomplete and extremely brief . . . monetary commemoration was accorded to the building, at about the same time [AD 328], of the river frontier fortress of Constantiniana Dafne (Spantov, near Oltenita) . . ." (Grant, Michael. The Emperor Constantine. London: Phoenix, 1998. 58-9).

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
1 commentsCleisthenes
CTG_SisCmpGte.jpg
1403i, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D. (Siscia)42 viewsSilvered AE 3, RIC 214, VF, Siscia mint, 3.187g, 19.3mm, 0o, 328 - 329 A.D.
Obverse: CONSTAN-TINVS AVG, laureate head right; Reverse PROVIDEN-TIAE AVGG, campgate with two turrets, star above, ASIS and double crescent in exergue.

Flavius Valerius Constantinus, Constantine the Great, was the son of Helena and the First Tetrarchic ruler Constantius I. Constantine is most famous for his conversion to Christianity and the battle of the Milvian Bridge where he defeated emperor Maxentius. It is reputed that before the battle, he saw the words "In Hoc Signo Victor Eris" (By this sign you shall conquer) emblazoned on the sun around the Chi Rho, the symbol of Christianity. Other sources claim the vision came to Constantine I in a dream. The story continues that after placing this Christogram on the shields of his army, he defeated his opponent and thus ruled the empire through divine providence. Constantine I also shifted the capital of the empire to Constantinople, establishing the foundation for an Empire that would last another 1000 years. He died in 337 and his sons divided the Roman territories.

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power, and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
Cleisthenes
CTG_ThesCmpGte.jpg
1403j, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D. (Thessalonica)26 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC 153, VF, Thessalonica mint, 2.955g, 19.7mm, 0o, 326 - 328 A.D. Obverse: CONSTAN-TINVS AVG, laureate head right; Reverse: PROVIDEN-TIAE AVGG, campgate with two turrets, star above, dot right, SMTSG in exergue.

Flavius Valerius Constantinus, Constantine the Great, was the son of Helena and the First Tetrarchic ruler Constantius I. Constantine is most famous for his conversion to Christianity and the battle of the Milvian Bridge where he defeated emperor Maxentius. It is reputed that before the battle, he saw the words "In Hoc Signo Victor Eris" (By this sign you shall conquer) emblazoned on the sun around the Chi Rho, the symbol of Christianity. Other sources claim the vision came to Constantine I in a dream. The story continues that after placing this Christogram on the shields of his army, he defeated his opponent and thus ruled the empire through divine providence. Constantine I also shifted the capital of the empire to Constantinople, establishing the foundation for an Empire that would last another 1000 years. He died in 337 and his sons divided the Roman territories.

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power, and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
Cleisthenes
ConstansVot.jpeg
1405a, Constans, 9 September 337 - 19 January 350 A.D. (Alexandria)39 viewsBronze AE 4, RIC 37, gVF, Egypt, Alexandria, 1.54g, 15.0mm, 180o, 345-347 A.D. Obverse: D N CONSTANS P F AVG, pearl diademed head right; Reverse: VOT XX MVLT XXX in wreath, SMALA• in exergue.

Flavius Julius Constans, third and youngest son of Constantine I and Fausta, was born between 320 and 323 A.D. Primary sources for the life and reign of Constans I are scarce. To reconstruct his life and career, one must draw on a variety of references in both fourth century and later works. Raised as a Christian, he was made a Caesar on 25 December 333 A.D. Constans I and his two brothers, after the death of their father on 22 May 337 and the subsequent "massacre of the princes" in which many other relatives were purged, met in the first part of September 337 in Pannonia to re-divide the empire among themselves. There they were acclaimed Augusti by the army. Constans' new realm included Italy, Africa, Illyricum, Macedonia, and Achaea. Shortly before his father's death, Constans' engagement to Olympias, the daughter of the Praetorian Prefect Ablabius, was announced; although the match was never solemnized because of political reasons.

It would appear that Constans was successful in the military sphere. Following his accession to the purple in 337, he seems to have won a victory over the Sarmatians. In 340 Constans was able to beat back an attempt by his brother Constantine II to seize some of his realm. The latter died in a battle fought near Aquileia and Constans absorbed his late brother's territory. In 341 and 342 he conducted a successful campaign against the Franci. He also visited Britain in 343, probably on a military campaign.

As an emperor Constans gets mixed reviews. In what may be a topos, sources suggest that the first part of his reign was moderate but in later years, however, he became overbearing. The emperor apparently attempted to obtain as much money as he could from his subjects and sold government posts to the highest bidder. His favorites were allowed to oppress his subjects. Sources also condemn his homosexuality. He did have some military success and, in addition to other military threats, he had to deal with Donatist-related bandits in North Africa.

Like his father Constantine I and his brother Constantius II, Constans had a deep interest in Christianity. Together with Constantius II he issued (or perhaps re-issued) a ban against pagan sacrifice in 341. The next year, they cautioned against the destruction of pagan temples. Unlike his brother Constantius II, who supported the Arian faction, he stood shoulder to shoulder with Athanasius and other members of the Orthodox clique. In fact, it is due to his request that the Council of Serdica was called to deal with the ecclesiastical squabble between Athanasius of Alexandria and Paul of Constantinople on one side and the Arian faction on the other.

When Magnentius was declared emperor in Gaul during January 350, Constans realized his reign was at an end. When he learned of the revolt, he fled toward Helena, a town in the Pyrenees. Constans was put to death by Gaeso and a band of Magnentius' assassins, who dragged their victim from a temple in which he had sought refuge.

By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University and Robert Frakes, Clarion UniversityPublished: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
Constans.jpg
1405n, Constans, 9 September 337 - 19 January 350 A.D. (Siscia)56 viewsConstans, 9 September 337 - 19 January 350 A.D. Bronze AE 3, RIC 241, S 3978, VM 69, VF, Siscia, 2.32g, 18.3mm, 180o. Obverse: D N CONSTANS P F AVG, pearl diademed draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Phoenix radiate, standing on rocky mound, GSIS and symbol in ex; nice green patina.

Flavius Julius Constans, third and youngest son of Constantine I and Fausta, was born between 320 and 323 A.D. Primary sources for the life and reign of Constans I are scarce. To reconstruct his life and career, one must draw on a variety of references in both fourth century and later works. Raised as a Christian, he was made a Caesar on 25 December 333 A.D. Constans I and his two brothers, after the death of their father on 22 May 337 and the subsequent "massacre of the princes" in which many other relatives were purged, met in the first part of September 337 in Pannonia to re-divide the empire among themselves. There they were acclaimed Augusti by the army. Constans' new realm included Italy, Africa, Illyricum, Macedonia, and Achaea. Shortly before his father's death, Constans' engagement to Olympias, the daughter of the Praetorian Prefect Ablabius, was announced; although the match was never solemnized because of political reasons.

It would appear that Constans was successful in the military sphere. Following his accession to the purple in 337, he seems to have won a victory over the Sarmatians. In 340 Constans was able to beat back an attempt by his brother Constantine II to seize some of his realm. The latter died in a battle fought near Aquileia and Constans absorbed his late brother's territory. In 341 and 342 he conducted a successful campaign against the Franci. He also visited Britain in 343, probably on a military campaign.

As an emperor Constans gets mixed reviews. In what may be a topos, sources suggest that the first part of his reign was moderate but in later years, however, he became overbearing. The emperor apparently attempted to obtain as much money as he could from his subjects and sold government posts to the highest bidder. His favorites were allowed to oppress his subjects. Sources also condemn his homosexuality. He did have some military success and, in addition to other military threats, he had to deal with Donatist-related bandits in North Africa.

Like his father Constantine I and his brother Constantius II, Constans had a deep interest in Christianity. Together with Constantius II he issued (or perhaps re-issued) a ban against pagan sacrifice in 341. The next year, they cautioned against the destruction of pagan temples. Unlike his brother Constantius II, who supported the Arian faction, he stood shoulder to shoulder with Athanasius and other members of the Orthodox clique. In fact, it is due to his request that the Council of Serdica was called to deal with the ecclesiastical squabble between Athanasius of Alexandria and Paul of Constantinople on one side and the Arian faction on the other.

When Magnentius was declared emperor in Gaul during January 350, Constans realized his reign was at an end. When he learned of the revolt, he fled toward Helena, a town in the Pyrenees. Constans was put to death by Gaeso and a band of Magnentius' assassins, who dragged their victim from a temple in which he had sought refuge.

By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University and Robert Frakes, Clarion University
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
U2476F1OVDKUXTA.jpeg
1405t, Constans, 9 September 337 - 19 January 350 A.D. (Thessalonica )39 viewsConstans, 9 September 337 - 19 January 350 A.D., Bronze AE 3, unattributed; Thessalonica mint, 2.25g, 18.9mm, 0; aVF.

Flavius Julius Constans, third and youngest son of Constantine I and Fausta, was born between 320 and 323 A.D. Primary sources for the life and reign of Constans I are scarce. To reconstruct his life and career, one must draw on a variety of references in both fourth century and later works. Raised as a Christian, he was made a Caesar on 25 December 333 A.D. Constans I and his two brothers, after the death of their father on 22 May 337 and the subsequent "massacre of the princes" in which many other relatives were purged, met in the first part of September 337 in Pannonia to re-divide the empire among themselves. There they were acclaimed Augusti by the army. Constans' new realm included Italy, Africa, Illyricum, Macedonia, and Achaea. Shortly before his father's death, Constans' engagement to Olympias, the daughter of the Praetorian Prefect Ablabius, was announced; although the match was never solemnized because of political reasons.

It would appear that Constans was successful in the military sphere. Following his accession to the purple in 337, he seems to have won a victory over the Sarmatians. In 340 Constans was able to beat back an attempt by his brother Constantine II to seize some of his realm. The latter died in a battle fought near Aquileia and Constans absorbed his late brother's territory. In 341 and 342 he conducted a successful campaign against the Franci. He also visited Britain in 343, probably on a military campaign.

As an emperor Constans gets mixed reviews. In what may be a topos, sources suggest that the first part of his reign was moderate but in later years, however, he became overbearing. The emperor apparently attempted to obtain as much money as he could from his subjects and sold government posts to the highest bidder. His favorites were allowed to oppress his subjects. Sources also condemn his homosexuality. He did have some military success and, in addition to other military threats, he had to deal with Donatist-related bandits in North Africa.

Like his father Constantine I and his brother Constantius II, Constans had a deep interest in Christianity. Together with Constantius II he issued (or perhaps re-issued) a ban against pagan sacrifice in 341. The next year, they cautioned against the destruction of pagan temples. Unlike his brother Constantius II, who supported the Arian faction, he stood shoulder to shoulder with Athanasius and other members of the Orthodox clique. In fact, it is due to his request that the Council of Serdica was called to deal with the ecclesiastical squabble between Athanasius of Alexandria and Paul of Constantinople on one side and the Arian faction on the other.

When Magnentius was declared emperor in Gaul during January 350, Constans realized his reign was at an end. When he learned of the revolt, he fled toward Helena, a town in the Pyrenees. Constans was put to death by Gaeso and a band of Magnentius' assassins, who dragged their victim from a temple in which he had sought refuge.

By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University and Robert Frakes, Clarion University.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
Julian2VotXConstantinople.jpg
1409a, Julian II "the Philosopher," February 360 - 26 June 363 A.D.143 viewsJulian II, A.D. 360-363; RIC 167; VF; 2.7g, 20mm; Constantinople mint; Obverse: DN FL CL IVLIANVS P F AVG, helmeted & cuirassed bust right, holding spear & shield; Reverse: VOT X MVLT XX in four lines within wreath; CONSPB in exergue; Attractive green patina. Ex Nemesis.


De Imperatoribus Romanis,
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Julian the Apostate (360-363 A.D.)

Walter E. Roberts, Emory University
Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University

Introduction

The emperor Flavius Claudius Julianus reigned from 360 to 26 June 363, when he was killed fighting against the Persians. Despite his short rule, his emperorship was pivotal in the development of the history of the later Roman empire. This essay is not meant to be a comprehensive look at the various issues central to the reign of Julian and the history of the later empire. Rather, this short work is meant to be a brief history and introduction for the general reader. Julian was the last direct descendent of the Constantinian line to ascend to the purple, and it is one of history's great ironies that he was the last non-Christian emperor. As such, he has been vilified by most Christian sources, beginning with John Chrysostom and Gregory Nazianzus in the later fourth century. This tradition was picked up by the fifth century Eusebian continuators Sozomen, Socrates Scholasticus, and Theodoret and passed on to scholars down through the 20th century. Most contemporary sources, however, paint a much more balanced picture of Julian and his reign. The adoption of Christianity by emperors and society, while still a vital concern, was but one of several issues that concerned Julian.

It is fortunate that extensive writings from Julian himself exist, which help interpret his reign in the light of contemporary evidence. Still extant are some letters, several panegyrics, and a few satires. Other contemporary sources include the soldier Ammianus Marcellinus' history, correspondence between Julian and Libanius of Antioch, several panegyrics, laws from the Theodosian Code, inscriptions, and coinage. These sources show Julian's emphasis on restoration. He saw himself as the restorer of the traditional values of Roman society. Of course much of this was rhetoric, meant to defend Julian against charges that he was a usurper. At the same time this theme of restoration was central to all emperors of the fourth century. Julian thought that he was the one emperor who could regain what was viewed as the lost glory of the Roman empire. To achieve this goal he courted select groups of social elites to get across his message of restoration. This was the way that emperors functioned in the fourth century. By choosing whom to include in the sharing of power, they sought to shape society.

Early Life

Julian was born at Constantinople in 331. His father was Julius Constantius, half-brother of the emperor Constantine through Constantius Chlorus, and his mother was Basilina, Julius' second wife. Julian had two half-brothers via Julius' first marriage. One of these was Gallus, who played a major role in Julian's life. Julian appeared destined for a bright future via his father's connection to the Constantinian house. After many years of tense relations with his three half-brothers, Constantine seemed to have welcomed them into the fold of the imperial family. From 333 to 335, Constantine conferred a series of honors upon his three half-siblings, including appointing Julius Constantius as one of the consuls for 335. Julian's mother was equally distinguished. Ammianus related that she was from a noble family. This is supported by Libanius, who claimed that she was the daughter of Julius Julianus, a Praetorian Prefect under Licinius, who was such a model of administrative virtue that he was pardoned and honored by Constantine.

Despite the fact that his mother died shortly after giving birth to him, Julian experienced an idyllic early childhood. This ended when Constantius II conducted a purge of many of his relatives shortly after Constantine's death in 337, particularly targeting the families of Constantine's half-brothers. ulian and Gallus were spared, probably due to their young age. Julian was put under the care of Mardonius, a Scythian eunuch who had tutored his mother, in 339, and was raised in the Greek philosophical tradition, and probably lived in Nicomedia. Ammianus also supplied the fact that while in Nicomedia, Julian was cared for by the local bishop Eusebius, of whom the future emperor was a distant relation. Julian was educated by some of the most famous names in grammar and rhetoric in the Greek world at that time, including Nicocles and Hecebolius. In 344 Constantius II sent Julian and Gallus to Macellum in Cappadocia, where they remained for six years. In 351, Gallus was made Caesar by Constantius II and Julian was allowed to return to Nicomedia, where he studied under Aedesius, Eusebius, and Chrysanthius, all famed philosophers, and was exposed to the Neo-Platonism that would become such a prominent part of his life. But Julian was most proud of the time he spent studying under Maximus of Ephesus, a noted Neo-Platonic philospher and theurgist. It was Maximus who completed Julian's full-scale conversion to Neo-Platonism. Later, when he was Caesar, Julian told of how he put letters from this philosopher under his pillows so that he would continue to absorb wisdom while he slept, and while campaigning on the Rhine, he sent his speeches to Maximus for approval before letting others hear them. When Gallus was executed in 354 for treason by Constantius II, Julian was summoned to Italy and essentially kept under house arrest at Comum, near Milan, for seven months before Constantius' wife Eusebia convinced the emperor that Julian posed no threat. This allowed Julian to return to Greece and continue his life as a scholar where he studied under the Neo-Platonist Priscus. Julian's life of scholarly pursuit, however, ended abruptly when he was summoned to the imperial court and made Caesar by Constantius II on 6 November 355.

Julian as Caesar

Constantius II realized an essential truth of the empire that had been evident since the time of the Tetrarchy--the empire was too big to be ruled effectively by one man. Julian was pressed into service as Caesar, or subordinate emperor, because an imperial presence was needed in the west, in particular in the Gallic provinces. Julian, due to the emperor's earlier purges, was the only viable candidate of the imperial family left who could act as Caesar. Constantius enjoined Julian with the task of restoring order along the Rhine frontier. A few days after he was made Caesar, Julian was married to Constantius' sister Helena in order to cement the alliance between the two men. On 1 December 355, Julian journeyed north, and in Augusta Taurinorum he learned that Alamannic raiders had destroyed Colonia Agrippina. He then proceeded to Vienne where he spent the winter. At Vienne, he learned that Augustudunum was also under siege, but was being held by a veteran garrison. He made this his first priority, and arrived there on 24 June 356. When he had assured himself that the city was in no immediate danger, he journeyed to Augusta Treverorum via Autessioduram, and from there to Durocortorum where he rendezvoused with his army. Julian had the army stage a series of punitive strikes around the Dieuse region, and then he moved them towards the Argentoratum/Mongontiacum region when word of barbarian incursions reached him.

From there, Julian moved on to Colonia Agrippina, and negotiated a peace with the local barbarian leaders who had assaulted the city. He then wintered at Senonae. He spent the early part of the campaigning season of 357 fighting off besiegers at Senonae, and then conducting operations around Lugdunum and Tres Tabernae. Later that summer, he encountered his watershed moment as a military general. Ammianus went into great detail about Julian's victory over seven rogue Alamannic chieftains near Argentoratum, and Julian himself bragged about it in his later writing. After this battle, the soldiers acclaimed Julian Augustus, but he rejected this title. After mounting a series of follow-up raids into Alamannic territory, he retired to winter quarters at Lutetia, and on the way defeated some Frankish raiders in the Mosa region. Julian considered this campaign one of the major events of his time as Caesar.

Julian began his 358 military campaigns early, hoping to catch the barbarians by surprise. His first target was the Franks in the northern Rhine region. He then proceeded to restore some forts in the Mosa region, but his soldiers threatened to mutiny because they were on short rations and had not been paid their donative since Julian had become Caesar. After he soothed his soldiers, Julian spent the rest of the summer negotiating a peace with various Alamannic leaders in the mid and lower Rhine areas, and retired to winter quarters at Lutetia. In 359, he prepared once again to carry out a series of punitive expeditions against the Alamanni in the Rhine region who were still hostile to the Roman presence. In preparation, the Caesar repopulated seven previously destroyed cities and set them up as supply bases and staging areas. This was done with the help of the people with whom Julian had negotiated a peace the year before. Julian then had a detachment of lightly armed soldiers cross the Rhine near Mogontiacum and conduct a guerilla strike against several chieftains. As a result of these campaigns, Julian was able to negotiate a peace with all but a handful of the Alamannic leaders, and he retired to winter quarters at Lutetia.

