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Search results - "Valens"
coin152.jpg
21 viewsValens AE3 DVM 46
Bust diad & cuir r. DN VALENS PF AVG / Rev
GLORIA ROMANORVM emp. Walking l, holding
Labarum & dragging captive. Coin #152

cars100
Valens_364-78_AD_AE_3__15mm_1_91gr_USS_3_40.jpg
15 viewsAntonivs Protti
011416a.jpg
Valens RIC IX 23b type xxi(b) Rome 20 viewsObverse: DN VALEN-S PF AVG, pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right
Reverse: GLORIA RO-MANORVM, Emperor advancing right dragging captive with right hand and holding labarum in left.
Mintmark: R dot QVARTA
RIC IX Rome 23b, type xii (b) 16.7 mm., 2.0 g.
NORMAN K
valens12.jpg
Valens, RIC IX 12b Aquileia47 viewsValens, AE3, 367-375 CE.
Obverse: D N VALENS P F AVG, pearl diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
Reverse: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE, Victory advancing lert, holding wreath and palm.
Mintmark SMAQP Aquileia, 17.5 mm, 2.4 g.

NORMAN K
AE.JPG
Valens, Emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire, 364-378 AD. AE 18. Struck 364 AD. Sirmium mint. 18 viewsDN VALENS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / GLORIA RO MANORVM, Valens advancing right, dragging captive and holding labarum; ASIRM.
Sirmium RIC 4b
Antonivs Protti
valenssisciaaa.jpg
Valens, RIC IX 14b, Siscia. 367-375 CE.24 viewsObverse: DN VALEN-S PF AVG, pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: GLORIA RO-MANORVM, emperor advancing right, holding labarum, dragging captive behind him.
F (sym 4) in left field, A over A (sym 4) in right field.
Mintmark .BSISCB.
18.5 mm., 2.0 g. RIC IX Siscia 14b, type xxxv (unlisted fieldmarks)
NORMAN K
valens3.jpg
Valens, RIC IX 17b Rome23 viewsValens, AE3
Obverse: D N VALEN-S P F AVG, pearl diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
Reverse: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE, Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm.
Twelve different mintmarks are known, some of which were used for the later, identical issue 24b. These examples: R dot SECVNDA; R dot TERTIA AND RB.
R dot SECVNDO in ex. Rome mint. 17.1 mm, 2.0 g.


NORMAN K
Valens-7.JPG
Valens-751 viewsAE3, 364-378 AD, Constantinople mint
Obverse: DN VALENS PF AVG, Diademmed , draped, and cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE, Victory advancing left with wreath and palm.
CONSP(Gamma) exergue, RIC 21c
2.0gm , 17mm
Jerome Holderman
valens-secvritas-reipvblicae.JPG
RIC.7(abs) Valens (AE3, Secvritas Rei Pvblicae)24 viewsValens, eastern roman emperor (364-378)
Nummus AE3 : Secvritas Rei Pvblicae (364-367, Siscia)

bronze, 18 mm diameter, 2.52 g, die axis: 6h

A/ D N VALEN-S P F AVG; pearl diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right
R/ SECVRITAS-REIPVBLICAE / ΓSISC in exergue ; Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm
Droger
valens-gloria-siscia.JPG
RIC.5b.vii Valens (AE3, Gloria Romanorvm)13 viewsValens, eastern roman emperor (364-378)
Nummus AE3 : Gloria Romanorvm (364-367, Siscia, 2ond officine)

bronze, 19 mm diameter, 1.84 g, die axis: 7h

A/ D N VALEN-S P F AVG; pearl diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right
R/ GLORIA RO-MANORVM / DBSISC in exergue / *A in the field on the right; emperor advancing right, dragging captive and holding labarum
Droger
valens-silique-restitvtor-reip-lyon.JPG
RIC.6f4 Valens (siliqua, Restitvtor Reip)11 viewsValens, eastern roman emperor (364-378)
Siliqua : Restitvtor Reip (366, Lyon)

silver (900 ‰), 18 mm diameter, 1.80 g, die axis: 6h

A/ D N VALEN-S P F AVG; pearl diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right
R/ RESTITV-TOR REIP / SLVG• à l'exergue ; emperor standing facing, head right, holding labarum and Victory on globe
Droger
valens-silique-urbs-roma.JPG
RIC.27e1 Valens (siliqua, Vrbs Roma)17 viewsValens, eastern roman emperor (364-378)
Siliqua : Vrbs Roma (367-375, Trèves)

silver (900 ‰), 17 mm diameter, 1.96 g, die axis: 7h

A/ D N VALEN-S P F AVG; pearl diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right
R/ VRBS - ROMA / TRPS• in exergue; Roma seated left on throne, holding Victory on globe and spear
Droger
VALENS_1.jpg
(0364) VALENS89 views364 - 378 AD
AE 18 mm 2.98 g
O: DN VALEN-S PF AVG
DIAD DR CUIR BUST R
R: GLORIA RO-MANORUM
EMPEROR FACING HOLDING LABARUM WITH CHRISTOGRAM AND DRAGGING CAPTIVE AT LEFT
SISCIA
laney
valens.jpg
(0364) VALENS66 views364 - 378 AD
AE 17.5 mm 2.42 g
O: DN VALENS PF AVG
DIAD DR CUIR BUST R
R: GLOVIA ROMANORVM
VALENS ADVANCING R HOLDING CHI-RHO LABARUM AND DRAGGING CAPTIVE, */H IN R FIELD
DOT ASISG IN EXE
SISCIA
laney
072.jpg
070a VALENS9 viewsEMPEROR: Valens
DENOMINATION: Siliqua
OBVERSE: DN VALEN-S PF AVG, pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right
REVERSE: / VOT V MV dot LT X in four lines within wreath.
EXERGUE RB
DATE: 364-378 AD
MINT: Roma
WEIGHT: 1.82 g
RIC IX Rome 10c
Barnaba6
75.jpg
075 Hostilian. AR antoinianus19 viewsobv: C VALENS HOSTIL MES QVINTVS N C rad. drp. bust r.
rev: MARTI PROPVGNATORI mars adv. r. holding spear and shield
hill132
Hostilian_AR-Antoninianus_C-VALENS-HOSTIL-MES-QVINTVS-N-C_MARTI-PROPVGNATORI_RIC-177b-Tr_Dec__C-15_Rome_251-AD_Q-001_axis-7h_20,5-22mm_3,63g-s.jpg
082 Hostilian (250-251 A.D. Caesar, 251 A.D. Augustus), AR-Antoninianus, RIC IV-III 177b, Rome, MARTI PROPVGNATORI, Caesar, Scarce!,67 views082 Hostilian (250-251 A.D. Caesar, 251 A.D. Augustus), AR-Antoninianus, RIC IV-III 177b, Rome, MARTI PROPVGNATORI, Caesar, Scarce!,
avers:- C VALENS HOSTIL MES QVINTVS N C, radiate, draped bust right,
revers:- MARTI PROPVGNATORI, Mars advancing right holding spear and shield.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 20,5-22 mm, weight: 3,63 g, axis: 7 h,
mint: Rome, date: 251 A.D., ref: RIC-177b, p-144, C-15, scarce,
Q-001
quadrans
Hostilian_AR-Antoninianus_C-VALENS-HOSTIL-MES-QVINTVS-N-C_PRINCIPI-IVVENTVTIS_RIC-181d-Tr_Dec__C-33_Rome_251-AD_Q-001_axis-6h_20mm_3,56g-s.jpg
082 Hostilian (250-251 A.D. Caesar, 251 A.D. Augustus), AR-Antoninianus, RIC IV-III 181d, Rome, PRINCIPI IVVENTVTIS, Caesar, Scarce!,73 views082 Hostilian (250-251 A.D. Caesar, 251 A.D. Augustus), AR-Antoninianus, RIC IV-III 181d, Rome, PRINCIPI IVVENTVTIS, Caesar, Scarce!,
avers:- C VALENS HOSTIL MES QVINTVS N C, radiate, draped bust right,
revers:- PRINCIPI IVVENTVTIS, Hostilian standing left, holding spear & standard.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 20 mm, weight: 3,56 g, axis: 6 h,
mint: Rome, date: 251 A.D., ref: RIC-181d , p-144 ,C-34, Scarce,
Q-001
quadrans
Hostilian_AR-Antoninianus_C-VAL-HOS-MES-QVINTVS-N-C_PRINCIPI-IVVENTVTIS_RIC-_C-_Rome_251-AD_Q-001_axis-5h_21-23mm_3_67g-s.jpg
082 Hostilian (250-251 A.D. Caesar, 251 A.D. Augustus), AR-Antoninianus, RIC IV-III ???, Rome, PRINCIPI IVVENTVTIS, Caesar, Very Rare!, Not in RIC!!!,77 views082 Hostilian (250-251 A.D. Caesar, 251 A.D. Augustus), AR-Antoninianus, RIC IV-III ???, Rome, PRINCIPI IVVENTVTIS, Caesar, Very Rare!, Not in RIC!!!,
avers:- C VAL HOS MES QVINTVS N C, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right
revers:- RINCIPI IVVENTVTIS, Apollo seated left, holding branch
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 21-23mm, weight: 3,67g, axis: h,
mint: Rome ?, date: 251 A.D.? ref: RIC- ,C- ,??, Very rare!, Not in RIC!!!,
Q-001
"A similar coin, overstruck on an earlier denarius of Geta in Decius' operation to convert circulating denarii into antononiani, was shown on Forvm by Hispanorvm, May 2005.
I wrote the coin into my RIC, but it did not turn up in a Forvm search for "Hostilian Geta" now, so it has perhaps been deleted.
For readers without easy access to RIC, this rev. type is well known for Hostilian Caesar with the longer legend
C VALENS HOSTIL MES QVINTVS N C,
but is not in RIC with the more abbreviated legend of Quadrans' coin,
C VAL HOS MES QVINTVS N C." by Curtis Clay. Thank you Curtis Clay.
quadrans
Civil_Wars_RIC_I_121.jpg
09.5 Civil Wars RIC I 12149 viewsCivil Wars. 69 A.D. AR Denarius. Southern Gaul mint. 69 A.D. (2.97g, 18.5mm, 6h). Obv: FIDES, above EXERCITVVM, below clasped hands. Rev: FIDES, above,PRAETORIANORVM, blow, Clasped r. hands. RIC I 121; RCV 2048.

This is thought to be an issue by pro Vitellian forces in southern Gaul for the purpose of influencing Otho’s Praetorians in the capital. In March 69 AD, Vitellian commander Fabius Valens entered Italy from Southern Gaul at the head of a small band to sway the loyalty of Otho’s forces, and this type of coin would have been “bribe” money for that purpose.
1 commentsLucas H
hierapolis_AE18.jpg
098-217 AD - HIERAPOLIS (Phrygia) AE18 62 viewsobv: - (bare head of Hercules)
rev: IERAPO-LITWN (winged Nemesis standing left, holding bridle, within dotted border)
ref: SNG Cop. 422. Weber, Hierapolis 142, 8
4.43gms, 18mm
Rare
Hierapolis can mean "sacred city", because of the several temples. The city was devastated by an earthquake which took place in 17 A.D. during the reign of Tiberius. In 60 AD, during the rule of emperor Nero, an even more severe earthquake left the city completely in ruins. Afterwards the city was rebuilt in Roman style with the financial support from the emperor. Hierapolis was visited by the Emperor Hadrian in 129 A.D., the Emperor Caracalla in 215 and the Emperor Valens in 370.
On obverse is a typical Hercules head, compare to my CORNELIA 58 denarius.
berserker
Personajes_Imperiales_10.jpg
10 - Personalities of the Empire44 viewsSeverus II, Maxentius, Romulus, Constantine I, Helena, Fausta, Alexander, Licinius I, Constantia, Maximinus II, Valerius Valens, Licinius II, Crispus and Martinianusmdelvalle
Personajes_Imperiales_11.jpg
11 - Personalities of the Empire51 views
Magnentius, Decentius, Vetranius, Constantius Gallo, Julian II, Jovian, Valentinianus I, Valens, Procopius, Gratianus, Valentinianus II, Theodosius I, Aelia Flacilla and Magnus Maximus
mdelvalle
Lcnius1.jpg
1308b, Licinius I, 308 - 324 A.D. (Siscia)59 viewsLicinius I, 11 November 308 - 18 September 324 A.D. Bronze follis, RIC 4, F, Siscia, 3.257g, 21.6mm, 0o, 313 - 315 A.D. Obverse: IMP LIC LICINIVS P F AVG, laureate head right; Reverse IOVI CONSERVATORI AVGG NN, Jupiter standing left holding Victory on globe and scepter, eagle with wreath in beak left, E right, SIS in exergue.



De Imperatoribus Romanis : An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Licinius (308-324 A.D.)

Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Salve Regina University

Licinius' Heritage

Valerius Licinianus Licinius, more commonly known as Licinius, may have been born ca. 265. Of peasant origin, his family was from Dacia. A close friend and comrade of arms of the Emperor Galerius, he accompanied him on his Persian expedition in 297. When campaigns by Severus and Galerius in late 306 or early 307 and in the summer of 307, respectively, failed to dislodge Maxentius who, with the luke warm support of his father Maximianus Herculius, was acclaimed princeps on 28 October 306, he was sent by the eastern emperor to Maxentius as an ambassador; the diplomatic mission, however, failed because the usurper refused to submit to the authority of his father-in-law Galerius. At the Conference of Carnuntum which was held in October or November of 308, Licinius was made an Augustus on 11 November 308; his realm included Thrace, Illyricum, and Pannonia.

Licinius' Early Reign

Although Licinius was initially appointed by Galerius to replace Severus to end the revolt of Maxentius , Licinius (perhaps wisely) made no effort to move against the usurper. In fact, his first attested victory was against the Sarmatians probably in the late spring, but no later than the end of June in 310. When the Emperor Galerius died in 311, Licinius met Maximinus Daia at the Bosporus during the early summer of that year; they concluded a treaty and divided Galerius' realm between them. It was little more than a year later that the Emperor Constantine defeated Maxentius at the Battle of the Milvian Bridge on 28 October 312. After the defeat of the usurper, Constantine and Licinius met at Mediolanum (Milan) where Licinius married the former's sister Constantia; one child was born of this union: Valerius Licinianus Licinius. Licinius had another son, born of a slave woman, whose name is unknown. It appears that both emperors promulgated the so-called Edict of Milan, in which Constantine and Licinius granted Christians the freedom to practice their faith without any interference from the state.

As soon as he seems to have learned about the marital alliance between Licinius and Constantine and the death of Maxentius, who had been his ally, Daia traversed Asia Minor and, in April 313, he crossed the Bosporus and went to Byzantium, which he took from Licinius after an eleven day siege. On 30 April 313 the armies of both emperors clashed on the Campus Ergenus; in the ensuing battle Daia's forces were routed. A last ditch stand by Daia at the Cilician Gates failed; the eastern emperor subsequently died in the area of Tarsus probably in July or August 313. As soon as he arrived in Nicomedeia, Licinius promulgated the Edict of Milan. As soon as he had matters in Nicomedeia straightened out, Licinius campaigned against the Persians in the remaining part of 313 and the opening months of 314.

The First Civil War Between Licinius and Constantine

Once Licinius had defeated Maximinus Daia, the sole rulers of the Roman world were he and Constantine. It is obvious that the marriage of Licinius to Constantia was simply a union of convenience. In any case, there is evidence in the sources that both emperors were looking for an excuse to attack the other. The affair involving Bassianus (the husband of Constantius I's daughter Anastasia ), mentioned in the text of Anonymus Valesianus (5.14ff), may have sparked the falling out between the two emperors. In any case, Constantine' s forces joined battle with those of Licinius at Cibalae in Pannonia on 8 October 314. When the battle was over, Constantine prevailed; his victory, however, was Pyrrhic. Both emperors had been involved in exhausting military campaigns in the previous year and the months leading up to Cibalae and each of their realms had expanded so fast that their manpower reserves must have been stretched to the limit. Both men retreated to their own territory to lick their wounds. It may well be that the two emperors made an agreement, which has left no direct trace in the historical record, which would effectively restore the status quo.

Both emperors were variously engaged in different activities between 315 and 316. In addition to campaigning against the Germans while residing in Augusta Treverorum (Trier) in 315, Constantine dealt with aspects of the Donatist controversy; he also traveled to Rome where he celebrated his Decennalia. Licinius, possibly residing at Sirmium, was probably waging war against the Goths. Although not much else is known about Licinius' activities during this period, it is probable that he spent much of his time preparing for his impending war against Constantine; the latter,who spent the spring and summer of 316 in Augusta Treverorum, was probably doing much the same thing. In any case, by December 316, the western emperor was in Sardica with his army. Sometime between 1 December and 28 February 317, both emperors' armies joined battle on the Campus Ardiensis; as was the case in the previous engagement, Constantine' s forces were victorious. On 1 March 317, both sides agreed to a cessation of hostilities; possibly because of the intervention of his wife Constantia, Licinius was able to keep his throne, although he had to agree to the execution of his colleague Valens, who the eastern emperor had appointed as his colleague before the battle, as well as to cede some of his territory to his brother-in-law.

Licinius and the Christians

Although the historical record is not completely clear, Licinius seems to have campaigned against the Sarmatians in 318. He also appears to have been in Byzantium in the summer of 318 and later in June 323. Beyond these few facts, not much else is known about his residences until mid summer of 324. Although he and Constantine had issued the Edict of Milan in early 313, Licinius turned on the Christians in his realm seemingly in 320. The first law that Licinius issued prevented bishops from communicating with each other and from holding synods to discuss matters of interest to them. The second law prohibited men and women from attending services together and young girls from receiving instruction from their bishop or schools. When this law was issued, he also gave orders that Christians could hold services only outside of city walls. Additionally, he deprived officers in the army of their commissions if they did not sacrifice to the gods. Licinius may have been trying to incite Constantine to attack him. In any case, the growing tension between the two rulers is reflected in the consular Fasti of the period.

The Second Civil War Between Licinius and Constantine and Licinius' Death

War actually broke out in 321 when Constantine pursued some Sarmatians, who had been ravaging some territory in his realm, across the Danube. When he checked a similar invasion of the Goths, who were devastating Thrace, Licinius complained that Constantine had broken the treaty between them. Having assembled a fleet and army at Thessalonica, Constantine advanced toward Adrianople. Licinius engaged the forces of his brother-in-law near the banks of the Hebrus River on 3 July 324 where he was routed; with as many men as he could gather, he headed for his fleet which was in the Hellespont. Those of his soldiers who were not killed or put to flight, surrendered to the enemy. Licinius fled to Byzantium, where he was besieged by Constantine. Licinius' fleet, under the command of the admiral Abantus, was overcome by bad weather and by Constantine' s fleet which was under the command of his son Crispus. Hard pressed in Byzantium, Licinius abandoned the city to his rival and fled to Chalcedon in Bithynia. Leaving Martinianus, his former magister officiorum and now his co-ruler, to impede Constantine' s progress, Licinius regrouped his forces and engaged his enemy at Chrysopolis where he was again routed on 18 September 324. He fled to Nicomedeia which Constantine began to besiege. On the next day Licinius abdicated and was sent to Thessalonica, where he was kept under house arrest. Both Licinius and his associate were put to death by Constantine. Martinianus may have been put to death before the end of 324, whereas Licinius was not put to death until the spring of 325. Rumors circulated that Licinius had been put to death because he attempted another rebellion against Constantine.

Copyright (C) 1996, Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
Licin1AEFolJupiAlex.jpg
1308c, Licinius I, 308-324 A.D. (Alexandria)66 viewsLicinius I, 308-324 A.D. AE Follis, 3.60g, VF, 315 A.D., Alexandria. Obverse: IMP C VAL LICIN LICINIVS P F AVG - Laureate head right; Reverse: IOVI CONS-ERVATORI AVGG - Jupiter standing left, holding Victory on a globe and scepter; exergue: ALE / (wreath) over "B" over "N." Ref: RIC VII, 10 (B = r2) Rare, page 705 - Hunterian Museum, Glasgow, Scotland.


De Imperatoribus Romanis : An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Licinius (308-324 A.D.)

Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Salve Regina University

Licinius' Heritage

Valerius Licinianus Licinius, more commonly known as Licinius, may have been born ca. 265. Of peasant origin, his family was from Dacia. A close friend and comrade of arms of the Emperor Galerius, he accompanied him on his Persian expedition in 297. When campaigns by Severus and Galerius in late 306 or early 307 and in the summer of 307, respectively, failed to dislodge Maxentius who, with the luke warm support of his father Maximianus Herculius, was acclaimed princeps on 28 October 306, he was sent by the eastern emperor to Maxentius as an ambassador; the diplomatic mission, however, failed because the usurper refused to submit to the authority of his father-in-law Galerius. At the Conference of Carnuntum which was held in October or November of 308, Licinius was made an Augustus on 11 November 308; his realm included Thrace, Illyricum, and Pannonia.

Licinius' Early Reign

Although Licinius was initially appointed by Galerius to replace Severus to end the revolt of Maxentius , Licinius (perhaps wisely) made no effort to move against the usurper. In fact, his first attested victory was against the Sarmatians probably in the late spring, but no later than the end of June in 310. When the Emperor Galerius died in 311, Licinius met Maximinus Daia at the Bosporus during the early summer of that year; they concluded a treaty and divided Galerius' realm between them. It was little more than a year later that the Emperor Constantine defeated Maxentius at the Battle of the Milvian Bridge on 28 October 312. After the defeat of the usurper, Constantine and Licinius met at Mediolanum (Milan) where Licinius married the former's sister Constantia; one child was born of this union: Valerius Licinianus Licinius. Licinius had another son, born of a slave woman, whose name is unknown. It appears that both emperors promulgated the so-called Edict of Milan, in which Constantine and Licinius granted Christians the freedom to practice their faith without any interference from the state.

As soon as he seems to have learned about the marital alliance between Licinius and Constantine and the death of Maxentius, who had been his ally, Daia traversed Asia Minor and, in April 313, he crossed the Bosporus and went to Byzantium, which he took from Licinius after an eleven day siege. On 30 April 313 the armies of both emperors clashed on the Campus Ergenus; in the ensuing battle Daia's forces were routed. A last ditch stand by Daia at the Cilician Gates failed; the eastern emperor subsequently died in the area of Tarsus probably in July or August 313. As soon as he arrived in Nicomedeia, Licinius promulgated the Edict of Milan. As soon as he had matters in Nicomedeia straightened out, Licinius campaigned against the Persians in the remaining part of 313 and the opening months of 314.

The First Civil War Between Licinius and Constantine

Once Licinius had defeated Maximinus Daia, the sole rulers of the Roman world were he and Constantine. It is obvious that the marriage of Licinius to Constantia was simply a union of convenience. In any case, there is evidence in the sources that both emperors were looking for an excuse to attack the other. The affair involving Bassianus (the husband of Constantius I's daughter Anastasia ), mentioned in the text of Anonymus Valesianus (5.14ff), may have sparked the falling out between the two emperors. In any case, Constantine' s forces joined battle with those of Licinius at Cibalae in Pannonia on 8 October 314. When the battle was over, Constantine prevailed; his victory, however, was Pyrrhic. Both emperors had been involved in exhausting military campaigns in the previous year and the months leading up to Cibalae and each of their realms had expanded so fast that their manpower reserves must have been stretched to the limit. Both men retreated to their own territory to lick their wounds. It may well be that the two emperors made an agreement, which has left no direct trace in the historical record, which would effectively restore the status quo.

Both emperors were variously engaged in different activities between 315 and 316. In addition to campaigning against the Germans while residing in Augusta Treverorum (Trier) in 315, Constantine dealt with aspects of the Donatist controversy; he also traveled to Rome where he celebrated his Decennalia. Licinius, possibly residing at Sirmium, was probably waging war against the Goths. Although not much else is known about Licinius' activities during this period, it is probable that he spent much of his time preparing for his impending war against Constantine; the latter,who spent the spring and summer of 316 in Augusta Treverorum, was probably doing much the same thing. In any case, by December 316, the western emperor was in Sardica with his army. Sometime between 1 December and 28 February 317, both emperors' armies joined battle on the Campus Ardiensis; as was the case in the previous engagement, Constantine' s forces were victorious. On 1 March 317, both sides agreed to a cessation of hostilities; possibly because of the intervention of his wife Constantia, Licinius was able to keep his throne, although he had to agree to the execution of his colleague Valens, who the eastern emperor had appointed as his colleague before the battle, as well as to cede some of his territory to his brother-in-law.

Licinius and the Christians

Although the historical record is not completely clear, Licinius seems to have campaigned against the Sarmatians in 318. He also appears to have been in Byzantium in the summer of 318 and later in June 323. Beyond these few facts, not much else is known about his residences until mid summer of 324. Although he and Constantine had issued the Edict of Milan in early 313, Licinius turned on the Christians in his realm seemingly in 320. The first law that Licinius issued prevented bishops from communicating with each other and from holding synods to discuss matters of interest to them. The second law prohibited men and women from attending services together and young girls from receiving instruction from their bishop or schools. When this law was issued, he also gave orders that Christians could hold services only outside of city walls. Additionally, he deprived officers in the army of their commissions if they did not sacrifice to the gods. Licinius may have been trying to incite Constantine to attack him. In any case, the growing tension between the two rulers is reflected in the consular Fasti of the period.

The Second Civil War Between Licinius and Constantine and Licinius' Death

War actually broke out in 321 when Constantine pursued some Sarmatians, who had been ravaging some territory in his realm, across the Danube. When he checked a similar invasion of the Goths, who were devastating Thrace, Licinius complained that Constantine had broken the treaty between them. Having assembled a fleet and army at Thessalonica, Constantine advanced toward Adrianople. Licinius engaged the forces of his brother-in-law near the banks of the Hebrus River on 3 July 324 where he was routed; with as many men as he could gather, he headed for his fleet which was in the Hellespont. Those of his soldiers who were not killed or put to flight, surrendered to the enemy. Licinius fled to Byzantium, where he was besieged by Constantine. Licinius' fleet, under the command of the admiral Abantus, was overcome by bad weather and by Constantine' s fleet which was under the command of his son Crispus. Hard pressed in Byzantium, Licinius abandoned the city to his rival and fled to Chalcedon in Bithynia. Leaving Martinianus, his former magister officiorum and now his co-ruler, to impede Constantine' s progress, Licinius regrouped his forces and engaged his enemy at Chrysopolis where he was again routed on 18 September 324. He fled to Nicomedeia which Constantine began to besiege. On the next day Licinius abdicated and was sent to Thessalonica, where he was kept under house arrest. Both Licinius and his associate were put to death by Constantine. Martinianus may have been put to death before the end of 324, whereas Licinius was not put to death until the spring of 325. Rumors circulated that Licinius had been put to death because he attempted another rebellion against Constantine.

Copyright (C) 1996, Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
139a.jpg
139a Valens. AE3 2.0gm12 viewsobv: DN VALEN_S PF AVG pear dia. drp. cuir. bust r.
rev: GLORIA RO_MANORVM emp. adv. r. dragging captive, holding labaraum in l. hand
ex: >>>>BSISC
hill132
139b.jpg
139b Valens. AE3 2.3gm17 viewsobv: DN VALEN_S PF AVG pearl dia. drp. cuir. bust r.
rev: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE Victory adv. r. holding wreath and palm
ex: K/P-Q//ASISCR
hill132
Val.jpg
1501s, Valentinian I, 25 February 364 - 17 November 375 A.D. (Siscia)98 viewsValentinian I, 25 February 364 - 17 November 375 A.D., Bronze AE 3, S 4103, VF, Siscia mint, 2.012g, 18.7mm, 180o, 24 Aug 367 - 17 Nov 375 A.D.obverse D N VALENTINI-ANVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse SECVRITAS - REIPVBLICAE, Victory advancing left, wreath in right and palm in left, symbols in fields, mintmark in exergue.


De Imperatoribus Romanis, An Online Encyclopedia of the Roman Emperors and their Families

Valentinian I (364-375 AD.)

Walter E. Roberts, Emory University

Valentinian was one of Rome's last great warrior emperors. Flavius Valentinianus, was born in A.D. 321 at Cibalis (modern Vinkovci) in southern Pannonia. His father Gratian was a soldier renowned for his strength and wrestling skills. Gratian had an illustrious career in the army, rising from staff officer to tribune, to comes Africae, and finally [i/comes Britanniae.

The emperor Jovian died on 17 February 364, apparently of natural causes, on the border between Bithynia and Galatia. The army marched on to Nicaea, the nearest city of any consequence, and a meeting of civil and military officials was convened to choose a new emperor. The assembly finally agreed upon Valentinian.

On 26 February 364, Valentinian accepted the office offered to him. As he prepared to make his accession speech, the soldiers threatened to riot, apparently uncertain as to where his loyalties lay. Valentinian reassured them that the army was his greatest priority. Furthermore, to prevent a crisis of succession if he should die prematurely, he agreed to pick a co-Augustus. According to Ammianus, the soldiers were astounded by Valentinian’s bold demeanor and his willingness to assume the imperial authority. His decision to elect a fellow-emperor could also be construed as a move to appease any opposition among the civilian officials in the eastern portion of the empire. By agreeing to appoint a co-ruler, he assured the eastern officials that someone with imperial authority would remain in the east to protect their interests. After promoting his brother Valens to the rank of tribune and putting him in charge of the royal stables on March 1, Valentinian selected Valens as co-Augustus at Constantinople on 28 March 364, though this was done over the objections of Dagalaifus. Ammianus makes it clear, however, that Valens was clearly subordinate to his brother.

Ammianus and Zosimus as well as modern scholars praise Valentinian for his military accomplishments. He is generally credited with keeping the Roman empire from crumbling away by “. . . reversing the generally waning confidence in the army and imperial defense . . ..” Several other aspects of Valentinian's reign also set the course of Roman history for the next century.

Valentinian deliberately polarized Roman society, subordinating the civilian population to the military. The military order took over the old prestige of the senatorial nobility. The imperial court, which was becoming more and more of a military court, became a vehicle for social mobility. There were new ideas of nobility, which was increasingly provincial in character. By this it is meant that the imperial court, not the Senate, was the seat of nobility, and most of these new nobles came from the provinces. With the erosion of the old nobility, the stage was set for the ascendancy of Christianity. Ammianus makes it clear that actions such as these were part of a systematic plan by Valentinian to erode the power and prestige of the senatorial aristocracy. Several pieces of extant legislation seem to confirm Ammianus’ allegations that Valentinian was eroding senatorial prestige.

Valentinian's reign affords valuable insights into late Roman society, civilian as well as military. First, there was a growing fracture between the eastern and western portions of the empire. Valentinian was the last emperor to really concentrate his resources on the west. Valens was clearly in an inferior position in the partnership. Second, there was a growing polarization of society, both Christian versus pagan, and civil versus military. Finally there was a growing regionalism in the west, driven by heavy taxation and the inability of Valentinian to fully exercise military authority in all areas of the west. All of these trends would continue over the next century, profoundly reshaping the Roman empire and western Europe.

By Walter E. Roberts, Emory University
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
1 commentsCleisthenes
ValentGlRom.jpg
1501s, Valentinian I, 25 February 364 - 17 November 375 A.D. (Siscia)55 viewsValentinian I, 25 February 364 - 17 November 375 A.D. Bronze AE 3, RIC 5(a) ii, VF, Siscia, 1.905g, 19.3mm, 0o, 25 Feb 364 - 24 Aug 367 A.D. Obverse: D N VALENTINI-ANVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: GLORIA RO-MANORVM, Emperor dragging captive with right, labarum (chi-rho standard) in left, •GSISC in exergue.


De Imperatoribus Romanis, An Online Encyclopedia of the Roman Emperors and their Families

Valentinian I (364-375 AD.)

Walter E. Roberts, Emory University

Valentinian was one of Rome's last great warrior emperors. Flavius Valentinianus, was born in A.D. 321 at Cibalis (modern Vinkovci) in southern Pannonia. His father Gratian was a soldier renowned for his strength and wrestling skills. Gratian had an illustrious career in the army, rising from staff officer to tribune, to comes Africae, and finally [i/comes Britanniae.

The emperor Jovian died on 17 February 364, apparently of natural causes, on the border between Bithynia and Galatia. The army marched on to Nicaea, the nearest city of any consequence, and a meeting of civil and military officials was convened to choose a new emperor. The assembly finally agreed upon Valentinian.

On 26 February 364, Valentinian accepted the office offered to him. As he prepared to make his accession speech, the soldiers threatened to riot, apparently uncertain as to where his loyalties lay. Valentinian reassured them that the army was his greatest priority. Furthermore, to prevent a crisis of succession if he should die prematurely, he agreed to pick a co-Augustus. According to Ammianus, the soldiers were astounded by Valentinian’s bold demeanor and his willingness to assume the imperial authority. His decision to elect a fellow-emperor could also be construed as a move to appease any opposition among the civilian officials in the eastern portion of the empire. By agreeing to appoint a co-ruler, he assured the eastern officials that someone with imperial authority would remain in the east to protect their interests. After promoting his brother Valens to the rank of tribune and putting him in charge of the royal stables on March 1, Valentinian selected Valens as co-Augustus at Constantinople on 28 March 364, though this was done over the objections of Dagalaifus. Ammianus makes it clear, however, that Valens was clearly subordinate to his brother.

Ammianus and Zosimus as well as modern scholars praise Valentinian for his military accomplishments. He is generally credited with keeping the Roman empire from crumbling away by “. . . reversing the generally waning confidence in the army and imperial defense . . ..” Several other aspects of Valentinian's reign also set the course of Roman history for the next century.

Valentinian deliberately polarized Roman society, subordinating the civilian population to the military. The military order took over the old prestige of the senatorial nobility. The imperial court, which was becoming more and more of a military court, became a vehicle for social mobility. There were new ideas of nobility, which was increasingly provincial in character. By this it is meant that the imperial court, not the Senate, was the seat of nobility, and most of these new nobles came from the provinces. With the erosion of the old nobility, the stage was set for the ascendancy of Christianity. Ammianus makes it clear that actions such as these were part of a systematic plan by Valentinian to erode the power and prestige of the senatorial aristocracy. Several pieces of extant legislation seem to confirm Ammianus’ allegations that Valentinian was eroding senatorial prestige.

Valentinian's reign affords valuable insights into late Roman society, civilian as well as military. First, there was a growing fracture between the eastern and western portions of the empire. Valentinian was the last emperor to really concentrate his resources on the west. Valens was clearly in an inferior position in the partnership. Second, there was a growing polarization of society, both Christian versus pagan, and civil versus military. Finally there was a growing regionalism in the west, driven by heavy taxation and the inability of Valentinian to fully exercise military authority in all areas of the west. All of these trends would continue over the next century, profoundly reshaping the Roman empire and western Europe.

By Walter E. Roberts, Emory University
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
13594p00.jpg
1502c, Valens, 28 March 364 - 9 August 378 A.D. (Cyzikus)53 viewsBronze AE 3, S 4118, 2.42g, 16.5mm, 180o,Cyzikus, F/F, obverse D N VALENS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE, Victory advancing left, wreath in right, palm frond in left, SMK L(?) in exergue. Ex FORVM.


De Imperatoribus Romanis, An Online Encyclopedia of the Roman Emperors and their Families

Valens (365-369 AD.)

Noel Linski, University of Colorado

Valens was the brother of Valentinian I. On March 28, 364, precisely one month after his accession by Roman reckoning, Valentinian appointed his brother Flavius Valens co-emperor at the Hebdomon, the first in a long line of emperors proclaimed there. Themistius was present and later recounted the occasion in his Or. 6. After only two months of co-rulership, the two departed from Constantinople for their native Illyricum. Outside Naissus, in Moesia, they divided their administrative staff between them and at Sirmium they did the same with their mobile forces. Valens was to rule the east, from Thrace in the North and Cyrenaica in the South eastward to the Persian frontier. Valentinian ruled the west. They did not spend long in Sirmium. By late August 365 Valentinian had moved on toward Milan, where he resided for the following year before moving on to Trier, which remained his capital until 375. Similarly, Valens was back in Constantinople by December 364.and he was declared Augustus in 364 A.D. He was given command of the Eastern provinces, where he spent much of his time campaigning against the Goths and Persians.

In 376 A.D., Valens allowed Gothic tribes, who were being driven forward by the Huns to settle in the Danube provinces. The Goths were so badly treated by the Romans that they rebelled. Valens marched against the confederated barbarian army, and on August 9, 378, the two forces met at Adrianople. Although negotiations were attempted, these broke down when a Roman unit sallied forth and carried both sides into battle. The Romans held their own early on but were crushed by the surprise arrival of Greuthungi cavalry which split their ranks.

In one historical account, Valens was wounded in battle but escaped to a nearby farmstead where he was burned to death in a tower by Gothic marauders. The fourth century A.D. Roman historian Ammianus Marcellinus does not seem to concur with this story. Regardless, when the battle was over Valens' body was never recovered, 10,000 roman soldiers lay dead and the perception of Roman military invincibility was destroyed.

Adrianople was the most significant event in Valens' career. Though he displayed some talent as an administrator, Valens' persecutions of Nicene Christians and pagan philosophers, his halting efforts at military achievement and his obtuse personality rendered him a less than glorious emperor. To have died in so inglorious a battle has thus come to be regarded as the nadir of an unfortunate career. This is especially true because of the profound consequences of Valens' defeat.

