Classical Numismatics Discussion Members' Gallery
  Welcome Guest. Please login or register.

Members' Gallery Home | Member Collections | Last Added | Last Comments | Most Viewed | Top Rated | My Favorities | Search Galleries
Search results - "Turkey"
Alexandria_Egypt_tetradrachm.jpg
43 viewsEGYPT, ALEXANDRIA, Gallienus (A.D. 253-268), Potin Tetradrachm, 10.77g., 23mm, Dated year 14 (A.D. 266/7), AVT K P LIK GALLIHNOC CEB, laureate and cuirassed bust right, rev., eagle standing left, head right, holding wreath in beak, L ID (date) before, palm behind, (Köln 2932; Dattari 5283; Milne 4145),


Provenance:

Ex Boston Museum of Fine Arts (Deaccessioned #88.230).

Purchased from Alfred Oscar van Lennep (1851-1913), Anglo-Dutch Numismatic and Antiquities Dealer (Smyrna, (Izmir) Turkey), January 5th, 1888.
paul1888
leowi.jpg
Leo VI the Wise (870 - 912 A.D.)54 viewsÆ Follis
O: + LEOn bASILVS ROm, bust facing, with short beard, wearing crown with cross and chlamys, holding akakia in left hand.
R: + LEOn/En ΘEO bA/SILEVS R/OMEOn, inscription in four lines.
Constantinople (Istanbul, Turkey) mint
8.58g
26mm
SBCV 1729
1 commentsMat
carinus_9_25_10.jpg
(0283) CARINUS20 views283 - 285 AD
AE Antoninianus 20 mm 3.89 g
O: IMP C M AVR CARINVS P F AVG. radiate and cuirassed bust of Carinus right
R: Carinus standing right, receiving crowning Victory from Carus standing left, each holding scepter, Z in field below, * above, XXI in exergue
Antioch mint, (Antakya, Turkey), 6th officina RIC 325
laney
nero_antioch_eagle.jpg
(06) NERO29 views54 - 68 AD
struck 67-68 AD
AR Tetradrachm 24.5 mm X 28 mm; 13.65 g
O: NEPΩN KAICAP CEBACTOC, laureate bust right wearing aegis;
R: ETOYC [...], eagle standing left holding wreath in beak, palm left
Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint; Prieur 92, RPC I 4192, Wruck 48
d.s.
laney
IMITATIVE OTTOMAN.jpg
*IMITATION OTTOMAN Cedid Mahmudiye967 viewsThis piece came in a bag of modern Foreign coins - 21 pounds! May be gold inside!!!
The dating did not seem right to me! From the experts at Zeno, I found a similar issue..... This attribution from Zeno:
Imitation of gold cedid mahmudiye (KM, Turkey #645) with distorted inscriptions and fantasy regnal year 78. Made for jewelry purposes throughout the 19th and early 20th century, very likely outside Turkey: similar imitations are met in abundance in South Russia and Ukraine, along the shores of Black and Azov seas, where they were widely used for adorning Gypsy and native Greek women's garments.

So, as you see, it is not exactly a FAKE or a COUNTERFEIT - it is an IMITATION, so the makers could not get into trouble. The regnal years alone would show that the coin was not "real" -

An interesting piece that may turn up from time to time!
dpaul7
Aigina_turtle.jpg
002a, Aigina, Islands off Attica, Greece, c. 510 - 490 B.C.84 viewsSilver stater, S 1849, SNG Cop 503, F, 12.231g, 22.3mm, Aigina (Aegina) mint, c. 510 - 490 B.C.; Obverse: sea turtle (with row of dots down the middle); Reverse: incuse square of “Union Jack” pattern; banker's mark obverse. Ex FORVM.


Greek Turtles, by Gary T. Anderson

Turtles, the archaic currency of Aegina, are among the most sought after of all ancient coins. Their early history is somewhat of a mystery. At one time historians debated whether they or the issuances of Lydia were the world's earliest coins. The source of this idea comes indirectly from the writings of Heracleides of Pontus, a fourth century BC Greek scholar. In the treatise Etymologicum, Orion quotes Heracleides as claiming that King Pheidon of Argos, who died no later than 650 BC, was the first to strike coins at Aegina. However, archeological investigations date the earliest turtles to about 550 BC, and historians now believe that this is when the first of these intriguing coins were stamped.

Aegina is a small, mountainous island in the Saronikon Gulf, about midway between Attica and the Peloponnese. In the sixth century BC it was perhaps the foremost of the Greek maritime powers, with trade routes throughout the eastern half of the Mediterranean. It is through contacts with Greeks in Asia Minor that the idea of coinage was probably introduced to Aegina. Either the Lydians or Greeks along the coast of present day Turkey were most likely the first to produce coins, back in the late seventh century. These consisted of lumps of a metal called electrum (a mixture of gold and silver) stamped with an official impression to guarantee the coin was of a certain weight. Aegina picked up on this idea and improved upon it by stamping coins of (relatively) pure silver instead electrum, which contained varying proportions of gold and silver. The image stamped on the coin of the mighty sea power was that of a sea turtle, an animal that was plentiful in the Aegean Sea. While rival cities of Athens and Corinth would soon begin limited manufacture of coins, it is the turtle that became the dominant currency of southern Greece. The reason for this is the shear number of coins produced, estimated to be ten thousand yearly for nearly seventy years. The source for the metal came from the rich silver mines of Siphnos, an island in the Aegean. Although Aegina was a formidable trading nation, the coins seemed to have meant for local use, as few have been found outside the Cyclades and Crete. So powerful was their lure, however, that an old proverb states, "Courage and wisdom are overcome by Turtles."

The Aeginean turtle bore a close likeness to that of its live counterpart, with a series of dots running down the center of its shell. The reverse of the coin bore the imprint of the punch used to force the face of the coin into the obverse turtle die. Originally this consisted of an eight-pronged punch that produced a pattern of eight triangles. Later, other variations on this were tried. In 480 BC, the coin received its first major redesign. Two extra pellets were added to the shell near the head of the turtle, a design not seen in nature. Also, the reverse punch mark was given a lopsided design.

Although turtles were produced in great quantities from 550 - 480 BC, after this time production dramatically declines. This may be due to the exhaustion of the silver mines on Siphnos, or it may be related to another historical event. In 480 BC, Aegina's archrival Athens defeated Xerxes and his Persian armies at Marathon. After this, it was Athens that became the predominant power in the region. Aegina and Athens fought a series of wars until 457 BC, when Aegina was conquered by its foe and stripped of its maritime rights. At this time the coin of Aegina changed its image from that of the sea turtle to that of the land tortoise, symbolizing its change in fortunes.

The Turtle was an object of desire in ancient times and has become so once again. It was the first coin produced in Europe, and was produced in such great quantities that thousands of Turtles still exist today. Their historical importance and ready availability make them one of the most desirable items in any ancient coin enthusiast's collection.

(Greek Turtles, by Gary T. Anderson .
1 commentsCleisthenes
KnidosARdrachm.jpg
020a, CARIA, Knidos. Circa 465-449 BC. AR Drachm.62 viewsCARIA, Knidos. Circa 465-449 BC. AR Drachm - 16mm (6.06 g). Obverse: forepart of roaring lion right; Reverse: archaic head of Aphrodite right, hair bound with taenia. Cahn 80 (V38/R53); SNG Helsinki 132 (same dies); SNG Copenhagen 232 (same dies). Toned, near VF, good metal. Ex Barry P. Murphy.

While this coin falls within the time frame that numismatists call "Classical" Greek coinage, I have chosen to place it in both the "Archaic" (coin 020a) and "Classical" Greek sections of my collection. This specimen is one of those wonderful examples of transition--it incorporates many elements of the "Archaic" era, although it is struck during the "Classical" Greek period and anticipates characteristics of the later period.

As noted art historian Patricia Lawrence has pointed out, "[this specimen portrays] A noble-headed lion, a lovely Late Archaic Aphrodite, and [is made from]. . . beautiful metal." The Archaic Aphrodite is reminiscent of certain portraits of Arethusa found on tetradrachms produced in Syracuse in the first decade of the 5th century BC.

Knidos was a city of high antiquity and as a Hellenic city probably of Lacedaemonian colonization. Along with Halicarnassus (present day Bodrum, Turkey) and Kos, and the Rhodian cities of Lindos, Kamiros and Ialyssos it formed the Dorian Hexapolis, which held its confederate assemblies on the Triopian headland, and there celebrated games in honour of Apollo, Poseidon and the nymphs.

The city was at first governed by an oligarchic senate, composed of sixty members, and presided over by a magistrate; but, though it is proved by inscriptions that the old names continued to a very late period, the constitution underwent a popular transformation. The situation of the city was favourable for commerce, and the Knidians acquired considerable wealth, and were able to colonize the island of Lipara, and founded a city on Corcyra Nigra in the Adriatic. They ultimately submitted to Cyrus, and from the battle of Eurymedon to the latter part of the Peloponnesian War they were subject to Athens.

In their expansion into the region, the Romans easily obtained the allegiance of Knidians, and rewarded them for help given against Antiochus by leaving them the freedom of their city.

During the Byzantine period there must still have been a considerable population: for the ruins contain a large number of buildings belonging to the Byzantine style, and Christian sepulchres are common in the neighbourhood.

Eudoxus, the astronomer, Ctesias, the writer on Persian history, and Sostratus, the builder of the celebrated Pharos at Alexandria, are the most remarkable of the Knidians mentioned in history.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cnidus

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
1 commentsCleisthenes
966_P_Hadrian_RPC1885.jpg
1885 AEOLIS, Elaea. Hadrian, Basket with Poppies26 viewsReference.
RPC III, 1885; Sear 1161v; BMC 42 (pag. 129); SNGvA 1611; SNG Munchen 424, SNG Cop -

Obv. ΑΥΤΟ ΤΡΑΙ ΑΔΡΙ
Laureate, draped & cuirassed bust right.

Rev. ΕΛΑΙΤΩΝ
Basket containing ears of corn & poppy-heads.

3.20 gr
16 mm
12h

Note.
FORVM, from the Butte College Foundation, ex Lindgren

laea was the ancient port of Pergamum, located near the modern town of Zeytindag, Izmir Province, Turkey. The name of Elaea occurs in the history of the kings of Pergamum. According to Strabo, from Livy (xxxv. 13), travelers who would reach Pergamum from the sea, would land at Elaea. One of the passages of Livy shows that there was a small hill near Elaea, and that the town was in a plain and walled. Elaea was damaged by an earthquake in the reign of Trajan, at the same time that Pitane suffered. The ruins of the silted port's breakwater can be seen on satellite photos.
1 commentsokidoki
Caligula_Drusilla_AE20.jpg
1ao3 Julia Drusilla33 viewsAE 20 of Smyrna (Izmir, Turkey)
Laureate head of Caligula, right, ΓAION KAICAPA EΠI AOYIOΛA
Drusilla as Persephone seated left, poppies between two stalks of grain in right hand, long scepter vertical behind in left hand, ∆POYCIΛΛAN ZMYPNAIΩN MHNOΦANHC

Caligula’s sister

Klose XXVIII, 27 (Vs4/Rs10); RPC I 2472; SNG Cop 1343; SNGvA 2202; BMC Ionia p. 269, 272

According to Suetonius’ salacious account: Germanicus had married Agrippina the Elder, daughter of Marcus Agrippa and Julia the Elder, and she had borne him nine children. Two died in infancy, another in early childhood. . . .

The other children survived their father: three girls, Agrippina the Younger, Drusilla and Livilla, born in successive years; and three boys, Nero, Drusus, and Gaius Caesar (Caligula). . . . [Caligula] habitually committed incest with each of his three sisters, seating them in turn below him at large banquets while his wife reclined above. It is believed that he violated Drusilla’s virginity while a minor, and been caught in bed with her by his grandmother Antonia, in whose household they were jointly raised. Later, when Drusilla was married to Lucius Cassius Longinus, an ex-consul, he took her from him and openly treated her as his lawful married wife. When he fell ill he made her heir to his estate and the throne.

When Drusilla died (in 38AD) he declared a period of public mourning during which it was a capital offense to laugh, or bathe, or to dine with parents, spouse or children. Caligula himself was so overcome with grief that he fled the City in the middle of the night, and travelled through Campania, and on to Syracuse, returning again with the same degree of haste, and without cutting his hair or shaving. From that time forwards whenever he took an important oath, even in public or in front of the army, he always swore by Drusilla’s divinity.
Blindado
1_Archer.jpg
2.Darius I to Xerxes I - 505-480 BC35 viewsAR 1/3 Siglos
Obv. Bearded king or hero, kneeling right with drawn bow and a quiver on his back.
Rev. Incuse Oblong punch.
Size:10mm;1.76gms
Ref.-Carridice II; BMC Arabia vol.28,pg.173,No.184
Sear 3429,SNG Turkey I 1027
brian l
coins131.JPG
316. Aurelian22 views316. Aurelian

In 275, Aurelian marched towards Asia Minor, preparing another campaign against the Sassanids: the close deaths of Kings Shapur I (272) and Hormizd I (273), and the rise to power of a weakened ruler (Bahram I), set the possibility to attack the Sassanid Empire.

On on his way, the emperor suppressed a revolt in Gaul — possibly against Faustinus, an officer or usurper of Tetricus — and defeated barbarian marauders at Vindelicia (Germany).

However, Aurelian never reached Persia, since he was killed on his way. As an administrator, Aurelian had been very strict and handed out severe punishments to corrupt officials or soldiers. A secretary of Aurelian (called Eros by Zosimus) had told a lie on a minor issue. Scared of what the emperor might do, he told high ranking officials that the emperor wanted their life, showing a forged document. The notarius Mucapor and other high-ranking officiers of the Praetorian Guard, fearing punishment from the Emperor, murdered him in September of 275, in Caenophrurium, Thracia (modern Turkey).

Aurelian's enemies in the Senate briefly succeeded in passing damnatio memoriae on the emperor, but this was reversed before the end of the year and Aurelian, like his predecessor Claudius, was deified as Divus Aurelianus.

Ulpia Severina, wife of Aurelian and Augusta since 274, is said to have held the imperial role during the short interregnum before the election of Marcus Claudius Tacitus to the purple.

Siscia mint. IMP C AVRELIANVS AVG, radiate & cuirassed bust right / ORIENS AVG, Sol advancing left between two seated captives, holding up raised hand & whip, XXIT in ex. Cohen 158. RIC 255
ecoli
coin398.JPG
322. Numerian30 viewsMarcus Aurelius Numerius Numerianus was the younger son of the later emperor Carus, born in about AD 253.
Numerian and his elder brother Carinus were raised to the rank of Caesar in AD 282, soon after their father became emperor.

In AD 282 Numerian accompanied his father to the Danube to defeat the Sarmatians and the Quadi.
Then in December AD 282 or January AD 283 Carus took Numerian with him on his expedition against the Persians to re-conquer Mesopotamia. Meanwhile Carinus stayed in Rome to rule the west.

When Carus died, Numerian succeeded him, thereby becoming joint emperor with his brother Carinus who had been granted the rank of Augustus shortly before Carus' death.

At first, immediately after his father's death, Numerian sought to continue the Persian campaign.
Apparently this was much favoured by Arrius Aper, the prefect of the praetorians and suspect in Carus' death. Conditions for war were favourable. The Persian side was still thought to be weak. But Numerian's initial efforts were not followed by success.
Numerian was to all effect appeared more of an intellectual than a man of war. He wrote poetry, some of which won him critical acclaim in his day.
This lack of ruthless military talent might well have been the reason why Carinus alone had been promoted Augustus, while Numerian remained Caeasar (junior emperor).
And so, after these initial setbacks, Numerian decided it unwise to continue the war.
He sought instead to return back to Rome and the army was not displeased to pull back into Syria were it spent the winter of AD 283.
Thereafter the army set out on its march back west through Asia Minor (Turkey).
Numerian fell ill near Nicomedia, suffering from an eye disease, which he might have caught while still on campaign in Mesopotamia with his father. The illness was explained with severe exhaustion (Today it is believed this was a serious eye infection. This left him partly blind and he had to be carried in a litter.

Somewhere at this time it is believed Arrius Aper, Numerian's own father in-law, had him killed. It;s widely believed that Aper hoped that it would be assumed that Numerian had simply succumbed to his illness and that he, the praetorian prefect, would succeed to the throne in his place.
But why he should have kept up the charade that Numerian was still alive remains a mystery. Perhaps he was waiting for he right moment.
For several days the death went unnoticed, the litter being carried along as usual. Soldiers inquired about their emperor's health and were reassured by Aper, that all was well and that Numerian simply was too ill to appear in public.

Eventually though the stench of the corpse became too much. Numerian's death was revealed and the soldiers realized that Rome had lost yet another emperor (AD 284).

Had it been Aper who hoped to fill the vacancy, then it was Diocletian (still known as Diocles at the time), commander of the imperial bodyguard, who emerged the victor. It was Diocletian who was made emperor by the troops after Numerian's death. It was he who sentenced Aper to death and even executed the sentence himself. Therefore it was he who, benefited most from the deaths of Carus and Numerian. And in his role as body guard he held a key position, enabling him to prevent or enable any action against the emperor. Hence it is unlikely that Diocletian did not have anything to do with the murder of Numerian.

Numerian Antoninianus / Numerian with globe and spear

Attribution: RIC 361
Date: 282-283 AD
Obverse: M AVR NVMERIANVS NOB C, radiate bust r.
Reverse: PRINCIPI IVVENTVT, Numerian l. holding globe and spear
Size: 22.39 mm
Weight: 3.5 grams
Description: A nice ant of a scarcer emperor while serving as Caesar
ecoli
Justin I 2.jpg
518-527 Justin I - follis from Nicomedia53 viewsMinted in Nicomedia (Izmit, Turkey), in 518-527.
Ginolerhino
Heraclii.jpg
610 Heraclius as Consul - follis from Alexandretta (Iskenderun, Turkey)90 viewsMinted in Alexandretta (Iskenderun, Turkey) in 610.
Ginolerhino
TiberiusHierapolis.jpg
703b, Tiberius, 19 August 14 - 16 March 37 A.D., Hierapolis, Phrygia104 viewsBronze AE 16, RPC I 2966 (1 specimen), F, Phrygia, Hierapolis, 3.300g, 15.6mm, 0o; Obverse: TIBEPIOC KAISAR, laureate head right; Reverse: IERAPOLEITWN ZOSIMOS [...], Apollo Archegetes (Lairbenos) standing left, playing lyre; reverse countermarked with star of six rays, in oval punch, 2.5 x 3.5 mm, Howgego 445 (3 pcs, 1 of which from this magistrate); dark patina; very rare. Ex FORVM.

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

TIBERIUS (A.D. 14-37)

Garrett G. Fagan
Pennsylvania State University

The reign of Tiberius Claudius Nero (b. 42 B.C., d. A.D. 37, emperor A.D. 14-37) is a particularly important one for the Principate, since it was the first occasion when the powers designed for Augustus alone were exercised by somebody else. In contrast to the approachable and tactful Augustus, Tiberius emerges from the sources as an enigmatic and darkly complex figure, intelligent and cunning, but given to bouts of severe depression and dark moods that had a great impact on his political career as well as his personal relationships. His reign abounds in contradictions. Despite his keen intelligence, he allowed himself to come under the influence of unscrupulous men who, as much as any actions of his own, ensured that Tiberius's posthumous reputation would be unfavorable; despite his vast military experience, he oversaw the conquest of no new region for the empire; and despite his administrative abilities he showed such reluctance in running the state as to retire entirely from Rome and live out his last years in isolation on the island of Capri. His reign represents, as it were, the adolescence of the Principate as an institution. Like any adolescence, it proved a difficult time.

. . . .

It is all but inevitable that any historical assessment of Tiberius will quickly devolve into a historiographical assessment of Tacitus. So masterful is Tacitus's portrayal of his subject, and so influential has it been ever since, that in all modern treatments of Tiberius, in attempting to get at the man, must address the issue of Tacitus's historiographical methods, his sources, and his rhetoric. The subject is too vast to address here, but some points are salient. Tacitus's methods, especially his use of innuendo and inference to convey notions that are essentially editorial glosses, makes taking his portrayal of Tiberius at face value inadvisable. Further, his belief in the immutable character of people -- that one's character is innate at birth and cannot be changed, although it can be disguised -- prevents him from investigating the possibility that Tiberius evolved and developed over his lifetime and during his reign. Instead, Tacitus's portrayal is one of peeling back layers of dissimulation to reach the "real" Tiberius lurking underneath.

Overall, Tiberius's reign can be said to show the boons and banes of rule by one man, especially a man as dark, awkward, and isolated as Tiberius. For the people of the provinces, it was a peaceful and well-ordered time. Governors behaved themselves, and there were no destructive or expensive wars. In the domestic sphere, however, the concentration of power in one person made all the greater the threat of misbehavior by ambitious satellites like Sejanus or foolish friends like Piso. Furthermore, if the emperor wished to remain aloof from the mechanics of power, he could do so. Administrators, who depended on him for their directions, could operate without his immediate supervision, but their dealings with a man like Sejanus could lead to disaster if that man fell from grace. As a result, although he was not a tyrant himself, Tiberius's reign sporadically descended into tyranny of the worst sort. In the right climate of paranoia and suspicion, widespread denunciation led to the deaths of dozens of Senators and equestrians, as well as numerous members of the imperial house. In this sense, the reign of Tiberius decisively ended the Augustan illusion of "the Republic Restored" and shone some light into the future of the Principate, revealing that which was both promising and terrifying.

[For the complete article please refer to http://www.roman-emperors.org/tiberius.htm]

By Garrett G. Fagan, Pennsylvania State University.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.


Hierapolis in History

Usually said to be founded by Eumenes II, king of Pergamum (197-159 BC), Hierapolis may actually have been established closer to the 4th century BC by the Seleucid kings.

The name of the city may derive from Hiera, the wife of Telephus (son of Hercules and grandson of Zeus), the mythical founder of Pergamum. Or it may have been called the "sacred city" because of the temples located at the site. (The name Pamukkale is sometimes used just to refer to the white terraces, but the modern name of the whole area is also Pamukkale.)

With Colossae and Laodicea, Hierapolis became part of the tri-city area of the Lycus River valley. Hierapolis was located across the river from the other two cities and was noted for its textiles, especially wool. The city was also famous for its purple dye, made from the juice of the madder root.

The hot springs at Hierapolis (which still attract visitors today) were believed to have healing properties, and people came to the city to bathe in the rich mineral waters in order to cure various ailments.

Hierapolis was dedicated to Apollo Lairbenos, who was said to have founded the city. The Temple of Apollo that survives in ruins today dates from the 3rd century AD, but its foundations date from the Hellenistic period.

Also worshipped at Hierapolis was Pluto, god of the underworld, probably in relation to the hot gases released by the earth (see the Plutonium, below). The chief religious festival of ancient Hierapolis was the Letoia, in honor of the the goddess Leto, a Greek form of the Mother Goddess. The goddess was honoured with orgiastic rites.

Hierapolis was ceded to Rome in 133 BC along with the rest of the Pergamene kingdom, and became part of the Roman province of Asia. The city was destroyed by an earthquake in 60 AD but rebuilt, and it reached its peak in the 2nd and 3rd centuries AD.

Famous natives of Hierapolis include the Stoic philosopher Epictetus (c.55-c.135 AD) and the philosopher and rhetorician Antipater. Emperor Septimus hired Antipater to tutor his sons Caracalla and Geta, who became emperors themselves.

Hierapolis had a significant Jewish population in ancient times, as evidence by numerous inscriptions on tombs and elsewhere in the city. Some of the Jews are named as members of the various craft guilds of the city. This was probably the basis for the Christian conversion of some residents of Hierapolis, recorded in Colossians 4:13.

In the 5th century, several churches as well as a large martyrium dedicated to St. Philip (see "In the Bible," below) were built in Hierapolis. The city fell into decline in the 6th century, and the site became partially submerged under water and deposits of travertine. It was finally abandoned in 1334 after an earthquake. Excavations began to uncover Hierapolis in the 19th century.

Hierapolis in the Bible

Hierapolis is mentioned only once in the Bible, when St. Paul praises Epaphras, a Christian from Colossae, in his letter to the Colossians. Paul writes that Epaphras "has worked hard for you and for those in Laodicea and in Hierapolis" (Colossians 4:12-13). Epaphras was probably the founder of the Christian community at Hierapolis.

Ancient tradition also associates Hierapolis with a biblical figure, reporting that Philip died in Hierapolis around 80 AD. However, it is not clear which Philip is menat. It could be Philip the Apostle, one of the original 12 disciples, who is said to have been martyred by upside-down crucifixion (Acts of Philip) or by being hung upside down by his ankles from a tree.

Or Philip could be Philip the Evangelist, a later disciple who helped with administrative matters and had four virgin-prophetess daughters (Acts 6:1-7; 21:8-9). Early traditions say this Philip was buried in Hierapolis along with his virgin daughters, but confusingly call him "Philip the Apostle"! In any case, it seems a prominent person mentioned in Acts did die in Hierapolis.
http://www.sacred-destinations.com/turkey/hierapolis-pamukkale.htm

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
CaligulaSmyrnaRPC2473.jpg
704a, Caligula, 16 March 37 - 24 January 41 A.D.100 viewsCaligula, 37 - 41 AD, Ionia, Smyrna. AE 17mm. Klose, Smyrna 27a. RPC 2473. 2.89 gm. Fine. Menophanes, Aviola, Procos, 37-38 AD. Obverse: AION, laureate head right; Reverse: Nike holding wreath right. Ex Tom Vossen.


De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

GAIUS (CALIGULA) (A.D. 37-41)

Garrett G. Fagan
Pennsylvania State University

Gaius Caesar Augustus Germanicus (Caligula) was born on 31 August, A.D. 12, probably at the Julio-Claudian resort of Antium (modern Anzio), the third of six children born to Augustus's adopted grandson, Germanicus, and Augustus's granddaughter, Agrippina. Caligula was the Roman Emperor between A.D. 37-41). Unfortunately, his is the most poorly documented reign of the Julio-Claudian dynasty. The literary sources for these four years are meager, frequently anecdotal, and universally hostile.[[1]] As a result, not only are many of the events of the reign unclear, but Gaius himself appears more as a caricature than a real person, a crazed megalomaniac given to capricious cruelty. Although some headway can be made in disentangling truth from embellishment, the true character of the youthful emperor will forever elude us.

As a baby he accompanied his parents on military campaigns in the north and was shown to the troops wearing a miniature soldier's outfit, including the hob-nailed sandal called caliga, whence the nickname by which posterity remembers him. His childhood was not a happy one, spent amid an atmosphere of paranoia, suspicion, and murder. Instability within the Julio-Claudian house, generated by uncertainty over the succession, led to a series of personal tragedies.

When Tiberius died on 16 March A.D. 37, Gaius was in a perfect position to assume power, despite the obstacle of Tiberius's will, which named him and his cousin Tiberius Gemellus joint heirs. (Gemellus's life was shortened considerably by this bequest, since Gaius ordered him killed within a matter of months.) Backed by the Praetorian Prefect Q. Sutorius Macro, Gaius asserted his dominance. He had Tiberius's will declared null and void on grounds of insanity, accepted the powers of the Principate as conferred by the Senate, and entered Rome on 28 March amid scenes of wild rejoicing. His first acts were generous in spirit: he paid Tiberius's bequests and gave a cash bonus to the Praetorian Guard, the first recorded donativum to troops in imperial history.

The ancient sources are practically unanimous as to the cause of Gaius's downfall: he was insane. The writers differ as to how this condition came about, but all agree that after his good start Gaius began to behave in an openly autocratic manner, even a crazed one. The sources describe his incestuous relations with his sisters, laughable military campaigns in the north, the building of a pontoon bridge across the Bay at Baiae, and the plan to make his horse a consul. Their unanimous hostility renders their testimony suspect, especially since Gaius's reported behavior fits remarkably well with that of the ancient tyrant, a literary type enshrined in Greco-Roman tradition centuries before his reign. Further, the only eye-witness account of Gaius's behavior, Philo's Embassy to Gaius, offers little evidence of outright insanity, despite the antagonism of the author, whom Gaius treated with the utmost disrespect.

The conspiracy that ended Gaius's life was hatched among the officers of the Praetorian Guard, apparently for purely personal reasons. It appears also to have had the support of some senators and an imperial freedman. As with conspiracies in general, there are suspicions that the plot was more broad-based than the sources intimate, and it may even have enjoyed the support of the next emperor Claudius, but these propositions are not provable on available evidence. On 24 January A.D. 41 the praetorian tribune Cassius Chaerea and other guardsmen caught Gaius alone in a secluded palace corridor and cut him down. He was 28 years old and had ruled three years and ten months.

Whatever damage Tiberius's later years had done to the carefully crafted political edifice created by Augustus, Gaius multiplied it a hundredfold. When he came to power in A.D. 37 Gaius had no administrative experience beyond his honorary quaestorship, and had spent an unhappy early life far from the public eye. He appears, once in power, to have realized the boundless scope of his authority and acted accordingly. For the elite, this situation proved intolerable and ensured the blackening of Caligula's name in the historical record they would dictate. The sensational and hostile nature of that record, however, should in no way trivialize Gaius's importance. His reign highlighted an inherent weakness in the Augustan Principate, now openly revealed for what it was -- a raw monarchy in which only the self-discipline of the incumbent acted as a restraint on his behavior. That the only means of retiring the wayward princes was murder marked another important revelation: Roman emperors could not relinquish their powers without simultaneously relinquishing their lives.

Copyright © 1997, Garrett G. Fagan.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Ancient Smyrna

The 5,000 year-old city of Izmir is one of the oldest cities of the Mediterranean basin. The original city was established in the third millennium BC (at present day Bayraklı), at which time it shared with Troy the most advanced culture in Anatolia.


Greek settlement is attested by the presence of pottery dating from about 1000 BC. In the first millennium BC Izmir, then known as Smyrna, ranked as one of the most important cities of the Ionian Federation. During this period, it is believed that the epic poet Homer resided here.

Lydian conquest of the city around 600 BC brought this golden age to an end. Smyrna was little more than a village throughout the Lydian and subsequent sixth century BC Persian rule. In the fourth century BC a new city was built on the slopes of Mt. Pagos (Kadifekale) during the reign of Alexander the Great. Smyrna's Roman period, beginning in the first century BC, was its second great era.

In the first century AD, Smyrna became one of the earliest centers of Christianity and it was one of the Seven Churches of Revelation. Both Revelation and the Martyrdom of Polycarp indicate the existence of a Jewish community in Smyrna as early as the 1st and 2nd centuries AD. The letter to the church at Smyrna in Revelation indicates that the Christians were spiritually "rich" and apparently in conflict with the Jews (2:9).

The origins of the Christian community there, which was established in the 1st century, are unknown. Ignatius of Antioch stopped at Smyrna on his way to martyrdom in Rome in 107 AD, and he sent a letter back to the Christians there from later in his journey. Smyrna's bishop, Polycarp, was burned at the stake in Smyrna's stadium around 156 AD.

Byzantine rule came in the fourth century and lasted until the Seljuk conquest in 11th century. In 1415, under Sultan Mehmed Çelebi, Smyrna became part of the Ottoman Empire.

The city earned its fame as one of the most important port cities of the world during the 17th to 19th centuries. The majority of its population were Greek but merchants of various origins (especially Greek, French, Italian, Dutch, Armenian, Sephardi and Jewish) transformed the city into a cosmopolitan portal of trade. During this period, the city was famous for its own brand of music (Smyrneika) as well as its wide range of products it exported to Europe (Smyrna/Sultana raisins, dried figs, carpets, etc.).

Today, Izmir is Turkey's third largest city and is nicknamed "the pearl of Aegean." It is widely regarded as the most Westernized city of Turkey in terms of values, ideology, gender roles, and lifestyle.
© 2005-08 Sacred Destinations. All rights reserved.
http://www.sacred-destinations.com/turkey/izmir-history.htm

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
coin142.JPG
Adramyteion, Mysia37 viewsAdramyteion in Mysia, 200-150 BC.,

Obv.: head of Zeus left.
Rev.: AΔP-A-M-VTHN-ΩN , horseman riding right, hand raised.
ANS 1944.100.42406 ; cf. Sear GC 3805

Adramyteion, is located on the western coast of Turkey. Today Burhaniye, it was previously named Kemer, ("aquaduct"), after a nearby aquaduct which has since been demolished.
ecoli
93733q00.jpg
AE 18 Pergamum, Mysia, bronze2 views Bronze AE 18, RPC I 2374; SNG BnF 1964; BMC Mysia p. 134, 205; SGICV 4910; SNG Cop -, F, dark green patina, reverse off center, Pergamon (Bergama, Turkey) mint, weight 4.116g, maximum diameter 18.3mm, die axis 0o, c. 40 - 60 A.D.; obverse Θ EON CYN-KΛHTON, draped bust of the Senate right; reverse ΘEAN PWMHN, turreted and draped bust of Roma rightNORMAN K
Lg007_quad_sm.jpg
AE provincial, Saitta, Lydia (Sidas Kaleh, Turkey), Senate/River-God (mid-2nd to early 3d century AD) 5 viewsIЄΡA - [CYNKΛHTOC], bare-headed youthful draped bust of Senate right / CAIT[THNΩN] + [ЄPMOC] in exergue, River-God Hermos reclining left, holding reed and cornucopiae, resting arm on urn (hydria) from which waters flow.

Ӕ (base metal yellow, orichalcum?), 22 mm, 5.68 g, die axis 6.5h (coin alignment)

It is difficult to read the name of the river. I think that ЄPMOC is more likely, but VΛΛΟС is also possible, representing the other important local river, Hyllos.

Possible catalog references are BMC Lydia 25 (or 26-27?), SNG Copenhagen 398, SNG München 439.
For the Hyllos reverse, Leypold 1153.

To emphasize the autonomy of certain Hellenistic polises, even under the Roman rule they sometimes used allegorical figures of Senate or Demos on obverses of their coins instead of imperial portraits. Saitta was issuing similar-looking coins with busts of emperors and their family as well, but in this issue the town Senate is honoured as the ruler. IЄΡA CYNKΛHTOC = Holy Senate. CAITTHNΩN = Saitta, ЄPMOC = Hermos, the name of the river and its god.

River-Gods or Potamoi (Ποταμοί) were the gods of the rivers and streams of the earth, all sons of the great earth-encirling river Okeanos (Oceanus) and his wife Tethys. Their sisters were the Okeanides (Oceanids), goddesses of small streams, clouds and rain, and their daughters were the Naiades, nymphs of springs and fountains. A River-God was depicted in one of three forms: as a man-headed bull; a bull-horned man with the tail of a serpentine-fish in place of legs; or as a reclining man with an arm resting upon a pitcher pouring water, which we see in this case. The addition of cornucopia symbolizes the blessings that a particular river bestows on those who live near it.

Saitta or Saittae (Σαίτται, Ptolemy 5.2.21: Σέτται, Σάετται) was a polis in eastern Lydia (aka Maeonia), in the rivers' triangle between the upper Hyllus (modern Demirci Çayı, c. 12 km to the west) and the Hermus or Hermos (modern Gediz Nehri, c. 20 km to the south). In Roman imperial times it belonged to the "conventus" of Sardis in the Roman province of Asia (conventus was a territorial unit of a Roman province, mostly for judicial purposes).

Now its ruins are known now as Sidas Kaleh or Sidaskale in Turkey, near the village of İçikler (İcikler Mahallesi, 45900 Demirci/Manisa). They were never excavated, so are little known or cared for. Ruins of a stadium and a theatre survive, together with remains of some temples and tombs.

Not much is known about it. It was a regional centre for the production of textiles. In 124 AD the town was probably visited by emperor Hadrianus. During the Roman period the cult of the moon god Mēn Axiottenus was very popular in the city. Because of its reference to "angels" (both literally as the Greek word and by their function as god's messengers) it was possibly close to the more general Asia Minor cult of Theos Hypsistos, Θεος ὕψιστος, "the highest god" (200 BC – 400 AD), which in turn was perhaps related to the gentile following of the Second Temple in Jerusalem.

Known Roman provincial coins issued by this city feature portraits of emperors from Hadrian to Gallienus, thus covering the period from 117 to 268 AD, with the peak around the Severan dynasty. The semi-autonomous issues are usually dated from mid-2nd to mid-3d century AD.

Later Saittae was the seat of a Byzantine bishopric. Bishop Limenius signed the Chalcedon Creed, while Bishop Amachius spoke at the Council of Chalcedon. Although an Islamic area now, Saittae remains a titular see of the Roman Catholic Church.
Yurii P
coins67.JPG
AEOLIS, Aigai 50 viewsAigai is an ancient Greek site in Turkey, situated at a rather high altitude almost on top of the Mount Gün (Dağı), part of the mountain chain of Yunt (Dağları) in western Anatolia in the location of the present village of Yuntdağı Köseler, depending Manisa central district, although the easier road to the site departs from İzmir's Aliağa district center, though the bifurcation for Şakran township. Aigai lived its brightest period under the Attalid dynasty that ruled from nearby Pergamon in the 3rd century and 2nd century B.C.

Aeolis (Ancient Greek Αιολίς Aiolís) or Aeolia (IPA [iːˈoʊlɪə]) (Ancient Greek Αιολία Aiolía) was an area that comprised the west and northwestern region of Asia Minor, mostly along the coast, and also several offshore islands (particularly Lesbos), where the Aeolian Greek city-states were located. Aeolis incorporated the southern parts of Mysia which bounded it to the north, Ionia to the south, and Lydia to the east. In early times, the Aeolians' twelve most important cities were independent, and formed a league: Cyme (also called Phriconis), Larissae, Neonteichos, Temnus, Cilla, Notium, Aegiroessa, Pitane, Aegeaeae, Myrina, Gryneia, and Smyrna (Herodotus, 1.149).

According to Homer's description, Odysseus, after his stay with the Cyclopes, reached the island of Aiolos, who provided him with the west wind Zephyr.

AEOLIS, Aigai. Circa 3rd Century BC. Laureate head of Apollo right / Head of goat right. SNG Copenhagen 4

Ebay
ecoli
GRK_Aiolis_Elaia_Sear_4203.jpg
Aiolis, Elaia10 viewsSear 4203 var. (size), SNG Kayhan 83; SNG Copenhagen 169; SNG von Aulock 1605.