Of course, Julian did more than act as a general during his time as Caesar. According to Ammianus, Julian was an able administrator who took steps to correct the injustices of Constantius' appointees. Ammianus related the story of how Julian prevented Florentius, the Praetorian Prefect of Gaul, from raising taxes, and also how Julian actually took over as governor for the province of Belgica Secunda. Hilary, bishop of Poitiers, supported Ammianus' basic assessment of Julian in this regard when he reported that Julian was an able representative of the emperor to the Gallic provincials. There is also epigraphic evidence to support Julian's popularity amongst the provincial elites. An inscription found near Beneventum in Apulia reads:
"To Flavius Claudius Julianus, most noble and sanctified Caesar, from the caring Tocius Maximus, vir clarissimus, for the care of the res publica from Beneventum".

Tocius Maximus, as a vir clarissimus, was at the highest point in the social spectrum and was a leader in his local community. This inscription shows that Julian was successful in establishing a positive image amongst provincial elites while he was Caesar.

Julian Augustus

In early 360, Constantius, driven by jealousy of Julian's success, stripped Julian of many troops and officers, ostensibly because the emperor needed them for his upcoming campaign against the Persians. One of the legions ordered east, the Petulantes, did not want to leave Gaul because the majority of the soldiers in the unit were from this region. As a result they mutinied and hailed Julian as Augustus at Lutetia. Julian refused this acclamation as he had done at Argentoratum earlier, but the soldiers would have none of his denial. They raised him on a shield and adorned him with a neck chain, which had formerly been the possession of the standard-bearer of the Petulantes and symbolized a royal diadem. Julian appeared reluctantly to acquiesce to their wishes, and promised a generous donative. The exact date of his acclamation is unknown, but most scholars put it in February or March. Julian himself supported Ammianus' picture of a jealous Constantius. In his Letter to the Athenians, a document constructed to answer charges that he was a usurper, Julian stated that from the start he, as Caesar, had been meant as a figurehead to the soldiers and provincials. The real power he claimed lay with the generals and officials already present in Gaul. In fact, according to Julian, the generals were charged with watching him as much as the enemy. His account of the actual acclamation closely followed what Ammianus told us, but he stressed even more his reluctance to take power. Julian claimed that he did so only after praying to Zeus for guidance.

Fearing the reaction of Constantius, Julian sent a letter to his fellow emperor justifying the events at Lutetia and trying to arrange a peaceful solution. This letter berated Constantius for forcing the troops in Gaul into an untenable situation. Ammianus stated that Julian's letter blamed Constantius' decision to transfer Gallic legions east as the reason for the soldiers' rebellion. Julian once again asserted that he was an unwilling participant who was only following the desire of the soldiers. In both of these basic accounts Ammianus and Julian are playing upon the theme of restoration. Implicit in their version of Julian's acclamation is the argument that Constantius was unfit to rule. The soldiers were the vehicle of the gods' will. The Letter to the Athenians is full of references to the fact that Julian was assuming the mantle of Augustus at the instigation of the gods. Ammianus summed up this position nicely when he related the story of how, when Julian was agonizing over whether to accept the soldiers' acclamation, he had a dream in which he was visited by the Genius (guardian spirit) of the Roman state. The Genius told Julian that it had often tried to bestow high honors upon Julian but had been rebuffed. Now, the Genius went on to say, was Julian's final chance to take the power that was rightfully his. If the Caesar refused this chance, the Genius would depart forever, and both Julian and the state would rue Julian's rejection. Julian himself wrote a letter to his friend Maximus of Ephesus in November of 361 detailing his thoughts on his proclamation. In this letter, Julian stated that the soldiers proclaimed him Augustus against his will. Julian, however, defended his accession, saying that the gods willed it and that he had treated his enemies with clemency and justice. He went on to say that he led the troops in propitiating the traditional deities, because the gods commanded him to return to the traditional rites, and would reward him if he fulfilled this duty.

During 360 an uneasy peace simmered between the two emperors. Julian spent the 360 campaigning season continuing his efforts to restore order along the Rhine, while Constantius continued operations against the Persians. Julian wintered in Vienne, and celebrated his Quinquennalia. It was at this time that his wife Helena died, and he sent her remains to Rome for a proper burial at his family villa on the Via Nomentana where the body of her sister was entombed. The uneasy peace held through the summer of 361, but Julian concentrated his military operations around harassing the Alamannic chieftain Vadomarius and his allies, who had concluded a peace treaty with Constantius some years earlier. By the end of the summer, Julian decided to put an end to the waiting and gathered his army to march east against Constantius. The empire teetered on the brink of another civil war. Constantius had spent the summer negotiating with the Persians and making preparations for possible military action against his cousin. When he was assured that the Persians would not attack, he summoned his army and sallied forth to meet Julian. As the armies drew inexorably closer to one another, the empire was saved from another bloody civil war when Constantius died unexpectedly of natural causes on 3 November near the town of Mopsucrenae in Cilicia, naming Julian -- the sources say-- as his legitimate successor.

Julian was in Dacia when he learned of his cousin's death. He made his way through Thrace and came to Constantinople on 11 December 361 where Julian honored the emperor with the funeral rites appropriate for a man of his station. Julian immediately set about putting his supporters in positions of power and trimming the imperial bureaucracy, which had become extremely overstaffed during Constantius' reign. Cooks and barbers had increased during the late emperor's reign and Julian expelled them from his court. Ammianus gave a mixed assessment of how the new emperor handled the followers of Constantius. Traditionally, emperors were supposed to show clemency to the supporters of a defeated enemy. Julian, however, gave some men over to death to appease the army. Ammianus used the case of Ursulus, Constantius' comes sacrum largitionum, to illustrate his point. Ursulus had actually tried to acquire money for the Gallic troops when Julian had first been appointed Caesar, but he had also made a disparaging remark about the ineffectiveness of the army after the battle of Amida. The soldiers remembered this, and when Julian became sole Augustus, they demanded Ursulus' head. Julian obliged, much to the disapproval of Ammianus. This seems to be a case of Julian courting the favor of the military leadership, and is indicative of a pattern in which Julian courted the goodwill of various societal elites to legitimize his position as emperor.

Another case in point is the officials who made up the imperial bureaucracy. Many of them were subjected to trial and punishment. To achieve this goal, during the last weeks of December 361 Julian assembled a military tribunal at Chalcedon, empanelling six judges to try the cases. The president of the tribunal was Salutius, just promoted to the rank of Praetorian Prefect; the five other members were Mamertinus, the orator, and four general officers: Jovinus, Agilo, Nevitta, and Arbetio. Relative to the proceedings of the tribunal, Ammianus noted that the judges, " . . . oversaw the cases more vehemently than was right or fair, with the exception of a few . . .." Ammianus' account of Julian's attempt at reform of the imperial bureaucracy is supported by legal evidence from the Theodosian Code. A series of laws sent to Mamertinus, Julian's appointee as Praetorian Prefect in Italy, Illyricum, and Africa, illustrate this point nicely. On 6 June 362, Mamertinus received a law that prohibited provincial governors from bypassing the Vicars when giving their reports to the Prefect. Traditionally, Vicars were given civil authority over a group of provinces, and were in theory meant to serve as a middle step between governors and Prefects. This law suggests that the Vicars were being left out, at least in Illyricum. Julian issued another edict to Mamertinus on 22 February 362 to stop abuse of the public post by governors. According to this law, only Mamertinus could issue post warrants, but the Vicars were given twelve blank warrants to be used as they saw fit, and each governor was given two. Continuing the trend of bureaucratic reform, Julian also imposed penalties on governors who purposefully delayed appeals in court cases they had heard. The emperor also established a new official to weigh solidi used in official government transactions to combat coin clipping.

For Julian, reigning in the abuses of imperial bureaucrats was one step in restoring the prestige of the office of emperor. Because he could not affect all elements of society personally, Julian, like other Neo-Flavian emperors, decided to concentrate on select groups of societal elites as intercessors between himself and the general populace. One of these groups was the imperial bureaucracy. Julian made it very clear that imperial officials were intercessors in a very real sense in a letter to Alypius, Vicar of Britain. In this letter, sent from Gaul sometime before 361, the emperor praises Alypius for his use of "mildness and moderation with courage and force" in his rule of the provincials. Such virtues were characteristic of the emperors, and it was good that Alypius is representing Julian in this way. Julian courted the army because it put him in power. Another group he sought to include in his rule was the traditional Senatorial aristocracy. One of his first appointments as consul was Claudius Mamertinus, a Gallic Senator and rhetorician. Mamertinus' speech in praise of Julian delivered at Constantinople in January of 362 is preserved. In this speech, Claudius presented his consular selection as inaugurating a new golden age and Julian as the restorer of the empire founded by Augustus. The image Mamertinus gave of his own consulate inaugurating a new golden age is not merely formulaic. The comparison of Julian to Augustus has very real, if implicit, relevance to Claudius' situation. Claudius emphasized the imperial period as the true age of renewal. Augustus ushered in a new era with his formation of a partnership between the emperor and the Senate based upon a series of honors and offices bestowed upon the Senate in return for their role as intercessor between emperor and populace. It was this system that Julian was restoring, and the consulate was one concrete example of this bond. To be chosen as a consul by the emperor, who himself had been divinely mandated, was a divine honor. In addition to being named consul, Mamertinus went on to hold several offices under Julian, including the Prefecture of Italy, Illyricum, and Africa. Similarly, inscriptional evidence illustrates a link between municipal elites and Julian during his time as Caesar, something which continued after he became emperor. One concrete example comes from the municipal senate of Aceruntia in Apulia, which established a monument on which Julian is styled as "Repairer of the World."

Julian seems to have given up actual Christian belief before his acclamation as emperor and was a practitioner of more traditional Greco-Roman religious beliefs, in particular, a follower of certain late antique Platonist philosophers who were especially adept at theurgy as was noted earlier. In fact Julian himself spoke of his conversion to Neo-Platonism in a letter to the Alexandrians written in 363. He stated that he had abandoned Christianity when he was twenty years old and been an adherent of the traditional Greco-Roman deities for the twelve years prior to writing this letter.

(For the complete text of this article see: http://www.roman-emperors.org/julian.htm)

Julian’s Persian Campaign

The exact goals Julian had for his ill-fated Persian campaign were never clear. The Sassanid Persians, and before them the Parthians, had been a traditional enemy from the time of the Late Republic, and indeed Constantius had been conducting a war against them before Julian's accession forced the former to forge an uneasy peace. Julian, however, had no concrete reason to reopen hostilities in the east. Socrates Scholasticus attributed Julian's motives to imitation of Alexander the Great, but perhaps the real reason lay in his need to gather the support of the army. Despite his acclamation by the Gallic legions, relations between Julian and the top military officers was uneasy at best. A war against the Persians would have brought prestige and power both to Julian and the army.

Julian set out on his fateful campaign on 5 March 363. Using his trademark strategy of striking quickly and where least expected, he moved his army through Heirapolis and from there speedily across the Euphrates and into the province of Mesopotamia, where he stopped at the town of Batnae. His plan was to eventually return through Armenia and winter in Tarsus. Once in Mesopotamia, Julian was faced with the decision of whether to travel south through the province of Babylonia or cross the Tigris into Assyria, and he eventually decided to move south through Babylonia and turn west into Assyria at a later date. By 27 March, he had the bulk of his army across the Euphrates, and had also arranged a flotilla to guard his supply line along the mighty river. He then left his generals Procopius and Sebastianus to help Arsacius, the king of Armenia and a Roman client, to guard the northern Tigris line. It was also during this time that he received the surrender of many prominent local leaders who had nominally supported the Persians. These men supplied Julian with money and troops for further military action against their former masters. Julian decided to turn south into Babylonia and proceeded along the Euphrates, coming to the fortress of Cercusium at the junction of the Abora and Euphrates Rivers around the first of April, and from there he took his army west to a region called Zaitha near the abandoned town of Dura where they visited the tomb of the emperor Gordian which was in the area. On April 7 he set out from there into the heart of Babylonia and towards Assyria.

Ammianus then stated that Julian and his army crossed into Assyria, which on the face of things appears very confusing. Julian still seems to be operating within the province of Babylonia between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. The confusion is alleviated when one realizes that,for Ammianus, the region of Assyria encompassed the provinces of Babylonia and Assyria. On their march, Julian's forces took the fortress of Anatha, received the surrender and support of several more local princes, and ravaged the countryside of Assyria between the rivers. As the army continued south, they came across the fortresses Thilutha and Achaiachala, but these places were too well defended and Julian decided to leave them alone. Further south were the cities Diacira and Ozogardana, which the Roman forces sacked and burned. Soon, Julian came to Pirisabora and a brief siege ensued, but the city fell and was also looted and destroyed. It was also at this time that the Roman army met its first systematic resistance from the Persians. As the Romans penetrated further south and west, the local inhabitants began to flood their route. Nevertheless, the Roman forces pressed on and came to Maiozamalcha, a sizable city not far from Ctesiphon. After a short siege, this city too fell to Julian. Inexorably, Julian's forces zeroed in on Ctesiphon, but as they drew closer, the Persian resistance grew fiercer, with guerilla raids whittling at Julian's men and supplies. A sizable force of the army was lost and the emperor himself was almost killed taking a fort a few miles from the target city.
Finally, the army approached Ctesiphon following a canal that linked the Tigris and Euphrates. It soon became apparent after a few preliminary skirmishes that a protracted siege would be necessary to take this important city. Many of his generals, however, thought that pursuing this course of action would be foolish. Julian reluctantly agreed, but became enraged by this failure and ordered his fleet to be burned as he decided to march through the province of Assyria. Julian had planned for his army to live off the land, but the Persians employed a scorched-earth policy. When it became apparent that his army would perish (because his supplies were beginning to dwindle) from starvation and the heat if he continued his campaign, and also in the face of superior numbers of the enemy, Julian ordered a retreat on 16 June. As the Roman army retreated, they were constantly harassed by guerilla strikes. It was during one of these raids that Julian got caught up in the fighting and took a spear to his abdomen. Mortally wounded he was carried to his tent, where, after conferring with some of his officers, he died. The date was 26 June 363.

Conclusion

Thus an ignominious end for a man came about who had hoped to restore the glory of the Roman empire during his reign as emperor. Due to his intense hatred of Christianity, the opinion of posterity has not been kind to Julian. The contemporary opinion, however, was overall positive. The evidence shows that Julian was a complex ruler with a definite agenda to use traditional social institutions in order to revive what he saw as a collapsing empire. In the final assessment, he was not so different from any of the other emperors of the fourth century. He was a man grasping desperately to hang on to a Greco-Roman conception of leadership that was undergoing a subtle yet profound change.
Copyright (C) 2002, Walter E. Roberts and Michael DiMaio, Jr. Used by permission.

In reality, Julian worked to promote culture and philosophy in any manifestation. He tried to reduce taxes and the public debts of municipalities; he augmented administrative decentralisation; he promoted a campaign of austerity to reduce public expenditure (setting himself as the example). He reformed the postal service and eliminated the powerful secret police.
by Federico Morando; JULIAN II, The Apostate, http://www.forumancientcoins.com/NumisWiki/view.asp?key=Julian%20II

Flavius Claudius Iulianus was born in 331 or maybe 332 A.D. in Constantinople. He ruled the Western Empire as Caesar from 355 to 360 and was hailed Augustus by his legions in Lutetia (Paris) in 360. Julian was a gifted administrator and military strategist. Famed as the last pagan emperor, his reinstatement of the pagan religion earned him the moniker "the Apostate." As evidenced by his brilliant writing, some of which has survived to the present day, the title "the Philosopher" may have been more appropriate. He died from wounds suffered during the Persian campaign of 363 A.D. Joseph Sermarini, FORVM.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.




