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Search results - "alexander"
alexander_III_03.jpg
21 viewsoa
alexander_III_02_t.JPG
21 viewsoa
r1064w.jpg
37 viewsSeverus Alexander
Nicaea, Bithynia
Obv. Laur head r., M AYP CEVH AΛЄZANΔPOC AV round.
Rev. Serpent twined round torch, NIKA-IEΩN round
5.79 gm, 21 mm
Manzikert
SEV ALEX-5.jpg
39 viewsSeverus Alexander - Sestertius - 225 AD
Obv. IMP CAES M AVR SEV ALEXANDER AVG, laureate draped bust right
Rev.: VICTORIA AVGVSTI S-C, Victory advancing left, holding wreath & palm.
gs. 22,9 mm. 29,2
Cohen 571, RIC 620, Sear RCV 8020
Maxentius
SEV ALEX-6.jpg
36 viewsSeverus Alexander - Sestertius - 231 AD.
Ob.: IMP SEV ALEXANDER AVG, laureate head right
Rev.: ANNONA AVGVSTI S C, Annona standing left holding anchor & grain ears over modius.
gs. 16,1 mm. 29,8
Cohen 36, RIC 549
Maxentius
alexander_III_01_t.jpg
19 viewsoa
SEV ALEX-4~0.jpg
32 viewsSEVERVS ALEXANDER - Dupondius - 231/232 A.D. - Mint of Rome
Obv.: IMP ALEXANDER PIVS AVG, radiate head right
Rev.: IOVI PROPVGNATORI S C, Jupiter walking left, head right, holding thunderbolt.
Gs. 11,6 mm. 26,3
Cohen 81, RIC629
1 commentsMaxentius
coin630.jpg
24 viewsLooks to me like a *very* beat-up Macedonian Alex III
'standard' type - Alexander in lion-skin headdress on
obverse, bow-case and club on reverse with some
inscription (often ALEXANDROY) in between them.
This might be the 1/2-size of the typical 5-7gm
20mm piece. Coin #630
cars100
celtic_alexander.jpg
45 viewsareich
Severus_Alexander_Liberalitas.jpg
92 viewsSeverus Alexander, AR Denarius
Obverse: Laureate bust right, draped left shoulder.
Reverse: Liberalitas standing left, holding abacus and cornucopia.
Ex: CNG 39, lot 1576
4 commentspaul1888
alexander_the_great.jpg
107 viewsAR drachm (4.26 gm), Lampsacus, ca. 310/9 - 309/8 BC.
Obverse: Head of young Heracles right in lion skin headdress.
Reverse: Zeus entroned left, holding eagle and sceptor, race torch under throne.
Ex:Freeman and Sear Mail Bid Sale 13, lot 696
6 commentspaul1888
severus_alexander_virtus.jpg
95 viewsSeverus Alexander, AR Denarius, 228-231, Rome
Obverse: IMP SEV ALEXAND AVG
Laureate head right, slight drapery on left shoulder
Reverse: VIRTVS AVG
Virtus, helmeted, right breast exposed, standing left, Victory in right hand, left hand resting on shield, spear against left arm
18mm x 20mm, 3.29g
RIC IV, Part II, 220 (C)
Note: purchased from Beast Coins October 2007. Zack indicated that It was one of the first ancient coins he ever owned and bought it from David Vagi at the Mid-America Coin Show in 2000 along with 14 other pieces
3 commentspaul1888
rome_sestertius_ANACS-VF-20_rev_04_cut.JPG
43 viewsEmperor Severus Alexander. AD232. AE Sestertius. Reverse, cut.

obv: IMP ALEXANDER PIVS AVG - Laureate bust right, seen from front, draped and cuirassed.
rev: MARS VLTOR - Mars with spear and shield in the 'Ready-for-Action' position.
'S C' to either side of Mars.

22.3 grams.
rexesq
rome_AD232_AE-sestertius_mars-ultor_ANACS-VF20_rev_01.JPG
52 viewsSeverus Alexander. AD232. AE Sestertius. Reverse.

obv: IMP ALEXANDER PIVS AVG - Laureate bust right, seen from front, draped and cuirassed.
rev: MARS VLTOR - Mars with spear and shield in the 'Ready-for-Action' position.
'S C' to either side of Mars.

22.3 grams.
rexesq
rome_AD232_AE-sestertius_mars-ultor_ANACS-VF20_obv_01.JPG
66 viewsSeverus Alexander. AD232. AE Sestertius. Obverse.

obv: IMP ALEXANDER PIVS AVG - Laureate bust right, seen from front, draped and cuirassed.
rev: MARS VLTOR - Mars with spear and shield in the 'Ready-for-Action' position.
'S C' to either side of Mars.

22.3 grams.
1 commentsrexesq
rome_AD232_AE-sestertius_mars-ultor_ANACS-VF20_opened_obv_01-rev_01_cut_02.JPG
13 viewsSeverus Alexander AD 232 AE Sestertiusrexesq
rome_AD232_AE-sestertius_mars-ultor_ANACS-VF20_opened_obv_01-rev_01.JPG
199 viewsSeverus Alexander. AD232. AE Sestertius. Obverse.

obv: IMP ALEXANDER PIVS AVG - Laureate bust right, seen from front, draped and cuirassed.
rev: MARS VLTOR - Mars with spear and shield in the 'Ready-for-Action' position.
'S C' to either side of Mars.

22.3 grams.

**Photo w/ Flash
---
-
rexesq
rome_AD232_AE-sestertius_mars-ultor_ANACS-VF20_opened_obv_01-rev_01_cut_01.JPG
17 viewsSeverus Alexander AD 232 AE Sestertiusrexesq
Ancient_Counterfeits_Severus_Alexander_Fourree.jpg
23 viewsFourree Denarius, Severus Alexander, copying RIC 196
Obv: IMP SEV ALEXANDER AVG
Laureate head right, drapery on left shoulder
Double strike
Rev: FORTVNAE REDVCI
Fortuna standing left, holding rudder on globe and cornucopiae.

18mm, 3.04g
klausklage
rome_sestertius_ANACS-VF-20_rev_03_cut.JPG
122 viewsEmperor Severus Alexander. AD232. AE Sestertius. Reverse, cut.

obv: IMP ALEXANDER PIVS AVG - Laureate bust right, seen from front, draped and cuirassed.
rev: MARS VLTOR - Mars with spear and shield in the 'Ready-for-Action' position.
'S C' to either side of Mars.

22.3 grams.
--------------------------
Fantastic 'MARS ULTOR' reverse!
rexesq
rome_sestertius_ANACS-VF-20_rev_03.JPG
181 viewsEmperor Severus Alexander. AD232. AE Sestertius. Reverse.

obv: IMP ALEXANDER PIVS AVG - Laureate bust right, seen from front, draped and cuirassed.
rev: MARS VLTOR - Mars with spear and shield in the 'Ready-for-Action' position.
'S C' to either side of Mars.

22.3 grams.
--------------------------
Fantastic 'MARS ULTOR' reverse!!
1 commentsrexesq
rome_sestertius_ANACS-VF-20_obv_06.JPG
28 viewsEmperor Severus Alexander. AD232. AE Sestertius. Obverse.

obv: IMP ALEXANDER PIVS AVG - Laureate bust right, seen from front, draped and cuirassed.
rev: MARS VLTOR - Mars with spear and shield in the 'Ready-for-Action' position.
'S C' to either side of Mars.

22.3 grams.
1 commentsrexesq
rome_sestertius_ANACS-VF-20_obv_05.JPG
24 viewsEmperor Severus Alexander. AD232. AE Sestertius. Obverse.

obv: IMP ALEXANDER PIVS AVG - Laureate bust right, seen from front, draped and cuirassed.
rev: MARS VLTOR - Mars with spear and shield in the 'Ready-for-Action' position.
'S C' to either side of Mars.

22.3 grams.
rexesq
Ivenalexander_Mikhail.jpg
38 viewswileyc
Copy_of_severus-alexander_ae-sestertius_quadriga_cut-01.JPG
28 viewsSeverus Alexander
Ancient Rome
Emperor Severus Alexander(222 - 232 AD) AE (Bronze) Sestertius
Struck at the Rome Mint in AD 229 - 230.

obv: IMP SEV ALEXANDER AVG - Laureate bust right, drapery on left shoulder.

rev: P M TR P VIII COS III P P - Emperor riding in quadriga right holding eagle tipped sceptre in one hand and holding the reigns in the other.
'SC' below, in exergue.

Weight: 21 Grams
Size: 32 - 33 mm

References: Cohen 377, RIC 495
5 commentsrexesq
Copy_of_severus-alexander_ae-sestertius_quadriga_02.jpg
16 viewsSeverus Alexander
Ancient Rome
Emperor Severus Alexander(222 - 232 AD) AE (Bronze) Sestertius
Struck at the Rome Mint in AD 229 - 230.

obv: IMP SEV ALEXANDER AVG - Laureate bust right, drapery on left shoulder.

rev: P M TR P VIII COS III P P - Emperor riding in quadriga right holding eagle tipped sceptre in one hand and holding the reigns in the other.
'SC' below, in exergue.

Weight: 21 Grams
Size: 32 mm - 33 mm

References: Cohen 377, RIC 495
-----------------------

~*~I will most likely be taking this coin out of it's plastic prison soon. I will post more pics after doing so.~*~
rexesq
DSC08136_sev-alex_sest_quadriga.JPG
8 viewsSeverus Alexander
Ancient Rome
Emperor Severus Alexander(222 - 232 AD) AE (Bronze) Sestertius
Struck at the Rome Mint in AD 229 - 230.

obv: IMP SEV ALEXANDER AVG - Laureate bust right, drapery on left shoulder.

rev: P M TR P VIII COS III P P - Emperor riding in quadriga right holding eagle tipped sceptre in one hand and holding the reigns in the other.
'SC' below, in exergue.

Weight: 21 Grams
Size: 32 mm - 33 mm
rexesq
DSC08134_sev-alex_sest_quadriga.JPG
12 viewsSeverus Alexander
Ancient Rome
Emperor Severus Alexander(222 - 232 AD) AE (Bronze) Sestertius
Struck at the Rome Mint in AD 229 - 230.

obv: IMP SEV ALEXANDER AVG - Laureate bust right, drapery on left shoulder.

rev: P M TR P VIII COS III P P - Emperor riding in quadriga right holding eagle tipped sceptre in one hand and holding the reigns in the other.
'SC' below, in exergue.

Weight: 21 Grams
Size: 32 mm - 33 mm
rexesq
DSC08131_sev-alex_sest_quadriga.JPG
13 viewsSeverus Alexander
Ancient Rome
Emperor Severus Alexander(222 - 232 AD) AE (Bronze) Sestertius
Struck at the Rome Mint in AD 229 - 230.

obv: IMP SEV ALEXANDER AVG - Laureate bust right, drapery on left shoulder.

rev: P M TR P VIII COS III P P - Emperor riding in quadriga right holding eagle tipped sceptre in one hand and holding the reigns in the other.
'SC' below, in exergue.

Weight: 21 Grams
Size: 32 mm - 33 mm
rexesq
rjb_2012_07_05.jpg
25 viewsTop row: M Aurelius (RIC 952); Faustina Jr (RIC 1668); Trajan (RIC 496); Gordian III (RIC 256a)

Bottom row: Gordian III (RIC 333); Gordian III (RIC 298a); Sev Alexander (RIC 477); Gordian III (RIC 300a)
mauseus
severus_alexander_ric_IVb_225.jpg
21 viewsSEVERUS ALEXANDER
Denarius
19.3 mm, 3.1 grams

OBV: IMP SEV ALEXAND AVG, laureate head right
REV: VIRTVS AVG, Emperor in military dress, walking right, carrying spear and trophy.
RIC-IVb-225
ziggy9
severus_alexander_ric_IVb_648.jpg
25 viewsSEVERUS ALEXANDER
Sestertius
30.5 mm, 21.9 grams

OBV: IMP ALEXANDER PIVS AVG, laureate head right.
REV: SPES PVPLICA, Spes walking left holding flower and raising skirt.
S-C in field
RIC-IVb-648
ziggy9
severus_alexander_ric_IVb_647.jpg
26 viewsSEVERUS ALEXANDER
AE As
24.8 mm, 9.1 grams
OBV: IMP ALEXANDER PIVS AVG, laureate, draped bust right
REV: PROVIDENTIA AVG, Providentia standing front, head left, holding corn ears over modius and anchor.
S-C in field
RIC- IVb- 647
ziggy9
severus_alexander_ric_IVb_500.jpg
23 viewsSEVERUS ALEXANDER
Sestertius 230 A.D.
31.1 mm, 24.5 grams

OBV: IMP SEV ALEXANDER AVG, laureate bust right.
REV: P M TR P VIIII COS III P P, Sol radiate standing front, head left, raising right hand and holding whip. S-C in field
RIC-IVb-500
ziggy9
severus_alexander_ric_IVb_409.jpg
29 viewsSEVERUS ALEXANDER
AE As 233 A.D.
26.1 mm, 11.9 grams
OBV: IMP CAES M AVR SEV ALEXANDER AVG, laureate, draped bust right.
REV: PONTIF M TR P II COS P P, Securitas seated left, by lighted alter, holding scepter and supporting her head on left hand.
S-C under.
RIC- IVb- 409
ziggy9
Severus_Alexander_sestertius.jpg
46 viewsSeverus Alexander 222-235 AD. Sestertius (AE; 29mm; 24.53g; 12h) AD 231-235 IMP ALEXANDER PIVS AVG Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust of Severus Alexander to right. Rev. PROV[ID]ENTIA AVG / S – C Providentia draped, standing front, head left, holding in right hand corn-ears over modius filled with corn-ears and, in left, cornucopiae. Almost extremely fine. Nice brown patina. Heavy and round flan. Well centered.
BMCRE VI p. 201, 881; C. 503; RIC IV, II p. 121, 642.
Ex Münchner Münzhandlung K. Kress 122, Munich 30 May 1962,1292.
2 commentspaul1888
ALEXANDER_III_MONUMENT,_KINGHORN,_FIFE.JPG
4 views*Alex
Price-1151.jpg
27 viewsTHRACE, Odessos. Circa 280-225 BC. AR Tetradrachm (26mm, 16.44 g, 11h). In the name and types of Alexander III of Macedonia. Head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin / Zeus Aëtophoros seated left; in left field, monogram above civic monogram. Topalov, Odesos 23; Price 1151; HGC 3.2, 1584. Quant.Geek
ALEXANDER_III.JPG
5 views*Alex
rjb_cast9_07_05.jpg
162 viewsSeverus Alexander and Julia Mamaea
222-235
AE 26 mm
Rome Mint
mauseus
Sev_Alex_RIC_127.jpg
30 Severus Alexander14 viewsSEVERUS ALEXANDER
AR Denarius. 222-228 AD

IMP C M AVR SEV ALEXAND AVG, laureate draped bust right / AEQVITAS AVG, Aequitas standing left, holding scales and cornucopia.

RIC 127, RSC 9, Sear 2202
Sosius
Sev_Alex_RIC_133.jpg
30 Severus Alexander21 viewsSEVERUS ALEXANDER
AR Denarius.

IMP C M AVR SEV ALEXAND AVG, laureate draped bust right / ANNONA AVG, Annona standing left with corn-ears and cornucopiae, modius at foot.

RSC 23, RIC 133, Sear 7857
1 commentsSosius
Sev_Alex_BMC_103.jpg
30 Severus Alexander25 viewsSEVERUS ALEXANDER
AE19. Bithynia, Nicaea.

M AVP CEVH ALEXANDROC AV, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right / N-IK-AI-E - WN between and beneath three standards.

BMC 103
Sosius
Sev_Alex_Caesaria_Maritima_.jpg
30 Severus Alexander48 viewsAE24 of Caesaria Maritima2 commentsSosius
Sev_Alex_RIC_645.jpg
30 Severus Alexander14 viewsSEVERUS ALEXANDER
AE Sestertius

IMP ALEXANDER PIVS AVG, laureate bust right with draped far shoulder / PROVIDENTIA AVG, Providentia standing left with grain ears over modius and anchor.

Cohen 509, RIC 645, Sear 8013
Sosius
Sev_Alex_SGI_3390_.jpg
30 Severus Alexander and Julia Mamaea27 viewsSEVERUS ALEXANDER & JULIA MAMAEA
AE27, Edessa, Mesopotamia

Confronting portraits of Severus Alexander and Julia Mamaea / City-goddess seated left, holding small temple; River-god swimming beneath her

SGI 3390
Sosius
Alexander_I~2.jpg
Alexander I Balas 152 - 145 B.C.11 views Alexander I Balas 152 - 145 B.C. Ar drachm 17.1~17.8mm. 3.43g. Obv: Diademed head right. Obv: BAΣIΛEΩΣ AΛEΞANΔPOY ΘEOΠATOPOΣ EYEPΓETOY, Apollo seated left on omphalos, testing arrow, resting hand on grounded bow. Symbol: (outer left) cornucopia. SC 1785ddwau
SeleukE_copy.jpg
Alexander I, Balas127 viewsSerrated AE 21, Syria, Alexander I Balas, Obv: Alexander right. Rev: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ;, Athena with Nike, monograms, aVF. Lindgren III, pl. 62, 1074, Hoover HGC 9, 900 (R1-2).Molinari
SeleukG_copy.jpg
Alexander I, Balas34 viewsAE 20, Syria, Alexander I Balas, ca. 128-123 BC, Obv: Alexander right. Rev: ΑΠΑΜΕΩΝ, ΓΕΡ around Zeus, c/m of grain, gF/VF. Lindgren I, 1830.Molinari
SeleukQ_copy.jpg
Alexander II, Zebina55 viewsAE 21, Syria, Alexander II Zebina, ca. 128-123 BC, Obv: Alexander right. Rev: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ, Athena standing by Nike, Epsilon Psi above, VF. Lindgren III, pl. 63, 1110, SC 2233, Hoover HGC 9, 1163 (C-S).1 commentsMolinari
Jannaeus_Pendant_1.jpg
Alexander Jannaeus Prutah Pendant32 viewsOBV:BAΣIΛEΩΣ AΛEΞANΔΡOΥ (of King Alexander),
around anchor
REV:star made of eight pellets surrounded by diadem
and possible inscription
Hendin 470, Meshorer TJC J11, Jerusalem mint
103 - 76 B.C.
Set in Silver Pendant
goldenancients
Baktria.jpg
Baktria16 viewsAlexander the Great's empire split into rival Hellenistic kingdoms ruled by his generals. The most far-flung part was Baktria, his conquests in what is today Afghanistan, western India and Pakistan. Greek settlers ruled over a much larger indigenous population. As centuries went by, this isolated outpost of Greek culture combined elements of both Greek and native traditions, oftentimes reflected in their bilingual coins. The main mints include Aï Khanoum, Bactra, and Pushkalavati.2 commentsChristian T
P10762.JPG
BEAUTIFUL Severus Alexander 222-235 A.D. Caesarea Maritima mint AE 24193 viewsSeverus Alexander AE24 Ros-86
Obv:bust r,laur and cuirssed
IMPCAES ALEXANER
Rev:eagle displayed ,supporting a wreath enclosingthe letters SPQR
CIF AFC CAE METROPOLIS
1 commentsMaritima
Jan.PNG
Judaea, Alexander Jannaeus (103-76 BC), Æ Half Prutah19 viewsObv. anchor. Rev. star.
References: TJC group L.
13mm and 1.06 grams
This coin is typically referred to as the Biblical Widow's mite.
Canaan
alexanderIIIobol2.jpg
Kingdom of Macedon, Alexander the Great, 336-323 BC, AR obol.19 viewsKingdom of Macedon, Alexander the Great, 336-323 BC, AR obol.
Struck c. 336-323 BC, Head of Hecrules right, wearing
lion skin, knotted at base of neck. / Zeus, nude to waist, seated
left on ornate throne, holding eagle and scepter within dotted circle.
CANTANATRIX
Macedonian_Kingdom,_Alexander_III_The_Great,_AR_teradrachm_Amphipolis_Mint~0.jpg
Kings of Macedon, Alexander III the Great, 336-323 BC, AR Tetradrachm - Amphipolis Mint under Antipater86 viewsHead of Herakles right, wearing lion skin headdress.
AΛEΞANΔPOY Zeus Aëtophoros seated left; janiform head vase in left field. Graffiti in upper left field - Aramaic kaph (k) and sadhe (s).

Price 6; Troxell, Studies, Issue A3; SNG Cop 660; Muller 853.
Struck at Amphipolis in the period 332-329 BC.

(29 mm, 17.15 g, 2h)

This is one of the first emissions of Alexander’s coinage struck in his homeland, albeit about three years after he departed for Asia Minor. Recent scholarship places the start of Alexander’s distinctive coinage in 333/2 BC at Tarsos, in eastern Asia Minor, shortly after which the design was transferred to Macedonia where Alexander’s coinage was struck under the authority of his regent in Greece, Antipater. Die studies indicate that this coin was from the fourth tetradrachm emission of a mint in Macedonia, most probably Amphipolis. It was most probably struck in the period 332-329 BC. The Aramaic graffiti on the reverse, plus the obverse reverse rim test cut are pointers to the likelihood that this coin travelled beyond its location of issue in Macedonia, into the eastern Mediterranean where Aramaic was the main spoken language.
3 commentsn.igma
Lysimachos_Alexander_the_Great_Portrait_Coin~0.JPG
Lysimachos Alexander the Great Portrait Coin117 viewsLysimachos, Portrait of Alexander the Great, Kingdon of Thrace, Silver tetradrachm, (Posthumous issue c. 280 - 200 BC), 16.675g, 30.6mm, die axis 0o, Müller 460, Thompson -, SNG Cop -, SNG UK -, uncertain mint,
OBV: Diademed head of Alexander the Great wearing the horn of Ammon
REV: BASILEWS LUSIMACOU, Athena enthroned left, holding Nike crowning name with wreath in right,
resting left arm on shield at side, transverse spear behind, bow case inner left

EX: Heritage Long Beach Signature Sale (18 Sep 2008), lot 20015; EX: Forum Ancient Coins
3 commentsRomanorvm
greek9.jpg
Macedon,Alexander III. AR tetradrachm32 viewsprice 1679 / Themnos mint /188-170BC
obv: head of Herakles r. wearing lion-skin
rev: Zeus Aetophoros seated l. M l. in field. monograms
above oinoche withen vine tendril,eagle and sceptre
1 commentshill132
ao.jpg
Macedonia, Alexander III The Great Tetradrachm, c. 325-320 BC176 viewsAR Tetradrachm, 17.190g

Obv: Bust of Alexander as Herakles r., wearing lion-skin headdress.

Rx: Zeus seated l. on throne; ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ in exergue, AΛEΧANΔΡOY in r. field; wreath in l. field, ΔΙ beneath throne

References: Price-2949

Mint: Side

ex Harlan J. Berk
7 commentsDino
greek3.jpg
Macedonia, Alexander III, Ar drachm29 viewsPrice 1382 / 310-301 BC
obv: Head of young Heraclea r. wearing lion-skin headdress
rev: ALEXANDROU Zues enthrond l. holding eagle and scepter forpart of
Pegasus l. monogram NO below throne
hill132
philip359.jpg
Macedonian Kingdom, Philip II, Father of Alexander the Great 359-336 BCE29 viewsBronze AE Unit, SNG ANS 934, nice VF, Macedonian mint, 6.328g,
17.4mm, 0°, c. 359 - 336 B.C.E.
Obverse: head Apollo right wearing taenia.
Reverse: ΦIΛIΠΠOΥ, young male rider
atop horse prancing to right, LO monogram below.
18.0 mm, 7.01 g.
Philip II expanded the size and influence of the Macedonian Kingdom,
but is perhaps best known as the father of Alexander the Great.
He personally selected the design of his coins.
NORMAN K
mar67.jpg
Maximinus I, RIC 67 / BMC 13 viewsMaximinus, AE sestertius, struck early in his reign.
Obverse: IMP MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG. Laureate and draped bust right, similar to that of Severus Alexander.
Reverse: VICTORIA AVG. Victory advancing right, holding wreath, S C at sides.
24.8 g, 31 mm diam.
NORMAN K
Ptolmaic_Egypt_.jpg
Ptolemaic Kingdom7 viewsHellenistic coinage of the Ptolemies, after Alexander the Great. Principal mints include Alexandria in Egypt, Paphos and Sidon in Cyprus, and Sidon and Tyre in Phoenicia. 1 commentsAnaximander
san1s.jpg
Severus Alexander,AE20 of Nicaea, Bithynia. SGI 3287 var. 58 viewsObverse: M AYP CEV AΛEΞAΔΡOC AVΓ; laureate head right
Reverse: NIKA-IEWN to left and right of three standards.
20 mm diam., 4.3 g
SGI 3287 var.
2 commentsNORMAN K
18d18.jpg
Severus Alexander. RIC 168, Rome18 viewsSilver Denarius, Interesting Partial coin (15 mm., .9 g), CE. 222-235., CE. 226.
Obverse: IMP C M AVR SEV ALEXAND AVG, laureate and draped bust of Severus Alexander right.
Reverse PAX AVG, Pax advancing left, holding olive branch and scepter. RIC 168; BMC 363-367; RSC 187.
NORMAN K
BOTH_ALLY_BALLY.jpg
SOLD Alexander 1 Balas Tetradrachm 147/6 BC SOLD4 views SOLD Obv : Diademed head of Alexander 1 Balas in reeded border
30.5 mm 16.25gm SC 1784.8i,
Antioch on the Orontes mint
Rev: Nike offering wreath to Zeus seated left
ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ ΘΕΟΠΑΤΟΡΟΣ ΕΥΕΡΓΕΤΟΥ
Theta within Delta monogram inner LF
Exergue : 166 ( SE date = 147/6 BC) Φ SOLD
cicerokid
171.jpg
Δ and KA (monogram of)279 viewsCILICIA. Seleuceia ad Calycadnum. Severus Alexander. Æ 28. A.D. 222-235. Obv: AV▪K▪M▪AVP▪CEOVHPAΛEZA-NΔPO. Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right; 2 countermarks: (1) on chest, (2) partly under (1). Rev: CEΛE(-YKEΩN)KAΛY-KA-ΔNΩ. Tyche of Seleuceia seated left on rock in distyle shrine, holding grains; river-god Calycadnus swimming left below. Ref: BMC -; SNG Levante Supp. 196 (same obv. die, var. rev. leg.). Axis: 195°. Weight: 9.91 g. CM(1): Δ containing dot, in triangular punch, 6 x 5 mm. Howgego 670 (206 pcs). Note: Not likely to be a denominational countermark. CM(2): Monogram of K and A, in shaped punch, 4 x 5 mm. Howgego 618 (52 pcs). Note: The countermark likely refers to Calycadnum. Collection Automan.Automan
026n.jpg
ΘY (monogram of)199 viewsLYDIA. Thyatira. Severus Alexander. Æ 20. A.D. 222-235. Obv: AΛEΞ(A)N-ΔPOC. Laureate bust right; countermark on head. Rev: ΘVAT-E-IPHN. Tyche standing left, holding rudder and cornucopia. Ref: BMC -; SNG von Aulock -; SNG Cop -; Lindgren -.Axis: 180°. Weight: 3.76 g. CM: Monogram of Θ and Y, in circular punch, 5 mm. Howgego 617 (11 pcs). Note: Undoubtedly the countermark refers to the city of Thyatira where the host coin was issued. Collection Automan.1 commentsAutoman
DSC_6027.jpg
31 viewsIONIA, Ephesos
PB Tessera (15mm, 6.51 g)
Diademed head of the deified Alexander right, with horn of Ammon
Blank
Gülbay & Kireç 195, 197-200
Ardatirion
00003x00~5.jpg
35 viewsIONIA, Ephesos. Alexander.
PB Tessera (17mm, 3.95 g, 4h)
Artemis kneeling right, bathing, within grotto surmounted by half-length figure of Aktaion, wearing antlers and raising arms
Hippocampus right, AΛЄ Ξ around
Gülbay & Kireç –; Gorny & Mosch 212 (5 March 2013), lot 3333 (same dies); Vossen 35 (this coin)

Ex Tom Vossen Collection, 35
2 commentsArdatirion
Severus_Alexander_tetradrachm,_ex_Boyd.jpg
Alexandria BI tetradrachm of Severus Alexander, 224-225 AD106 viewsEGYPT, Alexandria. Severus Alexander. AD 222-235
BI Tetradrachm
Dated RY 5 (AD 225/6)
Laureate, draped bust r.
A KAI MAP AVP CEV AΛEΞANΔO CEV
Laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right
Diakosyne standing facing, head left, holding cornucopia and scales; LЄ to left
K&G 62.58; Köln 2428-9; Dattari 4293

Ex W.C. Boyd Collection (Baldwin's 42, 26 September 2005), lot 207 (part of); purchased from Spink, January 1895
Ardatirion
Widows_mite.JPG
"Widows Mite"26 views103-76 BC
Alexander Jannaeus
1 commentsJRoME
sev_alex_julia_maes.jpg
(0218) JULIA MAESA (WITH SEVERUS ALEXANDER)44 views(sister of Julia Domna; mother of Julia Soaemias; grandmother of Elegabalus and Severus Alexander)
222 - 235 AD
AE PENTASSARION 25.5 mm 10.85 g
O: AVT K M AVP CEVH
CONFRONTED BUSTS OF SEVERUS ALEXANDER AND JULIA MAESA
R: VP TIB IOVL FHCTOV MARKIANOPOLEITWN, "E" IN RIGHT FIELD
HOMONIA STANDING LEFT HOLDING PATERA AND CORNUCOPIA
MARKIANOPOLIS
laney
julia_maes.jpg
(0222) JULIA MAMAEA25 views(mother of Severus Alexander)
190 - 235 AD (STRUCK 226 AD)
AR DENARIUS 18 mm 2.38 g
O: IVLIA MAMAEA AVG
DIAD DR BUST R
R:VESTA
VESTA STANDING L HOLDING PALLADIUM AND SCEPTER
ROME
laney
julia_mamaea.jpg
(0222) JULIA MAMAEA21 views(mother of Severus Alexander)
227 - 238 AD
AE As 25.5 mm 7.02 g
O: IVLIA MAMAEA AVGVSTA
DIAD BUST R
R: [FELICI]TAS PVBLICA SC
FELICITAS STANADING FRONT, HEAD L, LEGS CROSSED, HOLDING CADUCEUS AND LEANING ON COLUMN
laney
julia_mam_fortuna_deul_RES.jpg
(0222) JULIA MAMAEA17 views(mother of Severus Alexander)
AE 23.5 mm, 8.18 g
222 - 235 AD
O: IVLIA MAMAEA AVG, diademed draped bust right
R: COL FL PAC DEVLTUM, Fortuna standing left with rudder & cornucopiae.
Deultum mint; Moushmov 3630
laney
SEV_ALEX_MESOPOT.jpg
(0222) SEVERUS ALEXANDER45 views222 - 235 AD
AE 26 mm 10.21 g
O: RADIATE HEAD OF SEVERUS ALEXANDER, R
R: TURRETED HEAD OF TYCHE, R, RAM LEAPING ABOVE, STAR BEFORE
MESOPOTAMIA, NISIBIS
SNG Cop 235; Mionnet 5, 170v; BMC 4v.
(Mionnet and BMC cite laureate head right)
laney
sev_alex_sidon_astarte.jpg
(0222) SEVERUS ALEXANDER22 views222 - 235 AD
AE 23 mm; 7.79 g
O: laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, from behind;
R: cart of Astarte, two wheels, four columns supporting roof, Baetyl within, inverted crescent above, two figures at base
Phoenicia, Sidon mint; cf BMC 318 - 319
laney
caracalla_bith_blk_res.jpg
(0222) SEVERUS ALEXANDER37 views222 - 235 AD
AE 20 mm, 4.20 g
O: draped bust right
R: NIK-AI-E, WN in exe; 3 military standards
Bithynia, Nicaea
1 commentslaney
sev_alexander.jpg
(0222) SEVERUS ALEXANDER36 views222 - 235 AD
AE SESTERTIUS 30 mm 18.09 g
O:IMP ALEXANDER PIVS AVG
LAUR BUST R
R: PROVIDENTIA AVG S-C
PROVIDENTIA STANDING HEAD L, HOLDING GRAIN EARS OVER MODIUS, AND CORNUCOPIA
ROME
RIC IV 642
laney
sev_alex_bith.jpg
(0222) SEVERUS ALEXANDER37 views222 - 235 AD
AE 19 mm 3.47 g
O: M AVP CEV ALEXANDROC AV, laureate draped bust right
R: NIKAIE-WN between 3 standards
Bithynia, Nicaea
laney
sev_alex_meso.jpg
(0222) SEVERUS ALEXANDER47 views222 - 235 AD
AE 25 mm 10.30 g
O: Laureate head right
R: Tyche seated, left, on rocks, holding eagle
RHESEANA, MESOPOTAMIA
(cf. Castelin 35-36 for obv)

laney
bith_3_blk.jpg
(0222) SEVERUS ALEXANDER29 views222 - 235 AD
AE 19 mm, 4.19 g
O: M AVP CEV ALEXANDROC AV, laureate bust right
R: NIKAIEWN between three standards, WN in exergue.
Nicaea in Bithynia, BMC 102
laney
bith_2_blk.jpg
(0222) SEVERUS ALEXANDER35 views222 - 235 AD
AE 21.5 mm, 3.84 g
O: M AVP CEV ALEXANDROC AV, laureate head right
R: NIKOMHDEWN DIC NEW/K, aquila between two miliary standards. SNGCop 577v (bust radiate). SNGCop 57
Nicomedia, Bithynia
laney
bith_4_blk.jpg
(0222) SEVERUS ALEXANDER28 views222 - 235 AD
AE 20 mm, 3.22 g
O: M AVP CEV ALEXANDROC AV, radiate, draped & cuirassed bust right
R: NIKAIEWN between three standards, WN in exergue.
Nicaea in Bithynia, BMC 102
laney
sev_alex_bith_1_blk.jpg
(0222) SEVERUS ALEXANDER30 views222 - 235 AD
AE 20 mm, 3.63 g
O: M AVP CEV ALEXANDROC AV, radiate, draped & cuirassed bust right
R: NIKAIEWN between three standards, WN in exergue.
Nicaea in Bithynia, BMC 102
laney
sev_alex_bith_radiate_blk.jpg
(0222) SEVERUS ALEXANDER31 views222 - 235 AD
AE 20.5 mm, 3.42.g
O: M AVP CEV ALEXANDROC AV, radiate, draped & cuirassed bust right.
R: NIKAIEWN between three standards, WN in exergue
Nicaea, Bithynia; BMC 102
laney
sev_alex_bith_3_res.jpg
(0222) SEVERUS ALEXANDER22 views222-235 AD
AE 20.5 mm 4.64 g
O: Radiate head right
R: : NI K AI E between 3 standards, WN below
Nicaea, Bithynia
laney
sev_alex_caesarea_res.jpg
(0222) SEVERUS ALEXANDER24 views222-235 AD
AE 21 mm
O: laureate bare bust right, from behind
R: 3 double stalks of wheat tied together
Caesarea, Cappadocia
laney
sev_alex_tyche_res.jpg
(0222) SEVERUS ALEXANDER33 views222-235 AD
AE 24 X 26 mm, 9.05 g

O: AVT K[M AVP CE]VH ALEZANDROC laureate cuirassed bust right
R: HG8M TEREBINTINCV MARKIANOPO OL[TON] Tyche standing left holding rudder and cornucopia
Moesia Inferior,Markianopolis
Varbanov (Eng) 1708
laney
sev_alex_mars_a_res.jpg
(0222) SEVERUS ALEXANDER28 views222-235 AD
Struck 228 AD
AE Sestertius 28 X 30 mm, 21.99 g
O: IMP CAES AVT SEV ALEXANDER AVG laureate draped cuirassed bust right
R: _PM TRP_COS_/ SC Mars walking right holding spear and trophy over shoulder
Rome; cf RIC 456
laney
sev_alex_bith_1_res.jpg
(0222) SEVERUS ALEXANDER26 views222-235 AD
AE 21 mm 4.14 g
O: M AVP CEV ALEXANDROC AV laureate draped bust right
R: NI K AI E between 3 standards, WN below
Nicaea, Bithynia
laney
sev_alex_edessa_resb.jpg
(0222) SEVERUS ALEXANDER 38 views222-238 AD
AE 25 mm; 8.61 g
Laureate, draped, cuirassed bust left, with eagle-tipped scepter
R:Tyche seated left; flaming altar in front; star in l. and r. field.
Edessa in Mesopotamia
laney
sev_alex_caesarea_ad_libanum.jpg
(0222) SEVERUS ALEXANDER26 viewsIssued 221-222 AD (as Caesar, struck under Elagabalus)
AE 23 mm; 9.93 g
O: Radiate head right
R: Tetrastyle tripartite temple of Astarte; Astarte stands in middle section, facing, holding standard in right hand with left foot set on prow; Nike stands on cippus to Astarte's right, crowning her; river god beneath, swimming right; outside staircases lead to the side-wings; in the left wing goddess with kalathos stands facing between two animals; in the right wing female figure stands facing.
BMC 110, 9; Lindgren II, 1321, 2288 (Rare)
Phoenicia, Caesarea ad Libanum
laney
sev_alex_antioch.jpg
(0222) SEVERUS ALEXANDER28 views222 - 235 AD
AE 31 mm 15.02 g
O: laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right;
R: ANTIOXEN MHT KOΛ, Tyche std left, holding grain, river god Orontes swimming below, ram running left above, Δ - E / S - C
Antioch, Syria; BMC 470-472
laney
sev_alex_rhes_centaur.jpg
(0222) SEVERUS ALEXANDER29 views222-235 AD
AE 17.5 mm; 2.12 g
O: Laureate, cuirassed bust with paludamentum, right
R: Sagittarius, right; Right hand over right shoulder, bow in left hand
Mesopotamia, Rhesaena; cf. Castelin, Prague, 17A (Plate III); BMC Rhesaena, 9, Pl. XVIII, var. (no Vexillum)
laney
sev_al_coele_thrace.jpg
(0222) SEVERUS ALEXANDER31 views222-235 AD
AE 18 mm; 2.56 g
O:Laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right
R: AEL MVNICIP COELA Prow left, cornucopia above.
Thrace, Coela; Varbanov 1928
laney
sev_alex_antioch_river_god.jpg
(0222) SEVERUS ALEXANDER19 views222-235 AD
AE 30 mm; 12.52 g
O: laureate head right
R: Tyche seated left on rocks, being crowned by Severus who stands behind, another Tyche standing before, holding rudder and cornucopiae; river-god swimming left below, SHC in ex.
Syria, Antioch; cf SNG Cop 256.
laney
sev_alex_prow_coela.jpg
(0222) SEVERUS ALEXANDER22 views222-235 AD
AE 18.5 mm; 3.60 g
O:Laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right
R: AEL MVNICIP COELA Prow left, cornucopia above.
Thrace, Coela; Varbanov 1928 (scarce city)
d.s.
laney
sev_alex_coela.jpg
(0222) SEVERUS ALEXANDER20 views222-235 AD
Æ 19 mm, 3.28 g
O: Laureate, cuirassed, and draped bust right, seen from behind
R: Prow with three grain ears
Thrace, Coela; BMC -; Varbanov 2929 var. (prow with cornucopia)
(scarce city)
laney
sev_alex_deult.jpg
(0222) SEVERUS ALEXANDER18 views222 - 235 AD
AE 23 mm, 7.42 g
O: [IMP C] M AVR [SEV A]LEXAND AVG, Bust draped and cuirassed, laureate, right
R: Demeter resting on a long torch, holding corn-ears (with poppy?)
Thrace, Deultum
cf. Varbanov II:(1) 2248 Demeter holding corn-ears (Jurukova 91) and (2) 2249 Demeter holding corn-ears with poppy.


laney
sev_alex_markian.jpg
(0222) SEVERUS ALEXANDER10 views222 - 235 AD
AE 27mm max. 7.34 g
O: Laureate head right
R: [ ] MARKIANOPOLIT ; WN (ligate?) in lower left field. Homonoia standing right holding cornucopia and patera
Moesia Inferior, Markianopolis

laney
sev_alex_mar_tyche.jpg
(0222) SEVERUS ALEXANDER17 views222 - 235 AD
AE 25.5 mm, 9.74 g
O: Laureate draped cuirassed bust right
Reverse: Tyche standing left, holding rudder and cornucopia
Markianopolis
laney
sev_alex_hestia.jpg
(0222) SEVERUS ALEXANDER17 views222 - 235 AD
AE 24.5 mm; 9.32 g
O: AVT K M AVP CEVHPOC (AΛЄΞANΔPOC), laureate head of Severus Alexander facing right.
R: VΠ TIB IOVA ΦHCTOV MAPKIANOΠOΛIT - ΩN (in field), Hestia (Vesta) standing facing, head turned left, holding patera and a short torch.
Legate: Tiberius Julius Festus
Marcianopolis, Moesia Inferior mint, cf Varbanov I 1779
laney
sev_al_nemesis.jpg
(0222) SEVERUS ALEXANDER21 views222-235 AD
AE 26 mm; 10.52 g
struck under governor Tib. Iulius Festus
O: AVT KM AVR CEVH - ALEZANDROC
Bust, draped and cuirassed, laureate, r.
R: VP TIB IOVL FHCTOV MARKIANOPOLITWN (WN ligate Aequitas standing left holding cornucopiae and scales
Markianopolis; cf AMNG I/1, 1003; Varbanov (engl.) 1769; Hristova/Jekov (2014) No. 6.32.35.16 d); Pfeiffer 532
laney
sev_alex_mamaea_hera.jpg
(0222) SEVERUS ALEXANDER & JULIA MAESA8 views222-235 AD
(under governor Tiberius Julius Festus)
AE 26 mm max, 7.34 g
O: Confronted busts of Severus Alexander and Julia Mamaea
R: Hera standing head left holding patera and long scepter; E in left field
Moesia Inferior, Markianopolis
laney
SEV_ALEX_SERAP.jpg
(0222) SEVERUS ALEXANDER (as Caesar)38 views222 - 235 AD
struck ca. 222 AD
BI TETRADRACHM 22 mm 11.82 g
Dated RY 5 of Elagabalus (AD 221/2)
O: Bare-headed, draped, and cuirassed bust right, seen from front
R: Sarapis standing facing, head right, with hand on hip, holding sceptre; L-E (date) across fields.
EGYPT, ALEXANDRIA
Köln 2398; Dattari 4247; Milne 2859; Emmett 3082
laney
severus_alexunlisted~0.jpg
(0222) Severus Alexander (unlisted)77 views222 - 235 AD
Struck 228 AD
AE Dupondius 24 mm 8.86 g
Obv: RIM CAES...
Rad. Dr. Bust R
Rev: PM TR P VII COS II PP / S-C
Pax adv. L holding palm branch and scepter
(Rome) Not listed in RIC or BMC
laney
sev_alex_julia_maes_resized.jpg
(0222) SEVERUS ALEXANDER AND JULIA MAESA60 views222 - 235 AD
AE PENTASSARION 25.5 mm 10.85 g
O: AVT K M AVP CEVH
CONFRONTED BUSTS OF SEVERUS ALEXANDER AND JULIA MAESA
R: VP TIB IOVL FHCTOV MARKIANOPOLEITWN, "E" IN RIGHT FIELD
HOMONOIA STANDING LEFT HOLDING PATERA AND CORNUCOPIA
MARKIANOPOLIS
laney
sev_julia.jpg
(0222) SEVERUS ALEXANDER AND JULIA MAESA58 views222 - 235 AD
AE 25 mm 9.68 g
O: CONFRONTING BUSTS OF SEV. ALEX. AND JUL. MAES.
R: CONCORDIA STANDING L HOLDING PATERA AND CORNCOPIA, "E" TO LEFT
MARKIANOPOLIS
laney
normal_sev_alex_julia_maes_resizedblk.jpg
(0222) SEVERUS ALEXANDER AND JULIA MAESA41 views222 - 235 AD
AE PENTASSARION 25.5 mm 10.85 g
O: AVT K M AVP CEVH
CONFRONTED BUSTS OF SEVERUS ALEXANDER AND JULIA MAESA
R: VP TIB IOVL FHCTOV MARKIANOPOLEITWN, "E" IN RIGHT FIELD
HOMONOIA STANDING LEFT HOLDING PATERA AND CORNUCOPIA
MARKIANOPOLIS
1 commentslaney
sev_alex_maesa_homon_mar_a_r.jpg
(0222) SEVERUS ALEXANDER AND JULIA MAESA10 views222 - 235 AD
AE PENTASSARION 27.5 mm, 9.38 g
O: CONFRONTED BUSTS OF SEVERUS ALEXANDER AND JULIA MAESA
R: VP TIB IOVL FHCTOV MARKIANOPOLEITWN, "E" IN RIGHT FIELD. HOMONOIA STANDING LEFT HOLDING PATERA AND CORNUCOPIA
Moesia Inferior, MARKIANOPOLIS
laney
sev_alex_mam_demeter_markian.jpg
(0222) SEVERUS ALEXANDER and JULIA MAMAEA27 views222-235 AD
AE 26 mm; 10.64 g
O: Confronting busts of Severus Alexander and Julia Mamaea
R:Draped figure of Demeter standing left, holding ears of corn and long torch, E to right.
Moesia Inferior, Markianopolis; Moushmov 739
d.s.
laney
samaria_caesarea_maritima.jpg
(0222) SEVERUS ALEXANDER?--SAMARIA, CAESAREA MARITIMA32 views222-235 AD
AE 21.5 mm; 10.96 g
O: Laureate bust right
R: Eagle with wreath held in wings, [SPQR] within
Samaria, Caesarea Maritime mint
laney
markianopolissevalex.jpg
*Moesia, Markianopolis. AE24. Severus Alexander(A.D. 222 - 235) Struck under governor Alexander Julius Gaetulicus.27 viewsObv. AVT K M AV CEVH [ALEXAN]DPOC, Severus Alexander bust r.
Rev. VP IOV GETOV - LI - KOV MARKIAN[OP / OLIT] --> WN in lower left field, Serapis standing left, right hand raised, holding sceptre in left.
Hristova&Jekov, p. 171, no. 6.32.6.3.; AMNG I, 1, no. 982.
ancientone
Severus_Alexander.jpg
*SOLD*37 viewsSeverus Alexander AE Sestertius

Attribution VM 68, Sear 7971
Date: AD 230
Obverse: IMP SEV ALE-XANDER AVG, laureate head r.
Reverse: IVSTITIA AVGVSTI S C, Justitia seated l., holding patera & scepter
Size: 30.37 mm
Weight: 19.7 grams
1 commentsNoah
Severus_Alexander~0.jpg
*SOLD*18 viewsSeverus Alexander AE26

Attribution: Moushmov 722, Markianopolis
Date: AD 228-231
Obverse: AVT K M AVP CEVH A Λ E Ξ AN Δ POC, laureate draped bust r.
Reverse: H Γ OYM TEPEBENTINOV MAPKIANO Π O Λ I-T- Ω N, Hera stg. l. holding patera and scepter
Size: 26 mm
Weight: 11.8 grams
Noah
prutahjanfull1.jpg
0 - Alexander Jannaeus Prutah - H. 469106 viewsThis coin, minted under the reign of Alexander Jannaeus (103 BCE - 76 BCE), is a bronze prutah.
OBV. Upside-down achor reading BAΣIΛEΩΣ AΛEΞANΔΡOY.
REV. Eight ponted star, letters in the spokes, reading 'Yehonatan the King'.
aarmale
015.jpg
0 - Severus Alexander as Caesar - AR Denarius40 viewsSeverus Alexander as Caesar. Rome Mint.

obv: " M AUR ALEXANDER CAES "
Bare head right, draped.

rev: " PIETAS AUG " - Priestly Implements.
3 commentsrexesq
0006.jpg
0006 - Denarius Severus Alexander 224 AC29 viewsObv/IMP C M AVR SEV ALEXANDR, Severus Alexander laureate head, togate.
Rev/PM TR P III COS PP, Mars standing l., holding olive branch and spear upside down.