Adrianople spelled the beginning of the end for Roman territorial integrity in the late empire and this fact was recognized even by contemporaries. The Roman historian Ammianus (325-391 AD) understood that it was the worst defeat in Roman history since Cannae. Rufinus (340–410 CE), monk, historian, and theologian; called it "the beginning of evils for the Roman empire then and thereafter."

Noel Lenski, University of Colorado
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
Valens.jpg
1502h, Valens, 364-378 A.D. (Heraclea)47 viewsValens, 364-378 A.D., Heraclea mint, VF, Chi-Rho standard reverse.


De Imperatoribus Romanis, An Online Encyclopedia of the Roman Emperors and their Families

Valens (365-369 AD.)

Noel Linski, University of Colorado

Valens was the brother of Valentinian I. On March 28, 364, precisely one month after his accession by Roman reckoning, Valentinian appointed his brother Flavius Valens co-emperor at the Hebdomon, the first in a long line of emperors proclaimed there. Themistius was present and later recounted the occasion in his Or. 6. After only two months of co-rulership, the two departed from Constantinople for their native Illyricum. Outside Naissus, in Moesia, they divided their administrative staff between them and at Sirmium they did the same with their mobile forces. Valens was to rule the east, from Thrace in the North and Cyrenaica in the South eastward to the Persian frontier. Valentinian ruled the west. They did not spend long in Sirmium. By late August 365 Valentinian had moved on toward Milan, where he resided for the following year before moving on to Trier, which remained his capital until 375. Similarly, Valens was back in Constantinople by December 364.and he was declared Augustus in 364 A.D. He was given command of the Eastern provinces, where he spent much of his time campaigning against the Goths and Persians.

In 376 A.D., Valens allowed Gothic tribes, who were being driven forward by the Huns to settle in the Danube provinces. The Goths were so badly treated by the Romans that they rebelled. Valens marched against the confederated barbarian army, and on August 9, 378, the two forces met at Adrianople. Although negotiations were attempted, these broke down when a Roman unit sallied forth and carried both sides into battle. The Romans held their own early on but were crushed by the surprise arrival of Greuthungi cavalry which split their ranks.

In one historical account, Valens was wounded in battle but escaped to a nearby farmstead where he was burned to death in a tower by Gothic marauders. The fourth century A.D. Roman historian Ammianus Marcellinus does not seem to concur with this story. Regardless, when the battle was over Valens' body was never recovered, 10,000 roman soldiers lay dead and the perception of Roman military invincibility had been destroyed.

Adrianople was the most significant event in Valens' career. Though he displayed some talent as an administrator, Valens' persecutions of Nicene Christians and pagan philosophers, his halting efforts at military achievement and his obtuse personality rendered him a less than glorious emperor. To have died in so inglorious a battle has thus come to be regarded as the nadir of an unfortunate career. This is especially true because of the profound consequences of Valens' defeat.

Adrianople spelled the beginning of the end for Roman territorial integrity in the late empire and this fact was recognized even by contemporaries. The Roman historian Ammianus (325-391 AD) understood that it was the worst defeat in Roman history since Cannae. Rufinus (340–410 CE), monk, historian, and theologian; called it "the beginning of evils for the Roman empire then and thereafter."

Noel Lenski, University of Colorado
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
1 commentsCleisthenes
Theo1Ae3Ant.jpeg
1505b, Theodosius I, 19 January 379 - 17 January 395 A.D. (Antioch)69 viewsTheodosius I, 19 January 379 - 17 January 395 A.D. Bronze AE 3, RIC 44(b), VF, Antioch, 2.17g, 18.1mm, 180o, 9 Aug 378 - 25 Aug 383 A.D. Obverse: D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG, rosette-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: CONCORDIA AVGGG, Constantinopolis enthroned facing, r. foot on prow, globe in l., scepter in r., Q and F at sides, ANTG in ex; scarce.


De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

THEODOSIUS I (379-395 A.D.)
David Woods
University College of Cork


Origin and Early Career
Flavius Theodosius was born at Cauca in Spain in about 346 to Thermantia and Theodosius the Elder (so-called to distinguish him from his son). Theodosius the Elder was a senior military officer serving in the Western empire and rose to become the magister equitum praesentalis under the emperor Valentinian I from late 368 until his execution in early 375. As the son of a soldier, Theodosius was legally obliged to enter upon a military career. He seems to have served under his father during his expedition to Britain in 367/8, and was the dux Moesiae Primae by late 374. Unfortunately, great controversy surrounds the rest of his career until Gratian had him hailed as his imperial colleague in succession to the emperor Valens at Sirmium on 19 January 379. It is clear that he was forced to retire home to Spain only to be recalled to active service shortly thereafter, but the circumstances of his forced retirement are shrouded in mystery. His father was executed at roughly the same time, and much speculation has centred on the relationship between these events.

[For a very detailed and interesting discussion of the Foreign Policy of Theodosius and the Civil Wars that plagued his reign, please see http://www.roman-emperors.org/theo1.htm]

Family and Succession
Theodosius married twice. His first wife was the Spanish Aelia Flavia Flaccilla. She bore him Arcadius ca. 377, Honorius on 9 September 384, and Pulcheria ca. 385. Theodosius honoured her with the title of Augusta shortly after his accession, but she died in 386. In late 387 he married Galla, daughter of Valentinian I and full-sister of Valentinian II. She bore him Gratian ca. 388, Galla Placidia ca. 388/390, and died in childbirth in 394, together with her new-born son John. Of his two sons who survived infancy, he appointed Arcadius as Augustus on 19 January 383 and Honorius as Augustus on 23 January 393. His promotion of Arcadius as a full Augustus at an unusually young age points to his determination right from the start that one of his own sons should succeed him. He sought to strengthen Arcadius' position in particular by means of a series of strategic marriages whose purpose was to tie his leading "generals" irrevocably to his dynasty. Hence he married his niece and adoptive daughter Serena to his magister militum per Orientem Stilicho in 387, her elder sister Thermantia to a "general" whose name has not been preserved, and ca. 387 his nephew-in-law Nebridius to Salvina, daughter of the comes Africae Gildo. By the time of his death by illness on 17 January 395, Theodosius had promoted Stilicho from his position as one of the two comites domesticorum under his own eastern administration to that of magister peditum praesentalis in a western administration, in an entirely traditional manner, under his younger son Honorius. Although Stilicho managed to increase the power of the magister peditum praesentalis to the disadvantage of his colleague the magister equitum praesentalis and claimed that Theodosius had appointed him as guardian for both his sons, this tells us more about his cunning and ambition than it does about Theodosius' constitutional arrangements.

Theodosius' importance rests on the fact that he founded a dynasty which continued in power until the death of his grandson Theodosius II in 450. This ensured a continuity of policy which saw the emergence of Nicene Christianity as the orthodox belief of the vast majority of Christians throughout the middle ages. It also ensured the essential destruction of paganism and the emergence of Christianity as the religion of the state, even if the individual steps in this process can be difficult to identify. On the negative side, however, he allowed his dynastic interests and ambitions to lead him into two unnecessary and bloody civil wars which severely weakened the empire's ability to defend itself in the face of continued barbarian pressure upon its frontiers. In this manner, he put the interests of his family before those of the wider Roman population and was responsible, in many ways, for the phenomenon to which we now refer as the fall of the western Roman empire.


Copyright (C) 1998, David Woods.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

There is a nice segue here, as we pick-up John Julius Norwich's summation of the reign of Theodosius, "Readers of this brief account of his career may well find themselves wondering, not so much whether he deserved the title of 'the Great' as how he ever came to acquire it in the first place. If so, however, they may also like to ask themselves another question: what would have been the fate of the Empire if, at that critical moment in its history after the battle of Adrianople, young Gratian had not called him from his Spanish estates and put the future of the East into his hands? . . . the probability is that the whole Empire of the East would have been lost, swallowed up in a revived Gothic kingdom, with effects on world history that defy speculation.

In his civil legislation he showed, again and again, a consideration for the humblest of his subjects that was rare indeed among rulers of the fourth century. What other prince would have decreed that any criminal, sentenced to execution, imprisonment or exile, must first be allowed thirty days' grace to put his affairs in order? Or that a specified part of his worldly goods must go to his children, upon whom their father's crimes must on no account be visited? Or that no farmer should be obliged to sell his produce to the State at a price lower than he would receive on the open market?

Had he earned his title? Not, perhaps, in the way that Constantine had done or as Justinian was to do. But, if not ultimately great himself, he had surely come very close to greatness; and had he reigned as long as they did his achievements might well have equalled theirs. He might even have saved the Western Empire. One thing only is certain: it would be nearly a century and a half before the Romans would look upon his like again" (Norwich, John Julius. Byzantium, the Early Centuries. London: Penguin Group, 1990. 116-7;118).

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.



Cleisthenes
Theod1GlrMan.jpg
1505c, Theodosius I, 379 - 395 A.D. (Constantinople)78 viewsTheodosius I (379 - 395 AD) AE3. 388-394 AD, RIC IX 27(a)3, Third Officina. Seventh Period. 20.27 mm. 4.8gm. Near VF with black and earthen patina. Constantinople. Obverse: DN THEODO-SIANVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped, & cuirassed bust right; Reverse: GLORIA-ROMANORVM, Theodosius I standing, facing, holding labarum and globe, CONSB in exergue (scarcer reverse). A Spanish find.



De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

THEODOSIUS I (379-395 A.D.)
David Woods
University College of Cork


Origin and Early Career
Flavius Theodosius was born at Cauca in Spain in about 346 to Thermantia and Theodosius the Elder (so-called to distinguish him from his son). Theodosius the Elder was a senior military officer serving in the Western empire and rose to become the magister equitum praesentalis under the emperor Valentinian I from late 368 until his execution in early 375. As the son of a soldier, Theodosius was legally obliged to enter upon a military career. He seems to have served under his father during his expedition to Britain in 367/8, and was the dux Moesiae Primae by late 374. Unfortunately, great controversy surrounds the rest of his career until Gratian had him hailed as his imperial colleague in succession to the emperor Valens at Sirmium on 19 January 379. It is clear that he was forced to retire home to Spain only to be recalled to active service shortly thereafter, but the circumstances of his forced retirement are shrouded in mystery. His father was executed at roughly the same time, and much speculation has centred on the relationship between these events.

[For a very detailed and interesting discussion of the Foreign Policy of Theodosius and the Civil Wars that plagued his reign, please see http://www.roman-emperors.org/theo1.htm]

Family and Succession
Theodosius married twice. His first wife was the Spanish Aelia Flavia Flaccilla. She bore him Arcadius ca. 377, Honorius on 9 September 384, and Pulcheria ca. 385. Theodosius honoured her with the title of Augusta shortly after his accession, but she died in 386. In late 387 he married Galla, daughter of Valentinian I and full-sister of Valentinian II. She bore him Gratian ca. 388, Galla Placidia ca. 388/390, and died in childbirth in 394, together with her new-born son John. Of his two sons who survived infancy, he appointed Arcadius as Augustus on 19 January 383 and Honorius as Augustus on 23 January 393. His promotion of Arcadius as a full Augustus at an unusually young age points to his determination right from the start that one of his own sons should succeed him. He sought to strengthen Arcadius' position in particular by means of a series of strategic marriages whose purpose was to tie his leading "generals" irrevocably to his dynasty. Hence he married his niece and adoptive daughter Serena to his magister militum per Orientem Stilicho in 387, her elder sister Thermantia to a "general" whose name has not been preserved, and ca. 387 his nephew-in-law Nebridius to Salvina, daughter of the comes Africae Gildo. By the time of his death by illness on 17 January 395, Theodosius had promoted Stilicho from his position as one of the two comites domesticorum under his own eastern administration to that of magister peditum praesentalis in a western administration, in an entirely traditional manner, under his younger son Honorius. Although Stilicho managed to increase the power of the magister peditum praesentalis to the disadvantage of his colleague the magister equitum praesentalis and claimed that Theodosius had appointed him as guardian for both his sons, this tells us more about his cunning and ambition than it does about Theodosius' constitutional arrangements.

Theodosius' importance rests on the fact that he founded a dynasty which continued in power until the death of his grandson Theodosius II in 450. This ensured a continuity of policy which saw the emergence of Nicene Christianity as the orthodox belief of the vast majority of Christians throughout the middle ages. It also ensured the essential destruction of paganism and the emergence of Christianity as the religion of the state, even if the individual steps in this process can be difficult to identify. On the negative side, however, he allowed his dynastic interests and ambitions to lead him into two unnecessary and bloody civil wars which severely weakened the empire's ability to defend itself in the face of continued barbarian pressure upon its frontiers. In this manner, he put the interests of his family before those of the wider Roman population and was responsible, in many ways, for the phenomenon to which we now refer as the fall of the western Roman empire.


Copyright (C) 1998, David Woods.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

There is a nice segue here, as we pick-up John Julius Norwich's summation of the reign of Theodosius, "Readers of this brief account of his career may well find themselves wondering, not so much whether he deserved the title of 'the Great' as how he ever came to acquire it in the first place. If so, however, they may also like to ask themselves another question: what would have been the fate of the Empire if, at that critical moment in its history after the battle of Adrianople, young Gratian had not called him from his Spanish estates and put the future of the East into his hands? . . . the probability is that the whole Empire of the East would have been lost, swallowed up in a revived Gothic kingdom, with effects on world history that defy speculation.

In his civil legislation he showed, again and again, a consideration for the humblest of his subjects that was rare indeed among rulers of the fourth century. What other prince would have decreed that any criminal, sentenced to execution, imprisonment or exile, must first be allowed thirty days' grace to put his affairs in order? Or that a specified part of his worldly goods must go to his children, upon whom their father's crimes must on no account be visited? Or that no farmer should be obliged to sell his produce to the State at a price lower than he would receive on the open market?

Had he earned his title? Not, perhaps, in the way that Constantine had done or as Justinian was to do. But, if not ultimately great himself, he had surely come very close to greatness; and had he reigned as long as they did his achievements might well have equalled theirs. He might even have saved the Western Empire. One thing only is certain: it would be nearly a century and a half before the Romans would look upon his like again" (Norwich, John Julius. Byzantium, the Early Centuries. London: Penguin Group, 1990. 116-7;118).

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
RI 155d img.jpg
155 - Licinius - RIC VII Alexandria 018184 viewsAE Reduced Follis
Obv:– IMP C VAL LICINIVS P F AVG, Laureate head of Valens (?) right
Rev:– IOVI CONSERVATORI AVGG, Jupiter, standing, head left, with Victory on globe, eagle with wreath at feet
Minted in Alexandria (K in left field | wreath over X over A in right field / ALE in exe.) in A.D. 316/7
References:– RIC VII Alexandria 18 (Scarce)
2 commentsmaridvnvm
Valens_AE-3_DN-VALEN-S-PF-AVG_RESTITV-T-ORBIS_A-SIRM_RIC-IX-6B-A_Sirmium_-Rare_AD_Q-001_axis-5h_18-19mm_2,92g-s.jpg
156 Valens (364-378 A.D.), Sirmium, RIC IX 006B-A, AE-3, RESTITVT ORBIS, -/-//ASIRM, Emperor standing, #189 views156 Valens (364-378 A.D.), Sirmium, RIC IX 006B-A, AE-3, RESTITVT ORBIS, -/-//ASIRM, Emperor standing, #1
avers:- D N VALEN S P F AVG, Pearl diademed, draped cuirassed bust right.
revers:- RESTITV T ORBIS, Emperor standing facing, head right, holding laburum and Victory on globe.
exe: -/-//ASIRM, diameter: 18-19mm, weight: 2,92g, axis: 5h,
mint: Sirmium, date: A.D., ref: RIC IX 6B-A, p-,
Q-001
quadrans
Valens_AE-3_DN-VALEN-S-PF-AVG_SECVRITAS-REIPVBLICAE_Star_P_M_A-SIS-C_RIC-IX-7B-2-A_15b_Siscia_364-367-AD_Q-001_h_mm_ga-s.jpg
156 Valens (364-378 A.D.), Siscia, RIC IX 007B-15b, AE-3, SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE, */P/M//ASISC, Victory advancing left, #165 views156 Valens (364-378 A.D.), Siscia, RIC IX 007B-15b, AE-3, SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE, */P/M//ASISC, Victory advancing left, #1
avers:- D N VALEN S P F AVG, Pearl diademed, draped cuirassed bust right.
revers:-SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE, Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm.
exe: */P/M//ASISC, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Siscia, date: 364-267A.D., ref: RIC IX 7B-2A-15b, p-146,
Q-001
quadrans
RI_179j_img.jpg
179 - Valens - AE3 - RIC IX 24b 11 viewsAE3
Obv:– D N VALENS P F AVG, Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE, Victory advancing left holding wreath & palm branch
Minted in Rome (//SM leaf RB). 24th August A.D. 367 - 17th November 375
Reference:– RIC IX 24b
maridvnvm
RI_179i_img.jpg
179 - Valens, Siliqua, RIC IX Trier 27b 16 viewsObv:– D N VALENS P F AVG, Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– VRBS ROMA, Roma,helmeted and draped, seated left on throne, holding Victory on globe in righthand and spear in left
Minted in Trier (//TRPS•). 24th August A.D. 367 - 17th November 375
Reference:– RIC IX Trier 27b (Rated Scarce)
maridvnvm
IMG_4736.JPG
188. Valens (364-378 A.D.) 16 viewsAv.: DN VALENS PF AVG
Rv.: RESTITVTOR REIP
Ex.: CONSP gamma

AE Follis Ø19 / 2.7g
RIC IX 20b Constantinople
Rare!
Juancho
NervaAsLibertas.jpg
1bb Nerva27 views96-98

As
Laureate head, right, IMP NERVA CAES AVG P M TR P COS II
Liberty stg, LIBERTAS PVBLICA SC

The perfect propaganda reverse for the successor to a tyrant. I guess he had a nose for these things.

RIC 86

Eutropius recorded: IN the eight hundred and fiftieth year from the foundation of the city, in the consulship of Vetus and Valens, the empire was restored to a most prosperous condition, being committed, with great good fortune, to the rule of meritorious princes. To Domitian, a most murderous tyrant, succeeded NERVA, a man of moderation and activity in private life, and of noble descent, though not of the very highest rank. He was made emperor at an advanced age, Petronius Secundus, the praefect of the praetorian guards, and Parthenius, one of the assassins of Domitian, giving him their support, and conducted himself with great justice and public spirit.1 He provided for the good of the state by a divine foresight, in his adoption of Trajan. He died at Rome, after a reign of one year, four months, and eight days, in the seventy-second year of his age, and was enrolled among the gods.
Blindado
CrispusAE3Victoria.jpg
1ef Crispus67 viewsCaesar 317-326

AE3, Thessalonica

Laureate, draped & cuirassed bust, right, D N FL IVL CRISPVS NOB CAES
Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm, VICTORIA CAESS NN. Mintmark dot TS dot epsilon dot.

Zosimus recorded Crispus' elevation to Caesar: "Constantine, having taken Cibalis, and Sirmium, and all the towns that Licinius had abandoned, sent five thousand men in pursuit of him. But as these were ignorant of the course he had taken, they could not overtake him. Constantine however, having rebuilt the bridge over the Saus, which Licinius had broken down, was with his army almost at his heels. Having entered Thrace, he arrived at the plain where Licinius lay encamped. On the night of his arrival there he marshalled his army, and gave orders for his soldiers to be ready for battle by day-break. As soon as it was light, Licinius, perceiving Constantine with his army, drew up his forces also, having been joined by Valens, whom he styled Caesar, after the battle of Cibalis. When the armies engaged, they first fought with bows at a distance ; but when their arrows were spent, they began to use their javelins, and poignards. Thus the battle continued very obstinately for a considerable time, until those whom Constantine had sent in pursuit of Licinius descended from an eminence upon the armies while they were engaged. These wheeled round the hill |46 before they arrived at them, deeming it best to join their own party from the higher ground, and to encompass the enemy. The troops of Licinius, being aware of them, courageously withstood against them all, so that many thousands were slain on both sides, and the advantage was equal, till the signal was given for both to retire. Next day they agreed on a truce, and entered into an alliance with each other, on condition that Constantine should possess Illyricum and all the nations westward, and that Licinius should have Thrace and the east; but that Valens, whom Licinius had made Caesar, should be put to death, because be was said to be the author of all the mischief which had happened. Having done this, and sworn on both sides to observe the conditions, Constantine conferred the rank and title of Caesar on Crispus, his son by a concubine called Minervina, who was as yet but a youth, and on Constantine, who was born but a few days before at Arelatum. At the same time Licinianus, the son of Licinius, who was twenty months of age, was declared Caesar, Thus ended the second war."

According to Zonaras, "By a concubine he also had another son, called Crispus, older than his other sons, who distinguished himself often in the war against Licinius. His stepmother Fausta, being erotically obsessed with him, since she did not find him compliant, denounced him to his father as being in love with her and as having often attempted to use force against her. Hence, Crispus was condemned to death by his father, who had been persuaded by his spouse."

Constantine had his son strangled to death in Pula.

RIC 62
Blindado
ValentinianAE3GlorRom.jpg
1ep Valentinian22 views364-375

AE3

Pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right , D N VALENTINIANVS P F AVG
Emperor in military dress, advancing right, head left, holding labarum, dragging captive behind him. No fieldmarks. Mintmark: dot GSISC, GLORIA ROMANORVM

RIC 5a

According to Zosimus: Several discussions were held among the soldiers and their officers, and various persons were nominated. At length Sallustius, the prefect of the court, was unanimously elected. He excused himself on the pretext of his advanced age, which disabled him from being of service in the present critical circumstances. They then desired that his son might be emperor in lieu of himself. But his son he told them was too young, and from that as well as other causes unable to sustain the weight of an imperial diadem. They thus failed in their wish to appoint so distinguished a person, who was the most worthy of the age. They therefore elected Valentinian, a native of Cibalis in Pannonia. He was an excellent soldier, but extremely illiterate. They sent for him, he being then at some distance: and the state was not long without a ruler. Upon his arrival at the army, at Nicaea in Bithynia, he assumed the imperial authority, and proceeded forward. . . .

I have now to state, that while Valentinian was on his journey towards Constantinople, he was seized with a distemper, which increased his natural choleric temper to a degree of cruelty, and even to madness, so that he falsely suspected his sickness to proceed from some charm or poison which Julian's friends had prepared for him through malice. Accusations to that effect were drawn up against some distinguished persons, which were set aside by the discretion of Sallustius, who still was prefect of the court. After his distemper abated, he proceeded from Nicaea to Constantinople. The army and his friends in that city advised him to choose an associate in the empire, that if occasion should require, he might have some one to assist him, and prevent their again suffering as at the death of Julian. He complied with their advice, and after consideration, selected his brother Valens, whom he thought most likely to prove faithful to him. He declared him associate in the empire. . . . Affairs being thus disposed, Valentinian deemed it most prudent to place the east as far as Egypt, Bithynia, and Thrace, under the care of his brother, and to take charge of Illyricum himself. From thence he designed to proceed to Italy, and to retain in his own possession all the cities in that country, and the countries beyond the Alps, with Spain, Britain, and Africa. The empire being thus divided, Valentinian began to govern more rigorously, correcting the faults of the magistrates. He was very severe in the collection of the imposts, and particularly in observing that the soldiers were duly paid. . . .

Meantime the Barbarians beyond the Rhine, who while Julian lived held the Roman name in terror, and were contented to remain quiet in their own territories, as soon as they heard of his death, immediately marched out of their own country, and prepared for a war with the Romans. Valentinian. on bring informed of this, made a proper disposition of his forces, and placed suitable garrisons in all the towns along the Rhine. Valentinian was enabled to make these arrangements by his experience in military affairs. . . . [T] he emperor Valentinian, having favourably disposed the affairs of Germany, made provisions for the future security of the Celtic nations. . . . Valentinian was now attacked by a disease which nearly cost him his life. Upon his recovery the countries requested him to appoint a successor, lest at his decease the commonwealth should be in danger. To this the emperor consented, and declared his son Gratian emperor and his associate in the government, although he was then very young, and not yet capable of the management of affairs. . . .

Valentinian, thinking he had sufficiently secured himself from a German war, acted towards his subjects with great severity, exacting from them exorbitant tributes, such as they had never before paid; under pretence that the military expenditure compelled him to have recourse to the public. Having thus acquired universal hatred, he became still more severe; nor would he enquire into the conduct of the magistrates, but was envious of all whe had the reputation of leading a blameless life. . . . For this cause, the Africans, who could not endure the excessive avarice of the person who held the military command in Mauritania, gave the purple robe to Firmus, and proclaimed him emperor. This doubtless gave much uneasiness to Valentinian, who immediately commanded some legions from the stations in Pannonia and Moesia, to embark for Africa. On this the Sarmatians and the Quadi, who had long entertained a hatred for Celestius, the governor of those countries, availing themselves, of the opportunity afforded by the departure of the legions for Africa, invaded the Pannonians and Moesians. . . . .

Valentinian, roused by the intelligence of these events, marched from Celtica into Illyricum, for the purpose of opposing the Quadi and the Sarmatians, and consigned the command of his forces to Merobaudes, who was a person of the greatest military experience. The winter continuing unusually late, the Quadi sent ambassadors to him with insolent and unbecoming messages. These so exasperated the emperor, that through the violence of his rage, the blood flowed from his head into his mouth, and suffocated him. He thus died after having resided in Illyricum nearly nine months, and after a reign of twelve years.
Blindado
ValensAE3SecurReip.jpg
1eq Valens74 views364-378

AE 3, Siscia

Pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right, D N VALENS P F AVG
Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm, SECVRITAS REIPUBLICAE. Mintmark dot ASISC.

RIC 7b

Zosimus recorded: [Valentinian was an experienced military man, but] Valens was surrounded with disquietude on every side, having always lived inactively, and having been raised to the empire suddenly. He could not indeed sustain the weight of business. He was disturbed, not by the Persians only, who were elated with their prosperity, which had increased since their truce with Jovian. They made incursions on the provinces without controul, since Nisibis was in their possession, and by distressing the eastern towns, constrained the emperor to march against them. On his departure from Constantinople, the rebellion of Procopius commenced. . . .

{With Valentiniand dead,] Valens was inundated with wars on every side. . . . [Valens' advisers] persuaded him to |107 march forward with his whole army; that the Barbarians were almost destroyed, and the emperor might gain a victory without trouble. Their counsel, though the least prudent, so far prevailed, that the emperor led forth his whole army without order. The Barbarians resolutely opposed them, and gained so signal a victory, that they slew all, except a few with whom the emperor fled into an unfortified village. The Barbarians, therefore, surrounded the place with a quantity of wood, which they set on fire. All who had fled thither, together with the inhabitants, were consumed in the tlames, and in such a manner, that the body of the emperor could never be found.
Blindado
ProcopiusAEChiRo.jpg
1er Procopius18 views365-366

AE3

Diademed, draped & cuirassed bust left, D N PROCOPIVS P F AVG
Procopius standing facing, head right, holding labarum in right hand, left resting on shield set on the ground; Chi-rho in upper right field & unidentified object in left at foot; mintmark CONS Gamma.

RIC 17a

Zosimus tells us: On [Valens'] departure from Constantinople, the rebellion of Procopius commenced. This person had been intrusted by Julian, being one of his relations, with a part of his forces, and had been charged to march with Sebastianus through Adiabene, and to meet Julian, who took another route. Permission, moreover, was given him to wear a purple robe, for a reason which no other person was acquainted with. But the deity being pleased to ordain it otherwise, and Jovian having succeeded to the imperial dignity, Procopius immediately delivered up the imperial robe which he had received from Julian, confessing why it had been given to him, and entreating the emperor to absolve him from his military oath, and to allow him to live in retirement, and to attend to agriculture and his own private affairs. Having obtained this, he went with his wife and children to Caesarea in Cappadocia, intending to reside in that place, where he possessed a valuable estate. During his abode there, Valentinian and Valens being made emperors, and being suspicious of him, sent persons to take him into custody. In that they found no difficulty, for he surrendered himself voluntarily; and desired them to carry him wherever they pleased, if they would suffer him first to see his children. To this they consented, and he prepared an entertainment for them. When he perceived them to be intoxicated, he and his family fled towards the Taurica Chersonesus. Having remained there for some time, he found the inhabitants to he a faithless race, and was apprehensive lest they should deliver him to his persecutors. He, therefore, put himself and his family on board a trading vessel, and arrived in the night at Constantinople. He there resided in the house of an old acquaintance, and making observations on the state of the city after the departure of the emperor, he attempted to raise himself to the empire, and formed his design on the following incident.

A eunuch, named Eugenius, had not long before been discharged from the court, who entertained but little friendship for the emperors. Procopius therefore won this man to his interest. . . . Their first attempt was to bribe the court guards, which consisted of two legions. Then arming the slaves, and collecting with ease a considerable multitude, chiefly volunteers, they sent them in the night into the city, and occasioned a general commotion; the people issuing from their houses, and gazing on Procopiusas on a king made in a theatre. But the city being in general confusion, and no person being sufficiently collected in mind by reason of the surprise to know how to act, Procopius imagined his design to be still undiscovered, and that he might secure the empire if the enterprise were no further revealed. Having then seized on Cesarius, whom the emperors had made prefect of the city, and on Nebridius, who was appointed to succeed Sallustius in tbe prefecture of the court, he compelled them to write to the subjects of the empire whatever he wished. He also kept them separate, that they might not consult with each other. Having formed these projects, he proceeded in a splendid manner towards the palace. Ascending a tribunal before the gate, he gave the people great hopes and promises. He then entered the palace to provide for the remainder of his affairs.

The new emperors having divided the army between them, Procopius determined to send persons to the soldiers, who were as yet in confusion, and went by the command of the emperors from place to place without any order. He thus hoped to seduce some of them to his party. Nor did he fail of accomplishing his purpose with ease by distributing money amongst the soldiers and their officers; by which means he collected a considerable force, and prepared to make an open attack on the enemy. Procopius then sent Marcellus into Bithynia with an army against Serenianus and the imperial cavalry that was under his command, in hope of cutting them to pieces. This force having fled to Cyzicus, Marcellus, whose army was superior to theirs both by sea and land, took possession of that town; and having taken Serenianus, who fled into Lydia, put him to death. Procopius was so elevated by this fortunate commencement, that his forces considerably augmented, many being of opinion that he was able to contend with the emperors. Both the Roman legions and the Barbarian troops now flocked to his standard. Besides the reputation of being related to Julian, and of having accompanied him in all the wars he had ever been engaged in, attracted many partizans. He likewise sent ambassadors to the chief of Scythia beyond the Ister, who sent to his assistance ten thousand men. The other Barbarian nations likewise sent auxiliaries to share in the expedition. Procopius however considered that it would be imprudent in him to engage with both emperors together, and therefore thought it best to advance against him who was nearest, and afterwards deliberate on what course to pursue.

Thus was Procopius employed; while the emperor Valens, who heard of this insurrection at Galatia in Phrygia, was filled with consternation at the news. Arbitrio having encouraged him not to despair, he prepared the troops that were with him for war, and sent to his brother to inform him of the designs of Procopius. Valentinian however was little disposed for sending auxiliaries to one who was incapable of defending the empire committed to his charge. Valens was therefore under the necessity of. preparing for war, and appointed Arbitrio to the command of his army. When the armies were ready to engage, Arbitrio circumvented Procopius by a stratagem, and thereby seduced from him a great number of his men, from whom he received previous information of the designs of Procopius. On the advance of the emperor and Procopius towards each other, the two armies met near Thyatira. Procopius at first appeared to have the advantage, by which he would have gained the supreme authority, Hormisdas in the engagement having overpowered the enemy. But Gomarius, another of the commanders of Procopius, imparting his intention to all the soldiers of Procopius who were attached to the emperor, in the midst of the battle cried out Augustus, and gave a signal for them to imitate his example. Thus the most of the troops of Procopius went over to Valens.

After having obtained this victory, Valens marched to Sardes, and from thence into Phrygia, where he found Procopius in a town called Nacolia. Affairs having been ordered for the advantage of the emperor by Naplo, an officer of Procopius, Valens again prevailed, and took him prisoner, and soon afterwards Marcellus, both of whom he put to death.
Blindado
GratianAE3GlorRom.jpg
1es Gratian38 views367-383

AE3

Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right, D N GRATIANVS P F AVG
Gratian standing right, holding labarum with Chi-rho on banner, and holding captive by hair, GLORIA ROMANORVM; Q to left, K over P to right, DSISCR in ex.

RIC 14c

Zosimus reports: [T] he emperor Valentinian, having favourably disposed the affairs of Germany, made provisions for the future security of the Celtic nations. . . . Valentinian was now attacked by a disease which nearly cost him his life. Upon his recovery the countries requested him to appoint a successor, lest at his decease the commonwealth should be in danger. To this the emperor consented, and declared his son Gratian emperor and his associate in the government, although he was then very young, and not yet capable of the management of affairs. . . .

When the affairs of the empire were reduced to this low condition, Victor, who commanded the Roman cavalry, escaping the danger with some of his troops, entered Macedon and Thessaly. From thence he proceeded into Moesia and Pannonia, and informed Gratian, who was then in that quarter, of what had occurred, and of the loss of the emperor [Valens] and his army. Gratian received the intelligence without uneasiness, and was little grieved at the death of his uncle, a disagreement having existed between them. Finding himself unable to manage affairs, Thrace being ravaged by the Barbarians, as were likewise Pannonia and Moesia, and the towns upon the Rhine being infested by the neighbouring Barbarians without controul, he chose for his associate in the empire, Theodosius, who was a native of a town called Cauca, in the part of Spain called Hispania Callaecia, and who possessed great knowledge and experience of military affairs. Having given him the government of Thrace and the eastern provinces, Gratian himself proceeded to the west of Gaul, in order, if possible, to compose affairs in that quarter. . . .

While the affairs of Thrace were, thus situated, those of Gratian were in great perplexity. Having accepted the counsel of those courtiers who usually corrupt the manners of princes, he gave a reception to some fugitives called Alani, whom he not only introduced into his army, but honoured with valuable presents, and confided to them his most important secrets, esteeming his own soldiers of little value. This produced among his soldiers a violent hatred against him, which being gradually inflamed and augmented incited in them a disposition for innovation, and most particulary in that part of them which was in Britain, since they were the most resolute and vindictive. In this spirit they were encouraged by Maximus, a Spaniard, who had been the fellow-soldier of Theodosius in Britain. He was offended that Theodosius should be thought worthy of being made emperor, while he himself had no honourable employment. He therefore cherished the animosity of the soldiers towards the emperor. They were thus easily induced to revolt and to declare Maximus emperor. Having presented to him the purple robe and the diadem, they sailed to the mouth of the Rhine. As the German army, and all who were in that quarter approved of the election, Gratian prepared to contend against Maximus, with a considerable part of the army which still adhered to him. When the armies met, there were only slight skirmishes for five days; until Gratian, |115 perceiving that the Mauritanian cavalry first deserted from him and declared Maximus Augustus, and afterwards that the remainder of his troops by degrees espoused the cause of his antagonist, relinquished all hope, and fled with three hundred horse to the Alps. Finding those regions without defence, he proceeded towards Rhaetia, Noricum, Pannonia, and the Upper Moesia. When Maximus was informed of his route, he was not negligent of the opportunity, but detached Andragathius, commander of the cavalry, who was his faithful adherent, in pursuit of Gratian. This officer followed him with so great speed, that he overtook him when he was passing the bridge at Sigidunus, and put him to death.
Blindado
ValentinianIIAE3UrbsRom.jpg
1et Valentinian II19 views373-392

AE3, Nicomedia

Pearl-diademed, draped & cuirassed bust rightt, D N VALENTINIANVS IVN P F AVG
Roma seated on cuirass, holding spear and Victory on globe, VRBS ROMA

The SMN mintmark indicates that the coin was minted in Nicomedia, but RIC does not list this reverse type for that mint.

Sim to RIC 51

Zosimus reports: Valentinian being dead, the tribunes Merobaudes and Equitius, reflecting on the distance at which Valens and Gratian resided, the former being in the east, and the latter left by his father in the western part of Gaul, were apprehensive lest the Barbarians beyond the Ister should make an effort while the country was without a ruler. They therefore sent for the younger son of Valentinian, who was born of his wife the widow of Magnentius, who was not far from thence with the child. Having clothed him in purple, they brought him into the court, though scarcely five years old. The empire was afterwards divided between Gratian and the younger Valentinian, at the discretion of their guardians, they not being of age to manage their own affairs. The Celtic nations, Spain, and Britain were given to Gratian; and Italy, Illyricum, and Africa to Valentinian. . . .

