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Search results - "apostate"
julian210.jpg
Julian II, RIC VIII 210 Thessalonica25 viewsJulian II "the Apostate," February 360 - 26 June 363 A.D.
Bronze AE 2
Obverse: DN FL CL IVLIANVS PF AVG, pearl diademed and cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield.
Reverse: VOT X MVLT XX in four lines within wreath.
SMTS in ex. Thessalonica mint, 20.6 mm, 3.0 g.
NORMAN K
julian382b.jpg
Julian II, RIC VIII 376 Siscia24 viewsJulian II "the Apostate," February 360 - 26 June 363 A.D.
Bronze AE 3, as Caesar 355 - 361 A.D.; Obverse: D N IVLIANVS NOB CAES, cuirassed bust right
Reverse FEL TEMP REPARATIO, soldier spearing fallen horseman, M in left field, pellet in right.
ΔSISD in ex.,RIC VIII 376 Siscia mint, 2.2g, 16.9mm, scarce
NORMAN K
jul_fel_res.jpg
(0355) JULIAN II (The Apostate)24 viewsCaesar: 355 –360
Augustus: 360 -- 361.
Sole Augustus: 361 –363
AE 17 mm max., 2.75 g
O: Bare-headed draped and cuirassed bust right;
R: FEL TEMP REPARATIO, soldier spearing fallen horseman, M in left field
laney
julian_fel_11_res.jpg
(0355) JULIAN II The Apostate (as Caesar)26 viewsJulian II as Caesar
Caesar: 355 –360
Augustus: 360 -- 361.
Sole Augustus: 361 –363
AE 18 mm; 2.29 g
O: D N IVLIAN-VS NOB C, bare-headed draped and cuirassed bust right;
R: FEL TEMP REPARATIO, soldier spearing fallen horseman, M in left field
Siscia mint
laney
julian_fel_temp.jpg
(0355) JULIAN II THE APOSTATE (as Caesar)17 viewsJulian II as Caesar
Caesar: 355 –360
Augustus: 360 -- 361.
Sole Augustus: 361 –363
AE 16 mm max; 2.65 g
O: Bare-headed, draped and cuirassed bust facing right, M behind bust
R: Soldier standing l., spearing fallen horseman
Lugdunum (Lyon) mint
laney
julian_ii_fel_lugdun_mslg.jpg
(0355) JULIAN II THE APOSTATE (as Caesar)27 viewsJulian II as Caesar
Caesar: 355 –360
Augustus: 360 -- 361.
Sole Augustus: 361 –363
struck 355 - 360 AD (Officina 2)
AE 17.5 mm; 2.33 g
Obv.: FL CL IVLIANVS NOB C / M , his bare-headed, draped and cuirassed bust facing right
Rev.: FEL TEMP - REPARATIO helmeted soldier standing l., spearing fallen horseman; horseman, wearing pointed hat, leaning l. on horse, turned r. and raising hand, shield on ground r.; MSLG in exe.
Lugdunum (Lyon) mint
RIC VIII, 191, 200 (R) ; Bastien 248 (3 ex) ; nummus-bible-database.com: only 1 piece, also from officina 2. Rare
laney
julian_ii_spes_reip.jpg
(0355) JULIAN II THE APOSTATE (as Caesar)22 viewsJulian II as Caesar
Caesar: 355 –360
Augustus: 360 -- 361.
Sole Augustus: 361 –363
AE 17 mm; 1.91 g
O: DN IVLIANV-S NOB CAES draped cuirassed bust right
R: SPES REIPVBLICE, emperor standing left holding globe and spear
laney
julian_fel_temp_cons.jpg
(0355) JULIAN II THE APOSTATE (as Caesar)18 viewsCaesar: 355 –360
Augustus: 360 -- 361.
Sole Augustus: 361 –363
AE 16.5 mm; 2.25 g
O: D N CL IVLIANVS NOB CAES
R: FEL TEMP REPARATIO, helmeted soldier left spearing fallen horseman
laney
julian_fel_con.jpg
(0355) JULIAN II THE APOSTATE (as Caesar)13 viewsCaesar: 355 –360
Augustus: 360 -- 361.
Sole Augustus: 361 –363
AE 18.5 mm max. 1.92 g
O: DN IVLIAN-VS NOB CAES
R: FEL TEMP R-EPARATIO, emperor spearing fallen horseman, M in center, PCON or TCON in ex.
Arles mint
laney
jul_ii_spes_rei.jpg
(0355) JULIAN II THE APOSTATE (as Caesar)16 viewsJulian II as Caesar
AE 16 mm max; 1.83 g
Caesar: 355 –360
Augustus: 360 -- 361.
Sole Augustus: 361 –363
O: DN IVLIAN-VS NOB C draped and cuirassed bust right.
R: SPES REIPVBLICE, emperor standing left holding globe and spear
Siscia mint
laney
Novbilder_(34).jpg
004 - Julian II "the Apostate" (360-363 AD), AE 3 - RIC 10858 viewsObv: D N FL CL IVLIANVS P F AVG, pearldiademed, helmeted and cuirassed bust left, holding spear in right and shield in left hand.
Rev: VOT / X / MVLT / XX within wreath.
Minted in Sirmium (ASIRM in exe), first officina, summer 361 - 26 Jun 363 AD.
3 commentspierre_p77
Julian_II_siliqua.jpg
10 Julian the Apostate24 viewsReduced AR Silqua, heavily clipped.

Bust right // VOTIS / V / MVLTIS / X inside wreath, mintmark clipped off.
Sosius
12th_Century_Talmud_Rear.jpg
12th Century Handwritten Vellum Leaf of the Talmud13 viewsThis page of the Talmud predates publication of the first complete edition of the Talmud in 1540 by Daniel Bomberg. Bomberg employed rabbis, scholars, and apostates at his Venetian publishing house, and was responsible for the first Rabbinic Bible, as well as the first complete Babylonian and Jerusalem Talmuds. It was once customary for Jews to use old manuscripts as binding material for their newly printed and bound books. This piece is an example of that practice

Ex Living Torah Museum collection
Quant.Geek
12th_Century_Talmud_Front.jpg
12th Century Handwritten Vellum Leaf of the Talmud18 viewsThis page of the Talmud predates publication of the first complete edition of the Talmud in 1540 by Daniel Bomberg. Bomberg employed rabbis, scholars, and apostates at his Venetian publishing house, and was responsible for the first Rabbinic Bible, as well as the first complete Babylonian and Jerusalem Talmuds. It was once customary for Jews to use old manuscripts as binding material for their newly printed and bound books. This piece is an example of that practice

Ex Living Torah Museum collection
Quant.Geek
CTGDafne.jpg
1403c, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D.49 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC VII 35, choice aEF, Constantinople mint, 3.336g, 20.0mm, 180o, 328 A.D.; Obverse: CONSTANTI-NVS MAX AVG, laurel and rosette diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: CONSTANTINI-ANA DAFNE, Victory seated left on cippus, head right, palm frond in each hand, trophy and captive before, CONS in exergue, B left; scarce. Ex FORVM.

"The information about Constantine's campaign across [the Danube] is obscure and untrustworthy. The question, therefore, of what he achieved by this enterprise was, and is, subject to contradictory interpretations. On the one hand, the Panegyrists claimed that he had repeated the triumphs of Trajan. On the other, his own nephew, Julian the Apostate, spoke for many when he expressed the view that this second 'conquest' of Dacia was incomplete and extremely brief . . . monetary commemoration was accorded to the building, at about the same time [AD 328], of the river frontier fortress of Constantiniana Dafne (Spantov, near Oltenita) . . ." (Grant, Michael. The Emperor Constantine. London: Phoenix, 1998. 58-9).

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
1 commentsCleisthenes
CrispusRIC17.jpg
1404a, Crispus, Caesar 317 - 326 A.D. 39 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC 17, aEF, Cyzicus mint, 3.196g, 19.9mm, 315o, 321 - 324 A.D.; Obverse: D N FL IVL CRISPVS NOB CAES, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: IOVI CONSERVATORI, Jupiter standing left holding Victory on globe in right and scepter in left, eagle with wreath in beak to left, X / IIG and captive right, SMKD in exergue; scarce (RIC R3). Ex FORVM.


De Imperatoribus Romanis;
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors and their Families

Crispus Caesar (317-326 A.D.)

Hans Pohlsander
SUNY Albany

Crispus was the oldest son of the emperor Constantine I and played a fairly important role in the political and military events of the early fourth century. The regular form of his full name is Flavius Iulius Crispus, although the forms Flavius Claudius Crispus and Flavius Valerius Crispus also occur. His mother was a woman named Minervina, with whom Constantine had a relationship, probably illegitimate, before he married Fausta in 307. When Minervina died or when Constantine put her aside we do not know. Nor do we know when she gave birth to Crispus; we may assume, of course, that it was before 307. Some modern authorities, on good grounds, think that it was in 305. Crispus' place of birth must have been somewhere in the East, and it is not known when he was brought to Gaul and when, where, or under what circumstances he was separated from his mother.

Constantine entrusted the education of his son to the distinguished Christian scholar Lactantius, thereby giving a clear sign of his commitment to Christianity. We are not told when Lactantius assumed his duties, but a date before 317 seems likely. Nor do we know how successful he was in instilling Christian beliefs and values in his imperial pupil. No later than January of 322 Crispus must have married a woman named Helena -- not to be confused with Constantine's mother or daughter by the same name- and this woman bore him a child in October of 322. Constantine, we learn, was pleased.

Crispus' official career began at an early age and is well documented. On March 1 of 317, at Serdica (modern Sofia), his father appointed him Caesar. The consulship was his three times, in 318, 321, and 324. While nominally in charge of Gaul, with a prefect at his side, he successfully undertook military operations against the Franks and Alamanni in 320 and 323.

In 324, during the second war between Constantine and Licinius, he excelled as commander of Constantine's fleet in the waters of the Hellespont, the Propontis, and the Bosporus, thus making a significant contribution to the outcome of that war. The high points of his career are amply reflected in the imperial coinage. In addition to coins, we have his portrait, with varying degrees of certainty, in a number of sculptures, mosaics, cameos, etc. Contemporary authors heap praises upon him. Thus the panegyrist Nazarius speaks of Crispus' "magnificent deeds," and Eusebius calls him "an emperor most dear to God and in all regards comparable to his father."

Crispus' end was as tragic as his career had been brilliant. His own father ordered him to be put to death. We know the year of this sad event, 326, from the Consularia Constantinopolitana, and the place, Pola in Istria, from Ammianus Marcellinus. The circumstances, however, are less clear. Zosimus (6th c.) and Zonaras (12th c.) both report that Crispus and his stepmother Fausta were involved in an illicit relationship. There may be as much gossip as fact in their reports, but it is certain that at some time during the same year the emperor ordered the death of his own wife as well, and the two cases must be considered together. That Crispus and Fausta plotted treason is reported by Gregory of Tours, but not very believable. We must resolutely reject the claim of Zosimus that it was Constantine's sense of guilt over these deeds which caused him to accept Christianity, as it alone promised him forgiveness for his sins. A similar claim had already been made by Julian the Apostate. We must also, I think, reject the suggestion of Guthrie that the emperor acted in the interest of "dynastic legitimacy," that is, that he removed his illegitimate first-born son in order to secure the succession for his three legitimate younger sons. But Crispus must have committed, or at least must have been suspected of having committed, some especially shocking offense to earn him a sentence of death from his own father. He also suffered damnatio memoriae, his honor was never restored, and history has not recorded the fate of his wife and his child (or children).

Copyright (C) 1997, Hans A. Pohlsander. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis;An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors and their Families:
http://www.roman-emperors.org/crispus.htm


What If?

St. Nectarios, in his book, The Ecumenical Synods, writes "Hellenism spread by Alexander paved the way for Christianity by Emperor Constantine the Great."

Constantine's upward gaze on his "Eyes to Heaven" coins recall the coin portraits of Alexander the Great (namely coins struck by the Diodochi), which served as prototypes for the divine ruler portraiture of much of the Hellenistic age. The diadem, of which this is the most elaborate type, was adopted by Constantine and the members of his house as a new symbol of sovereignty.

In the Greek Orthodox Church, Constantine the Great is revered as a Saint.

