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Trajan_Cos_II.jpg
70 viewsIn the picture we can see how the head of an emperor closely resembles the preceeding one. The top three coins are COS II. RIC 9 (3.6g); RIC 12 (3,40g); RIC 22 (3.31g). All have good weights and the RIC 9 is quite possibly overstruck at 3.6g.

Below the three Trajans is a Nerva and it's very similar to the first issues of Trajan. I think it's safe to say that the engravers did not meet the emperor in person.
Paddy
Stralsund_Schilling_1538.jpg
164 viewsStralsund, Karl V. 1519 - 1556
Schilling 1538 S
19 mm, 0.9 g
Strahl / Kreuz mit S im Winkel
Very fine
1 commentsareich
coin630.jpg
24 viewsLooks to me like a *very* beat-up Macedonian Alex III
'standard' type - Alexander in lion-skin headdress on
obverse, bow-case and club on reverse with some
inscription (often ALEXANDROY) in between them.
This might be the 1/2-size of the typical 5-7gm
20mm piece. Coin #630
cars100
coin635.jpg
21 viewsMaybe VERY RARE coin. Verifying attribution Coin #635cars100
aajudaeabrit.jpg
31 viewsCaesarea, Paneas. AE23.
Obv : head of Claudius
Rev : His 3 children : Antonia, Britannicus and Octavia

Ref : RPC 4842
Hen-567
This coin type seems questionable to place under the coinage of Agrippa II since the legends do not mention Agrippa and the time of minting does not conform to the other Agrippa II coins. We will notice the absence of Agrippa's name in other issues as well. At the very least, though, it was struck at Caesarea-Paneas, so it is definitely part of the city coinage. It is catalogued in The Numismatic Legacy of the Jews in the city coinage section as #208.
R. Smits, Numismatist for Numismall
01115q00.jpg
18 viewsJustin I, 518-527. Pentanummium (Bronze, 11 mm, 1.86 g, 7 h), uncertain mint. [...] Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of Justin I to left. Rev. The Tyche of Antioch seated left; to left, Є. Cf. DOC 57 var., MIB 678 var. and SB 111 var. (all with bust to right). A curious coin with the portrait facing left instead of right, possibly a contemporary imitation. Very fine. Quant.Geek
01141q00.jpg
13 viewsJustinian I, 527-565. 1/2 Siliqua (Silver, 14 mm, 1.31 g, 9 h), Carthage, 534/7-552. D N IVSTINIANVS P P AG Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of Justinian I to right. Rev. Large monogram; cross above, S below; all within wreath. DOC -. MIB 53. SB 254 ('siliqua'). Darkly toned. Struck on the usual somewhat irregular flan, otherwise, good very fine. Quant.Geek
ABM_Postumus.jpg
81 viewsPostumus, Principal Mint, sestertius, 260

IMP C M CASS LAT POST[...],Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
SALVS AVG, Salus standing right, feeding snake held in arms
Weight 15.49g

A very rare early issue with Postumus' full name given on the obverse - normally this only occurs on radiate double-sestertii. This is struck from the same obverse die as a gold medallion in Paris with a SALVS PROVINCIARVM reverse.
Adrianus
Postumus_sestertius_helmeted_bust.jpg
49 viewsPostumus, Principal Mint, double sestertius
IMP C M CASS LAT POSTVMVS P F AVG, Radiate, helmeted and cuirassed bust right
VICTORIA AVG, Victory advancing left, spurning captive
Weight 20.07g

A very rare obverse type - this coin from the same obverse die as the examples illustrated in Bastien
2 commentsAdrianus
Domitian_Minerva_spear_left.jpg
104 viewsDOMITIAN. 81-96 AD. AR Denarius (20mm - 3.35 g). Rome mint. Struck 88-9 AD. IMP CAES DOMITIANVS AVG GERM P M TR P VIII, laureate head right / IMP XVII COS XIIII CENS P P P, Minerva standing left, holding spear in right hand, left hand on hip. RIC II 662 (R2); BMCRE pg. 330, note; RSC 244a. Very Rare.

Ex: Gemini Auction IX, January 8, 2012, lot 402; Ex: Harry N. Sneh Collection
5 commentspaul1888
9e8WbRx57aNtBq3DSKi2mG4g8AZgdC.jpg
14 viewsAbbasid Governors, anonymous, AE fals (21mm, 3.71gm, 11h), Halab, AH 136. O: Kalima; below, large pellet left and annulet right; in margin, mint and date formula. R: At center, Kalima continued; in margin, Qur'an 9:33. Ilisch (1996) Resafa IV, p. 117, 221 (dated xx6); cf. ibid. 220 (dated 135) and 222 (date illegible, either 135 or 136); see also Nützel (1898) Berlin 2074 (dated 135 but mint illegible) and Shamma p. 89, 3 (dated xx5). Very Fine and extremely rare, olive green patina with areas of red sand encrustation. Date full and clear. Mint missing but clearly style of Halab, AH 135 and 136.Quant.Geek
Elis_Olympia_drachm.jpg
26 viewsELIS, Olympia. AR Drachm (4.63g), c. 245-210 BC.

Eagle flying with hare in talons / Thunderbolt, F A in field. BCD 250. good Very Fine, old toning.

Ex: Dr. Paul Rynearson, with his handwritten tag.
Collecting Ancient Greek Coins (Paul Rynearson) 16d (this coin pictured).
paul1888
100_1889_crop.JPG
182 viewsHere is an example of a cabinet showing three different available styles of trays for storage. At the top is a standard round recess type tray....very traditional.

In the middle is an open format tray for displaying items "free form", or for items of unusual sizes/shapes such as large medals, military decorations or pocket watches.

On the bottom is a new offering; a drawer for slabs. Each drawer can hold 30 slabs from any of the three major slabbing firms; PCGS, NCG, or ANACS. Other commercial, or "DIY" slabs should also fit, provided they are no larger than any from the "big three" firms.

www.CabinetsByCraig.net
cmcdon0923
Boeotia_Drachm.jpg
38 viewsBoeotia, Federal Coinage, c. 304-294 BC, Drachm, 5.79g, 18mm. Boiotian shield decorated with vertical caduceus / Amphora; Δ-I across field; all within incuse square. BCD Boiotia 70; SNG Copenhagen 412 var. (pellet above amphora). Good Very fine, high relief and lovely tone1 commentspaul1888
Pseudo_Rhodian_Drachm.jpg
35 viewsMacedonian Kingdom. Perseus. 179-168 B.C. AR drachm (15 mm, 2.60 g, 12 h). ca. 171/0 B.C. Aristokrates, magistrate. Head of Helios facing slightly right / P-O, rose with bud to left; in left field, club; above, magistrate's name: [ΑΡΙ]ΣΤΟΚΡΑΤΗΣ. R. J. H. Ashton, ""Clubs, Thunderbolts, Torches, Stars and Caducei: more Pseudo-Rhodian Drachms from Mainland Greece and the Islands,"" NC 162 (2002), 17 (A6/P5; this coin). Toned. Very fine.
Ex Naville V (18 June 1923), 2669. British Museum Duplicate, Ex: British Museum


The Pseudo-Rhodian drachms were struck, probably by the Macedonians under Perseus but possibly by the Romans, to pay for Mercenaries from Crete and Rhodes who would have been familiar with Rhodian coinage. The coins in the name of the magistrate Aristokrates with the club symbol in the field is the largest known individual issue of pseudo-Rhodian drachms from the Third Macedonian War, and used at least twenty-nine obverse dies.
paul1888
Sear-664.jpg
11 viewsPHOCAS (602-610). Follis. Cyzicus. Dated RY 1 (602/3). Obv: Phocas, holding globus cruciger, and Leontia, holding cruciform sceptre, standing facing. Rev: Large M; cross above, A/N/N/O - I across field; KYZA. Sear 664. Condition: Good very fine. Weight: 13.74 g. Diameter: 30 mm.Quant.Geek
Sear-522a.jpg
14 viewsMAURICE TIBERIUS (582-602). Decanummium. Cyzicus. Obv: Crowned and cuirassed bust facing, holding globus cruciger and shield decorated with horseman motif. Rev: Large I; cross above, star to left, A to right; KYZ. Sear 522a; MIBE 93C. Condition: Good very fine, struck on an oddly-shaped flan. Weight: 2.92 g. Diameter: 20 mm.
Quant.Geek
Philip_I_antelope_right_VI_june_22_2018.jpg
25 viewsSilver antoninianus, RIC IV 22 (R2), RSC IV 188, SRCV III 8959 var. (antelope left), Hunter III 48 var. (same), Choice aEF, excellent centering on a broad flan, excellent portrait, light toning, some luster, strike slightly soft/flat, some die wear, 6th officina, Rome mint, weight 4.402g, maximum diameter 23.8mm, die axis 0o, 248 A.D.; obverse IMP PHILIPPVS AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, from behind; reverse SAECVLARES AVGG, antelope walking right, VI in exergue; very rare with antelope right (only two on Coin Archives and one sold for $700!; ex Beast Coins; Ex Forum coin and picture1 commentspaul1888
fX2MW3jPNE6kR9py5yTHL8ok4mcBnF.jpg
12 viewsObverse:


Laureate bust of Constantine right.


Reverse:


SARMATIA DEVICTA: Victory advancing right, captive at her feet. STR (crescent) in exergue.


Weight:


2.81 grams.


Diameter:


18.81 mm.


Comments:


Glossy dark patina. As struck, no weaknesses and very difficult to better.


References.


RIC 435.
1 commentspaul1888
Klazomenai_Silver_Hemidrachm.jpg
24 viewsIonia, Klazomenai. Silver Hemidrachm (1.99 g), ca. 380-360 BC. Kronax, magistrate. Laureate head of Apollo facing slightly left. Reverse: KΛ-A below, swan standing left; around, magistrate's name: KPΩ-NAΞ. Cf. SNG Copenhagen 16ff; cf. BMC 23ff. Very Rare.
From the Lee Rousseau Collection; Ex Gorny & Mosch 200 (12 October 2011), 1799.
The dies used to strike this handsome hemidrachm of Klazomenai are possibly the work of the famous artist Theodotos: they are reminiscent of the tetradrachm from dies of his that he signed in the British Museum's collection.
2 commentspaul1888
RPC_1555_and_5421_Julius_and_Augustus.jpg
2 Augustus and Divus Julius Caesar - 2 Provincials from Thessalonica39 viewsTop Coin:
Divus Julius Caesar and Augustus
AE20 of Thessalonika, Macedon

QEOC, laureate head of Julius Caesar right / QECCALONIKEWN, bare head of Augustus right.

Moushmov 6659, BMC 58, SGI 151, RPC 1551

Bottom Coin:
Augustus and Divus Julius Caesar.
AE 18 of Macedon, Thessalonica. Circa 38 BC.

SEBACTOC, bare head of Augustus right / QEOC, bare head of Julius Caesar right.

RPC 5421

I got these early in my collecting in a random lot of semi-cleaned coins. I was very proud of them at the time, and they are still among my favorites, because of the excitement I felt when I realized they were Julius Caesar and Augustus coins--my first of either of the first 2 Caesars.
RI0046
RI0047
Sosius
Claudius_As_RIC_113.jpg
5 Claudius49 viewsClaudius. A.D. 41-54.
Ć as (29 mm, 12.16 g, 6 h). Rome, ca. A.D. 50(?)-54.

TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP P P, bare head of Claudius left / LIBERTAS AVGVSTA, S C across field, Libertas standing facing, head right, holding pileus and extending left hand.
RIC 113; BMCRE 204; Cohen -.
Unusual red, green and red-brown patina. Light porosity and chipping on obverse edge. Very fine.
Ex-Triskeles Auction, June 2013
RI0024
3 commentsSosius
image.jpg
6 Nero69 viewsNero. A.D. 54-68. Ć as (29 mm, 11.60 g, 6 h). Lugdunum, ca. A.D. 66. IMP NERO CAESAR AVG P MAX TR P P P, bare head of Nero right, globe at point of neck / S C across field, Victory alighting left, holding shield inscribed [S P Q R]. RIC 543; WCN 593; BMC 381; Cohen 302. Medium brown patina with attractive earthen green deposits, light encrustations. Very fine.

Ex Triskeles Auctions
RI0039
3 commentsSosius
clsud478.jpg
Claudius II Gothicus, 268-270 CE.25 viewsBronze Antoninianus, Minister 478
Obverse: DIVO CLAUVDIO, radiate head right.
Reverse: CONSECRATIO, garlanded altar with flames above, no decoration on front. 16.7 mm., 1.8 g.
Note: Although a variation of this coin is in the RIC and Cohen, these sources generally refer to the type with a front divided into four sections (RIC 261). This type of garlanded altar, lit altar was not described and published until the discovery of the Minister Hoard, discovered after RIC was written.
NORMAN K
Section2_Page_17_Image_0001.jpg
*Late Roman Mints49 viewsFrom:
ERIC The Encyclopedia of Roman Imperial Coins
by Rasiel Suarez

ERIC I and ERIC II are great resources for coin identification and the history behind the coins. Author Ras Suarez is a heck of a nice guy and very accessible to collectors. He has made all of ERIC I freely available at:
http://www.dirtyoldbooks.com/eric.html
Sosius
Gordian_III_Ant_RIC_XXX.jpg
1 Gordian III11 viewsGordian III
AR Antoninianus, Antioch Mint

O: Radiate bust r.

R: FORTVNA REDVX. Fortuna seated left, holding rudder and cornucopiae

Very similar to RIC 210, but bust on this coin is not draped.
Sosius
Vesp_2-2.jpg
10 Vespasian AE As, 71 AD25 viewsVESPASIAN
AE As. 71 AD.

O: IMP CAES VESPASIAN AVG COS III, laureate head right

R: AEQVITAS AVGVSTI S-C, Aequitas standing left with scales & palm.

Cohen 19, RIC 290

Very Rare reverse with Aequitas holding palm, VF/aVF
RI0068
Sosius
57314q00~0.jpg
15 Hadrian72 viewsHADRIAN
BI tetradrachm, Alexandria mint, 11.1g, 25.1mm
29 Aug 125 - 28 Aug 126 A.D.
ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙ ΤΡΑΙ Α∆ΡΙΑ CΕΒ, laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, wearing aegis, from behind / L ∆Ε KATOV (year 10), Canopus jar of Osiris, ornamented with figures, wearing crown of horns, uraei disk, and plumes
Kampmann-Ganschow 32.351; Geissen 903; Dattari 1326; Milne 1154; BMC Alexandria p. 75, 630; Emmett 827
Choice gVF
Purchased from FORVM

Note that at some point in this coin's history, it seems to have been used a host for very poor quality fakes. After discussion on the FORVM board, I am comfortable that this coin is indeed the original. Shame on the former owner that used it for copies!

During the mummification process, large organs, such as the liver, lungs, stomach and intestines were extracted and placed in four jars. In the Ptolemaic period, the Greeks called these jars "canopic jars," relating them to the deity of the old city Canop (now a village in Abu Kyr). The heart was left in the body because it held the spirit, understanding and senses and would be needed on the Day of Judgment in the underworld. -- FORVM
RI0073
3 commentsSosius
_1_Pertinax_RIC_11.jpg
21 Pertinax Denarius33 viewsPERTINAX
AR denarius, Rome
January 1–March 28, 193 AD

O: IMP CAES P HELV PERTIN AVG, laureate head of Pertinax right

R: PROVID DEOR COS II, Providentia standing l., raising r. hand toward star.
BMCRE 13. RIC 11(a). RSC 43. Very fine

Ex Numismatica Ars Classica
RI0132
Sosius
Sep_Sev_RIC_288.jpg
24 Septimius Severus14 viewsSeptimius Severus
AR Denarius. 201-210 AD

SEVERVS PIVS AVG, laureate head right / RESTITVTOR VRBIS, Roma seated left on shield, holding palladium & spear.

RSC 606, RIC 288, Sear 6358

I think this was my very first denarius!
Sosius
001590_l.jpg
32 Gordian I Africanus32 viewsGORDIAN I AFRICANUS
AE Sestertius, Rome Mint
27-29 mm, 17.75 g
March 19 to April 9, 238 A.D.
IMP CAES M ANT GORDIANVS AFR AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind / VICTORIA AVGG, S-C, Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm.
RIC IV, 2, p. 161, 12. Very rare. Good portrait and fully readable name. Very fine.
Ex-Auctiones

Gordian I, an 80-year-old senator, was proclaimed as emperor during a revolt in Africa but commited suicide after his son and co-ruler Gordianus II was defeated by Maximinus' legate. Their rule only lasted for 20 days, hence the rarity of their coins.
Sosius
Balbinus_Ant.jpg
34 Balbinus32 viewsBALBINUS
Ruled April 22 – July 29 238
AR antoninianus, Rome Mint. (22mm, 5.01 gm, 7h).
IMP CAES CAEL BALBINVS AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right / CONCORDIA AVGG, clasped hands.
RIC 10. RSC 3.
Lightly toned. Some deposits. Minor die break on obverse. Large flan. Good Very Fine.
From collection of Dale Sigler, Tarzana,CA
Ex. Heritage Auctions
1 commentsSosius
Valerian_AE_Thessalonica.jpg
6 Valerian I36 viewsValerian
AE of Thessalonica.

O: radiate, draped bust right.

R: KOINON QECCALWN, Athena, with aegis and spear,
advancing r. Delta in l. field.

No reference, but very similar to my Gallienus that was added to wildwinds.com
Sosius
rjb_car_secvrit_07_07.jpg
674cf43 viewsCarausius 287-93AD
Antoninianus
Obv "IMP C M A CARAVSIVS PF AVG"
Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev "SECVRITA[S PERP]"
Securitas stg left leaning on a short column
"Continental" mint
RIC - (cf 674ff)
This is a very odd coin. It is of the style that RIC calls "Continental" but not Rouen (702-5), although the reverse type is one of Rouen. It is also noteworthy for the obverse nomenclature M A CARAVSIVS.
mauseus
Maxentius_RIC_Rome_258.jpg
7 Maxentius29 viewsMAXENTIUS
AE Follis, Rome Mint

IMP C MAXENTIVS PF AVG, laureate bust of Maxentius right / CONSERV VRB SVAE, Roma seated in temple, RET in ex.

RIC 258 Rome. aVF, very strong portrait in great style.
2 commentsSosius
IMG_2850.JPG
Antonius pius caesarea maritima mint 85 viewsObv.: laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev.:COL PRIMA FL AVG CAESAR, Apollo, nude standing to front looking left holding in right bow (?) leaning with left on tripod-lebes which is encircled by serpent. Rare. Very fine.
1 commentsMaritima
AUGUSTUS_Cistophorus_Pergamum.JPG
AUGUSTUS. AR Cistophorus (3 denarii) of Pergamum. Struck c.19 - 18 B.C.604 viewsObverse: IMP IX TR PO V. Bare head of Augustus facing right.
Reverse: Triumphal arch surmounted by Augustus in facing triumphal quadriga; IMP IX TR POT V on architrave; S P R SIGNIS RECEPTIS in three lines within arch opening, standards at either side.
RIC I : 510 | BMC : 703 | RSC : 298.

This coin commemorates Augustus' triumphant agreement with the Parthians in 20 B.C. under which they returned the legionary standards captured from Crassus who was defeated and killed at Carrhae thirty-three years earlier (53 B.C.) Augustus installed these standards in the Temple of Mars Ultor.
The reverse of the coin shows the triumphal arch which was awarded to Augustus on the occasion of his recovery of the standards. This was the second triumphal arch awarded to Augustus and, like the earlier arch which had been constructed in 29 BC to honour his victory over Cleopatra, this second arch, which archaeological evidence suggests may actually have incorporated the first arch, stood in close proximity to the Temple of Divus Julius at the southern entrance to the Roman Forum.

This is the rarest cistophorus struck during the reign of Augustus with the exception of the exceedingly rare issues featuring a sphinx.
6 commentsdivvsavgvstvs
Baktria,_Diodotos_I,_AR_tetradrachm_-_Holt_A6_4_(this_coin)~0.jpg
Baktrian Kingdom, Diodotos I, ca. 255/250-240 BC, AR Tetradrachm 27 viewsDiademed head of Diodotos I right.
ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ANTIOXOY Zeus advancing left hurling thunderbolt, eagle at feet, ΙΔΤ (Iota, Delta, Sampi) monogram in inner left field.

Holt A6.4 (this coin); Kritt A6 (plate 2 A6 this coin); CSE 1294 (this coin); SNG Lockett 3109 (this coin ID: SNGuk_0300_3109); Pozzi 2945 (this coin); ESM 717α (this coin); SNG ANS 77; SC 631.a; Bopearachchi 2E; Mitchiner 64d; Qunduz 6; HGC 9, 243.
Mint "A" - Ai Khanoum

(26 mm, 15.73 g, 6h).
Herakles Numismatics; ex- Houghton Collection (CSE 1294); ex- Lockett Collection (SNGLockett 3109); ex- Pozzi Collection: Naville Sale I (1921) 2945 (sold for CHF 35).

This coin has a very distinguished provenance and has been published as plate coin in four reference works.

The emission with the ΙΔΤ (Iota, Delta Sampi) mint control mark is the most abundant of the Diodotid issues, representing about 13% of known Diodotid precious metal coins. The same control carries over into the early coinage of Euthydemos, although eventually displaced by the PK control monogram after 208/6 BC when Antiochos III captured Ai Khanoum while Euthydemos remained besieged at Baktra, after which it appears that Baktra/Balkh assumed the role of primary royal mint in Baktria. In is notable that the Archaic Greek letter Sampi forms the bottom of the ΙΔΤ monogram. It is an Archaic Greek form of a double Sigma that persisted in Greek dialects of Asia Minor. Many Greek settlers from Asia Minor migrated to Baktria, including the illustrious ruler Euthydemos from Magnesia in either Lydia, or Ionia. The archaic Greek Sampi possibly traveled to Baktria with the earliest Greek settlers from Asia Minor.
n.igma
dcl.jpg
Claudius II Gothicus, 268-270 CE.20 viewsBronze Antoninianus, Minister 478
Obverse: DIVO CLAUVDIO, radiate head right.
Reverse: CONSECRATIO, garlanded altar with flames above, no decoration on front. 16.7 mm., 1.8 g.
Note: Although a variation of this coin is in the RIC and Cohen, these sources generally refer to the type with a front divided into four sections (RIC 261). This type of garlanded altar, lit altar was not described and published until the discovery of the Minister Hoard, discovered after RIC was written.
NORMAN K
38220.jpg
Egypt, Alexandria. Domitian. A.D. 81-96. AE drachm.41 views
Egypt, Alexandria. Domitian. A.D. 81-96. AE drachm (34.7 mm, 23.61 g, 11 h). Alexandria mint, Struck A.D. 95/6. [AVT KAIC ΘЄ] OVIOC ΔOMIT [CЄB ΓЄPM], laureate head of Domitian right / Frontal elevation of triumphal arch; L - IE ( yr. 15 = A.D. 95/6 ). Emmett 257.15. Near VF / VF, very dark green smooth patina. Scarce (Emmett "frequency" 2).
From the D. Thomas Collection; Wz Group CEM; Ex Walter Niggeler Collection; Ex Bank Leu/Munzen und Medallien.
3 commentsAncient Aussie
DSC01795.JPG
INDIA-Panchala-Kingdom-HALF-Karshapana-INDIRAMITRA-RARE-COIN-4-42gm 15 viewsObverse Lord Indra standing on a pedestal
Reverse Three Panchala symbols in a row, with name below in Brahmi script: Indramitrasa
Date c. 1st century BCE - 1st century CE (highly uncertain)
Weight 4.78 gm.
Diameter 16 mm.
Die axis 5 o'clock
Reference MAC 4539, Shrimali Type A
Comments The Panchala series is one of the most interesting of the ancient India coin series, because it is quite long and the kings are named on them. Unfortunately, we know very little about the chronology. The order of kings is not known and even the dates of the series are still debated. It appears the series belongs in the post-Mauryan period, but further details are still unavailable.

You can see a catalog of Panchala coins on the CoinIndia website.
Antonivs Protti
DSC01834.JPG
INDIA-Panchala-Kingdom-HALF-Karshapana-INDIRAMITRA-RARE-COIN-4-6gm 13 viewsObverse Lord Indra standing on a pedestal
Reverse Three Panchala symbols in a row, with name below in Brahmi script: Indramitrasa
Date c. 1st century BCE - 1st century CE (highly uncertain)
Weight 4.78 gm.
Diameter 16 mm.
Die axis 5 o'clock
Reference MAC 4539, Shrimali Type A
Comments The Panchala series is one of the most interesting of the ancient India coin series, because it is quite long and the kings are named on them. Unfortunately, we know very little about the chronology. The order of kings is not known and even the dates of the series are still debated. It appears the series belongs in the post-Mauryan period, but further details are still unavailable.

You can see a catalog of Panchala coins on the CoinIndia website.
Antonivs Protti
iersab.jpg
Kingdom of JERUSALEM. Struck during the siege of Jerusalem by Sibylla, Queen of Jerusalem and Balian of Ibelin in 1187 . Bi Denier .124 viewsKingdom of Jerusalem . Struck during the siege of Jerusalem by Sibylla, Queen of Jerusalem and Balian of Ibelin in 1187 . Bi Denier .
+ TVRRIS DAVIT (legend retrograde), Tower of David
+ SЄPVLChRVM DOMINI, view of the Church of the Holy Sepulcher
Slocum 288; cf. C.J. Sabine, “Numismatic iconography of the Tower of David and the Holy Sepulchre,” NC 1979, pl. 17, 3; N. du Quesne Bird, “Two deniers from Jerusalem, Jordan,” NumCirc LXXIII.5 (May 1965), p. 109; Metcalf, Crusades, p. 77; CCS 51.
Very Rare . Thirteen known example .
The Ernoul chronicle refers to Balian of Ibelin and the patriarch Heraclius of Jerusalem stripped the silver and gold edicule from the Church of the Holy Sepulcher for striking coins to pay those defending the city at it's last stand .
2 commentsVladislav D
sear1966clipped.jpg
Manuel I Komnenus clipped billion aspron trachy SB196666 viewsObverse: IC-XC (bar above) in field, Christ bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and colobion, seated upon throne without back; holds gospels in left hand.
Reverse: MAN(monogram)HA AECIIOT or var, MP OV bar above in upper right field, Full-length figure of emperor, bearded on left, crowned by Virgin nimbate. Emperor wears stemma, divitision, collar-peice, and jewelled loros of simplified type; holds in right hand labarum-headed scepter, and in left globus cruciger. Virgin wears tunic and maphorion.
four main varieties:
Mint: Constantinople
Date: 1167-1183?
Sear 1966 Var d, Fourth coinage; H 16.14,15; 17.1-4
rev: Jewel within circle on loros waist
16mm .89gm
As discussed in the Byzantine forumThese are the "neatly clipped" trachies.
During the reign of Manuel I the silver content of the trachy was dropped from c.6% to c.3%, but later types were sometimes issued with the higher silver content.
In Alexius III's time these high silver types were clipped down to half size, probably officially, presumably so as to match the lower silver content of the later issues.
Of course this would only have worked as long as the populace accepted the idea that the clipped coins were all high silver versions to start with. Once smarties started clipping ordinary coins these types would soon have have fallen out of favour and been withdrawn.

Ross G.


During the reign of Alexius III were reused coins of previous releases, clipping its border in a very regular mode and thus reducing to half their weight. Regularity of shearing and the fact that they were found to stock uniforms, suggesting that this clipping is a formal issuance of mint. Based on the stocks found in Constantinople , some of which consist only of clipped coins, it may safely be dated between 1195 and 1203.
Hendy and Grierson believe that this shearing was a consequence of the devaluation of trachy mixture during the reign of Isaac II and Alexius III. They reduced by half the already low silver content of this coin: shearing coins of previous emperors, still widely in circulation, made their trachy consistent with the intrinsic value of current emissions. Of course, this does not justify the clipping of coins already degraded of Isaac II and Alexius III. Therefore, reason for their declassification is not understood. I think that reason of Ross is right!
The structure of their dispersion in hoards indicates that, however, were made after the other emissions. Clipped trachys appear in small amounts along with regular trachy in hoards, represents a rarity. Were clipped trachys of Manuel I, Andronicus I, Isaac II and Alexius III, and perhaps of John II; those of Manuel are less scarce. In principle, we must believe that all trachys after Manuel I have been clipped, although many have not yet appeared.

Antvwala
wileyc
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Plautilla, overview295 viewsThere are five main types of portrait for Plautilla’s denarii at the Rome mint :

A - With a draped bust right, hair coiled in horizontal ridges and fastened in bun in high position. Her facial expression is juvenile
B - Hair being coiled in vertical ridges, with bun in low position. Plautilla looks here more like a young beautiful woman
C - The third bust shows a thinner face of Plautilla with hair in vertical ridges and no bun but braids covering her neck
D - The fourth type has a similar appearance with the former, but the vertical ridges disappear, hair being plastered down, still showing the right ear
E - Plautilla appears with mid long hair plastered down and covering her ears

In the mean time there are seven different reverses :

1 - CONCORDIAE AETERNAE
2 - PROPAGO IMPERI
3 - CONCORDIA AVGG
4 - CONCORDIA FELIX
5 - PIETAS AVGG
6 – DIANA LVCIFERA

Not every combination exists, but some of the above reverses can be shared by several obverse portraits. Noticeable also is an evolution of the obverse legend, being PLAVTILLAE AVGVSTAE (a) in 202, and becoming PLAVTILLA AVGVSTA (b) soon after

You can see the evolution of this interesting coinage in my Plautilla's gallery.
3 commentsPotator II
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RIC 15249 viewsObverse: IMP C M CL TACITVS AVG
radiate, draped & cuirassed bust right

Reverse: PROVIDE AVG
Providentia standing left holding globe & scepter

Exergue: Q

Officina: 5th

Very Rare - 2 in La Venera Hoard
1 commentsrick fox
00327q00.jpg
Xerxes II13 viewsAchaemenid Empire. Time of Darios I to Xerxes II, circa 485-420 BC. Siglos (Silver, 16 mm, 5.38 g), Sardes. Persian king or hero in kneeling/running stance to right, holding spear and bow. Rev. Incuse punch. Carradice Type IIIa/b. Beautifully toned. Very fine.arash p
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Δ in circular punch219 viewsMACEDON (?). Thessalonica (?). Augustus. Ć 22. 27 B.C.- A.D. 14. Obv: KAIΣAP-(ΣEBAΣTOΣ) or similar. Laureate head right; countermark before chin. Rev: Inscription obliterated. City ethnic in wreath. Weight: 9.25 g. CM: Δ in circular punch, 5 mm. Howgego 706 (1 pc). Note: Howgego lists only one (!) coin of the period, where the countermark may be a Δ. That coin was struck for Octavian in Thessalonica, dated to 28/27 B.C. It is listed as "not verified" and the countermark described as A or Δ. In regard to [107], the countermark is very clearly Δ! Collection Automan.Automan
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19 viewsUNITED STATES, Hard Times. Political issues.
CU Token (28.5mm, 8.53 g, 12h). Belleville (New Jersey) mint. Dated 1838.
AM I NOT A WOMAN & A SISTER, hained female slave kneeling right, raising arms in supplication; * 1838 * below UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, LIBERTY/ 1838 within wreath
Rulau HT 81; Low 54

Ex Album 33 (17 January 2019), lot 2542

June 1900 saw a brief flurry of journalistic interest in the "Am I Not A Woman & A Sister" tokens. A specimen had been found in a garden in Indiana, apparently in one of the many towns that claim a connection to the Underground Railroad, and received a glowing and fanciful write up in the local newspaper. The paper claimed that it was a "Talisman of Slavery," and used as a token to ensure safe passage along the escaped slave's route, and that it was a very rare piece. The following week a newspaper in Maine recorded that a local collector had another example, again drawing a purported connection to the Underground Railroad. Astutely, the July 1900 edition of the American Journal of Numismatics pointed out that, while an isolated use like this was possible, it was not what the tokens were originally intended for.
Ardatirion
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32 viewsBRITISH TOKENS, Tudor. temp. Mary–Edward VI.1553-1558.
PB Token (27mm, 5.29 g). St. Nicholas (‘Boy Bishop’) type. Cast in East Anglia (Bury St. Edmund’s?)
Mitre, croizer to right; all within border
Long cross pattée with trefoils in angles; scrollwork border
Rigold, Tokens class X.B, 1; Mitchiner & Skinner group Ra, 1

Ex Classical Numismatic Review XXXIX.1 (Spring 2014), no. 973330

Britain in the late middle ages played host to a popular regional variant of the ‘Feast of Fools’ festival. Every year on the feast of St. Nicholas, a boy was elected from among the local choristers to serve as ‘bishop.’ Dressed in mitre and bearing the croizer of his office, the young boy paraded through the city accompanied by his equally youthful ‘priest’ attendants. The ‘bishop’ performed all the ceremonies and offices of the real bishop, save for the actual conducting of mass. Though this practice was extinguished with the Dissolution of the Monasteries in 1539, it was briefly revived under Queen Mary, who took particular interest in the festival, when the lucky boy was referred to as ‘Queen Mary’s Child.’ The celebration of the boy bishop died out completely early in the reign of Elizabeth.

Evidence of this custom is particularly prevalent in East Anglia, specifically at Bury St. Edmunds. Beginning in the late 15th century, the region produced numerous lead tokens bearing the likeness of a bishop, often bearing legends relating to the festival of St. Nicholas. Issued in sizes roughly corresponding to groats, half groats, and pennies, these pieces were undoubtedly distributed by the boy bishop himself, and were likely redeemable at the local abbey or guild for treats and sweetmeats. Considering the endemic paucity of small change in Britain at the time, it is likely that, at least in parts of East Anglia, these tokens entered circulation along with the other private lead issues that were becoming common.
Ardatirion
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D.1189 Charles II the Bald (denier, class 1e,Orléans)40 viewsCharles the Bald, king of the Franks (840-877)
"Temple" denier (Orléans, class 1e, 840-864)

Silver, 1.64 g, 21 mm diameter, die axis 8h

O/ +CΛRLVS REX FR; cross pattée
R/ +XPISTIΛNΛ RELIGIO; temple

This other example of Class 1 is the continuation of Louis the Pious' temple denier. XPISTIANA RELIGIO is then most often replaced by the mint name.
Although this is not the case for this specimen, the mint attribution is very clear. It is Orléans, because of the exaggerated S of XPISTIANA and the first I of RELIGIO is in the angle of the L.
Droger
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Dy.164 Philip II (Augustus): denier parisis (Paris)21 viewsPhilip II, king of France (1180-1223)
Denier parisis (Paris)

Billon, 1.04 g, diameter 19 mm, die axis 9h
O: PHILIPVS REX; FRA/OCN
R: PARISII CIVIS, cross pattée

Philip II's denier parisis is very similar to his father's.
Droger
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Dy.176 Philip II (Augustus): denier tournois (Saint Martin de Tours)24 viewsPhilip II, king of France (1180-1223)
Denier tournois (Saint Martin de Tours)

Billon, 0.96 g, diameter 18.5 mm, die axis 7h
O: PHILIPVS REX; croix pattée
R: +SCS MARTINVS; châtel tournois

The livre parisis was a standard for minting coins (and for unit of accounts) inherited from the Carolingians.
In 1203, John (Lackland) lost Anjou to Philip II. The deniers minted at the Saint Martin abbey in Touraine were considered as very stable. So Philip II decided to adopt the livre tournois (tournois means "of Tours", Tours is a French city in Anjou close to Saint Martin abbey) as a new standard denier and unit of account. Livre parisis and livre tournois coexisted for some time but the livre tournois quickly outstripped the livre parisis as a unit of account. Deniers parisis ceased to be struck a little more than a century later, but livre parisis existed till 17th century.
SCS MARTINVS means Sanctus Martinus (Saint Martin). The name of the abbey was temporarily kept on the deniers tournois, but was soon replaced by the name of the city of Tours.
Droger
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Dy.204 Philip III (the Bold): denier tournois 18 viewsPhilip III, king of France (1270-1285)
Denier tournois (1270-1280)

Billon (299 ‰), 0.85 g, diameter 19 mm, die axis 11h
O: +PhILIPVS.REX; cross pattée
R: +TVRONVS.CIVIS.; châtel tournois

Another example of this type, quite hard to find in a very good state.
Droger
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Dy.238 Philip V (the Tall): Gros tournois 25 viewsPhilip V, king of France (1316-1322)
Gros tournois (1318)

Silver (958 ‰), 3.93 g, diameter 26mm, die axis 12h

O: inner circle: +PhILIPPVS(hammer)REX; cross pattée; outer circle: BHDICTV⋮
SIT⋮HOmЄ⋮DNI⋮nRI⋮DЄI⋮IhV⋮XPI
R: inner circle: +TVRONVS(hammer)CIVIS; châtel tournois;
outer circle: a circlet of 12 fleur-de-lis

At first sight, Philip V's gros tournois are very similar to his father's ones. However, the general style is quite different: Philip V's tournois have a stretched castle, thiner letters with more space between them (especially for TVRONVS CIVIS), n of nOmЄ is an n but not an N) and ⋮ instead of . between IhV and XPI. Moreover, it is commonly thought that a hammer (like here) or a crescent separating TVRONVS/CIVIS and PHILIPPVS/REX is a typical feature of Philip V.

Philip V's gros tournois are scarcer than Philip IV's. His reign was shorter and a silver lack prevented him from minting as much as he wanted. Philip had to forbid the production of silver items like dishes in order to keep silver for minting.
Droger
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Dy.263 Philip VI (of Valois): Gros ŕ la fleur de lis, 2ond emission ?11 viewsPhilip VI, king of France (1328-1350)
Gros ŕ la fleur de lis (3 emissions between 1341 and 1343)

White billon (479 ‰), 2.50 g, diameter 24 mm, die axis 6h
O: inner circle: +PhILIPPVS.REX; cross pattée with a fleur-de-lis in the NE quadrant; outer circle: BnDICTV⋮SIT⋮HOmЄ⋮DNI⋮nRI⋮DЄI
R: inner circle: +FRANCORVm; fleur-de-lis; outer circle: a circle of 10 fleur-de-lis

The 3 emissions are very similar, the weight is the only difference. This coin may belong to the 2ond emission.
Droger
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D.1155 Louis II the Stammerer (denier, Visé)5 viewsLouis II the Stammerer, king of the Franks (877-879)
Denier (Tours)

Silver, 0,79 g, 19 mm diameter, die axis 8h

O/ +HLVDOVVICVS REX; KRLS monogram of Charles (legend beginning at 10h)
R/ +IN VICO VIOSΛTO; croix pattée

The KRLS (Karolus) monogram appears on this coinage of Louis II. One can imagine that there hadn't been much time to think about a new monogram just after Charles II's death.

Louis II was physically quite weak and died 2 years after his father Charles II. His reign was consequently very short.
Droger
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D.1041 Louis III (denier, Tours)31 viewsLouis III, king of the Franks (879-882)
Denier (Tours)

Silver, 1.78 g, 19 mm diameter, die axis 12h

O/ +IIISIRICORDIΛ DI REX; Louis' monogram (legend beginning at 3h)
R/ +HTVR◊NES CIVITAS; croix pattée

Louis III became king of West Francia at 16 after his father Louis II died quite young. As he was the only living son of Charles II, Louis II had inherited the full kingdom of West Francia from his father. At opposite, when Louis II died, his sons Louis III and Carloman II divided the kingdom into a northern part for Louis III and a southern part for his brother Carloman II. During his reign, Louis III (in alliance with his brother) achieved military successes, especially against Vikings. However, Louis III's reign didn't last long. Louis III died inadvertently at 19 while chasing a girl on his horse. He hit violently the lintel of a door with his head.
Louis III's coinage is hard to distinguish from Louis II's. Both bear the same name et both reigns were very short. Three kinds of coins can be found:
* coins with legend LVDOVICS REX and a KRLS monogram : these coins have been found for northern and southern mints and are consequently given for Louis II;
* coins with a LVDOVICVS monogram ; they have only been found for the northern mints, and are consequently supposed to be Louis III's;
* coins of Toulouse with LV/DO, imitating the ones of Charles emperor with CA/RL. The attribution to Louis II seems to be straightforward due to the southern position.
The legend of the coin is different from the traditional Gratia di Rex, but still shows a religious origin. However its success remained very limited, with some scare coins of Louis III and Eudes.
3 commentsDroger
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D.163 Eudes (denier, Blois)15 viewsEudes, king of the Franks (888-898)
Denier (Blois)

Silver, 1.59 g, 20 mm diameter, die axis 3h

O/ +MISERICORDIΛ DE-I; monogram
R/ +BIESIΛNIS CΛSTR◊; cross pattée

Eudes was not a Carolingian. As count of Paris, he obtained successful results against the Viking attacks. He was then chosen by frankish noblemen to be the king. The legitimate heir Charles III the Simple was then too young to rule.

This type of coinage is a very Carolingian one.
Eudes made his own monograms. This one is quite elaborate, with ◊DO above and RX below. Still on the obverse, the inscription is Misericordia Dei instead of the traditional Gratia Dei Rex. These two features (monogram and legend) make this coin very similar to Louis III's coins of Touraine (Blois and Tours mainly).

Droger
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D.1012 Eudes (denier, Toulouse)31 viewsEudes, king of the Franks (888-898)
Denier (Toulouse)

Silver, 1.45 g, 20 mm diameter, die axis 3h

O/ +ODDO REX FR-C; cross pattée
R/ +TOLOSA CIVI; OD/DO monogram

Eudes'monogram is quite simple on this coin. It is made of 2D's and 2 O's (Oddo, which is Eudes in latin). The legend is a very traditional one.
Droger
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S.1158 Cnut (pointed helmet penny, London)17 viewsCnut, king of England (1016-1035)
Pointed helmet penny (moneyer: Edwerd, mint: London, 1024-1030)

A/ +CNVT: - RECX A: around central circle enclosing bust in pointed helmet left holding scepter
R/ +ELEDERD ON LV(ND): around central circle enclosing quarters of short voided cross with circles in centre

silver, 1.04 g, diameter 18 mm, die axis 7h

Peck marks are very common on these pennies. A large part of them was minted in order to pay the danegeld (tax raised to pay tribute to Vikings to save a land from their raids). These peck marks are supposed to have been made by Danes when checking the penny was in good silver.

1 commentsDroger
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"8 Zhu" Ban Liang of Qin Kingdom (Eastern Zhou Dynasty)24 viewsMinted 300-220 BCE.

Two huge Chinese characters - Ban Liang ("Half an ounce"), no rims or other marks / Blank, no rims. Unfiled edges.

This very large thin coins of variable weight were made under the very late Zhou dynasty - they are local issues, and might belong either to the late "Warring States" period or the early Qin period.

31mm, 3.52 grams. Hartill #7.4.
Belisarius
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"As de Nîmes" or "crocodile" Ӕ dupondius of Nemausus (9 - 3 BC), honoring Augustus and Agrippa33 viewsIMP DIVI F , Heads of Agrippa (left) and Augustus (right) back to back, Agrippa wearing rostral crown and Augustus the oak-wreath / COL NEM, crocodile right chained to palm-shoot with short dense fronds and tip right; two short palm offshoots left and right below, above on left a wreath with two long ties streaming right.

Ӕ, 24.5 x 3+ mm, 13.23g, die axis 3h; on both sides there are remains of what appears to be gold plating, perhaps it was a votive offering? Rough edges and slight scrapes on flan typical for this kind of coin, due to primitive technology (filing) of flan preparation.

IMPerator DIVI Filius. Mint of COLonia NEMausus (currently Nîmes, France). Known as "As de Nîmes", it is actually a dupontius (lit. "two-pounder") = 2 ases (sometimes cut in halves to get change). Dupondii were often made out of a golden-colored copper alloy (type of brass) "orichalcum" and this appears to be such case.

Key ID points: oak-wreath (microphotography shows that at least one leaf has a complicated shape, although distinguishing oak from laurel is very difficult) – earlier versions have Augustus bareheaded, no PP on obverse as in later versions, no NE ligature, palm with short fronds with tip right (later versions have tip left and sometimes long fronds). Not typical: no clear laurel wreath together with the rostral crown, gold (?) plating (!), both features really baffling.

But still clearly a "middle" kind of the croc dupondius, known as "type III": RIC I 158, RPC I 524, Sear 1730. It is often conservatively dated to 10 BC - 10 AD, but these days it is usually narrowed to 9/8 - 3 BC.

It is a commemorative issue, honoring the victory over Mark Antony and conquest of Egypt in 30 BC. The heads of Augustus and Agrippa were probably positioned to remind familiar obverses of Roman republican coins with two-faced Janus. Palm branch was a common symbol of victory, in this case grown into a tree, like the victories of Augustus and Agrippa grown into the empire. The two offshoots at the bottom may mean two sons of Agrippa, Gaius and Lucius, who were supposed to be Augustus' heirs and were patrons of the colony. Palm may also be a symbol of the local Nemausian deity, which was probably worshiped in a sacred grove. When these coins were minted, the colony was mostly populated by the settled veterans of Augustus' campaigns, hence the reminiscence of the most famous victory, but some of the original Celtic culture probably survived and was assimilated by Romans. The crocodile is not only the symbol of Egypt, like in the famous Octavian's coins AEGYPTO CAPTA. It is also a representation of Mark Antony, powerful and scary both in water and on land, but a bit slow and stupid. The shape of the crocodile with tail up was specifically chosen to remind of the shape of ship on very common "legionary" denarius series, which Mark Antony minted to pay his armies just before Actium. It is probably also related to the popular contemporary caricature of Cleopatra, riding on and simultaneously copulating with a crocodile, holding a palm branch in her hand as if in triumph. There the crocodile also symbolized Mark Antony.

Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa was born c. 64-62 BC somewhere in rural Italy. His family was of humble and plebeian origins, but rich, of equestrian rank. Agrippa was about the same age as Octavian, and the two were educated together and became close friends. He probably first served in Caesar's Spanish campaign of 46–45 BC. Caesar regarded him highly enough to send him with Octavius in 45 BC to train in Illyria. When Octavian returned to Rome after Caesar's assassination, Agrippa became his close lieutenant, performing many tasks. He probably started his political career in 43 BC as a tribune of the people and then a member of the Senate. Then he was one of the leading Octavian's generals, finally becoming THE leading general and admiral in the civil wars of the subsequent years.

In 38 as a governor of Transalpine Gaul Agrippa undertook an expedition to Germania, thus becoming the first Roman general since Julius Caesar to cross the Rhine. During this foray he helped the Germanic tribe of Ubii (who previously allied themselves with Caesar in 55 BC) to resettle on the west bank of the Rhine. A shrine was dedicated there, possibly to Divus Caesar whom Ubii fondly remembered, and the village became known as Ara Ubiorum, "Altar of Ubians". This quickly would become an important Roman settlement. Agrippina the Younger, Agrippa's granddaughter, wife of Emperor Claudius and mother of Emperor Nero, would be born there in 15 AD. In 50 AD she would sponsor this village to be upgraded to a colonia, and it would be renamed Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium (colony of Claudius [at] the Altar of Agrippinians – Ubii renamed themselves as Agrippinians to honor the augusta!), abbreviated as CCAA, later to become the capital of new Roman province, Germania Inferior.

In 37 BC Octavian recalled Agrippa back to Rome and arranged for him to win the consular elections, he desperately needed help in naval warfare with Sextus Pompey, the youngest son of Pompey the Great, who styled himself as the last supporter of the republican cause, but in reality became a pirate king, an irony since his father was the one who virtually exterminated piracy in all the Roman waters. He forced humiliating armistice on the triumvirs in 39 BC and when Octavian renewed the hostilities a year later, defeated him in a decisive naval battle of Messina. New fleet had to be built and trained, and Agrippa was the man for the job. Agrippa's solution was creating a huge secret naval base he called Portus Iulius by connecting together lakes Avernus, Avernus and the natural inner and outer harbors behind Cape Misenum at the northern end of the Gulf of Naples. He also created a larger type of ship and developed a new naval weapon: harpax – a ballista-launched grapnel shot with mechanisms that allowed pulling enemy ships close for easy boarding. It replaced the previous boarding device that Romans used since the First Punic War, corvus – effective, but extremely cumbersome. A later defence against it were scythe blades on long poles for cutting ropes, but since this invention was developed in secret, the enemy had no chance to prepare anything like it. It all has proved extremely effective: in a series of naval engagements Agrippa annihilated the fleet of Sextus, forced him to abandon his bases and run away. For this Agrippa was awarded an unprecedented honour that no Roman before or after him received: a rostral crown, "corona rostrata", a wreath decorated in front by a prow and beak of a ship.

That's why Virgil (Aeneid VIII, 683-684), describing Agrippa at Actium, says: "…belli insigne superbum, tempora navali fulgent rostrata corona." "…the proud military decoration, gleams on his brow the naval rostral crown". Actium, the decisive battle between forces of Octavian and Mark Antony, may appear boring compared to the war with Sextus, but it probably turned out this way due to Agrippa's victories in preliminary naval engagements and taking over all the strategy from Octavian.

In between the wars Agrippa has shown an unusual talent in city planning, not only constructing many new public buildings etc., but also greatly improving Rome's sanitation by doing a complete overhaul of all the aqueducts and sewers. Typically, it was Augustus who later would boast that "he had found the city of brick but left it of marble", forgetting that, just like in his naval successes, it was Agrippa who did most of the work. Agrippa had building programs in other Roman cities as well, a magnificent temple (currently known as Maison Carrée) survives in Nîmes itself, which was probably built by Agrippa.

Later relationship between Augustus and Agrippa seemed colder for a while, Agrippa seemed to even go into "exile", but modern historians agree that it was just a ploy: Augustus wanted others to think that Agrippa was his "rival" while in truth he was keeping a significant army far away from Rome, ready to come to the rescue in case Augustus' political machinations fail. It is confirmed by the fact that later Agrippa was recalled and given authority almost equal to Augustus himself, not to mention that he married Augustus' only biological child. The last years of Agrippa's life were spent governing the eastern provinces, were he won respect even of the Jews. He also restored Crimea to Roman Empire. His last service was starting the conquest of the upper Danube, were later the province of Pannonia would be. He suddenly died of illness in 12 BC, aged ~51.

Agrippa had several children through his three marriages. Through some of his children, Agrippa would become ancestor to many subsequent members of the Julio-Claudian dynasty. He has numerous other legacies.
Yurii P
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"C" Denarius, Crawford 107/1a - My favorite Coin26 viewsDenomination: Denarius
Era: c. 209-208 BC
Metal: AR
Obverse: Helmeted head of Roma r. with splayed visor; “X” behind; Border of dots
Reverse: Dioscuri r.; Above, “C”; in linear frame, “ROMA”.
Mint: Etruia(?)
Weight: 4.44 gm.
Reference: Crawford 107/1a
Provenance: NAC 61; 25-OCT-2011, Privately purchased by RBW from CNG in 1989


Comments: This is one of my favorite coins. It is not high grade, neither the obverse nor the reverse is well centered. The dioscuri are really just blobs, and this coin would be overlooked in any sale but the NAC 61 sale of RBW’s finest and rarest coins, perhaps the greatest Roman Republican auction of our generation. Nevertheless, the coin has a lovely tone and a style that is very characteristic of this issue which is quite rare.

Unique to this variety and the related staff issue, are the braided locks extending from the helmet to the hair binding. The stars are simple dots above the dioscuri, and ROMA is cut into the die with very large letters with a very fine line tool. There has been much speculation on the significance of the “C” insignia, but few with any real merit.
1 commentsSteve B5
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"Q" Quinarius, RRC 86A/123 viewsDenomination: Quinarius
Era: c. 211 BC
Metal: AR
Obverse: Helmeted head of Roma r. with splayed visor. Hair curl visible on far side of Roma’s neck. Behind, “V”. Border of dots
Reverse: Dioscuri r.; “ROMA” in exergue. “Q” symbol below horses
Mint: S. E. Italy
Weight: 2.11 gm.
Reference: Crawford 86A/1
Provenance: Nomisma E-Live Auction 12, October 2, 2019, Lot 2034

Comments: “Q” symbol quinarius, Not to be confused with the more common Crawford 102/2 Q quinarius varieties. Very scarce, 6 examples in ACSearch at this writing.

