Classical Numismatics Discussion Members' Gallery
  Welcome Guest. Please login or register.

Members' Gallery Home | Member Collections | Last Added | Last Comments | Most Viewed | Top Rated | My Favorities | Search Galleries
Search results - "augusta"
Sabina.jpg
80 viewsSabina Augusta Hadriani Avg pp. Diad and draped bust r.Hair coiled and piled on top of head.REV No legend Venus stg.r.viewed partially from behind,holding helmet and spear and resting on column against which rest shield.Weight 3,30gr RIC 4123 commentsspikbjorn
lot943919.jpg
18 viewsFaustina II. Silver Denarius (3.27 g), Augusta, AD 147-175. Rome, under Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus, AD 161-164/5. FAVSTINA AVGVSTA, draped bust of Faustina II right, with single circle of pearls around head. Reverse: IVNONI REGINAE, Juno standing facing, head left, holding patera and scepter. RIC -; BMC -; RSC -. Unpublished in the standard references without the peacock. Normally a peacock is shown standing at the feet of Juno on the reverse. On this coin, the bird is missing.Quant.Geek
Livia_prov.jpg
2.5 Livia, Wife of Augustus17 viewsJULIA AUGUSTA (LIVIA)
Cilicia
14-29 AD. Æ 23mm

Draped bust right / Tyche seated right, holding grain ears; river-god swimming right below.

RPC I 4013; SNG Levante 1238; SNG France -.
Rare. Only two specimens cited in RPC.
RI0041
Sosius
Screen_Shot_2017-05-11_at_10_49_26_AM.png
11.5 Julia Titi39 viewsJulia Titi, Daughter of Titus (A.D. 79-80). Augusta, A.D. 79-90/1. AE dupondius. Rome mint, struck A.D. 79/80 by Titus. From the RJM Collection.
Julia Titi, Daughter of Titus (A.D. 79-80). Augusta, A.D. 79-90/1. AE dupondius (27.82 mm, 10.08 g, 5 h). Rome mint, struck A.D. 79/80 by Titus. IVLIA IMP T AVG F AVGVSTA, draped bust of Julia right, hair drawn-up in bun / Vesta seated left holding palladium and scepter; S - C // VESTA. RIC 398 (Titus); BN (Titus) 270, 271; BMC (Titus) 256, 257. Fine, green patina, cleaning marks.

From the RJM Collection.

Ex Agora Auctions, 5/9/2017
3 commentsSosius
Aquilia_Severa_Alex_Tet_-_Köln_2369_lg~0.jpg
29.6 Aquilia Severa - Wife of Elagabalus28 viewsEGYPT, Alexandria. Aquilia Severa. Augusta, AD 220-221 & 221-222. Potin Tetradrachm (23mm, 11.63 g, 11h). Dated RY 4 of Elagabalus (AD 220/1). Draped bust right / Homonoia standing left, right hand raised, holding double cornucopia with left; L Δ (date) to left. Köln 2369; Dattari (Savio) 4178; K&G 58.3. Near VF, dark brown patina, light porosity.

Ex CNG eAuction 318
Sosius
Magnia_Urbica_Ant_RIC_V_347_-_sm.jpg
8.5 Magnia Urbica43 viewsMagnia Urbica. Augusta, AD 283-285. Antoninianus (21mm, 2.17 g, 12h). Ticinum mint. 5th emission, August AD 283. Diademed and draped bust right, set on crescent / Venus standing left, holding helmet and scepter; shield at side; SXXIT. RIC V 347; Pink VI/2 p. 29. Good VF, green patina with partial silvering, earthen highlights.2 commentsSosius
cr27.jpg
CRISPINA AE SESTERTIUS, WIFE OF COMMODUS, AUGUSTAS 178-182 C.E19 viewsObverse - CRISPINA AVGVSTA, draped bust right
Reverse - LAETITIA SC, Laetitia standing facing left, holding wreath in right hand and rudder set on globe in left hand. Cohen 27
31mm diam., 25.7 g
NORMAN K
00036x00~0.jpg
33 viewsFaustina Junior . Augusta, AD 147-175
PB Denarius (18mm, 2.76 g, 10 h)
Cast imitation? Copying a Rome mint issue of circa AD 161-175
Draped bust right
Diana Lucifera standing facing, head left, holding transverse torch
Cf. RIC III 674 (Pius)

Iron(?) inclusion in center of reverse
1 commentsArdatirion
lg004_quad_sm.jpg
"As de Nîmes" or "crocodile" Ӕ dupondius of Nemausus (9 - 3 BC), honoring Augustus and Agrippa29 viewsIMP DIVI F , Heads of Agrippa (left) and Augustus (right) back to back, Agrippa wearing rostral crown and Augustus the oak-wreath / COL NEM, crocodile right chained to palm-shoot with short dense fronds and tip right; two short palm offshoots left and right below, above on left a wreath with two long ties streaming right.

Ӕ, 24.5 x 3+ mm, 13.23g, die axis 3h; on both sides there are remains of what appears to be gold plating, perhaps it was a votive offering? Rough edges and slight scrapes on flan typical for this kind of coin, due to primitive technology (filing) of flan preparation.

IMPerator DIVI Filius. Mint of COLonia NEMausus (currently Nîmes, France). Known as "As de Nîmes", it is actually a dupontius (lit. "two-pounder") = 2 ases (sometimes cut in halves to get change). Dupondii were often made out of a golden-colored copper alloy (type of brass) "orichalcum" and this appears to be such case.

Key ID points: oak-wreath (microphotography shows that at least one leaf has a complicated shape, although distinguishing oak from laurel is very difficult) – earlier versions have Augustus bareheaded, no PP on obverse as in later versions, no NE ligature, palm with short fronds with tip right (later versions have tip left and sometimes long fronds). Not typical: no clear laurel wreath together with the rostral crown, gold plating (!), both features really buffling.

But still clearly a "middle" kind of the croc dupondius, known as "type III": RIC I 158, RPC I 524, Sear 1730. It is often conservatively dated to 10 BC - 10 AD, but these days it is usually narrowed to 9/8 - 3 BC.

It is a commemorative issue, honoring the victory over Mark Antony and conquest of Egypt in 30 BC. The heads of Augustus and Agrippa were probably positioned to remind familiar obverses of Roman republican coins with two-faced Janus. Palm branch was a common symbol of victory, in this case grown into a tree, like the victories of Augustus and Agrippa grown into the empire. The two offshoots at the bottom may mean two sons of Agrippa, Gaius and Lucius, who were supposed to be Augustus' heirs and were patrons of the colony. Palm may also be a symbol of the local Nemausian deity, which was probably worshiped in a sacred grove. When these coins were minted, the colony was mostly populated by the settled veterans of Augustus' campaigns, hence the reminiscence of the most famous victory, but some of the original Celtic culture probably survived and was assimilated by Romans. The crocodile is not only the symbol of Egypt, like in the famous Octavian's coins AEGYPTO CAPTA. It is also a representation of Mark Antony, powerful and scary both in water and on land, but a bit slow and stupid. The shape of the crocodile with tail up was specifically chosen to remind of the shape of ship on very common "legionary" denarius series, which Mark Antony minted to pay his armies just before Actium. It is probably also related to the popular contemporary caricature of Cleopatra, riding on and simultaneously copulating with a crocodile, holding a palm branch in her hand as if in triumph. There the crocodile also symbolized Mark Antony.

Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa was born c. 64-62 BC somewhere in rural Italy. His family was of humble and plebeian origins, but rich, of equestrian rank. Agrippa was about the same age as Octavian, and the two were educated together and became close friends. He probably first served in Caesar's Spanish campaign of 46–45 BC. Caesar regarded him highly enough to send him with Octavius in 45 BC to train in Illyria. When Octavian returned to Rome after Caesar's assassination, Agrippa became his close lieutenant, performing many tasks. He probably started his political career in 43 BC as a tribune of the people and then a member of the Senate. Then he was one of the leading Octavian's generals, finally becoming THE leading general and admiral in the civil wars of the subsequent years.

In 38 as a governor of Transalpine Gaul Agrippa undertook an expedition to Germania, thus becoming the first Roman general since Julius Caesar to cross the Rhine. During this foray he helped the Germanic tribe of Ubii (who previously allied themselves with Caesar in 55 BC) to resettle on the west bank of the Rhine. A shrine was dedicated there, possibly to Divus Caesar whom Ubii fondly remembered, and the village became known as Ara Ubiorum, "Altar of Ubians". This quickly would become an important Roman settlement. Agrippina the Younger, Agrippa's granddaughter, wife of Emperor Claudius and mother of Emperor Nero, would be born there in 15 AD. In 50 AD she would sponsor this village to be upgraded to a colonia, and it would be renamed Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium (colony of Claudius [at] the Altar of Agrippinians – Ubii renamed themselves as Agrippinians to honor the augusta!), abbreviated as CCAA, later to become the capital of new Roman province, Germania Inferior.

In 37 BC Octavian recalled Agrippa back to Rome and arranged for him to win the consular elections, he desperately needed help in naval warfare with Sextus Pompey, the youngest son of Pompey the Great, who styled himself as the last supporter of the republican cause, but in reality became a pirate king, an irony since his father was the one who virtually exterminated piracy in all the Roman waters. He forced humiliating armistice on the triumvirs in 39 BC and when Octavian renewed the hostilities a year later, defeated him in a decisive naval battle of Messina. New fleet had to be built and trained, and Agrippa was the man for the job. Agrippa's solution was creating a huge secret naval base he called Portus Iulius by connecting together lakes Avernus, Avernus and the natural inner and outer harbors behind Cape Misenum at the northern end of the Gulf of Naples. He also created a larger type of ship and developed a new naval weapon: harpax – a ballista-launched grapnel shot with mechanisms that allowed pulling enemy ships close for easy boarding. It replaced the previous boarding device that Romans used since the First Punic War, corvus – effective, but extremely cumbersome. A later defence against it were scythe blades on long poles for cutting ropes, but since this invention was developed in secret, the enemy had no chance to prepare anything like it. It all has proved extremely effective: in a series of naval engagements Agrippa annihilated the fleet of Sextus, forced him to abandon his bases and run away. For this Agrippa was awarded an unprecedented honour that no Roman before or after him received: a rostral crown, "corona rostrata", a wreath decorated in front by a prow and beak of a ship.

That's why Virgil (Aeneid VIII, 683-684), describing Agrippa at Actium, says: "…belli insigne superbum, tempora navali fulgent rostrata corona." "…the proud military decoration, gleams on his brow the naval rostral crown". Actium, the decisive battle between forces of Octavian and Mark Antony, may appear boring compared to the war with Sextus, but it probably turned out this way due to Agrippa's victories in preliminary naval engagements and taking over all the strategy from Octavian.

In between the wars Agrippa has shown an unusual talent in city planning, not only constructing many new public buildings etc., but also greatly improving Rome's sanitation by doing a complete overhaul of all the aqueducts and sewers. Typically, it was Augustus who later would boast that "he had found the city of brick but left it of marble", forgetting that, just like in his naval successes, it was Agrippa who did most of the work. Agrippa had building programs in other Roman cities as well, a magnificent temple (currently known as Maison Carrée) survives in Nîmes itself, which was probably built by Agrippa.

Later relationship between Augustus and Agrippa seemed colder for a while, Agrippa seemed to even go into "exile", but modern historians agree that it was just a ploy: Augustus wanted others to think that Agrippa was his "rival" while in truth he was keeping a significant army far away from Rome, ready to come to the rescue in case Augustus' political machinations fail. It is confirmed by the fact that later Agrippa was recalled and given authority almost equal to Augustus himself, not to mention that he married Augustus' only biological child. The last years of Agrippa's life were spent governing the eastern provinces, were he won respect even of the Jews. He also restored Crimea to Roman Empire. His last service was starting the conquest of the upper Danube, were later the province of Pannonia would be. He suddenly died of illness in 12 BC, aged ~51.

Agrippa had several children through his three marriages. Through some of his children, Agrippa would become ancestor to many subsequent members of the Julio-Claudian dynasty. He has numerous other legacies.
Yurii P
faustina_aeternitas.jpg
(0138) FAUSTINA I44 views(wife of Antoninus Pius)
(AUGUSTA 138 - 141 AD)
POSTHUMOUS--STRUCK AFTER 141 AD
AE 28 mm 10.21 g
O: DIVA AVGVSTA FAVSTINA, draped & diademed bust right
R: AETERNITAS S-C, Providentia standing left, holding globe and scepter.
RIC 1163 a; Cohen 37.
laney
lucilla_res.jpg
(0161) LUCILLA29 views(wife of Lucius Verus; sister of Commodus)
164 - 182 AD (As Augusta)
AE SESTERTIUS 30 mm 22.88 g
O: Draped bust right.
R:Pietas standing, head right, holding patera, altar at her feet left, S-C
laney
lucius_verus_ag_res.jpg
(0161) LUCIUS VERUS26 views161 - 169 AD
AE 17.5 mm, 3.0 g
O: Laureate head right
R: AVGOVC, coiled snake, head facing right
Augusta Traiana, Thrace
Moushmov 2991
laney
commodus_aug_tria_b.jpg
(0177) COMMODUS--AUGUSTA TRAIANA37 views177 - 192 AD
struck 191-192 AD
AE 29.5 mm; 15.36 g
Magistrate: L. Aemilius Iustus (Legatus Augusti pro praetore provinciae Thraciae)
O: AV KAI [M] AV KOMOΔOC (or similar) Laureate bust right
R: ΗΓΕ Λ ΑΙΜ ΙΟVСΤ ΑVΓΟVСΤΗС ΤΡΑΙΑΝΗС City gate with 3 towers
Thrace, Augusta Traiana
cf RPC online 10823, citing a Freeman & Sear sale of 2005, without picture.
Note: (from C. Clay, 3.21.2015) "Governor Aem. Justus is rare at this mint, yours may be just the second specimen recorded. Not known to Varbanov, or to Stein in his 1926 monograph on Thracian officials. Apparently not in Schoenert-Geiss's Augusta Traiana corpus, or Varbanov would have known it from there."
d.s.
laney
julia_soaem.jpg
(0218a) JULIA SOAEMIAS24 views(mother of Elagabalus)
218 - 222 AD (Augusta)
AR Denarius 17 mm 2.07 g
Obv: IVLIA SOAEMIAS AVG, draped bust right.
Rev: VENVS CAELESTIS, Venus seated left holding apple and scepter, child standing before her.
Rome
RIC 243
laney
LPisoFrugiDenarius_S235.jpg
(502a) Roman Republic, L. Calpurnius Piso Frugi, 90 B.C.156 viewsSilver denarius, S 235, Calpurnia 11, Crawford 340/1, Syd 663a, VF, rainbow toning, Rome mint, 3.772g, 18.5mm, 180o, 90 B.C. obverse: laureate head of Apollo right, scorpion behind; Reverse naked horseman galloping right holding palm, L PISO FRVGI and control number CXI below; ex-CNA XV 6/5/91, #443. Ex FORVM.


A portion of the following text is a passage taken from the excellent article “The Calpurnii and Roman Family History: An Analysis of the Piso Frugi Coin in the Joel Handshu Collection at the College of Charleston,” by Chance W. Cook:

In the Roman world, particularly prior to the inception of the principate, moneyers were allotted a high degree of latitude to mint their coins as they saw fit. The tres viri monetales, the three men in charge of minting coins, who served one-year terms, often emblazoned their coins with an incredible variety of images and inscriptions reflecting the grandeur, history, and religion of Rome. Yet also prominent are references to personal or familial accomplishments; in this manner coins were also a means by which the tres viri monetales could honor their forbearers. Most obvious from an analysis of the Piso Frugi denarius is the respect and admiration that Lucius Calpurnius Piso Frugi, who minted the coin, had for his ancestors. For the images he selected for his dies relate directly to the lofty deeds performed by his Calpurnii forbearers in the century prior to his term as moneyer. The Calpurnii were present at many of the watershed events in the late Republic and had long distinguished themselves in serving the state, becoming an influential and well-respected family whose defense of traditional Roman values cannot be doubted.

Lucius Calpurnius Piso Frugi, who was moneyer in 90 B.C., depicted Apollo on the obverse and the galloping horseman on the reverse, as does his son Gaius. However, all of L. Piso Frugi’s coins have lettering similar to “L-PISO-FRVGI” on the reverse, quite disparate from his son Gaius’ derivations of “C-PISO-L-F-FRV.”

Moreover, C. Piso Frugi coins are noted as possessing “superior workmanship” to those produced by L. Piso Frugi.

The Frugi cognomen, which became hereditary, was first given to L. Calpurnius Piso, consul in 133 B.C., for his integrity and overall moral virtue. Cicero is noted as saying that frugal men possessed the three cardinal Stoic virtues of bravery, justice, and wisdom; indeed in the Thesaurus Linguae Latinae, a synonym of frugalitas is bonus, generically meaning “good” but also implying virtuous behavior. Gary Forsythe notes that Cicero would sometimes invoke L. Calpurnius Piso’s name at the beginning of speeches as “a paragon of moral rectitude” for his audience.

L. Calpurnius Piso Frugi’s inclusion of the laureled head of Apollo, essentially the same obverse die used by his son Gaius (c. 67 B.C.), was due to his family’s important role in the establishment of the Ludi Apollinares, the Games of Apollo, which were first instituted in 212 B.C. at the height of Hannibal’s invasion of Italy during the Second Punic War. By that time, Hannibal had crushed Roman armies at Cannae, seized Tarentum and was invading Campania.

Games had been used throughout Roman history as a means of allaying the fears
of the populace and distracting them from issues at hand; the Ludi Apollinares were no different. Forsythe follows the traditional interpretation that in 211 B.C., when C. Calpurnius Piso was praetor, he became the chief magistrate in Rome while both consuls were absent and the three other praetors were sent on military expeditions against Hannibal.

At this juncture, he put forth a motion in the Senate to make the Ludi Apollinares a yearly event, which was passed; the Ludi Apollinares did indeed become an important festival, eventually spanning eight days in the later Republic. However, this interpretation is debatable; H.H. Scullard suggests that the games were not made permanent until 208 B.C. after a severe plague prompted the Senate to make them a fixture on the calendar. The Senators believed Apollo would serve as a “healing god” for the people of Rome.

Nonetheless, the Calpurnii obviously believed their ancestor had played an integral role in the establishment of the Ludi Apollinares and thus prominently displayed
the head or bust of Apollo on the obverse of the coins they minted.

The meaning of the galloping horseman found on the reverse of the L. Calpurnius Piso Frugi coin is more complicated. It is possible that this is yet another reference to the Ludi Apollinares. Chariot races in the Circus Maximus were a major component of the games, along with animal hunts and theatrical performances.

A more intriguing possibility is that the horseman is a reference to C. Calpurnius Piso, son of the Calpurnius Piso who is said to have founded the Ludi Apollinares. This C. Calpurnius Piso was given a military command in 186 B.C. to quell a revolt in Spain. He was victorious, restoring order to the province and also gaining significant wealth in the process.

Upon his return to Rome in 184, he was granted a triumph by the Senate and eventually erected an arch on the Capitoline Hill celebrating his victory. Of course
the arch prominently displayed the Calpurnius name. Piso, however, was not an infantry commander; he led the cavalry.

The difficulty in accepting C. Calpurnius Piso’s victory in Spain as the impetus for the galloping horseman image is that not all of C. Piso Frugi’s coins depict the horseman or cavalryman carrying the palm, which is a symbol of victory. One is inclined to believe that the victory palm would be prominent in all of the coins minted by C. Piso Frugi (the son of L. Calpurnius Piso Frugi) if it indeed signified the great triumph of C. Calpurnius Piso in 186 B.C. Yet the palm’s appearance is clearly not a direct reference to military feats of C. Piso Frugi’s day. As noted, it is accepted that his coins were minted in 67 B.C.; in that year, the major victory by Roman forces was Pompey’s swift defeat of the pirates throughout the Mediterranean.

Chrestomathy: Annual Review of Undergraduate Research at the College of Charleston. Volume 1, 2002: pp. 1-10© 2002 by the College of Charleston, Charleston SC 29424, USA.All rights to be retained by the author.
http://www.cofc.edu/chrestomathy/vol1/cook.pdf


There are six (debatably seven) prominent Romans who have been known to posterity as Lucius Calpurnius Piso:

Lucius Calpurnius Piso Frugi: (d. 261 A.D.) a Roman usurper, whose existence is
questionable, based on the unreliable Historia Augusta.

Lucius Calpurnius Piso Licinianus: deputy Roman Emperor, 10 January 69 to15 January
69, appointed by Galba.

Lucius Calpurnius Piso: Consul in 27 A.D.

Lucius Calpurnius Piso: Consul in 1 B.C., augur

Lucius Calpurnius Piso: Consul in 15 B.C., pontifex

Lucius Calpurnius Piso Caesoninus: Consul in 58 B.C. (the uncle of Julius Caesar)

Lucius Calpurnius Piso Frugi: Moneyer in 90 B.C. (our man)


All but one (or two--if you believe in the existence of "Frugi the usurper" ca. 261 A.D.) of these gentlemen lack the Frugi cognomen, indicating they are not from the same direct lineage as our moneyer, though all are Calpurnii.

Calpurnius Piso Frugi's massive issue was intended to support the war against the Marsic Confederation. The type has numerous variations and control marks.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lucius_Calpurnius_Piso
http://www.forumancientcoins.com/catalog/indexfrm.asp?vpar=55&pos=0

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.


2 commentsCleisthenes
SPAIN__Caesaraugusta__Augustus_(27_BC-14_AD)__AE-(26)As__Mn__Kaninius_Iter_and_L__Titius,_duoviri__RPC_I_322,_SNG_Cop_544,_Q-001,_6h,_26-27,mm,_10,85g-s.jpg
002p Augustus (63 B.C.-14 A.D.), Spain, Caesaraugusta, RPC 0322, AE-26, Mn. Kaninius Iter and L. Titius, duoviri, CAESAR AVG MN KANINIO ITER L TITIO / II VIR, Priest plowing right with yoke of two oxen, #167 views002p Augustus (63 B.C.-14 A.D.), Spain, Caesaraugusta, RPC 0322, AE-26, Mn. Kaninius Iter and L. Titius, duoviri, CAESAR AVG MN KANINIO ITER L TITIO / II VIR, Priest plowing right with yoke of two oxen, #1
avers: AVGVSTVS DIVI F, Laureate head right; simpulum to left, lituus to right.
reverse: CAESAR AVG MN KANINIO ITER L TITIO / II VIR, Priest plowing right with yoke of two oxen.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 26,0-27,0 mm, weight: 10,85g, axis:6h,
mint: Spain, Caesaraugusta, date: B.C.,
ref: RPC 0322, SNG Cop 544,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
coin345.JPG
004. Caligula 38 viewsGAIUS (CALIGULA). 37-41 AD.

Whatever damage Tiberius's later years had done to the carefully crafted political edifice created by Augustus, Gaius multiplied it a hundredfold. When he came to power in A.D. 37 Gaius had no administrative experience beyond his honorary quaestorship, and had spent an unhappy early life far from the public eye. He appears, once in power, to have realized the boundless scope of his authority and acted accordingly. His reign highlighted an inherent weakness in the Augustan Principate, raw monarchy in which only the self-discipline of the incumbent acted as a restraint on his behavior.

Æ As (28mm, 10.19 gm). Rome mint. Struck 37-38 AD. Bare head left / Vesta seated left, holding patera and sceptre. RIC I 38; Cohen 27. Near VF, dark brown surfaces. Ex-CNG
ecoli
0058~0.jpg
0058 - Denarius Augustus 19-8 BC33 viewsObv/Oak-wreathed head of Augustus r.
Rev/CAESAR AVGVSTVS, two laurel branches.

Ag, 17.8mm, 3.60g
Mint: Colonia CaesarAugusta (?)
RIC I/33a [R2] - Calicó 709
ex-Gerhard Hirsch, auction 254/5, lot 1711
1 commentsdafnis
U3141F1PSHJQFNX.JPG
005cc. Valeria Messalina48 viewsMessalina, 41-48 AD

Size/Weight: 17mm, 3.36g

AEOLIS, Aegae. Messalina. Augusta, AD 41-48. Draped bust right / Zeus Aëtophorus standing left. RPC I 2430; SNG Copenhagen 23.

Obverse: CЄBACTH MЄCAΛЄINA draped bust right
Reverse: AIΓAЄΩN Zeus standing left, holding eagle and scepter

This should look familiar, A. Reich :)

Attribution: RPC 2430, SNG Aulock -, SNG Leypold -, SNG Righetti -, Lindgren -, Sear GIC –
ecoli
5514.jpg
005d. Agrippina II89 viewsLYDIA, Hypaepa. Agrippina Jr., mother of Nero. Augusta, 50-59 AD. Æ 14mm (2.33 gm). Draped bust of Agrippina right / Cult statue of Artemis. RPC I 2541; SNG Copenhagen -.

Julia Vipsania Agrippina Minor or Agrippina Minor (Latin for "the younger") (November 7, AD 15 – March 59), often called "Agrippinilla" to distinguish her from her mother, was the daughter of Germanicus and Agrippina Major. She was sister of Caligula, granddaughter and great-niece to Tiberius, niece and wife of Claudius, and the mother of Nero. She was born at Oppidum Ubiorum on the Rhine, afterwards named in her honour Colonia Agrippinae (modern Cologne, Germany).

Agrippina was first married to (1st century AD) Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus. From this marriage she gave birth to Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus, who would become Roman Emperor Nero. Her husband died in January, 40. While still married, Agrippina participated openly in her brother Caligula's decadent court, where, according to some sources, at his instigation she prostituted herself in a palace. While it was generally agreed that Agrippinilla, as well as her sisters, had ongoing sexual relationships with their brother Caligula, incest was an oft-used criminal accusation against the aristocracy, because it was impossible to refute successfully. As Agrippina and her sister became more problematic for their brother, Caligula sent them into exile for a time, where it is said she was forced to dive for sponges to make a living. In January, 41, Agrippina had a second marriage to the affluent Gaius Sallustius Crispus Passienus. He died between 44 and 47, leaving his estate to Agrippina.

As a widow, Agrippina was courted by the freedman Pallas as a possible marriage match to her own uncle, Emperor Claudius, and became his favourite councillor, even granted the honor of being called Augusta (a title which no other queen had ever received). They were married on New Year's Day of 49, after the death of Claudius's first wife Messalina. Agrippina then proceeded to persuade Claudius to adopt her son, thereby placing Nero in the line of succession to the Imperial throne over Claudius's own son, Brittanicus. A true Imperial politician, Agrippina did not reject murder as a way to win her battles. Many ancient sources credited her with poisoning Claudius in 54 with a plate of poisened mushrooms, hence enabling Nero to quickly take the throne as emperor.

For some time, Agrippina influenced Nero as he was relatively ill-equipped to rule on his own. But Nero eventually felt that she was taking on too much power relative to her position as a woman of Rome. He deprived her of her honours and exiled her from the palace, but that was not enough. Three times Nero tried to poison Agrippina, but she had been raised in the Imperial family and was accustomed to taking antidotes. Nero had a machine built and attached to the roof of her bedroom. The machine was designed to make the ceiling collapse — the plot failed with the machine. According to the historians Tacitus and Suetonius, Nero then plotted her death by sending for her in a boat constructed to collapse, intending to drown Agrippina. However, only some of the crew were in on the plot; their efforts were hampered by the rest of the crew trying to save the ship. As the ship sank, one of her handmaidens thought to save herself by crying that she was Agrippina, thinking they would take special care of her. Instead the maid was instantly beaten to death with oars and chains. The real Agrippina realised what was happening and in the confusion managed to swim away where a passing fisherman picked her up. Terrified that his cover had been blown, Nero instantly sent men to charge her with treason and summarily execute her. Legend states that when the Emperor's soldiers came to kill her, Agrippina pulled back her clothes and ordered them to stab her in the belly that had housed such a monstrous son.

ecoli
coins211.JPG
006a. Nero / Poppaea31 viewsAlexandria, Egypt: Nero / Poppaea

Poppaea was married first to Rufrius Crispinus, then to the future (brief) emperor Otho. When Poppaea became mistress of the emperor Nero, Otho's friend, Nero appointed Otho to an important post as governor of Lusitai. Nero married Poppaea, and Poppaea was given the title Augusta. Poppaea and Nero had a daughter, Claudia, who did not live long. Poppaea urged Nero to kill his mother, Agrippina the Younger, and to divorce and later murder his first wife, Octavia. She is also reported to have persuaded Nero to kill the philosopher Seneca, who had supported Nero's previous mistress, Acte Claudia. Nero supposedly kicked her when she was pregnant in 65 C.E. and she died.

Billon tetradrachm, AD 54-68 (year 10 = AD 64) . 11.79gm, 24mm. Radiate head of Nero right / Bust of Poppaea right. Emmett 128 (10); Milne 218. F+ with some corrosion on reverse. Purchased from C. & L. Deland in 1973.
ecoli
ABH_1293_AS_BILBILIS_Augusto.jpg
01-63 - Augusta Bilbilis - Hispania - AUGUSTO (27 A.C. - 14 D.C.)29 viewsHoy en las cercanías de Calatayud (Zaragoza), España
M.Sempronius Tiberius y L.Licius Varus duumviri

AE AS 30 mm 14.8 gr.

Anv: "AVGVSTVS·DIV·F·PATER·PATRIAE" (Leyenda anti-horaria)- Busto laureado viendo a izquierda.
Rev: "MVN·AVGVSTA·BILBILIS·M·SEMP·TIBERI·L·LICI·VARO" - "II VIR" esta última leyenda dentro de guirnalda.

Acuñada 02 A.C. - 14 D.C.
Ceca: Colonia Augusta Bilbilis - Hispania

Referencias: RPC I #393a P.129, SNG München #22, Sear GICTV #7 Pag.2, Cohen Vol.1 #640 var. (Busto a der.) Pag.152, Vv Pl.CXXXIX #2, FAB #278, ACIP #3018, ABH #278, ABH (Ant) #1293 P.163/4, Ripolles #3392 P.392
mdelvalle
BMC_XXVI__62_Augusto_BERYTOS_FENICIA.jpg
01-80 - Beritos - Fenicia - AUGUSTO (27 A.C. - 14 D.C.)19 viewsAE22 22 mm 12.0 gr.
Acuñada a Divo Augusto durante el reinado de Trajano.
La Colonia Iulia Augusta Felix Berytus fue fundada por veteranos de las 5ta. y 8va. legione, probablemente en el 14 A.C.

Anv: " DIVOS AVGVSTVS " Cabeza desnuda de Augusto viendo a derecha.
Rev: "COL·/ IVL " (en campo centro alto), "AVG" (en campo derecho) y , "BER" (en campo izquierdo), rodeando a Fundador velado, arando a derecha con un buey y una vaca .

Acuñada probablemente 98–102 D.C.
Ceca: Beritos - Fenicia

Referencias: RPC I #1651 Pag.308 - Sawaya 2009 #565 Pag.37 - BMC Phoenicia #65-5 Pag.60
mdelvalle
145197.jpg
011a. Julia Titi56 viewsJulia Flavia (17 September 64 - 91) was the only child to the Emperor Titus from his second marriage to the well-connected Marcia Furnilla. Titus divorced Furnilla after Julia's birth. Julia was born in Rome.

When growing up, Titus offered her in marriage to his brother Domitian, but he refused because of his infatuation with Domitia Longina. Later she married her second cousin Titus Flavius Sabinus, brother to consul Titus Flavius Clemens, who married her first cousin Flavia Domitilla. By then Domitian had seduced her.

When her father and husband died, she became Emperor Domitian’s mistress. He openly showed his love. Falling pregnant, Julia died of a forced abortion. Julia was deified and her ashes her mixed with Domitian by an old nurse secretly in the Temple of the Flavians.

AEOLIS, Temnus. Julia Titi. Augusta, AD 79-91. Æ 16mm (2.18 gm). Draped bust right / EPI AGNOU THMNIT, Athena standing left, holding palladium and scepter, shield resting on ground. RPC II 981. Near VF, dark green patina, small flan crack. Ex-CNG

From the Garth R. Drewry Collection. Ex Classical Numismatic Group 51 (15 September 1999), lot 875; Marcel Burstein Collection.
ecoli
102155.jpg
012a. Domitia101 viewsDomitia, wife of Domitian. Augusta, 82-96 AD.

In 70, Domitia was married to Lucius Aelius Lamia, but she attracted the attention of Domitian, son of emperor Vespasian. Shortly afterwards she was taken from her husband and remarried with the future emperor. They had a son in the next year and a daughter in 74, both died young. Domitian was very fond of his wife and carried her in all his travels. In 83, Domitia Longina's affair with the actor Paris was disclosed. Paris was executed and Domitia received her letter of divorce from Domitian. She was exiled, but remained close to Roman politics and to Domitian.

CILICIA, Epiphanea. Æ 21mm (7.18 gm). Dated year 151 (83/84 AD). Draped bust right / Athena standing left, righ hand extended, left resting on shield; ANP (date) left. RPC I 1786; SNG Levante 1813; SNG France -; SNG Copenhagen -. VF, dark green patina, some smoothing. Very rare, only 1 specimen (the Levante specimen), recorded in RPC. Ex-CNG
ecoli73
SabinaDen.JPG
013. Sabina, wife od Hadrian. d137A.D. AR Denarius.105 viewsAR Denarius. Rome mint.

Obv. Draped bust right SABINA AVGVSTA HADRIANI AVG PP

Rev. Pudicitia standing left. PVDICITIA.

RIC407. CHVF.
LordBest
0186.jpg
0186 - Denarius Augustus 19-18 AC50 viewsObv/ Oak-wreathed head of Augustus r.
Rev/ Shield (clipeus votivus) inscribed CL V; around, S P Q R; above and below CAESAR AVGVSTVS; to both sides, laurel branches.

Ag, 18.1 mm, 3.80g
Mint: Colonia CaesarAugusta (?)
RIC I/36a [R3] - BMCRE I/354
ex-AENP Numismatic Convention, Madrid, march 2014 (Herrero)
4 commentsdafnis
Augustus_RIC_I_4(a).jpg
02 03 Augustus RIC I 4(a)40 viewsAugustus. 27B.C. -14A.D. AR Denarius. Emerita Mint, c. 25-23 A.D. (3.21g, 19.4mm, 0h). Obv: IMP CAESAR AVGVST, bare head right. Rev: P CARISIVS LEG PRO PR, trophy of helmet cuirass, shield, and javelins, on heap of shields and lances. RIC 4(a), RSC 403(a).

Augustus established the colony of Emerita Augusta in Lusitania to settle emeriti- retiring soldiers- as he downsized the Roman army. P. Carisius, legatus pro praetore, effected the foundation on Augustus’s behalf. Emerita served as a strongpoint for the Empire in the west of Spain.
1 commentsLucas H
025_Domitia,_Lydia,_Philadelphia,__SNG_Cop__378,__RPC_1340,_BMC-63_,Q-001_18mm,_5,61g-s.jpg
025p Domitia (82-96 A.D. Augusta), Lydia, Philadelphia, RPC 1340, AE-18, ΦIΛA/ΔЄΛ/ΦЄω/N, in wreath, 125 views025p Domitia (82-96 A.D. Augusta), Lydia, Philadelphia, RPC 1340, AE-18, ΦIΛA/ΔЄΛ/ΦЄω/N, in wreath,
avers: ΔOMITIA AYΓOYCTA, draped bust right.
reverse: ΦIΛA ΔЄΛ ΦЄω N, in four lines within laurel-wreath.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 18,0mm, weight: 5,61g, axis: h,
mint: Lydia, Philadelphia, date: 82-96 A.D., ref: SNG Cop. 378, RPC 1340, SNG von Aulock 3075, BMC 63,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
025_Domitia_(82-96_A_D__Augusta),_Lydia,_Silandos,_RPC_1354,_AE-16,_Q-001_6h_15-17mm_2,4g-s.jpg
025p Domitia (82-96 A.D. Augusta), Lydia, Silandos, RPC 1354, AE-16, CIΛAN ΔEΩN, Men standing left, 153 views025p Domitia (82-96 A.D. Augusta), Lydia, Silandos, RPC 1354, AE-16, CIΛAN ΔEΩN, Men standing left,
avers:- ΔOMITIA AYΓOYCTA, draped bust right.
revers:- CIΛAN ΔEΩN, Men standing left, holding pine cone and sceptre.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 15,0-17,0mm, weight: 2,40g, axis: 6h,
mint: Lydia, Silandos, date: 82-96 A.D., ref: RPC 1354. BMC 17.
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
025_Domitia_(Augusta,_82-96)_Lydia-Thyateira-AE-17__OMITIA_C_BACTH__VAT_IPHN_N_RPC-II-945_Q-001_6h_16,7-17,7mm_2,59gy-s~0.jpg
025p Domitia (82-96 A.D. Augusta), Lydia, Thyateira, RPC II. 945, AE-17, ΘVATEIP HNΩN, Tripod, 123 views025p Domitia (82-96 A.D. Augusta), Lydia, Thyateira, RPC II. 945, AE-17, ΘVATEIP HNΩN, Tripod,
avers:- ΔOMITIA CЄBACTH, Draped bust right.
revers:- ΘVATEIP HNΩN, Tripod.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 16,7-17,7mm, weight: 2,59g, axis: 6h,
mint: Lydia, Thyateira, date: 82-96 A.D., ref: RPC II. 945,
Q-001
quadrans
augustus berytos AE22.jpg
027 BC-14 AD - AUGUSTUS AE22 of Berytus 49 viewsobv: IMP.CAES AVGVSTVS (bare head of Augustus right)
rev: COL.IVL (founder plowing with two oxen, left)
ref: BMC 52, RPC 4540,
mint: Berytus
8.45gms, 22mm

Colony Berytus (modern Beirut) in Phoenicia. Augustus sent to it part of the veterans takens from two legions (V Macedonica and VIII Augusta) as a reinforcement to the first military settlers of Julius Caesar.
berserker
Matidia_MATIDIA-AVG-DIVA-F-MARCIANAE-F_PIETAS-AVGVST_RIC-579_112-AD_Q-001_1h_18,5mm_g-s.jpg
031 Matidia ( -119 A.D.), AR-Denarius, RIC II 759 (Trajanus), Rome, PIETAS AVGVST, Matidia as Pietas with Sabina and Matidia Minor, Modern Fake !!!86 views031 Matidia ( -119 A.D.), AR-Denarius, RIC II 759 (Trajanus), Rome, PIETAS AVGVST, Matidia as Pietas with Sabina and Matidia Minor, Modern Fake !!!
Matidia Daughter of Marciana, niece of Trajan. Augusta, 112-119 A.D.
avers:- MATIDIA-AVG-DIVA-F-MARCIANAE-F, Draped bust of Matidia right.
revers:- PIETAS AVGVST, Matidia as Pietas standing holding hands with Sabina and Matidia Minor.
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: 18,5mm, weight:g, axis: h,
mint: Rome, date: 103-111 A.D., ref: RIC II 759 (Trajanus), p-, BMC-660, RSC-10,
Q-001
Struck. Die-engraver "Lipanoff Studio"
Published: Sofia 2004, no.47
I. Prokopov
1 commentsquadrans
dom as caesar pegasus.jpg
03a Domitian as Caesar RIC 921162 viewsAR Denarius, 3.12g
Rome mint, 76-77 AD (Vespasian)
RIC 921 (C2). BMC 193. RSC 47.
Obv: CAESAR AVG F DOMITIANVS; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: COS IIII; Pegasus, standing r.
Acquired from Nilus Coins, March 2007.

The reverse copies an Augustan one and might possibly allude to Domitian's foray into poetry. (BMCRE xl)

Unlike most of the crude Domitian portraits of the time from the Rome mint, this one has a great beauty and nobility to it that few of his contemporary denarii strive to achieve. Was it a minor slight that most of the better die engravers were used for Vespasian and Titus' coins? Thankfully one slipped through to create a wonderful portrait of the young caesar.

Despite some minor flaws, this is a wonderful coin that I'm happy to add to my collection.
2 commentsVespasian70
053_Geta_AE-18_P-CEPTI-GETAC-K_Augusta-Traiana_Moushmov-3085_Varbanov_(Engl)_1281_Q-001_7h_18mm_4,29ga-s~0.jpg
053p Geta (209-211 A.D.), Thrace, Augusta Traiana, Varbanov (Engl)-1281, AE-18, AVΓOVCTH TPAIANHC, Artemis running right,65 views053p Geta (209-211 A.D.), Thrace, Augusta Traiana, Varbanov (Engl)-1281, AE-18, AVΓOVCTH TPAIANHC, Artemis running right,
avers:- P-CEΠ-ΓETAC-K, Bare-headed, draped, cuirassed bust younger Geta right.
revers:- AVΓOVCTH TPAIANHC, Artemis running right, holding bow in left hand and drawing arrow from quiver at shoulder, hound running at her feet.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 18mm, weight: 4,29g, axis: 7h,
mint: Thrace, Augusta Traiana, date: A.D., ref: Varbanov (Engl)-1281, Moushmov-3085,
Q-001
quadrans
063_Orbiana,_(225-227_AD),_RIC_319v_,_Limes_Denarius,_SALL_BARBIA_ORBIANA_AVG,_CONCORDIA_AVGG,_RSC_1v_,_BMC_287v_,_225-226_AD,_Q-001,_6h,_18-19,5mm,_2,66g-s.jpg
063 Orbiana ( 225-227 A.D. Augusta), RIC IV-II 319v.(base metal!), Rome, "Limes" Denarius, CONCORDIA AVG G, Concordia seated left on throne, #135 views063 Orbiana ( 225-227 A.D. Augusta), RIC IV-II 319v.(base metal!), Rome, "Limes" Denarius, CONCORDIA AVG G, Concordia seated left on throne, #1
Wife of Severus Alexander.
avers: SALL BARBIA ORBIANA AVG, Diademed and draped bust right.
reverse: CONCORDI A AVG G, Concordia seated left on throne, holding patera and single(!) cornucopiae.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 18,0-19,5mm, weight: 2,66g, axis: 6h,
mint: Rome, date: 225-226 A.D., ref: RIC IV-II 319v.(single cornucopiae!, base metal!), RSC 1v., BMC 287v., Sear 8191v.
Q-001
quadrans
063_Orbiana,_(225-227_AD),_RIC_319v_,_Limes_Denarius,_SALL_BARBIA_ORBIANA_AVG,_CONCORDIA_AVGG,_RSC_1v_,_BMC_287v_,_225-226_AD,_Q-001,_6h,_18-19,5mm,_2,66g-s~0.jpg
063 Orbiana ( 225-227 A.D. Augusta), RIC IV-II 319v.(base metal!), Rome, "Limes" Denarius, CONCORDIA AVG G, Concordia seated left on throne, #151 views063 Orbiana ( 225-227 A.D. Augusta), RIC IV-II 319v.(base metal!), Rome, "Limes" Denarius, CONCORDIA AVG G, Concordia seated left on throne, #1
Wife of Severus Alexander.
avers: SALL BARBIA ORBIANA AVG, Diademed and draped bust right.
reverse: CONCORDI A AVG G, Concordia seated left on throne, holding patera and single(!) cornucopiae.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 18,0-19,5mm, weight: 2,66g, axis: 6h,
mint: Rome, date: 225-226 A.D., ref: RIC IV-II 319v.(single cornucopiae!, base metal!), RSC 1v., BMC 287v., Sear 8191v.
Q-001
quadrans
faustina-jr_AR-denarius_CERES_3_4gr_obv_08_rev_05.JPG
07 - Faustina Jr. - AR Denarius - CERES12 viewsAncient Roman Empire
Empress Faustina Jr. (161 - 175 AD)
also known as 'Faustina the Younger', daughter of Roman Emperor Antoninus Pius (138 - 161 AD) and Roman Empress Faustina Sr. (138 - 141 AD) also known as 'Faustina the Elder'.
Faustina Jr. was wife of the Roman Emperor, who also happened to be her maternal cousin, Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius (161 - 180 AD).
She was also mother to the future Emperor 'Commodus' (180 - 192 AD, sole reign ).

obv: FAVSTINA AVGVSTA - Draped bust of Empress Faustina facing right.
rev: CERES - Ceres seated left, holding corn ears and long torch.

Size: 19 mm
Weight: 3.4 Grams
----
--------
----
Imperial Lifetime Issue Minted During the Reign of Marcus Aurelius.

References: RIC 669, RSC 35, BMC 79
---
-
rexesq
faustina-jr_AR-denarius_CERES_3_4gr_obv_01_rev_04.JPG
07 - Faustina Jr. - AR Denarius - CERES22 viewsAncient Roman Empire
Empress Faustina Jr. (161 - 175 AD)
also known as 'Faustina the Younger', daughter of Roman Emperor Antoninus Pius (138 - 161 AD) and Roman Empress Faustina Sr. (138 - 141 AD) also known as 'Faustina the Elder'.
Faustina Jr. was wife of the Roman Emperor, who also happened to be her maternal cousin, Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius (161 - 180 AD).
She was also mother to the future Emperor 'Commodus' (180 - 192 AD, sole reign ).

obv: FAVSTINA AVGVSTA - Draped bust of Empress Faustina facing right.
rev: CERES - Ceres seated left, holding corn ears and long torch.

Size: 19 mm
Weight: 3.4 Grams
----
--------
----
Imperial Lifetime Issue Minted During the Reign of Marcus Aurelius.

References: RIC 669, RSC 35, BMC 79
---
-
2 commentsrexesq
faustina-jr_AR-denarius_CERES_3_4gr_obv_09_rev_06.JPG
07 - Faustina Jr. - AR Denarius - CERES17 viewsAncient Roman Empire
Empress Faustina Jr. (161 - 175 AD)
also known as 'Faustina the Younger', daughter of Roman Emperor Antoninus Pius (138 - 161 AD) and Roman Empress Faustina Sr. (138 - 141 AD) also known as 'Faustina the Elder'.
Faustina Jr. was wife of the Roman Emperor, who also happened to be her maternal cousin, Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius (161 - 180 AD).
She was also mother to the future Emperor 'Commodus' (180 - 192 AD, sole reign ).

obv: FAVSTINA AVGVSTA - Draped bust of Empress Faustina facing right.
rev: CERES - Ceres seated left, holding corn ears and long torch.

Size: 19 mm
Weight: 3.4 Grams
----
--------
----
Imperial Lifetime Issue Minted During the Reign of Marcus Aurelius.

References: RIC 669, RSC 35, BMC 79
---
-
rexesq
faustina-jr_AR-Denarius_CERES_00.JPG
07 - Faustina Jr. - AR Denarius - CERES25 viewsAncient Roman Empire
Empress Faustina Jr. (161 - 175 AD)
also known as 'Faustina the Younger', daughter of Roman Emperor Antoninus Pius (138 - 161 AD) and Roman Empress Faustina Sr. (138 - 141 AD) also known as 'Faustina the Elder'.
Faustina Jr. was wife of the Roman Emperor, who also happened to be her maternal cousin, Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius (161 - 180 AD).
She was also mother to the future Emperor 'Commodus' (180 - 192 AD, sole reign ).

obv: FAVSTINA AVGVSTA - Draped bust of Empress Faustina facing right.
rev: CERES - Ceres seated left, holding corn ears and long torch.

Size: 19 mm
Weight: 3.4 Grams
----
--------
----
Imperial Lifetime Issue Minted During the Reign of Marcus Aurelius.

References: RIC 669, RSC 35, BMC 79
---
-
2 commentsrexesq
Copy_of_faustina-jr_AR-denarius_CERES_3_4gr_w-quarter_obv_01.JPG
07 - Faustina Jr. - AR Denarius - CERES - with US 25 Cent coin.8 viewsAncient Roman Empire
Empress Faustina Jr. (161 - 175 AD)
also known as 'Faustina the Younger', daughter of Roman Emperor Antoninus Pius (138 - 161 AD) and Roman Empress Faustina Sr. (138 - 141 AD) also known as 'Faustina the Elder'.
Faustina Jr. was wife of the Roman Emperor, who also happened to be her maternal cousin, Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius (161 - 180 AD).
She was also mother to the future Emperor 'Commodus' (180 - 192 AD, sole reign ).

obv: FAVSTINA AVGVSTA - Draped bust of Empress Faustina facing right.
rev: CERES - Ceres seated left, holding corn ears and long torch.

Size: 19 mm
Weight: 3.4 Grams
----
--------
----
Imperial Lifetime Issue Minted During the Reign of Marcus Aurelius.

References: RIC 669, RSC 35, BMC 79
---
-
--------------------------------
*US Quarter Dollar (25 cents) to right, for size comparison.
--------------------------------
rexesq
Copy_of_faustina-jr_AR-denarius_CERES_3_4gr_w-quarter_obv_05.JPG
07 - Faustina Jr. - AR Denarius - CERES - with US 25 Cent coin.12 viewsAncient Roman Empire
Empress Faustina Jr. (161 - 175 AD)
also known as 'Faustina the Younger', daughter of Roman Emperor Antoninus Pius (138 - 161 AD) and Roman Empress Faustina Sr. (138 - 141 AD) also known as 'Faustina the Elder'.
Faustina Jr. was wife of the Roman Emperor, who also happened to be her maternal cousin, Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius (161 - 180 AD).
She was also mother to the future Emperor 'Commodus' (180 - 192 AD, sole reign ).

obv: FAVSTINA AVGVSTA - Draped bust of Empress Faustina facing right.
rev: CERES - Ceres seated left, holding corn ears and long torch.

Size: 19 mm
Weight: 3.4 Grams
----
--------
----
Imperial Lifetime Issue Minted During the Reign of Marcus Aurelius.

References: RIC 669, RSC 35, BMC 79
---
-
--------------------------------
*US Quarter Dollar (25 cents) to right, for size comparison.
--------------------------------
rexesq
Cappadocia,_Caesarea,_073p_Tranquilina,_Syd-618,_AE_21,_CAB_T_#929;ANKY_#923;_#923;INA_AY_#915;,_MHTR_KAI_B_NE_ET-Z,_SGI_3864,_244_AD,_Q-001,_0h,_21mm,_6,28g-s.jpg
073p Tranquilina (241-244 A.D., Augusta), Cappadocia, Caesarea, Syd. 618, AE-21, MHTR KAI B NЄ, Six-grain ears, #135 views073p Tranquilina (241-244 A.D., Augusta), Cappadocia, Caesarea, Syd. 618, AE-21, MHTR KAI B NЄ, Six-grain ears, #1
Wife of Emperor Gordian III.
avers: CAB TΡANKYΛΛINA AYΓ, Diademed and draped bust right.
reverse: MHTR KAI B NЄ, Six-grain ears bound together, ЄT-Z across the field.
exergue: ЄT/Z//--, diameter: 21,0mm, weight: 6,28g, axis:0h,
mint: Cappadocia, Caesarea, date: Year=7, 244 A.D., ref: Syd-618,
Q-001
quadrans
60304LG.jpg
102a. Plotina136 viewsPlotina, wife of Trajan.

Under Trajan, his female relations played enormously important roles in the empire's public life, and received honors perhaps unparalleled. Trajan's wife, Pompeia Plotina, is reported to have said, when she entered the imperial palace in Rome for the first time, that she hoped she would leave it the same person she was when she entered. She received the title Augusta no later than 105. She survived Trajan, dying probably in 121, and was honored by Hadrian with a temple, which she shared with her husband, in the great forum which the latter had built.

Æ trial strike of denarius dies (23 mm, 7.42 g). Rome. [PL]OTINA AVG IMP TRAIANI, diademed and draped bust right, hair in queue down neck / CAES AVG GERMA [D]A[C] COS V[I P P], Vesta seated left, holding palladium in right hand, sceptre in left. Cf. RIC 730 (Trajan); cf. BMC 526 (Trajan); cf. RSC 3. VF, rough green patina. Very unusual and probably unique. Ex Spink 160 (9-10 October 2002), 852.
ecoli73
IMG_9225.JPG
102b. Matidia 8 views Matidia. Augusta, A.D. 112-119. AR denarius. Rome mint, Struck A.D. 112.
Matidia. Augusta, A.D. 112-119. AR denarius (19.6 mm, 2.74 g, 7 h). Rome mint, Struck A.D. 112. MATIDIA AVG DIVAE MARCIANA F, diademed and draped bust right, wearing hair in elaborate coiffure / PIETAS AVGVST, Pietas standing left, extending hands to child standing on either side. RIC 759 (Trajan); BMCRE 660 (Trajan); RSC 10. near Fine.
ecoli
coin224.JPG
103a. Sabina25 viewsSabina

Vibia Sabina was born in 86 CE was the daughter of Salonia Matidia, daughter of Trajan's sister Marciana, and her first husband Lucius Vibius Sabinus. Hence she was a grand niece of emperor Trajan. By the intervention of Trajan's wife Plotina she married Hadrian in 100 CE, thus reinforcing Hadrian's claim to the throne.

The marriage was not happy and she didn't bear him any children. She did, however, follow Hadrian on his many travels, and she received the title of Augusta in 128 CE. She died in 136 or 137 CE and was dutifully deified after her death

AR denarius. SABINA AVGVSTA HADRIANI AVG Diademed and draped bust right, hair in plait behind / VES TA Vesta seated left, holding Palladium and scepter. RIC 410, RSC 81.
ecoli
coin192.JPG
104. Antoninus Pius & Marcus Aurelius31 viewsAntoninus Pius & Marcus Aurelius

In preparation for the succession, Antoninus' daughter Faustina married Marcus Aurelius in A.D. 145 and she soon became Augusta in place of her deceased mother. Marcus Aurelius was associated in imperial powers and he and L. Verus both held the consulship multiple times in preparation for their accession. In his Meditations, Marcus Aurelius expressed his enduring love and respect for his adoptive father: "Do all things as a disciple of Antoninus. Think of his constancy in every act rationally undertaken, his invariable equability, his piety, his serenity of countenance, his sweetness of disposition, his contempt for the bubble of fame, and his zeal for getting a true grasp of affairs."

Check

Sestertius. ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P COS III, laureate head right / AVRELIVS CAESAR AVG PII COS S-C. Cohen 34.
ecoli
coin285.JPG
104a. Faustina 32 viewsFaustina I

Annia Galeria Faustina, "the Elder", was the wife of the Roman Emperor Antoninus Pius, an aunt of Marcus Aurelius, and mother of Faustina the Younger. She was the daughter of the consul Marcus Annius Verus, and married Antoninus around 110 AD. They had two sons and two daughters. She became Augusta upon the accession of her husband. Although Augustan History impugned her character, criticizing her for "excessive frankness" and "levity", she and Antoninus seem to have been happily married until her death in 140 or 141

obv: DIVA FAVSTINA (diademed & draped bust right)
rev: AVGVSTA (Pietas standing left with raised hand, altar at foot left)
ref: RIC III 374 (Ant.Pius), RSC 124 (2frcs)

Corrected attribute...
ecoli
coin286.JPG
105a. Faustina II38 viewsFaustina Jr

Originally promised by Hadrian to Lucius Verus, Atoninus betrothed her to his cousin Marcus Aurelius in 139; they married in 145. She was raised to an Augusta the following year. She was said to have had a lively personality, but the late and unreliable Augustan History impugns her character, relating stories of adultery with sailors and gladiators, suggesting that Commodus was either the son of a gladiator (as explanation for his interest in gladiatorial combat), or that Faustina washed herself with the blood of an executed gladiator and then lay with Aurelius in that state. Faustina went with Aurelius on his campaign to the north (170-174) and then to the East, where she died (175). Aurelius consecrated her and founded a second Puellae Faustinianae in her name.

Denarius. FAVSTINA AVGVSTA, draped bust right / IVNO, Juno stg. front, head left, holding scepter, feeding peacock at feet out of patera. RIC 688, RSC 120
ecoli
coin217.JPG
105b. Lucius Verus27 viewsLucius Verus was a well educated, active participant in military and political affairs. He had a colorful personality. He is reputed to have been one of the most handsome of emperors whose vanity allowed him to highlight his blond hair with gold dust. The letters of Marcus Cornelius Fronto, teacher to Marcus and Lucius, are far gentler in their portrayal of Lucius' personality and grand life style than are the historical accounts of the biographies included in the Historia Augusta. Whether out of true respect or devoted brotherly love, it is evident that Marcus Aurelius treated Lucius as a partner in governing the empire and commanding its military forces. Typical of his tolerance of others, Marcus Aurelius chronically ignored or defused the questionable behavior and friendships of his brother.

AR Denarius (2.80 gm). Struck 162/3 AD. Bare head right / Providentia standing left holding globe and cornucopiae. RIC III 491 (Aurelius); RSC 156. VF. EX -CNG
ecoli
coin283.JPG
105c. Lucilla32 viewsAnnia Aurelia Galeria Lucilla (March 7, 150–183) was the daughter of the Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius and Faustina the Younger.

In AD 164, she was betrothed by her father to his co-emperor and adoptive brother, Lucius Verus, gaining the title of Augusta. Following his death she married Pompeianus. Lucilla was implicated in several plots to overthrow Commodus (her brother and then emperor) and was banished to the island of Capreae in AD 182. Shortly afterwards she was put to death by Commodus.

Silver Denarius Obv: LVCILLA AVG ANTONINI AVG F - Bare head right, draped. Rev: VENVS - Venus standing left, holding apple and scepter. Rome mint: AD 165-169 RIC III, 784, page 276 - Cohen 70- SEAR RCV II (2002), 5491, page 370 /3.05 g.
ecoli
coin194.JPG
106a. Crispina47 viewsCrispina married the sixteen year-old, Commodus in the summer of 178 and brought him, as a dowry, a large number of estates. These, when added to the Imperial holdings, gave him control of a substantial part of Lucanian territory. The actual ceremony was modest but was commemorated on coinage and largesse was distributed to the people. An epithalamium for the occasion was composed by the sophist Julius Pollux.

Upon her marriage, Crispina received the title of Augusta, and thus, became Empress of the Roman Empire as her husband was co-emperor with her father-in-law at the time. The previous empress and her mother-in-law, Faustina the Younger, having died three years prior to her arrival.

Like most marriages of young members of the nobiles, it was arranged by paters: in Crispina's case by her father and her father-in-law, Emperor Marcus Aurelius. Crispina probably meant little to her egocentric husband though she was a beautiful woman. The other possible reason being that Commodus was known to prefer the company of men. Crispina is described as being a graceful person with a susceptible heart, but there is no medal extant of her.

As Augusta, Crispina was extensively honoured with public images, during the last two years of her father-in-law's reign and the initial years of her husband's reign. She did not seem to have any significant political influence over her husband during his bizarre reign. However, she was not exempted from court politics either as her sister-in-law, Lucilla, was an ambitious woman and was reportedly jealous of Crispina, the reigning empress, due to her position and power.

Crispina's marriage failed to produce an heir due to her husband's inability, which led to a dynastic succession crisis. In fact, both Anistius Burrus (with whom Commodus had share his first consulate as sole ruler) and Gaius Arrius Antoninus, who were probably related to the imperial family, were allegedly put to death 'on the suspicion of pretending to the throne'.

After ten years of marriage, Crispina was falsely charged with adultery by her husband and was banished to the island of Capri in 188, where she was later executed. After her banishment, Commodus did not marry again but took on a mistress, a woman named Marcia, who was later said to have conspired in his murder.