2 commentsCleisthenes
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avers: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C, 7, B1, Laureate, head right.
reverse: PROVIDEN TIAE CAES, Campgate, two turrets, no doors, star above 10th levels of stone layers.
exergue: -/-//ЄSISᴗ in ᴗ, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Siscia, date: 325-326 A.D., ref: RIC VII 216, p-551, 3rd-off, R1!
Q-001
quadrans
Constantinus-II__AE-3-Follis_CONSTANTINVS-IVN-NOB-C_PROVIDEN-TIAE-CAES_ANT___RIC-VII-_p-__-AD__Q-001_11h_19-20mm_3,28gx-s.jpg
145 Constantinus II. (316-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-340 A.D. Augustus), Thessalonica, RIC VII 157, AE-3 Follis, -/-//SMTSΔ, PROVIDENTIAE CAES S, Campgate, two turrets, #161 views145 Constantinus II. (316-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-340 A.D. Augustus), Thessalonica, RIC VII 157, AE-3 Follis, -/-//SMTSΔ, PROVIDENTIAE CAES S, Campgate, two turrets, #1
avers: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust left.
reverse: PROVIDEN TIAE CAES S, Campgate, two turrets, no doors, star above 6th. levels of stone layers.
exergue: -/-//SMTSΔ, diameter: 19-20mm, weight: 3,28g, axis: 11h,
mint: Thessalonica, date: 326-328 A.D., ref: RIC VII 157, p-519,
Q-001
quadrans
heraclea21.jpg
146 Constantine II14 viewsobv: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C laur, drp. cuir. bust r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
ex: */SMH(delta)
hill132
146.jpg
146 Flavius Victor. AE4 1.3gm25 viewsobv: DN FL VIC_TOR PF AVG pearl dia. drp. cuir. bust r.
rev: SPES RO_MA_NORVM campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SMAQP
1 commentshill132
heraclea22.jpg
147 Constantine II10 viewsobv: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C laur.drp. cuir. bust r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SMHr
hill132
Constantius-II_RIC-VII-316_Arleate_11h_18,3mm_2,73g-s.jpg
147 Constantius II. (324-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-361 A.D. Augustus), Arleate, RIC VII 316, AE-3 Follis, S/F//ARLQ, VIRTVS CAESS, Campgate with four turrets and wide open doors,126 views147 Constantius II. (324-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-361 A.D. Augustus), Arleate, RIC VII 316, AE-3 Follis, S/F//ARLQ, VIRTVS CAESS, Campgate with four turrets and wide open doors,
avers: FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C, 8, B4-l., Laureate, draped and cuirassed head left.
reverse: VIRTVS CAES S, Campgate with four turrets, wide open doors, star above, 6 layers of stones, the open doors have dots.
exergue: S/F//ARLQ, diameter: 18,3mm, weight: 2,73g, axis: 11h,
mint: Arleate, date: 327 A.D., ref: RIC VII 316, p-268, 4th.-off.,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Constantius-II__AE-3_FL-IVL-CONSTANTIVS-NOB-C-8_B4-l__PROVIDEN-TIAE-CAES-S_6layer_SMKGamma_RIC-VII-27-p-647_3rd_off__Cyzicus_324-5-AD_R2_Q-001_5h_17-19,5mm_3,01ga-s.jpg
147 Constantius II. (324-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-361 A.D. Augustus), Cyzicus, RIC VII 027, AE-3 Follis, -/-//SMKΓ, PROVIDENTIAE CAES S, Campgate with two turrets, R2!!69 views147 Constantius II. (324-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-361 A.D. Augustus), Cyzicus, RIC VII 027, AE-3 Follis, -/-//SMKΓ, PROVIDENTIAE CAES S, Campgate with two turrets, R2!!
avers: FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C, 8, B4-l., Laureate, draped and cuirassed head left.
reverse: PROVIDEN TIAE CAES S, Campgate with two turrets, no doors, star above, 6 layers of stones.
exergue: -/-//SMKΓ, diameter: 17,0-19,5mm, weight: 3,01g, axis:5h,
mint: Cyzicus, date: 324-325 A.D., ref: RIC VII 027, p-647, 3rd.-off., R2!!,
Q-001
quadrans
Constantius-II__AE-Follis-silvered_FL-IVL-CONSTANTIVS-NOB-C-8_PROVIDEN-TIAE-CAES-S-B4-l_7lay_SMKB-dot_RIC-VII-38-p649_2nd_off__Cyzicus_325-6-AD_Q-001_axis-1h_18mm_2,67g-s.jpg
147 Constantius II. (324-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-361 A.D. Augustus), Cyzicus, RIC VII 038, AE-3 Follis, -/-//SMKB•, PROVIDENTIAE CAES S, Campgate with two turrets, #1196 views147 Constantius II. (324-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-361 A.D. Augustus), Cyzicus, RIC VII 038, AE-3 Follis, -/-//SMKB•, PROVIDENTIAE CAES S, Campgate with two turrets, #1
avers: FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C, 8, B4-l., Laureate, draped and cuirassed head left.
reverse: PROVIDEN TIAE CAES S, Campgate with two turrets, no doors, star above, 7 layers of stones.
exergue: -/-//SMKB•, diameter: 18mm, weight: 2,67g, axis: 1h,
mint: Cyzicus, date: 325-326 A.D., ref: RIC VII 038, p-649, 2nd.-off., c1,
Q-001
quadrans
Constantius-II__AE-Follis-silvered_FL-IVL-CONSTANTIVS-NOB-C-8_B4-l__PROVIDEN-TIAE-CAES-S_6layer_SMHDelta_RIC-VII-78-p-551_4th_off__Heracleia_325-6-AD_S_Q-001_h_mm_g-s.jpg
147 Constantius II. (324-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-361 A.D. Augustus), Heraclea, RIC VII 078, AE-3 Follis, -/-//SMHΔ, PROVIDENTIAE CAES S, Campgate with two turrets, #165 views147 Constantius II. (324-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-361 A.D. Augustus), Heraclea, RIC VII 078, AE-3 Follis, -/-//SMHΔ, PROVIDENTIAE CAES S, Campgate with two turrets, #1
avers: FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C, 8, B4l., Laureate, draped and cuirassed head left.
reverse: PROVIDEN TIAE CAES S, Campgate with two turrets, no doors, star above, 6 layers of stones.
exergue: -/-//SMHΔ, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Heraclea, date: 326 A.D., ref: RIC VII 078, p-551,
Q-001
quadrans
Constantius-II__AE-Follis_FL-IVL-CONSTANTIVS-NOB-C-8_B4-l__PROVIDEN-TIAE-CAES-S_5layer_SMHGamma-dot_RIC-VII-84-p-552_3rd_off__Heracleia_326-AD_c1_Q-001_11h_19mm_3,75g-s.jpg
147 Constantius II. (324-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-361 A.D. Augustus), Heraclea, RIC VII 084, AE-3 Follis, -/-//SMHΓ•, PROVIDENTIAE CAES S, Campgate with two turrets, #166 views147 Constantius II. (324-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-361 A.D. Augustus), Heraclea, RIC VII 084, AE-3 Follis, -/-//SMHΓ•, PROVIDENTIAE CAES S, Campgate with two turrets, #1
avers: FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C, 8, B4l., Laureate, draped and cuirassed head left.
reverse: PROVIDEN TIAE CAES S, Campgate with two turrets, no doors, star above, 5 layers of stones.
exergue: -/-//SMHΓ•, diameter: 1,0mm, weight: 3,75g, axis: 11h,
mint: Heraclea, date: 326 A.D., ref: RIC VII 084, p-552, 3rd.-off., c1,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Constantius-II__AE-Follis-silvered_FL-IVL-CONSTANTIVS-NOB-C-7_PROVIDEN-TIAE-CAES-S-B4-l__dot-epsilon-SIS-dot_RIC-203_5th_-off_-R3_C-x_Siscia_326-327-AD__Q-001_18mm_2,67g-s.jpg
147 Constantius II. (324-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-361 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VII 203, AE-3 Follis, -/-//•ЄSIS•, PROVIDENTIAE CAES S, Campgate with two turrets, R3!!! 92 views147 Constantius II. (324-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-361 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VII 203, AE-3 Follis, -/-//•ЄSIS•, PROVIDENTIAE CAES S, Campgate with two turrets, R3!!!
avers: FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C, 8, B4l., Laureate, draped and cuirassed head left.
reverse: PROVIDEN TIAE CAES S, Campgate with two turrets, no doors, star above, 6 layers of stones, upper and downer layer with dots.
exergue: -/-//•ЄSIS•, diameter: 18mm, weight: 2,67g, axis: h,
mint: Siscia, date: 326-327 AD., ref: RIC VII 203, p-450, 5th.-off., R3!!!
Q-001
quadrans
Constantius-II__AE-Follis_FL-IVL-CONSTANTIVS-NOB-C-8_PROVIDEN-TIAE-CAES-S-B4-l_-9lay_dor-Delta-SIS-dot_RIC-VII-203-p-450_4th_off_Siscia_326-27AD_Q-001_0h_mm_gx-s.jpg
147 Constantius II. (324-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-361 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VII 203, AE-3 Follis, -/-//•ΔSIS•, PROVIDENTIAE CAES S, Campgate with two turrets, #166 views147 Constantius II. (324-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-361 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VII 203, AE-3 Follis, -/-//•ΔSIS•, PROVIDENTIAE CAES S, Campgate with two turrets, #1
avers: FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C, 8, B4l., Laureate, draped and cuirassed head left.
reverse: PROVIDEN TIAE CAES S, Campgate with two turrets, no doors, star above, 7 layers of stones, upper and downer layer with dots.
exergue: -/-//•ΔSIS•, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Siscia, date: 326-327 A.D., ref: RIC VII 203, p-450, 4th.-off.,
Q-001
quadrans
Constantius-II__AE-Follis-silv_FL-IVL-CONSTANTIVS-NOB-C-8_PROVIDEN-TIAE-CAES-S-B4l_9lay_Delta-SIS-Cresincres_RIC-VII-217-p452_4th_off_Siscia_328-9AD_Q-001_axis-0h_19mm_3,12g-s.jpg
147 Constantius II. (324-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-361 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VII 217, AE-3 Follis, -/-//ΔSISᴗ in ᴗ, PROVIDENTIAE CAES S, Campgate with two turrets, #1210 views147 Constantius II. (324-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-361 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VII 217, AE-3 Follis, -/-//ΔSISᴗ in ᴗ, PROVIDENTIAE CAES S, Campgate with two turrets, #1
avers: FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C, 8, B4l., Laureate, draped and cuirassed head left.
reverse: PROVIDEN TIAE CAES S, Campgate with two turrets, no doors, star above, 9 layers of stones, upper and downer layer with dots.
exergue: -/-//ΔSISᴗ in ᴗ, diameter: 19mm, weight: 3,12g, axis: 0h,
mint: Siscia, date: 328-329 A.D., ref: RIC VII 217, p-452, 4th.-off., c3,
Q-001
quadrans
Constantius-II__AE-Follis_FL-IVL-CONSTANTIVS-NOB-C-8_PROVIDEN-TIAE-CAES-S-B4-l_-9lay_Delta-SIS-Crescincresc_RIC-VII-217-p452_4th_off_Siscia_328-29AD_Q-002_axis-0h_19mm_2,73g-s.jpg
147 Constantius II. (324-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-361 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VII 217, AE-3 Follis, -/-//ΔSISᴗ in ᴗ, PROVIDENTIAE CAES S, Campgate with two turrets, #1110 views147 Constantius II. (324-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-361 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VII 217, AE-3 Follis, -/-//ΔSISᴗ in ᴗ, PROVIDENTIAE CAES S, Campgate with two turrets, #1
avers: FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C, 8, B4l., Laureate, draped and cuirassed head left.
reverse: PROVIDEN TIAE CAES S, Campgate with two turrets, no doors, star above, 7 layers of stones, upper and downer layer with dots.
exergue: -/-//ΔSISᴗ in ᴗ, diameter: 19mm, weight: 3,12g, axis: 0h,
mint: Siscia, date: 328-329 A.D., ref: RIC VII 217, p-452, 4th.-off., c3,
Q-001
quadrans
heraclea23.jpg
148 Constantine II 13 viewsobv: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SMHr
hill132
heraclea24.jpg
149 Cnstantine II11 viewsobv: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SMHB.
hill132
Alexander II, Zabinas.jpg
15-02 - Alejandro II, Zabinas (128 - 123 A.C.)28 viewsUsurpador sostenido por el rey de Egipto Ptolomeo VIII
AE 17 x 18 mm 7.6 gr.

Anv: Busto con diadema viendo a derecha. Grafila de puntos.
Rev: "BAΣIΛEΩΣ AΛEΞANΔPOY” – Joven Dionisio (Baco) de pié de frente viendo a izquierda sosteniendo cántaro en mano derecha y thyrsus (Vara enramada cubierta de hojas de hiedra que suele llevar como cetro Baco) en izquierda. Fecha Seléucida en campo izquierdo.

Acuñación: 129 - 125 A.C.
Ceca: Antioquía

Referencias: B.M.C. Vol.4 (Seleucid Kings of Syria) #16 Pag.82 Plate 22 #6 - Sear GCTV Vol.2 #7125 Pag.667 – SNG Spaer #2375
mdelvalle
Follis Anonimo Clase A2 SB01813.jpg
15-02 - Follis Anónimo Clase A2 (976 - 1025 D.C.)28 viewsAtribuida al reinado conjunto de Basilio II y Constantino VIII.
AE Follis 30 x 27 mm 9.6 gr.

Anv: "EMMA - NOVHΛ", "IX - XC" (en campos izq. y derecho) - Busto de Cristo de frente nimbado (Forma rectangular en la cruz del limbo), sosteniendo el Libro de los Evangelios (5 puntos en el libro).
Rev: " IhSUS / XRISTUS / bASILEU / bASILE " (Jesús Cristo Rey de Reyes), leyenda en 4 líneas, debajo y arriba ornamentos tipo 47 (Forma rectangular).

Acuñada 976 - 1025 D.C.
Ceca: Constantinopla

Referencias: Sear BCTV #1813 Pag. 376 - Bellinger D.O. pp.651 - B.M.C. (Basil II and Constantine VII) #21-40 - Ratto M.B.(Basil II and Constantine VII) #1951-65 - Morrisson C.M.b.B.N. pp.596/8 #1-66
mdelvalle
Follis Anonimo Clase D SB01836.jpg
15-04 - Follis Anónimo Clase D (1042 - 1055 D.C.) 25 viewsAtribuida al reinado de Constantino IX.
AE Follis 28 x 26 mm 10.9 gr.

Anv: "IX - XC" (en campos izq. y derecho) - Cristo sentado en trono con respaldo de frente, vistiendo nimbus cruciger (Halo redondo con cruz que rodea su busto), Pallium (Tipo de capa o manto) y Collobium (Túnica especial sin mangas), sosteniendo el Libro de los Evangelios con ambas manos.
Rev: " IhSUS / bASILEU / bASILE " (Jesús Rey de Reyes), leyenda en 3 líneas, ornamentado debajo con "- u -" y arriba con "- + -".

Acuñada 1042 - 1055 D.C.
Ceca: Constantinopla

Referencias: Sear BCTV #1836 Pag. 378 - Bellinger D.O. pp.685/7 - B.M.C. (Constantine X) #10-17 - Ratto M.B.(Constantine X) #2015/7 - Morrisson C.M.b.B.N. pp.601 #107/19
mdelvalle
heraclea25.jpg
150 Constantius II8 viewsobv: FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust l.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
ex: ./SMHB
hill132
13594p00.jpg
1502c, Valens, 28 March 364 - 9 August 378 A.D. (Cyzikus)53 viewsBronze AE 3, S 4118, 2.42g, 16.5mm, 180o,Cyzikus, F/F, obverse D N VALENS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE, Victory advancing left, wreath in right, palm frond in left, SMK L(?) in exergue. Ex FORVM.


De Imperatoribus Romanis, An Online Encyclopedia of the Roman Emperors and their Families

Valens (365-369 AD.)

Noel Linski, University of Colorado

Valens was the brother of Valentinian I. On March 28, 364, precisely one month after his accession by Roman reckoning, Valentinian appointed his brother Flavius Valens co-emperor at the Hebdomon, the first in a long line of emperors proclaimed there. Themistius was present and later recounted the occasion in his Or. 6. After only two months of co-rulership, the two departed from Constantinople for their native Illyricum. Outside Naissus, in Moesia, they divided their administrative staff between them and at Sirmium they did the same with their mobile forces. Valens was to rule the east, from Thrace in the North and Cyrenaica in the South eastward to the Persian frontier. Valentinian ruled the west. They did not spend long in Sirmium. By late August 365 Valentinian had moved on toward Milan, where he resided for the following year before moving on to Trier, which remained his capital until 375. Similarly, Valens was back in Constantinople by December 364.and he was declared Augustus in 364 A.D. He was given command of the Eastern provinces, where he spent much of his time campaigning against the Goths and Persians.

In 376 A.D., Valens allowed Gothic tribes, who were being driven forward by the Huns to settle in the Danube provinces. The Goths were so badly treated by the Romans that they rebelled. Valens marched against the confederated barbarian army, and on August 9, 378, the two forces met at Adrianople. Although negotiations were attempted, these broke down when a Roman unit sallied forth and carried both sides into battle. The Romans held their own early on but were crushed by the surprise arrival of Greuthungi cavalry which split their ranks.

In one historical account, Valens was wounded in battle but escaped to a nearby farmstead where he was burned to death in a tower by Gothic marauders. The fourth century A.D. Roman historian Ammianus Marcellinus does not seem to concur with this story. Regardless, when the battle was over Valens' body was never recovered, 10,000 roman soldiers lay dead and the perception of Roman military invincibility was destroyed.

Adrianople was the most significant event in Valens' career. Though he displayed some talent as an administrator, Valens' persecutions of Nicene Christians and pagan philosophers, his halting efforts at military achievement and his obtuse personality rendered him a less than glorious emperor. To have died in so inglorious a battle has thus come to be regarded as the nadir of an unfortunate career. This is especially true because of the profound consequences of Valens' defeat.

Adrianople spelled the beginning of the end for Roman territorial integrity in the late empire and this fact was recognized even by contemporaries. The Roman historian Ammianus (325-391 AD) understood that it was the worst defeat in Roman history since Cannae. Rufinus (340–410 CE), monk, historian, and theologian; called it "the beginning of evils for the Roman empire then and thereafter."

Noel Lenski, University of Colorado
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
Valens.jpg
1502h, Valens, 364-378 A.D. (Heraclea)47 viewsValens, 364-378 A.D., Heraclea mint, VF, Chi-Rho standard reverse.


De Imperatoribus Romanis, An Online Encyclopedia of the Roman Emperors and their Families

Valens (365-369 AD.)

Noel Linski, University of Colorado

Valens was the brother of Valentinian I. On March 28, 364, precisely one month after his accession by Roman reckoning, Valentinian appointed his brother Flavius Valens co-emperor at the Hebdomon, the first in a long line of emperors proclaimed there. Themistius was present and later recounted the occasion in his Or. 6. After only two months of co-rulership, the two departed from Constantinople for their native Illyricum. Outside Naissus, in Moesia, they divided their administrative staff between them and at Sirmium they did the same with their mobile forces. Valens was to rule the east, from Thrace in the North and Cyrenaica in the South eastward to the Persian frontier. Valentinian ruled the west. They did not spend long in Sirmium. By late August 365 Valentinian had moved on toward Milan, where he resided for the following year before moving on to Trier, which remained his capital until 375. Similarly, Valens was back in Constantinople by December 364.and he was declared Augustus in 364 A.D. He was given command of the Eastern provinces, where he spent much of his time campaigning against the Goths and Persians.

In 376 A.D., Valens allowed Gothic tribes, who were being driven forward by the Huns to settle in the Danube provinces. The Goths were so badly treated by the Romans that they rebelled. Valens marched against the confederated barbarian army, and on August 9, 378, the two forces met at Adrianople. Although negotiations were attempted, these broke down when a Roman unit sallied forth and carried both sides into battle. The Romans held their own early on but were crushed by the surprise arrival of Greuthungi cavalry which split their ranks.

In one historical account, Valens was wounded in battle but escaped to a nearby farmstead where he was burned to death in a tower by Gothic marauders. The fourth century A.D. Roman historian Ammianus Marcellinus does not seem to concur with this story. Regardless, when the battle was over Valens' body was never recovered, 10,000 roman soldiers lay dead and the perception of Roman military invincibility had been destroyed.

Adrianople was the most significant event in Valens' career. Though he displayed some talent as an administrator, Valens' persecutions of Nicene Christians and pagan philosophers, his halting efforts at military achievement and his obtuse personality rendered him a less than glorious emperor. To have died in so inglorious a battle has thus come to be regarded as the nadir of an unfortunate career. This is especially true because of the profound consequences of Valens' defeat.

Adrianople spelled the beginning of the end for Roman territorial integrity in the late empire and this fact was recognized even by contemporaries. The Roman historian Ammianus (325-391 AD) understood that it was the worst defeat in Roman history since Cannae. Rufinus (340–410 CE), monk, historian, and theologian; called it "the beginning of evils for the Roman empire then and thereafter."

Noel Lenski, University of Colorado
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
1 commentsCleisthenes
1526_-_1530_Henry_VIII_AR_Halfgroat.JPG
1509 - 1547, HENRY VIII, AR Half-groat, Struck 1515 - 1530 at York, England under Archbishop Thomas (Cardinal) Wolsey3 viewsObverse: HENRIC•VIII•D•G•R•AGL•Z•F•. Youthful profile crowned bust of Henry VIII facing right within circle of pellets. Mint-mark: Voided cross.
Reverse: CIVITAS EBORACI. Shield bearing coat-of-arms on cross fourchée; T - W in upper field divided by shield; galero (cardinal's hat) below.
Diameter: 19mm | Weight: 1.0gm | Die Axis: 8
Virtually uncirculated but with a dark, almost black, tone
SPINK: 2346

The T W on the reverse of this coin refers to Thomas Wolsey, known to posterity as Cardinal Wolsey, one of the most powerful figures at the court of Henry VIII. Although this coin is undated, the issue of Henry VIII's second coinage only began in 1526 and so, since Cardinal Wolsey died in 1530, it must have been struck between those two dates.