Glossy jet black patina(?) Some reverse corrosion, otherwise GVF.
3 commentsSteve B5
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(0193) JULIA DOMNA31 viewsb. ca. 170, d. 217
(wife of Septimius Severus; mother of emperors Geta and Caracalla)
Struck ca 198 - 209 AD
AE Assarion 22 X 25 mm, 4.58 g
O: Draped bust right
R: Hermes facing, as a terminal figure, holding kerykeion in his right hand and purse in his left
Arcadia, Phigaleia; NCP, V XII (very rare)
1 commentslaney
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(0193) SEPTIMIUS SEVERUS70 views193 - 211 AD
AE 26 mm 9.29 g
Nikopolis, without the name of a governor.
O: AV KAI L CE - P CEVHROC, laureate bust right
R: NEIKOPOLITW - N PROC ICTRON, Hermes standing holding purse and caduceus, rooster at right foot
Pick 1341
Hristova/Jekov No. 8.14.10.13 (very rare, R7)
laney
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(0193) SEPTIMIUS SEVERUS19 views193-211 AD
AE 25.5 mm, 8.66 g
struck under governor Aurelius Gallus
O: AVT L CEPT -[ CEVHR PER] laureate head right
R: VP AV[R GALLOV] [NIKOPOLI]TWN Cretan Bull with uplifted forelegs and raised tail left; Herakles, nude, running beside him left, grasping s the bull's horns to subdue him; club on ground behind Herakles’ right foot; PPOC ICTP and bow in exergue.
MOESIA INFERIOR. Nicopolis ad Istrum; AMNG I 1309. Varbanov 2134. Voegtli type 4m. Stoll, Herakles 39. Hristova/Jekov (2011) No. 8.14.14.25 Very rare
laney
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(0193) SEPTIMIUS SEVERUS (HELIOPOLIS)42 views193 - 211 AD
AE 24 X 26 mm, 9.84 g
O: Radiate head right
R: GETA - ANT Geta and Caracalla in togas, facing each other and clasping hands; CO/EL between
Heliopolis, Coele-Syria Lindgren III, 71, 1274; very rare
laney
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(0193) SEPTIMIUS SEVERUS (Retrograde Reverse Legend)25 views193-211 AD
AE 27 mm, 10.41 g
(struck under governor Aurelius Gallus)
O: [AV KL] CEP - CEVHRO[C P] Laureate draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind
R: VP AVR GALL - OV NIKOPOLIT / PROC I (retrograde, beginning at 5 o'clock, counterclockwise)
Dionysos, nude, wearing boots, standing left, resting with raised left hand on thyrsos, lowered right hand holding kantharos and pouring
wine
ref. a) not in AMNG
obv. AMNG I/1, 1304
rev. legend not in AMNG
AMNG I/1, 1306 (depiction)
b) not in Varbanov (engl.)
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2015) No. 8.14.8.8
d) Blancon list 43, 2003
Nikocopolis ad Istrum; very rare
(one of the rare coins with retrograde legend)
laney
carh_cara_geta_b_res.jpg
(0198) CARACALLA AND GETA50 viewsca. 208 - 211 AD
AE 18.7mm, 4.45 g
O: confronted busts of laureate, draped, cuirassed Caracalla, on left: and bare-headed, draped Geta, on right.
R: star of eight rays within crescent, legend around crescent
Mesopotamia, Carrhae mint; cf. BMC p. 87, 45-8; SNG Cop -; Weber -; McClean -; very rare
laney
geta_res.jpg
(0198) GETA48 views198 - 212 AD
Struck 209 AD*
AE 29.5 mm 14.99 g
O: AVT K P CEP MIOC GETA laureate head right
R: PAVTA (right) LIAC (below) OVLPIAC (left) Septimius, togate, handing globe to Geta, in military dress, laureate, holding a spear. Between them, a seated captive, hands tied behind back, wearing Phrygian cap.
Pautalia
Varbanov 5404, same dies as this specimen.
Ruzicka, Pautalia 909, recording five specimens from two reverse dies. The reverse he illustrates, pl. VII, is from the same die as this specimen.
Very Rare
*(Geta is Augustus on the obverse, so reverse type probably refers to his promotion to joint emperor late in 209)
laney
geta_pautalia_-_Copyb.jpg
(0198) GETA29 views198 - 212 AD
Struck 209 AD*
AE 29.5 mm 14.99 g
O: AVT K P CEP MIOC GETA laureate head right
R: PAVTA (right) LIAC (below) OVLPIAC (left) Septimius, togate, handing globe to Geta, in military dress, laureate, holding a spear. Between them, a seated captive, hands tied behind back, wearing Phrygian cap.
Pautalia
Varbanov 5404, same dies as this specimen.
Ruzicka, Pautalia 909, recording five specimens from two reverse dies. The reverse he illustrates, pl. VII, is from the same die as this specimen.
Very Rare
*(Geta is Augustus on the obverse, so reverse type probably refers to his promotion to joint emperor late in 209)
laney
egal_antipatris_temple_res.jpg
(0218) ELAGABALUS (ANTIPATRIS MINT)40 views218 -222 AD
AE 17.5 mm; 6 5 g
O ...NOC C... Laureate draped bust of Elagabalus right
R: Tetrastyle temple, central arch; within, Tyche in short chiton kneeling left holding small bust and spear, resting her foot on river god (Yarkon); ΑΝ(ΤΙΠ) (Antipatris) in exe.
Antipatris (very rare city), Judaea
cf. Sofaer Pl. 21 4, 5.; cf. BM-1, pl. II.7, cf. SNG ANS-635, cf. Rosenberger 1. Very rare.
(Antipatris struck coins only during the reign of Elagabalus)
laney
balbinus_res.jpg
(0238) BALBINUS27 views238 AD
AE Orichalcum sestertius 30 mm; 18.73 g
O: IMP CAES D CAEL BALBINVS AVG Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust of Balbinus to right.
R: PROVIDENTIA DEORVM S C; Providentia standing left, holding cornucopia in her left hand and wand in her right; at her feet to left, globe. Rome mint
BMC 34. Cohen 24. RIC 19. (Very scarce)
laney
delmatius_2_res.jpg
(0335) DELMATIUS31 views335 - 337 AD
AE 16.5 mm 1.64 g
O: FL DELMA TIVS NOB C Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
R: GLOR-IA - EXERC-ITVS Two soldiers standing facing, heads confronted, each holds a spear in outer hand and rests inner hand on shield, flanking a labarum (Christogram standard)
PCONST in ex
Arles mint
RIC VII 399; very scarce (RIC R3)
laney
galba_antioch.jpg
(07) GALBA19 views68-69 AD
AE22 (7.16 g), Antioch, Syria.
Obv. IMP SER GALBA CAE AVG, Laureate head to right.
Rev. S C within large wreath.
Antioch, Syria. McAlee 314 (same dies); RPC I 4315var (obv. legend)
From the Richard McAlee Collection
Rare, only the second known to McAlee. Very fine.

laney
roma_numis_auction_otho_glk_2.jpg
(08) OTHO13 views15 January - 8 March 69 AD
AR Denarius 18 mm, 2.82 g
O: IMP OTHO CAESAR AVG TR P, bare head right
R: SECVRITAS P R, Securitas, draped, standing left, holding wreath in extended right hand, cradling sceptre in left arm
Rome; RIC 10; BMCRE 19; BN 11-13. Very Rare
Ex. Roma Numismatics auction 01.2019
laney
P.Licinius Nerva voting.jpg
(500a113) Roman Republic, P. Licinius Nerva, 113-112 B.C.86 viewsROMAN REPUBLIC: P. Licinius Nerva. AR denarius (3.93 gm). Rome, ca. 113-112 BC. Helmeted bust of Roma left, holding spear over right shoulder and shield on left arm, crescent above, * before, ROMA behind / P. NERVA, voting scene showing two citizens casting their ballots in the Comitium, one receiving a ballot from an attendant, the other dropping his ballot into a vessel at right. Crawford 292/1. RSC Licinia 7. RCTV 169. Nearly very fine. Ex Freeman and Sear.

Here is a denarius whose reverse device is one that celebrates the privilege and responsibility that is the foundation of a democratic society; it is a forerunner to the L. Cassius Longinus denarius of 63 B.C. Granted, humanity had a long road ahead toward egalitarianism when this coin was struck, but isn't it an interesting testimony to civil liberty's heritage? "The voter on the left (reverse) receives his voting tablet from an election officer. Horizontal lines in the background indicate the barrier separating every voting division from the others. Both voters go across narrow raised walks (pontes); this is intended to ensure that the voter is seen to cast his vote without influence" (Meier, Christian. Caesar: A Biography. Berlin: Severin and Siedler, 1982. Plate 12). This significant coin precedes the Longinus denarius by 50 years.

J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
2 commentsCleisthenes
LPisoFrugiDenarius_S235.jpg
(502a) Roman Republic, L. Calpurnius Piso Frugi, 90 B.C.157 viewsSilver denarius, S 235, Calpurnia 11, Crawford 340/1, Syd 663a, VF, rainbow toning, Rome mint, 3.772g, 18.5mm, 180o, 90 B.C. obverse: laureate head of Apollo right, scorpion behind; Reverse naked horseman galloping right holding palm, L PISO FRVGI and control number CXI below; ex-CNA XV 6/5/91, #443. Ex FORVM.


A portion of the following text is a passage taken from the excellent article “The Calpurnii and Roman Family History: An Analysis of the Piso Frugi Coin in the Joel Handshu Collection at the College of Charleston,” by Chance W. Cook:

In the Roman world, particularly prior to the inception of the principate, moneyers were allotted a high degree of latitude to mint their coins as they saw fit. The tres viri monetales, the three men in charge of minting coins, who served one-year terms, often emblazoned their coins with an incredible variety of images and inscriptions reflecting the grandeur, history, and religion of Rome. Yet also prominent are references to personal or familial accomplishments; in this manner coins were also a means by which the tres viri monetales could honor their forbearers. Most obvious from an analysis of the Piso Frugi denarius is the respect and admiration that Lucius Calpurnius Piso Frugi, who minted the coin, had for his ancestors. For the images he selected for his dies relate directly to the lofty deeds performed by his Calpurnii forbearers in the century prior to his term as moneyer. The Calpurnii were present at many of the watershed events in the late Republic and had long distinguished themselves in serving the state, becoming an influential and well-respected family whose defense of traditional Roman values cannot be doubted.

Lucius Calpurnius Piso Frugi, who was moneyer in 90 B.C., depicted Apollo on the obverse and the galloping horseman on the reverse, as does his son Gaius. However, all of L. Piso Frugi’s coins have lettering similar to “L-PISO-FRVGI” on the reverse, quite disparate from his son Gaius’ derivations of “C-PISO-L-F-FRV.”

Moreover, C. Piso Frugi coins are noted as possessing “superior workmanship” to those produced by L. Piso Frugi.

The Frugi cognomen, which became hereditary, was first given to L. Calpurnius Piso, consul in 133 B.C., for his integrity and overall moral virtue. Cicero is noted as saying that frugal men possessed the three cardinal Stoic virtues of bravery, justice, and wisdom; indeed in the Thesaurus Linguae Latinae, a synonym of frugalitas is bonus, generically meaning “good” but also implying virtuous behavior. Gary Forsythe notes that Cicero would sometimes invoke L. Calpurnius Piso’s name at the beginning of speeches as “a paragon of moral rectitude” for his audience.

L. Calpurnius Piso Frugi’s inclusion of the laureled head of Apollo, essentially the same obverse die used by his son Gaius (c. 67 B.C.), was due to his family’s important role in the establishment of the Ludi Apollinares, the Games of Apollo, which were first instituted in 212 B.C. at the height of Hannibal’s invasion of Italy during the Second Punic War. By that time, Hannibal had crushed Roman armies at Cannae, seized Tarentum and was invading Campania.

Games had been used throughout Roman history as a means of allaying the fears
of the populace and distracting them from issues at hand; the Ludi Apollinares were no different. Forsythe follows the traditional interpretation that in 211 B.C., when C. Calpurnius Piso was praetor, he became the chief magistrate in Rome while both consuls were absent and the three other praetors were sent on military expeditions against Hannibal.

At this juncture, he put forth a motion in the Senate to make the Ludi Apollinares a yearly event, which was passed; the Ludi Apollinares did indeed become an important festival, eventually spanning eight days in the later Republic. However, this interpretation is debatable; H.H. Scullard suggests that the games were not made permanent until 208 B.C. after a severe plague prompted the Senate to make them a fixture on the calendar. The Senators believed Apollo would serve as a “healing god” for the people of Rome.

Nonetheless, the Calpurnii obviously believed their ancestor had played an integral role in the establishment of the Ludi Apollinares and thus prominently displayed
the head or bust of Apollo on the obverse of the coins they minted.

The meaning of the galloping horseman found on the reverse of the L. Calpurnius Piso Frugi coin is more complicated. It is possible that this is yet another reference to the Ludi Apollinares. Chariot races in the Circus Maximus were a major component of the games, along with animal hunts and theatrical performances.

A more intriguing possibility is that the horseman is a reference to C. Calpurnius Piso, son of the Calpurnius Piso who is said to have founded the Ludi Apollinares. This C. Calpurnius Piso was given a military command in 186 B.C. to quell a revolt in Spain. He was victorious, restoring order to the province and also gaining significant wealth in the process.

Upon his return to Rome in 184, he was granted a triumph by the Senate and eventually erected an arch on the Capitoline Hill celebrating his victory. Of course
the arch prominently displayed the Calpurnius name. Piso, however, was not an infantry commander; he led the cavalry.

The difficulty in accepting C. Calpurnius Piso’s victory in Spain as the impetus for the galloping horseman image is that not all of C. Piso Frugi’s coins depict the horseman or cavalryman carrying the palm, which is a symbol of victory. One is inclined to believe that the victory palm would be prominent in all of the coins minted by C. Piso Frugi (the son of L. Calpurnius Piso Frugi) if it indeed signified the great triumph of C. Calpurnius Piso in 186 B.C. Yet the palm’s appearance is clearly not a direct reference to military feats of C. Piso Frugi’s day. As noted, it is accepted that his coins were minted in 67 B.C.; in that year, the major victory by Roman forces was Pompey’s swift defeat of the pirates throughout the Mediterranean.

Chrestomathy: Annual Review of Undergraduate Research at the College of Charleston. Volume 1, 2002: pp. 1-10© 2002 by the College of Charleston, Charleston SC 29424, USA.All rights to be retained by the author.
http://www.cofc.edu/chrestomathy/vol1/cook.pdf


There are six (debatably seven) prominent Romans who have been known to posterity as Lucius Calpurnius Piso:

Lucius Calpurnius Piso Frugi: (d. 261 A.D.) a Roman usurper, whose existence is
questionable, based on the unreliable Historia Augusta.

Lucius Calpurnius Piso Licinianus: deputy Roman Emperor, 10 January 69 to15 January
69, appointed by Galba.

Lucius Calpurnius Piso: Consul in 27 A.D.

Lucius Calpurnius Piso: Consul in 1 B.C., augur

Lucius Calpurnius Piso: Consul in 15 B.C., pontifex

Lucius Calpurnius Piso Caesoninus: Consul in 58 B.C. (the uncle of Julius Caesar)

Lucius Calpurnius Piso Frugi: Moneyer in 90 B.C. (our man)


All but one (or two--if you believe in the existence of "Frugi the usurper" ca. 261 A.D.) of these gentlemen lack the Frugi cognomen, indicating they are not from the same direct lineage as our moneyer, though all are Calpurnii.

Calpurnius Piso Frugi's massive issue was intended to support the war against the Marsic Confederation. The type has numerous variations and control marks.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lucius_Calpurnius_Piso
http://www.forumancientcoins.com/catalog/indexfrm.asp?vpar=55&pos=0

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.


2 commentsCleisthenes
LonginusDenarius.jpg
(504c) Roman Republic, L. Cassius Longinus, 63 B.C.68 viewsSilver denarius, Crawford 413/1, RSC I Cassia 10, SRCV I 364, aVF, struck with worn dies, Rome mint, weight 3.867g, maximum diameter 20.3mm, die axis 0o, c. 63 B.C. Obverse: veiled bust of Vesta left, kylix behind, L before; Reverse: LONGIN III V, voter standing left, dropping tablet inscribed V into a cista.

The reverse of this Longinus denarius captures a fascinating moment when a Roman citizen casts his ballot. "The abbreviation III V [ir] indentifies Longinus as one of the three annually appointed mintmasters (officially called tres viri aere argento auro flando feriundo). A citizen is seen casting his vote into the urn. On the ballot is the letter 'U', short for uti rogas, a conventional formula indicating assent to a motion. The picture alludes to the law, requested by an ancestor of the mintmaster, which introduced the secret ballot in most proceedings of the popular court" (Meier, Christian. Caesar, a Biography. Berlin: Severin and Siedler, 1982. Plate 6).

The date that this denarius was struck possesses unique significance for another reason. Marcus Tullius Cicero (politician, philosopher, orator, humanist) was elected consul for the year 63 BC -- the first man elected consul who had no consular ancestors in more than 30 years. A "new man," Cicero was not the descendant of a "patrician" family, nor was his family wealthy (although Cicero married "well"). Cicero literally made himself the man he was by the power of the words he spoke and the way in which he spoke them. A witness to and major player during the decline of the Roman Republic, Cicero was murdered in 43 BC by thugs working for Marc Antony. But Cicero proved impossible to efface.

Cicero's words became part of the bed rock of later Roman education. As Peter Heather notes, every educated young man in the late Roman Empire studied "a small number of literary texts under the guidance of an expert in language and literary interpretation, the grammarian. This occupied the individual for seven or more years from about the age of eight, and concentrated on just four authors: Vergil, Cicero, Sallust and Terence" (Heather, Peter. The Fall of the Roman Empire: A New History of Rome and the Barbarians. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006. 17).


Plutarch: Cicero's Death

But in the meantime the assassins were come with a band of soldiers, Herennius, a centurion, and Popillius, a tribune, whom Cicero had formerly defended when prosecuted for the murder of his father. Finding the doors shut, they broke them open, and Cicero not appearing, and those within saying they knew not where he was, it is stated that a youth, who had been educated by Cicero in the liberal arts and sciences, an emancipated slave of his brother Quintus, Philologus by name, informed the tribune that the litter was on its way to the sea through the close and shady walks. The tribune, taking a few with him, ran to the place where he was to come out. And Cicero, perceiving Herennius running in the walks, commanded his servants to set down the litter; and stroking his chin, as he used to do, with his left hand, he looked steadfastly upon his murderers, his person covered with dust, his beard and hair untrimmed, and his face worn with his troubles. So that the greatest part of those that stood by covered their faces whilst Herennius slew him. And thus was he murdered, stretching forth his neck out of the litter, being now in his sixty-fourth year. Herennius cut off his head, and, by Antony's command, his hands also, by which his Philippics were written; for so Cicero styled those orations he wrote against Antony, and so they are called to this day.

When these members of Cicero were brought to Rome, Antony was holding an assembly for the choice of public officers; and when he heard it, and saw them, he cried out, "Now let there be an end of our proscriptions." He commanded his head and hands to be fastened up over the rostra, where the orators spoke; a sight which the Roman people shuddered to behold, and they believed they saw there, not the face of Cicero, but the image of Antony's own soul. And yet amidst these actions he did justice in one thing, by delivering up Philologus to Pomponia, the wife of Quintus; who, having got his body into her power, besides other grievous punishments, made him cut off his own flesh by pieces, and roast and eat it; for so some writers have related. But Tiro, Cicero's emancipated slave, has not so much as mentioned the treachery of Philologus.

Translation by John Dryden: http://intranet.grundel.nl/thinkquest/moord_cicero_plu.html

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
IMITATIVE OTTOMAN.jpg
*IMITATION OTTOMAN Cedid Mahmudiye967 viewsThis piece came in a bag of modern Foreign coins - 21 pounds! May be gold inside!!!
The dating did not seem right to me! From the experts at Zeno, I found a similar issue..... This attribution from Zeno:
Imitation of gold cedid mahmudiye (KM, Turkey #645) with distorted inscriptions and fantasy regnal year 78. Made for jewelry purposes throughout the 19th and early 20th century, very likely outside Turkey: similar imitations are met in abundance in South Russia and Ukraine, along the shores of Black and Azov seas, where they were widely used for adorning Gypsy and native Greek women's garments.

So, as you see, it is not exactly a FAKE or a COUNTERFEIT - it is an IMITATION, so the makers could not get into trouble. The regnal years alone would show that the coin was not "real" -

An interesting piece that may turn up from time to time!
dpaul7
Marcus_Aurelius.jpg
*SOLD*58 viewsMarcus Aurelius Copper As

Attribution: RIC III 1238, Cohen 393, very scarce
Date: AD 143
Obverse: AVRELIVS CAESAR PII F COS, bare head r.
Reverse: IVVENTAS S C, Juventas stg. l., holding patera & sacrificing at altar-candelabrum
Size: 25.2 mm
Weight: 10.9 grams
ex-Forvm
3 commentsNoah
ant-pius_didrachm_5_9gr_o-r.jpg
0 - Antoninus Pius Silver Didrachm of Caearea, Cappadocia - Pietas standing w/ Altar32 views~
~~
~~~
Ancient Roman Empire
Emperor Antoninus Pius ( 138 - 161 AD )
Silver Didrachm (two drachmai) of Caesarea, Cappadocia.

(titles in Greek)
obv: Bare headed bust of Antoninus Pius facing right, draped and cuirassed. Seen from Behind.
rev: Pietas, unveiled, standing left, raising right hand over lighted altar and holding open box in left hand.

Weight: 5.9 Grams.
~~~
*~!CLICK PHOTO FOR FULLSIZE - VERY LARGE PHOTO!~*
-----
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~ VERY RARE COIN ~
~~~
~~
~
1 commentsrexesq
caracalla_ar-tet_12_9gr_sara-mizrahi_BIN_185_50%.JPG
0 - Caracalla - Antioch, Syria Tetradrachm #438 viewsAncient Roman Empire
Emperor Caracalla (198 - 217 AD)
Silver Tetradrachm of Antioch, Syria. - #4

(titles in Greek)
obv: Laureate head of Emperor facing right.
rev: Eagle standing facing, head left, tail left, holding wreath in beak. Prow of ship between legs.

Weight: 13.0 Grams
Size: 28 mm
--------------------------------------------------------
*Note: Wonderful portrait of the emperor on the obverse and the eagle on the reverse, I am very proud of this coin.
4 commentsrexesq
_AR-Tet_feb2012.jpg
0 - Roman Tetradrachm of Antioch, Syria435 views~~~
Ancient Roman Empire

Silver Tetradrachm of Antioch, Syria. RARE type.

(Titles in Greek)
obv: Laureate bust of Emperor facing right, draped and cuirassed. Seen from behind.
rev: Eagle standing with body facing right, head and tail facing left, holding wreath in beak.
Greek letters to either side of eagle's head.
~~~~~
*notes: AMAZING PORTRAIT!!! Very Rare type, I have only ever seen ONE other example with this bust style.
~~~
~
1 commentsrexesq
AD240_tetradrachm_11_02gr_150~1.JPG
00 - Gordian III AR Tetradrachm36 viewsAncient Roman Empire
Emperor Gordian III (238 - 244 AD)
Tetradrachm struck AD240 at Antioch, Syria ( Seleucis & Pieria )

(Titles in Greek)
obv: Laureate bust right, draped and cuirassed.
rev: Eagle standing facing with head left, wings open, holding wreath in beak, SC below.

Size: 29 mm / 30 mm - Very Large flan!
Weight: 11.02 Grams
---------------
-------------
150% photo size
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1 commentsrexesq
Gordian-III_AR-Tet_13_4gr_30mm_2012o-r_sara_75%.jpg
00. - Gordian III AR Tetradrachm #4.27 viewsAncient Roman Empire
Emperor Gordian III ( 238 - 244 AD )
Silver Tetradrachm of Antioch, Syria.

(Titles in Greek)
obv: - Laureate bust of Emperor Gordian III facing right, draped and Cuirassed. Seen from behind.
rev: - Eagle standing facing, wings spread holding laurel wreath in beak. Head and tail left.
'S C' below, in exergue.

Size: 30 mm
Weight: 13.4 Grams
----------------
*~!CLICK PHOTO FOR FULLSIZE - VERY LARGE PHOTO!~*
----------------
4 commentsrexesq
coins2.JPG
000c. Sextus Pompey76 viewsSextus Pompeius Magnus Pius, in English Sextus Pompey, was a Roman general from the late Republic (1st century BC). He was the last focus of opposition to the second triumvirate.

Sextus Pompeius was the youngest son of Pompey the Great (Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus) by his third wife, Mucia Tertia. His older brother was Gnaeus Pompeius, from the same mother. Both boys grew up in the shadow of their father, one of Rome's best generals and originally non-conservative politician who drifted to the more traditional faction when Julius Caesar became a threat.

When Caesar crossed the Rubicon in 49 BC, thus starting a civil war, Sextus' older brother Gnaeus followed their father in his escape to the East, as did most of the conservative senators. Sextus stayed in Rome in the care of his stepmother, Cornelia Metella. Pompey's army lost the battle of Pharsalus in 48 BC and Pompey himself had to run for his life. Cornelia and Sextus met him in the island of Mytilene and together they fled to Egypt. On the arrival, Sextus watched his father being killed by treachery on September 29 of the same year. After the murder, Cornelia returned to Rome, but in the following years Sextus joined the resistance against Caesar in the African provinces. Together with Metellus Scipio, Cato the younger, his brother Gnaeus and other senators, they prepared to oppose Caesar and his army to the end.

Caesar won the first battle at Thapsus in 46 BC against Metellus Scipio and Cato, who committed suicide. In 45 BC, Caesar managed to defeat the Pompeius brothers in the battle of Munda. Gnaeus Pompeius was executed, but young Sextus escaped once more, this time to Sicily.

Back in Rome, Julius Caesar was murdered on the Ides of March (March 15) 44 BC by a group of senators led by Cassius and Brutus. This incident did not lead to a return to normality, but provoked yet another civil war between Caesar's political heirs and his assassins. The second triumvirate was formed by Octavian, Mark Antony and Lepidus, with the intention of avenging Caesar and subduing all opposition. Sextus Pompeius in Sicily was certainly a rebellious man, but the Cassius and Brutus faction was the second triumvirate's first priority. Thus, with the whole island as his base, Sextus had the time and resources to develop an army and, even more importantly, a strong navy operated by Sicilian marines.

Brutus and Cassius lost the twin battles of Philippi and committed suicide in 42 BC. After this, the triumvirs turned their attentions to Sicily and Sextus.

But by this time, Sextus was prepared for strong resistance. In the following years, military confrontations failed to return a conclusive victory for either side and in 39 BC, Sextus and the triumvirs signed for peace in the Pact of Misenum. The reason for this peace treaty was the anticipated campaign against the Parthian Empire. Antony, the leader, needed all the legions he could get so it was useful to secure an armistice in the Sicilian front. The peace did not last for long. Octavian and Antony's frequent quarrels were a strong political motivation for resuming the war against Sextus. Octavian tried again to conquer Sicily, but he was defeated in the naval battle of Messina (37 BC) and again in August 36 BC. But by then, Octavian had Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, a very talented general, on his side. Only a month afterwards, Agrippa destroyed Sextus' navy off Naulochus cape. Sextus escaped to the East and, by abandoning Sicily, lost all his base of support.

Sextus Pompeius was caught in Miletus in 35 BC and executed without trial (an illegal act since Sextus was a Roman citizen) by order of Marcus Titius, Antony's minion. His violent death would be one of the weapons used by Octavian against Antony several years later, when the situation between the two became unbearable.

Sicilian Mint
Magn above laureate Janiform head
PIVS above, IMP below, prow of galley right
Sear RCV 348, RPC 671, Sydenham 1044a, Cohen 16
43-36 BC

Check
ecoli
coin188.JPG
005. CLAUDIUS 41 AD - 54 AD53 viewsCLAUDIUS. 41-54 AD.

I, Claudius was a very sympathetic treatment of Claudius; nevertheless, along with Claudius the God, those books hold a special place in my library. Without those books, I would not have taken an interest in the classics in high school, and subsequently, ancient coins. Certainly Claudius was not a saint; nor good as we define a person now; but given the circumstances and the unlimited power he weld, few of us could have done it better.

Ć As (9.50 gm). Bare head left / Libertas standing right, holding pileus. RIC I 113; BMCRE 202; Cohen 47. Ex-CNG
1 commentsecoli
image_2.jpg
005a Orbiana As dup64 viewsSALL BARBIA ORBIANA AVG, diademed & draped bust right / CONCORDIA AVGVSTORVM, S-C in ex, Concordia seated left on throne, holding patera & double cornucopiae. Cohen 5.
weight, 10.15g; die axis, 6h
Some copper is showing through the patina but the coin is of very good style
mix_val
BB9A8DCA-2A63-4B43-A44B-3504D8D3795E.jpeg
006c. Statilia Messalina 18 viewsIONIA, Ephesus. Nero, with Statilia Messalina. AD 54-68. Ć . Struck AD 66. Laureate head of Nero right / Draped bust of Messalina right. RPC 2631; SNG von Aulock 7864. Very rare.
ecoli
101112.jpg
008. Otho 69 AD316 viewsOTHO. 69 AD.

Otho remains an enigma - part profligate Neronian wastrel and part conscientious military commander willing to give his life for the good of the state. Our sources are at a loss to explain the paradox. Neither Otho's person nor his bearing suggested such great courage. He is said to have been of moderate height, splay-footed and bandy-legged, but almost feminine in his care of his person. He had the hair of his body plucked out, and because of the thinness of his locks wore a wig so carefully fashioned and fitted to his head, that no one suspected it. Moreover, they say that he used to shave every day and smear his face with moist bread, beginning the practice with the appearance of the first down, so as never to have a beard; also that he used to celebrate the rites of Isis publicly in the linen garment prescribed by the cult.

AR Denarius (18mm, 3.20 gm). Bare head left / Securitas standing left, holding wreath and sceptre. RIC I 12; RSC 19. Fine. Ex-CNG
2 commentsecoli73
VespasianRSC366RIC90~0.jpg
009. Vespasian, 69-79AD. AR Denarius.62 viewsVespasian 69-79. Rome mint, AR Denarius. Struck in 75A.D.
Obv. Laureate head right IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG
Rev. Pax seated left, holding branch PON MAX TRP COS VI

19.5mm, 2.84g. RSC 366, RIC 90.

A very craggy Vespasianic portrait. Pax appears to be bared to the waist, unusual.
1 commentsLordBest
gordian-III_tet_ram-below-eagle_14_76gr_mar2012_amphora.jpg
01 - Gordian III Tetradrachm #3 - Ram leaping left beneath Eagle, head reverted, Crescent Moon above ram27 viewsAncient Roman Empire
Emperor Gordian III ( 238 - 244 AD ) Silver Tetradrachm.
Struck at the Roman Mint at Antioch, Syria.

(Titles in Greek)
obv: Laureate bust right, draped and cuirassed. Seen from behind.
rev: Eagle standing, holding laurel wreath in beak, head facing left.
BELOW: Ram leaping left, head turned facing behind (right), with Crescent Moon above head of Ram, all between the legs of the Eagle.

Weight: 14.76 Grams