AE unit, struck ca. ca 350-320 BC., 1.30 g., 11.18 mm. max., 90°

Obv.: Head of Athena left, wearing crested Corinthian helmet.

Rev.: E-[Λ], corn grain within olive wreath.

Elaia was the port of Pergamum; the site is not precisely determined but is near Zeytindag, Izmir Province, Turkey.
Stkp
s-l500.jpg
Aiolis, Kyme. (Circa 2nd century B.C.) 23 viewsAE 16, 3.74 g

Obverse: Artemis standing right, holding long torch, clasping hands with the Amazon Kyme, standing left, holding short transverse scepter

Reverse: Two figures, Apollo and Kyme, in crested helmets and military garb, Apollo holding lance or long spear, standing in slow quadriga right.

Grose:7908; SNG von Aulock 7698; SNG München 512; SNG Copenhagen 113.

Kyme was an Aeolian city in Aeolis (Asia Minor) close to the kingdom of Lydia. The Aeolians regarded Kyme as the largest and most important of their twelve cities, which were located on the coastline of Asia Minor (modern-day Turkey). Little is known about the foundation of the city to supplement the traditional founding legend. According to legend, it was founded by the Amazon Kyme.
Nathan P
DOC41.jpg
ALEXIUS I AE Tetarteron SR- Unlisted DOC 41312 viewsMonogram of Alexius. Rev Bust of Emperor wearing stemma divitision and jewelled loros of traditional type holds in r. hand jewlled sceptre and in l. gl. cr. 15/17mm

VERY RARE!- Only one known in a major collection located in Istanbul Turkey. DOC mentions and includes the type in the catalog but does not have one in inventory. A key piece for this collection.
1 commentsSimon
mithridatesviamastris2.jpg
Amastris, Paphlagonia26 viewsAncient Greek City Issue
Amastris, Paphlaognia
(Under Reign of Mithridates VI 'the Great' of Pontus)

Obverse: Aegis with facing head of gorgon in middle


Reverse: Nike advancing right, palm across shoulders, AMAΣ-TPEΩΣ in fields

Bronze Unit (20mm, 7.1g)
Minted in Amastris 85-65BC

Reference: SNG Copenhagen 246


Translations and explanations:

Amastris was founded circa 300BC by a Persian princess of the same name, niece of King Darius III and is now Amasra in modern day Turkey.

Mithridates VI was a thorn in Rome's side for 40 years until finally being defeated by Pompey the Great.

An aegis is the shield or breastplate of Zeus or Athena.

Nike is the Greek god of victory.

AMAΣTPEΩΣ means 'of the Amastrians'.






Sphinx357
66049q00.jpg
Amisos, Pontos, 120 - 63 B.C.33 viewsBronze AE 19, BMC Pontus p. 17, 48; SNG BM 1161; SNG Stancomb 679 var (2nd monogram right); SGCV II 3643, aVF, Amisos (Samsun, Turkey) mint, weight 7.612g, maximum diameter 19.1mm, die axis 0o, c. 120 - 63 B.C.; obverse head of Ares right in crested helmet; reverse AMI−ΣOY, sword in sheath with strap, star in crescent upper left, monogram lower left, IB upper right;jimmynmu
Maximin_Daïa_Antioche.jpg
Antioch AE3 310-311 A.D.22 viewsMint of Antioch (Antakya, Turkey), 5th officina
Obv: GENIO ANTIOCHENI. Tyche of Antioch seated facing, river-god swimming at feet.
Rev: APOLLONI SANCTO. Apollo standing left pouring from patera and holding lyre; in field right: E; in ex: SMA.
Ginolerhino
IMG_8042.PNG
Antiochos II Theos37 viewsAR Tetradrachm (28mm, 16.90 g, 1h). Lysimacheia mint. Diademed head right / Apollo Delphios, testing arrow and placing hand on grounded bow, seated left on omphalos; monograms to outer left and in exergue. SC 483.7; Le Rider, Lysimachie, Group 2, dies D1/R4; HGC 9, 236a; CSE 660 (same dies).ThatParthianGuy
tripod_k.jpg
Antiochos II Theos, 261 - 246 BC7 viewsÆ18, 4.6g, 12h; Sardes (Sart, Turkey) mint.
Obv.: Laureate head of Apollo right, hair falling in spiral curls down neck and beneath ear;
Rev.: Tripod lebes with lion paw feet; ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ downward on right right, ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ downward on left, monograms outer left and outer right; controls, outer left.
Reference: SNG Cop 95; SNG Spaer 362; BMC Seleucid 13, p. 15.
John Anthony
aristotle.jpg
Aristotle, 384-322 B.C.27 viewsAristotle was born in Stagira in north Greece, the son of Nichomachus, the court physician to the Macedonian royal family. He was trained first in medicine, and then in 367 he was sent to Athens to study philosophy with Plato. He stayed at Plato's Academy until about 347. Though a brilliant pupil, Aristotle opposed some of Plato's teachings, and when Plato died, Aristotle was not appointed head of the Academy. After leaving Athens, Aristotle spent some time traveling, and possibly studying biology, in Asia Minor (now Turkey) and its islands. He returned to Macedonia in 338 to tutor Alexander the Great; after Alexander conquered Athens, Aristotle returned to Athens and set up a school of his own, known as the Lyceum. After Alexander's death, Athens rebelled against Macedonian rule, and Aristotle's political situation became precarious. To avoid being put to death, he fled to the island of Euboea, where he died in 322 B.C.

Aristotle is said to have written 150 philosophical treatises. The 30 that survive touch on an enormous range of philosophical problems, from biology and physics to morals to aesthetics to politics. Many, however, are thought to be "lecture notes" instead of complete, polished treatises, and a few may not be the work of Aristotle but of members of his school.

A full description of Aristotle's contributions to science and philosophy is beyond the scope of this gallgery. Suffice it to say that Aristotle became virtually lost to Western Civilization during the so-called "dark ages." In the later Middle Ages, Aristotle's work was rediscovered and enthusiastically adopted by medieval scholars. His followers called him Ille Philosophus (The Philosopher), or "the master of them that know," and many accepted every word of his writings -- or at least every word that did not contradict the Bible -- as eternal truth. Fused and reconciled with Christian doctrine into a philosophical system known as Scholasticism, Aristotelian philosophy became the official philosophy of the Roman Catholic Church. As a result, some scientific discoveries in the Middle Ages and Renaissance were criticized simply because they were not found in Aristotle. It is one of the ironies of the history of science that Aristotle's writings, which in many cases were based on first-hand observation, were used to impede observational science.

"Mine is the first step and therefore a small one, though worked out with much thought and hard labor. You, my readers or hearers of my lectures, if you think I have done as much as can fairly be expected of an initial start. . . will acknowledge what I have achieved and will pardon what I have left for others to accomplish," Aristotle.

See: http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/history/aristotle.html hosted by the University of California, Berkeley Museum of Paleontology.
Cleisthenes
PAMPHYLIA__Aspendos__Stater_.jpg
Aspendos, Pamphylia, 370 - 333 B.C.224 viewsWith the influence of the Olympics games.

Obverse : two wrestlers, the left one holds the wrist of his opponent with his right and right forearm with his left hand, KI between their legs.

Reverse : EΣTΦE∆IIYΣ on left, slinger, wearing short chiton, discharging sling to right, triskeles on right with feet clockwise,


Extremely fine Silver Stater . Weight: 10.62 g. Max Diameter: 23 mm. Mint : Aspendos (in our days , Antalya province of Turkey)
SNG France 104. Struck from fresh , artistic and well executed dies.

Historical and Numismatic Note:

Pamphylia (/pæmˈfɪliə/) was the region in the south of Asia Minor, between Lycia and Cilicia, extending from the Mediterranean to Mount Taurus (modern-day Antalya province, Turkey).

Aspendos or Aspendus (Greek: Ἄσπενδος) was an ancient Greco-Roman city in Antalya province of Turkey. Aspendos is about 40 km east of Antalya, Turkey about 16 km inland on the Eurymedon River. In 546 B.C. it fell to Persia. After a Persian defeat in 467, the city joined the Attic-Delos Maritime League. Persia took it again in 411 B.C., Alexander in 333 B.C., and Rome in 190 B.C. Although often subject to powerful empires, the city usually retained substantial autonomy.


The Sam Mansourati Collection. NO. AGAP 3121.

2 commentsSam
PAMPHYLIA_Aspendos_23.jpg
Aspendos, Pamphylia.156 viewsCirca 380/75-330/25 BC.
With the influence of the Olympics games , Silver Stater.
Obverse : Two wrestlers grappling; LΦ between, below.
Reverse : Slinger in throwing stance right; EΣTFEΔIIYΣ to left, counterclockwise triskeles of legs to right , Small eagle's head banker mark.
Mint : Aspendos (in our days , Antalya province of Turkey).
Ref ; Tekin Series 4; Arslan & Lightfoot 61–72 (same dies); Izmir 413 (same dies); SNG von Aulock 4565; SNG France 105 (same obv. die); SNG Copenhagen 227.
Extremely fine . 10.86 Gr . Max Dia 23 mm . Struck from fresh , artistic and well executed dies.

The Sam Mansourati Collection.
3 commentsSam
Basil_II___Constantine_VIII.jpg
Byzantine Anonymous Follis of Christ, Class A3, Basil II & Constantine VIII, c. 1023 - 11 November 1028 A.D.133 viewsBronze anonymous follis, Anonymous follis of Christ, class A3; SBCV 1818; Grierson ornaments 24a, gVF, well centered, excellent portrait detail but nose a bit flat, attractive toned bare metal, a few scratches, Constantinople (Istanbul, Turkey) mint, weight 9.833g, maximum diameter 27.5mm, die axis 180o, c. 1023 - 11 Nov 1028 A.D.; obverse + EMMANOVHL, facing nimbate bust of Christ, two pellets in each arm of the cross, pallium and colobium, holding gospels with both hands, to left IC, to right XC; reverse + IhSuS / XRISTuS / bASILEu / bASILE (Jesus Christ King of Kings), ornaments above and below legend;

The emperor's name and portrait are not part of the design on the Byzantine types referred to as anonymous folles. Instead of the earthly king, these coins depict Jesus Christ, King of Kings.

FORVM Ancient Coins.

*A spectacular artistic portrait of Christ.
The Sam Mansourati Collection.
2 commentsSam
Constans_II_Gold_solidus.jpg
Byzantine Empire, Constans II, September 641 - 15 July 668 A.D.45 viewsGold solidus, DOC II-2 Heraclonas 1c (not in the coll., refs. T.), Hahn MIB 3a, Tolstoi 13, Sommer 12.1, SBCV 936, Wroth BMC -, Morrison BnF -; Ratto -, VF, well centered, double strike, some legend weak, light scratches and bumps, 8th officina, Constantinople (Istanbul, Turkey) mint, weight 4.479g, maximum diameter 20.6mm, die axis 180o, Sep 641 - 642/644 A.D.; obverse d N CONSTANTINYS P P AVG, crowned and cuirassed beardless bust facing, small head, wearing chlamys, crown ornamented with cross on circlet, globus cruciger in right hand; reverse VICTORIA AVGY H, cross potent on three steps, CONOB in exergue.

FORVM / The Sam Mansourati Collection.

In 641, when Heraclius died, he was succeeded by his sons Constantine III and Heracleonas. When Constantine III died after only a few months, the Byzantine people suspected that Heracleonas had poisoned him. Heracleonas was deposed, mutilated and banished. Constans II, the son of Constantine III, became emperor. This type is attributed to Heraclonas in DOC II-2 and Morrison BnF but today it is accepted as the first issue of Constantine II.
5 commentsSam
Lg006GreekLarge_quad_sm~1.jpg
Caracalla AE provincial, Nikopolis ad Istrum, Moesia Inferior (Nikyup, Bulgaria) (211 - 212 AD)14 viewsΑΥ Κ Μ ΑΥΡ – [ANTΩNINOC], laureate, draped bust right / Y ΦΛ OYΛΠIAN – NIKOΠOΛIT + ΠΡOC I in exergue, Nemesis-Aequitas standing left, holding scales in extended right hand and measuring rod (whip? sceptre?) in the crook of left arm, wheel at foot left.

Ӕ, 26 mm, 9.22 g, die axis 8h (turned coin)

I do not have access to any of the relevant provincial catalogs and cannot check any entries, but based on other similar coin descriptions on this site some numbers that may be close to this type are: AMNG I/1 1576-77, 1877-78; Varbanov (engl.) 3134, 3148, 3248; Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (HrHJ) No. 8.18.35.4-5, 8.18.35.8

AY[TOKPATΩΡ] K[AICAP] = Imperator Caesar, Μ[ΑΡΚΟC] ΑΥ[ΡΗΛΙΟC] ANTΩNINOC = Marcus Aurelius Antoninus aka "Caracalla". NIKOΠOΛIT[ΩN] PROC I[CTPΩN] ("πρός"="toward", but also "near to", like Latin "ad"; Istros = the lower Danube). ΦΛ OYΛΠIAN = Flavius Ulpianus, who was Roman governor of Lower Moesia (Moesia Inferior) starting from 210 to about 213. Before 211 Septimius Severus was still in charge; Caracalla visited the city in 211-212, was displeased with it and closed the mint (it was reopened only after his death), so the likely minting years are 211-212. All governors of Lower Moesia had titles on coins of either ΗΓ[ΕΜΟΝΑΣ] (governor of equestrian rank) or ΥΠ[ΑΤΕΥΟΝΤΟΣ] of the province (ΤΗΣ ΕΠΑΡΧΕΙΑΣ) (consular legate of senatorial rank). Y before the name of Flavius Ulpianus indicates the latter.

Aequitas = justice, equality, conformity, symmetry. Nemesis was originally understood as honest distributor of fortune, neither bad nor good, but in due proportion. Later it gained aspects of justice and divine retribution, but in Nemesis-Aequitas her qualities of honest dealing is emphasized. It symbolizes honesty, equality and justice of the emperor towards his subjects. The scales here mean honest measure rather than justice, the long stick she carries is most probably a measuring rod, but may also be a whip (symbol of punishment) or a sceptre (symbol of imperial power). The wheel may be the Wheel of Fortune (Rota Fortunae), but may also just symbolize equality.

CARACALLA, *4 April 188 Lugdunum (Lyon, France) † 8 April 217 (aged 29) road between Edessa and Carrhae ‡ 26 Dec 211 – 8 Apr 217 (not counting joint rule with his father and brother)

His birth name was Lucius Septimius Bassianus, then he was renamed Marcus Aurelius Antoninus at the age of 7 as part of his father's attempt at union with the families of Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius. He got the agnomen "Caracalla" after a Gallic hooded tunic that he habitually wore and made fashionable. He was also referred to as Tarautas, after a famously diminutive and violent gladiator of the time. The firstborn of the famous imperial couple Septimius Severus and Julia Domna, he was groomed to be emperor together with his brother Geta. They both were given titles of Caesars and even full Augusti before their father's death. But it was not going to happen, since the brothers hated each other. In 202 Caracalla was forced to marry the daughter of Gaius Fulvius Plautianus, Fulvia Plautilla, he immediately grew to hate them both. By 205 Caracalla had succeeded in having Plautianus executed for treason, probably fabricating the evidence of the plot himself. Then he banished his wife together with his own baby daughter first to Sicily and then to the largest of the Aeolian islands, Lipari. As soon as his father died, Caracalla ordered to strangle them both.

Septimius Severus died on 4 February 211 at Eboracum (present day York) while on campaign in Caledonia, north of Roman Britannia. Caracalla and Geta jointly ended the campaign by concluding a peace that returned the border to the line demarcated by Hadrian's Wall. During the journey back to Rome they continuously argued and finally decided to divide the empire, Caracalla was to rule in the west and Geta -- the east. They were persuaded not to do this, but their hostility was only increasing. On 26 December 211, at a reconciliation meeting arranged by their mother, Caracalla had Geta assassinated by members of the Praetorian Guard loyal to himself, Geta dying in his mother's arms. Caracalla then persecuted and executed most of Geta's supporters and ordered a damnatio memoriae pronounced by the Senate against his brother's memory. Geta's image was removed from all paintings, coins were melted down, statues were destroyed, his name was struck from papyrus records, and it became a capital offence to speak or write Geta's name. In the aftermath of the damnatio memoriae, an estimated 20,000 people were massacred. Those killed were Geta's inner circle of guards and advisers, friends, and other military staff under his employ.

In 213, about a year after Geta's death, Caracalla left Rome never to return. He went north to the German frontier to deal with restless Germanic tribes through wars and diplomacy. While there, Caracalla strengthened the frontier fortifications of Raetia and Germania Superior, collectively known as the Agri Decumates, so that it was able to withstand any further barbarian invasions for another twenty years. Then it became evident that he was preoccupied with Alexander the Great. He began openly mimicking Alexander in his personal style and started planning an invasion of "Persia", the Parthian Empire. He even arranged 16,000 of his men in Macedonian-style phalanxes, despite this foration being obsolete for centuries. Caracalla's mania for Alexander went so far that he persecuted philosophers of the Aristotelian school based on a legend that Aristotle had poisoned Alexander. This was a sign of Caracalla's increasingly erratic behaviour. When the inhabitants of Alexandria heard of Caracalla's claims that he had killed his brother Geta in self-defence, they produced a satire mocking this as well as Caracalla's other pretensions. So in 215 Caracalla travelled to Alexandria and responded to this insult by slaughtering the deputation of leading citizens who had unsuspectingly assembled before the city to greet his arrival, before setting his troops against Alexandria for several days of looting and plunder. Following the massacre at Alexandria, Caracalla moved east into Armenia. By 216 he had pushed through Armenia and south into Parthia and pursued a series of aggressive campaigns in the east against the Parthians, intended to bring more territory under direct Roman control. In the following winter, Caracalla retired to Edessa (Şanlıurfa, south-east Turkey) and began making preparations to renew the campaign by spring. On 8 April 217 Caracalla was travelling to visit a temple near Carrhae (Harran, southern Turkey), where in 53 BC the Romans had suffered a defeat at the hands of the Parthians. After stopping briefly to urinate, Caracalla was approached by a soldier, Justin Martialis, and stabbed to death. Martialis had been incensed by Caracalla's refusal to grant him the position of centurion, and the Praetorian Guard Prefect Macrinus, Caracalla's successor, saw the opportunity to use Martialis to end Caracalla's reign. In the immediate aftermath of Caracalla's death, his murderer, Martialis, was killed as well. Three days later, Macrinus declared himself emperor with the support of the Roman army.

Caracalla's reign was marked by domestic instability, the massacres he enacted against the people of Rome and elsewhere in the empire, and external invasions from the Germanic people. Surprisingly for such a brute, Caracalla was also notable for some statesmanship, perhaps due to some help of his mother, who stayed in Rome and performed many administrative duties in her son's absence. The most famous is the Antonine Constitution (Constitutio Antoniniana), aka the Edict of Caracalla, which granted Roman citizenship to nearly all freemen throughout the Roman Empire. The edict gave all the enfranchised men Caracalla's adopted praenomen and nomen: "Marcus Aurelius". Domestically, Caracalla was known for the construction of the Baths of Caracalla, which became the second-largest baths in Rome, and building a temple to Serapis, Graeco-Egyptian god of healing, whom he thought to be his divine patron, on the Quirinal Hill. The numismatists will always remember him because of the introduction of a new Roman coin denomination, currently designated "antoninianus" after him. The reduced silver purity of the new coins caused people to hoard the old denarii and thanks to this now we can enjoy lots of well-preserved early Roman silver coins.

Caracalla was one of the cruellest and most tyrannical Roman emperors. That was why in the 18th century Caracalla's memory was revived in the works of French artists trying to draw the parallels between him and King Louis XVI. But there were also other narratives surrounding his name: in the 12th century, Geoffrey of Monmouth started the legend of "Bassianus" as the king of Britain, who won the kingship by fighting his brother over it.
Yurii P
rjb_greek17_08_07.jpg
Caria - Halikarnassos14 viewsAR obol
5th cent BC
O - Forepart of goat leaping left, A before
R - Forepart of winged horse left
SNG Cop 336v, SNG Turkey I 768, SNG Keckman I 39

mauseus
rjb_greek7_08_07.jpg
Caria - Mylassa20 viewsAR tetartemorion
450-400 BC
O - Forepart of lion left
R - Bird left with two pellets in incuse square
SNG Turkey I 940-8v
mauseus
rjb_2014_05_05.jpg
Caria - Mylassa26 viewsAR tetartemorion
c. 420-390 BC
O - Forepart of lion left with head turned back right
R - Bird left with two pellets in incuse square
SNG Turkey I 947-8
1 commentsmauseus
rjb_2016_06_04.jpg
Caria - Mylassa7 viewsAR tetartemorion
c. 420-390 BC
O - Forepart of lion left with head turned back right
R - Bird right with two pellets in incuse square
SNG Turkey I 944-6
mauseus
caria_mylasa.jpg
Caria Mylasa AR Hemiobol138 viewsCaria Mylasa 420-390 BC
AR Hemiobol 0.50 gm. Milesian standard
Head of roaring lion l
Forepart of lion facing, SNG Turkey I 833
1 commentsb70
80003q00.jpg
Caria or Ionia, c. 420 - 390 B.C., Silver tetartemorion47 viewsCaria or Ionia, c. 420 - 390 B.C.
Silver tetartemorion, uncertain mint
0.231g, 6.4mm, 90°
Obv.: forepart of roaring lion left
Rev.: bird standing right within incuse square, pellet lower left and upper right
SNG Turkey I 940

ex FORVM
areich
collage12.jpg
Caria, uncertain106 viewsCirca 5th Century BC
AR Obol
8mm;.70g

Caria, uncertain
Forepart of roaring lion left / Bird in flight left, within incuse square.

SNG Turkey 980
Ex CNG
2 commentsarizonarobin
SevAlex Edesse 2.jpg
Carrhae (Harran, Turkey) - Severus Alexander33 views[... AΛEΞ]ANΔP[OC...] , laureate and draped bust of Severus Alexander left, holding shield
MHT. KO. KAPPHNωN ? Tyche of Carrhae seated left on rock, altar to the left, small river-god swimming at her feet.
Bronze, 23 mm

I am not sure this coin is from Carrhae : all Mesopotamian cities had the same veiled and seated Tyche (copied from the Tyche of Antioch) at the reverse of their coins.
Ginolerhino
9965.jpg
Carrhae in Mesopotamia, Septimius Severus, AE 24, Lindgren 2557122 viewsCarrhae in Mesopotamia, Septimius Severus, AE 24, 193-211 AD
Av.: CEΠTIMIOC [CE]OY.... , naked (laureate?) bust of Septimius Severus right
Rv.: ..Λ]OY KAPPH ΛKA... , front view of a tetrastyle temple, the temple of the moon god Sin, in the middle a sacred stone on tripod, on top of stone: crescent, standards (with crescents on top) on both sides inside the building; another crescent in the pediment.
Lindgren 2557 ; BMC p. 82, #4

The city and the region played an important role in roman history.

Carrhae / Harran, (Akkadian Harrânu, "intersecting roads"; Latin Carrhae), an ancient city of strategic importance, an important town in northern Mesopotamia, famous for its temple of the moon god Sin, is now nothing more than a village in southeastern Turkey with an archeological site.
In the Bible it is mentioned as one of the towns where Abraham stayed on his voyage from Ur to the promised land. Abraham's family settled there when they left Ur of the Chaldeans (Genesis 11:31-32).
Inscriptions indicate that Harran existed as early as 2000 B.C. In its prime, it controlled the point where the road from Damascus joins the highway between Nineveh and Carchemish. This location gave Harran strategic value from an early date. It is frequently mentioned in Assyrian inscriptions about 1100 BC, under the name Harranu, or "Road" (Akkadian harrānu, 'road, path, journey' ).
During the fall of the Assyrian Empire, Harran became the stronghold of its lasts king, Ashur-uballit II, being besiged and conquered by Nabopolassar of Babylon at 609 BC. Harran became part of Median Empire after the fall of Assyria, and subsequently passed to the Persian Achaemenid dynasty.
The city remained Persian untill in 331 BC when the soldiers of the Macedonian king Alexander the Great entered the city.
After the death of Alexander on 11 June 323 BC, the city was claimed by his successors: Perdiccas, Antigonus Monophthalmus and Eumenes. These visited the city, but eventually, it became part of the Asian kingdom of Seleucos I (Nicator), the Seleucid empire, and capital of a province called Osrhoene (the Greek term for the old name Urhai).
The Seleucids settled Macedonian veterans at Harran. For a century-and-a-half, the town flourished, and it became independent when the Parthian dynasty of Persia occupied Babylonia. The Parthian and Seleucid kings both needed the buffer state of Osrhoene which was part of the larger Parthian empire and had nearby Edessa as its capital. The dynasty of the Arabian Abgarides, technically a vassal of the Parthian "king of kings" ruled Osrhoene for centuries.

Carrhae was the scene of a disastrous defeat of the Roman general Crassus by the Parthians. In 53 BC. Crassus, leading an army of 50.000, conducted a campaign against Parthia. After he captured a few cities on the way, he hurried to cross the Euphrates River with hopes of receiving laurels and the title of “Emperor”. But as he drove his forces over Rakkan towards Harran, Parthian cavalry besieged his forces in a pincers movement. In the ensuing battle, the Roman army was defeated and decimated. The battle of Carrhae was the beginning of a series of border wars with Parthia for many centuries. Numismatic evidence for these wars or the corresponding peace are for instance the "Signis Receptis" issues of Augustus and the “Janum Clusit” issues of Nero.
Later Lucius Verus tried to conquer Osrhoene and initially was successful. But an epidemic made an annexation impossible. However, a victory monument was erected in Ephesus, and Carrhae/Harran is shown as one of the subject towns.
Septimius Severus finally added Osrhoene to his realms in 195. The typical conic domed houses of ancient Harran can be seen on the Arch of Septimius Severus on the Forum Romanum.
Harran was the chief home of the moon-god Sin, whose temple was rebuilt by several kings. Sin was one of the great gods of the Assurian-Babylonian pantheon.
Caracalla gave Harran the status of a colonia (214 AD) and visited the city and the temple of the moon god in April 217. Meanwhile the moon god (and sacred stones) had become a part of the Roman pantheon and the temple a place to deify the roman emperors (as the standards on both sides of the temple indicate).

Caracalla was murdered while he was on his way from Temple to the palace. If this had been arranged by Macrinus - the prefect of the Praetorian guard who was to be the new emperor – is not quite clear. On the eighth of April, the emperor and his courtiers made a brief trip to the world famous temple of the moon god. When Caracalla halted to perform natural functions, he was assassinated by one of his bodyguards, Julius Martialis, who had a private grudge against the ruler, because he had not been given the post of centurion.

In 296 AD Roman control was again interrupted when nearby Carrhae the emperor Galerius was defeated by the king Narses / the Sasanid dynasty of Persia. The Roman emperor Julianus Apostata sacrificed to the moon god in 363 AD, at the beginning of his ill-fated campaign against the Sassanid Persians. The region continued to be a battle zone between the Romans and Sassanids. It remained Roman (or Byzantine) until 639, when the city finally was captured by the Muslim armies.

At that time, the cult of Sin still existed. After the arrival of the Islam, the adherents of other religions probably went to live in the marshes of the lower Tigris and Euphrates, and are still known as Mandaeans.
The ancient city walls surrounding Harran, 4 kilometer long and 3 kilometer wide, have been repaired throughout the ages (a.o. by the Byzantine emperor Justinian in the sixth century), and large parts are still standing. The position of no less than 187 towers has been identified. Of the six gates (Aleppo gate, Anatolian, Arslanli, Mosul, Baghdad, and Rakka gate), only the first one has remained.

A citadel was built in the 14th century in place of the Temple of Sin. This lies in the south-west quarter of the ancient town. Its ruin can still be visited.

my ancient coin database
1 commentsArminius
augusta_julia_RPC4014.jpg
Cilicia, Augusta, Julia-Livia, RPC 401433 viewsLivia, wife of Augustus, AD 14-29
AE 19, 5.2g
struck AD 67/8 (year 48), in the time of Nero
obv. IOVLIA - SEBASTH
Bust of Livia, draped, r.; hair bound in small bun in the neck
rev. AYGOYSTA - NW - N DP (year 48)
Tyche, in long garment and wearing mural-crown, std. r. on ornated throne,
holding long grain-ears in both hands; at her feet river-god Saros swimming r.
RPC 4014; cf. SNG Paris 1893; cf. SNG Levante 1238; Karbach 25.1
very rare, about VF

Saros, today Seyhan river in Turkey
Jochen
2390316.jpg
CILICIA, Hierapolis-Castabala. Marcus Aurelius & Lucius Verus.29 viewsCILICIA, Hierapolis-Castabala. Marcus Aurelius & Lucius Verus. AD 161-169. Æ (30mm, 14.82 g, 6h). Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus standing vis-à-vis clasping right hands / Wreathed bust of Dionysos right, thyrsos over shoulder; grapes before. SNG France 2229-30; SNG Levante -. Near VF, dark green patina, flan flaw on reverse.

Castabala (Greek: Καστάβαλα), also known as Hieropolis and Hierapolis [ad Pyramum] (Ίεράπολις) was a city in Cilicia (modern southern Turkey), near the Ceyhan River (anc. Pyramus). During Late Antiquity, it was a suffragan bishopric to Anazarbus, the metropolis of the province of Cilicia Secunda. It is also a titular see of the Catholic Church.

Ex-CNG Esale 239 lot 316
170/150
ecoli
ARM_Hetoum_I_kardez_N_364_B_1406.JPG
Cilician Armenia. Hetoum I (1226-1270) 32 viewsNercessian 364, Bedoukian 1406

AE 24 mm kardez. Sis (now Kozan, Turkey) mint.

Obv: King seated on bench-like throne adorned with lions, holding globus cruciger in left hand and fleur-de-lys scepter in right, +ՀԵԹՈՒՄ ԹԱԳԱՒՈՐ ՀԱՅՈ [Hetoum, Takavor Hayots = Hetoum, King of the Armenians].

Rev. Cross potent with lines in the quadrants, +ՇԻՆԵԼ Ի ՔԱՂԱՔՆ Ի ՍԻՍ [Shineal I Kaghakn I Sis = Struck in the City of Sis].
Stkp
ARM_Hetoum_I_tank_Bedoukian_1304.jpg
Cilician Armenia. Hetoum I (1226-1270)22 viewsNercessian 352, Bedoukian 1304

AE tank. Sis (now Kozan, Turkey) mint. 6.96 g., 29.23 mm. max., 180°

Obv.: + ՀԵԹՈՒՄ ԹԱԳԱՒՈՐ ՀԱՅՈՑ (=Hetowm Tagawor Hayots = Hetoum King of Armenians), King seated facing on a throne adorned with conventionalized lions, holding a scepter in the right hand and a globus cruciger in the left. Star in the field.

Rev.: ՇԻՆԵԱԼ Ի ԳԱՂԱԳՍ Ի ՍԻՍ (= Shineal i kaghaks i Sis = Struck in the city of Sis), Potent cross with four stars in four quadrants and four pellets at the four cross arms.
Stkp
ARM_Hetoum_II_kardez_Bedoukian_1622.jpg
Cilician Armenia. Hetoum II (1289-1293)15 viewsNercessian 400, Bedoukian 1622

AE kardez. Sis (now Kozan, Turkey) mint. 2.75 g., 20.81 mm. max., 270°

Obv.: + ՀԵԹՈՒՄ ԹԱԳԱՒՈՐ Հ• (= Hetowm Tagawor Hayots = Hetoum King of Armenians), king seated on pillow, holding a staff in right hand and cross (or globe) in left (ՈՐ ligature).

Rev.: + ՇԻՆԵԱԼ Ի ԳԱՂԱԳՍ Ի ՍԻ (= Shineal i kaghaks i Sis = Struck in the city of Sis), Potent cross with four dots in four quadrants.
Stkp
ARM_Hetoum_II_kardez_Bedoukian_1592.jpg
Cilician Armenia. Hetoum II (1289-1293)6 viewsNercessian 398, Bedoukian 1592

AE kardez. Sis (now Kozan, Turkey) mint. 3.73 g., 21.76 mm. max., 0°

Obv.: Crowned head of king with two curls, facing, + ՀԵԹՈՒՄ ԹԱԳԱՒՈՐ ՀՍՅՈ (= Hetowm Tagawor Hayots = Hetoum King of Armenians).

Rev.: Ornate cross with two bars, + ՇԻՆԵԱԼ Ի ԳԱՂԱԳՆ Ի ՍԻՍ (= Shineal i kaghaks i Sis = Struck in the city of Sis).
Stkp
ARM_Levon_I_tank_Bedoukian_729_var_.jpg
Cilician Armenia. Levon I, the Great (1199-1219)21 viewsVardanyan Group B; Nercessian 310 var. (rev. legend), Bedoukian 729 var. (obv. legend)

AE tank. Sis (now Kozan, Turkey) mint. 7.91 g., 29.49 mm. max., 270°

Obv: + ԼԵՒՈՆ ԹԱԳԱՒՈՐ ՀԱՅՒՈՑ (= Lewon Tagawor Haywots = Levon, King of Armenians), leonine head of the king, five [?] dots on the crown, pendilium and hair represented by two curls surmounted by a dot, short row of two vertical dots below; and the mane/beard by three parallel rows of dots.

Rev.: + ՇԻՆԵԱԼ Ի ՔԱՂԱՔՍ Ի ՍԻ [Type 1 letter Ք] (= Shineal i kaghakn i Sis = Struck in the city of Sis), patriarchal cross with five-pointed star on each side.

The sequence of issuance of the four groups is unknown.
Stkp
ARM_Levon_I_tank_Vardanyan_Group_D.jpg
Cilician Armenia. Levon I, the Great (1199-1219)14 viewsVardanyan Group D; Nercessian 303 var. (rev. legend), Bedoukian 746 var. (rev. legend, per 737)

AE tank. Sis (now Kozan, Turkey) mint. 7.14 g., 29.63 mm. max., 180°

Obv: + ԼԵՒՈՆ ԹԱԳԱՒՈՐ ՀԱՅՒՈ (= Lewon Tagawor Haywots = Levon, King of Armenians), leonine head of the king, six dots on the crown, pendilium and hair represented by vertical row of three large dots; and the mane/beard by an irregular juxtaposition of smaller dots.

Rev: + ՇԻՆՍԼ Ի ՔԱՂՍՔՍ Ի ՍԻՍ [Type 4 letter Ք] (= Shineal i kaghakn i Sis = Struck in the city of Sis), patriarchal cross with six-pointed star on each side.

The sequence of issuance of the four groups is unknown.
1 commentsStkp
ARM_Levon_I_tank_Vardanyan_Group_C.jpg
Cilician Armenia. Levon I, the Great (1199-1219)15 viewsVardanyan Group C; Nercessian 304 var. (obv. legend), Bedoukian 720 var. (obv. legend)

AE tank. Sis (now Kozan, Turkey) mint. 6.80 g., 28.19 mm. max., 180°

Obv: + ԼԵՒՈՆ ׀ ԹԱԳԱՒՈՐ ՀԱՅՒՈՑ (= Lewon Tagawor Haywots = Levon, King of Armenians), leonine head of the king, seven dots on the crown, pendilium and hair represented by vertical row of six dots; and the mane/beard by a semi-irregular juxtaposition of dots.

Rev: + ՇԻՆԵԱԼ Ի ՔԱՂԱՔՍ Ի ՍԻՍ [Type 2 letter Ք] (= Shineal i kaghakn i Sis = Struck in the city of Sis), patriarchal cross with five-pointed star on each side.

There are three varieties of the obverse legend among the Group C coins in the collection of the History Museum of Armenia. The obverse legend on this coin, which bears a letter/symbol between the words ԼԵՒՈՆ and ԹԱԳԱՒՈՐ, is not represented. This obverse letter variation is also not recorded in Bedoukian and Nercessian.

The sequence of issuance of the four groups is unknown.
1 commentsStkp
ARM_Levon_III_kardez_N_432_B_1821.JPG
Cilician Armenia. Levon III (1301-1307) 21 viewsNercessian 432, Bedoukian 1821

AE 20 mm kardez. Sis (now Kozan, Turkey) mint.

Obv: King seated in oriental fashion, holding cross in right hand and staff in left, +ԼԵՒՆ ԹԱԳԱՒՈՐ ՀԱՅ [Levon, Takavor Hayots = Levon, King of the Armenians].

Rev. Cross potent, +ՇԻՆԵԱԼ Ի ՔԱՂԱՔ Ի Ս [Shineal I Kaghakn I Sis = Struck in the City of Sis].

Note: ՈՐ ligature on obverse.
Stkp
ARM_Gosdantin_IV_takvoran.jpg
Cilician Armenia. Gosdantin IV (1365-1373)13 viewsNercessian 492, Bedoukian 2171a or 2173 var.

AR takvoran, Sis (now Kozan, Turkey) mint, 1.98 g., 20.95 mm. max., 270°.

Obv: King on horseback riding right, a mace extending over his shoulder, +ԿՈՍՏԸՆԴԻՆ ԹԱԳԱՌ ... (= Gosdantin [but spelled Gosdentin] King of the Armenians), field mark Լ between hind legs.

Rev. Lion walking right and facing, behind him an ornate cross, +ՇԻՆԱԼ Ի ՔԱՂԱՔՆ Ի ՍԻՍ (Shineal I Kaghakn I Sis = Struck in the City of Sis).
Stkp
ARM_Hetoum_I_kardez_Bedoukian_1415.JPG
Cilician Armenia. Hetoum I (1226-1270)20 viewsNercessian 364, Bedoukian 1415

AE kardez. Sis (now Kozan, Turkey) mint, 3.42 g., 22.14 mm. max.,270°

Obv: King seated on bench-like throne adorned with lions, holding globus cruciger in left hand and fleur-de-lys scepter in right, +ՀԵԹ[ՈՒՄ ԹԱԳԱՒ]ՈՐ ՀԱՅ [Hetoum, Takavor Hayots = Hetoum, King of the Armenians].