Is it just possible? Constantine, knowing what happened (or thinking that he does) to Phillip II of Macedon—assassinated on the eve of his greatness, in a plot that most likely involved his wife—and possibly his son. . . isn’t it just possible that Constantine is growing obsessively jealous of his ever more successful and adulated son? Imagine the Constantine who has proven time and again (think: Licinius) that he is a completely self-serving liar and a murderer, decides to murder again? Why "must we resolutely reject the claim of Zosimus that it was Constantine's sense of guilt over these deeds which caused him to accept Christianity, as it alone promised him forgiveness for his sins [?] (see: above). A similar claim had already been made by Julian the [Philosopher]."

Perhaps it is time to cease being apologists for the sometime megalomaniacal Constantine. As Michael Grant notes, "It is a mocking travesty of justice to call such a murderer Constantine the Great . . ." (Grant, Michael. The Emperor Constantine. London: Phoenix Press, 1998. 226).


Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.


Cleisthenes
crispus_votV.jpg
1404b, Crispus, Caesar 317 - 326 A.D. (Thessalonica)35 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC 118, VF, Thessalonica mint, 2.740g, 18.0mm, 180o, 320 - 321 A.D. Obverse: FL IVL CRISPVS NOB CAES, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust left; Reverse: CAESARVM NOSTRORVM, VOT V in wreath, TSDVI in exergue.

Flavius Julius Crispus was the son of Constantine I by his first wife. A brilliant soldier, Crispus was well loved by all until 326 A.D., when Constantine had him executed. It is said that Fausta, Crispus stepmother, anxious to secure the succession for her own sons falsely accused Crispus of raping her. Constantine, learning of Fausta`s treachery, had her executed too.


De Imperatoribus Romanis;
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors and their Families

Crispus Caesar (317-326 A.D.)

Hans Pohlsander
SUNY Albany

Crispus was the oldest son of the emperor Constantine I and played a fairly important role in the political and military events of the early fourth century. The regular form of his full name is Flavius Iulius Crispus, although the forms Flavius Claudius Crispus and Flavius Valerius Crispus also occur. His mother was a woman named Minervina, with whom Constantine had a relationship, probably illegitimate, before he married Fausta in 307. When Minervina died or when Constantine put her aside we do not know. Nor do we know when she gave birth to Crispus; we may assume, of course, that it was before 307. Some modern authorities, on good grounds, think that it was in 305. Crispus' place of birth must have been somewhere in the East, and it is not known when he was brought to Gaul and when, where, or under what circumstances he was separated from his mother.

Constantine entrusted the education of his son to the distinguished Christian scholar Lactantius, thereby giving a clear sign of his commitment to Christianity. We are not told when Lactantius assumed his duties, but a date before 317 seems likely. Nor do we know how successful he was in instilling Christian beliefs and values in his imperial pupil. No later than January of 322 Crispus must have married a woman named Helena -- not to be confused with Constantine's mother or daughter by the same name- and this woman bore him a child in October of 322. Constantine, we learn, was pleased.

Crispus' official career began at an early age and is well documented. On March 1 of 317, at Serdica (modern Sofia), his father appointed him Caesar. The consulship was his three times, in 318, 321, and 324. While nominally in charge of Gaul, with a prefect at his side, he successfully undertook military operations against the Franks and Alamanni in 320 and 323.

In 324, during the second war between Constantine and Licinius, he excelled as commander of Constantine's fleet in the waters of the Hellespont, the Propontis, and the Bosporus, thus making a significant contribution to the outcome of that war. The high points of his career are amply reflected in the imperial coinage. In addition to coins, we have his portrait, with varying degrees of certainty, in a number of sculptures, mosaics, cameos, etc. Contemporary authors heap praises upon him. Thus the panegyrist Nazarius speaks of Crispus' "magnificent deeds," and Eusebius calls him "an emperor most dear to God and in all regards comparable to his father."

Crispus' end was as tragic as his career had been brilliant. His own father ordered him to be put to death. We know the year of this sad event, 326, from the Consularia Constantinopolitana, and the place, Pola in Istria, from Ammianus Marcellinus. The circumstances, however, are less clear. Zosimus (6th c.) and Zonaras (12th c.) both report that Crispus and his stepmother Fausta were involved in an illicit relationship. There may be as much gossip as fact in their reports, but it is certain that at some time during the same year the emperor ordered the death of his own wife as well, and the two cases must be considered together. That Crispus and Fausta plotted treason is reported by Gregory of Tours, but not very believable. We must resolutely reject the claim of Zosimus that it was Constantine's sense of guilt over these deeds which caused him to accept Christianity, as it alone promised him forgiveness for his sins. A similar claim had already been made by Julian the Apostate. We must also, I think, reject the suggestion of Guthrie that the emperor acted in the interest of "dynastic legitimacy," that is, that he removed his illegitimate first-born son in order to secure the succession for his three legitimate younger sons. But Crispus must have committed, or at least must have been suspected of having committed, some especially shocking offense to earn him a sentence of death from his own father. He also suffered damnatio memoriae, his honor was never restored, and history has not recorded the fate of his wife and his child (or children).

Copyright (C) 1997, Hans A. Pohlsander. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis;An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors and their Families:
http://www.roman-emperors.org/crispus.htm


What If?

St. Nectarios, in his book, The Ecumenical Synods, writes "Hellenism spread by Alexander paved the way for Christianity by Emperor Constantine the Great."

Constantine's upward gaze on his "Eyes to Heaven" coins recall the coin portraits of Alexander the Great (namely coins struck by the Diodochi), which served as prototypes for the divine ruler portraiture of much of the Hellenistic age. The diadem, of which this is the most elaborate type, was adopted by Constantine and the members of his house as a new symbol of sovereignty.

In the Greek Orthodox Church, Constantine the Great is revered as a Saint.

Is it just possible? Constantine, knowing what happened (or thinking that he does) to Phillip II of Macedon—assassinated on the eve of his greatness, in a plot that most likely involved his wife—and possibly his son. . . isn’t it just possible that Constantine is growing obsessively jealous of his ever more successful and adulated son? Imagine the Constantine who has proven time and again (think: Licinius) that he is a completely self-serving liar and a murderer, decides to murder again? Why "must we resolutely reject the claim of Zosimus that it was Constantine's sense of guilt over these deeds which caused him to accept Christianity, as it alone promised him forgiveness for his sins [?] (see: above). A similar claim had already been made by Julian the [Philosopher]."

Perhaps it is time to cease being apologists for the sometime megalomaniacal Constantine. As Michael Grant notes, "It is a mocking travesty of justice to call such a murderer Constantine the Great . . ." (Grant, Michael. The Emperor Constantine. London: Phoenix Press, 1998. 226).


Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
U809F1JMXNTCBT.jpg
1407a, Constantius II, 337-361 A.D. (Antioch)51 viewsAE4, 337-361 A.D. Antioch, aVF/VF,Obv:– DN CONSTANTIVS P F AVG, Pearl and rosette diadem, head right/R: Wreath with VOT XX MVLT XXX, SMANB in exe.RIC VIII Antioch 113,Item ref: RI170b.

AE3, 2.80 grams, 330-333, Heraclea, aVF. Obv: FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C - Laureate bust right, draped and cuirassed. R: GLOR-IA EXERC-ITVS - Two soldiers looking in at each other and both holding a spear; between them, two standards Exe: SMHB.

Constantius II was born in Illyricum in August AD 317, the son of Constantine the Great and Fausta, and was proclaimed Caesar in AD 323.

In AD 337, at the death of his father Constantine, he acceded to the throne together with his two brothers Constantine II and Constans. But this accession by the three brothers was tainted by the murder of their cousins Dalmatius and Hannibalianus, whom Constantine had also intended as joint heirs. These murders are believed to have been masterminded by Constantius II.

Eventually, Constantius II was left as the sole emperor of the Roman empire. Constantius elevated his cousin, Julian, to the rank of Caesar (junior emperor) and gave him his sister Helena in marriage. Julian was assigned the task of dealing with the Frankish leader, Silvanus, who had proclaimed himself emepror at Colonia Agrippina. Julian's success led his men to declare him Augustus. Julian, while reluctant to take the throne, accepted.

Constantius II, therefore, left the Mesopotamian frontier and marched his troops west, seeking to deal with the usurper. As he reached Cilicia in the winter of AD 361, he was overcome by a sudden fever and died at Mopsucrene. Julian, the Apostate, succeded him as Emperor.

Our chief source for Constantius' reign is the great historian Ammianus Marcellinus. He presents a mixed view of that emperor. In some ways a sound administrator and competent general, Constantius is also portrayed as easily influenced by those around him such as his wives, courtiers and the eunuchs of the court (Ammianus 21. 16. 16). Ammianus (21.16.18) also attacks Constantius' great interest in Church affairs--alleging that he bankrupted the courier service with calls for Church councils. Of course, imperial interest in Church affairs was a major policy of his father Constantine and it may be that Constantius was trying to emulate his model (if only with mixed success). Indeed, Constantius II (like his brothers Constantine II and Constans) was raised a Christian. Among his many laws is the famous CTh 16.10.2 of 341 which either prohibited or re-issued his father's prohibition of pagan sacrifices. Sympathetic to Arianism, he spent a great deal of his reign calling Church councils. One of the longest-reigned emperors in Roman history, Constantius is hard for the modern historian to fully understand both due to his own actions and due to the interests of the authors of primary sources for his reign.

By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University & Robert Frakes, Clarion University
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

1 commentsCleisthenes
Cnstntius2b.jpg
1407h, Constantius II, 337-361 A.D. (Heraclea)32 viewsConstantius II 337-361 A.D. AE3, 2.80 grams, 330-333, Heraclea, aVF. Obverse: FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C - Laureate bust right, draped and cuirassed; Reverse: GLOR-IA EXERC-ITVS - Two soldiers looking in at each other and both holding a spear; between them, two standards; SMHB in exergue.

Constantius II was born in Illyricum in August AD 317, the son of Constantine the Great and Fausta, and was proclaimed Caesar in AD 323.

In AD 337, at the death of his father Constantine, he acceded to the throne together with his two brothers Constantine II and Constans. But this accession by the three brothers was tainted by the murder of their cousins Dalmatius and Hannibalianus, whom Constantine had also intended as joint heirs. These murders are believed to have been masterminded by Constantius II.

Eventually, Constantius II was left as the sole emperor of the Roman empire. Constantius elevated his cousin, Julian, to the rank of Caesar (junior emperor) and gave him his sister Helena in marriage. Julian was assigned the task of dealing with the Frankish leader, Silvanus, who had proclaimed himself emepror at Colonia Agrippina. Julian's success led his men to declare him Augustus. Julian, while reluctant to take the throne, accepted.

Constantius II, therefore, left the Mesopotamian frontier and marched his troops west, seeking to deal with the usurper. As he reached Cilicia in the winter of AD 361, he was overcome by a sudden fever and died at Mopsucrene. Julian, the Apostate, succeded him as Emperor.

Our chief source for Constantius' reign is the great historian Ammianus Marcellinus. He presents a mixed view of that emperor. In some ways a sound administrator and competent general, Constantius is also portrayed as easily influenced by those around him such as his wives, courtiers and the eunuchs of the court (Ammianus 21. 16. 16). Ammianus (21.16.18) also attacks Constantius' great interest in Church affairs--alleging that he bankrupted the courier service with calls for Church councils. Of course, imperial interest in Church affairs was a major policy of his father Constantine and it may be that Constantius was trying to emulate his model (if only with mixed success). Indeed, Constantius II (like his brothers Constantine II and Constans) was raised a Christian. Among his many laws is the famous CTh 16.10.2 of 341 which either prohibited or re-issued his father's prohibition of pagan sacrifices. Sympathetic to Arianism, he spent a great deal of his reign calling Church councils. One of the longest-reigned emperors in Roman history, Constantius is hard for the modern historian to fully understand both due to his own actions and due to the interests of the authors of primary sources for his reign.
By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University & Robert Frakes, Clarion University
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
Constantius II.jpg
1407r, Constantius II, 22 May 337 - 3 November 361 A.D.39 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC 272, aVF, 2.203g, 18.1mm, 0o, Rome mint, 352 - 355 A.D.; obverse D N CONSTAN-TIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse FEL TEMP REPARATIO, soldier spearing fallen horseman, RT in ex.