Crispina, wife of Commodus, 177-192, AE Dupondius or As (24x25mm), aVF. Sear RCV 6018. Obv. CRISPINA AVGVSTA, draped bust right. Rev. IVNO LVCINA S C, Juno standing left holding patera and scepter. The coin is brown and green, on a squarish flan.
ecoli
T-3203_107_Severina_AE-Ant-Silvered_SEVERINA-PF-AVG_CONCORDIA-AVG_V_XXI_RIC-19v__T-3203_Antioch_iss-7_off-5_275-AD_Q-001_0h_23mm_4,61g-s.jpg
107 Severina (270-275 A.D.), T-3203 (Estiot), RIC V-I 019var, Antioch, AE-Antoninianus, CONCORDIA AVG, V//XXI, Emperor and Empress, R!203 views107 Severina (270-275 A.D.), T-3203 (Estiot), RIC V-I 019var, Antioch, AE-Antoninianus, CONCORDIA AVG, V//XXI, Emperor and Empress, R!
avers:- SEVERINA-PF-AVG, Empress right, diademed, draped, on a lunar crescent. (E2)
revers:- CONCORDIA-AVG, Emperor togate (no laurel crown) standing right, clasping the hand of Empress standing left. (Emperor and Empress 1)
"A very interesting coin from the historical point of view as it belongs to the issues dating from Severina's interregnum after the assassination of Aurelian (september-november 275).
"As far as the organisation of coin production was concerned, we see that from the end of 274, certain officinae in some of the mints struck coins exclusively for Severina: this is the case with issues 2-4 at Lyon, issues 10-11 at Rome and issue 4 at Ticinum. After the death of Aurelian, the officinae are no longer shared between Aurelian and Severina: at Lyon, there is a 5th issue attested by coins in the name of Severina only, and the same applies to the 12th issue at Rome where the empress monopolizes the six active équipes, and the 5th issue at Ticinum, where all six officinae struck coins just for Severina. It is clear that the Empress as regent was exercising alone power and right to coin.
In fact the evidence shows that all eight mints that were active in the autumn of 275 across the Empire were producing issues in the name of Severina alone. The mint at Serdica struck coins for Severina with the legend Severina Augusta.The mint at Antioch exceptionally gave the Empress the titles P(ia) F(elix), normally reserved for emperors; on the reverse, the legend is changed from the plural form Concordia Augg (Augustorum) to the singular Concordia Aug, which may be expanded as Concordia Augustae. The type no longer shows the standard reverse, Aurelian shaking the hand of Concordia, but an anonymous male figure, now without laurel-wreath and sceptre, shaking the hand of Severina, who is easily recognizable by her characteristic hairdress and is shown in a larger size. At Alexandria, coins in the name of Severina continued to be struck as the mint received the news of Aurelian’s assassination, and stopped issuing his coins: the hoards from Karanis have 5 tetradrachms of the 7th year of Aurelian (that is after 29 August 275), but 25 of Severina."
(From the website Monnaies de l'Empire Romain / Roman Imperial Coinage 268-276 AD : http://www.ric.mom.fr/en/info/hist5#severine)"
by S. Estiot. Thank you S. Estiot.
exerg: V//XXI, diameter: 23mm, weight: 4,61g, axes: 0h,
mint: Antioch, iss-7, off-5, date: 275 A.D., ref: RIC-19var., T-3203 (Estiot), C-,
Q-001
quadrans
IMG_1446.JPG
108b. Didia Clara8 viewsDidia Clara. Augusta, AD 193. Æ Sestertius. Rome mint. Draped bust right / Hilaritas standing left, holding long palm branch set on ground and cornucopia. RIC IV 20 (Didius); Banti 1. Fair.ecoli
DiocleAnt.jpg
1301a, Diocletian, 284-305 A.D. (Antioch)92 viewsDIOCLETIAN (284 – 305 AD) AE Antoninianus, 293-95 AD, RIC V 322, Cohen 34. 20.70 mm/3.1 gm, aVF, Antioch. Obverse: IMP C C VAL DIOCLETIANVS P F AVG, Radiate bust right, draped & cuirassed; Reverse: CONCORDIA MILITVM, Jupiter presents Victory on a globe to Diocletian, I/XXI. Early Diocletian with dusty earthen green patina.


De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Diocletian ( 284-305 A.D.)

Ralph W. Mathisen
University of South Carolina


Summary and Introduction
The Emperor Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus (A.D. 284-305) put an end to the disastrous phase of Roman history known as the "Military Anarchy" or the "Imperial Crisis" (235-284). He established an obvious military despotism and was responsible for laying the groundwork for the second phase of the Roman Empire, which is known variously as the "Dominate," the "Tetrarchy," the "Later Roman Empire," or the "Byzantine Empire." His reforms ensured the continuity of the Roman Empire in the east for more than a thousand years.

Diocletian's Early Life and Reign
Diocletian was born ca. 236/237 on the Dalmatian coast, perhaps at Salona. He was of very humble birth, and was originally named Diocles. He would have received little education beyond an elementary literacy and he was apparently deeply imbued with religious piety He had a wife Prisca and a daughter Valeria, both of whom reputedly were Christians. During Diocletian's early life, the Roman empire was in the midst of turmoil. In the early years of the third century, emperors increasingly insecure on their thrones had granted inflationary pay raises to the soldiers. The only meaningful income the soldiers now received was in the form of gold donatives granted by newly acclaimed emperors. Beginning in 235, armies throughout the empire began to set up their generals as rival emperors. The resultant civil wars opened up the empire to invasion in both the north, by the Franks, Alamanni, and Goths, and the east, by the Sassanid Persians. Another reason for the unrest in the army was the great gap between the social background of the common soldiers and the officer corps.

Diocletian sought his fortune in the army. He showed himself to be a shrewd, able, and ambitious individual. He is first attested as "Duke of Moesia" (an area on the banks of the lower Danube River), with responsibility for border defense. He was a prudent and methodical officer, a seeker of victory rather than glory. In 282, the legions of the upper Danube proclaimed the praetorian prefect Carus as emperor. Diocletian found favor under the new emperor, and was promoted to Count of the Domestics, the commander of the cavalry arm of the imperial bodyguard. In 283 he was granted the honor of a consulate.

In 284, in the midst of a campaign against the Persians, Carus was killed, struck by a bolt of lightning which one writer noted might have been forged in a legionary armory. This left the empire in the hands of his two young sons, Numerian in the east and Carinus in the west. Soon thereafter, Numerian died under mysterious circumstances near Nicomedia, and Diocletian was acclaimed emperor in his place. At this time he changed his name from Diocles to Diocletian. In 285 Carinus was killed in a battle near Belgrade, and Diocletian gained control of the entire empire.

Diocletian's Administrative and Military Reforms
As emperor, Diocletian was faced with many problems. His most immediate concerns were to bring the mutinous and increasingly barbarized Roman armies back under control and to make the frontiers once again secure from invasion. His long-term goals were to restore effective government and economic prosperity to the empire. Diocletian concluded that stern measures were necessary if these problems were to be solved. He felt that it was the responsibility of the imperial government to take whatever steps were necessary, no matter how harsh or innovative, to bring the empire back under control.

Diocletian was able to bring the army back under control by making several changes. He subdivided the roughly fifty existing provinces into approximately one hundred. The provinces also were apportioned among twelve "dioceses," each under a "vicar," and later also among four "prefectures," each under a "praetorian prefect." As a result, the imperial bureaucracy became increasingly bloated. He institutionalized the policy of separating civil and military careers. He divided the army itself into so-called "border troops," actually an ineffective citizen militia, and "palace troops," the real field army, which often was led by the emperor in person.

Following the precedent of Aurelian (A.D.270-275), Diocletian transformed the emperorship into an out-and-out oriental monarchy. Access to him became restricted; he now was addressed not as First Citizen (Princeps) or the soldierly general (Imperator), but as Lord and Master (Dominus Noster) . Those in audience were required to prostrate themselves on the ground before him.

Diocletian also concluded that the empire was too large and complex to be ruled by only a single emperor. Therefore, in order to provide an imperial presence throughout the empire, he introduced the "Tetrarchy," or "Rule by Four." In 285, he named his lieutenant Maximianus "Caesar," and assigned him the western half of the empire. This practice began the process which would culminate with the de facto split of the empire in 395. Both Diocletian and Maximianus adopted divine attributes. Diocletian was identified with Jupiter and Maximianus with Hercules. In 286, Diocletian promoted Maximianus to the rank of Augustus, "Senior Emperor," and in 293 he appointed two new Caesars, Constantius (the father of Constantine I ), who was given Gaul and Britain in the west, and Galerius, who was assigned the Balkans in the east.

By instituting his Tetrarchy, Diocletian also hoped to solve another problem. In the Augustan Principate, there had been no constitutional method for choosing new emperors. According to Diocletian's plan, the successor of each Augustus would be the respective Caesar, who then would name a new Caesar. Initially, the Tetrarchy operated smoothly and effectively.

Once the army was under control, Diocletian could turn his attention to other problems. The borders were restored and strengthened. In the early years of his reign, Diocletian and his subordinates were able to defeat foreign enemies such as Alamanni, Sarmatians, Saracens, Franks, and Persians, and to put down rebellions in Britain and Egypt. The easter frontier was actually expanded.

.
Diocletian's Economic Reforms
Another problem was the economy, which was in an especially sorry state. The coinage had become so debased as to be virtually worthless. Diocletian's attempt to reissue good gold and silver coins failed because there simply was not enough gold and silver available to restore confidence in the currency. A "Maximum Price Edict" issued in 301, intended to curb inflation, served only to drive goods onto the black market. Diocletian finally accepted the ruin of the money economy and revised the tax system so that it was based on payments in kind . The soldiers too came to be paid in kind.

In order to assure the long term survival of the empire, Diocletian identified certain occupations which he felt would have to be performed. These were known as the "compulsory services." They included such occupations as soldiers, bakers, members of town councils, and tenant farmers. These functions became hereditary, and those engaging in them were inhibited from changing their careers. The repetitious nature of these laws, however, suggests that they were not widely obeyed. Diocletian also expanded the policy of third-century emperors of restricting the entry of senators into high-ranking governmental posts, especially military ones.

Diocletian attempted to use the state religion as a unifying element. Encouraged by the Caesar Galerius, Diocletian in 303 issued a series of four increasingly harsh decrees designed to compel Christians to take part in the imperial cult, the traditional means by which allegiance was pledged to the empire. This began the so-called "Great Persecution."

Diocletian's Resignation and Death
On 1 May 305, wearied by his twenty years in office, and determined to implement his method for the imperial succession, Diocletian abdicated. He compelled his co-regent Maximianus to do the same. Constantius and Galerius then became the new Augusti, and two new Caesars were selected, Maximinus (305-313) in the east and Severus (305- 307) in the west. Diocletian then retired to his palace at Split on the Croatian coast. In 308 he declined an offer to resume the purple, and the aged ex-emperor died at Split on 3 December 316.

Copyright (C) 1996, Ralph W. Mathisen, University of South Carolina
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

1 commentsCleisthenes
DicletianConcordCyz.jpg
1301b, Diocletian, 20 November 284 - 1 March 305 A.D.56 viewsDiocletian. RIC V Part II Cyzicus 256 var. Not listed with pellet in exegrue
Item ref: RI141f. VF. Minted in Cyzicus (B in centre field, XXI dot in exegrue)Obverse:- IMP CC VAL DIOCLETIANVS AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right. Reverse:- CONCORDIA MILITVM, Diocletian standing right, holding parazonium, receiving Victory from Jupiter standing left with scepter.
A post reform radiate of Diocletian. Ex Maridvnvm.

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Diocletian ( 284-305 A.D.)

Ralph W. Mathisen
University of South Carolina


Summary and Introduction
The Emperor Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus (A.D. 284-305) put an end to the disastrous phase of Roman history known as the "Military Anarchy" or the "Imperial Crisis" (235-284). He established an obvious military despotism and was responsible for laying the groundwork for the second phase of the Roman Empire, which is known variously as the "Dominate," the "Tetrarchy," the "Later Roman Empire," or the "Byzantine Empire." His reforms ensured the continuity of the Roman Empire in the east for more than a thousand years.

Diocletian's Early Life and Reign
Diocletian was born ca. 236/237 on the Dalmatian coast, perhaps at Salona. He was of very humble birth, and was originally named Diocles. He would have received little education beyond an elementary literacy and he was apparently deeply imbued with religious piety He had a wife Prisca and a daughter Valeria, both of whom reputedly were Christians. During Diocletian's early life, the Roman empire was in the midst of turmoil. In the early years of the third century, emperors increasingly insecure on their thrones had granted inflationary pay raises to the soldiers. The only meaningful income the soldiers now received was in the form of gold donatives granted by newly acclaimed emperors. Beginning in 235, armies throughout the empire began to set up their generals as rival emperors. The resultant civil wars opened up the empire to invasion in both the north, by the Franks, Alamanni, and Goths, and the east, by the Sassanid Persians. Another reason for the unrest in the army was the great gap between the social background of the common soldiers and the officer corps.

Diocletian sought his fortune in the army. He showed himself to be a shrewd, able, and ambitious individual. He is first attested as "Duke of Moesia" (an area on the banks of the lower Danube River), with responsibility for border defense. He was a prudent and methodical officer, a seeker of victory rather than glory. In 282, the legions of the upper Danube proclaimed the praetorian prefect Carus as emperor. Diocletian found favor under the new emperor, and was promoted to Count of the Domestics, the commander of the cavalry arm of the imperial bodyguard. In 283 he was granted the honor of a consulate.

In 284, in the midst of a campaign against the Persians, Carus was killed, struck by a bolt of lightning which one writer noted might have been forged in a legionary armory. This left the empire in the hands of his two young sons, Numerian in the east and Carinus in the west. Soon thereafter, Numerian died under mysterious circumstances near Nicomedia, and Diocletian was acclaimed emperor in his place. At this time he changed his name from Diocles to Diocletian. In 285 Carinus was killed in a battle near Belgrade, and Diocletian gained control of the entire empire.

Diocletian's Administrative and Military Reforms
As emperor, Diocletian was faced with many problems. His most immediate concerns were to bring the mutinous and increasingly barbarized Roman armies back under control and to make the frontiers once again secure from invasion. His long-term goals were to restore effective government and economic prosperity to the empire. Diocletian concluded that stern measures were necessary if these problems were to be solved. He felt that it was the responsibility of the imperial government to take whatever steps were necessary, no matter how harsh or innovative, to bring the empire back under control.

Diocletian was able to bring the army back under control by making several changes. He subdivided the roughly fifty existing provinces into approximately one hundred. The provinces also were apportioned among twelve "dioceses," each under a "vicar," and later also among four "prefectures," each under a "praetorian prefect." As a result, the imperial bureaucracy became increasingly bloated. He institutionalized the policy of separating civil and military careers. He divided the army itself into so-called "border troops," actually an ineffective citizen militia, and "palace troops," the real field army, which often was led by the emperor in person.

Following the precedent of Aurelian (A.D.270-275), Diocletian transformed the emperorship into an out-and-out oriental monarchy. Access to him became restricted; he now was addressed not as First Citizen (Princeps) or the soldierly general (Imperator), but as Lord and Master (Dominus Noster) . Those in audience were required to prostrate themselves on the ground before him.

Diocletian also concluded that the empire was too large and complex to be ruled by only a single emperor. Therefore, in order to provide an imperial presence throughout the empire, he introduced the "Tetrarchy," or "Rule by Four." In 285, he named his lieutenant Maximianus "Caesar," and assigned him the western half of the empire. This practice began the process which would culminate with the de facto split of the empire in 395. Both Diocletian and Maximianus adopted divine attributes. Diocletian was identified with Jupiter and Maximianus with Hercules. In 286, Diocletian promoted Maximianus to the rank of Augustus, "Senior Emperor," and in 293 he appointed two new Caesars, Constantius (the father of Constantine I ), who was given Gaul and Britain in the west, and Galerius, who was assigned the Balkans in the east.

By instituting his Tetrarchy, Diocletian also hoped to solve another problem. In the Augustan Principate, there had been no constitutional method for choosing new emperors. According to Diocletian's plan, the successor of each Augustus would be the respective Caesar, who then would name a new Caesar. Initially, the Tetrarchy operated smoothly and effectively.

Once the army was under control, Diocletian could turn his attention to other problems. The borders were restored and strengthened. In the early years of his reign, Diocletian and his subordinates were able to defeat foreign enemies such as Alamanni, Sarmatians, Saracens, Franks, and Persians, and to put down rebellions in Britain and Egypt. The easter frontier was actually expanded.

.
Diocletian's Economic Reforms
Another problem was the economy, which was in an especially sorry state. The coinage had become so debased as to be virtually worthless. Diocletian's attempt to reissue good gold and silver coins failed because there simply was not enough gold and silver available to restore confidence in the currency. A "Maximum Price Edict" issued in 301, intended to curb inflation, served only to drive goods onto the black market. Diocletian finally accepted the ruin of the money economy and revised the tax system so that it was based on payments in kind . The soldiers too came to be paid in kind.

In order to assure the long term survival of the empire, Diocletian identified certain occupations which he felt would have to be performed. These were known as the "compulsory services." They included such occupations as soldiers, bakers, members of town councils, and tenant farmers. These functions became hereditary, and those engaging in them were inhibited from changing their careers. The repetitious nature of these laws, however, suggests that they were not widely obeyed. Diocletian also expanded the policy of third-century emperors of restricting the entry of senators into high-ranking governmental posts, especially military ones.

Diocletian attempted to use the state religion as a unifying element. Encouraged by the Caesar Galerius, Diocletian in 303 issued a series of four increasingly harsh decrees designed to compel Christians to take part in the imperial cult, the traditional means by which allegiance was pledged to the empire. This began the so-called "Great Persecution."

Diocletian's Resignation and Death
On 1 May 305, wearied by his twenty years in office, and determined to implement his method for the imperial succession, Diocletian abdicated. He compelled his co-regent Maximianus to do the same. Constantius and Galerius then became the new Augusti, and two new Caesars were selected, Maximinus (305-313) in the east and Severus (305- 307) in the west. Diocletian then retired to his palace at Split on the Croatian coast. In 308 he declined an offer to resume the purple, and the aged ex-emperor died at Split on 3 December 316.

Copyright (C) 1996, Ralph W. Mathisen, University of South Carolina
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.


Cleisthenes
Lcnius1.jpg
1308b, Licinius I, 308 - 324 A.D. (Siscia)59 viewsLicinius I, 11 November 308 - 18 September 324 A.D. Bronze follis, RIC 4, F, Siscia, 3.257g, 21.6mm, 0o, 313 - 315 A.D. Obverse: IMP LIC LICINIVS P F AVG, laureate head right; Reverse IOVI CONSERVATORI AVGG NN, Jupiter standing left holding Victory on globe and scepter, eagle with wreath in beak left, E right, SIS in exergue.



De Imperatoribus Romanis : An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Licinius (308-324 A.D.)

Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Salve Regina University

Licinius' Heritage

Valerius Licinianus Licinius, more commonly known as Licinius, may have been born ca. 265. Of peasant origin, his family was from Dacia. A close friend and comrade of arms of the Emperor Galerius, he accompanied him on his Persian expedition in 297. When campaigns by Severus and Galerius in late 306 or early 307 and in the summer of 307, respectively, failed to dislodge Maxentius who, with the luke warm support of his father Maximianus Herculius, was acclaimed princeps on 28 October 306, he was sent by the eastern emperor to Maxentius as an ambassador; the diplomatic mission, however, failed because the usurper refused to submit to the authority of his father-in-law Galerius. At the Conference of Carnuntum which was held in October or November of 308, Licinius was made an Augustus on 11 November 308; his realm included Thrace, Illyricum, and Pannonia.

Licinius' Early Reign

Although Licinius was initially appointed by Galerius to replace Severus to end the revolt of Maxentius , Licinius (perhaps wisely) made no effort to move against the usurper. In fact, his first attested victory was against the Sarmatians probably in the late spring, but no later than the end of June in 310. When the Emperor Galerius died in 311, Licinius met Maximinus Daia at the Bosporus during the early summer of that year; they concluded a treaty and divided Galerius' realm between them. It was little more than a year later that the Emperor Constantine defeated Maxentius at the Battle of the Milvian Bridge on 28 October 312. After the defeat of the usurper, Constantine and Licinius met at Mediolanum (Milan) where Licinius married the former's sister Constantia; one child was born of this union: Valerius Licinianus Licinius. Licinius had another son, born of a slave woman, whose name is unknown. It appears that both emperors promulgated the so-called Edict of Milan, in which Constantine and Licinius granted Christians the freedom to practice their faith without any interference from the state.

As soon as he seems to have learned about the marital alliance between Licinius and Constantine and the death of Maxentius, who had been his ally, Daia traversed Asia Minor and, in April 313, he crossed the Bosporus and went to Byzantium, which he took from Licinius after an eleven day siege. On 30 April 313 the armies of both emperors clashed on the Campus Ergenus; in the ensuing battle Daia's forces were routed. A last ditch stand by Daia at the Cilician Gates failed; the eastern emperor subsequently died in the area of Tarsus probably in July or August 313. As soon as he arrived in Nicomedeia, Licinius promulgated the Edict of Milan. As soon as he had matters in Nicomedeia straightened out, Licinius campaigned against the Persians in the remaining part of 313 and the opening months of 314.

The First Civil War Between Licinius and Constantine

Once Licinius had defeated Maximinus Daia, the sole rulers of the Roman world were he and Constantine. It is obvious that the marriage of Licinius to Constantia was simply a union of convenience. In any case, there is evidence in the sources that both emperors were looking for an excuse to attack the other. The affair involving Bassianus (the husband of Constantius I's daughter Anastasia ), mentioned in the text of Anonymus Valesianus (5.14ff), may have sparked the falling out between the two emperors. In any case, Constantine' s forces joined battle with those of Licinius at Cibalae in Pannonia on 8 October 314. When the battle was over, Constantine prevailed; his victory, however, was Pyrrhic. Both emperors had been involved in exhausting military campaigns in the previous year and the months leading up to Cibalae and each of their realms had expanded so fast that their manpower reserves must have been stretched to the limit. Both men retreated to their own territory to lick their wounds. It may well be that the two emperors made an agreement, which has left no direct trace in the historical record, which would effectively restore the status quo.

Both emperors were variously engaged in different activities between 315 and 316. In addition to campaigning against the Germans while residing in Augusta Treverorum (Trier) in 315, Constantine dealt with aspects of the Donatist controversy; he also traveled to Rome where he celebrated his Decennalia. Licinius, possibly residing at Sirmium, was probably waging war against the Goths. Although not much else is known about Licinius' activities during this period, it is probable that he spent much of his time preparing for his impending war against Constantine; the latter,who spent the spring and summer of 316 in Augusta Treverorum, was probably doing much the same thing. In any case, by December 316, the western emperor was in Sardica with his army. Sometime between 1 December and 28 February 317, both emperors' armies joined battle on the Campus Ardiensis; as was the case in the previous engagement, Constantine' s forces were victorious. On 1 March 317, both sides agreed to a cessation of hostilities; possibly because of the intervention of his wife Constantia, Licinius was able to keep his throne, although he had to agree to the execution of his colleague Valens, who the eastern emperor had appointed as his colleague before the battle, as well as to cede some of his territory to his brother-in-law.

Licinius and the Christians

Although the historical record is not completely clear, Licinius seems to have campaigned against the Sarmatians in 318. He also appears to have been in Byzantium in the summer of 318 and later in June 323. Beyond these few facts, not much else is known about his residences until mid summer of 324. Although he and Constantine had issued the Edict of Milan in early 313, Licinius turned on the Christians in his realm seemingly in 320. The first law that Licinius issued prevented bishops from communicating with each other and from holding synods to discuss matters of interest to them. The second law prohibited men and women from attending services together and young girls from receiving instruction from their bishop or schools. When this law was issued, he also gave orders that Christians could hold services only outside of city walls. Additionally, he deprived officers in the army of their commissions if they did not sacrifice to the gods. Licinius may have been trying to incite Constantine to attack him. In any case, the growing tension between the two rulers is reflected in the consular Fasti of the period.

The Second Civil War Between Licinius and Constantine and Licinius' Death

War actually broke out in 321 when Constantine pursued some Sarmatians, who had been ravaging some territory in his realm, across the Danube. When he checked a similar invasion of the Goths, who were devastating Thrace, Licinius complained that Constantine had broken the treaty between them. Having assembled a fleet and army at Thessalonica, Constantine advanced toward Adrianople. Licinius engaged the forces of his brother-in-law near the banks of the Hebrus River on 3 July 324 where he was routed; with as many men as he could gather, he headed for his fleet which was in the Hellespont. Those of his soldiers who were not killed or put to flight, surrendered to the enemy. Licinius fled to Byzantium, where he was besieged by Constantine. Licinius' fleet, under the command of the admiral Abantus, was overcome by bad weather and by Constantine' s fleet which was under the command of his son Crispus. Hard pressed in Byzantium, Licinius abandoned the city to his rival and fled to Chalcedon in Bithynia. Leaving Martinianus, his former magister officiorum and now his co-ruler, to impede Constantine' s progress, Licinius regrouped his forces and engaged his enemy at Chrysopolis where he was again routed on 18 September 324. He fled to Nicomedeia which Constantine began to besiege. On the next day Licinius abdicated and was sent to Thessalonica, where he was kept under house arrest. Both Licinius and his associate were put to death by Constantine. Martinianus may have been put to death before the end of 324, whereas Licinius was not put to death until the spring of 325. Rumors circulated that Licinius had been put to death because he attempted another rebellion against Constantine.

Copyright (C) 1996, Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
Licin1AEFolJupiAlex.jpg
1308c, Licinius I, 308-324 A.D. (Alexandria)66 viewsLicinius I, 308-324 A.D. AE Follis, 3.60g, VF, 315 A.D., Alexandria. Obverse: IMP C VAL LICIN LICINIVS P F AVG - Laureate head right; Reverse: IOVI CONS-ERVATORI AVGG - Jupiter standing left, holding Victory on a globe and scepter; exergue: ALE / (wreath) over "B" over "N." Ref: RIC VII, 10 (B = r2) Rare, page 705 - Hunterian Museum, Glasgow, Scotland.


De Imperatoribus Romanis : An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Licinius (308-324 A.D.)

Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Salve Regina University

Licinius' Heritage

Valerius Licinianus Licinius, more commonly known as Licinius, may have been born ca. 265. Of peasant origin, his family was from Dacia. A close friend and comrade of arms of the Emperor Galerius, he accompanied him on his Persian expedition in 297. When campaigns by Severus and Galerius in late 306 or early 307 and in the summer of 307, respectively, failed to dislodge Maxentius who, with the luke warm support of his father Maximianus Herculius, was acclaimed princeps on 28 October 306, he was sent by the eastern emperor to Maxentius as an ambassador; the diplomatic mission, however, failed because the usurper refused to submit to the authority of his father-in-law Galerius. At the Conference of Carnuntum which was held in October or November of 308, Licinius was made an Augustus on 11 November 308; his realm included Thrace, Illyricum, and Pannonia.

Licinius' Early Reign

Although Licinius was initially appointed by Galerius to replace Severus to end the revolt of Maxentius , Licinius (perhaps wisely) made no effort to move against the usurper. In fact, his first attested victory was against the Sarmatians probably in the late spring, but no later than the end of June in 310. When the Emperor Galerius died in 311, Licinius met Maximinus Daia at the Bosporus during the early summer of that year; they concluded a treaty and divided Galerius' realm between them. It was little more than a year later that the Emperor Constantine defeated Maxentius at the Battle of the Milvian Bridge on 28 October 312. After the defeat of the usurper, Constantine and Licinius met at Mediolanum (Milan) where Licinius married the former's sister Constantia; one child was born of this union: Valerius Licinianus Licinius. Licinius had another son, born of a slave woman, whose name is unknown. It appears that both emperors promulgated the so-called Edict of Milan, in which Constantine and Licinius granted Christians the freedom to practice their faith without any interference from the state.

As soon as he seems to have learned about the marital alliance between Licinius and Constantine and the death of Maxentius, who had been his ally, Daia traversed Asia Minor and, in April 313, he crossed the Bosporus and went to Byzantium, which he took from Licinius after an eleven day siege. On 30 April 313 the armies of both emperors clashed on the Campus Ergenus; in the ensuing battle Daia's forces were routed. A last ditch stand by Daia at the Cilician Gates failed; the eastern emperor subsequently died in the area of Tarsus probably in July or August 313. As soon as he arrived in Nicomedeia, Licinius promulgated the Edict of Milan. As soon as he had matters in Nicomedeia straightened out, Licinius campaigned against the Persians in the remaining part of 313 and the opening months of 314.

The First Civil War Between Licinius and Constantine

Once Licinius had defeated Maximinus Daia, the sole rulers of the Roman world were he and Constantine. It is obvious that the marriage of Licinius to Constantia was simply a union of convenience. In any case, there is evidence in the sources that both emperors were looking for an excuse to attack the other. The affair involving Bassianus (the husband of Constantius I's daughter Anastasia ), mentioned in the text of Anonymus Valesianus (5.14ff), may have sparked the falling out between the two emperors. In any case, Constantine' s forces joined battle with those of Licinius at Cibalae in Pannonia on 8 October 314. When the battle was over, Constantine prevailed; his victory, however, was Pyrrhic. Both emperors had been involved in exhausting military campaigns in the previous year and the months leading up to Cibalae and each of their realms had expanded so fast that their manpower reserves must have been stretched to the limit. Both men retreated to their own territory to lick their wounds. It may well be that the two emperors made an agreement, which has left no direct trace in the historical record, which would effectively restore the status quo.

Both emperors were variously engaged in different activities between 315 and 316. In addition to campaigning against the Germans while residing in Augusta Treverorum (Trier) in 315, Constantine dealt with aspects of the Donatist controversy; he also traveled to Rome where he celebrated his Decennalia. Licinius, possibly residing at Sirmium, was probably waging war against the Goths. Although not much else is known about Licinius' activities during this period, it is probable that he spent much of his time preparing for his impending war against Constantine; the latter,who spent the spring and summer of 316 in Augusta Treverorum, was probably doing much the same thing. In any case, by December 316, the western emperor was in Sardica with his army. Sometime between 1 December and 28 February 317, both emperors' armies joined battle on the Campus Ardiensis; as was the case in the previous engagement, Constantine' s forces were victorious. On 1 March 317, both sides agreed to a cessation of hostilities; possibly because of the intervention of his wife Constantia, Licinius was able to keep his throne, although he had to agree to the execution of his colleague Valens, who the eastern emperor had appointed as his colleague before the battle, as well as to cede some of his territory to his brother-in-law.

Licinius and the Christians

Although the historical record is not completely clear, Licinius seems to have campaigned against the Sarmatians in 318. He also appears to have been in Byzantium in the summer of 318 and later in June 323. Beyond these few facts, not much else is known about his residences until mid summer of 324. Although he and Constantine had issued the Edict of Milan in early 313, Licinius turned on the Christians in his realm seemingly in 320. The first law that Licinius issued prevented bishops from communicating with each other and from holding synods to discuss matters of interest to them. The second law prohibited men and women from attending services together and young girls from receiving instruction from their bishop or schools. When this law was issued, he also gave orders that Christians could hold services only outside of city walls. Additionally, he deprived officers in the army of their commissions if they did not sacrifice to the gods. Licinius may have been trying to incite Constantine to attack him. In any case, the growing tension between the two rulers is reflected in the consular Fasti of the period.

The Second Civil War Between Licinius and Constantine and Licinius' Death

War actually broke out in 321 when Constantine pursued some Sarmatians, who had been ravaging some territory in his realm, across the Danube. When he checked a similar invasion of the Goths, who were devastating Thrace, Licinius complained that Constantine had broken the treaty between them. Having assembled a fleet and army at Thessalonica, Constantine advanced toward Adrianople. Licinius engaged the forces of his brother-in-law near the banks of the Hebrus River on 3 July 324 where he was routed; with as many men as he could gather, he headed for his fleet which was in the Hellespont. Those of his soldiers who were not killed or put to flight, surrendered to the enemy. Licinius fled to Byzantium, where he was besieged by Constantine. Licinius' fleet, under the command of the admiral Abantus, was overcome by bad weather and by Constantine' s fleet which was under the command of his son Crispus. Hard pressed in Byzantium, Licinius abandoned the city to his rival and fled to Chalcedon in Bithynia. Leaving Martinianus, his former magister officiorum and now his co-ruler, to impede Constantine' s progress, Licinius regrouped his forces and engaged his enemy at Chrysopolis where he was again routed on 18 September 324. He fled to Nicomedeia which Constantine began to besiege. On the next day Licinius abdicated and was sent to Thessalonica, where he was kept under house arrest. Both Licinius and his associate were put to death by Constantine. Martinianus may have been put to death before the end of 324, whereas Licinius was not put to death until the spring of 325. Rumors circulated that Licinius had been put to death because he attempted another rebellion against Constantine.

Copyright (C) 1996, Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
tiberius as.jpg
14-37 AD - TIBERIUS AE as - struck 22-23 AD39 viewsobv: TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVST IMP VIII (bare head left)
rev: PONTIF MAXIM TRIBVN POTEST XXIII around large S.C.
ref: RIC I 44, C.24 (5 frcs), BMC91
9.44gms, 27mm

In 6 AD Tiberius was in Carnuntum military camp. He led at least eight legions (VIII Augusta from Pannonia, XV Apollinaris and XX Valeria Victrix from Illyricum, XXI Rapax from Raetia, XIII Gemina, XIV Gemina and XVI Gallica from Germania Superior and an unknown unit) against king Maroboduus of the Marcomanni in Bohemia (Czechia). At the same time, I Germanica, V Alaudae, XVII, XVIII and XIX, - led by Caius Sentius Saturninus (governor of Germania) -, moved against Maroboduus along the Elbe. Saturninus led his forces across the country of the Chatti, and, cutting his way through the Hercynian forest, joining Tiberius on the north bank of the Danube, and both wanted to make a combined attack within a few leagues from the Marcomannic capital Boviasmum. It was the most grandiose operation that ever conducted by a Roman army, but a rebellion in Illyria obstructed its final execution.
berserker
St.Helena.jpg
1401a, St. Helena, Augusta 8 November 324 - 328 to 330 A.D., mother of Constantine the Great96 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC 148, VF, Alexandria mint, 3.243g, 19.4mm, 165o, 327 - 328 A.D. Obverse: FL HELENA AVGVSTA, diademed and mantled bust right wearing double necklace; Reverse: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICE, Securitas holding branch downward in right and lifting fold of robe in left, wreath left, I right, SMAL in exergue; rare.

The mother of Constantine the Great, born about the middle of the third century, possibly in Drepanum (later known as Helenopolis) on the Nicomedian Gulf; died about 330. She was of humble parentage; St. Ambrose, in his "Oratio de obitu Theodosii", referred to her as a stabularia, or inn-keeper. Nevertheless, she became the lawful wife of Constantius Chlorus. Her first and only son, Constantine, was born in Naissus in Upper Moesia, in the year 274. The statement made by English chroniclers of the Middle Ages, according to which Helena was supposed to have been the daughter of a British prince, is entirely without historical foundation. It may arise from the misinterpretation of a term used in the fourth chapter of the panegyric on Constantine's marriage with Fausta, that Constantine, oriendo (i. e., "by his beginnings," "from the outset") had honoured Britain, which was taken as an allusion to his birth, whereas the reference was really to the beginning of his reign.

On the death of Constantius Chlorus, in 308, Constantine, who succeeded him, summoned his mother to the imperial court, conferred on her the title of Augusta, ordered that all honour should be paid her as the mother of the sovereign, and had coins struck bearing her effigy. Her son's influence caused her to embrace Christianity after his victory over Maxentius. This is directly attested by Eusebius (Vita Constantini, III, xlvii): "She (his mother) became under his (Constantine's) influence such a devout servant of God, that one might believe her to have been from her very childhood a disciple of the Redeemer of mankind". It is also clear from the declaration of the contemporary historian of the Church that Helena, from the time of her conversion had an earnestly Christian life and by her influence and liberality favoured the wider spread of Christianity. Tradition links her name with the building of Christian churches in the cities of the West, where the imperial court resided, notably at Rome and Trier, and there is no reason for rejecting this tradition, for we know positively through Eusebius that Helena erected churches on the hallowed spots of Palestine. Despite her advanced age she undertook a journey to Palestine when Constantine, through his victory over Licinius, had become sole master of the Roman Empire, subsequently, therefore, to the year 324. It was in Palestine, as we learn from Eusebius (loc. cit., xlii), that she had resolved to bring to God, the King of kings, the homage and tribute of her devotion. She lavished on that land her bounties and good deeds, she "explored it with remarkable discernment", and "visited it with the care and solicitude of the emperor himself". Then, when she "had shown due veneration to the footsteps of the Saviour", she had two churches erected for the worship of God: one was raised in Bethlehem near the Grotto of the Nativity, the other on the Mount of the Ascension, near Jerusalem. She also embellished the sacred grotto with rich ornaments. This sojourn in Jerusalem proved the starting-point of the legend first recorded by Rufinus as to the discovery of the Cross of Christ.

Constantine I, in 327, improved Drepanum, his mother's native town, and decreed that it should be called Helenopolis, it is probable that the latter returned from Palestine to her son who was then residing in the Orient. Constantine was with her when she died, at the advanced age of eighty years or thereabouts (Eusebius, "Vita Const.", III, xlvi). This must have been about the year 330, for the last coins which are known to have been stamped with her name bore this date. Her body was brought to Constantinople and laid to rest in the imperial vault of the church of the Apostles. It is presumed that her remains were transferred in 849 to the Abbey of Hautvillers, in the French Archdiocese of Reims, as recorded by the monk Altmann in his "Translatio". She was revered as a saint, and the veneration spread, early in the ninth century, even to Western countries. Her feast falls on 18 August.

(See The Catholic Encyclopedia: http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/07202b.htm)

Cleisthenes
Julian2VotXConstantinople.jpg
1409a, Julian II "the Philosopher," February 360 - 26 June 363 A.D.143 viewsJulian II, A.D. 360-363; RIC 167; VF; 2.7g, 20mm; Constantinople mint; Obverse: DN FL CL IVLIANVS P F AVG, helmeted & cuirassed bust right, holding spear & shield; Reverse: VOT X MVLT XX in four lines within wreath; CONSPB in exergue; Attractive green patina. Ex Nemesis.


De Imperatoribus Romanis,
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Julian the Apostate (360-363 A.D.)

Walter E. Roberts, Emory University
Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University

Introduction

The emperor Flavius Claudius Julianus reigned from 360 to 26 June 363, when he was killed fighting against the Persians. Despite his short rule, his emperorship was pivotal in the development of the history of the later Roman empire. This essay is not meant to be a comprehensive look at the various issues central to the reign of Julian and the history of the later empire. Rather, this short work is meant to be a brief history and introduction for the general reader. Julian was the last direct descendent of the Constantinian line to ascend to the purple, and it is one of history's great ironies that he was the last non-Christian emperor. As such, he has been vilified by most Christian sources, beginning with John Chrysostom and Gregory Nazianzus in the later fourth century. This tradition was picked up by the fifth century Eusebian continuators Sozomen, Socrates Scholasticus, and Theodoret and passed on to scholars down through the 20th century. Most contemporary sources, however, paint a much more balanced picture of Julian and his reign. The adoption of Christianity by emperors and society, while still a vital concern, was but one of several issues that concerned Julian.

It is fortunate that extensive writings from Julian himself exist, which help interpret his reign in the light of contemporary evidence. Still extant are some letters, several panegyrics, and a few satires. Other contemporary sources include the soldier Ammianus Marcellinus' history, correspondence between Julian and Libanius of Antioch, several panegyrics, laws from the Theodosian Code, inscriptions, and coinage. These sources show Julian's emphasis on restoration. He saw himself as the restorer of the traditional values of Roman society. Of course much of this was rhetoric, meant to defend Julian against charges that he was a usurper. At the same time this theme of restoration was central to all emperors of the fourth century. Julian thought that he was the one emperor who could regain what was viewed as the lost glory of the Roman empire. To achieve this goal he courted select groups of social elites to get across his message of restoration. This was the way that emperors functioned in the fourth century. By choosing whom to include in the sharing of power, they sought to shape society.

Early Life

Julian was born at Constantinople in 331. His father was Julius Constantius, half-brother of the emperor Constantine through Constantius Chlorus, and his mother was Basilina, Julius' second wife. Julian had two half-brothers via Julius' first marriage. One of these was Gallus, who played a major role in Julian's life. Julian appeared destined for a bright future via his father's connection to the Constantinian house. After many years of tense relations with his three half-brothers, Constantine seemed to have welcomed them into the fold of the imperial family. From 333 to 335, Constantine conferred a series of honors upon his three half-siblings, including appointing Julius Constantius as one of the consuls for 335. Julian's mother was equally distinguished. Ammianus related that she was from a noble family. This is supported by Libanius, who claimed that she was the daughter of Julius Julianus, a Praetorian Prefect under Licinius, who was such a model of administrative virtue that he was pardoned and honored by Constantine.

Despite the fact that his mother died shortly after giving birth to him, Julian experienced an idyllic early childhood. This ended when Constantius II conducted a purge of many of his relatives shortly after Constantine's death in 337, particularly targeting the families of Constantine's half-brothers. ulian and Gallus were spared, probably due to their young age. Julian was put under the care of Mardonius, a Scythian eunuch who had tutored his mother, in 339, and was raised in the Greek philosophical tradition, and probably lived in Nicomedia. Ammianus also supplied the fact that while in Nicomedia, Julian was cared for by the local bishop Eusebius, of whom the future emperor was a distant relation. Julian was educated by some of the most famous names in grammar and rhetoric in the Greek world at that time, including Nicocles and Hecebolius. In 344 Constantius II sent Julian and Gallus to Macellum in Cappadocia, where they remained for six years. In 351, Gallus was made Caesar by Constantius II and Julian was allowed to return to Nicomedia, where he studied under Aedesius, Eusebius, and Chrysanthius, all famed philosophers, and was exposed to the Neo-Platonism that would become such a prominent part of his life. But Julian was most proud of the time he spent studying under Maximus of Ephesus, a noted Neo-Platonic philospher and theurgist. It was Maximus who completed Julian's full-scale conversion to Neo-Platonism. Later, when he was Caesar, Julian told of how he put letters from this philosopher under his pillows so that he would continue to absorb wisdom while he slept, and while campaigning on the Rhine, he sent his speeches to Maximus for approval before letting others hear them. When Gallus was executed in 354 for treason by Constantius II, Julian was summoned to Italy and essentially kept under house arrest at Comum, near Milan, for seven months before Constantius' wife Eusebia convinced the emperor that Julian posed no threat. This allowed Julian to return to Greece and continue his life as a scholar where he studied under the Neo-Platonist Priscus. Julian's life of scholarly pursuit, however, ended abruptly when he was summoned to the imperial court and made Caesar by Constantius II on 6 November 355.

Julian as Caesar

Constantius II realized an essential truth of the empire that had been evident since the time of the Tetrarchy--the empire was too big to be ruled effectively by one man. Julian was pressed into service as Caesar, or subordinate emperor, because an imperial presence was needed in the west, in particular in the Gallic provinces. Julian, due to the emperor's earlier purges, was the only viable candidate of the imperial family left who could act as Caesar. Constantius enjoined Julian with the task of restoring order along the Rhine frontier. A few days after he was made Caesar, Julian was married to Constantius' sister Helena in order to cement the alliance between the two men. On 1 December 355, Julian journeyed north, and in Augusta Taurinorum he learned that Alamannic raiders had destroyed Colonia Agrippina. He then proceeded to Vienne where he spent the winter. At Vienne, he learned that Augustudunum was also under siege, but was being held by a veteran garrison. He made this his first priority, and arrived there on 24 June 356. When he had assured himself that the city was in no immediate danger, he journeyed to Augusta Treverorum via Autessioduram, and from there to Durocortorum where he rendezvoused with his army. Julian had the army stage a series of punitive strikes around the Dieuse region, and then he moved them towards the Argentoratum/Mongontiacum region when word of barbarian incursions reached him.

From there, Julian moved on to Colonia Agrippina, and negotiated a peace with the local barbarian leaders who had assaulted the city. He then wintered at Senonae. He spent the early part of the campaigning season of 357 fighting off besiegers at Senonae, and then conducting operations around Lugdunum and Tres Tabernae. Later that summer, he encountered his watershed moment as a military general. Ammianus went into great detail about Julian's victory over seven rogue Alamannic chieftains near Argentoratum, and Julian himself bragged about it in his later writing. After this battle, the soldiers acclaimed Julian Augustus, but he rejected this title. After mounting a series of follow-up raids into Alamannic territory, he retired to winter quarters at Lutetia, and on the way defeated some Frankish raiders in the Mosa region. Julian considered this campaign one of the major events of his time as Caesar.

Julian began his 358 military campaigns early, hoping to catch the barbarians by surprise. His first target was the Franks in the northern Rhine region. He then proceeded to restore some forts in the Mosa region, but his soldiers threatened to mutiny because they were on short rations and had not been paid their donative since Julian had become Caesar. After he soothed his soldiers, Julian spent the rest of the summer negotiating a peace with various Alamannic leaders in the mid and lower Rhine areas, and retired to winter quarters at Lutetia. In 359, he prepared once again to carry out a series of punitive expeditions against the Alamanni in the Rhine region who were still hostile to the Roman presence. In preparation, the Caesar repopulated seven previously destroyed cities and set them up as supply bases and staging areas. This was done with the help of the people with whom Julian had negotiated a peace the year before. Julian then had a detachment of lightly armed soldiers cross the Rhine near Mogontiacum and conduct a guerilla strike against several chieftains. As a result of these campaigns, Julian was able to negotiate a peace with all but a handful of the Alamannic leaders, and he retired to winter quarters at Lutetia.

Of course, Julian did more than act as a general during his time as Caesar. According to Ammianus, Julian was an able administrator who took steps to correct the injustices of Constantius' appointees. Ammianus related the story of how Julian prevented Florentius, the Praetorian Prefect of Gaul, from raising taxes, and also how Julian actually took over as governor for the province of Belgica Secunda. Hilary, bishop of Poitiers, supported Ammianus' basic assessment of Julian in this regard when he reported that Julian was an able representative of the emperor to the Gallic provincials. There is also epigraphic evidence to support Julian's popularity amongst the provincial elites. An inscription found near Beneventum in Apulia reads:
"To Flavius Claudius Julianus, most noble and sanctified Caesar, from the caring Tocius Maximus, vir clarissimus, for the care of the res publica from Beneventum".

Tocius Maximus, as a vir clarissimus, was at the highest point in the social spectrum and was a leader in his local community. This inscription shows that Julian was successful in establishing a positive image amongst provincial elites while he was Caesar.

Julian Augustus

In early 360, Constantius, driven by jealousy of Julian's success, stripped Julian of many troops and officers, ostensibly because the emperor needed them for his upcoming campaign against the Persians. One of the legions ordered east, the Petulantes, did not want to leave Gaul because the majority of the soldiers in the unit were from this region. As a result they mutinied and hailed Julian as Augustus at Lutetia. Julian refused this acclamation as he had done at Argentoratum earlier, but the soldiers would have none of his denial. They raised him on a shield and adorned him with a neck chain, which had formerly been the possession of the standard-bearer of the Petulantes and symbolized a royal diadem. Julian appeared reluctantly to acquiesce to their wishes, and promised a generous donative. The exact date of his acclamation is unknown, but most scholars put it in February or March. Julian himself supported Ammianus' picture of a jealous Constantius. In his Letter to the Athenians, a document constructed to answer charges that he was a usurper, Julian stated that from the start he, as Caesar, had been meant as a figurehead to the soldiers and provincials. The real power he claimed lay with the generals and officials already present in Gaul. In fact, according to Julian, the generals were charged with watching him as much as the enemy. His account of the actual acclamation closely followed what Ammianus told us, but he stressed even more his reluctance to take power. Julian claimed that he did so only after praying to Zeus for guidance.

Fearing the reaction of Constantius, Julian sent a letter to his fellow emperor justifying the events at Lutetia and trying to arrange a peaceful solution. This letter berated Constantius for forcing the troops in Gaul into an untenable situation. Ammianus stated that Julian's letter blamed Constantius' decision to transfer Gallic legions east as the reason for the soldiers' rebellion. Julian once again asserted that he was an unwilling participant who was only following the desire of the soldiers. In both of these basic accounts Ammianus and Julian are playing upon the theme of restoration. Implicit in their version of Julian's acclamation is the argument that Constantius was unfit to rule. The soldiers were the vehicle of the gods' will. The Letter to the Athenians is full of references to the fact that Julian was assuming the mantle of Augustus at the instigation of the gods. Ammianus summed up this position nicely when he related the story of how, when Julian was agonizing over whether to accept the soldiers' acclamation, he had a dream in which he was visited by the Genius (guardian spirit) of the Roman state. The Genius told Julian that it had often tried to bestow high honors upon Julian but had been rebuffed. Now, the Genius went on to say, was Julian's final chance to take the power that was rightfully his. If the Caesar refused this chance, the Genius would depart forever, and both Julian and the state would rue Julian's rejection. Julian himself wrote a letter to his friend Maximus of Ephesus in November of 361 detailing his thoughts on his proclamation. In this letter, Julian stated that the soldiers proclaimed him Augustus against his will. Julian, however, defended his accession, saying that the gods willed it and that he had treated his enemies with clemency and justice. He went on to say that he led the troops in propitiating the traditional deities, because the gods commanded him to return to the traditional rites, and would reward him if he fulfilled this duty.

During 360 an uneasy peace simmered between the two emperors. Julian spent the 360 campaigning season continuing his efforts to restore order along the Rhine, while Constantius continued operations against the Persians. Julian wintered in Vienne, and celebrated his Quinquennalia. It was at this time that his wife Helena died, and he sent her remains to Rome for a proper burial at his family villa on the Via Nomentana where the body of her sister was entombed. The uneasy peace held through the summer of 361, but Julian concentrated his military operations around harassing the Alamannic chieftain Vadomarius and his allies, who had concluded a peace treaty with Constantius some years earlier. By the end of the summer, Julian decided to put an end to the waiting and gathered his army to march east against Constantius. The empire teetered on the brink of another civil war. Constantius had spent the summer negotiating with the Persians and making preparations for possible military action against his cousin. When he was assured that the Persians would not attack, he summoned his army and sallied forth to meet Julian. As the armies drew inexorably closer to one another, the empire was saved from another bloody civil war when Constantius died unexpectedly of natural causes on 3 November near the town of Mopsucrenae in Cilicia, naming Julian -- the sources say-- as his legitimate successor.

Julian was in Dacia when he learned of his cousin's death. He made his way through Thrace and came to Constantinople on 11 December 361 where Julian honored the emperor with the funeral rites appropriate for a man of his station. Julian immediately set about putting his supporters in positions of power and trimming the imperial bureaucracy, which had become extremely overstaffed during Constantius' reign. Cooks and barbers had increased during the late emperor's reign and Julian expelled them from his court. Ammianus gave a mixed assessment of how the new emperor handled the followers of Constantius. Traditionally, emperors were supposed to show clemency to the supporters of a defeated enemy. Julian, however, gave some men over to death to appease the army. Ammianus used the case of Ursulus, Constantius' comes sacrum largitionum, to illustrate his point. Ursulus had actually tried to acquire money for the Gallic troops when Julian had first been appointed Caesar, but he had also made a disparaging remark about the ineffectiveness of the army after the battle of Amida. The soldiers remembered this, and when Julian became sole Augustus, they demanded Ursulus' head. Julian obliged, much to the disapproval of Ammianus. This seems to be a case of Julian courting the favor of the military leadership, and is indicative of a pattern in which Julian courted the goodwill of various societal elites to legitimize his position as emperor.

Another case in point is the officials who made up the imperial bureaucracy. Many of them were subjected to trial and punishment. To achieve this goal, during the last weeks of December 361 Julian assembled a military tribunal at Chalcedon, empanelling six judges to try the cases. The president of the tribunal was Salutius, just promoted to the rank of Praetorian Prefect; the five other members were Mamertinus, the orator, and four general officers: Jovinus, Agilo, Nevitta, and Arbetio. Relative to the proceedings of the tribunal, Ammianus noted that the judges, " . . . oversaw the cases more vehemently than was right or fair, with the exception of a few . . .." Ammianus' account of Julian's attempt at reform of the imperial bureaucracy is supported by legal evidence from the Theodosian Code. A series of laws sent to Mamertinus, Julian's appointee as Praetorian Prefect in Italy, Illyricum, and Africa, illustrate this point nicely. On 6 June 362, Mamertinus received a law that prohibited provincial governors from bypassing the Vicars when giving their reports to the Prefect. Traditionally, Vicars were given civil authority over a group of provinces, and were in theory meant to serve as a middle step between governors and Prefects. This law suggests that the Vicars were being left out, at least in Illyricum. Julian issued another edict to Mamertinus on 22 February 362 to stop abuse of the public post by governors. According to this law, only Mamertinus could issue post warrants, but the Vicars were given twelve blank warrants to be used as they saw fit, and each governor was given two. Continuing the trend of bureaucratic reform, Julian also imposed penalties on governors who purposefully delayed appeals in court cases they had heard. The emperor also established a new official to weigh solidi used in official government transactions to combat coin clipping.

For Julian, reigning in the abuses of imperial bureaucrats was one step in restoring the prestige of the office of emperor. Because he could not affect all elements of society personally, Julian, like other Neo-Flavian emperors, decided to concentrate on select groups of societal elites as intercessors between himself and the general populace. One of these groups was the imperial bureaucracy. Julian made it very clear that imperial officials were intercessors in a very real sense in a letter to Alypius, Vicar of Britain. In this letter, sent from Gaul sometime before 361, the emperor praises Alypius for his use of "mildness and moderation with courage and force" in his rule of the provincials. Such virtues were characteristic of the emperors, and it was good that Alypius is representing Julian in this way. Julian courted the army because it put him in power. Another group he sought to include in his rule was the traditional Senatorial aristocracy. One of his first appointments as consul was Claudius Mamertinus, a Gallic Senator and rhetorician. Mamertinus' speech in praise of Julian delivered at Constantinople in January of 362 is preserved. In this speech, Claudius presented his consular selection as inaugurating a new golden age and Julian as the restorer of the empire founded by Augustus. The image Mamertinus gave of his own consulate inaugurating a new golden age is not merely formulaic. The comparison of Julian to Augustus has very real, if implicit, relevance to Claudius' situation. Claudius emphasized the imperial period as the true age of renewal. Augustus ushered in a new era with his formation of a partnership between the emperor and the Senate based upon a series of honors and offices bestowed upon the Senate in return for their role as intercessor between emperor and populace. It was this system that Julian was restoring, and the consulate was one concrete example of this bond. To be chosen as a consul by the emperor, who himself had been divinely mandated, was a divine honor. In addition to being named consul, Mamertinus went on to hold several offices under Julian, including the Prefecture of Italy, Illyricum, and Africa. Similarly, inscriptional evidence illustrates a link between municipal elites and Julian during his time as Caesar, something which continued after he became emperor. One concrete example comes from the municipal senate of Aceruntia in Apulia, which established a monument on which Julian is styled as "Repairer of the World."

Julian seems to have given up actual Christian belief before his acclamation as emperor and was a practitioner of more traditional Greco-Roman religious beliefs, in particular, a follower of certain late antique Platonist philosophers who were especially adept at theurgy as was noted earlier. In fact Julian himself spoke of his conversion to Neo-Platonism in a letter to the Alexandrians written in 363. He stated that he had abandoned Christianity when he was twenty years old and been an adherent of the traditional Greco-Roman deities for the twelve years prior to writing this letter.

(For the complete text of this article see: http://www.roman-emperors.org/julian.htm)

Julian’s Persian Campaign

The exact goals Julian had for his ill-fated Persian campaign were never clear. The Sassanid Persians, and before them the Parthians, had been a traditional enemy from the time of the Late Republic, and indeed Constantius had been conducting a war against them before Julian's accession forced the former to forge an uneasy peace. Julian, however, had no concrete reason to reopen hostilities in the east. Socrates Scholasticus attributed Julian's motives to imitation of Alexander the Great, but perhaps the real reason lay in his need to gather the support of the army. Despite his acclamation by the Gallic legions, relations between Julian and the top military officers was uneasy at best. A war against the Persians would have brought prestige and power both to Julian and the army.

Julian set out on his fateful campaign on 5 March 363. Using his trademark strategy of striking quickly and where least expected, he moved his army through Heirapolis and from there speedily across the Euphrates and into the province of Mesopotamia, where he stopped at the town of Batnae. His plan was to eventually return through Armenia and winter in Tarsus. Once in Mesopotamia, Julian was faced with the decision of whether to travel south through the province of Babylonia or cross the Tigris into Assyria, and he eventually decided to move south through Babylonia and turn west into Assyria at a later date. By 27 March, he had the bulk of his army across the Euphrates, and had also arranged a flotilla to guard his supply line along the mighty river. He then left his generals Procopius and Sebastianus to help Arsacius, the king of Armenia and a Roman client, to guard the northern Tigris line. It was also during this time that he received the surrender of many prominent local leaders who had nominally supported the Persians. These men supplied Julian with money and troops for further military action against their former masters. Julian decided to turn south into Babylonia and proceeded along the Euphrates, coming to the fortress of Cercusium at the junction of the Abora and Euphrates Rivers around the first of April, and from there he took his army west to a region called Zaitha near the abandoned town of Dura where they visited the tomb of the emperor Gordian which was in the area. On April 7 he set out from there into the heart of Babylonia and towards Assyria.

Ammianus then stated that Julian and his army crossed into Assyria, which on the face of things appears very confusing. Julian still seems to be operating within the province of Babylonia between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. The confusion is alleviated when one realizes that,for Ammianus, the region of Assyria encompassed the provinces of Babylonia and Assyria. On their march, Julian's forces took the fortress of Anatha, received the surrender and support of several more local princes, and ravaged the countryside of Assyria between the rivers. As the army continued south, they came across the fortresses Thilutha and Achaiachala, but these places were too well defended and Julian decided to leave them alone. Further south were the cities Diacira and Ozogardana, which the Roman forces sacked and burned. Soon, Julian came to Pirisabora and a brief siege ensued, but the city fell and was also looted and destroyed. It was also at this time that the Roman army met its first systematic resistance from the Persians. As the Romans penetrated further south and west, the local inhabitants began to flood their route. Nevertheless, the Roman forces pressed on and came to Maiozamalcha, a sizable city not far from Ctesiphon. After a short siege, this city too fell to Julian. Inexorably, Julian's forces zeroed in on Ctesiphon, but as they drew closer, the Persian resistance grew fiercer, with guerilla raids whittling at Julian's men and supplies. A sizable force of the army was lost and the emperor himself was almost killed taking a fort a few miles from the target city.
Finally, the army approached Ctesiphon following a canal that linked the Tigris and Euphrates. It soon became apparent after a few preliminary skirmishes that a protracted siege would be necessary to take this important city. Many of his generals, however, thought that pursuing this course of action would be foolish. Julian reluctantly agreed, but became enraged by this failure and ordered his fleet to be burned as he decided to march through the province of Assyria. Julian had planned for his army to live off the land, but the Persians employed a scorched-earth policy. When it became apparent that his army would perish (because his supplies were beginning to dwindle) from starvation and the heat if he continued his campaign, and also in the face of superior numbers of the enemy, Julian ordered a retreat on 16 June. As the Roman army retreated, they were constantly harassed by guerilla strikes. It was during one of these raids that Julian got caught up in the fighting and took a spear to his abdomen. Mortally wounded he was carried to his tent, where, after conferring with some of his officers, he died. The date was 26 June 363.

