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Search results - "Youth"
DenTiVeturiobis.jpg
21 viewsAR Denarius - TI. VETVRIVS - 137 BC. Gens Veturia - Mint of Rome
Obv.: Helmeted bust of Mars right, X and TI. VE (VE in monogram) behind
Rev.: Youth kneeling holding pig, between two soldiers; ROMA above
Gs. 3,6 mm. 18,3
Crawf. 234/1, Sear RCV 111
Some dies of this coin have a crude style.
Maxentius
Unident_Prov_-_30mm.jpg
25 Caracalla24 viewsCARACALLA
AE 31, Mopsus, Cilicia
Year 265=198 AD

Youthful Caracalla as Augustus, bust r. / Mule standing l., wreath and quiver on his back

SNG Levante 1344 (according to Curtis Clay: could be same obv. die, but different rev. die)

Thanks to FORVM member Curtis Clay for his assistance attributing this coin.
Sosius
Caracalla_Neocaesarea.jpg
25 Caracalla - Neocaesarea40 viewsCARACALLA
AE30, Neocaesarea, Pontus
14.03 grams.
198 AD-217 AD

Youthful bust of Caracalla right / Altar in Tetrastyle Temple

BMC6
1 commentsSosius
Dolphindidrachm.jpg
Punic occupation half shekel72 viewsNude youth on horseback to left, crowning horse with wreath; IΩ to right, ΣΩΓENHΣ below

Taras astride dolphin to left, holding cornucopiae and Nike who crowns him with wreath; TAPAΣ below.

Calabria, Tarentum ; Punic occupation, circa 212-209 BC

AR Reduced didrachm or Half-Shekel.

2.69g chipped otherwise VF+

Vlasto 975-7; HN Italy 1079.

Ex-ANE

Rare!

The climax of the Carthaginian invasion of Italy was reached when Tarentum changed sides in 212 BC. The takeover of the city was a carefully planned coup by Hannibal and members of the city's democratic faction who opened the gates to Hannibal's army. The Carthaginians failed to take the citadel, but subsequent fortifications around this enemy stronghold enabled the city to remain under Punic control. Hannibal installed his own magistrates and struck coinage based on the Punic half shekel standard.
8 commentsJay GT4
GermePseudo.JPG
#Mysia, Germe, Conventus of Cyzicus. Pseudo-autonomous AE20 33 viewsBetween 138 and 192 AD.
Obverse: ΙΕΡΑ Σ ΥΝΚΗ[ΤΟΣ], draped bust of the Senate (youthful), r.
Reverse: [ΓΕΡ]Μ ΗΝΩΝ, Nude Heracles standing, facing, head, l., resting arm on club, holding lion-skin
BMC 16 S80,6(1); Lindgren III, Addendum A 726A
ancientone
germe.jpg
#Mysia, Germe. Pseudo-autonomus Æ1543 viewsMysia, Germe, Pseudo-autonomus Æ15. Time of the Antonines. IERA SUNKLHTOC. Youthful, draped bust of the Roman Senate right / GERMH-NEN, laureate & draped bust of Apollo right, spray of laurel before. Sear 5016. ancientone
00030x00~0.jpg
25 viewsVolusian. AD 251-253
Æ Antoninianus? (17mm, 1.83 g)
Copying an uncertain issue
Radiate, [draped, and cuirrassed] bust right
Blank

A most curious piece. The attribution to Volusian is suggested by the shape of the facial hair and the generally youthful portrait.
1 commentsArdatirion
973330.jpg
32 viewsBRITISH TOKENS, Tudor. temp. Mary–Edward VI.1553-1558.
PB Token (27mm, 5.29 g). St. Nicholas (‘Boy Bishop’) type. Cast in East Anglia (Bury St. Edmund’s?)
Mitre, croizer to right; all within border
Long cross pattée with trefoils in angles; scrollwork border
Rigold, Tokens class X.B, 1; Mitchiner & Skinner group Ra, 1

Ex Classical Numismatic Review XXXIX.1 (Spring 2014), no. 973330

Britain in the late middle ages played host to a popular regional variant of the ‘Feast of Fools’ festival. Every year on the feast of St. Nicholas, a boy was elected from among the local choristers to serve as ‘bishop.’ Dressed in mitre and bearing the croizer of his office, the young boy paraded through the city accompanied by his equally youthful ‘priest’ attendants. The ‘bishop’ performed all the ceremonies and offices of the real bishop, save for the actual conducting of mass. Though this practice was extinguished with the Dissolution of the Monasteries in 1539, it was briefly revived under Queen Mary, who took particular interest in the festival, when the lucky boy was referred to as ‘Queen Mary’s Child.’ The celebration of the boy bishop died out completely early in the reign of Elizabeth.

Evidence of this custom is particularly prevalent in East Anglia, specifically at Bury St. Edmunds. Beginning in the late 15th century, the region produced numerous lead tokens bearing the likeness of a bishop, often bearing legends relating to the festival of St. Nicholas. Issued in sizes roughly corresponding to groats, half groats, and pennies, these pieces were undoubtedly distributed by the boy bishop himself, and were likely redeemable at the local abbey or guild for treats and sweetmeats. Considering the endemic paucity of small change in Britain at the time, it is likely that, at least in parts of East Anglia, these tokens entered circulation along with the other private lead issues that were becoming common.
Ardatirion
marseille-obole-droite.JPG
LT abs, Gaul, Massalia16 viewsMassalia (Marseille, south of France)
Circa 385-310 BC ?

Silver obol, 0.67 g, 10 mm diameter, die axis 8h

O/ youthful head of Apollo, right, with a visible ear and sideburns
R/ wheel with four spokes, M and A in two quarters

Marseille was founded by the Phocean Greeks circa 600 BC. This obol has obviously more greek than celtic origins.
Droger
marseille-obole-gauche.JPG
LT 681, Gaul, Massalia16 viewsMassalia (Marseille, south of France)
Circa 225-100 BC ?

Silver obol, 0.59 g, 11 mm largest diameter, die axis 11h

O/ youthful head of Apollo, left, with a visible ear and sideburns
R/ wheel with four spokes, M and A with small bullets in two of the quarters
Droger
geta_lion~0.jpg
(0198) GETA as Caesar11 viewsGeta, as Caesar: 198-209 AD
AE 19 mm, 3.36 g
O: Youthful, draped bust right.
R: Lion walking right.
Thrace, Pautalia; cf Varbanov 5391 var. (reverse inverted legend)

laney
LonginusDenarius.jpg
(504c) Roman Republic, L. Cassius Longinus, 63 B.C.68 viewsSilver denarius, Crawford 413/1, RSC I Cassia 10, SRCV I 364, aVF, struck with worn dies, Rome mint, weight 3.867g, maximum diameter 20.3mm, die axis 0o, c. 63 B.C. Obverse: veiled bust of Vesta left, kylix behind, L before; Reverse: LONGIN III V, voter standing left, dropping tablet inscribed V into a cista.

The reverse of this Longinus denarius captures a fascinating moment when a Roman citizen casts his ballot. "The abbreviation III V [ir] indentifies Longinus as one of the three annually appointed mintmasters (officially called tres viri aere argento auro flando feriundo). A citizen is seen casting his vote into the urn. On the ballot is the letter 'U', short for uti rogas, a conventional formula indicating assent to a motion. The picture alludes to the law, requested by an ancestor of the mintmaster, which introduced the secret ballot in most proceedings of the popular court" (Meier, Christian. Caesar, a Biography. Berlin: Severin and Siedler, 1982. Plate 6).

The date that this denarius was struck possesses unique significance for another reason. Marcus Tullius Cicero (politician, philosopher, orator, humanist) was elected consul for the year 63 BC -- the first man elected consul who had no consular ancestors in more than 30 years. A "new man," Cicero was not the descendant of a "patrician" family, nor was his family wealthy (although Cicero married "well"). Cicero literally made himself the man he was by the power of the words he spoke and the way in which he spoke them. A witness to and major player during the decline of the Roman Republic, Cicero was murdered in 43 BC by thugs working for Marc Antony. But Cicero proved impossible to efface.

Cicero's words became part of the bed rock of later Roman education. As Peter Heather notes, every educated young man in the late Roman Empire studied "a small number of literary texts under the guidance of an expert in language and literary interpretation, the grammarian. This occupied the individual for seven or more years from about the age of eight, and concentrated on just four authors: Vergil, Cicero, Sallust and Terence" (Heather, Peter. The Fall of the Roman Empire: A New History of Rome and the Barbarians. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006. 17).


Plutarch: Cicero's Death

But in the meantime the assassins were come with a band of soldiers, Herennius, a centurion, and Popillius, a tribune, whom Cicero had formerly defended when prosecuted for the murder of his father. Finding the doors shut, they broke them open, and Cicero not appearing, and those within saying they knew not where he was, it is stated that a youth, who had been educated by Cicero in the liberal arts and sciences, an emancipated slave of his brother Quintus, Philologus by name, informed the tribune that the litter was on its way to the sea through the close and shady walks. The tribune, taking a few with him, ran to the place where he was to come out. And Cicero, perceiving Herennius running in the walks, commanded his servants to set down the litter; and stroking his chin, as he used to do, with his left hand, he looked steadfastly upon his murderers, his person covered with dust, his beard and hair untrimmed, and his face worn with his troubles. So that the greatest part of those that stood by covered their faces whilst Herennius slew him. And thus was he murdered, stretching forth his neck out of the litter, being now in his sixty-fourth year. Herennius cut off his head, and, by Antony's command, his hands also, by which his Philippics were written; for so Cicero styled those orations he wrote against Antony, and so they are called to this day.

When these members of Cicero were brought to Rome, Antony was holding an assembly for the choice of public officers; and when he heard it, and saw them, he cried out, "Now let there be an end of our proscriptions." He commanded his head and hands to be fastened up over the rostra, where the orators spoke; a sight which the Roman people shuddered to behold, and they believed they saw there, not the face of Cicero, but the image of Antony's own soul. And yet amidst these actions he did justice in one thing, by delivering up Philologus to Pomponia, the wife of Quintus; who, having got his body into her power, besides other grievous punishments, made him cut off his own flesh by pieces, and roast and eat it; for so some writers have related. But Tiro, Cicero's emancipated slave, has not so much as mentioned the treachery of Philologus.

Translation by John Dryden: http://intranet.grundel.nl/thinkquest/moord_cicero_plu.html

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
Fontius-Syd-724.jpg
005. Mn. Fonteius, Cf15 viewsDenarius, ca 85-84 BC, Auxiliary Italian mint.
Obverse: MN FONTEI CF / Bust of Vejovis with hair in loose locks; thunderbolt below; AP monogram under chin.
Reverse: Winged Cupid or Genius seated on goat; caps of the Dioscuri above; thyrsus with fillet below; all within a laurel wreath.
3.89 gm., 20 mm.
Syd. #724; RSC #Fonteia 9; Sear #271.

Vejovis was an ancient deity whose early function was forgotten. At his shrine in Rome, his statue portrayed him as a young beardless youth with a goat. By the time this coin was issued, he was identified with Pluto, the god of the underworld. He was probably a god of expiation since a goat was sacrificed to him once a year. We know from other sources that this goat sacrifice was expiatory in nature.
Callimachus
dom as caesar spes.jpg
02 Domitian as Caesar RIC 788153 viewsAR Denarius, 3.36g
Rome mint, 74 AD (Vespasian)
RIC 788 (C). BMC 156. RSC 375.
Obv: CAES AVG F DOMIT COS III; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: PRINCEPS IVVENTVT; Spes, draped, advancing l., holding up flower in r. hand and with l. holding up her skirt.
Ex Harlan J Berk 155, 31 July 2007, lot 247.

During Vespasian's reign, Domitian was given the honorary title PRINCEPS IVVENTVT or 'Prince of Youth', celebrated here on this denarius from 74 AD. The title is one that was often given to young princes who were marked out as chosen heirs.

Spes, the personification of hope, is seen here on the reverse advacing left, holding a budding flower. The flower is a symbol of future well being.

Domitian's coinage during Vespasian's rule was unique. While Titus followed closely the types of his father, Domitian struck out on his own. One wonders how much of an input the young prince had on his own series.

A very likeable coin with a good portrait and excellent centring.


2 commentsVespasian70
041bp_Commodus,_Thrace,_Philippopolis_AE-17,_Emperor_horseback,_Moushmov_5212,_Varbanov_III_971,_AD,_Q-001,_6h,_17,0mm,_4,42g-s.jpg
041bp Commodus (166-180 A.D. as Caesar, 180-192 A.D. as Augustus), Thrace, Philippopolis, Varbanov III. 971, AE-17, ΦIΛIΠΠOΠOΛEIT, Emperor on horseback galloping right, Rare !113 views041bp Commodus (166-180 A.D. as Caesar, 180-192 A.D. as Augustus), Thrace, Philippopolis, Varbanov III. 971, AE-17, ΦIΛIΠΠOΠOΛEIT, Emperor on horseback galloping right, Rare !
avers: AYT ΚΑΙ Μ ΑYP ΚΟΜMOΔOC, Youthful, bare-headed, draped bust right.
reverse: ΦIΛIΠ ΠO ΠOΛEIT, Emperor on horseback galloping right, chlamys billowing out behind.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 17,0mm, weight: 4,42g, axis: 6h,
mint: Thrace, Philippopolis, date: A.D., ref: Varbanov III. 971, AE-17, Moushmov 5212,
Q-001
quadrans
051_Caracalla_RIC_IV-I_135_AR-Den_ANTONINVS-PIVS-AVG_LIBE-RA-LITAS-AVGG-IIII__RIC-IV-I-135_p-_RSC-122_Rome_201-6-AD_Q-001_0h_18,5-19mm_3,37g-s.jpg
051 Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), RIC IV-I 135, Rome, AR-Denarius, IIII•LIBERALITAS AVG G, Liberalitas standing left,126 views051 Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), RIC IV-I 135, Rome, AR-Denarius, IIII•LIBERALITAS AVG G, Liberalitas standing left,
avers:- ANTONINVS-PIVS-AVG, Youthful bust of Caracalla laurreated and draped bust to right.
revers:- IIII•LIBE-RA-LITAS-AVG-G, Liberalitas standing left holding abacus and cornucopiae.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 18,5-19,0mm, weight: 3,37g, axis: 0h,
mint: Rome, date: 201-206 A.D., ref: RIC-IV-I-135, RSC-122,
Q-001
quadrans
051_Caracalla,_Laodicea,_RIC_IV-I_335,_AR-Den,_IMP_C_M_AVR_ANTON_AVG_P_TR_P,_IVSTITIA,_RSC_113,_BMC_637,_198_AD,_Q-001,_11h,_16,5-18,5mm,_3,48g-s.jpg
051 Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), RIC IV-I 335, Laodiceia, AR-Denarius, IVSTITIA, Justitia seated left, #154 views051 Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), RIC IV-I 335, Laodiceia, AR-Denarius, IVSTITIA, Justitia seated left, #1
avers: IMP C M AVR ANTON AVG P TR P, Youthful, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
reverse: IVSTITIA, Justitia seated left, holding globe and scepter.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 16,5-18,5mm, weight: 3,48g, axis: 11h,
mint: Laodiceia, date: 198 A.D., ref: RIC IV-I 335, RSC 113, BMCRE 637,
Q-001
quadrans
051_Caracalla,_Laodicea,_RIC_IV-I_351var_,_AR-Den,_ANTONINVS_AVGVSTVS,_SECVRI-T_ORBIS,_RSC_573a,_BMC_703,_200-1_AD,_Q-001,_11h,_18,5-19mm,_3,0g-s.jpg
051 Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), RIC IV-I 351.var., Laodicea, AR-Denarius,SECVRI T ORBIS, Securitas seated left, #1 65 views051 Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), RIC IV-I 351.var., Laodicea, AR-Denarius,SECVRI T ORBIS, Securitas seated left, #1
avers: ANTONINVS AVGVSTVS, Youthful bust of Caracalla laureate, draped to right seen from behind.
reverse: SECVRI T ORBIS, Securitas seated left, holding scepter in right hand, head resting on left.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 18,5-19,0mm, weight: 3,00g, axis: 11h,
mint: Laodiceia, date: 200-201 A.D., ref: RIC IV-I 351.var., RSC 573a, BMCRE 703, SEV 400(Barry P. Murphy),
Q-001
quadrans
051_Caracalla_RIC_IV-I_354_AR-Den_ANTONINVS-AVGVSTVS_VIR-T-AVGG_RIC-IV-I-354_p-_RSC-664a_SEV-401(BM)_Laodiceia_199-200-AD_Q-001_0h_17,4-19,0mm_3,05g-s.jpg
051 Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), RIC IV-I 354, Laodiceia, AR-Denarius, VIRT AVG G, Virtus standing left, 107 views051 Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), RIC IV-I 354, Laodiceia, AR-Denarius, VIRT AVG G, Virtus standing left,
avers: ANTONINVS AVGVSTVS, Youthful bust of Caracalla laureate, draped and cuirassed to right seen from behind.
reverse: VIR T AVG G, Virtus standing left, holding Victory in right hand, reversed spear in left.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 17,4-19,0mm, weight: 3,05g, axis: 0h,
mint: Laodiceia, date: 199-200 A.D., ref: RIC IV-I 354, RSC 664a, BMCRE 710, SEV 401(Barry P. Murphy),
Q-001
quadrans
051_Caracalla_AE-18,_Varb_III1583,_Thrace,_Philippopolis,_coiled_serpent_Q-001,_0h,_17,5-19mm,_5,91g-s.jpg
051p Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), Thrace, Philippopolis, Varbanov III 1583, AE-18, ΦIΛIΠΠOΠOΛITΩN, Coiled serpent with head left,115 views051p Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), Thrace, Philippopolis, Varbanov III 1583, AE-18, ΦIΛIΠΠOΠOΛITΩN, Coiled serpent with head left,
avers: M AV KAIC ANTΩNEINOC, Youthful, bare-headed, draped bust right.
reverse: ΦIΛIΠΠOΠOΛITΩN, Coiled serpent with head left.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 17,5-19,0mm, weight: 5,91g, axis: 0h,
mint: Trache, Philippopolis, date: A.D., ref: Varbanov III 1583,
Q-001
quadrans
Tituria1DenSabines.jpg
0a Abduction of the Sabines21 viewsL Titurius Sabinus, moneyer
90-85 BC

Head of Tativs, right, SABIN behind
Two Roman soldiers bearing women

Seaby, Tituria 1

When the hour for the games had come, and their eyes and minds were alike riveted on the spectacle before them, the preconcerted signal was given and the Roman youth dashed in all directions to carry off the [Sabine] maidens who were present. The larger part were carried off indiscriminately, but some particularly beautiful girls who had been marked out for the leading patricians were carried to their houses by plebeians told off for the task. One, conspicuous amongst them all for grace and beauty, is reported to have been carried off by a group led by a certain Talassius, and to the many inquiries as to whom she was intended for, the invariable answer was given, "For Talassius." Hence the use of this word in the marriage rites. Alarm and consternation broke up the games, and the parents of the maidens fled, distracted with grief, uttering bitter reproaches on the violators of the laws of hospitality and appealing to the god to whose solemn games they had come, only to be the victims of impious perfidy. The abducted maidens were quite as despondent and indignant. Romulus, however, went round in person, and pointed out to them that it was all owing to the pride of their parents in denying right of intermarriage to their neighbours. They would live in honourable wedlock, and share all their property and civil rights, and - dearest of all to human nature - would be the mothers of freemen. He begged them to lay aside their feelings of resentment and give their affections to those whom fortune had made masters of their persons. An injury had often led to reconciliation and love; they would find their husbands all the more affectionate, because each would do his utmost, so far as in him lay, to make up for the loss of parents and country. These arguments were reinforced by the endearments of their husbands, who excused their conduct by pleading the irresistible force of their passion - a plea effective beyond all others in appealing to a woman's nature.

The feelings of the abducted maidens were now pretty completely appeased, but not so those of their parents.

Livy, History of Rome 1.9-1.10
1 commentsBlindado
Sulla_L_Manlius_den.jpg
0ab Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix23 viewsL Manlivs, moneyer
82-72 BC

Denarius

Head of Roma, right, MANLI before, PRO Q behind
Sulla in walking quadriga, crowned by Victory, L SVLLA IM in ex.

Seaby, Manlia 4

Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix (c. 138 BC – 78 BC) was a Roman general and conservative statesman. He had the distinction of holding the office of consul twice, as well as reviving the dictatorship. Sulla was awarded a grass crown, the most prestigious and rarest Roman military honor, during the Social War. He was the first man to lead an army to Rome to settle a political dispute, in this case with Marius. In late 81 BC, he stunned the world by resigning his near-absolute powers, restoring constitutional government. After seeing election to and holding a second consulship, he retired to private life and died shortly after.

As to the person, Plutarch wrote: LUCIUS Cornelius Sylla was descended of a patrician or noble family. . . . His general personal appearance may be known by his statues; only his blue, eyes, of themselves extremely keen and glaring, were rendered all the more forbidding and terrible by the complexion of his face, in which white was mixed with rough blotches of fiery red. . . . And when supreme master of all, he was often wont to muster together the most impudent players and stage-followers of the town, and to drink and bandy jests with them without regard to his age or the dignity of his place, and to the prejudice of important affairs that required his attention. When he was once at table, it was not in Sylla's nature to admit of anything that was serious, and whereas at other times he was a man of business and austere of countenance, he underwent all of a sudden, at his first entrance upon wine and good-fellowship, a total revolution, and was gentle and tractable with common singers and dancers, and ready to oblige any one that spoke with him. It seems to have been a sort of diseased result of this laxity that he was so prone to amorous pleasures, and yielded without resistance to any temptation of voluptuousness, from which even in his old age he could not refrain. He had a long attachment for Metrobius, a player. In his first amours, it happened that he made court to a common but rich lady, Nicopolis by name, and what by the air of his youth, and what by long intimacy, won so far on her affections, that she rather than he was the lover, and at her death she bequeathed him her whole property. He likewise inherited the estate of a step-mother who loved him as her own son. By these means he had pretty well advanced his fortunes. . . . In general he would seem to have been of a very irregular character, full of inconsistencies with himself much given to rapine, to prodigality yet more; in promoting or disgracing whom he pleased, alike unaccountable; cringing to those he stood in need of, and domineering over others who stood in need of him, so that it was hard to tell whether his nature had more in it of pride or of servility. As to his unequal distribution of punishments, as, for example, that upon slight grounds he would put to the torture, and again would bear patiently with the greatest wrongs; would readily forgive and he reconciled after the most heinous acts of enmity, and yet would visit small and inconsiderable offences with death and confiscation of goods; one might judge that in himself he was really of a violent and revengeful nature, which, however, he could qualify, upon reflection, for his interest.
Blindado
795_P_Hadrian_RPC.JPG
1259 LYDIA, Julia Gordus Pseudo-autonomous AE 20 under Hadrian Mên standing18 viewsReference.
RPC 4, 1259; BMC 5

Obv. ΙƐΡΑ СΥΝΚΛΗΤοc
draped bust of the Senate (youthful), right

Rev. ΓΟΡΔΗΝΩΝ ΙΟΥΛΙΕΩΝ
Mên standing, l., wearing Phrygian cap, holding patera and long sceptre; behind his shoulders, crescent

5.94 gr
20 mm
6h
1 commentsokidoki
RI_130ad_img.jpg
130 - Tacitus Antoninianus - RIC 049 51 viewsObv:– IMP C CL TACITVS AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– PROVID DEOR, Providentia standing left, holding baton and cornucopia; at foot, globe
Minted in Lugdunum (no marks), Emission 1, from October to December A.D. 275
References:– Cohen 64. Bastien 41. RIC 49 Bust Type C

A youthful portrait of this elderly senator (75 years old) promoted to Emperor by the Senate.
2 commentsMartin Griffiths
GaleriusAugCyz.jpg
1303a, Galerius, 1 March 305 - 5 May 311 A.D.34 viewsGalerius, RIC VI 59, Cyzicus S, VF, Cyzicus S, 6.4 g, 25.86 mm; 309-310 AD; Obverse: GAL MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, laureate bust right; Reverse: GENIO A-VGVS[TI], Genius stg. left, naked but for chlamys over left shoulder, holding patera and cornucopiae. A nice example with sharp detail and nice brown hoard patina. Ex Ancient Imports.


De Imperatoribus Romanis,
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Galerius (305-311 A.D.)

Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Salve Regina University


Caius Galerius Valerius Maximianus, more commonly known as Galerius, was from Illyricum; his father, whose name is unknown, was of peasant stock, while his mother, Romula, was from beyond the Danube. Galerius was born in Dacia Ripensis near Sardica. Although the date of his birth is unknown, he was probably born ca. 250 since he served under Aurelian. As a youth Galerius was a shepherd and acquired the nickname Armentarius. Although he seems to have started his military career under Aurelian and Probus, nothing is known about it before his accession as Caesar on 1 March 293. He served as Diocletian's Caesar in the East. Abandoning his first wife, he married Diocletian's daugher, Valeria.

As Caesar he campaigned in Egypt in 294; he seems to have taken to the field against Narses of Persia, and was defeated near Ctesiphon in 295. In 298, after he made inroads into Armenia, he obtained a treaty from the Persians favorable to the Romans. Between 299-305 he overcame the Sarmatians and the Carpi along the Danube. The Great Persecution of the Orthodox Church, which was started in 303 by the Emperor Diocletian, was probably instigated by Galerius. Because of the almost fatal illness that he contracted toward the end of 304, Diocletian, at Nicomedeia, and Maximianus Herculius, at Mediolanum, divested themselves of the purple on 1 May 305. Constantius and Galerius were appointed as Augusti, with Maximinus Daia and Severus as the new Caesars. Constantius and Severus reigned in the West, whereas Galerius' and Daia's realm was the East. Although Constantius was nominally senior Augustus, the real power was in the hands of Galerius because both Caesars were his creatures.

The balance of power shifted at the end of July 306 when Constantius, with his son Constantine at his side, passed away at York in Britain where he was preparing to face incursions by the Picts; his army proclaimed Constantine his successor immediately. As soon as he received the news of the death of Constantius I and the acclamation of Constantine to the purple, Galerius raised Severus to the rank of Augustus to replace his dead colleague in August 306. Making the best of a bad situation, Galerius accepted Constantine as the new Caesar in the West. The situation became more complicated when Maxentius, with his father Maximianus Herculius acquiesing, declared himself princes on 28 October 306. When Galerius learned about the acclamation of the usurper, he dispatched the Emperor Severus to put down the rebellion. Severus took a large field army which had formerly been that of Maximianus and proceeded toward Rome and began to besiege the city, Maxentius, however, and Maximianus, by means of a ruse, convinced Severus to surrender. Later, in 307, Severus was put to death under clouded circumstances. While Severus was fighting in the west, Galerius, during late 306 or early 307, was campaigning against the Sarmatians.

In the early summer of 307 Galerius invaded Italy to avenge Severus's death; he advanced to the south and encamped at Interamna near the Tiber. His attempt to besiege the city was abortive because his army was too small to encompass the city's fortifications. Not trusting his own troops, Galerius withdrew. During its retreat, his army ravaged the Italian countryside as it was returning to its original base. When Maximianus Herculius' attempts to regain the throne between 308 and 310 by pushing his son off his throne or by winning over Constantine to his cause failed, he tried to win Diocletian and Galerius over to his side at Carnuntum in October and November 308; the outcome of the Conference at Carnuntum was that Licinius was appointed Augustus in Severus's place, that Daia and Constantine were denoted filii Augustorum, and that Herculius was completely cut out of the picture. Later, in 310, Herculius died, having been implicated in a plot against his son-in-law. After the Conference at Carnuntum, Galerius returned to Sardica where he died in the opening days of May 311.

By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University; Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Galerius was Caesar and tetrarch under Maximianus. Although a talented general and administrator, Galerius is better known for his key role in the "Great Persecution" of Christians. He stopped the persecution under condition the Christians pray for his return to health from a serious illness. Galerius died horribly shortly after. Joseph Sermarini, FORVM.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.



Cleisthenes
Henry_VIII_Halfgroat_Thomas_Wolsey.JPG
1509 - 1547, HENRY VIII, AR Half-groat, Struck 1515 - 1530 at York, England under Archbishop Thomas (Cardinal) Wolsey13 viewsObverse: HENRIC•VIII•D•G•R•AGL•Z•F•. Youthful profile crowned bust of Henry VIII facing right within circle of pellets. Mint-mark: Voided cross.
Reverse: CIVITAS EBORACI. Shield bearing coat-of-arms on cross fourchée; T - W in upper field divided by shield; galero (cardinal's hat) below.
Diameter: 19mm | Weight: 1.0gm | Die Axis: 8
Virtually uncirculated but with a dark, almost black, tone
SPINK: 2346

The T W on the reverse of this coin refers to Thomas Wolsey, known to posterity as Cardinal Wolsey, one of the most powerful figures at the court of Henry VIII. Although this coin is undated, the issue of Henry VIII's second coinage only began in 1526 and so, since Cardinal Wolsey died in 1530, it must have been struck between those two dates.

Cardinal Wolsey
When Henry VIII became King of England in 1509 he appointed Thomas Wolsey to the post of Almoner, a position that gave him a seat on the Privy Council and an opportunity for establishing a personal rapport with the King to such an extent that by 1514 Wolsey had become the controlling figure in virtually all matters of state. In 1515, he was awarded the title Archbishop of York and this, followed by his appointment that same year as Cardinal by Pope Leo X, gave him precedence over all other English clerics. His ecclesiastical power advanced even further in 1523 when the Bishop of Durham, a post with wide political powers, was added to his titles.
After Wolsey attained the position of Lord Chancellor, the King's chief adviser, he had achieved more power than any other Crown servant in English history and during his fourteen years of chancellorship Wolsey, who was often alluded to as an alter rex (other king), used his power to neutralise the influence of anyone who might threaten his position..
In spite of having made many enemies, Cardinal Wolsey retained Henry VIII's confidence until, in 1527, the King decided to seek an annulment of his marriage to Catherine of Aragon so that he could marry Anne Boleyn. Henry asked Wolsey to negotiate the annulment with the Pope and in 1528 the Pope decided to allow two papal legates, Wolsey himself and Cardinal Campeggio, to decide the outcome in England. Wolsey was confident of the outcome, but Campeggio took a long time to arrive, and then he delayed proceedings so much, that the case had to be suspended and the Pope decided that the official decision should therefore be made in Rome and not in England.
After his failure to negotiate the annulment, Wolsey fell out of favour with Henry and in 1529 he was stripped of his government office and property, including the magnificent Palace of Hampton Court, which Henry took as his own main London residence.
Wolsey was however permitted to retain the title of Archbishop of York and so he travelled to Yorkshire, for the first time in his career, to carry out those duties.
Now that he was no longer protected by Henry, Wolsey's enemies, including it is rumoured, Ann Boleyn, conspired against him and Henry had him arrested and recalled to London to answer to charges of treason. But Wolsey, now in great distress, fell ill on the journey back to the capital and at Leicester, on 29 November 1530, aged about 57, he died from natural causes before he could be beheaded.
1 comments*Alex
1106_P_Hadrian_RPC--.jpg
1527A Hadrian, Cistophorus Uncertain mint in Asia Minor. 128 AD23 viewsReference.
Metcalf -. RIC -. RPC III 1527A

Obv. HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS P P
Bare head of Hadrian to right.

Rev. COS III
Youthful male figure (Apollo?) standing front, head to left, holding long scepter.

10.75 gr
29 mm
6h

Note.
Apparently unpublished and unique
1 commentsokidoki
Saladin_A788.jpg
1701a, Saladin, 1169-11932024 viewsAYYUBID: Saladin, 1169-1193, AR dirham (2.92g), Halab, AH580, A-788, lovely struck, well-centered & bold, Extremely Fine, Scarce.

His name in Arabic, in full, is SALAH AD-DIN YUSUF IBN AYYUB ("Righteousness of the Faith, Joseph, Son of Job"), also called AL-MALIK AN-NASIR SALAH AD-DIN YUSUF I (b. 1137/38, Tikrit, Mesopotamia--d. March 4, 1193, Damascus), Muslim sultan of Egypt, Syria, Yemen, and Palestine, founder of the Ayyubid dynasty, and the most famous of Muslim heroes.

In wars against the Christian crusaders, he achieved final success with the disciplined capture of Jerusalem (Oct. 2, 1187), ending its 88-year occupation by the Franks. The great Christian counterattack of the Third Crusade was then stalemated by Saladin's military genius.

Saladin was born into a prominent Kurdish family. On the night of his birth, his father, Najm ad-Din Ayyub, gathered his family and moved to Aleppo, there entering the service of 'Imad ad-Din Zangi ibn Aq Sonqur, the powerful Turkish governor in northern Syria. Growing up in Ba'lbek and Damascus, Saladin was apparently an undistinguished youth, with a greater taste for religious studies than military training.
His formal career began when he joined the staff of his uncle Asad ad-Din Shirkuh, an important military commander under the amir Nureddin, son and successor of Zangi. During three military expeditions led by Shirkuh into Egypt to prevent its falling to the Latin-Christian (Frankish) rulers of the states established by the First Crusade, a complex, three-way struggle developed between Amalric I, the Latin king of Jerusalem, Shawar, the powerful vizier of the Egyptian Fatimid caliph, and Shirkuh. After Shirkuh's death and after ordering Shawar's assassination, Saladin, in 1169 at the age of 31, was appointed both commander of the Syrian troops and vizier of Egypt.

His relatively quick rise to power must be attributed not only to the clannish nepotism of his Kurdish family but also to his own emerging talents. As vizier of Egypt, he received the title king (malik), although he was generally known as the sultan. Saladin's position was further enhanced when, in 1171, he abolished the Shi'i Fatimid caliphate, proclaimed a return to Sunnah in Egypt, and consequently became its sole ruler.

Although he remained for a time theoretically a vassal of Nureddin, that relationship ended with the Syrian emir's death in 1174. Using his rich agricultural possessions in Egypt as a financial base, Saladin soon moved into Syria with a small but strictly disciplined army to claim the regency on behalf of the young son of his former suzerain.
Soon, however, he abandoned this claim, and from 1174 until 1186 he zealously pursued a goal of uniting, under his own standard, all the Muslim territories of Syria, northern Mesopotamia, Palestine, and Egypt.

This he accomplished by skillful diplomacy backed when necessary by the swift and resolute use of military force. Gradually, his reputation grew as a generous and virtuous but firm ruler, devoid of pretense, licentiousness, and cruelty. In contrast to the bitter dissension and intense rivalry that had up to then hampered the Muslims in their resistance to the crusaders, Saladin's singleness of purpose induced them to rearm both physically and spiritually.

Saladin's every act was inspired by an intense and unwavering devotion to the idea of jihad ("holy war")-the Muslim equivalent of the Christian crusade. It was an essential part of his policy to encourage the growth and spread of Muslim religious institutions.

He courted its scholars and preachers, founded colleges and mosques for their use, and commissioned them to write edifying works especially on the jihad itself. Through moral regeneration, which was a genuine part of his own way of life, he tried to re-create in his own realm some of the same zeal and enthusiasm that had proved so valuable to the first generations of Muslims when, five centuries before, they had conquered half the known world.

Saladin also succeeded in turning the military balance of power in his favour-more by uniting and disciplining a great number of unruly forces than by employing new or improved military techniques. When at last, in 1187, he was able to throw his full strength into the struggle with the Latin crusader kingdoms, his armies were their equals. On July 4, 1187, aided by his own military good sense and by a phenomenal lack of it on the part of his enemy, Saladin trapped and destroyed in one blow an exhausted and thirst-crazed army of crusaders at Hattin, near Tiberias in northern Palestine.

So great were the losses in the ranks of the crusaders in this one battle that the Muslims were quickly able to overrun nearly the entire Kingdom of Jerusalem. Acre, Toron, Beirut, Sidon, Nazareth, Caesarea, Nabulus, Jaffa (Yafo), and Ascalon (Ashqelon) fell within three months.

But Saladin's crowning achievement and the most disastrous blow to the whole crusading movement came on Oct. 2, 1187, when Jerusalem, holy to both Muslim and Christian alike, surrendered to the Sultan's army after 88 years in the hands of the Franks. In stark contrast to the city's conquest by the Christians, when blood flowed freely during the barbaric slaughter of its inhabitants, the Muslim reconquest was marked by the civilized and courteous behaviour of Saladin and his troops. His sudden success, which in 1189 saw the crusaders reduced to the occupation of only three cities, was, however, marred by his failure to capture Tyre, an almost impregnable coastal fortress to which the scattered Christian survivors of the recent battles flocked. It was to be the rallying point of the Latin counterattack.

Most probably, Saladin did not anticipate the European reaction to his capture of Jerusalem, an event that deeply shocked the West and to which it responded with a new call for a crusade. In addition to many great nobles and famous knights, this crusade, the third, brought the kings of three countries into the struggle.

The magnitude of the Christian effort and the lasting impression it made on contemporaries gave the name of Saladin, as their gallant and chivalrous enemy, an added lustre that his military victories alone could never confer on him.

The Crusade itself was long and exhausting, and, despite the obvious, though at times impulsive, military genius of Richard I the Lion-Heart, it achieved almost nothing. Therein lies the greatest-but often unrecognized--achievement of Saladin. With tired and unwilling feudal levies, committed to fight only a limited season each year, his indomitable will enabled him to fight the greatest champions of Christendom to a draw. The crusaders retained little more than a precarious foothold on the Levantine coast, and when King Richard set sail from the Orient in October 1192, the battle was over.

Saladin withdrew to his capital at Damascus. Soon, the long campaigning seasons and the endless hours in the saddle caught up with him, and he died. While his relatives were already scrambling for pieces of the empire, his friends found that the most powerful and most generous ruler in the Muslim world had not left enough money to pay for his own grave.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
H.A.R. Gibb, "The Arabic Sources for the Life of Saladin," Speculum, 25:58-72 (1950). C.W. Wilson's English translation of one of the most important Arabic works, The Life of Saladin (1897), was reprinted in 1971. The best biography to date is Stanley Lane-Poole, Saladin and the Fall of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, new ed. (1926, reprinted 1964), although it does not take account of all the sources.
See: http://stp.ling.uu.se/~kamalk/language/saladin.html
Ed. J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
1 commentsCleisthenes
750_P_Hadrian_pseudo_RPC_1741.jpg
1741 MYSIA, Pergamon AE 18 Pseudo-autonomous under Hadrian 134 AD nude male25 viewsReference.
RPC 3, 1741; BMC 227-30, Cop 448-50, SNG France 1953-6

Magistrate I. Pôlliôn (strategos)

Obv. ΠΕΡΓΑΜΗΝΩΝ
Helmeted head of Athena, right; with snake aegis

Rev. CTP I ΠOΛΛIΩNOC
Nude male youth standing facing, his r. hand raised, holding uncertain object in l.

2.59 gr
17 mm
12h
2 commentsokidoki
1794_EARL_HOWE.JPG
1794 AE Halfpenny, Emsworth, Hampshire.84 viewsObverse: EARL HOWE & THE GLORIOUS FIRST OF JUNE. "Youthful" bust of Earl Howe, wearing tricorn hat and with hair in long pigtail tied with a ribbon, facing left.
Reverse: RULE BRITANNIA. Britannia facing left, seated on globe, her right hand holding spear, her left arm holding laurel-branch and resting on shield at her side; in exergue, 1794.
Edge: “PAYABLE AT LONDON LIVERPOOL OR BRISTOL •.
Diameter: 29mm.
Dalton & Hamer: 13

During the 18th and 19th centuries Emsworth was a busy little port, known for shipbuilding, boat building and rope making. Grain from the area was ground into flour by tidal mills at Emsworth and the flour was then transported by ship to places like London and Portsmouth. Timber from the area was also exported from Emsworth in the 18th and 19th centuries.

This token was probably issued by John Stride, a grocer and tea dealer with a business in Emsworth, and the dies were likely engraved by Thomas Wyon. The token was probably manufactured by Peter Kempson at his mint in Birmingham.
These 18th century tokens are often generically referred to as “Conder” tokens, the name originating from James Conder, a linen draper from Tavern Street in Ipswich. Conder was an ardent collector of tokens and the author of the standard work on the subject until it was superseded by that of Atkins in 1892.

Richard Howe, 1st Earl Howe, Knight of the Garter and Admiral of the Fleet was born on 8th March, 1726. He was a British naval officer notable in particular for his service during the American War of Independence and the French Revolutionary Wars. He died on the 5th of August, 1799.

The Glorious First of June, 1794 was the first and largest fleet action of the naval conflict between Britain and the French during the French Revolutionary Wars. The British, under Admiral Lord Howe, attempted to prevent the passage of a vital grain convoy from the United States, which was protected by the French fleet commanded by Vice-Admiral Louis Thomas Villaret de Joyeuse. The two forces clashed in the Atlantic Ocean, some 400 nautical miles west of the French island of Ushant, on the first of June 1794. During the battle both fleets were so severely damaged that both Howe and Villaret were compelled to return to their home ports. Both sides claimed victory and the outcome of the battle was seized upon by the press of both nations as a demonstration of the prowess and bravery of their respective navies.
*Alex
1860_Victoria_Farthing.JPG
1860 VICTORIA BRONZE "BUN HEAD" FARTHING36 viewsObverse: VICTORIA D:G: BRITT:REG:F:D: "Bun head" bust of Queen Victoria with youthful features facing left.
Reverse: FARTHING. Britannia seated facing right, her right hand resting on shield, her left holding a trident; in left background, a lighthouse and in right background, a ship; 1860 in exergue.
SPINK: 3958

Victoria's "bun head" portrait was designed by Leonard Charles Wyon (1826 - 1891), he was the eldest son of William Wyon, who had previously designed the "young head" portrait of the Queen. The letters L C WYON are incuse amongst the ornamentation of the Queen's dress.
*Alex
Victoria_BH_halfpence_1862.JPG
1862 VICTORIA BRONZE "BUN HEAD" HALFPENNY4 viewsObverse: VICTORIA D:G: BRITT:REG:F:D: "Bun head" bust of Queen Victoria with youthful features facing left.
Reverse: HALF PENNY. Britannia seated facing right, her right hand resting on shield, her left holding a trident; in left background, a lighthouse and in right background, a ship; 1862 in exergue.
Diameter 25mm
SPINK: 3956

Victoria's "bun head" portrait was designed by Leonard Charles Wyon (1826 - 1891), he was the eldest son of William Wyon, who had previously designed the "young head" portrait of the Queen. The letters L C WYON are incuse amongst the ornamentation of the Queen's dress.
*Alex
998_P_Hadrian_RPC--.jpg
1926B AEOLIS. Aegae. Pseudo-autonomous under Hadrian Ae 18 statue of Apollo Chresterios10 viewsReference.
RPC --; RPC III, 1926B

Magistrate Oul. Polemôn (agô(nothete) (?))

Obv: IЄPA CVNKΛHTOC.
Laureate and draped youthful bust of the Senate right.

Rev: ЄΠI AΓΩ OVΛ ΠOΛЄMON / AI - ΓA.
Facing statue of Apollo Chresterios, with branch in hand.

3.84 gr
18 mm
12h

Note.
RPC III - (though cf. 1926 for a coin of Sabina from the same magistrate)

Agonothetes was a magistrate whose duty was the superintendence of games.

Aigai was the centre of the worshipping of Apollo Chresterios, meaning the foresayer, the prophet. It is known from an inscription that about 250 BC the inhabitants of Istros have sent a delegation to Aigai asking wether the oracle would tolerate the introducing of Serapis to Istros.
okidoki
Manlia4.jpg
1aa Reign of SVLLA23 viewsL Manlivs, moneyer
82-72 BC

Denarius

Head of Roma, right, MANLI before, PRO Q behind
Sulla in walking quadriga, crowned by Victory, L SVLLA IM in ex.

Seaby, Manlia 4

Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix (c. 138 BC – 78 BC) was a Roman general and conservative statesman. He had the distinction of holding the office of consul twice, as well as reviving the dictatorship. Sulla was awarded a grass crown, the most prestigious and rarest Roman military honor, during the Social War. He was the first man to lead an army to Rome to settle a political dispute, in this case with Marius. In late 81 BC, he stunned the world by resigning his near-absolute powers, restoring constitutional government. After seeing election to and holding a second consulship, he retired to private life and died shortly after.

As to the person, Plutarch wrote: LUCIUS Cornelius Sylla was descended of a patrician or noble family. . . . His general personal appearance may be known by his statues; only his blue, eyes, of themselves extremely keen and glaring, were rendered all the more forbidding and terrible by the complexion of his face, in which white was mixed with rough blotches of fiery red. . . . And when supreme master of all, he was often wont to muster together the most impudent players and stage-followers of the town, and to drink and bandy jests with them without regard to his age or the dignity of his place, and to the prejudice of important affairs that required his attention. When he was once at table, it was not in Sylla's nature to admit of anything that was serious, and whereas at other times he was a man of business and austere of countenance, he underwent all of a sudden, at his first entrance upon wine and good-fellowship, a total revolution, and was gentle and tractable with common singers and dancers, and ready to oblige any one that spoke with him. It seems to have been a sort of diseased result of this laxity that he was so prone to amorous pleasures, and yielded without resistance to any temptation of voluptuousness, from which even in his old age he could not refrain. He had a long attachment for Metrobius, a player. In his first amours, it happened that he made court to a common but rich lady, Nicopolis by name, and what by the air of his youth, and what by long intimacy, won so far on her affections, that she rather than he was the lover, and at her death she bequeathed him her whole property. He likewise inherited the estate of a step-mother who loved him as her own son. By these means he had pretty well advanced his fortunes. . . . In general he would seem to have been of a very irregular character, full of inconsistencies with himself much given to rapine, to prodigality yet more; in promoting or disgracing whom he pleased, alike unaccountable; cringing to those he stood in need of, and domineering over others who stood in need of him, so that it was hard to tell whether his nature had more in it of pride or of servility. As to his unequal distribution of punishments, as, for example, that upon slight grounds he would put to the torture, and again would bear patiently with the greatest wrongs; would readily forgive and he reconciled after the most heinous acts of enmity, and yet would visit small and inconsiderable offences with death and confiscation of goods; one might judge that in himself he was really of a violent and revengeful nature, which, however, he could qualify, upon reflection, for his interest.
Blindado
MarcAntDenOctavian.jpg
1ae Marc Antony and Octavian43 viewsFormed the Second Triumvirate, 43-33 BC, , along with Marcus Aemilius Lepidus. Antony killed himself in 30 BC.

Denarius
41 BC

Marc Antony portrait, right, M ANT IMP AVG III VIR RPCM BARBAT QP
Octavian portrait, right, CAESAR IMP PONT III VIR RPC

RSC 8

Plutarch described Antony thusly: Antony grew up a very beautiful youth, but by the worst of misfortunes, he fell into the acquaintance and friendship of Curio, a man abandoned to his pleasures, who, to make Antony's dependence upon him a matter of greater necessity, plunged him into a life of drinking and dissipation, and led him through a course of such extravagance that he ran, at that early age, into debt to the amount of two hundred and fifty talents. . . . He took most to what was called the Asiatic taste in speaking, which was then at its height, and was, in many ways, suitable to his ostentatious, vaunting temper, full of empty flourishes and unsteady efforts for glory. . . . He had also a very good and noble appearance; his beard was well grown, his forehead large, and his nose aquiline, giving him altogether a bold, masculine look that reminded people of the faces of Hercules in paintings and sculptures. It was, moreover, an ancient tradition, that the Antonys were descended from Hercules, by a son of his called Anton; and this opinion he thought to give credit to by the similarity of his person just mentioned, and also by the fashion of his dress. For, whenever he had to appear before large numbers, he wore his tunic girt low about the hips, a broadsword on his side, and over all a large coarse mantle. What might seem to some very insupportable, his vaunting, his raillery, his drinking in public, sitting down by the men as they were taking their food, and eating, as he stood, off the common soldiers' tables, made him the delight and pleasure of the army. In love affairs, also, he was very agreeable: he gained many friends by the assistance he gave them in theirs, and took other people's raillery upon his own with good-humour. And his generous ways, his open and lavish hand in gifts and favours to his friends and fellow-soldiers, did a great deal for him in his first advance to power, and after he had become great, long maintained his fortunes, when a thousand follies were hastening their overthrow.
1 commentsBlindado
AugustusDenApollo.jpg
1ai Augustus25 views27 BC-14 AD

Denarius
Laureate head left, AVGVSTVS DIVI F
Apollo stg. Right, IMP XII

Van Meter notes that after about 15 BC, Augustus moved the production of gold and silver to Lugdunum and underscored the end of the moneyer issues by using "IMP" on the reverse.

RIC 180

Suetonius summarized Augusts' life in these words: He lost his father at the age of five (58BC). At twelve he delivered a funeral oration in honour of his grandmother Julia, Julius Caesar’s sister (51BC). At sixteen, having assumed the toga, he was decorated by Caesar during the African triumph (46BC) even though he had been too young to fight. When Caesar went to conquer Pompey’s sons in Spain (in 46BC), Augustus followed, despite still being weak from severe illness, and despite being shipwrecked on the way, with a minimal escort, over roads menaced by the enemy, so endearing himself greatly to Caesar, who quickly formed a high opinion of Augustus’ character, beyond merely his energetic pursuit of the journey.
After recovering the Spanish provinces, Caesar planned an expedition against the Dacians, to be followed by an attack on Parthia, and sent Augustus ahead (in 45BC) to Apollonia in Illyria, where he spent his time studying. When news came of Caesar’s assassination (in 44BC), and that the will named him as the main heir, Augustus considered seeking protection from the legions quartered there. However he decided it would be rash and premature, and chose to return to Rome, and enter on his inheritance, despite the doubts expressed by his mother, and strong opposition from his stepfather, the ex-consul Marcius Philippus.

Augustus went on to levy armies and rule the State; firstly for a twelve-year period (from 43BC to 30BC), initially with Mark Antony and Lepidus and then (from 33BC) with Antony alone; and later by himself for a further forty-four years (to his death in AD14).

In his youth he was betrothed to Servilia, the daughter of Publius Servilius Vatia Isauricus, but on his reconciliation with Mark Antony following their first dispute, the troops begged them to become allied by some tie of kinship, and he married (in 43BC) Claudia, Antony’s stepdaughter, born to Fulvia and Publius Clodius Pulcher, even though Claudia was barely of marriageable age. However he quarrelled with Fulvia, and divorced Claudia before the marriage had been consummated.

Not long afterwards (in 40BC), he married Scribonia, whose previous husbands had been ex-consuls, and to one of whom she had borne a child. He divorced her also ‘tired’, he wrote, ‘of her shrewish ways,’ and immediately took Livia Drusilla from her husband Tiberius Nero though she was pregnant at the time (38BC), loving and esteeming her alone to the end.
Blindado
ClaudiusAsLibertas.jpg
1ap Claudius29 views41-54

As
Bare head, left, TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP
Libertas, LIBERTAS AVGVSTA SC

RIC 97

According to Suetonius: Claudius was born at Lugdunum (Lyon) on the 1st of August 10BC in the consulship of Iullus Antonius and Fabius Africanus, on the day when the very first altar to Augustus was dedicated there, the child being given the name Tiberius Claudius Drusus. When his elder brother Germanicus was adopted into the Julian family (in 4 AD), he added the name Germanicus also. He lost his father when still an infant (in 9 BC), and throughout his childhood and youth was severely afflicted by various stubborn ailments so that his mind and body lacked vigour, and even when he attained his majority he was not considered capable of a public or private career.