Constantius II was born in Illyricum in August AD 317, the son of Constantine the Great and Fausta, and was proclaimed Caesar in AD 323.

In AD 337, at the death of his father Constantine, he acceded to the throne together with his two brothers Constantine II and Constans. But this accession by the three brothers was tainted by the murder of their cousins Dalmatius and Hannibalianus, whom Constantine had also intended as joint heirs. These murders are believed to have been masterminded by Constantius II.

Eventually, Constantius II was left as the sole emperor of the Roman empire. Constantius elevated Julian to the rank of Caesar (junior emperor) and gave him his sister Helena in marriage. Julian was assigned the task of dealing with the Frankish leader, Silvanus, who had proclaimed himself emepror at Colonia Agrippina. Julian's success lead his men to declare him Augustus. Julian, while reluctant to take the throne, accepted.

Constantius II, therefore left the Mesopotamian frontier and marched his troops west, seeking to deal with the usurper. As he reached Cilicia in the winter of AD 361, he was overcome by a sudden fever and died at Mopsucrene. Julian, the Apostate, succeded him as Emperor.

Our chief source for Constantius' reign is the great historian Ammianus Marcellinus. He presents a mixed view of that emperor. In some ways a sound administrator and competent general, Constantius is also portrayed as easily influenced by those around him such as his wives, courtiers and the eunuchs of the court (Ammianus 21. 16. 16). Ammianus (21.16.18) also attacks Constantius' great interest in Church affairs--alleging that he bankrupted the courier service with calls for Church councils. Of course, imperial interest in Church affairs was a major policy of his father Constantine and it may be that Constantius was trying to emulate his model (if only with mixed success). Indeed, Constantius II (like his brothers Constantine II and Constans) was raised a Christian. Among his many laws is the famous CTh 16.10.2 of 341 which either prohibited or re-issued his father's prohibition of pagan sacrifices. Sympathetic to Arianism, he spent a great deal of his reign calling Church councils. One of the longest-reigned emperors in Roman history, Constantius is hard for the modern historian to fully understand both due to his own actions and due to the interests of the authors of primary sources for his reign.

By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University & Robert Frakes, Clarion University
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.



Cleisthenes
Julian2VotXConstantinople.jpg
1409a, Julian II "the Philosopher," February 360 - 26 June 363 A.D.143 viewsJulian II, A.D. 360-363; RIC 167; VF; 2.7g, 20mm; Constantinople mint; Obverse: DN FL CL IVLIANVS P F AVG, helmeted & cuirassed bust right, holding spear & shield; Reverse: VOT X MVLT XX in four lines within wreath; CONSPB in exergue; Attractive green patina. Ex Nemesis.


De Imperatoribus Romanis,
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Julian the Apostate (360-363 A.D.)

Walter E. Roberts, Emory University
Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University

Introduction

The emperor Flavius Claudius Julianus reigned from 360 to 26 June 363, when he was killed fighting against the Persians. Despite his short rule, his emperorship was pivotal in the development of the history of the later Roman empire. This essay is not meant to be a comprehensive look at the various issues central to the reign of Julian and the history of the later empire. Rather, this short work is meant to be a brief history and introduction for the general reader. Julian was the last direct descendent of the Constantinian line to ascend to the purple, and it is one of history's great ironies that he was the last non-Christian emperor. As such, he has been vilified by most Christian sources, beginning with John Chrysostom and Gregory Nazianzus in the later fourth century. This tradition was picked up by the fifth century Eusebian continuators Sozomen, Socrates Scholasticus, and Theodoret and passed on to scholars down through the 20th century. Most contemporary sources, however, paint a much more balanced picture of Julian and his reign. The adoption of Christianity by emperors and society, while still a vital concern, was but one of several issues that concerned Julian.

It is fortunate that extensive writings from Julian himself exist, which help interpret his reign in the light of contemporary evidence. Still extant are some letters, several panegyrics, and a few satires. Other contemporary sources include the soldier Ammianus Marcellinus' history, correspondence between Julian and Libanius of Antioch, several panegyrics, laws from the Theodosian Code, inscriptions, and coinage. These sources show Julian's emphasis on restoration. He saw himself as the restorer of the traditional values of Roman society. Of course much of this was rhetoric, meant to defend Julian against charges that he was a usurper. At the same time this theme of restoration was central to all emperors of the fourth century. Julian thought that he was the one emperor who could regain what was viewed as the lost glory of the Roman empire. To achieve this goal he courted select groups of social elites to get across his message of restoration. This was the way that emperors functioned in the fourth century. By choosing whom to include in the sharing of power, they sought to shape society.

Early Life

Julian was born at Constantinople in 331. His father was Julius Constantius, half-brother of the emperor Constantine through Constantius Chlorus, and his mother was Basilina, Julius' second wife. Julian had two half-brothers via Julius' first marriage. One of these was Gallus, who played a major role in Julian's life. Julian appeared destined for a bright future via his father's connection to the Constantinian house. After many years of tense relations with his three half-brothers, Constantine seemed to have welcomed them into the fold of the imperial family. From 333 to 335, Constantine conferred a series of honors upon his three half-siblings, including appointing Julius Constantius as one of the consuls for 335. Julian's mother was equally distinguished. Ammianus related that she was from a noble family. This is supported by Libanius, who claimed that she was the daughter of Julius Julianus, a Praetorian Prefect under Licinius, who was such a model of administrative virtue that he was pardoned and honored by Constantine.

Despite the fact that his mother died shortly after giving birth to him, Julian experienced an idyllic early childhood. This ended when Constantius II conducted a purge of many of his relatives shortly after Constantine's death in 337, particularly targeting the families of Constantine's half-brothers. ulian and Gallus were spared, probably due to their young age. Julian was put under the care of Mardonius, a Scythian eunuch who had tutored his mother, in 339, and was raised in the Greek philosophical tradition, and probably lived in Nicomedia. Ammianus also supplied the fact that while in Nicomedia, Julian was cared for by the local bishop Eusebius, of whom the future emperor was a distant relation. Julian was educated by some of the most famous names in grammar and rhetoric in the Greek world at that time, including Nicocles and Hecebolius. In 344 Constantius II sent Julian and Gallus to Macellum in Cappadocia, where they remained for six years. In 351, Gallus was made Caesar by Constantius II and Julian was allowed to return to Nicomedia, where he studied under Aedesius, Eusebius, and Chrysanthius, all famed philosophers, and was exposed to the Neo-Platonism that would become such a prominent part of his life. But Julian was most proud of the time he spent studying under Maximus of Ephesus, a noted Neo-Platonic philospher and theurgist. It was Maximus who completed Julian's full-scale conversion to Neo-Platonism. Later, when he was Caesar, Julian told of how he put letters from this philosopher under his pillows so that he would continue to absorb wisdom while he slept, and while campaigning on the Rhine, he sent his speeches to Maximus for approval before letting others hear them. When Gallus was executed in 354 for treason by Constantius II, Julian was summoned to Italy and essentially kept under house arrest at Comum, near Milan, for seven months before Constantius' wife Eusebia convinced the emperor that Julian posed no threat. This allowed Julian to return to Greece and continue his life as a scholar where he studied under the Neo-Platonist Priscus. Julian's life of scholarly pursuit, however, ended abruptly when he was summoned to the imperial court and made Caesar by Constantius II on 6 November 355.

Julian as Caesar

Constantius II realized an essential truth of the empire that had been evident since the time of the Tetrarchy--the empire was too big to be ruled effectively by one man. Julian was pressed into service as Caesar, or subordinate emperor, because an imperial presence was needed in the west, in particular in the Gallic provinces. Julian, due to the emperor's earlier purges, was the only viable candidate of the imperial family left who could act as Caesar. Constantius enjoined Julian with the task of restoring order along the Rhine frontier. A few days after he was made Caesar, Julian was married to Constantius' sister Helena in order to cement the alliance between the two men. On 1 December 355, Julian journeyed north, and in Augusta Taurinorum he learned that Alamannic raiders had destroyed Colonia Agrippina. He then proceeded to Vienne where he spent the winter. At Vienne, he learned that Augustudunum was also under siege, but was being held by a veteran garrison. He made this his first priority, and arrived there on 24 June 356. When he had assured himself that the city was in no immediate danger, he journeyed to Augusta Treverorum via Autessioduram, and from there to Durocortorum where he rendezvoused with his army. Julian had the army stage a series of punitive strikes around the Dieuse region, and then he moved them towards the Argentoratum/Mongontiacum region when word of barbarian incursions reached him.

From there, Julian moved on to Colonia Agrippina, and negotiated a peace with the local barbarian leaders who had assaulted the city. He then wintered at Senonae. He spent the early part of the campaigning season of 357 fighting off besiegers at Senonae, and then conducting operations around Lugdunum and Tres Tabernae. Later that summer, he encountered his watershed moment as a military general. Ammianus went into great detail about Julian's victory over seven rogue Alamannic chieftains near Argentoratum, and Julian himself bragged about it in his later writing. After this battle, the soldiers acclaimed Julian Augustus, but he rejected this title. After mounting a series of follow-up raids into Alamannic territory, he retired to winter quarters at Lutetia, and on the way defeated some Frankish raiders in the Mosa region. Julian considered this campaign one of the major events of his time as Caesar.

Julian began his 358 military campaigns early, hoping to catch the barbarians by surprise. His first target was the Franks in the northern Rhine region. He then proceeded to restore some forts in the Mosa region, but his soldiers threatened to mutiny because they were on short rations and had not been paid their donative since Julian had become Caesar. After he soothed his soldiers, Julian spent the rest of the summer negotiating a peace with various Alamannic leaders in the mid and lower Rhine areas, and retired to winter quarters at Lutetia. In 359, he prepared once again to carry out a series of punitive expeditions against the Alamanni in the Rhine region who were still hostile to the Roman presence. In preparation, the Caesar repopulated seven previously destroyed cities and set them up as supply bases and staging areas. This was done with the help of the people with whom Julian had negotiated a peace the year before. Julian then had a detachment of lightly armed soldiers cross the Rhine near Mogontiacum and conduct a guerilla strike against several chieftains. As a result of these campaigns, Julian was able to negotiate a peace with all but a handful of the Alamannic leaders, and he retired to winter quarters at Lutetia.

Of course, Julian did more than act as a general during his time as Caesar. According to Ammianus, Julian was an able administrator who took steps to correct the injustices of Constantius' appointees. Ammianus related the story of how Julian prevented Florentius, the Praetorian Prefect of Gaul, from raising taxes, and also how Julian actually took over as governor for the province of Belgica Secunda. Hilary, bishop of Poitiers, supported Ammianus' basic assessment of Julian in this regard when he reported that Julian was an able representative of the emperor to the Gallic provincials. There is also epigraphic evidence to support Julian's popularity amongst the provincial elites. An inscription found near Beneventum in Apulia reads:
"To Flavius Claudius Julianus, most noble and sanctified Caesar, from the caring Tocius Maximus, vir clarissimus, for the care of the res publica from Beneventum".

Tocius Maximus, as a vir clarissimus, was at the highest point in the social spectrum and was a leader in his local community. This inscription shows that Julian was successful in establishing a positive image amongst provincial elites while he was Caesar.

Julian Augustus

In early 360, Constantius, driven by jealousy of Julian's success, stripped Julian of many troops and officers, ostensibly because the emperor needed them for his upcoming campaign against the Persians. One of the legions ordered east, the Petulantes, did not want to leave Gaul because the majority of the soldiers in the unit were from this region. As a result they mutinied and hailed Julian as Augustus at Lutetia. Julian refused this acclamation as he had done at Argentoratum earlier, but the soldiers would have none of his denial. They raised him on a shield and adorned him with a neck chain, which had formerly been the possession of the standard-bearer of the Petulantes and symbolized a royal diadem. Julian appeared reluctantly to acquiesce to their wishes, and promised a generous donative. The exact date of his acclamation is unknown, but most scholars put it in February or March. Julian himself supported Ammianus' picture of a jealous Constantius. In his Letter to the Athenians, a document constructed to answer charges that he was a usurper, Julian stated that from the start he, as Caesar, had been meant as a figurehead to the soldiers and provincials. The real power he claimed lay with the generals and officials already present in Gaul. In fact, according to Julian, the generals were charged with watching him as much as the enemy. His account of the actual acclamation closely followed what Ammianus told us, but he stressed even more his reluctance to take power. Julian claimed that he did so only after praying to Zeus for guidance.