Cardinal Wolsey
When Henry VIII became King of England in 1509 he appointed Thomas Wolsey to the post of Almoner, a position that gave him a seat on the Privy Council and an opportunity for establishing a personal rapport with the King to such an extent that by 1514 Wolsey had become the controlling figure in virtually all matters of state. In 1515, he was awarded the title Archbishop of York and this, followed by his appointment that same year as Cardinal by Pope Leo X, gave him precedence over all other English clerics. His ecclesiastical power advanced even further in 1523 when the Bishop of Durham, a post with wide political powers, was added to his titles.
After Wolsey attained the position of Lord Chancellor, the King's chief adviser, he had achieved more power than any other Crown servant in English history and during his fourteen years of chancellorship Wolsey, who was often alluded to as an alter rex (other king), used his power to neutralise the influence of anyone who might threaten his position..
In spite of having made many enemies, Cardinal Wolsey retained Henry VIII's confidence until, in 1527, the King decided to seek an annulment of his marriage to Catherine of Aragon so that he could marry Anne Boleyn. Henry asked Wolsey to negotiate the annulment with the Pope and in 1528 the Pope decided to allow two papal legates, Wolsey himself and Cardinal Campeggio, to decide the outcome in England. Wolsey was confident of the outcome, but Campeggio took a long time to arrive, and then he delayed proceedings so much, that the case had to be suspended and the Pope decided that the official decision should therefore be made in Rome and not in England.
After his failure to negotiate the annulment, Wolsey fell out of favour with Henry and in 1529 he was stripped of his government office and property, including the magnificent Palace of Hampton Court, which Henry took as his own main London residence.
Wolsey was however permitted to retain the title of Archbishop of York and so he travelled to Yorkshire, for the first time in his career, to carry out those duties.
Now that he was no longer protected by Henry, Wolsey's enemies, including it is rumoured, Ann Boleyn, conspired against him and Henry had him arrested and recalled to London to answer to charges of treason. But Wolsey, now in great distress, fell ill on the journey back to the capital and at Leicester, on 29 November 1530, aged about 57, he died from natural causes before he could be beheaded.
*Alex
heraclea26.jpg
151 LiciniusI10 viewsobv: IMP LICIN_NIVS AVG laur. drp. cuir. bust r. holding scepter and mappa
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVG campgate with three turrents no star
ex: -(delta)//SMHA
hill132
heraclea27.jpg
152 Constantius II12 viewsobv: FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust l.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate wih two turrents star above
ex: ./SMHA
hill132
heraclea28~0.jpg
153 Constantius II12 viewsobv: FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust l.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
ex:./SMH(epsilon)
hill132
heraclea29~0.jpg
154 Constantine II8 viewsobv: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
ex: ./SMHr
hill132
RI 155o img.jpg
155 - Licinius - RIC VII Heraclea 017 (MHTΓ)21 viewsObv:– IMP LICINIVS AVG, Laureate bust left wearing Imperial mantle and holding mappa, sceptre and globe
Rev:– PROVIDENTIAE AVGG, Campgate with 3 turrets, no door, 2 stars above, 7 rows of bricks
Minted in Heraclea (MHTΓ in exe.) in A.D. 317
References:– RIC VII Heraclea 17 (R2)
maridvnvm
RI 155b img.jpg
155 - Licinius - RIC VII Heraclea 017 (MHTΔ)71 viewsObv:– IMP LICINIVS AVG, Laureate bust left wearing Imperial mantle and holding mappa, sceptre and globe
Rev:– PROVIDENTIAE AVGG, Campgate with 3 turrets, no door, 2 stars above, 7 rows of bricks
Minted in Heraclea (MHTΔ in exe.) in A.D. 317
References:– RIC VII Heraclea 17 (R2)
maridvnvm
RI 155p img.jpg
155 - Licinius - RIC VII Heraclea 017 (MHTE)19 viewsObv:– IMP LICINIVS AVG, Laureate bust left wearing Imperial mantle and holding mappa, sceptre and globe
Rev:– PROVIDENTIAE AVGG, Campgate with 3 turrets, no door, 2 stars above, 7 rows of bricks
Minted in Heraclea (MHTE in exe.) in A.D. 317
References:– RIC VII Heraclea 17 (R4)
maridvnvm
RI 155n img.jpg
155 - Licinius - RIC VII Heraclea 029 (SMHΔ)26 viewsObv:- IMP LICINIVS AVG, Laureate bust left wearing Imperial mantle and holding mappa, sceptre and globe
Rev:– PROVIDENTIAE AVGG, Campgate with 6 rows of bricks
Minted in Heraclea (Pellet in right field, SMHΔ in exe.)
References:– RIC VII Heraclea 29 (R5)
maridvnvm
RI 155c img.jpg
155 - Licinius - RIC VII Heraclea 029 (SMHA)135 viewsObv:- IMP LICINIVS AVG, Laureate bust left wearing Imperial mantle and holding mappa, sceptre and globe
Rev:– PROVIDENTIAE AVGG, Campgate with 6 rows of bricks
Minted in Heraclea (Pellet in right field, SMHA in exe.)
References:– RIC VII Heraclea 29 (R2)

(SOLD)
maridvnvm
RI 155q img.jpg
155 - Licinius - RIC VII Heraclea 043 (•SMHB)20 viewsObv:– IMP LICINIVS AVG, Laureate, draped bust left, globe and sceptre in left hand, mappa in right hand
Rev:– PROVIDENTIAE AVGG, Campgate with 3 turrets, no door & 6 rows of stone layers
Minted in Heraclea (•SMHB in exe.)
References:– RIC VII Heraclea 43 (R4)
maridvnvm
RI 155m img.jpg
155 - Licinius - RIC VII Heraclea 048 (SMHB)19 viewsObv:– IMP LICINIVS AVG, Laureate, draped bust right, globe and sceptre in left hand, mappa in right hand
Rev:– PROVIDENTIAE AVGG, Campgate with 3 turrets, no door & 6 rows of stone layers
Minted in Heraclea (Λ in right field, SMHB in exe.)
References:– RIC VII Heraclea 48 (C1)
maridvnvm
RI 155r img.jpg
155 - Licinius - RIC VII Heraclea 048 (SMHB)21 viewsObv:– IMP LICINIVS AVG, Laureate, draped bust right, globe and sceptre in left hand, mappa in right hand
Rev:– PROVIDENTIAE AVGG, Campgate with 3 turrets, no door & 6 rows of stone layers
Minted in Heraclea (Λ in right field, SMHB in exe.)
References:– RIC VII Heraclea 48 (C1)

(SOLD)
maridvnvm
heraclea30.jpg
155 Constantius II7 viewsobv: FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust l.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two trrents star above
ex: ./SMHr
hill132
heraclea31.jpg
156 Constantius II11 viewsobv: FL IVL CONSTANTINVS NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust l.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
ex: ./SMHr
hill132
heraclea32.jpg
157 Crispus8 viewsobv: DN FL IVL CRISPUS NOB CAES laur. drp. cuir. bust l. holding scepter and mappa
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with three turrents no star
ex: SMHr
hill132
heraclea33.jpg
158 Crispus13 viewsobv: DN FL IVL CRISPUS NOB CAES laur. drp. cuir. bust l. holding scepter and mappa
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with three turrents no star
ex: MHTr
hill132
heraclea34.jpg
159 Constantine II10 viewsobv: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SMHr
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Valentinianus-II__AE-4_DN-VALENTINIANVS-PF-AVG_GLORIA-REI-PVBLICAE_A_TES_RIC-IX-62a-2_p-_C-_Thessalonica-384-388_Q-001_h_mm_g-s.jpg
159 Valentinianus II. (375-392 A.D.), Thessalonica, RIC IX 062a.2, AE-4 Follis, A/-//TES, GLORIA REIPVBLICAE, Campgate with two turrets, #185 views159 Valentinianus II. (375-392 A.D.), Thessalonica, RIC IX 062a.2, AE-4 Follis, A/-//TES, GLORIA REIPVBLICAE, Campgate with two turrets, #1
avers: D N VALENTINIANVS P F AVG, Pearl-diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right.
reverse: GLORIA REI PVBLICAE, Campgate with two turrets, A in the left field.
exergue: A/-//TES, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Thessalonica, date: 384-388 A.D., ref: RIC IX 062a.2, p-188,
Q-001
quadrans
RI_160ge_img.jpg
160 - Constantime the Great - AE3 - RIC VII Alexandria 045 15 viewsAE3
Obv:– CONSTAN-TINVS AVG; Laureate head right
Rev:– PROVIDEN-TIAE AVGG; Camp gate with two turrets, no doors, 7 stone layers, star above
Minted in Alexandria (Wreath|B// SMAL).A.D. 327-328
Reference:– RIC VII Alexandria 45 (R2).
maridvnvm
RI_160dv_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - Follis - RIC VII Arles 28626 viewsAE3
Obv:– CONSTANTINVS AVG, Laureate head right
Rev:– PROVIDENTIAE AVGG, Campgate with five rows, two turrets, no doors, star above
Minted in Arles (//PA crescent RL).
Reference:– RIC VII Arles 286
maridvnvm
RI_160fk_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - Follis - RIC VII Thessalonica 153 10 viewsObv:– CONSTANTINVS AVG, Laureate head right
Rev:– PROVIDENTIAE AVGG, Campgate with six rows, two turrets, no doors, star above, top and bottom rows blocks.
Minted in Thessalonica. • in right field, SMTSE in exe.
Reference:– RIC VII Thessalonica 153
maridvnvm
RI 160ah img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII Alexandria 03419 viewsObv:– CONSTAN-TINVS AVG, Laureate bust right
Rev:–.PROVIDEN-TIAE AVGG, Campgate with five rows, two turrets, no doors, star above.
Minted in Alexandria (SMALB in exe.)
Reference:– RIC VII Alexandria 34
maridvnvm
RI_160fr_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII Alexandria 34 25 viewsAE3
Obv:– CONSTAN-TINVS AVG, Laureate bust right
Rev:– PROVIDEN-TIAE AVGG, Campgate with five rows, two turrets, no doors, star above.
Minted in Alexandria (SMALA).
Reference:– RIC VII Alexandria 34 (S)
maridvnvm
RI_160gp_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII Antioch 08115 viewsObv:- CONSTAN-TINVS AVG, Rosette, diademed head right
Rev:- PROVIDENTIAE AVGG Campgate with eight rows, two turrets, no doors, star above, Dot in archway
Minted in Antioch. SMANTA in exe. A.D. 327-328
Reference:- RIC VII Antioch 81 (R4)

Partially silvered
2.40g. 20mm.
maridvnvm
RI 160k img.JPG
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII Cyzicus 04446 viewsObv:– CONSTANTINVS AVG, Laureate head right
Rev:– PROVIDENTIAE AVGG, Campgate with six rows, two turrets, no doors, star above, top and bottom row blocks
Minted in Cyzicus. •SMKG• in exe.
Reference:– RIC VII Cyzicus 44
maridvnvm
RI 160bn img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII Lugdunum 22530 viewsObv:–CONSTAN-TINVS AVG, Laureate bust right
Rev:–. PROVIDEN-TIAE AVGG, Campgate with six rows, two turrets, no doors, star above
Minted in Lugdunum (PLG in exe).end A.D. 325 – A.D. 325
Reference:– RIC VII Lugdunum 225 (Scarce), Bastien XIII 184
maridvnvm
RI 160d img.JPG
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII Rome 28733 viewsObv:– CONSTANTINVS AVG, Laureate head right
Rev:– PROVIDENTIAE AVGG, Campgate, surmounted by two turrets, 7 rows of bricks, star above
Minted in Rome. R(wreath)P in exe.
Reference:– RIC VII Rome 287
maridvnvm
RI 160a img.JPG
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII Siscia 20035 viewsObv:– CONSTA-NTIVS AVG, Laureate head right
Rev:– PROVIDEN-TIAE AVGG, Campgate with six rows, two turrets, no doors, star above, top and bottom row blocks.
Minted in Siscia. •BSIS• in exe. A.D. 326-327
Reference:– RIC VII Siscia 200
maridvnvm
RI 160h img.JPG
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII Siscia 21440 viewsObv:– CONSTANTINVS AVG, Laureate head right
Rev:– PROVIDENTIAE AVGG, Campgate with nine rows, two turrets, no doors, star above, top row dots in blocks, bottom row blocks.
Minted in Siscia. ASIS double crescent in exe.
Reference:– RIC VII Siscia 214
maridvnvm
RI 160m img.JPG
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII Thessalonica 15332 viewsObv:– CONSTANTINVS AVG, Laureate head right
Rev:– PROVIDENTIAE AVGG, Campgate with six rows, two turrets, no doors, star above, top and bottom rows blocks.
Minted in Thessalonica. • in right field, SMTSB in exe.
Reference:– RIC VII Thessalonica 153
maridvnvm
RI 160w img.JPG
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII Thessalonica 153 (Γ)36 viewsObv:– CONSTAN-TINVS AVG, Laureate head right
Rev:– PROVIDEN-TIAE AVGG, Campgate with six rows, two turrets, no doors, star above, top and bottom rows blocks, pellet in right field.
Minted in Thessalonica. • in right field, SMTSΓ in exe.
Reference:– RIC VII Thessalonica 153
maridvnvm
RI 160r img.JPG
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII Thessalonica 153 (A)34 viewsObv:– CONSTAN-TINVS AVG, Laureate head right
Rev:– PROVIDEN-TIAE AVGG, Camp-gate, two turrets, one star, with 7 rows of bricks, top row with dots
Minted in Thessalonica. • in right field, SMTSA in exe.
Reference:– RIC VII Thessalonica 153
maridvnvm
heraclea35.jpg
160 Crispus14 viewsobv: DN FL IVL CRISPVS NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust r. holding scepter and mappa
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with three turrents no star
ex: .SMHr
1 commentshill132
Theodosius-I_AE-12_DN-THEODOSIVS-PF-AVG_GLORIA____TES_RIC-IX-62_Q-001_axis-0h_12,5mm_1,56g-s.jpg
160 Theodosius I. (379-395 A.D.), Thessalonica, RIC IX 062b.1.3, AE-4, Δ/-//TES, GLORIA REIPVBLICE, Campgate with two turrets, #1269 views160 Theodosius I. (379-395 A.D.), Thessalonica, RIC IX 062b.1.3, AE-4, Δ/-//TES, GLORIA REIPVBLICE, Campgate with two turrets, #1
avers: D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG, Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
reverse: GLORIA REIPVBLICE, Campgate, 2 turrets, 5 layers, no doors, Δ in left field, mintmark TES in ex.
exergue: Δ/-//TES, diameter: 12,5mm, weight: 1,56g, axes: 0h,
mint: Thessalonica, date: 383-388 A.D., ref: RIC IX 062b.1.3,
Q-001
quadrans
heraclea36.jpg
161 Constantius II7 viewsobv: FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C laur. drp. cuir. but l.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIA CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SMH(delta)
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verus_dup_RIC1445.jpg
161-169 AD - LUCIUS VERUS AE dupondius - struck 165-166 AD28 viewsobv: L VERVS AVG ARM PARTH MAX (radiate head right)
rev: TR POT VI IMP III COS II (parthian captive seated right at base of trophy, hands tied behind back, arms before), S-C in field
ref: RIC III 1445 (M.Aurelius) (C), C202 (3frcs)
mint: Rome
12.08gms, 24mm
Scarce

History: Between 162 and 166 Verus was in the East, nominally commanding a campaign against the Parthian empire for the control over the Armenian kingdom. Statius Priscus, Avidius Cassius and Martius Verus generals were entrusted with real command of the legions. Cassius led the overall campaign, destroyed the city of Seleucia on the Tigris and burned to the ground the palace at the capital Ctesiphon; Priscus led the invasion of Armenia that took the capital of Artashat (Artaxata); Martius Verus is limited only to the mention of his name by the ancients, but he was later the governor of Cappadocia. Lucius Verus received the title Parthicus Maximus in Aug. 165 AD.
berserker
maurel_RIC1179.jpg
161-180 AD - MARCUS AURELIUS AE dupondius - struck 177 AD44 viewsobv: M.ANTONINVS.AVG.GERM.SARM.TRP.XXXI (radiate head right)
rev: IMP.VIII.COS.III.PP (trophy of base of wich are seated Marcomann (German) woman on right, and Markomann (German) with hands bound behind him on left), S-C in field, DE GERM in ex.
ref: RIC III 1179 (S), C.157 (6frcs)
mint: Rome
13.00gms, 25mm
Scarce

This dupondius celebrates Roman victory a series of wars on the empire’s northern frontier known as the Bellum Germanicum et Sarmaticum. The reverse of this coin speaks of these campaigns with the inscription DE GERM(ANIS) encompassing a military trophy flanked by two captives. The bound men would have come from the barbarian nations that occupied lands across the Danube, for in recent years the Romans had won wars against the Marcomanns, the Quadi, the Jazyges and the Sarmatians.
Many other types celebrated Roman victories in this theatre, and they became the centrepiece of coin propaganda of the era. Considering these wars were not only a source of great financial strain, but they annually cost the lives of many young men, it was essential for Marcus Aurelius to demonstrate success in the form of attractive coin types showing bound barbarians and trophies.
berserker
M.Aurelius RIC890.jpg
161-180 AD - MARCUS AURELIUS AE sestertius - struck 163-164 AD45 viewsobv: M AVREL ANTONINVS AVG ARMENIACVS P M (laureated bearded head right)
rev: VICT AVG TR P XVIII IMP II COS III (Victory standing right holding trophy a captive Armenian at her feet), S-C in field
ref: RIC 890 (S), Cohen 984 (12 Francs 1878), BMC 1092
21.14gms, 30mm,
Rare

History: After the death of Antoninus Pius the parthian king, Vologaesus III run over Armenia in 161 AD. The Expeditio orientalis was started the next year from Capua,Italy. Statius Priscus, Avidius Cassius and Martius Verus were entrusted with command of the legions while Marcus Aurelius conducted affairs of the state back in Rome. The 5 year campaign (161 – 166 AD) against Parthia proved to be as decisive as any war in recent Roman history. A Roman candidate once again sat the Armenian throne and Parthia had been thoroughly defeated. This coin commemorate the end of the first phase of the Parthian War.
berserker
divomaurel_RIC661(Comm).jpg
161-180 AD - MARCUS AURELIUS AE sestertius - struck 180 AD65 viewsobv: DIVVS M ANTONINVS PIVS (Marcus Autrelius bare head right)
rev: CONSECRATIO (Statue of Aurelius in quadriga drawn by elephants), S-C in ex.
ref: RIC III 661 (Commodus), Cohen 95 (30 frcs)
18.31gms, 28mm
Very rare

The last ’Good Emperor’, Marcus Aurelius died at a military encampment at Bononia on the Danube on 17 March 180, possibly of the plague, leaving the Roman Empire to his nineteen-year-old son. Upon hearing of his father's death, Commodus made preparations for Marcus' funeral, made concessions to the northern tribes, and made haste to return back to Rome in order to enjoy peace after nearly two decades of war.
1 commentsberserker
heraclea37.jpg
162 Constantine II11 viewsobv: COSTANTINVS IVN NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with three turrents star above
ex: .SMH(epsilon).
hill132
heraclea38.jpg
163 Constantius II10 viewsobv: FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust l.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SMHr.
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Flavius-Victor_DN-FL-VIC-TOR-P-F-AVG_SPES-ROMA-NORVM_P-CON_RIC-IX-47a_p-_5th-em_Arleate_387-388-AD_Q-001_11h_14mm_1,29ga-s.jpg
163 Flavius Victor (387-388 A.D.), AE-4 Follis, RIC IX 047a, Arleate, SPES ROMANORVM, Campgate, Rare! Modern Fake !!!105 views163 Flavius Victor (387-388 A.D.), AE-4 Follis, RIC IX 047a, Arleate, SPES ROMANORVM, Campgate, Rare! Modern Fake !!!
Avers:- DN-FL-VIC-TOR-P-F-AVG, Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
revers:- SPES-ROMA-NORVM, Campgate, 2 turrets, 4 layers plus 1 layer on turrets, star above, no doors.
exerg:-|-//P-CON, diameter: 14mm, weight: 1,29g, axes: 11h,
mint: Arleate, date: 387-388 A.D., ref: RIC IX 47a, Rare !
Q-001
by "postvmvs":
"Identified in the Forvm thread on the eBay seller 'Romanseller' (ca. Aug. 2005) but never listed here. An example struck from the same dies (but not the same coin) appeared as Lot 788 of Auction 384-385 (Nov. 2005) by Dr. Busso Peus Nachfolger estimated at 175 EUR, where it was identified as a fake before the end of the sale."