Nevertheless, he applied himself to liberal studies from his earliest youth, and often published examples of his proficiency in each area, though even so he was excluded from public office and failed to inspire any brighter hopes for his future. His mother Antonia the Younger often condemned him as an unfinished freak of Nature, and when accusing someone of stupidity would say: ‘He’s a bigger fool than my son Claudius.’ His grandmother Augusta (Livia) always treated him with utter contempt, and rarely even spoke to him, admonishing him, when she chose to do so, in brief harsh missives, or via her messengers. When his sister Livilla heard the prophecy that he would be Emperor some day, she prayed openly and loudly that Rome might be spared so cruel and unmerited a fate.

Having spent the larger part of his life in such circumstances, he became emperor at the age of fifty (in AD41) by a remarkable stroke of fate. Caligula’s assassins had dispersed the crowd on the pretext that the Emperor wished for solitude, and Claudius, shut out with the rest, retired to a room called the Hermaeum, but shortly afterwards, terrified by news of the murder, crept off to a nearby balcony and hid behind the door-curtains. A Guard, who was wandering about the Palace at random, spotting a pair of feet beneath the curtain where Claudius was cowering, dragged the man out to identify him, and as Claudius fell to the ground in fear, recognised him, and acclaimed him Emperor.

Eutropius summarizes: His reign was of no striking character; he acted, in many respects, with gentleness and moderation, in some with cruelty and folly. He made war upon Britain, which no Roman since Julius Caesar had visited; and, having reduced it through the agency of Cnaeus Sentius and Aulus Plautius, illustrious and noble men, he celebrated a magnificent triumph. Certain islands also, called the Orcades, situated in the ocean, beyond Britain, he added to the Roman empire, and gave his son the name of Britannicus. . . . He lived to the age of sixty-four, and reigned fourteen years; and after his death was consecrated3 and deified.

This was the first "good" coin I ever bought and therefore marks the begiining of an addiction.
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As

Bare head, right, IMP NERO CAESAR AVG P MAX TR P P P
Genius, GENIO AVGVSTI

RIC 86

Suetonius wrote: Nero was born nine months after the death of Tiberius, at Antium, at sunrise on the 15th of December (AD 37). . . . While he was still a young stripling he took part in a successful performance of the Troy Game in the Circus, in which he exhibited great self-possession. At the age of twelve or so (sometime in AD 50), he was adopted by Claudius, who appointed Annaeus Seneca, already a member of the Senate, as his tutor. The following night, it is said, Seneca dreamed that his young charge was really Caligula, and Nero soon proved the dream prophetic by seizing the first opportunity to reveal his cruel disposition. . . . After Claudius’s death (AD 54) had been announced publicly, Nero, who was not quite seventeen years old, decided to address the Guards in the late afternoon, since inauspicious omens that day had ruled out an earlier appearance. After being acclaimed Emperor on the Palace steps, he was carried in a litter to the Praetorian Camp where he spoke to the Guards, and then to the House where he stayed until evening. He refused only one of the many honours that were heaped upon him, that of ‘Father of the Country’, and declined that simply on account of his youth.

Eutropius summarized: To him succeeded NERO, who greatly resembled his uncle Caligula, and both disgraced and weakened the Roman empire; he indulged in such extraordinary luxury and extravagance, that, after the example of Caius Caligula, he even bathed in hot and cold perfumes, and fished with golden nets, which he drew up with cords of purple silk. He put to death a very great number of the senate. To all good men he was an enemy. At last he exposed himself in so disgraceful a manner, that he danced and sung upon the stage in the dress of a harp-player and tragedian. He was guilty of many murders, his brother, wife, and mother, being put to death by him. He set on fire the city of Rome, that he might enjoy the sight of a spectacle such as Troy formerly presented when taken and burned.

In military affairs he attempted nothing. Britain he almost lost; for two of its most noble towns4 were taken and levelled to the ground under his reign. The Parthians took from him Armenia, and compelled the Roman legions to pass under the yoke. Two provinces however were formed under him; Pontus Polemoniacus, by the concession of King Polemon; and the Cottian Alps, on the death of King Cottius.

15 When, having become detestable by such conduct to the city of Rome, and being deserted at the same time by every one, and declared an enemy by the senate, he was sought for to be led to punishment (the punishment being, that he should be dragged naked through the streets, with a fork placed under his head,5 be beaten to death with rods, and then hurled from the Tarpeian rock), he fled from the palace, and killed himself in a suburban villa of one of his freed-men, between the Salarian and Nomentane roads, at the fourth milestone from the city. He built those hot baths at Rome, which were formerly called the Neronian, but now the Alexandrian. He died in the thirty-second year of his age, and the fourteenth year of his reign; and in him all the family of Augustus became extinct.

Having successfully dispatched his scheming mother Agrippina in 59 and survived a decade on the throne, Nero must have felt like a genius when this was minted ca 64 AD!
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Denarius
Bewigged head, right, IMP OTHO CAESAR AVG TR P
Securitas stg., SECVRITAS P R

RIC 10

Suetonius wrote: Otho was born on the 28th of April 32 AD, in the consulship of Furius Camillus Arruntius and Domitius Ahenobarbus, Nero’s father. In early youth he was so profligate and insolent that he earned many a beating from his own father. . . . After his father died, he feigned love for an influential freedwoman at Court, though she was old and decrepit, in order to win her favour, and then used her to insinuate himself among the emperor’s friends, easily achieving the role of Nero’s chief favourite, not only because they were of a similar disposition, but also some say because of a sexual relationship. . . .

Otho had hoped to be adopted by Galba as his successor, and anticipated the announcement daily. But Piso was chosen, dashing Otho’s hopes, and causing him to resort to force, prompted not only by feelings of resentment but also by his mounting debts. He declared that frankly he would have to declare himself bankrupt, unless he became emperor. . . . When the moment was finally ripe, . . . his friends hoisted him on their shoulders and acclaimed him Emperor. Everyone they met joined the throng, as readily as if they were sworn accomplices and a part of the conspiracy, and that is how Otho arrived at his headquarters, amidst cheering and the brandishing of swords. He at once sent men to kill Galba and Piso. . . .

Meanwhile the army in Germany had sworn allegiance to Vitellius. When the news reached Otho he persuaded the Senate to send a deputation, advising the soldiers to maintain peace and order, since an emperor had already been chosen. However he also sent envoys with letters and personal messages, offering to share power with Vitellius, and marry his daughter. With civil war clearly inevitable, on the approach of Vitellius’s advance guard, who had marched on Rome led by their generals, . . . Otho began his campaign vigorously, and indeed too hastily. . . .

His army won three engagements, but of a minor nature, firstly in the Alps, then near Placentia, and finally at a place called Castor’s, and were ultimately defeated in a decisive and treacherous encounter at Betriacum (on the 14th April). . . . After this defeat, Otho resolved to commit suicide, more from feelings of shame, which many have thought justified, and a reluctance to continue the struggle with such high cost to life and property, than from any diffidence or fear of failure shown by his soldiers. . . . On waking at dawn (on the 16th of April, AD69), he promptly dealt himself a single knife-blow in the left side of his chest, and first concealing and then showing the wound to those who rushed in at the sound of his groaning, he breathed his last. . . . Otho was thirty-six years old when he died, on the ninety-second day of his reign. . . .

Neither his bodily form nor appearance suggested great courage. He is said to have been of medium height, bandy-legged and splay-footed, though as fastidious as a woman in personal matters. He had his body-hair plucked, and wore a toupee to cover his scanty locks, so well-made and so close-fitting that its presence was not apparent.
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Denarius
Portrait, right, A VITELLIVS GERMAN IMP TR P
Vesta std., PONT MAX

RIC 107

According to Suetonius: Lucius’s son Aulus, the future emperor, was born on the 24th of September 15AD, or according to some authorities on the 7th, during the consulship of Drusus Caesar and Norbanus Flaccus. . . . His boyhood and early youth were spent on Capreae (Capri) among Tiberius’s creatures, he himself being marked by the nickname of ‘Spintria’ (sex-token) throughout his life, and suspected of having secured his father’s first promotion to office by surrendering his own chastity. As he grew older, though contaminated by every kind of vice, Vitellius gained and kept a prominent place at court, winning Caligula’s friendship by his devotion to chariot-racing and Claudius’s by his love of dice. With Nero he was even closer. . . .

Honoured, as these emperors’ favourite, with high office in the priesthood, as well as political power, he governed Africa (under Nero, in 60/61AD) as proconsul, and was then Curator of Public Works (in 63AD), employing a contrasting approach, and with a contrasting effect on his reputation. In his province he acted with outstanding integrity over two successive years, since he served as deputy also to his brother who succeeded him (61/62AD) yet during his administration of the City he was said to have stolen various temple offerings and ornaments, and substituted brass and tin for the gold and silver in others. . . .

Contrary to all expectations, Galba appointed Vitellius to Lower Germany (in 68AD). Some think it was brought about by Titus Vinius, whose influence was powerful at that time, and whose friendship Vitellius had previously won through their mutual support for the ‘Blues’ in the Circus. But it is clear to everyone that Galba chose him as an act of contempt rather than favour, commenting that gluttons were among those least to be feared, and Vitellius’s endless appetite would now be able to sate itself on a province. . . .

He entered Rome to the sound of trumpets, surrounded by standards and banners, wearing a general’s cape, sword at his side, his officers in their military cloaks also, and the men with naked blades. With increasing disregard for the law, human or divine, he then assumed the office of High Priest on the anniversary of the Allia (18th July), arranged the elections for the next ten years, and made himself consul for life. . . .

Vitellius’s worst vices were cruelty and gluttony. . . . By the eighth month of his reign (November 69AD) the legions in Moesia and Pannonia had repudiated Vitellius, and sworn allegiance to Vespasian despite his absence, following those of Syria and Judaea who had done so in Vespasian’s presence. . . .

The vanguard of Vespasian’s army had now forced its way into the Palace, unopposed, and the soldiers were ransacking the rooms, in their usual manner. They hauled Vitellius, unrecognised, from his hiding place, asked his name and where the Emperor might be. He gave some lying answer, but was soon identified, so he begged for safe custody, even if that meant imprisonment, claiming he had important information for Vespasian regarding his security. However his arms were bound behind him and a noose flung over his head, and he was dragged along the Sacred Way to the Forum, amid a hail of mockery and abuse, half-naked, with his clothes in tatters. His head was held back by the hair, like a common criminal and, with a sword-point under his chin so that he was forced to look up and reveal his face, he was pelted with filth and dung, denounced as arsonist and glutton, and taunted with his bodily defects by the crowd. For, Vitellius was exceptionally tall, and his face was usually flushed from some drinking bout. He had a huge belly, too, and one thigh crippled by a blow from a four-horse chariot which struck him when he was in attendance on Caligula who was driving. At last, after being tormented by a host of cuts from the soldiers’ swords, he was killed on the Gemonian Stairs, and his body dragged with a hook to the Tiber.
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As

Laureate head, right, ANTONINUS AVG PIVS PP TR P XI
Wreath, PRIMI DECENALIS COS IIII SC

RIC 171

According to the Historia Augusta: Titus Aurelius Fulvus Boionius Antoninus Pius. . . was born at an estate at Lanuvium on the thirteenth day before the Kalends of October in the twelfth consulship of Domitiaiiand first of Cornelius Dolabella. . . . In personal appearance he was strikingly hand-
some, in natural talent brilliant, in temperament kindly; he was aristocratic in countenance and calm in nature, a singularly gifted speaker and an elegant scholar, conspicuously thrifty, a conscientious land-holder, gentle, generous, and mindful of others' rights. He possessed all these qualities, moreover, in the proper mean and without ostentation, and, in fine, was praiseworthy in every way and, in the minds of all good men. . . . He was given the name of Pius by the senate, either because, when his father-in-law was old and weak, he lent him a supporting hand in his attendance at the senate. . . or because he spared those men whom Hadrian in his ill-health had condemned to death, or because after Hadrian's death he
had unbounded and extraordinary honours decreed for him in spite of opposition from all, or because, when Hadrian wished to make away with himself, by great care and watchfulness he prevented him from so doing, or because he was in fact very kindly by nature and did no harsh deed in his own time. . . .

The manner of his adoption, they say, was some what thus : After the death of Aelius Verus, whom Hadrian had adopted and named Caesar, a day was set for the meeting of the senate, and to this Arrius Antoninus came, supporting the steps of his father-in-law. For this act, it is said, Hadrian adopted him. But this could not have been the only reason for the adoption, nor ought it to have been, especially since Antoninus had always done well in his administration of public office. . . .

After his accession to the throne he removed none of the men whom Hadrian had appointed to office, and, indeed, was so steadfast and loyal that he retained good men in the government of provinces for terms of seven and even nine years. He waged a number of wars, but all of them through his legates. . . . With such care did he govern all peoples under him that he looked after all things and all men as if they were his own. As a result, the provinces all prospered in his reign, informers were abolished, and the confiscation of goods was less frequent than ever before. . . .

He died in the seventieth year of his age, but his loss was felt as though he had been but a youth. . . . On the second day, as he saw that his condition was becoming worse, in the presence of his prefects he committed the state and his daughter to Marcus Antoninus. . . .
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Denarius

Laureate, horned & draped bust rightt, IMP ANTONINVS PIVS AVG
Elagabalus standing left, sacrificing from patera over lit tripod altar, holding branch, star in field left, SVMMVS SACERDOS AVG

RIC 146

The Historia Augusta, in the life of Caracalla, notes: Bassianus lived for forty-three years and ruled for six. . . . He left a son, who afterward received, like his father, the name Antoninus Marcus Antoninus Elagabalus; for such a hold had the name of the Antonines that it could not be removed from the thoughts of the people, because it had taken root in the hearts of all, even as had the name of Augustus.

In the life of Macrinus is recorded: Now there was a certain woman of the city of Emesa, called [Julia] Maesa or Varia; she was the sister of Julia, the wife of [Septimius] Severus Pertinax the African, and after the death of Antoninus Bassianus she had been expelled from her home in the palace through the arrogance of Macrinus. . . . This woman had two daughters, [Julia Soaemias] and [Julia] Mamaea, the elder of whom was the mother of Elagabalus; he assumed the names Bassianus and Antoninus, for the Phoenicians give the name Elagabalus to the Sun. Elagabalus, moreover, was notable for his beauty and stature and for the priesthood which he held, and he was well known to all who frequented the temple, and particularly to the soldiers. To these, Maesa, or Varia as she was also called, declared that this Bassianus was the son of Antoninus, and this was gradually made known to all the soldiers. Maesa herself, furthermore, was very rich (whence also Elagabalus was most wasteful of money), and through her promises to the soldiers the legions were persuaded to desert Macrinus. . . .

Finally, when he received the imperial power, he took the name Antoninus and was the last of the Antonines to rule the Roman Empire. . . . He was wholly under the control of his mother [Soaemias], so much so, in fact, that he did no public business without her consent, although she lived like a harlot and practised all manner of lewdness in the palace. For that matter, her amour with Antoninus Caracalla was so notorious that Varius, or rather Elagabalus, was commonly supposed to be his son. . . . In short, when Elagabalus' message was read in the senate, at once good wishes were uttered for Antoninus and curses on Macrinus and his son, and, in accordance with the general wish and the eager belief of all in his paternity, Antoninus was hailed as emperor. . . .

After he had spent the winter in Nicomedia, [218-219] living in a depraved manner and indulging in unnatural vice with men, the soldiers soon began to regret that they had conspired against Macrinus to make this man emperor, and they turned their thoughts toward his cousin Alexander, who on the murder of Macrinus had been hailed by the senate as Caesar. . . . Among the base actions of his life of depravity he gave orders that Alexander, whom he had formally adopted, be removed from his presence, saying that he regretted the adoption. Then he commanded the senate to take away from Alexander the name of Caesar. But when this was announced to the senate, there was a profound silence. For Alexander was an excellent youth, as was afterwards shown by the character of his rule, even though, because he was chaste, he was displeasing to his adoptive father he was also, as some declare, his cousin. Besides, he was loved by the soldiers and acceptable to the senate and the equestrian order. Yet the Emperor's madness went the length of an attempt to carry out the basest design; for he despatched assassins to kill Alexander. . . . The soldiers, however, and particularly the members of the guard, either because they knew what evils were in store for Elagabalus, or because they foresaw his hatred for themselves, formed a conspiracy to set the state free. First they attacked the accomplices in his plan of murdering Alexander. . . . Next they fell upon Elagabalus himself and slew him in a latrine in which he had taken refuge.
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Denarius

Laureate draped bust, right, IMP C M AVR SEV ALEXAND AVG
Sev. Alex in armor, P M TR P III COS P P

RIC 74

Herodian recorded: [The soldiers] were more favorably disposed toward Alexander, for they expected great things of a lad so properly and modestly reared. They kept continual watch upon the youth when they saw that Elagabalus was plotting against him. His mother Mamaea did not allow her son to touch any food or drink sent by the emperor, nor did Alexander use the cupbearers or cooks employed in the palace or those who happened to be in their mutual service; only those chosen by his mother, those who seemed most trustworthy, were allowed to handle Alexander's food.

Mamaea secretly distributed money to the praetorians to win their good will for her son; it was to gold that the praetorians were particularly devoted. . . . . Maesa, the grandmother of them both, foiled all his schemes; she was astute in every way and had spent much of her life in the imperial palace. As the sister of Severus' wife Julia, Maesa had always lived with the empress at the court. . . .

When Alexander received the empire, the appearance and the title of emperor were allowed him, but the management and control of imperial affairs were in the hands of his women, and they undertook a more moderate and more equitable administration. . . . At any rate, he entered the fourteenth year of his reign without bloodshed, and no one could say that the emperor had been responsible for anyone's murder. Even though men were convicted of serious crimes, he nevertheless granted them pardons to avoid putting them to death, and not readily did any emperor of our time, after the reign of Marcus, act in this way or display so much concern for human life.

In the fourteenth year, however, unexpected dispatches from the governors of Syria and Mesopotamia revealed that Artaxerxes, the Persian king, had conquered the Parthians and seized their Eastern empire, killing Artabanus [IV], who was formerly called the Great King and wore the double diadem. Artaxerxes then subdued all the barbarians on his borders and forced them to pay tribute. He did not remain quiet, however, nor stay on his side of the Tigris River, but, after scaling its banks and crossing the borders of the Roman empire, he overran Mesopotamia and threatened Syria.

Traveling rapidly, he came to Antioch, after visiting the provinces and the garrison camps in Illyricum; from that region he collected a huge force of troops. While in Antioch he continued his preparations for the war, giving the soldiers military training under field conditions. . . . The Romans suffered a staggering disaster; it is not easy to recall another like it, one in which a great army was destroyed, an army inferior in strength and determination to none of the armies of old.

Now unexpected messages and dispatches upset Alexander and caused him even greater anxiety: the governors in Illyria reported that the Germans [the Alamans] had crossed the Rhine and the Danube rivers, were plundering the Roman empire. . . . Although he loathed the idea, Alexander glumly announced his departure for Illyria. . . . Alexander undertook to buy a truce rather than risk the hazards of war. . . .

The soldiers, however, were not pleased by his action, for the time was passing without profit to them, and Alexander was doing nothing courageous or energetic about the war; on the contrary, when it was essential that he march out and punish the Germans for their insults, he spent the time in chariot racing and luxurious living. . . . They plotted now to kill Alexander and proclaim Maximinus emperor and Augustus. . . . Alexander's troops deserted him for Maximinus, who was then proclaimed emperor by all. . . . Maximinus sent a tribune and several centurions to kill Alexander and his mother, together with any of his followers who opposed them.
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Denarius

Laureate draped bust, right, IMP MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG
Pax stg, PAX AVGVSTI

RIC 12

Herodian recorded: There was in the Roman army a man named Maximinus whose half-barbarian family lived in a village in the most remote section of Thrace. They say that as a boy he was a shepherd, but that in his youthful prime he was drafted into the cavalry because of his size and strength. After a short time, favored by Fortune, he advanced through all the military ranks, rising eventually to the command of armies and the governing of provinces.

Because of his military experience, which I have noted above, Alexander put Maximinus in charge of training recruits for the entire army; his task was to instruct them in military duties and prepare them for service in war. By carrying out his assignments thoroughly and diligently, Maximinus won the affection of the soldiers. He not only taught them their duties; he also demonstrated personally to each man what he was to do. . . .

He won their devotion by giving them all kinds of gifts and rewards. Consequently, the recruits, who included an especially large number of Pannonians, praised the masculinity of Maximinus and despised Alexander as a mother's boy. . . . The soldiers were therefore ready for a change of emperors. . . . They therefore assembled on the drill field for their regular training; when Maximinus took his position before them, either unaware of what was happening or having secretly made prior preparations for the event, the soldiers robed him in the imperial purple and proclaimed him emperor. . . .

When he assumed control of the empire, Maximinus reversed the situation, using his power savagely to inspire great fear. He undertook to substitute for a mild and moderate rule an autocracy in every way barbarous, well aware of the hostility directed toward him because he was the first man to rise from a lowly station to the post of highest honor. His character was naturally barbaric, as his race was barbarian. He had inherited the brutal disposition of his countrymen, and he intended to make his imperial position secure by acts of cruelty, fearing that he would become an object of contempt to the Senate and the people, who might be more conscious of his lowly origin than impressed by the honor he had won. . . .

[A]fter Maximinus had completed three years as emperor, the people of Africa first took up arms and touched off a serious revolt for one of those trivial reasons which often prove fatal to a tyrant. . . . The entire populace of the city quickly assembled when the news was known, and the youths proclaimed Gordian Augustus. He begged to be excused, protesting that he was too old. . . .

[In Rome], the senators met before they received accurate information concerning Maximinus and, placing their trust for the future in the present situation, proclaimed Gordian Augustus, together with his son, and destroyed Maximinus' emblems of honor. . . . Embassies composed of senators and distinguished equestrians were sent to all the governors with letters which clearly revealed the attitude of the Senate and the Roman people. . . . The majority of the governors welcomed the embassies and had no difficulty in arousing the provinces to revolt because of the general hatred of Maximinus. . . .


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Antoninianus

Radiate draped bust, right, IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG
Liberalitas standing left with abacus & cornucopiae, LIBERALITAS AVGG II

RIC 38b

The Historia Augusta records: Philippus Arabs was made prefect of the guard [in 243]. This Philip was low-born but arrogant, and now could not contain himself in his sudden rise to office and immoderate good fortune, but immediately, through the soldiers, began to plot against Gordian, who had begun to treat him as a father. . . . Timesitheus [Gordian's father-in-law] had stored up such a quantity of supplies everywhere, that the Roman administration could not break down. But now Philip intrigued first to have the grain-ships turned away, and then to have the troops moved to stations where they could not get provisions. In this way he speedily got them exasperated against Gordian, for they did not know that the youth had been betrayed through Philip's intriguing. In addition to this, Philip spread talk among the soldiers to the effect that Gordian was young and could not manage the Empire, and that it were better for someone to rule who could command the army and understood public affairs. Besides this, he won over the leaders, and finally brought it about that they openly called him to the throne. Gordian's friends at first opposed him vigorously, but when the soldiers were at last overcome with hunger Philip was entrusted with the sovereignty, and the soldiers commanded that he and Gordian should rule together with equal rank while Philip acted as a sort of guardian.

Now that he had gained the imperial power Philip began to bear himself very arrogantly towards Gordian ; and he, knowing himself to be an emperor, an emperor's son, and a scion of a most noble family, could not endure this low-born fellow's insolence. And so, mounting the platform, with his kinsman Maecius Gordianus standing by him as his prefect, he complained bitterly to the officers and soldiers in the hope that Philip's office could be taken from him. But by this complaint in which he accused Philip of being unmindful of past favours and too little grateful he accomplished nothing. Next he asked the soldiers to make their choice, after openly canvassing the officers, but as a result of Philip's intriguing he came off second in the general vote. And finally, when he saw that everyone considered him worsted, he asked that their power might at least be equal, but he did not secure this either. After this he asked to be given the position of Caesar, but he did not gain this. He asked also to be Philip's prefect, and this, too, was denied him. His last prayer was that Philip should make him a general and let him live. And to this Philip almost consented not speaking himself, but acting through his friends, as he had done throughout, with nods and advice. But when he reflected that through the love that the Roman people and senate, the whole of Africa and Syria, and indeed the whole Roman world, felt for Gordian, because he was nobly born and the son and grandson of emperors and had delivered the whole state from grievous wars, it was possible, if the soldiers ever changed their minds, that the throne might be given back to Gordian if he asked for it again, and when he reflected also that the violence of the soldiers' anger against Gordian was due to hunger, he had him carried, shouting protests, out of their sight and then despoiled and slain.

Eutropius wrote, "When Gordian was killed, the two PHILIPS, father and son, seized on the government, and, having brought off the army safe, set out from Syria for Italy. In their reign the thousandth year of the city of Rome was celebrated with games and spectacles of vast magnificence. Soon after, both of them were put to death by the soldiery; the elder Philip at Verona, the younger at Rome. They reigned but five years. They were however ranked among the gods."
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Bronze antoninianus

Radiate, draped bust, right, GALLINVS AVG
Mars standing left, holding globe in right hand and spear in left hand, P in right field, VIRTVS AVG

RIC 317

Gallienus oversaw a period of disintegration of the empire and lost control over the East, Gaul, Spain, and Britain.

Zosimus observed: [When Valerian left for the East] As the Germans were the most troublesome enemies, and harrassed the Gauls in the vicinity of the Rhine, Gallienus marched against them in person, leaving his officers to repel with the forces under their command any others that should enter Italy, Illyricum, and Greece. With these designs, he possessed himself of and defended the passages of the Rhine, at one time preventing their crossing, and at another engaging them as soon as they had crossed it. But having only a small force to resist an immense number, he was at a loss how to act, and thought to secure himself by a league with one of the German princes. He thus not only prevented the other Barbarians from so frequently passing the Rhine, but obstructed the access of auxiliaries.

Eutropius recorded: Gallienus, who was made emperor when quite a young man, exercised his power at first happily, afterwards fairly, and at last mischievously. In his youth he performed many gallant acts in Gaul and Illyricum, killing Ingenuus, who had assumed the purple, at Mursa, and Regalianus. He was then for a long time quiet and gentle; afterwards, abandoning himself to all manner of licentiousness, he relaxed the reins of government with disgraceful inactivity and carelesness. The Alemanni, having laid waste Gaul, penetrated into Italy. Dacia, which had been added to the empire beyond the Danube, was lost. Greece, Macedonia, Pontus, Asia, were devastated by the Goths. Pannonia was depopulated by the Sarmatians and Quadi. The Germans made their way as far as Spain, and took the noble city of Tarraco. The Parthians, after taking possession of Mesopotamia, began to bring Syria under their power.

Zosimus resumes: Gallienus in the mean time still continued beyond the Alps, intent on the German war, while the Senate, seeing Rome in such imminent danger, armed all the soldiers that were in the city, and the strongest of the common people, and formed an army, which exceeded the Barbarians in number. This so alarmed the Barbarians, that they left Rome, but ravaged all the rest of Italy. At this period, when Illyricum groaned under the oppression of the Barbarians, and the whole Roman empire was in such a helpless state as to be on the very verge of ruin, a plague happened to break out in several of the towns, more dreadful than any that had preceded it. The miseries inflicted on them by the Barbarians were thus alleviated, even the sick esteeming themselves fortunate. The cities that had been taken by the Scythians were thus deserted.

Gallienus, being disturbed by these occurrences, was returning to Rome to relieve Italy from the war which the Scythians were thus carrying on. It was at this time, that Cecrops, a Moor, Aureolus and Antoninus, with many others, conspired against him, of whom the greater part were punished and submitted. Aureolus alone retained his animosity against the emperor.

The Scythians, who had dreadfully afflicted the whole of Greece, had now taken Athens, when Gallienus advanced against those who were already in possession of Thrace, and ordered Odonathus of Palmyra, a person whose ancestors had always been highly respected by the emperors, to assist the eastern nations which were then in a very distressed condition. . . .

While affairs were thus situated in the east, intelligence was brought to Gallienus, who was then occupied in the Scythian war, that Aurelianus, or Aureolus, who was commander of the cavalry posted in the neighbourhood of Milan to watch the motions of Posthumus, had formed some new design, and was ambitious to be emperor. Being alarmed at this he went immediately to Italy, leaving the command against the Scythians with Marcianus, a person of great experience in military affairs. . . . Gallienus, in his journey towards Italy, had a plot formed against him by Heraclianus, prefect of the court, who communicated his design to Claudius, in whom the chief management of affairs was vested. The design was to murder Gallienus. Having found a man very ready for such an undertaking, who commanded a troop of Dalmatians, he entrusted the action to him. To effect it, the party stood by Gallienus at supper and informed him that some of the spies had brought intelligence, that Aureolus and his army were close at hand. By this they considerably alarmed him. Calling immediately for his horse and arms, he mounted, ordering his men to follow him in their armour, and rode away without any attendance. Thus the captain finding him alone killed him.
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AE antoninianus

Radiate draped & cuirassed bust, right, IMP C M AVR CARINVS AVG
Aequitas stg. Left, AEQVITAS AVGG

RIC 238

According to the Historia Augusta: He was the most polluted of men, an adulterer and a constant corrupter of youth. . . . He was left by his father as Caesar in Gaul and Italy and in Illyricum, Spain, Britain, and Africa, all of which had been voted to him, and he exercised there a Caesar's powers, but with the permission to perform all the duties of an Augustus. Then he defiled himself by unwonted vices and inordinate depravity. . . . He appeared in public as consul contrary to his father's wish. He wrote arrogant letters to the senate, and he even promised the senate's property to the mob of the city of Rome, as though it, forsooth, were the Roman people. By marrying and divorcing he took nine wives in all, and he put away some even while they were pregnant. He filled the Palace with actors and harlots, pantomimists, singers and pimps. He had such an aversion for the signing of state-papers that he appointed for signing them a certain filthy fellow, with whom he used always to jest at midday, and then he reviled him because he could imitate his writing so well. . . .

When he learned that his father had been killed by lightning and his brother slain by his own father-in-law, and that Diocletian had been hailed as Augustus, Carinus committed acts of still greater vice and crime, as though now set free and released by the death of his kindred from all the restraints of filial duty. He did not, however, lack strength of purpose for claiming the imperial power. For he fought many battles against Diocletian, but finally, being defeated in a fight near Margus, he perished.
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AE antoninianus

Radiate, draped, cuirassed bust, right, IMP C C VAL DIOCLETIANVS P F AVG
Zeus and Diocletian, CONCORDIA MILITVM

RIC 284B

According to the Historia Augusta, after the death of Numerian: Then a huge assembly was held and a tribunal, too, was constructed. And when the question was asked who would be the most lawful avenger of Numerian and who could be given to the commonwealth as a good emperor, then all, with a heaven-sent unanimity, conferred the title of Augustus on Diocletian. . . . He was at this time in command of the household-troops, an outstanding man and wise, devoted to the commonwealth, devoted to his kindred, duly prepared to face whatever the occasion demanded, forming plans that were always deep though sometimes over-bold, and one who could by prudence and exceeding firmness hold in check the impulses of a restless spirit. This man, then, having ascended the tribunal was hailed as Augustus, and when someone asked how Numerian had been slain, he drew his sword and pointing to Aper, the prefect of the guard, he drove it through him, saying as he did so, "It is he who contrived Numerian's death.''

Eutropius summarized a long and important reign: DIOCLETIAN, a native of Dalmatia, [was] of such extremely obscure birth, that he is said by most writers to have been the son of a clerk, but by some to have been a freedman of a senator named Anulinus. . . . He soon after overthrew Carinus, who was living under the utmost hatred and detestation, in a great battle at Margum, Carinus being betrayed by his own troops, for though he had a greater number of men than the enemy, he was altogether abandoned by them between Viminacium and mount Aureus. He thus became master of the Roman empire; and when the peasants in Gaul made an insurrection, giving their faction the name of Bagaudae, and having for leaders Amandus and Aelianus, he despatched Maximian Herculius, with the authority of Caesar, to suppress them. Maximian, in a few battles of little importance, subdued the rustic multitude, and restored peace to Gaul. . . .

Diocletian promoted MAXIMIAN HERCULIUS from the dignity of Caesar to that of emperor, and created Constantius and Maximian Galerius Caesars, of whom Constantius is said to have been the grand-nephew of Claudius by a daughter, and Maximian Galerius to have been born in Dacia not far from Sardica. That he might also unite them by affinity, Constantius married Theodora the step-daughter of Herculius, by whom he had afterwards six children, brothers to Constantine; while Galerius married Valeria, the daughter of Diocletian; both being obliged to divorce the wives that they had before. . . .

Diocletian, meanwhile, besieging Achilleus in Alexandria, obliged him to surrender about eight months after, and put him to death. He used his victory, indeed, cruelly, and distressed all Egypt with severe proscriptions and massacres. Yet at the same time he made many judicious arrangements and regulations, which continue to our own days. . . .

Diocletian was of a crafty disposition, with much sagacity, and keen penetration. He was willing to gratify his own disposition to cruelty in such a way as to throw the odium upon others; he was however a very active and able prince. He was the first that introduced into the Roman empire a ceremony suited rather to royal usages than to Roman liberty, giving orders that he should be adored, whereas all emperors before him were only saluted. He put ornaments of precious stones on his dress and shoes, when the imperial distinction had previously been only in the purple robe, the rest of the habit being the same as that of other men. . . .

But when Diocletian, as age bore heavily upon him, felt himself unable to sustain the government of the empire, he suggested to Herculius that they should both retire into private life, and commit the duty of upholding the state to more vigorous and youthful hands. With this suggestion his colleague reluctantly complied. Both of them, in the same day, exchanged the robe of empire for an ordinary dress, Diocletian at Nicomedia, Herculius at Milan, soon after a magnificent triumph which they celebrated at Rome over several nations, with a noble succession of pictures, and in which the wives, sisters, and children of Narseus were led before their chariots. The one then retired to Salonae, and the other into Lucania.

Diocletian lived to an old age in a private station, at a villa which is not far from Salonae, in honourable retirement, exercising extraordinary philosophy, inasmuch as he alone of all men, since the foundation of the Roman empire, voluntarily returned from so high a dignity to the condition of private life, and to an equality with the other citizens. That happened to him, therefore, which had happened to no one since men were created, that, though he died in a private condition, he was enrolled among the gods.
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1dt Maximianus21 views286-305, 306-308, 310

Quarter Follis

Laureate head, right, IMP C M A MAXIMIANVS P F AVG
Genius standing left, with modius on head, cornucopia & patera, GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, SIS in exergue

RIC 146

Eutropius records: [Diocletian] thus became master of the Roman empire; and when the peasants in Gaul made an insurrection, giving their faction the name of Bagaudae, and having for leaders Amandus and Aelianus, he despatched Maximian Herculius, with the authority of Caesar, to suppress them. Maximian, in a few battles of little importance, subdued the rustic multitude, and restored peace to Gaul. . . . While disorder thus prevailed throughout the world, while Carausius was taking arms in Britain and Achilleus in Egypt, while the Quinquegentiani were harassing Africa, and Narseus was making war upon the east, Diocletian promoted MAXIMIAN HERCULIUS from the dignity of Caesar to that "of emperor, and created Constantius and Maximian Galerius Caesars. . . .

Maximian the emperor, brought the war to an end in Africa, by subduing the Quinquegentiani, and compelling them to make peace. . . .

Herculius was undisguisedly cruel, and of a violent temper, and showed his severity of disposition in the sternness of his looks. Gratifying his own inclination, he joined with Diocletian in even the most cruel of his proceedings. But when Diocletian, as age bore heavily upon him, felt himself unable to sustain the government of the empire, he suggested to Herculius that they should both retire into private life, and commit the duty of upholding the state to more vigorous and youthful hands. With this suggestion his colleague reluctantly complied. Both of them, in the same day, exchanged the robe of empire for an ordinary dress, Diocletian at Nicomedia, Herculius at Milan, soon after a magnificent triumph which they celebrated at Rome over several nations, with a noble succession of pictures, and in which the wives, sisters, and children of Narseus were led before their chariots. The one then retired to Salonae, and the other into Lucania.

But after the death of Constantius, CONSTANTINE, his son by a wife of obscure birth, was made emperor in Britain, and succeeded his father as a most desirable ruler. In the meantime the praetorian guards at Rome, having risen in insurrection, declared MAXENTIUS, the son of Maximian Herculius, who lived in the Villa Publica not far from the city, emperor. At the news of this proceeding, Maximian, filled with hopes of regaining the imperial dignity, which he had not willingly resigned, hurried to Rome from Lucania. . . , and stimulated Diocletian by letters to resume the authority that he had laid down, letters which Diocletian utterly disregarded. Severus Caesar, being despatched to Rome by Galerius to suppress the rising of the guards and Maxentius, arrived there with his army, but, as he was laying siege to the city, was deserted through the treachery of his soldiers.

The power of Maxentius was thus increased, and his government established. Severus, taking to flight, was killed at Ravenna. Maximian Herculius, attempting afterwards, in an assembly of the army, to divest his son Maxentius of his power, met with nothing but mutiny and reproaches from the soldiery. He then set out for Gaul, on a planned stratagem, as if he had been driven away by his son, that he might join his son-in-law Constantine, designing, however, if he could find an opportunity, to cut off Constantine, who was ruling in Gaul with great approbation both of the soldiers and the people of the province, having overthrown the Franks and Alemanni with great slaughter, and captured their kings, whom, on exhibiting a magnificent show of games, he exposed to wild beasts. But the plot being made known by Maximian's daughter Fausta, who communicated the design to her husband, Maximian was cut off at Marseilles, whence he was preparing to sail to join his son, and died a well-deserved death. . . .
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Follis

Laureate, draped, cuirassed bust right, IMP CONSTANTINVS PF AVG
Sol standing left, chlamys across left shoulder, raising right hand and holding globe in left hand, captive to left. Mintmark RQ.

RIC VII 52

According to Zonaras: Constans, in the eleventh year of his reign since he had been proclaimed Caesar, having ruled gently and mildly, came to the end of his life while residing in Britain, having, because of his goodness, bequeathed grief for himself among those he ruled, first having appointed successor the elder of his own sons, namely Constantine the Great, whom he begat by his first wife. He also had by his second wife, Herculius’ daughter Theodora, other sons, Constantinus, Hannibalianus, and Constantius. Constantine the Great was preferred over them, since they were judged by their father to be unsuited for sovereignty. . . . Constantine, when he was still a lad, was actually given by his father as a hostage to Gallerius, in order that, serving as a hostage, at the same time he be trained in the exercise of the soldierly art.

Eutropius summarizes: CONSTANTINE, being a man of great energy, bent upon effecting whatever he had settled in his mind, and aspiring to the sovereignty of the whole world, proceeded to make war on Licinius, although he had formed a connexion with him by marriage,5 for his sister Constantia was married to Licinius. And first of all be overthrew him, by a sudden attack, at Cibalae in Pannonia, where he was making vast preparations for war; and after becoming master of Dardania, Maesia, and Macedonia, took possession also of several other provinces.

There were then various contests between them, and peace made and broken. At last Licinius, defeated in a battle at Nicomedia by sea and land, surrendered himself, and, in violation of an oath taken by Constantine, was put to death, after being divested of the purple, at Thessalonica.

At this time the Roman empire fell under the sway of one emperor and three Caesars, a state of things which had never existed before; the sons of Constantine ruling over Gaul, the east, and Italy. But the pride of prosperity caused Constantine greatly to depart from his former agreeable mildness of temper. Falling first upon his own relatives, he put to death his son, an excellent man; his sister's son, a youth of amiable disposition; soon afterwards his wife, and subsequently many of his friends.

He was a man, who, in the beginning of his reign, might have been compared to the best princes; in the latter part of it, only to those of a middling character. Innumerable good qualities of mind and body were apparent in him; he was exceedingly ambitious of military glory, and had great success in his wars; a success, however, not more than proportioned to his exertions. After he had terminated the Civil war, he also overthrew the Goths on various occasions, granting them at last peace, and leaving on the minds of the barbarians a strong remembrance of his kindness. He was attached to the arts of peace and to liberal studies, and was ambitious of honourable popularity, which he, indeed, sought by every kind of liberality and obligingness. Though he was slow, from suspicion, to serve some of his friends,6 yet he was exceedingly generous towards others, neglecting no opportunity to add to their riches and honours.

He enacted many laws, some good and equitable, but most of them superfluous, and some severe. He was the first that endeavoured to raise the city named after him to such a height as to make it a rival to Rome. As he was preparing for war against the Parthians, who were then disturbing Mesopotamia, he died in the Villa Publica, at Nicomedia, in the thirty-first year of his reign, and the sixty-sixth of his age.

Zosimus described Constantine's conversion to Christianity: For he put to death his son Crispus, stiled (as I mentioned) Caesar, on suspicion of debauching his mother-in-law Fausta, without any regard to the ties of nature. And when his own mother Helena expressed much sorrow for this atrocity, lamenting the young man's death with great bitterness, Constantine under pretence of comforting her, applied a remedy worse than the disease. For causing a bath to be heated to an extraordinary degree, he shut up Fausta in it, and a short time after took her out dead. Of which his conscience accusing him, as also of violating his oath, he went to the priests to be purified from his crimes. But they told him, that there was no kind of lustration that was sufficient to clear him of such enormities. A Spaniard, named Aegyptius, very familiar with the court-ladies, being at Rome, happened to fall into converse with Constantine, and assured him, that the Christian doctrine would teach him how to cleanse himself from all his offences, and that they who received it were immediately absolved from all their sins. Constantine had no sooner heard this than he easily believed what was told him, and forsaking the rites of his country, received those which Aegyptius offered him ; and for the first instance of his impiety, suspected the truth of divination.
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1ef Crispus67 viewsCaesar 317-326

AE3, Thessalonica

Laureate, draped & cuirassed bust, right, D N FL IVL CRISPVS NOB CAES
Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm, VICTORIA CAESS NN. Mintmark dot TS dot epsilon dot.

Zosimus recorded Crispus' elevation to Caesar: "Constantine, having taken Cibalis, and Sirmium, and all the towns that Licinius had abandoned, sent five thousand men in pursuit of him. But as these were ignorant of the course he had taken, they could not overtake him. Constantine however, having rebuilt the bridge over the Saus, which Licinius had broken down, was with his army almost at his heels. Having entered Thrace, he arrived at the plain where Licinius lay encamped. On the night of his arrival there he marshalled his army, and gave orders for his soldiers to be ready for battle by day-break. As soon as it was light, Licinius, perceiving Constantine with his army, drew up his forces also, having been joined by Valens, whom he styled Caesar, after the battle of Cibalis. When the armies engaged, they first fought with bows at a distance ; but when their arrows were spent, they began to use their javelins, and poignards. Thus the battle continued very obstinately for a considerable time, until those whom Constantine had sent in pursuit of Licinius descended from an eminence upon the armies while they were engaged. These wheeled round the hill |46 before they arrived at them, deeming it best to join their own party from the higher ground, and to encompass the enemy. The troops of Licinius, being aware of them, courageously withstood against them all, so that many thousands were slain on both sides, and the advantage was equal, till the signal was given for both to retire. Next day they agreed on a truce, and entered into an alliance with each other, on condition that Constantine should possess Illyricum and all the nations westward, and that Licinius should have Thrace and the east; but that Valens, whom Licinius had made Caesar, should be put to death, because be was said to be the author of all the mischief which had happened. Having done this, and sworn on both sides to observe the conditions, Constantine conferred the rank and title of Caesar on Crispus, his son by a concubine called Minervina, who was as yet but a youth, and on Constantine, who was born but a few days before at Arelatum. At the same time Licinianus, the son of Licinius, who was twenty months of age, was declared Caesar, Thus ended the second war."

According to Zonaras, "By a concubine he also had another son, called Crispus, older than his other sons, who distinguished himself often in the war against Licinius. His stepmother Fausta, being erotically obsessed with him, since she did not find him compliant, denounced him to his father as being in love with her and as having often attempted to use force against her. Hence, Crispus was condemned to death by his father, who had been persuaded by his spouse."

Constantine had his son strangled to death in Pula.

RIC 62
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AE3, Thessalonica

Laureate, cuirassed bust, right, FL DELMATIVS NOB C two soldiers holding spears and shields with two standards between them, O on banner, GLORIA EXERCITVS. Mintmark: SMTSD.

RIC 202D

Zosimus recorded: After Constantine had oppressed and tormented the people in these various modes, he died of a disease, and was succeeded by his three sons, who were not born of Fausta the daughter of Maximianus Herculius, but of another woman, whom he had put to death for adultery. They devoted themselves more to the pleasures of youth than to the service of the state. They began by dividing the nations between them. Constantine the eldest, and Constans the youngest, having for their share all beyond the Alps, together with Italy and Illyricum, the countries bordering on the Euxine sea and all that belonged to Carthage in Africa; Constantius obtained all Asia, the east, and Egypt. There were likewise others who shared in the government; Dalmatius, whom Constantine made Caesar, Constantius his brother, and Hanniballianus, who had all worn robes of purple embroidered with gold, and were promoted to the order of Nobilissimates by Constantine, from respect to their being of his own family. . . . The empire being thus divided, Constantius who appeared to take pains not to fall short of his father in impiety, began by shedding the blood of his nearest relations. He first caused Constantius, his father's brother, to be murdered by the soldiers ; next to whom he treated Dalmatius in the same manner, as also Optatus whom Constantine had raised to the rank of a Nobilissimate.

A great-nephew of Constantine the Great.
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AE2

Diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right, D N MAG MAXIMVS P F AVG
Emperor standing left, raising kneeling female; mintmarks PCON, SCON and TCON known, REPARATIO REIPVB

RIC 26a

Zosimus reports: While the affairs of Thrace were, thus situated, those of Gratian were in great perplexity. Having accepted the counsel of those courtiers who usually corrupt the manners of princes, he gave a reception to some fugitives called Alani, whom he not only introduced into his army, but honoured with valuable presents, and confided to them his most important secrets, esteeming his own soldiers of little value. This produced among his soldiers a violent hatred against him, which being gradually inflamed and augmented incited in them a disposition for innovation, and most particulary in that part of them which was in Britain, since they were the most resolute and vindictive. In this spirit they were encouraged by Maximus, a Spaniard, who had been the fellow-soldier of Theodosius in Britain. He was offended that Theodosius should be thought worthy of being made emperor, while he himself had no honourable employment. He therefore cherished the animosity of the soldiers towards the emperor. They were thus easily induced to revolt and to declare Maximus emperor. Having presented to him the purple robe and the diadem, they sailed to the mouth of the Rhine. As the German army, and all who were in that quarter approved of the election, Gratian prepared to contend against Maximus, with a considerable part of the army which still adhered to him. When the armies met, there were only slight skirmishes for five days; until Gratian, |115 perceiving that the Mauritanian cavalry first deserted from him and declared Maximus Augustus, and afterwards that the remainder of his troops by degrees espoused the cause of his antagonist, relinquished all hope, and fled with three hundred horse to the Alps. Finding those regions without defence, he proceeded towards Rhaetia, Noricum, Pannonia, and the Upper Moesia. When Maximus was informed of his route, he was not negligent of the opportunity, but detached Andragathius, commander of the cavalry, who was his faithful adherent, in pursuit of Gratian. This officer followed him with so great speed, that he overtook him when he was passing the bridge at Sigidunus, and put him to death. . . .

The reign of Gratian being thus terminated, Maximus, who now considered himself firmly fixed in the empire, sent an embassy to the emperor Theodosius, not to intreat pardon for his treatment of Gratian, but rather to increase his provocations. The person employed in this mission was the imperial chamberlain (for Maximus would not suffer an eunuch to preside in his court), a prudent person, with whom he had been familiarly acquainted from his infancy. The purport of his mission was to propose to Theodosius a treaty of amity, and of alliance, against all enemies who should make war on the Romans, and on refusal, to declare against him open hostility. Upon this, Theodosius admitted Maximus to a share in the empire, and in the honour of his statues and his imperial title. . . .

Affairs being thus situated in the east, in Thrace, and in Illyricum, Maximus, who deemed his appointments inferior to his merits, being only governor of the countries formerly under Gratian, projected how to depose the young Valentinian from the empire, if possible totally, but should he fail in the whole, to secure at least some part. . . . he immediately entered Italy without; resistance, and marched to Aquileia. . . .

Theodosius, having passed through Pannonia and the defiles of the Appennines, attacked unawares the forces of Maximus before they were prepared for him. A part of his army, having pursued them with the utmost speed, forced their way through the gates of Aquileia, the guards being too few to resist them. Maximus was torn from his imperial throne while in the act of distributing money to his soldiers, and being stripped of his imperial robes, was brought to Theodosius, who, having in reproach enumerated some of his crimes against the commonwealth, delivered him to the common executioner to receive due punishment. Such was the end of Maximus and of his usurpation. Having fraudulently overcome Valentinian, he imagined that he should with ease subdue the whole Roman empire. Theodosius, having heard, that when Maximus came from beyond the Alps he left his son Victor, whom he had dignified with the title of Caesar, he immediately sent for his general, named Arbogastes, who deprived the youth both of his dignity and life.
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26. Antiochos III.69 viewsTetradrachm, 223 - 213 BC, Antioch mint.
Obverse: Diademed head of Antiochus III with very youthful features.
Reverse: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΟΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ / Apollo seated on omphalos, holding arrow in right hand, left hand resting on bow, Two monograms: one at left, one at right.
16.84 gm., 29 mm.
WSM #1053; S. #6933/4.

Antiochus was 18 or 19 years old when he became king. Since this coin shows him with very youthful features, it was likely issued early on in his reign. E.T. Newell (in WSM) assigns this coin to "series 1" which runs from 223 - 213 BC.
2 commentsCallimachus
coin241.JPG
305b. Herennius Etruscus24 viewsQuintus Herennius Etruscus Messius Decius (c. 227 - July 1, 251), was Roman emperor in 251, in a joint rule with his father Trajan Decius. Emperor Hostilian was his younger brother.

Herennius was born in Pannonia, during one of his father's military postings. His mother was Herennia Cupressenia Etruscilla, a Roman lady of an important senatorial family. Herennius was very close to his father and accompanied him in 248, as a military tribune, when Decius was appointed by Philip the Arab to deal with the revolt of Pacatianus in the Danube frontier. Decius was successful on defeating this usurper and felt confident to begin a rebellion of his own in the following year. Acclaimed emperor by his own troops, Decius marched into Italy and defeated Philip near modern Verona. In Rome, Herennius was declared heir to the throne and received the title of princeps iuventutis (prince of youth).

