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Search results - "Valerianus"
Valerianus_AR-Ant_IMP-C-P-LIC-VALERIANVS-P-F-AVG_APOLINI-CONSERVA_RIC-V-I-72A-p-44_C-17_Rome_256-357-AD_Q-001_6h_21,5mm_2,98g-s.jpg
088 Valerian I. (253-260 A.D.), RIC V-I 072A, Rome, AR-Antoninianus, APOLINI CONSERVA, Apollo standing left, #1115 views088 Valerian I. (253-260 A.D.), RIC V-I 072A, Rome, AR-Antoninianus, APOLINI CONSERVA, Apollo standing left, #1
avers: IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS P F AVG, Radiate and draped bust right.
reverse: APOLINI CONSERVA, Apollo standing left holding branch and lyre on the rock.
exergue:-/-//--, diameter: 21,5mm, weight: 2,98g, axis: 6h,
mint: Rome, date: 256-57A.D., ref: RIC V-I 072A, p-44, C-17, Göbl-72c, Sear 9925,
Q-001
quadrans
Valerianus_AR-Ant_IMP-C-P-LIC-VALERIANVS-AVG_APOLINI-PROPVG_RIC-V-I-74-p-45-1A_C-25_Rome_253-AD_Q-001_axis-1h_18,5-20mm_3,60g-a-s.jpg
088 Valerian I. (253-260 A.D.), RIC V-I 074, Rome, AR-Antoninianus, APOLINI PROPVG, Apollo standing right, #184 views088 Valerian I. (253-260 A.D.), RIC V-I 074, Rome, AR-Antoninianus, APOLINI PROPVG, Apollo standing right, #1
avers: IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS AVG, Radiate, draped bust right.
reverse: APOLINI PROPVG, Apollo standing right, drawing a bow.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 18,5-20mm, weight: 3,60g, axis: 1h,
mint: Rome, date: 253 A.D., ref: RIC V-I 74, p-45, C-25,
Q-001
quadrans
Valerianus_AR-Ant_IMP-C-P-LIC-VALERIANVS-AVG_APOLINI-PROPVG_RIC-V-I-74-p-45-1A_C-25_Rome_253-AD_Q-002_6h_20,5-22mm_3,10g-s.jpg
088 Valerian I. (253-260 A.D.), RIC V-I 074, Rome, AR-Antoninianus, APOLINI PROPVG, Apollo standing right, #280 views088 Valerian I. (253-260 A.D.), RIC V-I 074, Rome, AR-Antoninianus, APOLINI PROPVG, Apollo standing right, #2
avers: IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS AVG, Radiate, draped bust right.
reverse: APOLINI PROPVG, Apollo standing right, drawing a bow.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 20,5-22mm, weight: 3,10g, axis: 6h,
mint: Rome, date: 253 A.D., ref: RIC V-I 74, p-45, C-25,
Q-002
quadrans
Valerianus_AR-Ant_IMP-C-P-LIC-VALERIANVS-AVG_VICTORIA-AVG-G_RIC-V-I-125-p-_C-230_Rome_254-AD_Q-001_1h_20-21,5mm_3,06g-s.jpg
088 Valerian I. (253-260 A.D.), RIC V-I 125, Rome, AE-Antoninianus, VICTORIA AVG G, Victory standing right, #197 views088 Valerian I. (253-260 A.D.), RIC V-I 125, Rome, AE-Antoninianus, VICTORIA AVG G, Victory standing right, #1
avers: IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
reverse: VICTORIA AVG G, Victory standing left, holding wreath and palm.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 20-21,5mm, weight: 3,06g, axis: 1h,
mint: Rome, date: 254A.D., ref: RIC V-I 125, p-, C-230,
Q-001
quadrans
Valerianus_AR-Ant_IMP-C-P-LIC-VALERIANVS-PF-AVG_PIETAS-AVG-G_RIC-V-I-285-p-60-2A_C-152_Antioch_255-56-AD_Q-001_axis-5h_21mm_3,59g-s.jpg
088 Valerian I. (253-260 A.D.), RIC V-I 285, Antioch, AE-Antoninianus, PIETAS AVG G, #180 views088 Valerian I. (253-260 A.D.), RIC V-I 285, Antioch, AE-Antoninianus, PIETAS AVG G, #1
avers: IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS P F AVG, Radiate, draped bust right.
reverse: PIETAS AVG G, Valerian I. and Gallienus standing, facing each other, sacrificing over the altar in between.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 21mm, weight: 3,59g, axis: 5h,
mint: Antioch, date: 255-256 A.D., ref: RIC V-I 285, p-60, C-152,
Q-001
quadrans
VIM_Valerianus-I-AE-26_IMP-VALERIANVS-PF-AVG_PMSC_OL-VIM_AN-XVI_Pick-190_PM-7-06-2_Mus-62v_Q-001_h_26mm_7,03gx-s.jpg
088p Valerian I. (253-260 A.D.), Moesia, Viminacium, PM 07-06-02, AE-Sestertius, -/-//ANXVI, P M S COL VIM, Female figure standing, facing left, Rare! #0162 views088p Valerian I. (253-260 A.D.), Moesia, Viminacium, PM 07-06-02, AE-Sestertius, -/-//ANXVI, P M S COL VIM, Female figure standing, facing left, Rare! #01
avers: IMP VALERIANVS P F AVG, laureate cuirassed bust right.
reverse: P M S C OL VIM (Provinciae Moesiae Superioris Colonia Viminacium), Female figure (Viminacium or Provincia Moesia) standing, facing left, between bull to left and lion to right, in exergue ANXVI.
exergue: -/-//ANXVI, diameter: 26mm, weight: 7,03g, axis: h,
mint: Viminacium, date: 254-255 A.D., ref: Pick-190, PM-7-06-2, Mus-62var,
Q-001
quadrans
VIM_Valerianus-I-AE-26_IMP-VALERIANVS-P-AVG_PMSC_OL-VIM_AN-XVI_Pick-190_PM-7-06-5_Mus-62v_Q-001_h_mm_g-s~0.jpg
088p Valerian I. (253-260 A.D.), Moesia, Viminacium, PM 07-06-05, AE-Sestertius, -/-//ANXVI, P M S COL VIM, Female figure standing, facing left, Rare! #0164 views088p Valerian I. (253-260 A.D.), Moesia, Viminacium, PM 07-06-05, AE-Sestertius, -/-//ANXVI, P M S COL VIM, Female figure standing, facing left, Rare! #01
avers: IMP VALERIANVS P AVG, laureate cuirassed bust right.
reverse: P M S C OL VIM (Provinciae Moesiae Superioris Colonia Viminacium), Female figure (Viminacium or Provincia Moesia) standing, facing left, between bull to left and lion to right, in exergue ANXVI.
exergue: -/-//ANXVI, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Moesia, Viminacium, date: 254-255 A.D., ref: Pick-190, PM-7-06-5, Mus-,
Q-001
quadrans
VIM_Valerianus-I-AE-26_IMP-VALERIANVS-P-AVG_PMSC_OL-VIM_AN-XVI_Pick-190_PM-7-06-5_Mus-62v_Q-002_0h_26,5-28,5mm_8,96ga-s~0.jpg
088p Valerian I. (253-260 A.D.), Moesia, Viminacium, PM 07-06-05, AE-Sestertius, -/-//ANXVI, P M S COL VIM, Female figure standing, facing left, Rare! #0292 views088p Valerian I. (253-260 A.D.), Moesia, Viminacium, PM 07-06-05, AE-Sestertius, -/-//ANXVI, P M S COL VIM, Female figure standing, facing left, Rare! #02
avers: IMP VALERIANVS P AVG, laureate cuirassed bust right.
reverse: P M S C OL VIM (Provinciae Moesiae Superioris Colonia Viminacium), Female figure (Viminacium or Provincia Moesia) standing, facing left, between bull to left and lion to right, in exergue ANXVI.
exergue: -/-//ANXVI, diameter: 26,5-28,5mm, weight: 8,96g, axis: 0h,
mint: Moesia, Viminacium, date: 254-255 A.D., ref: Pick-190, PM-7-06-5, Mus-,
Q-002
quadrans
092_Valerianus_II_,_RIC_V-I_01,_AR-Ant,_VALERIANVS_CAES,_IOVI_CRESCENTI,__Cologne,_RSC-16,_257-58_AD,_Q-001,_6h,_21-23mm,_3,50g-s.jpg
092 Valerian-II (256-258 A.D. Caesar), AR-Antoninianus, RIC V-I 01, Cologne, IOVI CRESCENTI, Jupiter riding goat Amalthea right, Scarce! #178 views092 Valerian-II (256-258 A.D. Caesar), AR-Antoninianus, RIC V-I 01, Cologne, IOVI CRESCENTI, Jupiter riding goat Amalthea right, Scarce! #1
avers: VALERIANVS CAES, Radiate, draped bust right.
reverse: IOVI CRESCENTI, Jupiter riding goat Amalthea right.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 21,0-23,0mm, weight: 3,50g, axis: 6h,
mint: Cologne, date: 257-258 A.D., ref: RIC V-I 01, p-118, RSC-16, Scarce!,
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
Valerianus-II__AR-Ant_P-LIC-VALERIANVS-CAES_IOVI-CRESCENTI_RIC-V-I-13_C-29_253-55-AD_Q-001_axis-6h_20,5mm_3,07g-s.jpg
092 Valerian-II (256-258 A.D. Caesar), AR-Antoninianus, RIC V-I 013, Rome, IOVI CRESCENTI, Jupiter riding goat Amalthea right, Scarce! #196 views092 Valerian-II (256-258 A.D. Caesar), AR-Antoninianus, RIC V-I 013, Rome, IOVI CRESCENTI, Jupiter riding goat Amalthea right, Scarce! #1
avers:- P-LIC-VALERIANVS-CAES, Radiate, draped bust right.
revers:- IOVI-CRESCENTI, Jupiter riding goat Amalthea right.
exergo: -/-//--, diameter: 20,5mm, weight: 3,07g, axis: 6h,
mint: Rome, date: 253-255 A.D., ref: RIC-V-I-13, p-118, C-29, Scarce!,
Q-001
quadrans
Valerianus-II__AR-Ant_P-LIC-VALERIANVS-CAES_IOVI-CRESCENTI_RIC-V-I-13_C-29_253-55-AD_Q-002_1h_20-21mm_3,43ga-s.jpg
092 Valerian-II (256-258 A.D. Caesar), AR-Antoninianus, RIC V-I 013, Rome, IOVI CRESCENTI, Jupiter riding goat Amalthea right, Scarce! #2127 views092 Valerian-II (256-258 A.D. Caesar), AR-Antoninianus, RIC V-I 013, Rome, IOVI CRESCENTI, Jupiter riding goat Amalthea right, Scarce! #2
avers:- P-LIC-VALERIANVS-CAES, Radiate, draped bust right, seen from front.
revers:- IOVI-CRESCENTI, Jupiter riding goat Amalthea right.
exergo: -/-//--, diameter: 20-21mm, weight: 3,43g, axis: 1h,
mint: Rome, date: 253-255 A.D., ref: RIC-V-I-13, p-118, C-29, Scarce!,
Q-002
quadrans
Valerianus-II__AR-Ant_P-LIC-VALERIANVS-CAES_PIETAS-AVG-G_RIC-V-I-19_C-45_254-55-AD_Q-001_axis-6h_18,5-20,5mm_3,43g-s.jpg
092 Valerian-II (256-258 A.D. Caesar), AR-Antoninianus, RIC V-I 019, Rome, PIETAS AVG G, Sacrificial instruments,86 views092 Valerian-II (256-258 A.D. Caesar), AR-Antoninianus, RIC V-I 019, Rome, PIETAS AVG G, Sacrificial instruments.
avers:- P-LIC-VALERIANVS-CAES, Radiate, draped bust right.
revers:- PIETAS-AVG-G, Sacrificial instruments.
exergo: - , diameter: 18,5-20,5mm, weight: 3,43g, axis: 6h,
mint: Rome, date: 254-255 A.D., ref: RIC-V-I-19, p-118, C-45,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Nigrinianus_AE-Ant_DIVO-NIGRINIANO_CONSECRATIO_RIC-V-II-474-Num_Q-001_axis-h_21-22,5mm_5_40g-s.jpg
092 Valerian-II (256-258 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-I 024a, CONSECRATIO, Large altar, 214 views092 Valerian-II, (256-258 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-I 024a, CONSECRATIO, Large altar,
avers:- DIVO CAES VALERIANO, Radiate head right of Valerianus II. as a boy.
revers:- CONSECRATIO, Large altar.
exerg: , diameter: 21-22,5 mm, weight: 5,40g, axis: h,
mint: Minted posthumously at Rome, date: 258-259 A.D., ref: RIC-V-I-024a,
Q-001
quadrans
092_Valerian-II__(256-258_A_D_),_Bi-Tetradrachm,_G-2991,_D-5373,_Alexdr,Eagle-l_L-__Q-001_11h_20,5-21,5mm_10,44g-s.jpg
092p Valerian-II. (256-258 A.D.), Bi-Tetradrachm, G-2991, D-5373, Eagle left, L-Δ, across the field,67 views092p Valerian-II. (256-258 A.D.), Bi-Tetradrachm, G-2991, D-5373, Eagle left, L-Δ, across the field,
avers:- Π-ΛΙΚ-ΚΟΡ-ΟVΑΛΕΡΙΑΝΟC-KAIC-CEB, Bare head right.
revers:-,Eagle left, head right, his beak wreath, L-Δ, across the field (year 4 Valerianus-I.),
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: 20,5-21,5 mm, weight: 10,44g, axes: 11 h,
mint: Alexandria, date: 256-257 A.D., L-Δ, across the field (year 4 Valerianus-I.), ref: Geissen-2991, Dattari-5373, Kapmann-Ganschow-92.2-p324,
Q-001
quadrans
TrebGallusAEVim.jpg
1cu Trebonianus Gallus24 views251-253

AE Viminacium

Laureate, draped bust, right, IMP C GALLVS P FELIX AVG
Moesia standing facing, head left, hands outstretched over a bull and a lion at her sides, PMS COL VIM

Moushmov 56

For Gallus' perfidy against Decius, see the Decius entry. Zosimus reports regarding Gallus' reign: Gallus, who declared his son Volusianus his associate in the empire, published an open declaration, that Decius and his army had perished by his contrivance. The Barbarians now became more prosperous than before. For Callus not only permitted them to return home with the plunder, but promised to pay them annually a sum of money, and allowed them to carry off all the noblest captives; most of whom had been taken at Philippopolis in Thrace.

