Classical Numismatics Discussion Members' Gallery
  Welcome Guest. Please login or register.

Members' Gallery Home | Member Collections | Last Added | Last Comments | Most Viewed | Top Rated | My Favorities | Search Galleries
Search results - "ages)"
edward_III.jpg
45 viewsEdward III Groat; Pre-Treaty Period; 1356 to 1361

Edward III - Born: November 13, 1312 – Died: June 21, 1377; was Kind of England from February 1, 1327 to June 21, 1377. He was considered one of the most successful kinds of the middle ages and rebuilt the military into an international military power. His reign occurred directly after the reign of his father, Edward II, who was not considered a successful king.
1 commentspaul1888
4170540A.jpg
9 viewsSRI LANKA (CEYLON), Native coinages. Kingdom of Ruhuna. Circa 3rd century BC–1st century AD. Lot of two (2) terracotta tokens. All coins: circular terracotta pieces incised with four lines at 90 degree angles on either side. (20mm, 2.43 g) and (16.5mm, 1.88 g). Ruhana N.13. Quant.Geek
4170540B.jpg
12 viewsSRI LANKA (CEYLON), Native coinages. Kingdom of Ruhuna. Circa 3rd century BC–1st century AD. Lot of two (2) terracotta tokens. All coins: circular terracotta pieces incised with four lines at 90 degree angles on either side. (20mm, 2.43 g) and (16.5mm, 1.88 g). Ruhana N.13. Quant.Geek
4170542.jpg
12 viewsSRI LANKA (CEYLON), Native coinages. Kingdom of Ruhuna. Circa 2nd century BC–2nd century AD. Ć 'Lakshmi plaque' (9.5x14.5mm, 1.18 g). Goddess standing facing, holding lotus and two stalks / [Railed swastika]. Ruhuna H.48; cf. MACW 5048ffQuant.Geek
4170541.jpg
15 viewsSRI LANKA (CEYLON), Native coinages. Kingdom of Ruhuna. Circa 2nd century BC–2nd century AD. Ć 'Lakshmi plaque' (11x22mm, 2.84 g, 6h). Goddess standing facing, holding lotus and two stalks / Railed swastika. Ruhuna H.40; cf. MACW 5048ffQuant.Geek
110893LG.jpg
7 viewsSouthern Gaul, Volcae-Tectosages. 1st century B.C. AR drachm (12 mm, 2.39 g). Head left with wild hair and Negroid features / Cross with one ring and three pellets in angles, crescents enclosing each quadrant. LT 2986Quant.Geek
Maximian_Civic_Antioch.jpg
6 Maximinus II43 viewsANTIOCH
Semi-autonomous issue under Maximinus II, ca. 310 AD

GENIO ANTOCHENI - Genius of Antioch seated, facing; Orontes swimming below / APOLLONI SANCTO, Apollo standing left, holding patera and lyre.

'The last civic coinages and the religious policy of Maximinus Daza', J. van Heesch. c.310 (Antioch).
Sosius
T1118LG.jpg
C POBLICIUS Q F. 80 BC91 viewsHelmeted bust of Roma right / Hercules strangling the Nemean lion; bow and quiver at left; club below. Cr. 380/1.

POBLICIA, a plebian family, but of consular rank. Its cognomen on coins is Malleolus. There are fifteen varieties, all of silver, on some of which a small hammer or mallett is engraved, evidently alluding to the surname Malleolus.

The first of Heracles' twelve labours, set by King Eurystheus (his cousin) was to slay the Nemean lion.

According to one version of the myth, the Nemean lion took women as hostages to its lair in a cave near Nemea, luring warriors from nearby towns to save the damsel in distress. After entering the cave, the warrior would see the woman (usually feigning injury) and rush to her side. Once he was close, the woman would turn into a lion and kill the warrior, devouring his remains and giving the bones to Hades.

Heracles wandered the area until he came to the town of Cleonae. There he met a boy who said that if Heracles slew the Nemean lion and returned alive within 30 days, the town would sacrifice a lion to Zeus; but if he did not return within 30 days or he died, the boy would sacrifice himself to Zeus.[3] Another version claims that he met Molorchos, a shepherd who had lost his son to the lion, saying that if he came back within 30 days, a ram would be sacrificed to Zeus. If he did not return within 30 days, it would be sacrificed to the dead Heracles as a mourning offering.

While searching for the lion, Heracles fetched some arrows to use against it, not knowing that its golden fur was impenetrable; when he found and shot the lion and firing at it with his bow, he discovered the fur's protective property when the arrow bounced harmlessly off the creature's thigh. After some time, Heracles made the lion return to his cave. The cave had two entrances, one of which Heracles blocked; he then entered the other. In those dark and close quarters, Heracles stunned the beast with his club and, using his immense strength, strangled it to death. During the fight the lion bit off one of his fingers. Others say that he shot arrows at it, eventually shooting it in the unarmoured mouth.

After slaying the lion, he tried to skin it with a knife from his belt, but failed. He then tried sharpening the knife with a stone and even tried with the stone itself. Finally, Athena, noticing the hero's plight, told Heracles to use one of the lion's own claws to skin the pelt.

When he returned on the thirtieth day carrying the carcass of the lion on his shoulders, King Eurystheus was amazed and terrified. Eurystheus forbade him ever again to enter the city; in future he was to display the fruits of his labours outside the city gates. Eurystheus warned him that the tasks set for him would become increasingly difficult. He then sent Heracles off to complete his next quest, which was to destroy the Lernaean hydra.

The Nemean lion's coat was impervious to the elements and all but the most powerful weapons. Others say that Heracles' armour was, in fact, the hide of the lion of Cithaeron.
ecoli
Celtic.jpg
Celtic Coinage27 viewsContinental Celts & Tribes of Britannia
Gaul: Northwest Gaul: Aulerci Eburovices, Carnutes, Coriosolites, Redones, Senones, Veneti. Northeast Gaul: Ambiani, Remi, Suessiones (Cricironus), Treveri.
Central Gaul: Aediu, Arverni. Sequani (Turonos & Cantorix). Southern Gaul: Massalia (Marseilles), Tolostates, Volcae-Arecomici. Uncertain: Volcae Tectosages, Leuci, Senones.
Britain: Atrebates & Regni (Verica), Cantii (Amminus), CantuvellauniCorieltauvi (Volisios Dumnocoveros), Cunobelin, Dobunni, Durotriges, Epaticcus, Iceni, Trinovantes, Cantuvellauni & Trinovantes (Addedomaros, Caratacus).
Lower Danube: Geto-Dacians. Middle Danube: Hercuniates. Central Europe: Boii. Danubian Celts are also referred to as being from the Carpathian Region, in which there were various tribes, many unknown.
1 commentsChristian T
combine_images~4.jpg
Demetrios II Nikator, Second reign, 129-125 BC. Silver tetradrachm. Tyre.44 viewsObv: Diademed head of king right.
Rev: Eagle standing on prow left, with palm branch, club surmounted by monogram and monogram in inner left field, two monograms in inner right field, monogram between legs.
References: SC 2195.5b. Newell 179. Hoover 1122.
28 mm, 13,23 g.
1 commentsCanaan
IMG_1361.JPG
64 viewsUNITED STATES, Native proto-currency. Seneca tribe.
Ganounata village (Honeoye Falls, NY). Circa AD 1625-1687
White wampum beads (apx. 5mm, 0.10g each)
Carved white shell beads with lateral hole for suspension in belt
Cf. William Martin Beauchamp, Wampum and Shell Articles Used by the New York Indians, p. 369

Found at the Dann Farm site in Honeoye Falls, NY.


In 1687 combined French and Huron forces, lead by the Marquis de Denonville, set out to undermine the strength of the Iriquois Confederacy. The main strike was made against Seneca villages in Western New York. Ganounata was burned during the campaign. This episode was only one in a long line of conflicts fought over control of the North American fur trade.

Wampum was used by Native Americans in woven belts of white and black beads. The white beads were crafted from the columella of the Channeled Whelk, the black from the quahog. Traditionally, wampum belts were used as a ceremonial object to initiate a trade contract. It was only with the coming of the Europeans that wampum began to function as coinage. In 1673, New York state officially set the value of wampum at six white beads to the Dutch stuiver, or three black until they fell out of use.
Ardatirion
973330.jpg
32 viewsBRITISH TOKENS, Tudor. temp. Mary–Edward VI.1553-1558.
PB Token (27mm, 5.29 g). St. Nicholas (‘Boy Bishop’) type. Cast in East Anglia (Bury St. Edmund’s?)
Mitre, croizer to right; all within border
Long cross pattée with trefoils in angles; scrollwork border
Rigold, Tokens class X.B, 1; Mitchiner & Skinner group Ra, 1

Ex Classical Numismatic Review XXXIX.1 (Spring 2014), no. 973330

Britain in the late middle ages played host to a popular regional variant of the ‘Feast of Fools’ festival. Every year on the feast of St. Nicholas, a boy was elected from among the local choristers to serve as ‘bishop.’ Dressed in mitre and bearing the croizer of his office, the young boy paraded through the city accompanied by his equally youthful ‘priest’ attendants. The ‘bishop’ performed all the ceremonies and offices of the real bishop, save for the actual conducting of mass. Though this practice was extinguished with the Dissolution of the Monasteries in 1539, it was briefly revived under Queen Mary, who took particular interest in the festival, when the lucky boy was referred to as ‘Queen Mary’s Child.’ The celebration of the boy bishop died out completely early in the reign of Elizabeth.

Evidence of this custom is particularly prevalent in East Anglia, specifically at Bury St. Edmunds. Beginning in the late 15th century, the region produced numerous lead tokens bearing the likeness of a bishop, often bearing legends relating to the festival of St. Nicholas. Issued in sizes roughly corresponding to groats, half groats, and pennies, these pieces were undoubtedly distributed by the boy bishop himself, and were likely redeemable at the local abbey or guild for treats and sweetmeats. Considering the endemic paucity of small change in Britain at the time, it is likely that, at least in parts of East Anglia, these tokens entered circulation along with the other private lead issues that were becoming common.
Ardatirion
lg004_quad_sm.jpg
"As de Nîmes" or "crocodile" Ӕ dupondius of Nemausus (9 - 3 BC), honoring Augustus and Agrippa33 viewsIMP DIVI F , Heads of Agrippa (left) and Augustus (right) back to back, Agrippa wearing rostral crown and Augustus the oak-wreath / COL NEM, crocodile right chained to palm-shoot with short dense fronds and tip right; two short palm offshoots left and right below, above on left a wreath with two long ties streaming right.

Ӕ, 24.5 x 3+ mm, 13.23g, die axis 3h; on both sides there are remains of what appears to be gold plating, perhaps it was a votive offering? Rough edges and slight scrapes on flan typical for this kind of coin, due to primitive technology (filing) of flan preparation.

IMPerator DIVI Filius. Mint of COLonia NEMausus (currently Nîmes, France). Known as "As de Nîmes", it is actually a dupontius (lit. "two-pounder") = 2 ases (sometimes cut in halves to get change). Dupondii were often made out of a golden-colored copper alloy (type of brass) "orichalcum" and this appears to be such case.

Key ID points: oak-wreath (microphotography shows that at least one leaf has a complicated shape, although distinguishing oak from laurel is very difficult) – earlier versions have Augustus bareheaded, no PP on obverse as in later versions, no NE ligature, palm with short fronds with tip right (later versions have tip left and sometimes long fronds). Not typical: no clear laurel wreath together with the rostral crown, gold (?) plating (!), both features really baffling.

But still clearly a "middle" kind of the croc dupondius, known as "type III": RIC I 158, RPC I 524, Sear 1730. It is often conservatively dated to 10 BC - 10 AD, but these days it is usually narrowed to 9/8 - 3 BC.

It is a commemorative issue, honoring the victory over Mark Antony and conquest of Egypt in 30 BC. The heads of Augustus and Agrippa were probably positioned to remind familiar obverses of Roman republican coins with two-faced Janus. Palm branch was a common symbol of victory, in this case grown into a tree, like the victories of Augustus and Agrippa grown into the empire. The two offshoots at the bottom may mean two sons of Agrippa, Gaius and Lucius, who were supposed to be Augustus' heirs and were patrons of the colony. Palm may also be a symbol of the local Nemausian deity, which was probably worshiped in a sacred grove. When these coins were minted, the colony was mostly populated by the settled veterans of Augustus' campaigns, hence the reminiscence of the most famous victory, but some of the original Celtic culture probably survived and was assimilated by Romans. The crocodile is not only the symbol of Egypt, like in the famous Octavian's coins AEGYPTO CAPTA. It is also a representation of Mark Antony, powerful and scary both in water and on land, but a bit slow and stupid. The shape of the crocodile with tail up was specifically chosen to remind of the shape of ship on very common "legionary" denarius series, which Mark Antony minted to pay his armies just before Actium. It is probably also related to the popular contemporary caricature of Cleopatra, riding on and simultaneously copulating with a crocodile, holding a palm branch in her hand as if in triumph. There the crocodile also symbolized Mark Antony.

Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa was born c. 64-62 BC somewhere in rural Italy. His family was of humble and plebeian origins, but rich, of equestrian rank. Agrippa was about the same age as Octavian, and the two were educated together and became close friends. He probably first served in Caesar's Spanish campaign of 46–45 BC. Caesar regarded him highly enough to send him with Octavius in 45 BC to train in Illyria. When Octavian returned to Rome after Caesar's assassination, Agrippa became his close lieutenant, performing many tasks. He probably started his political career in 43 BC as a tribune of the people and then a member of the Senate. Then he was one of the leading Octavian's generals, finally becoming THE leading general and admiral in the civil wars of the subsequent years.

In 38 as a governor of Transalpine Gaul Agrippa undertook an expedition to Germania, thus becoming the first Roman general since Julius Caesar to cross the Rhine. During this foray he helped the Germanic tribe of Ubii (who previously allied themselves with Caesar in 55 BC) to resettle on the west bank of the Rhine. A shrine was dedicated there, possibly to Divus Caesar whom Ubii fondly remembered, and the village became known as Ara Ubiorum, "Altar of Ubians". This quickly would become an important Roman settlement. Agrippina the Younger, Agrippa's granddaughter, wife of Emperor Claudius and mother of Emperor Nero, would be born there in 15 AD. In 50 AD she would sponsor this village to be upgraded to a colonia, and it would be renamed Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium (colony of Claudius [at] the Altar of Agrippinians – Ubii renamed themselves as Agrippinians to honor the augusta!), abbreviated as CCAA, later to become the capital of new Roman province, Germania Inferior.

In 37 BC Octavian recalled Agrippa back to Rome and arranged for him to win the consular elections, he desperately needed help in naval warfare with Sextus Pompey, the youngest son of Pompey the Great, who styled himself as the last supporter of the republican cause, but in reality became a pirate king, an irony since his father was the one who virtually exterminated piracy in all the Roman waters. He forced humiliating armistice on the triumvirs in 39 BC and when Octavian renewed the hostilities a year later, defeated him in a decisive naval battle of Messina. New fleet had to be built and trained, and Agrippa was the man for the job. Agrippa's solution was creating a huge secret naval base he called Portus Iulius by connecting together lakes Avernus, Avernus and the natural inner and outer harbors behind Cape Misenum at the northern end of the Gulf of Naples. He also created a larger type of ship and developed a new naval weapon: harpax – a ballista-launched grapnel shot with mechanisms that allowed pulling enemy ships close for easy boarding. It replaced the previous boarding device that Romans used since the First Punic War, corvus – effective, but extremely cumbersome. A later defence against it were scythe blades on long poles for cutting ropes, but since this invention was developed in secret, the enemy had no chance to prepare anything like it. It all has proved extremely effective: in a series of naval engagements Agrippa annihilated the fleet of Sextus, forced him to abandon his bases and run away. For this Agrippa was awarded an unprecedented honour that no Roman before or after him received: a rostral crown, "corona rostrata", a wreath decorated in front by a prow and beak of a ship.

That's why Virgil (Aeneid VIII, 683-684), describing Agrippa at Actium, says: "…belli insigne superbum, tempora navali fulgent rostrata corona." "…the proud military decoration, gleams on his brow the naval rostral crown". Actium, the decisive battle between forces of Octavian and Mark Antony, may appear boring compared to the war with Sextus, but it probably turned out this way due to Agrippa's victories in preliminary naval engagements and taking over all the strategy from Octavian.

In between the wars Agrippa has shown an unusual talent in city planning, not only constructing many new public buildings etc., but also greatly improving Rome's sanitation by doing a complete overhaul of all the aqueducts and sewers. Typically, it was Augustus who later would boast that "he had found the city of brick but left it of marble", forgetting that, just like in his naval successes, it was Agrippa who did most of the work. Agrippa had building programs in other Roman cities as well, a magnificent temple (currently known as Maison Carrée) survives in Nîmes itself, which was probably built by Agrippa.

Later relationship between Augustus and Agrippa seemed colder for a while, Agrippa seemed to even go into "exile", but modern historians agree that it was just a ploy: Augustus wanted others to think that Agrippa was his "rival" while in truth he was keeping a significant army far away from Rome, ready to come to the rescue in case Augustus' political machinations fail. It is confirmed by the fact that later Agrippa was recalled and given authority almost equal to Augustus himself, not to mention that he married Augustus' only biological child. The last years of Agrippa's life were spent governing the eastern provinces, were he won respect even of the Jews. He also restored Crimea to Roman Empire. His last service was starting the conquest of the upper Danube, were later the province of Pannonia would be. He suddenly died of illness in 12 BC, aged ~51.

Agrippa had several children through his three marriages. Through some of his children, Agrippa would become ancestor to many subsequent members of the Julio-Claudian dynasty. He has numerous other legacies.
Yurii P
QUAD.jpg
(098-117) TRAJAN Quadrans21 viewsTitulature avers : IMP CAES NERVA TRAIAN AVG .
Description avers : Buste lauré de Trajan ŕ droite, drapé sur l'épaule gauche (O*2) .
Traduction avers : "Imperator Cćsar Nerva Traianus Augustus", (L'empereur césar Nerva Trajan auguste).
Titulature revers : S C ŕ l’exergue .
Description revers : Louve marchant ŕ droite .
Traduction revers : "Senatus Consulto", (Par décret du Sénat) .

N° dans les ouvrages de référence : C.338 var. (6f.) - RIC.692 (S) - BMC/RE.1060 pl. 43/8 - H.1/645 - MAR.- - RCV.3246 var. (275$) - MRK.27 /144 var.
Ségusiaves
LPisoFrugiDenarius_S235.jpg
(502a) Roman Republic, L. Calpurnius Piso Frugi, 90 B.C.157 viewsSilver denarius, S 235, Calpurnia 11, Crawford 340/1, Syd 663a, VF, rainbow toning, Rome mint, 3.772g, 18.5mm, 180o, 90 B.C. obverse: laureate head of Apollo right, scorpion behind; Reverse naked horseman galloping right holding palm, L PISO FRVGI and control number CXI below; ex-CNA XV 6/5/91, #443. Ex FORVM.


A portion of the following text is a passage taken from the excellent article “The Calpurnii and Roman Family History: An Analysis of the Piso Frugi Coin in the Joel Handshu Collection at the College of Charleston,” by Chance W. Cook:

In the Roman world, particularly prior to the inception of the principate, moneyers were allotted a high degree of latitude to mint their coins as they saw fit. The tres viri monetales, the three men in charge of minting coins, who served one-year terms, often emblazoned their coins with an incredible variety of images and inscriptions reflecting the grandeur, history, and religion of Rome. Yet also prominent are references to personal or familial accomplishments; in this manner coins were also a means by which the tres viri monetales could honor their forbearers. Most obvious from an analysis of the Piso Frugi denarius is the respect and admiration that Lucius Calpurnius Piso Frugi, who minted the coin, had for his ancestors. For the images he selected for his dies relate directly to the lofty deeds performed by his Calpurnii forbearers in the century prior to his term as moneyer. The Calpurnii were present at many of the watershed events in the late Republic and had long distinguished themselves in serving the state, becoming an influential and well-respected family whose defense of traditional Roman values cannot be doubted.

Lucius Calpurnius Piso Frugi, who was moneyer in 90 B.C., depicted Apollo on the obverse and the galloping horseman on the reverse, as does his son Gaius. However, all of L. Piso Frugi’s coins have lettering similar to “L-PISO-FRVGI” on the reverse, quite disparate from his son Gaius’ derivations of “C-PISO-L-F-FRV.”

Moreover, C. Piso Frugi coins are noted as possessing “superior workmanship” to those produced by L. Piso Frugi.

The Frugi cognomen, which became hereditary, was first given to L. Calpurnius Piso, consul in 133 B.C., for his integrity and overall moral virtue. Cicero is noted as saying that frugal men possessed the three cardinal Stoic virtues of bravery, justice, and wisdom; indeed in the Thesaurus Linguae Latinae, a synonym of frugalitas is bonus, generically meaning “good” but also implying virtuous behavior. Gary Forsythe notes that Cicero would sometimes invoke L. Calpurnius Piso’s name at the beginning of speeches as “a paragon of moral rectitude” for his audience.

L. Calpurnius Piso Frugi’s inclusion of the laureled head of Apollo, essentially the same obverse die used by his son Gaius (c. 67 B.C.), was due to his family’s important role in the establishment of the Ludi Apollinares, the Games of Apollo, which were first instituted in 212 B.C. at the height of Hannibal’s invasion of Italy during the Second Punic War. By that time, Hannibal had crushed Roman armies at Cannae, seized Tarentum and was invading Campania.

Games had been used throughout Roman history as a means of allaying the fears
of the populace and distracting them from issues at hand; the Ludi Apollinares were no different. Forsythe follows the traditional interpretation that in 211 B.C., when C. Calpurnius Piso was praetor, he became the chief magistrate in Rome while both consuls were absent and the three other praetors were sent on military expeditions against Hannibal.

At this juncture, he put forth a motion in the Senate to make the Ludi Apollinares a yearly event, which was passed; the Ludi Apollinares did indeed become an important festival, eventually spanning eight days in the later Republic. However, this interpretation is debatable; H.H. Scullard suggests that the games were not made permanent until 208 B.C. after a severe plague prompted the Senate to make them a fixture on the calendar. The Senators believed Apollo would serve as a “healing god” for the people of Rome.

Nonetheless, the Calpurnii obviously believed their ancestor had played an integral role in the establishment of the Ludi Apollinares and thus prominently displayed
the head or bust of Apollo on the obverse of the coins they minted.

The meaning of the galloping horseman found on the reverse of the L. Calpurnius Piso Frugi coin is more complicated. It is possible that this is yet another reference to the Ludi Apollinares. Chariot races in the Circus Maximus were a major component of the games, along with animal hunts and theatrical performances.

A more intriguing possibility is that the horseman is a reference to C. Calpurnius Piso, son of the Calpurnius Piso who is said to have founded the Ludi Apollinares. This C. Calpurnius Piso was given a military command in 186 B.C. to quell a revolt in Spain. He was victorious, restoring order to the province and also gaining significant wealth in the process.

Upon his return to Rome in 184, he was granted a triumph by the Senate and eventually erected an arch on the Capitoline Hill celebrating his victory. Of course
the arch prominently displayed the Calpurnius name. Piso, however, was not an infantry commander; he led the cavalry.

The difficulty in accepting C. Calpurnius Piso’s victory in Spain as the impetus for the galloping horseman image is that not all of C. Piso Frugi’s coins depict the horseman or cavalryman carrying the palm, which is a symbol of victory. One is inclined to believe that the victory palm would be prominent in all of the coins minted by C. Piso Frugi (the son of L. Calpurnius Piso Frugi) if it indeed signified the great triumph of C. Calpurnius Piso in 186 B.C. Yet the palm’s appearance is clearly not a direct reference to military feats of C. Piso Frugi’s day. As noted, it is accepted that his coins were minted in 67 B.C.; in that year, the major victory by Roman forces was Pompey’s swift defeat of the pirates throughout the Mediterranean.

Chrestomathy: Annual Review of Undergraduate Research at the College of Charleston. Volume 1, 2002: pp. 1-10© 2002 by the College of Charleston, Charleston SC 29424, USA.All rights to be retained by the author.
http://www.cofc.edu/chrestomathy/vol1/cook.pdf


There are six (debatably seven) prominent Romans who have been known to posterity as Lucius Calpurnius Piso:

Lucius Calpurnius Piso Frugi: (d. 261 A.D.) a Roman usurper, whose existence is
questionable, based on the unreliable Historia Augusta.

Lucius Calpurnius Piso Licinianus: deputy Roman Emperor, 10 January 69 to15 January
69, appointed by Galba.

Lucius Calpurnius Piso: Consul in 27 A.D.

Lucius Calpurnius Piso: Consul in 1 B.C., augur

Lucius Calpurnius Piso: Consul in 15 B.C., pontifex

Lucius Calpurnius Piso Caesoninus: Consul in 58 B.C. (the uncle of Julius Caesar)

Lucius Calpurnius Piso Frugi: Moneyer in 90 B.C. (our man)


All but one (or two--if you believe in the existence of "Frugi the usurper" ca. 261 A.D.) of these gentlemen lack the Frugi cognomen, indicating they are not from the same direct lineage as our moneyer, though all are Calpurnii.

Calpurnius Piso Frugi's massive issue was intended to support the war against the Marsic Confederation. The type has numerous variations and control marks.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lucius_Calpurnius_Piso
http://www.forumancientcoins.com/catalog/indexfrm.asp?vpar=55&pos=0

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.


2 commentsCleisthenes
2CrXTmC384gPtZ9JYce56FzdZ8pRzK.jpg
002d. Julia and Livia, Pergamon, Mysia43 viewsBronze AE 18, RPC I 2359, SNG Cop 467, aF, weight 3.903 g, maximum diameter 18.3 mm, die axis 0o, Pergamon mint, obverse ΛIBIAN HPAN CAPINOΣ, draped bust of Livia right; reverse IOYΛIAN AΦPO∆ITHN, draped bust of Julia right; ex Forum, ex Malter Galleries

Julia was Augustus' only natural child, the daughter of his second wife Scribonia. She was born the same day that Octavian divorced Scribonia, to marry Livia.

Julia's tragic destiny was to serve as a pawn in her father's dynastic plans. At age two, she was betrothed to Mark Antony's ten-year-old son, but the fathers' hostility ended the engagement. At age 14, she was married to her cousin but he died two years later. In 21 B.C., Julia married Agrippa, nearly 25 years her elder, Augustus' most trusted general and friend. Augustus had been advised, "You have made him so great that he must either become your son-in-law or be slain." Agrippa died suddenly in 12 B.C. and Julia was married in 11 B.C. to Tiberius.

During her marriages to Agrippa and Tiberius Julia took lovers. In 2 B.C., Julia was arrested for adultery and treason. Augustus declared her marriage null and void. He also asserted in public that she had been plotting against his own life. Reluctant to execute her, Augustus had her exiled, with no men in sight, forbidden even to drink wine. Scribonia, Julia's mother, accompanied her into exile. Five years later, she was allowed to move to Rhegium but Augustus never forgave her. When Tiberius became emperor, he cut off her allowance and put her in solitary confinement in one room in her house. Within months she died from malnutrition.
ecoli
01-Diocletian-Cyz-306.jpg
01 Diocletian: Cyzicus antoninianus.39 viewsAntoninianus; 284 - 295 AD, Cyzicus mint.
Obverse: IMP C C VAL DIOCLETIANVS AVG / Radiate bust of Diocletian.
Reverse: CONCORDIA MILITVM / Diocletian standing, holding sceptre, receiving globe (surmounted by Victory) from Jupiter, also standing and holding sceptre. E between them; XXI in exergue.
3.73 gm., 21 mm.
RIC #306; Sear #12635.

Attribution to Cyzicus: The CONCORDIA MILITVM reverse was used extensively by the mints at Siscia, Heraclea, Cyzicus, and Antioch. Siscia had only 3 officina (A B Γ), so that one can be eliminated. Heraclea and Antioch always use P F in the obverse legend (inscription #3), so those two can be eliminated. Pages 210 - 211 of RIC assign to Cyzicus coins with the word MILITVM broken between the I and L.
Callimachus
coin317.JPG
010. Vespasian14 viewsSpes

In Roman mythology, Spes was the goddess of hope. She was traditionally defined as "the last goddess" (Spes, ultima dea), meaning that hope is the last resource available to men.
There was a temple to her in the Forum Holitorium. In art, Spes was depicted hitching her skirt while holding a cornucopia and flowers. Spes personified hope for good harvests, and for children, and was invoked at births, marriages, and other important times.

Her Greek equivalent was Elpis.

Vespasian Ae As REVERSE: Spes standing;

Check
ecoli
RI 048a img.jpg
048 - Antoninus Pius denarius - RIC 290a63 viewsObv:– ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P XXII, laureate head facing right
Rev:– TEMPLVM DIV AVG REST / COS III, Octastyle Temple of Divus Augustus, with cult images of Augustus and Livia inside
Mint – Rome
Date Minted – A.D. 158-159
Reference RIC 290a
maridvnvm
Caracalla-Prieur-1144.jpg
07. Caracalla.23 viewsTetradrachm, 205-207 AD, Laodiceia ad Mare.
Obverse: AVT KAI . ANTΩNEINOC . CE . / Laureate bust of Caracalla.
Reverse: ΔHMAPX EΞ VΠATOC B / Eagle, holding wreath in beak, star between legs.
12.91 gm., 25 mm.
Bellinger #57; Prieur #1144.

When Caracalla went to the East to wage war with the Parthians, he issued vast quantities of tetradrachms to finance the activity. This coin, however, is not from that series; it was minted about 10 years earlier when Septimius Severus was still emperor. The main distinguishing feature of this coin is a bust of Caracalla as an adolescent, with just the beginnings of sideburns. It is a fairly scare type. For more information see "Severan Tetradrachms of Laodiceia" by R. G. McAlee in ANS Museum Notes #29 (1984), pages 43-59.

Prieur #1144 has the same obverse die as this coin. However, the reverse legend of #1144 has a Γ at the end of it. Prieur knew of only one example of this coin. Several years ago CNG had a coin from similar dies with the reverse legend ending in a B. Unfortunately, the last letter of the reverse legend on this coin is not real clear.
Callimachus
RI_089q_img.jpg
089 - Philip I Antoninianus - RIC -13 viewsAntoninianus
Obv:– IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG, Radiate, draped, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– AEQVITAS AVG, Aequitas standing left, holding scales and cornucopia
Minted in Antioch. A.D. 247
Reference:– RIC -; RSC -; Cohen 8; Tulln Hoard 894

This coin bears the unusual reverse ending in AVG instead of AVGG. Cohen listed this legend, but RIC and RSC cite this as erroneous. But both legend varieties are now known.

The issues from Antioch wich ending on reverse with AVG are scarce among Philip's coinages.

Uneven strike.
maridvnvm
BasIISear1813.jpg
0976-1025 AD - Basil II (Bulgaroktonos) - Anonymous Follis, Class A213 viewsEmperor: Basil II (Bulgaroktonos) (r. 976-1025 AD)
Date: 976-1025 AD
Condition: Fair
Denomination: Anonymous Follis, Class A2

Obverse: -
Bust of Christ facing, bearded, with nimbus cross having in each arm, wearing tunic and himation; right hand raised in blessing in sling of cloak, left holds book with probable in jeweled border. In field, - .

Reverse: ///
above and beneath.

Sear 1813; probable DO A2.25
15.47g; 35.3mm; 30°
Pep
BasIIDOA2_24.jpg
0976-1025 AD - Basil II (Bulgaroktonos) - Anonymous Follis, Class A2.2420 viewsEmperor: Basil II (Bulgaroktonos) (r. 976-1025 AD)
Date: 976-1025 AD
Condition: aVF
Denomination: Anonymous Follis, Class A2

Obverse: -
Bust of Christ facing, bearded, with nimbus cross having in each arm, wearing tunic and himation; right hand raised in blessing in sling of cloak, left holds book with in jeweled border. In field, - .

Reverse: ///
above and beneath.

DO A2.24; Sear 1813
13.40g; 29.0mm; 180°
Pep
MariusFundania1Denarius.jpg
0aa Caius Marius40 viewsC. Fundanius, moneyer
101-91 BC

Denarius

Helmeted head of Roma right, control-mark C behind

"Triumphator" (Marius) in quadriga right, holding laurel-branch and staff; a rider sits on near horse, holding laurel-branch, Q above, C FVNDAN in exergue

The reverse shows Marius as triumphator in the quadriga. He holds sceptre and laurel branch. On one of the horses rides his son. The children of the triumphator were - according to tradition - allowed to share the triumph of their father. The Q above refers to the office as quaestor the mintmaster held while minting these coins. FORVM Ancient Coins says of a similar piece, "The reverse refers to Marius triumph after victories over the Cimbri and Teutones. The rider on the near horse is Marius's son, at that time eight years old." Andrew McCabe comments, "The Triumphator on the Fundania denarius is usually taken to be Marius, with his young son on horseback. This would make it the first Roman coin to explicitly portray a living Roman politician. "

Seaby Fundania 1

Marius rose from common origins to become the First Man in Rome. Plutarch in his Life writes: There is a likeness of Marius in stone at Ravenna, in Gaul, which I myself saw quite corresponding with that roughness of character that is ascribed to him. Being naturally valiant and warlike, and more acquainted also with the discipline of the camp than of the city, he could not moderate his passion when in authority. . . . He was born of parents altogether obscure and indigent, who supported themselves by their daily labour; his father of the same name with himself, his mother called Fulcinia. He had spent a considerable part of his life before he saw and tasted the pleasures of the city; having passed previously in Cirrhaeaton, a village of the territory of Arpinum, a life, compared with city delicacies, rude and unrefined, yet temperate, and conformable to the ancient Roman severity. He first served as a soldier in the war against the Celtiberians, when Scipio Africanus besieged Numantia; where he signalized himself to his general by courage far above his comrades, and particularly by his cheerfully complying with Scipio's reformation of his army, being almost ruined by pleasures and luxury. It is stated, too, that he encountered and vanquished an enemy in single combat, in his general's sight. In consequence of all this he had several honours conferred upon him; and once when at an entertainment a question arose about commanders, and one of the company (whether really desirous to know, or only in complaisance) asked Scipio where the Romans, after him, should obtain such another general, Scipio, gently clapping Marius on the shoulder as he sat next him, replied, "Here, perhaps. . . ."

The consul Caecilius Metellus, being declared general in the war against Jugurtha in Africa took with him Marius for lieutenant; where, eager himself to do great deeds and services that would get him distinction, he did not, like others, consult Metellus's glory and the serving his interest, and attributing his honour of lieutenancy not to Metellus, but to fortune, which had presented him with a proper opportunity and theatre of great actions, he exerted his utmost courage. . . . Marius thus employed, and thus winning the affections of the soldiers, before long filled both Africa and Rome with his fame, and some, too, wrote home from the army that the war with Africa would never be brought to a conclusion unless they chose Caius Marius consul. . . .He was elected triumphantly, and at once proceeded to levy soldiers contrary both to law and custom, enlisting slaves and poor people; whereas former commanders never accepted of such, but bestowed arms, like other favours, as a matter of distinction, on persons who had the proper qualification, a man's property being thus a sort of security for his good behavior. . . .

[In Marius' fourth consulship,] The enemy dividing themselves into two parts, the Cimbri arranged to go against Catulus higher up through the country of the Norici, and to force that passage; the Teutones and Ambrones to march against Marius by the seaside through Liguria. . . . The Romans, pursuing them, slew and took prisoners above one hundred thousand, and possessing themselves of their spoil, tents, and carriages, voted all that was not purloined to Marius's share, which, though so magnificent a present, yet was generally thought less than his conduct deserved in so great a danger. . . . After the battle, Marius chose out from amongst the barbarians' spoils and arms those that were whole and handsome, and that would make the greatest show in his triumph; the rest he heaped upon a large pile, and offered a very splendid sacrifice. Whilst the army stood round about with their arms and garlands, himself attired (as the fashion is on such occasions) in the purple-bordered robe, and taking a lighted torch, and with both hands lifting it up towards heaven, he was then going to put it to the pile, when some friends were espied with all haste coming towards him on horseback. Upon which every one remained in silence and expectation. They, upon their coming up, leapt off and saluted Marius, bringing him the news of his fifth consulship, and delivered him letters to that effect. This gave the addition of no small joy to the solemnity; and while the soldiers clashed their arms and shouted, the officers again crowned Marius with a laurel wreath, and he thus set fire to the pile, and finished his sacrifice.
Blindado
coin194.JPG
106a. Crispina48 viewsCrispina married the sixteen year-old, Commodus in the summer of 178 and brought him, as a dowry, a large number of estates. These, when added to the Imperial holdings, gave him control of a substantial part of Lucanian territory. The actual ceremony was modest but was commemorated on coinage and largesse was distributed to the people. An epithalamium for the occasion was composed by the sophist Julius Pollux.

Upon her marriage, Crispina received the title of Augusta, and thus, became Empress of the Roman Empire as her husband was co-emperor with her father-in-law at the time. The previous empress and her mother-in-law, Faustina the Younger, having died three years prior to her arrival.

Like most marriages of young members of the nobiles, it was arranged by paters: in Crispina's case by her father and her father-in-law, Emperor Marcus Aurelius. Crispina probably meant little to her egocentric husband though she was a beautiful woman. The other possible reason being that Commodus was known to prefer the company of men. Crispina is described as being a graceful person with a susceptible heart, but there is no medal extant of her.

As Augusta, Crispina was extensively honoured with public images, during the last two years of her father-in-law's reign and the initial years of her husband's reign. She did not seem to have any significant political influence over her husband during his bizarre reign. However, she was not exempted from court politics either as her sister-in-law, Lucilla, was an ambitious woman and was reportedly jealous of Crispina, the reigning empress, due to her position and power.

Crispina's marriage failed to produce an heir due to her husband's inability, which led to a dynastic succession crisis. In fact, both Anistius Burrus (with whom Commodus had share his first consulate as sole ruler) and Gaius Arrius Antoninus, who were probably related to the imperial family, were allegedly put to death 'on the suspicion of pretending to the throne'.

After ten years of marriage, Crispina was falsely charged with adultery by her husband and was banished to the island of Capri in 188, where she was later executed. After her banishment, Commodus did not marry again but took on a mistress, a woman named Marcia, who was later said to have conspired in his murder.

Crispina, wife of Commodus, 177-192, AE Dupondius or As (24x25mm), aVF. Sear RCV 6018. Obv. CRISPINA AVGVSTA, draped bust right. Rev. IVNO LVCINA S C, Juno standing left holding patera and scepter. The coin is brown and green, on a squarish flan.
ecoli
NicIIIDOI.jpg
1078-1081 AD - Nicephorus III (Botaniates) - Anonymous Follis, Class I11 viewsEmperor: Nicephorus III (Botaniates) (r. 1078-1081 AD)
Date: 1078-1081 AD
Condition: Fine
Denomination: Anonymous Follis, Class I

Obverse: No legend
Bust of Christ facing, having long, slightly forked beard and cross nimbus with one pellet in each arm, wearing tunic and himation; right hand blessing inwards in sling of cloak, left holds book, with on cover, from beneath. In field, - .

Reverse: No legend
Latin cross with one large and two small pellets at each extremity, small cross at intersection, and pellet with floral ornaments to left and right at base. Above, crescents to left and right.

DO I; Sear 1889
5.13g; 22.9mm; 195°
Pep
1189_-_1199_Richard_I_AR_Denier.JPG
1189 - 1199, RICHARD I (the lionheart), AR Denier minted at Melle, Poitou, France44 viewsObverse: +RICARDVS REX. Cross pattée within braided inner circle, all within braided outer circle.
Reverse: PIC / TAVIE / NSIS in three lines within braided circle.
Diameter: 20mm | Weight: 1.0gms | Die Axis: 2
SPINK: 8008 | Elias: 8

Poitou was an Anglo-Gallic province in what is now west-central France and its capital city was Poitiers, the mint at this time was however located at Melle. Melle was an active centre of minting during the early Middle Ages due to the important silver mines located under and around the city. This is the only coin issue struck during the reign of Richard I to bear his own name and titles as King of England.

Richard I was King of England from 1189 until his death on 6th April 1199. He also ruled several territories outwith England, and was styled as Duke of Normandy, Aquitaine and Gascony, Lord of Cyprus, Count of Poitiers, Anjou, Maine, and Nantes, as well as being overlord of Brittany at various times during the same period. He was the third of five sons of King Henry II of England and Duchess Eleanor of Aquitaine. He was known as Richard the Lionheart (Richard Cśur de Lion) because of his reputation as a great military leader and warrior when, at the age of 16 and commanding his own army, he had put down rebellions against his father in Poitou.
Richard was a commander during the Third Crusade, and led the campaign after the departure of Philip II of France. However, although he scored several notable victories against the Muslims led by Saladin, he failed to retake Jerusalem from them.
Although Richard was born in England and spent his childhood there before becoming king, he lived most of his adult life in the Duchy of Aquitaine. Following his accession, his life was mostly spent on Crusade, in captivity, or actively defending his lands in France. Rather than regarding England as a responsibility requiring his presence as ruler, he appears to have used it merely as a source of revenue to support his armies. Nevertheless, he was seen as a pious hero by his subjects and he remains one of the few kings of England who is remembered by his epithet rather than by his regnal number, and even today he is still an iconic figure in both England and France.
3 comments*Alex
12_caes_portraits_coll_res_lt.jpg
12 CAESARS PORTRAITS164 viewsObverse images from my collection.
R 1: Julius, Augustus, Tiberius, Caligula
R 2: Claudius, Nero, Galba, Otho
R 3: Vitellius, Vespasian, Titus, Domitian
2 commentslaney
13-Alex-Phaselis-P2853.jpg
13. Phaselis: Tetradrachm in the name of Alexander the Great.24 viewsTetradrachm, 206 / 05 BC, Phaselis mint.
Obverse: Head of Alexander as Herakles, wearing lion's skin headdress.
Reverse: ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ / Zeus sitting, holding his attendant eagle and sceptre. ΙΓ and Φ at left.
16.59 gm., 30 mm.
P. #2853.

The letters ΙΓ are a date: year 13. The dated coinage of Phaselis runs from year 1 through year 33. The coinage of Phaselis came to an end in 186 BC when the Treaty of Apamea gave Rhodes control over Lycia. That makes year 13 correspond to 206 / 205 BC. See pages 346 - 49 of Price, vol. I.
Callimachus
Edward_III_AR_Penny.JPG
1327 - 1377, EDWARD III, AR Penny, Treaty Period, struck 1361 – 1369 at London, England9 viewsObverse: + EDWARDVS REX ANGLI. Crowned bust of Edward III facing within circle of pellets. Cross pattée in legend.
Reverse: CIVITAS LONDON. Long cross dividing legend into quarters, trefoil and annulet in each quarter of inner circle.
This coin was struck during the period of the Treaty of Brétigny under which Edward III renounced his claim to the French throne.
Diameter: 19mm | Weight: 1.0gms | Die Axis: 10
SPINK: 1630

Edward III was King of England from January 1327 until his death. He is noted for his military success and for restoring royal authority after the disastrous and unorthodox reign of his father, Edward II. During his long reign Edward III transformed the Kingdom of England into one of the most formidable military powers in Europe. His reign also saw vital developments in legislation and government, in particular the evolution of the English parliament, though it also saw the ravages of the Black Death.
Edward was crowned at the age of fourteen after his father was deposed by his mother, Isabella of France, and her lover Roger Mortimer. But at the age of seventeen he led a successful coup d'état against Mortimer, whom he executed, and began his personal reign.
In 1337, after a successful campaign in Scotland, Edward declared himself the rightful heir to the French throne which started what was to become known as the Hundred Years' War. Following some initial setbacks, the first part of this war went exceptionally well for England, the victories at Crécy and Poitiers led to the highly favourable Treaty of Brétigny in which, though Edward renounced his claim to the French throne, England made great territorial gains. However Edward's later years were marked by international failure and domestic strife, largely as a result of his inactivity and poor health.
Around 29 September 1376 Edward fell ill with a large abscess and, after a brief period of recovery, the king died of a stroke at Sheen on 21 June. He was succeeded by his ten-year-old grandson, King Richard II, since the Black Prince, Edward's son and Richard's father, had predeceased Edward on 8 June 1376.
2 comments*Alex
1327_-_1377_Edward_III_billon_denier_au_leopard.JPG
1327 - 1377, EDWARD III, Billon Denier au Leopard, struck 1327 - 1362 at Bordeaux, France6 viewsObverse: + EDVARDVS : REX around beaded inner circle containing legend ANGL between two lines, Leopard facing left above, trefoil of pellets below. Cross pattée in legend.
Reverse: + DVX AQITANIE around beaded inner circle containing cross pattée. Cross pattée in legend.
Diameter: 18mm | Weight: 0.70gms | Die Axis: 3
Second type issue. Scarce
SPINK: 8090

Unlike English silver coins which, with few exceptions were maintained at sterling fineness, these small denomination continental coins were often debased. At the time of issue they would have had a good silver appearance, but after some use their color darkened, hence they became known as “Black Money”.
Black money coins were hastily produced in large numbers and often poorly struck. They were the common circulating medium at the time and consequently they became very worn so that, during the ensuing years during which there were frequent re-coinages, they were the first into the melting pot. Surviving examples are therefore now quite rare and most of those that have survived are of a low grade.

*Alex
St.Helena.jpg
1401a, St. Helena, Augusta 8 November 324 - 328 to 330 A.D., mother of Constantine the Great96 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC 148, VF, Alexandria mint, 3.243g, 19.4mm, 165o, 327 - 328 A.D. Obverse: FL HELENA AVGVSTA, diademed and mantled bust right wearing double necklace; Reverse: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICE, Securitas holding branch downward in right and lifting fold of robe in left, wreath left, I right, SMAL in exergue; rare.

The mother of Constantine the Great, born about the middle of the third century, possibly in Drepanum (later known as Helenopolis) on the Nicomedian Gulf; died about 330. She was of humble parentage; St. Ambrose, in his "Oratio de obitu Theodosii", referred to her as a stabularia, or inn-keeper. Nevertheless, she became the lawful wife of Constantius Chlorus. Her first and only son, Constantine, was born in Naissus in Upper Moesia, in the year 274. The statement made by English chroniclers of the Middle Ages, according to which Helena was supposed to have been the daughter of a British prince, is entirely without historical foundation. It may arise from the misinterpretation of a term used in the fourth chapter of the panegyric on Constantine's marriage with Fausta, that Constantine, oriendo (i. e., "by his beginnings," "from the outset") had honoured Britain, which was taken as an allusion to his birth, whereas the reference was really to the beginning of his reign.

On the death of Constantius Chlorus, in 308, Constantine, who succeeded him, summoned his mother to the imperial court, conferred on her the title of Augusta, ordered that all honour should be paid her as the mother of the sovereign, and had coins struck bearing her effigy. Her son's influence caused her to embrace Christianity after his victory over Maxentius. This is directly attested by Eusebius (Vita Constantini, III, xlvii): "She (his mother) became under his (Constantine's) influence such a devout servant of God, that one might believe her to have been from her very childhood a disciple of the Redeemer of mankind". It is also clear from the declaration of the contemporary historian of the Church that Helena, from the time of her conversion had an earnestly Christian life and by her influence and liberality favoured the wider spread of Christianity. Tradition links her name with the building of Christian churches in the cities of the West, where the imperial court resided, notably at Rome and Trier, and there is no reason for rejecting this tradition, for we know positively through Eusebius that Helena erected churches on the hallowed spots of Palestine. Despite her advanced age she undertook a journey to Palestine when Constantine, through his victory over Licinius, had become sole master of the Roman Empire, subsequently, therefore, to the year 324. It was in Palestine, as we learn from Eusebius (loc. cit., xlii), that she had resolved to bring to God, the King of kings, the homage and tribute of her devotion. She lavished on that land her bounties and good deeds, she "explored it with remarkable discernment", and "visited it with the care and solicitude of the emperor himself". Then, when she "had shown due veneration to the footsteps of the Saviour", she had two churches erected for the worship of God: one was raised in Bethlehem near the Grotto of the Nativity, the other on the Mount of the Ascension, near Jerusalem. She also embellished the sacred grotto with rich ornaments. This sojourn in Jerusalem proved the starting-point of the legend first recorded by Rufinus as to the discovery of the Cross of Christ.

Constantine I, in 327, improved Drepanum, his mother's native town, and decreed that it should be called Helenopolis, it is probable that the latter returned from Palestine to her son who was then residing in the Orient. Constantine was with her when she died, at the advanced age of eighty years or thereabouts (Eusebius, "Vita Const.", III, xlvi). This must have been about the year 330, for the last coins which are known to have been stamped with her name bore this date. Her body was brought to Constantinople and laid to rest in the imperial vault of the church of the Apostles. It is presumed that her remains were transferred in 849 to the Abbey of Hautvillers, in the French Archdiocese of Reims, as recorded by the monk Altmann in his "Translatio". She was revered as a saint, and the veneration spread, early in the ninth century, even to Western countries. Her feast falls on 18 August.

(See The Catholic Encyclopedia: http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/07202b.htm)

Cleisthenes
CtG AE3.jpg
1403a,1, Constantine I (the Great), 307-337 A.D.46 viewsConstantine I (the Great), 307-337 A.D. Bronze AE 3, RIC 16, C -, VF, 2.854g, 19.1mm, 180o, Constantinople mint, 327 A.D. Obverse: CONSTANTI-NVS MAX AVG, rosette diademed head right; Reverse: GLORIA EXERCITVS, Soldier standing left, head right, resting left hand on shield and holding inverted spear in right, G in left field, CONS in exergue; very rare (R3).

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
1 commentsCleisthenes
Const1GlrEx.jpg
1403b, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D.37 viewsConstantine the Great, early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D., Bronze AE 3, RIC 137, VF, Constantinople mint, 1.476g, 16.4mm, 180o, 336 - 337 A.D. Obverse: CONSTANTI-NVS MAX AVG, laurel and rosette-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: GLOR-IA EXERC-ITVS, two soldiers, each holding spear and shield on ground, flanking standard, CONS[ ] in exergue. Ex FORVM.

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
Cleisthenes
CTGDafne.jpg
1403c, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D.49 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC VII 35, choice aEF, Constantinople mint, 3.336g, 20.0mm, 180o, 328 A.D.; Obverse: CONSTANTI-NVS MAX AVG, laurel and rosette diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: CONSTANTINI-ANA DAFNE, Victory seated left on cippus, head right, palm frond in each hand, trophy and captive before, CONS in exergue, B left; scarce. Ex FORVM.

"The information about Constantine's campaign across [the Danube] is obscure and untrustworthy. The question, therefore, of what he achieved by this enterprise was, and is, subject to contradictory interpretations. On the one hand, the Panegyrists claimed that he had repeated the triumphs of Trajan. On the other, his own nephew, Julian the Apostate, spoke for many when he expressed the view that this second 'conquest' of Dacia was incomplete and extremely brief . . . monetary commemoration was accorded to the building, at about the same time [AD 328], of the river frontier fortress of Constantiniana Dafne (Spantov, near Oltenita) . . ." (Grant, Michael. The Emperor Constantine. London: Phoenix, 1998. 58-9).

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
1 commentsCleisthenes
CTGKyzAE3.jpg
1403d, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D. (Cyzicus)37 viewsConstantine the Great, early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D. Bronze AE 3, RIC 199, gVF, corrosion, Cyzicus, 1.402g, 16.2mm, 0o, 336 - 337 A.D. Obverse: CONSTANTI-NVS MAX AVG, laurel and rosette-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: GLOR-IA EXERC-ITVS•, two soldiers, each holding spear and shield on ground, flanking standard, SMKA in exergue.

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
Cleisthenes
CTGVOTXXX.jpg
1403e, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D. (Heraclea)28 viewsConstantine the Great, Bronze AE 3, RIC 69, VF, Heraclea, 3.38g, 19.0mm, 180o, 325 - 326 A.D. Obverse: CONSTAN-TINVS AVG, laureate head right; Reverse: D N CONSTANTINI MAX AVG, VOT XXX in wreath, SMHD in exergue.

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
Cleisthenes
12817p00.jpg
1403f, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D. (Heraclea)20 viewsBronze follis, RIC 5, F/aF, 3.513g, 20.4mm, 180o, Heraclea mint, 313 A.D.; obverse IMP C FL VAL CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, laureate head right; reverse IOVI CONSER-VATORI AVGG, Jupiter standing left holding Victory and scepter, eagle with wreath in beek at feet, B in right field, SMHT in exergue.

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
Cleisthenes
CTGaeFolNico.jpg
1403g, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D. (Nicomedia)22 viewsConstantine the Great, early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D. Bronze follis, RIC 12, aVF, Nicomedia mint, 2.760g, 22.0mm, 0o, 313 - 317 A.D. Obverse: IMP C FL VAL CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, laureate head right; Reverse: IOVI CONS-ERVATORI, Jupiter standing left holding Victory on globe and scepter, eagle with wreath in beak left, G right, SMN in exergue; scarce.

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
Cleisthenes
CTG.jpg
1403h, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D. (Siscia)36 viewsBronze follis, RIC 232b, gVF, Siscia, 3.87g, 23.8mm, 180o, early 313 A.D. Obverse: IMP CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, laureate head right; Reverse: IOVI CONSERVATORI AVGG NN, Jupiter standing left holding Victory on globe and scepter, eagle with wreath in beak left, E right, SIS in exergue.

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
Cleisthenes
CTG_SisCmpGte.jpg
1403i, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D. (Siscia)42 viewsSilvered AE 3, RIC 214, VF, Siscia mint, 3.187g, 19.3mm, 0o, 328 - 329 A.D.
Obverse: CONSTAN-TINVS AVG, laureate head right; Reverse PROVIDEN-TIAE AVGG, campgate with two turrets, star above, ASIS and double crescent in exergue.

Flavius Valerius Constantinus, Constantine the Great, was the son of Helena and the First Tetrarchic ruler Constantius I. Constantine is most famous for his conversion to Christianity and the battle of the Milvian Bridge where he defeated emperor Maxentius. It is reputed that before the battle, he saw the words "In Hoc Signo Victor Eris" (By this sign you shall conquer) emblazoned on the sun around the Chi Rho, the symbol of Christianity. Other sources claim the vision came to Constantine I in a dream. The story continues that after placing this Christogram on the shields of his army, he defeated his opponent and thus ruled the empire through divine providence. Constantine I also shifted the capital of the empire to Constantinople, establishing the foundation for an Empire that would last another 1000 years. He died in 337 and his sons divided the Roman territories.

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power, and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
Cleisthenes
CTG_ThesCmpGte.jpg
1403j, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D. (Thessalonica)26 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC 153, VF, Thessalonica mint, 2.955g, 19.7mm, 0o, 326 - 328 A.D. Obverse: CONSTAN-TINVS AVG, laureate head right; Reverse: PROVIDEN-TIAE AVGG, campgate with two turrets, star above, dot right, SMTSG in exergue.

Flavius Valerius Constantinus, Constantine the Great, was the son of Helena and the First Tetrarchic ruler Constantius I. Constantine is most famous for his conversion to Christianity and the battle of the Milvian Bridge where he defeated emperor Maxentius. It is reputed that before the battle, he saw the words "In Hoc Signo Victor Eris" (By this sign you shall conquer) emblazoned on the sun around the Chi Rho, the symbol of Christianity. Other sources claim the vision came to Constantine I in a dream. The story continues that after placing this Christogram on the shields of his army, he defeated his opponent and thus ruled the empire through divine providence. Constantine I also shifted the capital of the empire to Constantinople, establishing the foundation for an Empire that would last another 1000 years. He died in 337 and his sons divided the Roman territories.

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power, and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
Cleisthenes
Theo1Ae3Ant.jpeg
1505b, Theodosius I, 19 January 379 - 17 January 395 A.D. (Antioch)70 viewsTheodosius I, 19 January 379 - 17 January 395 A.D. Bronze AE 3, RIC 44(b), VF, Antioch, 2.17g, 18.1mm, 180o, 9 Aug 378 - 25 Aug 383 A.D. Obverse: D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG, rosette-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: CONCORDIA AVGGG, Constantinopolis enthroned facing, r. foot on prow, globe in l., scepter in r., Q and F at sides, ANTG in ex; scarce.


De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

THEODOSIUS I (379-395 A.D.)
David Woods
University College of Cork


Origin and Early Career
Flavius Theodosius was born at Cauca in Spain in about 346 to Thermantia and Theodosius the Elder (so-called to distinguish him from his son). Theodosius the Elder was a senior military officer serving in the Western empire and rose to become the magister equitum praesentalis under the emperor Valentinian I from late 368 until his execution in early 375. As the son of a soldier, Theodosius was legally obliged to enter upon a military career. He seems to have served under his father during his expedition to Britain in 367/8, and was the dux Moesiae Primae by late 374. Unfortunately, great controversy surrounds the rest of his career until Gratian had him hailed as his imperial colleague in succession to the emperor Valens at Sirmium on 19 January 379. It is clear that he was forced to retire home to Spain only to be recalled to active service shortly thereafter, but the circumstances of his forced retirement are shrouded in mystery. His father was executed at roughly the same time, and much speculation has centred on the relationship between these events.

[For a very detailed and interesting discussion of the Foreign Policy of Theodosius and the Civil Wars that plagued his reign, please see http://www.roman-emperors.org/theo1.htm]

Family and Succession
Theodosius married twice. His first wife was the Spanish Aelia Flavia Flaccilla. She bore him Arcadius ca. 377, Honorius on 9 September 384, and Pulcheria ca. 385. Theodosius honoured her with the title of Augusta shortly after his accession, but she died in 386. In late 387 he married Galla, daughter of Valentinian I and full-sister of Valentinian II. She bore him Gratian ca. 388, Galla Placidia ca. 388/390, and died in childbirth in 394, together with her new-born son John. Of his two sons who survived infancy, he appointed Arcadius as Augustus on 19 January 383 and Honorius as Augustus on 23 January 393. His promotion of Arcadius as a full Augustus at an unusually young age points to his determination right from the start that one of his own sons should succeed him. He sought to strengthen Arcadius' position in particular by means of a series of strategic marriages whose purpose was to tie his leading "generals" irrevocably to his dynasty. Hence he married his niece and adoptive daughter Serena to his magister militum per Orientem Stilicho in 387, her elder sister Thermantia to a "general" whose name has not been preserved, and ca. 387 his nephew-in-law Nebridius to Salvina, daughter of the comes Africae Gildo. By the time of his death by illness on 17 January 395, Theodosius had promoted Stilicho from his position as one of the two comites domesticorum under his own eastern administration to that of magister peditum praesentalis in a western administration, in an entirely traditional manner, under his younger son Honorius. Although Stilicho managed to increase the power of the magister peditum praesentalis to the disadvantage of his colleague the magister equitum praesentalis and claimed that Theodosius had appointed him as guardian for both his sons, this tells us more about his cunning and ambition than it does about Theodosius' constitutional arrangements.