From the beginning of Herennius' accession, Gothic tribes raided across the Danube frontier and the provinces of Moesia and Dacia. At the beginning of 251, Decius elevated Herennius to the title of Augustus making him his co-emperor. Moreover, Herennius was chosen to be one of the year's consuls. The father and son, now joint rulers, then embarked in an expedition against king Cniva of the Goths to punish the invaders for the raids. Hostilian remained in Rome and the empress Herennia Etruscilla was named regent. Cniva and his men were returning to their lands with the booty, when the Roman army encountered them. Showing a very sophisticated military tactic, Cniva divided his army in smaller, more manageable groups and started to push back the Romans into a marshy swamp. On July 1, both armies engaged in the battle of Abrittus. Herennius died in battle, struck by an enemy arrow. Decius survived the initial confrontation, only to be slain with the rest of the army before the end of the day. Herennius and Decius were the first two emperors to be killed by a foreign army in battle.

With the news of the death of the emperors, the army proclaimed Trebonianus Gallus emperor, but in Rome they were succeeded by Hostilian, who would die shortly afterwards in an outbreak of plague.

Herennius Etruscus AR Antoninianus. Q HER ETR MES DECIVS NOB C, radiate draped bust right / CONCORDIA AVGG, clasped hands. RIC 138, RSC 4
1 commentsecoli
coin197.JPG
305c. Hostilian23 viewsGaius Valens Hostilianus Messius Quintus (died 251), was Roman emperor in 251. Hostilian was born in an unknown date, after 230, as the son of the future emperor Trajan Decius by his wife Herennia Cupressenia Etruscilla. He was the younger brother of emperor Herennius Etruscus.

Following his father's accession to the throne, Hostilian received the treatment of an imperial prince, but was always kept in the shade of his brother Herennius, who enjoyed the privileges of being older and heir. In the beginning of 251, Decius elevated his son Herennius to co-emperor and Hostilian succeeded him in the title of princeps iuventutis (prince of youth). These dispositions were made previous to a campaign against king Cniva of the Goths, to punish him over the raids on the Danubian frontier. Hostilian remained in Rome due to his inexperience, and empress Herennia was named regent.

The campaign proved to be a disaster: both Herennius and Decius died in the Battle of Abrittus and became the first two emperors to be killed by a foreign army in battle. The armies in the Danube acclaimed Trebonianus Gallus emperor, but Rome acknowledged Hostilian's rights. Since Trebonianus was a respected general, there was fear of another civil war of succession, despite the fact that he chose to respect the will of Rome and adopted Hostilian. But later in 251, plague broke out in Rome and Hostilian died in the epidemic. He was the first emperor in 40 years and one of only 13 to die of natural causes. His timely death opened the way for the rule of Trebonianus with his natural son Volusianus.

Hostilian. Moesia Superior. Viminacium AE 25 mm. 11.7 g. Obverse: C VAL HOST M QVINTVS CAE. Draped bust right. Reverse: P M S COL VIM AN XII. Moesia standing left between lion and bull.
ecoli
q_010.JPG
359-336 BC29 viewsPhilip II
AE Unit
Obverse:Head of Apollo left
Reverse:Youth on horse prancing;ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΥ above ; E below

17.40 mm 5.89gm

SEAR 6699
maik
q_001.JPG
359-336 BC32 views Philip II
AE Unit
Obverse:Head of Apollo right
Reverse:Youth on horse prancing; ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΥ above ; E below
18.21mm 7.79gm

SEAR 6698
maik
PhilipII.jpg
359-336 BC - Philip II - Lindgren II 1272 - Youth on Horse Reverse59 viewsKing: Philip II of Macedonia (r. 359-336 BC)
Date: 359-336 BC
Size: AE15
Condition: Fine

Obverse: Head of Apollo right wearing tania

Reverse: Φ I Λ I Γ Γ O Y
Youth on horse prancing left, right hand raised - or- whiping horse with right.
"N" below

Uncertain Macedonian mint
Lindgren II 1272; SNG Cop. 614; SNG ANS 939
6.54g; 15.9mm; 90°
Pep
PhilipII_2.jpg
359-336 BC - Philip II - Youth on Horse Reverse49 viewsKing: Philip II of Macedonia (r. 359-336 BC)
Date: 359-336 BC
Size: AE16
Condition: Fair

Obverse: Head of Apollo right wearing tania

Reverse: Φ I Λ I Γ Γ O Y
Youth on horse prancing right.
"N" below

Uncertain Macedonian mint
5.43g; 16.1mm; 345°
Pep
philippos II  015.JPG
359-336 BC PhilipII30 viewsMacedonian KIngdom Philip II
AE Double Unit

Obverse:Head of Apollo right
Reverse:Youth on horse prancing, FILIPPOY above , E below
21.80mm 8.64gm
maik
pergamum_RPC_2374.jpg
41-60 AD - Semi-Autonomous AE15 of Pergamum - struck under the time of the Claudians75 viewsobv: PEON CYNKLHTON (youthful draped bust of the Roman Senate right)
rev: PEAN PWMHN (turreted and draped bust of Roma right)
ref: RPC 2374, SNG BN Paris 1964
mint: Pergamum, Mysia (40-60 AD)
4.03gms, 15mm
Rare

Pergamum was not conquered by the Romans. In 133 B.C. Attalus III, its last king, bequeathed Pergamum to the Romans and this granted to the city and its inhabitants the continued benevolence of the new rulers (with the only exception being Marcus Antonius who deprived the Library of Pergamum of many of its volumes to replenish that of Alexandria, which had been damaged by Julius Caesar).
berserker
coin599.JPG
501. Constantine I Alexandria Posthumous23 viewsAlexandria

The city passed formally under Roman jurisdiction in 80 BC, according to the will of Ptolemy Alexander but after it had been previously under Roman influence for more than a hundred years. Julius Caesar dallied with Cleopatra in Alexandria in 47 BC, saw Alexander's body (quipping 'I came to see a king, not a collection of corpses' when he was offered a view of the other royal burials) and was mobbed by the rabble. His example was followed by Marc Antony, for whose favor the city paid dearly to Octavian, who placed over it a prefect from the imperial household.

From the time of annexation onwards, Alexandria seems to have regained its old prosperity, commanding, as it did, an important granary of Rome. This fact, doubtless, was one of the chief reasons which induced Augustus to place it directly under imperial power. In AD 215 the emperor Caracalla visited the city and for some insulting satires that the inhabitants had directed at him, abruptly commanded his troops to put to death all youths capable of bearing arms. This brutal order seems to have been carried out even beyond the letter, for a general massacre ensued.

Even as its main historical importance had formerly sprung from pagan learning, now Alexandria acquired fresh importance as a centre of Christian theology and church government. There Arianism was formulated and where also Athanasius, the great opponent of both Arianism and pagan reaction, triumphed over both, establishing the Patriarch of Alexandria as a major influence in Christianity for the next two centuries.

As native influences began to reassert themselves in the Nile valley, Alexandria gradually became an alien city, more and more detached from Egypt and losing much of its commerce as the peace of the empire broke up during the 3rd century AD, followed by a fast decline in population and splendour.

In the late 4th century, persecution of pagans by Christians had reached new levels of intensity. Temples and statues were destroyed throughout the Roman empire: pagan rituals became forbidden under punishment of death, and libraries were closed. In 391, Emperor Theodosius I ordered the destruction of all pagan temples, and the Patriarch Theophilus, complied with his request. It is possible that the great Library of Alexandria and the Serapeum was destroyed about this time. The pagan mathematician and philosopher Hypathia was a prominent victim of the persecutions.

The Brucheum and Jewish quarters were desolate in the 5th century, and the central monuments, the Soma and Museum, fell into ruin. On the mainland, life seemed to have centred in the vicinity of the Serapeum and Caesareum, both which became Christian churches. The Pharos and Heptastadium quarters, however, remained populous and left intact.

veiled head only
DV CONSTANTI-NVS PT AVGG
RIC VIII Alexandria 32 C3

From uncleaned lot; one of the nicer finds.
ecoli
coin279.JPG
503. Constans25 viewsFlavius Julius Constans (320 - January 18, 350), was a Roman Emperor who ruled from 337 to 350. Constans was the third and youngest son of Constantine the Great and Fausta, Constantine's second wife.

From 337, he was a joint ruler with his brothers Constantius II and Constantine II. Constantine II attempted to take advantage of his youth and inexperience by invading Italy in 340, but Constans defeated Constantine II at Aquileia, where the older brother died.

The writer Julius Firmicus Maternus mentioned that Constans visited Britain in the early months of 343, but did not explain why. The speed of his trip, paired with the fact he crossed the English Channel during the dangerous winter months, suggests it was in response to a military emergency of some kind.

In 350, the general Magnentius declared himself emperor with the support of the troops on the Rhine frontier, and later the entire Western portion of the Roman Empire. Constans lacked any support beyond his immediate household, and was forced to flee for his life. Magnentius' supporters cornered him in a fortification in southeastern Gaul, where he was killed.

Constans, AE3. 340-348 AD. DN CONSTANS P F AVG, diademed draped bust right / VICTORIAE DD AVGG Q NN, two Victories standing facing each other, each holding wreath & palm.
ecoli
Antony,_IV.jpg
544/17 Marc Antony, Legion IV, Scythica116 viewsMarcus Antonius (Marc Antony). AR Denarius. Struck 32-31 BC. Obv: ANT AVG III VIR R P C, praetorian galley. Rev: LEG IV, eagle between standards. 17mm, 3.7g. Crawford 544/17.

In his youth, future emperor Vespasian served in this legion.
1 commentsLucas H
24_P_Hadrian__Emmett_845_r1.jpg
5768 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Tetradrachm 130-31 AD Hadrian-Alexandria32 viewsReference.
RPC III, 5768; Emmett 845.15; Köln 1026; Dattari 1268.

Issue L IE = year 15

Obv. AVT KAI TPAI ADPIA CEB
Laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right

Rev. L-IE
Hadrian standing to left holding scepter receiving corn ears from Alexandria

12.16 gr
25 mm
12 h

Note.
Struck to commemorate the emperor’s visit to Alexandria in AD 130. It was during this visit that Hadrian’s favorite, the Bithynian youth Antinous, drowned in the Nile.
Ex CNG Auction 322, 2014
2 commentsokidoki
coin411.JPG
601. Eudoxia24 viewsAelia Eudoxia (d. 6 October 404) was the wife of the Eastern Roman emperor Arcadius.

The daughter of a certain Bauto, a Frankish magister militum serving in the Western Roman army during the 380s, Eudoxia owed her marriage to the youthful Emperor Arcadius on 27 April 395 to the intrigues of the eunuch of the palace, Eutropius. She had very considerable influence over her husband, who was of rather weak character and who was more interested in Christian piety than imperial politics.

In 399 she succeeded, with help from the leader of the Empire's Gothic mercenaries, in deposing her erstwhile benefactor Eutropius, who was later executed over the protests of John Chrysostom, the Patriarch of Constantinople.

John Chrysostom was already becoming unpopular at court due to his efforts at reforming the Church, and in 403 Eudoxia and Theophilus, Patriarch of Alexandria, succeeded in having the outspoken Patriarch condemned by a synod and then deposed. He was exiled to Armenia the next year after a brief return to power resulting from popular disgust at his fall and an earthquake which reinforced those feelings.

Eudoxia had a total of seven pregnancies, five of which were successful. Her final pregnancy ended in a miscarriage which led to her death on October 6, 404. One of her children was the future emperor Theodosius II.

In 403, Simplicius, Prefect of Constantinople, erected a statue dedicated to her on a column of porphyry. Arcadius renamed the town of Selymbria (Silivri) Eudoxiopolis after her, though this name did not survive.

Bronze AE 4, RIC 102, S 4241, VM 6, VF, 2.14g, 17.0mm, 180o, Nikomedia mint, 401-403 A.D.; obverse AEL EVDOXIA AVG, diademed and draped bust right with hand of God holding wreath over her head; reverse SALVS REIPVBLICAE, Victory seated on cuirass inscribing Christogram on shield, SMNA in ex; softly struck reverse; rare
ecoli
CaligulaSmyrnaRPC2473.jpg
704a, Caligula, 16 March 37 - 24 January 41 A.D.100 viewsCaligula, 37 - 41 AD, Ionia, Smyrna. AE 17mm. Klose, Smyrna 27a. RPC 2473. 2.89 gm. Fine. Menophanes, Aviola, Procos, 37-38 AD. Obverse: AION, laureate head right; Reverse: Nike holding wreath right. Ex Tom Vossen.


De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

GAIUS (CALIGULA) (A.D. 37-41)

Garrett G. Fagan
Pennsylvania State University

Gaius Caesar Augustus Germanicus (Caligula) was born on 31 August, A.D. 12, probably at the Julio-Claudian resort of Antium (modern Anzio), the third of six children born to Augustus's adopted grandson, Germanicus, and Augustus's granddaughter, Agrippina. Caligula was the Roman Emperor between A.D. 37-41). Unfortunately, his is the most poorly documented reign of the Julio-Claudian dynasty. The literary sources for these four years are meager, frequently anecdotal, and universally hostile.[[1]] As a result, not only are many of the events of the reign unclear, but Gaius himself appears more as a caricature than a real person, a crazed megalomaniac given to capricious cruelty. Although some headway can be made in disentangling truth from embellishment, the true character of the youthful emperor will forever elude us.

As a baby he accompanied his parents on military campaigns in the north and was shown to the troops wearing a miniature soldier's outfit, including the hob-nailed sandal called caliga, whence the nickname by which posterity remembers him. His childhood was not a happy one, spent amid an atmosphere of paranoia, suspicion, and murder. Instability within the Julio-Claudian house, generated by uncertainty over the succession, led to a series of personal tragedies.

When Tiberius died on 16 March A.D. 37, Gaius was in a perfect position to assume power, despite the obstacle of Tiberius's will, which named him and his cousin Tiberius Gemellus joint heirs. (Gemellus's life was shortened considerably by this bequest, since Gaius ordered him killed within a matter of months.) Backed by the Praetorian Prefect Q. Sutorius Macro, Gaius asserted his dominance. He had Tiberius's will declared null and void on grounds of insanity, accepted the powers of the Principate as conferred by the Senate, and entered Rome on 28 March amid scenes of wild rejoicing. His first acts were generous in spirit: he paid Tiberius's bequests and gave a cash bonus to the Praetorian Guard, the first recorded donativum to troops in imperial history.

The ancient sources are practically unanimous as to the cause of Gaius's downfall: he was insane. The writers differ as to how this condition came about, but all agree that after his good start Gaius began to behave in an openly autocratic manner, even a crazed one. The sources describe his incestuous relations with his sisters, laughable military campaigns in the north, the building of a pontoon bridge across the Bay at Baiae, and the plan to make his horse a consul. Their unanimous hostility renders their testimony suspect, especially since Gaius's reported behavior fits remarkably well with that of the ancient tyrant, a literary type enshrined in Greco-Roman tradition centuries before his reign. Further, the only eye-witness account of Gaius's behavior, Philo's Embassy to Gaius, offers little evidence of outright insanity, despite the antagonism of the author, whom Gaius treated with the utmost disrespect.

The conspiracy that ended Gaius's life was hatched among the officers of the Praetorian Guard, apparently for purely personal reasons. It appears also to have had the support of some senators and an imperial freedman. As with conspiracies in general, there are suspicions that the plot was more broad-based than the sources intimate, and it may even have enjoyed the support of the next emperor Claudius, but these propositions are not provable on available evidence. On 24 January A.D. 41 the praetorian tribune Cassius Chaerea and other guardsmen caught Gaius alone in a secluded palace corridor and cut him down. He was 28 years old and had ruled three years and ten months.

Whatever damage Tiberius's later years had done to the carefully crafted political edifice created by Augustus, Gaius multiplied it a hundredfold. When he came to power in A.D. 37 Gaius had no administrative experience beyond his honorary quaestorship, and had spent an unhappy early life far from the public eye. He appears, once in power, to have realized the boundless scope of his authority and acted accordingly. For the elite, this situation proved intolerable and ensured the blackening of Caligula's name in the historical record they would dictate. The sensational and hostile nature of that record, however, should in no way trivialize Gaius's importance. His reign highlighted an inherent weakness in the Augustan Principate, now openly revealed for what it was -- a raw monarchy in which only the self-discipline of the incumbent acted as a restraint on his behavior. That the only means of retiring the wayward princes was murder marked another important revelation: Roman emperors could not relinquish their powers without simultaneously relinquishing their lives.

Copyright © 1997, Garrett G. Fagan.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Ancient Smyrna

The 5,000 year-old city of Izmir is one of the oldest cities of the Mediterranean basin. The original city was established in the third millennium BC (at present day Bayraklı), at which time it shared with Troy the most advanced culture in Anatolia.


Greek settlement is attested by the presence of pottery dating from about 1000 BC. In the first millennium BC Izmir, then known as Smyrna, ranked as one of the most important cities of the Ionian Federation. During this period, it is believed that the epic poet Homer resided here.

Lydian conquest of the city around 600 BC brought this golden age to an end. Smyrna was little more than a village throughout the Lydian and subsequent sixth century BC Persian rule. In the fourth century BC a new city was built on the slopes of Mt. Pagos (Kadifekale) during the reign of Alexander the Great. Smyrna's Roman period, beginning in the first century BC, was its second great era.

In the first century AD, Smyrna became one of the earliest centers of Christianity and it was one of the Seven Churches of Revelation. Both Revelation and the Martyrdom of Polycarp indicate the existence of a Jewish community in Smyrna as early as the 1st and 2nd centuries AD. The letter to the church at Smyrna in Revelation indicates that the Christians were spiritually "rich" and apparently in conflict with the Jews (2:9).

The origins of the Christian community there, which was established in the 1st century, are unknown. Ignatius of Antioch stopped at Smyrna on his way to martyrdom in Rome in 107 AD, and he sent a letter back to the Christians there from later in his journey. Smyrna's bishop, Polycarp, was burned at the stake in Smyrna's stadium around 156 AD.

Byzantine rule came in the fourth century and lasted until the Seljuk conquest in 11th century. In 1415, under Sultan Mehmed Çelebi, Smyrna became part of the Ottoman Empire.

The city earned its fame as one of the most important port cities of the world during the 17th to 19th centuries. The majority of its population were Greek but merchants of various origins (especially Greek, French, Italian, Dutch, Armenian, Sephardi and Jewish) transformed the city into a cosmopolitan portal of trade. During this period, the city was famous for its own brand of music (Smyrneika) as well as its wide range of products it exported to Europe (Smyrna/Sultana raisins, dried figs, carpets, etc.).

Today, Izmir is Turkey's third largest city and is nicknamed "the pearl of Aegean." It is widely regarded as the most Westernized city of Turkey in terms of values, ideology, gender roles, and lifestyle.
© 2005-08 Sacred Destinations. All rights reserved.
http://www.sacred-destinations.com/turkey/izmir-history.htm

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
CLAUD34LG.jpg
705a, Claudius, 25 January 41 - 13 October 54 A.D.62 viewsClaudius. 42-43 AD. AE As.
Claudius. 42-43 AD. AE As (29 mm, 10.87 g). Obverse: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP P P, bare head right; Reverse: CONSTANTIAE AVGVSTI / S - C, Constantiae in military dress standing left, holding spear; RIC I, 111; aVF. Ex Imperial Coins.



De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

CLAUDIUS (41-54 A.D.)

Garrett G. Fagan
Pennsylvania State University

Ti. Claudius Nero Germanicus (b. 10 BC, d. 54 A.D.; emperor, 41-54 A.D.) was the third emperor of the Julio-Claudian dynasty. His reign represents a turning point in the history of the Principate for a number of reasons, not the least for the manner of his accession and the implications it carried for the nature of the office. During his reign he promoted administrators who did not belong to the senatorial or equestrian classes, and was later vilified by authors who did. He followed Caesar in carrying Roman arms across the English Channel into Britain but, unlike his predecessor, he initiated the full-scale annexation of Britain as a province, which remains today the most closely studied corner of the Roman Empire. His relationships with his wives and children provide detailed insights into the perennial difficulties of the succession problem faced by all Roman Emperors. His final settlement in this regard was not lucky: he adopted his fourth wife's son, L. Domitius Ahenobarbus, who was to reign catastrophically as Nero and bring the dynasty to an end. Claudius's reign, therefore, was a mixture of successes and failures that leads into the last phase of the Julio-Claudian line.

Robert Graves' fictional characterization of Claudius as an essentially benign man with a keen intelligence has tended to dominate the wider public's view of this emperor. Close study of the sources, however, reveals a somewhat different kind of man. In addition to his scholarly and cautious nature, he had a cruel streak, as suggested by his addiction to gladiatorial games and his fondness for watching his defeated opponents executed. He conducted closed-door (in camera ) trials of leading citizens that frequently resulted in their ruin or deaths -- an unprecedented and tyrannical pattern of behavior. He had his wife Messalina executed, and he personally presided over a kangaroo court in the Praetorian Camp in which many of her hangers-on lost their lives. He abandoned his own son Britannicus to his fate and favored the advancement of Nero as his successor. While he cannot be blamed for the disastrous way Nero's rule turned out, he must take some responsibility for putting that most unsuitable youth on the throne. At the same time, his reign was marked by some notable successes: the invasion of Britain, stability and good government in the provinces, and successful management of client kingdoms. Claudius, then, is a more enigmatic figure than the other Julio-Claudian emperors: at once careful, intelligent, aware and respectful of tradition, but given to bouts of rage and cruelty, willing to sacrifice precedent to expediency, and utterly ruthless in his treatment of those who crossed him. Augustus's suspicion that there was more to the timid Claudius than met the eye was more than fully borne out by the events of his unexpected reign.

The possibility has to be entertained that Claudius was a far more active participant in his own elevation than traditional accounts let on. There is just reason to suspect that he may even have been involved in planning the murder of Gaius (Caligula). Merely minutes before the assassination of Gaius, Claudius had departed for lunch; this appears altogether too fortuitous. This possibility, however, must remain pure speculation, since the ancient evidence offers nothing explicit in the way of support. On the other hand, we can hardly expect them to, given the later pattern of events. The whole issue of Claudius's possible involvement in the death of Gaius and his own subsequent acclamation by the Praetorian Guard must, therefore, remain moot . . . yet intriguing

Copyright 1998, Garrett G. Fagan.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
GalbaAEAs.jpg
707a, Galba, 3 April 68 - 15 January 69 A.D.66 viewsGalba AE As, 68-69 AD; cf. SRC 727, 729ff; 27.85mm, 12g; Rome: Obverse: GALBA IMP CAESAR…, Laureate head right; Reverse: S P Q R OB CIV SER in oak wreath; gF+/F Ex. Ancient Imports.

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Galba (68-69 A.D.)

John Donahue
College of William and Mary


Introduction
The evidence for the principate of Galba is unsatisfactory. The sources either concentrate on the personality of the man, thereby failing to offer a balanced account of his policies and a firm chronological base for his actions; or, they focus on the final two weeks of his life at the expense of the earlier part of his reign. As a result, a detailed account of his principate is difficult to write. Even so, Galba is noteworthy because he was neither related to nor adopted by his predecessor Nero. Thus, his accession marked the end of the nearly century-long control of the Principate by the Julio-Claudians. Additionally, Galba's declaration as emperor by his troops abroad set a precedent for the further political upheavals of 68-69. Although these events worked to Galba's favor initially, they soon came back to haunt him, ending his tumultuous rule after only seven months.

Early Life and Rise to Power
Born 24 December 3 BC in Tarracina, a town on the Appian Way, 65 miles south of Rome, Servius Galba was the son of C. Sulpicius Galba and Mummia Achaica. Galba's connection with the noble house of the Servii gave him great prestige and assured his acceptance among the highest levels of Julio-Claudian society. Adopted in his youth by Livia, the mother of the emperor Tiberius, he is said to have owed much of his early advancement to her. Upon her death, Livia made Galba her chief legatee, bequeathing him some 50 million sesterces. Tiberius, Livia's heir, reduced the amount, however, and then never paid it. Galba's marriage proved to be a further source of disappointment, as he outlived both his wife Lepida and their two sons. Nothing else is known of Galba's immediate family, other than that he remained a widower for the rest of his life.

Although the details of Galba's early political career are incomplete, the surviving record is one of an ambitious Roman making his way in the Emperor's service. Suetonius records that as praetor Galba put on a new kind of exhibition for the people - elephants walking on a rope. Later, he served as governor of the province of Aquitania, followed by a six-month term as consul at the beginning of 33. Ironically, as consul he was succeeded by Salvius Otho, whose own son would succeed Galba as emperor. Over the years three more governorships followed - Upper Germany (date unknown), North Africa (45) and Hispania Tarraconensis, the largest of Spain's three provinces (61). He was selected as a proconsul of Africa by the emperor Claudius himself instead of by the usual method of drawing lots. During his two-year tenure in the province he successfully restored internal order and quelled a revolt by the barbarians. As an imperial legate he was a governor in Spain for eight years under Nero, even though he was already in his early sixties when he assumed his duties. The appointment showed that Galba was still considered efficient and loyal. In all of these posts Galba generally displayed an enthusiasm for old-fashioned disciplina, a trait consistent with the traditional characterization of the man as a hard-bitten aristocrat of the old Republican type. Such service did not go unnoticed, as he was honored with triumphal insignia and three priesthoods during his career.

On the basis of his ancestry, family tradition and service to the state Galba was the most distinguished Roman alive (with the exception of the houses of the Julii and Claudii) at the time of Nero's demise in 68. The complex chain of events that would lead him to the Principate later that year began in March with the rebellion of Gaius Iulius Vindex, the governor of Gallia Lugdunensis. Vindex had begun to sound out provincial governors about support for a rebellion perhaps in late 67 or early 68. Galba did not respond but, because of his displeasure with Neronian misgovernment, neither did he inform the emperor of these treasonous solicitations. This, of course, left him dangerously exposed; moreover, he was already aware that Nero, anxious to remove anyone of distinguished birth and noble achievements, had ordered his death. Given these circumstances, Galba likely felt that he had no choice but to rebel.

In April, 68, while still in Spain, Galba "went public," positioning himself as a vir militaris, a military representative of the senate and people of Rome. For the moment, he refused the title of Emperor, but it is clear that the Principate was his goal. To this end, he organized a concilium of advisors in order to make it known that any decisions were not made by him alone but only after consultation with a group. The arrangement was meant to recall the Augustan Age relationship between the emperor and senate in Rome. Even more revealing of his imperial ambitions were legends like LIBERTAS RESTITUTA (Liberty Restored), ROM RENASC (Rome Reborn) and SALUS GENERIS HUMANI (Salvation of Mankind), preserved on his coinage from the period. Such evidence has brought into question the traditional assessment of Galba as nothing more than an ineffectual representative of a bygone antiquus rigor in favor of a more balanced portrait of a traditional constitutionalist eager to publicize the virtues of an Augustan-style Principate.
Events now began to move quickly. In May, 68 Lucius Clodius Macer, legate of the III legio Augusta in Africa, revolted from Nero and cut off the grain supply to Rome. Choosing not to recognize Galba, he called himself propraetor, issued his own coinage, and raised a new legion, the I Macriana liberatrix. Galba later had him executed. At the same time, 68, Lucius Verginius Rufus, legionary commander in Upper Germany, led a combined force of soldiers from Upper and Lower Germany in defeating Vindex at Vesontio in Gallia Lugdunensis. Verginius refused to accept a call to the emperorship by his own troops and by those from the Danube, however, thereby creating at Rome an opportunity for Galba's agents to win over Gaius Nymphidius Sabinus, the corrupt praetorian prefect since 65. Sabinus was able to turn the imperial guard against Nero on the promise that they would be rewarded financially by Galba upon his arrival. That was the end for Nero. Deposed by the senate and abandoned by his supporters, he committed suicide in June. At this point, encouraged to march on Rome by the praetorians and especially by Sabinus, who had his own designs on the throne, Galba hurriedly established broad-based political and financial support and assembled his own legion (subsequently known as the legio VII Gemina). As he departed from Spain, he abandoned the title of governor in favor of "Caesar," apparently in an attempt to lay claim to the entire inheritance of the Julio-Claudian house. Even so, he continued to proceed cautiously, and did not actually adopt the name of Caesar (and with it the emperorship) until sometime after he had left Spain.

The Principate of Galba
Meanwhile, Rome was anything but serene. An unusual force of soldiers, many of whom had been mustered by Nero to crush the attempt of Vindex, remained idle and restless. In addition, there was the matter concerning Nymphidius Sabinus. Intent on being the power behind the throne, Nymphidius had orchestrated a demand from the praetorians that Galba appoint him sole praetorian prefect for life. The senate capitulated to his pretensions and he began to have designs on the throne himself. In an attempt to rattle Galba, Nymphidius then sent messages of alarm to the emperor telling of unrest in both the city and abroad. When Galba ignored these reports, Nymphidius decided to launch a coup by presenting himself to the praetorians. The plan misfired, and the praetorians killed him when he appeared at their camp. Upon learning of the incident, Galba ordered the executions of Nymphidius' followers. To make matters worse, Galba's arrival was preceded by a confrontation with a boisterous band of soldiers who had been formed into a legion by Nero and were now demanding legionary standards and regular quarters. When they persisted, Galba's forces attacked, with the result that many of them were killed.
Thus it was amid carnage and fear that Galba arrived at the capital in October, 68, accompanied by Otho, the governor of Lusitania, who had joined the cause. Once Galba was within Rome, miscalculations and missteps seemed to multiply. First, he relied upon the advice of a corrupt circle of advisors, most notably: Titus Vinius, a general from Spain; Cornelius Laco, praetorian prefect; and his own freedman, Icelus. Second, he zealously attempted to recover some of Nero's more excessive expenditures by seizing the property of many citizens, a measure that seems to have gone too far and to have caused real hardship and resentment. Third, he created further ill-will by disbanding the imperial corps of German bodyguards, effectively abolishing a tradition that originated with Marius and had been endorsed by Augustus. Finally, he seriously alienated the military by refusing cash rewards for both the praetorians and for the soldiers in Upper Germany who had fought against Vindex.

This last act proved to be the beginning of the end for Galba. On 1 January 69 ("The Year of the Four Emperors"), the troops in Upper Germany refused to declare allegiance to him and instead followed the men stationed in Lower Germany in proclaiming their commander, Aulus Vitellius, as the new ruler. In response, Galba adopted Lucius Calpurnius Piso Frugi Licinianus to show that he was still in charge and that his successor would not be chosen for him. Piso, although an aristocrat, was a man completely without administrative or military experience. The choice meant little to the remote armies, the praetorians or the senate, and it especially angered Otho, who had hoped to succeed Galba. Otho quickly organized a conspiracy among the praetorians with the now-familiar promise of a material reward, and on 15 January 69 they declared him emperor and publicly killed Galba; Piso, dragged from hiding in the temple of Vesta, was also butchered.

Assessment
In sum, Galba had displayed talent and ambition during his lengthy career. He enjoyed distinguished ancestry, moved easily among the Julio-Claudian emperors (with the exception of Nero towards the end of his principate), and had been awarded the highest military and religious honors of ancient Rome. His qualifications for the principate cannot be questioned. Even so, history has been unkind to him. Tacitus characterized Galba as "weak and old," a man "equal to the imperial office, if he had never held it." Modern historians of the Roman world have been no less critical. To be sure, Galba's greatest mistake lay in his general handling of the military. His treatment of the army in Upper Germany was heedless, his policy towards the praetorians short sighted. Given the climate in 68-69, Galba was unrealistic in expecting disciplina without paying the promised rewards. He was also guilty of relying on poor advisors, who shielded him from reality and ultimately allowed Otho's conspiracy to succeed. Additionally, the excessive power of his henchmen brought the regime into disfavor and made Galba himself the principal target of the hatred that his aides had incited. Finally, the appointment of Piso, a young man in no way equal to the challenges placed before him, further underscored the emperor's isolation and lack of judgment. In the end, the instability of the post-Julio-Claudian political landscape offered challenges more formidable than a tired, septuagenarian aristocrat could hope to overcome. Ironically, his regime proved no more successful than the Neronian government he was so eager to replace. Another year of bloodshed would be necessary before the Principate could once again stand firm.

Copyright (C) 1999, John Donahue.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.


Cleisthenes
roman_emperor_otho.jpg
708a, Otho64 viewsOtho (69 A.D.)
John Donahue
College of William and Mary

Introduction
In January 69 Otho led a successful coup to overthrow the emperor Galba. Upon advancing to the throne, he hoped to conciliate his adversaries and restore political stability to the Empire. These ambitions were never to be realized. Instead, our sources portray a leader never fully able to win political confidence at Rome or to overcome military anarchy abroad. As a result, he was defeated in battle by the forces of Vitellius, his successor, and took his own life at the conclusion of the conflict. His principate lasted only eight weeks.
Early Life and Career
Marcus Salvius Otho was born at Ferentium on 28 April 32 A. D. His grandfather, also named Marcus Salvius Otho, was a senator who did not advance beyond the rank of praetor. Lucius Otho, his father, was consul in 33 and a trusted administrator under the emperors Tiberius, Gaius and Claudius. His mother, Albia Terentia, was likely to have been nobly born as well. The cognomen "Otho" was Etruscan in origin, and the fact that it can be traced to three successive generations of this family perhaps reflects a desire to maintain a part of the Etruscan tradition that formed the family's background.
Otho is recorded as being extravagant and wild as a youth - a favorite pastime involved roving about at night to snare drunkards in a blanket. Such behavior earned floggings from his father, whose frequent absences from home on imperial business suggest little in the way of a stabilizing parental influence in Otho's formative years. These traits apparently persisted: Suetonius records that Otho and Nero became close friends because of the similarity of their characters; and Plutarch relates that the young man was so extravagant that he sometimes chided Nero about his meanness, and even outdid the emperor in reckless spending.
Most intriguing in this context is Otho's involvement with Nero's mistress, Poppaea Sabina, the greatest beauty of her day. A relationship between the two is widely cited in the ancient sources, but the story differs in essential details from one account to the next. As a result, it is impossible to establish who seduced whom, whether Otho ever married Poppaea, and whether his posting to Lusitania by Nero should be understood as a "banishment" for his part in this affair. About the only reliable detail to emerge is that Otho did indeed become governor of Lusitania in 59, and that he assumed the post as a quaestor, a rank below that of praetor or consul, the minimum usually required for the office. From here he would launch his initial thrust towards the imperial throne.
Overthrow of Galba
Nero's suicide in June 68 marked the end of the Julio-Claudian dynasty and opened up the principate to the prerogatives of the military beyond Rome. First to emerge was Servius Sulpicius Galba, governor of Hispania Tarraconensis, who had been encouraged to revolt by the praetorians and especially by Nymphidius Sabinus, the corrupt and scheming praetorian prefect at Rome. By this time Otho had been in Spain for close to ten years. His record seems to have been a good one, marked by capable administration and an unwillingness to enrich himself at the expense of the province. At the same time, perhaps seeing this as his best chance to improve his own circumstances, he supported the insurrection as vigorously as possible, even sending Galba all of his gold and his best table servants. At the same time, he made it a point to win the favor of every soldier he came in contact with, most notably the members of the praetorian guard who had come to Spain to accompany Galba to Rome. Galba set out from Spain in July, formally assuming the emperorship shortly thereafter. Otho accompanied him on the journey.
Galba had been in Rome little more than two months when on 1 January 69 the troops in Upper Germany refused to declare allegiance to him and instead followed the men stationed in Lower Germany in proclaiming their commander, Aulus Vitellius, as the new ruler. To show that he was still in charge Galba adopted his own successor, Lucius Calpurnius Piso Frugi Licinianus, an aristocrat completely without administrative or military experience. The choice meant little to the remote armies, the praetorians or the senate and particularly angered Otho, who had hoped to succeed Galba. Otho quickly organized a conspiracy among the praetorians with promise of a material reward, and on 15 January 69 they declared him emperor and publicly killed Galba; Piso, dragged from hiding in the temple of Vesta, was also butchered. On that same evening a powerless senate awarded Otho the imperial titles.
Otho's Principate in Rome
It is not possible to reconstruct a detailed chronology of Otho's brief eight and a half weeks as princeps in Rome (15 January-15 March). Even so, Galba's quick demise had surely impressed upon Otho the need to conciliate various groups. As a result, he continued his indulgence of the praetorian guard but he also tried to win over the senate by following a strict constitutionalist line and by generally keeping the designations for the consulship made by Nero and Galba. In the provinces, despite limited evidence, there are some indications that he tried to compensate for Galba's stinginess by being more generous with grants of citizenship. In short, Otho was eager not to offend anyone.
Problems remained, however. The praetorians had to be continually placated and they were always suspicious of the senate. On the other hand, the senate itself, along with the people, remained deeply disturbed at the manner of Otho's coming to power and his willingness to be associated with Nero. These suspicions and fears were most evident in the praetorian outbreak at Rome. Briefly, Otho had decided to move from Ostia to Rome a cohort of Roman citizens in order to replace some of Rome's garrison, much of which was to be utilized for the showdown with Vitellius. He ordered that weapons be moved from the praetorian camp in Rome by ship to Ostia at night so that the garrison replacements would be properly armed and made to look as soldierly as possible when they marched into the city. Thinking that a senatorial counter-coup against Otho was underway, the praetorians stormed the imperial palace to confirm the emperor's safety, with the result that they terrified Otho and his senatorial dinner guests. Although the praetorians' fears were eventually calmed and they were given a substantial cash payment, the incident dramatically underscored the unease at Rome in the early months of 69.
Otho's Offensive against Vitellius
Meanwhile, in the Rhineland, preparations for a march on Rome by the military legions that had declared for Vitellius were far advanced. Hampered by poor intelligence gathering in Gaul and Germany and having failed to negotiate a settlement with Vitellius in early 69, Otho finally summoned to Italy his forces for a counterattack against the invading Vitellian army. His support consisted of the four legions of Pannonia and Dalmatia, the three legions of Moesia and his own imperial retinue of about 9,000. Vitellius' own troops numbered some 30,000, while those of his two marshals, Aulus Caecina Alienus and Fabius Valens, were between 15,000 and 20,000 each.
Otho's strategy was to make a quick diversionary strike in order to allow time for his own forces to assemble in Italy before engaging the enemy. The strategy worked, as the diversionary army, comprised of urban cohorts, praetorians and marines all from Rome or nearby, was successful in Narbonese Gaul in latter March. An advance guard sent to hold the line on the Po River until the Danubian legions arrived also enjoyed initial success. Otho himself arrived at Bedriacum in northern Italy about 10 April for a strategy session with his commanders. The main concern was that the Vitellians were building a bridge across the Po in order to drive southward towards the Apennines and eventually to Rome. Otho decided to counter by ordering a substantial part of his main force to advance from Bedriacum and establish a new base close enough to the new Vitellian bridge to interrupt its completion. While en route, the Othonian forces, strung out along the via Postumia amid baggage and supply trains, were attacked by Caecina and Valens near Cremona on 14 April. The clash, know as the Battle of Bedriacum, resulted in the defeat of the Othonian forces, their retreat cut off by the river behind them. Otho himself, meanwhile, was not present, but had gone to Brixellum with a considerable force of infantry and cavalry in order to impede any Vitellian units that had managed to cross the Po.
The plan had backfired. Otho's strategy of obtaining victory while avoiding any major battles had proven too risky. Realizing perhaps that a new round of fighting would have involved not only a significant re-grouping of his existing troops but also a potentially bloody civil war at Rome, if Vitellius' troops reached the capital, Otho decided that enough blood had been shed. Two weeks shy of his thirty-seventh birthday, on 16 April 69, he took his own life.
Assessment
To be sure, Otho remains an enigma - part profligate Neronian wastrel and part conscientious military commander willing to give his life for the good of the state. Our sources are at a loss to explain the paradox. Perhaps, like Petronius, he saw it was safer to appear a profligate in Nero's court? In the final analysis, Otho proved to be an organized and efficient military commander, who appealed more to the soldier than to the civilian. He also seems to have been a capable governor, with administrative talents that recalled those of his father. Nevertheless, his violent overthrow of Galba, the lingering doubts that it raised about his character, and his unsuccessful offensive against Vitellius are all vivid reminders of the turbulence that plagued the Roman world between the reigns of Nero and Vespasian. Regrettably, the scenario would play itself out one more time before peace and stability returned to the empire.
Copyright (C) 1999, John Donahue
Edited by J.P.Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
sabinas.jpg
Abduction of the Sabine women.383 viewsAR denarius. 89 BC. 3,65 grs. Bare-headed, bearded head of King Tatius righ. TA (ligate) below chin. SABIN behind / Two Roman soldiers, each carrying off a sabine woman in his arms. L TITVRI in exergue.
Crawford 344/1a. RSC Tituria 1.

Livy. History of Rome. 1.9.
The Roman state had become strong enough to hold its own in war with all the peoples along its borders, but a shortage of women meant that its greatness was fated to last for a single generation, since there was no prospect of offspring at home nor any prospect of marriage with their neighbours. Then, in accordance with the decision of the senate, Romulus sent messengers to the neighbouring peoples to ask for alliance and the right of marriage for the new people: cities, like everything else, start small but later if their own excellence and the gods assist them, they grow in strength and in fame. It was certain that at the beginning of Rome the gods had been propitiated and that it would not lack in valour. Therefore, men should not disdain to join blood and family ties with other men.
But nowhere were the emissaries given a fair hearing. Some scorned, others feared the great power growing in their midst, both for themselves and for their descendants. In more than one place the emissaries were asked, even as they were being sent packing, why they hadn't offered asylum to women (criminals) too: that way they'd have had their marriage and with others of their own rank! The youth of Rome took this insult badly and began to think seriously about the use of force. Romulus, to gain time till he found the right occasion, hid his concern and prepared to celebrate the Consualia, the solemn games in honour of equestrian Neptune. He then ordered that the spectacle be announced to the neighbouring peoples. He gave the event great publicity by the most lavish means possible in those days. Many people came, some simply out of curiosity to see the new city, and especially the nearest neighbours, from Caenina, Crustuminum and Antemnae; the entire Sabine population came, wives and children included. Received with hospitality in the houses, after having seen the position of the city, its walls, and the large number of buildings, they marvelled that Rome had grown so fast. When it was time for the show, and everybody was concentrating on this, a prearranged signal was given and all the Roman youths began to grab the women. Many just snatched the nearest woman to hand, but the most beautiful had already been reserved for the senators and these were escorted to the senators' houses by plebeians who had been given this assignment. The story goes that one woman, far and away the most beautiful, was carried off by the gang of a certain Thalassius, and because many wanted to know where they were taking her, they repeatedly shouted that they were taking her to Thalassius, and that it how the nuptial cry came to be.

The party was over, and the grieving parents of the girls ran away, accusing the Romans of having violated the laws of hospitality and invoking the god who was supposed to have been honoured at that day's festival. Nor did the girls themselves hold much hope. But Romulus went among them in person to assure them that none of this would have happened if their fathers hadn't been so inflexible in not letting them marry their neighbours. But now they would have the status of wives with all the material rewards and civil rights of citizenship and they would have children, than which nothing is dearer. They should cool their anger and give their hearts to the men who had already taken their bodies. A good relationship often begins with an offence, he said. And their husbands would treat them with extra kindness in hope of making up for the parents and country they so missed. The men added their blandishments, saying that they'd been motivated by love and passion, entreaties which are very effective with women.

benito
uncertianCaracalla5.jpg
Achaea. Uncertain mint. Caracalla AE22. Hero and soldier58 viewsCaracalla AE22, 5.4gm.
Obv: [.....TONI....]. Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust of youthful Caracalla to right.
Rev: T..EATWN. Hero holding shield in l. and short sword in his r. advancing on soldier falling to his knees with shield raised behind.
Possible Arcadia, Tegea.
ancientone
Lg007_quad_sm.jpg
AE provincial, Saitta, Lydia (Sidas Kaleh, Turkey), Senate/River-God (mid-2nd to early 3d century AD) 5 viewsIЄΡA - [CYNKΛHTOC], bare-headed youthful draped bust of Senate right / CAIT[THNΩN] + [ЄPMOC] in exergue, River-God Hermos reclining left, holding reed and cornucopiae, resting arm on urn (hydria) from which waters flow.

Ӕ (base metal yellow, orichalcum?), 22 mm, 5.68 g, die axis 6.5h (coin alignment)

It is difficult to read the name of the river. I think that ЄPMOC is more likely, but VΛΛΟС is also possible, representing the other important local river, Hyllos.

Possible catalog references are BMC Lydia 25 (or 26-27?), SNG Copenhagen 398, SNG München 439.
For the Hyllos reverse, Leypold 1153.

To emphasize the autonomy of certain Hellenistic polises, even under the Roman rule they sometimes used allegorical figures of Senate or Demos on obverses of their coins instead of imperial portraits. Saitta was issuing similar-looking coins with busts of emperors and their family as well, but in this issue the town Senate is honoured as the ruler. IЄΡA CYNKΛHTOC = Holy Senate. CAITTHNΩN = Saitta, ЄPMOC = Hermos, the name of the river and its god.

River-Gods or Potamoi (Ποταμοί) were the gods of the rivers and streams of the earth, all sons of the great earth-encirling river Okeanos (Oceanus) and his wife Tethys. Their sisters were the Okeanides (Oceanids), goddesses of small streams, clouds and rain, and their daughters were the Naiades, nymphs of springs and fountains. A River-God was depicted in one of three forms: as a man-headed bull; a bull-horned man with the tail of a serpentine-fish in place of legs; or as a reclining man with an arm resting upon a pitcher pouring water, which we see in this case. The addition of cornucopia symbolizes the blessings that a particular river bestows on those who live near it.

Saitta or Saittae (Σαίτται, Ptolemy 5.2.21: Σέτται, Σάετται) was a polis in eastern Lydia (aka Maeonia), in the rivers' triangle between the upper Hyllus (modern Demirci Çayı, c. 12 km to the west) and the Hermus or Hermos (modern Gediz Nehri, c. 20 km to the south). In Roman imperial times it belonged to the "conventus" of Sardis in the Roman province of Asia (conventus was a territorial unit of a Roman province, mostly for judicial purposes).

Now its ruins are known now as Sidas Kaleh or Sidaskale in Turkey, near the village of İçikler (İcikler Mahallesi, 45900 Demirci/Manisa). They were never excavated, so are little known or cared for. Ruins of a stadium and a theatre survive, together with remains of some temples and tombs.

Not much is known about it. It was a regional centre for the production of textiles. In 124 AD the town was probably visited by emperor Hadrianus. During the Roman period the cult of the moon god Mēn Axiottenus was very popular in the city. Because of its reference to "angels" (both literally as the Greek word and by their function as god's messengers) it was possibly close to the more general Asia Minor cult of Theos Hypsistos, Θεος ὕψιστος, "the highest god" (200 BC – 400 AD), which in turn was perhaps related to the gentile following of the Second Temple in Jerusalem.

Known Roman provincial coins issued by this city feature portraits of emperors from Hadrian to Gallienus, thus covering the period from 117 to 268 AD, with the peak around the Severan dynasty. The semi-autonomous issues are usually dated from mid-2nd to mid-3d century AD.

Later Saittae was the seat of a Byzantine bishopric. Bishop Limenius signed the Chalcedon Creed, while Bishop Amachius spoke at the Council of Chalcedon. Although an Islamic area now, Saittae remains a titular see of the Roman Catholic Church.
Yurii P
Aeolis_Aegeae_Synkletos_Lyre_AE15_3_26g.jpg
Aeolis, Aegeae, Synkletos / Lyre, AE1559 views15mm, 3.26g
obv: [IE]PA CYNKΛH[TOC]; draped bust of youthful senate right
rev: AIΓAEΩΝ; lyre

SNG Aulock -; SNG München; SNG Righetti; Lindgren -; asiaminorcoins -; acsearch -
1 commentsareich
ElaeaVerus.jpg
Aeolis, Elaea. Lucius Verus AE1680 viewsObv: LOVKIOC KAICAP, Bare-headed youthful bust r.
Rev: ELAI TWN, Kalathos with grain-ears and poppies.
1 commentsancientone
091684.jpg
Aeolis, Temnos8 viewsAeolis, Temnos, Pseudo Autonomous Circa 220AD, AE26, 10.31g: Obv: Youthful male bust of the Senate rigth "IEPAC CVN KAHTOC" Rev: Two nemesis standing, facing eachother. "CTP AVP EPNSIOV TEMN-EITWN". SNG Cop 268 (Same dies).ecoli
Temnos.jpg
Aeolis, Temnos. Pseudo-autonomous Ae25. Senate/Nemeses92 viewsObv: IERACY NKLHTOC; Bust of youthful Senate r.
Rev: THM NE ITWN; Two Nemeses standing facing each other, drawing fold of drapery from breasts.
200-250 AD.
25mm, 6.5g.
SNG COP 21 266(1)

Temnos was a little town of Aeolia, near the Hermus River, which is shown on its coins. Situated at elevation it commanded the territories of Cyme, Phocaea, and Smyrna. Under Augustus it was already on the decline; under Tiberius it was destroyed by an earthquake; and in the time of Pliny it was no longer inhabited. It was however rebuilt.
ancientone
Hendin1240web.jpg
Agrippa I170 viewsAgrippa I. 37-44 AD. AE 23, 11.45g. Caesarea Paneas Mint, Year 5, 40/1 AD.
O: [ΓΑΙΩ ΚΑΙΣΑΡΙ ΣΕΒΑΣΤΩ ΓΕΡΜΑΝΙΚΩ] (For Gaius Caesar Augustus Germanicus), Laureate head of Caligula left.
R: [ΝΟΜΙΣΜΑ ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΓΡΙΠΠΑ] (coin of King Agrippa). LE (Year 5=40/41) in exergue; Germanicus stands in triumphal quadriga in honor of his recovery of the standards lost by Varus, car decorated with Nike standing right.
- Hendin 1240. TJC 230-1,116. AJC II 2. RPC 4976.

One of the rarest coin types of Agrippa I (26 listed?).

The grandson of Herod I, Agrippa I, so-named in honor of the victor of Actium, spent much of his youth in the Roman imperial court. Popular with the imperial family, including the emperor Tiberius, Agrippa passed much of his time in the home of Antonia Minor, the mother of Germanicus and the future emperor Claudius.

There, the boys became great friends, and as an older man, Agrippa became attached to the future emperor Gaius, being appointed governor of the territories of Batanaea and Trachonitis upon Gaius’ accession. Unfortunately contemporary politics placed a significant strain on the relationship between the king and Rome.

In AD 39 Agrippa’s uncle, Antipas, was accused of plotting with the Parthians and was exiled. Agrippa’s loyalty gained him his uncle’s forfeited territories. In AD 40 renewed riots between Greeks and Jews broke out in Alexandria, and Gaius, clearly unhappy with his Jewish subjects, provocatively ordered the installation of a statue of himself within the Holy of Holies in Jerusalem.

Agrippa, who had been unsuccessfully involved in trying to quell similar riots in Alexandria before, sought to emphasize his loyalty to local Roman officials by striking coinage which commemorated his long-standing friendship with Gaius and, especially, Germanicus.