Gallus, having made these regulations, came to Rome, priding himself on the peace he had made with the Barbarians. And though he at first spoke with approbation of Decius's mode of government, and adopted one of his sons, yet, after some time was elapsed, fearing that some of them who were fond of new projects might recur to a recapitulation of the princely virtues of Decius, and therefore might at some opportunity give the empire to his son, he concerted the young man's destruction, without regard either to his own adoption of him, or to common honour and justice.

Gallus was so supine in the administration of the empire, that the Scythians in the first place terrified all the neighbouring nations, and then laid waste all the countries as far by degrees as the sea coast; not leaving one nation subject to the Romans unpillaged, and taking almost all the unfortified towns, and many that were fortified. Besides the war on every side, which was insupportably burdensome to them, the cities and villages were infested with a pestilence, which swept away the remainder of mankind in those regions; nor was so great a mortality ever known in any former period.

At this crisis, observing that the emperors were unable to defend the state, but neglected all without the walls of Rome, the Goths, the Borani, the Urugundi, and the Carpi once more plundered the cities of Europe of all that had been left in them; while in another quarter, the Persians invaded Asia, in which they acquired possession of Mesopotamia, and proceeded even as far as Antioch in Syria, took that city, which is the metropolis of all the east, destroyed many of the inhabitants, and carried the remainder into captivity, returning home with immense plunder, after they had destroyed all the buildings in the city, both public and private, without meeting with the least resistance. And indeed the Persians had a fair opportunity to have made themselves masters of all Asia, had they not been so overjoyed at their excessive spoils, as to be contented with keeping and carrying home what they had acquired.

Meantime the Scythians of Europe were in perfect security and went over into Asia, spoiling all the country as far as Cappodocia, Pesinus, and Ephesus, until Aemilianus, commander of the Pannonian legions, endeavouring as much as possible to encourage his troops, whom the prosperity of the Barbarians had so disheartened that they durst not face them, and reminding them of the renown of Roman courage, surprised the Barbarians that were in that neighbourhood. Having destroyed great numbers of them, and led his forces into their country, removing every obstruction to his progress, and at length freeing the subjects of the Roman empire from their ferocity, he was appointed emperor by his army. On this he collected all the forces of that country, who were become more bold since his successes against the Barbarians, and directed his march towards Italy, with the design of fighting Gallus, who was as yet. unprepared to contend with him. For Gallus had never heard of what had occurred in the east, and therefore made only what accidental preparations were in his reach, while Valerianus went to bring the Celtic and German legions. But Aemilianus advanced with great speed into Italy, and the armies were very near to each other, when the soldiers of Gallus, reflecting that his force was much inferior to the enemy both in number and strength, and likewise that he was a negligent indolent man, put him and his son to death, and going over to the party of Aemilianus, appeared to establish his authority.
Blindado
AemilianusAE_Dacia.jpg
1cw Aemilian26 views253

AE 26

Laureate, draped & cuirassed bust, right, IMP C M AEMIL AEMILIANVS AVG
PROVIN-CIA DACIA, Dacia standing facing, holding short sceptre in left arm, over which is a wreath, and holding up a bundle of rice in right hand, eagle and lion at feet, VIII in exergue.

Moushmov 20

Zosimus records: Aemilianus advanced with great speed into Italy, and the armies were very near to each other, when the soldiers of Gallus, reflecting that his force was much inferior to the enemy both in number and strength, and likewise that he was a negligent indolent man, put him and his son to death, and going over to the party of Aemilianus, appeared to establish his authority. But Valerianus brought into Italy from beyond the Alps a vast army, with which he deemed himself secure of conquering Aemilianus. The soldiers of Aemilianus, who saw that his conduct was more like that of a private sentinel than of an emperor, now put him to death as a person unfit for so weighty a charge.

Eutropius' curt review: AEMILIANUS was little distinguished by birth, and less distinguished by his reign, in the third month of which he was cut off.
Blindado
ValerianAntVict.jpg
1cx Valerian38 views253-260

Antoninianus

Radiate draped and cuirassed bust, right, IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS AVG
Victory standing left, holding wreath and palm, VICTORIA AVGG

RIC 125

Persians surrounded Valerian's army in the East in 260 and took the emperor prisoner. He died on an unknown date in captivity.

Zosimus noted: The nations subject to the Romans being unable to endure [Maximinus'] monstrous cruelty, and greatly distressed by the ravages he committed, the Africans proclaimed Gordianus and his son, of the same name, emperors, and sent ambassadors to Rome, one of whom was Valerianus, a man of consular rank, who afterwards himself became emperor. . . .

Aemilianus advanced with great speed into Italy, and the armies were very near to each other, when the soldiers of Gallus, reflecting that his force was much inferior to the enemy both in number and strength, and likewise that he was a negligent indolent man, put him and his son to death, and going over to the party of Aemilianus, appeared to establish his authority. But Valerianus brought into Italy from beyond the Alps a vast army, with which he deemed himself secure of conquering Aemilianus. The soldiers of Aemilianus, who saw that his conduct was more like that of a private sentinel than of an emperor, now put him to death as a person unfit for so weighty a charge.

By these means Valerianus became emperor with universal consent, and employed himself in the regulation of affairs. But the excursions of the Scythians, and of the Marcomanni, who made an inroad into all the countries adjacent to the empire, reduced Thessalonica to extreme danger; and though they were with muct difficulty compelled to raise the siege by the brave defence of those within, yet all Greece was in alarm. The Athenians repaired their walls, which they had never thought worth their care since Sylla threw them down. The Peloponnesians likewise fortified the Isthmus, and all Greece put itself upon its guard for the general security.

Valerianus, perceiving the empire in danger on every side, associated his son Gallienus with himself in the government! and went himself into the east to oppose the Persians. He entrusted to his son the care of the forces in Europe, thus leaving him to resist the Barbarians who poured in upon him in every direction. . . .

Valerianus had by this time heard of the disturbances in Bithynia, but his district would not allow him to confide the defence of it to any of his generals. He therefore sent Felix to Byzantium, and went in person from Antioch into Cappadocia, and after he had done some injury to every city by which he passed, he returned homeward. But the plague then attacked his troops, and destroyed most of them, at the time when Sapor made an attempt upon the east, and reduced most of it into subjection. In the mean time, Valerianus became so effeminate and indolent, that he dispaired of ever recovering from the present ill state of affairs, and would have concluded the war by a present of money; had not Sapor sent back the ambasadors who were sent to him with that proposal, without their errand, desiring the emperor to come and speak with him in person concerning the affairs he wished to adjust; To which he most imprudently consented, and going without consideration to Sapor with a small retinue, to treat for a peace, was presently laid hold of by the enemy, and so ended his days in the capacity of a slave among the Persians, to the disgrace of the Roman name in all future times.
Blindado
rjb_valerianus.jpg
253a43 viewsValerian I 253-60 AD
AE sestertius
Rome mint
Obv "IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS PF AVG"
Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev "VICTORIA AVGG SC"
Victory standing left leaning on shield
RIC 180; C 226; Gőbl 77
1 commentsmauseus
SalV28.jpg
256/8-260 AD - Saloninus - RIC V 28 - PRINC or PRINCIPI IVVENT44 viewsProbable Caesar: Saloninus (Caes: late 250s AD)
Date: 257-258 AD
Condition: Fair
Denomination: Antoninianus

Obverse: LIC COR SAL VALERIANVS N CAES
Licinius Cornelius Saloninus Valerianus Noble Caesar
Bust right; radiate and draped

Reverse: PRINC or PRINCIPI IVVENT
First among the Young Men.
Prince standing left, holding ensign and spear or sceptre, captive at foot.
"P" in right field

Rome mint
RIC V Saloninus 28; VM 9
1.86g; 20.8mm; 345°
Pep
SalV36.jpg
256/8-260 AD - Saloninus as Caesar - RIC V 36 - SPES PVBLICA29 viewsCaesar: Saloninus (Caes: late 250s AD)
Date: 256 AD
Condition: aVF
Denomination: Antoninianus

Obverse: SALON VALERIANVS NOB CAES
Saloninus Valerianus Noble Caesar
Bust right; radiate and draped

Reverse: SPES PVBLICA
Hope of the public.
Spes presenting flower to prince.

Antioch mint
RIC V Saloninus 36
3.35g; 22.0mm; 165°
Pep
coin244.JPG
307. Aemilian31 viewsMarcus Aemilius Aemilianus was born about AD 207 either on the island of Jerba in Africa, or somewhere in Mauretania.
His career saw him becoming senator and reaching the office of consul. In AD 252 he then became governor of Lower Moesia.

In the spring of AD 253 the Goths broke the treaty made with the emperor Trebonianus Gallus. Aemilian quickly drove them out of Moesia and then, crossed the Danube crushing the Gothic forces.

In a time when Rome suffered continuous setbacks his unexpected triumph made him an outstanding leader in the eyes of his men. So, in July or August AD 253 Aemilian was proclaimed emperor by his troops. The new emperor didn't waste time. Immediately he marched his troops into Italy, rapidly moving on Rome. Only fifty miles north of the capital, at Interamna, they were were approached by the much inferior army of unprepared emperor Gallus and with his son and co-emperor Volusianus. Their troops however, realizing themselves dead if they were sent to fight Aemilian's much larger and more experienced Danubian forces, turned on them and killed them, leaving Aemilian sole emperor.

The senate, having only recently declared Aemilian a public enemy under Gallus, immediately confirmed him as emperor and Aemilian's wife Gaia Cornelia Supera was made Augusta.

All the empire now lay at Aemilian's feet, but for one big problem. Publius Licinius Valerianus, called to aid by the late Trebonianus Gallus, was marching toward Rome. His emperor might have been dead, but his usurper was still alive, giving Valerian all the reasons needed to carry on towards the capital. In fact the soldiers of his Rhine armies now declared him emperor in place of Aemilian.

As Aemilian now moved north to face his challenger history repeated itself. His own soldiers not wanting to fight a army they thought superior to their own, turned on him near Spoletium and stabbed him to death (October AD 253). The bridge where he died was afterwards known as the pons sanguinarius, the 'bridge of blood'.

Aemilian had ruled for only 88 days.

Aemilian AR Antonininus. 253 AD. IMP AEMILIANVS PIVS FEL AVG, radiate draped bust right / VIRTVS AVG, Virtus standing left, foot on helmet, holding branch & spear. RSC 60. RIC 12. Ex-WCNC
ecoli
coin245.JPG
308. Valerian I23 viewsRIC 209 Valerian I 253-260 AD AR Antoninianus of Moesia. Radiate draped bust/Aequitas standing holding balance and cornucopia.

Publius Licinius Valerianus (ca. 200-260), known in English as Valerian, was Roman emperor from 253 to 260. His full Latin title was IMPERATOR · CAESAR · PVBLIVS · LICINIVS · VALERIANVS · PIVS FELIX · INVICTVS · AVGVSTVS — in English, "Emperor Caesar Publius Licinus Valerianus Pious Lucky Undefeated Augustus."