Ag, 19.9mm, 2.99g
Mint: Rome.
RIC IVb/37 [C] - Cohen 251
ex-ezio110665 (ebay)
dafnis
Sestertius_alex_and_orbitana_balk.jpg
006 Orbiana Sestertius 169 viewsOrbiana Æ Sestertius, 19.445 g, 12h
SALL BARBIA ORBIANA AVG, diademed & draped bust right / CONCORDIA AVGVSTORVM, S C in exergue, Severus Alexander standing right, holding role & clasping hands with Orbiana, veiled, standing left. Cohen 6.

1 commentsmix_val
Sestertius_alex_and_orbiana.jpg
006 Orbiana Sestertius 143 viewsOrbiana Æ Sestertius, 16.865 g, 12h
SALL BARBIA ORBIANA AVG, diademed & draped bust right / CONCORDIA AVGVSTORVM, S C in exergue, Severus Alexander standing right, holding role & clasping hands with Orbiana, veiled, standing left. Cohen 6.
1 commentsmix_val
0075~0.jpg
0075 - Denarius Severus Alexander 228-31 AC30 viewsObv/IMP SEV ALEXAND AVG, laureate bust of Severus Alexander r., togate.
Rev/AEQVITAS AVG, Aequitas standing l., holding scales and cornucopiae.

Ag, 18.6mm, 2.78g
Mint: Rome.
RIC IV.2/185 [C] - Cohen 13
ex-A.L.Romero Martín (denarios.org)
dafnis
0130.jpg
0130 - Drachm Alexander III the Great 310-01 BC51 viewsObv/ Head of Heracles r. wearing lion-skin headdress.
Rev/ ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ, Zeus Aëtophoros seated on backless throne l., holding eagle on outstretched r.h. and scepter in l.h.; under throne, monogram; before, Φ.

Ag, 18.0 mm, 4.15 g
Mint: Colophon.
Price 1828
ex-Numismatik Lanz, eBay jul 2011 - art. #300569784336
1 commentsdafnis
0132.jpg
0132 - 1/2 AE Alexander III the Great 325-10 BC29 viewsObv/ Macedonian shield with thunderbolts inside.
Rev/ Macedonian helmet, (dolphin), AI monogram below; B A on each side of the field.

AE, 15.5 mm, 4.48 g
Mint: Macedonia uncertain.
Price 415
ex-Numismatik Lanz, eBay jul 2011 - art. #300569816457
dafnis
0139.jpg
0139 - AE Alexander III the Great 336-23 BC48 viewsObv/ Head of Heracles r. wearing lion-skin headdress.
Rev/ ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ in middle, with goryte, bow and mallet at sides; bunch of grapes and circle on r.

AE, 19.1 mm, 6.33 g
Mint: Macedonia uncertain.
Price -- - Drama 103
ex-CGB, auction 49, lot 155
dafnis
0146.jpg
0146 - Drachm Alexander III the Great 295-75 BC49 viewsObv/ Head of Heracles r. wearing lion-skin headdress.
Rev/ Zeus Aëtophoros seated on backless throne l., holding eagle on outstretched r.h. and scepter in l.h.; before, MI in monogram; behind, (Α)ΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟ(Υ).

Ag, 19.0 mm, 4.28 g
Mint: Miletus.
Price 2151
ex-CNG, auction e260, lot 234
dafnis
0161.jpg
0161 - 1/2 AE Alexander III the Great 336-23 BC42 viewsObv/ Head of Heracles r. wearing lion-skin headdress.
Rev/ ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ, eagle on thunderbolt r., head turned; above, crescent.

AE, 17.1 mm, 3.59 g
Mint: Amphipolis.
Price 91b
ex-Numismatik Lanz, eBay jan 2012 - art. #230732403614
dafnis
0176.jpg
0176 - Drachm Alexander III the Great 328-23 BC28 viewsObv/ Head of Heracles r. wearing lion-skin headdress.
Rev/ Zeus Aëtophoros seated on backless throne l., holding eagle on outstretched r.h. and scepter in l.h.; before, Demeter with two torches; behind, ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ; under throne, monogram with circle, line and triangle.

Ag, 17.5 mm, 4.32 g
Mint: Lampsacus.
Price 1356
ex-Gitbud & Naumann, auction Pecunem 12, lot 119
dafnis
0215_Pr2562.jpg
0215 - Drachm Alexander III the Great 328-23 BC15 viewsObv/ Head of Heracles r. wearing lion-skin headdress.
Rev/ Zeus Aëtophoros seated on backless throne l., holding eagle on outstretched r.h. and scepter in l.h.; behind, ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ, club on field r.; under throne, monogram with circle, lines and dot.

Ag, 15.9 mm, 4.29 g
Mint: Sardes.
Price 2562
ex-vAuctions (Triskeles), auction 320, lot 75
dafnis
030.jpg
024 SEVERUS ALEXANDER11 viewsEMPEROR: Severus Alexander
DENOMINATION: Denarius
OBVERSE: IMP ALEXANDER PIVS AVG, laureate, draped bust right, seen from front
REVERSE: SPES PVBLICA, Spes walking left, holding flower and raising skirt
DATE: 232 AD
MINT: Roma
WEIGHT:2.47 g
RIC: 254
Barnaba6
RSC 5 Mamaea.JPG
028. Julia Mamaea, mother of Severus Alexander. AR Denarius. Fecunditas.26 viewsAR Denarius. Rome mint.

Obv. Draped and diademed bust right IVLIA MAMAEA AVG.

Rev. Fecunditas standing left, stretching out right hand to little boy standing right stretching up arms towards her, she holds cornucopia FECVND AVGVSTAE.

RSC 5, RIC 331. gVF
LordBest
RSC 6 Mamaea.JPG
028. Julia Mamaea, mother of Severus Alexander. AR Denarius. Fecunditas.26 viewsAR Denarius. Rome mint.

Obv. Draped and diademed bust right IVLIA MAMAEA AVG

Rev. Fecunditas seated left with hand outstretched to child at feet FECVND AVGVSTAE.

RSC 6. EF
LordBest
RSC 24 Mamaea.JPG
028. Julia Mamaea, mother of Severus Alexander. AR Denarius. Felicitas.26 viewsAR Denarius. Rome mint.

Obv. Draped and diademed bust right IVLIA MAMAEA AVG

Rev. Felicitas seated left holding caduceus and cornucopia FELICITAS PVBLICA.

RSC 24, RIC 338. Fully lustrous, EF.
LordBest
RSC 17 Mamaea.JPG
028. Julia Mamaea, mother of Severus Alexander. AR Denarius. Felicitas.26 viewsAR Denarius.

Obv. Draped bust right IVLIA MAMAEA AVG

Rev. Felicitas leaning against column holding caduceus FELICITAS PVBLICA.

RSC 17, RIC 335. EF.
LordBest
RSC 35 Mamaea.JPG
028. Julia Mamaea, mother or Severus Alexander. AR Denarius. Juno.36 viewsAR Denarius. Rome mint.

Obv. Draped bust right IVLIA MAMAEA AVG

Rev. Juno standing left holding staff and patera, peacock at feat IVNO CONSERVATRIX.

RSC 35, RIC 343. EF
LordBest
RSC 48 Mamaea.JPG
028. Julia Mamaea, mother or Severus Alexander. AR Denarius. Pietas.30 viewsAR Denarius. Rome mint.

Obv. Draped and diadememed bust right IVLIA MAMAEA AVG

Rev. Pietas standing left sacrificing over altar PIETAS AVGVSTAE.

RSC 48, RIC346. UNC

Not the best scan of a beautiful, fully lustrous coins.
LordBest
RSC 85 Mamaea.JPG
028. Julia Mamaea, mother or Severus Alexander. AR Denarius. Vesta.39 viewsAR Denarius. Rome mint.

Obv. Draped and diademed bust right IVLIA MAMARA AVG

Rev. Vesta standing left holding patera and transverse sceptre VESTA.

RSC 85, RIC362. EF
1 commentsLordBest
severusalexander.jpg
028. Severus Alexander, 222-235. AR Denarius. Victoria.70 viewsAR Denarius. Rome mint. AD 231-235.
Obv. Laureate head right IMP ALEXANDER PIVS AVG
Rev. Victoria standing left, left hand holding palm, right resting on shield, bound captive at feet VICTORIA AVG.

RIC 257, RSC 558a. aEF.

Struck to commemorate the 'victories' over the Persians in the emperors' eastern campaign of 231-233.
2 commentsLordBest
03-Alex-Babylon-P2619.jpg
03. Alexander the Great.126 viewsTetradrachm, ca 325 - 323 BC, "Babylon" mint.
Obverse: Head of Alexander as Herakles, wearing lion's skin headdress.
Reverse: ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ / Zeus sitting, holding his attendant eagle and sceptre. M and a bee at left, monogram under throne.
17.12 gm., 26 mm.
P. #3619; M. #696.

Martin J. Price assigns this coin to the mint at "Babylon," but he says (p. 456 -57) it is possible that coins of "group two" may have been minted at Susa or Ecbatana.
3 commentsCallimachus
04-Alex-Stater-Abydus-P1524.jpg
04. "Abydus": Stater in the name of Alexander the Great.49 viewsStater, ca 323 - 317 BC, "Abydus" mint.
Obverse: Head of Athena in crested Corinthian helmet ornamented with a serpent.
Reverse: ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ / Nike holding wreath and ship's mast; monogram and star at left, cornucopia at feet.
8.60 gm., 18 mm.
P. #1524; M. #381; S. #6704.
1 commentsCallimachus
Personajes_Imperiales_5.jpg
05 - Personalities of the Empire48 viewsDiadumenian, Elagabalus, Julia Maesa, Julia Soaemias, Aquilia Severa, Annia Faustina, Severus Alexander, Julia Mamaea, Orbiana, Maximinus I, Paulina, Maximus and Gordian Imdelvalle
Personajes_Imperiales_5~0.jpg
05 - Personalities of the Empire60 viewsDiadumenian, Elagabalus, Julia Maesa, Julia Soaemias, Aquilia Severa, Annia Faustina, Severus Alexander, Julia Mamaea, Orbiana, Maximinus I, Paulina, Maximus and Gordian I1 commentsmdelvalle
05-Philip-III.jpg
05. Philip III.80 viewsTetradrachm, 323 - 317 BC, "Babylon" mint.
Obverse: Head of Alexander as Herakles, wearing lion's skin headdress.
Reverse: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΟΣ ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΥ / Zeus sitting, holding his attendant eagle and sceptre. M at left, ΛΥ between the rungs of the throne.
16.99 gm., 27 mm.
P. #P181; M. #99; S. #6749.

Martin J. Price assigns this coin to the mint at "Babylon," but he says (p. 455) that coins with the M-ΛΥ monograms may have to be assigned to Susa after further study.
Callimachus
59a.jpg
059a Severus Alexander. AR denarius10 viewsobv: IMP ALEXANDER PIVS AVG laur. drp. bust r.
rev: VOTIS VICEN NAL-BVS (missing I ) 10th year of reign
hill132
59b.jpg
059b Severus alexander. AR denarius16 viewsobv: IMP ALEXANDER PIVS AVG laur. drp. bust r.
rev: SPES_P_VBLICA Spes walking l. holding flowers and raising skirt
hill132
59d.jpg
059d Severus Alexander. AR denarius15 viewsobv: IMP P ALEXANDER PIVS AVG laur.drp. on shoulders bust r.
rev: PROVIDENTIAE AVG Prov. front l. holdingcorn ears and anchor, on grown modius
hill132
59e.jpg
059e Severus Alexander. AR denarius14 viewsobv: IMP SEV ALEXANDER AVG laur. head r.
rev: PERPETVI_TATI AVG Perp. std. l. holding globe and leaning on column
hill132
06-Alex-Amphipolis-P124.jpg
06. "Amphipolis": Tetradrachm in the name of Alexander the Great.34 viewsTetradrachm, ca 320 - 317 BC, "Amphipolis" mint.
Obverse: Head of Alexander as Herakles, wearing lion's skin headdress.
Reverse: Reverse: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΟΣ ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ / Zeus sitting, holding his attendant eagle and sceptre. Branch of laurel at left, Π under throne.
17.33 gm., 25 mm.
P. #124; M. #560.

Alexander appointed Antipater regent in Macedon during his absence. After Alexander's death in 323 BC, Antipater continued ruling as regent until his own death in 319 BC. Most coins issued in Macedon during this time continued to be in the name of Alexander.
Callimachus
60a.jpg
060a Orbiana. AR denarius25 viewsobv: SALL BARBIA_ORBIANA AVG dia. and drp. bust r.
rev: CONCORDI_A AVGG Concordia seated l. holding patera and double cournucopiae
"Wife of Severus Alexander"
1 commentshill132
61.jpg
061 Julia Mamaea. AR denarius19 viewsobv: IVLIA MAMAEA AVG dia. and drp. bust r.
rev: VESTA Vesta veiled std. l. holding palladium and upright scepter
"mother of s. Alexander"
hill132
Severus-Alexander_AR-Den_IMP-C-M-AVR-SEV-ALEXAND-AVG_P-M-TR-P-II-COS-P-P_RIC-IV-II_23-p-_C-231_BMC-93_Rome-223-AD_Q-001_5h_17,5-19mm_2,86g-s.jpg
062 Alexander Severus ( 221-222 A.D. Caesar, 222-235 A.D. Augustus), RIC IV-II 023, Rome, AR-Denarius, P M TR P II COS P P, Mars standing left,109 views062 Alexander Severus ( 221-222 A.D. Caesar, 222-235 A.D. Augustus), RIC IV-II 023, Rome, AR-Denarius, P M TR P II COS P P, Mars standing left,
avers:-IMP-C-M-AVR-SEV-ALEXAND-AVG, Laureate draped bust right.
revers:-P-M-TR-P-II-COS-P-P, Mars standing left, holding branch and reversed spear.
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: 17,5-19mm, weight: 2,86g, axis: 5h,
mint: Rome, date: 223 A.D., ref: RIC-IV-II-023, p-_C-231, BMC-93,
Q-001
quadrans
Severus-Alexander_AR-Den_IMP-C-M-AVR-SEV-ALEXAND-AVG_P-M-TR-P-II-COS-P-P_RIC-IV-II-32_p-73_C-239_223-AD_Q-001_h_mm_ga-s.jpg
062 Alexander Severus ( 221-222 A.D. Caesar, 222-235 A.D. Augustus), RIC IV-II 032, Rome, AR-Denarius, P M TR P II COS P P, Salus seated left,65 views062 Alexander Severus ( 221-222 A.D. Caesar, 222-235 A.D. Augustus), RIC IV-II 032, Rome, AR-Denarius, P M TR P II COS P P, Salus seated left,
avers:-IMP-C-M-AVR-SEV-ALEXAND-AVG, Laureate draped bust right.
revers: P-M-TR-P-II-COS-P-P, Salus seated left, holding patera, feeding serpent rising from altar.
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: 18,5mm, weight: 3,32g, axis: 0h,
mint: Rome, date: 223 A.D., ref: RIC-IV-II-32, p-73, C-239,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Severus-Alexander_AR-Den_IMP-C-M-AVR-SEV-ALEXAND-AVG_P-M-TR-P-III-COS-P-P_RIC-44_C-256_224AD_Q-001_axis-h_19mm_3,88ga-s.jpg
062 Alexander Severus ( 221-222 A.D. Caesar, 222-235 A.D. Augustus), RIC IV-II 044, Rome, AR-Denarius, P M TR P III COS P P, Emperor standing left, #1121 views062 Alexander Severus ( 221-222 A.D. Caesar, 222-235 A.D. Augustus), RIC IV-II 044, Rome, AR-Denarius, P M TR P III COS P P, Emperor standing left, #1
avers:-IMP-C-M-AVR-SEV-ALEXAND-AVG, Laureate draped bust right.
revers:-P-M-TR-P-III-COS-P-P, Alexander standing left, holding globe and reversed spear.
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: 19mm, weight: 3,88g, axis: 0 h,
mint: Rome, date: 224 A.D., ref: RIC-IV-II-044, p-_C-256,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Severus-Alexander_AR-Den_IMP-C-M-AVR-SEV-ALEXAND-AVG_P-M-TR-P-III-COS-PP_RIC-IV-II_44-p-_C-256_224-AD_Q-001_0h_18,5-20mm_3,17ga-s.jpg
062 Alexander Severus ( 221-222 A.D. Caesar, 222-235 A.D. Augustus), RIC IV-II 044, Rome, AR-Denarius, P M TR P III COS P P, Emperor standing left, #264 views062 Alexander Severus ( 221-222 A.D. Caesar, 222-235 A.D. Augustus), RIC IV-II 044, Rome, AR-Denarius, P M TR P III COS P P, Emperor standing left, #2
avers:-IMP-C-M-AVR-SEV-ALEXAND-AVG, Laureate draped bust right.
revers:-P-M-TR-P-III-COS-P-P, Alexander standing left, holding globe and reversed spear.
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: 18,5-20mm, weight: 3,17g, axis: 0 h,
mint: Rome, date: 224 A.D., ref: RIC-IV-II-044, p-_C-256,
Q-002
quadrans
Severus-Alexander_AR-Den_IMP-C-M-AVR-SEV-ALEXAND-AVG_P-M-TR-P-VIII-COS-III-PP_RIC-IV-II_91-p-77_C-364_229-AD_Q-001_7h_18,5-19mm_2,48g-s.jpg
062 Alexander Severus ( 221-222 A.D. Caesar, 222-235 A.D. Augustus), RIC IV-II 091, Rome, AR-Denarius, P M TR P VIII COS III P P, Mars standing right,76 views062 Alexander Severus ( 221-222 A.D. Caesar, 222-235 A.D. Augustus), RIC IV-II 091, Rome, AR-Denarius, P M TR P VIII COS III P P, Mars standing right,
avers:-IMP-ALEXANDER-PIVS-AVG, Laureate head right.
revers:-P-M-TR-P-VIII-COS-III-PP, Mars standing right, holding spear reversed in right hand and resting left hand on shield.
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: 18,5-19mm, weight: 2,48g, axis:7h, "Limes-Denarius "
mint: Rome, date: 229 A.D., ref: RIC-IV-II-91, p-_C-364,
Q-001
quadrans
Sev-Alexander_IMP-C-M-AVR-SEV-ALEXAND-AVG_PAX-AETERNA-AVG_RIC-165_C-183_223-AD_Q-001_axis-6h_19mm_2,97g-s.jpg
062 Alexander Severus ( 221-222 A.D. Caesar, 222-235 A.D. Augustus), RIC IV-II 165, Rome, AR-Denarius, PAX-AETERNA-AVG, Pax standing left,113 views062 Alexander Severus ( 221-222 A.D. Caesar, 222-235 A.D. Augustus), RIC IV-II 165, Rome, AR-Denarius, PAX-AETERNA-AVG, Pax standing left,
avers:-IMP-C-M-AVR-SEV-ALEXAND-AVG, Laureate draped bust right.
revers:-PAX-AETERNA-AVG, Pax standing left, holding olive branch and long scepter.
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: 19mm, weight: 2,97g, axis: 6 h,
mint: Rome, date: 223 A.D., ref: RIC-IV-II-165, p-_C-183,
Q-001
quadrans
Severus-Alexander_AR-Den_IMP-C-M-AVR-SEV-ALEXAND-AVG_SALVS-PVBLICA_RIC-IV-II_-p-89_C-543_232-AD_Q-001_h_mm_g-s.jpg
062 Alexander Severus ( 221-222 A.D. Caesar, 222-235 A.D. Augustus), RIC IV-II 178, Rome, AR-Denarius, SALVS PVBLICA, Salus seated left,105 views062 Alexander Severus ( 221-222 A.D. Caesar, 222-235 A.D. Augustus), RIC IV-II 178, Rome, AR-Denarius, SALVS PVBLICA, Salus seated left,
avers:-IMP-C-M-AVR-SEV-ALEXAND-AVG, Laureate draped bust right.
revers:SALVS-PVBLICA, Salus seated left, holding patera, feeding serpent rising from altar.
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: 18-19mm, weight: 2,81g, axis: 6h,
mint: Rome, date: 222 A.D., ref: RIC-IV-II-178, p-, RSC 532,
Q-001
quadrans
Severus-Alexander_AR-Den_IMP-C-M-AVR-SEV-ALEXAND-AVG_PAX-AVG_RIC-IV-II-168_p-83_C-187_226-AD_Q-001_6h_18,5-19mm_2,75ga-s.jpg
062 Alexander Severus ( 221-222 A.D. Caesar, 222-235 A.D. Augustus), RIC IV-II 187, Rome, AR-Denarius, PAX AVG, Pax advancing left, #183 views062 Alexander Severus ( 221-222 A.D. Caesar, 222-235 A.D. Augustus), RIC IV-II 187, Rome, AR-Denarius, PAX AVG, Pax advancing left, #1
avers:-IMP-C-M-AVR-SEV-ALEXAND-AVG, Laureate draped bust right.
revers: PAX-AVG, Pax advancing left, holding branch and scepter.
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: 18,5-19mm, weight: 2,75g, axis: 6h,
mint: Rome, date: 226A.D., ref: RIC-IV-II-168, p-83, RSC-187,
Q-001
quadrans
Severus-Alexander_AR-Den_IMP-SEV-ALE-XAND-AVG_VICTORIA-AVGVSTI_VOT_X_RIC-IV-II_219-p-_C-556a_228-231-AD_Q-001_6h_18-19mm_3,15g-s.jpg
062 Alexander Severus ( 221-222 A.D. Caesar, 222-235 A.D. Augustus), RIC IV-II 219, Rome, AR-Denarius, VICTORIA AVGVSTI, Victory standing right, 72 views062 Alexander Severus ( 221-222 A.D. Caesar, 222-235 A.D. Augustus), RIC IV-II 219, Rome, AR-Denarius, VICTORIA AVGVSTI, Victory standing right,
avers:-IMP-SEV-ALE-XAND-AVG, Laureate bust right.
revers:-VICTORIA-AVGVSTI, Victory standing right, inscribing shield held above knee VOT/X.
exerg: -/VOT/X//--, diameter: 18-19mm, weight: 3,15g, axis: 6h,
mint: Rome, date: 228-231 A.D., ref: RIC-IV-II-219, p-, C-556a, BMCRE 638,
Q-001
quadrans
Severus-Alexander_AR-Den_IMP-ALEXANDER-PIVS-AVG_IOVI-PRO-PVG-NATORI_RIC-IV-II_-p-_C-_-AD_Q-001_0h_19,5-20,5mm_2,27g-s.jpg
062 Alexander Severus ( 221-222 A.D. Caesar, 222-235 A.D. Augustus), RIC IV-II 239, Rome, AR-Denarius, IOVI PROPVGNATORI, Jupiter standing front,89 views062 Alexander Severus ( 221-222 A.D. Caesar, 222-235 A.D. Augustus), RIC IV-II 239, Rome, AR-Denarius, IOVI PROPVGNATORI, Jupiter standing front,
avers: IMP-ALEXANDER-PIVS-AVG, Laureate, draped bust right.
revers: IOVI-PRO-PVG-NATORI, Jupiter standing front, head turned right, holding an eagle and hurling thunderbolt.
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: 19,5-20,5mm, weight: 2,27g, axis:0h,
mint: Rome, date: 231 A.D., ref: RIC-IV-II-239, p-_RSC-84,
Q-001
quadrans
Severus-Alexander_AR-Den_IMP-ALEXANDER-PIVS-AVG_PROVIDEN-TIA-AVG_RIC-IV-II_252-p-_C-508a_231-AD_Q-001_6h_18-20mm_2,66g-s.jpg
062 Alexander Severus ( 221-222 A.D. Caesar, 222-235 A.D. Augustus), RIC IV-II 252, Rome, AR-Denarius, PROVIDENTIA AVG, Providentia standing facing,65 views062 Alexander Severus ( 221-222 A.D. Caesar, 222-235 A.D. Augustus), RIC IV-II 252, Rome, AR-Denarius, PROVIDENTIA AVG, Providentia standing facing,
avers:-IMP-ALEXANDER-PIVS-AVG, Laureate bust right.
revers:-PROVIDEN-TIA-AVG, Providentia standing facing, head left, holding anchor and grain ears over modius.
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: 18-20mm, weight: 2,66g, axis:6h,
mint: Rome, date: 231 A.D., ref: RIC-IV-II-252, p-_C-508a,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Severus-Alexander_AR-Den_IMP-ALEXANDER-PIVS-AVG_SPES-PVBLICA_RIC-IV-II_254c-p-89_C-543_232-AD_Q-001_0h_20mm_2,99g-s.jpg
062 Alexander Severus ( 221-222 A.D. Caesar, 222-235 A.D. Augustus), RIC IV-II 254c, Rome, AR-Denarius, SPES PVBLICA, Spes walking left, 105 views062 Alexander Severus ( 221-222 A.D. Caesar, 222-235 A.D. Augustus), RIC IV-II 254c, Rome, AR-Denarius, SPES PVBLICA, Spes walking left,
avers:-IMP-ALEXANDER-PIVS-AVG, Laureate draped bust right.
revers:-SPES-PVBLICA, Spes walking left, holding flower and raising skirt.
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: 20mm, weight: 2,99g, axis: 0 h,
mint: Rome, date: 232 A.D., ref: RIC-IV-II-254c, p-89, C-543,
Q-001
quadrans
Severus-Alexander_AR-Den_IMP-C-M-AVR-SEV-ALEXAND-AVG_AEQVITAS-AVG_RIC-IV-II_274-p-92_RSC-11_Sear5-7856_Antioch-222-AD_Q-001_h_mm_g-s.jpg
062 Alexander Severus ( 221-222 A.D. Caesar, 222-235 A.D. Augustus), RIC IV-II 274, Antioch, AR-Denarius, AEQVITAS AVG, Aequitas standing left,79 views062 Alexander Severus ( 221-222 A.D. Caesar, 222-235 A.D. Augustus), RIC IV-II 274, Antioch, AR-Denarius, AEQVITAS AVG, Aequitas standing left,
avers:-IMP-C-M-AVR-SEV-ALEXAND-AVG, Laureate draped bust right.
revers: AEQVITAS-AVG, Aequitas standing left, holding scales and cornucopia; "star" in left field.
exerg: */-//--, diameter: 18,5-19mm, weight: 3,34g, axis: 0h,
mint: Antioch, date: 222 A.D., ref: RIC-IV-II-274, p-92, RSC-11, Sear5-7856
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
062_Sev__Alexander,_AE-Sest,_IMP_SEV_ALE_XANDER_AVG,_P_M_TR_P_VIII_COS_III_P_P,_SC,_RIC_IV-II_495,_230AD,_Q-001,_h,_31mm,_19,13g-s.jpg
062 Alexander Severus ( 221-222 A.D. Caesar, 222-235 A.D. Augustus), RIC IV-II 495, Rome, AE-Sestertius, P M TR P VIII COS III P P, Emperor in quadriga right, 81 views062 Alexander Severus ( 221-222 A.D. Caesar, 222-235 A.D. Augustus), RIC IV-II 495, Rome, AE-Sestertius, P M TR P VIII COS III P P, Emperor in quadriga right,
avers: IMP SEV ALE XANDER AVG, Laureate head right, slight drapery on far shoulder.
reverse: P M TR P VIII COS III P P, Emperor in quadriga right, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle, in exergue S C.
exergue: -/-//SC, diameter: 31,0mm, weight: 19,13g, axis: 0h,
mint: Rome, date: 230 A.D., ref: RIC IV-II 495, C. 377, BMC .
Q-001
3 commentsquadrans
062_Alex_Severus,_RIC_IV-II_558,_Rome,_AE-Sest,_IMP_SEV_ALEXANDER_AVG,_IOVI_CONSERVATORI_S-C,_222-231AD,_Q-001,_0h,_28-30,5mm,_20,81g-s.jpg
062 Alexander Severus ( 221-222 A.D. Caesar, 222-235 A.D. Augustus), RIC IV-II 558, Rome, AE-Sestertius, IOVI CONSERVATORI, Jupiter standing left,136 views062 Alexander Severus ( 221-222 A.D. Caesar, 222-235 A.D. Augustus), RIC IV-II 558, Rome, AE-Sestertius, IOVI CONSERVATORI, Jupiter standing left,
avers: IMP SEV ALEXANDER AVG, Laureate head right, slight drapery on far shoulder.
reverse: IOVI CONSERVATORI, Jupiter standing left, holding thunderbolt and sceptre, protecting Alexander at foot left. S-C across the field.
exergue: S/C//--, diameter: 28,0-30,5mm, weight: 20,81g, axis: 0h,
mint: Rome, date: 231 A.D., ref: RIC IV-II 558, C. 74, BMC 692.
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
062_Alexander_Severus_(_221-222_A_D__Caesar,_222-235_A_D__Augustus),_Mcedonia,_Edessa,_AE-24,__Varb_3648_RR_Q-001_0h_23,7-24,5mm_7,95g-s.jpg
062p Alexander Severus ( 221-222 A.D. Caesar, 222-235 A.D. Augustus), Macedonia, Edessa, AE-24, Varb. 3648, EΔECCEΩN, Roma seated left, Very Rare !100 views062p Alexander Severus ( 221-222 A.D. Caesar, 222-235 A.D. Augustus), Macedonia, Edessa, AE-24, Varb. 3648, EΔECCEΩN, Roma seated left, Very Rare !
avers:- AY K M A CE AΛEΞANΔPOC, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
revers:- EΔECCEΩN, Roma seated left on cuirass, holding Nike and parazonium, crowned by city-goddesss tanding left behind her, holding wreath and spear.
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: 23,7-24,5mm, weight:7,95g, axes: 0h,
mint: Macedonia, Edessa, date: 222-235 A.D., ref: Varb. 3648, Very Rare !
quadrans
062_Sev_Alexander,_AE-23,_IMP_C_M_AVR_SEV_ALEXAND_AVG,_COL_F_L_PAC_DEVLT,_Thrace,_Deultum,_Varb-II-2265,_Q-001,_7h,_23-25mm,_6,50g-s~0.jpg
062p Alexander Severus ( 221-222 A.D. Caesar, 222-235 A.D. Augustus), Thrace, Deultum, Varbanov II. 2265, AE-23, COL F L PAC DEVLT, Artemis walking right, 122 views062p Alexander Severus ( 221-222 A.D. Caesar, 222-235 A.D. Augustus), Thrace, Deultum, Varbanov II. 2265, AE-23, COL F L PAC DEVLT, Artemis walking right,
avers: IMP C M AVR SEV ALEXAND AVG, Laureate, draped bust right.
reverse: COL F L PAC DEVLT, Artemis walking right, holding the bow, reaching behind to grab an arrow from her quiver, hound between her feet.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 23,0-25,0 mm, weight: 6,50 g, axis:7h,
mint: Thrace, Deultum, date: A.D., ref: Varbanov II. 2265,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Alexander_Severus_AE_24,_Alexandria,Troas__IM_S_ALEXANDER_AV_Laur,_bust_r__COL_AVG-TRO_Horse_grazing_right__SNG_Copenhagen_165v__222-235_AD_Q-001_7h_23-24mm_7,52g-s~0.jpg
062p Alexander Severus ( 221-222 A.D. Caesar, 222-235 A.D. Augustus), Troas, Alexandreia, AE-24, SNG Cop 165var., COL AVG TRO, Horse grazing right,103 views062p Alexander Severus ( 221-222 A.D. Caesar, 222-235 A.D. Augustus), Troas, Alexandreia, AE-24, SNG Cop 165var., COL AVG TRO, Horse grazing right,
avers:- IMP S ALEXANDER, Laureate head right.
revers:- COL AVG TRO, Horse grazing right,
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: 23-24mm, weight:7,52g, axes: 7h,
mint: Troas, Alexandreia, date: 222-235 A.D., ref:SNG Cop 165var.,
Q-001
quadrans
062_Severus-Alexander_AE-22_M-AYP-_________C-K______-__N_Q-001_h_mm_g-s.jpg
062p Severus Alexander (222-235 A.D.), Bithynia, Nicomedia, AE-22, NI-KO/MH−ΔЄ/Ω−N/ΔIC NЄΩ/K, Octastyle temple,63 views062p Severus Alexander (222-235 A.D.), Bithynia, Nicomedia, AE-22, NI-KO/MH−ΔЄ/Ω−N/ΔIC NЄΩ/K, Octastyle temple,
avers:- M-AYP-ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟC-K, Laureate head right.
revers:- ΝΙ−ΚΟ / ΜΗ−ΔЄ / Ω−Ν / ΔΙC ΝЄΩ / Κ, octastyle temple set on two-tiered base, pellet in pediment.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 22mm, weight: 9,07g, axis: 5h,
mint: Bithynia, Nicomedia, date: 222-235 A.D., ref: ,
Q-001
quadrans
062_Severus-Alexander_AE-21_MAYP-SEVHALEXANDPOS-AVG_dot___-_-___Ndotdot_Q-001_1h_21,5mm_6,65g-s~0.jpg
062p Severus Alexander (222-235 A.D.), Bithynia, Nikaia, AE-21, NIKAIEΩN, Serpent emerging from cista,109 views062p Severus Alexander (222-235 A.D.), Bithynia, Nikaia, AE-21, NIKAIEΩN, Serpent emerging from cista,
avers:- M AVP CEVH AΛEΞANΔPOC AVΓ, Laurate head right.
revers:- NIK-A-IEΩN, Serpent emerging from cista with open lid.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 21,5mm, weight: 6,65g, axis: 1h,
mint: Bithynia, Nikaia, date: A.D., ref: ???,
Q-001
quadrans
062_Severus-Alexander_AE-22_M-AYP-_________C-K______-__N_Q-001_1h_21-22mm_6,22gx-s.jpg
062p Severus Alexander (222-235 A.D.), Bithynia, Nikaia, AE-22, ΝΙΚΑΙΕΩN, Zeus seated left, Rare !!!,74 views062p Severus Alexander (222-235 A.D.), Bithynia, Nikaia, AE-22, ΝΙΚΑΙΕΩN, Zeus seated left, Rare !!!,
avers:- M-AYP-ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟC-K, Bare headed, Cuirassed bust right,
revers:- ΝΙΚΑΙ-ΕΩΝ, Zeus seated left, holding patera and sceptre,
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 21-22 mm, weight:6,22 g, axis:1h,
mint: Bithynia, Nikaia, date: Severus Alexander as Caesar under Elagabalus, mid-221 A.D. to March 222 A.D., rare!, ref: Not in Rec. Gen.,
Q-001
quadrans
062_Severus-Alexander_AE-25___CEVxx_________C-________-__N_Q-001_h_25mm_7,07g-s.jpg
062p Severus Alexander (222-235 A.D.), Bithynia, Nikaia, AE-25, ΝΙΚΑΙΕΩN,67 views062p Severus Alexander (222-235 A.D.), Bithynia, Nikaia, AE-25, ΝΙΚΑΙΕΩN,
avers:- xxCEVxxΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟC-ΑΥ, Laurate head right.
revers:- ΝΙΚΑΙ-ΕΩN, Demeter, veiled, standing left, holding corn-ears and torch.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 25mm, weight: 7,07g, axis: 1h,
mint: Bithynia, Nikaia, date: A.D., ref: ,
Q-001
quadrans
062_Severus_Alexander_(222-235_A_D_),_AE-22_Nikaia_in_Bithynia-_______N_Q-011_7h_21mm_4,63g-s~0.jpg
062p Severus Alexander (222-235 A.D.), Bithynia, Nikaia, BMC 103var(3)., AE-22, ΝΙΚΑΙΕΩN, #2134 views062p Severus Alexander (222-235 A.D.), Bithynia, Nikaia, BMC 103var(3)., AE-22, ΝΙΚΑΙΕΩN, #2
avers:- M AVP CEV AΛEΞANΔROC AVΓ (AVΓ in ligature), Laureate, cuirassed bust right, seen from behind.
revers:- ΝΙ-ΚΑ-ΙΕ-ΩN, Between three legionary standards.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 21mm, weight: 4,63g, axis: 7h,
mint: Bithynia, Nikaia, date: , ref: Kemppinen S402, BMC 103var. ,
Q-002
1 commentsquadrans
062_Severus_Alexander_(222-235_A_D_),_AE-22_Nikaia_in_Bithynia-_______N_Q-0x1_h_mm_g-s.jpg
062p Severus Alexander (222-235 A.D.), Bithynia, Nikaia, BMC 103var(3)., AE-22, NI-K-AI-E/ΩN, #165 views062p Severus Alexander (222-235 A.D.), Bithynia, Nikaia, BMC 103var(3)., AE-22, NI-K-AI-E/ΩN, #1
avers:- M AVP CEVH AΛEΞANΔROC AV, Laureate, draped bust right, seen from the back.
revers:- NI-K-AI-E/ΩN, Between and beneath three standards.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Bithynia, Nikaia, date: A.D., ref: BMC 103var(3).,
Q-001
quadrans
062_Severus_Alexander_(222-235_A_D_),_AE-22_Nikaia_in_Bithynia-_______N_Q-009_h_mm_g-s.jpg
062p Severus Alexander (222-235 A.D.), Bithynia, Nikaia, BMC 103var(3)., AE-22, NI-K-AI-E/ΩN, #270 views062p Severus Alexander (222-235 A.D.), Bithynia, Nikaia, BMC 103var(3)., AE-22, NI-K-AI-E/ΩN, #2
avers:- M AVP CEVH AΛEΞANΔROC AV, Laureate, draped bust right, seen from the back.
revers:- NI-K-AI-E/ΩN, Between and beneath three standards.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Bithynia, Nikaia, date: A.D., ref: BMC 103var(3).,
Q-002
quadrans
062_Severus_Alexander_(222-235_A_D_),_AE-22_Nikaia_in_Bithynia-_______N_Q-001_h_mm_g-s.jpg
062p Severus Alexander (222-235 A.D.), Bithynia, Nikaia, BMC 103var(3)., AE-22, NI-K-AI-E/ΩN, #362 views062p Severus Alexander (222-235 A.D.), Bithynia, Nikaia, BMC 103var(3)., AE-22, NI-K-AI-E/ΩN, #3
avers:- M AVP CEVH AΛEΞANΔROC AV, Laureate, draped bust right, seen from the back.
revers:- NI-K-AI-E/ΩN, Between and beneath three standards.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 22mm, weight: 9,07g, axis: 5h,
mint: Bithynia, Nikaia, date: A.D., ref: BMC 103var(3).,
Q-003
quadrans
062_Severus_Alexander_(222-235_A_D_),_AE-22,_Nikaia_in_Bithynia,________N_Q-001_h_mm_gx-s.jpg
062p Severus Alexander (222-235 A.D.), Bithynia, Nikaia, BMC 103var., AE-22, ΝΙΚΑΙΕΩN, #164 views062p Severus Alexander (222-235 A.D.), Bithynia, Nikaia, BMC 103var., AE-22, ΝΙΚΑΙΕΩN, #1
avers:- M AVP CEVH AΛEΞANΔROC AV, Laureate, cuirassed bust right, seen from behind.
revers:- ΝΙ-ΚΑ-ΙΕ-ΩN, Between three legionary standards.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 22mm, weight: 9,07g, axis: 5h,
mint: Bithynia, Nikaia, date: , ref: Kemppinen S204, BMC 103var. ,
Q-001
quadrans
062_Severus_Alexander_(222-235_A_D_),_AE-21,_Nikaia_in_Bithynia,__#925;_#921;__#922;__#913;_#921;__#917;__#937;N,_Q-001,_0h,_20-21mm,_5,38g-s~0.jpg
062p Severus Alexander (222-235 A.D.), Bithynia, Nikaia, BMC ???, AE-21, NI K AI E/ΩN, #163 views062p Severus Alexander (222-235 A.D.), Bithynia, Nikaia, BMC ???, AE-21, NI K AI E/ΩN, #1
avers: M AVP CEVH AΛEΞANΔROC AVΓ (VΓ ligate), Laureate, cuirassed bust right, seen from behind.
reverse: NI K AI E/ΩN, Between and beneath three standards.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 20,0-21,0mm, weight: 5,38g, axis: 0h,
mint: Bithynia, Nikaia, date: A.D., ref: BMC ???,
Q-001
quadrans
062_Severus_Alexander_(222-235_A_D_),_AE-22_Nikaia_in_Bithynia-_______N_Q-031_1h_20,5mm_4,65g-s~0.jpg
062p Severus Alexander (222-235 A.D.), Bithynia, Nikaia, BMC ???, AE-21, NI-K-AI-E/ΩN, #1126 views062p Severus Alexander (222-235 A.D.), Bithynia, Nikaia, BMC ???, AE-21, NI-K-AI-E/ΩN, #1
avers:- M-AVP-CEV-AΛEΞANΔROC-AVΓ, Laureate, cuirassed bust right, seen from behind.,
revers:- NI-K-AI-E/ΩN, Between and beneath three standards.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 20,65mm, weight: 4,65g, axis: 1h,
mint: Bithynia, Nikaia, date: A.D., ref: BMC ???,
Q-001
quadrans
062_Severus_Alexander_(222-235_A_D_),_AE-22,_Nikaia_in_Bithynia_M-AVR-CEVH-ALEXANDROS-AVG___-_-__-___N_Q-001_1h_21mm_5,94g-s~0.jpg
062p Severus Alexander (222-235 A.D.), Bithynia, Nikaia, BMC ???, AE-22, NI-K-AI-E/ΩN, #167 views062p Severus Alexander (222-235 A.D.), Bithynia, Nikaia, BMC ???, AE-22, NI-K-AI-E/ΩN, #1
avers:- M-AVP-CEVH-AΛEΞANΔROC-AVΓ, Laureate head right,
revers:- NI-K-AI-E/ΩN, Between and beneath three standards.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 21mm, weight: 5,94g, axis: 1h,
mint: Bithynia, Nikaia, date: A.D., ref: BMC ???,
Q-001
quadrans
062p_Severus_Alexander_(222-235_A_D_),_AE-22_Nikaia_in_Bithynia-_______N_Q-0x3_h_mm_g-s.jpg
062p Severus Alexander (222-235 A.D.), Bithynia, Nikaia, BMC ???, AE-22, NI-K-AI-E/ΩN, #160 views062p Severus Alexander (222-235 A.D.), Bithynia, Nikaia, BMC ???, AE-22, NI-K-AI-E/ΩN, #1
avers:- M-AVP-CEVH-AΛEΞANΔROC-AVΓ, Laureate head right,
revers:- NI-K-AI-E/ΩN, Between and beneath three standards.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Bithynia, Nikaia, date: A.D., ref: BMC ???,
Q-001
quadrans
062_Severus_Alexander_(222-235_A_D_),_AE-22_Nikaia_in_Bithynia-_______N_Q-008_h_mm_g-s.jpg
062p Severus Alexander (222-235 A.D.), Bithynia, Nikaia, BMC ???, NI-KA-IE-ΩN, #162 views062p Severus Alexander (222-235 A.D.), AE-22, Bithynia, Nikaia, BMC ???, NI-KA-IE-ΩN, #1
avers:- M AVP CEVH AΛEΞANΔROC AV, Laureate, bust right.
revers:- NI-KA-IE-ΩN, Between three legionary standards.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Bithynia, Nikaia, date: , ref: BMC ??? ,
Q-001
quadrans
062_Severus_Alexander_(222-235_A_D_),_AE-25,_Varbanov_4473,_Thessalonica,_Macedonia,_Nike_left_Q-001_h_mm_gx-s.jpg
062p Severus Alexander (222-235 A.D.), Macedonia, Thessalonica, Varbanov 4473, AE-25, Nike left,62 views062p Severus Alexander (222-235 A.D.), Macedonia, Thessalonica, Varbanov 4473, AE-25, Nike left,
avers:- AVTOK_CEV_AΛEΞANΔPOC, Laureate head right.
revers:- Θ-E-CCAΛON-IKEΩN, Nike advancing left, holding Kabeiros and palm.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 22mm, weight: 9,07g, axis: 5h,
mint: Macedonia, Thessalonica, date: 222-235 A.D., ref: Varbanov 4473, Touratsoglou 14,
Q-001
quadrans
063_Orbiana,_(225-227_AD),_RIC_319v_,_Limes_Denarius,_SALL_BARBIA_ORBIANA_AVG,_CONCORDIA_AVGG,_RSC_1v_,_BMC_287v_,_225-226_AD,_Q-001,_6h,_18-19,5mm,_2,66g-s.jpg
063 Orbiana ( 225-227 A.D. Augusta), RIC IV-II 319v.(base metal!), Rome, "Limes" Denarius, CONCORDIA AVG G, Concordia seated left on throne, #135 views063 Orbiana ( 225-227 A.D. Augusta), RIC IV-II 319v.(base metal!), Rome, "Limes" Denarius, CONCORDIA AVG G, Concordia seated left on throne, #1
Wife of Severus Alexander.
avers: SALL BARBIA ORBIANA AVG, Diademed and draped bust right.
reverse: CONCORDI A AVG G, Concordia seated left on throne, holding patera and single(!) cornucopiae.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 18,0-19,5mm, weight: 2,66g, axis: 6h,
mint: Rome, date: 225-226 A.D., ref: RIC IV-II 319v.(single cornucopiae!, base metal!), RSC 1v., BMC 287v., Sear 8191v.
Q-001
quadrans
063_Orbiana,_(225-227_AD),_RIC_319v_,_Limes_Denarius,_SALL_BARBIA_ORBIANA_AVG,_CONCORDIA_AVGG,_RSC_1v_,_BMC_287v_,_225-226_AD,_Q-001,_6h,_18-19,5mm,_2,66g-s~0.jpg
063 Orbiana ( 225-227 A.D. Augusta), RIC IV-II 319v.(base metal!), Rome, "Limes" Denarius, CONCORDIA AVG G, Concordia seated left on throne, #151 views063 Orbiana ( 225-227 A.D. Augusta), RIC IV-II 319v.(base metal!), Rome, "Limes" Denarius, CONCORDIA AVG G, Concordia seated left on throne, #1
Wife of Severus Alexander.
avers: SALL BARBIA ORBIANA AVG, Diademed and draped bust right.
reverse: CONCORDI A AVG G, Concordia seated left on throne, holding patera and single(!) cornucopiae.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 18,0-19,5mm, weight: 2,66g, axis: 6h,
mint: Rome, date: 225-226 A.D., ref: RIC IV-II 319v.(single cornucopiae!, base metal!), RSC 1v., BMC 287v., Sear 8191v.
Q-001
quadrans
Maximinus-I_IMP-MAXIMINVS-PIVS-AVG_PROVIDENTIA-AVG_RIC_13,_RSC_77,_BMC_15_Q-001_0h_19,5-20mm_2,99g-s.jpg
065 Maximinus-I. Thrax, (235-238 A.D.), RIC IV-II 013, Rome, AR-Denarius, PROVIDENTIA AVG, Providentia satanding left, #262 views065 Maximinus-I. Thrax, (235-238 A.D.), RIC IV-II 013, Rome, AR-Denarius, PROVIDENTIA AVG, Providentia satanding left, #2
avers:- IMP-MAXIMINVS-PIVS-AVG, Laureate, draped bust right, early portrait resembling Severus Alexander.
revers:- PROVIDENTIA-AVG , Providentia standing left, with cornucopiae and wand pointed at globe at foot.
exerg: , diameter: 19,5-20mm, weight: 2,99g, axis: 0h,
mint: Rome, date: 235-236 A.D., ref: RIC-IV-II-13, p-141,
Q-002
quadrans
07-Alex-Pella-P250.jpg
07. "Pella": Tetradrachm in the name of Alexander the Great.30 viewsTetradrachm, ca 315 - 310 BC, "Pella" mint.
Obverse: Head of Alexander as Herakles, wearing lion's skin headdress.
Reverse: ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ / Zeus sitting, holding his attendant eagle and sceptre. Boeotian shield at left, Σ. between the rungs of the throne.
17.24 gm., 26 mm.
P. #250; PROa #135.