~~~~
::Great detail on the head and beak of the Eagle, as well as on the Emperor's portrait, very nice coin, good weight for the type too. ::
~~~

*ex Amphora Ancient Coins, with photo-authenticity COA signed by David Hendin, author of Guide to Biblical Coins.
~~
~
5 commentsrexesq
coin214.JPG
010. Vespasian 69 AD - 79 AD36 viewsVespasian

The character of this emperor showed very little, if anything, of the pagan tyrant. Though himself a man of no literary culture, he became the protector of his prisoner of war, the Jewish historian Josephus, a worshipper of the One God, and even permitted him the use of his own family name (Flavius). While this generosity may have been in some degree prompted by Josephus's shrewd prophecy of Vespasian's elevation to the purple, there are other instances of his disposition to reward merit in those with whom he was by no means personally sympathetic. Vespasian has the distinction of being the first Roman Emperor to transmit the purple to his own son; he is also noteworthy in Roman imperial history as having very nearly completed his seventieth year and died a natural death: being in feeble health, he had withdrawn to benefit by the purer air of his native Reate, in the "dewy fields" (rosei campi) of the Sabine country. By his wife, Flavia Domitilla, he left two sons, Titus and Domitian, and a daughter, Domitilla, through whom the name of Vespasian's empress was passed on to a granddaughter who is revered as a confessor of the Faith.

A man of strict military discipline and simple tastes, Vespasian proved to be a conscientious and generally tolerant administrator. More importantly, following the upheavals of A.D. 68-69, his reign was welcome for its general tranquility and restoration of peace. In Vespasian Rome found a leader who made no great breaks with tradition, yet his ability ro rebuild the empire and especially his willingness to expand the composition of the governing class helped to establish a positive working model for the "good emperors" of the second century. In contrast to his immediate imperial predecessors, Vespasian died peacefully - at Aquae Cutiliae near his birthplace in Sabine country on 23 June, A.D. 79, after contracting a brief illness. The occasion is said to have inspired his deathbed quip: "Oh my, I must be turning into a god!"

Denarius. IMP CAES VESP AVG P M COS IIII, laureate head right / VES-TA to either side of Vesta standing left, holding simpulum & scepter. RSC 574
ecoli
coin287.JPG
011. Titus 79-81 AD28 viewsTitus. 79-81 AD.

Titus was the beneficiary of considerable intelligence and talent, endowments that were carefully cultivated at every step of his career, from his early education to his role under his father's principate. Cassius Dio suggested that Titus' reputation was enhanced by his early death. [[17]] It is true that the ancient sources tend to heroicize Titus, yet based upon the evidence, his reign must be considered a positive one. He capably continued the work of his father in establishing the Flavian dynasty and he maintained a high degree of economic and administrative competence in Italy and beyond. In so doing, he solidified the role of the emperor as paternalistic autocrat, a model that would serve Trajan and his successors well.

AR Denarius (3.44 gm). Laureate head right/Radiate figure on rostral column. RIC II 16a; BMCRE 29; RSC 289. Fine. Scarce and interesting reverse type. Ex-CNG
ecoli
Hadrian_denar1.jpg
012 - Hadrian (117-138 AD), denarius - RIC 39b41 viewsObv: IMP CAESAR TRAIAN HADRIANVS AVG, laureate heroic bust right, draped on left shoulder.
Rev: P M TR P COS III and CONCORD in exe, Concordia seated left, holding patera, resting elbow on statue of Spes, cornucopia below throne.
Minted in Rome [119-122 AD?]

This coin has ben donated to Soderakra local historical society (Sweden) as there some years ago was found a denarius of this type in an Iron Age grave at this location. This enables the society to display a coin of the very same type even though the actual grave find is locked up in a central collection.
pierre_p77
Claudius_TI-CLAVDIVS-CAESAR-AVG-P-M-TR-P-IMP____EX-S-C-P-P-OB-CIVES-SERVATOS_RIC-I-112_C-38_Q-001_34-36mm_23,63g-s.jpg
012 Claudius-I (41-54 A.D.), RIC I 112var. (?), Thracian ?, AE-Sestertius, EX-S-C/P-P/OB-CIVES/SERVATOS, Rare !!!,369 views012 Claudius-I (41-54 A.D.), RIC I 112var. (?), Thracian ?, AE-Sestertius, EX-S-C/P-P/OB-CIVES/SERVATOS, Rare !!!,
Claudius became “Father of the Country” in 50 AD, and this title was added to the coinage, at the end of the legend, with it’s abbreviation: PP. The reverse legend translates to “For Saving the Lives of Citizens.
avers:- TI-CLAVDIVS-CAESAR-AVG-P-M-TR-P-IMP-P-P, laureate head of Claudius right
revers:- No legend - Wreath, EX-S-C/P-P/OB-CIVES/SERVATOS within,
exe:-/-//--, diameter: 34-36mm, weight: 23,63g, axis:11h,
mint:Thracian ?, date: 50-54 A.D., ref: RIC-I-112, C-38,
Q-001
"RIC is in error to state that P P only appeared on Claudius' bronze coins in 50 AD. In fact Claudius became P P very early in 42 AD, and P P appeared immediately not only on his quadrantes, which are specifically dated to 42 by the title COS II, but also on his sestertii and middle bronzes.
Stylistically your coin should not be attributed to Rome, but to a Thracian mint perhaps active only towards the end of the reign. These coins, scarcer than the Rome-mint ones, are not recognized in RIC!" by Curtis Clay. Thank you "curtisclay".
5 commentsquadrans
Claudius_AE-Sest_TI-CLAVDIVS-CAESAR-AVG-P-M-TR-P-IMP-P-P_EX-S-C-P-P-OB-CIVES-SERVATOS_RIC-I-112_C-38_Q-001_11h_34-36mm_23,63ga-s.jpg
012 Claudius-I (41-54 A.D.), RIC I 112var. (?), Thracian ?, AE-Sestertius, EX-S-C/P-P/OB-CIVES/SERVATOS, Rare !!!, Re-Shot !341 views012 Claudius-I (41-54 A.D.), RIC I 112var. (?), Thracian ?, AE-Sestertius, EX-S-C/P-P/OB-CIVES/SERVATOS, Rare !!!, Re-Shot !
Claudius became “Father of the Country” in 50 AD, and this title was added to the coinage, at the end of the legend, with it’s abbreviation: PP. The reverse legend translates to “For Saving the Lives of Citizens.
avers:- TI-CLAVDIVS-CAESAR-AVG-P-M-TR-P-IMP-P-P, laureate head of Claudius right
revers:- No legend - Wreath, EX-S-C/P-P/OB-CIVES/SERVATOS within,
exe:-/-//--, diameter: 34-36mm, weight: 23,63g, axis:11h,
mint:Thracian ?, date: 50-54 A.D., ref: RIC-I-112, C-38,
Q-001
"RIC is in error to state that P P only appeared on Claudius' bronze coins in 50 AD. In fact Claudius became P P very early in 42 AD, and P P appeared immediately not only on his quadrantes, which are specifically dated to 42 by the title COS II, but also on his sestertii and middle bronzes.
Stylistically your coin should not be attributed to Rome, but to a Thracian mint perhaps active only towards the end of the reign. These coins, scarcer than the Rome-mint ones, are not recognized in RIC!" by Curtis Clay. Thank you "curtisclay".
1 commentsquadrans
102155.jpg
012a. Domitia101 viewsDomitia, wife of Domitian. Augusta, 82-96 AD.

In 70, Domitia was married to Lucius Aelius Lamia, but she attracted the attention of Domitian, son of emperor Vespasian. Shortly afterwards she was taken from her husband and remarried with the future emperor. They had a son in the next year and a daughter in 74, both died young. Domitian was very fond of his wife and carried her in all his travels. In 83, Domitia Longina's affair with the actor Paris was disclosed. Paris was executed and Domitia received her letter of divorce from Domitian. She was exiled, but remained close to Roman politics and to Domitian.

CILICIA, Epiphanea. Ć 21mm (7.18 gm). Dated year 151 (83/84 AD). Draped bust right / Athena standing left, righ hand extended, left resting on shield; ANP (date) left. RPC I 1786; SNG Levante 1813; SNG France -; SNG Copenhagen -. VF, dark green patina, some smoothing. Very rare, only 1 specimen (the Levante specimen), recorded in RPC. Ex-CNG
ecoli73
Commodus_denar2.jpg
018 - Commodus (177-192), denarius - BM 184, RIC unlisted48 viewsObv: M COMM ANT P FEL AVG BRIT, laureate and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: P M TR P XI IMP VII COS V P P, Jupiter seated left, holding thunderbolt and sceptre.
Minted in Rome 186 AD

The cuirassed bust are rare on denarii. This particular type are unlisted in both RIC and Cohen, though the obverse legend and reverse type (not legend) are equal to RIC 117, Cohen 486. The only coin I know of with this bust and reverse legend is BM 184. The BM coin and this coin are struck with diferent obverse dies, hence ther must have been at least two pairs of dies striking this type. Thers should be more coins of this type out there, if anyone knows of one I´ll be very happy to hear about it! (Many thanks to mr Curtis Clay for information on this coin).
pierre_p77
domitian as caesar horseback1.jpg
01a Domitian as Caesar RIC 680267 viewsAR Denarius, 3.15g
Rome mint, 73 AD (Vespasian)
Obv: CAES AVG F DOMIT COS II; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: No legend; Domitian on horse l.; r. hand raised, sceptre in l.
RIC 680 (C). BMC 129. RSC 664. BNC 105.
Ex Berk 146, 29 November 2005, lot 363.

A reverse type issued only for Domitian, most likely a reference to his part in the Judaean triumph of Vespasian and Titus.

"while taking part in the Judaean triumph, he rode on a white horse, the conventional mount for young princes on such occasions." (Suetonius, Domitian, ii)

A scarce coin of Domitian's part in a very important event in Flavian history. Nice portait with some of the beard still intact and a lively horse on the reverse!
1 commentsVespasian70
philip-II_as-caesar_frontal-bust-dr_cuir_13_03grams_ex-Hendin.jpg
02 - 01 - Philip II as Caesar (244 - 247 AD) AR Tetradrachm - Bare head, draped and cuirassed, seen from the Front45 viewsAncient Roman Empire
Philip II as Caesar (Prince) - Large Silver Tetradrachm
Struck in Antioch, Syria between 244 and 247 AD.

(titles in Greek)
obv: Bare head of Philip II facing right. Draped and cuirassed. Bust seen from the front.

rev: Eagle standing on Palm branch facing, wings open holding wreath in beak, head and tail facing left.
'S C' Below.

Weight: 13.03 Grams
Size: 26.3 mm* - *(at the narrowest part)
---
-
---
ex Amphora Coins

with Photo Certificate of Authenticity signed by Author of "Guide to Biblical Coins" David Hendin.
-----
Seller photo. Great 'Frontal Bust' portrait and very large flan!
4 commentsrexesq
Augustus_RIC_220.jpg
02 Augustus RIC I 022047 viewsAugustus 27 B.C.-14 A.D. AR Denarius. Lugdunum Mint 13-14 A.D. (3.57g, 19.5, 0 h). Obv: [CAESAR AVGVSTVS] DVI F PATER PATRRIAE, laureate head r. REV: [PONTIF] MAXIM, Liva as Pax seated r. on low-backed chair, vertical scepter in r., branch in left. RIC I 220 (R2), RSC 223.

Worn and on an irregular flan, I still wanted this example because of the reverse. Minted in his last year as emperor, this was Augustus’ precursor to Tiberius’ “tribute penny.” While this was one of many types during Augustus’ reign, it was one very few types for Tiberius.
1 commentsLucas H
dom as caesar spes.jpg
02 Domitian as Caesar RIC 788157 viewsAR Denarius, 3.36g
Rome mint, 74 AD (Vespasian)
Obv: CAES AVG F DOMIT COS III; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: PRINCEPS IVVENTVT; Spes, draped, advancing l., holding up flower in r. hand and with l. holding up her skirt.
RIC 788 (C). BMC 156. RSC 375. BNC 135.
Ex Harlan J Berk 155, 31 July 2007, lot 247.

During Vespasian's reign, Domitian was given the honorary title PRINCEPS IVVENTVT or 'Prince of Youth', celebrated here on this denarius from 74 AD. The title is one that was often given to young princes who were marked out as chosen heirs.

Spes, the personification of hope, is seen here on the reverse advacing left, holding a budding flower. The flower is a symbol of future well being.

Domitian's coinage during Vespasian's rule was unique. While Titus followed closely the types of his father, Domitian struck out on his own. One wonders how much of an input the young prince had on his own series.

A very likeable coin with a good portrait and excellent centring.


2 commentsVespasian70
LarryW8010.jpg
020 W. Asia Minor, Ioniia, c. 650 to 600 BC54 viewsElectrum hekte, 10mm, 2.75g very early Phokaic standard, VF
Raised square with cross pattern / Rough quadripartite incuse square. Very grainy surfaces. Sear COA
cf. Rosen 314 & 319; Traite pl. IV, 1 (Paris and London)
Lawrence Woolslayer
KnidosARdrachm.jpg
020a, CARIA, Knidos. Circa 465-449 BC. AR Drachm.64 viewsCARIA, Knidos. Circa 465-449 BC. AR Drachm - 16mm (6.06 g). Obverse: forepart of roaring lion right; Reverse: archaic head of Aphrodite right, hair bound with taenia. Cahn 80 (V38/R53); SNG Helsinki 132 (same dies); SNG Copenhagen 232 (same dies). Toned, near VF, good metal. Ex Barry P. Murphy.

While this coin falls within the time frame that numismatists call "Classical" Greek coinage, I have chosen to place it in both the "Archaic" (coin 020a) and "Classical" Greek sections of my collection. This specimen is one of those wonderful examples of transition--it incorporates many elements of the "Archaic" era, although it is struck during the "Classical" Greek period and anticipates characteristics of the later period.

As noted art historian Patricia Lawrence has pointed out, "[this specimen portrays] A noble-headed lion, a lovely Late Archaic Aphrodite, and [is made from]. . . beautiful metal." The Archaic Aphrodite is reminiscent of certain portraits of Arethusa found on tetradrachms produced in Syracuse in the first decade of the 5th century BC.

Knidos was a city of high antiquity and as a Hellenic city probably of Lacedaemonian colonization. Along with Halicarnassus (present day Bodrum, Turkey) and Kos, and the Rhodian cities of Lindos, Kamiros and Ialyssos it formed the Dorian Hexapolis, which held its confederate assemblies on the Triopian headland, and there celebrated games in honour of Apollo, Poseidon and the nymphs.

The city was at first governed by an oligarchic senate, composed of sixty members, and presided over by a magistrate; but, though it is proved by inscriptions that the old names continued to a very late period, the constitution underwent a popular transformation. The situation of the city was favourable for commerce, and the Knidians acquired considerable wealth, and were able to colonize the island of Lipara, and founded a city on Corcyra Nigra in the Adriatic. They ultimately submitted to Cyrus, and from the battle of Eurymedon to the latter part of the Peloponnesian War they were subject to Athens.

In their expansion into the region, the Romans easily obtained the allegiance of Knidians, and rewarded them for help given against Antiochus by leaving them the freedom of their city.

During the Byzantine period there must still have been a considerable population: for the ruins contain a large number of buildings belonging to the Byzantine style, and Christian sepulchres are common in the neighbourhood.

Eudoxus, the astronomer, Ctesias, the writer on Persian history, and Sostratus, the builder of the celebrated Pharos at Alexandria, are the most remarkable of the Knidians mentioned in history.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cnidus

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
1 commentsCleisthenes
András_II_,_(1205-1235_A_D_),_H-223,_CNH_I_-187,_U-199,_AR-Obulus,_Q-001,_0h,_13mm,_0,27g-s.jpg
021. H-248 András II., (Andreas II.), King of Hungary, (1205-1235 A.D.), H-223, CNH I.-187, U-199, AR-Obulus, Very Rare! #0188 views021. H-248 András II., (Andreas II.), King of Hungary, (1205-1235 A.D.), H-223, CNH I.-187, U-199, AR-Obulus, Very Rare! #01
avers: Crowned bust facing between two columns on wedges with circles on the top, rosette/star between two crescents above, the border of dots.
reverse: Castle with three towers, on a triangle, line border.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 13,0 mm, weight: 0,27 g, axis: 0h,
mint: Esztergom , date: A.D., ref: Huszár-223, CNH I.-187, Unger-199, Very Rare!
Q-001
quadrans
V_Istvan_((1245)1270-1272_A_D_)_U-_C1-_H-_PTN-kVI-PT38-PT39_Nud-4-Nud-9_Q-001_6h_9,6mm_0,23g-s.jpg
024. H--- István V., (Stephen V.), King of Hungary, ((1245)1270-1272 A.D.), H--, CNH I.--, U--, PTN-K-VI 109 (2005), AR-Obolus, Very Rare!!!148 views024. H--- István V., (Stephen V.), King of Hungary, ((1245)1270-1272 A.D.), H--, CNH I.--, U--, PTN-K-VI 109 (2005), AR-Obolus, Very Rare!!!
avers: Animal figure advancing left, above the star.
reverse: •RЄX•/STЄ•-•PAN, Doublecross on the shield.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 9,6mm, weight: 0,23g, axis: 6h,
mint: , date: A.D., ref: Huszár--, CNH I.--, Unger--, , Pannonia Terra Numizmatika (PTN)-Kamara(K)-VI/109(2005), PTN38/130(2014), PTN-39/165(2014), Nudelman-9/125(2011), Very Rare!!
Q-001
quadrans
Istvan_V_,_((1245)1270-1272_A_D_),_STEPAN_REGIS,_MONETA,_H-342,_C1-284,_U-270,_Q-001,_1h,_15mm,_0,61g-s.jpg
024. H-342 István V., (Stephen V.), King of Hungary, ((1245)1270-1272 A.D.), H-342, CNH I.-284, U-270, AR-Denarius, Very Rare!65 views024. H-342 István V., (Stephen V.), King of Hungary, ((1245)1270-1272 A.D.), H-342, CNH I.-284, U-270, AR-Denarius, Very Rare!
avers: STЄPAN RЄGIS, King seated facing on the arch in a circle of dots, holding a cross, border of dots
reverse: Patriarchal cross amongst circles, dots, and M - O / ͶЄ - TA, the border of dots.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 15,0mm, weight: 0,61g, axis: 1h,
mint: , date: 1270-1272 A.D., ref: Huszár-342, CNH I.-284, Unger-270, Very Rare!
Q-001
3 commentsquadrans
Diocletian_ant5.jpg
025 - Diocletian (284-305 AD), pre-reform Antoninianus - RIC 28426 viewsObv. IMP C C VAL DIOCLETIANVS P F AVG, radiated, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev. CONCORDIA MILITVM, emperor standing right, holding parazonium and receiving Victory on globe from Jupiter, standing left, holding sceptre.
Minted in Heraclea (HA in field, [.XXI. in exe]), first officina, 292 AD

The .XXI. in the exe not visible on this coin. I´m not sure if it ever have bin there. The coin illustrating this type in RIC also missing the exergual mark, but is otherwise very similar to this coin.
pierre_p77
III_Andras-(1290-1301)_U---_C1----_H----_PTN-14_-No-101_001_Q-001_4h_9,4mm_0,15g-s.jpg
026. H-422A. András III., (Andreas III.), King of Hungary, (1290-11301 A.D.), H--, CNH I.--, U--, PTN 14, No 101, AR-Obolus, RRR!, #01108 views026. H-422A. András III., (Andreas III.), King of Hungary, (1290-11301 A.D.), H--, CNH I.--, U--, PTN 14, No 101, AR-Obolus, RRR!, #01
avers: Two Fish, border of dots.
reverse: Branch of raspberry (?) with leaves and two fruits, a border of dots (Very similar the reverse of the U-334, but smaller).
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 12,1mm, weight: 0,32g, axis:4h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár--, CNH I.--, Unger--, First published: 08.11.2003., PTN 14., No 101., Very Rare!
Q-001
quadrans
Andras-III_(1290-1301_AD)_U-341_C1-_H-432_Homan-Num-Kozl_-XV_1_Q-001_8h_8-8,5mm_0,16g-s.jpg
026. H-432 András III., (Andreas III.), King of Hungary, (1290-11301 A.D.), H-432, CNH I.--, U-341, AR-Denarius, #0191 views026. H-432 András III., (Andreas III.), King of Hungary, (1290-11301 A.D.), H-432, CNH I.--, U-341, AR-Denarius, #01
avers: +RЄX ANDRЄAS, in a circle, crowned head facing in the center.
reverse: Eagle standing left, line border.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 8-8,5mm, weight: 0,16g, axis:8h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-432, CNH I.--, Unger-341, Very Rare !!!
Q-001
quadrans
LitraRoma.jpg
026/3 Litra or 1/8 ounce40 viewsAnonymous. Ć Litra or 1/8 ounce. Rome. 234-231 BC. ( 3.43g, 15mm, 5h) Obv: Laureate head of Apollo right Rev: Horse rearing left, wearing bridle, bit, and reins; ROMA below.

Crawford 26/3; Sydenham 29 (Half-litra); Kestner 56-65; BMCRR Romano-Campanian 70-74 (Half-litra)

This coin is attributed as a Litra by Crawford, others define it as half-litra. However, it could be argued that "1/8 ounce piece" is the better description.

First of all, on litra and half-litra:

"According to Crawford, the weight standard of the series 26 litra and half litra are based on a litra of 3.375 grams . The half litra in Crawford is described as having a dog on the reverse rather than a horse, and the average weight of the half litra of several specimens is described as 1.65 grams. BMCRR does refer to these as half litrae; but keep in mind that Grueber was writing circa 1900 and based on older scholarship. Sydenham was writing in the 1950s. Of the three major works cited, Crawford is the most current and likely based on a greater number of more recent finds."

Andrew Mccabe:

"It's very doubtful to me that the word "litra" is correct. Much more likely, these small bronze coins were simply fractions of the Aes Grave cast coinage system, as they come in weights of 1/4, 1/8 and 1/16 ounce, and the Aes Grave coinage generally had denominations from As down to Semuncia (1/2 ounce). So this coin would be 1/8 ounce coin. That's my view, which differs from their long term designation as "Litra", which presume them to be overvalued token bronze coinage on the Sicilian model, whereby bronze coins had value names that indicate a relationship to the silver coinage.

Litra, the word, is from the same stem as Libra, i.e. pound, would suggest a denomination of a (light) Sicilian pound of bronze, which sometimes equates in value to a small silver coin in Sicily weighing about 1/12 didrachm (about 0.6 grams) so by this definition, a Litra = an Obol. But it hardly stands up to scrutiny that such a tiny bronze coin, weighing 3.375 grams, could have been equivalent to a 0.6 gram silver obol. It would imply a massive overvaluation of bronze that just does not seem credible.

So. throw out the Litras, and call these coins 1/8 ounce pieces, and I think we have a sensible answer."

Paddy
Vencel_(1301-1305_AD)_U-343a_Q-001_0h_11,5-12,5mm_0,44ga-s.jpg
027 Vencel, (Venceslaus), King of Hungary, (1301-1305 A.D.), AR-Denarius, U-343var, Harpy standing left, #0191 views027 Vencel, (Venceslaus), King of Hungary, (1301-1305 A.D.), AR-Denarius, U-343var, Harpy standing left, #01
avers: King enthroned facing, between two flowers, holding sceptre and orb; border of dots.
reverse: Harpy standing left; border of dots.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 11,5-12,5mm, weight: 0,44g, axis:0h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Unger-343var, CP-56, Huszár-434a, Very Rare !!!
Q-001
quadrans
Vencel_(1301-1305_AD)_U-343a_Q-003_3h_12mm_0,46ga-s.jpg
027 Vencel, (Venceslaus), King of Hungary, (1301-1305 A.D.), AR-Denarius, U-343var, Harpy standing left, #0296 views027 Vencel, (Venceslaus), King of Hungary, (1301-1305 A.D.), AR-Denarius, U-343var, Harpy standing left, #02
avers: King enthroned facing, between two flowers, holding sceptre and orb; border of dots.
reverse: Harpy standing left; border of dots.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 12mm, weight: 0,46g, axis:3h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Unger-343var, CP-56, Huszár-434a, Very Rare !!!
Q-002
quadrans
Vencel_(1301-1305_AD)_U-343a_Q-002_0h_12,5mm_0,30ga-s.jpg
027 Vencel, (Venceslaus), King of Hungary, (1301-1305 A.D.), AR-Denarius, U-343var, Harpy standing left, #0399 views027 Vencel, (Venceslaus), King of Hungary, (1301-1305 A.D.), AR-Denarius, U-343var, Harpy standing left, #03
avers: King enthroned facing, between two flowers, holding sceptre and orb; border of dots.
reverse: Harpy standing left; border of dots.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 12,5mm, weight: 0,30g, axis:0h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Unger-343var, CP-56, Huszár-434a, Very Rare !!!
Q-003
quadrans
RI_030r_img.jpg
030 - Vespasian, Denarius, Ephesus, RIC 1457 48 viewsObv - IMP CAESAR VESPAS AVG COS V TR P P P; Head of Vespasian, laureate, right
Rev - PACI AVGVSTAE; Victory adv. right, with wreath and palm; at lower right, star; annulet beneath
Minted in Ephesus, A.D. 74
References:- RIC 1457. BMCRE 475. RSC 277.
Dimensions:- 22.04 mm x 19.07 mm

Severely double struck.

It looks like there was a very off-centre initial strike and the coin was re-struck with a central strike.
2 commentsmaridvnvm
Didrachm_Black~0.jpg
030/1 AR Didrachm60 viewsAnonymous. AR Didrachm. Uncertain Mint, 225-214 BC. (6.56g, 23mm, 12h) Obv: Janiform head of the Dioscuri. Rev: Jupiter, hurling thunderbolt and holding sceptre, in galloping quadriga driven by Victory; ROMA on tablet below.

Crawford 30/1; Sydenham 64.

Traces of corrosion, Good Very Fine.

Ex: Roma Numismatics

From the Andrew McCabe Collection; Ex Goodman
5 commentsPaddy
Buda_Denar-Lodovicus-I_(1342-1382AD)_U--_C2-100_H-509_Pohl-108_Shield_mOnETA-BVDEnSIUm_1350AD_Q-001_7h_11,5mm_0,25g-s.jpg
030a City Coin Buda with Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Buda Denar, Pohl-108, #01 Very Rare!!!197 views030a City Coin Buda with Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Buda Denar, Pohl-108, #01 Very Rare!!!
avers: No Legend, Hungarian-Anju shield amongst three arches, lilies between the arches; border of dots, without mint-mark.
reverse: ✠ mOnЄTA BVDЄnSIVm (left to right), large "L", border of dots.
exergue, mint mark: -/-//--, diameter: 11,5mm, weight: 0,25g, axis: 7h,
mint: Hungary, City coin Buda, date: 1350 A.D.(by Pohl), ref: Unger---, CNH-2-100, Huszár-509, Pohl-108,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Lodovicus-I_(1342-1382AD)_U--_C2-106_H-561_Pohl-097_LODOVICI_RVnGARIE_mOnETA-RVSSIE_Kopicki-3063(R5)-370-82_AD-Q-001_0h_18,2-19,7mm_1,03g-s.jpg
030b Provincial Coin Russia with Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Scherf, Pohl-097, #01 Very Rare!!!181 views030b Provincial Coin Russia with Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Scherf, Pohl-097, #01 Very Rare!!!
avers: ✠ LODVICI ° RVnGARIЄ °, Large "L" amongst circles in quatrefoil, border of dots.
reverse: ✠ mOnЄTA : RVSSIЄ : (SS are reverse), lion standing left in circle of dots; border of dots.
exergue, mint mark: -/-//--, diameter: 18,2-19,7mm, weight: 1,03g, axis: 0h,
mint: Hungary, Provincial Coin, Russia, date: 1370-1382 A.D.(by Pohl), ref: Unger---, CNH-2-106, Huszár-561, Pohl-097, Kopicki-3063 (R5),
Q-001
quadrans
Maximian_unlist.jpg
032 - Maximian (286-305 AD), Antoninianus - RIC 404, 407 (hybrid unlisted in RIC)44 viewsObv: IMP MAXIMIANUS AVG, radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding globe.
Rev: PAX AVGG, Minerva standing left, leaning on shield, holding olive branch and spear.
Minted in Lugdunum (C in exe, * in left field) 292-294 AD.

This coin is a hybrid between RIC 404 (as above but without the * and C(?)) and 407 (with * and C) and not listed in RIC. However Bastien lists this coin (vol 7, nr 488) with five examples cited. Not a very pretty coin but somehow interesting anyway as it turned out. Thanks to Jochen and maridvnvm of the FORUM´s classical numismatics discussion board for the info.

[Sold]
2 commentspierre_p77
Hadrian_AE-quadrans_HADRIANVS-AVGVSTVS_COS-III-P-P-Caduceus_RIC-II-734_Rome_132-134-AD_Q-001_6h_16-17mm_2,50g-s.jpg
032 Hadrianus (117-138 A.D.), RIC II 0734, Rome, AE-Quadrans, COS-III P P, Winged Caduceus, Very Rare !183 views032 Hadrianus (117-138 A.D.), RIC II 0734, Rome, AE-Quadrans, COS-III P P, Winged Caduceus, Very Rare !
avers:- HADRIANVS-AVGVSTVS, Bust of Hadrian, laureate, right.
revers:- COS III P P, Winged, Caduceus.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 16-17mm, weight: 2,50g, axis: 6h,
mint: Rome, date: 132-134A.D., ref: RIC-II-734-p-, Very Rare !
"BMC p. 464, *, citing Cohen 506 (Gréau Sale, 6 francs).
Strack 495b: two spec. in Vatican, one in Vienna." by Curtis Clay
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
Zsigmond,_(1387-1437_AD),_AR-Den,_H-575,_C2-120A,_U-448,_P-116,_mOnETSIGISmVnDI,_REGISVnGARIE_ET_C_,_1387-9AD,_Q-001,_6h,_13,5mm,_0_39g-s.jpg
032 Sigismund, ( Sigismund of Luxemburg)., King of Hungary, (1387-1437 A.D.) AR-Denar, H-575/576, C2-120A/121A, U-448/449, P-116/117, Hybrid variation, Very Rare!!! #0163 views032 Sigismund, ( Sigismund of Luxemburg)., King of Hungary, (1387-1437 A.D.) AR-Denar, H-575/576, C2-120A/121A, U-448/449, P-116/117, Hybrid variation, Very Rare!!! #01
avers: ✠mOnЄT SIGISmVnDI, Patriarchal (short!) cross.
reverse: ✠•RЄGIS VnGARIЄ ЄT C, Four-part shield, Árpádian stripes and Brandenburg eagle. The reverse legend is the same as the Huszár-576, CNH-2-121A, Unger-449, Pohl-117,
exergue, mint mark: -/-//--, diameter: 13,5mm, weight: 0,39g, axis:6h,
mint: Hungary, Buda, Moneyer: Onforio Bardi(?) (by Pohl), date: 1387-1389 A.D. (by Pohl), ref: Huszár-575/576, CNH-2-120A/121, Unger-448/449, Pohl-116/117, Hybrid denar, Very Rare !!!
Q-001

Sigismund of Luxemburg
1 commentsquadrans
saloninaant.jpg
036. Salonina.80 viewsBI Antoninianus. Eastern mint.

Obv. Draped bust right, on crescent SALONINA AVG

Rev. Ivno standing left holding patera and sceptre, peacock at feet IVNO REGINA.

RIC13s. aUNC. Simply superb, perfect style, fabric and strike on perfectly round flan with full silvering. Very rare in this condition.

4 commentsLordBest
V922aaa.jpg
03b Domitian as Caesar RIC 922101 viewsAR Denarius, 3.31g
Rome mint, 76-77 AD (Vespasian)
Obv: CAES AVG F DOMITIANVS; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: COS IIII; Pegasus, standing r.
RIC 922 (R2). BMC -. RSC -. BNC -.
Acquired from Marc Walter, May 2018. Ex Künker eLive Auction 37, 20 October 2015, lot 152.

A rare obverse legend variant of the Pegasus type struck for Domitian Caesar under Vespasian. Here we have 'CAES' instead of the much more common 'CAESAR'. No reverse die links between the two different obverses have been found, perhaps suggesting the 'CAES' issue came slightly later. Out of 240 Domitian Pegasus denarii on acsearch, only 6 have the 'CAES' obverse. The reverse copies a denarius struck for Augustus (RIC 297). Mattingly speculates it refers to Domitian's poetic aspirations.

Curtis Clay's comments concerning this variant - 'I had forgotten about this variety, but find that I had written into my BMC 193: Var. CAES for CAESAR, CNG Website 6247, May 2001 (2.78g). RIC new ed. 922 calls it R2 and cites examples in Glasgow (ill. pl. 10) and Oxford.'

Struck in the very finest of styles.
7 commentsDavid Atherton
V932.jpg
03c Domitian as Caesar RIC 93260 viewsĆ As, 10.65g
Rome mint, 76 AD (Vespasian)
Obv: CAESAR AVG F DOMITIANVS COS IIII; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: S C in field; Spes stg. l., with flower
RIC 932 (C). BMC -. BNC -.
Acquired from Ken Dorney, January 2019.

Spes, the goddess of hope, is seen here as an 'heir apparent' type. She is represented on Roman coins as a young girl, reminiscent of earlier Greek statures depicting Elpis. H. Mattingly in BMCRE II says 'the flower held by Spes is an opening bud, she is raising her skirt in order to hasten forward'. Spes occurs quite commonly throughout the Flavian coinage and is frequently paired up with the young Domitian Caesar, likely expressing a hope or expectation for future dynastic success. It is very Ironic that Spes is often associated with Domitian Caesar on the coinage, considering he would later be the family member most responsible for the dynasty's downfall in 96. Surprisingly, this common Spes type is not in the BM.

The obverse features a quintessential Flavian portrait - unflattering hook nose with full and heavy facial features. Pleasant dark green patina.
2 commentsDavid Atherton
caracalla_AD214_AR-antoninianus_venus-victrix_bothsides~0.JPG
04 - Caracalla AR Antoninianus - 'Venus Victrix'120 viewsCaracalla AR Antoninianus.

obv: ANTONINVS PIVS AVG GERM - Radiate bust right, draped and cuirassed, seen from front.
rev: VENVS VICTRIX - Venus standing holding victory and sceptre, shield by her side.

5.2 grams - 26mm.

*Notes: Well struck and well centered coin on a very large flan.
Take a look at the detail on the
shield Venus is standing next to on the reverse.
4 commentsrexesq
Caligula_denarius.jpg
04 Gaius (Caligula) RIC I 2222 viewsGaius (Caligula) 37-41 A.D. AR Denarius. Lugdunum (Lyons) Mint 37 AD. (3.3g, 18.5mm, 2h). Obv: C CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR POT COS, bare head right. Rev: anepigraphic, Augustus, radiate head right between two stars. RIC I 2, BMC 4, Sear 1808. Ex personal collection Steve McBride/Incitatus Coins.

Son of Germanicus, Gaius was adopted by Tiberius and was proclaimed Emperor on Tiberius’ death. His reign, marked by cruelty, was ended when he was assassinated by the Praetorian Guard. There is some question when the Imperial Mint was moved from Lugdunum to Rome, but the majority view holds at least Gaius’ early issues were still from Lugdunum.

With more than moderate wear and damage, this coin still has an almost complete obverse legend, and is a decent weight. It was very difficult for me to track down a denarius of Gaius.
2 commentsLucas H
c3947.JPG
040 Claudius39 viewsClaudius Ć As. TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP, bare head left / LIBERTAS AVGVSTA S-C, Libertas standing facing, with pileus and extending left hand. Cohen 47.




"Claudius was born at Lugdunum, in the consulship of Iullus Antonius and Fabius Africanus, on August 1st, 10 B.C., the very day when the first altar was dedicated there to Augustus the God; and he was given the name Tiberius Claudius Drusus. Subsequently he assumed the surname Germanicus after his brother had been admitted into the Julian House as Tiberius's adopted son."
Randygeki(h2)
FaustaCONSSalus.JPG
043. Fausta, wife of Constantine I. AE Follis, Constantinople mint.80 viewsAE Follis. Constantinople mint, late 326AD.

Obv.Bust of Fausta right FLAV MAX FAVSTA AVG

Rev. Fausta standing holding Constantine II and Constantius II SALVS REIPVBLICAE.

RIC VII 12; LRBC 976. gVF

A very rare and interesting coin. The mint at Constantinople was only in operation for a couple of months when Fausta was executed, coins of her and Crispus from this mint are very hard to come by.
1 commentsLordBest
RI_044am_img.jpg
044 - Hadrian denarius - RIC -44 viewsDenarius
Obv:- HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS P P bare head right
Rev:- COS III, Virtus,standing right, holding scepter and parazonium; left foot raised, resting on helmet.
Unknown Eastern Mint. Bust style is very well executed and good enough to be from Rome.
Reference:- RIC -, cf RSC 355, cf BMC Page 380 #25 (Vienna) (draped bare head bust right) same reverse die though the image is very grainy.
1 commentsmaridvnvm
Claudius_RIC_I_58.jpg
05 Claudius RIC I 58249 viewsClaudius 41-54 A.D. AR Denarius. Rome Mint 50-51 A.D. (3.58g, 18.4mm, 8h). Obv: TI CLAVD CAESAR AVG P M TR P X PP IMP XVIII, laureate head right. Rev: PACI AVGVSTAE, Pax-Nemesis advancing right, holding winged caduceus pointed at snake. RIC I 58, RSC 66a. Ex CNG 258, Lot: 348.

Claudius was a capable, yet unlikely emperor. Shunned as an idiot by his family due to a limp and embarrassing stutter. After Caligula's murder the Praetorian Guard proclaimed him emperor. He governed well and conquered the troublesome island of Britain. He was poisoned by his second wife, mother of Nero. It was very difficult for me to find a denarius of Claudius, and I love this reverse.
8 commentsLucas H
ciibh1.jpg
05 Constantius II65 viewsBGN353 - Constantius II (A.D. 337-361), Pre-Magnentian Revolt, AE Centenionalis, 21mm, 5.14g., Arles mint, first officina, A.D. 348-350, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of the Emperor right, A behind head, rev., FEL TEMP REPARATIO, PARL in exergue, helmeted soldier spearing fallen horseman, A in field, (RIC 119/121-22; Bridgnorth Report #79), very fine. RIC Arles 118

Ex Bridgnorth Hoard, Shropshire, England, buried circa A.D. 355, discovered 2007.

"On October 10th, 2007 a metal detectorist discovered a large scattered hoard of late Roman coins that had been disturbed by deep plowing in a potato field near Bridgnorth, Shropshire. His subsequent actions are praised in the UK government 2007 Portable Antiquities and Treasure Annual Report, where local finds officer Peter Reavill states: “The finder is to be congratulated on the careful plotting and speedy reporting of this hoard as it enabled the excavation to take place and vital depositional information recorded. In turn, this minimised the impact to the landowner and his farming activity.” The majority of hoards that come to light are found outside of planned archaeological excavations, the original owner having selected a secluded spot to conceal his or her wealth away from human habitation, leading to loss of information on the archaeological context of the hoard. In this instance, swift action and close cooperation by the finder and the local Finds Liaison Officer led to an excavation of the findspot. The results of which showed that the hoard had been contained in a large pottery vessel (broken by the plow), most probably previously used as a cooking pot as evidenced by burns marks on the outer edges. The pot had been buried in a U-shaped gulley or ditch that formed part of an otherwise unknown late Roman site.

The hoard consisted of 2892 coins, ranging in date from a Reform Antoninianus of Probus to post Magnentian issues of Constantius II up to A.D. 355. The majority of the hoard was issues of Magnentius and Decentius (75%), followed by pre-Magnentian issues of Constantius II and Constans (18%) and closing with post Magnentian issues of Constantius II and Gallus (7%)."
Better Photo
1 commentsRandygeki(h2)
domitian as caesar wolf and twins.JPG
05 Domitian as Caesar RIC 961149 viewsAR Denarius, 3.17g
Rome Mint, 77-78 AD (Vespasian)
Obv: CAESAR AVG F DOMITIANVS; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: COS V; She-wolf and twins l. : in ex., boat
RIC 961 (C2). BMC 240. RSC 51. BNC 208.
Ex eBay, February 2007.

The first instance of the she-wolf and twins reverse as a type on Roman Imperial coins. Domitian Caesar, unlike Titus Caesar, used different reverse types than his father Vespasian. The she-wolf and twins is unique to Domitan's coinage. One wonders how much leverage Domitian had for choosing his own reverse designs.

A wonderful coin with good metal and a pleasing portrait. The picture does not reflect this very well however.

2 commentsVespasian70
83~2~0.jpg
050 VABALATHUS30 views OBVERSE: IMP C AVRELIANVS AVG
REVERSE: VABALATHVS V C R IM D R
BUST TYPE: B
FIELD / EXERGUE MARKS: -/-//A
MINT: ANTIOCHIA
EMMISSION: 2
RIC TEMP: 3102 (32 EX.)
NOTE: VERY RARE IN SUCH AN EXCELLENT CONDITION AND WITH FULL SILVERING !!!
Barnaba6
054_Macrinus_(217-218_A_D_),_AE-27-Pentassarion,__AV_K_OPPE_CEV-__,_Markianopolis-Moesia_Inf_HrJ_(2014)-not_in,_217-18-AD,_Q-001,_7h,_26,5-27,5mm,_14,04g-s.jpg
054p Macrinus (217-218 A.D.), Moesia, Markianopolis, Pfeiffer 218 (same dies), AE-27, Pentassarion, Pontianus, Zeus with an eagle at feet, 64 views054p Macrinus (217-218 A.D.), Moesia, Markianopolis, Pfeiffer 218 (same dies), AE-27, Pentassarion, Pontianus, Zeus with an eagle at feet,
avers: AV K OΠΠEΛ CEV MAKPEINOC•K M OΠEΛ ANTΩNEINOC, Laureate bust of Macrinus facing bare-headed bust of Diadumenian.
reverse: VΠ ΠONTIANOV MAPKIANO/ΠOΛI, Naked Zeus standing left, holding patera and scepter, eagle at his feet.
exergue: Є/-//--, diameter: 26,5-27,5mm, weight:14,04g, axis: 7h,
mint: Moesia, Markianopolis, Pontianus, date: 217-218 A.D., ref: Pfeiffer 218 (same dies), AMNG 715, Varbanov (2005, English) I. 1240, Hristova-Jekov (2014) 06.24.01.??, Not in,
a) Not in Hristova/Jekov (2014):
rev. HJ (2014) 6.24.1.5 (same die)
obv. HJ (2014) 6.24.1. 3 (but writes AVT K OPEL, the depicted coin is very worn)
b) Megaw (2nd ed,) MAR5.59c (but writes AVT K OPEL, the depicted coin is very worn)
Q-001
quadrans
059.jpg
055 NUMERIAN F9 BUST RRR14 viewsEMPEROR: Numerian
DENOMINATION: Antoninianus
OBVERSE: IMP C NUMERIANVS AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust right, holding spear
REVERSE: MARS VICTOR, C in right field
DATE: early 284 AD
MINT: Lugdunum
WEIGHT: 3.59 g
RIC: V-2,388
BASTIEN: 561 (6 ex.)
NOTE: very rare and sough-after bust type
Barnaba6
Roman_Bronze_black.jpg
056/3 Spanish imitation in good style29 viewsAnonymous. Ae Semis. Second or first century BC. (6.58 g, 20.55 mm) Obv: Laureate head of Saturn r.; behind, S. Rev: Prow r.; above, S and below, ROMA.
Syd 143a; Crawford 56/3

In 1982 a conference report was published that contained a joint debate between Crawford and the Spanish numismatist Villaronga. Villaronga illustrated a number of coins from site finds near Cadiz, and concluded that they were good style Spanish imitations. Every year about 10 or 20 similar coins appear on the Spanish market, but none appear in Italian sources.

Thank you Mccabe for helping with the attribution.
Paddy
faustina-sr_den_veiled-bust-peacock_2_82gr_feb2012a.JPG
06 - Faustina I - 02 - AR Denarius - Peacock 'CONSECRATIO' - NGC Choice VF56 viewsAncient Roman Empire
Empress Faustina Senior (138 - 141), Wife of Emperor Antoninus Pius (AD 138 - 161).
Silver Denarius, Struck at the Rome Mint by the Emperor Antoninus Pius to consecrate and commemorate his wife after her death.

(All Titles in Latin)
obv: DIVA FAUSTINA - Veiled and Draped bust facing right.
rev: CONSECRATIO - Peacock facing right, head left, standing on scepter with knobs on both ends.
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

*Note how the two head feathers on the top of the Peacock's head seperate the 'R' and the 'A' in " CONSECR ATIO ' on the reverse.
***Less common type with Veiled bust obverse rather than her usual bust with hair wrapped on the top of her head, like on my other example of this type with the same reverse design and titles, and the same obverse titles.
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Certified "Choice Very Fine" by NGC Ancients.
Strike: 4/5
Surface: 4/5
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
>^..^< CLICK PHOTO FOR FULLSIZE IMAGE >^..^
5 commentsrexesq
faustina-sr_den_veiled-bust-peacock_2_82gr_feb2012b.jpg
06 - Faustina I - 02 - AR Denarius - Peacock 'CONSECRATIO' - NGC Choice VF.15 viewsAncient Roman Empire
Empress Faustina Senior (138 - 141), Wife of Emperor Antoninus Pius (AD 138 - 161).
Silver Denarius, Struck at the Rome Mint by the Emperor Antoninus Pius to consecrate and commemorate his wife after her death.

(All Titles in Latin)
obv: DIVA FAUSTINA - Veiled and Draped bust facing right.
rev: CONSECRATIO - Peacock facing right, head left, standing on scepter with knobs on both ends.
~~
*Note how the head feathers on the peacock's head seperate the 'R' and the 'A' in CONSECR ATIO

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Certified "Choice Very Fine" by NGC Ancients.
Strike: 4/5
Surface: 4/5
----------------------------------------------------------
----------------------------------------------------------
** Any scratches, smudges or marks are on the slab, not the coin itself. **
rexesq
Nero_RIC_I_15.jpg
06 Nero RIC I 1539 viewsNero. 54-68 A.D. AR Denarius. Rome Mint. 54 A.D. Oct.-Dec.. (3.43g, 19.1mm, 9h) . Obv: NERO CAESAR AVG IMP, bare head right. Rev: PONTIF MAX TR P IIII PP around oak-wreath enclosing EX SC. RIC I 15 (R2).

A worn but scarce pre-reform denarius from early in Nero’s reign. Despite the wear, the weight of this specimen is quite nice. The EX SC with the oak wreath could allude to the Senate’s awarding of the corona civica to Nero. This specimen also has a very unusual die axis for imperial coinage of the Roman mint from this time.
1 commentsLucas H
480Hadrian_Mule_RIC172.jpg
060 Hadrian Denarius 124-28 AD Concordia Eastern mint26 viewsReference. very rare.
RIC-; BMCR -; Strack- cf RIC172

Obv. HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS PP
Laureate bust right.

Rev. COS III
Concordia seated left holding patera in right hand, left elbow resting on statue of Spes.

3.20 gr
17.3 mm
6 h
okidoki
062_Alexander_Severus_(_221-222_A_D__Caesar,_222-235_A_D__Augustus),_Mcedonia,_Edessa,_AE-24,__Varb_3648_RR_Q-001_0h_23,7-24,5mm_7,95g-s.jpg
062p Alexander Severus ( 221-222 A.D. Caesar, 222-235 A.D. Augustus), Macedonia, Edessa, AE-24, Varb. 3648, EΔECCEΩN, Roma seated left, Very Rare !100 views062p Alexander Severus ( 221-222 A.D. Caesar, 222-235 A.D. Augustus), Macedonia, Edessa, AE-24, Varb. 3648, EΔECCEΩN, Roma seated left, Very Rare !
avers:- AY K M A CE AΛEΞANΔPOC, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
revers:- EΔECCEΩN, Roma seated left on cuirass, holding Nike and parazonium, crowned by city-goddesss tanding left behind her, holding wreath and spear.
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: 23,7-24,5mm, weight:7,95g, axes: 0h,
mint: Macedonia, Edessa, date: 222-235 A.D., ref: Varb. 3648, Very Rare !
quadrans
RI_064mf_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - O3 - RIC -31 viewsObv:– IMP CA L SEP SEV PER AVG COS II, laureate head right
Rev:– BONI EVENTVS, Fides standing left holding basket of fruit and corn ears
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 194
Reference:– BMC -. RIC -. RSC -.

Very unusual obverse legend variety.
maridvnvm
RI_064el_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - O9 - RIC -51 viewsObv:– IMP CA L SE SEV PER AG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– FORT REDVC, Fortuna standing left, holding rudder & cornucopia
Minted in Emesa, A.D. 194
References:– RIC -. BMCRE -. RSC -.

2.40g, 18.83mm, 0o

A very unusual obverse legend variant.
maridvnvm
RI_064dp_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -39 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SE-V PERT AVG II C, laureate head right
Rev:– MONETAE AVG, Moneta standing left, holding scales in right hand, cornucopia in left
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 194
Reference:– RIC - (RIC 411b is AVG II C with MONETA AVG, RIC 412 is MONETAE AVG but with Obv Leg. CO II), BMCRE - (BMCRE 380 note var., which is RIC 411b above). RSC -

3.31g, 19.11mm, 0o

Very rare obverse legend variety
maridvnvm
RI_064gr_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -34 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SE-V PERT AVG II C, laureate head right
Rev:– LEG X-IIII GE-M M V / TR P COS, Legionary eagle between two standards
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 194
Reference:– RIC -, BMCRE -. RSC -
Ex H J Berk.

3.03g, 18.80mm, 0o

Very rare obverse legend variety.
maridvnvm
RI_064ib_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -40 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG II COS, Laureate head right
Rev:– BONAE SPEI II COS, Spes standing holding flower and lifting skirt
Minted in Emesa, 194 - 195 A.D.
References:– RIC -. RSC -. BMC -.

2.53g, 20.31mm, 0o

A very rare obverse legend variety, combined with a rare reverse legend variety.
maridvnvm
RI_064fz_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -36 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SE-V PERT AVG II C, laureate head right
Rev:– FORTVNAE REDVCI, Fortuna (Pax?) seated left holding branch and cornucopia
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 194
Reference:– RIC -, BMCRE -. RSC -

3.37g, 17.47mm, 0o

Very rare obverse legend variety
maridvnvm
RI_064nu_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -30 viewsObv:– L SEPT SEVER PERT AVG IMP VIII, Laureate head right
Rev:– VIRTVT-I AVG, Mars walking right holding spear and trophy
Minted in Laodicea-ad-Mare. A.D. 196-197
Reference(s) – BMCRE -. RIC IV - (cf. RIC 847, an Aureus of the type). RSC -.

A very unusual obverse legend with SEVER.
maridvnvm
RI_064nw_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -45 viewsObv:– L SEPT SEV PERT AVG IMP II, laureate head right
Rev:– VICT AVG TR P II COS II P P, Victory walking right, holding wreath in right hand, palm in left
Minted in Rome. A.D. 194
Reference:– BMCRE -. RIC -. RSC 690b (citing Gnecchi Coll., Rome)

Additional information courtesy of Curtis Clay:-
"I know a couple of other specimens too, BM probably has one from me and I may have another in my new collection.

Still very rare and interesting, IMP II generally rare on Rome-mint denarii, a muled obv.-rev. combination because COS II means after 1 Jan. 194, but the medallions prove that Septimius' IMP III must have already been known in Rome by about 25 Dec. 193."
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_064pb_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -29 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SE-V PERT AVG II C, laureate head right
Rev:– MONETAE AVG, Moneta standing left, holding scales in right hand, cornucopia in left
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 194
Reference:– RIC - (RIC 411b is AVG II C with MONETA AVG, RIC 412 is MONETAE AVG but with Obv Leg. CO II), BMCRE - (BMCRE 380 note var., which is RIC 411b above). RSC -

Very rare obverse legend variety
maridvnvm
RI_064ql_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -30 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SE-V PERT AVG II C, laureate head right
Rev:– MONETAE AVG, Moneta standing left, holding scales in right hand, cornucopia in left
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 194
Reference:– RIC - (RIC 411b is AVG II C with MONETA AVG, RIC 412 is MONETAE AVG but with Obv Leg. CO II), BMCRE - (BMCRE 380 note var., which is RIC 411b above). RSC -

Very rare obverse legend variety
maridvnvm
RI_064qo_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -21 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG II COS, Laureate head right
Rev:– FORTVNAE REDVCI II COS, Fortuna standing left holding rudder and cornucopia
Minted in Emesa, 194 - 195 A.D.
References:– RIC -. RSC -. BMC -.

A very rare obverse legend variety, combined with a rare reverse legend variety.
maridvnvm
RI_064th_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -29 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SE-V PERT AVG II C, laureate head right
Rev:– FORTVNAE REDVCI, Fortuna (Pax?) seated left holding branch and cornucopia
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 194
Reference:– RIC -, BMCRE -. RSC -

Very rare obverse legend variety
2 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_064he_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 34817 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG, Laureate head right
Rev:– E-T I-A II, Pietas seated left holding palladium and sceptre
Minted in Alexandria. A.D. 194
Ref:– RIC 348 (R3). BMCRE pg. 83

2.67g. 16.97mm. 0o

A poor example but a very rare type.
maridvnvm
RI 064ci img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 411a (example 2) 21 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– MONET AVG, Moneta standing left, holding scales in right hand, cornucopiae in left
Minted in Emesa, A.D. 194 - 195
References:– BMCRE 380ff, VM 84, RIC 411a, RCV02 6314, RSC 330

Worn obverse dies giving the impression of somewhat crude style, the original obverse die is actually very nice in style.
maridvnvm
RI_064nk_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 494a corr.40 viewsObv:– L SEP SEVERVS PER AVG PIV IMP XI PAR P M, laureate head right
Rev:– AR AD [T]R P VI COS II P P, Victory walking left, holding wreath in right hand, palm in left
Eastern mint. A.D. 198
Reference:– BMCRE page 280 *, citing RD page 105. RIC 494a corr.

Very rare.
maridvnvm
RI_064nk_img~0.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 494a corr. 35 viewsObv:– L SEP SEVERVS PER AVG PIV IMP XI PAR P M, laureate head right
Rev:– AR AD [T]R P VI COS II P P, Victory walking left, holding wreath in right hand, palm in left
Eastern mint. A.D. 198
Reference:– BMCRE page 280 *, citing RD page 105. RIC 494a corr.

Very rare.
2 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_064ox_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 494b corr.21 viewsObv:– L SEP SEVERVS PER AVG PIV IMP XI PAR P M, laureate head right
Rev:– AR AD TR P VI / COS II P P, Two captives seated back to back at the foot of a trophy
Eastern mint. A.D. 198
Reference:– BMCRE page 280 Sword, citing RD page 105. RIC 494b corr.

Slightly double struck on the reverse.

Very rare.
maridvnvm
RI_064ow_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 497b corr.20 viewsObv:– L SEP SEVERVS PER AVG PIV IMP XI PAR P M, laureate head right
Rev:– SALVTI AVGG, Salus seated left feeding snake coiled around altar
Eastern mint. A.D. 198
Reference:– BMCRE page 281 Note, citing RD page 102. RIC 497b corr.

Holed and worn but an obverse die match to my other two examples from this rare earliest version of obverse legend variety.

Very rare.
maridvnvm
LarryW1905.jpg
0666 Focas 602-61047 viewsBronze three-quarter follis (30 nummi), 26.3mm, 10.1g, EF
Struck at Cyzikus, 609-610
[d N FOCAS] PERP AVG, bust facing wearing cuirass, paludamentum, and crown with pendilia and cross on circlet / large XXX, cross above, stigma II (year 8) right, KYZ A in exg. Very rare type, some flatness in the striking.
Certificate of Authenticity by David R. Sear, ACCS
Ex: Forvm Ancient Coins; Harlan Berk
Sear 666v; DO 77, note (Longuet collection); MIB 77 (citing two specimens -- Birmingham and Longuet collection)
Lawrence Woolslayer
06c-Constantine-Ser-026.jpg
06c. Constantine as Caesar: Serdica follis.58 viewsFollis, July 306 - Spring 307, Serdica mint.
Obverse: FL VAL CONSTANTINVS NOB CAESAR / Laureate bust of Constantine.
Reverse: GENIO POPVLI ROMANI / Genius standing, chlamys over left shoulder, pouring liquid from patera, holding cornucopiae. A in right field.
Mint mark: . SM . SD .
8.28 gm., 27 mm.
RIC #26; PBCC #848; Sear #15532.

RIC (vol VI, p. 489) says of this coin: " Rare for the Augusti, and very rare for the Caesars. This was evidently a small issue." This was the first issue to have Constantine on it, and due to political considerations, the last at Serdica. If you want a coin from each of the 19 mints that produced coins for Constantine, Serdica is the hardest to find.
2 commentsCallimachus
dom_as_caesar_salus_and_snake.jpg
07 Domitian as Caesar RIC-108486 viewsAR Denarius, 3.28g
Rome Mint, 79 AD (Vespasian)
Obv: CAESAR AVG F DOMITIANVS COS VI; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: PRINCEPS IVVENTVTIS; Salus, stg. r., resting on column, feeding snake out of patera
RIC 1084 (C2). BMC 265. RSC 384. BNC 237.
Acquired from Aegean Numismatics, July 2008.

A most puzzling reverse type issued during the last months of Vespasian's reign before he died on June 24th. Perhaps a reference to Vespasian's illness and his hopeful recovery.

Worn and average with a good portrait.
vespasian70
90Hadrian__RIC725.jpg
0725 Hadrian AS Roma 132-34 AD Indulgentia25 viewsReference.
RIC 725; C. 849; BMC S. 462; Strack 817

Obv. HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS
Bare headed, draped and cuirassed bust right

Rev. INDVLGENTIA – AVG COS III P P in ex
Indulgentia seated l., extending r. hand and holding sceptre.

10.78 gr
27 mm
6h

Note.
Indulgentia. Clemency, lenity, grace, favour. -This word is used on Roman coins to denote either some permission given, some privilege bestowed, or some tribute remitted. -In inscriptions of a very early date, princes are called indulgentissimi.
(FORVM)
okidoki
IMG_2593.JPG
08 Constantius II88 viewsConstantius II.
Ć-2 (25mm, 7.47g Very heavy).
DN CONSTAN-TIVS P F AVG, Pearl-diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right. / FEL TEMP RE-PARTIO, Soldier spearing fallen horseman bearded, three braids, reaching , SMHB in ex., Gamma in left field

RIC VIII 82 Heraclea
4 commentsRandygeki(h2)
Hostilian_AR-Antoninianus_C-OVAL-OSTIL-MES-COVINTVS-CAESAR_AEQVTAS-AVG_RIC-194cvar-NotinRIC_Antioch_251-AD_RRR_Q-001_axis-7h_22-22,5mm_3,48g-s.jpg
082 Hostilian (250-251 A.D. Caesar, 251 A.D. Augustus), AR-Antoninianus, RIC IV-III 194var, Antioch, AEQV(I)TAS AVG, Caesar, Not in RIC!!!, very Rare!,107 views082 Hostilian (250-251 A.D. Caesar, 251 A.D. Augustus), AR-Antoninianus, RIC IV-III 194var, Antioch, AEQV(I)TAS AVG, Caesar, Not in RIC!!!, very Rare!,
avers:- C O VAL OSTIL MES COVINTVS CAESAR, Radiate, draped bust right, "no dots" below bust !!,
revers:- AEQV(I)TAS AVG, Equity standing left holding cornucopia and scales.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 22-22,5 mm, weight: 3,48 g, axis: 7h,
mint: Antioch, date: 251 A.D., ref: RIC-194c variation, Not in RIC this revers legend and without dots below the bust, very Rare!,
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
Hostilian_AR-Antoninianus_C-VAL-HOS-MES-QVINTVS-N-C_PRINCIPI-IVVENTVTIS_RIC-_C-_Rome_251-AD_Q-001_axis-5h_21-23mm_3_67g-s.jpg
082 Hostilian (250-251 A.D. Caesar, 251 A.D. Augustus), AR-Antoninianus, RIC IV-III ???, Rome, PRINCIPI IVVENTVTIS, Caesar, Very Rare!, Not in RIC!!!,77 views082 Hostilian (250-251 A.D. Caesar, 251 A.D. Augustus), AR-Antoninianus, RIC IV-III ???, Rome, PRINCIPI IVVENTVTIS, Caesar, Very Rare!, Not in RIC!!!,
avers:- C VAL HOS MES QVINTVS N C, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right
revers:- RINCIPI IVVENTVTIS, Apollo seated left, holding branch
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 21-23mm, weight: 3,67g, axis: h,
mint: Rome ?, date: 251 A.D.? ref: RIC- ,C- ,??, Very rare!, Not in RIC!!!,
Q-001
"A similar coin, overstruck on an earlier denarius of Geta in Decius' operation to convert circulating denarii into antononiani, was shown on Forvm by Hispanorvm, May 2005.
I wrote the coin into my RIC, but it did not turn up in a Forvm search for "Hostilian Geta" now, so it has perhaps been deleted.
For readers without easy access to RIC, this rev. type is well known for Hostilian Caesar with the longer legend
C VALENS HOSTIL MES QVINTVS N C,
but is not in RIC with the more abbreviated legend of Quadrans' coin,
C VAL HOS MES QVINTVS N C." by Curtis Clay. Thank you Curtis Clay.
quadrans
Hostilian_AR-Antoninianus_C-O-VAL-OSTIL-MES-C-QVINTVS-CAESAR_IV_VICTORIA-AVG_RIC-_C-_Rome_251-AD_Q-001_axis-0h_20-21,5mm_2,89g-s.jpg
082 Hostilian (250-251 A.D. Caesar, 251 A.D. Augustus), AR-Antoninianus, RIC IV-III Unlisted!!!, Antioch, VICTORIA AVG, Caesar, Rare!,89 views082 Hostilian (250-251 A.D. Caesar, 251 A.D. Augustus), AR-Antoninianus, RIC IV-III Unlisted!!!, Antioch, VICTORIA AVG, Caesar, Rare!,
avers:- C O VAL OSTIL MES C QVINTVS CAESAR, IV below the bust, Radiate, draped bust right.
revers:- VICTORIA AVG, Victory running right holding wreath and palm.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 20-21,5 mm, weight: 2,89 g, axis: 0 h,
mint: Antioch, date: 251 A.D., ref: RIC-IV-III- Unlisted!!!, p148 , C- , Not in RIC this revers and "IV" under the bust, Very Rare!,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
084_Volusian_(251-253_A_D_),_AR-Ant_,_IMP_CAE_C_VIB_VOLVSIANO_AVG,_IVNONI_MARTIALI,_RIC_IV_177,_Q-001_1h,21-22mm,3,04g-s.jpg
084 Volusian (251-253 A.D.), AR-Antoninianus, RIC IV-III 177, Rome, IVNONI MARTIALI, Juno seated left, Very Rare!156 views084 Volusian (251-253 A.D.), AR-Antoninianus, RIC IV-III 177, Rome, IVNONI MARTIALI, Juno seated left, Very Rare!
avers: IMP CAE C VIB VOLVSIANO AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
reverse: IVNONI MARTIALI, Juno seated left, wearing kalathos, holding corn-ears and globe.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 21,0-22,0 mm, weight: 3,04 g, axis: 1h, Very Rare!
mint: Rome, date: 251-253 A.D., ref: RIC IV-III 177, p-,
Q-001
4 commentsquadrans
654Hadrian_RIC841.jpg
0841 Hadrian AS Roma 134-38 AD Africa OSTROGOTHS. Uncertain king. Follis circa VI cent.20 viewsReference. very rare
RIC 841; C 147. BMC 1714. MEC I, 66 for countermark.

Obv. HADRIANVS AVG COS III P P
Laureate and draped bust right; in front XLII.

Rev. AFRICA
Africa reclining left, wearing elephant-trunk, holding scorpion and cornucopia; in front, basket of corn.

12.22 gr
26 mm
6h

From the E.E. Clain-Stefanelli collection.
okidoki
V1088.jpg
08a Domitian as Caesar RIC-108886 viewsAR Denarius, 3.14g
Rome Mint, 79 AD (Vespasian)
Obv: CAESAR AVG F DOMITIANVS COS VI; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, l.
Rev: PRINCEPS IVVENTVTIS; Vesta std. l., with Palladium and sceptre
RIC 1088 (R3). BMC p. 46 note. RSC 379. BNC -.
Ex Den of Antiquity (eBay), October 2012.

A very rare (4th known) left facing portrait of the common Vesta and Palladium reverse. It is listed in Cohen as 379 (citing lot 784 of the de Moustier Sale of 1872) , although the new RIC states it is unverified (?). The lone example cited by RIC is in G. Mazzini's Monete imperiali romane, vol. 1. Also, Curtis Clay has a specimen, same die pair as mine. Left facing portraits of Domitian are extremely rare, especially those as Caesar.

Worn but all the major devices are visible.

Thanks to Curtis Clay for additional attribution help!
David Atherton
Gallienus_AE-Ant_GALLIENVS-AVG_MARTI-PACIFERO_A_RIC-V-I-236A_C-614_Gobl-570a_Rome_-AD_Q-001_0h_21,5-24,5mm_6,47ga-s.jpg
090b Gallienus (253-268 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-I 236A, Rome, Sole reign, MARTI PACIFERO, Mars left, (Very heavy, double thickness !!!)125 views090b Gallienus (253-268 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-I 236A, Rome, Sole reign, MARTI PACIFERO, Mars left, (Very heavy, double thickness !!!)
avers:- GALLIENVS-AVG, Radiated bust right.
revers:- MARTI-PACIFERO, Mars standing left holding shield on ground in let and olive branch in right, spear behind, H in left field.