Theodosius' importance rests on the fact that he founded a dynasty which continued in power until the death of his grandson Theodosius II in 450. This ensured a continuity of policy which saw the emergence of Nicene Christianity as the orthodox belief of the vast majority of Christians throughout the middle ages. It also ensured the essential destruction of paganism and the emergence of Christianity as the religion of the state, even if the individual steps in this process can be difficult to identify. On the negative side, however, he allowed his dynastic interests and ambitions to lead him into two unnecessary and bloody civil wars which severely weakened the empire's ability to defend itself in the face of continued barbarian pressure upon its frontiers. In this manner, he put the interests of his family before those of the wider Roman population and was responsible, in many ways, for the phenomenon to which we now refer as the fall of the western Roman empire.


Copyright (C) 1998, David Woods.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

There is a nice segue here, as we pick-up John Julius Norwich's summation of the reign of Theodosius, "Readers of this brief account of his career may well find themselves wondering, not so much whether he deserved the title of 'the Great' as how he ever came to acquire it in the first place. If so, however, they may also like to ask themselves another question: what would have been the fate of the Empire if, at that critical moment in its history after the battle of Adrianople, young Gratian had not called him from his Spanish estates and put the future of the East into his hands? . . . the probability is that the whole Empire of the East would have been lost, swallowed up in a revived Gothic kingdom, with effects on world history that defy speculation.

In his civil legislation he showed, again and again, a consideration for the humblest of his subjects that was rare indeed among rulers of the fourth century. What other prince would have decreed that any criminal, sentenced to execution, imprisonment or exile, must first be allowed thirty days' grace to put his affairs in order? Or that a specified part of his worldly goods must go to his children, upon whom their father's crimes must on no account be visited? Or that no farmer should be obliged to sell his produce to the State at a price lower than he would receive on the open market?

Had he earned his title? Not, perhaps, in the way that Constantine had done or as Justinian was to do. But, if not ultimately great himself, he had surely come very close to greatness; and had he reigned as long as they did his achievements might well have equalled theirs. He might even have saved the Western Empire. One thing only is certain: it would be nearly a century and a half before the Romans would look upon his like again" (Norwich, John Julius. Byzantium, the Early Centuries. London: Penguin Group, 1990. 116-7;118).

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.



Cleisthenes
Theod1GlrMan.jpg
1505c, Theodosius I, 379 - 395 A.D. (Constantinople)79 viewsTheodosius I (379 - 395 AD) AE3. 388-394 AD, RIC IX 27(a)3, Third Officina. Seventh Period. 20.27 mm. 4.8gm. Near VF with black and earthen patina. Constantinople. Obverse: DN THEODO-SIANVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped, & cuirassed bust right; Reverse: GLORIA-ROMANORVM, Theodosius I standing, facing, holding labarum and globe, CONSB in exergue (scarcer reverse). A Spanish find.



De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

THEODOSIUS I (379-395 A.D.)
David Woods
University College of Cork


Origin and Early Career
Flavius Theodosius was born at Cauca in Spain in about 346 to Thermantia and Theodosius the Elder (so-called to distinguish him from his son). Theodosius the Elder was a senior military officer serving in the Western empire and rose to become the magister equitum praesentalis under the emperor Valentinian I from late 368 until his execution in early 375. As the son of a soldier, Theodosius was legally obliged to enter upon a military career. He seems to have served under his father during his expedition to Britain in 367/8, and was the dux Moesiae Primae by late 374. Unfortunately, great controversy surrounds the rest of his career until Gratian had him hailed as his imperial colleague in succession to the emperor Valens at Sirmium on 19 January 379. It is clear that he was forced to retire home to Spain only to be recalled to active service shortly thereafter, but the circumstances of his forced retirement are shrouded in mystery. His father was executed at roughly the same time, and much speculation has centred on the relationship between these events.

[For a very detailed and interesting discussion of the Foreign Policy of Theodosius and the Civil Wars that plagued his reign, please see http://www.roman-emperors.org/theo1.htm]

Family and Succession
Theodosius married twice. His first wife was the Spanish Aelia Flavia Flaccilla. She bore him Arcadius ca. 377, Honorius on 9 September 384, and Pulcheria ca. 385. Theodosius honoured her with the title of Augusta shortly after his accession, but she died in 386. In late 387 he married Galla, daughter of Valentinian I and full-sister of Valentinian II. She bore him Gratian ca. 388, Galla Placidia ca. 388/390, and died in childbirth in 394, together with her new-born son John. Of his two sons who survived infancy, he appointed Arcadius as Augustus on 19 January 383 and Honorius as Augustus on 23 January 393. His promotion of Arcadius as a full Augustus at an unusually young age points to his determination right from the start that one of his own sons should succeed him. He sought to strengthen Arcadius' position in particular by means of a series of strategic marriages whose purpose was to tie his leading "generals" irrevocably to his dynasty. Hence he married his niece and adoptive daughter Serena to his magister militum per Orientem Stilicho in 387, her elder sister Thermantia to a "general" whose name has not been preserved, and ca. 387 his nephew-in-law Nebridius to Salvina, daughter of the comes Africae Gildo. By the time of his death by illness on 17 January 395, Theodosius had promoted Stilicho from his position as one of the two comites domesticorum under his own eastern administration to that of magister peditum praesentalis in a western administration, in an entirely traditional manner, under his younger son Honorius. Although Stilicho managed to increase the power of the magister peditum praesentalis to the disadvantage of his colleague the magister equitum praesentalis and claimed that Theodosius had appointed him as guardian for both his sons, this tells us more about his cunning and ambition than it does about Theodosius' constitutional arrangements.

Theodosius' importance rests on the fact that he founded a dynasty which continued in power until the death of his grandson Theodosius II in 450. This ensured a continuity of policy which saw the emergence of Nicene Christianity as the orthodox belief of the vast majority of Christians throughout the middle ages. It also ensured the essential destruction of paganism and the emergence of Christianity as the religion of the state, even if the individual steps in this process can be difficult to identify. On the negative side, however, he allowed his dynastic interests and ambitions to lead him into two unnecessary and bloody civil wars which severely weakened the empire's ability to defend itself in the face of continued barbarian pressure upon its frontiers. In this manner, he put the interests of his family before those of the wider Roman population and was responsible, in many ways, for the phenomenon to which we now refer as the fall of the western Roman empire.


Copyright (C) 1998, David Woods.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

There is a nice segue here, as we pick-up John Julius Norwich's summation of the reign of Theodosius, "Readers of this brief account of his career may well find themselves wondering, not so much whether he deserved the title of 'the Great' as how he ever came to acquire it in the first place. If so, however, they may also like to ask themselves another question: what would have been the fate of the Empire if, at that critical moment in its history after the battle of Adrianople, young Gratian had not called him from his Spanish estates and put the future of the East into his hands? . . . the probability is that the whole Empire of the East would have been lost, swallowed up in a revived Gothic kingdom, with effects on world history that defy speculation.

In his civil legislation he showed, again and again, a consideration for the humblest of his subjects that was rare indeed among rulers of the fourth century. What other prince would have decreed that any criminal, sentenced to execution, imprisonment or exile, must first be allowed thirty days' grace to put his affairs in order? Or that a specified part of his worldly goods must go to his children, upon whom their father's crimes must on no account be visited? Or that no farmer should be obliged to sell his produce to the State at a price lower than he would receive on the open market?

Had he earned his title? Not, perhaps, in the way that Constantine had done or as Justinian was to do. But, if not ultimately great himself, he had surely come very close to greatness; and had he reigned as long as they did his achievements might well have equalled theirs. He might even have saved the Western Empire. One thing only is certain: it would be nearly a century and a half before the Romans would look upon his like again" (Norwich, John Julius. Byzantium, the Early Centuries. London: Penguin Group, 1990. 116-7;118).

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
Herennius-Etr-RIC-138.jpg
16. Herennius Etruscus.11 viewsAntoninianus, ca 250 - 251 AD, Rome mint.
Obverse: Q HER ETR MES DECIVS NOB C / Radiate bust of Herennius Etruscus.
Reverse: CONCORDIA AVGG / Two clasped right hands.
4.26 gm., 21 mm.
RIC #138; Sear #9518.

The title Nobilissimus Caesar first makes its appearance on Roman silver coins on the coinages of the sons of Trajan Decius. By the mid third century, the title had come to designate the heir or successor of the emperor. On coins, this title is usually abbreviated NOB C, NC, or NOB CAES.
Callimachus
1660_woodcut_colosseum_37.jpg
1660 Roman Woodcut Prints91 viewsDate: ca. AD 1660, Anonymous
Size: 16 x 10.7 cm

This is an leaf from a book on Rome from circa AD 1660. It has hand colored images of various Roman architecture (including the Colosseum). It has rough edges and some minor age toning, but overall the pictures are intact, brightly colored, and beautifully preserved. This book was published during the reign of Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor. In the seventeenth century, the city of Rome became the consummate statement of Catholic majesty and triumph expressed in all the arts. Baroque architects, artists, and urban planners so magnified and invigorated the classical and ecclesiastical traditions of the city that it became for centuries after the acknowledged capital of the European art world, not only a focus for tourists and artists but also a watershed of inspiration throughout the Western world.
3 commentsNoah
1752_-_Nantes_-_1.JPG
1752 - maire de Nantes11 viewscuivre
7,25g
28mm
mairie de Mathurin Bellabre
PROTEGIT ET PASCIT
"Il protčge et nourrit"
1752
Ecu sur un cartouche, des armes du Maire ( D'azur, au palmier de sinople, sur une terrasse de męme), timbré d'une couronne comtale. Tenants : deux sauvages armés de massues
A droite sur un ornement de cartouche signature du graveur Duvivier D.V.
* DE LA MAIRIE DE Mr. BELLABRE PRt. ET SENl. DU PRl. DE NANTES
Les armes de la ville de Nantes : vaisseau Nantais voguant ŕ ŕ gauche au chef semé de mouchetures d'hermines. Timbré d' une couronne comtale, entourée de la cordeličre
PYL
1794_COVENTRY_CROSS_HALFPENNY.JPG
1794 AE Halfpenny Token. Coventry, Warwickshire.27 viewsObverse: PRO BONO PUBLICO. Lady Godiva riding side-saddle on horse to left; in exergue, 1794.
Reverse: COVENTRY HALFPENNY. Representation of Coventry's old town cross with COV CROSS in small letters at base.
Edge: PAYABLE AT THE WAREHOUSE OF ROBERT REYNOLDS & CO.
Diameter 29.5mm | Axis 12
Dalton & Hamer: 249
RARE

This token was manufactured by William Lutwyche and the dies were engraved by William Mainwaring.
It was issued by Robert Reynolds & Co., who were ribbon weavers with a business in Coventry.

The original Coventry Cross stood at the place where Broadgate met Cross Cheaping, near Spicer Stoke, a very short row which led through from Broadgate to Butcher Row and Trinity church. Though it is likely that a cross had been standing in this place since the 13th century, the first actual record for the building of a cross was on 1st July 1423 when the Mayor, Henry Peyto, officially sanctioned that a new cross should be built. Although it was quite a substantial structure, within a century it was rather the worse for wear, and by 1506 discussions had begun about replacing it.
In 1541, the former mayor of London, Sir William Hollis, left Ł200 in his will toward the building of a new cross, and by 1544 the 57 foot high cross was completed. As well as being brightly painted, the cross was also covered with much gold and it was renowned for its fame and beauty. It was built in four sections, with statues in the top three storeys: the lower of these holding statues of Henry VI, King John, Edward I, Henry II, Richard I and Henry. Above these were Edward III, Henry II, Richard III, St Michael and St George. The top storey held statues of St Peter, St James, St Christopher and two monks, with representations of Liberty and Justice at the highest point. In 1608 repairs were carried out to the cross during which the figure of Christ was replaced with one of Lady Godiva. Possibly the obverse of this token is based on this statue since there is no record of there being any other Lady Godiva memorial statues before 1949.
After standing gloriously for two centuries, decay once more set into the cross and, in 1753 and 1755, the top two stages were removed to avoid the danger of collapse. By 1771 the cross was declared to be in too ruinous a state to retain, and it's demolition was authorised. The remains stood for a short while longer though, at least until after 1778 when a visitor to Coventry wrote that the decayed cross "...has no longer anything to please".
This token is dated 1794, but must depict the cross as it was in it's heyday before it was totally demolished and it's parts reused. Two of the statues from the cross now reside at St. Mary's Guildhall.
A modern replica of the cross was unveiled in 1976, it is situated about 100 metres away from the site of the original one.
*Alex
966_P_Hadrian_RPC1885.jpg
1885 AEOLIS, Elaea. Hadrian, Basket with Poppies26 viewsReference.
RPC III, 1885; Sear 1161v; BMC 42 (pag. 129); SNGvA 1611; SNG Munchen 424, SNG Cop -

Obv. ΑΥΤΟ ΤΡΑΙ ΑΔΡΙ
Laureate, draped & cuirassed bust right.

Rev. ΕΛΑΙΤΩΝ
Basket containing ears of corn & poppy-heads.

3.20 gr
16 mm
12h

Note.
FORVM, from the Butte College Foundation, ex Lindgren

laea was the ancient port of Pergamum, located near the modern town of Zeytindag, Izmir Province, Turkey. The name of Elaea occurs in the history of the kings of Pergamum. According to Strabo, from Livy (xxxv. 13), travelers who would reach Pergamum from the sea, would land at Elaea. One of the passages of Livy shows that there was a small hill near Elaea, and that the town was in a plain and walled. Elaea was damaged by an earthquake in the reign of Trajan, at the same time that Pitane suffered. The ruins of the silted port's breakwater can be seen on satellite photos.
1 commentsokidoki
PCrassusDenAmazon.jpg
1ab Marcus Licinius Crassus172 viewsFormed First Triumvirate with Caesar and Pompey in 60 BC, killed at Carrhae in Parthia in 53 BC.

Denarius, minted by son, P Licinius Crassus, ca 54 BC.
Bust of Venus, right, SC behind
Amazon with horse, P CRASSVS MF.

These coins were probably minted to pay Crassus' army for the invasion of Parthia. The reverse figure is sometimes described as a warrior or Gaulish horseman, but this example clearly accords with those who identify the figure as a woman! Member of the first triumvirate, 59-53 BC.

Seaby, Licinia 18

Plutarch wrote of Crassus: People were wont to say that the many virtues of Crassus were darkened by the one vice of avarice, and indeed he seemed to have no other but that; for it being the most predominant, obscured others to which he was inclined. The arguments in proof of his avarice were the vastness of his estate, and the manner of raising it; for whereas at first he was not worth above three hundred talents, yet, though in the course of his political life he dedicated the tenth of all he had to Hercules, and feasted the people, and gave to every citizen corn enough to serve him three months, upon casting up his accounts, before he went upon his Parthian expedition, he found his possessions to amount to seven thousand one hundred talents; most of which, if we may scandal him with a truth, he got by fire and rapine, making his advantages of the public calamities. . . . Crassus, however, was very eager to be hospitable to strangers; he kept open house, and to his friends he would lend money without interest, but called it in precisely at the time; so that his kindness was often thought worse than the paying the interest would have been. His entertainments were, for the most part, plain and citizen-like, the company general and popular; good taste and kindness made them pleasanter than sumptuosity would have done. As for learning he chiefly cared for rhetoric, and what would be serviceable with large numbers; he became one of the best speakers at Rome, and by his pains and industry outdid the best natural orators. . . . Besides, the people were pleased with his courteous and unpretending salutations and greetings, for he never met any citizen however humble and low, but he returned him his salute by name. He was looked upon as a man well-read in history, and pretty well versed in Aristotle's philosophy. . . . Crassus was killed by a Parthian, called Pomaxathres; others say by a different man, and that Pomaxathres only cut off his head and right hand after he had fallen. But this is conjecture rather than certain knowledge, for those that were by had not leisure to observe particulars. . . .
2 commentsBlindado
PCrassusDenAmazon2.jpg
1ab_2 Marcus Licinius Crassus34 viewsFormed First Triumvirate with Caesar and Pompey in 60 BC, killed at Carrhae in Parthia in 53 BC.

Denarius, minted by son, P Licinius Crassus, ca 54 BC.
Bust of Venus, right, SC behind
Amazon with horse, P CRASSVS MF.

Seaby, Licinia 18

These coins were probably minted to pay Crassus' army for the invasion of Parthia. My synthesis of reviewing 90 examples of this issue revealed a female warrior wearing a soft felt Scythian cap with ear flaps (visible in this example); a fabric garment with a decorated skirt to the knees; probably trousers; an ornate war belt; a baldric; a cape, animal skin, or shoulder cord on attached to the left shoulder; and decorated calf-high boots. She matches the historically confirmed garb of the real amazons—Scythian horsewomen—and of course holds her steed. The horse’s tack is consistent with archeological discoveries of tack in use by Scythians and Romans.

Adrienne Mayor writes that amazon imagery on Greek vases suddenly appeared in 575-550 BC, initially depicting them in Greek-style armor. By the end of the century, as the Greeks learned more through direct and indirect contact with Scythians, they began to appear wearing archeologically confirmed Scythian-Sarmatian-Thracian patterned attire. (Adrienne Mayor, The Amazons: Lives and Legends of Warrior Women Across the Ancient World, Princeton, Princeton University Press, 2014, 199-200). To this, artists added their own creative ideas regarding colors, fabric patterns, and decorations. “They dressed the warrior women in body-hugging ‘unitards’ or tunics, short chitons or belted dresses, sometimes over leggings or trousers. . . . In paintings and sculpture, pointed or soft Scythian caps with earflaps or ties (kidaris) soon replaced the Greek helmets, and the women wear a variety of belts, baldrics (diagonal straps), corselets, shoulder cords or bands, and crisscrossing leather straps attached to belt loops like those worn by the archer huntress Artemis. . . . Amazon footgear included soft leather moccasin-like shoes, calf-high boots (endromides), or taller laced boots (embades) with scallops or flaps and lined with felt or fur.” (Mayor, 202)
The artists apparently had detailed knowledge of gear used by real Scythian horsewomen to equip their imagined Amazons. “Archeological discoveries of well-preserved sets of clothing confirm that real horsewomen of ancient Scythian lands dressed much as did those described in Greek texts and illustrated in Scythian and Greek artwork.” (Mayor, 203)

Plutarch wrote of Crassus: People were wont to say that the many virtues of Crassus were darkened by the one vice of avarice, and indeed he seemed to have no other but that; for it being the most predominant, obscured others to which he was inclined. The arguments in proof of his avarice were the vastness of his estate, and the manner of raising it; for whereas at first he was not worth above three hundred talents, yet, though in the course of his political life he dedicated the tenth of all he had to Hercules, and feasted the people, and gave to every citizen corn enough to serve him three months, upon casting up his accounts, before he went upon his Parthian expedition, he found his possessions to amount to seven thousand one hundred talents; most of which, if we may scandal him with a truth, he got by fire and rapine, making his advantages of the public calamities. . . . Crassus, however, was very eager to be hospitable to strangers; he kept open house, and to his friends he would lend money without interest, but called it in precisely at the time; so that his kindness was often thought worse than the paying the interest would have been. His entertainments were, for the most part, plain and citizen-like, the company general and popular; good taste and kindness made them pleasanter than sumptuosity would have done. As for learning he chiefly cared for rhetoric, and what would be serviceable with large numbers; he became one of the best speakers at Rome, and by his pains and industry outdid the best natural orators. . . . Besides, the people were pleased with his courteous and unpretending salutations and greetings, for he never met any citizen however humble and low, but he returned him his salute by name. He was looked upon as a man well-read in history, and pretty well versed in Aristotle's philosophy. . . . Crassus was killed by a Parthian, called Pomaxathres; others say by a different man, and that Pomaxathres only cut off his head and right hand after he had fallen. But this is conjecture rather than certain knowledge, for those that were by had not leisure to observe particulars. . . .
1 commentsBlindado
JuliusCaesarDenEleph.jpg
1af Julius Caesar Wages Civil War12 viewsJulius Caesar

Denarius
49-48 BC

Elephant right, trampling on serpent [probably], CAESAR in ex
Simpulum, sprinkler, axe and priest's hat

Evidently a military issue, no agreement exists on the meaning of the coin's imagery (see e.g. http://www.forumancientcoins.com/board/index.php?topic=88757.msg552803#msg552803)

Seaby 49

Given the chance that the coin was minted to pay Caesar's armies in the civil war, here is a description of the beginning, according to Suetonius: He then overtook his advanced guard at the River Rubicon, which formed the boundary between Gaul and Italy. There he paused for a while and, realising the magnitude of the step he was taking, turned to his staff, to remark: ‘We could turn back, even now; but once over that little bridge, and it will all come down to a fight.’ . . . As he stood there, undecided, he received a sign. A being of marvellous stature and beauty appeared suddenly, seated nearby, and playing on a reed pipe. A knot of shepherds gathered to listen, but when a crowd of his soldiers, including some of the trumpeters, broke ranks to join them, the apparition snatched a trumpet from one of them, ran to the river, and sounding the call to arms blew a thunderous blast, and crossed to the far side. At this, Caesar exclaimed: ‘Let us follow the summons, of the gods’ sign and our enemy’s injustice. The die is cast.’ And crossing with the army, he welcomed the tribunes of the people, who had fled to him from Rome. Then, in tears, he addressed the troops and, ripping open the breast of his tunic, asked for their loyalty.
Blindado
BrutusDenLictors.jpg
1ag Marcus Junius Brutus64 viewsTook his own life in 42 BC after being defeated at Philippi by Antony and Octavian

Denarius, issued as moneyer, 54 BC
Head of Liberty, right, LIBERTAS
Consul L. Junius Brutus between lictors, preceded by accensus, BRVTVS

Seaby, Junia 31

Plutarch wrote: Marcus Brutus was descended from that Junius Brutus to whom the ancient Romans erected a statue of brass in the capitol among the images of their kings with a drawn sword in his hand, in remembrance of his courage and resolution in expelling the Tarquins and destroying the monarchy. . . . But this Brutus, whose life we now write, having to the goodness of his disposition added the improvements of learning and the study of philosophy, and having stirred up his natural parts, of themselves grave and gentle, by applying himself to business and public affairs, seems to have been of a temper exactly framed for virtue; insomuch that they who were most his enemies upon account of his conspiracy against Caesar, if in that whole affair there was any honourable or generous part, referred it wholly to Brutus, and laid whatever was barbarous and cruel to the charge of Cassius, Brutus's connection and familiar friend, but not his equal in honesty and pureness of purpose. . . . In Latin, he had by exercise attained a sufficient skill to be able to make public addresses and to plead a cause; but in Greek, he must be noted for affecting the sententious and short Laconic way of speaking in sundry passages of his epistles. . . . And in all other things Brutus was partaker of Caesar's power as much as he desired: for he might, if he had pleased, have been the chief of all his friends, and had authority and command beyond them all, but Cassius and the company he met with him drew him off from Caesar. . . . Caesar snatching hold of the handle of the dagger, and crying out aloud in Latin, "Villain Casca, what do you?" he, calling in Greek to his brother, bade him come and help. And by this time, finding himself struck by a great many hands, and looking around about him to see if he could force his way out, when he saw Brutus with his dagger drawn against him, he let go Casca's hand, that he had hold of and covering his head with his robe, gave up his body to their blows.
2 commentsBlindado
TiberiusAsSC.jpg
1al Tiberius26 views14-37

As
Laureate head, left, TI CAESAR AVGVST F IMPERAT V
PONTIF MAXIM TRIBVN POTEST XXIII SC

This is one of a series of 12 Caesars pieces that were local finds in Serbia. There are better coins out there, but I'll hang onto these because they really got me into the hobby.

RIC 469

Per Suetonius: Within three years, however, both Lucius Caesar and Gaius Caesar were dead [in AD2 and 4 respectively], and Augustus now adopted both their brother Agrippa Postumus, and Tiberius, who was first required to adopt his nephew Germanicus [in 4 AD]. . . .

From that moment onwards, Augustus did all he could to enhance Tiberius’ prestige, especially after the disowning and banishment of Postumus [ca 6 AD] made it obvious that Tiberius was the sole heir to the succession. . . .

Tiberius acted like a traditional citizen, more modestly almost than the average individual. He accepted only a few of the least distinguished honours offered him; it was only with great reluctance that he consented to his birthday being recognised, falling as it did on the day of the Plebeian Games in the Circus, by the addition of a two-horse chariot to the proceedings; and he refused to have temples, and priests dedicated to him, or even the erection of statues and busts, without his permission; which he only gave if they were part of the temple adornments and not among the divine images. . . .

Moreover, in the face of abuse, libels or slanders against himself and his family, he remained unperturbed and tolerant, often maintaining that a free country required free thought and speech. . . . He even introduced a species of liberty, by maintaining the traditional dignities and powers of the Senate and magistrates. He laid all public and private matters, small or great, before the Senate consulting them over State revenues, monopolies, and the construction and maintenance of public buildings, over the levying and disbanding of troops, the assignment of legions and auxiliaries, the scope of military appointments, and the allocation of campaigns, and even the form and content of his replies to letters from foreign powers. . . .

Returning to Capreae, he abandoned all affairs of state, neither filling vacancies in the Equestrian Order’s jury lists, nor appointing military tribunes, prefects, or even provincial governors. Spain and Syria lacked governors of Consular rank for several years, while he allowed the Parthians to overrun Armenia, Moesia to be ravaged by the Dacians and Sarmatians, and Gaul by the Germans, threatening the Empire’s honour no less than its security. Furthermore, with the freedom afforded by privacy, hidden as it were from public view, he gave free rein to the vices he had concealed for so long. . . .
Blindado
ClaudiusMessalinaAE20.jpg
1ap_2 Messalina36 viewsThird wife of Claudius, married in 38 (?)

AE 20, Knossos mint

Bare head of Claudius left, CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS

Draped bust of Messalina right, VALERIA MESSALINA [CAPITONE CYTHERONTE IIVIR] or [CYTHERO CAPITONE] (end of legend off flan)

According to Suetonius: [Claudius] was betrothed twice at an early age: to Aemilia Lepida, great-granddaughter of Augustus, and to Livia Medullina, who also had the surname of Camilla and was descended from the ancient family of Camillus the dictator. He put away the former before their marriage, because her parents had offended Augustus; the latter was taken ill and died on the very day which had been set for the wedding. He then married Plautia Urgulanilla, whose father had been honoured with a triumph, and later Aelia Paetina, daughter of an ex-consul. He divorced both these, Paetina for trivial offences, but Urgulanilla because of scandalous lewdness and the suspicion of murder. Then he married Valeria Messalina, daughter of his cousin Messala Barbatus. But when he learned that besides other shameful and wicked deeds she had actually married Gaius Silius, and that a formal contract had been signed in the presence of witnesses, he put her to death and declared before the assembled praetorian guard that inasmuch as his marriages did not turn out well, he would remain a widower, and if he did not keep his word, he would not refuse death at their hands. . . . [He later married Agrippina Jr.]

He had children by three of his wives: by Urgulanilla, Drusus and Claudia; by Paetina, Antonia; by Messalina, Octavia and a son, at first called Germanicus and later Britannicus. . . .

But it is beyond all belief, that at the marriage which Messalina had contracted with her paramour Silius he signed the contract for the dowry with his own hand, being induced to do so on the ground that the marriage was a feigned one, designed to avert and turn upon another a danger which was inferred from certain portents to threaten the emperor himself. . . .

He was so terror-stricken by unfounded reports of conspiracies that he had tried to abdicate. When, as I have mentioned before, a man with a dagger was caught near him as he was sacrificing, he summoned the senate in haste by criers and loudly and tearfully bewailed his lot, saying that there was no safety for him anywhere; and for a long time he would not appear in public. His ardent love for Messalina too was cooled, not so much by her unseemly and insulting conduct, as through fear of danger, since he believed that her paramour Silius aspired to the throne. . . .

Appius Silanus met his downfall. When Messalina and Narcissus had put their heads together to destroy him, they agreed on their parts and the latter rushed into his patron's bed-chamber before daybreak in pretended consternation, declaring that he had dreamed that Appius had made an attack on the emperor. Then Messalina, with assumed surprise, declared that she had had the same dream for several successive nights. A little later, as had been arranged, Appius, who had received orders the day before to come at that time, was reported to be forcing his way in, and as if were proof positive of the truth of the dream, his immediate accusation and death were ordered. . . .


1 commentsBlindado
AgrippinaObol.jpg
1aq Agrippina junior31 viewsMarried Claudius 49 AD

Diobol of Alexandria

Draped bust right, wreathed with corn, hair bound in plait behind, AGRIPPEINA CЄBACTH
Draped bust of Euthenia right, wreathed with corn, holding ears of corn, ЄYQH-NIA across fields, L-IB below

Milne 124

Agrippina the Younger, Julia Agrippina, or Agrippinilla (Little Agrippina) after 50 AD known as Julia Augusta Agrippina (c16 AD –59) was sister of Caligula, niece and fourth wife of Claudius and the mother of Nero. In 28, Tiberius arranged for Agrippina to marry her paternal second cousin Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus. Their only son was named Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus, after Domitius’s recently deceased father. This child would become the Emperor Nero. In 39, Agrippina and her sister Livilla, with their maternal cousin, Drusilla’s widower, Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, were involved in a failed plot to murder Caligula, and make Lepidus emperor. Lepidus was executed. Agrippina and Livilla were exiled by their brother to the Pontine Islands.

Suetonius says, "But it was Agrippina the Younger, his brother Germanicus’s daughter, who ensnared him, assisted by a niece’s privilege of exchanging kisses and endearments. At the next Senate meeting, he primed a group of Senators to propose that he ought to marry Agrippina, as it was in the public interest, and that such marriages between uncle and niece should from then on be regarded as lawful, and no longer incestuous. He married her (AD 49) with barely a day’s delay, but only one freedman and one leading centurion married their respective nieces, to follow suit. Claudius himself, with Agrippina, attended the centurion’s wedding."

The Euthenia reverse reminds one of "euthanasia." which is what some suspect she did to Claudius to elevate her son Nero to the purple.
Blindado
OthoDenSecuritas.jpg
1au Otho36 views69

Denarius
Bewigged head, right, IMP OTHO CAESAR AVG TR P
Securitas stg., SECVRITAS P R

RIC 10

Suetonius wrote: Otho was born on the 28th of April 32 AD, in the consulship of Furius Camillus Arruntius and Domitius Ahenobarbus, Nero’s father. In early youth he was so profligate and insolent that he earned many a beating from his own father. . . . After his father died, he feigned love for an influential freedwoman at Court, though she was old and decrepit, in order to win her favour, and then used her to insinuate himself among the emperor’s friends, easily achieving the role of Nero’s chief favourite, not only because they were of a similar disposition, but also some say because of a sexual relationship. . . .

Otho had hoped to be adopted by Galba as his successor, and anticipated the announcement daily. But Piso was chosen, dashing Otho’s hopes, and causing him to resort to force, prompted not only by feelings of resentment but also by his mounting debts. He declared that frankly he would have to declare himself bankrupt, unless he became emperor. . . . When the moment was finally ripe, . . . his friends hoisted him on their shoulders and acclaimed him Emperor. Everyone they met joined the throng, as readily as if they were sworn accomplices and a part of the conspiracy, and that is how Otho arrived at his headquarters, amidst cheering and the brandishing of swords. He at once sent men to kill Galba and Piso. . . .

Meanwhile the army in Germany had sworn allegiance to Vitellius. When the news reached Otho he persuaded the Senate to send a deputation, advising the soldiers to maintain peace and order, since an emperor had already been chosen. However he also sent envoys with letters and personal messages, offering to share power with Vitellius, and marry his daughter. With civil war clearly inevitable, on the approach of Vitellius’s advance guard, who had marched on Rome led by their generals, . . . Otho began his campaign vigorously, and indeed too hastily. . . .

His army won three engagements, but of a minor nature, firstly in the Alps, then near Placentia, and finally at a place called Castor’s, and were ultimately defeated in a decisive and treacherous encounter at Betriacum (on the 14th April). . . . After this defeat, Otho resolved to commit suicide, more from feelings of shame, which many have thought justified, and a reluctance to continue the struggle with such high cost to life and property, than from any diffidence or fear of failure shown by his soldiers. . . . On waking at dawn (on the 16th of April, AD69), he promptly dealt himself a single knife-blow in the left side of his chest, and first concealing and then showing the wound to those who rushed in at the sound of his groaning, he breathed his last. . . . Otho was thirty-six years old when he died, on the ninety-second day of his reign. . . .

Neither his bodily form nor appearance suggested great courage. He is said to have been of medium height, bandy-legged and splay-footed, though as fastidious as a woman in personal matters. He had his body-hair plucked, and wore a toupee to cover his scanty locks, so well-made and so close-fitting that its presence was not apparent.
Blindado
SevAlexDenSevAlex.jpg
1ce Severus Alexander27 views222-235

Denarius

Laureate draped bust, right, IMP C M AVR SEV ALEXAND AVG
Sev. Alex in armor, P M TR P III COS P P

RIC 74

Herodian recorded: [The soldiers] were more favorably disposed toward Alexander, for they expected great things of a lad so properly and modestly reared. They kept continual watch upon the youth when they saw that Elagabalus was plotting against him. His mother Mamaea did not allow her son to touch any food or drink sent by the emperor, nor did Alexander use the cupbearers or cooks employed in the palace or those who happened to be in their mutual service; only those chosen by his mother, those who seemed most trustworthy, were allowed to handle Alexander's food.

Mamaea secretly distributed money to the praetorians to win their good will for her son; it was to gold that the praetorians were particularly devoted. . . . . Maesa, the grandmother of them both, foiled all his schemes; she was astute in every way and had spent much of her life in the imperial palace. As the sister of Severus' wife Julia, Maesa had always lived with the empress at the court. . . .

When Alexander received the empire, the appearance and the title of emperor were allowed him, but the management and control of imperial affairs were in the hands of his women, and they undertook a more moderate and more equitable administration. . . . At any rate, he entered the fourteenth year of his reign without bloodshed, and no one could say that the emperor had been responsible for anyone's murder. Even though men were convicted of serious crimes, he nevertheless granted them pardons to avoid putting them to death, and not readily did any emperor of our time, after the reign of Marcus, act in this way or display so much concern for human life.

In the fourteenth year, however, unexpected dispatches from the governors of Syria and Mesopotamia revealed that Artaxerxes, the Persian king, had conquered the Parthians and seized their Eastern empire, killing Artabanus [IV], who was formerly called the Great King and wore the double diadem. Artaxerxes then subdued all the barbarians on his borders and forced them to pay tribute. He did not remain quiet, however, nor stay on his side of the Tigris River, but, after scaling its banks and crossing the borders of the Roman empire, he overran Mesopotamia and threatened Syria.

Traveling rapidly, he came to Antioch, after visiting the provinces and the garrison camps in Illyricum; from that region he collected a huge force of troops. While in Antioch he continued his preparations for the war, giving the soldiers military training under field conditions. . . . The Romans suffered a staggering disaster; it is not easy to recall another like it, one in which a great army was destroyed, an army inferior in strength and determination to none of the armies of old.

Now unexpected messages and dispatches upset Alexander and caused him even greater anxiety: the governors in Illyria reported that the Germans [the Alamans] had crossed the Rhine and the Danube rivers, were plundering the Roman empire. . . . Although he loathed the idea, Alexander glumly announced his departure for Illyria. . . . Alexander undertook to buy a truce rather than risk the hazards of war. . . .

The soldiers, however, were not pleased by his action, for the time was passing without profit to them, and Alexander was doing nothing courageous or energetic about the war; on the contrary, when it was essential that he march out and punish the Germans for their insults, he spent the time in chariot racing and luxurious living. . . . They plotted now to kill Alexander and proclaim Maximinus emperor and Augustus. . . . Alexander's troops deserted him for Maximinus, who was then proclaimed emperor by all. . . . Maximinus sent a tribune and several centurions to kill Alexander and his mother, together with any of his followers who opposed them.
Blindado
TrebGallusAEVim.jpg
1cu Trebonianus Gallus24 views251-253

AE Viminacium

Laureate, draped bust, right, IMP C GALLVS P FELIX AVG
Moesia standing facing, head left, hands outstretched over a bull and a lion at her sides, PMS COL VIM

Moushmov 56

For Gallus' perfidy against Decius, see the Decius entry. Zosimus reports regarding Gallus' reign: Gallus, who declared his son Volusianus his associate in the empire, published an open declaration, that Decius and his army had perished by his contrivance. The Barbarians now became more prosperous than before. For Callus not only permitted them to return home with the plunder, but promised to pay them annually a sum of money, and allowed them to carry off all the noblest captives; most of whom had been taken at Philippopolis in Thrace.

Gallus, having made these regulations, came to Rome, priding himself on the peace he had made with the Barbarians. And though he at first spoke with approbation of Decius's mode of government, and adopted one of his sons, yet, after some time was elapsed, fearing that some of them who were fond of new projects might recur to a recapitulation of the princely virtues of Decius, and therefore might at some opportunity give the empire to his son, he concerted the young man's destruction, without regard either to his own adoption of him, or to common honour and justice.

Gallus was so supine in the administration of the empire, that the Scythians in the first place terrified all the neighbouring nations, and then laid waste all the countries as far by degrees as the sea coast; not leaving one nation subject to the Romans unpillaged, and taking almost all the unfortified towns, and many that were fortified. Besides the war on every side, which was insupportably burdensome to them, the cities and villages were infested with a pestilence, which swept away the remainder of mankind in those regions; nor was so great a mortality ever known in any former period.

At this crisis, observing that the emperors were unable to defend the state, but neglected all without the walls of Rome, the Goths, the Borani, the Urugundi, and the Carpi once more plundered the cities of Europe of all that had been left in them; while in another quarter, the Persians invaded Asia, in which they acquired possession of Mesopotamia, and proceeded even as far as Antioch in Syria, took that city, which is the metropolis of all the east, destroyed many of the inhabitants, and carried the remainder into captivity, returning home with immense plunder, after they had destroyed all the buildings in the city, both public and private, without meeting with the least resistance. And indeed the Persians had a fair opportunity to have made themselves masters of all Asia, had they not been so overjoyed at their excessive spoils, as to be contented with keeping and carrying home what they had acquired.

Meantime the Scythians of Europe were in perfect security and went over into Asia, spoiling all the country as far as Cappodocia, Pesinus, and Ephesus, until Aemilianus, commander of the Pannonian legions, endeavouring as much as possible to encourage his troops, whom the prosperity of the Barbarians had so disheartened that they durst not face them, and reminding them of the renown of Roman courage, surprised the Barbarians that were in that neighbourhood. Having destroyed great numbers of them, and led his forces into their country, removing every obstruction to his progress, and at length freeing the subjects of the Roman empire from their ferocity, he was appointed emperor by his army. On this he collected all the forces of that country, who were become more bold since his successes against the Barbarians, and directed his march towards Italy, with the design of fighting Gallus, who was as yet. unprepared to contend with him. For Gallus had never heard of what had occurred in the east, and therefore made only what accidental preparations were in his reach, while Valerianus went to bring the Celtic and German legions. But Aemilianus advanced with great speed into Italy, and the armies were very near to each other, when the soldiers of Gallus, reflecting that his force was much inferior to the enemy both in number and strength, and likewise that he was a negligent indolent man, put him and his son to death, and going over to the party of Aemilianus, appeared to establish his authority.
Blindado
ValerianAntVict.jpg
1cx Valerian38 views253-260

Antoninianus

Radiate draped and cuirassed bust, right, IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS AVG
Victory standing left, holding wreath and palm, VICTORIA AVGG

RIC 125

Persians surrounded Valerian's army in the East in 260 and took the emperor prisoner. He died on an unknown date in captivity.

Zosimus noted: The nations subject to the Romans being unable to endure [Maximinus'] monstrous cruelty, and greatly distressed by the ravages he committed, the Africans proclaimed Gordianus and his son, of the same name, emperors, and sent ambassadors to Rome, one of whom was Valerianus, a man of consular rank, who afterwards himself became emperor. . . .

Aemilianus advanced with great speed into Italy, and the armies were very near to each other, when the soldiers of Gallus, reflecting that his force was much inferior to the enemy both in number and strength, and likewise that he was a negligent indolent man, put him and his son to death, and going over to the party of Aemilianus, appeared to establish his authority. But Valerianus brought into Italy from beyond the Alps a vast army, with which he deemed himself secure of conquering Aemilianus. The soldiers of Aemilianus, who saw that his conduct was more like that of a private sentinel than of an emperor, now put him to death as a person unfit for so weighty a charge.

By these means Valerianus became emperor with universal consent, and employed himself in the regulation of affairs. But the excursions of the Scythians, and of the Marcomanni, who made an inroad into all the countries adjacent to the empire, reduced Thessalonica to extreme danger; and though they were with muct difficulty compelled to raise the siege by the brave defence of those within, yet all Greece was in alarm. The Athenians repaired their walls, which they had never thought worth their care since Sylla threw them down. The Peloponnesians likewise fortified the Isthmus, and all Greece put itself upon its guard for the general security.

Valerianus, perceiving the empire in danger on every side, associated his son Gallienus with himself in the government! and went himself into the east to oppose the Persians. He entrusted to his son the care of the forces in Europe, thus leaving him to resist the Barbarians who poured in upon him in every direction. . . .

Valerianus had by this time heard of the disturbances in Bithynia, but his district would not allow him to confide the defence of it to any of his generals. He therefore sent Felix to Byzantium, and went in person from Antioch into Cappadocia, and after he had done some injury to every city by which he passed, he returned homeward. But the plague then attacked his troops, and destroyed most of them, at the time when Sapor made an attempt upon the east, and reduced most of it into subjection. In the mean time, Valerianus became so effeminate and indolent, that he dispaired of ever recovering from the present ill state of affairs, and would have concluded the war by a present of money; had not Sapor sent back the ambasadors who were sent to him with that proposal, without their errand, desiring the emperor to come and speak with him in person concerning the affairs he wished to adjust; To which he most imprudently consented, and going without consideration to Sapor with a small retinue, to treat for a peace, was presently laid hold of by the enemy, and so ended his days in the capacity of a slave among the Persians, to the disgrace of the Roman name in all future times.
Blindado
GallienusAntVirtus.jpg
1cy Gallienus17 views253-268

Bronze antoninianus

Radiate, draped bust, right, GALLINVS AVG
Mars standing left, holding globe in right hand and spear in left hand, P in right field, VIRTVS AVG

RIC 317

Gallienus oversaw a period of disintegration of the empire and lost control over the East, Gaul, Spain, and Britain.

Zosimus observed: [When Valerian left for the East] As the Germans were the most troublesome enemies, and harrassed the Gauls in the vicinity of the Rhine, Gallienus marched against them in person, leaving his officers to repel with the forces under their command any others that should enter Italy, Illyricum, and Greece. With these designs, he possessed himself of and defended the passages of the Rhine, at one time preventing their crossing, and at another engaging them as soon as they had crossed it. But having only a small force to resist an immense number, he was at a loss how to act, and thought to secure himself by a league with one of the German princes. He thus not only prevented the other Barbarians from so frequently passing the Rhine, but obstructed the access of auxiliaries.

Eutropius recorded: Gallienus, who was made emperor when quite a young man, exercised his power at first happily, afterwards fairly, and at last mischievously. In his youth he performed many gallant acts in Gaul and Illyricum, killing Ingenuus, who had assumed the purple, at Mursa, and Regalianus. He was then for a long time quiet and gentle; afterwards, abandoning himself to all manner of licentiousness, he relaxed the reins of government with disgraceful inactivity and carelesness. The Alemanni, having laid waste Gaul, penetrated into Italy. Dacia, which had been added to the empire beyond the Danube, was lost. Greece, Macedonia, Pontus, Asia, were devastated by the Goths. Pannonia was depopulated by the Sarmatians and Quadi. The Germans made their way as far as Spain, and took the noble city of Tarraco. The Parthians, after taking possession of Mesopotamia, began to bring Syria under their power.

Zosimus resumes: Gallienus in the mean time still continued beyond the Alps, intent on the German war, while the Senate, seeing Rome in such imminent danger, armed all the soldiers that were in the city, and the strongest of the common people, and formed an army, which exceeded the Barbarians in number. This so alarmed the Barbarians, that they left Rome, but ravaged all the rest of Italy. At this period, when Illyricum groaned under the oppression of the Barbarians, and the whole Roman empire was in such a helpless state as to be on the very verge of ruin, a plague happened to break out in several of the towns, more dreadful than any that had preceded it. The miseries inflicted on them by the Barbarians were thus alleviated, even the sick esteeming themselves fortunate. The cities that had been taken by the Scythians were thus deserted.

Gallienus, being disturbed by these occurrences, was returning to Rome to relieve Italy from the war which the Scythians were thus carrying on. It was at this time, that Cecrops, a Moor, Aureolus and Antoninus, with many others, conspired against him, of whom the greater part were punished and submitted. Aureolus alone retained his animosity against the emperor.

The Scythians, who had dreadfully afflicted the whole of Greece, had now taken Athens, when Gallienus advanced against those who were already in possession of Thrace, and ordered Odonathus of Palmyra, a person whose ancestors had always been highly respected by the emperors, to assist the eastern nations which were then in a very distressed condition. . . .

While affairs were thus situated in the east, intelligence was brought to Gallienus, who was then occupied in the Scythian war, that Aurelianus, or Aureolus, who was commander of the cavalry posted in the neighbourhood of Milan to watch the motions of Posthumus, had formed some new design, and was ambitious to be emperor. Being alarmed at this he went immediately to Italy, leaving the command against the Scythians with Marcianus, a person of great experience in military affairs. . . . Gallienus, in his journey towards Italy, had a plot formed against him by Heraclianus, prefect of the court, who communicated his design to Claudius, in whom the chief management of affairs was vested. The design was to murder Gallienus. Having found a man very ready for such an undertaking, who commanded a troop of Dalmatians, he entrusted the action to him. To effect it, the party stood by Gallienus at supper and informed him that some of the spies had brought intelligence, that Aureolus and his army were close at hand. By this they considerably alarmed him. Calling immediately for his horse and arms, he mounted, ordering his men to follow him in their armour, and rode away without any attendance. Thus the captain finding him alone killed him.
Blindado
ClaudiusIIAntLiberalit.jpg
1di Claudius Gothicus26 views268-270

AE antoninianus

Radiate cuirassed bust right, IMP C CLAVDIVS AVG
Liberlitas stg, LIBERALITAS AVG

RIC 57

Zosimus recorded: When the troops were calmed by their commanders, Claudius was chosen emperor, having previously been designed for that dignity by general consent. Aureolus, who had for a long time kept himself out of the hands of Gallienus, presently sent agents to Claudius, to effect a peace. Surrendering himself, he was killed by the guards of the emperor, who still remembered the hatred they bore against him for his treachery.

The Scythians were by this time so elated by their former success, that they appointed a place of meeting with the Heruli, Peucae, and Gothi, near the river Tyra, which empties itself into the Pontus; where having built six thousand vessels, and put on board them three hundred and twenty thousand men, they sailed across the Pontus, and made an attempt on Tomes, a fortified town, but were repulsed from it. From thence they proceed to Marcianopolis, a city of Mysia, but failing there likewise in their attack on it, they took the opportunity of a favourable wind and sailed forward. . . . they passed through the Hellespont, and arrived at Mount Athos. Having there refitted and careened their vessels, they laid siege to Cassandria and Thessalonica, which they were near taking by means of machines which they raised against the walls. But hearing that the emperor was advancing with an army, they went into the interior, plundering all the neighbourhood of Doberus and Pelagonia. There they sustained a loss of three thousand men, who were met with by the Dalmatian cavalry, and with the rest of their force engaged the army of the emperor. Great numbers were slain in this battle on both sides, but the Romans, by a pretended flight, drew the Barbarians into an ambuscade and killed more than fifty thousand of them.

Egypt being thus reduecd by the Palmyrenians, the Barbarians, who survived the battle of Naissus between Claudius and the Scythians, defending themselves with their carriages which went before them, marched towards Macedon, but were so distressed by the want of necessaries, that many of them and of their beasts perished with hunger. They were met likewise by the Roman cavalry, who having killed many of them, drove the rest towards Mount Haemus; where being surrounded by the Roman army, they lost a vast number of men. But a quarrel ensuing between the Roman horse and foot soldiers, the emperor wishing the foot to engage the Barbarians, the Romans, after a smart engagement, were defeated with considerable loss, but the cavalry, coming up immediately, redeemed in some degree the miscarriage of the infantry. After this battle, the Barbarians proceeded on their march, and were pursued by the Romans. The pirates who cruized about Crete and Rhodes retired without doing any thing worthy of mention; and being attacked by the plague on their way home, some of them died in Thrace and some in Macedon. All that survived were either admitted into the Roman legions, or had lands assigned for them to cultivate and so become husbandmen. Nor was the plague confined to the Barbarians alone, but began to infest the Romans, many of whom died, and amongst the rest Claudius, a person adorned with every virtue. His death was a severe loss to his subjeets, and was consequently much regretted by them.
Blindado
DiocletianAntConcordMil.jpg
1ds Diocletian13 views284-305

AE antoninianus

Radiate, draped, cuirassed bust, right, IMP C C VAL DIOCLETIANVS P F AVG
Zeus and Diocletian, CONCORDIA MILITVM

RIC 284B

According to the Historia Augusta, after the death of Numerian: Then a huge assembly was held and a tribunal, too, was constructed. And when the question was asked who would be the most lawful avenger of Numerian and who could be given to the commonwealth as a good emperor, then all, with a heaven-sent unanimity, conferred the title of Augustus on Diocletian. . . . He was at this time in command of the household-troops, an outstanding man and wise, devoted to the commonwealth, devoted to his kindred, duly prepared to face whatever the occasion demanded, forming plans that were always deep though sometimes over-bold, and one who could by prudence and exceeding firmness hold in check the impulses of a restless spirit. This man, then, having ascended the tribunal was hailed as Augustus, and when someone asked how Numerian had been slain, he drew his sword and pointing to Aper, the prefect of the guard, he drove it through him, saying as he did so, "It is he who contrived Numerian's death.''

Eutropius summarized a long and important reign: DIOCLETIAN, a native of Dalmatia, [was] of such extremely obscure birth, that he is said by most writers to have been the son of a clerk, but by some to have been a freedman of a senator named Anulinus. . . . He soon after overthrew Carinus, who was living under the utmost hatred and detestation, in a great battle at Margum, Carinus being betrayed by his own troops, for though he had a greater number of men than the enemy, he was altogether abandoned by them between Viminacium and mount Aureus. He thus became master of the Roman empire; and when the peasants in Gaul made an insurrection, giving their faction the name of Bagaudae, and having for leaders Amandus and Aelianus, he despatched Maximian Herculius, with the authority of Caesar, to suppress them. Maximian, in a few battles of little importance, subdued the rustic multitude, and restored peace to Gaul. . . .

Diocletian promoted MAXIMIAN HERCULIUS from the dignity of Caesar to that of emperor, and created Constantius and Maximian Galerius Caesars, of whom Constantius is said to have been the grand-nephew of Claudius by a daughter, and Maximian Galerius to have been born in Dacia not far from Sardica. That he might also unite them by affinity, Constantius married Theodora the step-daughter of Herculius, by whom he had afterwards six children, brothers to Constantine; while Galerius married Valeria, the daughter of Diocletian; both being obliged to divorce the wives that they had before. . . .

Diocletian, meanwhile, besieging Achilleus in Alexandria, obliged him to surrender about eight months after, and put him to death. He used his victory, indeed, cruelly, and distressed all Egypt with severe proscriptions and massacres. Yet at the same time he made many judicious arrangements and regulations, which continue to our own days. . . .

Diocletian was of a crafty disposition, with much sagacity, and keen penetration. He was willing to gratify his own disposition to cruelty in such a way as to throw the odium upon others; he was however a very active and able prince. He was the first that introduced into the Roman empire a ceremony suited rather to royal usages than to Roman liberty, giving orders that he should be adored, whereas all emperors before him were only saluted. He put ornaments of precious stones on his dress and shoes, when the imperial distinction had previously been only in the purple robe, the rest of the habit being the same as that of other men. . . .

But when Diocletian, as age bore heavily upon him, felt himself unable to sustain the government of the empire, he suggested to Herculius that they should both retire into private life, and commit the duty of upholding the state to more vigorous and youthful hands. With this suggestion his colleague reluctantly complied. Both of them, in the same day, exchanged the robe of empire for an ordinary dress, Diocletian at Nicomedia, Herculius at Milan, soon after a magnificent triumph which they celebrated at Rome over several nations, with a noble succession of pictures, and in which the wives, sisters, and children of Narseus were led before their chariots. The one then retired to Salonae, and the other into Lucania.

Diocletian lived to an old age in a private station, at a villa which is not far from Salonae, in honourable retirement, exercising extraordinary philosophy, inasmuch as he alone of all men, since the foundation of the Roman empire, voluntarily returned from so high a dignity to the condition of private life, and to an equality with the other citizens. That happened to him, therefore, which had happened to no one since men were created, that, though he died in a private condition, he was enrolled among the gods.
Blindado
ConstansAE3GlorEx.jpg
1ei Constans21 views337-350

AE3

RIC 93

Rosette diademed, draped & cuirassed bust, right, CONSTANS P F AVG
Two soldiers standing to either side of one standard with chi-rho on banner, GLORIA EXERCITVS, [A]SIS-crescent in ex.

Constans received Italy, Africa, and the Balkans when the empire was divided. He took charge of the remainder of the West after Constantine II imprudently attacked him in 340. Zosimus recorded, "Constans, having thus removed his brother, exercised every species of cruelty toward his subjects, exceeding the most intolerable tyranny. He purchased some well favoured Barbarians, and had others with him as hostages, to whom he gave liberty to harrass his subjects as they pleased, in order to gratify his vicious disposition. In this manner he reduced all the nations that were subject to him to extreme misery. This gave uneasiness to the court guards, who perceiving that he was much addicted to hunting placed themselves under the conduct of Marcellinus prefect of the treasury, and Magnentius who commanded the Joviani and Herculiani (two legions so termed), and formed a plot against him in the following manner. Marcellinus reported that he meant to keep the birth-day of his sons, and invited many of the superior officers to a feast. Amongst the rest Magnentius rose from table and left the room; he presently returned, and as it were in a drama stood before them clothed in an imperial robe. Upon this all the guests saluted him with the title of king, and the inhabitants of Augustodunum, where it was done, concurred in the same sentiment. This transaction being rumoured abroad, the country people flocked into the city; while at the same time a party of Illyrian cavalry who came to supply the Celtic legions, joined themselves with those that were concerned in the enterprize. When the officers of the army were met together, and heard the leaders of the conspiracy proclaim their new emperor, they scarcely knew the meaning of it; they all, however, joined in the acclamation, and saluted Magnentius with the appellation of Augustus. When this became known to Constans, he endeavoured to escape to a small town called Helena, which lies near the Pyrenean mountains. He was taken by Gaison, who was sent with some other select persons for that purpose, and being destitute of all aid, was killed. "
Blindado
ValentinianAE3GlorRom.jpg
1ep Valentinian22 views364-375

AE3

Pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right , D N VALENTINIANVS P F AVG
Emperor in military dress, advancing right, head left, holding labarum, dragging captive behind him. No fieldmarks. Mintmark: dot GSISC, GLORIA ROMANORVM

RIC 5a

According to Zosimus: Several discussions were held among the soldiers and their officers, and various persons were nominated. At length Sallustius, the prefect of the court, was unanimously elected. He excused himself on the pretext of his advanced age, which disabled him from being of service in the present critical circumstances. They then desired that his son might be emperor in lieu of himself. But his son he told them was too young, and from that as well as other causes unable to sustain the weight of an imperial diadem. They thus failed in their wish to appoint so distinguished a person, who was the most worthy of the age. They therefore elected Valentinian, a native of Cibalis in Pannonia. He was an excellent soldier, but extremely illiterate. They sent for him, he being then at some distance: and the state was not long without a ruler. Upon his arrival at the army, at Nicaea in Bithynia, he assumed the imperial authority, and proceeded forward. . . .

I have now to state, that while Valentinian was on his journey towards Constantinople, he was seized with a distemper, which increased his natural choleric temper to a degree of cruelty, and even to madness, so that he falsely suspected his sickness to proceed from some charm or poison which Julian's friends had prepared for him through malice. Accusations to that effect were drawn up against some distinguished persons, which were set aside by the discretion of Sallustius, who still was prefect of the court. After his distemper abated, he proceeded from Nicaea to Constantinople. The army and his friends in that city advised him to choose an associate in the empire, that if occasion should require, he might have some one to assist him, and prevent their again suffering as at the death of Julian. He complied with their advice, and after consideration, selected his brother Valens, whom he thought most likely to prove faithful to him. He declared him associate in the empire. . . . Affairs being thus disposed, Valentinian deemed it most prudent to place the east as far as Egypt, Bithynia, and Thrace, under the care of his brother, and to take charge of Illyricum himself. From thence he designed to proceed to Italy, and to retain in his own possession all the cities in that country, and the countries beyond the Alps, with Spain, Britain, and Africa. The empire being thus divided, Valentinian began to govern more rigorously, correcting the faults of the magistrates. He was very severe in the collection of the imposts, and particularly in observing that the soldiers were duly paid. . . .

Meantime the Barbarians beyond the Rhine, who while Julian lived held the Roman name in terror, and were contented to remain quiet in their own territories, as soon as they heard of his death, immediately marched out of their own country, and prepared for a war with the Romans. Valentinian. on bring informed of this, made a proper disposition of his forces, and placed suitable garrisons in all the towns along the Rhine. Valentinian was enabled to make these arrangements by his experience in military affairs. . . . [T] he emperor Valentinian, having favourably disposed the affairs of Germany, made provisions for the future security of the Celtic nations. . . . Valentinian was now attacked by a disease which nearly cost him his life. Upon his recovery the countries requested him to appoint a successor, lest at his decease the commonwealth should be in danger. To this the emperor consented, and declared his son Gratian emperor and his associate in the government, although he was then very young, and not yet capable of the management of affairs. . . .