Based on the dupondii struck in honor of the emperor’s father Germanicus, this coin includes the great general riding in his triumphal car in honor of his recovery of the standards lost by Varus, rather than portraying Agrippa himself, an identification emphasized by the specific inclusion of the word NOMISMA (Coin) in the legend.

By avoiding self promotion, Agrippa hoped to successfully navigate the treacherous waters which might result in his own removal from power.
4 commentsNemonater
Agyrium,_Sicily,_AE3_350-300_BC.jpg
Agyrium, Sicily, AE3 350-300 BC29 viewsSicily, Agyrium
AE 16
Agyrium, 350-300 BC
Youthful head of Heracles l., wearing lion's skin
Man-headed, bearded forepart of bull (river god Palangkaios) l., between legs, P
BMC Sicily 4, Calciati III 125 10/11
Ardatirion
kyme_BMC114.jpg
Aiolis, Kyme, pseudo-autonomous, BMC 11498 viewsAeolis/Asia Minor, Kyme, pseudo-autonomous, time of Gallienus
AE 21, 4.2g
struck under magistrate Ermeias, AD 253-268
obv. IERA.CVN. - .KLHTOC
Youthful bust of Senate, draped, r.
rev. AIL.ER - M[E]
River-god Xanthos, bearded, wreathed, nude to hips, leaning l., resting l. arm on
vase from which water flows, holding in r. hand long waterplant.
KVMA / I in l. field
in ex. [Y]ANTQO[C] (Y meaning Greek XI)
SNG von Aulock 1648; Franke KZR 204; SLG Prowe III, 724; BMC 13, 114

This river-god played an important role in the Troyan War under the name Skamandros (today Küzük Menderes). For more information please look at the thread 'Mythological important coins'!
1 commentsJochen
alexander_III_03~0.jpg
Alexander III AE45 viewsObv: Youthful male head right.
Rev: ALEXANDPOY - Galloping horse to the right; between its legs, dolphin to the right.
Date: 336-323 BC
Ref: Price 339, SNG Cop. 1029
oa
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ALEXANDER III THE GREAT. 336-323 BC9 viewsSilver Drachm; Kolophon or Abydos, circa 322-319 BC.
4,19 g. 18 mm.
Obv: Youthful head of Heracles right, wearing lion’s skin.
Rev: AΛEΞANΔPOY; Zeus enthroned left, holding eagle and sceptre; in left field, dolphin upwards; in right, lyre.
__62.68
Antonivs Protti
s-l1600_(27).jpg
ALEXANDER III THE GREAT. 336-323 BC6 viewsSilver Drachm; Kolophon or Abydos, circa 322-319 BC.
4,19 g. 18 mm.
Obv: Youthful head of Heracles right, wearing lion’s skin.
Rev: AΛEΞANΔPOY; Zeus enthroned left, holding eagle and sceptre; in left field, dolphin upwards; in right, lyre.
__62.68
Antonivs Protti
s-l1600_(23)~0.jpg
ALEXANDER III THE GREAT. 336-323 BC8 viewsSilver Drachm; Lampsakos. Struck under Kalas or Demarchos, circa 328/5-323 BC.
4,20 g. 18 mm.
Obv: Youthful head of Heracles right, wearing lion’s skin.
Rev: AΛEΞANΔPOY; Zeus Aëtophoros seated left; in left field, Artemis Phosphoros standing facing, holding two torches; Δ below throne.
Price 1356; ADM II Series V.
_62.68
Antonivs Protti
s-l1600_(22).jpg
ALEXANDER III THE GREAT. 336-323 BC6 viewsSilver Drachm; Lampsakos. Struck under Kalas or Demarchos, circa 328/5-323 BC.
4,20 g. 18 mm.
Obv: Youthful head of Heracles right, wearing lion’s skin.
Rev: AΛEΞANΔPOY; Zeus Aëtophoros seated left; in left field, Artemis Phosphoros standing facing, holding two torches; Δ below throne.
Price 1356; ADM II Series V.
_62.68
Antonivs Protti
s-l1600_(21)~0.jpg
ALEXANDER III THE GREAT. 336-323 BC9 viewsSilver Drachm; Miletos, 325-323 BC. Struck under Philoxenos..
4,05 g. 17 mm.
Obv: Youthful head of Heracles right, wearing lion’s skin.
Rev: AΛEΞANΔPOY; Zeus seated left holding eagle and scepter, monogram in left field.
Price 2090.
_3545
Antonivs Protti
s-l1600_(20).jpg
ALEXANDER III THE GREAT. 336-323 BC6 viewsSilver Drachm; Miletos, 325-323 BC. Struck under Philoxenos..
4,05 g. 17 mm.
Obv: Youthful head of Heracles right, wearing lion’s skin.
Rev: AΛEΞANΔPOY; Zeus seated left holding eagle and scepter, monogram in left field.
Price 2090.
_3545
Antonivs Protti
LarryW2215.jpg
Alexander III, 336-323 BC; Lampsakos 328-323 BC45 viewsAR drachm, 16.9mm, 4.29g, Nice VF
Head Herakles right wearing lion skin knotted at neck / AΛEΞANΔPOY Zeus seated left holding eagle and sceptre, feet forward resting on stool. Club in left field. Early lifetime issue, featuring a youthful portrait.
Price 1347; Müller 136; Thompson 8, series II
For Sale
Lawrence Woolslayer
AMISOS,_PONTOS.jpg
Amisos, Pontos AE 20 SNG BM1202, Cista Mystica83 viewsOBV: Head of youthful Dionysos right, wreathed with ivy
REV: AMISOU, Cista mystica with panther skin, diadem and thyrsos. Monogram to left
8.8g, 21mm

Minted at Amisos, 85-65 BC
5 commentsLegatus
SNG_ANS_850.jpg
Ancient Greece: Philip II of Macedon (359-336 BCE) AE20 Unit, Uncertain Mint (SNG ANS 850; Mionnet I, 750)29 viewsObv.: Head of Apollo right, wearing taenia.
Rev.: ΦILIΠΠOY, Naked youth on horse prancing right on ground line, spearhead below.
1 commentsSpongeBob
Ancient_Greek_Kings_of_Macedonia__Philip_II_.jpg
Ancient Greek / Kings of Macedonia / Philip II.46 views1/5th Tetradrachm / 323-315 BC.
Obverse : Head of Apollo right, hair bound with taenia .

Reverse : Youth on horseback prancing right.

From the Sam Mansourati Collection.
Sam
RRVeturiusMED.jpg
ANIMALS/PINK FLOYD, Track 3. Pigs (Three Different Ones)27 viewsRoman Republic
moneyer Ti. Veturius, 137 BC, Rome
AR denarius, 3.85 gm
Obv: helmeted bust of Mars right
Rev: youth kneeling left, holding pig; at either side, two soldiers standing holding spear and touching pig with swords. ROMA above.
Ref: Crawford 234/1. Sydenham 527. RSC Veturia 1.

Composite picture of the collection:
http://www.forumancientcoins.com/gallery/displayimage.php?pos=-104363

Interactive presentation:
http://prezi.com/q7mw1k1zur65/?utm_campaign=share&utm_medium=copy&rc=ex0share


TIF
189.jpg
Anonymous AR Didrachm (Quadrigatus) - Janiform head and Jupiter in Quadriga (Crawf. 30/1)79 viewsAR Didrachm (Quadrigatus)
Uncertain mint, 225-214 BC
6.57g, 22mm

Obv: Laureate head of youthful Janus or Dioscuri

Rev: Jupiter holding sceptre and brandishing thunderbolt, in quadriga driven to right by Victory; ROMA incuse on raised tablet below.

Crawford 30/1; RSC 23; Sydenham 64b

Roma Numismatics Auction XVI, 498
From a private Swiss collection, outside of Italy prior to January 2011.
7 commentsKained but Able
ARP_-_Lydia,_Appolonis-3.jpg
Anonymous Issue, Lydia, Appolonis, AE1612 viewsSecond Century AD
2.19 grams
Obv.: APOLLO NIDEON, bust of Apollo right
Rev.: IEPACYN KAHTOC, bust of youthful senate to right
RPC 952v, Lindgren 712
Purchased on eBay
NGC AU - Strike 4/5 - Surface 4/5
Richard M10
AntoninusPius_Corinth_DionysusBacchusOn Chair_AE20_5.4g_lr.jpg
Antoninus Pius, Corinth, Dionysus / Bacchus on chair, AE2044 views20mm, 5.4g
obv: ANTONINVS [AVG PIVS], laureate head right
rev: [C L I] COR, Bacchus/Dionysus (youthful) seated, r., resting r. arm on back of chair, holding long filleted thyrsus
BCD Corinth 674, BMC 601, Cop 310

http://rpc.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/coins/4646/
areich
geta_amng1654~0.jpg
Apollo Sauroktonos315 viewsNikopolis ad Istrum/Moesia inferior, Geta 198-202
AE 25, 11.38g
obv. L CEPTIMI GETAC KAICAR
bust draped, bare head r.
rev. [YP AVR G]A[LL]OC NIKOPOLITWN PROC ICTRON
Apollo, naked, laureate, with crossed legs, stg. r., r. hand raised behind holding arrow, l. hand resting on tree before him; at the tree a lizard, touching Apollo
AMNG 1654, VF, lizard only partially visible due to a weak strike, but nice green patina
Rare, only one spec. in AMNG ex coll. Löbbecke

From Pliny the Elder we know the detailed description of a famous bronze sculpture of Praxiteles (4th century BC) named Sauroktonos, the Lizard-killer. The original sculpture is lost. We have two Roman marble copies in the Louvre and in the Musei Vaticani in Rome. May be the coin is the pic of Pliny's description or may be not. But the reverse shows clearly the two sides of Apollo: Here the youthful smiling bringer of light and in the same moment the merciless killer for fun.
Jochen
DAEE35E0-C38D-4EBE-9DE8-381BAC801E6D.jpeg
Apollonia Pontika, Thrace, 410 - 323 B.C.5 viewsApollo is one of the most important and complex of the Olympian deities in ancient Greek and Roman religion and Greek and Roman mythology. The ideal of the kouros (a beardless, athletic youth), Apollo has been variously recognized as a god of light and the sun, truth and prophecy, healing, plague, music, poetry, and more. Apollo is the son of Zeus and Leto, and has a twin sister, the chaste huntress Artemis.
GS88290. Silver diobol, Topalov Apollonia p. 387, 6 and p. 596, 56; SGCV I 1657, SNG Cop 459 - 461; HGC 3.2 1315, aEF, slightly off center, some porosity, small edge split, Apollonia Pontica (Sozopol, Bulgaria) mint, weight 1.256g, maximum diameter 10.2mm, die axis 180o, 410/404 - 341/323 B.C.; obverse laureate head of Apollo facing with short hair; reverse anchor flukes up, thick flukes, A left, crayfish right; ex Numismatik Lanz (2010)
Mark R1
taras.jpg
AR Nomos of Taras (Tarentum) in Calabria ca. 275-240 BC25 viewsOBVERSE: A naked youth placing wreath on horse walking right. An indeterminate symbol between the horse's front legs and the bearded head of Poseidon below. The letter A is in the field behind the rider

REVERSE: Naked Taras astride dolphin left, holding kantharos. "TARAS" to the right

Weight 6.1 grams; diameter ~20 mm
1 commentsdaverino
Arkadian_League_Megalopolis_SNG-Cop194v.jpg
Arkadian League .13 viewsArkadian League . 175-168 BC. AR Hemidrachm (2.40 gm) of Megalopolis, Symmachic standard. Laur. Head of Zeus l. / Youthful Pan seated l. on rock, r. hand raised, holding lagobolon; eagle above knee, A-Δ. gVF. BCD Peloponnesos 1547.5; Dengate 1967 Gp 1 Pd IIB Issue 4; HGC 5 #932; BMC 78; SNG ANS 866v (monogram); SNG Cop 194v (same). Christian T
Gamerses_01.jpg
Asia Minor, Lydia, Gamerses, Satrap of Lydia12 viewsLydia
Gamerses, Satrap of Lydia
about 400 B.C.
Obv.: Youthful head of eunuch Gamerses, wearing earring and necklace.
Rev. ΓΑΜΕΡΣΟΥ Bearded Zeus, wearing himation, standing right, holding eagle on his outstretched left hand, long scepter with his right hand; in field left, star.
Æ, 1.66g, 12.5mm
Ref.. S. Schultz, Aphroditekopf oder Dynastiebildnis, SM 42 (1992), 113
shanxi
G_329_Hierocaesareia_fac.jpg
Asia Minor, Lydia, Hierocaesarea, Demos, Artemis, biga20 viewsLydia. Hierocaesaraea
Time of Commodus
Bronze, Æ 27
Obv: ΔΗΜΟС, Head of youthful Demos right
Rev: IEPOKAICAPEΩN, Artemis driving biga of stags right, holding bow and drawing arrow from quiver on back.
Æ, 27.4mm, 8.67g
RPC online -, Martin 1, SNG Hunterian 1377
2 commentsshanxi
G_309_Sardes_fac.jpg
Asia Minor, Lydia, Sardeis, Senate, Zeus9 viewsLydia, Sardeis
Pseudo-autonomous issue
Time of Nero
AE 18
Ti. Kl. Mnaseas, strategos.
Obv.: ΘЄON CVNKΛHTON, Draped youthful bust of the Senate right.
Rev.: ЄΠΙ ΤΙ ΜΝΑCЄΟΥ CΑΡΔΙΑΝΩΝ, Zeus standing left, holding eagle and sceptre.
AE, 4.39g, 17x18.5mm
Ref.: RPC I 3136
Ex Tom Vossen, Netherlands
shanxi
Augustus_Secular_games_17_BC.jpg
Augustus, 16 January 27 B.C. - 19 August 14 A.D.99 views Silver denarius, RIC I 340 (R2), RSC I Julius Caesar 6, BnF I 273, BMCRE I 70, SRCV I 1622, VF, scratch on cheek, pitting, 3.572g, 19.8mm, 180o, Rome mint, moneyer M. Sanquinius, 17 B.C.; obverse AVGVST DIVI F LVDOS SAE (Augustus son of the divine [Julius Caesar], [has made the] secular games), Herald standing left, wearing helmet with two feathers and long robe, winged caduceus in right hand, round shield decorated with six-pointed star on his left arm; reverse M SANQVINIVS III VIR, youthful laureate head (the deified Julius Caesar or Genius Saeculari Novi?) right, above, four-rayed comet (sidus Iulium) with tail; ex CNG auction 145 (9 Aug 2006), lot 254. Very rare.

This type was struck to commemorate the Ludi Saeculares, the Secular Games held by Augustus in 17 B.C. to mark the commencement of a new age inaugurated by the divine Julius Caesar and led by his heir Augustus. The reverse portrait is traditionally identified as the head of a youthful divine Julius Caesar, however, it actually resembles Augustus and may be Genius Saeculari Novi, the personification of the new age.

EX; FORVM Ancient Coins.

*With my sincere thank and appreciation , Photo and Description courtesy of FORVM Ancient Coins Staff.
Per FORVM ; an EF example of this type recently sold on 26 May 2014 for 20,000 CHF (approximately $25,575) plus fees.

From The Sam Mansourati Collection.
4 commentsSam
73000535.jpg
Baktrian Kingdom, Eukratides I, ca. 171-145 BC, AR Tetradrachm 32 viewsDiademed bust of a youthful Eukratides right.
ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ EYKPATIΔOY (of King Eukratides) Dioskouroi on horseback charging right, carrying spears and palm branches, PK monogram to lower right.

Bopearachchi Series1B; SNG ANS 9, 431; Mitchiner 168(f); Qunduz 108-114; HGC 12, 130; Sear GCV 7568.

(32 mm, 16.75 g, 12h).
From LWHT Col.; CNG 73, 13 Sep. 2006, 535.

Eukratides I came to power in a revolt against the Euthydemid dynasty commencing around 171 BC and continuing for a decade. He extended his dominion to include all of Baktria and its realms both north and south of the Hindu Kush. Around 145 BC, Eukratides was murdered by his one of his own sons, probably Plato. By this time Baktria was weakened by the protracted struggle for power. The demise of Eukratides provided a catalyst for Scythian nomads to cross the Oxus, eventually to overrun Baktria. The city of Ai Khanoum appears to have been amongst the first to fall to invaders. This is evidenced by the fact that no coins later than those of Eukratides have been found in the excavations at Ai Khanoum. Within a decade Baktria had fragmented, overrun by Scythian nomads from the north, with the possible exception of a small Greek enclave in the eastern foothills of the Hindu Kush and the associated valley passes that led to the south and the Kabul Valley. A small remnant Greek civilization remained for another century to the south of the Hindu Kush before being overrun.
2 commentsn.igma
Bactria,_Euthydemos_I_Tetradrachm_old_portrait.jpg
Baktrian Kingdom, Euthydemos I, ca. 230-200 BC, AR Tetradrachm 21 viewsDiademed head of an elderly Euthydemos right.
ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ EYΘYΔHMOY Herakles seated left on rock, resting club on thigh, PK monogram in inner right field.

SNG ANS 9, 141-142; Kritt B17; Mitchiner 94a; Qunduz 19-20; HGC 12, 43; Sear GCV 7516.
Mint “B” – Baktra ca. 206-200 BC.

(26 mm, 15.92 g, 12h).
Realms Ancient Coins; ex- CNG.

The coinage portraits of Euthydemos range from youthful to elderly, reflecting the thirty year duration of his reign, which is inferred to have ended as early as 200 BC by recent workers (Kritt), or as late as 190 BC by earlier workers (Mitchiner). This portrayal probably represents the king in his sixties or seventies, after the invasion of Baktria by Antiochos III. The late life portrayal of Euthydemos is considered to be amongst the finest Hellenistic numismatic art. It shows a world weary, perhaps dissolute figure, for who the exercise of power has become as much a burden as a benefit. The Euthydemos series extending from youth to late life is almost unique in it’s true to life representation of the physical process of aging; the vitality and optimism of youth gradually replaced by the weariness of age, all captured in the progression of the portraits of Euthydemos.
1 commentsn.igma
Bactria,_Euthydemos_I_Tetradrachm_-_youthful_portrait.jpg
Baktrian Kingdom, Euthydemos I, ca. 230-200 BC, AR Tetradrachm 21 viewsDiademed head of a relatively youthful Euthydemos right.
ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ EYΘYΔHMOY Herakles seated left on rock, resting club on pile of rocks, monogram in inner right field, letter A in exergue.

Bopearachchi Series 5C; SNG ANS 9, 137 (same reverse die); Kritt, A8; HGC 12, 40.
Mint “A” - Ai Khanoum ca. 225-220/215 BC.

(29 mm, 16.7 g, 12h).
CNG 782054; ex- Semon Lipcer Coll.; ex- CNG 63, May 2003, 923.
1 commentsn.igma
Bactria,_Euthydemos_1_Tetradrachm_-_youthful_portrait.jpg
Baktrian Kingdom, Euthydemos I, ca. 230-200 BC, AR Tetradrachm 15 viewsDiademed youthful head right.
ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ EYΘYΔHMOY (of King Euthydemos). Herakles seated left on rocks, holding club set on rocks; monogram lower right field.

Kritt A1; Bopearachchi 5B; SNG ANS 9,125; HGC 12, 40; Mitchiner 85c; Qunduz 10-11.
Mint “A” - Ai Khanoum ca. 230 BC.

(28 mm, 16.38 g, 6h).
CNG eAuction 170, 8 Aug. 2007, 138.

Euthydemos I overthrew Diodotos II around 230 BC. This coin is amongst the first issued by Euthydemos. The inverted die axes convention with which it was struck is a characteristic of Mint “A” (Ai Khanoum) in the preceding Diodotid era. This was changed to parallel die axes convention in the early years of the reign of Euthydemos. Late in Euthydemos reign, Antiochos III the Great, sought to reimpose Seleukid authority over Baktria. Euthydemos withstood a two year siege by Antiochos at the fortress city of Baktra in 208-206 BC at the conclusion of which Antiochos was forced to recognize an independent Baktria. Demetrios, the son of Euthydemos, succeeded the latter around 200 BC and extended the kingdom south into the Kabul Valley and northwest Pakistan. However, the Euthydemid dynasty was destroyed by Eukratides I who progressively deposed the successors of Demetrios I.

The reverse image of a “weary Herakles” on the Euthydemos series of tetradrachms is noteworthy for its antecedents in the Lydian issues of Antiochus II. The ancient historian Polybius noted that Euthydemos came from Magnesia. However, which of three possible cities or regions called Magnesia remains uncertain. Based on the similarity of the reverse image of Euthydemos’ silver coins with those of the Lydian types, it is inferred that he may have come from Magnesia ad Sipylum in Lydia where he could have been exposed to the” weary Herakles” issues prior to his migration to Baktria. Such being the case, Euthydemos could not have been born much later than 270 BC, in which case he would have been in his seventies at the time of his death. The aged portrait on the last of his coinage tends to confirm this inference.
n.igma
lead_statue_BCC_L15.jpg
BCC L1522 viewsLead statuette
Caesarea Maritima
Greco-Roman Eastern, 1st-3rd century CE?
Youthful Herakles?(Hercules), or Hercules/Melkart?
nude, with lion skin? cloak, clasped at neck.
Another possible attribution could be Hermes?
The top of the head is slightly flattened, with
cracks, and may have sustained damage as a
result of an impact in antiquity. There is another
possible impact cut-mark on the left shoulder.
4.6cm x 3.2cm. x 1.3cm.
weight: 44.5gm.

click for higher resolution
v-drome
817212.jpg
Behold! We have Gold, Silver, Wheat and Wine.29 viewsThrace, Pautalia, Caracalla 198-217 Æ29mm (or Pentassarion).
Obv: AΥT K M AΥΡH – ANTΩNINOC, Laureate head of Caracalla right,
Rev: OΥΛΠIAC ΠAΥTAΛIAC, The River-god Strymon reclining left on urn from
which water flows, resting right hand on a rocky outcrop and holding a grape
vine with several grape bunches.
Four youths (or less correctly 'erotes') around; APΓY/POC (Argyros = silver)
emerging to the left, out of the cave in the mountain, with a small basket over
his shoulder; BOTPY (Botry = grapes) standing right on top of the mountain,
supporting one of the grape bunches; to right of waterfall, XPY/COC (Chrysos
= gold) seated left; in exergue, CTAXY (Stachy = grain ear) standing left and
holding sickle, harvesting ears of grain, probably wheat.
16.6g, Ruzicka 634; Mouchmov 4286; Varbanov 5174.

ex: Numismatik Lanz 163/374, where it had an estimate of €1,500- Euros.

Also: Schow (1789) p.6; Sestini (1796) 37, p.67; Mionnet (1822) 1108, p.388;
Eckhel (1839) Part 1, Vol.II, p.38; Von Sallet (1888) p.202-3; Imhoof-Blumer
(1908) 459, p.163-4, pl.X, 28.

"In the field of numismatics, there is no other coin upon which a city proclaims
the products of its territory so exquisitely". - Joseph H. Eckhel.

Also, see this recent article:
Behold! We have Gold, Silver, Wheat and Wine. by Walter C. Holt, M.A.
Australasian Coin and Banknote Magazine "2017 Yearbook", Volume 20.11,
December 2017/January 2018, pp.72-75 (illustrated).
1 commentsOldMoney
cius_geta_unbekannt.jpg
Bithynia, Kios, Geta, possibly unpublished60 viewsGeta as Augustus, AD 209-212
AE 24, 7.42g
obv. AYT.KP.CE - GETAC AY
Bust, cuirassed, laureate, r.
rev. K - IA - NW - N
Youthful Hylas, with waving clothes around hips, advancing r., drinking from a
jug he is holding with his r. hand
Ref.: cf. SNG von Aulock 518 (Volusian, only for rv.!), citing Rec.Gen p.330, 125
(Volusian); so possibly unpublished in the major works
very rare, F+, deep brown patina

Hylas was a beautiful young boy, the 'catamite' (Pat Lawrence) of Herakles, abducted by Nymphs near Kios. For more information please look at the thread 'Mythological interesting coins'!
Jochen
boeotia.jpg
Boeotia obol36 viewsca. 395-338 BC
10mm, 0.81g
Theot(i)-, magistrate
obv: Boeotian shield
rev: youthful head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin, ΘE downward before, all within concave circle
Klein -; (BCD Boeotia 548)
1 commentsareich
Boeotia_Thebes_AR-Obol_Boeotian_shield_Youthful-head-of-Herakles_right_C-395-338_BC_Q-003_axis-8h_10-11,5mm_0,84g-s.jpg
Boeotia, Thebes, (c.395-338 B.C.), AR-Obol, SNG Cop 354-355, Youthful head of Herakles right,146 viewsBoeotia, Thebes, (c.395-338 B.C.), AR-Obol, SNG Cop 354-355, Youthful head of Herakles right,
avers:- Boeotian shield.
revers:- Youthful head of Herakles right, wearing lion's skin headdress; ΘE downward on lower right.
exerg: -/-//ΘE, diameter: 10-11,5mm, weight: 0,84g, axes: 8h,
mint: Boeotia, Thebes, date: c. 395-338 B.C.,
ref: SNG Cop 354-355, BCD Boiotia 548,
Q-001
quadrans
fund.jpg
C. Fundanius (101 B.C.)43 viewsAR Denarius
O: Helmeted head of Roma right, I and dot behind.
R: Triumphator in quadriga right, holding scepter and laurel branch, a youth riding the nearest horse holding laurel branch, Q above, C FVNDAN in exergue.
Rome Mint
3.80g
19mm
Fundania1 // Crawford326/1 // Sydenham583
4 commentsMat
C__Vibius_C_f__C_n__Pansa_Caetronianus.png
C. Vibius C.f. C.n. Pansa Caetronianus – Vibia-1666 viewsROMAN REPUBLIC C. Vibius C.f. C.n. Pansa Caetronianus. 48 B.C. AR denarius (19 mm, 3.99 g, 6 h). Rome. Head of youthful Bacchus (or Liber) right, wreathed with ivy / C • VIBIVS • C • F • C • N, Ceres advancing right, holding torch in each hand; in right field, plow. Crawford 449/2; HCRI 21; Sydenham 946; Vibia 16; SRVC 421Bud Stewart
9e9MJS2ow5kRsG6y4d4XmFz3Ep7soB~0.jpg
Caabria Tarentum AR Stater circa280-272 BC 19 mm 6.42 g48 viewsYouth nude,on horseback right,crowning horse with wreath.Rev Phalanthos riding dolphin left,holding Phrygian helmet,two stars flanking.
Grant H
Phrygia_Cadi_1.PNG
Cadi, Phrygia, semi-autonomous26 viewsCadi, Phrygia, semi-autonomous,AD 198-268.

Obverse. Helmeted youthful male head right

Reverse.river-god Hermos reclining left, holding reed and cornucopiae, resting left arm on an overturned urn from which waters flow.KA on the left, delta and an O above-HNWN below Reads-KADOHNWN-SNG Cop. 241; Imhoof "Flussgötter" 370; Mionnet IV,
320; SNG Munich 261

15mm
Macedonian Warrior
Taras_Calabria_Italy.jpg
Calabria Italy Taras on Dolphin88 viewsTaras, Calabria, Italy, Silver nomos, Taros mint, 272 - 235 BC, 20.3mm, 6.375g, 0o axis, Vlasto 877 ff., SNG ANS 1197 ff., HN Italy 1033
OBV: Nude youth on horseback right, shield and two lances in left hand, spear pointed downwards in right, DI above left, API-STI/KL-HS below
REV: TARAS, Taras astride dolphin left, kantharos in right, trident in left, head of a nymph left behind; typical tight flan

The reverse depicts Taras, the son of Poseidon and of a local nymph,
Satyrion, being saved from a shipwreck by riding a dolphin sent to him by Poseidon.
This symbol of the ancient Greek city is still the symbol of Taranto today.

EX: Forum Ancient Coins
4 commentsRomanorvm
FotorCreated~9.jpg
Calabria Tarentum AR Nomos circa 272-240 BC 19mm 6.23g 7h41 viewsYouth on horseback right,crowning horse and holding rein,behind,Nike flying right,crowning youth,APIETO/KPATHE in two lines below.Phalanthos riding dolphin left, holding cornucopia and trident,herm to right.
From the Kallman collection,EX Pegasi auc 19 lot 34, 11-18-08
1 commentsGrant H
FotorCreated~10.jpg
Calabria Tarentum AR Nomos circa 302-280 BC 20mm 7.96g30 viewsNude youth on horseback right crowning horse,behind and above EA, in two lines below APE-O?N.Rev Taras riding dolphin left holding tripod in right hand below AE-TAPAE.
This group,Evans,Period 6 is the last before the reform reducing the weight of the nomos.
Grant H
FotorCreated~78.jpg
Calabria Tarentum AR Nomos circa 334-330 BC 23 mm 7.70g 2h11 viewsNude youth on horseback right crowning self,EA and Ionic capital below.Rev Phalanthos holding snake and whip,on dolphin left,KON below.Grant H
FotorCreated~13.jpg
Calabria Tarentum AR Nomos circa 340-335 BC 22.5mm 7.45g 12h 31 viewsYouth on horseback right,crowning horse,below youth removing stone from horses hoof.Rev Phalanthos shield on arm,holding kantharos and trident,riding dolphin left,E and waves below.
A very charming type
Grant H
98000313~0.jpg
Calabria Tarentum AR Stater circa 340-335 BC 23mm 7.87g 1h36 viewsNude youth on horseback right,holding rein in left hand,crowning horse with wreath held in right hand,to left Nike flying right placing fillet on head of youth.AP below.Rev Phalanthos nude riding sideways on dolphin right,head turned slightly left,spearing cuttlefish below with trident held in right hand,KA monogram to left.TAPAE to right,all encircled by waves.Grant H
Vlasto_509.jpg
Calabria, Taras (c. 344-340 B.C.), Silver Stater.82 views8.03g., 2h
Naked youth on a horse pacing right, crowning the horse with a wreath held in his extended right hand, K(KAA?) and an upright club below the horse, rev. TAP-A-Σ, Phalanthos riding on a dolphin left, holding a kantharos in his extended right hand, and a trident and a shield in his left, Ω below dolphin's tail, waves below.
Fischer-Bossert, Group 49, 685 (V260/R532); Vlasto 509 (these dies); SNG Lloyd 173 (these dies); SNG ANS 960; HN Italy 887. An exceptional example, well-struck from fresh dies and perfectly centred on a flan of good metal, extremely fine and most attractive.
From Sovereign Rarities (2018)

The "K" or "KAL" engraver was one of the finest Greek masters working in the 4th century. His work though rare, can also be found on coins from Heraklea, Metapontion, and Thouroi.
4 commentsLeo
Vlasto_941.jpg
Calabria, Taras AR Nomos. Circa 240-228 BC.24 views6.56g, 21mm, 11 h
Zopyrion, magistrate. Nude youth on horseback to right, ΖΩΠΥΡΙΩΝ below; below forelegs, ΣΩ above bukranion / Taras astride dolphin to left, holding hippocamp in extended right hand, trident against left arm; monogram and mask of Silenos right, TAPAΣ below. Vlasto 941; HN Italy 1054.
Extremely Fine; a beautiful reverse composition. Very Rare.
1 commentsLeo
Vlasto_413-4.jpg
CALABRIA, Taras, c. 385-380 BC. AR Nomos (Contemporary Imitation)37 views21mm, 7.47g, 9h
Nude youth on horseback l., crowning horse with wreath; pellet to l., A below. R/ Phalanthos riding dolphin l., holding kantharos. Cf. Vlasto 413-4; cf. HNItaly 875; SNG Fitzwilliam 257; Fisher-Bossert N 71. Corrosions, VF
1 commentsLeo
Vlasto_320-1.jpg
CALABRIA, Taras, c. 415-400 BC. AR Nomos (Contemporary Imitation)35 views20mm, 5.35g, 9h
Nude youth on horseback right, placing wreath on the horse's head; caduceus before.
TARAS, Taras astride dolphin right, left hand extended, right hand at side.
Vlasto 320-1
VF – silver deeply black plated, with green spots where the copper core give up.
In consideration of the artistic quality of the dies, observe in detail the horse head on the obverse.
1 commentsLeo
Vlasto_836.jpg
Calabria, Taras.52 viewsSilver Nomos (6.64 g), ca. 272-240 BC.
Sy… and Lykinos, magistrates. Youth on horseback left, crowning horse with wreath; behind and below in two lines, magistrate's names: ΣY and ΛYKI/NOΣ. Reverse: TA-PAΣ, Phalanthos riding dolphin left, hurling trident; behind, owl standing left, head facing. Vlasto 836; HN Italy 1025. Gorgeous iridescent toning. Superb Extremely Fine.
1 commentsLeo
Vlasto_1012.jpg
CALABRIA, Taras. Campano-Tarentine series. Circa 281-272 BC. AR Nomos27 views20mm, 7.07 g, 4h
Diademed head of Satyra left / Nude youth on horseback right, crowning horse with wreath; TA to left, dolphin below. Vlasto 1012–4; HN Italy 1098. VF.

"The Campano-Tarentine series dates to around the middle of the 3rd century BC, and are usually said to have been struck somewhere in Campania or Lucania. The type displays not the usual horseman and dolphin rider combination, but instead the obverse is occupied by a nymph resembling those on the coinage of Neapolis. Furthermore, the coins are struck on the standard not of Tarentum, being 0.8 grams lighter on average, but of those cities on the west coast of Magna Graecia, hence the credence given to this theory. However, the question of where these coins were struck and which region they were intended for, was addressed by J.G. Milne (An Exchange-Currency of Magna Graecia), who convincingly argues that it was more likely they were produced in Tarentum for circulation in or trade with the Greek cities of Bruttium, and that they should therefore be properly referred to as Bruttio-Tarentine coinage."
Leo
Vlasto_704.jpg
CALABRIA, Taras. Circa 280 BC. AR Nomos39 views(22.5mm, 7.74 g, 1h).
Youth on horse galloping right; EY to left, NIKOΔAMO[Σ] below / Phalanthos, holding kantharos and distaff, riding dolphin left; ZOP and gazelle below. Vlasto 704; cf. HN Italy 970/958. Near EF, deep iridescent tone, a hint of porosity. Well centered on a broad flan.
1 commentsLeo
Vlasto_338.jpg
CALABRIA, Taras. Circa 400-390 BC. AR Nomos26 views20mm, 7.93 g, 2h
Youth on horse galloping right; tiny Λ below / Phalanthos, holding torch, riding dolphin left.

Fischer-Bossert Group 26, 361.2 (V164/R283) = Vlasto 338 (this coin); HN Italy 850. Old collection tone, small edge test cut, a few marks on edge, struck from worn dies. VF.

Ex Michel Pandely Vlasto Collection.
1 commentsLeo
tarentumfouree1.jpg
Calabria, Taras. Fouree half stater.20 viewsCalabria, Taras. C4TH BC. half a fouree stater, AR plated around a significant AE core.
I guess whoever cut this coin wasn't too impressed to find it a forgery!
Obverse: Naked youth on horseback with spear
Reverse: Taras on dolphin, wreath 9mintmark?)
CANTANATRIX
Vlasto_938.jpg
Calabria, Taras. From Sir Arthur Evans Collection23 viewsc. 240-228 BC. AR Nomos, 6.39g (10h). Obv: Naked youth riding horse at full gallop right, holding torch behind him; in field to left monogram HPAK; below, ΔΑΙΜΑΧΟC. Rx: ΤΑ - ΡΑC in field under Taras astride dolphin left holding trident in left hand and kantharos in right; in field to right, monogram ANΔPE. Vlasto 938 (this coin). Evans, Tarentum (1889), p. 194, pl. X. 1 (this coin). Ex Vlasto Coll. 938, pl. XXX. From the Sir Arthur Evans Collection.Leo
Vlasto_342.jpg
Calabria, Taras; AR Nomos. Circa 430-380 BC.11 views7.40g, 23mm, 9h.
Nude youth on horseback left, crowning horse with wreath and holding small round shield / Taras astride dolphin right, hurling trident (?) downwards to right; TAPAΣ upwards to left. Vlasto 342; HN Italy 850.

Very Fine. Lightly toned. Rare early type.
Leo
Vlasto-699.jpg
Calabria, Taras; c. 302-281 BC, Stater18 views7.73g. Vlasto-699, HN Italy-968. Obv: Youth on horseback galloping l., holding small shield behind him, EY behind, NIKOTTAΣ below. Rx: ΤΑΡΑΣ, Taras astride dolphin l. hurling javelin, trident on shoulder; ΛY behind, hippocamp below.1 commentsLeo
Vlasto-651.jpg
Calabria, Taras; c. 332-302 BC, Stater33 views7.88g. Vlasto-651, HN Italy-941. Obv: Youth on horseback r. crowning horse. Rx: ΤΑΡΑΣ, Taras astride dolphin l., holding palm branch; helmet behind.. Choice VF2 commentsLeo
Vlasto-585.jpg
Calabria, Taras; c. 332-302 BC, Stater24 views7.70g. Vlasto-585, HN Italy-934. Obv: Youth on horseback r., stabbing downward with spear held in r. hand, two spears and round shield held behind him; ΣA below. Rx: ΤΑΡΑΣ, Taras astride dolphin l., holding distaff, prow below.Some porosity in reverse field. VF1 commentsLeo
Vlasto_330.jpg
CALABRIA, Tarentum, c. 400-390 BC. AR Nomos RARE26 views22mm, 7.67g, 12h
Nude youth on horseback l., crowning horse. R
Phalanthos, holding distaff, on dolphin l.
Vlasto 330; HN Italy 850.
Rare, toned, VF
1 commentsLeo
Calabria_Tarentum_SNG-ANS1142ff.jpg
Calabria, Tarentum.13 viewsCalabria, Tarentum. 280-272 BC. AR Nomos (6.58 gm). Youth on horseback r., crowning himself. ꞮΩ behind, ꞮAΛO (magistrates Zo-, Zalo-, and An-) and Ionic capital below. / Taras (Phalanthos) on dolphin l., holding distaff and aphlaston; ANΘ behind; TAPAΣ below. gVF. Ex. CNG Web Auction #1213202540. SNG ANS 1142ff; HN Italy 1014; HGC 1 888; SNG Cop 898-899; Vlasto 803ff.Christian T
Vlasto_884.jpg
CALABRIA, Tarentum. Circa 272-240 BC. AR Nomos26 viewsPhi- and Philemenos, magistrates.
Youth on horseback right; FI before, FILHME-NOS below
Phalanthos astride dolphin left, holding tripod and trident; bucranium with fillets hanging from horns behind.
Vlasto 884; HN Italy 1035. Good VF, toned
1 commentsLeo
Vlasto_984.jpg
Calabria, Tarentum. Time of Hannibal, c. 212-209 BC. Nomos54 views3.98gg. (5h). Obv: Naked youth on horseback right, holding reins and carrying filleted palm; ΣΩKAN - NAΣ below. Rx: Taras astride dolphin left, holding aphlaston in extended right hand, cradling trident in left arm; eagle standing with wings spread behind; TAPAΣ below. Vlasto 984. HN Italy 1082. SNG ANS 1272. Perfectly struck; Mint State.
Ex Philip T. Ashton Collection. Ex Berk 130, 6 January 2003, lot 81.

Hannibal used the region around Tarentum and Metapontum as winter quarters during his occupation of southern Italy. He installed his own magistrates and struck coinage based on the Punic half shekel standard.
3 commentsLeo
greek15.jpg
Calabria,Taremtum. AR nomos 7.6gm32 viewsVlasto 661 / 302-281 BC
obv: nude youth on horseback, crowning horse.
rev:Taras on dolphin holding tripod,CAS below
2 commentshill132
Fischer-Bossert-1138.jpg
CALABRIA. Taras. 332-302 BC. AR nomos37 views7.90g.
Obv: Naked youth on horseback r., crowning horse, AΠH below. Rx: ΤΑΡΑΣ Nude Taras astride dolphin l., holding out kantharos in r. hand, Φ behind.
Fischer-Bossert-1138 (V422/r880), Group 81.
Rare, fewer than ten recorded. Not in Vlasto or Evans.. Near Mint State
1 commentsLeo
Vlasto_498.jpg
CALABRIA. Taras. Ca. 332-302 BC. AR stater20 views22mm, 7.80 gm, 6h
Youth riding horse r., crowning horse; at l., flying Nike holding wreath, below the horse, ΣIM, Rv. TAPAΣ, oecist riding dolphin l., holding kantharos and trident; below, |-HP and waves.
Vlasto 498-507; HNItaly 886; SNG Copenhagen 823;" SNG ANS -.
Cabinet tone, minor scratches.
2 commentsLeo
Vlasto_607.jpg
CALABRIA. Taras. Circa 302-280 BC. Nomos36 viewsSilver, 22 mm, 7.82 g, 9 h
Nude rider on horse galloping to right, stabbing with spear held in his right hand and holding two other spears and shield with his left; below, ΣΑ.
Rev. ΤΑΡΑΣ Youthful oikist, nude, riding dolphin to left, holding kantharos in his right hand and trident with his left; to left, K; below, dolphin.
HN Italy 937. Vlasto 607.
1 commentsLeo
Vlasto_410.jpg
CALABRIA. Taras. Circa 365-355 BC. AR Nomos 52 views21 mm, 7.89 g, 2 h
Youthful nude jockey riding horse standing right; to right, bearded herm left; below horse, TH. Rev. TAΡ[AΣ] Phalantos, with wild flowing hair, riding dolphin left, holding oinochoe in right hand. Fischer-Bossert 564b (this coin). Vlasto 410 (same obverse die). Beautifully toned and of fine style. Minor areas of flatness, otherwise, good very fine.

From the Prof. Langlotz Collection, Auctiones AG 23, 17-18 June 1993, 185.

This is a particularly charming depiction of the hero Phalanthos, with wild waving hair and an impish smile, indicating how much he is enjoying the dolphin ride.
1 commentsLeo
Vlasto_497.jpg
CALABRIA. Taras. Circa 380-340 BC, Nomos13 viewsA very rare didrachm or nomos from Tarentum
Silver, 21 mm, 7.73 g, 1 h
Nude warrior, holding bridles with his right hand and carrying small round shield with his left, about to dismount from horse to left; below horse, Λ; all within circle of waves. Rev. TAPAΣ Youthful oikist, nude, riding dolphin to left, holding trident in his right hand and placing his left on the tail of the dolphin; all within circle of waves.
Fischer-Bossert 629. HN Italy 885. Vlasto 497.
Very rare. An unusual issue of splendid style. Very fine.
Leo
Taras_Stater.jpg
Calabria. Tarentum. Ar Didrachm. C. 272-240 BC. SCARCE. 78 viewsObv; Nude youth on horseback.
Rev; Taras astride dolphin; owl behind.
SNG Ans 1165ff.
Good silver and surfaces.
6.53g.
19mm.

Ex Den of Antiquity
4 commentsPhiloromaos
211114_l.jpg
Calabria. Tarentum. Nomos (Circa 302-280 BC)27 viewsAR Nomos

21 mm, 7.78 g

Obv: Youth, holding shield, on horse rearing left; ΣΛ to right, ΦΙΛΩΝ below.
Rev: TAPAΣ.
Phalanthos, holding crowning Nike, riding dolphin left; waves below.

Vlasto 684-5; HN Italy 964.

In Greek mythology, Phalanthos (Φάλανθος) is a divine hero, the leader of the Spartan Partheniae and the founder of Taranto. In Ancient Greece, the Partheniae or Parthenians were a lower ranking Spartiate population which, according to tradition, left Laconia to go to Magna Graecia and founded Taras, modern Taranto, in the current region of Apulia, in southern Italy. In Greek mythology, Phalanthos is a divine hero, and the leader of the Spartan Partheniae.

At least three distinct traditions carry the origins of the Parthenians. The oldest is that of Antiochus of Syracuse, according to which the Spartiates, during the first Messenian war (end of the 8th century BC), had rejected like cowards those who had not fought, along with their descendants:

"Antiochus says that, during the Messenian war, those Lacedemonians which did not take part with the mission shall be declared as slaves and called Helots; as for the children born during the mission, we shall call them Parthenians and deny them of all legal rights."

The Parthenians were therefore the first tresantes ("trembling"), a category which gathers the cowards and thus excludes themselves from the community of the Homoioi, the Peers. Thereafter, Parthenians plotted against the Peers and, discovered, would have been driven out of Sparta, from which they departed for Italy and founded Taras, whose date is traditionally fixed in 706 BC - which archaeology does not deny.

In the second tradition, according to Ephorus (4th century BC), the Spartiates swore during the Messenian War, not to return home as long as they had not attained victory. The war prolonged and Sparta's demography being threatened, the Spartiates let the young Spartans who had not sworn the oath return home. These were ordered to copulate with all the girls available. The children who were born from these unions were named Parthenians. Their mothers, since they were compelled by the state to procreate, were legally considered unmolested and fit to marry once the war was over.

Lastly, a third tradition, made the Parthenians bastards who had resulted from the unions of Spartan women and their slaves, always during the Messenian war. The same tradition is told to explain the origins of Locri, also in Magna Graecia.
Nathan P
caesarea_elagabal_sydenham518var.jpg
Cappadocia, Caesarea, Elagabal Sydenham 518 var.128 viewsElagabal AD 218-222
AE 28, 11.67g
struck in the year 2 (ET B) of Elagabal's reign = AD 219
obv. AY KM AYRHLI - ANTWNINOC
bust, draped and cuirassed, laureate, r.
rev. MHTROP [KAICARIA]
Agalma of Mt. Argaios on altar
ET B below
Sydenham 518 var. (date on altar); coll. Hunter 593, 81
VF, green-brown patina
Very nice youthful and realistic portrait

For more information look at the thread 'Coins of mythological interest'
3 commentsJochen
Caracalla_Comb.jpg
Caracalla15 viewsPhilippopolis, Thrase AE18, 3.7 G
Obverse: M AV K ANTWNEINOC (or similar), youthful, laureate, draped bust right.
Reverse: FILIPPOPOLEITWN crescent with 4 stars within and another star below.
RIC: Unlisted; Moushmov: 1545? Varbanov: Unlisted
Steve27
CMK_002.jpg
Caracalla122 viewsNicomedia,Bithynia-AE 23 of Marcus Aurelius (or Verus?). Youthful head of Caracalla in an oval cmk on reverse.Cassius
CaracallaYouthCapives.jpg
Caracalla111 viewsCaracalla. AD 198-217. AR Denarius 19.5mm, 3.3 g. Rome mint. 201 / 202 AD.
O: ANTONINVS PIVS AVG, Laureate and draped beardless young bust right
R: PART MAX PM TR P X, trophy; at base, bound captive seated at either side.
- RIC 322

A rare mule with a reverse meant for Septimius Severus.

The workmen can be excused for mixing up the dies, for in 201-202 exactly the same PART MAX Trophy type was being struck for both emperors, distinguished only by their titles in the continuation of the rev. legend, so easy to confuse:

PART MAX P M TR P VIIII or X or X COS III P P for Septimius,

PART MAX PONT TR P IIII or V or V COS for Caracalla.

Two others from the same rev. die, but different obv. dies: RIC 322 = BMC p. 385, 163, pl. 64.13; and CClay collection from eBay, Jan. 2007.

Another is reported by Cohen 174 (10 francs) from the Turin collection; and there were two more in the Reka Devnia hoard.
5 commentsNemonater
Caracalla.jpg
Caracalla - Dea Caelestis98 viewsCaracalla (198-217) Silver Denarius - 3.02 grams, 18.9mm.
Minted at Rome, circa: 201-206 Reference: RIC-IV-I-130a-C
Obv: Laureate and draped youthful bust of Caracalla facing right - ANTONINVS PIVS AVG
Rev: The Dea Caelestis, holding thunderbolt and sceptre, riding on lion running right over waters gushing from a rock - INDVLGENTIA AVGG IN CARTH
Well centered and struck with light toning and even wear on both surfaces. A historically interesting coin that celebrates the completion of Carthage aquaduct
1 commentsBolayi
C12.JPG
Caracalla - Libertas139 viewsDenarius 209
O/ ANTONINUS - PIUS AUG Youth's laureate head right
R/ LIBER-TAS AUG Libertas standing left, holding pileus and rod
C 143 - RIC 161
Mint: Rome (29th emission)
septimus
C9.JPG
Caracalla - The emperor on horse93 viewsDenarius 208
O/ ANTONINUS - PIUS AUG Youth's laureate head right
R/ PROF in ex., PONTIF TR P XI COS III around, Caracalla, in military attire, on horse walking right, holding spear; before him, foeman kneeling right, raising right hand
C 510 - RIC 108
Mint: Rome (4th off., 28th emission)
1 commentsseptimus
carodessos.jpg
Caracalla AE 27 Tetrassarion of Odessos 198-217 AD40 viewsOBV: AVK MAV ANTWNINOC, Laureate draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind.
REV: ODHCCEITWN; The Great God of Odessos standing left, holding a cornucopia and makining an offering from a patera over a burning altar.

The coin has a great portrait of Caracalla, in this case depicted in one of his rare good moods - or perhaps it was in his youth that the coin was minted. The deity on the back has sometimes been characterized as Zeus, but to whom would he be offering a sacrifice?

Odessos was a town on the Black Sea (today's Varna, Bulgaria) which had produced coins back to the 3rd Century BC. As a city in the Roman province of Moesia it first produced coins honoring Augustus, and later in the 2nd and 3rd century AD under Commodus, Verus and the Severans. It's greatest and final output of coins were minted under Gordian III.
Moushmov 1610 (Ref. Wildwinds)
Diam 27 mm, wt 9.64 gm
1 commentsdaverino
caracalla_01_t.jpg
Caracalla AE from Stobi40 viewsObv: IMP C M AV ANTONINVS - Laureate and cuirassed youthful bust left.
Rev: MVNIC STOBE - Nike advancing left, holding palm and wreath; at her feet, a wheel.
Date: 198-217 AD
Ref: SNG Cop. 334
2 commentsoa
caracalla_young_1.jpg
Caracalla AR Denarius, ‘Sol invictus’.20 viewsBust; Youthful Caracalla. Laureate, draped bust right.
Obverse legend; ANTONINIVS AVGVSTVS
Reverse legend; PONTIFEX TR P III
Type; Sol standing facing holding globe and spear
Mint, Rome, 200 AD. 2.8 grams
Ref Caracalla Denarius, RIC 30a, RSC 413, BMC 179
Here is little Antoninius, flush with the innocence of boyhood.
Banjaxed
Caracalla_Lyre_Caria.JPG
Caracalla Lyre Caria46 viewsCaracalla, Caria (Alabanda), 198 - 217 AD, 26mm, 11.10g, BMC 43, SNG Cop 16,
OBV: AVKMAVPANTΩNINO, Laureate and cuirassed bust right, countermark of a youthful male head to rt.
REV: AΛABANΔEΩN, Lyre
Countermark is Howgego 52, radiate head of emperor.