Thank you postvmvs, maridvnvm and Pscipio !!!
quadrans
0023-056.jpg
1633 - Mark Antony, Denarius96 viewsStruck in a travelling mint, moving with Mark Antony in 41 BC
ANT AVG IMP III VI R P C, Head of Mark Antony right
Fortuna standing left, holding rudder in right hand and cornucopiae in left; at feet, stork; below, PIETAS COS
3,82 gr - 20 mm
Ref : Crawford # 516/2, Sydenham # 1174, HCRI # 241, C # 77
Ex. Auctiones.GmbH

The following comment is copied from NAC auction # 52/294 about the very rare corresponding aureus :
The year 41 B.C., when this aureus was struck at a mint travelling in the East with Marc Antony, was a period of unusual calm for the triumvir, who took a welcomed, if unexpected, rest after the great victory he and Octavian had won late in 42 B.C. against Brutus and Cassius at the Battle of Philippi. Antony’s original plan of organising an invasion of Parthia was put on hold after he sailed to Tarsus, where he had summoned Cleopatra VII, the Greek queen of Egypt. She was to defend herself against accusations that she had aided Brutus and Cassius before Philippi, but it is generally agreed that the summons was merely a pretext for Antony’s plan to secure aid for his Parthian campaign. Their meeting was anything but a source of conflict; indeed, they found much common ground, including their agreement that it was in their mutual interests to execute Cleopatra’s sister and rival Arsinoe IV, who had been ruling Cyprus. In addition to sharing political interests, the two agreed that Antony would winter in Egypt to share a luxurious vacation with Cleopatra that caused a further postponement of Antony’s designs on Parthia. Thus began another of the queen’s liaisons with noble Romans, a prior having been Julius Caesar (and, according to Plutarch, Pompey Jr. before him). During the course of his stay in Egypt Cleopatra was impregnated, which resulted in twins born to her in 40 B.C. But this care-free period was only a momentary calm in the storm, for trouble was brewing in both the East and the West. Early in 40 B.C. Syria was overrun by the Parthians, seemingly while Antony travelled to Italy to meet Octavian following the Perusine War, in which Octavian defeated the armies of Antony’s wife and brother. The conflict with Octavian was resolved when they signed a pact at Brundisium in October, and Syria was eventually recovered through the efforts of Antony’s commanders from 40 to 38 B.C.{/i]

5 commentsPotator II
heraclea39.jpg
164 Constantius II7 viewsobv: FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust l.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SMH(delta)
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RI 165a img.jpg
165 - Crispus - RIC VII Cyzicus 02530 viewsObv:– FL IVL CRISPVS NOB CAES, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust left
Rev:– PROVIDENTIAE CAESS, Campgate with two turrets, star above, 6 rows of bricks
Minted in Cyzicus. SMKΔ in exe. A.D. 324-325
Reference:– RIC VII Cyzicus 25 (R3)

(SOLD)
maridvnvm
RI 165e img.jpg
165 - Crispus - RIC VII Heraclea 01827 viewsObv:– DN FL IVL CRISPVS NOB CAES, Laureate and draped bust of Crispus facing left, holding globe and sceptre with left hand and mappa in right
Rev:– PROVIDENTIAE CAESS, Camp gate with three turrets, no doors, 6 rows of bricks
Minted in Heraclea. MHTΓ in exe.
Reference:– RIC VII Heraclea 18 (C2)

(SOLD)
maridvnvm
RI 165v img.jpg
165 - Crispus - RIC VII Lugdunum 22711 viewsObv:– FL IVL CRISPVS NOB CAES, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– PROVIDENTIAE CAESS, Camp gate with two turrets, no doors, star above, 6 rows of bricks
Minted in Lugdunum (PLG in exe).
Reference:– RIC VII Lugdunum 227 (R3).
maridvnvm
165_Arcadius,_Thessalonica,_RIC_IX_59c1,_AE-3,_DN_ARCARIVS_P_F_AVG_(C),_GLORIA_REI_PVBLICE,_ChiRho,_TES,_383-388_AD_,_R,_Q-001,_0h,_16,5-17mm,_1,69g-s.jpg
165 Arcadius (384-408 A.D.), Thessalonica, RIC IX 059c1, AE-3, -/-//TES, GLORIA REI PVBLICE, Campgate with two turrets, Christogram (ChiRho) above, Scarce, #1115 views165 Arcadius (384-408 A.D.), Thessalonica, RIC IX 059c1, AE-3, -/-//TES, GLORIA REI PVBLICE, Campgate with two turrets, Christogram (ChiRho) above, Scarce, #1
avers: D N ARCADIVS P F AVG, Diademed bust left, in imperial mantle, holding mappa and sceptre. (C)
reverse: GLORIA REI PVBLICE, Campgate with two turrets, closed gate, 6 layers of stone, Christogram (ChiRho) above.
exergue: -/-//TES, diameter: 16,5-17,0 mm, weight: 1.69g, axis: 0h,
mint: Thessalonica, date: 383-388 A.D., ref: RIC IX 059c1, p-,
Q-001
quadrans
Arcadius_AE-4_DN-ARCARIVS-PF-AVG_GLORIA-REI-PVBLICE_Gamma_TES_RIC-IX-62c_C-8_Thessalonica_383-388-AD__Q-001_axis-5h_12mm_1,15g-s.jpg
165 Arcadius (384-408 A.D.), Thessalonica, RIC IX 062c, AE-4, Γ/-//TES, GLORIA REI PVBLICE, Campgate with two turrets, #1155 views165 Arcadius (384-408 A.D.), Thessalonica, RIC IX 062c, AE-4, Γ/-//TES, GLORIA REI PVBLICE, Campgate with two turrets, #1
avers: D N ARCADIVS P F AVG, Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
reverse: GLORIA REI PVBLICE, Campgate with two turrets, closed gate, 6 layers of stone.
exergue: Γ/-//TES, diameter: 12 mm, weight: 1.15g, axis: 5h,
mint: Thessalonica, date: 383-388A.D., ref: RIC IX 062c, p-,
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
heraclea40.jpg
165 Constantius II18 viewsobv: FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust l.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SMH(delta).
1 commentshill132
heraclea41.jpg
166 Crispus19 viewsobv: DN FL IVL CRISPVS NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust l. holding scepter and mappa
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with three turrents no star
ex: MHTr
1 commentshill132
commodus as-.jpg
166-177 AD - COMMODUS Caesar AE As - struck 175-176 AD49 viewsobv: COMMODO CAES AVG FIL GERM SARM (draped bust right)
rev: SPES PVBLICA (Spes walking left holding flower & raising hem of skirt), S-C in field
ref: RIC III 1544 (M.Aurelius), C.710
mint: Rome
8.92gms, 25mm
Scarce

Commodus is known to have been at Carnuntum, Marcus Aurelius’s headquarters during the Marcomannic Wars, in 172. It was presumably there that, on 15 October 172, he was given the victory title Germanicus in the presence of the army. The title suggests that Commodus was present at his father’s victory over the Marcomanni. Even the title of Sarmaticus he was given in 175.
During the preparations for the campaign against Cassius in Syria, the prince assumed his toga virilis on the Danubian front on July 7, 175, thus formally entering adulthood.
berserker
heraclea42.jpg
167 Crispus8 viewsobv: DN FL IVL CRISPVS NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust l. holding scepter and mappa
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with three turrents no star
ex: .MHTr.
hill132
RI_168au_img.jpg
168 - Constantine II - Follis - RIC VII Rome 28912 viewsAE3
Obv:– CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust left
Rev:– PROVIDENTIAE CAESS, Campgate, eight rows of bricks, star above
Minted in Rome (//R Wreath T).
Reference:– RIC VII Rome 289
maridvnvm
RI 168o img~0.jpg
168 - Constantine II - RIC VII Antioch 06531 viewsObv:– CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C, Laureate, draped, cuirassed bust, left
Rev:– PROVIDENTIAE CAESS, Campgate, with two turrets, star above, 10 rows of bricks
Minted in Antioch. SMANTS in exe.
Reference:– RIC VII Antioch 65 (R1)
maridvnvm
RI 168c img~0.jpg
168 - Constantine II - RIC VII Cyzicus 03723 viewsObv:– CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C, Laureate, draped, cuirassed bust left
Rev:– PROVIDENTIAE CAESS, Camp gate with two turrets and star above
Minted in Cyzicus. SMKB• in exe.
Reference:– RIC VII Cyzicus 37 (R1)
Some silvering remaining intact
maridvnvm
RI 168l img.jpg
168 - Constantine II - RIC VII Heraclea 02315 viewsObv:– D N FL CL CONSTANTINVS NOB C, Laureate bust left, draped, with globe, scepter and mappa
Rev:– PROVIDENTIAE CAESS, Camp gate with three turrets and six rows of bricks
Minted in Heraclea (_ | • / SMHE), A.D. 318-320
Reference:– RIC VII Heraclea 23 (R2)
maridvnvm
RI 168i img.jpg
168 - Constantine II - RIC VII Heraclea 07729 viewsObv:– CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C, Laureate, draped, cuirassed bust left
Rev:– PROVIDENTIAE CAESS, Camp-gate with two turrets, star above, 6 rows of bricks
Minted in Heraclea. SMHΓ in exe.
Reference:– RIC VII Heraclea 77 (C1)
maridvnvm
RI 168j img.jpg
168 - Constantine II - RIC VII Heraclea 09625 viewsObv:– CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C, Laureate, draped, cuirassed bust left
Rev:– PROVIDENTIAE CAESS, Camp-gate with two turrets, star above, 8 rows of bricks
Minted in Heraclea. • in left field, SMHA in exe.
Reference:– RIC VII Heraclea 96 (C3)
maridvnvm
RI 168aq img.jpg
168 - Constantine II - RIC VII Lugdunum 22920 viewsObv:– CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right (from rear)
Rev:– PROVIDENTIAE CAESS, Campgate, six rows of bricks, star above
Minted in Lugdunum (//PLC).
Ref:– RIC VII Lugdunum 229 (R3)
maridvnvm
heraclea43.jpg
168 Licinius II12 viewsobv: DN VAL LICIN LICINIVS NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust r. holding scepter and mappa
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with three turrents no star
ex: -(delta)//SMHr
hill132
heraclea44.jpg
169 Constantine II7 viewsobv: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SMH(delta)
hill132
RI 170j img.jpg
170 - Constantius II - RIC VII Arles 32341 viewsObv:– FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust left
Rev:– VIRTVS CAESS, Campgate, 6 rows of bricks, four turrets, doors open, star above
Minted in Arles. S in left field, F in right field, QCONST in exe.
Reference:– RIC VII Arles 323
maridvnvm
RI 170i img.jpg
170 - Constantius II - RIC VII Heraclea 09729 viewsObv:– FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust left
Rev:– PROVIDENTIAE CAESS, Campgate, eight rows of bricks, star above, dot in left field
Minted in Heraclea.• left field, SMHΓ in exe.
Reference:– RIC VII Heraclea 97 (C1)
maridvnvm
RI 170d img.jpg
170 - Constantius II - RIC VII Heraclea 15829 viewsObv:– FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust left
Rev:– PROVIDENTIAE CAES•, Campgate, two turrets, with 6 rows of bricks, star above, pediment below
Minted in Nicomedia. left field, SMNS in exe.
Reference:– RIC VII Nicomedia 158 (S)
maridvnvm
RI 170k img.jpg
170 - Constantius II - RIC VII Siscia 21735 viewsObv:– FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust left
Rev:– PROVIDENTIAE CAESS, Camp gate with two turrets and star above. 7 rows of bricks with dots in top and bottom row
Minted in Siscia. ΔSIS double crescent in exe.
Reference:– RIC VII Siscia 217 (C3)
maridvnvm
heraclea45.jpg
170 Constantinus II11 viewsobv: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
ex: ./SMHr
hill132
Saladin_A788.jpg
1701a, Saladin, 1169-11932046 viewsAYYUBID: Saladin, 1169-1193, AR dirham (2.92g), Halab, AH580, A-788, lovely struck, well-centered & bold, Extremely Fine, Scarce.

His name in Arabic, in full, is SALAH AD-DIN YUSUF IBN AYYUB ("Righteousness of the Faith, Joseph, Son of Job"), also called AL-MALIK AN-NASIR SALAH AD-DIN YUSUF I (b. 1137/38, Tikrit, Mesopotamia--d. March 4, 1193, Damascus), Muslim sultan of Egypt, Syria, Yemen, and Palestine, founder of the Ayyubid dynasty, and the most famous of Muslim heroes.

In wars against the Christian crusaders, he achieved final success with the disciplined capture of Jerusalem (Oct. 2, 1187), ending its 88-year occupation by the Franks. The great Christian counterattack of the Third Crusade was then stalemated by Saladin's military genius.

Saladin was born into a prominent Kurdish family. On the night of his birth, his father, Najm ad-Din Ayyub, gathered his family and moved to Aleppo, there entering the service of 'Imad ad-Din Zangi ibn Aq Sonqur, the powerful Turkish governor in northern Syria. Growing up in Ba'lbek and Damascus, Saladin was apparently an undistinguished youth, with a greater taste for religious studies than military training.
His formal career began when he joined the staff of his uncle Asad ad-Din Shirkuh, an important military commander under the amir Nureddin, son and successor of Zangi. During three military expeditions led by Shirkuh into Egypt to prevent its falling to the Latin-Christian (Frankish) rulers of the states established by the First Crusade, a complex, three-way struggle developed between Amalric I, the Latin king of Jerusalem, Shawar, the powerful vizier of the Egyptian Fatimid caliph, and Shirkuh. After Shirkuh's death and after ordering Shawar's assassination, Saladin, in 1169 at the age of 31, was appointed both commander of the Syrian troops and vizier of Egypt.

His relatively quick rise to power must be attributed not only to the clannish nepotism of his Kurdish family but also to his own emerging talents. As vizier of Egypt, he received the title king (malik), although he was generally known as the sultan. Saladin's position was further enhanced when, in 1171, he abolished the Shi'i Fatimid caliphate, proclaimed a return to Sunnah in Egypt, and consequently became its sole ruler.

Although he remained for a time theoretically a vassal of Nureddin, that relationship ended with the Syrian emir's death in 1174. Using his rich agricultural possessions in Egypt as a financial base, Saladin soon moved into Syria with a small but strictly disciplined army to claim the regency on behalf of the young son of his former suzerain.
Soon, however, he abandoned this claim, and from 1174 until 1186 he zealously pursued a goal of uniting, under his own standard, all the Muslim territories of Syria, northern Mesopotamia, Palestine, and Egypt.

This he accomplished by skillful diplomacy backed when necessary by the swift and resolute use of military force. Gradually, his reputation grew as a generous and virtuous but firm ruler, devoid of pretense, licentiousness, and cruelty. In contrast to the bitter dissension and intense rivalry that had up to then hampered the Muslims in their resistance to the crusaders, Saladin's singleness of purpose induced them to rearm both physically and spiritually.

Saladin's every act was inspired by an intense and unwavering devotion to the idea of jihad ("holy war")-the Muslim equivalent of the Christian crusade. It was an essential part of his policy to encourage the growth and spread of Muslim religious institutions.

He courted its scholars and preachers, founded colleges and mosques for their use, and commissioned them to write edifying works especially on the jihad itself. Through moral regeneration, which was a genuine part of his own way of life, he tried to re-create in his own realm some of the same zeal and enthusiasm that had proved so valuable to the first generations of Muslims when, five centuries before, they had conquered half the known world.

Saladin also succeeded in turning the military balance of power in his favour-more by uniting and disciplining a great number of unruly forces than by employing new or improved military techniques. When at last, in 1187, he was able to throw his full strength into the struggle with the Latin crusader kingdoms, his armies were their equals. On July 4, 1187, aided by his own military good sense and by a phenomenal lack of it on the part of his enemy, Saladin trapped and destroyed in one blow an exhausted and thirst-crazed army of crusaders at Hattin, near Tiberias in northern Palestine.

So great were the losses in the ranks of the crusaders in this one battle that the Muslims were quickly able to overrun nearly the entire Kingdom of Jerusalem. Acre, Toron, Beirut, Sidon, Nazareth, Caesarea, Nabulus, Jaffa (Yafo), and Ascalon (Ashqelon) fell within three months.

But Saladin's crowning achievement and the most disastrous blow to the whole crusading movement came on Oct. 2, 1187, when Jerusalem, holy to both Muslim and Christian alike, surrendered to the Sultan's army after 88 years in the hands of the Franks. In stark contrast to the city's conquest by the Christians, when blood flowed freely during the barbaric slaughter of its inhabitants, the Muslim reconquest was marked by the civilized and courteous behaviour of Saladin and his troops. His sudden success, which in 1189 saw the crusaders reduced to the occupation of only three cities, was, however, marred by his failure to capture Tyre, an almost impregnable coastal fortress to which the scattered Christian survivors of the recent battles flocked. It was to be the rallying point of the Latin counterattack.

Most probably, Saladin did not anticipate the European reaction to his capture of Jerusalem, an event that deeply shocked the West and to which it responded with a new call for a crusade. In addition to many great nobles and famous knights, this crusade, the third, brought the kings of three countries into the struggle.

The magnitude of the Christian effort and the lasting impression it made on contemporaries gave the name of Saladin, as their gallant and chivalrous enemy, an added lustre that his military victories alone could never confer on him.

The Crusade itself was long and exhausting, and, despite the obvious, though at times impulsive, military genius of Richard I the Lion-Heart, it achieved almost nothing. Therein lies the greatest-but often unrecognized--achievement of Saladin. With tired and unwilling feudal levies, committed to fight only a limited season each year, his indomitable will enabled him to fight the greatest champions of Christendom to a draw. The crusaders retained little more than a precarious foothold on the Levantine coast, and when King Richard set sail from the Orient in October 1192, the battle was over.