Valentinian, thinking he had sufficiently secured himself from a German war, acted towards his subjects with great severity, exacting from them exorbitant tributes, such as they had never before paid; under pretence that the military expenditure compelled him to have recourse to the public. Having thus acquired universal hatred, he became still more severe; nor would he enquire into the conduct of the magistrates, but was envious of all whe had the reputation of leading a blameless life. . . . For this cause, the Africans, who could not endure the excessive avarice of the person who held the military command in Mauritania, gave the purple robe to Firmus, and proclaimed him emperor. This doubtless gave much uneasiness to Valentinian, who immediately commanded some legions from the stations in Pannonia and Moesia, to embark for Africa. On this the Sarmatians and the Quadi, who had long entertained a hatred for Celestius, the governor of those countries, availing themselves, of the opportunity afforded by the departure of the legions for Africa, invaded the Pannonians and Moesians. . . . .

Valentinian, roused by the intelligence of these events, marched from Celtica into Illyricum, for the purpose of opposing the Quadi and the Sarmatians, and consigned the command of his forces to Merobaudes, who was a person of the greatest military experience. The winter continuing unusually late, the Quadi sent ambassadors to him with insolent and unbecoming messages. These so exasperated the emperor, that through the violence of his rage, the blood flowed from his head into his mouth, and suffocated him. He thus died after having resided in Illyricum nearly nine months, and after a reign of twelve years.
Blindado
Philip-I-RIC-069.jpg
20. Philip I.14 viewsAntoninianus, 244-245 AD, Antioch mint (or "Unknown mint").
Obverse: IMP C M IVL PHILIPPVS PF AVG PM / Radiate bust of Philip I.
Reverse: PAX FVNDATA CVM PERSIS / Pax holding branch and transverse sceptre.
3.25 gm., 21 mm.
RIC #69; Sear #8941.

On Roman coins, PM usually stands for Pontifex Maximus. However, the PM at the end of the obverse legend on this coin (and on the following 2 coins) is usually taken to mean Persicus Maximus -- a title Philip took for himself to commemorate his "victory" over the Persians. It exists only on the earliest coins of Philip I minted in Antioch, but was soon dropped as word got out that the "victory" was really a hastily concluded peace treaty which gave the Romans no advantages whatsoever. The PM is found at the end of the obverse legend or under the bust.
The reverse legend celebrates the lasting peace with Persia.

Recent research indicates that the first series of coins attributed to Antioch by RIC may have been produced at what is currently being called the "Unknown mint." This coin and the next 2 coins are from that mint.
Callimachus
145187.jpg
201c. Pescennius Niger127 viewsGaius Pescennius Niger was governor of Syria in the year 193 when he learned of the emperor Pertinax's murder. Niger's subsequent attempt to claim the empire for himself ended in failure in Syria after roughly one year. His life before becoming governor of Syria is not well known. He was born in Italy to an equestrian family. He seems to have been older than his eventual rival Septimius Severus, so his birth should perhaps be placed ca. AD 135-40. Niger may have held an important position in the administration of Egypt. He won renown, along with Clodius Albinus, for participation in a military campaign in Dacia early in Commodus' reign. Although Niger could have been adlected into the senate before the Dacian campaign, he was by now pursuing a senatorial career and must have been held in high esteem by Commodus. Niger was made a suffect consul, probably in the late 180s, and he was sent as governor to the important province of Syria in 191.

Niger was a well-known and well-liked figure to the Roman populace. After Pertinax became emperor at the beginning of 193, many in Rome may have hoped that the elderly Pertinax would adopt Niger as his Caesar and heir, but Pertinax was murdered without having made succession plans. When Didius Julianus arrived at the senate house on 29 March 193, his first full day as emperor, a riot broke out among the Roman crowd. The rioters took over the Circus Maximus, from which they shouted for Niger to seize the throne. The rioters dispersed the following day, but a report of their demonstration may well have arrived in the Syrian capital, Antioch, with the news that Pertinax had been murdered and replaced by Julianus.

Spurred into action by the news, Niger had himself proclaimed emperor in Antioch. The governors of the other eastern provinces quickly joined his cause. Niger's most important ally was the respected proconsul of Asia, Asellius Aemilianus, and support began to spread across the Propontis into Europe. Byzantium welcomed Niger, who now was preparing further advances. Niger took the additional cognomen Justus, "the Just." Justice was promoted as the theme of his intended reign, and personifications of Justice appeared on his coins.

Other provincial governors, however, also set their sights on replacing Julianus. Albinus in Britain and Septimius Severus in Upper Pannonia (western Hungary) had each aspired to the purple, and Severus was marching an army on Rome. Severus was still 50 miles from the city when the last of Julianus' dwindling authority disappeared. Julianus was killed in Rome 1 June 193.

Niger sent messengers to Rome to announce his acclamation, but those messengers were intercepted by Severus. A deal was struck between Severus and Albinus that kept Albinus in Britain with the title of Caesar. The larger armies of the western provinces were now united in their support for Severus. Niger's support was confined to the east. Severus had Niger's children captured and held as hostages, and a legion was sent to confront Niger's army in Thrace.

The first conflict between the rival armies took place near Perinthus. Although Niger's forces may have inflicted greater casualties on the Severan troops, Niger was unable to secure his advance; he returned to Byzantium. By the autumn of 193, Severus had left Rome and arrived in the region, though his armies there continued to be commanded by supporters. Niger was offered the chance of a safe exile by Severus, but Niger refused.

Severan troops crossed into Asia at the Hellespont and near Cyzicus engaged forces supporting Niger under the command of Aemilianus. Niger's troops were defeated. Aemilianus attempted to flee but was captured and killed. Not long after, in late December 193 or early January 194, Niger was defeated in a battle near Nicaea and fled south to Antioch. Eastern provincial governors now switched their loyalty to Severus, and Niger faced revolts even in Syria. By late spring 194, the Severan armies were in Cilicia preparing to enter Syria. Niger and his army met the Severan troops near Issus. The battle was a decisive defeat for Niger, who fled back to Antioch. The Syrian capital that only one year earlier had cheered as Niger was proclaimed emperor now waited in fear for the approach of its new master. Niger prepared to flee once more, but outside Antioch he was captured and killed.

Despite his popularity with the Roman mob, Pescennius Niger lacked both the strong loyalty of other senatorial commanders and the number of soldiers that his rival Severus enjoyed. Niger was ultimately unable to make himself the true avenger of Pertinax, and his roughly one-year control of the eastern provinces never qualified him to be reckoned a legitimate emperor.

BITHYNIA, Caesarea. Pescennius Niger. AD 193-194. Ć 22mm (6.35 g). Laureate head right / KAICAREIAC GERMANIKHC, coiled serpent left. RG p. 282, 9, pl. XLIV, 8 (same dies); SNG Copenhagen -; SNG von Aulock -. Near VF, brown patina, rough surfaces. Very rare. Ex-CNG
2 commentsecoli
24-Alfred.jpg
24. Alfred.35 viewsPenny, first coinage 871-875, mint ?.
Obverse: +AELBRED REX / bust of Alfred.
Reverse: MON / EALHERE / ETA
Moneyer: Ealhere.
1.21 gm., 19 mm.
North #627; Seaby #1057.

The similarities of the lunnettes coinage of Burgred and the first coinage of Alfred has long been noted. There is evidence of an agreement between Mercia and Wessex to produce a unified coinage in the two states. This agreement was continued by Burgred and Alfred. At the beginning of Alfred's reign in 871, there were just two mints operating in Mercia and Wessex: London and Canterbury. Philip Grierson, in his book Medieval European Coinage: Volume 1, The Early Middle Ages, has Ealhere a moneyer in Canterbury.

A more detailed analysis of Alfred's coinage comes to a different conclusion. The Lunettes Coinage of Alfred the Great by A. W. Lyons & W. A. Mackay (2008, BNJ 78, 4) places this obverse die in Group 2 Mercian Style Lunettes, variant IV: "Horizonal bust." Characteristics: Bust lacks a bonnet, the hair is comprised of several horizontal lines usually ending in pellets and sloping between 45 to 60 degrees. Double-banded diadem surmounted by a crescent. Distinctively cut "wedge" lips. The eye is a small circle with a dot in the center.

The reverse die of this coin is Lunettes type C (illustrated under Burgred in North, p. 67.) However, Table 2B does not show the moneyer Ealhere using reverse type Lunette C. So coins with this die combination were evidentally not known to Lyons & Mackay.

Table 2D, listing all the moneyers of Alfred's Lunette coinage, says Ealhere used obverse dies of Group 1 variant I, and Group 2 variant IV (the obverse die on this coin). Lyons & Mackay suggest that Ealhere was located in central or west Wessex as he used London and Canterbury dies.
Callimachus
rjb_2012_08_08.jpg
24735 viewsPhilip II 247-9 AD
AE 30mm
Zeugma
Obv Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right viewed from the front
Rev Tetrastyle temple on top of rocky hill, buildings at base and colonnades or steps up the sides, Capricorn right below
Butcher CRS –
Not recorded with this bust type.
The coins of Zeugma would seem to be struck at the same location as those of Antioch, Cyrrhus, Hierapolis, Philippopolis and Samosata. It is likely that an obverse die duplicate may exist among the coinages of those cities
mauseus
24e-Constantine-Her-092.jpg
24e. Constantine: Heraclea.17 viewsAE3, 327 - 329, Heraclea mint.
Obverse: CONSANTINVS AVG / Diademed bust of Constantine, "Eyes to God."
Reverse: D N CONSTANTINI MAX AVG / Laurel wreath enclosing VOT XXX.
Mint mark: .SMHB
3.42 gm., 18.5 mm.
RIC #92; LRBC #887; Sear #16231.

Eusebius stated that Constantine had himself depicted in the attitude of prayer on his coins. Since early Christians prayed looking up to Heaven, this obverse portrait is the one which Eusebius saw. Thus the phrase "Eyes to God" became associated with this portrait. We have no proof that Eusebius' statement is true; indeed the portrait could have been based on the way various Hellenistic kings portrayed themselves on their own coins. However, Eusebius' statement likely reflected the popular opinion of his time.

The "Eyes to God" portrait was used intermittently on gold and silver coinages from 324 to 337. It's use on the bronze coinage is limited to just three mints: Constantinople (Daphne coinage, 328), Cyzicus (Campgate coinage 328-29), and Heraclea (VOT XXX coinage, 325-26, 327-329).
Callimachus
coin247.JPG
309. Gallienus33 viewsOne of the key characteristics of the Crisis of the Third Century was the inability of the Emperors to maintain their hold on the Imperium for any marked length of time. An exception to this rule was the reign of the Emperor Gallienus. The fact that Gallienus served as junior Emperor with his father, Valerian, from 253 to 260 may have had something to do with his successes. Father and son each wielded his authority over a smaller area, thus allowing for more flexible control and imperial presence. Another, more probable reason, lay in Gallienus's success in convincing Rome that he was the best man for the job. However, Gallienus had to handle many rebellions of the so-called "Gallienus usurpers".

In 260, Valerian was taken prisoner by Sapor, King of Persia while trying to negotiate a peace settlement. Although aware that his father had been taken alive (the only Emperor to have suffered this fate), Gallienus did not make public Valerian's death until a year later. His decision hinged on the fact that Romans believed that their fate rose and fell with the fate of the Emperor, which in turn depended upon his demonstrating the proper amount of piety (Latin pietas) to the gods and maintaining their favor. A defeated Emperor would surely have meant that the gods had forsaken Valerian and, by extension, Gallienus.

Gallienus's chief method of reinforcing his position is seen in the coinage produced during his reign (see Roman currency). The coinage provides clear evidence of a successful propaganda campaign. Gallienus took pains to make sure that he was regularly represented as victorious, merciful, and pious. The people who used these coins on a daily basis saw these messages and, with little evidence to the contrary, remained supportive of their Emperor.

There were, however, those who knew better. During Gallienus' reign, there was constant fighting on the western fringes of the Empire. As early as 258, Gallienus had lost control over a large part of Gaul, where another general, Postumus, had declared his own realm (typically known today as the Gallic Empire). As Gallienus' influence waned, another general came to the fore. In time-honored tradition, Claudius II Gothicus gained the loyalty of the army and succeeded Gallienus to the Imperium.

In the months leading up to his mysterious death in September of 268, Gallienus was ironically orchestrating the greatest achievements of his reign. An invasion of Goths into the province of Pannonia was leading to disaster and even threatening Rome, while at the same time, the Alamanni were raising havoc in the northern part of Italy. Gallienus halted the Allamanic progress by defeating them in battle in April of 268, then turned north and won several victories over the Goths. That fall, he turned on the Goths once again, and in September, either he or Claudius, his leading general, led the Roman army to victory (although the cavalry commander Aurelian was the real victor) at the Battle of Naissus.

At some time following this battle, Gallienus was murdered during the siege of usurper Aureolus in Mediolanum; many theories abound that Claudius and Aurelian conspired to have the emperor killed. Be that as it may, Claudius spared the lives of Gallienus' family — Gallienus' wife, Iulia Cornelia Salonina, had given him three sons: Valerianus (who died in 258), Saloninus (died in 260 after becoming co-emperor), and Egnatius Marinianus — and had the emperor deified.

Gallienus Antoninianus - Minerva
OBVERSE: GALLIENVS AVG, radiate, cuirassed bust right
REVERSE: MINERVA AVG, Minerva standing right with spear and shield.
23mm - 3.7 grams
ecoli
Ot-Severa-RIC-127.jpg
32. Otacilia Severa.17 viewsAntoninianus, ca 245 - 247 AD, "Branch mint" (?)
Obverse: M OTACIL SEVERA AVG / Diademed bust of Severa, on a crescent.
Reverse: IVNO CONSERVAT / Juno standing, veiled, holding patera and sceptre.
4.27 gm., 21 mm.
RIC #127; Sear #9152.

RIC tentatively assigns this coin to Antioch, Sear assigns it to Rome (See RIC, vol. IV, part III, pages 54 and 64). Stylistically, this coin does not fit in with Rome and that is why RIC attributed it to Antioch. Curtis Clay recently suggested this coin is part of a small issue minted at a branch mint to produce coinage for Philip's Carpic campaign of 245-247. So at present, the mint for this coin is still open to question.
Callimachus
spinosaurus4inch.jpg
4" Spinosaurus Tooth103 viewsSpinosaurus (meaning "spine lizard") is a genus of theropod dinosaur which lived in what is now North Africa, from the lower Albian to Cenomanian stages of the Cretaceous period, about 106 to 93.5 million years ago. This genus was first known from Egyptian remains discovered in the 1910s and described by German paleontologist Ernst Stromer. These original remains were destroyed in World War II, but additional skull material has come to light in recent years. It is unclear whether one or two species are represented in the described fossils. The best known species is S. aegyptiacus from Egypt, although a potential second species, S. maroccanus, has been recovered from Morocco. Spinosaurus is often postulated as a piscivore, and work using oxygen isotope ratios in tooth enamel suggests that it was semiaquatic, living both on land and in water like a modern crocodilian.ancientone
MarX565.jpg
450-457 AD - Marcian - RIC X 565 - Monogram Reverse124 viewsEmperor: Marcian (r. 450-457 AD)
Date: 450-457 AD
Condition: Fine
Size: AE4

Obverse: D N MARCIANVS P F AVG
Our Lord Marcian Dutiful and Wise Emperor
Bust right; pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed

Reverse: no legend
Monogram of Marcian () with "+" above within wreath.
Exergue: CVZ (Cyzicus mint)

RIC X 565; VM 12
1.38g; 12.3mm; 180°
Pep
1Marcian450AD.JPG
450-457 AD, Marcian17 viewsAe; 1.34g; 10-11mm

DN MARCIANVS PF AVG
diademed, draped bust right

Monogram within wreath


Robin Ayers
1LeoI457AD.JPG
457-494 AD, Leo I26 viewsAe; 10 mm; 1.26g

DN LEONS PF AVG
pearl diademed draped and cuirassed bust right

Monogram in wreath


Vagi 3793; RIC X 694
monogram 1b
1 commentsRobin Ayers
coins446.JPG
501. Constantine I Ostia Sol16 viewsOstia
Although Ostia was probably founded for the sole purpose of military defence — since through the Tiber's mouths armies could eventually reach Rome by water — in time the port became a commercial harbour, and a very important one too. Many of the goods that Rome received from its colonies and provinces passed through Ostia. In this role, Ostia soon replaced Pozzuoli (Puteoli, near Naples).

In 87 BC, the town was razed by Marius, and again in 67 BC it was sacked by pirates. After this second attack, the town was re-built and provided with protective walls by Cicero. The town was then further developed during the 1st century AD, mainly under the influence of Tiberius, who ordered the building of the first Forum. The town was also soon enriched by the construction of a new harbour on the northern mouths of the Tiber (which reaches the sea with a larger mouth in Ostia, Fiumara Grande, and a narrower one near to the current Fiumicino international airport). The new harbour, not surprisingly called Portus, was excavated from the ground at the orders of the emperor Claudius; it has an hexagonal form, in order to reduce the waves strength. The town was provided with all the services a town of the time could require; in particular, a famous lighthouse. Archaeologists also discovered the public latrinas, organised for collective use as a series of seats that lets us imagine today that the function was also a social moment. In addition, Ostia had a large theatre, public baths and a fire fighting service. You can still see the mosaic floors of the baths near today's entrance to the town.

Trajan too, required a widening of the naval areas, and ordered the building of another harbour, again pointing towards the north. It must be remembered that at a relatively short distance, there was also the harbour of Civitavecchia (Centum Cellae), and Rome was starting to have a significant number of harbours, the most important remaining Portus.

Ostia grew to 50,000 inhabitants in the 2nd century AD and in time focused its naval activities on Portus. With the end of the Roman Empire, Ostia fell slowly into decay, and was finally abandoned in the 9th century due to the fall of the Roman empire in combination with repeated invasions and sackings by Arab pirates; the inhabitants moved to Gregoriopolis. In the Middle Ages, bricks from buildings in Ostia were used for several other occasions. The Leaning Tower of Pisa was entirely built of material originally belonging to Ostia. A "local sacking" was carried out by baroque architects, who used the remains as a sort of marble store for the palazzi they were building in Rome. Soon after, foreign explorers came in search of ancient statues and objects. The Papacy started organising its own investigations with Pope Pius VII and the research still continues today. It has been estimated that two thirds of the ancient town have currently been found.

001. Constantine I Ostia

RIC VI Ostia 85 S

ecoli
51-Edward-III.jpg
51. Edward III16 viewsGroat, 1351-1352, London mint.
Obverse: +EDWARD DEI G REX ANGL Z FRANC D HYB / Crowned bust, facing.
Reverse: +POSVI DEVM ADIVTOREM MEV CIVITAS LONDON / Long cross with three pellets in each angle.
4.43 gm., 28 mm.
North #1147; Seaby #1565.

Classification and dating from North, Vol 2, p. 29-31:
- Fourth coinage (no groats in the 1'st - 3'rd coinages).
- Pre-treaty period 1351-1361, with French title.
- London "series C" 1351-1352:

mint mark: Cross 1 (p. 29); closed C and E; Roman N, but also backwards N; wedgefoot on R.

Callimachus
coin408.JPG
603. Marcian26 viewsMarcian was born in Thrace or Illyria. He spent his early life as an obscure soldier. He subsequently served for nineteen years under Ardaburius and Aspar, and took part in the wars against the Persians and Vandals. In 431, Marcian was taken prisoner by the Vandals in the fighting near Hippo Regius; brought before the Vandal king Geiseric, he was released on his oath never to take up arms against the Vandals.

Through the influence of these generals he became a captain of the guards, and was later raised to the rank of tribune and senator. On the death of Theodosius II he was chosen as consort by the latter's sister and successor, Pulcheria, and called upon to govern an empire greatly humbled and impoverished by the ravages of the Huns.

Upon becoming Emperor, Marcian repudiated the embarrassing payments of tribute to Attila the Hun, which the latter had been accustomed to receiving from Theodosius in order to refrain from attacks on the eastern empire. Aware that he could never capture the eastern capital of Constantinople, Attila turned to the west and waged his famous campaigns in Gaul 451 and Italy (452) while leaving Marcian's dominions alone.

He reformed the finances, checked extravagance, and repopulated the devastated districts. He repelled attacks upon Syria and Egypt (452), and quelled disturbances on the Armenian frontier (456). The other notable event of his reign is the Council of Chalcedon (451), in which Marcian endeavoured to mediate between the rival schools of theology.

Marcian generally ignored the affairs of the western Roman Empire, leaving that tottering half of the empire to its fate. He did nothing to aid the west during Attila's campaigns, and, living up to his promise, ignored the depredations of Geiseric even when the Vandals sacked Rome in 455. It has recently been argued, however, that Marcian was more actively involved in aiding the western Empire than historians had previously believed and that Marcian's fingerprints can be discerned in the events leading up to, and including, Attila's death. (See Michael A. Babcock, "The Night Attila Died: Solving the Murder of Attila the Hun," Berkley Books, 2005.)

Shortly before Attila's death in 453, conflict had begun again between him and Marcian. However, the powerful Hun king died before all-out war broke out. In a dream, Marcian claimed he saw Attila's bow broken before him, and a few days later, he got word that his great enemy was dead.

Marcian died in 457 of disease, possibly gangrene contracted during a long religious journey.

Despite his short reign and his writing off of the west Marcian is considered one of the best of the early "Byzantine" emperors. The Eastern Orthodox Church recognizes him and his wife Pulcheria as saints, with their feast day on February 17.

Marcian AE4.9mm (1.30 grams) D N MARCIANVS P F AV, diademed & draped bust right / Monogram of Marcian inside wreath, * above
ecoli
Nero AE Sestertius.jpg
706a, Nero, 13 October 54 - 9 June 68 A.D.73 views6, Nero, 13 October 54 - 9 June 68 A.D. AE setertius, Date: 66 AD; RIC I 516, 36.71 mm; 25.5 grams; aVF. Obverse: IMP NERO CAESAR AVG PONT MAX TR POT PP, Laureate bust right; Reverse: S C, ROMA, Roma seated left, exceptional portrait and full obverse legends. Ex Ancient Imports.

NERO (54-68 A.D.)

It is difficult for the modern student of history to realize just how popular Nero actually was, at least at the beginning of his reign. Rome looked upon her new Emperor with hope. He was the student of Seneca, and he had a sensitive nature. He loved art, music, literature, and theatre. He was also devoted to horses and horse racing—a devotion shared by many of his subjects. The plebs loved their new Emperor. As Professor of Classics Judith P. Hallett (University of Maryland, College Park) says, “It is not clear to me that Nero ever changed or that Nero ever grew-up, and that was both his strength and his weakness. Nero was an extraordinarily popular Emperor: he was like Elvis” (The Roman Empire in the First Century, III. Dir. Margaret Koval and Lyn Goldfarb. 2001. DVD. PBS/Warner Bros. 2003).

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Herbert W. Benario
Emory University

Introduction and Sources
The five Julio-Claudian emperors are very different one from the other. Augustus dominates in prestige and achievement from the enormous impact he had upon the Roman state and his long service to Rome, during which he attained unrivaled auctoritas. Tiberius was clearly the only possible successor when Augustus died in AD 14, but, upon his death twenty-three years later, the next three were a peculiar mix of viciousness, arrogance, and inexperience. Gaius, better known as Caligula, is generally styled a monster, whose brief tenure did Rome no service. His successor Claudius, his uncle, was a capable man who served Rome well, but was condemned for being subject to his wives and freedmen. The last of the dynasty, Nero, reigned more than three times as long as Gaius, and the damage for which he was responsible to the state was correspondingly greater. An emperor who is well described by statements such as these, "But above all he was carried away by a craze for popularity and he was jealous of all who in any way stirred the feeling of the mob." and "What an artist the world is losing!" and who is above all remembered for crimes against his mother and the Christians was indeed a sad falling-off from the levels of Augustus and Tiberius. Few will argue that Nero does not rank as one of the worst emperors of all.

The prime sources for Nero's life and reign are Tacitus' Annales 12-16, Suetonius' Life of Nero, and Dio Cassius' Roman History 61-63, written in the early third century. Additional valuable material comes from inscriptions, coinage, papyri, and archaeology.


Early Life
He was born on December 15, 37, at Antium, the son of Cnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbusand Agrippina. Domitius was a member of an ancient noble family, consul in 32; Agrippina was the daughter of the popular Germanicus, who had died in 19, and Agrippina, daughter of Agrippa, Augustus' closest associate, and Julia, the emperor's daughter, and thus in direct descent from the first princeps. When the child was born, his uncle Gaius had only recently become emperor. The relationship between mother and uncle was difficult, and Agrippina suffered occasional humiliation. But the family survived the short reign of the "crazy" emperor, and when he was assassinated, it chanced that Agrippina's uncle, Claudius, was the chosen of the praetorian guard, although there may have been a conspiracy to accomplish this.

Ahenobarbus had died in 40, so the son was now the responsibility of Agrippina alone. She lived as a private citizen for much of the decade, until the death of Messalina, the emperor's wife, in 48 made competition among several likely candidates to become the new empress inevitable. Although Roman law forbade marriage between uncle and niece, an eloquent speech in the senate by Lucius Vitellius, Claudius' closest advisor in the senatorial order, persuaded his audience that the public good required their union. The marriage took place in 49, and soon thereafter the philosopher Seneca [[PIR2 A617]] was recalled from exile to become the young Domitius' tutor, a relationship which endured for some dozen years.

His advance was thereafter rapid. He was adopted by Claudius the following year and took the name Tiberius Claudius Nero Caesar or Nero Claudius Caesar Drusus Germanicus, was preferred to Claudius' natural son, Britannicus, who was about three years younger, was betrothed to the emperor's daughter Octavia, and was, in the eyes of the people, the clear successor to the emperor. In 54, Claudius died, having eaten some poisoned mushrooms, responsibility for which was believed to be Agrippina's, and the young Nero, not yet seventeen years old, was hailed on October 13 as emperor by the praetorian guard.


The First Years of Rule
The first five years of Nero's rule are customarily called the quinquennium, a period of good government under the influence, not always coinciding, of three people, his mother, Seneca, and Sextus Afranius Burrus, the praetorian prefect. The latter two were allies in their "education" of the emperor. Seneca continued his philosophical and rhetorical training, Burrus was more involved in advising on the actualities of government. They often combined their influence against Agrippina, who, having made her son emperor, never let him forget the debt he owed his mother, until finally, and fatally, he moved against her.

Nero's betrothal to Octavia was a significant step in his ultimate accession to the throne, as it were, but she was too quiet, too shy, too modest for his taste. He was early attracted to Poppaea Sabina, the wife of Otho, and she continually goaded him to break from Octavia and to show himself an adult by opposing his mother. In his private life, Nero honed the musical and artistic tastes which were his chief interest, but, at this stage, they were kept private, at the instigation of Seneca and Burrus.

As the year 59 began, Nero had just celebrated his twenty-first birthday and now felt the need to employ the powers which he possessed as emperor as he wished, without the limits imposed by others. Poppaea's urgings had their effect, first of all, at the very onset of the year, with Nero's murder of his mother in the Bay of Naples.

Agrippina had tried desperately to retain her influence with her son, going so far as to have intercourse with him. But the break between them proved irrevocable, and Nero undertook various devices to eliminate his mother without the appearance of guilt on his part. The choice was a splendid vessel which would collapse while she was on board. As this happened, she swam ashore and, when her attendant, having cried out that she was Agrippina, was clubbed to death, Agrippina knew what was going on. She sent Nero a message that she was well; his response was to send a detachment of sailors to finish the job. When she was struck across the head, she bared her womb and said, "Strike here, Anicetus, strike here, for this bore Nero," and she was brutally murdered.

Nero was petrified with fear when he learned that the deed had been done, yet his popularity with the plebs of Rome was not impaired. This matricide, however, proved a turning point in his life and principate. It appeared that all shackles were now removed. The influence of Seneca and Burrus began to wane, and when Burrus died in 62, Seneca realized that his powers of persuasion were at an end and soon went into retirement. Britannicus had died as early as 55; now Octavia was to follow, and Nero became free to marry Poppaea. It may be that it had been Burrus rather than Agrippina who had continually urged that Nero's position depended in large part upon his marriage to Octavia. Burrus' successor as commander of the praetorian guard, although now with a colleague, was Ofonius Tigellinus, quite the opposite of Burrus in character and outlook. Tigellinus became Nero's "evil twin," urging and assisting in the performance of crimes and the satisfaction of lusts.


Administrative and Foreign Policy
With Seneca and Burrus in charge of administration at home, the first half-dozen years of Nero's principate ran smoothly. He himself devoted his attention to his artistic, literary, and physical bents, with music, poetry, and chariot racing to the fore. But his advisors were able to keep these performances and displays private, with small, select audiences on hand. Yet there was a gradual trend toward public performance, with the establishment of games. Further, he spent many nights roaming the city in disguise, with numerous companions, who terrorized the streets and attacked individuals. Those who dared to defend themselves often faced death afterward, because they had shown disrespect for the emperor. The die was being cast for the last phases of Nero's reign.


The Great Fire at Rome and The Punishment
of the Christians
The year 64 was the most significant of Nero's principate up to this point. His mother and wife were dead, as was Burrus, and Seneca, unable to maintain his influence over Nero without his colleague's support, had withdrawn into private life. The abysmal Tigellinus was now the foremost advisor of the still young emperor, a man whose origin was from the lowest levels of society and who can accurately be described as criminal in outlook and action. Yet Nero must have considered that he was happier than he had ever been in his life. Those who had constrained his enjoyment of his (seemingly) limitless power were gone, he was married to Poppaea, a woman with all advantages save for a bad character the empire was essentially at peace, and the people of Rome enjoyed a full measure of panem et circenses. But then occurred one of the greatest disasters that the city of Rome, in its long history, had ever endured.

The fire began in the southeastern angle of the Circus Maximus, spreading through the shops which clustered there, and raged for the better part of a week. There was brief success in controlling the blaze, but then it burst forth once more, so that many people claimed that the fires were deliberately set. After about a fortnight, the fire burned itself out, having consumed ten of the fourteen Augustan regions into which the city had been divided.

Nero was in Antium through much of the disaster, but his efforts at relief were substantial. Yet many believed that he had been responsible, so that he could perform his own work comparing the current fate of Rome to the downfall of Troy. All his efforts to assist the stricken city could not remove the suspicion that "the emperor had fiddled while Rome burned." He lost favor even among the plebs who had been enthusiastic supporters, particularly when his plans for the rebuilding of the city revealed that a very large part of the center was to become his new home.

As his popularity waned, Nero and Tigellinus realized that individuals were needed who could be charged with the disaster. It so happened that there was such a group ready at hand, Christians, who had made themselves unpopular because of their refusal to worship the emperor, their way of life, and their secret meetings. Further, at this time two of their most significant "teachers" were in Rome, Peter and Paul. They were ideal scapegoats, individuals whom most Romans loathed, and who had continually sung of the forthcoming end of the world.

Their destruction was planned with the utmost precision and cruelty, for the entertainment of the populace. The venue was Nero's circus near the Mons Vaticanus. Christians were exposed to wild animals and were set ablaze, smeared with pitch, to illuminate the night. The executions were so grisly that even the populace displayed sympathy for the victims. Separately, Peter was crucified upside down on the Vatican hill and Paul was beheaded along the Via Ostiensis. But Nero's attempt, and hope, to shift all suspicion of arson to others failed. His popularity even among the lower classes was irrevocably impaired.

[For a detailed and interesting discussion of Nero’s reign please see http://www.roman-emperors.org/nero.htm]

The End - Nero's Death and its Aftermath
Nero's and Tigellinus' response to the conspiracy was immediate and long-lasting. The senatorial order was decimated, as one leading member after another was put to death or compelled to commit suicide. The year 66 saw the suicides of perhaps the most distinguished victims of the "reign of terror," Caius Petronius and Thrasea Paetus. Petronius, long a favorite of Nero because of his aesthetic taste, had been an able public servant before he turned to a life of ease and indolence. He was recognized as the arbiter elegantiae of Nero's circle, and may be the author of the Satyricon. At his death, he left for Nero a document which itemized many of the latter's crimes. Thrasea, a staunch Stoic who had been for some years an outspoken opponent of Nero's policies, committed suicide in the Socratic manner. This scene is the last episode in the surviving books of Tacitus' Annals.

In the year 68, revolt began in the provinces. . . the end of Nero's reign became inevitable. Galba claimed the throne and began his march from Spain. Nero panicked and was rapidly abandoned by his supporters. He finally committed suicide with assistance, on June 9, 68, and his body was tended and buried by three women who had been close to him in his younger days, chief of whom was Acte. His death scene is marked above all by the statement, "Qualis artifex pereo," (What an artist dies in me.) Even at the end he was more concerned with his private life than with the affairs of state.

The aftermath of Nero's death was cataclysmic. Galba was the first of four emperors who revealed the new secret of empire, that an emperor could be made elsewhere than in Rome. Civil war ensued, which was only ended by the victory of the fourth claimant, Vespasian, who established the brief dynasty of the Flavians. The dynasty of the Julio-Claudians was at an end.

Nero's popularity among the lower classes remained even after his death.

. . . .

It is not excessive to say that he was one of the worst of Rome's emperors in the first two centuries and more of the empire. Whatever talents he had, whatever good he may have done, all is overwhelmed by three events, the murder of his mother, the fire at Rome, and his savage treatment of the Christians.

Precisely these qualities are the reasons that he has remained so well known and has been the subject of many writers and opera composers in modern times. These works of fiction particularly merit mention: Henryk Sienkiewicz's Quo Vadis, one of the finest works of the 1907 Nobel Laureate in Literature, and John Hersey's The Conspiracy. Nero unquestionably will always be with us.

Copyright (C) 2006, Herbert W. Benario.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

1 commentsCleisthenes
GalbaAEAs.jpg
707a, Galba, 3 April 68 - 15 January 69 A.D.66 viewsGalba AE As, 68-69 AD; cf. SRC 727, 729ff; 27.85mm, 12g; Rome: Obverse: GALBA IMP CAESAR…, Laureate head right; Reverse: S P Q R OB CIV SER in oak wreath; gF+/F Ex. Ancient Imports.

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Galba (68-69 A.D.)

John Donahue
College of William and Mary


Introduction
The evidence for the principate of Galba is unsatisfactory. The sources either concentrate on the personality of the man, thereby failing to offer a balanced account of his policies and a firm chronological base for his actions; or, they focus on the final two weeks of his life at the expense of the earlier part of his reign. As a result, a detailed account of his principate is difficult to write. Even so, Galba is noteworthy because he was neither related to nor adopted by his predecessor Nero. Thus, his accession marked the end of the nearly century-long control of the Principate by the Julio-Claudians. Additionally, Galba's declaration as emperor by his troops abroad set a precedent for the further political upheavals of 68-69. Although these events worked to Galba's favor initially, they soon came back to haunt him, ending his tumultuous rule after only seven months.

Early Life and Rise to Power
Born 24 December 3 BC in Tarracina, a town on the Appian Way, 65 miles south of Rome, Servius Galba was the son of C. Sulpicius Galba and Mummia Achaica. Galba's connection with the noble house of the Servii gave him great prestige and assured his acceptance among the highest levels of Julio-Claudian society. Adopted in his youth by Livia, the mother of the emperor Tiberius, he is said to have owed much of his early advancement to her. Upon her death, Livia made Galba her chief legatee, bequeathing him some 50 million sesterces. Tiberius, Livia's heir, reduced the amount, however, and then never paid it. Galba's marriage proved to be a further source of disappointment, as he outlived both his wife Lepida and their two sons. Nothing else is known of Galba's immediate family, other than that he remained a widower for the rest of his life.

Although the details of Galba's early political career are incomplete, the surviving record is one of an ambitious Roman making his way in the Emperor's service. Suetonius records that as praetor Galba put on a new kind of exhibition for the people - elephants walking on a rope. Later, he served as governor of the province of Aquitania, followed by a six-month term as consul at the beginning of 33. Ironically, as consul he was succeeded by Salvius Otho, whose own son would succeed Galba as emperor. Over the years three more governorships followed - Upper Germany (date unknown), North Africa (45) and Hispania Tarraconensis, the largest of Spain's three provinces (61). He was selected as a proconsul of Africa by the emperor Claudius himself instead of by the usual method of drawing lots. During his two-year tenure in the province he successfully restored internal order and quelled a revolt by the barbarians. As an imperial legate he was a governor in Spain for eight years under Nero, even though he was already in his early sixties when he assumed his duties. The appointment showed that Galba was still considered efficient and loyal. In all of these posts Galba generally displayed an enthusiasm for old-fashioned disciplina, a trait consistent with the traditional characterization of the man as a hard-bitten aristocrat of the old Republican type. Such service did not go unnoticed, as he was honored with triumphal insignia and three priesthoods during his career.

On the basis of his ancestry, family tradition and service to the state Galba was the most distinguished Roman alive (with the exception of the houses of the Julii and Claudii) at the time of Nero's demise in 68. The complex chain of events that would lead him to the Principate later that year began in March with the rebellion of Gaius Iulius Vindex, the governor of Gallia Lugdunensis. Vindex had begun to sound out provincial governors about support for a rebellion perhaps in late 67 or early 68. Galba did not respond but, because of his displeasure with Neronian misgovernment, neither did he inform the emperor of these treasonous solicitations. This, of course, left him dangerously exposed; moreover, he was already aware that Nero, anxious to remove anyone of distinguished birth and noble achievements, had ordered his death. Given these circumstances, Galba likely felt that he had no choice but to rebel.

In April, 68, while still in Spain, Galba "went public," positioning himself as a vir militaris, a military representative of the senate and people of Rome. For the moment, he refused the title of Emperor, but it is clear that the Principate was his goal. To this end, he organized a concilium of advisors in order to make it known that any decisions were not made by him alone but only after consultation with a group. The arrangement was meant to recall the Augustan Age relationship between the emperor and senate in Rome. Even more revealing of his imperial ambitions were legends like LIBERTAS RESTITUTA (Liberty Restored), ROM RENASC (Rome Reborn) and SALUS GENERIS HUMANI (Salvation of Mankind), preserved on his coinage from the period. Such evidence has brought into question the traditional assessment of Galba as nothing more than an ineffectual representative of a bygone antiquus rigor in favor of a more balanced portrait of a traditional constitutionalist eager to publicize the virtues of an Augustan-style Principate.
Events now began to move quickly. In May, 68 Lucius Clodius Macer, legate of the III legio Augusta in Africa, revolted from Nero and cut off the grain supply to Rome. Choosing not to recognize Galba, he called himself propraetor, issued his own coinage, and raised a new legion, the I Macriana liberatrix. Galba later had him executed. At the same time, 68, Lucius Verginius Rufus, legionary commander in Upper Germany, led a combined force of soldiers from Upper and Lower Germany in defeating Vindex at Vesontio in Gallia Lugdunensis. Verginius refused to accept a call to the emperorship by his own troops and by those from the Danube, however, thereby creating at Rome an opportunity for Galba's agents to win over Gaius Nymphidius Sabinus, the corrupt praetorian prefect since 65. Sabinus was able to turn the imperial guard against Nero on the promise that they would be rewarded financially by Galba upon his arrival. That was the end for Nero. Deposed by the senate and abandoned by his supporters, he committed suicide in June. At this point, encouraged to march on Rome by the praetorians and especially by Sabinus, who had his own designs on the throne, Galba hurriedly established broad-based political and financial support and assembled his own legion (subsequently known as the legio VII Gemina). As he departed from Spain, he abandoned the title of governor in favor of "Caesar," apparently in an attempt to lay claim to the entire inheritance of the Julio-Claudian house. Even so, he continued to proceed cautiously, and did not actually adopt the name of Caesar (and with it the emperorship) until sometime after he had left Spain.

The Principate of Galba
Meanwhile, Rome was anything but serene. An unusual force of soldiers, many of whom had been mustered by Nero to crush the attempt of Vindex, remained idle and restless. In addition, there was the matter concerning Nymphidius Sabinus. Intent on being the power behind the throne, Nymphidius had orchestrated a demand from the praetorians that Galba appoint him sole praetorian prefect for life. The senate capitulated to his pretensions and he began to have designs on the throne himself. In an attempt to rattle Galba, Nymphidius then sent messages of alarm to the emperor telling of unrest in both the city and abroad. When Galba ignored these reports, Nymphidius decided to launch a coup by presenting himself to the praetorians. The plan misfired, and the praetorians killed him when he appeared at their camp. Upon learning of the incident, Galba ordered the executions of Nymphidius' followers. To make matters worse, Galba's arrival was preceded by a confrontation with a boisterous band of soldiers who had been formed into a legion by Nero and were now demanding legionary standards and regular quarters. When they persisted, Galba's forces attacked, with the result that many of them were killed.
Thus it was amid carnage and fear that Galba arrived at the capital in October, 68, accompanied by Otho, the governor of Lusitania, who had joined the cause. Once Galba was within Rome, miscalculations and missteps seemed to multiply. First, he relied upon the advice of a corrupt circle of advisors, most notably: Titus Vinius, a general from Spain; Cornelius Laco, praetorian prefect; and his own freedman, Icelus. Second, he zealously attempted to recover some of Nero's more excessive expenditures by seizing the property of many citizens, a measure that seems to have gone too far and to have caused real hardship and resentment. Third, he created further ill-will by disbanding the imperial corps of German bodyguards, effectively abolishing a tradition that originated with Marius and had been endorsed by Augustus. Finally, he seriously alienated the military by refusing cash rewards for both the praetorians and for the soldiers in Upper Germany who had fought against Vindex.

This last act proved to be the beginning of the end for Galba. On 1 January 69 ("The Year of the Four Emperors"), the troops in Upper Germany refused to declare allegiance to him and instead followed the men stationed in Lower Germany in proclaiming their commander, Aulus Vitellius, as the new ruler. In response, Galba adopted Lucius Calpurnius Piso Frugi Licinianus to show that he was still in charge and that his successor would not be chosen for him. Piso, although an aristocrat, was a man completely without administrative or military experience. The choice meant little to the remote armies, the praetorians or the senate, and it especially angered Otho, who had hoped to succeed Galba. Otho quickly organized a conspiracy among the praetorians with the now-familiar promise of a material reward, and on 15 January 69 they declared him emperor and publicly killed Galba; Piso, dragged from hiding in the temple of Vesta, was also butchered.

Assessment
In sum, Galba had displayed talent and ambition during his lengthy career. He enjoyed distinguished ancestry, moved easily among the Julio-Claudian emperors (with the exception of Nero towards the end of his principate), and had been awarded the highest military and religious honors of ancient Rome. His qualifications for the principate cannot be questioned. Even so, history has been unkind to him. Tacitus characterized Galba as "weak and old," a man "equal to the imperial office, if he had never held it." Modern historians of the Roman world have been no less critical. To be sure, Galba's greatest mistake lay in his general handling of the military. His treatment of the army in Upper Germany was heedless, his policy towards the praetorians short sighted. Given the climate in 68-69, Galba was unrealistic in expecting disciplina without paying the promised rewards. He was also guilty of relying on poor advisors, who shielded him from reality and ultimately allowed Otho's conspiracy to succeed. Additionally, the excessive power of his henchmen brought the regime into disfavor and made Galba himself the principal target of the hatred that his aides had incited. Finally, the appointment of Piso, a young man in no way equal to the challenges placed before him, further underscored the emperor's isolation and lack of judgment. In the end, the instability of the post-Julio-Claudian political landscape offered challenges more formidable than a tired, septuagenarian aristocrat could hope to overcome. Ironically, his regime proved no more successful than the Neronian government he was so eager to replace. Another year of bloodshed would be necessary before the Principate could once again stand firm.

Copyright (C) 1999, John Donahue.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.


Cleisthenes
Piso~0.jpg
90 BC Calpurnius Piso65 viewsLaureate head of Apollo right

L PISO FRVGI
Naked horseman galloping to the right holding palm-branch
CXXXI ? in exergue

Rome 90 BC

3.71g

Sear 235

"This extraordinarily large and complex issue represents one of the principal war coinages of the Romans during the conflict with the Marsic Confederation. The control-Marks are legion and consist of letters, mumerals and symbols in a multitude of combinations on the obverse and reverse" SEAR Millenium Edition

Sold Forum auction January 2018
3 commentsJay GT4
Theta.jpg
A strange "theta" device?17 viewsA panorama of two microscopic images of the reverse of
http://www.forumancientcoins.com/gallery/displayimage.php?pos=-147634

What looks like a "theta" is probably just a dot inside an oval. UPD: found a mention of this variation in one of the catalogs, indeed some of the Caesar Constans coins from Thessalonica have "dot inside o" device.
Yurii P
Cuarto_Follis_Maximino_II_Antioch_Vagi_2955.jpg
A116-30 -Acuńacion Civica Anonima Semi-Autonoma (311 - 312 D.C.)39 viewsAE15 Ľ de Follis o Nummus 19 x 15 mm 1.2 gr.
Moneda tradicionalmente atribuida a Julian II hasta que J.Van Heesch en su artículo “The last Civic Coinages and the Religious Police of Maximinus Daza”, publicado en el Numismatic Chronicle vol.153 Pags. 66 y subsiguientes (1993), realiza un detallado estudio de este tipo de acuńación cívica anónima del cuarto siglo, donde demuestra que estas monedas se acuńaron bajos los auspicios de Maximino II Daya conmemorando “La Gran Persecución” de los Cristianos y por consiguiente la Victoria Pagana, al honrar con ellas a los antiguos dioses grecorromanos Júpiter, Apolo, Tyche, y Serapis. Recordemos que en dicha persecución (desde finales del 311 a finales del 312 D.C.) se cerraron Iglesias, encarcelando y/o desterrando a los cristianos. Esta campańa fue particularmente fuerte en Nicomedia, Antioquia y Alejandría, los tres centros principales del Imperio de Oriente. Estas persecuciones menguaron al ańo siguiente posiblemente como resultado de la preocupación de Maximino II al provocar abiertamente a los Emperadores Asociados de Occidente Constantino I y Licinio I.

Anv: "IOVI CONS - ERVATORI" – Júpiter semidesnudo, sentado en un trono a izquierda, portando globo en la mano de su brazo derecho extendido y largo cetro vertical en la izquierda.
Rev: "VICTOR - IA AVGG" – Victoria avanzando a izquierda, portando guirnalda en la mano de su brazo derecho extendido y hoja de palma en la izquierda. "ANT" en exergo y "B" en campo derecho.

Acuńada 311 - 312 D.C.
Ceca: Antiochia (Off. 2da.)

Referencias: Cohen Vol.VIII #53 Pag.49 (Julián II) (10f) - Salgado MRBI Vol.III #7952 Pag.94 – Vaggi #2955 - J.Van Heesch “The last Civic Coinages and the Religious Police of Maximinus Daza (1993)” #2.
mdelvalle
corinthMarcusBellerophon2.jpg
Achaea. Corinthia, Corinth. Marcus Aurelius Ć 26mm. Bellerophon.83 views Obv: Laureate head right.
Rev: CLI COR Bellerophon riding Pegasos flying right, attacking a chimaera, facing right.
BCD 706; SNG Copenhagen -.

Bellerophon in Greek mythology was "the greatest hero and slayer of monsters, alongside Cadmus and Perseus, before the days of Heracles", whose greatest feat was killing the Chimera, a monster that Homer depicted with a lion's head, a goat's body, and a serpent's tail: "her breath came out in terrible blasts of burning flame.
The replacement of Bellerophon by the more familiar culture hero Perseus was a development of Classical times that was standardized during the Middle Ages and has been adopted by the European poets of the Renaissance and later.
ancientone
rhodos_ae12.jpg
AE 12; Zeus/ Hibiscus15 viewsRhodos, Caria, c. 225 B.C. Bronze AE 12, SNG Cop 797, nice F, Rhodos mint, 1.967g, 11.7mm, 0o, c. 225 BC; obverse laureate head of Zeus right; reverse PO, rose, sun-disk behind; rare. Based on the unusual Zeus obverse, this small bronze could be connected to Ptolemy III of Egypt. A devastating earthquake struck Rhodes in 226 B.C. It knocked down the Colossus of Rhodes and destroyed the city. Polybius records that Ptolemy III promised the Rhodians '300 talents of silver, a million artabae of corn, ship-timber for 10 quinqueremes and 10 triremes, consisting of 40,000 cubits of squared pine planking, 1000 talents of bronze coinage, 180,000 pounds of tow (for ropes), 3000 pieces of sailcloth, 3000 talents (of copper?) for the repair of the Colossus, 100 master-builders with 350 workmen, and 14 talents yearly to pay their wages. Beside this, he gave 12,000 artabae of corn for their public games and sacrifices, and 20,000 artabae for victualling 10 triremes. The greater part of these goods were delivered at once, as well as one-third of the money named.' This issue shows perceived harmony with, or thanks to Ptolemaic Egypt. -- J. Ashton, Rhodian Bronze Coinage and the Earthquake of 229. Ex FORVMPodiceps
artet1.JPG
Alexander III556 viewsAlexander III AR Tetradrachm. ‘Amphipolis’ mint. Struck under Kassander, circa 316-314 BC. Head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin headdress / Zeus Aëtophoros seated left; shield in left field, pellet-in-Π below throne. 17.1 g.

Price 136; Troxell, Studies, issue L8.

Thanks for the atribution Lloyd!


Most lifetime issues of Alexander the Great were usualy bulky/thick, which did not alow for the entire design of the die to imprint on the coin. IMO looked better then the wide thin flan. (edit: though this one is Struck under Kassander)

The coin was hand stuck with a die/avil. Dies were usually made of Bronze because it was sofeter and easier to work with then iron, (though some were made of iron as well) then the was anealed to make it stronger and less brittle.

The planchets were made by pouring molten metal into a mold and saved until needed. When it was ready to be used, they heated it just below melting point and placed it between the dies and the punch die was struck with a hammer.


-----------------------------


"Building upon his father's success in Greece, Alexander III (Alexander the Great, reigned 336-323 BC) set about the conquest of the Achaemenid Persian Empire. By the time of his death at the age of 31, he ruled most of the known world from Greece to Afghanistan. Initially Alexander continued to mint Philip's gold and silver coins. Soon, however, the need for a silver coinage that could be widely used in Greece caused him to begin a new coinage on the Athenian weight-standard. His new silver coins, with the head of Herakles on one side and a seated figure of Zeus on the other, also became one of the staple coinages of the Greek world. They were widely imitated within the empire he had forged."

--------------------------------------

"......Alexander seems to have liked Amphipolis, because one of his last plans was to spend no less than 315 ton silver for a splendid new temple in the city that was to be dedicated to Artemis Tauropolus. It was never built, but after Alexander's death on 11 June 323 in Babylon, his wife queen Roxane settled in Amphipolis, which appears to have become one of the residences of the Macedonian royals. In 179, king Philip V died in the town."


------------------

Amphipolis , ancient city of Macedonia, on the Strymon (Struma) River near the sea and NE of later Thessaloníki. The place was known as Ennea Hodoi [nine ways] before it was settled and was of interest because of the gold and silver and timber of Mt. Pangaeus (Pangaion), to which it gave access. Athenian colonists were driven out (c.464 BC) by Thracians, but a colony was established in 437 BC Amphipolis became one of the major Greek cities on the N Aegean. This colony was captured by Sparta, and Brasidas and Cleon were both killed in a battle there in 422 BC After it was returned to Athens in 421 BC, it actually had virtual independence until captured (357 BC) by Philip II of Macedon. He had promised to restore it to Athens, and his retention of Amphipolis was a major cause of the war with Athens. In 148 BC it became the capital of the Roman province of Macedonia. Paul, Silas, and Timothy passed through Amphipolis (Acts 17.1). Nearby is the modern Greek village of Amfípolis."

--------------------------------

"A quick look at the WildWinds database( http://www.wildwinds.com/coins/greece/macedonia/kings/alexander_III/t.html ) indicates that the style and monograms are consistent with an Amphipolis issue, with perhaps a little less care than usual in the engraving of the reverse. The closest I could locate with a quick look is Price 133 (variant), although yours appears to have a shield rather than dolphin in the left field reverse."
16 commentsrandy h2
Alexander_Zeus_3b.jpg
Alexander III 'The Great' | Zeus - Macedonian Kingdom, AR Drachm, 337 to 323 BC.81 views
Alexander III 'The Great' | Zeus - Silver drachm

Obv: Head of Alexander in guise of Herakles, wearing lion-skin headdress, right-facing.
Rev: Zeus enthroned, nude to waste, left-facing, holding and gazing at eagle in outstretched right hand, scepter in raised left hand; monogram TI before the god, below the eagle - second eagle below the monogram(?): [A]LEXANDROY down-vertical in right field.

Exergue: None.

Mint: Sardis
Struck: 310-301 BC. (Posthumous issue)

Size: 14.9 x 15.9 mm.
Weight: 4.27 grams.
Die axis: 0°

Condition: Quite fine. Beautiful, bright, clear, lustrous with subtle but distinctive toning. Nicely centered, well struck with excellent images, legend and monogram, in fine relief.

Refs:*
Müller 186.
Reference: Price - 2617
Tiathena
Alexander_Athena_Tet_Master_01b.jpg
Alexander III | Athena, Lysimachos * Thrace, AR Tetradrachm, Lampsakos, ca. 323-281 BC.206 views
Alexander III | Athena, Lysimachos * Silver Tetradrachm

Obv: Diademed head of Alexander III with horn of Ammon.
Rev: Helmeted Athena enthroned left holding Nike in outstretched right hand, left arm resting on shield, ΒAΣIΛEΩΣ in right field, LYΣIMAXOY in left field. Monogram inner left, below Nike.; crescent below exergual line.

Exergue: Crescent

Mint: Lampsakos
Struck: 301-299 BC.

Size: 30.055 mm.
Weight: 15.07 gms.
Die axis: 0°

Condition: In very fine condition, bright, clear, sharp images on each side, superb relief, well centered and nicely struck.

Holed and plugged.

Refs:*
Sear Greek Coins and their Values, (SG) Number, 6814

Status: TCJH, Private Collection.
4 commentsTiathena
alxmecu.jpg
Alexander the Great13 viewsPortrait of Alexander the Great done in mosaic that is housed at the Museo Nazionale, Naples, Italy. Dated from the late 2nd century. B.C., copy of a painting dated to c. 300 B.C.

Traditionally this scene reresents the turning-point at Issus when Darius fled the battle; but Philoxenus, the artist from whose painting the mosaic was copied, may have incorporated elements from other battles. Alexander's personal moment of peril seems borrowed from the Granicus, and the confrontation also has echoes of Gaugamela.

This mosaic depicts a battle between Alexander the Great and the Persian king Darius, probably the Battle of the Issus River in November of 333 B.C. It is in opus vermiculatum, with over one and a half million tesserae, none larger than 4 mm., in four colors: white, yellow, red, and black. The minuteness of the tesserae enables incredibly fine detail and painterly effects, including remarkable portraits of Alexander and Darius.

See:http://www.hackneys.com/alex_web/pages/alxphoto.htm
Cleisthenes
ATGmosaic.jpg
Alexander the Great, The Battle of Issus River21 viewsThis mosaic depicts a battle between Alexander the Great and the Persian king Darius, probably the Battle of the Issus River in November of 333 B.C. It is in opus vermiculatum, with over one and a half million tesserae, none larger than 4 mm., in four colors: white, yellow, red, and black. The minuteness of the tesserae enables incredibly fine detail and painterly effects, including remarkable portraits of Alexander and Darius.

The border of this huge mosaic consists of large stones in a dentate pattern . In the corners are rosettes. Within the border along the bottom of the picture is a blank brown stripe, which some consider to be part of the picture, balancing the white expanse of sky at the top, while others argue that it is simply part of the frame.

The composition of the mosaic is dominated by the two protagonists: On the left, Alexander, with his head uncovered, rushes forward on his horse Bucephalus. He holds a spear with which he has skewered a Persian soldier, who has rushed to the defence of Darius. With Alexander appear his helmeted Macedonian soldiers, although little remains of them due to damage of the left side of the mosaic. On the right Darius, wearing a Persian cap, stretches out his hand to his wounded defender, while his charioteer whips the horses to flee toward the right. Around him are his Persian soldiers who mill in confusion in the background, their faces filled with fear and determination. One Persian, however, to the right of the dying defender of Darius, is intent upon Alexander, and holds his sword in his hand, ready to attack.

There are many details which emphasize the terror and confusion of the battle. The horse of the Persian defender of Darius collapses beneath him while he writhes in agony on Alexander's spear. Below Darius in his chariot, a Persian soldier, staring in horror at this scene, attempts to hold a rearing horse. The hindquarters of this horse project into the middle ground of the picture, giving it a sense of depth. To the right, a soldier is being crushed under the wheels of Darius' chariot. His face is reflected in the shield which he holds. Further to the right appear the terrified horses of the chariot team, trampling upon another unfortunate Persian.

The composition of the mosaic is dominated by diagonals. The center is dominated by the intersecting diagonals of the Persian speared by Alexander and the Persian restraining the rearing horse. Two other sets of intersecting diagonals are provided by the figures of Darius and his charioteer and by Alexander and the wounded Persian. The lances in the background of the picture also carry on the diagonal motif.

The setting of the battle is very stylized. In the background appears a tree with bare twisted limbs whose diagonals continue the unifying compositional motif of the mosaic. The tree also serves as a formal vertical counterweight to the Persian king and his charioteer, who rise above the battle fray. In the foreground are discarded weapons and rocks, which serve to define the space between the viewer and the battle scene.

The Alexander mosaic is thought to be based on a painting which Philoxenus of Eretria created for King Cassander of Macedonia. The painting is described by Pliny the Elder as representing "the battle of Alexander with Darius." Certain inconsistencies in the mosaic point to its derivation from another source. In the center of the composition appears a helmeted head to the right of the rearing horse. Two lance shafts come from the left and abruptly stop behind this he‡d. To the right of the same head appears a head of a horse and beneath this are the hindquarters of another horse, neither of which is logically completed. Among the four horses of Darius' chariot there are parts of a white horse which do not fit together anatomically. Above these horses is a Persian soldier who appears to have two right hands, one on his head and the other raised in the air. These details provide evidence that the mosaicist misunderstood details of the original.

Nevertheless, the overall effect of the mosaic is masterful. The expert blending of the colors of the tesserae and the careful control of the overall composition create a scene which comes to life with all the horror and confusion of battle. The Alexander mosaic is a truly great work, unmatched in the history of Roman art.