Affairs being thus situated in the east, in Thrace, and in Illyricum, Maximus, who deemed his appointments inferior to his merits, being only governor of the countries formerly under Gratian, projected how to depose the young Valentinian from the empire, if possible totally, but should he fail in the whole, to secure at least some part. . . . he immediately entered Italy without; resistance, and marched to Aquileia. . . . This so much surprised Valentinian, and rendered his situation so desperate, that his courtiers were alarmed lest he should be taken by Maximus and put to death. He, therefore, immediately embarked,and sailed to Thessalonica with his mother Justina, who, as I before mentioned, had been the wife of Magnentius, but after his decease was taken in marriage by the emperor Valentinian on account of her extraordinary beauty. She carried along with her her daughter Galla. After having passed many seas, and arriving at Thessalonica, they sent messengers to the emperor Theodosius, intreating him now at least to revenge the injuries committed against the family of Valentinian. He was astonished at hearing of this, and began to forget his extravagance, and to lay some restraint on his wild inclination for pleasure. . . . Theodosius then delivered to Valentinian as much of the empire as his father had possessed; in which he only acted as he was enjoined by his duty to those who so merited his kindness. . . .

intelligence was brought that the emperor Valentianian was no more, and that his death happened in this manner: Arbogastes, a Frank, who was appointed by the emperor Gratian lieutenant to Baudo, at the death of Baudo, confiding in his own ability, assumed the command without the emperor's permission. Being thought proper for the station by all the soldiers under him, both for his valour and experience in military affairs, and for his disregard of riches, he attained great influence. He thus became so elevated, that he would speak without reserve to the emperor, and would blame any measure which he thought improper. This gave such umbrage to Valentinian. . . .

Eugenius became the sincere friend of Arbogastes, who had no secret which he did not confide to him. Recollecting Eugenius, therefore, at this juncture, who by his extraordinary learning and the gravity of his conversation seemed well-adapted for the management of an empire, he communicated to him his designs. But finding him not pleased with the proposals, he attempted to prevail on him by all the arts he could use, and entreated him not to reject what fortune so favourably offered. Having at length persuaded him, he deemed it advisable in the first place to remove Valentinian, and thus to deliver the sole authority to Eugenius. With this view he proceeded to Vienna, a town in Gaul, where the emperor resided; and as he was amusing himself near the town in some sports with the soldiers, apprehending no danger, Arbogastes gave him a mortal wound.
Blindado
TheodosAE4VotMult~0.jpg
1eu Theodosius24 views379-395

AE4

Pearl diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right, D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG
VOT V MVLT X within wreath, ASISC in ex

RIC 29d

Zosimus recorded: [Valentinian] commanded some legions from the stations in Pannonia and Moesia, to embark for Africa [to crush a rebellion]. On this the Sarmatians and the Quadi. . . , availing themselves, of the opportunity afforded by the departure of the legions for Africa, invaded the Pannonians and Moesians. . . . The barbarians therefore revenged themselves by plundering all the country along the Ister, carrying off all that they found in the towns. The Pannonians were by these means exposed to the cruelty of the barbarians, while the soldiers were extremely negligent in the defence of their towns, and committed as much mischief as the Barbarians themselves in all places on this side of the river. But Moesia was free from harm, because Theodosius, who commanded the forces there, courageously resisted the Barbarians, and routed them when they attacked him. By that victory he not only acquired great renown, but subsequently attained the imperial dignity. . . .

When the affairs of the empire were reduced to this low condition, Victor, who commanded the Roman cavalry, escaping the danger with some of his troops, entered Macedon and Thessaly. From thence he proceeded into Moesia and Pannonia, and informed Gratian, who was then in that quarter, of what had occurred, and of the loss of the emperor [Valens] and his army. Gratian received the intelligence without uneasiness, and was little grieved at the death of his uncle, a disagreement having existed between them. Finding himself unable to manage affairs, Thrace being ravaged by the Barbarians, as were likewise Pannonia and Moesia, and the towns upon the Rhine being infested by the neighbouring Barbarians without controul, he chose for his associate in the empire, Theodosius, who was a native of a town called Cauca, in the part of Spain called Hispania Callaecia, and who possessed great knowledge and experience of military affairs. Having given him the government of Thrace and the eastern provinces, Gratian himself proceeded to the west of Gaul, in order, if possible, to compose affairs in that quarter. . . .

During the stay of the new emperor, Theodosius, at Thesslonica, a great concourse arrived there from all parts of persons soliciting him on business, both public and private; who having obtained of him whatever he could conveniently grant, returned, to their homes. As a great multitude of the Scythians beyond the Ister, the Gotthi, and the Taiphali, and other tribes that formerly dwelt among them, had crossed the river, and were driven to infest the Roman dominions, because the Huns, had expelled them from their own country, the emperor Theodosius prepared for war with all his forces. . . . The army having made this good use of the occasion afforded by fortune, the affairs of Thrace, which had been on the brink of ruin, were now, the Barbarians being crushed beyond all hope, re-established in peace. . . .

Meanwhile, the emperor Theodosius, residing in Thessalonica, was easy of access to all who wished to see him. Having commenced his reign in luxury and indolence, he threw the magistracy into disorder, and increased the number of his military officers. . . . As he squandered the public money without consideration, bestowing it on unworthy persons, he consequently impoverished himself. He therefore sold the government of provinces to any who would purchase them, without regard to the reputation or ablity of the persons, esteeming him the best qualified who brought him the most gold or silver. . . .

Maximus, who deemed his appointments inferior to his merits, being only governor of the countries formerly under Gratian, projected how to depose the young Valentinian from the empire. . . . This so much surprised Valentinian, and rendered his situation so desperate, that his courtiers were alarmed lest he should be taken by Maximus and put to death. He, therefore, immediately embarked,and sailed to Thessalonica with his mother Justina. . . . [A]rriving at Thessalonica, they sent messengers to the emperor Theodosius, intreating him now at least to revenge the injuries committed against the family of Valentinian. . . . The emperor, being delivered from this alarm, marched with great resolution with his whole army against Maximus. . . . Theodosius, having passed through Pannonia and the defiles of the Appennines, attacked unawares the forces of Maximus before they were prepared for him. A part of his army, having pursued them with the utmost speed, forced their way through the gates of Aquileia, the guards being too few to resist them. Maximus was torn from his imperial throne while in the act of distributing money to his soldiers, and being stripped of his imperial robes, was brought to Theodosius, who, having in reproach enumerated some of his crimes against the commonwealth, delivered him to the common executioner to receive due punishment. . . . The emperor Theodosius, having consigned Italy, Spain, Celtica, and Libya to his son Honorius, died of a disease on his journey towards Constantinople.
Blindado
Hostilian-RIC-177b.jpg
22. Hostilian.12 viewsAntoninianus, 251 AD, Rome mint.
Obverse: VALENS HOSTIL MES QVINTVS N C / Radiate bust of Hostilian.
Reverse: MARTI PROPVGNATORI / Mars advancing, holding spear and shield.
3.37 gm., 21 mm.
RIC #177b; Sear #9556.
Callimachus
HosVim.jpg
251 AD - Hostilian - Viminacium - Moesia with Lion and Bull Reverse86 viewsEmperor: Hostilian (r. 251 AD)
Date: 251 AD
Condition: aFine
Size: AE26

Obverse: IMP C VAL HOST M QVINTVS AVG
Imperator Caesar Valens Hostilian Messius Quintus Emperor
Bust right; laureate

Reverse: P M S C-OL VIM
Moesia standing between a lion (right) and a bull (left).
Exergue: ANXII (Year 12 of the Colonial Era of Viminacium = 251 AD)

Mint: Viminacium, Moesia Superior
12.64g; 26.7mm; 345°
Pep
rjb_host2_02_09.jpg
251a26 viewsHostilian 251 AD
AR antoninianus
Obv "C VALENS HOSTIL MES QVINTVS N C"
Radiate and draped bust right
Rev "PRINCIPI IVVENTVTIS"
Hostilian standing left holding standard and vertical sceptre
Rome mint
RIC 181d
1 commentsmauseus
coin197.JPG
305c. Hostilian23 viewsGaius Valens Hostilianus Messius Quintus (died 251), was Roman emperor in 251. Hostilian was born in an unknown date, after 230, as the son of the future emperor Trajan Decius by his wife Herennia Cupressenia Etruscilla. He was the younger brother of emperor Herennius Etruscus.

Following his father's accession to the throne, Hostilian received the treatment of an imperial prince, but was always kept in the shade of his brother Herennius, who enjoyed the privileges of being older and heir. In the beginning of 251, Decius elevated his son Herennius to co-emperor and Hostilian succeeded him in the title of princeps iuventutis (prince of youth). These dispositions were made previous to a campaign against king Cniva of the Goths, to punish him over the raids on the Danubian frontier. Hostilian remained in Rome due to his inexperience, and empress Herennia was named regent.

The campaign proved to be a disaster: both Herennius and Decius died in the Battle of Abrittus and became the first two emperors to be killed by a foreign army in battle. The armies in the Danube acclaimed Trebonianus Gallus emperor, but Rome acknowledged Hostilian's rights. Since Trebonianus was a respected general, there was fear of another civil war of succession, despite the fact that he chose to respect the will of Rome and adopted Hostilian. But later in 251, plague broke out in Rome and Hostilian died in the epidemic. He was the first emperor in 40 years and one of only 13 to die of natural causes. His timely death opened the way for the rule of Trebonianus with his natural son Volusianus.

Hostilian. Moesia Superior. Viminacium AE 25 mm. 11.7 g. Obverse: C VAL HOST M QVINTVS CAE. Draped bust right. Reverse: P M S COL VIM AN XII. Moesia standing left between lion and bull.
ecoli
33008.jpg
33008 Valens/Gloria Romanorvm3 viewsValens/Gloria Romanorvm 33008
Obv: DN VALEN-S PF AVG,
pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right.
Rev: GLORIA RO-MANORVM,
Emperor walking right, head left, holding labarum, dragging captive behind him.
Star in left field, star over A in right field.
TES in Exergue
Mint:Thessalonica 18.1mm 2.3g
RIC IX Thessalonica 26b, type xvii.
Blayne W
rjb_2013_10_09.jpg
36428 viewsValens
Solidus
Obv: DN VALENS PER F AVG
Diademed draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev: RESTITVTOR REIPVBLICAE
Emperor standing right holding labarum and victory on globe
Antioch mint
RIC IX Antioch 2d
mauseus
ValensIXSis14(b)xxx.jpg
364-378 AD - Valens - RIC IX Siscia 14(b)xxx - GLORIA ROMANORVM35 viewsEmperor: Valens (r. 364-378 AD)
Date: 367-375 AD
Condition: aFine
Size: AE3

Obverse: DN VALEN-S PF AVG
Our Lord Valens Dutiful and Wise Emperor
Bust right; pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed

Reverse: GLORIA RO-MANORVM
Glory of the Romans.
Emperor advancing right, dragging captive with right hand and holding labarum in left.
"A" over "" in left field
"Q" in right field
Exergue: ASISE (Siscia mint, first officina)

RIC IX Siscia 14(b)xxx; VM46
2.45g; 17.8mm; 30°
Pep
ValensIXThes27(b)xii.jpg
364-378 AD - Valens - RIC IX Thessalonica 27(b)[xii] - SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE31 viewsEmperor: Valens (r. 364-378 AD)
Date: 367-375 AD
Condition: Fine
Size: AE3

Obverse: DN VALEN-S PF AVG
Our Lord Valens Dutiful and Wise Emperor
Bust right; pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed

Reverse: SECVRITAS - REIPVBLICAE
The Republic is safe.
Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm.
"●/Γ" in left field
Exergue: TES (Thessalonica mint, third officina)

RIC IX Thessalonica 27(b)[xii]; VM 49
3.14g; 19.4mm; 330°
Pep
ValensVM46_3.jpg
364-378 AD - Valens - Van Meter 46 - GLORIA ROMANORVM44 viewsEmperor: Valens (r. 364-378 AD)
Date: 364-378 AD
Condition: Fine
Size: AE3

Obverse: DN VALEN-S PF AVG
Our Lord Valens Dutiful and Wise Emperor
Bust right; pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed

Reverse: GLORIA RO-MANORVM
Glory of the Romans.
Emperor advancing right, dragging captive with right hand and holding labarum in left.
Exergue: ?SMAQP (Aquileia mint, first officina)

VM46
2.40g; 18.6mm; 195°
Pep
coin536.JPG
410. Licinius I43 viewsFlavius Galerius Valerius Licinianus Licinius (c. 250 - 325) was Roman emperor from 308 to 324.

Of Dacian peasant origin, born in Moesia Superior, Licinius accompanied his close friend the Emperor Galerius on the Persian expedition in 297. After the death of Flavius Valerius Severus, Galerius elevated Licinius to the rank of Augustus in the West on November 11, 308. He received as his immediate command the provinces of Illyricum, Thrace and Pannonia.

On the death of Galerius, in May 311, Licinius shared the entire empire with Maximinus Daia, the Hellespont and the Bosporus being the dividing line.

In March 313 he married Flavia Julia Constantia, half-sister of Constantine, at Mediolanum (now Milan), the occasion for the jointly-issued "Edict of Milan" that restored confiscated properties to Christian congregations though it did not "Christianize" the Empire as is often assumed, although it did give Christians a better name in Rome. In the following month (April 30), Licinius inflicted a decisive defeat on Maximinus at Battle of Tzirallum, after Maximinus had tried attacking him. He then established himself master of the East, while his brother-in-law, Constantine, was supreme in the West.

In 314 his jealousy led him to encourage a treasonable enterprise in favor of Bassianus against Constantine. When his actions became known, a civil war ensued, in which he was first defeated at the battle of Cibalae in Pannonia (October 8, 314), and next some 2 years later (after naming Valerius Valens co-emperor) in the plain of Mardia (also known as Campus Ardiensis) in Thrace. The outward reconciliation left Licinius in possession of Thrace, Asia Minor, Syria and Egypt, but he later added numerous provinces to Constantine's control.

In 324 Constantine, tempted by the "advanced age and unpopular vices" of his colleague, again declared war against him, and, having defeated his army at the battle of Adrianople (July 3, 324), succeeded in shutting him up within the walls of Byzantium. The defeat of the superior fleet of Licinius by Flavius Julius Crispus, Constantine’s eldest son, compelled his withdrawal to Bithynia, where a last stand was made; the battle of Chrysopolis, near Chalcedon (September 18), resulted in his final submission. He was interned at Thessalonica under a kind of house arrest, but when he attempted to raise troops among the barbarians Constantine had him and his former co-emperor Martinianus assassinated.

O: IMP LICINIVS AVG; Emperor, facing left, wearing imperial mantle, holding mappa and globe.
R: IOVI CONSERVATORI AVGG; Jupiter standing left holding Victory; palm to left, epsilon in right field, SMN in exergue. Sear 3804, RIC Nicomedia 24 (Scarce), Failmezger #278. Remarkable detail on this nicely silvered Late Roman bronze, ex Crisp Collection.

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510. Valentinian I53 viewsFlavius Valentinianus, known in English as Valentinian I, (321 - November 17, 375) was a Roman Emperor (364 - 375). He was born at Cibalis, in Pannonia, the son of a successful general, Gratian the Elder.

He had been an officer of the Praetorian guard under Julian and Jovian, and had risen high in the imperial service. Of robust frame and distinguished appearance, he possessed great courage and military capacity. After the death of Jovian, he was chosen emperor in his forty-third year by the officers of the army at Nicaea in Bithynia on February 26, 364, and shortly afterwards named his brother Valens colleague with him in the empire.

The two brothers, after passing through the chief cities of the neighbouring district, arranged the partition of the empire at Naissus (Nissa) in Upper Moesia. As Western Roman Emperor, Valentinian took Italia, Illyricum, Hispania, the Gauls, Britain and Africa, leaving to Eastern Roman Emperor Valens the eastern half of the Balkan peninsula, Greece, Aegyptus, Syria and Asia Minor as far as Persia. They were immediately confronted by the revolt of Procopius, a relative of the deceased Julian. Valens managed to defeat his army at Thyatria in Lydia in 366, and Procopius was executed shortly afterwards.

During the short reign of Valentinian there were wars in Africa, in Germany and in Britain, and Rome came into collision with barbarian peoples never of heard before, specifically the Burgundians, and the Saxons.

Valentinian's chief work was guarding the frontiers and establishing military positions. Milan was at first his headquarters for settling the affairs of northern Italy. The following year (365) Valentinian was at Paris, and then at Reims, to direct the operations of his generals against the Alamanni. These people, defeated at Scarpona (Charpeigne) and Catelauni (Châlons-en-Champagne) by Jovinus, were driven back to the German bank of the Rhine, and checked for a while by a chain of military posts and fortresses. At the close of 367, however, they suddenly crossed the Rhine, attacked Moguntiacum (Mainz) and plundered the city. Valentinian attacked them at Solicinium (Sulz am Neckar, in the Neckar valley, or Schwetzingen) with a large army, and defeated them with great slaughter. But his own losses were so considerable that Valentinian abandoned the idea of following up his success.

Later, in 374, Valentinian made peace with their king, Macrianus, who from that time remained a true friend of the Romans. The next three years he spent at Trier, which he chiefly made his headquarters, organizing the defence of the Rhine frontier, and personally superintending the construction of numerous forts.

During his reign the coasts of Gaul were harassed by the Saxon pirates, with whom the Picts and Scots of northern Britain joined hands, and ravaged the island from the Antonine Wall to the shores of Kent. In 368 Count Theodosius was sent to drive back the invaders; in this he was completely successful, and established a new British province, called Valentia in honour of the emperor.

In Africa, Firmus, raised the standard of revolt, being joined by the provincials, who had been rendered desperate by the cruelty and extortions of Comes Romanus, the military governor. The services of Theodosius were again requisitioned. He landed in Africa with a small band of veterans, and Firmus, to avoid being taken prisoner, committed suicide.

In 374 the Quadi, a Germanic tribe in what is now Moravia and Slovakia, resenting the erection of Roman forts to the north of the Danube in what they considered to be their own territory, and further exasperated by the treacherous murder of their king, Gabinius, crossed the river and laid waste the province of Pannonia. The emperor in April, 375 entered Illyricum with a powerful army. But during an audience to an embassy from the Quadi at Brigetio on the Danube (near Komárom, Hungary), Valentinian suffered a burst blood vessel in the skull while angrily yelling at the people gathered. This injury resulted in his death on November 17, 375.

His general administration seems to have been thoroughly honest and able, in some respects beneficent. If Valentinian was hard and exacting in the matter of taxes, he spent them in the defence and improvement of his dominions, not in idle show or luxury. Though himself a plain and almost illiterate soldier, Valentinian was a founder of schools. He also provided medical attendance for the poor of Rome, by appointing a physician for each of the fourteen districts of the city.

Valentinian was a Christian but permitted absolute religious freedom to all his subjects. Against all abuses, both civil and ecclesiastical, Valentinian steadily set his face, even against the increasing wealth and worldliness of the clergy. His chief flaw was his temper, which at times was frightful, and showed itself in its full fierceness in the punishment of persons accused of witchcraft, fortune-telling or magical practices.

Valentinian I; RIC IX, Siscia 15(a); C.37; second period: 24 Aug. 367-17 Nov. 375; common. obv. DN VALENTINI-ANVS PF AVG, bust cuir., drap., r., rev. SECVRITAS-REI PVBLICAE, Victory advancing l., holding wreath and trophy. l. field R above R with adnex, r. field F, ex. gamma SISC rev.Z dot (type xxxv)
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511. Valens37 viewsAfter a brief stay aimed at building his troop strength and gaining a toehold in Thrace, Valens moved out to Adrianople. From there, he marched against the confederated barbarian army on August 9, 378 in what would become known as the battle of Adrianople. Although negotiations were attempted, these broke down when a Roman unit sallied forth and carried both sides into battle. The Romans held their own early on but were crushed by the surprise arrival of Visigoth cavalry which split their ranks.

The primary source for the battle is Ammianus, who is quoted at length by Edward Gibbon (The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, XXVI). Valens had left a sizeable guard with his baggage and treasures depleting his force. His right wing, cavalry, arrived at the Gothic camp sometime before the left wing arrived. It was a very hot day and the Roman cavalry was engaged without strategic support, wasting its efforts while they suffered in the heat.

Meanwhile Fritigern once again sent an emissary of peace in his continued manipulation of the situation. The resultant delay meant that the Romans present on the field began to succumb to the heat. The army's resources were further diminished when an ill timed attack by the Roman archers made it necessary to recall Valens’ emissary, Count Richomer. The archers were beaten and retreated in humiliation.

Gothic cavalry under the command of Althaeus and Saphrax then struck and, with what was probably the most decisive event of the battle, the Roman cavalry fled. The Roman infantry was abandoned, surrounded and cut to pieces. Valens was wounded and carried to a small wooden hut. The hut was surrounded by the Goths who put it to the torch, evidently unaware of the prize within. According to Ammianus, this is how Valens perished.

When the battle was over, two-thirds of the eastern army lied dead. Many of their best officers had also perished. What was left of the army of Valens was led from the field under the cover of night by Count Richomer and General Victor.

J.B. Bury, a noted authority on the barbarian invasion of Europe provides specific interpretation on the significance the battle; It was "a disaster and disgrace that need not have occurred."

For Rome, the battle incapacitated the government. Emperor Gratian, nineteen years old, was overcome by the debacle, and until he appointed Theodosius, unable to deal with the catastrophe which spread out of control.

Date: 364-367 AD
Obverse: D N VALEN-S P F AVG, Cuirassed and draped, pearl diademed bust right.
Reverse: RESTITV-TOR REIP, Valens stg. Looking r. holding labarum in r. hand and Victory on globe presenting wreath on emperor on l. hand. TES delta in exergue.
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030437LG.jpg
512. Procopius151 viewsProcopius (326 - May 27, 366), was a Roman usurper against Valentinian I, and member of the Constantinian dynasty.

According to Ammianus Marcellinus, Procopius was a native of Cilicia. On his mother's side, Procopius was cousin of Emperor Julian.

Procopius took part in the emperor Julian's campaign against the Persian Empire in 363. He was entrusted of leading 30,000 men towards Armenia, joining King Arsaces, and later return to Julian camp. At the time of Julian's death, there were rumors that he had intended Procopius to be his successor, but when Jovian was elected emperor by the Roman army, Procopius went into hiding to preserve his life. The ancient historians differ on the exact details of Procopius' life in hiding, but agree that he returned to public knowledge at Chalcedon before the house of the senator Strategius suffering from starvation and ignorant of current affairs.

By that time, Jovianus was dead, and Valentinian I shared the purple with his brother Valens. Procopius immediately moved to declare himself emperor. He bribed two legions that were resting at Constantinople to support his efforts, and took control of the imperial city. Shortly after this he proclaimed himself Emperor on September 28, 365, and quickly took control of the provinces of Thrace, and later Bithynia.

Valens was left with the task of dealing with this rebel, and over the next months struggled with both cities and units that wavered in their allegiance. Eventually their armies met at the Battle of Thyatira, and Procopius' forces were defeated. He fled the battlefield, but was betrayed to Valens by two of his remaining followers. Valens had all three executed May 27, 366.


Procopius - Usurper in the east, 365-6 , AE-3, Nicomedia mint


2.90g

Obv: Bust of Procopius, beared left "DN PROCOPIVS PF AVG"

Rev: Procopius standing head right, foot resting on a prow and leaning on a shield. "REPARATIO FEL TEMP" "SMNG" in the exergue.

RIC 10
ecoli73
coin396.JPG
513. Gratian29 viewsFlavius Gratianus Augustus (April 18/May 23, 359 - August 25, 383), known as Gratian, was a Western Roman Emperor from 375 to 383. He was the son of Valentinian I by Marina Severa and was born at Sirmium in Pannonia.

On August 4, 367 he received from his father the title of Augustus. On the death of Valentinian (November 17, 375), the troops in Pannonia proclaimed his infant son (by a second wife Justina) emperor under the title of Valentinian II.

Gratian acquiesced in their choice; reserving for himself the administration of the Gallic provinces, he handed over Italy, Illyria and Africa to Valentinian and his mother, who fixed their residence at Milan. The division, however, was merely nominal, and the real authority remained in the hands of Gratian.

The Eastern Roman Empire was under the rule of his uncle Valens. In May, 378 Gratian completely defeated the Lentienses, the southernmost branch of the Alamanni, at the Battle of Argentovaria, near the site of the modern Colmar. Later that year, Valens met his death in the Battle of Adrianople on August 9.

In the same year, the government of the Eastern Empire devolved upon Gratian, but feeling himself unable to resist unaided the incursions of the barbarians, he promoted Theodosius I on January 19, 379 to govern that portion of the empire. Gratianus and Theodosius then cleared the Balkans of barbarians in the Gothic War (377–382).

For some years Gratian governed the empire with energy and success but gradually sank into indolence, occupying himself chiefly with the pleasures of the chase, and became a tool in the hands of the Frankish general Merobaudes and bishop Ambrose of Milan.

By taking into his personal service a body of Alani, and appearing in public in the dress of a Scythian warrior, he aroused the contempt and resentment of his Roman troops. A Roman general named Magnus Maximus took advantage of this feeling to raise the standard of revolt in Britain and invaded Gaul with a large army. Gratian, who was then in Paris, being deserted by his troops, fled to Lyon. There, through the treachery of the governor, Gratian was delivered over to one of the rebel generals and assassinated on August 25, 383.

RIC IX Antioch 46b S

DN GRATIA-NVS PF AVG
CONCOR-DIA AVGGG
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515. Theodosius I37 viewsSon of a senior military officer, Theodosius the Elder, Theodosius accompanied his father to Britannia to help quell the Great Conspiracy in 368. He was military commander (dux) of Moesia, a Roman province on the lower Danube, in 374. However, shortly thereafter, and at about the same time as the sudden disgrace and execution of his father, Theodosius retired to Cauca. The reason for his retirement, and the relationship (if any) between it and his father's death is unclear. It is possible that he was dismissed of his command by the emperor Valentinian I, after the loss of two of Theodosius' legions by the Sarmatians in late 374.

In 378, after the death of the emperor Valens at the Battle of Adrianople, the emperor Gratian appointed Theodosius co-augustus for the East. After 392, following the death of Valentinian II, whom he had supported against a variety of usurpations, Theodosius ruled as sole emperor, defeating the usurper Eugenius on September 6, 394, at the Battle of the Frigidus.


RIC IX Constantinople 88a C
ecoli
Valens-Sis-7b.jpg
62. Valens.19 viewsAE 3, 364 - 367, Siscia mint.
Obverse: DN VALENS P F AVG / Diademed bust of Valens.
Reverse: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE / Victory advancing, holding wreath and palm branch.
Mint mark: . ΔSISC
2.85 gm., 18 mm.
RIC #7b; LRBC #1278; Sear #19832.
Callimachus
roman_emperor_otho.jpg
708a, Otho64 viewsOtho (69 A.D.)
John Donahue
College of William and Mary

Introduction
In January 69 Otho led a successful coup to overthrow the emperor Galba. Upon advancing to the throne, he hoped to conciliate his adversaries and restore political stability to the Empire. These ambitions were never to be realized. Instead, our sources portray a leader never fully able to win political confidence at Rome or to overcome military anarchy abroad. As a result, he was defeated in battle by the forces of Vitellius, his successor, and took his own life at the conclusion of the conflict. His principate lasted only eight weeks.
Early Life and Career
Marcus Salvius Otho was born at Ferentium on 28 April 32 A. D. His grandfather, also named Marcus Salvius Otho, was a senator who did not advance beyond the rank of praetor. Lucius Otho, his father, was consul in 33 and a trusted administrator under the emperors Tiberius, Gaius and Claudius. His mother, Albia Terentia, was likely to have been nobly born as well. The cognomen "Otho" was Etruscan in origin, and the fact that it can be traced to three successive generations of this family perhaps reflects a desire to maintain a part of the Etruscan tradition that formed the family's background.
Otho is recorded as being extravagant and wild as a youth - a favorite pastime involved roving about at night to snare drunkards in a blanket. Such behavior earned floggings from his father, whose frequent absences from home on imperial business suggest little in the way of a stabilizing parental influence in Otho's formative years. These traits apparently persisted: Suetonius records that Otho and Nero became close friends because of the similarity of their characters; and Plutarch relates that the young man was so extravagant that he sometimes chided Nero about his meanness, and even outdid the emperor in reckless spending.
Most intriguing in this context is Otho's involvement with Nero's mistress, Poppaea Sabina, the greatest beauty of her day. A relationship between the two is widely cited in the ancient sources, but the story differs in essential details from one account to the next. As a result, it is impossible to establish who seduced whom, whether Otho ever married Poppaea, and whether his posting to Lusitania by Nero should be understood as a "banishment" for his part in this affair. About the only reliable detail to emerge is that Otho did indeed become governor of Lusitania in 59, and that he assumed the post as a quaestor, a rank below that of praetor or consul, the minimum usually required for the office. From here he would launch his initial thrust towards the imperial throne.
Overthrow of Galba
Nero's suicide in June 68 marked the end of the Julio-Claudian dynasty and opened up the principate to the prerogatives of the military beyond Rome. First to emerge was Servius Sulpicius Galba, governor of Hispania Tarraconensis, who had been encouraged to revolt by the praetorians and especially by Nymphidius Sabinus, the corrupt and scheming praetorian prefect at Rome. By this time Otho had been in Spain for close to ten years. His record seems to have been a good one, marked by capable administration and an unwillingness to enrich himself at the expense of the province. At the same time, perhaps seeing this as his best chance to improve his own circumstances, he supported the insurrection as vigorously as possible, even sending Galba all of his gold and his best table servants. At the same time, he made it a point to win the favor of every soldier he came in contact with, most notably the members of the praetorian guard who had come to Spain to accompany Galba to Rome. Galba set out from Spain in July, formally assuming the emperorship shortly thereafter. Otho accompanied him on the journey.
Galba had been in Rome little more than two months when on 1 January 69 the troops in Upper Germany refused to declare allegiance to him and instead followed the men stationed in Lower Germany in proclaiming their commander, Aulus Vitellius, as the new ruler. To show that he was still in charge Galba adopted his own successor, Lucius Calpurnius Piso Frugi Licinianus, an aristocrat completely without administrative or military experience. The choice meant little to the remote armies, the praetorians or the senate and particularly angered Otho, who had hoped to succeed Galba. Otho quickly organized a conspiracy among the praetorians with promise of a material reward, and on 15 January 69 they declared him emperor and publicly killed Galba; Piso, dragged from hiding in the temple of Vesta, was also butchered. On that same evening a powerless senate awarded Otho the imperial titles.
Otho's Principate in Rome
It is not possible to reconstruct a detailed chronology of Otho's brief eight and a half weeks as princeps in Rome (15 January-15 March). Even so, Galba's quick demise had surely impressed upon Otho the need to conciliate various groups. As a result, he continued his indulgence of the praetorian guard but he also tried to win over the senate by following a strict constitutionalist line and by generally keeping the designations for the consulship made by Nero and Galba. In the provinces, despite limited evidence, there are some indications that he tried to compensate for Galba's stinginess by being more generous with grants of citizenship. In short, Otho was eager not to offend anyone.
Problems remained, however. The praetorians had to be continually placated and they were always suspicious of the senate. On the other hand, the senate itself, along with the people, remained deeply disturbed at the manner of Otho's coming to power and his willingness to be associated with Nero. These suspicions and fears were most evident in the praetorian outbreak at Rome. Briefly, Otho had decided to move from Ostia to Rome a cohort of Roman citizens in order to replace some of Rome's garrison, much of which was to be utilized for the showdown with Vitellius. He ordered that weapons be moved from the praetorian camp in Rome by ship to Ostia at night so that the garrison replacements would be properly armed and made to look as soldierly as possible when they marched into the city. Thinking that a senatorial counter-coup against Otho was underway, the praetorians stormed the imperial palace to confirm the emperor's safety, with the result that they terrified Otho and his senatorial dinner guests. Although the praetorians' fears were eventually calmed and they were given a substantial cash payment, the incident dramatically underscored the unease at Rome in the early months of 69.
Otho's Offensive against Vitellius
Meanwhile, in the Rhineland, preparations for a march on Rome by the military legions that had declared for Vitellius were far advanced. Hampered by poor intelligence gathering in Gaul and Germany and having failed to negotiate a settlement with Vitellius in early 69, Otho finally summoned to Italy his forces for a counterattack against the invading Vitellian army. His support consisted of the four legions of Pannonia and Dalmatia, the three legions of Moesia and his own imperial retinue of about 9,000. Vitellius' own troops numbered some 30,000, while those of his two marshals, Aulus Caecina Alienus and Fabius Valens, were between 15,000 and 20,000 each.
Otho's strategy was to make a quick diversionary strike in order to allow time for his own forces to assemble in Italy before engaging the enemy. The strategy worked, as the diversionary army, comprised of urban cohorts, praetorians and marines all from Rome or nearby, was successful in Narbonese Gaul in latter March. An advance guard sent to hold the line on the Po River until the Danubian legions arrived also enjoyed initial success. Otho himself arrived at Bedriacum in northern Italy about 10 April for a strategy session with his commanders. The main concern was that the Vitellians were building a bridge across the Po in order to drive southward towards the Apennines and eventually to Rome. Otho decided to counter by ordering a substantial part of his main force to advance from Bedriacum and establish a new base close enough to the new Vitellian bridge to interrupt its completion. While en route, the Othonian forces, strung out along the via Postumia amid baggage and supply trains, were attacked by Caecina and Valens near Cremona on 14 April. The clash, know as the Battle of Bedriacum, resulted in the defeat of the Othonian forces, their retreat cut off by the river behind them. Otho himself, meanwhile, was not present, but had gone to Brixellum with a considerable force of infantry and cavalry in order to impede any Vitellian units that had managed to cross the Po.
The plan had backfired. Otho's strategy of obtaining victory while avoiding any major battles had proven too risky. Realizing perhaps that a new round of fighting would have involved not only a significant re-grouping of his existing troops but also a potentially bloody civil war at Rome, if Vitellius' troops reached the capital, Otho decided that enough blood had been shed. Two weeks shy of his thirty-seventh birthday, on 16 April 69, he took his own life.
Assessment
To be sure, Otho remains an enigma - part profligate Neronian wastrel and part conscientious military commander willing to give his life for the good of the state. Our sources are at a loss to explain the paradox. Perhaps, like Petronius, he saw it was safer to appear a profligate in Nero's court? In the final analysis, Otho proved to be an organized and efficient military commander, who appealed more to the soldier than to the civilian. He also seems to have been a capable governor, with administrative talents that recalled those of his father. Nevertheless, his violent overthrow of Galba, the lingering doubts that it raised about his character, and his unsuccessful offensive against Vitellius are all vivid reminders of the turbulence that plagued the Roman world between the reigns of Nero and Vespasian. Regrettably, the scenario would play itself out one more time before peace and stability returned to the empire.
Copyright (C) 1999, John Donahue
Edited by J.P.Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
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709a, Vitellius, 2 January - 20 December 69 A.D.42 viewsVITELLIUS AR silver denarius. RSC 72, RCV 2200. 19mm, 3.2 g. Obverse: A VITELLIVS GERM IMP AVG TR P, laureate head right; Reverse - PONT MAXIM, Vesta seated right, holding scepter and patera. Quite decent. Ex. Incitatus Coins. Photo courtesy of Incitatus Coins.

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Vitellius (69 A.D.)

John F. Donahue
College of William and Mary


It is often difficult to separate fact from fiction in assessing the life and reign of Vitellius. Maligned in the ancient sources as gluttonous and cruel, he was also a victim of a hostile biographical tradition established in the regime of the Flavians who had overthrown him. Nevertheless, his decision to march against Rome in 69 was pivotal, since his subsequent defeat signalled the end of military anarchy and the beginning of an extended period of political stability under Vespasian and his successors.

Early Life and Career

Aulus Vitellius was born in September, 15 AD, the son of Lucius Vitellius and his wife Sestilia. One of the most successful public figures of the Julio-Claudian period, Lucius Vitellius was a three-time consul and a fellow censor with the emperor Claudius. Aulus seems to have moved with equal ease in aristocratic circles, successively winning the attention of the emperors Gaius, Claudius, and Nero through flattery and political skill.

Among his attested public offices, Vitellius was a curator of public works, a senatorial post concerned with the maintenance and repair of public buildings in Rome, and he was also proconsul of North Africa, where he served as a deputy to his brother, perhaps about 55 A. D. In addition, he held at least two priesthoods, the first as a member of the Arval Brethren, in whose rituals he participated from 57 A.D., and the second, as one of the quindecemviri sacris faciundis, a sacred college famous for its feasts.

With respect to marriage and family, Vitellius first wed a certain Petroniana, the daughter of a consul, sometime in the early to mid thirties A.D. The union produced a son, Petronianus, allegedly blind in one eye and emancipated from his father's control as a result of being named his mother's heir. Tradition records that Vitellius killed the boy shortly after emancipation amid charges of parricide; the marriage soon ended in divorce. A second marriage, to Galeria Fundana, daughter of an ex-praetor, was more stable than the first. It produced another son, who was eventually killed by the Flavians after the overthrow of Vitellius, as well as a daughter. Galeria is praised by Tacitus for her good qualities, and in the end it was she who saw to Vitellius' burial.

Rise to Power and Emperorship

Without doubt, the most fortuitous moment in Vitellius' political career was his appointment as governor of Lower Germany by the emperor Galba late in 68. The decision seemed to have caught everybody by surprise, including Vitellius himself, who, according to Suetonius, was in straitened circumstances at the time. The choice may have been made to reduce the possibility of rebellion by the Rhine armies, disaffected by Galba's refusal to reward them for their part in suppressing the earlier uprising of Julius Vindex. Ironically, it was Vitellius' lack of military achievement and his reputation for gambling and gluttony that may have also figured in his selection. Galba perhaps calculated that a man with little military experience who could now plunder a province to satisfy his own stomach would never become disloyal. If so, it was a critical misjudgement by the emperor.