Alexander appointed Antipater regent in Macedon during his absence. After Alexander's death in 323 BC, Antipater continued ruling as regent until his own death in 319 BC. Thereafter his son Kassander ruled until 297 BC, eventually taking the title of King in 305 BC. He was notorious for his cruelty, and in 311 BC he killed Alexander's widow and her young son. The silver coinage of Kassander's reign was all issued in the name of Alexander.
Callimachus
RI 077bar1 img.jpg
077 - Barbarous Fouree Severus Alexander denarius Based on MARS VLTOR28 viewsObv:– IMP SVE AL[...] AVG, Laureate head right
Rev:– MARS VLTOR, Mars advancing right, holding a spear and shield
maridvnvm
GI 077d img.jpg
077 - Severus Alexander and Julia Maesa, AE26, Markianopolis, Hera31 viewsAE26 (Pentassarion)
Obv:– AVT K M AVP CEVH AΛEΞANΔPOC KAI IOVΛIA MAICA, Confronted busts of Alexander and Maesa
Rev:– VΠ TIB IOVΛ ΦHCTOV MAPKIANOΠOΛITΩN, Hera standing with long dressing- gown, holding patera and scepter. E in right field
Minted in Markianopolis, Moesia Inferior
Reference:– Moushmov 732 ??
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI 077m img~0.jpg
077 - Severus Alexander denarius - Antioch Unlisted reverse - Errored reverse legend44 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR SEV ALEXAND AVG, Laureate head right
Rev:– VIRVS (sic) AVG, Virtus standing right, holding reversed spear and victory

This reverse type is unlisted from Antioch though a couple of examples are now known of the type. This one also has VIRVS in place of VIRTVS.
maridvnvm
RI_077ay_img.jpg
077 - Severus Alexander Denarius - RIC -28 viewsObv:- IMP C M AVR SEV ALEXANDER AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:- LIBERTAS AVG, Aequitas, standing front, head left, holding scales in right hand and cornucopiae in left;
Minted in Antioch. A.D. 223.
Reference:– BMC -. RIC -. RSC -.

An oddity mixing the legend and deity.
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI 077ad img.jpg
077 - Severus Alexander denarius - RIC 00542 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR SEV ALEXAND AVG, Laureate, draped, bust right
Rev:– P M TR P COS P P, Jupiter, naked, but for cloak behind, over arms, standing front, head left, holding thunderbolt and long sceptre
Minted in Rome, A.D. 222
References:– VM 35/1, RIC 5 (Common), RCV02 7891, RSC 204
maridvnvm
RI_077bd_img.jpg
077 - Severus Alexander denarius - RIC 02318 viewsDenarius
Obv:– IMP C M AVR SEV ALEXAND AVG, laureate, draped bust right
Rev:– P M TR P II COS P P, Mars standing left, holding branch and reversed spear
Minted in Rome. 223 A.D.
Reference:– RIC 23. RSC 231
maridvnvm
RI 077aj img.jpg
077 - Severus Alexander denarius - RIC 02743 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR SEV ALEXAND AVG, Laureate, draped, bust right
Rev:– P M TR P II COS P P, Pax standing left, holding branch and sceptre
Minted in Rome, A.D. 223
References:– RIC 27 (Common), RSC 236
maridvnvm
RI 077f img.jpg
077 - Severus Alexander denarius - RIC 027 27 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR SEV ALEXAND AVG, Laureate, draped, bust right
Rev:– P M TR P II COS P P, Pax standing left, holding branch and sceptre
Minted in Rome, A.D. 223
References:– RIC 27, RSC 236
maridvnvm
RI 077x img.jpg
077 - Severus Alexander denarius - RIC 03253 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR SEV ALEXAND AVG, Laureate, draped bust right
Rev:– P M TR P II COS P P, Salus seated left feeding snake arising from altar.
References:– RIC 32, RSC 239
maridvnvm
RI 077b img.jpg
077 - Severus Alexander denarius - RIC 03229 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR SEV ALEXAND AVG, Laureate, draped bust right
Rev:– P M TR P II COS P P, Salus seated left feeding snake arising from altar.
References:– RIC 32, RSC 239
maridvnvm
RI 077h img.jpg
077 - Severus Alexander denarius - RIC 03717 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR SEV ALEXAND AVG, Laureate, draped, bust right
Rev:– P M TR P III COS P P, Mars standing left holding branch and reversed spear
Minted in Rome, A.D. 224
References:– RIC 37, RSC 251
maridvnvm
RI 077ac img.jpg
077 - Severus Alexander denarius - RIC 05539 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR SEV ALEXAND AVG, Laureate, draped, bust right
Rev:– P M TR P V COS II P P, Emperor standing left, sacrificing over a tripod and holding a scroll
Minted in Rome, A.D. 226
References– VM 39/2, RIC 55 (Common), RCV02 7899, RSC 289
maridvnvm
RI 077u img.jpg
077 - Severus Alexander denarius - RIC 06426 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR SEV ALEXAND AVG, Laureate, draped, bust right
Rev:– P M TR P VI COS II P P, Equitas standing left with scales & cornucopiae
Minted in Rome, A.D. 227
References:– RIC 64, RSC 312
This is a typical example of a silver coin that has undergone a heavy chemical cleaning process, where the sufraces of the coin have started to break down, giving a frosted appearance to the fields.
maridvnvm
RI 077ae img.jpg
077 - Severus Alexander denarius - RIC 07037 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR SEV ALEXAND AVG, Laureate, draped, bust right
Rev:– P M TR P VI COS II P P, Emperor standing left, sacrificing over a tripod and holding a scroll
Minted in Rome, A.D. 227
References:– VM 42/5, RIC 70 (Scarce), RSC 325
maridvnvm
RI 077p img.jpg
077 - Severus Alexander denarius - RIC 07924 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR SEV ALEXAND AVG, Laureate, draped bust right, seen from the rear
Rev:– P M TR P VII COS II P P, Pax running left holding branch and sceptre
Minted in Rome. Early A.D. 228
References:– RIC 79, RSC 348
maridvnvm
RI 077v img.jpg
077 - Severus Alexander denarius - RIC 08545 viewsObv:– IMP SEV ALEXAND AVG, Severus Alexander, Laureate head right
Rev:– P M TR P VII COS II P P, Romulus advancing right with spear & trophy
References:– RIC 85, RSC 351
maridvnvm
RI 077j img.jpg
077 - Severus Alexander denarius - RIC 09553 viewsObv:– IMP SEV ALEXAND AVG Laureate head right
Rev:– P M TR P VIII COS II P P, Libertas standing left holding pileus and vindicta
References:– VM 44/5, RIC 95, RSC 731
maridvnvm
RI_077bf_img.jpg
077 - Severus Alexander denarius - RIC 12512 viewsDenarius
Obv:– IMP ALEXANDER PIVS AVG, laureate head right, slight drapery on far shoulder
Rev:– P M TR P XIIII COS III P P, Sol walking left raising hand and holding whip
Minted in Rome. 235 A.D.
Reference:– RIC 125. RSC 453
maridvnvm
RI 077i img.jpg
077 - Severus Alexander denarius - RIC 13348 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR SEV ALEXAND AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from the rear
Rev:– ANNONA AVG, Annona standing left holding cornucopia, grain ears, modius at her feet
Minted in Rome. A.D. 222-228
Reference:– RIC 133, RSC 23
maridvnvm
RI 077ab img.jpg
077 - Severus Alexander denarius - RIC 160 (base metal)38 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR SEV ALEXAND AVG, Laureate, draped, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– MARTI PACIFERO, Mars, standing left, holding branch and reversed spear
maridvnvm
RI 077q img.jpg
077 - Severus Alexander denarius - RIC 16827 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR SEV ALEXAND AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– PAX AVG, Pax running left holding olive branch and long sceptre
Minted in Rome. A.D. 222-228
Reference:– RIC 168, RSC 187
maridvnvm
RI 077c img.jpg
077 - Severus Alexander denarius - RIC 17340 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR SEV ALEXAND AVG, Laureate, draped bust right
Rev:– PROVIDENTIA AVG, Providentia standing left holding sceptre and baton pointing at globe at her feet
Minted in Rome, A.D. 222
References:– VM 55, RIC 173, RSC 498
maridvnvm
RI_077bc_img.jpg
077 - Severus Alexander denarius - RIC 18011 viewsDenarius
Obv:– IMP C M AVR SEV ALEXAND AVG, laureate, draped bust right
Rev:– VICTORIA AVG, Victory running left with palm and wreath
Minted in Rome. 225 A.D.
Reference:– RIC 180. RSC 564
maridvnvm
RI_077be_img.jpg
077 - Severus Alexander denarius - RIC 19317 viewsDenarius
Obv:– IMP SEV ALEXAND AVG, laureate head right
Rev:– FIDES MILITVM, Fides seated left holding two standards
Minted in Rome.
Reference:– RIC 193. RSC 51
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI 077n img.jpg
077 - Severus Alexander denarius - RIC 20220 viewsObv:– IMP SEV ALEXAND AVG, Laureate head right
Rev:– IOVI STATORI, Jupiter naked standing, head right, holding sceptre and thunderbolt
Minted in Rome. A.D. 228-231
Reference:– RIC 202, RSC 92
maridvnvm
RI 077t img.jpg
077 - Severus Alexander denarius - RIC 20844 viewsObv:– IMP SEV ALEXAND AVG, Laureate head right
Rev:– PERPETVITATI AVG, Perpetuitas standing left holding, globe and transverse sceptre and resting left around column
References:– VM 31, RIC 208, RSC 191
maridvnvm
RI 077aa img.jpg
077 - Severus Alexander denarius - RIC 22534 viewsObv:– IMP SEV ALEXAND AVG, Laureate head right
Rev:– VIRTVS AVG, Emperor in military dress, walking right carrying spear & trophy.
References:– RIC 225
maridvnvm
RI 077a img.jpg
077 - Severus Alexander denarius - RIC 24678 viewsObv:– IMP ALEXANDER PIVS AVG, Laureate head right
Rev:– MARS VLTOR, Mars advancing right, holding a spear and shield
Minted in Rome, A.D. 232
References:– RIC 246, RSC 161a

This was my first ancient coin and is still one of my favourites.
maridvnvm
RI 077g img.jpg
077 - Severus Alexander denarius - RIC 24642 viewsObv:– IMP ALEXANDER PIVS AVG, Laureate head right
Rev:– MARS VLTOR, Mars advancing right, holding a spear and shield
Minted in Rome, A.D. 232
References:– RIC 246, RSC 161a
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI 077a img~2.jpg
077 - Severus Alexander denarius - RIC 246 52 viewsObv:– IMP ALEXANDER PIVS AVG, Laureate head right
Rev:– MARS VLTOR, Mars advancing right, holding a spear and shield
Minted in Rome, A.D. 232
References:– RIC 246, RSC 161a

This was my first ancient coin and is still one of my favourites.
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_077at_img.jpg
077 - Severus Alexander denarius - RIC 24821 viewsObv:– IMP ALEXANDER PIVS AVG, Laureate, draped, cuirassed, bust right
Rev:– MARS VLTOR, Mars standing left, leaning on shield and holding spear; standard resting on his right arm
Minted in Rome. 232 A.D.
Reference:– RIC 248. RSC 166.
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_077at_img~0.jpg
077 - Severus Alexander denarius - RIC 24834 viewsObv:– IMP ALEXANDER PIVS AVG, Laureate, draped, cuirassed, bust right
Rev:– MARS VLTOR, Mars standing left, leaning on shield and holding spear; standard resting on his right arm
Minted in Rome. 232 A.D.
Reference:– RIC 248. RSC 166.

Not a scarce coin but seemingly much scarcer than the more usual Mars advancing with spear and shield type.
3 commentsmaridvnvm
RI 077o img.jpg
077 - Severus Alexander denarius - RIC 25417 viewsObv:– IMP ALEXANDER PIVS AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– SPES PVBLICA, Spes walking left, holding flower and raising skirt
Minted in Rome. A.D. 231-235
References:– RIC 254, RSC 543
maridvnvm
RI_077bb_img.jpg
077 - Severus Alexander Denarius - RIC 268 var22 viewsDenarius
Obv:– IMP C M AVR SEV ALEXAN AVG, Laureate, draped, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– P M TR P II COS, Fortuna standing left, holding rudder set on globe and cornucopia; star to left
Minted in Antioch, Issue 3, A.D. 223
Reference(s) – RIC IV 268 var (obverse legend, normal legend is C). RSC 237 var (same)

RIC makes mention of a coin of the same type from the previous issue (Issue 2) being known with ALEXAN but I cannot find this in BMCRE. Another example but from a different die pair sold by CNG in 2009
2 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_077az_img.jpg
077 - Severus Alexander denarius - RIC 27115 viewsObv:- IMP C M AVR SEV ALEXAND AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:- PONTIF MAX TRP II COS II PP, Roma seated left on a throne, holding Victory in her right hand and a reversed spear in her left, a shield rests on the ground beside the throne
Minted in Antioch. A.D. 223.
Reference:– RIC 271 (S). RSC 470
maridvnvm
RI 077w img.jpg
077 - Severus Alexander denarius - RIC 274 21 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR SEV ALEXAND AVG, Laureate, draped bust right
Rev:– AEQVITAS AVG, Aequitas standing left with scales & cornucopiae. Star in left field.
Minted in Antioch A.D. 222
References:– RIC 274, RCV02 7856, RSC 11
maridvnvm
RI 077af img.jpg
077 - Severus Alexander denarius - RIC 28654 viewsObv:– IMP SEV ALEXAND AVG, Laureate, draped bust right
Rev:– LIBERTAS AVG, Libertas, standing half-left, holding pileus and long sceptre, * in left field
Minted in Antioch
References:– VM 24, RIC 286, RSC 147
maridvnvm
RI 077z img.jpg
077 - Severus Alexander denarius - RIC 28839 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR SEV ALEXAND AVG, Laureate, draped bust right
Rev:– LIBERTAS AVG, Libertas standing left with pileus & conrucopia.
Minted in Antioch
References:– RIC 288, RSC 152a
maridvnvm
RI 077y img.jpg
077 - Severus Alexander denarius - RIC 28946 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR SEV ALEXAND AVG, Laureate, draped bust right
Rev:– MARTI PACIFERO, Mars standing front, head left holding branch & spear.
Minted in Antioch. A.D. 222-228
Reference:– RIC 289, RSC 173
maridvnvm
RI 077al img.jpg
077 - Severus Alexander denarius - RIC 29425 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR SEV ALEXAND AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– PROVID DEORVM, Providentia standing. front, head left, leaning on column to right, holding cornucopia and wand over globe
Minted in Antioch. A.D. 222-228
Reference:– RIC 294. RSC 495a
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI 077am img.jpg
077 - Severus Alexander denarius - RIC 302 var.22 viewsObv:– IMP SEV ALEXAND AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed, bust right
Rev:– VICTORIA AVG, Victory running right with palm & wreath
Minted in Antioch.
Reference:– RIC 302 var. (This type not listed with a Star in the field)
maridvnvm
RI_077ar_img.jpg
077 - Severus Alexander denarius - RIC unlisted11 viewsObv:– IMP C M AV SEV ALEXAND AVG, Laureate draped bust right
Rev:– FIDES EXERCITVS, Fides seated left holding ensign in each hand
Minted in Antioch.
Reference(s) – BMCRE -. RSC -. RIC -.
maridvnvm
RI 077m img.jpg
077 - Severus Alexander denarius - Unlisted Antioch63 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR SEV ALEXAND AVG, Laureate head right
Rev:– VIRVS AVG, Virtus standing right, holding reversed spear and victory

Unlisted

This reverse type is not known for Antioch.
maridvnvm
RI 077an img.jpg
077 - Severus Alexander dupondius - RIC 63624 viewsObv:– IMP ALEXANDER PIVS AVG, Radiate bust right
Rev:– MARS VLTOR, Mars advancing right, holding spear & shield
Minted in Rome. A.D. 231 - 235
Reference(s) – Cohen 165. RIC 636 (C)
maridvnvm
RI 077ai img.jpg
077 - Severus Alexander Sestertius - RIC 635 21 viewsObv:– IMP ALEXANDER PIVS AVG, Laureate head right
Rev:– MARS VLTOR, Mars advancing right, holding spear and shield
References:– RIC 635
maridvnvm
RI_077ba_img.jpg
077 - Severus Alexander Sestertius - RIC 63824 viewsAe Sestertius
Obv:- IMP ALEXANDER PIVS AVG, laureate and draped bust
Rev:- MARS VLTOR SC, Mars standing left holding spear, shield, with standard resting against his right arm
Minted in Rome.
Reference:– RIC 638
maridvnvm
GI_077g_img.jpg
077 - Severus Alexander, Billon Tetradrachm, Alexandria - Milne 301718 viewsBillon Tetradrachm
Obv:- A KAI MAP AY CEY ALEXANDPOC, Laureate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:- Dikaiosyne seated left on facing throne, holding scales and cornucopia.
Minted in Alexandria. Year 7 (LZ in upper left field). A.D. 227/228.
Reference:- Milne 3017. Emmett 3097 (7) R5 citing Milne. Geissen -. Dattari 4296.

Apparently quite a rare coin.
maridvnvm
RI_077aw_img.jpg
077 - Severus Alexander, Denarius - RIC 01412 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR SEV ALEXAND AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– P M TR P COS P P, Salus seated left, feeding snake arising from altar
Minted in Rome. 222 A.D.
Reference:– RIC 14. RSC 218.
maridvnvm
RI_077av_img.jpg
077 - Severus Alexander, Denarius - RIC 22114 viewsObv:– IMP SEV ALEXAND AVG, laureate head right, slight drapery on far shoulder
Rev:– VIRTVS AVG, Virtus seated left holding branch and sceptre or inverted spear
Minted in Rome. 228-231 A.D.
Reference(s) – Cohen 590. RIC 221. RSC 580
maridvnvm
RI_077ax_img.jpg
077 - Severus Alexander, Sestertius - RIC 58620 viewsObv:- IMP CAES M AVR SEV ALEXANDER AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:- MONETA_AVGVSTI, S-C, Moneta draped, standing front, head left, holding scales in right hand and cornucopiae in left; fold of drapery over left arm; at foot left, die?.
Minted in Rome.
Reference:- RIC 586 (Rated R). BMC 204.
2 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_077au_img.jpg
077 - Severus Alexander, Sestertius - RIC 62622 viewsObv:– IMP SEV ALEXANDER AVG, laureate head right, slight drapery on far shoulder
Rev:– VIRTVS AVGVSTI S-C, Romulus advancing right carrying spear and trophy
Minted in Rome. 228 A.D.
Reference:– Cohen 590. RIC 626.

26.72g, 32.15mm, 0o
1 commentsmaridvnvm
08-Alex-Ecbatana-P3931.jpg
08. Ecbatana: Tetradrachm in the name of Alexander the Great.40 viewsTetradrachm, ca 311 - 295 BC, Ecbatana mint.
Obverse: Head of Alexander as Herakles, wearing lion's skin headdress.
Reverse: ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ / Zeus sitting, holding his attendant eagle and sceptre. Anchor, forepart of a grazing horse, and two monograms at left; ΣΩ under throne.
17.01 gm., 26 mm.
P. #3931; M. #1355; ESM #475.

This is a coin of the Seleucid Empire from the time of Seleukos I, Nikator. Seleukos used the anchor as his personal symbol. Some of Seleukos' coinage was in the name of Alexander, and some was in his own name
Callimachus
IMG_7187.JPG
087. Severus Alexander (222-235 A.D.)15 viewsAv.: IMP ALEXANDER PIVS AVG
Rv.: PM TR P XIII COS III P P / S-C

AE Sestertius Ø27-29 / 19.9g
RIC 538 Rome, Cohen 449
Juancho
IMG_4073~0.jpg
088. Julia Mamaea (Mother of Severus Alexander)14 viewsAv.: IVLIA MAMAEA AVGVSTA
Rv.: VENVS FELIX / S-C

AE Sestertius Ø30 / 20.4g
RIC IV 701 Rome, Cohen 69
Juancho
09-Alex-Alexandria.jpg
09. Alexandria: Tetradrachm in the name of Alexander the Great.113 viewsTetradrachm, ca 310 - 305 BC, Alexandria (Egypt) mint.
Obverse: Head of Alexander with Horn of Ammon, wearing elephant skin headdress.
Reverse: ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ / Athena carrying shield and hurling spear. Also small eagle sitting on thunderbolt at right. Two monograms: one at left, one at right.
15.10 gm., 26 mm.
S. #7749; BMC 6.6, 46.

You may have noticed that I refer to the obverse portraits on the Alexander the Great coins as "Head of Alexander as Herakles." Much has been written about these portraits as to whether or not they really portray Alexander's likeness. There can be no doubt, however, that the portrait on this coin was intended to be that of Alexander. Ptolemy issued this coin in the name of Alexander while he was Satrap of Egypt. The elephant skin headdress was probably inspired by the lion's skin headdress on Alexander's own coins. It likely refers to Alexander's conquests in India where he defeated an Indian army with 200 elephants. Beneath the elephant skin headdress, right above his ear, Alexander wears the Horn of Zeus Ammon. The priests of Zeus Ammon recognized Alexander as divine when he visited Egypt in 331 BC.
4 commentsCallimachus
GI 077c img.jpg
092 - Severus Alexander and Julia Maesa, AE25, Markianopolis, Dikaiosyne26 viewsAE25
Obv:– AVT K M AVP CEVH ALEXANDROC KAI IOVLIA MAICA, Confronted busts of Alexander and Maesa
Rev:– VP TIB IOVL FHCTOV MARKIANOPOLEITWN, Dikaiosyne/Aequitas standing with scales and cornucopiae; on her arm – her article of clothing. E in right field.
Magistrate Tiberius Julius Festus
Minted in Markianopolis, Moesia Inferior

Ref??? Any help most welcome.
1 commentsmaridvnvm
Alexander the Great Drachm.jpg
1. Alexander the Great, Silver Drachm123 views336-323 BC
Obv. Herakles head right
Rev. Zeus seated left
Zam
IMG_0133.JPG
1.3 John Hyrcanus II (Yonatan) Prutah98 views67 and 63-40 BCE
"Yonatan the High Priest and the Council of the Jews"
either a coin of Hyrcanus II, or a coin of Alexander Jannaeus in his later years. He may have changed his name to the deminunitive form in order to break up the YEHO- which is also God's name as a concession to the Pharisees.
Hendin 478
2 commentsZam
IMG_0172.JPG
1.4 Egypt - Ptolemy II57 viewsPtolemy II - 248 BC
Egyptian bronze. 15 mm
obv. deified Alexander in Elephant headress
rev. eagle with spread wings, shield in front, H - lambda - year 38 PTOLEMAIOY BASILEOS
Zam
IMG_0176.JPG
1.5 Egypt - Ptolemy II63 viewsPtolemy II - 248 BC
Egyptian Bronze, 15 mm
obv. deified Alexander in elephant headress
rev. eagle with spread wings, shild in front, H Lambda - year 38, PTOLEMAIOY BASILEOS
Zam
Personajes_Imperiales_10.jpg
10 - Personalities of the Empire43 viewsSeverus II, Maxentius, Romulus, Constantine I, Helena, Fausta, Alexander, Licinius I, Constantia, Maximinus II, Valerius Valens, Licinius II, Crispus and Martinianusmdelvalle
10-Alex-Miletus-P2150.jpg
10-Miletus: Tetradrachm in the name of Alexander the Great.54 viewsTetradrachm, ca 295 - 275 BC, Miletus mint.
Obverse: Head of Alexander as Herakles, wearing lion's skin headdress.
Reverse: ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ / Zeus sitting, holding his attendant eagle and sceptre. MI monogram at left.
16.56 gm., 29 mm.
P. #2150; M. #1055.
Callimachus
SevAlex-RIC-002.jpg
10. Severus Alexander as Caesar.29 viewsDenarius, July 221 - Mar. 222 AD, Rome mint.
Obverse: M AVR ALEXANDER CAES / Bust of Severus Alexander.
Reverse: INDVLGENTIA AVG / Spes walking, holding flower and raising skirt.
3.31 gm., 19 mm.
RIC #2; Sear #7793.
1 commentsCallimachus
11-Alex-Pella-P527.jpg
11. "Pella": Tetradrachm in the name of Alexander the Great.34 viewsTetradrachm, ca 280 - 275 BC, "Pella" mint.
Obverse: Head of Alexander as Herakles, wearing lion's skin headdress.
Reverse: ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ / Zeus sitting, holding his attendant eagle and sceptre. Monogram under throne, Triton at left.
16.95 gm., 29 mm.
P. #527.

Following the overthrow of Demetrios Poliorketes by Lysimachos in 288 BC, there was a period of about a dozen years where no ruler was able to establish himself for any length of time in Macedonia. In 277 BC, Antigonos Gonatas achieved a victory over Gallic invaders in Thrace, and that enabled him to claim his father's throne. He ruled until 239 BC and the Macedonian kingdom prospered during his reign.
This coin was issued about the time Antigonos became king and established his own coinage. The decade 280 - 270 BC was a troubled one for the area due to the Gallic invasions (279 - 276 BC), and coins in the name of Alexander the Great from this decade are not common.
Callimachus
SevAlex-RIC-003.jpg
11. Severus Alexander as Caesar.15 viewsDenarius, July 221 - Mar. 222 AD, Rome mint.
Obverse: M AVR ALEXANDER CAES / Bust of Severus Alexander.
Reverse: PIETAS AVG / Sacrificial implements: Littuus, Knife, Vase, Simpulum, and Sprinkler.
3.04 gm., 18 mm.
RIC #3; Sear #7794.
Callimachus
William_the_lion_AR_penny.JPG
1169 - 1214, William I “the lion”, AR Penny, Struck 1205 - 1230 at Perth or Edinburgh, Scotland19 viewsObverse: + LE REI WILAM•: Head of William I facing left, wearing crown of pellets, sceptre to left, within inner circle of pellets. All surrounded by outer circle of pellets. Cross potent in legend.
Reverse: + hVE WALTER: Voided short cross, six pointed star in each angle, within inner circle of pellets. All surrounded by outer circle of pellets. Cross potent in legend. (No mint name on coin. Hugh and Walter, the Edinburgh and Perth moneyers working jointly)
Short cross, phase B. Late William I and posthumous issue struck c.1205 to c.1230.
William I died in 1214 but it would appear that although Alexander II was 16 years old when he came to the throne he continued his father's issues for some 15 years and struck no coins in his own name until around 1230.
Diameter: 21mm | Weight: 1.3gm | Die Axis: 6
SPINK: 5029

William I was not known as "the Lion" during his own lifetime, the title was attached to him because of his flag or standard, a red lion rampant on a yellow background which went on to become the Royal Banner of Scotland which is still used today.

William I was crowned on 24th December 1165, he came to the throne when his elder brother Malcolm IV died at the age of 24 on 9th December 1165.
Early in his reign William attempted to regain control of Northumbria which had been lost, in 1157 during the reign of Malcolm IV, to the Anglo-Normans under Henry II. He thereby lent support to the English barons who rebelled against Henry II in 1173. In 1174 however, while actively assisting the rebels at the Battle of Alnwick, William was captured by Henry's forces and taken to Falaise in Normandy. He was forced, under the terms of the Treaty of Falaise which he signed in December, to do homage for the whole of Scotland and also to hand over the castles of Roxburgh, Berwick and Edinburgh. Edinburgh, however, was later returned to him as part of the dowry of Ermengarde, a cousin of Henry II, whom William married in 1186.
The Treaty of Falaise remained in force for the next fifteen years until the new English King Richard the Lionheart, needing money for the Third Crusade, agreed to terminate it in return for 10,000 marks. William also attempted to purchase Northumbria from Richard, however his offer of 15,000 marks was rejected due to him wanting all the castles within the lands, something Richard was not willing to concede.
Relations between Scotland and England remained tense during the first decade of the 13th century and in August 1209 King John decided to exploit the weakening leadership of the ageing Scottish monarch by marching a large army to Norham on the south side of the River Tweed. William bought John off with the promise of a large sum of money, and later, in 1212, he agreed to his only surviving son Alexander, marrying John's eldest daughter, Joan.
William I died in Stirling in 1214 and lies buried in Arbroath Abbey, which he is credited with founding in 1178. He was succeeded by his son, who reigned as Alexander II.
3 comments*Alex
12-Alex-Callatis-P946.jpg
12. Callatis: Tetradrachm in the name of Alexander the Great.34 viewsTetradrachm, ca 250 - 225 BC, Callatis mint.
Obverse: Head of Alexander as Herakles, wearing lion's skin headdress.
Reverse: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΟΣ ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ / Zeus sitting, holding his attendant eagle and sceptre. K at left, NAY under throne.
16.61 gm., 30 mm.
P. #943.

On the tag that came with this coin is the inscription "6 / Sept / 44 Bulgaria." The Soviet occupation of Bulgaria began on Sept. 9, 1944. It would be interesting to know the story behind that inscription as it applies to this coin...
Callimachus
1280_-1286_Alexander_III_AR_Penny_SCOTLAND.JPG
1249 - 1286, Alexander III, AR Penny, Struck 1280 - 1286 at Roxburgh, Scotland16 viewsObverse: + ALEXANDER DEI GRA . Crowned head of Alexander III facing left within circle of pellets; sceptre topped with fleur-de-lis before. Cross potent in legend.
Reverse: REX SCOTORVM +. Long cross pattée dividing legend into quarters, with three pierced mullets of six points and one mullet of seven points in quarters of inner circle. The total of 25 points is indicative of the mint of Roxburgh.
Class Mb with unbarred “A”, wider portrait and cross potent mintmark in legend.
Roxburgh only accounts for some 9% of Alexander's second coinage so issues from this mint are quite rare.
Diameter: 18mm | Weight: 1.0gm | Die Axis: 3
SPINK: 5054

Alexander III's reign saw the introduction of the round halfpenny and farthing to Scottish medieval coinage.
Following the English recoinage of Edward I in 1279, Alexander introduced his second coinage which began in 1280 and ended when he died in 1286. This coin was therefore struck between those dates.

Alexander III was born at Roxburgh, he came to the throne when he was just 7 years old following the death of his father, Alexander II.
At the age of ten, in 1251, Alexander married Margaret, daughter of Henry III of England. Henry seized the opportunity to demand from his son-in-law homage from the Scottish kingdom. Alexander did not comply but In 1255, after a meeting between the English and Scottish kings at Kelso, he was compelled to consent to the creation of a regency representative of both monarchs.
The early years of Alexander III’s reign were dominated by a power struggle between the two factions, but when he reached the age of 21 he was able to rule in his own right. His first action was to claim control of the Western Isles which were then under the domination of Norway. The Norwegian King Haakon rejected the claim, and in 1263, responded with a formidable invasion force which sailed around the west coast of Scotland and halted off the Isle of Arran. Alexander craftily delayed negotiations until the autumn storms began which resulted in the Norwegian ships being greatly damaged. Haakon, losing patience, attacked the Scots at Largs, but the battle proved indecisive and his position became hopeless. The Norwegians set sail for home but Haakon died en route, on Orkney, towards the end of the year. In 1266, at the Treaty of Perth, Norway formally ceded the Western Isles and the Isle of Man to Scotland in return for a monetary payment.
Alexander, when only 44 years old, met his end on the night of 19th March 1286. After entertaining guests at Edinburgh Castle he decided that night that he would return home to his wife near Kinghorn. His aides advised against it because there was a storm and the party would have to travel in darkness for many miles along a treacherous coastal path. Alexander was determined to travel anyway and ignored his advisors. It is not clear what happened, but it seems he got separated from the rest of his group and his horse lost its footing in the dark. The following day Alexander's body, and that of his horse, was found on the shore at the foot of the cliffs, the King's neck was broken. In 1886, a monument to him was erected in Kinghorn, on the side of the cliffs, at the approximate location of Alexander's death.
Alexander had no heirs, which ultimately led to a war with England that lasted almost thirty years.
1 comments*Alex
Edward_I_AR_Penny_Berwick.JPG
1272 - 1307, EDWARD I, AR Penny, Struck 1296 - 1306 at Berwick-on-Tweed, England7 viewsObverse: + EDWAR ANGL DNS HYB. Crowned bust of Edward I facing within circle of pellets. Cross pattée in legend.
Reverse: VILLA BEREVVICI. Long cross dividing legend into quarters, trefoil in each quarter of inner circle.
Undated Penny, Class 10 Berwick Type II (Local dies). Issues from this mint are quite rare.
Diameter: 21.5mm | Weight: 1.0gms | Die Axis: 2
SPINK: 1415

Edward I began a major recoinage in 1279 which consisted not only of pennies and new round half-pennies and farthings, but also introduced a new denomination, a fourpenny piece called the "Groat".

In September 1290, upon the death of Margaret, Maid of Norway, there arose a number of claimants to the throne of Scotland. The Guardians of Scotland, who were the de facto heads of state until a king was chosen, asked Edward I of England to conduct the court proceedings in the dispute because the late King Alexander III had been married to Edward's sister, Margaret of England.
John Balliol, a descendant of King David I, was chosen and he was inaugurated at Scone, on St. Andrew's Day, 30 November 1292. But Edward I treated both Baliol and Scotland with contempt and demanded military support for his war against France. The Scottish response was to form an alliance with the French, invade England, and launch an attack on Carlisle.
After the failure of the Scottish attack on Carlisle, Edward I marched north and, on 28th March 1296, he crossed the river Tweed which borders the two countries, with his troops. On the following day he marched on the town of Berwick, which was Scotland's most important trading port and second only to London in economic importance in medieval Britain at that time.
Contemporary accounts of the number slain range anywhere from 4,000 to 20,000. ”When the town had been taken in this way and its citizens had submitted, Edward spared no one, whatever the age or sex, and for two days streams of blood flowed from the bodies of the slain, for in his tyrannous rage he ordered 7,500 souls of both sexes to be massacred...So that mills could be turned by the flow of their blood.” - Account of the Massacre of Berwick, from Bower’s Scotichronicon.
Berwick's garrison was commanded by William the Hardy, Lord of Douglas, whose life and those of his garrison were spared after he surrendered and the English took the castle.
Berwick was recaptured by the Scots in 1318 but the town changed hands between the two countries several times during the following years until it was finally captured for the English by Richard, Duke of Gloucester, the future Richard III of England, in 1482. The Scots however, did not accept this conquest for at least two centuries after this date as is evidenced by innumerable charters.
2 comments*Alex
1305_-1306_Edward_I_LONDON_PENNY.JPG
1272 - 1307, EDWARD I, AR Penny, Struck 1305 - 1306 at London, England14 viewsObverse: + EDWAR ANGL DNS HYB. Crowned bust of Edward I facing within circle of pellets. Cross pattée in legend.
Reverse: CIVITAS LONDON. Long cross dividing legend into quarters, trefoil in each quarter of inner circle.
Undated Penny, type 10cf1
Diameter: 18.5mm | Weight: 1.2gms | Die Axis: 9
SPINK: 1410

Edward I began a major recoinage in 1279 which consisted not only of pennies and new round half-pennies and farthings, but also introduced a new denomination, a fourpenny piece called the "Groat".

Edward I was King of England from 1272 – 1307. He was the eldest surviving son of Henry III and Eleanor of Provence. The contests between his father and the barons led by Simon de Montfort called Edward early into active life when he restored the royal authority within months by defeating and killing de Montfort at the battle of Evesham in 1265. He then proceeded to Palestine, where no conquest of any importance was achieved. After further campaigns in Italy and France he returned to England on his father's death and was crowned at Westminster Abbey in 1274.
Edward was popular because he identified himself with the growing tide of nationalism sweeping the country, displayed later in his persecution and banishment of the Jews which was the culmination of many years of anti-semitism in England.
Edward now turned his attention to the mountainous land to the west which had never been completely subdued. So, following a revolt in the Principality of Wales against English influence, Edward commenced a war which ended in the annexation of the Principality to the English Crown in 1283. He secured his conquest by building nine castles to watch over it and created his eldest son, Edward the Prince of Wales in 1301.
Edward's great ambition, however, was to gain possession of Scotland, but the death of Margaret, the Maid of Norway, who was to have been married to Edward's son, for a time frustrated the king's designs. However the sudden death of the King of Scotland, Alexander III, and the contested succession soon gave him the opportunity to intervene. He was invited by the Scots to arbitrate and choose between the thirteen competitors for the Scottish throne. Edward's choice, John Balliol, who he conceived as his puppet, was persuaded to do homage for his crown to Edward at Newcastle but was then forced to throw off Edward's overlordship by the indignation of the Scottish people. An alliance between the French and the Scots now followed, and Edward, then at war with the French king over possession of Gascony, was compelled to march his army north. Edward invaded Scotland in 1296 and devastated the country, which earned him the sobriquet 'Hammer of the Scots'. It was at this time that the symbolic Stone of Destiny was removed from Scone. Edward's influence had tainted Balliol's reign and the Scottish nobility deposed him and appointed a council of twelve to rule instead. Balliol abdicated and was eventually sent to France where he retired into obscurity, taking no more part in politics. Scotland was then left without a monarch until the accession of Robert the Bruce in 1306.
Meanwhile Edward assumed the administration of the country. However the following summer a new opposition to Edward took place under William Wallace whose successes, notably at Stirling Bridge, forced Edward to return to Scotland with an army of 100,000 men. Although he defeated Wallace's army at Falkirk, and Wallace himself was betrayed, Edward's unjust and barbaric execution of him as a traitor in London made Wallace a national hero in Scotland, and resistance to England became paramount among the people. All Edward's efforts to reduce the country to obedience were unravelling, and after the crowning of Robert Bruce, Earl of Carrick, as Robert I of Scotland in 1306 an enraged Edward assembled another army and marched yet again against the Scots. However, Edward only reached Burgh-on-Sands, a village near Carlisle, when he died. His body was taken back to London and he was buried at Westminster Abbey.
Edward I was married twice: to Eleanor of Castile, by whom he had sixteen children, and Margaret of France by whom he had three. Twelve memorials to his first wife stood between Nottingham and London to mark the journey taken by her funeral cortege. Three of those memorials, known as “Eleanor Crosses”, can still be seen today at Geddington, Hardingstone near Northampton and Waltham Cross. London's Charing Cross is also named after one, but the original was demolished in 1647 and the monument seen there today is a Victorian replica.
1 comments*Alex
14-Gordian-III-RIC-116.jpg
13. Gordian III / RIC 116.24 viewsDenarius, 240 AD, Rome mint.
Obverse: IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG / Laureate bust of Gordian.
Reverse: VIRTVTI AVGVSTI / Hercules standing, resting right hand on hip and left hand club set on rock; lion-skin beside club.
3.58 gm., 20 mm.
RIC #116; Sear #8684.

The chronology of the denarii coinage of Gordian III has been poorly understood because Roman Imperial Coinage (RIC) has it mixed up in its listings. For example, it will tell you that 5 denarii (Diana, Pietas, Salus, Securitas, and Venus) were issued in the summer of 241 to commemorate the marriage of Gordian and Tranquillina. Recent thinking tells another entirely different story. The following summary is based on a posting by Curtis Clay, November 25, 2011, on the Forum Ancient Coins Classical Numismatics Discussion Board.
Although antoniniani were issued for a while under Caracalla and Elagabalus, the denarius was the standard silver denomination throughout the reigns of Severus Alexander, Maximinus Thrax, and into the first part of the joint reign of Balbinus & Pupienus. (This, by the way, is when the PIETAS AVGG denarius of Gordian as Caesar was issued.) Sometime during the short reign of Balbinus & Pupienus, the antoninianus supplanted the denarius as the standard silver denomination. When Gordian III became emperor (July 238), his administration continued to follow the then current practice of issuing only antoniniani.

Early in 240, Gordian apparently decided to revert back to the traditional coinage of the Empire and began to issue only denarii. The denarii issued at this time were the following:

P M TR P III COS P P / Horseman
DIANA LVCIFERA
PIETAS AVGVSTI
SALVS AVGVSTI
SECVRITAS PVBLICA
VENVS VICTRIX

No antoniniani exist with these reverse types.

The next issue of denarii was issued in the summer of 240 after Gordian became COS II, and consists of these types:

P M TR P III COS II P P / Emperor standing
P M TR P III COS II P P / Apollo seated
AETERNITATI AVG
IOVIS STATOR
LAETITIA AVG N
VIRTVTI AVGVSTI

Within a short time, however, it was decided to go back to having the antoninianus as the standard silver denomination. Antoniniani were issued again, at first with the same reverse types as the second issue of denarii. That is why these reverse types exist on denarii and antoniniani even though they were not issued at the same time.

So the period the mint issued denarii rather than antoniniani as the standard silver denomination lasted from about March through August, 240. This was the last time denarii were issued for general circulation. The antoninianus lasted until Diocletian’s coinage reform of 295, after which Roman coinage was so vastly different that there was no question of returning to the denarius.

The 13 denarii of Gordian III are presented in this album in this order:
Gordian III as Caesar denarius - 1 coin.
First issue of denarii - 6 coins.
Second issue of denarii - 6 coins.
Callimachus
13-Alex-Phaselis-P2853.jpg
13. Phaselis: Tetradrachm in the name of Alexander the Great.22 viewsTetradrachm, 206 / 05 BC, Phaselis mint.
Obverse: Head of Alexander as Herakles, wearing lion's skin headdress.
Reverse: ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ / Zeus sitting, holding his attendant eagle and sceptre. ΙΓ and Φ at left.
16.59 gm., 30 mm.
P. #2853.

The letters ΙΓ are a date: year 13. The dated coinage of Phaselis runs from year 1 through year 33. The coinage of Phaselis came to an end in 186 BC when the Treaty of Apamea gave Rhodes control over Lycia. That makes year 13 correspond to 206 / 205 BC. See pages 346 - 49 of Price, vol. I.
Callimachus
SevAlex-RIC-005.jpg
13. Severus Alexander year I.13 viewsDenarius, 222 AD, Rome mint.
Obverse: IMP C M AVR SEV ALEXAND AVG / Laureate bust of Severus Alexander.
Reverse: P M TR P COS P P / Jupiter standing, holding thunderbolt and sceptre.
3.46 gm., 19 mm.
RIC #5; Sear #7891.

Both dies used to strike this coin were damaged due to "clashed dies" - the two dies were struck together without a flan in between them. There are marks behind Alexander's head -- quite possibly the legs of Jupiter; and then there is sort of an upside-down shadow of Alexander's head to the right of Jupiter. The mark going up from Jupiter's shoulder is the bottom of Alexander's chin.
Callimachus
MaxentiusRIC163.jpg
1307a, Maxentius, February 307 - 28 October 312 A.D.60 viewsBronze follis, RIC 163, aEF, Rome mint, 5.712g, 25.6mm, 0o, summer 307 A.D.; obverse MAXENTIVS P F AVG, laureate head right; reverse CONSERVATO-RES VRB SVAE, Roma holding globe and scepter, seated in hexastyle temple, RT in ex; rare. Ex FORVM; Ex Maridvnvm


De Imperatoribus Romanis : An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Maxentius (306-312 A.D.)

Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Salve Regina University

Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maxentius, more commonly known as Maxentius, was the child of the Emperor Maximianus Herculius and the Syrian, Eutropia; he was born ca. 278 A.D. After Galerius' appointment to the rank of Caesar on 1 March 293, Maxentius married Galerius' daughter Valeria Maximilla, who bore him a son named Romulus and another son whose name is unknown. Due to his haughty nature and bad disposition, Maxentius could seldom agree with his father or his father-in-law; Galerius' and Maximianus Herculius' aversion to Maxentius prevented the young man from becoming a Caesar in 305. Little else is known of Maxentius' private life prior to his accession and, although there is some evidence that it was spent in idleness, he did become a Senator.

On 28 October 306 Maxentius was acclaimed emperor, although he was politically astute enough not to use the title Augustus; like the Emperor Augustus, he called himself princeps. It was not until the summer of 307 that he started using the title Augustus and started offending other claimants to the imperial throne. He was enthroned by the plebs and the Praetorians. At the time of his acclamation Maxentius was at a public villa on the Via Labicana. He strengthened his position with promises of riches for those who helped him obtain his objective. He forced his father Maximianus Herculius to affirm his son's acclamation in order to give his regime a facade of legitimacy. His realm included Italy, Africa, Sardinia, and Corsica. As soon as Galerius learned about the acclamation of Herculius' son, he dispatched the Emperor Severus to quell the rebellion. With the help of his father and Severus' own troops, Maxentius' took his enemy prisoner.

When Severus died, Galerius was determined to avenge his death. In the early summer of 307 the Augustus invaded Italy; he advanced to the south and encamped at Interamna near the Tiber. His attempt to besiege the city was abortive because his army was not large enough to encompass the city's fortifications. Negotiations between Maxentius and Galerius broke down when the emperor discovered that the usurper was trying to win over his troops. Galerius' troops were open to Maxentius' promises because they were fighting a civil war between members of the same family; some of the soldiers went over to the enemy. Not trusting his own troops, Galerius withdrew. During its retreat, Galerius' army ravaged the Italian countryside as it was returning to its original base. If it was not enough that Maxentius had to deal with the havoc created by the ineffectual invasions of Severus and Galerius, he also had to deal with his father's attempts to regain the throne between 308 and 310. When Maximianus Herculius was unable to regain power by pushing his son off his throne, he attempted to win over Constantine to his cause. When this plan failed, he tried to win Diocletian over to his side at Carnuntum in October and November 308. Frustrated at every turn, Herculius returned to his son-in-law Constantine's side in Gaul where he died in 310, having been implicated in a plot against his son-in-law. Maxentius' control of the situation was weakened by the revolt of L. Domitius Alexander in 308. Although the revolt only lasted until the end of 309, it drastically cut the size of the grain supply availble for Rome. Maxentius' rule collapsed when he died on 27 October 312 in an engagement he had with the Emperor Constantine at the Milvian Bridge after the latter had invaded his realm.

Copyright (C) 1996, Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
1 commentsCleisthenes
17264722_10155129858132232_1181897742428297987_n.jpg
14. Alexander II Zabinas16 viewsSELEUKID KINGS of SYRIA. Alexander II Zabinas. 128-122 BC. Serrate AE Perhaps Apamea on the Orontes mint. Head of Dionysos right, wreathed with ivy / Winged Tyche standing left, holding tiller and cornucopia; to outer left, monogram above cornucopia. SC 2242.3; HGC 9, 1166.ecoli
14-Alex-Rhodes-P2521.jpg
14. Rhodes: Tetradrachm in the name of Alexander the Great.16 viewsTetradrachm, ca 201 - 190 BC, Rhodes mint.
Obverse: Head of Alexander as Herakles, wearing lion's skin headdress.
Reverse: ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ / Zeus sitting, holding his attendant eagle and sceptre. ΔΑΜΑΤΡΙΟΣ and rosebud at left, ΡΟ under throne.
16.89 gm., 32 mm.
P. #2521; M. #1162.

In 202 - 201 BC, Philip V of Macedon was threatening the cities of Asia Minor. Pergamum and Rhodes were political and military rivals, but they were allies against this common aggressor. Each city struck coins of the Alexander type so that the fleet and army assembled in this alliance could be paid in a common currency. By 190 BC old animosities reemerged and the joint coinage ended.
Callimachus
CrispusRIC17.jpg
1404a, Crispus, Caesar 317 - 326 A.D. 38 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC 17, aEF, Cyzicus mint, 3.196g, 19.9mm, 315o, 321 - 324 A.D.; Obverse: D N FL IVL CRISPVS NOB CAES, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: IOVI CONSERVATORI, Jupiter standing left holding Victory on globe in right and scepter in left, eagle with wreath in beak to left, X / IIG and captive right, SMKD in exergue; scarce (RIC R3). Ex FORVM.


De Imperatoribus Romanis;
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors and their Families

Crispus Caesar (317-326 A.D.)

Hans Pohlsander
SUNY Albany

Crispus was the oldest son of the emperor Constantine I and played a fairly important role in the political and military events of the early fourth century. The regular form of his full name is Flavius Iulius Crispus, although the forms Flavius Claudius Crispus and Flavius Valerius Crispus also occur. His mother was a woman named Minervina, with whom Constantine had a relationship, probably illegitimate, before he married Fausta in 307. When Minervina died or when Constantine put her aside we do not know. Nor do we know when she gave birth to Crispus; we may assume, of course, that it was before 307. Some modern authorities, on good grounds, think that it was in 305. Crispus' place of birth must have been somewhere in the East, and it is not known when he was brought to Gaul and when, where, or under what circumstances he was separated from his mother.

Constantine entrusted the education of his son to the distinguished Christian scholar Lactantius, thereby giving a clear sign of his commitment to Christianity. We are not told when Lactantius assumed his duties, but a date before 317 seems likely. Nor do we know how successful he was in instilling Christian beliefs and values in his imperial pupil. No later than January of 322 Crispus must have married a woman named Helena -- not to be confused with Constantine's mother or daughter by the same name- and this woman bore him a child in October of 322. Constantine, we learn, was pleased.

Crispus' official career began at an early age and is well documented. On March 1 of 317, at Serdica (modern Sofia), his father appointed him Caesar. The consulship was his three times, in 318, 321, and 324. While nominally in charge of Gaul, with a prefect at his side, he successfully undertook military operations against the Franks and Alamanni in 320 and 323.

In 324, during the second war between Constantine and Licinius, he excelled as commander of Constantine's fleet in the waters of the Hellespont, the Propontis, and the Bosporus, thus making a significant contribution to the outcome of that war. The high points of his career are amply reflected in the imperial coinage. In addition to coins, we have his portrait, with varying degrees of certainty, in a number of sculptures, mosaics, cameos, etc. Contemporary authors heap praises upon him. Thus the panegyrist Nazarius speaks of Crispus' "magnificent deeds," and Eusebius calls him "an emperor most dear to God and in all regards comparable to his father."

Crispus' end was as tragic as his career had been brilliant. His own father ordered him to be put to death. We know the year of this sad event, 326, from the Consularia Constantinopolitana, and the place, Pola in Istria, from Ammianus Marcellinus. The circumstances, however, are less clear. Zosimus (6th c.) and Zonaras (12th c.) both report that Crispus and his stepmother Fausta were involved in an illicit relationship. There may be as much gossip as fact in their reports, but it is certain that at some time during the same year the emperor ordered the death of his own wife as well, and the two cases must be considered together. That Crispus and Fausta plotted treason is reported by Gregory of Tours, but not very believable. We must resolutely reject the claim of Zosimus that it was Constantine's sense of guilt over these deeds which caused him to accept Christianity, as it alone promised him forgiveness for his sins. A similar claim had already been made by Julian the Apostate. We must also, I think, reject the suggestion of Guthrie that the emperor acted in the interest of "dynastic legitimacy," that is, that he removed his illegitimate first-born son in order to secure the succession for his three legitimate younger sons. But Crispus must have committed, or at least must have been suspected of having committed, some especially shocking offense to earn him a sentence of death from his own father. He also suffered damnatio memoriae, his honor was never restored, and history has not recorded the fate of his wife and his child (or children).

Copyright (C) 1997, Hans A. Pohlsander. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis;An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors and their Families:
http://www.roman-emperors.org/crispus.htm


What If?

St. Nectarios, in his book, The Ecumenical Synods, writes "Hellenism spread by Alexander paved the way for Christianity by Emperor Constantine the Great."

Constantine's upward gaze on his "Eyes to Heaven" coins recall the coin portraits of Alexander the Great (namely coins struck by the Diodochi), which served as prototypes for the divine ruler portraiture of much of the Hellenistic age. The diadem, of which this is the most elaborate type, was adopted by Constantine and the members of his house as a new symbol of sovereignty.

In the Greek Orthodox Church, Constantine the Great is revered as a Saint.

Is it just possible? Constantine, knowing what happened (or thinking that he does) to Phillip II of Macedon—assassinated on the eve of his greatness, in a plot that most likely involved his wife—and possibly his son. . . isn’t it just possible that Constantine is growing obsessively jealous of his ever more successful and adulated son? Imagine the Constantine who has proven time and again (think: Licinius) that he is a completely self-serving liar and a murderer, decides to murder again? Why "must we resolutely reject the claim of Zosimus that it was Constantine's sense of guilt over these deeds which caused him to accept Christianity, as it alone promised him forgiveness for his sins [?] (see: above). A similar claim had already been made by Julian the [Philosopher]."

Perhaps it is time to cease being apologists for the sometime megalomaniacal Constantine. As Michael Grant notes, "It is a mocking travesty of justice to call such a murderer Constantine the Great . . ." (Grant, Michael. The Emperor Constantine. London: Phoenix Press, 1998. 226).


Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.


Cleisthenes
crispus_votV.jpg
1404b, Crispus, Caesar 317 - 326 A.D. (Thessalonica)34 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC 118, VF, Thessalonica mint, 2.740g, 18.0mm, 180o, 320 - 321 A.D. Obverse: FL IVL CRISPVS NOB CAES, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust left; Reverse: CAESARVM NOSTRORVM, VOT V in wreath, TSDVI in exergue.

Flavius Julius Crispus was the son of Constantine I by his first wife. A brilliant soldier, Crispus was well loved by all until 326 A.D., when Constantine had him executed. It is said that Fausta, Crispus stepmother, anxious to secure the succession for her own sons falsely accused Crispus of raping her. Constantine, learning of Fausta`s treachery, had her executed too.


De Imperatoribus Romanis;
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors and their Families

Crispus Caesar (317-326 A.D.)

Hans Pohlsander
SUNY Albany

Crispus was the oldest son of the emperor Constantine I and played a fairly important role in the political and military events of the early fourth century. The regular form of his full name is Flavius Iulius Crispus, although the forms Flavius Claudius Crispus and Flavius Valerius Crispus also occur. His mother was a woman named Minervina, with whom Constantine had a relationship, probably illegitimate, before he married Fausta in 307. When Minervina died or when Constantine put her aside we do not know. Nor do we know when she gave birth to Crispus; we may assume, of course, that it was before 307. Some modern authorities, on good grounds, think that it was in 305. Crispus' place of birth must have been somewhere in the East, and it is not known when he was brought to Gaul and when, where, or under what circumstances he was separated from his mother.

Constantine entrusted the education of his son to the distinguished Christian scholar Lactantius, thereby giving a clear sign of his commitment to Christianity. We are not told when Lactantius assumed his duties, but a date before 317 seems likely. Nor do we know how successful he was in instilling Christian beliefs and values in his imperial pupil. No later than January of 322 Crispus must have married a woman named Helena -- not to be confused with Constantine's mother or daughter by the same name- and this woman bore him a child in October of 322. Constantine, we learn, was pleased.

Crispus' official career began at an early age and is well documented. On March 1 of 317, at Serdica (modern Sofia), his father appointed him Caesar. The consulship was his three times, in 318, 321, and 324. While nominally in charge of Gaul, with a prefect at his side, he successfully undertook military operations against the Franks and Alamanni in 320 and 323.

In 324, during the second war between Constantine and Licinius, he excelled as commander of Constantine's fleet in the waters of the Hellespont, the Propontis, and the Bosporus, thus making a significant contribution to the outcome of that war. The high points of his career are amply reflected in the imperial coinage. In addition to coins, we have his portrait, with varying degrees of certainty, in a number of sculptures, mosaics, cameos, etc. Contemporary authors heap praises upon him. Thus the panegyrist Nazarius speaks of Crispus' "magnificent deeds," and Eusebius calls him "an emperor most dear to God and in all regards comparable to his father."

Crispus' end was as tragic as his career had been brilliant. His own father ordered him to be put to death. We know the year of this sad event, 326, from the Consularia Constantinopolitana, and the place, Pola in Istria, from Ammianus Marcellinus. The circumstances, however, are less clear. Zosimus (6th c.) and Zonaras (12th c.) both report that Crispus and his stepmother Fausta were involved in an illicit relationship. There may be as much gossip as fact in their reports, but it is certain that at some time during the same year the emperor ordered the death of his own wife as well, and the two cases must be considered together. That Crispus and Fausta plotted treason is reported by Gregory of Tours, but not very believable. We must resolutely reject the claim of Zosimus that it was Constantine's sense of guilt over these deeds which caused him to accept Christianity, as it alone promised him forgiveness for his sins. A similar claim had already been made by Julian the Apostate. We must also, I think, reject the suggestion of Guthrie that the emperor acted in the interest of "dynastic legitimacy," that is, that he removed his illegitimate first-born son in order to secure the succession for his three legitimate younger sons. But Crispus must have committed, or at least must have been suspected of having committed, some especially shocking offense to earn him a sentence of death from his own father. He also suffered damnatio memoriae, his honor was never restored, and history has not recorded the fate of his wife and his child (or children).

Copyright (C) 1997, Hans A. Pohlsander. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis;An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors and their Families:
http://www.roman-emperors.org/crispus.htm


What If?

St. Nectarios, in his book, The Ecumenical Synods, writes "Hellenism spread by Alexander paved the way for Christianity by Emperor Constantine the Great."

Constantine's upward gaze on his "Eyes to Heaven" coins recall the coin portraits of Alexander the Great (namely coins struck by the Diodochi), which served as prototypes for the divine ruler portraiture of much of the Hellenistic age. The diadem, of which this is the most elaborate type, was adopted by Constantine and the members of his house as a new symbol of sovereignty.

In the Greek Orthodox Church, Constantine the Great is revered as a Saint.

Is it just possible? Constantine, knowing what happened (or thinking that he does) to Phillip II of Macedon—assassinated on the eve of his greatness, in a plot that most likely involved his wife—and possibly his son. . . isn’t it just possible that Constantine is growing obsessively jealous of his ever more successful and adulated son? Imagine the Constantine who has proven time and again (think: Licinius) that he is a completely self-serving liar and a murderer, decides to murder again? Why "must we resolutely reject the claim of Zosimus that it was Constantine's sense of guilt over these deeds which caused him to accept Christianity, as it alone promised him forgiveness for his sins [?] (see: above). A similar claim had already been made by Julian the [Philosopher]."

Perhaps it is time to cease being apologists for the sometime megalomaniacal Constantine. As Michael Grant notes, "It is a mocking travesty of justice to call such a murderer Constantine the Great . . ." (Grant, Michael. The Emperor Constantine. London: Phoenix Press, 1998. 226).


Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
Julian2VotXConstantinople.jpg
1409a, Julian II "the Philosopher," February 360 - 26 June 363 A.D.143 viewsJulian II, A.D. 360-363; RIC 167; VF; 2.7g, 20mm; Constantinople mint; Obverse: DN FL CL IVLIANVS P F AVG, helmeted & cuirassed bust right, holding spear & shield; Reverse: VOT X MVLT XX in four lines within wreath; CONSPB in exergue; Attractive green patina. Ex Nemesis.


De Imperatoribus Romanis,
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Julian the Apostate (360-363 A.D.)

Walter E. Roberts, Emory University
Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University

Introduction

The emperor Flavius Claudius Julianus reigned from 360 to 26 June 363, when he was killed fighting against the Persians. Despite his short rule, his emperorship was pivotal in the development of the history of the later Roman empire. This essay is not meant to be a comprehensive look at the various issues central to the reign of Julian and the history of the later empire. Rather, this short work is meant to be a brief history and introduction for the general reader. Julian was the last direct descendent of the Constantinian line to ascend to the purple, and it is one of history's great ironies that he was the last non-Christian emperor. As such, he has been vilified by most Christian sources, beginning with John Chrysostom and Gregory Nazianzus in the later fourth century. This tradition was picked up by the fifth century Eusebian continuators Sozomen, Socrates Scholasticus, and Theodoret and passed on to scholars down through the 20th century. Most contemporary sources, however, paint a much more balanced picture of Julian and his reign. The adoption of Christianity by emperors and society, while still a vital concern, was but one of several issues that concerned Julian.

It is fortunate that extensive writings from Julian himself exist, which help interpret his reign in the light of contemporary evidence. Still extant are some letters, several panegyrics, and a few satires. Other contemporary sources include the soldier Ammianus Marcellinus' history, correspondence between Julian and Libanius of Antioch, several panegyrics, laws from the Theodosian Code, inscriptions, and coinage. These sources show Julian's emphasis on restoration. He saw himself as the restorer of the traditional values of Roman society. Of course much of this was rhetoric, meant to defend Julian against charges that he was a usurper. At the same time this theme of restoration was central to all emperors of the fourth century. Julian thought that he was the one emperor who could regain what was viewed as the lost glory of the Roman empire. To achieve this goal he courted select groups of social elites to get across his message of restoration. This was the way that emperors functioned in the fourth century. By choosing whom to include in the sharing of power, they sought to shape society.

Early Life

Julian was born at Constantinople in 331. His father was Julius Constantius, half-brother of the emperor Constantine through Constantius Chlorus, and his mother was Basilina, Julius' second wife. Julian had two half-brothers via Julius' first marriage. One of these was Gallus, who played a major role in Julian's life. Julian appeared destined for a bright future via his father's connection to the Constantinian house. After many years of tense relations with his three half-brothers, Constantine seemed to have welcomed them into the fold of the imperial family. From 333 to 335, Constantine conferred a series of honors upon his three half-siblings, including appointing Julius Constantius as one of the consuls for 335. Julian's mother was equally distinguished. Ammianus related that she was from a noble family. This is supported by Libanius, who claimed that she was the daughter of Julius Julianus, a Praetorian Prefect under Licinius, who was such a model of administrative virtue that he was pardoned and honored by Constantine.

Despite the fact that his mother died shortly after giving birth to him, Julian experienced an idyllic early childhood. This ended when Constantius II conducted a purge of many of his relatives shortly after Constantine's death in 337, particularly targeting the families of Constantine's half-brothers. ulian and Gallus were spared, probably due to their young age. Julian was put under the care of Mardonius, a Scythian eunuch who had tutored his mother, in 339, and was raised in the Greek philosophical tradition, and probably lived in Nicomedia. Ammianus also supplied the fact that while in Nicomedia, Julian was cared for by the local bishop Eusebius, of whom the future emperor was a distant relation. Julian was educated by some of the most famous names in grammar and rhetoric in the Greek world at that time, including Nicocles and Hecebolius. In 344 Constantius II sent Julian and Gallus to Macellum in Cappadocia, where they remained for six years. In 351, Gallus was made Caesar by Constantius II and Julian was allowed to return to Nicomedia, where he studied under Aedesius, Eusebius, and Chrysanthius, all famed philosophers, and was exposed to the Neo-Platonism that would become such a prominent part of his life. But Julian was most proud of the time he spent studying under Maximus of Ephesus, a noted Neo-Platonic philospher and theurgist. It was Maximus who completed Julian's full-scale conversion to Neo-Platonism. Later, when he was Caesar, Julian told of how he put letters from this philosopher under his pillows so that he would continue to absorb wisdom while he slept, and while campaigning on the Rhine, he sent his speeches to Maximus for approval before letting others hear them. When Gallus was executed in 354 for treason by Constantius II, Julian was summoned to Italy and essentially kept under house arrest at Comum, near Milan, for seven months before Constantius' wife Eusebia convinced the emperor that Julian posed no threat. This allowed Julian to return to Greece and continue his life as a scholar where he studied under the Neo-Platonist Priscus. Julian's life of scholarly pursuit, however, ended abruptly when he was summoned to the imperial court and made Caesar by Constantius II on 6 November 355.

Julian as Caesar

Constantius II realized an essential truth of the empire that had been evident since the time of the Tetrarchy--the empire was too big to be ruled effectively by one man. Julian was pressed into service as Caesar, or subordinate emperor, because an imperial presence was needed in the west, in particular in the Gallic provinces. Julian, due to the emperor's earlier purges, was the only viable candidate of the imperial family left who could act as Caesar. Constantius enjoined Julian with the task of restoring order along the Rhine frontier. A few days after he was made Caesar, Julian was married to Constantius' sister Helena in order to cement the alliance between the two men. On 1 December 355, Julian journeyed north, and in Augusta Taurinorum he learned that Alamannic raiders had destroyed Colonia Agrippina. He then proceeded to Vienne where he spent the winter. At Vienne, he learned that Augustudunum was also under siege, but was being held by a veteran garrison. He made this his first priority, and arrived there on 24 June 356. When he had assured himself that the city was in no immediate danger, he journeyed to Augusta Treverorum via Autessioduram, and from there to Durocortorum where he rendezvoused with his army. Julian had the army stage a series of punitive strikes around the Dieuse region, and then he moved them towards the Argentoratum/Mongontiacum region when word of barbarian incursions reached him.

From there, Julian moved on to Colonia Agrippina, and negotiated a peace with the local barbarian leaders who had assaulted the city. He then wintered at Senonae. He spent the early part of the campaigning season of 357 fighting off besiegers at Senonae, and then conducting operations around Lugdunum and Tres Tabernae. Later that summer, he encountered his watershed moment as a military general. Ammianus went into great detail about Julian's victory over seven rogue Alamannic chieftains near Argentoratum, and Julian himself bragged about it in his later writing. After this battle, the soldiers acclaimed Julian Augustus, but he rejected this title. After mounting a series of follow-up raids into Alamannic territory, he retired to winter quarters at Lutetia, and on the way defeated some Frankish raiders in the Mosa region. Julian considered this campaign one of the major events of his time as Caesar.

Julian began his 358 military campaigns early, hoping to catch the barbarians by surprise. His first target was the Franks in the northern Rhine region. He then proceeded to restore some forts in the Mosa region, but his soldiers threatened to mutiny because they were on short rations and had not been paid their donative since Julian had become Caesar. After he soothed his soldiers, Julian spent the rest of the summer negotiating a peace with various Alamannic leaders in the mid and lower Rhine areas, and retired to winter quarters at Lutetia. In 359, he prepared once again to carry out a series of punitive expeditions against the Alamanni in the Rhine region who were still hostile to the Roman presence. In preparation, the Caesar repopulated seven previously destroyed cities and set them up as supply bases and staging areas. This was done with the help of the people with whom Julian had negotiated a peace the year before. Julian then had a detachment of lightly armed soldiers cross the Rhine near Mogontiacum and conduct a guerilla strike against several chieftains. As a result of these campaigns, Julian was able to negotiate a peace with all but a handful of the Alamannic leaders, and he retired to winter quarters at Lutetia.

Of course, Julian did more than act as a general during his time as Caesar. According to Ammianus, Julian was an able administrator who took steps to correct the injustices of Constantius' appointees. Ammianus related the story of how Julian prevented Florentius, the Praetorian Prefect of Gaul, from raising taxes, and also how Julian actually took over as governor for the province of Belgica Secunda. Hilary, bishop of Poitiers, supported Ammianus' basic assessment of Julian in this regard when he reported that Julian was an able representative of the emperor to the Gallic provincials. There is also epigraphic evidence to support Julian's popularity amongst the provincial elites. An inscription found near Beneventum in Apulia reads:
"To Flavius Claudius Julianus, most noble and sanctified Caesar, from the caring Tocius Maximus, vir clarissimus, for the care of the res publica from Beneventum".

Tocius Maximus, as a vir clarissimus, was at the highest point in the social spectrum and was a leader in his local community. This inscription shows that Julian was successful in establishing a positive image amongst provincial elites while he was Caesar.

Julian Augustus

In early 360, Constantius, driven by jealousy of Julian's success, stripped Julian of many troops and officers, ostensibly because the emperor needed them for his upcoming campaign against the Persians. One of the legions ordered east, the Petulantes, did not want to leave Gaul because the majority of the soldiers in the unit were from this region. As a result they mutinied and hailed Julian as Augustus at Lutetia. Julian refused this acclamation as he had done at Argentoratum earlier, but the soldiers would have none of his denial. They raised him on a shield and adorned him with a neck chain, which had formerly been the possession of the standard-bearer of the Petulantes and symbolized a royal diadem. Julian appeared reluctantly to acquiesce to their wishes, and promised a generous donative. The exact date of his acclamation is unknown, but most scholars put it in February or March. Julian himself supported Ammianus' picture of a jealous Constantius. In his Letter to the Athenians, a document constructed to answer charges that he was a usurper, Julian stated that from the start he, as Caesar, had been meant as a figurehead to the soldiers and provincials. The real power he claimed lay with the generals and officials already present in Gaul. In fact, according to Julian, the generals were charged with watching him as much as the enemy. His account of the actual acclamation closely followed what Ammianus told us, but he stressed even more his reluctance to take power. Julian claimed that he did so only after praying to Zeus for guidance.

Fearing the reaction of Constantius, Julian sent a letter to his fellow emperor justifying the events at Lutetia and trying to arrange a peaceful solution. This letter berated Constantius for forcing the troops in Gaul into an untenable situation. Ammianus stated that Julian's letter blamed Constantius' decision to transfer Gallic legions east as the reason for the soldiers' rebellion. Julian once again asserted that he was an unwilling participant who was only following the desire of the soldiers. In both of these basic accounts Ammianus and Julian are playing upon the theme of restoration. Implicit in their version of Julian's acclamation is the argument that Constantius was unfit to rule. The soldiers were the vehicle of the gods' will. The Letter to the Athenians is full of references to the fact that Julian was assuming the mantle of Augustus at the instigation of the gods. Ammianus summed up this position nicely when he related the story of how, when Julian was agonizing over whether to accept the soldiers' acclamation, he had a dream in which he was visited by the Genius (guardian spirit) of the Roman state. The Genius told Julian that it had often tried to bestow high honors upon Julian but had been rebuffed. Now, the Genius went on to say, was Julian's final chance to take the power that was rightfully his. If the Caesar refused this chance, the Genius would depart forever, and both Julian and the state would rue Julian's rejection. Julian himself wrote a letter to his friend Maximus of Ephesus in November of 361 detailing his thoughts on his proclamation. In this letter, Julian stated that the soldiers proclaimed him Augustus against his will. Julian, however, defended his accession, saying that the gods willed it and that he had treated his enemies with clemency and justice. He went on to say that he led the troops in propitiating the traditional deities, because the gods commanded him to return to the traditional rites, and would reward him if he fulfilled this duty.

During 360 an uneasy peace simmered between the two emperors. Julian spent the 360 campaigning season continuing his efforts to restore order along the Rhine, while Constantius continued operations against the Persians. Julian wintered in Vienne, and celebrated his Quinquennalia. It was at this time that his wife Helena died, and he sent her remains to Rome for a proper burial at his family villa on the Via Nomentana where the body of her sister was entombed. The uneasy peace held through the summer of 361, but Julian concentrated his military operations around harassing the Alamannic chieftain Vadomarius and his allies, who had concluded a peace treaty with Constantius some years earlier. By the end of the summer, Julian decided to put an end to the waiting and gathered his army to march east against Constantius. The empire teetered on the brink of another civil war. Constantius had spent the summer negotiating with the Persians and making preparations for possible military action against his cousin. When he was assured that the Persians would not attack, he summoned his army and sallied forth to meet Julian. As the armies drew inexorably closer to one another, the empire was saved from another bloody civil war when Constantius died unexpectedly of natural causes on 3 November near the town of Mopsucrenae in Cilicia, naming Julian -- the sources say-- as his legitimate successor.

Julian was in Dacia when he learned of his cousin's death. He made his way through Thrace and came to Constantinople on 11 December 361 where Julian honored the emperor with the funeral rites appropriate for a man of his station. Julian immediately set about putting his supporters in positions of power and trimming the imperial bureaucracy, which had become extremely overstaffed during Constantius' reign. Cooks and barbers had increased during the late emperor's reign and Julian expelled them from his court. Ammianus gave a mixed assessment of how the new emperor handled the followers of Constantius. Traditionally, emperors were supposed to show clemency to the supporters of a defeated enemy. Julian, however, gave some men over to death to appease the army. Ammianus used the case of Ursulus, Constantius' comes sacrum largitionum, to illustrate his point. Ursulus had actually tried to acquire money for the Gallic troops when Julian had first been appointed Caesar, but he had also made a disparaging remark about the ineffectiveness of the army after the battle of Amida. The soldiers remembered this, and when Julian became sole Augustus, they demanded Ursulus' head. Julian obliged, much to the disapproval of Ammianus. This seems to be a case of Julian courting the favor of the military leadership, and is indicative of a pattern in which Julian courted the goodwill of various societal elites to legitimize his position as emperor.

Another case in point is the officials who made up the imperial bureaucracy. Many of them were subjected to trial and punishment. To achieve this goal, during the last weeks of December 361 Julian assembled a military tribunal at Chalcedon, empanelling six judges to try the cases. The president of the tribunal was Salutius, just promoted to the rank of Praetorian Prefect; the five other members were Mamertinus, the orator, and four general officers: Jovinus, Agilo, Nevitta, and Arbetio. Relative to the proceedings of the tribunal, Ammianus noted that the judges, " . . . oversaw the cases more vehemently than was right or fair, with the exception of a few . . .." Ammianus' account of Julian's attempt at reform of the imperial bureaucracy is supported by legal evidence from the Theodosian Code. A series of laws sent to Mamertinus, Julian's appointee as Praetorian Prefect in Italy, Illyricum, and Africa, illustrate this point nicely. On 6 June 362, Mamertinus received a law that prohibited provincial governors from bypassing the Vicars when giving their reports to the Prefect. Traditionally, Vicars were given civil authority over a group of provinces, and were in theory meant to serve as a middle step between governors and Prefects. This law suggests that the Vicars were being left out, at least in Illyricum. Julian issued another edict to Mamertinus on 22 February 362 to stop abuse of the public post by governors. According to this law, only Mamertinus could issue post warrants, but the Vicars were given twelve blank warrants to be used as they saw fit, and each governor was given two. Continuing the trend of bureaucratic reform, Julian also imposed penalties on governors who purposefully delayed appeals in court cases they had heard. The emperor also established a new official to weigh solidi used in official government transactions to combat coin clipping.

For Julian, reigning in the abuses of imperial bureaucrats was one step in restoring the prestige of the office of emperor. Because he could not affect all elements of society personally, Julian, like other Neo-Flavian emperors, decided to concentrate on select groups of societal elites as intercessors between himself and the general populace. One of these groups was the imperial bureaucracy. Julian made it very clear that imperial officials were intercessors in a very real sense in a letter to Alypius, Vicar of Britain. In this letter, sent from Gaul sometime before 361, the emperor praises Alypius for his use of "mildness and moderation with courage and force" in his rule of the provincials. Such virtues were characteristic of the emperors, and it was good that Alypius is representing Julian in this way. Julian courted the army because it put him in power. Another group he sought to include in his rule was the traditional Senatorial aristocracy. One of his first appointments as consul was Claudius Mamertinus, a Gallic Senator and rhetorician. Mamertinus' speech in praise of Julian delivered at Constantinople in January of 362 is preserved. In this speech, Claudius presented his consular selection as inaugurating a new golden age and Julian as the restorer of the empire founded by Augustus. The image Mamertinus gave of his own consulate inaugurating a new golden age is not merely formulaic. The comparison of Julian to Augustus has very real, if implicit, relevance to Claudius' situation. Claudius emphasized the imperial period as the true age of renewal. Augustus ushered in a new era with his formation of a partnership between the emperor and the Senate based upon a series of honors and offices bestowed upon the Senate in return for their role as intercessor between emperor and populace. It was this system that Julian was restoring, and the consulate was one concrete example of this bond. To be chosen as a consul by the emperor, who himself had been divinely mandated, was a divine honor. In addition to being named consul, Mamertinus went on to hold several offices under Julian, including the Prefecture of Italy, Illyricum, and Africa. Similarly, inscriptional evidence illustrates a link between municipal elites and Julian during his time as Caesar, something which continued after he became emperor. One concrete example comes from the municipal senate of Aceruntia in Apulia, which established a monument on which Julian is styled as "Repairer of the World."

Julian seems to have given up actual Christian belief before his acclamation as emperor and was a practitioner of more traditional Greco-Roman religious beliefs, in particular, a follower of certain late antique Platonist philosophers who were especially adept at theurgy as was noted earlier. In fact Julian himself spoke of his conversion to Neo-Platonism in a letter to the Alexandrians written in 363. He stated that he had abandoned Christianity when he was twenty years old and been an adherent of the traditional Greco-Roman deities for the twelve years prior to writing this letter.

(For the complete text of this article see: http://www.roman-emperors.org/julian.htm)

Julian’s Persian Campaign

The exact goals Julian had for his ill-fated Persian campaign were never clear. The Sassanid Persians, and before them the Parthians, had been a traditional enemy from the time of the Late Republic, and indeed Constantius had been conducting a war against them before Julian's accession forced the former to forge an uneasy peace. Julian, however, had no concrete reason to reopen hostilities in the east. Socrates Scholasticus attributed Julian's motives to imitation of Alexander the Great, but perhaps the real reason lay in his need to gather the support of the army. Despite his acclamation by the Gallic legions, relations between Julian and the top military officers was uneasy at best. A war against the Persians would have brought prestige and power both to Julian and the army.

Julian set out on his fateful campaign on 5 March 363. Using his trademark strategy of striking quickly and where least expected, he moved his army through Heirapolis and from there speedily across the Euphrates and into the province of Mesopotamia, where he stopped at the town of Batnae. His plan was to eventually return through Armenia and winter in Tarsus. Once in Mesopotamia, Julian was faced with the decision of whether to travel south through the province of Babylonia or cross the Tigris into Assyria, and he eventually decided to move south through Babylonia and turn west into Assyria at a later date. By 27 March, he had the bulk of his army across the Euphrates, and had also arranged a flotilla to guard his supply line along the mighty river. He then left his generals Procopius and Sebastianus to help Arsacius, the king of Armenia and a Roman client, to guard the northern Tigris line. It was also during this time that he received the surrender of many prominent local leaders who had nominally supported the Persians. These men supplied Julian with money and troops for further military action against their former masters. Julian decided to turn south into Babylonia and proceeded along the Euphrates, coming to the fortress of Cercusium at the junction of the Abora and Euphrates Rivers around the first of April, and from there he took his army west to a region called Zaitha near the abandoned town of Dura where they visited the tomb of the emperor Gordian which was in the area. On April 7 he set out from there into the heart of Babylonia and towards Assyria.

Ammianus then stated that Julian and his army crossed into Assyria, which on the face of things appears very confusing. Julian still seems to be operating within the province of Babylonia between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. The confusion is alleviated when one realizes that,for Ammianus, the region of Assyria encompassed the provinces of Babylonia and Assyria. On their march, Julian's forces took the fortress of Anatha, received the surrender and support of several more local princes, and ravaged the countryside of Assyria between the rivers. As the army continued south, they came across the fortresses Thilutha and Achaiachala, but these places were too well defended and Julian decided to leave them alone. Further south were the cities Diacira and Ozogardana, which the Roman forces sacked and burned. Soon, Julian came to Pirisabora and a brief siege ensued, but the city fell and was also looted and destroyed. It was also at this time that the Roman army met its first systematic resistance from the Persians. As the Romans penetrated further south and west, the local inhabitants began to flood their route. Nevertheless, the Roman forces pressed on and came to Maiozamalcha, a sizable city not far from Ctesiphon. After a short siege, this city too fell to Julian. Inexorably, Julian's forces zeroed in on Ctesiphon, but as they drew closer, the Persian resistance grew fiercer, with guerilla raids whittling at Julian's men and supplies. A sizable force of the army was lost and the emperor himself was almost killed taking a fort a few miles from the target city.
Finally, the army approached Ctesiphon following a canal that linked the Tigris and Euphrates. It soon became apparent after a few preliminary skirmishes that a protracted siege would be necessary to take this important city. Many of his generals, however, thought that pursuing this course of action would be foolish. Julian reluctantly agreed, but became enraged by this failure and ordered his fleet to be burned as he decided to march through the province of Assyria. Julian had planned for his army to live off the land, but the Persians employed a scorched-earth policy. When it became apparent that his army would perish (because his supplies were beginning to dwindle) from starvation and the heat if he continued his campaign, and also in the face of superior numbers of the enemy, Julian ordered a retreat on 16 June. As the Roman army retreated, they were constantly harassed by guerilla strikes. It was during one of these raids that Julian got caught up in the fighting and took a spear to his abdomen. Mortally wounded he was carried to his tent, where, after conferring with some of his officers, he died. The date was 26 June 363.

Conclusion

Thus an ignominious end for a man came about who had hoped to restore the glory of the Roman empire during his reign as emperor. Due to his intense hatred of Christianity, the opinion of posterity has not been kind to Julian. The contemporary opinion, however, was overall positive. The evidence shows that Julian was a complex ruler with a definite agenda to use traditional social institutions in order to revive what he saw as a collapsing empire. In the final assessment, he was not so different from any of the other emperors of the fourth century. He was a man grasping desperately to hang on to a Greco-Roman conception of leadership that was undergoing a subtle yet profound change.
Copyright (C) 2002, Walter E. Roberts and Michael DiMaio, Jr. Used by permission.

In reality, Julian worked to promote culture and philosophy in any manifestation. He tried to reduce taxes and the public debts of municipalities; he augmented administrative decentralisation; he promoted a campaign of austerity to reduce public expenditure (setting himself as the example). He reformed the postal service and eliminated the powerful secret police.
by Federico Morando; JULIAN II, The Apostate, http://www.forumancientcoins.com/NumisWiki/view.asp?key=Julian%20II

Flavius Claudius Iulianus was born in 331 or maybe 332 A.D. in Constantinople. He ruled the Western Empire as Caesar from 355 to 360 and was hailed Augustus by his legions in Lutetia (Paris) in 360. Julian was a gifted administrator and military strategist. Famed as the last pagan emperor, his reinstatement of the pagan religion earned him the moniker "the Apostate." As evidenced by his brilliant writing, some of which has survived to the present day, the title "the Philosopher" may have been more appropriate. He died from wounds suffered during the Persian campaign of 363 A.D. Joseph Sermarini, FORVM.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.




2 commentsCleisthenes
Edward_IV_AR_Groat_London.JPG
1471 - 1483, EDWARD IV (Second Reign), AR Groat, Struck 1477 - 1480 at London, England24 viewsObverse: EDWARD DEI GRA REX ANGL (Z FRANC +). Crowned bust of Edward IV facing within tressure of arches, trefoils on cusps, all within beaded circle. Small crosses in spaces between words in legend. Mintmark, off-flan, pierced cross.
Reverse: POSVI DEVM ADIVTORE MEVM +/ CIVITAS LONDON. Long cross dividing two concentric legends separated by two beaded circles into quarters, trefoil in each quarter of inner circle. Mintmark, pierced cross.
Diameter: 25mm | Weight: 2.7gms | Die Axis: 11
SPINK: 2096 var. (DEI rather than DI in obverse legend)

Edward IV was King of England from March 1461 to October 1470, and again from April 1471 until his sudden death in 1483. He was the first Yorkist King of England. The first half of his rule was marred by the violence associated with the Wars of the Roses, but he overcame the Lancastrian challenge to the throne at Tewkesbury in 1471 and there were no further rebellions in England during the rest of his reign.
In 1475, Edward declared war on France, landing at Calais in June. However, his ally Charles the Bold, Duke of Burgundy, failed to provide any significant military assistance leading Edward to undertake negotiations with the French, with whom he came to terms under the Treaty of Picquigny. France provided him with an immediate payment of 75,000 crowns and a yearly pension of 50,000 crowns, thus allowing him to "recoup his finances.” Edward also backed an attempt by Alexander Stewart, 1st Duke of Albany and brother of King James III of Scotland, to take the Scottish throne in 1482. Edward's younger brother, the Duke of Gloucester (and future King Richard III) led an invasion of Scotland that resulted in the capture of Edinburgh and the Scottish king himself. Alexander Stewart, however, reneged on his agreement with Edward. The Duke of Gloucester then withdrew from his position in Edinburgh, though he did retain Berwick-upon-Tweed.
Edward became subject to an increasing number of ailments when his health began to fail and he fell fatally ill at Easter in 1483. He survived long enough though to add some codicils to his will, the most important being to name his brother Richard, Duke of Gloucester as Protector after his death. He died on 9th April 1483 and was buried in St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle. He was succeeded first by his twelve-year-old son Edward V of England, who was never crowned, and then by his brother who reigned as Richard III.
It is not known what actually caused Edward's death. Pneumonia, typhoid and poison have all been conjectured, but some have attributed his death to an unhealthy lifestyle because he had become stout and inactive in the years before his death.
2 comments*Alex
Alexander II, Zabinas.jpg
15-02 - Alejandro II, Zabinas (128 - 123 A.C.)28 viewsUsurpador sostenido por el rey de Egipto Ptolomeo VIII
AE 17 x 18 mm 7.6 gr.

Anv: Busto con diadema viendo a derecha. Grafila de puntos.
Rev: "BAΣIΛEΩΣ AΛEΞANΔPOY” – Joven Dionisio (Baco) de pié de frente viendo a izquierda sosteniendo cántaro en mano derecha y thyrsus (Vara enramada cubierta de hojas de hiedra que suele llevar como cetro Baco) en izquierda. Fecha Seléucida en campo izquierdo.

Acuñación: 129 - 125 A.C.
Ceca: Antioquía

Referencias: B.M.C. Vol.4 (Seleucid Kings of Syria) #16 Pag.82 Plate 22 #6 - Sear GCTV Vol.2 #7125 Pag.667 – SNG Spaer #2375
mdelvalle
15-Alex-Mesembria-P1013.jpg
15. Mesembria: Tetradrachm in the name of Alexander the Great.32 viewsTetradrachm, ca 250 - 175 BC, Mesembria mint.
Obverse: Head of Alexander as Herakles, wearing lion's skin headdress.
Reverse: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΟΣ ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ / Zeus sitting, holding his attendant eagle and sceptre. Monogram under throne, Corinthian helmet at left.
16.66 gm., 33 mm.
P. #1013.
1 commentsCallimachus
SevAlex-RIC-014.jpg
15. Severus Alexander year I.26 viewsDenarius, 222 AD, Rome mint.
Obverse: IMP C M AVR SEV ALEXAND AVG / Laureate bust of Severus Alexander.
Reverse: P M TR P COS P P / Salus seated, feeding serpent rising from altar.
3.00 gm., 19 mm.
RIC #14; Sear #7894.
Callimachus
16-Alex-Aradus-P3396.jpg
16. Aradus: Tetradrachm in the name of Alexander the Great.65 viewsTetradrachm, 196 / 195 BC, Aradus mint.
Obverse: Head of Alexander as Herakles, wearing lion's skin headdress.
Reverse: ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ / Zeus sitting, holding his attendant eagle and sceptre. Palm tree at left, ΑΡ monogram under throne, ΔΞ in exergue.
17.00 gm., 30 mm.
P. #3396.

Dating this coin: ΔΞ = year 64 = 196 / 195 BC. The era dates to 259 BC when Aradus gained its autonomy. In this series there are 35 different dates between year 17 (243 / 242 BC) and year 94 (166 / 165 BC). There are several breaks in the series (after years 45 and 69 for example) which reflect different political situations in Phoenecia.
Callimachus
SevAlex-RIC-019.jpg
17. Severus Alexander year II.16 viewsDenarius, 223 AD, Rome mint.
Obverse: IMP C M AVR SEV ALEXAND AVG / Laureate bust of Severus Alexander.
Reverse: P M TR P II COS P P / Jupiter standing, holding thunderbolt and sceptre.
3.00 gm., 17.6 mm.
RIC #19.
Callimachus
17-Alex-Temnos-P1686.jpg
17. Temnos: Tetradrachm in the name of Alexander the Great.33 viewsTetradrachm, ca 188 - 170 BC, Temnos mint.
Obverse: Head of Alexander as Herakles, wearing lion's skin headdress.
Reverse: ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟ&Upsilon / Zeus sitting, holding his attendant eagle and sceptre. Two monograms, vine branch, and vase at left.
16.25 gm., 33 mm.
P. #1686; M. #958.
Callimachus
18-Alex-Kyme-P1642.jpg
18. Kyme: Tetradrachm in the name of Alexander the Great.45 viewsTetradrachm, ca 188 - 170 BC, Kyme mint.
Obverse: Head of Alexander as Herakles, wearing lion's skin headdress.
Reverse: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΟΣ ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ / Zeus sitting, holding his attendant eagle and sceptre. A one-handled jug in wreath at left, ΑΘΗΝΙΚΩΝ in exergue.
16.71 gm., 37 mm.
P. #1642; M. #950.

The photo does not do justice to the beauty of this coin.
1 commentsCallimachus
1864lkj.jpg
1864lkj89 viewsRussia. Alexander II 1855 - 1881. Copper 2-Kopeck 1864-EM. Crowned double eagle with arms on breast / Value, Date, and Mint-mark.