Unlike the majority of the usurpers of the crisis of the third century, Valerian was of a noble and traditional Senatorial family. Details of his early life are elusive, but his marriage to Egnatia Mariniana who gave him two sons: Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus and Valerianus Minor is known.

In 238 he was princeps senatus, and Gordian I negotiated through him for Senatorial acknowledgement for his claim as Emperor. In 251, when Decius revived the censorship with legislative and executive powers so extensive that it practically embraced the civil authority of the Emperor, Valerian was chosen censor by the Senate. Under Decius he was nominated governor of the Rhine provinces of Noricum and Raetia and retained the confidence of his successor, Trebonianus Gallus, who asked him for reinforcements to quell the rebellion of Aemilianus in 253. Valerian headed south, but was too late: Gallus' own troops killed him and joined Aemilianus before his arrival. The Raetian soldiers then proclaimed Valerian emperor and continued their march towards Rome. At the time of his arrival in September, Aemilianus' legions defected, killing him and proclaiming Valerian emperor. In Rome, the Senate quickly acknowledged him, not only for fear of reprisals, but also because he was one of their own.

Valerian's first act as emperor was to make his son Gallienus colleague. In the beginning of his reign the affairs in Europe went from bad to worse and the whole West fell into disorder. In the East, Antioch had fallen into the hands of a Persian vassal, Armenia was occupied by Shapur I (Sapor). Valerian and Gallienus split the problems of the Empire between the two, with the son taking the West and the father heading East to face the Persian threat.

By 257, Valerian had already recovered Antioch and returned the Syrian province to Roman control but in the following year, the Goths ravaged Asia Minor. Later in 259, he moved to Edessa, but an outbreak of plague killed a critical number of legionaries, weakening the Roman position. Valerian was then forced to seek terms with Shapur I. Sometime towards the end of 259, or at the beginning of 260, Valerian was defeated and made prisoner by the Persians (making him the only Roman Emperor taken captive). It is said that he was subjected to the greatest insults by his captors, such as being used as a human stepladder by Shapur when mounting his horse. After his death in captivity, his skin was stuffed with straw and preserved as a trophy in the chief Persian temple. Only after Persian defeat in last Persia-Roman war three and a half centuries later was his skin destroyed.
ecoli
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308b. Saloninus (AD 258-260)149 viewsSon of Gallienus

Publius Licinius Cornelius Saloninus (242 - 260) was Roman Emperor in 260. His full title was IMP CAESAR CORNELIUS LICINIUS SALONINUS VALERIANUS PF INVICTUS AUG.

Saloninus was born around the year 242. His father was the later emperor Gallienus. In 258 Saloninus was appointed Caesar by his father (just like his older brother Valerian II, who had then just died, two years earlier was) and sent to Gaul, to make sure his father's authority was respected there. Saloninus lived in Cologne during that time of his life.

In 260 (probably in july) Saloninus and his protector, the praetorian prefect Silvanus, had an argument with the usurper Postumus about the distribution of some booty. Both fled to Cologne with some loyal troops and were besieged by Postumus. The troops elevated Saloninus to the rank of Augustus but the city was soon captured by Postumus, and both Saloninus and Silvanus were murdered. Gallienus, being on the other side of the empire could do nothing to stop him. Saloninus was probably emperor for about one month only.

AE Antoninianus (as Caesar)
OB: Radiate, draped bust, right
SALON. VALERIANVS NOB. CAES.
REV: Spes presenting flower to Saloninus
SPES PVBLICA
RIC, Vol. V, Part 1, #36
Antioch mint
1 commentsecoli73
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309. Gallienus33 viewsOne of the key characteristics of the Crisis of the Third Century was the inability of the Emperors to maintain their hold on the Imperium for any marked length of time. An exception to this rule was the reign of the Emperor Gallienus. The fact that Gallienus served as junior Emperor with his father, Valerian, from 253 to 260 may have had something to do with his successes. Father and son each wielded his authority over a smaller area, thus allowing for more flexible control and imperial presence. Another, more probable reason, lay in Gallienus's success in convincing Rome that he was the best man for the job. However, Gallienus had to handle many rebellions of the so-called "Gallienus usurpers".

In 260, Valerian was taken prisoner by Sapor, King of Persia while trying to negotiate a peace settlement. Although aware that his father had been taken alive (the only Emperor to have suffered this fate), Gallienus did not make public Valerian's death until a year later. His decision hinged on the fact that Romans believed that their fate rose and fell with the fate of the Emperor, which in turn depended upon his demonstrating the proper amount of piety (Latin pietas) to the gods and maintaining their favor. A defeated Emperor would surely have meant that the gods had forsaken Valerian and, by extension, Gallienus.

Gallienus's chief method of reinforcing his position is seen in the coinage produced during his reign (see Roman currency). The coinage provides clear evidence of a successful propaganda campaign. Gallienus took pains to make sure that he was regularly represented as victorious, merciful, and pious. The people who used these coins on a daily basis saw these messages and, with little evidence to the contrary, remained supportive of their Emperor.

There were, however, those who knew better. During Gallienus' reign, there was constant fighting on the western fringes of the Empire. As early as 258, Gallienus had lost control over a large part of Gaul, where another general, Postumus, had declared his own realm (typically known today as the Gallic Empire). As Gallienus' influence waned, another general came to the fore. In time-honored tradition, Claudius II Gothicus gained the loyalty of the army and succeeded Gallienus to the Imperium.

In the months leading up to his mysterious death in September of 268, Gallienus was ironically orchestrating the greatest achievements of his reign. An invasion of Goths into the province of Pannonia was leading to disaster and even threatening Rome, while at the same time, the Alamanni were raising havoc in the northern part of Italy. Gallienus halted the Allamanic progress by defeating them in battle in April of 268, then turned north and won several victories over the Goths. That fall, he turned on the Goths once again, and in September, either he or Claudius, his leading general, led the Roman army to victory (although the cavalry commander Aurelian was the real victor) at the Battle of Naissus.

At some time following this battle, Gallienus was murdered during the siege of usurper Aureolus in Mediolanum; many theories abound that Claudius and Aurelian conspired to have the emperor killed. Be that as it may, Claudius spared the lives of Gallienus' family — Gallienus' wife, Iulia Cornelia Salonina, had given him three sons: Valerianus (who died in 258), Saloninus (died in 260 after becoming co-emperor), and Egnatius Marinianus — and had the emperor deified.

Gallienus Antoninianus - Minerva
OBVERSE: GALLIENVS AVG, radiate, cuirassed bust right
REVERSE: MINERVA AVG, Minerva standing right with spear and shield.
23mm - 3.7 grams
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309b. Valerian II (AD 256-258)104 viewsCornelius Licinius Valerianus, also known as Valerian II, was the eldest son of the Roman emperor, Gallienus.

Valerian was raised to the title of Caesar shortly after his father was raised to co-emperor with his father, Valerian. He was killed somewhere around the year 257, possibly by Ingenuus who had been charged with his education.

Valerian II (AD 256-258)
AE Antoninianus (AD 255)
OB: Radiate, draped bust, right
VALERIANVS NOBIL CAES.
REV: Prince standing left, holding shield and spear, and crowning trophy
PRINC. IVVENTVTIS
RIC, Vol. V, Part 1, #49
Antioch mint
ecoli73
Antoniniano Valeriano I RIC 215.jpg
80-02 - VALERIANO I (253 - 260 D.C.)44 viewsAR Antoniniano 21 mm 2.9 gr.

Anv: "IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS AVG" - Busto radiado, vestido y acorazado (?) viendo a derecha.
Rev: "LAETITIA AVGG" - Laetitia de pié a izquierda, portando corona de laureles en mano de brazo derecho extendido y un ancla en la izquierda.

Acuńada 253 - 260 D.C.

Referencias:
RIC Vol.V Parte I #98 Pag.46 - Ceca: Roma (253 D.C.)
RIC Vol.V Parte I #215 Pag.55 - Ceca: Moesia (Viminacium) (254-5 D.C.)
Göbl #1570a - Ceca: Antiochia
Cohen Vol.V #101 Pag.307 - RSC Vol. IV #101/101a Pag.52 - DVM #40 Pag.240
mdelvalle
RIC_215_Antoniniano_Valeriano_I.jpg
80-02 - VALERIANO I (253 - 260 D.C.)9 viewsAR Antoniniano 21 mm 2.9 gr.

Anv: "IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS AVG" - Busto radiado, vestido y acorazado (?) viendo a derecha.
Rev: "LAETITIA AVGG" - Laetitia de pié a izquierda, portando corona de laureles en mano de brazo derecho extendido y un ancla en la izquierda.

Acuńada 253 - 260 D.C.

Referencias:
RIC Vol.V Parte I #98 Pag.46 - Ceca: Roma (253 D.C.)
RIC Vol.V Parte I #215 Pag.55 - Ceca: Moesia (Viminacium) (254-5 D.C.)
Göbl #1570a - Ceca: Antiochia
Cohen Vol.V #101 Pag.307 - RSC Vol. IV #101/101a Pag.52 - DVM #40 Pag.240
mdelvalle
Antoniniano_Valeriano_I_Göbl_1574a.jpg
80-04 - VALERIANO I (253 - 260 D.C.)52 viewsAR Antoniniano 21 x 19 mm 3.6 gr.

Anv: "IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS AVG" - Busto radiado, vestido y acorazado (?) viendo a derecha.
Rev: "VICTORIA AVGG" – Victoria de pié a derecha o de frente, viendo a izquierda, portando guirnalda en la mano de su brazo derecho extendido y hoja de palma en la izquierda.

Acuńada 254 - 255 D.C.
Ceca: Antioquía – Hoy Antakya -Turquía

Referencias:
Göbl #1574a Pl. 112
El resto de las referencia a las que he podido tener acceso (RIC, Cohen, Van Meter, RSC, Sear, etc.) solo listan a la Victoria de pié a izquierda.
mdelvalle
RIC_289_Antoniniano_Valeriano_I.jpg
80-06 - VALERIANO I (253 - 260 D.C.)18 viewsAR Antoniniano 20 mm 4.8 gr.

Anv: "IMP C LIC VALERIANVS P F AVG" - Busto radiado, vestido y acorazado viendo a derecha.
Rev: "RESTITVT ORIENTIS" – Mujer c/corona mural (El Oriente) estante a der., presentando una guirnalda/corona de laureles al Emperador vestido militarmente, estante a der. y portando lanza.

Acuńada 255 - 256 D.C.
Ceca: Antioquía/Samosata

Referencias: RIC Va #287 Pag.60 - Sear RCTV IV #9967 Pag.267 - Cohen V #189 Pag.316 - RSC V #189 Pag.55 - DVM #71 Pag.241 - Mir #1677-85 - Göbl #1685e - Hunter #75
Göbl #1574a Pl. 112
mdelvalle
Sestercio_Valeriano_VIRTVS_AVGG_RIC_182.jpg
80-10 - VALERIANO I (253 - 260 D.C.)75 viewsAE Sestercio 24,35 mm 10,5 gr.

Anv: "IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS AVG" - Busto radiado, vestido y acorazado (?) viendo a derecha.
Rev: "VIRTVS AVGG - S C" – Virtus (La virilidad) estante a izquierda, apoyando su mano derecha en un escudo a su lado y portando lanza en izquierda.

Acuńada 1ra. Emisión 253 - 254 D.C.
Ceca: Roma

Referencias: RIC Vol. Va #182 Pag.52 - Göbl #38g - Sear RCV Vol.III #10025 Pag.272 - DVM #115 Pag.242 - Cohen Vol.V #269 Pag.322
mdelvalle
RIC_182_Sestercio_Valeriano_I.jpg
80-10 - VALERIANO I (253 - 260 D.C.)7 viewsAE Sestercio 24,35 mm 10,5 gr.

Anv: "IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS AVG" - Busto radiado, vestido y acorazado (?) viendo a derecha.
Rev: "VIRTVS AVGG - S C" – Virtus (La virilidad) estante a izquierda, apoyando su mano derecha en un escudo a su lado y portando lanza en izquierda.

Acuńada 1ra. Emisión 253 - 254 D.C.
Ceca: Roma

Referencias: RIC Vol. Va #182 Pag.52 - Göbl #38g - Sear RCV Vol.III #10025 Pag.272 - DVM #115 Pag.242 - Cohen Vol.V #269 Pag.322 - Hunter #39
mdelvalle
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84 - 01 - VALERIANO II (256 - 258 D.C.) 41 viewsAR Antoniniano 23 mm 4.10 gr.