The rebellion began on January 1, 69 ("The Year of the Four Emperors"), when the legions of Upper Germany refused to renew their oath of allegiance to Galba. On January 2, Vitellius' own men, having heard of the previous day's events, saluted him as emperor at the instigation of the legionary legate Fabius Valens and his colleagues. Soon, in addition to the seven legions that Vitellius now had at his command in both Germanies, the forces in Gaul, Britain, and Raetia also came over to his side. Perhaps aware of his military inexperience, Vitellius did not immediately march on Rome himself. Instead, the advance was led by Valens and another legionary general, Aulus Caecina Alienus, with each man commanding a separate column. Vitellius would remain behind to mobilize a reserve force and follow later.

Caecina was already one hundred fifty miles on his way when news reached him that Galba had been overthrown and Otho had taken his place as emperor. Undeterred, he passed rapidly down the eastern borders of Gaul; Valens followed a more westerly route, quelling a mutiny along the way. By March both armies had successfully crossed the Alps and joined at Cremona, just north of the Po. Here they launced their Batavian auxiliaries against Otho's troops and routed them in the First Battle of Bedriacum. Otho killed himself on April 16, and three days later the soldiers in Rome swore their allegience to Vitellius. The senate too hailed him as emperor.

When Vitellius learned of these developments, he set out to Rome from Gaul. By all accounts the journey was a drunken feast marked by the lack of discipline of both the troops and the imperial entourage. Along the way he stopped at Lugdunum to present his six-year-old son Germanicus to the legions as his eventual successor. Later, at Cremona, Vitellius witnessed the corpse-filled battlefield of Otho's recent defeat with joy, unmoved by so many citizens denied a proper burial.

The emperor entered Rome in late June-early July. Conscious of making a break with the Julio-Claudian past, Vitellius was reluctant to assume the traditional titles of the princes, even though he enthusiastically made offerings to Nero and declared himself consul for life. To his credit, Vitellius did seem to show a measure of moderation in the transition to the principate. He assumed his powers gradually and was generally lenient to Otho's supporters, even pardoning Otho's brother Salvius Titianus, who had played a key role in the earlier regime. In addition, he participated in Senate meetings and continued the practice of providing entertainments for the Roman masses. An important practical change involved the awarding of posts customarily held by freedmen to equites, an indication of the growth of the imperial bureaucracy and its attractiveness to men of ambition.

In other matters, he replaced the existing praetorian guard and urban cohorts with sixteen praetorian cohorts and four urban units, all comprised of soldiers from the German armies. According to Tacitus, the decision prompted a mad scramble, with the men, and not their officers, choosing the branch of service that they preferred. The situation was clearly unsatisfactory but not surprising, given that Vitellius was a creation of his own troops. To secure his position further, he sent back to their old postings the legions that had fought for Otho, or he reassigned them to distant provinces. Yet discontent remained: the troops who had been defeated or betrayed at Bedriacum remained bitter, and detachments of three Moesian legions called upon by Otho were returned to their bases, having agitated against Vitellius at Aquileia.

Flavian Revolt

The Vitellian era at Rome was short-lived. By mid-July news had arrived that the legions of Egypt under Tiberius Julius Alexander had sworn allegiance to a rival emperor, Titus Flavius Vespasianus, the governor of Judaea and a successful and popular general. Vespasian was to hold Egypt while his colleague Mucianus, governor of Syria, was to invade Italy. Before the plan could be enacted, however, the Danube legions, former supporters of Otho, joined Vespasian's cause. Under the leadership of Antonius Primus, commander of the Sixth legion in Pannonia, and Cornelius Fuscus, imperial procurator in Illyricum, the legions made a rapid descent on Italy.

Although his forces were only half of what Vitellius commanded in Italy, Primus struck first before the emperor could muster additional reinforcements from Germany. To make matters worse for the Vitellians, Valens was ill, and Caecina, now consul, had begun collaborating with the Flavians. His troops refused to follow his lead, however, and arrested him at Hostilia near Cremona. They then joined the rest of the Vitellian forces trying to hold the Po River. With Vitellius still in Rome and his forces virtually leaderless, the two sides met in October in the Second Battle of Bedriacum. The emperor's troops were soundly defeated and Cremona was brutally sacked by the victors. In addition, Valens, whose health had recovered, was captured while raising an army for Vitellius in Gaul and Germany; he was eventually executed.

Meanwhile, Primus continued towards Rome. Vitellius made a weak attempt to thwart the advance at the Apennine passes, but his forces switched to the Flavian side without a fight at Narnia in mid-December. At Rome, matters were no better. Vespasian's elder brother, Titus Flavius Sabinus, the city prefect, was successful in an effort to convince Vitellius to abdicate but was frustrated by the mob in Rome and the emperor's soldiers. Forced to flee to the Capitol, Sabinus was set upon by Vitellius' German troops and soon killed, with the venerable Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus set ablaze in the process. Within two days, the Flavian army fought its way into Rome. In a pathetic final move, Vitellius disguised himself in dirty clothing and hid in the imperial doorkeeper's quarters, leaning a couch and a mattress against the door for protection. Dragged from his hiding place by the Flavian forces, he was hauled off half-naked to the Forum, where he was tortured, killed, and tossed into the Tiber. The principate could now pass to Vespasian.

Assessment

Vitellius has not escaped the hostility of his biographers. While he may well have been gluttonous, his depiction as indolent, cruel, and extravagant is based almost entirely on the propaganda of his enemies. On the other hand, whatever moderating tendencies he did show were overshadowed by his clear lack of military expertise, a deficiency that forced him to rely in critical situations on largely inneffective lieutenants. As a result he was no match for his Flavian successors, and his humiliating demise was perfectly in keeping with the overall failure of his reign.

Copyright (C) 1999, John Donahue.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
Antoniniano_HOSTILIANO_RIC_177b_1.jpg
76-02 - HOSTILIANO Como Cesar de Trajano Decio (250 - 251 D.C.) 38 viewsAR Antoniniano 23 x 21 mm 3.7 gr.
Hijo de Trajano Decio

Anv: "C VALENS HOSTIL MES QVINTVS N C" - Busto radiado y vestido viendo a derecha
Rev: "MARTI PROPVGNATORI" - Marte avanzando a derecha, portando una jabalina en mano der. y escudo en izq.

Acuñada 6ta. y 7ma. Emisión del 251 D.C.
Ceca: 5to.Taller Roma

Referencias: RIC Vol.IV Parte III #177b Pag.144 - Cohen Vol.V #15 Pag.226 - RSC Vol. IV #15 Pag.32 - SRCV III #9556 Pag.222 - Sear '88 #2755 - DVM #7 Pag.234 - Hunter #3
mdelvalle
RIC_177b_Antoniniano_Hostiliano.jpg
76-02 - HOSTILIANO Como Cesar de Trajano Decio (250 - 251 D.C.) 12 viewsAR Antoniniano 23 x 21 mm 3.7 gr.
Hijo de Trajano Decio

Anv: "C VALENS HOSTIL MES QVINTVS N C" - Busto radiado y vestido viendo a derecha
Rev: "MARTI PROPVGNATORI" - Marte avanzando a derecha, portando una jabalina en mano der. y escudo en izq.

Acuñada 6ta. y 7ma. Emisión del 251 D.C.
Ceca: 5to.Taller Roma

Referencias: RIC Vol.IV Parte III #177b Pag.144 - Cohen Vol.V #15 Pag.226 - RSC Vol. IV #15 Pag.32 - SRCV III #9556 Pag.222 - Sear '88 #2755 - DVM #7 Pag.234 - Hunter #3
mdelvalle
Valentinian_I_31.jpg
A159 viewsValentinian I AE3

Attribution: RIC IX 9a, type I, Aquileia
Date: AD 364-367
Obverse: DN VALENTINI-ANVS PF AVG, pearl diademed, draped,
and cuirassed bust r.
Reverse: SECVRITAS REI PVBLICAE, victory marching l. holding wreath and palm, “A” in l. field, either SMAQP or SMAQS in exergue
Size: 18 mm
Weight: 2.6 grams

Valentinian I, a Pannonian officer, was proclaimed emperor by the military and senate upon the demise of Jovian. A month later, in AD 364, he elevated his brother Valens to Augustus. Their agreement placed Valentinian I in control of the Balkans and the eastern provinces, while Valens took Illyricum and the west. Valentinian spent most of his reign confronting various invaders such as the Alemanni, Quadi, and Sarmatians. In AD 375, while addressing a deputation of representatives from the invaders, he became so irritated and enraged that he suffered a stroke and died.

This coin was from my very first uncleaned lot ever! It was the nicest of the bunch; naturally I have to keep it for sentimental reasons...
Noah
Valens_33.jpg
A124 viewsValens AE3

Attribution: RIC IX, 12b, Antioch
Date: AD 364-378
Obverse: DN VALENS PF AVG, pearl diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust r.
Reverse: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE, Victory advancing l. holding wreath and palm, ANTH in exergue
Size: 18 mm

Approximately one month after his ascension, Valentinian I appointed his younger brother, Valens, joint Augustus and placed him in charge of the eastern provinces including the eastern half of the Balkan Peninsula, Greece, Egypt, Syria and Anatolia as far east as Persia. As a dedicated Christian and anti-intellectual, Valens chose those close to him as his officers and ministers. He did not follow the traditional aristocratic ways. The Visigoths along the Danube frontier were being pushed towards the borders of the empire by the Huns. They requested asylum, which was not entirely granted by the emperor. Valens left a small group of riparian commanders to oversee the entry of a small group of Visigoths, but the barbarians crossed into the empire by the tens of thousands. When the riparian commanders began abusing the Visigoths under their charge, they revolted in early AD 377 and defeated the Roman units in Thrace outside of Marcianople. Interestingly, but AD 378, the Visigoths were actually joined by the Ostrogoths, Alans, and Huns, to form a formidable force which the Romans now had to contend with. The emperor of the West, Gratian, pleaded with his uncle, emperor Valens, to wait for his reinforcements to arrive prior to engaging the barbarians. In an act of superciliousness, Valens decided to take care of the problem himself due to his jealousy of his nephew’s successes. Valens sallied forth to the confrontation which would later be called the Battle of Adrianople. Here the hasty emperor met his fate. There are two accounts of his death given by Ammianus. The first states that he was mortally wounded by an arrow and died on the battlefield. The second account tells of how the wounded Valens fled to a wooden hut which was then burned down by Gothic troops who were unaware of his presence inside. Still a third account of his death was specified by the church historian Socrates (see quote below). The Romans never recovered from this debacle; this marked the beginning of the end for the empire. Gratian, only 19 at the time, chose a Spanish officer named Theodosius to take the position vacated by his uncle Valens.

“Some have asserted that he was burnt to death in a village whither he had retired, which the barbarians assaulted and set on fire. But others affirm that having put off his imperial robe he ran into the midst of the main body of infantry; and that when the cavalry revolted and refused to engage, the infantry were surrounded by the barbarians, and completely destroyed in a body. Among these it is said the emperor fell, but could not be distinguished, in consequence of his not having on his imperial habit.” – Church Historian Socrates The Ecclesiastical History VI.38
1 commentsNoah
Centenional Valente RIC IX Siscia 14b, type x.jpg
A138-02 - Valente (364 - 378 D.C.)73 viewsAE3 Centenional 17 x 16 mm 2.2 gr.

Anv: "DN VALEN-S P F AVG" - Busto con diadema de perlas, coraza y Paludamentum (capote militar) sobre ella, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "GLORIA RO-MANORVM" - Emperador vestido militarmente avanzando a derecha, arrastrando por los pelos a un prisionero con el brazo derecho y portando un Labarum (Estandarte), con el signo Chi-Ro en su bandera, en su mano izquierda. "· BSISC" en exergo y "R" en campo derecho.

Acuñada 367 - 375 D.C.
Ceca: Siscia (Off.2da.)
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.IX (Siscia) #14b Pag.147 tipo xi - Cohen Vol.VIII #11 Pag.103 - DVM #46 Pag.309 - Salgado MRBI Vol.III #9076.f.1. Pag.273 - Sear RCTV (1988) #4117
mdelvalle
Centenional Valente RIC IX Thessalonica 16b, type ii.jpg
A138-06 - Valente (364 - 378 D.C.)88 viewsAE3 Centenional 17 x 16 mm 2.5 gr.

Anv: "DN VALEN-S P F AVG" - Busto con diadema de perlas, coraza y Paludamentum (capote militar) sobre ella, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "GLORIA RO-MANORVM" - Emperador vestido militarmente avanzando a derecha, arrastrando por los pelos a un prisionero con el brazo derecho y portando un Labarum (Estandarte), con el signo Chi-Ro en su bandera, en su mano izquierda. "TESΓ" en exergo.

Acuñada 364 - 367 D.C.
Ceca: Tessalonica (Off.3ra.)
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.IX (Thessalonica) #16b Pag.176 tipo i - Cohen Vol.VIII #11 Pag.103 - DVM #46 Pag.309 - Salgado MRBI Vol.III #9076.h.1. Pag.273 - Sear RCTV (1988) #4117
mdelvalle
Centenional Valente RIC IX Thessalonica 26b, type xx.jpg
A138-07 - Valente (364 - 378 D.C.)67 viewsAE3 Centenional 16 x 15 mm 2.4 gr.

Anv: "DN VALEN-S P F AVG" - Busto con diadema de perlas, coraza y Paludamentum (capote militar) sobre ella, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "GLORIA RO-MANORVM" - Emperador vestido militarmente avanzando a derecha, arrastrando por los pelos a un prisionero con el brazo derecho y portando un Labarum (Estandarte), con el signo Chi-Ro en su bandera, en su mano izquierda. "TES" en exergo, "Corona" en campo izquierdo y "B" en campo derecho.

Acuñada 367 - 375 D.C.
Ceca: Tessalonica (Off.2da.)
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.IX (Thessalonica) #26b Pag.178 tipo xx - Cohen Vol.VIII #11 Pag.103 - DVM #46 Pag.309 - Salgado MRBI Vol.III #9076.h.2. Pag.274 - Sear RCTV (1988) #4117
mdelvalle
Centenional Valente RIC IX Aquileia 9b, type iii(b).jpg
A138-10 - Valente (364 - 378 D.C.)51 viewsAE3 Centenional 17 x 18 mm 2.5 gr.

Anv: "DN VALE[N]-S P F AVG" - Busto con diadema de perlas, coraza y Paludamentum (capote militar) sobre ella, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "SECVRITAS [REIPV]BL[IC]AE" - Victoria avanzando a izquierda, portando una corona en la mano de su brazo derecho extendido y una hoja de palma en la izquierda. "SMAQS" en exergo y " B / · " en campo izquierdo.

Acuñada 364 - 367 D.C.
Ceca: Aquileia (Off.2da.)
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.IX (Aquileia) #9b Pag.95 tipo iii b - Cohen Vol.VIII #47 Pag.110 - DVM #49 Pag.308 - Salgado MRBI Vol.III #9077.d. Pag.274 - Sear RCTV (1988) #4118
mdelvalle
Centenional Valente RIC IX Rome 24b_28a, type xiii.jpg
A138-12 - Valente (364 - 378 D.C.)68 viewsAE3 Centenional 18 mm 2.0 gr.

Anv: "DN VALEN-S P F AVG" - Busto con diadema de perlas, coraza y Paludamentum (capote militar) sobre ella, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE" - Victoria avanzando a izquierda, portando una corona en la mano de su brazo derecho extendido y una hoja de palma en la izquierda. "SM hoja RP" en exergo.

Acuñada 367 - 375 D.C.
Ceca: Roma (Off.1ra.)
Rareza: C2

Referencias: RIC Vol.IX (Roma) #24b Pag.121 = #28a Pag.122 tipo xiii - Cohen Vol.VIII #47 Pag.110 - DVM #49 Pag.308 - Salgado MRBI Vol.III #9077.e.1.var Pag.274 - Sear RCTV (1988) #4118
mdelvalle
Centenional Valente RIC IX Siscia 15b, type xx.jpg
A138-14 - Valente (364 - 378 D.C.)52 viewsAE3 Centenional 18 x 19 mm 2.5 gr.

Anv: "DN VALEN-S P F AVG" - Busto con diadema de perlas, coraza y Paludamentum (capote militar) sobre ella, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE" - Victoria avanzando a izquierda, portando una corona en la mano de su brazo derecho extendido y una hoja de palma en la izquierda. "ASISC" en exergo, " * / R / o " y " · / M ".

Acuñada 367 - 375 D.C.
Ceca: Siscia (Off.1ra.)
Rareza: C3

Referencias: RIC Vol.IX (Siscia) #15b Pag.147 tipo xx - Cohen Vol.VIII #47 Pag.110 - DVM #49 Pag.308 - Salgado MRBI Vol.III #9077.f. Pag.274 - Sear RCTV (1988) #4118
mdelvalle
Centenional Valente RIC IX Thessalonica 27b, type xii.jpg
A138-16 - Valente (364 - 378 D.C.)40 viewsAE3 Centenional 18 mm 2.2 gr.

Anv: "DN VALEN-S P F AVG" - Busto con diadema de perlas, coraza y Paludamentum (capote militar) sobre ella, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE" - Victoria avanzando a izquierda, portando una corona en la mano de su brazo derecho extendido y una hoja de palma en la izquierda. "TES" en exergo y " · / Δ " en campo izquierdo.

Acuñada 367 - 375 D.C.
Ceca: Tessalonica (Off.4ta.)
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.IX (Thessalonica) #27b Pag.178 tipo xii (Officina Δ NO LISTADA) - Cohen Vol.VIII #47 Pag.110 - DVM #49 Pag.308 - Salgado MRBI Vol.III #9077.h. Pag.274 - Sear RCTV (1988) #4118
mdelvalle
2AA52A98-FEEB-48D9-B303-B1BA989F11A3.jpeg
AE3 of Valens/Securitas Republicae11 viewsAE3 of Valens. Obverse: Pearl-diademed, cuirassed, draped bust right. DNVALEN SPAVG. Reverse: Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm branch. SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE. Dot delta SIS (Siscia) in exergue. Possibly RIC IX Siscia 7b, type ii(b). From the Balkans.Celticaire
Procopius_37.jpg
B37 viewsProcopius AE 20

Attribution: RIC 17a, LRBC 2082, Constantinople
Date: AD 365-366
Obverse: DN PROCO-PIVS PF AVG, diademed, draped, & cuirassed bust l.
Reverse: REPARATI-O FEL TEMP, Procopius stg. facing, head r., holding labarum in r. hand, l. resting on shield set on ground, Chi-rho in upper r. field & unidentified object at l. foot, CONSA in exergue
Size: 21 mm
Weight: 2.66 grams

A native of Cilicia, Procopius was the first cousin of emperor Julian II. He was placed in charge of 30,000 troops to lead towards Armenia during the conflict with the Persians in AD 363. At the time of Julian II’s death, Jovian was elected emperor by the troops. Procopius, fearing for his life since he was a possible candidate to succeed Julian II, went into hiding. Historians agree that Procopius was suffering from starvation and completely ignorant of the current affairs of the empire when he resurfaced from hiding. By this time, Jovian was dead and Valentinian I and his brother Valens were co-emperors. Procopius quickly made his bid for the purple by bribing two legions at Constantinople and subsequently seizing the imperial capital. He declared himself emperor on September 28, AD 365, and went on to take control of the provinces of Thrace and Bithynia. Valens met the usurper at the Battle of Thyatira and defeated him. Procopius fled the battle and was later betrayed by two of his own followers. Although these two men aided Valens in capturing Procopius, he had all three executed May 27, AD 366.
1 commentsNoah
nikaia_domitian_BMC20.jpg
Bithynia, Nikaia, Domitian, BMC 2040 viewsDomitian, AD 81-96
AE 26, 8.54g
obv. AYT DOMITIANOS KAISAR SEBA GER
Bust, laureate, r.
rev. TON KTISTH NEIKAIEIS PRWTOI THS EPARX
Head of Herakles, bearded, laureate, l.
RPC 239; BMC 20
rare, VF, deep green patina

The metropolis of Bithynia was in fact Nicomedia but Nicaea raises a claim upon that title as is shown by a coin issued under Domitian with the legend "the Nikaians, the first of the eparchias". From this claim emerged a legal dispute which finally was decided by Valens in that way, that Nicaea and Nicomedia both was allowed to call themselve the first city of Bithynia but that only Nicomedia was the metropolis. But this vain title was useless: By the new arrangement of the provinces Chalcedon became the metropolis of the anterior Pontus. It's known a discourse from Dion of Prusa - who lived in the time of Domitian - in which he challenged the Nicomedians to peace with the Nicaeans.
1 commentsJochen
Civil_Wars_RIC_121.jpg
Civil Wars of 68-69 Clasped Hands73 viewsCivil Wars of 68-69 AD AR denarius. 3.49 g. Minted by pro-Vitellian forces in Southern Gaul.
O: FIDES EXERCITVVM, two clasped hands.
R: FIDES PRAETORIANORVM, two clasped hands.
-BMC 65; Martin 7; RIC² 121 (Group IV) , Ex Jonathan P. Rosen, Ex Auktion Myers/Adams 7, New York 1974, Nr. 269.

The message of a unified fidelity, or loyalty, of the 'armies' (FIDES EXERCITVVM) and the praetorians (FIDES PRAETORIANORVM) would only be an effective propaganda tool if it was distributed among the praetorians.

David R Sear, writing in RCV, agrees with Kraay (Num. Chron 1949, pp 78.) that this interesting, anonymous civil war issue was produced on behalf of Vitellius, to be used as 'bribe money' to suborn the soldiers, as well as the Praetorian Guard, loyal to Otho in the capital. "In March 69 AD, Vitellian commander Fabius Valens entered Italy from Southern Gaul at the head of a small band of secret agents. Their mission was to infiltrate the capital, especially the ranks of the Praetorians, with the object of disseminating pro-Vitellian propaganda and dissociating the guards from their allegiance to Otho. These coins, struck in advance in Southern Gaul, would thus have played a vital role as 'bribe money'. Despite these covert activities, the Praetorians remained loyal to their Emperor, though all was to be for naught, as the following month, the invading army of Vitellius was victorious at the battle of Bedriacum, and Otho took his own life" - David R Sear

Here is the ad from the New york times December 1, 1974 page 208, advertising the Myers/Adams auction 7:
Several thousand foreign coin collectors are expected here next weekend for the biggest event on their winter calendar, the third annual New York International Numismatic Convention. The three‐day show will be held in the Albert Hall of the Americana Hotel, Seventh Avenue between 52d and 53rd Streets. It will open at 11 A.M. on Friday, with the exhibit area and the dealer bourse to remain open till 8 P.M. On Saturday the hours are 10 A.M. to 8 P.M., and on Sunday from 11 A.M. to 6 P.M. There will be an admission charge of 50 cents, for which a badge will be issued that will be good for all three days.
As its title indicates, the show emphasizes foreign numismatics to the point of almost excluding U.S. material. This holds true in exhibits as well as in the bourse and throughout the convention program. All of the exhibits are, again, invitational—noncompetitive—and were selected to assure representation of a wide range of international numismatic interests.

One symbol of the convention's success is that the, number of exhibitors and dealers has grown each year. This year there will be 67 bourse tables, roughly a quarter of them occupied by dealers from Europe and Canada; the remainder will be taken by leading U.S. dealers who have established reputations as specialists in ancient and foreign coins.
The convention will have two auctions, both described in some detail in this column a couple of weeks ago. The first, a “prologue” to the convention, will he the Myers/ Adams auction of ancient Greek and Roman coins at 7 P.M. on Thursday. The second, a two‐session sale of foreign coins and paper money, will be conducted by Henry Christensen, Inc., at 7 P.M. on Friday and 1:30 P.M. on Saturday.
3 commentsNemonater
CivilWarsJupiter_RIC_125a.jpg
Civil Wars of 68-69 Jupiter / Vesta48 viewsCivil Wars. Silver Denarius (3.09 g), AD 68-69 Uncertain mint in Southern Gaul, ca. AD 69.
O: I O M CAPITOLINVS, diademed and heroic bust of Jupiter Capitolinus left, small branch before, with slight mantle showing on near shoulder.
R: VESTA P R QVIRITIVM, Vesta seated left, holding patera and torch.
- RIC 125a (Group IV); AM 96; BMC 72; RSC 432. Ex Dr. Rainer Pudill; Ex Auktionshaus H. D. Rauch GmbH Summer 2010 Lot 490

Struck for Vitellius, perhaps by his commander Fabius Valens, in southern Gaul shortly before the First Battle of Bedriacum, which saw the annihilation of Otho's forces in mid-April, AD 69. This type draws on the two most important cults in Rome. The figure of Jupiter Optimus Maximus Capitolinus invokes the invincible might of Rome, while the figure of Vesta, who was the goddess of the Rome's sacred hearth, symbolizes the Empire's permanence.
1 commentsNemonater
ValensGE.jpg
Constans14 viewsConstans (335-341 CE)
Head of Constans, diademed, right/Two soldiers holding shield with single standard between them. Legend: Gloria Exercitus.
AE 14mm.
My first coin!
Belisarius
coin_3_quart.jpg
DN VALENS PF AVG / GLORIA ROMANORVM AE3/4 follis (364-378 A.D.) 19 viewsDN VALEN-S PF AVG, pearl-diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right / GLORIA RO-MANORVM, Emperor walking right, head left, (probably) holding labarum, dragging captive behind him. V(?) in left field, star (or point) over Δ in right field. Mintmark worn off.

AE3/4, 17mm, 1.96g, die axis 12 (medal alignment), material: bronze/copper-based alloy

DN = Dominus Noster = Our Lord, P F AVG = Pius Felix Augustus = the pius (dutiful) and fortunate (happy) emperor. GLORIA ROMANORVM = Glory of the Romans. The labarum (Greek: λάβαρον) was a vexillum (military standard) that displayed the "Chi-Rho" symbol ☧, a christogram formed from the first two Greek letters of the word "Christ" (Greek: ΧΡΙΣΤΟΣ, or Χριστός) — Chi (χ) and Rho (ρ). It was first used by the Roman emperor Constantine the Great.

GLORIA ROMANORVM with the captive was a very popular reverse design for Valens' coins, minted at many mints all over the empire. But star or dot over Δ in right field is characteristic only of one mint, Thessalonica. Examples include various types of RIC IX Thessalonica 26b (star over Δ) and 31 (dot over Δ). These types are dated 367-375 or 375-378 A.D., with some letter in the left field usually indicating later, 375-378 issue. Mintmark for these types is always TES, sometimes with dot before or after.

Flavius Iulius Valens. Born in 328 in Cibalae (in present-day Croatia) into an Illyrian family. His older brother Valentinian was later to become Valenitinian I the Great, another emperor.

His father Gratian (aka the Elder or Gratianus Funarius or Gratianus Major), a Roman soldier of common birth, rose through the ranks to become "protector domesticus" during the reign of Constantine the Great [A member of an elite guard unit/staff member with various important duties . After serving under the emperor for a certain duration, the Domestici would be able to become leaders themselves and potentially command their own regiment of legionnaires in the military], and later tribune and comes. He was forced to retire due to suspicion of embezzlement, but later recalled back to active duty to serve Constans. Again fell into disrespect and lost all estates when Constantius came to deal with Magnentius, because he was suspected to support him, but never lost influence with the army, which helped to promote careers of his sons.

Brothers grew up in various estates in Africa and Britain. While Valentinian had been distinguished in an active military career, Valens, though already 35 years old, had not participated in either the civil or military affairs of the empire previous to his selection as Augustus by his brother. In February 364, reigning Emperor Jovian, while hastening to Constantinople to secure his claim to the throne, died in his sleep during a stop at Dadastana, 100 miles east of Ankara. Valentinian, a tribunus scutariorum, who owed his advancement to the deceased, was elected by the legions to succeed Jovian. He was proclaimed Augustus on 26 February, 364. It was the general opinion that Valentinian needed help to handle the cumbersome administration, civil and military, of the large and unwieldy empire, and, on 28 March of the same year, at the express demand of the soldiers for a second Augustus, he selected his brother Valens as co-emperor in the palace of Hebdomon. Both emperors were briefly ill, delaying them in Constantinople, but as soon as they recovered, the two Augusti travelled together through Adrianople and Naissus to Mediana, where they divided their territories. Valentinian then went on to the West, where the Alemanic wars required his immediate attention.

Valens obtained the eastern half of the Empire Greece, Egypt, Syria and Anatolia as far east as Persia. He was back in his capital of Constantinople by December 364. Valens was utterly undistinguished and possessed no military ability: he betrayed his consciousness of inferiority by his nervous suspicion of plots and savage punishment of alleged traitors, but he was also a conscientious administrator, careful of the interests of the humble. He was an earnest Christian. Like the brothers Constantius II and Constans, Valens and Valentinian I held divergent theological views. Valens was an Arian and Valentinian I upheld the Nicene Creed. Valens was baptized by the Arian bishop of Constantinople before he set out on his first war against the Goths. Not long after Valens died the cause of Arianism in the Roman East was to come to an end. His death was considered a sign from God. His successor Theodosius I would favor the Nicene Creed, and suppress the Arian heresy. Valens, sometimes known as the Last True Roman (his co-emperor brother was dead in 375), was defeated and killed in the Battle of Adrianople against a confederated Gothic army on 9 August 378, which marked the beginning of the collapse of the decaying Western Roman Empire.
Yurii P
EB0808_scaled.JPG
EB0808 Valens / Victory9 viewsValens 364-378, AE 3, Rome.
Obverse: DN VALEN-S PF AVG, pearl-diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: SECVRITAS-REIPVBLICAE, Victory walking left, holding wreath and palm branch. No fieldmarks. Mintmark SM leaf RP.
References: RIC IX Rome 24b/28a, type xiii.
Diameter: 16.5mm, Weight: 2.179g.
EB
EB0809_scaled.JPG
EB0809 Valens / Victory9 viewsValens 364-378, AE 3, possibly Trier.
Obverse: DN VALENS PF AVG, pearl-diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: SECVRITAS-REIPVBLICAE, Victory walking left, holding wreath and palm branch. Mintmark SMT[R?].
References: -.
Diameter: 16.5mm, Weight: 2.652g.
EB
EB0833_scaled.JPG
EB0833 Hostilian / PRINCIPI IVVENTVTIS8 viewsHostilian 251-251, AR Antoninianus.
Obverse: C VALENS HOSTIL MES QVINTVS NC, radiate, draped bust right.
Reverse: PRINCIPI IVVENTUTIS, Hostilian standing left, holding spear & standard.
References: RIC 181d, RSC 34.
Diameter: 23mm, Weight: 3.944g.
EB
Valens_RIC_14b.JPG
Flavius Valens, 364 - 378 AD44 viewsObv: DN VALENS PF AVG, pearl diademed bust of Valens, draped and cuirassed, facing right.

Rev: GLORIA ROMANORVM, Emperor advancing right, with right hand dragging a captive and holding a labarum in his left, R in field right, •ГSISC in exergue.

Æ 3, Siscia Mint, 367 - 375 AD

2.7 grams, 18.92 mm, 45°

RIC IX Siscia 14b, VM 46
SPQR Coins
Valens_RIC_7b.JPG
Flavius Valens, 364 - 378 AD38 viewsObv: DN VALENS PF AVG, pearl diademed bust of Valens, draped and cuirassed, facing right.

Rev: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE, Victory advancing left, holding a wreath and a palm, * over A in left field, •ASISC in exergue.

Æ 3, Siscia Mint, 364 - 367 AD

2.4 grams, 18 mm, 180°

RIC IX Siscia 7b, VM 49
SPQR Coins
37696_Valens_RIC_IX_10(b),_VF,_black_toning,_Antioch.jpg
GLORIA RO-MANORVM, RIC IX 10(b) Antioch21 viewsValens, 28 March 364 - 9 August 378 A.D. Bronze AE 3, RIC IX 10(b), VF, black toning, Antioch mint, 2.853g, 16.2mm, 180o, 25 Feb 364 - 24 Aug 367 A.D.; obverse D N VALENS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse GLORIA RO-MANORVM, Emperor advancing right, head left, dragging captive and holding standard, ANT[...] in ex. Ex FORVM, photo credit FORVMPodiceps
Gratian_14c_xvii.jpg
Gratian - AE 318 viewsSiscia
24.8.367 - 17.11.375 AD
pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
D N GRATIANVS P F AVG
Valens advancing right, dragging captive and holding labarum
GLORIA RO_MANORVM
M _ * above P
ΔSISC
RIC IX Siscia 14c, type xvii
2,46 g 18,5-17,5 mm
Johny SYSEL
2016-11-24.jpg
Gratian, 24 August 367 - 25 August 383 A.D.12 viewsSECVRITAS REI PVBLICAE, Victoria with wreath and palm advancing l.
struck for Valentinianus I, Valens, Gratian, Valentinianus II. Here probably Gratian
struck in Alexandria 4th officina

15 mm 2.92 grams
Niclas E
Hostilian.jpeg
Hostilian9 viewsHostilian, AE Sestertius (16.02g) as Caesar, Æ Sestertius. C VALENS HOSTIL MES QVINTVS N C, draped bust right / PRINC IVVENT S C, Apollo seated left holding branch, arm on lyre. RIC 214, Cohen 27, S 9573.Molinari
host.jpg
Hostilian (250 - 251 A.D.)34 viewsAR Antoninianus
O: C VALENS HOSTIL MES QVINTVS N C, radiate & draped bust right.
R: MARTI PROPVGNATORI, Mars advancing right holding spear & shield.
Rome Mint
2.24g
21mm
RIC IV 177b; RSC 15.
2 commentsMat
hostilian ant-~0.jpg
HOSTILIAN (as Augustus) billon antoninianus - June-Sept 251 AD50 viewsobv:C.OVL.OSTIL.MES.COVINTVS.AVG
rev:VICTORIA.AVG (Victory standing right on globe, holding wreath & palm)
ref:RIC IViii-209(Trajan Decius), C.67(25fr.) but see below.
mint: Antioch
Very rare
Obverse bust below IIV or VII (it’s difficult to say exactly, because seen only four line) but I think rather IIV. It’s also interesting: initial of the legend is same as Hostilian ’Caesar’ coins: C.OVL.OSTIL… instead of C.OVAL.OSTIL…-by RIC (missing the ’A’), so this coin not in RIC.
Caius Valens Hostilianus Messius Quintus was the younger son of Trajan Decius and brother of Herennius Etruscus. In June 251 raised him to the rank of Augustus by Senate, because of his father and brother died. Shortly afterwards he died of plague in the end of July 251 (or a month later). The other alternative he was murdered by the order of Trebonianus Gallus.
berserker
00733.jpg
Hostilian (RIC 215, Coin #733)6 viewsRIC 215 (Rare), Orichalcum Sestertius, Rome, 250-251 AD.
OBV: C VALENS HOSTIL MES QVINTVS N C; Bare headed, draped
bust right, from behind.
REV: PRINC IVVENTVTIS S C; Apollo seated left, extending
branch, resting left elbow on a lyre.
SIZE: 31.5mm, 18.04g
MaynardGee
Hostilian_Apollo_RIC_IV_215.JPG
Hostilian Apollo RIC IV 21545 viewsHostilian as Caesar, Orichalcum sestertius, Rome, 250 - early 251, RIC IV 215, Cohen 31, VF, 18.400g, 30.4mm, 0o,
OBV: C VALENS HOSTIL MES QVINTVS N C, bare headed and draped bust right, from behind
REV: PRINCIPI IVVENTVTIS S C, Apollo seated left, extending branch, resting left elbow on lyre

Ex: Forum Ancient Coins

RARE

In 251 A.D., a fifteen-year plague began in the Roman Empire.
2 commentsRomanorvm
hostilian_01.jpg
Hostilian AR Antoninianus17 viewsObv: C VALENS HOSTIL MES QVINTVS N C - Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: PRINCIPI IVVENTVTIS - Prince standing left, holding standard and spear reversed.
Date: 251 AD
Mint: Rome
Ref: RIC IVc 181d, RSC -
Notes: Rare
oa
043.jpg
Hostilian AR Antoninianus37 viewsRIC IVc 181d Rome, RSC 34
3.12 g, 20 mm x 21 mm
C VALENS HOSTIL MES QVINTVS NC, radiate, draped bust right
PRINCIPI IVVENTVTIS, Hostilian standing left, holding spear & standard
Scarce
Mark Z2
Hostilian.jpg
Hostilian Sestertius34 viewsAE Sestertius
Rome mint, 251 A.D.

Obverse: C VALENS HOSTIL MES QVINTVS N C ; Bust draped, head bare, right.
Reverse: PRINCIPI IVVENTVTIS S C ; Apollo seated left, holding branch and resting elbow on lyre.