Fearing the reaction of Constantius, Julian sent a letter to his fellow emperor justifying the events at Lutetia and trying to arrange a peaceful solution. This letter berated Constantius for forcing the troops in Gaul into an untenable situation. Ammianus stated that Julian's letter blamed Constantius' decision to transfer Gallic legions east as the reason for the soldiers' rebellion. Julian once again asserted that he was an unwilling participant who was only following the desire of the soldiers. In both of these basic accounts Ammianus and Julian are playing upon the theme of restoration. Implicit in their version of Julian's acclamation is the argument that Constantius was unfit to rule. The soldiers were the vehicle of the gods' will. The Letter to the Athenians is full of references to the fact that Julian was assuming the mantle of Augustus at the instigation of the gods. Ammianus summed up this position nicely when he related the story of how, when Julian was agonizing over whether to accept the soldiers' acclamation, he had a dream in which he was visited by the Genius (guardian spirit) of the Roman state. The Genius told Julian that it had often tried to bestow high honors upon Julian but had been rebuffed. Now, the Genius went on to say, was Julian's final chance to take the power that was rightfully his. If the Caesar refused this chance, the Genius would depart forever, and both Julian and the state would rue Julian's rejection. Julian himself wrote a letter to his friend Maximus of Ephesus in November of 361 detailing his thoughts on his proclamation. In this letter, Julian stated that the soldiers proclaimed him Augustus against his will. Julian, however, defended his accession, saying that the gods willed it and that he had treated his enemies with clemency and justice. He went on to say that he led the troops in propitiating the traditional deities, because the gods commanded him to return to the traditional rites, and would reward him if he fulfilled this duty.

During 360 an uneasy peace simmered between the two emperors. Julian spent the 360 campaigning season continuing his efforts to restore order along the Rhine, while Constantius continued operations against the Persians. Julian wintered in Vienne, and celebrated his Quinquennalia. It was at this time that his wife Helena died, and he sent her remains to Rome for a proper burial at his family villa on the Via Nomentana where the body of her sister was entombed. The uneasy peace held through the summer of 361, but Julian concentrated his military operations around harassing the Alamannic chieftain Vadomarius and his allies, who had concluded a peace treaty with Constantius some years earlier. By the end of the summer, Julian decided to put an end to the waiting and gathered his army to march east against Constantius. The empire teetered on the brink of another civil war. Constantius had spent the summer negotiating with the Persians and making preparations for possible military action against his cousin. When he was assured that the Persians would not attack, he summoned his army and sallied forth to meet Julian. As the armies drew inexorably closer to one another, the empire was saved from another bloody civil war when Constantius died unexpectedly of natural causes on 3 November near the town of Mopsucrenae in Cilicia, naming Julian -- the sources say-- as his legitimate successor.

Julian was in Dacia when he learned of his cousin's death. He made his way through Thrace and came to Constantinople on 11 December 361 where Julian honored the emperor with the funeral rites appropriate for a man of his station. Julian immediately set about putting his supporters in positions of power and trimming the imperial bureaucracy, which had become extremely overstaffed during Constantius' reign. Cooks and barbers had increased during the late emperor's reign and Julian expelled them from his court. Ammianus gave a mixed assessment of how the new emperor handled the followers of Constantius. Traditionally, emperors were supposed to show clemency to the supporters of a defeated enemy. Julian, however, gave some men over to death to appease the army. Ammianus used the case of Ursulus, Constantius' comes sacrum largitionum, to illustrate his point. Ursulus had actually tried to acquire money for the Gallic troops when Julian had first been appointed Caesar, but he had also made a disparaging remark about the ineffectiveness of the army after the battle of Amida. The soldiers remembered this, and when Julian became sole Augustus, they demanded Ursulus' head. Julian obliged, much to the disapproval of Ammianus. This seems to be a case of Julian courting the favor of the military leadership, and is indicative of a pattern in which Julian courted the goodwill of various societal elites to legitimize his position as emperor.

Another case in point is the officials who made up the imperial bureaucracy. Many of them were subjected to trial and punishment. To achieve this goal, during the last weeks of December 361 Julian assembled a military tribunal at Chalcedon, empanelling six judges to try the cases. The president of the tribunal was Salutius, just promoted to the rank of Praetorian Prefect; the five other members were Mamertinus, the orator, and four general officers: Jovinus, Agilo, Nevitta, and Arbetio. Relative to the proceedings of the tribunal, Ammianus noted that the judges, " . . . oversaw the cases more vehemently than was right or fair, with the exception of a few . . .." Ammianus' account of Julian's attempt at reform of the imperial bureaucracy is supported by legal evidence from the Theodosian Code. A series of laws sent to Mamertinus, Julian's appointee as Praetorian Prefect in Italy, Illyricum, and Africa, illustrate this point nicely. On 6 June 362, Mamertinus received a law that prohibited provincial governors from bypassing the Vicars when giving their reports to the Prefect. Traditionally, Vicars were given civil authority over a group of provinces, and were in theory meant to serve as a middle step between governors and Prefects. This law suggests that the Vicars were being left out, at least in Illyricum. Julian issued another edict to Mamertinus on 22 February 362 to stop abuse of the public post by governors. According to this law, only Mamertinus could issue post warrants, but the Vicars were given twelve blank warrants to be used as they saw fit, and each governor was given two. Continuing the trend of bureaucratic reform, Julian also imposed penalties on governors who purposefully delayed appeals in court cases they had heard. The emperor also established a new official to weigh solidi used in official government transactions to combat coin clipping.

For Julian, reigning in the abuses of imperial bureaucrats was one step in restoring the prestige of the office of emperor. Because he could not affect all elements of society personally, Julian, like other Neo-Flavian emperors, decided to concentrate on select groups of societal elites as intercessors between himself and the general populace. One of these groups was the imperial bureaucracy. Julian made it very clear that imperial officials were intercessors in a very real sense in a letter to Alypius, Vicar of Britain. In this letter, sent from Gaul sometime before 361, the emperor praises Alypius for his use of "mildness and moderation with courage and force" in his rule of the provincials. Such virtues were characteristic of the emperors, and it was good that Alypius is representing Julian in this way. Julian courted the army because it put him in power. Another group he sought to include in his rule was the traditional Senatorial aristocracy. One of his first appointments as consul was Claudius Mamertinus, a Gallic Senator and rhetorician. Mamertinus' speech in praise of Julian delivered at Constantinople in January of 362 is preserved. In this speech, Claudius presented his consular selection as inaugurating a new golden age and Julian as the restorer of the empire founded by Augustus. The image Mamertinus gave of his own consulate inaugurating a new golden age is not merely formulaic. The comparison of Julian to Augustus has very real, if implicit, relevance to Claudius' situation. Claudius emphasized the imperial period as the true age of renewal. Augustus ushered in a new era with his formation of a partnership between the emperor and the Senate based upon a series of honors and offices bestowed upon the Senate in return for their role as intercessor between emperor and populace. It was this system that Julian was restoring, and the consulate was one concrete example of this bond. To be chosen as a consul by the emperor, who himself had been divinely mandated, was a divine honor. In addition to being named consul, Mamertinus went on to hold several offices under Julian, including the Prefecture of Italy, Illyricum, and Africa. Similarly, inscriptional evidence illustrates a link between municipal elites and Julian during his time as Caesar, something which continued after he became emperor. One concrete example comes from the municipal senate of Aceruntia in Apulia, which established a monument on which Julian is styled as "Repairer of the World."

Julian seems to have given up actual Christian belief before his acclamation as emperor and was a practitioner of more traditional Greco-Roman religious beliefs, in particular, a follower of certain late antique Platonist philosophers who were especially adept at theurgy as was noted earlier. In fact Julian himself spoke of his conversion to Neo-Platonism in a letter to the Alexandrians written in 363. He stated that he had abandoned Christianity when he was twenty years old and been an adherent of the traditional Greco-Roman deities for the twelve years prior to writing this letter.

(For the complete text of this article see: http://www.roman-emperors.org/julian.htm)

Julian’s Persian Campaign

The exact goals Julian had for his ill-fated Persian campaign were never clear. The Sassanid Persians, and before them the Parthians, had been a traditional enemy from the time of the Late Republic, and indeed Constantius had been conducting a war against them before Julian's accession forced the former to forge an uneasy peace. Julian, however, had no concrete reason to reopen hostilities in the east. Socrates Scholasticus attributed Julian's motives to imitation of Alexander the Great, but perhaps the real reason lay in his need to gather the support of the army. Despite his acclamation by the Gallic legions, relations between Julian and the top military officers was uneasy at best. A war against the Persians would have brought prestige and power both to Julian and the army.

Julian set out on his fateful campaign on 5 March 363. Using his trademark strategy of striking quickly and where least expected, he moved his army through Heirapolis and from there speedily across the Euphrates and into the province of Mesopotamia, where he stopped at the town of Batnae. His plan was to eventually return through Armenia and winter in Tarsus. Once in Mesopotamia, Julian was faced with the decision of whether to travel south through the province of Babylonia or cross the Tigris into Assyria, and he eventually decided to move south through Babylonia and turn west into Assyria at a later date. By 27 March, he had the bulk of his army across the Euphrates, and had also arranged a flotilla to guard his supply line along the mighty river. He then left his generals Procopius and Sebastianus to help Arsacius, the king of Armenia and a Roman client, to guard the northern Tigris line. It was also during this time that he received the surrender of many prominent local leaders who had nominally supported the Persians. These men supplied Julian with money and troops for further military action against their former masters. Julian decided to turn south into Babylonia and proceeded along the Euphrates, coming to the fortress of Cercusium at the junction of the Abora and Euphrates Rivers around the first of April, and from there he took his army west to a region called Zaitha near the abandoned town of Dura where they visited the tomb of the emperor Gordian which was in the area. On April 7 he set out from there into the heart of Babylonia and towards Assyria.

Ammianus then stated that Julian and his army crossed into Assyria, which on the face of things appears very confusing. Julian still seems to be operating within the province of Babylonia between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. The confusion is alleviated when one realizes that,for Ammianus, the region of Assyria encompassed the provinces of Babylonia and Assyria. On their march, Julian's forces took the fortress of Anatha, received the surrender and support of several more local princes, and ravaged the countryside of Assyria between the rivers. As the army continued south, they came across the fortresses Thilutha and Achaiachala, but these places were too well defended and Julian decided to leave them alone. Further south were the cities Diacira and Ozogardana, which the Roman forces sacked and burned. Soon, Julian came to Pirisabora and a brief siege ensued, but the city fell and was also looted and destroyed. It was also at this time that the Roman army met its first systematic resistance from the Persians. As the Romans penetrated further south and west, the local inhabitants began to flood their route. Nevertheless, the Roman forces pressed on and came to Maiozamalcha, a sizable city not far from Ctesiphon. After a short siege, this city too fell to Julian. Inexorably, Julian's forces zeroed in on Ctesiphon, but as they drew closer, the Persian resistance grew fiercer, with guerilla raids whittling at Julian's men and supplies. A sizable force of the army was lost and the emperor himself was almost killed taking a fort a few miles from the target city.
Finally, the army approached Ctesiphon following a canal that linked the Tigris and Euphrates. It soon became apparent after a few preliminary skirmishes that a protracted siege would be necessary to take this important city. Many of his generals, however, thought that pursuing this course of action would be foolish. Julian reluctantly agreed, but became enraged by this failure and ordered his fleet to be burned as he decided to march through the province of Assyria. Julian had planned for his army to live off the land, but the Persians employed a scorched-earth policy. When it became apparent that his army would perish (because his supplies were beginning to dwindle) from starvation and the heat if he continued his campaign, and also in the face of superior numbers of the enemy, Julian ordered a retreat on 16 June. As the Roman army retreated, they were constantly harassed by guerilla strikes. It was during one of these raids that Julian got caught up in the fighting and took a spear to his abdomen. Mortally wounded he was carried to his tent, where, after conferring with some of his officers, he died. The date was 26 June 363.