Rev. Cross potent with lines in the quadrants, +ՇԻՆ[ԵԼ Ի Ք]ԱՂԱՔՆ Ի ՍԻՍ [Shineal I Kaghakn I Sis = Struck in the City of Sis].
Stkp
ARM_Hetoum_I_kardez_Bedoukian_1394.jpg
Cilician Armenia. Hetoum I (1226-1270)16 viewsNercessian 363, Bedoukian 1394 or 1411-1412

AE kardez. Sis (now Kozan, Turkey) mint, 2.62 g., 21.63 mm. max.,180°

Obv: King seated on bench-like throne, holding globus cruciger in left hand and fleur-de-lys scepter in right, star in field, [+ՀԵԹ]ՈՒՄ ԹԱԳԱ[ՒՈՐ ՀԱՅՈՅ] (=Hetoum, Takavor Hayots = Hetoum, King of the Armenians].

Rev. Cross potent with crescent in first (upper right) quadrant and lines in the other quadrants, [+]ՇԻՆԵԱԼ [Ի ՔԱՂԱՔՆ Ի ՍԻՍ] (=Shineal I Kaghakn I Sis = Struck in the City of Sis).
Stkp
ARM_Hetoum_II_kardez_Bedoukian_1642.png
Cilician Armenia. Hetoum II (1289-1293)21 viewsNercessian 401, Bedoukian 1642

AE 20 mm kardez. Sis (now Kozan, Turkey) mint.

Obv: King seated in oriental fashion on an invisible pillow or on floor. King's vestment is folded between two knees. Left hand raised holding cross and right hand holding mace which extends over his right shoulder, +[ՀԵԹ]ՈՒՄ ԹԱ[ԳԱ]Ւ [Hetoum, Takavor Hayots = Hetoum, King of the Armenians].

Rev. Cross potent, +[Շ]ԻՆԵԱԼ Ի ՍԻՍ [Shineal I Kaghakn I Sis = Struck in the City of Sis].
Stkp
ARM_Levon_I_tank_Vardanyan_Group_A.png
Cilician Armenia. Levon I, the Great (1199-1219)21 viewsVardanyan Group A; Nercessian 308; Bedoukian 716

AE tank. Sis (now Kozan, Turkey) mint. 6.89 g., 27.92 mm. max., 180°

Obv: + ԼԵՒՈՆ ԹԱԳԱՒՈՐ ՀԱՅՒՈՑ (= Lewon T'agawor Haywoc' = Levon, King of Armenians), leonine head of the king, crown with row of six dots, pendilium and hair represented by single curl and a row of four vertical dots below; and the mane/beard represented by two horizontal rows of dots.

Rev.: + ՇԻՆԵԱԼ Ի ՔԱՂԱՔՍ Ի ՍԻՍ [Type 1 letter Ք (without horizontal strokes)] (= Šineal i k'ałak's i sis = Struck in the city of Sis), patriarchal cross with five-pointed star on each side.

There are four varieties of the obverse legend among the Group A coins in the collection of the History Museum of Armenia (the "HRH"). The obverse legend on this coin is represented by 7 dies (39 coins), but this coin is not a die match with any of them. There are five varieties of the reverse legend among the Group A coins in the HRH collection. The reverse legend on this coin is represented by 12 dies (16 coins), but this coin is not a die match with any of them.

The sequence of issuance of the four groups is unknown.
Stkp
ARM_Levon_III_kardez_Bedoukian_1817a.jpg
Cilician Armenia. Levon III (1301-1307)18 viewsNercessian 432, Bedoukian 1817a

AE kardez, Sis (now Kozan, Turkey) mint, 2.71 g., 19.53 mm. max., 270°.

Obv: King seated in oriental fashion, holding cross in right hand and staff in left, +ԼԵՒՆ ԹԱԳԱՒՈՐ (Levon, Takavor Hayots = Levon, King of the Armenians).

Rev. Cross potent, with dots, +ՇԻՆԵԱ[Լ Ի ՔԱՂ]Ա' (Shineal I Kaghakn I Sis = Struck in the City of Sis).

Note: ՈՐ ligature on obverse.
Stkp
ARM_Levon_III_takvoran_Bedoukian_1743.jpg
Cilician Armenia. Levon III (1301-1307)16 viewsNercessian 419, Bedoukian 1743

AR takvoran, Sis (now Kozan, Turkey) mint, 2.49 g., 20.59 mm. max., 270°.

Obv: King on horseback riding right, holding reins with his left hand and with a cross in his right extending over his shoulder, three dots (inverted pyramid, oriented somewhat intermediately) to left of king, +ԼԵՒՈՆ ԹԱԳԱՒՈՐ ՀԱՅՈՑ (Levon, Takavor Hayots = Levon, King of the Armenians).

Rev: Lion without claws walking right and facing right, behind him a cross with one arm, dot in left field, +ՇԻՆԵԱԼ Ի ՔԱՂԱՔՆ ՍԻ (Shineal I Kaghakn I Sis = Struck in the City of Sis).
Stkp
ARM_Levon_III_kardez_Bedoukian_1826ff.jpg
Cilician Armenia. Levon III (1301-1307)9 viewsNercessian 431, Bedoukian 1826 ff.

AE kardez, Sis (now Kozan, Turkey) mint, 3.94 g., 21.62 mm. max., 90°.

Obv: King seated on a bench-like throne, holding cross in right hand and staff in left, ԼԵՒՆ ԹԱԳԱՒՈՐ... (Levon, Takavor Hayots = Levon, King of the Armenians).

Rev. Cross potent, with lines, + ՇԻՆԵԱԼ Ի ՔԱՂ... (Shineal I Kaghakn I Sis = Struck in the City of Sis).
Stkp
ARM_Levon_IV_pogh_Nercessian_463.JPG
Cilician Armenia. Levon IV (1320-1342)37 viewsNercessian 463[?], Bedoukian 1997[?]

AE 18 mm pogh. Sis (now Kozan, Turkey) mint.

Obv: + Լ[ԵՒՈՆ Թ]ԱԳԱՒՈՐ Հ [Levon Takavor Hayots = Levon King of the Armenians], king holding staff in right hand which extends over shoulder, cross in left hand, throne decorated with lions.

Rev: .+ [ՇԻՆԵԱԼ Ի] ՔԱՂԱ_ [Shineal I Kaghakn I Sis = Struck in the City of Sis], plain cross potent.

Due to the state of preservation, much of the legends are illegible and the obverse device lost, but from the size of the coin and the portions of the legends that are legible, it can be tentatively attributed.
Stkp
ARM_Oshin_takvorin_Bedoukian_1880_var.jpg
Cilician Armenia. Oshin (1308-1320)12 viewsNercessian 441, Bedoukian 1880 var.

AR takvoran, Sis (now Kozan, Turkey) mint, 2.46 g., 20.65 mm. max., 270°.

Obv: King on horseback riding right, holding reigns with his left hand, and with his right a mace extending over his shoulder, + ԱՒՇԻՆ ԹԱԳ[ԱՒՈՐ] ՀԱՅՈ (= Avshin Takavor Hay = Oshin King of the Armenians), field mark retrograde Յ behind king, pellet beneath horse.

Rev. Lion walking right and facing right, behind him a cross with one arm, + ՇԻՆԵ[ԱԼ Ի ՔԱՂ]ԱՔՆ ՍԻ [ՍԻ ligate], (= Shineal I Kaghakn Sis = Struck in the City of Sis), pellet behind lion.
Stkp
ARM_Oshin_pogh_Bedoukian_1936aff.jpg
Cilician Armenia. Oshin (1308-1320)9 viewsNercessian 448-449, Bedoukian 1936a ff.

AE pogh, Sis (now Kozan, Turkey) mint, 1.55 g., 17.74 mm. max., 90°.

Obv: King seated on bench-like thrown, holding cross in right hand and fleur de lis in left hand, [+ ԱՒՇԻՆ ԹԱԳ]Ա[ՒՈՐ Հ]ԱՅ(= Avshin Takavor Hay = Oshin King of the Armenians).

Rev. Ornate cross with spokes between arms, + ՇԻՆԵԱԼ Ի ՔԱ[Ղ]ԱՔՆ ՍԻՍ] (= Shineal I Kaghakn Sis = Struck in the City of Sis).
Stkp
ARM_Smpad_kardez.JPG
Cilician Armenia. Smpad (1296-1298)42 viewsNercessian 412 var. (legends), Bedoukian 1678-1723

AE 21 mm kardez. Sis (now Kozan, Turkey) mint.

Obv: + ՍՄԲԱՏ ԹԱԳԱՒՈՐ ՀԱՅՈՑ [Smpad Takvor Hayots = Smpad King of the Armenians], king on horseback, riding to the right, holding reigns in left hand and mace with right hand extending over his right shoulder.

Rev: .+ ՇԻՆԵԱԼ Ի ՔԱՂԱՔ Ի ՍԻՍ [Shineal I Kaghakn I Sis = Struck in the City of Sis], cross potent with four doves flying inward.

Patterened after the bilingual trams of Hetoum I.

Due to the strike and state of preservation, much of the legends are illegible, but undoubtedly an abbreviated form of the full legends appearing above. From the portions that are legible, it can be tentatively limited to Bedoukian 1710-1715a.
Stkp
constansiibyz.jpg
Constans II (641 - 668 A.D.)25 viewsÆ Follis
O:ENTOTO NIKA Contans, long beard (noted on r side of face), standing facing, wearing crown and chlamys, holding long cross In left hand, globus cruciger in right.
R: Large M between ANO and NEOG or similar, star above. In exergue, a officina followed by numerals representing the regnal year, off-flan.
21mm
5.4g
Constantinople (Istanbul, Turkey) mint, 641 - 645 A.D.
Mat
Constantine_I_Jupitor.JPG
Constantine I Jupitor24 viewsRIC VII Nicomedia 12, from dane's spread sheet
Looks similar to Nicomedia RIC VI 69c, Constantine Follis. AD 311.
OBV: IMP C FL VAL CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, Laureate head ridht
REV: IOVE CONS-ERVATORI, Jupiter standing left, holding Victory & scepter, eagle at foot left, Greek_Deltaright, SMN in ex.
on the wildwinds site
Looks more like Greek_Gamma in the r. field WinkThe attribution to Turkey is not correct because there existed no Turkey at that time.
It does appear to be RIC VI Nicomedia 69c although only officina B is given in RIC. However, the other letters in the RIC 69 group are A,
Greek_Gamma, and Greek_Delta, so it seems the authors of RIC just hadn't seen any specimens of 69c with these letters.
These coins were minted between May 311 and May 313. The use of SMN as the mint signature does happen to start here but is not really time specific.
Romanorvm
Costantine2.jpg
Constantine II 337-340 A.D.34 views
Metal: Bronze
Diam: 16 mm.
Weight: 1.6 gr.

OBV: Constantine II, Elder son of Constantine The Great :Diademed and cuirassed bust facing Right
OBV-LEGEND: CONSTANTINVSIVNNOBC
Marks-OBV: None

REV: Two helmeted soldiers standing with spears & shields, facing one standard between them.
REV-LEGEND : GLOR IAEXER ITUS
Marks-REV: In Exergue: SMNA also Alignment shifted 180 (Obv and Rev. are upside down one to aother)

Source : N/A
Age: 337-340 A.D.
Mint: Nicomedia *
*Nicomedia Nicomedia (Greek: Νικομήδεια, modern İzmit in Turkey) was founded by Nicomedes I of Bithynia at the head of the Gulf of Astacus which opens to the Propontis. The city was founded in 712 BC and, in early Antiquity, was called Astacus or Olbia. After being destroyed, it was rebuilt by Nicomedes I in 264 BC under the name of Nicomedia, and has ever since been one of the most important cities in northwestern Asia Minor. Hannibal came to Nicomedia in his final years and committed suicide in nearby Libyssa (Diliskelesi, Gebze). The historian Arrian was born there. Nicomedia was the metropolis of Bithynia under the Roman Empire, and Diocletian made it the eastern capital city of the Roman Empire in 286 when he introduced the Tetrarchy system. Nicomedia remained as the eastern (and most senior) capital of the Roman Empire until co-emperor Licinius was defeated by Constantine the Great at the Battle of Chrysopolis (Üsküdar) in 324. Constantine mainly resided in Nicomedia as his interim capital city for the next six years, until in 330 he declared the nearby Byzantium as Nova Roma, which eventually became known as Constantinople (present-day Istanbul). Constantine died in a royal villa at the vicinity of Nicomedia in 337. Owing to its position at the convergence of the Asiatic roads leading to the new capital, Nicomedia retained its importance even after the foundation of Constantinople.[1]

However, a major earthquake on 24 August 358 caused extensive devastation to Nicomedia and was followed by a fire which completed the catastrophe. Nicomedia was rebuilt, but on a smaller scale.[2] In the sixth century under Emperor Justinian the city was extended with new public buildings. Situated on the roads leading to the capital, the city remained a major military center, playing an important role in the Byzantine campaigns against the Caliphate.[3]

From the 840s on, Nicomedia was the capital of the thema of the Optimatoi. By that time, most of the old, seawards city had been abandoned and is described by the Arab geographer Ibn Khurdadhbeh as lying in ruins. The settlement had obviously been restricted to the hilltop citadel.[3] In the 1080s, the city served as the main military base for Alexios I Komnenos in his campaigns against the Seljuk Turks, and the First and Second Crusades both encamped there. The city was held by the Latin Empire between 1204 and ca. 1240, when it was recovered by John III Vatatzes. It remained in Byzantine control for a further century, but following the Byzantine defeat at the Battle of Bapheus in 1302, it was threatened by the rising Ottoman beylik. The city was twice blockaded by the Ottomans (in 1304 and 1330) before finally succumbing in 1337.[3]



Ref : Ric VII 189
Michel C2
arm2.jpg
Constantine IV, King of Armenia *Gosdantin IV* (1365-1373 A.D.)26 viewsAR Takvorin
O: +ԿՈՍՏԸ(ԱՆԴԻՆ) (ԹԱԳԱ)ՈՐ ՀՈՑ, King riding right holding cross sceptre, below horse s
R.+ՉԻՆԱԼ Ի ՔԱՂԱՔՆ Ի ՍԻՍ , lion right, right paw raised, cross in back, below s.
Sis (now Kozan, Turkey) mint,
18mm
1.98g
Bed.2106
1 commentsMat
Constantine_the_Great_the_hand_of_God_reaches_down_.jpg
Constantine the Great, Early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D. , Manus Dei, the hand of God.8 viewsBillon reduced centenionalis, RIC VIII Antioch 39; LRBC I 1374; SRCV V 17488; Voetter 34; Cohen VII 760; Hunter V p. 283, 4 ff. var. (officina), EF, glossy black patina, red earthen deposits, 1.821g, 15.0mm, 330o, 10th officina, Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, posthumous, Sep 337 - 347 A.D.; obverse DV CONSTANTINVS PT AVGG, veiled bust right; reverse Constantine in quadriga right, veiled, the hand of God reaches down to take him to heaven; star above, SMANI in exergue.

FORVM Ancient Coins. /The Sam Mansourati Collection.

Soon after the Feast of Easter 337, Constantine fell seriously ill. He left Constantinople for the hot baths near his mother's city of Helenopolis. There, in a church his mother built in honor of Lucian the Apostle, he prayed, and there he realized that he was dying. He attempted to return to Constantinople, making it only as far as a suburb of Nicomedia. He summoned the bishops, and told them of his hope to be baptized in the River Jordan, where Christ was written to have been baptized. He requested the baptism right away, promising to live a more Christian life should he live through his illness. The bishops, Eusebius records, "performed the sacred ceremonies according to custom." It has been thought that Constantine put off baptism as long as he did so as to be absolved from as much of his sin as possible. Constantine died soon after at a suburban villa called Achyron, on 22 May 337.
2 commentsSam
coin11_quart.jpg
CONSTANTINVS MAX AVG (the 1st) / GLORIA EXERCITVS AE3 follis (306-337 A.D.) 23 viewsCONSTANTI-NVS MAX AVG, (laureate?) and rosette-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / GLOR-IA EXERC-ITVS, two soldiers holding spears and shields, facing each other, two standards between them, dots on banners. Mintmark SMKB in exergue

AE3, 17.5-19mm, 1.50g, die axis 12 (medal alignment), material: bronze/copper-based alloy

MAX AVG = Maximus Augustus, the Great Emperor, Gloria Exercitus (noun + genitive) "The Glory of the Army", SMKB = Sacra Moneta of Cyzicus (Κύζικος, now Erdek, Balıkesir Province, Turkey), officina #2

Because of the horrible surface it was very difficult to determine the type of this coin. And then I suddenly realized that the head breaks the obverse legend, and so even though it is mostly undecipherable, this immediately excludes all the ...IVN NOB C types of the three Constantine's sons. And thus we can be sure that it is a ...MAX AVG obverse of the father! By carefully looking at the second part of the legend and counting the letters I have confirmed that it is indeed NVS...AVG. Of course, the larger size and the general outlook of the head also points towards Constantine I.

The mintmark is, luckily, much more readable and with significant certainty one can see SMKB. Which points towards RIC VII Cyzicus 78 type. There is a good WildWinds example of a different officina of the same type: http://www.wildwinds.com/coins/ric/constantine/_cyzicus_RIC_vII_078.4.jpg The sources mention that this coin was minted on 330-335 A.D.

Constantine I the Great (reign 306-337), see more info at
http://www.forumancientcoins.com/gallery/displayimage.php?pos=-147487
Yurii P
coin14_quad_sm.jpg
CONSTANTIVS PF AVG (the 2nd) / VICTORIAE DD AVGGQ NN, AE4 follis, Siscia, 347-348 6 viewsCONSTANTI - VS PF AVG, pearl-diademed with rosettes, draped and cuirassed bust right/ VICTORIAE DD AVGGQ NN, two winged Victories facing each other, each holding wreath and palm branch; between them: a palm branch upright. Mintmark ЄSIS in exergue.

Ӕ4, 15-16mm, 1.39g, die axis 6h (coin alignment), material: bronze/copper-based alloy

RIC VIII Siscia 194. Palm branch upright between the victories is a very specific feature, that immediately narrows the search down, and together with ЄSIS mintmark it gives RIC 194 type.

P F AVG = Pius Felix Augustus = the pius (dutiful) and fortunate (happy) emperor, VICTORIAE DD AVGGQ NN = victoriae dominorum augustorum que nostrorum = victories of our lords and emperors (lit. ...which (are) ours), triumphal wreath and palm branch were common attributes of Victories; officina #5 (epsilon) of SIScia mint (Sisak, Croatia).

CONSTANTIVS II, * 317 in Sirmium, Pannonia (Sremska Mitrovica, Serbia) † 3 November 361 (aged 44) in Mopsuestia, Cilicia (near Adana, southern Turkey) ‡ 13 November 324 – 22 May 337: Caesar under his father, Constantine I; 337 – 340: co-Augustus (ruled Asian provinces & Egypt) with Constantine II and Constans; 340 – 350: co-Augustus (ruled Asian provinces & Egypt) with Constans; 350 – 3 November 361: mostly (see below) sole Augustus of the Roman Empire.

More biographical info in http://www.forumancientcoins.com/gallery/displayimage.php?pos=-147501
Yurii P
crispus.jpg
Crispus25 viewsRoman Empire
Crispus
(Reign as Caesar of the Roman Empire under Constantine I 317-326 AD)
(b. 305 AD, d. 326 AD)

Obverse: DN FL IVL CRISPVS NOB CAES, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust of Crispus facing right

Reverse: IOVI CONSERVATORI, Jupiter standing facing left, holding Victory on globe and scepter, eagle to left, seated captive to right, XII mint mark SMKΓ



Bronze Follis
Minted in Cyzicus 321-324 AD


Translations:

DN FL IVL CRISPVS NOB CAES=Our Lord Flavius Julius Crispus Noble Caesar

IOVI CONSERVATORI=Jupiter the Protector

XIIvaluing the coin at 12 ½ denarii

SMKΓ=Sacred Money from the 3rd Office in Cyzicus

Cyzicus=Erdek, Turkey


References:
Sear 16685
RIC VII 17
Sphinx357
siglos2.jpg
Darius II - Artaxerxes II, (420 - 375 B.C.)34 viewsPersian Empire, Lydia, Anatolia
AR Siglos
O: Kneeling-running figure of the Great King right, bearded, crowned, dagger in right hand, bow in left hand, waist indicated, pellets on sleeves.
R: Oblong incuse.
Sardes (Sart, Turkey) mint
14mm
5.2g
Carradice Type IV (middle) B, pl. XIV, 43; SNG Kayhan 1033; SGCV II 4683
2 commentsMat
coin_7_ALL.jpg
DN CONSTANTIVS PF AVG (the 2nd) / FEL TEMP REPARATIO AE3/4 follis (337-361 A.D.)36 viewsDN CONSTAN-TIVS PF AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right/ FEL TEMP RE-PARATIO, Soldier spearing fallen horseman in Phrygian helmet, who is reaching backwards. Mintmark SMHΔ (or A) in exergue.

AE3/4, 16-16.5+mm, 1.95g, die axis 12 (medal alignment), material: bronze/copper-based alloy

DN = Dominus Noster = Our Lord, P F AVG = Pius Felix Augustus = the pius (dutiful) and fortunate (happy) emperor, FELicium TEMPorum REPARATIO (or FELicis TEMPoris REPARATIO) = re-establishment of the happy times, SMH = Sacra Moneta Heraclea, officina #1 (alpha) or #4 (delta). Heraclea is now Marmara Ereglisi, Turkey.

Despite the second part of the obverse legend being almost lost, this can only be Constantius II: a Constans' coin would have had a break after DN CONSTA- and a Constantius Gallus' one wouldn't have had a pearl-diademed bust. Also, the last letters of the legend seem to be VG. Factoring in the Phrygian helmet and the reaching back stance of the horseman, very clear H in the mintmark (Heraclea) and absence of any field marks, we can conclude that this must be a variety of RIC VIII Heraclea 90 type. This type should be 17-19mm in size, which is also consistent with this coin. Some sources remark that the fallen horseman type was introduced by Constans and Constantius only in 348, so this coin can be dated 348-361 A.D.

Constantius II (caesar 324-, augustus 337-361), see more info at http://www.forumancientcoins.com/gallery/displayimage.php?pos=-147501
2 commentsYurii P
Coin013_quad_sm.jpg
DN CONSTANTIVS PF AVG (the 2nd) / SPES REIPVBLICAE AE3/4 follis, Sirmium, 355-361 7 viewsDN CONSTAN-TIVS PF AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right/ SPES [REI - PVBLICAE], emperor helmeted, draped, cuirassed, standing left, holding globe in right hand and spear in left hand. -S- in the left field, [dot in the right field? all other examples of this type have it, but here it is difficult to say] Mintmark BSIRM in exergue.

AE3/4, 16mm, 1.43g, die axis 1h (slightly turned medal alignment), material: bronze/copper-based alloy

Seems RIC VIII Sirmium 86 (mint mark BSIRM and –S- in the left field are enough to narrow the search down even with unclear legends), but other similar types are 80 (with clear fields and the most common) and 82, 88, 90 (no idea what they are, cannot find examples or descriptions). Mint years are probably late, 355-361, because issued together with caesar Julian coins (Julian became caesar in 355).

DN = Dominus Noster = Our Lord, P F AVG = Pius Felix Augustus = the pius (dutiful) and fortunate (happy) emperor, SPES REIPVBLICAE = The hope of the Republic, officina #2 (beta) of SIRMium mint (Sremska Mitrovica, Serbia).

CONSTANTIVS II, * 317 in Sirmium, Pannonia (Sremska Mitrovica, Serbia) † 3 November 361 (aged 44) in Mopsuestia, Cilicia (near Adana, southern Turkey) ‡ 13 November 324 – 22 May 337: Caesar under his father, Constantine I; 337 – 340: co-Augustus (ruled Asian provinces & Egypt) with Constantine II and Constans; 340 – 350: co-Augustus (ruled Asian provinces & Egypt) with Constans; 350 – 3 November 361: mostly (see below) sole Augustus of the Roman Empire.

More biographical info in http://www.forumancientcoins.com/gallery/displayimage.php?pos=-147501
Yurii P
EB0328b_scaled.JPG
EB0328 Unidentified AE 143 viewsFrom hoard found in Turkey, -.
Obverse: -.
Reverse: -.
References: -.
Diameter: 14mm, Weight: 2.404g.
EB
Caracalla Edesse.jpg
Edessa (Sanliurfa, Turkey) - Caracalla33 views[...] ANTωNEINOC CEB. , radiate, draped and cuirassed bust seen from behind
[... ]O. EΔECCA , Tyche seated left on rock, river-god swimming at her feet.
Ginolerhino
Gordien III Edesse.jpg
Edessa (Sanliurfa, Turkey) - Gordian III and Abgar X21 viewsThis coin is very worn, sorry.
[AVTOK. K. M. ANT. ΓOP]ΔIANOC [CEB.] , laureate, draped and cuirassed bust of Gordian III right.
[AVTOK. ΓOPΔIANOC ABΓAPOC BACIΛEVC] , Gordian III seated right on chair set on platform facing Abgar X standing left and holding small nike.
Bronze, 31 mm.

Abgar X was king of Osrhoene and a close ally of the Romans when Gordian III led a military expedition against the Sassanid Persians in AD 242. With such a coin, minted in Edessa, the city of Abgar, we see the hierarchy of powers, who is enthroned, and who is standing in front of him waiting for orders. In fact, this coin reflects the feudal system in the Middle East at the time, and is closely paralleled by Parthian reliefs showing the King of Kings enthroned and a vassal king standing in front of him.

Bought in Amman (Jordan) just behind the Roman theatre.
Ginolerhino
SepSév Edesse.jpg
Edessa (Sanliurfa, Turkey) - Septimius Severus and Abgar VIII26 viewsIllegible legend ; bust of Septimius Severus right
ABΓAPOC BACI[ΛEVC] , bust of Abgar VIII right, wearing the royal tiara ornamented with a star in a crescent, sceptre to the right.
Bronze, 19 mm.
Ginolerhino
Elaea_Aeolis_Demeter_and_Torch.JPG
Elaea Aeolis Demeter and Torch36 viewsGreek City of Elaia in Asia Minor
Bronze 13mm (2.1 grams) Struck circa 200-100 B.C.
Reference: Sear 4206; B.M.C. 17.127,20
Head of Demeter right, wreathed with corn.
Torch; EΛ - AI / T - ΩΝ; all within corn wreath.

A coastal town situated south-west of Pergamon, Elaia served as a port for its more important neighbor during the time of the Pergamene
Kingdom.
Elaea or Elaia (Greek: Έλαία) was an ancient city of Aeolis, Asia, the port of Pergamum; the site is not precisely determined but is near
Zeytindağ, İzmir Province, Turkey.
Romanorvm
Ionie.jpg
Electrum hekté from Phokaia.68 viewsElectrum hekte, Bodenstedt em. 32, 7 (d/γ); Weber III 5736 (= Bodenstedt 7); Boston MFA 1906, SNG Kayhan -; SNG Cop -, SNGvA -, BMC Ionia -, Rosen -, EF, superb archaic style, well struck, tight flan, 2.529g, 10.1mm, 0o, Phokaia (Foca, Turkey) mint, c. 521 - 478 B.C.; obverse archaic style head of Athena right, wearing Corinthian helmet, almond shaped eye, slight smile, long hair in rows of dots, dotted necklace, seal upward behind; reverse quadripartite incuse square;6 commentslabienus
Philip_I_,_The_Syrian_.jpg
Emperor Philip I the Syrian, February 244 - End of September 249 A.D.38 viewsSilver antoninianus, RIC IV 75A (R); RSC IV 130, SRCV III 8945, Hunter III -, EF, superb strike with sharp dies, nice metal, Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, weight 4.966g, maximum diameter 22.4mm, die axis 0o, 247 - 248 A.D.; obverse IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, from behind; reverse P M TR P IIII COS P P (high priest, holder of Tribunitian power for four years, consul, father of the country), Felicitas standing left, long caduceus in right hand, cornucopia in left hand; from the Jyrki Muona Collection, ex dear friend Barry Murphy.

FORVM Ancient Coins./ The Sam Mansourati Collection.
*Incredible art


Felicitas was the goddess or personification of happiness, good fortune, and success. She played an important role in Rome's state religion during the empire and was frequently portrayed on coins. She became a prominent symbol of the wealth and prosperity of the Roman Empire.
1 commentsSam
IMG_2314.jpg
Ephesian Artemis88 viewsI took this photo while visiting the ancient city of Ephesus, Turkey, in August of 2013. Along one of the avenues was this relief of one of Ephesus' most unique symbols: the Ephesian Artemis. Large cult statues of this goddess would be placed in the Artemis Temple just outside the city. Ephesian Artemis can occasionally be found on the reverse sides of Seleucid coins.ThatParthianGuy
eudoxi.jpg
Eudoxia (400 - 404 A.D.)60 viewsÆ3
O: AEL EVDOXIA AVG, pearl-diademed and draped bust right, crowned with wreath by the Hand of God above.
R: GLORIA ROMANORVM, empress seated facing on throne, hands folded, being crowned by manus Dei, cross right. SMKA in exergue.
Cyzicus (Kapu Dagh, Turkey) Mint
2.1g
18mm
RIC 80, LRBC 2450

Published on Wildwinds!
2 commentsMat
Justin II 575.jpg
Follis of Justin II and Sophia38 viewsMinted in Nicomedia (Izmit, Turkey) in 575-6.
Ginolerhino
Justinien 539.jpg
Follis of Justinian42 viewsMinted in Nicomedia (Izmit, Turkey) in 539-40.
Ginolerhino
galeriavaleria.jpg
Galeria Valeria, daughter of Diocletian, wife of co-Emporer Galeria, Cyzicus mint, Turkey 308-309 AD134 viewsBust: Right facing, diademed, no crescent.
Obverse: GALVALERIAAVG
Reverse: VENERIVICTRICI
Type: Venus standing left, holding apple and raising skirt.

Mint = MKV = Cyzicus. Turkey.

Mark = triangle
308 -309 AD. (according to Aorta)

She doesn't come across as a great beauty in other busts, but I think she's rather beautiful in this version. She has a sad expression in her eyes, as if she can see what's coming for her...
Banjaxed
40247q00.jpg
Gallienus BI Antoninianus29 viewsGallienus
Billon Antoninianus
255 - 256 A.D
Samosata or Antioch Mint
IMP C P LIC GALLIENVS P F AVG
Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right, from behind
VIRTVS AVGG
Emperors standing confronted; Valerian on left, scepter in right, globe in left; Gallienus on right, offering Victory, transverse spear in left; pellet in wreath above
21.7mm
3.118g
Die axis 0*
Göbl MIR 1703m (Samosata), RIC V 456 (Antioch)

VF, flan cracks

RIC assigns this issue to Antioch but MIR gives the issue to a second Eastern mint located at Samosata. Samosata was an ancient city on the west bank of the Euphrates whose ruins existed at the modern city of Samsat, Adiyaman Province, Turkey until the site was flooded by the newly-constructed Atatürk Dam.
WindchildPunico
Greek_Asclepios_Island_of_Kos_Caria.jpg
Greek Asclepius Island of Kos Caria80 viewsGreek, Caria Kos, 1st to 2nd Cebtury BC, 15mm, 3.7g, SNG Munich 535
OBV: Head of Asclepius with a laurel wreath on the right
REV: KWIWN ALKIDA, Crooked rod of Asclepius, serpent entwined

Kos or Cos (Greek: Κως) is a Greek island in the south Sporades group of the Dodecanese,
next to the Gulf of Gökova/Cos. It measures 40 kilometres (25 mi) by 8 kilometres (5.0 mi),
2.5 mi from the coast of Bodrum, Turkey and the ancient region of Caria.
7 commentsRomanorvm
Soli_Cilicia_Asia_Minor_450_-_386_BC.jpg
GREEK, Cilicia, Soli mint. c. 450 - 386 BC. 21 viewsCilicia, Soli mint. c. 450 - 386 BC. AR tetartemorion, 0.160 g, 5.9 mm, VF, toned. Obv: helmeted head of Athena right. Rev: bunch of grapes in linear circle, all within round concave incuse; obverse encrustation. Ref: BMC p. 148, 24, SNG Levante -, SNG France -, SNG Turkey -. RareBard Gram Okland
velia1.JPG
GREEK, Italia, Velia Lucania, AR Didrachm 109 viewsStruck 293 - 280 B.C.
The obverse with the head of Athena facing left, wearing crested Attic helmet decorated with griffin. Monogram behind neckpiece, Φ on neck.
The reverse with lion stalking right caduceus above. The legend reading: YEΛHTΩN = "Of Elea"
Williams 515

Elea was the ancient name of the town of Velia. According to Herodotus, in 545 B.C. a group of Ionian Greeks fled Phokaia in modern Turkey, after it was besieged by the Persians. They settled in Corsica until they were attacked by a force of Etruscans and Carthaginians. The surviving 6000 took to the sea once more before finally settling on the coast of Italy and founding the town of Hyele, later to be renamed Ele, and then, eventually, Elea.
Diameter: 22 mm. Weight: 7.20 g.
4 commentssuperflex
48867q00.jpg
GREEK, Kingdom of Thrace, Lysimachos, 305 - 281 B.C., Portrait of Alexander the Great, Gold stater24 viewsSH48867. Gold stater, Müller 162; SNG Cop 1086 ff. var. (monogram), EF, weight 8.544 g, maximum diameter 17.6 mm, die axis 180o, Byzantion (Istanbul, Turkey) mint, posthumous, c. 250 - 150 B.C.; obverse diademed head of Alexander the Great right wearing the horn of Ammon; reverse BAΣIΛEΩΣ ΛYΣIMAXOY, Athena seated left, Victory in extended right, resting left elbow on shield, monogram inner left, BY on throne, trident in exergue ornamented with two small dolphins; extraordinary mint luster, high relief, nice style, fantastic coin!Joe Sermarini
86557q00.jpg
GREEK, Knidos, Caria, c. 210 - 185 B.C.18 viewsGS86557. Silver didrachm, SNG Cop 318, Imhoof-Blumer Karische 32, Waddington 2312, SNG Keckman -, SNGvA -, SNG Kayhan -, SNG Mün -, SNG Tüb -, SNG Mugla -, BMC Caria -, aEF, toned, tight flan typical for the type, encrustations, light corrosion, edge cracks, weight 5.531 g, maximum diameter 19.2 mm, die axis 0o, Knidos (near Tekir, Turkey) mint, magistrate Agephon..., c. 210 - 185 B.C.; obverse head of Helios facing slightly right; reverse forepart of roaring lion right, club to left, KNI∆ION above, AΓEΦΩN (magistrate) below; from the David Cannon Collection, ex Beast Coins; rareJoe Sermarini
56812q00.jpg
GREEK, Macedonian Kingdom, Alexander III the Great, 336 - 323 B.C.25 viewsSH56812. Gold stater, Price 2633; Müller Alexander 30, aEF, rev die wear, fine style, Lydia, Sardes (Sart, Turkey) mint, weight 8.597g, maximum diameter 17.0mm, die axis 180o, c. 323 - 319 B.C.; obverse head of Athena right in crested Corinthian helmet decorated with a coiled snake, wearing necklace and pendant earring; reverse AΛEΞAN∆[POY], Nike standing half left, wreath in extended right, stylus in left, race torch left below wing, monogram off flan below right wing; a few small die breaks, lustrous fields, superb bust of AthenaJoe Sermarini
33207q00.jpg
GREEK, Macedonian Kingdom, Alexander III the Great, 336 - 323 B.C., Gold stater25 viewsSH33207. Gold stater, Price 2533, Müller Alexander 293, VF, weight 8.496 g, maximum diameter 18.2 mm, die axis 0o, Sardes (Sart, Turkey) mint, c. 334 - 323 B.C.; obverse head of Athena right wearing earring, necklace, and crested Corinthian helmet decorated with a coiled snake, hair in ringlets; reverse AΛEΞAN∆POY, Nike standing left, wreath in right hand, stylus in left, griffin head leftJoe Sermarini
33180q00.jpg
GREEK, Macedonian Kingdom, Alexander III the Great, 336 - 323 B.C., Gold stater24 viewsSH33180. Gold stater, Price 2114b, Müller Alexander 577, Choice EF, weight 8.575 g, maximum diameter 18.1 mm, die axis 0o, Miletos (near Balat, Turkey) mint, c. 311 - 305 B.C.; obverse head of Athena right wearing earring, necklace, and crested Corinthian helmet decorated with a coiled snake, hair in ringlets; reverse BAΣIΛEΩΣ AΛEΞAN∆POY, Nike standing left, wreath in right hand, stylus in left, KH monogram left, labrys lower rightJoe Sermarini
50029q00.jpg
GREEK, Macedonian Kingdom, Alexander III the Great, 336 - 323 B.C., Gold stater28 viewsSH50029. Gold stater, Price 1358, Müller Alexander 394, IGC EF45, Lampsakos (Lapseki, Turkey) mint, c. 328 - 323 B.C.; obverse head of Athena right wearing earring, necklace, and crested Corinthian helmet decorated with a coiled snake, hair in ringlets; reverse AΛEΞAN∆POY, Nike standing left, wreath in right hand, stylus in left, foreparts of conjoined horses in left field, monogram below left wing; certified (slabbed) by ICGJoe Sermarini
28064q00.jpg
GREEK, Macedonian Kingdom, Alexander III the Great, 336 - 323 B.C., Lifetime Issue, Gold stater30 viewsSH28064. Gold stater, Price 2084, Müller Alexander -, gVF, weight 8.578 g, maximum diameter 18.3 mm, die axis 180o, Miletos (near Balat, Turkey) mint, 325 - 323 B.C.; obverse head of Athena right in crested Corinthian helmet, thunderbolt below; reverse AΛEΞAN∆POY, Nike standing left holding wreath and ship's mast, H∆ monogram in lower right field; nicely centered; rare varietyJoe Sermarini
50028p00.jpg
GREEK, Macedonian Kingdom, Philip III Arrhidaeus and Alexander IV, 323 - 317 B.C., Gold stater24 viewsSH50028. Gold stater, Thompson Philip 13; SNG ANS 318, NGC Choice Uncirculated, weight 8.58 g, Teos (near Sigacik, Turkey) mint, c. 323 - 316 B.C.; obverse laureate head of Apollo right; reverse charioteer driving biga right, holding kentron in right hand, reins in left, star and filleted branch below horses, ΦIΛIΠΠOY and spear head in exergue; certified (slabbed) by NGC Ch AU, Strike 4/5, Surface 3/5Joe Sermarini
mysia~0.jpg
GREEK, Mysia, Kyzikos, 480-450 BC321 viewsMysia Kyzikos 480-450 BC
AR Obol ; 0.35g, 9mm
Obv.: Forepart of boar left, tuna behind
Rev.: Lion's head left
SNG Turkey 57
4 commentsTanit
Greece,_Mysia,_Pergamum,_Cistophoric_Tetradrachm,_12_57g,_28mm,_166-67_BC,_issued_76_BC.jpg
GREEK, Mysia, Pergamon, Cistophoric Tetradrachm80 viewsGreece, Mysia, Pergamon, Cistophoric Tetradrachm, 12.57g, 28mm, 166-67 BC, issued 76 BC

Obv: Cista Mystica containing serpent escaping, all within an ivy wreath.