Conclusion

Thus an ignominious end for a man came about who had hoped to restore the glory of the Roman empire during his reign as emperor. Due to his intense hatred of Christianity, the opinion of posterity has not been kind to Julian. The contemporary opinion, however, was overall positive. The evidence shows that Julian was a complex ruler with a definite agenda to use traditional social institutions in order to revive what he saw as a collapsing empire. In the final assessment, he was not so different from any of the other emperors of the fourth century. He was a man grasping desperately to hang on to a Greco-Roman conception of leadership that was undergoing a subtle yet profound change.
Copyright (C) 2002, Walter E. Roberts and Michael DiMaio, Jr. Used by permission.

In reality, Julian worked to promote culture and philosophy in any manifestation. He tried to reduce taxes and the public debts of municipalities; he augmented administrative decentralisation; he promoted a campaign of austerity to reduce public expenditure (setting himself as the example). He reformed the postal service and eliminated the powerful secret police.
by Federico Morando; JULIAN II, The Apostate, http://www.forumancientcoins.com/NumisWiki/view.asp?key=Julian%20II

Flavius Claudius Iulianus was born in 331 or maybe 332 A.D. in Constantinople. He ruled the Western Empire as Caesar from 355 to 360 and was hailed Augustus by his legions in Lutetia (Paris) in 360. Julian was a gifted administrator and military strategist. Famed as the last pagan emperor, his reinstatement of the pagan religion earned him the moniker "the Apostate." As evidenced by his brilliant writing, some of which has survived to the present day, the title "the Philosopher" may have been more appropriate. He died from wounds suffered during the Persian campaign of 363 A.D. Joseph Sermarini, FORVM.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.




2 commentsCleisthenes
FaustJrMoush2529.jpg
146-175/6 AD - Faustina Jr. - Moushmov 2529 - Concordia Reverse70 viewsEmpress: Faustina Jr. (r. 146-175/6 AD)
Date: 146-175/6 AD
Condition: aFine
Size: AE22

Obverse: ΦAΥCTEINA CEBACTN
Faustina Augusta
Bust right

Reverse: AΔΡIANOΠ - OΛEITΩN
Concordia standing left, holding patera and cornucopiae.

Mint: Hadrianopolis, Thrace
Moushmov 2529
4.80g; 22.5mm; 210°
Pep
FaustJrMoush2984.jpg
146-175/6 AD - Faustina Jr. - Moushmov 2984 - Standing Woman Reverse81 viewsEmpress: Faustina Junior (r. 146-175/6 AD)
Date: 146-175/6 AD
Condition: Fine
Size: AE25

Obverse: ΦAYCTEINA CEBACTH
Faustina Augusta
Bust right

Reverse: AYΓOYCTHC TPAIANHC
Woman with turreted crown standing, holding in right hand patera and in left hand - scepter.
Mint: Augusta Traiana, Thrace

Moushmov 2984
8.76g; 25.9mm; 30°
Pep
Theo1Ae3Ant.jpeg
1505b, Theodosius I, 19 January 379 - 17 January 395 A.D. (Antioch)69 viewsTheodosius I, 19 January 379 - 17 January 395 A.D. Bronze AE 3, RIC 44(b), VF, Antioch, 2.17g, 18.1mm, 180o, 9 Aug 378 - 25 Aug 383 A.D. Obverse: D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG, rosette-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: CONCORDIA AVGGG, Constantinopolis enthroned facing, r. foot on prow, globe in l., scepter in r., Q and F at sides, ANTG in ex; scarce.


De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

THEODOSIUS I (379-395 A.D.)
David Woods
University College of Cork


Origin and Early Career
Flavius Theodosius was born at Cauca in Spain in about 346 to Thermantia and Theodosius the Elder (so-called to distinguish him from his son). Theodosius the Elder was a senior military officer serving in the Western empire and rose to become the magister equitum praesentalis under the emperor Valentinian I from late 368 until his execution in early 375. As the son of a soldier, Theodosius was legally obliged to enter upon a military career. He seems to have served under his father during his expedition to Britain in 367/8, and was the dux Moesiae Primae by late 374. Unfortunately, great controversy surrounds the rest of his career until Gratian had him hailed as his imperial colleague in succession to the emperor Valens at Sirmium on 19 January 379. It is clear that he was forced to retire home to Spain only to be recalled to active service shortly thereafter, but the circumstances of his forced retirement are shrouded in mystery. His father was executed at roughly the same time, and much speculation has centred on the relationship between these events.

[For a very detailed and interesting discussion of the Foreign Policy of Theodosius and the Civil Wars that plagued his reign, please see http://www.roman-emperors.org/theo1.htm]

Family and Succession
Theodosius married twice. His first wife was the Spanish Aelia Flavia Flaccilla. She bore him Arcadius ca. 377, Honorius on 9 September 384, and Pulcheria ca. 385. Theodosius honoured her with the title of Augusta shortly after his accession, but she died in 386. In late 387 he married Galla, daughter of Valentinian I and full-sister of Valentinian II. She bore him Gratian ca. 388, Galla Placidia ca. 388/390, and died in childbirth in 394, together with her new-born son John. Of his two sons who survived infancy, he appointed Arcadius as Augustus on 19 January 383 and Honorius as Augustus on 23 January 393. His promotion of Arcadius as a full Augustus at an unusually young age points to his determination right from the start that one of his own sons should succeed him. He sought to strengthen Arcadius' position in particular by means of a series of strategic marriages whose purpose was to tie his leading "generals" irrevocably to his dynasty. Hence he married his niece and adoptive daughter Serena to his magister militum per Orientem Stilicho in 387, her elder sister Thermantia to a "general" whose name has not been preserved, and ca. 387 his nephew-in-law Nebridius to Salvina, daughter of the comes Africae Gildo. By the time of his death by illness on 17 January 395, Theodosius had promoted Stilicho from his position as one of the two comites domesticorum under his own eastern administration to that of magister peditum praesentalis in a western administration, in an entirely traditional manner, under his younger son Honorius. Although Stilicho managed to increase the power of the magister peditum praesentalis to the disadvantage of his colleague the magister equitum praesentalis and claimed that Theodosius had appointed him as guardian for both his sons, this tells us more about his cunning and ambition than it does about Theodosius' constitutional arrangements.

Theodosius' importance rests on the fact that he founded a dynasty which continued in power until the death of his grandson Theodosius II in 450. This ensured a continuity of policy which saw the emergence of Nicene Christianity as the orthodox belief of the vast majority of Christians throughout the middle ages. It also ensured the essential destruction of paganism and the emergence of Christianity as the religion of the state, even if the individual steps in this process can be difficult to identify. On the negative side, however, he allowed his dynastic interests and ambitions to lead him into two unnecessary and bloody civil wars which severely weakened the empire's ability to defend itself in the face of continued barbarian pressure upon its frontiers. In this manner, he put the interests of his family before those of the wider Roman population and was responsible, in many ways, for the phenomenon to which we now refer as the fall of the western Roman empire.


Copyright (C) 1998, David Woods.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

There is a nice segue here, as we pick-up John Julius Norwich's summation of the reign of Theodosius, "Readers of this brief account of his career may well find themselves wondering, not so much whether he deserved the title of 'the Great' as how he ever came to acquire it in the first place. If so, however, they may also like to ask themselves another question: what would have been the fate of the Empire if, at that critical moment in its history after the battle of Adrianople, young Gratian had not called him from his Spanish estates and put the future of the East into his hands? . . . the probability is that the whole Empire of the East would have been lost, swallowed up in a revived Gothic kingdom, with effects on world history that defy speculation.

In his civil legislation he showed, again and again, a consideration for the humblest of his subjects that was rare indeed among rulers of the fourth century. What other prince would have decreed that any criminal, sentenced to execution, imprisonment or exile, must first be allowed thirty days' grace to put his affairs in order? Or that a specified part of his worldly goods must go to his children, upon whom their father's crimes must on no account be visited? Or that no farmer should be obliged to sell his produce to the State at a price lower than he would receive on the open market?

Had he earned his title? Not, perhaps, in the way that Constantine had done or as Justinian was to do. But, if not ultimately great himself, he had surely come very close to greatness; and had he reigned as long as they did his achievements might well have equalled theirs. He might even have saved the Western Empire. One thing only is certain: it would be nearly a century and a half before the Romans would look upon his like again" (Norwich, John Julius. Byzantium, the Early Centuries. London: Penguin Group, 1990. 116-7;118).

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.



Cleisthenes
Theod1GlrMan.jpg
1505c, Theodosius I, 379 - 395 A.D. (Constantinople)78 viewsTheodosius I (379 - 395 AD) AE3. 388-394 AD, RIC IX 27(a)3, Third Officina. Seventh Period. 20.27 mm. 4.8gm. Near VF with black and earthen patina. Constantinople. Obverse: DN THEODO-SIANVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped, & cuirassed bust right; Reverse: GLORIA-ROMANORVM, Theodosius I standing, facing, holding labarum and globe, CONSB in exergue (scarcer reverse). A Spanish find.



De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

THEODOSIUS I (379-395 A.D.)
David Woods
University College of Cork


Origin and Early Career
Flavius Theodosius was born at Cauca in Spain in about 346 to Thermantia and Theodosius the Elder (so-called to distinguish him from his son). Theodosius the Elder was a senior military officer serving in the Western empire and rose to become the magister equitum praesentalis under the emperor Valentinian I from late 368 until his execution in early 375. As the son of a soldier, Theodosius was legally obliged to enter upon a military career. He seems to have served under his father during his expedition to Britain in 367/8, and was the dux Moesiae Primae by late 374. Unfortunately, great controversy surrounds the rest of his career until Gratian had him hailed as his imperial colleague in succession to the emperor Valens at Sirmium on 19 January 379. It is clear that he was forced to retire home to Spain only to be recalled to active service shortly thereafter, but the circumstances of his forced retirement are shrouded in mystery. His father was executed at roughly the same time, and much speculation has centred on the relationship between these events.

[For a very detailed and interesting discussion of the Foreign Policy of Theodosius and the Civil Wars that plagued his reign, please see http://www.roman-emperors.org/theo1.htm]

Family and Succession
Theodosius married twice. His first wife was the Spanish Aelia Flavia Flaccilla. She bore him Arcadius ca. 377, Honorius on 9 September 384, and Pulcheria ca. 385. Theodosius honoured her with the title of Augusta shortly after his accession, but she died in 386. In late 387 he married Galla, daughter of Valentinian I and full-sister of Valentinian II. She bore him Gratian ca. 388, Galla Placidia ca. 388/390, and died in childbirth in 394, together with her new-born son John. Of his two sons who survived infancy, he appointed Arcadius as Augustus on 19 January 383 and Honorius as Augustus on 23 January 393. His promotion of Arcadius as a full Augustus at an unusually young age points to his determination right from the start that one of his own sons should succeed him. He sought to strengthen Arcadius' position in particular by means of a series of strategic marriages whose purpose was to tie his leading "generals" irrevocably to his dynasty. Hence he married his niece and adoptive daughter Serena to his magister militum per Orientem Stilicho in 387, her elder sister Thermantia to a "general" whose name has not been preserved, and ca. 387 his nephew-in-law Nebridius to Salvina, daughter of the comes Africae Gildo. By the time of his death by illness on 17 January 395, Theodosius had promoted Stilicho from his position as one of the two comites domesticorum under his own eastern administration to that of magister peditum praesentalis in a western administration, in an entirely traditional manner, under his younger son Honorius. Although Stilicho managed to increase the power of the magister peditum praesentalis to the disadvantage of his colleague the magister equitum praesentalis and claimed that Theodosius had appointed him as guardian for both his sons, this tells us more about his cunning and ambition than it does about Theodosius' constitutional arrangements.

Theodosius' importance rests on the fact that he founded a dynasty which continued in power until the death of his grandson Theodosius II in 450. This ensured a continuity of policy which saw the emergence of Nicene Christianity as the orthodox belief of the vast majority of Christians throughout the middle ages. It also ensured the essential destruction of paganism and the emergence of Christianity as the religion of the state, even if the individual steps in this process can be difficult to identify. On the negative side, however, he allowed his dynastic interests and ambitions to lead him into two unnecessary and bloody civil wars which severely weakened the empire's ability to defend itself in the face of continued barbarian pressure upon its frontiers. In this manner, he put the interests of his family before those of the wider Roman population and was responsible, in many ways, for the phenomenon to which we now refer as the fall of the western Roman empire.


Copyright (C) 1998, David Woods.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

There is a nice segue here, as we pick-up John Julius Norwich's summation of the reign of Theodosius, "Readers of this brief account of his career may well find themselves wondering, not so much whether he deserved the title of 'the Great' as how he ever came to acquire it in the first place. If so, however, they may also like to ask themselves another question: what would have been the fate of the Empire if, at that critical moment in its history after the battle of Adrianople, young Gratian had not called him from his Spanish estates and put the future of the East into his hands? . . . the probability is that the whole Empire of the East would have been lost, swallowed up in a revived Gothic kingdom, with effects on world history that defy speculation.

In his civil legislation he showed, again and again, a consideration for the humblest of his subjects that was rare indeed among rulers of the fourth century. What other prince would have decreed that any criminal, sentenced to execution, imprisonment or exile, must first be allowed thirty days' grace to put his affairs in order? Or that a specified part of his worldly goods must go to his children, upon whom their father's crimes must on no account be visited? Or that no farmer should be obliged to sell his produce to the State at a price lower than he would receive on the open market?

Had he earned his title? Not, perhaps, in the way that Constantine had done or as Justinian was to do. But, if not ultimately great himself, he had surely come very close to greatness; and had he reigned as long as they did his achievements might well have equalled theirs. He might even have saved the Western Empire. One thing only is certain: it would be nearly a century and a half before the Romans would look upon his like again" (Norwich, John Julius. Byzantium, the Early Centuries. London: Penguin Group, 1990. 116-7;118).

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
FaustinaJR.jpg
17a Faustina Junior RIC 49612 viewsFaustina Junior. Augusta 146 - Winter 175/176 A.D. AR Denarius. Struck under Antoninus Pius. Wife of Marcus Aurelius (2.77g; 17.41mm) Obv: FAVSTINA AVGVSTA, draped bust right. Rev: AVGVSTI PII FIL, Concordia standing left holding patera and cornucopia.
RIC 496; RSC 21
Paddy
Vespasiano_denario_VICTORIAE_Efesos.jpg
18-06 - VESPASIANO (69 - 79 D.C.)27 viewsAR Denario 18 mm 3.2 gr.

Anv: "IMP CAESAR VESPAS AVG COS III" - Busto laureado viendo a derecha.
Rev: "PACI AVGVSTAE" - Victoria avanzando a derecha, portando corona de laureles y Palma. "EPE" en campo derecho.

Acuñada 71 D.C.
Ceca: Ephesus
Rareza: S

Referencias: RIC Vol.II #333 Pag.54 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #2270 Pag.433 - BMCRE #457 - Cohen Vol.1 #276 Pag.388 - DVM #38 Pag.101 - CBN #351 - RSC Vol. II #276 Pag.44
mdelvalle
RIC_333_Denario_Vespasiano.jpg
18-18 - VESPASIANO (69 - 79 D.C.)17 viewsAR Denario 18 mm 3.2 gr.

Anv: "IMP CAESAR VESPAS AVG COS III" - Busto laureado viendo a derecha.
Rev: "PACI AVGVSTAE" - Victoria avanzando a derecha, portando corona de laureles y Palma. "EPE" en campo derecho.

Acuñada 71 D.C.
Ceca: Ephesus
Rareza: S

Referencias: RIC Vol.II #333 Pag.54 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #2270 Pag.433 - BMCRE #457 - Cohen Vol.1 #276 Pag.388 - DVM #38 Pag.101 - CBN #351 - RSC Vol. II #276 Pag.44
mdelvalle
LiviaAE23Tyche.jpg
1aj Livia16 viewsDied 29 AD

AE23 of Cilicia, Augusta
23–24 AD

ΙΟΥΛΙΑ [Σ]ΕΒΑΣΤΗ, Portrait, right
ΑΥΓΟΥCTA—NW—N, Tyche std., river god Saros at feet

This is one of my favorite pieces because I picked it up for a couple of bucks from a market stall in an Aegean country.

RPC I 4013-4014
Same design as RPC 4009v, but larger

According to Suetonius, "The last words [Augustus] spoke were to his wife: ‘Livia, keep the memory of our marriage alive, and farewell!’ and died the very moment he was kissing her."
Blindado
ClaudiusAsLibertas.jpg
1ap Claudius29 views41-54

As
Bare head, left, TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP
Libertas, LIBERTAS AVGVSTA SC

RIC 97

According to Suetonius: Claudius was born at Lugdunum (Lyon) on the 1st of August 10BC in the consulship of Iullus Antonius and Fabius Africanus, on the day when the very first altar to Augustus was dedicated there, the child being given the name Tiberius Claudius Drusus. When his elder brother Germanicus was adopted into the Julian family (in 4 AD), he added the name Germanicus also. He lost his father when still an infant (in 9 BC), and throughout his childhood and youth was severely afflicted by various stubborn ailments so that his mind and body lacked vigour, and even when he attained his majority he was not considered capable of a public or private career.

Nevertheless, he applied himself to liberal studies from his earliest youth, and often published examples of his proficiency in each area, though even so he was excluded from public office and failed to inspire any brighter hopes for his future. His mother Antonia the Younger often condemned him as an unfinished freak of Nature, and when accusing someone of stupidity would say: ‘He’s a bigger fool than my son Claudius.’ His grandmother Augusta (Livia) always treated him with utter contempt, and rarely even spoke to him, admonishing him, when she chose to do so, in brief harsh missives, or via her messengers. When his sister Livilla heard the prophecy that he would be Emperor some day, she prayed openly and loudly that Rome might be spared so cruel and unmerited a fate.

Having spent the larger part of his life in such circumstances, he became emperor at the age of fifty (in AD41) by a remarkable stroke of fate. Caligula’s assassins had dispersed the crowd on the pretext that the Emperor wished for solitude, and Claudius, shut out with the rest, retired to a room called the Hermaeum, but shortly afterwards, terrified by news of the murder, crept off to a nearby balcony and hid behind the door-curtains. A Guard, who was wandering about the Palace at random, spotting a pair of feet beneath the curtain where Claudius was cowering, dragged the man out to identify him, and as Claudius fell to the ground in fear, recognised him, and acclaimed him Emperor.

Eutropius summarizes: His reign was of no striking character; he acted, in many respects, with gentleness and moderation, in some with cruelty and folly. He made war upon Britain, which no Roman since Julius Caesar had visited; and, having reduced it through the agency of Cnaeus Sentius and Aulus Plautius, illustrious and noble men, he celebrated a magnificent triumph. Certain islands also, called the Orcades, situated in the ocean, beyond Britain, he added to the Roman empire, and gave his son the name of Britannicus. . . . He lived to the age of sixty-four, and reigned fourteen years; and after his death was consecrated3 and deified.

This was the first "good" coin I ever bought and therefore marks the begiining of an addiction.
Blindado
AgrippinaObol.jpg
1aq Agrippina junior31 viewsMarried Claudius 49 AD

Diobol of Alexandria

Draped bust right, wreathed with corn, hair bound in plait behind, AGRIPPEINA CЄBACTH
Draped bust of Euthenia right, wreathed with corn, holding ears of corn, ЄYQH-NIA across fields, L-IB below

Milne 124

Agrippina the Younger, Julia Agrippina, or Agrippinilla (Little Agrippina) after 50 AD known as Julia Augusta Agrippina (c16 AD –59) was sister of Caligula, niece and fourth wife of Claudius and the mother of Nero. In 28, Tiberius arranged for Agrippina to marry her paternal second cousin Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus. Their only son was named Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus, after Domitius’s recently deceased father. This child would become the Emperor Nero. In 39, Agrippina and her sister Livilla, with their maternal cousin, Drusilla’s widower, Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, were involved in a failed plot to murder Caligula, and make Lepidus emperor. Lepidus was executed. Agrippina and Livilla were exiled by their brother to the Pontine Islands.

Suetonius says, "But it was Agrippina the Younger, his brother Germanicus’s daughter, who ensnared him, assisted by a niece’s privilege of exchanging kisses and endearments. At the next Senate meeting, he primed a group of Senators to propose that he ought to marry Agrippina, as it was in the public interest, and that such marriages between uncle and niece should from then on be regarded as lawful, and no longer incestuous. He married her (AD 49) with barely a day’s delay, but only one freedman and one leading centurion married their respective nieces, to follow suit. Claudius himself, with Agrippina, attended the centurion’s wedding."

The Euthenia reverse reminds one of "euthanasia." which is what some suspect she did to Claudius to elevate her son Nero to the purple.
Blindado
NeroTetPoppaea.jpg
1as Poppaea38 viewsWife of Nero, died 65 AD

Tetradrachm

Radiate head, right, NERW LKAU KAIS SEB GER AV
Poppaea, portrait right, POPPAIA SEBASTH, LIA to rt

Milne 209

Poppaea Sabina (AD 30-65) after AD 63 known as Poppaea Augusta Sabina and sometimes referred to as Poppaea Sabina the Younger to differentiate her from her mother of the same name, was the second wife of the Emperor Nero from AD 62. Prior to this she was the wife of the future Emperor Otho. Suetonius noted, "He married two wives after Octavia. The first was Poppaea Sabina (from AD 62), daughter of an ex-quaestor, married at that time to a Roman knight. . . . Nero doted on Poppeia, whom he married twelve days after divorcing Octavia, yet he caused her death by kicking her when she was pregnant and ill, because she complained of his coming home late from the races. She had borne him a daughter, Claudia Augusta, who died in infancy."
Blindado
HadrianSestFortuna.jpg
1be Hadrian44 views117-138

Sestertius
Laureate head, right, HADRIANVUS AVG COS III PP
Fortuna standing left with rudder on globe and cornucopia, FORTVNA AVG

RIC 759

According to the Historia Augusta, "Bereft of his father at the age of ten, he became the ward of Ulpius Trajanus, his cousin, then of praetorian rank, but afterwards emperor, and of Caelius Attianus, a knight. He then grew rather deeply devoted to Greek studies, to which his natural tastes inclined so much that some called him 'Greekling. . . .' In the 105-106 second Dacian war, Trajan appointed him to the command of the First Legion, the Minervia, and took him with him to the war; and in this campaign his many remarkable deeds won great renown. . . . On taking possession of the imperial power
Hadrian at once resumed the policy of the early emperors and devoted his attention to maintaining peace throughout the world. . . . [I]n this letter to the Senate he apologized because he had not left it the right to decide regarding his accession, explaining that the unseemly haste of the troops in acclaiming him emperor was due to the belief that the state could not be without an emperor. . . . He was, in the same person, austere and genial, dignified and playful, dilatory and quick to act, niggardly and generous, deceitful and straightforward, cruel and merciful, and always in all things changeable. . . . Hadrian's memory was vast and his ability was unlimited ; for instance, he personally dictated his speeches and gave opinions on all questions. He was also very witty. . . ."

After this Hadrian departed for Baiae, leaving Antoninus at Rome to carry on the government. But he received no benefit there, and he thereupon
sent for Antoninus, and in his presence he died there at Baiae on the sixth day before the Ides of July.

According to Eutropius: After the death of Trajan, AELIUS HADRIAN was made emperor, not from any wish to that effect having been expressed by Trajan himself, but through the influence of Plotina, Trajan's wife; for Trajan in his life-time had refused to adopt him, though he was the son of his cousin. He also was born at Italica in Spain. Envying Trajan's glory, he immediately gave up three of the provinces which Trajan had added to the empire, withdrawing the armies from Assyria, Mesopotamia, and Armenia, and deciding that the Euphrates should be the boundary of the empire. When he was proceeding, to act similarly with regard to Dacia, his friends dissuaded him, lest many Roman citizens should be left in the hands of the barbarians, because Trajan, after he had subdued Dacia, had transplanted thither an infinite number of men from the whole Roman world, to people the country and the cities; as the land had been exhausted of inhabitants in the long war maintained by Decebalus.

He enjoyed peace, however, through the whole course of his reign; the only war that he had, he committed to the conduct of a governor of a province. He went about through the Roman empire, and founded many edifices. He spoke with great eloquence in the Latin language, and was very learned in the Greek. He had no great reputation for clemency, but was very attentive to the state of the treasury and the discipline of the soldiers. He died in Campania, more than sixty years old, in the twenty-first year, tenth month, and twenty-ninth day of his reign. The senate was unwilling to allow him divine honours; but his successor Titus Aurelius Fulvius Antonius, earnestly insisting on it, carried his point, though all the senators were openly opposed to him.
1 commentsBlindado
SabinaAsCeres.jpg
1bf Sabina30 viewsWife of Hadrian. Died 137.

As
Diademed bust right, braided hair coiled on top of head, SABINA AVGVSTA HADRIANI AVG P P
Ceres seated on basket, holding grain ears & torch

RIC 1023

The Historia Augusta asserts, "[Hadrian] took to wife the daughter of the Emperor's sister, a marriage advocated by Plotina, but, according to Marius Maximus, little desired by Trajan himself."
Blindado
AeliusAsAnnona.jpg
1bg Aelius29 viewsCaesar, 136-138

As

Bare head, right, AELIVS CAESAR
Pannonia standing and holding a standard, PANNONIA SC

RIC 1071

According to the Historia Augusta (note: scholars view this biography in the text as among those particularly suspect regarding veracity): Aelius Verus was adopted by Hadrian at the time when, as we have previously said, the Emperor's health was beginning to fail and he was forced to take thought for the succession. He was at once made praetor and appointed military and civil governor of the provinces of Pannonia ; afterwards he was created [in AD 136] consul, and then, because he had been chosen to succeed to the imperial power, he was named for a second consulship. . . . [I]n the province to which he had been appointed he was by no means a failure ; for he carried on a campaign with
success, or rather, with good fortune, and achieved the reputation, if not of a pre-eminent, at least of an
average, commander.

Verus had, however, such wretched health that Hadrian immediately regretted the adoption, and since he often considered others as possible successors, he might have removed him altogether from the imperial family had Verus chanced to live longer. . . .

Verus was a man of joyous life and well versed in letters, and he was endeared to Hadrian, as the malicious say, rather by his beauty than by his character. In the palace his stay was but a short one; in his private life, though there was little to be commended, yet there was little to be blamed. Furthermore, he was considerate of his family, well-dressed, elegant in appearance, a man of regal beauty, with a countenance that commanded respect, a speaker of unusual eloquence, deft at writing verse, and, moreover, not altogether a failure in public life.

This sad little flan looks a bit tubercular, like the subject of the portrait.
Blindado
AntonPiusAsWreath.jpg
1bh Antoninus Pius48 views138-161

As

Laureate head, right, ANTONINUS AVG PIVS PP TR P XI
Wreath, PRIMI DECENALIS COS IIII SC

RIC 171

According to the Historia Augusta: Titus Aurelius Fulvus Boionius Antoninus Pius. . . was born at an estate at Lanuvium on the thirteenth day before the Kalends of October in the twelfth consulship of Domitiaiiand first of Cornelius Dolabella. . . . In personal appearance he was strikingly hand-
some, in natural talent brilliant, in temperament kindly; he was aristocratic in countenance and calm in nature, a singularly gifted speaker and an elegant scholar, conspicuously thrifty, a conscientious land-holder, gentle, generous, and mindful of others' rights. He possessed all these qualities, moreover, in the proper mean and without ostentation, and, in fine, was praiseworthy in every way and, in the minds of all good men. . . . He was given the name of Pius by the senate, either because, when his father-in-law was old and weak, he lent him a supporting hand in his attendance at the senate. . . or because he spared those men whom Hadrian in his ill-health had condemned to death, or because after Hadrian's death he
had unbounded and extraordinary honours decreed for him in spite of opposition from all, or because, when Hadrian wished to make away with himself, by great care and watchfulness he prevented him from so doing, or because he was in fact very kindly by nature and did no harsh deed in his own time. . . .

The manner of his adoption, they say, was some what thus : After the death of Aelius Verus, whom Hadrian had adopted and named Caesar, a day was set for the meeting of the senate, and to this Arrius Antoninus came, supporting the steps of his father-in-law. For this act, it is said, Hadrian adopted him. But this could not have been the only reason for the adoption, nor ought it to have been, especially since Antoninus had always done well in his administration of public office. . . .

After his accession to the throne he removed none of the men whom Hadrian had appointed to office, and, indeed, was so steadfast and loyal that he retained good men in the government of provinces for terms of seven and even nine years. He waged a number of wars, but all of them through his legates. . . . With such care did he govern all peoples under him that he looked after all things and all men as if they were his own. As a result, the provinces all prospered in his reign, informers were abolished, and the confiscation of goods was less frequent than ever before. . . .

He died in the seventieth year of his age, but his loss was felt as though he had been but a youth. . . . On the second day, as he saw that his condition was becoming worse, in the presence of his prefects he committed the state and his daughter to Marcus Antoninus. . . .
Blindado
FaustinaSestVesta.jpg
1bi Faustina22 viewsWife of Antoninus Pius, died 141

Sestertius

Draped bust, right, DIVA FAVSTINA
Vesta stg, AVGVSTA SC

RIC 1178

The Historia Augusta recounts: On the death of his wife Faustina, in the third year of his reign, the senate deified her, and voted her games and a temple and priestesses and statues of silver and of gold. These the Emperor accepted, and furthermore granted permission that her statue be erected in all the circuses ; and when the senate voted her a golden statue, he undertook to erect it himself.
Blindado
MarcAurelSestSalus.jpg
1bj Marcus Aurelius94 views161-180

Sestertius

Laureate head, right, IMP CAES M AVREL ANTONINVS AVG PM
Salus stg, SALVTI AVGVSTOR TR P XVII COS III SC

RIC 843

The Historia Augusta relates: He was reared under the eye of Hadrian, who called him Verissimus. . . . And so he was adopted in his eighteenth year, and at the instance of Hadrian exception was made for his age and he was appointed quaestor for the year of the second consulship of Antoninus [Pius], now his father. . . . After Hadrian's death, Pius immediately got his wife to ask Marcus if he would break off his betrothal to the daughter of Lucius Commodus and marry their own daughter Faustina (whom Hadrian had wanted to marry Commodus' son, even though he was badly matched in age). After thinking the matter over, Marcus replied he was willing. And when this was done, Pius designated him as his colleague in the consulship, though he was still only quaestor, gave him the title of Caesar. . . .

When Antoninus Pius saw that the end of his life was drawing near, having summoned his friends and prefects, he commended Marcus to them all and formally named him as his successor in the empire. . . . Being forced by the senate to assume the government of the state after the death of the Deified Pius, Marcus made his brother his colleague in the empire, giving him the name Lucius Aurelius Verus Commodus and bestowing on him the titles Caesar and Augustus.

Eutropius summarizes: They carried on a war against the Parthians, who then rebelled for the first time since their subjugation by Trajan. Verus Antoninus went out to conduct that war, and, remaining at Antioch and about Armenia, effected many important achievements by the agency of his generals; he took Seleucia, the most eminent city of Assyria, with forty thousand prisoners; he brought off materials for a triumph over the Parthians, and celebrated it in conjunction with his brother, who was also his father-in-law. He died in Venetia. . . . After him MARCUS ANTONINUS held the government alone, a man whom any one may more easily admire than sufficiently commend. He was, from his earliest years, of a most tranquil disposition; so that even in his infancy he changed countenance neither for joy nor for sorrow. He was devoted to the Stoic philosophy, and was himself a philosopher, not only in his way of life, but in learning. . . .

Under his rule affairs were successfully conducted against the Germans. He himself carried on one war with the Marcomanni, but this was greater than any in the memory of man,so that it is compared to the Punic wars. . . . Having persevered, therefore, with the greatest labour and patience, for three whole years at Carnuntum,14 he brought the Marcomannic war to an end; a war which the Quadi, Vandals, Sarmatians, Suevi, and all the barbarians in that quarter, had joined with the Marcomanni in raising; he killed several thousand men, and, having delivered the Pannonians from slavery, triumphed a second time at Rome with his son Commodus Antoninus, whom he had previously made Caesar. . . . Having, then, rendered the state happy, both by his excellent management and gentleness of disposition, he died in the eighteenth year of his reign and the sixty-first of his life, and was enrolled among the gods, all unanimously voting that such honour should be paid him.
3 commentsBlindado
LVerusAsTrophies.jpg
1bl Lucius Verus113 views161-169

As
166-167

Laureate head, right, L VERVS AVG ARM PARTH MAX
3 trophies, TR P VII IMP III[I] COS III

RIC 1464

Son of Aelius Caesar and adopted son of Antoninus Pius, Marcus Aurelius elevated his adoptive brother to co-ruler in 161. The Parthians launched an attack against Roman Syria that it had planned before the death of Pius, and Marcus, with the agreement of the Senate, dispatched Lucius to deal with the crisis. According to the Historia Augusta, "Verus, of course, after he arrived in Syria, lived in luxury at Antioch and Daphne, although he was acclaimed imperator while waging the Parthian war through legates." This coin's reverse honors his military victory over the Parthians in 165.

The Historia Augusta describes Verus: He was physically handsome with a genial face. His beard was allowed to grow almost in Barbarian style. He was a tall man, his forehead projected somewhat above his eyebrows, so that he commanded respect. . . In speech almost halting, he was very keen on gambling, and his way of life was always extravagant.
Blindado
CommodusSestRoma.jpg
1bn Commodus27 views177-192

Sestertius

Laureate head, right, M COMMOD ANT P FELIX AVG BRIT PP

Roma seated left, ROM FEL PM TR P XVI COS VI

RIC 224

The Historia Augusta reports: As for Commodus himself, he was born, with his twin brother Antoninus, at Laiiuvium where his mother's father was born, it is said on the day before the Kalends of September, while his father and uncle were consuls. . . . Marcus tried to educate Commodus by his own teaching and by that of the greatest and the best of men. . . . However, teachers in all these studies profited him not in the least such is the power, either of natural character, or of the tutors maintained in a palace. For even from his earliest years he was base and dis- honorable, and cruel and lewd, defiled of mouth, moreover, and debauched. . . . While yet a child he was given the name of Caesar, along with his brother Verus. . . .

[After Marcus died], He abandoned the war which his father had almost finished and submitted to the enemy's terms, and then he returned to Rome. . . . After he had come back to Rome, he led the triumphal procession with Saoterus, his partner in depravity, seated in his chariot, and from time to time he would turn around and kiss him openly, repeating this same performance even in the orchestra. And not only was he wont to drink until dawn and squander the resources of the Roman Empire, but in the evening he would ramble through taverns and brothels. 6 He sent out to rule the provinces men who were either his companions in crime or were recommended to him by criminals. He became so detested by the senate that he in his turn was moved with cruel passion for the destruction of that great order, and from having been despised he became bloodthirsty. . . . He was called also the Roman Hercules, on the ground that he had killed 192 wild beasts in the amphitheatre at Lanuvium. . . . He engaged in gladiatorial combats, and accepted
the names usually given to gladiators 5 with as much pleasure as if he had been granted triumphal decorations. . . .

Because of these things but all too late Quintus Aemilius Laetus, prefect of the guard, and Marcia, his concubine, were roused to action and entered into a conspiracy against his life. First they gave him poison; and when this proved ineffective they had him strangled by the athlete with whom he was accustomed to exercise.
Blindado
CrispinaAsJuno.jpg
1bo Crispina25 viewsWife of Commodus

As

Draped bust, right, CRISPINA AVGVSTA
Juno, IVNO LVCINA

RIC 680

We know little about Crispina. The Historia Augusta notes, "[W]hen Commodus married Crispina, custom demanded that the front seat at the theater be assigned to the empress. Lucilla found this difficult to endure. . . . His wife, whom he caught in adultery, he drove from his house, then banished her, and later put her to death."
1 commentsBlindado
PertinaxDenOps.jpg
1bp Pertinax18 views193

Denarius

Bearded laureate head, right, IMP CAES P HELV PERTIN AVG
Ops std, OPI DIVIN TR P COS II

RIC 8

The Historia Augusta has this to say: Publius Helvius Pertinax was the son of a freedman, Helvius Successus by name, who confessed that he gave this name to his son because of his own long-standing connection with the timber-trade. . . . Pertinax himself was born in the Apennines on an estate which belonged to his mother. . . . Winning promotion because of the energy he showed in the Parthian war, he was transferred to Britain and there retained. Later he led a squadron in Moesia. . . . Next, he commanded the German fleet. . . . From this command he was transferred to Dacia. . . . After Cassius' revolt had been suppressed, Pertinax set out from Syria to protect the bank of the Danube, and presently he was appointed to govern both the Moesias and, soon thereafter, Dacia. And by reason of his success in these provinces, he won the appointment to Syria. . . .

Pertinax was made consul for the second time. And while in this position, Pertinax did not avoid complicity in the murder of Commodus, when a share in this plot was offered him by the other conspirators. After Commodus was slain, aetus, the prefect of the guard, and Eclectus, the chamberlain, came to Pertinax and reassured him, and then led him to the camp. There he harangued the soldiers, promised a donative, and said that the imperial power had been thrust upon him by Laetus and Eclectus. . . .

He reduced the imperial banquets from something absolutely unlimited to a fixed standard, and, indeed, cut down all expenses from what they had been under Commodus. And from the example set by the emperor, who lived rather simply, there resulted a general economy and a consequent reduction in the cost of living. . . . [H]e restored to everyone the property of which Commodus had despoiled him. . . . He always attended the stated meetings of the senate and always made some proposal. . . .

A conspiracy l was organized against Pertinax by Laetus, the prefect of the guard, and sundry others who were displeased by his integrity. . . . [T]hree hundred soldiers, formed into a wedge, marched under arms from the camp to the imperial residence. . . . After they had burst into the inner portion of the Palace, however, Pertinax advanced to meet them and sought to appease them with a long and serious speech. In spite of this, one Tausius, a Tungrian, after haranguing the soldiers into a state of fury and fear, hurled his spear at Pertinax' breast. And he, after a prayer to Jupiter the Avenger, veiled his head with his toga and was stabbed by the rest.
Blindado
DidJulSestConMil.jpg
1bq Didius Julianus93 views193

Sestertius

Laureate head, right, IMP CAES M DID SEVER IVLIAN AVG
Concorde w/ standard, CONCORDIA MILIT SC

RIC 14

According to the Historia Augusta: Didius Julianus. . . was reared at the home of Domitia Lucilla, the mother of the Emperor Marcus. . . . [T]hrough the support of Marcus he attained to the office of aedile [and] praetor. After his praetorship he commanded the XXII Legion, the Primigenia, in Germany, and following that he ruled Belgium long and well. Here, with auxiliaries hastily levied from the provinces, he held out against the Chauci as they attempted to burst through the border; and for these services, on the recommendation of the Emperor, he was deemed worthy of the consulship. He also gained a crushing victory over the Chatti. Next he took charge of Dalmatia and cleared it of the hostile tribes on its borders. Then he governed Lower Germany. . . .

His consulship he served with Pertinax; in the proconsulship of Africa, moreover, he succeeded him. Pertinax always spoke of him as his colleague and successor. After [Pertinax'] death, when Sulpicianus was making plans to be hailed emperor in the camp, Julianus, together with his son-in-law, . . . discovered two tribunes, Publius Florianus and Vectius Aper, who immediately began urging him to seize the throne; and. . . conducted him to the praetorian camp. When they arrived at the camp, however, Sulpicianus, the prefect of the city and the father-in-law of Pertinax, was holding an assembly and claiming the empire himself, and no one would let Julianus inside, despite the huge promises he made from outside the wall. Julianus then . . . wrote on placards that he would restore the good name of Commodus; so he was admitted and proclaimed emperor. . . .

Julianus had no fear of either the British or the Illyrian army; but being chiefly afraid of the Syrian army, he despatched a centurion of the first rank with orders to murder Niger. Consequently Pescennius Niger in Syria and Septimius Severus in Illyricum, together with the armies which they commanded, revolted from Julianus. But when he received the news of the revolt of Severus, whom he had not suspected, then he was greatly troubled and came to the senate and prevailed upon them to declare Severus a public enemy. . . . Severus was approaching the city with a hostile army. . . and the populace hated and laughed at him more and more every day.

In a short time Julianus was deserted by all and left alone in the Palace with one of his prefects, Genialis, and with Repentinus, his son-in-law. Finally, it was propose'd that the imperial power be taken away from Julianus by order of the senate. This was done, and Severus was forthwith acclaimed emperor, while it was given out that Julianus had taken poison. Nevertheless, the senate despatched a delegation and through their efforts Julianus was slain in the Palace by a common soldier. . . .
Blindado
ClodAlbDenRoma.jpg
1br Clodius Albinus38 views195-197

Denarius

Bare head, right, D CL SEPT ALBIN CAES
Roma seated on shield holding Palladium and scepter, ROMAE AETERNAE

RIC 11

According to the Historia Augusta, which in the case of Albinus is thought to be of dubious veracity: After the death of Pertinax, who was slain at Albinus' advice, various men were hailed emperor at about one and the same time by the senate Julianus at Rome, and by the armies, Septimius Severus in Illyricum, Pescennius Niger in the East, and Clodius Albinus in Gaul. According to Herodian, Clodius had been named Caesar by Severus. But as time went on, each chafed at the other's rule, and the armies of Gaul and Germany demanded an emperor of their own naming, and so all parts of the empire were thrown into an uproar. . . .

It is an undeniable fact, moreover, and Marius Maximus also relates it, that Severus at first intended to name Pescennius Niger and Clodius Albinus as his successors, in case aught befell him. Later, as it happened, in the interest of his growing sons, and through envy of the affection in which Albinus was held, and most of all becau-e of his wires entreaties, he changed his purpose and crushed both of them in war. But he did name Albinus consul, and this he never would have done had not Aibinus been a worthy man, since he was ever most careful in his choice of magistrate. . . .

As soon as he came of age he entered military service, and by the aid of Lollius Serenus, Baebius Maecianus and Ceionius Postumianus, all his kinsmen, he gained the notice of the Antonines. In the capacity of a tribune he commanded a troop of Dalmatian horse: he also commanded soldiers of the I and the IV legions. At the time of Avidius' revolt he loyally held the Bithynian army to its allegiance. Next, Commodus transferred him to Gaul; and here he routed the tribes from over the Rhine and made his name illustrious among both Romans and barbarians. This aroused Commodus' interest, and he offered Albinus the name of Caesar and the privilege, too, of giving the soldiers a present and wearing the scarlet cloak. But all these offers Albinus wisely refused, for Commodus, he said, was only looking for a man who would perish with him, or whom he could reasonably put to death. . . .

[A]fter a decisive engagement, where countless of his soldiers fell, and very many fled, and many, too, surrendered, Albinus also fled away and, according to some, stabbed himself, according to others, was stabbed by a slave. At any rate, he was brought to Severus only half alive. . . . Albinus' head was cut off and paraded on a pike, and finally sent to Rome.
Blindado
SeptSevDenFund.jpg
1bs Septimius Severus87 views193-211

Denarius

Laureate head, right, SEVERVS PIVS AVG
Septimius, togate and veiled, standing left holding olive branch, FVNDATOR PACIS

RIC 265

According to the Historia Augusta: After the murder of Didius Julianus, Severus, a native of Africa, gained the empire. His home town was Lepcis Magna, his father was Geta and his ancestors had been Roman knights before citizenship had been given to all. . . . He himself was born on the third day before the Ides of April, when Erucius Clarus, for the second time, and Severus were the consuls [11 April A.D.146]. . . .

After his departure to Germany he conducted himself in such a way in his governorship as to increase his reputation, which had already become noteworthy. Up to this point his military activity was as a private citizen. But then, after it had been learned that Commodus had been murdered and, moreover, that Julianus held the empire amid universal hatred, he was proclaimed emperor by the German legions at Carnuntum, on the Ides of August, although he did put up some resistance to the many who urged him on. He gave the soldiers . . . sesterces each. Then, after strengthening the provinces which he was leaving in his rear, he marched on Rome. All yielded to him wherever he went, while the armies of Illyricum and Gaul, under the pressure of their generals, had already sworn allegiance to him - for he was received by everyone as the avenger of Pertinax. At the same time, on the instigation of Julianus, Septimius Severus was declared a public enemy, and envoys were sent to the army who were to order the soldiers to desert him, on the instructions of the Senate. At first, when Severus heard that the envoys had been sent by authority of a senatorial decree, he was very frightened. Afterwards, by bribing the envoys, he ensured that they spoke in his favour before the army and crossed to his side. Having learned this, Julianus caused a decree ofthe Senate to be passed regarding his sharing of the empire with Severus. It is uncertain whether or not he did this as a trick, since he had already, before this, dispatched certain men, well known for their assassinations of generals, who were to kill Severus. Similarly he had sent men to assassinate Pescennius Niger, who had also assumed the position of emperor in opposition to him, on the instigation of the Syrian armies. But Severus escaped the hands of those that Julianus had sent to murder him and sent a letter to the praetorian guard, giving them the signal either to desertJulianus or to kill him. He was obeyed at once; Julianus was killed in the palace and Severus was invited to Rome. Thus Severus became the victor merely at will - something that had never happened to anyone - and hastened to Rome under arms. . . .

The same emperor, although implacable towards offences, likewise displayed singular judiciousness in encouraging all hard-working persons. He was quite interested in philosophy and the practice of rhetoric, and enthusiastic about learning in general. He took some measures against brigands everywhere. He composed a convincing autobiography dealing with both his private and his public life, making excuses only for the vice of cruelty. With regard to this, the Senate pronounced that either he ought not to have been born or that he ought not to die, since he appeared to be both excessively cruel and excessively useful to the republic. . . . . He died at Eboracum [York] in Britain, having subdued the tribes which appeared hostile to Britain, in the eighteeneh year of his reign, stricken by a very grave illness, now an old man. . . .

This emperor wore such meagre clothing that even his tunic scarcely had any purple, while he covered his shoulders with a shaggy cloak. He ate sparingly, being very addicted to his native vegetable, sometimes fond of wine, often abstaining from meat. His person was handsome, he was of huge size,(Dio Cassius, who knew Severus personally, says that he was small) with a long beard and curly white hair. His face inspired reverence, his voice was resonant but with a trace of an African accent right up to his old age. He was equally beloved after his death, when envy, or the fear of his cruelty, had disappeared.
Blindado
JuliaDomDenVenus.jpg
1bt Julia Domna14 viewsDenarius

Draped bust, right, IVLIA AVGVSTA
Venus with bare bottom, VENERI VICTR

RIC 536

According to the Historia Augusta, "Next [Septimius Severus] was appointed legate of Lugdunensis. When he wished to marry a second time, after losing his wife, he investigated the horoscopes of potential brides, being very skilled in astrology himself, and since he had heard that there was a certain woman in Syria whose horoscope forecast that she would marry a king, he sought her hand. It was of courseJulia, and he gained her as his bride through the mediation offriends. She at once made him a father! . . . [A]s concerns his family he was less careful, retaining his wife Julia who was notorious for her adulteries and was also guilty of conspiracy."
Blindado
CaracallaDenMars.jpg
1bu Caracalla29 views198-217

Denarius

Laureate head, right, ANTONINVS PIVS AVG BRIT
Mars, MARTI PROPVGNATORI

RIC 223

The Historia Augusta, in the life of Severus, records: As he was advancing against Albinus, moreover, and had reached Viminacium 4 on his march, he gave his elder son Bassianus the name Aurelius Antoninus 5 and the title of Caesar, in order to destroy whatever hopes of succeeding to the throne his brother Geta had conceived. His reason for giving his son the name Antoninus was that he had dreamed that an Antoninus would succeed him. It was because of this dream, some believe, that Geta also was called Antoninus, in order that he too might succeed to the throne. . . . [After defeating Niger], he bestowed the. toga virilis on his younger son, Geta, and he united his elder son in marriage with Plautianus' daughter [Plautilla]. . . . Soon thereafter he appointed his sons to the consulship ; also he greatly honored his brother Geta. . . . Severus [in 198] invaded Parthia, defeated the king, and came to Ctesiphon; and about the beginning of the winter season he took the city. For this feat, likewise, the soldiers declared his son, Bassianus Antoninus, co-emperor; he had already been named Caesar and was now in his thirteenth year. And to Geta, his younger son, they gave the name Caesar. . . .

In the life of Caracalla, the history continues: He himself in his boyhood was winsome and clever, respectful to his parents and courteous to his parents' friends, beloved by the people, popular with the senate, and well able to further his own interests in winning affection. Never did he seem backward in letters or slow in deeds of kindness, never niggardly in largess or tardy in forgiving at least while under his parents. . . . All this, however, was in his boyhood. For when
he passed beyond the age of a boy, either by his father's advice or through a natural cunning, or because he thought that he must imitate Alexander of Macedonia,he became more reserved and stern and even somewhat savage in expression. . . .

After his father's death he went to the Praetorian Camp and complained there to the soldiers that his brother was forming a conspiracy against him. And so he had his brother slain in the Palace. . . . After this he committed many further murders in the city, causing many persons far and wide to be seized by soldier sand killed, as though he were punishing a rebellion. . . . After doing all this he set out for Gaul and immediately upon his arrival there killed the proconsul of Narbonensis. . . . Then he made ready for a journey to the Orient, but interrupted his march and stopped in Dacia. . . . Then he journeyed through Thrace accompanied by the prefect of the guard. . . . After this, turning to the war with the Armenians and Parthians, he appointed as military commander a man whose character resembled his own. . . . Then he betook himself to Alexandria. . . . [H]e issued an order to his soldiers to slay their hosts and thus caused great slaughter at Alexandria. . . . Next he advanced through the lands of the Cadusii and the Babylonians and waged a guerilla-warfare with the Parthian satraps, in which wild beasts were even let loose against the enemy. He then sent a letter to the senate as though he had won a real victory and thereupon was given the name Parthicus. . . .

After this he wintered at Edessa with the intention of renewing the war against the Parthians. During this time, on the eighth day before the Ides of April, the feast of the Megalensia and his own birthday, while on a journey to Carrhae to do honor to the god Lunus, he stepped aside to satisfy the needs of nature and was thereupon assassinated by the treachery of Macrinus the prefect of the guard, who after his death seized the imperial power.
1 commentsBlindado
MacrinDenProvid.jpg
1bx Macrinus38 views217-218

Denarius

Laureate draped bust, right, IMP C M OPEL SEV MACRINVS AVG
Providentia stg, PROVIDENTIA DEORVM

RIC 80

According to the Historia Augusta, which concedes that almost nothing was known about Macrinus: Though of humble origin and shameless in spirit as well as in countenance, and though hated by all, both civilians and soldiers, he nevertheless proclaimed himself now Severus and now Antoninus. Then he set out at once for the Parthian war and thus gave no opportunity either for the soldiers to form an opinion of him, or for the gossip by which he was beset to gain its full strength. The senators, however, out of hatred for Antoninus Bassianus, received him as emperor gladly. . . . Now to his son, previously called Diadumenianus, he gave the name Antoninus (after he had himself assumed the appellation Felix) in order to avert the suspicion of having slain Antoninus. This same name was afterwards taken by Varius Elagabalus also, who claimed to be the son of Bassianus, a most filthy creature and the son of a harlot. . . .

And so, having been acclaimed emperor, Macrinus assumed the imperial power and set out against the Parthians with a great array, eager to blot out the lowliness of his family and the infamy of his early life by a magnificent victory. But after fighting a battle with the Parthians he was killed in a revolt of the legions, which had deserted to Varius Elagabalus. He reigned, however, for more than a year.

Macrinus, then, was arrogant and bloodthirsty and desirous of ruling in military fashion. He found fault even with the discipline of former times and lauded Severus alone above all others. For he even crucified soldiers and always used the punishments meted out to slaves, and when he had to deal with a mutiny among the troops, he usually decimated the soldiers but sometimes he only centimated them. This last was an expression of his own, for he used to say that he was merciful in putting to death only one in a hundred. . . .

This is one of my favorite pieces because I bought it completely covered with crud and set about cleaning it. Boy was I surprised!
Blindado
ElagabDenEleg.jpg
1bz Elagabalus_217 views218-222

Denarius

Laureate, horned & draped bust rightt, IMP ANTONINVS PIVS AVG
Elagabalus standing left, sacrificing from patera over lit tripod altar, holding branch, star in field left, SVMMVS SACERDOS AVG

RIC 146

The Historia Augusta, in the life of Caracalla, notes: Bassianus lived for forty-three years and ruled for six. . . . He left a son, who afterward received, like his father, the name Antoninus Marcus Antoninus Elagabalus; for such a hold had the name of the Antonines that it could not be removed from the thoughts of the people, because it had taken root in the hearts of all, even as had the name of Augustus.

In the life of Macrinus is recorded: Now there was a certain woman of the city of Emesa, called [Julia] Maesa or Varia; she was the sister of Julia, the wife of [Septimius] Severus Pertinax the African, and after the death of Antoninus Bassianus she had been expelled from her home in the palace through the arrogance of Macrinus. . . . This woman had two daughters, [Julia Soaemias] and [Julia] Mamaea, the elder of whom was the mother of Elagabalus; he assumed the names Bassianus and Antoninus, for the Phoenicians give the name Elagabalus to the Sun. Elagabalus, moreover, was notable for his beauty and stature and for the priesthood which he held, and he was well known to all who frequented the temple, and particularly to the soldiers. To these, Maesa, or Varia as she was also called, declared that this Bassianus was the son of Antoninus, and this was gradually made known to all the soldiers. Maesa herself, furthermore, was very rich (whence also Elagabalus was most wasteful of money), and through her promises to the soldiers the legions were persuaded to desert Macrinus. . . .

Finally, when he received the imperial power, he took the name Antoninus and was the last of the Antonines to rule the Roman Empire. . . . He was wholly under the control of his mother [Soaemias], so much so, in fact, that he did no public business without her consent, although she lived like a harlot and practised all manner of lewdness in the palace. For that matter, her amour with Antoninus Caracalla was so notorious that Varius, or rather Elagabalus, was commonly supposed to be his son. . . . In short, when Elagabalus' message was read in the senate, at once good wishes were uttered for Antoninus and curses on Macrinus and his son, and, in accordance with the general wish and the eager belief of all in his paternity, Antoninus was hailed as emperor. . . .

After he had spent the winter in Nicomedia, [218-219] living in a depraved manner and indulging in unnatural vice with men, the soldiers soon began to regret that they had conspired against Macrinus to make this man emperor, and they turned their thoughts toward his cousin Alexander, who on the murder of Macrinus had been hailed by the senate as Caesar. . . . Among the base actions of his life of depravity he gave orders that Alexander, whom he had formally adopted, be removed from his presence, saying that he regretted the adoption. Then he commanded the senate to take away from Alexander the name of Caesar. But when this was announced to the senate, there was a profound silence. For Alexander was an excellent youth, as was afterwards shown by the character of his rule, even though, because he was chaste, he was displeasing to his adoptive father he was also, as some declare, his cousin. Besides, he was loved by the soldiers and acceptable to the senate and the equestrian order. Yet the Emperor's madness went the length of an attempt to carry out the basest design; for he despatched assassins to kill Alexander. . . . The soldiers, however, and particularly the members of the guard, either because they knew what evils were in store for Elagabalus, or because they foresaw his hatred for themselves, formed a conspiracy to set the state free. First they attacked the accomplices in his plan of murdering Alexander. . . . Next they fell upon Elagabalus himself and slew him in a latrine in which he had taken refuge.
Blindado
PhilippusAntLiberalitas.jpg
1cn Philippus29 views244-249

Antoninianus

Radiate draped bust, right, IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG
Liberalitas standing left with abacus & cornucopiae, LIBERALITAS AVGG II

RIC 38b

The Historia Augusta records: Philippus Arabs was made prefect of the guard [in 243]. This Philip was low-born but arrogant, and now could not contain himself in his sudden rise to office and immoderate good fortune, but immediately, through the soldiers, began to plot against Gordian, who had begun to treat him as a father. . . . Timesitheus [Gordian's father-in-law] had stored up such a quantity of supplies everywhere, that the Roman administration could not break down. But now Philip intrigued first to have the grain-ships turned away, and then to have the troops moved to stations where they could not get provisions. In this way he speedily got them exasperated against Gordian, for they did not know that the youth had been betrayed through Philip's intriguing. In addition to this, Philip spread talk among the soldiers to the effect that Gordian was young and could not manage the Empire, and that it were better for someone to rule who could command the army and understood public affairs. Besides this, he won over the leaders, and finally brought it about that they openly called him to the throne. Gordian's friends at first opposed him vigorously, but when the soldiers were at last overcome with hunger Philip was entrusted with the sovereignty, and the soldiers commanded that he and Gordian should rule together with equal rank while Philip acted as a sort of guardian.

Now that he had gained the imperial power Philip began to bear himself very arrogantly towards Gordian ; and he, knowing himself to be an emperor, an emperor's son, and a scion of a most noble family, could not endure this low-born fellow's insolence. And so, mounting the platform, with his kinsman Maecius Gordianus standing by him as his prefect, he complained bitterly to the officers and soldiers in the hope that Philip's office could be taken from him. But by this complaint in which he accused Philip of being unmindful of past favours and too little grateful he accomplished nothing. Next he asked the soldiers to make their choice, after openly canvassing the officers, but as a result of Philip's intriguing he came off second in the general vote. And finally, when he saw that everyone considered him worsted, he asked that their power might at least be equal, but he did not secure this either. After this he asked to be given the position of Caesar, but he did not gain this. He asked also to be Philip's prefect, and this, too, was denied him. His last prayer was that Philip should make him a general and let him live. And to this Philip almost consented not speaking himself, but acting through his friends, as he had done throughout, with nods and advice. But when he reflected that through the love that the Roman people and senate, the whole of Africa and Syria, and indeed the whole Roman world, felt for Gordian, because he was nobly born and the son and grandson of emperors and had delivered the whole state from grievous wars, it was possible, if the soldiers ever changed their minds, that the throne might be given back to Gordian if he asked for it again, and when he reflected also that the violence of the soldiers' anger against Gordian was due to hunger, he had him carried, shouting protests, out of their sight and then despoiled and slain.

Eutropius wrote, "When Gordian was killed, the two PHILIPS, father and son, seized on the government, and, having brought off the army safe, set out from Syria for Italy. In their reign the thousandth year of the city of Rome was celebrated with games and spectacles of vast magnificence. Soon after, both of them were put to death by the soldiery; the elder Philip at Verona, the younger at Rome. They reigned but five years. They were however ranked among the gods."
Blindado
MacrianusAntAequitas.jpg
1dc Macrianus19 views260-261

Billon antoninianus

Radiate cuirassed bust, right, IMP C FVL MACRIANVS PF AVG
Aequitas standing left holding scales & cornucopiae, star to left, AEQVTAS AVGG

RIC 5

Macrianus did not rule in Rome. He and his brother Quietus took command of the army after the Persians captured Valerian but were defeated by one of Gallienus' generals when they marched west. According to the Historia Augusta: After the capture of Valerian, long a most
noble prince in the state, then a most valiant emperor, but at the last the most unfortunate of all men (either because in his old age he pined away among the Persians or because he left behind him unworthy descendants), Ballista, Valerian's prefect, and Macrianus, the foremost of his generals, since they knew that Gallienus was worthy only of contempt and since the soldiers, too, were seeking an emperor, withdrew together to a certain place, to consider what should be done. They then agreed that, since Gallienus was far away and Aureolus was usurping the imperial power, some emperor ought to be chosen, and, indeed, the best man, lest there should arise some pretender. . . . Ballista, perceiving that Macrianus, in so speaking, seemed to have in mind his own two sons, answered him as follows : "To your wisdom, then, we entrust the commonwealth. And so give us your sons Macrianus and Quietus, most valiant young men, long since made tribunes by Valerian, for, under the rule of Gallienus, for the very reason that they are good men, they cannot remain unharmed."