exerg: A/-//--, diameter: 21,5-24,5mm, weight: 6,47g!!!, axes: 0h, thickness:2,5mm,
mint: Rome, date: 253-268-A.D., ref: RIC-V-I-236A, p-151, C-614, Gobl-570a
Q-001
3 commentsquadrans
RI_091b_img.jpg
091 - Otacilia Severa Antoninianus - RIC -15 viewsAntoninianus
Obv:– M OTACIL SEVERA AVG, Diademed draped bust right on crescent
Rev:– CONCORDIA AVGG, Concordia seated facing left, holding a patera and a cornucopiae
Minted in Antioch. A.D. 247 - 249
Reference(s) – RIC IV -; Tulln -; Eauze 875; Hunter -; Cohen -.

Very few examples known

Weight 3.57g. 22.18mm. 180 degrees
1 commentsmaridvnvm
Geta-RSC-220a.jpg
097. Geta.9 viewsDenarius, 209-210, Rome mint.
Obverse: IMP CAES P SEPT GETA PIVS AVG / Laureate bust of Geta.
Reverse: VICTORIAE BRIT / Victory holding wreath and palm.
2.88 gm., 18 mm.
RSC #220a; RIC unlisted.

This coin is a mule, and as such it is a very rare coin. A mule is a coin struck from dies that are normally not used together. In this case, an earlier obverse die with an earlier legend was used with the VICTORIAE BRIT reverse. The obverse legend should read P SEPT GETA PIVS AVG BRIT and is listed that way as RIC #91. Roman Silver Coins (Seaby) lists this mule as #220a based on two offerings of apparently the same specimen in Seaby's Bulletin in 1950 and 1952, not illustrated either time. (Thanks to Curtis Clay for this information.)
Callimachus
trajan mines coin RIC709-RR.jpg
098-117 AD - TRAJAN AE quadrans - struck 104-110 AD72 viewsobv: IMP CAES TRAIAN AVG GER DAC (laureate head right)
rev: METALLI VLPIANI (Aequitas standing left, holding scales and cornucopia)
ref: RIC II 709 (R2), Cohen 182 (30frcs)
3.23gms, 17mm
Very rare

Under Trajan and Hadrian several series of bronze quadrantes were struck in the name of the imperial mines in Noricum, Dalmatia, Pannonia and Moesia (Dardania). These operations supplied metal for the mint at Rome, and perhaps were the sites of workshops to produce coinage for local circulation or as donatives. Others theorize that these pieces were struck at Rome itself, and served some unidentified function,much as the contemporary "nome" coinage struck at Alexandria in Egypt. The exact denomination is unclear. Most appear to be quadrans in the 14-17mm range but some larger examples could be considered semisses.
berserker
trajan quadrans RIC704-RR.jpg
098-117 AD - TRAJAN AE quadrans - struck 99-102 AD50 viewsobv: IMP CAES NERVA TRAIAN AVG (laureate head right)
rev: DARDANICI (woman standing left, holding branch and gathering up drapery)
ref: RIC II 704 (R2), C.139 (30frcs), BMCRE 1106 note
mint: Dardanian mines
2.90gms, 16mm
Very rare

Dardania was a region situated in Moesia Superior. For the Romans this was the mining province par excellence; were divided into several mining districts managed by the procuratores. It is unknown why these coins were struck, though many feel that they were made for use at the mines themselves, as payment for the workers. The original denomination of this coin is uncertain.
berserker
trajan_RIC642.jpg
098-117 AD - TRAJAN AE sestertius - struck 104-110 AD70 viewsobv: [IMP CAES NER TRAIANO OPTIMO AVG GER DAC PM TR P COS VI PP] (laureate, draped bust right)
rev: [ARMENIA ET MESOPOTAMIA IN POTESTATEM P R REDACTAE] (Trajan standing to the front, head turned right, holding spear and parazonium; on both sides of him and reclining are the three females figures, Armenia, Euphrates, Tigris), S-C in field
ref: RIC II 642 (R), BMC 1039, C.39 (20frcs)
mint: Rome
22.41gms, 33mm
Rare

History: Trajan declared war against the Parthians, after overrunning Syria, Mesopotamia and Armenia, he defeated in every encounter, establishing several governments, and thereby gaining from the Roman Senate the title of Parthicus.

This coin is worn enough, even the legends are disappeared, too, but shows the result about one of the most impotant Roman conquest.
berserker
MariusFundania1Denarius.jpg
0aa Caius Marius40 viewsC. Fundanius, moneyer
101-91 BC

Denarius

Helmeted head of Roma right, control-mark C behind

"Triumphator" (Marius) in quadriga right, holding laurel-branch and staff; a rider sits on near horse, holding laurel-branch, Q above, C FVNDAN in exergue

The reverse shows Marius as triumphator in the quadriga. He holds sceptre and laurel branch. On one of the horses rides his son. The children of the triumphator were - according to tradition - allowed to share the triumph of their father. The Q above refers to the office as quaestor the mintmaster held while minting these coins. FORVM Ancient Coins says of a similar piece, "The reverse refers to Marius triumph after victories over the Cimbri and Teutones. The rider on the near horse is Marius's son, at that time eight years old." Andrew McCabe comments, "The Triumphator on the Fundania denarius is usually taken to be Marius, with his young son on horseback. This would make it the first Roman coin to explicitly portray a living Roman politician. "

Seaby Fundania 1

Marius rose from common origins to become the First Man in Rome. Plutarch in his Life writes: There is a likeness of Marius in stone at Ravenna, in Gaul, which I myself saw quite corresponding with that roughness of character that is ascribed to him. Being naturally valiant and warlike, and more acquainted also with the discipline of the camp than of the city, he could not moderate his passion when in authority. . . . He was born of parents altogether obscure and indigent, who supported themselves by their daily labour; his father of the same name with himself, his mother called Fulcinia. He had spent a considerable part of his life before he saw and tasted the pleasures of the city; having passed previously in Cirrhaeaton, a village of the territory of Arpinum, a life, compared with city delicacies, rude and unrefined, yet temperate, and conformable to the ancient Roman severity. He first served as a soldier in the war against the Celtiberians, when Scipio Africanus besieged Numantia; where he signalized himself to his general by courage far above his comrades, and particularly by his cheerfully complying with Scipio's reformation of his army, being almost ruined by pleasures and luxury. It is stated, too, that he encountered and vanquished an enemy in single combat, in his general's sight. In consequence of all this he had several honours conferred upon him; and once when at an entertainment a question arose about commanders, and one of the company (whether really desirous to know, or only in complaisance) asked Scipio where the Romans, after him, should obtain such another general, Scipio, gently clapping Marius on the shoulder as he sat next him, replied, "Here, perhaps. . . ."

The consul Caecilius Metellus, being declared general in the war against Jugurtha in Africa took with him Marius for lieutenant; where, eager himself to do great deeds and services that would get him distinction, he did not, like others, consult Metellus's glory and the serving his interest, and attributing his honour of lieutenancy not to Metellus, but to fortune, which had presented him with a proper opportunity and theatre of great actions, he exerted his utmost courage. . . . Marius thus employed, and thus winning the affections of the soldiers, before long filled both Africa and Rome with his fame, and some, too, wrote home from the army that the war with Africa would never be brought to a conclusion unless they chose Caius Marius consul. . . .He was elected triumphantly, and at once proceeded to levy soldiers contrary both to law and custom, enlisting slaves and poor people; whereas former commanders never accepted of such, but bestowed arms, like other favours, as a matter of distinction, on persons who had the proper qualification, a man's property being thus a sort of security for his good behavior. . . .

[In Marius' fourth consulship,] The enemy dividing themselves into two parts, the Cimbri arranged to go against Catulus higher up through the country of the Norici, and to force that passage; the Teutones and Ambrones to march against Marius by the seaside through Liguria. . . . The Romans, pursuing them, slew and took prisoners above one hundred thousand, and possessing themselves of their spoil, tents, and carriages, voted all that was not purloined to Marius's share, which, though so magnificent a present, yet was generally thought less than his conduct deserved in so great a danger. . . . After the battle, Marius chose out from amongst the barbarians' spoils and arms those that were whole and handsome, and that would make the greatest show in his triumph; the rest he heaped upon a large pile, and offered a very splendid sacrifice. Whilst the army stood round about with their arms and garlands, himself attired (as the fashion is on such occasions) in the purple-bordered robe, and taking a lighted torch, and with both hands lifting it up towards heaven, he was then going to put it to the pile, when some friends were espied with all haste coming towards him on horseback. Upon which every one remained in silence and expectation. They, upon their coming up, leapt off and saluted Marius, bringing him the news of his fifth consulship, and delivered him letters to that effect. This gave the addition of no small joy to the solemnity; and while the soldiers clashed their arms and shouted, the officers again crowned Marius with a laurel wreath, and he thus set fire to the pile, and finished his sacrifice.
Blindado
Cornelia51QuinVict.jpg
0aa Defeat of Hannibal on Sicily, 222 BC11 viewsCn. Lentulus, moneyer
90-85 BC

Quinarius

Laureled head of Jupiter, right
Victory crowning trophy, CN LENT in ex

Seaby, Cornelia 51

Possibly a reference to this event: [Q. Fabius Maximus, afterwards called Cunctator] broke up his camp at Suessula and decided to begin by an attack on Arpi. . . . Now at last the enemy was roused; there was a lull in the storm and daylight was approaching. Hannibal's garrison in the city amounted to about 5000 men, and the citizens themselves had raised a force of 3000. These the Carthaginians put in front to meet the enemy, that there might be no attempt at treachery in their rear. The fighting began in the dark in the narrow streets, the Romans having occupied not only the streets near the gate but the houses also, that they might not be assailed from the roofs. Gradually as it grew light some of the citizen troops and some of the Romans recognised one another, and entered into conversation. The Roman soldiers asked what it was that the Arpinians wanted, what wrong had Rome done them, what good service had Carthage rendered them that they, Italians-bred and born, should fight against their old friends the Romans on behalf of foreigners and barbarians, and wish to make Italy a tributary province of Africa. The people of Arpi urged in their excuse that they knew nothing of what was going on, they had in fact been sold by their leaders to the Carthaginians, they had been victimised and enslaved by a small oligarchy. When a beginning had been once made the conversations became more and more general; at last the praetor of Arpi was conducted by his friends to the consul, and after they had given each other mutual assurances, surrounded by the troops under their standards, the citizens suddenly turned against the Carthaginians and fought for the Romans. A body of Spaniards also, numbering something less than a thousand, transferred their services to the consul upon the sole condition that the Carthaginian garrison should be allowed to depart uninjured. The gates were opened for them and they were dismissed, according to the stipulation, in perfect safety, and went to Hannibal at Salapia. Thus Arpi was restored to the Romans without the loss of a single life, except in the case of one man who had long ago been a traitor and had recently deserted. The Spaniards were ordered to receive double rations, and the republic availed itself on very many occasions of their courage and fidelity.

Livy, History of Rome, 24.46-47
Blindado
Sulla_L_Manlius_den.jpg
0ab Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix23 viewsL Manlivs, moneyer
82-72 BC

Denarius

Head of Roma, right, MANLI before, PRO Q behind
Sulla in walking quadriga, crowned by Victory, L SVLLA IM in ex.

Seaby, Manlia 4

Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix (c. 138 BC – 78 BC) was a Roman general and conservative statesman. He had the distinction of holding the office of consul twice, as well as reviving the dictatorship. Sulla was awarded a grass crown, the most prestigious and rarest Roman military honor, during the Social War. He was the first man to lead an army to Rome to settle a political dispute, in this case with Marius. In late 81 BC, he stunned the world by resigning his near-absolute powers, restoring constitutional government. After seeing election to and holding a second consulship, he retired to private life and died shortly after.

As to the person, Plutarch wrote: LUCIUS Cornelius Sylla was descended of a patrician or noble family. . . . His general personal appearance may be known by his statues; only his blue, eyes, of themselves extremely keen and glaring, were rendered all the more forbidding and terrible by the complexion of his face, in which white was mixed with rough blotches of fiery red. . . . And when supreme master of all, he was often wont to muster together the most impudent players and stage-followers of the town, and to drink and bandy jests with them without regard to his age or the dignity of his place, and to the prejudice of important affairs that required his attention. When he was once at table, it was not in Sylla's nature to admit of anything that was serious, and whereas at other times he was a man of business and austere of countenance, he underwent all of a sudden, at his first entrance upon wine and good-fellowship, a total revolution, and was gentle and tractable with common singers and dancers, and ready to oblige any one that spoke with him. It seems to have been a sort of diseased result of this laxity that he was so prone to amorous pleasures, and yielded without resistance to any temptation of voluptuousness, from which even in his old age he could not refrain. He had a long attachment for Metrobius, a player. In his first amours, it happened that he made court to a common but rich lady, Nicopolis by name, and what by the air of his youth, and what by long intimacy, won so far on her affections, that she rather than he was the lover, and at her death she bequeathed him her whole property. He likewise inherited the estate of a step-mother who loved him as her own son. By these means he had pretty well advanced his fortunes. . . . In general he would seem to have been of a very irregular character, full of inconsistencies with himself much given to rapine, to prodigality yet more; in promoting or disgracing whom he pleased, alike unaccountable; cringing to those he stood in need of, and domineering over others who stood in need of him, so that it was hard to tell whether his nature had more in it of pride or of servility. As to his unequal distribution of punishments, as, for example, that upon slight grounds he would put to the torture, and again would bear patiently with the greatest wrongs; would readily forgive and he reconciled after the most heinous acts of enmity, and yet would visit small and inconsiderable offences with death and confiscation of goods; one might judge that in himself he was really of a violent and revengeful nature, which, however, he could qualify, upon reflection, for his interest.
Blindado
Valeria_16-18_2.jpg
1) The Caesarians: Valeria - Drunken Mint Worker?16 viewsRoman Republic
AR Denarius.
L. Valerius Acisculus. 45 BC.

Diademed head of Apollo Soranus right, axe behind, star above; in laurel wreath

Very poor strike. According to Andrew McCabe: about 30% of obverse visible, and 0% of reverse.

Valeria 16-18
RM0044
Sosius
029.JPG
100 Titus82 viewsF/Fair, 3.002g, 18.2mm, 180o, Rome mint, as Caesar, 71 - 72 A.D.; obverse T CAES IMP VESP PON TR POT, laureate head right; reverse NEP RED, Neptune standing left, foot on globe, acrostolium in right and scepter in left.

RIC II Vesp 155, Cohen 121, RIC 366 ex Forvm

"Titus was the very popular victor of the Judean rebellion. He ruled during the eruption of Vesuvius. Titus once complained he had lost a day because twenty-four hours passed without his bestowing a gift. He was, however, generous to a fault. Had he ruled longer, he might have brought bankruptcy and lost hist popularity."

This coin gives thanks to Neptune for the safe return of Titus after the Jewish War.
6 commentsRandygeki(h2)
60304LG.jpg
102a. Plotina136 viewsPlotina, wife of Trajan.

Under Trajan, his female relations played enormously important roles in the empire's public life, and received honors perhaps unparalleled. Trajan's wife, Pompeia Plotina, is reported to have said, when she entered the imperial palace in Rome for the first time, that she hoped she would leave it the same person she was when she entered. She received the title Augusta no later than 105. She survived Trajan, dying probably in 121, and was honored by Hadrian with a temple, which she shared with her husband, in the great forum which the latter had built.

Ć trial strike of denarius dies (23 mm, 7.42 g). Rome. [PL]OTINA AVG IMP TRAIANI, diademed and draped bust right, hair in queue down neck / CAES AVG GERMA [D]A[C] COS V[I P P], Vesta seated left, holding palladium in right hand, sceptre in left. Cf. RIC 730 (Trajan); cf. BMC 526 (Trajan); cf. RSC 3. VF, rough green patina. Very unusual and probably unique. Ex Spink 160 (9-10 October 2002), 852.
ecoli73
904_P_Hadrian_Strack49.jpg
103 Hadrian Denarius 128 AD Five stars Eastern Mint19 viewsReference. very rare
cf RIC357; .cf C464. - . BMC - Strack *49(same reverse die)

Obv: HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS P P
Laureate head right


Rev: COS III.
Five stars within crescent.

2.72 gr
18 mm
12h
2 commentsokidoki
coin192.JPG
104. Antoninus Pius & Marcus Aurelius32 viewsAntoninus Pius & Marcus Aurelius

In preparation for the succession, Antoninus' daughter Faustina married Marcus Aurelius in A.D. 145 and she soon became Augusta in place of her deceased mother. Marcus Aurelius was associated in imperial powers and he and L. Verus both held the consulship multiple times in preparation for their accession. In his Meditations, Marcus Aurelius expressed his enduring love and respect for his adoptive father: "Do all things as a disciple of Antoninus. Think of his constancy in every act rationally undertaken, his invariable equability, his piety, his serenity of countenance, his sweetness of disposition, his contempt for the bubble of fame, and his zeal for getting a true grasp of affairs."

Check

Sestertius. ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P COS III, laureate head right / AVRELIVS CAESAR AVG PII COS S-C. Cohen 34.
ecoli
603_P_Hadrian_eastern.jpg
105 Hadrian Denarius 128 AD Seven stars Eastern Mint36 viewsReference. very rare
RIC - . C. - . BMC - (cf. S. 380, 26-27 and Taf. 70, 4 und 6). Strack - (cf. Taf. XVIII, *50).

Obv: HADRIAИVS AVGVSTVS P. (SIC)
Laureate head right, draped on left shoulder.


Rev: COS III.
Seven stars within crescent.

3.03 gr
19 mm
h
1 commentsokidoki
coin219.JPG
105. Marcus Aurelius41 viewsMarcus Aurelius

The joint succession may have been motivated by military exigency. During his reign Marcus Aurelius was almost constantly at war with various peoples outside the Empire. Germanic tribes and other peoples launched many raids along the long European border, particularly into Gaul — Germans, in turn, may have been under attack from more warlike tribes farther east. In Asia, a revitalized Parthian Empire renewed its assault. A highly authoritative figure was needed to command the troops, yet the emperor himself could not defend both fronts at the same time. Neither could he simply appoint a general to lead one assault; earlier popular military leaders like Julius Caesar and Vespasian had used the military to overthrow the existing government and install themselves as supreme leaders.

Marcus Aurelius solved the problem by sending Verus to command the legions in the East. He was authoritative enough to command the full loyalty of the troops, but already powerful enough that he had little incentive to overthrow Marcus. The plan succeeded — Verus remained loyal until his death on campaign in 169. This joint emperorship was faintly reminiscent of the political system of the Roman Republic, which functioned according to the principle of collegiality and did not allow a single person to hold supreme power. Joint rule was revived by Diocletian's establishment of the Tetrarchy in the late 3rd century.

Virtus

In Roman mythology, Virtus was the god of bravery and military strength. His Greek equivalent was Arete. The word, "Virtus" is commonly used in mottos of universities and other entities.

Marcus Aurelius, as Caesar, Denarius. 155-156 AD. AVRELIVS CAES ANTON AVG PII F, bare head right / TR POT X COS II, Virtus, helmeted, standing left, holding parazonium & spear. RSC 703. RIC 468
ecoli
Aurelianus-AE-Antoninianus_IMP-C-AVRELIANVS-PIVS-FEL-AVG_RESTITVT-OR-BIS_star_KAdot-Gamma-dot_RIC-V-I-Not-in_T-2790_Serdica_274-5AD-Rare_Q-001_axis-0h_21-23mm_3,79g-s.jpg
106 Aurelianus (270-275 A.D.), T-2790, RIC V-I Not in !!!, Serdica, AE-Antoninianus, RESTITVT ORBIS, *//KA•Γ•, Female and Emperor, Rare !!!138 views106 Aurelianus (270-275 A.D.), T-2790, RIC V-I Not in !!!, Serdica, AE-Antoninianus, RESTITVT ORBIS, *//KA•Γ•, Female and Emperor, Rare !!!
avers:- IMP C AVRELIANVS PIVS FEL AVG, Radiated and cuirassed bust right. (B1)
revers:- RESTITVTOR ORBIS, Female figure standing right, crowning Emperor in military dress standing left, holding spear (or long sceptre) in left hand. (Emperor and Woman 1)
exerg: *//KA•Γ•, diameter: 21-23mm, weight: 3,79g, axes: 0h,
mint: Serdica, off-3, iss-8, phase-2, date: 274-275 A.D., ref: T-2790 (Estiot), RIC V-I Not in RIC!!!, Very Rare!!!,
Q-001
quadrans
coin229.JPG
106. Commodus32 viewsCommodus

According to Gibbon, the emperor Commodus spent the early years of his reign "in a seraglio of three hundred beautiful women and as many boys, of every rank and of every province." Later, adding bloodshed to his round of pleasures, he launched a career in murder, beginning with the dispatch of the usual senators, ministers and family members and continuing with the slaughter of beasts. Styling himself the Roman Hercules, he went as a performer into the amphitheater, where he cut down before the public a number of ostriches, a panther, a hundred lions, an elephant, a rhinoceros and a giraffe. He then entered the lists as a gladiator. Commodus fought 735 times and paid himself such a high fee for each appearance that a new tax had to be levied. He was strangled by a wrestler while drunk.

Denarius. 192 AD. L AEL AVREL COMM AVG P FEL, laureate head right / P M TR P XVII IMP VIII COS VII P P, Fides standing left holding standard & cornucopiae, star right. RSC 583a. RIC 233
ecoli
T-3203_107_Severina_AE-Ant-Silvered_SEVERINA-PF-AVG_CONCORDIA-AVG_V_XXI_RIC-19v__T-3203_Antioch_iss-7_off-5_275-AD_Q-001_0h_23mm_4,61g-s.jpg
107 Severina (270-275 A.D.), T-3203 (Estiot), RIC V-I 019var, Antioch, AE-Antoninianus, CONCORDIA AVG, V//XXI, Emperor and Empress, R!203 views107 Severina (270-275 A.D.), T-3203 (Estiot), RIC V-I 019var, Antioch, AE-Antoninianus, CONCORDIA AVG, V//XXI, Emperor and Empress, R!
avers:- SEVERINA-PF-AVG, Empress right, diademed, draped, on a lunar crescent. (E2)
revers:- CONCORDIA-AVG, Emperor togate (no laurel crown) standing right, clasping the hand of Empress standing left. (Emperor and Empress 1)
"A very interesting coin from the historical point of view as it belongs to the issues dating from Severina's interregnum after the assassination of Aurelian (september-november 275).
"As far as the organisation of coin production was concerned, we see that from the end of 274, certain officinae in some of the mints struck coins exclusively for Severina: this is the case with issues 2-4 at Lyon, issues 10-11 at Rome and issue 4 at Ticinum. After the death of Aurelian, the officinae are no longer shared between Aurelian and Severina: at Lyon, there is a 5th issue attested by coins in the name of Severina only, and the same applies to the 12th issue at Rome where the empress monopolizes the six active équipes, and the 5th issue at Ticinum, where all six officinae struck coins just for Severina. It is clear that the Empress as regent was exercising alone power and right to coin.
In fact the evidence shows that all eight mints that were active in the autumn of 275 across the Empire were producing issues in the name of Severina alone. The mint at Serdica struck coins for Severina with the legend Severina Augusta.The mint at Antioch exceptionally gave the Empress the titles P(ia) F(elix), normally reserved for emperors; on the reverse, the legend is changed from the plural form Concordia Augg (Augustorum) to the singular Concordia Aug, which may be expanded as Concordia Augustae. The type no longer shows the standard reverse, Aurelian shaking the hand of Concordia, but an anonymous male figure, now without laurel-wreath and sceptre, shaking the hand of Severina, who is easily recognizable by her characteristic hairdress and is shown in a larger size. At Alexandria, coins in the name of Severina continued to be struck as the mint received the news of Aurelian’s assassination, and stopped issuing his coins: the hoards from Karanis have 5 tetradrachms of the 7th year of Aurelian (that is after 29 August 275), but 25 of Severina."
(From the website Monnaies de l'Empire Romain / Roman Imperial Coinage 268-276 AD : http://www.ric.mom.fr/en/info/hist5#severine)"
by S. Estiot. Thank you S. Estiot.
exerg: V//XXI, diameter: 23mm, weight: 4,61g, axes: 0h,
mint: Antioch, iss-7, off-5, date: 275 A.D., ref: RIC-19var., T-3203 (Estiot), C-,
Q-001
quadrans
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107. Pertinax35 viewsPertinax

Only a mediocre public speaker, Pertinax was first and foremost a gritty old soldier. He was heavily built, had a pot belly, although it was said, even by his critics, that he possessed the proud air of an emperor.
He possessed some charm, but was generally understood to be a rather sly character. He also acquired a reputation for being mean and greedy. He apparently even went as far as serving half portions of lettuce and artichoke before he became emperor. It was a characteristic which would not serve him well as an emperor.

When he took office, Pertinax quickly realized that the imperial treasury was in trouble. Commodus had wasted vast sums on games and luxuries. If the new emperor thought that changes would need to be made to bring the finances back in order he was no doubt right. But he sought to do too much too quickly. In the process he made himself enemies.

The gravest error, made at the very beginning of his reign, was to decide to cut some of the praetorian's privileges and that he was going to pay them only half the bonus he had promised.
Already on 3 January AD 193 the praetorians tried to set up another emperor who would pay up. But that senator, wise enough to stay out of trouble, merely reported the incident to Pertinax and then left Rome.

The ordinary citizens of Rome however also quickly had enough of their new emperor. Had Commodus spoilt them with lavish games and festivals, then now Pertinax gave them very little.
And a truly powerful enemy should be the praetorian prefect Laetus. The man who had after all put Pertinax on the throne, was to play an important role in the emperor's fate. It isn't absolutely clear if he sought to be an honest advisor of the emperor, but saw his advise ignored, or if he sought to manipulate Pertinax as his puppet emperor. In either case, he was disappointed.

And so as Pertinax grew ever more unpopular, the praetorians once more began to look for a new emperor. In early March, When Pertinax was away in Ostia overseeing the arrangements for the grain shipments to Rome, they struck again. This time they tried to set up one of the consuls, Quintus Sosius Falco.

When Pertinax returned to Rome he pardoned Falco who'd been condemned by the senate, but several praetorians were executed. A slave had given them away as being part of the conspiracy.
These executions were the final straw. On 28 March AD 193 the praetorians revolts.
300 hundred of them forced the gates to the palace. None of the guards sought to help their emperor.
Everyone, so it seemed, wanted rid of this emperor. So, too, Laetus would not listen as Pertinax ordered him to do something. The praetorian prefect simply went home, leaving the emperor to his fate.

Pertinax did not seek to flee. He stood his ground and waited, together with his chamberlain Eclectus. As the praetorians found him, they did not discover an emperor quivering with fear, but a man determined on convincing them to put down their weapons. Clearly the soldiers were over-awed by this brave man, for he spoke to them for some time. But eventually their leader found enough courage to step forwards and hurl his spear at the emperor. Pertinax fell with the spear in his chest. Eclectus fought bravely for his life, stabbing two, before he two was slain by the soldiers.
The soldiers then cut off Pertinax' head, stuck it on a spear and paraded through the streets of Rome.

Pertinax had ruled for only 87 days. He was later deified by Septimius Severus.

RI1. Pertinax. A.D. 193. AR denarius (18.0 mm, 2.74 g, 7 h). Rome mint. Rare. IMP CAES P HELV PERTIN AVG, laureate head right / OPI DIVIN TR P COS II, Ops seated left, holding two stalks of grain, resting hand on seat of throne. RIC 8a; RSC 33; BMCRE 19. aVF, flan crack.
ecoli
T1356LG.jpg
108a MANLIA SCANTILLA64 viewsAE sestertius. Rome mint.
MANL SCANTILLA AVG. Draped bust right / IVNO REGINA SC. Juno standing left, holding patera and sceptre; peacock at feet. RIC IV 18b (Didius Julianus). VERY RARE

Check
2 commentsecoli
AD199_septimius-severus_AR-denarius_victory_2_16gr_obv_01_rev_02.JPG
11 - Septimius Severus AR Denarius - AD 19926 viewsSeptimius Severus Denarius. 199 AD.

obv: L SEPT SEV AVG IMP XI PART MAX - Laureate head right.

rev: VICTORIAE AVGG FEL - Victory flying left holding open wreath in both hands over round shield set on low base.

2.16 Grams, 21.5mm.
---------------
Great, very expressive portrait of the Emperor.
Small flan crack @ 9 o'clock on the obverse.
1 commentsrexesq
AD199_septimius-severus_AR-denarius_victory_2_16gr_obv_03.jpg
11 - Septimius Severus AR Denarius - AD 199 - obv 0317 viewsSeptimius Severus Denarius. 199 AD.

obv: L SEPT SEV AVG IMP XI PART MAX - Laureate head right.

rev: VICTORIAE AVGG FEL - Victory flying left holding open wreath in both hands over round shield set on low base.

2.16 Grams, 21.5mm.
---------------
Great, very expressive portrait of the Emperor.
Small flan crack @ 9 o'clock on the obverse.
rexesq
AD199_septimius-severus_AR-denarius_victory_2_16gr_obv_04.jpg
11 - Septimius Severus AR Denarius - AD 199 - obv 04 - *Better Lighting*21 viewsSeptimius Severus Denarius. 199 AD.

obv: L SEPT SEV AVG IMP XI PART MAX - Laureate head right.

rev: VICTORIAE AVGG FEL - Victory flying left holding open wreath in both hands over round shield set on low base.

2.16 Grams, 21.5mm.
---------------
Great, very expressive portrait of the Emperor.
Small flan crack @ 9 o'clock on the obverse.
rexesq
AD199_septimius-severus_AR-denarius_victory_2_16gr_rev_04.jpg
11 - Septimius Severus AR Denarius - AD 199 - rev 0424 viewsSeptimius Severus Denarius. 199 AD.

obv: L SEPT SEV AVG IMP XI PART MAX - Laureate head right.

rev: VICTORIAE AVGG FEL - Victory flying left holding open wreath in both hands over round shield set on low base.

2.16 Grams, 21.5mm.
---------------
Great, very expressive portrait of the Emperor.
Small flan crack @ 9 o'clock on the obverse. Photo slightly off color due to camera troubles.
2 commentsrexesq
Probus_AE-Ant_PROBV-S-P-F-AVG_ROMAE-AETER_R-Thunderbolt-Delta_RIC-Not_in_Rome--AD_Very_Rare_Q-001_7h_21,5-22mm_4,02gx-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II Not in !!!, Rome, ROMAE AETER, Bust-H-var. right (Not in RIC), Roma seated in temple, Very Rare !!!127 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II Not in !!!, Rome, ROMAE AETER, Bust-H-var. right (Not in RIC), Roma seated in temple, Very Rare !!!
avers:- IMP-C-M-AVR-PROBVS-P-F-AVG, Radiate bust right in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle, and globe in left hand. (H-var Not in RIC)
revers:- ROMAE-AETER, Roma seated in temple, holding Victory and sceptre.
exergo: -/-//R-Thunderbolt-Δ, diameter: 21,5-22mm, weight: 4,02g, axis: 7h,
mint: Rome, date: 281 A.D., ref: RIC V-II (Not in RIC), p-,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
RIC_---_A_---_No_---_112_Probus_AE-Ant_IMP-PROBVS-INV-AVG_FELICITAS-AVG-N_XXI_RIC-(not-in)-V-II-686var_Alf_-32avar-No-_Siscia_2nd-emission_277-AD_Q-001_0h_22,5mm_3_22g-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), Siscia, Alföldi 0032.0000 (This bust Not in from this type !!!), -/-//XXI, Bust A/C, RIC V-II 686var. (This bust not listed in RIC from this type!!!), AE-Antoninianus, FELICITAS AVG N, Felicitas standing left, Extremely Rare!!!125 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), Siscia, Alföldi 0032.0000 (This bust Not in from this type !!!), -/-//XXI, Bust A/C, RIC V-II 686var. (This bust not listed in RIC from this type!!!), AE-Antoninianus, FELICITAS AVG N, Felicitas standing left, Extremely Rare!!!
avers: IMP PROBVS INV AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from front. (This bust not listed in RIC from this type!!!)
reverse: FELICITAS AVG N, Felicitas standing left by altar, holding caduceus and cornucopiae.
exergue: -/-//XXI, diameter: 22,5mm, weight: 3,22g, axis: 0h,
mint: Siscia, 2nd. emission, date: 277 A.D., ref: RIC V-II 686var., (This bust not listed in RIC from this type!!!),
Q-001
"Thank you for showing this very rare coin reverse FELICITAS AVG(usti) N(ostri), Felicitas holding a long caduceus and a cornucopiae: the draped bust seen from front is unlisted in Alföldi's work on the mint of Siscia under Probus (so ref: Alföldi 32, -), I know it from another coin in a private collection, which shares the same obverse die as yours >> unreferenced coin, two specimens, one obverse die.
The new reverses introduced at that time in the Pannonian mint of Siscia celebrate Probus as "Augustus Noster" (Our Emperor) as the emperor is of Pannonian extraction. The marking which omits the officina number is a clue for an issue of common base aureliani minted parallelly with an imperial donativum in gold.
Very nice coin..S. Estiot" Thank you S.Estiot.
1 commentsquadrans
112_Probus_(276-282_A_D_),_Siscia,_Alf,_0076_--,_RIC_V-II_-,_AE-Ant,_IMP_PRO-BVS_AVG,_SOLI_INVIC-TO,_XXIV,_em-5,_278AD,_R,_Q-001,_0h,_20-23mm,_3,63g-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), Siscia, Alföldi 0076.-- Not in !!!, -/-//XXIV, Bust F5/Gvar., RIC V-II Not in !!!, AE-Antoninianus, SOLI INVICTO, Sol in quadriga galloping left, Very Rare!!!197 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), Siscia, Alföldi 0076.-- Not in !!!, -/-//XXIV, Bust F5/Gvar., RIC V-II Not in !!!, AE-Antoninianus, SOLI INVICTO, Sol in quadriga galloping left, Very Rare!!!
avers: IMP PROBVS AVG, Radiate, cuirassed bust left, holding a spear. (F5/Gvar.).
reverse: SOLI IN VICTO, Sol in quadriga galloping left, right hand raised, left holding a whip.
exergue: -/-//XXIV, diameter: 20,0-23,0mm, weight: 3,63g, axis: 0h,
mint: Siscia, 5th. emission of Siscia, date: 278 A.D., ref: RIC V-II -- Not in !!!, Alföldi 0076.-- Not in !!!, Very Rare!!!
Q-001
3 commentsquadrans
RI 115l img.jpg
115 - Postumus Ant. - RIC 089 C47 viewsObv:- IMP C POSTVMVS P F AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev:- VICTORIA AVG, Victory, walking left, holding wreath and palm, at foot captive.
Ref:- RIC 89 Bust Type C, attributed to Lugdunum

Very strong portrait and somewhat weak reverse strike as it typical of the type.
2 commentsmaridvnvm
hadrian_quadrans_RIC977(S).jpg
117-138 AD - HADRIAN AE quadrans - struck 134-138 AD43 viewsobv: HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS PP (laureate head right)
rev: COS III (legionary eagle between two standards), S-C in field
ref: RIC 977 (S), Cohen 450 (4frcs)
2.12gms, 16mm
Rare

A very decent and affordable example of this very scarce denomination for Hadrian.
berserker
hadrian_RIC42.jpg
117-138 AD - HADRIAN AR denarius - struck 118 AD52 viewsobv: IMP CAESAR TRAIAN HADRIANVS AVG (laureate bust right, cuirassed, draped far shoulder)
rev: P M TR P COS II (Justice is seated on the curule chair, as on a tribunal: with the insignia of the hasta pura and the extended patera she displays her care for religion), IVSTITIA in ex.
ref: RIC II 42, RSC 877
mint: Rome
3.25gms, 19mm

Rare cuirassed bust, RIC not describes (c - not in RIC). Unfortunately the reverse is burned, but still valuable.
The reverse perhaps refer to the edictum perpetuum or Pretorian edict, what was an annual declaration made by the praetor urbanus in which he laid out the principles by which he would exercise his jurisdiction for his year in office. Under Hadrian, the edict became fixed and unchangeable.
And there's an other fact that can refer this reverse. When Hadrian arrived in Rome in July 118 to a hostile reception on the part of the senate, because of the death of the four consulars. The four men were Cornelius Palma, governor of Syria, Avidius Nigrinus, governor of Dacia, Publilius Celsus and Lusius Quietus, governor of Judaea, they were all Trajan's men, and their elimination certainly made Hadrian's course easier. But an Emperor had right everytime, and he was the justice.
berserker
Diocletianus_AE-quinar_IMP-DIOCLETIANVS-AVG_VICTORIA-AVGG_Siscia_RIC-Not-in_Q-001_6h_15,5mm_1,17(2,34)g-s.jpg
119 Diocletianus (284-305 A.D.), Siscia, RIC V-II Not in !!!, AE-Quinar, -/-//--, VICTORIA AVG G, Victoria walking right, Very Rare !!!240 views119 Diocletianus (284-305 A.D.), Siscia, RIC V-II Not in !!!, AE-Quinar, -/-//--, VICTORIA AVG G, Victoria walking right, Very Rare !!!
avers: IMP DIOCLETIANVS AVG, Cuirassed bust with laurel wreath to the right.
revers: VICTORIA AVG G, Victoria walking with wreath and palm branch to the right.
exerg: -/-//--, diameter:15,5mm, weight:1,17(2,34)g, axes: 6h,
mint: Siscia, date: 293-295 A.D., ref: RIC V-II-Not in , p-, Very Rare !!!,
Q-001
quadrans
119_Diocletianus,_Heraclea,_RIC_VI_10a,_AR-Argenteus,_DIOCLETI_ANVS_AVG,_VICTORIAE_SARMATICAE,_296_AD_Q-001_0h_18,5-19mm_3,5g-xs.jpg
119a Diocletianus (284-305 A.D.), Heraclea, RIC VI 010e (Not in RIC this Officina), AR-Argenteus, -/-/HЄ, VICTORIAE SARMATICAE, Four Tetrarchs, Very Rare! #1141 views119a Diocletianus (284-305 A.D.), Heraclea, RIC VI 010e (Not in RIC this Officina), AR-Argenteus, -/-/HЄ, VICTORIAE SARMATICAE, Four Tetrarchs, Very Rare! #1
avers: DIOCLETI ANVS AVG, Laureate head right.
reverse: VICTORIAE SARMATICAE, The Four Tetrarchs sacrificing in front of 6 turreted City gate.
exergue: -/-/HЄ, diameter: 18,5-19,0mm, weight: 3,50g, axis:0h ,
mint: Heraclea, date: 296 A.D., ref: RIC VI 010e (? Not in RIC this Officina), p-, Jelocnik -; RSC 491b, Not in RIC this Officina Very Rare!
Q-001
3 commentsquadrans
12-Constantius-I-Lon-RIC-14a.jpg
12. Constantius I.32 viewsFollis, ca 298-300 AD, London mint (group II).
Obverse: FL VAL CONSTANTINVS NOB C / Laureate and curiassed bust of Constantius I.
Reverse: GENIO POPVLI ROMANI / Genius standing, holding patera and cornucopiae.
Mint mark: (none)
9.71gm., 27 mm.
RIC # 14a; Sear #14034 (this coin !).

Although RIC lists these last four coins (Diocletian, Maximian, Galerius, and Constantius I) with other coins minted in London, a careful reading of the introduction to the mint of London (vol. VI, p. 113-122) shows the editors of RIC had serious reservations about this attribution.

The unmarked folles -- ie without a mint mark in the exergue -- can be divided into three groups. After many years of careful study, group I has been attributed to Lugdunum (Lyon, France), and groups II and III to Britain.

Of group II, RIC says (p. 115), " It is possible that the unmarked II coins were produced in Britain either from a travelling mint, or even from the "C" (Camulodunum?) mint of Carausius and Allectus, with which there are perhaps some stylistic affinities: the period of issue would fall from c. 298 onwards, perhaps until c. 300 or later."

Of group III, RIC says (p. 115), " The unmarked III coins are in everyway more sophisticated in style, and it may well be that they were produced at London, though lack of signature would be difficult to account for: probably it is best to class them as a British series which, for reasons unknown to us, was struck elsewhere. Their date is between 300 and 305."
Callimachus
Maximianus-Herculeus_AE-_IMP-MAXIMIANVS-P-AVG_IOVI-CONSERVATORI_RIC-V-II--p_C-AD_Q-001_axis-6h_16mm_1,42g-s.jpg
120 Maximianus Herculeus (285-286 Caesar, 286-305, 307-308 & 310 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC V-II Not in, AE-Quinarius, -/-//--, IOVI CONSERVATORI, Jupiter standing left, Extremly Rare!97 views120 Maximianus Herculeus (285-286 Caesar, 286-305, 307-308 & 310 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC V-II Not in, AE-Quinarius, -/-//--, IOVI CONSERVATORI, Jupiter standing left, Extremly Rare!
avers:- IMP MAXIMIANVS P AVG, Laureate, cuirassed bust right.
revers:- IOVI CONS ERVATORI, Jupiter standing left, holding thunderbolt and scepter.
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: 16mm, weight: 1,42g, axes: 6h,
mint: Siscia , date: 285-286 A.D., ref: RIC-V-II-Not in, C-Not in,
Q-001

"The quinar of maximianus you last showed is also of Siscia mint.
Your coin is the 2nd known.
Paris has another coin in outstanding condition with the same set of dies.
Companions coins for Diocletian also exist. One of them is published and illustrated in Cathy King's publication on Roman Quinarii > Siscia 2 a ( Zagreb collection ) with the same reverse die as your coin !
All these quinarii from Siscia with larger busts ( in my opinion datation around 288-9 AD ) are very rare." by Helveticus, Thank you Helveticus
quadrans
Henry_III_short_cross_penny.JPG
1216 – 1272, Henry III, AR Penny, Struck 1217 - 1242 at London, England (Short cross type)2 viewsObverse: HENRICVS REX around central circle enclosing a crowned, draped and bearded facing bust of Henry III holding a sceptre tipped with a cross pommee in his right hand.
Reverse: + GIFFREI ON LVND. Voided short cross dividing legend into quarters, crosslets in each quarter of inner circle. Cross pattée in legend. Moneyer: Giffrei, cognate with the modern English name of Geoffrey.
Issue type 7c, distinguished by the degraded portrait and large lettering.
Diameter: 19mm | Weight: 1.1gms | Die Axis: 4
SPINK: 1356C

Henry III was the eldest son of King John and came to the throne at the age of nine. He was king of England from 1216 until his death in 1272, ruling longer than any other English monarch until the reign of George III.
Henry expressed a lifelong interest in architecture and much of what constitutes the Tower of London today is a result of Henry’s work, he added several towers and a curtain wall to expand the White Tower beginning in 1238. Westminster Abbey however, is considered to be Henry's greatest building work. The project began in 1245, when Henry sent his architect Henry de Reynes to visit the French cities of Rheims, Chartres, Bourges and Amiens and Paris’s royal chapel Sainte-Chapelle to learn the Gothic technique that he much admired.
The Westminster Abbey that stood previously on the site had been erected by Edward the Confessor in 1042. Edward the Confessor was a hero of Henry’s, and he probably named his son (the future Edward I) after him. The foundations and crypt are still those of Edward the Confessor’s Abbey, but everything above ground today is the building begun by Henry III. The tomb of Edward the Confessor was moved to a new position of honour in 1269 at the very centre of the new abbey, and when Henry III died in 1272 he was buried beside Edward’s shrine in the exact position the bones of his hero had lain for 200 years.
*Alex
128-1_Decia_2.jpg
128/1. Decia - denarius (206-200 BC)19 viewsAR Denarius (uncertain mint, 206-200 BC)
O/ Helmeted head of Roma right; X behind head.
R/ The Dioscuri galloping right; shield & carnyx below horses; ROMA in exergue.
4.01g; 20.5mm
Crawford 128/1 (less than 10 obverse dies/less than 12 reverse dies)
- Privately bought from Münzen & Medaillen Basel.
- Ex collection of Elvira Elisa Clain-Stefanelli (1914-2001), former director of the National Numismatic Collection (part of the Smithsonian Institute).
- Naville Numismatics Live Auction 29, lot 479.

* Anonymous (shield & carnyx), Decius?:

This very rare issue has traditionally been attributed to a descendant of a line of three heroes named Publius Decius Mus. The first of that name was Consul in 340 BC; he received the Grass Crown after having saved his army from destruction against the Samnites, then sacrificed himself at the Battle of Vesuvius during his consulship in an act of devotio (exchanging his life against the victory of his army). His son was four times Consul (312, 308, 297 and 295 BC) and similarly sacrificed himself at the Battle of Sentinum in 295 BC against a coalition of Etruscans, Samnites, and Gauls. The third of that name was Consul in 279 BC and fought against Pyrrhus, who successfully thwarted his attempt to sacrifice himself like his ancestors (cf. discussion in Broughton, vol. I, p. 193).

300 years later, Trajan restored several issues of the Republic, including this one, but with the addition of DECIVS MVS on the obverse (RIC 766). Babelon thus assumed that this denarius was minted by the son of the last Publius Decius Mus (Decia 1). In this hypothesis, the shield and Carnyx refers to the second Mus -- the one who fought the Gauls.

However, Crawford contested this view, writing: "The restoration of this issue by Trajan with the added legend DECIVS MVS provides no grounds whatever for supposing that it was originally struck by someone of that name - the family was certainly extinct by this period."

It is still very strange that Trajan picked this rare denarius, from an irregular mint, for restoration. He could have chosen many other anonymous issues of the early Roman coinage, and simply add the name of Decius Mus. It thus shows that the imperial mint had retained some specimens or archives of previous issues up to the 3rd century BC, because due to its rarity, this denarius had already disappeared from circulation by the time of Trajan. A list of the magistrates behind each issue could therefore have been kept as well; Trajan might have selected the moneyers whom he thought were significant for the history of Rome and restored their issue. A Publius Decius Subulo was living in these years (Livy, xliii. 17) and perhaps minted this coin; his name could have been preserved in the archives of the mint, which might have led Trajan to pick his denarius for restoration.
1 commentsJoss
DiocleAnt.jpg
1301a, Diocletian, 284-305 A.D. (Antioch)93 viewsDIOCLETIAN (284 – 305 AD) AE Antoninianus, 293-95 AD, RIC V 322, Cohen 34. 20.70 mm/3.1 gm, aVF, Antioch. Obverse: IMP C C VAL DIOCLETIANVS P F AVG, Radiate bust right, draped & cuirassed; Reverse: CONCORDIA MILITVM, Jupiter presents Victory on a globe to Diocletian, I/XXI. Early Diocletian with dusty earthen green patina.


De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Diocletian ( 284-305 A.D.)

Ralph W. Mathisen
University of South Carolina


Summary and Introduction
The Emperor Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus (A.D. 284-305) put an end to the disastrous phase of Roman history known as the "Military Anarchy" or the "Imperial Crisis" (235-284). He established an obvious military despotism and was responsible for laying the groundwork for the second phase of the Roman Empire, which is known variously as the "Dominate," the "Tetrarchy," the "Later Roman Empire," or the "Byzantine Empire." His reforms ensured the continuity of the Roman Empire in the east for more than a thousand years.

Diocletian's Early Life and Reign
Diocletian was born ca. 236/237 on the Dalmatian coast, perhaps at Salona. He was of very humble birth, and was originally named Diocles. He would have received little education beyond an elementary literacy and he was apparently deeply imbued with religious piety He had a wife Prisca and a daughter Valeria, both of whom reputedly were Christians. During Diocletian's early life, the Roman empire was in the midst of turmoil. In the early years of the third century, emperors increasingly insecure on their thrones had granted inflationary pay raises to the soldiers. The only meaningful income the soldiers now received was in the form of gold donatives granted by newly acclaimed emperors. Beginning in 235, armies throughout the empire began to set up their generals as rival emperors. The resultant civil wars opened up the empire to invasion in both the north, by the Franks, Alamanni, and Goths, and the east, by the Sassanid Persians. Another reason for the unrest in the army was the great gap between the social background of the common soldiers and the officer corps.

Diocletian sought his fortune in the army. He showed himself to be a shrewd, able, and ambitious individual. He is first attested as "Duke of Moesia" (an area on the banks of the lower Danube River), with responsibility for border defense. He was a prudent and methodical officer, a seeker of victory rather than glory. In 282, the legions of the upper Danube proclaimed the praetorian prefect Carus as emperor. Diocletian found favor under the new emperor, and was promoted to Count of the Domestics, the commander of the cavalry arm of the imperial bodyguard. In 283 he was granted the honor of a consulate.

In 284, in the midst of a campaign against the Persians, Carus was killed, struck by a bolt of lightning which one writer noted might have been forged in a legionary armory. This left the empire in the hands of his two young sons, Numerian in the east and Carinus in the west. Soon thereafter, Numerian died under mysterious circumstances near Nicomedia, and Diocletian was acclaimed emperor in his place. At this time he changed his name from Diocles to Diocletian. In 285 Carinus was killed in a battle near Belgrade, and Diocletian gained control of the entire empire.

Diocletian's Administrative and Military Reforms
As emperor, Diocletian was faced with many problems. His most immediate concerns were to bring the mutinous and increasingly barbarized Roman armies back under control and to make the frontiers once again secure from invasion. His long-term goals were to restore effective government and economic prosperity to the empire. Diocletian concluded that stern measures were necessary if these problems were to be solved. He felt that it was the responsibility of the imperial government to take whatever steps were necessary, no matter how harsh or innovative, to bring the empire back under control.

Diocletian was able to bring the army back under control by making several changes. He subdivided the roughly fifty existing provinces into approximately one hundred. The provinces also were apportioned among twelve "dioceses," each under a "vicar," and later also among four "prefectures," each under a "praetorian prefect." As a result, the imperial bureaucracy became increasingly bloated. He institutionalized the policy of separating civil and military careers. He divided the army itself into so-called "border troops," actually an ineffective citizen militia, and "palace troops," the real field army, which often was led by the emperor in person.

Following the precedent of Aurelian (A.D.270-275), Diocletian transformed the emperorship into an out-and-out oriental monarchy. Access to him became restricted; he now was addressed not as First Citizen (Princeps) or the soldierly general (Imperator), but as Lord and Master (Dominus Noster) . Those in audience were required to prostrate themselves on the ground before him.

Diocletian also concluded that the empire was too large and complex to be ruled by only a single emperor. Therefore, in order to provide an imperial presence throughout the empire, he introduced the "Tetrarchy," or "Rule by Four." In 285, he named his lieutenant Maximianus "Caesar," and assigned him the western half of the empire. This practice began the process which would culminate with the de facto split of the empire in 395. Both Diocletian and Maximianus adopted divine attributes. Diocletian was identified with Jupiter and Maximianus with Hercules. In 286, Diocletian promoted Maximianus to the rank of Augustus, "Senior Emperor," and in 293 he appointed two new Caesars, Constantius (the father of Constantine I ), who was given Gaul and Britain in the west, and Galerius, who was assigned the Balkans in the east.

By instituting his Tetrarchy, Diocletian also hoped to solve another problem. In the Augustan Principate, there had been no constitutional method for choosing new emperors. According to Diocletian's plan, the successor of each Augustus would be the respective Caesar, who then would name a new Caesar. Initially, the Tetrarchy operated smoothly and effectively.

Once the army was under control, Diocletian could turn his attention to other problems. The borders were restored and strengthened. In the early years of his reign, Diocletian and his subordinates were able to defeat foreign enemies such as Alamanni, Sarmatians, Saracens, Franks, and Persians, and to put down rebellions in Britain and Egypt. The easter frontier was actually expanded.

.
Diocletian's Economic Reforms
Another problem was the economy, which was in an especially sorry state. The coinage had become so debased as to be virtually worthless. Diocletian's attempt to reissue good gold and silver coins failed because there simply was not enough gold and silver available to restore confidence in the currency. A "Maximum Price Edict" issued in 301, intended to curb inflation, served only to drive goods onto the black market. Diocletian finally accepted the ruin of the money economy and revised the tax system so that it was based on payments in kind . The soldiers too came to be paid in kind.

In order to assure the long term survival of the empire, Diocletian identified certain occupations which he felt would have to be performed. These were known as the "compulsory services." They included such occupations as soldiers, bakers, members of town councils, and tenant farmers. These functions became hereditary, and those engaging in them were inhibited from changing their careers. The repetitious nature of these laws, however, suggests that they were not widely obeyed. Diocletian also expanded the policy of third-century emperors of restricting the entry of senators into high-ranking governmental posts, especially military ones.

Diocletian attempted to use the state religion as a unifying element. Encouraged by the Caesar Galerius, Diocletian in 303 issued a series of four increasingly harsh decrees designed to compel Christians to take part in the imperial cult, the traditional means by which allegiance was pledged to the empire. This began the so-called "Great Persecution."

Diocletian's Resignation and Death
On 1 May 305, wearied by his twenty years in office, and determined to implement his method for the imperial succession, Diocletian abdicated. He compelled his co-regent Maximianus to do the same. Constantius and Galerius then became the new Augusti, and two new Caesars were selected, Maximinus (305-313) in the east and Severus (305- 307) in the west. Diocletian then retired to his palace at Split on the Croatian coast. In 308 he declined an offer to resume the purple, and the aged ex-emperor died at Split on 3 December 316.

Copyright (C) 1996, Ralph W. Mathisen, University of South Carolina
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

1 commentsCleisthenes
DicletianConcordCyz.jpg
1301b, Diocletian, 20 November 284 - 1 March 305 A.D.58 viewsDiocletian. RIC V Part II Cyzicus 256 var. Not listed with pellet in exegrue
Item ref: RI141f. VF. Minted in Cyzicus (B in centre field, XXI dot in exegrue)Obverse:- IMP CC VAL DIOCLETIANVS AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right. Reverse:- CONCORDIA MILITVM, Diocletian standing right, holding parazonium, receiving Victory from Jupiter standing left with scepter.
A post reform radiate of Diocletian. Ex Maridvnvm.

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Diocletian ( 284-305 A.D.)

Ralph W. Mathisen
University of South Carolina


Summary and Introduction
The Emperor Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus (A.D. 284-305) put an end to the disastrous phase of Roman history known as the "Military Anarchy" or the "Imperial Crisis" (235-284). He established an obvious military despotism and was responsible for laying the groundwork for the second phase of the Roman Empire, which is known variously as the "Dominate," the "Tetrarchy," the "Later Roman Empire," or the "Byzantine Empire." His reforms ensured the continuity of the Roman Empire in the east for more than a thousand years.

Diocletian's Early Life and Reign
Diocletian was born ca. 236/237 on the Dalmatian coast, perhaps at Salona. He was of very humble birth, and was originally named Diocles. He would have received little education beyond an elementary literacy and he was apparently deeply imbued with religious piety He had a wife Prisca and a daughter Valeria, both of whom reputedly were Christians. During Diocletian's early life, the Roman empire was in the midst of turmoil. In the early years of the third century, emperors increasingly insecure on their thrones had granted inflationary pay raises to the soldiers. The only meaningful income the soldiers now received was in the form of gold donatives granted by newly acclaimed emperors. Beginning in 235, armies throughout the empire began to set up their generals as rival emperors. The resultant civil wars opened up the empire to invasion in both the north, by the Franks, Alamanni, and Goths, and the east, by the Sassanid Persians. Another reason for the unrest in the army was the great gap between the social background of the common soldiers and the officer corps.

Diocletian sought his fortune in the army. He showed himself to be a shrewd, able, and ambitious individual. He is first attested as "Duke of Moesia" (an area on the banks of the lower Danube River), with responsibility for border defense. He was a prudent and methodical officer, a seeker of victory rather than glory. In 282, the legions of the upper Danube proclaimed the praetorian prefect Carus as emperor. Diocletian found favor under the new emperor, and was promoted to Count of the Domestics, the commander of the cavalry arm of the imperial bodyguard. In 283 he was granted the honor of a consulate.

In 284, in the midst of a campaign against the Persians, Carus was killed, struck by a bolt of lightning which one writer noted might have been forged in a legionary armory. This left the empire in the hands of his two young sons, Numerian in the east and Carinus in the west. Soon thereafter, Numerian died under mysterious circumstances near Nicomedia, and Diocletian was acclaimed emperor in his place. At this time he changed his name from Diocles to Diocletian. In 285 Carinus was killed in a battle near Belgrade, and Diocletian gained control of the entire empire.

Diocletian's Administrative and Military Reforms
As emperor, Diocletian was faced with many problems. His most immediate concerns were to bring the mutinous and increasingly barbarized Roman armies back under control and to make the frontiers once again secure from invasion. His long-term goals were to restore effective government and economic prosperity to the empire. Diocletian concluded that stern measures were necessary if these problems were to be solved. He felt that it was the responsibility of the imperial government to take whatever steps were necessary, no matter how harsh or innovative, to bring the empire back under control.

Diocletian was able to bring the army back under control by making several changes. He subdivided the roughly fifty existing provinces into approximately one hundred. The provinces also were apportioned among twelve "dioceses," each under a "vicar," and later also among four "prefectures," each under a "praetorian prefect." As a result, the imperial bureaucracy became increasingly bloated. He institutionalized the policy of separating civil and military careers. He divided the army itself into so-called "border troops," actually an ineffective citizen militia, and "palace troops," the real field army, which often was led by the emperor in person.

Following the precedent of Aurelian (A.D.270-275), Diocletian transformed the emperorship into an out-and-out oriental monarchy. Access to him became restricted; he now was addressed not as First Citizen (Princeps) or the soldierly general (Imperator), but as Lord and Master (Dominus Noster) . Those in audience were required to prostrate themselves on the ground before him.