Rev: Bow case between 2 serpents. Pergamon monogram at left. Snake entwined Asklepian staff at right. "AP" above.

Near the West coast of present day Turkey, Pergamon, in the province of Mysia, was an insignificant city under the Persian empire. After Alexander the Great died, his bodyguard "Lysimachus" was given Thrace and north western Asia. After the battle of Ipsus "Lysimachus" secured Alexander's treasury worth over 25,000 talents. Pergamon was located in a natural fortress and "Lysimachus" strengthened the city and deposited his Asian treasure (9000 talents) in the city along with a military guard under his loyal follower "Philetaerus". "Lysimachus" died in 281 BC and Pergamon officially fell under Seulcid control. "Philetaerus" played the part of a faithful governor, but all the time he used the money to strengthen the city's defenses and founded the Attalid dynasty of the kingdom of "Pergamon". The kingdom successfully withstood attempts by Seulicid rulers to regain control. In 190 BC, Pergamon assisted the Romans to defeat Antiochus III of Syria. At this time, Rome had no territorial desires in Asia and they gave all the territories to Pergamon. Pergamon prospered and soon ranked as one of the major Greek cultural centers. Pergamon's library ranked second only to the library of Alexandria. But, to Rome's surprize the Pergamon King Attalus III (138 - 133 BC) gave the kingdom to Rome upon his death in 133 BC. During the confusion a certain "Aristonicus" seized the throne and changed his name to "Eumenes III". This forced the Romans to intervene and they seized the kingdom and made it the capital of the Roman province of Asia.

Pergamon first issued this coin under Eumenes II, who likely required a new currency after the treaty with Apameia in 188 BC expanded his economic and political territory. The new coinage is the first time a king’s portrait and name are omitted from Hellenistic currency. The cistophori (basket bearers) were the chief currency in Asia Minor for about 300 years. Originally introduced by king Eumenes II of Pergamon around 166 BCE, the obverse of these coins shows a cista mystica, i.e., a woven basket containing the sacred objects of a mystery cult. In the case of the cistophori, the basket contains snakes associated with the worship of Dionysus (Bacchus), the Greek god of wine and ecstasy. In the Dionysian mysteries a serpent, representing the god, was carried in a box called a cista on a bed of vine leaves. This may be the Cista mentioned by Clement of Alexandria which was exhibited as containing the phallus of Dionysus. The depiction on this famous type is what gives the coin its name - the Cistophorus. It was one of the most widely minted coin types in the ancient world. It seems that the Asian Greek states in what is now Turkey minted this coin in unison from around 150 BC. Some scholars believe this was undertaken for the common good, so traders could be confident in a coin of uniform weight and value, representing the collective wealth of Asian Greekdom.

The ivy wreath and the thyrsos staff on the reverse are also references to this god whom the Attalid kings of Pergamon claimed as their ancestor. The bow case (gorytos) on the reverse points to Herakles, the father of Telephos, the legendary founder and first king of Pergamon. Taken together, the obverse and reverse scenes appear to capture allegorical acts one and two of the Dionysian Cista fertility mythology in progress.

When the last Attalid king, Attalos III, died in 133 BCE, he left his entire kingdom to the Roman people. At the same time, his last will declared Pergamon and the other important cities of his realm "free cities", which meant that they did not have to pay tribute to Rome. Not surprisingly, Pergamon and the other cities continued to mint cistophori in grateful tribute to their former ruler. The city of Pergamum continued issue of cistophoric tetradrachm for eight decades after the city was willed to Rome in 133 BC.

1 cistophor equaled 3 Attic drachms, the currency of Athens, which had become the world's key currency during the campaigns of Alexander the Great. Later, 1 cistophor was equivalent to 3 Roman denarii. Because they were so easy to convert into the key currencies, 16 Anatolian towns soon minted cistophors, forming a kind of monetary union. When Pergamum became Roman about 133 BC, the Romans continued to mint cistophors.

Under the Attalids, Pergamon was not only the capital of an empire that soon stretched over most of Asia Minor, but also the seat of the second most famous library of the ancient world with more than 200,000 book rolls. When the kings of Egypt, the Ptolemies, whose capital, Alexandria, boasted the only comparable library, cut off Pergamene access to papyrus, the most important writing material, the Pergamenes invented pergamentum, i.e., parchment or vellum made from animal skins.

Today, the city is called Bergama and belongs to Turkey.
mitresh
Side_Tet.jpg
GREEK, Pamphylia, Side, c. 155 - 36 B.C.168 viewsSilver tetradrachm, Greek Coin Hoards In Turkey 505 ff., gVF, Side mint, weight 16.179g, maximum diameter 30.2mm, die axis 0o, obverse head of Athena right in a crested Corinthian helmet; reverse Nike advancing left, extending wreath in right, pomegranate left, KLE-YX (magistrate's name) below;
4 commentsPhiloromaos
86298q00.jpg
GREEK, Phokaia, Ionia, c. 372 - 327 B.C.27 viewsSH86298. Electrum hekte, Bodenstedt 97 (b/-); SNGvA 2123; BMC Ionia p. 208, 36; Boston MFA 1924 (identified as Pan); SNG Kayhan -, Rosen -, VF, attractive style, well centered and struck, mild die wear, bumps and scratches, weight 2.521 g, maximum diameter 10.2 mm, Phokaia (Foca, Turkey) mint, c. 364 B.C.; obverse head of Dionysos left, wreathed in ivy with berries, hair rolled, small seal (symbol of Phokaia) left below; reverse quadripartite incuse square; scarceJoe Sermarini
86297q00.jpg
GREEK, Phokaia, Ionia, c. 372 - 327 B.C.24 viewsSH86298. Electrum hekte, Bodenstedt 97 (b/-); SNGvA 2123; BMC Ionia p. 208, 36; Boston MFA 1924 (identified as Pan); SNG Kayhan -, Rosen -, VF, attractive style, well centered and struck, mild die wear, bumps and scratches, weight 2.521 g, maximum diameter 10.2 mm, Phokaia (Foca, Turkey) mint, c. 364 B.C.; obverse head of Dionysos left, wreathed in ivy with berries, hair rolled, small seal (symbol of Phokaia) left below; reverse quadripartite incuse square; scarceJoe Sermarini
86213q00.jpg
GREEK, Phokaia, Ionia, c. 521 - 478 B.C., Electrum hekte27 viewsSH86213. Electrum hekte, Bodenstedt em. 32, 7 (d/γ); Weber III 5736 (= Bodenstedt 7); Boston MFA 1906, SNG Kayhan -; SNG Cop -, SNGvA -, BMC Ionia -, Rosen -, EF, superb archaic style, well struck, tight flan, Phokaia (Foca, Turkey) mint, weight 2.529g, maximum diameter 10.1mm, die axis 0o, c. 521 - 478 B.C.; obverse archaic style head of Athena right, wearing Corinthian helmet, almond shaped eye, slight smile, long hair in rows of dots, dotted necklace, seal upward behind; reverse quadripartite incuse squareJoe Sermarini
86204q00.jpg
GREEK, Phokaia, Ionia, c. 625 - 522 B.C., Electrum hekte23 viewsSH86204. Electrum hekte, Triton XVI, lot 464; Bodenstedt - (cf. Em. 1), aEF, well centered and struck, small edge cracks, weight 2.575 g, maximum diameter 10.3 mm, die axis 0o, Phokaia (Foca, Turkey) mint, c. 625/0 - 522 B.C.; obverse forepart of seal right, dolphin swimming downward behind, annulet or ring below; reverse irregular incuse square punch; ex Numismatik Naumann auction 40, lot 270; extremely rareJoe Sermarini
12093q00.jpg
GREEK, Pontic Kingdom, Mithradates VI, c. 120 - 63 B.C., Lysimachos Type, Gold stater22 viewsSH12093. Gold stater, SNG Cop 1089 var. (monogram), Choice EF, weight 8.232 g, maximum diameter 23.0 mm, die axis 0o, Byzantium (Istanbul, Turkey) mint, c. 100 - 85 B.C; obverse diademed head of Alexander the Great (with the features of Mithradates VI), wearing the horn of Ammon; reverse BAΣIΛEΩΣ ΛYΣIMAXOY, Athena enthroned left, holding Nike and resting left arm on shield, transverse spear against her side, BY on throne, AP monogram under right arm, trident and two dolphins in exergue; fantastic style with superb portrait of Mithradates as Alexander the Great!Joe Sermarini
saittai_pseudoautonom_BMC23.jpg
GREEK, pseudo-autonomous, Asia minor, Lydia, Saittai, BMC 23123 viewsAE 22, 5.82g, 225°
Struck early 3rd century
obv. AZIO - T - THNOC
bust of Men Aziottenos, r., wearing Phrygian cap ornamented with stars,
crescent behind shoulders
rev. CAITTHNWN
Youthfull river-god Hermos leaning l., holding reed in r. hand and cornucopiae
in l. arm; resting l. ellbow on inverted vase from which water is flowing l.
ERMOC in ex.
ref. BMC 23; SNG von Aulock 3089; Imhoof-Blumer p.127, 1; published in Patricia Lawrence, In Memory of
Eugene Numa Lane, in MVSE, vol. 42, Annual of the Museum of Art and Archeoloy, University of Missouri,
vol. 42, 2008, p. 31, fig. 6
rare, good VF
added to www.wildwinds.com
added to asiaminorcoins.com
The stars on the cap clearly seen on this specimen are not mentioned in BMC nor SNG von Aulock. Pat Lawrence: "A glorious coin!"

Hermos, today Gediz in Turkey.
1 commentsJochen
Z357.jpg
GREEK, Quasi-Autonomous, Alexandria Troas AE80 viewsAutonomous Issue (Possibly Gallienus alone), AE As, 3rd Century AD, Alexandria Troas, Northwest Asia Minor (Turkey), near Troy
CO_L TROA
Turreted, draped bust of Tyche right, Legionary vexillum with AVG behind
COL AVG | TRO
Horse feeding right
Bellinger A486
Jericho
rjb_greek14_08_07.jpg
Ionia - Phokaia33 viewsAR 1/48 stater
6th cent BC
O - Archaic female head left
R - Quadripartite incuse square
BMC -, SNG Cop -, SNG Turkey I cf522-6v
(possibly an issue from Kolophon, cf SNG Kayham 342, SNG von Aulock 1808)
mauseus
rjb_greek13_08_07.jpg
Ionia - Phokaia25 viewsAR hemihekte
6th cent BC
O - Archaic female head left
R - Quadripartite incuse square punch
BMC -, SNG Cop -, SNG Turkey I cf522-6v
mauseus
rjb_greek16_08_07.jpg
Ionia - Teos27 viewsAR tetartemorion
475-450 BC
O - Griffin with raised paw right
R - Shallow incuse quadripartite square with T H W N in quarters
SNG Turkey I 601v
mauseus
rjb_2014_07_03.jpg
Ionia - Uncertain29 viewsElectrum 1/24th stater
625-600 BC
O - Raised swastika
R - Incuse square quadripartite
SNG Turkey I 702
mauseus
coin147.JPG
Ionia, Colophon27 viewsColophon (/ˈkɒləfɒn/;[1] Ancient Greek: Κολοφών) was an ancient city in Ionia. Founded around the turn of the first millennium BC, it was likely one of the oldest of the twelve cities of the Ionian League. In ancient times it was located between Lebedos (120 stadia to the west) and Ephesus (70 stadia to its south). Today the ruins of the city can be found south of the town Değirmendere Fev in the Menderes district of Izmir Province, Turkey.

The city's name comes from the word κολοφών, "summit", which is also the origin of the bibliographic term "colophon", in the metaphorical sense of a 'crowning touch', as it was sited along a ridgeline. The term "colophony" for rosin comes from the term colophonia resina, that is, resin from the pine trees of Colophon, which was highly valued for the strings of musical instruments.

Ionia, Colophon, c. 389-350 BC, 0.80g. ANSNNM 96, Milne, Kolophon-57. Obv: Head of Apollo l. Rx: Lyre.
ecoli
Ephesus,_Ionia__BMC_54,_AR_Trihemiobol,_0_85g,_E-_#934;,_Bee_with_straight_wings,_E-_#934;,_Forepart_of_stag_right,_SNG_Cop_241,387-295_BC__Q-001,_0h,_8mm,_0,86g-s.jpg
Ionia, Ephesos, (c.387-295 B.C.), AR-Trihemiobol, BMC 54, E/Φ//--, Forepart of stag right,98 viewsIonia, Ephesos, (c.387-295 B.C.), AR-Trihemiobol, BMC 54, E/Φ//--, Forepart of stag right,
avers: E-Φ, Bee with straight wings.
reverse: E-Φ, Forepart of stag right, head turned back.
exergue: E/Φ//--, diameter: 7,0-8,0mm, weight: 0,86g, axes: 0h,
mint: Ionia, Ephesos, date:c.387-295 B.C., ref: BMC 54, SNG Cop 241, Babelon Traite 1889, SNG Turkey 190-192,
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
Phokaia_1a_img.jpg
Ionia, Phokaia, Silver Hemidrachm / Hemihekte, 6th century BC.15 viewsObv:– Archaic female head left
Rev:- Quadripartite incuse punched square
Minted in Phokaia, Ionia. 6th century BC.
Reference:– BMC -, SNG Cop -, SNG Turkey I cf522-6v

Size 9.57mm x 7.96mm
Weigth 1.15g
maridvnvm
Khusru II.jpg
Khusru II46 viewsObverse: Head of Khusru II right with an inscription naming him around
Reverse: Fire altar flanked by two attendants with the mint mark to the right and the date mark to the left
Mint : Gar
Date : AD 595 Year 4
Reference :
Grade : gVF
Weight : 4.15g
Denom: Drachm
Metal : Silver
Acquired: 01/08/04

Comments: Khusru II, during his life time was able to extend his empire to including Turkey, Syria and Egypt which was occupied by the Sasanian empire from 618-628 A.D. and to reputably occupied other parts of Africa, extending his empire as far south as Askum and west as Cyrene. Until Heraclius was able to consolidate his take over off the Byzantine empire and counter-attacked and recover most of the territory earlier lost by Byzantine.
Bolayi
Kingdom_of_Thrace_Lysimachos_Unique.jpg
Kingdom of Thrace, Lysimachos, 305 - 281 B.C., Portrait of Alexander the Great162 viewsSilver tetradrachm, Unpublished variety; cf. Meydancikkale 2691 (no palm), Müller 114 (same), Thompson -, Black Sea Hoard -, Armenak -, Choice VF, 16.618g, 29.9mm, 0o, Thrace, Ainos (Enez, Turkey) mint, c. 283 - 281 B.C.; obverse diademed head of Alexander the Great wearing the horn of Ammon; reverse BAΣIΛEΩΣ ΛYΣIMAXOY , Athena enthroned left, Nike crowning king's name in extended right, rests left arm on round shield behind, transverse spear against far side, palm frond (or apluster?) outer left, enthroned cult image of Hermes Perpheraios inner left;possibly unique.

According to myth, the cult image of Hermes Perpheraios was carved by Epeios before he made the Trojan Horse. After Achilles insulted him, the river-god Scamander sided with Troy. The swollen Scamander flooded the Greek camp at its mouth and washed their cult image out to sea. Scamander also was said to have attempted to kill Achilles three times. Later the statue was caught by fishermen from Ainos. They wore themselves out trying to cut it up for firewood, making only a little wound-like mark. They tried to burn it whole, but the flames just went around. Giving up, they threw it back in the sea. After they caught it in their nets a second time they realized it was sacred, received it into the city, and honored it like the gods.


*With my sincere thank , Photo and Description courtesy of FORVM Ancient Coins Staff.



From The Sam Mansourati Collection.
2 commentsSam
496_Greek.jpg
Kingdom of Thrace, Lysimachos, 305 - 281 B.C., Portrait of Alexander the Great31 viewsReference. this is the only example of this type known to Forum; possibly unique
Unpublished variety; Meydancikkale - (cf. 2691, different controls, same engraver), Müller -, SNG Cop -, Thompson -, Black Sea Hoard -, Armenak -

Note. Thrace, Ainos (Enez, Turkey) mint, likely posthumous, c. 282 - 272 B.C

Obv.
diademed head of Alexander the Great wearing the horn of Ammon
.

Rev. BASILEWS LUSIMACOU
Athena enthroned left, holding Nike and resting left elbow on shield decorated with lion’s head, spear resting to her right; ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ to right, ΛΥΣΙΜΑΞΟΥ crowned by Nike to left, monogram in inner left field, monogram in exergue

16.503 gr
28.6 mm
180o

Note.
Barry Murphy identified the mint for this coin as Ainos, noting, "Not the same dies or the same monograms, but clearly the same engraver as Meydicikkale 2691."

A subject ally of Athens, Aenus provided peltasts at the Battle of Sphacteria in 425 B.C. and sent forces to the Sicilian Expedition in 415. It was in the possession of Ptolemy Philopator in 222 B.C., of Philip V of Macedon in 200, of Lysimachos in 283, and later of Antiochus the Great, who lost it to the Romans in 185 B.C., whereupon the Romans declared Aenus a free city. It was still a free city in the time of Pliny the Elder.
2 commentsokidoki
GRK_Thrace_Lysimachos_Sear_6822_2.jpg
Kingdom of Thrace. Lysimachos (323-281 B.C.)15 viewsSear 6822; Müller pl. XLII, 14; SNG Copenhagen 1168-1169.

AE unit, Kallatis (now Mangalia, Romania) mint, ca. 297-281 B.C. or Lysimacheia (now Eksemil, Turkey) mint, 1.15 g., 14.13 mm. max., 0°

Obv.: Head of young Herakles right, wearing lion skin headdress.

Rev.: BAΣI / ΛYΣI in two lines within a wreath of grain.

Lysimachus, one of Alexander the Great's personal bodyguards, was appointed strategos in Thrace and the Chersonesos after Alexander's death. In 309 B.C. he founded his capital Lysimacheia and in 306 B.C. he followed the example of Antigonus in taking the title of king, ruling Thrace, Asia Minor and Macedonia. In 281 B.C. he was killed in battle against Seleucus.
Stkp
GRK_Thrace_Lysimachos_Sear_6822.jpg
Kingdom of Thrace. Lysimachos (323-281 B.C.)11 viewsSear 6822; Müller pl. XLII, 14; SNG Copenhagen 1168-1169.

AE unit, Kallatis (now Mangalia, Romania) mint, ca. 297-281 B.C. or Lysimacheia (now Eksemil, Turkey) mint, 1.71 g., 13.08 mm. max., 90°

Obv.: Head of young Herakles right, wearing lion skin headdress.

Rev.: BAΣI / ΛYΣI in two lines within a wreath of grain.

Lysimachos, one of Alexander the Great's personal bodyguards, was appointed strategos in Thrace and the Chersonesos after Alexander's death. In 309 B.C. he founded his capital Lysimacheia and in 306 B.C. he followed the example of Antigonus in taking the title of king, ruling Thrace, Asia Minor and Macedonia. In 281 B.C. he was killed in battle against Seleucus.
Stkp
D544C9DE-D4C6-455C-8610-B9E99A9F9AC0.jpeg
Kios, Bithynia, c. 340 - 315 B.C.17 viewsTraditionally, the earliest precious metal coinage of Kios has been dated after Alexander the Great's capture of Kios in 334 B.C. More recently, however, Oliver Hoover and other numismatists suggest this type, struck on a Persic standard, was probably minted to pay mercenaries to defend against Alexander's invasion, which began in 336 B.C.
GS89610. Silver siglos, Rec Gén I.2 p. 311, 2, pl. XLIX, 7; HGC 7 552 (R2); BMC Pontos -, SNG Cop -, SNGvA -, VF, attractive style, toned, light marks, a little off center, edge split, Kios (near Gemlik, Turkey) mint, weight 4.890g, maximum diameter 17.6mm, die axis 0o, Nikas, magistrate, c. 340 - 315 B.C.; obverse laureate head of Apollo right; reverse war galley prow left, ornamented with star over an apotropaic eye, waves indicated on side of hull, NIKAΣ (magistrate's name) above; ex CNG e-auction 438, lot 132; very rare
3 commentsMark R1
KnidosCaria.jpg
Knidos, Caria, c. 465 - 449 B.C59 viewsSilver drachm, Cahn 80 (V38/R53), SNG Keckman 132 (same dies), SNG Cop 232 (same dies), aVF, toned, Knidos mint, weight 6.057g, maximum diameter 16.5mm, die axis 270o, c. 465 - 449 B.C.; obverse forepart of roaring lion right; reverse archaic head of Aphrodite right, hair bound with taenia, within incuse square; ex Barry P. Murphy

CARIA, Knidos. Circa 465-449 BC. AR Drachm - 16mm (6.06 g). Obverse: forepart of roaring lion right; Reverse: archaic head of Aphrodite right, hair bound with taenia. Cahn 80 (V38/R53); SNG Helsinki 132 (same dies); SNG Copenhagen 232 (same dies). Toned, near VF, good metal. Ex Barry P. Murphy.

While this coin falls within the time frame that numismatists call "Classical" Greek coinage, I have chosen to place it in both the "Archaic" (coin 020a) and "Classical" Greek sections of my collection. This specimen is one of those wonderful examples of transition--it incorporates many elements of the "Archaic" era, although it is struck during the "Classical" Greek period and anticipates characteristics of the later period.

As noted art historian Patricia Lawrence has pointed out, "[this specimen portrays] A noble-headed lion, a lovely Late Archaic Aphrodite, and [is made from]. . . beautiful metal." The Archaic Aphrodite is reminiscent of certain portraits of Arethusa found on tetradrachms produced in Syracuse in the first decade of the 5th century BC.

Knidos was a city of high antiquity and as a Hellenic city probably of Lacedaemonian colonization. Along with Halicarnassus (present day Bodrum, Turkey) and Kos, and the Rhodian cities of Lindos, Kamiros and Ialyssos it formed the Dorian Hexapolis, which held its confederate assemblies on the Triopian headland, and there celebrated games in honour of Apollo, Poseidon and the nymphs.

The city was at first governed by an oligarchic senate, composed of sixty members, and presided over by a magistrate; but, though it is proved by inscriptions that the old names continued to a very late period, the constitution underwent a popular transformation. The situation of the city was favourable for commerce, and the Knidians acquired considerable wealth, and were able to colonize the island of Lipara, and founded a city on Corcyra Nigra in the Adriatic. They ultimately submitted to Cyrus, and from the battle of Eurymedon to the latter part of the Peloponnesian War they were subject to Athens.

In their expansion into the region, the Romans easily obtained the allegiance of Knidians, and rewarded them for help given against Antiochus by leaving them the freedom of their city.

During the Byzantine period there must still have been a considerable population: for the ruins contain a large number of buildings belonging to the Byzantine style, and Christian sepulchres are common in the neighbourhood.

Eudoxus, the astronomer, Ctesias, the writer on Persian history, and Sostratus, the builder of the celebrated Pharos at Alexandria, are the most remarkable of the Knidians mentioned in history.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cnidus

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
1 commentsCleisthenes
BBEAE263-FCDD-47EA-B499-ADA2F077D6F7.jpeg
Kyme, Aiolis, c. 320 - 250 B.C.8 viewsKyme was conquered by Croesus, king of Lydia, and ruled successively by the Persians, Macedonians, Seleucids, and Pergamenes. Attalus III, the last king of Pergamum, bequeathed Aeolis to Rome in 133 B.C. Shortly afterward, it was made part of the Roman province of Asia. Aeolis was under Byzantine rule until the early 15th century, when the Ottoman Turks occupied the area.
GB88291. Bronze AE 17, BMC Troas p. 109, 50 var. (same magistrate, monogram variant), SNGvA 1629 var. (same), SNG Munchen 476 var. (same), SNG Cop -, SNG Tübingen -, VF, brown tone, porous, Kyme (near Nemrut Limani, Turkey) mint, weight 4.986g, maximum diameter 16.7mm, die axis 0o, c. 320 - 250 B.C.; obverse forepart of a bridled horse right, KY upper left, ΠE∆IEYΣ (magistrate's name) below; reverse one-handled vase, monogram left; ex Frascatius Ancient Coins.
1 commentsMark R1
090BBFB8-A807-4EC3-8191-07EB599D19A6.jpeg
Kyzikos, Mysia, c. 450 - 400 B.C.7 viewsDuring the Peloponnesian War, 431 - 404 B.C., Cyzicus was subject alternately to the Athenians and Lacedaemonians. In the naval Battle of Cyzicus in 410, an Athenian fleet completely destroyed a Spartan fleet. At the peace of Antalcidas in 387, like the other Greek cities in Asia, it was made over to Persia. Alexander the Great captured it from the Persians in 334 B.C.
GA87967. Silver hemiobol, von Fritze III 14; SNG Kayhan 57; SNG BnF 375; SNG Cop 49; BMC Mysia p. 35, 120; SNGvA -, VF, toned, light marks, light etching, Kyzikos (Kapu Dagh, Turkey) mint, weight 0.347g, maximum diameter 9.8mm, die axis 180o, c. 450 - 400 B.C.; obverse forepart of boar running left, tunny fish upwards behind; reverse head of roaring lion left, star of four rays above, all in incuse square
Mark R1
den001_quad_sm.jpg
L SEPT SEV PERT AVG IMP [VIIII?] / P M TR P V COS II P P / Septimius Severus Fortuna denarius (197 AD) 17 viewsL SEPT SEV PERT AVG IMP [VIIII?], laureate head right / P M TR P V COS II P P, Fortuna standing left, holding rudder on globe in right hand, cornucopiae in left.

AR (post 196 mint, so probably 54% purity), 17 mm, 3.48g, die axis 12h.

Both small flan and image style (bust, wreath, shape of the rudder etc.) point towards the mint of Rome rather than the Eastern one. A bit heavier than expected (the standard supposed to be 3.41g), but WildWinds reports a 3.63g denarius of this type. Unfortunately it is impossible to read the number after IMP (it can be either VIIII or X for TR P V), but based on the spacing and, perhaps, a hint of V I think it is VIIII. So this must be RIC IV 104, BMCRE 229, RSC 442 type. Two other, less probable ID possibilities: RIC 115A (Rome, IMP X) and RIC 493 (Eastern mint, Laodicea ad Mare(?) IMP VIIII).

Lucius SEPTimius SEVeverus PERTinax AVGustus IMPerator (in this case not just an imperial title, but a military one, "invested with the Nth imperial acclaim", a victorious general, the number refers to important victories when the title was renewed); Pontifex Maximus (the high priest, starting with Augustus the emperor was always the head of state religion) TRibunitia Potestas (Tribunal power, the function of the tribune of the people, originally an important republican official, was "hijacked" by Augustus when he was building the imperial structure of power and subsequently became another emperor's title, renewed every year and thus very useful for dating coins) V (5th year means 193+4=197, give or take the actual date of renewing the title), COnSul (under the Empire, the office of Consul remained of some importance and was held by the Emperor with some frequency) II (during or after the consulship of 194 and before next one in 202), Pater Patriae (Father of his Country, the title was held by most Augusti but was usually not assumed at the very beginning of the reign). Denarius was the staple of Roman monetary system from 211 BC to mid 3d century AD.

SEPTIMIUS SEVERUS, *11 Apr 145 in Leptis Magna (Khoms, Libya) † 4 Feb 211 (aged 65) Eboracum (York, England) ‡ 14 April 193 – 4 February 211

Septimius Severus was born in the Roman province of Africa. He came from a wealthy and distinguished family of equestrian rank, had Roman ancestry on his mother's side (gens Fulvia was one of the most famous plebeian clans in Rome) and descended from Punic, and perhaps also Libyan, forebears on his father's side. Several members of his family held important imperial offices (although, strangely, not his father who seemed to have no career to speak about). He was trilingual, speaking Punic, Latin and Greek, and got some classical education, but probably less than he wanted to. At 17 he was helped by his influential relatives to relocate to Rome, to be presented to the Emperor Marcus Aurelius, and start his political career. With some difficulty he started to advance through the cursus honorum, holding a variety of offices. His career was helped by the Antonine Plague of 166, Septimius avoided it by returning to Leptis Magna for a while, and when he was back in Rome he found his competition conveniently thinned out. Despite him going through an impressive number of offices in a very short time there is very little record of his actual accomplishments in 170s and 180s.

In 191 Severus was appointed governor of Pannonia Superior (one of the provinces on Danube frontier) by Emperor Commodus (on advice from one of Septimius' friends). When the hell was unleashed by the assassination of Commodus on 31 December 192 and 193, , the infamous Year of the Five Emperors started, as a general in charge of significant army Severus was able to fight for the highest office. While he moved on Rome, Pertinax, the first Emperor of 193, was killed by the Praetorian Guard, and the next one, Didius Julianus, who famously bought the emperorship at an auction, was condemned by the Senate and executed, so Septimius entered Rome virtually unopposed. He then wisely appeased the powerful governor of Britannia, Clodius Albinus, who was also proclaimed the Emperor, by offering him the title of Caesar, which implied some degree of co-ruling and a chance to succession (Albinus did not give up that easy, reasserting his claim in three years, but then he was easily dealt with at the Battle of Lugdunum in Gaul). Afterwards he had to fight off the final pretender, Pescennius Niger, the former governor of Syria, who was proclaimed the Emperor by the eastern legions. Losing no time, Severus sent a considerable vanguard force to the East and, later, joined in with additional armies. In a series of battles in 193-195 Niger and his supporters were defeated. The last to surrender was Byzantium, which held even after the head of Niger was sent there. It is interesting to note that during this campaign Septimius visited the tomb of his famous fellow countryman, Hannibal Barca in Libyssa (Gebze, Turkey) and ordered to cover it with fine marble. Severus also took an opportunity to wage a short punitive campaign beyond the eastern frontier, annexing the Kingdom of Osroene as a new province.

After consolidating his rule over the western provinces, Severus waged another brief, more successful war in the east against the Parthian Empire, sacking their capital Ctesiphon in 197 and expanding the eastern frontier to the Tigris. He then enlarged and fortified the Limes Arabicus in Arabia Petraea. In 202 he campaigned in Africa and Mauretania against the Garamantes; capturing their capital Garama and expanding the Limes Tripolitanus along the southern desert frontier of the empire. In 208 he travelled to Britain, strengthening Hadrian's Wall and reoccupying the Antonine Wall. In the same year he invaded Caledonia (modern Scotland), but his ambitions were cut short when he fell fatally ill in late 210, dying in early 211 at Eboracum (York, England), and was succeeded by his sons Caracalla and Geta, thus founding the Severan dynasty. It was the last dynasty of the Roman empire before the Crisis of the Third Century.

In the context of this coin it is interesting to note, that, due to huge military expenses, upon his accession Severus decreased the silver purity of the denarius from 81.5% to 78.5%, although the silver weight actually increased, rising from 2.40 grams to 2.46 grams. Nevertheless, the following year he debased the denarius again because of rising military expenditures. The silver purity decreased from 78.5% to 64.5% – the silver weight dropping from 2.46 grams to 1.98 grams. In 196 he reduced the purity and silver weight of the denarius again, to 54% and 1.82 grams respectively [corresponds to this issue]. Severus' currency debasement was the largest since the reign of Nero.
Yurii P
Lampsakos_Mysia_Silver_diobol.jpg
Lampsakos, Mysia, c. 4th - 3rd Centuries B.C.57 viewsSilver diobol, Baldwin Lampsakos, Group B, Type I, pl. VI, 6; SNG Ashmolean 660; SNG BnF 1195; SNG Cop 191; SNGvA 1295; BMC Mysia p. 83, 36 ff., VF, well centered on a tight flan, toned, 1.458g, 11.7mm, 315o, Lampsakos (Lapseki, Turkey) mint, c. 4th - 3rd Centuries B.C.; obverse Janiform female head, wearing taenia and disk earring; reverse LA-M-Y (clockwise, starting above), helmeted head of Athena right, in a shallow round incuse.

A very valuable example from FORVM.

Lampsakos was founded by Greek colonists from Phocaea in the 6th century B.C. Soon afterward it became a main competitor of Miletus, controlling the trade roots in the Dardanelles. During the 6th and 5th centuries B.C., Lampsacus was successively dominated by Lydia, Persia, Athens, and Sparta; Artaxerxes I assigned it to Themistocles with the expectation that the city supply the Persian king with its famous wine. When Lampsacus joined the Delian League after the battle of Mycale in 479 B.C., it paid a tribute of twelve talents, a testimony to its wealth.
Sam
598704_493934557310127_1481476556_n.jpg
Laranda, Lycaonia, c. 332 B.C.79 viewsLaranda, known today as Karaman, Turkey, was destroyed by Perdiccas in about 322 B.C. and later became a seat of Isaurian pirates.


Silver obol, SNG Levante 225, SNG BnF 443, VF, 0.692g, 11.5mm, 270o, Laranda mint, c. 332 BC; obverse Baal seated left on backless throne, holding grain ear in right, long scepter vertical behind in left; reverse forepart of wolf right, crescent horns downward above, all within a double circular border of dots
5 commentsRandygeki(h2)
leo1~0.jpg
Leo I (457 - 474 A.D.)46 viewsÆ4
O: D N LEO P F AVG (or similar), pearl diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
R. Lion crouching left, head turned back right, CON (Constantinople) in exergue.
Constantinople (Istanbul, Turkey) mint
.84g
RIC X 674, LRBC 2260
3 commentsMat
110968.jpg
Lucania, Velia. (Circa 340-334 B.C.)34 viewsAR nomos (22 mm, 7.24 g, 2 h).

Obverse: Head of Athena left, wearing crested Attic helmet decorated with a griffin; between neck guard and crest, Θ

Reverse: YEΛHTΩN (of Elea), lion prowling right; below, X.

Williams 262 (O151/R207); SNG ANS 1293 (same dies); HN Italy 1284.

Velia was the Roman name of an ancient city of Magna Graecia on the coast of the Tyrrhenian Sea. It was founded by Greeks from Phocaea as Hyele around 538–535 BC. According to Herodotus, in 545 BC Ionian Greeks fled Phocaea, in modern Turkey, which was being besieged by the Persians under Cyrus the Great. They settled in Corsica until they were attacked by a force of Etruscans and Carthaginians. The surviving 6000 took to the sea once more, first stopping in Reggio Calabria, where they were probably joined by the poet/philosopher Xenophanes, who was at the time at Messina, and then moved north along the coast and founded the town of Hyele, later renamed Ele and then, eventually, Elea.

Elea was not conquered by the Lucanians, but eventually joined Rome in 273 BC and was included in ancient Lucania.
1 commentsNathan P
rjb_2010_09_03.jpg
Lydia23 viewsLydia
Croesus 560-46 BC
1/12 stater
O - Forepart of lion and bull facing
R - Incuse square
Rosen 668, SNG Turkey I 1020-1, SNG von Aulock 2880
mauseus
bageis_pseudoautonom_BMC8.jpg
Lydia, Bageis, pseudo-autonomous, BMC 836 viewsAE 21, 4.36g
struck under archon Gaius, time of later Severans
obv. DHMOC
Youthfull bust of Demos, drapery on far shoulder, laureate, r.
rev. EPI GAIOV ARX A / BAGHNWN (HN ligate)
River-god Hermos, wearing himation, reclining r., leaning with l. arm on urn from which water is flowing, holding waterplant over r. shoulder
in ex. ERMOC
BMC p.32, 8 (Thanks to Markus!)
Rare, about VF, dark-green patina, slight roughness
Pedigree:
ex Garth R. Drewry coll.
ex CNG Electronic Auction 159, lot 161

Hermos, today Gediz in Turkey.
Jochen
LydiaHypaepaHeraclesNike1_(exNicolasLouis).jpg
Lydia, Hypaepa. Pseudo-autonomous issue, time of the Antonines.30 viewsLydia, Hypaepa. Pseudo-autonomous issue, time of the Antonines (AD 138–192). Æ 19.33mm, 3.82 g, 6h.
Obverse: Bearded bust of Heracles right with club over left shoulder, seen behind neck.
Reverse: [V]Π[Α]ΙΠ – ΗΝ[Ω]Ν, Nike walking left, holding wreath in right hand with arm outstretched, and palm branch in left hand/arm.
References: RPC IV Online (temporary №) 3318; SNG Turkey 7 (Ödemiş Museum), 275; Altinoluk T9B.
Ex Nicolas Louis, 11-17-2014.
Mark Fox
saitta_BMC23.jpg
Lydia, Saittai, pseudo-autonomous, BMC 2397 viewsAE 22, 5.82g, 225°
Struck early 3rd century
obv. AZIO - T - THNOC
bust of Men Aziottenos, r., wearing Phrygian cap ornamented with stars,
crescent behind shoulders
rev. CAITTHNWN
Youthfull river-god Hermos leaning l., holding reed in r. hand and cornucopiae
in l. arm; resting l. ellbow on inverted vase from which water is flowing l.
ERMOC in ex.
ref. BMC 23; SNG von Aulock 3089; Imhoof-Blumer p.127, 1; Patricia Lawrence, In Memory of Eugene Numa Lane, in
MVSE, vol..42, Annual of the Museum of Art and Archeoloy, University of Missouri, vol. 42, 2008, p. 31, fig. 6
rare, good VF
added to www.wildwinds.com

The stars on the cap clearly seen on this specimen are not mentioned in BMC nor SNG von Aulock. Pat Lawrence: "A glorious coin!"