RIC-215

1 commentsTanit
Hostilian_Apollo.jpg
Hostilian Sestertius Apollo35 viewsImperial Rome, Hostilian. 251 AD. Sestertius, 250 AD, as Caesar. Rome. 15.64g. C. VALENS HOSTIL. MES. QVINTVS N. C., his bare-headed and draped bust rt. / PRINCIPI IVVENTVTIS, Apollo std lt., holding a branch and resting arm on a lyre, SC in ex. RIC.IV.III 215. Banti 3. C 31, RCV 95731 commentsmattpat
0380-210.jpg
Hostilian, Antoninianus - *59 viewsRome mint, AD 251. Issued as Caesar with Trajan Decius
C VALENS HOSTIL MES QUINTVS N C, radiate and draped bust right
MARTI PROPUGNATORI, Mars advancing right, holding spear and shield
2.74 gr
Ref : RCV # 9556, Cohen # 15, RIC # 177b
1 commentsPotator II
hostilian_177b~0.jpg
Hostilian, RIC IV, 177(b)9 viewsHostilian as Caesar, AD 250-251, jounger son of Trajan Decius
AR - Antoninianus, 3.59g, 21.1mm, 15°
Rome, AD 250-251
obv. C VALENS HOSTIL.MES.QVINTVS N C
Bust, draped, radiate, r.
rev. MARTI PROPVGNATORI
Mars in military cloak, helmeted and with boots, advancing r., holding in r. hand transverse spear and in
r. hand shield.
ref. RIC IV/3, 177(b); C. 15
S!, about SS
Jochen
hostilian_177b.jpg
Hostilian, RIC IV, 177b35 viewsHostilian as Caesar, AD 250-251
AR - Antoninianus, 3.59g
Rome, AD 250-251
obv. C VALENS HOSTIL.MES QVINTVS N C
Bust, draped and radiate, r.
rev. MARTI PROPVGNATORI
Mars in military cloak, helmeted and wearing boots, advancing r., holding shield in l. arm and in r. hand
transverse spear
ref. RIC IV/3, 177b; C. 15
Scarce, about EF
2 commentsJochen
Late-Roman_AE-3-Follis_INCUSE_GLORIA-RO-MANORVM_V-sztar-over-Delta_TES_Q-001_17-18mm_2,51g-s.jpg
Late Roman AE-3-Follis, Brockage, Incuse, Revers !!!, probably Valens or Valentinianus I.,84 viewsLate Roman AE-3-Follis, Brockage, Incuse, Revers !!!, probably Valens or Valentinianus I.,
avers:- --
revers:- GLORIA RO MANORVM, Emperor, holding labarum, walking right, looking left, dragging a captive behind him.
exerg: V/*/Δ//TES, diameter: 17,0-18,0 mm, weight: 2,51g, axis: h,
mint: Thessalonica, date: , ref: ,
Q-001
quadrans
cleaning-coins-lot-01-14-2018.jpg
Random Cleaning Projects12 viewsTop Row:

Trajan - Tabae, Caria; Constantius II ; Probus ; Gratian

Second Row:

Gallienus ; Septimius Severus ; Constans ; Aurelian

Third Row:

Julian II ; Valens ; Gratian ; Marcinus and Diadumenian
Gil-galad
VALENS_REST_REIP_ISSUE.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE - Valens19 viewsROMAN EMPIRE - Valens (364-378 AD) AE 3. Obv.: Pear-diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right; DN VALEN-S PF AVG. Rev.: Sol standing facing, head right, in military dress; holding cross in standard and Victory on globe (The standard has a plain cross, so it is not a labarum). RESTITV-TOR REIP. SMN gamma in exurge. Nicodemia mint. Reference: RIC IX Nicomedia 11b.dpaul7
15891q00.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE - VALENS15 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC 8(b), F, 2.072g, 18.3mm, 180o, Cyzicus mint, 28 Mar 364 - 24 Aug 367 A.D.; obverse D N VALEN-S P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse GLORIA RO-MANORVM, Emperor advancing right, looking left, dragging captive with right, standard in left, SMKB in exdpaul7
VALENDS_VICTORY.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE - Valens16 viewsROMAN EMPIRE - Valens AD 364-378, AE 3 "Victory" Siscia mint.Obv: D N VALENS P F AVG - Diademed bust right, draped and cuirassed Rev: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE - Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm Exe: [?] |DBSISC | S Siscia mint: AD 364-367 = RIC IX, p. 146, 7b; Cohen 47, 2.40 g.
dpaul7
valens_vict.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE - Valens42 viewsROMAN EMPIRE - Valens (AD 364-378) AE3 - This coin is well centered, carrying completed legends, clear and complete mint mark, nice details and beautiful green patina. Much better looking than the picture. Obv: D N VALENS P F AVG - Diademed bust right, draped and cuirassed Rev: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE - Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm Exe: [dot][Delta]SISC = (2nd emission) Siscia mint: AD 364-367 = RIC IX, p. 146, 7b; Cohen 47, 2.28 g. 1 commentsdpaul7
valens_vic_with_a.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE - Valens18 viewsROMAN EPIRE - Valens (ad 364-378) AE3. Bust right, pearl diadem, draped, cuirassed. DN VALEN-S PF AVG. Rev.: Victory advancing left with wreath and palm branch in hand. SECVRITAS-REIPVBLICAE. Mintmark: [dot] ASISC. * over A in left field. Siscia mint. RIC-IX, 7b, Type V. dpaul7
VALENS_SISCIA_EMP_CAPT.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE - Valens21 viewsROMAN EMPIRE - Valens (364-378 AD) AE 3 Obv: DN VALENS PF AVG - Diademed bust right, draped and cuirassed Rev: GLORIA ROMANORVM - Emperor walking right with head turned back while grasping bound captive at the top of the head with right hand and holding a banner with "Chi-Rho" on it (labarum) Exe: DBSISC | [star] over A (7th emission) Siscia mint AD 367 = RIC IX, p. 146, 5b; Cohen 11, 1.85 g.dpaul7
valens_sec_reip_rq_exurge.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE - Valens23 viewsROMAN EMPIRE- Valens (AD 364-378) AE3 . Obv: DN VALEN-S PF AVG - Diademed bust right, draped and cuirassed. Rev: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE - Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm Exe: R.T = Rome mint AD 364-367 = RIC IX, p. 120, 17b Scarce; Cohen 47, 1.61 g. 1 commentsdpaul7
valens_secvr_reip.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE - Valens14 viewsROMAN EMPIRE - Valens (AD 364-378) Obv: D N VALENS P F AVG - Diademed bust right, draped and cuirassed Rev: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE - Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm Exe: ASISC Siscia mint AD 364-367 = RIC IX, p. 146, 7b; Cohen 47 , 2.21 g. dpaul7
Hostilian.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE / Emperor Hostilian Silver Antoninianus.(Prince of Youth)35 viewsObverse: C VALENS HOSTIL MES QVINTAS N C Radiate and draped bust right.

Reverse: PRINCIPI IVVENTVTIS Hostilian standing left, holding standard and transverse spear.

Rome mint , 251 A.D.
2.65 gr , 22 mm. RIC 182
Sam
043A.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Hostilian AR Antoninianus40 viewsRIC IVc 181d Rome, RSC 34
3.12 g, 20 mm x 21 mm
C VALENS HOSTIL MES QVINTVS NC, radiate, draped bust right
PRINCIPI IVVENTVTIS, Hostilian standing left, holding spear & standard
Scarce
Mark Z
bpS1V7Hostilian.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Hostilian, AR Antoninianus42 viewsObv: C VALENS HOSTIL MES QVINTVS N C
Radiate and draped bust, right.
Rev: PRINCIPI IVVENTVTIS
Hostilian standing half left, holding standard and transversed spear.
Antoninianus, 2.59 gm, 22.4 mm, Rome RIC 181
Ex Forum
Commentary: This son of Trajan Decius was made Caesar in either 250 or 251, but because of his young age (early teens?) was left at Rome with his mother while his father and bother, Herrenius Etruscus, went to war with the Goths where both met an untimely end. Trebonianus Gallus, as Emperor next, made the highly unusual decision to adopt Hostilian and raise him to the rank of co-Augustus. Hostilian's reign was short lived as he fell victim to the plague within a few months.
Massanutten
sestertius04.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE, Hostilian, Rome mint, struck 250-251 AD, AE Sestertius59 viewsC VALENS HOTIL MES QVINTVS N C bare-headed and draped bust right
TR POT COS III PP, SC Apollo seated left
RIC 214 var., C. 27 var. (HOTIL in reverse legend instead of HOSTIL)
1 commentsdupondius
ValUnl.jpg
Roman Empire, Valens310 viewsA.D. 364-378
Obv. DN VALENS PF AVG
Rev. GLORIA ROMANORVM
in ex. BSISCV left field Q right field K over P
RIC IX, Siscia 14(b) var., Not recorded in RIC

vic9128
vic9128
bpLRE1C6Valens.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Valens , Ae3, Siscia RIC 15(b)subXXXii, 367-375 AD36 viewsObv: D N VALEN-S PF AVG
Laureate and cuirassed bust, right.
Rev: SECURITAS REIPVBLICAE
Victory advancing, left.
2.2 gm, 17.8 mm, exergue: k/ASISCE/Q
Massanutten
ValensIX12b.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE, Valens - Victory30 viewsValens (364-378 AD)
RIC IX Antioch 12b.
AE3, 1.73g, 18.2mm.
Ob: DN VALEN-S PF AUG, pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed.
Rev: SECVRITAS-REIPVBLICAE, wreath and palm branch.
Ex: ANTE
1 commentsSylvianus
Valens-moeda1.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Valens 328-378 AD.32 viewsAE of Valens 328-378 AD.

Weight: 3.5gr
Ø: 18mm

Obv: DN VALENS PF AVG - Valens right.

Rev: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE - Victory standing left, a captive at her feet.

Exergue: SM NOP - Minted in Nicodemia ?

gVF/gVF

Sear ?? - RIC 28a - VM 14 - Cohen 47
Jorge C
VALENS2or.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE, Valens AE3 Gloria26 viewsAE3 16.9x18.8mm
Obv. DN VALEN_S PF AVG
Bust right, pearl diadem
Rev. GLORIA RO_MANORVM
Soldier holding labarum pulling captive by hair.
Delta in right field.
Ex. TES
gparch
VALENSor.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE, Valens AE3 Gloria23 viewsAE3 17.6x19.2mm
Obv. DN VALEN_S PF AVG
Bust right, pearl diadem
Rev. GLORIA RO_MANORVM
Soldier holding labarum pulling captive by hair.
Ex. dot BSISC
gparch
ValensAEtesor.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE, Valens AE3 Gloria19 viewsAE3 18.3x18.4mm
Obv. DN VALEN_S PF AVG
Bust right, diadem
Rev. Emperor holding labarum, holding captive by hair.
Star in left field, star over delta in right field.
Ex. TES
gparch
ValensAEsisor.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE, Valens AE3 Gloria17 viewsAE3 19x19.2mm
Obv. DN VALEN_S PF AVG
Bust right, diadem
Rev. GLORIA RO_MANORVM
Emperor holding labarum, holding captive by hair.
Star over H in right field.
Ex. DBSISC
gparch
ValensAEor.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE, Valens AE3 Gloria12 viewsAE 3 16.8x17mm
Obv. DN VALEN_S PF AVG
Bust right, diadem
Rev. GLORIA RO_MANORVM
Emperor holding labarum, holding captive by hair.
M in left field, star over delta in right firld.
Ex. possibly SIS
gparch
VALENS3or.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE, Valens AE3 Victory19 viewsAE3 16.1x17.1mm
Obv. VALEN_S PF AVG
Bust right, pearl diadem
Rev. SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE
Victory advancing left holding wreath,
star over delta in left field,
star in right field.
Ex. TES (probably)
gparch
096~0.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Valens AR Siliqua58 viewsRIC IX 27e.2 Trier, RSC 109b
2.06 g, 12 mm x 13 mm
D N VALEN-S P F AVG, diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right
VRBS ROMA, Roma seated left, holding Victory on a globe & sceptre
TRPS in exergue
Scarce
Mark Z
FORVM_Valens_AE3_Constantinople_mint_Rare_variety.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Valens, 364 - 378 A.D. Constantinople mint. 36 viewsBronze AE 3, 2.960g, 17.1mm, 0o, VF, jagged flan edges. Obv: pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; D N VALENS - P F AVG. Rev: Emperor advancing right, looking left, dragging captive with right, standard in left, wreath right, star left, GLORIA RO-MANORVM, CONSA in ex. Ref: RIC IX 41(b).

RARE
Bard Gram O
jpeg9LG.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Valens, AV Solidus142 viewsValens, 364-378 AD, AV solidus

Obverse: DN VALENS PERP AVG diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
Reverse: RESTITVTOR REIPVBLICAE emperor standing, head right, with standard & Victory
Sear 4104

21mm, 4.39 grams
3 commentssseverus
18zusa.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Valens, AV Solidus - RESTITVTOR REIPVBLICAE24 viewsNumis-Student
norm_ValensFoureeSolidus3301Grams.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Valens, Fouree Solidus778 viewsValens Fouree AE Solidus with slight evidence of Gold gilding remaining on the coin. This coin is imitating an official Vlalens Solidus of the Antioch MintGunner
moneta 232.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Valens, Thessalonica - RIC IX 18b(i)51 viewsValens AE3
obv: D N VALENS P F AVG. Diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right
rev: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE. Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm.
exergue: TESA
Struck 364-367 A.D. at Thessalonica
RIC IX 18b(i)
Van Meter 49
Jericho
VALENS_Securitas_Siscia.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE, VALENS. AE3 of SISCIA. Struck c.A.D.367 - 375. 44 viewsObverse: D N VALENS P F AVG. Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of Valens facing right.
Reverse: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE. Victory advancing left, holding wreath in right hand; in left field, ✱ over K; in right field, Q; in exergue, ASISCR.
RIC IX : 15b. Weight 2.8gms.
*Alex
VALENSRESREIP~0.JPG
Roman Empire, VALENS. AE3 of THESSALONICA. Struck A.D.364 - 367.18 viewsObverse: D N VALENS P F AVG. Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of Valens facing right; • above head.
Reverse: RESTITVTOR REIP. Valens standing facing, head right, holding labarum in his right hand and Victory in his left; in exergue, TESΔ.
RIC IX : 17b.
RARE
*Alex
bpLRE1C5Valens.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Valens. Ae3, 364-75 AD41 viewsObv: D N VALENS P F AVG
Pearl diademed and draped bust, right.
Rev: GLORIA ROMANORVM
Valens advancing right, dragging captive and holding labarum marked with Chi Rho.
2.7 gm 17.5 mm Exergue: TBD
Massanutten
326-05.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Valentinian I145 viewsObv: DNVALENTINI ANVSPFAVG, Rosette diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev: RESTITVTOR REIPVBLICAE; Valens standing facing, head right, holding labarum & Victory on globe; , KONSTAV:(TAV in monogram). Arleate mint 364-367. Rare mint and possible unpublished variant (Normally with Pearl diademed for this type)
1 commentsM.G.M
39291390_2157529584525373_3427143637442494464_n.jpg
Roman Imperial, Valens (364-367 AD) AE2, Constantinopolis mint10 viewsRoman Imperial, Valens (364-367 AD) AE2, Constantinopolis mint

DN VALEN-S PF AVG, Pearl-diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right.

GLORIA RO-MANORVM, Emperor walking right, holding labarum and dragging captive behind him. Mintmark: CONSƐ

RIC IX Constantinople 16b.
Gil-galad
39242309_279729329511378_2667256621612138496_n.jpg
Roman Imperial, Valens AE3 (367-378 AD)10 viewsRoman Imperial, Valens AE3 (367-378 AD)

DN VALENS PF AVG, Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.

SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE, Victory walking left holding wreath and palm. Mintmark SMHA.

RIC IX Heraclea 5b; Cohen 47.
Gil-galad
34079_Roman_Empire,_Lead_Bulla_Seal,_Late_4th_-_Early_5th_Century_A_D_.jpg
Roman Lead Bulla Seal, Late 4th - Early 5th Century A.D. Three male facing diademed busts39 viewsRoman Empire, Lead Bulla Seal, Late 4th - Early 5th Century A.D. Lead seal, Bulla seal, possibly imperial, gVF, 7.885g, 18.4mm, obverse three male facing diademed busts, the left one smallest, stars above the two larger ones; reverse, no stamp. Interesting seal, perhaps depicting two senior Augusti (center and right) and a junior Augustus (smaller bust left). Two likely combinations are Valentinian I, Valens and Gratian (367 - 375 A.D.) and Theodosius I, Arcadius und Honorius (393 - 395 A.D.). Ex FORVM, photo credit FORVMPodiceps
83317q00_Valens_RIC_IX_7(b_siscia.jpg
SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE, ASISC in ex; RIC IX 7(b) Siscia16 viewsValens, 28 March 364 - 9 August 378 A.D. 23103. Bronze AE 3, RIC IX 7(b) Siscia mint, 2.461g, 18.3mm, 0o, 28 Mar 364 - 24 Aug 367 A.D.; obverse D N VALEN-S P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE, Victory advancing left, wreath in right, palm frond in left, ASISC in exergue. Ex FORVM, photo credit FORVMPodiceps
valens_15b_rome.jpg
SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE, R SECVNDA in ex. RIC IX 15b Rome12 viewsValens, 28 March 364 - 9 August 378 A.D. Bronze AE 3, RIC IX 15(b), VF, Rome mint, 1.392g, 17.3mm, 180o, 24 Aug 367 - 17 Nov 375 A.D.; obverse D N VALEN-S P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE, Victory advancing left, wreath in right, palm frond in left, R SECVNDA in ex. Numismaticly interesting full display of the officina number. Ex FORVMPodiceps
valens_rome_24b.jpg
SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE, SM leaf RB in ex. RIC IX 24b Rome15 viewsValens, 28 March 364 - 9 August 378 A.D. Bronze AE 3, RIC IX 24(b), gVF, Rome mint, 3.345g, 19.0mm, 180o, 24 Aug 367 - 17 Nov 375 A.D.; obverse D N VALEN-S P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE, Victory advancing left, wreath in right, palm frond in left, SM leaf RB in ex. Ex FORVMPodiceps
valens_siliqua.jpg
Siliqua, Roma, Treveri14 viewsValens, Silver siliqua, Treveri (Trier) Mint, Officina 2, 367-375 A.D. Size and weight: 16x17mm, 1.71g. 
Obverse: Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right. 
D N VALEN-S P F AVG 
Reverse: Roma seated left, in her left hand a tall sceptre, in her right a globe with a small victory holding out a wreath. 
VRBS ROMA 
Exergue: TRPS 
Reference: RIC IX Treveri 27e2, rated Scarce. Ex MoremothPodiceps
Valens_Gloria_Rom_CONST.JPG
Struck A.D.364 - 367. VALENS AE3 of ARELATE7 viewsObverse: D N VALENS P F AVG. Pear-diademed draped and cuirassed bust of Valens facing right.
Reverse: GLORIA ROMANORVM. Valens advancing right, dragging captive and holding labarum; in left field, OF; in right field, I (1st Officina); in exergue, CONST.
RIC IX : 7d
*Alex
Valens_Restitutor_TESDelta.JPG
Struck A.D.364 - 367. VALENS. AE3 of THESSALONICA15 viewsObverse: D N VALENS P F AVG. Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of Valens facing right; • above head.
Reverse: RESTITVTOR REIP. Valens standing facing, head right, holding labarum in his right hand and Victory in his left; in exergue, TESΔ.
RIC IX : 17b.
RARE
1 comments*Alex
Valens_Securitas_ASISC_Siscia.JPG
Struck A.D.367 - 375. VALENS. AE3 of SISCIA5 viewsObverse: D N VALENS P F AVG. Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of Valens facing right.
Reverse: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE. Victory advancing left, holding wreath in right hand; in left field, ✱ over K; in right field, Q; in exergue, ASISCR.
Weight 2.8gms.
RIC IX : 15b
*Alex
VALENS_SILIQ_ANT_2.JPG
Struck A.D.367 - 375. VALENS. AR Siliqua of Antioch5 viewsObverse: D N VALENS P F AVG. Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of Valens facing right.
Reverse: VOT X MVLT XX in laurel-wreath; in exergue, ANT.
RIC IX : 33c.
SCARCE
*Alex
coin12~0.JPG
Thrace, Hadrianopolis; Commodus30 viewsCommodus; Hadrianopolis, Thrace

bare-headed bust of Commodus (short beard) wearing cuirass and paludamentum,
ΑΥ Κ(ΑΙ) Λ ΑΥ(Ρ) ΚΟΜΟΔΟΣ
Dionysus riding on panther, l., holding long thyrsus, resting arm on panther
ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟΠΟΛΕΙΤΩΝ

Jurukova 135 and 140

The area around Edirne has been the site of no fewer than 16 major battles or sieges, from the days of the ancient Greeks. Military historian John Keegan identifies it as "the most contested spot on the globe" and attributes this to its geographical location.
Kasr-ı Adalet (Tower of Justice)

According to Greek mythology, Orestes, son of king Agamemnon, built this city as Orestias, at the confluence of the Tonsus (Toundja) and the Ardiscus (Arda) with the Hebrus (Maritza). The city was (re)founded eponymously by the Roman Emperor Hadrian on the site of a previous Thracian settlement known as Uskadama, Uskudama or Uskodama or Uscudama . It was the capital of the Bessi.[4] or of the Odrysians. Hadrian developed it, adorned it with monuments, changed its name to Hadrianopolis, and made it the capital of the Roman province of Haemimont, or Thrace. Licinius was defeated there by Constantine I in 323, and Valens was killed by the Goths in 378 during the Battle of Adrianople (378). In 813 the city was seized by Khan Krum of Bulgaria who moved its inhabitants to the Bulgarian lands towards the north of the Danube.
ecoli
C205.jpg
VALENS24 viewsDN VALENS PF AVG
GLORIA ROMANORVM / CONST
mint: Arelate
AE 3
364-367 AD
frederic
50206.jpg
Valens18 viewsObverse: DN VALEN-S PF AVG
Reverse: GLORIA ROMANORVM, Emperor dragging captive.
b70
076-valens.jpg
Valens23 viewsAE3
Obv:DN VALENS PF AVG
Rev: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE , Victory walking l.
Tanit
A8.jpg
Valens21 viewsAE3
Obv:DN VALENS PF AVG
Rev: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE , Victory walking l.
Tanit
valens.jpg
valens55 viewsValens AE3
Obverse- D N VALENS P F AVG, bust right.
Reverse- Valens advancing w. captive and labarum.
b70
val.jpg
Valens 23 viewsValens. AD 364-378. AR Siliqua (17mm, 2.11 g, 1h). Treveri (Trier) mint, 2nd officina. Struck AD 367-378. Diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right / Roma seated left on cuirass, holding Victory on globe and inverted spear; TRPS•. RIC IX 27b and 45a; RSC 109†6.

Ex Coin Galleries (20 July 2005), lot 87.
TLP
00470-Valens.jpg
Valens8 viewsValens AE2
18 mm 2.07 gm
O: D N VALENS P F AVG
Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust to right.
R: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE
Victory advancing left, holding wreath.
John Campbell
Valens.JPG
Valens8 viewsAE3
AD 366-370
TESA
RIC 18b?
JRoME
valens_gloria.jpg
Valens 25 views364-378 A.D.
AE3 pearl diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
2.27 gm, 17 mm
D N VALEN-S P F AVG
GLORIA RO-MANORVM
Emperor walking right, head left, holding labarum in left,
grasping bound captive at the top of the head with right
TESΓ in ex.
RIC IX 16b, type i
Thessalonica mint, 364 – 367 A.D.
Jaimelai
Valens.jpg
Valens 26 views364-378 AD.
AE3 pearl diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
1.88 gm, 17 mm
Obv.: D N VALEN-S P F AVG
Rev.: GLORIA RO-MANORVM
Emperor walking right, head left, holding labarum, grasping bound captive at the top of the head
A to right
SMAQ? (P or S) in ex.
RIC IX Aquileia 7b, type I (a or b)
Aquileia mint, 364-367 A.D.
Jaimelai
valens_secvtitas.jpg
Valens37 views364 - 378 A.D.
AE3 pearl diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
2.17 gm, 18 mm
D N VALENS P F AVG
SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE
Victory advancing left holding wreath & palm
SMAQP in ex.
RIC IX Aquileia 12b, type xvi (a)
Aquileia mint, 364 - 370 A.D.

"she's got legs"
Jaimelai
Valens_Victory.jpg
Valens15 viewsOBV: DN VALEN-S PF AVG
Pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed
bust of Valens, right.
REV: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE
Victory advancing left, holding wreath
and palm branch. ASISC in exergue.

RIC IX Siscia 7b, type i
A.D. 364-367
2.56gm 20mm
goldenancients
Valens.jpg
Valens31 viewsValens (364-392 CE)
Valens, head diademed, right/Emperor advancing right, dragging captive and carrying standard. Legend: Gloria Romanorum.
AE 16mm
Belisarius
4135873822_2387c6179b_o.jpg
Valens36 viewsValens AR siliqua. D N VALEN S P F AVG, diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right / VRBS ROMA Roma seated left, holding Victory and spear, TRPS. in ex. RSC 109a.

Ex. Otterbourne Hoard (1978)
rmon
valens,gloria_romanorvm,tes.jpg
Valens31 viewsGloria Romanorvm
Thessalonica
antvwala
valens,gloria_romanorvm.jpg
Valens21 viewsGloria Romanorvmantvwala
Valens23.jpg
Valens20 viewsOBV: DN VALENS PF AVG
Laureate, draped, cuirassed bust of Valens, right.
REV: GLORIA ROMANORVM
Valens dragging captive and holding Chi Rho laborum.
Dot B SIS C in exergue.
S4 4116 A.D. 364-367
2.34 19mm; Dark Black Patina
goldenancients
valens1.jpg
VALENS22 viewsAR siliqua. Trier, 367-375 AD. 2.12 gm. Pearl-diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right. D N VALENS P F AVG. / Roma seated left holding Victory and inverted spear. VRBS ROMA.
In exergue TRPS . RIC IX 27e.1 . RSC 109a.
benito
00valens.jpg
VALENS86 viewsAR siliqua. Trier, 367-375 AD. 2.12 gm. Pearl-diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right. D N VALENS P F AVG. / Roma seated left holding Victory and inverted spear. VRBS ROMA. In exergue TRPS . RIC IX 27e.1 . RSC 109a.

benito
VALENS_CAPTIVE.JPG
Valens36 viewsValens - Thessalonica Mint - AE3 - RIC IX 26b (viii or xv)

O: D N VALENS P F AVG, diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right

R: GLORIA ROMANORVM, Emperor walking right, head left, holding labarum, grasping bound captive at the top of the head, right field [possible star] over delta, TES in exergue

2.4g, 16.3/18.6mm, 135 degree die axis, 367-370AD
BiancasDad
031.JPG
Valens11 viewsSilique, Lyon, 364/367, 1,26 g, 18 mm.
A/ D N VALENS PF AVG ;Tête diadémée à droite.
R/ VRBS ROMA, SLVG dessous.
Réfs : RIC manque - Hybride la seconde officine est destinée à Valentinien I.
Gabalor
roman10b.jpg
Valens4 viewsSinisa D
m~10.PNG
Valens 3 viewsValens AE4 16mm (Thickness 1mm), weight ?g.

Obverse: DN VALENS PF AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right

Reverse: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE, Victoria advancing left holding wreath & palm branch; OF-II across fields.
discwizard
Valens.jpg
Valens20 viewsValens, 28 March 364 - 9 August 378 A.D. AE3
Obv: D N VALENS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev: GLORIA RO-MANORVM, Emperor advancing right, looking left, dragging captive with right, standard in left, palm branch SISC in ex
Size: 19.8mm, 2.35gm
ID: RIC IX 5(a)iii
Mint: Siscia 25 Feb 364 - 24 Aug 367
Note: One of my first coins, and hence the lower quality (and price) as I started looking into coins. Ex-FORVM
ickster
roman10a.jpg
Valens5 viewsSinisa D
valens_combined.jpg
Valens 26 viewsValens

364 - 378 AD Siscia mint 2,7 g. 17,7 mm.

Obverse - D N VALENS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right.

Reverse - SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE (security of the Republic), Victory walking left, wreath in right hand, palm frond in left hand, DASISC in exergue.

Flavius Julius Valens Augustus was Eastern Roman Emperor from 364 to 378. He was given the eastern half of the empire by his brother Valentinian I after the latter's accession to the throne. Valens, sometimes known as the Last True Roman, was defeated and killed in the Battle of Adrianople, which marked the beginning of the collapse of the decaying Western Roman Empire.
Flamur H
Valens.jpg
Valens15 viewsEnlarged and corrected for perspective obverse fragment of
http://www.forumancientcoins.com/gallery/displayimage.php?pos=-147485
Yurii P
Valens9_opt.jpg
VALENS AE3 RIC 5b.vii, Gloria Romanorvm27 viewsOBV: D N VALENS P F AVG, diademed draped & cuirassed bust right
REV: GLORIA ROMANORVM, emperor walking right, head left, holding labarum and dragging bound captive behind him, dot BSISC in ex. R in right field.
2.1g, 19mm

Minted at Siscia, 365 AD
Legatus
Valens12_opt.jpg
VALENS AE3, RIC 7b.vii, Victory11 viewsOBV: D N VALENS P F AVG, diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right
REV: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE, Victory advancing left, holding wreath & palm, * over A to left, DASISC in ex.
2.2g, 18mm

Minted at Siscia, 364-7 AD
Legatus
Valens1_opt.jpg
VALENS AE3, RIC IX 3b/5b, Victory12 viewsOBV: D N VALENS P F AVG, pearl diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right
REV: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE, Victory advancing left holding wreath and palm branch, ALE dot in ex.
2.8g, 15mm

Minted at Alexandria, 364-75 AD
Legatus
valens-ric.jpg
Valens RIC 7b8 viewsSiscia 364-367
Valens AE3.
DN VALENS PF AVG, diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right /
SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE, Victory advancing left,
holding wreath & palm, star over A to left,
DASISC in ex.
xokleng
VALENS-1.jpg
Valens RIC IX 7,ii19 viewsObv: D N VALENS P F AVG
diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right
Rev: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE
Victory advancing left, holding wreath & palm..
•ASISC in ex.
18 mm 2.7 gm
OWL365
VALENS-9.jpg
Valens RIC IX 530 viewsObv: D N VALENS P F AVG
pearl diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right
Rev: RESTITVTOR REIP
emperor standing facing, head right, holding laburum
& Victory on globe
ASIRM in ex.
19mm 2.5gm

OWL365
valens~0.jpg
Valens (364 - 378 A.D.)23 viewsÆ3
O: DN VALENS PF AVG , Pearl - diademed , draped bust right .
R: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE,Victory advancing left holding wreath and palm .D over Symbol in left field. F in right field. ASISCV in Exe.
Siscia
18mm
2.6g
RIC IX Siscia 15(b), xliii

Published on Wildwinds!
Mat
RIC_Valens_RIC_Siscia_15b_type_ii.JPG
Valens (364-378 A.D.)12 viewsRIC IX Siscia 15b type ii

AE3, 18 mm., die orientation 0°

Siscia mint, 1st officina.

Obv: D N VALEN—S P N AVG, pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right.

Rev: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE, Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm branch, •ASISC in exergue.
Stkp
VALENS_RIC13d10.jpg
VALENS (364-378) - CONSTANTINOPLE - RIC 13d1016 viewsSilique, 364-365, S
A/D N VALENS-P F AVG
Dominus Noster Valens pius Felix Augustus, Notre maître Valens Pieux et Heureux Auguste
Buste à droite, diadémé (Perles), drapé et cuirassé.
R/VOT/V//C•Δ
Votis quinquennalibus, Vœux pour le cinquième anniversaire de règne
Légende en 2 lignes dans une couronne de lauriers fermée.
Argent - 1.85 gr - 17.8 mm - 6h
RIC IX 13d10, RSC 88
Siliquae
VALENS_RIC13d7.jpg
VALENS (364-378) - CONSTANTINOPLE - RIC 13d716 viewsSilique, 364-365, S
A/D N VALENS-P F AVG
Dominus Noster Valens pius Felix Augustus, Notre maître Valens Pieux et Heureux Auguste
Buste à droite, diadémé (Perles), drapé et cuirassé.
R/VOT/V//C•A
Votis quinquennalibus, Vœux pour le cinquième anniversaire de règne
Légende en 2 lignes dans une couronne de lauriers fermée.
Argent - 1.54 gr - 18.5 mm - 12h
RIC IX 13d(07), RSC 88
1 commentsSiliquae
VALENS_RIC13d8.jpg
VALENS (364-378) - CONSTANTINOPLE - RIC 13d8 10 viewsSilique, 364-367, C1
A/D N VALENS-P F AVG
Dominus Noster Valens pius Felix Augustus, Notre maître Valens Pieux et Heureux Auguste
Buste à droite, diadémé (Perles), drapé et cuirassé.
R/VOT/V//C•B
Votis quinquennalibus, Vœux pour le cinquième anniversaire de règne
Légende en 2 lignes dans une couronne de lauriers fermée.
Argent - 1.73 gr - 17 mm - 12h
RIC IX 13d8, RSC 88b
Siliquae
VALENS_RIC13h.jpg
VALENS (364-378) - CONSTANTINOPLE - RIC 13i310 viewsSilique, 364-365, R1
A/D N VALENS-P F AVG
Dominus Noster Valens pius Felix Augustus, Notre maître Valens Pieux et Heureux Auguste
Buste à droite, diadémé (Perles), drapé et cuirassé.
R/VOT/•/V//CP•G
Votis quinquennalibus, Vœux pour le cinquième anniversaire de règne
Légende en 3 lignes dans une couronne de lauriers fermée.
Argent - 1.97 gr - 19.8 mm - 8h
RIC IX 13i3, RSC 88
Siliquae
VALENS_RIC6f1.jpg
VALENS (364-378) - LYON - RIC 6f15 viewsSilique, 364-367, S
A/D N VALEN-S P F AVG
Dominus Noster Valens pius Felix Augustus, Notre maître Valens Pieux et Heureux Auguste
Buste à droite, diadémé (Perles), drapé et cuirassé.
R/RESTITV-TOR REIP//PLVG
Restitutor Reipublicae, Le Restaurateur de la République
L'empereur debout de face tourné à gauche vêtu militairement, tenant le labarum chrismé de la main droite et un globe nicéphore de la main gauche.
Un crochet sur la hampe du labarum.
Argent - 1.86 gr - 16.2 mm - 12h
RIC IX 6f1, RSC 28
Siliqua S
VALENS_RIC6f4_S.jpg
VALENS (364-378) - LYON - RIC 6f44 viewsSilique, 364-367, S
A/D N VALEN-S P F AVG
Dominus Noster Valens pius Felix Augustus, Notre maître Valens Pieux et Heureux Auguste
Buste à droite, diadémé (Perles), drapé et cuirassé.
R/RESTITV-TOR REIP//SLVG•
Restitutor Reipublicae, Le Restaurateur de la République
L'empereur debout de face tourné à droite, vêtu militairement, tenant le labarum avec un crochet sur la hampe de la main droite et un globe nicéphore de la main gauche. Un crochet sur la hampe du labarum.
Argent - 2.36 gr - 18.75 mm - 12h
RIC IX 6f4, RSC 28
Siliquae
VALENS_RIC6g1.jpg
VALENS (364-378) - LYON - RIC 6g(1)4 viewsSilique, 364-367, S
A/D N VALEN-S P F AVG
Dominus Noster Valens pius Felix Augustus, Notre maître Valens Pieux et Heureux Auguste
Buste à droite, diadémé (Perles), drapé et cuirassé.
R/RESTITV-TOR REIP//PLVG•
Restitutor Reipublicae, Le Restaurateur de la République
L'empereur debout de face tourné à droite, vêtu militairement, tenant le labarum avec une croix sur la hampe de la main droite et un globe nicéphore de la main gauche. Une croix sur la hampe du labarum.
Argent - 2.37 gr - 17 mm - 12h
RIC IX 6g1, RSC 28c
Siliquae
VALENS_FAUX_V_X.jpg
VALENS (364-378) - ROME - RIC 10c var6 viewsFaux d'époque
Silique, 367-375, S
A/D N VALEN-S P F AVG
Dominus Noster Valens pius Felix Augustus, Notre maître Valens Pieux et Heureux Auguste
Buste à droite, diadémé (Perles), drapé et cuirassé.
R/VOT/V/MV•LT/X//PR
Votis quinquennalibus/Multis decennalibus, Vœux pour le cinquième anniversaire de règne et plus pour les dix ans à venir
Légende en 4 lignes dans une couronne de lauriers fermée.
Argent - 2.26 gr - 17.8 mm - 6h
RIC IX 10c var, RSC 91
Siliquae
VALENS_RIC10c2.jpg
VALENS (364-378) - ROME - RIC 10c(2)5 viewsSilique, 364-367, C1
A/D N VALEN-S P F AVG
Dominus Noster Valens pius Felix Augustus, Notre maître Valens Pieux et Heureux Auguste
Buste à droite, diadémé (Perles), drapé et cuirassé.
R/VOT/V/MV.LT/X//RB
Votis quinquennalibus/Multis decennalibus, Vœux pour le cinquième anniversaire de règne et plus pour les dix ans à venir
Légende en 4 lignes dans une couronne de lauriers fermée.
Argent - 1.91 gr - 18.6 mm - 12h
RIC IX 10c(2), RSC 91h
Siliquae
VALENS_RIC11b2.jpg
VALENS (364-378) - ROME - RIC 11b26 viewsSilique, 364-367, S
A/D N VALEN-S P F AVG
Dominus Noster Valens pius Felix Augustus, Notre maître Valens Pieux et Heureux Auguste
Buste à droite, diadémé (Perles), drapé et cuirassé.
R/VRBS ROMA//RQ
Urbs Roma, La ville de Rome
Rome casquée assise à gauche sur une cuirasse, tenant dans sa main droite le globe nicéphore et une lance renversée dans la main gauche.
Argent - 1.97 gr - 18.5 mm - 0h
RIC IX 11b2, RSC 109
Siliquae
VALENS_RIC19a.jpg
VALENS (364-378) - SISCIA - RIC 19a15 viewsSilique, 375-378, S
A/D N VALEN-S P F AVG
Dominus Noster Valens pius Felix Augustus, Notre maître Valens Pieux et Heureux Auguste
Buste à droite, diadémé (Perles), drapé et cuirassé.
R/VOT/XV/MVLT/XX//SISCPS
Votis quinqennalia multis vigintinnalia, Vœux pour le quinzième anniversaire de règne et plus pour le vingtième à venir.
Légende en 4 lignes dans une couronne de lauriers fermée.
Argent - 1.96 gr - 18.5 mm - 12h
RIC IX 19a1, RSC 98
Siliquae
VALENS_RIC19a2.jpg
VALENS (364-378) - SISCIA - RIC 19a25 viewsSilique, 375-378, S
A/D N VALEN-S P F AVG
Dominus Noster Valens pius Felix Augustus, Notre maître Valens Pieux et Heureux Auguste
Buste à droite, diadémé (Perles), drapé et cuirassé.
R/VOT/XV/MVLT/XX//SISCPZ
Votis quinqennalia multis vigintinnalia, Vœux pour le quinzième anniversaire de règne et plus pour le vingtième à venir.
Légende en 4 lignes dans une couronne de lauriers fermée. Une * dans le médaillon.
Argent - 2 gr - 18.6 mm - 6h
RIC IX 19a2, RSC 98
Siliquae
VALENS_RIC27b.jpg
VALENS (364-378) - TREVES - RIC 27b8 viewsSilique, 367-375, S
A/D N VALEN-S P F AVG
Dominus Noster Valens pius Felix Augustus, Notre maître Valens Pieux et Heureux Auguste
Buste à droite, diadémé (Perles), drapé et cuirassé.
R/VRBS-ROMA//TRPS•
Urbs Roma, La ville de Rome
Rome casquée assise à gauche sur un trône, tenant un globe nicéphore de la main droite et une lance renversée de la main gauche.
Argent - 1.92 gr - 18.4 mm - 12h
RIC IX 27b, RSC 109
Siliquae
VALENS-RIC27e1.jpg
VALENS (364-378) - TREVES - RIC 27e(1)9 viewsSilique, 367-375, S
A/D N VALEN-S P F AVG
Dominus Noster Valens pius Felix Augustus, Notre maître Valens Pieux et Heureux Auguste
Buste à droite, diadémé (Perles), drapé et cuirassé.
R/VRBS-ROMA//TRPS•
Urbs Roma, La ville de Rome
Rome casquée assise à gauche sur un trône, tenant un globe nicéphore de la main droite et un sceptre long de la main gauche.
Argent - 1.85 gr - 17.8 mm - 12h
RIC IX 27e(1), RSC 109
Siliquae
VALENS-RIC27e2.jpg
VALENS (364-378) - TREVES - RIC 27e(2)8 viewsSilique, 367-375, S
A/D N VALEN-S P F AVG
Dominus Noster Valens pius Felix Augustus, Notre maître Valens Pieux et Heureux Auguste
Buste à droite, diadémé (Perles), drapé et cuirassé.
R/VRBS-ROMA//TRPS
Urbs Roma, La ville de Rome
Rome casquée assise à gauche sur un trône, tenant un globe nicéphore de la main droite et un sceptre long de la main gauche.
Argent - 1.86 gr - 18 mm - 12h
RIC IX 27e(2), RSC 109
Siliquae
VT-02.jpg
Valens (A.D. 364-378)20 viewsAE3, A.D. 364-367, Siscia, 18.2mm, 2.23g, 0°, RIC IX 7b.2.
Obv: D N VALEN-S P F AVG. Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE. Victory advancing left holding wreath and palm; •ASISC in ex.
Joseph D5
RIC_Valens_RIC_GR_Dragging_RIC_IX_Siscia_14b,_type_x.JPG
Valens (Flavius Valens) (364-378 A.D.)7 viewsRIC IX Siscia 14b, type x

AE3, 18 mm.