RARE
1 commentsRomanorvm
caracalla_29.jpg
Caracalla RIC IV, 2947 viewsCaracalla, AD 198-217
AR - denarius, 3.35g, 20mm
Rome, 199
obv. ANTONINVS - AVGVSTVS
Youthfull bust, draped and cuirassed, laureate, r.
re. PONT - TRP II
securitas, richly draped, std. on throne r., propping head in r. hand, resting l.
arm on back of throne, ellbow bend, holding longitudanal sceptre in l. hand; r.
foot stretched and on footstool, before her an enlightened altar with 2 offering
cakes.
RIC IV/1, 29; C.498; BMC 156
Scarce, good VF/about VF
1 commentsJochen
caracalla_39.jpg
Caracalla RIC IV, 39(a) corr.126 viewsCaracalla, AD 198 - 217
AR - Denar, 3.67g, 19mm
Rome AD 199 - 201
obv. ANTONINVS - AVGVSTVS
bust draped and cuirassed, seen from behind, laureate head r., youthful portrait
rev. RECTOR - ORBIS
Caracalla as Alexander the Great, naked, standing frontal, laureate head l.,
Chlamys over l. shoulder, wears sword in scabbard suspended from
belt over shoulder, holding globe r. and reversed spear l.
RIC IV, 39(a) corr.; C.542; BMC 165 corr.
EF, mint luster

The rev. is usually called Caracalla as Sol. But there are some oddities: The figure is not radiate but laureate, and a sword in a scubbard is hanging over the r. shoulder. That doesn't match the attributes of Sol. Curtis Clay: It is Caracalla as Alexander the Great! Probably it resembles the statue of Lysipp 'Alexander with spear'.

CHLAMYS, cloak, if the context suggest civilian rather than military use
PALUDAMENTUM, used to describe the cloak worn with a cuirass by emperors on late Roman coins. So the garment on the obv. is a paludament, that on the rev. a chlamys!
3 commentsJochen
Caracalla_Spes.JPG
Caracalla Spec24 viewsCaracalla AD 198-217, AR Denarius, Laodicea Mint, c. AD 199
O: IMP CAE M AVR ANT AVG P TR P II; Laureate, draped bust facing right.
R: SPES PVBLICA; Spes advancing left, holding flower and lifting hem.
34 out of 5736 Caracalla in Reka-Devnia Hoard [typical avg / type = 25.6]
A nice youthful portrait from the Eastern mint on this coin from a major Caracalla collection that will be sold over the next few weeks here.
17mm, 2.3g
Romanorvm
Caracalla_Tyche_varbanov_917~0.jpg
Caracalla Tyche Varbanov 91722 viewsCaracalla, Markianopolis, 198 - 217 AD, 27mm, 10.9g, AMNG I/1, 609, Varbanov I (Engl.) pg. 124, 917, HrJ (2nd ed.) 6.18.38.1
OBV: AV MAR AVRH - ANTWNINOC, youthful bust draped and cuirassed, seen from behind, laureate, r.
REV: V.AV.GALLOV - MARKIANOPOLITWN, Tyche stg. l. with cornucopiae and rudder
AMNG I/1, 609 (3 Ex., Gotha, St. Petersburg, Wien):
Romanorvm
ccarOR.jpg
Caracalla, Mionnet 15 (var.)31 viewsCarrhae, Mesopotamia mint, Caracalla, 197-217 A.D. AE, 17mm 3.13g, Mionnet 15 (var.)
O: AVT KAI M ANTΩNEINOC (or similar), youthful, laureate head right
R: KAP KOΛ MHTPOΠOΛ (or similar), star in crescent, globe and serpent below
1 commentscasata137ec
cruz719OR.jpg
Caracalla, Ruzicka, Pautalia, page 176, #71912 viewsPautalia mint, Caracalla, 198-217 A.D. AE, 18mm 3.52g, Ruzicka, Pautalia, page 176, #719
O: AYTOKPA - ANTΩNINOC , laureate, draped, and ciurassed bust of Caracalla (youthful), r.
R: OVAΠIAC - ΠAVTALIAC , Apollo standing left, holding patera in outstretched right and branch in lowered left.
3 pieces listed: Sofia 974 , Vienna 8815 , Zagreb
casata137ec
Halikarnassos_Obol.jpg
Caria, Halikarnassos10 viewsHALIKARNASSOS, CARIA
AR Hemiobol (7.3mm, 0.45 gm)
Ca 395-377 BC.

O: Ram's head right

R: Carian character to left and right of youthful male head (Apollo?) right.

SNG Helsinki 873; SNG Kayhan 996.

Sosius
Halikarnassos.jpg
Caria, Halikarnassos(?), hemiobol28 views7 mm, 0.53 g
obv: ram
rev: head of youth right, in quadratum incusum
1 commentsareich
1-IB3_TOGETHER-ccfopt.jpg
Castulo, Spain AE As.9 viewsCastulo, Spain AE As. 30 mm, 22g. 76-45 BC.
ISCER SACAL, youthful male head right.
CAST SOCED, sphinx right.
Burgos (2008) 709; Ripolles 905; Villaronga 14.
Paul R3
leo1000.jpg
Chersonese AE Lion18 viewsThrace, Chersonese, Panticapaeum, Pan / Lion, AE 19. 300-100 BC. Obverse: Youthful head of Pan left. Reverse: PAN, Head of lion left, sturgeon below. 19 mm , 5.5 g. ex Jerome Holderman.Podiceps
pegasus1.jpg
Chersonese pegasus 16 viewsThrace, Chersonese, Panticapaeum, Pan / Pegasus, AE15, 300-100 BC. Obverse: Youthful head of Pan right. Reverse: PAN, Forepart of Pegasus flying right. 15 mm, 2.4 g. ex Jerome HoldermanPodiceps
c_pegasus.jpg
Chersonese pegasus (3)11 viewsThrace, Chersonese, Panticapaeum, Pan / Pegasus, AE15, 300-100 BC. Obverse: Youthful head of Pan right. Reverse: PAN, Forepart of Pegasus flying right. 13 mm, 2.4 g. ex, Jerome HoldermanPodiceps
pegasus2.jpg
Chersonese pegasus 216 viewsThrace, Chersonese, Panticapaeum, Pan / Pegasus, AE15, 300-100 BC. Obverse: Youthful head of Pan right. Reverse: PAN, Forepart of Pegasus flying right. 15 mm, 2.6 g. ex, Jerome HoldermanPodiceps
Cilicia_Incertum_Triptolemos_eagle_AR11_0_51g~0.jpg
Cilicia, Incertum, Triptolemos(?) / eagle, obol37 viewsIncertum, Cilicia, ca. 4th Century BC
11mm, 0.51g
obv: youthful head (Triptolemos?) wearing wreath of grain left
rev: eagle with spread wings, standing left on lion
(SNG BN 474, SNG Levante 231)

new picture
1 commentsareich
fullsizeoutput_2e.jpeg
CILICIA, Kelenderis. AR Stater74 viewsCirca 430-420 B.C. 10.63 grams. Obverse: nude youth (ephebus) dismounting from horse rearing left. Reverse: goat kneeling left, head turned right, ivy branch above. Casabonne Type 2, Celenderis 14 (same dies). SNG BN 48 (same dies, but letter removed on obverse). SNG von Aulock 5624 (same dies). Near EF, lightly toned. Well struck.
Ex CNG
One of the most underrated Ancient Greek coin because of its static iconography and (seemingly) insignificance of the place where it came from (only few ancient sources mentioned the city of Kelenderis located in Cilicia in Asia Minor-aside from few facts we know that it was the easternmost member of the Delian League and founded by the Greeks from Samos in the 8th century B.C. on an earlier Phoenician settlement). One need to take another glance to discover and marvel at the remarkable level of artistry put into the design on these series of coins of Kelenderis that might otherwise get overlooked.
4 commentsJason T
seleukia_caracalla_SNGlev744.jpg
Cilicia, Seleukeia ad Calycadnum, Caracalla, SNG Levante 74442 viewsCaracalla AD 198-217
AE 21, 3.62g
obv. [AV] KM AV - ANTWNIN
Youthfull bust, draped and cuirassed, laureate, r.
rev. CELEYKE - [WN] - KALYKA / DNW
Dionysos, nude, stg. l., holding thyrsos and sacrificing from kantharos over burning altar stg. l.; on the l. side Demeter, in long chiton, stg. r., holding long sceptre in l. hand and two corn-ears in outstretched r. hand.
SNG Levante 744 (same obv. die); Lindgren/Kovacs (same dies); SNG PfPS (same dies) (Thanks to Curtis Clay for the obv. legend)
rare, about VF
1 commentsJochen
seleukeia_ad_cal_commodus_SNGfrance975.jpg
Cilicia, Seleukeia ad Calycadnum, SNG France 97515 viewsCommodus, AD 177-192
AE 22, 6.55g, 21.94g, 345°
obv. [AVT] KAI.AVRH. - KOMODOC
youthful head, laureate, r.
rev. CELEVKEWN TWN - PROC TW K[ALV]
Tyche in long garment and mantle, wearing kalathos, stg. l., holding in l. arm cornucopiae
and in extended r. hand rudder
ref. SNG France 2, 975 (same dies); SNG Levante -
F-F+, sandy deposits, excentric flan, rude lettering
Jochen
DSC_2175.JPG
CILICIA. Celenderis. Ca. 425-350 BC. AR stater (20mm, 10.69 gm, 9h)13 viewsCILICIA. Celenderis. Ca. 425-350 BC. AR stater (20mm, 10.69 gm, 9h). VF. Persic standard, ca. 425-400 BC. Youthful nude male rider, holding reins in right hand and kentron in left, dismounting from horse prancing to left; A below / KEΛ, goat with long whiskers kneeling left, head right; two long stalks above, one terminating in flower, the other in large ivy leaf, all in incuse circle. BMC -. SNG France 2, 46. Mark R1
Civic_Phrygia_LaodiceiaAdLycum, Demos_AE25_9.7g.jpg
Civic, Phrygia, Laodiceia ad Lycum, Demos, AE2536 viewstime of Titus & Domitian
obv: Laureate bust of youthful Demos right, Δ before
rev: ΛΑΟΔΙΚεΩΝ, Male figure standing facing, head left, holding phiale and palm branch, vase at feet with small vexillum
AE25, 9.7g
Attribution: BMC 87
areich
claudius_97.jpg
Claudius RIC I, 97150 viewsClaudius 41 - 54
AE - As, 10.97g, 26mm
Rome 41
obv. TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG PM TRP IM[P]
bare head l.
rev. LIBERTAS AVGVSTA
Libertas standing frontal, head r., holding pileus
in r. hand, between S-C
RIC I, 97; C.47
about VF
From Curtis Clay: The obverse of Jochen's As shows the rare earliest
portrait of Claudius' reign, youthful and reminescent of his brother
Germanicus. I think Jochen's coin will have a rank high among the luckiest
first purchases ever made!

PILEUS, a felt cap, given to slaves who received their freedom. Therefore a attribute of Liberty
2 commentsJochen
commodus_02.jpg
Commodus AE from Nicomedia32 viewsObv: ...IOC KOMODOC K - Youthful bare bust of Commodus right, wearing cuirass and paludamentum.
Rev: Turreted Tyche seated left, holding small temple with eight columns in right hand and sceptre in left; NEIKOMHDEIA ... in exergue.
Mint: Nicomedia
Ref: Help please
Notes: Help with references as well as reading the legends would be much appreciated.
1 commentsoa
Const_12.jpg
Constantius II15 viewsAE2
Obv: DN CONSTANTIVS PF AVG
Rev: FEL TEMP REPARATIO ; Constantius dragging a barbarian youth from a hut beneth a tree.
Tanit
Constantius II Gloria Exercitv145.jpg
Constantius II- Trier RIC 546108 viewsobv: FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C, youthful bust rt., Cuir.
rev: GLOR-IA EXERC-ITVS, two soldiers guarding two standards
TRS* in exergue
RIC Trier 546
VF

Picture really doesn't do it justice.... has dark green gloss patina.
wolfgang336
Antoninus_Pius,_Corinth,_AE20,_rare.JPG
Corinth, AE20, Dionysos seated10 viewsAntoninus Pius, Corinth, 20mm, 5.4g. Obverse: ANTONINVS [AVG PIVS], laureate head right. Reverse: [C L I] COR, Bacchus/Dionysus (youthful) seated, r., resting r. arm on back of chair, holding long filleted thyrsus. Attribution: BCD Corinth 674, BMC 601, Cop 310. Ex areich, photo credit areichPodiceps
443CassiaCNG.jpg
Cr 298/1 AR Denarius Lucius Caesius 12 views112-111 BCE. AR Denarius (20.4mm, 3.72 g, 1h). Rome mint.
O: Youthful, draped bust of Vejovis left, seen from behind, hurling thunderbolt; ROMA monogram to right
R: Two Lares seated right, each holding a staff; dog standing right between them, head of Vulcan and tongs above; L. CAESI
Crawford 298/1; Sydenham 564; Caesia 1

An unusual coin for this era of the Republic, particularly the bust seen over the shoulder. On the Rev, these are often cited as "Lares Praestites", guardians of the City of Rome. That makes sense as a coin, but that image is rare on coins and I (hope/think) some of the more local or personal lares are intended. The unusual obverse suggests that perhaps the reverse is equally creative and artistic.

PMah
423G364Caesia.png
Cr 298/1 L. Caesius10 views112 or 111 BCE
o: Youthful bust of Apollo left, hurling thunderbolt, monogram behind
r: Two Lares Praestites seated right, dog between them; head of Vulcan and tongs above; LA monogram on left, ER monogram right [off flan], L CAES[I] in ex [AE ligate]
Crawford 298/1; Caesia 1
3.88gg. (12h)
See notes on my other example of this artistic type; this one is even nicer.
PMah
591AA221combo.png
Cr 352/1 AR Denarius L. Iulius Bursio5 views85 bce; 3.83 gms; 20.50 mm
o: Male head right, with attributes of Apollo (youthful head), Mercury (winged headress) and Neptune (trident); behind, rudder.
r: Victory in quadriga right; above, numeral [xv??]; in exergue, L. IVLI. BVRSIO
This is an odd type, combining attributes of three gods on the obverse with an extremely mundane reverse. The rudder die mark is fairly rare, and I have not seen another published example. Any Republican type with a wide variety of die marks and numbers will end up representlng a large issue. I will update this posting soon, when I retrieve my Crawford set.
This coin, despite the deposits, is in excellent condition.
PMah
crispus_90.jpg
Crispus RIC VII, Rome 9061 viewsCrispus, Caesar 317 - 326, son of Constantine I
AE - AE 3, 4.14g, 21mm
Rome 1. officina, AD 317
obv. CRISPVS NOBIL CAES
cuirassed bust, laureate head r.
rev. PRINCIP - I - A IVVENTVTIS
Prince helmeted, in military dress, standing r., cloak spread, holding reverse
spear, hand on shield set on ground
left field: A
exergue: RP
RIC VII; Rome 90; C.100
R3; VF
added to www.wildwinds.com

PRINCIPIA IUVENTUTIS, the Leaderships of the Youth. In the reign of Augustus, the emperor's grandsons were each invested with the courtesy title of 'PRINCEPS IUVENTUTIS', and in due course the title came to be given regularly to the heir to the imperial throne.
Jochen
poliorketes.jpg
Demetrios Poliorketes, AE1117 viewsTarsos (Cilicia), ca. 298-295 BC
11 mm, 1.70g
obv: youthful male head, wearing Corinthian helmet right
rev: BA, ship's prow right, aphlaston to left, monograms below
(Newell 34)
areich
sev_alex_spes.jpg
Denarius; SPES PVBLICA; RIC 254d21 viewsSeverus Alexander Denarius, Spes publica, Rome Mint, 231-235 AD.
Size and weight: 21mm, 3.53g. 
Obverse: Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right. 
IMP ALEXANDER PIVS AVG 
Reverse: Spes advancing left. holding out a flower and raising the hem of her skirt. 
SPES PVBLICA 
References: Sear RCV (2002) 7927, RIC IV 254d. Spes (Hope) holds out her flower, symbolising freshness and youth. She holds her skirt off the ground so that it does not get soiled. Ex Moremoth
Podiceps
DiadF.jpg
Diadumenian131 viewsDiadumenian, as Caesar. 218 AD. AR Denarius 3.04 g. 2nd emission, July AD 217-March 218

O: M OPEL ANT DIADVMENIAN CAES, bare-headed and draped bust right
R: PRINC IVVENTVTIS, Diadumenian standing half-left, head right, holding standard and sceptre; two standards behind.
RIC IV 102 (Macrinus); BMCRE 87 (Macrinus); RSC 3.

Marcus Opellius Diadumenianus was born in 208. According to Aelius Lampridius, quoted below, the boy was so named because he was born with a diadem formed by a rolled caul.

“Now let us proceed to the omens predicting his imperial power — which are marvellous enough in the case of others, but in his case beyond the usual wont. 4 On the day of his birth, his father, who then chanced to be steward of the greater treasury, was inspecting the purple robes, and those which he approved as being brighter in hue he ordered to be carried into a certain chamber, in which two hours later Diadumenianus was born. 2 Furthermore, whereas it usually happens that children at birth are provided by nature with a caul, which the midwives seize and sell to credulous lawyers (for it is said that this bring luck to those who plead), 3 this child, instead of a caul, had a narrow band like a diadem, so strong that it could not be broken, for the fibres were entwined in the manner of a bow-string. 4 The child, they say, was accordingly called Diadematus, but when he grew older, he was called Diadumenianus from the name of his mother's father, though the name differed little from his former appellation Diadematus.”

His father Macrinus was hailed as Augustus in 217. Diadumenian, in turn, received the titles of Caesar and Prince of the Youth. He was also given the name Antoninus after the assassinated emperor Caracalla.

These titles are seen on this example as ANT and PRINC IVVENTVTIS.

When the armies of Elagabalus revolted at Emesa on May 16, 218, Macrinus traveled to the praetorian fortress at Apamaea to shore up (buy) support and to raise Diadumenian to the rank of Augustus. Still, Macrinus’ armies were defeated outside Antioch in less than a month.

10 year old Diadumenian was captured while fleeing to Zeugma and executed shortly thereafter. He reigned as Caesar for 13 months and as Augustus for less than one.

Although the Senate never confirmed Diadumenian’s title as Augustus, there is extremely rare silver (one or two pieces?) with Diadumenian as emperor. It is believed that a large issue was struck, only to be immediately recalled and melted down when the news of Macrinus’ defeat reached Rome.
5 commentsNemonater
DiadumenianStandards.jpg
DIADUMENIAN66 viewsDIADUMENIAN (Caesar, 217-218). Denarius. 2.53 g. 20mm, Rome mint.
O: M OPEL DIADVMENIAN CAES, Bareheaded, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: PRINC IVVENTVTIS, Diadumenian standing left, holding baton; two signa to right.
-RIC 107.

1st emission of Macrinus, AD 217, only three examples in the Reka Devnia hoard.

Diadumenian's three main types as Caesar exactly correspond to Macrinus' three issues, which for their part can be approximately dated on the basis of the titles they bear and their volumes of issue as revealed by the Reka Devnia hoard. So Diadumenian's dates derive from those estimated for Macrinus.

Marcus Opellius Diadumenianus was born in 208. According to Aelius Lampridius, quoted below, the boy was so named because he was born with a diadem formed by a rolled caul.

“Now let us proceed to the omens predicting his imperial power — which are marvellous enough in the case of others, but in his case beyond the usual wont. 4 On the day of his birth, his father, who then chanced to be steward of the greater treasury, was inspecting the purple robes, and those which he approved as being brighter in hue he ordered to be carried into a certain chamber, in which two hours later Diadumenianus was born. 2 Furthermore, whereas it usually happens that children at birth are provided by nature with a caul, which the midwives seize and sell to credulous lawyers (for it is said that this bring luck to those who plead), 3 this child, instead of a caul, had a narrow band like a diadem, so strong that it could not be broken, for the fibres were entwined in the manner of a bow-string. 4 The child, they say, was accordingly called Diadematus, but when he grew older, he was called Diadumenianus from the name of his mother's father, though the name differed little from his former appellation Diadematus.”

His father Macrinus was hailed as Augustus on April 8, 217. Dio Cassius tells us that Diadumenian was named Caesar and Prince of the Youth by the Senate in May 217 as soon as news of Macrinus' accession reached Rome. A little later, Dio continues, news arrived that Diadumenian had independently been proclaimed Caesar by the soldiers at Zeugma, as he was on his way from Antioch to join Macrinus in Mesopotamia, and that he had also assumed Caracalla's name Antoninus. Hence this first short issue of coins in Rome is with the titles Caesar and Prince of the Youth, but still without Antoninus.

When the armies of Elagabalus revolted at Emesa on May 16, 218, Macrinus traveled to the praetorian fortress at Apamaea to shore up (buy) support and to raise Diadumenian to the rank of Augustus. Still, Macrinus’ armies were defeated outside Antioch in less than a month.

10 year old Diadumenian was captured while fleeing to Zeugma and executed shortly thereafter. He reigned as Caesar for 13 months and as Augustus for less than one.

Although the Senate never confirmed Diadumenian’s title as Augustus, there is extremely rare silver (one or two pieces?) with Diadumenian as emperor. It is believed that a large issue was struck, only to be immediately recalled and melted down when the news of Macrinus’ defeat reached Rome.
5 commentsNemonater
00postumdog.jpg
DIANA and LELAPS.246 viewsAR denarius. 74 BC. 3.52 gr. Bust of Diana huntress right,bow and quiver on shoulder. / Hound running right,hunting spear below. C. POSTUMI/TA (in monogram) below. Toned. Craw 394/1a . RSC Postumia 9
Myth of Lelaps and the fox.
Procris was a mortal woman, a great favorite of the Goddess Diana, the goddess of hunting. Diana (also famous for her hunting hounds) made a gift of a dog to Procris. Lelaps was the swiftest of dogs and could outrun any rival. Diana also gave a JAVELIN that would never miss its target to Procris.
Procris fell in love and married a beautiful youth by the name of Cephalus. Cephalus was also a great hunter, and so Procris gave the presents of the hound and javelin to her husband.
It came to pass that some angry deity had sent a ravenous fox to plague the country, snatching his prey from under the farmers very noses. All the hunters turned out in great numbers and strength to kill the fox, but their efforts failed. None had a hound that could run this supernatural fox to ground.
At last the people came to Cephalus and begged him to set Lelaps, the famous gift hound from Diana, after the fox.
Lelaps was loosed and darted away faster than the eye could follow. It was said that if the men had not seen his footprints in the sand they would have thought he had taken flight. Cephalus and the hunters stood on a hill and watched the pursuit.
The fox tried every trick, every sly, cunning art he knew to evade the hound. He ran in a circle and turned on his track, he doubled back, he leapt over water and trotted across fallen logs, but no trick he knew would fool swift and clever Lelaps. The hound came on relentless, breathing on the foxes heels and snapping at his brushy tail, missing by only a hair!
Cephalus threw the magic javelin when suddenly both dog and fox stopped, frozen in mid-motion. The heavenly powers that had given both hound and fox their powers were not willing that either should conquer - or lose. In that very moment, they turned to Stone .ZEUS cast them into the stars as the constellations Canis Major (Lelaps) and Canis Minor (the Teumessian fox).[


1 commentsbenito
86168q00.jpg
Domitian Denarius, 13 September 81 - 18 September 96 A.D25 viewsDomitian denarius Rome mint, as Caesar, 79A.D.
Obverse CAESAR AVG F DOMITIANVS COS VI, laureate head right; reverse PRINCEPS IVVENTVTIS (the first of youths), Salus standing left, legs crossed, leaning against column, feeding snake from patera; from the Lucas Harsh Collection
3.120 g, diameter 18.3 mm

Ex Forum Ancient Coins RS86168 09.09.2018
1 commentsBritanikus
D36.jpg
Domitian RIC 36119 viewsAR Denarius, 3.23g
Rome mint, 81 AD
RIC 36 (R). BMC 9. RSC 62.
Obv: IMP CAES DOMITIANVS AVG P M; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: COS VII DES VIII P P; Seat, draped; above, winged thunderbolt
Acquired from Hall's Hammered Coins, May 2014.

If one would like evidence of continued uninterrupted mint production during the transition from Titus' to Domitian's reign, one need look no further than the pulvinaria series of denarii struck by both brothers. Titus began issuing these religious types in 80 as IMP XV, which is the last imperial acclamation recorded on his coinage. Oddly enough when Domitian was proclaimed emperor upon Titus' death a year later in September 81 these are the first types struck for him, despite a previous mint hiatus. Apparently the mint did not have many new types in readiness for Domitian. It is also quite possible religious appropriations were still required by the state when Domitian ascended to the purple.

This reverse type from the 3rd group of 81 featuring a draped chair and thunderbolt is likely the pulvinar of Jupiter. Strangely enough TRP is absent from the legends, why this is so I cannot say. It's a puzzling mystery considering the first group of denarii indeed record it.

The youthful portrait style is identical to those struck for Domitian as Caesar under Titus. Nicely toned and well centered.
3 commentsDavid Atherton
D771aabest.jpeg
Domitian RIC-77196 viewsAR Denarius, 3.30g
Rome mint, 95 AD
RIC 771 (C2). BMC 223. RSC 289.
Obv: IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM P M TR P XIIII; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: IMP XXII COS XVII CENS P P P; Minverva stg. r. on capital of rostral column, with spear and shield; to r., owl (M2)
Acquired from Praefectus Coins, June 2015.

Domitian held the consulship in 95, which dates this denarius between 1 January and 13 September of that year. Brian Jones speculates that during 95/96 Domitian waged a campaign against the Iazyges in the vicinity of Singidunum. This military activity may account for the large issues of denarii struck during the final years of the reign.

A rounded, youthful looking portrait of Domitian is seen here. Interestingly, a mound of hair is perched atop the balding emperor, showcasing flattering and competent craftsmanship by the engraver. Honest wear with good toning.
2 commentsDavid Atherton
Eq7d9MkGsBD5Nf6p8bzWSPn2g4DW3Q_(3).jpg
EASTERN EUROPE. Imitations of Philip II of Macedon (2nd-1st centuries BC). Tetradrachm.10 viewsObv: Laureate head of Zeus right.
Rev: ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΥ.
Youth riding horse right, holding palm frond. Controls: Below horse, Λ above torch.
Lanz 364-5; cf. OTA 18.
Weight: 13.95 g.
Diameter: 26 mm.
Antonivs Protti
Eq7d9MkGsBD5Nf6p8bzWSPn2g4DW3Q_(2).jpg
EASTERN EUROPE. Imitations of Philip II of Macedon (2nd-1st centuries BC). Tetradrachm.7 viewsObv: Laureate head of Zeus right.
Rev: ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΥ.
Youth riding horse right, holding palm frond. Controls: Below horse, Λ above torch.
Lanz 364-5; cf. OTA 18.
Weight: 13.95 g.
Diameter: 26 mm.
Antonivs Protti
EB0007_scaledb.JPG
EB0007 Youth on horseback / Taras on dolphin38 viewsTarentum, CALABRIA, AR Nomos, 281-272 BC.
Obverse: Naked youth on horseback right crowning himself; IΩ behind, ZAΛO and Ionic capital below.
Reverse: Taras astride dolphin, holding distaff and akrostolion; AN behind.
References: VLASTO 803, Evans VII, G1; SNG France 1924-25; Cote 420 and McGill II, 87-89.
Diameter: 20mm, Weight: 6.602g.
3 commentsEB
EB0010_scaledb.JPG
EB0010 Youth on horseback / Taras on dolphin33 viewsTarentum, CALABRIA, AR Nomos, 272-235 BC.
Obverse: Youth on horseback left crowning horse; ΦΙΛΩ/ΤΑΣ in two lines below, ΔΙ above.
Reverse: Taras on dolphin left, holding kantharos and distaff; cock behind.
References: VLASTO 847, SNG France 2009, SNG ANS 1176, Evans VIII, A11 and McGill II, 96.
Diameter: 20mm, Weight: 6.123g.
2 commentsEB
EB0159b_scaled.JPG
EB0159 Youth / CARMO2 viewsCarmo, HISPANIA, AE 23, 200-100 BC.
Obverse: Youthful male head right.
Reverse: Corn ears (or wheat) right above & below CARMO on tablet.
References: Heiss 4.
Diameter: 23.5mm, Weight: 12.534g.
EB
EB0199b_scaled.JPG
EB0199 Herakles / Horse & rider6 viewsKingdom of Macedonia, Antigonus Gonatas, AE 19, 277-239 BC.
Obverse: Head of Herakles right in lionskin.
Reverse: B-A, youth on horse jumping right, ANTI monogram below.
References: SG 6787; Seaby 570; SNGCop 1216.
Diameter: 19mm, Weight: 3.612g.
EB
EB0345_scaled.JPG
EB0345 Mars / oath-taking scene11 viewsTi. Veturius, AR Denarius, 137 BC.
Obv: Draped bust of Mars right wearing crested Corinthian helmet, X between back of neck and end of crest, TI VET (partially ligate) behind.
Rev: ROMA, Two warriors standing facing each other, vertical spear in left hand, sword in right hand pointed at sacrificial pig held by kneeling youth left.
References: Veturia 1; Crawford 234/1; Syd. 527.
Diameter: 20mm, Weight: 3.913 grams.
EB
alexandria_claudiusII_Milne4240.jpg
Egypt, Alexandria, Claudius II Gothicus, Milne 424038 viewsClaudius II Gothicus AD 268-270
AE - Potin tetradrachm, 20.5mm, 10.97g
struck 269/270 (year 2)
obv. AVT K KLA - VDIOC CEB
Bust, draped and laureate, r.
rev. Youthful bust of Hermanubis, draped, wearing kalathos, lotos blossom at fore-
head, r.
combination of kerykeion and palm before
LB behind (for year 2)
Milne 4240; Curtis 1701; Köln 3037
VF+, matt dark-brown patina

Hermanubis was the Greek name for the Egyptian god Anubis combined with the Greek Hermes, both acting as Psychopompos.
For more information look at the thread 'Coins of mythological interest'
Jochen
_(KGrHqZHJFUFHzdzqh5,BS!P!)RvrQ~~60_12.JPG
Egypt, Alexandria; Hadrian28 viewsHadrian, 117-138 AD, bronze drachm of 33.8 mm, 23.41 grams. Struck at the mint of Alexandria in Egypt. Dated RY 15 (AD 130/1).

Obverse: Laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right.

Reverse: Hadrian standing left, holding scepter, greeted by Alexandria, clad in elephant skin headdress, chiton, and peplos, holding two grain ears and kissing Hadrian’s extended hand; L IE (date) across field.

Reference: Köln 1034; Dattari (Savio) 1610; K&G 32.509

Struck to commemorate the emperor’s visit to Alexandria in AD 130. It was during this visit that Hadrian’s favorite, the Bithynian youth Antinous, drowned in the Nile.


ecoli
elagabal_202.jpg
Elagabal RIC IV, 20254 viewsElagabal, AD 218-222
AR - denarius, 19mm, 3.04g
Antiochia, AD 218/9
obv. ANTONINVS PIVS FEL AVG
Youthful portrait, draped and cuirassed, laureate, r.
rev. VOTA PV - BLICA
Emperor, togate and veiled, in high boots with heels, stg. l. and sacrificing from
open r. hand over burning tripod; holding roll in l. hand.
RIC IV/2, 202; C.306; BMC 291 (attributes it to Rome)
Scarce, EF/VF

One of the early issues from Antiochia.
2 commentsJochen
elagantioch.jpg
Elagabalus (218-222 AD) Billon Tetradrachm of Antioch, Syria 219 AD14 viewsOBV: AVTK M A ANTWEINOC CEB; Laureate bust right, drapery on left shoulder.
REV: DHMAPX EE YPi A TOC TOB; Eagle standing facing, wings spread, head right, wreath in beak; D - E across upper fields, star between legs.
wt 12.65 gm, app. 25 mm, Prieur 254, Mc Alee 761

Purchased from Forvm Ancient Coins

An early youthful portrait of Elagabalus but stylized and not very realistic. Elagabalus gained a reputation as a pervert but this may have been due more to his religious unorthodoxy than the fantastic excesses described by Roman historians. Only 13 when he rose to power, his imperium was a creation of his wealthy and ambitious aunt, Julia Maesa. In addition to his youth he apparently lacked any qualities of leadership. By trying to insert his strange brand of sun worship over the traditional Roman gods he further antagonized the public and was overthrown and murdered after a few years in office.
daverino
massalia.jpg
Gaul Massalia AR Obol209 viewsGaul Massalia 4th Cent. BC AR Obol 0.77 gm. Youthful head of Apollo left / Wheel of four spokes with MA1 commentsb70
GRK_Massalia_SNG_Cop_723-728.JPG
Gaul, Massalia (Marseille) 10 viewsSear 72, SNG Copenhagen 723-728, Depeyrot Marseille 31

AR Obol (10-12 mm.), struck ca. 200-121 B.C.

Obv: Youthful bare head of Apollo right.

Rev: M A within wheel of four spokes.
Stkp
65249p00.jpg
Gela, Sicily, c. 339 - 310 B.C.11 viewsBronze AE 16, 3.354g, 15.9mm, 90o, Gela mint, c. 339 - 310 B.C.
Obv: Youthful head of Herakles wearing Nemean lion scalp headdress.
Rev: Bearded head of the River God of Gelas right, wearing a reed wreath.
Ref: Calciati III p. 28, 56; Jenkins Gela 541, SNG München 323, SNG ANS -
VF
Rare
mjabrial
gela2.jpg
Gela, Sicily. AE Tetras69 viewsTetras, bronze, about 420-405. AE 3.26 g.
Obv: Head of the youthful, horned head of river god Gelas r.; in field l., grain of corn.
Rev: GELAS / Bull with lowered head l., above, olive leaf, in exergue, three pellets.
3 commentsancientone
84.jpg
Germe, Mysia, civic coinage16 viewsAE 25.7mm (8.31gm).

Draped bust of a youthful Senate right, IEPA CYNKΛHT[OC] / Zeus seated left holding eagle and sceptre, CEΞI ΦAY-CTOY ΓEP-MH.

SNG vA, 1090 var. (unlisted strategos); SNG France, 951 var.; RPC IV (online), 658; ANS, 1971.230.6 var.
socalcoins
geta_13.jpg
Geta RIC IV, 13(a)49 viewsGeta 198 - 207 Caesar
AR - Denar, 3.46g, 18mm
Rome AD 199
obv. P SEPT GETA - CAES PONT
bust draped, cuirassed (?), bare head r., youthful portrait
rev. NOBI - LITAS
Nobilitas standing frontal, head r., holding sceptre r. and palladium l.
RIC IV, 13(a); C.90; BMCR. 199
Scarce; about EF

PALLADIUM, from Pallas, a cognomen of Athena. The original P. was stolen from Troy and brought to Italy by Aeneas. It was said to have been preserved with great reverence by the Romans as the protector of their own city.
Jochen
0200-210np_noir.jpg
Geta, Denarius - *64 viewsRome mint, AD 201
P SEPT GETA CAES PONT, draped and cuirassed bust of Geta right, seen from behind
PR INC IVVENT, Geta, as prince of youth, standing left, holding branch and spear
3.27 gr, 23.7 mm
Ref : RIC #15b, RCV #7194, Cohen #159
2 commentsPotator II
GordianIAfr.jpg
Gordian I Africanus / Athena59 viewsGordian I Africanus, Egypt, Alexandria. A.D. 238. BI tetradrachm (22 mm, 12.47 g, 12 h). RY 1.
O: A K M AN ΓOPΔIANOC CЄM AΦ ЄVCЄB, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust of Gordian I right
R: Athena seated left, holding Nike and spear; in left field, date (L A).
- Köln 2600; cf. Dattari (Savio) 4656 (legend); Kampmann & Ganschow 68.6., Ex Coin Galleries (16 July 2003), 264.

Perhaps the most reluctant of Emperors, Gordian I (Marcus Antonius Gordianus Sempronianus Romanus Africanus Augustus) was Roman Emperor for one month with his son Gordian II in 238, the Year of the Six Emperors. Caught up in a rebellion against the Emperor Maximinus Thrax, he was defeated by forces loyal to Maximinus before committing suicide.

According to Edward Gibbon:

"An iniquitous sentence had been pronounced against some opulent youths of [Africa], the execution of which would have stripped them of far the greater part of their patrimony. (…) A respite of three days, obtained with difficulty from the rapacious treasurer, was employed in collecting from their estates a great number of slaves and peasants blindly devoted to the commands of their lords, and armed with the rustic weapons of clubs and axes. The leaders of the conspiracy, as they were admitted to the audience of the procurator, stabbed him with the daggers concealed under their garments, and, by the assistance of their tumultuary train, seized on the little town of Thysdrus, and erected the standard of rebellion against the sovereign of the Roman empire. (...) Gordianus, their proconsul, and the object of their choice [as emperor], refused, with unfeigned reluctance, the dangerous honour, and begged with tears that they should suffer him to terminate in peace a long and innocent life, without staining his feeble age with civil blood. Their menaces compelled him to accept the Imperial purple, his only refuge indeed against the jealous cruelty of Maximin (...)."

Because of the absence of accurate dating in the literary sources, the precise chronology of these events has been the subject of much study. The present consensus among historians assigns the following dates (all in the year 238 A.D.) to these events: March 22nd Gordian I, II were proclaimed Emperors in Africa; April 1st or 2nd they were recognized at Rome; April 12th they were killed (after reigning twenty days); April 22nd Pupienus and Balbinus were proclaimed Emperors; June 24th Maximinus and his son were assassinated outside of Aquileia; July 29th Pupienus and Balbinus were assassinated and Gordian III proclaimed as sole Augustus.
3 commentsNemonater
philipII bronze-.jpg
greek - PHILIP II AE17 bronze BC359-33638 viewsobv:Bust of Philip as Apollo right
rev:Youth on horseback prancing right, FILIPPOU above, NE symbol below
ref:SG 6696v
berserker
youth.jpg
Greek Youth - British Museum627 viewsGreek statue of a youth with a 'bowl' haircut2 commentsBacchus
Bactria,_Euthydemos_I_Tetradrachm~1.jpg
GREEK, Baktrian Kingdom, Euthydemos I, ca. 225-200/190 BC, AR Tetradrachm - Bopearachchi Series 10 A182 viewsStylised diademed head of mature Euthydemos right. / ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ EYΘYΔHMOY Herakles seated left on rock, resting club on knee, PK monogram in inner right field.
Bopearachchi Series 10 A; SNG ANS 138; Kritt B14; Mitchiner 94a; Qunduz 15-18. Baktra/Balkh mint ca. 210-206 BC.
(26 mm, 16.57 g, 12h)

The portrait on this coin is a stylized version of the mature portrait of the king, in which Euthydemos is made to appear more youthful and stronger than the realistic representation on preceding coins. This stylization appears to have been a propaganda response to the challenge posed by the invasion of Baktria by a more youthful Antiochos III in 208-206 BC. This portrayal of the king contrasts starkly with the elderly image that emerged on coinage in the years following the invasion by Antiochos III.
1 commentsLloyd T
calabr_tar.JPG
Greek, Calabria, Tarentum AR nomos (c. 272-240 BC)150 viewso/ Youth on horseback right; behind, Nike flying right, crowning him.
r/ Phalanthos astride dolphin left, holding grain ear and ornate trident; monogram behind.
6.1g. 19mm
Vlasto 911 This coin
2 commentsAugustin Caron
FotorCreated~34.jpg
GREEK, Calabria, Tarentum, AR Stater circa 340-335 BC 23mm 7.87g 1h.Coin World Vol 57 Issue 2952 Page 112-113 The Horsemen of Taras by David Vagi126 viewsNude youth on horseback right,holding rein in left hand,crowning horse with wreath held in right hand,to left.Nike flying right placing fillet on head of youth,AP below.Rev Phalanthos nude riding sideways on dolphin right,head turned slightly left ,spearing cuttlefish below with trident held in right hand.KA monogram to left TAPAE to right,all encircled by waves.
Fischer-Bossert Group 54,717 {V267-R561}Vlasto 501.Good VF lightly toned struck from artistic dies on a broad flan.Very rare issue,only ten examples noted by Fischer-Bossert,four of which are in museums {Berlin{2}Copenhagen,London.
1 commentsGrant H
Vlasto_410~0.jpg
Greek, CALABRIA. Taras. Circa 365-355 BC. AR Nomos. Fischer-Bossert 564b (this coin)104 viewsYouthful nude jockey riding horse standing right; to right, bearded herm left; below horse, TH. Rev. TAΡ[AΣ] Phalantos, with wild flowing hair, riding dolphin left, holding oinochoe in right hand. Fischer-Bossert 564b (this coin). Vlasto 410 (same obverse die). Beautifully toned and of fine style. Minor areas of flatness, otherwise, good very fine.

From the Prof. Langlotz Collection, Auctiones AG 23, 17-18 June 1993, 185.

This is a particularly charming depiction of the hero Phalanthos, with wild waving hair and an impish smile, indicating how much he is enjoying the dolphin ride.
3 commentsLeo
Vlasto_338~0.jpg
Greek, Catalogue of the Collection of Tarentine Coins formed by M. P. Vlasto #33828 views20mm, 7.93 g, 2h
Youth on horse galloping right; tiny Λ below / Phalanthos, holding torch, riding dolphin left.

Fischer-Bossert Group 26, 361.2 (V164/R283) = Vlasto 338 (this coin); HN Italy 850. Old collection tone, small edge test cut, a few marks on edge, struck from worn dies. VF.

Ex Michel Pandely Vlasto Collection.
1 commentsLeo
Vlasto_938~0.jpg
Greek, Catalogue of the Collection of Tarentine Coins formed by M. P. Vlasto #938145 viewsCalabria, Taras. From Sir Arthur Evans Collection
c. 240-228 BC. AR Nomos, 6.39g (10h). Obv: Naked youth riding horse at full gallop right, holding torch behind him; in field to left monogram HPAK; below, ΔΑΙΜΑΧΟC. Rx: ΤΑ - ΡΑC in field under Taras astride dolphin left holding trident in left hand and kantharos in right; in field to right, monogram ANΔPE. Vlasto 938 (this coin). Evans, Tarentum (1889), p. 194, pl. X. 1 (this coin). Ex Vlasto Coll. 938, pl. XXX. From the Sir Arthur Evans Collection.
3 commentsLeo
Gaul,_Massalia.jpg
GREEK, Gaul-Massalia after circa 400 B.C. 19 viewsGaul-Massalia after circa 400 B.C.
AR Obol 0.7g 12mm

Obverse: Youthful head of Apollo left.

Reverse: Wheel with four spokes. "M-A" in two of the quarters.

REf: S-72; De la tour 580
Jorge C
Vlasto_509~0.jpg
GREEK, Italy, Calabria, Taras (c. 344-340 B.C.), Silver Stater.87 views8.03g., 2h
Naked youth on a horse pacing right, crowning the horse with a wreath held in his extended right hand, K(KAA?) and an upright club below the horse, rev. TAP-A-Σ, Phalanthos riding on a dolphin left, holding a kantharos in his extended right hand, and a trident and a shield in his left, Ω below dolphin's tail, waves below.
Fischer-Bossert, Group 49, 685 (V260/R532); Vlasto 509 (these dies); SNG Lloyd 173 (these dies); SNG ANS 960; HN Italy 887. An exceptional example, well-struck from fresh dies and perfectly centred on a flan of good metal, extremely fine and most attractive.
From Sovereign Rarities (2018)

The "K" or "KAL" engraver was one of the finest Greek masters working in the 4th century. His work though rare, can also be found on coins from Heraklea, Metapontion, and Thouroi.
3 commentsLeo
Vlasto_941~0.jpg
GREEK, Italy, CALABRIA, Taras. AR Nomos. Circa 240-228 BC.37 views6.56g, 21mm, 11 h
Zopyrion, magistrate. Nude youth on horseback to right, ΖΩΠΥΡΙΩΝ below; below forelegs, ΣΩ above bukranion / Taras astride dolphin to left, holding hippocamp in extended right hand, trident against left arm; monogram and mask of Silenos right, TAPAΣ below. Vlasto 941; HN Italy 1054.
Extremely Fine; a beautiful reverse composition. Very Rare.
2 commentsLeo
Vlasto_704~0.jpg
GREEK, ITALY, CALABRIA, Taras. Circa 280 BC. AR Nomos107 views(22.5mm, 7.74 g, 1h).
Youth on horse galloping right; EY to left, NIKOΔAMO[Σ] below / Phalanthos, holding kantharos and distaff, riding dolphin left; ZOP and gazelle below. Vlasto 704; cf. HN Italy 970/958. Near EF, deep iridescent tone, a hint of porosity. Well centered on a broad flan.
3 commentsLeo
Vlasto_984~0.jpg
GREEK, Italy, Calabria, Taras. Time of Hannibal, c. 212-209 BC. Nomos16 views3.98g. (5h). Obv: Naked youth on horseback right, holding reins and carrying filleted palm; ΣΩKAN - NAΣ below. Rx: Taras astride dolphin left, holding aphlaston in extended right hand, cradling trident in left arm; eagle standing with wings spread behind; TAPAΣ below. Vlasto 984. HN Italy 1082. SNG ANS 1272. Perfectly struck; Mint State.
Ex Philip T. Ashton Collection. Ex Berk 130, 6 January 2003, lot 81.
Hannibal used the region around Tarentum and Metapontum as winter quarters during his occupation of southern Italy. He installed his own magistrates and struck coinage based on the Punic half shekel standard.
Leo
Vlasto_976.jpg
GREEK, Italy, Calabria, Taras. Time of Hannibal, c. 212-209 BC. Nomos28 views3.34 gm. Magistrate Sogenes. Nude youth on horseback left, crowning horse with wreath; IΩ to right, ΣΩΓENHΣ below / Taras astride dolphin left, holding cornucopia and Nike, who crowns him with wreath. Vlasto 975-7. HN Italy 1079. Struck on a broad flan and attractively toned. Extremely Rare.
The climax of the Carthaginian invasion of Italy was reached when Tarentum changed sides in 212 BC. The takeover of the city was a carefully planned coup by Hannibal and members of the city's democratic faction who opened the gates to Hannibal's army. The Carthaginians failed to take the citadel, but subsequent fortifications around this enemy stronghold enabled the city to remain under Punic control. Hannibal installed his own magistrates and struck coinage based on the Punic half shekel standard.
1 commentsLeo
98000313.jpg
GREEK, Italy, Calabria, Tarentum, AR Nomos, 23mm 7.87g 1h160 viewsNude youth on horseback right holding rein in left hand,Crowning horse with wreath held in right hand .To left Nike flying right placing fillet on head of youth,AP below.Rev Phalanthos nude riding sideways on dolphin right head turned slightly left spearing cuttlefish below with trident held in right hand,Kto left,TAPAE to right,all encircled by waves.This coin was just in the November issues of coin world 2016 page112 by David Vagi.Fisher -Bossert group 54,717 v26-r561 Vlasto 501,HN Italy 886 SNG COP 822 same obv die.Struck from artistic dies on a broad flan and very rare issue only ten examples noted by Fisher Bossert of which four are in museums Berlin 2, Copenhagen, London3 commentsGrant H
9e9MJS2ow5kRsG6y4d4XmFz3Ep7soB.jpg
GREEK, Italy, Calabria, Tarentum, AR stater 280-272 BC 19mm 6.42g87 viewsNude youth as Ephebus on horseback right crowning horse with wreath behind ZU, NEY MH in two lines belowRev Phalanthos riding dolphin left holding Phrygian helmet two twelve rayed stars flanking,NONY to right.ex Mynthandel 3-5-12,ex Freeman & Sear.
Vlasto 739-47,HN Italy 1006
1 commentsGrant H
normal_Fischer-Bossert-1138~0.jpg
GREEK, Italy, CALABRIA. Taras. 332-302 BC. AR nomos17 views7.90g. Obv: Naked youth on horseback r., crowning horse, AΠH below. Rx: ΤΑΡΑΣ Nude Taras astride dolphin l., holding out kantharos in r. hand, Φ behind.
Fischer-Bossert-1138 (V422/r880), Group 81.
Rare, fewer than ten recorded. Not in Vlasto or Evans. Near Mint State
Leo
bpGB1M2Macedonia.jpg
GREEK, Macedonia Kingdom, Phillip II, AE1852 viewsAe18, 6 gm. 16.5 mm, 315-294 BC, Sear (GC) 6697
Obv: Anepigraphic with head of Apollo, right, hair bound with tainia.
Rev: ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΥ
Naked youth on horse prancing right. Legend above, race torch beneath.
Massanutten
Philip_II.jpg
GREEK, Macedonian Kingdom, Philip II38 viewsAE 18 359-336B.C. Philip II Macedon, Father of Alexander the Great, 359-336B.C.
AE (copper or bronze) 18 mm.
Obv.: Head of Apollo right, hair bound with tainia.
Rev.: Naked youth on horseback prancing right. Similar to D. Sear, Greek coins and their values, Vol. 2, p. 620, 6699 /6.61 g.
1 commentsJorge C
coins1 243.jpg
GREEK, Macedonian Kingdom, Philip II, 359 - 336 B.C.147 viewsPhilip II of Macedon, 359-336 B.C.
OBV: Diademed head of Apollo right.
REV: Nude youth on horse galloping right, ΦIΛIΠΠOY (Philip in Greek) above; beneath horse, spear.
2 commentsancientcoins
PhilipIIgreenor.JPG
GREEK, Macedonian Kingdom, Philip II, AE1880 viewsAE 17.3x18.2mm
Obv. Head of Apollo right
Rev. FILIPPOU above, AV monogram below. Horse rearing, naked youth rider, right.
359-336 BC
Philip II was the father of Alexander the Great.
gparch
01_05_05 038b.jpg
GREEK, Macedonian Kingdom, Philip II.63 viewsFather of Alexander the Great - 359-336 BC. AE17
Obv.: Head of Apollo facing right. Rev.: Youth on horse prancing right, FILIPPOY in field above; L beneath, between horse's legs.
1 commentsseleukoy
bpGS1B2Gaul.jpg
GREEK, Massalia, Narbonensis (Gaul)146 viewsObol, .6 gm, 10 mm, 200-121 BC, Sear GC 72
Obv: Anepigraphic with probable head of a youthful Apollo, left.
Rev: Wheel with four spokes. M and A in lower two.
4 commentsMassanutten
Amisos_AE27.jpg
GREEK, Pontos, Amisos, AE 27, ca. 120-95 BC139 viewsMale head (youthful Mithradates VI?) wearing bashlyk (Persian leather cap) right.
AMI-ΣOY either side of quiver with strap.
HGC 7, 236; SNG BMC Black Sea 1135-8; SNG Stancomb 669; SNG Copenhagen 131; SNG von Aulock 57-58; Laffaille 414; Callataÿ p. 248, n. 19, pl. XLVIII, A–B.
Struck circa 120-111 or 100-95 BC.
(27 mm, 21.54 g, 12h)
1 commentsLloyd T
saittai_pseudoautonom_BMC23.jpg
GREEK, pseudo-autonomous, Asia minor, Lydia, Saittai, BMC 23123 viewsAE 22, 5.82g, 225°
Struck early 3rd century
obv. AZIO - T - THNOC
bust of Men Aziottenos, r., wearing Phrygian cap ornamented with stars,
crescent behind shoulders
rev. CAITTHNWN
Youthfull river-god Hermos leaning l., holding reed in r. hand and cornucopiae
in l. arm; resting l. ellbow on inverted vase from which water is flowing l.
ERMOC in ex.
ref. BMC 23; SNG von Aulock 3089; Imhoof-Blumer p.127, 1; published in Patricia Lawrence, In Memory of
Eugene Numa Lane, in MVSE, vol. 42, Annual of the Museum of Art and Archeoloy, University of Missouri,
vol. 42, 2008, p. 31, fig. 6
rare, good VF
added to www.wildwinds.com
added to asiaminorcoins.com
The stars on the cap clearly seen on this specimen are not mentioned in BMC nor SNG von Aulock. Pat Lawrence: "A glorious coin!"