See: http://www.hackneys.com/alex_web/pages/alxphoto.htm
Cleisthenes
Alexandria.jpg
Alexandria11 viewsAlexandria was one of the most famous cities in the world. It was founded around a small pharaonic town c. 331 BC by Alexander the Great. It remained Egypt's capital for nearly a thousand years, until the Muslim conquest of Egypt in AD 641, when a new capital was founded at Fustat (Fustat was later absorbed into Cairo). Alexandria was known because of its Lighthouse of Alexandria (Pharos), one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World; its library (the largest library in the ancient world); and the Catacombs of Kom el Shoqafa, one of the Seven Wonders of the Middle Ages. Ongoing maritime archaeology in the harbor of Alexandria, which began in 1994, is revealing details of Alexandria both before the arrival of Alexander, when a city named Rhacotis existed there, and during the Ptolemaic dynasty.ancientone
Antigonas_Gonatus_Pan_2b.jpg
Antigonos Gonatas * War-helmed Athena * Pan, 277-239 BC. Æ20160 views
Antigonos Gonatas * Athena * Pan, Bronze Drachm

Obv: Head of Athena right wearing crested Corinthian helmet.
Rev: Pan standing right erecting a trophy; B-A, to left and right of Pan respectively. Φ in lower-left field, ligate monogram between Pan's legs.

Exergue: (Blank)

Mint: Pella (?)
Struck: 277-239 BC.

Size: 18.15 mm.
Weight: 6.64 grams
Die axis: 005°

Condition: Nicely centered strike with good images on both sides. Lovely dark-olive patina (near-black). Showing signs of wear, long usage and the passage of time. Still a lovely coin and very pleasing to the eye.

Refs:*
Price 71
SNG Copenhagen 1205(ff)

1 commentsTiathena
AntiochosVII H451.jpg
Antiochos VII AE15 Hendin 45157 viewsAe15, 15mm, 2.70g.

Obverse: BASILEWS ANTIOXOS EUERGETOI, Upside-down anchot.

Reverse: Lily in dotted circle.

BPR (131-130 BC)

Hendin 451.

Despite being struck in Antiochos' name, this is dated to the time when Hyrcanus I had actually gained control of Jerusalem, where they seem to have been struck. There is thus a good case for the claim that they were minted by Hyrcanus, and in a very real sense, constitute the first clearly 'Jewish' coins, since they inaugurate the tradition of coins without images. The earlier Yehud coins are probably better seen as 'Israelite' rather than 'Jewish'; they use images, and it's uncertain how far the term 'Judaioi' was in use at the time, or to whom it applied.
Robert_Brenchley
2__Cylindre-Sceau_1čre_dynastie_de_Babylone_1900-1700_avant_J_-C__Stéatite_grise.jpg
ANTIQUITIES, Babylonia, Cylinder Seal, 1900 - 1700 B.C.86 viewsCylindre-Sceau, 1čre dynastie de Babylone, 1900-1700 avant J.-C (Stéatite grise)
Cylindre de 18 x 10 mn, gravé en creux de symboles, personnages (Dieux) et animaux (aigle et félin), patine verte.
Roger D2
apamea_elephant.jpg
Apameia; Seleukis and Pieria; Zeus / Elephant. AE2017 viewsSyria, Seleukis and Pieria Apameia - Zeus / Elephant. 20mm, 7.8 g. 1st Century B.C. Obverse: Diademed head of Zeus right. Reverse: ΑΠΑΜΕΩΝ / ΤΗΣ ΙΕΡΑΣ / ΚΑΙ ΑΣΥΛΟΥ / ΚL, Elephant Standing right, Date before. BMC Syria, p. 235, 14 and pl. 27, 6; SGCV II 5867 var (date). In 302 B.C., Seleucus ceded a large part of Afghanistan to Chandragupta for 500 elephants to equip his army. The Seleukids' elephant breeding and training camp was at Apamea. In 188 B.C., Rome forced the defeated Antiochus III to sign the Treaty of Apamea, which obligated him to hand over all but 10 of his ships, hostages, 15,000 talents and his elephants. When this coin was issued the elephants existed only in memory.Podiceps
001_(3).JPG
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 13 - Silver Half Obol57 views540/535 – 530 B.C.
0.40 gm, 6.9 mm
Obv.: Anchor with loop eye and dots below
Rev: Swastika with arms bent left, dot in center, two dolphin/fish in each sector
Topalov Apollonia p. 568, 13

Topalov Type: Half obols (?) Upright Anchor – Swastika in concave sectors with additional schematic images of eight dolphins or fish (540/535-530 B.C.)
Obv.: Upright anchor with thin flukes and thin stock. A group of dots under stock (probably four?).
Rev.: Schematic image of swastika (with arms bent to the left) in concave sectors forming a square. Two lines representing schematic images of two dolphins or two fish in every sector.
Jaimelai
053~0.JPG
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 13 - Silver Half Obol 56 views540/535 – 530 B.C.
0.40 gm, 6.9 mm
Obv.: Anchor with loop eye and dots below
Rev: Swastika with arms bent left, dot in center, two dolphin/fish in each sector
Topalov Apollonia p. 568, 13; p. 258, 4

Topalov Type: Half obols (?) Upright Anchor – Swastika in concave sectors with additional schematic images of eight dolphins or fish (540/535-530 B.C.)
Obv.: Upright anchor with thin flukes and thin stock. A group of dots under stock (probably four?).
Rev.: Schematic image of swastika in concave sectors forming a square. Two lines representing schematic images of two dolphins or two fish in every sector.
Jaimelai
ap2~0.jpg
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 13 - Silver Half Obol7 views540/535 – 530 B.C.
Silver Half Obol
0.34 gm, 8 mm
Obv.: Thin fluked anchor with loop eye and three dots below right
Rev: Swastika with arms bent left, dot in center, two lines (dolphin/fish?) in each sector
Topalov Apollonia p. 568, 13; (half obol)
HGC 3, 1325 (obol);
SNG Bulgaria 2, 69-73 var. - dot placement (tritartemorion)

Topalov Type 13: Half obols (?) Upright Anchor – Swastika in concave sectors with additional schematic images of eight dolphins or fish (540/535-530 B.C.)
Obv.: Upright anchor with thin flukes and thin stock. A group of dots under stock (probably four?).
Rev.: Schematic image of swastika (with arms bent to the left) in concave sectors forming a square. Two lines representing schematic images of two dolphins or two fish in every sector.
Jaimelai
071.JPG
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 14 - Silver Quarter Obol39 views540/535 – 519/512 B.C.
0.27 gm, 5.6 mm
Obv.: Upright anchor with loop eye
Rev: Swastika in incuse square with arms bent left, two dolphin/fish in each sector
Topalov Apollonia p. 568, 14

Topalov Type: Upright Anchor – Swastika in concave sectors with additional schematic images of eight dolphins or fish (540/535 -519/512 B.C.)
Obv.: Upright anchor with thin flukes and a thin stock. A group of dots under the stock (probably two).
Rev.: Schematic image of a swastika (with arms bent to the left) in concave sectors forming a square. Two lines representing schematic images of two dolphins or two fish in every sector.

Description from Topalov Apollonia 2007
Jaimelai
001~6.JPG
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 17 - Silver Half Obol48 views519/512 – 480/478 B.C.
0.35 gm, 7.0 mm
Obv.: Anchor with dots below
Rev: Swastika with arms bent right, two dolphin/fish in each sector
Topalov Apollonia p. 570, 17

Topalov Type: Half obols (?) Upright Anchor – Swastika in concave sectors with additional schematic images of eight dolphins or fish (519/512-480/478 B.C.)
Obv.: Upright anchor with relatively thick flukes and stock. A group of dots under stock (possibly two left and two right).
Rev.: Swastika with thick arms bent to the right forming an incuse square. Two lines representing schematic images of dolphins or fish in every sector.
Jaimelai
068.JPG
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 17 - Silver Half Obol32 views519/512 – 480/478 B.C.
0.41 gm, 7.19 mm
Obv.: Anchor with dots below
Rev: Swastika with arms bent right, two dolphin/fish in each sector
Topalov Apollonia p. 570, 17

Topalov Type: Half obols (?) Upright Anchor – Swastika in concave sectors with additional schematic images of eight dolphins or fish (519/512-480/478 B.C.)
Obv.: Upright anchor with relatively thick flukes and stock. A group of dots under stock (possibly two left and two right).
Rev.: Swastika with thick arms bent to the right forming an incuse square. Two lines representing schematic images of dolphins or fish in every sector.

Description from Topalov Apollonia 2007
Jaimelai
057~2.JPG
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 17 - Silver Half Obol27 views519/512 – 480/478 B.C.
Silver Half Obol
0.37 gm, 6.7 mm
Obv.: Anchor with dots below
Rev: Swastika with arms bent right, two dolphin/fish in each sector
Topalov Apollonia p. 570, 17

Topalov Type: Half obols (?) Upright Anchor – Swastika in concave sectors with additional schematic images of eight dolphins or fish (519/512-480/478 B.C.)
Obv.: Upright anchor with relatively thick flukes and stock. A group of dots under stock (possibly two left and two right).
Rev.: Swastika with thick arms bent to the right forming an incuse square. Two lines representing schematic images of dolphins or fish in every sector.
Jaimelai
001~4.JPG
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 18 - Silver Quarter Obol57 views519/512 – 480/478 B.C.
0.26 gm, 6.42 mm
Obv.: Anchor
Rev: Swastika in incuse square with arms bent right, two dolphin/fish in each sector
Topalov Apollonia p. 570, 18

Topalov Type: Upright Anchor – Swastika in concave sectors with additional schematic images of eight dolphins or fish (519/512 -480/478 B.C.)
Obv.: Upright anchor with relatively thick flukes and stock.
Rev.: Swastika with relatively thick arms bent to the left or right in an incuse square. Two lines representing schematic images of two dolphins or two fish in every sector.

Description from Topalov Apollonia 2007
2 commentsJaimelai
ap~0.jpg
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 18 - Silver Quarter Obol13 views519/512 – 480/478 B.C.
0.18 gm, 5 mm
Obv.: Upright Anchor
Rev: Swastika in incuse square with arms bent right, two lines (dolphin/fish) in each sector
Topalov Apollonia p. 570, 18; p. 266, 2
HGC 3.2, 1326

Topalov Type: Upright Anchor – Swastika in concave sectors with additional schematic images of eight dolphins or fish (519/512 -480/478 B.C.)
Obv.: Upright anchor with relatively thick flukes and stock.
Rev.: Swastika with relatively thick arms bent to the left or right in an incuse square. Two lines representing schematic images of two dolphins or two fish in every sector.

Description from Topalov Apollonia 2007
Jaimelai
ap18d.jpg
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 18 - Silver Quarter Obol14 views519/512 – 480/478 B.C.
Silver Quarter Obol
0.29 gm, 6.0 mm
Obv.: Upright/Inverted Anchor with big flukes with dots under stock
Rev: Swastika in incuse square with winged arms bent right, two lines (dolphin/fish or crayfish claws) in each sector
Topalov Apollonia p. 570, 18; p. 266, 1;
HGC 3, 1326 (hemiobol);
SNG Bulgaria II, 94 var. (hemiobol, no “A”)

Two dots under the stock of this coin may indicate that it is a hemiobol although the weight, 0.29 grams, is closer to the Aeginetan quarterobol standard of 0.25 grams (hemiobol is 0.51 grams).

Topalov Type 18: Quarterobols (as per the system of Aegina (0.25 g)) – “Upright Anchor – Swastika in concave sectors with additional schematic images of eight dolphins or fish” (519/512 -480/478 B.C.)
Obv.: Upright anchor with relatively big flukes and stock. A group of dots under the stock (probably one l. and one r.).
Rev.: Schematic image of swastika (with arms bent to the right) in a concave square. Two lines representing schematic images of two dolphins or two fish in every sector.
Jaimelai
AP.jpg
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 18 var. - Silver Quarter Obol22 views519/512 – 480/478 B.C.
0.20 gm, 5.49 mm
Obv.: Anchor with A to left
Rev: Swastika with arms bent right, two lines (dolphin/fish) in each sector
Topalov Apollonia p. 570, 18 var.; p. 266, 1

Topalov Type 18: Quarter obols (?) Upright Anchor – Swastika in concave sectors with additional schematic images of eight dolphins or fish (519/512-480/478 B.C.)
Obv: Upright anchor with relatively big flukes and stock. A group of dots under the stock (probably one l. and one r.).
Rev.: Schematic image of swastika (with arms bent to the right) in a concave square. Two lines representing schematic images of two dolphins or two fish in every sector

Topalov, Stavri. Apollonia Pontica. Contribution to the Study of the Coin Minting of the City 6th-1st c. B.C.
Jaimelai
ap2.jpg
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 18 var. - Silver Quarter Obol14 views519/512 – 480/478 B.C.
0.22 gm, 5 mm
Obv.: Anchor with A to left
Rev: Swastika with arms bent right, two lines (dolphin/fish) in each sector
Topalov Apollonia p. 570, 18 var.; p. 266, 1

Topalov Type 18: Quarter obols (?) Upright Anchor – Swastika in concave sectors with additional schematic images of eight dolphins or fish (519/512-480/478 B.C.)
Obv: Upright anchor with relatively big flukes and stock. A group of dots under the stock (probably one l. and one r.).
Rev.: Schematic image of swastika (with arms bent to the right) in a concave square. Two lines representing schematic images of two dolphins or two fish in every sector

Topalov, Stavri. Apollonia Pontica. Contribution to the Study of the Coin Minting of the City 6th-1st c. B.C.
Jaimelai
Capture_00101.JPG
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 19 - Silver Half Obol96 views519/512 – 480/478 B.C.
0.31 gm, 7 mm
Obv.: Anchor; A to left,
Rev: Swastika with arms bent right, two dolphin/fish in each sector
Topalov Apollonia p. 572, 19;
SNG BM 149; Moushmov 3146.

Topalov Type: Upright Anchor, A – Swastika in concave sectors with additional schematic images of eight dolphins or fish (519/512-480/478 B.C.)
Obv.: Upright anchor with relatively big flukes and stock. A group of dots under stock. The letter A under the left or the right fluke and above the stock.
Rev.: Schematic image of swastika (with arms bent left or right) in concave square. Two lines representing schematic images of two dolphins or two fish in every sector.
2 commentsJaimelai
072~1.JPG
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 19 - Silver Half Obol65 views519/512 – 480/478 B.C.
0.34 gm, 6.7 mm
Obv.: Anchor; A to left, dots below
Rev: Swastika with arms bent right, two dolphin/fish in each sector
Topalov Apollonia p. 572, 19

Topalov Type: Upright Anchor, A – Swastika in concave sectors with additional schematic images of eight dolphins or fish (519/512-480/478 B.C.)
Obv.: Upright anchor with relatively big flukes and stock. A group of dots under stock. The letter A under the left or the right fluke and above the stock.
Rev.: Schematic image of swastika (with arms bent left or right) in concave square. Two lines representing schematic images of two dolphins or two fish in every sector.
Jaimelai
IMG_0040_(2).JPG
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 19 - Silver Half Obol18 views519/512 – 480/478 B.C.
0.34 gm, 6.7 mm
Obv.: Anchor; A to left, dots below
Rev: Swastika with arms bent right, two dolphin/fish in each sector
Topalov Apollonia p. 572, 19

Topalov Type: Upright Anchor, A – Swastika in concave sectors with additional schematic images of eight dolphins or fish (519/512-480/478 B.C.)
Obv.: Upright anchor with relatively big flukes and stock. A group of dots under stock. The letter A under the left or the right fluke and above the stock.
Rev.: Schematic image of swastika (with arms bent left or right) in concave square. Two lines representing schematic images of two dolphins or two fish in every sector.
Jaimelai
Arrow_50.jpg
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 28 - Bronze One-Sided Arrowhead Denomination 123 viewsEarly 5th Century B.C.
1.04 gm, 24x8 mm
Obverse: Cast convex surface having the contour of an arrowhead with a uniformly thick bulging rib.
Reverse: Flat surface of an arrow-head without any images and inscriptions.
Topalov Apollonia p.148-9, 21-24; p.734, 1

Topalov Type: Bronze denomination 1(?) one-sided arrow-head coin late type (5th c. B.C.)
Obv.: Cast convex surface of the contour of an arrow-head with a uniformly thick bulging rib.
Rev.: Flat surface of an arrow-head without any images and inscriptions.

Jaimelai
AP3_50.jpg
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 35 - Bronze One-Sided Arrowhead Denomination 1 - Late Type35 views5th Century B.C.
Cast Arrowhead Proto-money
0.79 gm, 22x7 mm
Obverse: Cast convex surface having the contour of an arrowhead with a uniformly thick bulging rib. The letter A above the rib.
Reverse: Flat surface of an arrow-head without any images and inscriptions.
Topalov Apollonia p.153-54, 34-36; p.736, version 2

Topalov Type 35. Bronze denomination 1(?) one-sided arrow-head coin late type (5th c. B.C.)
Obverse: Cast convex surface of the contour of an arrow-head with a uniformly thick bulging rib. The letter A (above or below the rib).
Reverse: Flat surface of the contour of an arrow-head.
Jaimelai
Capture_00010.JPG
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 56 - Silver Diobol44 views410/404 – 341/323 B.C.
1.31 gm, 10.6 mm
Obv.: Laureate head of Apollo facing
Rev.: Anchor, A to left, crayfish to right,
ΣΩ (magistrate's initials) to left
Topalov Apollonia p.393, 1-3; p.596, 56;
Sear p. 165, 1657;
B.M.C. 15 (Mysia) p.9, 15

Topalov Type: "Full-Face Apollo's Head - Upright Anchor" silver diobol (410/404 – 341/323 B.C.)
Obv.: Full-face laureate Apollo with short hair.
Rev.: Magistrates' initials around the images. Upright anchor with thick flukes and a rectangular stock. The letter A on one side and the additional symbol of a crab viewed from above on the other side between flukes and the stock.
Jaimelai
AP_half_b.jpg
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 56 - Silver Diobol45 views410 - 323 B.C.
1.25 gm, 11 mm
Obv.: Laurate head of Apollo
Rev.: Anchor, A and magistrate initials to left, crayfish to right
Topalov Apollonia p. 393, 1-3; p.596, 56
Sear p. 165, 1657
B.M.C. 15 (Mysia) p.9, 15

From Topalov Apollonia 2007: "Full-Face Apollo's Head - Upright Anchor" silver diobol (410/404 – 341/323 B.C.)
Obv.: Full-face laureate Apollo with short hair.
Rev.: Magistrates' initials around the images. Upright anchor with thick flukes and a rectangular stock. The letter A on one side and the additional symbol of a crab viewed from above on the other side between flukes and the stock.
Jaimelai
014~2.JPG
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 56 - Silver Diobol40 views410/404 - 341/323 B.C.
1.26 gm, 12 mm
Obv.: Laurate head of Apollo
Rev.: Anchor, A to left, crayfish to right
Topalov Apollonia p.596, 56; Sear 1657; B.M.C. 15 (Mysia) p.9, 15

Topalov Type: "Full-Face Apollo's Head - Upright Anchor" Silver diobol (410/404 – 341/323 B.C.)
Obv.: Full-face laureate Apollo with short hair.
Rev.: Magistrates' initials around the images. Upright anchor with thick flukes and a rectangular stock. The letter A on one side and the additional symbol of a crab viewed from above on the other side between flukes and the stock
Jaimelai
AP_half_c.jpg
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 56 - Silver Diobol41 views410 - 323 B.C.
0.87 gm, 9.5 mm
Obv.: Laurate head of Apollo
Rev.: Anchor, A to left, crayfish to right
Topalov Apollonia p.596, 56
Sear p. 165, 1657
B.M.C. 15 (Mysia) p.9, 15

From Topalov Apollonia 2007: "Full-Face Apollo's Head - Upright Anchor" silver diobol (410/404 – 341/323 B.C.) Obv.: Full-face laureate Apollo with short hair. Rev.: Magistrates' initials around the images. Upright anchor with thick flukes and a rectangular stock. The letter A on one side and the additional symbol of a crab viewed from above on the other side between flukes and the stock.
Jaimelai
AP_half_d.jpg
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 56 - Silver Diobol80 views410-323 B.C.
1.15 gm, 10.5 mm
Obv.: Laurate head of Apollo
Rev.: Anchor, A and magistrate's initials to left, crayfish to right
Topalov Apollonia p.596, 56
Sear p. 165, 1657
B.M.C. 15 (Mysia) p.9, 15

Topalov Type: "Full-Face Apollo's Head - Upright Anchor" silver diobol (410/404 – 341/323 B.C.)
Obv.: Full-face laureate Apollo with short hair.
Rev.: Magistrates' initials around the images. Upright anchor with thick flukes and a rectangular stock. The letter A on one side and the additional symbol of a crab viewed from above on the other side between flukes and the stock.
3 commentsJaimelai
Capture_00009.JPG
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 56 - Silver Diobol50 views410/404 - 341/323 B.C.
1.26 gm, 11 mm
Obv.: Laureate head of Apollo facing
Rev.: Anchor, A to left, crayfish to right,
A Π (magistrate's initials) to left
Topalov Apollonia p.387, 2, p.596, 56;
Sear p.165, 1657;
B.M.C. 15 (Mysia) p.9, 15

Topalov Type: "Full-Face Apollo's Head - Upright Anchor" Silver diobol (410/404 – 341/323 B.C.)
Obv.: Full-face laureate Apollo with short hair.
Rev.: Magistrates' initials around the images. Upright anchor with thick flukes and a rectangular stock. The letter A on one side and the additional symbol of a crab viewed from above on the other side between flukes and the stock.
Jaimelai
Capture_00009_(2).JPG
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 56 - Silver Diobol56 views410/404 - 341/323 B.C.
0.53 gm, 10 mm
Obv.: Laurate head of Apollo
Rev.: Anchor, A to left, crayfish to right
Topalov Apollonia p.596, 56;
Sear 1657; B.M.C. 15 (Mysia) p.9, 15

Topalov Type: "Full-Face Apollo's Head - Upright Anchor" Silver diobol (410/404 – 341/323 B.C.)
Obv.: Full-face laureate Apollo with short hair.
Rev.: Magistrates' initials around the images. Upright anchor with thick flukes and a rectangular stock. The letter A on one side and the additional symbol of a crab viewed from above on the other side between flukes and the stock

This coin is small enough to be an obol, but in the diobol style. Obols have Apollo facing left or right.
Jaimelai
048.JPG
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 56 - Silver Diobol38 views410/404 - 341/323 B.C.
0.84 gm, 11.5 mm
Obv.: Laurate head of Apollo
Rev.: Anchor, A to left, crayfish to right
Topalov Apollonia p.596, 56; Sear 1657; B.M.C. 15 (Mysia) p.9, 15

Topalov Type: "Full-Face Apollo's Head - Upright Anchor" Silver diobol (410/404 – 341/323 B.C.)
Obv.: Full-face laureate Apollo with short hair.
Rev.: Magistrates' initials around the images. Upright anchor with thick flukes and a rectangular stock. The letter A on one side and the additional symbol of a crab viewed from above on the other side between flukes and the stock
Jaimelai
diobol_50.jpg
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 56 - Silver Diobol25 views410 - 323 B.C.
1.05 gm, 11 mm
Obv.: Laurate head of Apollo
Rev.: Anchor
A to left, crayfish to right
Topalov Apollonia p.596, 56
Sear 1657,
B.M.C. 15 (Mysia) p.9, 15

From Topalov Apollonia 2007: "Full-Face Apollo's Head - Upright Anchor" silver diobol (410/404 – 341/323 B.C.) Obv.: Full-face laureate Apollo with short hair. Rev.: Magistrates' initials around the images. Upright anchor with thick flukes and a rectangular stock. The letter A on one side and the additional symbol of a crab viewed from above on the other side between flukes and the stock.
Jaimelai
072~2.JPG
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 56 - Silver Diobol 37 views410/404 – 341/323 B.C.
1.31 gm, 10.6 mm
Obv.: Laureate head of Apollo facing
Rev.: Anchor, A to left, crayfish to right, ΣΩ (magistrate's initials) to left
Topalov Apollonia p.393, 1-3; p.596, 56;
Sear p. 165, 1657;
B.M.C. 15 (Mysia) p.9, 15

Topalov Type: "Full-Face Apollo's Head - Upright Anchor" silver diobol (410/404 – 341/323 B.C.)
Obv.: Full-face laureate Apollo with short hair.
Rev.: Magistrates' initials around the images. Upright anchor with thick flukes and a rectangular stock. The letter A on one side and the additional symbol of a crab viewed from above on the other side between flukes and the stock
Jaimelai
006_(2).JPG
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 56 - Silver Diobol 52 views410/404 – 341/323 B.C.
1.34 gm, 11.56 mm
Obv.: Laureate head of Apollo facing
Rev.: Anchor, A to left, crayfish to right, ΣΩ (magistrate's initials) to left
Topalov Apollonia p.393, 1-3; p.596, 56;
Sear p. 165, 1657;
B.M.C. 15 (Mysia) p.9, 15

Topalov Type: "Full-Face Apollo's Head - Upright Anchor" silver diobol (410/404 – 341/323 B.C.)
Obv.: Full-face laureate Apollo with short hair.
Rev.: Magistrates' initials around the images. Upright anchor with thick flukes and a rectangular stock. The letter A on one side and the additional symbol of a crab viewed from above on the other side between flukes and the stock
Jaimelai
ap2_50.JPG
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 56 - Silver Diobol26 views410/404 – 341/323 B.C.
1.25 gm, 10 mm
Obv.: Laureate head of Apollo facing
Rev.: Anchor, A to left, crayfish to right, ΣΩ (magistrate's initials) to left
Topalov Apollonia p.393, 1-3; p.596, 56;
Sear p. 165, 1657;
B.M.C. 15 (Mysia) p.9, 15

Topalov Type: "Full-Face Apollo's Head - Upright Anchor" silver diobol (410/404 – 341/323 B.C.)
Obv.: Full-face laureate Apollo with short hair.
Rev.: Magistrates' initials around the images. Upright anchor with thick flukes and a rectangular stock. The letter A on one side and the additional symbol of a crab viewed from above on the other side between flukes and the stock.
Jaimelai
apollo_50.jpg
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 56 - Silver Diobol8 views410/404 – 341/323 B.C.
1.25 gm, 11 mm
Obv.: Laureate head of Apollo facing
Rev.: Anchor, A to left, crayfish to right, ΣΩ (magistrate's initials) to left
Topalov Apollonia p.393, 1-3; p.596, 56;
Sear p. 165, 1657; HGC 1315;
B.M.C. 15 (Mysia) p.9, 15;
SNG Black Sea 175

Topalov Type: "Full-Face Apollo's Head - Upright Anchor" silver diobol (410/404 – 341/323 B.C.)
Obv.: Full-face laureate Apollo with short hair.
Rev.: Magistrates' initials around the images. Upright anchor with thick flukes and a rectangular stock. The letter A on one side and the additional symbol of a crab viewed from above on the other side between flukes and the stock
Jaimelai
IMG_2238.JPG
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 56 - Silver Diobol - very worn49 views410 - 323 B.C.
0.59 gm, 8.78 mm
Obv.: Head of Apollo (or Medusa)
Rev.: Anchor, A to left, crayfish to right
Topalov Apollonia p.596, 56
Sear p.165, 1657
B.M.C. 15 (Mysia) p.9, 15

From Topalov Apollonia 2007: "Full-Face Apollo's Head - Upright Anchor" silver diobol (410/404 – 341/323 B.C.) Obv.: Full-face laureate Apollo with short hair. Rev.: Magistrates' initials around the images. Upright anchor with thick flukes and a rectangular stock. The letter A on one side and the additional symbol of a crab viewed from above on the other side between flukes and the stock.
Jaimelai
a02~0.jpg
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 56 - Silver Diobol Fouree39 views410/404 - 341/323 B.C.
0.85 gm, 10.5 mm
Obv.: Laurate head of Apollo
Rev.: Anchor, A to left, crayfish to right
Topalov Apollonia p.596, 56
Sear p. 165, 1657, B.M.C. 15 (Mysia) p.9, 15

Topalov Type: "Full-Face Apollo's Head - Upright Anchor" Silver diobol (410/404 – 341/323 B.C.)
Obv.: Full-face laureate Apollo with short hair.
Rev.: Magistrates' initials around the images. Upright anchor with thick flukes and a rectangular stock. The letter A on one side and the additional symbol of a crab viewed from above on the other side between flukes and the stock
Jaimelai
Capture_00058.JPG
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 59 - Bronze Dichalk47 views410/404 – 341/323 B.C.
2.34 gm, 13.5 mm
Obv.: Laureate head of Apollo right with short hair
Rev.: AΠOΛΛONIATΩN ΔIXAΛKIH (around the images)
Upright anchor with thich flukes and a rectangular stock. A to left and crayfish to right.
Topalov Apollonia p.598, 59

Topalov Type: "Apollo's Head – AΠOΛΛONIATΩN ΔIXAΛKIH Upright Anchor" Bronze Dichalk (410/404 - 341/323 B.C.)
Obv.: Laureate Apollo's head right, rarely left.
Rev.: AΠOΛΛONIATΩN ΔIXAΛKIH (around the images)
Upright anchor in the middle, at one side of which there is an image of a crab as an additional symbol, and the letter A at the other side. No magistrate's names on coins of this type.
Jaimelai
061.jpg
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 59 - Bronze Dichalk28 views410/404 – 341/323 B.C.
2.17 gm, 13.3 mm
Obv.: Laureate head of Apollo right with short hair
Rev.: AΠOΛΛONIATΩN ΔIXAΛKIH (around the images)
Upright anchor with thich flukes and a rectangular stock. A to left and crayfish to right.
Topalov Apollonia p.598, 59

Topalov Type: "Apollo's Head – AΠOΛΛONIATΩN ΔIXAΛKIH Upright Anchor" Bronze Dichalk (410/404 - 341/323 B.C.)
Obv.: Laureate Apollo's head right, rarely left.
Rev.: AΠOΛΛONIATΩN ΔIXAΛKIH (around the images)
Upright anchor in the middle, at one side of which there is an image of a crab as an additional symbol, and the letter A at the other side. No magistrate's names on coins of this type.
Jaimelai
aristotle.jpg
Aristotle, 384-322 B.C.28 viewsAristotle was born in Stagira in north Greece, the son of Nichomachus, the court physician to the Macedonian royal family. He was trained first in medicine, and then in 367 he was sent to Athens to study philosophy with Plato. He stayed at Plato's Academy until about 347. Though a brilliant pupil, Aristotle opposed some of Plato's teachings, and when Plato died, Aristotle was not appointed head of the Academy. After leaving Athens, Aristotle spent some time traveling, and possibly studying biology, in Asia Minor (now Turkey) and its islands. He returned to Macedonia in 338 to tutor Alexander the Great; after Alexander conquered Athens, Aristotle returned to Athens and set up a school of his own, known as the Lyceum. After Alexander's death, Athens rebelled against Macedonian rule, and Aristotle's political situation became precarious. To avoid being put to death, he fled to the island of Euboea, where he died in 322 B.C.

Aristotle is said to have written 150 philosophical treatises. The 30 that survive touch on an enormous range of philosophical problems, from biology and physics to morals to aesthetics to politics. Many, however, are thought to be "lecture notes" instead of complete, polished treatises, and a few may not be the work of Aristotle but of members of his school.

A full description of Aristotle's contributions to science and philosophy is beyond the scope of this gallgery. Suffice it to say that Aristotle became virtually lost to Western Civilization during the so-called "dark ages." In the later Middle Ages, Aristotle's work was rediscovered and enthusiastically adopted by medieval scholars. His followers called him Ille Philosophus (The Philosopher), or "the master of them that know," and many accepted every word of his writings -- or at least every word that did not contradict the Bible -- as eternal truth. Fused and reconciled with Christian doctrine into a philosophical system known as Scholasticism, Aristotelian philosophy became the official philosophy of the Roman Catholic Church. As a result, some scientific discoveries in the Middle Ages and Renaissance were criticized simply because they were not found in Aristotle. It is one of the ironies of the history of science that Aristotle's writings, which in many cases were based on first-hand observation, were used to impede observational science.

"Mine is the first step and therefore a small one, though worked out with much thought and hard labor. You, my readers or hearers of my lectures, if you think I have done as much as can fairly be expected of an initial start. . . will acknowledge what I have achieved and will pardon what I have left for others to accomplish," Aristotle.

See: http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/history/aristotle.html hosted by the University of California, Berkeley Museum of Paleontology.
Cleisthenes
Siglos_king_dagger_bow.jpg
Artaxerxes II - Darius III187 viewsPersian Empire, Lydia, Anatolia, Artaxerxes II - Darius III, c. 375 - 340 B.C., Silver siglos, 5.490 g, maximum diameter 15.1 mm, die axis 0, Carradice Type IV (late) C, 46 ff.; BMC Arabia 172 ff.; SNG Kayhan 1031; SGCV II 4683; Rosen 674; Klein 763; Carradice Price p. 77 and pl. 20, 387 ff.

Following Darius II came Artaxerxes II (called Mnemon), during whose reign Egypt revolted and relations with Greece deteriorated. His reign (dated as from 404 to 359 B.C.E.) was followed by that of his son Artaxerxes III (also called Ochus), who is credited with some 21 years of rule (358-338 B.C.E.) and is said to have been the most bloodthirsty of all the Persian rulers. His major feat was the reconquest of Egypt.
This was followed by a two-year rule for Arses and a five-year rule for Darius III (Codomannus), during whose reign Philip of Macedonia was murdered (336 B.C.E.) and was succeeded by his son Alexander. In 334 B.C.E. Alexander began his attack on the Persian Empire.

Siglos was the Greek transliteration of the Semitic denomination ""shekel"" which became a standard weight unit for silver in the Achaemenid Persian Empire after the conquest of Babylonia by Cyrus the Great in 539 B.C. Ironically, silver sigloi seem to have been struck primarily in the western part of the empire and the standard went on to influence several Greek civic and royal coinages in the fifth and fourth centuries B.C. There is endless debate about whether the figure on the obverse represents the Persian Great King or an anonymous royal hero, but since the Greeks regularly referred to the parallel gold denomination as the ""daric"" it seems clear that at least some contemporaries considered it a depiction of the king. Of course, whether this is what the Persian authorities intended or an example of interpretatio Graeca must remain an open question.
4 commentsNemonater
Athalaric_2.jpg
Athalaric - Rome - 10 nummi132 viewsAthalaric (516-534), Ostrogothic king (526-534). Ć 10 Nummi (17 mm, 3.11 g), Rome. Obverse: helmeted bust of Roma right, INVICT-A ROMA. Reverse: king standing right holding spear and shield, DN ATAL-ARICVS, S-C, X in left field. Metlich 85a; MIB 77.

This coin is said to have been found in North Yorkshire, England. It does not appear to have been in circulation for a long time, and the find is an interesting indication of contacts with the continent during the Early Middle Ages.
1 commentsjbc
AcarnaniaLeukas.jpg
Athena and Pegasos on AR Stater of Leukas242 viewsCirca 320-280 B.C. AR Stater (22mm. 8.58g. 6h). BCD Akarnania 269 var. (no monogram). SNG Copenhagen 357 var. (same). Pegasi 134. Obverse Pegasus left, lambda below. Reverse helmeted head of Athena left, monogram below, lambda before stylis. EF, toned.

Ex Sukenik Collection (acquired from Brian Kritt). Ex CNG.

Leukas is a Greek island in the Ionian Sea; and according to ancient sources, a former Corinthian colony. Their coinage reflect their ties with the mother city and almost identical with the coinage of Corinth which could only be distinguished by a small Greek letter to signify where the coins were made, in case of our coin, the letter lambda for Leukas. The coin we have is a beautiful specimen with exquisite details. We could strongly confirm from this coin that the winged Pegasus is a male mythical beast. The reverse is also quite interesting since Athena’s helmet is realistically well proportioned in relation to her head. Other coins of the same type show a smaller helmet which she could impossibly use! The engraver of this coin followed the rules of proportion. Of particular importance is that Leukas is associated with Sappho and the myth of her suicide at Cape Lefkada (Lefkada being the modern name of Leukas). Recently, some scholars suggested that Leukas is the actual place of Homer’s Ithaca. Passages from the Odyssey described Ithaca as an island reachable on foot, which is the case for Leukas since it is not really an island, that it was connected to the mainland by a narrow causeway.
3 commentsJason T
g_041.JPG
Athens79 viewsAttika,Athens "new style" 168-50 b.c
Tetradrachm 115 - 114 BC

Obverse:Head of Athena,wearing helmet
Reverse:Owl standing right on amphora;ΑΘΕ magistrates names ΜΗΤΡΟΔΩΡΟΣ ΚΑΛΛΗ at left and ΔΗΜΟΣΘΕ right;grapes right;ΣΦ under amphora

28.67mm 16.71gm

Sear 1 pages 239-240 , Thompson 635
3 commentsmaik
Athena_angled.jpg
Athens, Attica36 views307 - 300 B.C.
Bronze AE14
4.16 gm, 14 mm
Obv.: Head of Athena right wearing Corinthian helmet with three crests, adorned with serpent
Rev.: Owl standing left, head facing, wings closed
A to right, H Θ to left, all in olive wreath
Kroll 50; [SNG Copenhagen 94]
BMC 11, p.22, 240

Same coin shot on angle to show thickness and sculpture of coin. "The heaviness of the Owl-left coinage is matched by the exceptional quality of its alloy, die engraving and striking, making it altogether one of the most carefully prepared bronze coinages ever minted at Athens." from Kroll 1993.
Jaimelai
AthenTetVF.jpg
Athens, Greece, Old Style Tetradrachm, 449 - 413 B.C.125 viewsSilver tetradrachm, SNG Cop 31 ff., SGCV I 2526, VF, near full crest, Athens mint, 16.410g, 25.1mm, 90o. Obverse: head of Athena right, almond shaped eye, crested helmet with olive leaves and floral scroll, wire necklace, round earring, hair in parallel curves; Reverse: AQE right, owl standing right, head facing, erect in posture, olive sprig and crescent left, all within incuse square.

This coin is one of the most familiar of all the coins struck throughout the ancient Mediterranean. The images of Athena and her Owl, while not static, changed undramatically, in an unhurried and deliberate way. Although its production rests firmly during the time that numismatists call the Classical era (479 BC --336 BC), this coin's "style" better reflects the earlier Archaic period.

The Athenian "Owl" (until its debasement as a result of the Peloponnesian War) was the standard of its day. Between the late 5th century BC and the late 3rd century BC, these coins were the currency against which all other coins were measured. This high esteem was due to the Athenian tetradrachms' consistent weight and quality of silver.

"The little elf-like owl dear to ancient Athens had greenish-blue-gray eyes that could see clearly where humans could not. Glaukopis -- the "shining eyed one" was often shortened to glaux, a nickname for the tetradrachm that bore the owl's likeness" (http://notes.utk.edu/bio/unistudy.nsf/0/da0222e2e80272fd85256785001683e4?OpenDocument).

It is only with the emergence of the Imperial coinage of Alexander the Great (beginning quickly after his ascension to the throne in 336 BC) that the ancient world had another coin as widely accepted. As Martin J. Price notes, "“The impressive list of twenty-three mints on Asian soil and one in Egypt, all used to strike Alexander’s imperial coinage during his lifetime, shows that there was a conscious policy of providing this form of money on an empire-wide basis" (Price, Martin J. The Coinage in the Name of Alexander the Great and Philip Arrhidaeus. Zurich: The Swiss Numismatic Society in Association with British Museum Press, 1991. 72).

More than two millennia after the Athenian Tetracrachm was first struck, the 26th President of The United States, Theodore Roosevelt (b. 1858; d. 1919), is said to have carried an Athenian "Owl" in his pocket--to remind him just how beautiful a coin could be.

J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
1 commentsCleisthenes
combine_images~0.jpg
Augustus Amphipolis AE2123 viewsObv. KAIΣAP ΘEOY YIOΣ (Caesar son of god, starting downward on right, ending downward on left), bare head right.
Rev. AMΦIΠOΛEITΩN (counterclockwise starting lower left), Artemis Tauropolos riding bull right, holding billowing veil with both hands.
References: SNG ANS 165; SNG Cop 89 - 90; RPC I 1626 var. (legend arrangement); BMC Macedonia p. 52, 73 var.
Green patina, Amphipolis mint,7.7g, 20mm.
Canaan
ric_126_augustus.jpg
Augustus RIC 0126 75 viewsAugustus (27 BC-AD 14), Denarius, Uncertain Spanish mint (Colonia Patricia?), 17-16 BC, (19 mm 3.73 g).
Obv: Bare head right
Rev: Augustus, Capricorn right, holding globe attached to rudder between front hooves; cornucopia above its back.
RIC I 126; RSC 21 SRCV (2000) 1592.
Purchased October 28, 2016 from vcoins store London Coin Galleries Ltd.




Although Augustus was the second Caesar covered by Suetonius, he really was the first ruler of the new Roman empire. Originally known by the name Octavian, he became Augustus as the new ruler of the empire.

The coin below is special to me for two reasons. First, I love the
anepigraphic (no legend) obverse. I feel this gives an elegant look to the portrait and make the portrait the focus of the coin. Many emperors were very particular as to how their images appeared on their coins and Augustus was no exception. It is difficult to tell when a coin of Augustus was issued by the portrait alone because his portraits did not age very much from his beginnings as emperor until his death.

Another reason I like this coin is the reverse. It depicts a Capricorn with globe and rudder. These devices appear on other coins of Augustus, and other emperors used them as well. Augustus would be associated with the image of the Capricorn for much of his rule.

Although this is not a perfect coin because of its imperfect flan shape, the combination of a great portrait and the Capricorn meant I had to have it.
4 commentsorfew
Augustus_Victory_Over_Brutus.jpg
Augustus Victory over Brutus27 viewsAugustus, Philippi, (Macedon Northern Greece) 27 BC - 10 BC, 20mm, 5.64g, BMC 23, Sear 32
OBV: VIC AVG, Victory standing on globe left.
REV: COHOR PRAEPHIL, 3 legionary standards

Commemorates the battle of Philippi, 42 B.C., in which Octavian and Antony defeated the Republican tyrannicides Brutus and Cassius, who subsequently committed suicide. Augustus later settled the veterans of a Praetorian Cohort at Philippi, and he conferred upon them the right to mint coins, of which this is an example. The images on this coin presumably refer to the Emperor's above described victory in 42 BC.
The winged victory standing on a globe representing the cosmos.
Such a coin is delivering, without words but in clear images that everyone would have understood, the message that Augustus now rules the world.
All the old political institutions were reestablished and the "dignity" of the Senate was restored, but actual power was now in the hands of one man alone.
Romanorvm
combine_images~8.jpg
Augustus, AE of Gabala, Syria. AD 1-14. 27 viewsObv. Bare head of Augustus right, countermark.
Rev. GABALEWN, Astarte seated left, holding poppy and sceptre, sphinx at foot. LM in left field, ZH in exergue.
Countermark: Howgego 366. Bee. Gabala
References: RPC 4452; BMC 70; Mionnet V, 627.
21mm, 6.3 grams.
1 commentsCanaan
combine_images~3.jpg
Aurelian AE Denarius. Rome mint, 273-274 AD.23 viewsObv. IMP AVRELIANVS AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev. VICTORIA AVG, Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm,
captive at foot left, A in ex.
20mm and 2.44 grams.
RIC 73; Cohen 255/257; Sear5 11641.
Canaan
Antimachosdrachm.JPG
Baktrian Kingdom, Antimachos, AR Drachm62 viewsKaroshi legend around king on horseback.
BASILEWS NIKHFOROU ANTIMACOU
Nike advancing left with wreath and palm, mongram in left field.
SG 7546, 171-160 BC.
Early bilingual coin, with different languages on obverse and reverse.

whitetd49
Bactria,_Diodotos_II,_AE_22_.jpg
Baktrian Kingdom, Diodotos II, ca. 240-230 BC, Ć Double Unit 13 viewsLaureate head of Zeus right.
ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΔIOΔITOY Artemis right holding transverse torch; star to right.

HGC 12, 27; SNG ANS 9, 96; Mitchiner 82; Holt Ι2; Kritt Ι2; Sear GCV 7504 var. (hound at Artemis feet). Ai Khanoum mint.

(22 mm, 9.6 g, 6h).
Sayles & Lavender.

Artemis depicted on the reverse of this coin was the twin sister of Apollo and goddess of the Moon. A huntress with legendary skills in archery, she brought fertility to the land and special protection to women in childbirth. The historian Frank Holt wrote ‘A better patron goddess for a city such as Ai Khanoum could not have been found. It may only be coincidence, but the choice of Artemis as one female type for this city has a faint echo down through the ages. The ancient Greek name of the polis has vanished from history, but its current appellation derives from Turko-Uzbek and means “Lady Moon”. Local legends offer several explanations and identify various important women as the eponymous hero of the site. For example, local village women still bring votive offerings to a “Lady Moon”, protector of mothers and infants. Another “Lady Moon” was associated with irrigation canals and yet another with control over the rivers that flowed by the walls of the city. Such “modern” folktales reverberate with ancient echoes of Artemis/Anahita, goddess of the moon, mistress of the fertilizing waters, and guardian of women in childbirth.’
n.igma
Abdul_Hamid_Egypt.png
BCC 2934 viewsOttoman Empire
Sultan Abdul Hamid I
1774-1789 CE Egypt
Obv:Tughra (Sultan’ s Monogram)
Rev:ZURIBA FI
MISR SANAT 1187 (minted in
Egypt year) 1187 HA (1774 CE)
AR or Billon 15mm. approx.0.20g
Axis:60
This is an incredibly thin coin. The images show
through on both sides. I am not sure if this is
because it is so thin or if there was a striking error
involved. This coin was reportedly found at Caesarea
Maritima along the beach, in 1972.
v-drome
BHMjubilee.JPG
BHM 0654. King George III enters the Fiftieth Year of his Reign, 180972 viewsObv. Laureate draped and cuirassed bust of George III right, lion's head on shoulder GEORGIVS III D G BRITANNIARUM REX FID D Below NAT IV IUN MDCCXXVIII
Rev. Emblems of the arts and government around a crowned pedestal on which 25TH OCTR 1809,
around ANNO QUINQUAGESIMO REGNI (The fiftieth year of his reign).

WM45. BHM 654. Engraved by J Westwood.
LordBest
Clipboard~46.jpg
Bludgeoning and Cutting Weapon Middle ages “battle” axe35 viewsBludgeoning and Cutting Weapon Middle ages “battle” axe.
Found near Dunster, england. Dated 13th century.
Many people think of battle axes as huge things swung around by massivly muscled barbarians. This is not generaly the case and are more of the imagination than of reality.
This particular axe, dated to around the 13th century could well have been used as a wood cutters axe. It does have one tell tale sign that distinguishes it from an ordinary axe and that is the distinctive armourers/makers mark. Clearly a soldiers battle helmet is stamped on this axe, leaving little doubt to its purpose


The Middle Ages was an extremely violent era in history featuring battles in both Europe and the Holy Land when the crusades, and the crusaders who fought them, were numerous. Warfare during the Middle Ages, or Medieval era called for a variety of weapon expertise. Knights and men-at-arms ( foot soldiers, or archers ) used different types of weapons. The Battle Axes were predominantly used by Foot Soldiers.
It has been documented that the Romans used Germanic axemen in the centre front of their formations to act as an awful ‘softner’ and demoriliser before the standard infantry came through.
lorry66
0123-Consul_20Fs.jpg
Bonaparte I° Consul - 20 francs or An 12 A45 viewsAtelier de Paris (A)
BONAPARTE PREMIER CONSUL, tęte nue a gauche
REPUBLIQUE FRANCAISE, couronne de lauriers entourant 20 FRANCS en deux lignes. A l'exergue . coq . AN 12. . A .
Tranche inscrite DIEU PROTEGE LA FRANCE
6.44 gr
Ref : Le Franc VIII # 510/2
The revolution has ended, Bonaparte is soon becoming Napoleon I Empereur, as Octavian became Augustus (note the similarities on this portrait with those of Augustus on the "bull butting" denarii), but still unsure of what is going on. We see many contradictory messages for a laďque republic : a consul on obverse, a republic on reverse, a revolutionary calendar (An 12) and ... God save France on the edge...
Now you know why you find french people so romantic...
11-249
Potator II
1902_Edward_VII_British_Trade_Dollar.JPG
BRITISH OVERSEAS TRADE. 1902 EDWARD VII AR DOLLAR4 viewsObverse: • ONE DOLLAR •. Britannia standing on shore, facing left, left hand gripping top of shield, right hand holding trident; ship in full sail sailing left behind her; 1902 in exergue.
Reverse: Arabesque design with a Chinese labyrinth, one of the many variations of the Chinese character "shou" for longevity, in the centre, and the denomination in two languages, Chinese and Jawi Malay, the two main languages of the intended areas of circulation.
Diameter: 39mm | Weight: 26.9gms.

The dies were originally designed by George William De Saulles (1862 - 1903), who was later responsible for Edward VII's portrait on the British coinage as well as the reverse of that king's iconic florin which has a passing resemblance to the portrayal of Britannia on this coin.

British Trade Dollars were a direct result of the Opium Wars which began when China tried to stop Britain from selling opium to its citizens. The loser, China, had to open up a number of ports to British trade and residence, as well as ceding Hong Kong to Britain. In the decades that followed, merchants and adventurers flocked to these areas, and international trade flourished. Foreign banks were established and silver coins from all over the world began arriving to pay for tea, silk and Chinese porcelain to be shipped abroad. With the extension of British trading interests throughout the East, it became necessary to produce a special Dollar so as to remove the reliance of a British Colony upon the various foreign coins then in circulation. These .900 fine silver British Trade Dollars began being minted in 1895 and were readily accepted as a medium of exchange throughout the area. They continued being minted up until 1935 when production ceased, but coins struck in 1934 and 1935 are very rare because they were not released into circulation and were mostly melted down. The coin was officially demonetised on August 1st, 1937.
To keep up with demand these coins were minted in Bombay (now Mumbai) and Calcutta (now Kolkata) in India as well as at the Royal Mint in London. The London minted coins have no mint-mark but those struck at Bombay have the mint-mark “B” in the centre prong of Britannia's trident and those minted at Calcutta are marked with a small “C” in the ground between Britannia's left foot and the base of her shield. This coin is a product of the Bombay mint.
*Alex
Horse_seal_box.jpg
Bronze Roman Seal box114 viewsBronze seal box with image of lion, jug above, wreath below, ( horse head to right?)

Attached to packages or letters that are tied with strings. The strings pass into the box which is then filled with wax, to protect against tampering.

Bronze

26mm x 21mm x 7mm.

3mm diameter holes

5.56g

2-3rd Century?

Pannonia

Ex-Ancient Treasures
4 commentsJay GT4
Bronze_stater_of_King_Harsha_(1089-1101_AD),_Kashmir,_North_India.jpg
Bronze stater of King Harsha (1089-1101 AD), Kashmir, North India94 viewsEnthroned Ardoxsho facing; Nagari legend: "Harsha Raja" / King standing, Nagari legend "Deva". 19mm, 5.5 grams. Very attractive. Mitchiner NIS 188-189.

These remarkable and attractive coins are the descendants of the gold and silver Kushan staters, and have a distinction of being the longest-minted issue in history - the Goddess/King design remained virtually unchanged in the 1300+ years history of this issue.

From 1089 to 1101 A. D., King Harsha ruled Kashmir. Versed in many languages, a good poet, lover of music and art, he started his rule in a remarkable way, and became famous in northern India. His court was a centre of luxury and splendour. He introduced new fashions in dress and ornaments. His ministers were gorgeously dressed, wore earrings and head dresses, previously reserved for the members of ruling families only. But strangely enough, Harsha's career became a record of follies and misdeeds. The people also suffered from famine, and plague as well, and a considerable section of people became victims of these calamities. A confusion followed these misfortunes, leading to a general rising of the people under two royal princes Uccalia and Succalla. Harsha along with his son Bhoja were murdered, and the Kashmir throne passed into the hands of two princes respectively. Both the princes met the fate of Harsha and when our great historian Kalhan completed his 'Rajatarangini' in 1149 - 50 King Jaisimha, the last great ruler of the Hindu times was ruling the state.

Antonio Protti
001994.jpg
Bruttium, Rhegion15 viewsBruttium, Rhegion: Ć13, ca. 351-280 BC, 1.68gm, 12.6mm. Obv: Laureate head of Apollo right; PHΓIN in right field. Rev: Lion's head with rounded ears facing. SNG ANS 702.2 commentsTLP
Sear-1772.jpg
Byzantine Empire: Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus and Romanus I (913-959) Ć19, Cherson Mint (Sear-1772; DOC 38)11 viewsObv: Sear Monogram 49 of Constantine VII and Romanus I
Rev: Sear Monogram 50 of Constantine VII and Romanus I

Sear Monogram 49



Sear Monogram 50


SpongeBob
Sear-386.jpg
Byzantine Empire: Justin II (565-578) Ć Pentanummium, Antioch (Sear-386; DOC 186; MIBE 65a)28 viewsObv: Monogram of Justin II
Rev: Large Є, cross to the right


1 commentsSpongeBob
Sear-386(1).jpg
Byzantine Empire: Justin II (565-578) Ć Pentanummium, Antioch (Sear-386; DOC 186; MIBE 65a)19 viewsObv: Monogram of Justin II
Rev: Large Є, cross to the right


Quant.Geek
Sear-245(1).jpg
Byzantine Empire: Justinian I (527-565 CE) Ć Pentanummium, Antioch (Sear 245; DOC I 272; MIB 163)11 viewsObv: ΛNRTCSΛINΛΓAPC or similar; Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of Justinian to right
Rev: Large C containing Sear monogram 2
Dim: 15 mm, 1.89 g, 11 h

Sear Monogram 2

Quant.Geek
Sear-245.jpg
Byzantine Empire: Justinian I (527-565) Ć Pentanummium, Antioch (Sear 245; DOC 272; MIBE 163)11 viewsObv: D N IVSTINIANVS P P AVG (often garbled); Diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right
Rev: Large C containing Sear Monogram 2

Sear Monogram 2

Quant.Geek
Sear-1979.jpg
Byzantine Empire: Manuel I Comnenus (1143-1180) Ć Half Tetarteron, Uncertain Greek Mint (Sear-1979)11 viewsObv: Sear Monogram 58 of Manuel
Rev: Crowned facing bust, holding labarum and globus cruciger


SpongeBob
Sear-1979(1).jpg
Byzantine Empire: Manuel I Comnenus (1143-1180) Ć Half Tetarteron, Uncertain Greek Mint (Sear-1979)13 viewsObv: Sear Monogram 58 of Manuel
Rev: Crowned facing bust, holding labarum and globus cruciger


SpongeBob
Sear-539(1).jpg
Byzantine Empire: Maurice Tiberius (582-602 AD) Ć Pentanummium, Antioch (Sear 539; MIB 103)8 viewsObv: Sear Monogram 15 of Maurice Tiberius
Rev: Large Ч, cross above
Dim: 15 mm, 1.40 g, 12 h



Quant.Geek
Sear-539.jpg
Byzantine Empire: Maurice Tiberius (582-602 AD) Ć Pentanummium, Antioch (Sear-539; MIB-103)41 viewsObv: Sear Monogram 15 of Maurice Tiberius
Rev: Large Ч, pellet within, cross above


SpongeBob
Sear-676A.jpg
Byzantine Empire: Phocas (602-610) Ć Pentanummium, Antioch (Sear 676A; MIB 89)22 viewsObv: Sear Monogram 20 of Phocas
Rev: Large Є; cross to right

Sear Monogram 20


1 commentsQuant.Geek
Sear-676A(1).jpg
Byzantine Empire: Phocas (602-610) Ć Pentanummium, Antioch (Sear 676A; MIB 89)1 viewsObv: Sear Monogram 20 of Phocas
Rev: Large Є; cross to right
Dim: 15mm, 1.37 g

Sear Monogram 20


Quant.Geek
Sear-459(2).jpg
Byzantine Empire: Tiberius II Constantine (578–582 CE) Ć Pentanummium, Antioch/Theoupolis (Sear-459; MIBE 61)35 viewsObv: Sear Monogram 18 of Tiberius II Constantine
Rev: Large Ч; cross above



1 commentsQuant.Geek
Sear-459(1).jpg
Byzantine Empire: Tiberius II Constantine (578–582 CE) Ć Pentanummium, Antioch/Theoupolis (Sear-459; MIBE 61)18 viewsObv: Sear Monogram 18 of Tiberius II Constantine
Rev: Large Ч; cross above

Quant.Geek
Vlasto_319.jpg
CALABRIA. Taras. 425-380 BC. AR nomos57 views6.26 gm
Nude ephebe cantering left, holding bridle with both hands, ΛΕ (retrograde) beneath horse / TARAS, dolphin rider right, wielding trident and pointing with left hand.
HN Italy 850. Vlasto 319 (same dies).
Porous. Edge bump (8:00 obverse) and reverse scratches. Good very fine.

The aristocratic Tarentines were especially proud of their reputation as first-rate horsemen, and the coinage of Tarentum mirrors this pride by displaying all manner of equestrian showmanship. Some of the riders appear in full armor, and those must be cavalrymen in battle, but most appear nude: those riders are surely taking part in the various races and games that the aristocrats loved so much. One of the more dangerous, and most prestigious, of the races was the kalpé. In this form of race the rider would, at a certain stage, slide off his horse and, while holding the reins, run along side. The Tarentine staters show several stages in the process. On this coin we see the very beginning: the rider places his left hand on the horse’s rump and has moved his right hand from the right to the left side of the his horse’s head. On the next lot we see him moving his right leg up over the horse’s back; on other coins (not here) we see both legs stretched out on the left side of the horse just before the rider leaps to the ground. For a short discussion of this event see Sport, p. 79. The actual process of getting off the horse was termed apobates. There are many examples of the initial stages of the apobates to be found in this rich collection.
2 commentsLeo
Standing_Caliph_Amman.jpg
Caliphate of Abd al-Malik74 viewsAbd al-Malik ibn Marwan (685 – 705 CE) ‘Standing Caliph’ type, mint of Amman. Fals, weight 3.0g, diameter 17mm.

Obverse: Standing bearded figure wearing headdress and long robe, with right hand on hilt of sword. Inscription: abd allah abd al-malik amir al-mu’minin (“The servant of God, Abd al-Malik, commander of the faithful”). The last word of the legend is divided, with the letters minin appearing in the right field above the caliph’s shoulder.