KM y.4a.1
oneill6217
19-Alex-Mesembria-P1055.jpg
19. Mesembria: Tetradrachm in the name of Alexander the Great.23 viewsTetradrachm, ca 175 - 125 BC, Mesembria mint.
Obverse: Head of Alexander as Herakles, wearing lion's skin headdress.
Reverse: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΟΣ ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ / Zeus sitting, holding his attendant eagle and sceptre. ΔΑ and Corinthian helmet to left, monogram under throne.
16.57 gm., 30 mm.
P. #1055; M. #472.
Callimachus
SevAlex-RIC-032.jpg
19. Severus Alexander year II.14 viewsDenarius, 223 AD, Rome mint.
Obverse: IMP C M AVR SEV ALEXAND AVG / Laureate bust of Severus Alexander.
Reverse: P M TR P II COS P P / Salus seated, feeding serpent rising from altar.
2.83 gm., 19 mm.
RIC #32.
Callimachus
CaracallaDenMars.jpg
1bu Caracalla29 views198-217

Denarius

Laureate head, right, ANTONINVS PIVS AVG BRIT
Mars, MARTI PROPVGNATORI

RIC 223

The Historia Augusta, in the life of Severus, records: As he was advancing against Albinus, moreover, and had reached Viminacium 4 on his march, he gave his elder son Bassianus the name Aurelius Antoninus 5 and the title of Caesar, in order to destroy whatever hopes of succeeding to the throne his brother Geta had conceived. His reason for giving his son the name Antoninus was that he had dreamed that an Antoninus would succeed him. It was because of this dream, some believe, that Geta also was called Antoninus, in order that he too might succeed to the throne. . . . [After defeating Niger], he bestowed the. toga virilis on his younger son, Geta, and he united his elder son in marriage with Plautianus' daughter [Plautilla]. . . . Soon thereafter he appointed his sons to the consulship ; also he greatly honored his brother Geta. . . . Severus [in 198] invaded Parthia, defeated the king, and came to Ctesiphon; and about the beginning of the winter season he took the city. For this feat, likewise, the soldiers declared his son, Bassianus Antoninus, co-emperor; he had already been named Caesar and was now in his thirteenth year. And to Geta, his younger son, they gave the name Caesar. . . .

In the life of Caracalla, the history continues: He himself in his boyhood was winsome and clever, respectful to his parents and courteous to his parents' friends, beloved by the people, popular with the senate, and well able to further his own interests in winning affection. Never did he seem backward in letters or slow in deeds of kindness, never niggardly in largess or tardy in forgiving at least while under his parents. . . . All this, however, was in his boyhood. For when
he passed beyond the age of a boy, either by his father's advice or through a natural cunning, or because he thought that he must imitate Alexander of Macedonia,he became more reserved and stern and even somewhat savage in expression. . . .

After his father's death he went to the Praetorian Camp and complained there to the soldiers that his brother was forming a conspiracy against him. And so he had his brother slain in the Palace. . . . After this he committed many further murders in the city, causing many persons far and wide to be seized by soldier sand killed, as though he were punishing a rebellion. . . . After doing all this he set out for Gaul and immediately upon his arrival there killed the proconsul of Narbonensis. . . . Then he made ready for a journey to the Orient, but interrupted his march and stopped in Dacia. . . . Then he journeyed through Thrace accompanied by the prefect of the guard. . . . After this, turning to the war with the Armenians and Parthians, he appointed as military commander a man whose character resembled his own. . . . Then he betook himself to Alexandria. . . . [H]e issued an order to his soldiers to slay their hosts and thus caused great slaughter at Alexandria. . . . Next he advanced through the lands of the Cadusii and the Babylonians and waged a guerilla-warfare with the Parthian satraps, in which wild beasts were even let loose against the enemy. He then sent a letter to the senate as though he had won a real victory and thereupon was given the name Parthicus. . . .

After this he wintered at Edessa with the intention of renewing the war against the Parthians. During this time, on the eighth day before the Ides of April, the feast of the Megalensia and his own birthday, while on a journey to Carrhae to do honor to the god Lunus, he stepped aside to satisfy the needs of nature and was thereupon assassinated by the treachery of Macrinus the prefect of the guard, who after his death seized the imperial power.
1 commentsBlindado
ElagabDenEleg.jpg
1bz Elagabalus_217 views218-222

Denarius

Laureate, horned & draped bust rightt, IMP ANTONINVS PIVS AVG
Elagabalus standing left, sacrificing from patera over lit tripod altar, holding branch, star in field left, SVMMVS SACERDOS AVG

RIC 146

The Historia Augusta, in the life of Caracalla, notes: Bassianus lived for forty-three years and ruled for six. . . . He left a son, who afterward received, like his father, the name Antoninus Marcus Antoninus Elagabalus; for such a hold had the name of the Antonines that it could not be removed from the thoughts of the people, because it had taken root in the hearts of all, even as had the name of Augustus.

In the life of Macrinus is recorded: Now there was a certain woman of the city of Emesa, called [Julia] Maesa or Varia; she was the sister of Julia, the wife of [Septimius] Severus Pertinax the African, and after the death of Antoninus Bassianus she had been expelled from her home in the palace through the arrogance of Macrinus. . . . This woman had two daughters, [Julia Soaemias] and [Julia] Mamaea, the elder of whom was the mother of Elagabalus; he assumed the names Bassianus and Antoninus, for the Phoenicians give the name Elagabalus to the Sun. Elagabalus, moreover, was notable for his beauty and stature and for the priesthood which he held, and he was well known to all who frequented the temple, and particularly to the soldiers. To these, Maesa, or Varia as she was also called, declared that this Bassianus was the son of Antoninus, and this was gradually made known to all the soldiers. Maesa herself, furthermore, was very rich (whence also Elagabalus was most wasteful of money), and through her promises to the soldiers the legions were persuaded to desert Macrinus. . . .

Finally, when he received the imperial power, he took the name Antoninus and was the last of the Antonines to rule the Roman Empire. . . . He was wholly under the control of his mother [Soaemias], so much so, in fact, that he did no public business without her consent, although she lived like a harlot and practised all manner of lewdness in the palace. For that matter, her amour with Antoninus Caracalla was so notorious that Varius, or rather Elagabalus, was commonly supposed to be his son. . . . In short, when Elagabalus' message was read in the senate, at once good wishes were uttered for Antoninus and curses on Macrinus and his son, and, in accordance with the general wish and the eager belief of all in his paternity, Antoninus was hailed as emperor. . . .

After he had spent the winter in Nicomedia, [218-219] living in a depraved manner and indulging in unnatural vice with men, the soldiers soon began to regret that they had conspired against Macrinus to make this man emperor, and they turned their thoughts toward his cousin Alexander, who on the murder of Macrinus had been hailed by the senate as Caesar. . . . Among the base actions of his life of depravity he gave orders that Alexander, whom he had formally adopted, be removed from his presence, saying that he regretted the adoption. Then he commanded the senate to take away from Alexander the name of Caesar. But when this was announced to the senate, there was a profound silence. For Alexander was an excellent youth, as was afterwards shown by the character of his rule, even though, because he was chaste, he was displeasing to his adoptive father he was also, as some declare, his cousin. Besides, he was loved by the soldiers and acceptable to the senate and the equestrian order. Yet the Emperor's madness went the length of an attempt to carry out the basest design; for he despatched assassins to kill Alexander. . . . The soldiers, however, and particularly the members of the guard, either because they knew what evils were in store for Elagabalus, or because they foresaw his hatred for themselves, formed a conspiracy to set the state free. First they attacked the accomplices in his plan of murdering Alexander. . . . Next they fell upon Elagabalus himself and slew him in a latrine in which he had taken refuge.
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1cd Julia Maesa14 viewsDenarius

Draped bust, right, IVLIA MAESA AVG

Pudicitia std, PVDICITIA

Sister of Julia Domna and grandmother of Elagabalus and Severus Alexander, this tough lady organized the rebellion that toppled Macrinus. She died about 235.

RIC 268
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1ce Severus Alexander27 views222-235

Denarius

Laureate draped bust, right, IMP C M AVR SEV ALEXAND AVG
Sev. Alex in armor, P M TR P III COS P P

RIC 74

Herodian recorded: [The soldiers] were more favorably disposed toward Alexander, for they expected great things of a lad so properly and modestly reared. They kept continual watch upon the youth when they saw that Elagabalus was plotting against him. His mother Mamaea did not allow her son to touch any food or drink sent by the emperor, nor did Alexander use the cupbearers or cooks employed in the palace or those who happened to be in their mutual service; only those chosen by his mother, those who seemed most trustworthy, were allowed to handle Alexander's food.

Mamaea secretly distributed money to the praetorians to win their good will for her son; it was to gold that the praetorians were particularly devoted. . . . . Maesa, the grandmother of them both, foiled all his schemes; she was astute in every way and had spent much of her life in the imperial palace. As the sister of Severus' wife Julia, Maesa had always lived with the empress at the court. . . .

When Alexander received the empire, the appearance and the title of emperor were allowed him, but the management and control of imperial affairs were in the hands of his women, and they undertook a more moderate and more equitable administration. . . . At any rate, he entered the fourteenth year of his reign without bloodshed, and no one could say that the emperor had been responsible for anyone's murder. Even though men were convicted of serious crimes, he nevertheless granted them pardons to avoid putting them to death, and not readily did any emperor of our time, after the reign of Marcus, act in this way or display so much concern for human life.

In the fourteenth year, however, unexpected dispatches from the governors of Syria and Mesopotamia revealed that Artaxerxes, the Persian king, had conquered the Parthians and seized their Eastern empire, killing Artabanus [IV], who was formerly called the Great King and wore the double diadem. Artaxerxes then subdued all the barbarians on his borders and forced them to pay tribute. He did not remain quiet, however, nor stay on his side of the Tigris River, but, after scaling its banks and crossing the borders of the Roman empire, he overran Mesopotamia and threatened Syria.

Traveling rapidly, he came to Antioch, after visiting the provinces and the garrison camps in Illyricum; from that region he collected a huge force of troops. While in Antioch he continued his preparations for the war, giving the soldiers military training under field conditions. . . . The Romans suffered a staggering disaster; it is not easy to recall another like it, one in which a great army was destroyed, an army inferior in strength and determination to none of the armies of old.

Now unexpected messages and dispatches upset Alexander and caused him even greater anxiety: the governors in Illyria reported that the Germans [the Alamans] had crossed the Rhine and the Danube rivers, were plundering the Roman empire. . . . Although he loathed the idea, Alexander glumly announced his departure for Illyria. . . . Alexander undertook to buy a truce rather than risk the hazards of war. . . .

The soldiers, however, were not pleased by his action, for the time was passing without profit to them, and Alexander was doing nothing courageous or energetic about the war; on the contrary, when it was essential that he march out and punish the Germans for their insults, he spent the time in chariot racing and luxurious living. . . . They plotted now to kill Alexander and proclaim Maximinus emperor and Augustus. . . . Alexander's troops deserted him for Maximinus, who was then proclaimed emperor by all. . . . Maximinus sent a tribune and several centurions to kill Alexander and his mother, together with any of his followers who opposed them.
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1cf Orbiana23 viewsDenarius

Draped bust, right, SALL BARBIA ORBIANA AVG
Concord std, CONCORDIA AVGG

RIC 319

Orbiana married Severus Alexander about 235, but her mother-in-law convinced him to banish her to Africa. Herodian recorded: Mamaea secured for Alexander a wife from the aristocracy. Although he loved the girl and lived with her, she was afterward banished from the palace by his mother, who, in her egotistic desire to be sole empress, envied the girl her title. So excessively arrogant did Mamaea become that the girl's father, though Alexander esteemed him highly, could no longer endure the woman's insolence toward him and his daughter; consequently, he took refuge in the praetorian camp, fully aware of the debt of gratitude he owed Alexander for the honors he had received from him, but complaining bitterly about Mamaea's insults. Enraged, Mamaea ordered him to be killed and at the same time drove the girl from the palace to exile in Libya. She did this against Alexander's wishes and in spite of his displeasure, but the emperor was dominated by his mother and obeyed her every command.
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1cg Julia Mamaea17 viewsDenarius

Diademed, draped bust, right, IVLIA MAMAEA AVG

Vesta stg., VESTA

Severus Alexander's mother was the power behind the throne.

RIC 360
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MaximinusDenPax.jpg
1ch Maximinus51 views235-238

Denarius

Laureate draped bust, right, IMP MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG
Pax stg, PAX AVGVSTI

RIC 12

Herodian recorded: There was in the Roman army a man named Maximinus whose half-barbarian family lived in a village in the most remote section of Thrace. They say that as a boy he was a shepherd, but that in his youthful prime he was drafted into the cavalry because of his size and strength. After a short time, favored by Fortune, he advanced through all the military ranks, rising eventually to the command of armies and the governing of provinces.

Because of his military experience, which I have noted above, Alexander put Maximinus in charge of training recruits for the entire army; his task was to instruct them in military duties and prepare them for service in war. By carrying out his assignments thoroughly and diligently, Maximinus won the affection of the soldiers. He not only taught them their duties; he also demonstrated personally to each man what he was to do. . . .

He won their devotion by giving them all kinds of gifts and rewards. Consequently, the recruits, who included an especially large number of Pannonians, praised the masculinity of Maximinus and despised Alexander as a mother's boy. . . . The soldiers were therefore ready for a change of emperors. . . . They therefore assembled on the drill field for their regular training; when Maximinus took his position before them, either unaware of what was happening or having secretly made prior preparations for the event, the soldiers robed him in the imperial purple and proclaimed him emperor. . . .

When he assumed control of the empire, Maximinus reversed the situation, using his power savagely to inspire great fear. He undertook to substitute for a mild and moderate rule an autocracy in every way barbarous, well aware of the hostility directed toward him because he was the first man to rise from a lowly station to the post of highest honor. His character was naturally barbaric, as his race was barbarian. He had inherited the brutal disposition of his countrymen, and he intended to make his imperial position secure by acts of cruelty, fearing that he would become an object of contempt to the Senate and the people, who might be more conscious of his lowly origin than impressed by the honor he had won. . . .

[A]fter Maximinus had completed three years as emperor, the people of Africa first took up arms and touched off a serious revolt for one of those trivial reasons which often prove fatal to a tyrant. . . . The entire populace of the city quickly assembled when the news was known, and the youths proclaimed Gordian Augustus. He begged to be excused, protesting that he was too old. . . .

[In Rome], the senators met before they received accurate information concerning Maximinus and, placing their trust for the future in the present situation, proclaimed Gordian Augustus, together with his son, and destroyed Maximinus' emblems of honor. . . . Embassies composed of senators and distinguished equestrians were sent to all the governors with letters which clearly revealed the attitude of the Senate and the Roman people. . . . The majority of the governors welcomed the embassies and had no difficulty in arousing the provinces to revolt because of the general hatred of Maximinus. . . .


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2 Alexander VII 1690 Testone M1635 viewsA coin of this type was one of my first papal acquisitions and hooked me on this interesting series. The oxen on the reverse exude power and one can almost see their muscles move as they pull the plow along. The reverse legend translates "restored supply of grain." stlnats
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20. J. Maesa antoninianus.14 viewsAntoninianus, 218 - 219 AD, Branch mint.
Obverse: IVLIA MAESA AVG / Bust of Julia Maesa on crescent.
Reverse: PIETAS AVG / Pietas standing, holding incense box and raising hand over lighted altar.
4.80 gm., 22 mm.
RIC #264; S #7748.

The coinage of Julia Maesa is fairly extensive. Coins with her portrait were minted at Antioch (and/or other Eastern mints) from the beginning of Elagabalus' reign until that mint was closed in 220. The mint at Rome minted her coins for the entire four year period of his reign, and possibly even into the reign of Severus Alexander as well.

There is only one type of antoninianus listed for Julia Maesa, and this is it. This coin was minted early in the reign of Elagabalus, before the denomination was discontinued. Although RIC lists this coin as being minted in Rome, it may well have been minted by a mint that traveled with Elagabalus on his journey to Rome 218 - 219 AD.
Callimachus
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20. Odessus: Tetradrachm in the name of Alexander the Great.44 viewsTetradrachm, ca 125 - 70 BC, Odessus mint.
Obverse: Head of Alexander as Herakles, wearing lion's skin headdress.
Reverse: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΟΣ ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ / Zeus sitting, holding his attendant eagle and sceptre. ΘΕ at left, monogram under throne.
16.36 gm., 34 mm.
P. #1181; M. #419.
1 commentsCallimachus
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200 Severus Alexander112 viewsSeverus Alexander AE Sestertius. 235 AD. IMP ALEXANDER PIVS AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right / P M TR P XIIII COS III PP S C, Sol walking left, holding whip and raising right hand, cloak billowing out behind. RIC IV 541; BMCRE 964; Cohen 457 22.3 g

Better photo
8 commentsRandygeki(h2)
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200 Severus Alexander135 viewsSeverus Alexander Denarius. IMP C M AVR SEV ALEXAND AVG, laureate draped bust right / PAX AVG, Pax advancing left, holding branch and sceptre. RSC 187. RIC 168
sear5 #7887

Yet another one that looks much, much better in hand :)
5 commentsRandygeki(h2)
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200 Severus Alexander55 viewsSeverus Alexander

denarius.

IMP ALEXANDER PIVS AVG, laureate head right with slight
drapery on left shoulder.
PROVIDENTIA AVG, Annona standing left by modius, holding
corn-ears and cornucopiae.

RIC 250; RSC 501c; BMC 875
5 commentsRandygeki(h2)
2012.JPG
2012 Highlights87 views A few favorites from 2012

1: Lucania, Metapontum didrachm, c. 350 - 330 BC

2: Julius Caesar denarius, 44 BC

3: Publius Fonteius P.f. Capito denarius, c. 55 - 54 BC

4: Tiberius, denarius, 15 - 16 AD

5: Titus, Antioch denarius, 72 - 73 AD

6: Asia Minor, Carian Islands drachm, c. 88 - 84 BC

7: Tiberius, Olba, Cilicia Æ 24, c. 14 - 16 AD

8: Caius Fonteius denarius, 114 - 113 BC

9: Severus Alexander denarius, 231 AD

10: Maximinus I, Alexandria tetradrachm, 235 - 236 AD
4 commentsSPQR Coins
2014-105-4_AE18MacedoniaAlexanderIIIClubBowInCase-Forum.jpg
2014.105.440 viewsAlexander III, The Great, Uncertain Macedonian Mint (336-323 BC)

AE18; 5.91 g; 6h

Obverse: Head of Heracles right, wearing lion's skin.
Reverse: ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ, between club and bow in case.
Ref: Price 266; SNG Munich Part 10/11 827;
1 commentsgordian_guy
2014-105-5_AE15MacedoniaAlexanderIIIHorseRight-Forum.jpg
2014.105.536 viewsAlexander III, The Great, Uncertain Macedonian Mint (336-323 BC)

AE15; 3.66 g; 7h

Obverse: Male head right, wearing Taenia.
Reverse: ΑΛΕΞΑΝ[ΔΡΟΥ]; Horse advancing right. Below E.
Ref: Price 356;
2 commentsgordian_guy
2014-105-6_AE18AsiaMinorAlexanderTheGreatBowInCaseClub-Forum.jpg
2014.105.636 viewsAlexander III, The Great, Uncertain Mint Western Asia Minor (c. 323 - c. 310 BC)

AE18; 5.71 g; 3h

Obverse: Head of Heracles right, wearing lion's skin.
Reverse: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ, between bow in decorated case and club, torch to left in exergue.
Ref: Price 2800(f); SNG Munich 919;
1 commentsgordian_guy
2014-141-2_ARDrachmMiletosAlexanderTheGreatZerus-Forum.jpg
2014.141.244 viewsAlexander III, The Great, Miletos

AR Drachm; 20 mm; 4.00 g; 3h

Obverse: Head of Heracles right, wearing lion's skin.
Reverse: ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ; downward in right filed, Monogram in left field; Zeus seated left, holding eagle, standing right, in extended right hand; scepter in left.
Ref: Price 2151(a) [3h die axis]
1 commentsgordian_guy
2014-141-3_AE18_TarsusAlexanderTheGreatClubBowinBowcase-Forum.jpg
2014.141.329 viewsAlexander III, The Great, Tarsus

AE18; 5.60 g; 9h

Obverse: Head of Heracles right, wearing lion's skin, before Caduceus.
Reverse: ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ, between club and bow in case; above Caduceus, to left.
Ref: Price 3058; cf SNG Cop 1046-1047;
gordian_guy
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2015 Highlights56 viewsHere are a few of my favorite acquisitions from 2015. To see detailed descriptions of each coin, click on a title below. Thanks for checking out my gallery and may everyone have a happy and safe New Year!

Lucius Marcius Philippus, RSC Marcia 28
Vespasian, RIC 1558
Domitian, RIC Vesp 957
Trajan, RIC 212
Trajan, RIC 222
Hadrian, RIC 129c
Hadrian, RIC 247i
Marcus Aurelius, RIC 291
Septimius Severus, RIC 494
Caracalla, RIC 120
Elagabalus, RIC 88
Severus Alexander, RIC 178
Volusian, McAlee 1192/1193 variety

Matt Inglima
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204b. Julia Maesa29 viewsJulia Maesa (about 170- about 226) was daughter of Julius Bassianus, priest of the sun god Heliogabalus, the patron god of Emesa in the Roman province of Syria, and grandmother of the Roman emperor Elagabalus. Like her younger sister Julia Domna, she was among the most important women ever to exercise power behind the throne in the Roman empire.

Julia Maesa was married to Julius Avitus and had two daughters, Julia Mamaea and Julia Soaemias, each one mother of an emperor. Following the accession to the throne of her brother in law Septimius Severus, Julia Maesa moved to Rome to live with her sister. After the murder of her nephew Caracalla, and the suicide of Julia Domna, she was compelled to return to Syria. But the new emperor Macrinus did not proscribe her and allowed her to keep her money. In Syria, Maesa engaged in a plot to overthrow Macrinus and place one of her grandsons, Elagabalus son of Julia Soaemias, in his place. In order to legitimise this pretension, mother and daughter rumoured that the 14-year-old boy was Caracalla's illegitimate son. The Julias were successful, mainly due to the fact that Macrinus was of an obscure origin without the proper political connections, and Elagabalus became emperor.

For her loyalty and support, Elagabalus honored Julia Maesa with the title Augusta avia Augusti (Augusta, grandmother of Augustus). When the teenager proved to be a disaster as emperor (even taking the liberty of marrying a Vestal virgin), Julia Maesa decided to promote Alexander Severus, another of her grandsons. Elagabalus was forced to adopt Alexander as son and was murdered shortly afterwards.

Julia Maesa died in an uncertain date around 226 AD and, like her sister Domna before her, was deified.

Julia Maesa Denarius. PVDICITIA, Pudicitia seated left, raising veil and holding sceptre.

Julia Maesa Denarius. IVLIA MAESA AVG, draped bust right / PVDICITIA, Pudicitia seated left, raising veil and holding sceptre. RIC 268, RSC 36. s2183. No.1502. nVF.
RSC 444, RIC 88
ecoli
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205. Severus Alexander27 viewsSeverus Alexander

A child when chance brought him to the principate, with only two recommendations, that he was different from Elagabalus and that he was part of the Severan family, he proved to be inadequate for the challenges of the time. Military experience was the prime attribute of an emperor now, which Alexander did not have, and that lack ultimately cost him his life. Guided by his mother and employing the services of distinguished men, he returned dignity to the imperial household and to the state. He did the best he could, but that best was not good enough in the early decades of the third century A.D., with the great threats from east and north challenging Rome's primacy and, indeed, existence.

Denarius. IMP SEV ALEXAND AVG, laureate head right / VICTORIA AVG, Victory standing left with wreath. RSC 556.
ecoli
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205. Severus Alexander; Alexandria, Egypt;13 viewsEGYPT, Alexandria. Severus Alexander. AD 222-235. BI Tetradrachm. Dated RY 7 (AD 227/8). Laureate and cuirassed bust right / Helmeted head of Athena right; LZ (date) to right. Köln -; Dattari 9873; cf. Milne 3014; Emmett 3093.7.ecoli
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205. Severus Alexander; Alexandria, Egypt;30 viewsEGYPT, Alexandria. Severus Alexander. AD 222-235. BI Tetradrachm (23mm, 11.66 g, 12h). Dated RY 12 (AD 232/3). Laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right / Nike seated left on cuirass, holding palm and wreath; palm to left, LI B (date) across field. Cf. Köln 2480 ; Dattari 4326; cf. Milne 3110 ; Emmett 3120.12. VF. Well struck.ecoli
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205. Severus Alexander; Antioch, Syria;13 viewsAntioch, Syria, Severus Alexander

Tyche of Antioch seated l on rock, wearing chiton, peplos and turreted head dress; in r hand ears of corn; l hand rests on rock, with orontes at feet swimming; above, ram running l.looking r
ecoli
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205. Severus Alexander; Bostra, Arabia17 viewsSeverus Alexander, 13 March 222 - March 235 A.D., Bostra, Arabia

Bronze AE 19, SNG ANS 1218-1220, aF, 4.27g, 19.3mm, 180o, Bostra mint, IMP CAES M AVB SEV ALEXANDER AVG, laureate draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse COLONIA BOSTRA, draped and turreted bust of Tyche left holding cornucopia; Bostra was the northern capital of the Nabataeans, until Trajan annexed the kingdom. It was then capital of Provincia Arabia, where the Third Legio Cyrenaica was garrisoned. The emperor Philip was born in Bostra and designated the city a metropolis.

Ex- CNG sale 143, Lot: 340
ecoli
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205a. Julia Mamaea37 viewsJulia Avita Mamaea (180–235) was the daughter of Julia Maesa, a powerful Roman woman of Syrian origin, and Julius Avitus. She was a niece of emperor Septimius Severus and sister of Julia Soaemias Bassiana.

She was married to Gessius Marcianus had a son, later emperor Alexander Severus. Unlike her sister, Julia Mamaea was reported to be a virtuous woman, never involved in scandals. As a member of the Imperial Roman family, she watched closely the death of her cousin Caracalla and the ascent to power of her nephew Heliogabalus, the oldest grandson of Julia Maesa and her choice to the throne. But eventually Heliogabalus and his mother Julia Soaemias proved incompetent rulers and favour fell on Alexander, Julia's son. He became emperor in 222, following Heliogabalus's murder by the Praetorian Guard. Julia and her mother became regents in the name of Alexander, then 14 years old. Upon adulthood, Alexander confirmed his esteem for his mother and named her consors imperii (imperial consort). It was in this condition that she accompanied her son in his campaigns: a custom started with Julia Domna (Septimius Severus's wife). Thus she travelled to the East, for the campaign against the Parthian empire, and to the Germania provinces. Julia Mamaea was with Alexander in Moguntiacum (modern Mainz), capital of Germania Superior, when he was assassinated by his troops. She suffered the same fate.

Julia Mamaea Denarius. IVLIA MAMAEA AVG, diademed & draped bust right / VESTA, Vesta standing half-left, holding palladium & scepter. RSC 81.
ecoli
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205b. ORBIANA65 viewsGneaea Seia Herennia Sallustia Barbia Orbiana is best known as the wife of Severus Alexander. Possible one of three wives that he had. Little is known of Orbiana. She was from a distinguished family, the daughter of Senator Seius Sallustius Varius Marcinus. She was married to Severus Alexander around 225 when he was about 16. She must have initially met with the favor of Severus Alexander's mother Mamaea but this didn't last long. Orbiana had too much influence with Severus Alexander and this led to direct confrontation with Mamaea. Whether real or not, a plot was found to be led by Orbiana's father to turn the praetorian guards against Severus Alexander and put himself in power. The marriage between Severus Alexander and Orbiana was dissolved at Mamaea's insistence in 227 AD. Shortly later, Sallustius was executed and Orbiana was banished to North Africa.

ORBIANA, wife of Severus Alexander. Augusta, 225 AD. AR Denarius (19mm, 2.83 gm). Diademed and draped bust right / Concordia seated left, holding patera and double cornucopiae. RIC IV 319; RSC 1. VF

1 commentsecoli
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21. J. Maesa denarius.31 viewsDenarius, 218 - 220 AD, Antioch mint.
Obverse: IVLIA MAESA AVG / Bust of Julia Maesa.
Reverse: FECVNDITAS / Fecunditas seated, extending right hand holding a branch over a child, holding sceptre in left hand. Another child standing next to her.
3.03 gm., 18 mm.
RIC #249 var.; Sear #7748.

This coin is generally thought to have been minted during the reign of her other grandson, Elagabalus.
1 commentsCallimachus
21-Alex-Roman-Macedonia.jpg
21. Roman Macedon: Tetradrachm in the name of Alexander the Great.41 viewsTetradrachm, ca 90 - 75 BC, Thessalonika mint.
Obverse: ΜΑΚΕΔΟΝΩΝ / Head of Alexander, wearing the Horn of Ammon.
Θ behind.
Reverse: AESILLAS Q / Club between money-chest and quaesteor's chair, all in olive-wreath.
16.23 gm., 29 mm.
S. #1463.

The dating of this series is far from certain. The traditional theory of ca 94 - 88 BC is supported by Athenian overstrikes. Others favor dates from the mid- 80s BC through the early 60s BC.
1 commentsCallimachus
SevAlex-RIC-042.jpg
21. Severus Alexander year III.9 viewsDenarius, 224 AD, Rome mint.
Obverse: IMP C M AVR SEV ALEXAND AVG / Laureate bust of Severus Alexander.
Reverse: P M TR P III COS P P / Salus seated, feeding serpent rising from altar.
3.62 gm, 19 mm.
RIC #42.
Callimachus
jmaesa ant-~0.jpg
218-219 AD - JULIA MAESA antoninianus 28 viewsobv: IVLIA MAESA AVG (diademed & draped bust right, resting on crescent)
rev: PIETAS AVG (Pietas standing left, holding patera over altar & box of incense)
ref: RIC264(Elagabalus), C.30
mint: Rome, 4.56g
Scarce
Julia Maesa was the grandmother of Elagabalus and Severus Alexander, died c. 223-5 AD.
berserker
22-Celtic-Alex-tet.jpg
22. Celtic Alexander Tetradrachm (?)42 viewsTetradrachm, ca 2'nd century BC, Danube region.
Obverse: Head of Alexander as Herakles, wearing lion's skin headdress.
Reverse: ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ / Zeus sitting, holding his attendant eagle and sceptre. Tripod at left.
17.25 gm., 28 mm.

In researching this coin, I found five coins which are from the same pair of dies as this one. These are the only examples of this type (tripod on reverse) that I've been able to find.

1. Palladium sale #10 (Nov. 1995), attributed to the mint at Pella and catalogued as Muller #146.

2. Palladium sale #11 (April 1996), described as "unlisted in Price, and apparently unknown before a recent hoard find. Variant of Price 633."

3. CNG sale #54, lot 99, described as a Celtic imitation of Alexander's coinage from the Danube region, ca 2'nd century BC. c.f. Goble, OTA, 566. This is the coin pictured above.

4. CNG sale #72, lot 13, described as "Celtic, Lower Danube, uncertain tribe, early 3'rd century BC . . . . Unpublished in the standard references . . . . By virtue of its style, fabric, and weight, this Alexander imitation is certainly an early issue, probably struck during the first decades of the third century BC."

5. Harlan J Berk 156th Buy or Bid Sale (Oct. 2007), lot 75, described as "Possibly unpublished . . . Somewhat unusual style on the obverse."

Five coins from the same pair or dies, five different attributions. I will agree, though, with the last statement of coin #4 above, that this appears to be an early issue. This coin is on a thick flan resembling coins minted during Alexander's lifetime and immediately thereafter and is made from good silver. There is something a bit barbaric about the style of this coin, although there are genuine Alexander coins listed and pictured in Martin J. Price's book which are more barbaric than this one. An interesting coin.
1 commentsCallimachus
22073.jpg
22073 Severus Alexander/10 viewsSeverus Alexander/Tri pod
A.D. 222-235. AR Denarius.
Obv. IMP. C. M. AVR. SEV. ALEXAND. AVG.
Head, laureate, r., bust draped.
Rev. P. M. TR. P. V COS. II P. P.
Emperor standing l., sacrificing over tripod and holding a
scroll.
Mint: Rome 18.8mm 1.8g
RIC 75, 55. Cohen 289.
Blayne W
rjb_sest_alexander.jpg
22252 viewsSeverus Alexander 222-35 AD
AE sestertius
Obv "IMP ALEXANDER PIVS AVG"
Laur bust right (slight drapery on left shoulder?)
Rev "PM TRP XI COS III PP SC"
Sol standing left holding whip
Rome mint
RIC 525b
1 commentsmauseus
rjb_sev_al_01_06.jpg
22228 viewsSeverus Alexander 222-38 AD
AR denarius
Obv "IMP SEV ALEXAND AVG"
Laureate bust right
Rev "IOVI CONSERVATORI"
Jupiter standing left, small figure of the emperor below
Rome mint
RIC 200
1 commentsmauseus
rjb_amasia_05_06.jpg
22231 viewsSeverus Alexander 222-38 AD
AE 38 mm
Amasia in Pontus
Sol in quadriga atop an altar
c.234/5 AD
Rec Gen 107
1 commentsmauseus
rjb_alex2_08_06.jpg
22219 viewsSeverus Alexander 222-38 AD
AR denarius
Obv "IMP C M AVR SEV ALEXAND AVG"
Laureate, draped bust right
Rev "PM TRP COS PP"
Salus seated left feeding serpent rising from altar
Rome mint
RIC 14
mauseus
rjb_alex3_10_07.jpg
22239 viewsSeverus Alexander 222-38 AD
AE 26 mm
Edessa in Mesopotamia
Godess seated left between two altars, river god swimming at feet
mauseus
rjb_alex2_10_07.jpg
22219 viewsSeverus Alexander 222-38 AD
AE 24 mm
Deultum in Thrace
Marsyas standing left
mauseus
rjb_alex1_10_07.jpg
22226 viewsSeverus Alexander 222-38 AD
AE 27 mm
Tomis in Moesia Inf.
Homonia standing left holding patera and sceptre, altar at feet.
mauseus
rjb_2010_02_29.jpg
22211 viewsSeverus Alexander 222-38 AD
AR denarius
Obv "IMP ALEXANDER PIVS AVG"
Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev "SPES PVBLICA"
Spes standing left raising skirt and holding flower
Rome mint
RIC 254
mauseus
rjb_2010_02_28.jpg
22214 viewsSeverus Alexander 222-38 AD
AR denarius
Obv "IMP C M AVR SEV ALEXAND AVG"
Laureate, draped bust right
Rev "PM TRP VI COS II PP"
Mars walking right holding spear and trophy
Rome mint
RIC 61
1 commentsmauseus
rjb_2010_02_27.jpg
22214 viewsSeverus Alexander 222-38 AD
AR denarius
Obv "IMP ALEXANDER PIVS AVG"
Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev "PM TRP XII COS III PP"
Sol walking left with hand raised and holding a whip
Rome mint
RIC 120
mauseus
rjb_2010_02_26.jpg
22214 viewsSeverus Alexander 222-38 AD
AR denarius
Obv "IMP SEV ALEXAND AVG"
Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev "VICTORIA AVG"
Victory walking right holding wreath and branch
Rome mint
RIC 215
mauseus
rjb_2016_09_03.jpg
2224 viewsSeverus Alexander as Caesar 222AD
AE 23mm
Nicaea in Bithynia
Hexastyle temple
Rec Gen - (cf 579)
mauseus
sevalex den03-.jpg
222-228 AD - SEVERUS ALEXANDER denarius 22 viewsobv: IMP.C.M.AVR.SEV.ALEXAND.AVG
rev: VIRTVS.AVG (Virtus standing right, holding reversed spear & leaning on shield with left hand)
ref: RIC182, C.578
mint: Rome, 3.31gms
berserker
SevAlexMoush3607.jpg
222-235 AD - Severus Alexander - Moushmov 3607 - Hera Reverse40 viewsEmperor: Severus Alexander (r. 222-235 AD)
Date: 222-235 AD
Condition: Fair/aFine
Size: AE23

Obverse: IMP (C?) M AVR SEV ALEXANDER AVG
Imperator Emperor Marcus Aurelius Severus Alexander
Bust right; laureate and draped

Reverse: COL FL PAC DEVLT
Hera standing, holding patera and sceptre.

Mint: Deultum, Thrace
Moushmov 3607
6.37g; 23.4mm; 15°
Pep
SevAlexNicaea.jpg
222-235 AD - Severus Alexander - NI | K | A | IE Between Three Standards Reverse40 viewsEmperor: Severus Alexander (r. 222-235 AD)
Date: 222-235 AD
Condition: Fair
Size: AE19

Obverse: M AVP CEVH AΛEΞANΔPOC (or variation)
Bust right; laureate (and draped?)

Reverse: NI | K | A | IE between three standards.
"ΩN" in exergue

Mint: Nicaea, Bithynia
4.17g; 19.9mm; 30°
Pep
orbiana denar-.jpg
225 AD - ORBIANA denarius28 viewsobv: SALL.BARBIA.ORBIANA (diademed & draped bust right)
rev: CONCORDIA.AVGG (Concordia seated left on throne, holding patera & double cornucopiae)
ref: RIC319(SevAlex)(S), C.1(20fr.)
2.37gms, rare
Sallustia Barbia Orbiana Augusta was the wife of Severus Alexander who was banished on the whims of Julia Mamaea, who's control of her son she felt was threatened. In 227 on the charge of attempted murder of the emperor, Orbiana was sent in exile to Libya.
berserker
jmamaea den-.jpg
226 AD - JULIA MAMAEA denarius 17 viewsobv: IVLIA MAMAEA AVGVSTA (diademed & draped bust right)
rev: VESTA (Vesta standing half-left, holding palladium & scepter)
ref: RIC360(SevAlex), C.81
2.67gms
She was the mother of Severus Alexander
berserker
sevalex AE27-Markianapolis.jpg
226-227 AD - SEVERUS ALEXANDER AE24 Markianopolis, Moesia Inferior 27 viewsobv: AVT K M AVP CEV ALEZANDROC
rev: HG OUM TEREBENTINOU MARKIANOPOLITWN (Nemesis standing left with scales & rod, wheel at foot)
ref: Moushmov 710v
mint: Markianapolis, 9.04gms, 24mm
Legate Umbrius Tereventinus (c.AD226-227)
1 commentsberserker
sevalex as.jpg
227 AD - SEVERUS ALEXANDER as 32 viewsobv: [IMP.CAES.M.AVR.SEV.ALEXANDER.AVG] (laureate, draped bust right)
rev: PM.[TRP.?.]COS.II.PP / S.C. (Severus standing left, sacrificing from patera over altar, holding roll in left hand)
ref: RIC438 or 447 or 470 or 486
7.81gms, 22.5mm
The edge of this coin was cut, thus it's hard enough to determine which year' struck. This reverse issued four times, between 225-228 AD.
berserker
sevalex den01-.jpg
228 AD - SEVERUS ALEXANDER denarius 18 viewsobv: IMP.SEV.ALEXANDER.AVG
rev: VIRTVS.AVG (Virtus standing left holding Victory, leaning on shield, spear resting against arm)
ref: RIC220, C.579(3fr.)
mint: Rome, 3.19gms
berserker
sevalex dup.jpg
228 AD - SEVERUS ALEXANDER dupondius 42 viewsobv: IMP.SEV.ALEXANDER.AVG (radiate head right)
rev: RESTITVTOR MON / S.C. (emperor standing left, in military dress, extending right hand & holding scepter)
ref: RIC601 (S), C.516
11.68gms, 24mm
Rare
Of all the emperors, Severus Alexander is the only one who boasts of himself as the Restorer of the (Roman) Mint, but it is unknown what the commemorated reforms were.
1 commentsberserker
sevalex denar-.jpg
228-231 AD - SEVERUS ALEXANDER denarius20 viewsobv: IMP.SEV.ALEXAND.AVG (laureate head right, slight drapery on far shoulder)
rev: VIRTVS.AVG (Virtus seated left holding branch & scepter or inverted spear)
ref: RIC221, C.580
2gms
berserker
23-Lysimachos.jpg
23. Lysimachos.104 viewsTetradrachm, 287 - 282 BC, Pergamum mint.
Obverse: Diademed head of Alexander, wearing the Horn of Ammon. K under bust.
Reverse: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΟΣ ΛΥΣΙΜΑΧΟΥ / Athena seated, with spear and shield, holding Nike. A crescent and archaic xoanon at left, ΘΞ monogram in exergue.
17.29 gm., 30 mm.
Thompson #221; S. #6816 var.

The mint at Pergamum was open for only 5 years from 287 - 282 BC. This coin was issued by Philetareus who was Lysimachus' governor at Pergamum. One of the most striking portraits on Greek coinage !
4 commentsCallimachus
SevAlex-RIC-044.jpg
23. Severus Alexander year III.12 viewsDenarius, 224 AD, Rome mint.
Obverse: IMP C M AVR SEV ALEXAND AVG / Laureate bust of Severus Alexander.
Reverse: P M TR P III COS P P / Alexander in military dress, holding globe and spear.
3.13 gm., 19 mm.
RIC #44; Sear #7897.
Callimachus
jmamaea_RIC679.jpg
230 AD - JULIA MAMAEA sestertius31 viewsobv: IVLIA MAMA-EA AVGVSTA (diademed & draped bust right)
rev: FELICITAS P-VBLICA (Felicitas seated left, holding caduceus & cornucopiae), S-C in ex.
ref: RIC 679 (Sev.Alex), Cohen 26
19.51gms,30mm
Julia Mamaea, daughter of Julia Maesa, sister of Julia Soaemias, and mother of Severus Alexander. On Roman coins she is honoured with the title of Augusta (A.D.222). She was ambitious and ruled under her son, even accompanying him to the Persian War, and her avarice caused her to commit acts of injustice in his name. Julia Mamaea was murdered along with her Imperial son in A.D.235.
berserker
sevalex den02-.jpg
230 AD - SEVERUS ALEXANDER denarius 25 viewsobv: IMP.SEV.ALEXAND.AVG
rev: FIDES.MILITVM (Fides standing facing, head left, holding two legionary standards)
ref: RIC139, C.52
mint: Rome, 2.68gms
berserker
sevalex sest2.jpg
231 AD - SEVERUS ALEXANDER sestertius 26 viewsobv: IMP ALEXANDER PIVS AVG (laureate draped bust right)
rev: PM TRP X COS III PP / S.C. (Victory standing left, holding wreath & palm)
ref: RIC521, C.419
18.34gms, 29mm
berserker
sevalex sest3.jpg
231 AD - SEVERUS ALEXANDER sestertius 24 viewsobv: IMP ALEXANDER PIVS AVG (laureate bust right, draped on left shoulder)
rev: PM TRP X COS III PP / S.C. (Sol, radiate, standing facing, head left, raising hand & holding globe)
ref:R IC515, C.412
18.10gms, 30mm
berserker
sevalex sest4.jpg
231-235 AD - SEVERUS ALEXANDER sestertius 27 viewsobv: IMP ALEXANDER PIVS AVG (laureate, draped & cuirassed bust right)
rev: MARS VLTOR / S.C. (Mars advancing right, holding spear & shield)
ref: RIC 635, Cohen 169, BMC 846
18.30gms, 29mm
berserker
sevalex sest1.jpg
233 AD - SEVERUS ALEXANDER sestertius75 viewsobv: IMP.ALEXANDER.PIVS (laureate draped bust right)
rev: PM TRP XII COS III PP / S.C. (Sol standing left with raised hand & whip)
ref: RIC 535, Cohen 442, BMC 932
17.20gms, 27mm
berserker
24-Seleukos-I.jpg
24. Seleukos I.96 viewsTetradrachm, ca 305 - 304 BC, Seleuceia ad Tigram mint.
Obverse: Head of Alexander as Herakles, wearing lion's skin headdress.
Reverse: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΟΣ ΣΕΛΕΥΚΟΥ / Zeus sitting, holding his attendant eagle and sceptre. Monogram at left, ΔΙ under throne.
16.93 gm., 26 mm.
Houghton #941; ESM #4; BMC 4.1, 5.

In Eastern Seleucid Mints, E.T. Newell has this coin in Series 1, Group A. He suggests a date of 305 - 304 BC. Martin J. Price lists a coin in the name of Alexander the Great (#3784) with the exact same monograms. He suggests a date of ca 295 BC for the coin, but admits the whole attribution is very tentative.
2 commentsCallimachus
SevAlex-RIC-050.jpg
25. Severus Alexander year IIII.11 viewsDenarius, 225 AD, Rome mint.
Obverse: IMP C M AVR SEV ALEXAND AVG / Laureate bust of Severus Alexander.
Reverse: P M TR P IIII COS P P / Alexander sacrificing over an altar.
2.53 gm, 19 mm.
RIC #50.
Callimachus
Severus.jpg
26 Severus Alexander RIC 250113 viewsSeverus Alexander 222-235 A.D. Rome Mint. 231-235 A.D. (3,3 gr, 20 mm) Obv: IMP ALEXANDER PIVS AVG, laureate head right with slight drapery on left shoulder. Rev: PROVIDENTIA AVG, Annona standing left by modius, holding
corn-ears and cornucopiae.
RIC 250; RSC 501c; BMC 875; Sears 7922

Ex: Private collection

The legend 'Providentia' relates to the emperor's foresight
in providing for Rome's annual grain supply
3 commentsPaddy
SevAlex-tet-yr-01.jpg
26. Severus Alexander, year 01.13 viewsTetradrachm, Year 1 (March - August 222 AD), Alexandria, Egypt.
Obverse: A KAI MAP AVP CEVHP AΛEΞANΔPOC EV CEB / Laureate bust of Severus Alexander.
Reverse: L A / Dikaiosyne (Aequitas) standing, holding scales and cornucopiae.
10.92 gm., 24 mm.
Koln 2401; Dattari 4290.
Callimachus
SevAlex-RIC-055.jpg
27. Severus Alexander year V.11 viewsDenarius, 226 AD, Rome mint.
Obverse: IMP C M AVR SEV ALEXAND AVG / Laureate bust of Severus Alexander.
Reverse: P M TR P V COS II P P / Alexander sacrificing over an altar.
3.38 gm., 18 mm.
RIC #55; Sear #7899.
Callimachus
SevAlex-tet-yr-02.jpg
27. Severus Alexander, year 02.9 viewsTetradrachm, Year 2 (222 / 223 AD), Alexandria, Egypt.
Obverse: A KAI MAP AVP CEVHP AΛEΞANΔPOC / Laureate bust of Severus Alexander.
Reverse: L B / Dikaiosyne (Aequitas) standing, holding scales and cornucopiae.
11.51 gm., 22 mm.
Koln 2408; Dattari 4291.
Callimachus
SevAlex-tet-yr-03.jpg
28. Severus Alexander, year 03.8 viewsTetradrachm, Year 3 (223 / 224 AD), Alexandria, Egypt.
Obverse: A KAI MAP AVP CEVHP AΛEΞANΔPOC / Laureate bust of Severus Alexander.
Reverse: L Γ / Homonoia (Concordia) standing, holding double cornucopiae.
12.67 gm., 22.5 mm.
Curtis 1072.
Callimachus
Severus Alexander.jpg
29 Severus Alexander 88 viewsDenarius. 234 AD. IMP ALEXANDER PIVS AVG, laureate, draped bust right / P M TR P XIII COS III P P, Sol advancing left raising hand & holding whip. RIC 123, RSC 448, BMC 950. Weight 3.37 g. Die Axis 6 hr. Max dia 21.7 mm

mix_val
SevAlex-RIC-067.jpg
29. Severus Alexander year VI.10 viewsDenarius, 227 AD, Rome mint.
Obverse: IMP C M AVR SEV ALEXAND AVG / Laureate bust of Severus Alexander.
Reverse: P M TR P VI COS II P P / Pax running, holding olive branch and sceptre.
2.04 gm., 19 mm.
RIC #67; Sear #7904.
Callimachus
SevAlex-tet-yr-04.jpg
29. Severus Alexander, year 04.9 viewsTetradrachm, Year 4 (224 / 225 AD), Alexandria, Egypt.
Obverse: A KAI MAP AVP CEVHP AΛEΞANΔPOC EV CEB / Laureate bust of Severus Alexander.
Reverse: L Δ / Eagle holding wreath in its beak.
12.58 gm., 23 mm.
Koln 2418; Dattari 4408.
Callimachus
SevAlex-RIC-144.jpg
30. Severus Alexander.12 viewsDenarius, ca 225 AD, Rome mint.
Obverse: IMP C M AVR SEV ALEXAND AVG / Laureate bust of Severus Alexander.
Reverse: IOVI VLTORI / Jupiter seared, holding Victory and spear.
3.01 gm., 18 mm.
RIC #144; Sear #7873.