Conclusion

Thus an ignominious end for a man came about who had hoped to restore the glory of the Roman empire during his reign as emperor. Due to his intense hatred of Christianity, the opinion of posterity has not been kind to Julian. The contemporary opinion, however, was overall positive. The evidence shows that Julian was a complex ruler with a definite agenda to use traditional social institutions in order to revive what he saw as a collapsing empire. In the final assessment, he was not so different from any of the other emperors of the fourth century. He was a man grasping desperately to hang on to a Greco-Roman conception of leadership that was undergoing a subtle yet profound change.
Copyright (C) 2002, Walter E. Roberts and Michael DiMaio, Jr. Used by permission.

In reality, Julian worked to promote culture and philosophy in any manifestation. He tried to reduce taxes and the public debts of municipalities; he augmented administrative decentralisation; he promoted a campaign of austerity to reduce public expenditure (setting himself as the example). He reformed the postal service and eliminated the powerful secret police.
by Federico Morando; JULIAN II, The Apostate, http://www.forumancientcoins.com/NumisWiki/view.asp?key=Julian%20II

Flavius Claudius Iulianus was born in 331 or maybe 332 A.D. in Constantinople. He ruled the Western Empire as Caesar from 355 to 360 and was hailed Augustus by his legions in Lutetia (Paris) in 360. Julian was a gifted administrator and military strategist. Famed as the last pagan emperor, his reinstatement of the pagan religion earned him the moniker "the Apostate." As evidenced by his brilliant writing, some of which has survived to the present day, the title "the Philosopher" may have been more appropriate. He died from wounds suffered during the Persian campaign of 363 A.D. Joseph Sermarini, FORVM.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.




2 commentsCleisthenes
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14th Century Handwritten Vellum Leaf of the Torah 18 viewsThis page of the Talmud predates publication of the first complete edition of the Talmud in 1540 by Daniel Bomberg. Bomberg employed rabbis, scholars, and apostates at his Venetian publishing house, and was responsible for the first Rabbinic Bible, as well as the first complete Babylonian and Jerusalem Talmuds. It was once customary for Jews to use old manuscripts as binding material for their newly printed and bound books. This piece is an example of that practice.

Ex Living Torah Museum collection
Quant.Geek
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177-192 AD - COMMODUS AR denarius - struck 191 AD39 viewsobv: M COMM ANT P FEL AVG BRIT P P (laureate head right)
rev: APOL PAL P M TR P XVI COS VI (Apollo attired in the stola, holding the plectrum in the right hand and resting his left on the lyre, which surmounts on a short column)
ref: RIC III 218 (S), C.24 (8frcs)
mint: Rome
2.7gms, 17mm
Scarce

Apollini Palatino – this coin has reference to the temple, which Emperor Augustus erected at Rome, in honour of his guardian divinity in the Palatium. This temple was destroyed by fire during the reign of Julian the Apostate.
berserker
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1ej Constantius II16 views337-361

Centenionalis

RIC 210?

Pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed bust, right, CONSTANTIVS P F AVG
Soldier spearing fallen horseman who is kneeling forwards on ground on hands and knees. Star in right field, FEL TEMP REPARATIO. Mintmark BSIS?

Constantius II got the East when the empire was divided after Constantine the Great's death. Zosimus recorded, "The empire being thus divided, Constantius who appeared to take pains not to fall short of his father in impiety, began by shedding the blood of his nearest relations. He first caused Constantius, his father's brother, to be murdered by the soldiers; next to whom he treated Dalmatius in the same manner, as also Optatus whom Constantine had raised to the rank of a Nobilissimate. Constantine indeed first introduced that order, and made a law, that every Nobilissimate should have precedence over of the prefects of the court. At that time, Ablabius prefect of the court was also put to death; and fate was just in his punishment, because he had concerted the murder of Sopatrus the philosopher, from envy of his familiarity with Constantine. Being unnatural towards all his relations, he included Hanniballianus with the rest, suborning the solders to cry out, that they would have no governors but the children of Constantine. Such were the exploits of Constantius." He defeated the usurper Magnentius in 351-353. He died of fever while marching to confront Julian the Apostate, who had been declared emperor in Paris.
Blindado
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1en Julian II "Apostate"26 views360-363

AE3

Pearl-diademed, helmeted, cuirassed bust left, holding shield & spear, D N FL CL IVLIANVS P F AVG
VOT X MVLT XX in four lines within wreath, palm branch-BSIS-palm branch in ex [?].

RIC 415

According to Zosimus: Constantius, having so well succeeded in his design against Vetranio, marched against Magnentius, having first conferred the title of Caesar on Gallus, the son of his uncle, and brother to Julian who was afterwards emperor, and given him in marriage his sister Constantia. . . . CONSTANTIUS, after having acted towards Gallus Caesar in the manner I have related, left Pannonia to proceed into Italy. . . . He scarcely thought himself capable of managing affairs at this critical period. He was unwilling, however, to associate any one with himself in the government, because he so much desired to rule alone, and could esteem no man his friend. Under these circumstances he was at a loss how to act. It happened, however, that when the empire was in the greatest danger, Eusebia, the wife of Constantius, who was a woman of extraordinary learning, and of greater wisdom than her sex is usually endowed with, advised him to confer the government of the nations beyond the Alps on Julianus Caesar, who was brother to Gallus, and grandson to Constantius. As she knew that the emperor was suspicious of all his kindred, she thus circumvented him. She observed to him, that Julian was a young man unacquainted with the intrigues of state, having devoted himself totally to his studies; and that he was wholly inexperienced in worldly business. That on this account he would be more fit for his purpose than any other person. That either he would be fortunate, and his success would be attributed to the emperor's conduct, or that he would fail and perish; and that thus Constantius would have none of the imperial family to succeed to him.

Constantius, having approved her advice, sent for Julian from Athens, where he lived among the philosophers, and excelled all his masters in every kind of learning. Accordingly, Julian returning from Greece into Italy, Constantius declared him Caesar, gave him in marriage his sister Helena, and sent him beyond the Alps. . . .

Constantius, having thus disposed of Julian, marched himself into Pannonia and Moesia, and having there suppressed the Quadi and the Sarmatians, proceeded to the east, and was provoked to war by the inroads of the Persians. Julian by this time had arrived beyond the Alps into the Gallic nations which he was to rule. Perceiving that the Barbarians continued committing the same violence, Eusebia, for the same reasons as before, persuaded Constantius to place the entire management of those countries into the hands of Julian. . . . Julian finding the military affairs of Gallia Celtica in a very ruinous state, and that the Barbarians pased the Rhine without any resistance, even almost as far as the sea-port towns, he took a survey of the remaining parts of the enemy. And understanding that the people of those parts were terrified at the very name of the Barbarians, while those whom Constantius had sent along with him, who were not more than three hundred and sixty, knew nothing more, as he used to say, than how to say their prayers, he enlisted as many more as he could and took in a great number of volunteers. He also provided arms, and finding a quantity of old weapons in some town he fitted them up, and distributed them among the soldiers. The scouts bringing him intelligence, that an immense number of Barbarians had crossed the river near the city of Argentoratum (Strasburg) which stands on the Rhine, he no sooner heard of it, than he led forth his army with the greatest speed, and engaging with the enemy gained such a victory as exceeds all description.

After these events he raised a great army to make war on the whole German nation; He was opposed however by the Barbarians in vast numbers. Caesar therefore would not wait while they came up to him, but crossed the Rhine, preferring that their country should be the seat of war, and not that of the Romans, as by that means the cities would escape being again pillaged by the Barbarians. A most furious battle therefore took place; a great number of the Barbarians being slain on the field of battle, while the rest fled, and were pursued by Caesar into the Hercynian forest, and many of them killed. . . .

But while Julian was at Parisium, a small town in Germany, the soldiers, being ready to march, continued at supper till midnight in a place near the palace, which they so called there. They were as yet ignorant of any design against Caesar [by Constantius], when some tribunes, who began to suspect the contrivance against him, privately distributed a number of anonymous billets among the soldiers, in which they represented to them, that Caesar, by his judicious conduct had so managed affairs, that almost all of them had erected trophies over the Barbarians ; that he had always fought like a private soldier, and was now in extreme danger from the emperor, who would shortly deprive him of his whole army, unless they prevented it. Some of the soldiers having read these billets, and published the intrigue to the whole army, all were highly enraged. They suddenly rose from their seats in great commotion, and with the cups yet in their hands went to the palace. Breaking open the doors without ceremony, they brought out Caesar, and lifting him on a shield declared him emperor and Augustus. They then, without attending to his reluctance, placed a diadem upon his head. . . .

Arriving at Naisus, he consulted the soothsayers what measures to pursue. As the entrails signified that he must stay there for some time, he obeyed, observing likewise the time that was mentioned in his dream. When this, according to the motion of the planets, was arrived, a party of horsemen arrived from Constantinople at Naisus, with intelligence that Constantius was dead, and that the armies desired Julian to be emperor. Upon this he accepted what the gods had bestowed upon him, and proceeded on his journey. On his arrival at. Byzantium, he was received with joyful acclamations. . . .

[After slashing through Persia and crossing the Tigris,] they perceived the Persian army, with which they engaged, and having considerably the advantage, they killed a great number of Persians. Upon the following day, about noon, the Persians drew up in a large body, and once more attacked the rear of the Roman army. The Romans, being at that time out of their ranks, were surprised and alarmed at the suddenness of the attack, yet made a stout and spirited defence. The emperor, according to his custom, went round the army, encouraging them to fight with ardour. When by this means all were engaged, the emperor, who sometimes rode to the commanders and tribunes, and was at other times among the private soldiers, received a wound in the heat of the engagement, and was borne on a shield to his tent. He survived only till midnight. He then expired, after having nearly subverted the Persian empire.

Note: Julian favored the pagan faith over Christianity and was tarred by the church as "the apostate."
Blindado
JulianIIAE1Bull.jpg
1i Last Bid to Revitalize Pagan Religion8 viewsJulian II
360-363

AE1

Portrait, right, D N FL CL IVLIANVS P F AVG
Bull, eagle, and two stars, SECVRITAS REIPVB, PCONST in ex.

Julian "the Apostate" issued this coin with the symbols of Jupiter on the reverse as part of his campaign to breath life back into pagan faith.

RIC 318
Blindado
JulIIVIIIConst150.jpg
355-360 AD - Julian II as Caesar - RIC VIII Constantinople 150 - SPES REIPVBLICE23 viewsCaesar: Julian II (Caes. 355-360 AD)
Date: 355-361 AD
Condition: Fair
Size: AE4

Obverse: DN CL IVLIANVS NOB CAES
Our Lord Claudius Julian Noble Caesar
Bust right; bare-headed, draped and cuirassed

Reverse: SPES REI-PVBLICE
Hope of the Republic.
Emperor, helmeted and in military dress, standing left, holding globe and spear.
Exergue: CONSS (Constantinople mint, sixth officina)

RIC VIII Constantinople 150
2.22g; 15.9mm; 180°
Pep
JulIIVIIISirm81.jpg
355-360 AD - Julian II as Caesar - RIC VIII Sirmium 081 - SPES REIPVBLICE32 viewsCaesar: Julian II (Caes. 355-360 AD)
Date: 355-361 AD
Condition: Fair/Fine
Size: AE3

Obverse: DN IVLIA-NVS NOB C
Our Lord Julian Noble Caesar
Bust right; bareheaded, draped and cuirassed

Reverse: SPES REI-PVBLICE
Hope of the Republic.
Emperor, helmeted and in military dress, standing left, holding globe and spear.
Exergue: (A?)SIRM (Sirmium mint, first? officina)

RIC VIII Sirmium 81
1.80g; 17.1mm; 195°
Pep
JulIIVIIISirm81or83.jpg
355-360 AD - Julian II as Caesar - RIC VIII Sirmium 081 or 083? - SPES REIPVBLICE44 viewsCaesar: Julian II (Caes. 355-360 AD)
Date: 355-361 AD
Condition: Fine
Size: AE4

Obverse: D N IVLIA-NVS NOB C
Our Lord Julian Noble Caesar
Bust right; bareheaded, draped and cuirassed

Reverse: SPES REI-PVBLICE
Hope of the Republic.
Emperor, helmeted and in military dress, standing left, holding globe and spear, a captive at his feet.
Exergue: unknown (SIRM?)