Saladin withdrew to his capital at Damascus. Soon, the long campaigning seasons and the endless hours in the saddle caught up with him, and he died. While his relatives were already scrambling for pieces of the empire, his friends found that the most powerful and most generous ruler in the Muslim world had not left enough money to pay for his own grave.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
H.A.R. Gibb, "The Arabic Sources for the Life of Saladin," Speculum, 25:58-72 (1950). C.W. Wilson's English translation of one of the most important Arabic works, The Life of Saladin (1897), was reprinted in 1971. The best biography to date is Stanley Lane-Poole, Saladin and the Fall of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, new ed. (1926, reprinted 1964), although it does not take account of all the sources.
See: http://stp.ling.uu.se/~kamalk/language/saladin.html
Ed. J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
1 commentsCleisthenes
heraclea46.jpg
171 Licinius I8 viewsobv: IMP LICI_NIVS AVG laur. drp. cuir. bust r. holding scepter and mappa
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate wth three turrents no star
ex: -(delta)/SMHB
hill132
heraclea47.jpg
172 Constantine I11 viewsobv: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE campgate with two turrents star above
ex: ./SMHr
hill132
heraclea48.jpg
173 Constantine II12 viewsobv: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SMHB
hill132
heraclea49.jpg
174 Crispus10 viewsobv: CRISPVS NOB CAES laur. drp. cuir. bust r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SMHr
hill132
heraclea50~0.jpg
175 Licinius II17 viewsobv: DN VAL LICIN LICINVS NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust l. holding scepter and mappa
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with three turrent no star
ex: .SMHr
hill132
heraclea51.jpg
176 Licinius I8 viewsobv: IMP LICI_NIVS AVG laur. drp. cuir. bust l. holding scepter and mappa
rev: PROVIDEN_IAE AGG campgate with three turrents no star
ex: -.//SMH(delta)
hill132
heraclea52.jpg
177 Constantine II7 viewsobv: FL IVL CONSTANTINVS NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust l.
rev: PROVIDN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SMH(delta)
hill132
388-commodus as.jpg
177-192 AD - COMMODUS AE dupondius - struck 179 AD71 viewsobv: L AVREL COMMODVS AVG TRP IIII (radiate head right)
rev: IMP III COS II PP / S.C. (Victory advancing left bearing wreath & palm)
ref: RIC III 1614(M.Aurelius), C.237
12.18gms, 25mm

History: In 177, the Quadi rebelled, followed soon by their neighbours, the Marcomanni and Marcus Aurelius once again headed north, to begin his second Germanic campaign (secunda expeditio germanica). He arrived at Carnuntum in August 178, and set out to quell the rebellion in a repeat of his first campaign, moving first against the Marcomanni.
1 commentsberserker
commodus_RIC54.jpg
177-192 AD - COMMODUS AR denarius - struck 183 AD34 viewsobv: M.COMMODVS ANTONINVS AVG PIVS (laureate head right)
rev: TRP VIII IMP VI COS IIII PP (Mars walking right with trophy & spear)
ref: RIC III 54, RSC 878
2.38gms, 17mm

In 183 AD Commodus assumed the title 'Pius'. War broke out in Dacia: few details are available but it appears two future contenders for the throne, Clodius Albinus and Pescennius Niger, both distinguished themselves in the campaign.
berserker
heraclea53.jpg
178 Constantine II9 viewsobv: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust r.
rev: PROVIDE_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
ex: ./SMH(epsilon)
hill132
heraclea54.jpg
179 Licinius II11 viewsobv: DN VAL LICIN LICINIVS NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust l. holding scepter and mappa
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with three turrents no star
ex: - dot over dot//SMH(delta)
hill132
1794_Norwich_halfpenny.JPG
1794 AE Halfpenny, Norwich, Norfolk.40 viewsObverse: R • CAMPIN • HABERDASHER. Stocking and glove above crossed knife and fork; in exergue, •GOAT•LANE•/NORWICH.
Reverse: HALFPENNY. Britannia, portrayed as a helmeted, plumed and draped female figure wearing a breastplate emblazoned with the union flag, seated facing left on tea-chest; her right hand resting on a terrestrial globe and her left arm on an anchor; a crowned lion, it's head turned facing, reclining left at her feet; in exergue, 1794.
Edge: “CURRENT EVERY WHERE ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦".
Diameter: 29mm
Dalton & Hamer: 21

Issued by Robert Campin, a haberdasher with a business in Goat Lane, Norwich, this token was probably manufactured by Peter Kempson in Birmingham, the dies engraved by Thomas Wyon.
*Alex
1795_CHELSEA_HALFPENNY__.JPG
1795 AE Halfpenny, Chelsea, Middlesex.24 viewsObverse: CHELSEA✶. Sailor with wooden leg standing facing left presenting petition to Britannia facing right, seated on bale and holding spear in her right hand, right arm resting on shield, her left hand extended toward supplicant; in exergue, HALFPENNY.
Reverse: THE SUPPORT OF OUR ENDEAVOUR. Hope facing right, leaning on anchor; in exergue, 1795.
Edge: Engrailed.
Diameter: 28mm
Dalton & Hamer: 277

The engraver and diesinker for this token was F. Arnold, and it was manufactured by William Lutwyche at his works in Birmingham.

Although the authority responsible for the issue of this token is unknown, it is possibly associated with the Chelsea Military Hospital, home of the "Chelsea Pensioners". This token may have been issued as a reminder to the Nation of the debt owed to the army and navy, the obverse has been designed to attract attention to their plight, especially since the defeated troops from the disastrous Flanders Campaign of 1794 would have just returned home. The reverse is a reminder that the navy should not be neglected.
*Alex
1795_EARL_HOWE_HALFPENNY.JPG
1795 AE Halfpenny, Emsworth or Portsmouth, Hampshire.51 viewsObverse: EARL HOWE & THE GLORIOUS FIRST OF JUNE. "Elderly" bust of Earl Howe, wearing tricorn hat and with hair tied with a ribbon at back, facing left.
Reverse: RULE BRITANNIA. Britannia facing left, seated on globe, her right hand holding spear, her left arm holding laurel-branch and resting on shield at her side; in exergue, 1795.
Edge: “PAYABLE IN LONDON” the remainder engrailed.
Diameter: 29mm.
Dalton & Hamer: 23b

This token was probably issued by John Stride, a grocer and tea dealer with a business in Emsworth, and the dies were likely engraved by Thomas Wyon. The token was probably manufactured by Peter Kempson at his mint in Birmingham.
These 18th century tokens are often generically referred to as “Conder” tokens, the name originating from James Conder, a linen draper from Tavern Street in Ipswich. Conder was an ardent collector of tokens and the author of the standard work on the subject until it was superseded by that of Atkins in 1892.

Richard Howe, 1st Earl Howe, Knight of the Garter and Admiral of the Fleet was born on 8th March, 1726. He was a British naval officer notable in particular for his service during the American War of Independence and the French Revolutionary Wars. He died on the 5th of August, 1799.

The Glorious First of June, 1794 was the first and largest fleet action of the naval conflict between Britain and the French during the French Revolutionary Wars. The British, under Admiral Lord Howe, attempted to prevent the passage of a vital grain convoy from the United States, which was protected by the French fleet commanded by Vice-Admiral Louis Thomas Villaret de Joyeuse. The two forces clashed in the Atlantic Ocean, some 400 nautical miles west of the French island of Ushant, on the first of June 1794. During the battle, Howe defied naval convention by ordering his fleet to turn towards the French and for each of his vessels to rake and engage their immediate opponent. This unexpected order was not understood by all of his captains, and as a result his attack, though successful, was more piecemeal than he intended. In the course of the battle the two fleets were so severely damaged that both Howe and Villaret were compelled to return to their home ports.
Both sides claimed victory and the outcome of the battle was seized upon by the press of both countries as a demonstration of the prowess and bravery of their respective navies. France because, despite losing seven of his ships, Villaret had successfully bought enough time for the grain convoy to reach safety unimpeded by Howe's fleet and Britain because, since the French were forced to withdraw their battle-fleet to port, they were left free to conduct a campaign of blockade for the remainder of the war.
*Alex
1797_Halfpenny_Token_Middlesex_(Mule).JPG
1797 AE Halfpenny, Middlesex County.39 viewsObverse: FREDk. DUKE OF YORK. Bare headed bust of Frederick Augustus, Duke of York, facing right; HALFPENNY 1795 in two lines below.
Reverse: RULE BRITANNIA. Britannia seated on globe facing left, left arm resting on shield and holding laurel-branch, right hand holding spear, ship's masts in front of her in background; 1797 in exergue.
Edge: Plain.
Diameter: 27mm | Die Axis: 6h | Obverse die flaw.
Dalton & Hamer: 990. Cobwright No: F.0010/R.0010. Not in Atkins.

Manufactured by William Lutwyche, Birmingham.
In the 18th century, token manufacturers often used their dies to their own advantage by striking “mules”, solely with the object of creating rare varieties which were sold to the collectors of the day.

Prince Frederick Augustus, Duke of York and Albany, was born on16th August 1763. He was the second eldest child, and second son, of King George III. Thrust into the British army at a very young age he was appointed a colonel by his father on 4th November 1780 when he was only 17 years old. He was created Duke of York and Albany on 27th November 1784.
On 26th May 1789 he took part a duel with Colonel Charles Lennox, who had insulted him; Lennox missed and Prince Frederick honourably refused to return fire.
On 12th April 1793 he was promoted to a full general and sent to Flanders in command of the British contingent destined for the invasion of France. Frederick's command fought under extremely trying conditions and though he won several notable engagements, he was defeated at the Battle of Hondschoote in September 1793. Then, in the 1794 campaign, he was successful at the battle of Willems in May but was defeated at the Battle of Tourcoing later that month.
Promoted to the rank of field marshal, on 3rd April 1795 he became effective Commander-in-Chief in succession to Lord Amherst and went with the army sent for the Anglo-Russian invasion of Holland in August 1799. A number of disasters befell the allied forces however and, on 17th October, the Duke signed the Convention of Alkmaar, by which the allied expedition withdrew after giving up its prisoners.
These military setbacks led to Frederick being mocked in the rhyme "The Grand Old Duke of York":
The grand old Duke of York,
He had ten thousand men.
He marched them up to the top of the hill
And he marched them down again.
And when they were up, they were up.
And when they were down, they were down.
And when they were only halfway up,
They were neither up nor down.
However, Frederick's experience in the Dutch campaign had demonstrated the numerous weaknesses of the British army after years of neglect so he carried through a massive programme of reform and he was the person most responsible for creating the force which served in the Peninsular War.
Frederick died of dropsy and apparent cardioid-vascular disease at the home of the Duke of Rutland on Arlington Street, London, on 5th January, 1827. After lying in state in London, his remains were interred in St. George's Chapel, at Windsor.
*Alex
17s-Constantine-II-Her-020.jpg
17s. Constantine II: Heraclea.23 viewsAE3, 317, Heraclea mint.
Obverse: D N FL CL CONSTANTINVS NOB C / Laureate bust of Constantine II, facing left, hilding globe, sceptre, and mappa.
Reverse: PROVIDENTIAE CAESS / Campgate with three turrets.
Mint mark: MHTE
3.03 gm., 19 mm.
RIC #20; PBCC #951; Sear #17140.

This coin has many small flecks of silver across it surfaces which are apparently all that is left of the original silvering. The very small bust is characteristic of the mints at Heraclea, Cyzicus, and Nicomedia where it was used from time to time with the junior caesars.
Callimachus
Vespasiano_denario_VICTORIAE_Efesos.jpg
18-06 - VESPASIANO (69 - 79 D.C.)28 viewsAR Denario 18 mm 3.2 gr.

Anv: "IMP CAESAR VESPAS AVG COS III" - Busto laureado viendo a derecha.
Rev: "PACI AVGVSTAE" - Victoria avanzando a derecha, portando corona de laureles y Palma. "EPE" en campo derecho.

Acuñada 71 D.C.
Ceca: Ephesus
Rareza: S

Referencias: RIC Vol.II #333 Pag.54 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #2270 Pag.433 - BMCRE #457 - Cohen Vol.1 #276 Pag.388 - DVM #38 Pag.101 - CBN #351 - RSC Vol. II #276 Pag.44
mdelvalle
RIC_333_Denario_Vespasiano.jpg
18-18 - VESPASIANO (69 - 79 D.C.)17 viewsAR Denario 18 mm 3.2 gr.

Anv: "IMP CAESAR VESPAS AVG COS III" - Busto laureado viendo a derecha.
Rev: "PACI AVGVSTAE" - Victoria avanzando a derecha, portando corona de laureles y Palma. "EPE" en campo derecho.

Acuñada 71 D.C.
Ceca: Ephesus
Rareza: S

Referencias: RIC Vol.II #333 Pag.54 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #2270 Pag.433 - BMCRE #457 - Cohen Vol.1 #276 Pag.388 - DVM #38 Pag.101 - CBN #351 - RSC Vol. II #276 Pag.44
mdelvalle
18-Constantius-II-Lon-RIC-297.jpg
18. Constantius II15 viewsAE3, 324, London mint.
Obverse: FLA CONSTANTIVS NOB C / Laureate bust of Constantius II.
Reverse: PROVIDENTIAE CAESS / Camp gate with two turrets, star above.
Mint mark: PLON
3.15 gm., 19 mm.
RIC #297; LRBC #7; Sear #17515 note.
Callimachus
heraclea55.jpg
180 Constantine II8 viewsobv: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with three turrents star above
ex: SMHB.
hill132
heraclea56.jpg
181 Constantine II9 viewsobv: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SMH(epsilon)
hill132
1813_FLINT_LEAD_WORKS_PENNY.JPG
1813 AE Penny Token. Flint, Flintshire.22 viewsObverse: FLINT LEAD WORKS. View of the lead works, smoking away in full production; 1813 below in exergue.
Reverse: ONE POUND NOTE FOR 240 TOKENS • around ONE PENNY TOKEN in centre.
Edge: Centre Grained.
Diameter 34mm | Die Axis 6
Withers: 1313 | Davis: 12
SCARCE

The dies for this token were engraved by Thomas Halliday. The manufacturer of the token is unknown but it would in all probability have been struck in Birmingham. It was issued by George Roskell at the Flint Lead Works in Flintshire.

The Flint Lead Smelting Works was the only issuer of tokens in North Wales in the 19th century. The company produced lead from ore obtained from mines on the nearby Halkyn mountain. George Roskell (1777-1847) of Garstang, Lancashire, came to Flintshire as a shareholder in the Milwr Mine, and later became the senior partner in the Flint Smelting Works. In 1805, he married Mary Ann, only child of James Potts of Stokyn, near Holywell. His eldest son, George Potts Roskell succeeded to the Stokyn estate. In 1852 the Flint Lead Works became absorbed in the more extensive Alkali Works of Muspratt Bros. and Huntley, which by 1885 was one of the largest chemical works in Britain.

The town of Flint has its origins in the turbulent times of Edward I in the13th century when he invaded Wales for the complete subjugation of the Welsh princes and the people of Wales. Edward I picked the only suitable spot on the marshy shore, where an outcrop of rock jutted out some fifty yards into the river, on which to build the castle and town of Flint. The castle was built on the rock and joined by a drawbridge to the town. The town was built in the form of a Roman encampment, with a double ditch and earthen banks crowned by timber ramparts and four regular gates.
*Alex
heraclea57.jpg
182 Constantius II11 viewsobv: FL IV CONSTANTIVS NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust l.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SMH(delta)
hill132
heraclea58.jpg
183 Constantine II13 viewsobv: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust r.
rev: PROVIDEN:TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
ex: ./SMH(epsilon)
hill132
heraclea60.jpg
185 Constantine II9 viewsobv: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C laur. dr. cuir. bust r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
ex: ./SMH(epsilon)
hill132
heraclea61.jpg
186 Constantius II8 viewsobv: FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust l.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
ex: ./SMH(delta)
hill132
heraclea62.jpg
187 Constantine II10 viewsobv: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAES campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SMHB
hill132
heraclea63.jpg
188 Constantius II14 viewsobv: FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust l.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
ex: ./SMHr
hill132
heraclea64.jpg
189 Crispus17 viewsobv: DN FL IVL CRISPUS NOB CAES laur. drp. cuir. bust l. holding scepter and mappa
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with three turrents no star
ex: MHTr
hill132
Craw_401_1_Denario_Mn__Aquillius_-_Mn_f__Mn_n.jpg
19-01 - Mn. AQUILLIUS Mn.f.Mn.n. (71 A.C.)9 viewsFALSIFICACIÓN ANCIANA
Denario Aserrado/dentado Forrado 19x17 mm 3.1 gr

Anv: Busto vestido y con yelmo de Virtus, viendo a derecha – ”VIRTVS” adelante y ”III VIR” detrás.
Es la primer aparición en la amonedación del título de Triunviro de un Monetario.
Rev: Guerrero (Mn. Aquillius, Cónsul en el 101 A.C.) de pié de frente, viendo a la derecha, portando un escudo y levantando la figura de Sicilia que está caída hacia la izquierda., "MN AQVIL” (MN en monograma),en campo derecho, "MN F MN N” (ambas MN en monograma),en campo izquierdo y ”SICIL” en el exergo.

Este denario refiere a los éxitos en Sicilia de Man. Aquillius (Cónsul en el 101 A.C.) y el excepcional valor demostrado por Este durante toda la guerra.

Ceca: Roma
Referencias: Sear RCTV Vol.1 #336 Pag.135 - Craw RRC #401/1 - Syd CRR #798 - BMCRR #3364-9 - RSC Vol.1 Aquillia 2 Pag.16
mdelvalle
heraclea65.jpg
190 Crispus 13 viewsobv: CRISPVS NOB CAES laur. drp. cuir. bust r
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SMHr
hill132
constantine_II_new_2.jpg
190.1 Constantine II35 viewsobv: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
ex: */SMH(delta)
hill132
london1.jpg
192 Crispus17 viewsobv: FL IVL CRISPVS NOB CAES laur. drp. cuir. bust r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
ex: PLON
hill132
pertinax den-.jpg
193 AD - PERTINAX AR denarius - struck January-March 193 AD83 viewsobv: IMP.CAES.P.HELV.PERTIN.AVG (laureate head right)
rev:OPI.DIVIN.TR.P.COS.II (Ops seated left, holding two corn ears, left hand on top of throne)
ref: RIC IVi 8 (R2), C.33 (60frcs)
2.43gms
Very rare

This coin is ugly, worn and holed, but... it's a Pertinax.