The reverse legend is of some interest on this coin: IOVI VLTORI. The epithet Ultori (Avenger) is usually applied to Mars, not Jove. When Severus Alexander's cousin and predecessor Elagabalus was emperor, the temple of Jupiter (Jove) in Rome became the temple of the eastern sun-god El-Gabal. The religious excesses of the reign finally ended with the murder of Elagabalus, and things began to get back to normal. The temple was cleansed and rededicated to Jupiter. It is likely that the epithet Ultor was given to Jupiter at this time to appease him for the affront he suffered during the previous reign.
Callimachus
SevAlex-RIC-074.jpg
31. Severus Alexander year VII.14 viewsDenarius, 228 AD, Rome mint.
Obverse: IMP C M AVR SEV ALEXAND AVG / Laureate bust of Severus Alexander.
Reverse: P M TR P VII COS II P P / Mars standing, holding spear and resting his hand on a shield.
3.02 gm, 19 mm.
RIC #74.
Callimachus
3210034.jpg
324-323 BC, Alexander the great, AR Didrachm 18mm 8.18 g 3h83 viewsBabylon mint,head of Herakles right,wearing lion skin.Rev Zeus Aetophoros seated left,M in left field,.Struck under Stamenes or Archon circa 324/3 BC very rare.
From the last issue of Alexanders lifetime coinage in the city where he died,contemporary with his dekadrachm issue.
1 commentsGrant H
SevAlex-RIC-085.jpg
33. Severus Alexander year VII.9 viewsDenarius, 228 AD, Rome mint.
Obverse: IMP SEV ALEXAND AVG / Laureate bust of Severus Alexander.
Reverse: P M TR P VII COS II P P / Romulus, bareheaded, walking, holding a spear and trophy.
2.52 gm., 20 mm.
RIC #85; Sear #7906.

Romulus is not a common reverse type. The identification of a bareheaded man walking, and holding a spear and trophy as Romulus, apparently comes from a sestertius of Antoninus Pius also inscribed ROMVLO AVGVSTO. Mars is often portrayed this way, but he is always helmeted.
Callimachus
646_P_Hadrian_RPC3338.jpg
3338 CILICIA, Aegeae. Hadrian. Tridrachm 117-18 AD Head of Alexander31 viewsReference.
RPC III, 3338; Prieur 715A (this coin); SNG France 2326; SNG Levante –

Issue Year 164 (ΔΞΡ)

Obv. ΑΥΤΟΚΡ ΚΑΙС ΤΡΑΙΑΝΟС ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СΕΒ
Laureate head of Hadrian, r., with drapery on l. shoulder.

Rev. ΑΙΓΕΑΙΩΝ ΕΤΟΥС ΔΞΡ
Head of Alexander with taenia, r.; below, goat, l., head turned back.

10.05 gr
25 mm
12h

Note.
CNG eAuction 375 2016, estate of Thomas Bentley Cederlind. Ex Cederlind 159 (31 May 2011), lot 136; Gorny & Mosch 156 (5 March 2007), lot 1802.
2 commentsokidoki
AlexIIIclubbow.jpg
336-323 BC - Alexander (III) The Great - Club, Bow and Case Reverse51 viewsKing: Alexander (III) The Great (r. 336-323 BC)
Date: 336 - about 300 BC?
Condition: Fair
Size: AE17

Obverse: Head of Herakles right

Reverse: AΛEΞANΔPOY between club above and bow and case below.
Alexander

Unknown mint
3.70g; 17.8mm; 30°
Pep
SevAlex-RIC-095.jpg
35. Severus Alexander year VIII.12 viewsDenarius, 229 AD, Rome mint.
Obverse: IMP SEV ALEXAND AVG / Laureate bust of Severus Alexander.
Reverse: P M TR P VIII COS III P P / Libertas standing, holding pileus and sceptre.
3.58 gm., 18 mm.
RIC #95; Sear #7909.
Callimachus
SevAlex-RIC-165.jpg
35. Severus Alexander.15 viewsDenarius, ca 223 AD, Rome mint.
Obverse: IMP C M AVR SEV ALEXAND AVG / Laureate bust of Severus Alexander.
Reverse: PAX AETERNA AVG / Pax standing, holding branch and sceptre.
2.24 gm., 20 mm.
RIC #165; Sear #7886.

Issued early in the reign of Severus Alexander, the reverse of this coin promises that the new reign will be one of eternal peace.

Notice that on the reverse sides of this coin, there is sort of an upside-down shadow of the portrait on the other side. This is an example of "clashed dies" -- the two dies were struck together without a flan in between them. The reverse die was damaged, and this damage showed up on any coins that were subsequently struck from it.
Callimachus
SevAlex-tet-yr-11.jpg
36. Severus Alexander, year 11.11 viewsTetradrachm, Year 11 (231 / 232 AD), Alexandria, Egypt.
Obverse: A KAI MAP AVP CEV AΛEΞANΔPOC EV / Laureate bust of Severus Alexander.
Reverse: L IA / Homonoia (Concordia) standing, holding double cornucopiae; palm branch at left.
11.68 gm., 23 mm.
Koln 2468.
Callimachus
SevAlex-RIC-105.jpg
37. Severus Alexander year VIIII13 viewsDenarius, 230 AD, Rome mint.
Obverse: IMP SEV ALEXAND AVG / Laureate bust of Severus Alexander.
Reverse: P M TR P VIIII COS III P P / Alexander standing, holding transverse spear and globe.
3.07 gm., 19 mm.
RIC #105; Sear #7911.
Callimachus
SevAlex-RIC-109.jpg
39. Severus Alexander year X.15 viewsDenarius, 231 AD, Rome mint.
Obverse: IMP ALEXANDER PIVS AVG / Laureate bust of Severus Alexander.
Reverse: P M TR P X COS III P P / Sol standing, holding globe.
2.52 gm., 19 mm.
RIC #109; Sear #7913.
Callimachus
SevAlex-tet-yr-14.jpg
39. Severus Alexander, year 14.20 viewsTetradrachm, Year 14 (234 / 235 AD), Alexandria, Egypt.
Obverse: A KAI MAP AVP CEV AΛEΞANΔPOC EC / Laureate bust of Severus Alexander.
Reverse: L IΔ / Zeus seated, holding sceptre and patera. Eagle at feet, palm branch behind.
13.42 gm., 22.5 mm.
Koln 2496.
1 commentsCallimachus
SevAlex-RIC-178.jpg
40. Severus Alexander.13 viewsDenarius, ca 222-223 AD, Rome mint.
Obverse: IMP C M AVR SEV ALEXAND AVG / Laureate bust of Severus Alexander.
Reverse: SALVS PVBLICA / Salus feeding serpent rising from altar.
3.27 gm., 19.5 mm.
RIC #178;
Sear #7925.
Callimachus
coin180.JPG
408. Maxentius34 viewsMarcus Aurelius Valerius Maxentius, more commonly known as Maxentius, was the child of the Emperor Maximianus Herculius and the Syrian Eutropia; he was born ca. 278 A.D. After Galerius' appointment to the rank of Caesar on 1 March 293, Maxentius married Galerius' daughter Valeria Maximilla, who bore him a son named Romulus and another son whose name is unknown. Due to his haughty nature and bad disposition, Maxentius could seldom agree with his father or his father-in-law; Galerius' and Maximianus Herculius' aversion to Maxentius prevented the young man from becoming a Caesar in 305. Little else is known of Maxentius' private life prior to his accession and, alth ough there is some evidence that it was spent in idleness, he did become a Senator.

On 28 October 306 Maxentius was acclaimed emperor, although he was politcally astute enough not to use the title Augustus; like the Emperor Augustus, he called himself princeps. It was not until the summer of 307 that he started usi ng the title Augustus and started offending other claimants to the imperial throne. He was enthroned by the plebs and the Praetorians. At the time of his acclamation Maxentius was at a public villa on the Via Labicana. He strengthened his position with promises of riches for those who helped him obtain his objective. He forced his father Maximianus Herculius to affirm his son's acclamation in order to give his regime a facade of legitimacy. His realm included Italy, Africa, Sardinia, and Corsica. As soon as Galerius learned about the acclamation of Herculius' son, he dispatched the Emperor Severus to quell the rebellion. With the help of his father and Severus' own troops, Maxentius' took his enemy prisoner.

When Severus died, Galerius was determined to avenge his death. In the early summer of 307 the Augustus invaded Italy; he advanced to the south and encamped at Interamna near the Tiber. His attempt to besiege the city was abortive because his army was not large enough to encompass the city's fortifications. Negotiations between Maxentius and Galerius broke down when the emperor discovered that the usurper was trying to win over his troops. Galerius' troops were open to Maxentius' promises because they were fighting a civil war between members of the same family; some of the soldiers went over to the enemy. Not trusting his own troops, Galerius withdrew. During its retreat, Galerius' army ravaged the Italian countryside as it was returning to its original base. If it was not enough that Maxentius had to deal with the havoc created by the ineffectual invasions of Severus and Galerius, he also had to deal with his father's attempts to regain the throne between 308 and 310. When Maximianus Herculius was unable to regain power by pushing his son off his throne, he attempted to win over Constantine to his cause. When this plan failed, he tried to win Diocletian over to his side at Carnuntum in October and November 308. Frustrated at every turn, Herculius returned to his son-in-law Constantine's side in Gaul where he died in 310, having been implicated in a plot against his son-in-law. Maxentius' control of the situation was weakened by the revolt of L. Domitius Alexander in 308. Although the revolt only lasted until the end of 309, it drastically cut the size of the grain supply availble for Rome. Maxentius' rule collapsed when he died on 27 October 312 in an engagement he had with the Emperor Constantine at the Milvian Bridge after the latter had invaded his realm.

Maxentius Follis. Ostia mint. IMP C MAXENTIVS P F AVG, laureate head right / AETE-RNITAS A-VGN, Castor and Pollux standing facing each other, each leaning on sceptre and holding bridled horse.
ecoli
SevAlex-RIC-109v.jpg
41. Severus Alexander year X.12 viewsDenarius, 231 AD, Rome mint.
Obverse: IMP ALEXANDER PIVS AVG / Laureate bust of Severus Alexander.
Reverse: P M TR P X COS III P P / Sol standing, holding globe.
2.53 gm, 18.5 mm
RIC #109; Sear #7913.

This coin and the previous one are catalogued as the same coin, but there are differences in the way Sol is wearing his cloak. Sol is usually depicted with his cloak thrown over one shoulder or elbow, as on the previous coin. However, on this coin the cloak is over both shoulders and hangs down behind him, almost to his knees. This is not an major difference, and is likely an example of the celator taking "artistic license" with the subject he was engraving.
Callimachus
SevAlex-RIC-114.jpg
43. Severus Alexander year XI.10 viewsDenarius, 232 AD, Rome mint.
Obverse: IMP ALEXANDER PIVS AVG / Laureate bust of Severus Alexander.
Reverse: P M TR P XI COS III P P / Sol walking, holding whip.
2.12 gm., 19 mm.
RIC #114.
Callimachus
SevAlex-RIC-120.jpg
45. Severus Alexander year XII.12 viewsDenarius, 233 AD, Rome mint.
Obverse: IMP ALEXANDER PIVS AVG / Laureate bust of Severus Alexander.
Reverse: P M TR P XII COS III P P / Sol walking, holding whip.
3.28 gm., 20 mm.
RIC #120; Sear #7915.
Callimachus
SevAlex-RIC-180.jpg
45. Severus Alexander.20 viewsDenarius, ca 225 AD, Rome mint.
Obverse: IMP C M AVR SEV ALEXAND AVG / Laureate bust of Severus Alexander.
Reverse: VICTORIA AVG / Victory running, holding wreath and palm branch.
2.64 gm., 19 mm.
RIC #180; Sear #7931.
Callimachus
SevAlex-RIC-123.jpg
47. Severus Alexander year XIII.9 viewsDenarius, 234 AD, Rome mint.
Obverse: IMP ALEXANDER PIVS AVG / Laureate bust of Severus Alexander.
Reverse: P M TR P XIII COS III P P / Sol walking, holding whip.
3.19 gm., 19 mm.
RIC #123; Sear #7916.
Callimachus
SevAlex-RIC-125.jpg
49. Severus Alexander year XIIII.18 viewsDenarius, Jan. 1 - Mar. 19, 235 AD, Rome mint.
Obverse: IMP ALEXANDER PIVS AVG / Laureate bust of Severus Alexander.
Reverse: PM TR P XIIII COS III P P / Sol walking, holding whip.
2.84 gm. 18.5 mm.
RIC #125.
Callimachus
SevAlex-RIC-182.jpg
50. Severus Alexander.18 viewsDenarius, ca 225 AD, Rome mint.
Obverse: IMP C M AVR SEV ALEXAND AVG / Laureate bust of Severus Alexander.
Reverse: VIRTVS AVG / Virtus standing, with spear and shield.
2.64 gm., 20 mm.
RIC #182; Sear # 7934.
Callimachus
coin599.JPG
501. Constantine I Alexandria Posthumous23 viewsAlexandria

The city passed formally under Roman jurisdiction in 80 BC, according to the will of Ptolemy Alexander but after it had been previously under Roman influence for more than a hundred years. Julius Caesar dallied with Cleopatra in Alexandria in 47 BC, saw Alexander's body (quipping 'I came to see a king, not a collection of corpses' when he was offered a view of the other royal burials) and was mobbed by the rabble. His example was followed by Marc Antony, for whose favor the city paid dearly to Octavian, who placed over it a prefect from the imperial household.

From the time of annexation onwards, Alexandria seems to have regained its old prosperity, commanding, as it did, an important granary of Rome. This fact, doubtless, was one of the chief reasons which induced Augustus to place it directly under imperial power. In AD 215 the emperor Caracalla visited the city and for some insulting satires that the inhabitants had directed at him, abruptly commanded his troops to put to death all youths capable of bearing arms. This brutal order seems to have been carried out even beyond the letter, for a general massacre ensued.

Even as its main historical importance had formerly sprung from pagan learning, now Alexandria acquired fresh importance as a centre of Christian theology and church government. There Arianism was formulated and where also Athanasius, the great opponent of both Arianism and pagan reaction, triumphed over both, establishing the Patriarch of Alexandria as a major influence in Christianity for the next two centuries.

As native influences began to reassert themselves in the Nile valley, Alexandria gradually became an alien city, more and more detached from Egypt and losing much of its commerce as the peace of the empire broke up during the 3rd century AD, followed by a fast decline in population and splendour.

In the late 4th century, persecution of pagans by Christians had reached new levels of intensity. Temples and statues were destroyed throughout the Roman empire: pagan rituals became forbidden under punishment of death, and libraries were closed. In 391, Emperor Theodosius I ordered the destruction of all pagan temples, and the Patriarch Theophilus, complied with his request. It is possible that the great Library of Alexandria and the Serapeum was destroyed about this time. The pagan mathematician and philosopher Hypathia was a prominent victim of the persecutions.

The Brucheum and Jewish quarters were desolate in the 5th century, and the central monuments, the Soma and Museum, fell into ruin. On the mainland, life seemed to have centred in the vicinity of the Serapeum and Caesareum, both which became Christian churches. The Pharos and Heptastadium quarters, however, remained populous and left intact.

veiled head only
DV CONSTANTI-NVS PT AVGG
RIC VIII Alexandria 32 C3

From uncleaned lot; one of the nicer finds.
ecoli
coin514.JPG
501. Constantine I Heraclea VOTA35 viewsHeraclea

Heraclea (Greek ‘Ηράκλεια), an ancient city of Lucania, situated near the modern Policoro, 3 m. from the coast of the Gulf of Taranto, between the rivers Aciris (Agri) and Sinis (Sinni) about 13 m. S.S.W. of Metapontum. It was a Greek colony founded by the Tarentines and Thurians in 432 BC, the former being predominant. It was chosen as the meeting-place of the general assembly of the Italiot Greeks, which Alexander of Epirus, after his alienation from Tarentum, tried to transfer to Thurii. Here Pyrrhus, king of Epirus, defeated the consul Laevinus in 280 BC, after he had crossed the river Sinis (see Battle of Heraclea). In 278 BC, or possibly in 282 BC, probably in order to detach it from Tarentum, the Romans made a special treaty with Heraclea, on such favourable terms that in 89 B.C. the Roman citizenship given to the inhabitants by the Lex Plautia Papiria was only accepted after considerable hesitation. We hear that Heraclea surrendered under compulsion to Hannibal in 212 BC and that in the Social War the public records were destroyed by fire. Cicero in his defence of the poet Archias, an adopted citizen of Heraclea, speaks of it as a flourishing town. As a consequence of its having accepted Roman citizenship, it became a municipium; part of a copy of the Lex Iulia Municipalis of 46 BC (engraved on the back of two bronze tablets, on the front of which is a Greek inscription of the 3rd century BC defining the boundaries of lands belonging to various temples), which was found between Heraclea and Metapontum, is of the highest importance for our knowledge of that law. It was still a place of some importance under the empire; a branch road from Venusia joined the coast road here. The circumstances of its destruction and abandonment was unknown; the site is now marked by a few heaps of ruins. Its medieval representative was Anglona, once a bishopric, but now itself a heap of ruins, among which are those of an 11th-century church.

Constantine I (AD 307-337)
AE3 - Vot XXX, .SMHB (Eyes to God)
AE-3 (AD 327-329)
OB: Plain-diademed head, right, looking upwards
CONSTANTINVS AVG.
REV: Wreath with VOT. /
XXX inscribed within
D. N. CONSTANTINI MAX. AVG.
. SMHB in exergue
Heraclea mint
RIC, Vol. VII, #92
Rated “Scarce” in RIC
ecoli
SevAlex-RIC-125-2.jpg
51. Severus Alexander year XIIII.12 viewsDenarius, Jan. 1 - Mar. 19, 235 AD, Rome mint.
Obverse: IMP ALEXANDER PIVS AVG / Laureate bust of Severus Alexander.
Reverse: PM TR P XIIII COS III P P / Sol walking, holding whip.
3.11 gm., 19 mm.
RIC #125.

Coins from the last few months of Severus Alexander's life (TR P XIIII) are fairly rare and are not often seen. This collection is fortunate to have two of them.
Callimachus
SevAlex-RIC-190.jpg
55. Severus Alexander.15 viewsDenarius, ca 229 AD, Rome mint.
Obverse: IMP SEV ALEXAND AVG / Laureate bust of Severus Alexander.
Reverse: ANNONA AVG / Annona standing, holding modius and rudder placed on globe.
2.99 gm., 19 mm.
RIC #190; Sear #7860.
Callimachus
Denario_Severo_Alejandro_RIC_5_2.jpg
59-01 - SEVERO ALEJANDRO (222 - 235 D.C.)43 viewsAR Denario 19 x 18 mm 2.5 gr.

Anv: "IMP C M AVR SEV ALEXAND AVG" - Busto laureado, vestido y acorazado viendo a derecha. Viéndolo de atrás.
Rev: "PM TR P COS P P" - Júpiter desnudo de pié a izquierda, su manto detrás y sobre sus brazos, portando rayo en brazo derecho extendido y largo cetro vertical en izquierdo.

Acuñada: 1ra. Emisión 222 D.C.
Ceca: Roma – Off.4ta.
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.IV Parte II #5d Pag.71 – Sear (1988) #2220 - Sear RCTV Vol.II #7891 Pag.646 – BMCRE Vol.6 #13 - Cohen Vol.IV #204 Pag.422 - RSC Vol. III #204a Pag.137 - DVM #35/1 Pag.212
mdelvalle
RIC_5d_Denario_Alejandro_Severo.jpg
59-01 - SEVERO ALEJANDRO (222 - 235 D.C.)14 viewsAR Denario 19 x 18 mm 2.5 gr.

Anv: "IMP C M AVR SEV ALEXAND AVG" - Busto laureado, vestido y acorazado viendo a derecha. Viéndolo de atrás.
Rev: "PM TR P COS P P" - Júpiter desnudo de pié a izquierda, su manto detrás y sobre sus brazos, portando rayo en brazo derecho extendido y largo cetro vertical en izquierdo.

Acuñada: 1ra. Emisión 222 D.C.
Ceca: Roma – Off.4ta.
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.IV Parte II #5d Pag.71 – Sear (1988) #2220 - Sear RCTV Vol.II #7891 Pag.646 – BMCRE Vol.6 #13 - Cohen Vol.IV #204 Pag.422 - RSC Vol. III #204a Pag.137 - DVM #35/1 Pag.212
mdelvalle
Denario Severo Alejandro RIC 5.jpg
59-02 - SEVERO ALEJANDRO (222 - 235 D.C.)34 viewsAR Denario 19 x 17 mm 2.0 gr.

Anv: "IMP C M AVR SEV ALEXAND AVG" - Busto laureado, vestido y acorazado viendo a derecha. Viendolo de atrás.
Rev: "PM TR P COS P P" - Júpiter desnudo de pié a izquierda, su manto detrás y sobre sus brazos, portando rayo en brazo derecho extendido y largo cetro vertical en izquierdo.

Acuñada 222 D.C.
Ceca: Roma

Referencias: RIC Vol.IV Parte II #5d Pag.71 - Sear RCTV Vol.II #7891 Pag.646 - BMCRE #13 - Cohen Vol.IV #204 Pag.422 - RSC Vol. III #204a Pag.137 - DVM #35-1 Pag.212
mdelvalle
RIC_5d_Denario_Severo_Alejandro.jpg
59-02 - SEVERO ALEJANDRO (222 - 235 D.C.)14 viewsAR Denario 19 x 17 mm 2.0 gr.

Anv: "IMP C M AVR SEV ALEXAND AVG" - Busto laureado, vestido y acorazado viendo a derecha. Viendolo de atrás.
Rev: "PM TR P COS P P" - Júpiter desnudo de pié a izquierda, su manto detrás y sobre sus brazos, portando rayo en brazo derecho extendido y largo cetro vertical en izquierdo.

Acuñada 222 D.C.
Ceca: Roma

Referencias: RIC Vol.IV Parte II #5d Pag.71 - Sear RCTV Vol.II #7891 Pag.646 - BMCRE #13 - Cohen Vol.IV #204 Pag.422 - RSC Vol. III #204a Pag.137 - DVM #35-1 Pag.212
mdelvalle
Denario_Severo_Alejandro_RIC_286.jpg
59-03 - SEVERO ALEJANDRO (222 - 235 D.C.)40 viewsAR Denario 18 mm 3.0 gr.

Anv: "IMP C M AVR SEV ALEXAND AVG" - Busto laureado y vestido viendo a derecha. Viéndolo de atrás.
Rev: "LIBERTAS AVG" - Libertas de pié a izquierda, portando Pileus (Bonete utilizado por los esclavos) en la mano de su brazo derecho extendido y largo cetro vertical en izquierdo. " * " en campo izquierdo.

Acuñada 222 D.C.
Ceca: Antioquia Siria
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.IV Parte II #286c Pag.92 – Sear (1988) #2214 - Sear RCTV Vol.II #7880 var. (Leyenda anverso) Pag.645 – BMCRE Vol.6 #1036 - Cohen Vol.IV #147 Pag.417 - RSC Vol. III #147 Pag.135 - DVM #24 Pag.212
mdelvalle
RIC_286c_Denario_Severo_Alejandro.jpg
59-03 - SEVERO ALEJANDRO (222 - 235 D.C.)11 viewsAR Denario 18 mm 3.0 gr.

Anv: "IMP C M AVR SEV ALEXAND AVG" - Busto laureado y vestido viendo a derecha. Viéndolo de atrás.
Rev: "LIBERTAS AVG" - Libertas de pié a izquierda, portando Pileus (Bonete utilizado por los esclavos) en la mano de su brazo derecho extendido y largo cetro vertical en izquierdo. " * " en campo izquierdo.

Acuñada 222 D.C.
Ceca: Antioquia Siria
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.IV Parte II #286c Pag.92 – Sear (1988) #2214 - Sear RCTV Vol.II #7880 var. (Leyenda anverso) Pag.645 – BMCRE Vol.6 #1036 - Cohen Vol.IV #147 Pag.417 - RSC Vol. III #147 Pag.135 - DVM #24 Pag.212
mdelvalle
Denario_Severo_Alejandro_RIC_168.jpg
59-04 - SEVERO ALEJANDRO (222 - 235 D.C.)36 viewsAR Denario 18 mm 2.5 gr.

Anv: "IMP C M AVR SEV ALEXAND AVG" - Busto laureado y vestido a derecha. Viéndolo de atrás.
Rev: "PAX AVG" - Pax (La Paz) avanzando a izquierda, portando ramo de hojas de olivo en brazo la mano de su derecho extendido y largo cetro vertical en izquierdo.

Acuñada: 6ta. Emisión 226 D.C.
Ceca: Roma – Off.2da.
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.IV Parte II #168 Pag.83 – Sear (1988) #2217 - Sear RCTV Vol.II #7887 Pag.646 – BMCRE Vol.6 #363-7 - Cohen Vol.IV #187 Pag.420 - RSC Vol. III #187 Pag.136 - DVM #30 Pag.212
mdelvalle
RIC_168_Denario_Severo_Alejandro.jpg
59-04 - SEVERO ALEJANDRO (222 - 235 D.C.)12 viewsAR Denario 18 mm 2.5 gr.

Anv: "IMP C M AVR SEV ALEXAND AVG" - Busto laureado y vestido a derecha. Viéndolo de atrás.
Rev: "PAX AVG" - Pax (La Paz) avanzando a izquierda, portando ramo de hojas de olivo en brazo la mano de su derecho extendido y largo cetro vertical en izquierdo.

Acuñada: 6ta. Emisión 226 D.C.
Ceca: Roma – Off.2da.
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.IV Parte II #168 Pag.83 – Sear (1988) #2217 - Sear RCTV Vol.II #7887 Pag.646 – BMCRE Vol.6 #363-7 - Cohen Vol.IV #187 Pag.420 - RSC Vol. III #187 Pag.136 - DVM #30 Pag.212
mdelvalle
Denario Severo Alejandro RIC 61.jpg
59-05 - SEVERO ALEJANDRO (222 - 235 D.C.)33 viewsAR Denario 19 mm 2.4 gr.

Anv: "IMP C M AVR SEV ALEXAND AVG" - Busto laureado y vestido viendo a derecha. Viendolo de atrás.
Rev: "PM TR P VI COS II P P" - Marte desnudo con casco militar avanzando a derecha, su manto flota detrás, portando un trofeo sobre hombro izquierdo y cetro transversal en mano derecha.

Acuñada 227 D.C.
Ceca: Roma

Referencias: RIC Vol.IV Parte II #61 Pag.75 - Sear RCTV Vol.II #7898 var Pag.647 - BMCRE #409/13 - Cohen Vol.IV #305 Pag.432 - RSC Vol. III #305 Pag.140 - DVM #42-1 Pag.212
mdelvalle
RIC_61_Denario_Severo_Alejandro.jpg
59-05 - SEVERO ALEJANDRO (222 - 235 D.C.)13 viewsAR Denario 19 mm 2.4 gr.

Anv: "IMP C M AVR SEV ALEXAND AVG" - Busto laureado y vestido viendo a derecha. Viendolo de atrás.
Rev: "PM TR P VI COS II P P" - Marte desnudo con casco militar avanzando a derecha, su manto flota detrás, portando un trofeo sobre hombro izquierdo y cetro transversal en mano derecha.

Acuñada 227 D.C.
Ceca: Roma

Referencias: RIC Vol.IV Parte II #61 Pag.75 - Sear RCTV Vol.II #7898 var Pag.647 - BMCRE #409/13 - Cohen Vol.IV #305 Pag.432 - RSC Vol. III #305 Pag.140 - DVM #42-1 Pag.212
mdelvalle
Denario Severo Alejandro RIC 67.jpg
59-06 - SEVERO ALEJANDRO (222 - 235 D.C.)34 viewsAR Denario 19 x 18 mm 2.2 gr.

Anv: "IMP C M AVR SEV ALEXAND AVG" - Busto laureado y vestido viendo a derecha.
Rev: "PM TR P VI COS I[I] P P" - Pax (La Paz) corriendo hacia la izquierda, portando rama de olivo en mano de brazo derecho extendido y cetro corto transversal en mano y sobre hombro izquierdo.

Acuñada 227 D.C.
Ceca: Roma

Referencias: RIC Vol.IV Parte II #67 Pag.75 - Sear RCTV Vol.II #7904 Pag.647 - BMCRE #420/4 - Cohen Vol.IV #319 Pag.433 - RSC Vol. III #319 Pag.140 - DVM #42-4 Pag.212
mdelvalle
RIC_67_Denario_Severo_Alejandro.jpg
59-06 - SEVERO ALEJANDRO (222 - 235 D.C.)14 viewsAnv: "IMP C M AVR SEV ALEXAND AVG" - Busto laureado y vestido viendo a derecha.
Rev: "PM TR P VI COS I[I] P P" - Pax (La Paz) corriendo hacia la izquierda, portando rama de olivo en mano de brazo derecho extendido y cetro corto transversal en mano y sobre hombro izquierdo.

Acuñada 227 D.C.
Ceca: Roma

Referencias: RIC Vol.IV Parte II #67 Pag.75 - Sear RCTV Vol.II #7904 Pag.647 - BMCRE #420/4 - Cohen Vol.IV #319 Pag.433 - RSC Vol. III #319 Pag.140 - DVM #42-4 Pag.212
mdelvalle
Denario_Severo_Alejandro_RIC_225.jpg
59-07 - SEVERO ALEJANDRO (222 - 235 D.C.)36 viewsAR Denario 18 mm 2.6 gr.

Anv: "IMP SEV ALE - XAND AVG" – Cabeza laureada viendo a derecha.
Rev: "VIRT–V–S – AVG" – El Emperador como Rómulo, laureado, vestido con ropas militares, caminando hacia la derecha, portando un trofeo militar sobre su hombro izquierdo y lanza transversal en su mano derecha.

Acuñada 9na. Emisión 228 D.C.
Ceca: Roma – Off. 5ta.
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.IV Parte II #225a Pag.87 - Sear RCTV Vol.II #7933 var. (Severo en el lugar de Rómulo) Pag.650 - BMCRE Vol.6 #522 Nota - Cohen Vol.IV #585 Pag.461 - RSC Vol. III #585 Pag.146 - DVM #61/5 Pag.213
mdelvalle
RIC_225a_Denario_Severo_Alejandro.jpg
59-07 - SEVERO ALEJANDRO (222 - 235 D.C.)11 viewsAR Denario 18 mm 2.6 gr.

Anv: "IMP SEV ALE - XAND AVG" – Cabeza laureada viendo a derecha.
Rev: "VIRT–V–S – AVG" – El Emperador como Rómulo, laureado, vestido con ropas militares, caminando hacia la derecha, portando un trofeo militar sobre su hombro izquierdo y lanza transversal en su mano derecha.

Acuñada 9na. Emisión 228 D.C.
Ceca: Roma – Off. 5ta.
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.IV Parte II #225a Pag.87 - Sear RCTV Vol.II #7933 var. (Severo en el lugar de Rómulo) Pag.650 - BMCRE Vol.6 #522 Nota - Cohen Vol.IV #585 Pag.461 - RSC Vol. III #585 Pag.146 - DVM #61/5 Pag.213
mdelvalle
Denario Severo Alejandro RIC 74.jpg
59-08 - SEVERO ALEJANDRO (222 - 235 D.C.)30 viewsAR Denario 18 mm 2.8 gr.

Anv: "IMP C M AVR SEV ALEXAND AVG" - Busto laureado y vestido viendo a derecha.
Rev: "[PM TR P] VII COS II P P" - Marte con ropa y casco militar de pié de frente viendo a derecha, portando una lanza invertida en su mano derecha y apoyada en su hombro y apoyado sobre un escudo con brazo izquierdo.

Acuñada 7ma. Emisión 228 D.C.
Ceca: Roma (Off.3ra)

Referencias: RIC Vol.IV Parte II #74 Pag.76 - Sear RCTV Vol.II #7905 var Pag.647 - BMCRE #473 - Cohen Vol.IV #336 Pag.434 - RSC Vol. III #336 Pag.140 - DVM #43-1 Pag.212
mdelvalle
RIC_74_Denario_Severo_Alejandro.jpg
59-08 - SEVERO ALEJANDRO (222 - 235 D.C.)20 viewsAR Denario 18 mm 2.8 gr.

Anv: "IMP C M AVR SEV ALEXAND AVG" - Busto laureado y vestido viendo a derecha.
Rev: "[PM TR P] VII COS II P P" - Marte con ropa y casco militar de pié de frente viendo a derecha, portando una lanza invertida en su mano derecha y apoyada en su hombro y apoyado sobre un escudo con brazo izquierdo.

Acuñada 7ma. Emisión 228 D.C.
Ceca: Roma (Off.3ra)

Referencias: RIC Vol.IV Parte II #74 Pag.76 - Sear RCTV Vol.II #7905 var Pag.647 - BMCRE #473 - Cohen Vol.IV #336 Pag.434 - RSC Vol. III #336 Pag.140 - DVM #43-1 Pag.212
mdelvalle
Denario_Severo_Alejandro_RIC_193_1.jpg
59-09 - SEVERO ALEJANDRO (222 - 235 D.C.)30 viewsAR Denario 18 mm 2.4 gr.

Anv: "IMP SEV ALE - XAND AVG" – Cabeza laureada viendo a derecha.
Rev: "FIDES – M – I – LITVM" – Fides (La Fidelidad) sentada a izquierda, portando insignias legionarias en ambas manos.

Acuñada 12 ava. Emisión 231 D.C.
Ceca: Roma – Off. 5ta.
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.IV Parte II #193a Pag.85 – Sear (1988) #2206 - Sear RCTV Vol.II #7863 Pag.644 - BMCRE Vol.6 #684-7 - Cohen Vol.IV #51 Pag.407 - RSC Vol. III #51 Pag.132 - DVM #___
mdelvalle
RIC_193a_Denario_Severo_Alejandro_1.jpg
59-09 - SEVERO ALEJANDRO (222 - 235 D.C.)5 viewsAR Denario 18 mm 2.4 gr.

Anv: "IMP SEV ALE - XAND AVG" – Cabeza laureada viendo a derecha.
Rev: "FIDES – M – I – LITVM" – Fides (La Fidelidad) sentada a izquierda, portando insignias legionarias en ambas manos.

Acuñada 12 ava. Emisión 231 D.C.
Ceca: Roma – Off. 5ta.
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.IV Parte II #193a Pag.85 – Sear (1988) #2206 - Sear RCTV Vol.II #7863 Pag.644 - BMCRE Vol.6 #684-7 - Cohen Vol.IV #51 Pag.407 - RSC Vol. III #51 Pag.132 - DVM #___
mdelvalle
Denario Severo Alejandro RIC 235.jpg
59-10 - SEVERO ALEJANDRO (222 - 235 D.C.)33 viewsAR Denario 19 x 17 mm 3.0 gr.

Anv: "IMP ALEXANDER PIVS AVG" - Busto laureado y vestido viendo a derecha. Visto desde el frente.
Rev: "IOVI PROPUGNATORI" - Júpiter desnudo, su capa flota detrás, en posición de lucha a izquierda, con las piernas separadas, su cabeza vuelta a la derecha y blandiendo un rayo con brazo derecho.

Acuñada 231 D.C.
Ceca: Roma

Referencias: RIC Vol.IV Parte II #235 Pag.88 - Sear RCTV Vol.II #7870 Pag.644 - BMCRE #790/3 - Cohen Vol.IV #76 Pag.409 - RSC Vol. III #76 Pag.134 - DVM #15 Pag.211
mdelvalle
RIC_235_Denario_Severo_Alejandro.jpg
59-10 - SEVERO ALEJANDRO (222 - 235 D.C.)8 viewsAR Denario 19 x 17 mm 3.0 gr.

Anv: "IMP ALEXANDER PIVS AVG" - Busto laureado y vestido viendo a derecha. Visto desde el frente.
Rev: "IOVI PROPUGNATORI" - Júpiter desnudo, su capa flota detrás, en posición de lucha a izquierda, con las piernas separadas, su cabeza vuelta a la derecha y blandiendo un rayo con brazo derecho.

Acuñada 231 D.C.
Ceca: Roma

Referencias: RIC Vol.IV Parte II #235 Pag.88 - Sear RCTV Vol.II #7870 Pag.644 - BMCRE #790/3 - Cohen Vol.IV #76 Pag.409 - RSC Vol. III #76 Pag.134 - DVM #15 Pag.211
mdelvalle
Denario Severo Alejandro RIC 262.jpg
59-12 - SEVERO ALEJANDRO (222 - 235 D.C.)41 viewsAR Denario 19 x 18 mm 2.5 gr.

Anv: "IMP SEV ALEXAND AVG" - Busto laureado y vestido viendo a derecha. Visto de atrás.
Rev: "P T MR P COS" (Error de acuñación, debería decir "PM TR P COS") - Marte con ropaje y casco militar de pié a izquierda, su manto flota detrás, portando una rama de olivo en mano de brazo izquierdo extendido y lanza invertida en derecho. * (Estrella) en campo izquierdo.

Acuñada 1ra.Emisión 222 D.C.
Ceca: Antiochia - Hoy Antaklyah, Siria

Referencias: RIC Vol.IV Parte II #262b Pag.90 - Sear RCTV Vol.II #7890 Pag.646 - BMCRE #1009/10 - Cohen Vol.IV #201 Pag.422 - RSC Vol. III #201 Pag.137 - DVM #42-1 Pag.212
mdelvalle
RIC_262b_Denario_Severo_Alejandro.jpg
59-12 - SEVERO ALEJANDRO (222 - 235 D.C.)15 viewsAR Denario 19 x 18 mm 2.5 gr.

Anv: "IMP SEV ALEXAND AVG" - Busto laureado y vestido viendo a derecha. Visto de atrás.
Rev: "P T MR P COS" (Error de acuñación, debería decir "PM TR P COS") - Marte con ropaje y casco militar de pié a izquierda, su manto flota detrás, portando una rama de olivo en mano de brazo izquierdo extendido y lanza invertida en derecho. * (Estrella) en campo izquierdo.

Acuñada 1ra.Emisión 222 D.C.
Ceca: Antiochia - Hoy Antaklyah, Siria

Referencias: RIC Vol.IV Parte II #262b Pag.90 - Sear RCTV Vol.II #7890 Pag.646 - BMCRE #1009/10 - Cohen Vol.IV #201 Pag.422 - RSC Vol. III #201 Pag.137 - DVM #42-1 Pag.212
mdelvalle
Sestercio Severo Alejandro RIC 465.jpg
59-30 - SEVERO ALEJANDRO (222 - 235 D.C.)58 viewsAE Sestercio 27 x 26 mm 17.8 gr.

Anv: "[IMP CA]ES M AVR SEV ALEXANDER AVG" - Busto laureado, vestido y acorazado viendo a derecha.
Rev: "P M TR P VI COS II P P - S C" - Pax (La Paz) avanzando a izquierda, portando rama de olivo en la mano de su brazo derecho extendido y cetro largo vertical en la izquierda.

Acuñada 227 D.C.
Ceca: Roma

Referencias: RIC Vol.IV Parte II #465 Pag.108 - Sear RCTV Vol.II #7993 Pag.655 - BMCRE #425 - Cohen Vol.IV #320 Pag.433 - DVM #98 Pag.225 - Loret #10960
2 commentsmdelvalle
RIC_465_Sestercio_Severo_Alejandro.jpg
59-30 - SEVERO ALEJANDRO (222 - 235 D.C.)11 viewsAE Sestercio 27 x 26 mm 17.8 gr.

Anv: "[IMP CA]ES M AVR SEV ALEXANDER AVG" - Busto laureado, vestido y acorazado viendo a derecha.
Rev: "P M TR P VI COS II P P - S C" - Pax (La Paz) avanzando a izquierda, portando rama de olivo en la mano de su brazo derecho extendido y cetro largo vertical en la izquierda.

Acuñada 227 D.C.
Ceca: Roma

Referencias: RIC Vol.IV Parte II #465 Pag.108 - Sear RCTV Vol.II #7993 Pag.655 - BMCRE #425 - Cohen Vol.IV #320 Pag.433 - DVM #98 Pag.225 - Loret #10960
mdelvalle
Moushmov_697_MARCIANOPOLIS_Severo_Alejandro.jpg
59-40 - SEVERO ALEJANDRO (222 - 235 D.C.)11 viewsMARCIANOPOLIS Moesia Inferior
Legado Consular Fir. Philopappus

AE Tetrasarión (4 Asarias)
25 mm 8.4 gr.

Anv: ”AVT K M AVP CEV AΛEΞANΔPOC AVΓ” – Cabeza laureada a der.
Rev: ”VP ΦIP ΦIΛOΠAΠΠOV MARKIANOΠOΛITΩN", Apolo/Bonus Eventus desnudo estante a izq., portando pátera en mano der. y rama de laurel en izq.

Acuñada: 222-224 D.C.

Referencias: Moushmov #697 var (Patera?), Varbanov I #1809 var (Busto) Pag.176 (R3) - AMNG Vol.I/1 #1025 var (Ley. reverso) Pag.289
mdelvalle
Moushmov_707_MARCIANOPOLIS_Severo_Alejandro.jpg
59-42 - SEVERO ALEJANDRO (222 - 235 D.C.)10 viewsMARCIANOPOLIS Moesia Inferior
Gobernador Um(brius?) Tereventinus

AE Tetrasarión (4 Asarias)
24 mm 6.8 gr.

Anv: ”AVT K M AVR CEV AΛEΞANΔPOC AVΓ” – Busto laur., acoraz. y con paludamentum viendo a der.
Rev: ”HΓ OVM TEPEBENTIMOV MARKIANOΠO - ΛEI/T/ΩN", Homonoia/Concordia estante de frente, viendo a izq., sacrificando con pátera en mano der. sobre Altar encendido y portando cornucopia en izq.

Acuñada: 225-226 D.C.

Referencias: Moushmov #707, Varbanov I #1695 Pag.171 (R3), AMNG Vol.I/1 #1035 Pag.291, Mionnet S.2 #293 Pag.104, SNG Budapest #236 var.
mdelvalle
Moushmov_710_MARCIANOPOLIS_Severo_Alejandro.jpg
59-44 - SEVERO ALEJANDRO (222 - 235 D.C.)6 viewsMARCIANOPOLIS Moesia Inferior
Legado Consular Tib. Julius Festus

AE Tetrasarión (4 Asarias)
24 mm 7.2 gr.

Anv: ”AVT K M AVP CEV AΛEΞANΔPOC AVΓ” – Busto laur., acoraz. y con paludamentum viendo a der.
Rev: ”VΠ TIB lOVΛ ΦHCTOV MARKIANOΠOΛITΩN", Euthenia/Abundantia estante a izq. portando espigas de cebada ? en mano der. y cornucopia en izq.

Acuñada: 226-227 D.C.

Referencias: Moushmov #694, Varbanov I #1776 Pag.174 (R3) - AMNG Vol.I/1 #1015 Pag.287
mdelvalle
Moushmov_796_MARCIANOPOLIS_Severo_Alejandro.jpg
59-46 - SEVERO ALEJANDRO (222 - 235 D.C.)16 viewsMARCIANOPOLIS Moesia Inferior
Legado Consular Tib. Julius Festus

AE Tetrasarión (4 Asarias)
24 mm 8.3 gr.

Anv: ”AVT K M AVP CEV AΛEΞANΔPOC AVΓ” – Cab. laur. viendo a der.
Rev: ”VΠ TIB lOVΛ ΦHCTOV MARKIANOΠOΛITΩN", Homonoia/Concordia estante a izq. portando pátera en mano der. y cornucopia en izq.

Acuñada: 226-227 D.C.

Referencias: Moushmov #706, BMC #68/9, Varbanov I #1781 Pag.175 (R2) - AMNG Vol.I/1 #1012 Pag.286
mdelvalle
SNGCop_520_NICEA_Severo_Alejandro.jpg
59-55 - SEVERO ALEJANDRO (222 - 235 D.C.)17 viewsNICEA en Bitinia
Hoy Iznik, situado en la orilla de un lago cerca de la costa asiática del mar de Mármara

AE19 19 mm 3.4 gr.