Hermos, today Gediz in Turkey.
1 commentsJochen
Guttag_1923_CW.JPG
Guttag Bros. Store Card Medal19 viewsObv: An allegorical scene of a muse holding the Lamp of Knowledge above a youth who is studying a coin; COIN WEEK ORIGINATED 1923, in exergue.

Rev: GUTTAG BROS. NEW YORK - RARE COINS BOUGHT AND SOLD.

Designer/Engraver: Jonathan M. Swanson

Mint: Medallic Art Company, Date: c. 1926, Diameter 29.67 mm
Matt Inglima
Bracteata,_H-192,_C1-272,_U-122,_Q-001,_0h,_13,5-14,5mm,_0,17gx-s.jpg
H-192 Bracteata, (uncertain), H-192, CNH I.-272, U-122, AR-Bracteata, #0157 viewsH-192 Bracteata, (uncertain), H-192, CNH I.-272, U-122, AR-Bracteata, #01
avers: Youthful head with floral wreath facing left, within the pearled circle.
reverse: Negative pictures.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 13,5-14,5mm, weight: 0,17g, axis:0h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-192, CNH I.-272, Unger-122, Kiss-Toth: Sigla, small circle behind the head,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Bracteata,_H-192,_C1-272,_U-122,_Q-002,_0h,_15mm,_0,25g-s.jpg
H-192 Bracteata, (uncertain), H-192, CNH I.-272, U-122, AR-Bracteata, #0262 viewsH-192 Bracteata, (uncertain), H-192, CNH I.-272, U-122, AR-Bracteata, #02
avers: Youthful head with floral wreath facing left, within the pearled circle.
reverse: Negative pictures.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 15,0mm, weight: 0,25g, axis:0h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-192, CNH I.-272, Unger-122, Kiss-Toth: Sigla, small pellet belove the neck,
Q-002
1 commentsquadrans
Bracteata,_H-192,_C1-272,_U-122,_Q-003,_0h,_14,5-15m,_0,19g-s.jpg
H-192 Bracteata, (uncertain), H-192, CNH I.-272, U-122, AR-Bracteata, #0352 viewsH-192 Bracteata, (uncertain), H-192, CNH I.-272, U-122, AR-Bracteata, #03
avers: Youthful head with floral wreath facing left, within the pearled circle.
reverse: Negative pictures.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 14,5-15,0mm, weight: 0,19g, axis:0h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-192, CNH I.-272, Unger-122,
Kiss-Toth: Sigla, two small pellets in front of the head,
Q-003
1 commentsquadrans
commodus_trophaion_hadr_Varb(E)_3300.JPG
Hadrianopolis Commodus T. Suellius Marcianus 38 viewsAV K Λ ∙ AVP ∙ | KOMOΔOC
Bare head draped and cuirassed youthful bust

HΓ ∙ COY [MARKIANOY | AΔPIA]NOΠ
Nike on standing on right facing left crowning tropaion

Varbanov (E) II 3300 (depicted, ignore description); Jurukova V68 R108- unrecorded die pairing).
Petrus Elmsley
Comm_Hadrpolis_Farnese_heracles.jpg
Hadrianopolis Commodus Claudius Bellicus (176-80AD?) Farnese Heracles30 viewsHADRIANOPOLIS

Commodus

AE 28

Governor Claudius Bellicus (176-80AD?)

ΑΥ ΚAI Λ ΑVP | ΚΟΜΟΔΟC very faint
Bare head draped and cuirassed youthful bust

HΓ KΛ BEΛΛIKOY | AΔPIANOΠOΛ
Farnese Heracles

Jurukova -; Varbanov (E) II -; Mionnet -; BMC –; SNG Cop. –; RPC Antonine -

smooth light green patina
rennrad12020
comm_hadriano_aech___hyg.JPG
Hadrianopolis Commodus T. Suellius Marcianus Hygeiea and Asklepios29 viewsCommodus AE 25

Governor T. Suellius Marcianus (first governor during his reign ante 184 AD)

AV K Λ ∙ AVP ∙ | KOMOΔOC
Bare head draped and cuirassed youthful bust

HΓ ∙ COY MARKIANOY | AΔPIANOΠO
Ex: ΛEITΩN

Hygeiea and Asklepios

Cf.BMC Thrace p.117 #8; Jurukova 113 for rx type(depicted plate xi); Varbanov (E) II -; SNG Cop –

crusty patina
rennrad12020
AS.jpg
Halikarnassos , region of Caria 4th cent. BC 6 viewsHalikarnassos , region of Caria 4th cent. BC


Obv: Carian character to left and right of youthful male head (Apollo?) right.

Rev: Head of ram right.

Diameter: 6 - 7 mm. / Weight: 0,39 gms. / Material: Silver

Denomination: AR- Persic Hemiobol

Refs: SNG Keckman I 883 (Caria uncertain); SNG Kayhan 997 .
emporiton
harpokratescomp.jpg
Harpokrates Bronze63 viewsAn ancient Egyptian bronze statuette of the God Harpokrates, shown seated wearing the sidelock of youth, sun-disc and tripartite wig, dating to Egypt's Late Period, approximately 664-323 B.C.E.

Harpokrates is the Greek name for the Egyptian God Horus, depicted in his child form with finger to the mouth - a recognition of the Egyptian "child" hieroglyph. He was the God of the sunrise, and was often depicted as a falcon.

A suspension loop at the back would have enabled the figure to be worn as an amulet.

Height: 3 1/2 inches.

Provenance:
Ex. Collection of C.E.Best (died 1973). Cecil Best was an incredibly colorful character. Educated at Ardingley college in the late 1800's, Best trained as a banker but subsequently worked as a miner, soldier, merchant, editor and singer. He served as syllabus secretary at the Theosophical Society, England, where he met his future wife Inayat Khan, who converted him to the Sufism form of Islam and renamed him Shahbaz. Shahbaz Best, as he was now known, traveled to Rio de Janeiro in Brazil to spread his religion and work as a banker. It was during this time that he met H.E.Inman, a marine engineer, who gifted him his collection of antiquities that he had acquired in lieu of payment from the Egyptian government between 1910-1912. The antiquities were excavated from tombs in lower Egypt and were on display at the Southampton Museum in England after the death of Mr. Best in 1973.

Ex. ArtAncientLtd
Salaethus
201.jpg
Herennius Etruscus Antoninianus - Herennius as Prince of Youth (RIC 147c)29 viewsAR Antoninianus
Rome 250-251 AD
4.84g

Obv: Radiate and draped bust of Herennius Etruscus as Caesar (R).
Q HER ETR MES DECIVS NOB C

Rev: Herennius, as prince of the youth, standing (L) in military attire, holding baton and transverse spear.
PRINCIPI IVVENTVTIS

RIC 147c; RSC 26

Leu Numismatik Auction 4, Lot 715, 25/05/19

Herennius Etruscus (227-251 AD) was the elder son of Trajan Decius. He became Caesar in 250 and Augustus in 251, the year he and his father were killed by the Goths at the Battle of Abritus; the first time a Roman Emperor was killed in battle against barbarians. The catastrophic battle against the Gothic king Cniva was fought near Abritus in the Roman province of Moesia Inferior (modern Razgrad, Bulgaria).
1 commentsOptimo Principi
lydia_hermocapelia.jpg
Hermokapeleia, Senate/ Roma; AE 1615 viewsLYDIA, Hermokapeleia, Time of Hadrian. Æ 16, 3.5g. Obv. ΘΕΟΝ CΥΝΚΛΗΤΩΝ, Youthful bust of the Roman Senate right. Rev. ΕΡΜΟΚΑΠΗΛΙΤΩΝ, Turreted bust of Roma right. BMC Lydia p. 99, 7, Sear GIC 5019 var. Podiceps
Himera_litra.jpg
Himera litra; manheaded monster/ Nude youth on goat7 viewsSICILY, HIMERA, 450-420 B.C. Silver litra 0,8g, 12mm. Obv: Winged forepart of a manheaded monster left. Rev: Nude youth on goat prancing left. SNG Cop. 310. Podiceps
Himera, Sicily- AE Tetras.JPG
Himera, Sicily- AE Tetras22 viewsAE Tetras, 420-410 BC
Himera, Sicily
Obverse: Youthful Pan riding goat left, blowing conch shell. Three pellets below.
Reverse: Nike Flying Left
15mm, 2.26gm
Calciati pg42-31
Jerome Holderman
bela_iv_bracteate.jpg
HUNGARY - Bela IV86 viewsHUNGARY - Bela IV time (1235-1270) AR Bracteate. Youth's head left. Huszar #192. dpaul7
Huszár-192.jpg
Hungary: Béla III (1172-1196) or Béla IV (1235-1270) Bracteate Denár (Huszár-192)17 viewsBracteate: Youthful head with floral wreath facing left, within pearled circle.SpongeBob
HUN_bracteate_Huszar_192.jpg
Huszár 192, Unger 122, Réthy I 27256 viewsHungary. Béla III (1172-1196) or Béla IV (1235-1270). AR bracteate; denar (per Unger), 14 mm.

Obv: Youthful head with floral wreath facing left, within pearled circle.

Struck with an average fineness of .705 silver.

Huszár rarity rating 5. This emission is variable, with many different styles of youthful head.
Stkp
1-1-spain_tog-ccfopt.jpg
Iberic Spain, Sekaisa. 14 viewsIberic Spain, Sekaisa. AE23, early 1st century BC.
Obverse..Youthful male head right between two dolphins.
Reverse..Celtiberian legend SEKAISA beneath horseman galloping right, holding spear.
Ripolles 1569; Burgos (1987), 699. Villaronga 39;
Paul R3
lg2_quart_sm.jpg
IMP CAES M ANT GORDIANVS AVG / P M S COL VIM / Ӕ30 (239-240 AD)18 viewsIMP CAES M ANT GORDIANVS AVG, laureate, draped, cuirassed bust right / P M S CO - L VIM, personification of Moesia standing facing, head left, arms outstretched over a lion (right) and a bull (left). AN • I • in exergue.

Ӕ, 29-30+mm, 16.75g, die axis 1h (slightly turned medal alignment), material: looks like red copper.

IMP CAES M ANT GORDIANVS AVG = Imperator Caesar Marcus Antonius Gordianus Augustus, P M S COL VIM = Provinciae Moesiae Superioris Colonia Viminacium = Colony of Viminacium, in the province of Upper Moesia, AN•I• = the first year. 238 AD was the infamous "year of the 6 emperors", so 239-240 was the first sole ruling year of Gordian III. The bull is the symbol of Legio VII Claudia, based in the capital of Moesia Superior, Viminacium itself, and the lion is the symbol of Legio IV Flavia Felix based in another city of Moesia Superior, Singidunum (modern Belgrade). Due to size this is most probably a sestertius, but large dupondius is another possibility, since it is clearly made of red copper and sestertii were typically made of expensive "gold-like" orichalcum, a kind of brass (but in this time of civil strife they could have used a cheaper replacement). Literature fails to clearly identify the denomination of this type.

A straightforward ID due to size and clear legends, this is AMNG 71; Martin 1.01.1 minted in Viminacium, Moesia Superior (Kostolac, Serbia).

Gordian III was Roman Emperor from 238 AD to 244 AD. At the age of 13, he became the youngest sole legal Roman emperor throughout the existence of the united Roman Empire. Gordian was the son of Antonia Gordiana and an unnamed Roman Senator who died before 238. Antonia Gordiana was the daughter of Emperor Gordian I and younger sister of Emperor Gordian II. Very little is known of his early life before his acclamation. Gordian had assumed the name of his maternal grandfather in 238 AD.

In 235, following the murder of Emperor Alexander Severus, Maximinus Thrax was acclaimed Emperor. In the following years, there was a growing opposition against Maximinus in the Roman senate and amongst the majority of the population of Rome. In 238 (to become infamous as "the year of six emperors") a rebellion broke out in the Africa Province, where Gordian's grandfather and uncle, Gordian I and II, were proclaimed joint emperors. This revolt was suppressed within a month by Cappellianus, governor of Numidia and a loyal supporter of Maximinus Thrax. The elder Gordians died, but public opinion cherished their memory as peace-loving and literate men, victims of Maximinus' oppression.

Meanwhile, Maximinus was on the verge of marching on Rome and the Senate elected Pupienus and Balbinus as joint emperors. These senators were not popular and the population of Rome was still shocked by the elder Gordians' fate, so the Senate decided to take the teenage Gordian, rename him Marcus Antonius Gordianus like his grandfather, and raise him to the rank of Caesar and imperial heir. Pupienus and Balbinus defeated Maximinus, mainly due to the defection of several legions, particularly the II Parthica, who assassinated Maximinus. However, their joint reign was doomed from the start with popular riots, military discontent and an enormous fire that consumed Rome in June 238. On July 29, Pupienus and Balbinus were killed by the Praetorian Guard and Gordian proclaimed sole emperor.

Due to Gordian's age, the imperial government was surrendered to the aristocratic families, who controlled the affairs of Rome through the Senate. In 240, Sabinianus revolted in the African province, but the situation was quickly brought under control. In 241, Gordian was married to Furia Sabinia Tranquillina, daughter of the newly appointed praetorian prefect, Timesitheus. As chief of the Praetorian Guard and father in law of the Emperor, Timesitheus quickly became the de facto ruler of the Roman Empire.

In the 3rd century, the Roman frontiers weakened against the Germanic tribes across the Rhine and Danube, and the Sassanid Empire across the Euphrates increased its own attacks. When the Persians under Shapur I invaded Mesopotamia, the young emperor opened the doors of the Temple of Janus for the last time in Roman history, and sent a large army to the East. The Sassanids were driven back over the Euphrates and defeated in the Battle of Resaena (243). The campaign was a success and Gordian, who had joined the army, was planning an invasion of the enemy's territory, when his father-in-law died in unclear circumstances. Without Timesitheus, the campaign, and the Emperor's security, were at risk.

Gaius Julius Priscus and, later on, his own brother Marcus Julius Philippus, also known as Philip the Arab, stepped in at this moment as the new Praetorian Prefects and the campaign proceeded. Around February 244, the Persians fought back fiercely to halt the Roman advance to Ctesiphon. Persian sources claim that a battle occurred (Battle of Misiche) near modern Fallujah (Iraq) and resulted in a major Roman defeat and the death of Gordian III. Roman sources do not mention this battle and suggest that Gordian died far away from Misiche, at Zaitha (Qalat es Salihiyah) in northern Mesopotamia. Modern scholarship does not unanimously accept this course of the events. One view holds that Gordian died at Zaitha, murdered by his frustrated army, while the role of Philip is unknown. Other scholars have concluded that Gordian died in battle against the Sassanids.
Philip transferred the body of the deceased emperor to Rome and arranged for his deification. Gordian's youth and good nature, along with the deaths of his grandfather and uncle and his own tragic fate at the hands of the enemy, earned him the lasting esteem of the Romans.
Yurii P
incerti_eagle.jpg
Incerti. AR 9.7mm; 4th century B.C. Youthful head/ Eagle on lion5 viewsCilicia, Incerti. AR 9.7mm (0.51g), 4th century B.C. Youthful head left, wearing corn-wreath (Triptolemos)/ Eagle on lion, club to left. SNG Levante 231. Ex Gert Boersema.
Podiceps
Chandragupta_II,_Gold_Dinar,_7_75g,_Archer_type.jpg
India, Gupta Empire, Chandragupta II, Gold Dinar, Archer Type78 viewsGupta Empire, Chandragupta II Vikramaditya, Gold Dinar, 7.75g, Archer type

The above coin of Chandragupta II Vikramaditya is a celebration of the exquisite and sublime skills of the artist who designed the die for this coin which demonstrates why the Gupta Age is called the golden period of Indian history. This time period saw all round development in science, astronomy, poetry, sculptor, metallurgy etc and coinage was no different with original coins bearing Indian motifs introduced by the Guptas.

The above coin is more of a tribute to the skills and artistry of the die engraver than the image that the coin itself bears. In the above coin, the die cutter has managed to achieve the following objectives simultaneously:

1. The features of the King is portrayed as extremely youthful. 'Chir-Yauvana' or Eternal Youth is an elixir that mankind, and more so the Ruler, has sought since time immemorial. This coin shows how the die cutter wishes the King to be remembered amongst his subjects and for posterity as a handsome youthful King.

2. The body of the King is lithe, supple, muscular and well proportioned. This complements and brings out the relative youthfulness of the King. I can almost visualize the thoughts running in the die engravers mind as he thinks of the message to be conveyed by this coin 'Hail the King, Glory be to Him, our benevolent King, our Protector, the Strong and Valiant Chandragupta'.

3. The King exudes an aura of energy, vigour and vitality even as he stands in the 'dvibhanga' pose (head and torso inclined to the right with lower limbs in opposite direction, a common feature applied in Indian sculptor and classical dance, especially Odissi). The King appears calm, composed and serene. This is a delicate balance that has admirably been achieved by the die cutter. You can actually sense the King trying to communicate with you and about to step out of the coin to hold your hand and draw you back into time.

4. The King holding a Bow in his left arm while drawing an Arrow from his right hand only accentuates the powerful image of the King as a young, energetic warrior who is well disposed and endowed with the bodily strength to overcome his enemies and detractors. Symbolically, the bow and arrow represent the female and male energy as also love and death-wish, respectively. It is well acknowledged that a person has manifestations of both the feminine and masculine aspects that reveal themselves interchangeably. The soft features of the King together with his slender frame accentuates the feminine aspect while the weapons of war amplifies his masculinity. The die engraver has blended these two concepts perfectly.

5. The swaying 'mudra' or pose of the standing King is a feature of Gupta coins to reflect the King as divine and higher than a mere mortal as a man's body is imperfect being straight, rigid and stiff. The graceful sway is achieved by giving a curve or twist at the neck (head) and waist (out thrust hips), the Dvibhanga pose, or the neck, waist and knee, the Tribhanga pose. This is done to reflect that the King's body is aligned alike to the statues of the Gods and Goddesses at the temple with which the common man can more closely associate the King's divinity. The die cutter has achieved this admirably.

6. Similarly, the image of the Goddess on the Reverse is slim and sensual without being erotic. The Goddess holds a flower by a short stalk in her upraised left arm, a 'pasa' or noose in her right hand and sits in the yogic 'Padmasana' posture atop a Lotus. It must be remembered that these symbols on the coin are a depiction of the iconographic manifestation of the ancient Hindu philosophy. The Lotus flower blooms amidst the muck and filth of muddy swamps and marshes and symbolizes man's ability to rise, similar to the Lotus flower, from the dark depths of ignorance and gain happiness with the beauty and radiance of spiritual knowledge. The open flowers of the Lotus that blossoms and spreads out signifies the Sun, an essential life nourishing source as well as the light that destroys ignorance and illuminates wisdom. The 'pasa' (noose or lasso) signifies an attachment to worldly matters as well as the capability of the God to capture evil and (blind) ignorance.

Its a pity we do not have any details of the die engravers name in the historical records but given the finesse and fine style achieved in executing the portrayal of the King on the coin, I am certain he must have been a person held in high esteem for his die engraving skills. Perhaps he may even have been the same person who was also the chief architect of the fabulous temples built during the reign of Gupta Kings.

All in all, this is a great masterpiece of the Gupta miniature art on a Gold Coin of Chandragupta II Vikramaditya. It is my all time favourite coin simply because of the beautiful rendition of the Kings feature, body, posture and message it seeks to convey.
2 commentsmitresh
tarentumfouree2.jpg
Intruiging taras half stater fouree17 viewsCalabria, Taras. C4TH BC. half a fouree stater, AR plated around a significant AE core.
I guess whoever cut this coin wasn't too impressed to find it a forgery!
Obverse: Naked youth on horseback with spear
Reverse: Taras on dolphin, wreath 9mintmark?)
CANTANATRIX
magnesia~0.jpg
Ionia, Magnesia ad Meandrum, tetartemorion45 views5th century BC
6mm, 0.21g
obv: M[A], youthful head right
rev: ΓNH, bull butting right over maeander pattern
(cf. Hauck & Aufhäuser 19 (2006), 121)

Auctiones eAuction #2, Lot 42
2 commentsareich
smyrna_britannicus_RPC2476.jpg
Ionia, Smyrna, Britannicus, RPC 247670 viewsBritannicus, son of Claudius, killed AD 55 by Nero
AE 16, 3.89g
struck AD 50-54 under the magistrates Philistos (stephanophoros) and Eikadios (strategos)
obv. Youthful bust of Britannicus, draped, bare-headed, r.
Below the neck ZMY
rev. EPI FILICTOV - EIKADIO / S
Nike, flying r., holding tropaion over l. shoulder
RPC 2476 (Nero as Caesar); BMC 283 (Britannicus); Klose 233, 37 (Britannicus)
very rare, VF (one of the nicest specimens)

It is discussed wether the obv. shows Britannicus or Nero. Britannicus was the son of Claudius with Messalina. Originally his name was Germanicus. After the victory of his father over Britannia he was renamed Britannicus. He was poisoned AD 55 in order of Nero.
2 commentsJochen
macedonia-Kassander-AE3.jpg
Kassander AE3 - 319-297 BC85 viewsObv - head of young Herakles r., clad in lion's skin.
Rev - BASILEUS/KASSANDROY above and beneath naked youth on horse pacing r
AP monogram before, KA monogram beneath.

Kassander, BC319-297. Sear 6754 variant.
1 commentsjimwho523
Macedonphillipii.png
Kingdom of Macedon, Phillip II, AE 359-330 BC17 viewsObv. Head of Apollo right bound with tainia
Rev. Youth on horseback right
monogram below
Skyler
Kassander_AR_Stater.jpg
Kingdom of Macedonia AR Tetradrachm124 viewsKassander as Regent. Pella Mint. Circa 317-315 B.C. AR Tetradrachm in the name and types of Philip II, 14.31g. Le Rider-531 (D281/R436), SNG ANS-450 (same dies). Obverse laureate head of Zeus right. Reverse ΦIΛIΠ-ΠOY nude youth, holding palm frond and reins, on horseback right; coiled serpent below, Boeotian shield below foreleg. EF, lightly toned, some die wear on obverse, die break and die shift on reverse. Attractive style.

Ex CNG.
1 commentsJason T
Philip_II_AE.jpg
KINGS of MACEDON , Philip II ( Father of Alexander the Great )66 viewsPhilip II, 359 - 336 B.C. AE 16

Obverse : Diademed head of Apollo right.

Reverse : "ΦIΛIΠΠOY”
Youth on horseback right. “AP” monogram and trident below.
SNG ANS 908.

From The Sam Mansourati Collection.
Sam
Philip_II_Bronze__Trident.jpg
KINGS of MACEDON , Philip II ( Father of Alexander the Great )68 viewsPhilip II, 359 - 336 B.C. AE 17 mm, 6,04 gr.


Obverse : Diademed head of Apollo right.

Reverse : "ΦIΛIΠΠOY”
Youth on horseback right , trident below.

From The Sam Mansourati Collection.
Sam
Philip_II_20.jpg
Kings of Macedon - Philip II25 views359 – 336 B.C.
Silver Tetradrachm
14.17 gm, 24 mm, 12h
Obv.: Laureate head of Zeus right
Rev.: ΦΙΛΙΠ-ΠΟΥ above, youth on horseback right, holding palm; below, grape bunch on vine. Lightly toned, granulated surface with two test cuts.
Amphipolis, lifetime issue,
ca. 348/7-343/2 B.C.
Le Rider 246 (D115/R-; rev. die not recorded);
SNG ANS 504
Jaimelai
philipin.jpg
Kings of Macedon, Philip II (359-336 BC)13 viewsAE16, 5.7g, 12h.
Obv.: Head of Apollo right, wearing tainia.
Rev.: ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΥ; youth on horseback left, N below.
John Anthony
philip2left.jpg
Kings of Macedon, Philip II (359-336 BC)12 viewsAE17, 6.7g, 12h
Obv.: Head of Apollo left, wearing tainia.
Rev.: ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΥ; youth on horseback right, S below.
John Anthony
Philip_II_AR_15th_-_Uncertain_Mint.jpg
Kings of Macedon, Philip II (Father of Alexander III The Great) AR 1/5th Tetradrachm 13mm 2.28g 359-336 BC 81 viewsUncertain Mint.
O: Youthful male hd (Apollo?) r., wearing tainia.
R: PHILIPPOU (partial) above horseman galloping r., bird in flight r. below.
SG6689-91v(symbol), SNG ANS 8 758v(bird l.). _3555
Antonivs Protti
Phillip_II,_AR_Tet,_Amphipolis_Group_IV.jpg
Kings of Macedon, Philip II, 359-336 BC, AR Tetradrachm - Amphipolis Mint under Kassander 315-297 BC20 views Laureate head of Zeus right.
ФIΛIΠ-ΠOY Youth holding a palm branch on horseback right, below horse Λ above torch, HMΓ monogram beneath foreleg.

Le Rider pl. 47, 20, Amphipolis Group IV, 315-297 BC.

(23 mm, 14.27 g, 11h).
Harlan J. Berk Buy or Bid Sale 174, 10 May 2011, 82.

Following the victory of Philip’s entry in the Olympic Games of 356 BC, the youth (jockey) with palm branch reverse of this coin type was introduced in celebration of his Olympic win. This became a standard throughout and beyond his reign. It continued to be struck into the early years of the reign of Alexander the Great and later by his successors in Macedonia, into the first years the third century BC. The emission with the Λ above torch mint control was struck during the latter part of the reign of Kassander in parallel with a large emission of Alexander tetradrachms bearing the same mint control. This coinage may have been struck to pay Thraco-Macedonian mercenaries in the service of the Kassander.
n.igma
Kings_of_Macedon_Philip_II_AE_16_.jpg
Kings of Macedon, Philip II, 359-336 BC, Æ 16 11 viewsHead of Apollo wearing taenia r.
ФIΛIΠΠOY Youth on horseback r.; below, dolphin above AP monogram.

Hersh 1999, p.163, 31; SNG Alpha Bank 405; SNG ANS 909; SNG Munchen 188-189; Mionnet vol. I, 752.
Uncertain Macedonian mint.

(16 mm, 6.44 g, 1h).
Coin India 2011; found in Pakistan.

Found in Pakistan, some 3,000 miles to the east of Macedonia, it is possible that it made its way to the region in which it was found with Alexander’s army.
n.igma
Philip_II_AE_found_in_Pakistan.jpg
Kings of Macedon, Philip II, 359-336 BC, Æ1636 viewsHead of Apollo right.
ФIΛIΠΠOY Youth on horseback right; below, dolphin above AP monogram.

Hersh 1999, p.163, 31; SNG Alpha Bank 405; SNG ANS 909; SNG Munchen 188-189; Mionnet vol. I, 752.
Uncertain Macedonian mint.

(16 mm, 6.44 g, 1h)
Coin India; found in Pakistan
1 commentsn.igma
KASSANDER_1_RESIZED.jpg
KINGS OF MACEDON--KASSANDER32 viewsAE 20 mm 6.49 g
319 - 297 BC
OBV: __BASILEW[S]
HEAD OF HERAKLES IN LIONSKIN R
REV: YOUTH ON HORSEBACK R, SUN BEFORE, MONOGRAM BELOW
laney
kassander2bres.jpg
KINGS OF MACEDON--KASSANDER15 viewsE 20 mm 6.49 g
319 - 297 BC
OBV: __BASILEW[S]
HEAD OF HERAKLES IN LIONSKIN R
REV: YOUTH ON HORSEBACK R, SUN BEFORE, MONOGRAM BELOW
laney
PHILIP_II_RESIZED.jpg
KINGS OF MACEDON--PHILIP II38 viewsAE 18 mm 4.37 g
359 - 336 BC
OBV: HEAD OF APOLLO R, HAIR BOUND WITH TANIA
REV: FILIP[POY]
NAKED YOUTH ON HORSE PRANCING R, A BELOW
laney
PHILIP_II_RES.jpg
KINGS OF MACEDON--PHILIP II31 views359-336 BC
AE 16.5 mm 5.75 g
O: Head of Apollo right
R: Naked youth on horse prancing right. FILIPPOY, N to left, symbol or monogram beneath
laney
philip_ii.jpg
KINGS OF MACEDON--PHILIP II22 views359 - 336 BC
Æ 18.5 mm, 4.6 g
O: Diademed head of Apollo right.
R: Naked youth on horseback prancing right, control mark below.
control mark below.
SNG Cop 581 ff

laney
phil_ii_macedon_apollo_rider.jpg
KINGS OF MACEDON--PHILIP II14 views359 - 336 BC
AE 16 mm; 4.29 g
O: Head of young Apollo right, hair bound in tainia
R ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΥ, name across field above naked youth on horseback prancing left; control sign beneath horse
Macedon
(left-facing horses are much less common than right-facing on this type)
laney
philip_ii_macedon_left_horseb2.jpg
KINGS OF MACEDON--PHILIP II 13 views359-336 BC
AE 17.5X19.2 mm; 5.94 g
O: Head of Philip as Apollo right, with hair in tainia
R: ΦIΛIΠΠOY, Youth on horseback prancing left
laney
00048Q00.JPG
Kings of Macedon. Amphipolis. Philip II. 359-336 BC. (Circa 315-294 BC - Kassander)15 viewsTetradrachm

24 mm, 14.62 g

Obverse: Laureate head of Zeus right.

Reverse: ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΥ (FILIPPOU, "of Philip"). Youth, holding palm frond, riding horse right. Controls: Below horse, Λ above torch; dolphin right below raised foreleg.

SNG ANS 807; HGC 3.1, 988
Nathan P
Philip_II~0.jpg
Kings of Macedon. Philip II (Circa 359-336 BC)20 viewsAE 16, 6.23 g

Obverse: Head of Apollo right

Reverse: "ΦIΛIΠΠOY" (FILIPPOY) above naked youth on horse right, theta p control mark below

SNG ANS 927

The rise of Macedon during the reign of Philip II was achieved in part by his reformation of the Ancient Macedonian army, establishing the Macedonian phalanx that proved critical in securing victories on the battlefield. After defeating Athens and Thebes at the Battle of Chaeronea in 338 BC, Philip II led the effort to establish a federation of Greek states known as the League of Corinth, with him as the elected hegemon and commander-in-chief of a planned invasion of the Achaemenid Empire of Persia. However, his assassination in 336 BC (perhaps orchestrated by one of his wives, Olympias, and son, Alexander the Great) led to the immediate succession of Alexander.
Nathan P
L_Pompomius_Molo.jpg
L POMPONIUS MOLO AR Denarius Cr 334/1, Numa Pompilius14 viewsOBV: Laureate head of Apollo right; L POMPON MOLO around
REV: Numa Pompilius standing right before altar preparing to sacrifice a goat which is being held by a youth; NVMA POMPIL in exergue


Struck at Rome, 97 BC
Legatus
Pomponius_Molo2.jpg
L. Pomponius Molo - AR denarius8 viewsRome
²93 BC
¹97 BC
laureate head of Apollo right
L·POMPON_MOLO
Numa Pompilius holding litus, standing right before altar preparing to sacrifice a goat which is being held by a youth
NV(MA)·PO(MP)IL
¹Crawford 334/1, SRCV I 214, RSC I Pomponia 6, Sydenham 607
²Mark Passehl - Roman moneyer & coin type chronology, 150 – 50 BC
3,46g
ex Aurea Numismatika
Johny SYSEL
Larissa~2.jpg
Larissa drachm, 5th century BC25 views20mm, 5.59g
obv: nude youth, trailing petasos and cloak, wrestling bull right
rev: ΛAP/IΣAI; horse running right, trailing reins; all within incuse square
Triton XV, lot 1962 (part of)
areich
Arles.jpg
Licinius II, Arles Mint Ae 352 viewsLicinus II, struck 318 A.D.
19.33mm 2.7gm

OBV/ VAL LICINIVS NOB C; laur., dr., and cuir. bust r.
REV/ IOVI CONSERVATORI; Jupiter stg. l., holding thunderbolt and leaning on sceptre. T star-above-cresent A in exergue
RIC VII, 159 Rare R4

Struck just off flan on the obverse, this is an excellent and life-like portrait of the youthful, soon to be doomed, Caesar. Rare coin, especially from the scarce mint at Arles.
Mayadigger
lydiaORaweb.jpg
Lydia, Apollonis, Autonomous AE, RPC 952v 28 viewsLydia, Apollonis, Autonomous AE, Flavian times, 15mm 3.17g, RPC 952v (THEON rather than IEPA)
O: APOLLONIDEWN, draped bust of Apollo right
R: IEPA CYNKLHTOC, bust of youthful senate to right

casata137ec
Apoloniakon_Q-001_axis-0h_15,0mm_3,01g-s.jpg
Lydia, Appolonis, Anonymous Issue, (Flavian times ???, Second Century A.D.) AE-15, RPC 952v, Lindgren 712, Apollonis, 127 viewsLydia, Appolonis, Anonymous Issue, (Flavian times ???, Second Century A.D.) AE-15, RPC 952v, Lindgren 712, Apollonis,
avers:- ΑΠΟΛΛΩ ΝΙΔΕΩΝ, Draped bust of Apollo right.
revers:- ΙΕΡΑ CΥΝΚΛΗΤΟC, Bust of youthful senate to right.
exerg: -/-/--, diameter: 15mm, weight: 3,01g, axis: 0h,
mint: Lydia, Apollonis, date: Second Century, Flavian times. A.D., ref: RPC 952v, SNG Tuebingen 3661; Lindgren 712; SNG Cop 22-23; SNG von Aulock 2901; SNG Munich 34.
Q-001
quadrans
attaleia.jpg
Lydia, Attaleia, pseudo-autonomous, AE 1826 viewsStruck in the time of the Antonines
Obv. Youthful head of Dionysos, wreathed, r.
Rev. ATTAL - E – ATWN. Pan, nude, wearing boots, advancing l.,, holding bunch of grapes in extended r. hand and
lagobolon in l. hand.
ancientone
attaleia_BMC3.jpg
Lydia, Attaleia, pseudo-autonomous, BMC 323 viewsAE 18, 2.82g
struck in the time of the Antonines
obv. Youthful head of Dionysos, wreathed, r.
rev. ATTAL - E - ATWN
Pan, nude, wearing boots, advancing l.,, holding buncvh of vvine-grapes in extended r. hand and
lagobolon in l. hand
BMC 3; SGICV 5004
VF/about VF, black-brown patina
Jochen
bageis_pseudoautonom_BMC8.jpg
Lydia, Bageis, pseudo-autonomous, BMC 836 viewsAE 21, 4.36g
struck under archon Gaius, time of later Severans
obv. DHMOC
Youthfull bust of Demos, drapery on far shoulder, laureate, r.
rev. EPI GAIOV ARX A / BAGHNWN (HN ligate)
River-god Hermos, wearing himation, reclining r., leaning with l. arm on urn from which water is flowing, holding waterplant over r. shoulder
in ex. ERMOC
BMC p.32, 8 (Thanks to Markus!)
Rare, about VF, dark-green patina, slight roughness
Pedigree:
ex Garth R. Drewry coll.
ex CNG Electronic Auction 159, lot 161

Hermos, today Gediz in Turkey.
Jochen
Lydia,_Blaundus,_Anonymous_Issue,_(The_Antonines_time_A_D_)_AE-23_BMC_45-7_Q-001_6h_22,5-23,5mm_8,67g-s.jpg
Lydia, Blaundus, Anonymous Issue, (The Antonines, time A.D.) AE-23, BMC 45-7, Blaundus, BΛAVNΔƐΩN MAKƐΔONΩN, Nude Zeus standing left, 83 viewsLydia, Blaundus, Anonymous Issue, (The Antonines, time A.D.) AE-23, BMC 45-7, Blaundus, ΒΛΑVΝΔƐΩΝ ΜΑΚƐΔΟΝΩΝ, Nude Zeus standing left,
avers: ΙΕΡΑ CΥΝΚΛΗΤΟC, Bust of youthful senate to right.
revers: ΒΛΑVΝΔƐΩΝ ΜΑΚƐΔΟΝΩΝ, Nude Zeus standing left, holding patera and thunderbolt.
exerg: -/-/--, diameter: 22,5-23,5mm, weight: 8,67g, axis: 6h,
mint: Lydia, Blaundus, date: Second Century, The Antonines times. A.D., ref: BMC 45-7, Waddington 4914, Mionnet IV 108,
Q-001
quadrans
autonomousOR.jpg
Lydia, Hermocapelia, BMC Lydia p. 99; 821 viewsLydia, Hermocapelia, Civic coinage, c. 2nd Century A.D., 2.34g 16mm, BMC Lydia p. 99; 8; SNG Copenhagen 165
O: IEPACYNKΛHTON, youthful bust of Senate right, draped, monogram before bust
R: EPMOKAΠHΛITΩN, turreted & draped bust of Roma right
casata137ec
hermocapelia3.jpg
Lydia, Hermocapelia. Pseudo-autonomus AE1647 views AE16 of Lydia, Hermocapelia. Time of Hadrian. 3.5gm. QEON CVNKLHTWN, Youthful bust of the Roman Senate right / ERMOKAPHLITWN, Turreted, draped bust of Roma right. SNG Cop 163; BMC 10; GIC 5019 var. ancientone
34747.jpg
Lydia, Nacrasa10 viewsLydia, Nacrasa. Pseudo-autonomous, time of Trajan. A.D. 98-117. AE 20 (20 mm, 7.12 g). ΘЄON CV-NKΛHTON, draped youthful bust of the Senate right / [NAKPA]-CITΩN, cultus statue of Artemis Ephesia facing, with supports; stag to left and right. RPC III 1794; SNG Copenhagen 288-9; BMC 1-4; SNG Leypold 1090-1; SNG von Aulock --. VF, black-green patina with moderate lighter deposits in recesses, primarily on obverse. ecoli
Nacrasa~0.jpg
Lydia, Nacrasa - AE10 viewsc. 2nd century AD
draped youthful bust of Roman Senate right
IEPA CVNKΛHTOC
turreted draped bust of Tyche right
NAKPA_CITΩN
BMC Lydia p. 166, 9; SNG Cop 290; SNGvA 8239; Lindgren III 49
Johny SYSEL
nikrasa_SNGcop291.jpg
Lydia, Nakrasa, quasi-autonom, SNG Copenhagen 29140 viewsAE 17, 1.98g
struck 2nd century AD
obv. QEON - CVNKLHTON
head of youthful Senate, laureate, r.
rev. NAKRA - CITWN
Head of Roma, r.
SNG Copenhagen 291
About VF
Jochen
Civic_Lydia_Saitta_Demos_Hercules_AE18_4.2g.jpg
Lydia, Saitta, Demos / Heracles, AE1896 views2nd century AD
18mm, 4.24g
obv: ΔHMOC; bust of youthful Demos right
rev: CAITTH-NΩN; Heracles standing facing, head left, leaning on club and holding lion’s skin.
BMC 11; Lindgren 788; SNG Leypold 1148

ex Tom Vossen
2 commentsareich
saitta_BMC23.jpg
Lydia, Saittai, pseudo-autonomous, BMC 2397 viewsAE 22, 5.82g, 225°
Struck early 3rd century
obv. AZIO - T - THNOC
bust of Men Aziottenos, r., wearing Phrygian cap ornamented with stars,
crescent behind shoulders
rev. CAITTHNWN
Youthfull river-god Hermos leaning l., holding reed in r. hand and cornucopiae
in l. arm; resting l. ellbow on inverted vase from which water is flowing l.
ERMOC in ex.
ref. BMC 23; SNG von Aulock 3089; Imhoof-Blumer p.127, 1; Patricia Lawrence, In Memory of Eugene Numa Lane, in
MVSE, vol..42, Annual of the Museum of Art and Archeoloy, University of Missouri, vol. 42, 2008, p. 31, fig. 6
rare, good VF
added to www.wildwinds.com

The stars on the cap clearly seen on this specimen are not mentioned in BMC nor SNG von Aulock. Pat Lawrence: "A glorious coin!"

Hermos, today Gediz in Turkey.
3 commentsJochen
sardeis_augustus_Franke_Nolle1814_homonoia.jpg
Lydia, Sardeis, Augustus, Franke/Nolle 181428 viewsAugustus, 27 BC - AD 14
Homonoia between Sardeis and Pergamon
AE 20, 6.84g
struck under magistrate Musaios
obv. CEBACTOV
Head, bare-headed, r.
rev. SARDIANWN - KAI PERGAMHNWN
Bearded Demos, in himation, stg. l., and youthful Demos, in short chiton, stg. r.,
each holding transversal sceptre, clasping hands.
in field between them MOV / SAI / OS
Franke/Nolle 1814 (2 ex., Berlin ex coll. Imhoof, coll. Lindgren)
Very rare, F+, bluegreen patina, somewhat patchy

Belongs to the so-called Homonoia-coinage!
Jochen
sardeis_domitian_SNGaulock3149.jpg
Lydia, Sardeis, Domitian, SNG von Aulock 314924 viewsDomitian, AD 81-96
AE 32, 15.76g
struck under strategos T.FL.Metrodoros
Av.: DOMITIANOC KAICAR CEBAC - TOC G[E]RMANIKOC
Bust with Aegis on l. shoulder, laureate, r.
Rv.: [EPI T FL MHTRO]DWROV CTRA - TO B CARD / [IAWN] (TO ligate)
Youthful Dionysos in long clothes, std. l. on throne, resting with l. arm on back of throne and
propping his head in l. hand; with r. hand pouring wine from kantharos in a cup which Hephaistos
holds to him with his l. hand; Hephaistos, nude, stands r., wearing his typical hat and holding r. arm
behind the back; before standing his hammer
SNG von Aulock 3149; RPC 1321; BMC 128
rare, F/about VF

The rev. obviously depicts the scene which precedes directly Hephaistos' Return to the Olympos'.
Dionysos has invited Hephaistos to a meeting to make him drunken with wine. For more information
please look at the thread 'Mythological interesting coins'.
Jochen
sardeis_BMC36~0.jpg
Lydia, Sardeis, pseudo-autonomous, BMC 3616 viewsAE 17, 5.33g, 45°
struck under magistrat HRAIOC, 2nd-1st century BC
obv. (anepigraphic)
Youthful bust of Herakles, laureate, r., with lion-skin around neck
rev. SARDIANWN / HRAIOC (from r. to l., both from top to bottom)
Apollo, nude, stg. frontal, head l., holding laurel-twig in lowered l. hand and
raven in outstretched r. hand; all in laurel-wreath
in upper l. field AVE as monogram
ref. BMC 36; SNG Copenhagen 493; cf. SNG von Aulock 3132 (without magistrate's name); cf. Lafaille510 var.
(magistrate's name)
about EF, brown patina
Jochen
Lydia,_Sardes,_AE16,_after-200_BC_Head_of_youthful_Dionysos_right,Club_in_oak_wreath,horned_panther_walking_left,-BMC-44_Q-001_11h_15,5-16,5mm_5,93g-s.jpg
Lydia, Sardes, Autonomous issue (after 200 B.C.), BMC 44, AE-16, ΣAPΔI/ANΩN, Panther walking left, 147 viewsLydia, Sardes, Autonomous issue (after 200 B.C.), BMC 44, AE-16, ΣAPΔI/ANΩN, Panther walking left,
avers:- Head of youthful Dionysos right, wreathed with ivy.
revers:- ΣAPΔI/ANΩN horned panther walking left, head front, holding spear in right paw and breaking it with its jaws, MTΡ monogram in left field, ΦMT monogram below.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 15,5-16,5mm, weight: 5,93g, axis: 11h,
mint: Lydia, Sardes, date: after 200 B.C., ref: BMC 44,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Sardes_Synkletos_Demeter_AE26_11_75g.jpg
Lydia, Sardes, Synkletos / Demeter, AE2630 views2nd-3rd century AD
26mm, 11.75g
obv: IEPA CYNKΛHTOC; draped bust of youthful Senate right
rev: Demeter standing left, holding grain ears and long scepter
SNG Copenhagen 507; SNG von Aulock -; SNG Leypold -

From the J.S. Wagner Collection.
ex CNG auction 201, Lot: 244
areich
Lydia_Sardes_Synkletos_Hermos_AE25_7_70g.jpg
Lydia, Sardes, Synkletos / Hermos, AE2523 views25mm, 7.70g
obv: IEPA CYNKΛHTOC; draped bust of youthful senate right
rev: CA[ITTHNΩN EPMOC; river god Hermos reclining left
areich
IMG_0180.JPG
LYDIA, Sardes. Circa 133 BC-AD 14. Æ 16mm10 viewsLYDIA, Sardes. Circa 133 BC-AD 14.
Obv. Laureate head of youthful Herakles right, lion skin tied around neck.
Rev. Apollo standing left, holding crow and laurel branch, all within laurel wreath.
Lee S
Tabala_Demos_Hermos_AE20_5_11g.jpg
Lydia, Tabala, Senate / river god Hermos, AE2031 views20mm, 5.10g, 180°
obverse IEPA CYNKLHTOC, draped youthful bust of the Roman Senate right
reverse TABALEWN / EPMOC, river god Hermos reclining left, holding reed and cornucopia, resting on urn

SNG Aulock 3190; SNG Leypold 1250; Lindgren 825; SNG Righetti 1096; SNG München; SNG Tübingen 3832f.

ex FORVM
areich
Civic_Tripolis_Lydia_Boule_HygieaiaAsklepios_AE23_6_0g.jpg
Lydia, Tripolis, Boule/Hygieaia and Asklepios, AE2355 viewsAE23, 6.0g
obv: [IERA BOYLH]; youthful, veiled head of the Boule right
rev: TRIPO - L - EITWN, Hygieia standing right, facing Asklepios standing left

SNG Leypold 1335; SNG München -; SNG Tübingen -
ex Sayles & Lavender
areich
P1019984.JPG
Lydia. Nacrasa , Pseudo-autonomous issue. AE16.22 viewsLydia. Nacrasa , Pseudo-autonomous issue.
Obv. Youthful bust of the Roman Senate right
Rev. Draped and turreted bust of Roma right.
Capricorn with Cornucopia ( Howgego 307. ) Countermark.
Lee S
0087.jpg
M. Herennius, Denarius8 viewsM. Herennius, AR Denarius

RRC 308/1b
108 - 107 bc

Av: Head of Pietas r., wearing diadem; behind PIETAS downwards;
Rv: Naked youth (one of the Catanean brothers, Amphinomus or Anapias) running right, carrying his father on his left shoulder; On l. M.HERENNI, Control mark P

Pietas in action on the reverse: The brothers from the town of Katane are said to have rescued their parents from the eruption of Aetna

Ex ArtemideAste, Antiquities 4, 19/20.03.2016 #59
Norbert
porcius_Crawford462.2.jpg
M. Porcius Cato, Crawford 462/238 viewsM. Porcius Cato, gens Porcia
AR - Quinarius, 13.8mm, 1.95g
Utica/North Africa, 47/46 BC
obv. M.CATO.PRO.PR
Youthful head of Bacchus, wearing ivy wreath, r.
rev. Victory, std. r., holding patera and palm-branch
in ex. VICTRIX (TR as monogram)
Crawford 462/2; Sydenham 1054a; Porcia 11
rare, VF+
From Forum Ancient Coins, thanks!

This coin was struck under Senate authority in Utica, North Africa where Cato was propraetor at the beginning of the civil war. The design is copied from an issue by another M. Cato in 89 B.C. (Crawford 343)
Cato preferred to die with the Republic rather than outlive it. Defeated by Caesar he committed suicide in 46 B.C. (FAC)

Jochen
phillip 2nd 1.jpg
MACEDON - PHILIP II52 viewsPhilip II Macedon, AE 18, Apollo - Horseman Philip II Macedon, Father of Alexander The Great, 359-336B.C. AE (copper or bronze) 18 mm., 5.49 g. Obv.: Head of Apollo right, hair bound with tainia. Rev.: Naked youth on horseback prancing right. Similar to D. Sear, Greek coins and their values, Vol. 2, p. 620, 6696 dpaul7
sell_026.JPG
Macedon, King Philip II. 359-336 BC. Bronze Barbarous Immitation23 viewsHead of Apolo right
Youth on horseback right
Antonivs Protti
Macedon,_Kings_of__Philip_II__359-336_BC_.jpg
Macedon, Kings of. Philip II. 359-336 BC.33 viewsMacedon, Kings of. Philip II. 359-336 BC. Macedon mint. Æ
Diademed head of Apollo right / FILIPPOU, Youth on horseback right, bow below.
17mm,. 6,39g 1860
Antonio Protti
h2.jpg
Macedon, Kings of. Philip II. 359-336 BC. 17 viewsObv: Diademed head of Apollo right.
Rev: ΦIΛIΠΠOY, Youth on horseback right; thunderbolt before.
AE18.
ancientone
Macedon_Philip_II_AE_16.JPG
Macedon, Philip II43 viewsObv: No legend, diademed head of Apollo facing right.

Rev: ΦΙΛΙΠΠOY, Alexander the Great as a youth riding his horse Bucephalus right.

AE 16, 359 - 336 BC

7 grams, 17.3 x 17.8 mm

GCV 6696
2 commentsSPQR Coins
1~10.PNG
MACEDON, PHILIP II49 viewsMACEDON, PHILIP II (Father Of Alexander The Great), 359-336 BC. AE (bronze)

Obverse.Head of Apollo right.

Reverse.Naked youth on horse prancing right., coiled serpent with a dot in the center. PHILIPPOY above
1 commentsMacedonian Warrior
philip_bronze.jpg
MACEDON, Philip II. AE-16. Apollo / Horseman40 viewsKings of Macedon, Philip II. 359 - 336 BC. AE-16. Head of Apollo. / Youth on horseback, spear head below horse. Nice VF. Philip II was the father of Alexander the Great.Adrian S
skione.jpg
Macedon, Skione, hemiobol28 viewsca. 424 BC*
7mm, 0.31g
obv: laureate head of youth right
rev: Corinthian helmet


In 424 BC Skione rebelled against Athens and was completely destroyed in 421. It is thought that these coins were minted in the short interval between.
areich
Macedon__Philip_II_AR_Tetradrachm.jpg
Macedon. Philip II AR Tetradrachm129 viewsKingdom of Macedon. Philip II AR Tetradrachm. Pella, circa 323-317 BC. Laureate head of Zeus right / Youth on horseback right, holding reins and long palm branch; coiled serpent below, Boeotian shield to right, ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΥ around. 14.38g, 25mm. Mint State. 3 commentsLeo
279_P_Macedonia_BMC_47.jpg
MACEDONIA Pella? AE 23 Herakles Horse8 viewsReference.
BMC Macedonia 47 (p.13)

Obv.
Head of Herakles right, wearing lion's skin.