RIC VIII Sirmium 81 or 83?
1.99g; 16.5mm; 345°
Pep
JulVIIISis370.jpg
355-360 AD - Julian II as Caesar - RIC VIII Siscia 370 - FEL TEMP REPARATIO21 viewsCaesar: Julian II (Caes. 355-360 AD)
Date: 355-358 AD
Condition: aFine
Size: AE4

Obverse: DN IVLIANVS NOB CAES
Our Lord Julian Noble Caesar
Bust right; bare-headed, draped and cuirassed

Reverse: FEL TEMP - REPARATIO
The restoration of happy times.
Helmeted soldier to left, shield on left arm, spearing falling horseman, shield on ground at right, horseman wears pointed cap, turns to face soldier and extends left arm.
"M" in left field
Exergue: ?SIS (Siscia mint, unknown officina)

RIC VIII Siscia 370
2.00g; 16.7mm; 30°
Pep
coin203.JPG
508. Julian II33 viewsJulian II, the Apostate. 361-363 AD.

...Thus an ignominious end for a man came about who had hoped to restore the glory of the Roman empire during his reign as emperor. Due to his intense hatred of Christianity, the opinion of posterity has not been kind to Julian. The contemporary opinion, however, was overall positive. The evidence shows that Julian was a complex ruler with a definite agenda to use traditional social institutions in order to revive what he saw as a collapsing empire. In the final assessment, he was not so different from any of the other emperors of the fourth century. He was a man grasping desperately to hang on to a Greco-Roman conception of leadership that was undergoing a subtle yet profound change.

28mm (8.57 gm). Siscia mint. Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / Bull standing right, two stars above; ASISC. RIC VIII 419; LRBC--. VF. Ex-CNG
1 commentsecoli
coin274.JPG
509. Jovian21 views09. Jovian39 viewsJovian was born at Singidunum in A.D. 330, the son of the commander of Constantius II's imperial bodyguards. He also joined the guards and by A.D. 363 had risen to the post that his father had once held. He accompanied the Roman Emperor Julian on the disastrous Mesopotamian campain of the same year against Shapur II, the Sassanid king. After a small but decisive engagement the Roman army was forced to retreat from the numerically superior Persian force. Julian had been mortally wounded during the retreat and Jovian seized his chance. Some accounts have it that on Julian's death Jovian's soldiers called out "Jovianus!" The cry was mistaken for "Julianus", and the army cheered Jovian, briefly under the illusion that the slain Emperor had recovered from his wound.

Shapur pressed his advantage and Jovian, deep inside Sassanid territory, was forced to sue for peace on very unfavourable terms. In exchange for safety he agreed to withdraw from the provinces east of the Tigris that Diocletian had annexed and allow the Persians to occupy the fortresses of Nisbis, Castra Maurorum and Singara. the King of Armenia, Arsaces, was to stay neutral in future conflicts between the two empires, and was forced to cede some of his kingdom to Shapur. The treaty was seen as a disgrace and Jovian rapidly lost popularity.

After arriving at Antioch Jovian decided to hurry to Constantinople to consolidate his position.

Jovian was a Christian, in contrast to his predecessor Julian the Apostate, who had attempted a revival of paganism. He died on February 17, 364 after a reign of eight months.

Jovian AE3. D N IOVIA NVS P F AVG, diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right / VOT V MVLT X inside wreath
ecoli
01860q00.jpg
604. Leo I388 viewsImperator Caesar Flavius Valerius Leo Augustus or Leo I of the Byzantine Empire (401–474), reigned from 457 to 474, also known as Leo the Thracian, was the last of a series of emperors placed on the throne by Aspar, the Alan serving as commander-in-chief of the army. His coronation as emperor on February 7, 457, was the first known to involve the Patriarch of Constantinople. Leo I made an alliance with the Isaurians and was thus able to eliminate Aspar. The price of the alliance was the marriage of Leo's daughter to Tarasicodissa, leader of the Isaurians who, as Zeno, became emperor in 474.

During Leo's reign, the Balkans were ravaged time and again by the West Goths and the Huns. However, these attackers were unable to take Constantinople thanks to the walls which had been rebuilt and reinforced in the reign of Theodosius II and against which they possessed no suitable siege engines.

Leo's reign was also noteworthy for his influence in the Western Roman Empire, marked by his appointment of Anthemius as Western Roman Emperor in 467. He attempted to build on this political achievement with an expedition against the Vandals in 468, which was defeated due to the treachery and incompetence of Leo's brother-in-law Basiliscus. This disaster drained the Empire of men and money.

Leo's greatest influence in the West was largely inadvertent and at second-hand: the great Goth king Theodoric the Great was raised at the Leo's court in Constantinople, where he was steeped in Roman government and military tactics, which served him well when he returned after Leo's death to become the Goth ruler of a mixed but largely Romanized people.

Leo also published a New Constitutions or compilation of Law Code[1], Constitution LV concerned Judaism: "JEWS SHALL LIVE IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE RITES OF CHRISTIANITY. Those who formerly were invested with Imperial authority promulgated various laws with reference to the Hebrew people, who, once nourished by Divine protection, became renowned, but are now remarkable for the calamities inflicted upon them because of their contumacy towards Christ and God; and these laws, while regulating their mode of life, compelled them to read the Holy Scriptures, and ordered them not to depart from the ceremonies of their worship. They also provided that their children should adhere to their religion, being obliged to do so as well by the ties of blood, as on account of the institution of circumcision. These are the laws which I have already stated were formerly enforced throughout the Empire. But the Most Holy Sovereign from whom We are descended, more concerned than his predecessors for the salvation of the Jews, instead of allowing them (as they did) to obey only their ancient laws, attempted, by the interpretation of prophesies and the conclusions which he drew from them, to convert them to the Christian religion, by means of the vivifying water of baptism. He fully succeeded in his attempts to transform them into new men, according to the doctrine of Christ, and induced them to denounce their ancient doctrines and abandon their religious ceremonies, such as circumcision, the observance of the Sabbath, and all their other rites. But although he, to a certain extent, overcame the obstinacy of the Jews, he was unable to force them to abolish the laws which permitted them to live in accordance with their ancient customs. Therefore We, desiring to accomplish what Our Father failed to effect, do hereby annul all the old laws enacted with reference to the Hebrews, and We order that they shall not dare to live in any other manner than in accordance with the rules established by the pure and salutary Christian Faith. And if anyone of them should be proved to, have neglected to observe the ceremonies of the Christian religion, and to have returned to his former practices, he shall pay the penalty prescribed by the law for apostates."

Leo died of dysentery at the age of 73 on January 18, 474.

Bronze AE4, RIC 671, S 4340 var, VG, 1.17g, 10.3mm, 180o, Alexandria mint, obverse D N LEO P F AVG (or similar), pearl diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse Lion standing left, head right, cross above, ALEA in ex; very rare (R3); ex Forum
ecoli73
17910811_10154754189164011_895183192_n-side.jpg
62 Julian II RIC 22524 viewsJulian II 360-363 AD. AE1 (Double Maiorina). Tessalonica Mint.362-363 AD. (29.30mm) Obv: D N FL CL IVLI-ANVS P F AVG, bearded, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right. Rev: SECVRITAS REIPVB, bull standing right, head facing, two stars above. palm branch TESB palm branch in ex.
RIC 225
Actual name: Flavius Claudius Iulianus Augustus
Wildwinds: Julian II, "The Apostate": Caesar 355-360 AD, Augustus 360-363 AD. The last true "pagan" emperor who revered the ancient gods until the day he died in 363 from a javelin wound fighting the Persians.
Paddy
julian_II_the_barbarian.jpg
Barbaric Counterfeit: Apis bull10 viewsJulian II 'the Apostate,' February 360 - 26 June 363 A.D., Barbaric Counterfeit. 21530. Bronze AE 1, ancient counterfeit imitative of SRCV 4074, Fair, unofficial mint, 6.622g, 24.5mm, 90o, after 361 A.D.; obverse [D N FL CL IVLIANVS P F AVG], diademed draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse SECVRITAS REIPVB, Apis bull right, two stars above horns. Ex FORVMPodiceps
julian_bull_qq22.jpg
Bull - Julian II The Apostate654 viewsDN FL CL IVLI-ANVS PF AVG
SECVRITAS REI PVB
(feather)NIKB.(feather)
RIC VIII 122 Nicomedia

Bull, head facing, standing right; above, two stars

There is still some dirt on this coin which is what shows the mottled appearance. The coin is in remarkable condition, however with high relief and detail.

--Fred (Roscoedaisy)
3 commentsroscoedaisy
Bulls-Of-Julian.jpg
Bulls of Julian394 viewsHere are only some bulls of Julian The Apostate - they are various but all very nice!4 commentsIVLIANVS
CTGeyes2GodRIC7.jpg
Constantine the Great, early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D.46 viewsSilvered AE 3, RIC VII 92, EF, 3.456g, 18.1mm, 0o, Heraclea mint, 327 - 329 A.D.; Obverse: CONSTAN-TINVS AVG, diademed head right, eyes to God; Reverse: D N CONSTANTINI MAX AVG, VOT XXX in wreath, •SMHB in exergue.

As leading numismatist Joseph Sermarini notes, "The 'looking upwards' portraits of Constantine are often described as 'gazing to Heaven (or God).' The model of these portraits is of course that of the Deified Alexander the Great
(https://www.forumancientcoins.com/ssl/myforum.asp).

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power, and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement; so, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.

Which brings us to Crispus.
Whenever I am engaged in any discussion concerning Constantine I, Crispus is never far from my mind. As historian Hans Pohlsander from SUNY notes, "Crispus' end was as tragic as his career had been brilliant. His own father ordered him to be put to death. We know the year of this sad event, 326, from the Consularia Constantinopolitana, and the place, Pola in Istria, from Ammianus Marcellinus. The circumstances, however, are less clear. Zosimus (6th c.) and Zonaras (12th c.) both report that Crispus and his stepmother Fausta were involved in an illicit relationship." And Pohlsander continues with, "There may be as much gossip as fact in their reports, but Crispus must have committed, or at least must have been suspected of having committed, some especially shocking offense to earn him a sentence of death from his own father. He also suffered damnatio memoriae, his honor was never restored, and history has not recorded the fate of his wife and his child (or children)(Copyright (C) 1997, Hans A. Pohlsander. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis;An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors and their Families:http://www.roman-emperors.org/crispus.htm).

But there is something terribly illogigical about Constantinian apologetics. In 294 BC, prior to the death of his father, Seleucus I; Antiochus married his step-mother, Stratonice, daughter of Demetrius Poliorcetes. His elderly father reportedly instigated the marriage after discovering that his son was in danger of dying of lovesickness. If this is the way a "Pagan" father is able to express love for his son, then would not a saintly Christian love his son in at least similar measure? This particular Christian father, about whom St. Nectarios writes, "Hellenism spread by Alexander, paved the way for Christianity by the Emperor Constantine the Great," is unique. It is important to our discussion to take note of the fact that in the Greek Orthodox Church, Constantine the Great is revered as a Saint.

Now would be an appropriate time to recall what Joseph Sermarini noted above, "The 'looking upwards' portraits of Constantine are often described as 'gazing to Heaven (or God).' The model of these portraits is of course that of the Deified Alexander the Great(https://www.forumancientcoins.com/ssl/myforum.asp).

Isn’t it all too possible--even probable--that Constantine had been growing obsessively jealous of his ever more successful and adulated son? It is completely out of character for Constantine to merely acquiesce to being Philip to Crispus' Alexander. Remember the Constantine who has proven time and again (recall Constantine's disingenuous promise of clemency to Licinius) that he is a completely self-serving liar and a murderer, and Constantine decides to murder again. Why "must we, "as Pohlsander adamantly suggests, "resolutely reject the claim of Zosimus that it was Constantine's sense of guilt over these deeds which caused him to accept Christianity, as it alone promised him forgiveness for his sins? A similar claim had already been made by Julian the Apostate [Philosopher]."