And so, with the consent of all the soldiers, Macrianus was made emperor, together with his two sons Macrianus and Quietus, and he immediately proceeded to march against Gallienus, leaving affairs in the East in whatever state he could. But while he was on the march, having with him a force of forty-five thousand soldiers, he met Aureolus in Illyricum or on the borders of Thrace, and there he was defeated and together with his son was slain. Then thirty thousand of his men yielded to Aureolus' power.
Blindado
PostumusAntVirtus.jpg
1de Postumus31 views259-268

Antoninianus

Radiate, draped & cuirassed bust, right, IMP C POTVMVS PF AVG
Virtus standing right, holding spear & shield, VIRTVS AVG

RIC 93

Postumus rebelled against Gallienus and ruled Gaul, Spain, and Britain. Eutropius wrote: When affairs were in this desperate condition, and the Roman empire almost ruined, POSTUMUS, a man of very obscure birth, assumed the purple in Gaul, and held the government with such ability for ten years, that he recruited the provinces, which had been almost ruined, by his great energy and judgment; but he was killed in a mutiny of the army, because he would not deliver up Moguntiacum, which had rebelled against him, to be plundered by the soldiers, at the time when Lucius Aelianus was endeavouring to effect a change of government.

According to the Historia Augusta: This man, most valiant in war and most steadfast in peace, was so highly respected for his whole manner of life that he was even entrusted by Gallienus with the care of his son Saloninus (whom he had placed in command of Gaul), as the guardian of his life and conduct and his instructor in the duties of a ruler.- Nevertheless, as some writers assert though it does not accord with his character he afterwards broke faith and after slaying Saloninus seized the imperial power. As others, however, have related with greater truth, the Gauls themselves, hating Gallienus most bitterly and being unwilling to endure a boy as their emperor, hailed as their ruler the man who was holding the rule in trust for another, and despatching soldiers they slew the boy. When he was slain, Postumus was gladly accepted by the entire army and by all the Gauls, and for seven years he performed such exploits that he completely restored the provinces of Gaul. . . . Great, indeed, was the love felt for Postumus in the hearts of all the people of Gaul because he had thrust back all the German tribes and had restored the Roman Empire to its former security. But when he began to conduct himself with the greatest sternness, the Gauls, following their custom of always desiring a change of government, at the instigation of Lollianus put him to death.

Zonaras adds: Galienus, when he had learned of [his son's death], proceeded against Postumus, and, when he had engaged him, was initially beaten and then prevailed, with the result that Postumus fled. Then Auriolus was sent to chase him down. Though able to capture him, he was unwilling to pursue him for long, but, coming back, he said that he was unable to capture him. Thus Postumus, having escaped, next organized an army. Galienus again marched upon him and, after he had penned him in a certain city of Gaul, besieged the usurper. In the siege, the sovereign was struck in the back by an arrow and, having become ill as a result, broke off the siege.
Blindado
VictorinusAntPax.jpg
1df Victorinus20 views268-270

AE Antoninianus

Radiate, cuirassed bust, right, IMP C VICTORINVS P F AVG
Pax walking left, holding olive-branch and sceptre, PAX AVG

RIC 55

According to the Historia Augusta: When the elder Postumus saw that Gallienus was marching against him with great forces, and that he needed the aid not only of soldiers but also of a second prince, he called Victorinus, a man of soldierly energy, to a share in the imperial power, and in company
with him he fought against Gallienus. Having summoned to their aid huge forces of Germans, they protracted the war for a long time, but at last they were conquered. Then, when Lollianus, too, had been slain, Victorinus alone remained in command. He also, because he devoted his time to seducing the wives of his soldiers and officers, was slain at Agrippina l through a conspiracy formed by a certain clerk, whose wife he had debauched ; his mother Vitruvia, or rather Victoria, who was later called Mother of the Camp, had given his son Victorinus the title of Caesar, but the boy, too, was immediately killed after his father was slain at Agrippina. [Scholars doubt that Postumus raised Victorianus to the purple, they he was one of his generals, and suggest a held power later during the time of Claudius.]
Blindado
TetricusAntVirtus.jpg
1dg Tetricus33 views270-273

AE antoninianus

Radiate draped bust, right, IMP C TETRICVS P F AVG
Virtus standing left with shield & spear, VIRTVS AVGG

RIC 148

According to the Historia Augusta: After Victorinus and his son were slain, his mother Victoria (or Vitruvia) urged Tetricus, a Roman senator then holding the governorship of Gaul, to take the imperial power, for the reason, many relate, that he was her kinsman; she then caused him to be entitled Augustus and bestowed on his son the name of Caesar. But after Tetricus had done many deeds with success and had ruled for a long time he was defeated by Aurelian, and, being unable to bear the impudence and shamelessness of his soldiers, he surrendered of his own free will to this prince most harsh and severe. . . . Aurelian, nevertheless, exceedingly stern though he was, overcome by a sense of shame, made Tetricus, whom lie had led in his triumph, supervisor over the whole of Italy,' that is, over Campania, Samnium, Lucania, Bruttium, Apulia, Calabria, Etruria and Umbria, Picenum and the Flaminian district, and the entire grain-bearing region, and suffered him not only to retain his life but also to remain in the highest position, calling him frequently colleague, sometimes fellow-soldier, and sometimes even emperor.
Blindado
TetricusIIAntPietas.jpg
1dh Tetricus II25 views270-273

Son of Tetricus

AE antoninianus

Radiate draped bust, right, C P E TETRICVS CAES
Sacr. Implements, PIETAS AVGVSTOR

RIC 259

According to the Historia Augusta: He,1 when a little lad, received the name of Caesar from Victoria when she herself had been entitled by the army Mother of the Camp. He was, furthermore, led in triumph along with his father, but later he enjoyed all the honours of a senator ; nor was his inheritance diminished, and, indeed, he passed it on to his descendants, and was ever, as Arellius Fuscus reports, a man of distinction. . . . The house of the Tetrici is still standing to-day. . . , and in it Aurelian is depicted bestowing on both the Tetrici the bordered toga and the rank of senator and receiving from them a scepter, a chaplet, and an embroidered robe. This picture is in mosaic, and it is said that the two Tetrici, when they dedicated it, invited Aurelian himself to a banquet.
Blindado
ProbusAnrConcordMil.jpg
1do Probus20 views276-282

AE antoninianus

Radiate, cuirassed bust, right, holding spear and shield, IMP PROBVS P F AVG
Concordia and Probus, CONCORDIA MILIT

RIC 332

Zosimus observed: Probus, having thus gained the empire, marched forward, and performed a very commendable action for the public good, as a prelude to what he should afterwards do. For he resolved to punish those who had murdered Aurelianus, and conspired against Tacitus ; though for fear of an insurrection he did not openly execute his design, but planted a company of men, in whom he had confidence, at a convenient post, near to which he invited the murderers to a feast. [Probus] gave a signal to his men to perform. As soon as they had received it, they fell on the murderers in their defenceless state. . . .

Probus obtained several victories over the Barbarians in two different wars; in one of which he himself commanded, but left the other to the conduct of his lieutenant. Perceiving that it was necessary to assist the cities of Germany which lay upon the Rhine, and were harrassed by the Barbarians, he marched with his army towards that river. . . . The emperor terminated several other wars, with scarcely any trouble ; and fought some fierce battles, first against the Logiones, a German nation, whom he conquered, [and] against the Franks, whom he subdued through the good conduct of his commanders. He made war on the Burgundi and the Vandili.

The Historia Augusta adds: After this he set out for Illyricum, but before going thither he left Raetia in so peaceful a state that there remained therein not even any suspicion of fear. In Illyricum l he so crushed the Sarmatians and other tribes that almost without any war at all he got back all they had ravaged. He then directed his march through Thrace, and received in either surrender or friendship all the tribes of the Getae, frightened by the repute of his deeds and brought to submission by the power of his ancient fame. This done, he set out for the East. . . . Having made peace, then, with the Persians, he returned to Thrace, and here he settled one hundred thousand Bastarnae on Roman soil, all of whom remained loyal. . . .

He celebrated a triumph over the Germans and the Blemmyae, and. . . gave in the Circus a most magnificent wild-beast hunt. . . . These spectacles finished, he made ready for war with Persia, but while on the march through Iliyricum he was treacherously killed by his soldiers. The causes of his murder were these : first of all, he never permitted a soldier to be idle, for he built many works by means of their labor, saying that a soldier should eat no bread that was not earned. To this he added another remark, hard for them, should it ever come true, but beneficial to the commonwealth, namely, that soon there would be no need of soldiers.

Zonaras described Probus' death differently: There was another rebellion against him. For Carus, who was in command of portions of Europe, recognized that the soldiers under him wished to proclaim him emperor and revealed this to Probus, begging that he be recalled from there. But Probus was not willing to remove him from office. Then the soldiers surrounded Carus, compelled him reluctantly to receive the empire of the Romans, and immediately hastened with him against Italy. Probus, when he had learned of this, sent an army with a commander to oppose him. As soon as those dispatched had drawn near Carus, they arrested their commander and surrendered him and themselves to Carus. Probus was killed by his own guardsmen, who had learned of the desertion of the soldiers to Carus. The duration of Probus’ sole rule had been not quite six years
Blindado
CarusAntClementia.jpg
1dp Carus24 views282-283

AE antoninianus

Radiate draped bust, right, IMP C M AVR CARVS P F AVG
Emperor standing right, receiving Victory on globe from Jupiter standing left, G between, XXI in ex, CLEMENTIA TEMP

RIC 118

The Historia Augusta recorded: Let us, rather, pass on to Carus, a mediocre man, so to speak, but one to be ranked with the good rather than the evil princes, yet a better ruler by far, had he not left Carinus to be his heir. . . . In regard to Cams' birthplace there is such divergence of statement among the various writers that by reason of the very great difference among them I am unable to tell what it really was. . . . He, then, after rising through the various civil and military grades, as the inscriptions on his statues show, was made prefect of the guard by Probus, and he won such affection among the soldiers that when Probus, that great emperor, was slain, he alone seemed wholly worthy of the imperial power. I am not unaware that many have suspected and, in fact, have put it into the records that Probus was slain by the treachery of Carus. This, however, neither the kindness of Probus toward Carus nor Carus' own character will permit us to believe, and there is the further reason that he avenged the death of Probus with the utmost severity and steadfastness. . . .

[Zonaras adds: Another war against Galienus was incited by Macrinus, who, having two sons, Macrianus and Quintus, attempted a usurpation. Because he was lame in one leg, he did not don the imperial mantle, but clad his sons in it.]

And so. . . , as soon as he received the imperial power, by the unanimous wish of all the soldiers he took up the war against the Persians for which Probus had been preparing. He gave to his sons the name of Caesar, planning to despatch Carinus, with some carefully selected men, to govern the provinces of Gaul, and to take along with himself Numerian, a most excellent and eloquent young man. . . . [H]e conquered Mesopotamia and advanced as far as Ctesiphon; and while the Persians were busied with internal strife he won the name of Conqueror of Persia. But when he advanced still further, desirous himself of glory and urged on most of all by his prefect, who in his wish to rule was seeking the destruction of both Carus and his sons as well, he met his death, according to some, by disease, according to others, through a stroke of lightning.

Zonaras wrote: He was a Gaul by ancestry, but brave and accomplished in matters of warfare. The account of his death has been variously composed by those who have done historical research. Some say that, having campaigned against the Huns, he was killed there. Others say that he was encamped by the River Tigris and that there, in the place where his army had thrown up a palisade, his tent was struck by lightning, and they record that, along with it, he too was destroyed.
Blindado
NumerianAEAntVirt.jpg
1dq Numerian12 views282-284

AE antoninianus

Radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust, right, M AVR NVMERIANVS NOB C
Numerian & Jupiter, VIRTVS AVGG

RIC 377

The Historia Augusta records: Numerian, the son of Carus, was of excellent character and truly worthy to rule ; he was notable, moreover, for his eloquence, so much so, in fact, that even as a boy he declaimed in public, and his writings came to be famous, though more suitable for declamation than in keeping with Cicero's style. . . . He accompanied his father in the Persian war, and after his father's death, when he had begun to suffer from a disease of the eyes for that kind of ailment is most frequent with those exhausted, as he was, by too much loss of sleep and was being carried in a litter, he was slain by the treachery of his father-in-law Aper, who was attempting to seize the rule. But the soldiers continued for several days to ask after the emperor's health, and Aper kept haranguing them, saying that he could not appear before them for the reason that he must protect his weakened eyes from the wind and the sun, but at last the stench of his body revealed the facts. Then all fell upon Aper, whose treachery could no longer be hidden, and they dragged him before the standards in front of the general's tent.
Blindado
CarinusAntAeq.jpg
1dr Carinus13 views283-285

AE antoninianus

Radiate draped & cuirassed bust, right, IMP C M AVR CARINVS AVG
Aequitas stg. Left, AEQVITAS AVGG

RIC 238

According to the Historia Augusta: He was the most polluted of men, an adulterer and a constant corrupter of youth. . . . He was left by his father as Caesar in Gaul and Italy and in Illyricum, Spain, Britain, and Africa, all of which had been voted to him, and he exercised there a Caesar's powers, but with the permission to perform all the duties of an Augustus. Then he defiled himself by unwonted vices and inordinate depravity. . . . He appeared in public as consul contrary to his father's wish. He wrote arrogant letters to the senate, and he even promised the senate's property to the mob of the city of Rome, as though it, forsooth, were the Roman people. By marrying and divorcing he took nine wives in all, and he put away some even while they were pregnant. He filled the Palace with actors and harlots, pantomimists, singers and pimps. He had such an aversion for the signing of state-papers that he appointed for signing them a certain filthy fellow, with whom he used always to jest at midday, and then he reviled him because he could imitate his writing so well. . . .

When he learned that his father had been killed by lightning and his brother slain by his own father-in-law, and that Diocletian had been hailed as Augustus, Carinus committed acts of still greater vice and crime, as though now set free and released by the death of his kindred from all the restraints of filial duty. He did not, however, lack strength of purpose for claiming the imperial power. For he fought many battles against Diocletian, but finally, being defeated in a fight near Margus, he perished.
Blindado
DiocletianAntConcordMil.jpg
1ds Diocletian13 views284-305

AE antoninianus

Radiate, draped, cuirassed bust, right, IMP C C VAL DIOCLETIANVS P F AVG
Zeus and Diocletian, CONCORDIA MILITVM

RIC 284B

According to the Historia Augusta, after the death of Numerian: Then a huge assembly was held and a tribunal, too, was constructed. And when the question was asked who would be the most lawful avenger of Numerian and who could be given to the commonwealth as a good emperor, then all, with a heaven-sent unanimity, conferred the title of Augustus on Diocletian. . . . He was at this time in command of the household-troops, an outstanding man and wise, devoted to the commonwealth, devoted to his kindred, duly prepared to face whatever the occasion demanded, forming plans that were always deep though sometimes over-bold, and one who could by prudence and exceeding firmness hold in check the impulses of a restless spirit. This man, then, having ascended the tribunal was hailed as Augustus, and when someone asked how Numerian had been slain, he drew his sword and pointing to Aper, the prefect of the guard, he drove it through him, saying as he did so, "It is he who contrived Numerian's death.''

Eutropius summarized a long and important reign: DIOCLETIAN, a native of Dalmatia, [was] of such extremely obscure birth, that he is said by most writers to have been the son of a clerk, but by some to have been a freedman of a senator named Anulinus. . . . He soon after overthrew Carinus, who was living under the utmost hatred and detestation, in a great battle at Margum, Carinus being betrayed by his own troops, for though he had a greater number of men than the enemy, he was altogether abandoned by them between Viminacium and mount Aureus. He thus became master of the Roman empire; and when the peasants in Gaul made an insurrection, giving their faction the name of Bagaudae, and having for leaders Amandus and Aelianus, he despatched Maximian Herculius, with the authority of Caesar, to suppress them. Maximian, in a few battles of little importance, subdued the rustic multitude, and restored peace to Gaul. . . .

Diocletian promoted MAXIMIAN HERCULIUS from the dignity of Caesar to that of emperor, and created Constantius and Maximian Galerius Caesars, of whom Constantius is said to have been the grand-nephew of Claudius by a daughter, and Maximian Galerius to have been born in Dacia not far from Sardica. That he might also unite them by affinity, Constantius married Theodora the step-daughter of Herculius, by whom he had afterwards six children, brothers to Constantine; while Galerius married Valeria, the daughter of Diocletian; both being obliged to divorce the wives that they had before. . . .

Diocletian, meanwhile, besieging Achilleus in Alexandria, obliged him to surrender about eight months after, and put him to death. He used his victory, indeed, cruelly, and distressed all Egypt with severe proscriptions and massacres. Yet at the same time he made many judicious arrangements and regulations, which continue to our own days. . . .

Diocletian was of a crafty disposition, with much sagacity, and keen penetration. He was willing to gratify his own disposition to cruelty in such a way as to throw the odium upon others; he was however a very active and able prince. He was the first that introduced into the Roman empire a ceremony suited rather to royal usages than to Roman liberty, giving orders that he should be adored, whereas all emperors before him were only saluted. He put ornaments of precious stones on his dress and shoes, when the imperial distinction had previously been only in the purple robe, the rest of the habit being the same as that of other men. . . .

But when Diocletian, as age bore heavily upon him, felt himself unable to sustain the government of the empire, he suggested to Herculius that they should both retire into private life, and commit the duty of upholding the state to more vigorous and youthful hands. With this suggestion his colleague reluctantly complied. Both of them, in the same day, exchanged the robe of empire for an ordinary dress, Diocletian at Nicomedia, Herculius at Milan, soon after a magnificent triumph which they celebrated at Rome over several nations, with a noble succession of pictures, and in which the wives, sisters, and children of Narseus were led before their chariots. The one then retired to Salonae, and the other into Lucania.

Diocletian lived to an old age in a private station, at a villa which is not far from Salonae, in honourable retirement, exercising extraordinary philosophy, inasmuch as he alone of all men, since the foundation of the Roman empire, voluntarily returned from so high a dignity to the condition of private life, and to an equality with the other citizens. That happened to him, therefore, which had happened to no one since men were created, that, though he died in a private condition, he was enrolled among the gods.
Blindado
coin78.JPG
201. Septimus Severus;,Augusta Traiana14 viewsLooks like Varbanov (engl.) 999 (private collection, unpublished var.). Referring to Varbanov the coin in Schonert-Geiss #170 has 'bust draped and cuirassed, laureate, r.' whereas your obv. is 'head, laureate, r.'

ex - CNG; bulk lot
ecoli
coins305.JPG
202. Caracalla; Augusta Traiana, Thrace20 viewsAugusta Traiana, Thrace

Founded around 106 AD by the Emperor Marcus Ulpius Traianus (98-117 AD), Augusta Traiana, "the most flamboyant city of the Traians" was the second largest city in the Roman province of Thrace during 2nd and 3rd century AD, after Philipopolis (present-day Plovdiv). It occupied an area of 38 hectares and was fortified by strong fortress walls.

Augusta Traiana had the statute of an autonomous city of the ‘polis' type (i.e. city-state). From the time of Emperor Marcus Aurelius (161-180 AD) to the Emperor Galienus (253-268 AD) it had the right to mint its own bronze coins, which were in circulation all over the Balkan Peninsula.

Caracalla

Homonoia sacrificing over burning altar and holding cornucopiae.

Moushmov 3066
ecoli
coin195.JPG
203a. Diadumenian63 viewsMarcus Opellius Antoninus Diadumenianus or Diadumenian (d. 218) was the son of Roman Emperor Macrinus, who served his father briefly as Caesar from May, 217 to 218, and as Augustus in 218.

Diadumenian had little time to enjoy his position or to learn anything from its opportunities because the legions of Syria revolted and declared Elagabalus ruler of the Roman Empire. When Macrinus was defeated on June 8, 218, at Antioch, Diadumenian followed his father's death. According to the Scriptores Historiae Augustae, Diadumenian emulated Macrinus in tyranny. He called upon his father not to spare any who might oppose them or who made plots. His head was cut off and presented to Elagabalus as a trophy.

Diadumenian, A.D. 218 Nicopolis ad Istrum, Hera
OBVERSE: Draped bust right
REVERSE: Hera standing left holding patera.
25 mm - 10 grams

Check
2 commentsecoli
99134.jpg
204a. Julia Paula164 viewsIVLIA CORNELIA PAVLA was the daughter of Julius Paulus, who was a Praetorian Praefect under Elagablalus. The Emperor Elagabalus, who arrived in Rome in the autumn of 219, was quickly becoming unpopular. It was probably Julia Maesa, his grandmother, who conceived the plan to marry him to a well-born Roman woman for two reasons: 1) to counter his public displays of homosexual and trans-sexual tendencies, and 2) to soften the disdain Romans felt for Syrians. She became the first wife of the fifteen-year-old Elagabalus 219, but was divorced only one year later, and returned to private life.

JULIA PAULA, wife of Elagabalus. Augusta, 219 AD. AR Denarius (20mm, 2.67 gm). Rome mint. Draped bust right / Concordia seated left holding patera; star in left field. RIC IV 211 (Elagabalus); RSC 6a. Toned;Ex-Cng
1 commentsecoli73
coin231.JPG
204b. Julia Maesa29 viewsJulia Maesa (about 170- about 226) was daughter of Julius Bassianus, priest of the sun god Heliogabalus, the patron god of Emesa in the Roman province of Syria, and grandmother of the Roman emperor Elagabalus. Like her younger sister Julia Domna, she was among the most important women ever to exercise power behind the throne in the Roman empire.

Julia Maesa was married to Julius Avitus and had two daughters, Julia Mamaea and Julia Soaemias, each one mother of an emperor. Following the accession to the throne of her brother in law Septimius Severus, Julia Maesa moved to Rome to live with her sister. After the murder of her nephew Caracalla, and the suicide of Julia Domna, she was compelled to return to Syria. But the new emperor Macrinus did not proscribe her and allowed her to keep her money. In Syria, Maesa engaged in a plot to overthrow Macrinus and place one of her grandsons, Elagabalus son of Julia Soaemias, in his place. In order to legitimise this pretension, mother and daughter rumoured that the 14-year-old boy was Caracalla's illegitimate son. The Julias were successful, mainly due to the fact that Macrinus was of an obscure origin without the proper political connections, and Elagabalus became emperor.

For her loyalty and support, Elagabalus honored Julia Maesa with the title Augusta avia Augusti (Augusta, grandmother of Augustus). When the teenager proved to be a disaster as emperor (even taking the liberty of marrying a Vestal virgin), Julia Maesa decided to promote Alexander Severus, another of her grandsons. Elagabalus was forced to adopt Alexander as son and was murdered shortly afterwards.

Julia Maesa died in an uncertain date around 226 AD and, like her sister Domna before her, was deified.

Julia Maesa Denarius. PVDICITIA, Pudicitia seated left, raising veil and holding sceptre.

Julia Maesa Denarius. IVLIA MAESA AVG, draped bust right / PVDICITIA, Pudicitia seated left, raising veil and holding sceptre. RIC 268, RSC 36. s2183. No.1502. nVF.
RSC 444, RIC 88
ecoli
IMG_9224.JPG
204e. Annia Faustina10 viewsPHRYGIA, Hierapolis. Annia Faustina. Augusta, AD 221. Æ (23mm, 5.93 g, 6h). Draped bust right, wearing stephane / A/KTI/A in three lines within wreath. SNG München 245; BMC 148. VF, earthen green-brown surfaces. Rare.

Ex Classical Numismatic Group Electronic Auction 362 (28 October 2015), lot 284.
ecoli
107182.jpg
205b. ORBIANA65 viewsGneaea Seia Herennia Sallustia Barbia Orbiana is best known as the wife of Severus Alexander. Possible one of three wives that he had. Little is known of Orbiana. She was from a distinguished family, the daughter of Senator Seius Sallustius Varius Marcinus. She was married to Severus Alexander around 225 when he was about 16. She must have initially met with the favor of Severus Alexander's mother Mamaea but this didn't last long. Orbiana had too much influence with Severus Alexander and this led to direct confrontation with Mamaea. Whether real or not, a plot was found to be led by Orbiana's father to turn the praetorian guards against Severus Alexander and put himself in power. The marriage between Severus Alexander and Orbiana was dissolved at Mamaea's insistence in 227 AD. Shortly later, Sallustius was executed and Orbiana was banished to North Africa.

ORBIANA, wife of Severus Alexander. Augusta, 225 AD. AR Denarius (19mm, 2.83 gm). Diademed and draped bust right / Concordia seated left, holding patera and double cornucopiae. RIC IV 319; RSC 1. VF

1 commentsecoli
Project1~0.jpg
216 Otacilia Severa93 viewsOtacilia Severa, Augusta February or March 244 - September or October 249 A.D.

Silver antoninianus, SRCV III 9158, RIC IV 130, RSC IV 43, Choice gVF, 4.523g, 23.0mm, 180o, Rome mint, 247 A.D.; obverse OTACIL SEVERA AVG, draped bust right set on crescent; reverse PIETAS AVGVSTAE, Pietas, veiled, standing left, extending right, box of incense in left; full circles strike, bold portrait.

"Pietas in traditional Latin usage expressed a complex, highly valued Roman virtue; a man or woman with pietas respected his or her responsibilities to other people, gods and entities (such as the state), and understood his or her place in society with respect to others."
9 commentsRandygeki(h2)
julia_paula_RIC211.jpg
220 AD - JULIA PAULA AR denarius25 viewsobv: IVLIA PAVLA AVG (draped bust right)
rev: CONCORDIA (Concordia seated left, holding patera; star in left field)
ref: RIC IVii 211 (Elagabalus) (S), RSC 6 (6frcs)
mint: Rome
2.91gms, 19mm
Scarce

In July 219, Julia Maesa had arranged for Julia Cornelia Paula (the daughter of Paulus, praetorian prefect) to marry her grandson, Rome's new emperor Elagabalus. Their wedding ceremony was a lavish ceremony that occurred in Rome. In September 220, Elagabalus ended his marriage to Paula and after the divorce, Elagabalus removed Paula's Augusta title. She withdrew from public life and her fate afterwards is unknown.
berserker
orbiana denar-.jpg
225 AD - ORBIANA denarius28 viewsobv: SALL.BARBIA.ORBIANA (diademed & draped bust right)
rev: CONCORDIA.AVGG (Concordia seated left on throne, holding patera & double cornucopiae)
ref: RIC319(SevAlex)(S), C.1(20fr.)
2.37gms, rare
Sallustia Barbia Orbiana Augusta was the wife of Severus Alexander who was banished on the whims of Julia Mamaea, who's control of her son she felt was threatened. In 227 on the charge of attempted murder of the emperor, Orbiana was sent in exile to Libya.
berserker
jmamaea_RIC679.jpg
230 AD - JULIA MAMAEA sestertius31 viewsobv: IVLIA MAMA-EA AVGVSTA (diademed & draped bust right)
rev: FELICITAS P-VBLICA (Felicitas seated left, holding caduceus & cornucopiae), S-C in ex.
ref: RIC 679 (Sev.Alex), Cohen 26
19.51gms,30mm
Julia Mamaea, daughter of Julia Maesa, sister of Julia Soaemias, and mother of Severus Alexander. On Roman coins she is honoured with the title of Augusta (A.D.222). She was ambitious and ruled under her son, even accompanying him to the Persian War, and her avarice caused her to commit acts of injustice in his name. Julia Mamaea was murdered along with her Imperial son in A.D.235.
berserker
severina ant01-.jpg
274-275 AD - SEVERINA AE antoninianus 23 viewsobv: SEVERINAE.AVG (diademed, draped bust right on crescent)
rev: CONCORDIAE.MILITVM / - (Concordia standing left with two ensigns)
ref:?
mint: no mint-marks (by obverse ex the mint was Ticinum or Siscia)
3.29gms, 22mm
not in RIC
Severina was the wife of Aurelian and was made Augusta c.274. After her husband's death she ruled, if only nominally, during the interregnal period before Tacitus.
1 commentsberserker
ThreeAugustae.jpg
3 Augustae - Plotina, Marciana and Matidia275 viewsFrom left to right: Plotina, wife of Trajan; Marciana, sister of Trajan; Matidia, daughter of Marciana and mother of the empress Sabina, wife of Hadrian.2 commentsCharles S
coin185.JPG
304a. Otacilia Severa28 viewsVery little is known about the wife of Philip I. In A. D. 237, she gave birth to a son who was later to become the emperor Philip II. Even the reverses of the coins struck in her name do not tell us very much about this woman but are simply typical reverses for a female personality of the mid Third Century.

No reliable accounts of the events of this time period have been found. It is generally accepted by scholars that the Historia Augusta is unreliable as history from about A. D. 222 onward. At this point, it assumes the character of a collection of fairy tales and anecdotes of mystical or supernatural happenings. There are short biographical sketches of the Roman rulers and amily members in many of the Roman coin reference books, but even these scholarly works are in disagreement as to what happened to Otacilia Severa. On one point, the scholars seem to agree. Philip II was killed in her arms by the Praetorian Guard in A. D. 249 near Rome or Verona. She was then either killed also or allowed to go into retirement.

Otacilia Severa AR Antoninianus. MARCIA OTACIL SEVERA AVG, diademed, draped bust right on crescent / CONCORDIA AVGG, Concordia seated left with patera & double cornucopiae. RIC 119b, RSC 9.
ecoli
coin244.JPG
307. Aemilian30 viewsMarcus Aemilius Aemilianus was born about AD 207 either on the island of Jerba in Africa, or somewhere in Mauretania.
His career saw him becoming senator and reaching the office of consul. In AD 252 he then became governor of Lower Moesia.

In the spring of AD 253 the Goths broke the treaty made with the emperor Trebonianus Gallus. Aemilian quickly drove them out of Moesia and then, crossed the Danube crushing the Gothic forces.

In a time when Rome suffered continuous setbacks his unexpected triumph made him an outstanding leader in the eyes of his men. So, in July or August AD 253 Aemilian was proclaimed emperor by his troops. The new emperor didn't waste time. Immediately he marched his troops into Italy, rapidly moving on Rome. Only fifty miles north of the capital, at Interamna, they were were approached by the much inferior army of unprepared emperor Gallus and with his son and co-emperor Volusianus. Their troops however, realizing themselves dead if they were sent to fight Aemilian's much larger and more experienced Danubian forces, turned on them and killed them, leaving Aemilian sole emperor.

The senate, having only recently declared Aemilian a public enemy under Gallus, immediately confirmed him as emperor and Aemilian's wife Gaia Cornelia Supera was made Augusta.

All the empire now lay at Aemilian's feet, but for one big problem. Publius Licinius Valerianus, called to aid by the late Trebonianus Gallus, was marching toward Rome. His emperor might have been dead, but his usurper was still alive, giving Valerian all the reasons needed to carry on towards the capital. In fact the soldiers of his Rhine armies now declared him emperor in place of Aemilian.

As Aemilian now moved north to face his challenger history repeated itself. His own soldiers not wanting to fight a army they thought superior to their own, turned on him near Spoletium and stabbed him to death (October AD 253). The bridge where he died was afterwards known as the pons sanguinarius, the 'bridge of blood'.

Aemilian had ruled for only 88 days.

Aemilian AR Antonininus. 253 AD. IMP AEMILIANVS PIVS FEL AVG, radiate draped bust right / VIRTVS AVG, Virtus standing left, foot on helmet, holding branch & spear. RSC 60. RIC 12. Ex-WCNC
ecoli
coin246.JPG
307a. Cornelia Supera25 viewsMYSIA, Parium. Cornelia Supera, wife of Aemilian. Augusta, AD 253. Æ 20mm (4.44 g). Diademed and draped bust right / Capricorn right. SNG Copenhagen -; SNG von Aulock 7448. Fair, green and red patina, rough surfaces. Rare.

A little rough but I think it's the only one I can afford :P
ecoli
coin251.JPG
312. Victorinus27 viewsMarcus Piav(v)onius Victorinus was emperor of the successionist Gallic Empire from 268 to 270 or 271, following the brief reign of Marius.

Victorinus, born to a family of great wealth, was a soldier under Postumus, the first of the so-called Gallic emperors. Victorinus held the title of tribunus praetorianorum in 266/267, and was co-consul with Postumus in 267 or 268. Following the death of Marius, Victorinus was declared emperor by the troops located at Augusta Treverorum (Trier, Germany), and he was recognized by the provinces of Gaul and Britain, but not Spain, which reunited with the Roman Empire.

During his reign, Victorinus successfully prevented the city of Augustodunum Haeduorum (Autun, France) from rejoining the Roman Empire. The city was besieged for seven months, before it was stormed and plundered.

Victorinus was murdered in 270 or early 271 by Attitianus, one of his officers, whose wife Victorinus had supposedly seduced. Victorinus' mother, Victoria (or Vitruvia), continued to hold power after the death of Victorinus and she arranged for his deification and, after considerable payment to the troops, the appointment of Tetricus I as his successor.

Victorinus is listed among the Thirty Tyrants in the Historia Augusta. The (dubius) Historia Augusta equally has a short description of Victorinus the Younger, allegedly the son of Victorinus that was appointed Emperor by his family the day his father was murdered, and would have been killed immediately afterwards by the troops.

Victorinus antoninianus. IMP C VICTORINVS P F AVG, radiate, draped & cuirassed bust right / PAX AVG, Pax standing left. RIC 118, Cohen 79.
ecoli
coin252.JPG
312a. Marius28 viewsMarius. AD 269. AE antoninianus.

Marcus Aurelius Marius was emperor of the Gallic Empire in 268.

According to later tradition, he was a blacksmith by trade who rose through the ranks of the Roman army to become an officer. After the death of Postumus he seized power, reportedly for two or three days, before being killed by a sword of his own manufacture.

This tradition is probably partially or entirely incorrect. Based upon the number of coins he issued, a more accurate length for his reign would be at least two or three months. Marius is listed among the Thirty Tyrants in the Historia Augusta.

Denomination : Bronze Antoninianus. Mint : Cologne.

Reference : RIC 5, part 2, page 377 #9. Sear-3155

Size : 16.9 x 18.0 mm Weight : 3.12 grams.

Grade : VF slightly off-centre.

Obverse : Radiate bust of Marius right, with IMP C M AVR MARIVS P F AVG around (the first half of the inscription is off the flan, but IVS P F AVG is clear.

Reverse : Felicitas standing left holding a caduceus and cornucopiae, with SAEC FELICITAS around.

At a glance one could confuse this coin with Postumus, as both Postumus and Marius have similar portraits and the part of the obverse inscription visible could be MVS P F AVG with the first part of the M off the flan. However, Postumus never issued this reverse type, so the coin can only be a Marius. (Description/Coin - Ex- Calgary Coins)
ecoli
coin254.JPG
313. Tetricus I27 viewsCaius Pius Esuvius Tetricus was emperor of the Gallic Empire from 270/271 to 273, following the murder of Victorinus. Tetricus, who ruled with his son, Tetricus II, was the last of the Gallic Emperors.

Tetricus was born to a noble family and held the administrative rank of praeses provinciae (provincial governor) of Aquitania at the time of Victorinus' death. Victorinus' mother, Victoria, paid the army heavily to declare Tetricus emperor near Burdigalia (Bordeaux, France), which was approved in Gaul and Britain. Following his appointment, Tetricus repelled Germanic tribes that took advantage of the confusion following the death of Victorinus to invade.

Tetricus installed his capital at Augusta Treverorum (present Trier, Germany, near the vital Rhine border, hence later seat of a Tetrarch) and appointed his son, Tetricus II, Caesar, i.e. junior emperor (273). Tetricus made no attempts to expand the Gallic Empire, other than southward, regaining Aquitania (which had rejoined the Roman empire during the reign of Claudius Gothicus).

In 273, Emperor Aurelian set out to reconquer the western Roman empire, following his victories in the east. Tetricus took his army southward from Trier to meet Aurelian, who was advancing into northern Gaul. The decisive battle took place near Châlons-sur-Marne, where Tetricus and his son surrendered to Aurelian.

According to literary sources, after being displayed as trophies at Aurelian's triumph in Rome, the lives of Tetricus and his son were spared by Aurelian and Tetricus was even given the title of corrector Lucaniae et Bruttiorum, that is governor of a region of Italia. Tetricus died at an unknown date living in Italy; he is listed as one of Rome's Thirty Tyrants in the Historia Augusta.
ecoli
coin255.JPG
313a. Tetricus II31 viewsTetricus II was the son of Tetricus I and had exactly the same name as his father: C. Pius Esuvius Tetricus. His date of birth as well as the name of his mother are unknown. In 273 AD Tetricus II was elevated by his father to the rank of Caesar and given the title of princeps iuventutis. On 1 January 274 AD he entered in Augusta Treverorum (Trier) upon his first consulship, which he shared with his father.

After the defeat in autumn of 274 AD near Châlons-sur-Marne and subsequent surrender of his father Tetricus I to the emperor Aurelian, Tetricus II was put on display in Rome together with his father during Aurelian's triumph, but then pardoned. All literary sources agree on the fact that his life was spared; according to Aurelius Victor and the Scriptores Historiae Augustae, he even retained his senatorial rank and occupied later on many senatorial offices

Tet II obverse muled with his father's COMES AVG reverse.
1 commentsecoli
coin508.JPG
314. Claudius II37 viewsMarcus Aurelius Claudius Gothicus (May 10, 213/214 - January, 270), more often referred to as Claudius II, ruled the Roman Empire for less than two years (268 - 270), but during that brief time, he was so successful and beloved by the people of Rome that he attained divine status.

His origin is uncertain. Claudius was either from Syrmia (Sirmium; in Pannonia Inferior) or from Dardania (in Moesia Superior). Claudius was the commander of the Roman army that defeated decisively the Goths at the battle of Naissus, in September 268; in the same month, he attained the throne, amid charges, never proven, that he murdered his predecessor Gallienus. However, he soon proved to be less than bloodthirsty, as he asked the Roman Senate to spare the lives of Gallienus' family and supporters. He was less magnanimous toward Rome's enemies, however, and it was to this that he owed his popularity.

Claudius, like Maximinus Thrax before him, was of barbarian birth. After an interlude of failed aristocratic Roman emperors since Maximinus's death, Claudius was the first in a series of tough soldier-emperors who would eventually restore the Empire from the Crisis of the third century.

At the time of his accession, the Roman Empire was in serious danger from several incursions, both within and outside its borders. The most pressing of these was an invasion of Illyricum and Pannonia by the Goths. Not long after being named emperor (or just prior to Gallienus' death, depending on the source), he won his greatest victory, and one of the greatest in the history of Roman arms.

At the Battle of Naissus, Claudius and his legions routed a huge Gothic army. Together with his cavalry commander, the future Emperor Aurelian, the Romans took thousands of prisoners, destroyed the Gothic cavalry as a force and stormed their chariot laager (a circular alignment of battle-wagons long favored by the Goths). The victory earned Claudius his surname of "Gothicus" (conqueror of the Goths), and that is how he is known to this day. More importantly, the Goths were soon driven back across the Danube River, and a century passed before they again posed a serious threat to the empire.

While this was going on, the Germanic tribe known as the Alamanni had crossed the Alps and attacked the empire. Claudius responded quickly and swiftly, routing the Alamanni at the Battle of Lake Benacus in the late fall of 268, a few months after the battle of Naissus. He then turned on the "Gallic Empire", ruled by a pretender for the past 15 years and encompassing Britain, Gaul and Spain. He won several victories and soon regained control of Spain and the Rhone river valley of Gaul. This set the stage for the ultimate destruction of the Gallic Empire under Aurelian.

However, Claudius did not live long enough to fulfill his goal of reuniting all the lost territories of the empire. Late in 269 he was preparing to go to war against the Vandals, who were raiding in Pannonia. However, he fell victim to an epidemic of plague and died early in January of 270. Before his death, he is thought to have named Aurelian as his successor, although Claudius' brother Quintillus briefly seized power.

The Senate immediately deified Claudius as "Divus Claudius Gothicus", making him one of the few Roman emperors of the period to be so honored.

Historia Augusta reports Claudius and Quintillus having another brother named Crispus and through him a niece. Said niece Claudia reportedly married Eutropius and was mother to Constantius Chlorus. Historians however suspect this account to be a genealogical fabrication by Constantine the Great.

Claudius II Gothicus AE Antoninianus. Cyzicus mint. IMP CLAVDIVS P F AVG, radiate, draped bust right / FORTUNA REDUX, Fortuna standing left with rudder & cornucopiae. RIC 234, Cohen 88.
ecoli
03382z00.jpg
315. Quintillus109 viewsQuintillus, August or September - October or November 270 A.D.

Marcus Aurelius Claudius Quintillus (d. 270) was brother of the Roman Emperor Claudius II, and became the Emperor himself in 270.

Historia Augusta reports that he became Emperor in a coup d'état. Eutropius reports Quintillus to have been elected by soldiers of the Roman army immediately following the death of his brother. The choice was reportedly approved by the Roman Senate. Joannes Zonaras however reports him elected by the Senate itself.

Records however agree that the legions which had followed Claudius in campaigning along the Danube were either unaware or disapproving of Quintillus' elevation. They instead elevated their current leader Aurelian to the rank of Augustus. Historia Augusta reports Aurelian to have been chosen by Claudius himself as a successor, apparently in a deathbed decision.

The few records of Quintillus' reign are contradictory. They disagree on the length of his reign, variously reported to have lasted as few as 17 days and as many as 177 days (about six months). Records also disagree on the cause of his death. Historia Augusta reports him murdered by his own soldiers in reaction to his strict military discipline. Jerome reports him killed, persumably in conflict with Aurelian. John of Antioch and Joannes Zonaras reported Quintillus to have committed suicide by opening his veins and bleeding himself to death. John reports the suicide to have been assisted by a physician. Claudius Salmasius pointed that Dexippus recorded the death without stating causes. All records however agree in placing the death at Aquileia.

Quintillus was reportedly survived by his two sons.

Historia Augusta reports Claudius and Quintillus having another brother named Crispus and through him a niece, Claudia. who reportedly married Eutropius and was mother to Constantius Chlorus. Historians however suspect this account to be a genealogical fabrication to flatter Constantine the Great.

Surviving Roman records considered Quintillus a moderate and capable Emperor. He was seen as a champion of the Senate and thus compared to previous Emperors Servius Sulpicius Galba and Publius Helvius Pertinax. All three were highly regarded by Senatorial sources despite their failure to survive a full year of reign.

Bronze antoninianus, RIC 58, C-47, S 3246, EF, 3.37g, 19.9mm, 180o, Mediolanum mint, obverse IMP QVINTILLVS AVG, radiate and draped bust right; reverse MARTI PACI, Mars holding olive branch and spear, P in ex; found in England; Ex Forum
1 commentsecoli
coins131.JPG
316. Aurelian21 views316. Aurelian

In 275, Aurelian marched towards Asia Minor, preparing another campaign against the Sassanids: the close deaths of Kings Shapur I (272) and Hormizd I (273), and the rise to power of a weakened ruler (Bahram I), set the possibility to attack the Sassanid Empire.

On on his way, the emperor suppressed a revolt in Gaul — possibly against Faustinus, an officer or usurper of Tetricus — and defeated barbarian marauders at Vindelicia (Germany).

However, Aurelian never reached Persia, since he was killed on his way. As an administrator, Aurelian had been very strict and handed out severe punishments to corrupt officials or soldiers. A secretary of Aurelian (called Eros by Zosimus) had told a lie on a minor issue. Scared of what the emperor might do, he told high ranking officials that the emperor wanted their life, showing a forged document. The notarius Mucapor and other high-ranking officiers of the Praetorian Guard, fearing punishment from the Emperor, murdered him in September of 275, in Caenophrurium, Thracia (modern Turkey).

Aurelian's enemies in the Senate briefly succeeded in passing damnatio memoriae on the emperor, but this was reversed before the end of the year and Aurelian, like his predecessor Claudius, was deified as Divus Aurelianus.

Ulpia Severina, wife of Aurelian and Augusta since 274, is said to have held the imperial role during the short interregnum before the election of Marcus Claudius Tacitus to the purple.

Siscia mint. IMP C AVRELIANVS AVG, radiate & cuirassed bust right / ORIENS AVG, Sol advancing left between two seated captives, holding up raised hand & whip, XXIT in ex. Cohen 158. RIC 255
ecoli
coin259.JPG
318. Florian28 viewsAfter Tacitus died, the army chose Florian to succeed him. His full name as Emperor was Imperator Caesar Marcus Annius Florianus Pius Felix Invictus Augustus. The Historia Augusta characterizes the succession as a dynastic coup in which the Senate was ignored, but since Florian like Tacitus issued coins inscribed SC, advertising the Senate's authority for minting them, the Historia Augusta's complaint may be factitious. Most of this biography is.

Florian had hardly assumed office when the armies and provinces of Phoenicia, Palestine, Syria and Egypt declared for Probus. Florian turned from pursuing the the Eruli north to return to Cilicia and confront Probus and his army. Florian appears to have had the larger army, but Probus, an experienced general, held back. After a few weeks of sporadic fighting, Florian was assassinated by his own troops near Tarsus. He had reigned about 88 days.

Florian's different nomen, Annius rather than Claudius, means that he cannot have been Tacitus's full brother as the Historia Augusta implies; but one passage identifies him as Tacitus's half brother by the same mother, which might be true. Some historians doubt, however, whether any blood connexion existed at all. Little can be said about Florian's reign. One inscription assigns him a consulate. Though neither reigned long, both Tacitus and Florian had a large and varied coinage, "lively with hope for a golden age neither emperor ever realized."



Florian, Antoninianus 276 AD 2.77g
Obv: Bust of Florian right 'IMP FLORIANVS AVG'
Rev: Victory presenting a wreath to Florian 'CONCORDIA MILITVM' 'T' in ex.
RIC 116
ecoli
293.JPG
32 - Auch, Gers, France9 viewsVille d'Auch, Gers
Aluminium, 27,5 mm
A/ AUGUSTA AUSCORUM
R/ VILLE D'AUCH / 10 C / 1917
Réfs : Elie 10.3
Gabalor
HelenaVM4.jpg
324-328/9 AD - Helena - Van Meter 4 - PAX PVBLICA24 viewsAugusta: Helena (324-328/9 AD)
Date: after 328/9 AD (Posthumous)
Condition: Mediocre
Size: AE4

Obverse: FL IVL HE-LENA AVG
Flavia Julia Helena Augusta
Bust right; diademed and draped

Reverse: PAX PVBLICA
The people are at peace.
Pax standing left.
Exergue: unknown

VM 4
1.57g; 16.8mm; 150°
Pep
HelenaVM4_2.jpg
324-328/9 AD - Helena - Van Meter 4 - PAX PVBLICA - 2nd Example35 viewsAugusta: Helena (324-328/9 AD)
Date: after 328/9 AD (Posthumous)
Condition: Fine
Size: AE4

Obverse: FL IVL HELENA AVG
Flavia Julia Helena Augusta
Bust right; diademed and draped

Reverse: PAX PVBLICA
The people are at peace.
Pax standing left.
Exergue: unknown

VM 4
1.69g; 15.6mm; 165°
Pep
127_P_Hadrian__Rouvier_532.jpg
3855 PHOENICIA Berytus Hadrian 128-138 AD two legionary Aquilae 26 viewsReference.
RPC III, 3855; Rouvier 532; SNG Cop 101; BMC Phoenicia 99 (p. 66)

Obv. IMP CAES TRAI HADRIANVS AVG P P
Laureate and draped bust right.

Rev. COL / BER
Two legionary aquilae (eagles) flanking inscription in two lines, all within laurel wreath, pellet between eagles.

4.99 gr
20 mm
die axis 0o

Note.
Named for the daughter of Augustus, Colonia Iulia Augusta Felix Berytus was founded in 14 B.C. with veterans of the 5th and 8th legions. Herod the Great, Herod Agrippa I, and Herod Agrippa II built sumptuous monuments and sponsored gladiatorial combats at Berytos. After the siege of Jerusalem, Titus gave gladiatorial games at Berytos, in which the combatants were Jews.

ex.
FORVM
okidoki
706Hadrian_RIC389.jpg
389B Hadrian Denarius Roma 138 AD Eagle standing24 viewsReference.
RIC 389B; RSC 271;

Obv. DIVVS HADRIANVS AVG
Head of Divus Hadrian, bare, right

Rev. CONSECRATIO
Eagle standing front on globe, head turned left, wings spread

3.04 gr
18 mm
6h

Note.
From the estate of Thomas Bentley Cederlind.

Consecratio was the apotheosis of the dead Roman emperors, which however was only bestowed on those who were judged worthy of her by the Senate or by their successors.
However, it is well known, how generous people in Rome with this honor mishandled. Even empresses enjoyed after their death the privilege of consecratio. After their consecratio they got the nickname of Divi or Divae. Several ceremonies at the funeral went to the consecratio advance. In burning the corpse on the pyre rose include becoming an eagle from the flames to heaven. The emperors and empresses thus become the god had their own temples, priests and parties. They were so entirely assimilated to the gods.

The emperors themselves have mocked their deification. In the Historia Augusta is sick of Vespasian told that he says "I feel to be a God." In his famous poem "Animula vagula blandula" Hadrian doubt his deification.
okidoki
560_P_Hadrian_RPC3962.jpg
3962 SAMARIA, Caesarea Maritima. Hadrian AE 15 Lion32 viewsReference.
RPC III, 3962; Kadman 30; BMC p. 21, 76 and pl. III.9; CNP II p. 102, 30; De Saulcy p. 123, 5corr. (Av.); Lindgren & Kovacs 2415; SNG ANS 773.

Obv. [IMP TR] [HAD]RIANO CA [A]
Laureate head right.

Rev. C I F A C (Colonia Prima Flavia Augusta Caesarea)
Lion walking right; above, serpent

2.47 gr
15 mm
12h

Note.
Ex Schulten, Auction, Cologne, 22-23 April 1985, lot 467; ex Frank Sternberg, Auction 33, Zurich, 18-19 September 1997, lot 87, A.K. Collection: Coin ID C011 from Lot no. 559
okidoki
helena.JPG
405a. Helena106 viewsFlavia Iulia Helena, also known as Saint Helena, Saint Helen, Helena Augusta, and Helena of Constantinople, (c.248 - c.329) was the first wife of Constantius Chlorus, and the mother of Emperor Constantine I. She is traditionally credited with finding the relics of the True Cross.

Many legends surround her. She was allegedly the daughter of an innkeeper. Her son Constantine renamed the city of Drepanum on the Gulf of Nicomedia as 'Helenopolis' in her honor, which led to later interpretions that Drepanum was her birthplace.

Constantius Chlorus divorced her (c.292) to marry the step-daughter of Maximian, Flavia Maximiana Theodora. Helena's son, Constantine, became emperor of the Roman Empire, and following his elevation she became a presence at the imperial court, and received the title Augusta.

She is considered by the Orthodox and Catholic churches as a saint, famed for her piety. Eusebius records the details of her pilgrimage to Palestine and other eastern provinces. She is traditionally credited (but not by Eusebius) with the finding of relics of the True Cross (q.v.), and finding the remains of the Three Wise Men, which currently reside in the Shrine of the Three Kings at Cologne Cathedral. Her feast day as a saint of the Orthodox Christian Church is celebrated with her son on May 21, the Feast of the Holy Great Sovereigns Constantine and Helen, Equal to the Apostles. Her feast day in the Roman Catholic Church falls on August 18.

At least 25 sacred wells currently exist in Britain that were dedicated to her. She is also the patron saint of Colchester.

Helena Follis. FL HELENA AVGVSTA, diademed and draped bust right / SECVRITAS REIPVBLICE, Securitas standing left, holding branch in right hand; PTR(crescent) in ex.
1 commentsecoli
RIC_10_Denario_DIDIA_CLARA_Foro.jpg
42 - 02 - Didia Clara (Augusta 28/03 a 01/06/193 D.C.)26 viewsAR Denario
18 mm - 2.46 gr. - 6 hs.

Anv: DIDIA CLA-RA AVG, Busto vestido viendo a derecha.
Rev: HILA-R - T-EMPOR, Hilaritas estante de frente, viendo a izquierda, portando larga hoja de palma en mano der. y cornucopia en izq.

Hija de Didio Juliano, Emperador que asumió su cargo luego de haberlo ganado en una subasta organizada por la guardia Pretoriana, y que solo gobernó por 66 días.

Acuñada: Mayo-Junio 193 D.C.
Ceca: Roma

Referencias Bilbliográficas: RIC IV #10D (R4) Pag.16, Plate I #19 - Seaby RSC #3 Pag.4 - BMCRE #14ss Pag.14 - Cohen III #3 Pag.403 - Sear RCTV II # 6086 Pag.435 - Vagi #1680 - Hunter #1 Pag.6 - DVM #2 Pag.174 - Salgado MRDS II/1 #4042 Pag.71
mdelvalle
Moushmov_3079_Augusta_Traiana_Geta.jpg
50-35 - GETA (209 - 212 D.C.) 38 viewsAUGUSTA TRAIANA - Tracia

AE Tetrasarión
29.0 mm 16.1 gr.

Anv: "AVT K ΠO CEΠ ΓETAC CEB" – Busto. laur., vest. y acoraz. a der.
Rev: "AYΓOYCTHC TPAIA / NHC. " En exergo, Templo tetrástilo con estatua de Apolo portando pátera en der. y flecha en izq.

Acuñada: 209 - 212 D.C.

Referencias: Moushmov #3115 var. (Apollo en lugar de Asclepio), Varbanov II #1358 P.112 (R4), Schonert-Geiss #449
mdelvalle
Moushmov_3085_Augusta_Traiana_Geta.jpg
50-37 - GETA Como Cesar de Septimius Severus (198 - 209 D.C.)19 viewsAUGUSTA TRAIANA - Tracia

AE Assarión
16.0 mm 2.8 gr.

Anv: "Π CEΠTI ΓETAC K" – Busto. a cab. desnuda, vest. y acoraz. a der.
Rev: "AYΓOYCTHC TPAIANHC. " Artemisa estante a der., acompañada por su perro, toma una flecha de su carcaj con mano der. y porta arco en izq.

Acuñada: 198 - 209 D.C.

Referencias: Moushmov #3085, Varbanov II #1279 P.107 (R3), Schonert-Geiss #422, BMC Trajanopolis #25
mdelvalle
coin486.JPG
501b. Crispus BEATA Trier13 viewsTrier

The Romans under Julius Caesar subdued the Celtic Treverans in 58 to 50 BC. When the Roman provinces in Germany were reorganised in 16 BC, Augustus decided that Trier, then called Augusta Treverorum, should become the regional capital. From 259 to 274 Trier was the capital of the break away Gallic Empire. Later for a few years (383 - 388) it was the capital of Magnus Maximus, who ruled most of the western Empire.


The ruins of the Roman baths.Sacked by Attila in 451, it passed to the Franks in 463, to Lorraine in 843, to Germany in 870, and back to Lorraine in 895, and was finally united to Germany by Henry I the Fowler. The Archbishop of Trier was, as chancellor of Burgundy, one of the electors of the empire, a right which originated in the 12th or 13th century, and which continued until the French Revolution. The last elector removed to Koblenz in 1786; and Trier was the capital of the French department of Sarre from 1794 till 1814, after which time it belonged to Prussia.

RIC VII Trier 308

ecoli
coin517.JPG
501b. Crispus Ticinum VOTA10 viewsTicinum

Ticinum (the modern Pavia) was an ancient city of Gallia Transpadana, founded on the banks of the river of the same name (now the Ticino river) a little way above its confluence with the Padus (Po).

It is said by Pliny to have been founded by the Laevi and Marici, two Ligurian tribes, while Ptolemy attributes it to the Insubres.

Its importance in Roman times was due to the extension of the Via Aemilia from Ariminum (Rimini) to the Padus (187 BC), which it crossed at Placentia (Piacenza) and there forked, one branch going to Mediolanum (Milan) and the other to Ticinum, and thence to Laumellum where it divided once more, one branch going to Vercellae - and thence to Eporedia and Augusta Praetoria - and the other to Valentia - and thence to Augusta Taurinorum (Turin) or to Pollentia.

The branch to Eporedia must have been constructed before 100 BC. Ticinum is not infrequently mentioned by classical writers. It was a municipium, and from an inscription we know that a triumphal arch was erected in honor of Augustus and his family, but we learn little of it except that in the 4th century AD there was a manufacture of bows there.

It was pillaged by Attila in AD 452 and by Odoacer in 476, but rose to importance as a military centre in the Gothic period. At Dertona and here the grain stores of Liguria were placed, and Theodoric the Great constructed a palace, baths and amphitheatre and new town walls; while an inscription of Athalaric relating to repairs of seats in the amphitheatre is preserved (AD 528‑529). From this point, too, navigation on the Padus seems to have begun. Narses recovered it for the Eastern Empire, but after a long siege, the garrison had to surrender to the Lombards in 572.

001b. Crispus Ticinum

RIC VII Ticinum 153 R3

ecoli
coin267.JPG
515b. Magnus Maximus35 viewsA Spaniard, Maximus was proclaimed emperor by his troops in 383, while serving with the army in Britain. Later legend made him King of the Britons; he handed the throne over to Caradocus when he went to Gaul to pursue his imperial ambitions.

Following his destruction of Gaul, Maximus went out to meet his main opponent, Gratian, who he defeated near Paris. Gratian, after fleeing, was killed at Lyon on August 25, 383. Soon after, Maximus managed to force Valentinian II out of Rome after which he fled to Theodosius I, the Eastern Roman Emperor. Maximus made his capital at Augusta Treverorum (Treves, Trier) in Gaul. He became a popular emperor, although also a stern persecutor of heretics.

Theodosius I and Valentinian II campaigned against Magnus Maximus in July-August 388. Maximus was defeated in the Battle of the Save, near Emona, and retreated to Aquileia. Andragathius, magister equitum of Maximus and killer of Gratian, was defeated near Siscia, his brother Marcellinus again at Poetovio. Maximus surrendered in Aquileia and although pleaded for mercy was executed. However, his wife and two daughters were spared. Maximus' son, Flavius Victor, was defeated and executed by Valentinian's magister peditum Arbogast in the fall of the same year.

What happened to his family is not related, although it is clear that they survived and that his descendants continued to occupy influential posts. We encounter a possible daughter of Magnus Maximus, Sevira, on the Pillar of Eliseg, an early medieval inscribed stone in Wales which claims her marriage to Vortigern, king of the Britons. Another daughter was possibly married to Ennodius, proconsul Africae (395). Their grandson was Petronius Maximus, who was another ill-fated emperor, ruling in Rome for but 77 days before he was stoned to death while fleeing from the Vandals on May 24, 455. Other descendants included Anicius Olybrius, emperor in 472, but also several consuls and bishops such as St. Magnus Felix Ennodius (Bishop of Pavia c. 514-21).