Hermos, today Gediz in Turkey.
3 commentsJochen
10482199_758024524234461_6995696604986559527_n.jpg
Macrinus31 viewsMacrinus, 11 April 217 - 8 June 218 A.D., Antioch, Syria

Bronze provincial as, McAlee 736; Hunter III, 243 - 244; BMC Galatia p. 200, 403 ff. var (busts); SNG Cop 234 var (same), aF, Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, weight 2.175g, maximum diameter 17.8mm, die axis 180o, obverse AYT KAI M O CE MAKPINOC CE, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust of Macrinus, from the front; reverse KAI M O ∆IA ANTΩNEINOC, bare-headed, draped and cuirassed bust of Diadumenian, seen from the front, S - C flanking across field; from the Butte College Foundation, ex Lindgren; very rare bust variant;

The Battle of Antioch. After Macrinus foolishly cut legionary pay, Legio III Gallica hailed Elagabalus as emperor on 16 May 218. Macrinus sent cavalry but they too joined Elagabalus. Macrinus finally abandoned his pay cut and paid a bonus, but it was too late. Legion II Parthica defected. General Gannys, the commander of Elagabalus' forces, decisively defeated Macrinus was just outside Antioch on 8 June 218. Macrinus shaved off his hair and beard and fled, disguised as a member of the military police. He was recognized by a centurion at Chalcedon on the Bosporus, taken back to Antioch and executed.
1 commentsRandygeki(h2)
macriniusperge.jpg
Macrinus Assarion, Perge, Pamphylia.33 viewsAV KAI M OΠEΛ CEV MAKPEINOC CEB, laureate and draped bust right

ΠEPΓ - AIΩN, winged Nike advancing left, holding wreath in extended right, palm fron in left hand

SNG PFPS 347 (same dies, additional CM on reverse), SNG von Aulock 4683 (same dies)
obv. on neck countermark: Eagle with spread wings (Howgego 168, no. 334)

The ruins of the city of Perge reside just under an hours drive from the seaside resort of Antalya on the south coast of Turkey. Strabo claims the city was founded by Greek colonists under the leadership of Mopsos and Calchas.

After the comings and going of the Persians, Alexanders Empire and the Seleucids, Perge passed over to Rome in 133BC.In 46 A.D., Perge became the setting of an event important to the Christian world. The New Testament book, the Acts of the Apostles, writes that St. Paul journeyed from Cyprus to Perge, from there continued on to Antiocheia in Pisidia. During the Constantinian era, the city became a centre of Christian worship, but waned in power after the Arab raids of the 7th centuries.
GaiusCaligula
Mehmed_II.jpg
Mehmed II Fatih - The Conqueror of Constantinople 1444-1481 A.D.126 viewsOTTOMAN/TURKEY: MEHMED II FATIH, THE CONQUEROR OF CONSTANTINOPLE [AH 848-886 / 1444-1481 AD], AR AKCHE, 10mm, 1.0gm.; Mint: AYASLUK (EPHESUS/EPHESOS), dated in AH 855/1451 AD. MEHMED BIN MURAD HAN AZZE NASRUHU 855 / HULLIDE MULKUNU DURIBE AYASLUKb70
MILETOS_Ionia_Lion.jpg
Miletos Ionia Lion24 viewsMiletos, Ionia, AR 1/12th stater, hemihekte/diobol, c. 525 - 400 BC, Asia Minor (present day Turkey)
Grose 8210, SNGvA 2081, SNG Cop 954 - 955, BMC 186, SNG Kahan 483 - 487, SNG Hart 977, SNG Munchen 709, Klein 425
OBV: Forepart of lion left
REV: Stellate floral pattern in incuse square
1 commentsRomanorvm
rhodes_pan.jpg
Mylasa, Caria, c. 170 - 130 B.C.85 views Silver Pseudo-Rhodian (drachm*), Ashton NC 1992, 255, SNG Kayhan 846, weight 2.2 g, maximum diameter 15.86 mm, Mylasa mint, c. 170 - 130 B.C.; Obv. facing head of Helios with eagle superimposed on r. cheek, hair loose; Rev. rose with bud/stem to right,(left bud off flan**) monogram left, ΠΕ & A to right. Same obv. die as Ashton 255 & Kayhan 846. Some surface roughness on top of both sides.

*Ashton, Kayhan, & Sear all describe this denom. as "drachm", though considerably underweight according to the Rhodian standard. Apparently these immitatives use the lower weight.

**Kayhan 846 plate shows stems and buds going both left and right. (but only describes the bud to the left), Ashton's plate also shows on both sides, and describes as such when in combination with letters /monograms. My example, is an Obv. die match, though the Rev. is not an exact die match, but is very close (probably same hand), and shows the right stem and bud clearly, but the left is off flan. Ashton identifies 107 Obv. dies in this series, and none of the rest are even close to the style of #255. This Obv. is shown with one other Rev. type(different letters).

Note; Ashton concludes the top two letters (on these later type with 4-5 letters/monograms) are abbrieviations for the month they were struck by the particular magistrate. (1st two letters in the Macedonian calender months used in Mylasa at the time) In my coin ΠΕ are for ΠΕΡΙΘΙOΣ or Peritios, the 10th month. He also concludes the monogram and lower letter abbrieviate the magistrate's name. Also, though he knows of no metrological analysis, the the quality of the silver seems to be somewhat debased compared to the Rhodian and early Pseudo-Rhodian issues.(most of the CH 4 hoard were of this later type, and were covered in a thick black patina{that were harshly cleaned}, the few earlier series and the one Rhodian type didn't have this patina and seemed to be of higher quality silver)

Historical background; courtsey Forvm Ancient Coins

Mylasa (Milas, Turkey today) was often mentioned by ancient writers. The first mention is from early 7th century B.C., when Arselis, a Carian leader from Mylasa, helped Gyges in his fight for the Lydian throne. Under Persia, Mylasa was the chief city of Caria. Mylasa joined the Delian League c. 455 B.C., but Persian rule was restored by 400. Mylasa was the hometown and first capital of the Hecatomnid dynasty, nominally Persian satraps, but practically kings of Caria and the surrounding region, 377 - 352 B.C. In the Hellenistic era, the city was contested by Alexander's successors, but prospered. Mylasa was severely damaged in the Roman Civil War in 40 B.C., but again regained prosperity under Roman rule.



Ex. Aegean Nunismatics
2 commentsSteve E
Mysia_Kyzikos_AR_Obol.jpg
Mysia Kyzikos 480-450 BC AR Obol177 viewsMysia Kyzikos 480-450 BC AR Obol
0.35g, 9mm
Obv.: Forepart of boar left, tuna behind
Rev.: Lion's head left
SNG Turkey 57

ex MediterraneanCoins
6 commentsareich
GRK_Gambrion_Sear_3871.jpg
Mysia, Gambrion (Poyracik, Izmir, Turkey)8 viewsSear 3871, SNG France 908-921, SNG Copenhagen 146-149.

AE unit; ca. 350-200 B.C., 4.13 g., 17.37 mm. max., 180°

Obv.: Laureate head of Apollo right.

Rev.: Twelve-pointed star, Γ-[A-M] between rays.

The earliest mention of Gambrion is in Xenophon's Anabasis which discusses the region in 399 B.C. The city peaked during the rule of the Pergamon Kingdom in the third and second centuries B.C.
Stkp
lydia1.jpg
Nacrasa, Lydia, c. 138 - 161 A.D. 7 views Bronze AE 16, RPC III 1812; SNG Cop 295; BMC Lydia p. 166, 7; SNG Munchen 335; SNGvA 3033 var. (magistrate); Imhoof-Blumer Lydien -, aVF/F, well centered, green patina, light corrosion, Nakrasa (near Kirkagach, Turkey) mint, 2.749 grams, 15.9 mm, die axis 0o, Marcus Junianus strategos, c. 98 - 150 A.D.; obverse EΠI CTPA MAP IOVNIANOV, bearded head of Herakles right; reverse NAKPACITΩN, snake coiled around omphalos, head left; from the Dr. Sam Mansourati Collection; rare; From Forum Ancient coins auction NORMAN K
Nero_Galatian_Temple~0.JPG
Nero Gallatian Temple20 viewsDiameter: 21.2 mm, Weight: 5.6 gr
RPC 3563 Nero AE23 of the Koinon of Galatia.
OBV: NEPWNOS SEBASTOY, laureate head left
REV: TO KOINON GALATWN, tetrastyle temple with peaked root, caduceus (?) at the apex.
54 - 68 AD (Struck 62 - 65 AD)

Ancient Galatia was an area in the highlands of central Anatolia in modern Turkey. Galatia, an ancient region of Asia Minor, was named for the immigrant Gauls from Thrace (cf. Tylis), who settled
here and became its ruling caste in the 3rd century BC, following the Gallic invasion of the Balkans in 279 BC. It has been called the "Gallia" of the East, Roman writers calling its inhabitants Galli.

SCARCE
Romanorvm
4088_(1)_4089_(1).jpg
Nero, AE18, DIOCIEPITΩΝ KORBOUΛΩΝ11 viewsAE18
Roman Provincial: Dioshieron, Lydia
Nero
Caesar: 50 - 54AD
Augustus: 54 - 68AD
17.5 x 16.0mm
O: NEPΩΝ KACAP; Laureate head, right.
R: DIOCIEPITΩΝ KORBOUΛΩΝ; Demos (sometimes described as Zeus) in himaton, standing left, right hand outstretched.
Exergue: GR monogram, left.
RPC I 2560; BMC 8; SNG Munich 107; SNG Cop 114 - 115; Imhoof LS 4; SNG Turkey 226 - 233; Vienne 28521; Mionnet IV, 186.
Harlan Berk
Chicago Coin Expo 4/6/17 4/17/17
Nicholas Z
TURKEY - Abdul Aziz.jpg
OTTOMAN EMPIRE - Abdul Aziz80 viewsOTTOMAN EMPIRE - Abdul Aziz (1861-1876) copper 10 Para, year 4 (1864). Reference: KM-700.dpaul7
MAHMUD II.jpg
OTTOMAN EMPIRE - MAHMUD II64 viewsTurkey, Ottoman Empire - Mahmud II (1808-1839) AR 6 Kurush. KM#603. Dated accesson date 1123 AH - Year 32.dpaul7
OTTOMAN_MURAD_II_BURSA_M_INT.jpg
OTTOMAN EMPIRE - MURAD II - 1ST REIGN47 viewsOTTOMAN EMPIRE - MURAD II - 1ST REIGN (1421-1444) Silver Akce, Mint Date: 1421 (AH 825). Mint Bursa (Turkey). Obverse: Accession date (825) above Tughra (state seal) of the Sultan. All within circle and pearl border. Reverse: Titles above mint name (Bursa). All within circle and pearl border. Diameter: 15mm, Weight: 1.12gm. Reference: Jem Sujltan #369; Pere 53.dpaul7
00480Q00.jpg
Ottoman Empire. Mehmed V. 20 Kurush. Dated RY 9 (AD 1917)11 views(36 mm).Constantinople mint (in Turkey), OC 35-012-0. Pere 1046; KM 780.Ruslan K
144133.jpg
PAMPHYLIA, Aspendos83 viewsPAMPHYLIA, Aspendos. Circa 380-325 BC.

Greek ASPENDOS, modern BELKIS, ancient city of Pamphylia, now in southwestern Turkey. It is noted for its Roman ruins. A wide range of coinage from the 5th century BC onward attests to the city's wealth. Aspendus was occupied by Alexander the Great in 333 BC and later passed from Pergamene to Roman rule in 133 BC. According to Cicero, it was plundered of many of its artistic treasures by the provincial governor Verres. The hilltop ruins of the city include a basilica, an agora, and some rock-cut tombs of Phrygian design. A huge theatre, one of the finest in the world, is carved out of the northeast flank of the hill. It was designed by the Roman architect Zeno in honour of the emperor Marcus Aurelius (reigned AD 161-180)

The present-day Belkiz was once situated on the banks of the River Eurymedon, now known as the Kopru Cay. In ancient times it was navigable; in fact, according to Strabo, the Persians anchored their ships there in 468 B.C., before the epic battle against the Delian Confederation.

It is commonly believed that Aspendos was founded by colonists from Argos. One thing is certain: right from the beginning of the 5th century, Aspendos and Side were the only two towns to mint coins. An important river trading port, it was occupied by Alexander the Great in 333 B.C. because it refused to pay tribute to the Macedonian king. It became an ally of Rome after the Battle of Sipylum in 190 B.C. and entered the Roman Empire.

The town is built against two hills: on the "great hill" or Buyuk Tepe stood the acropolis, with the agora, basilica, nymphaeum and bouleuterion or "council chamber". Of all these buildings, which were the very hub of the town, only ruins remain. About one kilometer north of the town, one can still see the remains of the Roman aqueduct that supplied Aspendos with water, transporting it from a distance of over twenty kilometers, and which still maintains its original height.

Aspendos' theatre is the best preserved Roman theatre anywhere in Turkey. It was designed during the 2nd century A.D. by the architect Zeno, son of Theodore and originally from Aspendos. Its two benefactors— the brothers Curtius Crispinus and Curtius Auspicatus —dedicated it to the Imperial family as can be seen from certain engravings on the stones. Discovered in 1871 by Count Landskonski during one of his trips to the region, the theatre is in excellent condition thanks to the top quality of the calcareous stone and to the fact that the Seljuks turned it into a palace, reinforcing the entire north wing with bricks. Its thirty-nine tiers of steps—96 meters long—could seat about twenty thousand spectators. At the top, the elegant gallery and covered arcade sheltered spectators. One is immediately struck by the integrity and architectural distinction of the stage building, consisting of a Irons scacnae which opens with five doors onto the proscenium and scanned by two orders of windows which also project onto the outside wall. There is an amusing anecdote about the construction of this theatre—in which numerous plays are still held, given its formidable acoustics — and the aqueduct just outside the town: in ancient times, the King of Aspendos had a daughter of rare beauty named Semiramis, contended by two architects; the king decided to marry her off to the one who built an important public work in the shortest space of time. The two suitors thus got down to work and completed two public works at the same time: the theatre and the aquaduct. As the sovereign liked both buildings, he thought it right and just to divide his daughter in half. Whereas the designer of the aquaduct accepted the Solomonic division, the other preferred to grant the princess wholly to her rival. In this way, the sovereign understood that the designer of the theatre had not only built a magnificent theatre— which was the pride of the town—, but would also be an excellent husband to his daughter; consequently he granted him her hand in marriage

AR Stater (21mm, 10.76 g). Two wrestlers grappling; DA between / Slinger to right; triskeles in field. Tekin Series D; SNG France 87 (same reverse die). Ex-CNG B9FV15E
1 commentsecoli
Aspendos.jpg
Pamphylia, Aspendos (Circa 380-325 BC)27 viewsAR Stater

24 mm, 11.08 g

Obv: Two wrestlers grappling. Control: KI.

Rev: EΣTFEΔIIYΣ.
Slinger in throwing stance right. Triskeles right in field; countermark.


SNG France 104; SNG von Aulock 4557.

Aspendos was an ancient city in Pamphylia, Asia Minor, located about 40 km east of the modern city of Antalya, Turkey. It was situated on the Eurymedon River about 16 km inland from the Mediterranean Sea; it shared a border with, and was hostile to, Side. The wide range of its coinage throughout the ancient world indicates that, in the 5th century BC, Aspendos had become the most important city in Pamphylia. At that time, according to Thucydides, the Eurymedon River was navigable as far as Aspendos, and the city derived great wealth from a trade in salt, oil and wool.

There are two stories associated with Aspendos that I found interesting. In 389 BC Thrasybulus of Athens, in an effort to regain some of the prestige that city had lost in the Peloponnesian Wars, anchored off the coast of Aspendos in an effort to secure its surrender. Hoping to avoid a new war, the people of Aspendos collected money among themselves and gave it to the commander, entreating him to retreat without causing any damage. Even though he took the money, he had his men trample all the crops in the fields. Enraged, the Aspendians stabbed and killed Thrasybulus in his tent.

Many years later when Alexander the Great marched into Aspendos in 333 BC after capturing Perge, the citizens sent envoys asking him not to garrison soldiers there. He agreed, provided he would be given the taxes and horses that they had formerly paid as tribute to the Persian king. After reaching this agreement Alexander went to Side, leaving a garrison there on the city's surrender. Going back through Sillyon, he learned that the Aspendians had failed to ratify the agreement their envoys had proposed and were preparing to defend themselves. Alexander marched to the city immediately. When they saw Alexander returning with his troops, the Aspendians, who had retreated to their acropolis, again sent envoys to sue for peace. This time, however, they had to agree to very harsh terms; a Macedonian garrison would remain in the city and 100 gold talents as well as 4,000 horses would be given in tax annually.
Nathan P
21652q00.jpg
Pamphylia, Side, c. 155 - 36 B.C.55 viewsSilver tetradrachm, Greek Coin Hoards In Turkey 505 ff., gVF, Side mint, weight 16.179g, maximum diameter 30.2mm, die axis 0o, obverse head of Athena right in a crested Corinthian helmet; reverse Nike advancing left, extending wreath in right, pomegranate left, KLE-YX (magistrate's name) below;

Ex Forum
1 commentsPhiloromaos
coins70.JPG
Pergamon, Mysia33 viewsPergamon or Pergamum (Greek: Πέργαμος, modern day Bergama in Turkey, 39°7′N 27°11′E) was an ancient Greek city, in Mysia, northwestern Anatolia, 16 miles from the Aegean Sea, located on a promontory on the north side of the river Caicus (modern day Bakırçay), that became an important kingdom during the Hellenistic period, under the Attalid dynasty, 282-129 BC. G34

The Attalids, the descendants of Attalus, the father of Philetaerus who came to power in 282 BC, were among the most loyal supporters of Rome among the Hellenistic successor states. Under Attalus I, they allied with Rome against Philip V of Macedon, during the first and second Macedonian Wars, and again under Eumenes II, against Perseus of Macedon, during the Third Macedonian War. For support against the Seleucids, the Attalids were rewarded with all the former Seleucid domains in Asia Minor.

The Attalids ruled with intelligence and generosity. Many documents survive showing how the Attalids would support the growth of towns through sending in skilled artisans and by remitting taxes. They allowed the Greek cities in their domains to maintain nominal independence. They sent gifts to Greek cultural sites like Delphi, Delos, and Athens. They defeated the invading Celts. They remodeled the acropolis of Pergamum after the Acropolis in Athens. The Great Altar of Pergamon is in the Pergamon Museum of Berlin.

Pergamon had the second best library in the ancient Greek civilisation, after Alexandria. When the Ptolemies stopped exporting papyrus, partly because of competitors and partly because of shortages, the Pergamenes invented a new substance to use in codices, called pergaminus or parchment after the city. This was made of fine calf skin, a predecessor of vellum.

When Attalus III died without an heir in 133 BC he bequeathed Pergamon to Rome, in order to prevent a civil war.

Close to the city was a sanctuary of Asclepius, the god of healing. In this place people with health problems could bath in the water of the sacred spring, and in the patients' dreams Asklepios would appear in a vision to tell them how to cure their illness. Archeology has found lots of gifts and dedications that people would make afterwards, such as small terracotta body parts, no doubt representing what had been healed.

In the first century AD, the Christian Church at Pergamon was one of the Seven Churches to which the Book of Revelation was addressed (Revelation 1:11, NRSV).

Pergamon, Mysia, struck by Philetairos, 282-263 BC.
Obv: head of athena wearing attic helmet right.
Rev: FILETAIROU, Asklepios seated left, feeding snake from patera.
SNG BN 1643 ff.

ecoli
image00446.jpg
Persia, Achaemenid Empire. Darios I to Xerxes I. (Circa 505-480 BC) 6 viewsAR Siglos

14 mm, 5.38 g

Lydo-Milesian standard. Sardes mint.

Obverse: Persian king or hero, wearing kidaris and kandys, quiver over shoulder, in kneeling-running stance right, drawing bow

Reverse: Incuse punch

Carradice Type II (pl. XI, 12); Meadows, Administration 320; BMC Arabia pl. XXVII, 23; Sunrise 21.

From the Baldwin Maull Collection, purchased 1950s-early 1960s.

The Persians eventual adoption of coinage was related to their conquests of Lydia and then to their conflicts with the Greek city states in the sixth through fourth centuries BC. During these wars, the Persians employed Greek mercenaries, who were accustomed to receiving payment in coinage.

The Persians issued silver sigloi and gold darics (20:1 value) with only a few basic designs. The type of siglos above (Type II), with the full-length king drawing a bow, is attributed to the period 510-480 BC and the third Persian King after Cyrus the Great, Darius I the Great, who is thought to be the human figure represented on the coin.

In general it seems that the circulation patterns of darics and sigloi were fundamentally different – so far there is no single known hoard in which the two types of coins have occurred together. Darics circulated widely and were likely used for the payment of governmental, military (1 per month for the average soldier) and diplomatic expenses. Moreover, once they entered circulation, they would have been readily accepted as bullion anywhere. As the Greeks themselves hardly struck any gold, the daric was almost free of competition on the coin market in its time.

In contrast, hoards of sigloi have been found almost exclusively in the westernmost Persian territories — the central, coastal regions of modern Turkey. From the beginning, sigloi were primarily used for local needs. In international trade the small, relatively unattractive siglos hardly had a chance against the superior Greek competitors, and even the Greek mercenaries serving in Persian service increasingly refused to accept it.

The Persian’s primary mint was certainly Sardes (the mint of the former Lydian kings as well), the seat of the Achaemenid administration for the whole of Asia Minor. As the leading administrative center, Sardes must also have been the collection point for the annual tribute payments from the provinces of Asia Minor, thus ensuring a sufficient supply of precious metals for mint production there.
1 commentsNathan P
Philippe Samosate.jpg
Philip the Arab - large bronze from Samosata (Samsat, Turkey)44 viewsRev.: ΦΛ. CAMOCATEωN MHTPOΠ. KOM. : (coin of the citizens of) Flavia Samosata, the Capital of Commagena. Tyche of Samosata leated left on rock, holding an eagle ; at her feet, Pegasus.
Ginolerhino
Phokaia_griffin.jpg
Phokaia, Ionia, c. 530 - 510 B.C.115 viewsSilver hemiobol, BMC Ionia p. 215, 82, aVF, 1.037g, 8.5mm, 3.17mm thick, Phokaia mint, 530 - 510 B.C.; Obv. head of griffin left,(seal on right at edge of flan?) Rev. rough quadripartite incuse square. Among the earliest silver coins minted!

Die match; http://www.asiaminorcoins.com/gallery/displayimage.php?album=135&pid=7204#top_display_media

Ex Forvm Ancient Coins

Photo by Forvm Ancient Coins

Background Information:

Phokaia (Phocaea) (modern day Foca, Turkey), northern most of the Ionian cities, located on the western coast of Anatolia (asia minor), at the mouth of the river Hermus (now Gediz), and between the Gulf of Smyrna (now Izmir) to the south and the Gulf of Cyme to the north. Phokaia had a thriving seafaring economy and a powerful naval fleet. It was one of the largest cities of the ancient world. Herodotus described the walls of the city as having a diameter of 5 kilometers. Probably following the Lydians, the Phocaeans were among the earliest in the world to make and use coins as money. Source of background info, Wikipedia
5 commentsSteve E
valerian_285_antioch.jpg
PIETAS AVGG, Valerian and Gallienus; RIC V 285 Antioch/ Samosata7 viewsValerian I, October 253 - c. June 260 A.D. Billon antoninianus, RIC V 285 (Antioch), MIR 1699l (Samosata), VF, Antioch or Samosata mint, 3.617g, 20.9mm, 0o, 255 - 256 A.D.; obverse IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS P F AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse PIETAS AVGG, Valerian and Gallienus standing confronted, sacrificing over altar between them, each togate and holding short scepter, pellet in wreath above. RIC assigns this issue to Antioch but MIR gives the issue to a second Eastern mint located at Samosata. Samosata was an ancient city on the west bank of the Euphrates whose ruins existed at the modern city of Samsat, Adiyaman Province, Turkey until the site was flooded by the newly-constructed Atatürk Dam. Ex FORVMPodiceps
71627q00.jpg
Pontos, Amisos, 300 - 125 B.C.16 viewsSilver drachm, SNG BM 1110 (same obverse die, reduced siglos), HGC 7 233 (R1), SNG Cop -, SNG Stancomb -, VF, coppery spots, Amisos (Samsun, Turkey) mint, weight 4.106g, maximum diameter 17.2mm, die axis 0o, 300 - 125 B.C.; obverse draped bust of Hera-Tyche right, wearing a turreted stephanos; reverse owl standing facing on shield, wings open, C - Ξ / monogram (TAI?) - P flanking under wings; raremjabrial
Ulua_Valley_Rattle_Plate.jpg
Pre-Columbian, Maya, Ulua Valley, Honduras (ca. 550-900 CE) Four-legged Rattle Plate/Bowl15 viewsA large and impressive four-legged rattle plate/bowl painted in the classic colors and style of the Ulua Valley Maya, with a large turkey in tondo. Around the turkey motif are two wide black rings and then a circle of repeated pseudo-glyphs that seem to be human heads. These are also bordered by two wide black rings that separate the base of the bowl from the sides. Around the flared sides of the bowl's interior are repeated motifs of two beings in coitus wearing huge, matching feathered headdresses. They are in groups of two separated by six vertical black bands, perhaps also representing feathers.

Size: 10.75" W x 3.5" H (27.3 cm x 8.9 cm)

ex Donick Cary Collection
Quant.Geek
6231_6232.jpg
Provincial, Hypaepa, Lydia, AE22, ΕΠΙ ΙΕΡΑΚΟC ΥΠΑΙΠ-ΗΝΩΝ14 viewsAE22
Roman Provincial
Hypaepa, Lydia
Magistrate: Hierakos
Julia Domna
Born circa: 170AD - Died: 217AD
Augusta: 193 - 217AD
22.0mm 5.40gr 6h
O: ΙΟνΛΙΑ CεΒΑCTH; Draped bust, right. Countermark: Artemis Anaitis, facing.
R: ΕΠΙ ΙΕΡΑΚΟC ΥΠΑΙΠ-ΗΝΩΝ; Tetrastyle temple with curved architrave. Artemis Anaitis facing within.
SNG Turkey V, 385; SNG Turkey VII, 331-3; Leopold I 997; Watermark: Howgego 233.
Ex. Walter Holt, 12/2013; Australia M.R. Roberts, Wynyard Coin Centre; Ex.Seaver.
Published on Wildwinds, 12/2013.
ajenkidu 183078748406
2/25/18 3/19/18
Nicholas Z
Marcus_Aurelius_39.jpg
Q129 viewsMarcus Aurelius Sestertius

Attribution: RIC III 964
Date: AD 168-169
Obverse: M ANTONINVS AVG TR P XXIII, laureate head r.
Reverse: SALVTI AVG COS III, Salus stg. l. feeding snake wrapped around altar, and holding scepter, S-C across fields
Size: 30-34 mm
Weight: 25.93 grams
(Image of Marcus Aurelius courtesy Phillip Harland: Archaeological Museum, Selçuk, Turkey)

“He studied philosophy with ardor, even as a youth. For when he was twelve years old he adopted the dress and, a little later, the hardiness of a philosopher, pursuing his studies clad in a rough Greek cloak and sleeping on the ground; at his mother’s solicitation, however, he reluctantly consented to sleep on a couch strewn with skins.” – Historia Augusta Life of Marcus II.6

Marcus Aurelius assumed the role of emperor upon the death of the Deified Antoninus Pius in AD 161. He quickly made his brother, Lucius Verus, joint emperor. This partnership endured successfully until the death of Verus in AD 169. Unfortunately, Marcus’ rule was one beleaguered by warfare (i.e. the Parthian War) made worse by the plague (brought back from the war), invasion (the Germanic Quadi and Marcomanni on the Danube front), and insurrection (the revolt of Cassius, governor of Syria). Marcus sought solace in his philosophical meanderings. His writings were not bright and cheerful, because, after all, they came from a man latent with preoccupations. During another campaign against the Germanic Quadi in AD 179-180, Marcus fell ill. He had dealt with stomach and chest problems for a few years prior to this (some historians speculate it was cancer). He took the drug theriac to endure the pain. Theriac contains opium, so Marcus may have been addicted to this “medication”. He lived only one week after the inception of this final malady. He died near Sirmium on March 17, AD 180. His body was placed in the Mausoleum of Hadrian, and he was subsequently deified by the senate.

“The first rule is, to keep an untroubled spirit; for all things must bow to Nature’s law, and soon enough you must vanish into nothingness, like Hadrian and Augustus. The second is to look things in the face and know them for what they are, remembering that it is your duty to be a good man. Do without flinching what man’s nature demands; say what seems to you most just – though with courtesy, modesty, and sincerity.” – Marcus Aurelius Meditations (To Myself) VIII.5
4 commentsNoah
Mysia_Pergamon_GIC_4910.JPG
Quasi-Autonomous Issue, Pergamon71 viewsObv: ΘЄON CYNKΛHTON, laureate, draped bust of the Roman Senate facing right.

Rev: ΘЄAN PΩ MHN, turreted, draped bust of Roma facing right, lituus before her.

An autonomous issue that does not bear the name of the issuing city, however a large hoard of these coins were unearthed in Turkey near the city of Pergamon.

Æ 17, Pergamon mint, 1st Century AD

4 grams, 17 mm, 0°

GIC 4910
1 commentsSPQR Coins
Quietus_Apollo_RIC_V_3.jpg
Quietus Apollo RIC V 316 viewsQuietus, Billon antoninianus, Göbl MIR 1728n (Samosata), RSC IV 4a, RIC V 3 (R2, Antioch), SRCV III 10819 (uncertain Syrian Mint), VF, porous, Samosata (Samsat, Turkey) mint, weight 3.628g, maximum diameter 22.8mm, die axis 180o,
OBV: IMP C FVL QVIETVS P F AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right;
REV: APOLINI CONSERVA, Apollo standing left, radiate, nude but for cloak on shoulders and draped behind, branch downward in right, left rests on grounded lyre, star upper left;
rare;

EX: Forum Ancient Coins

Samosata was the walled capital of the Commagene Kingdom founded in 69 B.C. The town remained a regional center under Rome, and until the Ottoman period. The old town of Samsat and all its history were flooded behind the Atatürk Dam in 1989. The new town was built beside the new waterline by the government to house the displaced residents.
SRukke
92074.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE PROVINCIAL, Elagabalus, AE 1 Assaria, Ephesus391 viewsIONIA, Ephesus. Elagabalus. 218-222 AD. Æ 1 Assaria (17mm, 2.69 gm). Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right / A within wreath. BMC Ionia -; SNG von Aulock -; SNG Copenhagen -; SNG Turkey -; Lindgren-Kovacs -; Lindgren III -. VF, green patina. Extremely rare denomination.

2 commentsfeatherz
Septimius_Severus_-_Nikaia~0.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE PROVINCIAL, Septimius Severus - AE 2471 viewsNikaia
193-211 AD
laureate head right
AV K Λ CEΠ_CEV(HP)OC ΠE
eagle with wreath standing on fulmen between standsards
NIK_AI_EΩN
apparently unique - not in Rec Gen, Corsten, BMC, SNG von Aulock, SNG Cop, SNG Leypold, SNG Righetti, SNG Lewis, Lindgren I&III, Hunterian, all of the SNG Turkeys, Waddington's Inventaire Sommaire, McLean or Mionett.
8,84g
Johny SYSEL
constantiusI_673var~0.jpg
Roman Empire, Constantius I Chlorus RIC V, 673 var.539 viewsConstantius I Chlorus, Caesar 293 - 305, father of Constantin I
AR - Antoninianus, 4.45g, 22.4mm
Antiochia AD 293
obv. FL VAL CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES
draped, cuirassed bust, seen from behind, radiate head r.
rev. IOVI ET HERCVLI CONS CAES
Jupiter standing r., holding globe and sceptre, facing Hercules standing l.,
holding victory, club and lion's skin.
field: dot above S
exergue: XXI
RIC V/2, 673 var., unlisted in RIC
Rarity?; about EF
From Forum Ancient Coins, thanks!
added to www.wildwinds.com

From Curtis Clay: This type is known for Diocletian from officinae 1-2, 4-5 and 7. For Galerius there are coins from officina 3 (added: 'Known also for Maximian, RIC'!). For Constantius coins from officina 6 (S) were expected but not yet known.This can be changed when more coins are coming out of Turkey or Syria
1 commentsJochen
08930q00.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Constantius I, May 305 - 25 July 306 A.D., Gold aureus22 viewsSH08930. Gold aureus, RIC VI Antiochia 8; Calico 4833a; Depeyrot p. 139, 9/4; Cohen VII 145, aVF/VF, weight 5.29 g, maximum diameter 19.4 mm, die axis 180o, Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, as caesar, 293 - 295 A.D.; obverse CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES, laureate head right; reverse HERCVLI CONS CAES (Hercules protector of Caesar), Hercules standing facing, head left, leaning on club and holding apples, lion skin over shoulder, SMAΞ* in exergue; very rare (RIC rarity R4, Calico rarity R1), conservative Sear grading, traces of mounting at 12 o'clockJoe Sermarini
30322q00.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Constantius II, 22 May 337 - 3 November 361 A.D.19 viewsSH30322. Gold solidus, RIC VIII Antioch 31, Choice EF, weight 4.540 g, maximum diameter 22.1 mm, die axis 180o, Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, 340 - 350 A.D.; obverse FL IVL CONSTANTIVS PERP AVG, pearl-diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse VICTORIAE DD NN AVGG (victories of our two lord emperors), VOTIS XV MVLTIS XX within wreath, jewel at top, tied at the bottom, SMAN∆ in exergue; very rare (R3)Joe Sermarini
MaximianusHydraQuinobre.JPG
Roman Empire, Maximianus, AE quinarius319 viewsObv: MAXIMIANVS AVG. Laur. bust r.
Rev: HERCVLI DEBALLAT. Hercules battling Hydra
15,5 mm, found in Turkey
Gert
coins1 100.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Maximinus II Caesar46 viewsmaximinus II,as caesar, 308-310 A.D.
OBV: GAL VAL MAXIMINVS NOB CAES, laureate head right
REV: GENIO CAESARIS CMH, Genius standing left with modius on head, patera from which liquor flows, & cornucopiae.
EX: SMNT(Nicomedia (Izmit, Turkey)
ancientcoins
Screenshot_2019-03-28_11_16_53.png
Roman Provincial, Bithynia, Maximus, AE24 - 4 Assarion, Unpublished, Added to the Wildwinds site.9 viewsNicomedia, 235-238 A.D. 6.25g - 23.9mm, Axis 5h.

Obv: Γ IOY OYH MAZIMOC K / Δ - Bare-headed, draped cuirassed bust right. Countermark: Δ (Denomination).

Rev: NIKOMHΔEΩN ΔIC NEΩKOΡΩN - Nemesis holding scales and cubit-rule, wheel at feet.

RecGen 352 var (Dikaoisyne with scales and cornucopiae). Unpublished. Not in RecGen, RecGen Additions, Isegrim, SNG Turkey volumes.
Very Rare.
Christian Scarlioli
philip_I_samosata.jpg
Samosata, Commagene. Provincial sestertius, city-goddess with eagle & Pegasos11 viewsPhilip I, the Arab, first half of 244 - end of September 249 A.D., Samosata, Commagene. Bronze provincial sestertius, BMC Syria p. 122, 44 ff., F, Samosata mint, 14.421g, 31.2mm, 180o, obverse “AUTOK K M IOULI FILIPPO”C C“EB”, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse “FL” C“AMO”C“ATE”W“N MHTROP KOM”, city-goddess seated left on rocks, grain in right, eagle on right arm, Pegasos running right at her feet. Samosata, meaning 'sun,' was an ancient city whose ruins existed at the modern city of Samsat, Adiyaman Province, Turkey until the site was flooded by the Atatürk Dam. Ex FORVMPodiceps
Hekatomnos.jpg
Satraps OF Caria. Hekatomnos (Circa 392/1-377/6 BC)9 viewsAR Tetradrachm

25 mm, 14.90 g

Obverse: Zeus Labraundos standing right, holding labrys over his right shoulder and long scepter in his left.

Reverse: EKATOMNΩ, Lion at bay to right.

Hecatomnus 16. Karl 3. SNG von Aulock 2354.

Hecatomnos was the son of Hyssaldomus, the local ruler of Mylasa, a town in Caria (a region on the SW coast of Turkey). In 392 or 391, the Persian king Artaxerxes II appointed Hecatomnos as satrap of that part of the Achaemenid Empire and later awarded him the overlordship of the city of Miletus, the largest Greek settlement in Asia Minor. Hecatomnos seems to have been fascinated by Greek culture, and on one occasion sent his youngest son Pixodarus to Athens. Hecatomnos died in 377/376 and was succeeded by his son Maussolus (builder of the Mausoleum of Maussollos). His house was to rule Caria for another half century.

In many ways, not least in their coinage, the Hekatomnids were the forerunners of Hellenistic kings. They were unique in that period in issuing a regular and prolific dynastic coinage, which remained practically unchanged until the arrival of Alexander the Great. Other satraps struck coins, but none was hereditary and there was no continuity of coinage from one family member to another as was the case with the Hekatomnids.

The tetradrachm series above was a type that remained in use virtually unchanged throughout the coinage of the Hekatomnids. On the obverse is the figure of Zeus Labraundos, bearded and laureate, standing to the right, wearing a himation, and holding a spear pointing downward in one hand and a labrys (double-axe) in the other. This was a potent image, sacred to all Carians by virtue of the importance of the sanctuary of Labraunda (literally, “place of the sacred labrys”). This image of Zeus, with a very Greek looking appearance, remained virtually unchanged throughout the different issues that were minted over a period of about half a century – perhaps suggesting that the coin design was modelled after the actual statue of Zeus at Labraunda.

The reverse of the tetradrachm depicts a lion standing to the left, roaring, its back legs straight and front legs bent, almost parallel to the ground line. Comparable lion postures are found on some contemporary Cypriot issues and on the 5th century BC diobol coinage of Miletos (most likely the Hekatomnids’ inspiration).
2 commentsNathan P
Ancient_Greek_Alexander_the_Great_AR_tetradrachm__Seleucid_Kingdom.jpg
Selecus I Nikator AR tetradrachm 111 viewsAncient Greek / Seleucid Kingdom / Selecus I Nikator / in the name of Alexander the Great / AR tetradrachm

Obverse: Head of Herakles right, wearing lion's headdress. 
Reverse:  Zeus seated right, anchor , A to right , M under throne.  
AΛEΞANΔPOY / BAΣIΛEΩΣ
Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint. 311 - 300 B.C.
Weight 16.87 grams,  Max. Dia., 28 mm.
Price 3359, SC 94.6b.