Reverse: Object resembling Greek Φ, with globule on top and resting on four steps; large star in left field; mint designation, amman, in right field. Inscription: the shahada (“There is no God but God alone and Muhammad is God’s prophet.”)

This type is part of the last series of Umayyad coins to feature images, and is generally attributed to the years 692 – 696. From 697 the coinage becomes aniconic and purely epigraphic.

Reference: Foss p.78 and D.O. 107
Abu Galyon
Hyria.jpg
Campania, Hyrianoi. (Circa 405-400 BC)36 viewsFourrée Nomos (20.5mm, 6.33 g)

Obverse: Head of Athena wearing crested helmet decorated with olive-wreath and owl.

Reverse: Man-faced bull standing r. on exergual line, YDINA (retrograde) above. YDINA is in Oscan script and means "Urina", another name for Hyria.

For prototype, cf. HN Italy 539.

The city, named both Nola (new city) and Hyria (which Nola likely arose from), was situated in the midst of the plain lying to the east of Mount Vesuvius, 21 miles south of Capua. While Neapolis was the focus of minting in this general area, Neapolitan designs were adopted by several new series of coins, some of them bearing legends in Oscan script referring to communities that are otherwise unknown (such as the Hyrianoi). Complex die linking between these different series indicate, at the very least, close cooperation in minting. Didrachms sharing motives (Athena/man headed bull), but with legends referring to different issuing communities on the reverse, testify to the integration into a common material culture in Campania in the late fifth to early fourth century. The die sharing and use of legends in Oscan script allow for an interpretation of these issues as indigenous coinages struck in the Campanian mileu.

The influence of Athens on Hyria can be seen not only in the great number of Greek vases and other articles discovered at the old city but by the adoption of the head of Pallas with the Athenian owl as their obverse type.

This particular coin is an ancient forgery, which were quite common in Magna Graecia and typically of much higher quality than fourrees produced elsewhere. In ON THE FORGERIES OF PUBLIC MONEY [J. Y. Akerman
The Numismatic Chronicle and Journal of the Numismatic Society, Vol. 6 (APRIL, 1843–JANUARY, 1844), pp. 57-82] it is noted that ancient forgeries tend "to be most abundantly found to belong to the most luxurious, populous, and wealthy cities of Magna Graecia...Nor is it surprising that the luxury and vice of those celebrated cities should have led to crime; and among crimes, to the forging of money, as furnishing the means for the more easy gratification of those sensual indulgences, which were universally enjoyed by the rich in those dissipated and wealthy cities. Many of the coins of the places in question having been originally very thickly coated, or cased with silver (called by the French, fourrees), pass even now among collectors without suspicion."
1 commentsNathan P
combine_images.jpg
Caracalla Providentia Denarius38 viewsObv. ANTONINVS PIVS AVG BRIT, laureate head right
Rev. PROVIDENTIAE DEORVM, Providentia standing left, holding wand over globe and sceptre.
References: RIC 227, RSC 529.
18 mm , 2.90 gr
1 commentsCanaan
Caracalla_Fides_2c.jpg
Caracalla | Fides * Rome * AR Denarius - 198-217 AD.97 views
Caracalla | Fides * Silver Denarius

Obv: Laureate bust right. ANTONINVS PIVS AVG GERM
Rev: Fides Militum facing, head left, standing between and holding two standards either side in left and right hands. PM TR P XVIII COS IIII PP

Exergue: Clear

Mint: Rome
Struck: 198-217

Size: 20.40 mm.
Weight: 2.83 grm.
Die axis: 0°

Condition: Excellent. Clean, clear, well centered and struck, superb images and good legends. Lustrous silver with some light toning on the obverse.

Refs:*
Sear, 1937
Van Meter, 63/11

Status: TCJH, Private Collection.
3 commentsTiathena
100511LG.jpg
Carian tetradrachm - Royal issue ?92 viewsCARIA, Achaemenid Period. Circa 350-334 BC. AR Tetradrachm (23mm, 14.83 g).
Struck circa 350-341 BC. Persian king or hero in kneeling-running stance right, drawing bow / Persian satrap on horseback right, thrusting spear held in his right hand, left hand on rein.
Konuk, Influences, Group 2; SNG Copenhagen (Persian Empire) 290-291 var. (symbol on rev.); Traité II 128; Babelon, Perses 623 var. (symbols on obv.); Pixodarus 1-11.

The archer-horseman tetradrachms are one of the most enigmatic Persian coinages struck in Asia Minor prior to the invasion of Alexander the Great. Though various symbols and letters occur in the fields, no inscription exists to help us identify the issuer, mint, or purpose of issue. Konuk, however, identified two series, with and without subsidiary symbols on the reverse. Also, analysis of the Pixodarus Hoard has allowed the coinage to be dated from the decade beginning circa 350 BC. Additionally, as only the earlier, non-symbol, type is represented, Meadows concluded that the date of deposit of the Pixodarus hoard, 341 BC, served as a tentative divider between the two series.
Caffaro
carinus_tetra4701.jpg
Carinus, Elpis year 2; Milne 470116 viewsCarinus, first half 283 - Spring 285 A.D., Roman Provincial Egypt. Billon tetradrachm, Milne 4701, Curtis 1917, Geissen 3178, Emmett 4007, BMC Alexandria -, VF, Alexandria mint, 6.924g, 19.10mm, 29 Aug 283 - 28 Aug 284 A.D.; obverse A K M A KAPINOC CEB, laureate and cuirassed bust right; reverse, Elpis standing left, holding flower and raising fold of dress, date L-B (year 2) across field. Elpis was the Greek equivalent of the Roman Spes, the goddess of hope. She was traditionally defined as 'the last goddess' (Spes, ultima dea), meaning that hope is the last resource available to men. Elpis personified hope for good harvests, and for children, and was invoked at births, marriages, and other important times. Ex FORVMPodiceps
9965.jpg
Carrhae in Mesopotamia, Septimius Severus, AE 24, Lindgren 2557122 viewsCarrhae in Mesopotamia, Septimius Severus, AE 24, 193-211 AD
Av.: CEΠTIMIOC [CE]OY.... , naked (laureate?) bust of Septimius Severus right
Rv.: ..Λ]OY KAPPH ΛKA... , front view of a tetrastyle temple, the temple of the moon god Sin, in the middle a sacred stone on tripod, on top of stone: crescent, standards (with crescents on top) on both sides inside the building; another crescent in the pediment.
Lindgren 2557 ; BMC p. 82, #4

The city and the region played an important role in roman history.

Carrhae / Harran, (Akkadian Harrânu, "intersecting roads"; Latin Carrhae), an ancient city of strategic importance, an important town in northern Mesopotamia, famous for its temple of the moon god Sin, is now nothing more than a village in southeastern Turkey with an archeological site.
In the Bible it is mentioned as one of the towns where Abraham stayed on his voyage from Ur to the promised land. Abraham's family settled there when they left Ur of the Chaldeans (Genesis 11:31-32).
Inscriptions indicate that Harran existed as early as 2000 B.C. In its prime, it controlled the point where the road from Damascus joins the highway between Nineveh and Carchemish. This location gave Harran strategic value from an early date. It is frequently mentioned in Assyrian inscriptions about 1100 BC, under the name Harranu, or "Road" (Akkadian harrānu, 'road, path, journey' ).
During the fall of the Assyrian Empire, Harran became the stronghold of its lasts king, Ashur-uballit II, being besiged and conquered by Nabopolassar of Babylon at 609 BC. Harran became part of Median Empire after the fall of Assyria, and subsequently passed to the Persian Achaemenid dynasty.
The city remained Persian untill in 331 BC when the soldiers of the Macedonian king Alexander the Great entered the city.
After the death of Alexander on 11 June 323 BC, the city was claimed by his successors: Perdiccas, Antigonus Monophthalmus and Eumenes. These visited the city, but eventually, it became part of the Asian kingdom of Seleucos I (Nicator), the Seleucid empire, and capital of a province called Osrhoene (the Greek term for the old name Urhai).
The Seleucids settled Macedonian veterans at Harran. For a century-and-a-half, the town flourished, and it became independent when the Parthian dynasty of Persia occupied Babylonia. The Parthian and Seleucid kings both needed the buffer state of Osrhoene which was part of the larger Parthian empire and had nearby Edessa as its capital. The dynasty of the Arabian Abgarides, technically a vassal of the Parthian "king of kings" ruled Osrhoene for centuries.

Carrhae was the scene of a disastrous defeat of the Roman general Crassus by the Parthians. In 53 BC. Crassus, leading an army of 50.000, conducted a campaign against Parthia. After he captured a few cities on the way, he hurried to cross the Euphrates River with hopes of receiving laurels and the title of “Emperor”. But as he drove his forces over Rakkan towards Harran, Parthian cavalry besieged his forces in a pincers movement. In the ensuing battle, the Roman army was defeated and decimated. The battle of Carrhae was the beginning of a series of border wars with Parthia for many centuries. Numismatic evidence for these wars or the corresponding peace are for instance the "Signis Receptis" issues of Augustus and the “Janum Clusit” issues of Nero.
Later Lucius Verus tried to conquer Osrhoene and initially was successful. But an epidemic made an annexation impossible. However, a victory monument was erected in Ephesus, and Carrhae/Harran is shown as one of the subject towns.
Septimius Severus finally added Osrhoene to his realms in 195. The typical conic domed houses of ancient Harran can be seen on the Arch of Septimius Severus on the Forum Romanum.
Harran was the chief home of the moon-god Sin, whose temple was rebuilt by several kings. Sin was one of the great gods of the Assurian-Babylonian pantheon.
Caracalla gave Harran the status of a colonia (214 AD) and visited the city and the temple of the moon god in April 217. Meanwhile the moon god (and sacred stones) had become a part of the Roman pantheon and the temple a place to deify the roman emperors (as the standards on both sides of the temple indicate).

Caracalla was murdered while he was on his way from Temple to the palace. If this had been arranged by Macrinus - the prefect of the Praetorian guard who was to be the new emperor – is not quite clear. On the eighth of April, the emperor and his courtiers made a brief trip to the world famous temple of the moon god. When Caracalla halted to perform natural functions, he was assassinated by one of his bodyguards, Julius Martialis, who had a private grudge against the ruler, because he had not been given the post of centurion.

In 296 AD Roman control was again interrupted when nearby Carrhae the emperor Galerius was defeated by the king Narses / the Sasanid dynasty of Persia. The Roman emperor Julianus Apostata sacrificed to the moon god in 363 AD, at the beginning of his ill-fated campaign against the Sassanid Persians. The region continued to be a battle zone between the Romans and Sassanids. It remained Roman (or Byzantine) until 639, when the city finally was captured by the Muslim armies.

At that time, the cult of Sin still existed. After the arrival of the Islam, the adherents of other religions probably went to live in the marshes of the lower Tigris and Euphrates, and are still known as Mandaeans.
The ancient city walls surrounding Harran, 4 kilometer long and 3 kilometer wide, have been repaired throughout the ages (a.o. by the Byzantine emperor Justinian in the sixth century), and large parts are still standing. The position of no less than 187 towers has been identified. Of the six gates (Aleppo gate, Anatolian, Arslanli, Mosul, Baghdad, and Rakka gate), only the first one has remained.

A citadel was built in the 14th century in place of the Temple of Sin. This lies in the south-west quarter of the ancient town. Its ruin can still be visited.

my ancient coin database
1 commentsArminius
CarthagoNova_Hannibal_SNG-Cop296(Zeugitania).jpg
Carthage, Hispano-Carthaginian 17 viewsCarthage, Hispano-Carthaginian. 218-209 BC. AR 1/2 Sheckel (3.63 gm) of Carthagoa Nova, Iberia. Beardless head of Hannibal (or Eshman-Apollo) l. / Horse stdg r. aVF. SNG Cop. 8 #296 (Zeugitania); ACIP 604; CNH 17; De Navasques 75; Robinson Essays Mattingly 7(j); MHC 166-78; SNG BM Spain 104; Villaronga Benages 615. cf CNG 366 #2.Christian T
Carthage.jpg
Carthage, Second Punic War (220-215 BC)28 viewsAE Trishekel

29 mm, 18.21 g

Obverse: Head of Tanit left, wearing wreath of grain ears and single-pendant earring

Reverse: Horse standing right; palm tree in background to left.

MAA 84; Müller, Afrique 147; SNG Copenhagen 344.

The Second Punic War formally began when the Carthaginian general Hannibal and his army crossed the Alps in November of 218 BC and descended into Northern Italy. Battles raged on Italian soil for nearly 15 years until Hannibal and what remained of his army sailed for North Africa in the summer or fall of 203 BC. Shown above is a typical example of what would have been a lower-value coin issued by the Carthaginians in the early stages of the war.

Carthage was a Phoenician colony, and as such the Carthaginians were related to the Hebrews and the Canaanites (among others). Culturally they had much in common, including the use of the shekel as the primary unit of money. Likewise, the Carthaginians worshipped a variety of deities from the ancient Middle East. One in particular was the goddess Tanit. A Phoenician (Punic) goddess of war, Tanit was also a virgin mother goddess and a fertility symbol.
2 commentsNathan P
66236p00.jpg
Castulo, Hispania Ulterior, c. Mid 2nd - Early 1st Century B.C.16 viewsBronze semis, VF, 4.370g, 18.5mm, 180o, Castulo mint, c. Mid 2nd - Early 1st Century B.C.
Obv: Diademed male head right.
Rev: Bull standing right, crescent above, "Kastilo" in Iberian script in ex.
Ref: cf. SNG BM Spain 1353, SNG Cop 216, Villaronga-Benages 2146 (R6), Lindgren II 44
VF
Scarce
mjabrial
WangMang2.jpg
China: Han Interregnum, Usurper Wang Mang, 7-22 A.D.89 viewsChina: Han Interregnum, Usurper Wang Mang, 7-22 A.D. AE24 mm, Cash. Obv: Huo Chuan. Schjoth-165.

"As soon as his [Wang Mang's] power was sufficiently consolidated, 3 years after his return to court, lists of his political opponents were drawn up, and hundreds were executed. Shortly after this he established a new penal colony in Tibet in the far West, a sort of ancient gulag. Unfortunately we have no direct account as to the nature of the crimes of those exiled to Tibet. In 6 AD the reins of power were still more firmly in his grasp, and Mang ordered his first reform of the coinage. Fundamentally this was a stratagem to nationalize the gold stocks, and put the empire back on a copper standard. Gold was requisitioned and exchanged against very high value bronze tokens. Two years later the tokens were demonetized. The cash assets of the aristocracy and the wealthy merchants must have been largely wiped out overnight. It is in the first couple of years of Mang's independent reign that the astonishing breadth of his reform proposals appear. His reforms include:

1) the abolition of slavery.
2) the nationalization of land.
3) standard plots of arable land for all adult males who wished to work them.
4) farming families grouped in hamlets of 6 or 8, with a common tax assessment.
5) a national bank offering fair rates of interest to all.
6) government market activity to counteract cornering and monopolization.
7) a new currency system in 15 denominations - circulating by government fiat.
8) defeat of the Huns

His new taxes include

taxes to be paid in cash or kind on cultivated land (one tenth)

triple rates to be paid on uncultivated land (parks and gardens etc.)

c) all self-employed or professional people outside farming shall register for income tax, which will be universally levied at 10% per annum. Those avoiding registration, or submitting false accounts to be sentenced to one years hard labour.

d) the state monopolies on iron, salt, silk, cloth and coinage to be retained

e) a new state monopoly on wine to be introduced.

Discussion of the proposals

1) Events in his private life show Mang's abhorrence of slavery. He vilified the political system of the legalists, established in the Chin dynasty (221-206 BC) specifically by alluding to the manner in which they established market places for male and female slaves, "putting human beings in auction pens as if they were cattle."

Reforms 2, 3, 5 & 6) The nationalization of land and its distribution amongst the peasant farmers themselves is of course one solution to the central economic problem in all pre-modern civilizations, (which presumably finds its roots in the bronze age and persisting right down to the machine age). Peasants must have security of tenure and just returns for their labour, otherwise they will not be encouraged to work effectively - and the state and all within it will thereby be impoverished. However if they are made private landowners then clever, unscrupulous, hard-working individuals within and outwith the peasantry will begin to gain land at the expense of their neighbours. The chief mechanisms of this gradual monopolization of the land by a class of people distinguished by their wealth are:

Preying upon private 'misfortune', (illness, death, and marriage expenses) by loansharking.
Preying upon public misfortunes (bad harvests) by loansharking.
Creating shortages by rigging the markets, exacerbating private and public misfortunes, and then loansharking.

Unfairly biasing tax assessments, creating and exacerbating private and public misfortunes, and then loansharking.

The end result of this tendency is likely to be that the bulk of farmers lack security of tenure and or just returns, and cease to work effectively, to the impoverishment of all. Reforms 2, 3 & 5 bear on this problem in an obvious way.

Reform 6 - the "Five Equalizations" is a little more complicated, so I shall explain it at greater length. Fundamentally it required the installation of government officials at the five important markets of the empire who would "buy things when they were cheap and sell them when they were dear." In more detail: "The superintendent of the market, in the second month of each of the four seasons, shall determine the true price of the articles under their responsibility, and shall establish high, middle and low prices for each type of item. When there are unsold goods on the market, the superintendent shall buy them up at the cost (low?) price. When goods become expensive (ie exceed the high price?) the superintendent shall intervene to sell goods from the official store (and thereby reduce the price)." The regulation thus allows markets to operate, but provides for state intervention to stop speculation . . . Mang's regulations allow for a review and revision of the trading bands four times a year.

4). In resettling the people securely on the land, Mang choose to group them into "chings" of 6 or 8 families - attempting to restore the traditional "well field" system. This provided for the regular exchange of land between the families, to give all a go at the best ground, and for joint responsibility for a common tax demand. The ching system was believed, by the Confucian party in the 1st century BC at least, to have been destroyed by the growth of mercantilist exploitation under the Chin legalists. There are hints that the state went on to use the ching structure in crime prevention measures, by making all members of the ching culpable for the unreported crime of any single member. The installation of a land nationalization scheme under the banner of a return to the ancient Chou system of 'chings' had a great deal of propaganda value amongst the Confucian elite which surrounded Mang. A sentimental view of rural working class life seems to be a common weakness amongst aristocratic and middle class intellectuals of all periods. Mang's own observations of the labouring poor would necessarily have been made at a distance - perhaps he too shared in this sentimental myopia. The evidence suggests that the peasantry did not welcome this aspect of the reforms

7) Food was the first concern of Confucian government, but coinage was the second. Only fair prices could encourage the farmers. Only markets could create fair prices. Only with coins could markets exist. Mang introduced a rational set of 15 denominations of coin, valued from 1 to 1,000 cash and circulated by government fiat. Mang did not invent the idea of fiat or fiduciary currency, a brief attempt had been made to circulate one in China a century earlier. However Mang was the first to systematically think through the matter in a practical context, and to apply it over a protracted period. Future successful ancient and medieval experiments with fiat currency, first in China, then in Japan and Central Asia, and unsuccessful ones in medieval India and Persia all looked back - directly or indirectly - to Mang. The first successful fully fiduciary currencies in Europe are products of the 20th century, more than 700 years after Europeans became aware of Chinese practices. (I am neglecting a great deal of late Roman copper coin here of course. I am by no means knowledgeable on such coins, but my understanding is that in principle, if not in practice, Rome was generally on the silver or the gold standard, and copper was exchangeable on demand.) On my own reading of the text, Mang's main concern is to get gold and silver off the market, so they could not be used to bid his tokens down - his coinage was intended to replace gold coinage, not supplement it."--Robert Tye

For a more complete study of Wang Mang, see Robert Tye's compositon about this enigmatic leader at http://www.anythinganywhere.com/info/tye/Wang%20Mang.htm
Cleisthenes
chinese_charm_pan.jpg
Chinese Charm with coin inscription from Later Zhou Dynasty 951 - 960 A.D.85 viewsCast Bronze Chinese Charm, Weight 8.8g, Max diameter 26.8mm, Obv. 周 元通宝 zhou yuan tong bao "Zhou First Currency", Rev. Dragon on left, Warrior with sword on right (depicting "Zhou Chu killing the dragon"), Rich brown patina.

Background info courtsey Primaltrek.com

In addition to official coinage, China also has a long history of producing "coin-like" charms, amulets and talismans.

Coins, as a form of money, represent power. Coin-shaped charms are, therefore, a very compact form of power. They are filled with symbolism and are believed by the multitude of Chinese to have vast powers.

Cast throughout the centuries, these ancient charms, informally referred to by the Chinese as "ya sheng coins" (压胜钱), "flower coins" (huaqian 花钱) or "play coins" (wanqian 玩钱), were not used as money but rather to suppress evil spirits, bring "good luck", "good fortune" and to avert misfortune.

For the most part, all these old charms,...were privately cast and their quantities and dates are almost impossible to determine. Nevertheless, they serve as important cultural artifacts from the life of the common Chinese throughout the centuries.

Emperor Shizong did cast coins in earnest beginning in 955 AD, the second year of his Xiande (显德) reign, with the inscription zhou yuan tong bao (周 元通宝). To obtain the copper to make the coins, Emperor Shizong ordered the confiscation of bronze statues from 3,336 Buddhist temples. He also mandated that citizens turn in to the government all bronze utensils with the exception of bronze mirrors.

Zhou yuan tong bao coins are very well made and still exist in large quantities. Because the coins were made from Buddhist statues, they are considered to have special powers. For example, it was believed that the zhou yuan tong bao coin could cure malaria and help women going through a difficult labor.

Because of the common belief that the coin has special powers, the zhou yuan tong bao became very popular as the basis for charms and amulets. There are many charms with the inscription zhou yuan tong bao on the obverse and a dragon and phoenix on the reverse. Images of the Buddha, zodiac animals, and other auspicious objects can also be found on the reverse sides of zhou yuan tong bao charms.

The theme of this charm is "Zhou Chu killing the dragon".

A folk story about Zhou Chu appeared in the 430AD book "A New Account of the Tales of the World" and proved to be very popular. The story claims that Zhou Chu was such a hot-headed bully in his younger days that he was called one of the "Three Scourges" by the villagers in his hometown (in today's Yixing), along with a dragon and a tiger. Upon hearing the term, Zhou Chu went on to kill the tiger and the dragon. After he and the dragon disappeared for 3 days fighting in Lake Tai, the villagers celebrated wildly, just when Zhou Chu returned with the dragon's head. That was when he realized that he was the last scourge that the villagers feared. Determined to mend his old ways, he sought out Eastern Wu generals Lu Ji and Lu Yun, and received encouragement. Eventually he became an accomplished general beloved by his people~Wikipedia
3 commentsSteve E
CivilWarRIC12.jpg
Civil Wars RIC 12174 viewsCivil Wars 68-69 CE. AR Denarius (17.50 mm, 3.39 g). Spanish mint, April-June 68 CE.
O: BONI EVENTVS, Female bust right, wearing fillet; hair rolled and looped above neck
R: VICTORIA P R, Victory standing left on globe, holding wreath in right hand and palm in left
- BMCRE I 292 Note + Taf 50.2; P.-H. Martin, the anonymous coins of the year 68 AD (1974) 82 # 99 PL 9; E. P. Nicolas, De Néron ŕ Vespasien (1979) 1308 No. 31; 1435 f 1456 # 107 Taf 14.107 B; RIC I˛ Nr. 12 (Spain, 68 n. Chr.) R5 (Group I). Evidently the second known. The above references are all to one example found in Münzkabinett Berlin.

Likely struck by Galba in Spain between April 6 and early June, 68 AD, that is, between the dates of his acceptance of the offer from Vindex and of his receiving news of his recognition by the Senate.

The civil wars at the end of Nero’s reign began with the revolt of the governor of Gallia Lugdunensis, Gaius Julius Vindex, probably around the beginning of March of AD 68. Vindex had claimed that he had a force of 100,000 men, and a substantial coinage was certainly needed to pay them.

Vindex offered the leadership of the revolt to Servius Sulpicius Galba, then governor of Hispania Tarraconensis, who was hailed imperator by the Spanish legions at Carthago Nova in April of the same year. The title was cautiously refused, but Galba did declare himself the legatus of the senate and people of Rome. Just a month later, Galba’s confidence would be shaken by the crushing defeat of Vindex near Besançon by the general Lucius Verginius Rufus, governor of Germania Superior. By 9 June Nero was dead, having taken his own life. Galba began his march to Rome, and his brief reign was underway.

Without an emperor to strike in the name of (save for that in honor of the “model emperor” of Roman history, Augustus) the coinage was struck with messages suiting the political climate. The coinage under Vindex possesses a more aggressive air that underscores the militant nature of his revolt, while Galba’s tends to be more constitutional and optimistic in tone. Originally struck in large numbers, as indicated by the number of types employed, the coins of the civil wars are all rare today, having been recalled after the final victory of Vespasian in 69 AD.
5 commentsNemonater
Coin_3.jpg
Coin 108 viewscould be Bikanir or Chhota.
Has images of German States Munchen and Erport.

15 mm
Daniel F
Confederate_Army_Letter_Rear.jpg
Confederate Army Letter - Office of Chief Inspector Field Transportation District No. 3, Alabama, Mississippi, West Tennessee and East La at Brandon, Miss. January 29, 18643 viewsAn interesting letter handwritten by Major and Inspector Field Transportation A.M. Paxton to Captain H.F. Cook AQM, who was stationed at Woodville, Mississippi. The details of the letter concerns hiring "negro men" ages 18 to 45 as blacksmiths, shoemakers, carpenters, and teamsters. The "Genl Polk" mentioned is Lieutenant General Leonidas Polk. General Polk would be killed by Union artillery on June 14, 1864 during the Atlanta campaign. Major Paxton would go on to be paroled on May 15, 1865 at Jackson, Mississippi.SpongeBob
Confederate_Army_Letter_Front.jpg
Confederate Army Letter - Office of Chief Inspector Field Transportation District No. 3, Alabama, Mississippi, West Tennessee and East La at Brandon, Miss. January 29, 18649 viewsAn interesting letter handwritten by Major and Inspector Field Transportation A.M. Paxton to Captain H.F. Cook AQM, who was stationed at Woodville, Mississippi. The details of the letter concerns hiring "negro men" ages 18 to 45 as blacksmiths, shoemakers, carpenters, and teamsters. The "Genl Polk" mentioned is Lieutenant General Leonidas Polk. General Polk would be killed by Union artillery on June 14, 1864 during the Atlanta campaign. Major Paxton would go on to be paroled on May 15, 1865 at Jackson, Mississippi.SpongeBob
Constans_Victory-Galley_2b.jpg
Constans * Emperor and Victory, Æ2 * 324-350 AD.135 views
Constans * Emperor and Victory, Bronze.

Obv: DN CONSTANS PF AVG * Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust, right-facing.
Rev: FEL TEMP REPARATIO - Emperor standing facing on galley, holding phoenix on a globe in right hand, arm little extended from waist, and holding labarum with Chi-Rho in right hand, arm partially-extended and slightly raised; in ship's stern seated Victory is steering the ship.

Exergue: TESB

Mint: Thessalonica
Struck: 348-351 AD.

Size: 19.4 mm.
Weight: 2.54 grams
Die axis: 0°

Condition: Modestly worn but a well centered and forceful strike with good clear images both sides. Very dark olive-green, near-black patina. In all, an attractive coin.

Refs:*
RIC VIII, 120, pg. 412

1 commentsTiathena
constans2vic.jpg
Constans, 333-337 AD26 viewsAE3, 17mm, 1.8g, 12h; Siscia mint: 347-348.
Obv.: CONSTAN-S PF AVG; Rosette-diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right.
Rev.: VICTORIAE DD AVGG Q NN; Two Victories standing, facing one another, each holding wreath and palm // ΓSIS.
Reference: RIC VIII Siscia 183 (p. 363).
Notes: ex-coin.ages, eBay sale, 3/4/15, 33.
John Anthony
constantine_sotf.png
Constantine 6.03.00130 viewsConstantine
Obv CONSTANTINVS PF AVG
(R.laur.cuir)
Rev COMITI AAVVGG
(Sol holding whip in right hand, globe in left)
* | *
T | F
PLN in ex
London
RIC VI 128 CT 6.03.001 (RR)
4.1g
(Chitry Hoard 112)
ex CGB
All issues with the T*/F* bronze mark are very rare.
(The 2017 Revue Numismatique (pages 249 - 261) contains an article about these T*/F* or SOTF (Stars over TF) coins. It lists 29 known examples and 6 have a COMITI AAVVGG reverse. 5 are of Constantine, and one example is of Licinius. The other reverses represented by this bronze mark are GENIO POP ROM (16 known examples), MARTI CONSERVATORI (3 known examples) and SOLI INVICTO COMITI (3 known examples).)
Noviomagus
constetg.jpg
Constantine I AE 3 327-329 AD Heraclea 69 viewsOBV: CONSTANTINUS AVG; Diademed head right, ladder shaped diadem with dots in segments, head looking upward (eyes-to-God)
REV: DN CONSTANTINI MAX AVG, VOT / XXX in two lines enclosed by laurel wreath, dot SMHA in exergue

For a small coin this one manages to have a wonderful monumental quality. Unlike his heirs', few of Constantine's coins have any direct reference to the new Christian faith that he adopted. Mostly he seems to have tried to reconcile the pagan forces with references to Sol and Jove. The eyes-to -God portrait is perhaps an ambiguous reference to Christianity, or perhaps is meant to symbolize his respect for all the religions within the Roman Empire.

RIC VII 92, Rated 'scarce'

weight 3.7 gm
2 commentsdaverino
4149_4150.jpg
Constantine I, Follis, DN CONSTANTINI MAX AVG12 viewsAE Follis
Constantine I
Caesar: 306 - 307AD
Augustus: 307 - 337AD
Issued: 324AD
18.4mm 2.90gr
O: CONSTANTINVS AVG; Laureate head, right.
R: DN CONSTANTINI MAX AVG; Wreath, VOT/XX/(Star), dot in center, within.
Exergue: SMHB, below line.
Heraclea Mint
RIC VII Heraclea, 60, B.
Aorta: 1349: B59, O4, R46, T300, M7.
coin.ages 142325811408
4/1/17 4/17/17
Nicholas Z
CTGeyes2GodRIC7.jpg
Constantine the Great, early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D.46 viewsSilvered AE 3, RIC VII 92, EF, 3.456g, 18.1mm, 0o, Heraclea mint, 327 - 329 A.D.; Obverse: CONSTAN-TINVS AVG, diademed head right, eyes to God; Reverse: D N CONSTANTINI MAX AVG, VOT XXX in wreath, •SMHB in exergue.

As leading numismatist Joseph Sermarini notes, "The 'looking upwards' portraits of Constantine are often described as 'gazing to Heaven (or God).' The model of these portraits is of course that of the Deified Alexander the Great
(https://www.forumancientcoins.com/ssl/myforum.asp).

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power, and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement; so, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.

Which brings us to Crispus.
Whenever I am engaged in any discussion concerning Constantine I, Crispus is never far from my mind. As historian Hans Pohlsander from SUNY notes, "Crispus' end was as tragic as his career had been brilliant. His own father ordered him to be put to death. We know the year of this sad event, 326, from the Consularia Constantinopolitana, and the place, Pola in Istria, from Ammianus Marcellinus. The circumstances, however, are less clear. Zosimus (6th c.) and Zonaras (12th c.) both report that Crispus and his stepmother Fausta were involved in an illicit relationship." And Pohlsander continues with, "There may be as much gossip as fact in their reports, but Crispus must have committed, or at least must have been suspected of having committed, some especially shocking offense to earn him a sentence of death from his own father. He also suffered damnatio memoriae, his honor was never restored, and history has not recorded the fate of his wife and his child (or children)(Copyright (C) 1997, Hans A. Pohlsander. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis;An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors and their Families:http://www.roman-emperors.org/crispus.htm).

But there is something terribly illogigical about Constantinian apologetics. In 294 BC, prior to the death of his father, Seleucus I; Antiochus married his step-mother, Stratonice, daughter of Demetrius Poliorcetes. His elderly father reportedly instigated the marriage after discovering that his son was in danger of dying of lovesickness. If this is the way a "Pagan" father is able to express love for his son, then would not a saintly Christian love his son in at least similar measure? This particular Christian father, about whom St. Nectarios writes, "Hellenism spread by Alexander, paved the way for Christianity by the Emperor Constantine the Great," is unique. It is important to our discussion to take note of the fact that in the Greek Orthodox Church, Constantine the Great is revered as a Saint.

Now would be an appropriate time to recall what Joseph Sermarini noted above, "The 'looking upwards' portraits of Constantine are often described as 'gazing to Heaven (or God).' The model of these portraits is of course that of the Deified Alexander the Great(https://www.forumancientcoins.com/ssl/myforum.asp).

Isn’t it all too possible--even probable--that Constantine had been growing obsessively jealous of his ever more successful and adulated son? It is completely out of character for Constantine to merely acquiesce to being Philip to Crispus' Alexander. Remember the Constantine who has proven time and again (recall Constantine's disingenuous promise of clemency to Licinius) that he is a completely self-serving liar and a murderer, and Constantine decides to murder again. Why "must we, "as Pohlsander adamantly suggests, "resolutely reject the claim of Zosimus that it was Constantine's sense of guilt over these deeds which caused him to accept Christianity, as it alone promised him forgiveness for his sins? A similar claim had already been made by Julian the Apostate [Philosopher]."

Perhaps it is time to cease being apologists for the sometime megalomaniacal Constantine. As Michael Grant notes, "It is a mocking travesty of justice to call such a murderer Constantine the Great . . ." (Grant, Michael. The Emperor Constantine. London: Phoenix Press, 1998. 226).

Keep in mind that the obverse device of this coin shows Constantine I "gazing toward God" and was struck within a year or possibly two of Constantine I murdering his first-born son and condemning him to damnatio memoriae.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
1 commentsCleisthenes
097~1.JPG
Constitution - Dupré - Décime - 1793 essai4 viewsCuivre, 32 mm, 20,08 g
A/ REGNE DE LA LOI, génie gravant la Constitution.
R/ REPUBLIQUE FRANCAISE 1793, dans une couronne de feuillages, en deux lignes, PIECE // D'ESSAI
Tranche lisse
Réfs : Brandon 76a
Gabalor
104.JPG
Constitution - Rochon - Dixain - 17913 viewsDixain, métal de cloche, 20,45 g, 34 mm.
Tranche lisse
A/ METAL DE CLOCHE // DIXAIN
R/ 1791 dans une couronne de feuillages.
Réfs : Brandon 178
Gabalor
074~5.JPG
Convention - 1 sol - 1793 Dijon.5 views1 sol ŕ la table de loi, cuivre, 10,99 g, 28 mm.
A/ REPUBLIQUE FRANCOISE // L'AN II, table des droits de l'Homme sous un oeil avec LES HOMMES SONT EGAUX DEVANT LA LOI, grappe de raisin ŕ gauche, épi de blé ŕ droite.
R/ LIBERTE EGALITE // 1 S // 1793 D, balance sommée d'un bonnet phrygien dans une couronne de feuillages.
Réfs : Révolution, R. 71-9.
Gabalor
239.JPG
Convention - 1 sol - 1793 Marseille6 views1 sol ŕ la table de loi, cuivre, 11,83 g, 29 mm.
A/ REPUBLIQUE FRANCOISE // L'AN II, table des droits de l'Homme sous un oeil avec LES HOMMES SONT EGAUX DEVANT LA LOI, grappe de raisin ŕ gauche, épi de blé ŕ droite.
R/ LIBERTE EGALITE // 1 S // 1793 MA, balance sommée d'un bonnet phrygien dans une couronne de feuillages.
Réfs : Révolution, R. 71-15.
Gabalor
289.JPG
Convention - 1 sol - 1793 Metz.3 views1 sol ŕ la table de loi, cuivre, 11,45 g, 29 mm.
A/ REPUBLIQUE FRANCOISE // L'AN II, table des droits de l'Homme sous un oeil avec LES HOMMES SONT EGAUX DEVANT LA LOI, grappe de raisin ŕ gauche, épi de blé ŕ droite.
R/ LIBERTE EGALITE // 1 S // 1793 AA, balance sommée d'un bonnet phrygien dans une couronne de feuillages.
Réfs : Révolution, R. 71-3.
Gabalor
218.JPG
Convention - 2 sols - 1793 Limoges.5 views2 sols ŕ la table de loi, cuivre, 26,35 g, 34 mm.
A/ REPUBLIQUE FRANCOISE // L'AN II, table des droits de l'Homme sous un oeil avec LES HOMMES SONT EGAUX DEVANT LA LOI, grappe de raisin ŕ gauche, épi de blé ŕ droite.
R/ LIBERTE EGALITE // 2 S // 1793 I, balance sommée d'un bonnet phrygien dans une couronne de feuillages.
Réfs : Révolution, R. 74-7.
Gabalor
105~2.JPG
Convention - 2 sols - Limoges.4 views2 sols ŕ la table de loi non daté, cuivre, 25,44 g, 34 mm.
A/ REPUBLIQUE FRANCOISE // L'AN II, table des droits de l'Homme sous un oeil avec LES HOMMES SONT EGAUX DEVANT LA LOI, grappe de raisin ŕ gauche, épi de blé ŕ droite.
R/ LIBERTE EGALITE // 2 S // I, balance sommée d'un bonnet phrygien dans une couronne de feuillages.
Réfs : Révolution, R. 76-2.
Gabalor
120.JPG
Convention - Demi sol - 1793 la Rochelle (refrappe).8 views1/2 sol ŕ la table de loi, cuivre, 4,89 g, 25 mm.
A/ REPUBLIQUE FRANCOISE // L'AN II, table des droits de l'Homme sous un oeil avec LES HOMMES SONT EGAUX DEVANT LA LOI, grappe de raisin ŕ gauche, épi de blé ŕ droite.
R/ LIBERTE EGALITE // 1/2 S // 1793 H, balance sommée d'un bonnet phrygien dans une couronne de feuillages.
Réfs : Révolution, R. 70.3.
Gabalor
216~1.JPG
Convention - Demi sol - 1793 la Rochelle.3 views1/2 sol ŕ la table de loi, cuivre, 5,33 g, 25 mm.
A/ REPUBLIQUE FRANCOISE // L'AN II, table des droits de l'Homme sous un oeil avec LES HOMMES SONT EGAUX DEVANT LA LOI, grappe de raisin ŕ gauche, épi de blé ŕ droite.
R/ LIBERTE EGALITE // 1/2 S // 1793 H, balance sommée d'un bonnet phrygien dans une couronne de feuillages.
Réfs : Révolution, R. 70.1
Gabalor
761NN383.jpg
Cr 340/1 AR Denarius L. Calpurnius Piso Frugi6 viewsc. 90 BCE, Rome, 19mm, 3.87gm.
o: Laureate head of Apollo r.; behind, control numeral X(?)
r: Horseman galloping r., w/palm branch; below, L PISO FRVGI / ROMA [mono]; above, XVII
Calpurnia 12. Sydenham 661.
This type, presumably struck at the height of the Social War, is overall common, with nearly 1000 dies each side, and seemingly one control number per die. It is an odd type, if the dating is right, as it speaks neither to the Social War, nor much to the loyalty of the legions. The war was quite intense, and it hardly seems that the legions would be distracted by the Games of Apollo ("home before the leaves fall" as they said in 1914) , or that the Italians would be bought off by a nostalgic sense that they would be cut off from the really cool games in Rome. Perhaps it reflects the blindness/stupidity/narcissism of the Roman Senatorial class that fostered the resentment among the Socii.
As a collecting type, I had not been enthusiastic about it until I learned of some rare variations and also came to appreciate the simplicity of the design. This one, among several I now have, has nice toning and strike. I will not seek all of the variants suggested by Crawford's two pages of control marks...
PMah
Roma487.jpg
Cr 386/1 AR Denarius L. Cassius Q. f. Longinus 30 viewsRome, 78 BCE
o: Head of Liber (or Bacchus) right, wearing ivy wreath; thyrsus over shoulder
r: Head of Liber left, wearing vine wreath; L•CASSI•Q•F behind
Crawford 386/1; RSC Cassia 6.
(3.88g, 14mm, 9h)
An unusual type, with heads on both sides there is some dispute as to the identity of the images. If both are manifestations of Bacchus, then this moneyer apparently really liked to have a good time and wanted his future constituents to know it.
2 commentsPMah
11062v.jpg
Crawford 417/1a, Roman Republic, Rome mint, moneyers L. Aemilius Lepidus Paullus and L. Scribonius Libo, 62 BC., AR Denarius.72 viewsRoman Republic, Rome mint, moneyers L. Aemilius Lepidus Paullus and L. Scribonius Libo, 62 BC.,
AR Denarius (18-20 mm / 3,72 g),
Obv.: [P]AVLLVS. LEPIDVS - CONCORD head of Concordia r., wearing veil and diadem.
Rev.: PVTEAL SCRIBON / LIBO , Puteal Scribonianum (Scribonian well, the "Puteal Scribonianum" well in the Forum Romanum near the Arch of Fabius), decorated with garland and two lyres, hammer at base.
Crawf. 417/1a ; Syd. 927 ; Bab. / Seaby Aemilia 11 ; Kestner 3422 ; BMC Rome 3383 ; CNR Aemilia 62 .
Rare

A puteal was a classical wellhead, round or sometimes square, set round a well opening to keep people from falling in. Such well heads (putealia) might be of marble, enriched with bas-reliefs. - The puteal is on the reverse of the coin adorned with garlands and two lyres. It is generally stated that there were two putealia in the Roman forum; but C. F. Hermann, who has carefully examined all the passages in the ancient writers relating to this matter (Ind. Lect. Marburg. 1840), comes to the conclusion that there was only one such puteal at Rome. It was in the forum, near the Arcus Fabianus, and was dedicated in very ancient times either on account of the whetstone of the Augur Navius (cf. Liv. I.36), or because the spot had been struck by lightning. It was subsequently repaired and re-dedicated by Scribonius Libo, who had been commanded to examine the state of the sacred places. Libo erected in its neighbourhood a tribunal for the praetor, in consequence of which the place was, of course, frequented by persons who had law-suits, such as money-lenders and the like.

The Puteal Scribonianum (Scribonian Puteal) or Puteal Libonis (Puteal of Libo), building in the Forum at Rome, dedicated or restored by a member of the Libo family, perhaps the praetor of 204 BC, or the tribune of the people in 149 BC. In its vicinity the praetor's tribunal, removed from the comitium in the 2nd century BC, held its sittings, which led to the place becoming the haunt of litigants, money-lenders and business people. According to ancient authorities, the Puteal Libonis was the name given to an erection (or enclosure) on a spot which had been struck by lightning; it was so called from its resemblance to the stone curb or low enclosure round a well (puteus) that was between the temples of Castor and Vesta, near the Porticus Julia and the Arcus Fabiorum (arch of the Fabii), but no remains have been discovered. The idea that an irregular circle of travertine blocks, found near the temple of Castor, formed part of the puteal is now abandoned. See Horace, Sat. ii.6.35, Epp. i.19.8; Cicero, Pro Sestio, 8; for the well-known coin of Lucius Scribonius Libo, representing the puteal of Libo, which rather resembles a cippus (sepulchral monument) or an altar, with laurel wreaths, two lyres and a pair of pincers or tongs below the wreaths (perhaps symbolical of Vulcan as forger of lightning), see C. Hulsen, The Roman Forum (Eng. trans. by J. B. Carter, 1906), p. 150.

L. Scribonius Libo, was the father-in-law of Sextus Pompey, the son of Pompey the Great. On the breaking out of the civil war in 49, he sided with Pompey, and was given command of Etruria. Shortly afterwards he accompanied Pompey to Greece, and was actively engaged in the war that ensued. On the death of Bibulus (48) he had the given command of the Pompeian fleet. In the civil wars following Caesar's death, he followed the fortunes of his son-in-law Sextus Pompey. In 40, Octavian married his sister Scribonia, and this marriage was followed by a peace between the triumvirs and Pompey (39). When the war was renewed in 36, Libo for a time supported Pompey, but, seeing his cause hopeless, he deserted him in the following year. In 34, he was consul with Mark Antony.

my ancient coin database
1 commentsArminius
225.JPG
Deuxičme république - 20 francs - Concours de 1848, Paris. 3 views20 francs, étain, 21 mm, 2,75 g.
A/ REPUBLIQUE FRANCAISE, tęte ŕ droite.
R/ LIBERTE EGALITE FRATERNITE, dans une couronne de feuillages, 20 FRANCS 1848.
Réfs : Gadoury 1038, concours de Boivin
Gabalor
264.JPG
Deuxičme république - 20 francs - Concours de 1848, Paris.4 views20 francs, étain, 21 mm, 3,32 g.
A/ REPUBLIQUE FRANCAISE, buste ŕ droite.
R/ LIBERTE EGALITE FRATERNITE, dans une couronne de feuillages 20 FRANCS 1848.
Réfs : Gadoury 1054, concours de Montagny
Gabalor
205~0.JPG
Deuxičme république - 5 francs - Concours de 1848, Paris.1 views5 francs, étain, 37 mm, 17,54 g.
A/ REPUBLIQUE FRANCAISE, tęte ŕ gauche.
R/ LIBERTE EGALITE FRATERNITE, dans une couronne de feuillages 5 FRANCS 1848.
Réfs : Gadoury 713, concours de Tournier
Gabalor
152~2.JPG
Deuxičme république - 5 francs - Concours de 1848, Paris.4 views5 francs, étain, 37 mm, 17,43g.
A/ REPUBLIQUE FRANCAISE, buste ŕ gauche.
R/ LIBERTE EGALITE FRATERNITE, dans une couronne de feuillages 5 FRANCS 1848.
Réfs : Gadoury 701, concours de Magniadas
Gabalor
140.JPG
Deuxičme république - 5 francs - Concours de 1848. 3 views5 francs, étain, 37 mm, 17,55 g.
A/ REPUBLIQUE FRANCAISE, tęte ŕ gauche.
R/ LIBERTE EGALITE FRATERNITE 1848, dans une couronne de feuillages 5 FRANCS.
Réfs : Gadoury 698, concours de Gayrard
Gabalor
133~0.JPG
Deuxičme république - Cérčs - 1 franc - 1849 Bordeaux.8 viewsArgent, 23 mm, 4,94 g.
A/ REPUBLIQUE FRANCAISE, tęte de la République ŕ gauche.
R/ LIBERTE EGALITE FRATERNITE, 1 FRANC 1849 dans une couronne de feuillages.
Réfs : F.-211.3 (19.296 ex.)
Gabalor
144.JPG
Deuxičme république - Cérčs - 1 franc - 1849 Paris.3 viewsArgent, 23 mm, 4,91 g.
A/ REPUBLIQUE FRANCAISE, tęte de la République ŕ gauche.
R/ LIBERTE EGALITE FRATERNITE, 1 FRANC 1849 dans une couronne de feuillages.
Réfs : F.-211.1 (1.328.135 ex.)
Gabalor
255~0.JPG
Deuxičme république - Cérčs - 20 centimes - 1850 Paris.4 viewsArgent, 15 mm, 0,97 g.
A/ REPUBLIQUE FRANCAISE, tęte de la République ŕ gauche.
R/ LIBERTE EGALITE FRATERNITE, 20 CENT 1850 dans une couronne de feuillages.
Réfs : F.-146.3
Gabalor
016~3.JPG
Deuxičme république - Cérčs - 20 centimes - 1851 Paris.3 viewsArgent, 15 mm, 0,96 g.
A/ REPUBLIQUE FRANCAISE, tęte de la République ŕ gauche.
R/ LIBERTE EGALITE FRATERNITE, 20 CENT 1851 dans une couronne de feuillages.
Réfs : F.-146.7
Gabalor
096~2.JPG
Deuxičme république - Cérčs - 5 francs - 1849 Strasbourg.6 viewsArgent, 36 mm, 24,89 g.
A/ REPUBLIQUE FRANCAISE, tęte de la République ŕ gauche.
R/ LIBERTE EGALITE FRATERNITE, 5 FRANCS 1849 dans une couronne de feuillages.
Réfs : F.-327.3 (915.883 ex.)
Gabalor
146~4.JPG
Deuxičme république - Concours de 1848, Paris - Concours de Domard.8 views10 centimes, cuivre, 30 mm, 10,45 g.
A/ REPUBLIQUE FRANCAISE, tęte ŕ gauche.
R/ LIBERTE EGALITE FRATERNITE 1848, dans une couronne de feuillages 10 CENTS.
Réfs : Gadoury 224 R/b
Gabalor
199.JPG
Deuxičme république - Naudin - 2 francs essai4 viewsEtain plaqué bronze, 27 mm, 6,76 g.
A/ REPUBLIQUE FRANCAISE, buste de la république coiffée du bonnet phrygien ŕ gauche.
R/ 2 FRANCS 1848 dans une couronne de feuillages
Réfs : JM-1286 (ex collection Gadoury)
Gabalor
224.JPG
Deuxičme république - Naudin/Delarue - 5 centimes - 1848 essai3 viewsCuivre, 23 mm, 5,26 g.
A/ REPUBLIQUE FRANCAISE, buste de la République coiffée du bonnet phrygien ŕ gauche.
R/ 5 CENTI dans une couronne de feuillages.
Tranche lisse
Réfs : Avers type JM-872, revers type JM-870 (ex. collection Gadoury)
Gabalor
diocle_LS_elpis.jpg
Diocletian, Elpis, year 616 viewsDiocletian, 20 November 284 - 1 March 305 A.D., Roman Provincial Egypt. Billon tetradrachm, Milne 4937, Curtis 1985, BMC Alexandria 2500, Geissen 3249, SNG Cop 998, Alexandria mint, 29 Aug 289 - 28 Aug 290 A.D.; obverse Α Κ Γ ΟΥΑΛ ∆ΙΟΚΛΗΤΙΑΝΟC CΕΒ, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse Elpis standing left, flower in right, raising fold of chiton with left, star right, L - S (year 6) across fields; Elpis was the Greek equivalent of the Roman Spes, the goddess of hope. She was traditionally defined as "the last goddess" (Spes, ultima dea), meaning that hope is the last resource available to men. Elpis personified hope for good harvests, and for children, and was invoked at births, marriages, and other important times. ex FORVMPodiceps
177~2.JPG
Directoire - Dupré - 5 centimes - AN 5 Lille.5 viewsCuivre, 27 mm, 10,67 g.
A/ REPUBLIQUE FRANCAISE, tęte de la République ŕ gauche, coiffée d'un bonnet phrygien.
R/ CINQ CENTIMES // L'AN 5 W, dans une couronne de feuillages.
Réfs : F.115.14 (2.138.498 ex.)
Gabalor
310.JPG
Directoire - Dupré - 5 centimes - AN 5 Paris3 viewsBronze, 28 mm, 10,42 g
Atelier de Paris
Variante avec CNNQ (les 2 N liés)
A/ REPUBLIQUE FRANCAISE, tęte de la République ŕ gauche, coiffée d'un bonnet phrygien.
R/ Dans une couronne de feuillages, en trois lignes, CNNQ // CENTIMES // L'AN 5
Réfs : F.114.1 var.
Gabalor
264~0.JPG
Directoire - Dupré - 5 centimes - AN 5 Paris5 viewsCuivre, 27 mm, 9,97 g.
A/ REPUBLIQUE FRANCAISE, tęte de la République ŕ gauche, coiffée d'un bonnet phrygien.
R/ CINQ CENTIMES // L'AN 5 A, dans une couronne de feuillages.
Réfs : F.115.14 (26.245.002 ex.)
Gabalor
084~6.JPG
Directoire - Dupré - 5 centimes - AN 7 Strasbourg1 viewsCuivre, 27 mm, 9,79 g.
A/ REPUBLIQUE FRANCAISE, tęte de la République ŕ gauche, coiffée d'un bonnet phrygien.
R/ CINQ CENTIMES // L'AN 7 BB, dans une couronne de feuillages.
Réfs : F.115.30 (160.605 ex.)
Gabalor
123~0.JPG
Directoire - Dupré - 5 centimes - AN 8 Genčve.4 viewsCuivre, 27 mm, 9,30 g.
A/ REPUBLIQUE FRANCAISE, tęte de la République ŕ gauche, coiffée d'un bonnet phrygien.
R/ CINQ CENTIMES // L'AN 8 G, dans une couronne de feuillages.
Réfs : F.115.59 (818.306 ex.)
Gabalor
188~1.JPG
Directoire - Dupré - 5 centimes - AN 8/6 Bordeaux.7 viewsCuivre, 27 mm, 10,34 g.
A/ REPUBLIQUE FRANCAISE, tęte de la République ŕ gauche, coiffée d'un bonnet phrygien.
R/ CINQ CENTIMES // L'AN 8 sur 6 K, dans une couronne de feuillages.
Réfs : F.115.64 (--- ex.)
Gabalor
106~3.JPG
Directoire - Dupré - 5 centimes - AN 9 Genčve.1 viewsCuivre, 27 mm, 8,40 g.
A/ REPUBLIQUE FRANCAISE, tęte de la République ŕ gauche, coiffée d'un bonnet phrygien.
R/ CINQ CENTIMES // L'AN 9 G, dans une couronne de feuillages.
Réfs : F.115.73 (1 186 446 ex.)
Gabalor
251.JPG
Directoire - Dupré - 5 centimes - AN 9 Lyon.3 viewsCuivre, 27 mm, 9,74 g.
A/ REPUBLIQUE FRANCAISE, tęte de la République ŕ gauche, coiffée d'un bonnet phrygien.
R/ CINQ CENTIMES // L'AN 9 D, dans une couronne de feuillages.
Réfs : F.115.72 (97.788 ex.)
Gabalor
093~6.JPG
Directoire - Dupré - Décime - AN 4 Paris.4 viewsCuivre, 28 mm, 9,47 g.
A/ REPUBLIQUE FRANCAISE, tęte de la République ŕ gauche, coiffée d'un bonnet phrygien.
R/ DECIME // L'AN 4 A, dans une couronne de feuillages.
Réfs : F.126.2 (3.517.156 ex.)
Gabalor
253~0.JPG
Directoire - Dupré - Décime - AN 4 Paris.4 viewsCuivre, 32 mm, 16,80 g, modification du 2 décimes.
A/ REPUBLIQUE FRANCAISE, tęte de la République ŕ gauche, coiffée d'un bonnet phrygien.
R/ UN DECIME // L'AN 4 A, dans une couronne de feuillages.
Réfs : F.127.1 (--- ex.)
Gabalor
104~3.JPG
Directoire - Dupré - Décime - AN 5 Lyon.6 viewsCuivre, 32 mm, 19,72 g.
A/ REPUBLIQUE FRANCAISE, tęte de la République ŕ gauche, coiffée d'un bonnet phrygien.
R/ UN DECIME // L'AN 5 D, dans une couronne de feuillages.
Réfs : F.129.6 (4.746.616 ex.)
Gabalor
164~2.JPG
Directoire - Dupré - Décime - AN 5 Paris.6 viewsCuivre, 32 mm, 18,19 g, modification du 2 décimes.
A/ REPUBLIQUE FRANCAISE, tęte de la République ŕ gauche, coiffée d'un bonnet phrygien.
R/ UN DECIME // L'AN 5 A, dans une couronne de feuillages.
Réfs : F.127.3 (--- ex.)
Gabalor
075.JPG
Directoire - Dupré - Décime - AN 5 Paris.3 viewsCuivre, 32 mm, 18,78 g, refrappe sur 2 décimes.
A/ REPUBLIQUE FRANCAISE, tęte de la République ŕ gauche, coiffée d'un bonnet phrygien.
R/ UN DECIME // L'AN 5 A, dans une couronne de feuillages.
Réfs : F.128.1 (--- ex.)
Gabalor
098~5.JPG
Directoire - Dupré - Décime - AN 7 Paris.5 viewsCuivre, 32 mm, 20,82 g.
A/ REPUBLIQUE FRANCAISE, tęte de la République ŕ gauche, coiffée d'un bonnet phrygien.
R/ UN DECIME // L'AN 7 A, dans une couronne de feuillages.
Réfs : F.129.12 (5 585 991 ex.)
Gabalor
116~1.JPG
Directoire - Dupré - Décimes - AN 8 Bordeaux.8 viewsCuivre, 32 mm, 17,91 g.
A/ REPUBLIQUE FRANCAISE, tęte de la République ŕ gauche, coiffée d'un bonnet phrygien.
R/ UN DECIME // L'AN 8 K, dans une couronne de feuillages.
Réfs : F.129.37 (3.451.639 ex.)
Gabalor
156~3.JPG
Directoire - Dupré - Décimes - AN 8 Genčve.5 viewsCuivre, 32 mm, 17,87 g.
A/ REPUBLIQUE FRANCAISE, tęte de la République ŕ gauche, coiffée d'un bonnet phrygien.
R/ UN DECIME // L'AN 8 G, dans une couronne de feuillages.
Réfs : F.129.35 (25.229 ex.)
Gabalor
Augustus_Provident_SC_2b.jpg
Divus Augustus | Altar & PROVIDENT * AD. Æ As - 27 BC-14 AD127 views
Divus Augustus | Altar & PROVIDENT * AD. Bronze As.

Obv: Radiate head of Divus Augustus, left-facing: DIVVS AVGVSTVS PATER
Rev: Altar-enclosure with double panelled doors, closed; uncertain ornaments at the top, PROVIDENT beneath.

Exergue: None.

Mint: Rome
Struck: 31-37 AD
(Struck under Tiberius)

Size: 29.15 mm.
Weight: 9.71 grm.
Die axis: 180°

Condition: Quite worn but with yet clearly visible images both sides; most obverse legend visible & legible, showing: [DIVV]S AVGVSTVS [P]ATER. Some light red-ish encrustration on the upper-right of the obverse, behind top of portrait.

Refs:*
BN, 132
Cohen, 228
RIC I, 81 (Tiberius)
BMCRE, 146 (Tiberius)

AUGUSTUS: Gaius Octavius Thurinus, later Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus, was born Sept. 23, 63 BC. After defeating his rivals he is given the title 'Augustus' by which he became known thenceforth.
Tiathena
_Divus_Julius_Octavian.jpg
Divus Julius Caesar and Octavian97 viewsMACEDON, Thessalonica. Divus Julius Caesar and Octavian. 28-27 BC? Ć 23mm 7.93g
O: Wreathed head of Julius Caesar right; c/m: ligate NK in circle
R: Bare head of Octavian right; D below.
For coin: Touratsoglou, Thessaloniki, Em. 1, 27 (V5/R25); RPC I 1554; SNG ANS 824; for c/m: Howgego 625.