Siscia, second officina, struck 367-375 A.D.

Obv: DN VALEN-S PF AVG, pearl diademed cuirassed bust right

Rev: GLORIA RO-MANORVM, emperor dragging captive, R in right field, •BSISC in exergue

RIC rarity c
Stkp
Valens.jpg
Valens (r. 364-378) - AE3 - Siscia30 viewsObv.: D N VALEN - S P F AVG - Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust r.
Rev.: GLORIA RO - MANORVM - Emperor advancing r., with r. hand dragging captive and holding labarum in l.
.BSISC in exergue

Mint of Siscia, first period, officina B, struck between 364-367 AD
References: RIC IX Siscia 5(b) ii (C)
krazy
00576.jpg
Valens (RIC 12b, Coin #576)6 viewsRIC 12b (C), AE3, Aquileia, 367 - 375 AD.
OBV: D N VALENS P F AVG; Pearl diadem, draped and cuirassed bust right.
REV: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE (●SMAQP); Victory walking left, wreath in right, palm frond in left.
SIZE: 18.5mm 2.04g
MaynardGee
00256.jpg
Valens (RIC 5, Coin #256)8 viewsRIC 5 (C), AE3, Siscia, 364-367 AD.
OBV: D N VALENS P F AVG; Pearl-diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right.
REV: GLORIA ROMANORVM (●BSISC); Emperor dragging captive.
SIZE: 19.1mm 1.96g
MaynardGee
00073~0.jpg
Valens (RIC 5b, Coin #73)9 viewsRIC 5b (C), AE3, Siscia, 364-367 AD.
OBV: D N VALENS P F AVG; Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
REV: GLORIA ROMANORVM (dot BSISC); Valens advancing left, labarum (chi-rho Christogram standard) in left and dragging captive with right.
SIZE: 18.1mm 1.88g
MaynardGee
00073.jpg
Valens (RIC 5b-ii, Coin #73)12 viewsRIC 5b-ii (C), AE3, Siscia, 364-367 AD.
Obv: D N VALENS P F AVG Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: GLORIA ROMANORVM (•BSISC) Valens advancing left, labarum (chi-rho Christogram standard) in left and dragging captive with right.
Size: 18.1mm 1.88gm
MaynardGee
00557.jpg
Valens (RIC 7bii, Coin #557)12 viewsValens, RIC 7b ii, AE3, Siscia, 364 - 367 AD.
Obv: D N VALENS P F AVG Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE (dot ASISC) Victory walking left, wreath in
right, palm frond in left.
Size: 18.9mm 2.50gm
MaynardGee
00657.jpg
Valens (RIC 7bii, Coin #657)9 viewsRIC 7b-ii (C), AE3, Siscia, 364 - 367 AD.
OBV: D N VALENS P F AVG; Pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right.
REV: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE (dot BSISC); Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm.
SIZE: 19.0mm 2.14g
MaynardGee
Valens_Victory.jpg
Valens * "Victory" * "Securing and making safe, the state." 364-378 AD. Æ 3154 views
Obv: D N VALENS PF AVG. Bust pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed, right.
Rev: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE. Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm; B SIS C, in exe.

Mint: Siscia
Struck: 364-367 AD.

Size: 18 mm.
Weight: 3.58 grams
Die axis: 180 degs.

Patina: lovely dark-olive green.

RIC IX, 7b, page 146
Cohen 37
RIC 7b, Siscia

2 commentsTiathena
Valens_7d_ii(b).jpg
Valens - AE 319 viewsArelatum
25.2.364 - 24.8.367 AD
pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
D N VALEN_S P F AVG
Valens advancing right, dragging captive and holding labarum
GLORIA RO_MANORVM
OF _ II
CONST
RIC IX Arles 7d, type ii(b)
1,98 g 17-16 mm
Johny SYSEL
Valens_5b_ii.jpg
Valens - AE 317 viewsSiscia
25.2.364 - 24.8.367 AD
pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
D N VALEN_S P F AVG
Valens advancing right, dragging captive and holding labarum
GLORIA RO_MANORVM
·BSISC
RIC IX Siscia 5b, type ii
1,87 g 18,5-18 mm
Johny SYSEL
Valens_7b_ii.jpg
Valens - AE 318 viewsSiscia
25.2.364 - 24.8.367 AD
pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
D N VALEN_S P F AVG
Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm
SECVRITAS__REIPVBLICAE
·ASISC
RIC IX Siscia 7b, type ii
2,46 g 19,5-17,5 mm
Johny SYSEL
Valens_7b_v.jpg
Valens - AE 316 viewsSiscia
25.2.364 - 24.8.367 AD
pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
D N VALEN_S P F AVG
Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm
SECVRITAS__REIPVBLICAE
* above A
·ASISC
RIC IX Siscia 7b, type v
2,52 g 18-17,5 mm
Johny SYSEL
Valens_18b-27b_xx.jpg
Valens - AE 320 viewsThessalonica
24.8.367 - 17.11.375 AD
pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
D N VALEN_S P F AVG
Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm
SECVRITAS__REIPVBLICAE
A _ wreath
TES
RIC IX Thessalonica 18b/27b, type xx
2,6 g 18-16,5 mm
Johny SYSEL
Valens_18b-27b_i.jpg
Valens - AE 316 viewsThessalonica
25.2.364 - 24.8.367 AD
pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
D N VALEN_S P F AVG
Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm
SECVRITAS__REIPVBLICAE
TESΔ
RIC IX Thessalonica 18b/27b, type i
2,7 g 16 mm
Johny SYSEL
446_Valens_o__A_TES.jpg
Valens - AE 35 viewsThessalonica
24.8.367 - 17.11.375 AD
pearl-didemed, draped and cuirassed bust right
D N VALEN_S P F AVG
Valens advancing right, dragging captive and holding labarum
GLORIA RO_MANORVM
wreath _ • / A
TES
RIC IX Thessalonica 26b, type xxi (a)
2,60g
Johny SYSEL
182_Valens_TES.jpg
Valens - AE 33 viewsThessalonica
24.8.367 - 17.11.375 AD
pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
D N VALEN_S P F AVG
Valens advancing right, dragging captive and holding labarum
GLORIA RO_MANORVM
* _ * above B
TES
RIC IX Thessalonica 26b, type xvii
2,62 g 18-17 mm
Johny SYSEL
Valens 12 D.jpg
Valens - AE323 viewsAE 3
Obv.: DN VALEN-S PF AVG, Pearl diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right ;
Rev.: SECVRITAS - REIPVBLICAE, Victory advancing left holding wreath and palm
Struck Rome, first workshop SMRP, star in left field, 375-378 AD, RIC. 28(a), type xvii (c2)


Tanit
Valens 17 D.jpg
Valens - AE336 viewsAE 3
Obv. DN VALENS - PF AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed, r.
Revv.:GLORIA ROMANORVM type: Emperor draped, with r. hand, dragging captive r., and holding labarum in l.
RIC IX, Antiochia 10(b); C.11; struck from 28 March AD 364-24 Aug. 367; Scarce.

"It's interesting that the labarum has a cross in it instead of a chi-rho." laetvs
1 commentsTanit
Valens 1.jpg
Valens - AE322 viewsD.N. VALENS P.F. AVG.
SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE , victory advancing left , exergue : SM (heart) [..]
Ginolerhino
Valens +.jpg
Valens - AE314 viewsAE 3
Obv: DN VALENS PF AVG
Rev: GLORIA ROMANORVM ; emperor walking r., holding labarum and dragging captive
Tanit
Valens silique.jpg
Valens - siliqua of Trier37 viewsD.N.VALENS P.F. AVG.
VRBS ROMA , Rome seated left holding victory on globe ; exergue : TRPS (Trier)
1 commentsGinolerhino
m~9.PNG
Valens 365 AD11 viewsValens 365 AD. AE3 17mm (Thickness 1.1mm), weight ?g.

Obverse: DN VALENS PF AVG, diademed draped & cuirassed bust right

Reverse:GLORIA ROMANORVM, emperor walking right, head left, holding labarum & grasping bound captive at the top of the head,
discwizard
020606_1.jpg
Valens A.D. 364-37815 viewsObverse-DNVALENSPFAVG
Reverse- GLORIA ROMANORUM
Exergue-?
b70
Valens.jpg
Valens AD364-AD37824 viewsDie Axis 0 degrees
Siscia mint
Paul D3
Valens_Victory.jpg
Valens AD364-AD37827 viewsDie axis 350 degrees
Siscia mint
Paul D3
PCW-R2473.jpg
Valens AE Folis12 views ROMAN EMPIRE. Valens. 364-378 AD. AE Follis (2.15 gm; 19 mm). DN VALEN-S PF AVG B. diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right / GLORIA RO-MANORVM/ ·BSISC L'Emperor holding long staff and captive at foot. RIC 5b. Nicely struck on a full broad flan. Perfectly centered. Nice original green patinaTLP
100_0233.JPG
Valens AE1810 viewsValens -Rev. SECVRITAS REPVBLICAE
RIC IX Siscia 15b type xvii- *over P in left field - should be an M in rf and ASISC in exergue

18mm
2.1g
CGPCGP
siscia15bORweb.jpg
Valens AE328 viewsO: D N VALEN-S P F AVG, diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right
R: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE, Victory advancing left, holding wreath & palm, * over F to left, M to right
ASISC in ex.
18mm 2.49g RIC IX Siscia 15b, type xvi
casata137ec
valunknownORweb.jpg
Valens AE327 viewsO: D N VALENS P F AVG, diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right
R: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE, Victory advancing left, holding wreath & palm
Ex. is unknown
17mm 2.01g RIC is unknown
casata137ec
siscia15bxxviiORweb.jpg
Valens AE322 viewsO: D N VALEN-S P F AVG, diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right
R: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE, Victory advancing left, holding wreath & palm, * over K to left, Q to right
ASISCR in ex.
18mm 1.95g Siscia RIC 15b, type xxvii
casata137ec
siscia15bORxvi2web.jpg
Valens AE326 viewsO: D N VALEN-S P F AVG, diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right
R: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE, Victory advancing left, holding wreath & palm, * over F to left, M to right
ASISC in ex.
18mm 2.43g RIC IX Siscia 15b, type xvi
casata137ec
Valens2.jpg
Valens AE352 viewsGLORIA ROMANORVMtibsi67
valens.jpg
Valens AE3 62 viewsValens AE3

Obv: D N VALEN-S P F AVG - Diademed bust right, draped and cuirassed
Rev: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE - Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm Star/Dot. Exe: SMAQS

RIC IX, Aquileia 18(a); C. 47; struck 17 Nov. 375-9 Aug.378; With star/dot it is type xix(b).

scarce.


Tanit
hrt_045.JPG
Valens AE312 viewsAntonivs Protti
hrt_118.JPG
Valens AE39 viewsAntonivs Protti
hrt_103.JPG
Valens AE310 viewsAntonivs Protti
hrt_096.JPG
Valens AE3 17 viewsAntonivs Protti
roman_1.jpg
VALENS AE3 Centenionial (Siscia mint)30 viewsValens, struck AD 364-378


Metal: Bronze
Diam: 18 mm.
Weight: 2.3 gr.

OBV: Valens, Bust Diademed,draped and cuirassed, bare-headed, facing right
OBV-LEGEND: VALENS SP AUG
Marks-OBV: None

REV: Victory , advancing Left holding & Palm
REV-LEGEND : SECUVITAS REIPVBLICE
Marks-REV: Reverse under Victory’s feet : XSISC

Source : Middle East - Siscia
Age: A.D. 364-378
Mint: Siscia : a chief town and colony of Pannonia.
It was situate at the confluence of the Colapis and Savus, and is now called Sisak, Croatia.
Pannonia was a Roman Province, divided into upper and lower, comprising Austria and Croatia of the present day.


The imperial mint at Siscia was open from 260 to c. 390 A.D. Mintmarks included S, SIS, SISC, and SISCPS. The mint master was called procurator monetae Siscianae.


Ref : RIC 7B4

Michel C2
Valens_Gloria_Romanorum.jpg
Valens AE3 Gloria Romanorvm92 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC IX 5(b)ii, gVF, Siscia mint, 28 Mar 364 - 24 Aug 367 A.D.; obverse D N VALENS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse GLORIA ROMANORVM, Valens advancing left, labarum (chi-rho Christogram standard) in left and dragging captive with right, •BSISC in exergue;Philoromaos
Comb27032017093558.jpg
Valens AE3 of Siscia. AD 364-378 AD.8 viewsObv.DN VALEN-S PF AVG, pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right.
Rev. SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE,Victory walking left, holding wreath
and palm branch. D over Symbol 3 (an R with a curl on top) in left field,
F in right field. Mintmark ASISCV.
References: RIC IX Siscia 15b, type xliii.
18mm and 3.13 grams.
Canaan
Valens_Securitas.jpg
Valens AE3 SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE91 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC IX 7(b), gVF, Siscia mint, 28 Mar 364 - 24 Aug 367 A.D.; obverse D N VALEN-S P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE, Victory advancing left, wreath in right, palm frond in left, P in left field M in right •ASISC in exergue

Ex Brigantia
2 commentsPhiloromaos
valens-reshoot.jpg
Valens AE3, 364-367 AD, Siscia mint18 viewsRoman Imperial, Valens AE3, 364-367 AD, Siscia mint, 2.4g, 19.15mm

Obverse: DN VALENS PF AVG, Diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right.

Reverse: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE, Victory advancing left, holding wreath & palm, dot ASISC in ex. "Security of the Republic"

Reference: RIC Siscia 7B, Cohen 37
Gil-galad
valens-serbia-victory-left.jpg
Valens AE3, 367-375 AD, Siscia mint16 viewsRoman Imperial, Valens AE3, (367-375 AD), 2.6g, 18mm

Obverse: DN VALEN-S PF AVG, Diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right.

Reverse: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE, Victory advancing left, holding wreath & palm, star over F to left. S right. Mintmark ΔSISC in ex.

Reference: RIC IX Siscia 15b
Gil-galad
Valens AE3, Arles.JPG
Valens AE3, Arles40 viewsValens, AD 364-378
AE3 –
Arles,
pearl diadem, draped, cuirassed
DN VALEN-S PF AVG
Victory advancing l., holding wreath and palm branch
SECVRITAS-REIPVBLICAE
TCONS in ex.
RIC Arles 17b

double-struck reverse
Ardatirion
Valens_opt.jpg
VALENS AE3, RIC 15b,xvii, Victory17 viewsOBV: D N VALEN-S P F AVG, diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right
REV: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE, Victory advancing left, holding wreath & palm, * over P to left, M to right, DSISC in ex.
2.49 g, 17 mm

Minted at Siscia, 367-370 AD
Legatus
constans1.jpg
Valens AE3, Securitas (RIC IX Aquileia 9a)14 viewsAquileia mint, 2nd officina, 367-375. 18 mm, 1.77 g, 180º.

Obverse: D N VALENS P F AVG Pearl-diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right.

Reverse: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAEVictory advancing left, holding wreath and palm branch.

Exergue: SMAQS

Reference: RIC IX Aquileia 9a.
Manuel
aquileia9biORweb.jpg
Valens AE3. AD 367-37032 viewsO: D N VALEN-S P F AVG, diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right
R: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE, Victory advancing left, holding wreath & palm, A to left
SMAQP in ex.
18mm 1.72g RIC IX Aquileia 9b, type i (a)
casata137ec
siscia15bxvi3ORweb.jpg
Valens AE3. AD 367-370.27 viewsO: D N VALEN-S P F AVG, diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right
R: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE, Victory advancing left, holding wreath & palm, * over F to left, M to right
ASISC in ex.
18mm 2.35g RIC IX Siscia 15b, type xvi
casata137ec
Valens.JPG
Valens AE3. Aquileia. 14 viewsDN VALEN-S PF AVG, pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right / GLORIA RO-MANORVM, Emperor advancing right, holding labarum, dragging captive. Right field: wreath. Mintmark: SMAQS. RIC IX Aquileia 11b, type xiv (b).Antonivs Protti
221VS005_Valens_GR_RIC9_Rome_15b,_type_xi_b.jpg
Valens AE4, Gloria Romanorum (RIC Rome 15b, type xi.b)17 viewsRome mint, third officina, 364-367. 16.5 mm, 2.43 g, 0º.

Obverse: D N VALENS P F AVG Valens, draped and cuirassed, with pearl diadem, looking right.

Reverse: GLORIA ROMANORVM Emperor dragging captive, holding labarum in left hand.

Exergue: ..ERTIA

Reference: RIC IX Rome 15b, type xi.b
Manuel
coin94.jpg
Valens Alexandria RIC IX 3b/5b 364-375 AD10 viewsValens Alexandria RIC IX 3b/5b 364-375 AD
DN VALEN-S PF AVG, pearl diadem, draped.
Rev. SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE, Victory
Adv. Left, w/wreath & palm. ATFdelta in ex.
Coin #94
cars100
coins441.JPG
Valens Alexandria Victory Advancing6 viewsDN VALEN-S PF AVG
SECVRITAS-REIPVBLICAE
ALE gamma
RIC IX Alexandria 3b & 5b (identical) S
ecoli
ab10.JPG
Valens Antioch Victory advancing left20 viewsDN VALENS-PF AVG
SECVRITAS-REIPVBLICAE
Antioch
RIC IX Antioch 12b
ecoli
q7.JPG
Valens Aquileia GLORIA ROMANORVM15 viewsRIC IX Aquileia 7b, type i (a) c
ecoli
coin604.JPG
Valens Aquileia GLORIA ROMANORVM4 viewsRIC IX Aquileia 7a, type i (a) c
ecoli
valens_01~0.jpg
Valens AR Siliqua 27 viewsObv: D N VALENS P F AVG - Diademed bust right, draped and cuirassed.
Rev: VOT / X / MVL / XX, in four lines, all within a wreath; ANT in exergue.
Date: 24 Aug 367 - 17 Nov 375
Mint: Antioch
Ref: RIC IX 33b.1
Notes: Scarce
1 commentsoa
096.jpg
Valens AR Siliqua54 viewsRIC IX 27e.2 Trier, RSC 109b
2.06 g, 12 mm x 13 mm
D N VALEN-S P F AVG, diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right
VRBS ROMA, Roma seated left, holding Victory on a globe & sceptre
TRPS in exergue
Scarce
2 commentsMark Z2
coins335.JPG
Valens Cyzicus GLORIA ROMANORVM10 viewsRIC IX Cyzicus 11b c
ecoli
combined~37.jpg
Valens Gloria Romanorum25 viewsValens

Gloria Romanorvm

AE 1,5 g, 17,96 mm.
Flamur H
coin796.JPG
Valens Gloria Romanorum Aquileia3 viewsRIC IX Aquileia 7b, type vi (b)
ecoli
Valens_Gloria_Romanorum_Siscia.JPG
Valens Gloria Romanorvm21 viewsValens, Siscia, First period, 25 Feb. 364 - 24 Aug. 367 AD, 18mm, 2.18g, RIC IX, pg. 146 5(b)vii, obverse 2(A)
OBV: DN VALEN-S P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
REV: GLORIA RO-MANORVM, emperor advancing r. dragging captive and holding labarum in l.
DBSISC in exergue, star A in right field
Romanorvm
Valens_SMTD.jpg
Valens I - AE 35 viewsAntioch
25.2.364 - 24.8.367 AD
draped and cuirassed pearl-diademed bust right
D N VALENS__P F AVG
Victory holding wreath and palm branch
SECVRITAS__REIPVBLICAE
ANTΔ
RIC IX Antioch 12b
1,85g
Johny SYSEL
Valens_ANT.jpg
Valens I - AE 310 viewsAntioch
25.2.364 - 24.8.367 AD
draped and cuirassed pearl-diademed bust right
D N VALENS__P F AVG
Victory holding wreath and palm branch
SECVRITAS__REIPVBLICAE
ANT?
RIC IX Antioch 12b
3,84g
Johny SYSEL
valensAE3-.jpg
VALENS I AE3 - AD364-36729 viewsobv: D.N.VALENS.PF.AVG (diademed draped & cuirassed bust right)
rev: GLORIA.ROMANORVM / */A / BSISC (emperor walking right, head left, holding labarum & grasping bound captive at the top of the head)
ref: RIC IX-Siscia5b, C.11
2.01gms, 17mm
berserker
cc14.JPG
Valens Nicomedia GLORIA ROMANORVM11 viewsDN VALEN-S PF AVG
PDC
GLORIA RO-MANORVM
SMNB
RIC IX Nicomedia 9b S

ecoli
Valens_OBV.JPG
Valens Obv5 viewsValens; AD 364-378
Bronze; Siscia mint
OBV: DN VALENS PF AVG; Pearl diademed Draped & Cuirassed Bust Right
REV: GLORIA ROMANORVM; Valens advancing Right dragging captive and holding labarum
(RIC 5b type III)
Philip G
Valens_REV.JPG
Valens Rev5 viewsValens; AD 364-378
Bronze; Siscia mint
OBV: DN VALENS PF AVG; Pearl diademed Draped & Cuirassed Bust Right
REV: GLORIA ROMANORVM; Valens advancing Right dragging captive and holding labarum
(RIC 5b type III)
Philip G
Valens RIC 7b type iv.JPG
Valens RIC 7b type iv22 viewsAE3, Siscia, 364-378 AD
Obverse: DN VALENS PF AVG, Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
Reverse: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE, Victory advancing left with wreath and palm.
DASISC in exergue
17mm, 2.2gm
RIC 7b Type iv
Jerome Holderman
VALENS-4.jpg
Valens RIC IX 15b,xii15 viewsObv: D N VALENS P F AVG
diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right
Rev: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE
Victory advancing left holding wreath & palm branch, * over P to left, M to right
ASISC in ex.
17 mm 2.8 gm
OWL365
VALENS-7.jpg
Valens RIC IX 16b27 viewsObv: D N VALENS P F AVG
pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right
Rev: GLORIA RO-MANORVM
emperor walking right, head left, holding labarum & grasping bound captive at the top of the head
TES Gamma in ex.
17 mm 2.5 gm
OWL365
VALENS-5.jpg
Valens RIC IX 5b17 viewsObv: D N VALENS P F AVG
pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right
Rev: GLORIA RO-MANORVM
emperor walking right, head left, holding labarum & grasping bound captive at the top of the head,* over A to right
dot BSISC in ex.
18 mm 2.2 gm
OWL365
VALENS-8.jpg
Valens RIC IX 5b23 viewsObv: D N VALENS P F AVG
pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right
Rev: GLORIA RO-MANORVM
emperor walking right, head left, holding labarum & grasping bound captive at the top of the head,* over A to lef
BSISC in ex.
18 mm 2.3 gm
OWL365
VALENS-6.jpg
Valens RIC IX 5bv unlisted23 viewsObv: D N VALENS P F AVG
pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right
Rev: GLORIA RO-MANORVM
emperor walking right, head left, holding labarum & grasping bound captive at the top of the head
dot over dot BSISC in ex.
18 mm 2.8 gm
Unlisted mint mark dot over dot BSISC
OWL365
VALENS-3.jpg
Valens RIC IX 7,xii unlisted */D20 viewsObv: D N VALENS P F AVG
diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right
Rev: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE
Victory advancing left holding wreath & palm branch, * over D to left.
TES in ex.
18 mm 2.4 gm
OWL365
VALENS-2.jpg
Valens RIC IX 7,xxix14 viewsObv: D N VALENS P F AVG
diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right
Rev: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE
Victory advancing left holding wreath & palm branch, K over P to left, Q to right
ASISCR in ex.
18 mm 2.3 gm
OWL365
cons glor romano com.JPG
Valens RIC IX Antioch 10b22 viewsAE 17 mm 2.4 grams 364-367 AD
OBV :: DN VALENS-PF AVG. Pearled diadem, draped and cuirassed
REV :: GLORIA RO-MANORVM. Emperor draging captive right, holding Standard in right hand
EX :: ANTH ( Antioch )
RIC IX Antioch 10b
RIC rated C3
from uncleaned lot 03/2008
Johnny
PRIMA_com.JPG
Valens RIC IX Rome 17b/24b, type ix (a)31 viewsAE 16 mm 2.3 grams
OBV :: DN VALEN-S PF AVG. Pearled diadem, draped and cuirassed bust right
REV :: SECVRITAS-REIPVBLICAE. Victory advancing left holding wreath and palm branch
EX :: RPRIMA ( Rome )
RIC IX Rome 17b/24b, type ix (a)
RIC rated s
purchased 10/2008
Johnny
valens  glo roman com.JPG
Valens RIC IX Siscia 14b, type xi25 viewsAE 17 mm 2.1 grams 367-375 AD
OBV :: DN VALEN-S PF AVG.Pearle diadem, cuirassed bust right
REV :: GLORIA RO-MANORVM.Emperor dragging captive right holding chi-rho standard. D in right field
EX :: star Gamma SISC (Siscia)
RIC IX Siscia 14b, type xi
RIC rated C
from uncleaned lot 10/2006
Johnny
valens_com.JPG
Valens RIC IX Thessalonica 26 type xxvii24 viewsAE 15 mm 1.8 grams 375-378 AD
OBV :: DN VALEN-S PF AVG.Pearled diadem, draped and cuirassed
REV :: GLORIA RO-MANORVM. Emperor walking right draging captive. Holding standard in left hand A in left field. Star/A in right field
EX :: TES ( Thessalonica )
RIC IX Thessalonica 26, type xxvii
RIC rated ?
from uncleaned lot 06/2008
Johnny
valens_const_25(b).jpg
Valens RIC IX, Constantinopolis 25(b)324 viewsValens 364-378, brother of Valentinianus I
AV - Solidus, 4.42g, 21mm
Constantinopolis, Aug 24. 367 - Nov 17. 375
obv. DN VALENS - PF AVG
bust draped and cuirassed, head rosette-diademed r.
rev. RESTITVTOR - REI PVBLICAE
Emperor in military dress standing frontal, head to r., holding
standard with cross in r. hand, in l. hand globe with Victory holding wreath
exergue: star CONS wreath
RIC IX, Constantinopolis 25(b); C.34
R2; about EF

VALENS, killed 378 in the Battle of Adrianopolis against the Goths
2 commentsJochen
valens_siscia_15(b)xx.jpg
Valens RIC IX, Siscia 15(b)xx26 viewsValens AD 364-378, brother of Valentinian I
AE - AE 3, 2.6g, 19mm
Siscia 2nd period, 1st officina, 24. Aug. 367 - 17. Nov. 375
obv. DN VALEN - S PF AVG
bust, draped and cuirassed, pearl-diademed, r.
rev. SECVRITAS - REI PVBLICAE
Victoria advancing l., holding wreath and palm
l. field: star above R above circle, r. field: dot above M
ex.: ASISC
RIC IX, SISCIA 15(b) type xx
about VF
Jochen
valens_trier_46(a)_3.jpg
Valens RIC IX, Trier 46(a)51 viewsValens 364 - 378, brother of Valentinianus I
AR - Siliqua, 1.7g, 17mm
Trier 17. Nov 375 - 9.Aug.378
obv. DN VALEN - S PF AVG
draped, cuirassed bust, pearl-diademed head r.
rev. VRBS - ROMA
helmeted Roma sitting l. on cuirass, holding l. spear and r. Victory on globe
exergue: TRPS dot
RIC IX, Treveri 46(a); C.110
VF
Jochen
Valens SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE.jpg
Valens SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE50 viewsValens, 28 March 364 - 9 August 378 A.D.

Obverse:
Pearl diademed draped and cuirassed bust right

D N VALENS P F AVG

DN: Dominus Noster, our lord
VALENS: Valens
P F: Pius Felix, Pious and happy
AVG: Augustus, emperor

Reverse:
SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE, the security of the republic

SECVRITAS: Security
REIPVBLICAE: Republic

Victory advancing left holding wreath and palm, wreath in left and Star in right field

Domination: Bronze, AE 3, Size 16 mm.

Mint: ALE, Officina ?, RIC IX Constantinople 42b rated common for all officina.
John Schou
Valens-_SECVRITAS_REIPVBLICAE_1.jpg
Valens SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE10 viewsObverse:
Pearl diademed draped and cuirassed bust right

D N VALENS P F AVG

DN: Dominus Noster, our lord
VALENS: Valens
P F: Pius Felix, Pious and happy
AVG: Augustus, emperor

Reverse:
SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE, the security of the republic

SECVRITAS: Security
REIPVBLICAE: Republic

in the left field of the reverse it is either an A or delta

Victory advancing left holding wreath and palm

Domination: Bronze, AE 3, Size 16 mm.

Mint: mintmark, but it looks like 4-5 letters, so I am thinking Aquileia
John S
Valens-_SECVRITAS_REIPVBLICAE_2.jpg
Valens SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE14 viewsObverse:
Pearl diademed draped and cuirassed bust right

D N VALENS P F AVG

DN: Dominus Noster, our lord
VALENS: Valens
P F: Pius Felix, Pious and happy
AVG: Augustus, emperor

Reverse:
SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE, the security of the republic

SECVRITAS: Security
REIPVBLICAE: Republic

Victory advancing left holding wreath and palm,

Domination: Bronze, AE 3, Size 17 mm.

Mint: Constantinople and it reads CONSP[?] A, B etc. RIC IX Constantinople 21b
John S
valens.jpg
Valens Siliqua67 viewsD N VALEN S P F AVG,

diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right

VRBS ROMA Roma seated left, holding Victory and spear

TRPS. in ex.

Trier
RIC 27e
Will Hooton
m~12.PNG
Valens Siscia6 viewsValens Siscia. AE4 16.5mm (Thickness 1.5mm), weight ?g.

Obverse: DN VALENS PF AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right

Reverse: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE, Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm. R over Symbol 4 in left field, S over dot in right field. Mintmark ASISCE.
discwizard
m~11.PNG
Valens Siscia4 viewsValens Siscia. AE3 17mm (Thickness 1mm), weight ?g.

Obverse: DN VALENS PF AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.