Rev. MA-KE ΔONΩN
Naked youth on horse right, placing wreath on horse head to right,in front monogram.

7.8 gr.
23 mm.
okidoki
mac5.jpg
Macedonia, Kassander. 319-297 BC.24 viewsAE18
Hed of Herakles, right clad in lionskin.
Youth on prancing horse, rt.
Dino
Philipp-II-Macedonia_AG-One-fifth-Teradrachm-Tetrobol_Apollo_h_r__PHILIPPOY_PA_SNGANS-653_Amphipolis-Postum-c323-316-BC_Q-001_0h_13-14mm_2,60g-s.jpg
Macedonia, Kings, 015 Philip II., (359-336 B.C), SNG ANS 653, Amphipolis, AR-one-fifth tetradrachm, ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΥ/ ΠΑ,211 viewsMacedonia, Kings, 015 Philip II., (359-336 B.C), SNG ANS 653, Amphipolis, AR-one-fifth tetradrachm, ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΥ/ ΠΑ,
avers: Head of Apollo right, wearing taenia.
reverse: ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΥ, youth on horseback right, ΠΑ monogram below.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 13-14mm, weight: 2,60g, axis: 0h,
mint: Macedonia, Kings, Philipp II., Amphipolis posthumous issue, date: ca. 323-316 B.C., ref: SNG ANS-653,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Philip_II_,_Macedonia,_Kings,_(359-336_B_C),_SNG_ANS_901,_AE-16,__________Q-001_h_16mm_gx-s.jpg
Macedonia, Kings, 015 Philip II., (359-336 B.C), SNG ANS 901, AE-16, ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΥ, Naked youth on horse prancing right,178 viewsMacedonia, Kings, 015 Philip II., (359-336 B.C), SNG ANS 901, AE-16, ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΥ, Naked youth on horse prancing right,
avers:-Diademed head of Apollo right,
reverse: Naked youth on horse prancing right, ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΥ above, bow below.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 16 mm, weight: g, axes: h,
mint: Macedonia, Kings, Philipp II., date: 359-336 B.C., ref: SNG ANS 901, Sear 6696v,
Q-001
quadrans
Philip_II_,_Macedonia,_Kings,_(359-336_B_C),_SNG_ANS-947,_AE-18,____________Q-001_5h_17,5-18mm_6,37g-s.jpg
Macedonia, Kings, 015 Philip II., (359-336 B.C), SNG ANS 947, AE-18, ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΥ/ Π, Youth on horseback right,93 viewsMacedonia, Kings, 015 Philip II., (359-336 B.C), SNG ANS 947, AE-18, ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΥ/ Π, Youth on horseback right,
avers: Head of Apollo right, wearing taenia. Small "A" behind the head of Apollo.
reverse: ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΥ, Youth on horseback right, Π below.
exergue: -/-//Π, diameter: 17,5-18mm, weight: 6,37g, axis: 5h,
mint: Macedonia, Kings, Philipp II., date: ca. 359-336 B.C., ref: SNG ANS-947,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Philip_II_,_Macedonia,_Kings,_(359-336_B_C),_AR-One-fifth-Teradrachm-Tetrobol_Apollo_h_r__PHILIPPOY_Star_SNG-ANS-Not_Amphipolis-Postum-c32-17-BC_Q-001_7h_12,5-13,5mm_2,25g-s.jpg
Macedonia, Kings, 015 Philip II., (359-336 B.C), SNG ANS Not in, AR-1/5-Tetradrachm, ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΥ/ Star, Rare!164 viewsMacedonia, Kings, 015 Philip II., (359-336 B.C), SNG ANS Not in, AR-1/5-Tetradrachm, ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΥ/ Star, Rare!
avers: Head of Apollo right, wearing taenia.
reverse: ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΥ, youth on horseback right, eight pointed star below.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 12,5-13,5mm, weight: 2,25g, axis: 7h,
mint: Macedonia, Kings, Philipp II., Amphipolis posthumous issue Struck under Antipater or Polyperchon (for Philip III and Alexander IV),
date: ca. 320-317 B.C., ref: SNG ANS-Not In, Le Rider pl. 44, 14; Troxell, Studies, Group 3, 343;
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
Macedon_Philip_II_Tetrad_-_SNG_ANS_740.jpg
Macedonia, Philip II34 viewsMACEDONIAN KINGDOM
Philip II (359-336 BC)
AR tetradrachm (13.77 gm). Amphipolis, posthumous issue under Cassander as regent, ca. 316-311 BC.
Laureate head of Zeus right / Youth, holding palm frond, on horseback right; aplustre below; • in Π below raised foreleg.
Le Rider pl. 46, 18. SNG ANS 740.
Attractively toned. Insignificant flan crack at 4:00 on obverse, otherwise Extremely Fine.
Ex Heritage
1 commentsSosius
greek9.jpg
Macedonia, Philip II AE Unit34 viewsObv.: Diademed head of Apollo.
Rev.: Youth on horseback, monogram below.
2 commentsMinos
greek10.jpg
Macedonia, Philip II Ar Tetradrachm50 viewsObv.: Laureate head of Zeus.
Rev.: Youth on horseback crowning horse with palm, club between the legs of horse.
2 commentsMinos
philipi.jpg
Macedonia, Philippi AE18. Tripod/Torch21 viewsHerakles’ youthful head covered with lion’s skin. Rev. : ΦΙΛΙΠΠΩΝ. Tripod. Torch in margin . Moushmov 6917. ancientone
thessalonica3.jpg
Macedonia, Thessalonica. Pseudo-autonomous AE17 / Pan advancing39 viewsCity; Province; Region Thessalonica; Macedonia; Macedonia
Date 180–192
Pseudo-autonomous? Yes
Obverse design nude Pan (youthful) advancing, r., carrying pedum over shoulder and nebris; to l., syrinx (or letter D); to r., crescent surmounted by star
Obverse inscription (no obv. legend)
Reverse design in laurel wreath; between, laurel endings, small eagle, facing
Reverse inscription ΘΕΣΣΑΛΟΝΙΚΕΩΝ
Metal Bronze
Average diameter 17 mm
Average weight 2.47 g
Average die-axis various
Type reference Touratsoglou, Pseudoautonomen III C, 1-2 (Commodus), AMNG 30
ancientone
Macedonian_Antigonos_II_Gonatas~0.JPG
Macedonian Antigonos II Gonatas25 viewsMacedonian Coin
Antigonos II Gonatas 277/239 BC
19.61mm, 6.7g
OBV - Herakles in lionskin headdress facing right
REV - Youth on prancing horse, crowning it, to right

REF - SG 6787 SNGCOP 1216
Romanorvm
GAE061.jpg
Macedonian Coin - Philip II 359/336BC - Unit154 viewsMacedonian Coin GAE061
Philip II 359/336BC - Unit
AE 16.6-17.3mm : 6.26gm
OBV - Apollo laureate head facing left
REV - Youth on prancing horse to right, PHILIPPOY above, trident below
REF - SNGANS 925
4 commentsPtolemAE
GRK_Macedonia_Phillip_II.JPG
Macedonian Kingdom24 viewscf. Sear 6699, cf. SNG ANS 966 (but without visible H monogram behind head)

AE 17, struck under or in the name of Philip II (359-336 B.C.) at either Pella or Amphipolis, ca. 359-310 or 294 B.C.

Obv: Head of Apollo facing left, hair bound with taenia.

Rev: Naked youth on horse prancing right, ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΥ above horse, vertical thunderbolt below.
Stkp
Macedonia,_Philip_II_a.jpg
Macedonian Kingdom, Philip II14 viewsAE19
359-336 B.C.
19mm, 5.04g
GCV-6696var

Obverse:
Head of Apollo right, head bound with tiana

Reverse:
ΦIΛIΠΠOY
Naked youth on horse prancing right. Monogram below.
rubadub
Macedonia,_Philip_II_b.jpg
Macedonian Kingdom, Philip II13 viewsAE17
359-336 B.C.
17mm, 5.63g
GCV-6696var

Obverse:
Head of Apollo right, head bound with tiana

Reverse:
ΦIΛIΠΠOY
Naked youth on horse prancing right. Monogram below.
rubadub
Macedonia,_Philip_II_c.jpg
Macedonian Kingdom, Philip II16 viewsAE15
359-336 B.C.
15mm, 5.54g
GCV-6696var

Obverse:
Head of Apollo right, head bound with tiana

Reverse:
ΦIΛIΠΠOY
Naked youth on horse prancing right. Monogram below.
rubadub
Macedonia,_Philip_II_d.jpg
Macedonian Kingdom, Philip II11 viewsAE17
359-336 B.C.
17mm, 4.76g
GCV-6696var

Obverse:
Head of Apollo right, head bound with tiana

Reverse:
ΦIΛIΠΠOY
Naked youth on horse prancing right. Monogram below.
rubadub
PhilipIIMacedonLifetimeTet.jpg
Macedonian Kingdom, Philip II, 359 - 336 B.C., Lifetime Issue128 viewsSilver tetradrachm, Le Rider 233 (D130/R188); SNG ANS 385 ff., VF, Pella, 14.163g, 25.4mm, 225o, 342 - 336 B.C.; obverse laureate head of Zeus right; reverse "FILIPPOU", naked youth on horse pacing right on horseback holding palm, thunderbolt below; ex CNG 214, 82; very high relief sculptural portrait, nice style, lifetime issue. Ex FORVM.

Philip II expanded the size and influence of the Macedonian Kingdom, but is perhaps best known as the father of Alexander the Great. He personally selected the design of his coins.

Philip II of Macedon (382 BC–336 BC; in Greek Φίλιππος = φίλος (friend) + ίππος (horse), transliterated Philippos) was the King of Macedon from 359 BC until his assassination. He was the father of Alexander the Great, Phillip III Arrhidaeus, and possibly Ptolemy I Soter, founder of the Ptolemaic dynasty.

Born in Pella, Philip was the youngest son of King Amyntas III and Eurydice. In his youth, (ca. 368 BC–365 BC) Philip was a hostage in Thebes, which was the leading city of Greece during the Theban hegemony. While a captive there, Philip received a military and diplomatic education from Epaminondas, was involved in a pederastic relationship with Pelopidas and lived with Pammenes, who was an enthusiastic advocate of the Sacred Band of Thebes. In 364 BC, Philip returned to Macedonia. The deaths of Philip's elder brothers, King Alexander II and Perdiccas III, allowed him to take the throne in 359 BC. Originally appointed regent for his infant nephew Amyntas IV, who was the son of Perdiccas III, Philip managed to take the kingdom for himself that same year.

Philip's military skills and expansionist vision of Macedonian greatness brought him early success. The hill tribes were broken by a single battle in 358 BC, and Philip established his authority inland as far as Lake Ohrid. He used the Social War as an opportunity for expansion. In 357 BC, he took the Athenian colony of Amphipolis, which commanded the gold mines of Mount Pangaion. That same year Philip married the Epirote princess Olympias, who was the daughter of the king of the Molossians. In 356 BC, Philip conquered the town of Crenides and changed its name to Philippi. Philip also attacked Abdera and Maronea, on the Thracian sea-board. Also in 356 Alexander was born and his race horse won in the Olympics in He took Methone in 354 BC, a town which had belonged to Athens. During the siege of Methone, Philip lost an eye.

Not until his armies were opposed by Athens at Thermopylae in 352 BC did Philip face any serious resistance. Philip did not attempt to advance into central Greece because the Athenians had occupied Thermopylae. Also in 352 BC, the Macedonian army won a complete victory over the Phocians at the Battle of Crocus Field. This battle made Philip tagus of Thessaly, and he claimed as his own Magnesia, with the important harbour of Pagasae.
Hostilities with Athens did not yet take place, but Athens was threatened by the Macedonian party which Philip's gold created in Euboea. From 352 to 346 BC, Philip did not again come south. He was active in completing the subjugation of the Balkan hill-country to the west and north, and in reducing the Greek cities of the coast as far as the Hebrus (Maritza). For the chief of these coastal cities, Olynthus, Philip continued to profess friendship until its neighboring cities were in his hands.

In 349 BC, Philip started the siege of Olynthus. Olynthus at first allied itself with Philip, but later shifted its allegiance to Athens. The Athenians did nothing to help Olynthus. Philip finally took Olynthus in 348 BC and razed the city to the ground. In 346 BC, he intervened effectively in the war between Thebes and the Phocians, but his wars with Athens continued intermittently.

Macedonia and the regions adjoining it having now been securely consolidated, Philip celebrated his Olympic games at Dium. In 347 BC, Philip advanced to the conquest of the eastern districts about the Hebrus, and compelled the submission of the Thracian prince Cersobleptes. Meanwhile, Athens had made overtures for peace, and when Philip, in 346 BC, again moved south, peace was sworn in Thessaly. With key Greek city-states in submission, Philip turned to Sparta; he sent them a message, "You are advised to submit without further delay, for if I bring my army into your land, I will destroy your farms, slay your people, and raze your city." Their reply was "If." Philip and Alexander would both leave them alone. Later, the Macedonian arms were carried across Epirus to the Adriatic Sea. In 342 BC, Philip led a great military expedition north against the Scythians, conquering the Thracian fortified settlement Eumolpia to give it his name, Philippoupolis (modern Plovdiv).

In 340 BC, Philip started the siege of Perinthus. Philip began another siege in 339 BC of the city of Byzantium. After unsuccessful sieges of both cities, Philip's influence all over Greece was compromised. However, Philip successfully reasserted his authority in the Aegean by defeating an alliance of Thebans and Athenians at the Battle of Chaeronea in 338 BC. He erected a memorial of a marble lion to the Sacred Band of Thebes for their bravery that still stands today. Philip created and led the League of Corinth in 337 BC. Members of the League agreed never to wage war against each other, unless it was to suppress revolution. Philip was elected as leader (hegemon) of the army of invasion against the Persian Empire. In 336 BC, when the invasion of Persia was in its very early stage, Philip was assassinated, and was succeeded on the throne of Macedon by his son Alexander the Great.

Philip’s Assassination

The murder happened in October of 336 BC, at Aegae, the ancient capital of the kingdom of Macedon. The court had gathered there for the celebration of the marriage between Alexander of Epirus and Philip's daughter. While the king was entering unprotected into the town's theatre (highlighting his approachability to the Greek diplomats present), he was killed by Pausanias of Orestis, one of Philip's seven bodyguards. The assassin immediately tried to escape and reach his associates who were waiting for him with horses at the entrance of Aegae. He was pursued by three of Philip's bodyguards and died by their hands.
The reasons for Pausanias' assassination of Phillip are difficult to fully expound, since there was controversy already among ancient historians. The only contemporary account in our possession is that of Aristotle, who states rather tersely that Philip was killed because Pausanias had been offended by the followers of Attalus, the king's father-in-law.

Whatever else that may be written about Philip II it must be recognized that he was responsible for making Macedon the ascendant Greek power. He reorganized the Macedonian army. It was this army that Alexander the Great inherited. Phillip II trained some of Alexander’s best generals: Antigonus Cyclops, Antipater, Nearchus, Parmenion, and Perdiccas.

According to the Greek historian Theopompus of Chios, Europe had never seen a man like king Philip of Macedonia, and he called his history of the mid-fourth century BCE the Philippic History. Theopompus had a point. Not even his better known son Alexander has done so much to change the course of Greek history. Philip reorganized his kingdom, gave it access to the sea, expanded its power so that it could defeat the Achaemenid Empire, and subdued the Greek city-states, which never regained their independence again. To achieve this, he modernized the Macedonian economy, improved the army, and concluded several marital alliances. The result was a superpower with one weakness: it was as strong as its king. When Philip's son Alexander died, the institutions were too weak, and Macedonia never recovered.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philip_II_of_Macedon
http://www.livius.org/phi-php/philip/philip_ii.htm
Ed. by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
1 commentsCleisthenes
IMG_0016.JPG
Macedonian Kingdom, Philip II. 359-336 BC80 viewsAmphipolis III, c 323/2-316/5 BC
1/5 Tetradrachm, 2.61g, 13mm.
Obv: Head of Apollo, right
Rev: FILIPPOY, Naked Youth on horse, prancing right, M within wreath symbol below horse.
4 commentsDino
macedonien_philippIII_Price2800.jpg
Macedonian Kingdom, Philip III(?), Price 280083 viewsPhilip III, AD 323-310 BC
AE 20 (Hemiobol), 5.45g, 19.56mm, 45°
struck in a mint of western Asia Minor
obv. Head of youthful Herakles in lion's-head skalp r., lion's skin knottet under chin
rev. BASILEWS
above decorated gorytos (bow-case) with bow, bowstring downwards, beneath club, handle l., and torch (mint mark)
ref. Price 2800; AMNG III/2, p.173, no.1, pl. XXXI, 25 (rev.); SNG München 919
VF, river patina
from Forum Ancient Coins, thanks!

This is one of the gorytos bronzes that Price does attribute to Asia Minor, in this case to an uncertain mint in western Asia Minor. Price didn't indicate his reasoning or precedents of his attribution. In the past, this variety was often attributed as an anonymous issue. SNG Tübingen, SNG Cop. and AMNG III/2, for instance, attributed it this way, though McClean and Hunterian give it to Alexander. The inscription consists of just the royal title "Basileos" ("King"), the full meaning of which could be "of King Alexander", or it could refer to another king as this bronze type was issued by others beside Alexander. Along with the inscription, the styling of this particularly variety is also distinctive, particularly Herakles battle-fierce gaze, which may well be meant to refer to Alexander himself. During Alexander's reign the East was more receptive to such statements of regal authority than Greece and Macedonia. The mint mark on this specimen, below the club, is a torch, sometimes called a race torch (from rg.ancients.info/alexander/bronzes.html)

Because the legend is only BASILEWS this type is from the time of the confusion after the death of Alexander the Great. So it is probably Philip III (rover1.3)
Jochen
GRK_Antigonos_Gonatas_Sear_6787_2.png
Macedonian Kingdom. Antigonas II Gonatus (277-239 B.C.)12 viewsSear 6787, SNG Alpha Bank SNG 995 ff., SNG Copenhagen 1216 ff, Forrer/Weber 2196

AE unit; 3.61 g., 16.58 mm. max, 90°

Obv.: Head of young Herakles right, clad in Nemean lion's skin.

Rev.: Naked youth on horse facing right, B-A in upper field, ANTI monogram beneath horse, control symbol or monogram to right.

This type was struck in the name of Alexander III the Great (B - A for BAΣIΛEΩΣ AΛEΞAN∆POY), using his obverse type (Herakles) and Philip II's reverse type (horse and rider).
Stkp
GRK_Macedon_Kings_Antigonas_Gonatas_Sear_6787.jpg
Macedonian Kingdom. Antigonas II Gonatus (277-239 B.C.)14 viewsSear 6787, SNG Alpha Bank SNG 995 ff., SNG Copenhagen 1216 ff, Forrer/Weber 2196

AE unit; 4.28 g., 17.76 mm. max, 0°

Obv.: Head of young Herakles right, clad in Nemean lion's skin.

Rev.: Naked youth on horse facing right, B-A in upper field, ANTI monogram beneath horse, control symbol or monogram to right.

This type was struck in the name of Alexander III the Great (B - A for BAΣIΛEΩΣ AΛEΞAN∆POY), using his obverse type (Herakles) and Philip II's reverse type (horse and rider).
Stkp
GRK_Macedonian_Kingdom_Philip_II_Sear_6696-8.jpg
Macedonian Kingdom. Philip II (359-336 B.C.)30 viewsSear 6696-6698 var.; SNG ANS 850-851.

AE unit, 6.25 g., 18.16 min. max., 0°

Obv.: Diademed head of Apollo right.

Rev.: Youth on horseback riding right, ΦIΛIΠΠOY above, spearhead below.

The obverse features the head of Apollo, who became the tutelary deity of Philip in 353 B.C. during the Third Sacred War. Vowing he would fight on behalf of the god, whose sacred Treasury at Delphi had been stolen, precipitating the conflict, he used the war as an opportunity to expand his control in Greece. The rider on the reverse, similar to the reverse of his tetradrachms, ostensibly extols his victory in the horse race at the Olympic Games in 356 B.C. However, the reverse also recalls the earlier Macedonian royal types, possibly an attempt to emphasize his Macedonian ancestry.
2 commentsStkp
GRK_Macedonian_Kingdom_Philip_II_Sear_6697-9_rider_left.jpg
Macedonian Kingdom. Philip II (359-336 B.C.)26 viewsSear 6697-6699 var.; SNG ANS 841 ff., SNG Copenhagen 581 ff.

AE unit, uncertain Macedonian mint, 7.12 g., 16.45 min. max., 0°

Obv.: Diademed head of Apollo right.

Rev.: Youth on horseback riding left, ΦIΛIΠΠOY above, symbol below.

The obverse features the head of Apollo, who became the tutelary deity of Philip in 353 B.C. during the Third Sacred War. Vowing he would fight on behalf of the god, whose sacred treasury at Delphi had been stolen, precipitating the conflict, he used the war as an opportunity to expand his control in Greece. The rider on the reverse, similar to the reverse of his tetradrachms, ostensibly extols his victory in the horse race at the Olympic Games in 356 B.C. However, the reverse also recalls the earlier Macedonian royal types, possibly an attempt to emphasize his Macedonian ancestry.
2 commentsStkp
Price-3059.jpg
Macedonian Kingdom: Alexander III ‘the Great’ (336-323 BCE) Æ Hemiobol, Tarsos (Price 3059)20 viewsObv: Head of youthful Herakles to right, wearing lion skin headdress
Rev: ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ Bow in bowcase and club, caduceus below
Quant.Geek
Price-91b.jpg
Macedonian Kingdom: Alexander III ‘the Great’ (336-323 BCE) Æ Unit, Amphipolis (Price-91b)17 viewsObv: Head of youthful Herakles to right, wearing lion skin
Rev: ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ; Eagle standing to right on thunderbolt, head left; crescent above
Quant.Geek
SNG_Alpha_Bank-917.jpg
Macedonian Kingdom: Kassander (316-297 BCE) Æ Unit, Pella or Amphipolis (SNG Alpha Bank 917)16 viewsObv: Head of Herakles right, wearing lion's skin headdress
Rev: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΚΑΣΣΑΝ-ΔΡΟΥ; Youth on horseback right, extending arm in salute; above, T; before, star; below, monogram

Quant.Geek
Sear-6808.jpg
Macedonian Kingdom: Perseus (179-168 BCE) Æ18 (Sear 6808; Draganov 760)19 viewsObv: Head of Herakles wearing the lion's skin headdress
Rev: Youth on horse back right, with B A above and to the right of the horse, and E[P] in front of the horse, two Greek letter monograms below the horse
Quant.Geek
SNG_Cop-1250.jpg
Macedonian Kingdom: Philip V (221-179 BCE) Æ Unit (SNG Alpha Bank 1090-1; Touratsoglou, Macedonia 14; SNG München 1163; SNG Cop. 1250-1251)18 viewsObv: Head of youthful Herakles to right, wearing lion skin
Rev: BA Φ; Two goats kneeling to right, corn of ear below
Quant.Geek
SNG_ANS-670.jpg
Macedonian Kingdom: Philippoi (356-345 BCE) Æ Chalkous (SNG ANS 670; SNG Cop. 302-303)15 viewsObv: Head of youthful Herakles to right, wearing lion skin headdress
Rev: ΦΙΛΙΠ-ΠΩΝ Tripod
Quant.Geek
SNG_Cop-297.jpg
Macedonian Kingdom: Philippoi (356-345 BCE) Æ Hemiobol (SNG Cop. 297; BMC 97; ANS 659 var)17 viewsObv: Head of youthful Herakles to left, wearing lion’s skin headdress
Rev: ΦΙΛΙΠΠΩΝ; Tripod, M and corn ear to the left field
Quant.Geek
Greeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeekz_050.JPG
Macedonian Phillip II, 359 BC Bronze 21 viewsObverse : head of Apollo, hair bound with tainia, head facing to the right.

Reverse: naked Youth on horseback, prancing to the right.

Antonivs Protti
Greeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeekz_090.JPG
Macedonian Phillip II, 359 BC Bronze 39 viewsObverse : head of Apollo, hair bound with tainia, head facing to the right.

Reverse: naked Youth on horseback, prancing to the right.

Antonivs Protti
sell_053.JPG
Macedonian Phillip II, 359 BC Bronze 14 viewsObverse : head of Apollo, hair bound with tainia, head facing to the right.

Reverse: naked Youth on horseback, prancing to the right.

6.73 gr

Light Gree/Blue patina.

Antonivs Protti
sell_040.JPG
Macedonian Phillip II, 359 BC Bronze 24 viewsObverse : head of Apollo, hair bound with tainia, head facing to the right.
Reverse: naked Youth on horseback, prancing to the right.
7.43 gr Black patina. _sold

Antonivs Protti
sell_050.JPG
Macedonian Phillip II, 359 BC Bronze 14 viewsObverse : head of Apollo, hair bound with tainia, head facing to the right.

Reverse: naked Youth on horseback, prancing to the right.

6.4 gr

Blue/Green patina.

Antonivs Protti
sell_035.JPG
Macedonian Phillip II, 359 BC Bronze 24 viewsObverse : head of Apollo, hair bound with tainia, head facing to the right.

Reverse: naked Youth on horseback, prancing to the right.

5.64 gr

Light Green/Blue patina.
1 commentsAntonivs Protti
MacNikoTopoMale.JPG
Macrinus, AE 2739 viewsAV K OPPEL CEOV/HROC MACRINOC
Bust laureate, right
VP CTATIOV LONGINOV NIKOPOLIT/WN PROC IC/TRW
Topographic youth sitting on rocks, left, holding reeds (?) before and behind
AMNG -, Varbanov (Eng) I,-
Patricia Lawrence obverse MHj, reverse R19iv
whitetd49
Magnesia_ad_Sipylum.jpg
Magnesia ad Sipylum, 2nd-1st centuries B.C6 viewsLYDIA, Magnesia ad Sipylum. 2nd-1st centuries B.C. Ae 13.3~14.5mm. 3.12g. Obv: Diademed
head of youthful Herakles right. Rev: MAΓNHTΩN ΣIΠYΛOY, Tripod. SNG Copenhagen 240
ddwau
Marcus Aurelius.jpg
Marcus Aurelius42 viewsMarcus Aurelius was recognized by the emperor Hadrian as a fine and capable youth and was betrothed to the daughter of Aelius. The emperor Antoninus Pius adopted him and in 145 A.D. he married Antoninus` daughter, Faustina II. In 161 A.D., he succeeded Antoninus as Augustus, immediately proclaiming Lucius Verus his co-emperor. Although known for his adherence to the philosophy of Stoicism and as a naturally peaceful man, Marcus` reign was disturbed by war with Parthia, plague and then a long, hard war along the Danube frontier. He died on March 17th, 180 A.D. and was deified by the senate soon after.

Silver denarius, RIC 185, RSC 208, BMC 459, gF, Rome mint, 2.723g, 19.1mm, 0o, 168 A.D.; obverse M ANTONINVS AVG ARM PARTH MAX, laureate head right; reverse FORT RED TR P XXII IMP V COS III, Fortuna seated left holding rudder in right and cornucopia in left; wavy, fire damaged flan;
Dumanyu2
Marcus_Aurelius_Juventas~0.JPG
Marcus Aurelius Juventas57 viewsRIC 1238 [pius] Marcus Aurelius as Caesar AE As. 25mm, 10.6g, 140 AD.
OBV: AVRELIVS CAESAR AVG PII F COS, head right / IVVENTAS S-C, Juventas, draped, standing left dropping incense onto altar left,
and holding patera.
REV: IVVENTAS S-C, Juventas, draped, standing left dropping incense onto altar left, and holding patera.
Commemorates Marcus' assumption of the 'Toga virilis.' The custom was that
sacrifices were made at the shrine of Juventas, who personified
youthfulness, at the Circus Maximus. RIC 1238, Sear 4831
(possibly a dupondius, based on the weight,)

VERY SCARCE
1 commentsRomanorvm
LEGIIII.jpg
Mark Antony Legionary denarius LEG IIII124 viewsANT AVG III VIR R P C
galley r. mast with banners at prow

LEG IIII
legionary eagle between two standards

3.22g

Patrae mint 32-31BC

Sear Imperator's 353; Crawford 544/16; Cohen 29

Ex-Gutierrez Ruesga Spain

RARE

This type with LEG IIII rather than LEG IV is quite rare. No examples were found in the Delos Hoard of 1905





In its first years, the whereabouts of IV Scythica are uncertain, although it is probable that it took part in Antony's campaign against the Parthians. The name suggests that it fought against the Scythians. After the battle of Actium and Antony's suicide, Octavian transferred IV Scythica to the Danube province of Moesia. The legion is reported to have taken part in civilian tasks, such as the building and keeping of roads. In his youth, future emperor Vespasian served in this legion.

SOLD! Forum Auction January 2017
1 commentsJay GT4
ANTLEGIV.jpg
Mark Antony Legionary Denarius LEG IV71 viewsANT AVG III VIR R P C
galley right, mast with banners at prow

LEG IV
Legionary eagle between two standards

Patrae mint 32-31BC

3.34g

ex-Arcade coin

The coin that started it. This was my first Mark Antony coin!

In its first years, the whereabouts of IV Scythica are uncertain, although it is probable that it took part in Antony's campaign against the Parthians. The name suggests that it fought against the Scythians. After the battle of Actium and Antony's suicide, Octavian transferred IV Scythica to the Danube province of Moesia. The legion is reported to have taken part in civilian tasks, such as the building and keeping of roads. In his youth, future emperor Vespasian served in this legion.
2 commentsJay GT4
legioxxiiLG.jpg
Mark Antony, Triumvir and Imperator, 44 - 30 B.C.62 viewsMARCUS ANTONIUS (Marc Antony) AR silver legionary denarius. Legion XXIII. 18mm, 3.5g. Struck at a military mint, likely Patrae, 32-31 BC. Obverse: ANT AVG III VIR R P C, Praetorian galley sailing. Reverse: LEG XXIII, eagle between standards. Ex Incitatus.

Legion XXII, the 22nd, is the second-last legion in the series and one of the scarcer types of the regular numbered legions.

Marcus Antonius (in Latin: M·ANTONIVS·M·F·M·N[1]) (January 14, 83 BC – August 1, 30 BC), known in English as Mark Antony, was a Roman politician and general. He was an important supporter and the loyal friend of Gaius Julius Caesar as a military commander and administrator, despite his blood ties, through his mother Iulia, to the branch of Caesars opposed to the Marians and murdered by them. After Caesar's assassination, Antony formed an official political alliance with Octavian (Augustus) and Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, known to historians today as the Second Triumvirate.

The triumvirate broke up in 33 BC. Disagreement between Octavian and Antony erupted into civil war, the Final War of the Roman Republic, in 31 BC. Antony was defeated by Octavian at the naval Battle of Actium, and in a brief land battle at Alexandria. He and his lover Cleopatra committed suicide shortly thereafter.

For anyone tempted to laud Marcus Antonius, to Antony's great shame read what Plutarch wrote about what Antony did to Cicero:

Plutarch: Cicero's Death

But in the meantime the assassins were come with a band of soldiers, Herennius, a centurion, and Popillius, a tribune, whom Cicero had formerly defended when prosecuted for the murder of his father. Finding the doors shut, they broke them open, and Cicero not appearing, and those within saying they knew not where he was, it is stated that a youth, who had been educated by Cicero in the liberal arts and sciences, an emancipated slave of his brother Quintus, Philologus by name, informed the tribune that the litter was on its way to the sea through the close and shady walks. The tribune, taking a few with him, ran to the place where he was to come out. And Cicero, perceiving Herennius running in the walks, commanded his servants to set down the litter; and stroking his chin, as he used to do, with his left hand, he looked steadfastly upon his murderers, his person covered with dust, his beard and hair untrimmed, and his face worn with his troubles. So that the greatest part of those that stood by covered their faces whilst Herennius slew him. And thus was he murdered, stretching forth his neck out of the litter, being now in his sixty-fourth year. Herennius cut off his head, and, by Antony's command, his hands also, by which his Philippics were written; for so Cicero styled those orations he wrote against Antony, and so they are called to this day.

When these members of Cicero were brought to Rome, Antony was holding an assembly for the choice of public officers; and when he heard it, and saw them, he cried out, "Now let there be an end of our proscriptions." He commanded his head and hands to be fastened up over the rostra, where the orators spoke; a sight which the Roman people shuddered to behold, and they believed they saw there, not the face of Cicero, but the image of Antony's own soul.

Translation by John Dryden: http://intranet.grundel.nl/thinkquest/moord_cicero_plu.html

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
017~1.JPG
Massalia, Gaul40 views4th Cent. B.C.
Silver Obol
0.79 gm, 11 mm
Obv.: Youthful head of Apollo
Rev.: Wheel of four spokes, M – A in two of the quarter
Sear 72,
[De La Tour 580]
1 commentsJaimelai
Massalia_obol.jpg
Massalia, Gaul Obol18 viewsAR Obol
Size: 11 mm Weight: .575grams Die axis: 11h

Massalia, Gaul
400 – 350 BCE

Obverse: Youthful male head to left, probably Apollo.

Reverse: Wheel with four spokes, M and A in two of the quarters.

Notes:
- Massalia is modern day Marseille, France.
- Founded by Phokaians circa 600 BCE, Massalia was by far the most important place of contact between classical Greece and the Gauls. Forming an alliance with Rome, Gaulish threats precipitated an appeal for Roman assistance in the late 2nd century BCE, which eventually led to the formation of the Roman province of Gallia Transalpina.

Ex Noble Numismatics, 2002
Pharsalos
maximinusII_london_209b.jpg
Maximinus II Daia, RIC VI, London 209b30 viewsMaximinus II Daia, AD 309-313
AE - Follis, 4.80g, 23mm
London, 1st officina AD 310-312
obv. IMP MAXIMINVS PF AVG
Bust, cuirassed, laureate, r.
rev. GENIO - POP ROM
Youthful genius, nude except himation over loins, wearing mural crown, stg.l.,
holding cornucopiae in l. arm and patera in r. hand
in r. feld star
in ex. PLN
RIC VI, London 209b
EF

The mural crown here looks more like a rampart!
1 commentsJochen
maximusprincRIC3.jpg
Maximus / Princeps88 viewsMaximus (Caesar, 235/6-238). AR Denarius Rome mint, 236-7.
O: MAXIMVS CAES GERM; Bareheaded and draped bust right
R: PRINC IVVENTVTIS; Maximus standing left, holding baton and spear; two signa to right
- RIC IV 3; RSC 10

Gaius Julius Verus Maximus (Maximvs Caesar) was the son of Maximinus I Thrax. Maximus was most likely given the rank of Caesar at the same time or shortly after his father assumed the rank of Augustus. He was reportedly a very handsome youth. Maximvs Caesar was loyal to his father and remained by his side during his campaign on the Danube. He was also present at the disastrous siege of Aquileia in 238 AD.

After the revolt of Gordian I and Gordian II and ascension of Balbinus and Pupienus, Maximinus and Maximus marched on Rome. They first reached the city of Aquileia, expecting an easy victory as the city's walls had long been in disrepair. However, under the leadership of senators Rutilius Pudens Crispinus and Tullus Menophilus, the walls had been repaired and the city rallied to defend itself in a siege. The Aquileians had plenty of food and good morale.

According to Herodian of Antioch, "The army of Maximinus grew depressed and, cheated in its expectations, fell into despair when the soldiers found that those whom they had not expected to hold out against a single assault were not only offering stout resistance but were even beating them back. The Aquileians, on the other hand, were greatly encouraged and highly enthusiastic, and, as the battle continued, their skill and daring increased. Contemptuous of the soldiers now, they hurled taunts at them. As Maximinus rode about, they shouted insults and indecent blasphemies at him and his son. The emperor became increasingly angry because he was powerless to retaliate. Unable to vent his wrath upon the enemy, he was enraged at most of his troop commanders because they were pressing the siege in cowardly and halfhearted fashion. Consequently, the hatred of his supporters increased, and his enemies grew more contemptuous of him each day."

Condemned by the Senate, Maximus and his father were murdered by their own troops just outside Aquileia on June 24th, 238 AD.
2 commentsNemonater
1526-1530_Henry_VIII_Halfgroat.JPG
Medieval, England, HENRY VIII (1509 - 1547), AR Half-groat struck 1526 - 1530 at York under Archbishop Thomas (Cardinal) Wolsey14 viewsObverse: HENRIC•VIII•D•G•R•AGL•Z•F•. Youthful profile crowned bust of Henry VIII facing right within circle of pellets. Mint-mark: Voided cross.
Reverse: CIVITAS EBORACI. Shield bearing coat-of-arms on cross fourchée; T - W in upper field divided by shield; galero (cardinal's hat) below.
Diameter: 19mm | Weight: 1.0gm | Die Axis: 8 | Dark, almost black, tone
SPINK: 2346

The T W on the reverse of this coin refers to Thomas Wolsey, known to posterity as Cardinal Wolsey, one of the most powerful figures at the court of Henry VIII. Although this coin is undated, the issue of Henry VIII's second coinage only began in 1526 and so, since Cardinal Wolsey died in 1530, it must have been struck between those two dates.
*Alex
448C58C6-6283-4001-8CD4-76CB87457C1C.jpeg
MESOPOTAMIA, Carrhae; Commodus 6 viewsObverse design radiate-headed bust of Commodus (youthful) wearing cuirass and paludamentum, r.
Reverse inscription ΚΑΡ ΚΟΛ ΜΗΤΡΟΠ[ΟΛΟ?]
Reverse design crescent on globe surmounted by star; globe resting on base

RPC IV on line, 9576(temp)
ecoli
metapontum.jpg
Metapontion, Lucania, Italy, c. 330 - 290 B.C.90 viewsSilver stater, HN Italy 1581; SGCV I 416 var; Noe-Johnston 3, class C 1.2-72, VF, obverse off center, weight 7.851g, maximum diameter 20.2mm, die axis 150o, c. 330 - 290 B.C.; obverse head of Demeter right; reverse head of grain, META on left, plough above leaf on right, M[AX] lower right; ex CNG; ex FORVM

Demeter in Greek mythology is the goddess of grain and fertility, the pure; nourisher of the youth and the green earth, the health-giving cycle of life and death; and preserver of marriage and the sacred law. In the Homeric Hymn to Demeter, dated to about the seventh century B.C. she is invoked as the "bringer of seasons," a subtle sign that she was worshipped long before she was made one of the Olympians. She and her daughter Persephone were the central figures of the Eleusinian Mysteries that also predated the Olympian pantheon.
3 commentsAdrian S
markianopolis_caracalla_HristovaJekov6_18_8_1.jpg
Moesia inferior, Markianopolis, 18. Caracalla, HrJ (2013) 6.18.08.0134 viewsCaracalla, AD 198-217
AE 26, 11.27g, 26.44mm, 225°
struck under governor Aurelius Gallus
obv. AV MAR AVRH - ANTWNINOC
Youthfull bust, draped and cuirassed, seen from back, laureate, r.
rev. V AV GALLOV MAR - K - IANOPOLITW
Dionysos, nude, wearing boots, stg. frontal, head l., resting with raised r. hand on thyrsos, pouring from
kantharos in lowered r. hand.
ref. a) not in AMNG
b) not in Varbanov
c) Hristova/Jekov (2013) No.6.18.8.1
rare, about VF, dark green patina
Jochen
markianopolis_caracalla_AMNG609.jpg
Moesia inferior, Markianopolis, 18. Caracalla, HrJ (2013) 6.18.38.01 (plate coin)37 viewsCaracalla, AD 198-217
AE 26, 9.32g, 26.38mm,. 240°
struck under legate Aurelius Gallus
obv. AV MAR AVRH - ANTWNINOC
Youthful bust, draped and cuirassed, seen from behind, laureate, r.
rev. V.AV.GALLOV.[MARKIANO]POLITWN.
Tyche [with kalathos], stg. facing, head l., holding cornucopiae in l. arm and
rudder in r. hand.
ref.: a) AMNG I/1, 609
b) Varbanov (engl.) 917
c) Hristova/Jekov (2013) No. 6.18.38.1 (plate coin)
rare, EF, light smoothing, dark green patina
Thanks Lars!
Jochen
markianopolis_macrinus_diadum_AMNG745.jpg
Moesia inferior, Markianopolis, 24. Macrinus & Diadumenian, HrJ (2013) 6.24.20.03 (plate coin)39 viewsMacrinus, AD 217-218
AE 28, 13.51g, 28.47mm, 30°
struck under governor Furius Pontianus
obv. AV K OPEL CEV MAKREINOC KM OPEL ANTWNEINOC
Confronted busts of Macrinus, draped and cuirassed, seen from behind,
laureate, r., and Diadumenian, draped and cuirassed, seen from behind, bare-
headed, l.
rev. VP PONTIAN - OV MARKIANOPO / LITWN
Unbearded youthfull Asklepios, wearing himation with nude l. shoulder, stg.
facing, head turned l., snake-entwined staff under his r. armpit
ref. a) AMNG I/1, 745, pl. XVII, 5 (2 ex., Löbbecke, Sophia)
b) Varbanov (engl.) 1252
c) Hristova/Jekov (2013) No. 6.24.20.3 (plate coin)
rare, VF+, dark-green patina

The statues from Skopas and Kalamis have shown a youthful Asklepios too!
Jochen
markianopolis_macrinus_diadum_HJ6_24_35_2(rev).jpg
Moesia inferior, Markianopolis, 24. Macrinus & Diadumenian, HrJ (2013) 6.24.34.02 (plate coin)46 viewsMacrinus & Diadumenian, AD 217-218
AE 27, 12.57g, 26.64mm, 15°
struck under governor Furius Pontianus
obv. AVT K OPEL CEV MAKREINOV AVT KM OPEL ANTWNEINOC
Confronting heads of Macrinus, laureate, r., and of Diadumenian, bare, l.
rev. VP PONTIANO - V M - ARKIANOPOLI / TWN
Male figure in himation stg.l., holding an unknown long bent rod in l. arm and in r.
hand patera over burning altar
in r. field E
ref. a) AMNG I/1, 777, pl. XIX, 12, same rev. die (1 ex., Paris)
b) Varbanov (engl.) 1279 corr. (has CEVH)
c) Hristova/Jekov (2013) No.6.24.34.2 (plate coin)
very rare, about VF

A mysterious rev.: Himation and attitude would match Zeus. But the youthful and unbearded portrait is unusual. HrJ mention Diadumenian! And until now the meaning or function of the long bent object is not known. But similar objects on coins from Ankyra suggest that it is a sacral attribute.
3 commentsJochen
markianopolis_elagabal_HJ6_26_7_2corr_.jpg
Moesia inferior, Markianopolis, 26. Elagabal, HrJ (2013) 6.26.07.03 (plate coin)17 viewsElagabal, AD 218-222
AE 28, 10.69g, 28.04mm, 210°
struck under governor Julius Antonius Seleucus
obv. AVT.K.M.AVRHLIOC - ANTWNEINOC
Bust, draped and cuirassed, laureate, r.
rev. VP.IOVL.ANT CEL - EVKOV MARKIANOPO
in ex. LITWN (small letters)
Youthful Apollo Iatros, unbearded, nude, chlamys over l. shoulder, stg. frontal,
head turned l., resting on snake-staff set in r. armpit
ref. a) AMNG I/1, 832, pl. XVII, 4 (3 ex., Löbbecke, Rollin, probably Wiczsay too)
b) Varbanov (engl.) 1559
c) Hristova/Jekov (2013) No. 6.26.7.3 (plate coin)
rare, F+/about VF, bluegreen patina

Pick calls the rev. figure Asklepios and so does Varbanov. But the fact that he is nude proves that it is obviously Apollo as Apollo Iatros (Apollo Medicus)
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markianopolis_elagabal_Rivergod_new.jpg
Moesia inferior, Markianopolis, 26. Elagabal, HrJ (2013) 6.26.32.03 (plate coin)11 viewsElagabal, AD 218-222
AE 27, 12.48g, 27.29mm, 180°
struck under governor Julius Antonius Seleucus
obv. AVT KM AVRHLI - ANTWNEINOC
laureate head r.
rev. VP IOVL ANT.CELEVKOV MARKIANO / POLITWN (both OV ligate)
Youthful river god, nude to hips, leaning l., holding in r. hand thick waterplant and in l. arm long reed; l.
hand resting on urn from which water flows l.
ref. a) not in AMNG
b) not in Varbanov (engl.)
c) Hristova/Jekov (2013) No. 6.26.32.3 (plate coin)
d) not in Pfeiffer
unpublished?
very rare, F+

Jochen
nicop_cresc.jpg
MOESIA INFERIOR, NICOPOLIS AD ISTRUM17 views2nd - 3rd Century AD
Semi-autonomous, Severan Period
AE 15 mm; 2.07 g
O: Youthful head (Apollo? Nike?) facing right
R: Crescent
Nicopolis ad Istrum mint
Lindgren 49
laney
nikop_ad_istrum_lion.jpg
MOESIA INFERIOR, NIKOPOLIS AD ISTRUM24 views2nd - 3rd century AD
pseudo-autonomous
AE 12 X 14 mm; 2.25 g
O: NEIKO -[ POLEIT]W - N
Youthful head, laureate, r. (Nike?)
d.s.
R: PROC IC - [TRON] lion leaping r.
Moesia Inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum
ref. a) not in AMNG; b) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2013) No. 8.0.53.1
also cf. Petrov 627 (bare head).
scarce
d.s.
laney
nikopolis_AMNG1217(rev).jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 00. pseudo-autonomous, HrHJ (2018) 8.0.08.01 (plate coin)91 viewsAE 15, 2.14g, 14.41mm, 180°
struck 2nd/3rd century AD
obv. NEIKO - [POLEITW] - N (from upper left, 1st O as thick dot)
Youthful head, r.
rev. PRO[C I]CTRON (from upper right)
Bunch of vine-grapes hanging down from twig
ref. a) not in AMNG:
obv. AMNG I/1, 1218, pl. III, 19, same die (1 ex., Imhoof)
rev. AMNG I/1, 1217, pl. III, 18 (1 ex., Berlin)
b) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No.8.0.8.1 (plate coin)
very rare, VF, blue-green patina

Pick: The head is surely unbearded, and seems to be female due to the hair-do. It can't be
attributed for sure but possibly it is the head of Nike who must have played the role of an eponyme
goddess of Nikopolis.
1 commentsJochen
nikopolis_pseudo-autonom_HrJ(2012)8_0_53_1.jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 00. pseudo-autonomous, HrHJ (2018) 8.0.53.0121 viewsAE 16, 2.03g, 15.89mm, 225°
struck 2nd-3rd cent. AD
obv. NEIKO - POLEITW - N
Youthful head, laureate, r. (Nike?)
rev. PROC IC - [TRON]
lion leaping r.
ref. a) not in AMNG
b) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.0.53.1
scarce, F+, rev. excentric
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nikopolis_quasiautonom_Panther_unbekannt.jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 00. pseudo-autonomous, HrHJ (2018) 8.0.53.03 (plate coin)30 viewsAE 14, 2.08g, 14.07mm, 225°
struck 2nd-3rd century AD
obv. [NEIKO]POL - EITWN
Youthful head, laureate, r.
rev. PRO - C I / CTRO
Panther leaping r.
ref. a) not in AMNG
b) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No.8.0.53.3 (plate coin)
rare, F+/about VF, dark green patina

The head is surely unbearded and seems to be female because of its head-dress. May be that it's the head of Nike who was the eponym goddess of Nikopolis (Pick).
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nikopolis_commodus_HrHJ(2013)8_10_32_8cf.jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 10. Commodus, HrHJ (2018) 8.10.32.09 (plate coin)13 viewsCommodus, AD 177-192
AE 16, 2.85mm, 210°
obv. [AVT]O M AV - KOMODOC
laureate head r.
rev. NIKOPOLI - [PR]OC ICT
Youthful river god, garment over l. shoulder and legs, leaning l., holding in raised r. hand
water plant and resting with l. arm on overturned vase from which water flows l.
ref. a) not in AMNG
b) not in Varbanov (engl.)
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.10.32.9 (plate coin)
very rare, F+, traces of cleaning and smoothing
pedigree:
ex CNG Electronic Auction 323, lot 202
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nikopolis_sept_severus_AMNG1276cf.jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 14. Septimius Severus, HrHJ (2018) 8.14.14.02 (plate coin)380 viewsSeptimius Severus, AD 193-211
AE 28, 12.83g, 27.58mm, 225°
struck under governor Ovinius Tertullus
obv. AV.K.L.C. - CEVHROC P
laureate head r.
rev. VPA OOVIN TERTVLLOV NIKOPOLIT PROC I
Youthful unbearded Herakles, nude, stg. facing, head r., resting with r. hand
on his club, holding in l. hand his bow and lion-skin over l. arm
ref. a) not in AMNG:
obv. AMNG I/1, 1275
rev. AMNG I/1, 1276 var. (has NIKOPOLI)
b) not in Varbanov (engl.)
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.14.14.2 (plate coin)
rare, EF+, superb green patina

Here Herakles seems to be prepared for starting his labors. One of my most beautiful Provincial coins!
11 commentsJochen
nikopolis_sept_severus_HrHJ(2013)8_14_14_15_corr_.jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 14. Septimius Severus, HrHJ (2018) 8.14.14.18 (plate coin) 11 viewsSeptimius Severus, AD 193-211
AE 17, 3.24g, 17.35mm, 180°
obv. AV KL - CEVHROC
Bust, cuirassed, laureate, r.
rev. NIKOPOL - PROC ICT
Youthful Herakles, nude, stg. frontal, head r., lion-skin over l. arm, resting with r. hand on
club set on small rock and holding in outstretched l. hand his bow.
ref. a) cf. AMNG 1386
b) Varbanov (engl.) 2229 var. (has PROC IC)
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) 8.14.14.18 (plate coin)
about VF, dark green patina, some incrustations
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nikopolis_sept_severus_HJ8_14_14_5var.jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 14. Septimius Severus, HrHJ (2018) 8.14.14.22 (plate coin)33 viewsSeptimius Severus, AD 193-211
AE 20, 2.62g, 20.08, 225°
obv. AV KAI CEP. - CEVHROC
laureate head r.
rev. NIKOPOLI - T PROC ICTR
Youthful Herakles, nude, stg. r., lion's skin over l. forearm, holding in outstretched l. hand apples of Hesperids and resting with r. hand on his club.
ref. a) not in AMNG:
rev. cf. AMNG I/1, 1386 (has no apples!)
obv. legend not listed
b) Varbanov (engl.) 2413
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.14.14.22 (plate coin)
VF+, dark green patina
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nikopolis_sept_severus_HJ8_14_14_15var.jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 14. Septimius Severus, HrHJ (2018) 8.14.14.22 var. (plate coin)29 viewsSeptimius Severus, AD 193-211
AE 18, 2.93g, 17.76mm, 225°
obv. AV KAI CE. - CEVHROC
laureate head r.
rev. NIKOPOLI - T PROC ICTR
Youthful Herakles, nude, lion's skin over l. arm, stg. r., resting with r. hand on his club and holding apples in extended l. hand.
ref. a) AMNG I/1, 1386 (4 ex., Copenhagen, 2x Rollin, Wiczay); here it's the obv. legend from Rollin
b) Varbanov (engl.) 2413
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.14.14.19 var. (plate coin)
EF, black-green patina

This type has 2 variants: AV KAI CE and AV KAI CEP.
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nikopolis_sept_severus_HrHJ(2017)8_21_32_1(rev).jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 14. Septimius Severus, HrHJ (2018) 8.14.32.12 (plate coin)7 viewsSeptimius Severus, AD 193-211
AE 25, 10.50g, 25.13mm, 30°
obv. [AV K L CE] - CEVHROC P (HR ligate)
Bust, draped and cuirassed, laureate, r.
rev. VP AVR GALL[OV NIKOPOL PR]OC I. (beginning upper right!)
Youthful river god, nude to hips, leaning l., holding in extended r. hand plant and resting with l.
elbow on overturned vase from which water flows l.
ref. a) not in AMNG
b) not in Varbanov
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No.8.14.32.12 (this coin)
F, dark green patina, very worn

Rev. known for Iulia Domna HrHJ (2018) No. 8.21.32.1. Another example for a parallel issue for members of the imperial family!
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nikopolis_sept_severus_AMNG1281(rev)_2.jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 14. Septimius Severus, HrHJ (2018) 8.14.34.04 (plate coin)31 viewsSeptimius Severus, AD 193-211
AE 25, 8.96g, 25.35mm, 240°
struck under governor Ovinius Tertullus
obv. AV KL CEPT - CEVHROC PE (PE ligate)
Bust, draped and cuirassed, laureate, r.
rev. VPA.OOV.TERTVLLOV.NIKOPOLIT.PROC I.
Emperor (Caracalla), in military cloak, laureate, stg. l., holding in extended r. hand small Nike holding wreath and resting with raised l. hand on sceptre.
ref. a) not in AMNG:
obv. AMNG I/1, 1277 var. (has only P at end of legend)
rev. AMNG I/1, 1281
b) Varbanov (engl.) cf. 2755 (cites AMNG 1281)
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.14.34.4 (plate coin)
rare, about SS

Pat Lawrence has a similar coin from Severus struck under Tertullus showing the bearded Severus on the rev. Here the emperor looks youthful and is probably Caracalla.
Jochen
nikopolis_caracalla_HrHJ(2012)8_18_3_1corr.jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 18. Caracalla, HrHJ (2018) 8.18.03.0115 viewsCaracalla, AD 198-217
AE 26, 10.75g, 26.40mm, 210°
struck under governor Ovinius Tertullus
obv. AV.K.M.AVR. - ANTWNINOC
Youthful bust, draped and cuirassed, laureate, r.
rev. VPA OOV TERTVLLOV NIKOPOLIT PROC IC.
Demeter in long garment and veil stg. l., resting with raised l. hand on long
burning torch and holding patera in outstretched r. hand over modius with grain-
ears
ref. a) not in AMNG
b) not in Varbanov (engl.)
c) not in Blancon list 41/2003
d) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.18.3.1
Very rare (R7), VF, black-green patina
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nikopolis_caracalla_AMNG1491cf.jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 18. Caracalla, HrHJ (2018) 8.18.07.09 (plate coin)30 viewsCaracalla as Caesar, AD 196-198
AE 17, 3.02g, 17.28mm, 210°
obv. M AVR KAI - ANTWNIN.
Youthful bare head r.
rev. NIKOPOLIT - PROC ICTR
Nude Apollo (or Bonus Eventus?), stg. l., holding patera and branch
ref. a) cf. AMNG I/1 1491 (has ANTWNINOC and ICTRW)
b) cf. Varbanov (engl.) 2968 (= AMNG 1491)
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.18.7.9 (plate coin)
about VF, dark green patina
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nikopolis_caracalla_Eros_unbekannt.jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 18. Caracalla, HrHJ (2018) 8.18.16.02 (plate coin)29 viewsCaracalla as Caesar, AD 196-198
AE 16, 2.7g, 16.40mm, 30°
obv. M AV K - ANTWNIN
Youthfull bust, draped and cuirassed, seen from behind, bare-headed, r.
rev. NI[KOPOLI] - PROC IC
Eros, nude, chubby-faced, wings spread, stg. r. with crossed legs, leaning on
inversed burning torch set on garlanded altar; head propped in both hands.
ref. a) not in AMNG
b) not in Varbanov (engl.)
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.18.16.2 (plate coin)
rare, about VF

Eros - exhausted by his hard nightly works - seems to sleep!
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nikopolis_caracalla_HrJ(2011)8_18_32_1var.jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 18. Caracalla, HrHJ (2018) 8.18.32.01 (plate coin)61 viewsCaracalla, AD 198-217
AE 28, 15.80g, 28.12g, 210°
struck under governor Ovinius Tertullus
obv. .AV.K.M.AVR. - ANTWNINOC
Youthful bust, draped and cuirassed, seen from behind, laureate, r.
rev. VPA.OOV.TERTVLLOV.NIKOPO. / PROC I
Youthful river-god, nude to hips, leaning l., holding in raised r. hand grain-ears and poppy; beneat water
flowing l.
ref. a) AMNG I/1, 1526 (1 ex., Copenhagen)
b) Varbanov (engl.) 3101
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.18.32.1 (plate coin)
scarce, VF, green patina
From Forum Ancient Coins, thanks!