Anv: "VALERIANVS NOBIL CAES" - Busto radiado, vistiendo coraza y paludamentum (capote militar) sobre ella, viendo a der.
Rev: "PRINC IVVENTVTIS" - Principe estante a derechas, portando Jabalina y escudo, coronando un trofeo a su derecha.

Acuńada 255/56 D.C.
Ceca: Samosata.
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.Va #49 Pag.122 - Sear RCTV Vol.III #10735 Pag.335 - Göbl #1694b - DVM #12 Pag.252 - RSC Vol. IV #67a Pag.119
mdelvalle
RIC_49_Antoniniano_Valeriano_II.jpg
84 - 01 - VALERIANO II (256 - 258 D.C.) 10 viewsAR Antoniniano 23 mm 4.10 gr.

Anv: "VALERIANVS NOBIL CAES" - Busto radiado, vistiendo coraza y paludamentum (capote militar) sobre ella, viendo a der.
Rev: "PRINC IVVENTVTIS" - Principe estante a derechas, portando Jabalina y escudo, coronando un trofeo a su derecha.

Acuńada 255/56 D.C.
Ceca: Samosata.

Referencias: RIC Vol.Va #49 Pag.122 (C) - Sear RCTV Vol.III #10735 Pag.335 - Göbl #1694b - DVM #12 Pag.252 - RSC Vol. IV #67a Pag.119
mdelvalle
liberalitas.jpg
A. Valerianus sesterce50 views2 commentsicos
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A. Valerianus sesterce24 viewsicos
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A. Valerianus sesterce54 views3 commentsicos
Valérien.jpg
Aegeae (Cilicia) - Valerianus82 viewsAV. KAI. ΠOV. ΛIKI. OVAΛEPIANOC CEB. , laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, caduceus in field to the right.
IEPOIKOVMENIKOC ACKΛHΠIOC / AIΓAIωN , 2 corn-ears in a prize urn resting on agonistic table seen in perspective, vase beneath.
Ginolerhino
IMG_3476.JPG
Akko-PTOLEMAIS Valerianus I., 253-258. AE 2687 viewsAkko-Ptolemais, Phoenicia. Valerian 253 - 260 AD.
Sacred tree flanked by two altars with snakes; in r. field, caduceus; COL PTOL
3 commentsMaritima
Valerianus.JPG
AR Antoninianus of Valerian I, 253-260 AD.87 viewsValerian I AR Antoninianus. IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS PF AVG, radiate, draped bust right / VICTORIA AVGG, Victory standing left resting on shield and holding palm. 2.7 gr.
RIC 128, Cohen 224. RIC 128Cv
4 commentsAntonivs Protti
Alex_Q-001_axis-11h_20,5-21,5mm_10,44g-s.jpg
Egypt, Alexandria, 092 Valerianus-II. (256-258 A.D.), Bi-Tetradrachm, G-2991, D-5373, L/Δ//--, Eagle left, #1139 viewsEgypt, Alexandria, 092 Valerianus-II. (256-258 A.D.), Bi-Tetradrachm, G-2991, D-5373, L/Δ//--, Eagle left, #1
avers: Π ΛΙΚ ΚΟΡ ΟΩΑΛΕΡΙΑΝΟC KAIC CEB, Bare head right.
reverse: Eagle left, head right, his beak wreath, L-Δ, across the field (year 4 Valerianus-I.),
exergue: L/Δ//--, diameter: 20,5-21,5 mm, weight: 10,44g, axes: 11 h,
mint: Egypt, Alexandria, date: 256-257 A.D., L-Δ, across the field (year 4 Valerianus-I.), ref: Geissen-2991, Dattari-5373, Kapmann-Ganschow-92.2-p324,
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
Valerianus_I_03.jpg
Egypt, Alexandria, AD 257/258, Valerian I, Eagle19 viewsValerian I
Alexandria
Billon-Tetradrachm
Obv.: A K Π ΛI OΥAΛEΡIANOC EΥEΥC,Laureate and cuirassed bust of Valerian I right
Rev.: Eagle standing left, head right, holding wreath in beak, year L - Є across fields (year 5 = 257-258 AD.)
Billon, 10.8g, 21.8mm
Ref.: Köln 2868, Dattari 5185, Kampmann&Ganschow 88.29, Emmett 3705
2 commentsshanxi
Valerianus_II_01.jpg
Egypt, Alexandria, AD 257/258, Valerian II, Eagle12 viewsValerian II
Alexandria
Billon-Tetradrachm
Obv.: Π ΛΙΚ ΚΟΡ ΟΩΑΛΕΡΙΑΝΟC KAIC CEB, laureate and cuirassed bust right.
Rev.: eagle standing left, head right, wreath in beak, year L - Є across fields (year 5 = 257-258 AD.)
Billon, 10.51g, 23mm
Ref.: Geissen 2997, Dattari 5374
shanxi
gallienus_RIC86.jpg
GALLIENUS AE antoninianus - 257-258 AD (joint reign)31 viewsobv: IMP GALLIENVS PF AVG GM (radiate head, right)
rev: ORIENS AVGG (Sol with globe in the left hand, right hand raised)
ref: RIC Vi 86 (R), RSC 710
mint: Rome
2.50 gms, 18 mm
Rare

History: When the empire of Rome was on all sides assailed by barbarian arms, Valerianus declared his son Gallienus Emperor, and leaving him to the defence of Gaul and Germany, he himself, having assembled together the legions from the neighbouring provinces, resolved to march and give battle in the East to the Scythians and to the Persians. For this reason Oriens Augustorum - (the rising Sun of the Emperors) - was struck on their coins.
berserker
gallienus_RIC606(sole_reign).jpg
GALLIENUS AR antoninianus - 267 AD (sole reign)23 viewsobv: GALLIENVS AVG (radiate, draped & cuirassed bust right)
rev: AETERNITAS AVG (Saturn standing right holding scythe), PXV in ex.
ref: RIC Vi 606, RSC.44 (PXV = short for TR P XV)
mint: Antioch
1.92gms, 20mm, billon

Saturn, under the form of a man with a beard, veiled, and wearing the toga, who standing holds the harpa in his left hand, appears on coins of Valerianus and of Gallienus, as a symbol of Eternity. HARPA (scythe) is one of the symbols of Saturn who, according to a horrid myth, used it to mutilate (castrate) his father, Uranus. (See the famous paint of Giorgio Vasari: The Mutiliation of Uranus by Saturn).
While Cronus was considered a cruel and tempestuous deity to the Greeks, his nature under Roman influence became more innocuous, with his association with the Golden Age eventually causing him to become the god of "human time", and celebrated him in Saturnalias.
berserker
Gallienus_DIANAECONSAVG.jpg
Gallienus DIANAECONSAVG10 viewsObverse:
Head right with radiate crown
GALLIENVSAVG, Head right with radiate crown
IMP: IMPERATOR - Emperor
GALLIENVS: Gallienus
AVG: AUGUSTUS

Reverse:
Doe walking right, looking left
DIANAECONSAVG: Dianae Conservatrix Augusti

Domination: Bronze AE 3, size 19 mm
Exergue: E (Regnal Year "E"=5 or 569/70)
RIC 177 GOBL 728b CUNETIO 1361

Comments:
DIANAE CONS. AVG. Dianae Conservatrix Augusti. A stag. -- This legend and type, with variations, frequently appears on coins of Gallienus, whose father Valerianus was ingularly attached to the worship of Diana the Preserver, insomuch that he dedicated a temple to her honor at Rome, called Aedes Valeranae.
John S
galienus-valerianus.jpg
Gallienus RIC 45615 viewsBillon Antoninianus. Joint reign,
Asian mint, 255-256 AD.
IMP C P LIC GALLIENVS P F AVG, radiate draped bust right
VIRTVS AVGG, Valerian and Gallienus standing facing each other,one holds Victory, the other a globe.
xokleng
GordII.jpg
Gordian II Africanus / Victory62 viewsGordian II Africanus. Silver Denarius, AD 238. Rome.
O: IMP M ANT GORDIANVS AFR AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust of Gordian II right.
R: VICTO-RIA AVGG, Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm.
- RIC 2; BMC 28; RSC 12.

Gordian II (Marcus Antonius Gordianus Sempronianus Romanus Africanus Augustus), was Roman Emperor for one month with his father Gordian I in 238, the Year of the Six Emperors. The double "GG" in "AVGG" (Augustus) on the reverse was to show that power was shared between the two men although Gordian II did not receive the additional title of high priest or Pontifex Maximus. He died in battle outside of Carthage.

Confronted by a local elite that had just killed Maximinus's procurator, Gordian's father (Gordian I) was forced to participate in a full-scale revolt against Maximinus in 238 and became Augustus on March 22.

Due to his advanced age, Gordian I insisted that his son, Marcus Antonius Gordianus (Gordian II), be associated with him. A few days later, Gordian entered the city of Carthage with the overwhelming support of the population and local political leaders. Meanwhile in Rome, Maximinus' praetorian prefect was assassinated and the rebellion seemed to be successful. Gordian in the meantime had sent an embassy to Rome, under the leadership of Publius Licinius Valerianus, to obtain the Senate’s support for his rebellion. The senate confirmed the new emperor on 2 April and many of the provinces gladly sided with Gordian.

Opposition would come from the neighboring province of Numidia. Capelianus, governor of Numidia, loyal supporter of Maximinus Thrax, and who held a grudge against Gordian, renewed his alliance to the former emperor and invaded Africa province with the only legion stationed in the region, III Augusta, and other veteran units. Gordian II, at the head of a militia army of untrained soldiers, lost the Battle of Carthage and was killed, and Gordian I took his own life by hanging himself with his belt. The Gordians had reigned only twenty-two days.
3 commentsNemonater
rp219.jpg
Greek, Kyme Aeolis. Pseudo-autonomous coinage223 viewsAE 24 (7.8 g)
obv: IEPA CYNKΛHTOC, draped and diademed bust of the Senate right
rev: E ACK[Λ]ANIOV B KVM/AIΩN, Isis Pelagia on galley right holding inflated sail with both hands and left foot.

Ref: -

- BMC 116 (different magistrate) EΠ EΛΠIΔHΦOPOV KVMAI
- Forni 50 (different magistrate) EΠ EΛΠIΔHΦOPOV KVMAI
- Mionnet suppl VI n. 129 reverse legend CAC….. NOV B KVMAIΩN.

I think the actual reverse legend is probably E ACKΛANIOV B KVMAIΩN as appears on the reverse listed for another issue, Forni 46 (Senate bust vs Tyche, time of Gordianus (?), Valerianus and Gallienus).
1 commentstacrolimus
ValerianusI-AE35-SELEUCIAadCALYCADNUM-ArtemisApollo.JPG
I - VALERIANUS I - b-01 - AE36 - CILICIA // SELEUCIA AD CALYCADNOS - SNG Levante 786v 9 viewsAv) AV K ΠO ΛIK OVAΛEPIANOC
Radiate, draped & cuirassed bust right

Rv) CЄΛЄVKЄΩN TΩN ΠPOC KAΛVKAΔNΩ
Confronted busts of Apollo, laureate, facing right, laurel branch before, and Artemis-Tyche, wearing small modius and facing left, cornucopiae behind

Weight: 21.43 g; Ř: 36 mm, References: SNG Levante786v; SNG Leypold 2613


sulcipius
Valerianus-Provprg-NEOCAESAREA-PreisunrneKranz-vglSEAR4424.jpg
I - VALERIANUS I - b-02 - AE27 - POTUS // NEOCAESAREA - compare:SEAR/442413 viewsAv) AV K ΠΟΛIKO VAΛΛEPIANOC
Radiate, draped & cuirassed bust right

Rv) KOI ΠONT MHT NEOKAICA
Wearth in center prize crown

Weight: 12,48g; Ř: 27mm; Reference: vgl.: SEAR/4424
sulcipius
bigun_jg_01_smaller.jpg
MAXIMIANUS60 viewsMAXIMIANUS
28.6 mm, 180ş,
Laureate head right / Fides standing left holding two standards.
Obverse legend: IMP MAXIMIANVS P F AVG
Reverse legend: FIDES MILITVM AVGG ET CAESS NN
In ex.: AQP
-------------------------------------
RIC VI 60b p319
A reverse legend that appears only at Aquileia c. 305-306.