Diocletian also concluded that the empire was too large and complex to be ruled by only a single emperor. Therefore, in order to provide an imperial presence throughout the empire, he introduced the "Tetrarchy," or "Rule by Four." In 285, he named his lieutenant Maximianus "Caesar," and assigned him the western half of the empire. This practice began the process which would culminate with the de facto split of the empire in 395. Both Diocletian and Maximianus adopted divine attributes. Diocletian was identified with Jupiter and Maximianus with Hercules. In 286, Diocletian promoted Maximianus to the rank of Augustus, "Senior Emperor," and in 293 he appointed two new Caesars, Constantius (the father of Constantine I ), who was given Gaul and Britain in the west, and Galerius, who was assigned the Balkans in the east.

By instituting his Tetrarchy, Diocletian also hoped to solve another problem. In the Augustan Principate, there had been no constitutional method for choosing new emperors. According to Diocletian's plan, the successor of each Augustus would be the respective Caesar, who then would name a new Caesar. Initially, the Tetrarchy operated smoothly and effectively.

Once the army was under control, Diocletian could turn his attention to other problems. The borders were restored and strengthened. In the early years of his reign, Diocletian and his subordinates were able to defeat foreign enemies such as Alamanni, Sarmatians, Saracens, Franks, and Persians, and to put down rebellions in Britain and Egypt. The easter frontier was actually expanded.

.
Diocletian's Economic Reforms
Another problem was the economy, which was in an especially sorry state. The coinage had become so debased as to be virtually worthless. Diocletian's attempt to reissue good gold and silver coins failed because there simply was not enough gold and silver available to restore confidence in the currency. A "Maximum Price Edict" issued in 301, intended to curb inflation, served only to drive goods onto the black market. Diocletian finally accepted the ruin of the money economy and revised the tax system so that it was based on payments in kind . The soldiers too came to be paid in kind.

In order to assure the long term survival of the empire, Diocletian identified certain occupations which he felt would have to be performed. These were known as the "compulsory services." They included such occupations as soldiers, bakers, members of town councils, and tenant farmers. These functions became hereditary, and those engaging in them were inhibited from changing their careers. The repetitious nature of these laws, however, suggests that they were not widely obeyed. Diocletian also expanded the policy of third-century emperors of restricting the entry of senators into high-ranking governmental posts, especially military ones.

Diocletian attempted to use the state religion as a unifying element. Encouraged by the Caesar Galerius, Diocletian in 303 issued a series of four increasingly harsh decrees designed to compel Christians to take part in the imperial cult, the traditional means by which allegiance was pledged to the empire. This began the so-called "Great Persecution."

Diocletian's Resignation and Death
On 1 May 305, wearied by his twenty years in office, and determined to implement his method for the imperial succession, Diocletian abdicated. He compelled his co-regent Maximianus to do the same. Constantius and Galerius then became the new Augusti, and two new Caesars were selected, Maximinus (305-313) in the east and Severus (305- 307) in the west. Diocletian then retired to his palace at Split on the Croatian coast. In 308 he declined an offer to resume the purple, and the aged ex-emperor died at Split on 3 December 316.

Copyright (C) 1996, Ralph W. Mathisen, University of South Carolina
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.


Cleisthenes
MaxentiusRIC163.jpg
1307a, Maxentius, February 307 - 28 October 312 A.D.60 viewsBronze follis, RIC 163, aEF, Rome mint, 5.712g, 25.6mm, 0o, summer 307 A.D.; obverse MAXENTIVS P F AVG, laureate head right; reverse CONSERVATO-RES VRB SVAE, Roma holding globe and scepter, seated in hexastyle temple, RT in ex; rare. Ex FORVM; Ex Maridvnvm


De Imperatoribus Romanis : An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Maxentius (306-312 A.D.)

Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Salve Regina University

Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maxentius, more commonly known as Maxentius, was the child of the Emperor Maximianus Herculius and the Syrian, Eutropia; he was born ca. 278 A.D. After Galerius' appointment to the rank of Caesar on 1 March 293, Maxentius married Galerius' daughter Valeria Maximilla, who bore him a son named Romulus and another son whose name is unknown. Due to his haughty nature and bad disposition, Maxentius could seldom agree with his father or his father-in-law; Galerius' and Maximianus Herculius' aversion to Maxentius prevented the young man from becoming a Caesar in 305. Little else is known of Maxentius' private life prior to his accession and, although there is some evidence that it was spent in idleness, he did become a Senator.

On 28 October 306 Maxentius was acclaimed emperor, although he was politically astute enough not to use the title Augustus; like the Emperor Augustus, he called himself princeps. It was not until the summer of 307 that he started using the title Augustus and started offending other claimants to the imperial throne. He was enthroned by the plebs and the Praetorians. At the time of his acclamation Maxentius was at a public villa on the Via Labicana. He strengthened his position with promises of riches for those who helped him obtain his objective. He forced his father Maximianus Herculius to affirm his son's acclamation in order to give his regime a facade of legitimacy. His realm included Italy, Africa, Sardinia, and Corsica. As soon as Galerius learned about the acclamation of Herculius' son, he dispatched the Emperor Severus to quell the rebellion. With the help of his father and Severus' own troops, Maxentius' took his enemy prisoner.

When Severus died, Galerius was determined to avenge his death. In the early summer of 307 the Augustus invaded Italy; he advanced to the south and encamped at Interamna near the Tiber. His attempt to besiege the city was abortive because his army was not large enough to encompass the city's fortifications. Negotiations between Maxentius and Galerius broke down when the emperor discovered that the usurper was trying to win over his troops. Galerius' troops were open to Maxentius' promises because they were fighting a civil war between members of the same family; some of the soldiers went over to the enemy. Not trusting his own troops, Galerius withdrew. During its retreat, Galerius' army ravaged the Italian countryside as it was returning to its original base. If it was not enough that Maxentius had to deal with the havoc created by the ineffectual invasions of Severus and Galerius, he also had to deal with his father's attempts to regain the throne between 308 and 310. When Maximianus Herculius was unable to regain power by pushing his son off his throne, he attempted to win over Constantine to his cause. When this plan failed, he tried to win Diocletian over to his side at Carnuntum in October and November 308. Frustrated at every turn, Herculius returned to his son-in-law Constantine's side in Gaul where he died in 310, having been implicated in a plot against his son-in-law. Maxentius' control of the situation was weakened by the revolt of L. Domitius Alexander in 308. Although the revolt only lasted until the end of 309, it drastically cut the size of the grain supply availble for Rome. Maxentius' rule collapsed when he died on 27 October 312 in an engagement he had with the Emperor Constantine at the Milvian Bridge after the latter had invaded his realm.

Copyright (C) 1996, Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
1 commentsCleisthenes
RI 132by img~0.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 401 var - Bust Type C (Ticinum) (VIXXT)50 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen half from the back
Rev:– RESTITVTOR SAEC, Emperor standing left, holding globe and sceptre, crowned by Victory holding palm.
Minted in Ticinum (VIXXT in exe) Early Emission 2, Officina 6. A.D. 276
Reference:– RIC 401 var Bust type C (Unlisted obverse legend with this type)
It is a variant of RIC 401, with unlisted full spelling of RESTITVTOR.
This is a coin from the very beginning of the second emission of Ticinum (276 CE), before the portrait transitions to Probus proper. Coins from the later part of the emission and already much less Tacitus/Florian in likeness, while not quite 100% Probus himself.
The style is typical for that period, but these coins are scarce, so you do not see them often.
maridvnvm
RI_132xe_img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 704 - Bust Type H var32 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle
Rev:– PAX AVG, Pax standing left, olive-branch in right hand, transverse scepter in left
Minted in Ticinium (Q | _ / XXI), Emission 7, Officina 4. A.D. 280
Reference(s) – RIC 704 var. (Q right); Alföldi Siscia V, type 41, 79 (citing London); Pink VI/1, p. 53;

Coins with the officina mark in the left field are very much the exception with >99% of coins with the officina mark in the field being in the right field
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI 132ni img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 812 var - Radiate, cuirassed bust left, holding spear shield (Siscia) (P | _ / XXI)25 viewsObv:– IMP C PROBVS P F AVG, Radiate, cuirassed bust left, holding spear
Rev:– VIRTVS PROBI AVG, Mars walking right, holding spear and trophy
Minted in Siscia (P in left field, XXI in exe) Emission 7 Officina 1. A.D. 280
Reference(s) – Alföldi unlisted, would belong to Alföldi type 96, n° -cf. n° 55, which is _ | P, P in left field very unusual. RIC 812 var Radiate, cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield (not listed in RIC with P in left field.
maridvnvm
RI 132tl img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 905 var - Bust Type F (Cyzicus) (P / XXI) 39 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG, Radiate, cuirassed bust right (seen from rear)
Rev:– CLEMENTIA TEMP, Emperor standing right, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle, receiving globe from Jupiter standing left, holding sceptre.
Minted in Cyzicus (P in centre field, XXI in exe)
Reference:– RIC 905 var. Bust type F (Not listed in RIC with this very unsuaul bust type)

This is a very rare bust type for Probus from Cyzicus. Discussions with Dr. S. Estiot seem to indicate the following:-

"Effectively cuirassed busts seen from behind are very rare for Cyzicus series, CLEMENTIA TEMP, but strangely enough it appears that it has been fashionable for this series and for this officina P//XXI. I have listed 5 of these : 1 BM ; 2 Milan (coll. Laffranchi) ; 2 Private collection. Only one other example for another series : Q//XXI* : 1 Budapest."

I now have an additional two from different die pairs.
maridvnvm
RI 132ut img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 905 var - Bust Type F (Cyzicus) (P / XXI) 33 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG, Radiate, cuirassed bust right (seen from rear)
Rev:– CLEMENTIA TEMP, Emperor standing right, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle, receiving globe from Jupiter standing left, holding sceptre.
Minted in Cyzicus (P in centre field, XXI in exe)
Reference:– RIC 905 var. Bust type F (Not listed in RIC with this very unsuaul bust type)

This is a very rare bust type for Probus from Cyzicus. Discussions with Dr. S. Estiot seem to indicate the following:-

"Effectively cuirassed busts seen from behind are very rare for Cyzicus series, CLEMENTIA TEMP, but strangely enough it appears that it has been fashionable for this series and for this officina P//XXI. I have listed 5 of these : 1 BM ; 2 Milan (coll. Laffranchi) ; 2 Private collection. Only one other example for another series : Q//XXI* : 1 Budapest."

I now have an additional two from different die pairs.
maridvnvm
Edward_III_AR_Penny.JPG
1327 - 1377, EDWARD III, AR Penny, Treaty Period, struck 1361 – 1369 at London, England8 viewsObverse: + EDWARDVS REX ANGLI. Crowned bust of Edward III facing within circle of pellets. Cross pattée in legend.
Reverse: CIVITAS LONDON. Long cross dividing legend into quarters, trefoil and annulet in each quarter of inner circle.
This coin was struck during the period of the Treaty of Brétigny under which Edward III renounced his claim to the French throne.
Diameter: 19mm | Weight: 1.0gms | Die Axis: 10
SPINK: 1630

Edward III was King of England from January 1327 until his death. He is noted for his military success and for restoring royal authority after the disastrous and unorthodox reign of his father, Edward II. During his long reign Edward III transformed the Kingdom of England into one of the most formidable military powers in Europe. His reign also saw vital developments in legislation and government, in particular the evolution of the English parliament, though it also saw the ravages of the Black Death.
Edward was crowned at the age of fourteen after his father was deposed by his mother, Isabella of France, and her lover Roger Mortimer. But at the age of seventeen he led a successful coup d'état against Mortimer, whom he executed, and began his personal reign.
In 1337, after a successful campaign in Scotland, Edward declared himself the rightful heir to the French throne which started what was to become known as the Hundred Years' War. Following some initial setbacks, the first part of this war went exceptionally well for England, the victories at Crécy and Poitiers led to the highly favourable Treaty of Brétigny in which, though Edward renounced his claim to the French throne, England made great territorial gains. However Edward's later years were marked by international failure and domestic strife, largely as a result of his inactivity and poor health.
Around 29 September 1376 Edward fell ill with a large abscess and, after a brief period of recovery, the king died of a stroke at Sheen on 21 June. He was succeeded by his ten-year-old grandson, King Richard II, since the Black Prince, Edward's son and Richard's father, had predeceased Edward on 8 June 1376.
2 comments*Alex
1327_-_1377_Edward_III_billon_denier_au_leopard.JPG
1327 - 1377, EDWARD III, Billon Denier au Leopard, struck 1327 - 1362 at Bordeaux, France6 viewsObverse: + EDVARDVS : REX around beaded inner circle containing legend ANGL between two lines, Leopard facing left above, trefoil of pellets below. Cross pattée in legend.
Reverse: + DVX AQITANIE around beaded inner circle containing cross pattée. Cross pattée in legend.
Diameter: 18mm | Weight: 0.70gms | Die Axis: 3
Second type issue. Scarce
SPINK: 8090

Unlike English silver coins which, with few exceptions were maintained at sterling fineness, these small denomination continental coins were often debased. At the time of issue they would have had a good silver appearance, but after some use their color darkened, hence they became known as “Black Money”.
Black money coins were hastily produced in large numbers and often poorly struck. They were the common circulating medium at the time and consequently they became very worn so that, during the ensuing years during which there were frequent re-coinages, they were the first into the melting pot. Surviving examples are therefore now quite rare and most of those that have survived are of a low grade.

*Alex
648_Hadrian_Eastern_Strack70.JPG
133 Hadrian Denarius 119-22 AD Minerva standing eastern mint27 viewsReference. very rare
Strack --; RIC--; C.--; BMCRE--

Obv. HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS P P
Laureate head right

Rev. P M TR P COS III
Minerva standing right holding inverted spear in right hand, resting left hand on shield.

2.94 gr
18 mm
6h
okidoki
antoninuspius RIC201.jpg
138-161 AD - ANTONINUS PIUS AR denarius - struck 150-151 AD44 viewsobv: IMP CAES T AEL HADR ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P (laureate head right)
rev: TR POT XIIII COS IIII / PIETAS (Pietas standing right, holding hind by the neck & plate of fruits over altar to right)
ref: RIC 201 (S), RSC 616 (5frcs)
3.25gms, 18mm,
Rare

Unusual and rare reverse. Piety meant the right and proper observance of religious ritual, a duty which fell to every citizen, and to the emperor as much or more than to anyone else. In this coin Pietas is holding a bowl of fruits above an altar with one hand, while the other trails a hind for the sacrifice. The bowl of fruits as an offering is also seen in coins showing Fides.
berserker
568_P_Hadrian_RIC495.jpg
1380 Hadrian, Cistophorus CARIA, Mylasa Zeus Karios standing38 viewsReference. very rare
RPC III, 1380, (this coin plate 59)Metcalf Type 42, BM-1063, C-274 (citing BM, 100 Fr.), RIC-495 (R2). Pinder 51.

Obv. HADRIANVS - AVGVSTVS P P
Head bare right.

Rev. COS - III
Zeus Karios standing front, holding spear and shield, both of which rest on ground; in front of the shield an eagle on a curving pedestal.

10.57 gr
25 mm
6h

Ex HJB 2016, Gemini III, 29 Jan. 2007, lot 373; CNG 70, 21 Sep. 2005, lot 995

Note.
Unusual image of a local Carian form of Zeus, which appears nowhere else in ancient coinage or ancient art. Very rare: only two specimens known to Metcalf. Our coin shares its obverse die with Metcalf's specimen 192, but is from a new reverse die. Apparently overstruck on a PAX cistophorus of Augustus, RPC-2203: the AX of PAX and the outline of Pax's lower body is faintly visible in reverse left field to the right of the C of COS, and above Zeus' head we can probably make out a leaf and two berries from the wreath encircling the original reverse type. The curious triangular indentation at 5 o'clock on obverse edge may be the lower corner of an IMP VES AVG countermark that had been applied to the cistophorus of Augustus and that was largely filled in when the coin was restruck for Hadrian.
1 commentsokidoki
tiberius RIC58-RR.jpg
14-37 AD - TIBERIUS AE As - struck 36-37 AD55 viewsobv: TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVST IMP VIII (laureate head left)
rev: PONTIF MAX TR POT XXXVII, S-C to left and right of rudder placed vertically across banded globe, small globe at base of rudder
ref: RIC 58 (R2), Cohen 13 (2frcs), BMC 117
10.58gms, 26mm
Very rare
1 commentsberserker
tiberius sest-.jpg
14-37 AD - TIBERIUS AE sestertius - struck 22-23 AD57 viewsobv: CIVITATIBVS ASIAE RESTITVTIS (Tiberius seated left on curule chair with patera and scepter)
rev: TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS P M TR POT XXIIII / S.C.
ref: RIC I 48 (S), Cohen 3 (15frcs), BMC70
23.46g, 34mm
Very rare

The obverse legend refers to Tiberius' donations and tax remissions to twelve Asian cities devastated by an earthquake in 17 A.D., and another two cities which suffered an earthquake in 23 A.D.
berserker
St.Helena.jpg
1401a, St. Helena, Augusta 8 November 324 - 328 to 330 A.D., mother of Constantine the Great96 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC 148, VF, Alexandria mint, 3.243g, 19.4mm, 165o, 327 - 328 A.D. Obverse: FL HELENA AVGVSTA, diademed and mantled bust right wearing double necklace; Reverse: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICE, Securitas holding branch downward in right and lifting fold of robe in left, wreath left, I right, SMAL in exergue; rare.

The mother of Constantine the Great, born about the middle of the third century, possibly in Drepanum (later known as Helenopolis) on the Nicomedian Gulf; died about 330. She was of humble parentage; St. Ambrose, in his "Oratio de obitu Theodosii", referred to her as a stabularia, or inn-keeper. Nevertheless, she became the lawful wife of Constantius Chlorus. Her first and only son, Constantine, was born in Naissus in Upper Moesia, in the year 274. The statement made by English chroniclers of the Middle Ages, according to which Helena was supposed to have been the daughter of a British prince, is entirely without historical foundation. It may arise from the misinterpretation of a term used in the fourth chapter of the panegyric on Constantine's marriage with Fausta, that Constantine, oriendo (i. e., "by his beginnings," "from the outset") had honoured Britain, which was taken as an allusion to his birth, whereas the reference was really to the beginning of his reign.

On the death of Constantius Chlorus, in 308, Constantine, who succeeded him, summoned his mother to the imperial court, conferred on her the title of Augusta, ordered that all honour should be paid her as the mother of the sovereign, and had coins struck bearing her effigy. Her son's influence caused her to embrace Christianity after his victory over Maxentius. This is directly attested by Eusebius (Vita Constantini, III, xlvii): "She (his mother) became under his (Constantine's) influence such a devout servant of God, that one might believe her to have been from her very childhood a disciple of the Redeemer of mankind". It is also clear from the declaration of the contemporary historian of the Church that Helena, from the time of her conversion had an earnestly Christian life and by her influence and liberality favoured the wider spread of Christianity. Tradition links her name with the building of Christian churches in the cities of the West, where the imperial court resided, notably at Rome and Trier, and there is no reason for rejecting this tradition, for we know positively through Eusebius that Helena erected churches on the hallowed spots of Palestine. Despite her advanced age she undertook a journey to Palestine when Constantine, through his victory over Licinius, had become sole master of the Roman Empire, subsequently, therefore, to the year 324. It was in Palestine, as we learn from Eusebius (loc. cit., xlii), that she had resolved to bring to God, the King of kings, the homage and tribute of her devotion. She lavished on that land her bounties and good deeds, she "explored it with remarkable discernment", and "visited it with the care and solicitude of the emperor himself". Then, when she "had shown due veneration to the footsteps of the Saviour", she had two churches erected for the worship of God: one was raised in Bethlehem near the Grotto of the Nativity, the other on the Mount of the Ascension, near Jerusalem. She also embellished the sacred grotto with rich ornaments. This sojourn in Jerusalem proved the starting-point of the legend first recorded by Rufinus as to the discovery of the Cross of Christ.

Constantine I, in 327, improved Drepanum, his mother's native town, and decreed that it should be called Helenopolis, it is probable that the latter returned from Palestine to her son who was then residing in the Orient. Constantine was with her when she died, at the advanced age of eighty years or thereabouts (Eusebius, "Vita Const.", III, xlvi). This must have been about the year 330, for the last coins which are known to have been stamped with her name bore this date. Her body was brought to Constantinople and laid to rest in the imperial vault of the church of the Apostles. It is presumed that her remains were transferred in 849 to the Abbey of Hautvillers, in the French Archdiocese of Reims, as recorded by the monk Altmann in his "Translatio". She was revered as a saint, and the veneration spread, early in the ninth century, even to Western countries. Her feast falls on 18 August.

(See The Catholic Encyclopedia: http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/07202b.htm)

Cleisthenes
CtG AE3.jpg
1403a,1, Constantine I (the Great), 307-337 A.D.46 viewsConstantine I (the Great), 307-337 A.D. Bronze AE 3, RIC 16, C -, VF, 2.854g, 19.1mm, 180o, Constantinople mint, 327 A.D. Obverse: CONSTANTI-NVS MAX AVG, rosette diademed head right; Reverse: GLORIA EXERCITVS, Soldier standing left, head right, resting left hand on shield and holding inverted spear in right, G in left field, CONS in exergue; very rare (R3).

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
1 commentsCleisthenes
Const1GlrEx.jpg
1403b, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D.37 viewsConstantine the Great, early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D., Bronze AE 3, RIC 137, VF, Constantinople mint, 1.476g, 16.4mm, 180o, 336 - 337 A.D. Obverse: CONSTANTI-NVS MAX AVG, laurel and rosette-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: GLOR-IA EXERC-ITVS, two soldiers, each holding spear and shield on ground, flanking standard, CONS[ ] in exergue. Ex FORVM.

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
Cleisthenes
CTGDafne.jpg
1403c, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D.49 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC VII 35, choice aEF, Constantinople mint, 3.336g, 20.0mm, 180o, 328 A.D.; Obverse: CONSTANTI-NVS MAX AVG, laurel and rosette diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: CONSTANTINI-ANA DAFNE, Victory seated left on cippus, head right, palm frond in each hand, trophy and captive before, CONS in exergue, B left; scarce. Ex FORVM.

"The information about Constantine's campaign across [the Danube] is obscure and untrustworthy. The question, therefore, of what he achieved by this enterprise was, and is, subject to contradictory interpretations. On the one hand, the Panegyrists claimed that he had repeated the triumphs of Trajan. On the other, his own nephew, Julian the Apostate, spoke for many when he expressed the view that this second 'conquest' of Dacia was incomplete and extremely brief . . . monetary commemoration was accorded to the building, at about the same time [AD 328], of the river frontier fortress of Constantiniana Dafne (Spantov, near Oltenita) . . ." (Grant, Michael. The Emperor Constantine. London: Phoenix, 1998. 58-9).

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
1 commentsCleisthenes
CTGKyzAE3.jpg
1403d, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D. (Cyzicus)37 viewsConstantine the Great, early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D. Bronze AE 3, RIC 199, gVF, corrosion, Cyzicus, 1.402g, 16.2mm, 0o, 336 - 337 A.D. Obverse: CONSTANTI-NVS MAX AVG, laurel and rosette-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: GLOR-IA EXERC-ITVS•, two soldiers, each holding spear and shield on ground, flanking standard, SMKA in exergue.

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
Cleisthenes
CTGVOTXXX.jpg
1403e, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D. (Heraclea)28 viewsConstantine the Great, Bronze AE 3, RIC 69, VF, Heraclea, 3.38g, 19.0mm, 180o, 325 - 326 A.D. Obverse: CONSTAN-TINVS AVG, laureate head right; Reverse: D N CONSTANTINI MAX AVG, VOT XXX in wreath, SMHD in exergue.

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
Cleisthenes
12817p00.jpg
1403f, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D. (Heraclea)20 viewsBronze follis, RIC 5, F/aF, 3.513g, 20.4mm, 180o, Heraclea mint, 313 A.D.; obverse IMP C FL VAL CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, laureate head right; reverse IOVI CONSER-VATORI AVGG, Jupiter standing left holding Victory and scepter, eagle with wreath in beek at feet, B in right field, SMHT in exergue.

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
Cleisthenes
CTGaeFolNico.jpg
1403g, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D. (Nicomedia)22 viewsConstantine the Great, early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D. Bronze follis, RIC 12, aVF, Nicomedia mint, 2.760g, 22.0mm, 0o, 313 - 317 A.D. Obverse: IMP C FL VAL CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, laureate head right; Reverse: IOVI CONS-ERVATORI, Jupiter standing left holding Victory on globe and scepter, eagle with wreath in beak left, G right, SMN in exergue; scarce.

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
Cleisthenes
CTG.jpg
1403h, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D. (Siscia)36 viewsBronze follis, RIC 232b, gVF, Siscia, 3.87g, 23.8mm, 180o, early 313 A.D. Obverse: IMP CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, laureate head right; Reverse: IOVI CONSERVATORI AVGG NN, Jupiter standing left holding Victory on globe and scepter, eagle with wreath in beak left, E right, SIS in exergue.

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
Cleisthenes
CTG_SisCmpGte.jpg
1403i, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D. (Siscia)42 viewsSilvered AE 3, RIC 214, VF, Siscia mint, 3.187g, 19.3mm, 0o, 328 - 329 A.D.
Obverse: CONSTAN-TINVS AVG, laureate head right; Reverse PROVIDEN-TIAE AVGG, campgate with two turrets, star above, ASIS and double crescent in exergue.

Flavius Valerius Constantinus, Constantine the Great, was the son of Helena and the First Tetrarchic ruler Constantius I. Constantine is most famous for his conversion to Christianity and the battle of the Milvian Bridge where he defeated emperor Maxentius. It is reputed that before the battle, he saw the words "In Hoc Signo Victor Eris" (By this sign you shall conquer) emblazoned on the sun around the Chi Rho, the symbol of Christianity. Other sources claim the vision came to Constantine I in a dream. The story continues that after placing this Christogram on the shields of his army, he defeated his opponent and thus ruled the empire through divine providence. Constantine I also shifted the capital of the empire to Constantinople, establishing the foundation for an Empire that would last another 1000 years. He died in 337 and his sons divided the Roman territories.

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power, and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
Cleisthenes
CTG_ThesCmpGte.jpg
1403j, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D. (Thessalonica)26 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC 153, VF, Thessalonica mint, 2.955g, 19.7mm, 0o, 326 - 328 A.D. Obverse: CONSTAN-TINVS AVG, laureate head right; Reverse: PROVIDEN-TIAE AVGG, campgate with two turrets, star above, dot right, SMTSG in exergue.

Flavius Valerius Constantinus, Constantine the Great, was the son of Helena and the First Tetrarchic ruler Constantius I. Constantine is most famous for his conversion to Christianity and the battle of the Milvian Bridge where he defeated emperor Maxentius. It is reputed that before the battle, he saw the words "In Hoc Signo Victor Eris" (By this sign you shall conquer) emblazoned on the sun around the Chi Rho, the symbol of Christianity. Other sources claim the vision came to Constantine I in a dream. The story continues that after placing this Christogram on the shields of his army, he defeated his opponent and thus ruled the empire through divine providence. Constantine I also shifted the capital of the empire to Constantinople, establishing the foundation for an Empire that would last another 1000 years. He died in 337 and his sons divided the Roman territories.

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power, and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
Cleisthenes
CrispusRIC17.jpg
1404a, Crispus, Caesar 317 - 326 A.D. 38 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC 17, aEF, Cyzicus mint, 3.196g, 19.9mm, 315o, 321 - 324 A.D.; Obverse: D N FL IVL CRISPVS NOB CAES, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: IOVI CONSERVATORI, Jupiter standing left holding Victory on globe in right and scepter in left, eagle with wreath in beak to left, X / IIG and captive right, SMKD in exergue; scarce (RIC R3). Ex FORVM.


De Imperatoribus Romanis;
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors and their Families

Crispus Caesar (317-326 A.D.)

Hans Pohlsander
SUNY Albany

Crispus was the oldest son of the emperor Constantine I and played a fairly important role in the political and military events of the early fourth century. The regular form of his full name is Flavius Iulius Crispus, although the forms Flavius Claudius Crispus and Flavius Valerius Crispus also occur. His mother was a woman named Minervina, with whom Constantine had a relationship, probably illegitimate, before he married Fausta in 307. When Minervina died or when Constantine put her aside we do not know. Nor do we know when she gave birth to Crispus; we may assume, of course, that it was before 307. Some modern authorities, on good grounds, think that it was in 305. Crispus' place of birth must have been somewhere in the East, and it is not known when he was brought to Gaul and when, where, or under what circumstances he was separated from his mother.

Constantine entrusted the education of his son to the distinguished Christian scholar Lactantius, thereby giving a clear sign of his commitment to Christianity. We are not told when Lactantius assumed his duties, but a date before 317 seems likely. Nor do we know how successful he was in instilling Christian beliefs and values in his imperial pupil. No later than January of 322 Crispus must have married a woman named Helena -- not to be confused with Constantine's mother or daughter by the same name- and this woman bore him a child in October of 322. Constantine, we learn, was pleased.

Crispus' official career began at an early age and is well documented. On March 1 of 317, at Serdica (modern Sofia), his father appointed him Caesar. The consulship was his three times, in 318, 321, and 324. While nominally in charge of Gaul, with a prefect at his side, he successfully undertook military operations against the Franks and Alamanni in 320 and 323.

In 324, during the second war between Constantine and Licinius, he excelled as commander of Constantine's fleet in the waters of the Hellespont, the Propontis, and the Bosporus, thus making a significant contribution to the outcome of that war. The high points of his career are amply reflected in the imperial coinage. In addition to coins, we have his portrait, with varying degrees of certainty, in a number of sculptures, mosaics, cameos, etc. Contemporary authors heap praises upon him. Thus the panegyrist Nazarius speaks of Crispus' "magnificent deeds," and Eusebius calls him "an emperor most dear to God and in all regards comparable to his father."

Crispus' end was as tragic as his career had been brilliant. His own father ordered him to be put to death. We know the year of this sad event, 326, from the Consularia Constantinopolitana, and the place, Pola in Istria, from Ammianus Marcellinus. The circumstances, however, are less clear. Zosimus (6th c.) and Zonaras (12th c.) both report that Crispus and his stepmother Fausta were involved in an illicit relationship. There may be as much gossip as fact in their reports, but it is certain that at some time during the same year the emperor ordered the death of his own wife as well, and the two cases must be considered together. That Crispus and Fausta plotted treason is reported by Gregory of Tours, but not very believable. We must resolutely reject the claim of Zosimus that it was Constantine's sense of guilt over these deeds which caused him to accept Christianity, as it alone promised him forgiveness for his sins. A similar claim had already been made by Julian the Apostate. We must also, I think, reject the suggestion of Guthrie that the emperor acted in the interest of "dynastic legitimacy," that is, that he removed his illegitimate first-born son in order to secure the succession for his three legitimate younger sons. But Crispus must have committed, or at least must have been suspected of having committed, some especially shocking offense to earn him a sentence of death from his own father. He also suffered damnatio memoriae, his honor was never restored, and history has not recorded the fate of his wife and his child (or children).

Copyright (C) 1997, Hans A. Pohlsander. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis;An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors and their Families:
http://www.roman-emperors.org/crispus.htm


What If?

St. Nectarios, in his book, The Ecumenical Synods, writes "Hellenism spread by Alexander paved the way for Christianity by Emperor Constantine the Great."

Constantine's upward gaze on his "Eyes to Heaven" coins recall the coin portraits of Alexander the Great (namely coins struck by the Diodochi), which served as prototypes for the divine ruler portraiture of much of the Hellenistic age. The diadem, of which this is the most elaborate type, was adopted by Constantine and the members of his house as a new symbol of sovereignty.

In the Greek Orthodox Church, Constantine the Great is revered as a Saint.

Is it just possible? Constantine, knowing what happened (or thinking that he does) to Phillip II of Macedon—assassinated on the eve of his greatness, in a plot that most likely involved his wife—and possibly his son. . . isn’t it just possible that Constantine is growing obsessively jealous of his ever more successful and adulated son? Imagine the Constantine who has proven time and again (think: Licinius) that he is a completely self-serving liar and a murderer, decides to murder again? Why "must we resolutely reject the claim of Zosimus that it was Constantine's sense of guilt over these deeds which caused him to accept Christianity, as it alone promised him forgiveness for his sins [?] (see: above). A similar claim had already been made by Julian the [Philosopher]."

Perhaps it is time to cease being apologists for the sometime megalomaniacal Constantine. As Michael Grant notes, "It is a mocking travesty of justice to call such a murderer Constantine the Great . . ." (Grant, Michael. The Emperor Constantine. London: Phoenix Press, 1998. 226).


Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.


Cleisthenes
crispus_votV.jpg
1404b, Crispus, Caesar 317 - 326 A.D. (Thessalonica)35 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC 118, VF, Thessalonica mint, 2.740g, 18.0mm, 180o, 320 - 321 A.D. Obverse: FL IVL CRISPVS NOB CAES, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust left; Reverse: CAESARVM NOSTRORVM, VOT V in wreath, TSDVI in exergue.

Flavius Julius Crispus was the son of Constantine I by his first wife. A brilliant soldier, Crispus was well loved by all until 326 A.D., when Constantine had him executed. It is said that Fausta, Crispus stepmother, anxious to secure the succession for her own sons falsely accused Crispus of raping her. Constantine, learning of Fausta`s treachery, had her executed too.


De Imperatoribus Romanis;
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors and their Families

Crispus Caesar (317-326 A.D.)

Hans Pohlsander
SUNY Albany

Crispus was the oldest son of the emperor Constantine I and played a fairly important role in the political and military events of the early fourth century. The regular form of his full name is Flavius Iulius Crispus, although the forms Flavius Claudius Crispus and Flavius Valerius Crispus also occur. His mother was a woman named Minervina, with whom Constantine had a relationship, probably illegitimate, before he married Fausta in 307. When Minervina died or when Constantine put her aside we do not know. Nor do we know when she gave birth to Crispus; we may assume, of course, that it was before 307. Some modern authorities, on good grounds, think that it was in 305. Crispus' place of birth must have been somewhere in the East, and it is not known when he was brought to Gaul and when, where, or under what circumstances he was separated from his mother.

Constantine entrusted the education of his son to the distinguished Christian scholar Lactantius, thereby giving a clear sign of his commitment to Christianity. We are not told when Lactantius assumed his duties, but a date before 317 seems likely. Nor do we know how successful he was in instilling Christian beliefs and values in his imperial pupil. No later than January of 322 Crispus must have married a woman named Helena -- not to be confused with Constantine's mother or daughter by the same name- and this woman bore him a child in October of 322. Constantine, we learn, was pleased.

Crispus' official career began at an early age and is well documented. On March 1 of 317, at Serdica (modern Sofia), his father appointed him Caesar. The consulship was his three times, in 318, 321, and 324. While nominally in charge of Gaul, with a prefect at his side, he successfully undertook military operations against the Franks and Alamanni in 320 and 323.

In 324, during the second war between Constantine and Licinius, he excelled as commander of Constantine's fleet in the waters of the Hellespont, the Propontis, and the Bosporus, thus making a significant contribution to the outcome of that war. The high points of his career are amply reflected in the imperial coinage. In addition to coins, we have his portrait, with varying degrees of certainty, in a number of sculptures, mosaics, cameos, etc. Contemporary authors heap praises upon him. Thus the panegyrist Nazarius speaks of Crispus' "magnificent deeds," and Eusebius calls him "an emperor most dear to God and in all regards comparable to his father."

Crispus' end was as tragic as his career had been brilliant. His own father ordered him to be put to death. We know the year of this sad event, 326, from the Consularia Constantinopolitana, and the place, Pola in Istria, from Ammianus Marcellinus. The circumstances, however, are less clear. Zosimus (6th c.) and Zonaras (12th c.) both report that Crispus and his stepmother Fausta were involved in an illicit relationship. There may be as much gossip as fact in their reports, but it is certain that at some time during the same year the emperor ordered the death of his own wife as well, and the two cases must be considered together. That Crispus and Fausta plotted treason is reported by Gregory of Tours, but not very believable. We must resolutely reject the claim of Zosimus that it was Constantine's sense of guilt over these deeds which caused him to accept Christianity, as it alone promised him forgiveness for his sins. A similar claim had already been made by Julian the Apostate. We must also, I think, reject the suggestion of Guthrie that the emperor acted in the interest of "dynastic legitimacy," that is, that he removed his illegitimate first-born son in order to secure the succession for his three legitimate younger sons. But Crispus must have committed, or at least must have been suspected of having committed, some especially shocking offense to earn him a sentence of death from his own father. He also suffered damnatio memoriae, his honor was never restored, and history has not recorded the fate of his wife and his child (or children).

Copyright (C) 1997, Hans A. Pohlsander. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis;An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors and their Families:
http://www.roman-emperors.org/crispus.htm


What If?

St. Nectarios, in his book, The Ecumenical Synods, writes "Hellenism spread by Alexander paved the way for Christianity by Emperor Constantine the Great."

Constantine's upward gaze on his "Eyes to Heaven" coins recall the coin portraits of Alexander the Great (namely coins struck by the Diodochi), which served as prototypes for the divine ruler portraiture of much of the Hellenistic age. The diadem, of which this is the most elaborate type, was adopted by Constantine and the members of his house as a new symbol of sovereignty.

In the Greek Orthodox Church, Constantine the Great is revered as a Saint.

Is it just possible? Constantine, knowing what happened (or thinking that he does) to Phillip II of Macedon—assassinated on the eve of his greatness, in a plot that most likely involved his wife—and possibly his son. . . isn’t it just possible that Constantine is growing obsessively jealous of his ever more successful and adulated son? Imagine the Constantine who has proven time and again (think: Licinius) that he is a completely self-serving liar and a murderer, decides to murder again? Why "must we resolutely reject the claim of Zosimus that it was Constantine's sense of guilt over these deeds which caused him to accept Christianity, as it alone promised him forgiveness for his sins [?] (see: above). A similar claim had already been made by Julian the [Philosopher]."

Perhaps it is time to cease being apologists for the sometime megalomaniacal Constantine. As Michael Grant notes, "It is a mocking travesty of justice to call such a murderer Constantine the Great . . ." (Grant, Michael. The Emperor Constantine. London: Phoenix Press, 1998. 226).


Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
Julian2VotXConstantinople.jpg
1409a, Julian II "the Philosopher," February 360 - 26 June 363 A.D.143 viewsJulian II, A.D. 360-363; RIC 167; VF; 2.7g, 20mm; Constantinople mint; Obverse: DN FL CL IVLIANVS P F AVG, helmeted & cuirassed bust right, holding spear & shield; Reverse: VOT X MVLT XX in four lines within wreath; CONSPB in exergue; Attractive green patina. Ex Nemesis.


De Imperatoribus Romanis,
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Julian the Apostate (360-363 A.D.)

Walter E. Roberts, Emory University
Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University

Introduction

The emperor Flavius Claudius Julianus reigned from 360 to 26 June 363, when he was killed fighting against the Persians. Despite his short rule, his emperorship was pivotal in the development of the history of the later Roman empire. This essay is not meant to be a comprehensive look at the various issues central to the reign of Julian and the history of the later empire. Rather, this short work is meant to be a brief history and introduction for the general reader. Julian was the last direct descendent of the Constantinian line to ascend to the purple, and it is one of history's great ironies that he was the last non-Christian emperor. As such, he has been vilified by most Christian sources, beginning with John Chrysostom and Gregory Nazianzus in the later fourth century. This tradition was picked up by the fifth century Eusebian continuators Sozomen, Socrates Scholasticus, and Theodoret and passed on to scholars down through the 20th century. Most contemporary sources, however, paint a much more balanced picture of Julian and his reign. The adoption of Christianity by emperors and society, while still a vital concern, was but one of several issues that concerned Julian.

It is fortunate that extensive writings from Julian himself exist, which help interpret his reign in the light of contemporary evidence. Still extant are some letters, several panegyrics, and a few satires. Other contemporary sources include the soldier Ammianus Marcellinus' history, correspondence between Julian and Libanius of Antioch, several panegyrics, laws from the Theodosian Code, inscriptions, and coinage. These sources show Julian's emphasis on restoration. He saw himself as the restorer of the traditional values of Roman society. Of course much of this was rhetoric, meant to defend Julian against charges that he was a usurper. At the same time this theme of restoration was central to all emperors of the fourth century. Julian thought that he was the one emperor who could regain what was viewed as the lost glory of the Roman empire. To achieve this goal he courted select groups of social elites to get across his message of restoration. This was the way that emperors functioned in the fourth century. By choosing whom to include in the sharing of power, they sought to shape society.

Early Life

Julian was born at Constantinople in 331. His father was Julius Constantius, half-brother of the emperor Constantine through Constantius Chlorus, and his mother was Basilina, Julius' second wife. Julian had two half-brothers via Julius' first marriage. One of these was Gallus, who played a major role in Julian's life. Julian appeared destined for a bright future via his father's connection to the Constantinian house. After many years of tense relations with his three half-brothers, Constantine seemed to have welcomed them into the fold of the imperial family. From 333 to 335, Constantine conferred a series of honors upon his three half-siblings, including appointing Julius Constantius as one of the consuls for 335. Julian's mother was equally distinguished. Ammianus related that she was from a noble family. This is supported by Libanius, who claimed that she was the daughter of Julius Julianus, a Praetorian Prefect under Licinius, who was such a model of administrative virtue that he was pardoned and honored by Constantine.

Despite the fact that his mother died shortly after giving birth to him, Julian experienced an idyllic early childhood. This ended when Constantius II conducted a purge of many of his relatives shortly after Constantine's death in 337, particularly targeting the families of Constantine's half-brothers. ulian and Gallus were spared, probably due to their young age. Julian was put under the care of Mardonius, a Scythian eunuch who had tutored his mother, in 339, and was raised in the Greek philosophical tradition, and probably lived in Nicomedia. Ammianus also supplied the fact that while in Nicomedia, Julian was cared for by the local bishop Eusebius, of whom the future emperor was a distant relation. Julian was educated by some of the most famous names in grammar and rhetoric in the Greek world at that time, including Nicocles and Hecebolius. In 344 Constantius II sent Julian and Gallus to Macellum in Cappadocia, where they remained for six years. In 351, Gallus was made Caesar by Constantius II and Julian was allowed to return to Nicomedia, where he studied under Aedesius, Eusebius, and Chrysanthius, all famed philosophers, and was exposed to the Neo-Platonism that would become such a prominent part of his life. But Julian was most proud of the time he spent studying under Maximus of Ephesus, a noted Neo-Platonic philospher and theurgist. It was Maximus who completed Julian's full-scale conversion to Neo-Platonism. Later, when he was Caesar, Julian told of how he put letters from this philosopher under his pillows so that he would continue to absorb wisdom while he slept, and while campaigning on the Rhine, he sent his speeches to Maximus for approval before letting others hear them. When Gallus was executed in 354 for treason by Constantius II, Julian was summoned to Italy and essentially kept under house arrest at Comum, near Milan, for seven months before Constantius' wife Eusebia convinced the emperor that Julian posed no threat. This allowed Julian to return to Greece and continue his life as a scholar where he studied under the Neo-Platonist Priscus. Julian's life of scholarly pursuit, however, ended abruptly when he was summoned to the imperial court and made Caesar by Constantius II on 6 November 355.

Julian as Caesar

Constantius II realized an essential truth of the empire that had been evident since the time of the Tetrarchy--the empire was too big to be ruled effectively by one man. Julian was pressed into service as Caesar, or subordinate emperor, because an imperial presence was needed in the west, in particular in the Gallic provinces. Julian, due to the emperor's earlier purges, was the only viable candidate of the imperial family left who could act as Caesar. Constantius enjoined Julian with the task of restoring order along the Rhine frontier. A few days after he was made Caesar, Julian was married to Constantius' sister Helena in order to cement the alliance between the two men. On 1 December 355, Julian journeyed north, and in Augusta Taurinorum he learned that Alamannic raiders had destroyed Colonia Agrippina. He then proceeded to Vienne where he spent the winter. At Vienne, he learned that Augustudunum was also under siege, but was being held by a veteran garrison. He made this his first priority, and arrived there on 24 June 356. When he had assured himself that the city was in no immediate danger, he journeyed to Augusta Treverorum via Autessioduram, and from there to Durocortorum where he rendezvoused with his army. Julian had the army stage a series of punitive strikes around the Dieuse region, and then he moved them towards the Argentoratum/Mongontiacum region when word of barbarian incursions reached him.

From there, Julian moved on to Colonia Agrippina, and negotiated a peace with the local barbarian leaders who had assaulted the city. He then wintered at Senonae. He spent the early part of the campaigning season of 357 fighting off besiegers at Senonae, and then conducting operations around Lugdunum and Tres Tabernae. Later that summer, he encountered his watershed moment as a military general. Ammianus went into great detail about Julian's victory over seven rogue Alamannic chieftains near Argentoratum, and Julian himself bragged about it in his later writing. After this battle, the soldiers acclaimed Julian Augustus, but he rejected this title. After mounting a series of follow-up raids into Alamannic territory, he retired to winter quarters at Lutetia, and on the way defeated some Frankish raiders in the Mosa region. Julian considered this campaign one of the major events of his time as Caesar.

Julian began his 358 military campaigns early, hoping to catch the barbarians by surprise. His first target was the Franks in the northern Rhine region. He then proceeded to restore some forts in the Mosa region, but his soldiers threatened to mutiny because they were on short rations and had not been paid their donative since Julian had become Caesar. After he soothed his soldiers, Julian spent the rest of the summer negotiating a peace with various Alamannic leaders in the mid and lower Rhine areas, and retired to winter quarters at Lutetia. In 359, he prepared once again to carry out a series of punitive expeditions against the Alamanni in the Rhine region who were still hostile to the Roman presence. In preparation, the Caesar repopulated seven previously destroyed cities and set them up as supply bases and staging areas. This was done with the help of the people with whom Julian had negotiated a peace the year before. Julian then had a detachment of lightly armed soldiers cross the Rhine near Mogontiacum and conduct a guerilla strike against several chieftains. As a result of these campaigns, Julian was able to negotiate a peace with all but a handful of the Alamannic leaders, and he retired to winter quarters at Lutetia.

Of course, Julian did more than act as a general during his time as Caesar. According to Ammianus, Julian was an able administrator who took steps to correct the injustices of Constantius' appointees. Ammianus related the story of how Julian prevented Florentius, the Praetorian Prefect of Gaul, from raising taxes, and also how Julian actually took over as governor for the province of Belgica Secunda. Hilary, bishop of Poitiers, supported Ammianus' basic assessment of Julian in this regard when he reported that Julian was an able representative of the emperor to the Gallic provincials. There is also epigraphic evidence to support Julian's popularity amongst the provincial elites. An inscription found near Beneventum in Apulia reads:
"To Flavius Claudius Julianus, most noble and sanctified Caesar, from the caring Tocius Maximus, vir clarissimus, for the care of the res publica from Beneventum".

Tocius Maximus, as a vir clarissimus, was at the highest point in the social spectrum and was a leader in his local community. This inscription shows that Julian was successful in establishing a positive image amongst provincial elites while he was Caesar.

Julian Augustus

In early 360, Constantius, driven by jealousy of Julian's success, stripped Julian of many troops and officers, ostensibly because the emperor needed them for his upcoming campaign against the Persians. One of the legions ordered east, the Petulantes, did not want to leave Gaul because the majority of the soldiers in the unit were from this region. As a result they mutinied and hailed Julian as Augustus at Lutetia. Julian refused this acclamation as he had done at Argentoratum earlier, but the soldiers would have none of his denial. They raised him on a shield and adorned him with a neck chain, which had formerly been the possession of the standard-bearer of the Petulantes and symbolized a royal diadem. Julian appeared reluctantly to acquiesce to their wishes, and promised a generous donative. The exact date of his acclamation is unknown, but most scholars put it in February or March. Julian himself supported Ammianus' picture of a jealous Constantius. In his Letter to the Athenians, a document constructed to answer charges that he was a usurper, Julian stated that from the start he, as Caesar, had been meant as a figurehead to the soldiers and provincials. The real power he claimed lay with the generals and officials already present in Gaul. In fact, according to Julian, the generals were charged with watching him as much as the enemy. His account of the actual acclamation closely followed what Ammianus told us, but he stressed even more his reluctance to take power. Julian claimed that he did so only after praying to Zeus for guidance.

Fearing the reaction of Constantius, Julian sent a letter to his fellow emperor justifying the events at Lutetia and trying to arrange a peaceful solution. This letter berated Constantius for forcing the troops in Gaul into an untenable situation. Ammianus stated that Julian's letter blamed Constantius' decision to transfer Gallic legions east as the reason for the soldiers' rebellion. Julian once again asserted that he was an unwilling participant who was only following the desire of the soldiers. In both of these basic accounts Ammianus and Julian are playing upon the theme of restoration. Implicit in their version of Julian's acclamation is the argument that Constantius was unfit to rule. The soldiers were the vehicle of the gods' will. The Letter to the Athenians is full of references to the fact that Julian was assuming the mantle of Augustus at the instigation of the gods. Ammianus summed up this position nicely when he related the story of how, when Julian was agonizing over whether to accept the soldiers' acclamation, he had a dream in which he was visited by the Genius (guardian spirit) of the Roman state. The Genius told Julian that it had often tried to bestow high honors upon Julian but had been rebuffed. Now, the Genius went on to say, was Julian's final chance to take the power that was rightfully his. If the Caesar refused this chance, the Genius would depart forever, and both Julian and the state would rue Julian's rejection. Julian himself wrote a letter to his friend Maximus of Ephesus in November of 361 detailing his thoughts on his proclamation. In this letter, Julian stated that the soldiers proclaimed him Augustus against his will. Julian, however, defended his accession, saying that the gods willed it and that he had treated his enemies with clemency and justice. He went on to say that he led the troops in propitiating the traditional deities, because the gods commanded him to return to the traditional rites, and would reward him if he fulfilled this duty.

During 360 an uneasy peace simmered between the two emperors. Julian spent the 360 campaigning season continuing his efforts to restore order along the Rhine, while Constantius continued operations against the Persians. Julian wintered in Vienne, and celebrated his Quinquennalia. It was at this time that his wife Helena died, and he sent her remains to Rome for a proper burial at his family villa on the Via Nomentana where the body of her sister was entombed. The uneasy peace held through the summer of 361, but Julian concentrated his military operations around harassing the Alamannic chieftain Vadomarius and his allies, who had concluded a peace treaty with Constantius some years earlier. By the end of the summer, Julian decided to put an end to the waiting and gathered his army to march east against Constantius. The empire teetered on the brink of another civil war. Constantius had spent the summer negotiating with the Persians and making preparations for possible military action against his cousin. When he was assured that the Persians would not attack, he summoned his army and sallied forth to meet Julian. As the armies drew inexorably closer to one another, the empire was saved from another bloody civil war when Constantius died unexpectedly of natural causes on 3 November near the town of Mopsucrenae in Cilicia, naming Julian -- the sources say-- as his legitimate successor.