The D has been interpreted as either a denomination mark (four assaria) or, more likely, a date - year four of the Actian era (28/7 BC). The ligate NK monogram has been generally accepted as a reference to Nero (Nerwn Kaisar). This is problematic considering that Thessalonica had abundant coinages issued under Claudius and Nero, such that countermarking these quite older coins would be unlikely. Touratsoglou (p. 105) follows Kraay's suggestion that the NK is an abbreviation for Nike (NiKh), and was applied to the coins during celebrations of the city's 50th anniversary of its grant of liberty by the Romans. All but two of the known specimens of this countermark occur on the coins of this first issue of Thessalonica, and the wear on the countermarks is nearly identical to that of the coins, suggesting that the countermarks could not have been applied very long after the coins entered circulation.
Nemonater
CsIIDO211.jpg
DO 211 (Heraclius Constantine?) - Countermarked Follis - ca. 641 AD - Constantinople mint191 viewsProbable Emperor: Heraclius Constantine (r. 641 AD) (Countermarks)
Condition: VF
Date: ca. 641 AD
Denomination: Follis

Obverse: No legend
To left, Heraclius standing, with mustache and long beard, wearing military dress and crown with cross. He holds in right hand long cross, left hand on hip. To right, Heraclius Constantine standing, with short beard, wearing chlamys and crown with cross; in right hand, globus cruciger. Between heads, cross. To left, ; To right, .

Reverse: Large ""; Above, cross and ; To left, ///; To right, date (Years 20 or 21); Beneath, .
Exergue:
Countermarks: at 120°; at 300°

Constantinople mint, third officina
DO 211
10.64g; 31.8mm; 180°

Struck on a Sear 810, itself overstruck on a previous Follis of Heraclius.
Pep
D68.JPG
Domitian RIC 68109 viewsAR Denarius, 3.08g
Rome mint, 81 AD
Obv: IMP CAES DOMITIAN AVG PONT; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: TR P COS VII DES VIII P P; Seat, draped; above, winged thunderbolt
RIC 68 (R2). BMC -. RSC -. BNC -.

The early pulvinar denarii struck by Domitian tell the story of an emperor who was awarded titles in stages. The "PONT" series were minted before Domitian obtained the full title Pontifex Maximus, presumably until the proper religious rites were completed. Most "PONT" denarii are listed as R2 or R3. Interestingly, this Group 4 denarius shares the same obverse die as my very rare Group 3 RIC 34 with the same reverse type but with a different legend, proof that the two groups were struck simultaneously. At this time the mint was divided up into different officinae based on reverse types. No obverses die matches are found with different reverse types.

A great early style portrait and finely toned.
5 commentsDavid Atherton
Nero_37.jpg
E78 viewsNero AE As

Attribution: RIC I 313, Rome
Date: AD 65
Obverse: NERO CAESAR AVG GERM IMP laureate head l.
Reverse: Victory advancing l. holding shield with “ S P Q R” inscribed, S-C in fields
Size: 26 mm
Weight: 12.3 grams
(Bust of Nero: Museo Nazionale, Rome)

“He was about the average height, his body marked with spots and malodorous, his hair light blond…His health was good for though indulging in every kind of riotous excess, he was ill but three times in all during the fourteen years of his reign.” –Seutonius Life of Nero LI

Upon the death of Claudius in AD 54, 16 year-old Nero was accepted as the next emperor. At first, he pampered the senate, made financial promises to the praetorian guard, and generally appeared to be headed in the direction of the superior reign of the divine Augustus. Problems soon became evident upon the poisoning of Britannicus, Claudius’ son. The murder of Nero’s mother, Agrippina, in AD 59 was the single most notoriously sordid act of the emperor’s entire reign. Still, he was noted for numerous other disdainful exploits as well. Nero became infatuated with Poppaea, the wife of a close friend, Marcus Otho. He had Otho appointed governor of Lusitania and soon began an affair with Poppaea. His marriage to Octavia, of course, was a problem as well, so Nero had her exiled on the island of Pandateria in AD 62. There she was accused of adultery and subsequently killed not long after. Sadly, in AD 65, while throwing a temper tantrum, Nero kicked a pregnant Poppaea to death. He did remarry again, but eventually became lovers with the boy Sporus who resembled Poppaea.

“Rumour had it that he used to roam the streets after dark, visiting taverns with his friends, mugging people in the street, attacking women, and thieving from shops and stalls. He was also accused of abusing married women and freeborn boys.” – from Chronicle of the Roman Emperors by Chris Scarre (1995)

Nero’s reign is marked by a time of financial bleeding of the imperial coffers. His “projects” and excesses were so vast, that the emperor needed to find money wherever he could. One of his most heinous rampages saw him coercing wealthy citizens to will their possessions and fortunes to him prior to forcing them to commit suicide. The Great Fire of AD 64, which started in the neighborhood of the Circus Maximus and spread rapidly to 10 of Rome’s 14 regions, brought the emperor’s popularity further down as tensions reached the boiling point. This is partially due to the fact that he diverted the blame for the fire in the direction of an emerging religious “cult”, the Christians (who were persecuted unmercifully). It is said that he even tied some Christians to posts and had them tarred and lit to illuminate his parties in the royal gardens. Later several conspiracies were unraveled and quelled, but in the end, Nero pushed his luck too far. The revolts of Vindex, Rufus, and Galba were the beginning of the end for the emperor. He was abandoned by his guards and found himself alone at the palace. One of his freedmen, Phaon, led him out of the city to a villa. There Nero committed suicide by stabbing himself in the neck (although his private secretary Epaphroditus finished the job). His last words were, “What an artist the world is losing!” He died in AD 68 at age 30.
4 commentsNoah
East_India_Company_10_Cash_Copper_Ingot.jpg
East India Company 10 Cash Copper Ingot66 viewsDate: AD 1808
Obverse: EAST INDIA COMPANY; arms of East India Company - two rearing lions each with one back paw on globe, facing inward, leaning against shield, medieval helm above with similar rearing lion facing l. on top, two banners to l. and r. of helm; 1808 below
Reverse: Mughal inscription with X (denomination of 10) .CASH. below
Size: 25 mm, as found at shipwreck site – bent
Photo: The black & white photo between the coin obverse and reverse images is one of the divers who recovered the coins in 1985.
* Note: I purchased this at a coin shop on Grand Cayman island while on my honeymoon in 2001.

This shipwreck coin is from the 145 foot long, 36 foot in berth ship, The Admiral Gardner, that sank on January 25th, 1809, travelling through a fearsome storm in the infamous English Channel. Due to the roughness of the storm, rescue boats failed to reach the damaged ship. Bystanders watched helpessly as the triple deck square rigger constructed of oak and teak sank and took the lives of seven crewmen trapped onboard. The Admiral Gardner was headed for India, and contained coins for payment fto workers in Bengal and Madras. Found in well preserved condition on the seabed, the coins were well wrapped and secured in wooden casks.

In 1809, after the ship sank, some items were salvaged from the wreck, but the valuable cargoes deep in the hold were not reachable. Around 1984, which was 175 years after the ship sank, a local fisherman reported that he thought he was snagging his nets on the Admiral Gardner, the fate of the ship being well known locally. The divers who made the first dive on the wreck were amazed at what they saw. Exposed ribs, frames and decking outlined the shape of the ship. She was lying on a gently sloping sandy bottom at depths ranging between 45 and 60 feet of water. Along with her cargo of coins, some of which had spilled out from the barrels in which they were stowed, her cargo had consisted of a quantity of cannon balls, anchors, iron bars and copper ingots. In 1985 the wreck was listed as being of historical interest, and a license to dive on the site was granted to Richard Larn of Cornwall, the original discoverers of the wreck having formed themselves into a syndicate known as The East India Company Divers. The group, all very experienced in diving on wrecks on the Goodwin Sands, was formed to salvage and administer the legal aspects of any artifacts recovered. Some salvage was carried out in the summer of 1984, but due to weather problems and the special difficulties of working four miles offshore, the amount of coin recovered was minimal. In June 1985, professional divers from a company called SAR Diving, who were working with the EIC diving group, succeeded in recovering a large quantity of copper coins, which were passed to the legal authority for such finds, the Receiver of Wreck. The most impressive find was an intact barrel which underwent preservation treatment at Portsmouth and was estimated to contain 28,000 coins. Unfortunately, as is the case with many of these ventures, treasure (or here, at least, the copper variety) meant trouble. Strong disagreements developed between the parties involved about the methods employed on the wreck, some of which included controlled explosions. Diving on the site was suspended, and the site remains a protected wreck, with no-one currently licensed to dive on it.
3 commentsNoah
279144_l.jpg
Eastern Europe. Imitation of Philip II of Macedon (Circa 200-0 BC)119 viewsTetradrachm (Kugelwange or "ball cheek" type)

20 mm, 11.46 g

Obverse: Stylized laureate head of Zeus right

Reverse: Stylized horse prancing left, pellet-in-annulet above, pelleted cross below.

Lanz 468-9; OTA 193/9.

Around the end of the 3rd century B.C., the Celtic Scordisci tribe started issuing their own local coinages imitating the types of Philip II of Macedon. These coinages had a limited volume of production and a restricted area of circulation, so their finds are not numerous and occur mostly in their own territory and in the neighboring territories of other Celtic or Celticized tribes. The Scordisci were originally formed after the Celtic invasion of Macedonia and Northern Greece (280-279 BC) which culminated in a great victory against the Greeks at Thermopylae and the sacking of Delphi, the center of the Greek world. The Celts then retreated back to the north of the Balkans (suffering many casualties along the way) and settled on the mouth of the Sava River calling themselves the Scordisci after the nearby Scordus (now Sar) mountains. The Scordisci, since they dominated the important Sava valley, the only route to Italy, in the second half of the 3rd century BC, gradually became the most powerful tribe in the central Balkans.

From 141 BC, the Scordisci were constantly involved in battles against Roman held Macedonia. They were defeated in 135 BC by Cosconius in Thrace. In 118 BC, according to a memorial stone discovered near Thessalonica, Sextus Pompeius, probably the grandfather of the triumvir, was slain fighting against them near Stobi. In 114 BC, they surprised and destroyed the army of Gaius Porcius Cato in the western mountains of Serbia, but were defeated by Minucius Rufus in 107 BC.

From time to time they still gave trouble to the Roman governors of Macedonia, whose territory they invaded, even advancing as far as Delphi for a second time and once again plundering the temple; but Lucius Cornelius Scipio Asiaticus finally overcame them in 88 BC and drove them back across the Danube. After this, the power of the Scordisci declined rapidly. This decline was more a result of the political situation in their surrounding territories rather than the effects of Roman campaigns, as their client tribes, especially the Pannonians, became more powerful and politically independent. Between 56 and 50 BC, the Scordisci were defeated by Burebista's Dacians (a Thracian king of the Getae and Dacian tribes), and became subject to him.
5 commentsNathan P
alexandria_hadrian_Milne1262.jpg
Egypt, Alexandria, Hadrian, Milne 126228 viewsHadrian, AD 117-138
AE - tetradrachm, 12.82g, 24mm
struck AD 127/8 (year 12)
obv. AVT KAI - TRAI ADRIA CEB
Bust, draped and cuirassed, seen from behind, laureate, r.
rev. L DWDE - KATOV (year 12)
God Ptah-Sokar-Osiris, bound in mummy bandages, bearded, sun disk on head, stg. r., holding
with both hands sceptre with jackal head (Anubis-sceptre)
Milne 1262; Köln 982; Emmet 883; BMC 637; Dattari 1445; Hunter 637; Mionnet 1050
rare, VF

For more information please look at the thread 'Mythological interesting coins'.
Jochen
Faience_Dwarf_-_sm.jpg
Egyptian Faience Dwarf with Large Phallus151 viewsA Large Faience Egyptian Amulet of a Dwarf. A large faience amulet of a dwarf with large phallus, Late Period, c. 664 - 30 BC, seated with his knees drawn up before him, tufts of hair on each side of his head. He holds his enormous engorged phallus against his chest with both hands, resting his chin on the end. Suspension loop at the back of his head. H: 46 mm. Intact, glaze fade though traces of black still on the hair. Ex Negus collection, UK, late 19th Century.
Ex Agora Auctions #1 - Nov 2013

Great info from FORVM member Russ (thanks!):
These items represent the ancient Egyptian god Min, and date from the XXVIth Dynasty to Roman times. See:
1. Andrews, Carol. Amulets of Ancient Egypt. Avon/Austin, 1994: pages 11, 16, 17, 88; Figs 5a and 11b.
2. Blanchard, R.H. Handbook of Egyptian Gods and Mummy Amulets. Cairo, 1909 (reprinted by Attic Books, no date): page 19, Figs. 193 & 194, Plate XXXVII. Blanchard notes " Min, Minu or Khem, the ithyphalic god of procreation and harvest. He was allied to Amen and wears the two feathers. He hoolds aloft the flail with his right arm. He was the son of Isis, father of Ra, and husband of his mother. Min was the original of the Greek god Pan, and was worshipped at Akhmim, or the Panopolis of the Greeks."
3. Petrie, W.M.F. Amulets, London, 1914, reprinted 1974: page 37, Section 161, Plate XXX.
4 commentsSosius
Elagabalus_Invictus__Sacerdos.JPG
Elagabalus Invictus Sacerdos32 viewsElagabalus Silver denarius, RIC IV 88, RSC III 61, BMCRE V 212, Rome, 2.284g, 19.8mm, die axis 180o, 220 - 222 A.D.
OBV: IMP ANTONINVS PIVS AVG, horned, laureate, draped and bearded bust right;
REV: INVICTVS SACERDOS AVG, Elagabalus standing half left, branch in left, offering from patera in right over altar, recumbent bull behind altar, star left;
From the Prof. Henry H. Armstrong collection, handwritten envelope notes, "Purchase, G.W. Westhorpe, Yankton, S.D., 1909."

EX: Forvm Ancient Coins

From the Prof. Henry H. Armstrong collection. In 1909 and 1910, when he purchased this coin, Professor Armstrong lived in Rome working as a Research Associate of the Carnegie Institution in Archaeology teaching at the American School for Classical Studies. From 1918 until his death in 1935 he taught at Beloit College as head of the Department of Romance Languages. Nicknamed "Sparky" by the students, his death after a two-week illness came as a shock to the college. His coins, inherited by his son, sat in a cigar box for the next 74 years.
Romanorvm
Roman_Baths_c1900.jpg
England, Roman Baths, Bath (2)149 viewsThis is a Photochrome print of the Roman Baths, Bath, England taken sometime between 1895 and 1905.
It shows the new Victorian embellishments added to the Baths since their discovery in the 1880's and which, for the most part, are the works that visitors to the site see today.
The familiar green hue of the pool seen by modern visitors is caused by algae, resulting from the water's exposure to the open air. In Roman times the pool was roofed over and its waters, while perhaps not crystal clear, would almost certainly not have been green.

Photochrome prints are coloured images produced from black-and-white photographic negatives via the direct photographic transfer of a negative onto lithographic printing plates.
*Alex
Larissa_AI_Signed.jpg
Facing Head of Larissa - AI Signed17 viewsThessaly Greece, the City of Larissa

Obv: Head of the nymph Larissa facing ľ l., wearing ampyx with ΓΕΥ inscription (not visible)1, hair floating freely above head, tiny IA above top locks of hair (off of flan), prominent raised right shoulder2 (garment clasp visible?), spherical earring with bead pendant. Border of dots.
Rev: Horse crouching r., bucranium brand on haunch, forelegs spread, raised tail (off of flan), tiny AI under belly3, reign trails into exergue with exergue line sloping downward under horse’s muzzle, ΛΑΡΙΣΑΙ directly below exergue line with ΣΑΙ breaking into that line.
Denomination: Silver Drachm; Mint: Larissa; Date: c. 405/400 BC - c. 370 BC4; Weight: 6.11g; Diameter: 19mm; Die axis: 90ş; References, for example: SNG Cop 126; Herrmann Group VII, Series I, Reverse II, pl. VI, 16 and 19; HGC 4, 434; Lorber - Shahar Group 3 Head Type 14 (O35/R2 - Sp. b, this very coin) = Florilegium Numismaticum Group One Head Type 11 with Reverse 21.2 - Sp. b (this very coin).

Notes:
1Lorber presumes that these letters are “...an abbreviated epithet of the nymph Larissa.” (Lorber Early in FlorNum, p. 261).
2Lorber invites us to interpret this “distinctive gesture” as the nymph “...tossing her ball, an action regularly depicted on trihemiobols and obols of the fifth century.” (Lorber Early in FlorNum, p. 262).
3Lorber understands these letters to be the signature of the mint’s chief engraver, who replaced ΣΙΜΟ. See Lorber Early in FlorNum, p. 261.
4This is the date range provided in Lorber 2008, p. 126.

The city of Larissa was named after the local water nymph, said to be the daughter of Pelasgos. He was said to be the ancestor of the pre-Greek Pelasgians. According to myth Larissa drowned while playing ball on the banks of the Peneios river. (HGC 4 p. 130).

Provenance: Ex Numismatica Ars Classica Auction 29, May 11, 2005, lot 176; Ex Numismatic Fine Arts Auction XXXIII, May 3, 1994, lot 929.

Photo credits: Shanna Schmidt Numismatics

Sources

Herrmann, Fritz. “Die Silbermünzen von Larissa in Thessalien.” Zeitschrift für Numismatik 35 (1925): 1 - 69.
HGC: Hoover, Oliver D. Handbook of Coins of Northern and Central Greece: Achaia Phthiotis, Ainis, Magnesia, Malis, Oita, Perrhaibia, Thessaly, Akarnania, Aitolia, Lokris, Phokis, Boiotia, Euboia, Attica, Megaris, and Corinthia, Sixth to First Centuries BC, The Handbook of Greek Coinage Series, Vol. 4. Lancaster/London: Classical Numismatic Group, Inc, 2014.
Lorber, Catharine C. “The Early Facing Head Drachms of Thessalian Larissa.” In Florilegium Numismaticum: Studia in Honorem U. Westermark Edita. Edited by H. Nilsson. Stockholm: Svenska Numismatiska Föreningen, 1992: 259 - 282.
Lorber, Catharine C. and Shahar C. “The Silver Facing Head Coins of Larissa.” 2005. http://www.lightfigures.com/numismat/larissa/index.php. Note: this website is no longer functional but I printed some of the catalogues in PDF format before the website was completely taken down. I was never able to see any of the images on the website. At the time of my first visit only the PDFs were functional.
Lorber, Catharine C. “Thessalian Hoards and the Coinage of Larissa” in American Journal of Numismatics, second series 20 (2008): 119 - 142.
SNG COP: Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, The Royal Collection of Coins and Medals, Danish National Museum: Thessaly - Illyricum. Copenhagen: Einar Munksgaard, 1943.

1 commentsTracy Aiello
FH-G-046_(0s).jpg
FH-G-04612 views
Syria, Seleukid Kingdom; Antiochus IX Philopator Kyzikenos; Antioch 114-96 BC; Bronze AE18

- Laureate head of bearded Herakles right, round dot border

- BAΣIΛEΩΣ / ANTIOXOY / ΦIΛOΠATΡOΣ
- BASILEWS / ANTIOXOY / FILOPATOROS
- Athena standing left, holding Nike and resting left hand on shield at her side, spear behind her.

5.30gm / 18.31mm / Axis: 0

References:
Hoover 1250
SC 2368
BMC 24
Sear Greece 7172
CSE 344

Notes: Dec 20, 15 - Obverse is high off center but shows decent detail. Reverse is left off centered on a tight flan. Left control marks (if present) are off flan. There appears to be a date mark in exergue, but it is under corrosion and unidentifiable at this point. – Compare to coin found here: http://www.stoa.org/gallery/album266/17_Ant_IX_AE_19?full=1 from The Ruth and Louise McCollum Memorial Collection of Ancient Coin Images (Link courtesy of Mark Lehman)
Jonathan P
5.JPG
Fraction - cheval/volute/bucrane, -100/-6021 viewsArgent, 0,52 g, 11 mm.
A/ Tęte juvénile ŕ droite, grčnetis.
R/ Cheval ŕ droite, esse ou volute dessus, bucrane dessous.
Réfs : Monnaie absente des ouvrages de référence, voir OMNI n°4 (02/2012), p. 21-23, "Les deniers d'argent au cheval, S couché et bucrane, variétés et divisions", J.-L. Mirmand
Gabalor
charles vi france.jpg
FRANCE - CHARLES VI315 viewsRoyal Medieval France, Charles VI, 1380-1422, Billon Blanc Guenar (26mm), aVF, Ciani 507. Obv. + KAROLVS FRANCORV REX, crown of France, with three fleurs de lis. Rev. + SIT NOME DNI BENEDICTV, cross with two lis and two crowns in the angles. The coin is gray, with some light porosity. Legends are about 2/3 to 3/4 present, with some of the letters weak. The images are well struck.dpaul7
henri iv.jpg
FRANCE - HENRI IV159 viewsRoyal France, Henri IV, 1602 (reigned, 1589-1610), AR 1/4 Ecu (27x28mm), F+/VF, similar to Ciani 1517 and Roberts 3263. Obv. + HENRICVS IIII D G FRANC E NAVA REX 1602 (with beginning corss of globe), flowered cross. Rev. + SIT NOMEN DOMINI BENEDICTVM, crowned coat of arms with three fleurs de lis, between II and II. The images are well struck, with some weakness, and a little bit of double striking on the reverse. Henri IV was a protestant during the French Wars of Religion, but became Catholic when he inherited the throne. Henri granted official toleration for protestants through the Eidct of Nantes, but was assassinated.dpaul7
Ambrussum4.jpg
France, Ambrussum, Gallia Narbonensis - Bridge over Vidourle river.730 viewsUsed to have eleven arches and still used untill the middle ages. From this bridge the via Domitia goes upwards to the settlement1 commentsBohemond
Thermes_de_Cluny.jpg
France, Paris, Roman Baths60 viewsThe Roman Baths of Cluny, Paris. Dated to the 3rd century AD, thought to have been paid for by the guild of "Lutetian Boatmen". The complex is now incorporated into the National Museum of the Middle Ages. Photo taken by me in May 2014.Masis
galerius.jpg
Galerius, 305-31119 viewsĆ Follis; 27mm, 9.7g, 12h; Siscia mint, AD 295.
Obv.: MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES; Laureate bust right.
Rev.: GENIO POPVLI ROMANI; Genius holding patera and cornucopiae / B // star SIS.
Reference: RIC VI Siscia 90b (p. 464).
Notes: eBay sale, coin.ages, 3/15/15, 78.
John Anthony
ID0180_Merged.jpg
Gallienus - Doe Left25 viewsObverse:- GALLIENVSAVG, Head right with radiate crown
Reverse:- DIANAECONS[AVG], Doe standing left, looking right
Exergue:- E
RIC 177 GOBL 727b CUNETIO 1365

This is likely to be a rare variation of the left standing doe looking right, where the front legs are in the reversed position to the usual type. This is only example I've personally seen so far. The Left standing Doe is a good deal more uncommon than Right standing Doe the Cunetio lists 37 verses 228, GOBL records 38 verses 227, while La Verena 16 against 128 .

As a note of caution when comparing the figures quoted in the Gobl with those of Cunetio / Verena or other hoards. Some of the examples pictures in Gobl are referenced as coming from these hoards, therefore it is probable that some of these coins were also likely to have been included in his survey figures. Since the total numbers in Gobl clearly don't included all the coins from Cunetio & Verena or other hoards, this "double bubble" comparison could potentially skew the figures (probably making rarer coins seem less rare). That said Gobl's figures are not so far away in terms of percentages from either the Cunetio or Verena hoards & this may well have been a deliberate undertaking by the author.
nogoodnicksleft
after_lr.png
Gallienus Antoninianus RIC 2839 viewsObverse: GALLIENVS AVG, Radiate bust (Sol) with crown.
Reverse: SOLI CONS AVG, Winged horse springing right. 'A' in exergue.

Struck 264-268 A.D. Rome on undersized flan.

Reference:
http://www.lunalucifera.com/Zoo/sol.html#HorseRightImp
http://www.lunalucifera.com/Zoo/Gallienus_Sol_pegasus_1.jpg
http://kevinscoins.ancients.info/rom_imp/pages/gallienus/gal_ant_283.htm
http://www.forumancientcoins.com/gallery/displayimage.php?pos=-82
Charles P4
Gallienus_Roma~0.JPG
Gallienus Roma11 viewsGallienus, AE Antoninianus
Obverse: GALLIENVS P F AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust right
Reverse: ROMAE AETERNAE, Roma seated left on shield, Victory in right, spear in left, star upper left

From Forvm:
I think Archivum nailed it here is what I saw that looked like yours. Göbl 1613g if Draped and Currased ; GALLIENVS AVG, ROMAE
AETERNAE, Radiate draped cuirassed bust, Roma seated left on shield, holding spear right and Victory left. Star in left field.
http://www258.pair.com/denarius/images/erf_ri1993.jpg
Romanorvm
gallienus_164.jpg
Gallienus, Göbl 738b54 viewsGallienus, AD 253-268, sole reign AD 260-268
AR - Antoninianus, 3.10g, 20.51mm, 0°
Rome, after 260
obv. GALLIENVS AVG
Head, radiate, r
rev. APO - LL - INI CONS AVG
Centaur, advancing l., r. fore-foot raised, holding globe in extended r. hand
and rudder over l. shoulder; wave-lines above horse's back
in ex. H
Göbl 738b; RIC V/1, 164; C.73
VF, nice portrait, some damages of the flan edge
Pedigree:
ex Fowler coll.
ex Stacks auction 27. June 1969, lot 659
ex Gerald Gartspein coll.

There are some diffiulties to attribute the item over the l. shoulder! Cohen calls it 'des fleches' (thunderbolt), RIC says 'trophy', but it seems to be a rudder. That would match the wave-lines too!
For more information look at the thread 'Mythological interesting coins'.


1 commentsJochen
D-026-F10846v-c.jpg
Gaston d'Orleans (1627-1650), Jeton - 163612 viewsAtelier de Trévoux
(croix de l'Ordre de St Esprit) GASTON . F . VNI . D . ROY (croix de l'Ordre de St Esprit) VSV . DE . L . SOV . D . DOM Ecu d'Orléans couronné entouré des colliers des ordres du roi
P RINCIPI MIN9 . LICET . QVOD . OIA Le prince armé, debout ŕ gauche du champ et tourné ŕ droite, tenant derričre lui une épée et une balance, accueille un groupe de personnages agenouillés ; ŕ l'exergue : *1636* ("Il est moins permis au prince qu'au peuple")
4.83 gr
Ref : Feuardent # 10846v
Potator II
Coriosolites.JPG
Gaul, Northwest. Coriosolites (57-52 BC)33 viewsBI Stater

5.36 g

Obverse: Celticized head right, hair in large spiral curls, S-like ear; pearl strings flowing around

Reverse: Devolved charioteer driving biga right; ornaments around; below, boar right.

DT 2329; Slg. Flesche - (vgl. 198)

The Coriosolites (one among a number of tribes in the area) inhabited a region called Armorica in what is now northwest France. They were a mixture of Celts who had fled Germanic incursions across the Rhine and the original inhabitants of Armorica, a place where customs and beliefs of the megalithic age still lingered on.

The Coriosolite coinage appears to have constituted a confederate currency, manufactured at the time of the Gallic Wars between 57 BC, the date of the revolt of the Armoricans and 51 BC, the end of the war of the Gauls. For the Armoricans, the war began with invasion by the Roman General Crassus, who subjugated the tribes by fighting each individually and taking hostages. The Celts then formed an alliance to more effectively fight Rome and captured envoys sent by Rome to serve as their own hostages.

Aware of their efforts, Caesar sent three legions under Sabinus who routed the Celts. No more battles were fought in Armorica, but the Armorican resistance continued; some of the population, unwilling to live under Roman rule, banded together and hid in remote areas. Twenty thousand Armoricans (including many Coriosolites) were among the forces that attempted to relieve Vercingetorix at the siege of Alesia in 52 BC.

J.-B. Colbert de Beaulieu defined six classes of Coriosolite coinage. This coin is in Class VI, defined by a nose shaped like a backward 2 on the obverse and, on the reverse, a symbol resembling a ladder on its side in front of a pony with a boar underneath. John Hooker identifies five coin types within Group VI. The coin above is most likely the fifth type (evidenced by the placement of the curl at the bottom of the horse's mane on the reverse). While 1-3 types in Class VI are among the earliest Coriosolite coins (perhaps even preceding the Gallic wars), Hooker asserts that, based on the style of the driver's body on the reverse, types 4 and 5 may have been minted just prior to the forming of the Celtic coalition and capture of the Roman envoys.
1 commentsNathan P
Achaia,_Archean_League,_Argos_AR_Hemidrachm_-_CNG_160__Lot_43.jpg
GREEK, Achaean League, Argos, ca. 175-168 BC, AR Hemidrachm - Agrinion 308291 viewsLaureate head of Zeus right. / Wreath surrounding AX monogram in centre; TK monogram above and Harpa right below.
BCD Peloponnesos 1136 (this coin); Clerk 147; Agrinion 308 (same dies).
(17 mm, 2.47 g, 12h)
ex- BCD Collection; LHS 96, Lot 1136 (8 May 2006); ex- Empire Coins Fixed Price List 76 (September 1995).

One of the more refined images of Zeus on this series of Achaian League emissions, complimented by the slightly oval flan.
3 commentsLloyd T
Taras_2.JPG
GREEK, Italy, Calabria, Taras155 views281-272 BC (Period VII - The Pyrrhic Hegemony)
AR Didrachm (20mm, 6.44g)
Apollo(...) magistrate.
O: Warrior in crested helmet on horse cantering left, carrying large round shield and two spears; ΞΩ behind, [AΠOΛΛΩ] (magistrate) below.
R: Taras (of the plump Dionysiac type) riding dolphin left, holding bunch of grapes in extended right hand, distaff over left shoulder; ANΘ to right, TAPAΣ below.
Vlasto 789-91 / Evans VII, F2 or F6 / Cote 413 / SNG ANS 1131-1133 / HN Italy 1013

This plump rendition of Taras, differing greatly from previous images, is actually meant to represent a young Iacchus, the son of Dionysus and Persephone, and signifies the influence of the chthonic cult of Dionysus upon the religion of Taras.
Enodia
Pontic_Kingdom,_Mithradates_Vi_ATG_Tetradrachm,_Odessos_.jpg
Greek, Mithridates VI (The Great) as Herakles192 viewsPontic Kingdom, Thrace, Odessos, Mithridates VI Megas, 120-63 BC, AR Tetradrachm in the name of Alexander the Great, struck ca. 88-86 BC.
Head of Mithridates VI (the Great) as Herakles, wearing lion's skin headdress / ΒΑΣIΛΕΩΣ ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡOΥ.
(Reverse is of Zeus seated left, legs draped, confronting eagle held on outstretched right arm and grasping lotus-tipped sceptre, ΛAK before, OΔΗ (Odessos ethnic) in exergue.)
Callata˙ Group 3; Price 1192. Odessos ca. 88-86 BC
(30 mm, 16.04 gm, 1h)

This is amongst the last of the coinages in the style of Alexander the Great to be minted. In this final incarnation the portrait of Herakles was adapted to the features of Mithridates VI the Great, to the extent that the image of Herakles is in fact a portrait of Mithridates. Comparison with his portrait on tetradrachms minted in Pontus proves this point.
1 commentsLloyd T
zeus_1.jpg
GREEK, Sicily, Syracuse, 332-317 BC106 viewsSicily, Syracuse 332–317 BC
Obverse: Short haired Zeus facing right, ZEUS ELYTHEIROS in greek script around.
Reverse: Thunderbolt in the field, eagle to the right, SYRAKOSION in greek script around.

Dated according to N.K. Rutter: Greek Coinages of Southern Italy and Sicily, page 168.

Ex. A.H. Baldwin collection.

Bronse hemilitron.
W=14,97g; D=24 mm.
1 commentsKjetilK
zeus_2.jpg
GREEK, Sicily, Syracuse, 344-317 BC164 viewsSicily, Syracuse 344–317 BC
Obverse: Long haired Zeus facing left, ZEUS ELYTHEIROS in greek script around.
Reverse: Horse prancing to the left, SYRAKOSION in greek script around.

Dated according to N.K. Rutter: Greek Coinages of Southern Italy and Sicily, page 169.

Ex. A.H. Baldwin collection.

Bronse litra.
W=18,51g; D=26 mm.
7 commentsKjetilK
ephesos~0.jpg
GREEK. Ephesos AR Tetradrachm. Hecatomnus Hoard (1977).110 viewsCirca 405-390 BC (21mm, 14.95 g, 12h). Aristainetos, magistrate. Hecatomnus 53b (O11/R48 – this coin); SNG Kayhan –; Winterthur 2904 (same obverse die). Obverse: bee with curved wings. Reverse: forepart of stag right, head left; palm tree to left (off flan), APIΣTAINETO[Σ] to right. Toned, VF. Struck on a tight flan.

Ex Hecatomnus Hoard (CH V, 17; CH VIII, 96; and CH IX, 387). Ex CNG Electronic Auction 338, lot 85.

The bee, palm tree and the stag are emblems of Ephesos. This city was an important center of worship of the Greek goddess Artemis, and the images on Ephesian coinage represent her. Ephesos also used the bee on its coins since it was a producer of honey, so the bee advertised their most famous product. The bee was also mythologically connected to Ephesos because, according to Philostratos, the colonizing Athenians were led to Ephesos in Ionia by the Muses who took the form of bees. Ephesos occupied the alluvial plain of the lower Cayster, but it owed its chief wealth and renown less to the produce of its soil than to the illustrious sanctuary of the old Anatolian nature-goddess, whom the Ionian Greeks identified with Artemis, the Goddess of Hunt. It is noteworthy that the high-priest of the temple of Artemis was called Ηεσσην, ‘the king bee,’ while the virgin priestesses bore the name of “melissai” or Honey-Bees. The stag was regarded as sacred to her and stag figures were said to have flanked the cult statue of Artemis in her temple at Ephesos. The palm tree alludes to Artemis’ birthplace, the island of Delos, where the goddess Leto gave birth to Artemis and her twin brother Apollo underneath a palm tree. Therefore, the coin might represent the city’s origin as well.

The earlier type tetradrachmae of Ephesos could be identified by the curved pair of wings of the bee on the obverse side of these coins. It is roughly estimated that a total of about less than a hundred of these tetradrachmae exist as compared to the straight wing bee variant of later emissions, which are believed to be seven to eight times more common than the former. These estimates are based on the findings and studies made after the discoveryof the Hecatomnus and Pixodarus hoards in 1977 and 1978, respectively. Prior to their discovery, there were only about 35 of these curved wing tetradrachmae recorded in existence.
1 commentsJason T
Portus_Claaudii-2.jpg
HARBOUR, NERO, AE Sestertius (Portus Claudii)140 viewsĆ sestertius (22.54g, maximum Ř34.24mm, 6h), Lugdunum mint, struck AD 66.
Obv.: IMP NERO CAESAR AVG P MAX TR P P P, laureate head of Nero right, globe below tip of bust.
Rev.: PORT AVG (below) S C (above), aerial view of the harbour of Ostia, showing pier, breakwaters, lighthouse surmounted by the statue of Neptune, seven ships, and the figure of Tiber reclining left in foreground, holding rudder and dolphin.
Mac Dowall (The western Coinages of Nero, ANS SSN 161) 476; RIC 586 (R2); BMCRE 323 var. (different obv. legend); Cohen 253 var. (emperor's head to left); CBN 74 var. (different obv. legend); Sear (RCV) 1953var.

Rome's original harbour was Ostia, situated at the mouth of the Tiber. It could not easily handle large sea-going vessels such as those of the grain fleet. Therefore, Claudius initiated the construction of a new all-weather harboru at Portus, about 4 km north of Ostia. The project was completed under Nero who renamed the harbour "Portus Augusti".

It was a huge project enclosing an area of 69 hectares, with two long curving moles projecting into the sea, and an artificial island, bearing a lighthouse, in the centre of the space between the moles. The foundation of this lighthouse was provided by filling with concrete and sinking one of the massive ships that Caligula had used to transport an obelisk from Egypt for the Circus Maximus. These giant ships had a length of around 100m and displaced a minimum of 7400 tons. The harbour opened directly to the sea on the northwest and communicated with the Tiber by a channel on the southeast. However, it was very exposed to the weather and under Trajan was superseded by a new land-locked inner basin linked to the Tiber by a canal.
3 commentsCharles S
JCT_Hebrew_Kindergarten_C.JPG
Hebrew Kindergarten & Infants Home (New York , N.Y. & Far Rockaway, Queens County, N.Y.)88 viewsAE token, 32.5 mm., undated.

Obv: HEBREW KINDERGARTEN & INFANTS HOME and 35 & 37 MONTGOMERY ST. N.Y.C./CENTRAL & PLAINVIEW AVES. FAR ROCKAWAY, along toothed rim, bust of boy facing within laureate wreath in center.

Rev: HAVE A HEART/HELP THE/ORPHANS/ -- AND --/GOD WILL/HELP YOU, within laureate wreath, GOOD LUCK COIN along toothed rim, beneath.

Ref: Kaplan, Steven H.. “Great Appeal, Kindergarten Tokens Asked for Support,” The Shekel, XLIV No. 1 (January-February 2011) 49-53, Figure 3 (this token).

Note: The Hebrew Kindergarten and Day Nursery Association was established in 1905 at 29 Montgomery Street as a nursery for the care of children of working mothers. It purchased 35 and 37 Montgomery Street in 1913 for the construction of a three-story building, which was dedicated in May 1914. In November 1918, it opened a ward for children whose mothers had influenza, and also began to care for children whose mothers had died during the epidemic. By then, there had already been a fund drive in August 1918 to raise $50,000 for an orphanage at Far Rockaway, and another fund drive, to raise $100,000 for the completion of its new building. It was then known as the Hebrew Kindergarten, Day and Night Nursery. It formally changed its name to Hebrew Kindergarten & Infants Home, Inc. in August 1925, although it was apparently using that name as early as 1923. Its infant home in Far Rockaway was at the intersection of Plainview Avenue and Central Avenue/Beach 20th Street, and an address of both 310 Central Avenue and 310 Beach 20th Street. It still operates an early childhood program/day care program for ages pre-kindergarten through kindergarten on a nonsectarian basis at that location.

Note: Three different fundraising tokens were issued, all of which contain the address of the day school on Montgomery Street as well as the addresses of the orphanage on Plainview Avenue and Central Avenue, in Far Rockaway. The most common of the three tokens was apparently issued in connection with the August 1923 fund drive for the completion of that building, and this token was apparently issued at a later date in connection with a lesser fund drive.
Stkp
JCT_Hebrew_Kindergarten_B.JPG
Hebrew Kindergarten & Infants Home (New York , N.Y. & Far Rockaway, Queens County, N.Y.)111 viewsAE token, 32.5 mm., undated.

Obv: HEBREW KINDERGARTEN & INFANTS HOME and 35 & 37 MONTGOMERY ST. N.Y.C./CENTRAL & PLAINVIEW AVES. FAR ROCKAWAY, along toothed rim, bust of boy facing within laureate wreath in center.

Rev: HAVE A HEART/HELP THE/ORPHANS/ -- AND --/GOD WILL/HELP YOU, within laureate wreath, GOOD LUCK COIN along toothed rim, beneath.

Ref: Kaplan, Steven H.. “Great Appeal, Kindergarten Tokens Asked for Support,” The Shekel, XLIV No. 1 (January-February 2011) 49-53, Figure 2 (this token).

Note: The Hebrew Kindergarten and Day Nursery Association was established in 1905 at 29 Montgomery Street as a nursery for the care of children of working mothers. It purchased 35 and 37 Montgomery Street in 1913 for the construction of a three-story building, which was dedicated in May 1914. In November 1918, it opened a ward for children whose mothers had influenza, and also began to care for children whose mothers had died during the epidemic. By then, there had already been a fund drive in August 1918 to raise $50,000 for an orphanage at Far Rockaway, and another fund drive, to raise $100,000 for the completion of its new building. It was then known as the Hebrew Kindergarten, Day and Night Nursery. It formally changed its name to Hebrew Kindergarten & Infants Home, Inc. in August 1925, although it was apparently using that name as early as 1923. Its infant home in Far Rockaway was at the intersection of Plainview Avenue and Central Avenue/Beach 20th Street, and an address of both 310 Central Avenue and 310 Beach 20th Street. It still operates an early childhood program/day care program for ages pre-kindergarten through kindergarten on a nonsectarian basis at that location.

Note: Three different fundraising tokens were issued, all of which contain the address of the day school on Montgomery Street as well as the addresses of the orphanage on Plainview Avenue and Central Avenue, in Far Rockaway. The most common of the three tokens was apparently issued in connection with the August 1923 fund drive for the completion of that building, and this token was apparently issued at a later date in connection with a lesser fund drive.
Stkp
JCT_Hebrew_Kindergarten_A.JPG
Hebrew Kindergarten & Infants Home (New York , N.Y. & Far Rockaway, Queens County, N.Y.)85 viewsAE token, 32.5 mm., undated (probably ca. 1923).

Obv: HEBREW KINDERGARTEN & INFANTS HOME and 35 & 37 MONTGOMERY ST. N.Y.C./CENTRAL & PLAINVIEW AVES. FAR ROCKAWAY, along toothed rim, girl standing with outstretched arms within solid laureate wreath in center.

Rev: HAVE A HEART/HELP THE/ORPHANS/ -- AND --/GOD WILL/HELP YOU, within solid laureate wreath, GOOD LUCK COIN along toothed rim, beneath.

Ref: Kaplan, Steven H.. “Great Appeal, Kindergarten Tokens Asked for Support,” The Shekel, XLIV No. 1 (January-February 2011) 49-53, Figure 1 (this token); Meshorer, Coins Reveal 144.

Note: The Hebrew Kindergarten and Day Nursery Association was established in 1905 at 29 Montgomery Street as a nursery for the care of children of working mothers. It purchased 35 and 37 Montgomery Street in 1913 for the construction of a three-story building, which was dedicated in May 1914. In November 1918, it opened a ward for children whose mothers had influenza, and also began to care for children whose mothers had died during the epidemic. By then, there had already been a fund drive in August 1918 to raise $50,000 for an orphanage at Far Rockaway, and another fund drive, to raise $100,000 for the completion of its new building. It was then known as the Hebrew Kindergarten, Day and Night Nursery. It formally changed its name to Hebrew Kindergarten & Infants Home, Inc. in August 1925, although it was apparently using that name as early as 1923. Its infant home in Far Rockaway was at the intersection of Plainview Avenue and Central Avenue/Beach 20th Street, and an address of both 310 Central Avenue and 310 Beach 20th Street. It still operates an early childhood program/day care program for ages pre-kindergarten through kindergarten on a nonsectarian basis at that location.
Note: Three different fundraising tokens were issued, all of which contain the address of the day school on Montgomery Street as well as the addresses of the orphanage on Plainview Avenue and Central Avenue, in Far Rockaway. This is the most common of the three tokens, and apparently issued in connection with the August 1923 fund drive for the completion of that building.
Stkp
HUN_Laszlo_I_Huszar_25.jpg
Huszár 25; Tóth-Kiss 10.5 sigla b1.5/6; Unger 20; Réthy I 31; Frynas H.8.6; Adamovszky A36; Kovács pp. 146-14740 viewsHungary. László/Ladislaus I (1077-1095; canonized 1192)

AR denar (average .62 g, 18-21 mm.); .53 g. 19.52 mm. max.

Obv: + LAD-ISL-AVS-REX (retrograde letters S), Long cross with small cross at each end, small cross in each angle.

Rev: [+ LADISCLAVS RE, cross with wedges in each angle], but obliterated by mirror image from obverse due to thin flan.

Struck 1083-1089 (per Gyöngyössy, whose dating has not been accepted by later catalogers and appears to be speculative) in Esztergom/Gram

Huszár rarity 8, Toth-Kiss rarity 120, Unger 35, Frynas rarity N.

Explanation of minting process resulting in reverse mirror image courtesy of József Géza Kiss (http://www.forumancientcoins.com/board/index.php?topic=114019.msg697671#msg697671 2/26/18 messages)
2 commentsStkp
HUN_Karoly_Huszar_495_Pohl_52-10.JPG
Huszár 495, Pohl 52-10, Unger 393i, Réthy II 1878 viewsHungary. Charles Robert (Károly Róbert, in Hun.) (1307-1342). AR denar, 15 mm.

Obv: REGIS • KAROLI, Crowned half-length portrait facing with scepter and imperial orb

Rev: + • M • REGIS • hVNGARIE, Shield with Árpádian stripes and Anjevin lilies, m-m to left and right.

Issued in 1338 (per Pohl, Huszár and Unger) with a nominal weight of 0.6687 g. (per Pohl). This privy mark was issued in Felsőbánya, known as Mons Medium in the Middle Ages (now Baia-Sprie, Romania) by Martinus (Forsinych?) (per Pohl).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 5.
Stkp
HUN_Zsigmund_Huszar_578_Pohl_118-9_#2.jpg
Huszár 578, Pohl 118-9, Unger 450c, Réthy II 124A, Fryas H.27.6 # 2 54 viewsHungary. Sigismund/Zsigmond of Luxembourg (1387-1437; Holy Roman Emperor 1433-1437).

AR denar (nominal fineness 0.540 AR; average weight 0.77 g.), .72 g., 16.12 mm. max., 90°.

Obv: mO•n • SIG—ISmVnDI, Patriarchal cross, K—L (privy mark) between arms.

Rev: + REGI[S] • VnGARIE ETC, Shield with Árpádian stripes.

The type was struck in 1427-1437. This privy mark was struck in 1436 in Kremnitz/Körmöcbánya, now Kremnica, Slovakia, by Leonardo Bardi-Noffry, kammergraf, or Petrus Lang, kammergraf.

Huszár/Pohl rarity 4, Unger value 6 DM, Frynas rarity C. The descriptions and depictions vary amongst the references with respect to the presence or absence of a cross on the reverse and the placement of pellets in the legends. This is a variation that is neither described nor depicted in any of the references, in that there is not a pellet between the ET and the C on the reverse.

This emission was struck with a nominal fineness of 0.540 silver and an average weight of 0.77 g., which is the same fineness and weight as its predecessor (per Huszár). However, Engel notes that Sigismund introduced this emission as a monetary reform, to address the deterioration in value of that earlier emission. The new emission, then called the “new greater money,” had the value of 100 to the aranyforint, and maintained its value until Sigismund’s death. In 1387, the bishop of Transylvania, who had long been reluctant to collect the tithe due to the poor quality of the coinage, demanded that all arrears be paid – and in this new currency. The result was a peasant revolt!

“Owing to inner strife and disordered general conditions, the coins [of this period] were usually minted with extremely low precious metal content; moreover, poor mintages were often struck with negligently engraved dies. As a result of the hurried, superficial minting, it was sometimes doubtful whether a faulty coin had been issued officially, or was a forgery” (Huszár 1963, at 15).
Stkp
HUN_Zsigmond_Huszar_580_Pohl_119-1.jpg
Huszár 580, Pohl 119-1, Unger 451a, Réthy II 125A46 viewsHungary. Sigismund (Zsigmond, in Hun.) of Luxembourg (1387-1437; Holy Roman Emperor 1433-1437). AR parvus, .29 g., 11.62 mm. max.

Obv: Four-part shield (Árpádian stripes and eagle), S—V—R above and flanking.

Rev: Cross with four crowns between its arms.

The type was struck in 1387-1427 (per Pohl, Huszár & Unger, although this emission terminated in 1410 per Engel).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 4.

The parvus (also called the “small denar” fillér or pankart) was struck with an average nominal fineness of 0.353 silver. Because of many worn out and counterfeit coins it was pulled from circulation after 1427 (per Huszár). Although not specifically discussed in this context in Engel, the parvus must have experienced the same rampant debasement as the denar did.

“Owing to inner strife and disordered general conditions, the coins [of this period] were usually minted with extremely low precious metal content; moreover, poor mintages were often struck with negligently engraved dies. As a result of the hurried, superficial minting, it was sometimes doubtful whether a faulty coin had been issued officially, or was a forgery” (Huszár 1963, at 15).

This emission is typically struck on a small flan. This coin is unusually well struck for the type.
Stkp
HUN_Zsigmond_Huszar_580_Pohl_119-14.JPG
Huszár 580, Pohl 119-14, Unger 451u, Réthy II 125A55 viewsHungary. Sigismund (Zsigmond, in Hun.) of Luxembourg (1387-1437; Holy Roman Emperor 1433-1437). AR parvus, 10 mm.

Obv: Four-part shield (Árpádian stripes and eagle), S—V—R above and flanking, o to the left of the S (privy mark).

Rev: Cross with four crowns between its arms.

The type was struck in 1387-1427 (per Pohl, Huszár & Unger, although this emission terminated in 1410 per Engel) at Offenbánya (now, Baia de Arieș, Romania) (per Pohl).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 4.

The parvus (also called the “small denar” fillér or pankart) was struck with an average nominal fineness of 0.353 silver. Because of many worn out and counterfeit coins it was pulled from circulation after 1427 (per Huszár). Although not specifically discussed in this context in Engel, the parvus must have experienced the same rampant debasement as the denar did.

“Owing to inner strife and disordered general conditions, the coins [of this period] were usually minted with extremely low precious metal content; moreover, poor mintages were often struck with negligently engraved dies. As a result of the hurried, superficial minting, it was sometimes doubtful whether a faulty coin had been issued officially, or was a forgery” (Huszár 1963, at 15). This emission is typically struck on a small flan.
Stkp
HUN_Zsigmond_Huszar_580_Pohl_119-46.JPG
Huszár 580, Pohl 119-46, Unger 451ζ, Réthy II 125A57 viewsHungary. Sigismund (Zsigmond, in Hun.) of Luxembourg (1387-1437; Holy Roman Emperor 1433-1437). AR parvus, 10 mm.

Obv: Four-part shield (Árpádian stripes and eagle), S—V—R above and flanking, I-C flanking the S (privy mark).

Rev: Cross with four crowns between its arms.

The type was struck in 1387-1427 (per Pohl, Huszár & Unger, although this emission terminated in 1410 per Engel). This privy mark was struck at Kassa (now, Košice, Slovakia) by Jacobus and Christianus before 1410 (per Pohl), who also states that they were joint kammergraffen at Kassa under Maria from 1385-1387, suggesting that this coin was struck early in Sigismund’s reign.

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 4.

The parvus (also called the “small denar” fillér or pankart) was struck with an average nominal fineness of 0.353 silver. Because of many worn out and counterfeit coins it was pulled from circulation after 1427 (per Huszár). Although not specifically discussed in this context in Engel, the parvus must have experienced the same rampant debasement as the denar did.

“Owing to inner strife and disordered general conditions, the coins [of this period] were usually minted with extremely low precious metal content; moreover, poor mintages were often struck with negligently engraved dies. As a result of the hurried, superficial minting, it was sometimes doubtful whether a faulty coin had been issued officially, or was a forgery” (Huszár 1963, at 15). This emission is typically struck on a small flan.
Stkp
HUN_Zsigmond_Huszar_580_Pohl_119-58.jpg
Huszár 580, Pohl 119-58, Unger 451gg, Réthy II 125A25 viewsHungary. Sigismund (Zsigmond, in Hun.) of Luxembourg (1387-1437; Holy Roman Emperor 1433-1437). AR parvus, .29 g., 9.77 mm. max.

Obv: Four-part shield (Árpádian stripes and eagle), S—V—R above and flanking.

Rev: Cross with four crowns between its arms, r-B (privy mark) flanking the S.

The type was struck in 1387-1427 (per Pohl, Huszár & Unger, although this emission terminated in 1410 per Engel).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 4.

The parvus (also called the “small denar” fillér or pankart) was struck with an average nominal fineness of 0.353 silver. Because of many worn out and counterfeit coins it was pulled from circulation after 1427 (per Huszár). Although not specifically discussed in this context in Engel, the parvus must have experienced the same rampant debasement as the denar did.

“Owing to inner strife and disordered general conditions, the coins [of this period] were usually minted with extremely low precious metal content; moreover, poor mintages were often struck with negligently engraved dies. As a result of the hurried, superficial minting, it was sometimes doubtful whether a faulty coin had been issued officially, or was a forgery” (Huszár 1963, at 15).

This emission is typically struck on a small flan.
Stkp
HUN_Zsigmond_Huszar_580_Pohl_119-29_2.JPG
Huszár 580, Pohl 119-72, Unger 451ll, Réthy II 125A53 viewsHungary. Sigismund (Zsigmond, in Hun.) of Luxembourg (1387-1437; Holy Roman Emperor 1433-1437). AR parvus, 8x10 mm.

Obv: Four-part shield (Árpádian stripes and eagle), S—V—R above and flanking, symbols to the left and right of the S (privy mark).

Rev: Cross with four crowns between its arms.

The type was struck in 1387-1427 (per Pohl, Huszár & Unger, although this emission terminated in 1410 per Engel). This privy mark was struck in Buda (now Budapest) by Onofrio Bardi, kammergraf, from 1418-1424 (per Pohl).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 4.

The parvus (also called the “small denar” fillér or pankart) was struck with an average nominal fineness of 0.353 silver. Because of many worn out and counterfeit coins it was pulled from circulation after 1427 (per Huszár). Although not specifically discussed in this context in Engel, the parvus must have experienced the same rampant debasement as the denar did.

“Owing to inner strife and disordered general conditions, the coins [of this period] were usually minted with extremely low precious metal content; moreover, poor mintages were often struck with negligently engraved dies. As a result of the hurried, superficial minting, it was sometimes doubtful whether a faulty coin had been issued officially, or was a forgery” (Huszár 1963, at 15). This emission is typically struck on a small flan.
Stkp
HUN_Zsigmond_Huszar_580_Pohl_119-8_2.JPG
Huszár 580, Pohl 119-8.2, Unger 451o, Réthy II 125A51 viewsHungary. Sigismund (Zsigmond, in Hun.) of Luxembourg (1387-1437; Holy Roman Emperor 1433-1437). AR parvus, 10 mm.

Obv: Four-part shield (Árpádian stripes and eagle), S—V—R above and flanking, h to the right of the S (privy mark).

Rev: Cross with four crowns between its arms.

The type was struck in 1387-1427 (per Pohl, Huszár & Unger, although this emission terminated in 1410 per Engel) at Nagyszeben, in Transylvania (Hermannstadt, in German, which is why the privy mark is an ‘h”; now, Sibiu, Romania) (per Pohl).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 4.

The parvus (also called the “small denar” fillér or pankart) was struck with an average nominal fineness of 0.353 silver. Because of many worn out and counterfeit coins it was pulled from circulation after 1427 (per Huszár). Although not specifically discussed in this context in Engel, the parvus must have experienced the same rampant debasement as the denar did.

“Owing to inner strife and disordered general conditions, the coins [of this period] were usually minted with extremely low precious metal content; moreover, poor mintages were often struck with negligently engraved dies. As a result of the hurried, superficial minting, it was sometimes doubtful whether a faulty coin had been issued officially, or was a forgery” (Huszár 1963, at 15). This emission is typically struck on a small flan.
Stkp
HUN_Zsigmond_Huszar_581_2.JPG
Huszár 581, Pohl 120, Unger 453, Réthy II 125B67 viewsHungary. Sigismund (Zsigmond, in Hun.) of Luxembourg (1387-1437; Holy Roman Emperor 1433-1437). AR parvus, 11-12 mm.

Obv: Four-part shield (Árpádian stripes and eagle), S—[V—R] above and flanking.

Rev: Cross with M and three crowns between its arms.

The type was struck in 1404-1405 (per Pohl, Huszár & Unger) in Buda (now Budapest) by Markus von Nürnberg, oberkammergraf (per Pohl).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 5.

The parvus (also called the “small denar” fillér or pankart) was struck with an average nominal fineness of 0.353 silver. Because of many worn out and counterfeit coins it was pulled from circulation after 1427 (per Huszár). Although not specifically discussed in this context in Engel, the parvus must have experienced the same rampant debasement as the denar did.

“Owing to inner strife and disordered general conditions, the coins [of this period] were usually minted with extremely low precious metal content; moreover, poor mintages were often struck with negligently engraved dies. As a result of the hurried, superficial minting, it was sometimes doubtful whether a faulty coin had been issued officially, or was a forgery” (Huszár 1963, at 15).
Stkp
HUN_Zsigmund_Huszar_586,_Pohl_124-__2.JPG
Huszár 586, Pohl 124- , Unger 456 , Réthy II 129 102 viewsHungary. Sigismund (Zsigmond in Hun.) of Luxemburg (1387-1437; Holy Roman Emperor 1433-1437). Billon quarting, 12-13 mm.

Obv: Patriarchal cross, I–symbol (privy mark) in central fields.

Rev: Crown

The type was struck in 1430-1437 (per Pohl, Huszár & Unger). This privy mark was struck in Pozsony (now Bratislava, Slovakia) (per Pohl), known as Istropolis in the middle ages (hence the I in the mark), but the precise combination of marks is unlisted.

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 3. This privy mark is unrecorded.

“Owing to inner strife and disordered general conditions, the coins [of this period] were usually minted with extremely low precious metal content; moreover, poor mintages were often struck with negligently engraved dies. As a result of the hurried, superficial minting, it was sometimes doubtful whether a faulty coin had been issued officially, or was a forgery” (Huszár 1963, at 15).

The quarting (also known as the fryling and as a moneta minor) was originally worth a quarter of a denar, but it “soon fell victim to the manipulations of the treasury. Its fineness decreased at such a rate that soon it contained almost nothing but copper. The result was economic anarchy. Trust in these silver coins was irreparably damaged, and, although the government officially devalued the quarting several times, its market value fell even more drastically. In the last years of Sigismund’s reign, 6,000 to 8,000 quartings were equivalent to one florin instead of the original 400” (Engel, 223-224)
Stkp
HUN_Zsigmund_quarting_Huszár_586_Pohl_124-44.jpg
Huszár 586, Pohl 124-44, Unger 456h, Réthy II 129, Frynas H.27.1428 viewsHungary. Sigismund/Zsigmond of Luxembourg (1387-1437; Holy Roman Emperor 1433-1437)

Billon quarting, .47 g., 13.19 mm. max., 180°

Obv: Patriarchal cross, n--n in central fields.