Magnus Maximus AE-4

Obv: MM right, DN MAG MAXIMVS PF AVG; Reverse: SPES ROMANORVM, campgate with two turrets and star above. Coin is nice VF for this small issue.
ecoli
1__Julia_Mamaea.jpg
6. JULIA MAMAEA, Mother of Severus Alexander, Augusta 13 March 222 - February/March 235 AD10 viewsAE Sesterius,Mint: Rome;Date: 226 AD
Ref: RIC 708
Obv: IVLIAMAMAEA AVGVSTA - Diademed, draped bust right.
Rev: VESTA - Vesta standing left, holding Palladium and scepter.
S-C -Senatus Consulto,struck by the public authority of the Senate,"by decree of the Senate".
Size: 17.98gm; 29.3 mm
1 commentsbrian l
RIC_319_Denario_ORBIANA.jpg
62-02 - ORBIANA (Augusta 225 - 227 D.C.)23 viewsAR denario
19 mm 3.69 gr 7 hs.

Gnea Seia Herennia Sallustia Barbia Orbiana, esposa de Alejandro Severo y Augusta desde 225 a 227 D.C.

Anv: "SALL BARBIA ORBIANA", Busto vestido y con diadema viendo a derecha.
Rev: "CONCORD[IA] AVGG", Concordia sentada en trono a izquierda, portando pátera en su mano derecha y doble cornucopia en izquierda.

Acuñación: Emisión especial por su casamiento en 225 D.C.
Ceca: Roma

Referencias: RIC IVb #319 Pag.96, Pl.5 #1 - Cohen IV #1 Pag.486 - Sear RCTV II #8191 Pag.675 - RSC III #1 - BMCRE #287 ss Pag.142
mdelvalle
AugustusAE19Sardeis.jpg
702a, Augustus, 16 January 27 B.C. - 19 August 14 A.D.34 viewsAugustus, 27 BC - 14 AD. AE 19mm (5.98 gm). Lydia, Sardeis. Diodoros Hermophilou. Obverse: head right. Reverse: Zeus Lydios standing facing holding scepter and eagle. RPC I, 489, 2986; SNG von Aulock 3142. aVF. Fine portrait. Ex Tom Vossen.

De Imperatoribus Romanis:
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers

AUGUSTUS (31 B.C. - 14 A.D.)

Garrett G. Fagan
Pennsylvania State University

In the course of his long and spectacular career, he put an end to the advancing decay of the Republic and established a new basis for Roman government that was to stand for three centuries. This system, termed the "Principate," was far from flawless, but it provided the Roman Empire with a series of rulers who presided over the longest period of unity, peace, and prosperity that Western Europe, the Middle East and the North African seaboard have known in their entire recorded history. Even if the rulers themselves on occasion left much to be desired, the scale of Augustus's achievement in establishing the system cannot be overstated. Aside from the immense importance of Augustus's reign from the broad historical perspective, he himself is an intriguing figure: at once tolerant and implacable, ruthless and forgiving, brazen and tactful. Clearly a man of many facets, he underwent three major political reinventions in his lifetime and negotiated the stormy and dangerous seas of the last phase of the Roman Revolution with skill and foresight. With Augustus established in power and with the Principate firmly rooted, the internal machinations of the imperial household provide a fascinating glimpse into the one issue that painted this otherwise gifted organizer and politician into a corner from which he could find no easy exit: the problem of the succession.

(For a very detailed and interesting account of the Age of Augustus see: http://www.roman-emperors.org/auggie.htm)

Death and Retrospective

In his later years, Augustus withdrew more and more from the public eye, although he continued to transact public business. He was getting older, and old age in ancient times must have been considerably more debilitating than it is today. In any case, Tiberius had been installed as his successor and, by AD 13, was virtually emperor already. In AD 4 he had received grants of both proconsular and tribunician power, which had been renewed as a matter of course whenever they needed to be; in AD 13, Tiberius's imperium had been made co-extensive with that of Augustus. While traveling in Campania, Augustus died peacefully at Nola on 19 August, AD 14. Tiberius, who was en route to Illyricum, hurried to the scene and, depending on the source, arrived too late or spent a day in consultation with the dying princes. The tradition that Livia poisoned her husband is scurrilous in the extreme and most unlikely to be true. Whatever the case about these details, Imperator Caesar Augustus, Son of a God, Father of his Country, the man who had ruled the Roman world alone for almost 45 years, or over half a century if the triumviral period is included, was dead. He was accorded a magnificent funeral, buried in the mausoleum he had built in Rome, and entered the Roman pantheon as Divus Augustus. In his will, he left 1,000 sesterces apiece to the men of the Praetorian guard, 500 to the urban cohorts, and 300 to each of the legionaries. In death, as in life, Augustus acknowledged the true source of his power.

The inscription entitled "The Achievements of the Divine Augustus" (Res Gestae Divi Augustae; usually abbreviated RG) remains a remarkable piece of evidence deriving from Augustus's reign. The fullest copy of it is the bilingual Greek and Latin version carved into the walls of the Temple of Rome and Augustus at Ancyra in Galatia (for this reason the RG used to be commonly referred to as the Monumentum Ancyranum). Other evidence, however, demonstrates that the original was inscribed on two bronze pillars that flanked the entrance to the Mausoleum of Augustus in Rome. The inscription remains the only first-person summary of any Roman emperor's political career and, as such, offers invaluable insights into the Augustan regime's public presentation of itself.

In looking back on the reign of Augustus and its legacy to the Roman world, its longevity ought not to be overlooked as a key factor in its success. People had been born and reached middle age without knowing any form of government other than the Principate. Had Augustus died earlier (in 23 BC, for instance), matters may have turned out very differently. The attrition of the civil wars on the old Republican aristocracy and the longevity of Augustus, therefore, must be seen as major contributing factors in the transformation of the Roman state into a monarchy in these years. Augustus's own experience, his patience, his tact, and his great political acumen also played their part. All of these factors allowed him to put an end to the chaos of the Late Republic and re-establish the Roman state on a firm footing. He directed the future of the empire down many lasting paths, from the existence of a standing professional army stationed at or near the frontiers, to the dynastic principle so often employed in the imperial succession, to the embellishment of the capital at the emperor's expense. Augustus's ultimate legacy, however, was the peace and prosperity the empire was to enjoy for the next two centuries under the system he initiated. His memory was enshrined in the political ethos of the Imperial age as a paradigm of the good emperor; although every emperor adopted his name, Caesar Augustus, only a handful earned genuine comparison with him.

Copyright © 1999, Garrett G. Fagan.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Augustus (the first Roman emperor, in whose reign Jesus Christ was born) is without any doubt one of the most important figures in Roman history.

It is reported that when he was near death, Augustus addressed those in attendance with these words, "If I have played my part well, applaud!"

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr
Cleisthenes
TiberiusTributePennyRICI30RSCII16aSRCV1763.jpg
703a, Tiberius, 19 August 14 - 16 March 37 A.D., Tribute Penny of Matthew 22:20-2145 viewsSilver denarius, RIC I 30, RSC II 16a, SRCV 1763, gVF, Lugdunum mint, 3.837g, 18.7mm, 90o, 16 - 37 A.D.; obverse TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS, laureate head right; reverse PONTIF MAXIM, Pax/Livia seated right holding scepter and branch, legs on chair ornamented, feet on footstool; toned. Ex FORVM.


De Imperatoribus Romanis
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Tiberius (A.D. 14-37)

Garrett G. Fagan
Pennsylvania State University

Introduction
The reign of Tiberius (b. 42 B.C., d. A.D. 37, emperor A.D. 14-37) is a particularly important one for the Principate, since it was the first occasion when the powers designed for Augustus alone were exercised by somebody else. In contrast to the approachable and tactful Augustus, Tiberius emerges from the sources as an enigmatic and darkly complex figure, intelligent and cunning, but given to bouts of severe depression and dark moods that had a great impact on his political career as well as his personal relationships.

. . . .

Early life (42-12 B.C.)
Tiberius Claudius Nero was born on 16 November 42 B.C. to Ti. Claudius Nero and Livia Drusilla. Both parents were scions of the gens Claudia which had supplied leaders to the Roman Republic for many generations. . . [I]n 39 B.C., his mother Livia divorced Ti. Claudius Nero and married Octavian, thereby making the infant Tiberius the stepson of the future ruler of the Roman world. Forever afterward, Tiberius was to have his name coupled with this man, and always to his detriment.

. . . .

Accession and Early Reign (A.D. 14 - 23)
The accession of Tiberius proved intensely awkward. After Augustus had been buried and deified, and his will read and honored, the Senate convened on 18 September to inaugurate the new reign and officially "confirm" Tiberius as emperor. Such a transfer of power had never happened before, and nobody, including Tiberius, appears to have known what to do. Tacitus's account is the fullest. . . Rather than tactful, he came across to the senators as obdurate and obstructive. He declared that he was too old for the responsibilities of the Principate, said he did not want the job, and asked if he could just take one part of the government for himself. The Senate was confused, not knowing how to read his behavior. Finally, one senator asked pointedly, "Sire, for how long will you allow the State to be without a head?" Tiberius relented and accepted the powers voted to him, although he refused the title "Augustus."

. . . .

Tiberius allowed a trusted advisor to get too close and gain a tremendous influence over him. That advisor was the Praetorian Prefect, L. Aelius Sejanus, who would derail Tiberius's plans for the succession and drive the emperor farther into isolation, depression, and paranoia.

Sejanus (A.D. 23-31)
Sejanus hailed from Volsinii in Etruria. He and his father shared the Praetorian Prefecture until A.D. 15 when the father, L. Seius Strabo, was promoted to be Prefect of Egypt, the pinnacle of an equestrian career under the Principate. Sejanus, now sole Prefect of the Guard, enjoyed powerful connections to senatorial houses and had been a companion to Gaius Caesar on his mission to the East, 1 B.C. - A.D. 4. Through a combination of energetic efficiency, fawning sycophancy, and outward displays of loyalty, he gained the position of Tiberius's closest friend and advisor.

. . . .

[I]n a shocking and unexpected turn of events, [a] letter sent by Tiberius from Capri initially praised Sejanus extensively, and then suddenly denounced him as a traitor and demanded his arrest. Chaos ensued. Senators long allied with Sejanus headed for the exits, the others were confused -- was this a test of their loyalty? What did the emperor want them to do? -- but the Praetorian Guard, the very troops formerly under Sejanus's command but recently and secretly transferred to the command of Q. Sutorius Macro, arrested Sejanus, conveyed him to prison, and shortly afterwards executed him summarily. A witch-hunt followed. . . All around the city, grim scenes were played out, and as late as A.D. 33 a general massacre of all those still in custody took place.

Tiberius himself later claimed that he turned on Sejanus because he had been alerted to Sejanus's plot against Germanicus's family. This explanation has been rejected by most ancient and modern authorities, since Sejanus's demise did nothing to alleviate that family's troubles.

. . . .

The Last Years (A.D. 31-37)
The Sejanus affair appears to have greatly depressed Tiberius. A close friend and confidant had betrayed him; whom could he trust anymore? His withdrawal from public life seemed more complete in the last years. Letters kept him in touch with Rome, but it was the machinery of the Augustan administration that kept the empire running smoothly. Tiberius, if we believe our sources, spent much of his time indulging his perversities on Capri.

. . . .

Tiberius died quietly in a villa at Misenum on 16 March A.D. 37. He was 78 years old. There are some hints in the sources of the hand of Caligula in the deed, but such innuendo can be expected at the death of an emperor, especially when his successor proved so depraved. The level of unpopularity Tiberius had achieved by the time of his death with both the upper and lower classes is revealed by these facts: the Senate refused to vote him divine honors, and mobs filled the streets yelling "To the Tiber with Tiberius!" (in reference to a method of disposal reserved for the corpses of criminals).

Tiberius and the Empire
Three main aspects of Tiberius's impact on the empire deserve special attention: his relative military inertia; his modesty in dealing with offers of divine honors and his fair treatment of provincials; and his use of the Law of Treason (maiestas).

. . . .

Conclusion
. . . Tiberius's reign sporadically descended into tyranny of the worst sort. In the right climate of paranoia and suspicion, widespread denunciation led to the deaths of dozens of Senators and equestrians, as well as numerous members of the imperial house. In this sense, the reign of Tiberius decisively ended the Augustan illusion of "the Republic Restored" and shone some light into the future of the Principate, revealing that which was both promising and terrifying.

[For the entire article please refer to http://www.roman-emperors.org/tiberius.htm]

Copyright © 1997, Garrett G. Fagan. Used by permission.

"Some of the things he did are hard to believe. He had little boys trained as minnows to chase him when he went swimming and to get between his legs and nibble him. He also had babies not weaned from their mother breast suck at his chest and groin . . . "
(Suetonius. The Twelve Caesars. Trans. Robert Graves. London: Penguin Books, 1979. XLIV).

Jesus, referring to a "penny" asked, "Whose is this image and superscription?" When told it was Caesar, He said, ''Render therefore unto Caesar the things which are Caesar's and unto God the things that are God's" (Matthew 22:20-21). Since Tiberius was Caesar at the time, this denarius type is attributed by scholars as the "penny" referred to in the Bible(Joseph Sermarini).


Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
TiberiusHierapolis.jpg
703b, Tiberius, 19 August 14 - 16 March 37 A.D., Hierapolis, Phrygia103 viewsBronze AE 16, RPC I 2966 (1 specimen), F, Phrygia, Hierapolis, 3.300g, 15.6mm, 0o; Obverse: TIBEPIOC KAISAR, laureate head right; Reverse: IERAPOLEITWN ZOSIMOS [...], Apollo Archegetes (Lairbenos) standing left, playing lyre; reverse countermarked with star of six rays, in oval punch, 2.5 x 3.5 mm, Howgego 445 (3 pcs, 1 of which from this magistrate); dark patina; very rare. Ex FORVM.

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

TIBERIUS (A.D. 14-37)

Garrett G. Fagan
Pennsylvania State University

The reign of Tiberius Claudius Nero (b. 42 B.C., d. A.D. 37, emperor A.D. 14-37) is a particularly important one for the Principate, since it was the first occasion when the powers designed for Augustus alone were exercised by somebody else. In contrast to the approachable and tactful Augustus, Tiberius emerges from the sources as an enigmatic and darkly complex figure, intelligent and cunning, but given to bouts of severe depression and dark moods that had a great impact on his political career as well as his personal relationships. His reign abounds in contradictions. Despite his keen intelligence, he allowed himself to come under the influence of unscrupulous men who, as much as any actions of his own, ensured that Tiberius's posthumous reputation would be unfavorable; despite his vast military experience, he oversaw the conquest of no new region for the empire; and despite his administrative abilities he showed such reluctance in running the state as to retire entirely from Rome and live out his last years in isolation on the island of Capri. His reign represents, as it were, the adolescence of the Principate as an institution. Like any adolescence, it proved a difficult time.

. . . .

It is all but inevitable that any historical assessment of Tiberius will quickly devolve into a historiographical assessment of Tacitus. So masterful is Tacitus's portrayal of his subject, and so influential has it been ever since, that in all modern treatments of Tiberius, in attempting to get at the man, must address the issue of Tacitus's historiographical methods, his sources, and his rhetoric. The subject is too vast to address here, but some points are salient. Tacitus's methods, especially his use of innuendo and inference to convey notions that are essentially editorial glosses, makes taking his portrayal of Tiberius at face value inadvisable. Further, his belief in the immutable character of people -- that one's character is innate at birth and cannot be changed, although it can be disguised -- prevents him from investigating the possibility that Tiberius evolved and developed over his lifetime and during his reign. Instead, Tacitus's portrayal is one of peeling back layers of dissimulation to reach the "real" Tiberius lurking underneath.

Overall, Tiberius's reign can be said to show the boons and banes of rule by one man, especially a man as dark, awkward, and isolated as Tiberius. For the people of the provinces, it was a peaceful and well-ordered time. Governors behaved themselves, and there were no destructive or expensive wars. In the domestic sphere, however, the concentration of power in one person made all the greater the threat of misbehavior by ambitious satellites like Sejanus or foolish friends like Piso. Furthermore, if the emperor wished to remain aloof from the mechanics of power, he could do so. Administrators, who depended on him for their directions, could operate without his immediate supervision, but their dealings with a man like Sejanus could lead to disaster if that man fell from grace. As a result, although he was not a tyrant himself, Tiberius's reign sporadically descended into tyranny of the worst sort. In the right climate of paranoia and suspicion, widespread denunciation led to the deaths of dozens of Senators and equestrians, as well as numerous members of the imperial house. In this sense, the reign of Tiberius decisively ended the Augustan illusion of "the Republic Restored" and shone some light into the future of the Principate, revealing that which was both promising and terrifying.

[For the complete article please refer to http://www.roman-emperors.org/tiberius.htm]

By Garrett G. Fagan, Pennsylvania State University.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.


Hierapolis in History

Usually said to be founded by Eumenes II, king of Pergamum (197-159 BC), Hierapolis may actually have been established closer to the 4th century BC by the Seleucid kings.

The name of the city may derive from Hiera, the wife of Telephus (son of Hercules and grandson of Zeus), the mythical founder of Pergamum. Or it may have been called the "sacred city" because of the temples located at the site. (The name Pamukkale is sometimes used just to refer to the white terraces, but the modern name of the whole area is also Pamukkale.)

With Colossae and Laodicea, Hierapolis became part of the tri-city area of the Lycus River valley. Hierapolis was located across the river from the other two cities and was noted for its textiles, especially wool. The city was also famous for its purple dye, made from the juice of the madder root.

The hot springs at Hierapolis (which still attract visitors today) were believed to have healing properties, and people came to the city to bathe in the rich mineral waters in order to cure various ailments.

Hierapolis was dedicated to Apollo Lairbenos, who was said to have founded the city. The Temple of Apollo that survives in ruins today dates from the 3rd century AD, but its foundations date from the Hellenistic period.

Also worshipped at Hierapolis was Pluto, god of the underworld, probably in relation to the hot gases released by the earth (see the Plutonium, below). The chief religious festival of ancient Hierapolis was the Letoia, in honor of the the goddess Leto, a Greek form of the Mother Goddess. The goddess was honoured with orgiastic rites.

Hierapolis was ceded to Rome in 133 BC along with the rest of the Pergamene kingdom, and became part of the Roman province of Asia. The city was destroyed by an earthquake in 60 AD but rebuilt, and it reached its peak in the 2nd and 3rd centuries AD.

Famous natives of Hierapolis include the Stoic philosopher Epictetus (c.55-c.135 AD) and the philosopher and rhetorician Antipater. Emperor Septimus hired Antipater to tutor his sons Caracalla and Geta, who became emperors themselves.

Hierapolis had a significant Jewish population in ancient times, as evidence by numerous inscriptions on tombs and elsewhere in the city. Some of the Jews are named as members of the various craft guilds of the city. This was probably the basis for the Christian conversion of some residents of Hierapolis, recorded in Colossians 4:13.

In the 5th century, several churches as well as a large martyrium dedicated to St. Philip (see "In the Bible," below) were built in Hierapolis. The city fell into decline in the 6th century, and the site became partially submerged under water and deposits of travertine. It was finally abandoned in 1334 after an earthquake. Excavations began to uncover Hierapolis in the 19th century.

Hierapolis in the Bible

Hierapolis is mentioned only once in the Bible, when St. Paul praises Epaphras, a Christian from Colossae, in his letter to the Colossians. Paul writes that Epaphras "has worked hard for you and for those in Laodicea and in Hierapolis" (Colossians 4:12-13). Epaphras was probably the founder of the Christian community at Hierapolis.

Ancient tradition also associates Hierapolis with a biblical figure, reporting that Philip died in Hierapolis around 80 AD. However, it is not clear which Philip is menat. It could be Philip the Apostle, one of the original 12 disciples, who is said to have been martyred by upside-down crucifixion (Acts of Philip) or by being hung upside down by his ankles from a tree.

Or Philip could be Philip the Evangelist, a later disciple who helped with administrative matters and had four virgin-prophetess daughters (Acts 6:1-7; 21:8-9). Early traditions say this Philip was buried in Hierapolis along with his virgin daughters, but confusingly call him "Philip the Apostle"! In any case, it seems a prominent person mentioned in Acts did die in Hierapolis.
http://www.sacred-destinations.com/turkey/hierapolis-pamukkale.htm

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
CaligulaSmyrnaRPC2473.jpg
704a, Caligula, 16 March 37 - 24 January 41 A.D.100 viewsCaligula, 37 - 41 AD, Ionia, Smyrna. AE 17mm. Klose, Smyrna 27a. RPC 2473. 2.89 gm. Fine. Menophanes, Aviola, Procos, 37-38 AD. Obverse: AION, laureate head right; Reverse: Nike holding wreath right. Ex Tom Vossen.


De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

GAIUS (CALIGULA) (A.D. 37-41)

Garrett G. Fagan
Pennsylvania State University

Gaius Caesar Augustus Germanicus (Caligula) was born on 31 August, A.D. 12, probably at the Julio-Claudian resort of Antium (modern Anzio), the third of six children born to Augustus's adopted grandson, Germanicus, and Augustus's granddaughter, Agrippina. Caligula was the Roman Emperor between A.D. 37-41). Unfortunately, his is the most poorly documented reign of the Julio-Claudian dynasty. The literary sources for these four years are meager, frequently anecdotal, and universally hostile.[[1]] As a result, not only are many of the events of the reign unclear, but Gaius himself appears more as a caricature than a real person, a crazed megalomaniac given to capricious cruelty. Although some headway can be made in disentangling truth from embellishment, the true character of the youthful emperor will forever elude us.

As a baby he accompanied his parents on military campaigns in the north and was shown to the troops wearing a miniature soldier's outfit, including the hob-nailed sandal called caliga, whence the nickname by which posterity remembers him. His childhood was not a happy one, spent amid an atmosphere of paranoia, suspicion, and murder. Instability within the Julio-Claudian house, generated by uncertainty over the succession, led to a series of personal tragedies.

When Tiberius died on 16 March A.D. 37, Gaius was in a perfect position to assume power, despite the obstacle of Tiberius's will, which named him and his cousin Tiberius Gemellus joint heirs. (Gemellus's life was shortened considerably by this bequest, since Gaius ordered him killed within a matter of months.) Backed by the Praetorian Prefect Q. Sutorius Macro, Gaius asserted his dominance. He had Tiberius's will declared null and void on grounds of insanity, accepted the powers of the Principate as conferred by the Senate, and entered Rome on 28 March amid scenes of wild rejoicing. His first acts were generous in spirit: he paid Tiberius's bequests and gave a cash bonus to the Praetorian Guard, the first recorded donativum to troops in imperial history.

The ancient sources are practically unanimous as to the cause of Gaius's downfall: he was insane. The writers differ as to how this condition came about, but all agree that after his good start Gaius began to behave in an openly autocratic manner, even a crazed one. The sources describe his incestuous relations with his sisters, laughable military campaigns in the north, the building of a pontoon bridge across the Bay at Baiae, and the plan to make his horse a consul. Their unanimous hostility renders their testimony suspect, especially since Gaius's reported behavior fits remarkably well with that of the ancient tyrant, a literary type enshrined in Greco-Roman tradition centuries before his reign. Further, the only eye-witness account of Gaius's behavior, Philo's Embassy to Gaius, offers little evidence of outright insanity, despite the antagonism of the author, whom Gaius treated with the utmost disrespect.

The conspiracy that ended Gaius's life was hatched among the officers of the Praetorian Guard, apparently for purely personal reasons. It appears also to have had the support of some senators and an imperial freedman. As with conspiracies in general, there are suspicions that the plot was more broad-based than the sources intimate, and it may even have enjoyed the support of the next emperor Claudius, but these propositions are not provable on available evidence. On 24 January A.D. 41 the praetorian tribune Cassius Chaerea and other guardsmen caught Gaius alone in a secluded palace corridor and cut him down. He was 28 years old and had ruled three years and ten months.

Whatever damage Tiberius's later years had done to the carefully crafted political edifice created by Augustus, Gaius multiplied it a hundredfold. When he came to power in A.D. 37 Gaius had no administrative experience beyond his honorary quaestorship, and had spent an unhappy early life far from the public eye. He appears, once in power, to have realized the boundless scope of his authority and acted accordingly. For the elite, this situation proved intolerable and ensured the blackening of Caligula's name in the historical record they would dictate. The sensational and hostile nature of that record, however, should in no way trivialize Gaius's importance. His reign highlighted an inherent weakness in the Augustan Principate, now openly revealed for what it was -- a raw monarchy in which only the self-discipline of the incumbent acted as a restraint on his behavior. That the only means of retiring the wayward princes was murder marked another important revelation: Roman emperors could not relinquish their powers without simultaneously relinquishing their lives.

Copyright © 1997, Garrett G. Fagan.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Ancient Smyrna

The 5,000 year-old city of Izmir is one of the oldest cities of the Mediterranean basin. The original city was established in the third millennium BC (at present day Bayraklı), at which time it shared with Troy the most advanced culture in Anatolia.


Greek settlement is attested by the presence of pottery dating from about 1000 BC. In the first millennium BC Izmir, then known as Smyrna, ranked as one of the most important cities of the Ionian Federation. During this period, it is believed that the epic poet Homer resided here.

Lydian conquest of the city around 600 BC brought this golden age to an end. Smyrna was little more than a village throughout the Lydian and subsequent sixth century BC Persian rule. In the fourth century BC a new city was built on the slopes of Mt. Pagos (Kadifekale) during the reign of Alexander the Great. Smyrna's Roman period, beginning in the first century BC, was its second great era.

In the first century AD, Smyrna became one of the earliest centers of Christianity and it was one of the Seven Churches of Revelation. Both Revelation and the Martyrdom of Polycarp indicate the existence of a Jewish community in Smyrna as early as the 1st and 2nd centuries AD. The letter to the church at Smyrna in Revelation indicates that the Christians were spiritually "rich" and apparently in conflict with the Jews (2:9).

The origins of the Christian community there, which was established in the 1st century, are unknown. Ignatius of Antioch stopped at Smyrna on his way to martyrdom in Rome in 107 AD, and he sent a letter back to the Christians there from later in his journey. Smyrna's bishop, Polycarp, was burned at the stake in Smyrna's stadium around 156 AD.

Byzantine rule came in the fourth century and lasted until the Seljuk conquest in 11th century. In 1415, under Sultan Mehmed Çelebi, Smyrna became part of the Ottoman Empire.

The city earned its fame as one of the most important port cities of the world during the 17th to 19th centuries. The majority of its population were Greek but merchants of various origins (especially Greek, French, Italian, Dutch, Armenian, Sephardi and Jewish) transformed the city into a cosmopolitan portal of trade. During this period, the city was famous for its own brand of music (Smyrneika) as well as its wide range of products it exported to Europe (Smyrna/Sultana raisins, dried figs, carpets, etc.).

Today, Izmir is Turkey's third largest city and is nicknamed "the pearl of Aegean." It is widely regarded as the most Westernized city of Turkey in terms of values, ideology, gender roles, and lifestyle.
© 2005-08 Sacred Destinations. All rights reserved.
http://www.sacred-destinations.com/turkey/izmir-history.htm

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
Nero AE Sestertius.jpg
706a, Nero, 13 October 54 - 9 June 68 A.D.73 views6, Nero, 13 October 54 - 9 June 68 A.D. AE setertius, Date: 66 AD; RIC I 516, 36.71 mm; 25.5 grams; aVF. Obverse: IMP NERO CAESAR AVG PONT MAX TR POT PP, Laureate bust right; Reverse: S C, ROMA, Roma seated left, exceptional portrait and full obverse legends. Ex Ancient Imports.

NERO (54-68 A.D.)

It is difficult for the modern student of history to realize just how popular Nero actually was, at least at the beginning of his reign. Rome looked upon her new Emperor with hope. He was the student of Seneca, and he had a sensitive nature. He loved art, music, literature, and theatre. He was also devoted to horses and horse racing—a devotion shared by many of his subjects. The plebs loved their new Emperor. As Professor of Classics Judith P. Hallett (University of Maryland, College Park) says, “It is not clear to me that Nero ever changed or that Nero ever grew-up, and that was both his strength and his weakness. Nero was an extraordinarily popular Emperor: he was like Elvis” (The Roman Empire in the First Century, III. Dir. Margaret Koval and Lyn Goldfarb. 2001. DVD. PBS/Warner Bros. 2003).

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Herbert W. Benario
Emory University

Introduction and Sources
The five Julio-Claudian emperors are very different one from the other. Augustus dominates in prestige and achievement from the enormous impact he had upon the Roman state and his long service to Rome, during which he attained unrivaled auctoritas. Tiberius was clearly the only possible successor when Augustus died in AD 14, but, upon his death twenty-three years later, the next three were a peculiar mix of viciousness, arrogance, and inexperience. Gaius, better known as Caligula, is generally styled a monster, whose brief tenure did Rome no service. His successor Claudius, his uncle, was a capable man who served Rome well, but was condemned for being subject to his wives and freedmen. The last of the dynasty, Nero, reigned more than three times as long as Gaius, and the damage for which he was responsible to the state was correspondingly greater. An emperor who is well described by statements such as these, "But above all he was carried away by a craze for popularity and he was jealous of all who in any way stirred the feeling of the mob." and "What an artist the world is losing!" and who is above all remembered for crimes against his mother and the Christians was indeed a sad falling-off from the levels of Augustus and Tiberius. Few will argue that Nero does not rank as one of the worst emperors of all.

The prime sources for Nero's life and reign are Tacitus' Annales 12-16, Suetonius' Life of Nero, and Dio Cassius' Roman History 61-63, written in the early third century. Additional valuable material comes from inscriptions, coinage, papyri, and archaeology.


Early Life
He was born on December 15, 37, at Antium, the son of Cnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbusand Agrippina. Domitius was a member of an ancient noble family, consul in 32; Agrippina was the daughter of the popular Germanicus, who had died in 19, and Agrippina, daughter of Agrippa, Augustus' closest associate, and Julia, the emperor's daughter, and thus in direct descent from the first princeps. When the child was born, his uncle Gaius had only recently become emperor. The relationship between mother and uncle was difficult, and Agrippina suffered occasional humiliation. But the family survived the short reign of the "crazy" emperor, and when he was assassinated, it chanced that Agrippina's uncle, Claudius, was the chosen of the praetorian guard, although there may have been a conspiracy to accomplish this.

Ahenobarbus had died in 40, so the son was now the responsibility of Agrippina alone. She lived as a private citizen for much of the decade, until the death of Messalina, the emperor's wife, in 48 made competition among several likely candidates to become the new empress inevitable. Although Roman law forbade marriage between uncle and niece, an eloquent speech in the senate by Lucius Vitellius, Claudius' closest advisor in the senatorial order, persuaded his audience that the public good required their union. The marriage took place in 49, and soon thereafter the philosopher Seneca [[PIR2 A617]] was recalled from exile to become the young Domitius' tutor, a relationship which endured for some dozen years.

His advance was thereafter rapid. He was adopted by Claudius the following year and took the name Tiberius Claudius Nero Caesar or Nero Claudius Caesar Drusus Germanicus, was preferred to Claudius' natural son, Britannicus, who was about three years younger, was betrothed to the emperor's daughter Octavia, and was, in the eyes of the people, the clear successor to the emperor. In 54, Claudius died, having eaten some poisoned mushrooms, responsibility for which was believed to be Agrippina's, and the young Nero, not yet seventeen years old, was hailed on October 13 as emperor by the praetorian guard.


The First Years of Rule
The first five years of Nero's rule are customarily called the quinquennium, a period of good government under the influence, not always coinciding, of three people, his mother, Seneca, and Sextus Afranius Burrus, the praetorian prefect. The latter two were allies in their "education" of the emperor. Seneca continued his philosophical and rhetorical training, Burrus was more involved in advising on the actualities of government. They often combined their influence against Agrippina, who, having made her son emperor, never let him forget the debt he owed his mother, until finally, and fatally, he moved against her.

Nero's betrothal to Octavia was a significant step in his ultimate accession to the throne, as it were, but she was too quiet, too shy, too modest for his taste. He was early attracted to Poppaea Sabina, the wife of Otho, and she continually goaded him to break from Octavia and to show himself an adult by opposing his mother. In his private life, Nero honed the musical and artistic tastes which were his chief interest, but, at this stage, they were kept private, at the instigation of Seneca and Burrus.

As the year 59 began, Nero had just celebrated his twenty-first birthday and now felt the need to employ the powers which he possessed as emperor as he wished, without the limits imposed by others. Poppaea's urgings had their effect, first of all, at the very onset of the year, with Nero's murder of his mother in the Bay of Naples.

Agrippina had tried desperately to retain her influence with her son, going so far as to have intercourse with him. But the break between them proved irrevocable, and Nero undertook various devices to eliminate his mother without the appearance of guilt on his part. The choice was a splendid vessel which would collapse while she was on board. As this happened, she swam ashore and, when her attendant, having cried out that she was Agrippina, was clubbed to death, Agrippina knew what was going on. She sent Nero a message that she was well; his response was to send a detachment of sailors to finish the job. When she was struck across the head, she bared her womb and said, "Strike here, Anicetus, strike here, for this bore Nero," and she was brutally murdered.

Nero was petrified with fear when he learned that the deed had been done, yet his popularity with the plebs of Rome was not impaired. This matricide, however, proved a turning point in his life and principate. It appeared that all shackles were now removed. The influence of Seneca and Burrus began to wane, and when Burrus died in 62, Seneca realized that his powers of persuasion were at an end and soon went into retirement. Britannicus had died as early as 55; now Octavia was to follow, and Nero became free to marry Poppaea. It may be that it had been Burrus rather than Agrippina who had continually urged that Nero's position depended in large part upon his marriage to Octavia. Burrus' successor as commander of the praetorian guard, although now with a colleague, was Ofonius Tigellinus, quite the opposite of Burrus in character and outlook. Tigellinus became Nero's "evil twin," urging and assisting in the performance of crimes and the satisfaction of lusts.


Administrative and Foreign Policy
With Seneca and Burrus in charge of administration at home, the first half-dozen years of Nero's principate ran smoothly. He himself devoted his attention to his artistic, literary, and physical bents, with music, poetry, and chariot racing to the fore. But his advisors were able to keep these performances and displays private, with small, select audiences on hand. Yet there was a gradual trend toward public performance, with the establishment of games. Further, he spent many nights roaming the city in disguise, with numerous companions, who terrorized the streets and attacked individuals. Those who dared to defend themselves often faced death afterward, because they had shown disrespect for the emperor. The die was being cast for the last phases of Nero's reign.


The Great Fire at Rome and The Punishment
of the Christians
The year 64 was the most significant of Nero's principate up to this point. His mother and wife were dead, as was Burrus, and Seneca, unable to maintain his influence over Nero without his colleague's support, had withdrawn into private life. The abysmal Tigellinus was now the foremost advisor of the still young emperor, a man whose origin was from the lowest levels of society and who can accurately be described as criminal in outlook and action. Yet Nero must have considered that he was happier than he had ever been in his life. Those who had constrained his enjoyment of his (seemingly) limitless power were gone, he was married to Poppaea, a woman with all advantages save for a bad character the empire was essentially at peace, and the people of Rome enjoyed a full measure of panem et circenses. But then occurred one of the greatest disasters that the city of Rome, in its long history, had ever endured.

The fire began in the southeastern angle of the Circus Maximus, spreading through the shops which clustered there, and raged for the better part of a week. There was brief success in controlling the blaze, but then it burst forth once more, so that many people claimed that the fires were deliberately set. After about a fortnight, the fire burned itself out, having consumed ten of the fourteen Augustan regions into which the city had been divided.

Nero was in Antium through much of the disaster, but his efforts at relief were substantial. Yet many believed that he had been responsible, so that he could perform his own work comparing the current fate of Rome to the downfall of Troy. All his efforts to assist the stricken city could not remove the suspicion that "the emperor had fiddled while Rome burned." He lost favor even among the plebs who had been enthusiastic supporters, particularly when his plans for the rebuilding of the city revealed that a very large part of the center was to become his new home.

As his popularity waned, Nero and Tigellinus realized that individuals were needed who could be charged with the disaster. It so happened that there was such a group ready at hand, Christians, who had made themselves unpopular because of their refusal to worship the emperor, their way of life, and their secret meetings. Further, at this time two of their most significant "teachers" were in Rome, Peter and Paul. They were ideal scapegoats, individuals whom most Romans loathed, and who had continually sung of the forthcoming end of the world.

Their destruction was planned with the utmost precision and cruelty, for the entertainment of the populace. The venue was Nero's circus near the Mons Vaticanus. Christians were exposed to wild animals and were set ablaze, smeared with pitch, to illuminate the night. The executions were so grisly that even the populace displayed sympathy for the victims. Separately, Peter was crucified upside down on the Vatican hill and Paul was beheaded along the Via Ostiensis. But Nero's attempt, and hope, to shift all suspicion of arson to others failed. His popularity even among the lower classes was irrevocably impaired.

[For a detailed and interesting discussion of Nero’s reign please see http://www.roman-emperors.org/nero.htm]

The End - Nero's Death and its Aftermath
Nero's and Tigellinus' response to the conspiracy was immediate and long-lasting. The senatorial order was decimated, as one leading member after another was put to death or compelled to commit suicide. The year 66 saw the suicides of perhaps the most distinguished victims of the "reign of terror," Caius Petronius and Thrasea Paetus. Petronius, long a favorite of Nero because of his aesthetic taste, had been an able public servant before he turned to a life of ease and indolence. He was recognized as the arbiter elegantiae of Nero's circle, and may be the author of the Satyricon. At his death, he left for Nero a document which itemized many of the latter's crimes. Thrasea, a staunch Stoic who had been for some years an outspoken opponent of Nero's policies, committed suicide in the Socratic manner. This scene is the last episode in the surviving books of Tacitus' Annals.

In the year 68, revolt began in the provinces. . . the end of Nero's reign became inevitable. Galba claimed the throne and began his march from Spain. Nero panicked and was rapidly abandoned by his supporters. He finally committed suicide with assistance, on June 9, 68, and his body was tended and buried by three women who had been close to him in his younger days, chief of whom was Acte. His death scene is marked above all by the statement, "Qualis artifex pereo," (What an artist dies in me.) Even at the end he was more concerned with his private life than with the affairs of state.

The aftermath of Nero's death was cataclysmic. Galba was the first of four emperors who revealed the new secret of empire, that an emperor could be made elsewhere than in Rome. Civil war ensued, which was only ended by the victory of the fourth claimant, Vespasian, who established the brief dynasty of the Flavians. The dynasty of the Julio-Claudians was at an end.

Nero's popularity among the lower classes remained even after his death.

. . . .

It is not excessive to say that he was one of the worst of Rome's emperors in the first two centuries and more of the empire. Whatever talents he had, whatever good he may have done, all is overwhelmed by three events, the murder of his mother, the fire at Rome, and his savage treatment of the Christians.

Precisely these qualities are the reasons that he has remained so well known and has been the subject of many writers and opera composers in modern times. These works of fiction particularly merit mention: Henryk Sienkiewicz's Quo Vadis, one of the finest works of the 1907 Nobel Laureate in Literature, and John Hersey's The Conspiracy. Nero unquestionably will always be with us.

Copyright (C) 2006, Herbert W. Benario.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

1 commentsCleisthenes
GalbaAEAs.jpg
707a, Galba, 3 April 68 - 15 January 69 A.D.66 viewsGalba AE As, 68-69 AD; cf. SRC 727, 729ff; 27.85mm, 12g; Rome: Obverse: GALBA IMP CAESAR…, Laureate head right; Reverse: S P Q R OB CIV SER in oak wreath; gF+/F Ex. Ancient Imports.

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Galba (68-69 A.D.)

John Donahue
College of William and Mary


Introduction
The evidence for the principate of Galba is unsatisfactory. The sources either concentrate on the personality of the man, thereby failing to offer a balanced account of his policies and a firm chronological base for his actions; or, they focus on the final two weeks of his life at the expense of the earlier part of his reign. As a result, a detailed account of his principate is difficult to write. Even so, Galba is noteworthy because he was neither related to nor adopted by his predecessor Nero. Thus, his accession marked the end of the nearly century-long control of the Principate by the Julio-Claudians. Additionally, Galba's declaration as emperor by his troops abroad set a precedent for the further political upheavals of 68-69. Although these events worked to Galba's favor initially, they soon came back to haunt him, ending his tumultuous rule after only seven months.

Early Life and Rise to Power
Born 24 December 3 BC in Tarracina, a town on the Appian Way, 65 miles south of Rome, Servius Galba was the son of C. Sulpicius Galba and Mummia Achaica. Galba's connection with the noble house of the Servii gave him great prestige and assured his acceptance among the highest levels of Julio-Claudian society. Adopted in his youth by Livia, the mother of the emperor Tiberius, he is said to have owed much of his early advancement to her. Upon her death, Livia made Galba her chief legatee, bequeathing him some 50 million sesterces. Tiberius, Livia's heir, reduced the amount, however, and then never paid it. Galba's marriage proved to be a further source of disappointment, as he outlived both his wife Lepida and their two sons. Nothing else is known of Galba's immediate family, other than that he remained a widower for the rest of his life.

Although the details of Galba's early political career are incomplete, the surviving record is one of an ambitious Roman making his way in the Emperor's service. Suetonius records that as praetor Galba put on a new kind of exhibition for the people - elephants walking on a rope. Later, he served as governor of the province of Aquitania, followed by a six-month term as consul at the beginning of 33. Ironically, as consul he was succeeded by Salvius Otho, whose own son would succeed Galba as emperor. Over the years three more governorships followed - Upper Germany (date unknown), North Africa (45) and Hispania Tarraconensis, the largest of Spain's three provinces (61). He was selected as a proconsul of Africa by the emperor Claudius himself instead of by the usual method of drawing lots. During his two-year tenure in the province he successfully restored internal order and quelled a revolt by the barbarians. As an imperial legate he was a governor in Spain for eight years under Nero, even though he was already in his early sixties when he assumed his duties. The appointment showed that Galba was still considered efficient and loyal. In all of these posts Galba generally displayed an enthusiasm for old-fashioned disciplina, a trait consistent with the traditional characterization of the man as a hard-bitten aristocrat of the old Republican type. Such service did not go unnoticed, as he was honored with triumphal insignia and three priesthoods during his career.

On the basis of his ancestry, family tradition and service to the state Galba was the most distinguished Roman alive (with the exception of the houses of the Julii and Claudii) at the time of Nero's demise in 68. The complex chain of events that would lead him to the Principate later that year began in March with the rebellion of Gaius Iulius Vindex, the governor of Gallia Lugdunensis. Vindex had begun to sound out provincial governors about support for a rebellion perhaps in late 67 or early 68. Galba did not respond but, because of his displeasure with Neronian misgovernment, neither did he inform the emperor of these treasonous solicitations. This, of course, left him dangerously exposed; moreover, he was already aware that Nero, anxious to remove anyone of distinguished birth and noble achievements, had ordered his death. Given these circumstances, Galba likely felt that he had no choice but to rebel.

In April, 68, while still in Spain, Galba "went public," positioning himself as a vir militaris, a military representative of the senate and people of Rome. For the moment, he refused the title of Emperor, but it is clear that the Principate was his goal. To this end, he organized a concilium of advisors in order to make it known that any decisions were not made by him alone but only after consultation with a group. The arrangement was meant to recall the Augustan Age relationship between the emperor and senate in Rome. Even more revealing of his imperial ambitions were legends like LIBERTAS RESTITUTA (Liberty Restored), ROM RENASC (Rome Reborn) and SALUS GENERIS HUMANI (Salvation of Mankind), preserved on his coinage from the period. Such evidence has brought into question the traditional assessment of Galba as nothing more than an ineffectual representative of a bygone antiquus rigor in favor of a more balanced portrait of a traditional constitutionalist eager to publicize the virtues of an Augustan-style Principate.
Events now began to move quickly. In May, 68 Lucius Clodius Macer, legate of the III legio Augusta in Africa, revolted from Nero and cut off the grain supply to Rome. Choosing not to recognize Galba, he called himself propraetor, issued his own coinage, and raised a new legion, the I Macriana liberatrix. Galba later had him executed. At the same time, 68, Lucius Verginius Rufus, legionary commander in Upper Germany, led a combined force of soldiers from Upper and Lower Germany in defeating Vindex at Vesontio in Gallia Lugdunensis. Verginius refused to accept a call to the emperorship by his own troops and by those from the Danube, however, thereby creating at Rome an opportunity for Galba's agents to win over Gaius Nymphidius Sabinus, the corrupt praetorian prefect since 65. Sabinus was able to turn the imperial guard against Nero on the promise that they would be rewarded financially by Galba upon his arrival. That was the end for Nero. Deposed by the senate and abandoned by his supporters, he committed suicide in June. At this point, encouraged to march on Rome by the praetorians and especially by Sabinus, who had his own designs on the throne, Galba hurriedly established broad-based political and financial support and assembled his own legion (subsequently known as the legio VII Gemina). As he departed from Spain, he abandoned the title of governor in favor of "Caesar," apparently in an attempt to lay claim to the entire inheritance of the Julio-Claudian house. Even so, he continued to proceed cautiously, and did not actually adopt the name of Caesar (and with it the emperorship) until sometime after he had left Spain.

The Principate of Galba
Meanwhile, Rome was anything but serene. An unusual force of soldiers, many of whom had been mustered by Nero to crush the attempt of Vindex, remained idle and restless. In addition, there was the matter concerning Nymphidius Sabinus. Intent on being the power behind the throne, Nymphidius had orchestrated a demand from the praetorians that Galba appoint him sole praetorian prefect for life. The senate capitulated to his pretensions and he began to have designs on the throne himself. In an attempt to rattle Galba, Nymphidius then sent messages of alarm to the emperor telling of unrest in both the city and abroad. When Galba ignored these reports, Nymphidius decided to launch a coup by presenting himself to the praetorians. The plan misfired, and the praetorians killed him when he appeared at their camp. Upon learning of the incident, Galba ordered the executions of Nymphidius' followers. To make matters worse, Galba's arrival was preceded by a confrontation with a boisterous band of soldiers who had been formed into a legion by Nero and were now demanding legionary standards and regular quarters. When they persisted, Galba's forces attacked, with the result that many of them were killed.
Thus it was amid carnage and fear that Galba arrived at the capital in October, 68, accompanied by Otho, the governor of Lusitania, who had joined the cause. Once Galba was within Rome, miscalculations and missteps seemed to multiply. First, he relied upon the advice of a corrupt circle of advisors, most notably: Titus Vinius, a general from Spain; Cornelius Laco, praetorian prefect; and his own freedman, Icelus. Second, he zealously attempted to recover some of Nero's more excessive expenditures by seizing the property of many citizens, a measure that seems to have gone too far and to have caused real hardship and resentment. Third, he created further ill-will by disbanding the imperial corps of German bodyguards, effectively abolishing a tradition that originated with Marius and had been endorsed by Augustus. Finally, he seriously alienated the military by refusing cash rewards for both the praetorians and for the soldiers in Upper Germany who had fought against Vindex.

This last act proved to be the beginning of the end for Galba. On 1 January 69 ("The Year of the Four Emperors"), the troops in Upper Germany refused to declare allegiance to him and instead followed the men stationed in Lower Germany in proclaiming their commander, Aulus Vitellius, as the new ruler. In response, Galba adopted Lucius Calpurnius Piso Frugi Licinianus to show that he was still in charge and that his successor would not be chosen for him. Piso, although an aristocrat, was a man completely without administrative or military experience. The choice meant little to the remote armies, the praetorians or the senate, and it especially angered Otho, who had hoped to succeed Galba. Otho quickly organized a conspiracy among the praetorians with the now-familiar promise of a material reward, and on 15 January 69 they declared him emperor and publicly killed Galba; Piso, dragged from hiding in the temple of Vesta, was also butchered.

Assessment
In sum, Galba had displayed talent and ambition during his lengthy career. He enjoyed distinguished ancestry, moved easily among the Julio-Claudian emperors (with the exception of Nero towards the end of his principate), and had been awarded the highest military and religious honors of ancient Rome. His qualifications for the principate cannot be questioned. Even so, history has been unkind to him. Tacitus characterized Galba as "weak and old," a man "equal to the imperial office, if he had never held it." Modern historians of the Roman world have been no less critical. To be sure, Galba's greatest mistake lay in his general handling of the military. His treatment of the army in Upper Germany was heedless, his policy towards the praetorians short sighted. Given the climate in 68-69, Galba was unrealistic in expecting disciplina without paying the promised rewards. He was also guilty of relying on poor advisors, who shielded him from reality and ultimately allowed Otho's conspiracy to succeed. Additionally, the excessive power of his henchmen brought the regime into disfavor and made Galba himself the principal target of the hatred that his aides had incited. Finally, the appointment of Piso, a young man in no way equal to the challenges placed before him, further underscored the emperor's isolation and lack of judgment. In the end, the instability of the post-Julio-Claudian political landscape offered challenges more formidable than a tired, septuagenarian aristocrat could hope to overcome. Ironically, his regime proved no more successful than the Neronian government he was so eager to replace. Another year of bloodshed would be necessary before the Principate could once again stand firm.

Copyright (C) 1999, John Donahue.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.


Cleisthenes
VespasianPax_RICii10.jpg
710a, Vespasian, 1 July 69 - 24 June 79 A.D.133 viewsSilver denarius, RIC II, 10, aVF, 3.5 g, 18mm, Rome mint, 69-71 AD; Obverse: IMP CAESA[R] VESPASIANV[S AV]G - Laureate head right; Reverse: COS ITER [T]R POT - Pax seated left holding branch and caduceus. Ex Imperial Coins.


De Imperatoribus Romanis:
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Titus Flavius Vespasianus (A.D. 69-79)

John Donahue
College of William and Mary

Introduction

Titus Flavius Vespasianus (b. A.D. 9, d. A.D. 79, emperor A.D. 69-79) restored peace and stability to an empire in disarray following the death of Nero in A.D. 68. In the process he established the Flavian dynasty as the legitimate successor to the Imperial throne. Although we lack many details about the events and chronology of his reign, Vespasian provided practical leadership and a return to stable government - accomplishments which, when combined with his other achievements, make his emperorship particularly notable within the history of the Principate.

Early Life and Career

Vespasian was born at Falacrina near Sabine Reate on 17 November, A.D. 9, the son of T. Flavius Sabinus, a successful tax collector and banker, and Vespasia Polla. Both parents were of equestrian status. Few details of his first fifteen years survive, yet it appears that his father and mother were often away from home on business for long periods. As a result, Vespasian's early education became the responsibility of his paternal grandmother, Tertulla. [[1]] In about A.D. 25 Vespasian assumed the toga virilis and later accepted the wearing of the latus clavus, and with it the senatorial path that his older brother, T. Flavius Sabinus, had already chosen. [[2]] Although many of the particulars are lacking, the posts typically occupied by one intent upon a senatorial career soon followed: a military tribunate in Thrace, perhaps for three or four years; a quaestorship in Crete-Cyrene; and the offices of aedile and praetor, successively, under the emperor Gaius. [[3]]

It was during this period that Vespasian married Flavia Domitilla. Daughter of a treasury clerk and former mistress of an African knight, Flavia lacked the social standing and family connections that the politically ambitious usually sought through marriage. In any case, the couple produced three children, a daughter, also named Flavia Domitilla, and two sons, the future emperors Titus and Domitian . Flavia did not live to witness her husband's emperorship and after her death Vespasian returned to his former mistress Caenis, who had been secretary to Antonia (daughter of Marc Antony and mother of Claudius). Caenis apparently exerted considerable influence over Vespasian, prompting Suetonius to assert that she remained his wife in all but name, even after he became emperor. [[4]]

Following the assassination of Gaius on 24 January, A.D. 41, Vespasian advanced rapidly, thanks in large part to the new princeps Claudius, whose favor the Flavians had wisely secured with that of Antonia, the mother of Germanicus, and of Claudius' freedmen, especially Narcissus. [[5]] The emperor soon dispatched Vespasian to Argentoratum (Strasbourg) as legatus legionis II Augustae, apparently to prepare the legion for the invasion of Britain. Vespasian first appeared at the battle of Medway in A.D. 43, and soon thereafter led his legion across the south of England, where he engaged the enemy thirty times in battle, subdued two tribes, and conquered the Isle of Wight. According to Suetonius, these operations were conducted partly under Claudius and partly under Vespasian's commander, Aulus Plautius. Vespasian's contributions, however, did not go unnoticed; he received the ornamenta triumphalia and two priesthoods from Claudius for his exploits in Britain. [[6]]

By the end of A.D. 51 Vespasian had reached the consulship, the pinnacle of a political career at Rome. For reasons that remain obscure he withdrew from political life at this point, only to return when chosen proconsul of Africa about A.D. 63-64. His subsequent administration of the province was marked by severity and parsimony, earning him a reputation for being scrupulous but unpopular. [[7]] Upon completion of his term, Vespasian returned to Rome where, as a senior senator, he became a man of influence in the emperor Nero's court. [[8]] Important enough to be included on Nero's tour of Greece in A.D. 66-67, Vespasian soon found himself in the vicinity of increasing political turbulence in the East. The situation would prove pivotal in advancing his career.

Judaea and the Accession to Power

In response to rioting in Caesarea and Jerusalem that had led to the slaughter in the latter city of Jewish leaders and Roman soldiers, Nero granted to Vespasian in A.D. 66 a special command in the East with the objective of settling the revolt in Judaea. By spring A.D. 67, with 60,000 legionaries, auxiliaries, and allies under his control, Vespasian set out to subdue Galilee and then to cut off Jerusalem. Success was quick and decisive. By October all of Galilee had been pacified and plans for the strategic encirclement of Jerusalem were soon formed. [[9]] Meanwhile, at the other end of the empire, the revolts of Gaius Iulius Vindex, governor of Gallia Lugdunensis, and Servius Sulpicius Galba , governor of Hispania Tarraconensis, had brought Nero's reign to the brink of collapse. The emperor committed suicide in June, A.D. 68, thereby ensuring chaos for the next eighteen months, as first Galba and then Marcus Salvius Otho and Aulus Vitellius acceded to power. Each lacked broad-based military and senatorial support; each would be violently deposed in turn. [[10]]

Still occupied with plans against Jerusalem, Vespasian swore allegiance to each emperor. Shortly after Vitellius assumed power in spring, A.D. 69, however, Vespasian met on the border of Judaea and Syria with Gaius Licinius Mucianus, governor of Syria, and after a series of private and public consultations, the two decided to revolt. [[11]] On July 1, at the urging of Tiberius Alexander, prefect of Egypt, the legions of Alexandria declared for Vespasian, as did the legions of Judaea two days later. By August all of Syria and the Danube legions had done likewise. Vespasian next dispatched Mucianus to Italy with 20,000 troops, while he set out from Syria to Alexandria in order to control grain shipments for the purpose of starving Italy into submission. [[12]] The siege of Jerusalem he placed in the hands of his son Titus.

Meanwhile, the Danubian legions, unwilling to wait for Mucianus' arrival, began their march against Vitellius ' forces. The latter army, suffering from a lack of discipline and training, and unaccustomed to the heat of Rome, was defeated at Cremona in late October. [[13]] By mid-December the Flavian forces had reached Carsulae, 95 kilometers north of Rome on the Flaminian Road, where the Vitellians, with no further hope of reinforcements, soon surrendered. At Rome, unable to persuade his followers to accept terms for his abdication, Vitellius was in peril. On the morning of December 20 the Flavian army entered Rome. By that afternoon, the emperor was dead. [[14]]

Tacitus records that by December 22, A.D. 69, Vespasian had been given all the honors and privileges usually granted to emperors. Even so, the issue remains unclear, owing largely to a surviving fragment of an enabling law, the lex de imperio Vespasiani, which conferred powers, privileges, and exemptions, most with Julio-Claudian precedents, on the new emperor. Whether the fragment represents a typical granting of imperial powers that has uniquely survived in Vespasian's case, or is an attempt to limit or expand such powers, remains difficult to know. In any case, the lex sanctioned all that Vespasian had done up to its passing and gave him authority to act as he saw fit on behalf of the Roman people. [[15]]

What does seem clear is that Vespasian felt the need to legitimize his new reign with vigor. He zealously publicized the number of divine omens that predicted his accession and at every opportunity he accumulated multiple consulships and imperial salutations. He also actively promoted the principle of dynastic succession, insisting that the emperorship would fall to his son. The initiative was fulfilled when Titus succeeded his father in A.D. 79.[[16]]

Emperorship

Upon his arrival in Rome in late summer, A.D. 70, Vespasian faced the daunting task of restoring a city and a government ravaged by the recent civil wars. Although many particulars are missing, a portrait nevertheles emerges of a ruler conscientiously committed to the methodical renewal of both city and empire. Concerning Rome itself, the emperor encouraged rebuilding on vacated lots, restored the Capitol (burned in A.D. 69), and also began work on several new buildings: a temple to the deified Claudius on the Caelian Hill, a project designed to identify Vespasian as a legitimate heir to the Julio-Claudians, while distancing himself from Nero ; a temple of Peace near the Forum; and the magnificent Colosseum (Flavian Amphitheatre), located on the site of the lake of Nero 's Golden House. [[17]]

Claiming that he needed forty thousand million sesterces for these projects and for others aimed at putting the state on more secure footing, Vespasian is said to have revoked various imperial immunities, manipulated the supply of certain commodities to inflate their price, and increased provincial taxation. [[18]] The measures are consistent with his characterization in the sources as both obdurate and avaricious. There were occasional political problems as well: Helvidius Priscus, an advocate of senatorial independence and a critic of the Flavian regime from the start, was exiled after A.D. 75 and later executed; Marcellus Eprius and A. Alienus Caecina were condemned by Titus for conspiracy, the former committing suicide, the latter executed in A.D. 79.
As Suetonius claims, however, in financial matters Vespasian always put revenues to the best possible advantage, regardless of their source. Tacitus, too, offers a generally favorable assessment, citing Vespasian as the first man to improve after becoming emperor. [[19]] Thus do we find the princeps offering subventions to senators not possessing the property qualifications of their rank, restoring many cities throughout the empire, and granting state salaries for the first time to teachers of Latin and Greek rhetoric. To enhance Roman economic and social life even further, he encouraged theatrical productions by building a new stage for the Theatre of Marcellus, and he also put on lavish state dinners to assist the food trades. [[20]]

In other matters the emperor displayed similar concern. He restored the depleted ranks of the senatorial and equestrian orders with eligible Italian and provincial candidates and reduced the backlog of pending court cases at Rome. Vespasian also re-established discipline in the army, while punishing or dismissing large numbers of Vitellius ' men. [[21]]
Beyond Rome, the emperor increased the number of legions in the East and continued the process of imperial expansion by the annexation of northern England, the pacification of Wales, and by advances into Scotland and southwest Germany between the Rhine and the Danube. Vespasian also conferred rights on communities abroad, especially in Spain, where the granting of Latin rights to all native communities contributed to the rapid Romanization of that province during the Imperial period. [[22]]

Death and Assessment

In contrast to his immediate imperial predecessors, Vespasian died peacefully - at Aquae Cutiliae near his birthplace in Sabine country on 23 June, A.D. 79, after contracting a brief illness. The occasion is said to have inspired his deathbed quip: "Oh my, I must be turning into a god!" [[23]] In fact, public deification did follow his death, as did his internment in the Mausoleum of Augustus alongside the Julio-Claudians.

A man of strict military discipline and simple tastes, Vespasian proved to be a conscientious and generally tolerant administrator. More importantly, following the upheavals of A.D. 68-69, his reign was welcome for its general tranquility and restoration of peace. In Vespasian Rome found a leader who made no great breaks with tradition, yet his ability ro rebuild the empire and especially his willingness to expand the composition of the governing class helped to establish a positive working model for the "good emperors" of the second century.

Bibliography

Since the scholarship on Vespasian is more comprehensive than can be treated here, the works listed below are main accounts or bear directly upon issues discussed in the entry above. A comprehensive modern anglophone study of this emperor is yet to be produced.