Perhaps it is time to cease being apologists for the sometime megalomaniacal Constantine. As Michael Grant notes, "It is a mocking travesty of justice to call such a murderer Constantine the Great . . ." (Grant, Michael. The Emperor Constantine. London: Phoenix Press, 1998. 226).

Keep in mind that the obverse device of this coin shows Constantine I "gazing toward God" and was struck within a year or possibly two of Constantine I murdering his first-born son and condemning him to damnatio memoriae.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
1 commentsCleisthenes
MISC_Ancona_grosso_Biaggi_34.jpg
Italian States: Ancona. Republic4 viewsBiaggi 34; CNI v. VIII, pp. 3-4, nos. 19-31, plate I/4-5

AR Grosso, struck ca. 13th-14th Century; 2.19 g., 21.77 mm. max.; 270°

Obv: + (star) DE ANCONA (star), cross pattée.

Rev: °• PP • S • QVI (star) – (trefoil) RI ACVS • (rosette) °, St. Judas Cyriacus (Quiriacus) standing facing, holding crozier and raising hand in benediction.

The reverse legend refers to Saint Judas Cyriacus (Quiriacus), patron Saint of Ancona. Local tradition claims that Cyriacus/Quiriacus was a Jew of Jerusalem who had a fateful meeting with the Roman empress Helena, mother of Constantine the Great, around 327 A.D. Helena was on a pilgrimage to Jerusalem when she encountered Cyriacus, who revealed to her the location of the True Cross upon which Christ was crucified. After guiding the empress to the holy relic, Cyriacus converted to Christianity and became Bishop of Jerusalem, only to suffer martyrdom years later under Julian the Apostate. The city of Ancona is said to have received his relics, minus his head, under empress Galla Placidia, around the middle of the fifth Century (his head is in the town of Provins, France, where it was brought from Jerusalem during the crusades). He has been the city’s patron Saint ever since.

During this period Ancona was an oligarchic republic, ruled by six elected Elders. In 1348, after the city was weakened by the black death and a fire, the Malatesta family took control.
Stkp
083.jpg
Julian , the Apostate40 viewsJulian as Caesar , 355-360 AD
AE4
Obv: DN IVLIANVS NOB CAES
Rev: SPES REIPVBLICE; Emperor stg. l., holding globe and spear
1 commentsTanit
Julian3.jpg
Julian II43 viewsDN IVLIANVS NOB C
Bare head right

SPES REIPVBLICE
Emperor standing left holding globe and spear

ASIRM or BSIRM, no field marks
RIC VIII Sirmium 81

Sirmium Mint

Sold Forum Auctions
Titus Pullo
apostate.jpg
Julian II "The Apostate"13 viewsA bronze coin of Julian II. Minted in Sirmium between 355-360 AD

Obverse: D N IVLIA-NVS NOB CAES, cuirassed bust right

Reverse: FEL TEMP REPARATIO, soldier spearing fallen horseman, M in left field, ASIRM* in ex

Attribution: RIC VIII 78
chuy1530
83189q00.jpg
Julian II "the Apostate," February 360 - 26 June 363 A.D103 viewsJulian II "the Apostate," February 360 - 26 June 363 A.D
Bronze AE 1 . Arles mint, 360 - 363 A.D .
Obverse : D N FL CL IVLIA-NVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right .
Reverse : SECVRITAS REIPVB, bull standing right, two stars above; lower right, eagle standing on wreath, another wreath in beak, TCONST• in ex .
RIC VIII 322
Ex FORUM
Vladislavs D
70757q00.jpg
Julian II "the Apostate," February 360 - 26 June 363 A.D.8 viewsJulian II "the Apostate," February 360 - 26 June 363 A.D.
11th officina, Antioch mint. 1.964g ,15.0mm . die axis 315o, as Caesar 355 - Feb 360 A.D.
Obverse: D N IVLIANVS NOB CAES, draped and cuirassed bust right .
Reverse: FEL TEMP - REPARATIO, soldier spearing fallen horseman, ANAI in exergue .
RIC VIII Antioch 189
From the Butte College Foundation, Ex Lindgren , Ex FORUM
Vladislav D
Julianus_AE3_Arles.JPG
Julian II (the apostate) AE3. 15 viewsDN IVLIAN-VS NOB CAES bust left / FEL TEMP R-EPARATIO, emperor spearing fallen horseman who is wearing Phrygian helmet and reaching backwards, M in center, PCON or TCON in ex. Arles
RIC 271
Antonivs Protti
267 Julian Apostate.jpg
Julian II (the Apostate) RIC VIII 105, Heraclea25 viewsObv: D N FL CL IVLIANVS P F AVG
Bust: Helmeted and cuirassed bust left, spear in right hand and shield in left.
Rev: VOT X MVLT XX
4 lines within laurel wreath
Exe: HERACLA
Date: 361-363 AD
Denom: Ae3
Rated "S"
Bluefish
315 Jullian II.jpg
Julian II (The Apostate), RIC VIII 385, Siscia26 viewsObv: DN IVLIANVS NOB C
Bust: Bare-headed, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev: FEL TEMP REPARATIO
Soldier spearing fallen horseman. FH3 - Reaching
Exe: Delat SIS. "L" in field left
Date: 355-360 AD
Denom: Ae3
Ref: RIC VIII 385
Rated "S"
Bluefish
JulianII_Bull~2.jpg
Julian II - 355-363 AD AE3 Apis Bull91 views
JULIAN II. 361-363 AD. Æ 28mm * Constantinople mint.

Obv: D N FL CL IVLI-ANVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev: SECVRITAS REIPVB., bull standing right, two stars above; .CONSP(delta)(palm).

Patina: Dark brown

Size: 28mm
Weight: (8.55 gm).

RIC VIII 162; LRBC 2058.

“In the spring of 360, Julian's troops rose in revolt against Constantius, and Julian II was proclaimed as Augustus. The depiction of the bull is well understood. Julian II often slaughtered bulls to Mars, the Roman god of war.

"..On 4 May 360, Venus joined Mars to form a single star between the horns of Taurus, the Bull, as the constellation set in the western sky. Two weeks earlier, Mars was between the horns, and Venus rested on the shoulder of the bull. There can be little doubt that this planetary conjunction, or grouping, is shown on this coin.”
Tiathena
julian_II_01.jpg
Julian II AE122 viewsObv: DN FL CL IVLIANVS PF AVG - Bearded, pearl diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: SECVRITAS REIPVB - Bull standing right, two stars above; in right field, eagle standing right on wreath, head up, holding wreath in beak; SCONST• in exergue.
Mint: Arles
Date: 360 - 363 AD
Ref: RIC VIII 320
Notes: Rare.
oa
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JULIAN II APOSTATE (360-363). Follis. Thessalonica.34 viewsObv: D N FL CL IVLIANVS P F AVG.
Diademed, helmeted and cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield.
Rev: VOT X MVLT XX / TESA.
Legend in four lines within wreath.
RIC 227.
Condition: Very fine.
Weight: 2.58 g.
Diameter: 20 mm.
Canaan
Julian_II_Bull~0.JPG
Julian II Bull14 viewsJulian II, the apostate, 360 - 363 AD (struck 361 - 363), Heraclea, 27.4mm, 8.55g
OBV: DN FL CL IVLIANVS PF AVG, pearl-diademed, curaissed bust right, bearded
REV: SECVRITAS REIPBVB, bull of Apis standing right, two stars above, SMHA in exergue
The last pagan emperor of Rome
RIC 101

RARE
Romanorvm
Julian_II_FT_Rome.JPG
Julian II FT Rome15 viewsROMAN Imperial - Rome Mint
Julian II - The Apostate (332-363 AD)
RIC VIII Rome 311, S = scarce; AE3, 17.1 mm, 2.33 g; Obverse: DN CL IVL-IANVS N C, bare-headed, cuirassed; Rev: FEL TEMP-REPARATIO.
Horseman bare-headed,, reaching; Ex: R wreath S

Julian II, known as "the Apostate" for his attempts to revive the ancient polythestic worship of
the Roman gods.

SCARCE due to the mintmark of R wreath S.
Romanorvm
ARI-Julian_II-3.jpg
Julian II, AD 355 – 36313 viewsAR Siliqua, Arles, RIC263

Grade XF Strike: 4/5 Surface: 4/5

Obv: DN IVLIAN-VS NOB CAES, pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right

Rev: VOTIS V MVLTIS X within wreath

Julian (Flavius Claudius Iulianus Augustus), also known as Julian the Apostate, was Roman Emperor from 361 to 363, as well as a notable philosopher and author in Greek

My cost was $138
Richard M10
ju113.jpg
Julian II, RIC 113 Nicomedia, 355-360 CE 10 viewsJulian II "the Apostate,"
Bronze AE 4
Obverse: D N IVLA-NVS NOB CAESAR, bare-headed draped and cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: SPES REPVBLICAE, Emperor standing left in military dress holding a globe and spear. 15.5 mm., 2.4 g.
NORMAN K
jull.jpg
Julian II, The Apostate (355 - 363 A.D.)34 viewsÆ3
O:  D N CL IVLIANVS NOB CAES, Bare head, draped and cuirassed right.
R: FEL TEMP REPARATIO. Helmeted soldier to l., shield on l. arm, spearing falling horseman; shield on ground r. Horseman turns head to soldier and extends l. arm. M in l. field, BSIRM star in exergue.
Sirmium Mint, 355-61 A.D.
19mm
2.24g
RIC 78

Scarce
3 commentsMat
RIC_Julian_II_RIC_VIII_Cyzicus_130.JPG
Julian II, The Apostate (Caesar, 355-360 A.D.; Augustus, 360-363 A.D.) (Flavius Claudius Julianus)17 viewsRIC VIII Cyzicus 130

AE3, 20.5 mm, die orientation 0°

Cyzicus mint, first officina, struck 361-363 A.D.

Obv: D N FL CL IVLI—ANVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, helmeted and cuirassed bust left, holding spear in right hand and shield in left hand.

Rev: VOT / X / MVLT / XX in four lines within wreath, CVZA in exergue.

RIC rarity s
Stkp
RIC_Julian_II_Fel_Temp_RIC_Siscia_371.JPG
Julian II, The Apostate (Caesar, 355-360 A.D.; Augustus, 360-363 A.D.) (Flavius Claudius Julianus)54 viewsRIC VIII Siscia 371

AE3, Struck as Caesar, Siscia mint, fourth officina, 17 mm., nominal weight 2.25 g.

Obv: D N IVLIAN-VS NOB C, bare-headed, draped and cuirassed bust right.

Rev: FEL TEMP REPARATIO, soldier standing left spearing fallen horseman wearing Phrygian helmet and reaching, M in left field, ΔSIS zigzag in exergue.

RIC rarity s
Stkp
RIC_Julian_II_VOT_RIC_VIII_Heraclea_105_var.JPG
Julian II, The Apostate (Caesar, 355-360 A.D.; Augustus, 360-363 A.D.) (Flavius Claudius Julianus)40 viewsRIC VIII Heraclea 105 var. (dot in reverse legend)

AE3, 20 mm., die orientation 0°, nominal weight 2.95g.

Heraclea mint, first officina, struck 361-363 A.D.

Obv: D N FL CL IVLI-ANVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, helmeted and cuirassed bust left, holding spear in right hand and shield in left hand.

Rev: VOT / X / MV • LT / XX, in four lines within wreath, HERACLA in exergue.

RIC rarity s
Stkp
RIC_Julian_II_Securitas_REIPB_RIC_VIII_Arles_318.JPG
Julian II, The Apostate (Caesar, 355-360 A.D.; Augustus, 360-363 A.D.) (Flavius Claudius Julianus)52 viewsRIC VIII Arles 318 var.

AE1 (27 mm), Arles mint, third officina, struck 362 A.D.

Obv: D(ominus) N(oster) FL(avius) CL(audius) IVLI-ANVS P(ius) F(elix) AVG(ustus), bearded, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.

Rev: SECVRITAS REIPVB, Bull standing right, two stars above, to right eagle standing right and holding wreath in beak, TCONST in exergue.