(Marcus Aurelius Valerianus Maximianus)
Junior co-Emperor of the First Tetrarchy
AD 286-305
Tkonnova
VIM_Valerianus-I-AE-26_IMP-VALERIANVS-PF-AVG_PMSC_OL-VIM_AN-XVI_Pick-190_PM-7-06-2_Mus-62v_Q-001_h_26mm_7,03gx-s~0.jpg
Moesia, Viminacium, 088p Valerian I. (253-260 A.D.), PM 07-06-02, AE-Sestertius, -/-//ANXVI, P M S COL VIM, Female figure standing, facing left, Rare! #0162 viewsMoesia, Viminacium, 088p Valerian I. (253-260 A.D.), PM 07-06-02, AE-Sestertius, -/-//ANXVI, P M S COL VIM, Female figure standing, facing left, Rare! #01
avers: IMP VALERIANVS P F AVG, laureate cuirassed bust right.
reverse: P M S C OL VIM (Provinciae Moesiae Superioris Colonia Viminacium), Female figure (Viminacium or Provincia Moesia) standing, facing left, between bull to left and lion to right, in exergue ANXVI.
exergue: -/-//ANXVI, diameter: 26mm, weight: 7,03g, axis: h,
mint: Viminacium, date: 254-255 A.D., ref: Pick-190, PM-7-06-2, Mus-62var,
Q-001
quadrans
VIM_Valerianus-I-AE-26_IMP-VALERIANVS-P-AVG_PMSC_OL-VIM_AN-XVI_Pick-190_PM-7-06-5_Mus-62v_Q-001_h_mm_g-s.jpg
Moesia, Viminacium, 088p Valerian I. (253-260 A.D.), PM 07-06-05, AE-Sestertius, -/-//ANXVI, P M S COL VIM, Female figure standing, facing left, Rare! #0174 viewsMoesia, Viminacium, 088p Valerian I. (253-260 A.D.), PM 07-06-05, AE-Sestertius, -/-//ANXVI, P M S COL VIM, Female figure standing, facing left, Rare! #01
avers: IMP VALERIANVS P AVG, laureate cuirassed bust right.
reverse: P M S C OL VIM (Provinciae Moesiae Superioris Colonia Viminacium), Female figure (Viminacium or Provincia Moesia) standing, facing left, between bull to left and lion to right, in exergue ANXVI.
exergue: -/-//ANXVI, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Moesia, Viminacium, date: 254-255 A.D., ref: Pick-190, PM-7-06-5, Mus-,
Q-001
quadrans
VIM_Valerianus-I-AE-26_IMP-VALERIANVS-P-AVG_PMSC_OL-VIM_AN-XVI_Pick-190_PM-7-06-5_Mus-62v_Q-002_0h_26,5-28,5mm_8,96ga-s.jpg
Moesia, Viminacium, 088p Valerian I. (253-260 A.D.), PM 07-06-05, AE-Sestertius, -/-//ANXVI, P M S COL VIM, Female figure standing, facing left, Rare! #0297 viewsMoesia, Viminacium, 088p Valerian I. (253-260 A.D.), PM 07-06-05, AE-Sestertius, -/-//ANXVI, P M S COL VIM, Female figure standing, facing left, Rare! #02
avers: IMP VALERIANVS P AVG, laureate cuirassed bust right.
reverse: P M S C OL VIM (Provinciae Moesiae Superioris Colonia Viminacium), Female figure (Viminacium or Provincia Moesia) standing, facing left, between bull to left and lion to right, in exergue ANXVI.
exergue: -/-//ANXVI, diameter: 26,5-28,5mm, weight: 8,96g, axis: 0h,
mint: Moesia, Viminacium, date: 254-255 A.D., ref: Pick-190, PM-7-06-5, Mus-,
Q-002
quadrans
Valerianus_I_02.jpg
RIC 5a, p.045, 74 - Valerian I, Apollo16 viewsValerianus I (253-260)
Antoninianus, Rome
Obv.: IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev.: APOLLINI PROPVG, Apollo standing right, drawing bow.
3.16 g, 21 mm
Ref.: MIR 44d, RIC 74
Ex Helios Numismatik
shanxi
Valerianus_01.jpg
RIC 5a, p.060, 285 - Valerian I, Valerian and Gallienus35 viewsValerian I (253-260)
Antoninianus, AD 255-256, Antioch
Obv.: IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS P F AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev.: PIETAS AVGG, Valerian and Gallienus facing, sacrificing over altar
AE, 3.57g, 19.7mm
Ref.: RIC V 285
shanxi
Valerianus_II_02.jpg
RIC 5a, p.116, 3 - Valerian II, Jupiter, goat22 viewsValerianus II as Caesar
AR Antoninianus, AD 255
Obv.: VALERIANVS CAES, radiate and draped bust right
Rev.: IOVI CRESCENTI, young Jupiter seated facing on goat standing right.
Ag, 3.86g, 20.5mm
Ref.: RIC 3
shanxi
GordianusPius-AE25_-TARSOS-Tyche-SNG_Aulock_6042.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE PROVINCIAL, GORDIANUS III, AE35 // CILICIA // TARSOS - SNG Aulock 604250 viewsAv) AVT K M ANT ΓOPΔIANOC CEB
Feld: Π - Π
Radiated, draped and cuirassed bust, senn from the back, looking right

Rv) TAPCOV MHTPOΠOΛEΩC
Feld: A / M / K / B / Γ
Tyche standing left, holding rudder and cornucopiae

Weight:: 18.45 g; Ř: 35 mm: Reference. SNG Aulock 6042

Explanations:

Revers:
A = ΠPOTE =stands for the the number “one“ = THE FIRST
M = MEΓIΣTH = THE GREATEST
K = KAΛΛIΣTH = THE MOST BEAUTIFUL

Tarsos got these three Epitheta from Caracalla

You have to read Γ B and it means:

Γ = 3 = Head oft the three " Eparchia“ (means Provinces) Cilicia, Isauria and Lycaonia
B = 2 = Owner of two " Neokoria“ , (under Valerianus, Tarsos had then three )

Avers:
Π - Π = pater patridos = in Latin Pater Patriae
sulcipius
Valerianus_AR-Ant_IMP-C-P-LIC-VALERIANVS-AVG_APOLINI-PROPVG_RIC-V-I-74-p-45-1A_C-25_Rome_253-AD_Q-001_axis-1h_18,5-20mm_3,60g-s.jpg
Roman Empire, Valerian I (253-260 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-I 074, Rome, APOLINI PROPVG, 311 views088 Valerianus-I (253-260 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-I 074, Rome, APOLINI PROPVG,
avers:- IMP-C-P-LIC-VALERIANVS-AVG, Radiate, draped bust right.
revers:- APOLINI-PROPVG, Apollo standing right, drawing bow.
exergo: - , diameter: 18,5-20mm, weight: 3,60g, axis: 1h,
mint: Rome, date: 253 A.D., ref: RIC-V-I-74, p-45, C-25,
Q-001
quadrans
valerianus.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Valerian I, Antoninianus12 viewsGöbl 802d (R, only 2 coins known)Numis-Student
Valerianus_IMP_Oriens_beidseitig.jpg
Roman Empire, Valerian I, Oriens, Cologne mint, RIC 107105 viewsObverse: IMP VALERIANVS AVG
Revers: ORIENS AVGG
RIC:107
4,55 Gramm
23mm
256-258
Great Example of this R2 Cologne mint (3. Emission) of Valerianus with IMP in Obverse
3 commentsVipsanius
0442-520~0.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, VALERIAN II, ANTONINIANUS, RIC # 2434 viewsRome mint, AD 258
DIVO CAES VALERIANO, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust of Valerianus junior right
CONSECRATIO, altar
2.88 gr
Ref : RCV # 10608, RIC # 24, RSC # 13
Potator II
Mariniana.jpg
Roman Mariniana Sestertius34 viewsMARINIANA, wife of Valerianus I, †254.
AE Sestertius, posthumous. AE 16.16 g.
Obv: DIVAE MARINIANAE Draped, veiled and diademed bust r.
Rev: CONSECRATIO / S-C Peacock in splendour standing facing, head turned l.

RIC V/1, 65, 9var. (peacock looking r.). C. 7
Extremely rare
Tanit
valerien.jpg
Rome, Valerianus22 viewsicos
salonina sest.jpg
SALONINA sestertius - c.255-256 AD66 viewsobv: CORNELIA.SA[L]O[NINA.AVG] (diademed & draped bust right)
rev: IVNO.REGINA / S.C. (Juno standing left, holding patera & scepter)
ref: RIC Vi-46, C.62
mint: Rome
21.11gms, 26-29mm
Rare
Wife of Gallienus, and mother of Valerianus II, Saloninus, and Egnatius Marinianus. She was married to Gallienus before 242. Salonina saw the murder of her husband in 268, in front of the walls of sieged Milan.
berserker
saloninus_RIC36.jpg
SALONINUS AR antoninianus - 256 AD24 viewsobv: SALON VALERIANVS NOB CAES (draped, cuirassed, radiare bust right)
rev: SPES PVBLICA (Spes presenting flower to prince, wreath above)
ref: RIC Vi 36 (C), Cohen 95 (3frcs)
mint: Asia (Antioch), billon
3.20gms, 21mm
Scarce

P.Licinius Cornelius Saloninus Valerianus was the second son of Gallienus and Salonina. He received the title of Caesar on the death of his elder brother in A.D.255. He was raised to the rank of Augustus by Gallienus in A.D.259 but was killed a short time later by Postumus, the commander of the Rhine legions.
berserker
Valerian.jpg
Valerian 1 Sestertius19 viewsAE Sestertius
Valerianus I., 253-256 AD, Rome.
Obv: IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS AVG, laureate and cuirassed bust right, slight drapery on left shoulder.
Rev: VICTORIA AVG / S - C, Victory standing left, holding wreath in extended right hand and cradling palm in left arm.

RIC V, 177 (253 AD)
Tanit
RIC_Valerian_RIC_V_Rome_89A.JPG
Valerian I (Publius Licinius Valerianus) (253-260 A.D.)10 viewsRIC V Rome 89A, Göbl 22d

AR Antoninianus, 19 mm.

Rome mint, struck 253-255 A.D.

Obv: IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS AVG, Radiate and draped bust right.

Rev: FIDES MILITVM, Fides standing left, holding two standards.

RIC rarity _
Stkp
RIC_Valerian_I_RIC_Rome_117A.JPG
Valerian I (Publius Licinius Valerianus) (253-260 A.D.)12 viewsRIC V Rome 117A, Göbl 011b

AR Antoninianus, 18-21 mm.

Rome mint, struck 255-258 A.D.

Obv: IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS P F AVG, Radiate and draped bust right.

Rev: RESTITVTOR ORBIS, Emperor standing left, holding spear, raising kneeling female.

RIC rarity _
Stkp
Valerianus1 ant01-.jpg
VALERIAN I antoninianus AD254-25523 viewsobv: IMP.C.P.LIC.VALERIANVS.AVG
rev:FORTVNA REDVX
ref:RIC214, C.75
mint:Viminatium, 3.00g
Scarce
berserker
Valerian I- Sol.jpg
Valerian I- Sol42 viewsValerian I, c. September 253 - April, May or June 260 A.D.

Obverse:
Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right

IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS P F AVG

IMP: Imperator, leader of the troops or general.
C: Caesar, usually means a junior in rank to Augustus and is usually designated as the heir apparent.
P: Princeps, means leader, or the first among equals, but carries the meaning of Prince or Caesar.
LIC: Licinius, one of his given names.
VALERIANVS: Valerianus
PF: Pius Felix
AVG: Augustus, emperor

Reverse:
ORIENS AVGG

ORIENS: Rising sun
AVGG: Augustus, emperors

Sol advancing left, raising right hand and holding whip in left


Domination: Bronze/ Billion Antoninianus, size 20 mm.