Atti congresso internazionale di studi Flaviani, 2 vols. Rieti, 1983.

Atti congresso internazionale di studi Vespasianei, 2 vols. Rieti, 1981.

Bosworth, A.B. "Vespasian and the Provinces: Some Problems of the Early 70s A.D." Athenaeum 51 (1973): 49-78.

Brunt, P. A. "Lex de imperio Vespasiani." JRS (67) 1977: 95-116.

D'Espèrey, S. Franchet. "Vespasien, Titus et la littérature." ANRW II.32.5: 3048-3086.

Dudley, D. and Webster, G. The Roman Conquest of Britain. London, 1965.

Gonzalez, J. "The Lex Irnitana: A New Copy of the Flavian Municipal Law." JRS 76 (1986): 147-243.

Grant, M. The Roman Emperors: A Biographical Guide to the Rulers of Rome, 31 B.C. - A.D. 476. New York, 1985.

Homo, L. Vespasien, l'Empereur du bons sens (69-79 ap. J.-C.). Paris, 1949.

Levi, M.A. "I Flavi." ANRW II.2: 177-207.

McCrum, M. and Woodhead, A. G. Select Documents of the Principates of the Flavian Emperors Including the Year of the Revolution. Cambridge, 1966.

Nicols, John. Vespasian and the Partes Flavianae. Wiesbaden, 1978.

Scarre, C. Chronicle of the Roman Emperors. The Reign-by-Reign Record of the Rulers of Imperial Rome. London, 1995.

Suddington, D. B. The Development of the Roman Auxiliary Forces from Caesar to Vespasian, 49 B.C. - A.D. 79. Harare: U. of Zimbabwe, 1982.

Syme, R. Tacitus. Oxford, 1958.

Wardel, David. "Vespasian, Helvidius Priscus and the Restoration of the Capitol." Historia 45 (1996): 208-222.

Wellesley, K. The Long Year: A.D. 69. Bristol, 1989, 2nd ed.


Notes

[[1]] Suet. Vesp. 2.1. Suetonius remains the major source but see also Tac. Hist. 2-5; Cass. Dio 65; Joseph. BJ 3-4.

[[2]] Suetonius (Vesp. 2.1) claims that Vespasian did not accept the latus clavus, the broad striped toga worn by one aspiring to a senatorial career, immediately. The delay, however, was perhaps no more than three years. See J. Nicols, Vespasian and the Partes Flavianae (Wiesbaden, 1978), 2.

[[3]] Military tribunate and quaestorship: Suet. Vesp. 2.3; aedileship: ibid., 5.3, in which Gaius, furious that Vespasian had not kept the streets clean, as was his duty, ordered some soldiers to load him with filth;,they complied by stuffing his toga with as much as it could hold. See also Dio 59.12.2-3; praetorship: Suet. Vesp. 2.3, in which Vespasian is depicted as one of Gaius' leading adulators, an account consistent with Tacitus' portrayal (Hist 1.50.4; 2.5.1) of his early career. For a more complete discussion of these posts and attendant problems of dating, see Nicols, Vespasian, 2-7.

[[4]] Marriage and Caenis: Suet. Vesp. 3; Cass. Dio 65.14.

[[5]] Nicols, Vespasian, 12-39.

[[6]] Suet. Vesp. 4.1 For additional details on Vespasian's exploits in Britain, see D. Dudley and G. Webster, The Roman Conquest of Britain (London, 1965), 55 ff., 98.

[[7]] Concerning Vespasian's years between his consulship and proconsulship, see Suet. Vesp. 4.2 and Nicols, Vespasian, 9. On his unpopularity in Africa, see Suet. Vesp. 4.3, an account of a riot at Hadrumentum, where he was once pelted with turnips. In recording that Africa supported Vitellius in A.D. 69, Tacitus too suggests popular dissatisfaction with Vespasian's proconsulship. See Hist. 2.97.2.

[[8]] This despite the fact that the sources record two rebukes of Vespasian, one for extorting money from a young man seeking career advancement (Suet. Vesp. 4.3), the other for either leaving the room or dozing off during one of the emperor's recitals (Suet. Vesp. 4.4 and 14, which places the transgression in Greece; Tac. (Ann. 16.5.3), who makes Rome and the Quinquennial Games of A.D. 65 the setting; A. Braithwaite, C. Suetoni Tranquilli Divus Vespasianus, Oxford, 1927, 30, who argues for both Greece and Rome).

[[9]] Subjugation of Galilee: Joseph. BJ 3.65-4.106; siege of Jerusalem: ibid., 4.366-376, 414.

[[10]] Revolt of Vindex: Suet. Nero 40; Tac. Ann. 14.4; revolt of Galba: Suet. Galba 10; Plut. Galba, 4-5; suicide of Nero: Suet. Nero 49; Cass. Dio 63.29.2. For the most complete account of the period between Nero's death and the accession of Vespasian, see K. Wellesley, The Long Year: A.D. 69, 2nd. ed. (Bristol, 1989).

[[11]] Tac. Hist. 2.76.

[[12]] Troops in support of Vespasian: Suet. Vit. 15; Mucianus and his forces: Tac. Hist. 2.83; Vespasian and grain shipments: Joseph. BJ 4.605 ff.; see also Tac. Hist. 3.48, on Vespasian's possible plan to shut off grain shipments to Italy from Carthage as well.

[[13]] On Vitellius' army and its lack of discipline, see Tac. Hist. 2.93-94; illness of army: ibid., 2.99.1; Cremona: ibid., 3.32-33.

[[14]] On Vitellius' last days, see Tac. Hist. 3.68-81. On the complicated issue of Vitellius' death date, see L. Holzapfel, "Römische Kaiserdaten," Klio 13 (1913): 301.

[[15]] Honors, etc. Tac. Hist. 4.3. For more on the lex de imperio Vespasiani, see P. A. Brunt, "Lex de imperio Vespasiani," JRS (67) 1977: 95-116.

[[16]] Omens: Suet. Vesp. 5; consulships and honors: ibid., 8; succession of sons: ibid., 25.

[[17]] On Vespasian's restoration of Rome, see Suet. Vesp. 9; Cass. Dio 65.10; D. Wardel, "Vespasian, Helvidius Priscus and the Restoration of the Capitol," Historia 45 (1996): 208-222.

[[18]] Suet. Vesp. 16.

[[19]] Ibid.; Tac. Hist. 1.50.

[[20]] Suet. Vesp. 17-19.

[[21]] Ibid., 8-10.

[[22]] On Vespasian's exploits in Britain, see esp. Tac., Agricola, eds. R. M. Ogilvie and I. A. Richmond (1967), and W. S. Hanson, Agricola and the Conquest of the North (1987); on the granting of Latin rights in Spain, see, e.g., J. Gonzalez, "The Lex Irnitana: a New Copy of the Flavian Municipal Law." JRS 76 (1986): 147-243.

[[23]] For this witticism and other anecdotes concerning Vespasian's sense of humor, see Suet. Vesp. 23.

Copyright (C) 1998, John Donahue. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis, an Online Encyplopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families.
http://www.roman-emperors.org/vespasia.htm
Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.





Cleisthenes
08840p00.jpg
8. Plautilla, Augusta, silver Dearius, marriage issue189 viewsVF 3.21 g, 20.2mm, 180º, Rome Mint, 202 AD
O: PLAVTILLAE AVGUSTAE
R: PROPAGO IMPERI, Carcalla standing l, holding Plautilla's hand, facing r. seems to imply a hope for an imperial child, yet this would be quite difficult, becuase of their mutual hatred of each other.
2 commentsZam
Mariniana.jpg
81 - 02 - DIVA MARINIANA56 viewsAR Antoniniano 23/22 mm 1.63 g.
Mariniana era la esposa de Valeriano I y madre de Galieno. La ausencia del título de Augusta, sugiere que ella murió antes de ser ascendida a Augusta, muerta antes del 253 D.C., aún antes de que su esposo fuera Emperador.

Anv: DIVAE MARINIANAE - Busto vestido y velado, viendo a der., descansando sobre una medialuna.
Rev: CONSECRATIO - Pavo real volando a der., llevando a Mariniana velada hacia el Edén, con su mano der. levantada y portando un cetro en la izq..

Acuñada entre 253 y 254 D.C.
Ceca: Roma y/o Viminacium.
Rareza: R

Referencias: RIC Va #6 Pag.64 - Cohen V #15 Pag. 342/343 - SRCV III #10070 Pag.276 - Göbl #220b - Hunter #1 - RSC IV #16 Pag.59 - DVM #1/2 Pag.242
mdelvalle
RIC_6_Antoniniano_Mariniana.jpg
81-02 - DIVA MARINIANA14 viewsAR Antoniniano 23/22 mm 1.63 g.

Mariniana era la esposa de Valeriano I y madre de Galieno. La ausencia del título de Augusta, sugiere que ella murió antes de ser ascendida a Augusta, muerta antes del 253 D.C., aún antes de que su esposo fuera Emperador.

Anv: DIVAE MARINIANAE - Busto vestido y velado, viendo a der., descansando sobre una medialuna.
Rev: CONSECRATIO - Pavo real volando a der., llevando a Mariniana velada hacia el Edén, con su mano der. levantada y portando un cetro en la izq..

Acuñada entre 253 y 254 D.C.
Ceca: Roma y/o Viminacium.
Rareza: R

Referencias: RIC Va #6 Pag.64 - Cohen V #15 Pag. 342/343 - SRCV III #10070 Pag.276 - Göbl #220b - Hunter #1 - RSC IV #16 Pag.59 - DVM #1/2 Pag.242
mdelvalle
Antoniniano Salonina RIC 63.jpg
83-03 - SALONINA (254 - 268 D.C.)37 viewsBillon Antoniniano 20 mm 4.2 gr.
Esposa de Galieno y madre de Valeriano II y Salonino

Anv: "CORN SALONINA [AVG]" - Busto diademado y vestido, viendo a derecha y descansando sobre una media luna.
Rev: "CONCORDIA AVGG" - El Emperador a la izquierda y la Emperatriz a derecha enfrentados y tomandose la mano derecha .
Esta moneda refiere a la elevación de Salonina a Augusta en el 254 D.C.

Acuñada 258 - 260 D.C.
Ceca: Samosata - Hoy Samsat Turquía

Referencias:
Göbl #1691p - RIC Vol.V Parte I #63 Pag.114 - Sear RCTV Vol.III #10630 - Cohen Vol.V #31 Pag.499 - DVM #9 Pag.251 - RSC Vol.IV #31 Pag.112
mdelvalle
Göbl_1691p_Antoniniano_Salonina.jpg
83-07 - SALONINA (254 - 268 D.C.)10 viewsVellón Antoniniano 20 mm 4.2 gr.
Esposa de Galieno y madre de Valeriano II y Salonino

Anv: "CORN SALONINA [AVG]" - Busto diademado y vestido, viendo a derecha y descansando sobre una media luna.
Rev: "CONCORDIA AVGG" - El Emperador a la izquierda y la Emperatriz a derecha enfrentados y tomandose la mano derecha .
Esta moneda refiere a la elevación de Salonina a Augusta en el 254 D.C.

Acuñada 258 - 260 D.C.
Ceca: Samosata - Hoy Samsat Turquía

Referencias: Göbl #1691p - RIC Vol.V Parte I #63 Pag.114 - Sear RCTV Vol.III #10630 Pag.326 - Cohen Vol.V #31 Pag.499 - DVM #9 Pag.251 - RSC Vol.IV #31 Pag.112 - Hunter #33
mdelvalle
Antoniniano_Severina_RIC_20_P.jpg
97-02 - SEVERINA (Augusta 274 - 275 D.C.)44 viewsEsposa de Aureliano, lo acompañaba en sus campañas.

Billon Antoniniano 23 mm 3.70 gr.
Totalmente plateado

Anv: "SEVERINA AVG" - Busto con diadema, vestido, viendo a derecha, sobre una medialuna (L15).
Rev: "CONCORDIAE MILITVM" – Concordia de pié de frente viendo a izquierda, portando un estandarte militar en cada mano. "XXI" en exergo y "P" en campo izquierdo.

Acuñada: Sexta Emisión, Inicio Octubre 275 D.C.
Ceca: Antioquía – Hoy Antakya -Turquía (Off. 1ra.)
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.V Parte I #20 Pag.318 - Sear RCTV (1988) #3285 var - Cohen Vol.VI #7 Pag.210 (2f) - DVM #4 Pag.258 - Göbl#383-a1
mdelvalle
RIC_6_Denario_Severina.jpg
97-02 - SEVERINA (Augusta 274 - 275 D.C.)9 viewsEsposa de Aureliano, lo acompañaba en sus campañas.

AE Denario o Medio Antoniniano 19 mm 1.70 gr.

Anv: "SEVERI - NA AVG" - Busto con diadema, vestido, viendo a derecha (L5).
Rev: "VEN - V - S - FELIX" – Venus de pié de frente viendo a izquierda, portando una figura (Cupido?) en manoderecha extendida y un largo cetro vertical en la izquierda. "Γ" en exergo.

Acuñada: 11ava. Emisión, Inicio a Setiembre 275 D.C.
Ceca: Roma Italia (Off. 3ra.)

Referencias: RIC Va #6 P.316, RIC2 Temp.#1857, Sear RCTV '88 #3287, Sear RCTV III #11710 P.440, Cohen VI #14 P.211 (3f), DVM #6 P.258, Göbl#141 t3, CBN #266, Hunter #1, La Venera 1504/6
mdelvalle
RIC_20_Doble_Antoniniano_Severina.jpg
97-04 - SEVERINA (Augusta 274 - 275 D.C.)10 viewsEsposa de Aureliano, lo acompañaba en sus campañas.

Vellón Antoniniano 23 mm 3.70 gr.
Totalmente plateado

Anv: "SEVERINA AVG" - Busto con diadema, vestido, viendo a derecha, sobre una medialuna (L15).
Rev: "CONCORDIAE MILITVM" – Concordia de pié de frente viendo a izquierda, portando un estandarte militar en cada mano. "XXI" en exergo y "P" en campo izquierdo.

Acuñada: Sexta Emisión, Inicio a Setiembre 275 D.C.
Ceca: Antioquía – Hoy Antakya -Turquía (Off. 1ra.)

Referencias: RIC Va #20 (C) P.318, RIC2 Temp.#3187, Sear RCTV III @11706 var.(Ley.anv.), Sear RCTV (1988) #3285 var., Cohen VI #7 P.210 (2f), DVM #4 P.258, Göbl#383-a1, BNC #1347/9, Hunter #32
mdelvalle
AE_denario_Severina_RIC_6_G.jpg
97-12 - SEVERINA (Augusta 274 - 275 D.C.)34 viewsEsposa de Aureliano, lo acompañaba en sus campañas.

AE Denario o Medio Antoniniano 19 mm 1.70 gr.

Anv: "SEVERI - NA AVG" - Busto con diadema, vestido, viendo a derecha (L5).
Rev: "VEN - V - S - FELIX" – Venus de pié de frente viendo a izquierda, portando una figura (Cupido?) en manoderecha extendida y un largo cetro vertical en la izquierda. "Γ" en exergo.

Acuñada: 11ava. Emisión, Inicio Setiembre 275 D.C.
Ceca: Roma Italia (Off. 3ra.)
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.V Parte I #6 Pag.316 - Sear RCTV (1988) #3287- Cohen Vol.VI #14 Pag.211 (3f) - DVM #6 Pag.258 - Göbl#141-t3 – La Venera II 1/1504 (3 Ejemplares)
mdelvalle
AchaeaAegiraPlautillaZeusEnthroned1a_(exSavoca).jpg
Achaea, Aegira. Plautilla, Augusta. BCD 416; BMC 5.30 viewsAchaea, Aegira. Plautilla, Augusta (AD 202–205). Æ 23.33mm; 4.56 g; 4h.
Obverse: [Φ]ΟΥΛΒΙΑ [•] ΠΛΑΥΤΙΛΛΑ, draped bust right.
Reverse: ΑΙΓЄ – Ι – [Ρ] – ΑΤWΝ, Zeus enthroned left, half nude, holding Nike in right outstretched hand and a long scepter in left.
References: BCD Peloponnesos 416 (same rev. die); BMC Peloponnesus, p. 17, no. 5 (pl. IV, 10) = NCP, pl. S, VI (same dies); Lindgren II 1634 (same dies); SNG Fitzwilliam 3556; Mi Sup. IV, 125.
Ex Savoca Numismatik (eBay), 9-20-2014.
Mark Fox
Faustina_Gadara_Decapolis.JPG
AE 22mm Syria, Decapolis, Gadara. Faustina II, wife of Marcus Aurelius. Augusta, 147-175 AD. AE 22mm (7.89 gm, 12h). Dated CY 225. 161/2 AD. Spijkerman 49 (same dies)58 viewsSyria, Decapolis, Gadara. Faustina II, wife of Marcus Aurelius. Augusta, 147-175 AD. AE 22mm (7.89 gm, 12h). Dated CY 225. 161/2 AD. Obv.: ΦAVCTINA CЄBATH, draped bust right. Rev.: ΓAΔAPЄΩN• ЄKC (date), laureate and draped bust of Zeus right. Spijkerman 49 (same dies); Rosenberger IV 51 (same dies); SNG ANS 1312-3 (same dies). _25601 commentsAntonivs Protti
eudoxia_104.jpg
Aelia Eudoxia, RIC X, (Arcadius) 104191 viewsAelia Eudoxia, wife of Arcadius, Augusta AD 400-401
AE 3, 17mm
struck in Antiochia, 3rd officina, AD 401-403
obv. AEL EVDO - XIA AVG
Bust, draped and diademed, wearing neck-lace and ear-ring; above hand of
god crowning her with wreath
rev. SALVS REI - PVBLICAE
Victory std. r. on cuirass, supporting shield on small column which is inscribed
with christogramm, with r. hand pointing to it.
in ex. ANT Gamma
RIX X, Antiochia 104
Scarce, about VF, with reddish sandpatina

Eudoxia was the daughter of the Frank Bauto and in fact the ruler until her death AD 404.
Jochen
2540368.jpg
Aelia Flaccilla43 viewsAelia Flaccilla. Augusta, AD 379-386/8. Æ (22mm, 4.40 g, 6h). Constantinople mint. Diademed and draped bust right / Victory seated right, inscribing Christogram on shield set on column; CONЄ. RIC IX 55.5; LRBC 2149.4 commentsTLP
AELIA FLACILLA.JPG
Aelia Flaccilla, Augusta 19 January 379 - 386 or 388 A.D., wife of Theodosius I36 views11099. Bronze AE 2, S 4193, VF, 4.764g, 23.22mm, 0o, uncertain mint, 25 Aug 383 - 28 Aug 388 A.D.; obverse AEL FLACCILLA AVG, diademed and draped bust right; reverse SALVS REIPVBLICAE, empress standing facing, head right, arms folded on breast; partially uncleaned1 commentsMarjan E
PULCHER-1.jpg
Aelia Pulcheria, sister of Theodosius II. Augusta, 414-453 CE.310 viewsÆ 4 (14 mm, 0.82 gm). Constantinople mint, 414-423 CE.
Obv: AEL PVLCH-ERIA AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right, wearing necklace and earring.
Rev: SALVS REIPVBLICAE, Victory seated r., inscribing Christogram on shield set on cippus; CON? in exergue.
Sear 4309; Goodacre 9; Tolstoi 43; LRBC 2226.
1 commentsEmpressCollector
LEO1-1.jpg
Aelia Verina, wife of Leo I. Augusta, 457-484 CE.276 viewsÆ 4 (10 mm, 0.82 gm). Constantinople mint, 457-484 CE.
Obv: D N LEO Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of Leo I right.
Rev: Verina standing holding transverse scepter and globus cruciger, B E at sides.
RIC 714; Vagi 3798.
2 commentsEmpressCollector
FAUSTSR-11.jpg
Aeternitas, Personification of eternity and stability382 viewsFaustina Senior, wife of Antoninus Pius, Augusta 138-141 C.E.
AR Denarius, Rome mint, 147-161 C.E.
Obv: DIVA FAVSTINA, Draped bust, r.
Rev: AETERNITAS, Aeternitas standing l., holding phoenix and lifting fold of skirt.
RIC-347; Sear-4576; BMC-354; Cohen-11.

Aeternitas personifies eternity and stability. She is depicted with a variety of attributes which may include a torch, globe, phoenix, cornucopiae, scepter or the heads of Sol and Luna; she is often shown leaning against a column or seated on a globe.
EmpressCollector
agrippina_II.jpg
Aezanis, Phrygia, AE 17.9; Head of Persephone r.18 viewsAgrippina II. Augusta 50-59 A.D. Daughter of Agrippina Sr. and Germanicus, sister of Caligula, wife of Claudius and mother of Nero, was born in 16 A.D. Aezanis, Phrygia, Bronze 2.50g. 17.9mm Obv: AGRIPPINAN SEBASTHN, Head of Agrippina II. r. Rev: AIZANITWN, Head of Persephone r. RPC 3102. Ex Gerhard RohdePodiceps
agrippina_jr.jpg
Agrippina Jr; Obol, Agrippina as Demeter/ kalathos54 viewsAgrippina Junior, Augusta 50 - March 59 A.D., Roman Provincial Egypt. Bronze obol, Dattari 179; Milne 127; BMC Alexandria p. 14, 111 var (year 12); Geissen -; SNG France -, Emmett 105 (R4), Fair/Poor, Alexandria mint, 4.907g, 23.7mm, 52 - 53 A.D.; obverse “AGRIPPINA” C“EBA”C“TH”, bust of Agrippina right, as Demeter, wreathed with grain; reverse, kalathos (modius) containing stalks of grain and poppy heads bound with flower wreath, flanked on each side by a flaming torch bound with fillet, L I“G” (year 13) in ex; rare. Ex FORVMPodiceps
CLAUDIUS-2~0.jpg
Agrippina the Younger, sister of Caligula, wife of Claudius, mother of Nero. Augusta, 50-59 CE.265 viewsBosporos, under King Kotys I with Claudius & Agrippina Jr. 50-54 AD.
Æ 12 nummia or Assarion (25 mm, 9.30 gm).
Obv: TI KLAUDIOU KAICAROC, Laureate head of Claudius right, IB below.
Rev: IOULIAN AGRIPPINAN CEBACTHN, Head of Agrippina Junior left, hair weaved and tied at back of head to make a loop ponytail; BAK (monogram of Kotys I) before.
SGI 5438; RPC 1925; BMC 13.52,7; Anokhin Bosporus 348; Vagi 670; SNG Vol IX, 971; SNG Copenhagen 31; W.Wroth p. XI, 14.
EmpressCollector
RPC_Alexander_Troas_Gallienus.jpg
Alexandria Troas (modern Eski Stambul). Gallienus (Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus) (253-268 A.D.)27 viewsBellinger A459; SNG Copenhagen 200-201; SNG München 138; SNG von Aulock 7576;
BMC Troas p. 132, 184.

AE unit, 5.29 g., 19.70 mm. max., 180°

Obv: IMP LICI GALLIENVS, laureate, draped bust right, seen from behind.

Rev: COL AVG / TROA (in exergue), she-wolf standing right, suckling Romulus and Remus.

Colonia Augusta Troas = The August Colony of Troas
2 commentsStkp
ANNIA FAUSTINA-1.JPG
Annia Faustina, 3rd wife of Elagabalus. Augusta, 221 CE.372 viewsIsinda, Pisidia, AE 26 mm.
Obv: ANNIAN FAVCTEINAN, Dr. bust of Faustina r.
Rev: Confronted heads of Serapis and Isis, in field, E-Delta (yr. 4 ).
Ex Lindgren I, ex von Aulock, Pisidia I 833 (Plate coin, the only example known).
3 commentsEmpressCollector
Antonia.jpg
Antonia AE Dupondius51 viewsAntonia (Augusta)
AE Dupondius 17.01g / 31mm
Ob: ANTONIA AVGVSTA - Draped bust right
Rv: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP PP - Claudius standing left, veiled ang togate, holding a simplum, S - C
Mint: Rome 41-54AD
Ref: RIC 92
Scotvs Capitis
Antonia~0.jpg
Antonia Augusta 66 viewsANTONIA AVGVSTA

Rev. TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP SC
Cladius veiled and togate stg left holding simpulum

Sear 1902

Antonia was the younger daughter of Mark Antony and Octavia and was born on January 31st 36B.C. She was married at age 20 to Tiberius' younger brother Nero Claudius Drusus and had two sons, the great Germanicus and the future emperor Claudius. She was widowed in 9 BC and refused to marry again and devoted her life to her families interests. Her wealth and status made her very influencial during Tiberius' reign and it was she who brought about the downfall of Sejanus.

On the accession of her grandson Caligula in 37 AD she received many honours but died later that year at the age of 73. She did not receive postumous honours until the reign of her son Claudius in 41 AD and all of the coinage in Antonia's name was issued by Claudius.

SOLD
Titus Pullo
Antonia~1.jpg
Antonia Augusta70 viewsANTONIA AVGVSTA
Head of Antonia right

TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP SC
Claudius veiled and togate standing left holding simpulum

11.47g

Sear 1902

Antonia was the younger daughter of Mark Antony and Octavia and was born on January 31st 36B.C. She was married at age 20 to Tiberius' younger brother Nero Claudius Drusus and had two sons, the great Germanicus and the future emperor Claudius. She was widowed in 9 BC and refused to marry again and devoted her life to her families interests. Her wealth and status made her very influencial during Tiberius' reign and it was she who brought about the downfall of Sejanus.

On the accession of her grandson Caligula in 37 AD she received many honours but died later that year at the age of 73. She did not receive postumous honours until the reign of her son Claudius in 41 AD and all of the coinage in Antonia's name was issued by Claudius.
Jay GT4
antonia_claudius_104.jpg
Antonia RIC I, 104135 viewsAntonia, died 37, Augusta 41, mother of Claudius
AE - Dupondius, 15.49g, 30mm
Rome 42/43 (struck under Claudius)
obv. ANTONIA AVGVSTA
draped bust, bare head r.
rev. TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG PM TRP IMP PP
Claudius standing l., in toga, draped over head, holding
simpulum in r. hand and roll in l. hand
between S-C
RIC I, Claudius 104; C.6; von Kaenel 595 (same die!)
nice VF
2 commentsJochen
ANTONIA-1.jpg
Antonia, daughter of Marc Antony and Octavia, wife of Nero Claudius Drusus, mother of Claudius. Augusta, 37 and 41 AD.217 viewsÆ Dupondius under son, Claudius.
Obv: ANTONIA AVGVSTA, draped bust, right.
Rev: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP, S-C across field, Claudius, togate, standing left, holding simpulum.
RIC 92 [Claudius]; Cohen 6; BMC 166; Sear 1902.
EmpressCollector
Divus_Antoninus_Pius_Æ_Sestertius.jpg
Antoninus Pius (Augustus) Coin: Brass Sestertius 4 viewsDIVVS ANTONINVS - Bare head right
CONSECRATIO - Funeral pyre of four tiers decorated with garlands, surmounted by facing quadriga; S-C across fields.
Exergue:


Mint: Rome (161 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 20.68g / 32mm / 360
References:
RIC III 1266 (Aurelius)
Banti 74
Provenances:
Roma Numismatics
Acquisition/Sale: Roma Numismatics Internet E-Sale 45 #596

The Gary R. Wilson Collection

Antoninus Pius' funeral ceremonies were described as elaborate but, despite the pyre depicted on this coin, according to his Historia Augusta biography, Antoninus' body (and not his ashes) was buried in Hadrian's mausoleum. After a seven-day interval (justitium) Marcus and Lucius nominated their father for deification. In contrast to their behavior during Antoninus' campaign to deify Hadrian, the senate did not oppose the emperors' wishes. A flamen, or cultic priest, was appointed to minister the cult of the deified Antoninus, now Divus Antoninus. A column was dedicated to Antoninus on the Campus Martius, and the temple he had built in the Forum in 141 to his deified wife Faustina was rededicated to the deified Faustina and the deified Antoninus. It survives as the church of San Lorenzo in Miranda.
Gary W2
AntoSe29-2.jpg
Antoninus Pius, RIC 1003, Sestertius of AD 158-159 (Temple of Divus Augustus)25 viewsÆ Sestertius (25.4g, Ø32mm, 12h). Rome mint. Struck AD 158-159.
Obv.: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P XXII, laureate head of Antoninus Pius right.
Rev.: TEMPL DIVI AVG REST (round) COS IIII (in ex.) S C (in field), Octastyle temple of with statues of Divus Augustus and Livia. Both statues in the centre, standing on a base, have the right arms raised. There are statues to the left near the foot of the steps and other statues of soldiers on pedestals at each side of the top step. In the roof is a quadriga in the centre, and statues at each corner; further statues in the pediment.
RIC 1003 (S); BMC 2063-66; Cohen 797; Foss (RHC) 132:88a
ex D. Ruskin, Oxford: found in Reigate (Surrey), 1864

Coin issued on the occasion of the restoration of the temple of Divus Ausustus and Diva Augusta (Livia) in AD 158.
Charles S
AntoSe29-4.jpg
Antoninus Pius, RIC 1003A, Sestertius of AD 158-159 (Temple of Divus Augustus) 17 viewsÆ Sestertius (25.4g, Ø32mm, 12h). Rome mint. Struck AD 158-159.
Obv.: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P XXII, laureate head of Antoninus Pius right.
Rev.: TEMPL DIVI AVG REST (around) COS IIII (ex.) S C (field), Octastyle temple of with statues of Divus Augustus and Livia. Both statues in the centre, standing on a base, have the right arms raised. There are statues to the left near the foot of the steps and other statues of soldiers on pedestals at each side of the top step. In the roof is a quadriga in the centre, and statues at each corner; further statues in the pediment.
RIC 1003A (S); BMCRE 2063 var. (rev. legend TEMPLVM DIV); Cohen 797; Strack 1168; Banti (I Grandi Bronzi Imperiali II-3) 404 (2 specimens); Sear (Roman Coins and their Values II) 4235 var. (different rev. legend); Foss (Roman Historical Coins) 132:88a
ex D. Ruskin, Oxford, 1995 ("found in Reigate (Surrey), 1864")

Coin issued on the occasion of the restoration of the temple of Divus Ausustus and Diva Augusta (Livia) in AD 158. he temple was probably situated in the valley between the Palatine and Capitoline Hills, behind the Basilica Julia. No trace has survived.
Charles S
Aquilia_Severa_Alex_Tet_-_Köln_2369_lg.jpg
Aquilia Severa - Wife of Elagabalus16 viewsEGYPT, Alexandria. Aquilia Severa. Augusta, AD 220-221 & 221-222. Potin Tetradrachm (23mm, 11.63 g, 11h). Dated RY 4 of Elagabalus (AD 220/1). Draped bust right / Homonoia standing left, right hand raised, holding double cornucopia with left; L Δ (date) to left. Köln 2369; Dattari (Savio) 4178; K&G 58.3. Near VF, dark brown patina, light porosity.

Ex CNG eAuction 318
Sosius
AQ SEVER-1.jpg
Aquilia Severa, 2nd & 4th wife of Elagabalus. Augusta, 220-221 & 221-222 CE.189 viewsAR Denarius (19 mm, 3.18 gm). Rome mint, 220-222 CE.
Obv: IVLIA AQVILIA SEVERA AVG, draped bust right.
Rev: CONCORDIA, Concordia standing left, holding double cornucopia and patera, held over altar; a star in left field.
RIC 225; Cohen 2; BMC 185; Sear (4th ed) 2158.

Scarce earlier coiffure with band of hair combed forward above forehead. All eight denarii of Aquilia with this reverse type in the Eauze hoarde showed her commoner second coiffure without the band.
EmpressCollector
Ara_Pacis_Rom.jpg
Ara Pacis35 viewsThe Ara Pacis Augustae (Latin, "Altar of Augustan Peace"; commonly shortened to Ara Pacis) is an altar in Rome dedicated to Pax, the Roman goddess of Peace. The monument was commissioned by the Roman Senate on July 4, 13 B.C. to honor the return of Augustus to Rome after three years in Hispania and Gaul, and consecrated on January 30, 9 B.C. Originally located on the northern outskirts of Rome, a Roman mile from the boundary of the pomerium on the west side of the Via Flaminia, it stood in the northeastern corner of the Campus Martius, the former flood plain of the Tiber River and gradually became buried under 4 metres (13 ft) of silt deposits. It was reassembled in its current location, now the Museum of the Ara Pacis, in 1938.

Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ara_Pacis
Joe Sermarini
FAUSTJR-40.jpg
Artemis (Diana) as the huntress518 viewsThrace, Augusta Trajana. Æ 24mm, 8.9 g.
Obv: FAVCTEINA CEBACTH, draped bust right.
Rev: AVGOVCTHC TRAIANHC, Artemis standing right, holding bow, drawing arrow from quiver, hound at her side.
Similar to SGI 1729; BMC 3.177, 1.

Artemis is the twin sister of Apollo. As the huntress, she holds a bow with arrows, accompanied by a hound.
EmpressCollector
Faustina_II_R606_artemis.jpg
Artemis, Thrace, Augusta Traiana6 viewsThrace, Augusta Traiana
Rev.: ΑVΓΟVСΤΗС ΤΡΑΙΑΝΗС, Artemis advancing, r., drawing arrow from quiver at shoulder, holding bow; to right, dog running right
AE, 10.05g, 26 mm


for obverse, reverse and coin details click here
shanxi
Livia_01.jpg
Asia Minor, Kilikia, Augusta, Livia23 viewsLivia, wife of Augustus
Cilicia, Augusta
Æ 18mm
Dated year 6 (AD 26/27)
Obv.: IOYΛIΛ [CE]BACTH , Draped bust right
Rev.: [E]TOYC ς AYΓOY CTANWN, Tyche seated right on rock, holding grain ear, river god Saros at feet.
AE, 18mm, 4.36 g
Ref.: SNG Levante 1241 (this coin), RPC I 4009 (this coin)
ex CNG eAuction 106, lot 180
shanxi
Agrippina_Junior_02.jpg
Asia Minor, Lydia, Hierocaesarea, Agrippina Junior, Artemis right, stag 23 viewsLydia. Hierocaesaraea
Agrippina Junior (Augusta, 50-59)
Bronze, AE 18
Obv.: AΓPIΠΠINAN ΘЄAN CЄBACTHN, draped bust right, hair in long plait down back of neck and looped at end
Rev: IЄPOKAICAPЄωN ЄΠI KAΠITωNOC, Artemis standing right, holding bow, stag standing right.
Æ, 18.1mm, 4.43g
Ref.: RPC I 2388, SNG von Aulock 2959
1 commentsshanxi
Agrippina_Junior_01.jpg
Asia Minor, Lydia, Hierocaesarea, Agrippina Junior, Artemis, stag18 viewsLydia. Hierocaesaraea
Agrippina Junior (Augusta, 50-59)
Bronze, AE 19
Obv.: AΓPIΠΠINAN ΘЄAN CЄBACTHN, draped bust right, hair in long plait down back of neck and looped at end, long loosely curled lock down side of neck;
Rev.: IЄPOKAICAPЄΩN ЄΠI KAΠITΩNOC, Artemis Persica standing facing, wearing long chiton, with right hand
drawing arrow from quiver on right shoulder, left hand on hip, stag at her side on left
AE, 5.93g, maximum diameter 18.8mm, die axis 0o
Ref.: RPC I 2387; BMC Lydia p. 106, 22
Ex Pecunem, Gitbud & Naumann auction 34 (2 Aug 2015), lot 664
Ex Forvm Ancient Coins Shop (2016)
shanxi
Lucilla_09.jpg
Asia Minor, Lydia, Hierocaesarea, Lucilla, Artemis 20 viewsdouble die match of:
Lydia, Hierocaesaraea
Lucilla (Augusta, 164-182)
Bronze, AE 19
Obv: ΛΟVΚΙΛΛΑ СЄΒΑС, Draped bust right.
Rev: ΙЄΡΟΚΑΙСΑΡЄΩΝ, Artemis standing right, holding bow and drawing arrow from quiver on back.
Æ, 19.2mm, 5.34g
Æ, 19.3mm, 5.33g
RPC IV online 1588; SNG München 142.
Ex Numismatik Naumann, auction 43, lot 703
Ex Numismatik Naumann, auction 46, lot 383
shanxi
Lucilla_13.jpg
Asia Minor, Lydia, Hierocaesarea, Lucilla, Tyche?7 viewsLydia, Hierocaesaraea
Lucilla (Augusta, 164-182)
Bronze, AE 19
Obv: ΛΟVΚΙΛΛΑ СЄΒΑС, Draped bust right.
Rev: ΙЄΡΟΚΑΙСΑΡЄΩΝ, Female figure (Tyche?) standing left with cornucopia
Æ, 19mm, 5g
RPC online -, ISEGRIM -
shanxi
Herennia_Etruscilla_Milne_3818.jpg
Athena, Herennia Etruscilla, Potin Tetradrachm, Alexandria, Milne 3818134 viewsHerennia Etruscilla
Augusta, 249-251 A.D.

Coin: Potin Tetradrachm

Obverse: ЄP KOVΠ AITPOVCKIΛΛA CЄ, draped bust facing right, wearing a Stephane.
Reverse: Athena, standing, facing to the left, holding a Spear with her left hand and looking at Nike, whom she holds in her right hand. A Shield to the left. L - B across the fields.

Weight: 13.43 g, Diameter: 21 x 22 x 4.4 mm, Die axis: 330°, Mint: Alexandria, Year: 2 (LB, 251 A.D.), Reference: Milne 3818

Rated Rare
1 commentsMasis
Schönert-Geiss_#228_Caracalla_City-gate_Augusta_Traiana.jpg
Augusta Traiana Caracalla Sicinnius Clarus74 viewsCaracalla as co-emperor
Governor Q. Sicinnius Clarus Po[ntianus?] 202AD cf. Stein Reichsbeamte Thracia p.46-7
AE27 13.65g
Ob: [AVT K M AVPHΛIOC | ANTΩNINOC]
Laureate draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev: HΓE CIKINNIOV KΛAPOV A[VΓOVCTH]
Ex: TPAIANHC
City gate with three turrets with battlements

Obverse legend worn away, reverse more detail, dull black patina
Cf. BMC 11 under Trajanopolis; Schönert-Geiss Die Münzpragung von Augusta Traiana und Traianopolis p. 86 # 228 reverse depicted Tafel 10; Mionnet Supp. 2 p.511 #1809 (Trajanopolis)
M & M cites Trell 247, 79 in addition to confirming my attributions above.
The legend is slightly different from the British Museum specimen (=#230). I think this reverse die is more common. Placement of kappa in relation to central tower is an indication of die.

This coin appears to be from Righetti’s collection M & M Auction 15 (21 10 2004) lot 77 Righetti Teil IV!
http://www.acsearch.info/record.html?id=99790

No tags from auction nor Righetti’s own
1 commentsPetrus Elmsley
Schönert-Geiss_#222_Augusta_Traiana_hermes.JPG
Augusta Traiana Caracalla Sicinnius Clarus56 viewsCaracalla as co-emperor
Governor Q. Sicinnius Clarus Po[ntianus?] 202AD cf. Stein Reichsbeamte Thracia p.46-7
AE29
Ob: AVT K M AVPHΛIOC | ANTΩNINOC
Laureate draped and cuirassed bust right
Rx: HΓ CIKIN KΛAPOV | AVΓOVCTHC TPAIA
Ex: NHC
Hermes standing with Cerceion and purse
Schönert-Geiss Die Münzpragung von Augusta Traiana und Traianopolis p.87 #222; Mionnet S. 2 p.511 # 1808 cabinet Tochon (Trajanopolis) = PIR III 241 S 494
Pitting on obverse, big chunky fabric, green and brown patina
Petrus Elmsley
BMC_11_CARACALLA,_AE-26__Augusta_Trajana__City-Gate.jpg
Augusta Traiana Caracalla Sicinnius Clarus 38 viewsCaracalla

Q. Sicinnius Clarus Po[ntianus?] 202AD

AE27 13.65g

Ob: AVT K M AVPHΛIOC | ANTΩNINOC
Laureate draped and cuirassed bust right

Rev: HΓ CIKINNIOV KΛAPOV AVΓOVCT
Ex: TPAIANHC
City gate with three turrets with battlements

BMC Thrace p.178 (depicted) #11 Trajanopolis; Schönert-Geiss Die Münzpragung von Augusta Traiana und Traianopolis p. 86 # 230 reverse depicted Tafel 18.

Double match for BMC specimen
Petrus Elmsley
29_15,0_g_augusta_traiana_car_dionysos.JPG
Augusta Traiana Caracalla Sicinnius Clarus 31 viewsCaracalla

Q. Sicinnius Clarus Po[ntianus?] 202AD

AE29 15.00g

Ob: AVT K M AVPHΛIOC / ANTΩNINOC
Laureate draped and cuirassed bust right

Rx: HΓ C[IKIN KΛAPOV AV] | ΓO[VCTHC TPAIA]
Ex: NHC
Dionysos standing left holding thyrsos and kantharos, panther at feet

Schönert-Geiss Die Münzpragung von Augusta Traiana und Traianopolis p.87 #221 1 example Sophia 5932(rx 193 depicted Tafel 21); Mionnet S. 2 –; BMC-; Varbanov (E) II p.104,1238 (not depicted); SNG Cop. -; Hunter -; Pozzi-; Lindgren Europe-; Lindgren III -
Petrus Elmsley
s-l1600.jpg
Augusta Traiana Caracalla sicinnius Kybele30 viewsQ. Sicinnius Clarus Po[ntianus?] 202AD

AE29 12.70g

Ob: AVT K M AVPHΛIOC / ANTΩNINOC
Laureate draped and cuirassed bust right


Rx: HΓ CIKINNIOV [KΛAPOV AVΓOVCTHC]
Ex: TPAIANHC
Kybele enthroned left holding patera and resting left arm on drum, lions below

Schönert-Geiss Die Münzpragung von Augusta Traiana und Traianopolis 226 (rx depicted Tafel 23); Varbanov (E) II 1247 (not depicted); Mionnet S. 2 –; BMC-; SNG Cop. -
rennrad12020
Aemilius_Iustus_Aug_Traiana_AE29_18_5g.JPG
Augusta Traiana Commodus Aemilius Iustus35 viewsCommodus

AE 29 18.5g

L. Aemilius Iustus

AV ∙ KAI | M ∙ AV KOM[OΔOC
Laureate draped and cuirassed bust right

HΓE Λ AIM IOVCTOV AΓOV (sic)
Ex: CTHC TPAI
AN[HC]
City gate with three turrets with battlements

Schönert-Geiss Die Münzpragung von Augusta Traiana und Traianopolis -; cf.Varbanov ( E) II 943 p. 85; BMC- Mionnet -; SNG Cop. -
Petrus Elmsley
Æ_32_15_80g_city-gate_augusta_traiana_LVerus.jpg
Augusta Traiana Lucius Verus Tullius Maximus69 viewsAUGUSTA TRAIANA

AE 32 15.80g

Lucius Verus

Q. Tullius Maximus (161-169 AD)

Obv: AV KAI Λ AVPH | ΛIOC OVHPOC
Laureate head right

Rev: HΓE TOVΛ MAΞIMOV AVΓOVCTHC
Ex: TPAIANHC
City-gate with three turrets with battlements

rough patina; decent detail on rx

Schönert-Geiss "Die Münzpragung von Augusta Traiana und Traianopolis" #80 p. 65 depicted Tafel 5; Varbanov (E) II 919 p. 83 ( Lanz specimen depicted); BMC -; Mionnet -
Petrus Elmsley
Marcus_Aurelius_Augusta_traiana_Zeus_enthroned_31mm,_14_39g_.jpg
Augusta Traiana Marcus Aurelius Q. Tullius Maximus (161-169 AD)39 viewsMarcus Aurelius

AE 31 14.39g

Q. Tullius Maximus (161-169 AD)

Obv: AV KAI M AVPH | ANTΩNEINOC
Laureate cuirassed bust right

Rev: HΓE TOVΛ M[AΞI]MOV AVΓOVC[THC
Ex: TPAIANHC
Zeus enthroned left holding scepter and patera


Schönert-Geiss Die Münzpragung von Augusta Traiana und Traianopolis # 20 p. 57 depicted Tafel 2 rev, obv Tafel 1; Varbanov ( E) II 876-7; BMC -; Mionnet –


Dark tan patina
rennrad12020
Augusta_Traiana_MAur_Tull_fleuve_1.JPG
Augusta Traiana Marcus Aurelius Tullius Maximus River-god34 viewsAE 32 20.17g

Marcus Aurelius

Q. Tullius Maximus (161-169 AD)

Obv: AV KAI M AVPH | ANTΩNEINOC
Laureate draped and cuirassed bust right

Rev: HΓE TOVΛ MAΞIMOV AVΓOVCTHC TPAIANHC (inscribed circularly)
Recumbent river god left holding waterplant; water flowing from overturned urn underneath

thick fabric with contrasting, rough patina

Schönert-Geiss Die Münzpragung von Augusta Traiana und Traianopolis #8 (depicted Tafel 1); Varbanov (E) II 870 (depicted p.79); BMC -; Mionnet -; SNG Cop-


rennrad12020
Augusta_Traina_Schonert-Geiss_218_Nike_crowns_Emp.png
Augusta Traiana Q. Sicinnius Clarus Caracalla Nike crowns Emperor44 viewsAUGUSTA TRAIANA
Caracalla as co-emperor; Augusta Traiana Thrace;
governor Q. Sicinnius Clarus Po[ntianus?] 202AD cf. Stein Reichsbeamte Thracia p.46-7
Fünfer AE 28 12.53g

Ob: AVT K M AVPHΛ[IOC ] | ANTΩNINOC
Laureate draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev: HΓ CIKINNIOV ∙ KΛAPOV AVΓOVCTHC
Ex: TPAIANHC
Emperor (Caracalla) in military attire holding downward spear and parazonium, standing left, looking back at Nike who is crowning him with a garland in her right hand and holding a palm in left

Nice VF; mostly green patina with mottled brown spots (more green in hand than this scan).

Schönert-Geiss "Die Münzpragung von Augusta Traiana und Traianopolis" p. 86-7 # 218 reverse depicted Tafel 17
Petrus Elmsley
Aug_TraianaCity_gate_CTBarb__(2).jpg
Augusta Traiana Septimius Severus St. Barbarus34 viewsSeptimius Severus

AE 31 13.6g.

Governor T. Statilius Barbarus (196-8 AD)

AVK Λ ∙ CEΠTIM CEVHPOC ∙ Π
Laureate draped and cuirassed bust right

HΓ CT BAPBAPOY AVΓOVCTHC
Ex: TPAIANHC (NH ligate)
City gate with three turrets with battlements

Schönert-Geiss Die Münzprägung von Augusta Traiana und Traianopolis 118a; cf. Varbanov (E) II 1023; BMC-; Mionnet –
rough patina
rennrad12020
ATraiana_Cybele_Barbarus.JPG
Augusta Traiana Septimius Severus Statilius Barbarus39 viewsSeptimius Severus
AE 32 15.4g.
fünfer
Governor T. Statilius Barbarus (196-8 AD)

AVK Λ ∙ CEΠTIM CEVH[POC Π
Laureate draped and cuirassed bust right
HΓE CT BAPBAPOV AVΓOVCTHC TPAIANHC
Kybele enthroned left holding patera and resting left arm on drum, lions below

Schönert-Geiss Die Münzprägung von Augusta Traiana und Traianopolis p 71 #118 rx- tafel 9; Varbanov (E) II 1033

Green patina with earthen deposits
Petrus Elmsley
Nike_Biga_StBarb_Aug_Traiana_12_8g.JPG
Augusta Traiana Septimius Severus Statilius Barbarus64 viewsSeptimius Severus

Augusta Traiana

AE 27 12.8g.

Governor T. Statilius Barbarus (196-8 AD)

AVK Λ ∙ CEΠTIM CEVHPOC ∙ Π
Laureate draped and cuirassed bust right

HΓ CT BAPBAPOY AVΓOVCTHC
Ex: TPAIANHC (NH ligate)
Nike holding wreath in outstretched arm on galloping biga right

Varbanov (E) II 1031(this coin); Schönert-Geiss "Die Münzprägung von Augusta Traiana und Traianopolis" -;
BMC-; Mionnet –

Blackish-brown fields with metallic high points; obverse legend is fully legible in hand, barely
1 commentsPetrus Elmsley
lucius_verus_snake.jpg
Augusta Traiana, Thrace. AE 20. Coiled snake5 viewsLucius Verus, Augusta Traiana, Thrace. 3,7 g , 20 mm. AV KAI Λ AVPEΛIOC OVEPOC, bare head right / with Greek legends for AVΓOVSTHC TPAIANHC, coiled snake. Moushmov 2991.Podiceps
caracalla_augusta_traiana.jpg
Augusta Traiana, Thrace. AE 29.8mm; Hera. Varbanov II 11596 viewsCaracalla, 28 January 198 - 8 April 217 A.D., Augusta Traiana, Thrace. Bronze AE 30, Varbanov II 1159, aVF, Augusta Traiana mint, 15.156g, 29.8mm, 45o, obverse AVT K M AVP CEVH ANT“W”NEINOC, laureate bust right; reverse “AUGOU”C“TH”C “TRAIANH”C, Hera standing half left, patera in right, long scepter vertical in left; Ex FORVMPodiceps
coins112.JPG
Augusta Traiana; Geta56 viewsOBVERSE: Π CEΠT ΓETAC K Bust right
REVERSE: AYΓ TPAIANHC Lion advancing right
ecoli
41286_Livia,_Wife_of_Augustus_and_Mother_of_Tiberius,_Augusta,_Cilicia,_Time_of_Nero.jpg
Augusta, Cilicia, Time of Nero. AE 18, Tyche seated on throne, holding grain, river god Saros4 viewsLivia, Wife of Augustus and Mother of Tiberius, Augusta, Cilicia, Time of Nero. Bronze AE 18, RPC I 4013, SNG Levante 1238, SNG Cop -, aF, porous, Augusta mint, 6.084g, 18.2mm, 0o, 67 - 68 A.D.; obverse “ΣΕΒΑΣΤΗ ΛΙΟΥΙΑ”, draped bust right; reverse “ΑΥΓΟΥΣΤΑΝΩΝ”, Tyche seated on throne, holding grain, river god Saros at feet; rare. Ex FORVM, photo credit FORVMPodiceps
GA-35-G6a_Rear.jpg
Augusta, Georgia: Augusta Insurance & Banking Co. $1 Oct. 15, 1861 (GA-35-G6a)3 viewsSpongeBob
GA-35-G6a_Front.jpg
Augusta, Georgia: Augusta Insurance & Banking Co. $1 Oct. 15, 1861 (GA-35-G6a)7 viewsSpongeBob
Augusta1C226D+R.jpg
AUGUSTUS66 viewsAE as. Cohen 2261 commentsRugser
Augustus~0.jpg
Augustus86 viewsAugustus, 16 January 27 B.C. - 19 August 14 A.D.

Obverse:

Augustus with his bare head right

CAESAR AVGVST PONT MAX TRIBVNIC POT

CAESAR: Ceasar, emperor
AVGVST: Agustus
PONT MAX: Pontifix Maximus,
TRIBVNIC: Tribunicia, tribunal
POT: POTESTAS, the people

Reverse:

M MAECILIVS TVLLVS III VIR A A A F F

M: Marcus
MAECILLIS: Maelcilius
TVLLVS: Tullus
IIIVIR: Triumviri
AAAFF: Auro, Argento, Aeri, Flando, Feriundo,

S . C, Senatus Consultum

I think the dots were used as centering devices, one see them sometimes on Soldiers/Standards coins although on this coin it is certainly a large dot.

Domination: AS, Copper

Mint: Rome

The Roman Moneyers (or you may prefer the title of Mint Magistrates) were also responsible for the minting of gold, silver and bronze coinage and they reported to the Senate. They were known as the Triumviri Monetales or Triumviri Auro, Argento, Aeri, Flando, Feriundo which is abbreviated as III VIR. A.A.A. F.F. which may be translated as 'Commision (or college) of three men under whom gold, silver and bronze coins were struck'. (Note that the order of the metals varies according to different references.) The title 'III VIR. A.A.A. F.F.' occurs rarely on Republic coins and when it is present it is usually seen in an abbreviated form such as 'III VIR'. It is interesting to note that the full title occurs frequently on the reverses of Augustan Aes

The College of the Three Moneyers was a revived republican tradition. This coin was struck under the supervision of Marcus Salvius Otho, an ancestor of the future emperor Otho. Later, the number of members was increased to four, and their names were not included on the coins.

TRP = This is short for tribunicia potestate - "with the power of the Tribune of the Plebs." The government of Rome was split into the Patricians (who were Senators) and the Plebians. Nine Tribunes of the Plebs were elected by both Plebs and Patricians every year to be in charge of the Plebian assembly. These Tribunes could not be injured because it could be punishable by death. They had veto powers, and they could prevent a law from being passed or an election. An emperor cannot technically rule on the Plebian assembly since he is a Patrician, but by taking the title he could be free from injury. On a coin, if this symbol is followed by a number, it depicts how many times he has been elected Tribune of the Plebs.
John Schou
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-yQKgTlpIp6vJ3j-Augustus.jpg
Augustus (Augustus Caesar) Coin: Brass Sestertius 9 viewsOB CIVIS SERVATOS - OB above, SERVATOS below, CIVIS within oak wreath between two laurel branches
C • ASINIVS • C • F • GALLVS • III • VIR • A • A • A • F • F •, large S • C. - Legend surrounding large S C
Exergue:



Mint: Rome (16 BC)
Wt./Size/Axis: 22.70g / 35mm / 7h
References:
RIC I 370
BMCRE 157 = BMCRR Rome 4594
BN 372-6
Cohen 367
Sear5 1644
Acquisition/Sale: cutiepagirl Ebay $0.00 09/18
Notes: Sep 7, 18 - The Gary R. Wilson Collection

From CNG:
During the reign of Augustus a number of curious coins were produced, usually termed trial pieces or patterns. They tend to be of very much heavier weight than usual (the present piece is between 45-50% heavier than normal coins of this type), or struck on much larger flans (such as a quadrans struck on the flan of a dupondius). Exactly why they were struck is uncertain, but it is probable that they served as presentation pieces, either for officials or for friends and family of the moneyer’s. In that sense they were probably not overvalued for circulation (which the medallions of the 2nd and later centuries certainly were) but simply were impressive coins designed to be used by select people. This is quite an fine example of one of those Augustan issues - a remarkably medallic looking example of this type is in the Fitzwilliam Museum in Cambridge (CM-RI.58.R) - and one can imagine how the possessor of such a coin would carefully save it for a special purchase.
Gary W2
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-yQKgTlpIp6vJ3j-Augustus~0.jpg
Augustus (Augustus Caesar) Coin: Brass Sestertius16 viewsOB CIVIS SERVATOS - OB above, SERVATOS below, CIVIS within oak wreath between two laurel branches
C • ASINIVS • C • F • GALLVS • III • VIR • A • A • A • F • F •, large S • C. - Legend surrounding large S C
Exergue:



Mint: Rome (16 BC)
Wt./Size/Axis: 22.70g / 35mm / 7h
References:
RIC I 370
BMCRE 157 = BMCRR Rome 4594
BN 372-6
Cohen 367
Sear5 1644
Acquisition/Sale: cutiepagirl Ebay $0.00 09/18
Notes: Sep 7, 18 - The Gary R. Wilson Collection

From CNG:
During the reign of Augustus a number of curious coins were produced, usually termed trial pieces or patterns. They tend to be of very much heavier weight than usual (the present piece is between 45-50% heavier than normal coins of this type), or struck on much larger flans (such as a quadrans struck on the flan of a dupondius). Exactly why they were struck is uncertain, but it is probable that they served as presentation pieces, either for officials or for friends and family of the moneyer’s. In that sense they were probably not overvalued for circulation (which the medallions of the 2nd and later centuries certainly were) but simply were impressive coins designed to be used by select people. This is quite an fine example of one of those Augustan issues - a remarkably medallic looking example of this type is in the Fitzwilliam Museum in Cambridge (CM-RI.58.R) - and one can imagine how the possessor of such a coin would carefully save it for a special purch

Per RIC-Rare
Gary W2
augusto-4.jpg
Augustus - RPC 39130 viewsAugusta Bilbilis 19-2 BC.
AVGVSTVS DIV F
BILBILIS in ex.
xokleng
RIC159.jpg
Augustus and Agrippa, RIC 15922 viewsIPM DIVI•F
Back to back heads of Augustus, bare head right, and Agrippa, wearing rostral wreath, P P to the sides in field
COL NEM
Crocodile right chained to a palm, wreath above with long trailing ribbons, two palm fronds below
AE dupondius, 27.5mm, 13.14g
Colonia Augusta Nemausus
novacystis
auli~0.jpg
Augustus and Livia , Colonial Romula (Seville), Minted by Tiberus13 viewsAugustus and Livia, minted by Tiberius, 14 Aug 19 - 16 Mar 37 A.D.
This coin associates Livia with globe and crescent symbols and refers to her as Augusta Genetrix Orbis, Sacred Mother of the World. This extraordinary title was never official and is not used on any other coin type for any empress.
5474. Orichalcum dupondius, RPC I 73, Alverez Burgos 1587, aF, Colonia Romula mint, 25.1g, 33.4mm, 180°, obverse PERM DIVI AVG COL ROM, Augustus radiate head right, star above, thunderbolt right; reverse IVLIA AVGVSTA GENETRIX ORBIS, Livia head left on globe, crescent above;
sold 4-2018
NORMAN K
Augustus_Denarius.jpg
Augustus AR Denarius. Caesaraugusta? mint. Wreath. 39 viewsAugustus Denarius. Spanish (Caesaraugusta?) mint, 19-18 BC.
CAESAR AVGVSTVS, bare head right / OB CIVIS above, SERVATOS below, rostral wreath with ties pointing upwards.
RIC 40a. _45500
1 commentsAntonivs Protti
BrettAugustus1.jpg
Augustus Denarius84 viewsBare head right, CAESAR AVGVSTVS / SPQR - CL V in two lines on shield. Uncertain Spanish mint (Colonia Caesaraugusta?), 19 - 18 BC. RIC I 42a (pg. 44).3 commentssocalcoins
Augustas_RIC_210.jpg
Augustus Denarius 2 B.C. - A.D. 4 RIC 210, BMC 540, RSC 43b19 viewsCAESAR AVGVSTVS DIVI F PATER PATRIAE. laureate head right / AVGVSTI F COS DESIG PRINC IVVENT, C L CAESARES below, Gaius & Lucius standing front with shields & spears; in field above, a simpulum & lituus (in "Pd" formation).
Maximum Diameter: 17.8 mm
Weight: 2.28 g

Crystallized and Broken.
TheEmpireNeverEnded
Augustas.jpg
Augustus Denarius RIC 210, BMC 540, RSC 43b. 18 viewsCAESAR AVGVSTVS DIVI F PATER PATRIAE. laureate head right / AVGVSTI F COS DESIG PRINC IVVENT, C L CAESARES below, Gaius & Lucius standing front with shields & spears; in field above, a simpulum & lituus (in "Pd" formation). TheEmpireNeverEnded
Augustus_denarius.jpg
Augustus portrait denarius40 viewsAugustus. 27 BC-AD 14. AR Denarius (21mm, 3.67 g, 6h). Uncertain Spanish mint (Colonia Caesaraugusta?). Struck circa 19-18 BC. Bare head left / Oak wreath with the two ties drawn up across center. RIC I 40b; RSC 211. Near EF, banker’s mark on obverse, fine style.4 commentsTiberiusClaudius
Augustus_quinarius.jpg
Augustus quinarius103 viewsAVGVST
Bare head of Augustus right

P CARISI LEG
Victory standing right crowning trophy

1.44g
Emerita 25-23 BC

The colony of Emerita Augusta was founded in 25 BC by P. Carissius, governor of Lusitania for veterans of legions V Alauda and X Gemina who had recently participated in Augustus' campaigns in north-western Spain

Ex-Lucernarium
2 commentsJay GT4
quinarius.jpg
Augustus Silver Quinarius, RIC I 1b11 viewsMint of Emerita Augusta, Lusitania, 25 to 23 B.C. 14.3 mm, 1.36 g, 90º.