Julian was in Dacia when he learned of his cousin's death. He made his way through Thrace and came to Constantinople on 11 December 361 where Julian honored the emperor with the funeral rites appropriate for a man of his station. Julian immediately set about putting his supporters in positions of power and trimming the imperial bureaucracy, which had become extremely overstaffed during Constantius' reign. Cooks and barbers had increased during the late emperor's reign and Julian expelled them from his court. Ammianus gave a mixed assessment of how the new emperor handled the followers of Constantius. Traditionally, emperors were supposed to show clemency to the supporters of a defeated enemy. Julian, however, gave some men over to death to appease the army. Ammianus used the case of Ursulus, Constantius' comes sacrum largitionum, to illustrate his point. Ursulus had actually tried to acquire money for the Gallic troops when Julian had first been appointed Caesar, but he had also made a disparaging remark about the ineffectiveness of the army after the battle of Amida. The soldiers remembered this, and when Julian became sole Augustus, they demanded Ursulus' head. Julian obliged, much to the disapproval of Ammianus. This seems to be a case of Julian courting the favor of the military leadership, and is indicative of a pattern in which Julian courted the goodwill of various societal elites to legitimize his position as emperor.

Another case in point is the officials who made up the imperial bureaucracy. Many of them were subjected to trial and punishment. To achieve this goal, during the last weeks of December 361 Julian assembled a military tribunal at Chalcedon, empanelling six judges to try the cases. The president of the tribunal was Salutius, just promoted to the rank of Praetorian Prefect; the five other members were Mamertinus, the orator, and four general officers: Jovinus, Agilo, Nevitta, and Arbetio. Relative to the proceedings of the tribunal, Ammianus noted that the judges, " . . . oversaw the cases more vehemently than was right or fair, with the exception of a few . . .." Ammianus' account of Julian's attempt at reform of the imperial bureaucracy is supported by legal evidence from the Theodosian Code. A series of laws sent to Mamertinus, Julian's appointee as Praetorian Prefect in Italy, Illyricum, and Africa, illustrate this point nicely. On 6 June 362, Mamertinus received a law that prohibited provincial governors from bypassing the Vicars when giving their reports to the Prefect. Traditionally, Vicars were given civil authority over a group of provinces, and were in theory meant to serve as a middle step between governors and Prefects. This law suggests that the Vicars were being left out, at least in Illyricum. Julian issued another edict to Mamertinus on 22 February 362 to stop abuse of the public post by governors. According to this law, only Mamertinus could issue post warrants, but the Vicars were given twelve blank warrants to be used as they saw fit, and each governor was given two. Continuing the trend of bureaucratic reform, Julian also imposed penalties on governors who purposefully delayed appeals in court cases they had heard. The emperor also established a new official to weigh solidi used in official government transactions to combat coin clipping.

For Julian, reigning in the abuses of imperial bureaucrats was one step in restoring the prestige of the office of emperor. Because he could not affect all elements of society personally, Julian, like other Neo-Flavian emperors, decided to concentrate on select groups of societal elites as intercessors between himself and the general populace. One of these groups was the imperial bureaucracy. Julian made it very clear that imperial officials were intercessors in a very real sense in a letter to Alypius, Vicar of Britain. In this letter, sent from Gaul sometime before 361, the emperor praises Alypius for his use of "mildness and moderation with courage and force" in his rule of the provincials. Such virtues were characteristic of the emperors, and it was good that Alypius is representing Julian in this way. Julian courted the army because it put him in power. Another group he sought to include in his rule was the traditional Senatorial aristocracy. One of his first appointments as consul was Claudius Mamertinus, a Gallic Senator and rhetorician. Mamertinus' speech in praise of Julian delivered at Constantinople in January of 362 is preserved. In this speech, Claudius presented his consular selection as inaugurating a new golden age and Julian as the restorer of the empire founded by Augustus. The image Mamertinus gave of his own consulate inaugurating a new golden age is not merely formulaic. The comparison of Julian to Augustus has very real, if implicit, relevance to Claudius' situation. Claudius emphasized the imperial period as the true age of renewal. Augustus ushered in a new era with his formation of a partnership between the emperor and the Senate based upon a series of honors and offices bestowed upon the Senate in return for their role as intercessor between emperor and populace. It was this system that Julian was restoring, and the consulate was one concrete example of this bond. To be chosen as a consul by the emperor, who himself had been divinely mandated, was a divine honor. In addition to being named consul, Mamertinus went on to hold several offices under Julian, including the Prefecture of Italy, Illyricum, and Africa. Similarly, inscriptional evidence illustrates a link between municipal elites and Julian during his time as Caesar, something which continued after he became emperor. One concrete example comes from the municipal senate of Aceruntia in Apulia, which established a monument on which Julian is styled as "Repairer of the World."

Julian seems to have given up actual Christian belief before his acclamation as emperor and was a practitioner of more traditional Greco-Roman religious beliefs, in particular, a follower of certain late antique Platonist philosophers who were especially adept at theurgy as was noted earlier. In fact Julian himself spoke of his conversion to Neo-Platonism in a letter to the Alexandrians written in 363. He stated that he had abandoned Christianity when he was twenty years old and been an adherent of the traditional Greco-Roman deities for the twelve years prior to writing this letter.

(For the complete text of this article see: http://www.roman-emperors.org/julian.htm)

Julian’s Persian Campaign

The exact goals Julian had for his ill-fated Persian campaign were never clear. The Sassanid Persians, and before them the Parthians, had been a traditional enemy from the time of the Late Republic, and indeed Constantius had been conducting a war against them before Julian's accession forced the former to forge an uneasy peace. Julian, however, had no concrete reason to reopen hostilities in the east. Socrates Scholasticus attributed Julian's motives to imitation of Alexander the Great, but perhaps the real reason lay in his need to gather the support of the army. Despite his acclamation by the Gallic legions, relations between Julian and the top military officers was uneasy at best. A war against the Persians would have brought prestige and power both to Julian and the army.

Julian set out on his fateful campaign on 5 March 363. Using his trademark strategy of striking quickly and where least expected, he moved his army through Heirapolis and from there speedily across the Euphrates and into the province of Mesopotamia, where he stopped at the town of Batnae. His plan was to eventually return through Armenia and winter in Tarsus. Once in Mesopotamia, Julian was faced with the decision of whether to travel south through the province of Babylonia or cross the Tigris into Assyria, and he eventually decided to move south through Babylonia and turn west into Assyria at a later date. By 27 March, he had the bulk of his army across the Euphrates, and had also arranged a flotilla to guard his supply line along the mighty river. He then left his generals Procopius and Sebastianus to help Arsacius, the king of Armenia and a Roman client, to guard the northern Tigris line. It was also during this time that he received the surrender of many prominent local leaders who had nominally supported the Persians. These men supplied Julian with money and troops for further military action against their former masters. Julian decided to turn south into Babylonia and proceeded along the Euphrates, coming to the fortress of Cercusium at the junction of the Abora and Euphrates Rivers around the first of April, and from there he took his army west to a region called Zaitha near the abandoned town of Dura where they visited the tomb of the emperor Gordian which was in the area. On April 7 he set out from there into the heart of Babylonia and towards Assyria.

Ammianus then stated that Julian and his army crossed into Assyria, which on the face of things appears very confusing. Julian still seems to be operating within the province of Babylonia between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. The confusion is alleviated when one realizes that,for Ammianus, the region of Assyria encompassed the provinces of Babylonia and Assyria. On their march, Julian's forces took the fortress of Anatha, received the surrender and support of several more local princes, and ravaged the countryside of Assyria between the rivers. As the army continued south, they came across the fortresses Thilutha and Achaiachala, but these places were too well defended and Julian decided to leave them alone. Further south were the cities Diacira and Ozogardana, which the Roman forces sacked and burned. Soon, Julian came to Pirisabora and a brief siege ensued, but the city fell and was also looted and destroyed. It was also at this time that the Roman army met its first systematic resistance from the Persians. As the Romans penetrated further south and west, the local inhabitants began to flood their route. Nevertheless, the Roman forces pressed on and came to Maiozamalcha, a sizable city not far from Ctesiphon. After a short siege, this city too fell to Julian. Inexorably, Julian's forces zeroed in on Ctesiphon, but as they drew closer, the Persian resistance grew fiercer, with guerilla raids whittling at Julian's men and supplies. A sizable force of the army was lost and the emperor himself was almost killed taking a fort a few miles from the target city.
Finally, the army approached Ctesiphon following a canal that linked the Tigris and Euphrates. It soon became apparent after a few preliminary skirmishes that a protracted siege would be necessary to take this important city. Many of his generals, however, thought that pursuing this course of action would be foolish. Julian reluctantly agreed, but became enraged by this failure and ordered his fleet to be burned as he decided to march through the province of Assyria. Julian had planned for his army to live off the land, but the Persians employed a scorched-earth policy. When it became apparent that his army would perish (because his supplies were beginning to dwindle) from starvation and the heat if he continued his campaign, and also in the face of superior numbers of the enemy, Julian ordered a retreat on 16 June. As the Roman army retreated, they were constantly harassed by guerilla strikes. It was during one of these raids that Julian got caught up in the fighting and took a spear to his abdomen. Mortally wounded he was carried to his tent, where, after conferring with some of his officers, he died. The date was 26 June 363.

Conclusion

Thus an ignominious end for a man came about who had hoped to restore the glory of the Roman empire during his reign as emperor. Due to his intense hatred of Christianity, the opinion of posterity has not been kind to Julian. The contemporary opinion, however, was overall positive. The evidence shows that Julian was a complex ruler with a definite agenda to use traditional social institutions in order to revive what he saw as a collapsing empire. In the final assessment, he was not so different from any of the other emperors of the fourth century. He was a man grasping desperately to hang on to a Greco-Roman conception of leadership that was undergoing a subtle yet profound change.
Copyright (C) 2002, Walter E. Roberts and Michael DiMaio, Jr. Used by permission.

In reality, Julian worked to promote culture and philosophy in any manifestation. He tried to reduce taxes and the public debts of municipalities; he augmented administrative decentralisation; he promoted a campaign of austerity to reduce public expenditure (setting himself as the example). He reformed the postal service and eliminated the powerful secret police.
by Federico Morando; JULIAN II, The Apostate, http://www.forumancientcoins.com/NumisWiki/view.asp?key=Julian%20II

Flavius Claudius Iulianus was born in 331 or maybe 332 A.D. in Constantinople. He ruled the Western Empire as Caesar from 355 to 360 and was hailed Augustus by his legions in Lutetia (Paris) in 360. Julian was a gifted administrator and military strategist. Famed as the last pagan emperor, his reinstatement of the pagan religion earned him the moniker "the Apostate." As evidenced by his brilliant writing, some of which has survived to the present day, the title "the Philosopher" may have been more appropriate. He died from wounds suffered during the Persian campaign of 363 A.D. Joseph Sermarini, FORVM.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.




2 commentsCleisthenes
RI_141br_img.jpg
141 - Diocletian - Follis - RIC VI Trier 677a (corr. Cyzicus)70 viewsObv:– D N DIOCLETIANO FELICISSIMO SEN AVG, laureate bust right in imperial mantle, olive branch in right hand, mappa in left
Rev:– PROVIDENTIA DEORVM QVIES AVGG, Providentia standing right, extending right hand to Quies standing left, branch upward in right hand, vertical sceptre in left
Minted in Cyzicus (not Trier) ( S | F / KS //PTR)
Reference:– RIC VI Trier 677a (R) (see notes)
Notes:- This is perhaps one of the most unusual issues in the entire follis series. It is nearly always attributed to Trier (Treveri), but a comparison of portrait styles and an examination of follis hoards reveals that this issue was not struck in Trier but in Cyzicus. Two officinae struck this issue, and the KS in the field between the two figures is actually the mintmark, not the PTR. A look at the coins of Cyzicus (RIC 22-23) shows that the same two officinae struck this issue without the PTR also. The Senior Augustus issues of Diocletian and Maximianus were struck at every mint currently in operation. Apparently, the first coins of this type were prepared at Trier and examples were sent to the various mints for the individual mints to copy. At Cyzicus, the die engravers copied everything, including the Trier mintmark and put their own mintmark in the field. Eventually someone soon realized the mistake and new dies were prepared with the mintmark in its proper location.

Nicely silvered with little / no visible wear.
maridvnvm
Thessalonica_RIC_VII_036v,_142_Crispus_AE-3-__Silv__DN-FL-IVL-CRISPVS-NOB-CAES_VOT-_V__MVLT-X____CAESS_TS_Delta__Not-in-Delta-off_-p504-4-off__R_Q-001_h_18mm_2,54gxa-s.jpg
142 Crispus (317-326 A.D.), Thessalonica, RIC VII 036, (var???), AE-3 Follis, -/-//TS•Δ•, VOT•V•/MVLT X•/•/ CAESS, Very Rare, this officina NOT in RIC !!!101 views142 Crispus (317-326 A.D.), Thessalonica, RIC VII 036, (var???), AE-3 Follis, -/-//TS•Δ•, VOT•V•/MVLT X•/•/ CAESS, Very Rare, this officina NOT in RIC !!!
Crispus (317-326 A.D.) AE-3-Follis, silvered, RIC has no exact match for this coin. Shares obverse legend of #37 and bust type of #38
avers: DN-FL-IVL-CRISPVS-NOB-CAES, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
revers: VOT•V•/MVLT X•/•/ CAESS, Wreath, legend within.
exe: -/-//TS•Δ•, diameter: 18mm, weight: 2,54g, axis:11h,
mint: Thessalonica, date: 317-318 A.D., ref: RIC-36-37-38 variation, RIC-36v-not-listed-Delta-off.-p504-4th.-off.,
Q-001
quadrans
Hannibalianus_AE-3_FL-HANNIBALLIANO-REGI_SECVRITAS-PVBLICA_CONSS_RIC-VII-147-p-589_Constantinople_336-37-AD_Q-001_6h_15mm_1,32g-s.jpg
144 Hannibalianus (335-337 A.D.), Constantinoplis, RIC VII 147, AE-3, -/-//CONSS, SECVRITAS PVBLICA, Euphrates seated right on ground, Very Rare!!101 views144 Hannibalianus (335-337 A.D.), Constantinoplis, RIC VII 147, AE-3, -/-//CONSS, SECVRITAS PVBLICA, Euphrates seated right on ground, Very Rare!!
avers: F L HANNIBALLIANO REGI (11b, A4), Bare-headed, draped, cuirassed bust right.
reverse: SECVRITAS PVBLICA (no break in the legend !!!), Euphrates seated right on ground, holding sceptre, overturned urn at his side, from which waters flow, reed in background.
exergue: -/-//CONSS, diameter: 15mm, weight: 1,32g, axis: 6h,
mint: Constantinoplis, date: 336-337 A.D., ref: RIC VII 147-p-589, Very Rare!!
Q-001
quadrans
RI_146ce_img.jpg
146 - Maximianus - RIC V pt II 408 Bust Type F16 viewsObv:– MAXIMIANVS • P • F • AVG, Radiate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– PAX AVGG, Pax standing left, olive branch upward in right hand, scepter in left
Minted in Lugdunum (//A). Emission 12, Officina A. A.D. 294
Reference:– Cohen -. RIC V Pt. 2 408 Bust Type F. Bastien Volume VII 613 (5 examples cited)

Very large flan.
Martin Griffiths
RI 146bk img.jpg
146 - Maximianus - RIC V pt II 460 Radiate, helmeted, cuirassed bust left21 viewsObv:– IMP C MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, Radiate, helmeted, cuirassed bust left
Rev:– VIRTVTI AVGG, Hercules, standing right, with club thrown behind him, being crowned by Victory flying right
Minted in Lugdunum (No marks). Emission 5. Officina 3. Autumn A.D. 287 – Autumn A.D. 289
Reference:– RIC V Pt. 2 Lugdunum 460. Bastien 231 (1 example cited)

Fully silvered with very little sign of wear. A very pleasing example in hand. If only I could improve my photography to show how nice the silvering is
maridvnvm
RI 146bj img.jpg
146 - Maximianus - RIC V pt II 506 Bust Type C 24 viewsObv:– IMP MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– IOVI CONSERVAT AVGG, Jupiter standing left, holding thunderbolt and scepter
Minted in Rome (XXIA in exe.) A.D. 285-286
References:– RIC V Part II 506 Bust Type C. Cohen 355

A flat strike to the centres but otherwise a very nice coin. Virtually fully silvered.
maridvnvm
RI_146dr_img.jpg
146 - Maximianus Herculius - RIC VI Antioch 112c34 viewsFollis
Obv:– IMP C M AVR VAL MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– GENIO IMP-ERATORIS, Genius standing left holding patera and cornucopia
Minted in Antioch (_ | Theta / E //ANT Dot). Early to Later A.D. 309
Reference:– RIC VI Antioch 112c (R) (Citing Oxford; Apparently a rare issue for Maximianus Herculius and only issued from this officina)
 
6.39 gms. 26.19 mm. 0 degrees. Better than the RIC plate coin (reverse only illustrated).
 
From RIC Notes "A very remarkable innovation, peculiar to this issue, is the reappearance of Herculius (with the long legend Imp C M Aur Val Maximianus P F Aug matching those of Galerius and Licinus, and with cuirassed bust) on rare coins with Genio Imperatoris; this is parallelled at the same time (see RIC VI page 656). Expelled from Italy c. April 308, and rejected at the Carnuntum conference in November 308, Herculius had received ample share in the coinage of Constantine's mints, and it seems that Maximinus (now antagonisitc to both Galerius and Licinius) may have been momentarily willing to demontsrate his hostility by including the name of the man who might still play and anti-Galerian part in the west."
2 commentsmaridvnvm
James_III_AE_Crux_Pellit_Threepenny_Penny.JPG
1460 – 1488, JAMES III, AE Threepenny Penny struck c.1470–1480 at an unidentified mint, Scotland7 viewsObverse: + IACOBVS ‡ DEI ‡ GRA ‡ REX ‡ . Orb with rosette at centre, tilted upwards, within pelleted circle. Cross hummetty in legend.
Reverse: + CRVX ‡ PELLIT ‡ OIE ‡ CRI (Crux pellit omne crimen = The cross drives away all sin). Latin cross within quatrefoil with trefoils on cusps, within pelleted circle. Cross hummetty in legend.
Diameter: 20mm | Weight: 1.9gms | Die Axis: 9
SPINK: 5311 Type III
Very Rare

Once regarded as Ecclesiastical and connected to Bishop James Kennedy of St Andrews by earlier scholars, these coins are now, after extensive research in the second half of the twentieth century by J E L Murray of the British Numismatic Society, believed to have been a regal issue whose place of mintage has not as yet been certainly identified. During his reign James III took an interest in the coinage and introduced several new denominations. The thistle-head made its first appearance as a Scottish emblem on coins during his reign and a further innovation of his coinage were coins bearing a likeness of the king himself in the new renaissance style which predated similarly styled English coins by several years.
The 'Crux pellit' coins are often known as ‘Crossraguel’ issues, so called after a hoard containing 51 of them was found in a drain at Crossraguel Abbey, Ayrshire in 1919. J E L Murray identified these coins with those referred to in contemporary documents as “three-penny pennies” or “Cochrane's Placks”, which appear to have been greatly devalued in 1482. Cochrane's Placks comes from Robert Cochrane, one of James III's main favourites. Cochrane played a major part in the government during the 1470's and he is said to have advised the king to debase the coinage in order to raise cash.

James III was crowned at Kelso Abbey in 1460 at the age of 9, he was the son of James II and Mary of Guelders. During his childhood, the government was led by successive factions until 1469 when he began to rule for himself. That same year he married Princess Margaret of Denmark. Margaret's father, King Christian I of Denmark and Norway was unable to raise the full amount of her dowry so pledged his lands and rights in Orkney and Shetland as security for the remainder. But Christian I was never able to redeem his pledge, and Orkney and Shetland have remained Scottish possessions ever since.
Soon after his marriage, James faced great difficulties in restoring a strong central government. His preference for the company of scholars, architects and artists coupled with his extravagance and partiality to favourites alienated him from the loyalty of his nobles. Even his own brothers, Alexander, Duke of Albany and John, Earl of Mar regarded him with jealousy verging on hatred. In 1479, James' brothers were arrested on suspicion of conspiring against the Crown. John Stewart, the Earl of Mar, died in suspicious circumstances, whilst Alexander Stewart, the Duke of Albany, escaped and fled to England.
The ever-present English threat had been temporarily solved by a truce with Edward IV in 1463 but James' estrangement from his brothers and a strong faction within the Scottish nobility led to the final loss of Berwick.
Although James had tried to settle his differences with Alexander, Duke of Albany, his brother again tried to take his throne in a coup after Edward IV recognised him as Alexander IV of Scotland in 1482. Some minor members of James III's household were hanged, including Robert Cochrane, the king's favourite. But James was removed to Edinburgh Castle where he survived and Alexander was exiled to France.
After his queen's death in 1486, James lived in increasing isolation amidst the growing resentment of the nobility. Finally, in 1488, the Scottish nobles seized James' eldest son, also called James, placed him at their head, and rose against the king. At the Battle of Sauchieburn, three miles from Stirling, James III, defeated, was thrown from his horse as he fled from the field. He was carried into a nearby cottage where he was set upon and stabbed to death.
James III was buried at Cambuskenneth Abbey near Stirling and his son, the figurehead of the revolt against him, was hailed as James IV.
1 comments*Alex
RI 147h img.jpg
147 - Constantius I Chlorus - RIC VI Treveri 160a29 views Obverse Legend –CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES, Laureate, bust left
Reverse Legend – GENIO POP-VLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, modius on head, naked but for chalmys over left shoulder, right holding patera, left cornucopia
Minted in Treveri (A in left , TR in exe). c. A.D. 295
Reference:– RIC VI Treveri 160a (Rated Scarce)

It should also be noted that the usual reverse break for these coins is PV-LI and RIC notes that the OP-VL break occurs but very rarely.

Weight 11.21 gms which is heavier than expected for this issue with RIC noting a weight range of 8.5gms to 10.5 gms.

Size 25.39mm on Obv. X-Axis, 25.46mm in Obv. Y-Axis.
maridvnvm
ConsecratioPanoramaBlack.jpg
15 Marcus Aurelius for Divus Antoninus Pius RIC 43647 viewsAntonius Pius. Ar Denarius. Marcus Aurelius for Divus Antoninus Pius. Rome mint. 161 AD. Obv: Obv.: DIVVS ANTONINVS, Bare head of Divus Antoninus Pius right. Rev: CONSECRATIO, Decorated funeral pyre (pyra) of four storeys, decorated with hangings and garlands, surmounted by quadriga.
C 164; RIC 436

Very diffcult coin to photograph, but it turned out decent enough.
Paddy
Theo1Ae3Ant.jpeg
1505b, Theodosius I, 19 January 379 - 17 January 395 A.D. (Antioch)69 viewsTheodosius I, 19 January 379 - 17 January 395 A.D. Bronze AE 3, RIC 44(b), VF, Antioch, 2.17g, 18.1mm, 180o, 9 Aug 378 - 25 Aug 383 A.D. Obverse: D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG, rosette-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: CONCORDIA AVGGG, Constantinopolis enthroned facing, r. foot on prow, globe in l., scepter in r., Q and F at sides, ANTG in ex; scarce.


De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

THEODOSIUS I (379-395 A.D.)
David Woods
University College of Cork


Origin and Early Career
Flavius Theodosius was born at Cauca in Spain in about 346 to Thermantia and Theodosius the Elder (so-called to distinguish him from his son). Theodosius the Elder was a senior military officer serving in the Western empire and rose to become the magister equitum praesentalis under the emperor Valentinian I from late 368 until his execution in early 375. As the son of a soldier, Theodosius was legally obliged to enter upon a military career. He seems to have served under his father during his expedition to Britain in 367/8, and was the dux Moesiae Primae by late 374. Unfortunately, great controversy surrounds the rest of his career until Gratian had him hailed as his imperial colleague in succession to the emperor Valens at Sirmium on 19 January 379. It is clear that he was forced to retire home to Spain only to be recalled to active service shortly thereafter, but the circumstances of his forced retirement are shrouded in mystery. His father was executed at roughly the same time, and much speculation has centred on the relationship between these events.

[For a very detailed and interesting discussion of the Foreign Policy of Theodosius and the Civil Wars that plagued his reign, please see http://www.roman-emperors.org/theo1.htm]

Family and Succession
Theodosius married twice. His first wife was the Spanish Aelia Flavia Flaccilla. She bore him Arcadius ca. 377, Honorius on 9 September 384, and Pulcheria ca. 385. Theodosius honoured her with the title of Augusta shortly after his accession, but she died in 386. In late 387 he married Galla, daughter of Valentinian I and full-sister of Valentinian II. She bore him Gratian ca. 388, Galla Placidia ca. 388/390, and died in childbirth in 394, together with her new-born son John. Of his two sons who survived infancy, he appointed Arcadius as Augustus on 19 January 383 and Honorius as Augustus on 23 January 393. His promotion of Arcadius as a full Augustus at an unusually young age points to his determination right from the start that one of his own sons should succeed him. He sought to strengthen Arcadius' position in particular by means of a series of strategic marriages whose purpose was to tie his leading "generals" irrevocably to his dynasty. Hence he married his niece and adoptive daughter Serena to his magister militum per Orientem Stilicho in 387, her elder sister Thermantia to a "general" whose name has not been preserved, and ca. 387 his nephew-in-law Nebridius to Salvina, daughter of the comes Africae Gildo. By the time of his death by illness on 17 January 395, Theodosius had promoted Stilicho from his position as one of the two comites domesticorum under his own eastern administration to that of magister peditum praesentalis in a western administration, in an entirely traditional manner, under his younger son Honorius. Although Stilicho managed to increase the power of the magister peditum praesentalis to the disadvantage of his colleague the magister equitum praesentalis and claimed that Theodosius had appointed him as guardian for both his sons, this tells us more about his cunning and ambition than it does about Theodosius' constitutional arrangements.

Theodosius' importance rests on the fact that he founded a dynasty which continued in power until the death of his grandson Theodosius II in 450. This ensured a continuity of policy which saw the emergence of Nicene Christianity as the orthodox belief of the vast majority of Christians throughout the middle ages. It also ensured the essential destruction of paganism and the emergence of Christianity as the religion of the state, even if the individual steps in this process can be difficult to identify. On the negative side, however, he allowed his dynastic interests and ambitions to lead him into two unnecessary and bloody civil wars which severely weakened the empire's ability to defend itself in the face of continued barbarian pressure upon its frontiers. In this manner, he put the interests of his family before those of the wider Roman population and was responsible, in many ways, for the phenomenon to which we now refer as the fall of the western Roman empire.


Copyright (C) 1998, David Woods.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

There is a nice segue here, as we pick-up John Julius Norwich's summation of the reign of Theodosius, "Readers of this brief account of his career may well find themselves wondering, not so much whether he deserved the title of 'the Great' as how he ever came to acquire it in the first place. If so, however, they may also like to ask themselves another question: what would have been the fate of the Empire if, at that critical moment in its history after the battle of Adrianople, young Gratian had not called him from his Spanish estates and put the future of the East into his hands? . . . the probability is that the whole Empire of the East would have been lost, swallowed up in a revived Gothic kingdom, with effects on world history that defy speculation.

In his civil legislation he showed, again and again, a consideration for the humblest of his subjects that was rare indeed among rulers of the fourth century. What other prince would have decreed that any criminal, sentenced to execution, imprisonment or exile, must first be allowed thirty days' grace to put his affairs in order? Or that a specified part of his worldly goods must go to his children, upon whom their father's crimes must on no account be visited? Or that no farmer should be obliged to sell his produce to the State at a price lower than he would receive on the open market?

Had he earned his title? Not, perhaps, in the way that Constantine had done or as Justinian was to do. But, if not ultimately great himself, he had surely come very close to greatness; and had he reigned as long as they did his achievements might well have equalled theirs. He might even have saved the Western Empire. One thing only is certain: it would be nearly a century and a half before the Romans would look upon his like again" (Norwich, John Julius. Byzantium, the Early Centuries. London: Penguin Group, 1990. 116-7;118).

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.



Cleisthenes
Theod1GlrMan.jpg
1505c, Theodosius I, 379 - 395 A.D. (Constantinople)78 viewsTheodosius I (379 - 395 AD) AE3. 388-394 AD, RIC IX 27(a)3, Third Officina. Seventh Period. 20.27 mm. 4.8gm. Near VF with black and earthen patina. Constantinople. Obverse: DN THEODO-SIANVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped, & cuirassed bust right; Reverse: GLORIA-ROMANORVM, Theodosius I standing, facing, holding labarum and globe, CONSB in exergue (scarcer reverse). A Spanish find.



De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

THEODOSIUS I (379-395 A.D.)
David Woods
University College of Cork


Origin and Early Career
Flavius Theodosius was born at Cauca in Spain in about 346 to Thermantia and Theodosius the Elder (so-called to distinguish him from his son). Theodosius the Elder was a senior military officer serving in the Western empire and rose to become the magister equitum praesentalis under the emperor Valentinian I from late 368 until his execution in early 375. As the son of a soldier, Theodosius was legally obliged to enter upon a military career. He seems to have served under his father during his expedition to Britain in 367/8, and was the dux Moesiae Primae by late 374. Unfortunately, great controversy surrounds the rest of his career until Gratian had him hailed as his imperial colleague in succession to the emperor Valens at Sirmium on 19 January 379. It is clear that he was forced to retire home to Spain only to be recalled to active service shortly thereafter, but the circumstances of his forced retirement are shrouded in mystery. His father was executed at roughly the same time, and much speculation has centred on the relationship between these events.

[For a very detailed and interesting discussion of the Foreign Policy of Theodosius and the Civil Wars that plagued his reign, please see http://www.roman-emperors.org/theo1.htm]

Family and Succession
Theodosius married twice. His first wife was the Spanish Aelia Flavia Flaccilla. She bore him Arcadius ca. 377, Honorius on 9 September 384, and Pulcheria ca. 385. Theodosius honoured her with the title of Augusta shortly after his accession, but she died in 386. In late 387 he married Galla, daughter of Valentinian I and full-sister of Valentinian II. She bore him Gratian ca. 388, Galla Placidia ca. 388/390, and died in childbirth in 394, together with her new-born son John. Of his two sons who survived infancy, he appointed Arcadius as Augustus on 19 January 383 and Honorius as Augustus on 23 January 393. His promotion of Arcadius as a full Augustus at an unusually young age points to his determination right from the start that one of his own sons should succeed him. He sought to strengthen Arcadius' position in particular by means of a series of strategic marriages whose purpose was to tie his leading "generals" irrevocably to his dynasty. Hence he married his niece and adoptive daughter Serena to his magister militum per Orientem Stilicho in 387, her elder sister Thermantia to a "general" whose name has not been preserved, and ca. 387 his nephew-in-law Nebridius to Salvina, daughter of the comes Africae Gildo. By the time of his death by illness on 17 January 395, Theodosius had promoted Stilicho from his position as one of the two comites domesticorum under his own eastern administration to that of magister peditum praesentalis in a western administration, in an entirely traditional manner, under his younger son Honorius. Although Stilicho managed to increase the power of the magister peditum praesentalis to the disadvantage of his colleague the magister equitum praesentalis and claimed that Theodosius had appointed him as guardian for both his sons, this tells us more about his cunning and ambition than it does about Theodosius' constitutional arrangements.

Theodosius' importance rests on the fact that he founded a dynasty which continued in power until the death of his grandson Theodosius II in 450. This ensured a continuity of policy which saw the emergence of Nicene Christianity as the orthodox belief of the vast majority of Christians throughout the middle ages. It also ensured the essential destruction of paganism and the emergence of Christianity as the religion of the state, even if the individual steps in this process can be difficult to identify. On the negative side, however, he allowed his dynastic interests and ambitions to lead him into two unnecessary and bloody civil wars which severely weakened the empire's ability to defend itself in the face of continued barbarian pressure upon its frontiers. In this manner, he put the interests of his family before those of the wider Roman population and was responsible, in many ways, for the phenomenon to which we now refer as the fall of the western Roman empire.


Copyright (C) 1998, David Woods.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

There is a nice segue here, as we pick-up John Julius Norwich's summation of the reign of Theodosius, "Readers of this brief account of his career may well find themselves wondering, not so much whether he deserved the title of 'the Great' as how he ever came to acquire it in the first place. If so, however, they may also like to ask themselves another question: what would have been the fate of the Empire if, at that critical moment in its history after the battle of Adrianople, young Gratian had not called him from his Spanish estates and put the future of the East into his hands? . . . the probability is that the whole Empire of the East would have been lost, swallowed up in a revived Gothic kingdom, with effects on world history that defy speculation.

In his civil legislation he showed, again and again, a consideration for the humblest of his subjects that was rare indeed among rulers of the fourth century. What other prince would have decreed that any criminal, sentenced to execution, imprisonment or exile, must first be allowed thirty days' grace to put his affairs in order? Or that a specified part of his worldly goods must go to his children, upon whom their father's crimes must on no account be visited? Or that no farmer should be obliged to sell his produce to the State at a price lower than he would receive on the open market?

Had he earned his title? Not, perhaps, in the way that Constantine had done or as Justinian was to do. But, if not ultimately great himself, he had surely come very close to greatness; and had he reigned as long as they did his achievements might well have equalled theirs. He might even have saved the Western Empire. One thing only is certain: it would be nearly a century and a half before the Romans would look upon his like again" (Norwich, John Julius. Byzantium, the Early Centuries. London: Penguin Group, 1990. 116-7;118).

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
Edward_VI_AR_Shilling.JPG
1547 - 1553, EDWARD VI, AR Shilling, Struck 1551 - 1553 at London, England44 viewsObverse: EDWARD:VI:D:G:AGL:FRA:Z:HIB(:R)EX•Y: Crowned facing bust of Edward VI head turned slightly to left. Tudor rose to left of bust and XII to right; mintmark Y, in legend after REX above.
Reverse: POSV(I) DEV:ADIVTORE:MEVM:Y. Square topped shield, bearing the arms of England and France, quartered by long cross fourchee; mintmark Y, in legend after MEVM.
Diameter: 33mm | Weight: 5.8gms | Die Axis: 2 | Holed
SPINK: 2482

In 1551 Edward VI issued a new fine silver coinage, his previous silver issues having been very debased. The sixpence denomination was first introduced at this time. It was similar to the new shilling above in having a facing portrait of the king with a tudor rose to the left, but the denomination value to the right of the King's portrait was VI on the sixpence instead of the XII seen on the shilling.
3 comments*Alex
16-Crispus-Lon-RIC-113.jpg
16. Crispus.19 viewsFollis, 317, London mint.
Obverse: FL IVL CRISPVS NOB CAES / Laureate, draped, and cuirrassed bust of Crispus, right.
Reverse: SOLI INVICTO COMITI / Sol standing, holding globe. S P in field.
Mint mark: PLN
3.30 gm., 18 mm.
RIC #113; PBCC #72; Sear #16718.

Minted near the end of the Soli coinage, this is an example of the first coinage minted in London to portray the new Caesar, Crispus. A very rare coin: the listing in RIC is based on a single coin in Vienna.
Callimachus
Divus Verus RIC1507 - RR.jpg
161-169 AD - LUCIUS VERUS AE sestertius - struck 169 AD99 viewsobv: DIVVS VERVS (bare head of Divus Verus right)
rev: CONSECRATIO (elephant quadriga advancing left, atop car shrine containing statue of Divus Verus seated left, raising hand), S-C in ex.
ref: RIC III 1507 (M.Aurelius), C.53 (30frcs), BMCRE (Marcus) 1369
23.51gms, 30mm, bronze
Very Rare
History: In the end of 168 AD as Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus were returning home from the fontier of south Pannonia, Lucius suddenly became ill with symptoms attributed to food poisoning, and was dead at the age of 38 near Altinum (Altino). The older Emperor accompanied the body to Rome, where he offered games to honour his memory. After the funeral, the senate declared Verus divine to be worshipped as Divus Verus.
2 commentsberserker
MAurel RIC1021.jpg
161-180 AD - MARCUS AURELIUS AE sestertius - struck 172 AD43 viewsobv: M ANTONINVS AVG TR P XXVI (laureate head right)
rev: GERMANIA SVBACTA IMP VI COS III (Germania seated left at foot of trophy), S-C in field
ref: RIC III 1021 (S), Cohen 215 (10frcs)
22.84gms, 30mm,
Very rare

History: In 172, the Roman legions crossed the Danube into Marcomannic territory. Although few details are known, the Romans achieved success, subjugating the Marcomanni and their allies, the Naristi and the Cotini. This fact is evident from the adoption of the title "Germanicus" by Marcus Aurelius, and the minting of coins with the inscription "Germania subacta". This rare coin is one of them.
berserker
MAurel RIC1058.jpg
161-180 AD - MARCUS AURELIUS AE sestertius - struck 172-173 AD37 viewsobv: M ANTONINVS AVG TR P XXVII (laureate head right)
rev: GERMANICO AVG IMP VI COS III (trophy of arms, German {Marcomann} woman seated left below, in attitude of mourning, on two shields; German standing to right, his head turned and his hands bound behind him), SC in ex.
ref: RIC III 1058 (S), Cohen 227 (15frcs)
22.46gms, 30mm,
Very rare
History: In the second half of the second century was the most important and dangerous invasion of the Marcomanni. Their leader, Ballomar, had formed a coalition of Germanic tribes, they crossed the Danube and achieved a smashing victory over 20,000 Romans near Carnuntum. Ballomar then led the larger part of his host southwards towards Italy, while the remainder ravaged Noricum. The Marcomanni razed Opitergium (Oderzo) and besieged Aquileia. The army of praetorian prefect Furius Victorinus tried to relieve the city, but was defeated and its general slain.
In 172, the Roman legions crossed the Danube into Marcomannic territory. Although few details are known, the Romans achieved success, subjugating the Marcomanni and their allies, the Naristi and the Cotini. This fact is evident from the adoption of the title "Germanicus" by Marcus Aurelius, and the minting of coins with the inscription "Germania subacta". This rare coin is one of them.
berserker
divomaurel_RIC661(Comm).jpg
161-180 AD - MARCUS AURELIUS AE sestertius - struck 180 AD65 viewsobv: DIVVS M ANTONINVS PIVS (Marcus Autrelius bare head right)
rev: CONSECRATIO (Statue of Aurelius in quadriga drawn by elephants), S-C in ex.
ref: RIC III 661 (Commodus), Cohen 95 (30 frcs)
18.31gms, 28mm
Very rare

The last ’Good Emperor’, Marcus Aurelius died at a military encampment at Bononia on the Danube on 17 March 180, possibly of the plague, leaving the Roman Empire to his nineteen-year-old son. Upon hearing of his father's death, Commodus made preparations for Marcus' funeral, made concessions to the northern tribes, and made haste to return back to Rome in order to enjoy peace after nearly two decades of war.
1 commentsberserker
maurel metal.jpg
161-180 AD - MARCUS AURELIUS Æ quadrans 58 viewsobv: diademed and draped female head right
rev: METAL AURELIANIS (three-line legend in wreath)
ref: RIC III 1255, Cohen 1515(Hadrian!!)
2.21gms, 16mm, mines coin
Very rare

The mines coins served as a substitute for the small copper Senate coins of which there were not sufficient quantities in circulation in the period between the years 98-180 AD in the province Illyricum and Noricum. The mining coins served also in the trade between miners and the inhabitants of localities where the respective mines were located.
berserker
1616_Lion_Daalder_Overyssel.jpg
1616 Lion Daalder3 viewsNetherlands: Overijessl
1616 Lion Daalder
Obv: Knight facing, looking to his left, above shield w/ lion rampant; MO.ARG.PRO.CON / FO.BELG.TRAN
Rev: Rampant lion facing left; CONFIDENS.DNO.NON.MOVETVR; . 1616 .
26.75 grams; 40.44 mm
Davenport: 4860
Delmonte:
cmcdon0923
0023-056.jpg
1633 - Mark Antony, Denarius96 viewsStruck in a travelling mint, moving with Mark Antony in 41 BC
ANT AVG IMP III VI R P C, Head of Mark Antony right
Fortuna standing left, holding rudder in right hand and cornucopiae in left; at feet, stork; below, PIETAS COS
3,82 gr - 20 mm
Ref : Crawford # 516/2, Sydenham # 1174, HCRI # 241, C # 77
Ex. Auctiones.GmbH

The following comment is copied from NAC auction # 52/294 about the very rare corresponding aureus :
The year 41 B.C., when this aureus was struck at a mint travelling in the East with Marc Antony, was a period of unusual calm for the triumvir, who took a welcomed, if unexpected, rest after the great victory he and Octavian had won late in 42 B.C. against Brutus and Cassius at the Battle of Philippi. Antony’s original plan of organising an invasion of Parthia was put on hold after he sailed to Tarsus, where he had summoned Cleopatra VII, the Greek queen of Egypt. She was to defend herself against accusations that she had aided Brutus and Cassius before Philippi, but it is generally agreed that the summons was merely a pretext for Antony’s plan to secure aid for his Parthian campaign. Their meeting was anything but a source of conflict; indeed, they found much common ground, including their agreement that it was in their mutual interests to execute Cleopatra’s sister and rival Arsinoe IV, who had been ruling Cyprus. In addition to sharing political interests, the two agreed that Antony would winter in Egypt to share a luxurious vacation with Cleopatra that caused a further postponement of Antony’s designs on Parthia. Thus began another of the queen’s liaisons with noble Romans, a prior having been Julius Caesar (and, according to Plutarch, Pompey Jr. before him). During the course of his stay in Egypt Cleopatra was impregnated, which resulted in twins born to her in 40 B.C. But this care-free period was only a momentary calm in the storm, for trouble was brewing in both the East and the West. Early in 40 B.C. Syria was overrun by the Parthians, seemingly while Antony travelled to Italy to meet Octavian following the Perusine War, in which Octavian defeated the armies of Antony’s wife and brother. The conflict with Octavian was resolved when they signed a pact at Brundisium in October, and Syria was eventually recovered through the efforts of Antony’s commanders from 40 to 38 B.C.{/i]

5 commentsPotator II
517_P_Hadrian_RPC_1662.JPG
1662 TROAS, Pionia Hadrian Ae 26 Hadrian on horse16 viewsReference. very rare.
RPC III, 1662; B I-B SNR XIII (1905), p. 215 Pionia 1 'im handel'
http://rpc.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/coins/3/1662/

Magistrate N(e)ikomachos (strategos)

Obv. ΑΥΤΟ ΤΡΑΙΑ ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС
Laureate head of Hadrian, right Counter mark Senate?

Rev. ΕΠΙ СΤΡ ΝΙΚΟΜΑΧΟΥ ΠΙΟΝΙΤΩΝ
Emperor on horse, right

7.9 gr
26 mm
6h
okidoki
Louis XIV 1672 Prise de douze villes en Hollande.JPG
1672, Prise de douze villes en Hollande779 viewsObv. Draped and cuirassed bust right LVD MAG FRA ET NAV REX PP, CHERON on bust truncation.
Rev. The King in the guise of Sol, radiating light, seated right in a heavenly chariot pulled by three horses, surrounded by clouds. Around are aerlia views of twelve towns and forts captured in Holland SOLIS QVE LABORES on scroll above central design, the names of all twelve towns/forts around.

AE63. Engraved by Charles Jean Francois Cheron. ORIGINAL STRIKE, very rare.

Charles Jean Francois Cheron (1635-1698), one of the most distinguished artists of the school of Jean Warin, was born at Nancy and was trained by his father, Jean-Charles Cheron, engraver to Charles IV, Duke of Lorraine. Cheron went to Rome and became engraver of medals for Clement IX and Innocent X. Cheron's style in his Roman medals is of remarkable boldness, and his medals of Pope Clement IX and of Bernini are grandiloquent and among the finest Italian medals of the period. He returned to France in 1675 and was employed by Louis XIV at the Medal Mint at Paris for about twelve years, where he contributed several medals to the medallic series of the monarch, the Histoire Metallique. His medals are considered to be in an international baroque style.
11 commentsLordBest
CHARLES_II_AR_Farthing_Pattern_1676.JPG
1676 Charles II AR "Pattern Farthing"39 viewsObverse: CAROLVS•A•CAROLO•. Laureate and cuirassed bust of Charles II with long hair facing left, 1676 below.
Reverse: QVATVOR•MARIA VINDICO•. Britannia seated facing left, holding laurel branch and spear; BRITANNIA in exergue. No pellet between MARIA and VINDICO.
Diameter: 26mm | Weight: 5.9gms | Die Axis: 12h
Peck : 492
PATTERN OR MEDALET - RARE

This periwigged portrait of Charles II was designed by Jan (John) Roettier (1631 - 1700).
The legend, "Quatuor Maria Vindico," means "I claim the four seas," which Peck explains was "intended to give prominence to the king's pride and interest in the navy." The reason this legend never appeared on circulating coinage was probably because the legend was thought to be too provocative to the King of France.

It was Montagu who called this a Roettier pattern farthing of Charles II which, until the discovery in 1903 of 89 specimens in the cabinet of the Marquis of Ailsbury, had hitherto been considered the rarest of the “pattern farthings” of this type.
Peck, however, rejected Montagu's idea that these were patterns and wrote that it was much more likely that they were official medalets. In support of this view it should be noted that not only was this issue struck on a broader flan than usual, it was produced some four years after the issue of regular farthings had begun. It is perhaps also significant that this issue is unknown in copper and that it's die orientation is 12h (medallic orientation), against the 6h orientation which is the norm for the regular farthing coinage of the period. Incidentally, the silver value of this "farthing" would have been equivalent to one shilling and sixpence, that is 72 times the face value of a farthing at the time.
3 comments*Alex
hungary_1678_15-krajczar_02.JPG
1678 KB - Austria-Hungary - Hungary 1678 KB Silver 15 Krajczar200 views Hungary, 1678 - Silver 15 krajczar.
Holy Roman Emperor Leopold I.
"K B" mintmark = Kremnitz (Kormoczbanya) Mint, Hungary.

obv: LEOPOLD.D:G.R.I.S.A.G.H.B.REX - Laureate bust right.
Roman numerals 'XV' below bust; 15 Krajczar, Silver.

rev: PATRONA . HUNGARIAE 16+78 - Radiating Madonna and child. -KB- on either side. Shield/Arms below.

Titles on both sides written on scrolls. Very nice.
rexesq
RI 168q img.jpg
168 - Constantine II - RIC VII Lugdunum 263 11 viewsObv:– CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C, Laureate, cuirassed bust, right
Rev:– GLORI-A EXERC-ITVS, Two helmeted soldiers standing with spears & shields, facing two standards between them
Minted in Lugdunum (*PLC in exe)
Reference:– RIC 263 (R2)
Weight 2.52 gms
Size 19.41 mm
Orientation 0 degrees. Large flan but off centre strike on the reverse causing very weak reverse legends.
maridvnvm
Saladin_A788.jpg
1701a, Saladin, 1169-11932046 viewsAYYUBID: Saladin, 1169-1193, AR dirham (2.92g), Halab, AH580, A-788, lovely struck, well-centered & bold, Extremely Fine, Scarce.

His name in Arabic, in full, is SALAH AD-DIN YUSUF IBN AYYUB ("Righteousness of the Faith, Joseph, Son of Job"), also called AL-MALIK AN-NASIR SALAH AD-DIN YUSUF I (b. 1137/38, Tikrit, Mesopotamia--d. March 4, 1193, Damascus), Muslim sultan of Egypt, Syria, Yemen, and Palestine, founder of the Ayyubid dynasty, and the most famous of Muslim heroes.

In wars against the Christian crusaders, he achieved final success with the disciplined capture of Jerusalem (Oct. 2, 1187), ending its 88-year occupation by the Franks. The great Christian counterattack of the Third Crusade was then stalemated by Saladin's military genius.

Saladin was born into a prominent Kurdish family. On the night of his birth, his father, Najm ad-Din Ayyub, gathered his family and moved to Aleppo, there entering the service of 'Imad ad-Din Zangi ibn Aq Sonqur, the powerful Turkish governor in northern Syria. Growing up in Ba'lbek and Damascus, Saladin was apparently an undistinguished youth, with a greater taste for religious studies than military training.
His formal career began when he joined the staff of his uncle Asad ad-Din Shirkuh, an important military commander under the amir Nureddin, son and successor of Zangi. During three military expeditions led by Shirkuh into Egypt to prevent its falling to the Latin-Christian (Frankish) rulers of the states established by the First Crusade, a complex, three-way struggle developed between Amalric I, the Latin king of Jerusalem, Shawar, the powerful vizier of the Egyptian Fatimid caliph, and Shirkuh. After Shirkuh's death and after ordering Shawar's assassination, Saladin, in 1169 at the age of 31, was appointed both commander of the Syrian troops and vizier of Egypt.

His relatively quick rise to power must be attributed not only to the clannish nepotism of his Kurdish family but also to his own emerging talents. As vizier of Egypt, he received the title king (malik), although he was generally known as the sultan. Saladin's position was further enhanced when, in 1171, he abolished the Shi'i Fatimid caliphate, proclaimed a return to Sunnah in Egypt, and consequently became its sole ruler.

Although he remained for a time theoretically a vassal of Nureddin, that relationship ended with the Syrian emir's death in 1174. Using his rich agricultural possessions in Egypt as a financial base, Saladin soon moved into Syria with a small but strictly disciplined army to claim the regency on behalf of the young son of his former suzerain.
Soon, however, he abandoned this claim, and from 1174 until 1186 he zealously pursued a goal of uniting, under his own standard, all the Muslim territories of Syria, northern Mesopotamia, Palestine, and Egypt.

This he accomplished by skillful diplomacy backed when necessary by the swift and resolute use of military force. Gradually, his reputation grew as a generous and virtuous but firm ruler, devoid of pretense, licentiousness, and cruelty. In contrast to the bitter dissension and intense rivalry that had up to then hampered the Muslims in their resistance to the crusaders, Saladin's singleness of purpose induced them to rearm both physically and spiritually.

Saladin's every act was inspired by an intense and unwavering devotion to the idea of jihad ("holy war")-the Muslim equivalent of the Christian crusade. It was an essential part of his policy to encourage the growth and spread of Muslim religious institutions.

He courted its scholars and preachers, founded colleges and mosques for their use, and commissioned them to write edifying works especially on the jihad itself. Through moral regeneration, which was a genuine part of his own way of life, he tried to re-create in his own realm some of the same zeal and enthusiasm that had proved so valuable to the first generations of Muslims when, five centuries before, they had conquered half the known world.

Saladin also succeeded in turning the military balance of power in his favour-more by uniting and disciplining a great number of unruly forces than by employing new or improved military techniques. When at last, in 1187, he was able to throw his full strength into the struggle with the Latin crusader kingdoms, his armies were their equals. On July 4, 1187, aided by his own military good sense and by a phenomenal lack of it on the part of his enemy, Saladin trapped and destroyed in one blow an exhausted and thirst-crazed army of crusaders at Hattin, near Tiberias in northern Palestine.

So great were the losses in the ranks of the crusaders in this one battle that the Muslims were quickly able to overrun nearly the entire Kingdom of Jerusalem. Acre, Toron, Beirut, Sidon, Nazareth, Caesarea, Nabulus, Jaffa (Yafo), and Ascalon (Ashqelon) fell within three months.

But Saladin's crowning achievement and the most disastrous blow to the whole crusading movement came on Oct. 2, 1187, when Jerusalem, holy to both Muslim and Christian alike, surrendered to the Sultan's army after 88 years in the hands of the Franks. In stark contrast to the city's conquest by the Christians, when blood flowed freely during the barbaric slaughter of its inhabitants, the Muslim reconquest was marked by the civilized and courteous behaviour of Saladin and his troops. His sudden success, which in 1189 saw the crusaders reduced to the occupation of only three cities, was, however, marred by his failure to capture Tyre, an almost impregnable coastal fortress to which the scattered Christian survivors of the recent battles flocked. It was to be the rallying point of the Latin counterattack.

Most probably, Saladin did not anticipate the European reaction to his capture of Jerusalem, an event that deeply shocked the West and to which it responded with a new call for a crusade. In addition to many great nobles and famous knights, this crusade, the third, brought the kings of three countries into the struggle.

The magnitude of the Christian effort and the lasting impression it made on contemporaries gave the name of Saladin, as their gallant and chivalrous enemy, an added lustre that his military victories alone could never confer on him.

The Crusade itself was long and exhausting, and, despite the obvious, though at times impulsive, military genius of Richard I the Lion-Heart, it achieved almost nothing. Therein lies the greatest-but often unrecognized--achievement of Saladin. With tired and unwilling feudal levies, committed to fight only a limited season each year, his indomitable will enabled him to fight the greatest champions of Christendom to a draw. The crusaders retained little more than a precarious foothold on the Levantine coast, and when King Richard set sail from the Orient in October 1192, the battle was over.

Saladin withdrew to his capital at Damascus. Soon, the long campaigning seasons and the endless hours in the saddle caught up with him, and he died. While his relatives were already scrambling for pieces of the empire, his friends found that the most powerful and most generous ruler in the Muslim world had not left enough money to pay for his own grave.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
H.A.R. Gibb, "The Arabic Sources for the Life of Saladin," Speculum, 25:58-72 (1950). C.W. Wilson's English translation of one of the most important Arabic works, The Life of Saladin (1897), was reprinted in 1971. The best biography to date is Stanley Lane-Poole, Saladin and the Fall of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, new ed. (1926, reprinted 1964), although it does not take account of all the sources.
See: http://stp.ling.uu.se/~kamalk/language/saladin.html
Ed. J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
1 commentsCleisthenes
1713_ANNE_FARTHING.JPG
1713 Anne AE Pattern Farthing5 viewsObverse: ANNA DEI GRATIA. Draped bust of Anne facing left.
Reverse: BRITANNIA • 1713 •. Britannia seated facing left, left arm holding spear and resting on shield, raised right hand holding olive-branch; exergue blank.
Diameter: 22mm on thick flan. | Weight: 5.1gms. | Die axis: 6h
PATTERN - EXTREMELY RARE

All of Anne's farthings are patterns, no farthings were issued for general circulation during her reign. The portrait of Anne on this example was designed by John Coker (1670 - 1741). Coker joined the Royal Mint in 1697 and became chief engraver there in 1705.

Although Anne farthings are generally very rare, there are at least six distinct pattern varieties known to exist and there is one variety, dated 1714, of which, according to Peck, between 300 and 500 coins may have been produced. The fact that such a large number of these farthings were released in the last year of Anne's reign may be because the type was about to be produced for general circulation at the time of Anne's death on the 1st of August. Sir Isaac Newton was Master of the Mint, and he had high ideals about the quality of the coinage, and the Anne farthing is certainly vastly superior in striking and design to the pieces of William III. The old figure of Britannia used since Charles II's time was discarded in favour of a sharper high relief design in which the bare leg on the former figure of Britannia is covered up, reportedly on the orders of the Queen.
All the other farthing varieties are certainly patterns, and were never struck as currency for circulation.

This particular coin is of good weight and metal and it appears to be a die match for another Anne pattern farthing, in this instance struck in silver, which was sold at the 12th September 2011 Heritage Long Beach Signature World & Ancient Coins Auction. It was Lot 27289 and, for comparison purposes, I have illustrated it below.
*Alex
commodus RIC468b.jpg
177-192 AD - COMMODUS AE sestertius - struck 186 AD71 viewsobv: M COMMODVS ANT P - FELIX AVG BRIT (laureate head right)