Rev: Crown

The type was struck in 1430-1437 (per Pohl, Huszár, Unger and Frynas). This privy mark was struck in Nagybánya/now Baia Mare, Romania, under a collective authority (per Pohl).

Huszár/Pohl rarity 3; Frynas rarity C.

“Owing to inner strife and disordered general conditions, the coins [of this period] were usually minted with extremely low precious metal content; moreover, poor mintages were often struck with negligently engraved dies. As a result of the hurried, superficial minting, it was sometimes doubtful whether a faulty coin had been issued officially, or was a forgery” (Huszár 1963, at 15).

The quarting (also known as the fryling and as a moneta minor) was originally worth a quarter of a denar, but it “soon fell victim to the manipulations of the treasury. Its fineness decreased at such a rate that soon it contained almost nothing but copper. The result was economic anarchy. Trust in these silver coins was irreparably damaged, and, although the government officially devalued the quarting several times, its market value fell even more drastically. In the last years of Sigismund’s reign, 6,000 to 8,000 quartings were equivalent to one florin instead of the original 400” (Engel, at 223-224).
1 commentsStkp
HUN_Zsigmund_Huszar_586_Pohl_124-55.JPG
Huszár 586, Pohl 124-55, Unger 456hh, Réthy II 129 50 viewsHungary. Sigismund (Zsigmond in Hun.) of Luxemburg (1387-1437; Holy Roman Emperor 1433-1437). Billon quarting, 13 mm.

Obv: Patriarchal cross, S–P (privy mark) in central fields.

Rev: Crown

The type was struck in 1430-1437 (per Pohl, Huszár & Unger). This privy mark was struck in Segesvár, Transylvania (now Sighișoara, Romania) (per Pohl).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 3. This specimen is of a better strike than many.

“Owing to inner strife and disordered general conditions, the coins [of this period] were usually minted with extremely low precious metal content; moreover, poor mintages were often struck with negligently engraved dies. As a result of the hurried, superficial minting, it was sometimes doubtful whether a faulty coin had been issued officially, or was a forgery” (Huszár 1963, at 15).

The quarting (also known as the fryling and as a moneta minor) was originally worth a quarter of a denar, but it “soon fell victim to the manipulations of the treasury. Its fineness decreased at such a rate that soon it contained almost nothing but copper. The result was economic anarchy. Trust in these silver coins was irreparably damaged, and, although the government officially devalued the quarting several times, its market value fell even more drastically. In the last years of Sigismund’s reign, 6,000 to 8,000 quartings were equivalent to one florin instead of the original 400” (Engel, 223-224).
Stkp
HUN_Zsigmund_quarting_Huszár_586_Pohl_124-9.jpg
Huszár 586, Pohl 124-9, Unger 456v, Réthy II 129, Frynas H.27.1422 viewsHungary. Sigismund/Zsigmond of Luxembourg (1387-1437; Holy Roman Emperor 1433-1437)

Billon quarting, .50 g., 14.21 mm. max., 90°

Obv: Patriarchal cross, A--n in central fields.

Rev: Crown

The type was struck in 1430-1437 (per Pohl, Huszár, Unger and Frynas). This privy mark was struck in Székesfehérvár (per Poh).

Huszár/Pohl rarity 3; Frynas rarity C.

“Owing to inner strife and disordered general conditions, the coins [of this period] were usually minted with extremely low precious metal content; moreover, poor mintages were often struck with negligently engraved dies. As a result of the hurried, superficial minting, it was sometimes doubtful whether a faulty coin had been issued officially, or was a forgery” (Huszár 1963, at 15).

The quarting (also known as the fryling and as a moneta minor) was originally worth a quarter of a denar, but it “soon fell victim to the manipulations of the treasury. Its fineness decreased at such a rate that soon it contained almost nothing but copper. The result was economic anarchy. Trust in these silver coins was irreparably damaged, and, although the government officially devalued the quarting several times, its market value fell even more drastically. In the last years of Sigismund’s reign, 6,000 to 8,000 quartings were equivalent to one florin instead of the original 400” (Engel, at 223-224).
Stkp
HUN_Zsigmund_quarting_Huszár_586_Pohl_124-__Unger_456__2.jpg
Huszár 586, Pohl 124-_, Unger 456_, Réthy II 129, Frynas H.27.1419 viewsHungary. Sigismund/Zsigmond of Luxembourg (1387-1437; Holy Roman Emperor 1433-1437)

Billon quarting, .31 g., 12.56 mm. max., 0°

Obv: Patriarchal cross, P--uncertain privy mark in central fields.

Rev: Crown

The type was struck in 1430-1437 (per Pohl, Huszár, Unger and Frynas). This privy mark was struck in Kassa (now Košice, Slovakia) (per Pohl & Huszár). This privy mark is not listed in Pohl, Huszár and Unger.

Huszár/Pohl rarity 3; Frynas rarity C.

“Owing to inner strife and disordered general conditions, the coins [of this period] were usually minted with extremely low precious metal content; moreover, poor mintages were often struck with negligently engraved dies. As a result of the hurried, superficial minting, it was sometimes doubtful whether a faulty coin had been issued officially, or was a forgery” (Huszár 1963, at 15).

The quarting (also known as the fryling and as a moneta minor) was originally worth a quarter of a denar, but it “soon fell victim to the manipulations of the treasury. Its fineness decreased at such a rate that soon it contained almost nothing but copper. The result was economic anarchy. Trust in these silver coins was irreparably damaged, and, although the government officially devalued the quarting several times, its market value fell even more drastically. In the last years of Sigismund’s reign, 6,000 to 8,000 quartings were equivalent to one florin instead of the original 400” (Engel, at 223-224).
Stkp
HUN_Zsigmund_quarting_Huszár_586_Pohl_124-__Unger_456_.jpg
Huszár 586, Pohl 124-_, Unger 456_, Réthy II 129, Frynas H.27.1427 viewsHungary. Sigismund/Zsigmond of Luxembourg (1387-1437; Holy Roman Emperor 1433-1437)

Billon quarting, .48 g., 12.54 mm. max., 270°

Obv: Patriarchal cross, uncertain privy mark in central fields.

Rev: Crown

The type was struck in 1430-1437 (per Pohl, Huszár, Unger and Frynas). This privy mark was struck in Kassa (now Košice, Slovakia) (per Pohl & Huszár). This privy mark is not listed in Pohl, Huszár and Unger.

Huszár/Pohl rarity 3; Frynas rarity C.

“Owing to inner strife and disordered general conditions, the coins [of this period] were usually minted with extremely low precious metal content; moreover, poor mintages were often struck with negligently engraved dies. As a result of the hurried, superficial minting, it was sometimes doubtful whether a faulty coin had been issued officially, or was a forgery” (Huszár 1963, at 15).

The quarting (also known as the fryling and as a moneta minor) was originally worth a quarter of a denar, but it “soon fell victim to the manipulations of the treasury. Its fineness decreased at such a rate that soon it contained almost nothing but copper. The result was economic anarchy. Trust in these silver coins was irreparably damaged, and, although the government officially devalued the quarting several times, its market value fell even more drastically. In the last years of Sigismund’s reign, 6,000 to 8,000 quartings were equivalent to one florin instead of the original 400” (Engel, at 223-224).
1 commentsStkp
HUN_Ulaszlo_I_Huszar_598_Pohl_135-20.jpg
Huszár 598, Pohl 135-20, Unger 469v, Réthy II 449A, Frynas H.30.2.30 viewsHungary. Wladislaus/Ulászló I (1440-1444).

Billon denar,, .43 g., 13.29 mm. max., 0°.

Obv: M ...DISL-..., Patriarchal cross, retrograde P-W (privy mark) in fields.

Rev: Central cross surrounded by three shields bearing (in clockwise order) Lithuanian rider, Árpádian stripes and Polish eagle, all within border.

Type struck in 1440 (per Huszár) or 1440-1441 (per Pohl, Unger, Gyöngyössy & Frynas). Privy mark struck in Pécs in 1441 (per Pohl).

“Owing to inner strife and disordered general conditions, the coins [of this period] were usually minted with extremely low precious metal content; moreover, poor mintages were often struck with negligently engraved dies. As a result of the hurried, superficial minting, it was sometimes doubtful whether a faulty coin had been issued officially, or was a forgery” (Huszár 1963).

Huszár/Pohl 4, Unger value 20 DM, Frynas rarity N.
Stkp
HUN_Ulaszlo_I_Huszar_598_Pohl_135-5.jpg
Huszár 598, Pohl 135-5, Unger 469e, Réthy II 449A, Frynas H.30.2.24 viewsHungary. Wladislaus/Ulászló I (1440-1444)

Billon denar, .45 g., 14.02 mm. max., 0°.

Obv: MWL[ADI]S[-L]AI[REGI]S, Patriarchal cross, retrograde D/retrogradeC–n (privy mark) in fields.

Rev: Central cross surrounded by three shields bearing (in clockwise order) Lithuanian rider, Árpádian stripes and Polish eagle, all within border.

Type struck in 1440 (per Huszár) or 1440-1441 (per Pohl, Unger, Gyöngyössy & Frynas). Privy mark struck in Kronstadt/Brassó (Corona in Middle Ages; now Braşov, Romania) in 1440 (per Pohl).

“Owing to inner strife and disordered general conditions, the coins [of this period] were usually minted with extremely low precious metal content; moreover, poor mintages were often struck with negligently engraved dies. As a result of the hurried, superficial minting, it was sometimes doubtful whether a faulty coin had been issued officially, or was a forgery” (Huszár 1963).

Huszár/Pohl 4, Unger value 20 DM, Frynas rarity N.
Stkp
HUN_Ulaszlo_I_Huszar_605_Pohl_141-2.png
Huszár 605, Pohl 141-2 Unger 470b, Réthy II 14178 viewsHungary. Wladislaus I (Ulászló in Hun.) (1440-1444). Billon denar, .1.03 g., 18.61 mm. max., 0°

Obv: * MOnETA • [WLADISL]AI • DEI, Polish eagle facing left

Rev: [* REG]IS • VnGARIE • ET • C . . ., Crowned shield w/ Árpádian stripes & patriarchal cross, A-G flanking

The type was struck in 1442 (per Pohl, Huszár & Unger). This privy mark was struck in Alsólendva (now, Lendava, Slovenia) (per Pohl).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 5.

“Owing to inner strife and disordered general conditions, the coins [of this period] were usually minted with extremely low precious metal content; moreover, poor mintages were often struck with negligently engraved dies. As a result of the hurried, superficial minting, it was sometimes doubtful whether a faulty coin had been issued officially, or was a forgery” (Huszár 1963).
Stkp
HUN_Ulaszlo_I_Huszar_607_Pohl_145-1.png
Huszár 607, Pohl 145-1, Unger 472a, Réthy II 145A 73 viewsHungary. Wladislaus I (Ulászló in Hun.) (1440-1444). Billon denar, .69 g., 13.58 mm. max., 0°

Obv: [M W]LADISL]AI . . ., Crowned shield w/ Árpádian stripes & patriarchal cross

Rev: + REGIS V[nGARIE EC], Shield with Lithuanian charging knight

The type was struck in 1443 (per Huszár & Pohl) or 1442-1443 (per Unger).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 5.

“Owing to inner strife and disordered general conditions, the coins [of this period] were usually minted with extremely low precious metal content; moreover, poor mintages were often struck with negligently engraved dies. As a result of the hurried, superficial minting, it was sometimes doubtful whether a faulty coin had been issued officially, or was a forgery” (Huszár 1963).
Stkp
HUN_Ulaszlo_I_Huszar_607_Pohl_145-25.JPG
Huszár 607, Pohl 145-25, Unger 472z, Réthy II 145A 110 viewsHungary. Wladislaus I (Ulászló in Hun.) (1440-1444). Billon denar, 15 mm.

Obv: [M WLA]DISLAI • DEI, Crowned shield (Árpádian stripes and patriarchal cross), W–O (privy mark) in fields.

Rev: [+ R]EGIS VnGARIE EC, Shield with Lithuanian charging knight.

The type was struck in 1443 (per Huszár & Pohl) or 1442-1443 (per Unger). This privy mark was struck in Veszprém (per Pohl).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 5.

“Owing to inner strife and disordered general conditions, the coins [of this period] were usually minted with extremely low precious metal content; moreover, poor mintages were often struck with negligently engraved dies. As a result of the hurried, superficial minting, it was sometimes doubtful whether a faulty coin had been issued officially, or was a forgery” (Huszár 1963).
Stkp
HUN_Ulaszlo_I_Huszar_609_Pohl_147-1.jpg
Huszár 609, Pohl 147-1, Unger 475a, Réthy II 143B48 viewsHungary. Wladislaus I (Ulászló in Hun.) (1440-1444). Billon denar, .66 g., 17.51 mm., 0°

Obv: + MOnETA • WLADISLAI DEI, Polish eagle.

Rev: + REGIS • VGARIE • ETCETE, Two-part shield (patriarchal cross and Árpádian stripes), no privy mark in fields.

The type was struck in 1444 (per Huszár & Pohl & Unger).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 5. This coin has a higher silver content than most.

“Owing to inner strife and disordered general conditions, the coins [of this period] were usually minted with extremely low precious metal content; moreover, poor mintages were often struck with negligently engraved dies. As a result of the hurried, superficial minting, it was sometimes doubtful whether a faulty coin had been issued officially, or was a forgery” (Huszár 1963).
Stkp
HUN_Ulaszlo_I_Huszar_609_Pohl_147-4.JPG
Huszár 609, Pohl 147-4, Unger 475g, Réthy II 143A 158 viewsHungary. Wladislaus I (Ulászló in Hun.) (1440-1444). Billon denar, 1.18 g., 17-18 mm.

Obv: + MOnETA WLDISLAI D, Polish eagle.

Rev: + REGIS VnGARIE ETCR, Two-part shield (patriarchal cross and Árpádian stripes), B-n/* (privy mark) in fields.

The type was struck in 1444 (per Huszár & Pohl & Unger). This privy mark was struck at Buda (now Budapest) under a collective mark (per Pohl).

“Owing to inner strife and disordered general conditions, the coins [of this period] were usually minted with extremely low precious metal content; moreover, poor mintages were often struck with negligently engraved dies. As a result of the hurried, superficial minting, it was sometimes doubtful whether a faulty coin had been issued officially, or was a forgery” (Huszár 1963). This coin is a superb example of the type.

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 5.
Stkp
HUN_Ulaszlo_I_Huszar_609_Pohl_147-8.JPG
Huszár 609, Pohl 147-8, Unger 475k, Réthy II 143A 97 viewsHungary. Wladislaus I (Ulászló in Hun.) (1440-1444). Billon denar, 17 mm.

Obv: + MOnETA W[LAD]ISLAI DEI, Polish eagle.

Rev: + REGIS • [VGARIE • ET]CETE, Two-part shield (patriarchal cross and Árpádian stripes), h-R (privy mark) in fields.

The type was struck in 1444 (per Huszár & Pohl & Unger). This privy mark was struck at Hermannstadt (formerly Nagyszeben, Hungary (Translyvania), now Sibiu, Romania) by Nikolaus Pfeffersack, Altbürgermeister (per Pohl).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 5. This coins has a higher silver content than many of this emission.

“Owing to inner strife and disordered general conditions, the coins [of this period] were usually minted with extremely low precious metal content; moreover, poor mintages were often struck with negligently engraved dies. As a result of the hurried, superficial minting, it was sometimes doubtful whether a faulty coin had been issued officially, or was a forgery” (Huszár 1963).
Stkp
HUN_Ulaszlo_I_Huszar_609_Pohl_147-8_var.jpg
Huszár 609, Pohl 147-8, Unger 475k, Réthy II 143A, Frynas H.30.826 viewsHungary. Wladislaus/Ulászló I (1440-1444)

Billon denar, .1.22 g., 17.19 mm., 0 °

Obv: [ + MOnETA • WLA]DISLAI • [DEI], Polish eagle.

Rev: + • REGIS • WL . . . ETE •, two-part shield (Árpádian stripes and patriarchal cross), h-R in fields.

The type was struck in 1444.

Hermannstadt=Nagyszeben/now Sibiu, Romania mint, by Nikolaus Pfeffersack, altbürgermeister.

“Owing to inner strife and disordered general conditions, the coins [of this period] were usually minted with extremely low precious metal content; moreover, poor mintages were often struck with negligently engraved dies. As a result of the hurried, superficial minting, it was sometimes doubtful whether a faulty coin had been issued officially, or was a forgery” (Huszár 1963).

Huszár/Pohl rarity5, Unger value 20 DM, Frynas rarity N. This coin has a reverse legend (apparently including WLADISLAI or similar) that is unrecorded in any of the catalogs, and a higher silver content than most (which strongly suggests that it was an official issue).
Stkp
HUN_Ulaszlo_I_Huszar_609a_Pohl_148-7.jpg
Huszár 609a, Pohl 148-7, Unger 475b var., Réthy II 143B, Frynas H.30.8b28 viewsHungary. Ulászló/Wladislaus I (1440-1444).

Billon denar, .63 g., 16.73 mm., 270 °.

Obv: [+ MOnETA • WLADISLAI DEI], Polish eagle.

Rev: + • REGIS • VnG[ARIE • ETCETE], two-part shield (Árpádian stripes and patriarchal cross), A-B in fields.

The type was struck in 1444 (per Huszár, Pohl, Unger, Frynas and Gyöngyössy). This privy mark was struck at Alsólendva, now Lendava, Slovenia, by the Bánfi family (per Pohl).

“Owing to inner strife and disordered general conditions, the coins [of this period] were usually minted with extremely low precious metal content; moreover, poor mintages were often struck with negligently engraved dies. As a result of the hurried, superficial minting, it was sometimes doubtful whether a faulty coin had been issued officially, or was a forgery” (Huszár 1963).

Huszár/Pohl rarity5, Unger value 20 DM, Frynas rarity N. Ratings pertain to the usual variety, in which the Árpádian stripes are to the left of the patriarchal cross.
Stkp
HUN_Laszlo_V_Huszar_670_Pohl_166-2.png
Huszár 670, Pohl 166-2, Unger 499b, Réthy II 191, Frynas H.33.8.27 viewsHungary. Lászlö/Ladislaus V "Posthumous" (1440-1457).

AR denar, .45 g., 15.30 mm. max., 0°.

Obv: [⁎ m]OnET[A ⁎ LADIS]LAI, double cross on top of crown, S-D flanking.

Rev: + RE[GIS VnGAR]IE • [E]T[ • C], Three-part shield (patriarchal cross and Árpádian stripes, Bohemian lion and Austrian fess/single stripe).

Type struck 1453-1457 (per Huszár), 1452 (per Pohl), 1442-1443? (per Unger) on behalf of Ladislaus by the Hussite warlord, Jan Giskra, but only in those parts of upper Hungary under Giskra’s control. This privy mark was tentatively struck as a civic mark in Schmöllnitz/Szomolnok, now Smolnik, Slovakia (per Pohl).

“Owing to inner strife and disordered general conditions, the coins [of this period] were usually minted with extremely low precious metal content; moreover, poor mintages were often struck with negligently engraved dies. As a result of the hurried, superficial minting, it was sometimes doubtful whether a faulty coin had been issued officially, or was a forgery” (Huszár 1963).

Huszár/Pohl rarity 5, Unger value 20 DM, Frynas rarity N.
Stkp
HUN_Zsigmond_Huszar_575.JPG
Huszár 575, Pohl 116, Unger 448, Réthy II 120251 viewsHungary. Sigismund (Zsigmond, in Hun.) of Luxembourg (1387-1437; Holy Roman Emperor 1433-1437). AR denar, 14 mm.

Obv: + MOnET S[IGISM]VnDI, Patriarchal cross.

Rev: + REGIS Vn[GA]RIE, Four-part shield (Árpádian stripes and Brandenburg eagle).

The type was struck in 1387-1389 (per Pohl, Huszár & Unger) in Buda (now Budapest) by Onofrio Bardi (per Pohl & Huszár).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 6. The descriptions and depictions vary amongst the references with respect to the presence or absence of pellets in the reverse legend. This coin comports with the description and depictions in Unger and Réthy.

This emission was disparagingly called a “bardus” (stupid, slow or dull, in Latin) by contemporaries, and remained in circulation until 1427. It was struck with a nominal fineness of 0.582 silver and an average weight of 0.51 g. (per Huszár). However, Engel notes that early in the reign of Sigismund, the process of devaluation of the denar, which had begun under Louis I (1342-1382), continued at an accelerating rate, and “collapse[d].” Thus, while 240 denars were the equivalent of an aranyforint in 1386, by 1390 300 denars were the aranyforint’s equivalent.

“Owing to inner strife and disordered general conditions, the coins [of this period] were usually minted with extremely low precious metal content; moreover, poor mintages were often struck with negligently engraved dies. As a result of the hurried, superficial minting, it was sometimes doubtful whether a faulty coin had been issued officially, or was a forgery” (Huszár 1963, at 15).


Stkp
HUN_Zsigmond_Huszar_576_Pohl_117-1.JPG
Huszár 576, Pohl 117-1, Unger 449a, Réthy II 121218 viewsHungary. Sigismund (Zsigmond, in Hun.) of Luxembourg (1387-1437; Holy Roman Emperor 1433-1437). AR denar, 14 mm.

Obv: MOn • SIG—ISMVnDI, Patriarchal cross.

Rev: + • REGIS VnGARIE ETC, Four-part shield (Árpádian stripes and Brandenburg eagle).

The type was struck in 1390-1427 (per Pohl, Huszár & Unger).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 4. The descriptions and depictions vary amongst the references with respect to the presence or absence of pellets in the reverse legend. This coin comports with the description and depictions in Huszár.

This emission was withdrawn from circulation after 1427. It was struck with a nominal fineness of 0.582 silver and an average weight of 0.51 g. (per Huszár). However, Engel notes that in 1390 Sigismund was able to temporarily restore the stability of the denar by the issuance of this new emission, which was referred to as nova moneta. For thirteen years the value of the denar remained stable, and 100 were the equivalent of the aranyforint. In 1403 debasement occurred, and130 were the equivalent of the aranyforint. The debasements continued, so that by 1406 the price of an aranyforint was 160 denars, it was 200 in 1421, 225 in 1423 and 320 in 1426.

“Owing to inner strife and disordered general conditions, the coins [of this period] were usually minted with extremely low precious metal content; moreover, poor mintages were often struck with negligently engraved dies. As a result of the hurried, superficial minting, it was sometimes doubtful whether a faulty coin had been issued officially, or was a forgery” (Huszár 1963, at 15).

Stkp
HUN_Zsigmond_Huszar_578_Pohl_118-9.JPG
Huszár 578, Pohl 118-9, Unger 450c, Réthy II 124A 192 viewsHungary. Sigismund (Zsigmond, in Hun.) of Luxembourg (1387-1437; Holy Roman Emperor 1433-1437). AR denar, 16 mm.

Obv: [M]On • SIG—IS[M]VnDI, Patriarchal cross, K—L (privy mark) between arms.

Rev: + R[EGIS] VnGARIE • ETC, Shield with Árpádian stripes.

The type was struck in 1427-1437 (per Pohl, Huszár & Unger). This privy mark was struck in 1436 in Kremnitz (then Körmöcbánya, Hungary, now Kremnica, Slovakia) by Leonardo Bardi-Noffry, kammergraf, or Petrus Lang, kammergraf (per Pohl).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 4. The descriptions and depictions vary amongst the references with respect to the presence or absence of a cross on the reverse and the placement of pellets in the legends. This is a variation that is neither described nor depicted in any of the references, in that there is not a pellet between the ET and the C on the reverse.

This emission was struck with a nominal fineness of 0.540 silver and an average weight of 0.77 g., which is the same fineness and weight as its predecessor (per Huszár). However, Engel notes that Sigismund introduced this emission as a monetary reform, to address the deterioration in value of that earlier emission. The new emission, then called the “new greater money,” had the value of 100 to the aranyforint, and maintained its value until Sigismund’s death. In 1387, the bishop of Transylvania, who had long been reluctant to collect the tithe due to the poor quality of the coinage, demanded that all arrears be paid – and in this new currency. The result was a peasant revolt!

“Owing to inner strife and disordered general conditions, the coins [of this period] were usually minted with extremely low precious metal content; moreover, poor mintages were often struck with negligently engraved dies. As a result of the hurried, superficial minting, it was sometimes doubtful whether a faulty coin had been issued officially, or was a forgery” (Huszár 1963, at 15).

Stkp
HUN_Zsigmund_Huszar_580_Unger_451ww.JPG
Huszár 580, Pohl 119--, Unger 451ww, Réthy II 125A94 viewsHungary. Sigismund (Zsigmond, in Hun.) of Luxembourg (1387-1437; Holy Roman Emperor 1433-1437). AR parvus, 10 mm.

Obv: Four-part shield (Árpádian stripes and eagle), S—V—R above and flanking, •--• flanking the S (privy mark).

Rev: Cross with four crowns between its arms.

The type was struck in 1387-1427 (per Pohl, Huszár & Unger, although this emission terminated in 1410 per Engel). This mintmark is recorded in Huszár and Unger but not in Pohl.

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 4.

The parvus (also called the “small denar” fillér or pankart) was struck with an average nominal fineness of 0.353 silver. Because of many worn out and counterfeit coins it was pulled from circulation after 1427 (per Huszár). Although not specifically discussed in this context in Engel, the parvus must have experienced the same rampant debasement as the denar did.

“Owing to inner strife and disordered general conditions, the coins [of this period] were usually minted with extremely low precious metal content; moreover, poor mintages were often struck with negligently engraved dies. As a result of the hurried, superficial minting, it was sometimes doubtful whether a faulty coin had been issued officially, or was a forgery” (Huszár 1963, at 15). This emission is typically struck on a small flan.
Stkp
HUN_Zsigmond_Huszar_580_Pohl_119-10.JPG
Huszár 580, Pohl 119-10 or 15, Unger 451q or v, Réthy II 125A153 viewsHungary. Sigismund (Zsigmond, in Hun.) of Luxembourg (1387-1437; Holy Roman Emperor 1433-1437). AR parvus, 9-11 mm.

Obv: Four-part shield (Árpádian stripes and eagle), S—V—R above and flanking, K or P (privy mark) above at right.

Rev: Cross with four crowns between its arms.

The type was struck in 1387-1427 (per Pohl, Huszár & Unger, although this emission terminated in 1410 per Engel). This privy mark was struck in either Kremnitz (then Körmöcbánya, Hungary, now Kremnica, Slovakia) or in Pécs (per Pohl).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 4. This privy mark is a less common variant (described in Pohl but not in Unger) in which the mark is on the right side of the S instead of on the left side.

The parvus (also called the “small denar” fillér or pankart) was struck with an average nominal fineness of 0.353 silver. Because of many worn out and counterfeit coins it was pulled from circulation after 1427 (per Huszár). Although not specifically discussed in this context in Engel, the parvus must have experienced the same rampant debasement as the denar did.

“Owing to inner strife and disordered general conditions, the coins [of this period] were usually minted with extremely low precious metal content; moreover, poor mintages were often struck with negligently engraved dies. As a result of the hurried, superficial minting, it was sometimes doubtful whether a faulty coin had been issued officially, or was a forgery” (Huszár 1963, at 15). This emission is typically struck on a small flan.
Stkp
HUN_Zsigmond_Huszar_580_Pohl_119-24.JPG
Huszár 580, Pohl 119-24, Unger 451b, Réthy II 125A204 viewsHungary. Sigismund (Zsigmond, in Hun.) of Luxembourg (1387-1437; Holy Roman Emperor 1433-1437). AR parvus, 11.5 mm., .27 gr.

Obv: Four-part shield (Árpádian stripes and eagle), S—V—R above and flanking, * (privy mark) above at left.

Rev: Cross with four crowns between its arms.

The type was struck in 1387-1427 (per Pohl, Huszár & Unger, although this emission terminated in 1410 per Engel). This privy mark was struck in Nagybánya (now Baia Mare, Romania) (per Pohl).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 4.

The parvus (also called the “small denar” fillér or pankart) was struck with an average nominal fineness of 0.353 silver. Because of many worn out and counterfeit coins it was pulled from circulation after 1427 (per Huszár). Although not specifically discussed in this context in Engel, the parvus must have experienced the same rampant debasement as the denar did.

“Owing to inner strife and disordered general conditions, the coins [of this period] were usually minted with extremely low precious metal content; moreover, poor mintages were often struck with negligently engraved dies. As a result of the hurried, superficial minting, it was sometimes doubtful whether a faulty coin had been issued officially, or was a forgery” (Huszár 1963, at 15). This emission is typically struck on a small flan. This coin is unusually well struck for the type, and on a full flan.
Stkp
HUN_Zsigmund_Huszar_580_Pohl_119-64.JPG
Huszár 580, Pohl 119-64, Unger 451ii, Réthy II 125A89 viewsHungary. Sigismund (Zsigmond, in Hun.) of Luxembourg (1387-1437; Holy Roman Emperor 1433-1437). AR parvus, 10.5 mm.

Obv: Four-part shield (Árpádian stripes and eagle), S—V—R above and flanking, T-O flanking the S (privy mark).

Rev: Cross with four crowns between its arms.

The type was struck in 1387-1427 (per Pohl, Huszár & Unger, although this emission terminated in 1410 per Engel).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 4.

The parvus (also called the “small denar” fillér or pankart) was struck with an average nominal fineness of 0.353 silver. Because of many worn out and counterfeit coins it was pulled from circulation after 1427 (per Huszár). Although not specifically discussed in this context in Engel, the parvus must have experienced the same rampant debasement as the denar did.

“Owing to inner strife and disordered general conditions, the coins [of this period] were usually minted with extremely low precious metal content; moreover, poor mintages were often struck with negligently engraved dies. As a result of the hurried, superficial minting, it was sometimes doubtful whether a faulty coin had been issued officially, or was a forgery” (Huszár 1963, at 15). This emission is typically struck on a small flan.
Stkp
HUN_Zsigmund_Huszar_580a.JPG
Huszár 580a, Pohl 119-1 var., Unger 451a var., Réthy II 125C166 viewsHungary. Sigismund (Zsigmond, in Hun.) of Luxembourg (1387-1437; Holy Roman Emperor 1433-1437). AR parvus, 8-9 mm., .18 gr.

Obv: Four-part shield (eagle and Árpádian stripes) [S—V—R above and flanking].

Rev: Cross with four crowns between its arms.

The type was struck in 1387-1427 (per Pohl, Huszár & Unger, although this emission terminated in 1410 per Engel). This privy mark was struck in Nagybánya (now Baia Mare, Romania) (per Pohl).

Huszár rarity rating 4. This is a rare variety in which the eagle is on the upper left and lower right, instead of the opposite.

The parvus (also called the “small denar” fillér or pankart) was struck with an average nominal fineness of 0.353 silver. Because of many worn out and counterfeit coins it was pulled from circulation after 1427 (per Huszár). Although not specifically discussed in this context in Engel, the parvus must have experienced the same rampant debasement as the denar did.

“Owing to inner strife and disordered general conditions, the coins [of this period] were usually minted with extremely low precious metal content; moreover, poor mintages were often struck with negligently engraved dies. As a result of the hurried, superficial minting, it was sometimes doubtful whether a faulty coin had been issued officially, or was a forgery” (Huszár 1963, at 15). This emission is typically struck on a small flan.
Stkp
HUN_Zsigmond_Huszar_581.JPG
Huszár 581, Pohl 120, Unger 453, Réthy II 125B117 viewsHungary. Sigismund (Zsigmond, in Hun.) of Luxembourg (1387-1437; Holy Roman Emperor 1433-1437). AR parvus, 11 mm.

Obv: Four-part shield (Árpádian stripes and eagle), [S]—V—R above and flanking.

Rev: Cross with M and three crowns between its arms.

The type was struck in 1404-1405 (per Pohl, Huszár & Unger) in Buda (now Budapest) by Markus von Nürnberg, oberkammergraf (per Pohl).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 5.

The parvus (also called the “small denar” fillér or pankart) was struck with an average nominal fineness of 0.353 silver. Because of many worn out and counterfeit coins it was pulled from circulation after 1427 (per Huszár). Although not specifically discussed in this context in Engel, the parvus must have experienced the same rampant debasement as the denar did.

“Owing to inner strife and disordered general conditions, the coins [of this period] were usually minted with extremely low precious metal content; moreover, poor mintages were often struck with negligently engraved dies. As a result of the hurried, superficial minting, it was sometimes doubtful whether a faulty coin had been issued officially, or was a forgery” (Huszár 1963, at 15).
Stkp
HUN_Zsigmond_Huszar_582_Pohl_121-1.JPG
Huszár 582, Pohl 121-1, Unger 452, Réthy II 126169 viewsHungary. Sigismund (Zsigmond, in Hun.) of Luxembourg (1387-1437; Holy Roman Emperor 1433-1437). AR parvus, 11 mm.

Obv: Four-part shield (Árpádian stripes and Bohemian lion), S—V—R above and flanking.

Rev: Cross with four crowns between its arms.

The type was struck in 1402 (per Huszár & Unger) or 1402-1403 (per Pohl) in Buda (now Budapest) (per Pohl).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 5.

The parvus (also called the “small denar” fillér or pankart) was struck with an average nominal fineness of 0.353 silver. Because of many worn out and counterfeit coins it was pulled from circulation after 1427 (per Huszár). Although not specifically discussed in this context in Engel, the parvus must have experienced the same rampant debasement as the denar did.

“Owing to inner strife and disordered general conditions, the coins [of this period] were usually minted with extremely low precious metal content; moreover, poor mintages were often struck with negligently engraved dies. As a result of the hurried, superficial minting, it was sometimes doubtful whether a faulty coin had been issued officially, or was a forgery” (Huszár 1963, at 15).
Stkp
HUN_Zsigmond_Huszar_584_Pohl_123-5.JPG
Huszár 584, Pohl 123-5, Unger 455e, Réthy II 128175 viewsHungary. Sigismund (Zsigmond, in Hun.) of Luxembourg (1387-1437; Holy Roman Emperor 1433-1437). AR ducat, 10-11 mm.

Obv: Patriarchal cross, K—f (privy mark) between arms.

Rev: Standing nimbate St. Ladislaus with halberd and globus cruciger.

The type was struck in 1427-1430 (per Pohl, Huszár & Unger). This privy mark was struck in Kremnitz (then Körmöcbánya, Hungary, now Kremnica, Slovakia) by Johannes Folbrecht von Thorn, kammergraf (per Pohl).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 4.

“Owing to inner strife and disordered general conditions, the coins [of this period] were usually minted with extremely low precious metal content; moreover, poor mintages were often struck with negligently engraved dies. As a result of the hurried, superficial minting, it was sometimes doubtful whether a faulty coin had been issued officially, or was a forgery” (Huszár 1963, at 15).
Stkp
HUN_Zsigmund_Huszar_586,_Pohl_124-_.JPG
Huszár 586, Pohl 124- , Unger 456_ , Réthy II 129 172 viewsHungary. Sigismund (Zsigmond in Hun.) of Luxembourg (1387-1437; Holy Roman Emperor 1433-1437). Billon quarting, 12-14 mm.

Obv: Patriarchal cross, B–H (privy mark) in central fields.

Rev: Crown

The type was struck in 1430-1437 (per Pohl, Huszár & Unger). This privy mark was struck in Buda (now Budapest) (per Pohl & Huszár).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 3. This privy mark is unrecorded. This specimen is of a superior alloy (suggesting that it was struck very early in the history of the emission) and is of a better strike than many.

“Owing to inner strife and disordered general conditions, the coins [of this period] were usually minted with extremely low precious metal content; moreover, poor mintages were often struck with negligently engraved dies. As a result of the hurried, superficial minting, it was sometimes doubtful whether a faulty coin had been issued officially, or was a forgery” (Huszár 1963, at 15).

The quarting (also known as the fryling and as a moneta minor) was originally worth a quarter of a denar, but it “soon fell victim to the manipulations of the treasury. Its fineness decreased at such a rate that soon it contained almost nothing but copper. The result was economic anarchy. Trust in these silver coins was irreparably damaged, and, although the government officially devalued the quarting several times, its market value fell even more drastically. In the last years of Sigismund’s reign, 6,000 to 8,000 quartings were equivalent to one florin instead of the original 400” (Engel, at 223-224)
Stkp
HUN_Zsigmund_Huszar_586,_Pohl_124-24.JPG
Huszár 586, Pohl 124-24, Unger 456 eta, Réthy II 129 161 viewsHungary. Sigismund (Zsigmond in Hun.) of Luxembourg (1387-1437; Holy Roman Emperor 1433-1437). Billon quarting, .56 g., 12-14 mm.

Obv: Patriarchal cross, c–n (privy mark) in central fields.

Rev: Crown

The type was struck in 1430-1437 (per Pohl, Huszár & Unger). This privy mark was struck in Kassa (now Košice, Slovakia) (per Pohl & Huszár).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 3. This specimen is of a better strike than most.

“Owing to inner strife and disordered general conditions, the coins [of this period] were usually minted with extremely low precious metal content; moreover, poor mintages were often struck with negligently engraved dies. As a result of the hurried, superficial minting, it was sometimes doubtful whether a faulty coin had been issued officially, or was a forgery” (Huszár 1963, at 15).

The quarting (also known as the fryling and as a moneta minor) was originally worth a quarter of a denar, but it “soon fell victim to the manipulations of the treasury. Its fineness decreased at such a rate that soon it contained almost nothing but copper. The result was economic anarchy. Trust in these silver coins was irreparably damaged, and, although the government officially devalued the quarting several times, its market value fell even more drastically. In the last years of Sigismund’s reign, 6,000 to 8,000 quartings were equivalent to one florin instead of the original 400” (Engel, at 223-224)
Stkp
HUN_Zsigmund_Huszar_586_Pohl_124-39.JPG
Huszár 586, Pohl 124-39, Unger 456a, Réthy II 129 178 viewsHungary. Sigismund (Zsigmond in Hun.) of Luxemburg (1387-1437; Holy Roman Emperor 1433-1437). Billon quarting, 13mm.

Obv: Patriarchal cross, K–W (privy mark) in central fields.

Rev: Patriarchal cross.

The type was struck in 1430-1437 (per Pohl, Huszár & Unger). This privy mark was struck Kremnitz (then Körmöcbánya, Hungary, now Kremnica, Slovakia) by Valentin Winche (per Pohl).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 3.

“Owing to inner strife and disordered general conditions, the coins [of this period] were usually minted with extremely low precious metal content; moreover, poor mintages were often struck with negligently engraved dies. As a result of the hurried, superficial minting, it was sometimes doubtful whether a faulty coin had been issued officially, or was a forgery” (Huszár 1963, at 15).

The quarting (also known as the fryling and as a moneta minor) was originally worth a quarter of a denar, but it “soon fell victim to the manipulations of the treasury. Its fineness decreased at such a rate that soon it contained almost nothing but copper. The result was economic anarchy. Trust in these silver coins was irreparably damaged, and, although the government officially devalued the quarting several times, its market value fell even more drastically. In the last years of Sigismund’s reign, 6,000 to 8,000 quartings were equivalent to one florin instead of the original 400” (Engel, at 223-224)
Stkp
HUN_Zsigmund_Huszar_586,_Pohl_124-49.JPG
Huszár 586, Pohl 124-49, Unger 456 alpha-alpha, Réthy II 129 164 viewsHungary. Sigismund (Zsigmond in Hun.) of Luxembourg (1387-1437; Holy Roman Emperor 1433-1437). Billon quarting, 13-14 mm.

Obv: Patriarchal cross, Q or koppa–L (privy mark) in central fields.

Rev: Patriarchal cross.

The type was struck in 1430-1437 (per Pohl, Huszár & Unger). This privy mark was probably struck in Pécs (per Pohl).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 3. This specimen is poorly struck, even for the emission, with the obverse devise also appearing on the reverse.

“Owing to inner strife and disordered general conditions, the coins [of this period] were usually minted with extremely low precious metal content; moreover, poor mintages were often struck with negligently engraved dies. As a result of the hurried, superficial minting, it was sometimes doubtful whether a faulty coin had been issued officially, or was a forgery” (Huszár 1963, at 15).

The quarting (also known as the fryling and as a moneta minor) was originally worth a quarter of a denar, but it “soon fell victim to the manipulations of the treasury. Its fineness decreased at such a rate that soon it contained almost nothing but copper. The result was economic anarchy. Trust in these silver coins was irreparably damaged, and, although the government officially devalued the quarting several times, its market value fell even more drastically. In the last years of Sigismund’s reign, 6,000 to 8,000 quartings were equivalent to one florin instead of the original 400” (Engel, at 223-224)
Stkp
HUN_Ulaszlo_I_Huszar_602_Pohl_140-6.JPG
Huszár 602 var., Pohl 140-6 var., Unger 477g var, RĂ©thy II 148 var.115 viewsHungary. Wladislaus I (Ulászló in Hun.) (1440-1444). Billon denar, 15 mm.

Obv: [M W]LADIS—LAI RE?GEIS, Patriarchal cross, W–h (privy mark) in fields.

Rev: [S LAD]I[SL]—VS REX, Standing nimbate king, facing, holding halberd and imperial orb,.

The type was struck in 1440-1441 (per Huszár and Pohl). This privy mark was struck in Veszprém (per Pohl).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 6. The obverse legend on this coin is slightly bungled. The reverse legend conforms to Réthy and not to Huszár and Unger (which both comport with Réthy II 147). The nimbate king is not recorded in any of the catalogs.

Ladislaus I (László in Hun.) (1077-1095) was canonized in 1192. His name typically appeared, albeit in an increasingly decaying form, on the reverse of 12th century emissions, and his stylized image and name appeared on this and other later emissions.

“Owing to inner strife and disordered general conditions, the coins [of this period] were usually minted with extremely low precious metal content; moreover, poor mintages were often struck with negligently engraved dies. As a result of the hurried, superficial minting, it was sometimes doubtful whether a faulty coin had been issued officially, or was a forgery” (Huszár 1963).
Stkp
HUN_Ulaszlo_I_Huszar_602_Pohl_140-8.JPG
Huszár 602, Pohl 140-8, Unger 477h, RĂ©thy II 147-14894 viewsHungary. Wladislaus I (Ulászló in Hun.) (1440-1444). Billon denar, 14.5 mm.

Obv: [M WLA]DIS—[LAI REGIS], Patriarchal cross, W–crossed pitchforks (privy mark) in fields.

Rev: [S L]ADIS[L—AV REX, Standing king, facing, holding halberd and imperial orb,.

The type was struck in 1440-1441 (per Huszár and Pohl). This privy mark was struck in Veszprém by Bishop Matthias Gathalóczy (per Pohl).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 6.

Ladislaus I (László in Hun.) (1077-1095) was canonized in 1192. His name typically appeared, albeit in an increasingly decaying form, on the reverse of 12th century emissions, and his stylized image and name appeared on this and other later emissions.

“Owing to inner strife and disordered general conditions, the coins [of this period] were usually minted with extremely low precious metal content; moreover, poor mintages were often struck with negligently engraved dies. As a result of the hurried, superficial minting, it was sometimes doubtful whether a faulty coin had been issued officially, or was a forgery” (Huszár 1963).
Stkp
HUN_Ulaszlo_I_Huszar_603_Pohl_143-21.JPG
Huszár 603, Pohl 143-21 Unger 471v, RĂ©thy II 146A 130 viewsHungary. Wladislaus I (Ulászló in Hun.) (1440-1444). Billon denar, 16 mm.

Obv: + MOnETA WLADISLAI, Crown, P[?]–S (privy mark) in fields.

Rev: + [REGIS •] VnGARIE • T • D •, Two-part shield (Árpádian stripes and patriarchal cross).

The type was struck in 1441 (per Huszár) or 1442-1443 (per Pohl & Unger). This privy mark was struck in Pécs (per Pohl).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 5. The reverse legend depicted and described in Huszár and Pohl differs from the legend depicted and described in Unger and Réthy. This is a variant in which the reverse legend differs from both. It is neither recorded nor described.

“Owing to inner strife and disordered general conditions, the coins [of this period] were usually minted with extremely low precious metal content; moreover, poor mintages were often struck with negligently engraved dies. As a result of the hurried, superficial minting, it was sometimes doubtful whether a faulty coin had been issued officially, or was a forgery” (Huszár 1963).
Stkp
HUN_Ulaszlo_I_Huszar_603a_Pohl_143-2.JPG
Huszár 603a, Pohl 144-1, Unger 471d var., RĂ©thy II 146C 109 viewsHungary. Wladislaus I (Ulászló in Hun.) (1440-1444). Billon denar, 15 mm.

Obv: [+ MOnETA WLA[DISLA]I, Crown, A–B (privy mark) in fields.

Rev: [+ RE]GIS • VnG[ARIE • I • D •, Two-part shield (patriarchal cross and Árpádian stripes).

The type was struck in 1441 (per Huszár) or 1442-1443 (per Pohl & Unger). This privy mark was struck in Alsólendva (now Lendava, Slovenia) by the Bánfi family (per Pohl).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 5. This rarity rating pertains to the more common Huszár 603, although Polh assigns it the same rating. Huszár 603a is the variation in which the devices on the shield are reversed. According to Huszár, this variety does not bear privy marks, but Pohl lists this and several other privy marks. The reverse legend depicted and described in Huszár and Pohl differs from the legend depicted and described in Unger and Réthy. The legend on this coin is not legible enough to match with either.

“Owing to inner strife and disordered general conditions, the coins [of this period] were usually minted with extremely low precious metal content; moreover, poor mintages were often struck with negligently engraved dies. As a result of the hurried, superficial minting, it was sometimes doubtful whether a faulty coin had been issued officially, or was a forgery” (Huszár 1963).

Stkp
HUN_Ulaszlo_I_Huszar_605_Pohl_141-6_2.JPG
Huszár 605, Pohl 141-6 Unger 470f, RĂ©thy II 141170 viewsHungary. Wladislaus I (Ulászló in Hun.) (1440-1444). Billon denar, 16 mm.

Obv: * MOnETA • WLADISLAI • DEI • GRA, Polish eagle facing left.

Rev: * REGIS • VnGARI • ET • CETERA, Crowned two-part shield (Árpádian stripes and patriarchal cross), B–P (privy mark) in fields.

The type was struck in 1442 (per Pohl, Huszár & Unger). This privy mark was struck in Buda (now Budapest) (per Pohl).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 5. The obverse and reverse legends depicted and described in Huszár and Pohl differ from the legends depicted and described in Unger and Réthy. To the extent that the legends on this coin can be discerned, it appears to conform to Huszár and Pohl.

“Owing to inner strife and disordered general conditions, the coins [of this period] were usually minted with extremely low precious metal content; moreover, poor mintages were often struck with negligently engraved dies. As a result of the hurried, superficial minting, it was sometimes doubtful whether a faulty coin had been issued officially, or was a forgery” (Huszár 1963).
Stkp
HUN_Ulaszlo_I_Huszar_607_Pohl_145-.JPG
Huszár 607, Pohl 145- , Unger 472η, RĂ©thy II 145A 187 viewsHungary. Wladislaus I (Ulászló in Hun.) (1440-1444). Billon denar, 14 mm.

Obv: [M WLADISLAI •] DEI, Crowned shield (Árpádian stripes and patriarchal cross), S–I (privy mark) in fields.

Rev: + REGIS VnGA[RIE] [EC], Shield with Lithuanian charging knight.

The type was struck in 1443 (per Huszár & Pohl) or 1442-1443 (per Unger). This privy mark was struck in Segesvár (now Sighişoara, Romania) (per Pohl).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 5. The legends depicted and described in Huszár and Pohl differ from the legends depicted and described in Unger and Réthy. The legend on this coin is per Unger and Réthy. This privy mark is described by Unger but not by Huszár and Pohl.

“Owing to inner strife and disordered general conditions, the coins [of this period] were usually minted with extremely low precious metal content; moreover, poor mintages were often struck with negligently engraved dies. As a result of the hurried, superficial minting, it was sometimes doubtful whether a faulty coin had been issued officially, or was a forgery” (Huszár 1963).
1 commentsStkp
HUN_Ulaszlo_I_Huszar_609_Pohl_147-16.JPG
Huszár 609, Pohl 148-3, Unger 475n, RĂ©thy II 143B 176 viewsHungary. Wladislaus I (Ulászló in Hun.) (1440-1444). Billon denar, 18 mm.

Obv: + MOnETA WLADISLAI DEI (bungled legend), Polish eagle.

Rev: + RE]GIS • VGARIE • ETCETE (some inverted letters), Two-part shield (patriarchal cross and Árpádian stripes), I—n[?] (privy mark) in fields.

The type was struck in 1444 (per Huszár & Pohl & Unger).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 5. The reverse legend depicted and described in Huszár and Pohl differs from the legend depicted in Unger which differs slightly from that depicted and described in Réthy. The legend on this coin is closest to Unger. This privy mark is recorded in Unger but not in Huszár or Pohl.

“Owing to inner strife and disordered general conditions, the coins [of this period] were usually minted with extremely low precious metal content; moreover, poor mintages were often struck with negligently engraved dies. As a result of the hurried, superficial minting, it was sometimes doubtful whether a faulty coin had been issued officially, or was a forgery” (Huszár 1963).
Stkp
Qajar_Quran_Manuscript_B003.JPG
Illuminated Qur'an Manuscript: Early Qajar Persia (AH 1263/1846-47 AD), Scribed by Muhammad 'Ali ibn Muhammad Baqir4 viewsA leaf from a large Koran, Qajar Iran, AH 1263 (1846-7 AD) on fine paper (345 x 200 mm.) There are fifteen lines of black naskh script, gold rosettes between verses, sura headings in red on illuminated panels, large polychrome medallions in borders, borders ruled in gold, red Persian interlinear translation, colophon signed by the scribe Muhammad 'Ali ibn Muhammad Baqir, Persian translation dated 1263.

Passages from Surah Al-Infitar (The Cleaving) Verses 82:2 to 82:19 and Surah Al-Mutaffifin (The Defrauding) Verses 83:1 onward...
SpongeBob
Qajar_Quran_Manuscript_B002.JPG
Illuminated Qur'an Manuscript: Early Qajar Persia (AH 1263/1846-47 AD), Scribed by Muhammad 'Ali ibn Muhammad Baqir2 viewsA leaf from a large Koran, Qajar Iran, AH 1263 (1846-7 AD) on fine paper (345 x 200 mm.) There are fifteen lines of black naskh script, gold rosettes between verses, sura headings in red on illuminated panels, large polychrome medallions in borders, borders ruled in gold, red Persian interlinear translation, colophon signed by the scribe Muhammad 'Ali ibn Muhammad Baqir, Persian translation dated 1263.

Passages from the Surah Az-Zukhruf (The Ornaments of Gold). Verses 43:23 onward...
SpongeBob
Qajar_Quran_Manuscript_B001.JPG
Illuminated Qur'an Manuscript: Early Qajar Persia (AH 1263/1846-47 AD), Scribed by Muhammad 'Ali ibn Muhammad Baqir10 viewsA leaf from a large Koran, Qajar Iran, AH 1263 (1846-7 AD) on fine paper (345 x 200 mm.) There are fifteen lines of black naskh script, gold rosettes between verses, sura headings in red on illuminated panels, large polychrome medallions in borders, borders ruled in gold, red Persian interlinear translation, colophon signed by the scribe Muhammad 'Ali ibn Muhammad Baqir, Persian translation dated 1263.

Passages from the Surah Az-Zukhruf (The Ornaments of Gold). Verses 43:23 onward...



SpongeBob
6~0.PNG
INDIA:King George VI 1 ANNA Copper-nickel3 viewsINDIA:King George VI (1936 to 1952) 1 ANNA Copper-nickel Date-1943

Obverse: Crowned head of King George VI, left:GEORGE VI KING EMPEROR

Reverse: Denomination, date below within floral pattern. One anna in four languages outside:INDIA:AN 1 NA 1943

Grade:FINE Size:20mm
discwizard
ephesos.jpg
IONIA, Ephesos AR Tetradrachm.66 viewsCirca 405-390 BC. AR Tetradrachm (21mm, 14.95 g, 12h). Aristainetos, magistrate. Hecatomnus 53b (O11/R48 – this coin); SNG Kayhan –; Winterthur 2904 (same obverse die). Obverse: bee with curved wings. Reverse: forepart of stag right, head left; palm tree to left (off flan), APIΣTAINETO[Σ] to right. Toned, VF. Struck on a tight flan.

Ex Hecatomnus Hoard (CH V, 17; CH VIII, 96; and CH IX, 387). Ex CNG Electronic Auction 338, lot 85.

The bee, palm tree and the stag are emblems of Ephesos. This city was an important center of worship of the Greek goddess Artemis, and the images on Ephesian coinage represent her. Ephesos also used the bee on its coins since it was a producer of honey, so the bee advertised their most famous product. The bee was also mythologically connected to Ephesos because, according to Philostratos, the colonizing Athenians were led to Ephesos in Ionia by the Muses who took the form of bees. Ephesos occupied the alluvial plain of the lower Cayster, but it owed its chief wealth and renown less to the produce of its soil than to the illustrious sanctuary of the old Anatolian nature-goddess, whom the Ionian Greeks identified with Artemis, the Goddess of Hunt. It is noteworthy that the high-priest of the temple of Artemis was called Ηεσσην, ‘the king bee,’ while the virgin priestesses bore the name of “melissai” or Honey-Bees. The stag was regarded as sacred to her and stag figures were said to have flanked the cult statue of Artemis in her temple at Ephesos. The palm tree alludes to Artemis’ birthplace, the island of Delos, where the goddess Leto gave birth to Artemis and her twin brother Apollo underneath a palm tree. Therefore, the coin might represent the city’s origin as well.

The earlier type tetradrachmai of Ephesos could be identified by the curved pair of wings of the bee on the obverse side of these coins. It is roughly estimated that a total of about less than a hundred of these tetradrachmai exist as compared to the straight wing bee variant of later emissions, which are believed to be seven to eight times more common than the former. These estimates are based on the findings and studies made after the (unofficial/looted) “discovery” of the Hecatomnus and Pixodarus hoards in 1977 and 1978, respectively. Prior to their discovery, there were only about 35 of these curved wing tetradrachmai recorded in existence.
4 commentsJason T
3340093.jpg
IONIA, Phokaia.38 viewsThe ancient Greek geographer Pausanias says that Phocaea was founded by Phocians under Athenian leadership, on land given to them by the Aeolian Cymaeans, and that they were admitted into the Ionian League after accepting as kings the line of Codrus. Pottery remains indicate Aeolian presence as late as the 9th century BC, and Ionian presence as early as the end of the 9th century BC. From this an approximate date of settlement for Phocaea can be inferred.

According to Herodotus the Phocaeans were the first Greeks to make long sea-voyages, having discovered the coasts of the Adriatic, Tyrrhenia and Spain. Herodotus relates that they so impressed Arganthonios, king of Tartessus in Spain, that he invited them to settle there, and, when they declined, gave them a great sum of money to build a wall around their city.

Their sea travel was extensive. To the south they probably conducted trade with the Greek colony of Naucratis in Egypt, which was the colony of their fellow Ionian city Miletus. To the north, they probably helped settle Amisos (Samsun) on the Black Sea, and Lampsacus at the north end of the Hellespont (now the Dardanelles). However Phocaea's major colonies were to the west. These included Alalia in Corsica, Emporiae and Rhoda in Spain, and especially Massalia (Marseille) in France.

Phocaea remained independent until the reign of the Lydian king Croesus (circa 560–545 BC), when they, along with the rest of mainland Ionia, first, fell under Lydian control[8] and then, along with Lydia (who had allied itself with Sparta) were conquered by Cyrus the Great of Persia in 546 BC, in one of the opening skirmishes of the great Greco-Persian conflict.

Rather than submit to Persian rule, the Phocaeans abandoned their city. Some may have fled to Chios, others to their colonies on Corsica and elsewhere in the Mediterranean, with some eventually returning to Phocaea. Many however became the founders of Elea, around 540 BC.

In 500 BC, Phocaea joined the Ionian Revolt against Persia. Indicative of its naval prowess, Dionysius, a Phocaean was chosen to command the Ionian fleet at the decisive Battle of Lade, in 494 BC. However, indicative of its declining fortunes, Phocaea was only able to contribute three ships, out of a total of "three hundred and fifty three". The Ionian fleet was defeated and the revolt ended shortly thereafter.

After the defeat of Xerxes I by the Greeks in 480 BC and the subsequent rise of Athenian power, Phocaea joined the Delian League, paying tribute to Athens of two talents. In 412 BC, during the Peloponnesian War, with the help of Sparta, Phocaea rebelled along with the rest of Ionia. The Peace of Antalcidas, which ended the Corinthian War, returned nominal control to Persia in 387 BC.

In 343 BC, the Phocaeans unsuccessfully laid siege to Kydonia on the island of Crete.

During the Hellenistic period it fell under Seleucid, then Attalid rule. In the Roman period, the town was a manufacturing center for ceramic vessels, including the late Roman Phocaean red slip.

It was later under the control of Benedetto Zaccaria, the Genoan ambassador to Byzantium, who received the town as a hereditary lordship; Zaccaria and his descendants amassed a considerable fortune from his properties there, especially the rich alum mines. It remained a Genoese colony until it was taken by the Turks in 1455. It is a titular see of the Roman Catholic Church.

IONIA, Phokaia. Circa 521-478 BC. AR Hemidrachm (9mm, 1.54 g). Head of griffin left / Quadripartite incuse square. SNG Copenhagen –; SNG von Aulock 2116; SNG Kayhan 512-6. VF, dark toning.
ecoli
smyrna.jpg
Ionia, Smyrna AR Stephanophoric Tetradrachm99 viewsCirca 155-145 BC. AR Tetradrachm (32mm, 16.33gm, 12h). Stephanophoric type. Zopy(ros?) magistrate. Milne, Silver 4, obv. die G; SNG Copenhagen-; Weber 6617. Obverse: turreted head of Cybele or Tyche right. Reverse: ethnic and monogram within wreath. EF with purple toning. Peripheral roughness.

Ex Classical Numismatic Group Electronic Auction 326, lot 133.