Reverse: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE, Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm.
discwizard
z8~0.JPG
Valens Siscia GLORIA ROMANORVM10 viewsDN VALEN-S PF AVG
GLORIA RO-MANORVM
dot BSISC
RIC IX Siscia 14b, type x
ecoli
coins445.JPG
Valens Siscia SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE5 viewsValens
DN VALEN-S PF AVG
SECVRITAS-REIPVBLICAE
ASISCE
RIC IX Siscia 15b, type xxvii C3
ecoli
coin725.JPG
Valens Siscia SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE8 viewsDN VALEN-S PF AVG
SECVRITAS-REIPVBLICAE

RIC IX Siscia 7b, type i C
ecoli
ss1~0.JPG
Valens Siscia Victory Advancing11 viewsRIC IX Siscia 7b, type i
ecoli
Valensrestitut.JPG
Valens solidus52 viewsObserve: D.N. VALENS PER. F. AVG.
Reverse: RESTITVTOR REI PVBLICAE
Mint: ANTΕ
Weight: 4,4 GR.
Corduba
2870480.jpg
Valens Solidus43 viewsAD 364-378. AV Solidus (21mm, 4.38 g, 12h). Treveri (Trier) mint. Struck AD 374-375. Rosette-diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right / Two emperors seated facing, holding globe between them; behind and between them, Victory standing with outspread wings, palm below; TROBS. RIC IX 17e.3; Depeyrot 43/2. wavy flan, pierced, causing a crack at edge. TLP
coin924.JPG
Valens Thessalonica10 viewsDN VALEN-S PF AVG
GLORIA RO-MANORVM
TES gamma
RIC IX Thessalonica 16b, type i
ecoli
w9.JPG
Valens Thessalonica GLORIA ROMANORVM9 viewsDN VALEN-S PF AVG
GLORIA RO-MANORVM
RIC IX Thessalonica 31, type xxxvi c
ecoli
g3.JPG
Valens Thessalonica GLORIA ROMANORVM19 viewsRIC IX Thessalonica 26b, type xvii
ecoli
coins431.JPG
Valens Thessalonica GLORIA ROMANORVM13 viewsDN VALEN-S PF AVG
GLORIA RO-MANORVM
TES gamma
RIC IX Thessalonica 16b, type i c
ecoli
coin568.JPG
Valens Thessalonica GLORIA ROMANORVM16 viewsDN VALEN-S PF AVG
GLORIA RO-MANORVM
TES
RIC IX Thessalonica 31, type xxvii C
ecoli
w3~1.JPG
Valens Thessalonica Victory Advancing18 viewsDN VALEN-S PF AVG
SECVRITAS-REIPVBLICAE
TES

RIC IX Thessalonica 18b, type xxxv
ecoli
t52.JPG
Valens Thessalonica Victory advancing left18 viewsDN VALEN-S PF AVG
SECVRITAS-REIPVBLICAE

RIC IX Thessalonica 18b, type xxxvii
ecoli
Valens_Victory~0.JPG
Valens Victory15 viewsValens AE3. 364-367 AD. “Unlisted” Possible R-5
D N VALENS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right / SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE, Victory advancing left, wreath in right,
palm frond in left, “Star” in left field, “Wreath” in right field. SMNA in ex. Nicomedia Mint. I believe this to be unlisted from Nicomedia. Assuming the mint mark is correct. 15mm 2.3g

VERY RARE
Romanorvm
coin870.JPG
Valens Victory advancing Cyzicus5 viewsRIC IX Cyzicus 11b & 13b (identical)
ecoli
valensvictory.jpg
Valens victory advancing left32 viewsDn Valens-Pf Avg. Pearl diadem,draped,cuirassed. Secvritas-Reipvblicae. Victory advancing left holding wreath and palm branch. Mint mark: SMH(a or b). Left field:star. Right field: wreath. Mint: Heraclea. Ric IX Heraclea 10b. Rarity: S Great Portrait of Valens.tiberiusjulius
Valens_Victory_R_dot_TERTIA.JPG
Valens Victory R dot TERTIA21 viewsValens AE3, Rome, RIC IX 17b/24b, type xi (b)
OBV: DN VALEN-S PF AVG, pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right
REV: SECVRITAS-REIPVBLICAE, Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm
Mintmark: R dot TERTIA

SCARCE
Romanorvm
56657q00.jpg
Valens, 28 March 364 - 9 August 378 A.D.11 viewsValens, 28 March 364 - 9 August 378 A.D.
Copper AE 3, Rome mint, 1.871g , 17.2mm, 367 - 378 A.D
Obverse : D N VALENS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right .
Reverse : SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE, Victory walking left, wreath in right, palm frond in left, SM ivy leaf R[...] in ex .
RIC IX Rome 24b and 28a.
Ex FORUM .
Vladislav D
Valens_Gloria_TES.jpg
Valens, AD 364-37820 viewsAE3: 19mm, 2.8g, 12h; Thessalonica mint: AD 364-367.
Obv.: DN VALEN-S PF AVG; diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev.: GLORIA RO-MANORVM; Emperor advancing right, with right hand dragging captive and holding labarum in left // TESB
Reference: RIC IX Thessalonica 16(b) (p. 176), mint mark i (p. 168).
Notes: Collected for engraving detail in captive. eBay sale, 6/9/15, endovellicvs, 22.
John Anthony
valens_k.jpg
Valens, AD 364-378. 6 viewsAR Siliqua, 17mm, 1.9g, 6h; Treveri mint, 367-378.
Obv.: D N VALEN-S P F AVG; Pearl-diademed, draped, cuirassed bust r.
Rev.: VRBS ROMA; Roma seated left on cuirass, holding Victory set on globe in her right hand and spear in her left // TRPS•
Reference: RIC IX 27b and 45a / 17-125-225
John Anthony
0720-310.jpg
Valens, AE1 - *90 viewsAquilea mint, AD 364
DN VALEN - S PF AVG, diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
RESTITVTOR REIPVBLICAE, Valens standing facing, head right, holding standard and victory. SMAQP at exergue
8.55 gr
Ref : Cohen # 40 (100Fr), RIC #6b
1 commentsPotator II
4953_4954.jpg
Valens, AE3 4 viewsAE3
Valens
Augustus: 364 - 368AD
10.0mm
Siscia Mint
2/3/17
Nicholas Z
4955_4956.jpg
Valens, AE3, GLORIA ROMANORVM4 viewsAE3
Valens
Augustus: 364 - 378AD
Issued: 364 - 367AD
20.0 x 18.0mm
O: DN VALENS PF AVG; Diademed (pearls), draped and cuirassed bust, right.
R: GLORIA ROMANORVM; Valens advancing right, dragging captive and holding labarum.
Exergue: (Dot)BSISC
Siscia Mint
Aorta: 554: B4, O7, R8, T15, M13.
2/3/17
Nicholas Z
4787_4788.jpg
Valens, AE3, GLORIA ROMANORVM8 viewsAE3
Valens
Augustus: 364 - 378AD
Issued: 364 - 367AD
18.0mm 2.70gr
O: DN VALEN-S PF AVG; Diademed (pearls), draped and cuirassed bust, right.
R: GLORIA RO-MANORVM; Valens advancing right, dragging captive by hair and holding labarum.
Exergue: (Star) over A, right field; DBSISC, below line.
Siscia Mint
RIC Siscia 5b
Aorta: 557: B4, O7, R8, T15, M13.
balbinusnumismatica2009 182597604512
6/5/17 6/24/17
Nicholas Z
6307_6308.jpg
Valens, AE3, GLORIA ROMANORVM13 viewsAE3
Valens
Augustus: March 28, 364 - August 9, 378AD
Issued: February 25, 364 - August 24, 367AD
18.5mm 2.50gr 0h
O: DN VALEN-S PF AVG; Diademed (pearls), draped and cuirassed bust, right.
R: GLORIA RO-MANORVM; Valens advancing right, dragging captive and holding labarum.
Exergue: SMKΔ
RIC IX Cyzicus 8b
Aorta: 508: B4, O7, R8, T15, M6.
ancientcoinmarket (GAC Auctions) 323130572975
3/19/18 4/4/18
Nicholas Z
8580_8581.jpg
Valens, AE3, GLORIA ROMANORVM, R, (Dot)ΓSISC2 viewsAE3
Valens
Augustus: 364 - 378AD
Issued: 367 - 375AD
19.5mm 2.20gr 7h
O: DN VALEN-S PF AVG; Diademed (pearls), draped and cuirassed bust, right.
R: GLORIA RO-MANORVM; Valens advancing right, dragging captive and holding labarum with CHI RHO on standard.
Exergue: R, right field; (Dot)ΓSISC, below line.
Siscia Mint
Sear 19745; RIC IX Siscia 5b; Aorta: 566: B4, O7, R8, T15, M13.
master-numismatics 153208927343
10/13/18 3/25/19
Nicholas Z
5048_5049.jpg
Valens, AE3, SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE3 viewsAE3
Valens
Augustus: 364 - 378AD
Issued: 364 - 367AD
18.0mm 2.36gr
O: DN VALENS PF AVG; Diademed (pearls), draped and cuirassed bust, right.
R: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE; Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm.
Exergue: (Dot)ASISC
Siscia Mint
Aorta: 837: B4, O7, R17, T43, M13.
zurqieh_dubai 291430467762
6/26/15 2/3/17
Nicholas Z
4953_(1)_4954_(1).jpg
Valens, AE3, SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE10 viewsAE3
Valens
Augustus: 364 - 378AD
Issued: 364 - 367AD
19.0mm 2.90gr
O: DN VALEN-S PF AVG; Diademed (pearls), draped and cuirassed bust, right.
R: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE; Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm.
Exergue: (Dot)ASISC
Siscia Mint
RIC 7b, type ii (a).
Aorta: 837: B4, O7, R17, T43, M13.
okta2000-2013 272741689860
7/9/17 7/24/17
Nicholas Z
VALENS-1-ROMAN.jpg
Valens, Aquileia RIC IX-12b.xvib15 viewsAE3
Aquileia mint, 365-375 A.D.
17mm, 1.90g
RIC IX-12b.xvib

Obverse:
D N VALENS P F AVG
Pearl-diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right.

Reverse:
SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE
SMAQS
Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm.
rubadub
ARI-Valens-3.jpg
Valens, AR Siliqua, Trier Mint, Eastern Roman Empire12 viewsAD 364 - 378
2.10 grams
Obv.: DN VALENS PF AVG, diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev.: VRBS ROMA, Roma seated left, holding Victory & sceptre, TRPS• in ex.
RIC-27e. All I could determine between WildWinds and acsearch was that this specific issue had numerous die varieties resulting from the smallest of variations in the design elements. However, I could not determine what design variations related to each specific attribution number. In fact there appears to be more design variation than attribution numbers.
I purchased this coin from Status International
AU Strike: 5/5, Surface: 4/5
Richard M10
VALENS-10-ROMAN.jpg
Valens, Constantinople RIC IX-20b13 viewsAE3
Constantinople mint, 364-367 A.D.
18mm, 2.00g
RIC IX-20b

Obverse:
D N VALENS P F AVG
Pearl-diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right.

Reverse:
RESTITVTOR REIP
CONSP Γ
Emperor standing facing, head right, holding labarum and Victory on globe.
rubadub
VALENS-11-ROMAN.jpg
Valens, Constantinople RIC IX-21b15 viewsAE3
Constantinople mint, 364-367 A.D.
19mm, 1.79g
RIC IX-21b

Obverse:
D N VALENS P F AVG
Pearled-diademed head right, cuirassed and draped.

Reverse:
SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE
CONS P Γ
Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm.
rubadub
Valens~0.JPG
Valens, Emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire, 364-378 AD.12 viewsValens AE3. DN VALEN-S PF AVG diademed bust right, draped & cuirassed / GLORIA RO-MANORVM, emperor advancing right, holding labarum and dragging captive behind him, mintmark SMH G in ex. Heraclea, RIC 3b soldAntonivs Protti
Valens,_GLORIA_ROMANORVM,_dragging_captive,_Antioch,_364-367_AD.jpg
Valens, GLORIA ROMANORVM, dragging captive, Antioch, 364-367 AD39 viewsRIC IX Antioch 10b
2.6g / 17mm _633
Antonivs Protti
Bronze_coins_097.JPG
Valens, GLORIA ROMANORVM, dragging captive, Antioch, 364-367 AD16 viewsAntonivs Protti
VALENS-12-ROMAN.jpg
Valens, Nicomedia RIC IX-09c14 viewsAE3
Nicomedia mint, 364-367 A.D.
17mm, 2.06g
RIC IX-9c

Obverse:
D N VALENS P F AVG
Pearled-diademed head right, cuirassed and draped.

Reverse:
GLORIA ROMANORVM
SMN Δ
Emperor advancing right, with right hand dragging captive and holding labarum in left.
rubadub
VALENS-13-ROMAN.jpg
Valens, Nicomedia RIC IX-12b15 viewsAE3
Nicomedia mint, 364-367 A.D.
17mm, 2.66g
RIC IX-12b

Obverse:
D N VALENS P F AVG
Pearled-diademed head right, cuirassed and draped.

Reverse:
SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE
SM N B
Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm.
rubadub
Valens_RIC_23.JPG
Valens, RIC 2312 viewsDN VALENS PF AVG
GLORIA ROMANORVM
AE3, 17mm, 2.35g
Pearl diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right
Emperor advancing right drag-ging captive & holding labarum, * in right field
SMRP in ex.
Rome mint
novacystis
234a Valens.jpg
Valens, RIC IX 15b x, Siscia53 viewsObv: D N VALENS P F AVG
Bust: Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE
Victory advancing left holding wreath and palm branch.
Exe: (dot) ASISC "R" in field left
Mint: Siscia
Date: 367-375 AD
Denom: Ae3
Ref: RIC IX 15b x
Rated "C3"
Bluefish
valens27b.jpg
Valens, RIC IX 27b Thessalonica18 views Valens, AE3
Obverse: D N VALENS P F AVG, pearl diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
Reverse: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE, Victory advancing lert, holding wreath and palm, Z in left field and B in right field.
Mintmark TES, Thessalonica 17.7 mm, 2.9 g. very rare
NORMAN K
236a Valens.jpg
Valens, RIC IX 31 xxxi, Thessalonica39 viewsObv: D N VALENS P F AVG
Bust: Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev: GLORIA ROMANORVM
Emperor advancing right holding labarum and dragging captive.
Exe: TES O in field left, * / Delta in field right
Mint: Thessalonica
Date: 367-375 AD
Denom: Ae3
Ref: RIC IX 31 xxxi
Rated "C"
Bluefish
Valens 104a.jpg
Valens, RIC IX 42b, Constantinople33 viewsObv: D N VALENS P F AVG
Bust: Diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right
Rev: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE
Victory advancing left holding wreath and palm branch.
Exe: CONSB. (wreath) in field left, * in field right
Mint: Constantinople
Date: 367-375 AD
Denom: Ae3
Ref: RIC IX 42b
Rated "C"
Bluefish
Valens 54a.jpg
Valens, RIC IX 5b ii, Siscia33 viewsObv: D N VALENS P F AVG
Bust: Diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right
Rev: GLORIA ROMANORVM
Emperor advancing right holding labarum and dragging captive.
Exe: (dot) BSISC
Mint: Siscia
Date: 364-367 AD
Denom: Ae3
Ref: RIC IX 5b ii LRBC 1276
Rated "C"
Bluefish
Valens 84a.jpg
Valens, RIC IX 5b vii, Siscia37 viewsObv: D N VALENS P F AVG
Bust: Diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right
Rev: GLORIA ROMANORVM
Emperor advancing right holding chi-rho labarum and dragging captive.
Exe: DBSISC. */A in field right
Date: 364-367 AD
Mint: Siscia
Denom: Ae3
Ref: RIC IX 5b viii
Rated "C"
Bluefish
Valens 119a.jpg
Valens, RIC IX 5b, Heraclea38 viewsObv: D N VALENS P F AVG
Bust: Diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right
Rev: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE
Victory advancing left holding wreath and palm branch.
Exe: SMHA. * in field left
Mint: heraclea
Date: 364-378 AD
Denom: Ae3
Ref: RIC ix 5b
Rated "S"
Bluefish
valens7b3.jpg
Valens, RIC IX 5b, type iv, Siscia15 viewsValens, AE3 364-378 CE.
Obverse: D N VALEN-S P F AVG, pearl diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
Reverse: GLORIA RO-MANORVM, Emperor advancing right, holding labarum and dragging captive behind him.
DBSISC in ex. , 18.2 mm, 2.7g.
NORMAN K
Valens 83b.jpg
Valens, RIC IX 7b vii, Siscia56 viewsObv: D N VALENS P F AVG
Bust: Diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right
Rev: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE
Victory advancing left holding palm branch and wreath.
Exe: DASISC. */A in field left
Mint: Siscia
Date: 364-367 AD
Denom: Ae3
Ref: RIC IX 7b vii
Rated " C"
Bluefish
valens7b.jpg
Valens, RIC IX 7b, Siscia17 viewsValens, AE3 364-378 CE.
Obverse: D N VALEN-S P F AVG, diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
Reverse: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE, Victory walking left and holdinf a patera.
Dot ASISC in ex. Siscia mint., 18.6 mm,2.5 g.
NORMAN K
314 Valens.jpg
Valens, RIC IX 9b iii(b), Aquileia64 viewsObv: DN VALENS PF AVG
Bust: Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE
Victory advancing left holding wreath and palm branch
Exe: SMAQS B over (dot) in field left
Date: 364-367 AD
Mint: Aquiliea
Denom: Ae3
Ref: RIC IX 9b type iii (b)
Rated "C"
Bluefish
vricix17bOR.jpg
Valens, RIC IX Rome 17b, type x (b)19 viewsRome mint, Valens, 364-378 A.D. AE, 17mm 1.52g, RIC IX Rome 17b, type x (b)
O: DN VALEN-S PF AVG, pearl diadem, draped, cuirassed bust, r.
R: SECVRITAS-REIPVBLICAE, Victory advancing, l., holding wreath and branch
Ex: R dot SECVNDA
casata137ec
Valens 111a.jpg
Valens, RIC unknown47 viewsObv: D N VALENS P F AVG
Bust: Diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right
Rev: GLORIA ROMANORVM
Emperor advancing right holding labarum and dragging captive.
Exe: unknown
Date: 364-378 AD
Denom: Ae3
Ref: unknown


Bluefish
0720-210np_noir.jpg
Valens, Siliqua75 viewsTreveri mint
DN VALENS PF AVG, diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
VRBS ROMA, Roma seated left, holding victory and sceptre, TRPS at exergue
2.15 gr
Ref : Cohen # 109, Roman coins # 4113
Potator II
VALENS-2-ROMAN.jpg
Valens, Siscia RIC IX-07b.vii15 viewsAE3
Siscia mint, 364-367 A.D.
17mm, 2.16g
RIC IX-7b.vii

Obverse:
D N VALENS P F AVG
Pearled-diademed head right, cuirassed and draped.

Reverse:
SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE
*A in left field
DASISC
Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm.
rubadub
VALENS-3-ROMAN.jpg
Valens, Siscia RIC IX-14b.xi14 viewsAE3
Siscia mint, 367-375 A.D.
17mm, 2.67g
RIC IX-14b.xi

Obverse:
D N VALENS P F AVG
Pearled-diademed head right, cuirassed and draped.

Reverse:
GLORIA ROMANORVM
D in right field
* Γ SISC
Emperor advancing right, with right hand dragging captive and holding labarum in left.
rubadub
VALENS-4-ROMAN.jpg
Valens, Siscia RIC IX-14b.xi12 viewsAE3
Siscia mint, 367-375 A.D.
17mm, 2.37g
RIC IX-14b.xi

Obverse:
D N VALENS P F AVG
Pearled-diademed head right, cuirassed and draped.

Reverse:
GLORIA ROMANORVM
D in right field
* Γ SISC
Emperor advancing right, with right hand dragging captive and holding labarum in left.
rubadub
VALENS-5-ROMAN.jpg
Valens, Siscia RIC IX-15b.xiv8 viewsAE3
Siscia mint, 367-375 A.D.
18mm, 2.89g
RIC IX-15b.xiv

Obverse:
D N VALENS P F AVG
Pearled-diademed head right, cuirassed and draped.

Reverse:
SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE
*D / S
ASISC
Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm.
rubadub
VALENS-7-ROMAN.jpg
Valens, Thessalonica RIC IX-26b.xxx10 viewsAE3
Thessalonica mint, 367-375 A.D.
18mm, 2.58g
RIC IX-26b.xxx

Obverse:
D N VALENS P F AVG
Pearled-diademed head right, cuirassed and draped.

Reverse:
GLORIA ROMANORVM
M / *B
TES
Emperor advancing right, with right hand dragging captive and holding labarum in left.
rubadub
VALENS-6-ROMAN.jpg
Valens, Thessalonica RIC IX-26b.xxx21 viewsAE3
Thessalonica mint, 367-375 A.D.
20mm, 2.40g
RIC IX-26b.xxx

Obverse:
D N VALENS P F AVG
Pearled-diademed head right, cuirassed and draped.

Reverse:
GLORIA ROMANORVM
M / *A
TES
Emperor advancing right, with right hand dragging captive and holding labarum in left.
rubadub
VALENS-8-ROMAN.jpg
Valens, Thessalonica RIC IX-26b.xxx15 viewsAE3
Thessalonica mint, 367-375 A.D.
17mm, 1.39g
RIC IX-26b.xxx

Obverse:
D N VALENS P F AVG
Pearled-diademed head right, cuirassed and draped.

Reverse:
GLORIA ROMANORVM
M / * Δ
TES
Emperor advancing right, with right hand dragging captive and holding labarum in left.
rubadub
VALENS-9-ROMAN.jpg
Valens, Thessalonica RIC IX-27b.xii9 viewsAE3
Thessalonica mint, 367-375 A.D.
17mm, 2.63g
RIC IX-27b.xii

Obverse:
D N VALENS P F AVG
Pearled-diademed head right, cuirassed and draped.

Reverse:
SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE
. Δ in left field
TES
Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm
rubadub
VALENS_GLORIA_ROMANORVM.JPG
Valens- GLORIA ROMANORVM57 viewsValens, 28 March 364 - 9 August 378 A.D.


Obverse:
Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right

DN: Dominus Noster, our lord
VALENS: Valens
P F: Pius Felix, Pious and happy
AVG: Augustus, emperor

Reverse :
GLORIA ROMANORVM, The glory of the Romans

GLORIA: Glory
ROMANORUM: The Romans
A: Alfa, first Officina



Emperor advancing right, looking left, dragging captive with right, standard in left

Diameter: Bronze AE 3, 18.mm

Mint: SMAQP = Aquileia, first officina. RIC IX 7(b)i(a)
John S
Valens- SECVRITAS REIPUBLICAE.jpg
Valens- SECVRITAS REIPUBLICAE93 viewsValens, 28 March 364 - 9 August 378 A.D.

Obverse:
Pearl diademed draped and cuirassed bust right

D N VALENS P F AVG

DN: Dominus Noster, our lord
VALENS: Valens
P F: Pius Felix, Pious and happy
AVG: Augustus, emperor

Reverse:
SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE, the security of the republic

SECVRITAS: Security
REIPVBLICAE: Republic

Victory advancing left holding wreath and palm, star in left field and an A beneath.

Domination: Bronze, AE 3, Size 16 mm.

Mint: DASISC which is the Siscia and A is 1.st Officina. The * over A places the minting during 364-367. RIC IX Siscia 7b, type vii, number 1297 in Late Roman Bronze Coinage, Vol. 2.

Comment: As to why it is Valens and not Valentinian I. First the inscription on the obverse looks too short to be Valentinian. Second Valens used the A officinae at this time for the Securitas Reipublicae coins at this time while Valentinian used the mint.
John Schou
Valens Secvritas Reip.jpg
Valens- Siscia RIC 15b type XVI85 viewsobv: DN VALEN-S PF AVG
rev: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE
* / F in left field, M in right field
ASISC in exergue
RIC Siscia 15b type XVI, VM 49
wolfgang336
Valens- Siscia-RIC 7b Type II.JPG
Valens- Siscia-RIC 7b Type II30 viewsAE3, 364-378 AD, Siscia mint
Obverse: DN VALENS PF AVG, Diademmed , draped, and cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE, Victory advancing left with wreath and palm.
*BSISC exergue, RIC 7b Type II
2.5gm , 17mm
Jerome Holderman
Valens-1.JPG
Valens-126 viewsAE3, 364-378 AD, Siscia mint
Obverse: DN VALENS PF AVG, Diademmed , draped, and cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE, Victory advancing left with wreath and palm. R left.
(pellet)ASISC in exergue, RIC 15b type X
1.9gm , 18mm
Jerome Holderman
VALENS-1.jpg
VALENS-1110 viewsObv: D N VALENS P F AVG pearl diademed draped and cuirassed bust right

Rev: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE Victory advaning left holding wreath and palm

Exe: kp/ASISCR/Q Siscia mint

Ref: RIX IX 15b type xxix 2.2g 18 mm Dug in Bulgaria
1 commentsMatthew Raica
VALENS-10.jpg
VALENS-1050 viewsObv: D N VALENS P F AVG pearl diademed draped and cuirassed bust right

Rev: GLORIA ROMANORVM Emperor advancing right dragging captive and holding labarum

Exe: dotBSISC/R Siscia mint

Ref: RIX XI, 14b type x 1.8g 19mm Dug in Spain
Matthew Raica
Valens-2.JPG
Valens-220 viewsAE3, 364-378 AD, Siscia mint
Obverse: DN VALENS PF AVG, Diademmed , draped, and cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE, Victory advancing left with wreath and palm.
BSISC in exergue, RIC 7b type I
2.4gm , 18mm
Jerome Holderman
VALENS-2.jpg
VALENS-263 viewsObv: D N VALENS P F AVG pearl diademed draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev: GLORIA ROMAORVM Emperor advancing right dragging captive and holding labarum

Exe: V/TES/B Thessalonica mint

Ref: RIX IX 31 type xxxvi 2.3g 17mm Dug in Bulgaria
Matthew Raica
Valens-3.JPG
Valens-324 viewsAE3, 364-378 AD, Siscia mint
Obverse: DN VALENS PF AVG, Diademmed , draped, and cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE, Victory advancing left with wreath and palm. */R/O left, (Pellet) / M right.
ASISC in exergue, RIC 15b type XX
2.4gm , 18mm
Jerome Holderman
VALENS-3.jpg
VALENS-352 viewsObv: D N VALENS P F AVG diademed draped and cuirassed bust right

Rev: GLORIA ROMANORVM Emperor walking right head turned back grasping bound captive at top of head with right hand holding banner with "Chi Rho"

Exe: branchrightBSISC Siscia mint

Ref: Rix IX 5b type iii 2.3g 17mm Dug in Bulgaria
Matthew Raica
Valens-4.JPG
Valens-427 viewsAE3, 364-378 AD, Siscia mint
Obverse: DN VALENS PF AVG, Diademmed , draped, and cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE, Victory advancing left with wreath and palm.
*ASISC in exergue, RIC 7b type 2
2.3gm , 18mm
Jerome Holderman
VALENS-4.jpg
VALENS-456 viewsObv: D N VALENS P F AVG pearl diademed draped and cuirassed bust right

Rev: GLORIA ROMANORVM Emperor walking right head turned back grasping bound captive at top of head with right hand holding banner with "Chi Rho"

Exe: D/dotTES Thessalonica mint

Ref: RIC IX 26b type x 1.7g 16mm Dug in Bulgaria
Matthew Raica
Valens-5.JPG
Valens-517 viewsAE3, 364-378 AD, Siscia mint
Obverse: DN VALENS PF AVG, Diademmed , draped, and cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE, Victory advancing left with wreath and palm. */A Right
*ASISC in exergue, RIC 7b type V
2.9gm , 18mm
Jerome Holderman
VALENS-5.jpg
VALENS-572 viewsObv: D N VALENS P F AVG pearl diademed draped and cuirassed bust right

Rev: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE Victory advancing left holding wreath and palm branch

Exe: CONSPΓ Constantinople mint

Ref: RIC IX 21c 2.5g 18mm Dug in England
Matthew Raica
Valens-6.JPG
Valens-621 viewsAE3, 364-378 AD, Aquileia mint
Obverse: DN VALENS PF AVG, Diademmed , draped, and cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE, Victory advancing left with wreath and palm. A left.
SMAQS in exergue, RIC 9b type Ib
2.3gm , 18mm
Jerome Holderman
VALENS-6.jpg
VALENS-673 viewsObv: D N VALENS P F AVG pearl diademed draped and cuirassed bust right

Rev: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE Victory advancing left holding wreath and palm branch

Exe: dot in crescent/SMAQS Aquileia mint

Ref: RIC IX 9b type ix 1.7g 18mm Dug in Bulgaria
Matthew Raica
VALENS-7.jpg
VALENS-786 viewsObv: D N VALENS P F AVG pearl diademed draped and cuirassed bust right

Rev: GLORIA ROMANORVM Emperor advancing right dragging captive and holding labarum

Exe: TESΓ Thessalonica mint

Ref: RIC IX 16b type i 3g 16.5mm Dug in Eastern Europe
Matthew Raica
VALENS-8.jpg
VALENS-877 viewsObv: D N VALENS P F AVG pearl diademed draped and cuirassed bust right

Rev: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE Victory advancing left holding wreath and palm

Exe: *F/ASISC/M Siscia mint

Ref: RIX IX 15b type xvi 2.7g 18mm Dug in Bulgaria
Matthew Raica
VALENS-9.jpg
VALENS-974 viewsObv: D N VALENS P F AVG pearl diademed draped anc cuirassed bust right

Rev: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE Victory advancing left carrying wreath and palm branch

Exe: TESA Thessalonica mint

Ref: RIX IX 18b type i 2.4g 16mm Dug in Bulgaria
Matthew Raica
Valens-Siscia-RIC 7b type I.JPG
Valens-Siscia-RIC 7b type I25 viewsAE3, 364-375 AD, Siscia mint
Obverse: DN VALENTINIANVS PF AVG, Diademed , draped and cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE, Victory left with wreath and palm. BSISC in exergue.
RIC 7b type i
17mm , 2.3gms
Jerome Holderman
Valens-Siscia-RIC 7b type vi.JPG
Valens-Siscia-RIC 7b type vi29 viewsAE3, 364-375 AD, Siscia mint
Obverse: DN VALENTINIANVS PF AVG, Diademed , draped and cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE, Victory left with wreath and palm. */A left. ASISC in exergue.
RIC 7b type vi
19mm , 2.5gms
Jerome Holderman
85A339A8-DA28-4BC7-A45A-622A2E4D219A.jpeg
Valens/Securitas Republicae2 viewsObverse: Pearl-diademed, cuirassed, draped bust right. DNVALEN SPAVG. Reverse: Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm branch. SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE. Dot gamma SIS (Siscia) in exergue. Possibly RIC IX Siscia 7b, type ii(c). From the Balkans.Celticaire
valens.jpg
Valens: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE, Aquileia13 viewsValens; AE 3. Obverse: D N VALENS P F AVG, Diademed bust right;
Reverse: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE, Victory walking holding wreath; Minted in Aquileia (B / • | / SMAQS), A.D. 367 - 378; RIC IX Aquileia 9b type iiib; Item ref: RI179a. ex Maridvnvm
Podiceps
valens~0.jpg
Valens: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE, Constantinople24 viewsValens, 28 March 364 - 9 August 378 A.D. Bronze AE 3, RIC IX 21(c), Constantinople, 3.074g, 17.4mm, 180o, 25 Feb 364 - 24 Aug 367 A.D.; obverse D N VALENS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE, Victory advancing left, wreath in right, palm frond in left, CONSP“G” in ex; ex FORVMPodiceps
valens_asisc.jpg
Valens: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE, Siscia23 viewsValens AE 3. Siscia. 2.363g, 18.7mm, 0o, D N VALENS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust r. / SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE, Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm, ASISC in ex. RIC Siscia 7 b. ex FORVMPodiceps
Valens,_28_March_364_-_9_August_378_A_D_.jpg
Valens: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE, Siscia 15 b26 viewsValens, 28 March 364 - 9 August 378 A.D. Bronze AE 3, RIC IX 15(b) xliii, VF, Siscia mint, 2.526g, 18.8mm, 180o, 367 - 375 A.D.; obverse D N VALEN-S P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE, Victory advancing left, wreath in right, palm frond in left, D / symbol left, F right, ASISCE in ex. ex FORVM, photo credit FORVMPodiceps
valens.jpg
Valens_Centenionalis_SECVRITAS_REIPVBLICAE6 viewsSiscia
RIC 15b xvi
Numis-Student
12zusa.jpg
Valens_Siliqua_VOT_VX_MVLT_XX12 viewsNumis-Student
Valentinian_7c_ii(b).jpg
Valentinian I - AE 319 viewsArelatum
25.2.364 - 24.8.367 AD
pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
D N VALENTI_NIANVS P F AVG
Valens advancing right, dragging captive and holding labarum
GLORIA RO_MANORVM
OF _ II
CONST
RIC IX Arles 7a, type ii(b)
1,9 g 17-16 mm
Johny SYSEL
Valentian_16a_vi.jpg
Valentinian I - AE 324 viewsThessalonica
25.2.364 - 24.8.367 AD
pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
D N VALENTINI_ANVS P F AVG
Valens advancing right, dragging captive and holding labarum
GLORIA RO_MANORVM
wreath
TES{A,B}
RIC IX Thessalonica 16a, type vi
2,11 g 18-17 mm
Johny SYSEL
Valentian_5a_i.jpg
Valentinian I - AE 337 viewsSiscia
25.2.364 - 24.8.367 AD
pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
D N VALENTINI_ANVS P F AVG
Valens advancing right, dragging captive and holding labarum
GLORIA RO_MANORVM
ASISC
RIC IX Siscia 5a, type i
2,06 g 18 mm
Johny SYSEL
Valentinian_I_R_SECVNDA_RIC_24a.JPG
Valentinian I R SECUNDA RIC 24a33 viewsVALENTINIAN I, Rome, 17.01mm, 2.3g, RIC IX pg 121, 24(a), Cohen 37
OBV: DN VALENTINI-ANVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right
REV: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE, Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm
R dot SECVNDA in exergue

The Rome mint issued a series of SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE AE-3s for Valentinian I, Valens and Gratian with the officinae (mint workshop) number spelled out in Latin:
PRIMA (one), SECVNDA (two), TERTIA (three) and QVARTA (four).  Usually the officinae are only represented by a single letter in the mint mark. 
Romanorvm
valentinianI_3(a).jpg
Valentinian I RIC IX, Thessalonica 3(a)555 viewsValentinian I 364-375, brother of Valens
AV - Solidus, 4.49g, 21.3mm, 0°
Thessalonica 25 Aug.364 - 24 Aug.367
obv. DN VALENTINI - ANVS PF AVG
Emperor in consular robe, holding mappa and short sceptre, pearl-
diademed head l.
rev. SALVS - REI P
Emperor standing frontal, head r., holding labarum r. and Victory on globe l.,
spurning captive kneeling l. before him
field: 2 stars r. (type 2)
exergue: SMTES
RIC IX, Thessalonica 3(a) type 2; C.32
R2; about EF, die break on upper rev.
6 commentsJochen
Valentinian I Solidus Fouree.JPG
Valentinian I Solidus Fouree.255 viewsAV-Solidus Fouree 364-375 AD, Trier mint.
Obv: DN VALENTINI-ANVS PF AVG, Diademed bust right, draped and cuirassed
Rev: VICTOR-IA AVGG - Valentinian and Valens seated facing, holding a globe between them, while Victory flies above and between the imperial brothers joint throne.
Exe: TROBT
RIC IX, 17b,- Cohen 43
1 commentsjdholds
Valentinian_I_Valentinian_I_REV.JPG
Valentinian I Valentinian I REV20 viewsBRONZE AE3 of VALENTINIAN I (364-375 AD).
Augustus in the west, with Valens in the east. Thessalonica mint.
OBV: D N VALENTINIANVS P F AVG, diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right.
REV: RESTITVTOR REIP, Valentinian standing right, holding labarum & Victory on a globe, TES(?) in exergue.
RIC-17. 19 mm, 1.9 g. Ex-Nemesis Ancients & Antiquities, 09/2007. DOC rarity rating: 1.
Romanorvm
valens.jpg
Valentinian I, 25 Feb 364 - 17 Nov 375 A.D.80 viewsBronze AE3, RIC 10(a), superb EF, 2.29g, 17.6mm, 180o, Antioch mint, 364-367 A.D.; obverse D N VALENTINI-ANVS P F AVG, pearl diademed draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse GLORIA RO-MANORVM, Emperor advancing right, head left, dragging captive and holding standard, ANTG in ex; scarce
2 commentssalem
Valens_AE_Soldier.JPG
Valentinian I, AE3, Siscia. 12 viewsDN VALENTINI-ANVS PF AVG, pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right / GLORIA RO-MANORVM, Emperor in military dress, advancing right, head left, holding labarum, dragging captive behind him. Right field: star over A. Mintmark: D Gamma SISC. RIC IX Siscia 5a, type vii. Antonivs Protti
VALENTINIEN_II-RIC43.jpg
VALENTINIEN II (375-392) - TREVES - RIC 43-215 viewsSilique, 375-378, C1
A/D N VALENTINIANVS IVN P F AVG
Dominus Noster Valentinianus Junior Pius Felix Augustus, Notre Seigneur Valentinien le jeune Pieux Heureux Auguste
Buste à droite, diadémé (Perles), drapé et cuirassé. N et P ligaturés.
R/VICTOR-IA AVGGG//TRPS
Victoria Augustorum, La Victoire des 3 Augustes
La victoire debout de face, tournée à gauche, tenant une couronne de la main droite et une branche de palme de la main gauche.
Argent - 1.76 gr - 17.5 mm - 12h
RIC IX 43-2, RSC 40a
Commentaires :
Le revers de notre monnaie avec trois G peut faire référence à Valens, Gratien et Valentinien II ou bien après 378 à Gratien, Valentinien II et Théodose avant la nomination d'Arcadius.
Le N et le P sont "ligaturés". On peut trouver une ligature soit NP, soit AV
Siliqua S
RPC_Viminacium_Hostilian_Pick_155.JPG
Viminacium (Moesia Superior). Hostilian (Caesar, 250-251 A.D., Augustus, July-November 251 A.D.) (Caius Valens Hostilianus Messius Quintus)28 viewsPick 155 var., Martin 4.07.7, Varbanov __, Boric-Brescovic __, Jekov __, Moushmov 52.

AE sestertius, 24-25 mm, die alignment 0°

Dated year 12 (250-251 A.D.),

Obv: IMP C VAI HOST M QVIHTVS AVG, bare-headed, draped and cuirassed bust, right.

Rev: P M S C-OL VIM, AN XII in exergue, Moesia standing, between a bull and a lion.
Stkp
TrajanDeciusRIC11b.jpg
[1108a] Trajan Decius, July 249 - June or July 251 A.D. 144 viewsSilver antoninianus, RIC 11b, RSC 4, choice EF, Rome mint, 3.923g, 23.3mm, 0o, 249 - 251 A.D.; Obverse: IMP C M Q TRAIANVS DECIVS AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust right, from behind; Reverse: ADVENTVS AVG, Trajan Decius on horseback left, raising right hand and holding scepter. Ex FORVM.


De Imperatoribus Romanis,
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Trajan Decius (249-251 A.D.) and Usurpers During His Reign

Geoffrey Nathan and Robin McMahon

Geoffrey Nathan
San Diego State University



Early Life and Public Career

Any discussion of Decius (and for most third century emperors) must be prefaced by an understanding that the historical tradition is incomplete, fragmentary, and not wholly trustworthy. Any reconstruction of his life and reign will therefore be to some degree speculative. With that caveat in mind, Gaius Messius Quintus Decius was born, to a provincial yet aristocratic Senatorial family during the transitional Severan age, possibly in 201. His family may have been from Italian stock, although that is by no means certain. Attempts to describe his life previous to the consulship are problematic, although he did serve as governor in Moesia in the mid-230's. That also means that Decius probably had been a member of the Senate for some time. We know little else about his early life, other than at some point he married Herennia Cupressenia Etruscilla, apparently from the Senatorial ordo as well. His political fortunes rose in the troubled 240's. As instability grew in the mid-third century, Philip the Arab charged Decius, suffect consul for 249, with restoring order along the Danubian frontier. In addition to the border unrest, a low-level army officer, Tiberius Claudius Marinus Pacatianus, had led a rebellion of the armies in Pannonia and Moesia. For a short time, Marinus apparently claimed the imperial purple and along with movements of the Gepidae, represented a clear threat to the stability of Philip's rule.