rev: P M TR P XI - IMP [VII] - COS V P P (Commodus standing left on platform, raising hand and holding scepter, facing four soldiers to left), S C across fields, FID EXERCIT in ex.
ref: RIC III 468b, Cohen 136 (20frcs)
23.63gms, 30mm
Very rare
ex Numismatic LANZ

Historical background: Under Commodus reign Sextus Tigidius Perennis was the Pretorian Prefect who exercised the chief responsibilities of government in the Roman Empire. In 185 Perennis was implicated in a plot to overthrow the emperor by his political rival Marcus Aurelius Cleander, and Commodus gave them permission to execute him as well as his wife and sons. After this Commodus received the title of FELIX. This coin shows when the emperor proclaimed the executions to soldiers, and the FIDES EXERCITUS means the aggreement between the emperor and the legions.
berserker
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1786 Vermont Copper61 viewsVariety RR7 (Rarity 3)

NGC VF-30 with CAC

Census (The last time I checked) - 63 NGC graded coins - 26 VF's (VF-30 = ?) - 22 graded higher
(From Heritage Auction Records Two VF20; eight VF25; three VF30; three VF35; ten = VF ?)

On June 15, 1785 the Vermont legislature granted Reuben Harmon, Jr. an exclusive franchise to make copper coins. They were to weigh 160 grs. which exceeded even the Tower Mint standards for halfpence. This weight was reduced to 111grs. in October of that year.

Vermont coinage initially had two basic designs with several varieties of each and one oddball issue

First design

Obv. – Shows the sun rising over the Green Mountains and a plough in the foreground with the date below. The obverse legend read VERMONT(I)S RESPUBLICA (the Republic of Vermont”). Later VERMONTIS became VERMONTENSIUM (better Latin).

Rev – Shows the All-Seeing Eye in the Blazing Sun within a constellation of 13 stars for the original 13 colonies. The reverse legend read STELLA QUARTA DECIMA or the 14th star referring to local pressure to join the union.

Second design

The mint operator petitioned the legislature to permit a change in design to approximate that similar to most other coppers then current (British halfpence and their local imitations including Connecticut). The Vermont legislature amended the act to specify the following:

Obv. – A head with the motto AUCTORITATE VERMONTENIUS, abridged

Rev. – A women with the letters, INDE: ET LIB: - for Independence and Liberty.

Third Design the “Immune Columbia” issue

Although the third design bears the date 1785, it was probably struck later. The obverse matches the requirements for the second design but the reverse shows a seated figure of Columbia (a poetical name for America) and the legend IMMUNE COLUMBIA, this reverse was not authorized by the Vermont Legislature.

Vermont coppers were produced from 1785 to 1788

I once had a very large collection of U.S. coins and this is the only coin I have that was part of my original collection.

My cost was $2,200, however, I actually did not have to pay a single cent out of pocket or provide any item in trade. But that is a long story.
Richard M10
GermanI.jpg
1789/90-1865 AD - Johann Jacob Lauer - Rechenpfenning (Jeton)527 viewsMaker: Johann Jacob Lauer (1789/90-1865 AD)
Date: Early-Mid 1800's AD
Condition: Very Fine
Type: Rechenpfenning (Jeton)

Obverse: PLUS ULTRA (Going Further)
Ship with four masts.

Reverse: IOH : LAUER * RECN * PF
Johann Lauer Rechenpfenning
Five stars with a crescent moon above.

Struck in Neurenberg
Note: Slight possibility this was struck by grandson of same name later in the century.
0.47g; 13.5mm; 90°
Pep
Banda_Quran_Manuscript_A001.JPG
1790 Large Gold Banda Koran Leaf Blue Border Medallion 23 viewsA magnificent leaf from a Koran fragment, probably Banda, before AH 1208/1790-1 AD, on paper (387 x 230 mm.). There are eleven lines of strong black natkh script within gold clouds, gold roundels between verses, illuminated marginal medallions, marking every tenth verse, red Persian interlinear translation, sura headings in red, margins with Tafsir written in black and red, final folio with commentary dated 1205.. Verso: eleven lines of strong black natkh script within gold clouds, gold roundels between verses, illuminated marginal medallions, marking every tenth verse, red Persian interlinear translation, sura headings in red, margins with Tafsir written in black and red. The opening flyleaf is inscribed with a note reading: this copy of the Koran, formally the property of the Bahadoor, Nawab of Banda was delivered after the great victory obtained over Rebels and Mutineers by Major General Whitlocks Troops on the 19th of April 1858 to the Reverend A Kinloch, the Chaplain of the Horse and present to him as a slight token of affectionate remembrance to the Reverend George Gleed the Vicar of Chalfont St. Peters, Bucks Branda Palace. April 29th 1858. A further note on the final flyleaf reads: This Copy of the Koran was taken from the apartments of Ali Bahadoor, Nawab of Banda after the occupation of his City and Palace by the Madras Column under Major General Whitlock.SpongeBob
1791_Hull_Halfpenny_Ship.JPG
1791 AE Halfpenny Token. Hull, Yorkshire.32 viewsObverse: No legend. A ship sailing right, two laurel branches below.
Reverse: HULL HALFPENNY / 1791. Coat of Arms of Hull (a shield bearing three crowns vertically) between two sprigs of oak with eight acorns on each branch.
Edge: PAYABLE IN HULL AND IN LONDON • X X •.
Diameter 29mm | Die Axis 7
Dalton & Hamer: 22

This token was issued by Jonathan Garton who was a linen draper with a business in the market place in Hull.
The dies for this token were engraved by John Gregory Hancock who was also probably responsible for manufacturing it.

The “three crowns” have been used as Hull’s coat of arms since the early 1400s. The College of Arms, the institution which regulates heraldry in England, confirmed the right of the Borough (now City) of Hull to use the crowns in the 1600s. Since then, virtually every public building in the City has been decorated with the coat of arms.
A depiction of the shield in stained glass in St Mary’s Church Lowgate dates from the reign of Richard III (1483-85) and is among the earliest versions to survive.
*Alex
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1793 AE Farthing, London, Middlesex.87 viewsObverse: Ic • NEWTON. Bare headed bust of Isaac Newton facing left.
Reverse: FARTHING. Britannia, helmeted and draped, facing left seated on globe, shield at her side, holding olive-branch in her extended right hand and spear in her left; in exergue, 1793.
Edge: “Plain".
Diameter : 21mm
Dalton & Hamer : 1160 | Cobwright : I.0010/F.0050 (listed as an evasion piece)

The die engraver for this token was most likely Thomas Wyon but the manufacturer is uncertain.

Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727), was an English physicist and mathematician who is widely recognised as one of the most influential scientists of all time and as a key figure in the scientific revolution. Newton shares credit with Gottfried Leibniz for the invention of calculus and also made seminal contributions to optics. He built the first practical reflecting telescope and developed a theory of colour based on the observation that a prism decomposes white light into the many colours of the visible spectrum.
Newton's “Principia” formulated the laws of motion and universal gravitation, which came to dominate scientists' view of the physical universe for the next three centuries.
Newton was a fellow of Trinity College and a Professor of Mathematics at the University of Cambridge. Unusually for a member of the Cambridge faculty of the day, he refused to take holy orders in the Church of England, perhaps because he privately rejected the doctrine of the Trinity.
In his later life, Newton became president of the Royal Society and became Warden of the Royal Mint in 1696. He became Master of the Royal Mint in 1699 and was very instrumental in developing techniques to try and prevent the counterfeiting of English coinage.
*Alex
1797_EMSWORTH_HALFPENNY_MULE.JPG
1793 AE Halfpenny, Emsworth, Hampshire.69 viewsObverse: PEACE AND PLENTY. Dove carrying olive-branch flying above cornucopia spilling out the fruits of the earth.
Reverse: HALFPENNY. Britannia, portrayed as a helmeted, plumed and draped female figure wearing a breastplate emblazoned with the union flag, seated facing left on tea-chest; her right hand resting on a terrestrial globe and her left arm on an anchor; a crowned lion, it's head turned facing, reclining left at her feet; in exergue, 1793.
Edge: “CURRENT EVERY WHERE ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦".
Diameter: 29mm
Dalton & Hamer: 11

Issued by John Stride, a grocer and tea dealer from Hampshire, this token was manufactured by Peter Kempson in Birmingham and the dies were engraved by Thomas Wyon. This token is a mule of the reverse of Dalton & Hamer 10 (Hampshire), here used as the obverse and the reverse of Dalton & Hamer 11. It may have originally been intended that these mules would be sold to collectors, but as a large number exist it seems that they must have been sold to merchants and entered general circulation.
*Alex
1794_COVENTRY_CROSS_HALFPENNY.JPG
1794 AE Halfpenny Token. Coventry, Warwickshire.27 viewsObverse: PRO BONO PUBLICO. Lady Godiva riding side-saddle on horse to left; in exergue, 1794.
Reverse: COVENTRY HALFPENNY. Representation of Coventry's old town cross with COV CROSS in small letters at base.
Edge: PAYABLE AT THE WAREHOUSE OF ROBERT REYNOLDS & CO.
Diameter 29.5mm | Axis 12
Dalton & Hamer: 249
RARE

This token was manufactured by William Lutwyche and the dies were engraved by William Mainwaring.
It was issued by Robert Reynolds & Co., who were ribbon weavers with a business in Coventry.

The original Coventry Cross stood at the place where Broadgate met Cross Cheaping, near Spicer Stoke, a very short row which led through from Broadgate to Butcher Row and Trinity church. Though it is likely that a cross had been standing in this place since the 13th century, the first actual record for the building of a cross was on 1st July 1423 when the Mayor, Henry Peyto, officially sanctioned that a new cross should be built. Although it was quite a substantial structure, within a century it was rather the worse for wear, and by 1506 discussions had begun about replacing it.
In 1541, the former mayor of London, Sir William Hollis, left Ł200 in his will toward the building of a new cross, and by 1544 the 57 foot high cross was completed. As well as being brightly painted, the cross was also covered with much gold and it was renowned for its fame and beauty. It was built in four sections, with statues in the top three storeys: the lower of these holding statues of Henry VI, King John, Edward I, Henry II, Richard I and Henry. Above these were Edward III, Henry II, Richard III, St Michael and St George. The top storey held statues of St Peter, St James, St Christopher and two monks, with representations of Liberty and Justice at the highest point. In 1608 repairs were carried out to the cross during which the figure of Christ was replaced with one of Lady Godiva. Possibly the obverse of this token is based on this statue since there is no record of there being any other Lady Godiva memorial statues before 1949.
After standing gloriously for two centuries, decay once more set into the cross and, in 1753 and 1755, the top two stages were removed to avoid the danger of collapse. By 1771 the cross was declared to be in too ruinous a state to retain, and it's demolition was authorised. The remains stood for a short while longer though, at least until after 1778 when a visitor to Coventry wrote that the decayed cross "...has no longer anything to please".
This token is dated 1794, but must depict the cross as it was in it's heyday before it was totally demolished and it's parts reused. Two of the statues from the cross now reside at St. Mary's Guildhall.
A modern replica of the cross was unveiled in 1976, it is situated about 100 metres away from the site of the original one.
*Alex
1794_EARL_HOWE.JPG
1794 AE Halfpenny, Emsworth, Hampshire.85 viewsObverse: EARL HOWE & THE GLORIOUS FIRST OF JUNE. "Youthful" bust of Earl Howe, wearing tricorn hat and with hair in long pigtail tied with a ribbon, facing left.
Reverse: RULE BRITANNIA. Britannia facing left, seated on globe, her right hand holding spear, her left arm holding laurel-branch and resting on shield at her side; in exergue, 1794.
Edge: “PAYABLE AT LONDON LIVERPOOL OR BRISTOL •.
Diameter: 29mm.
Dalton & Hamer: 13

During the 18th and 19th centuries Emsworth was a busy little port, known for shipbuilding, boat building and rope making. Grain from the area was ground into flour by tidal mills at Emsworth and the flour was then transported by ship to places like London and Portsmouth. Timber from the area was also exported from Emsworth in the 18th and 19th centuries.

This token was probably issued by John Stride, a grocer and tea dealer with a business in Emsworth, and the dies were likely engraved by Thomas Wyon. The token was probably manufactured by Peter Kempson at his mint in Birmingham.
These 18th century tokens are often generically referred to as “Conder” tokens, the name originating from James Conder, a linen draper from Tavern Street in Ipswich. Conder was an ardent collector of tokens and the author of the standard work on the subject until it was superseded by that of Atkins in 1892.

Richard Howe, 1st Earl Howe, Knight of the Garter and Admiral of the Fleet was born on 8th March, 1726. He was a British naval officer notable in particular for his service during the American War of Independence and the French Revolutionary Wars. He died on the 5th of August, 1799.

The Glorious First of June, 1794 was the first and largest fleet action of the naval conflict between Britain and the French during the French Revolutionary Wars. The British, under Admiral Lord Howe, attempted to prevent the passage of a vital grain convoy from the United States, which was protected by the French fleet commanded by Vice-Admiral Louis Thomas Villaret de Joyeuse. The two forces clashed in the Atlantic Ocean, some 400 nautical miles west of the French island of Ushant, on the first of June 1794. During the battle both fleets were so severely damaged that both Howe and Villaret were compelled to return to their home ports. Both sides claimed victory and the outcome of the battle was seized upon by the press of both nations as a demonstration of the prowess and bravery of their respective navies.
*Alex
1794_Norwich_halfpenny.JPG
1794 AE Halfpenny, Norwich, Norfolk.40 viewsObverse: R • CAMPIN • HABERDASHER. Stocking and glove above crossed knife and fork; in exergue, •GOAT•LANE•/NORWICH.
Reverse: HALFPENNY. Britannia, portrayed as a helmeted, plumed and draped female figure wearing a breastplate emblazoned with the union flag, seated facing left on tea-chest; her right hand resting on a terrestrial globe and her left arm on an anchor; a crowned lion, it's head turned facing, reclining left at her feet; in exergue, 1794.
Edge: “CURRENT EVERY WHERE ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦".
Diameter: 29mm
Dalton & Hamer: 21

Issued by Robert Campin, a haberdasher with a business in Goat Lane, Norwich, this token was probably manufactured by Peter Kempson in Birmingham, the dies engraved by Thomas Wyon.
*Alex
1794_(UNDATED)_BATH_HALFPENNY.JPG
1794 Undated AE Halfpenny Token. Bath, Somerset.23 viewsObverse: IOHN HOWARD F•R•S• HALFPENNY•. Bust of John Howard facing left.
Reverse: REMEMBER THE DEBTORS IN GOAL (sic) ✤. A female figure, the personification of Benevolence, seated facing left, a variety of vessels at her feet and beside her. She is holding a laurel-branch in her left arm and pointing towards a building with a barred window (Ilchester Prison) directing the small figure of a cherub or a child carrying a key to open the prison doors. "GO FORTH" in small letters emanating amid rays from the sky above the small figure.
Edge: PAYABLE AT LONDON OR DUBLIN • + • + • +.
Diameter 29mm | Die Axis 6
Dalton & Hamer: 36d

Thomas Wyon engraved the dies for this token and it was manufactured by William Lutwyche at his works in Birmingham. Lutwyche, besides being a major supplier of genuine tokens, is also known to have made large amounts of spurious coin.

This token was struck in the name of John Howard, who was an expert in prisons and published the book "The State of the Prisons in England & Wales" in 1777, but he did not issue it. The token was issued by William Gye, born in 1750, who worked in his father’s printing works at 4 Westgate Buildings, Bath, before opening an establishment at 13 Market Place. He was an active and successful printer and bookseller, and sometime publisher of the “Bath Courant”, he was highly respected for his attempts to improve the conditions of the city’s poor. His greatest philanthropic endeavours were connected with the relief of the prisoners in the county gaol at Ilchester, which he visited every week with food, clothing and money. He issued trade tokens, and when they were redeemed in his shop, it was his custom to point out the inscription on them (“Remember the debtors”) in order to elicit donations. He died of an apoplectic fit in 1802, and was remembered for his ‘strict integrity and unblemished reputation’. His wife Mary, whom he had married in 1774, inherited his printing and stationery business. Mary managed the business herself before it was passed on to the couple's third son, Henry.
*Alex
1795_EARL_HOWE_HALFPENNY.JPG
1795 AE Halfpenny, Emsworth or Portsmouth, Hampshire.51 viewsObverse: EARL HOWE & THE GLORIOUS FIRST OF JUNE. "Elderly" bust of Earl Howe, wearing tricorn hat and with hair tied with a ribbon at back, facing left.
Reverse: RULE BRITANNIA. Britannia facing left, seated on globe, her right hand holding spear, her left arm holding laurel-branch and resting on shield at her side; in exergue, 1795.
Edge: “PAYABLE IN LONDON” the remainder engrailed.
Diameter: 29mm.
Dalton & Hamer: 23b

This token was probably issued by John Stride, a grocer and tea dealer with a business in Emsworth, and the dies were likely engraved by Thomas Wyon. The token was probably manufactured by Peter Kempson at his mint in Birmingham.
These 18th century tokens are often generically referred to as “Conder” tokens, the name originating from James Conder, a linen draper from Tavern Street in Ipswich. Conder was an ardent collector of tokens and the author of the standard work on the subject until it was superseded by that of Atkins in 1892.

Richard Howe, 1st Earl Howe, Knight of the Garter and Admiral of the Fleet was born on 8th March, 1726. He was a British naval officer notable in particular for his service during the American War of Independence and the French Revolutionary Wars. He died on the 5th of August, 1799.

The Glorious First of June, 1794 was the first and largest fleet action of the naval conflict between Britain and the French during the French Revolutionary Wars. The British, under Admiral Lord Howe, attempted to prevent the passage of a vital grain convoy from the United States, which was protected by the French fleet commanded by Vice-Admiral Louis Thomas Villaret de Joyeuse. The two forces clashed in the Atlantic Ocean, some 400 nautical miles west of the French island of Ushant, on the first of June 1794. During the battle, Howe defied naval convention by ordering his fleet to turn towards the French and for each of his vessels to rake and engage their immediate opponent. This unexpected order was not understood by all of his captains, and as a result his attack, though successful, was more piecemeal than he intended. In the course of the battle the two fleets were so severely damaged that both Howe and Villaret were compelled to return to their home ports.
Both sides claimed victory and the outcome of the battle was seized upon by the press of both countries as a demonstration of the prowess and bravery of their respective navies. France because, despite losing seven of his ships, Villaret had successfully bought enough time for the grain convoy to reach safety unimpeded by Howe's fleet and Britain because, since the French were forced to withdraw their battle-fleet to port, they were left free to conduct a campaign of blockade for the remainder of the war.
*Alex
1795_John_Howard_Halfpenny.JPG
1795 AE Halfpenny, Portsmouth, Hampshire.71 viewsObverse: IOHN HOWARD F.R.S. PHILANTHROPIST •. Bust of John Howard facing left.
Reverse: RULE BRITANNIA. Britannia facing left, seated on globe, her right hand holding spear, her left arm holding laurel-branch and resting on shield at her side; in exergue, 1795.
Edge: “CURRENT EVERY WHERE ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦”
Diameter: 29mm
Dalton & Hamer: 57b

The dies for this token were likely engraved by Thomas Wyon and it was probably manufactured by Peter Kempson at his mint in Birmingham.
The Fitzwilliam Museum regards Liverpool as an alternative possibility for the place of issue.
These 18th century tokens are often generically referred to as “Conder” tokens, the name originating from James Conder, a linen draper from Tavern Street in Ipswich. Conder was an ardent collector of tokens and the author of the standard work on the subject until it was superseded by that of Atkins in 1892.

John Howard was born in Lower Clapton, London the son of a wealthy upholsterer. After the death of his father in 1742, he received a sizeable inheritance. Since he was wealthy and had no true vocation, in 1748 Howard left England and began to travel. However, while in Hanover he was captured by French privateers and imprisoned. It was this experience that made him consider the conditions in which prisoners were held.
In 1758 Howard returned to England and settled in Cardington, Bedfordshire. As a landowner he was philanthropic and enlightened, ensuring that his estate housing was of good standard and that the poor houses under his management were well run.
In 1773 he became High Sheriff of Bedfordshire. On his appointment he began a tour of English prisons which led to two Acts of Parliament in 1774, making gaolers salaried officers and setting standards of cleanliness.
In April 1777, Howard's sister died leaving him Ł15,000 and her house. He used this inheritance and the revenue from the sale of her house to further his work on prisons. In 1778 he was examined by the House of Commons, who were this time inquiring into prison ships, or “hulks”. Two days after giving evidence, he was again travelling Europe, beginning in the Dutch Republic.
His final journey took him into Eastern Europe and Russia. Whilst at Kherson, in what is now Ukraine, Howard contracted typhus on a prison visit and died. He was buried on the shores of the Black Sea in a walled field at Dophinovka (Stepanovka), Ukraine. Despite requesting a quiet funeral without pomp and ceremony, the event was elaborate and attended by the Prince of Moldovia.
Howard became the first civilian to be honoured with a statue in St Paul's Cathedral, London. A statue was also erected in Bedford, and another one in Kherson. John Howard's bust can still be seen as a feature in the architecture of a number of Victorian prisons across the UK.
*Alex
1797_Halfpenny_Token_Middlesex_(Mule).JPG
1797 AE Halfpenny, Middlesex County.39 viewsObverse: FREDk. DUKE OF YORK. Bare headed bust of Frederick Augustus, Duke of York, facing right; HALFPENNY 1795 in two lines below.
Reverse: RULE BRITANNIA. Britannia seated on globe facing left, left arm resting on shield and holding laurel-branch, right hand holding spear, ship's masts in front of her in background; 1797 in exergue.
Edge: Plain.
Diameter: 27mm | Die Axis: 6h | Obverse die flaw.
Dalton & Hamer: 990. Cobwright No: F.0010/R.0010. Not in Atkins.

Manufactured by William Lutwyche, Birmingham.
In the 18th century, token manufacturers often used their dies to their own advantage by striking “mules”, solely with the object of creating rare varieties which were sold to the collectors of the day.

Prince Frederick Augustus, Duke of York and Albany, was born on16th August 1763. He was the second eldest child, and second son, of King George III. Thrust into the British army at a very young age he was appointed a colonel by his father on 4th November 1780 when he was only 17 years old. He was created Duke of York and Albany on 27th November 1784.
On 26th May 1789 he took part a duel with Colonel Charles Lennox, who had insulted him; Lennox missed and Prince Frederick honourably refused to return fire.
On 12th April 1793 he was promoted to a full general and sent to Flanders in command of the British contingent destined for the invasion of France. Frederick's command fought under extremely trying conditions and though he won several notable engagements, he was defeated at the Battle of Hondschoote in September 1793. Then, in the 1794 campaign, he was successful at the battle of Willems in May but was defeated at the Battle of Tourcoing later that month.
Promoted to the rank of field marshal, on 3rd April 1795 he became effective Commander-in-Chief in succession to Lord Amherst and went with the army sent for the Anglo-Russian invasion of Holland in August 1799. A number of disasters befell the allied forces however and, on 17th October, the Duke signed the Convention of Alkmaar, by which the allied expedition withdrew after giving up its prisoners.
These military setbacks led to Frederick being mocked in the rhyme "The Grand Old Duke of York":
The grand old Duke of York,
He had ten thousand men.
He marched them up to the top of the hill
And he marched them down again.
And when they were up, they were up.
And when they were down, they were down.
And when they were only halfway up,
They were neither up nor down.
However, Frederick's experience in the Dutch campaign had demonstrated the numerous weaknesses of the British army after years of neglect so he carried through a massive programme of reform and he was the person most responsible for creating the force which served in the Peninsular War.
Frederick died of dropsy and apparent cardioid-vascular disease at the home of the Duke of Rutland on Arlington Street, London, on 5th January, 1827. After lying in state in London, his remains were interred in St. George's Chapel, at Windsor.
*Alex
1797_NORTH_WALES_HALFPENNY_MULE.JPG
1797 AE Halfpenny, North Wales and London.48 viewsObverse: NORTH WALES HALFPENNY. Script monogram of "RNG" in centre with 1793 above.
Reverse: * * RULE BRITANIA (sic) * *. Britannia seated facing left on globe, shield at her side, holding spear in her left hand and branch in her right; 1797 in exergue.
Edge: Incuse legend “PAYABLE IN LONDON” the remainder engrailed.
Diameter: 28mm
Dalton & Hamer: 18
RARE

Possibly engraved by Rambert Dumarest (Britannia) and Thomas Wyon (cypher). Manufactured by William Lutwyche and/or Peter Kempson in Birmingham.

This token, apparently a mule, was issued by, or is in imitation of, the Parys Mine Company from North Wales. In the 18th century the token manufacturers supplied orders for a great variety of tokens. These manufacturers often used the dies to their own advantage by striking “mules”, i.e. tokens produced by using the dies of two different tokens, solely with the object of creating rare varieties which were sold to “benefit” the collectors of the day.

The undeciphered “RNG” cypher is very similar to the “PMC” cypher used for the Parys Mine Company's first tokens.
*Alex
17s-Constantine-II-Her-020.jpg
17s. Constantine II: Heraclea.23 viewsAE3, 317, Heraclea mint.
Obverse: D N FL CL CONSTANTINVS NOB C / Laureate bust of Constantine II, facing left, hilding globe, sceptre, and mappa.
Reverse: PROVIDENTIAE CAESS / Campgate with three turrets.
Mint mark: MHTE
3.03 gm., 19 mm.
RIC #20; PBCC #951; Sear #17140.

This coin has many small flecks of silver across it surfaces which are apparently all that is left of the original silvering. The very small bust is characteristic of the mints at Heraclea, Cyzicus, and Nicomedia where it was used from time to time with the junior caesars.
Callimachus
George_III_Bank_of_England_Dollar_1804.JPG
1804 GEORGE III AR BANK OF ENGLAND DOLLAR 46 viewsObverse: GEORGIUS III DEI GRATIA REX. Laureate and draped bust of George III facing right.
Reverse: BANK OF ENGLAND 1804. Britannia, seated left, holding a branch and spear, her left arm resting on a shield which in turn rests on a cornucopia, a beehive is in the background to the left; all within a garter inscribed FIVE SHILLINGS DOLLAR. The garter is surmounted by a castellated "crown" of five circular stone turrets.
On this coin there are enough traces of the host coin discernible on the reverse, near the edge between 'BANK' and 'OF', and on the obverse below the bust to make an accurate identification of the undertype possible. It was overstruck on a Spanish Colonial 8 Reales minted at Potosi in Bolivia which bore the date 1806.
Spink 3768; Obverse die A, Reverse die 2
Diameter: 41mm | Weight: 26.7gms | Die Axis: 11
SPINK: 3768

This portrait of George III was designed by Conrad Heinrich Kuchler (c.1740 - 1810), this is marked by C. H. K. in raised letters on the truncation at the king's shoulder. The reverse, which was also designed by Kuchler has the raised initial K in the triangular space between the shield, cornucopia, and Britannia's dress. Kuchler moved to Birmingham in 1795 and designed many of the coins and medals which were struck at Matthew Boulton's SOHO mint.

Note on George III Bank of England Silver Dollars
Although George III reigned for sixty years from 1760 to 1820, the only crowns issued were in the last three years of his reign, apart from these Bank of England dollars issued as an emergency measure.
There had been a persistent shortage of silver coins throughout most of George's reign, and the Bank of England attempted to alleviate this by counter-marking Spanish colonial 8-Reale pieces (the “pieces of eight” of pirate legend) with a punch bearing the head of George III. When this counter-mark was enthusiastically counterfeited, the bank resorted to counter-stamping the entire coin. Most survivors were struck on Mexican or Peruvian 8-Reale pieces, though a few have been found to be struck on issues from Spain proper. Although these Bank of England dollars are all dated 1804, they were issued every year until 1811, and occasionally the dates of Spanish 8 Reales minted after 1804 can be discerned on them. In 1811, to take account of the increase in the value of silver, the Bank of England dollar coins were revalued at 5s6d and they stayed at this value until they were withdrawn from circulation in 1817, by which time a massive silver re-coinage was being undertaken.
2 comments*Alex
Walthamstow_Brutus_Halfpenny.JPG
1809 - 1810 "BRUTUS" Undated AE Halfpenny, Walthamstow, Essex.153 viewsObverse: BRUTUS. Bare head of Lucius Junius Brutus facing left.
Reverse: Britannia seated left holding olive branch and trident, a shield at her side, BCC (British Copper Company) on the ground below; all within an oak-wreath.
Edge: Grained.
Diameter: 28mm
Bowman: 24 | Withers: 621

The principal die engraver for this token was Thomas Wyon the elder (1767–1830).

This token was issued by the British Copper Company, a Welsh based company who, in 1808, bought the Walthamstow site beside the River Lea. Walthamstow is now a suburb of north east London. The copper was smelted in "Landore" near Swansea in South Wales and brought by barge around the south coast up the Thames and the Lea to the mill. The copper ingots were then rolled into thin sheets which were sent all over the country to be stamped into coins. The main purpose of the BCC would have been to sell its copper, whether in the form of tokens, or sheets of metal. These penny and half penny tokens were not issued exclusively for use in Walthamstow, the halfpennies in particular do not bear the name of a place where they could have been redeemed except the very tiny BCC found on the ground by Britannia's shield. The copper rolling mill buildings at Walthamstow were converted into a pumping station in the 1860s and were later incorporated, by Thames Water, into a large water treatment works.

Lucius Junius Brutus, one of the first two consuls of Rome, was said to have killed two of his sons who were plotting to restore the monarchy of the Tarquins, he thus became a hero for patriotism and freedom.
*Alex
1812_BRITISH_NAVAL_HALFPENNY.JPG
1812 AE Non-local Halfpenny Token. Stockton on Tees, Yorkshire.20 viewsObverse: ENGLAND EXPECTS EVERY MAN TO DO HIS DUTY •. Bust of Horatio Nelson facing left.
Reverse: BRITISH NAVAL HALPPENNY (sic). Three masted ship, probably H.M.S. Victory, sailing right, 1812 in panel below.
Edge: Centre Grained.
Diameter 30mm | Die Axis 6
Withers: 1590 | Davis: 150 (Yorkshire)

The dies for this token were, according to some sources, engraved by Thomas Wyon. Though the manufacturer of the token is unknown, it was most likely struck in Birmingham.

Issued from Stockton on Tees, this token seems to have been struck to commemorate the Battle of Trafalgar which took place in 1805, and in which Nelson was killed. The issuer is uncertain but it was probably Robert Christopher and Thomas Jennett.
Robert Christopher & Thomas Jennett were booksellers and printers in Stockton, they were also the Stockton agents for the Sun Fire Office.
Jennett was Christopher's apprentice and on the completion of his indentures, he was taken into partnership. Matching the high standards of his companion, Jennett became well known and much respected, growing to be a man of power and influence. He became a magistrate and was mayor of Stockton three times.
*Alex
1813_PENNY_TOKEN.JPG
1813 AE Penny, Hull, Yorkshire.32 viewsObverse: VIMIERA•TALAVERA•BADAJOZ•SALAMANCA•VITTORIA •. Bust of Duke of Wellington facing left.
Reverse: ONE PENNY TOKEN. Britannia seated on shield facing left, holding olive branch in her right hand and trident in left; 1813 in exergue.
Edge: Centre Grained.
Diameter 34mm
Withers:1507 | Davis Yorkshire No: 93 | Charlton No: WE-12
VERY RARE.

The inscription on the obverse of this token is a list of battles fought in the Peninsular War. The dies were engraved by Thomas Halliday (c.1780 – 1854) and the token was manufactured by Edward Thomason. The type was one of several issued by J.K.Picard in his “Peninsular” series which were struck for use by the Duke of Wellington's army in Portugal and Spain. These tokens bear the portrait of Wellington, who was a good friend of the Prince Regent, the future George IV, on the obverse.

This token was issued by John Kirby Picard, the owner of the Hull Lead Works. Picard spent a lot of his time in London and became friendly with the Prince of Wales' circle of aquaintances. He gambled heavily, and became bankrupt in 1827 after eventually gambling his fortune away. He died in reduced circumstances in 1843.
*Alex
644_Hadrian_Eastern_Strack76.jpg
181A2 Hadrian, Denarius 134-138 AD, Italia Eastern Mint33 viewsReference.
Strack *76 (Vienna), pl. XX (same dies).

Obv: HADRIANVS - AVG COS III P P
Bust laureate r., fold of cloak on front shoulder.

Rev: ITA - LIA
Italia standing l. holding long scepter and cornucopia.

3.20 gr
19 mm
6h

Notes.
Ex Curtis L. Clay Collection; ex CNG Esale 302, 8 May 2013, lot 371. Very rare in Eastern style. Strack knew only one specimen, in Vienna; this is from the same die pair.
2 commentsokidoki
LouisXVIII1822VenusdeMilo.JPG
1822. Louis XVIII. Discovery and presentatoin of Venus de Milo.140 viewsObv. Head of Louis XVIII to right LVDOVICVS XVIII FRANC ET NAV REX
Rev. Venus de Milo standing in front of Egyptian antiquities COLLECTIS EX AEGYPTO GREACIAQ MONVMENTIS / SVMTV REGIO BONARVM ARTVIM VTILITATI MDCCCXXII
AE50.

This medal commemorates the discovery and presentation of the statue Venus de Milo.
LordBest
1081Hadrian_Strack180.jpg
182var Hadrian Denarius Roma 125-28 AD Victoria standing left26 viewsReference. very rare
Strack 180; cfRIC 182d (standing right) note.

Obv. HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS
Laureate head right, draped left shoulder.

Rev. COS III
Victory standing left, placing right hand on head and holding palm.

3.73 gr
18 mm
6h
1 commentsokidoki
hardtimes_copy.jpg
1837 Hard Times Token68 views1837 Hard Times Token, Obv: Man emerging from chest, holding bag of loot and sword, I TAKE THE RESPONSIBILITY in field around border; Rev: Mule with VETO below, ROMAN FIRMNESS above, THE CONSTITUTION AS I UNDERSTAND IT in field around border, Very Fine.Molinari
Coin_cabinet_medal.JPG
1843 "BENJAMIN NIGHTINGALE" AE Halfpenny Token. London, Middlesex17 viewsObverse: VILIUS EST ARGENTUM AURO, VIRTUTIBUS AURUM. Female, leaning on books behind her, holding a cornucopia from which coins are spilling, seated facing right in front of an open coin cabinet; in exergue, tudor rose on shield between two branches.
Reverse: BENJAMIN NIGHTINGALE LONDON * PRIVATE TOKEN * 1843 surrounding “BN” monogram in script.
Edge: Plain.
Diameter: 30mm | Weight: 14.2gms | Die Axis: 12
Bell (Middlesex) A3
VERY RARE (Only 72 of these bronzed copper halfpenny tokens were struck)

Privately issued in London by Benjamin Nightingale, the die sinker for this token was William Joseph Taylor (whose initials WJT can be seen to the left below the books on the obverse), following a similar design for halfpennies that he had produced for Matthew Young, a British merchant. Taylor was born in Birmingham in 1802 and was apprenticed to Thomas Halliday in 1818 as the first die-sinker to be trained by him. He set up his own business as a die-sinker, medallist and engraver at 5 Porter Street, Soho, London in 1829, later moving to 3 Lichfield Street, Birmingham. In 1843 the business moved to 33 Little Queen Street and finally, in 1869, to 70 Red Lion Street where, in 1885, Taylor died.
The Soho Mint at Birmingham (founded by Matthew Boulton) closed in 1848, and it's plant and equipment was sold via auction in April 1850. Taylor purchased many of the Soho Mint's hubs and dies from this auction and used them to restrike many of the coins & patterns that the Soho Mint had struck between the 1790's and the 1840's, though he nearly always re-polished or re-engraved elements of the original dies before re-using them.

Benjamin Nightingale was a wine and spirit merchant who lived at 17 Upper Stamford Street, Blackfriars Road in London. He was born in 1806 and died on March 9th, 1862. He was a well known Antiquarian and was a member of the Numismatic Society of London.
In 1863, after his death, Benjamin Nightingale's collection, consisting of 359 lots, was sold over a two day period by Sotheby's. This is from the February 13, 1863 edition of the London Daily News (page 8, column 6).

THE VALUABLE CABINET of COINS and MEDALS of the late BENJAMIN NIGHTINGALE, Esq.
MESSRS S. LEIGH SOTHEBY and WILKINSON, auctioneers of literary property and works illustrative of the fine arts, will SELL BY AUCTION, at their house, No. 13 (late 3), Wellington-street, Strand, W.C., on WEDNESDAY, Feb. 25, and following day, at 1 precisely, the valuable CABINET OF COINS and MEDALS of the late Benjamin Nightingale, Esq.; comprising a few Roman coins in gold, silver, and copper, in the highest state of preservation; a most valuable collection of English medals in all metals; rare and curious jetons, including a very perfect set of those struck to illustrate the history of the low countries; a few remarkable foreign medals, a choice library of numismatic books, several well-made cabinets, & c. – May be viewed two days previous, and catalogues had on receipt of two stamps.

According to Manville and Robertson, prior to his death, Benjamin Nightingale had sold off part of his collection at an auction by Sotheby's on 29th Nov. 1855.
"Benjamin NIGHTINGALE" in ANS copy; Greek, Roman, Tavern Tokens, Town Pieces, 17-18c Tokens, English and Foreign Medals, Books; 165 lots. -Curtis Clay.

The inspiration for these tokens might have been Pye's 1797 halfpenny (Warwickshire 223) which is of a similar design.
*Alex
1837Cent_copy.jpg
1847 Large Cent, United States of America35 views1847 Large Cent, United States of America, Obv: Liberty right, LIBERTY on crown, 1847 below, 13 Stars surrounding; Rev: ONE CENT within wreath, UNITED STATES OF AMERICA in field around border, Very Fine.Molinari
Columbian_Expo_History_Medal.JPG
1893 Columbian Exposition "Discovery of America" Medal18 viewsObv: SIGNING OF DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE - JULY 4TH 1776, a scene of the Signing taking place in Independence Hall; a banner inscribed: "WORLD'S COLUMBIAN EXPOSITION;" an eagle, with spread wings, atop a shield; to the left is a portrait of COLUMBUS, to the right is a portrait of WASHINGTON; CHICAGO below.

Rev: DISCOVERY OF AMERICA, a scene of Columbus's landing; a banner inscribed: "OCTOBER 1492;" a scene of the Pilgrims landing at Plymouth; DEC. 1620; LANDING OF THE PILGRIMS.

Designed by Charles Reinsch; Struck by S. D. Childs & Co., Chicago.

White metal; Diameter: 58.44 mm

HK-157 (WM), Eglit 36 (WM)
Matt Inglima
George_5_KN_Penny_1918.JPG
1918 "KN" GEORGE V "Large head" AE Penny7 viewsObverse: GEORGIVS V DEI GRA:BRITT:OMN:REX FID:DEF:IND:IMP: . Bare head of George V facing left.
Reverse: ONE PENNY. Britannia seated facing right, right hand resting on shield, left hand holding trident; 1918 and small "KN" (for Kings Norton) in exergue.
SPINK: 4053
VERY RARE

George V's portrait was designed by Bertram Mackennal (1863 - 1931), this is marked by a small "BM" on the King's neck.

The “King's Norton Metal Company” (King's Norton being an area south of central Birmingham) was registered as a Limited Company in 1890 and was a general manufacturer of small metal goods. Minting did not become part of its business until 1912 when the Royal Mint placed an order for bronze blanks which were then used to strike coins. Minting was only a sideline part of the business and the company only struck coins for Britain in 1918 and 1919 after being awarded with a contract to strike George V Pennies. The pennies struck by the Kings Norton Metal Company can be identified by a small “KN” next to the date on the reverse.
*Alex
s-pb-tc.jpg
1919 ALEXIUS PB TETARTERON S-Unlisted DOC 37 CLBC 2.5.1 49 viewsOBV Full length figures of John II beardless on r., and st Demetrius, holding between them labarum on long shaft. Emperor wears stemma, divitision, collar piece and jeweled loros of a simplified type. Saint wears short military tunic , breastplate, and saigon; holds sword, point resting on ground, in r. hand.

REV Full length figures of Alexius on l. and of Irene, holding between them cross on long shaft. Both wear stemma, divitision, collar piece and jeweled loros of a simplified type.

Size 18 mm

Weight 6.31 gm

These lead Tetarteron are coronation issues of John II and believed to be the origin of the series of tetartera. Thessalonica Mint

DOC lists 6 examples with weights running from3.33 gm to 6.16 gm and sizes from 17mm to 19mm

My first example that I am able to get good photographs from, most are white lead very difficult to photograph, this example also has much more detail than normal.
Simon
s-1920.jpg
1920 ALEXIUS METROPOLITAN TETARTERON S-1920 DOC 33 CLBC 2.4.1 Grierson 1042 46 viewsOBV Bust of Christ, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion holding gospels (open) in left hand.

REV Alexius bust facing wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece and paneled loros of simplified type and holds in r. hand labarum-headed scepter and in l. hand Globus crucifer.

Metropolitan Issues were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of 3% ( 3.84 is recorded by Hendy) and were also issued more than likely with a very light silver wash (Silver traces are common on Metropolitan issues but intact fully silvered coins are very rare.) These more than likely were tariffed at a higher rate than the Thessalonica issues that have been shown to have no silver content. This would make them a separate denomination. Metropolitan issues are in general far scarcer than the Thessalonica issues. Grierson thought them to be for ceremonial use only, I disagree, it was a denomination used in the Capital

Size 16.55mm

Weight 4.4gm

All around very nice coin, I would consider the rarity for this coin 3/5

DOC catalog lists 13 examples with weights ranging from 2.9 gm to 4.7 gm and size from 17mm to 21mm

CLBC Lists weights from 2.93 to 4.80gm. Die Diameter 16mm
Simon
c6.jpg
1920 ALEXIUS METROPOLITAN TETARTERON S-1920 DOC 33 CLBC 2.4.1 Grierson 1042 29 viewsOBV Bust of Christ, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion holding gospels (open) in left hand.

REV Alexius bust facing wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece and paneled loros of simplified type and holds in r. hand labarum-headed scepter and in l. hand Globus crucifer.

Metropolitan Issues were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of 3% ( 3.84 is recorded by Hendy) and were also issued more than likely with a very light silver wash (Silver traces are common on Metropolitan issues but intact fully silvered coins are very rare.) These more than likely were tariffed at a higher rate than the Thessalonica issues that have been shown to have no silver content. This would make them a separate denomination. Metropolitan issues are in general far scarcer than the Thessalonica issues. Grierson thought them to be for ceremonial use only, I disagree, it was a denomination used in the Capital

Size 19.56mm

Weight 3.8gm

DOC catalog lists 13 examples with weights ranging from 2.9 gm to 4.7 gm and size from 17mm to 21mm

CLBC Lists weights from 2.93 to 4.80gm. Die Diameter 16mm
Simon
b1.jpg
1920a ALEXIUS METROPOLITAN TETARTERON S-1920 DOC 33 CLBC 2.4.1 Grierson 1042 62 viewsOBV Bust of Christ, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion holding gospels (open) in left hand.

REV Alexius bust facing wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece and paneled loros of simplified type and holds in r. hand labarum-headed scepter and in l. hand Globus crucifer.

Metropolitan Issues were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of 3% ( 3.84 is recorded by Hendy) and were also issued more than likely with a very light silver wash (Silver traces are common on Metropolitan issues but intact fully silvered coins are very rare.) These more than likely were tariffed at a higher rate than the Thessalonica issues that have been shown to have no silver content. This would make them a separate denomination. Metropolitan issues are in general far scarcer than the Thessalonica issues. Grierson thought them to be for ceremonial use only, I disagree, it was a denomination used in the Capital

Size 18mm

Weight 3.8gm

This coin has an excellent portrait of Christ, I would grade the coin EF/F

DOC catalog lists 13 examples with weights ranging from 2.9 gm to 4.7 gm and size from 17mm to 21mm
CLBC Lists weights from 2.93 to 4.80gm. Die Diameter 16mm
Simon
o3~0.jpg
1920B ALEXIUS METROPOLITAN TETARTERON S-1920 DOC 33 CLBC 2.4.1 Grierson 104225 views
OBV Bust of Christ, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion holding gospels (open) in left hand.

REV Alexius bust facing wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece and paneled loros of simplified type and holds in r. hand labarum-headed scepter and in l. hand Globus crucifer.

Size 18/21mm

Weight 3.5gm

Metropolitan Issues were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of 3% ( 3.84 is recorded by Hendy) and were also issued more than likely with a very light silver wash (Silver traces are common on Metropolitan issues but intact fully silvered coins are very rare.) These more than likely were tariffed at a higher rate than the Thessalonica issues that have been shown to have no silver content. This would make them a separate denomination. Metropolitan issues are in general far scarcer than the Thessalonica issues. Grierson thought them to be for ceremonial use only, I disagree, it was a denomination used in the Capital.
Simon
4c~0.jpg
1920C ALEXIUS METROPOLITAN TETARTERON S-1920 DOC 33 CLBC 2.4.1 Grierson 1042 22 viewsOBV Bust of Christ, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion holding gospels (open) in left hand.

REV Alexius bust facing wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece and paneled loros of simplified type and holds in r. hand labarum-headed scepter and in l. hand Globus crucifer.

Size 17/16mm

Weight 3.9 gm

Metropolitan Issues were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of 3% ( 3.84 is recorded by Hendy) and were also issued more than likely with a very light silver wash (Silver traces are common on Metropolitan issues but intact fully silvered coins are very rare.) These more than likely were tariffed at a higher rate than the Thessalonica issues that have been shown to have no silver content. This would make them a separate denomination. Metropolitan issues are in general far scarcer than the Thessalonica issues. Grierson thought them to be for ceremonial use only, I disagree, it was a denomination used in the Capital.

This particular coin grades as aF/aVF , this has the most interesting portrait of Alexius, seems to be much older in age than other examples.

DOC catalog lists 13 examples with weights ranging from 2.9 gm to 4.7 gm and size from 17mm to 21mm
CLBC Lists weights from 2.93 to 4.80gm. Die Diameter 16mm
Simon
f6~0.jpg
1921 ALEXIUS Metropolitan TETARTERON S-1921 Doc 34 CLBC 2.4.2 Grierson 1043 27 views
Bust of Christ, bearded with cross behind head, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds gospels in l. hand. UU in fields of cross.

Rev Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece, and jeweled loros of simplified type; holds in r hand jeweled scepter and in l, gl. cr.

Size 18mm

Weight 3.5gm

Metropolitan Issues were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of 3% and were also issued with a very light silver wash (Silver traces are common on Cosmopolitan issues but intact fully silvered coins are very rare.) These more than likely were tariffed at a higher rate than the Thessalonica issues that have been shown to have no silver content. Cosmopolitan issue are in general far scarcer than the Thessalonica issues

DOC catalog lists 3 examples with weights ranging from 1.6gm to 3.49gm and size is universal at 18mm

All of the Constantinople coins are uncommon but this one appears very rarely, I would mark its rarity 4/5 This example has a very dark patina in hand, I lightened this pic for a better view of the details. This is one of the most difficult of Alexius coins to obtain.
Simon
s-1921c.jpg
1921c ALEXIUS Metropolitan TETARTERON S-1921 Doc 34 CLBC 2.4.2 Grierson 1043 20 viewsBust of Christ, bearded with cross behind head, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds gospels in l. hand. UU in fields of cross.

Rev Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece, and jeweled loros of simplified type; holds in r hand jeweled scepter and in l, gl. cr.

Size 15.63mm

Weight 4.0gm

Metropolitan Issues were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of 3% and were also issued with a very light silver wash (Silver traces are common on Cosmopolitan issues but intact fully silvered coins are very rare.) These more than likely were tariffed at a higher rate than the Thessalonica issues that have been shown to have no silver content. Cosmopolitan issue are in general far scarcer than the Thessalonica issues

DOC catalog lists 3 examples with weights ranging from 1.6gm to 3.49gm and size is universal at 18mm

This is one of the most difficult of Alexius coins to obtain. This is only the third example I have seen in twenty years, not in great condition but is a great rarity.
Simon
4i.jpg
1922 ALEXIUS METROPOLITAN TETARTERON S-1922 DOC 35 CLBC 2.4.3 54 views
OBV Christ Bearded and nimbate wearing tunic and kolobion, seated on a throne without back; holds gospel in l. hand.

REV: Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision, and chlamys; holds in r. hand scepter cruciger and in l. hand Globus crucifer.

Size 16.6mm

Weight 3.0 gm

Metropolitan Issues were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of 3% and were also issued with a very light silver wash (Silver traces are common on Cosmopolitan issues but intact fully silvered coins are very rare.) These more than likely were tariffed at a higher rate than the Thessalonica issues that have been shown to have no silver content. Metropolitan issues are in general far scarcer than the Thessalonica issues.

DOC catalog lists 9 examples with weights ranging from 2.95gm to 3.72 and size from 16mm to 20mm
Simon
4m.jpg
1922A ALEXIUS METROPOLITAN TETARTERON S-1922 DOC 35 CLBC 2.4.3 40 viewsOBV Christ Bearded and nimbate wearing tunic and kolobion, seated on a throne without back; holds gospel in l. hand.

REV: Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision, and chlamys; holds in r. hand scepter cruciger and in l. hand Globus crucifer.

Size 14/16mm

Weight 2.9gm

Metropolitan Issues were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of 3% and were also issued with a very light silver wash (Silver traces are common on Metropolitan issues but intact fully silvered coins are very rare.) These more than likely were tariffed at a higher rate than the Thessalonica issues that have been shown to have no silver content. Metropolitan issues are in general far scarcer than the Thessalonica issues.

DOC catalog lists 9 examples with weights ranging from 2.95gm to 3.72 and size from 16mm to 20mm
Simon
s-1922c.jpg
1922B ALEXIUS METROPOLITAN TETARTERON S-1922 DOC 35 CLBC 2.4.3 18 viewsOBV Christ Bearded and nimbate wearing tunic and kolobion, seated on a throne without back; holds gospel in l. hand.

REV: Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision, and chlamys; holds in r. hand scepter cruciger and in l. hand Globus crucifer.

Size 14/12mm

Weight 3.6 gm

Metropolitan Issues were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of 3% and were also issued with a very light silver wash (Silver traces are common on Metropolitan issues but intact fully silvered coins are very rare.) These more than likely were tariffed at a higher rate than the Thessalonica issues that have been shown to have no silver content. Metropolitan issues are in general far scarcer than the Thessalonica issues.

This is a thick square coin, very unusual beveled edges.
Simon
4p.jpg
1922C ALEXIUS METROPOLITAN TETARTERON S-1922 DOC 35 CLBC 2.4.3 19 viewsOBV Christ Bearded and nimbate wearing tunic and kolobion, seated on a throne without back; holds gospel in l. hand. ( This is what it should be , coin is a brokerage of sorts.)

REV: Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision, and chlamys; holds in r. hand scepter cruciger and in l. hand Globus crucifer.

Size 15/16mm

Weight 4.00gm

Metropolitan Issues were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of 3% and were also issued with a very light silver wash (Silver traces are common on Metropolitan issues but intact fully silvered coins are very rare.) These more than likely were tariffed at a higher rate than the Thessalonica issues that have been shown to have no silver content. Metropolitan issues are in general far scarcer than the Thessalonica issues.

This coin was attributed by rev alone, it is the only possible match for Alexius and it is clearly by inscription, his rule.

DOC catalog lists 9 examples with weights ranging from 2.95gm to 3.72 and size from 16mm to 20mm
Simon
l3~0.jpg
1922D ALEXIUS METROPOLITAN TETARTERON S-1922 DOC 35 CLBC 2.4.3 42 viewsOBV Christ Bearded and nimbate wearing tunic and kolobion, seated on a throne without back; holds gospel in l. hand.

REV: Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision, and chlamys; holds in r. hand scepter cruciger and in l. hand Globus crucifer.

Size 18.35

Weight 3.3gm

Metropolitan Issues were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of 3% and were also issued with a very light silver wash, ,HOWEVER this coin is not the norm of black silver, very grainy and hard to photograph but white silver in color, much higher than what was normal.

DOC catalog lists 9 examples with weights ranging from 2.95gm to 3.72 and size from 16mm to 20mm
Simon
sear1923b.jpg
1923 ALEXIUS METROPOLITAN TETARTERON S-1923 DOC 36 CLBC 2.4.437 viewsOBV Christ bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion, seated on throne without back; r. hand raised in benediction holds Gospels in l.

REV Full length figure of emperor wearing stemma, divitision, jeweled loros of simplified type, and sagion; holds in r. hand labarum on long shaft, and in l. gl.cr.

Size 17.48mm

Weight 4.8

Metropolitan Issues were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of 3% and were also issued with a very light silver wash (Silver traces are common on Metropolitan issues but intact fully silvered coins are very rare.) These more than likely were tariffed at a higher rate than the Thessalonica issues that have been shown to have no silver content. Metropolitan issues are in general far scarcer than the Thessalonica issues.

DOC Catalog lists 4 examples with weights fairly consistent from 3.49 gm. to 3.99gm and size from 16mm to 18mm.
Simon
c1.jpg
1923 ALEXIUS METROPOLITAN TETARTERON S-1923 DOC 36 CLBC 2.4.4 41 viewsOBV Christ bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion, seated on throne without back; r. hand raised in benediction holds Gospels in l.

REV Full length figure of emperor wearing stemma, divitision, jeweled loros of simplified type, and sagion; holds in r. hand labarum on long shaft, and in l. gl.cr.

Size 15.64mm

Weight 4.6

Metropolitan Issues were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of 3% and were also issued with a very light silver wash (Silver traces are common on Metropolitan issues but intact fully silvered coins are very rare.) These more than likely were tariffed at a higher rate than the Thessalonica issues that have been shown to have no silver content. Metropolitan issues are in general far scarcer than the Thessalonica issues.

DOC Catalog lists 4 examples with weights fairly consistent from 3.49 gm. to 3.99gm and size from 16mm to 18mm. My example is running heavy at 4.6gm
Simon
h6~0.jpg
1923 ALEXIUS METROPOLITAN TETARTERON S-1923 DOC 36 CLBC 2.4.4 23 viewsOBV Christ bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion, seated on throne without back; r. hand raised in benediction holds Gospels in l.

REV Full length figure of emperor wearing stemma, divitision, jeweled loros of simplified type, and sagion; holds in r. hand labarum on long shaft, and in l. gl.cr.

Size 3.96

Weight 17.mm

A really nice example

Metropolitan Issues were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of 3% and were also issued with a very light silver wash (Silver traces are common on Metropolitan issues but intact fully silvered coins are very rare.)


DOC Catalog lists 4 examples with weights fairly consistent from 3.49 gm. to 3.99gm and size from 16mm to 18mm
Simon
5c.jpg
1929 ALEXIUS AE TETARTERON S-1929 DOC 38 CLBC 2.4.5 19 viewsOBV Bust of Christ, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds gospels open in l. hand. Pellet in each limb of nimbus cross.

REV. Bust facing wearing stemma, divitision, and chlamys; holds in r. hand scepter cruciger, and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 18/20mm

Weight 4.2

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron. This coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

DOC lists 9 examples with weight s running from 1.82gm to 5.10gm and size from 18mm to 22mm

My example has more detail than normally seen, most of these coins have no faces recognizable on either side.
Simon
s-1929-3c.jpg
1929A ALEXIUS AE TETARTERON S-1929 DOC 38 CLBC 2.4.5 15 viewsOBV Bust of Christ, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds gospels open in l. hand. Pellet in each limb of nimbus cross.
REV. Bust facing wearing stemma, divitision, and chlamys; holds in r. hand scepter cruciger, and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 19.5/21mm

Weight 3.3

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron. This coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

DOC lists 9 examples with weight s running from 1.82gm to 5.10gm and size from 18mm to 22mm
Simon
3c~0.jpg
1929B ALEXIUS AE TETARTERON S-1929 DOC 38 CLBC 2.4.5 18 viewsOBV Bust of Christ, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds gospels open in l. hand. Pellet in each limb of nimbus cross.

REV. Bust facing wearing stemma, divitision, and chlamys; holds in r. hand scepter cruciger, and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 19/22mm

Weight 2.2gm

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron. This coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

DOC lists 9 examples with weight s running from 1.82gm to 5.10gm and size from 18mm to 22mm
Simon
s-1929-2d.jpg
1929C ALEXIUS AE TETARTERON S-1929 DOC 38 CLBC 2.4.5 13 viewsOBV Bust of Christ, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds gospels open in l. hand. Pellet in each limb of nimbus cross.