With the collapse of Seleukid authority in Asia Minor in 189 BC, many communities of northwestern Asia Minor celebrated their liberation from regal authority by issuing series of large and impressive tetradrachmai. All of these coins were struck on the reduced Attic standard, and were struck on broad, thin flans that were influenced by the Athenian New Style coinage. These series also copied a feature on their reverses, a large laurel wreath that formed the border encompassing the entire reverse type. We know from the Delos inventory lists that these coins were referred to as stephanophoroi, attesting to the ubiquity of these series. The types appearing on the coins clearly indicated their civic nature, depicting the city's patron deity on the obverse and various aspects of the city's culture on the reverse. The stephanophoric coinage is regarded among the more artistic of the Hellenistic period. This is no surprise as nearly all of the issuing cities were located in western Asia Minor, an area whose numismatic artistry is well attested in the preceding Classical period. While the stephanophoroi represent a benchmark in coin design, the reason for their introduction is not certain, and there is little consensus among numismatists. On one extreme, C. Boehringer argued that their appearance and consistency represented an “Aegean Münzunion” (Boehringer, Chron., pp. 38-9), while at the other O. Mřrkholm argued that the wreaths were not indicative of any political or economic significance, but merely the result of a design that gained popularity throughout the northern Aegean ("Chronology and Meaning of the Wreath Coinages of the early 2nd. Cent. B.C.," QT 9 [1980], pp. 145-54).
4 commentsJason T
Mohd_Bin_Tughlaq,_Gold_Dinar,_INO_Caliph_al-Mustakfi,_Daulatabad_mint,_AH_745,_1345_AD,_GG_D-425.jpg
ISLAMIC, Delhi Sultanate, Muhammed Bin Tughlaq, AV Dinar75 viewsDelhi Sultanate, Muhammed Bin Tughlaq, AV Dinar, 10.9g, In the name of Caliph al-Mustakfi, Daulatabad mint, AH 745 / 1345 AD, Ref: GG D-425

Obv: fi zaman al-imam al-mustakfi billah amir al-mu'minin abu' rabi sulaiman khallada allah khilafatahu
(In the time/reign of the Caliph al-Mustakfi billah, Commander of the Faithful, Father of the Victorious, May God Perpetuate his Kingdom)

Rev: duriba hadha al-dinar al-khalifati fi daulatabad shahr sana kham'sa wa arba'oun wa sa'bamia
(was struck this Dinar of the Caliphate in the city of Daulatabad in the year five and forty and seven hundred)


The coins Muhammad Bin Tughlaq (MBT) struck in the name of Abbasid caliphs of Egypt instead of his own name are called the Khilafat or Caliphate issues. Just as the Prophet is the viceregent of God and the Caliph is the viceregent of the Prophet, the monarch is viceregent of the Caliph. No Muslim king could hold the title of Sultan unless there be a covenant between him and the Caliph. The recognition of the supremacy of the Caliph was therefore paramount.

In AH 740 / 1339 AD ie the later part of his rule, MBTs reign was faltering with the Delhi Sultanate facing multiple rebellions across the country. In the south, MBT had lost control of the Deccan with both Vijayanagar Kingdom and Bahamani Sultanate established independent of Delhi Sultanate's control. Besides loss of territory and the fragmentation of the Sultanate, MBT was also struck with doubt about the legitimacy of his reign. MBT therefore sought out the whereabouts of the Caliph and did not rest content until he had made the discovery of the presence of the Abbasid Caliph Al-Mustakfi in exile at Cairo, and applied to him for royal investiture. However, unknown to MBT, the Caliph al-Mustakfi had died in that very same year ie AH 740. Meanwhile, anticipating such investiture and to reflect his subservience to the Caliph, MBT struck Gold Dinars in the name of Caliph al-Mustakfi Billah in AH 741. Four years after Caliph al-Mustakfi's death, when the new Caliph al-Hakim II’s envoy reached MBT conveying him with the Caliphal edict, robe of honour and conferring him the title of nasir amir al-mu'minin, MBT at once struck coins in the name of al-Hakim.

MBTs religious devotion to the Caliph and emotional behaviour towards the Caliph's envoys were so ludicurous as to call forth a contemptuous comment from the contemporary chronicler Ziyauddin Barani. So great was the faith of the Sultan in the Abbasid Khalifas, says he, that he would have sent all his treasures in Delhi to Egypt, had it not been for the fear of robbers. But the Sultan must have sent a substantial amount, because when Ghiyasuddin, who was only a descendant of the extinct Caliphal house of Baghdad, visited India, Muhammad's bounty knew no bounds. He gave him a million tanka's (400,000 dinars), the fief of Kanauj, and the fort of Siri, besides such valuable articles as gold and silver wares, pages and slave girls. One thousand dinars were given for head-wash, a bath-tub of gold, and three robes on which in place of knots or buttons there were pearls as large as big hazel nuts. If this was given to a scion of a house which had become defunct, how much more was sent to the living Caliph at Cairo can only be surmised.

As can be expected on Caliphate issues, great care and attention was taken in the style and design of these coins as these reflected the high reverence, esteem and devotion of MBT towards the Caliph. The calligraphy on the coin is exquisite and breath takingly beautiful. The date on the coin (AH 745) indicates this was the last year when Gold Dinar's were struck in the name of Caliph al-Mustakfi Billah as soon thereafter, following the arrival of Caliph's envoy and confirmation of death of Caliph al-Mustakfi, coins were struck in the name of the new Caliph, al-Hakim. Although the coin legend states the coin as a dinar, the weight standard is that of a tanka. The Gold Dinar's in the name of Caliph al-Mustakfi Billah were struck from only 2 mints - Daulatabad and Dehli, with Daulatabad issue classified as Rare by Goron & Goenka.
mitresh
Hafsid,_Abu_Zakariya_Yahya_I,_1230-49_AD,_AV_Dinar,_4_76g,_Tilimsan_(Tlemçen),_Album-499_2,_H-548.jpg
ISLAMIC, Islamic Dynasties, Hafsids, Abu Zakariya Yahya I, AV Dinar54 viewsIslamic Dynasties, Hafsids, Abu Zakariya Yahya I, AV Dinar, 4.76g, Tilimsan mint, minted 1242-49 AD

Obverse

Central square
al-wahid allah / muhammad rasul allah / al-mahdi khalifat allah / tilimsan
“the one God, Muhammad is the messenger of God, al-Mahdi is the Viceroy of God, Tilimsan (in tiny letters)”

Marginal segments
12:00 o’clock: bism allah al-rahman al-rahim, 9:00 o'clock: salla allah ’ala sayyidna muhammad, 6:00 o'clcok: wa ilahukum ilah wahid, 3:00 o'clock: la ilah illa huwwa al-rahman ’ala sayyidna muhammad,
“in the name of God, the Merciful, the Compassionate, God’s blessing be upon Muhammad, and your god is a single god, no god but He, the Merciful, the Compassionate”

Reverse

In central square
al-shukr lillah / wa’l-minna lilla / wa’l-hawl wa al-hul wa’ al-quwwa billah
“thanks be to God and Grace be to God and power and strength be to God”

Marginal segments
12:00 o’clock: al-amir al-ajall, 9:00 o'clock: abu zakariyya yahya, 6:00 o'clock: ibn abu muhammad, 3:00 o'clock: ibn abu hafs
“the Great Prince, Abu Zakariyya Yahya, bin Abu Muhammad, bin Abu Hafs”


The Hafsids were descended from Shaykh Abu Hafs ‘Umar, who was a companion and helper of Ibn Tumart, known as al-Mahdi, in the early years of Almohad growth. Abu Zakariya Yahya I was the first ruler of the dynasty, which ruled in Algeria, Tunisia and Tripoli for over three and a half centuries from 627 to 982 H/1230-1574 AD. He began his claim to independence by omitting the Almohad ruler’s name from the khutba (the imam’s speech before Friday prayer) on the grounds that he was undermining the purity of his dynasty’s traditions, and took the title Amir. At this time the Maghrib was divided into three, with the town of Tilimsan (Tlemcen) held by the Ziyanids, Fas (Fez) by the Marinids and Tunis, the Hafsid capital, by Abu Zakariya Yahya. However, Yahya went on to conquer all of Ifriqiya, annex Algiers and capture Tilimsan, which he immediately returned to the Ziyanids on condition that they gave him their allegiance.

By the time of his death in 647 (1249) Yahya’s overlordship was acknowledged by the entire Maghrib, including northern Morocco as well as part of Spain. Yahya’s reign was a time of peace and prosperity, with treaties made with European states and Spanish Muslim craftsmen and scholars settling in the Maghrib.

There were three stages in the development of the coinage of Yahya I, the first from 627-634, when he was still serving as an Almohad governor, the second from 634 to 640 when he placed the name of the Almohad ruler as well as his own on the coinage, and the third, this coin, from 640 to 647 when only his name appeared, with the title al-amir al-ajall (the Great Prince), although he continued to recognise the spiritual ties to the Almohad doctrine of al-Mahdi.

The superb quality of both the calligraphy and magnificent striking of this coin suggests that Yahya considered it to be of particular importance in promoting public recognition of his power and prestige.
mitresh
greek91.jpg
Islands of Caria, Rhodes AR Didrachm88 views(250-229 BC). Agesidamos, magistrate.
Obv.: Radiate head of Helios facing slightly right.
Rev.: AΓΗΣΙΔΑΜΟΣ / Ρ - Ο. Rose with bud right. Control: Artemis advancing left, holding torch.
Ashton 206.
4 commentsMinos
Italy- Forum Romanum- The basilica of Trajan.jpg
Italy- Forum Romanum- The Forum of Trajan58 viewsThe Forum of Trajan has a more complicated foundation than the other Imperial Forums. The piazza is closed, with the Basilica Ulpia. At the back of this the Trajan column was elevated between the two Libraries, and it was believed that the complex concluded with the Temple dedicated to Divo Trajan. One entered the piazza through a curved arch passageway, a type of arch of triumph, in the center of a convex wall decorated with jutting columns.
An equestrian statue of Trajan occupied the center of the piazza, which was bordered by porticos with decorated attics-similar to the Forum of Augustus but with Caryatids instead of Daci. Spacious covered exedras opened up behind the porticos. The facade of the basilica, that closed the piazza, also had an attic decorated with Daci statues. The inside of the Basilica had 5 naves with columns along the short sides and apses at both ends; the very spacious central nave had two floors.
The Trajan Column was closed in a small courtyard, bordered by porticos opposite of the Library's facade. These were constituted of large rooms with niches in the walls and decorated with two types of columns.
The temple was probably of an enormous dimension and probably closed by a fenced portico. Today's archeological excavations in the Forum of Trajan have demonstrated that the Temple of Trajan's position is not what it was hypothesized to be in the past. Archeological evidence has clarified the findings in the area to be Insulae- remains of houses rather than those from a temple structure. These findings lie underneath what is today the Province headquarters- the palazzo of Valentini, next to the Column's location.
Rather, the temple was probably situated exactly in the middle of the forum area, where excavation is now taking place.

The Forum of Trajan was utilized as a splendid area of representation for public ceremonies. We know, for example, that in 118 A.D. Adriano publicly burned tables with citizen's debts in the piazza, as a statement to the treasury.
Also, in the late epoch, exedras behind the lateral porticos were used to host poetry readings and conferences.
Court hearings and ceremonies for the freedom of slaves were probably held in the apses of the Basilica.
The Library was probably used as a sort of historical archive of the Roman state and also conserved republican annals.
The sculptural decorations in the various Forum spaces transmitted messages of imperial propaganda of Trajan.
Above all was the celebration of the Daci conquest and the victorious army with focus on the achievement of peace. The representation was sculpted into the walls with images of the conquests.
Images of cupids watering griffins on the entrance wall allude again to the peacefulness of the Empire's power.
The expansion and growth of the Empire, completed with the campaign towards the Orient and interrupted by the death of the Emperor, would have allowed Trajan to consider himself the new founder of Rome.
His representation as a hero is justified in his sepulcher in the base of the Column, in the heart of the city.

Forum of Trajan
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

107 A.D. - Dacia (Romania) conquered and work begins;
January 15th 112 A.D. – Inauguration of the Forum and the Basilica Ulpia;
May 18th 113 A.D. – Inauguration of the Trajan Column;
117 A.D. – Trajan dies and the arch of triumph is ordered by the Senate;
125-138 A.D. – Probable dedication to the temple on behalf of Adrian.

Complex Area: 300x180 meters
uncovered piazza area: 120x90 meters

Area of the Basilica Ulpia: 180x60 meters
Height of Trajan's Column: 39.81 meters
John Schou
Italy- Rome- Coliseum constructed by Flavius and seen from outside~0.jpg
Italy- Rome- Coliseum constructed by Flavius and seen from outside53 viewsColosseum
The Colosseum or Coliseum, originally known as the Flavian Amphitheatre (lat. Amphitheatrum Flavium), is an amphitheatre in Rome, capable of seating 50,000 spectators, which was once used for gladiatorial combat. It was built by Emperor Vespasian and his son, Titus, between AD 72 and AD 90. It was built at the site of Nero's enormous palace, the Domus Aurea. The Colosseum's name is derived from a colossus (a 130-foot or 40-metre statue) of Nero which once stood nearby.

Construction
The construction of the Colosseum began under the Emperor Vespasian in AD 72 and was completed by his son, Titus, in the 80s AD. It was built at the site of Nero's enormous palace, the Domus Aurea, which had been built after the great fire of Rome in AD 64. Some historians are of the opinion that the construction of the Colosseum might have been financed by the looting of King Herod the Great's Temple in Jerusalem which occurred about AD 70. Dio Cassius said that 9,000 wild animals were killed in the one hundred days of celebration which inaugurated the amphitheatre opening. The arena floor was covered with sand to sop up the blood.

The Colosseum hosted large-scale spectacular games that included fights between animals (venationes), the killing of prisoners by animals and other executions (noxii), naval battles (naumachiae, via flooding the arena), and combats between gladiators (munera). It has been estimated that between 500,000 and 1,000,000 people died in the Colosseum games.

History of the name Colosseum
The Colosseum's name is derived from a colossus (a 130-foot or 40-metre statue) of Nero nearby. This statue was later remodeled by Nero's successors into the likeness of Sol, the sun god, by adding the appropriate solar crown. The link to Nero's colossus seems to have been forgotten over time, and the name was corrupted to Coliseum in the Middle Ages. Both names are frequently used in modern English, but "Flavian Amphitheatre" is generally unknown. In Italy, it is still known as il colosseo, but other Romance languages have gone for forms such as le colisée and el coliseo.

Description
The Colosseum measured 48 metres high, 188 metres long, and 156 metres wide. The wooden arena floor was 86 metres by 54 metres, and covered by sand. Its elliptical shape kept the players from retreating to a corner, and allowed the spectators to be closer to the action than a circle would allow.

The Colosseum was ingeniously designed. It has been said that most spectacle venues (stadiums, and similar) have been influenced by features of the Colosseum's structure, even well into modern times. Seating (cavea) was divided into different sections. The podium, the first level of seating, was for the Roman senators, and the emperor's private, cushioned, marble box was also located on this level. Above the podium was the maenianum primum, for the other Roman aristocrats who were not in the senate. The third level, the maenianum secundum, was divided into three sections. The lower part (the immum) was for wealthy citizens, while the upper part (the summum) was for poor citizens. A third, wooden section (the maenianum secundum in legneis) was a wooden structure at the very top of the building, added by Domitian. It was standing room only, and was for lower class women.

Underneath the arena was the hypogeum (literally, "underground"), a network of tunnels and cages where gladiators and animals were held before contests began. There were also numerous trap doors in the arena floor for the various animals hidden underneath. The arena floor no longer exists, and the hypogeum walls and corridors are clearly visible in the ruins of the building. The entire base of the Colosseum was equivalent to 6 acres (160,000 m˛).

A most ingenious part of the Colosseum was its cooling system. It was roofed using a canvas covered net-like structure made of ropes, with a hole in the center. This roof sloped down towards the center to catch the wind and provide a breeze for the audience. Sailors manipulated the ropes. The Colosseum also had vomitoria - passageways that open into a tier of seats from below or behind. The vomitoria of the Colosseum in Rome were designed so that the immense venue could fill in 15 minutes, and be evacuated in 5 minutes. Each entrance and exit was numbered, as was each staircase. There were 80 entrances at ground level, 76 for ordinary spectators, two for the imperial family, and two for the gladiators. The vomitoria quickly dispersed people into their seats and upon conclusion of the event disgorged them with abruptness into the surrounding streets - giving rise, presumably, to the name.

Later history
The Colosseum was in continuous use until 217, when it was damaged by fire after it was struck by lightning. It was restored in 238 and gladiatorial games continued until Christianity gradually put an end to those parts of them which included the death of humans. The building was used for various purposes, mostly venationes (animal hunts), until 524. Two earthquakes (in 442 and 508) caused a great damage to the structure. In the Middle Ages, it was severely damaged by further earthquakes (847 and 1349), and was then converted into a fortress. The marble that originally covered it was burned to make quicklime. During the Renaissance, but mostly in the Baroque age, the ruling Roman families (from which many popes came) used it as a source of marble for the construction of St. Peter's Basilica and the private Palazzi. A famous description is in the saying Quod non fecerunt Barbari, fecerunt Barberini; what the Barbarians weren't able to do, was done by the Barberinis (one such family).

The Venerable Bede (c. 672-735) wrote

Quandiu stabit coliseus, stabit et Roma; (As long as the Colosseum stands, so shall Rome)
Quando cadit coliseus, cadet et Roma (When the Colosseum falls, so shall Rome)
Quando cadet Roma, cadet et mundus. (When Rome falls, so shall the world)
Note that he used coliseus, i.e. he made the name a masculine noun. This form is no longer in use.

In 1749, as a very early example of historic preservation, Pope Benedict XIV forbade the use of the Colosseum as a quarry. He consecrated the building to the Passion of Christ and installed Stations of the Cross, declaring it sanctified by the blood of the Christian martyrs who were thought to have perished there. Later popes initiated various stabilization and restoration projects. Every Good Friday the pope leads a procession within the ellipse in memory of Christian martyrs. However, there is no historical evidence that Christians were tortured and killed in the Colosseum [2]. It is presumed that the majority of Christian martyrdom in Rome took place at the Circus Maximus.

In recent years, the local authorities of Rome have illuminated the Colosseum all night long whenever someone condemned to the death penalty gets commuted or released.

John Schou
Italy- Rome- Coliseum seen from outside~0.jpg
Italy- Rome- Coliseum seen from outside48 viewsColosseum
The Colosseum or Coliseum, originally known as the Flavian Amphitheatre (lat. Amphitheatrum Flavium), is an amphitheatre in Rome, capable of seating 50,000 spectators, which was once used for gladiatorial combat. It was built by Emperor Vespasian and his son, Titus, between AD 72 and AD 90. It was built at the site of Nero's enormous palace, the Domus Aurea. The Colosseum's name is derived from a colossus (a 130-foot or 40-metre statue) of Nero which once stood nearby.

Construction
The construction of the Colosseum began under the Emperor Vespasian in AD 72 and was completed by his son, Titus, in the 80s AD. It was built at the site of Nero's enormous palace, the Domus Aurea, which had been built after the great fire of Rome in AD 64. Some historians are of the opinion that the construction of the Colosseum might have been financed by the looting of King Herod the Great's Temple in Jerusalem which occurred about AD 70. Dio Cassius said that 9,000 wild animals were killed in the one hundred days of celebration which inaugurated the amphitheatre opening. The arena floor was covered with sand to sop up the blood.

The Colosseum hosted large-scale spectacular games that included fights between animals (venationes), the killing of prisoners by animals and other executions (noxii), naval battles (naumachiae, via flooding the arena), and combats between gladiators (munera). It has been estimated that between 500,000 and 1,000,000 people died in the Colosseum games.

History of the name Colosseum
The Colosseum's name is derived from a colossus (a 130-foot or 40-metre statue) of Nero nearby. This statue was later remodeled by Nero's successors into the likeness of Sol, the sun god, by adding the appropriate solar crown. The link to Nero's colossus seems to have been forgotten over time, and the name was corrupted to Coliseum in the Middle Ages. Both names are frequently used in modern English, but "Flavian Amphitheatre" is generally unknown. In Italy, it is still known as il colosseo, but other Romance languages have gone for forms such as le colisée and el coliseo.

Description
The Colosseum measured 48 metres high, 188 metres long, and 156 metres wide. The wooden arena floor was 86 metres by 54 metres, and covered by sand. Its elliptical shape kept the players from retreating to a corner, and allowed the spectators to be closer to the action than a circle would allow.

The Colosseum was ingeniously designed. It has been said that most spectacle venues (stadiums, and similar) have been influenced by features of the Colosseum's structure, even well into modern times. Seating (cavea) was divided into different sections. The podium, the first level of seating, was for the Roman senators, and the emperor's private, cushioned, marble box was also located on this level. Above the podium was the maenianum primum, for the other Roman aristocrats who were not in the senate. The third level, the maenianum secundum, was divided into three sections. The lower part (the immum) was for wealthy citizens, while the upper part (the summum) was for poor citizens. A third, wooden section (the maenianum secundum in legneis) was a wooden structure at the very top of the building, added by Domitian. It was standing room only, and was for lower class women.

Underneath the arena was the hypogeum (literally, "underground"), a network of tunnels and cages where gladiators and animals were held before contests began. There were also numerous trap doors in the arena floor for the various animals hidden underneath. The arena floor no longer exists, and the hypogeum walls and corridors are clearly visible in the ruins of the building. The entire base of the Colosseum was equivalent to 6 acres (160,000 m˛).

A most ingenious part of the Colosseum was its cooling system. It was roofed using a canvas covered net-like structure made of ropes, with a hole in the center. This roof sloped down towards the center to catch the wind and provide a breeze for the audience. Sailors manipulated the ropes. The Colosseum also had vomitoria - passageways that open into a tier of seats from below or behind. The vomitoria of the Colosseum in Rome were designed so that the immense venue could fill in 15 minutes, and be evacuated in 5 minutes. Each entrance and exit was numbered, as was each staircase. There were 80 entrances at ground level, 76 for ordinary spectators, two for the imperial family, and two for the gladiators. The vomitoria quickly dispersed people into their seats and upon conclusion of the event disgorged them with abruptness into the surrounding streets - giving rise, presumably, to the name.

Later history
The Colosseum was in continuous use until 217, when it was damaged by fire after it was struck by lightning. It was restored in 238 and gladiatorial games continued until Christianity gradually put an end to those parts of them which included the death of humans. The building was used for various purposes, mostly venationes (animal hunts), until 524. Two earthquakes (in 442 and 508) caused a great damage to the structure. In the Middle Ages, it was severely damaged by further earthquakes (847 and 1349), and was then converted into a fortress. The marble that originally covered it was burned to make quicklime. During the Renaissance, but mostly in the Baroque age, the ruling Roman families (from which many popes came) used it as a source of marble for the construction of St. Peter's Basilica and the private Palazzi. A famous description is in the saying Quod non fecerunt Barbari, fecerunt Barberini; what the Barbarians weren't able to do, was done by the Barberinis (one such family).

The Venerable Bede (c. 672-735) wrote

Quandiu stabit coliseus, stabit et Roma; (As long as the Colosseum stands, so shall Rome)
Quando cadit coliseus, cadet et Roma (When the Colosseum falls, so shall Rome)
Quando cadet Roma, cadet et mundus. (When Rome falls, so shall the world)
Note that he used coliseus, i.e. he made the name a masculine noun. This form is no longer in use.

In 1749, as a very early example of historic preservation, Pope Benedict XIV forbade the use of the Colosseum as a quarry. He consecrated the building to the Passion of Christ and installed Stations of the Cross, declaring it sanctified by the blood of the Christian martyrs who were thought to have perished there. Later popes initiated various stabilization and restoration projects. Every Good Friday the pope leads a procession within the ellipse in memory of Christian martyrs. However, there is no historical evidence that Christians were tortured and killed in the Colosseum [2]. It is presumed that the majority of Christian martyrdom in Rome took place at the Circus Maximus.

In recent years, the local authorities of Rome have illuminated the Colosseum all night long whenever someone condemned to the death penalty gets commuted or released.

John Schou
Italy- Rome- Coliseum seen from outside 1~0.jpg
Italy- Rome- Coliseum seen from outside 145 viewsColosseum
The Colosseum or Coliseum, originally known as the Flavian Amphitheatre (lat. Amphitheatrum Flavium), is an amphitheatre in Rome, capable of seating 50,000 spectators, which was once used for gladiatorial combat. It was built by Emperor Vespasian and his son, Titus, between AD 72 and AD 90. It was built at the site of Nero's enormous palace, the Domus Aurea. The Colosseum's name is derived from a colossus (a 130-foot or 40-metre statue) of Nero which once stood nearby.

Construction
The construction of the Colosseum began under the Emperor Vespasian in AD 72 and was completed by his son, Titus, in the 80s AD. It was built at the site of Nero's enormous palace, the Domus Aurea, which had been built after the great fire of Rome in AD 64. Some historians are of the opinion that the construction of the Colosseum might have been financed by the looting of King Herod the Great's Temple in Jerusalem which occurred about AD 70. Dio Cassius said that 9,000 wild animals were killed in the one hundred days of celebration which inaugurated the amphitheatre opening. The arena floor was covered with sand to sop up the blood.

The Colosseum hosted large-scale spectacular games that included fights between animals (venationes), the killing of prisoners by animals and other executions (noxii), naval battles (naumachiae, via flooding the arena), and combats between gladiators (munera). It has been estimated that between 500,000 and 1,000,000 people died in the Colosseum games.

History of the name Colosseum
The Colosseum's name is derived from a colossus (a 130-foot or 40-metre statue) of Nero nearby. This statue was later remodeled by Nero's successors into the likeness of Sol, the sun god, by adding the appropriate solar crown. The link to Nero's colossus seems to have been forgotten over time, and the name was corrupted to Coliseum in the Middle Ages. Both names are frequently used in modern English, but "Flavian Amphitheatre" is generally unknown. In Italy, it is still known as il colosseo, but other Romance languages have gone for forms such as le colisée and el coliseo.

Description
The Colosseum measured 48 metres high, 188 metres long, and 156 metres wide. The wooden arena floor was 86 metres by 54 metres, and covered by sand. Its elliptical shape kept the players from retreating to a corner, and allowed the spectators to be closer to the action than a circle would allow.

The Colosseum was ingeniously designed. It has been said that most spectacle venues (stadiums, and similar) have been influenced by features of the Colosseum's structure, even well into modern times. Seating (cavea) was divided into different sections. The podium, the first level of seating, was for the Roman senators, and the emperor's private, cushioned, marble box was also located on this level. Above the podium was the maenianum primum, for the other Roman aristocrats who were not in the senate. The third level, the maenianum secundum, was divided into three sections. The lower part (the immum) was for wealthy citizens, while the upper part (the summum) was for poor citizens. A third, wooden section (the maenianum secundum in legneis) was a wooden structure at the very top of the building, added by Domitian. It was standing room only, and was for lower class women.

Underneath the arena was the hypogeum (literally, "underground"), a network of tunnels and cages where gladiators and animals were held before contests began. There were also numerous trap doors in the arena floor for the various animals hidden underneath. The arena floor no longer exists, and the hypogeum walls and corridors are clearly visible in the ruins of the building. The entire base of the Colosseum was equivalent to 6 acres (160,000 m˛).

A most ingenious part of the Colosseum was its cooling system. It was roofed using a canvas covered net-like structure made of ropes, with a hole in the center. This roof sloped down towards the center to catch the wind and provide a breeze for the audience. Sailors manipulated the ropes. The Colosseum also had vomitoria - passageways that open into a tier of seats from below or behind. The vomitoria of the Colosseum in Rome were designed so that the immense venue could fill in 15 minutes, and be evacuated in 5 minutes. Each entrance and exit was numbered, as was each staircase. There were 80 entrances at ground level, 76 for ordinary spectators, two for the imperial family, and two for the gladiators. The vomitoria quickly dispersed people into their seats and upon conclusion of the event disgorged them with abruptness into the surrounding streets - giving rise, presumably, to the name.

Later history
The Colosseum was in continuous use until 217, when it was damaged by fire after it was struck by lightning. It was restored in 238 and gladiatorial games continued until Christianity gradually put an end to those parts of them which included the death of humans. The building was used for various purposes, mostly venationes (animal hunts), until 524. Two earthquakes (in 442 and 508) caused a great damage to the structure. In the Middle Ages, it was severely damaged by further earthquakes (847 and 1349), and was then converted into a fortress. The marble that originally covered it was burned to make quicklime. During the Renaissance, but mostly in the Baroque age, the ruling Roman families (from which many popes came) used it as a source of marble for the construction of St. Peter's Basilica and the private Palazzi. A famous description is in the saying Quod non fecerunt Barbari, fecerunt Barberini; what the Barbarians weren't able to do, was done by the Barberinis (one such family).

The Venerable Bede (c. 672-735) wrote

Quandiu stabit coliseus, stabit et Roma; (As long as the Colosseum stands, so shall Rome)
Quando cadit coliseus, cadet et Roma (When the Colosseum falls, so shall Rome)
Quando cadet Roma, cadet et mundus. (When Rome falls, so shall the world)
Note that he used coliseus, i.e. he made the name a masculine noun. This form is no longer in use.

In 1749, as a very early example of historic preservation, Pope Benedict XIV forbade the use of the Colosseum as a quarry. He consecrated the building to the Passion of Christ and installed Stations of the Cross, declaring it sanctified by the blood of the Christian martyrs who were thought to have perished there. Later popes initiated various stabilization and restoration projects. Every Good Friday the pope leads a procession within the ellipse in memory of Christian martyrs. However, there is no historical evidence that Christians were tortured and killed in the Colosseum [2]. It is presumed that the majority of Christian martyrdom in Rome took place at the Circus Maximus.

In recent years, the local authorities of Rome have illuminated the Colosseum all night long whenever someone condemned to the death penalty gets commuted or released.

John Schou
Italy- Rome- Forum Romanum Cloaca Maxima.jpg
Italy- Rome- Forum Romanum Cloaca Maxima163 viewsDoor leading to the Cloaca Maxima, situated in the eastern stairs of the Basilica Julia at the Roman Forum. Here, you can sometimes hear (and smell) the sewer.

The outlet of the Cloaca maxima ("greatest sewer"). This drain was built as a canal through the Forum Romanum in the sixth century and its construction is generally attributed to king Tarquinius Priscus. In the second century BCE, the canal was covered.

The Cloaca Maxima was one of the world's earliest sewage systems. Constructed in ancient Rome in order to drain local marshes and remove the waste of one of the world's most populous cities, it carried effluent to the River Tiber, which ran beside the city.

The name literally means Great Sewer. According to tradition it may have been initially constructed around 600 BC under the orders of the king of Rome, Lucius Tarquinius Priscus.

This public work was largely achieved through the use of Etruscan engineers and large amounts of semi-forced labour from the poorer classes of Roman citizens.

Although Livy describes it as being tunnelled out beneath Rome, he was writing a great deal after the event. From other writings and from the path that it takes, it seems more likely that it was originally an open drain, formed from streams from three of the neighbouring hills, that were channeled through the main Forum and then on to the Tiber. This open drain would then have been gradually built over, as building space within the city became more valuable. It is possible that both theories are correct, and certainly some of the lower parts of the system suggest that they would have been below ground level even at the time of the supposed construction.

There were many branches off from the main sewer, but all seem to be 'official' drains that would have served public toilets, bath-houses and other public buildings. Private residences in Rome, even of the rich, would have relied on some sort of cess-pit arrangement for sewage.

The Cloaca Maxima was well maintained throughout the life of the Roman Empire and there is evidence to suggest it was still working long after the traditional fall of the Western Empire. In 33 BC it is known to have received an inspection and overhaul from Agrippa, and archaeology reveals several building styles and material from various ages, suggesting that the systems received regular attention. In more recent times, the remaining passages have been connected to the modern-day sewage system, mainly to cope with problems of backwash from the river.

The Cloaca Maxima was thought to be presided over by the goddess Cloacina.

The Romans are recorded — the veracity of the accounts depending on the case — to have dragged the bodies of a number of people to the sewers rather than give them proper burial, among them the emperor Elagabalus and Saint Sebastian: the latter scene is the subject of a well-known artwork by Lodovico Carracci.

The outfall of the Cloaca Maxima into the river Tiber is still visible today near the bridge Ponte Rotto, and near Ponte Palatino. There is a stairway going down to it visible next to the Basilica Julia at the Forum.

It is often said that it is still in use; this is not untrue, but the whole truth is that only a trickle of water flows through the age-old sewer. The exit shown on this picture is just south of the ancient Roman bridge now known as Ponte Rotto.


1 commentsJohn Schou
Italy- Rome- Part of the city wall.jpg
Italy- Rome- Part of the city wall38 viewsRome is the city in the world with the longest set of ancient walls still partly standing.
This unique relic of roman history, though, is somewhat neglected by the thousands of tourist who visit the city every day: very few of them pay attention to these massive structures, as their interest is mainly caught by famous buildings and sites such as the Roman Forum, the Pantheon, or the Colosseum.
Certainly less beautiful than these gems, the walls proved more useful to the city than any other well-known monument or building. And still today they stand as an important memory of the city's ancient boundaries.

The several restoration works carried out through the ages, in order to keep them strong and steady, give reason for the good state of preservation of the set of walls built in the 3rd century AD: unlike other ancient buildings, they mantained their original function until the end of the 1800s. Many of the original gates are still in place, as well, and some of them have witnessed important historical facts.
Besides their importance during wartime, the city walls enabled the local authorities to keep under control the many people who every day entered or left Rome, as the only way in or out was through the gates: the doors were usually kept under sentry during daylight, and closed after dusk. And since a tax was usually imposed on people and goods entering the city, the gates yielded also a considerable income for the municipality.
Since its foundation, Rome has always adopted defensive means, to prevent the several populations surrounding the original nucleus from invading the city.
They are not one single structure, but several walls belonging to many periods. They were built with different techniques, according to the different weapons they had to face, from early enemies' stones, to catapults, to more powerful cannon balls.
Each of them will be therefore dealt with separately, as individual structures.
All of them are conventionally named after the ruler (king, emperor or pope) who had them built.
ROMULUS' WALLS
We know little about the very first defensive structures that protected Rome's original nucleus, over 2700 years ago; the top of two adjoining hills, the Capitolium and the Palatine, was enclosed by two separate walls; the one on the Palatine was probably rebuilt over a pre-roman structure, and protected Romulus's House, claimed to be the dwelling site of the mythical founder and first king of Rome.
Only few visible traces, both of the Palatine's and of the Capitolium's wall, now survive (the latter is shown on the left). Therefore, these are the only walls not dealt with by the following pages.
SERVIAN WALLS
(or REPUBLICAN WALLS)
They are named after Rome's sixth king Servius Tullius: by tradition, he was the first ruler to order the construction of an early defensive structure around the city. Also in this case it is impossible to state a precise date. According to reliable sources, by the 6th century BC the city of Rome could indeed rely on some sort of protection; nevertheless, there is enough proof that an actual wall was not built until the late 4th century BC (during Rome's republic, whence the other name). And a further extension, beyond the left banks of the river Tiber up to the top of the Janiculum hill, was built two centuries later.
Therefore, the evolution of this set of walls must have been rather complicated.The older defensive technique probably consisted of a sort of mound dug in the ground; the earth coming from the latter was simply used to make a long heap on the inside, as a further protection.
Later in time, a real set of walls was built in place of this primitive boundary. But along the north-eastern part of its perimeter, a deep mound with earth and stones piled by the inner base of the wall was still in use: this structure was called an agger (from the Latin ad gerere, "to bring, move towards").
The actual wall was built according to the dry-stone technique, i.e. without any mortar, large blocks were piled one on top of the other, in multiple rows. The porous stone is tufa (which in Rome was used for the making of buildings up to the early 1930s!).
Unfortunately, of these walls no more than a few fragments scattered in various parts of the city is now left.
Further data based on historical sources and archaeological excavations have enabled to define more or less precisely their full perimeter: by the end of the 4th century BC, the city boundaries enclosed the famous seven hills, or Septimontium, over which the city was originally built: the Capitolium and the Palatine (i.e. the early nucleus), the Aventine, the Esquiline, the Quirinal, the Viminal and the Coelian.
John Schou
Italy- Rome- Part of the city wall 2.jpg
Italy- Rome- Part of the city wall 261 viewsRome is the city in the world with the longest set of ancient walls still partly standing.
This unique relic of roman history, though, is somewhat neglected by the thousands of tourist who visit the city every day: very few of them pay attention to these massive structures, as their interest is mainly caught by famous buildings and sites such as the Roman Forum, the Pantheon, or the Colosseum.
Certainly less beautiful than these gems, the walls proved more useful to the city than any other well-known monument or building. And still today they stand as an important memory of the city's ancient boundaries.

The several restoration works carried out through the ages, in order to keep them strong and steady, give reason for the good state of preservation of the set of walls built in the 3rd century AD: unlike other ancient buildings, they mantained their original function until the end of the 1800s. Many of the original gates are still in place, as well, and some of them have witnessed important historical facts.
Besides their importance during wartime, the city walls enabled the local authorities to keep under control the many people who every day entered or left Rome, as the only way in or out was through the gates: the doors were usually kept under sentry during daylight, and closed after dusk. And since a tax was usually imposed on people and goods entering the city, the gates yielded also a considerable income for the municipality.
Since its foundation, Rome has always adopted defensive means, to prevent the several populations surrounding the original nucleus from invading the city.
They are not one single structure, but several walls belonging to many periods. They were built with different techniques, according to the different weapons they had to face, from early enemies' stones, to catapults, to more powerful cannon balls.
Each of them will be therefore dealt with separately, as individual structures.
All of them are conventionally named after the ruler (king, emperor or pope) who had them built.
ROMULUS' WALLS
We know little about the very first defensive structures that protected Rome's original nucleus, over 2700 years ago; the top of two adjoining hills, the Capitolium and the Palatine, was enclosed by two separate walls; the one on the Palatine was probably rebuilt over a pre-roman structure, and protected Romulus's House, claimed to be the dwelling site of the mythical founder and first king of Rome.
Only few visible traces, both of the Palatine's and of the Capitolium's wall, now survive (the latter is shown on the left). Therefore, these are the only walls not dealt with by the following pages.
SERVIAN WALLS
(or REPUBLICAN WALLS)
They are named after Rome's sixth king Servius Tullius: by tradition, he was the first ruler to order the construction of an early defensive structure around the city. Also in this case it is impossible to state a precise date. According to reliable sources, by the 6th century BC the city of Rome could indeed rely on some sort of protection; nevertheless, there is enough proof that an actual wall was not built until the late 4th century BC (during Rome's republic, whence the other name). And a further extension, beyond the left banks of the river Tiber up to the top of the Janiculum hill, was built two centuries later.
Therefore, the evolution of this set of walls must have been rather complicated.The older defensive technique probably consisted of a sort of mound dug in the ground; the earth coming from the latter was simply used to make a long heap on the inside, as a further protection.
Later in time, a real set of walls was built in place of this primitive boundary. But along the north-eastern part of its perimeter, a deep mound with earth and stones piled by the inner base of the wall was still in use: this structure was called an agger (from the Latin ad gerere, "to bring, move towards").
The actual wall was built according to the dry-stone technique, i.e. without any mortar, large blocks were piled one on top of the other, in multiple rows. The porous stone is tufa (which in Rome was used for the making of buildings up to the early 1930s!).
Unfortunately, of these walls no more than a few fragments scattered in various parts of the city is now left.
Further data based on historical sources and archaeological excavations have enabled to define more or less precisely their full perimeter: by the end of the 4th century BC, the city boundaries enclosed the famous seven hills, or Septimontium, over which the city was originally built: the Capitolium and the Palatine (i.e. the early nucleus), the Aventine, the Esquiline, the Quirinal, the Viminal and the Coelian.
John Schou
Italy- Rome- The Arch of Constantine The Great.jpg
Italy- Rome- The Arch of Constantine The Great71 viewsArch of Constantine
The Arch of Constantine is a triumphal arch in Rome, situated between the Colosseum and the Palatine Hill. It was erected to commemorate Constantine's victory over Maxentius at the Battle of Milvian Bridge on October 28, 312 AD. Dedicated in 315 AD, it is the latest of the extant triumphal arches in Rome, from which it differs by the extensive re-use of parts of earlier buildings.

General Description
The arch is 21 m high, 25.7 m wide and 7.4 m deep. It has three archways, the central one being 11.5 m high and 6.5 m wide, the lateral archways 7.4 m by 3.4 m each. The lower part of the monument is built of marble blocks, the top (called attic) is brickwork revetted with marble. A staircase formed in the thickness of the arch is entered from a door at some height from the ground, in the end towards the Palatine Hill. The general design with a main part structured by detached columns and an attic with the main inscription above is modelled after the example of the Arch of Septimius Severus on the Forum Romanum. It has been suggested that the lower part of the arch is re-used from an older monument, probably from the times of the emperor Hadrian (Conforto et al., 2001; for a defence of the view that the whole arch was constructed in the 4th century, see Pensabene & Panella). The arch spans the Via Triumphalis, the way taken by the emperors when they entered the city in triumph. This route started at the Campus Martius, led through the Circus Maximus and around the Palatine Hill; immediately after the Arch of Constantine, the procession would turn left and march along the Via Sacra to the Forum Romanum and on to the Capitoline Hill, passing both the Arches of Titus and Septimius Severus. During the Middle Ages, the Arch of Constantine was incorporated into one of the family strongholds of ancient Rome. Works of restoration were first carried out in the 18th century; the last excavations have taken place in the late 1990s, just before the Great Jubilee of 2000.

Decoration
The decoration of the arch heavily uses parts of older monuments, which are given a new meaning in the context of the Constantinian building. As it celebrates the victory of Constantine, the new "historic" friezes illustrating his campaign in Italy convey the central meaning: the praise of the emperor, both in battle and in his civilian duties. The other imagery supports this purpose: decoration taken from the "golden times" of the Empire under Trajan, Hadrian and Marcus Aurelius places Constantine next to these "good emperors", and the content of the pieces evokes images of the victorious and pious ruler. Another explanation given for the re-use is the short time between the start of construction (late 312 at the earliest) and the dedication (summer 315), so the architects used existing artwork to make up for the lack of time to create new one. As yet another possible reason, it has often been suggested that the Romans of the 4th century lacked the artistic skill to produce acceptable artwork and therefore plundered the ancient buildings to adorn their contemporary monuments. This interpretation has become less prominent in more recent times, as the art of Late Antiquity has been appreciated in its own right. It is, of course, possible that a combination of two or all three of those explanations are correct, as they are not mutually exclusive.

Attic
Above the middle archway, the main inscription (see below) takes the most prominent place of the attic. It is identical on both sides of the arch. Flanking the inscription on both sides, there are pairs of relief panels above the minor archways, 8 in total. They were taken from an unknown monument erected in honour of Marcus Aurelius, and show (north side, left to right) the emperor's return to Rome after the campaign (adventus), the emperor leaving the city and saluted by a personification of the Via Flaminia, the emperor distributing money among the people (largitio), the emperor interrogating a German prisoner, (south side, left to right) a captured enemy chieftain led before the emperor, a similar scene with other prisoners, the emperor speaking to the troops (adlocutio), and the emperor sacrificing pig, sheep and bull. Together with three panels now in the Capitoline Museum, the reliefs were probably taken from a triumphal monument commemorating Marcus Aurelius' war against the Sarmatians from 169 - 175, which ended with his triumphant return in 176. On the largitio panel, the figure of Marcus Aurelius' son Commodus has been eradicated after the latter's damnatio memoriae. On top of each of the columns stand marble statues of Dacian prisoners from the times of Trajan, probably taken from the Forum of Trajan. From the same time date the two large (3 m high) panels decorating the attic on the small sides of the arch, showing scenes from the emperor's Dacian Wars. Together with the two reliefs on the inside of the central archway, they came from a large frieze celebrating the Dacian victory. The original place of this frieze was either the Forum of Trajan, as well, or the barracks of the emperor's horse guard on the Caelius.

Main Section
The general layout of the main facade is identical on both sides of the arch. It is divided by four columns of Corinthian order made of Numidian yellow marble (giallo antico), one of which has been transferred into the Basilica di San Giovanni in Laterano and was replaced by a white marble column. The columns stand on bases showing victory figures on front, and captured barbarians and Roman soldiers on the sides. The spandrels of the main archway are decorated with reliefs depicting victory figures with trophies, those of the smaller archways show river gods. Column bases and spandrel reliefs are from the times of Constantine. Above each lateral archway are pairs of round reliefs dated to the times of emperor Hadrian. They display scenes of hunting and sacrificing: (north side, left to right) hunt of a boar, sacrifice to Apollo, hunt of a lion, sacrifice to Hercules, (south side, left to right) departure for the hunt, sacrifice to Silvanus, hunt of a bear, sacrifice to Diana. The head of the emperor (originally Hadrian) has been reworked in all medaillons: on the north side, into Constantine in the hunting scenes and into Licinius or Constantius I in the sacrifice scenes; on the south side, vice versa. The reliefs, c. 2 m in diameter, were framed in porphyry; this framing is only extant on the right side of the northern facade. Similar medaillons, this time of Constantinian origin, are placed on the small sides of the arch; on the eastern side, showing the Sun rising, and on the western side, the Moon, both on chariots. The main piece from the time of Constantine is the "historical" relief frieze running around the monument under the round panels, one strip above each lateral archway and at the small sides of the arch. These reliefs depict scenes from the Italian campaign of Constantine against Maxentius which was the reason for the construction of the monument. The frieze starts at the western side with the "Departure from Milan". It continues on the southern, "outward" looking face, with the siege of a city, probably Verona, which was of great importance to the war in Northern Italy; also on that face, the Battle of Milvian Bridge with Constantine's army victorious and the enemy drowning in the river Tiber. On the eastern side, Constantine and his army enter Rome; the artist here has avoided to use the imagery of the triumph, as Constantine probably did not want to be shown triumphant over the Eternal City. On the northern face, looking "towards" the city, two strips with the emperor's actions after taking possession of Rome: Constantine speaking to the citizens on the Forum Romanum, and distributing money to the people.

Inner Sides of the Archways
In the central archway, there is one of the large panels of Trajan's Dacian War on either wall. Inside the lateral archways, eight portraits busts (two on each wall), destroyed to such an extent that it is not possible to identify them any more.

Inscriptions
The main inscription reads:

IMP · CAES · FL · CONSTANTINO · MAXIMO · P · F · AVGUSTO · S · P · Q · R · QVOD · INSTINCTV · DIVINITATIS · MENTIS · MAGNITVDINE · CVM · EXERCITV · SVO · TAM · DE · TYRANNO · QVAM · DE · OMNI · EIVS · FACTIONE · VNO · TEMPORE · IVSTIS · REM-PUBLICAM · VLTVS · EST · ARMIS · ARCVM · TRIVMPHIS · INSIGNEM · DICAVIT

Which means in English:

To the Emperor Caesar Flavius Constantinus, the greatest, pious, and blessed Augustus: because he, inspired by the divine, and by the greatness of his mind, has delivered the state from the tyrant and all of his followers at the same time, with his army and just force of arms, the Senate and People of Rome have dedicated this arch, decorated with triumphs.

The words instinctu divinitatis ("inspired by the divine") have been much commented. They are usually read as sign of Constantine's shifting religious affiliation: The Christian tradition, most notably Lactantius and Eusebius of Caesarea, relate the story of a vision of the Christian god to Constantine during the campaign, and that he was victorious in the sign of the cross at the Milvian Bridge. The official documents (esp. coins) still prominently display the Sun God until 324 AD, while Constantine started to support the Christian church from 312 on. In this situation, the vague wording of the inscription can be seen as the attempt to please all possible readers, being deliberately ambiguous, and acceptable to both pagans and Christians. As was customary, the vanquished enemy is not mentioned by name, but only referred to as "the tyrant", drawing on the notion of the rightful killing of a tyrannical ruler; together with the image of the "just war", it serves as justification of Constantine's civil war against his co-emperor Maxentius.

Two short inscriptions on the inside of the central archway transport a similar message: Constantine came not as conqueror, but freed Rome from occupation:

LIBERATORI VRBIS (liberator of the city) - FUNDATORI QVIETIS (founder of peace)

Over each of the small archways, inscriptions read:

VOTIS X - VOTIS XX SIC X - SIC XX

They give a hint on the date of the arch: "Solemn vows for the 10th anniversary - for the 20th anniversary" and "as for the 10th, so for the 20th anniversary". Both refer to Constantine's decennalia, i.e. the 10th anniversary of his reign (counted from 306), which he celebrated in Rome in the summer of 315 AD. It can be assumed that the arch honouring his victory was inaugurated during his stay in the city.




John Schou
Italy- Rome- The Arch of Vespasian.jpg
Italy- Rome- The Arch of Tito50 viewsThe Arch of Titus (Arcus Titi) is a triumphal arch that commemorates the victory of the emperors Vespasian and Titus in Judea in 70 CE, which lead to the conquest of Jerusalem and the destruction of the Jewish temple there, and the triumphal procession the two held in Rome in 71 CE. It is situated at the E. entrance to the Forum Romanum, on the Via Sacra, south of the Temple of Amor and Roma, close to the Colosseum.

The arch was definitely erected sometimes after after the death of Titus in 81 CE, since Titus is referred to as Divus in the inscription. The deification of an emperor only happened posthumously after decision by the senate. It was most probably erected by emperor Domitian who succeeded his brother Titus in 81 CE, but it has also been suggested that it was built later, by Trajan, because of stylistic similarities with the Arch of Trajan at Benevento.

The Arch of Titus is a single arch, measuring 15.4m in height, 13.5m in width and 4.75m in depth, originally constructed entirely in Pantelic marble, with four semi-columns on each side. The external decorations include figures of Victoria with trophies on the spandrels and images of Roma and the Genius of Rome on the two keystones.

The inscription on the E. side is the original dedication of the arch by the senate. It reads:

Senatus
Populusque Romanus
divo Tito divo Vespasiani f(ilio)
Vespasiano Augusto

The senate
and people of Rome
to the divine Titus, son of the divine Vespasian,
Vespasianus Augustus

The inside the archway the monument is decorated with reliefs in marble. The S. side shows the beginning of the triumphal entry into Rome of the victorious emperor and his troops. The soldiers, walking left to right, are carrying the spoils of war, which include the seven armed candelabrum and the silver trumpets from the temple of Jerusalem. The signs carried by some soldiers displayed the names of the conquered cities and people. To the right the procession is entering the city through the Porta Triumphalis.

The N. side of the arch is decorated with a relief of the emperor in the triumphal procession. The emperor is riding a quadriga, which is lead by the goddess Roma, and he is crowned by Victoria flying above him. The lictors are walking in front of the chariot with their long ceremonial axes. After the emperor follow as a young man, who represents the Roman people, and an older man in toga, representing the senate. In the middle, under the vault a small relief shows the apotheosis of Titus, flying to the heavens on the back of an eagle.
John Schou
Italy- Rome- The arch of Tito and inside the arches.jpg
Italy- Rome- The arch of Tito and inside the arches47 viewsThe Arch of Titus (Arcus Titi) is a triumphal arch that commemorates the victory of the emperors Vespasian and Titus in Judea in 70 CE, which lead to the conquest of Jerusalem and the destruction of the Jewish temple there, and the triumphal procession the two held in Rome in 71 CE. It is situated at the E. entrance to the Forum Romanum, on the Via Sacra, south of the Temple of Amor and Roma, close to the Colosseum.

The arch was definitely erected sometimes after after the death of Titus in 81 CE, since Titus is referred to as Divus in the inscription. The deification of an emperor only happened posthumously after decision by the senate. It was most probably erected by emperor Domitian who succeeded his brother Titus in 81 CE, but it has also been suggested that it was built later, by Trajan, because of stylistic similarities with the Arch of Trajan at Benevento.

The Arch of Titus is a single arch, measuring 15.4m in height, 13.5m in width and 4.75m in depth, originally constructed entirely in Pantelic marble, with four semi-columns on each side. The external decorations include figures of Victoria with trophies on the spandrels and images of Roma and the Genius of Rome on the two keystones.

The inscription on the E. side is the original dedication of the arch by the senate. It reads:

Senatus
Populusque Romanus
divo Tito divo Vespasiani f(ilio)
Vespasiano Augusto

The senate
and people of Rome
to the divine Titus, son of the divine Vespasian,
Vespasianus Augustus

The inside the archway the monument is decorated with reliefs in marble. The S. side shows the beginning of the triumphal entry into Rome of the victorious emperor and his troops. The soldiers, walking left to right, are carrying the spoils of war, which include the seven armed candelabrum and the silver trumpets from the temple of Jerusalem. The signs carried by some soldiers displayed the names of the conquered cities and people. To the right the procession is entering the city through the Porta Triumphalis.

The N. side of the arch is decorated with a relief of the emperor in the triumphal procession. The emperor is riding a quadriga, which is lead by the goddess Roma, and he is crowned by Victoria flying above him. The lictors are walking in front of the chariot with their long ceremonial axes. After the emperor follow as a young man, who represents the Roman people, and an older man in toga, representing the senate. In the middle, under the vault a small relief shows the apotheosis of Titus, flying to the heavens on the back of an eagle.
John Schou
Italy- Rome- The entrance to Forum and the arch of Tito.jpg
Italy- Rome- The entrance to Forum and the arch of Tito40 viewsThe Arch of Titus (Arcus Titi) is a triumphal arch that commemorates the victory of the emperors Vespasian and Titus in Judea in 70 CE, which lead to the conquest of Jerusalem and the destruction of the Jewish temple there, and the triumphal procession the two held in Rome in 71 CE. It is situated at the E. entrance to the Forum Romanum, on the Via Sacra, south of the Temple of Amor and Roma, close to the Colosseum.

The arch was definitely erected sometimes after after the death of Titus in 81 CE, since Titus is referred to as Divus in the inscription. The deification of an emperor only happened posthumously after decision by the senate. It was most probably erected by emperor Domitian who succeeded his brother Titus in 81 CE, but it has also been suggested that it was built later, by Trajan, because of stylistic similarities with the Arch of Trajan at Benevento.

The Arch of Titus is a single arch, measuring 15.4m in height, 13.5m in width and 4.75m in depth, originally constructed entirely in Pantelic marble, with four semi-columns on each side. The external decorations include figures of Victoria with trophies on the spandrels and images of Roma and the Genius of Rome on the two keystones.

The inscription on the E. side is the original dedication of the arch by the senate. It reads:

Senatus
Populusque Romanus
divo Tito divo Vespasiani f(ilio)
Vespasiano Augusto

The senate
and people of Rome
to the divine Titus, son of the divine Vespasian,
Vespasianus Augustus

The inside the archway the monument is decorated with reliefs in marble. The S. side shows the beginning of the triumphal entry into Rome of the victorious emperor and his troops. The soldiers, walking left to right, are carrying the spoils of war, which include the seven armed candelabrum and the silver trumpets from the temple of Jerusalem. The signs carried by some soldiers displayed the names of the conquered cities and people. To the right the procession is entering the city through the Porta Triumphalis.

The N. side of the arch is decorated with a relief of the emperor in the triumphal procession. The emperor is riding a quadriga, which is lead by the goddess Roma, and he is crowned by Victoria flying above him. The lictors are walking in front of the chariot with their long ceremonial axes. After the emperor follow as a young man, who represents the Roman people, and an older man in toga, representing the senate. In the middle, under the vault a small relief shows the apotheosis of Titus, flying to the heavens on the back of an eagle.

John Schou
Italy- Rome- The Pantheon of Marco V Agripa and Hadrian.jpg
Italy- Rome- The Pantheon of Marco V Agripa and Hadrian45 viewsPantheon
The Pantheon is a building in Rome which was originally built as a temple to all the gods of the Roman state religion, but has been a Christian church since the 7th century AD. It is the only building from the Greco-Roman world which is completely intact and which has been in continuous use throughout its history.

History
The original Pantheon was built in 27 BC under the Roman Republic, during the third consulship of Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, and his name is inscribed on the portico of the building. The inscription reads M·AGRIPPA·L·F·COS·TERTIUM·FECIT, "Marcus Agrippa, son of Lucius, consul for the third time, built this."

In fact, Agrippa's Pantheon was destroyed by fire in AD 80, and the Pantheon was completely rebuilt in about AD 125, during the reign of the Emperor Hadrian, as date-stamps on the bricks reveal. It was totally reconstructed, with the text of the original inscription (referring to Agrippa) added to the new facade, a common practice in Hadrian's rebuilding projects all over Rome.

Hadrian was a cosmopolitan emperor who travelled widely in the east and was a great admirer of Greek culture. He seems to have intended the Pantheon, a temple to all the gods, to be a sort of ecumenical or syncretist gesture to the subjects of the Roman Empire who did not worship the old gods of Rome, or who (as was increasingly the case) worshipped them under other names.

In AD 609 the Byzantine emperor Phocas gave the building to Pope Boniface IV, who reconsecrated it as a Christian church, the Church of Mary and all the Martyr Saints (Santa Maria ad Martyres), which title it retains.

The building's consecration as a church saved it from the abandonment and spoliation which befell the majority of ancient Rome's buildings during the early mediaeval period. The only loss has been the external sculptures, which adorned the pediment above Agrippa's inscription. The marble interior and the great bronze doors have survived, although the latter have been restored several times.

During the reign of Pope Urban VIII, the Pope ordered the bronze ceiling of the Pantheon's portico melted down. Most of the bronze was used to make bombards for the fortification of Castel Sant'Angelo, with the remaining amount used by the Apostolic Chamber for various other works. (It is also said that the bronze was used by Bernini in creating the baldachin above the main altar of St. Peter's Basilica, but according to at least one expert, the Pope's accounts state that about 90% of the bronze was used for the cannon, and that the bronze for the baldachin came from Venice.[1]) This led to the Latin proverb, "Quod non fecerunt barbari, fecerunt Barberini" ("What the barbarians did not do, the Barberinis [family name of Urban VIII] did").

Since the Renaissance the Pantheon has been used as a tomb. Among those buried there are the painters Raphael and Annibale Caracci, the architect Baldassare Peruzzi and two kings of Italy: Vittorio Emanuele II and Umberto I, as well as Vittorio Emanuele's Queen, Margharita.

Although Italy has been a republic since 1946, volunteer members of Italian monarchist organisations maintain a vigil over the royal tombs in the Pantheon. This has aroused protests from time to time from republicans, but the Catholic authorities allow the practice to continue, although the Italian Ministry of Cultural Heritage [2] is in charge of the security and maintenance. The Pantheon is still a church and Masses are still celebrated in the church, particularly for weddings.

Structure
The building is circular with a portico of three ranks of huge granite Corinthian columns (8 in the first rank and 16 in total) under a pediment opening into the rotunda, under a coffered, concrete dome, with a central opening (oculus), open to the sky. The height to the oculus and the diameter of the interior circ