Philip's decision to send Decius was perhaps more motivated by political expediency than by any great confidence in his military abilities. Decius had an aristocratic pedigree, and so was likely to have been a popular choice with a Senate that was increasingly doubtful of Philip's abilities. He was also a native of Sirmium in Pannonia Inferior, and so was likely familiar with the intricacies of life and politics in the region. Finally, he had, of course, served as governor of the wayward province, and thus undoubtedly had connections there among the civil and military curia--ones that Philip hoped Decius could exploit. Thus, the consul was charged with restoring order along one of the Empire's most problematic borders. Accompanied by his son, Herennius, Decius traveled to Moesia, probably to reclaim the Legio IV Flavia Felix and possibly the Legio XI, both of which were stationed in that province.

Shortly before his arrival, Marinus was killed and local troops quickly named Decius emperor, encouraging him to assert this newfound responsibility in a war against Philip. Philip's inability to deal decisively with the worsening military crises on the borders, the fear of punishment, and the opportunity for enrichment no doubt motivated the soldiers to place the purple on a local leader--a now increasingly common practice. Decius' lineage also probably appealed to traditionalists in Rome, who begrudged Philip his humble origins and his possible involvement in the death of Gordian III. Philip led out an army in June of 249 to meet his newest rival for the purple and at an unknown location (possibly Verona or Beroea) lost the battle. Whether Philip died in the fighting or was assassinated by his own troops--another increasingly common practice--is unknown. Philip's son, Philip Junior, recently made an Augustus, was quickly put to death by the Praetorian Guard in Rome. Decius was the first emperor to come from the Balkans region. How much he wanted to serve is unknown. While this account undoubtedly contains fictional elements, with several popular literary topoi, the rough outlines of the story are undoubtedly true: we have epigraphic evidence in July for support among the Pannonian Legio X, suggesting that Decius owed his accession in no small part to local troops

Publicity and Power
The victory of an established Senatorial aristocrat was one that seemed to reassert the authority and place of traditional political power, despite the means of Decius' ascension. The new emperor, no doubt aware of the perils of his position, seems to have embarked upon a highly conservative program of imperial propaganda to endear himself to the Roman aristocracy and to the troops who had thrust the purple upon him. One of his earliest acts was to take the honorific name of Trajan, whose status as the greatest of all emperors after Augustus was now becoming firmly established. The fact that Trajan had commanded legions in Upper Germany and had close links to both Pannonia and Moesia at the time of his accession invited the comparison. The name was cleverly chosen: Trajan had been an active and successful general throughout his reign, but had also established a reputation for a widely popular civil government.

Decius also served as consul in every year of his reign and took for himself traditional republican powers, another way to underscore his authority and conservatism. He even tried to revive the long defunct office of censor in 251, purportedly offering it to the future emperor, Valerian. Decius moreover portrayed himself as an activist general and soldier. In addition to leading military campaigns personally, he often directly bestowed honors upon his troops, high and low alike. He also holds the dubious distinction of being the first emperor to have died fighting a foreign army in battle. Finally, in 250, he associated his sons Herennius and Hostilianus in his rule by making them Caesars, eventually raising the former (and elder) to Augustus. Undoubtedly, Decius sought to create a dynasty in much the same way the Gordians had in the previous decade. This traditionalism may to be a large extent, however, a construction rather than a reality. When we abandon the literary tradition and look instead at other forms of evidence, his imperial aims are less clear. The legal record, extremely thin, is only vaguely supportive of a conservative policy: most of his surviving enactments deal with private law issues consistent with earlier Severan jurisprudence.

On the other hand in late 249, when Decius returned to Rome, he embarked upon an active building program in the capital. After a destructive fire, he extensively restored the Colosseum. He later commissioned the opulent Decian Baths along the Aventine. He perhaps also was responsible for the construction of the Decian Portico. Such activities contrasted to a twenty-year period of relative building inactivity. Both the kind of building projects and their stylistic qualities suggest an attempt to recall the glories of the past. The numismatic evidence also suggests some degree of traditionalism. It is there that we see the first references to Trajan Decius, as well as an association with both Pannonia and Dacia. His Liberitas and Uberitas issues, combined with his wife's Pudicitia and his sons' Princeps Iuventi coins, all seem to rearticulate traditional ideology. Legends tend to be conservative, so this is hardly surprising, but there were no great innovations to suggest a new set of ideological principles. In sum, while the literary reconstructions of Decius' life are problematic, it seems clear that traditionalism was an important factor in his administration, especially in the wake of Philip's reign.

The Persecution of Christians
Another possible aspect of this conservatism was a reported wide-scale attack on the growing Christian minority. The third century saw the slow creation of sizeable communities in the Empire's urban populations. For the first time, if we are to believe Christian sources, an Empire-wide persecution of Christians was begun under Decius. The state required all citizens to sacrifice to the state gods and be in receipt of a libellus, a certificate from a temple confirming the act. The rationale for the emperor's actions, however, is not entirely clear. Eusebius writes he did so because he hated Philip, who purportedly was a secret Christian. Probably the enmity was real, but it seems unconnected to the introduction of these policies. More likely, if Decius did indeed seek to persecute Christians, he was reacting to the growing visibility of the religion, especially in the city of Rome itself. One of the more prominent martyrs of the age was Fabian, the bishop of the imperial capital.

But the new policy of public religiosity was much more probably a program to reassert traditional public piety, consistent with some of the other conservative initiatives introduced during the emperor's short reign. The libelli themselves were largely generalized in nature and language, and there is no implication that they were directed at any one group per se. Whatever intended effect it may have had on Christianity was thus to a degree unplanned. Christians would have no doubt seen it differently. It is possible then that fourth and fifth century Christian polemicists have misinterpreted (whether purposefully or not) Decius' libelli. In the particular cases of Eusebius and Lactantius, both wrote in the wake of the great persecution of Diocletian and no doubt magnified upon the theme of the tyrant-persecutor. A hostile tradition notwithstanding, the new requirements did impact Christians most acutely, causing considerable division in the growing ranks of the new religion.

Imperial and Military Problems
Like other third century emperors, Decius was not free of threats to his authority, either from within or without. The revolt of Jotapianus, either in Syria or Cappadocia, had actually begun in Philip's reign, but was quickly quelled after Decius' accession. Probably the usurper's own soldiers murdered the would-be emperor, since the accounts state that his body was delivered to Decius while still in Rome in the summer of 249.
A potentially more serious revolt broke out while Decius was out of Rome in 250 fighting the Goths. Julius Valens Licinianus, also a member of the Senatorial aristocracy with some popular support, took the purple at the Empire's capital. It appears to have been relatively short-lived grab for power, ending in a few days with his execution. The governor of Macedon, Titus Julius Priscus, also permitted himself to be proclaimed Augustus at Philippopolis towards the end of 251, probably with Gothic collusion. The Senate declared him a public enemy almost as soon as he chose usurpation. He probably survived Decius, but is likely to have perished when Gallus became emperor.

Of greater concern than sporadic rebellions, which were relatively minor, were the vitreous northern borders. For the first time, a new and aggressive Germanic people, the Goths, crossed into and raided Roman territory in the 250's. At the time of Decius' forced accession, the Gepidae and the Carpi were both raiding deep into the Moesian provinces. They, along with the Goths, raided Pannonia and Dacia as well. Decius was forced to fight campaigns each year of his reign, doing his best to keep the borders stable.

His final campaign in 251 led to the death of his son, Herennius, and to his own. Decius led a successful attack on the Carpi, pushing them out of Dacia. But Moesia Inferior had been left largely undefended and Cniva, king of the Goths, led a sizeable portion of his army into the province. The emperor, after chasing the Germanic force around the region, engaged Cniva's forces outside of Philippopolis, which had recently been sacked by the king and held by the rebel, Priscus. It was here that his elder son was slain by an arrow and the emperor, seeking to reassure his troops, famously proclaimed that the death of one soldier was not a great loss to the Republic. Cniva then led his troops homeward, laden with the spoils of war. The loss became Decius' undoing. Trebonianus Gallus, one of the emperor's commanders, may have revolted, although it is not entirely clear. Instead of regrouping his forces and re-securing the borders, Decius unwisely sought to chase down Cniva before he left Roman territory. His decision may have been motivated by his son's death (despite his insistence otherwise) or it may have been an attempt to salvage what had been a failed campaign. In either case, it was ill-advised.

It was at Abrittus, about 100 kilometers northeast of Nicopolis that Decius finally met his death. Hoping to cut off Cniva's escape route (and perhaps minimize any help from Gallus), Decius' army was itself cut off in the marshy terrain. The details are sketchy, but Cniva divided his seventy thousand man army into three groups and surrounded the emperor's force. On July 1st, the emperor and most of his troops were slain. In the aftermath, the survivors named Trebonianus Gallus emperor, a decision subsequently confirmed by the Senate. Some contemporaries called the death tragic; others heroic. An Altar of Decius was erected where the emperor fell, still apparently famous two centuries later. Decius and Herennius may have even been deified. Christian polemicists, as might be expected, took pleasure in describing Decius' body being stripped and left on the battlefield to be devoured by animals. Whatever else, his was the first death of an emperor at the hands of an enemy of Rome. But even the account of his death, along with that of his son, must be looked on suspiciously. Their deaths bring to mind the sacrificial devotions of the famous Republican Decii father and son, P. Decius Mus senior and junior. The circumstances of Decius' death, therefore, are perhaps as opaque as those of his accession.

Assessment
In spite of gaining some modicum of praise from both ancient and modern observers, Decius' reign was not well-suited to the demands of a rapidly changing empire. Conservatism may have been popular among a certain portion of the Roman elite, but the old aristocracy's power and influence all but disappeared in the third century. Decius clearly had a broader vision of what he wanted to accomplish in his reign than many of his contemporaries, and certainly he was vigorous, but he was also a man who was not sufficiently flexible when the moment called for it. His religious policy caused major disruptions in Rome and; in contrast to some of the other barracks emperors, Decius proved himself less than apt when dealing with Rome's Germanic foes. His death may have been heroic, but it was unnecessary and unsuccessful. This best sums up Decius Trajan's reign.

Ancient Sources

Relatively little remains about Decius' reign. If there were a biography of Decius in the SHA, it no longer survives, although there are scattered references to his rule in the biographies of Claudius II Gothicus and Aurelian. Zosimus, i: 21-23, Aurelius Victor, 29-30, Zonaras 12, Eutropius 9, Jordanes Get. 17-8, and Sylvius Polemius 37-40 have brief accounts of his reign. There are fragments in John of Antioch, fr. 148 and Dexippus, fr. 18. Eusebius, vi: 39-41, vii:1, 11, 22, and viii:4, discusses his persecution, and there are passing references to his persecution in Socrates and Lactantius. Inscriptions and coinage are relatively abundant.

Copyright (C) 2002, Geoffrey Nathan and Robin McMahon. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis, An Online Encyclopedia of the Roman Emperors and their Families; http://www.roman-emperors.org/decius.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
1 commentsCleisthenes
TheodosiusRIC83b.jpg
[1601a] Theodosius I, 19 January 379 - 17 January 395 A.D. 67 viewsBronze AE 2, RIC 83(b), EF, Constantinople mint, 4.389g, 22.1mm, 180o, 25 Aug 383 - 28 Aug 388 A.D.; Obverse: D N THEODO-SIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: VIRTVS E-XERCITI, Emperor standing right holding standard and globe, foot on captive, cross in left field, CONSA in exergue. Ex FORVM.


De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

THEODOSIUS I (379-395 A.D.)
David Woods
University College of Cork


Origin and Early Career
Flavius Theodosius was born at Cauca in Spain in about 346 to Thermantia and Theodosius the Elder (so-called to distinguish him from his son). Theodosius the Elder was a senior military officer serving in the Western empire and rose to become the magister equitum praesentalis under the emperor Valentinian I from late 368 until his execution in early 375. As the son of a soldier, Theodosius was legally obliged to enter upon a military career. He seems to have served under his father during his expedition to Britain in 367/8, and was the dux Moesiae Primae by late 374. Unfortunately, great controversy surrounds the rest of his career until Gratian had him hailed as his imperial colleague in succession to the emperor Valens at Sirmium on 19 January 379. It is clear that he was forced to retire home to Spain only to be recalled to active service shortly thereafter, but the circumstances of his forced retirement are shrouded in mystery. His father was executed at roughly the same time, and much speculation has centred on the relationship between these events.

[For a very detailed and interesting discussion of the Foreign Policy of Theodosius and the Civil Wars that plagued his reign, please see http://www.roman-emperors.org/theo1.htm]

Family and Succession
Theodosius married twice. His first wife was the Spanish Aelia Flavia Flaccilla. She bore him Arcadius ca. 377, Honorius on 9 September 384, and Pulcheria ca. 385. Theodosius honoured her with the title of Augusta shortly after his accession, but she died in 386. In late 387 he married Galla, daughter of Valentinian I and full-sister of Valentinian II. She bore him Gratian ca. 388, Galla Placidia ca. 388/390, and died in childbirth in 394, together with her new-born son John. Of his two sons who survived infancy, he appointed Arcadius as Augustus on 19 January 383 and Honorius as Augustus on 23 January 393. His promotion of Arcadius as a full Augustus at an unusually young age points to his determination right from the start that one of his own sons should succeed him. He sought to strengthen Arcadius' position in particular by means of a series of strategic marriages whose purpose was to tie his leading "generals" irrevocably to his dynasty. Hence he married his niece and adoptive daughter Serena to his magister militum per Orientem Stilicho in 387, her elder sister Thermantia to a "general" whose name has not been preserved, and ca. 387 his nephew-in-law Nebridius to Salvina, daughter of the comes Africae Gildo. By the time of his death by illness on 17 January 395, Theodosius had promoted Stilicho from his position as one of the two comites domesticorum under his own eastern administration to that of magister peditum praesentalis in a western administration, in an entirely traditional manner, under his younger son Honorius. Although Stilicho managed to increase the power of the magister peditum praesentalis to the disadvantage of his colleague the magister equitum praesentalis and claimed that Theodosius had appointed him as guardian for both his sons, this tells us more about his cunning and ambition than it does about Theodosius' constitutional arrangements.

Theodosius' importance rests on the fact that he founded a dynasty which continued in power until the death of his grandson Theodosius II in 450. This ensured a continuity of policy which saw the emergence of Nicene Christianity as the orthodox belief of the vast majority of Christians throughout the middle ages. It also ensured the essential destruction of paganism and the emergence of Christianity as the religion of the state, even if the individual steps in this process can be difficult to identify. On the negative side, however, he allowed his dynastic interests and ambitions to lead him into two unnecessary and bloody civil wars which severely weakened the empire's ability to defend itself in the face of continued barbarian pressure upon its frontiers. In this manner, he put the interests of his family before those of the wider Roman population and was responsible, in many ways, for the phenomenon to which we now refer as the fall of the western Roman empire.


Copyright (C) 1998, David Woods.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

There is a nice segue here, as we pick-up John Julius Norwich's summation of the reign of Theodosius, "Readers of this brief account of his career may well find themselves wondering, not so much whether he deserved the title of 'the Great' as how he ever came to acquire it in the first place. If so, however, they may also like to ask themselves another question: what would have been the fate of the Empire if, at that critical moment in its history after the battle of Adrianople, young Gratian had not called him from his Spanish estates and put the future of the East into his hands? . . . the probability is that the whole Empire of the East would have been lost, swallowed up in a revived Gothic kingdom, with effects on world history that defy speculation.

In his civil legislation he showed, again and again, a consideration for the humblest of his subjects that was rare indeed among rulers of the fourth century. What other prince would have decreed that any criminal, sentenced to execution, imprisonment or exile, must first be allowed thirty days' grace to put his affairs in order? Or that a specified part of his worldly goods must go to his children, upon whom their father's crimes must on no account be visited? Or that no farmer should be obliged to sell his produce to the State at a price lower than he would receive on the open market?

Had he earned his title? Not, perhaps, in the way that Constantine had done or as Justinian was to do. But, if not ultimately great himself, he had surely come very close to greatness; and had he reigned as long as they did his achievements might well have equalled theirs. He might even have saved the Western Empire. One thing only is certain: it would be nearly a century and a half before the Romans would look upon his like again" (Norwich, John Julius. Byzantium, the Early Centuries. London: Penguin Group, 1990. 116-7;118).

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
ArcadiusManusDei.jpg
[1601b] Arcadius, 19 January 383 - 1 May 408 A.D.63 viewsARCADIUS AE2. Struck at Constantinople, 378-383 AD. Obverse: D N ARCADIVS P F AVG, diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right, holding spear and shield, Hand of God above holding wreath; Reverse - GLORIA ROMANORVM, emperor standing facing, head left, holding standard & resting shield at side, bound captive seated on ground to left, head right, CONG in exergue. RIC 53b. Scarce. Extremely Fine, some roughness and corrosion.


De Imperatoribus Romanis, An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors and their Families


Arcadius (395-408 A.D.)

Geoffrey S. Nathan
University of California at Los Angeles

Introduction and Early Life
The ineffectual life and reign of Flavius Arcadius are of considerably less importance than the quite significant developments that occurred during his reign. Born either in 377 or 378 to then general Theodosius and Aelia Flavia Flacilla, he and his younger brother, Honorius, ruled the eastern and western halves of the Roman Empire respectively from 395.

Shortly after his birth, his father was raised to the imperial purple in 379. Events in Illyricum with the massive influx of Ostrogothic and Visigothic peoples had resulted in the defeat of the Roman army and the death of the emperor, Valens. Theodosius' first task was to confront the Visigoths who had been ravaging the Balkans. Perhaps in the wake of this difficult and almost insurmountable task, the emperor wanted to insure that his infant son would bear some legitimacy should he die on campaign. Whatever the reason, Arcadius was proclaimed Augustus in January of 383 at the age of five or six. In the following year, his younger brother was born and it seems as if Theodosius initially had been interested in preserving the theoretical position of his elder son. While Arcadius enjoyed the status of Augustus, Honorius only achieved the office of consul posterior in 386. Perhaps the eastern emperor had wanted to avoid the possible conflicts that arose earlier in the century with the family of Constantine. Recent events in the west with the assassination of Gratian by Magnus Maximus may have also played a part: Theodosius initially had to leave the murder of his imperial colleague unavenged and leave the boy- emperor, Valentinian II, largely undefended. The profusion of emperors may well have been seen by Theodosius as kindling for civil war. His own autocratic tendencies may have also meant that he saw only one possible successor for himself.

Nevertheless, Theodosius gave Arcadius very little independence in early life. When he went to campaign against Magnus in the late 380's, he placed his son under the Praetorian Prefect of the East, Tatian, who was the de facto emperor in Theodosius' absence. This began a long series of regencies for Arcadius. The strength of Tatian's position with the eastern governing class made the office of Praetorian Prefect all the more powerful in Constantinople, which in turn made it easier to dominate future emperors. When Theodosius replaced Tatian with the more malleable and more ambitious Rufinus in 392, he had appointed a minister who would centralize even greater authority under the prefecture.

By 393, the emperor's situation had changed radically. When events in the west demanded his attention again, Theodosius was in a much stronger position. The ascendancy of the general, Arbogast, and his own puppet emperor, Eugenius, in the west provided Theodosius an opportunity and, indeed, the obligation to take full control of the Empire. The chance for having his own two sons ruling both halves of Rome not only seemed practical and feasible, but such an arrangement would establish himself as the head of a new dynasty. With thoughts in that direction, Honorius was made Augustus in 393 and accompanied his father west in the summer of 394. Arcadius, although near his majority, was nevertheless placed again under the guardianship (epitropos) of the Prefect of the East. In January of 395, Theodosius the Great died and his two sons took theoretical control of the two halves of the Roman Empire.

Early Reign and the Dominance of Rufinus and Eutropius (395-399)
Arcadius was eighteen when he assumed the throne in the east. We do not know whether or not he was ready for the responsibilities. During the mid-380's, the young emperor had been educated in part by Themistius, a famous pagan statesman, philosopher, and speaker. In what way he affected Arcadius is impossible to say, but surely his teachings must have included statecraft. Perhaps because of this influence, the new emperor's attempt to establish himself as an independent force can be seen in a series of laws passed at his accession. In contrast to trying to create a military image for himself, which would not be allowed either by Rufinus or by the eastern court, he attempted to portray himself as a pious Christian emperor. He enacted several comprehensive laws against heresy and paganism.

This was not necessarily an ineffectual strategy. By celebrating his religious piety, he expressed his power in the only way available to an emperor largely controlled by his ministers. He also perhaps sought to gain support and power from the local governing and religious hierarchies in Constantinople. Arcadius also perhaps thought that he was carrying on in the tradition of his father and so, by extension, might share in some of his glory. Rufinus in contrast wanted to tie himself to the emperor through a marriage connection to his daughter. But in April of 395, Arcadius had taken advantage of the Prefect's temporary absence to marry Aelia Eudoxia, whose guardian, the general, Promotus, had been a bitter enemy of Rufinus. Arcadius had been aided in this move by his own grand chamberlain (praepositus sacri cubiculi), Eutropius, and it perhaps indicated the degree to which he wanted to be free of any regent.

But in reality, Arcadius gained little if any power. Rufinus assumed full control of the east, and the Vandal Stilicho, Theodosius' closest advisor and general, took control of Honorius in the west. The tension between east and west quickly grew when Stilicho, in command of all the eastern and western armies, tried to press his guardianship over Arcadius as well. Moreover, there was considerable resentment against Rufinus in the east for using his office to greatly enrich himself and perhaps, too, because he was a westerner. Rufinus, understanding the perils around him, acted quickly. He had Arcadius demand the return of the eastern armies at once. Stilicho acquiesced, perhaps because the general was basing his claim of guardianship on his own legitimacy: to have taken control of the east and Arcadius by force would have undermined his position there and perhaps in the west. The soldiers returned under the command of the Gothic general, Gainas. With the control of the field army, it seemed as if Rufinus was going to be more thoroughly in control of the east and over Arcadius.

He did not long enjoy his victory. When Arcadius and Rufinus came to greet the armies at Hebdoman near Constantinople in November of 395, the soldiers turned on the Praetorian Prefect and cut him down in front of the emperor. Whether Stilicho instigated the assassination is a matter of some debate, but if he did, he received no benefit from it. The armies remained and Arcadius soon fell under the sway of other ministers. Nevertheless, despite the shock and fear Arcadius may have felt at witnessing such a brutal murder, he probably missed Rufinus' presence not at all and even thought it might provide an opportunity to assert his own authority. For the bureaucracy, the death meant that maintaining civilian control over the army was paramount to their own survival.

Soon thereafter, Eutropius assumed Rufinus' place in dominating Arcadius. Since the grand chamberlain could control access to the emperor and commanded the powerful palace bureaucracy, he was well-placed to dictate what and whom the emperor saw and heard. Military officers--frequently Germanic--who dominated the western government, were held suspect by fearful and jealous civil administrators in Constantinople. Eutropius used that fear to his advantage and froze out any access they may have had to the circles of power. His decision to effectively eliminate the military's input in decision-making would eventually lead to his demise.

It is difficult to determine how popular Eutropius was either with Arcadius or with the wider population. As a eunuch and a former slave, the sources generally portray him very negatively. He nevertheless seems to have enjoyed some support from the emperor, likely aided by Eudoxia with whom the grand chamberlain had close ties. The emperor happily took annual vacations in Galatia, apparently upon the Eutropius' suggestion. Moreover, the chamberlain showed great personal courage and talent in leading a campaign against invading Huns in 397/8, for which he won the consulship and the rank of patrician in the following year of 399. He also seems to have gained considerable support from the local clergy by procuring the patriarchate of Constantinople in 398 for John Chrysostom.

Despite Eutropius' rise to power, however, eastern policy changed little. The religious policies of Theodosius and Arcadius continued, including the forced closure of pagan temples in Gaza. More significantly, tension between the two halves of the empire persisted as Stilicho continued to press for his position as guardian. Although Stilicho led periodic raids into Greece and Thrace to attack the new Visigothic king, Alaric, his victories were incomplete and were more likely meant to keep the Germanic people out of western territory. This meant, among other things, that the Visigoths were an enduring problem for the east. Eutropius in turn supported the revolt of the Count Gildo in Africa, which was under western control, in an attempt to destabilize Stilicho's control and further eastern domains.

The failure of the revolt in 398 was the first step in Eutropius' downfall. The decision to exclude the military men of the period, particularly among the growing importance of Germanic officers, created a dangerous situation. By 399, the dissatisfaction with east-west affairs and the Gildo fiasco resulted in a revolt by the Gothic count, Tribigild. He was apparently in collusion with Gainas, who had taken advantage of the crisis to be named chief general in the east (magister utriusque militiae). Gainas quickly reached an agreement with the rebel and part of the settlement was the dismissal of Eutropius, to which Arcadius--at Eudoxia's urging--agreed. The chamberlain took refuge in the Hagia Sophia, and was exiled to Cyprus. But shortly thereafter, in the autumn of 399, Eutropius was recalled, tried and executed in Chalcedon.

The Age of Eudoxia (400-404)
The death of Eutropius precipitated a serious crisis. Gainas, who had wanted high office for years, now tried to force the hand of Arcadius. Having come to a quick resolution with Tribigild, he moved from Thrace towards Constantinople in 400. With the Germanic troops supporting him, Gainas tried for six months to initiate his own primacy-- including seizing the imperial palace--but which failed. He was forced to withdraw personally from the city to regroup and planned to use his troops remaining there to seize the entire city. But they were slaughtered by the inhabitiants and he fled first to Thrace and then to Asia. Eventually Gainas was killed by the Huns later in that year. His attempted coup ensured that Germanic officers would never again be trusted by the eastern government and would forever be kept out of any important decision-making roles.

The likely successor to Eutropius had been the anti-Germanic leader, Aurelianus, who had succeeded to the Prefecture of the East in 399. But Gainas had exiled him, having forced Arcadius to hand him over, and although Aurelianus returned triumphantly after Gainas' departure, he appears to have lost his hold over the emperor. In the meantime, Aelia Eudoxia had done much to forward her own place in the government. In January of 400, she had been named Augusta, a singular distinction offered to only three other women in the previous century. Her position thus gained a semi-official legitimacy afforded to very few Roman empresses. It has been assumed that because of her beauty, her intelligence, and her fecundity (she bore Arcadius five children), she was able to assert her influence to a point where she was the new power behind the throne.

That assessment, while held by many scholars, is not entirely accurate. While there were several events in which she played a crucial part, they were not terribly important moments during Arcadius' reign. But because Eudoxia was enormously wealthy, because she delivered a male heir in 401, and because she was involved in a highly publicized and drawn out political fight with John Chrysostom, this belief that there was an assumption of power is based more on the notoriety of her acts than on actual control. The fact that there was no one clearly dominating the government nor the emperor during this time implies perhaps that Arcadius had more power during these five years of his reign than at any other time.

There are several indications that he did try to improve and assert his own position. The emperor and his court immediately came to some understanding with the west. The east at the very least gave Honorius and Stilicho moral support in their increasing problems with Alaric. In 402, the feeling of goodwill was sealed by a joint consulship between Arcadius and his brother. The emperor also sought to establish his own military prowess and Christian piety with the erection of a column set up in the Hippodrome of Constantinople in 402/3. The column depicted his military victory over Gainas, crowned with a capital emblazoned with the Greek letters chi-rho, symbolizing his devotion to Christ. Arcadius' son, Theodosius II, was born in 401, and was quickly made Augustus at the age of eight months. The eastern ruler was thus interested in assuring his own dynasty.

In all these things, the emperor was largely successful, but they were largely overshadowed by the feud between his empress and the bishop of Constantinople. Eudoxia had already shown herself able in pushing her interests during the baptism of her son. The Bishop of Constantinople, however, was a much tougher opponent than her husband. John Chrysostom, a strong believer in social justice, had boorishly attacked Eudoxia and many of her friends for the conspicuous luxury in which they lived and displayed themselves. At the height of these attacks, John compared the empress to Jezebel. Eudoxia in turn used her considerable influence to inflame hostility among the clergy against the bishop. Working through Bishop Theophilus of Alexandria, in 403 Chrysostom was deposed and forced into exile at a Church council convened by the emperor (the Synod of the Oak at Chalcedon). However, there was soon such turmoil and uproar in the imperial city that the bishop was recalled a few days later. But the public feuding between Eudoxia and Chrysostom continued until at last she had him banished again in 404, this time permanently. Among other things, it caused a breach between Arcadius and his brother, who had, with Pope Innocent I, tried to support Chrysostom.

Eudoxia's victory was short-lived, however. In October of 404, the Augusta died of a miscarriage. Her death was seen by some as retribution for dismissing John. Whatever the reason, her end also signaled a complete retreat into the background by the emperor and no further initiatives seem to have been pushed by the 27-year-old Augustus.

The Final Years: Anthemius and Death (404-408)
The last years of Arcadius' reign were completely dominated by his Praetorian Prefect of the East, Anthemius. It was perhaps fitting that when the emperor seems to have been most retiring, the most able and energetic of his high ministers came to power. Anthemius worked hard to solve a series of governmental abuses, continue to push for Christianization, and secure the east from attack.

Anthemius first seems to have tried to reconcile with the west, so much so that there was a joint consulship between Anthemius and Stilicho in 405. This might have also been meant to symbolize the Prefect's new dominance, however. Additionally, a number of new laws were passed, curtailing paganism, Judaism and heresy. He tried to make use of the continuing problem of incoming Germanic peoples to combat the Isaurian tribes which had been plaguing Asia Minor since 403. While it failed to halt either group's incursions, it was nevertheless a practical and intelligent strategy. As a means of protecting the imperial capital, Anthemius also strengthened the walls around Constantinople. Our records for the last years of Arcadius' rule are quite spotty, but the emperor himself seems to have completely vanished, even symbolically, from the political scene.

In May of 408, Flavius Arcadius died at the age of 31 of unknown causes. Our only physical description of Arcadius is heavily influenced by the generally low regard in which he was held. The emperor was supposedly short, thin and dark-complected. A more kindly correspondent described him as good-natured and temperate. His son succeeded him without any controversy and the government remained unchanged. Arcadius thus left the world much as he entered it: without much significance and overshadowed by more powerful forces.

Assessment
Despite the ineffectual nature of Arcadius and his rule, a number of significant changes occurred during his stewardship of the eastern empire. His inability to forcefully or at least effectively govern meant that there were few consistent or long-range goals of his administration. With the exception of trying to emphasize the emperor's piety, an important development in the history of the Byzantine monarchy, Arcadius and his ministers were for the most part simply reacting to events.

The emperor became an even more remote figure to the general public. Even in the capital city itself, he was rarely seen: we read in one account that people came running to see the emperor for the first time when he happened to be praying in a local church. A series of "orientalizing" court practices no doubt continued in order to emphasize the symbolic separation of the emperor from the rest of society. The hieratic, almost semi- divine nature of the imperial person, also became a feature of the eastern ruler.

Perhaps of greatest importance was the political and cultural split between east and west. With the death of Theodosius, the two halves of the Roman Empire increasingly went their separate ways. For the most part, the west was thrown back upon its own resources, unable to deal with the problems of the fifth century. The east proved more compact and more resilient: it largely weathered the political storms from without and within.

Moreover, Constantinople fully became the imperial capital of the east, a Roma nova. The emperor rarely left the city and the palace officials became more influential than many of the more theoretically important ministers outside the city. Constantinople was also made an archepiscopate and Chrysostom and others started to push strongly for its primacy in the east. Both public and private building projects beautified and enlarged the city. Under Arcadius' reign, it truly became the second city of the Roman Empire.
Finally, the hard stance against Germanic officers in Roman government became a central feature in the east. While the reasons for this development were inspired largely out of fear and perhaps racism, the eastern Roman Empire did manage to avoid the largely detrimental succession of Germanic generalissimos who controlled the west in the fifth century. It also encouraged the eastern rulers in the following century to take hard lines against other peoples, including the Isaurians, the Huns and the Persians. Taken in all, the era of Arcadius was far more important than Arcadius himself. He perhaps had his father's pretensions, but none of the skills or powers necessary to leave his mark on the Empire.

By Geoffrey S. Nathan, University of California at Los Angeles
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
Shapur2ARDirhemGobl1a_1.jpg
[1909a] SHAPUR II, AR DIRHEM, 309 - 379 72 viewsSasanian Empire: Shapur II, AR Dirhem, 309 - 379 C.E., Gobl 1a/1, 26mm, 2.73 grams; near EF; Obverse: Crowned bust right; Reverse: Fire altar between two attendants. PRIME example and SHARP. This is the Shevor Malka mentioned in the Talmud in the story of Rabba.


Shapur II, The Great

Shapur II (The Great) was the ninth King of the Sassanid Empire from 309 to 379. During his long reign, the Sassanid Empire saw its first Golden Era since the reign of Shapur I (241–272).

Early childhood
When King Hormizd II (302–309) died, the Persian magnates killed his eldest son, blinded the second, and imprisoned the third (Hormizd, who afterwards escaped to the Roman Empire). The throne was reserved for the unborn child of one of the wives of Hormizd II, who was Jewish. It is said that Shapur II may have been the only king in history to been crowned in utero: the crown was placed upon his mother's belly. This child, named Shapur, was therefore born king; the government was conducted by his mother and the magnates. But when Shapur II came of age, he turned out to be one of the greatest monarchs of the dynasty.

Conquests
During the early years of the reign of Shapur, Arabs crossed the Persian Gulf from Bahrain to "Ardashir-Khora" of Fars and raided the interior. In retaliation, Shapur led an expedition through Bahrain, defeated the combined forces of the Arab tribes of "Taghleb", "Bakr bin Wael", and "Abd Al-Qays" and advanced temporarily into Yamama in central Najd.He resettled these tribes in Kerman and Ahvaz. Arabs named him, as "Shabur Dhul-aktāf" or "Zol 'Aktāf" that means "The owner of the shoulders" after this battle. In 337, just before the death of Constantine I (324–337), Shapur II broke the peace concluded in 297 between Narseh (293–302) and Emperor Diocletian (284–305), which had been observed for forty years. A twenty-six year conflict (337–363) began in two series of wars, the first from 337 to 350. After crushing a rebellion in the south, he headed toward Mesopotamia and recaptured Armenia. From there he started his first campaign against Constantius II, a campaign which was mostly unsuccessful for Shapur II. He was unable to take the fortress of Singara in the Siege of Singara (344). Shapur II also attempted with limited success to conquer the great fortresses of Roman Mesopotamia, Nisibis (which he besieged three times in vain) and Amida.

Although often victorious, Shapur II made scarcely any progress. At the same time he was attacked in the east by nomad tribes, among whom the Xionites are named. After a prolonged struggle (353–358) they were forced to conclude a peace, and their king, Grumbates, accompanied Shapur II in the war against the Romans.

In 358 Shapur II was ready for his second series of wars against Rome, which met with much more success. In 359, Shapur II conquered Amida after a siege of seventy-three days, and he took Singara and some other fortresses in the next year (360). In 363 the Emperor Julian (361–363), at the head of a strong army, advanced to Shapur's capital at Ctesiphon and defeated a superior Sassanid army in the Battle of Ctesiphon, but was killed during his retreat. His successor Jovian (363–364) made an ignominious peace, by which the districts beyond the Tigris which had been acquired in 298 were given to the Persians along with Nisibis and Singara, and the Romans promised to interfere no more in Armenia. The great success is represented in the rock-sculptures near the town Bishapur in Persis (Stolze, Persepolis, p. 141); under the hoofs of the king's horse lies the body of an enemy, probably Julian, and a supplicant Roman, the Emperor Jovian, asks for peace.

Shapur II now invaded Armenia, where he took King Arshak II, the faithful ally of the Romans, prisoner by treachery and forced him to commit suicide. He then attempted to introduce Zoroastrian orthodoxy into Armenia. However, the Armenian nobles resisted him successfully, secretly supported by the Romans, who sent King Pap, the son of Arsaces III, into Armenia. The war with Rome threatened to break out again, but Valens sacrificed Pap, arranging for his assassination in Tarsus, where he had taken refuge (374). Shapur II subdued the Kushans and took control of the entire area now known as Afghanistan. Shapur II had conducted great hosts of captives from the Roman territory into his dominions, most of whom were settled in Susiana. Here he rebuilt Susa, after having killed the city's rebellious inhabitants.

By his death in 379 the Persian Empire was stronger than ever before, considerably larger than when he came to the throne; the eastern enemies were pacified and Persia had gained control over Armenia.

Contributions
Under Shapur II's reign the collection of the Avesta was completed, heresy and apostasy punished. Shapur recovered Armenia, which he placed under military occupation. Armenia had in the meantime accepted Christianity, and Shapur, an orthodox Zoroastrian, at first persecuted the Christians but later recognized their autonomy and respected their religion. He had a large rock sculpture made near Shapur to commemorate his victory over the Romans.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shapur_II

Author not available, SHAPUR II., The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition 2007. Copyright 2007 Columbia University Press.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.





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