RIC rarity R

The bull has variously been referred to as a sacrificial bull, the Mithraic bull, the Apis bull, and a zodiacal representation of Julian. Most recently, it has been referred to as a solar symbol, representing Julian’s devotion to the god Sol/Helios, the message being “by his appointment of Julian as emperor in particular . . . Sol guarantees the security of his herds, the state.” Shaun Tougher. “Julian’s bull coinage: Kent revisited.” The Classical Quarterly (New Series 2004), 54, pp 327-330 at 327, quoting D. Woods. “Julian, Gallienus, and the Solar Bull.” American Journal of Numismatics, 12 (2000), 157-169, at 168 n.1.

The coin was issued in all mints except for Trier, Rome and Alexandria. The eagle only appears on the coins struck at Arelatum/Constantina. It typically is depicted standing on a wreath. This is a variant in which the eagle does not stand on a wreath. Cf., CNG Electronic Auction 74, Lot 96.
Stkp
julianapostatastier.jpg
Julian II. Apostate, double maiorina63 viewsJulian II. Apostate,
Double maiorina, 361-363, HERACLA in ex., Heraclea, 1. Offizin, 8.52g, 30 mm.
Obv.: D N FL C L IVLIANVS P F AVG; bareheaded beardes bust right.
Rev.: SECVRITAS REI PVB; bull right, two stars above.
RIC 104; Sear 4072
good VF
nice black patina, some roughness in fields.

The bull on the reverse cannot be, as often assumed, the one of apis, as it is always depicted with the sun betwenn its horns and the crescent moon above. Probably the picture shows us Julians horoscope, but not as in Augustus' capricorn coins the horoscope of his birth, but his conception. The idea came probably from his religious advisor Maximus of Ephesus. It was interpreted as a fortunate sign for the upcoming war against the Persians. After his military debacle and his death Christian theologists and historians used this as an argument against fortune-telling and astrology.

1 commentshelcaraxe
Julian_II_Siliqua_1.png
Julian Siliqua 112 viewsJulian II "The Apostate"
AD 361-363
AR Siliqua
Constantia (Arles) mint
RIC 297

O: DN IVLIANVS PF AVG, pearl diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right

R: VOTIS V MVLTIS X in wreath, TCON in exergue
Gao
Julian_II_Siliqua_2.png
Julian Siliqua 212 viewsJulian II "The Apostate"
AD 361-363
AR Siliqua
Constantia (Arles) mint
RIC 297

O: DN IVLIANVS PF AVG, pearl diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right

R: VOTIS V MVLTIS X in wreath, TCON in exergue
Gao
TC-14.jpg
Julian the Apostate (A.D. 360-363)21 viewsAE Follis AE1, A.D. 361-363, Nicomedia, 29.5mm, 8.41g, 180°, RIC VIII 121.
Obv: D N FL CL IVLIANVS P F AVG. Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: SECVRITAS REIPVB. Bull standing right, two stars above; NIKB in ex.
Joseph D5
576_Julian_II__COSPA%.jpg
Julian the Apostate - AE 115 viewsConstantinople
3.11.361 - 26.6.363 AD
pearl-diademed draped and cuirassed bust right
DN FL CL IVLI_ANVS PF AVG
Bull right, 2 stars above
SECVRITAS REIPVB·
·CONSPA(branch)
RIC VIII Constantinople 162
8,44g
ex Aurea numismatika
1 commentsJohny SYSEL
Julian_II_219.jpg
Julian the Apostate - AE 325 viewsAntioch
3.11.361 - 26.6.363 AD
helmeted, diademed, cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield
D N FL CL IVLI_ANVS P F AVG
within wreath:
VOT / X / MV·LT / XX
SMANTB
unlisted
2,58 g 18-16 mm
Johny SYSEL
102_Julian_II_ASIRM.jpg
Julian the Apostate - AE 35 viewsSirmium
3.11.361 - 26.6.363 AD
helmeted, diademed, cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield
D N FL CL IVLI_ANVS P F AVG
within wreath:
VOT / X / MVLT / XX
ASIRM
RIC VIII Sirmium 108
2,89 g 20-19 mm
Johny SYSEL
Julian-moeda1.jpg
Julian, the Apostate 332-363 AD.87 viewsAE of Julian, the Apostate 332-363 AD.

Weight: 3.0 gr
Ø: 16mm

obv: DN IVLIANVS NOB C - Jovian right.

Rev: SPES REIPVBLICE - Imperor standing left, holding globe and spear.

Exergue : BS pi N??

gF/gF

Sear ?? - RIC ?? - VM 29.
Jorge C
231 Julian.jpg
Jullian II (Apostate), RIC VIII 108, Sirmium24 viewsObv: D N FL CL IVLIANVS P F AVG
Bust: Helmeted and wearing Imperial Mantle, bust left, holding spear in right hand and shield in left
Rev: VOT X MVLT XX
4 lines within laurel wreath
Exe: BSIRM
Date: 361-363 AD
Denom: Ae2
Rated "C2"
Bluefish
LarryW1851.jpg
RGS, Julian the Apostate, AD 360-363517 viewsGold solidus, 22.1mm, 4.46g, EF
Struck at Antioch in Syria c. AD 362-3
FL CL IVLIA-NVS P F AVG, diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right, with long beard / VIRTVS EXERCI-TVS ROMANORVM, helmeted soldier advancing right, head left, dragging captive with right and holding trophy over shoulder; ANT A in exergue. RCOA
Ex: Freeman & Sear
RIC 197 (citing a specimen at Vienna); Cohen 79 var
9 commentsLawrence Woolslayer
16128p00.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE - JULIAN II "THE APOSTATE"25 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC 81, VF, 1.979g, 16.3mm, 0o, Sirmium mint, as Caesar, 6 Nov 355 - 3 Nov 361 A.D.; obverse D N IVLIA-NVS NOB C, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse SPES REI-PVBLICE, emperor standing left holding globe and spear, ASIRM in exdpaul7
ga_0030.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE - JULIAN II - THE APOSTATE22 viewsJulian II AD 355-363 AE3 "Vows X Mult XX" "I promise ten years and perhaps twenty" Obv: DN FL CL IVLIANVS P F AVG - Helmeted diademed bust left, cuirassed holding spear and shield Rev: VOT X MVLT XX - Within wreath Exe: ASIRM Sirmium mint: AD 361-363 = RIC VIII, p. 393, 108, 2.59 g.
dpaul7
Julian II RIC VIII Constantinople 165 obv and rev.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Julian II (The Apostate), RIC Constantinople 16566 viewsJulian II
AE3
Constantinople Mint. 361-363 A.D.
18.8mm. 2.97g.
Die Alignment: 0 degrees
Obv: DN FL CL IVLIANVS PF AVG - Helmeted, pearl diademed, cuirassed, spear in right hand, shield in left.
Rev: VOT/X/MVLT/XX surrounded by wreath.
Exergue: (palm branch)CONSA(palm branch)
Ref: RIC VIII Constantinople 165. Sear '64-3971var. VM 28.
seraphic
bpCD1V7Julian.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Julian II (The Apostate), Sirmium, RIC 106, C, 361-63 AD60 viewsObv: D N FL IVLIANVS P F AVG
Pearl diademed, draped and cuirassed bust, right.
Rev: SECVRITAS REIPVB
Bull standing right, two stars above.
8.2 gm 28.5 mm Ae1 Exergue: *ASIRM(wreath)
Comment: Julian met his death in a skirmish on June 26, A.D.363 while on a failed Sassanian campaign.
Massanutten
Julian-II-Apostate.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Julian II AE3. 361-363 AD. 12 viewsJulian II AE3. 361-363 AD.

obv: DN FL CL IVLI-ANVS P F AVG, helmeted, pearl-diademed, cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield
rev: VOT X MVLT XX in wreath,
exe: palm branch-TESA-palm branch
Thessalonica ,RIC 228
Scarce
George
Julianus_II_SMTS_E~0.jpg
Roman Empire, Julian the Apostate, AE 380 viewsThessalonica
6 Nov 355 - Feb 360 AD
bare draped and cuirassed bust right
D N CL IVLIANVS NOB CAES
soldier spearing falling horseman (phrygian helmet)
FEL TEMP_REPARATIO
E
SMTS

!!! unlisted in RIC (Thessalonica 190 var)
another exemplar is in Helvetica collection

There is type with E in field for Constantius Gallus in RIC catalogue but not for Julian. For Julian there is only SMTSE in exergue.
Johny SYSEL
JulianII.jpg
Roman Julian II "The Apostate" Bronze Coin13 viewsA Roman bronze coin of Julian II "The Apostate" minted in Sirmium between 355-360 AD. 17.6mm, 2.1g. chuy1530
image~18.jpg
Trajan Decius; Tarsus, Cilicia28 viewsCILICIA, Tarsus. Trajan Decius. AD 249-251. Æ (33mm, 19.74 g, 6h). Radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right / Lion attacking bull right. SNG Levante 1161 (same dies); SNG France 1764 (same dies). VF, earthen black-green patina.

From the Kelly J. Krizan, M.D. Collection.

Pompey subjected Tarsus to Rome, and it became capital of the Roman province of Cilicia, the metropolis where the governor resided. In 66 BC, the inhabitants received Roman citizenship. To flatter Julius Caesar, for a time it took the name Juliopolis. It was also here that Cleopatra and Mark Antony met and was the scene of the celebrated feasts they gave during the construction of their fleet (41 BC). In William Shakespeare's 1606 play Antony and Cleopatra (Act 5, Scene 2), after Antony's death Cleopatra says she is going to Cydnus to meet Antony, i.e., she will commit suicide to meet him in the afterlife; "Go fetch / My best attires: I am again for Cydnus, / To meet Mark Antony"

When the province of Cilicia was divided, Tarsus remained the civil and religious metropolis of Cilicia Prima, and was a grand city with palaces, marketplaces, roads and bridges, baths, fountains and waterworks, a gymnasium on the banks of the Cydnus, and a stadium. Tarsus was later eclipsed by nearby Adana, but remained important as a port and shipyard. Several Roman emperors were interred here: Marcus Claudius Tacitus, Maximinus II, and Julian the Apostate, who planned to move his capital here from Antioch if he returned from his Persian expedition.

Tarsus was the city where, according to the Acts of the Apostles, "Saul of Tarsus"[Acts 9:11] was born, but he was "brought up" ([Acts 22:3]) in Jerusalem. Saul became Paul the apostle after his encounter with Christ (Acts 9:11; 21:39; 22:3), and he briefly returned here after his conversion (Acts 9:30). From here Barnabas retrieved him to help with the work in Syrian Antioch (Acts 11:25).

Already by this time a Christian community probably existed, although the first recorded bishop, Helenus, dates only from the third century; Helenus visited Antioch several times in connection with the dispute concerning Paul of Samosata. Later bishops of Tarsus included Lupus, present at the Council of Ancyra in 314; Theodorus, at the Council of Nicaea in 325; Helladius, who was condemned at the Council of Ephesus and who appealed to the bishop of Rome in 433; above all the celebrated exegete Diodorus, teacher of Theodore of Mopsuestia and consequently one of the fathers of Nestorianism. From the sixth century the metropolitan see of Tarsus had seven suffragan bishoprics; the Greek archdiocese is again mentioned in the tenth century , and existed until the twentieth century upheavals, part of the Patriarchate of Antioch.

Owing to the importance of Tarsus, many martyrs were put to death here, among them being Saint Pelagia, Saint Boniface, Saint Marinus, Saint Diomedes, Saint Quiricus and Saint Julitta.

At about the end of the tenth century, the Armenians established a diocese of their rite; Saint Nerses of Lambroun was its most distinguished representative in the twelfth century.

A cave in Tarsus is one of a number of places claiming to be the location of the legend of the Seven Sleepers, common to Christianity and Islam.
ecoli
julian_II_228_thessalonika.jpg
VOT / X / MVLT / XX within wreath decorated with star, TESA in ex. RIC VIII 228 Thessalonica6 viewsJulian II 'the Apostate,' February 360 - 26 June 363 A.D. Bronze AE 3, RIC VIII 228, F, Thessalonica mint, 2.916g, 19.5mm, 180o, Summer 361 - 26 Jun 363 A.D.; obverse D N FL CL IVLI-ANVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, helmeted and cuirassed bust left, spear in right, shield in left; reverse , VOT / X / MVLT / XX within wreath decorated with star, TESA between branches in ex. Ex FORVMPodiceps
   
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