Publius Helvius Pertinax was commander of an equestrian unit in Moesia Superior (or Pannonia Inferior), on the Middle Danube in 167 AD, and fight against the Yaziges. He was also the commander of the First legion Adiutrix, stationed at Brigetio (modern Szöny) between 171-174 AD. Pertinax played an important role during the campaigns against the Marcomanni. It is very likely that I Adiutrix and the two newly founded legions II Italica and III Italica were grouped together in a single task-force. According to the historian Herodian, Pertinax freed the provinces of Noricum and Raetia completely, and took part in the attacks on the Quadi and Sarmatians north of the Danube.
2 commentsberserker
severus_RIC5.jpg
193 AD - SEPTIMIUS SEVERUS AR denarius67 viewsobv: [IMP CAE L SEP] SEV PERT AVG (laureate head right)
rev: [LEG] II ADIVT (eagle standing left; standard on either side), in ex. [TRP COS]
ref: RIC IVi 5 (S), C.260 (10frcs)
mint: Rome
3.12 gms, 17 mm
Scarce

During the civil war of 193, II Adiutrix supported the governor of Pannonia Superior, Lucius Septimius Severus, took part in his march on Rome, and probably in his campaign against his rival Pescennius Niger as well.
3 commentsberserker
lyons1.jpg
194 Crispus18 viewsobv: FL IVL CRISPVS NOB CAES laur. drp. cuir. bust l.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
ex:PLG
hill132
lyons2.jpg
195 Crispus13 viewsobv: FL IVL CRISPVS NOB CAES laur. drp. cuir. bust r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
ex: dot in doorway//PLG
hill132
nicomedia1.jpg
197 Crispus8 viewsobv: FL IVL CRIS_PVS NOB laur. drp. cuir. bust l.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
ex: MNA
hill132
nicomedia2.jpg
198 Constantine I10 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINVS AVG three string pearl dia. head r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SMNr
hill132
nicomedia3.jpg
199 Constantine II15 viewsobv: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C laur. dr. cuir. bust r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SMNS
hill132
JuliusCaesarDenVenus.jpg
1aa Julius Caesar166 views60 BC (formation of the First Triumvirate)-44 BC (assassination)

Denarius
44 BC

Caesar's head, right, eight-pointed star behind. CAESAR IMP.
Venus standing left, holding victory and scepter. P SEPVLLIVS MACER.

RSC 41

Plutarch said of the first triumvirate: There is a law among the Romans, that whoever desires the honour of a triumph must stay without the city and expect his answer. And another, that those who stand for the consulship shall appear personally upon the place. Caesar was come home at the very time of choosing consuls, and being in a difficulty between these two opposite laws, sent to the senate to desire that, since he was obliged to be absent, he might sue for the consulship by his friends. Cato, being backed by the law, at first opposed his request; afterwards perceiving that Caesar had prevailed with a great part of the senate to comply with it, he made it his business to gain time, and went on wasting the whole day in speaking. Upon which Caesar thought fit to let the triumph fall, and pursued the consulship. Entering the town and coming forward immediately, he had recourse to a piece of state policy by which everybody was deceived but Cato. This was the reconciling of Crassus and Pompey, the two men who then were most powerful in Rome. There had been a quarrel between them, which he now succeeded in making up, and by this means strengthened himself by the united power of both, and so under the cover of an action which carried all the appearance of a piece of kindness and good-nature, caused what was in effect a revolution in the government. For it was not the quarrel between Pompey and Caesar, as most men imagine, which was the origin of the civil wars, but their union, their conspiring together at first to subvert the aristocracy, and so quarrelling afterwards between themselves.

Of Caesar's military leadership, Plutarch wrote: He was so much master of the good-will and hearty service of his soldiers that those who in other expeditions were but ordinary men displayed a courage past defeating or withstanding when they went upon any danger where Caesar's glory was concerned. . . . This love of honour and passion for distinction were inspired into them and cherished in them by Caesar himself, who, by his unsparing distribution of money and honours, showed them that he did not heap up wealth from the wars for his own luxury, or the gratifying his private pleasures, but that all he received was but a public fund laid by the reward and encouragement of valour, and that he looked upon all he gave to deserving soldiers as so much increase to his own riches. Added to this also, there was no danger to which he did not willingly expose himself, no labour from which he pleaded an exemption. His contempt of danger was not so much wondered at by his soldiers because they knew how much he coveted honour. But his enduring so much hardship, which he did to all appearance beyond his natural strength, very much astonished them. For he was a spare man, had a soft and white skin, was distempered in the head and subject to an epilepsy, which, it is said, first seized him at Corduba. But he did not make the weakness of his constitution a pretext for his ease, but rather used war as the best physic against his indispositions; whilst, by indefatigable journeys, coarse diet, frequent lodging in the field, and continual laborious exercise, he struggled with his diseases and fortified his body against all attacks. He slept generally in his chariots or litters, employing even his rest in pursuit of action. In the day he was thus carried to the forts, garrisons, and camps, one servant sitting with him, who used to write down what he dictated as he went, and a soldier attending behind him with his sword drawn.
2 commentsBlindado
FulviaQuinariusLion.jpg
1ae2 Fulvia45 viewsFirst wife of Marc Antony

ca 83-40 BC

AR Quinarius
Bust of Victory right with the likeness of Fulvia, III VIR R P C
Lion right between A and XLI; ANTONI above, IMP in ex

RSC 3, Syd 1163, Cr489/6

Fulvia was the first Roman non-mythological woman to appear on Roman coins. She gained access to power through her marriage to three of the most promising men of her generation, Publius Clodius Pulcher, Gaius Scribonius Curio, and Marcus Antonius. All three husbands were politically active populares, tribunes, and supporters of Julius Caesar. Fulvia married Mark Antony in 47 or 46 BC, a few years after Curio's death, although Cicero suggested that Fulvia and Antony had had a relationship since 58 BC. According to him, while Fulvia and Antony were married, Antony once left a military post to sneak back into Rome during the night and personally deliver a love letter to Fulvia describing his love for her and how he had stopped seeing the famous actress Cytheris. Cicero also suggested that Antony married Fulvia for her money. At the time of their marriage, Antony was an established politician. He had already been tribune in 49 BC, commanded armies under Caesar and was Master of the Horse in 47 BC. As a couple, they were a formidable political force in Rome, and had two sons together, Marcus Antonius Antyllus and Iullus Antonius.

Suetonius wrote, "[Antony] took a wife, Fulvia, the widow of Clodius the demagogue, a woman not born for spinning or housewifery, nor one that could be content with ruling a private husband, but prepared to govern a first magistrate, or give orders to a commander-in-chief. So that Cleopatra had great obligations to her for having taught Antony to be so good a servant, he coming to her hands tame and broken into entire obedience to the commands of a mistress. He used to play all sorts of sportive, boyish tricks, to keep Fulvia in good-humour. As, for example, when Caesar, after his victory in Spain, was on his return, Antony, among the rest, went out to meet him; and, a rumour being spread that Caesar was killed and the enemy marching into Italy, he returned to Rome, and, disguising himself, came to her by night muffled up as a servant that brought letters from Antony. She, with great impatience, before received the letter, asks if Antony were well, and instead of an answer he gives her the letter; and, as she was opening it, took her about the neck and kissed her."

After Julius Caesar was assassinated, Antony became the most powerful man in Rome. Fulvia was heavily involved in the political aftermath. After Caesar's death, the senate realized his popularity and declared that they would pass all of Caesar's planned laws. Antony had attained possession of Caesar's papers, and with the ability to produce papers in support of any law, Fulvia and Antony made a fortune and gained immense power. She allegedly accompanied Antony to his military camp at Brundisium in 44 BC. Appian wrote that in December 44 and again in 41 BC, while Antony was abroad and Cicero campaigned for Antony to be declared an enemy of the state, Fulvia attempted to block such declarations by soliciting support on Antony's behalf.

Antony formed the second triumvirate with Octavian (the future emperor Augustus) and Marcus Aemilius Lepidus on 43 BC and began to conduct proscriptions. To solidify the political alliance, Fulvia's daughter Clodia was married to the young Octavian. Appian and Cassius Dio describe Fulvia as being involved in the violent proscriptions, which were used to destroy enemies and gain badly needed funds to secure control of Rome. Antony pursued his political enemies, chief among them being Cicero, who had openly criticized him for abusing his powers as consul after Caesar's assassination. Though many ancient sources wrote that Fulvia was happy to take revenge against Cicero for Antony's and Clodius' sake, Cassius Dio is the only ancient source that describes the joy with which she pierced the tongue of the dead Cicero with her golden hairpins, as a final revenge against Cicero's power of speech.

In 42 BC, Antony and Octavian left Rome to pursue Julius Caesar's assassins, Marcus Junius Brutus and Gaius Cassius Longinus. Fulvia was left behind as the most powerful woman in Rome. According to Cassius Dio, Fulvia controlled the politics of Rome. Dio wrote that "the following year Publius Servilius and Lucius Antonius nominally became consuls, but in reality it was Antonius and Fulvia. She, the mother-in‑law of Octavian and wife of Antony, had no respect for Lepidus because of his slothfulness, and managed affairs herself, so that neither the senate nor the people transacted any business contrary to her pleasure."

Shortly afterwards, the triumvirs then distributed the provinces among them. Lepidus took the west and Antony went to Egypt, where he met Cleopatra VII. When Octavian returned to Rome in 41 BC to disperse land to Caesar's veterans, he divorced Fulvia's daughter and accused Fulvia of aiming at supreme power. Fulvia allied with her brother-in-law Lucius Antonius and publicly endorsed Mark Antony in opposition to Octavian.

In 41 BC, tensions between Octavian and Fulvia escalated to war in Italy. Together with Lucius Antonius, she raised eight legions in Italy to fight for Antony's rights against Octavian, an event known as the Perusine War. Fulvia fled to Greece with her children. Appian writes that she met Antony in Athens, and he was upset with her involvement in the war. Antony then sailed back to Rome to deal with Octavian, and Fulvia died of an unknown illness in exile in Sicyon, near Corinth, Achaea.
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Lepidus_Antony_Quinarius.jpg
1af Lepidus_214 viewsQuinarius

M LEP IMP, simpulum, aspergillum, axe (surmounted by wolf's head) & ape

M ANT IMP, lituus, capis (jug) and raven

Military mint with Marcus Aemilius Lepidus & Antony in Transalpine Gaul, 44-42 BC

Cr489/3, Syd 1158a

Lepidus was a member of the Second Triumvirate.

According to Plutarch's Life of Pompey: Sulla, however, was annoyed at seeing to what a height of reputation and power Pompey was advancing, but being ashamed to obstruct his career, he kept quiet. Only, when in spite of him and against his wishes Pompey made Lepidus consul, by canvassing for him and making the people zealously support him through their goodwill towards himself, seeing Pompey going off through the forum with a throng, Sulla said: "I see, young man, that you rejoice in your victory; and surely it was a generous and noble thing for Lepidus, the worst of men, to be proclaimed consul by a larger vote than Catulus, the best of men, because you influenced the people to take this course. Now, however, it is time for you to be wide awake and watchful of your interests; you have made your adversary stronger than yourself." But Sulla showed most clearly that he was not well-disposed to Pompey by the will which he wrote. For whereas he bequeathed gifts to other friends, and made some of them guardians of his son, he omitted all mention of Pompey. And yet Pompey bore this with great composure, and loyally, insomuch that when Lepidus and sundry others tried to prevent the body of Sulla from being buried in the Campus Martius, or even from receiving public burial honours, he came to the rescue, and gave to the interment alike honour and security.

Soon after the death of Sulla, his prophecies were fulfilled, and Lepidus tried to assume Sulla's powers. He took no circuitous route and used no pretence, but appeared at once in arms, stirring up anew and gathering about himself the remnants of faction, long enfeebled, which had escaped the hand of Sulla. His colleague, Catulus, to whom the incorrupt and sounder element in the senate and people attached themselves, was the great Roman of the time in the estimate set upon his wisdom and justice, but was thought better adapted for political than military leadership. The situation itself, therefore, demanded Pompey, who was not long in deciding what course to take. He took the side of the nobility, and was appointed commander of an army against Lepidus, who had already stirred up a large part of Italy and was employing Brutus to hold Cisalpine Gaul with an army.

Other opponents against whom Pompey came were easily mastered by him, but at Mutina, in Gaul, he lay a long while besieging Brutus. Meanwhile, Lepidus had made a hasty rush upon Rome, and sitting down before it, was demanding a second consulship, and terrifying the citizens with a vast throng of followers. But their fear was dissipated by a letter brought from Pompey, announcing that he had brought the war to a close without a battle. For Brutus, whether he himself betrayed his army, or whether his army changed sides and betrayed him, put himself in the hands of Pompey, and receiving an escort of horsemen, retired to a little town upon the Po. Here, after a single day had passed, he was slain by Geminius, who was sent by Pompey to do the deed. And Pompey was much blamed for this. For as soon as the army of Brutus changed sides, he wrote to the senate that Brutus had surrendered to him of his own accord; then he sent another letter denouncing the man after he had been put to death. The Brutus who, with Cassius, killed Caesar, was a son of this Brutus, a man who was like his father neither in his wars nor in his death, as is written in his Life. As for Lepidus, moreover, as soon as he was expelled from Italy, he made his way over to Sardinia. There he fell sick and died of despondency, which was due, as we are told, not to the loss of his cause, but to his coming accidentally upon a writing from which he discovered that his wife was an adulteress.
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AgrippaAsNeptune.jpg
1ah Marcus Agrippa36 viewsDied 12 BC
As, minted by Caligula.

Head left wearing rostral crownt, M AGRIPPA L F COS III
Neptune standing facing, head left, naked except for cloak draped behind him & over both arms, holding small dolphin in right hand & vertical trident in left, SC

RIC 58

Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa (c 63 BC–12 BC) was a close friend, and defence minister of the future emperor Augustus. He was responsible for many of his military victories, most notably Actium against the forces of Mark Antony and Cleopatra VII of Egypt. He was son-in-law to Augustus, maternal grandfather of the Emperor Caligula, father-in-law of the Emperors Tiberius and Claudius, and maternal great-grandfather of the Emperor Nero. He probably served in Caesar’s campaign of 46/45 BC against Pompey and Caesar regarded him highly enough to send him with Octavius in 45 BC to study at Apollonia. From then on Agrippa played a major part in Augustus’ career, as military commander and admiral, also undertaking major public works, and writing works on geography (following his survey of the Empire) and other subjects. He erected many fine buildings in Rome, including the original Pantheon on the Campus Martius (during his third consulship 27 BC). He married Claudia Marcella the Elder, daughter of Octavia the Younger in 28 BC, and Julia the Elder in 21 BC, with whom he had five children. His daughter Agrippina Vipsania the Younger the married Tiberius, and his daughter Agrippina Vipsania the Elder married Germanicus. His last campaign initiated the conquest of the upper Danube region, which would become the Roman province of Pannonia in 13 BC. Augustus had Agrippa’s remains placed in his own mausoleum. Ronald Syme offers a compelling case that Agrippa was much more co-ruler of the empire with Augustus than he was a subordinate.
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TiberiusAsSC.jpg
1al Tiberius26 views14-37

As
Laureate head, left, TI CAESAR AVGVST F IMPERAT V
PONTIF MAXIM TRIBVN POTEST XXIII SC

This is one of a series of 12 Caesars pieces that were local finds in Serbia. There are better coins out there, but I'll hang onto these because they really got me into the hobby.

RIC 469

Per Suetonius: Within three years, however, both Lucius Caesar and Gaius Caesar were dead [in AD2 and 4 respectively], and Augustus now adopted both their brother Agrippa Postumus, and Tiberius, who was first required to adopt his nephew Germanicus [in 4 AD]. . . .

From that moment onwards, Augustus did all he could to enhance Tiberius’ prestige, especially after the disowning and banishment of Postumus [ca 6 AD] made it obvious that Tiberius was the sole heir to the succession. . . .

Tiberius acted like a traditional citizen, more modestly almost than the average individual. He accepted only a few of the least distinguished honours offered him; it was only with great reluctance that he consented to his birthday being recognised, falling as it did on the day of the Plebeian Games in the Circus, by the addition of a two-horse chariot to the proceedings; and he refused to have temples, and priests dedicated to him, or even the erection of statues and busts, without his permission; which he only gave if they were part of the temple adornments and not among the divine images. . . .

Moreover, in the face of abuse, libels or slanders against himself and his family, he remained unperturbed and tolerant, often maintaining that a free country required free thought and speech. . . . He even introduced a species of liberty, by maintaining the traditional dignities and powers of the Senate and magistrates. He laid all public and private matters, small or great, before the Senate consulting them over State revenues, monopolies, and the construction and maintenance of public buildings, over the levying and disbanding of troops, the assignment of legions and auxiliaries, the scope of military appointments, and the allocation of campaigns, and even the form and content of his replies to letters from foreign powers. . . .

Returning to Capreae, he abandoned all affairs of state, neither filling vacancies in the Equestrian Order’s jury lists, nor appointing military tribunes, prefects, or even provincial governors. Spain and Syria lacked governors of Consular rank for several years, while he allowed the Parthians to overrun Armenia, Moesia to be ravaged by the Dacians and Sarmatians, and Gaul by the Germans, threatening the Empire’s honour no less than its security. Furthermore, with the freedom afforded by privacy, hidden as it were from public view, he gave free rein to the vices he had concealed for so long. . . .
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Caligula_Drusilla_AE20.jpg
1ao3 Julia Drusilla33 viewsAE 20 of Smyrna (Izmir, Turkey)
Laureate head of Caligula, right, ΓAION KAICAPA EΠI AOYIOΛA
Drusilla as Persephone seated left, poppies between two stalks of grain in right hand, long scepter vertical behind in left hand, ∆POYCIΛΛAN ZMYPNAIΩN MHNOΦANHC

Caligula’s sister

Klose XXVIII, 27 (Vs4/Rs10); RPC I 2472; SNG Cop 1343; SNGvA 2202; BMC Ionia p. 269, 272

According to Suetonius’ salacious account: Germanicus had married Agrippina the Elder, daughter of Marcus Agrippa and Julia the Elder, and she had borne him nine children. Two died in infancy, another in early childhood. . . .

The other children survived their father: three girls, Agrippina the Younger, Drusilla and Livilla, born in successive years; and three boys, Nero, Drusus, and Gaius Caesar (Caligula). . . . [Caligula] habitually committed incest with each of his three sisters, seating them in turn below him at large banquets while his wife reclined above. It is believed that he violated Drusilla’s virginity while a minor, and been caught in bed with her by his grandmother Antonia, in whose household they were jointly raised. Later, when Drusilla was married to Lucius Cassius Longinus, an ex-consul, he took her from him and openly treated her as his lawful married wife. When he fell ill he made her heir to his estate and the throne.

When Drusilla died (in 38AD) he declared a period of public mourning during which it was a capital offense to laugh, or bathe, or to dine with parents, spouse or children. Caligula himself was so overcome with grief that he fled the City in the middle of the night, and travelled through Campania, and on to Syracuse, returning again with the same degree of haste, and without cutting his hair or shaving. From that time forwards whenever he took an important oath, even in public or in front of the army, he always swore by Drusilla’s divinity.
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NeroAsGenAug.jpg
1ar Nero52 views54-68

As

Bare head, right, IMP NERO CAESAR AVG P MAX TR P P P
Genius, GENIO AVGVSTI

RIC 86

Suetonius wrote: Nero was born nine months after the death of Tiberius, at Antium, at sunrise on the 15th of December (AD 37). . . . While he was still a young stripling he took part in a successful performance of the Troy Game in the Circus, in which he exhibited great self-possession. At the age of twelve or so (sometime in AD 50), he was adopted by Claudius, who appointed Annaeus Seneca, already a member of the Senate, as his tutor. The following night, it is said, Seneca dreamed that his young charge was really Caligula, and Nero soon proved the dream prophetic by seizing the first opportunity to reveal his cruel disposition. . . . After Claudius’s death (AD 54) had been announced publicly, Nero, who was not quite seventeen years old, decided to address the Guards in the late afternoon, since inauspicious omens that day had ruled out an earlier appearance. After being acclaimed Emperor on the Palace steps, he was carried in a litter to the Praetorian Camp where he spoke to the Guards, and then to the House where he stayed until evening. He refused only one of the many honours that were heaped upon him, that of ‘Father of the Country’, and declined that simply on account of his youth.