Mint: Rome, Göbl, in MIR 36, catalogs it as 110b, mint of Rome. Poor quality billon rather than bronze, though the color may have browned over the years. Officina ??
John Schou
valerianII_RIC3.jpg
VALERIAN II antoninianus - 253-255 AD26 viewsobv: VALERIANVS CAES (radiate and draped bust right)
rev: IOVI CRESCENTI (infant Jupiter seated facing, raising hand, on goat advancing)
ref: RIC Vi 3, RSC 26
mint: Colonia Agrippinensis (Cologne), Lugdunum by RIC
2.42gms, 22mm

Publius Licinius Cornelius Valerianus was the eldest son of Gallienus and Salonina. He was made caesar under his father in 253, but died only 2 years later. It isn't clear how he died, but he was on the Danube frontier at the time. From his young portraits, he was perhaps 8 when he became caesar, and only 10 at his death.
berserker
0442-520.jpg
Valerian II, Antoninianus - *48 viewsRome mint, AD 258
DIVO CAES VALERIANO, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust of Valerianus junior right
CONSECRATIO, altar
2.88 gr
Ref : RCV # 10608, RIC # 24, RSC # 13
2 commentsPotator II
valeriano_I.jpg
VALERIANO I (253- 260 d.C.), AE 22, Alessandria Troas (R/ COL AVG TRO)32 viewsValerianus I (253-260 d.C.), Bronzo AE 22, zecca di Alessandria Troas
AE, 5.584 gr., 20.0 mm, 180°, qBB (aVF)
D/ IMP LICIN VALERIANVS A, busto laureato e corazzato a dx con paludamento
R/ COL AVG TRO, cavallo che pascola a dx
BMC p. 29, 157 ff., SNG Cop 191
Provenienza: collezione Berardengo, Roma Italia (28 aprile 2008, numero catalogo 89); ex FAC (Morehead City NC, Usa, fino al 2008)
paolo
Valeriano_I_sesterzio.jpg
Valeriano I, sesterzio, 253-254 d.C., Roma (R/ VIRTVS AVGG) 59 viewsValerianus I, sestertius, zecca di Roma (253-254 d.C.)
AE, 11.561 gr, massimo diametro 26.7 mm, 180°, BB (VF)
D/ IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS AVG, busto laureato e corazzato a dx
R/ VIRTVS AVGG S C, Virtus in abito militare stante a sx, asta nella sx, appoggiato sullo scudo a dx.
RIC V 183
Provenienza: collezione Berardengo, Roma Italia (28 dicembre 2008, numero catalogo 94); ex FAC (Morehead City NC, Usa, fino al 2008)
1 commentspaolo
val.jpg
valerianus63 viewsicos
Valerianus_I.jpg
Valerianus - Victory29 viewsObverse: IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS AVG, rad. and cuirassed bust right
Reverse: VICTORIA AVGG, Victoria left stdg., holding wreath and palm
RIC#: RIC V 125, RSC IV 230, SRCV III 9985
Mint: Rome 253-255 A.D.
Size: 22mm, 3.25gm
ickster
Valerianus.jpg
Valerianus antoninianus58 viewsVICTORIAE AVGGtibsi67
combined~7.jpg
Valerianus I29 viewsValerianus I AR

Obverse
Bust of Valerianus right, radiate, draped.

Lettering: IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS AVG

Translation:
Imp (-erator) C (-aesar) Lic (-inius) Valerianus Aug (-ustus):
"Emperor Caesar Licinius Valerianus, August".

Reverse
Victory standing left, holding wreath and palm.

Lettering: VICTORIA AVGG

Translation:
Victoria Augg (= augustorum duorum):
"Victory of the [Two] Augusts".

1,7 g, 21,9mm on longer side.
Flamur H
0000-valeriano.jpg
Valerianus I - Köln 2864-558 viewsEGYPT, Alexandria.
Valerian I.
BI Tetradrachm (22mm, 10.81 g, 11h).
Dated RY 4 (AD 256/7).
Laureate and cuirassed bust right
Homonoia standing left, raising right hand,
holding double cornucopia in left; L Δ (date) across field.
Köln 2864-5; Dattari (Savio) 5158; K&G 88.25
Ex CNG
Ex Robert M. Harlick Collection.
Ex Pegasi 22 (20 April 2010), lot 347.
3 commentsxokleng
vava_volkano.jpg
Valerianus I, Antoninianus22 viewsStruck at Lugdunum.
VALERIANVS PF AVG - Radiate, draped bust right.
DEO VOLKANO - Temple with four columns; Vulcan standing left within, holding hammer and tongs.

258AD

Ref: RIC 5 - Cohen 2 (3fr)
1 commentsbyzancia
VALERIANO_I_Braithwell.jpg
Valerianus I, Roma mint, R/ORIENS AVGG (Braithwell hoard)29 viewsValeriano I (253-260 d.C.), antoniniano. Zecca di Roma. Ex Braithwell hoard
AE, 3.00 gr, 18,0 mm, BB (VF)
D/ IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS AVG, busto radiato e drappeggiato a dx
R/, ORIENS AVGG, Sol a sin.
RIC 106; Braithwell Report #1 (questa moneta), una delle due monete di Valeriano nell'hoard
Provenienza: collezione Berardengo, Roma Italia (1 novembre 2008, numero catalogo 24), ex Antony Wilson collection (Yorkcoins, London-New York, 2007), ex CNG auction 176 (London 2007), ex Braithwell hoard (Braithwell, South Yorkshire Uk, 2002).
paolo
Valerianus_Cremna_ApolloPropylaios_AE32_14.0g.jpg
Valerianus I. AE32, 253-260 AD, Cremna, Pisidia44 viewsValerianus I. AE32, 253-260 AD, Cremna, Pisidia.
Obv: IMP CAES P LICINI VALERIANO A OC, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind.
Rev: APOLLINI PROPVG COL CRE, Apollo Propylaeus advancing right, cloak flowing behind, drawing bow with arrow at hip.
32 mm, 14.00 g
SNG Aulock 8607

not in Sear, SNG Righetti, SNG Leypold I, Lindgren III

a coin from the same dies:
http://www.coinarchives.com/a/lotviewer.php?LotID=75105&AucID=79&Lot=1072
http://www.forumancientcoins.com/board/index.php?topic=13651.0

ex Rutten&Wieland, thanks Lars!
areich
Valerianus_I_2b.jpg
Valerianus I. antoninianus46 viewsIOVI CONSERVATORI1 commentsTibsi
Valerianus_I_CONSERVT_AVGG_3b.jpg
Valerianus I. antoninianus11 viewsCONSERVT AVGG (instead of CONSERVAT...)
very rare
Tibsi
vava.jpg
Valerianus II, Antoninianus49 viewsRome Mint,
VALERIANVS CAES, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
IOVI CRESCENTI, Jupiter, as a child, riding goat.
3,20
Ref: RIC 3
4 commentsbyzancia
vava_princ.jpg
Valerianus II, Antoninianus30 viewsMint of Antioch
VALERIANVS NOBIL CAES - Radiate, draped bust right.
PRINCI VVENTVTIS - Valerian standing left, crowning trophy.

Ref:RIC 49 - Cohen 67
1 commentsbyzancia
Valerianus2_b.jpg
Valerianus II. antoninianus76 viewsCONSECRATIO3 commentsTibsi
Valerianus_II_PRINCIPI_IVBENTVTIS_b.jpg
Valerianus II. antoninianus10 viewsPRINCIPI IVBENTVTIS (instead of ...IVVENTVTIS)
rare
Tibsi
saloninus_ant_PIETASAUG_o_06_r_03.JPG
VI - Saloninus, Son of Gallienus - AR/BI Antoninianus - Priestly Implements30 views~
~~
Ancient Roman Empire
Saloninus, Son of Emperor Gallienus, Grandson of Valerian I - Silver/Billon Antoninianus.
Struck between 258 and 260 AD.

obv: SALON VALERIANUS CAES - Radiate bust right.
rev: PIETAS AUG - Priestly Implements.

Size: 22 mm x 24 mm
~~~~~~~~~
**Not the best pictures I took, not a very good example of the coin type either.**
~
~~~
~
Coin from 'Old Pueblo Coin Exchange' in Tucson, Arizona. A WONDERFUL coin shop! They always have high grade bronze 4th C, Constantine era coins for sale, but they don't seem to sell too many high grade or rare Emperor type Silver Antoninianii..... I got lucky on this one and got a great deal!
~~~~
~~~
~~
~
5 commentsrexesq
saloninus_ant_PIETASAUG_w-US-quarter_o_01.JPG
VI - Saloninus, Son of Gallienus - AR/BI Antoninianus - w/ US Quarter for size.13 views~
~~
Ancient Roman Empire
Saloninus, Son of Emperor Gallienus, Grandson of Valerian I - Silver/Billon Antoninianus.
Struck between 258 and 260 AD.

obv: SALON VALERIANUS CAES - Radiate bust right.
rev: PIETAS AUG - Priestly Implements.

Size: 22 mm x 24 mm
~~~~~~~~~
**Not the best pictures I took, not a very good example of the coin type either.
Shown next to a USA 25 cent piece, 1/4 dollar 'state quarter' coin for size comparison.**
~
~~~
~
Coin from 'Old Pueblo Coin Exchange' in Tucson, Arizona. A WONDERFUL coin shop! They always have high grade bronze 4th C, Constantine era coins for sale, but they don't seem to sell too many high grade or rare Emperor type Silver Antoninianii..... I got lucky on this one and got a great deal!

~~~~
~~~
~~
~
rexesq
valerian_antoninianus_apolini-conserva_00.jpg
VII - Valerian Antoninianus - APOLINI CONSERVA31 viewsRoman Empire
Emperor Valerian I (AD 253-260),
AR Antoninianus, Unknown Mint.

obv: IMP C P LIC VALERIANUS P F AUG - Radiate bust of the Emperor right, draped. Seen from the front.

rev: APOLINI CONSERVA - Apollo standing facing left, holding branch and lyre set on rock.

Weight: 2.7 Grams

RIC 72
2 commentsrexesq
valerian_antoninianus_apolini-propug_00.JPG
VII - Valerian Antoninianus - APOLINI PROPUG37 viewsRoman Empire
Emperor Valerian I (253-260 AD)
AR Antoninianus. Struck 253 AD.

obv: IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS AVG - Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right. Seen from the front.
rev: APOLINI PROPVG - Apollo standing right, drawing bow.

Weight: 3.0 Grams

RIC 74, RSC 25a
4 commentsrexesq
valerian-I_ant_emperor-seated_tater_00.JPG
VII - Valerian Antoninianus - Emperor Seated "PM TR P V COS IIII P P"17 viewsAncient Rome
Emperor Valerian I (253 - 260 AD)
Silver/billon Antoninianus. Struck 257 AD.

obv: IMP CP LIC VALERIANVS PF AVG - Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right of Emperor Valerian. Seen from the Front.

rev: PM TR P V COS IIII P P - Emperor seated left in curule chair, holding globe and sceptre.

Weight: 3.2 Grams
Size: 21.5 mm
---
* This particular Roman coin of the Emperor Valerian I (253 - 260 AD), struck in The Year of Our Lord, 257, was originally found in the British Isles, a well known area which the Romans occupied for several centuries and attempted to settle.
---
-
2 commentsrexesq
Valerian_AR-Ant_ORIENS-AUGG_00.JPG
VII - Valerian Antoninianus - ORIENS AUGG - Sol Advancing left27 viewsRoman Empire
Emperor Valerian I (253-260 AD)
Silver Antoninianus, Lyons or Cologne Mint.

obv: VALERIANUVS P. F. AUG - Radiate bust right, draped and cuirassed. Seen from the front.
rev: ORIENS AVGG - Sol, radiate, advancing left holding whip and raising right hand.

Weight: 3.5 grams
Size: 24 mm
----

*Dots in obverse title;
Note in the obverse titles, the dots between, before and after the letters 'P' and 'F'.
-
5 commentsrexesq
valerian_restitut-gener-humani_00.JPG
VII - Valerian Antoninianus - RESTITVT GENER HVMANI - Restorer of the Human Race36 viewsRoman Empire
Emperor Valerian I (253 - 260 AD)
AR Antoninianus - Milan or Lyons Min

obv: IMP C P LIC VALERIANUS AUG - Radiate bust right, draped and cuirassed. Seen from the front.
rev: RESTITUT GENER HUMANI - (Restorer of the Human Race) - Valerian, radiate, walking right, holding globe and raising right hand.

4.20 Grams
5 commentsrexesq
DSC02482_DSC02488.JPG
VIII - Valerian II Antoninianus - CONSECRATIO - Lit Altar17 viewsAncient Roman Empire
Valerian II Silver Antoninianus.

obv: DIVO CAES VALERIANO - Radiate head right
rev: CONSECRATIO - Altar, lighted, with a small palmette at each top corner and four panels on the front.

Weight: 3.4 Grams
Size: 23 mm
rexesq
DSC02481_DSC02489.JPG
VIII - Valerian II Antoninianus - CONSECRATIO - Lit Altar9 viewsAncient Roman Empire
Valerian II Silver Antoninianus.

obv: DIVO CAES VALERIANO - Radiate head right
rev: CONSECRATIO - Altar, lighted, with a small palmette at each top corner and four panels on the front.

Weight: 3.4 Grams
Size: 23 mm
rexesq
DSC02481_DSC02488.JPG
VIII - Valerian II Antoninianus - CONSECRATIO - Lit Altar10 viewsAncient Roman Empire
Valerian II (Died 258 AD) Silver Antoninianus.

obv: DIVO CAES VALERIANO - Radiate head right
rev: CONSECRATIO - Altar, lighted, with a small palmette at each top corner and four panels on the front.

Weight: 3.4 Grams
Size: 23 mm
rexesq
867440142_o.jpg
VIII - Valerian II as Caesar - AR Antoninianus - Priestly Implements.8 viewsAncient Roman Empire
Valerian II as Caesar, son of Gallienus.

obv: P C L VALERIANUS NOB CAES - Radiate bust right, draped and cuirassed.
rev: PIETAS AUGG - Priestly Implements.