Anv: ”M AVP CEV AΛE[ΞANΔPOC ---]” – Cab. laur. viendo a der.
Rev: ”NI/KA/IE/ΩN", Leyenda entre tres estandartes militares.

Acuñada: 222-235 D.C.

Referencias: BMC 13 #99-100 P.168, Sear GICV #3287 var. (Corte Leyenda reverso) P.312, SNG Cop #520 var. (Corte Leyenda reverso), RG II #617 p.477, SNG Von Aulock #623 var. (Corte Leyenda reverso)
mdelvalle
SNGCop_520v_NICEA_Severo_Alejandro_1.jpg
59-56 - SEVERO ALEJANDRO (222 - 235 D.C.)10 viewsNICEA en Bitinia
Hoy Iznik, situado en la orilla de un lago cerca de la costa asiática del mar de Mármara

AE20
20 mm 3.4 gr.

Anv: ”M AVP CEV AΛEΞANΔPOC AV” – Cab. laur. viendo a der.
Rev: ”N/IK/AI/E", Leyenda entre tres estandartes militares, "ΩN" en exergo.

Acuñada: 222-235 D.C.

Referencias: BMC 13 #102-103 P.168, Sear GICV #3287 P.312, SNG Cop #520 var. (busto anverso), RG II #617 p.477, SNG Von Aulock #623 var. (Busto anv.), Weiser #30 var.
mdelvalle
SNGCop_520v_NICEA_Severo_Alejandro.jpg
59-57 - SEVERO ALEJANDRO (222 - 235 D.C.)10 viewsNICEA en Bitinia
Hoy Iznik, situado en la orilla de un lago cerca de la costa asiática del mar de Mármara

AE20
20 mm 3.4 gr.

Anv: ”M AVP CEV AΛEΞANΔPOC AVΓ” – Busto rad., vest, y acoraz. viendo a der.
Rev: ”N/IK/AI/E", Leyenda entre tres estandartes militares, "ΩN" en exergo.

Acuñada: 222-235 D.C.

Referencias: BMC 13 #102-103 P.168, Sear GICV #3287 P.312, SNG Cop #520 var. (busto anverso), RG II #616 p.477, SNG Von Aulock #624, Weiser #30 var.
mdelvalle
1__Julia_Mamaea.jpg
6. JULIA MAMAEA, Mother of Severus Alexander, Augusta 13 March 222 - February/March 235 AD10 viewsAE Sesterius,Mint: Rome;Date: 226 AD
Ref: RIC 708
Obv: IVLIAMAMAEA AVGVSTA - Diademed, draped bust right.
Rev: VESTA - Vesta standing left, holding Palladium and scepter.
S-C -Senatus Consulto,struck by the public authority of the Senate,"by decree of the Senate".
Size: 17.98gm; 29.3 mm
1 commentsbrian l
SevAlex-RIC-212.jpg
60. Severus Alexander.10 viewsDenarius, ca 231 AD, Rome mint.
Obverse: IMP SEV ALEXAND AVG / Laureate bust of Severus Alexander.
Reverse: VICTORIA AVG / Victoria standing, holding wreath and palm branch.
2.91 gm., 20 mm.
RIC #212; Sear #7928.

In 229, the Persians invaded and occupied the Roman province of Mesopotamia. Severus Alexander and his mother left Rome for the East in the spring of 231 to take charge of the campaign against the Persians. This coin, with its reverse legend of VICTORIA AVG, anticipates a Roman victory over the Persians.
Callimachus
814_P_Hadrian_RPC6147.jpg
6145 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Drachm 136-37 AD Monumental Altar21 viewsReference.
RPC III, 6145; Dattari 1892; Emmett 910.21; Milne 1554

Issue L KA = year 21

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙС ΤΡΑΙΑΝ - ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СƐΒ
laureate draped and cuirassed bust of Hadrian, r., seen from rear

Rev, L ΚΑ
Monumental altar (of Caesareum) with six columns, surmounted with pyre, enclosing Eusebeia (?) in centre

23.40 gr
33 mm
12h

Note RPC.
Often described as altar of Agathodaemon (K; Bakhoum; Vogt, pp. 106-9; S. Handler, AJA 75 (1971), pp. 68-9); BMC said ‘enclosing statue of goddess facing; on her head, disc. (Altar of Caesareum).’ D just said: ‘Altare. Peristylium con sei colonne d’ordine Corintio, tra quelle di centro un personaggio in piede a s.; versa incense sopra altare. Sulla sommità una pyra e su ciascuna cantonata un aplustrum; le cantonate alle base hanno un ordine indecifrabile.’ Only clue is the aplustres. Some varieties have little altars between the columns (D1894). There are some round objects hanging up among the columns (e.g. D1894, Boston). The bases of the structure at l. and r. are in the form of the upper part of a human body. The same structure, with and without the central figure, also occurs on Antonine coins, which are often much better preserved than the Hadrianic pieces: see RPC IV online. J. McKenzie, The Architecture of Alexandria and Egypt (Yale, 2007), p. 187 describes it as a ‘distinctive but unidentified structure’, rejecting as unsatisfactory the identifications as the monumental altars in the Caesareum, the altar of Agathos Daimon or the altar of Alexander.
okidoki
SevAlex-RIC-402.jpg
65. Severus Alexander sestertius.30 viewsSestertius, 223 AD, Rome mint.
Obverse: IMP CAES M AVR SEV ALEXANDER AVG / Laureate bust of Severus Alexander.
Reverse: PONTIF MAX TR P II COS P P / Pax seated, holding branch and sceptre. S C in exergue.
23.60 gm., 32 mm.
RIC #402.
Callimachus
SevAlex-RIC-599.jpg
66. Severus Alexander Aes.41 viewsAes, 222-223 AD, Rome mint.
Obverse: IMP CAES M AVR SEV ALEXANDER AVG / Laureate bust of Severus Alexander.
Reverse: PROVIDENTIA DEORVM / Providentia standing, leaning on column, legs crossed, holding cornucopiae and wand; globe at her feet.
11.44 gm., 28 mm.
RIC #599; Sear #8098.

The reverse of this coins shows evidence of clashed dies and a partial double strike.
The coin is considerably darker than this photo.
Callimachus
SevAlex-RIC-601.jpg
67. Severus Alexander dupondius.25 viewsDupondius, 228 AD, Rome mint.
Obverse: IMP SEV ALEXANDER AVG / Radiate bust of Severus Alexander.
Reverse: RESTITVTOR MON / Severus Alexander standing, holding spear. S C in fields.
9.78 gm., 25 mm.
RIC #601; Sear #8052.

This very coin is pictured on page 662 of Roman Coins and Their Values II by David Sear.
1 commentsCallimachus
SevAlex-AE20-Nicaea.jpg
67. Severus Alexander.14 viewsAE 20, Nicaea, Bythinia.
Obverse: M AVP CEV AΛEΞANΔPOC A / Laureate bust of Severus Alexander.
Reverse: NIKAIΩN / Three standards.
4.27 gm., 20 mm
Callimachus
SevAlex-RIC-642.jpg
68. Severus Alexander sestrtius.30 viewsSestertius, ca 232 AD, Rome mint.
Obverse: IMP ALEXANDER PIVS AVG / Laureate bust of Severus Alexander.
Reverse: PROVIDENTIA AVG / Providentia standing, holding two corn-ears and cornucopiae. Modius at left, SC either side of her.
15.83 gm., 27 mm.
RIC #642.
1 commentsCallimachus
SevAlex-AE25-Marcian.jpg
69. Severus Alexander.20 viewsAE 25, Marcianopolis, Moesia.
Obverse: AVT K M AVPH CEVH AΛEΞANΔPOC / Laureate bust of Severus Alexander.
Reverse: VΠ TIB IOVΛ ΦHCTVO MAPKIANOΠOΛITΩN / Eagle holding wreath in its beak.
9.47 gm., 25 mm.

This coin was minted when Tiberius Julius Festus was Legate.
Callimachus
1__severus_alexander_.jpg
7. SEVERUS ALEXANDER, 13 March 222 - March 235 AD15 viewsAR Denarius. Mint: Rome, Date: 231 AD.
Ref: RIC IV 235,
Obv: IMP ALEXANDER PIVS AVG, laureate, draped & cuirassed bust right.
Rev: IOVI PROPVGNATORI, Jupiter standing front, head right,nude but for cape flowing out to right, preparing to hurl thunderbolt.
Size: 2.4gm; 18mm
1 commentsbrian l
J-Mamaea-RIC-335.jpg
70. J. Mamaea denarius.11 viewsDenarius, ca 228 AD, Rome mint.
Obverse: IVLIA MAMAEA AVG / Diademed bust of Julia Mamaea.
Reverse: FELICITAS PVBLICA / Felicitas standing, legs crossed, holding caduceus and leaning arm on column.
3.01 gm., 20 mm.
RIC #335; Sear #8209.
Callimachus
SevAlex-AE26-Marcian.jpg
70. Severus Alexander.15 viewsAE 26, Marcianopolis, Moesia
Obverse: AVT K M AVP CEVH . AΛEZANΔPOC / Laureate bust of Severus Alexander.
Reverse: HΓ OVM TEPEBENTINOV MAPKIANOΠOLITΩN / Hera (Juno) standing, holding patera and sceptre.
10.71 gm., 26 mm.

This coin was minted when Um. Terventinus was Governor.
Callimachus
CaligulaSmyrnaRPC2473.jpg
704a, Caligula, 16 March 37 - 24 January 41 A.D.100 viewsCaligula, 37 - 41 AD, Ionia, Smyrna. AE 17mm. Klose, Smyrna 27a. RPC 2473. 2.89 gm. Fine. Menophanes, Aviola, Procos, 37-38 AD. Obverse: AION, laureate head right; Reverse: Nike holding wreath right. Ex Tom Vossen.


De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

GAIUS (CALIGULA) (A.D. 37-41)

Garrett G. Fagan
Pennsylvania State University

Gaius Caesar Augustus Germanicus (Caligula) was born on 31 August, A.D. 12, probably at the Julio-Claudian resort of Antium (modern Anzio), the third of six children born to Augustus's adopted grandson, Germanicus, and Augustus's granddaughter, Agrippina. Caligula was the Roman Emperor between A.D. 37-41). Unfortunately, his is the most poorly documented reign of the Julio-Claudian dynasty. The literary sources for these four years are meager, frequently anecdotal, and universally hostile.[[1]] As a result, not only are many of the events of the reign unclear, but Gaius himself appears more as a caricature than a real person, a crazed megalomaniac given to capricious cruelty. Although some headway can be made in disentangling truth from embellishment, the true character of the youthful emperor will forever elude us.

As a baby he accompanied his parents on military campaigns in the north and was shown to the troops wearing a miniature soldier's outfit, including the hob-nailed sandal called caliga, whence the nickname by which posterity remembers him. His childhood was not a happy one, spent amid an atmosphere of paranoia, suspicion, and murder. Instability within the Julio-Claudian house, generated by uncertainty over the succession, led to a series of personal tragedies.

When Tiberius died on 16 March A.D. 37, Gaius was in a perfect position to assume power, despite the obstacle of Tiberius's will, which named him and his cousin Tiberius Gemellus joint heirs. (Gemellus's life was shortened considerably by this bequest, since Gaius ordered him killed within a matter of months.) Backed by the Praetorian Prefect Q. Sutorius Macro, Gaius asserted his dominance. He had Tiberius's will declared null and void on grounds of insanity, accepted the powers of the Principate as conferred by the Senate, and entered Rome on 28 March amid scenes of wild rejoicing. His first acts were generous in spirit: he paid Tiberius's bequests and gave a cash bonus to the Praetorian Guard, the first recorded donativum to troops in imperial history.

The ancient sources are practically unanimous as to the cause of Gaius's downfall: he was insane. The writers differ as to how this condition came about, but all agree that after his good start Gaius began to behave in an openly autocratic manner, even a crazed one. The sources describe his incestuous relations with his sisters, laughable military campaigns in the north, the building of a pontoon bridge across the Bay at Baiae, and the plan to make his horse a consul. Their unanimous hostility renders their testimony suspect, especially since Gaius's reported behavior fits remarkably well with that of the ancient tyrant, a literary type enshrined in Greco-Roman tradition centuries before his reign. Further, the only eye-witness account of Gaius's behavior, Philo's Embassy to Gaius, offers little evidence of outright insanity, despite the antagonism of the author, whom Gaius treated with the utmost disrespect.

The conspiracy that ended Gaius's life was hatched among the officers of the Praetorian Guard, apparently for purely personal reasons. It appears also to have had the support of some senators and an imperial freedman. As with conspiracies in general, there are suspicions that the plot was more broad-based than the sources intimate, and it may even have enjoyed the support of the next emperor Claudius, but these propositions are not provable on available evidence. On 24 January A.D. 41 the praetorian tribune Cassius Chaerea and other guardsmen caught Gaius alone in a secluded palace corridor and cut him down. He was 28 years old and had ruled three years and ten months.

Whatever damage Tiberius's later years had done to the carefully crafted political edifice created by Augustus, Gaius multiplied it a hundredfold. When he came to power in A.D. 37 Gaius had no administrative experience beyond his honorary quaestorship, and had spent an unhappy early life far from the public eye. He appears, once in power, to have realized the boundless scope of his authority and acted accordingly. For the elite, this situation proved intolerable and ensured the blackening of Caligula's name in the historical record they would dictate. The sensational and hostile nature of that record, however, should in no way trivialize Gaius's importance. His reign highlighted an inherent weakness in the Augustan Principate, now openly revealed for what it was -- a raw monarchy in which only the self-discipline of the incumbent acted as a restraint on his behavior. That the only means of retiring the wayward princes was murder marked another important revelation: Roman emperors could not relinquish their powers without simultaneously relinquishing their lives.

Copyright © 1997, Garrett G. Fagan.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Ancient Smyrna

The 5,000 year-old city of Izmir is one of the oldest cities of the Mediterranean basin. The original city was established in the third millennium BC (at present day Bayraklı), at which time it shared with Troy the most advanced culture in Anatolia.


Greek settlement is attested by the presence of pottery dating from about 1000 BC. In the first millennium BC Izmir, then known as Smyrna, ranked as one of the most important cities of the Ionian Federation. During this period, it is believed that the epic poet Homer resided here.

Lydian conquest of the city around 600 BC brought this golden age to an end. Smyrna was little more than a village throughout the Lydian and subsequent sixth century BC Persian rule. In the fourth century BC a new city was built on the slopes of Mt. Pagos (Kadifekale) during the reign of Alexander the Great. Smyrna's Roman period, beginning in the first century BC, was its second great era.

In the first century AD, Smyrna became one of the earliest centers of Christianity and it was one of the Seven Churches of Revelation. Both Revelation and the Martyrdom of Polycarp indicate the existence of a Jewish community in Smyrna as early as the 1st and 2nd centuries AD. The letter to the church at Smyrna in Revelation indicates that the Christians were spiritually "rich" and apparently in conflict with the Jews (2:9).

The origins of the Christian community there, which was established in the 1st century, are unknown. Ignatius of Antioch stopped at Smyrna on his way to martyrdom in Rome in 107 AD, and he sent a letter back to the Christians there from later in his journey. Smyrna's bishop, Polycarp, was burned at the stake in Smyrna's stadium around 156 AD.

Byzantine rule came in the fourth century and lasted until the Seljuk conquest in 11th century. In 1415, under Sultan Mehmed Çelebi, Smyrna became part of the Ottoman Empire.

The city earned its fame as one of the most important port cities of the world during the 17th to 19th centuries. The majority of its population were Greek but merchants of various origins (especially Greek, French, Italian, Dutch, Armenian, Sephardi and Jewish) transformed the city into a cosmopolitan portal of trade. During this period, the city was famous for its own brand of music (Smyrneika) as well as its wide range of products it exported to Europe (Smyrna/Sultana raisins, dried figs, carpets, etc.).

Today, Izmir is Turkey's third largest city and is nicknamed "the pearl of Aegean." It is widely regarded as the most Westernized city of Turkey in terms of values, ideology, gender roles, and lifestyle.
© 2005-08 Sacred Destinations. All rights reserved.
http://www.sacred-destinations.com/turkey/izmir-history.htm

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
VitelliusARdenariusVesta.jpg
709a, Vitellius, 2 January - 20 December 69 A.D.42 viewsVITELLIUS AR silver denarius. RSC 72, RCV 2200. 19mm, 3.2 g. Obverse: A VITELLIVS GERM IMP AVG TR P, laureate head right; Reverse - PONT MAXIM, Vesta seated right, holding scepter and patera. Quite decent. Ex. Incitatus Coins. Photo courtesy of Incitatus Coins.

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Vitellius (69 A.D.)

John F. Donahue
College of William and Mary


It is often difficult to separate fact from fiction in assessing the life and reign of Vitellius. Maligned in the ancient sources as gluttonous and cruel, he was also a victim of a hostile biographical tradition established in the regime of the Flavians who had overthrown him. Nevertheless, his decision to march against Rome in 69 was pivotal, since his subsequent defeat signalled the end of military anarchy and the beginning of an extended period of political stability under Vespasian and his successors.

Early Life and Career

Aulus Vitellius was born in September, 15 AD, the son of Lucius Vitellius and his wife Sestilia. One of the most successful public figures of the Julio-Claudian period, Lucius Vitellius was a three-time consul and a fellow censor with the emperor Claudius. Aulus seems to have moved with equal ease in aristocratic circles, successively winning the attention of the emperors Gaius, Claudius, and Nero through flattery and political skill.

Among his attested public offices, Vitellius was a curator of public works, a senatorial post concerned with the maintenance and repair of public buildings in Rome, and he was also proconsul of North Africa, where he served as a deputy to his brother, perhaps about 55 A. D. In addition, he held at least two priesthoods, the first as a member of the Arval Brethren, in whose rituals he participated from 57 A.D., and the second, as one of the quindecemviri sacris faciundis, a sacred college famous for its feasts.

With respect to marriage and family, Vitellius first wed a certain Petroniana, the daughter of a consul, sometime in the early to mid thirties A.D. The union produced a son, Petronianus, allegedly blind in one eye and emancipated from his father's control as a result of being named his mother's heir. Tradition records that Vitellius killed the boy shortly after emancipation amid charges of parricide; the marriage soon ended in divorce. A second marriage, to Galeria Fundana, daughter of an ex-praetor, was more stable than the first. It produced another son, who was eventually killed by the Flavians after the overthrow of Vitellius, as well as a daughter. Galeria is praised by Tacitus for her good qualities, and in the end it was she who saw to Vitellius' burial.

Rise to Power and Emperorship

Without doubt, the most fortuitous moment in Vitellius' political career was his appointment as governor of Lower Germany by the emperor Galba late in 68. The decision seemed to have caught everybody by surprise, including Vitellius himself, who, according to Suetonius, was in straitened circumstances at the time. The choice may have been made to reduce the possibility of rebellion by the Rhine armies, disaffected by Galba's refusal to reward them for their part in suppressing the earlier uprising of Julius Vindex. Ironically, it was Vitellius' lack of military achievement and his reputation for gambling and gluttony that may have also figured in his selection. Galba perhaps calculated that a man with little military experience who could now plunder a province to satisfy his own stomach would never become disloyal. If so, it was a critical misjudgement by the emperor.

The rebellion began on January 1, 69 ("The Year of the Four Emperors"), when the legions of Upper Germany refused to renew their oath of allegiance to Galba. On January 2, Vitellius' own men, having heard of the previous day's events, saluted him as emperor at the instigation of the legionary legate Fabius Valens and his colleagues. Soon, in addition to the seven legions that Vitellius now had at his command in both Germanies, the forces in Gaul, Britain, and Raetia also came over to his side. Perhaps aware of his military inexperience, Vitellius did not immediately march on Rome himself. Instead, the advance was led by Valens and another legionary general, Aulus Caecina Alienus, with each man commanding a separate column. Vitellius would remain behind to mobilize a reserve force and follow later.

Caecina was already one hundred fifty miles on his way when news reached him that Galba had been overthrown and Otho had taken his place as emperor. Undeterred, he passed rapidly down the eastern borders of Gaul; Valens followed a more westerly route, quelling a mutiny along the way. By March both armies had successfully crossed the Alps and joined at Cremona, just north of the Po. Here they launced their Batavian auxiliaries against Otho's troops and routed them in the First Battle of Bedriacum. Otho killed himself on April 16, and three days later the soldiers in Rome swore their allegience to Vitellius. The senate too hailed him as emperor.

When Vitellius learned of these developments, he set out to Rome from Gaul. By all accounts the journey was a drunken feast marked by the lack of discipline of both the troops and the imperial entourage. Along the way he stopped at Lugdunum to present his six-year-old son Germanicus to the legions as his eventual successor. Later, at Cremona, Vitellius witnessed the corpse-filled battlefield of Otho's recent defeat with joy, unmoved by so many citizens denied a proper burial.

The emperor entered Rome in late June-early July. Conscious of making a break with the Julio-Claudian past, Vitellius was reluctant to assume the traditional titles of the princes, even though he enthusiastically made offerings to Nero and declared himself consul for life. To his credit, Vitellius did seem to show a measure of moderation in the transition to the principate. He assumed his powers gradually and was generally lenient to Otho's supporters, even pardoning Otho's brother Salvius Titianus, who had played a key role in the earlier regime. In addition, he participated in Senate meetings and continued the practice of providing entertainments for the Roman masses. An important practical change involved the awarding of posts customarily held by freedmen to equites, an indication of the growth of the imperial bureaucracy and its attractiveness to men of ambition.

In other matters, he replaced the existing praetorian guard and urban cohorts with sixteen praetorian cohorts and four urban units, all comprised of soldiers from the German armies. According to Tacitus, the decision prompted a mad scramble, with the men, and not their officers, choosing the branch of service that they preferred. The situation was clearly unsatisfactory but not surprising, given that Vitellius was a creation of his own troops. To secure his position further, he sent back to their old postings the legions that had fought for Otho, or he reassigned them to distant provinces. Yet discontent remained: the troops who had been defeated or betrayed at Bedriacum remained bitter, and detachments of three Moesian legions called upon by Otho were returned to their bases, having agitated against Vitellius at Aquileia.

Flavian Revolt

The Vitellian era at Rome was short-lived. By mid-July news had arrived that the legions of Egypt under Tiberius Julius Alexander had sworn allegiance to a rival emperor, Titus Flavius Vespasianus, the governor of Judaea and a successful and popular general. Vespasian was to hold Egypt while his colleague Mucianus, governor of Syria, was to invade Italy. Before the plan could be enacted, however, the Danube legions, former supporters of Otho, joined Vespasian's cause. Under the leadership of Antonius Primus, commander of the Sixth legion in Pannonia, and Cornelius Fuscus, imperial procurator in Illyricum, the legions made a rapid descent on Italy.

Although his forces were only half of what Vitellius commanded in Italy, Primus struck first before the emperor could muster additional reinforcements from Germany. To make matters worse for the Vitellians, Valens was ill, and Caecina, now consul, had begun collaborating with the Flavians. His troops refused to follow his lead, however, and arrested him at Hostilia near Cremona. They then joined the rest of the Vitellian forces trying to hold the Po River. With Vitellius still in Rome and his forces virtually leaderless, the two sides met in October in the Second Battle of Bedriacum. The emperor's troops were soundly defeated and Cremona was brutally sacked by the victors. In addition, Valens, whose health had recovered, was captured while raising an army for Vitellius in Gaul and Germany; he was eventually executed.

Meanwhile, Primus continued towards Rome. Vitellius made a weak attempt to thwart the advance at the Apennine passes, but his forces switched to the Flavian side without a fight at Narnia in mid-December. At Rome, matters were no better. Vespasian's elder brother, Titus Flavius Sabinus, the city prefect, was successful in an effort to convince Vitellius to abdicate but was frustrated by the mob in Rome and the emperor's soldiers. Forced to flee to the Capitol, Sabinus was set upon by Vitellius' German troops and soon killed, with the venerable Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus set ablaze in the process. Within two days, the Flavian army fought its way into Rome. In a pathetic final move, Vitellius disguised himself in dirty clothing and hid in the imperial doorkeeper's quarters, leaning a couch and a mattress against the door for protection. Dragged from his hiding place by the Flavian forces, he was hauled off half-naked to the Forum, where he was tortured, killed, and tossed into the Tiber. The principate could now pass to Vespasian.

Assessment

Vitellius has not escaped the hostility of his biographers. While he may well have been gluttonous, his depiction as indolent, cruel, and extravagant is based almost entirely on the propaganda of his enemies. On the other hand, whatever moderating tendencies he did show were overshadowed by his clear lack of military expertise, a deficiency that forced him to rely in critical situations on largely inneffective lieutenants. As a result he was no match for his Flavian successors, and his humiliating demise was perfectly in keeping with the overall failure of his reign.

Copyright (C) 1999, John Donahue.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
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J-Mamaea-RIC-694.jpg
71. J. Mamaea sestertius.19 viewsSestertius, ca 224 AD, Rome mint.
Obverse: IVLIA MAMAEA AVGVSTA / Diademed bust of Julia Mamaea.
Reverse: VENERI FELICI / Venus standing, holding sceptre and Cupid. SC in field on either side.
22.83 gm., 34 mm.
RIC #694; S. # 8232.
Callimachus
VespasianPax_RICii10.jpg
710a, Vespasian, 1 July 69 - 24 June 79 A.D.133 viewsSilver denarius, RIC II, 10, aVF, 3.5 g, 18mm, Rome mint, 69-71 AD; Obverse: IMP CAESA[R] VESPASIANV[S AV]G - Laureate head right; Reverse: COS ITER [T]R POT - Pax seated left holding branch and caduceus. Ex Imperial Coins.


De Imperatoribus Romanis:
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Titus Flavius Vespasianus (A.D. 69-79)

John Donahue
College of William and Mary

Introduction

Titus Flavius Vespasianus (b. A.D. 9, d. A.D. 79, emperor A.D. 69-79) restored peace and stability to an empire in disarray following the death of Nero in A.D. 68. In the process he established the Flavian dynasty as the legitimate successor to the Imperial throne. Although we lack many details about the events and chronology of his reign, Vespasian provided practical leadership and a return to stable government - accomplishments which, when combined with his other achievements, make his emperorship particularly notable within the history of the Principate.

Early Life and Career

Vespasian was born at Falacrina near Sabine Reate on 17 November, A.D. 9, the son of T. Flavius Sabinus, a successful tax collector and banker, and Vespasia Polla. Both parents were of equestrian status. Few details of his first fifteen years survive, yet it appears that his father and mother were often away from home on business for long periods. As a result, Vespasian's early education became the responsibility of his paternal grandmother, Tertulla. [[1]] In about A.D. 25 Vespasian assumed the toga virilis and later accepted the wearing of the latus clavus, and with it the senatorial path that his older brother, T. Flavius Sabinus, had already chosen. [[2]] Although many of the particulars are lacking, the posts typically occupied by one intent upon a senatorial career soon followed: a military tribunate in Thrace, perhaps for three or four years; a quaestorship in Crete-Cyrene; and the offices of aedile and praetor, successively, under the emperor Gaius. [[3]]

It was during this period that Vespasian married Flavia Domitilla. Daughter of a treasury clerk and former mistress of an African knight, Flavia lacked the social standing and family connections that the politically ambitious usually sought through marriage. In any case, the couple produced three children, a daughter, also named Flavia Domitilla, and two sons, the future emperors Titus and Domitian . Flavia did not live to witness her husband's emperorship and after her death Vespasian returned to his former mistress Caenis, who had been secretary to Antonia (daughter of Marc Antony and mother of Claudius). Caenis apparently exerted considerable influence over Vespasian, prompting Suetonius to assert that she remained his wife in all but name, even after he became emperor. [[4]]

Following the assassination of Gaius on 24 January, A.D. 41, Vespasian advanced rapidly, thanks in large part to the new princeps Claudius, whose favor the Flavians had wisely secured with that of Antonia, the mother of Germanicus, and of Claudius' freedmen, especially Narcissus. [[5]] The emperor soon dispatched Vespasian to Argentoratum (Strasbourg) as legatus legionis II Augustae, apparently to prepare the legion for the invasion of Britain. Vespasian first appeared at the battle of Medway in A.D. 43, and soon thereafter led his legion across the south of England, where he engaged the enemy thirty times in battle, subdued two tribes, and conquered the Isle of Wight. According to Suetonius, these operations were conducted partly under Claudius and partly under Vespasian's commander, Aulus Plautius. Vespasian's contributions, however, did not go unnoticed; he received the ornamenta triumphalia and two priesthoods from Claudius for his exploits in Britain. [[6]]

By the end of A.D. 51 Vespasian had reached the consulship, the pinnacle of a political career at Rome. For reasons that remain obscure he withdrew from political life at this point, only to return when chosen proconsul of Africa about A.D. 63-64. His subsequent administration of the province was marked by severity and parsimony, earning him a reputation for being scrupulous but unpopular. [[7]] Upon completion of his term, Vespasian returned to Rome where, as a senior senator, he became a man of influence in the emperor Nero's court. [[8]] Important enough to be included on Nero's tour of Greece in A.D. 66-67, Vespasian soon found himself in the vicinity of increasing political turbulence in the East. The situation would prove pivotal in advancing his career.

Judaea and the Accession to Power

In response to rioting in Caesarea and Jerusalem that had led to the slaughter in the latter city of Jewish leaders and Roman soldiers, Nero granted to Vespasian in A.D. 66 a special command in the East with the objective of settling the revolt in Judaea. By spring A.D. 67, with 60,000 legionaries, auxiliaries, and allies under his control, Vespasian set out to subdue Galilee and then to cut off Jerusalem. Success was quick and decisive. By October all of Galilee had been pacified and plans for the strategic encirclement of Jerusalem were soon formed. [[9]] Meanwhile, at the other end of the empire, the revolts of Gaius Iulius Vindex, governor of Gallia Lugdunensis, and Servius Sulpicius Galba , governor of Hispania Tarraconensis, had brought Nero's reign to the brink of collapse. The emperor committed suicide in June, A.D. 68, thereby ensuring chaos for the next eighteen months, as first Galba and then Marcus Salvius Otho and Aulus Vitellius acceded to power. Each lacked broad-based military and senatorial support; each would be violently deposed in turn. [[10]]

Still occupied with plans against Jerusalem, Vespasian swore allegiance to each emperor. Shortly after Vitellius assumed power in spring, A.D. 69, however, Vespasian met on the border of Judaea and Syria with Gaius Licinius Mucianus, governor of Syria, and after a series of private and public consultations, the two decided to revolt. [[11]] On July 1, at the urging of Tiberius Alexander, prefect of Egypt, the legions of Alexandria declared for Vespasian, as did the legions of Judaea two days later. By August all of Syria and the Danube legions had done likewise. Vespasian next dispatched Mucianus to Italy with 20,000 troops, while he set out from Syria to Alexandria in order to control grain shipments for the purpose of starving Italy into submission. [[12]] The siege of Jerusalem he placed in the hands of his son Titus.

Meanwhile, the Danubian legions, unwilling to wait for Mucianus' arrival, began their march against Vitellius ' forces. The latter army, suffering from a lack of discipline and training, and unaccustomed to the heat of Rome, was defeated at Cremona in late October. [[13]] By mid-December the Flavian forces had reached Carsulae, 95 kilometers north of Rome on the Flaminian Road, where the Vitellians, with no further hope of reinforcements, soon surrendered. At Rome, unable to persuade his followers to accept terms for his abdication, Vitellius was in peril. On the morning of December 20 the Flavian army entered Rome. By that afternoon, the emperor was dead. [[14]]

Tacitus records that by December 22, A.D. 69, Vespasian had been given all the honors and privileges usually granted to emperors. Even so, the issue remains unclear, owing largely to a surviving fragment of an enabling law, the lex de imperio Vespasiani, which conferred powers, privileges, and exemptions, most with Julio-Claudian precedents, on the new emperor. Whether the fragment represents a typical granting of imperial powers that has uniquely survived in Vespasian's case, or is an attempt to limit or expand such powers, remains difficult to know. In any case, the lex sanctioned all that Vespasian had done up to its passing and gave him authority to act as he saw fit on behalf of the Roman people. [[15]]

What does seem clear is that Vespasian felt the need to legitimize his new reign with vigor. He zealously publicized the number of divine omens that predicted his accession and at every opportunity he accumulated multiple consulships and imperial salutations. He also actively promoted the principle of dynastic succession, insisting that the emperorship would fall to his son. The initiative was fulfilled when Titus succeeded his father in A.D. 79.[[16]]

Emperorship

Upon his arrival in Rome in late summer, A.D. 70, Vespasian faced the daunting task of restoring a city and a government ravaged by the recent civil wars. Although many particulars are missing, a portrait nevertheles emerges of a ruler conscientiously committed to the methodical renewal of both city and empire. Concerning Rome itself, the emperor encouraged rebuilding on vacated lots, restored the Capitol (burned in A.D. 69), and also began work on several new buildings: a temple to the deified Claudius on the Caelian Hill, a project designed to identify Vespasian as a legitimate heir to the Julio-Claudians, while distancing himself from Nero ; a temple of Peace near the Forum; and the magnificent Colosseum (Flavian Amphitheatre), located on the site of the lake of Nero 's Golden House. [[17]]

Claiming that he needed forty thousand million sesterces for these projects and for others aimed at putting the state on more secure footing, Vespasian is said to have revoked various imperial immunities, manipulated the supply of certain commodities to inflate their price, and increased provincial taxation. [[18]] The measures are consistent with his characterization in the sources as both obdurate and avaricious. There were occasional political problems as well: Helvidius Priscus, an advocate of senatorial independence and a critic of the Flavian regime from the start, was exiled after A.D. 75 and later executed; Marcellus Eprius and A. Alienus Caecina were condemned by Titus for conspiracy, the former committing suicide, the latter executed in A.D. 79.
As Suetonius claims, however, in financial matters Vespasian always put revenues to the best possible advantage, regardless of their source. Tacitus, too, offers a generally favorable assessment, citing Vespasian as the first man to improve after becoming emperor. [[19]] Thus do we find the princeps offering subventions to senators not possessing the property qualifications of their rank, restoring many cities throughout the empire, and granting state salaries for the first time to teachers of Latin and Greek rhetoric. To enhance Roman economic and social life even further, he encouraged theatrical productions by building a new stage for the Theatre of Marcellus, and he also put on lavish state dinners to assist the food trades. [[20]]

In other matters the emperor displayed similar concern. He restored the depleted ranks of the senatorial and equestrian orders with eligible Italian and provincial candidates and reduced the backlog of pending court cases at Rome. Vespasian also re-established discipline in the army, while punishing or dismissing large numbers of Vitellius ' men. [[21]]
Beyond Rome, the emperor increased the number of legions in the East and continued the process of imperial expansion by the annexation of northern England, the pacification of Wales, and by advances into Scotland and southwest Germany between the Rhine and the Danube. Vespasian also conferred rights on communities abroad, especially in Spain, where the granting of Latin rights to all native communities contributed to the rapid Romanization of that province during the Imperial period. [[22]]

Death and Assessment

In contrast to his immediate imperial predecessors, Vespasian died peacefully - at Aquae Cutiliae near his birthplace in Sabine country on 23 June, A.D. 79, after contracting a brief illness. The occasion is said to have inspired his deathbed quip: "Oh my, I must be turning into a god!" [[23]] In fact, public deification did follow his death, as did his internment in the Mausoleum of Augustus alongside the Julio-Claudians.

A man of strict military discipline and simple tastes, Vespasian proved to be a conscientious and generally tolerant administrator. More importantly, following the upheavals of A.D. 68-69, his reign was welcome for its general tranquility and restoration of peace. In Vespasian Rome found a leader who made no great breaks with tradition, yet his ability ro rebuild the empire and especially his willingness to expand the composition of the governing class helped to establish a positive working model for the "good emperors" of the second century.

Bibliography

Since the scholarship on Vespasian is more comprehensive than can be treated here, the works listed below are main accounts or bear directly upon issues discussed in the entry above. A comprehensive modern anglophone study of this emperor is yet to be produced.

Atti congresso internazionale di studi Flaviani, 2 vols. Rieti, 1983.

Atti congresso internazionale di studi Vespasianei, 2 vols. Rieti, 1981.

Bosworth, A.B. "Vespasian and the Provinces: Some Problems of the Early 70s A.D." Athenaeum 51 (1973): 49-78.

Brunt, P. A. "Lex de imperio Vespasiani." JRS (67) 1977: 95-116.

D'Espèrey, S. Franchet. "Vespasien, Titus et la littérature." ANRW II.32.5: 3048-3086.

Dudley, D. and Webster, G. The Roman Conquest of Britain. London, 1965.

Gonzalez, J. "The Lex Irnitana: A New Copy of the Flavian Municipal Law." JRS 76 (1986): 147-243.

Grant, M. The Roman Emperors: A Biographical Guide to the Rulers of Rome, 31 B.C. - A.D. 476. New York, 1985.

Homo, L. Vespasien, l'Empereur du bons sens (69-79 ap. J.-C.). Paris, 1949.

Levi, M.A. "I Flavi." ANRW II.2: 177-207.

McCrum, M. and Woodhead, A. G. Select Documents of the Principates of the Flavian Emperors Including the Year of the Revolution. Cambridge, 1966.

Nicols, John. Vespasian and the Partes Flavianae. Wiesbaden, 1978.

Scarre, C. Chronicle of the Roman Emperors. The Reign-by-Reign Record of the Rulers of Imperial Rome. London, 1995.

Suddington, D. B. The Development of the Roman Auxiliary Forces from Caesar to Vespasian, 49 B.C. - A.D. 79. Harare: U. of Zimbabwe, 1982.

Syme, R. Tacitus. Oxford, 1958.

Wardel, David. "Vespasian, Helvidius Priscus and the Restoration of the Capitol." Historia 45 (1996): 208-222.

Wellesley, K. The Long Year: A.D. 69. Bristol, 1989, 2nd ed.


Notes

[[1]] Suet. Vesp. 2.1. Suetonius remains the major source but see also Tac. Hist. 2-5; Cass. Dio 65; Joseph. BJ 3-4.

[[2]] Suetonius (Vesp. 2.1) claims that Vespasian did not accept the latus clavus, the broad striped toga worn by one aspiring to a senatorial career, immediately. The delay, however, was perhaps no more than three years. See J. Nicols, Vespasian and the Partes Flavianae (Wiesbaden, 1978), 2.

[[3]] Military tribunate and quaestorship: Suet. Vesp. 2.3; aedileship: ibid., 5.3, in which Gaius, furious that Vespasian had not kept the streets clean, as was his duty, ordered some soldiers to load him with filth;,they complied by stuffing his toga with as much as it could hold. See also Dio 59.12.2-3; praetorship: Suet. Vesp. 2.3, in which Vespasian is depicted as one of Gaius' leading adulators, an account consistent with Tacitus' portrayal (Hist 1.50.4; 2.5.1) of his early career. For a more complete discussion of these posts and attendant problems of dating, see Nicols, Vespasian, 2-7.

[[4]] Marriage and Caenis: Suet. Vesp. 3; Cass. Dio 65.14.

[[5]] Nicols, Vespasian, 12-39.

[[6]] Suet. Vesp. 4.1 For additional details on Vespasian's exploits in Britain, see D. Dudley and G. Webster, The Roman Conquest of Britain (London, 1965), 55 ff., 98.

[[7]] Concerning Vespasian's years between his consulship and proconsulship, see Suet. Vesp. 4.2 and Nicols, Vespasian, 9. On his unpopularity in Africa, see Suet. Vesp. 4.3, an account of a riot at Hadrumentum, where he was once pelted with turnips. In recording that Africa supported Vitellius in A.D. 69, Tacitus too suggests popular dissatisfaction with Vespasian's proconsulship. See Hist. 2.97.2.

[[8]] This despite the fact that the sources record two rebukes of Vespasian, one for extorting money from a young man seeking career advancement (Suet. Vesp. 4.3), the other for either leaving the room or dozing off during one of the emperor's recitals (Suet. Vesp. 4.4 and 14, which places the transgression in Greece; Tac. (Ann. 16.5.3), who makes Rome and the Quinquennial Games of A.D. 65 the setting; A. Braithwaite, C. Suetoni Tranquilli Divus Vespasianus, Oxford, 1927, 30, who argues for both Greece and Rome).

[[9]] Subjugation of Galilee: Joseph. BJ 3.65-4.106; siege of Jerusalem: ibid., 4.366-376, 414.

[[10]] Revolt of Vindex: Suet. Nero 40; Tac. Ann. 14.4; revolt of Galba: Suet. Galba 10; Plut. Galba, 4-5; suicide of Nero: Suet. Nero 49; Cass. Dio 63.29.2. For the most complete account of the period between Nero's death and the accession of Vespasian, see K. Wellesley, The Long Year: A.D. 69, 2nd. ed. (Bristol, 1989).

[[11]] Tac. Hist. 2.76.

[[12]] Troops in support of Vespasian: Suet. Vit. 15; Mucianus and his forces: Tac. Hist. 2.83; Vespasian and grain shipments: Joseph. BJ 4.605 ff.; see also Tac. Hist. 3.48, on Vespasian's possible plan to shut off grain shipments to Italy from Carthage as well.

[[13]] On Vitellius' army and its lack of discipline, see Tac. Hist. 2.93-94; illness of army: ibid., 2.99.1; Cremona: ibid., 3.32-33.

[[14]] On Vitellius' last days, see Tac. Hist. 3.68-81. On the complicated issue of Vitellius' death date, see L. Holzapfel, "Römische Kaiserdaten," Klio 13 (1913): 301.

[[15]] Honors, etc. Tac. Hist. 4.3. For more on the lex de imperio Vespasiani, see P. A. Brunt, "Lex de imperio Vespasiani," JRS (67) 1977: 95-116.

[[16]] Omens: Suet. Vesp. 5; consulships and honors: ibid., 8; succession of sons: ibid., 25.

[[17]] On Vespasian's restoration of Rome, see Suet. Vesp. 9; Cass. Dio 65.10; D. Wardel, "Vespasian, Helvidius Priscus and the Restoration of the Capitol," Historia 45 (1996): 208-222.

[[18]] Suet. Vesp. 16.

[[19]] Ibid.; Tac. Hist. 1.50.

[[20]] Suet. Vesp. 17-19.

[[21]] Ibid., 8-10.

[[22]] On Vespasian's exploits in Britain, see esp. Tac., Agricola, eds. R. M. Ogilvie and I. A. Richmond (1967), and W. S. Hanson, Agricola and the Conquest of the North (1987); on the granting of Latin rights in Spain, see, e.g., J. Gonzalez, "The Lex Irnitana: a New Copy of the Flavian Municipal Law." JRS 76 (1986): 147-243.

[[23]] For this witticism and other anecdotes concerning Vespasian's sense of humor, see Suet. Vesp. 23.

Copyright (C) 1998, John Donahue. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis, an Online Encyplopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families.
http://www.roman-emperors.org/vespasia.htm
Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.





Cleisthenes
Orbiana-RIC-319.jpg
75. Orbiana denarius.67 viewsDenarius, ca 225 AD, Rome mint.
Obverse: SALL BARBIA ORBIANA AVG / Diademed bust of Orbiana.
Reverse: CONCORDIA AVGG / Concordia seated, holding patera and double cornucopiae.
4.10 gm., 18.5 mm.
RIC #319; Sear #8191.
2 commentsCallimachus
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76. Orbiana sestertius.17 viewsSestertius, ca 225 AD, Rome mint.
Obverse: SALL BARBIA ORBIANA AVG / Diademed bust of Orbiana.
Reverse: CONCORDIA AVGVSTORVM / Concordia seated, holding patera and double cornucopiae. SC in exergue.
24.79 gm., 33 mm.
RIC #655; Sear #8193.
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77. Severus Alexander brockage.18 viewsDenarius, ca 226-28 AD, Rome mint.
Obverse: IMP C M AVR SEV ALEXAND AVG / Laureate bust of Severus Alexander.
Reverse: Incuse image of the obverse.
2.12 gm., 19 mm.

The style of the bust and lettering indicates this coin is from the mint of Rome. Severus Alexander was first portrayed with a beard in 226. In 228 a new shorter legend was introduced. So this coin can be dated between 226 and 228. What the reverse type was suppose to be can not be determined.
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78. Severus Alexander, deified.17 viewsAntoninianus, 250 - 251 AD, Rome mint.
Obverse: DIVO ALEXANDRO / Radiate bust of Severus Alexander.
Reverse: CONSECRATIO / Eagle.
4.14 gm., 22 mm.
RIC Trajian Decius #97.
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79. Severus Alexander, deified.41 viewsAntoninianus, 250 - 251 AD, Rome mint.
Obverse: DIVO ALEXANDRO / Radiate bust of Severus Alexander.
Reverse: CONSECRATIO / Flaming altar.
3.96 gm., 22 mm.
RIC Trajian Decius #98.
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90. Koinon of Macedonia.24 viewsAE 25, ca mid 3'rd century AD, Beroea.
Obverse: AΛEΞANΔΡOΥ / Head of Alexander as Herakles, wearing lion's skin headdress.
Reverse: KOINON MAKEΔONΩN NEΩ / Horseman galloping right, holding spear, mantle waving behind.
12.72 gm., 25 mm.
Moushmov #7223.

Minted some 550+ years after his death, The portrait of Alexander on this coin was obviously copied from Alexander's own coinage.
Callimachus
Macedonia-AE25-M7206.jpg
91. Koinon of Macedonia.34 viewsAE 25, ca mid 3'rd century AD, Beroea.
Obverse: AΛEΞANΔΡO&Upsilon / Diademed head of Alexander.
Reverse: KOINON MAKEΔONΩN B NE / Soldier standing, holding a spear and a parazonium.
9.66 gm., 25 mm.
Moushmov #7206.