Eutropius summarized: To him succeeded NERO, who greatly resembled his uncle Caligula, and both disgraced and weakened the Roman empire; he indulged in such extraordinary luxury and extravagance, that, after the example of Caius Caligula, he even bathed in hot and cold perfumes, and fished with golden nets, which he drew up with cords of purple silk. He put to death a very great number of the senate. To all good men he was an enemy. At last he exposed himself in so disgraceful a manner, that he danced and sung upon the stage in the dress of a harp-player and tragedian. He was guilty of many murders, his brother, wife, and mother, being put to death by him. He set on fire the city of Rome, that he might enjoy the sight of a spectacle such as Troy formerly presented when taken and burned.

In military affairs he attempted nothing. Britain he almost lost; for two of its most noble towns4 were taken and levelled to the ground under his reign. The Parthians took from him Armenia, and compelled the Roman legions to pass under the yoke. Two provinces however were formed under him; Pontus Polemoniacus, by the concession of King Polemon; and the Cottian Alps, on the death of King Cottius.

15 When, having become detestable by such conduct to the city of Rome, and being deserted at the same time by every one, and declared an enemy by the senate, he was sought for to be led to punishment (the punishment being, that he should be dragged naked through the streets, with a fork placed under his head,5 be beaten to death with rods, and then hurled from the Tarpeian rock), he fled from the palace, and killed himself in a suburban villa of one of his freed-men, between the Salarian and Nomentane roads, at the fourth milestone from the city. He built those hot baths at Rome, which were formerly called the Neronian, but now the Alexandrian. He died in the thirty-second year of his age, and the fourteenth year of his reign; and in him all the family of Augustus became extinct.

Having successfully dispatched his scheming mother Agrippina in 59 and survived a decade on the throne, Nero must have felt like a genius when this was minted ca 64 AD!
1 commentsBlindado
GalbaDenVictory.jpg
1at Galba31 views68-69

Denarius

Laureate head, right, SER GALBA IMP CAESAR AVG P M TR P
Victory standing on globe, VICTORIA PR

RIC 111

Suetonius recorded: Servius Galba, the future emperor was born on the 24th of December, 3BC, in the consulship of Marcus Valerius Messala and Gnaeus Lentulus, at a hillside mansion near Terracina, on the left of the road to Fundi (Fondi). He was formally adopted by his stepmother Livia Ocellina, and took the name Livius and the surname Ocella, also changing his forename to Lucius, until he became Emperor.

It is common knowledge that when calling on Augustus to pay his respects, with other boys of his age, the Emperor pinched his cheek, and said in Greek: ‘You too will have a taste of power, my child.’ And when Tiberius heard the prophecy that Galba would be emperor in old age, he commented: ‘Well let him be, it’s no concern of mine.’

Galba achieved office before the usual age and as praetor (in 20AD), controlling the games at the Floralia, he was the first to introduce a display of tightrope-walking elephants. He next governed Aquitania, for almost a year, and not long afterwards held the consulship for six months (in 33AD). When Caligula was assassinated (in 41AD), Galba chose neutrality though many urged him to seize the opportunity for power. Claudius expressed his gratitude by including him among his intimate friends, and Galba was shown such consideration that the expedition to Britain was delayed to allow him to recover from a sudden but minor indisposition. Later he was proconsul in Africa for two years (44/45AD), being singled out, and so avoiding the usual lottery, to restore order in the province, which was riven by internecine rivalry and an indigenous revolt. He re-established peace, by the exercise of ruthless discipline, and the display of justice even in the most trifling matters. . . .

But when word from the City arrived that Nero was dead and that the people had sworn allegiance to him, he set aside the title of governor and assumed that of Caesar. He then began his march to Rome in a general’s cloak, with a dagger, hanging from his neck, at his chest, and did not resume the toga until his main rivals had been eliminated, namely the commander of the Praetorian Guard in Rome, Nymphidius Sabinus, and the commanders in Germany and Africa, Fonteius Capito and Clodius Macer. . . . His prestige and popularity were greater while winning power than wielding it, though he showed evidence of being a more than capable ruler, loved less, unfortunately, for his good qualities than he was hated for his bad ones.

He was even warned of the danger of imminent assassination, the day before his death, by a soothsayer, as he offered the morning sacrifice. Shortly afterwards he learnt that Otho had secured the Guards camp, and when his staff advised him to carry the day by his presence and prestige, by going there immediately, he opted instead to stay put, but gather a strong bodyguard of legionaries from their billets around the City. He did however don a linen corselet, though saying that frankly it would serve little against so many weapons. False reports, put about by the conspirators to lure him into appearing in public, deceived a few of his close supporters, who rashly told him the rebellion was over, the plotters overthrown, and that the rest of the troops were on their way to congratulate him and carry out his orders. So he went to meet them, with such confidence, that when a soldier boasted of killing Otho, he snapped out: ‘On whose authority?’ before hastening on to the Forum. The cavalrymen who had been ordered to find and kill him, who were spurring through the streets scattering the crowds of civilians, now caught sight of him in the distance and halted an instant before galloping towards him and cutting him down, while his staff ran for their lives.
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OthoDenSecuritas.jpg
1au Otho36 views69

Denarius
Bewigged head, right, IMP OTHO CAESAR AVG TR P
Securitas stg., SECVRITAS P R

RIC 10

Suetonius wrote: Otho was born on the 28th of April 32 AD, in the consulship of Furius Camillus Arruntius and Domitius Ahenobarbus, Nero’s father. In early youth he was so profligate and insolent that he earned many a beating from his own father. . . . After his father died, he feigned love for an influential freedwoman at Court, though she was old and decrepit, in order to win her favour, and then used her to insinuate himself among the emperor’s friends, easily achieving the role of Nero’s chief favourite, not only because they were of a similar disposition, but also some say because of a sexual relationship. . . .

Otho had hoped to be adopted by Galba as his successor, and anticipated the announcement daily. But Piso was chosen, dashing Otho’s hopes, and causing him to resort to force, prompted not only by feelings of resentment but also by his mounting debts. He declared that frankly he would have to declare himself bankrupt, unless he became emperor. . . . When the moment was finally ripe, . . . his friends hoisted him on their shoulders and acclaimed him Emperor. Everyone they met joined the throng, as readily as if they were sworn accomplices and a part of the conspiracy, and that is how Otho arrived at his headquarters, amidst cheering and the brandishing of swords. He at once sent men to kill Galba and Piso. . . .

Meanwhile the army in Germany had sworn allegiance to Vitellius. When the news reached Otho he persuaded the Senate to send a deputation, advising the soldiers to maintain peace and order, since an emperor had already been chosen. However he also sent envoys with letters and personal messages, offering to share power with Vitellius, and marry his daughter. With civil war clearly inevitable, on the approach of Vitellius’s advance guard, who had marched on Rome led by their generals, . . . Otho began his campaign vigorously, and indeed too hastily. . . .

His army won three engagements, but of a minor nature, firstly in the Alps, then near Placentia, and finally at a place called Castor’s, and were ultimately defeated in a decisive and treacherous encounter at Betriacum (on the 14th April). . . . After this defeat, Otho resolved to commit suicide, more from feelings of shame, which many have thought justified, and a reluctance to continue the struggle with such high cost to life and property, than from any diffidence or fear of failure shown by his soldiers. . . . On waking at dawn (on the 16th of April, AD69), he promptly dealt himself a single knife-blow in the left side of his chest, and first concealing and then showing the wound to those who rushed in at the sound of his groaning, he breathed his last. . . . Otho was thirty-six years old when he died, on the ninety-second day of his reign. . . .

Neither his bodily form nor appearance suggested great courage. He is said to have been of medium height, bandy-legged and splay-footed, though as fastidious as a woman in personal matters. He had his body-hair plucked, and wore a toupee to cover his scanty locks, so well-made and so close-fitting that its presence was not apparent.
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DomitianAsMoneta.jpg
1az Domitian20 views81-96

As

Laureate head right, IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM COS XV CENS PER P P
Moneta std, MONETA AVGVSTI S C

RIC 708

Suetonius wrote: Domitian was born on the 24th of October AD51, a month before his father Vespasian took up office as consul. . . . When Vespasian died, Domitian considered granting his soldiers twice the bounty offered by his brother Titus, and had no qualms in claiming that his father’s will had been tampered with, since he had been due a half-share of the Empire. From then on, he plotted continually against his brother, openly and in secret. When Titus was gripped by his fatal illness, Domitian ordered him to be left for dead, before he had actually breathed his last. . . .

He governed inconsistently, displaying a mixture of virtue and vice, but after some time his virtues too gave way to vice, since he seems to have been made avaricious through lack of funds, and cruel through fear, contrary to his natural disposition. . . . Domitian was diligent and conscientiousness in his administration of justice, often holding special sittings on the tribunal in the Forum. . . . [I]n his private life, and even for some time after becoming Emperor, he was considered free of greed and avarice; and indeed often showed proof not only of moderation, but of real generosity. . . . His moderation and clemency however were not destined to last, his predilection to cruelty appearing somewhat sooner than his avarice. . . . In this way he became an object of terror to all, and so hated that he was finally brought down by a conspiracy of his companions and favourite freedmen, which also involved his wife, Domitia Longina.

Domitian was tall, and of a ruddy complexion, with large rather weak eyes, and a modest expression. He was handsome and attractive when young, his whole body well-made except for his feet with their short toes. Later, he lost his hair, and developed a protruding belly, while his legs became thin and spindly after a long illness. . . . He found exercise intolerable, seldom walked when in Rome and while travelling and on campaign rarely rode but used a litter. Weaponry in general held no interest for him, though he was exceptionally keen on archery. There are plenty of witnesses to his killing a hundred wild creatures or more at a time on his Alban estate, bringing them down with successive arrows planted so deftly as to give the effect of horns. . . .

At the beginning of his reign, he had the libraries, which had been damaged by fire, restored at great expense, instituting a search for copies of lost works, and sending scribes to Alexandria to transcribe and edit them. Yet he himself neglected liberal studies, and never bothered to interest himself in history or poetry, or even to acquire a decent writing style.
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HadrianSestFortuna.jpg
1be Hadrian44 views117-138

Sestertius
Laureate head, right, HADRIANVUS AVG COS III PP
Fortuna standing left with rudder on globe and cornucopia, FORTVNA AVG

RIC 759

According to the Historia Augusta, "Bereft of his father at the age of ten, he became the ward of Ulpius Trajanus, his cousin, then of praetorian rank, but afterwards emperor, and of Caelius Attianus, a knight. He then grew rather deeply devoted to Greek studies, to which his natural tastes inclined so much that some called him 'Greekling. . . .' In the 105-106 second Dacian war, Trajan appointed him to the command of the First Legion, the Minervia, and took him with him to the war; and in this campaign his many remarkable deeds won great renown. . . . On taking possession of the imperial power
Hadrian at once resumed the policy of the early emperors and devoted his attention to maintaining peace throughout the world. . . . [I]n this letter to the Senate he apologized because he had not left it the right to decide regarding his accession, explaining that the unseemly haste of the troops in acclaiming him emperor was due to the belief that the state could not be without an emperor. . . . He was, in the same person, austere and genial, dignified and playful, dilatory and quick to act, niggardly and generous, deceitful and straightforward, cruel and merciful, and always in all things changeable. . . . Hadrian's memory was vast and his ability was unlimited ; for instance, he personally dictated his speeches and gave opinions on all questions. He was also very witty. . . ."

After this Hadrian departed for Baiae, leaving Antoninus at Rome to carry on the government. But he received no benefit there, and he thereupon
sent for Antoninus, and in his presence he died there at Baiae on the sixth day before the Ides of July.

According to Eutropius: After the death of Trajan, AELIUS HADRIAN was made emperor, not from any wish to that effect having been expressed by Trajan himself, but through the influence of Plotina, Trajan's wife; for Trajan in his life-time had refused to adopt him, though he was the son of his cousin. He also was born at Italica in Spain. Envying Trajan's glory, he immediately gave up three of the provinces which Trajan had added to the empire, withdrawing the armies from Assyria, Mesopotamia, and Armenia, and deciding that the Euphrates should be the boundary of the empire. When he was proceeding, to act similarly with regard to Dacia, his friends dissuaded him, lest many Roman citizens should be left in the hands of the barbarians, because Trajan, after he had subdued Dacia, had transplanted thither an infinite number of men from the whole Roman world, to people the country and the cities; as the land had been exhausted of inhabitants in the long war maintained by Decebalus.

He enjoyed peace, however, through the whole course of his reign; the only war that he had, he committed to the conduct of a governor of a province. He went about through the Roman empire, and founded many edifices. He spoke with great eloquence in the Latin language, and was very learned in the Greek. He had no great reputation for clemency, but was very attentive to the state of the treasury and the discipline of the soldiers. He died in Campania, more than sixty years old, in the twenty-first year, tenth month, and twenty-ninth day of his reign. The senate was unwilling to allow him divine honours; but his successor Titus Aurelius Fulvius Antonius, earnestly insisting on it, carried his point, though all the senators were openly opposed to him.
1 commentsBlindado
AeliusAsAnnona.jpg
1bg Aelius29 viewsCaesar, 136-138

As

Bare head, right, AELIVS CAESAR
Pannonia standing and holding a standard, PANNONIA SC

RIC 1071

According to the Historia Augusta (note: scholars view this biography in the text as among those particularly suspect regarding veracity): Aelius Verus was adopted by Hadrian at the time when, as we have previously said, the Emperor's health was beginning to fail and he was forced to take thought for the succession. He was at once made praetor and appointed military and civil governor of the provinces of Pannonia ; afterwards he was created [in AD 136] consul, and then, because he had been chosen to succeed to the imperial power, he was named for a second consulship. . . . [I]n the province to which he had been appointed he was by no means a failure ; for he carried on a campaign with
success, or rather, with good fortune, and achieved the reputation, if not of a pre-eminent, at least of an
average, commander.

Verus had, however, such wretched health that Hadrian immediately regretted the adoption, and since he often considered others as possible successors, he might have removed him altogether from the imperial family had Verus chanced to live longer. . . .

Verus was a man of joyous life and well versed in letters, and he was endeared to Hadrian, as the malicious say, rather by his beauty than by his character. In the palace his stay was but a short one; in his private life, though there was little to be commended, yet there was little to be blamed. Furthermore, he was considerate of his family, well-dressed, elegant in appearance, a man of regal beauty, with a countenance that commanded respect, a speaker of unusual eloquence, deft at writing verse, and, moreover, not altogether a failure in public life.

This sad little flan looks a bit tubercular, like the subject of the portrait.
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FaustinaIIAsJuno.jpg
1bk Faustina Junior147 viewsWife of Marcus Aurelius. 131-176

As
Draped bust, left, FAVSTINA AVG PII AVG FIL
Juno seated left holding the three graces and scepter, peacock at feet, IVNO SC

The daughter of Antoninus Pius, wife of Aurelius, and mother of Commodus, Faustina had a box seat to witness the end of the Golden Age. She bore Aurelius at least 13 children and accompanied him on his military campaigns, yet years later had her reputation impuned for alleged adultery.

The reverse is RIC 1400, for which only right-facing busts are listed.

From Curtis Clay: "This is a rev. type that used to be very rare, even with bust right, but quite a few specimens have emerged from Bulgaria since the fall of the Iron Curtain.

I had a specimen with bust left myself, acquired from Baldwin's c. 1970, which is now in the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford.

A VF specimen with bust left, from the same dies as yours, was in CNG E54, 4 Dec. 2002, 145 = CNG 57, 4 April 2001, 1292.

Still an interesting and scarce reverse type, and rare with bust left, a variety that is hard to find on any Roman coin of Faustina II !" Thank you, Curtis!
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PertinaxDenOps.jpg
1bp Pertinax19 views193

Denarius

Bearded laureate head, right, IMP CAES P HELV PERTIN AVG
Ops std, OPI DIVIN TR P COS II

RIC 8

The Historia Augusta has this to say: Publius Helvius Pertinax was the son of a freedman, Helvius Successus by name, who confessed that he gave this name to his son because of his own long-standing connection with the timber-trade. . . . Pertinax himself was born in the Apennines on an estate which belonged to his mother. . . . Winning promotion because of the energy he showed in the Parthian war, he was transferred to Britain and there retained. Later he led a squadron in Moesia. . . . Next, he commanded the German fleet. . . . From this command he was transferred to Dacia. . . . After Cassius' revolt had been suppressed, Pertinax set out from Syria to protect the bank of the Danube, and presently he was appointed to govern both the Moesias and, soon thereafter, Dacia. And by reason of his success in these provinces, he won the appointment to Syria. . . .

Pertinax was made consul for the second time. And while in this position, Pertinax did not avoid complicity in the murder of Commodus, when a share in this plot was offered him by the other conspirators. After Commodus was slain, aetus, the prefect of the guard, and Eclectus, the chamberlain, came to Pertinax and reassured him, and then led him to the camp. There he harangued the soldiers, promised a donative, and said that the imperial power had been thrust upon him by Laetus and Eclectus. . . .

He reduced the imperial banquets from something absolutely unlimited to a fixed standard, and, indeed, cut down all expenses from what they had been under Commodus. And from the example set by the emperor, who lived rather simply, there resulted a general economy and a consequent reduction in the cost of living. . . . [H]e restored to everyone the property of which Commodus had despoiled him. . . . He always attended the stated meetings of the senate and always made some proposal. . . .

A conspiracy l was organized against Pertinax by Laetus, the prefect of the guard, and sundry others who were displeased by his integrity. . . . [T]hree hundred soldiers, formed into a wedge, marched under arms from the camp to the imperial residence. . . . After they had burst into the inner portion of the Palace, however, Pertinax advanced to meet them and sought to appease them with a long and serious speech. In spite of this, one Tausius, a Tungrian, after haranguing the soldiers into a state of fury and fear, hurled his spear at Pertinax' breast. And he, after a prayer to Jupiter the Avenger, veiled his head with his toga and was stabbed by the rest.
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DidJulSestConMil.jpg
1bq Didius Julianus93 views193

Sestertius

Laureate head, right, IMP CAES M DID SEVER IVLIAN AVG
Concorde w/ standard, CONCORDIA MILIT SC

RIC 14

According to the Historia Augusta: Didius Julianus. . . was reared at the home of Domitia Lucilla, the mother of the Emperor Marcus. . . . [T]hrough the support of Marcus he attained to the office of aedile [and] praetor. After his praetorship he commanded the XXII Legion, the Primigenia, in Germany, and following that he ruled Belgium long and well. Here, with auxiliaries hastily levied from the provinces, he held out against the Chauci as they attempted to burst through the border; and for these services, on the recommendation of the Emperor, he