Obverse: AVGVST Augustus, bare-headed, looking left.

Reverse: P CARISI | LEG Victory crowning trophy.

References: RIC I 1b; RSC 387; BMC 295.
Manuel
Augustus_RIC_37a.JPG
Augustus, 27 BC - 14 AD129 viewsObv: CAESAR AVGVSTVS, oak-wreathed head of Augustus facing right.

Rev: (D)IVVS - IVLIVS across field, a comet of eight rays with upward tail.

Note: "Sidus Iulium" or the Julian Star was a fiery comet that appeared in the heavens in May of 44 BC. On the opening day of the funeral games for Julius Caesar the comet's brightness dramatically intensified so that it was visible even in daylight. The timely appearance of the comet was taken as a sign of Caesar's apotheosis.

Silver Denarius, Caesaraugusta mint, 19 - 18 BC

3.7 grams, 19.5 mm, 180°

RIC I 37a, RSC 98, S1607 (var.), VM 57
3 commentsSPQR Coins
1_augustus(1).jpg
Augustus, Caesaraugusta. 27 BC-AD 14. Æ Semis 20mm, 6,43g.26 viewsColonia Caesaraugusta mint; L. Cassius and C. Valerius Fene(stella?), duoviri.
Obv: AVGVSTVS DIVI • F, laureate head left.
Rev: CAESAR (AR ligate) AVGVSTA (AV ligate) / L CASSIO C VAL (VA ligate) FEN, vexillum set on low basis; II• - VIR across field.
RPC I 311; NAH -; SNG Copenhagen 546 var. (magistrate).
1 commentsxanthos
auglivprov2OR.jpg
Augustus, with Julia Augusta (Livia), RPC 246627 viewsIonia, Smyrna mint, Augustus, with Julia Augusta (Livia), struck circa 10 B.C. AE, 20mm 4.58g, Leontiskos Hippomedontos, magistrate, RPC 2466; SNG Copenhagen 1334
O: ΣEBAΣTΩI ZMYPNAIOI, Jugate heads right of Augustus, laureate, and Livia, draped
R: ΔIONIΣIOΣ KOΛΛYBAΣ, Aphrodite Stratonicis standing facing, holding scepter and Nike, leaning on column; to right, dove standing left
1 commentscasata137ec
FC3.jpg
Augustus. 27 BC-AD 14. AR Quinarius (12mm, 1.81 g, 10h). Emerita mint. P. Carisius, legatus pro praetore. Struck circa 25-23 BC. 10 viewsAugustus. 27 BC-AD 14. AR Quinarius (12mm, 1.81 g, 10h). Emerita mint. P. Carisius, legatus pro praetore. Struck circa 25-23 BC. Bare head right / Victory standing right, crowning trophy; dagger and curved sword at base. RIC I 1a; RSC 386. Joe Geranio Collection

In 23 BC, Carisius completed the construction of the city of Augusta Emerita in Lusitania, begun by Augustus for the veterans (emeriti) of the fifth and seventh legions.
Joe Geranio
Tiberius_37.jpg
B265 views Tiberius AR Denarius

Attribution: RIC I 30, RSC II 16a, SRCV I 1763, Lugdunum
Date: 19 August, AD 14 – 16 March, AD 37
Obverse: TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS, laureate head r.
Reverse: PONTIF MAXIM, Livia, as Pax, seated r., holding olive branch & long scepter; ornate legs to chair
Size: 19 mm
Weight: 3.6 grams
* NOTE: chipped piece & metal adhesions from prior mounting of coin as jewelry
(Image of Tiberius courtesy of Bill Storage: Ara Pacis Museum, Rome)

"He was large and strong of frame, and of a stature above the average... He strode along with his neck stiff and bent forward, usually with a stern countenance and for the most part in silence, never or very rarely conversing with his companions... All of these mannerisms of his, which were disagreeable and signs of arrogance, were remarked by Augustus, who often tried to excuse them to the senate and people by declaring that they were natural failings, and not intentional." - Suetonius Life of Tiberius LXVIII

When Augustus died on August 19, AD 14, Tiberius was considered to be the logical successor. The issue, however, was that there had never been a transfer of power by succession, only through seizure of leadership by force. Although Tiberius superficially sought to preserve the idea of the emperor being “First Citizen” to appease the senate, it was abundantly clear who was in control of the empire. Tiberius made a clever move to sequester the support of the legions through a pay increase. The reverse of this coin depicts Livia seated. Being Tiberius’ mother, she campaigned relentlessly to place her son as the natural heir to the position of emperor. Once in control, Tiberius allowed her to keep the title of Augusta, granted to her by Augustus in his will, but refused her the honor of being recognized as “Mother of her Country” or that of lictor. This was an astute political move to limit Livia’s influence. In the long run Tiberius was unable to maintain the demeanor or tact that Augustus possessed, and was seen as a stiff and arrogant tyrant by many. Tiberius spent much of the latter part of his reign at his private retreat on the island of Capri. He fell ill in AD 37 and died March 16 at the age of 77 in his seaside villa at Misenum.
The denarius of Tiberius with Livia as Pax on the reverse is commonly known as the 'Tribute Penny,' the coin to which Jesus referred to when he was discussing paying taxes to the Romans, and said "render to Caesar the things that are Caesar's, and to God the things that are God's" (Mark 12:17 & Matthew 22:20-21). Although there are two other reverse types on denarii of Tiberius, they were only issued during the first two years of his reign, while the Pax reverse was employed throughout the remainder, making it the more likely coin referred to. The term 'penny' is from the AD 1611 King James translation of the Bible, and was adopted since the penny was the standard denomination of the time.
6 commentsNoah
trajan_lion_Caesarea.png
BCC CM30 (BCC 28)48 viewsRoman Provincial
Caesarea Maritima
Trajan 98-117 C.E.
OBV:[IMP C]AES..OPTIM
AVG laur. bust rt.
REV: C I F AVG (Colonia Prima
Flavia Augusta) Lion walking rt.
AE 11.5mm 1.46gm. Axis:0
Kadman 25
For a number of reasons, this coin
was first listed by Hamburger (Atiqot
Vol. 1 1954/56), as possibly coming
from the first year of Hadrian's reign.
Subsequent authors list the coin as Trajan.
Kadman suggests it is likely that these coins
were minted for Trajan's Parthian War of
115-118CE, and that the lion had a specific
military meaning. (Coins of Caesarea
Maritima, Kadman, p.70)
v-drome
hadrian_lion_2.jpg
BCC CM6aX54 viewsRoman Provincial
Caesarea Maritima
Hadrian 117-138 C.E.
OBV:[IM TRA] HAD-RIA
NO CA[E] laur. bust rt.
REV: C I F A C (Colonia Prima
Flavia Augusta Caesarea)
Lion walking rt. Snake above
AE 13mm 2.74gm. Axis:0
Kadman 30
v-drome
hadrian_lion_BCC_CM6b.jpg
BCC CM6b36 viewsRoman Provincial
Caesarea Maritima
Hadrian 117-138 C.E.
OBV:[IM TRA HAD-RI]ANO CA[E]
Laureate bust right.
REV: C I F A C (Colonia Prima Flavia Augusta
Caesarea) Lion walking right, snake above.
AE20x14mm.2.44gm.Ax:0
Kadman 30
v-drome
hadrian_lion_Caesarea.png
BCC CM6x (BCC 27)50 viewsRoman Provincial
Caesarea Maritima
Hadrian 117-138 C.E.
OBV:IM?TR[A HADRI]A
NO CA[E] laur. bust rt.
REV:Lion walking rt. Snake above.
below: C I F A C (Colonia Prima
Flavia Augusta Caesarea)
AE 12mm 2.12gm. Axis:0
Kadman #30 (poss. die match)
v-drome
Mudie Princess Charlotte.JPG
BHM 0940. Death of Princess Charlotte 1817. Mudie.159 viewsObv. Draped bust of Princess Charlotte with roses in her hair, three-quarters right HRH PRINCESS CHARLOTTE AUGUSTA
Rev. Britannia seated left weeping, British lion at her feet, urn and broken column behind DIED NOV VI MDCCCXVII in Ex: WEEP BRITAIN THOUGH HAS LOST THE EXPECTANCY AND ROSE OF THE FAIR STATE
BHM 940, Eimer 1097.
AE49 by T Webb & G Mills. Struck by Mudie, not part of his National Series.

The Princess was the only child of George Prince of Wales (later Prince Regent then George IV) and Caroline of Brunswick, born on 7th January 1796. She married Prince Leopold of Saxe-Coburg on 2nd May 1816 at Carlton House, but died in childbirth on 6th November the following year.
1 commentsLordBest
Amphitheatre 1.jpg
Britain, Caerleon, Isca Silurum, Amphitheatre42 viewsThe Amphitheatre at Caerleon is the best preserved in Britain. Caerleon, (known as Isca Sulla to the Romans) was founded by Vespasian and was the headquarters for Legio II Augusta from about A.D. 75 to A.D. 300. Isca is still used today and has been mutated into Usk, which is the name of a town and river in the local area.maridvnvm
Amphitheatre 2.jpg
Britain, Caerleon, Isca Silurum, Amphitheatre32 viewsThe Amphitheatre at Caerleon is the best preserved in Britain. Caerleon, (known as Isca Sulla to the Romans) was founded by Vespasian and was the headquarters for Legio II Augusta from about A.D. 75 to A.D. 300. maridvnvm
Amphitheatre 5.jpg
Britain, Caerleon, Isca Silurum, Amphitheatre30 viewsThe Amphitheatre at Caerleon is the best preserved in Britain. Caerleon, (known as Isca Sulla to the Romans) was founded by Vespasian and was the headquarters for Legio II Augusta from about A.D. 75 to A.D. 300. maridvnvm
Amphitheatre 4.jpg
Britain, Caerleon, Isca Silurum, Amphitheatre33 viewsThe Amphitheatre at Caerleon is the best preserved in Britain. Caerleon, (known as Isca Sulla to the Romans) was founded by Vespasian and was the headquarters for Legio II Augusta from about A.D. 75 to A.D. 300. maridvnvm
Amphitheatre 3.jpg
Britain, Caerleon, Isca Silurum, Amphitheatre36 viewsThe Amphitheatre at Caerleon is the best preserved in Britain. Caerleon, (known as Isca Sulla to the Romans) was founded by Vespasian and was the headquarters for Legio II Augusta from about A.D. 75 to A.D. 300. maridvnvm
Inscription.jpg
Britain, Caerleon, Isca Silurum, Inscription to Gaius Valerius Victor - Standard Bearer67 viewsA plaque with inscription found at Caerleon. Caerleon, (known as Isca Sulla to the Romans) was founded by Vespasian and was the headquarters for Legio II Augusta from about A.D. 75 to A.D. 300.

D M
G VALERIVS G F
GALERIA VICTOR
LVGDVNI SIG LEG II AVG
STIP XVII ANNOR XLV CV
RAI AGENT ANNIO PERPETVO H

DIS MANIBVS
GAIVS VALERIVS GAI FILLVS
GALERIA (TRIBV) VICTOR
LVGDVNI SIGNIFER LEGIONIS II AVGVSTAE
STRIPENDIORVM XVII ANNORVM XLV CV-
RAIM AGENTE ANNIO PERPETVO HEREDE

"To the spirits of the departed; Gaius Valerius Victor, son of Gaius, of the Galerian voting tribe, from Lugdunum, standard-bearer of the Second Augustan Legion, of 17 years; service, Aged 45, set up under the charge of Annius Perpetuus, his heir."
maridvnvm
Decoration.jpg
Britain, Caerleon, Isca Silurum, Wall Section48 viewsA section of interior wall found at Caerleon and decorated to attempt to illustrate how it may have looked.

Caerleon, (known as Isca Sulla to the Romans) was founded by Vespasian and was the headquarters for Legio II Augusta from about A.D. 75 to A.D. 300.
maridvnvm
IMG_4455.JPG
Caesarea Maritima, Samaria. Herennius Etruscus. (251 AD). AE 25mm53 viewsO:Draped bust of Herennius Etruscus r., radiate; MES Q ERENET AVG CO DECIO CAES
R: In center above, Tyche standing facing, veiled, holding scepter and small bust, her foot over prow of galley; below, two female figures sacrificing birds over altar flanked by two bulls; COL P F AV F CAES METROP (the first Flavian Augustan colony, Caesarea, metropolis). Ros. 144. Kad. 176. Sofaer pl. 32,150.
1 commentsMaritima
caesa_30.jpg
Caesarea Maritima. Herennia Etruscilla. Augusta, 249-251 AD Æ 30mm 40 viewsCaesarea Maritima. Herennia Etruscilla. Augusta, 249-251 AD Æ 30mm
Diademed and draped bust right
Tyche standing left, holding uman bust and sceptre, Marsyas standing right.
Maritima
IMAG1266.jpg
Caesarea, Samaria. Trajan Decius (249 - 251 AD). 28 viewsCaesarea, Samaria. Trajan Decius (249 - 251 AD). AE30 mm
O: Draped bust of Trajan Decius r., laureate; IMP C C MES Q TRA DECIVS AVG
R: Apollo standing l., holding branch and resting elbow on tripod entwined by serpent; COL PR F AVG F C CAES METR P S P (the first Flavian Augustan colony, Caesarea, Metropolis, in Syria Palestina). Sofaer pl. 29,110. Kadman (Caesarea) 133. Rosenberger 119. Rare
Maritima
Caligula_Three_Siste.jpg
Caligula (Augustus) Coin: Brass Sestertius 10 viewsC CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT - Laureate head left
AGRIPPINA DRVSILLA IVLIA - AGRIPPINA DRVSILLA IVLIA, the three sisters of Caligula standing, in the guises of Securitas, Concordia, and Fortuna, S C (senatus consulto) in exergue
Exergue: SC


Mint: Rome (37-38AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 27.88g / 35.6mm / 180
Rarity: Rare
References:
RIC I 33
BMCRE p. 152, 36
BnF II 47
Cohen I 4
SRCV I 1800
Provenances:
Forvm Ancient Coins
Acquisition/Sale: Forvm Ancient Coins Internet

The Gary R. Wilson Collection

ODERINT, DUM METUANT (LET THEM HATE, SO LONG AS THEY FEAR). — CALIGULA

From Numismatica Ars Classica:
Many aspects of Caligula's reign have captured the imagination of historians, but the sexual relationships he is said to have pursued with his sisters is perhaps most shocking of all. It is on par with the exploits of Elagabalus or the alleged seduction of young Nero by his deranged mother Agrippina Jr., who, by no mere coincidence, was one of Caligula's sisters.
Caligula's incestuous relationships with his sisters are alleged by the relatively contemporary historians Suetonius and Josephus. Much later, in the fourth and fifth centuries, these original claims were echoed by various writers, including Eutropius, Aurelius Victor, St. Jerome, Orosius and the anonymous compiler of the Epitome de caesaribus. The truth of the claims, of course, is impossible to confirm, and there is a healthy dose of scepticism among modern scholars.
Whatever personal or sexual affection Caligula may have felt toward his sisters, this coinage is purely political and dynastic in flavour. His sisters are each named and are shown in the guise of personifications: the eldest, Agrippina Junior, as Securitas, the middle-sister, Drusilla, as Concordia, and the youngest, Julia Livilla, as Fortuna.
This remarkable type was produced on two occasions, his initial coinage of 37-38, and again in 39-40. The example offered here belongs to the first coinage, which was issued when all three of the imperial women were alive. Drusilla, Caligula's favourite sister (and the one with whom he is said to have had an enduring incestuous relationship), died tragically on June 10, 38, nearly three months after the last coins of the initial issue were struck.
By the time the last issue was produced (beginning March 18, 39), Drusilla had been accorded the status of a goddess, providing the curious circumstance of a goddess being portrayed in the guise of a personification. Life in the palace worsened after Drusilla's death and Caligula's affection for his remaining two sisters declined.
The circumstances reported by the ancient sources are nothing short of bizarre: Drusilla had been married to Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, who had also been Caligula's lover. After Drusilla died, Lepidus extended his sexual liaisons to include Agrippina and Julia Livilla, his former sisters-in-law. By late in 39 this web of relationships seems to have evolved into a failed plot by Lepidus against Caligula, who executed Lepidus and sent his two sisters into exile out of their suspected complicity.
All of this palace intrigue occurred in the midst of the second issue of 'three sisters' sestertii, the production of which Caligula probably halted immediately since of the three sisters shown, one was dead and two were in exile for having plotted against his life.

From Wikisource:
It is easy to understand why the peace and harmony which had been reestablished for a moment in the troubled imperial family by the advent of Caligula should have been of brief duration. His grandmother and his sisters were Romans, educated in Roman ideals, and this exotic madness of his could inspire in them only an irresistible horror. This brought confusion into the imperial family, and after having suffered the persecutions of Sejanus and his party, the unhappy daughters of Germanicus found themselves in the toils of the exacting caprices of their brother. In fact, in 38, Caligula had already broken with his grandmother, whom the year before he had had proclaimed Augusta; and between the years 38 and 39, catastrophes followed one another in the family with frightful rapidity. His sister Drusilla, whom, as Suetonius tells us, he already treated as a lawful wife, died suddenly of some unknown malady while still very young. It is not improbable that her health may have been ruined by the horror of the wild adventure, which was neither human nor Roman, into which her brother sought to drag her by marriage. Caligula suddenly declared her a goddess, to whom all the cities must pay honors. He had a temple built for her, and appointed a body of twenty priests, ten men and ten women, to celebrate her worship; he decreed that her birthday should be a holiday, and he wished the statue of Venus in the Forum to be carved in her likeness.

But in proportion as Caligula became more and more fervid in this adoration of his dead sister, the disagreement between himself and his other two sisters became more embittered. Julia Livilla was exiled in 38; Agrippina, the wife of Domitius Enobarbus°, in 39, and about this same time the venerable Antonia died. It was noised about that Caligula had forced her to commit suicide, and that Agrippina and Livilla had taken part in a conspiracy against the life of the emperor. How much truth there may be in these reports it is difficult to say, but the reason for all these catastrophes may be affirmed with certainty. Life in the imperial palace was no longer possible, especially for women, with this madman who was transforming Rome into Alexandria and who wished to marry a sister. Even Tiberius, the son of Drusus and co-heir to the empire with Caligula, was at about this time defeated in some obscure suit and disappeared.

Many aspects of Caligula’s reign have captured the imagination of historians, but the sexual relationships he is said to
have pursued with his sisters is perhaps most shocking of all. It is on par with the exploits of Elagabalus or the alleged
seduction of young Nero by his deranged mother Agrippina Jr., who, by no mere coincidence, was one of Caligula’s
sisters.
Caligula’s incestuous relationships with his sisters are alleged by the relatively contemporary historians Suetonius and
Josephus. Much later, in the fourth and fifth centuries, these original claims were echoed by various writers, including
Eutropius, Aurelius Victor, St. Jerome, Orosius and the anonymous compiler of the Epitome de caesaribus. The truth of
the claims, of course, is impossible to confirm, and there is a healthy dose of skepticism among modern scholars.
Whatever personal or sexual affection Caligula may have felt toward his sisters, this coinage is purely political and
dynastic in flavour. His sisters are each named and are shown in the guise of personifications: the eldest, Agrippina Junior,
as Securitas, the middle-sister, Drusilla, as Concordia, and the youngest, Julia Livilla, as Fortuna.
This remarkable type was produced on two occasions, his initial coinage of 37-38, and again in 39-40. The example
offered here belongs to the first coinage, which was issued when all three of the imperial women were alive. Drusilla,
Caligula’s favourite sister (and the one with whom he is said to have had an enduring incestuous relationship), died
tragically on June 10, 38, nearly three months after the last coins of the initial issue were struck.
By the time the last issue was produced (beginning March 18, 39), Drusilla had been accorded the status of a goddess,
providing the curious circumstance of a goddess being portrayed in the guise of a personification. Life in the palace
worsened after Drusilla’s death and Caligula’s affection for his remaining two sisters declined.
The circumstances reported by the ancient sources are nothing short of bizarre: Drusilla had been married to Marcus
Aemilius Lepidus, who had also been Caligula’s lover. At least after Drusilla died, Lepidus extended his sexual liaisons to
include Agrippina and Julia Livilla, his former sisters-in-law. By late in 39 this web of relationships seems to have evolved
into a failed plot by Lepidus against Caligula, who executed Lepidus and sent his two sisters into exile out of their
suspected complicity.
All of this palace intrigue occurred in the midst of the second issue of ‘three sisters’ sestertii, the production of which
Caligula probably halted immediately since of the three sisters shown, one was dead and two were in exile for having
plotted against his life.
Gary W2
Caligula_Three_Siste~0.jpg
Caligula (Augustus) Coin: Brass Sestertius61 viewsC CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT - Laureate head left
AGRIPPINA DRVSILLA IVLIA - AGRIPPINA DRVSILLA IVLIA, the three sisters of Caligula standing, in the guises of Securitas, Concordia, and Fortuna, S C (senatus consulto) in exergue
Exergue: SC


Mint: Rome (37-38AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 27.88g / 35.6mm / 180
Rarity: Rare
References:
RIC I 33
BMCRE p. 152, 36
BnF II 47
Cohen I 4
SRCV I 1800
Provenances:
Forvm Ancient Coins
Acquisition/Sale: Forvm Ancient Coins Internet

ODERINT, DUM METUANT (LET THEM HATE, SO LONG AS THEY FEAR). — CALIGULA

From Numismatica Ars Classica:
Many aspects of Caligula's reign have captured the imagination of historians, but the sexual relationships he is said to have pursued with his sisters is perhaps most shocking of all. It is on par with the exploits of Elagabalus or the alleged seduction of young Nero by his deranged mother Agrippina Jr., who, by no mere coincidence, was one of Caligula's sisters.
Caligula's incestuous relationships with his sisters are alleged by the relatively contemporary historians Suetonius and Josephus. Much later, in the fourth and fifth centuries, these original claims were echoed by various writers, including Eutropius, Aurelius Victor, St. Jerome, Orosius and the anonymous compiler of the Epitome de caesaribus. The truth of the claims, of course, is impossible to confirm, and there is a healthy dose of scepticism among modern scholars.
Whatever personal or sexual affection Caligula may have felt toward his sisters, this coinage is purely political and dynastic in flavour. His sisters are each named and are shown in the guise of personifications: the eldest, Agrippina Junior, as Securitas, the middle-sister, Drusilla, as Concordia, and the youngest, Julia Livilla, as Fortuna.
This remarkable type was produced on two occasions, his initial coinage of 37-38, and again in 39-40. The example offered here belongs to the first coinage, which was issued when all three of the imperial women were alive. Drusilla, Caligula's favourite sister (and the one with whom he is said to have had an enduring incestuous relationship), died tragically on June 10, 38, nearly three months after the last coins of the initial issue were struck.
By the time the last issue was produced (beginning March 18, 39), Drusilla had been accorded the status of a goddess, providing the curious circumstance of a goddess being portrayed in the guise of a personification. Life in the palace worsened after Drusilla's death and Caligula's affection for his remaining two sisters declined.
The circumstances reported by the ancient sources are nothing short of bizarre: Drusilla had been married to Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, who had also been Caligula's lover. After Drusilla died, Lepidus extended his sexual liaisons to include Agrippina and Julia Livilla, his former sisters-in-law. By late in 39 this web of relationships seems to have evolved into a failed plot by Lepidus against Caligula, who executed Lepidus and sent his two sisters into exile out of their suspected complicity.
All of this palace intrigue occurred in the midst of the second issue of 'three sisters' sestertii, the production of which Caligula probably halted immediately since of the three sisters shown, one was dead and two were in exile for having plotted against his life.

From Wikisource:
It is easy to understand why the peace and harmony which had been reestablished for a moment in the troubled imperial family by the advent of Caligula should have been of brief duration. His grandmother and his sisters were Romans, educated in Roman ideals, and this exotic madness of his could inspire in them only an irresistible horror. This brought confusion into the imperial family, and after having suffered the persecutions of Sejanus and his party, the unhappy daughters of Germanicus found themselves in the toils of the exacting caprices of their brother. In fact, in 38, Caligula had already broken with his grandmother, whom the year before he had had proclaimed Augusta; and between the years 38 and 39, catastrophes followed one another in the family with frightful rapidity. His sister Drusilla, whom, as Suetonius tells us, he already treated as a lawful wife, died suddenly of some unknown malady while still very young. It is not improbable that her health may have been ruined by the horror of the wild adventure, which was neither human nor Roman, into which her brother sought to drag her by marriage. Caligula suddenly declared her a goddess, to whom all the cities must pay honors. He had a temple built for her, and appointed a body of twenty priests, ten men and ten women, to celebrate her worship; he decreed that her birthday should be a holiday, and he wished the statue of Venus in the Forum to be carved in her likeness.

But in proportion as Caligula became more and more fervid in this adoration of his dead sister, the disagreement between himself and his other two sisters became more embittered. Julia Livilla was exiled in 38; Agrippina, the wife of Domitius Enobarbus°, in 39, and about this same time the venerable Antonia died. It was noised about that Caligula had forced her to commit suicide, and that Agrippina and Livilla had taken part in a conspiracy against the life of the emperor. How much truth there may be in these reports it is difficult to say, but the reason for all these catastrophes may be affirmed with certainty. Life in the imperial palace was no longer possible, especially for women, with this madman who was transforming Rome into Alexandria and who wished to marry a sister. Even Tiberius, the son of Drusus and co-heir to the empire with Caligula, was at about this time defeated in some obscure suit and disappeared.

Many aspects of Caligula’s reign have captured the imagination of historians, but the sexual relationships he is said to
have pursued with his sisters is perhaps most shocking of all. It is on par with the exploits of Elagabalus or the alleged
seduction of young Nero by his deranged mother Agrippina Jr., who, by no mere coincidence, was one of Caligula’s
sisters.
Caligula’s incestuous relationships with his sisters are alleged by the relatively contemporary historians Suetonius and
Josephus. Much later, in the fourth and fifth centuries, these original claims were echoed by various writers, including
Eutropius, Aurelius Victor, St. Jerome, Orosius and the anonymous compiler of the Epitome de caesaribus. The truth of
the claims, of course, is impossible to confirm, and there is a healthy dose of skepticism among modern scholars.
Whatever personal or sexual affection Caligula may have felt toward his sisters, this coinage is purely political and
dynastic in flavour. His sisters are each named and are shown in the guise of personifications: the eldest, Agrippina Junior,
as Securitas, the middle-sister, Drusilla, as Concordia, and the youngest, Julia Livilla, as Fortuna.
This remarkable type was produced on two occasions, his initial coinage of 37-38, and again in 39-40. The example
offered here belongs to the first coinage, which was issued when all three of the imperial women were alive. Drusilla,
Caligula’s favourite sister (and the one with whom he is said to have had an enduring incestuous relationship), died
tragically on June 10, 38, nearly three months after the last coins of the initial issue were struck.
By the time the last issue was produced (beginning March 18, 39), Drusilla had been accorded the status of a goddess,
providing the curious circumstance of a goddess being portrayed in the guise of a personification. Life in the palace
worsened after Drusilla’s death and Caligula’s affection for his remaining two sisters declined.
The circumstances reported by the ancient sources are nothing short of bizarre: Drusilla had been married to Marcus
Aemilius Lepidus, who had also been Caligula’s lover. At least after Drusilla died, Lepidus extended his sexual liaisons to
include Agrippina and Julia Livilla, his former sisters-in-law. By late in 39 this web of relationships seems to have evolved
into a failed plot by Lepidus against Caligula, who executed Lepidus and sent his two sisters into exile out of their
suspected complicity.
All of this palace intrigue occurred in the midst of the second issue of ‘three sisters’ sestertii, the production of which
Caligula probably halted immediately since of the three sisters shown, one was dead and two were in exile for having
plotted against his life.

Per RIC-Rare
3 commentsGary W2
Calígula-CCA.jpg
Caligula - RPC 37111 viewsColonia Caesar Augusta- 37-41 AD.
xokleng
Paduan_Caligula.JPG
Caligula, 37 - 41 AD146 viewsObv: C CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG PM TRP IIII PP, laureate head of Caligula facing left.

Rev: AGRIPPINA DRVSILLA IVLIA, The three sisters of Caligula, standing side by side; on the left, Agrippina (personified as Securitas) with head turned right, holds cornucopia, resting right hand on column, left hand on Drusilla’s shoulder; in center Drusilla (personified as Concordia), with head turned left, holding patera in right hand and cornucopia in left; on right Julia (personified as Fortuna Augusta), with head turned left, holding rudder in right hand and cornucopia in left; SC in exergue.

20.1 grams, 35 mm

This coin is a copy of a medallion made my Giovanni da Cavino of Padua, Italy. Though it's not an "ancient forgery" I would estimate it's manufacture to be sometime in the mid to late 19th Century. There appears to be genuine wear on the coin's surface along with a waxy residue visible in the lettering above Caligula's head leading me to believe this coin might have been used as a host to cast other fakes. It appears to be a direct copy of the Paduan housed in the Bibliothèque Nationale in Paris. It is pictured in Imitations and Inventions of Roman Coins by Zander H. Klawans as Caligula 1.

RIC 41, Klawans Caligula 1
SPQR Coins
Cappadocia,_Caesarea,_073p_Tranquilina,_Syd-618,_AE_21,_CAB_T_#929;ANKY_#923;_#923;INA_AY_#915;,_MHTR_KAI_B_NE_ET-Z,_SGI_3864,_244_AD,_Q-001,_0h,_21mm,_6,28g-s~0.jpg
Cappadocia, Caesarea, 073 Tranquilina (241-244 A.D., Augusta), Syd. 618, AE-21, MHTR KAI B NЄ, Six-grain ears, #146 viewsCappadocia, Caesarea, 073 Tranquilina (241-244 A.D., Augusta), Syd. 618, AE-21, MHTR KAI B NЄ, Six-grain ears, #1
Wife of Emperor Gordian III.
avers: CAB TΡANKYΛΛINA AYΓ, Diademed and draped bust right.
reverse: MHTR KAI B NЄ, Six-grain ears bound together, ЄT-Z across the field.
exergue: ЄT/Z//--, diameter: 21,0mm, weight: 6,28g, axis:0h,
mint: Cappadocia, Caesarea, date: Year=7, 244 A.D., ref: Syd-618,
Q-001
quadrans
Carcalla_(Augusta_Traiana).jpg
Caracalla as co-emperor (r. 198-217; elevated Caesar in 196; joint emperor with his father Septimius Severus from 198; with his brother Geta from 209) - AE 28 - Augusta Traiana (Thrace)41 viewsObv: [AVT K M AVPHΛIOC ANTΩNINOC] - Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev: HΓ CIKINN[IOV KΛAPOV AVΓOVCT] - Plautilla and Caracalla togate standing facing each other, clasping hands
TPAIANHC in exergue

Issued by governor of Thrace Q. Sicinnius Clarus in Augusta Traiana (202 AD ?)
References: Schönert-Geiss Die Münzenprägung von Augusta Traiana und Traianopolis p. 88 #227 (illustrated obverse: Tafel 15, Reverse: Tafel 17); Moushmov 'Augusta Traiana' 3064 (Plate IX, no. 1)
Weight: 13.89 g
(Seller's picture)

(I would like to thank slokind, archivum and Petrus Elmsley for helping me with identification and references)
1 commentskrazy
Caracalla_5.jpg
CARACALLA, AE30 Varbonov1099, City Gate11 viewsOBV: M AΥT AΥΡHΛ - ANTΩNEINOΣ, Laureated head right
REV: AΥΓOΥΣTHΣ - TΡAIANHΣ, Gate camp, flanked by two towers, a third view back to the center
30.02mm, 14.24g

Minted at Augusta Traiana, Thrace, 211-217 AD
Legatus
Caracalla_AugustaTraiana_AE31_17_35g.jpg
Caracalla, Augusta Traiana, Demeter, AE3145 views31mm, 17.35g
obv: AVT K M AVR CEVH ANTΩNEINOC; laureate head right
rev: AVΓOVCTHC TPAIANHC; Demeter(?) standing facing, head left, holding patera and scepter, to left cista mystica

ex HD Rauch, Auction New York 2009, Lot 222 (part of)
areich
Caracalla_AugustaTraiana_Asklepios_AE29_15.9g_lr.jpg
Caracalla, Augusta Trajana, Thrace, Asklepios, AE2980 viewsAE29, 15.9 g.
obv.: AVT KM AVP CЄVNP ANTΩNЄIN, laureate bust right, slight drapery on left shoulder
rev.: AVΓOVCTHC TPAIANHC, Asklepios standing left, holding snake-entwined staff
GICV -
areich
coins_084.JPG
Caracalla, Æ30 of Trajaniopolis, Thrace.38 views13.51 grams.
29 mm.
AugustaTraiana
Moushmov 3079 Caracalla, Æ30 of Trajaniopolis, Thrace. AVT K M AVP CEVH ANTWNEINOC Mature laureate head right. / []CTHC TPAI ANHC, tetrastyle temple of Apollo, shield in pediment, statue of the god, standing left, between central columns.
Antonio Protti
cmou3078ORweb.jpg
Caracalla, Moushmov 307830 viewsAugusta Traiana mint, Caracalla, 198-217 A.D. AE, 29mm 13.96g, Moushmov 3078
O: AVT K M AVP ANTWNINOC, laureate head right
R: AVGOVCTHC TPAIANHC, tetrastyle temple containing Asklepios standing facing leaning on serpent-staff.
casata137ec
Domna,_AE-32_Assaria__Caria__Aphrodisias__Aphrodite__MacDonald_p_92,_Type_83_O136_R235.jpg
Caria, Aphrodisias. Julia Domna. AE-Diassarion. Menestheus Isobounus, Magistrate. Rx./ Aphrodite33 viewsCaria, Aphrodisias. Julia Domna, the wife of Septimius Severus. Augusta, AD 193 – 217. AE-31. Diassarion, c. AD 195-196. Menestheus Isobounus, Magistrate. 7.35g. IOVΛIA ΔOMNA AYΓOYCTA, her draped bust rt. / EΠI APXTΩN ΠE MENECΘEA ICOBOYNON, Aphrodite standing lt., holding Eros and a sceptre, AΦPOΔEICI – EΩN, in ex.
Mionnet III p. 327, 144; MacDonald p.92, type 83 (O136/R235); Wadd. 2213; SNG München 137 (Same obv. die).
2 commentsFausta
Durotriges.JPG
Celtic Britain, Durotriges (Circa 58 BC-45 AD)17 viewsStater, Abstract (Cranborne Chase) type

5.26g

Obverse: Devolved head of Apollo right

Reverse: Disjointed horse left; pellets above, [pellet below], pellet in lozenge above tail, [zigzag and pellet pattern between two parallel exergue lines].

Van Arsdell 1235-1; BMC 2525-54.

The Durotriges ("dwellers by the water" or, perhaps, "water-rat kings") were well known for their continental trade and hill forts. They were the only tribe who did not add inscriptions to their coins, perhaps indicative of decentralized rule among multiple hill-fort based tribes using a common currency, and the only tribe to strike a stater in silver.

The history of the Durotriges can be divided into two broad phases, an early phase, roughly 100-60 B.C. and a late phase from 60 B.C. until the Roman conquest. The early phase was a time of rapid development brought about by overseas trade, while the late phase was a time of retraction, isolation and economic impoverishment. The economic decline is dramatically portrayed by the progressive debasement of their coinage, particularly when you compare the magnificent white-gold Craborne Chase staters of ca. 50-40 B.C. with the crude cast bronze Hengistbury coins of ca. A.D. 10-43.

The Durotriges resisted Roman invasion in AD 43, and the historian Suetonius records some fights between the tribe and the second legion Augusta, then commanded by Vespasian. By 70 AD, the tribe was already Romanised and securely included in the Roman province of Britannia.
2 commentsNathan P
Cornelia_Supera,_AE-24,_Cilicia,_Aigeai__Year_299,_AD_253__Tyche__SNG_Lev__1790.jpg
Cilicia, Aigeai. Cornelia Supera. AE-24, Year 266. (AD 253). Tyche stg lt.25 viewsCilicia, Aigeai. Cornelia Supera, the wife of Aemilian. Augusta, AD 253. AE24, Year 299. 8.52g. ΓAI KOPNH COYΠEPA CEB, her diademed and draped bust rt. / AIΓEAIWN NEWKONAYA, Tyche standing lt., holding a rudder and cornucopiae, C – Θ/Y (retrograde) in fields.
SNG Lev 1790 (same dies).
Fausta
augusta_julia_RPC4014.jpg
Cilicia, Augusta, Julia-Livia, RPC 401433 viewsLivia, wife of Augustus, AD 14-29
AE 19, 5.2g
struck AD 67/8 (year 48), in the time of Nero
obv. IOVLIA - SEBASTH
Bust of Livia, draped, r.; hair bound in small bun in the neck
rev. AYGOYSTA - NW - N DP (year 48)
Tyche, in long garment and wearing mural-crown, std. r. on ornated throne,
holding long grain-ears in both hands; at her feet river-god Saros swimming r.
RPC 4014; cf. SNG Paris 1893; cf. SNG Levante 1238; Karbach 25.1
very rare, about VF

Saros, today Seyhan river in Turkey
Jochen
Hieropolis-KastabalaLucilla.jpg
Cilicia, Hieropolis-Kastabala. Lucilla AE2468 views
Lucilla, Augusta, 164-182 AD. AE24
Obv: Draped bust of Lucilla right, wearing stephane.
Rev: Turreted, veiled, and draped bust of Artemis-Tyche left; torch before.
SNG von Aulock 5573
ancientone
commodus_aug_tria_b~0.jpg
CITY-GATE, COMMODUS -- AUGUSTA TRAIANA75 views177 - 192 AD
struck 191-192 AD
AE 29.5 mm; 15.36 g
Magistrate: L. Aemilius Iustus (Legatus Augusti pro praetore provinciae Thraciae)
O: AV KAI [M] AV KOMOΔOC (or similar) Laureate bust right
R: ΗΓΕ Λ ΑΙΜ ΙΟVСΤ ΑVΓΟVСΤΗС ΤΡΑΙΑΝΗС City gate with 3 towers
Thrace, Augusta Traiana
cf RPC online 10823, citing a Freeman & Sear sale of 2005, without picture.
laney
Tiberio_-_Emerita_Augusta~1.jpg
CITY-GATE, Tiberius94 viewsTiberius RPC 42

The gate of Emerita Augusta.
xokleng
POPPAEA-1.jpg
Claudia Neronis (Lived 4 months). Daughter of Nero and Poppaea. Augusta, 63 CE.228 viewsSyria, Trachonitis. Caesarea Panias.
Æ 19mm (5.34g), struck AD 65 under Nero.
Obv: DIVA POPPAEA AVG, distyle temple of Diva Poppaea, female figure within.
Rev: DIVA CLAVD NER F, round hexastyle temple of Diva Claudia, female figure within.
RPC I 4846; Hendin 578; Sear 2058; Vagi 746.

The only coin issued for baby Claudia.
EmpressCollector
Claudia Octavia.jpg
Claudia Octavia, daughter of Claudius and Valeria Messalina, first wife of Nero. Augusta, 54-62 CE.250 viewsAlexandria, Egypt, Billon tetradrachm (25mm, 11.1gm), struck AD 56-7.
Obv: NER KLAU KAIS SEB GER AUTO, laur. hd. of Nero, r.
Rev: OKTAOUIA SEBASTOU, dr. bust of Octavia, r., L Gamma (=regnal year 3) before.
RPC 5202; BMCG 119; SGI 657; Cologne 122; Milne 133.
1 commentsEmpressCollector
AsClaudLibVF pat rouille.jpg
Claudius As20 viewsAE 28 mm, Rome, 41/42 A.D.
Obv: Ti Claudius Caesar Aug Pm Tr Imp PP
Rev: Libertas Augusta, S.C.
Ref: Roman Coins ATV, David R. sear, Vol I, p.368 # 1859
From an uncleaned coins lot!
Jean Paul D
AsClaudLiberitas VF plus.jpg
Claudius As24 viewsAE 25 mm, Rome, 41/42 A.D.
Obv: Ti Claudius Caesar Aug Pm Tr Imp PP
Rev: Libertas Augusta, S.C.
Ref: Roman Coins ATV, David R. Sear, Vol I, P. 368 # 1859
From an uncleaned coins lot
Jean Paul D
Claudius_As_Libertas_2.jpg
Claudius As Libertas Augusta 231 viewsObv.
TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG PM TR P IMP P P
Bare head left

Rev.
LIBERTAS AVGVSTA
SC
Libertas standing facing with pileus, extending left hand

RIC 113 Cohen 47 BMC 202
1 commentsancientdave
Claudius_Gothicus_(commemorative_struck_under_Constantine)_half-follis_(AE).png
Claudius Gothicus (commemorative struck under Constantine, reigned 268-270) half-follis (AE)13 viewsObv.: DIVO CLAVDIO OPTIMO IMP (Veiled and laureate head of emperor) Rev.: REQVIES OPTIMORVM MERITORVM (Emperor seated on curule chair, one arm raised, holding sceptre in other) Diameter: 15,92 mm Weight: 0,96 g Exergue: SIS RIC VII 43

The fact that Claudius Gothicus is commemorated on Constantinian coinage is rather interesting. According to the Historia Augusta, Claudius was the maternal great-uncle of Constantius Chlorus. This linked the Constantinian line with a well-loved emperor and may even be a case of genealogical fabrication.
Nick.vdw
CLAVDIVS Libertas.jpg
Claudius Libertas74 viewsTI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP
bare head of Claudius left

Rev. LIBERTAS AVGVSTA SC
Libertas standing facing head right holding pileus, left hand extended

Rome 41-42 AD

11.28g

Sear 1859

SOLD
Titus Pullo
Claudius_Libertas_2.JPG
Claudius LIBERTAS AVGVSTA S C27 viewsClaudius, 25 January 41 - 13 October 54 A.D.

Obverse:
Bare head left

TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP
TI: Tiberius
CLAVDIVS: Claudius
CAESAR: CAESAR

AVG: Augustus, emperor
P M: PP: Pontifix Maximus, high priest
TR P: Tribunicia Potestate. The tribunician power, the emperor as civil head of the state.
IMP: Imperator, leader of the army

Reverse:

LIBERTAS AVGVSTA S C
LIBERTAS: Libertas
AVGVSTA: AVGVSTA

The title of Augusta denotes a woman with significant imperial power. Minting coins with Libertas on Roman coins was a political statement by many who succeeded tyrants

S C
S C: Senatus Consulto, by Decree of the Senate

LIBERTAS AVGVSTA S C, Libertas standing facing, head right, pileus in right (cap worn by freed slaves), extending left hand

Domination: Copper AS, size 27 mm, die axis 180o

Mint: Rome mint, 50- 54 A.D, RIC 1-113_C47
John S
Claude Sesterce SPES Aug.jpg
Claudius Sestertius21 viewsAE 35 mm, Rome, 41 A.D.
Obv: Ti Claudius Caesar Aug Pm Tr P Imp PP
Rev: SPES Augusta, S.C.
Ref: Roman coins ATV, David R. Sear, Vol I, p. 366/367 #1853
from an uncleaned coins lot!!!
Jean Paul D
Claudius_Spes_Sestertius_RIC_99.JPG
Claudius Spes Augusta RIC 9928 viewsClaudius, Sestertius, Rome, 41 - 54 AD, struck 41 AD, 19.6g, 33.07g, RIC 99, Cohen 85, BMC 124,
OBV: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP, Laureate head right
REV: SPES AVGVSTA, Spes standing left, holding flower and raising hem of skirt, SC in ex
Romanorvm
Probus_-_Clementia.jpg
Clementia95 viewsObv. IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG, draped and radiate bust right,
Rev. CLEMENTIA TEMP, emperor with eagle tipped sceptre receiving globe from sceptered Jupiter, H in field, XXI in exergue;
Antioch Mint,
22mm, 4,37 gr.
RIC 920

Historia Augusta 22: "conferenti mihi cum aliis imperatoribus principem Probum omnibus prope Romanis ducibus, qua fortes, qua clementes, qua prudentes, qua mirabiles exstiterunt, intellego hunc virum aut parem fuisse aut, si non repugnat invidia furiosa, meliorem."

"As for myself, when I compare Probus as a ruler with other emperors, in whatever way almost all Roman leaders have stood out as courageous, as merciful, as wise, or as admirable, I perceive that he was the equal of any, or indeed, if no insane jealousy stands in the way, better than all."
Syltorian
PC200070_comp_sm.jpg
Comparison of two ases of the same type: FAVSTINA AVGVSTA / AVGVSTI PII FIL 18 viewsLeft: Ӕ, 22.5-24+mm, 9.56g, die axis 11h
Right: Ӕ, 23-24mm, 9.15g, die axis 11h

FAVSTINA AVGVSTA, draped bust right, hair arranged in a chignon (bun) behind the head / AVGVSTI PII FIL, Venus standing left holding Victory and leaning on shield set on a helmet, S-C across fields in the lower half

Seems RIC 1389a, Faustina Minor issue by Antoninus Pius, minted in Rome, possible minting dates 145-146 or 156-161.

For more details about Faustina Minor see http://www.forumancientcoins.com/gallery/displayimage.php?pos=-151025
Yurii P
julia_paula_211(1).jpg
Concordia239 viewsJulia Paula, Augusta AD 219, 1. wife of Elagabal
AR - Denar, 2.95g, 19mm
Rome AD 219
Av.: IVLIA PAVLA AVG
draped bust, diademed head r.
Rv.: CONCORDIA
Concordia draped sitting l. on throne, holding patera r. and resting l. arm on
back of throne.
star in l. field
RIC IV/2, 211; C.6; BMCR.172
Scarce; good VF

CONCORDIA, like the Greek Homonoia, but in a more political sense. 121 BC after the war against the Gracchi a great Concordia temple was built on the Forum where the Senatus often assembled. Together with Providentia, Fides and some others a numen with big importness for the genus humanum and therefore assumed as divine. She was one of the most worshipped deities in Rome.
Jochen
Constantine_213.jpg
Constantine I - AE 3 (follis)24 viewsAugusta Treverorum (Trier)
319 AD
laureate, helmeted, cuirassed bust right
IMP CONSTANTINVS MAX AVG
two Victories facing each other, holding VOT/PR within shield on cippus
VICTORIAE LAETAE PRINC PERP
STR
RIC VII Trier 213
3,26 g 18-17,5 mm
Johny SYSEL
fausta_AE_spes_trier-mint_3_7grams_obv_08_rev_06.JPG
Constantine I - Fausta, Wife of Constantine I - 'SPES REIPUBLICAE' - PTR21 viewsRoman Empire
Empress Fausta, Wife of Constantine I the Great (307 - 337 AD)
Augusta, 324 - 326 AD
Struck at the Trier Mint (Treveri, Germania)

obv: FLAV MAX FAUSTA AUG - Draped bust right, hair in braided bun, seen from the front.

rev: SPES REIPUBLICAE - Empress Fausta standing facing forward, holding her two sons, Constantine II and Constantius II, in her arms close to her chest.
'PTR crescent with dot' in exergue.

3.7 Grams
--------------
Ex Old Pueblo Coin Exchange, Southern Arizona.
2 commentsrexesq
fausta_AE_spes_trier-mint_3_7grams_obv_07_rev_07.JPG
Constantine I - Fausta, Wife of Constantine I - 'SPES REIPUBLICAE' - PTR20 viewsRoman Empire
Empress Fausta, Wife of Constantine I the Great (307 - 337 AD)
Augusta, 324 - 326 AD
Struck at the Trier Mint (Treveri, Germania)

obv: FLAV MAX FAUSTA AUG - Draped bust right, hair in braided bun, seen from the front.

rev: SPES REIPUBLICAE - Empress Fausta standing facing forward, holding her two sons, Constantine II and Constantius II, in her arms close to her chest.
'PTR crescent with dot' in exergue.

3.7 Grams
-------------
Ex Old Pueblo Coin Exchange, Southern Arizona.
3 commentsrexesq
SUPERA-1.JPG
Cornelia Supera, wife of Aemelian. Augusta, 253 CE.195 viewsMysia, Parium. Æ (20.5mm, 3.78g). Struck 253 CE.
Obv: G CORN SUPERA, diademed and draped bust right.
Rev: C. G. I. H. P., Capricorn right, cornucopia on back; globe between legs (Sear describes as a star, but this appears to be a globe). SGI 4408 (var.); SNG Von Aulock 7448.

Ex FORVM Ancient Coins.
EmpressCollector
crispina.jpg
Crispina (Augusta)48 viewsCrispina (Augusta)
AE As/Dupondius 14.28g
Ob: CRISPINA AVGVSTA - Draped bust right, hair tied in bun on back of head
Rv: IVNO LVCINA - S-C across field, Juno standing left, holding patera & scepter
Mint: Rome (177 AD)
Ref: RIC II 680 (Commodus); Cohen 24, Sear #5 6018; BMC 433 (Commodus)
Scotvs Capitis
Crispina.png
Crispina – RIC-15 (Commodus)39 viewsCrispina. Augusta, A.D. 178-182. AR Denarius (19 mm, 2.94 g, 6 h). Rome, under Commodus, before ca. A.D. 183. CRISPINA AVG, draped bust of Crispina right / DIS GENI-TAL-IBVS, lighted altar. RIC 281; BMC 31; RSC 15; RCV 59991 commentsBud Stewart
fastina45.jpg
Crispina, Philippopolis57 viewsThrace, Philippopolis

KRICPEINA CEBACTH
Draped bust right

FILIPPOPOLEITWN
Nike walking left, holding wreath and palm.

Augusta, AD 178-182
19-20mm;3.61g
Mouchmov 5233
Wildwinds example (this coin)
arizonarobin
CRISPINA-2.jpg
Crispina, wife of Commodus. Augusta, 177-182/3 CE.268 viewsAR Denarius (19.5mm, 3.15g), Rome mint, 180-181 CE.
Obv: CRISPINA AVGVSTA, bare-headed and draped bust right.
Rev: DIS GENITALIBVS, large rectangular altar.
RIC-281A, Sear 5999 var., BMC 31, RSC 15, Cohen 15.

Crispina's earliest obverse legend (CRISPINA AVGVSTA, RIC-281B; C-16; BMC-39, is usual for this issue).
2 commentsEmpressCollector
CRISPINA-3.JPG
Crispina, wife of Commodus. Augusta, 177-182/3 CE.223 viewsÆ As or Dupondius (25mm), Rome mint, 180-182 CE.
Obv: CRISPINA AVGVSTA, Bare-headed and draped bust right.
Rev: IVNO LVCINA S C, Juno standing l., holding patera and scepter.
RIC-680, Sear-6018, BMC-433, Cohen-24.
EmpressCollector
Crispa IVNO.jpg
Crispina- IVNO LVCINA61 viewsCrispina, wife of Commodus, Augusta 178 -182 A.D.

Obverse:

CRISPINA AVGVSTA, draped bust right, hair knotted in a bun in back

CRISPINA AVGVSTA

CRISPINA: Crispina
AVGVSTA: Augusta

Reverse:

IVNO LVCINA S C,

IVNO: Juno, goddess
LVCINA: Light
S C: Senatus Consulto


IVNO LVCINA (Goddess of light) S C, Juno standing left, holding patera (a bowl used to pour libations) and scepter

Domination:Middlle Bronze, Orichalcum Sstertius/ Dupondius, 25 mm

Mint: Rom
John Schou
ad1.jpg
Crispina. Augusta, AD 178-182. Æ Dupondius or As17 viewsRome mint. Struck under Commodus.
Obv: Draped bust right.
Rev: Venus seated left, holding Victory and scepter.
ancientone
s42.JPG
Crispus ALAMANNIA DEVICTA Sirmium39 viewsThe Alamanni were continually engaged in conflicts with the Roman Empire. They launched a major invasion of Gaul and northern Italy in 268, when the Romans were forced to denude much of their German frontier of troops in response to a massive invasion of the Goths. Their depredations in the three parts of Gaul remained traumatic: Gregory of Tours (died ca 594) mentions their destructive force at the time of Valerian and Gallienus (253–260), when the Alemanni assembled under their "king", whom he calls Chrocus, "by the advice, it is said, of his wicked mother, and overran the whole of the Gauls, and destroyed from their foundations all the temples which had been built in ancient times. And coming to Clermont he set on fire, overthrew and destroyed that shrine which they call Vasso Galatae in the Gallic tongue," martyring many Christians (Historia Francorum Book I.32–34). Thus 6th century Gallo-Romans of Gregory's class, surrounded by the ruins of Roman temples and public buildings, attributed the destruction they saw to the plundering raids of the Alemanni.

In the early summer of 268, the Emperor Gallienus halted their advance in Italy, but then had to deal with the Goths. When the Gothic campaign ended in Roman victory at the Battle of Naissus in September, Gallienus' successor Claudius II Gothicus turned north to deal with the Alamanni, who were swarming over all Italy north of the Po River.

After efforts to secure a peaceful withdrawal failed, Claudius forced the Alamanni to battle at the Battle of Lake Benacus in November. The Alamanni were routed, forced back into Germany, and did not threaten Roman territory for many years afterwards.

Their most famous battle against Rome took place in Argentoratum (Strasbourg), in 357, where they were defeated by Julian, later Emperor of Rome, and their king Chnodomar ("Chonodomarius") was taken prisoner.

On January 2, 366 the Alamanni crossed the frozen Rhine in large numbers, to invade the Gallic provinces.

In the great mixed invasion of 406, the Alamanni appear to have crossed the Rhine river, conquered and then settled what is today Alsace and a large part of Switzerland. Fredegar's Chronicle gives an account. At Alba Augusta (Aps) the devastation was so complete, that the Christian bishopric was removed to Viviers, but Gregory's account that at Mende in Lozère, also deep in the heart of Gaul, bishop Privatus was forced to sacrifice to idols in the very cave where he was later venerated may be a generic literary trope epitomizing the horrors of barbarian violence.

Sirmium RIC 49

Crispus AE3. 324-325 AD. FL IVL CRISPVS NOB CAES, laureate head right / ALAMANNIA DEVICTA, Victory advancing right, holding trophy & palm, treading upon bound captive on right, .SIRM. in ex.

need new pic
ecoli
Faustina_II_16.jpg
Denar, RIC 3, p.269, 683 - Faustina II, Fortuna27 viewsFaustina Minor
AR-Denarius
Augusta AD 146 - winter 175/176
Obv.: FAVSTINA AVGVSTA, draped bust right
Rev.: FORTVNAE MVLIEBRI, Fortuna seated left, holding rudder and cornucopiae. (no globe)
Ag, 3.16g, 18x19.6mm
Ref.: RIC III 683, RSC 107, CRE-I 181 [S] var. (no globe)
shanxi
Faustina_II_59.jpg
Denar, RIC 3, p.269, 688 - Faustina II, Juno standing37 viewsFaustina Minor
AR-Denarius
Augusta AD 146 - winter 175/176
Obv.: FAVSTINA AVGVSTA, bust right
Rev.: IVNO, Juno, veiled, standing left, patera in right, long scepter in left, peacock at feet
Ag, 3.45g, 18mm
Ref.: RIC III (Marcus Aurelius) 688, CRE 190 [S]

I have two other versions of this type in my gallery:

bust with band of pearls:
http://www.forumancientcoins.com/gallery/displayimage.php?pos=-109802

different hairstyle:
http://www.forumancientcoins.com/gallery/displayimage.php?pos=-144040
3 commentsshanxi
Faustina_II_70.jpg
Denar, RIC 3, p.269, 688 - Faustina II, Juno standing12 viewsFaustina Minor
AR-Denarius
Augusta AD 146 - winter 175/176
Obv.: FAVSTINA AVGVSTA, bust right, without band of pearls
Rev.: IVNO, Juno, veiled, standing left, patera in right, long scepter in left, peacock at feet
Ag, 2.83g, 18.3mm
Ref.: RIC III (Marcus Aurelius) 688, CRE -

I have two other versions of this type in my gallery:

bust with band of pearls:
http://www.forumancientcoins.com/gallery/displayimage.php?pos=-109802

different hairstyle:
http://www.forumancientcoins.com/gallery/displayimage.php?pos=-137130
shanxi
Faustina_II_6.jpg
Denar, RIC 3, p.269, 688 var. - Faustina II, Juno standing41 viewsFaustina Minor
AR-Denarius
Augusta AD 146 - winter 175/176
Obv.: FAVSTINA AVGVSTA, pearl diademed bust right
Rev.: IVNO, Juno, veiled, standing left, patera in right, long scepter in left, peacock at feet
Ag, 3.26g, 16.9x19.4mm
Ref.: RIC III (Marcus Aurelius) 688 var. (hair waved with with band of pearls), CRE 188 [C]


I have two other versions of this type in my gallery:

bust without band of pearls:
http://www.forumancientcoins.com/gallery/displayimage.php?pos=-144040

bust without band of pearls, different hairstyle:
http://www.forumancientcoins.com/gallery/displayimage.php?pos=-137130
shanxi
Faustina_II_67~0.jpg
Denar, RIC 3, p.272, 734 - Faustina II, Venus18 viewsFaustina Minor
AR-Denarius
Augusta AD 146 - winter 175/176
Obv.: FAVSTINA AVGVSTA, draped bust right, waved hair knotted behind, band of bearls
Rev.: VENVS GENETRIX, Venus standing left, holding Victory and leaning on figured shield with Dioscuri
Ag, 3.24g. 18m
Ref.: RIC III 734 var., RSC 280a

for the same type, but bust without band of pearls click here


1 commentsshanxi
Faustina_II_15~0.jpg
Denar, RIC 3, p.272, 734 - Faustina II, Venus25 viewsFaustina Minor
AR-Denarius
Augusta AD 146 - winter 175/176
Obv.: FAVSTINA AVGVSTA, draped bust right, waved hair knotted behind
Rev.: VENVS GENETRIX, Venus standing left, holding Victory and leaning on figured shield with Dioscuri, helmet below shield
Ag, 3.39g. 18.8mm
Ref.: RIC III 734, RSC 280a, CRE 227 [S]


for the same type, but bust with band of pearls click here


3 commentsshanxi
Denarius_Fecund_augustae_seated.jpg
Denarius FECVND AVGVSTAE seated23 viewsmix_val
Denarius_Fecund_augustae.jpg
Denarius FECVND AVGVSTAE standing19 viewsmix_val
Denarius_Ivno_Augustae_flower.jpg
Denarius IVNO AVGVSTAE seated, flower28 views1 commentsmix_val
domna~0.jpg
Denarius; FORTVNAE FELICI, RIC 55224 viewsJulia Domna, Augusta 194 - 8 April 217 A.D. Silver denarius, RSC III 55, RIC IV 552, BMCRE V 24, SRCV II 6583, gVF, frosty surfaces, Rome mint, 3.163g, 19.0mm, 180o, 210 A.D.; obverse IVLIA AVGVSTA, draped bust right; reverse FORTVNAE FELICI, Fortuna standing slightly left, head left, out-turned cornucopia in right, left elbow rests on reversed rudder; excellent centering. Ex FORVMPodiceps
domna_561.jpg
Denarius; LAETITIA, RIC 56132 viewsJulia Domna, Augusta 194 - 8 April 217 A.D. Silver denarius, RIC IV 561, RSC III 101, BMCRE V 45, VF, Rome mint, 3.498g, 17.5mm, 180o, 198 A.D.; obverse IVLIA AVGVSTA, draped bust right; reverse LAETITIA, Laetitia standing left, wreath in right and rudder in left. Laetitia was a minor Roman goddess of gaiety, her name deriving from the root word laeta, meaning happy. Ex FORVMPodiceps
sabina~0.jpg
Denarius; Pudicitia4 viewsSabina. Augusta, A.D. 128-136/7. AR denarius (18 mm, 3.32 g, 6 h). Rome, ca. A.D. 128-134. Diademed and draped bust of Sabina right / Pudicitia, veiled, standing left, drawing drapery from shoulder. RIC 407; BMC 911; RSC 62. VF. Richard Pearlman (Vauctions)Podiceps
FAUSTJR-26~0.jpg
Diana (Artemis) as the moon goddess364 viewsFaustina Junior -- Died 175/6. Wife of Marcus Aurelius. Augusta, AD 147-175/6.
Orichalcum sestertius (30 mm), issued posthumously, Rome mint, AD 176-180.
Obv: DIVA FAVSTINA PIA, Bare-headed and draped bust right.
Rev: SIDERIBVS RECEPTA S C, Diva Faustina, as Diana Lucifera, draped, wearing crescent on shoulders behind neck, standing r., holding lighted torch in both hands.
RIC-1715; BMC-1584; Cohen-215.