Minted some 550+ years after his death, The portrait of Alexander on this coin was likely copied from a coin of Lysimachos.
1 commentsCallimachus
Severus Alexander.jpg
911. Severus Alexander Denarius153 viewsRome Mint, AD 232, 2.88 g, 18.4 mm.
Obv: IMP ALEXANDER PIUS AUG
Rev: IOVI PROPVGNATORI, Jupiter, holding lightning bolt and eagle
2 commentsZam
a20.jpg
9110. Severus Alexander Denarius 222 AD77 viewsSeverus Alexander
AR Denarius
222 AD, Rome Mint

obv. IMP C M AVR SEV ALEXAND AVG
rev. AEQVITAS AVG - Aequitas standing l. holding scales and cornucopiae
Sear 7856
Zam
uk020.JPG
??? Alexander III?53 views18mm almost looks incuse on rev.2 commentsRandygeki(h2)
218.jpg
A in rectangular punch144 viewsSAMARIA. Neapolis. Elagabalus. Æ 22. A.D. 218-222. Obv: AVTKMAVPA-NTWNINOC. Laureade, draped and cuirassed bust right; countermark on neck. Rev: (ΦΛNEACΠOΛCVPΠAΛ). Mt. Gerzim, consisting of two rocky masses; the left surmounted by temple approached by stairway; the right has altar on summit. Ref: BMC 95; Sear GIC 3122. Axis: 30°. Weight: 11.38 g. CM: A in rectangular punch, 2 x 3 mm. Howgego 666 (37 pcs). Note: The "A" may stand for (Severus) Alexander. Collection Automan.Automan
Alexandria_Tray_1_obv.jpg
A) Roman Egypt Portrait Gallery 1: Obverses, Claudius through Sev. Alexander43 views+


CLICK ON IMAGE FOR A MUCH LARGER VIEW


+
Sosius
Alexandria_Tray_2_rev.jpg
A) Roman Egypt Portrait Gallery 1: Reverses, Claudius through Sev. Alexander17 views+


CLICK ON IMAGE FOR A MUCH LARGER VIEW


+
Sosius
Julia_Mamaea_R696_portrait.jpg
AD 225–235 - IVLIA MAMAEA3 viewsJulia Avita Mamaea was a Syrian noble woman and a Roman regent of the Severan dynasty. She was the mother of Roman Emperor Severus Alexander and served as regent of Rome during his reign.

for obverse, reverse and coin details click here
shanxi
Temnos1~0.jpg
Aeolis, Temnos34 viewsAR Tetradrachm (38mm, 16.86g)
c. 188-170 BC
In the name and types of Alexander III of Macedon

O: Head of Herakles right, wearing lion's skin

R: AΛEΞANΔΡOΥ, Zeus Aëtophoros seated left; monograms above knee; oinochoe beneath vine tendril at feet
Salaethus
RI 077w img~0.jpg
Aequitas405 viewsSeverus Alexander Denarius
Obv:– IMP C M AVR SEV ALEXAND AVG, Laureate, draped bust right
Rev:– AEQVITAS AVG, Aequitas standing left with scales & cornucopiae. Star in left field.
Minted in Antioch. A.D. 222
Reference:– RIC 274. RCV02 7856. RSC 11

'Fairness' holds a scales and cornucopia
maridvnvm
Aequitas_Cld.jpg
Aequitas Cld89 viewsObverse: IMPCAESMAVRSEVALEXANDERAVG
Bust laureate right, draped
Reverse: AEQVITASAVG, SC left and right, very low in field
Aequitas draped, standing front, head left holding scales in right hand and cornucopiae in left, fold of drapery over left arm
Cf. BMC 337, obv. SEV - ALEX, not illustrated. RIC 546
Weight 9.65; die axis 12h


1 commentsmix_val
Aequitas_Cld~0.jpg
Aequitas Cld157 viewsObverse: IMPCAESMAVRSEV_ALEXANDERAVG
Bust laureate right, draped
Reverse: AEQVITAS_AVGVSTI, SC left and right, very low in field
Aequitas draped, standing front, head left holding scales in right hand and cornucopiae in left, fold of drapery over left arm
BMC 333-6, RIC 547
Weight, 19.89g; die axis, 12h.
mix_val
Aeqvitas.jpg
Aequitas Cld dup63 viewsObverse: IMPCAESMAVRSEVALEXANDERAVG
Bust laureate right, draped
Reverse: AEQVITASAVGVSTI, SC left and right, very low in field
Aequitas draped, standing front, head left holding scales in right hand and cornucopiae in left, fold of drapery over left arm
BMC 333-6, RIC 547
Weight, 21.03g; die axis, 12h.
1 commentsmix_val
Sest_Aequitas_Cld_red.jpg
Aequitas Cld dup 218 viewsObverse: IMP CAES M AVR SEV ALEXANDER AVG
Bust laureate right, draped
Reverse: AEQVITAS_AVGVSTI, SC left and right, very low in field
Aequitas draped, standing front, head left holding scales in right hand and cornucopiae in left, fold of drapery over left arm
BMC 333-6, RIC 547
Weight, 23.494g; die axis, 12h.
mix_val
Aeqvitas_Cldcf_red.jpg
Aequitas Cldcf92 viewsObverse: IMPCAESMAVRSEVALEXANDERAVG
Bust laureate right, draped and cuirassed, front view
Reverse: AEQVITAS_AVGVSTI, SC left and right, very low in field
Aequitas draped, standing front, head left holding scales in right hand and cornucopiae in left, fold of drapery over left arm
BMC 333-6 (are draped, side view), RIC 547
Weight, 20.92g; die axis, 11h
An unusual portrait variety in a sestertius from year 226 (issue 6) that became the standard portrait for draped and cuirassed portraits from 231 AD (issue 14) on.
1 commentsmix_val
BOTH_ASSELIAS_THIS.jpg
Aesillas Macedonian Tetradrachm c 80 BC7 viewsObv: Head of Alexander the Great with horns of Ammon
behind Θ mint of Thessillonika
MAKEΔONΩN below
Rev: AESILLAS ; below Q (Quaestor)
Left ;Money Chest ; middle, Club of Hercules, ; right, Quaestor's Chair
All surrounded by a wreath
Obs 37 Reverse not in plates
Bauslaugh group VI c 85 BC
29mm 17.02gm
cicerokid
Hendin 472.jpg
Alejandro JANNEO (103 – 76 A.C.)29 viewsAlejandro Janeo (125 adC – 76 adC), rey y sumo sacerdote de los judíos (103 adC – 76 adC), hijo menor de Juan Hircano y hermano de Aristóbulo I, a quien sucedió. Siguiendo la política de Juan Hircano, conquistó y convirtió al judaísmo los territorios vecinos, expandiendo el reino Asmoneo hasta su mayor extensión. Ejerció una tiranía despiadada y su reinado estuvo marcado por intrigas y luchas internas.
(EL ÓBOLO DE LA VIUDA - Evangelio de San Marcos 12:41)

AE Lepton (1/2 prutah?) (Crudo estilo Barbárico y cospel muy irregular) 15 x 10 mm 0.6 gr.

Anv: "BAΣIΛEΩE ALEΞANΔPOY" (Rey Alejandro), Leyenda rodeando un círculo, dentro del cual se encuentra un ancla invertida con dos barras horizontales (Como colgada en un barco dispuesto a zarpar) - "L KE" año 25 del reinado de Janeo.
Rev: Rueda o estrella de 8 rayos rodeada por una diadema de puntos. Leyenda aramea "Rey Alejandro Año 25"

Acuñada: 78 – 76 A.C.
Ceca: Jerusalem

Referencias: Hendin #472 Pag.141 - Sear GCTV Vol.2 #6092 Pag.560 – Meshorer AJC I Grupo Ce – B.M.C. Vol.27 (Palestine) #15 Pag.211
mdelvalle
Hendin 469_1.jpg
Alejandro JANNEO (103 – 76 A.C.)26 viewsAlejandro Janeo (125 adC – 76 adC), rey y sumo sacerdote de los judíos (103 adC – 76 adC), hijo menor de Juan Hircano y hermano de Aristóbulo I, a quien sucedió. Siguiendo la política de Juan Hircano, conquistó y convirtió al judaísmo los territorios vecinos, expandiendo el reino Asmoneo hasta su mayor extensión. Ejerció una tiranía despiadada y su reinado estuvo marcado por intrigas y luchas internas.
(EL ÓBOLO DE LA VIUDA - Evangelio de San Marcos 12:41)

AE Prutah 15 x 16 mm 2.0 gr.

Anv: "BAΣIΛEΩE ALEΞANΔPOY" (Rey Alejandro), Leyenda rodeando un Ancla. A su alrededor gráfila de puntos.
Rev: Rueda o estrella de 8 rayos rodeada por una diadema. Inscripción hebrea entre sus rayos "YEHONATAN el REY".

Acuñada: 95 – 76 A.C.
Ceca: Jerusalem

Referencias: Hendin #469 Pag.141 – Meshorer AJC I, Grupo Ca1 Pl.5 – Sear GCTV Vol.2 #6087 Pag.560 – B.M.C. Vol.27 (Palestine) #61-86 Pag.207-9
mdelvalle
Hendin 469~0.jpg
Alejandro JANNEO (103 – 76 A.C.)29 viewsAlejandro Janeo (125 adC – 76 adC), rey y sumo sacerdote de los judíos (103 adC – 76 adC), hijo menor de Juan Hircano y hermano de Aristóbulo I, a quien sucedió. Siguiendo la política de Juan Hircano, conquistó y convirtió al judaísmo los territorios vecinos, expandiendo el reino Asmoneo hasta su mayor extensión. Ejerció una tiranía despiadada y su reinado estuvo marcado por intrigas y luchas internas.
(EL ÓBOLO DE LA VIUDA - Evangelio de San Marcos 12:41)

AE Prutah 15 mm 2.0 gr.

Anv: "BAΣIΛEΩE ALEΞANΔPOY" (Rey Alejandro), Leyenda rodeando un Ancla. A su alrededor gráfila de puntos.
Rev: Rueda o estrella de 8 rayos rodeada por una diadema. Inscripción hebrea entre sus rayos "YEHONATAN el REY".

Acuñada: 95 – 76 A.C.
Ceca: Jerusalem

Referencias: Hendin #469 Pag.141 – Meshorer AJC I, Grupo Ca1 Pl.5 – Sear GCTV Vol.2 #6087 Pag.560 – B.M.C. Vol.27 (Palestine) #61-86 Pag.207-9
1 commentsmdelvalle
unknown2A.jpg
Alexander the great, Macedonia 336-323 B.C. AE 14mm. 16 viewsAlexander the great, Macedonia 336-323 B.C.

Obv. Head of Apollo right.

Rev. ALEXANDROY, prancing horse right; monogram below.
Lee S
1379_Pherai2.jpg
Alexander (dynast) - Pherai7 viewsAE Chalkous
369-359 BC
forepart of butting bull right
forepart of horse right
AΛEΞAN / ΔPOY
BCD Thessaly II 708.2; HGC 4, 584

ex Naumann
Johny SYSEL
079M.jpg
Alexander (Tyrannus) of Carthage29 viewsAlexander of Carthage. Usurper, AD 308-310.
Æ Follis (21.5mm, 5.26 g, 6h). Carthago (Carthage) mint.
IMP ALEXANDER P F AVG, laureate head right
[S P Q R OPT]IMO PRINCIPI, aquila between two signa, one on left surmounted by hand, one on right surmounted by wreath; PK.
RIC VI 72 (R3); Salama type X, portrait style G. VF, green patina, earthen encrustation. Very rare reverse type.

CNG Coins Triton XXII Auction, Lot 1170.
3 commentsMark Z
IMG_9264.JPG
Alexander Balas10 viewsAlexander Balas, struck SE 166, 147-6 BC. Ascalon Mint. Diademed head r. / Zeus draped from waist, standing, facing, head left, extending right hand above civic initials and holding wreath. Date outer left. SC 1847, Spaer 1556.ecoli
Alexander_I~3.jpg
Alexander I 150 - 145 B.C.5 viewsAlexander I Balas. 152 - 145 B.C. Ae 14.9~15.5mm. 2.87g. Antioch on the Orontes. Obv: Ivy wreathed head of Dionysus r., dotted border. Rev: [BAΣIΛEΩΣ] AΛEΞANΔΡOΥ, elephant l. Primary control (to r.): A over B. SC 1791ddwau
Alexander I Balas.JPG
Alexander I Balas21 viewsAE 18, 150-145BC
Obverse: Head of Alexander right in crested helmet
Reverse: BASILEWS ALEXAND: Nike standing lfet with wreath and palm.
Sear Greek 7040
18mm, 5.5gm
Jerome Holderman
IMG_0040.JPG
Alexander I Balas 4 viewsSELEUKID KINGS of SYRIA. Alexander I Balas. 152-145 BC. Serrate Æ, Uncertain mint, probably in northern Syria. Diademed head right / Zeus Aëtophoros seated left; Seleukid anchor below. SC 1818; HGC 9, 909. Rare.
ecoli
IMG_8259.JPG
Alexander I Balas14 views
SELEUKID EMPIRE. Alexander I Balas. 152-145 BC. Æ Quasi-municipal issue. Apameia on the Axios mint. Dated SE 163 (150/49 BC). Diademed head right / Zeus standing left, holding helmet and scepter; monogram and ΓΞP (date) to left
1 commentsecoli
IMG_9995.JPG
Alexander I Balas 7 views
SELEUKID KINGS of SYRIA. Alexander I Balas. 152-145 BC. Æ (19mm, 6.23 g, 12h). Antioch on the Orontes mint. Head of Alexander I right, wearing lion skin headdress / Apollo standing left, holding arrow and grounded bow SC 1795.2; HGC 9, 901.
ecoli
Alexander_I_Balas~0.jpg
Alexander I Balas 150-145 B.C.10 viewsAlexander I Balas 150-145 BC. Ae 17.1~17.9mm. 6.51g. Obv: Head of Alexander I right, as Alexander the Great, wearing lionskin headdress, dotted border. Rev: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ, Apollo standing left, holding arrow in outstretched right hand, and bow in left.ddwau
1480_Alexander_I_Balas_Tyre_tetradrachm.jpg
Alexander I Balas - AR Tetradrachm11 viewsTyre
148-147 BC
Diademed and draped bust right
Eagle standing left on prow left, with palm branch over shoulder; to left, club surmounted by (TYP) monogram; to right, EΞP (date) above (ΓHP) monogram
AΛEΞANΔPOY BAΣIΛEΩΣ
SC 1835.4c; HGC 9, 883; DCA 122; Newell (1936) 70.
ex Savoca
1 commentsJohny SYSEL
00-balas.jpg
Alexander I Balas - Hoover 90018 viewsAlexander I Balas. AE22 Serrate,
Seleukid kings, Syria. 152-145 BC. Antioch mint.
Diademed head of Alexander right /
BASILEWS ALEXANDROU, Athena standing left,
holding Nike in right hand,
left hand resting on shield set on ground; two monograms before.
xokleng
Alexander_I~0.jpg
Alexander I Balas 150 - 145 B.C. 16 viewsAlexander I Balas 150-145 B.C. Drachm Ar 3.11g. 20mm. Obv: Diademed head of Alexander r. dotted border. Rev: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ ΘΕΟΠΑΤΟΡΟΣ ΕΥΕΡΓΕΤΟΥ Apollo seated on omphalos, holding arrow and bow. Monogram in ex. Houghton 192.ddwau
Alexander_I_Balas~1.jpg
Alexander I Balas 150-145 B.C.16 viewsAlexander I Balas 150-145 BC. (Double struck coin). Ae 19.1~20.6mm. 5.18g. Obv: Head of Alexander I right, as Alexander the Great, wearing lionskin headdress, dotted border. Rev: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ, Apollo standing left, holding arrow in outstretched right hand, and bow in left. Hoover 901; SC 1795 and 1805.ddwau
Alexander.jpg
Alexander I Balas 150-145 B.C.26 viewsAlexander I Balas 150-145 B.C. Ae 17.7 - 18.2mm. Weight 7.31g. Obv: Head of Alexander I r. in crested Boeotian helmet. Rev: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ, Nike standing l. crowning royal name with wreath and holding palm.ddwau
Alexander_I~1.jpg
Alexander I Balas 150-145 B.C.13 viewsAlexander I Balas 150-145 B.C. Ae 18.6~19.4mm. 7.08g. Obv: Head of Alexander I as Alexander the Great r. in crested Macedonian helmet. Rev: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ, Nike standing l. crowning royal name with wreath and holding palm, ear of grain outer l. monogram A/B inner l. Houghton 201, SNG Cop Syria 263, Babelon 851ddwau
Alexander_I.jpg
Alexander I Balas, 150 - 145 B.C.34 viewsAlexander I Balas. 152-145BC. Ae 13.4~13.9mm. 2.39g. Dilepton Tyre mint. Obv: Diademed head r. Rev: BAΣIΛEΩΣ r. / AΛEΞANΔΡOΥ l. Palm tree; across field. SNG Spaer 1539-43; Newell, Tyre 80; CSE 748.ddwau
alex_I_balas.jpg
Alexander I Balas, 152-145 B.C., Drachm, Antioch49 viewsSeleucids, Alexander I Balas, 152-145 B.C., Drachm, Antioch, 3.80g. Obv: Diademed head of Alexander r.; Rev: Nude Apollo seated l. on omphalos, holding arrow in r. hand and resting l. hand on bow; monogram in exergue. SC-1785.1e; SMA-176. EF; obverse o/c, reverse a bit corroded. Ex H.J.BerkPodiceps
83218q00_Seleukid_Kingdom,_Alexander_I_Balas,_150_-_145_B_C__apollo.jpg
Alexander I Balas, Apollo examining arrow; AE 1813 viewsSeleukid Kingdom, Alexander I Balas, 150 - 145 B.C. Bronze AE 18, Houghton and Lorber 1805(1), SNG Spaer 1449, Apamea on the Orontes mint, 4.699g, 18.5mm, 0o, obverse head of Alexander the Great as Herakles right wearing lion scalp headdress; reverse “ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ”, Apollo standing left, examining arrow in right, resting left on grounded bow, palm frond outer left, o“Δ”E monogram right. Ex FORVM, photo credit FORVMPodiceps
38854q00_Seleukid_Kingdom,_Alexander_I_Balas,_150_-_145_B_C__owl.jpg
Alexander I Balas, Owl; AE 1615 viewsSeleukid Kingdom, Alexander I Balas, 150 - 145 B.C. Bronze AE 16, Houghton and Lorber II 1794, SNG Spaer -, Fair, Antioch mint, 3.948g, 16.4mm, obverse diademed head of Alexander right, dot border; reverse “ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ”, owl standing three-quarters right, head facing, uncertain control marks in ex. Ex FORVM, photo credit FORVMPodiceps
Alexander_I_Balas.jpg
Alexander I Theopator Eurgetes, or Balas ("Lord"), Emperor of the Seleukid Empire 150-145 BC.15 viewsAlexander I Balas 150-145 BC. Ae 19.5 - 20.7mm. Weight 7.23g. Obv: Head of Alexander I right, wearing lionskin headdress. Rev: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ, Apollo standing left, holding arrow in outstretched right hand, and bow in left. Trident in left field, ΠΑΡ monogram right. BMC 49; Hoover 901.ddwau
SeleukC_copy.jpg
Alexander I, Balas40 viewsAE 20, aVF, die axis 0o, Antioch mint, obverse head of Alexander the Great as Herakles right wearing Nemean lion scalp headdress; reverse ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΛΕΞΑΝ∆ΡΟΥ, Apollo standing left, arrow in right, resting left on bow, A inner left, trident outer left, monogram in ex. Houghton and Lorber II 1795.3b, SNG Spaer 1459. (Hoover R1-R2)Molinari
SeleukB_copy.jpg
Alexander I, Balas33 viewsAE 20, gF/VF, die axis 0o, Antioch mint, obverse head of Alexander the Great as Herakles right wearing Nemean lion scalp headdress; reverse ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΛΕΞΑΝ∆ΡΟΥ, Apollo standing left, arrow in right, resting left on bow, A inner left, trident outer left, monogram in ex. Houghton and Lorber II 1795.3b, SNG Spaer 1459. (Hoover R1-R2)Molinari
SeleukA_copy.jpg
Alexander I, Balas39 viewsAE 20, aVF/VF, die axis 0o, Antioch mint, obverse head of Alexander the Great as Herakles right wearing Nemean lion scalp headdress; reverse ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΛΕΞΑΝ∆ΡΟΥ, Apollo standing left, arrow in right, resting left on bow, A inner left, trident outer left, monogram in ex. Houghton and Lorber II 1795.3b, SNG Spaer 1459. (Hoover R1-R2).Molinari
SeleukD_copy.jpg
Alexander I, Balas29 viewsAE 20, Syria, Alexander I Balas, ca. 128-123 BC, Obv: Alexander in crested helm. Rev: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ around Nike standing, crowning King's name, monograms to left and right, VF. Lindgren I, 1827, Hoover HGC 9, 899 (R2).Molinari
SeleukF_copy.jpg
Alexander I, Balas37 viewsSerrated AE 21, Syria, Alexander I Balas, Obv: Alexander right. Rev: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ, Athena with Nike, monograms, VF. Lindgren III, pl. 62, 1074, Hoover HGC 9, 900 (R1-2).Molinari
seleukidR_copy.jpg
Alexander I, Balas40 viewsAE 19, 5.93g, Alexander I, Balas, 150-145 BC. Obv: Alexander in crested helm. Rev: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ either side of Nike crowning the King's name and holding palm, monogram )?) to l., dark brown patina, reverse slightly off center, otherwise a fine example, VF. S 7040, B.M.C.4.55,51-2, Hoover HGC 9, 899 (R2).Molinari
Alexander_I,_Balas.jpg
Alexander I, Balas 152-145 B.C.73 viewsAntioch, Drachm, 4.07 g. SC 1785. Obv: Diademed head of Alexander. Rev: Nude Apollo seated left on omphalos, holding arrow in right hand and resting left hand on bow.1 commentsLucas H
Seleucid_Alexander_I_SNG_1489~0.JPG
Alexander I, Balas, 152 - 145 BC27 viewsObv: No legend, diademed head of Alexander I facing right.

Rev: AΠAMEΩN on right, Zeus standing left holding Corinthian helmet (detail missing) and a scepter, ΓΞP in field before him, ΩA in monogram. Branch counterstamp.

Æ 21, Apameia mint, 150 - 145 BC

6.2 grams, 21.5 mm, 0°

SNG Israel 1489
SPQR Matt
Alexander_I_Balas.JPG
Alexander I, Balas, 152 - 145 BC95 viewsObv: No legend, diademed head of Alexander I facing right.

Rev: BAΣIΛEΩΣ / AΛEΞANΔPOY / ΘEOΠATOPOΣ / EYEPΓETOY, Apollo seated left on an omphalos, holding an arrow in his right hand and resting his left hand on a bow placing on the ground; HΡΑΚ in monogram in exergue.

Silver Drachm, Antioch mint, 152 - 145 BC

4.1 grams, 17.5 mm, 0°

GCV II 7035, Newell SMA 178

(special thanks to rover1.3 for additional information on this coin)
2 commentsSPQR Coins
Seleucid_Alexander_I_GCV_7040.JPG
Alexander I, Balas, 152 - 145 BC34 viewsObv: No legend, head of Alexander I facing right wearing a crested helmet.

Rev: BAΣIΛEΩE on right, AΛEΞANΔPOY on left, Nike standing left, crowning the King's name with a laurel wreath and holding a palm; corn-ear in field to left, monogram before Nike.

Æ 19, Antioch mint, c. 150 - 145 BC

6.6 grams, 19.38 mm, 0°

GCV II 7040

(special thanks to rover1.3 for additional information)
2 commentsSPQR Coins
Seleucid_Alexander_I_GCV_7030~0.JPG
Alexander I, Balas, 152 - 145 BC37 viewsObv: Diademed head of Alexander Balas facing right within a fillet border.

Rev: BAΣIΛEΩΣ / AΛEΞANΔPOY in two lines on the right, ΘEOΠATOPOΣ / EYEPΓETOY in two lines on the left; Zeus seated left, in his right hand he holds Nike who is raising a laurel wreath, and in his left hand he holds a scepter, monograms in outer and inner fields; date ΔΞP (Seleucid year 164) in exergue.

Silver Tetradrachm, Antioch mint, 149 - 148 BC

16.1 grams, 30.7 mm, 0°

GCV II 7030, Newell SMA 142

Ex: FORVM
SPQR Coins
Seleucid_Alexander_I_GCV_7035_(1)~0.JPG
Alexander I, Balas, 152 - 145 BC 93 viewsObv: No legend, diademed head of Alexander I facing right.

Rev: (BAΣ)IΛE(ΩΣ / AΛE)ΞANΔPOY in two lines on the right, ΘEOΠATOPOΣ / EYEPΓETOY in two lines on the left; Apollo seated left on an omphalos, holding an arrow in his right hand and resting his left hand on a bow placing on the ground; monogram in exergue.

Silver Drachm, Antioch mint, c. 152 - 145 BC

4.2 grams, 18 mm, 0°

GCV II 7035, Newell SMA 149
1 commentsSPQR Coins
alexander_I_tetrobol.jpg
Alexander I, Tetrobol; Horse/ Crested helmet17 viewsAlexander I, King of Aigai, Macedonia, 495-454 B.C. AR Tetrobol. 2.0g, 14mm. Horse prancing right / Crested helmet right in linear square within shallow incuse. SNGCop 486. 1 commentsPodiceps
seleucid1.jpg
Alexander II34 viewsAlexander II, king of Syria
circa 128 BC
8.1g, 19.4mm, 4.9mm thick, 0°
Obv: head of young dionysos right, werathed with ivy
Rev: BAΣIΛΕΩΣ/ AΛEXANΔPOY on either side of Tyche standing left, holding rudder and cornucopiae,
monogram and aplustre in left field
Sear 7133
areich
seleucid.jpg
Alexander II43 viewsAlexander II, king of Syria
circa 128 BC
5.55g, 18.8mm, 3.5mm thick
Obv: head of young dionysos right, werathed with ivy
Rev: BAΣIΛΕΩΣ/ AΛEXANΔPOY on either side of Tyche standing left, holding rudder and cornucopiae,
monogram and aplustre in left field

Sear 7133
areich
alessandro_II,_macedonia.jpg
Alexander II37 views1/8 obol
Apollo / horse
diam 15 mm - 2,6 g
370-367 bC
very scarce
1 commentsantvwala
Alexander_II_Zebina.JPG
Alexander II Zabinas61 viewsAlexander II Zebina, Antioch, 128-123 BC, Houghton CSE 307, Sear 7127, SNGIs 2341, 21.14mm, 7g
OBV: Radiate head right
REV: BAΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ (BASILEOS ALEXANDROU), double cornucopiae bound with a fillet, club in left field

Zabinas, the "bought one", the pretender king who spent most of his
pathetic reign fighting Demetrius II and Antiochus VII. He failed to ward
off Antiochus and was forced to plunder the temples of Antioch in order to
come up with getaway money. Unfortunately he was captured and forced to
commit suicide.
1 commentsRomanorvm
Seleucid_opt.jpg
ALEXANDER II ZABINAS (Seleucid King), AE22, SC 2237, Cornucopia50 viewsOBV: Radiate and diademed head right
REV: �'ΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΛΕΞΑΝ�"ΡΟΥ, Double cornucopia; A-Π flanking, star to lower left
22mm

Minted at Antioch, 125-22 BC
2 commentsLegatus
Alexander_II~0.jpg
Alexander II Zabinas 128-122 B.C.39 viewsAlexander II, Zabinas ("the Bought One") 128-122 B.C. Ae 17.0~18.6mm. 6.21g. Antioch, 129-128 B.C. Obv: Diademed bust r. Rev: BAΣIΛEΩΣ AΛEΞANΔΡOΥ, Dionysos standing in short chiton, holding thyrsus and kantharos. Monogram (off flan) left field, IΣI with cornucopia below. Date ΔΠΡ = year 184 S.E. Houghton-Lorber II, 453, 2229.1d. SNG Spaer 2379, Houghton 301.1 commentsddwau
Alexander_II_Zabinas~3.jpg
Alexander II Zabinas 128-122 B.C.20 viewsAlexander II Zabinas 128-122 B.C. Ae 18.5~18.7mm 5.43 gm. Antioch, ca. 125-122 BC. Obv: Diademed and radiate head of Alexander right. Rev: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔPOY Two intertwined cornucopias; to left, Σ above grain ear; A to right. HGC 9, --. SC 2235.1f. SNG Spaer 2310. SNG Cop. 370.ddwau
Alexander_II~1.jpg
Alexander II Zabinas 128-122 B.C.15 viewsAlexander II Zabinas 128-122 B.C. Ae 18.7~19.9mm 6.68g. Antioch, ca. 125-122 BC. Obv: Diademed and radiate head of Alexander right. Rev: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔPOY Two intertwined cornucopias; to left, Σ above grain ear; A to right. HGC 9, --. SC 2235.1f. SNG Spaer 2310. SNG Cop. 370.ddwau
Alexander_II~2.jpg
Alexander II Zabinas 128-122 B.C.8 viewsAlexander II Zabinas 128-122 B.C. Ar 12.3~13.0mm. 1.73g. Hemidrachm. Antioch mint. Diademed head of Alexander II r. Rev: BAΣIΛEΩΣ AΛEΞANΔPOY, Nike standing l., holding wreath and palm. Controls: Primary HΔP monogram inner l., Secondary AP monogram below. SC 2224c. SNG Spaer 2287.ddwau
Alexander_II_Zabinas~0.jpg
Alexander II Zabinas, 128 - 122 B.C.22 viewsAlexander II Zabinas 128 - 122 B.C. Ae 21, weight 7.33g, maximum diameter 21.8mm, Antioch mint die axis 0o, obverse radiate and diademed head of Alexander II right; reverse ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΛΕΞΑΝ∆ΡΟΥ, Athena standing left, Nike in extended right, spear vertical behind in left, shield at base of spear, EY monogram over cornucopia in inner left field. Houghton-Lorber II 2233.1a, SNG Spaer 2300ddwau
Alexander_II_Zabinas.jpg
Alexander II Zabinas, 128 - 123 B.C.11 viewsAlexander II Zabinas, 128 - 123 B.C. Bronze AE 20 - 21, weight 8.05g, 125 - 122 B.C. Antioch
Obverse radiate and diademed head of Zabinas right / Reverse ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ, double cornucopia bound with fillet,
A over club inner left, Π inner right; SNG Spaer 2341; CSE 307; BMC 24
ddwau
Alexander_II.jpg
Alexander II Zabinas, 128 - 123 B.C.11 viewsAlexander II Zabinas, 128 - 123 B.C. Bronze Ae 17.5, weight 3.56g.
Obv: Diademed head of Zabinas right / Reverse ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ, Tripod.
ddwau
4082_(1)_4083_(1).jpg
Alexander II Zabinas, AE 19 Serrate, BAΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ13 viewsAE19 Serrate
Alexander II Zabinas
128 - 122BC
19.5mm
O: NO LEGEND; Head of young Dionysus, right, wreathed in ivy.
R: BAΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ; Tyche, winged, standing left, wearing kalathos, holding rudder and cornucopia.
Apameia ad Axos Mint?
SC 2242; Hoover 1166.
Harlan Berk
Chicago Coin Expo 4/6/17 4/17/17
Nicholas Z
seleucid~0.jpg
Alexander II Zabinas, AE2142 viewsAlexander II Zabinas (128-122 BC)
21mm, 8.07g
obv: radiate and diademed head right
rev: ΒΑΣΙΛΕ[ΩΣ] ΑΛΕΞΑΝ∆[ΡΟΥ]; double cornucopia, A and caduceus to left, Π to right
HGC 9, p. 234, #1164
2 commentsareich
42845Seleukid_Kingdom,_Alexander_II_Zabinas.jpg
Alexander II Zabinas, Athena standing l. AE 2031 viewsSeleukid Kingdom, Alexander II Zabinas, 128 - 122 B.C. Bronze AE 20, Houghton and Lorber II 2233.1b, SNG Spaer 2303 - 2304, F, Antioch mint, 6.623g, 20.5mm, 0o, obverse radiate and diademed head of Alexander II right; reverse “ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ”, Athena standing left, spear in left, Nike in extended right, shield at base of spear, EY monogram / cornucopia in inner left field. Ex FORVM, photo credit FORVMPodiceps
IMG_4664.JPG
Alexander II Zabinas. 128-122 BC. AE18mm.14 viewsAlexander II Zabinas. 128-122 BC
Obv. Head of young Dionysos right, wreathed with ivy.
Rev. BASILEWS ALEXANDROU, Tyche, winged, standing left, wearing kalathos, holding rudder and cornucopia.
Ref. SC 2242; HGC. V9 1166
Lee S
DSCN5242.jpg
Alexander II Zabinas. 128-123 BC. AE19mm . 6.439grm.28 viewsAlexander II Zabinas. 128-123 BC. Apamea on the Orontes(?) mint.
Obv. Dionysos right, wreathed in ivy.
Rev. ΒΑΣΙΛΣΩΣ ΑΛΣΞΑΝ∆ΟΥ . Winged Tycheleft, Kalathos on head, standing left, tiller in right, cornucopia in left. Monogram over symbol outer left.
Ref. Sear 7133, Houghton and Lorber 2242.
( Ex- Forvm Ancient Coins )
Lee S
SeleukR_copy.jpg
Alexander II Zebina48 viewsSerrated AE 15, Syria, Alexander II Zebina, ca. 128-123 B.C. Obv: Head of Dionysos facing right. Rev: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ around winged Tyche wearing modius with anchor and cornucopiae, grape cluster and monogram. Dark brown patina with some base metal exposed, gVF. Lindgren III, pl.63, 1111, SC 2242, Hoover HGC 9, 1166 (R1).Molinari
ab.jpg
Alexander II Zebina22 viewsGinolerhino
Alexander_II_Zabinas.jpg
Alexander II Zebina - AE 177 viewsAntioch
129-128 BC
diademed head right
young Dionysos holding kantharos and thyrsos standing left
BAΣIΛEΩΣ / AΛEΞANΔPOY
ΔΠP / (?Π?)
BMC 12. CSE 299
7,18g

ex Dionysos numismatik
Johny SYSEL
Alexander_II_Zebina_SC_2242.png
Alexander II Zebina SC 224214 viewsAlexander II Zebinas, BC 128 - 122, AE18 Serrate, Seleukid kings, Syria, 6.72g, 20mm, Apameia ad Axios mint (?), Hoover 1166, SC 2242
OBV: Head of young Dionysos right, wreathed with ivy.
REV: BASILEWS ALEXANDROY, Tyche, winged, standing left, wearing
kalathos, holding rudder and cornucopiae.
SRukke
26.jpg
Alexander II Zebina, Seleucia 128-123 B.C. AE20mm.14 viewsAlexander II Zebina, Seleucia 128-123 B.C.
Obverse: Alexander facing right, dotted border.
Reverse: Young Dionysus standing with spear , ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΔΠΡ ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ Σ
Lee S
Alexander_II_Zebina.jpg
Alexander II Zebinas 128 - 123 B.C.13 viewsAlexander II Zebinas, Seleukid kingdom, 128 - 123 B.C. Antioch mint. Ae 15.8~16.1mm. 3.58g. Obv: Prow of galley right, the two pilei of Dioscuri surmounted by stars above. Rev: BAΣIΛEΩΣ AΛEΞANΔΡOΥ to right and left of tripod lebes, two palm branches and urn in the lebes, A and quiver/club to left, Π to right. Hoover 1176; BMC 31. SNG Spaer 2347, CSE 308ddwau
Alexander_II_Zabinas~2.jpg
Alexander II Zebinas 128-123 BC10 viewsSeleukid Kingdom, Alexander II Zebinas serrated-edge Ae16 -18. Weight 5.37g. 128-123 BC, Antioch mint. Head of Dionysos right, wreathed with ivy / ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ, winged Tyche standing left on prow, wearing modius on head, holding rudder & cornucopia, SNGCop 373ddwau
Alexander_II_Zabinas~1.jpg
Alexander II Zebinas 128-123 BC17 viewsSeleukid Kingdom, Alexander II Zebinas serrated-edge Ae16 -18. Weight 5.37g. 128-123 BC, Antioch mint. Head of Dionysos right, wreathed with ivy / ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ, winged Tyche standing left on prow, wearing modius on head, holding rudder & cornucopia, SNGCop 373ddwau
SeleukP_copy.jpg
Alexander II, Zebina30 viewsAE 20, 5.91g, Alexander II, Zebina, 128-123 BC. Obv: Alexander facing right, dotted border. Rev: Figure standing with spear (?), ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ Μ ΔΠΡ ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ Σ. Black patina with earthen highlights, VF. Hoover HGC 9, 1162 (C-S).Molinari
coinB_copy.jpg
Alexander II, Zebina24 viewsAE 21, Alexander II, Zebina, 128-123 BC, Obv: Alexander's radiate head right. Rev: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ; either side of double cornucopia bound with diadem, A above palm, Pi to right, VF. S 7127, B.M.C.4.83,22, SC 2237, Hoover HGC 9, 1164 (C-S).
Molinari
coinA_copy.jpg
Alexander II, Zebina32 viewsAE 21, 6.60g, Syria, Alexander II Zebina, ca. 128-123 B.C. Obv: Radiate bust of Alexander Zebina right. Rev: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ either side of double-cornucopiae bound with diadem; A above palm, Pi to right. Grayish patina with red earthen highlights, VF. SGII 7127, B.M.C. 4. 83, 22, SC 2237, Hoover HGC 9, 1164 (C-S).Molinari
Seleukid3_copy.jpg
Alexander II, Zebina42 viewsAE 20, Alexander II, Zebina, 128-123 BC. Obv: Alexander facing right, dotted border. Rev: Figure standing with spear (?), ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ Μ ΔΠΡ ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ Σ. Black patina, aF. Hoover HGC 9, 1162 (C-S).Molinari
alex_mac.JPG
Alexander III 67 viewsMacedonian AE18 - Price 2102Ghengis_Jon
unknown_greek_jg_01b.jpg
Alexander III61 viewsHead of Herakles right wearing lions skin / ALEXANDROU, bow case above, club of Herakles below.Tkonnova
v_048.JPG
Alexander III31 viewsAlexander III the Great 356 BC
Bronze Hemitetartemorio Cyprus

Obverse:Head of Alexander the great as Herakles,wearing lions skin
Reverse:Club and quiver between ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ

10.88mm 1.45gm



PRICE bronze
maik
044.JPG
Alexander III42 viewsAlexander III the Great 356-323 b.c
Bronze AE16
Obverse:Head of Apollo right , hair bound with tainia
Reverse:Horse prancing;ALEXANDPOY above

16.56mm 3.60gm

SEAR 6744
maik
g_095.JPG
Alexander III57 viewsAlexander the great
AE17 336-323 b.c

Obverse:Head of Alexander as Herakles right
Reverse:ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ across field;above club; bow in cases ; down Π

17.33mm 6.76gm

PRICE 311 ;SEAR 6739 ;(Drama hoard)
maik
b_032.JPG
Alexander III45 viewsAlexander the great
AE17 336-323 BC
Obverse:Head of Alexander the Great as Herakles wearing lion's skin
Reverse:Club and quiver between ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ ;A below

16.52mm 6.04gm

Price 332
maik
13.jpg
Alexander III 88 viewsAlexander the Great 328-320 b.c
Tetradrachm
ARADOS

Obverse:Head of Alexander as Herakles wearing lions skin
Reverse:Zeus Aetophoros on throne;ALEXANDROU BASILEOS;caduceus left throne,AP under

26.95mm 16.81g
PRICE:3332

Why it is here?I don't like it

I bought it (2005) as original 300euro from not blacklisted seller.
1 commentsmaik
217.jpg
Alexander III38 viewsAlexander the Great
Cast fake Tetradrachm

Obverse:Head of Alexander the Great as Herakles wearing lions skin
Reverse:Zeus on throne holding eagle; ALEXANDROY BASILEOS;symbol under and left throne

26.03mm 13.80gm (Under weight) and very soft metal

MODERN CAST FAKE

I bought it as is 24$ at ebay from fake listed seller
maik
v_058.JPG
Alexander III26 viewsAlexander III the Great 356 BC
Amathus Cyprus 325-323 BC

Obverse:Head of Alexander the Great as Herakles wearing lions skin.
Reverse:Bow in bow-case and club;ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ;Eagle flying left below

15.41mm 5.08gm

Price 3090, Tziampazis 39/12
maik
021.JPG
Alexander III28 viewsAlexander III the Great 356 b.c
AE 17 After 336 b.c

Obverse:Head of Alexander the Great as Herakles wearing lions skin
Reverse:Bow in bow-case and club;Β-Α at center

17.28mm 5.17gm
maik
007~0.JPG
Alexander III23 viewsAlexander III the Great 356 b.c
AE 17 After 336 b.c

Obverse:Head of Alexander the Great as Herakles wearing lions skin
Reverse:Bow in bow-case and club; B-A at center

17.00mm 4.84gm
maik
003~0.JPG
Alexander III31 viewsAlexander III the Great 356 b.c
AE 17 After 325-310 b.c

Obverse:Head of Alexander the Great as Herakles wearing lions skin
Reverse:Bow in bow-case and club;B-A at center;Ivy leaf? at lower field

17.40mm 5.24gm

Price 383


maik
001~0.JPG
Alexander III24 viewsAlexander III the Great 356 b.c
AE 17 325-310 b.c

Obverse:Head of Alexander the Great as Herakles wearing lions skin
Reverse:Bow in bow-case and club; B-A at center; Thunderbolt in lower field

17.72mm 4.99gm

Price 376e
maik
a_048.JPG
Alexander III 30 viewsAlexander the Great
Ae 1/2 Amphipolis 325-310 B.C

Obverse:Macedonian shield with thunderbolt at center
Reverse:B-A ;Macedonian helmet; monogram below.

15.88mm 4.12gm

Price 413
Struck under Antipater, Polyperchon or Kassander
maik
b_022.JPG
Alexander III28 viewsAlexander the great
AE 18 After 336 BC

Obverse:Head of Alexander the Great as Herakles wearing lions skin
Reverse:Bow in bow-case and club;B-A at center

17.98mm 6.31gm
maik
a_071.JPG
Alexander III35 viewsAlexander the great
AE 17 336-323 BC

Obverse:Head of Alexander the Great as Herakles wearing lion's skin
Reverse:Club and quiver between ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ;Δ in upper field;ivy lief? below

16.70mm 6.00gm

Price 283b
maik
l_063.JPG
Alexander III35 viewsAlexander III the Great 356 b.c
Bronze Macedonia 336-323 b.c

Obverse:Head of Alexander the Great as Herakles wearing lions skin.
Reverse:Bow in bow-case,club;ALEXANDROU at center;PI in upper field

16.73mm 5.75gm

Price 310 (Drama hoard) ; Sear 6739
maik
l_061.JPG
Alexander III29 viewsAlexander The Great 356-323 b.c
AE15 1/2 Unit 325-310 b.c

Obverse:Macedonian sheild with thunderbolt at center
Reverse:B - A either side of Crested Macedonian helmet;Trident below

14.96mm 3.69gm

PRICE 420
1 commentsmaik
artet1.JPG
Alexander III551 viewsAlexander III AR Tetradrachm. ‘Amphipolis’ mint. Struck under Kassander, circa 316-314 BC. Head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin headdress / Zeus Aëtophoros seated left; shield in left field, pellet-in-Π below throne. 17.1 g.

Price 136; Troxell, Studies, issue L8.

Thanks for the atribution Lloyd!


Most lifetime issues of Alexander the Great were usualy bulky/thick, which did not alow for the entire design of the die to imprint on the coin. IMO looked better then the wide thin flan. (edit: though this one is Struck under Kassander)

The coin was hand stuck with a die/avil. Dies were usually made of Bronze because it was sofeter and easier to work with then iron, (though some were made of iron as well) then the was anealed to make it stronger and less brittle.

The planchets were made by pouring molten metal into a mold and saved until needed. When it was ready to be used, they heated it just below melting point and placed it between the dies and the punch die was struck with a hammer.


-----------------------------


"Building upon his father's success in Greece, Alexander III (Alexander the Great, reigned 336-323 BC) set about the conquest of the Achaemenid Persian Empire. By the time of his death at the age of 31, he ruled most of the known world from Greece to Afghanistan. Initially Alexander continued to mint Philip's gold and silver coins. Soon, however, the need for a silver coinage that could be widely used in Greece caused him to begin a new coinage on the Athenian weight-standard. His new silver coins, with the head of Herakles on one side and a seated figure of Zeus on the other, also became one of the staple coinages of the Greek world. They were widely imitated within the empire he had forged."

--------------------------------------

"......Alexander seems to have liked Amphipolis, because one of his last plans was to spend no less than 315 ton silver for a splendid new temple in the city that was to be dedicated to Artemis Tauropolus. It was never built, but after Alexander's death on 11 June 323 in Babylon, his wife queen Roxane settled in Amphipolis, which appears to have become one of the residences of the Macedonian royals. In 179, king Philip V died in the town."


------------------

Amphipolis , ancient city of Macedonia, on the Strymon (Struma) River near the sea and NE of later Thessaloníki. The place was known as Ennea Hodoi [nine ways] before it was settled and was of interest because of the gold and silver and timber of Mt. Pangaeus (Pangaion), to which it gave access. Athenian colonists were driven out (c.464 BC) by Thracians, but a colony was established in 437 BC Amphipolis became one of the major Greek cities on the N Aegean. This colony was captured by Sparta, and Brasidas and Cleon were both killed in a battle there in 422 BC After it was returned to Athens in 421 BC, it actually had virtual independence until captured (357 BC) by Philip II of Macedon. He had promised to restore it to Athens, and his retention of Amphipolis was a major cause of the war with Athens. In 148 BC it became the capital of the Roman province of Macedonia. Paul, Silas, and Timothy passed through Amphipolis (Acts 17.1). Nearby is the modern Greek village of Amfípolis."

--------------------------------

"A quick look at the WildWinds database( http://www.wildwinds.com/coins/greece/macedonia/kings/alexander_III/t.html ) indicates that the style and monograms are consistent with an Amphipolis issue, with perhaps a little less care than usual in the engraving of the reverse. The closest I could locate with a quick look is Price 133 (variant), although yours appears to have a shield rather than dolphin in the left field reverse."
16 commentsrandy h2
2.JPG
Alexander III40 viewsAlexander the Great
Amphipolis 336 BC 1/2 Unit

Obverse:Head of Alexander the great as Herakles wearing lion's skin
Reverse:ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ;Eagle standing right on thunderbolt;A at left

3.59gm 16mm

Price 160
maik