REV. Bust facing wearing stemma, divitision, and chlamys; holds in r. hand scepter cruciger, and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 20mm

Weight 2.2gm

This coin is interesting for its details, more than most but the jagged edge flan is very unusual.

DOC lists 9 examples with weight s running from 1.82gm to 5.10gm and size from 18mm to 22mm
Simon
a6.jpg
1929E ALEXIUS AE TETARTERON S-1929 DOC 38 CLBC 2.4.5 25 viewsOBV Bust of Christ, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds gospels open in l. hand. Pellet in each limb of nimbus cross.
REV. Bust facing wearing stemma, divitision, and chlamys; holds in r. hand scepter cruciger, and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 18/20mm

Weight 3.5

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron. This coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

DOC lists 9 examples with weight s running from 1.82gm to 5.10gm and size from 18mm to 22mm
Simon
s-1929-5c.jpg
1929g ALEXIUS AE TETARTERON S-1929 DOC 38 CLBC 2.4.5 47 views
OBV Bust of Christ, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds gospels open in l. hand. Pellet in each limb of nimbus cross.

REV. Bust facing wearing stemma, divitision, and chlamys; holds in r. hand scepter cruciger, and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 19.11mm

Weight 2.6gm

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron. This coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

DOC lists 9 examples with weight s running from 1.82gm to 5.10gm and size from 18mm to 22mm

My nicest example. Very Fine
Simon
s-1929-4c.jpg
1929h ALEXIUS AE TETARTERON S-1929 DOC 38 CLBC 2.4.5 36 viewsOBV Bust of Christ, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds gospels open in l. hand. Pellet in each limb of nimbus cross.

REV. Bust facing wearing stemma, divitision, and chlamys; holds in r. hand scepter cruciger, and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 21.97mm

Weight 2.9gm

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron. This coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

DOC lists 9 examples with weight s running from 1.82gm to 5.10gm and size from 18mm to 22mm
Simon
h3.jpg
1929J ALEXIUS AE TETARTERON S-1929 DOC 38 CLBC 2.4.5 Imitation 37 viewsOBV Bust of Christ, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds gospels open in l. hand. Pellet in each limb of nimbus cross.

REV. Bust facing wearing stemma, divitision, and chlamys; holds in r. hand scepter cruciger, and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 20mm

Weight 2.5gm

This is a regional minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron. This coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

DOC lists 9 examples with weight s running from 1.82gm to 5.10gm and size from 18mm to 22mm

This is a strange example, Alexius side fits the norm a bit cruder but with good detail, the Christ side lacks the book and Christ's blessing. Imitations of this particular type of coin were created well into the 14th century. This coin was a very recent find in Paphos Cyprus.
Simon
s-1929-6c.jpg
1929k ALEXIUS AE TETARTERON S-1929 DOC 38 CLBC 2.4.5 55 viewsOBV Bust of Christ, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds gospels open in l. hand. Pellet in each limb of nimbus cross.

REV. Bust facing wearing stemma, divitision, and chlamys; holds in r. hand scepter cruciger, and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 19.99mm

Weight 4.8 gm

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron. This coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

DOC lists 9 examples with weight s running from 1.82gm to 5.10gm and size from 18mm to 22mm
2 commentsSimon
s-1929-7c.jpg
1929L ALEXIUS AE TETARTERON S-1929 DOC 38 CLBC 2.4.5 60 viewsOBV Bust of Christ, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds gospels open in l. hand. Pellet in each limb of nimbus cross.

REV. Bust facing wearing stemma, divitision, and chlamys; holds in r. hand scepter cruciger, and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 19.00mm

Weight 2.66gm

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron. This coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

DOC lists 9 examples with weight s running from 1.82gm to 5.10gm and size from 18mm to 22mm
2 commentsSimon
pertinax den-.jpg
193 AD - PERTINAX AR denarius - struck January-March 193 AD83 viewsobv: IMP.CAES.P.HELV.PERTIN.AVG (laureate head right)
rev:OPI.DIVIN.TR.P.COS.II (Ops seated left, holding two corn ears, left hand on top of throne)
ref: RIC IVi 8 (R2), C.33 (60frcs)
2.43gms
Very rare

This coin is ugly, worn and holed, but... it's a Pertinax.

Publius Helvius Pertinax was commander of an equestrian unit in Moesia Superior (or Pannonia Inferior), on the Middle Danube in 167 AD, and fight against the Yaziges. He was also the commander of the First legion Adiutrix, stationed at Brigetio (modern Szöny) between 171-174 AD. Pertinax played an important role during the campaigns against the Marcomanni. It is very likely that I Adiutrix and the two newly founded legions II Italica and III Italica were grouped together in a single task-force. According to the historian Herodian, Pertinax freed the provinces of Noricum and Raetia completely, and took part in the attacks on the Quadi and Sarmatians north of the Danube.
2 commentsberserker
b3.jpg
1930 ALEXIUS AE TETARTERON S-1930 DOC 39 CLBC 2.4.6 49 viewsOBV Bust of Virgin nimbate, orans, wearing tunic and maphorion.

REV Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision and chlamys; holds in r. hand labarum on a long shaft and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 20.10

Weight 2.8gm

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron. This coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

DOC lists 5 examples with weights ranging from 2.05gm to 4.02gm and sizes ranging from 20mm to 22m

It is difficult to find a clean strike of this issue. This one is unusually clean. They way to differ this coin from Manuel's version is the position of Alexius arm on the labrum.
Simon
2m.jpg
1930 ALEXIUS AE TETARTERON S-1930 DOC 39 CLBC 2.4.6 57 viewsOBV Bust of Virgin nimbate, orans, wearing tunic and maphorion.

REV Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision and chlamys; holds in r. hand labarum on a long shaft and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 22.75

Weight 3.6mm

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron. This coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

DOC lists 5 examples with weights ranging from 2.05gm to 4.02gm and sizes ranging from 20mm to 22m

This coin has been clearly overstruck over an earlier follis. DOC also notes 3 out the five examples are also overstruck. I believe this issue was created quickly when a shortage of the new coinage occurred. It is difficult to find a clean strike of this
1 commentsSimon
s-1930c.jpg
1930A ALEXIUS AE TETARTERON S-1930 DOC 39 CLBC 2.4.6 35 viewsOBV Bust of Virgin nimbate, orans, wearing tunic and maphorion.

REV Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision and chlamys; holds in r. hand labarum on a long shaft and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 18mm

Weight 3.5 gm

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron. This coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

DOC lists 5 examples with weights ranging from 2.05gm to 4.02gm and sizes ranging from 20mm to 22m

This is considered to be very nice condition for this type of coin, normally they appear overstruck or just messy, this one I had almost confused with a Manuel S-1970 but the key of these coins is the position of Alexius right arm being raised, the Manuel has the emperors r. arm in a lower position.
Simon
a3~0.jpg
1930B ALEXIUS AE TETARTERON S-1930 DOC 39 CLBC 2.4.6 20 viewsOBV Bust of Virgin nimbate, orans, wearing tunic and maphorion.

REV Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision and chlamys; holds in r. hand labarum on a long shaft and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 20/21mm

Weight 1.9gm

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron. This coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

This coin is a mangled mess overstruck and made quickly.

DOC lists 5 examples with weights ranging from 2.05gm to 4.02gm and sizes ranging from 20mm to 22m
Simon
k5.jpg
1930c ALEXIUS AE TETARTERON S-1930 DOC 39 CLBC 2.4.6 18 viewsOBV Bust of Virgin nimbate, orans, wearing tunic and maphorion.

REV Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision and chlamys; holds in r. hand labarum on a long shaft and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 21.58mm

Weight 2.8gm

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron. This coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

DOC lists 5 examples with weights ranging from 2.05gm to 4.02gm and sizes ranging from 20mm to 22m

It is difficult to find a clean strike of this issue.
Simon
l3.jpg
1931 ALEXIUS AE TETARTERON S-1931 DOC 40 CLBC 2.4.7 57 viewsOBV Jeweled radiate Cross, decorated at the end of each limb with one large globule and two smaller, all on two steps.

REV. Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision and jeweled loros of traditional type; holds in r. hand scepter cruciger and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 18/21mm

Weight 3.3gm

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron. This coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

DOC lists 25 examples with weights running from1.09gm to 4.22gm and sizes ranging from 17mm to 23mm

I have another example in my collection that has a weight of 6.2 gm and 25mm
Simon
d3.jpg
1931A ALEXIUS AE TETARTERON S-1931 DOC 40 CLBC 2.4.7 19 views
OBV Jeweled radiate Cross, decorated at the end of each limb with one large globule and two smaller, all on two steps.

REV. Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision and jeweled loros of traditional type; holds in r. hand scepter cruciger and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 23/20mm

Weight 5.2gm

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron. This coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

DOC lists 25 examples with weights running from1.09gm to 4.22gm and sizes ranging from 17mm to 23mm

I have another example in my collection that has a weight of 6.2 gm and 25mm This coin is its brother being purchased from the same dealer at the same auction.
Simon
s-1931-4c.jpg
1931B ALEXIUS AE TETARTERON S-1931 DOC 40 CLBC 2.4.7 SBCV-1910???49 viewsOBV Jeweled radiate Cross, decorated at the end of each limb with one large globule and two smaller, all on two steps.

REV. Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision and jeweled loros of traditional type; holds in r. hand scepter cruciger and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 25/22mm

Weight 3.2gm

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron. This coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

DOC lists 25 examples with weights running from1.09gm to 4.22gm and sizes ranging from 17mm to 23mm

This example is more than likely the coin listed as S-1910 , Sear 1931 struck over a Class I or Class K anonymous follis. Hendys ( S-1910) lists at 2.96gm around 23mm
Simon
c3~0.jpg
1931C ALEXIUS AE TETARTERON S-1931 DOC 40 CLBC 2.4.7 23 viewsOBV Jeweled radiate Cross, decorated at the end of each limb with one large globule and two smaller, all on two steps.

REV. Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision and jeweled loros of traditional type; holds in r. hand scepter cruciger and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 23/25mm

Weight 6.2

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron. This coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

DOC lists 25 examples with weights running from1.09gm to 4.22gm and sizes ranging from 17mm to 23mm

This is the heaviest example noted, at 6.2 gm
Simon
4v.jpg
1931D ALEXIUS AE TETARTERON S-1931 DOC 40 CLBC 2.4.7 24 viewsOBV Jeweled radiate Cross, decorated at the end of each limb with one large globule and two smaller, all on two steps.

REV. Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision and jeweled loros of traditional type; holds in r. hand scepter cruciger and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 18/20mm

Weight 3.2 gm

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron. This coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

DOC lists 25 examples with weights running from1.09gm to 4.22gm and sizes ranging from 17mm to 23mm

This coin is a very pleasing example grading VF/F

I have another example in my collection that has a weight of 6.2 gm and 25mm
Simon
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1931E ALEXIUS AE TETARTERON S-1931 DOC 40 CLBC 2.4.7 27 viewsOBV Jeweled radiate Cross, decorated at the end of each limb with one large globule and two smaller, all on two steps.

REV. Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision and jeweled loros of traditional type; holds in r. hand scepter cruciger and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 21/16 mm

Weight 2.6

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron. This coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

DOC lists 25 examples with weights running from1.09gm to 4.22gm and sizes ranging from 17mm to 23mm

This is my smallest example, I love the green patina, it was one of my earliest acquisitions.
Simon
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1931G ALEXIUS AE Tetarteron S-1931 Var DOC 40 Var CLBC 2.4.7 24 viewsOBV Jeweled radiate Cross, decorated at the end of each limb with one large globule and two smaller, all on two steps.

REV. Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision and jeweled loros of traditional type; holds in r. hand scepter cruciger and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 20/22mm

Weight 1.3gm

This is a barbarous imitation and an attempt to copy DOC 40

This coin is not listed in DOC or Sear but it is in CLBC They record sizes from 20-21mm and weights 3.0 to 3.5 gm , this example is very flat unlike my other, the seller sold it as a trachy but it is not concaved in any way. This is also a very low weight.
Simon
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1931vaALEXIUS AE Imitation TETARTERON S-1931 DOC 40 CLBC 2.4.7 21 viewsOBV Jeweled radiate Cross, decorated at the end of each limb with one large globule and two smaller, all on two steps.

REV. Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision and jeweled loros of traditional type; holds in r. hand scepter cruciger and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 18.33gm

Weight 1.7gm

This is another imitation coin, the weight is a tip off and the style is not right. Imitation coins of this style were very common and were misted into the 1200's long after Alexius death.

DOC lists 25 examples with weights running from1.09gm to 4.22gm and sizes ranging from 17mm to 23mm
Simon
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1931x ALEXIUS AE TETARTERON S-1931 DOC 40 CLBC 2.4.7 42 viewsOBV Jeweled radiate Cross, decorated at the end of each limb with one large globule and two smaller, all on two steps.

REV. Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision and jeweled loros of traditional type; holds in r. hand scepter cruciger and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 19.72mm

Weight 3.2 gm

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron. This coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

DOC lists 25 examples with weights running from1.09gm to 4.22gm and sizes ranging from 17mm to 23mm

This coin is a very pleasing example grading, the patina makes the photo.
Simon
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1931y ALEXIUS AE TETARTERON S-1931 DOC 40 CLBC 2.4.7 44 viewsOBV Jeweled radiate Cross, decorated at the end of each limb with one large globule and two smaller, all on two steps.

REV. Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision and jeweled loros of traditional type; holds in r. hand scepter cruciger and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 19.72

Weight 2.8gm

Very nice example..

DOC lists 25 examples with weights running from1.09gm to 4.22gm and sizes ranging from 17mm to 23mm
Simon
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1932 ALEXIUS AE HALF TETARTERON S-1932 DOC 45 CLBC 2.4.8 21 viewsOBV Patriarchal cross on two steps.

REV Bust of emperor wearing stemma divitision and jeweled loros and in r. hand holding jeweled scepter and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 15.81mm

Weight 2.0gm

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron.The half tetartera at 1/1728 Hyperpyron. These coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

DOC lists 42 examples with weights ranging from .59gm to 3.22gm and sizes ranging from 13mm to 18mm

I have many of these coins that very much vary in their design, I do not believe these coins came from one mint but many different mints. The cross design changes in many different ways. This is an easy coin to acquire, the trick is finding the nice ones and with a denomination so small little effort was put into minting perfect coins. This example has good relief on both sides but the Globus Cruciger is missing due to an imperfect strike. I believe this one by style alone to be minted in Thessalonica.
Simon
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1932A ALEXIUS AE HALF TETARTERON S-1932 DOC 45 CLBC 2.4.8 15 viewsOBV Patriarchal cross on two steps.

REV Bust of emperor wearing stemma divitision and jeweled loros and in r. hand holding jeweled scepter and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 13mm

Weight 2.09gm

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron.The half tetartera at 1/1728 Hyperpyron. These coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

DOC lists 42 examples with weights ranging from .59gm to 3.22gm and sizes ranging from 13mm to 18mm

This is an easy coin to acquire, the trick is finding the nice ones and with a denomination so small little effort was put into minting perfect coins. This example has good relief on both sides , it is a thicker but smaller in size version, I believe this example to be from the Thessalonica mint.
Simon
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1932B ALEXIUS AE HALF TETARTERON S-1932 DOC 45 CLBC 2.4.8 23 viewsOBV Patriarchal cross on two steps.

REV Bust of emperor wearing stemma divitision and jeweled loros and in r. hand holding jeweled scepter and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 17/15mm

Weight 2.0gm


DOC lists 42 examples with weights ranging from .59gm to 3.22gm and sizes ranging from 13mm to 18mm

I have many of these coins that very much vary in their design, I do not believe these coins came from one mint but many different mints. Some official, some not. The cross design changes in many different ways. This is an easy coin to acquire, the trick is finding the nice ones and with a denomination so small little effort was put into minting perfect coins.
Simon
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1932C ALEXIUS AE HALF TETARTERON S-1932 DOC 45 CLBC 2.4.8 24 viewsOBV Patriarchal cross on two steps.

REV Bust of emperor wearing stemma divitision and jeweled loros and in r. hand holding jeweled scepter and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 14/12mm

Weight 1.0gm


DOC lists 42 examples with weights ranging from .59gm to 3.22gm and sizes ranging from 13mm to 18mm

I have many of these coins that very much vary in their design, I do not believe these coins came from one mint but many different mints. The cross design changes in many different ways. This is an easy coin to acquire, the trick is finding the nice ones and with a denomination so small little effort was put into minting perfect coins

This example I have always admired, the portrait of Alexius is so simple it is beautiful. Reminds me of a Guy Fox mask.
Simon
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1932D ALEXIUS AE HALF TETARTERON S-1932 DOC 45 CLBC 2.4.8 IMITATION 19 viewsOBV Patriarchal cross on two steps.

REV Bust of emperor wearing stemma divitision and jeweled loros and in r. hand holding jeweled scepter and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 15.59mm

Weight .6 gm

This is a regional minted coin, it contains no silver. These coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace. Imitation perhaps produced in the 13th century.

DOC lists 42 examples with weights ranging from .59gm to 3.22gm and sizes ranging from 13mm to 18mm

I have many of these coins that very much vary in their design, I do not believe these coins came from one mint but many different mints. The cross design changes in many different ways. This is an easy coin to acquire, the trick is finding the nice ones and with a denomination so small little effort was put into minting perfect coins

Very thin flan light weight, patina makes it an interesting example.
Simon
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1932E ALEXIUS AE HALF TETARTERON S-1932 DOC 45 CLBC 2.4.8 19 viewsOBV Patriarchal cross on two steps.

REV Bust of emperor wearing stemma divitision and jeweled loros and in r. hand holding jeweled scepter and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 17.5/14

Weight 1.6mm

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron.The half tetartera at 1/1728 Hyperpyron. These coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

DOC lists 42 examples with weights ranging from .59gm to 3.22gm and sizes ranging from 13mm to 18mm

I have many of these coins that very much vary in their design, I do not believe these coins came from one mint but many different mints. The cross design changes in many different ways. This is an easy coin to acquire, the trick is finding the nice ones and with a denomination so small little effort was put into minting perfect coins

Again the cross on this coin was my main interest for the collection.
Simon
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1933 ALEXIUS TETARTERON S-1933 DOC43 CLBC 2.4.9 33 viewsOBV Full Length figure of Christ bearded and nimbate wearing tunic and kolobion; holds Gospels in l. hand.

REV Full length figure of Emperor wearing stemma, divitision, and wearing jeweled loros of simplified type; holds in r hand labarum on long shaft and in l. gl.cr.

Size 21.94

Weight 3.6

This coin and S-1934 I believe were minted in Cyprus, these coins were once very rare but recently they have been hitting the market much more frequently. Most of these offerings are coming from Cyprus dealers.

This coin has a beautiful deep green Patina that hinders its photo. One of my nicest examples.

DOC Lists 1 example not in their collection. Weight 2.44gm and size 18mm
1 commentsSimon
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1933A ALEXIUS TETARTERON S-1933 DOC43 CLBC 2.4.9 16 viewsOBV Full Length figure of Christ bearded and nimbate wearing tunic and kolobion; holds Gospels in l. hand.

REV Full length figure of Emperor wearing stemma, divitision, and wearing jeweled loros of simplified type; holds in r hand labarum on long shaft and in l. gl.cr.

Size 17/18mm

Weight 2.7gm

This coin and S-1934 I believe were minted in Cyprus, these coins were once very rare but recently they have been hitting the market much more frequently. Most of these offerings are coming from Cyprus dealers.

DOC Lists 1 example not in their collection. Weight 2.44gm and size 18mm
Simon
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1933B ALEXIUS TETARTERON S-1933 DOC43 CLBC 2.4.9 16 viewsOBV Full Length figure of Christ bearded and nimbate wearing tunic and kolobion; holds Gospels in l. hand.

REV Full length figure of Emperor wearing stemma, divitision, and wearing jeweled loros of simplified type; holds in r hand labarum on long shaft and in l. gl.cr.

Size 23/16mm

Weight 3.1gm

This coin and S-1934 I believe were minted in Cyprus, these coins were once very rare but recently they have been hitting the market much more frequently. Most of these offerings are coming from Cyprus dealers.

Triangle shaped flan.

DOC Lists 1 example not in their collection. Weight 2.44gm and size 18mm
Simon
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1933E ALEXIUS TETARTERON S-1933 DOC43 CLBC 2.4.9 17 viewsOBV Full Length figure of Christ bearded and nimbate wearing tunic and kolobion; holds Gospels in l. hand.

REV Full length figure of Emperor wearing stemma, divitision, and wearing jeweled loros of simplified type; holds in r hand labarum on long shaft and in l. gl.cr.

Size 23mm

Weight 5.44gm

This coin and S-1934 I believe were minted in Cyprus, these coins were once very rare but recently they have been hitting the market much more frequently. Most of these offerings are coming from Cyprus dealers.

Triangle shaped flan.

DOC Lists 1 example not in their collection. Weight 2.44gm and size 18mm
Simon
s-1934c.jpg
1934 ALEXIUS AE HALF TETARTERON S-1934 DOC 44 CLBC 2.4.10 15 viewsOBV Bust of Virgin wearing tunic and maphorion

REV Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision, and chlamys; holds in r. hand labarum on long shaft and in l. Globus crucifer.

Size 15mm

Weight 1.8gm

This coin and S-1933 I believe were minted in Cyprus, these coins were once very rare but recently they have been hitting the market much more frequently. Most of these offerings are coming from Cyprus dealers.

DOC lists 2 examples with weight ranging from 1.57 gm to 2.15gm and both are sized at 16mm
Simon
s-1934-1c.jpg
1934A ALEXIUS AE HALF TETARTERON S-1934 DOC 44 CLBC 2.4.10 18 viewsOBV Bust of Virgin wearing tunic and maphorion

REV Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision, and chlamys; holds in r. hand labarum onlong shaft and in l. Globus crucifer.

Size 16.67mm

Weight 2.9gm

This coin and S-1933 I believe were minted in Cyprus, these coins were once very rare but recently they have been hitting the market much more frequently. Most of these offerings are coming from Cyprus dealers.

I currently have several examples of this coin and this is my favorite, I love the style of coin, it reminds me of the detailed coinage of Isaac Commenus of Cyprus

DOC lists 2 examples with weight ranging from 1.57 gm to 2.15gm and both are sized at 16mm .
Simon
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1934B ALEXIUS AE HALF TETARTERON S-1934 DOC 44 CLBC 2.4.10 18 viewsOBV Bust of Virgin wearing tunic and maphorion

REV Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision, and chlamys; holds in r. hand labarum onlong shaft and in l. Globus crucifer.

Size 16/15

Weight 1.7 gm

This coin and S-1933 I believe were minted in Cyprus, these coins were once very rare but recently they have been hitting the market much more frequently. Most of these offerings are coming from Cyprus dealers.

DOC lists 2 examples with weight ranging from 1.57 gm to 2.15gm and both are sized at 16mm
Simon
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1934C ALEXIUS AE HALF TETARTERON S-1934 DOC 44 CLBC 2.4.10 45 viewsOBV Bust of Virgin wearing tunic and maphorion

REV Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision, and chlamys; holds in r. hand labarum onlong shaft and in l. Globus crucifer.

Size 16.34mm

Weight 3.00gm

This coin and S-1933 I believe were minted in Cyprus, these coins were once very rare but recently they have been hitting the market much more frequently. Most of these offerings are coming from Cyprus dealers.

DOC lists 2 examples with weight ranging from 1.57 gm to 2.15gm and both are sized at 16mm

This example is a good very fine, my best example.
Simon
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1934D ALEXIUS AE HALF TETARTERON S-1934 DOC 44 CLBC 2.4.10 42 views OBV Bust of Virgin wearing tunic and maphorion

REV Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision, and chlamys; holds in r. hand labarum onlong shaft and in l. Globus crucifer.

Size 15.76mm

Weight 3.1gm

This coin has been in my collection the longest and is very different from the other examples , the flan is much thicker It differs from the examples that are showing in the market today, I believe it to be from another mint. The coin was acquired in a group lot I acquired a dozen years ago, I have no idea of the dealers origin.

DOC lists 2 examples with weight ranging from 1.57 gm to 2.15gm and both are sized at 16mm
Simon
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1938 JOHN II HYPERPYRON NOMISMA IV DOC 1 Constantinople First Coinage SBCV-193825 viewsOBV Christ Bearded and Nimbate , wearing tunic and kolobion, seated upon a throne without back: r. hand raised in benediction , holds gospels in l.

REV Half length figure of emperor on l. and of Virgin , holding between them Partriarcghal cross on long shaft. Emperor wears stemma, divitision, collar piece, and paneled loros of simplified type; holds anexikakia in r. hand. Virgin wears tunic and maphorion. Manus Dei in upeer left field.

Size 30mm

Weight 4.0gm
.
DOC lists 17 examples with weights from 4.04gm to 4.40gm and sizes ranging from 30mm to 36mm

Not a perfect example but had a wonderful Provenance, has original ticket from J Schulman coin dealers in Amsterdam before WWII, (From the start Jacques Schulman kept meticulous records of every coin and medal in his inventory, sales, and auctions. These were index cards that formed a database in the exact same way libraries kept their catalogue card index for books, and other printed materials.
Simon
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1944 JOHN II BILLION TRACHY NOMISA IV DOC 10 Constantinople SBCV-194422 viewsOBV IC XC in field
Bust of Christ bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion, holds Gospels in l. hand. Pellet in each limb of nimbus cross.

REV Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision,collar piece and paneled loros of a simplified type; holds in r hand scepter cruciger and in l. gl.cr

Size 29.10

Weight 4.9gm

DOC lists 20 examples total with weights from 2.59gm to 5.00 gm and sizes from 28 to 30 mm. It has two variations A and B , both are equal in rarity , the difference is a stroke on shaft on type B.

This coin is very heavily silvered, it was part of a hoard that was once thought to be electrum, it is not, just very heavily silvered.
Simon
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1945 JOHN II METROPOLITIAN TETARTERON S-1945 DOC 12 CLBC 3.4.1 22 viewsOBV Full length figure of Christ standing on a dais, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds Gospels in l. hand.

REV Full length figure of Emperor wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece and jeweled loros of a simplified type. Holds in r. hand scepter cruciger and in l. hand gl. cr.

Size 20.14mm

Weight 4.5.gm

Cosmopolitan Issue were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of 3% and were also issued with a very light silver wash (Silver traces are common on Cosmopolitan issues but intact fully silvered coins are very rare.) These more than likely were tariffed at a higher rate than the Thessalonica issues that have been shown to have no silver content. Cosmopolitan issue are in general far scarcer than the Thessalonica issues.

DOC lists 27 examples with weights from 2,79gm to 4.69gm and sizes ranging from 18mm to 22mm
Simon
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1945A JOHN II Metropolitan Tetarteron S-1945 DOC 12 CLBC 3.4.1 20 viewsOBV Full length figure of Christ standing on a dais, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds Gospels in l. hand.

REV Full length figure of Emperor wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece and jeweled loros of a simplified type. Holds in r. hand scepter cruciger and in l. hand gl. cr.

Size 17.87mm

Weight 4.3gm

Cosmopolitan Issue were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of 3% and were also issued with a very light silver wash (Silver traces are common on Cosmopolitan issues but intact fully silvered coins are very rare.) These more than likely were tariffed at a higher rate than the Thessalonica issues that have been shown to have no silver content. Cosmopolitan issue are in general far scarcer than the Thessalonica issues.

DOC lists 27 examples with weights from 2,79gm to 4.69gm and sizes ranging from 18mm to 22mm

Interesting example because of the ancient graffiti on Christ, also the OC of the obverse gives the impression Christ is seated, he is not
Simon
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1945B JOHN II Metropolitan Tetarteron S-1945 DOC 12 CLBC 3.4.1 15 viewsOBV Full length figure of Christ standing on a dais, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds Gospels in l. hand.

REV Full length figure of Emperor wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece and jeweled loros of a simplified type. Holds in r. hand scepter cruciger and in l. hand gl. cr.

Size 18/19mm

Weight 3.8gm

Cosmopolitan Issue were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of 3% and were also issued with a very light silver wash (Silver traces are common on Cosmopolitan issues but intact fully silvered coins are very rare.) These more than likely were tariffed at a higher rate than the Thessalonica issues that have been shown to have no silver content. Cosmopolitan issue are in general far scarcer than the Thessalonica issues.

DOC lists 27 examples with weights from 2,79gm to 4.69gm and sizes ranging from 18mm to 22mm

John IIs Metro tetartera are easy to come by, the do not have the same rarity as the other emperors metro issues. This one has been in my collection near the beginning , it grades as fine an evenly worn.
Simon
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1945C JOHN II METROPOLITIAN ( HALF?)TETARTERON S-1945 DOC 12 CLBC 3.4.1 49 viewsOBV Full length figure of Christ standing on a dais, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds Gospels in l. hand.

REV Full length figure of Emperor wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece and jeweled loros of a simplified type. Holds in r. hand scepter cruciger and in l. hand gl. cr.

Size 17mm

Weight 2.18 gm

Cosmopolitan Issue were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of 3% and were also issued with a very light silver wash (Silver traces are common on Cosmopolitan issues but intact fully silvered coins are very rare.) These more than likely were tariffed at a higher rate than the Thessalonica issues that have been shown to have no silver content. Cosmopolitan issue are in general far scarcer than the Thessalonica issues.

DOC lists 27 examples with weights from 2,79gm to 4.69gm and sizes ranging from 18mm to 22mm
Simon
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1946 JOHN II METROPOLITIAN TETARTERON S-1946 DOC 13 CLBC 3.4.2 47 viewsOBV Bust of Virgin nimbate, orans, wearing tunic and maphorion.

REV Full length figure of Emperor wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece and jeweled loros of a simplified type. Holds in r. hand jeweled scepter and in l. hand gl. cr.

Size 17.71mm

Weight 4.2gm

Cosmopolitan Issue were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of 3% and were also issued with a very light silver wash (Silver traces are common on Cosmopolitan issues but intact fully silvered coins are very rare.) These more than likely were tariffed at a higher rate than the Thessalonica issues that have been shown to have no silver content. Cosmopolitan issue are in general far scarcer than the Thessalonica issues.

DOC lists 9 examples with weights from 2.97gm to 4.57gm and sizes from 17mm to 20mm

Beautiful unique coin design that no other emperor duplicated.
Simon
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1946 JOHN II METROPOLITIAN TETARTERON S-1946 DOC 13 CLBC 3.4.2 27 views
OBV Bust of Virgin nimbate, orans, wearing tunic and maphorion.

REV Full length figure of Emperor wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece and jeweled loros of a simplified type. Holds in r. hand jeweled scepter and in l. hand gl. cr.

Size 19mm

Weight 3.2gm

Cosmopolitan Issue were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of 3% and were also issued with a very light silver wash (Silver traces are common on Cosmopolitan issues but intact fully silvered coins are very rare.) These more than likely were tariffed at a higher rate than the Thessalonica issues that have been shown to have no silver content. Cosmopolitan issue are in general far scarcer than the Thessalonica issues.

DOC lists 9 examples with weights from 2.97gm to 4.57gm and sizes from 17mm to 20mm
Simon
s-1946-2c.jpg
1946a JOHN II METROPOLITIAN TETARTERON S-1946 DOC 13 CLBC 3.4.221 views1946 JOHN II METROPOLITIAN TETARTERON S-1946 DOC 13 CLBC 3.4.2

OBV Bust of Virgin nimbate, orans, wearing tunic and maphorion.

REV Full length figure of Emperor wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece and jeweled loros of a simplified type. Holds in r. hand jeweled scepter and in l. hand gl. cr.

Size

Weight

Cosmopolitan Issue were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of 3% and were also issued with a very light silver wash (Silver traces are common on Cosmopolitan issues but intact fully silvered coins are very rare.) These more than likely were tariffed at a higher rate than the Thessalonica issues that have been shown to have no silver content. Cosmopolitan issue are in general far scarcer than the Thessalonica issues.

DOC lists 9 examples with weights from 2.97gm to 4.57gm and sizes from 17mm to 20mm

Very old example in my collection, would grade as only fine. These coins rarely come to market and when they do the design does not command a high price. Mary was the patron of Constantinople, she is seen in much of the coinage minted there.
Simon
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1947 JOHN II HYPERPYRON NOMISMA IV DOC 1 Thessalonica First Coinage SBCV-194715 views JOHN II HYPERPYRON NOMISMA IV DOC 1 Thessalonica First Coinage SBCV-1947
OBV Christ Bearded and Nimbate , wearing tunic and kolobion, seated upon a throne without back: r. hand raised in benediction , holds gospels in l.

REV Half length figure of emperor on l. and of Virgin , holding between them Partriarcghal cross on long shaft. Emperor wears stemma, divitision, collar piece, and paneled loros of simplified type; holds anexikakia in r. hand. Virgin wears tunic and maphorion. Manus Dei in upeer left field.

Size 29mm

Weight 4.5gm

Thicker metal than Constantinople issue, very difficult to differentiate between the same issue from different mints.
Simon
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1953 JOHN II AE TETARTERON S-1953 DOC 14 CLBC 3.4.3 27 views
OBV Bust of Christ, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds gospels open in l. hand

REV. Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision and chlamys; holds in r. hand jeweled scepter on a long shaft and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 19/22mm

Weight 4.1gm

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron. This coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

DOC list 9 examples with weights ranging from 2.63gm to 4.19gm and sizes ranging from 19mm to 24mm

A personal favorite that has been in my collection for at least ten years. An ex Forum Coin.
1 commentsSimon
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1953 JOHN II AE TETARTERON S-1953V DOC 14 Zervos Variation92 viewsOBV Half length figure of Christ, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds gospels open in l. hand

REV. Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision and chlamys; holds in r. hand jeweled scepter on a long shaft and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size

Weight

This is a variation of the normal SBCV-1953 first published by Orestes Zervos in Jan 2005, The difference is very subtle, the article deals with this being found in the excavations at Corinth in almost equal numbers of SBCV-1953 but I found it a difficult and rare coin to acquire.

DOC list 9 examples with weights ranging from 2.63gm to 4.19gm and sizes ranging from 19mm to 24mm
3 commentsSimon
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1953A JOHN II AE TETARTERON S-1953 DOC 14 CLBC 3.4.3 51 viewsOBV Bust of Christ, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds gospels open in l. hand

REV. Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision and chlamys; holds in r. hand jeweled scepter on a long shaft and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 17mm

Weight 3.8gm

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron. This coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

DOC list 9 examples with weights ranging from 2.63gm to 4.19gm and sizes ranging from 19mm to 24mm

This is a smaller flan example, still has the weight of a full Tetarteron but a smaller flan than most. The details on this coin give it a grade of VF , very pleasing example.
Simon
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1953A JOHN II AE TETARTERON S-1953V DOC 14 Zervos Variation 20 viewsOBV Half length figure of Christ, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds gospels open in l. hand

REV. Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision and chlamys; holds in r. hand jeweled scepter on a long shaft and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 19.17mm

Weight 3.6gm

This is a variation of the normal SBCV-1953 first published by Orestes Zervos in Jan 2005, The difference is very subtle, the article deals with this being found in the excavations at Corinth in almost equal numbers of SBCV-1953 but I found it a difficult and rare coin to acquire.

Simon
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1953B JOHN II AE Tetarteron S-1953 DOC 14 CLBC 3.4.3 22 viewsOBV Bust of Christ, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds gospels open in l. hand

REV. Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision and chlamys; holds in r. hand jeweled scepter on a long shaft and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 21mm

Weight 6.1gm

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron. This coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

DOC list 9 examples with weights ranging from 2.63gm to 4.19gm and sizes ranging from 19mm to 24mm

This one is in the collection because of its heavy weight. I would grade it at VG/aF However this is the heaviest I have seen listed anywhere.
Simon
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1953V JOHN II AE Tetarteron S-NL DOC 15 CLBC 3.4.4 17 viewsOBV Bust of Christ, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds gospels open in l. hand

REV. Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision and jeweled loros of a traditional type; holds in r. labarum on a long shaft and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 16.85mm

Weight 3.4gm

Not very much is known of this coin, Hendy included it in DOC because one example in a private collection. Since then at least one other example besides this has come to light. This coin is by far is in the best condition between the three known.

This coin is not listed in Sear or Greirson.
Simon
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1953V JOHN II AE Tetarteron S-NL DOC 15 CLBC 3.4.4 11 viewsOBV Bust of Christ, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds gospels open in l. hand

REV. Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision and jeweled loros of a traditional type; holds in r. labarum on a long shaft and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 16.85mm

Weight 3.4gm

Not very much is known of this coin, Hendy included it in DOC because one example in a private collection. Since then at least one other example besides this has come to light. This coin is by far is in the best condition between the three known.

This coin is not listed in Sear or Greirson.
Simon
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1954 JOHN II AE HALF TETARTERON S-1954 DOC 16 CLBC 3.4.5 17 viewsOBV Full length figure of Christ standing on a dais, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds Gospels in l. hand.

REV. Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision and chlamys; holds in r. labrum headed scepter and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 15.59mm

Weight 2.2gm

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron.The half tetartera at 1/1728 Hyperpyron. These coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

This is a choice example easily grading EF/VF

DOC lists 14 examples with weights from 1.16 gm. to 2.52 and sizes from 15mm to 19mm
Simon
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1954A JOHN II AE HALF TETARTERON S-1954 DOC 16 CLBC 3.4.5 54 viewsOBV Full length figure of Christ standing on a dais, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds Gospels in l. hand.

REV. Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision and chlamys; holds in r. labrum headed scepter and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 16.38mm

Weight 1.7mm

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron.The half tetartera at 1/1728 Hyperpyron. These coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

DOC lists 14 examples with weights from 1.16 gm. to 2.52 and sizes from 15mm to 19mm
Simon
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1954B JOHN II AE HALF TETARTERON S-1954 DOC 16 CLBC 3.4.553 viewsOBV Full length figure of Christ standing on a dais, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds Gospels in l. hand.

REV. Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision and chlamys; holds in r. labrum headed scepter and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 16.25mm

Weight 2.5gm

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron.The half tetartera at 1/1728 Hyperpyron. These coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today�s marketplace.

DOC lists 14 examples with weights from 1.16 gm. to 2.52 and sizes from 15mm to 19mm
Simon
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1954CV JOHN II AE HALF TETARTERON S-1954V DOC NL CLBC NL Hand Raised Variation 14 viewsOBV Full length figure of Christ standing on a dais, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; right hand raised high in benediction holds Gospels in l. hand.

REV. Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision and chlamys; holds in r. labrum headed scepter and in l. Globus cruciger.
This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron. This coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

Size 19mm

Weight 2.6 gm

Several examples of this coin have been identified, the only variation is the R. hand is raised much higher than normal as if a blessing. I have seen enough examples of this coin with the variation for it to be an unlisted issue.
Simon
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1954DV JOHN II AE HALF TETARTERON S-1954V DOC NL CLBC NL 15 viewsOBV Full length figure of Christ standing on a dais, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; right hand raised high in benediction holds Gospels in l. hand.

REV. Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision and chlamys; holds in r. labrum headed scepter and in l. Globus cruciger.
This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron. This coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

Size 16mm

Weight 1.9gm
This coin even though in poor condition is also an example of the Right arm raised .l. However it is of mixed consensus to this being a new variation
Simon
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196/1 AE As30 viewsAnonymous [Star]. Ć As. Rome Mint. c 169-158 BC. (32 mm, 17.95 g, 4 h) Rev: Laureate head of Janus; above, I. Obv: Prow of galley right; above, star; before, I; below, ROMA.
BMCRR 461; Syd 264; Crawford 196/1

Reddish-brown patina with some black spots. Nearly very fine.
A duplicate from the RBW Collection of Roman Republican Coins. Purchased privately from Frank Kovacs in 1988

Ex: Triskles
Paddy
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1967 MANUEL METROPOLITIAN TETARTERON S-1967 DOC 14 CLBC 4.4.1 44 viewsOBV Bust of Christ, beardless and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds scroll n in l. hand. Pellet in each limb of nimbus cross.

REV. Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision, and collar piece, and paneled loros of simplified type; holds in r. labarum on long shaft , and in l. Globus cruciger

Size 18/17mm

Weight 2.4gm

Cosmopolitan Issue were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of 3% and were also issued with a very light silver wash (Silver traces are common on Cosmopolitan issues but intact fully silvered coins are very rare.) These more than likely were tariffed at a higher rate than the Thessalonica issues that have been shown to have no silver content. Cosmopolitan issue are in general far scarcer than the Thessalonica issues

This is one of my two examples of this coin and would grade as only fine, few years back a small batch of these in beautiful condition were on ebay but I lacked the funding to add to my collection. To this day nice examples or any examples are rarely seen.

DOC lists 14 examples with weights from 2.63mm to 4.8mm and sizes from 18mm to 20mm
Simon
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1967 MANUEL METROPOLITIAN TETARTERON S-1967 DOC 14 CLBC 4.4.1 18 viewsOBV Bust of Christ, beardless and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds scroll n in l. hand. Pellet in each limb of nimbus cross.

REV. Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision, and collar piece, and paneled loros of simplified type; holds in r. labarum on long shaft , and in l. Globus cruciger

Size 19mm

Weight 3.54gm

Cosmopolitan Issue were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of 3% and were also issued with a very light silver wash (Silver traces are common on Cosmopolitan issues but intact fully silvered coins are very rare.) These more than likely were tariffed at a higher rate than the Thessalonica issues that have been shown to have no silver content. Cosmopolitan issue are in general far scarcer than the Thessalonica issues

My nicest example, Both Christ and Manuel are depicted as young men.

DOC lists 14 examples with weights from 2.63mm to 4.8mm and sizes from 18mm to 20mm
Simon
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1967A MANUEL METROPOLITIAN TETARTERON S-1967 DOC 14 CLBC 4.4.1 49 viewsOBV Bust of Christ, beardless and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds scroll n in l. hand. Pellet in each limb of nimbus cross.

REV. Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision, and collar piece, and paneled loros of simplified type; holds in r. labarum on long shaft , and in l. Globus cruciger

Size 17.97 mm

Weight 3.2 gm

Cosmopolitan Issue were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of 3% and were also issued with a very light silver wash (Silver traces are common on Cosmopolitan issues but intact fully silvered coins are very rare.) These more than likely were tariffed at a higher rate than the Thessalonica issues that have been shown to have no silver content. Cosmopolitan issue are in general far scarcer than the Thessalonica issues

Lightly nicer than my other example , the reverse would grade as aVF, the obv has an old collectors mark or museum mark on it.

DOC lists 14 examples with weights from 2.63mm to 4.8mm and sizes from 18mm to 20mm
Simon
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1968 MANUEL METROPOLITIAN TETARTERON S-1968 DOC 15 CLBC 4.4.2 47 viewsOBV Full length figure of the Virgin, nimbate, orans, wearing tunic, and maphorion turned to the r. Manus Dei (Hands of God) in upper field to r.

REV Full length figure of emperor, bearded, wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece, jeweled loros of a simplified type and Saigon; holds in right hand scepter cruciger and in l. anexikakia

Size 16/20mm

Weight 3.2gm

Cosmopolitan Issue were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of 3% and were also issued with a very light silver wash (Silver traces are common on Cosmopolitan issues but intact fully silvered coins are very rare.) These more than likely were tariffed at a higher rate than the Thessalonica issues that have been shown to have no silver content. Cosmopolitan issue are in general far scarcer than the Thessalonica issues

DOC lists 34 examples with weights from 2.32 to 4.9gm and size from 17mm to 22mm
Simon
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1968B MANUEL METROPOLITIAN TETARTERON S-1968 DOC 15 CLBC 4.4.2 23 viewsOBV Full length figure of the Virgin, nimbate, orans, wearing tunic, and maphorion turned to the r. Manus Dei (Hands of God) in upper field to r.

REV Full length figure of emperor, bearded, wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece, jeweled loros of a simplified type and Saigon; holds in right hand scepter cruciger and in l. anexikakia

Size 17/20mm

Weight 3.2gm

Cosmopolitan Issue were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of 3% and were also issued with a very light silver wash (Silver traces are common on Cosmopolitan issues but intact fully silvered coins are very rare.) These more than likely were tariffed at a higher rate than the Thessalonica issues that have been shown to have no silver content. Cosmopolitan issue are in general far scarcer than the Thessalonica issues

DOC lists 34 examples with weights from 2.32 to 4.9gm and size from 17mm to 22mm

It is a shame for the cut at the head of Manuel, this coin would grade EF otherwise.
Simon
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1968CV MANUEL METROPOLITIAN TETARTERON S-1968v DOC NL A CLBC 4.4.2A 28 viewsOBV Full length figure of the Virgin, nimbate, orans ,wearing tunic, and maphorion turned to the r. Manus Dei (Hands of God) in upper field to r.

REV Full length figure of emperor, bearded, wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece, jeweled loros of a simplified type and Saigon; holds in right a labrum headed scepter and in l. anexikakia

Size 19.84mm

Weight 3.2gm

Cosmopolitan Issue were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of 3% and were also issued with a very light silver wash (Silver traces are common on Cosmopolitan issues but intact fully silvered coins are very rare.) These more than likely were tariffed at a higher rate than the Thessalonica issues that have been shown to have no silver content. Cosmopolitan issue are in general far scarcer than the Thessalonica issues
Simon
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1968d MANUEL METROPOLITIAN TETARTERON SBCV-1968 DOC 15 CLBC 4.4.227 viewsOBV Full length figure of the Virgin, nimbate, orans, wearing tunic, and maphorion turned to the r. Manus Dei (Hands of God) in upper field to r.

REV Full length figure of emperor, bearded, wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece, jeweled loros of a simplified type and Saigon; holds in right hand scepter cruciger and in l. anexikakia

Size 20.53mm

Weight 4.2gm

Cosmopolitan Issue were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of 3% and were also issued with a very light silver wash (Silver traces are common on Cosmopolitan issues but intact fully silvered coins are very rare.) These more than likely were tariffed at a higher rate than the Thessalonica issues that have been shown to have no silver content. Cosmopolitan issue are in general far scarcer than the Thessalonica issues

DOC lists 34 examples with weights from 2.32 to 4.9gm and size from 17mm to 22mm

The coins only flaw, wear on the Virgins face. Other that near perfect centering and a wonderful reverse strike.
2 commentsSimon
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1968DV MANUEL METROPOLITIAN TETARTERON S-1968v DOC NL A CLBC 4.4.2A 14 viewsOBV Full length figure of the Virgin, nimbate, orans ,wearing tunic, and maphorion turned to the r. Manus Dei (Hands of God) in upper field to r.

REV Full length figure of emperor, bearded, wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece, jeweled loros of a simplified type and Saigon; holds in right a labrum headed scepter and in l. anexikakia

Size 18mm

Weight 3.5gm

Cosmopolitan Issue were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of 3% and were also issued with a very light silver wash (Silver traces are common on Cosmopolitan issues but intact fully silvered coins are very rare.) These more than likely were tariffed at a higher rate than the Thessalonica issues that have been shown to have no silver content. Cosmopolitan issue are in general far scarcer than the Thessalonica issues
Simon
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1968DV MANUEL METROPOLITIAN TETARTERON S-1968v DOC NL A CLBC 4.4.2A 53 viewsOBV Full length figure of the Virgin, nimbate, orans ,wearing tunic, and maphorion turned to the r. Manus Dei (Hands of God) in upper field to r.

REV Full length figure of emperor, bearded, wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece, jeweled loros of a simplified type and Saigon; holds in right a labrum headed scepter and in l. anexikakia

Size 18/19.7mm

Weight 3.4gm

Cosmopolitan Issue were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of 3% and were also issued with a very light silver wash (Silver traces are common on Cosmopolitan issues but intact fully silvered coins are very rare.) These more than likely were tariffed at a higher rate than the Thessalonica issues that have been shown to have no silver content. Cosmopolitan issue are in general far scarcer than the Thessalonica issues
Simon
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1968f MANUEL METROPOLITIAN TETARTERON SBCV-1968 variation patriarchal cross20 viewsOBV Full length figure of the Virgin, nimbate, orans, wearing tunic, and maphorion turned to the r. Manus Dei (Hands of God) in upper field to r.

REV Full length figure of emperor, bearded, wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece, jeweled loros of a simplified type and Saigon; holds in right hand patriarchal cross and in l. anexikakia

Size 20.53mm

Weight 4.2gm

Cosmopolitan Issue were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of 3% and were also issued with a very light silver wash (Silver traces are common on Cosmopolitan issues but intact fully silvered coins are very rare.) These more than likely were tariffed at a higher rate than the Thessalonica issues that have been shown to have no silver content. Cosmopolitan issue are in general far scarcer than the Thessalonica issues

DOC lists 34 examples with weights from 2.32 to 4.9gm and size from 17mm to 22mm

Tis is the only type I have seen with this type cross.

Simon
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1969B MANUEL METROPOLITIAN TETARTERON S-1969 DOC 16 CLBC 4.4.3 46 viewsOBV Full length figure of Christ standing on a dais, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; right hand raised high in benediction holds Gospels in l. hand. Pellets in each limb of nimbus cross.

REV Full length figure of emperor, bearded, wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece, jeweled loros of a simplified type and Saigon; holds in right a labrum on a long shaft. On which X and in l. globus cruciger


Size 18.19 mm

Weight 3.6gm

Cosmopolitan Issue were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of 3% and were also issued with a very light silver wash (Silver traces are common on Cosmopolitan issues but intact fully silvered coins are very rare.) These more than likely were tariffed at a higher rate than the Thessalonica issues that have been shown to have no silver content. Cosmopolitan issue are in general far scarcer than the Thessalonica issues

DOC lists 11 examples with weights from 2.76 to 4.14 gm and sizes from 18mm to 20mm
Simon
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1969B MANUEL METROPOLITIAN TETARTERON S-1969 DOC 16 CLBC 4.4.3 55 viewsOBV Full length figure of Christ standing on a dais, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; right hand raised high in benediction holds Gospels in l. hand. Pellets in each limb of nimbus cross.

REV Full length figure of emperor, bearded, wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece, jeweled loros of a simplified type and Saigon; holds in right a labrum on a long shaft. On which X and in l. globus cruciger


Size 21.5mm

Weight 4.2gm

Cosmopolitan Issue were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of 3% and were also issued with a very light silver wash (Silver traces are common on Cosmopolitan issues but intact fully silvered coins are very rare.) These more than likely were tariffed at a higher rate than the Thessalonica issues that have been shown to have no silver content. Cosmopolitan issue are in general far scarcer than the Thessalonica issues

DOC lists 11 examples with weights from 2.76 to 4.14 gm and sizes from 18mm to 20mm

This is my second example added to the collection, condition is a bit sad VG/ aF however it shows the other details my other example lacks. This is the hardest of the Manuel tetartera to acquire.
Simon