Posthumous issue struck circa 311-300 B.C. under Selecus I, (312-281) BC

From the Sam Mansourati Collection.
Sam
Séleucie de Piérie Trajan.jpg
Seleucia Pieria (Samandagi, Turkey) - Trajan64 viewsIllegible legend ; laureate bust right.
CEΛEYKEωN [ΠEIEP]IAC / ZEYC KACIOC , sacred conical baetyl of Zeus Kasios under canopy supported by four columns, seen in perspective.
24 mm.

Seleucia Pieria was the port of Antioch. Her main sanctuary was Zeus Kasios (the god who is on Mount Kasios, near the city), worshiped as a conical sacred stone - exactly like Elagabal in Emesa.
1 commentsGinolerhino
Antiochus_III~0.jpg
Seleucid - Antiochus III (The Great) (222-187 BCE)11 viewsMetal/Size: AE16; Weight: 3.88 grams; Denomination: Bronze Unit; Mint: Sardes (Sart, Turkey); Date: 222-187 BCE; Obverse: Laureate head of Apollo facing right. Reverse: BAΣΙΛΕΩΣ ANTIOXOY: Apollo standing left, holding arrow and resting elbow on tall tripod - monogram to left. References: SC #983; HGC #518, p. 109.museumguy
0523176.jpg
Seleukid Kingdom, Antiochus I Sorter, 280 – 261 BCE13 viewsGB83409. Bronze AE 21, Houghton-Lorber I 336, SNG Spaer 179,
Newell WSM 933, gVF, Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint,
weight 6.194g, maximum diameter 20.7mm, die axis 135o,
first series, 280 - 278 B.C.E.
Obverse: laureate head of Apollo right, wavy hair down the
back of neck
reverse: BAΣIΛEΩΣ ANTIOXOY, tripod lebes, anchor right
below, monograms left and right; fine style.
From Forum Sales
sold 4-2016
NORMAN K
152.jpg
Seleukid Kingdom, Seleukos I Nikator, 312-281 BC, AR Tetradrachm – Carrhae 27 viewsHead of Herakles r. wearing lion-skin headdress.
ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΣEΛEYKOY Zeus Aëtophoros seated l., wreath and monogram to l., ΛY beneath throne.

SC 42.5; HGC 9, 12a (R2-3); WSM 776 dies A16/P30; Commerce ("Seleucus I") Hoard 2005 (CH 10.265) 1254 (this coin); CSE 2, 16 (AHNS 1026).
Carrhae (Karrhai) after 301 BC.

(26 mm, 17.08 g, 3h).

Roma E-Sale 3 (30 Nov. 2013), lot 290; from "a private American Collection"; ex- Holyland Numismatics (2012); ex- Commerce ("Seleucus I") Hoard 2005 (CH 10.265) #1254.

Carrhae (Karrhai) was Biblical Haran, the home of Abraham, located in southeastern Turkey a few kilometres from the modern-day village of Altınbaşak, on a tributary of the Euphrates River in northern Mesopotamia. A mint was established in the city around 315 BC under Antigonos Monopthalmos, who settled Macedonian veterans in the city. Many of these veterans joined Seleukos when he passed through the city in 311 on his way to reclaim his Babylonian Satrapy, although the city remained under Antigonid authority. After the Battle of Ipsos in 301 BC, the city fell within the Seleukid Empire.
2 commentsn.igma
475_Septimius_Nikaia.JPG
Septimius Severus - Nicaea5 viewsAE 24
193-211 AD
laureate head right
AV K Λ CEΠ_CEV(HP)OC ΠE
eagle with wreath standing on fulmen between standsards
NIK_AI_EΩN
apparently unique - not in Rec Gen, Corsten, BMC, SNG von Aulock, SNG Cop, SNG Leypold, SNG Righetti, SNG Lewis, Lindgren I&III, Hunterian, all of the SNG Turkeys, Waddington's Inventaire Sommaire, McLean or Mionett.
8,84g
Johny SYSEL
DSCN7703.JPG
Sigeion, Troas, c. 330 - 300 B.C. AE10mm13 viewsSigeion, Troas, c. 330 - 300 B.C.

Obv. Head of Athena right, wearing Attic helmet.

Rev. Σ - I / Γ - E, crescent.

Ref. BMC 20; SNG copenhagen 499; Klein 320; SNG Turkey I, 79.
Lee S
Synnada,_Phrygia,_c__133_-_30_B_C_.jpg
Synnada, Phrygia, c. 133 - 30 B.C.39 viewsBronze AE 22, SNG Cop 706; SNGvA 3973; SNG Tübingen 4196; BMC Phrygia p. 392, 3; Imhoof Blumer KM p. 292, 2; Lindgren III 619; SNG München -, aVF, green patina, large flan, weak strike, Synnada mint, 7.431 grams, 21.8 mm, die axis 0o, c. 133 - 30 B.C.; obverse turreted and draped bust of Tyche right; reverse SUNNADE / MAI-ANDRI, Zeus standing left, himation over left shoulder and around waist and legs, thunderbolt in right hand, long scepter vertical behind in left; from the Butte College Foundation, ex Lindgren .


Synnada (Suhut, Turkey today) was of considerable importance as a station on the road from Apameia to the north and east. Synnada was celebrated throughout the Roman Empire for its precious Synnadic marble, a light color marble interspersed with purple spots and veins. From quarries on Mount Persis in neighboring Docimeium, it was conveyed through Synnada to Ephesus, from which it was shipped over sea to Italy.


EX; FORVM Ancient Coins.

From The Sam Mansourati Collection.
*With my sincere thank and appreciation , Photo and Description courtesy of FORVM Ancient Coins Staff.
Sam
721223.jpg
SYRIA, Seleucis and Pieria. Antioch. Caracalla59 viewsSYRIA, Seleucis and Pieria. Antioch. Caracalla. AD 198-217. AR Tetradrachm (12.60 g, 12h). Struck AD 215-217. Laureate head right / Eagle standing facing on thigh of sacrificial animal, head right, with wings displayed, holding wreath in beak; •D• and •E• above wings. Prieur 224; SNG Copenhagen

Antioch on the Orontes was an ancient city on the eastern side of the Orontes River. Its ruins lie near the modern city of Antakya, Turkey.

Founded near the end of the 4th century BC by Seleucus I Nicator, one of Alexander the Great's generals, Antioch's geographic, military and economic location, particularly the spice trade, the Silk Road, the Persian Royal Road, benefited its occupants, and eventually it rivaled Alexandria as the chief city of the Near East and as the main center of Hellenistic Judaism at the end of the Second Temple period.

As a result of its longevity and the pivotal role it played in the emergence of both Hellenistic Judaism and Early Christianity, Antioch was called "the cradle of Christianity."[1] It was one of the four cities of the Syrian tetrapolis. Its residents are known as Antiochenes. Once a great metropolis of half a million people, it declined to insignificance during the Middle Ages because of warfare, repeated earthquakes and a change in trade routes following the Mongol conquests, which then no longer passed through Antioch from the far east.

Ex-CNG 72, Lot: 1223 160/150
1 commentsecoli
1373.jpg
thyatira0001a4 viewsSemi-autonomous AD 222-235 (Time of Elagabalus-Severus Alexander)
Thyatira, Lydia

Obv: ΘYATƐIΡA, turreted, draped bust of Tyche right. Countermark "A" in incused oval.
Rev: ΘΥΑΤƐΙΡΗ →ΝΩΝ, river-god Lykos reclining left, holding reed and resting left arm on an overturned urn.
21 mm, 3.96 gms

BMC 54; SNG von Aulock 3215; Mionnet IV, 872; SNG Munich 602; SNG Turkey 5, 490; SNG Turkey 7, 423. Countermark: Howgego 660
Charles M
Daric.jpg
Time of Darius I - Xerxes II132 viewsACHAEMENID PERSIAN EMPIRE. Time of Darius I - Xerxes II Circa 485-420 B.C.E. AV daric. 16mm, 8.36g. O:Persian king or hero in kneeling-running stance right, holding spear and bow. R: Incuse punch. Carradice Type IIIb A/B (pl. XIII, 27).

In 550 BC Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Persian Empire by amalgamating the Iranian tribes of the Medes and the Persians. Cyrus then looked to the west. His army defeated the Lydians and their king Croesus in 547 BC and in the following year the Persian army marched into the kingdoms of Ionia, Caria and Lykia, on what is now the west coast of Turkey.

It was there that the Persians first came into contact with coinage. From here it spread over the next century throughout the Persian Empire as far as Afghanistan and Egypt. After conquering Lydia in 547 BC, the Persians adopted the Lydian tradition of minting coins. Soon the local 'lion and bull' croesid coins were replaced by a new Achaemenid coinage.

The gold daric, named after the Persian king Darius I (521-486 BC), and the silver siglos (or shekel) were the main denominations. An archer, representing the Persian king, appeared on the obverse (front) of the coin. The reverse consisted of a rectangular punch. These coins were minted in the western part of the Achaemenid Empire. Their production continued long after the death of Darius, until the conquest of Persia by Alexander the Great at the end of the fourth century BC. (Comments from britishmuseum.org)

After the destruction of the Kingdom of Judah, the Jews were taken into the seventy-year Babylonian captivity. When ancient Persia took control of Babylon, Haman, the royal vizier, convinced King Ahasuerus to destroy all the Jews. Esther, Ahasuerus's queen and, unknown to him, a Jew, interceded on behalf of her people. By law the King could not rescind the order to slaughter the Jews, so he issued a second decree that permitted the Jews to defend themselves with armed force.

The King replaced Haman with Mordecai, a palace official, cousin and foster parent of Esther. The Jews defeated Haman, killing his ten sons that were leading the attacks, and then hanged Haman. The day after the battle was designated as a day of feasting and rejoicing. Scholars identify King Ahasuerus as the historical king Xerxes I, 486 - 465 BCE. Xerxes is the Greek version of his name but the Babylonians knew him as Khshayarsha. The Hebrew name Ahasuerus, appears to be derived from Khshayarsha, with the letter A added at the beginning.
3 commentsNemonater
26~0.jpg
Trajan Drachm - Two Lyres (Sear 1046)47 viewsAR Drachm
Lycia 98-99 AD
3.30g

Obv: Laureate bust of Trajan (R)

Rev: TWO LYRES with owl above. Issued to commemorate Trajan's second consulship.

Lycia was roughly situated in modern day Antalya in Southern Turkey.

SEAR GREEK 1046
1 commentsKained but Able
Troas_Alexandria.JPG
Troas Alexandria14 viewsBeast Coins:
Anonymous Issue (Possibly Gallienus alone), AE As, 3rd Century AD, Troas-Alexandria, Northwest Asia Minor (Turkey), near Troy, Bellinger A490, 23mm
OBV: CO_L TROA
REV: C_OL AV TRO
Romanorvm
alexandreia_troas_maximinusI_Bellinger364.jpg
Troas, Alexandreia, Maximinus I, Bellinger A364 6 viewsMaximinus I, AD 235-238
AE 27, 8.92g, 27.4mm, 180°
obv. IMP MAXIMI - MVS PI A (S revers)
Bust, draped and cuirassed, laureate, r.
rev. A - V
in ex. TROAS
Horse grazing r., before a plant, behind tree
ref. Bellinger A364 (Type 40); cf. SNG München 111; BMCT 134; not in Troas, Copenhagen, von Aulock, Tübimgen, Hunt,
Turkey
very rare, F+, well centered, encrustations
From Forum Ancient Coins, thanks!

Here too before the horse a plant(?) is visible.
Jochen
Turkey~0.jpg
Turkey84 viewsKm895a - 1 Kuru - 1971
Km835 - 5 Kurus - 1926 (AH 1340/1)
Km1165 - 5 Yeni Kuros - 2005
Km1166 - 10 Yeni Kuros - 2005
Km1168 - 50 Yeni Kuros - 2005
Km1105 - 50 bin lira - 2001
Daniel F
OTTOMAN_MUSA_CHELEBI_EDIRNE_2.jpg
TURKEY -- Musa Chelebi 34 viewsTURKEY -- Musa Chelebi (1411-1413 AD / 813-816 AH) AR Akche, dated AH 813. Edirne mint. Obv.: Circulart legend within decorated hexagram. Central tamgha: Musa son of Bayezid Rev.: Central inscription divided by horizontal line, tamgha right and left. Above: "STRUCK" 2nd line: EDIRNE 3rd line: PERPETUATE HIS KINGNDOM Below: 813 11mm 0.78 . Reference: J. Sultan #302.dpaul7
turkey_5-kurus_AH1293-15_rev_02.JPG
Turkey AH1293/15 - 5 Kurus28 viewsOttoman Empire Silver 5 Kurus
Constantinople Mint.
.8300 Silver
.1605 oz ASW
rexesq
turkey_5-kurus_AH1293-15_obv_03.JPG
Turkey AH1293/15 - 5 Kurus33 viewsOttoman Empire Silver 5 Kurus
Constantinople Mint.
.8300 Silver
.1605 oz ASW
rexesq
turkey_2-kurus_AH1293-19_catalina-bid-board_obv_01_rev_01.JPG
Turkey AH1293/19 - 2 Kurus - 0130 viewsOttoman Empire - Silver 2 Kurus
Constantinople Mint.
.8300 Silver
rexesq
turkey_2-kurus_AH1293-19_catalina-bid-board_in-flip_obv_04_rev_04.JPG
Turkey AH1293/19 - 2 Kurus - 0450 viewsOttoman Empire - Silver 2 Kurus
Constantinople Mint.
.8300 Silver
rexesq
turkey_2-kurus_AH1293-19_catalina-bid-board_in-flip_obv_06_rev_06.JPG
Turkey AH1293/19 - 2 Kurus - 0656 viewsOttoman Empire - Silver 2 Kurus
Constantinople Mint.
.8300 Silver
rexesq
turkey_10-kurus_AH1327-6(1914)_in-flip_obv_03_rev_04.JPG
Turkey AH1327/6 1914 - 10 Kurus70 viewsOttoman Empire, Silver 10 Kurus.
Constantinople Mint.
.8300 Silver .3210 oz ASW
Mintage: 81,000

* Photos taken through coin flip. *
rexesq
Oinoanda.JPG
Turkey, İncealiler - Termessos ad Oenoanda81 viewsOenoanda in the upper valley of the Xanthus River, was a colony of Termessos Major, and was also called Termessos Minor. The ruins of the city lie west of the modern village İncealiler in the Fethiye district of Muğla Province, Turkey, which partly overlies the ancient site. An extensive inscription of Diogenes of Oenoanda has been identified from over 300 scattered fragments, apparently from the stoa, varying in size from a few letters to passages of several sentences covering more than one block. The inscription sets out Epicurus' teachings on physics, epistemology, and ethics. It was originally about 25,000 words long and filled 260 square meters of wall. The stoa was dismantled in the second half of the third century A.D. to make room for a defensive wall; previously the site had been undefended.

By Ansgar Bovet - Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=18861664
Joe Sermarini
childs_toy.JPG
Turkey, Ankara, Anatolian Museum of Civilisations.37 viewsA Phrygian toy in the form of a griffin eating a fish. Made of wood and dating to the 8th cent. BC, it was recovered in a Tumulus at the site of Gordion.
Photograph by Will Hooton.
*Alex
Bust_attributed_to_Marcus_Aurelius_.jpg
Turkey, Ankara, Anatolian Museum of Civilisations.32 viewsBust attributed to a somewhat ill looking Marcus Aurelius.
Photograph by Will Hooton
*Alex
Bronze_tondo_of_Trajan_Decius_(2)_jpg_PNG.JPG
Turkey, Ankara, Anatolian Museum of Civilisations.40 viewsA magnificent bronze tondo of Trajan Decius. It was really tricky to photograph, the light above acts as a backlight and picking up facial details with out flash (and with a museum guard behind you to make sure you don't). And the reflective panes of glass don't help either.
Nevertheless, a wonderful piece. I am sorry I could not do any better.
Photograph by Will Hooton
*Alex
Bronze_tondo_of_Trajan_Decius_(1).jpg
Turkey, Ankara, Anatolian Museum of Civilisations.34 viewsSide view of the magnificent bronze tondo of Trajan Decius.
Photograph by Will Hooton
*Alex
A_relief_of_Hittite_troops_and_palace_officals,_dating_to_the_second_half_of_the_8th_cent__BC_.jpg
Turkey, Ankara, Anatolian Museum of Civilisations.31 viewsA relief of Hittite troops and palace officials, dating to the second half of the 8th cent. BC.
Photograph by Will Hooton
*Alex
PHRYGIAN_BOWL.JPG
Turkey, Ankara, Anatolian Museum of Civilisations.30 viewsThe Phrygians seemed to have possessed advanced metal working skills as is testified to by this bronze phiale, found at the Great Tumulus at Gordion.
Photograph by Will Hooton
*Alex
PHRYGIAN_HELMET.JPG
Turkey, Ankara, Anatolian Museum of Civilisations.29 viewsThis helmet is called the Phyrigian type, not because it is Phrygian in origin, but because of it's resemblance to the Phrygian cap. This helmet appeared in the classical section rather than the Phrygian one.
Photograph by Will Hooton
*Alex
livia.jpg
Turkey, Ankara, Anatolian Museum of Civilisations.34 viewsBust attributed to Livia.
Photograph by Will Hooton
*Alex
King_Sulumeii_offering_a_libation_to_a_god__Basalt,_10th_-_9th_cent__BC.JPG
Turkey, Ankara, Anatolian Museum of Civilisations.31 viewsKing Sulumeli offering a libation to a god. Basalt, 10th - 9th cent. BC.
Photograph by Will Hooton
*Alex
Detail_of_a_mythical_man-lion__Basalt_relief_from_Carchemish__9th_cent__BC_jpg_PNG.JPG
Turkey, Ankara, Anatolian Museum of Civilisations.35 viewsDetail of a mythical man-lion. Basalt relief from Carchemish, 9th cent. BC.
Photograph by Will Hooton
*Alex
VOTIVE_STELE.JPG
Turkey, Ankara, Anatolian Museum of Civilisations.30 viewsA votive stele, 2nd-3rd cent. BC.
Photograph by Will Hooton
*Alex
Column_of_Julian_in_Ankara.jpg
Turkey, Ankara, Column of Julian34 viewsThe Column of Julian in Ankara was erected in dedication to his visit sometime in 362 AD. It has a strange ribbed design. In fact it looks like a giant marble kebab to me.
Photograph by Will Hooton
*Alex
Ankara__baths.jpg
Turkey, Ankara, Roman Baths30 viewsPhotograph by Will Hooton*Alex
Roman_Baths__Ankara.jpg
Turkey, Ankara, Roman Baths28 viewsPhotograph by Will Hooton*Alex
Temple.JPG
Turkey, Ankara, The Temple of the Divine Augustus and Rome34 viewsThe Temple of the Divine Augustus and Rome in the centre of Ankara, which now stands besides a mosque. I was unable to get any closer due this being Ramazan, the area was cordoned off in preparation for iftar.

Photograph by Will Hooton
Joe Sermarini
Theatre,_Ankara_(1).jpg
Turkey, Ankara, Theatre (1)30 viewsNot to far from the Anatolian Museum in Ankara, a theatre is currently being excavated. It certainly looks promising, although excavation is expected to continue for a long while. To excavate something like this in the middle of a metropolitan city is quite extraordinary!
Photograph by Will Hooton
*Alex
Theatre_at_Ankara.JPG
Turkey, Ankara, Theatre (2)30 viewsAnother view of the Theatre.
Photograph by Will Hooton
*Alex
Ankara__Tombstones.JPG
Turkey, Ankara, Tombstones.33 viewsSituated in the town's palestra, a short distance away from the Roman Baths, are a large selection of Roman tombstones some of which are very interesting.
Photographs by Will Hooton
*Alex
LimyraTheater.jpg
Turkey, Antalya Province, Limyra - Theater31 viewsLimyra was a small city in Lycia on the southern coast of Asia Minor, on the Limyrus River, about 5 1/2 KM from the mouth of that river. The ruins are about 5 km northeast of the town of Finike (ancient Phoenicus) in Antalya Province, Turkey. It was a prosperous city, and one of the oldest cities in Lycia. It had rich and abundant soil, and gradually became one of the finest trade settlements in Greece. Pericles adopted it as the capital of the Lycian League. The city came under control of the Persian Empire after it was conquered by Cyrus the Great. He later annexed Lydia and its territories after a decisive victory at the Battle of Thymbra and the Siege of Sardis, where he defeated armies twice as large as his. Cyrus then got his greatest general: Harpagus of Media to conquer the much smaller kingdoms in Anatolia, while he went to conquer the Neo-Babylonian Empire. Anatolia would become an important place for the Persian monarchs who succeeded Cyrus. The massive Royal road constructed by Darius went from the Persian capital of Persepolis, to the Anatolian city of Sardis. Limyra would stay under Persian control until it was conquered and sacked by Alexander the Great. It is mentioned by Strabo (XIV, 666), Ptolemy (V, 3, 6) and several Latin authors. Gaius Caesar, adopted son of Augustus, died there (Velleius Paterculus, II, 102). Ruins consist of a theater, tombs, sarcophagi, bas-reliefs, Greek and Lycian inscriptions etc. About 3 km east of the site is the Roman Bridge at Limyra, one of the oldest segmented arch bridges of the world.

Source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:LimyraTheater1.jpg
Photo by Kpisimon, 8 May 1988
Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported
Joe Sermarini
JULIA_SOAEMIAS.JPG
Turkey, Antalya, Archaeological Museum of Antalya.35 viewsStatue attributed to Julia Soaemias, mother of  Elagabalus.
Photograph by Will Hooton
*Alex
Herakles.JPG
Turkey, Antalya, Archaeological Museum of Antalya.30 viewsStatue of Herakles.
Photograph by Will Hooton
*Alex
Hadrian.JPG
Turkey, Antalya, Archaeological Museum of Antalya.35 viewsStatue of Hadrian in military dress.
Photograph by Will Hooton
*Alex
ATHENA.JPG
Turkey, Antalya, Archaeological Museum of Antalya.33 viewsStatue of Athena.
Photograph by Will Hooton
*Alex
artemis_perge.JPG
Turkey, Antalya, Archaeological Museum of Antalya.32 viewsStatue of Artemis, removed from Perge.
Photograph by Will Hooton
*Alex
TYCHE.JPG
Turkey, Antalya, Archaeological Museum of Antalya.30 viewsTyche
Photograph by Will Hooton
*Alex
TRAJAN~0.JPG
Turkey, Antalya, Archaeological Museum of Antalya.30 viewsStatue of Trajan in military dress.
Photograph by Will Hooton
*Alex
Private_Citizen.jpg
Turkey, Antalya, Archaeological Museum of Antalya.30 viewsStatue of a private citizen.
Photograph by Will Hooton
*Alex
POSSIBLY_FORTUNA.JPG
Turkey, Antalya, Archaeological Museum of Antalya.30 viewsStatue, probably of Fortuna.
Photograph by Will Hooton
*Alex
Mercury.JPG
Turkey, Antalya, Archaeological Museum of Antalya.32 viewsStatue of Mercury.
Photograph by Will Hooton
*Alex
UNATTRIBUTED_EMPEROR.JPG
Turkey, Antalya, Archaeological Museum of Antalya.31 viewsUnattributed statue of an emperor.
Photograph by Will Hooton
*Alex
The_three_Graces.jpg
Turkey, Antalya, Archaeological Museum of Antalya.30 viewsThe Three Graces, removed from Perge.
Photograph by Will Hooton
*Alex
Red_figure_pottery_(3).JPG
Turkey, Antalya, Archaeological Museum of Antalya.30 viewsAn example of the wonderful collection of red figure pottery housed at the museum.
Photograph by Will Hooton.
*Alex
RED_FIGURE_POTTERY_(2).JPG
Turkey, Antalya, Archaeological Museum of Antalya.32 viewsAn example of the wonderful collection of red figure pottery housed at the museum.
Photograph by Will Hooton
*Alex
RED_FIGURE_POTTERY_(1).JPG
Turkey, Antalya, Archaeological Museum of Antalya.27 viewsAn example of the wonderful collection of red figure pottery housed at the museum.
Photograph by Will Hooton
*Alex
Sarcophagus__Labours_of_Herakles_details.JPG
Turkey, Antalya, Archaeological Museum of Antalya.30 viewsDetails from a sarcophagus featuring the 10 labours of Hercules.
Photographs by Will Hooton
*Alex
Sarcophagus__Labours_of_Herakles_.jpg
Turkey, Antalya, Archaeological Museum of Antalya.31 viewsSarcophagus featuring the 10 labours of Hercules.
Photograph by Will Hooton
*Alex
Heroic_Hadrian.JPG
Turkey, Antalya, Archaeological Museum of Antalya.34 viewsHeroic statue of Hadrian.
Photograph by Will Hooton
*Alex
H2.JPG
Turkey, Antalya, Archaeological Museum of Antalya.34 viewsHeroic statue of Hadrian.
Photograph by Will Hooton
Joe Sermarini
H1.JPG
Turkey, Antalya, Archaeological Museum of Antalya. 31 viewsHeroic statue of Hadrian.
Photograph by Will Hooton
Joe Sermarini
Sarapis1.JPG
Turkey, Antalya, Archaeological Museum of Antalya.35 viewsStatue of Serapis.
Photograph by Will Hooton
Joe Sermarini
Tyche2.JPG
Turkey, Antalya, Archaeological Museum of Antalya. 33 viewsTyche
Photograph by Will Hooton
Joe Sermarini
Athena2.JPG
Turkey, Antalya, Archaeological Museum of Antalya.34 viewsStatue of Athena.
Photograph by Will Hooton
Joe Sermarini
Herakles2.JPG
Turkey, Antalya, Archaeological Museum of Antalya.30 viewsStatue of Herakles.
Photograph by Will Hooton
Joe Sermarini
Hermes2.JPG
Turkey, Antalya, Archaeological Museum of Antalya.36 viewsStatue of a Hermes.
Photograph by Will Hooton
Joe Sermarini
Hermes1.JPG
Turkey, Antalya, Archaeological Museum of Antalya.50 viewsStatue of a Hermes.
Photograph by Will Hooton
Joe Sermarini
Tempio_di_Afrodite_e_tetrapylon.JPG
Turkey, Aphrodisias - Aphrodite's temple with tetrapylon202 viewsMay 2011FlaviusDomitianus
Aspendos_1.JPG
Turkey, Aspendos - Theater's entrance189 viewsMay 2011FlaviusDomitianus
Aspendos_theatre_seating.jpg
Turkey, Aspendos, Roman theatre, Seating326 viewsAspendos has a strong claim to possess the best-preserved Roman theatre in the world. It dates from the mid-second century, completed during the last years of the reign of Antoninus Pius, to a design by a local architect, Zenon. The cavea seats over 10,000; walking around the top level, you can still find the original post holes for the masts fixing the velarium. 1 commentsAbu Galyon
Aspendos_theatre_stage_building.jpg
Turkey, Aspendos, Roman theatre, Stage building220 viewsThe scaenae frons is similarly largely undamaged. The stage building had secondary use, first as a caravanserai and later as a residence for the Seljuk governor of the city! Abu Galyon
s_Arch.jpg
Turkey, Attalia (Antalya) - Hadrian's gate257 viewsA stylish triple-arched gateway erected in 130 CE to mark the emperor Hadrian’s visit to the city. It’s still used as one of the principal entrances to the historic Kaleiçi quarter of today’s Antalya. And it’s a very visible reminder of how much lower the street level was in Roman times. At the base of the central arch there are quite deep grooves formed by the passage of carts: hence the glass-bottomed footbridge, designed to save the modern pedestrian from a twisted ankle. Abu Galyon
Çatalhöyük.jpg
Turkey, Çatalhöyük266 viewsÇatalhöyük (SE of Konya in Anatolia) is an outstanding Neolithic site. Excavation is ongoing, with the delicate mud brick architecture preserved under two large domes. There are no streets in Çatalhöyük; the buildings all abut one another and were accessed (using ladders) from the roof. The people of Çatalhöyük, it seems, had discovered how to construct houses, but hadn’t yet worked out the technology of doors and windows. 1 commentsAbu Galyon
UzuncaburcZeus.jpg
Turkey, Cilicia, Olba, Temple of Zeus230 viewsPhoto by Klaus-Peter Simon 1995. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Olba_(ancient_city)Joe Sermarini
Tel_at_Colossae.JPG
Turkey, Colossae138 viewsAnother Anatolian tel awaiting excavation (or perhaps looters if the archaeologists delay too long): this is the site of ancient Colossae in the Lycus valley. Modern Christian pilgrims touring the ‘Seven Churches of Asia’ visit nearby Laodicea but generally ignore this place, which is slightly odd because Saint Paul did address one of his letters to the congregation resident here. Of course, there’s little to see apart from the usual surface scatter of shards. Abu Galyon
Turkey_ancient_tombs.jpg
Turkey, Dalyan - The rock tombs of Kaunos60 viewsOutside the official Kaunos archeological site, near Dalyan, Turkey there are six rock tombs on the Dalyan river (4th – 2nd century BC). The façades of the rock tombs resemble the fronts of Hellenistic temples with two Ionian pillars, a triangular pediment, an architrave with toothed friezes, and acroterions shaped like palm leaves.1 commentsJoe Sermarini
Eflatun_pinar.jpg
Turkey, Eflatun pinar187 viewsThe name means ‘lilac spring’. If you are travelling between Konya (Iconium) and Yalvaç (Pisidian Antioch) it’s only a short detour to visit this delightfully secluded site near Lake Beyşehir. The stones are the remains of a small Hittite temple or sanctuary, dating from perhaps the 14th or 13th century BCE. Abu Galyon
Theater_Elaiussa.jpg
Turkey, Elaioussa Sebaste, Islands off Cilicia, Theater68 viewsElaiussa, meaning olive, was founded in the 2nd century B.C. on a tiny island attached to the the southern coast of Anatolia (in modern-day Turkey) by a narrow isthmus in Mediterranean Sea. During the reign of Augustus, the Cappadocian king Archelaus founded a new city on the isthmus. Archelaus called it Sebaste, which is the Greek equivalent word of the Latin "Augusta." The city entered a golden age when Vespasian purged Cilicia of pirates in 74 A.D. Towards the end of the 3rd century A.D. however its importance began to wane, due in large part to incursions by the Sassanian King Shapur I in 260 and later by the Isaurians. When its neighbor Corycus began to flourish in the 6th century A.D., Elaiussa Sebaste slowly disappeared from history.

The theater, dating to the 2nd century A.D., is small with only 23 rows of seats, whose steps and decorations unfortunately succumbed to centuries of plunder. Next to the theater is the agora, built in all great probability during the imperial period. At the entrance of the agora, which is surrounded by a semi-destroyed defense wall once rose two monumental fountains in the shape of lions. Inside the agora stands a large church, its floor is covered by sand to protect the mosaic pavement. Elaiussa's only temple stands outside the city on a hill overlooking the sea; only two of the Corinthian columns of this temple, which had 12 on the long and 6 on the short side originally, are standing today. A large bath complex among the lemon groves between the temple and the agora was built with a Roman technique little used in Anatolia. The necropolis is the richest and most impressive of cities of ancient Cilicia. The "Avenue of Graves," located on a hill to the north of the city, preserves close to a hundred graves of various shapes and sizes scattered among the lemon trees. The ancient aqueducts that carried water to the ruins from the Lamos ("Lemon") river also adorn the city’s two entrances. The aqueduct to the west of the city in particular is in relatively good condition. Centuries ago the aqueduct actually ran all the way to Corycus.
Joe Sermarini
08F77.JPG
Turkey, Ephesus - Library of Celsus218 viewsThis building had two-storied façade but was three-storied.
built ca. CE 125 by Gaius Julius Aquila
once held nearly 12,000 scrolls
Johny SYSEL
terrace1.jpg
Turkey, Ephesus - Central Square464 viewsPart of the central square of the terrace houses in Ephesus.memphius
temphad.jpg
Turkey, Ephesus - Central square of Terrace Houses561 viewsPart of the central square of the terrace houses in Ephesus.1 commentsmemphius
waystr.jpg
Turkey, Ephesus - Curetes Street1268 viewsLooking down Curetes Street named after the priests who presided over the sacred fire of Hestia. The street is paved with marble slabs with sidewalks covered in mosaics.
3 commentsmemphius
Tempio_di_Domiziano.JPG
Turkey, Ephesus - Domitian's temple175 viewsMay 2011FlaviusDomitianus
08F75.JPG
Turkey, Ephesus - Gate of Augustus237 viewsgate to agoraJohny SYSEL
Ephese_Bibliotheque-2.JPG
Turkey, Ephesus - Library285 viewsEaster 20071 commentsPotator II
08F78.JPG
Turkey, Ephesus - Library of Celsus198 viewsJohny SYSEL
08F79.JPG
Turkey, Ephesus - Library of Celsus224 viewsJohny SYSEL
pubtoilets.jpg
Turkey, Ephesus - Public Toilets683 viewsMinus the slaves to warm the seats in winter and the live entertainment1 commentsmemphius
hadtemp3.jpg
Turkey, Ephesus - Relief inside temple of Hadrian604 views1 commentsmemphius
Sculptured Drum of Column from Ephesus.jpg
Turkey, Ephesus - Sculptured Drum of Column from Ephesus1081 views
08F67.JPG
Turkey, Ephesus - street connecting upper and lower town233 viewsJohny SYSEL
08F58.JPG
Turkey, Ephesus - street in upper town225 viewsJohny SYSEL
08F81.JPG
Turkey, Ephesus - street leading from harbour to agora176 viewsJohny SYSEL
08F84.JPG
Turkey, Ephesus - street leading to harbour208 viewsIn ancient times Ephesus had harbour but alluviums of local river moved coast 5,6 km further.Johny SYSEL
08F54.JPG
Turkey, Ephesus - temple of Artemis - 1 of the 7 wonders of ancien world384 viewsWe can only dream up what it was once.2 commentsJohny SYSEL
hadtempdet.jpg
Turkey, Ephesus - temple of Hadrian958 viewsA magnificent relief of Medusa filling the interior arch of the temple of Hadrian. Other reliefs of Amazons and the Olympian gods grace the interior.memphius
08F73+++++++.jpg
Turkey, Ephesus - temple of Hadrian220 viewsJohny SYSEL
Ephese_Hadrien.JPG
Turkey, Ephesus - Temple of Hadrian - Easter 2007186 viewsPotator II
terrace2.jpg
Turkey, Ephesus - Terrace House526 viewsLocated in the ongoing excavation of the upper-class terrace houses. Lovely floor mosaicmemphius
ephtheat.jpg
Turkey, Ephesus - Theater501 viewsOne of the largest in the ancient world. The apostle Paul spoke here before getting booted out for causing riots.1 commentsmemphius
08F82.JPG
Turkey, Ephesus - theatre194 viewsJohny SYSEL
08F83.JPG
Turkey, Ephesus - theatre229 views44000 spectators - maybe the largest ancient theatreJohny SYSEL
08F89.JPG
Turkey, Ephesus - theatre184 viewsJohny SYSEL
wallpainting.jpg
Turkey, Ephesus - Wall fresco440 viewsLocated in the ongoing excavation of the upper-class terrace houses. Note the opening in the wall for circulation. The entire complex must have appeared like a luxury hotel with a central arbitorium.memphius
celsus34.jpg
Turkey, Ephesus, Library of Celsus1386 viewsOne of the true glories of Ephesus is the reconstructed facade of the Library of Celsus. Dedicated in 120 A.D to the former governor of Asia Gaius Julius Celsus Polemaeanus, the library contained up to 12,000 scrolls. It was burned when the Goths sacked the city in 260 A. D. The edifice to the right is the Gate of Hadrian which connected the library to the public agora or marketplace.1 commentsmemphius
Erythrai_amphitheatre.jpg
Turkey, Erythrai amphitheatre124 viewsErythrai amphitheatre ruins in Turkey, 2009.Joe Sermarini
1280px-Antalya_-_Hadrian_#39;s_Gate.jpg
Turkey, Hadrian's Gate in Antalya126 viewsHadrian's Gate in Antalya
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antalya
Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported
Ingo Mehling - 17 May 2012
Joe Sermarini
Hierapolis.JPG
Turkey, Hierapolis - Easter 2007162 viewsPotator II
23580098.jpg
Turkey, Hierapolis - main street174 viewsHierapolis was used as spa since Hellenistic times.Johny SYSEL
23579975.jpg
Turkey, Hierapolis - main street179 viewsHierapolis was used as spa since Hellenistic times.Johny SYSEL
23579803.jpg
Turkey, Hierapolis - necropolis176 viewsJohny SYSEL
23579612.jpg
Turkey, Hierapolis - necropolis173 viewsJohny SYSEL
23579518.jpg
Turkey, Hierapolis - necropolis185 viewsJohny SYSEL
23579955.jpg
Turkey, Hierapolis - roman bath158 views(northern bath)Johny SYSEL
941939.jpg
Turkey, Hierapolis - theatre180 viewsJohny SYSEL
23580149.jpg
Turkey, Hierapolis - theatre178 viewsJohny SYSEL
Teatro.JPG
Turkey, Hierapolis of Phrygia - Theater160 viewsMay 2011FlaviusDomitianus
Ilium_-_Odeon.JPG
Turkey, Ilium - Troy (Turkey) - Odeon141 viewsMay 2011FlaviusDomitianus
PICT2334a~0.jpg
Turkey, Istanbul (Constantinople)178 viewsHagia Sophia (translated holy wisdom).Erected in the 6th Century (the third church at this place) during the reign of Iustinianus I. It was the main church of the byzantine empire. After the conquering of Constantinople by the osmanic turks in 1453 it became a mosque and then since 1935 a museum.Franz-Josef M
BILD0365a.jpg
Turkey, Istanbul (Constantinople) - Halikarnassos mausoleum lion180 viewsThis is a lion from the Mausoleum of Halikarnassos (now Bodrum Turkey), one of the seven world wonders. Now in the archaeological museum of Istanbul. Behind the lion is a picture of the reconstruction of the building.The building is now nearly completely destroyed.Franz-Josef M
PICT2317a.jpg
Turkey, Istanbul (Constantinople) - Obelisk Thutmosis Hippodrom179 viewsEgypt obelisk (from Thutmosis III temple of Karnak 1471 before christ). now on the Hippodrom place (where in ancient times was a horse race-track) in Instanbul, erected under the reign of Theodosius in the year 390 after christ.Franz-Josef M
PICT2409a.jpg
Turkey, Istanbul (Constantinople) - Yerebatan Saray Cistern191 viewsThe cistern was build in the year 542 under the reign of Justinian. It is positioned near the Hagia Sophia museum. The Gorgo (a female monster with serpents instead of hairs- one view can kill) head belongs to an old unknown monument and was used here in this cistern a second time as a base of a column. The cistern consists of 336 columns. But only 2 gorgo heads can be seen in the cistern. Franz-Josef M
PICT2412mod.jpg
Turkey, Istanbul (Constantinople) - Yerebatan Saray Cistern168 viewsA mysterious place under modern Istanbul. The technical data: the cistern is 138 m long and 65 m wide, the capacity is 21 million US gallons of water or 80.000 cubic meters, 336 marble columns. Franz-Josef M
PICT2411mod.jpg
Turkey, Istanbul (Constantinople) - Yerebatan Saray Cistern174 viewsThe second Gorgo of the Cistern. I saw a third Gorgo in the Archaeological Museum of Istanbul. The original temple, from where the Gorgos were removed is still unknown. Franz-Josef M
Istanbul_Land_Wall.jpg
Turkey, Istanbul (Constantinople) The Land Wall139 viewsThe Land Wall of Theodosius stretches for 6.5 km from the Golden Horn to the Sea of Marmara. The first phase (a single wall with towers) was complete by 413; after a major earthquake in 447 the Wall was rebuilt and strengthened (a second outer screen and a moat were added), just in time to discourage Attila the Hun from attacking the city. The fortifications included 96 guard towers, each 18-20 m in height and spaced roughly 55 m apart. The Land Wall remained a formidable defensive barrier until the advent of artillery in the 15th century. Even in ruins, and with vegetables growing in the moat, it's still an impressive sight today. Abu Galyon
ATG_in_Lion_Skin_Headress_-_Alexander_Sacarcophagus_~0.JPG
Turkey, Istanbul - Alexander III in Lion Skin Head Dress - a frontal view - from the Alexander Sarcophagus in the Istanbul Museum354 viewsWe are accustomed to seeing the lion skin head dress in profile on coinage. Rarely are we afforded a more frontal view. I took this photo of Alexander the Great portrayed on the Alexander Sarcophagus in the Istanbul Museum. The head dress in nicely portrayed in three dimensions 2 commentsLloyd T
Medusa.JPG
Turkey, Istanbul - Medusa's marble head151 viewsIn the Underground Cistern, was taken from Tarsus in ancient times.
May 2011
FlaviusDomitianus
20111224_Flavius_Marcianus_Augustus_Column_Fatih_Istanbul_Turkey.jpg
Turkey, Istanbul - the Column of Marcian38 viewsThe column of emperor Marcian, Fatih, Istanbul, Turkey.