Weight: 3.0 grams, 22mm diameter.
rexesq
Valerian1RIC232.jpg
[1112a] Valerian I, October 253 - c. June 260 A.D.70 viewsSilver antoninianus, RIC 232, RSC 10, VF, worn die reverse, Mediolanum mint, 3.909g, 22.2mm, 180o, 257 A.D.; Obverse: IMP VALERIANVS P AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: AETERNITATI AVGG, Sol standing left, raising right, globe in left; nice portrait, good silver for the reign. Ex FORVM.


De Imperatoribus Romanis,
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors and their Families

Valerian (A.D. 253-260) and Gallienus (A.D. 253-268)

Richard D. Weigel
Western Kentucky University


P. Licinius Valerianus, or Valerian, was unusual for his time period in that he was an emperor who came from an old Roman senatorial family. He was likely born shortly before 200 A.D., but little is known of his early life. Valerian married Egnatia Mariniana and had two sons, Gallienus and Valerian Junior. Gallienus was born around 218. Valerian makes his first appearance in the sources in 238 A.D. as an ex-consul and princeps senatus negotiating with (more likely than serving on) the embassy sent to Rome by Gordian I's African legions to secure senatorial approval of Gordian's rebellion against and replacement of Maximinus Thrax as emperor. The Scriptores Historiae Augustae probably report accurately that Trajan Decius, on the recommendation of the Senate, offered Valerian the censorship in 251. Although the senatus consultum cited and the specific office are of doubtful authenticity, the high reputation Valerian possessed in the Senate and his association with the government under Decius probably are truthful aspects of the story. In 253 Valerian was apparently commanding in Raetia and Noricum when Trebonianus Gallus sent him to bring legions from Gaul and Germany to Italy for the struggle with the forces of Aemilianus. After Gallus' troops killed him and his son and joined Aemilianus, Valerian's men proclaimed their general emperor and their arrival in Italy caused Aemilianus' soldiers to desert and kill their commander and join Valerian's forces in acclaiming Valerian as emperor.

The Senate presumably was pleased to ratify the position of Valerian, one of their own, as emperor and they also accepted his son and colleague, P. Licinius Egnatius Gallienus, as Augustus, rather than just as Caesar. Valerian apparently realized the necessity of sharing power equally with his son and of dividing their efforts geographically, with Gallienus responsible for the West and Valerian himself concentrating on the East. The biographies of Valerian and Gallienus in the Scriptores Historiae Augustae, attributed to Trebellius Pollio, are not especially helpful in putting together an account of their joint reign. The life of Valerian is fragmentary and that of Gallienus projects an extremely biased negative interpretation of his career.

Gallienus in the early years of the joint reign concentrated, with some success, on protecting Gaul and the Rhine frontier by driving back Germanic tribes and fortifying cities such as Cologne and Trier. In a move which would characterize later diplomacy with Germans, Gallienus concluded an alliance with one of their chieftains, presumably to assist the Romans in protecting the empire from other Germanic tribes. The invasions increased in number around 257-258 as the Franks entered Gaul and Spain, destroying Tarraco (Tarragona), and the Alamanni invaded Italy. Gallienus defeated the Alamanni at Milan, but soon was faced with the revolts in Pannonia and Moesia led first by his general there, Ingenuus, and then by Regalianus, commander in Illyricum. Gallienus put down these rebellions by 260 and secured stability in the region by concluding an alliance with the Marcomannic king, whose daughter Pipa the emperor apparently accepted as his concubine although he was still married to Cornelia Salonina.

In the East, Valerian had succeeded by A.D. 257 in rescuing Antioch in Syria from Persian control, at least temporarily, but was soon faced with a major invasion of the Goths in Asia Minor. The Scriptores Historiae Augustae biography of Aurelian has Valerian appear to speak in the Baths at Byzantium to publicly commend Aurelian for his success in driving back the Goths and reward him with the consulship and even with adoption as imperial successor. However, it is not clear that Valerian even reached Byzantium because he sent Felix to that city while he remained to protect the eastern section of Asia Minor and then returned to Antioch to guard it against renewed Persian attacks. It was at this point, around 259, that Valerian moved to defend Edessa and his troops lost significant numbers to the plague. Valerian tried to negotiate a peace with the Persian king, Sapor, but was captured by treachery and taken into captivity. The ultimate humiliation of a Roman emperor by a foreign leader was enacted through Sapor's use of Valerian as a human stepping-stool to assist the Persian king in mounting his horse and Valerian's body was later skinned to produce a lasting trophy of Roman submission.

Eusebius discusses the policy of Valerian toward the Christians and says that, after initially treating them most positively, Valerian was persuaded by Macrianus to lead another persecution against them. Valerian in fact after his brutal imprisonment and death in Persia would serve as a negative moral exemplum for some Latin Christian writers who gleefully pointed out that those who oppose the true God receive their just desserts.

Eusebius also credits Gallienus with reversing his father's policy and establishing peace with the Church, citing imperial edicts which established freedom of worship and even restored some lost property. Paul Keresztes claims that Gallienus in fact established a peace with Christians that lasted for forty-three years, from A.D. 260 until 303, and gave the community a kind of legal status which they had previously lacked.

Andreas Alföldi details a growing separation between Gallienus and his father which goes well beyond the geographical one which had developed out of military necessity. In addition to the strikingly different policies, just described, which they pursued toward the Christians, Gallienus began to make his military independence clear through changes in coin inscriptions and by 258 he had created his central cavalry unit and stationed it at Milan. This independent force, which was under the command of a man of equestrian rank and soon stood on a level at least equal to that of the Praetorian Guard, would play a significant role in Gallienus' upcoming battles and, of course, was a foretoken of a new trend for military organization in the future. Alföldi cites as evidence of the increasing separation between the joint emperors the statement that Gallienus did not even seek his father's return from captivity, which Lactantius of course interpreted as part of Valerian's divine punishment, but one wonders what indeed Gallienus might have done and his "indifference" may have been instead his attempt to reassert confidence in his armies and not dwell on the depressing and humiliating servitude and ultimate death of Valerian. Another reform which Alföldi discusses as part of Gallienus' independent stand is his exclusion of the senatorial class from major military commands. H.M.D. Parker credits Gallienus with beginning to separate the civil and military functions of Rome's provincial governors, thus making senatorial governors purely civil administrators and starting to replace them even in this reduced role by equestrians. The disappearance in this period of the S.C. stamp of senatorial authority on bronze coins was probably also seen as an attack on the prestige of the order, although the debasement of the silver coinage had by this time practically reached the point where the "silver" coins were themselves essentially bronze and the change may have been more for economic than for political reasons. Gallienus' exclusion of senators from military command further broke down class distinctions because sons of centurions were by this time regularly given equestrian rank and the move further accelerated the alienation of Rome as center of the Empire. In addition, the bitterness of the senatorial class over Gallienus' policy most likely explains the hatred of Latin writers toward this particular emperor.

Although Gallienus' military innovations may have made his forces more effective, he still had to face numerous challenges to his authority.In addition to systemic invasions and revolts, the plague wreaked havoc in Rome and Italy and probably in several provinces as well. It must have seemed that every commander he entrusted to solve a problem later used that authority to create another threat. When Gallienus was involved in putting down the revolt of Ingenuus in Pannonia, he put Postumus in charge of the armies guarding the Rhine and Gaul. There is some doubt about which of Gallienus' sons, Cornelius Valerianus or P. Cornelius Licinius Saloninus, was left in Cologne under the care of the Praetorian Prefect Silvanus and perhaps also Postumus. In any case, when Postumus revolted and proclaimed his independent Gallic Empire, Silvanus and one of the emperor's sons were killed. Gallienus probably restricted Postumus' expansion, but he never gained the personal revenge that, according to one source, drove him to challenge Postumus to single combat. While Gallienus was thus engaged, and after Valerian's capture by the Persians, Macrianus had his soldiers proclaim his sons, Macrianus and Quietus, emperors in Syria, Asia Minor, and Egypt. Gallienus sent Aureolus to defeat Macrianus and one son in the area of Illyria and Thrace; Odenathus of Palmyra defeated the other son and restored stability in Syria and, with Gallienus' approval, followed that up with a victory over the Persians. After Odenathus' assassination ca. 267, his wife Zenobia continued to rule the independent Palmyrene section of the Empire.

In A.D. 262 Gallienus concluded his tenth year in office by celebrating in Rome his Decennalia with a spectacular procession involving senators, equestrians, gladiators, soldiers, representatives of foreign peoples, and many other groups. This festival included feasts, games, entertainment, and spectacle which probably reminded Romans of the millennial Secular Games celebrations of Philip I and likely were intended to secure popular support at home for Gallienus. Over the next five years little is known about specific activities of the emperor and he presumably spent more time in Rome and less along the frontiers.

Gallienus and Salonina as rulers patronized a cultural movement which collectively is known as the Gallienic Renaissance. The imperial patrons are most directly connected with the philosophical aspects of this movement because Porphyry testifies to their friendship for the Neoplatonic philosopher Plotinus. Porphyry goes on to say that Plotinus asked Gallienus to rebuild an abandoned former city of philosophers in Campania, rename it Platonopolis, and govern it as a kind of Platonic Republic, but that the jealousy and spite of others at court scuttled the plan. In addition to Neoplatonic philosophy, according to Gervase Matthew, the Gallienic Renaissance included the "upward glance" and other stylistic changes in imperial sculpture and religious beliefs that were characterized by "an overwhelming sense of the transcendent and immutable." Matthew points out both the return to artistic models of Augustus, Hadrian, and even Severus Alexander and also "a new Romantic tension" which breaks with the past and points toward a new and very different world. The Hellenic character of much of the Gallienic Renaissance is also stressed in the emperor's trip to Athens where he, likely in imitation of Hadrian, became eponymous archon and received initiation into the Eleusinian cult of Demeter.
Late in his reign, Gallienus issued a series of coins in Rome which honored nine deities as Conservator Augusti or protector of the emperor by pairing his portrait with reverses picturing an animal or animals symbolic of each deity. Included in this group of celestial guardians are Apollo, Diana, Hercules, Jupiter, Juno, Liber Pater, Mercury, Neptune, and Sol. For example, Apollo's coin-types portray a centaur, a gryphon, or Pegasus; Hercules is represented by either the lion or the boar. It appears that Gallienus was issuing the "animal series" coins both to secure, through some religious festival, the aid of Rome's protective gods against continuing invasions, revolts, and plague and to entertain the Roman populace with pageantry and circus games, thus to divert their attention away from the same problems and maintain the security of the regime in power.

In A.D. 268, Gallienus saw his third son, Marinianus, become consul, but in the spring another Gothic invasion brought the emperor back to Greece. He defeated the invaders at Naissus in Moesia , but was deterred from pursuing them further by a revolt of the commander of his elite cavalry, Aureolus. He besieged this last rebel emperor in Milan, but a plot involving his Praetorian Prefect and two future emperors, Claudius and Aurelian, all three men Illyrians popular with many of the soldiers, lured Gallienus away from the city on a false pretext and assassinated him.The emperor's brother Valerian and young son Marinianus were also murdered. In spite of the bitter resentment which many of the senators must have felt toward the dead emperor and his reform policies, Claudius II, perhaps only to legitimize his own reign, persuaded the Senate to deify Gallienus.

Copyright Richard D. Weigel, 2007. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis,
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors and their Families

Valerian I was proclaimed emperor after the death of Trajan Decius. He successfully repulsed many barbarian incursions but the standard of living declined and would never recover. In 260 A.D., after four years of war during which Roman forces suffered great losses in battle and to plague, he arranged for peace talks. He set off with a small group to discuss terms with the Sassinian emperor Sapor and was never seen again. The date of his death is unknown, but in Rome it was rumored that he had been murdered and that Sapor was using his stuffed body as a footstool. Joseph Sermarini, FORVM.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
GalllienusRIC163.jpg
[1113a] Gallienus, August 253 - 24 March 268 A.D.72 viewsBronze antoninianus, RIC 163, RSC 72, choice EF, Rome mint, 3.716g, 21.6mm, 180o, 268 A.D.; Obverse: GALLIENVS AVG, radiate head right; Reverse: APOLLINI CONS AVG, centaur walking right drawing bow, Z in exergue; struck on a full and round flan, rare this nice. Commemorates vows to Apollo invoking his protection against the revolt of Aureolus. Ex FORVM.