Because the river-god here is holding not reed but grain-ears and poppy and there is no urn below him, I think it is not a river-god but the personification of the fertile landscape around the river.

1 commentsJochen
nikopolis_caracalla_AMNG1553.jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 18. Caracalla, HrHJ (2018) 8.18.32.04 (plate coin)59 viewsCaracalla, AD 198-217
AE 25, 9.72g, 25.28, 45°
struck under governor Aurelius Gallus
obv. AV K.M.AVR. - ANTWNINOC
Youthful bust, draped and cuirassed, laureate, r.
rev. VP AVR GALLOV - NIKOPOLIT PROC IC
Rivergod, nude to hips, leaning l., resting with l. elbow on urn from which
water flows in several waves l.; holding reed in raised r. hand
ref. a) not in AMNG:
rev. AMNG I/1, 1553
obv. AMNG I/1, 1552
b) Varbanov (engl.) 3054 var. (has laureate head l., this is obv. #3072)
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.18.32.4 (plate coin)
scarce, flan flaw on l. rev. field, otherwise about VF
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nikopolis_caracalla_AMNG1575.jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 18. Caracalla, HrHJ (2018) 8.18.32.06 (plate coin)55 viewsCaracalla, AD 198-217
AE 27, 10.43g, 27.04mm, 30°
struck under governor Flavius Ulpianus
obv. AV K M AVR - ANTWNINOC
Bust, with sideburns, draped and cuirassed, laureate, r.
rev. V FL OVLPIAN NIKOPOLIT PROC IC
Youthful river-god, wearing himation, nude to waist, leaning l., holding waterplant
in raised r. hand and resting with l. arm on overturned vessel from which water
is flowing l.
ref. a) AMNG I/1, 1575 corr., pl. XVII, 33 (1 ex., Paris)
b) Varbanov (engl.) 3157
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.18.32.6 (plate coin)
very rare (R7), VF, as found!

Pick writes: River-god bearded. But here and on his pic as well I can't see a beard!
1 commentsJochen
nikopolis_caracalla_Varbanov3005.jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 18. Caracalla, HrHJ (2018) 8.18.35.09 (plate coin)56 viewsCaracalla as Caesar, AD 196-198
AE 18, 2.68g, 17.69mm, 225°
obv. M AVR KAI - ANTWNINo
Youthful head of Caracalla r.
rev. NIKOPOLITWN PROC ICT
Nemesis/Aequitas, in long clothes, stg. frontal, head l., holding rod in l. arm
and scales in r. hand; the wheel r.(!) behind her.
ref. a) not in AMNG:
cf. AMNG I/1, 1491 (rev. only)
b) Varbanov (engl.) 3005
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.18.35.9 (plate coin)
scarce, VF, dark green patina
1 commentsJochen
nikopolis_caracalla_HrHJ(2013)8_18_36_1.jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 18. Caracalla, HrHJ (2018) 8.18.36.01 (plate coin)8 viewsCaracalla, AD 198-217
AE 26, 10.29g, 25.78mm, 210°
struck under governor Ovinius Tertullus
obv. AV.K.M.AVR. - ANTWNINOC
youthful bust, draped and cuirassed, seen from behind, laureate, r.
rev. VPA OOV TERTVLLOV NIKOPO [ROC(sic!) / ICT]
Homonoia, in long garment and mantle, wearing kalathos, stg. l., holding in l. arm cornucopiae and in
sacrificing from patera in extended r. hand over burning altar.
ref. a) not in AMNG:
cf. AMNG I/1, 1527 (without altar)
b) not in Varbanov (engl.):
cf. #3103corr. (= AMNG 1527)
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.18.36.1 (plate coin)
VF, dark green patina
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nikopolis_caracalla_HrJ(2011)8_18_36_3(rev).jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 18. Caracalla, HrHJ (2018) 8.18.36.15 (plate coin)20 viewsCaracalla as Caesar, AD 195-198
AE 16, 2.79g, 16.20mm, 225°
obv. MAR AV K - ANTWNIN (WN ligate)
Bust, draped and cuirassed, seen from behind, laureate, r.
rev. NIKOPOLIT - PROC ICTRO
Homonoia, wearing kalathos, stg. l., holding cornucopiae in l. arm and in outstretched r. hand patera
ref. a) AMNG I/1, 1502 (1 ex., Windisch-Grätz)
b) Varbanov (engl.) 2966
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.18.36.15 (plate coin)
about VF, nice green patina

This coin has an interesting peculiarity: Even though Caracalla on this coin is Caesar he is depicted laureate!
Pick writes: The name authority Markos Aurelios Kaisar Antoninos is an indication to put this coin into the time where Caracalla was still Caesar, while the addition of the laurel wreath suggests to put it into the time of his joint reign.
But the die cutter had certainly no Roman coin from the last period as prototype, because otherwise he would have given the name authority correctly. He seems to have added the laurel wreath arbitrarily so that it doesn't mean anything for the chronology.
Caracalla's face is youthful, but not any more so puerile as on other coins of this group.
Jochen
nikopolis_caracalla_AMNG1514.jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 18. Caracalla, HrHJ (2018) 8.18.48.06 (plate coin)24 viewsCaracalla as Caesar, AD 196-198
AE 18, 2.16g, 17.56mm, 30°
obv. [M AV K] - ANTWNIN
Youthful bust, draped and cuirassed, bare-headed, r.
rev. NIKOPOLITWN P[ROC I]CT
Crescent with one eight-pointed clumsy star in the cavity
ref. a) AMNG I/1, 1614 (2 ex., Linz, Wien)
b) Varbanov (engl.) 2983 var.
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov No. (2018) 8.18.48.6 (plate coin, but writes AV KM A!)
rare, about VF/F+, dark green patina, nice portrait

Pick writes PROC I[C?], but actually it is PROC ICT!
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nikopolis_caracalla_AMNG1503.jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 18. Caracalla, HrHJ (2018) 8.18.53.01 (plate coin)26 viewsCaracalla as Caesar, AD 196-198
AE 17, 2.78g, 16.72mm, 180°
obv. M AV [KAI] - ANTWNNOC(sic!)
Youthful bust, draped and cuirassed, bare-headed, r.
rev. NIKOP - OLIT PROC ICTR
grazing cow(?) l.
ref. a) AMNG I/1, 1503, pl. XX, 3 (2 ex., Berlin, Sestini)
b) Varbanov (engl.) 2950
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.18.53.1 (plate coin)
F+/about VF, black-green patina
pedigree:
ex. CCE

note: Revers legend unusually beginning in ex.
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nikopolis_macrinus_HrJ(2012)8_23_20_5var(rev).JPG
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 23. Macrinus, HrHJ (2018) 8.23.20.11 (plate coin)12 viewsMacrinus, AD 217-218
AE 26, 11.52g, 26.27mm, 0°
struck under governor Statius Longinus
obv. AVT K OPPEL CEVH - MAKRINOC
laureate head r.
rev. VP CTATIOV LONG[I - N]OV [NIKOPO]LITWN PROC / ICTR
Youthful Asklepios in himation stg. facing, head l., resting with r. hand on snake staff set
in arm-pit and holding l. hand at hip
ref. a) not in AMNG
b) Varbanov (engl.) 3563 (same dies)
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.23.20.11 (plate coin)
F-, corroded

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nikopolis_macrinus_HrJ(2011)8_23_32_5+_#2.jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 23. Macrinus, HrHJ (2018) 8.23.32.06 #1 (plate coin)19 viewsMacrinus, AD 217-218
AE 27, 11.34g, 26.79mm, 0°
struck under governor Statius Longinus
obv. AVT KM OPEL CEV - H MAKRINOC
bust, cuirassed, seen from front, laureate, r.
rev. VP CTA LONGINOV NIKOPOLITWN PROC ICT
Youthful river-god, nude to hips, std. l., resting l. elbow on urn from which
water flows l., holding in raised hand marsh-plant
ref. a) not in AMNG:
rev. AMNG I/1, 1763 (depiction)
AMNG I/1, 1760 (legend)
obv. AMNG I/1, 1745
b) cf. Varbanov (engl.) 3490 (cites AMNG 1763)
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.23.32.6 (plate coin)
F+, dark green patina
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nikopolis_macrinus_rivergod_Pick1763var.jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 23. Macrinus, HrHJ (2018) 8.23.32.06 #257 viewsMacrinus, AD 217-218
AE 28, 12.61g, 28.06mm, 45°
struck under governor Statius Longinus
obv. AVT KM OPEL CEV - H MAKRINOC
bust, cuirassed, seen from front, laureate, r.
rev. VP CTA LONGINOV NIKOPOLITWN PROC ICT
Youthful river god, nude to hips, std. l., resting l. elbow on urn from which
water flows l., holding in raised hand marsh-plant
ref. a) not in AMNG:
rev. AMNG I/1, 1763 (depiction)
AMNG I/1, 1760 (legend)
obv. AMNG I/1, 1745
b) cf. Varbanov (engl.) 3490 (cites AMNG 1763)
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.23.32.6 (same dies)
F+/about VF, green patina

The rev. matches AMNG 1763 except the legend which has PROC ICTR in ex.
The obv. matches AMNG 1760.

Because the river god is depicted youthful it seems to be the river Jantra, a tributary of the Istros (Danube).
Jochen
nikopolis_macrinus_AMNG1761.jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 23. Macrinus, HrHJ (2018) 8.23.32.07 (plate coin)21 viewsMacrinus, AD 217-218
AE 26, 12.29g, 26.25mm, 30°
struck under governor Statius Longinus
obv. AVT KM OPELL - CEV MAKRINOC
Bust, cuirassed with scale armor, laureate r.
rev. VP CTA LONGINOV NIKOPOLITWN / PROC IC
Youthful unbearded river-god, entirely nude, leaning l. on ground, looking r., r. hand on
prow of ship, l. hand on vase from which water flows l.
ref. a) AMNG I/1, 1761 (2 ex. London, Sofia, pl. XVIII, 1)
b) Varbanov (engl.) 3466 (ascribes in error AMNG 1761 to #3465!)
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.23.32.7 (plate coin)
F+, dark green patina

Pick writes: The fact that the river-god here is depicted entirely nude earns attention as rare exception.
But it is not only clothing and attitude which distinguishes it from the next coin but the ship too on
whose prow he rests his r. hand is of a different shape; there it has the usual form whereas here it
has a high beak and a spike below. Wether we can infer that we have two different river-gods
remains unclear; unbearded are both.

One should add that this river-god doesn't hold one of he usual water-plants.
Jochen
nikopolis_macrinus_HrJ(2011)8_23_43_3cf.jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 23. Macrinus, HrHJ (2018) 8.23.43.04 (plate coin)36 viewsMacrinus, AD 217-218
AE 28, 11.12g, 27.87mm, 195°
struck under governor Marcus Claudius Agrippa
obv. AVT K OPPEL C - EVH MA[KRINOC]
Bust, draped and cuirassed, seen from behind, laureate, r.
rev. VP AGRIP[PA NIKOP]OLITWN PROC I / CTRW
Nude youth (mountain-god Haimos), slight drapery over r. shoulder and knees, wearing boots, std. r.(!)
on rocks, looking back, l. hand on head, r. arm with spear resting on tree behind
in r. field AIMOC
ref. a) AMNG I/1, 1700, pl. III, 24 (1 ex., Bassarabescu)
b) not in Varbanov (engl.):
cf.#3390: different obv. legend, spear not mentioned, pic of rev. from Pick, pic of obv. called #3407 in
error
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.23.43.4 (plate coin)
unique (R10), about VF
pedigree:
ex dianacoins, Ebay, 2009
ex coll. Steve Cady, Tantalus Coins, #34158, 2012

The pic in Hristova/Jekov (2011) was taken from Varbanov, Varbanov's pic was taken from Moushmov, Moushmov's pick was taken from Pick! Therefore the copies are so bad and the spear has disappeared!

One of the rarest types of Nikopolis at all. This type was listed and depicted in AMNG I/1. Nicolae Bassarabescu, a Romanian collector, was in AD 1890 the director of the journal "Poporul" in Bukaresti. But the coin vanished in the course of time. It is now the first time that this type appears in the public after more than 100 years. Enjoy!
1 commentsJochen
nikopolis_macrinus_Pick1763var.jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 23. Macrinus, HrHJ (2018) 8.23.43.0887 viewsMacrinus AD 217-218
AE 27, 11.24g, 27.48mm, 30°
struck under governor Statius Longinus
obv. AV K OPPEL CE - [VH MAKRINOC]
head, bearded, laureate, r.
rev. VP CTATIOV LONGINOV NIKOPOLITWN / PROC ICT / R W
Youthful rivergod (Istros?), nude to hips, leaning l., holding in l. arm reeds, in
raised r. hand branch; water flows from vase behind him.
ref. a) not in AMNG
rev. AMNG I/1, Pick 1764 (depiction)
AMNG I/1, 1785 (legend)
obv. f.e. AMNG I/1, 1713 (but under Agrippa)
b) not in Varbanov (engl.)
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.23.43.8 (same dies)
scarce, F/VF
1 commentsJochen
nikopolis_macrinus_AMNG1764cf.jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 23. Macrinus, HrHJ (2018) 8.23.43.0935 viewsMacrinus, AD 217-218
AE 29, 13g, 28.55mm, 225°
struck under governor Statius Longinus
obv. AV K OPPEL CEOV - HROC MAKRINOC
laureate head r.
rev. VP CTATIOV LONGINOV NIKOPOLIT / WN PROC IC / TRW
Youth, nude to hips, sitting on rocks l., holding branch in r. hand, resting
with l. ellbow on rocks and holding reed with l. hand
ref. a) not in AMNG
rev. AMNG I/1, 1764 var. (depiction, but without reed!)
legend not listed
obv. AMNG I/1, 1719 (but for Agrippa!)
b) not in Varbanov (engl.)
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.23.43.9 (same dies, even the same die breaks on obv.)
good F, brown patina, some small bronze pits

Rev. depiction matches the description of AMNG 1764, but the rev. legend is unknow! Obv. legend is known only for Agrippa f.e. AMNG 1719, but not for Statius Longinus. Probably a mountain-god.
Jochen
nikopolis_diadumenian_Varbanov3666var.jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 25. Diadumenian, HrHJ (2018) 8.25.32.01 (plate coin)46 viewsDiadumenian, AD 217-218
AE 26, 11.3g, 26.12mm, 180°
struck under governor Marcus Claudius Agrippa
obv. KM O[PPEL AN]TWNI DIADOVMENIANOC
Bare head r.
rev. VP AGRIPPA NIKOPOLITWN / PROC ICT
Youthful mountain god, garment over l. shoulder, otherwise nude to hips, std. l. on rocks, resting l. ellbow on rock with cave entry(?), holding in r. hand water plant.
ref. a) AMNG I/1, 1809 var. (3 ex.)
b) Varbanov (engl.) 3644 var. (different rev. legend)
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.25.32.1 (plate coin)
F+/about VF, deep olive-green patina
Jochen
nikopolis_diadumenian_AMNG1806.jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 25. Diadumenian, HrHJ (2018) 8.25.32.0543 viewsDiadumenian, AD 217-218
AE 26, 11.3g, 27.51mm, 30°
struck under governor Marcus Claudius Agrippa
obv. K M OPPEL ANTWNI DIADOVMENIAN - [OC]
Bare head r.
rev. VP AGRIPPA NI - KOPOLITWN P / ROC ICTR / W
Youthful river-god, unbearded, nude, leaning l., r. hand on r. knee, resting l.
hand on vase, from which water flows
ref. a) AMNG I/1, 1806 (1 ex., Petersburg)
b) Varbanov (engl.) 3633 var. (has ANTWN)
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.25.32.5
very rare, about VF, black-green patina

This ex. is identical to Pick's description except the W in the second line of the ex. I suppose that on Pick's ex. the W was not visible.
Jochen
nikopolis_diadumenian_mountaingod_unpublished.jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 25. Diadumenian, HrHJ (2018) 8.25.43.01 (plate coin)61 viewsDiadumenian, AD 217-218
AE 26, 15.6g, 26.73mm, 225°
struck under governor Statius Longinus
obv. K M OPEL ANTWN DIA - DOVMENIANOC
Bust, draped and cuirassed, bare-headed, r.
rev. VP CTATIOV LONGINOV NIKOPOLIT / WN PROC IC / [TRON]
Youthful mountain-god, nude to hips, sitting l. on rocks, holding branch in
raised r. hand and reed in l. hand resting on the rocks
ref. a) not in AMNG (but obv. and rev. dies known from other types)
b) not in Varbanov (engl.)
c) Hristova/Jekov No. (2018) 8.25.43.1 (plate coin)
d) Megaw Nic4.36a (this coin)
added to www.wildwinds.com

This type occurs in 2 subtypes. This is the somewhat rarer type with CTATIOV, nude youth and without 'bow' above rock in an unknown composition of dies (Thanks to Pat Lawrence!).
1 commentsJochen
nikopolis_diadumenian_AMNG1810cf(rev).jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 25. Diadumenian, HrHJ (2018) 8.25.43.05 (plate coin)75 viewsDiadumenian, AD 217-218
AE 29, 12.45g, 28.76mm, 45°
struck under governor Marcus Claudius Agrippa
obv. K M OPPEL ANTWNIN - DIADOVMENIANOC
Bust, draped, bare-headed, r.
rev. VP AGRIPP - A NIKOPOLITWN P / ROC ICT (PP ligate)
Youth, nude to hips, std. l. on rocks, looking r., holding reed in raised r. hand
and resting with l. hand on rock.
ref. a) AMNG I/1, 1810 (2 ex., Paris, trade)
b) Varbanov (engl.) 3663
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.25.43.5 (plate coin)
very rare, VF, deep green patina

Because there is now urn with flowing water, Pick thinks that the youth is a mountain-god.
1 commentsJochen
nikopolis_elagabal_HJ8_26_1_1_var.jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 26. Elagabal, HrHJ (2018) 8.26.01.0128 viewsElagabal, AD 218-222
AE 26, 10.99g, 26.48mm, 345°
struck under governor Novius Rufus
obv. [AVT K]M AVRH - ANTWN[EINOC]
laureate head r.
rev. VP NOBIOV ROVFOV - NIKOPOLITWN PROC
in l. and r. field ICT - RON
Youthful Zeus Nikephoros, in himation, nude to hips, enthroned l., holding in
extended r. hand small Nike with wreath in raised hand and resting with l. hand
on sceptre
ref. a) AMNG I/1, 1893, pl. XIII, 20 (1 ex., Löbbecke)
b) Varbanov (engl.) 4108
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.26.1.1 (same dies)
F+, dark green patina, some roughness
Jochen
nikopolis_elagabal_HrHJ(2013)8_26_20_8(rev).jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 26. Elagabal, HrHJ (2018) 8.26.20.11 (plate coin)10 viewsElagabal, AD 218-222
AE 26, 11.15g, 26.27mm, 0°
struck under governor Novius Rufus
obv. AVT M AVR - ANTWNINOC
Bust, draped and cuirassed, seen from behind, laureate, r.
ref. VP NOBIOV ROVFOV - NIKOPOLITWN PROC (3rd OV ligate)
Youthful Asklepios, in himation, stg. frontal, head l., resting with r. hand on snake staff set
in arm pit and holding l. arm at hip.
ref. a) not in AMNG
b) not in Varbanov (engl.)
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.26.20.11 (plate coin)
scarce, about VF/F+, dark green patina
Jochen
nikopolis_elagabal_AMNG1949.jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 26. Elagabal, HrHJ (2018) 8.26.32.0850 viewsElagabal, AD 218-222
AE 25, 10.74g, 24.76mm, 0°
struck under governor Novius Rufus
obv. AVT K M AVR - ANTWNEINOC
laureate head r.
rev. VP NOBIOV ROVFOV NIKOPOLI
in ex. in 2 lines TWN P / ROC ICT
Youthful river god, unbearded, nude to hips, leaning l., holding in r. hand, which
rests on his r. knee, long reed over his r. shoulder; resting with l. ellbow on
reversed vase from which water flows l.
ref. a) AMNG I/1, 1949 (1 ex., Löbbecke)
b) Varbanov (engl.) 3909
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.26.32.8
scarce, F+/about VF, blue-green patina
1 commentsJochen
nikopolis_elagabal_HJ8_26_43_2#_#2.jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 26. Elagabal, HrHJ (2018) 8.26.43.02 #133 viewsElagabal, AD 218-222
AE 27, 12.70g, 26.52mm, 225°
struck under governor Novius Rufus
obv. AVT M AVR - ANTWNEINOC
Bust, draped and cuirassed, radiate, r.
rev. VP NOBIOV ROVFOV NIKOPOLITWN / PROC ICTR / ON
The youthful local mountain god Haimos sitting on rock l., reclining on tree,
hands above head; stag behind him jumping r., bear, coming out of cave below, r.
ref. a) AMNG I/1, 1953 (pl. III, 23, same rev. die)
b) Varbanov (engl.) 4028
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.26.43.2 (same dies)
Very rare (R7), EF, the nicest specimen ever seen
added to www.wildwinds.com

Haimos, a Thracian king, was married with Rhodope. Their love was so great that they called each another Zeus and Hera. For that blasphemia the real Zeus turned them into homonymous mountains. (Ovid, Met. VI, 87)
A similar myth is known from Keyx and Alcyone where they are turned into birds, Keyx into a diver and Alcyone into a kingfisher. (Ovid, Met. XI, 410)

Dr. Falter (Germany) suggests that the bear is drinking from a well.
Jochen
nikopolis_elagabal_HJ8_26_43_2_#1.jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 26. Elagabal, HrHJ (2018) 8.26.43.02 #237 viewsElagabal, AD 218-222
AE 28, 15.94g, 27.56mm, 225°
struck under governor Novius Rufus
obv. AVT M AVR - ANTWNEINOC
Bust, draped and cuirassed, seen from fron, radiate, r., Aegis on l. shoulder
rev. VP NOBIOV ROVFOV NIKOPOLITWN / PROC ISTR / ON
The youthfull locale mountain god Haimos sitting on rock l., reclining on tree,
hands above head; stag behind him jumping r., bear, coming out of cave below, r.
ref. a) AMNG I/1, 1953, pl. III, 23 (same rev. die)
b) Varbanov (engl.) 4028
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No.8.26.43.2
very rare (R7), good VF, black-brown patina, light roughness
pedigree:
ex CNG auction 70, 21.9.2005, lot 537 (wrong pic!)

Haimos, a Thracian king, was married with Rhodope. Their love was so great that they called each another Zeus and Hera. For that blasphemia the real Zeus turned them into homonymous mountains. (Ovid, Met. VI, 87)
Jochen
elagabal_amng2013_1.jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 26. Elagabal, HrHJ (2018) 8.26.54.08 #1 (plate coin)113 viewsElagabal, AD 218-222
AE 25, 10.68g, 25.22mm, 180°
struck under governor Novius Rufus
obv. AV K M AVR - ANTONINOC (C squared!)
bust, cuirassed, radiate, r.
rev. N / IKOPO / LITWN / PROC I / CTRON
in 5 lines inside laurel wreath
ref. a) AMNG I/1, 2013 var. (has bust draped and cuirassd)
b) Varbanov (engl.) 3846 var. (cites AMNG 2013)
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.26.54.8 (plate coin)
d) BMC 68
Rare; EF+, nice black patina
added to www.wildwinds.com

Youthful portrait of Elagabal, the nicest I've ever seen! Shows clearly the bisexual nature of this young emperor.
4 commentsJochen
nikopolis_gordianIII_AMNG2068.jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 36. Gordian III, HrHJ (2018) 8.36.32.03 (plate coin)38 viewsGordian III, AD 238-244
AE 29, 12.3g, 28.93mm, 210°
struck under governor Sabinius Modestus
obv. AVT.K.M.ANTW - GORDIANOC
Bust, draped and cuirassed, seen from behind, laureate, r.
rev. VP CAB MODECTOVNIKOPOLEI, in l. field TWN (WN ligate)
in ex. PROC ICT / RON
Youthful river-god, wearing himation, nude to hips, leaning l., holding reed in
raised r. hand and resting with l. arm on reversed vase from which water flows l.
ref. a) AMNG I/1, 2068 (2 ex., Sofia, Winterthur)
b) Varbanov (engl.) 4223
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.36.32.3 (plate coin)
rare, about VF, dark-green patina
Jochen
nikopolis_gordianIII_AMNG2067.jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 36. Gordian III, HrHJ (2018) 8.36.32.04 (plate coin)36 viewsGordian III, AD 238-244
AE 26, 11.92g, 25.91mm, 210°
struck under governor Sabinius Modestus
obv. [AVT K M] ANTW - GORDIANOC
Bust, draped and cuirassed, seen from behind, laureate, r.
rev. VP CAB MODECTOV NIKOP
in l. field OLEI / TWN
in ex. PROC ICTR / ON
Youthful(?) river god, nude to hips, leaning l., resting with l. arm on vase from
which water flows l., r. hand extended to prow of a ship
ref. a) AMNG I/1, 2067 (2 ex., Naples, Vaillant)
b) Varbanov (engl.) 4219
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.36.32.4 (plate coin)
scarce (R5), F+/about VF, some roughness

Pick writes: bearded river god!
Jochen
tomis_ktistes_AMNG2554.jpg
Moesia inferior, Tomis, pseudo-autonomous AMNG 255429 viewsAE 18
struck c. 166-183 AD
obv. KT - ICTHC - TOMOC
bust of ktistes, draped and with hair-band, r.
rev. TWME - ITWN (beginning upper r.)
Hermes, stg. l., in lowered r. hand purse, in l. arm kerykeion; chlamys over l.
shoulder
AMNG 2554
rare, about VF

The 2nd series of autonomous coinage has 4 groups: the 1st group (n. 2554-2559) matches in the style of the obverse totally the 'Dreier' of the youthful Commodus, so we have a safe clue for the time of this coinage (Pick p.614)
Jochen
Moesia_Nikopolis_AE14_1_56g.jpg
Moesia, Nikopolis ad Istrum, Dionysos (?), cisty mystica, AE1424 views14mm, 1.56g
obv: NEIKOΠOΛITΩN (or similar); youthful head of Dionysos (?) right, wearing ivy-wreath
rev: ΠPOC - ICTPON; snake emerging from cista mystica
ex Lars Rutten collection
areich
CaraNikTertullus.jpg
Moesia, Nikopolis ad Istrum. Caracalla AE27. Magistrate Ovinius Tertullus107 viewsCaracalla. 27mm. 4 Assaria.
Obv. AV K M AVP ANTWNINOC, youthful, laureate, draped, cuirassed bust right, seen from the back.
Rev. VPA OOV TERTVLLOV NIKOPO / ROC(sic) ICT, Homonia standing r. with patera and cornucopia, sacrificing over burning altar.
Ref. a) cf. AMNG I/1, 1527 (without altar)
b) cf. Varbanov (engl.) 3103 corr. (= AMNG 1527)
b) Hristova/Jekov No. 8.18.36.1 corr. (writes PROC ICT in error)
ancientone
CaraNikHerc.jpg
Moesia, Nikopolis. Caracalla AE18. Hercules23 viewsObv: M AY K ANTWNIN. Youthful bust of Caracalla r.
Rev: NIKOPO PROC ICT. Herakles standing r. leaning on club, lion skin draped over l.
AMNG I/1, 1498. Hristova/Jekov II 8.18.14.13. Varbanov 2914 corr.
ancientone
Attaea_Demos_Hero_AE17-19_3_03g.jpg
Mysia, Attaia, Demos / Heros, AE1948 views17-19mm, 3.03g
2nd century AD
Obv: ΔHMOC, diademed head of Demos right.
Rev: ATTAITΩN, naked youth (Heros?) right, left foot on rock.

BMC Mysia -, SNG Aulock -, SNG Leypold-, SNG Righetti -, Lindgren I+III -, Imhoof-Blumer KM -, Sear -, but cf. SNG Aulock 7203 for a similar reverse type combined with a Synkletos obverse.

ex Rutten & Wieland
areich
attaia_geta_Weber4963.jpg
Mysia, Attaia, Geta, Weber 496345 viewsGeta, AD 209-212
AE 24, 7.02g
obv. L CEP GE - TAC KAIC
Bust, draped and cuirassed, bare-headed, r.
rev. ATTAI - T / WN
Youthful river-god Grylios(?), in himation, nude to hips, wearing wreath, leaning l., holding waterplant in outstretched r. hand and resting with l. ellbow on vase from which water flows l.
AMNG IV, 415 (1 ex., London); Weber 4963; Mabbott 1255
rare, VF

This is the only type for Geta from Attaia. River Grylios, today Madra Cey
2 commentsJochen
Attaea_Synkletos_Hero_AE19_5_34.jpg
Mysia, Attaia, Synkletos / Heros, AE1939 views19mm, 5.34g
2nd century AD
Obv: IEPA CYNKLHTOC; diademed head of Synkletos (Senate) right
Rev: ATTAITΩN, naked youth (Heros?) right, left foot on rock

SNG Aulock 7203
areich
GermePseudo2.jpg
Mysia, Germe, Conventus of Cyzicus. Pseudo-autonomous AE20 21 viewsBetween 138 and 192 AD.
Obverse: ΙΕΡΑ ΣΥΝΚΗΤΟΣ, draped bust of the Senate (youthful), r.
Reverse: ΓΕΡΜ ΗΝΩΝ, Nude Heracles standing, facing, head, l., resting arm on club, holding lion-skin
ancientone
germe_senate_BMC1.jpg
Mysia, Germe, pseudo-autonomous, BMC 141 viewsAE 16, 2.9g
Struck in the times of the Antonines AD 100-130
obv. IERA.CVN - KLHTO
youthful bust of Senate, draped, r.
rev. GERMA - NWN
bust of Apollo., draped and laureate, r., laurel-branch before
SNG von Aulock 1092; SNG BN Paris 943; BMC 1
rare, about VF

Referring to Ehling all coins from Germe are from Germe in Mysia!
Jochen
z14.jpg
Mysia, Germe. AE16. Senate/Apollo17 viewsObv: IEΡA CYNKΛHTOC, draped, youthful bust of the Senate right.
Rev: ΓEΡMHNΩN, Laureate, draped bust of Apollo right, (usually with laurel branch in right field).
AD 117-161
ancientone
ParionFounder.jpg
Mysia, Parion. Bust of Parios AE22. Capricorn.37 viewsObv: Youthful male head r. of founder Parios.
Rev: CGIHP / Capricorn r., holding globe, behind cornucopia.
Time of Valerian (253 to 260 A.D.)
ancientone
pergamon_SNGpost182.jpg
Mysia, Pergamon, pseudo-autonomous, SNG Post 18245 viewsAE 17, 3.4g
struck end of 1st century - midth of 2nd century
obv. QEON CVN - KLHTON
Bust of youthfull Senate, draped, r.
rev. QEAN RW - MHN
Bust of Roma, draped and turreted, r.
BMC 205; SNG Post 182 (1 ex.); cp. Fritze, Pergamon vol.3, 18 (2 ex.); coll. BM (2 ex.)
very rare, VF

Thanks to Marius and Pscipio for the attribution!
Jochen
roma_senate_time_of_hadrian.jpg
MYSIA, PERGAMUM18 views117 - 138 AD
(time of Hadrian)
AE 15 mm, 2.17 g
Pseudo-autonomous issue
O: Turreted and draped bust of Roma right; monogram below chin
R: Bareheaded and draped bust of youthful Senate right.
BMC 221.
laney
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-e8PlbewaZW-Nero_Decvrsio.jpg
Nero (Augustus) Coin: Brass Sestertius10 viewsNERO CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR P IMP P P - Laureate head left
DECVRSIO - Nero, bare-headed, cuirassed, cloak flying behind, prancing right on horseback carrying spear at rest in right hand; in front of him, advancing right, looking back left, a foot soldier holding vexillum in right hand over left shoulder right; behind him a
Exergue: DECVRSIO


Mint: Rome (63 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 28.51g / 36mm / 6h
Rarity: Scarce
References:
RIC I 108
Sear 1956
BM 155
MacDowall WCN 78
Acquisition/Sale: rembrand-2000 Ebay

The decursio, which occurs on the coins of Nero, probably refers to the military manœuvres or sham fights in the circus.

These words were used to signify the manœuvres of the Roman army, by which the soldiers were taught to make long marches in a given time, under arms and without quitting their ranks. They are frequently mentioned by Livy , and sometimes consisted of a sham fight between two divisions of the army (Liv. xl. 6, 5). With the standing armies under the Empire these manœuvres assumed a more regular form, and were constantly practised. Augustus and subsequently Hadrian ordered that the infantry and cavalry were to march out three times a month ten miles from the camp and ten miles back, fully armed and equipped. This is called by Vegetius campicursio (Veget. i. 27, iii. 4), and by Suetonius campestris decursio ( Galb. 6).

From Roma:
The decursio was a military exercise of mock combat or a display of equestrian skill made by horse-riders and charioteers at public games. Despite Nero’s provision of regular games, the presence of the vexillum on this type suggests a more military character to the scene. It has been suggested that the reverse refers to Nero’s institution of cavalry manoeuvres for the Praetorian Guard. An alternative interpretation is that there is a link to Nero’s fondness of racing horses, although Stevenson (DRC) disregards this. He explains that “the speed of the horses is not sufficiently rapid”.

Banti states that “For this period it is thought that the bronze without S C was minted by an imperial mint... The portraits are almost all youthful” (CNR XVII, p. 139).

THIS COIN IS 100% AUTHENIC!
Gary W2
Nero_capp.jpg
Nero and Divus Claudius Hemidrachm147 viewsNERO CLAVD DIVI CLAVD F CAESAR AVG GERMANI
Laureate head of youthful Nero right

ARME NIAC
Victory advancing right, wreath upward in right hand, palm in left over shoulder

Cappadocia-Caesarea
c.59-60 AD
1.77g

Group III, Cappadocia-Caesarea - RIC I, 616; BMC 406 (rare), RPC 3644

Rare

This is the Wildwinds specimen.

Some encrustations removed from Nero's head and nose and in front of Victory

Issue celebrating Corbulo's Armenian conquest
1 commentsJay GT4
nero_ric_24.jpg
Nero AR denarius (Pre-reform)46 viewsNERO (54-68). Denarius. Rome.
Struck 60-61
(18 mm 3.14 g.)
Obv: NERO CAESAR AVG IMP.
Bare head right.
Rev: PONTIF MAX TR P VII COS IIII P P / EX - S C.
Ceres standing left, holding grain ears and torch.
RIC² 24 (R3)
Condition: Near very fine..
Ex: Numismatik Naumann Auction 63 Lot 848 March 4, 2018.


Though this coin obviously has some surface issues on both the obverse and reverse, I still find it very attractive. I really like the youthful appearance of the portrait.

This is yet another Nero pre-reform denarius that will take a spot in my 12 Caesars collection. This is my second pre-reform denarius and third younger portrait of Nero. the rest are also in this gallery.

Notice the use of "EX SC" in the fields of the reverse. "SC" meant "Senatus Consulto", or with the permission of the senate. "SC" is typically found on the base coinage of the empire. Base coinage was the responsibility of the senate, while precious metal issues were the purview of the emperor. It is thought that these silver coins with "EX SC" were special issues using the precious metal reserves of the senate instead of the imperial reserves.
3 commentsorfew
Nero_Herakles_RPC_I_3002.jpg
Nero Herakles RPC I 300229 viewsNERO, Lydien, Sardeis, Æ16, 54 - 69, 14mm, 3.4g, SNG von Aulock 3146, RPC I 3002, SNG Cop 523,
OBV: NEPΩN KAICAP, Head of Nero with laurel wreath on the right
REV: EΠI MINΔIOY CAPΔIANΩN, Bust of the youthful Herakles right, with laurel wreath and lion's skin around shoulders
Romanorvm
Nero_Thy_k.jpg
Nero, AD 54-684 viewsÆ17 2.8g, 12h; Lydia, Thyatira mint
Obv: NEPΩN KΛAYΔIOΣ KAIΣAP; Youthful bust of Nero right.
Rev: ΘYAT-EIPH / NΩ-N on either side of handle of double bitted axe.
Reference: SG 593, RPC 2381 / 16-381-50
John Anthony
1163.jpg
nicaea100a7 viewsElagabalus or Caracalla
Nicaea, Bithynia

Obv: ΑΝΤΩΝEΙ-ΝΟϹ ΑΥΓO, laureate head right of Elagabalus or youthful Caracalla.
Rev: NIKA-IEΩN, prize urn with two palm fronds.
13 mm, 1.97 gms

Rec Gen 489 (as Caracalla)

This and the next several coins are generally attributed to Caracalla. However the portraits resemble the busts of Elagabalus and Waddington (Rec Gen) does have this obverse legend with at least one coin of Elagabalus.
Charles M
1381.jpg
nicaea100a_26 viewsElagabalus or Caracalla
Nicaea, Bithynia

Obv: ΑΝΤ-Ω-Ν-Ι-ΝΟϹ ΑΥΓO, laureate head right of Elagabalus or youthful Caracalla, rays behind portrait.
Rev: NIKA-IEΩN, prize urn with two palm fronds.
15 mm, 1.66 gms

Rec Gen 489 (as Caracalla)
Charles M
1417.jpg
nicaea100a_37 viewsElagabalus or Caracalla
Nicaea, Bithynia

Obv: ΑΝΤ-Ω-Ν-Ι-ΝΟϹ ΑΥΓO, laureate head right of Elagabalus or youthful Caracalla, rays behind portrait.
Rev: NIKA-IEΩN, prize urn with two palm fronds.
16 mm, 1.83 gms

Rec Gen 489 (as Caracalla)

For a discussion of this type of obverse (laureate with rays behind) see the Forum discussion: https://www.forumancientcoins.com/board/index.php?topic=37721.msg239006#msg239006
Charles M
1370.jpg
nicaea100b8 viewsElagabalus or Caracalla
Nicaea, Bithynia

Obv: ΑΝΤΩ(ΝЄ)-ΙΝΟϹ ΑΥΓ, laureate head right of Elagabalus or youthful Caracalla.
Rev: NIKA-IIΩN, Cista mystica from which serpent is rising left.
16 mm, 1.98 gms

Rec Gen 443 (as Caracalla)
Charles M
759.jpg
nicaea100b_26 viewsElagabalus or Caracalla
Nicaea, Bithynia

Obv: ΑΝΤOΝ-ΙΝΟϹ ΑΥΓ, laureate head right of Elagabalus or youthful Caracalla.
Rev: NIKA-IIΩN, Cista mystica from which serpent is rising left.
15 mm, 2.08 gms

Rec Gen 443 (as Caracalla)
Charles M
708.jpg
nicaea100c9 viewsElagabalus or Caracalla
Nicaea, Bithynia

Obv: ΑΝ-ΤΩΝ-ΙΝΟϹ ΑΥΓ, laureate head right of Elagabalus or youthful Caracalla.
Rev: NI-KAI-EΩN, Tyche standing left holding rudder and cornucopia.
15 mm, 2.26 gms

Rec Gen 457 (as Caracalla)

This portrait really looks like Elagabalus. Notice the large eyes, prominent cheeks and weak chin.
Charles M
1457.jpg
nicaea100d11 viewsElagabalus or Caracalla
Nicaea, Bithynia

Obv: ΑΝΤ-Ω-Ν-Ι-ΝΟϹ ΑΥΓO, laureate head right of Elagabalus or youthful Caracalla, rays behind portrait.
Rev: NIKA-IEΩN, flaming altar.
16 mm, 1.83 gms

Rec Gen ---; SNG Cop ---

For a discussion of this type of obverse (laureate with rays behind) see the Forum discussion: https://www.forumancientcoins.com/board/index.php?topic=37721.msg239006#msg239006
Charles M
geta_13~0.jpg
Nobilitas193 viewsGeta 198 - 207 Caesar
AR - Denar, 3.46g, 18mm
Rome AD 199
obv. P SEPT GETA - CAES PONT
bust draped, cuirassed (?), bare head r., youthful portrait
rev. NOBI - LITAS
Nobilitas standing frontal, head r., holding sceptre r. and palladium l.
RIC IV, 13(a); C.90; BMCR. 199
Scarce; about EF

NOBILITAS, Nobility. Unlike other personifications she does not seem to have a cult at Rome. She was a imperial virtue which was claimed by the emperors.
PALLADIUM, from Pallas, a cognomen of Athena. The original P. was stolen from Troy and brought to Italy by Aeneas. It was said to have been preserved with great reverence by the Romans as the protector of their own city.
Jochen
0540-305np_noir.jpg
Numerianus, Antoninianus - *54 viewsTicinium mint, 5th officina, 2nd emission, Dec 282 AD
M AVR NVMERIANVS NOB C, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust of Numerianus, seen from behind
PRINCIPI IVVENTUT, Prince of youth standing left, holding baton and sceptre. VXXI at exergue
3,35 gr, 23 mm
Ref : RCV #12219, Cohen #76, RIC vol V #366
Ex. Pscipio
Potator II
_1ClodiusDenarius.JPG
P. Clodius M.f. Turrinus98 views42 BC
AR Denarius (18mm, 3.86g)
O: Laureate head of Apollo right; lyre behind.
R: Diana Lucifera standing facing, holding two long torches, bow and quiver on her shoulder; M.F - CLODIVS flanking.
RSC Claudia 15; Crawford 424-23; Sydenham 1117; CRI 184; RSC Claudia 15; BMC 4290
ex Sayles & Lavender

TO APOLLO AND DIANA
Virgins, sing the Virgin Huntress;
Youths, the youthful Phoebus sing;
Sing Latona, she who bore them
Dearest to the eternal King:
Sing the heavenly maid who roves
Joyous, through the mountain groves;
She who winding waters loves;
Let her haunts her praises ring!

Sing the vale of Peneus’ river;
Sing the Delian deity;
The shoulder glorious with its quiver’
And the lyre of Mercury.
From our country, at our prayer -
Famine, plague, and tearful war
These, benign, shall drive afar
To Persia’s plains or Britain’s sea.
~ Horace (Odes 1,21)
2 commentsEnodia
satrienus.jpg
P. Satrienus50 viewsP. Satrienus, 77 BC, Silver Denarius.
Obverse- Helmeted head of youthful Mars right; +XXI behind.
Reverse- ROMA above, she-wolf standing left with paw raised, in exergue P.SATRIE / NVS
Crawford 388/1b; Sydenham 781a. 3.51g.
1 commentsb70
pan,pan1.jpg
Pantikapaion, Tauric Chersonesos, Thrace, 310 - 304 BC.95 viewsAE 20, McDonald 70, SNG Pushkin 886, Sear GCV I 1701, Lindgren II 677, , weight 5.1 g, max. diameter 19.84 mm, Pantikapaion mint, c. 310 - 304 BC; Obv. head of youthful satyr left, wreathed in ivy; Rev. Π Α Ν in legend, head of roaring lion left, sturgeon fish left below. Chestnut brown patina.

Background info; Pantikapaion (Panticapaeum) is present-day Kerch, an important Greek city and port in Taurica (Tauric Chersonese), situated on a hill (Mt. Mithridates) on the western side of the Cimmerian Bosporus (Kerch Strait), between the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov. It was founded by Milesians in the late 7th or early 6th century B.C. Originally called Apollonia. Wikipedia.
2 commentsSteve E
Sinope_AE25.jpg
Paphlagonia, Sinope, ca. 120-100 BC, Æ Obol 20 viewsMale head (youthful Mithradates VI?) right wearing bashlyk.
ΣINO-ΠHΣ either side of quiver and unstrung bow.

SNG BM 1523; SNG Stancomb 792. Probably struck ca. 120-111 BC.

(25 mm, 21.1 g, 12h).
Mike R. Vosper Coins.
n.igma
patraus_01.jpg
Patraus AR Tetrobol28 viewsObv: Youthful male head right.
Rev: PATRA - Eagle right.
Date: 335-315 BC
Ref: Sallet ("Beschreibung der antiken Münzen d. k. Museen zu Berlin") Bd. II page 4
Notes: Rare
oa
0312_0313.jpg
Pergamon, Mysia, AE17,ΘΕΟΝ ΓΩ ΜΗΝ3 viewsAE17
Pergamon, Mysia
Roman Provincial Civic Coinage
Issued: 1st Century AD
17.4mm 3.26gr
O: ΘΕΟΝ CΥΝ ΚΛΗΤΟΝ; Youthful draped bust of the Roman senate, right.
R: ΘΕΛΝ ΓΩ ΜΗΝ; Draped bust of Roma, right, no tresses on neck.
MNC 205; RPC 2374; Sear GIC 4910.
bronzemat
5/20/16 1/21/17
Nicholas Z
image~0.jpg
Pergamum, Mysia26 viewsMYSIA, Pergamum. Pseudo-autonomous issue. temp. Hadrian(?), AD 117-138. Æ (17mm, 3.44 g, 12h). Turreted and draped bust of Roma right; monogram below chin / Bareheaded and draped bust of youthful Senate right. BMC 221. VF, green patina.ecoli
90102-Philip_II.jpg
Philip II 41 viewsPhilip II Tetradrachm
25 mm 13.71 gm
Laureate head of Zeus right
Youth on horse prancing right
1 commentsKoffy
coins65.JPG
Philip II39 viewsPhilip II Macedon, AE 18 Philip II Macedon, Father of Alexander The Great, 359-336B.C. AE (copper or bronze) 18 mm., 6.67 g. Obv.: Head of Apollo right, hair bound with tainia. Rev.: Naked youth on horseback prancing right. Ex-AAH 1 commentsecoli