The Column of Marcian was dedicated to Marcian, built by the praefectus urbi Tatianus, sometime between 450 and 452. It still stands in modern Istanbul, though the statue of Marcian which originally topped it has been lost. Marcian also had a statue in the Forum of Arcadius, which contained the statues of several of Arcadius' successors.

Source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:20111224_Flavius_Marcianus_Augustus_Column_Fatih_Istanbul_Turkey.jpg
Joe Sermarini
Cisterna.JPG
Turkey, Istanbul - Underground Cistern122 viewsMay 2011FlaviusDomitianus
DSCF8492.JPG
Turkey, Istanbul, Boukoleon Palace47 views9-6-2015
This section was built in the reign of Emperor Theophilus (829-42 AD).
The brick walls would have been clad in Marble.
The three doorways led to a balcony.
The Sea reached up to the walls in those days.
After being ransacked by the "4th Crusade" in 1204 AD, it remained abandoned, even after Michael VIII retook the city in 1261 AD.
The Ottomans never took this section over.
In 1873 AD it was partially destroyed to make way for the railway line that began at Sirkeci Station.
Masis
DSCF8396.jpg
Turkey, Istanbul, Column of Constantine52 views9-6-2015
Known locally as "Çemberlitaş" which translates as "hooped Stone" due to the Iron hoops added in 1779 AD after an earthquake and fire. The base was also reinforced at this date.
The column was inaugurated in 330 AD and originally had three more sections with a large Capital upon which was a gilded statue of Constantine in the guise of his favourite deity, Sol.
At the base of the column was said to have been a sanctuary with ancient relics stored.
A hurricane blew down the statue, Capital and upper three sections of column in 1106 AD.
In the reign of Manuel I (1143-1180 AD) a new Capital was installed with a dedicatory inscription around it which translates as "Faithful Manuel invigorated this holy work of art, which has been damaged by time."
A Cross was also placed on top of this, removed after the Ottoman conquest in 1453 AD. Bronze Wreaths are said to have covered the joints of the column, where the stone ones are today, said to have been looted by the Franks in 1204 AD.
Masis
HagiaSophia2ndFloor.jpg
Turkey, Istanbul, Hagia Sophia , picture from 2nd Floor57 views1 commentsSimon
hagiasophianight.jpg
Turkey, Istanbul, Hagia Sophia at Night39 viewsSimon
IMG_2523.JPG
Turkey, Istanbul, Maiden's Tower50 views2-6-2015
The first recorded structure on this islet dates from 1110 AD when Emperor Alexius had a tower constructed on it.
This tower was linked to another tower on the European side (the Mangana district) by an iron chain.
This tower was connected to the nearby Asian coast by a causeway upon which was built a wall.

A number of additions and uses have happened to the tower since then, the last of which were steel supports after the devastating earthquake of 17 August 1999.
Masis
IMG_2658.JPG
Turkey, Istanbul, Monastery of the Mother of God at the Spring52 views7-6-2015
The full name of this ancient complex is "Monastery of the Mother of God at the Spring" but it is often known as "Zoödochos Pege" (Life-giving spring).
The Turkish name of it and the area is "Balıklı" which translates as "place where there are fishes" due to the presence of fish in this spring.
The era of the first Church complex around this spring is given either from the time of Emperor Leo I (457-74 AD) or Justinian I (527-65 AD).
Earthquakes and enemy invasions saw numerous rebuilding of this complex through the centuries.
The last was after the Pogroms of the 1950's.
Masis
DSCF8428.JPG
Turkey, Istanbul, Mosaic Museum54 views9-6-2015
The south-western section of the Great Palace (dated to the reign of Emperor Justinian, 527-65 AD) was excavated in the years 1935-38 and 1951-54 by the University of St. Andrews.
This section comprised a Peristyle courtyard, decorated in Mosaics.
The Austrian Academy of Sciences undertook preservation work on the Mosaics in the years 1983-97.
In the photo above, you can also see the pipes inside the walls that would have water and heating.
Masis
DSCF8471.JPG
Turkey, Istanbul, Mosaic Museum51 viewsOutside the Museum is an array of columns, capitals, entablature and even marble Lions.Masis
IMG_2857.jpg
Turkey, Istanbul, Princes Islands, Proti54 views10-6-2015
The Monastery of the Transfiguration, on the island of Kınalıada (Proti).
A place of exile and burial of many members of the Byzantine aristocracy, including Emperors.
The earliest of which is said to have been Leo V (813-20 AD) but the most famous was Romanus IV (1068-71 AD).
Note the Corinthian capital in the foreground.
Like many ethnic Greek Church complexes in Turkey, this is often closed.
Masis
Rumeli_Hisari.jpg
Turkey, Istanbul, Rumeli Hisari129 viewsRumeli Hisari means ‘Rumelian Castle’: Rumelia (derived from ‘Rome’) being the Turkish word for the Balkan lands which once belonged to the Roman (Byzantine) Empire. The Rumeli Hisari was constructed in 1452 a few miles north of Constantinople on the European side of the Bosphorus by order of Sultan Mehmet II. Impressively, the whole fortress was built in less than four months. The Rumeli Hisari sits opposite an older, smaller Ottoman fort on the Asian side, the Anadolu Hisari (Anatolian Castle). Together the two forts effectively controlled traffic through the Bosphorus, cutting Constantinople off from the Black Sea and ensuring that an Ottoman army operating on the European side could be supplied from the granaries of central Anatolia. The building of Rumeli Hisari was preparation for the investment and conquest of Constantinople, which took place the following year.

The Rumeli Hisari/Anadolu Hisari forts are built at the point where the Bosphorus is most constricted (about 700m across). This is the same narrows where the Persian King Darius I over 2500 years ago built a ‘bridge of boats’ to transport his army across to attack Thrace (see Herodotus, Histories 4.87f). And these days a modern suspension bridge links Asia to Europe at the same spot, but sadly it rather spoils the view.
Abu Galyon
Kaunos_-_Theatre.jpg
Turkey, Kaunos - the Theatre119 viewsA nicely proportioned theatre of the Greek type, with 34 rows of seats (18 below the diazoma and 16 above). The two arched entrances are original. Abu Galyon
Kaunos_-_Baetyl_sanctuary.jpg
Turkey, Kaunos: The Baetyl Sanctuary134 viewsThe flat terrace above the agora and harbour of Kaunos has a long history of sacred use. In late antiquity a three-nave Christian church was constructed here. Before that (from the first century BCE) the site was a temple and temenos dedicated to Zeus Soteros. Earlier still (perhaps fifth century BCE) is this unusual round structure, built at an angle to the axis of the later temple.

When first uncovered, the structure’s purpose seemed mysterious. But the mystery was partially solved when archaeologists sank a trench underneath the central flat circular slab and found a large, roughly conical baetyl, 3.5m in height resting on bedrock about 6.5m below the present surface. This sacred stone, associated with the eponymous founder of the city, appears as a design on several of the city’s coins.

Note that the inner ring wall is plastered on its interior surface, suggesting that quantities of water (or other liquids) were involved in whatever rituals were conducted here.
Abu Galyon
1920px-The_Temple_of_Zeus_Lepsinos_at_Euromus.jpg
Turkey, Kizilcakuyu (Euromus, Caria) The Temple of Zeus Lepsinos106 viewsThe Temple of Zeus Lepsinos at Euromus was built on the site of an earlier Carian temple in the 2nd century AD during the reign of the emperor Hadrian.1 commentsJoe Sermarini
Scepsis_2009.jpg
Turkey, Kursunlutepe - ancient Skepsis, Troas 72 viewsView of the village of Kurşuntepe from the highest point of the site of ancient Skepsis.

Skepsis or Scepsis, an ancient settlement in the Troad, is today the village of Kursunlutepe, near the town of Bayramic in Turkey. The famous library of Aristotle was kept at Skepsis before being moved to Pergamum and then Alexandria. It was also home to Metrodorus of Scepsis and Demetrius of Scepsis. Several times in its history, the citizens of Skepsis were forced to move elsewhere. In 306 B.C., Antigonus evacuated Skepsis and other cities in the area and forced the residents to move to Alexandria Troas. Tradition holds that Saint Cornelius the Centurion, the first Gentile convert to Christianity, became the first bishop of Skepsis in the early days of Christianity.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Skepsis
Joe Sermarini
Lystra.jpg
Turkey, Lystra134 viewsLystra has never been excavated, so the mound you’re looking at is a typical Middle Eastern ‘tel’. However, an inscription was found here (now displayed in the Konya Archaeological Museum) which makes the site identification secure. Lystra has significant New Testament links: Barnabas and Paul while visiting Lystra were mistaken for gods [Acts 14:6ff] and Paul’s companion Timothy was born here [Acts 16:1]. Abu Galyon
Miletos_2.JPG
Turkey, Miletos206 viewsEaster 20071 commentsPotator II
Miletos_Theatre.jpg
Turkey, Miletos - Theater141 viewsEaster 2007Potator II
1280px-MisisBrücke.jpg
Turkey, Misis, Roman bridge over the Pyramus39 viewsRoman bridge in Misis-Mopsuestia over the Pyramus. Constantius II built this magnificent bridge over the Pyramus (Malalas, Chronographia, XIII; P.G., XCVII, 488) afterwards it was restored by Justinian (Procopius, De Edificiis, V. 5) and it has been restored again recently. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mopsuestia Joe Sermarini
Argeo_3.JPG
Turkey, Mount Argaeus - Cappadocia118 viewsMay 2011FlaviusDomitianus
Laodicea.JPG
Turkey, near Denizli, Laodicea on the Lycus26 viewsLaodicea on the Lycus was an ancient city built on the river Lycus (Curuksu), in Lydia, later the Roman Province of Phrygia Pacatiana. It contained one of the Seven churches of Asia mentioned in the Book of Revelation. It is now near the modern city of Denizli. In 2013 the archaeological site was identified as a of World Heritage Site. The existing remains attest to its former greatness. Its many buildings include a stadium, baths, temples, a gymnasium, theaters, and a bouleuterion (Senate House). On the eastern side, the line of the ancient wall may be distinctly traced, with the remains of the Ephesus gate; there are streets traversing the town, flanked by colonnades and numerous pedestals. North of the town, towards the Lycus, are many sarcophagi, with their covers lying near them, partly embedded in the ground, and all having been long since rifled.

Source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Laodicea_(2).JPG

Photo by Rjdeadly, 16 May 2012
Joe Sermarini
Perge_nymphaeum.jpg
Turkey, Nymphaeum of Perge240 viewsThe monumental fountain or nymphaeum of Perga consists of a wide pool, and behind it a two-storeyed richly worked facade. From its inscription, it is apparent that the structure was dedicated to Artemis Pergaia, Septimius Severus, his wife Julia Domna, and their sons. An inscription belonging to the facade, various facade fragments, and marble statues of Septimius Severus and his wife, all found in excavations of the nymphaeum, are now in the Antalya Museum.1 commentsJoe Sermarini
Perge_Agora.jpg
Turkey, Perga - Agora195 viewsPerge’s principal market square is a substantial space (sides approximately 75m) dating mostly from the 2nd century CE and colonnaded on all four sides. At its centre is a small circular temple (just over 13m diameter) of uncertain dedication: presumably either Hermes or (perhaps more likely) Tyche. Abu Galyon
Perge_Agora_Shop_Sign.jpg
Turkey, Perga - Agora (Shop Sign)206 viewsHidden away in one corner of the agora is this rather delightful trading sign. The meat hook and knife presumably indicate that this location was a butcher’s shop. Abu Galyon
Perga_-_Agorà_e_Macellum.JPG
Turkey, Perga - Agora and Macellum150 viewsMay 2011FlaviusDomitianus
Perge_Collonaded_Street.jpg
Turkey, Perga - Collonaded Street148 viewsPart of the wide (20m) colonnaded boulevard which runs almost the whole length of the lower city (over 500m), testimony to Perge’s importance as a commercial centre. In antiquity both sides of the street would have been lined with fancy shops, and the ‘shopping experience’ was enhanced by an ornamental water canal running down the middle of the road, fed from the nymphaeum which you can see at the far end. Beyond the nymphaeum is the path leading up to the city’s acropolis. Abu Galyon
Perga_-_Ninfeo.JPG
Turkey, Perga - Nimpheum126 viewsMay 2011FlaviusDomitianus
Perge_Roman_Baths.jpg
Turkey, Perga - Roman Baths155 viewsThe hot room (caldarium); some traces of the original marble flooring are visible at the far end. Underneath, a well-preserved hypocaust of slightly unusual design, based on pilae tiles formed into arches rather than the more common upright stacks. Abu Galyon
Acropoli.JPG
Turkey, Pergamum - Acropolis146 viewsMay 2011FlaviusDomitianus
Asclepion.JPG
Turkey, Pergamum - Asclepion130 viewsMay 2011FlaviusDomitianus
Pergamum_Theatre.jpg
Turkey, Pergamum - Theatre147 viewsThe Hellenistic theatre at Pergamum is extraordinary. It’s built into a steep hill-side, in close proximity to the city’s famous altar of Zeus, as well as to temples dedicated to Athena and Dionysus. But the constraints of the chosen site meant that the theatre could not take the ‘normal’ Greek shape (rather more than a semi-circle). Instead, to fit in the required number of seats, the cavea was extended vertically: there are 78 rows. The result is vertiginous. Abu Galyon
1280px-Perge_city_overview.jpg
Turkey, Perge city overview115 viewsRoman rule of Perge began in 188 BC, and most of the surviving ruins today date from this period. After the collapse of the Roman Empire, Perge remained inhabited until Seljuk times, before being gradually abandoned.

Source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Perge_city_overview.jpg
Joe Sermarini
Temple_of_Athena_at_Priene.jpg
Turkey, Priene, The Temple of Athena at Priene94 viewsThe Temple of Athena at Priene was started by Mausolus but completed by Alexander the Great, who hired the great Greek architect Pytheos to complete the design and construction. It is the largest temple in Priene. Pytheos situated the temple so that it had (and still has) a beautiful view over the valley and river below Alexander the Great invested heavily into rebuilding all of the Greek cities of the Ionic league following the defeat of the Persians. This classic Greek temple was done in the Ionic style and had no frieze around the top. Instead, a dentil design sat above the columns and architrave. The statue of Athena that was originally inside the temple was based on the famous statue by Phidias in the Parthenon of Athens.Joe Sermarini
Pergamain.jpg
Turkey, Ruins of the main street in Perga, capital of Pamphylia, Asia Minor.152 viewshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pamphylia. 23 February 2006. Joe Sermarini
Urfa_Castle_02.jpg
Turkey, Sanliurfa Province, Urfa - Roman Columns of Edessa21 viewsThe heritage of Roman Edessa survives today in these columns at the site of Urfa Castle, dominating the skyline of the modern city of Urfa.

Photo by Bernard Gagnon, 24 May 2014.
Joe Sermarini
Side_-_Temple_of_Athena.jpg
Turkey, Side - Temple of Athena247 viewsSide’s temple of Athena, together with an adjacent temple dedicated to Apollo and a later Byzantine basilica, occupy a spectacular site on the edge of the city’s ancient harbour. This is wonderful, picture-postcard stuff! Unfortunately, the rest of Side is a dump: a ghastly collection of bars and discos, cheap eateries, souvenir shops and garish hotels, whatever charm it once had totally destroyed by modern mass tourism. The most disappointing ancient town I’ve ever visited. 1 commentsAbu Galyon
Sunrise_apollo_side.jpg
Turkey, Side, Pamphylia Temple of Apollo 49 viewsThe ruins of the Temple of Apollo at Side, Antalya, Turkey.

The great ruins of Side are among the most notable in Asia Minor. The well-preserved city walls provide an entrance to the site through the Hellenistic main gate (Megale Pyle) of the ancient city, although this gate from the 2nd century BC is badly damaged. Next comes the colonnaded street, whose marble columns are no longer extant; all that remains are a few broken stubs near the old Roman baths. The street leads to the public bath, restored as a museum displaying statues and sarcophagi from the Roman period. Next is the square agora with the remains of the round Tyche and Fortuna temple (2nd century BC), peripteral with twelve columns, in the middle. In later times it was used as a trading center where pirates sold slaves. The remains of the theater, which was used for gladiator fights and later as a church, and the monumental gate date back to the 2nd century. The early Roman Temple of Dionysus is near the theater. The fountain gracing the entrance is restored. At the left side are the remains of a Byzantine Basilica. A public bath has also been restored. The remaining ruins of Side include three temples, an aqueduct, and a nymphaeum.

Source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Sunrise_apollo_side.jpg
Photo by Saffron Blaze, via http://www.mackenzie.co
Date: 21 October 2011
Authorization: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/deed.en
Joe Sermarini
Side_Tyche_temple_on_agora.jpg
Turkey, Side, Pamphylia Temple of Tyche on the commercial agora30 viewsThere are two agoras: a commercial one and one, called "State agora." On the commercial one there is a round temple, well-restored, that was dedicated to Tyche. The agora is over 8000 square meters, surrounded by columns, with shops, exedras and latrines and washing places. On it inconceivable numbers of slaves must have been traded, for during part of its history Side was a major center for pirates who stationed their fleet here. In the center stood a temple for the protective goddess of the city, Tyche. The present construction dates from the 2nd century A.D., it was in use in Byzantine times.

Source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Side_Tyche_temple_on_agora_6140.jpg

Author, Date: Dosserman, 20 February 2015

Joe Sermarini
Side_Commercial_agora_panorama_2.jpg
Turkey, Side, Pamphylia The Commercial Agora38 viewsTurkey, Side, Pamphylia the Commercial Agora

The great ruins of Side are among the most notable in Asia Minor. The well-preserved city walls provide an entrance to the site through the Hellenistic main gate (Megale Pyle) of the ancient city, although this gate from the 2nd century BC is badly damaged. Next comes the colonnaded street, whose marble columns are no longer extant; all that remains are a few broken stubs near the old Roman baths. The street leads to the public bath, restored as a museum displaying statues and sarcophagi from the Roman period. Next is the square agora with the remains of the round Tyche and Fortuna temple (2nd century BC), peripteral with twelve columns, in the middle. In later times it was used as a trading center where pirates sold slaves. The remains of the theater, which was used for gladiator fights and later as a church, and the monumental gate date back to the 2nd century. The early Roman Temple of Dionysus is near the theater. The fountain gracing the entrance is restored. At the left side are the remains of a Byzantine Basilica. A public bath has also been restored. The remaining ruins of Side include three temples, an aqueduct, and a nymphaeum.

Source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Side_Commercial_agora_panorama_2.jpg
Author, Date: Dosserman, 20 February 2015
Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 International license.
Joe Sermarini
Side_Theatre.jpg
Turkey, Side, Pamphylia Theater 2nd Century AD24 viewsThe great ruins of Side are among the most notable in Asia Minor. They cover a large promontory which a wall and a moat separate from the mainland. There are colossal ruins of a theater complex, the largest in Pamphylia, built in the 2nd century A.D. Following design it relies on arches to support the sheer verticals. The Roman style was adopted because Side lacked a convenient hillside that could be hollowed out in the usual Greek fashion more typical of Asia Minor. In Greek fashion, the seating (for 15,000–20,000 people) curves 210° vice the usual 180° for a Roman theater. The stage building was ornately adorned but the decorations and the theater are damaged, in part due to a strong earthquake. The theater was converted into an open-air sanctuary with two chapels during the 5th or 6th century (Byzantine times).

Source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Side_Theatre_4192.jpg

Author, Date: Dosseman, 21 March 2011

Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 International license.
Joe Sermarini
Side_TH_au.JPG
Turkey, Side, Pamphylia Theater 2nd Century AD Exterior28 viewsTurkey, Side, Pamphylia theater 2nd century AD, exterior. The great ruins of Side are among the most notable in Asia Minor. They cover a large promontory which a wall and a moat separate from the mainland. There are colossal ruins of a theater complex, the largest in Pamphylia, built in the 2nd century A.D. Following design it relies on arches to support the sheer verticals. The Roman style was adopted because Side lacked a convenient hillside that could be hollowed out in the usual Greek fashion more typical of Asia Minor. In Greek fashion, the seating (for 15,000–20,000 people) curves 210° vice the usual 180° for a Roman theater. The stage building was ornately adorned but the decorations and the theater are damaged, in part due to a strong earthquake. The theater was converted into an open-air sanctuary with two chapels during the 5th or 6th century (Byzantine times).

Source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Side_TH_au.JPG

Author, Date: Dosseman, 21 March 2011

Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 International license.
Joe Sermarini
Side_Theatre_panorama.jpg
Turkey, Side, Pamphylia Theater 2nd Century AD panorama29 viewsTurkey, Side, Pamphylia, theater 2nd century AD, panorama

The great ruins of Side are among the most notable in Asia Minor. They cover a large promontory which a wall and a moat separate from the mainland. There are colossal ruins of a theater complex, the largest in Pamphylia, built in the 2nd century A.D. Following design it relies on arches to support the sheer verticals. The Roman style was adopted because Side lacked a convenient hillside that could be hollowed out in the usual Greek fashion more typical of Asia Minor. In Greek fashion, the seating (for 15,000–20,000 people) curves 210° vice the usual 180° for a Roman theater. The stage building was ornately adorned but the decorations and the theater are damaged, in part due to a strong earthquake. The theater was converted into an open-air sanctuary with two chapels during the 5th or 6th century (Byzantine times).

Source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Side_Theatre_panorama.jpg

Author, Date: Dosseman, 21 March 2011

Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 International license.
Joe Sermarini
Termessos_-_Theatre.jpg
Turkey, Termessos - Theatre182 viewsThough Termessos is fairly close to a major tourist resort (Antalya) it’s not over-visited, perhaps because it’s a fairly steep uphill climb to reach the principal monuments from the nearest point where you can park. But the effort is worth it: the setting (inside Güllük Daği National Park) is spectacular and the ruins at this unrestored site are as romantic a pile of tumble-down stones as anyone could wish for. Abu Galyon
1024px-MisisMosaik.jpg
Turkey, Yakapinar (Mopsos) - Mosaics depicting Noah's Ark in the Misis Mosaic Museum129 viewsMosaics depicting Noah's Ark from ancient Mopsos in the Misis Mosaic Museum.1 commentsJoe Sermarini
Caria,_Mylasa.jpg
Uncertain Caria AR - Lion/Scorpion NICE!172 viewsUncertain Site in Caria (Konuk attributes to Mylasa) AR Obol 8mm 0.55g late 6th cent. BC.
O: Forepart of Lion, seen from above.
R: Scorpion in incuse.
SG - , SNG Cop - , cfSNG Turkey I 934-8(“Uncertain Caria”). SCARCE! _6000 sold
Antonivs Protti
Carian_AR_Hemiobol.jpg
Uncertain Carian AR Hemiobol - Ram’s Hd/Youth’s Hd155 viewsUncertain site in Caria, AR Hemiobol (Milesian Standard) 8mm 0.47g 400-330 BC.
O: Ram’s hd r.
R: Young male hd r., Carian letter A to r., ( ) to l.
SNG Turkey I 996. Konuk attributes these issues to Halikarnassos. _3500
Antonivs Protti
valerianI AE18.jpg
VALERIAN I AE18 of Alexandria Troas - 253-260 AD44 viewsobv: IMP LICIN VALERIAN (laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right)
rev: COL AVG TRO (horse grazing right, tree to left)
ref: SNG Copenhagen 191 var (LICIN instead of LIC)
mint: Alexandria Troas
3.08gms, 18mm
Rare
Alexandria Troas, modern Dalyanköy in Turkey, is an ancient Greek city situated on the Aegean coast at nearly the middle of the western side of Turkey. The term "Troas" was added to "Alexandria" in order to distinguish it from other cities named "Alexandria." It was very close to Troy, the town that was believed to have been the mother-city of Rome. Julius Caesar gave Alexandria the privileges of a colonia, and from Augustus, it kept the right to strike its own coins. Later Constantine I considered making Troas the capital of the Roman Empire.
The horse of the reverse is probably symbolise the famous Troyan stud of ancient times.
1 commentsberserker
Gallienus_456_antioch.jpg
VIRTVS AVGG, Valerian and Gallienus; RIC V 456 Antioch/ Samosata12 viewsGallienus, August 253 - 24 March 268 A.D. Billon antoninianus, RIC V 456 (Antioch), MIR 1703m (Samosata), aVF, Antioch or Samosata mint, 4.161g, 22.1mm, 0o, 255 - 256 A.D.; obverse IMP C P LIC GALLIENVS P F AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right, from behind; reverse VIRTVS AVGG, emperors standing confronted; Valerian on left, scepter in right, globe in left; Gallienus on right, offering Victory, transverse spear in left; pellet in wreath above. RIC assigns this issue to Antioch but MIR gives the issue to a second Eastern mint located at Samosata. Samosata was an ancient city on the west bank of the Euphrates whose ruins existed at the modern city of Samsat, Adiyaman Province, Turkey until the site was flooded by the newly-constructed Atatürk Dam. Ex FORVMPodiceps
Volusian_RY73708.JPG
Volusian, 251 - 253 AD27 viewsObv: AYTOK K Γ AΦIN ΓΛA OYEN∆ OYOΛOYCCIANOC CEB, radiate and draped bust of Volusian facing right, seen from front.

Rev: ANTIOXEΩN MHTPO KOΛΩN, tetrastyle portable shrine, arched architrave, carry bars on base; inside Tyche seated slightly left, head right, half-length figure of river god Orontes at her feet swimming left; ram above center leaping right looking back, ∆-E above and divided by temple roof, S C in exergue.

Bronze 8 assaria, Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, Nov 251 - 252

15.946 grams, 31.2 mm, 180°

McAlee 1192/1193 var.; Butcher 504c/507c var., SNG Copenhagen 295 var.; SNG München 790 var.; BMC Galatia p. 231, 665 var.; Lindgren-Kovacks 2028

Ex: FORVM
Matt Inglima
Zeugma Antonin.jpg
Zeugma (Turkey) - Antoninus Pius84 views(description later)Ginolerhino
CyzARHemio.jpg
[103e] Cyzikos, Mysia, Asia Minor (2)75 viewsCyzikos, Mysia, 480 - 400 B.C. Silver hemiobol, BMC 120, S 1505, VF, Cyzikus mint, .343g, 9.5mm, 0o, 480 - 400 B.C.; Obverse: forepart of boar running left, tunny fish upwards behind; Reverse: head of roaring lion left, star of four rays above, all in incuse square. Ex FORVM.

Cyzkios (Cyzicum, Kyzikos): Located in modern Turkey, at the northern end of the isthmus between the Kapidag peninsula and the mainland, beside the Bandirma road about 10km/6mi southwest of Erdek, lie the remains of the ancient trading colony of Kyzikos (or Belkis), known by the poetic name of Dindymos. It was probably settled from Miletus in the second millennium B.C. and was certainly inhabited by Miletian settlers by 756 B.C. It is mentioned in the story of Jason and the Argonauts which tells how in error they killed the hospitable king who had earlier made them welcome. In 334 Alexander the Great built two bridges joining the southern tip of the island to the mainland. After Kyzikos declined, sand continuously washing up against the piles of the bridges caused the channel slowly to silt up and the isthmus was formed. Following Lucullus's decisive victory over Mithridates, Kyzikos became a "free" city and capital of Mysia. Badly damaged on several occasions by earthquakes (particularly in 543 and 1063) and by Arab assault (673), and further ravaged in fighting between Byzantines, Seljuks and Crusaders, it was finally abandoned in 1224. Little now remains to be seen, only a section of the walls, the site of the theater and some ruins of the amphitheater and of Hadrian's Temple to Zeus from which in the 16th century columns were removed to embellish Istanbul's mosques. Finds from Kyzikos are displayed in the museum in Erdek.
http://www.planetware.com/bandirma/kyzikos-tr-bl-bakz.htm

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
TisnaiosSNGCop283.jpg
[103tis] Tisna, Aiolis, 350 - 300 B.C.168 viewsBronze AE 17, SNG Cop 283, choice gVF, 3.960g, 16.7mm, 180o; Obverse: horned head of river-god Tisnaios left, slightly facing; Reverse :TIS/NAION either side of one-handled cup; superb and unusual style!; rare. Ex FORVM.


The following research was done by Jochen (Tribunus Plebis, 2006; Procurator Caesaris; Caesar), a member extraordinaire of the FORVM Discussion Boards, and the originator and leading contributor to our Coins of Mythological Interest Board:

"Von Mogens Herman Hansen, Thomas Heine, An Inventory of Archaic and Classical Poleis, Oxford University Press, p.1051: 835. *Tisna (Tisnaia) Map 56. Lat. 38-45, long. 27.05 but see 'infra' C:? The toponym Tisna can be reconstructed from the city-ethnic attested by C4 coin legends (infra). Presumably the community took its name from the river Tisna, a personification of which was depicted on Tisna's coins. Tisna struck bronze coins in C4. Types: obv. beardless male head l., horned (river god Tisnaios); rev. one-handle vase, or spearhead, or sword in sheath; legend TISNAI or TISNAIO or TISNAIOS or TISNAION (Imhoof-Blumer (1883) 275 nos.241-42; Head, HN2 557; Robert (1937) 189; BMC Troas 149; SNG Cop Aeolis 283). The book I found under books.google.de It is the first lexicon of all identifiable Greek city states of the Archaic and Classical period (c. 650-325 BC).

You can see that Tisna must be a small city in Aiolis known only by its coins. It is not mentioned in 'Der kleine Pauly' nor depicted in my Historical Atlas.
[The emphasis is mine, J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.]


Aeolis (Ancient Greek Αιολίς Aiolís) or Aeolia was an area that comprised the west and northwestern region of Asia Minor, mostly along the coast, and also several offshore islands (particularly Lesbos), where the Aeolian Greek city-states were located. Aeolis incorporated the southern parts of Mysia which bounded it to the north, Ionia to the south, and Lydia to the east. In early times, the Aeolians' twelve most important cities were independent, and formed a league: Cyme (also called Phriconis), Larissae, Neonteichos, Temnus, Cilla, Notium, Aegiroessa, Pitane, Aegae, Myrina, Gryneia, and Smyrna.

According to Homer's description, Odysseus, after his stay with the Cyclopes, reached the island of Aeolus, who provided him with the west wind Zephyr.

Aeolis was an ancient district on the western coast of Asia Minor. It extended along the Aegean Sea from the entrance of the Hellespont (now the Dardanelles) south to the Hermus River (now the Gediz River). It was named for the Aeolians, some of whom migrated there from Greece before 1000 BC. Aeolis was, however, an ethnological and linguistic enclave rather than a geographical unit. The district often was considered part of the larger northwest region of Mysia.

By the 8th century BC, twelve of the southern Aeolian city-states were grouped together in a league. The most celebrated of the cities was Smyrna (modern Izmir, Turkey), but in 699 BC, Smyrna became part of an Ionian confederacy. The remaining cities were conquered by Croesus, king of Lydia (reigned 560-546 BC). Later they were held successively by the Persians, Macedonians, Seleucids, and Pergamenes. Attalus III, the last king of Pergamum, bequeathed Aeolis to Rome in 133 BC. Shortly afterward, it was made part of the Roman province of Asia. At the partition of the Roman Empire (395 AD), Aeolis was assigned to the East Roman (Byzantine) empire and remained under Byzantine rule until the early 1400s, when the Ottoman Turks occupied the area.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aeolis

Ed. by J.P.Fitzgerald, Jr.

Thank you, Jochen.
Cleisthenes
Gor3Jup.jpeg
[1106a] Gordian III, 29 July 238 - 25 February 244 A.D.75 viewsSilver antoninianus, RIC 84, RSC 109, VF, Rome, 4.101g, 24.0mm, 0o, 241 - 243 A.D. Obverse: IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG, radiate draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: IOVI STATORI, Jupiter standing facing, head right, thunderbolt in left and scepter in right. Ex FORVM.

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Gordian III (238-244 A.D.)

Michael L. Meckler
Ohio State University

Relatively few details are known about the five-and-a-half year reign of the teenage emperor Gordian III. Continuity with the Severan era seems to have marked both the policy and personnel of his government. Security along the frontiers remained the most pressing concern, and the young emperor would die while on campaign against the expanding Sassanian empire and its energetic leader, Shapur I.

The future emperor was born in Rome on 20 January 225. His mother was a daughter of the senator Marcus Antonius Gordianus Sempronianus Romanus (known later to historians as Gordian I). His father was undoubtedly a senator, but the name of his father is today unknown. The father was already dead before the start of the African uprising, involving the boy's grandfather, against the emperor Maximinus Thrax in early 238. At the time of the revolt, Maximinus was in Pannonia leading military campaigns to protect the Danube region. Maximinus' representative in Rome was a loyal Praetorian Prefect, Vitalianus. Gordian I's 13-year-old grandson faced no hardships as a result of the revolt, because Vitalianus was assassinated by agents sent by Gordian I before the African uprising was revealed in Rome.

Senators in Rome quickly acknowledged Gordian I as emperor, but the revolt in Africa was soon suppressed. After the deaths of the boy's grandfather (Gordian I) and uncle (Gordian II) were announced in Rome, probably near the end of April 238, a select group of 20 senators decided upon two of their own, Pupienus and Balbinus, as new emperors who would continue to lead the uprising against Maximinus. Not all senators were pleased with the selections, and they immediately stirred up their clients and dependents to prevent a public proclamation of the new emperors. Pupienus, moreover, had been an unpopular urban prefect, and many ordinary Romans were quite willing to take part in rioting against his accession. The grandson of Gordian I made a perfect focal point to represent the concerns of the critics of Pupienus and Balbinus. The 13-year-old was brought from his home, named Marcus Antonius Gordianus after his grandfather, and proclaimed Caesar and imperial heir by the senate.

After the death of Maximinus at the siege of Aquileia, perhaps in early June 238, conflicts between the two emperors Pupienus and Balbinus, and among the emperors, soldiers and ordinary Romans, came to the fore. Sometime during the summer, soldiers of the Praetorian Guard became unruly during a festival, stormed into the imperial complex on the Palatine, and captured, tortured and killed the emperors. The young Caesar was then proclaimed emperor by both the soldiers and the senate.

Little reliable information is available about the first few years of Gordian III's reign. Pupienus and Balbinus suffered damnatio memoriae, though it is difficult to ascertain how many other members of the senatorial elite (if any) were either dismissed from their posts or executed by the new regime. The families prominent during the Severan dynasty, and even some families prominent under the Antonines, continued to control offices and commands with a teenage emperor on the throne. In 240, an uprising again originated in the province of Africa, with the proconsul Sabinianus proclaimed emperor. Like the uprising of Gordian I in Africa two years earlier, this uprising was quickly suppressed, but unlike the events of 238, the revolt of Sabinianus failed to gain support in other parts of the empire.

In late 240 or early 241, Gordian III appointed Timesitheus as pretorian prefect. Timesitheus, who was of Eastern origin, had a long career in the imperial service as a procurator in provinces ranging from Arabia to Gaul and from Asia to Germany. Timesitheus' proven abilities quickly made him the central figure in Gordian III's government, and the praetorian prefect's authority was enhanced by the marriage of his daughter, Furia Sabinia Tranquillina, to the young emperor in the summer of 241.

Maintaining security along the frontiers remained the emperor's most serious challenge. Difficulties along the Danube continued, but the greater danger was in the East. The aggressive expansion of the renewed Persian empire under the Sassanian emperor Ardashir I continued under his son and successor, Shapur I. The focus of that expansion was in upper Mesopotamia (in what today is southeastern Turkey, northern Syria and northern Iraq), much of which had been under direct Roman control for more than a generation. Ardashir may already have captured Nisibis and Carrhae during the final months of Maximinus' reign. In 240, the ailing Ardashir seems to have made his son Shapur co-regent. During this year Hatra, the location of Rome's easternmost military garrison, (today in northern Iraq roughly 55 miles south of Mosul), was captured by the Sassanians.