De Imperatoribus Romanis,
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors and their Families

Valerian (A.D. 253-260) and Gallienus (A.D. 253-268)

Richard D. Weigel
Western Kentucky University


P. Licinius Valerianus, or Valerian, was unusual for his time period in that he was an emperor who came from an old Roman senatorial family. He was likely born shortly before 200 A.D., but little is known of his early life. Valerian married Egnatia Mariniana and had two sons, Gallienus and Valerian Junior. Gallienus was born around 218. Valerian makes his first appearance in the sources in 238 A.D. as an ex-consul and princeps senatus negotiating with (more likely than serving on) the embassy sent to Rome by Gordian I's African legions to secure senatorial approval of Gordian's rebellion against and replacement of Maximinus Thrax as emperor. The Scriptores Historiae Augustae probably report accurately that Trajan Decius, on the recommendation of the Senate, offered Valerian the censorship in 251. Although the senatus consultum cited and the specific office are of doubtful authenticity, the high reputation Valerian possessed in the Senate and his association with the government under Decius probably are truthful aspects of the story. In 253 Valerian was apparently commanding in Raetia and Noricum when Trebonianus Gallus sent him to bring legions from Gaul and Germany to Italy for the struggle with the forces of Aemilianus. After Gallus' troops killed him and his son and joined Aemilianus, Valerian's men proclaimed their general emperor and their arrival in Italy caused Aemilianus' soldiers to desert and kill their commander and join Valerian's forces in acclaiming Valerian as emperor.

The Senate presumably was pleased to ratify the position of Valerian, one of their own, as emperor and they also accepted his son and colleague, P. Licinius Egnatius Gallienus, as Augustus, rather than just as Caesar. Valerian apparently realized the necessity of sharing power equally with his son and of dividing their efforts geographically, with Gallienus responsible for the West and Valerian himself concentrating on the East. The biographies of Valerian and Gallienus in the Scriptores Historiae Augustae, attributed to Trebellius Pollio, are not especially helpful in putting together an account of their joint reign. The life of Valerian is fragmentary and that of Gallienus projects an extremely biased negative interpretation of his career.

Gallienus in the early years of the joint reign concentrated, with some success, on protecting Gaul and the Rhine frontier by driving back Germanic tribes and fortifying cities such as Cologne and Trier. In a move which would characterize later diplomacy with Germans, Gallienus concluded an alliance with one of their chieftains, presumably to assist the Romans in protecting the empire from other Germanic tribes. The invasions increased in number around 257-258 as the Franks entered Gaul and Spain, destroying Tarraco (Tarragona), and the Alamanni invaded Italy. Gallienus defeated the Alamanni at Milan, but soon was faced with the revolts in Pannonia and Moesia led first by his general there, Ingenuus, and then by Regalianus, commander in Illyricum. Gallienus put down these rebellions by 260 and secured stability in the region by concluding an alliance with the Marcomannic king, whose daughter Pipa the emperor apparently accepted as his concubine although he was still married to Cornelia Salonina.

In the East, Valerian had succeeded by A.D. 257 in rescuing Antioch in Syria from Persian control, at least temporarily, but was soon faced with a major invasion of the Goths in Asia Minor. The Scriptores Historiae Augustae biography of Aurelian has Valerian appear to speak in the Baths at Byzantium to publicly commend Aurelian for his success in driving back the Goths and reward him with the consulship and even with adoption as imperial successor. However, it is not clear that Valerian even reached Byzantium because he sent Felix to that city while he remained to protect the eastern section of Asia Minor and then returned to Antioch to guard it against renewed Persian attacks. It was at this point, around 259, that Valerian moved to defend Edessa and his troops lost significant numbers to the plague. Valerian tried to negotiate a peace with the Persian king, Sapor, but was captured by treachery and taken into captivity. The ultimate humiliation of a Roman emperor by a foreign leader was enacted through Sapor's use of Valerian as a human stepping-stool to assist the Persian king in mounting his horse and Valerian's body was later skinned to produce a lasting trophy of Roman submission.

Eusebius discusses the policy of Valerian toward the Christians and says that, after initially treating them most positively, Valerian was persuaded by Macrianus to lead another persecution against them. Valerian in fact after his brutal imprisonment and death in Persia would serve as a negative moral exemplum for some Latin Christian writers who gleefully pointed out that those who oppose the true God receive their just desserts.

Eusebius also credits Gallienus with reversing his father's policy and establishing peace with the Church, citing imperial edicts which established freedom of worship and even restored some lost property. Paul Keresztes claims that Gallienus in fact established a peace with Christians that lasted for forty-three years, from A.D. 260 until 303, and gave the community a kind of legal status which they had previously lacked.

Andreas Alföldi details a growing separation between Gallienus and his father which goes well beyond the geographical one which had developed out of military necessity. In addition to the strikingly different policies, just described, which they pursued toward the Christians, Gallienus began to make his military independence clear through changes in coin inscriptions and by 258 he had created his central cavalry unit and stationed it at Milan. This independent force, which was under the command of a man of equestrian rank and soon stood on a level at least equal to that of the Praetorian Guard, would play a significant role in Gallienus' upcoming battles and, of course, was a foretoken of a new trend for military organization in the future. Alföldi cites as evidence of the increasing separation between the joint emperors the statement that Gallienus did not even seek his father's return from captivity, which Lactantius of course interpreted as part of Valerian's divine punishment, but one wonders what indeed Gallienus might have done and his "indifference" may have been instead his attempt to reassert confidence in his armies and not dwell on the depressing and humiliating servitude and ultimate death of Valerian. Another reform which Alföldi discusses as part of Gallienus' independent stand is his exclusion of the senatorial class from major military commands. H.M.D. Parker credits Gallienus with beginning to separate the civil and military functions of Rome's provincial governors, thus making senatorial governors purely civil administrators and starting to replace them even in this reduced role by equestrians. The disappearance in this period of the S.C. stamp of senatorial authority on bronze coins was probably also seen as an attack on the prestige of the order, although the debasement of the silver coinage had by this time practically reached the point where the "silver" coins were themselves essentially bronze and the change may have been more for economic than for political reasons. Gallienus' exclusion of senators from military command further broke down class distinctions because sons of centurions were by this time regularly given equestrian rank and the move further accelerated the alienation of Rome as center of the Empire. In addition, the bitterness of the senatorial class over Gallienus' policy most likely explains the hatred of Latin writers toward this particular emperor.

Although Gallienus' military innovations may have made his forces more effective, he still had to face numerous challenges to his authority.In addition to systemic invasions and revolts, the plague wreaked havoc in Rome and Italy and probably in several provinces as well. It must have seemed that every commander he entrusted to solve a problem later used that authority to create another threat. When Gallienus was involved in putting down the revolt of Ingenuus in Pannonia, he put Postumus in charge of the armies guarding the Rhine and Gaul. There is some doubt about which of Gallienus' sons, Cornelius Valerianus or P. Cornelius Licinius Saloninus, was left in Cologne under the care of the Praetorian Prefect Silvanus and perhaps also Postumus. In any case, when Postumus revolted and proclaimed his independent Gallic Empire, Silvanus and one of the emperor's sons were killed. Gallienus probably restricted Postumus' expansion, but he never gained the personal revenge that, according to one source, drove him to challenge Postumus to single combat. While Gallienus was thus engaged, and after Valerian's capture by the Persians, Macrianus had his soldiers proclaim his sons, Macrianus and Quietus, emperors in Syria, Asia Minor, and Egypt. Gallienus sent Aureolus to defeat Macrianus and one son in the area of Illyria and Thrace; Odenathus of Palmyra defeated the other son and restored stability in Syria and, with Gallienus' approval, followed that up with a victory over the Persians. After Odenathus' assassination ca. 267, his wife Zenobia continued to rule the independent Palmyrene section of the Empire.

In A.D. 262 Gallienus concluded his tenth year in office by celebrating in Rome his Decennalia with a spectacular procession involving senators, equestrians, gladiators, soldiers, representatives of foreign peoples, and many other groups. This festival included feasts, games, entertainment, and spectacle which probably reminded Romans of the millennial Secular Games celebrations of Philip I and likely were intended to secure popular support at home for Gallienus. Over the next five years little is known about specific activities of the emperor and he presumably spent more time in Rome and less along the frontiers.

Gallienus and Salonina as rulers patronized a cultural movement which collectively is known as the Gallienic Renaissance. The imperial patrons are most directly connected with the philosophical aspects of this movement because Porphyry testifies to their friendship for the Neoplatonic philosopher Plotinus. Porphyry goes on to say that Plotinus asked Gallienus to rebuild an abandoned former city of philosophers in Campania, rename it Platonopolis, and govern it as a kind of Platonic Republic, but that the jealousy and spite of others at court scuttled the plan. In addition to Neoplatonic philosophy, according to Gervase Matthew, the Gallienic Renaissance included the "upward glance" and other stylistic changes in imperial sculpture and religious beliefs that were characterized by "an overwhelming sense of the transcendent and immutable." Matthew points out both the return to artistic models of Augustus, Hadrian, and even Severus Alexander and also "a new Romantic tension" which breaks with the past and points toward a new and very different world. The Hellenic character of much of the Gallienic Renaissance is also stressed in the emperor's trip to Athens where he, likely in imitation of Hadrian, became eponymous archon and received initiation into the Eleusinian cult of Demeter.

Late in his reign, Gallienus issued a series of coins in Rome which honored nine deities as Conservator Augusti or protector of the emperor by pairing his portrait with reverses picturing an animal or animals symbolic of each deity. Included in this group of celestial guardians are Apollo, Diana, Hercules, Jupiter, Juno, Liber Pater, Mercury, Neptune, and Sol. For example, Apollo's coin-types portray a centaur, a gryphon, or Pegasus; Hercules is represented by either the lion or the boar. It appears that Gallienus was issuing the "animal series" coins both to secure, through some religious festival, the aid of Rome's protective gods against continuing invasions, revolts, and plague and to entertain the Roman populace with pageantry and circus games, thus to divert their attention away from the same problems and maintain the security of the regime in power.

In A.D. 268, Gallienus saw his third son, Marinianus, become consul, but in the spring another Gothic invasion brought the emperor back to Greece. He defeated the invaders at Naissus in Moesia , but was deterred from pursuing them further by a revolt of the commander of his elite cavalry, Aureolus. He besieged this last rebel emperor in Milan, but a plot involving his Praetorian Prefect and two future emperors, Claudius and Aurelian, all three men Illyrians popular with many of the soldiers, lured Gallienus away from the city on a false pretext and assassinated him.The emperor's brother Valerian and young son Marinianus were also murdered. In spite of the bitter resentment which many of the senators must have felt toward the dead emperor and his reform policies, Claudius II, perhaps only to legitimize his own reign, persuaded the Senate to deify Gallienus.

Copyright (C) 1998, Richard D. Weigel. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis,
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/gallval.htm. Used by permission.


Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus was born in about AD 213. This means that he was about 40 years old when his father Valerian, in AD 253, was hailed emperor by his troops in Raetia. Gallienus was made Caesar immediately by his father. But within a month, when Valerian got to Rome, Gallienus received the rank of Augustus.

Compared to other Roman emperors of the age, Gallienus was an exception, as far as he was not a soldier-emperor. He was rather a thoughtful, intellectual ruler, possessing sophisticated Greek tastes. However, this made him deeply unpopular with the gritty Danubian generals, who very much understood it as their right to choose a leader among their own ranks to rule the empire.

If the Danubian military elite didn't like Gallienus, then he certainly soon proved that he was a capable military leader. Between AD 254 to AD 256 he campaigned along the Danube, securing this troubled frontier against the barbarians. In AD 256 he then moved west to fight the Germans along the Rhine.

Then by autumn AD 260 the message of Valerian's capture by the Persians reached Gallienus. If Gallienus had always been unpopular among the military leaders, then now with his father gone and Roman authority crumbling, rebellion was in the air.

On a night in September, AD 268, at the siege of Mediolanum (Milan), an alarm was suddenly raised in the camp of the emperor. In the brief moment of confusion, Gallienus was struck down in the dark as he emerged from his tent.

During his reign, Gallienus began numerous reforms and military campaigns to defend the empire, as much from usurpers as from barbarians. In doing so, he perhaps saved the empire from oblivion. At the same time he presided over perhaps the last flowering of classical Roman culture, patronizing poets, artists and philosophers.

As a last gesture of disrespect to this, most unfortunate of emperors, the Romans should lay Gallienus to rest not in one of the great mausoleums in Rome, but in a tomb nine miles south of the capital, along the Via Appia.

Ironically, he was deified by the senate at the request of Claudius II Gothicus, one of the men who must be held accountable for the assassination of Gallienus.
See: http://www.roman-empire.net/decline/gallienus.html


Gallienus was the son of Valerian I and was named Caesar at his father's accession to the throne in 253 A.D. Upon his father's capture by the Parthians he assumed the rank of Augustus and began numerous reforms and military campaigns to defend the empire, as much from usurpers as from barbarians. At the same time he presided over perhaps the last flowering of classical Roman culture, patronizing poets, artists and philosophers. Gallienus was assassinated while besieging Milan. Joseph Sermarini, FORVM.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
   
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