Diana in her lunar aspect here holds a torch and is shown with a crescent moon on her shoulders. SIDERIBVS RECEPTA = "received by the stars". Diana Lucifera lit the way for the dead to journey to their new home among the heavens, appropriate for a posthumous issue.
EmpressCollector
DCLARA-1.jpg
Didia Clara, daughter of Didius Julianus, Augusta, 193 CE.304 viewsÆ sestertius (30.5 mm, 21.24 gm), Rome mint, struck April-June, 193 CE.
Obv: DIDIA CLARA AVG, Draped bust right, hair in bun behind.
Rev: HILAR TEMPOR SC (Legend worn). Hilaritas standing, head left, holding palm branch and cornucopia. RIC 20; BMC 38; Cohen 4; Sear 6087.
2 commentsEmpressCollector
SALONINA-3.jpg
Doe, a deer--a female deer!684 viewsSalonina -- Died AD 268. Wife of Gallienus. Augusta, AD 254-268.

Billon antoninianus. Rome mint.
Obv: COR SALONINA AVG, diademed and draped bust right on crescent.
Rev: IVNONI CONS AVG, doe walking left, delta in exergue. RIC 16, Cohen 70; Sear 3041.
7 commentsEmpressCollector
D847.jpg
Domitia RIC 847108 viewsAR Cistophorus
Rome mint (for Asia), 82 AD (Domitian)
RIC 847 (R). BMC 256. RSC 19. RPC 870 (8 spec.). BNF 226.
Obv: DOMITIA AVGVSTA; Bust of Domitia, draped r., hair massed in front and in long plait behind
Rev: VENVS AVG; Venus stg. r., leaning on column, with helmet and spear
Ex CNG E424, 11 July 2018, lot 471.

A brief issue of cistophori were struck for Domitia as Augusta under Domitian in 82. Venus leaning on column was the sole reverse type chosen for her rare cistophori. The style and six o'clock die axis point to Rome as the home mint. K. Butcher and M. Ponting's metal analysis reveal they were struck from a different stock of metal than contemporary Rome mint denarii, possibly from recycled older denarii. At 80% silver fineness these early cistophori were likely struck before Domitian's major coinage reform of 82 when the denarius was raised to nearly 100% fineness.

Domitia Longina was the daughter of the famed Roman general Gnaeus Domitius Corbulo who was commanded to commit suicide by Nero for alleged treason. Domitian courted and married Domitia soon after Vespasian's accession, despite her already being the wife of Aelius Lamia. It was a good match - distancing the Flavians from the reign of Nero and uniting them to a beloved general's family. Soon after Domitian become emperor, Suetonius tells us he briefly divorced Domitia because of an adulterous affair she had with the actor Paris. Dio claims Domitian actually considered executing her but was persuaded from doing so by the praetorian prefect Ursus. He soon reunited with her after a brief separation alleging the people demanded it. Where this coin fits into that time frame is hard to tell. We don't know exactly when the divorce occurred or how long it lasted. However, it is likely this coin was struck after their reconciliation and can be seen as symbolically strengthening Domitia's position at court.

Struck in fine early style.
9 commentsDavid Atherton
DOMITIAN-1.jpg
Domitia, wife of Domitian. Augusta, 82-96 CE.207 viewsThessaly, Larissa. Æ Assarion (20 mm, 5.12 gm).
Obv: DOMITIANON KAIS QESSALOI, laureate head of Domitian, right.
Rev: DOMITIA SEBASSTH, draped bust of Domitia, right.
Sear GIC 891; BMC 7.7,76; RPC 278; Rogers 88.
EmpressCollector
Domitian_RIC_II_145.jpg
Domitian RIC II 014536 viewsDomitian. 81-96 A.D. AR Denarius. Rome Mint, 82-83 A.D. (3.23g, 19.0 mm, 6h). Obv: IMP CAES DOMITIANVS AVG PM, laureate head right. Rev: SALVS AVGVSTS (in. clockwise from lower l.), Salus seated left with corn ears and poppy. RIC II 145 (R), BMC 54, RSC 412.

In late 82 A.D., Domitian dramatically reformed the mint, increasing the fineness of the silver issues to Augustan standards after years of decline. New reverse types, such as this Salus appeared, and Domitian’s portrait began to change to a more idealized look. Salus was the Roman goddess of safety, salvation, and welfare. Given Gresham’s Law, many of these post-reform coins are quite scarce.
2 commentsLucas H
29027q00.jpg
Domitian RIC-141121 viewsAR Denarius, 3.70g
Rome Mint, 82 AD
Domitian, denarius
RIC 141 (C). BMC 34. RSC 610.
Obv: IMP CAES DOMITIANVS AVG P M; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: TR POT IMP II COS VIII DES VIIII P P; Fortuna stg. l., with rudder and cornucopiae
Acquired from Forvm Ancient Coins, January 2010. Ex Beast Coins November 2006.

With one of the larger flans I have seen on a denarius (21mm), this coin is part of the coinage reforms Domitian began in 82 AD. The denarius was increased to its Augustan weight levels and one can argue the quality of the portrait style was improved as well. Fortuna is featured on the reverse and most likely commemorates her part in Domitian's escape from Vitellian forces during the Civil War in December 69.


5 commentsDavid Atherton
D164_obv.JPG
Domitian RIC-164140 viewsAR Denarius, 3.35g
Rome mint, 83 AD
RIC 164 (R2). BMC 41. RSC 606.
Obv: IMP CAES DOMITIANVS AVG P M; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: TR POT II COS VIIII DES X P P; Minerva stg. r. on capital of rostral column, with spear and shield; to r., owl (M2)
Ex Harry N. Sneh Collection.

Minted between March and 13 September 83 AD, this denarius is part of a series that introduced the four main Minerva reverse types that would dominate the denarii of the reign. The type here, Minerva on rostral column (not prow as normally described), makes it debut as well.

83 saw an increased fineness of the precious metal coinage to Augustan standards, which explains this specimens size and weight - 21 mm, 3.35 grams. A bit of corrosion on the obverse does not detract from a wonderful coin in hand.

Historical note - Mons Graupius, Agricola's climatic battle in Scotland, most likely occurred in the fall of 83 soon after this coin was minted.
4 commentsDavid Atherton
D339.jpg
Domitian RIC-33984 viewsAR Denarius, 2.82g
Rome mint, 85 AD
RIC 339 (R2). BMC 80. RSC 180a.
Obv: IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM P M TR P IIII; Bust of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r., with aegis
Rev: IMP•VIIII COS XI CENS POT P P; Minverva stg. l., with spear (M4)
Acquired from Forvm Ancient Coins, October 2015. Ex Jyrki Muona Collection.

A denarius which is part of the rare fourth issue of 85. This issue is the first struck after Domitian reduced the fineness of the denarius by 5% to the old Neronian level after having raised it in 82 to the Augustan standard. Despite the reduction in fineness this is a remarkably well crafted series signified by the aegis, which only appeared in issues of special note.

A well executed portrait in fine style. Struck on an oblong flan which does not detract too much from the coin's overall appeal.
4 commentsDavid Atherton
D344.jpg
Domitian RIC-34498 viewsAR Denarius, 3.20g
Rome mint, 85 AD (fifth issue)
RIC 344 (R2). BMC -. RSC 186.
Obv: IMP•CAES•DOMIT AVG•GERM•P•M TR P V; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: IMP•VIIII COS XI CENS•POT P•P•; Minerva stg. l., with thunderbolt and spear; shield at her side (M3)
Ex CNG E363, 11 November 2015, lot 319.

An extremely rare denarius from the fifth issue of 85. Coined shortly after Domitian reduced the fineness of the denarius by 5% to the old Neronian level after having raised it in 82 to the Augustan standard. RIC cites Paris and Oxford with examples of this type.

Struck on a large flan (21 mm!) in superb fine style.

4 commentsDavid Atherton
D599.jpg
Domitian RIC-59992 viewsAR Quinarius, 1.61g
Rome mint, 88 AD
RIC 599 (C2). BMC 134. RSC 78.
Obv: IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM P M TR P VIII; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: COS XIIII LVD SAEC FEC; Herald adv. l., with wand and shield
Ex CNG E404, 23 August 2017, lot 504. Ex Helios 1, 17 April 2008, lot 248 (The Frank L. Kovacs Collection).

Unusually, this quinarius lacks the de rigueur Victory on the reverse, instead we have an interesting historical type of a Herald announcing Domitian's Ludi Saeculares. This was the only saeculum type struck on his quinarii. The games were held in 88 following the Augustan cycle. Presumably this piece was struck for commemorative purposes in conjunction with the games. RIC places the frequency rating for this type as 'very common' (C2), however, this seems a bit over generous. Perhaps a rating of 'common' (C) would be more appropriate. The upcoming RIC II.1 Addenda notes the frequency discrepancy, citing C. Clay's concern that only nineteen specimens are in King's survey of Roman quinarii.

A lovely piece with dark toning and fine style.
8 commentsDavid Atherton
Z7705LGc.jpg
Domitian RIC-601190 viewsAR Denarius, 3.27g
Rome mint, 88 AD
RIC 601 (C). BMC 135. RSC 73.
Obv: IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM P M TR P VIII; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: COS XIIII LVD SAEC FEC inscribed on column; to r., incense burner, further r., Herald stg. l., with wand and shield
Acquired from Beast Coins, January 2010.

The type was minted in 88 AD in honour of the Secular Games Domitian held in that same year. Secular Games, or Ludi Saeculares, were theatrical games held at the end of a saeculum (the longest span of a human life, figured at 100 years). Domitian used the Augustan cycle, although he celebrated them six years early.

The reverse features a column with the inscription LVD SAEC FEC: "He Conducted the Secular Games", a herald who announced the games, and an incense burner for sacrifice. Quite a nice numismatic record of an event.

This is a type I've always wanted to add to the collection. Another reverse that pushes the limits of how much a die-cutter can fit onto such a small flan. Good metal and a decent portrait.
8 commentsDavid Atherton
D623b.jpg
Domitian RIC-623b85 viewsÆ As, 10.13g
Rome mint, 88 AD
RIC 623b (C2). BMC 434. BNF 471.
Obv: IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM P M TR P VIII CENS PER P P; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: COS XIIII LVD SAEC FEC; S C in exergue; Domitian stg. l., sacrificing over altar; to l., flute player and lyre player stg. r.; in background, temple, wreath in pediment
Acquired from Künker, January 2019. Ex Heinrich Pilartz Münzhandlung.

In October 88 AD Domitian held the Secular Games, a festival featuring theatrical performances and circus games accompanied by six various daytime and nighttime religious ceremonies. The games marked the transition from one era (saeculum) to another and were supposedly held once every 110 years, or the maximum span of a human lifetime, making them a 'once in a lifetime' event. Domitian conducted his games on the Augustan calculation, rejecting the formula for the Claudian games held in 47 AD. The festival was important enough to interrupt the normal striking of reverse types on the coinage and for the mint to produce a new unique issue commemorating the event both in precious metal and bronze. The precious metal designs tended to be symbolic while the bronze were more narrative in nature, focusing on the various religious sacrifices that were at the heart of the games.

The reverse on this as features a daytime victimless sacrifice of cakes to Apollo and Diana on the sixth and last day of the celebrations, held in front of an unidentified hexastyle temple somewhere on the Palatine. The stylised nature of the reverse's design makes it difficult to pinpoint the temple in question. The generic decorative wreath in the pediment offers no clues. Another variant of the type (RIC 623a) has an eagle in the pediment, perhaps an indication the engravers were not intending to depict a specific temple at all. The scene could stand alone and be an excellent representation for all the religious ceremonies of the games. The main message of the design is to show the Roman people that Domitian provided and responsibly held the Secular Games. The fact this type was struck in fairly large quantities hints it was an important piece of Domitianic propaganda.

Struck on a large flan in fine style.
6 commentsDavid Atherton
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-reCiIurqi8PJzgw-Livia.jpg
Drusus (Caesar) Coin: Brass Dupondius5 viewsDRVSVS CAESAR TI AVGVSTI F TR POT ITER around large S C - Legend around S C
Exergue:



Mint: Rome (22-23AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 12.07g / 29mm / 180
Rarity: Scarce
References:
RIC I 43
BMCRE 98 (Tiberius)
BN 74
Cohen 1 (Livia)
Acquisition/Sale: sculptor17 Ebay

The Gary R. Wilson Collection

Livia Draped bust of Livia as Pietas. Livia was the powerful second wife of Augustus. By her first marriage, Livia is the mother of Tiberius (Emperor) and Drusus (husband of Antonia) and grandmother of Claudius (old friend of Alexander the Alabarch). SR 1731

From Marvin Tameanko:
As usual, there was much vicious gossip and slander surrounding Livia and today it is impossible to separate fact from fiction. In all fairness, one must assume she was neither as good nor as evil as ancient and modern authors say. Tacitus, the 1st century Roman historian, was her worst critic and accused her in his book The Annals, Book 1.3 and 1.6, of causing the murder of the adopted heirs of Augustus, Caius and Lucius, to clear the way for her own son, Tiberius. The historian, Cassius Dio, writing in the 2nd century AD, repeated this ugly rumor in his book, Roman History, Book 53, 33.4, 55, 32 and 57, 3.6. Both these authors are usually dependable, and not know to be falsifiers of history or slanderers, but they both despised the emperor Tiberius and could attack his reputation only by maligning his mother. Today, most historians reject their terrible and outrageous accusation that Livia murdered Augustus by poisoning his dessert of fresh figs. (Tacitus, The Annals Book 1.5 and Dio, History, 55.22.2, and 56.30). This horror story was made popular by the 20th century author, Robert Graves, in his historical novel, I Claudius, but both Tacitus and Dio had devious political agendas that overrode their duties to be honest reporters. However, Livia’s busts on the ancient coins struck by her son, the Emperor Tiberius, although considered to be merely propaganda images, offer kinder assessments of her character. One extraordinary coin portrays Livia as the deity Pietas, goddess of piety, affection and dutifulness.
Divinities were often used to personify the sterling qualities of an ideal Roman matron so, as the ‘First Lady’ of the Empire, Livia Augusta, representing these divinities, became the textbook example of Roman womanhood. To cultivate this image, Livia was shown in sculpture and on coins dressed and posed as various goddesses. Most remarkably, Tiberius struck a series of dupondii, low denominations of currency and therefore coins that would come frequently into the hands of many Romans, depicting the Augusta as various divine personifications. For example, she is portrayed as the deity Pietas, representing the piety of the people, as Justitia, for the Justice administered to the citizens, and as Salus, symbolic of the Good Health or Well Being of the nation.

From CNG:
Claudia Julia Livia, nicknamed Livilla (”Little Livia”), was the daughter of Nero Claudius Drusus and Antonia Minor, and sister to Germanicus and the future emperor Claudius. Though Roman historians describe her as remarkably beautiful and charming, they also condemn her as a power-hungry adulteress and murderess. Tacitus accuses her of conspiring with her lover, the Praetorian Prefect Sejanus, to poison her husband, the imperial heir Drusus Caesar, who died in AD 23. This coin, struck in the name of Drusus shortly before his death, depicts on the obverse a veiled and classically beautiful woman as Pietas, goddess of religious piety and dutifulness. David Vagi has argued convincingly that the head represents Livilla, given that the other bronze coins issued the same year depict Drusus himself and the couple’s twin sons, forming a “family set.”
Gary W2
convex_quad_sm.jpg
Durotrigan Bi "Durotrigan E" or "Cranbourne Chase" type stater, region: South Britain (Dorset), c. 58 BC - 43 AD11 viewsFlan roughly circular, obverse convex, reverse concave.
18.5mm, 1.5+mm thick, 2.82g
Die axis: ~3h (Greek), assuming traditional diagonal wreath position with "eyes" right
Material: billon of unknown silver and other metal content.

Obverse: devolved head of a god (Celtic "Apollo") right , reverse: disjointed horse / chariot left with 12 pellets above and 1 below (possibly indicating 12+1 lunar months in a solar year)

The design is loosely based on golden staters of Philip II of Macedon with laureate head of Apollo on obverse and a charioteer driving a biga (Mediterranean two-horse chariot) on reverse.

References: Durotrigan E, Cranbourne Chase type, BMC 2525-2731, Mack 317-318, Sp 367, RDVA 1235-1237 etc.

Peculiarities in this case: small flan, so most of design does not fit onto it, probably indicating very late production, no usual correspondence between the "crook" crossing the "wreath" and the "left eye", pellets large and flat, obverse significantly off center, ornaments left to "cheek" clearly visible.

The Durotriges were one of the Celtic (possibly even pre-Celtic) tribes living in Britain prior to the Roman invasion. The tribe lived in modern Dorset, south Wiltshire, south Somerset and Devon east of the River Axe and the discovery of an Iron Age hoard in 2009 at Shalfleet, Isle of Wight gives evidence that they lived in the western half of the island. After the Roman conquest, their main civitates, or settlement-centred administrative units, were Durnovaria (modern Dorchester, "the probable original capital") and Lindinis (modern Ilchester, "whose former, unknown status was thereby enhanced"). Their territory was bordered to the west by the Dumnonii; and to the east by the Belgae.

Durotriges were more a tribal confederation than a tribe. They were one of the groups that issued coinage before the Roman conquest, part of the cultural "periphery" round the "core group" of Britons in the south. These coins were rather simple and had no inscriptions. The Durotriges presented a settled society, based in the farming of lands surrounded and controlled by strong hill forts that were still in use in 43 AD. Maiden Castle is a preserved example of one of these hill forts.

The area of the Durotriges is identified in part by coin finds: few Durotrigan coins are found in the "core" area, where they were apparently unacceptable and were reminted. To their north and east were the Belgae, beyond the Avon and its tributary Wylye: "the ancient division is today reflected in the county division between Wiltshire and Somerset." Their main outlet for the trade across the Channel, strong in the first half of the 1st century BC, when the potter's wheel was introduced, then drying up in the decades before the advent of the Romans, was at Hengistbury Head. Numismatic evidence shows progressive debasing of the coinage, suggesting economic retrenchment accompanying the increased cultural isolation. Analysis of the body of Durotrigan ceramics suggests that the production was increasingly centralised, at Poole Harbour. Burial of Durotriges was by inhumation, with a last ritual meal provided even under exiguous circumstances, as in the eight burials at Maiden Castle, carried out immediately after the Roman attack.

Not surprisingly, the Durotriges resisted Roman invasion in AD 43, and the historian Suetonius records some fights between the tribe and the second legion Augusta, then commanded by Vespasian. By 70 AD, the tribe was already Romanised and securely included in the Roman province of Britannia. In the tribe’s area, the Romans explored some quarries and supported a local pottery industry.

The Durotriges, and their relationship with the Roman Empire, form the basis for an ongoing archaeological research project (https://research.bournemouth.ac.uk/project/the-durotriges-project/) directed by Paul Cheetham, Ellen Hambleton and Miles Russell of Bournemouth University. The Durotriges Project has, since 2009, been reconsidering the Iron Age to Roman transition through a detailed programme of field survey, geophysical investigation and targeted excavation.
Yurii P
EB0688_scaled.JPG
EB0688 Otacilia Severa11 viewsOtacilia Severa (Augusta, 244-249), Pella, Macedon, AE 23.
Obverse: M·OTAC·S-EVERAE A, Diademed and draped bust right.
Reverse: COL IVL A-VS PЄLLA, City goddess seated left, drawing drapery from shoulder.
References: Varbanov 3764 and Moushmov 6494 are the same type but with OTACIL instead of OTAC.
Diameter: 23.5mm, Weight: 9.489g.
EB
2828F6C8-E194-4826-818B-185B3659D1CD.jpeg
EGYPT, Alexandria. Julia Mamaea.10 viewsEGYPT, Alexandria. Julia Mamaea. Augusta, AD 222-235. Potin Tetradrachm (24mm, 12.91 g, 12h). Dated RY 13 of Severus Alexander (AD 233/234). Draped bust right, wearing stephane / Tyche standing left, holding rudder and cornucopia; palm frond to right; L Γ (date) to upper left. Köln 2541 var. (obv. legend); Dattari (Savio) 4523; K&G 64.122; Emmett 3230.13.ecoli
__57_(4).JPG
Empress Faustina II - AE As - SALUTI AUGUSTAE33 viewsRoman Empire
Empress Faustina II ( 161 - 176 AD ) Wife of Emperor Marcus Aurelius.
Bronze As, Rome Mint. 10.5 Grams.

obverse: FAUSTINA AUGUSTA - Draped bust, right.

reverse: SALUTI AUGUSTAE -SC- - Salus seated left, feeding snake entwined around Altar.
4 commentsrexesq
Fausta__Augusta_324_-_326_AD.jpg
Fausta Augusta, 324-326 AD. Heraclea mint.99 viewsFausta Augusta, 324-326 AD. Heraclea mint. AE 3, 2.936 g, 19.1 mm, choice gVF. Obv: draped bust right, hair waived, bun at back, wearing pearl necklace, FLAV MAX FAVSTA AVG. Rev: Fausta standing facing holding infants Constantine II and Constantius II, SPES REIP-VBLICAE. Ex: SMHA•. Ref: RIC 86, S 3905. RARE1 commentsBard Gram O
Fausta_RIC_VII_Cyzicus_40.jpg
Fausta, AE Follis, RIC VII Cyzicus 4082 viewsFausta
Augusta, 323 - 326 A.D.
AE Follis, Silvered.

Obverse: FLAV MAX - FAVSTA AVG, bare-headed and draped bust, wearing a necklace, facing right.
Reverse: SPES REIP-VBLICAE, Fausta, standing, facing left, holding her children, Constantine II and Constantius II to her breast.

Weight: 3.06 g, Diameter: 19 x 19 x 1.3 mm, Die axis: 0°, Mintmark: SMKB● (Cyzicus), struck between 325-326 A.D. References: RIC VII Cyzicus 40, Sear 16578

Rated Rare (R2)
Masis
P1019853.JPG
Fausta, Augusta 324 - 325 A.D. Nicomedia mint. 19-20mm10 viewsFausta, Augusta 324 - 326 A.D. Nicomedia mint.
Obv. FLAV MAX - FAVSTA AVG, draped bust right hair waived, bun at back, wearing pearl necklace.
Rev. SPES REIP-VBLICAE, Fausta standing facing, looking left, holding infants Constantine II and Constantius II, SMNA in ex.
Ref. RIC VII 97 var
Lee S
aQ4Pc7YqzS3X8iZZiK2c6xGwSne95n_(1).jpg
Fausta, Augusta 324 - 326 AD. AE Follis14 viewsCyzicus, RIC 40, A
Fausta AE Follis. 325-6 AD. FLAV MAX FAVSTA AVG, mantled bust right / SPES REIP-VBLICAE, Fausta as Spes standing facing, looking left, head veiled, two children in her arms. Mintmark SMKA dot. RIC VII Cyzicus 40; Sear 16578
3.2 g - 19.5 mm .
Antonivs Protti
fausta_trier_483.jpg
Fausta, RIC VIII, Trier 4839 viewsFausta, Augusta AD 324-326, 2nd wife of Constantine I
AE 3, 3.85g, 19.26mm
Trier, AD 326, 1st officina
obv. FLAV MAX - FAVSTA AVG
Bust, draped, with necklace, r.: hair in 5 waves and small bun in neck
rev. SALVS REI - PVBLICAE
Fausta, in long garmant and veiled, stg. l., holding two infants at her breast
in ex. STR crescent with dot in cavity
ref. RIC VII, Trier 483; C.6
about VF, slightly rough
pedigree:
ex Marc Breitsprecher (Ancient Imports)
ex coll. Victor Failmezger (plate coin)
ex Numismatic Fine Arts Auction 3/93, Lot 1919
ex old Bavarian coll. #473, acquired AD 1919(?)

For more information please look at the article 'The Bavarian Collection' in the board 'History and Archaeology'
1 commentsJochen
FAUSTA-2.jpg
Fausta, wife of Constantine I, daughter of Maximian. Augusta, 324-326 CE.172 viewsReduced Follis Æ 3 (19 mm, 2.92 gm), Siscia mint, 326-7 CE.
Obv: FLAV MAX FAVSTA AVG, draped bust right, her hair tied in bun on back of head.
Rev: SPES REI-PVBLICAE, Empress standing facing, head left, holding two infants, (Constantine II and Constantius II); .BSIS. in exergue.
RIC 205; Sear 3905 var.
EmpressCollector
Faustina1.jpg
Faustina55 viewsDIVA FAVSTINA
Diademed and draped bust right

AVGVSTA SC
Ceres standing left holding corn ears and scepter

Rome 141 AD

Sear 4645

Ex-Arcade Coins

SOLD!
Titus Pullo
Diva_Faustina_I_AD_140-141__Rome_82~0.jpg
Faustina I (Augusta) Coin: Brass Sestertius 14 viewsDIVA AVGVSTA FAVSTINA - Veiled and draped bust right
CONSE-CRATIO, S C in exergue - Pyramidal crematorium of four stories, surmounted by Faustina in biga right.
Exergue: SC


Mint: Rome (141 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 23.76g / 33mm / 12h
Rarity: Rare
References:
RIC III 1135 (Pius)
BMCRE 1429 (Pius)
Cohen 186.
Provenances:
Savoca Coins
Acquisition/Sale: Savoca Coins Internet 3rd Blue Auction #992 $0.00 06/19

Jun 9, 19 - The Gary R. Wilson Collection

Per CNG: This coin depicts the crematorium built by Antoninus Pius , the remains of which have been discovered near the Piazza Montecitorio, west of the Corso, in Regio X (see Hill, The Monuments of Ancient Rome as Coin Types, pg. 102). The structure also appears on denarii of Divus Antoninus Pius struck under Marcus Aurelius.

Per CNG-Rare
Gary W2
Diva_Faustina_I_AD_140-141__Rome_82.jpg
Faustina I (Augusta) Coin: Brass Sestertius 18 viewsDIVA AVGVSTA FAVSTINA - Veiled and draped bust right
CONSE-CRATIO, S C in exergue - Pyramidal crematorium of four stories, surmounted by Faustina in biga right.
Exergue: SC


Mint: Rome (141 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 23.76g / 33mm / 12h
Rarity: Rare
References:
RIC III 1135 (Pius)
BMCRE 1429 (Pius)
Cohen 186.
Provenances:
Savoca Coins
Acquisition/Sale: Savoca Coins Internet 3rd Blue Auction #992 $0.00 06/19

Jun 9, 19 - The Gary R. Wilson Collection

Per CNG: This coin depicts the crematorium built by Antoninus Pius , the remains of which have been discovered near the Piazza Montecitorio, west of the Corso, in Regio X (see Hill, The Monuments of Ancient Rome as Coin Types, pg. 102). The structure also appears on denarii of Divus Antoninus Pius struck under Marcus Aurelius.
Gary W2
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-nx7sxByvkB46in-Faustina_I.jpg
Faustina I (Augusta) Coin: Wife of Antoninus Pius- Brass Sestertius 5 viewsDIVA FAVSTINA - Draped bust right, hair coiled on top of head.
CERES - Ceres standing left, holding corn-ears and long, vertical torch; S-C across fields.
Exergue:


Mint: Rome (after 141 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 21.65g / 32mm / 12h
References:
RIC 1128
Sear 4621
Acquisition/Sale: indalocolecciones eBay $0.00 12/18
Notes: Jan 1, 19 - The Gary R. Wilson Collection

Ceres a goddess of agriculture, grain crops, fertility and motherly relationships, was listed among the Di Consentes, Rome's equivalent to the Twelve Olympians of Greek mythology. The Romans saw her as the counterpart of the Greek goddess Demeter, whose mythology was reinterpreted for Ceres in Roman art and literature.
Gary W2
Faustina_I_2a.jpg
Faustina I (Senior) * Vesta, 141-161 AD. AR Denarius66 views
Faustina I (Senior) * Vesta, Silver Denarius
‘In Honor & Remembrance of the beloved and deified Augusta.’

Obv: DIVA FAUSTINA * draped bust right.
Rev: AVGVSTA * Vesta standing left, holding simpulum in right hand, arm partially extended, and the palladium in her left, also partially extended.

Exergue: (Blank)

Mint: Rome
Struck: 148-161 AD.

Size: 18 mm.
Weight: 3.24 grams
Die axis: 180°

Condition: Very bright, clear luster and a pretty portrait despite the subtle effects of time and usage. Wonderful detail in the coiffure of piled & adorned hair. Greater wear evident to Vesta who nonetheless still reveals the numerous details the celator gave her. In all, a lovely & appealing coin.

Refs:*
Cohen, 108
RIC III, 368, page 71
SEAR RCV II (2002), 4587, page 269

Tiathena
FaustinaI_Augusta_~0.jpg
Faustina I AR denarius (148 AD)127 viewso/ DIVA-FAVSTINA, draped bust to the right, hair arranged in a chignon on top of the head.
r/ AVGV-STA, Ceres, veiled, standing left, holding long torch and raising robe with left hand.
3,28g. 17x18mm. 6h.
RIC III.362
1 commentsAugustin Caron
Faustina_RIC_III_384.jpg
Faustina I, AR Denarius, RIC III 38488 viewsFaustina I ("the Elder")
Augusta, 138 - 140 A.D.

Coin: AR Denarius

Obverse: DIVA FAV-STINA, draped bust facing right.
Reverse: CONSECRA-TIO, a Peacock, standing to the right, upon a Sceptre, its head turned to the left.

Weight: 2.93 g, Diameter: 16.9 x 16.6 x 1.6 mm, Die axis: 330°, Mint: Rome, posthumous issue, struck between 141 - 146 A.D. Reference: RIC III 384
Masis
FAUSTSR-5.jpg
Faustina I, Senior. Wife of Antoninus Pius. Augusta 138-140/1 CE.218 viewsÆ Sestertius (32 mm, 24.57 gm).
Rome mint, 147-161 CE.
Obv: DIVA FAVSTINA, draped bust right.
Rev: AVGVSTA, Vesta, veiled, standing left, holding palladium and scepter, SC at sides.
RIC 1124; Sear 4617; BMC 1519; Cohen 110.
EmpressCollector
FAUSTSR-12.jpg
Faustina I, Senior. Wife of Antoninus Pius. Augusta 138-140/1 CE.253 viewsAR Denarius (19 mm, 3.47 gm).
Rome mint, 145 CE
Obv: DIVA AVG FAVSTINA, draped bust, r.
Rev: PIETAS AVG, Pietas standing l., sacrificing over candelabrum and holding box of incense.
RIC 395ca; Sear 4598v; Cohen 237
EmpressCollector
00faustinaprov.jpg
FAUSTINA II19 viewsAE 26. Augusta Traiana. 9,98 grs. Draped bust right. ΦAVCTEINA CEBACTH. / Turreted female standing left, holding patera and scepter. AVΓOVCTHC TPAIANHC.
BMC Thrace -. SNG Copenhagen - . Moushmov 2984.
Ex Barry P.Murphy.
benito
00faustinaprov~0.jpg
FAUSTINA II19 viewsAE 26. Augusta Traiana. 9,98 grs. Draped bust right. ΦAVCTEINA CEBACTH. / Turreted female standing left, holding patera and scepter. AVΓOVCTHC TPAIANHC. BMC Thrace -. SNG Copenhagen - . Moushmov 2984.
benito
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-H9QV76EkR9h8-Faustina_II.jpg
Faustina II (Augusta) Coin: Wife of Marcus Aurelius- Brass Sestertius 4 viewsFAVSTINA AVGVSTA - Draped bust right
AVGVSTI PII FIL, S-C - Concordia standing left, holding patera and cornucopiae.
Exergue:



Mint: Rome (c.145-146 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 29.20g / 32mm / 12h
Rarity: Scarce
References:
RIC III 1390v-As
Acquisition/Sale: indalocolecciones eBay $0.00 02/19

Lifetime portrait struck under her father Antoninus Pius.
Gary W2
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-BYUad3uLtR6no-Faustina_II.jpg
Faustina II (Augusta) Coin: Wife of Marcus Aurelius- Silver Denarius 4 viewsDIVA FAUSTINA PIA - Draped bust right
CONSECRATIO - Pietas standing left, sacrificing from patera over a lighted altar and holding a sceptre.
Mint: Rome (175 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 2.85g / 17mm / 360
References:
RIC III 741
RSC 65
Acquisition/Sale: world-coin eBay $0.00 04/18
Notes: Feb 4, 19 - The Gary R. Wilson Collection
Gary W2
lg_faustina2_prov.jpg
Faustina II (Augusta) Thrace, Phillipopolis23 viewsFaustina II (Augusta)
Thrace, Phillipopolis
AE 1 Assaria
NEACE-ФАYCTEINA - Draped bust right
ФIΛIППО-ПОΛEITΩN - Fortuna facing, head left, holding rudder and cornucopia
Mint: (147-157 AD)
Ref: Nenov Fau1-B 18/Fau1-B-1 (see notes); Similar to Varbanov (engl) 895 ("private collection, unpublished)

Nenov's survey is located here: http://philippopolis.e-xtracts.com/Fau1.pdf
From his document:
Obverse Die- Fau1-B 18 mm – 1 assaria NEACE-ФАYCTEINA
Reverse Die: Fau1-B-1 18 mm-3.6 g ФIΛIППО-ПОΛEITΩN Fortuna
Scotvs Capitis
298_Faustina_II_Fecund_Augustae.jpg
Faustina II - AE as6 viewsRome
161-175 AD
diademed and draped bust right
FAVSTINA AVGVSTA
Faustina II facing, holding 2 children, 2 children at her feet
FECVND__AVGVSTAE
S C
RIC 1636, Cohen 97, BMC 977
8,58g
Johny SYSEL
FaustinaIIdenierIVNONI.jpg
Faustina II IVNONI REGINAE61 viewsFAUSTINA AVGVSTA
Draped bust right

R/ IVNONI REGINAE
Juno standing left holding patera in outstretched right hand and long sceptre in left hand; peacock at her feet.

Denarius struck 161 - 175 in Rom
Cohen 139 - RIC.696

FAUSTINA JUNIOR, daughter of Antoninus Pius and wife of Marcus Aurelius. Augusta 147-175 AD
1 commentsgb29400
Faustina_II_Juno_RIC_1651~0.JPG
Faustina II Juno RIC 165124 viewsFaustina Junior, Orichalcum Sestertius, Rome, Augusta 146 - winter 175/176 AD, 22.966g, 32.3mm, RIC III 1651, Cohen 142
OBV: FAVSTINA AVGVSTA, diademed and draped bust right
REV: IVNO REGINA S C, Juno standing left, patera in right,
long scepter vertical behind in left, peacock at feet left

EX: Forum Ancient Coins
Romanorvm
FAUSTJR-33.jpg
Faustina II, Junior, daughter of Antoninus Pius, wife of Marcus Aurelius. Augusta, 147-175/6 CE.205 viewsAR denarius (17.8 mm, 3.27 gm).
Issued under Antoninus Pius, Rome mint, 157-161 CE.
Obv: FAVSTINA AVGVSTA, Bare headed and draped bust, r.
Rev: AVGVSTI PII FIL, Venus standing l., holding Victory and leaning left hand on shield set upon a helmet.
RIC 495a; Sear 4700; BMC 1099; Cohen 15.
EmpressCollector
FAUSTJR-28.jpg
Faustina II, Junior, wife of Marcus Aurelius. Augusta, 147-175/6 CE.243 viewsAR Denarius (18 mm), issued under husband, Marcus Aurelius.
Rome mint, 161-175 CE.
Obv: FAVSTINA AVGVSTA, draped bust, r.
Rev: HILARITAS, Hilaritas standing l., holding long palm and cornucopiae.
RIC 686; Sear 5254; BMC 100; Cohen 111.
1 commentsEmpressCollector
FAUSTJR-15.jpg
Faustina II, Junior, wife of Marcus Aurelius. Augusta, 147-175/6 CE.178 viewsAE As (26 mm, 15.5 gm). Issued under husband, Marcus Aurelius. Rome mint, 147-175 CE.
Obv: FAVSTINA AVGVSTA, Draped bust, r.
Rev: FECVNDITAS SC, Fecunditas standing r., holding scepter and child.
RIC 1639; Sear 5295; BMC 980; Cohen 101.
EmpressCollector
FAUSTINA_JNR_PEACOCK~0.JPG
FAUSTINA II, JUNIOR. Commemorative denarius of Rome. Struck A.D.176-180 under Marcus Aurelius.133 viewsObverse: DIVA FAVSTINA PIA. Draped bust of Faustina Junior facing right.
Reverse: CONSECRATIO. Peacock standing facing right.
Diameter: 18mm | Weight: 3.24gms | Die Axis: 12
RIC III : 744 | RSC : 71a

Annia Galeria Faustina was the youngest daughter of Antoninus Pius and Faustina Senior. She married Marcus Aurelius in A.D.145 and was given the title of Augusta on the birth of her first child in A.D.146. She went on to have several more children, one of whom was the future emperor Commodus. In A.D.175 Faustina accompanied Marcus Aurelius on his journey to the East but she died at Halala, a village at the foot of the Taurus Mountains.
1 comments*Alex
1000-18-110.jpg
Faustina II. 34 viewsRI8

Faustina II. Augusta, A.D. 147-175. AR denarius (17.8 mm, 3.25 g, 6 h). Rome mint, A.D. 154-157. FAVSTINA AVGVSTA, diademed and draped bust right, wearing stephane / SAECVLI FELICIT, two children (Commodus and Annius Verus) on draped throne. RIC 710; RSC 190. VF. f
ecoli
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-mUwOOzkQCgR-Faustina_II_denarius.jpg
Faustina Jr. (Augusta) Coin: Wife of Marcus Aurelius- Silver Denarius 5 viewsFAVSTINA AVGVSTA - Draped bust right, wearing diadem.
IVNONI REGINAE - Juno standing left, holding a patera & scepter, peacock before.
Mint: Rome (139-141AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 2.53g / 16mm / 180
References:
RIC 695
RSC 140
Acquisition/Sale: world-coin Ebay $0.00 12/17
Notes: Jan 5, 19 - The Gary R. Wilson Collection

A scarce lifetime issue.
Gary W2
Faustina Jr.jpg
Faustina Jr. , Wife of Marcus Aurelius, Mother of Lucilla, and Commodus35 viewsThe daughter, wife and mothers of emperors and empresses, Faustina II was born around 130 A.D. to Antoninus Pius and Faustina I. She was married to her cousin Marcus Aurelius in 145 A.D. In 146 A.D., she gave birth to the first of many children. To celebrate this occasion she was given the Title Augusta, which technically made her superior in rank then her husband. Faustina II was a devoted wife and mother, and accompanied her husband on all his military campaigns. Her son Commodus went on to became emperor after his father’s death, and her daughter Lucilla became Augusta when she married Lucius Verus in 164 A.D. She died at the city of Halala in Asia Minor in 175 A.D. plagued by many baseless rumors about her infidelity. She was deified soon after and a grand temple was erected to her in the city where she died.1 commentsDumanyu2
Faustina Junior CONSECRATIO S C .JPG
Faustina Junior CONSECRATIO S C 33 viewsFaustina Junior, Augusta 146 - winter 175/176 A.D, wife of Marcus Aurelius

Obverse:
Draped bust right
DIVA FAVSTINA PIA

DIVA: Divine
FAVSTINA: Faustina
PIA:


Reverse:
CONSECRATIO S C

CONSECRATIO: Consecrate
S C: Senate Consultu, By decree of the Senate

Large altar

Domination: Bronze Sestertius, size 27 mm

Mint: Rom, during the years 161-180 A.D . BMC 1579; Coh. 76; RIC 1706.
John S
Faustina_Junior_venus.jpg
Faustina Junior VENVS28 viewsFaustina Junior, Augusta 146 - winter 175/176 A.D, wife of Marcus Aurelius

Obverse:
Draped bust right
FAVSTINA AVGVSTA

FAVSTINA: Faustina
AVGVSTA: Empress

Reverse:
VENVS

VENVS: Venus
Venus standing left, holding apple & sceptre.

Domination: Denarius (silver), size 15 mm

Mint: Rom,
John S
Faustina_Junior,_Augusta___Wife_of_Marcus_Aurelius.jpg
Faustina Junior, Augusta 146 - Winter 175/176 A.D., Wife of emperor Marcus Aurelius64 viewsSilver Denarius, BMCRE II p. 404, 148; RSC II 195; SRCV II 5262; RIC III MA689 var. (no stephane); Hunter II 8 var. (same), Choice Very Fine , excellent centering, unusual artistic portrait for empress Faustina,toned, Rome mint, weight 2.655g, maximum diameter 17.8mm, die axis 0o, struck under Marcus Aurelius, 161 - 175 A.D.; obverse FAVSTINA AVGVSTA, draped bust right, wearing stephane and earring, bun in the back; reverse SALVS, Salus seated left, feeding snake rising up from altar, from patera in right hand, resting left elbow on throne, feet on footstool.
Rare with this grade.

Salus was the Roman goddess of health. She was Hygieia to the Greeks, who believed her to be the daughter of Aesculapius, the god of medicine and healing, and Epione, the goddess of soothing of pain. Her father Asclepius learned the secrets of keeping death at bay after observing one serpent bringing another healing herbs. Woman seeking fertility, the sick, and the injured slept in his temples in chambers where non-poisonous snakes were left to crawl on the floor and provide healing.

*The logo of Pharmacology was taken from Salus 's Patera and snake .

From The Sam Mansourati Collection. / Item number RI 75220 (F)/ 20469 (S).

Given as a souvenir to a dear friend and a great Pharmacist on 9/8/2017.
Sam
2910426.jpg
Faustina Junior, Fecunditas80 viewsFaustina Junior. Augusta
AR Denarius 17mm, 3.25; Rome mint. Struck under Marcus Aurelius, AD 161-164.

FAVSTINA AVGVSTA
Draped bust right

FECVND AVGVSTAE
Fecunditas standing left, holding two infants in her arms, between two girls.

RIC III 676 (Aurelius); RSC 95
EX-CNG Auction 291, lot426
3 commentsRobin Ayers
Faustina_Junior__Augusta.png
Faustina Junior. Augusta, AD 147-175. 25 viewsAR Denarius Struck under Marcus Aurelius.
FAVSTINA AVGVSTA, draped bust right / C E RES, Ceres seated left, on chest, holding grain ears in right hand and long torch in left.
RIC III 669 (Aurelius); MIR 18, 2-4/10c; BMCRE 82;RSC 35a.
Ch VF , 19 mm, 3.47 Grams.
2 commentsHenriette A
Faustina_Sestertius.jpg
Faustina Junior. Augusta, AD 147-175. Æ Sestertius.42 viewsRome mint. Struck under Marcus Aurelius, circa AD 161-164.
Obverse ; FAVSTINA AVGVSTA, draped bust right, wearing stephane.
Reverse ; TEMPOR FELIC, Fecunditas standing left , S C , holding an infant on each arm; to either side below, two children standing facing her, the inner children raising their arms to her.
gVG.

From The Sam Mansourati Collection.
Sam
45.jpg
FAUSTINA minore (145-176 d.C.), asse62 viewsFaustina minore, augusta (145-176). Asse
Zecca di Roma
AE, gr 9,7; mm. 25,0; 0°, MB
D/ FAVSTINA AVG, testa di Faustina a dx con capelli raccolti
R/ AVGVSTI PII FIL, SC nel campo. Venere stante a sin. con Vittoria nella mano sin. e la dx appoggiata a uno scudo
RIC 1389a, Cohen 17, BMC 2202
Provenienza: collezione Berardengo, Roma Italia (14 maggio 2008, numero catalogo 68b); ex collezione A. B. (Venezia, Italia, fino al 2008).
paolo
Faustina.jpg
Faustina Senior 22 viewsAugusta 25 February 138 - early 141
AR Denarius, draped bust right
3.83 gm, 18 mm
Obv.: DIVA FAVSTINA
Rev.: AVGVSTA
Ceres standing left holding torch & scepter
RIC III 356, RSCII 96, BMCRE IV 399
Rome mint, 147 – 161 A.D.
Jaimelai
Sistertii_154.JPG
Faustina Senior AR Denarius, wife of Antoninus Pius, Rome 135-140 AD 37 viewsFaustina I "Augusta-Vesta" Antoninus Pius AD 138-(141 Faustina) 161 Silver Denarius. 3.34 gr.
Obv: DIVA FAVSTINA - Bust draped right. Rev: AVGVSTA - Vesta standing left, holding patera over lit altar and Palladium close to her side in other arm. Rome mint: AD 148-161 = RIC III
Antonio Protti
FaustIAvg.JPG
Faustina Senior, Rome, after 141 AD24 viewsDIVA FASTINA (sic)
Draped bust right
AVGVSTA
Ceres standling left holding grain and long torch
RIC 360, BMC 408, C 78
The misspelling of FAVSTINA is apparently not published.
whitetd49
Faustina1.jpg
Faustina sr33 viewsfr: DIVA FAUSTINA
re: AUGUSTA
pax
FAUSTINA SR.jpg
Faustina Sr., Augusta 25 February 138 - early 141, wife of Antoninus Pius42 viewsSilver denarius, RIC 344, Cohen 25, BMC 344, aEF, 3.369g, 19.3mm, 180o, Rome mint, posthumous, 141 - 161 A.D.; obverse DIVA FAVSTINA, draped bust right; reverse AETERNITAS, Juno raising hand and holding scepter1 commentsMarjan E
83185q00.jpg
Faustina Sr., Augusta 25 February 138 - Early 141, wife of Antoninus Pius29 viewsFaustina Sr., Augusta 25 February 138 - Early 141, wife of Antoninus Pius
Copper as . Rome mint, 141 A.D.
Obverse : DIVA AVGVSTA FAVSTINA, draped bust right, hair piled on top
Reverse : AETERNITAS S C, Providentia standing left, globe in right, long scepter vertical in left
RIC III 1163(a)
Ex FORUM
Vladislavs D
Lg3_quart_sm.jpg
FAVSTINA AVGVSTA / AVGVSTI PII FIL / Ӕ As or Dupontius (156-161 A.D.)20 viewsFAVSTINA AVGVSTA, draped bust right, hair arranged in a chignon (bun) behind the head / AVGVSTI PII FIL, Venus standing left holding Victory and leaning on shield set on a helmet, S-C across fields in the lower half

Ӕ, 22.5-24+mm, 9.56g, die axis 11h

There may be a countermark across the front part of the face on obverse, but due to its location it is difficult to be sure and identify it.

AVGVSTI PII FIL(ia) = daughter of August Antoninus Pius, points out to the ruling of Fausta's father Antoninus Pius rather than her husband Marcus Aurelius. Reverse: Unlike Greek Aphrodite, in addition to her other aspects Roman Venus was also a goddess of victory, this embodied in her representation as Venus Victrix (Victorious) or Victris (of Victory), like in this case: she offers a little winged representation of victory, resting on defensive military attributes (as a female goddess, she represented passive, defensive aspects of war, active ones being the domain of male Mars). SC = [Ex] Senatus Consulto (Senatus is genitive, Consulto is ablative of Consultum) = by decree of the Senate, i. e. the authority of the Senate approved minting of this coin (necessary to justify issue of copper alloy coins for which the intrinsic value was not obvious).

Of two Ӕ coins with the same legends and Venus with shield, RIC 1367 and 1389a, the first is a sestertius and its typical dimensions are characteristic of the type: 30+ mm and 20+g. This one is definitely smaller. Material seems reddish, so this one is more likely an as. Minted in Rome. Some sources give issue dates as 156-161 (the end of Faustina's father's reign), others as 145-146 (her marriage).

Annia Galeria Faustina Minor (Minor is Latin for the Younger), Faustina Minor or Faustina the Younger (born probably 21 September c. 130 CE, died in winter of 175 or spring of 176 CE) was a daughter of Roman Emperor Antoninus Pius and Roman Empress Faustina the Elder. She was a Roman Empress and wife to her maternal cousin Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius. She was held in high esteem by soldiers and her own husband and was given divine honours after her death. Faustina, named after her mother, was her parents' fourth and youngest child and their second daughter; she was also their only child to survive to adulthood. She was born and raised in Rome. Her great uncle, the emperor Hadrian, had arranged with her father for Faustina to marry Lucius Verus. On 25 February 138, she and Verus were betrothed. Verus’ father was Hadrian’s first adopted son and his intended heir; however, when Verus’ father died, Hadrian chose Faustina’s father to be his second adopted son, and eventually, successor. Faustina’s father ended the engagement between his daughter and Verus and arranged for Faustina's betrothal to her maternal cousin, Marcus Aurelius; Aurelius was also adopted by her father.

In April or May 145, Faustina and Marcus Aurelius were married, as had been planned since 138. Since Aurelius was, by adoption, Antoninus Pius' son, under Roman law he was marrying his sister; Antoninus would have had to formally release one or the other from his paternal authority (his patria potestas) for the ceremony to take place. Little is specifically known of the ceremony, but it is said to have been "noteworthy". Coins were issued with the heads of the couple, and Antoninus, as Pontifex Maximus, would have officiated. Marcus makes no apparent reference to the marriage in his surviving letters, and only sparing references to Faustina. Faustina was given the title of Augusta on 1 December 147 after the birth of her first child, Galeria Faustina (or Domitia? sources differ which of them was born in 147 and was the first child).

When Antoninus died on 7 March 161, Marcus and Lucius Verus ascended to the throne and became co-rulers. Faustina then became empress. Unfortunately, not much has survived from the Roman sources regarding Faustina's life, but what is available does not give a good report. Cassius Dio and the Augustan History accuse Faustina of ordering deaths by poison and execution; she has also been accused of instigating the revolt of Avidius Cassius against her husband. The Augustan History mentions adultery with sailors, gladiators, and men of rank; however, Faustina and Aurelius seem to have been very close and mutually devoted.

Faustina accompanied her husband on various military campaigns and enjoyed the love and reverence of Roman soldiers. Aurelius gave her the title of Mater Castrorum or ‘Mother of the Camp’. She attempted to make her home out of an army camp. Between 170–175, she was in the north, and in 175, she accompanied Aurelius to the east.

That same year, 175, Aurelius's general Avidius Cassius was proclaimed Roman emperor after the erroneous news of Marcus's death; the sources indicate Cassius was encouraged by Marcus's wife Faustina, who was concerned about her husband's failing health, believing him to be on the verge of death, and felt the need for Cassius to act as a protector in this event, since her son Commodus, aged 13, was still young. She also wanted someone who would act as a counterweight to the claims of Tiberius Claudius Pompeianus, who was in a strong position to take the office of Princeps in the event of Marcus’s death. The evidence, including Marcus's own Meditations, supports the idea that Marcus was indeed quite ill, but by the time Marcus recovered, Cassius was already fully acclaimed by the Egyptian legions of II Traiana Fortis and XXII Deiotariana. "After a dream of empire lasting three months and six days", Cassius was murdered by a centurion; his head was sent to Marcus Aurelius, who refused to see it and ordered it buried. Egypt recognized Marcus as emperor again by 28 July 175.

Faustina died in the winter of 175, after a somewhat suspicious accident, at the military camp in Halala (a city in the Taurus Mountains in Cappadocia). Aurelius grieved much for his wife and buried her in the Mausoleum of Hadrian in Rome. She was deified: her statue was placed in the Temple of Venus in Rome and a temple was dedicated to her in her honor. Halala’s name was changed to Faustinopolis and Aurelius opened charity schools for orphan girls called Puellae Faustinianae or 'Girls of Faustina'. The Baths of Faustina in Miletus are named after her.

In their thirty years of marriage, Faustina bore Marcus Aurelius thirteen children, of whom 6 reached adulthood and were significant in history. The best known are emperor Commodus and the closest to him sister Lucilla (both depicted in a very historically inaccurate movie "Gladiator" and, together with their parents, in a much more accurate 1st season "Reign of Blood" of the TV series "Roman Empire").
Yurii P
Lg004N_quad_sm.jpg
FAVSTINA AVGVSTA / AVGVSTI PII FIL / Ӕ As or Dupontius (156-161 A.D.)11 viewsFAVSTINA AVGVSTA, draped bust right, hair arranged in a chignon (bun) behind the head / AVGVSTI PII FIL, Venus standing left holding Victory and leaning on shield set on a helmet, S-C across fields in the lower half.

Ӕ, 23-24mm, 9.15g, die axis 11h

Another of this type:
http://www.forumancientcoins.com/gallery/displayimage.php?pos=-151025
See more info there.

Their comparison:
http://www.forumancientcoins.com/gallery/displayimage.php?pos=-151893
Yurii P
FAUSTJR-4~0.jpg
Fecunditas, goddess of fertility268 viewsFaustina Junior, wife of Marcus Aurelius. Augusta, 147-175/6 CE.
AR Denarius (19mm, 3.16g), Rome mint, 161-175 CE.
Obv: FAVSTINA AVGVSTA, draped bust right, a double band of pearls around her head.
Rev: FECVNDITAS, Fecunditas standing right, holding scepter & child.
RIC 677; RSC 99; BMC 91; Sear 5252; Cohen 99.

Although many coin reference books classify Fecunditas as a personification of fertility rather than as an actual deity, Fecunditas was recognized as a Roman divinity by Nero, who erected a statue to her. Tacitus notes that upon the birth of Claudia Neronis, the senate decreed the construction of a temple of Fertility to be built at Antium.

Fecunditas is always portrayed as a female figure holding a child, or children and often a scepter, cornucopia, palm branch or caduceus. Sometimes the children are depicted standing at her feet. Coins portraying her usually advertise the fertility of the imperial family who issued the coin.
EmpressCollector
salonina_ric_5.jpg
FECVNDITAS AVG, RIC 57 viewsSalonina, Augusta 254 - c. September 268 A.D. Bronze antoninianus, RSC IV 39, RIC V 5, VF, Rome mint, 1.990g, 17.3mm, 180o, 260 - 268 A.D.; obverse SALONINA AVG, diademed and draped bust right resting on a crescent; reverse FECVNDITAS AVG, Fecunditas standing right, reaching down to child at her feet with right, cornucopia in left. ex FORVMPodiceps
Probus_-_Fides_Militum_(1).jpg
Fides Militum53 viewsObv. IMP PROBVS PF AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust right,
Rev. FIDES MILITVM, Fides facing left, holding to legionary standards, R{lightning}E in exergue,
Rome mint,
21mm, 3,92 gr.
RIC 169

Historia Augusta 10 and 20 "[10] cognito itaque quod imperaret Probus milites Florianum, qui quasi hereditarium arripuerat imperium, interemerunt, scientes neminem dignius posse imperare quam Probum. ita ei sine ulla molestia totius orbis imperium et militum et senatus iudicio delatum est. - [20]. cum per Illyricum iter faceret, a militibus suis per insidias interemptus est. causae occidendi eius haec fuerunt: primum quod numquam militem otiosum esse perpessus est, si quidem multa opera militari manu perfecit, dicens annonam gratuitam militem comedere non debere. his addidit dictum eis grave, si umquam eveniat, salutare rei publicae, brevi milites necessarios non futuros.

"[10] And so, when it was well known that Probus was emperor, the soldiers killed Florian, who had seized the imperial power as though an inheritance, for they knew well that no one could rule more worthily than Probus. Accordingly, without any effort of his, the rule of the whole world was conferred upon him by the voice of both army and senate. - [20]. While on the march through Illyricum he was treacherously killed by his soldiers. The causes of his murder were these: first of all, he never permitted a soldier to be idle, for he built many works by means of their labour, saying that a soldier should eat no bread that was not earned. To this he added another remark, hard for them, should it ever come true, but beneficial to the commonwealth, namely, that soon there would be no need of such soldiers."
Syltorian
FAUSTJR-21.jpg
Fortuna, Personification of good luck294 viewsFaustina Junior, wife of Marcus Aurelius, Augusta 147-175/6 C.E.
AR Denarius (18.5 mm), Rome mint, 161-175 C.E.
Obv: FAVSTINA AVGVSTA, Bare-headed & draped bust r.
Rev: FORTVNAE MVLIEBRI, Fortuna enthroned left, holding rudder and cornucopiae.
RIC-683; Sear-5253; BMC-96; Cohen-107.

This legend, unique to this empress, dedicates the type 'to the Fortune of Women'. Festus speaks of a statue of this goddess at the fourth milestone from Rome.

Fortuna personifies good fortune, luck and prosperity. She is usually depicted holding a rudder or cornucopiae; she sometimes holds a wheel at her side.
EmpressCollector
DOMNA-13~0.JPG
Four Seasons311 viewsJulia Domna, wife of Septimius Severus, Augusta, 193-217 C.E.
AR Denarius (3.24g, 20.0mm), Rome mint, AD 207.
Obv: IVLIA AVGVSTA, draped bust right.
Rev: FECVNDITAS, Terra reclining left under tree, left arm on basket of fruits, right hand set on globe, spangled with stars, in background four children representing the four Seasons.
RIC 549, RSC 35, BMC 21, Sear 6579.
Ex FORVM Ancient coins.

The four seasons--spring, summer, fall and winter--are typically personified by four nude boys at play.
1 commentsEmpressCollector
faustina_foure.jpg
Fouree denarius; AVGVSTA, Ceres standing left15 viewsFaustina Sr., Augusta 25 February 138 - early 141, Ancient Plated Counterfeit. Fouree silver plated denarius, cf. RIC III 361 (official, Rome mint, posthumous, 147 - 161 A.D.), F, illegal mint, 2.303g, 17.1mm, 180o, obverse DIVA FAVSTINA, draped bust right; reverse AVGVSTA, Ceres standing left, raising right and holding long torch in left. Ex FORVMPodiceps
domna_foure.jpg
Fouree denarius; CERERI FRVGIF, Ceres seated left24 viewsJulia Domna, Augus