Planning for a massive Roman military counterattack was soon underway. Soldiers travelled from the West during the following year, when Carrhae and Nisibis were retaken, and the Romans won a decisive victory at Resaina. Gordian III joined his army in upper Mesopotamia for campaigning in 243, but during the year the emperor's father-in-law, Timesitheus, died of an illness. The surviving Praetorian Prefect, C. Julius Priscus, convinced the emperor to appoint his brother M. Julius Philippus -- who would succeed Gordian III as the emperor Philip the Arab -- as Timesitheus' successor. The campaign against the Sassanians continued as the Roman army proceeded to march down the Euphrates during the fall and early winter.

Early in 244, the Roman and Sassanian armies met near the city of Misiche (modern Fallujah in Iraq, 40 miles west of Baghdad). Shapur's forces were triumphant, and the city was renamed Peroz-Shapur, "Victorious [is] Shapur." Shapur commemorated his victory with a sculpture and trilingual inscription (at Naqsh-i-Rustam in modern-day Iran) that claimed that Gordian III was killed in the battle.

Roman sources do not mention this battle, indicating instead that Gordian III died near Circesium, along the Euphrates some 250 miles upstream from Peroz-Shapur, and that a cenotaph was built at a location named Zaitha. Philip is universally blamed in these sources for causing Gordian III's death, either directly or by fomenting discontent with the emperor by cutting off the troops' supplies. Philip, who was proclaimed Gordian III's successor by the army, seems to have reported that the 19-year-old emperor died of an illness.

However Gordian III died, it seems unlikely to have been as a direct result of the battle at Misiche/Peroz-Shapur. The emperor's Persian campaigns were promoted within the Roman Empire as a success. Other than the loss of Hatra, the Sassanians gained control over no additional territory as a result of the war, and Shapur did not disturb Roman interests in upper Mesopotamia for nearly eight years. Gordian III was deified after his death, and the positive portrayal his reign received was reinforced by the negative portrayals of his successor, Philip.

Gordian III was a child emperor, but his reign was not perceived as having been burdened by the troubles faced by other young emperors (such as Nero, Commodus and Elagabalus). Competent administrators held important posts, and cultural traditions appear to have been upheld. Gordian III's unlikely accession and seemingly stable reign reveal that child emperors, like modern-day constitutional monarchs, had their advantage: a distance from political decision-making and factionalism that enabled the emperor to be a symbol of unity for the various constituency groups (aristocrats, bureaucrats, soldiers, urban residents) in Roman society. The paucity of information about Gordian III's reign makes it difficult to know whether the young emperor truly lived up to such an ideal, but the positive historical tradition about him gives one the suspicion that perhaps he did.

Copyright (C) 2001, Michael L. Meckler
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
Gord3Nicaea.jpg
[1106b] Gordian III, 29 July 238 - 25 February 244 A.D. (Nicaea, Bithynia, N.W. Asia Minor)52 viewsGordian III, 29 July 238 - 25 February 244 A.D., Nicaea, Bithynia, N.W. Asia Minor. Bronze AE 20, S 3671, SNG Cop 526, VF, Nicaea, Bithynia, 2.950g, 18.8mm, 180o, 238 - 244 A.D. Obverse M ANT GOPDIANOC AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: NIKAI / EWN, two legionary eagles between two standards. Ex FORVM.

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Gordian III (238-244 A.D.)

Michael L. Meckler
Ohio State University

Relatively few details are known about the five-and-a-half year reign of the teenage emperor Gordian III. Continuity with the Severan era seems to have marked both the policy and personnel of his government. Security along the frontiers remained the most pressing concern, and the young emperor would die while on campaign against the expanding Sassanian empire and its energetic leader, Shapur I.

The future emperor was born in Rome on 20 January 225. His mother was a daughter of the senator Marcus Antonius Gordianus Sempronianus Romanus (known later to historians as Gordian I). His father was undoubtedly a senator, but the name of his father is today unknown. The father was already dead before the start of the African uprising, involving the boy's grandfather, against the emperor Maximinus Thrax in early 238. At the time of the revolt, Maximinus was in Pannonia leading military campaigns to protect the Danube region. Maximinus' representative in Rome was a loyal Praetorian Prefect, Vitalianus. Gordian I's 13-year-old grandson faced no hardships as a result of the revolt, because Vitalianus was assassinated by agents sent by Gordian I before the African uprising was revealed in Rome.

Senators in Rome quickly acknowledged Gordian I as emperor, but the revolt in Africa was soon suppressed. After the deaths of the boy's grandfather (Gordian I) and uncle (Gordian II) were announced in Rome, probably near the end of April 238, a select group of 20 senators decided upon two of their own, Pupienus and Balbinus, as new emperors who would continue to lead the uprising against Maximinus. Not all senators were pleased with the selections, and they immediately stirred up their clients and dependents to prevent a public proclamation of the new emperors. Pupienus, moreover, had been an unpopular urban prefect, and many ordinary Romans were quite willing to take part in rioting against his accession. The grandson of Gordian I made a perfect focal point to represent the concerns of the critics of Pupienus and Balbinus. The 13-year-old was brought from his home, named Marcus Antonius Gordianus after his grandfather, and proclaimed Caesar and imperial heir by the senate.

After the death of Maximinus at the siege of Aquileia, perhaps in early June 238, conflicts between the two emperors Pupienus and Balbinus, and among the emperors, soldiers and ordinary Romans, came to the fore. Sometime during the summer, soldiers of the Praetorian Guard became unruly during a festival, stormed into the imperial complex on the Palatine, and captured, tortured and killed the emperors. The young Caesar was then proclaimed emperor by both the soldiers and the senate.

Little reliable information is available about the first few years of Gordian III's reign. Pupienus and Balbinus suffered damnatio memoriae, though it is difficult to ascertain how many other members of the senatorial elite (if any) were either dismissed from their posts or executed by the new regime. The families prominent during the Severan dynasty, and even some families prominent under the Antonines, continued to control offices and commands with a teenage emperor on the throne. In 240, an uprising again originated in the province of Africa, with the proconsul Sabinianus proclaimed emperor. Like the uprising of Gordian I in Africa two years earlier, this uprising was quickly suppressed, but unlike the events of 238, the revolt of Sabinianus failed to gain support in other parts of the empire.

In late 240 or early 241, Gordian III appointed Timesitheus as pretorian prefect. Timesitheus, who was of Eastern origin, had a long career in the imperial service as a procurator in provinces ranging from Arabia to Gaul and from Asia to Germany. Timesitheus' proven abilities quickly made him the central figure in Gordian III's government, and the praetorian prefect's authority was enhanced by the marriage of his daughter, Furia Sabinia Tranquillina, to the young emperor in the summer of 241.

Maintaining security along the frontiers remained the emperor's most serious challenge. Difficulties along the Danube continued, but the greater danger was in the East. The aggressive expansion of the renewed Persian empire under the Sassanian emperor Ardashir I continued under his son and successor, Shapur I. The focus of that expansion was in upper Mesopotamia (in what today is southeastern Turkey, northern Syria and northern Iraq), much of which had been under direct Roman control for more than a generation. Ardashir may already have captured Nisibis and Carrhae during the final months of Maximinus' reign. In 240, the ailing Ardashir seems to have made his son Shapur co-regent. During this year Hatra, the location of Rome's easternmost military garrison, (today in northern Iraq roughly 55 miles south of Mosul), was captured by the Sassanians.

Planning for a massive Roman military counterattack was soon underway. Soldiers travelled from the West during the following year, when Carrhae and Nisibis were retaken, and the Romans won a decisive victory at Resaina. Gordian III joined his army in upper Mesopotamia for campaigning in 243, but during the year the emperor's father-in-law, Timesitheus, died of an illness. The surviving Praetorian Prefect, C. Julius Priscus, convinced the emperor to appoint his brother M. Julius Philippus -- who would succeed Gordian III as the emperor Philip the Arab -- as Timesitheus' successor. The campaign against the Sassanians continued as the Roman army proceeded to march down the Euphrates during the fall and early winter.

Early in 244, the Roman and Sassanian armies met near the city of Misiche (modern Fallujah in Iraq, 40 miles west of Baghdad). Shapur's forces were triumphant, and the city was renamed Peroz-Shapur, "Victorious [is] Shapur." Shapur commemorated his victory with a sculpture and trilingual inscription (at Naqsh-i-Rustam in modern-day Iran) that claimed that Gordian III was killed in the battle.

Roman sources do not mention this battle, indicating instead that Gordian III died near Circesium, along the Euphrates some 250 miles upstream from Peroz-Shapur, and that a cenotaph was built at a location named Zaitha. Philip is universally blamed in these sources for causing Gordian III's death, either directly or by fomenting discontent with the emperor by cutting off the troops' supplies. Philip, who was proclaimed Gordian III's successor by the army, seems to have reported that the 19-year-old emperor died of an illness.

However Gordian III died, it seems unlikely to have been as a direct result of the battle at Misiche/Peroz-Shapur. The emperor's Persian campaigns were promoted within the Roman Empire as a success. Other than the loss of Hatra, the Sassanians gained control over no additional territory as a result of the war, and Shapur did not disturb Roman interests in upper Mesopotamia for nearly eight years. Gordian III was deified after his death, and the positive portrayal his reign received was reinforced by the negative portrayals of his successor, Philip.

Gordian III was a child emperor, but his reign was not perceived as having been burdened by the troubles faced by other young emperors (such as Nero, Commodus and Elagabalus). Competent administrators held important posts, and cultural traditions appear to have been upheld. Gordian III's unlikely accession and seemingly stable reign reveal that child emperors, like modern-day constitutional monarchs, had their advantage: a distance from political decision-making and factionalism that enabled the emperor to be a symbol of unity for the various constituency groups (aristocrats, bureaucrats, soldiers, urban residents) in Roman society. The paucity of information about Gordian III's reign makes it difficult to know whether the young emperor truly lived up to such an ideal, but the positive historical tradition about him gives one the suspicion that perhaps he did.

Copyright (C) 2001, Michael L. Meckler
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
PontiusPilate29BCHendin648.jpg
[18H648] Pontius Pilate prefect for Tiberius Prutah, 29 BC48 viewsPONTIUS PILATE PRUTAH, "SIMPULUM;" Hendin 648, AVF/VF, 15.3mm, 2.20 grams, struck 29 C.E. Nice round, good weight Pontius Pilate Prutah.

THE COINS OF PONTIUS PILATE
Jean-Philippe Fontanille

INTRODUCTION
They are not really beautiful, or truly rare, nor are they of very great monetary value. Yet these apparently modest coins carry in their weight an era and an act which would have immense consequence to the history of the world. Indeed, they are closely associated with three basic factors which saw the foundation of Christianity :
1 - The temporal proximity : Most modern experts agree in recognising that the year now designated 30 C.E. marked the trial and the death of Jesus. Given that time-frame, Pilate's coins were minted in 29, 30 and 31 C.E.
2 - The geographic proximity : The most credible hypothesis indicates that these particular coins where struck in Jerusalem, the city in which the significant events took place.
3 - The human proximity : Pontius Pilate himself designed and put the coins into circulation, and of course he was the man who conducted the trial and ordered the crucifixion of Jesus.

So it is that everyone, whether a believer or simply a lover of history or of numismatics, will find in these coins direct evidence of and witness to an episode the memory of which has survived 2000 years : A momentous event which has to a great extent fashioned the world we know.

Throughout this article we will also note the exceptional character of Pilate's coins: Exceptional in the nature of the images they bear, for the numerous variants they offer, for the presence of countermarks, and above all for the part their originator played in history. The putative appearance of these coins imprints on the Turin shroud has yet to be confirmed by more solid scientific proofs.

Pilate's coins are Roman coins, the words on them are Greek, they were circulated in Judea, and today they are to be found distributed among world-wide collectors after having spent 2000 years buried in the earth. They were minted and used during a period which produced an event destined to change the face of the world, and issued at the command of one of the principal actors in that event. An amazing and dramatic destiny for apparently such humble and unassuming little coins !

For 35 years Pilate's coins were passed from hand to hand every day. They knew the scent of spice-stalls, heard the merchants' ranting, smelled the sweat and dust of daily works. They were alive to the sounds of Hebrew, Aramaic, Greek and Latin voices ¬ now haggling over a price, now offering prayers to YHVH, Jesus or Jupiter.

Nobody prays to Jupiter any more [?], but Pilate's coins are surviving witnesses to a time when the first Christians were considered as a messianic sect among several others in the midst of Judaism in crisis. The absolute split between Judaism and Christianity took place from about 70 C.E, the year which marked the tragic ending of the first Jewish rebellion. It was from that time, too, that Pilate's money ceased to be used.

Like each one of us, who carries always a few small coins in the bottom of our pockets; there is no doubt that some of Pilate's coins resonated to the last words of the most famous of all supplicants. A very long story had its beginning...

2. MANUFACTURE AND CIRCULATION
LOCATION OF MINTS
Although the prefects had their residencies in Cesarea, the administrative capital of the province, it seems that their money was minted in Jerusalem. Indeed, a specimen dated year 31 has been found in this town in an incomplete state of manufacture.

DURATION OF USE
It would seem that Pilate's money was in current use for at least 35 years. Indeed, some of it has been discovered among other coins during the excavation of remains of dwellings destroyed by the Romans during the first Jewish revolt, which is evidence that they were still in use at that time.

AREA OF CIRCULATION
These coins circulated far beyond the frontiers of Judea. Some samples have been discovered as far away as Antioch in present-day Turkey, nearly 500 kilometres from Jerusalem where they were minted. Others have also been found in Jordan. These limits represent a circulation area of at least 100.000 square kilometres, that is five times larger than the size of the state of Israel. Taking into account that it was a time when distances were expressed in terms of days of march, one begins to see the important influence of these coins.

3. THE IMAGES AND THE TEXTS
THE SIMPULUM
A fairly frequent symbol from the Roman religion of the time, the simpulum was a utensil used by the priests during their religious ceremonies. This little ladle, provided with shaft and a handle, allowed the priests to taste the wine which they poured onto the head of an animal destined for sacrifice, after which the soothsayer was empowered to examine the animal's entrails for signs and portents sent to men by the Gods through the medium of the interpreter. As I pointed, none of this would have been obvious at first sight of the motif except perhaps to a Roman citizen. However, it throws some light on the theory put forward by F.A. Banks [Coins of the Bible Days].

This wasn't the first time that the simpulum appeared on Roman coins, but it is the first time it figured alone. This fact gives an additional specificity to Pilate's coins, not only in the context of Judea but also in comparison with all the other coins of the Empire.

THE THREE EARS OF BARLEY
The three ears or barley are featured on the opposing face of the simpulum. Unlike the simpulum, these ears of barley are not in contravention of the Jewish Law. The motif is nevertheless distinctive because it is the first time it appears on a Judean coin. The motif would reappear twelve years later on one of Herod Agrippa's coin, then on another, much rarer, of Agrippa II (ears of barley held in a hand). After that, the motif disappeared altogether from ancient Jewish coins.

THE LITUUS
The lituus was the wooden staff which the augurs held in the right hand; it symbolised their authority and their pastoral vocation. It was raised toward heavens while the priests invoked the Gods and made their predictions. Legend records that Romulus used it at the time of Rome's foundation in 753 B.C.E. It is interesting to note that the cross used in present times is the direct descendant of the lituus. As with the simpulum, Pilate's coinage is exceptional in that it alone displays the lituus as the sole object illustrated on the face.

THE WREATH
The laurel wreath is a symbol of power and victory, and figures on various ancient Greek and Roman coins. In Judea it can be found during the reign of John Hyrcanus I (134 to 104 B.C.E.). After that, Herod Antipas, speaker for Pilate, used it on all his coins. On Pilate's coins, the laurel wreath figures on the reverse side of the lituus, framing the date.

THE DATES
The notation of dates uses a code invented by the Greeks whereby each letter of the alphabet was assigned a number. This code would be used again in Judaism under the name of Guematria. The system is simple : the first ten letters of the alphabet are linked to units (1,2,3...), the following ten letters to tens (10,20,30...) and the four remaining letters to the first four hundreds. The "L" is an abbreviation meaning "year". Tiberius became emperor on September 17 of year 14 C.E, so we have :

LIS = Year 29 C.E. * LIZ = Year 30 C.E. * LIH = Year 31 C.E.

THE TEXTS
The legends on Pontius Pilate's coins are written in Greek. Judea, governed by the Ptolemy dynasty (301 to 198 B.C.E) then by the Syrians until 63 B.C.E, came under the same powerful influence of the Hellenic culture which touched the other territories of the ancient Persian Empire won by Alexander the Great. In spite of a certain amount of resistance, this Hellenistic heritage eventually crept into every aspect of daily life. Apart from the dates, the texts on Pilate's coinage consisted of only three different words : - TIBEPIOY KAICAPOC (Of Tiberius Emperor) on all three coins; - IOYLIA KAICAPOC (Empress Julia) added to the coin of year 29.
http://www.numismalink.com/fontanille1.html


Pontius Pilate
After the deposition of the eldest son of Herod, Archelaus (who had succeeded his father as ethnarch), Judea was placed under the rule of a Roman procurator. Pilate, who was the fifth, succeeding Valerius Gratus in A.D. 26, had greater authority than most procurators under the empire, for in addition to the ordinary duty of financial administration, he had supreme power judicially. His unusually long period of office (A.D. 26-36) covers the whole of the active ministry both of St. John the Baptist and of Jesus Christ.
As procurator Pilate was necessarily of equestrian rank, but beyond that we know little of his family or origin. Some have thought that he was only a freedman, deriving his name from pileus (the cap of freed slaves) but for this there seems to be no adequate evidence, and it is unlikely that a freedman would attain to a post of such importance. The Pontii were a Samnite gens. Pilate owed his appointment to the influence of Sejanus. The official residence of the procurators was the palace of Herod at Cæsarea; where there was a military force of about 3,000 soldiers. These soldiers came up to Jerusalem at the time of the feasts, when the city was full of strangers, and there was greater danger of disturbances, hence it was that Pilate had come to Jerusalem at the time of the Crucifixion. His name will be forever covered with infamy because of the part which he took in this matter, though at the time it appeared to him of small importance.
Pilate is a type of the worldly man, knowing the right and anxious to do it so far as it can be done without personal sacrifice of any kind, but yielding easily to pressure from those whose interest it is that he should act otherwise. He would gladly have acquitted Christ, and even made serious efforts in that direction, but gave way at once when his own position was threatened.
The other events of his rule are not of very great importance. Philo (Ad Gaium, 38) speaks of him as inflexible, merciless, and obstinate. The Jews hated him and his administration, for he was not only very severe, but showed little consideration for their susceptibilities. Some standards bearing the image of Tiberius, which had been set up by him in Jerusalem, caused an outbreak which would have ended in a massacre had not Pilate given way. At a later date Tiberius ordered him to remove certain gilt shields, which he had set up in Jerusalem in spite of the remonstrances of the people. The incident mentioned in St. Luke 13:1, of the Galilaeans whose blood Pilate mingled with the sacrifices, is not elsewhere referred to, but is quite in keeping with other authentic events of his rule. He was, therefore, anxious that no further hostile reports should be sent to the emperor concerning him.
The tendency, already discernible in the canonical Gospels, to lay stress on the efforts of Pilate to acquit Christ, and thus pass as lenient a judgment as possible upon his crime, goes further in the apocryphal Gospels and led in later years to the claim that he actually became a Christian. The Abyssinian Church reckons him as a saint, and assigns 25 June to him and to Claudia Procula, his wife. The belief that she became a Christian goes back to the second century, and may be found in Origen (Hom., in Mat., xxxv). The Greek Church assigns her a feast on 27 October. Tertullian and Justin Martyr both speak of a report on the Crucifixion (not extant) sent in by Pilate to Tiberius, from which idea a large amount of apocryphal literature originated. Some of these were Christian in origin (Gospel of Nicodemus), others came from the heathen, but these have all perished.
His rule was brought to an end through trouble which arose in Samaria. An imposter had given out that it was in his power to discover the sacred vessels which, as he alleged, had been hidden by Moses on Mount Gerizim, whither armed Samaritans came in large numbers. Pilate seems to have thought the whole affair was a blind, covering some other more important design, for he hurried forces to attack them, and many were slain. They appealed to Vitellius, who was at that time legate in Syria, saying that nothing political had been intended, and complaining of Pilate's whole administration. He was summoned to Rome to answer their charges, but before he could reach the city the Emperor Tiberius had died.
Catholic Encyclopedia: http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/12083c.htm

As the man who presided over the trial of Jesus, who found no fault with the defendant and washed his hands of the affair by referring it back to the Jewish mob, but who signed the final death warrant, Pontius Pilate represents almost a byword for ambivalence.
He appears in a poor light in all four Gospels and in a favourable light in the apocryphal Gospel of Peter where the Jews take all the blame for Jesus' death.
In the later Acts of Pilate, he is both cleared of responsibility for the Crucifixion and is said to have converted to Christianity.
In the drama of the Passion, Pilate is a ditherer who drifts towards pardoning Jesus, then drifts away again. He tries to pass the buck several times, makes the decision to save Jesus, then capitulates.
The former Archbishop of Canterbury, the late Robert Runcie once wrote, "It would have been better for the moral health of Christianity if the blame had stayed with Pilate."
In a poignant moment in the course of the trial, Pontius Pilate responds to an assertion by Jesus by asking "What is truth?"
The truth about Pilate is difficult to ascertain since records are few. Legends say he was a Spaniard or a German, but most likely he was a natural-born Roman citizen from central Italy.
But the fact that he was definitely the Procurator of Judea from 26 to 36 AD helps to establish Jesus as a real person and fixes him in time.
The official residence of the procurators was the palace of Herod at Caesarea, a mainly non-Jewish city where a force of some 3,000 Roman soldiers were based.
These would come to Jerusalem during the time of feasts when there was a greater danger of disturbances. This would explain Pilate's presence in the city during the time of the Crucifixion.
Pilate is recorded by several contemporary historians; his name is inscribed on Roman coins and on a stone dug up in Caesarea in the 1960s with the words, PONTIUS PILATUS PRAEFECTUS PROVINCIAE JUDAEAE.
The governorship of Judea was only a second-rate posting, though having the Jewish religious capital, Jerusalem, on its patch would have increased its importance.
Pilate ruled in conjunction with the Jewish authorities and was under orders from Emperor Tiberius, to respect their culture. He was a soldier rather than a diplomat.
The Jews relied on the Romans to keep their own rebellious factions under control. But they appeared to hate Pilate.
One contemporary Jewish historian Philo, describes him as a violent thug, fond of executions without trial. Another, Josephus, records that, at the start of his term, Pilate provoked the Jews by ordering the imperial standards to be carried into Jerusalem.
But he backed off from an all-out confrontation. On the other hand, later, he helped himself to Jewish revenues to build an aqueduct.
When, according to Josephus, bands of resistance fighters, supported by crowds of ordinary people, sabotaged the project by getting in the way of Pilate's workmen, he sent in his soldiers. Hundreds were massacred.
Anne Wroe, author of a recent book Pilate: the Biography of an Invented Man, says that for some modern scholars, given this propensity for violence when the occasion warranted, the idea of Pilate as a waverer is nonsense.
A Roman governor, they point out, would not have wasted two minutes thinking about a shabby Jewish villain, one among many. Wroe's depiction of Pilate, however, suggests he was something of a pragmatist.
His first duty was to keep the peace in Judea and to keep the revenues flowing back to Rome. "Should I have jeopardised the peace for the sake of some Jew who may have been innocent?", she has Pilate asking. "Should I have defied a furious crowd, maybe butchered them, to save one life?"
Whatever the truth about the real Pontius Pilate, such dilemmas are what he has come to symbolise.
Anne Wroe makes the modern comparisons of Neville Chamberlain in 1938. Bill McSweeney, of the Irish School of Ecumenics suggests that "without the Pilates of Anglo-Irish politics, we might never have had the Good Friday Agreement".
Tony Blair has said of Pilate: "It is possible to view Pilate as the archetypal politician, caught on the horns of a dilemma."
Even if, in reality, the Jesus affair was nothing but a small side-show in the career of Pontius Pilate, it had monumental repercussions for his image.
His inclusion in the Christian creeds, in the words of Robert Runcie, "binds the eternal realms to the stumbling, messy chronology of earthly time and place".
BBC: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/1273594.stm

The Ethiopian Church recognized Pilate as a saint in the sixth century, based on the account in the Acts of Pilate

Although historians can pinpoint the exact date of death of many distinguished historical figures, the date of the crucifixion of Jesus Christ remains a matter of scholarly debate. Christ’s birth is most often dated between 7-5 BC (some scholars have suggested, however, His birth was as early as 20 BC). Christ’s Death and Resurrection is dated between 29-36 AD.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
PontiusPilate30BCHendin649.jpg
[18H649] Pontius Pilate Prefect under Tiberius Prutah, "LIZ", 30 BC70 viewsPONTIUS PILATE PRUTAH, 'LIZ;' Hendin 649, VF, 15.5mm, 1.90 grams. Struck 30 C.E. Nice historic coin.

THE COINS OF PONTIUS PILATE
Jean-Philippe Fontanille

INTRODUCTION
They are not really beautiful, or truly rare, nor are they of very great monetary value. Yet these apparently modest coins carry in their weight an era and an act which would have immense consequence to the history of the world. Indeed, they are closely associated with three basic factors which saw the foundation of Christianity :
1 - The temporal proximity : Most modern experts agree in recognising that the year now designated 30 C.E. marked the trial and the death of Jesus. Given that time-frame, Pilate's coins were minted in 29, 30 and 31 C.E.
2 - The geographic proximity : The most credible hypothesis indicates that these particular coins where struck in Jerusalem, the city in which the significant events took place.
3 - The human proximity : Pontius Pilate himself designed and put the coins into circulation, and of course he was the man who conducted the trial and ordered the crucifixion of Jesus.

So it is that everyone, whether a believer or simply a lover of history or of numismatics, will find in these coins direct evidence of and witness to an episode the memory of which has survived 2000 years : A momentous event which has to a great extent fashioned the world we know.

Throughout this article we will also note the exceptional character of Pilate's coins: Exceptional in the nature of the images they bear, for the numerous variants they offer, for the presence of countermarks, and above all for the part their originator played in history. The putative appearance of these coins imprints on the Turin shroud has yet to be confirmed by more solid scientific proofs.

Pilate's coins are Roman coins, the words on them are Greek, they were circulated in Judea, and today they are to be found distributed among world-wide collectors after having spent 2000 years buried in the earth. They were minted and used during a period which produced an event destined to change the face of the world, and issued at the command of one of the principal actors in that event. An amazing and dramatic destiny for apparently such humble and unassuming little coins !

For 35 years Pilate's coins were passed from hand to hand every day. They knew the scent of spice-stalls, heard the merchants' ranting, smelled the sweat and dust of daily works. They were alive to the sounds of Hebrew, Aramaic, Greek and Latin voices ¬ now haggling over a price, now offering prayers to YHVH, Jesus or Jupiter.

Nobody prays to Jupiter any more [?], but Pilate's coins are surviving witnesses to a time when the first Christians were considered as a messianic sect among several others in the midst of Judaism in crisis. The absolute split between Judaism and Christianity took place from about 70 C.E, the year which marked the tragic ending of the first Jewish rebellion. It was from that time, too, that Pilate's money ceased to be used.

Like each one of us, who carries always a few small coins in the bottom of our pockets; there is no doubt that some of Pilate's coins resonated to the last words of the most famous of all supplicants. A very long story had its beginning...

2. MANUFACTURE AND CIRCULATION
LOCATION OF MINTS
Although the prefects had their residencies in Cesarea, the administrative capital of the province, it seems that their money was minted in Jerusalem. Indeed, a specimen dated year 31 has been found in this town in an incomplete state of manufacture.

DURATION OF USE
It would seem that Pilate's money was in current use for at least 35 years. Indeed, some of it has been discovered among other coins during the excavation of remains of dwellings destroyed by the Romans during the first Jewish revolt, which is evidence that they were still in use at that time.

AREA OF CIRCULATION
These coins circulated far beyond the frontiers of Judea. Some samples have been discovered as far away as Antioch in present-day Turkey, nearly 500 kilometres from Jerusalem where they were minted. Others have also been found in Jordan. These limits represent a circulation area of at least 100.000 square kilometres, that is five times larger than the size of the state of Israel. Taking into account that it was a time when distances were expressed in terms of days of march, one begins to see the important influence of these coins.

3. THE IMAGES AND THE TEXTS
THE SIMPULUM
A fairly frequent symbol from the Roman religion of the time, the simpulum was a utensil used by the priests during their religious ceremonies. This little ladle, provided with shaft and a handle, allowed the priests to taste the wine which they poured onto the head of an animal destined for sacrifice, after which the soothsayer was empowered to examine the animal's entrails for signs and portents sent to men by the Gods through the medium of the interpreter. As I pointed, none of this would have been obvious at first sight of the motif except perhaps to a Roman citizen. However, it throws some light on the theory put forward by F.A. Banks [Coins of the Bible Days].

This wasn't the first time that the simpulum appeared on Roman coins, but it is the first time it figured alone. This fact gives an additional specificity to Pilate's coins, not only in the context of Judea but also in comparison with all the other coins of the Empire.

THE THREE EARS OF BARLEY
The three ears or barley are featured on the opposing face of the simpulum. Unlike the simpulum, these ears of barley are not in contravention of the Jewish Law. The motif is nevertheless distinctive because it is the first time it appears on a Judean coin. The motif would reappear twelve years later on one of Herod Agrippa's coin, then on another, much rarer, of Agrippa II (ears of barley held in a hand). After that, the motif disappeared altogether from ancient Jewish coins.

THE LITUUS
The lituus was the wooden staff which the augurs held in the right hand; it symbolised their authority and their pastoral vocation. It was raised toward heavens while the priests invoked the Gods and made their predictions. Legend records that Romulus used it at the time of Rome's foundation in 753 B.C.E. It is interesting to note that the cross used in present times is the direct descendant of the lituus. As with the simpulum, Pilate's coinage is exceptional in that it alone displays the lituus as the sole object illustrated on the face.

THE WREATH
The laurel wreath is a symbol of power and victory, and figures on various ancient Greek and Roman coins. In Judea it can be found during the reign of John Hyrcanus I (134 to 104 B.C.E.). After that, Herod Antipas, speaker for Pilate, used it on all his coins. On Pilate's coins, the laurel wreath figures on the reverse side of the lituus, framing the date.

THE DATES
The notation of dates uses a code invented by the Greeks whereby each letter of the alphabet was assigned a number. This code would be used again in Judaism under the name of Guematria. The system is simple : the first ten letters of the alphabet are linked to units (1,2,3...), the following ten letters to tens (10,20,30...) and the four remaining letters to the first four hundreds. The "L" is an abbreviation meaning "year". Tiberius became emperor on September 17 of year 14 C.E, so we have :

LIS = Year 29 C.E. * LIZ = Year 30 C.E. * LIH = Year 31 C.E.

THE TEXTS
The legends on Pontius Pilate's coins are written in Greek. Judea, governed by the Ptolemy dynasty (301 to 198 B.C.E) then by the Syrians until 63 B.C.E, came under the same powerful influence of the Hellenic culture which touched the other territories of the ancient Persian Empire won by Alexander the Great. In spite of a certain amount of resistance, this Hellenistic heritage eventually crept into every aspect of daily life. Apart from the dates, the texts on Pilate's coinage consisted of only three different words : - TIBEPIOY KAICAPOC (Of Tiberius Emperor) on all three coins; - IOYLIA KAICAPOC (Empress Julia) added to the coin of year 29.
http://www.numismalink.com/fontanille1.html


Pontius Pilate
After the deposition of the eldest son of Herod, Archelaus (who had succeeded his father as ethnarch), Judea was placed under the rule of a Roman procurator. Pilate, who was the fifth, succeeding Valerius Gratus in A.D. 26, had greater authority than most procurators under the empire, for in addition to the ordinary duty of financial administration, he had supreme power judicially. His unusually long period of office (A.D. 26-36) covers the whole of the active ministry both of St. John the Baptist and of Jesus Christ.
As procurator Pilate was necessarily of equestrian rank, but beyond that we know little of his family or origin. Some have thought that he was only a freedman, deriving his name from pileus (the cap of freed slaves) but for this there seems to be no adequate evidence, and it is unlikely that a freedman would attain to a post of such importance. The Pontii were a Samnite gens. Pilate owed his appointment to the influence of Sejanus. The official residence of the procurators was the palace of Herod at Cæsarea; where there was a military force of about 3,000 soldiers. These soldiers came up to Jerusalem at the time of the feasts, when the city was full of strangers, and there was greater danger of disturbances, hence it was that Pilate had come to Jerusalem at the time of the Crucifixion. His name will be forever covered with infamy because of the part which he took in this matter, though at the time it appeared to him of small importance.
Pilate is a type of the worldly man, knowing the right and anxious to do it so far as it can be done without personal sacrifice of any kind, but yielding easily to pressure from those whose interest it is that he should act otherwise. He would gladly have acquitted Christ, and even made serious efforts in that direction, but gave way at once when his own position was threatened.
The other events of his rule are not of very great importance. Philo (Ad Gaium, 38) speaks of him as inflexible, merciless, and obstinate. The Jews hated him and his administration, for he was not only very severe, but showed little consideration for their susceptibilities. Some standards bearing the image of Tiberius, which had been set up by him in Jerusalem, caused an outbreak which would have ended in a massacre had not Pilate given way. At a later date Tiberius ordered him to remove certain gilt shields, which he had set up in Jerusalem in spite of the remonstrances of the people. The incident mentioned in St. Luke 13:1, of the Galilaeans whose blood Pilate mingled with the sacrifices, is not elsewhere referred to, but is quite in keeping with other authentic events of his rule. He was, therefore, anxious that no further hostile reports should be sent to the emperor concerning him.
The tendency, already discernible in the canonical Gospels, to lay stress on the efforts of Pilate to acquit Christ, and thus pass as lenient a judgment as possible upon his crime, goes further in the apocryphal Gospels and led in later years to the claim that he actually became a Christian. The Abyssinian Church reckons him as a saint, and assigns 25 June to him and to Claudia Procula, his wife. The belief that she became a Christian goes back to the second century, and may be found in Origen (Hom., in Mat., xxxv). The Greek Church assigns her a feast on 27 October. Tertullian and Justin Martyr both speak of a report on the Crucifixion (not extant) sent in by Pilate to Tiberius, from which idea a large amount of apocryphal literature originated. Some of these were Christian in origin (Gospel of Nicodemus), others came from the heathen, but these have all perished.
His rule was brought to an end through trouble which arose in Samaria. An imposter had given out that it was in his power to discover the sacred vessels which, as he alleged, had been hidden by Moses on Mount Gerizim, whither armed Samaritans came in large numbers. Pilate seems to have thought the whole affair was a blind, covering some other more important design, for he hurried forces to attack them, and many were slain. They appealed to Vitellius, who was at that time legate in Syria, saying that nothing political had been intended, and complaining of Pilate's whole administration. He was summoned to Rome to answer their charges, but before he could reach the city the Emperor Tiberius had died.
Catholic Encyclopedia: http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/12083c.htm

As the man who presided over the trial of Jesus, who found no fault with the defendant and washed his hands of the affair by referring it back to the Jewish mob, but who signed the final death warrant, Pontius Pilate represents almost a byword for ambivalence.
He appears in a poor light in all four Gospels and in a favourable light in the apocryphal Gospel of Peter where the Jews take all the blame for Jesus' death.
In the later Acts of Pilate, he is both cleared of responsibility for the Crucifixion and is said to have converted to Christianity.
In the drama of the Passion, Pilate is a ditherer who drifts towards pardoning Jesus, then drifts away again. He tries to pass the buck several times, makes the decision to save Jesus, then capitulates.
The former Archbishop of Canterbury, the late Robert Runcie once wrote, "It would have been better for the moral health of Christianity if the blame had stayed with Pilate."
In a poignant moment in the course of the trial, Pontius Pilate responds to an assertion by Jesus by asking "What is truth?"
The truth about Pilate is difficult to ascertain since records are few. Legends say he was a Spaniard or a German, but most likely he was a natural-born Roman citizen from central Italy.
But the fact that he was definitely the Procurator of Judea from 26 to 36 AD helps to establish Jesus as a real person and fixes him in time.
The official residence of the procurators was the palace of Herod at Caesarea, a mainly non-Jewish city where a force of some 3,000 Roman soldiers were based.
These would come to Jerusalem during the time of feasts when there was a greater danger of disturbances. This would explain Pilate's presence in the city during the time of the Crucifixion.
Pilate is recorded by several contemporary historians; his name is inscribed on Roman coins and on a stone dug up in Caesarea in the 1960s with the words, PONTIUS PILATUS PRAEFECTUS PROVINCIAE JUDAEAE.
The governorship of Judea was only a second-rate posting, though having the Jewish religious capital, Jerusalem, on its patch would have increased its importance.
Pilate ruled in conjunction with the Jewish authorities and was under orders from Emperor Tiberius, to respect their culture. He was a soldier rather than a diplomat.
The Jews relied on the Romans to keep their own rebellious factions under control. But they appeared to hate Pilate.
One contemporary Jewish historian Philo, describes him as a violent thug, fond of executions without trial. Another, Josephus, records that, at the start of his term, Pilate provoked the Jews by ordering the imperial standards to be carried into Jerusalem.
But he backed off from an all-out confrontation. On the other hand, later, he helped himself to Jewish revenues to build an aqueduct.
When, according to Josephus, bands of resistance fighters, supported by crowds of ordinary people, sabotaged the project by getting in the way of Pilate's workmen, he sent in his soldiers. Hundreds were massacred.
Anne Wroe, author of a recent book Pilate: the Biography of an Invented Man, says that for some modern scholars, given this propensity for violence when the occasion warranted, the idea of Pilate as a waverer is nonsense.
A Roman governor, they point out, would not have wasted two minutes thinking about a shabby Jewish villain, one among many. Wroe's depiction of Pilate, however, suggests he was something of a pragmatist.
His first duty was to keep the peace in Judea and to keep the revenues flowing back to Rome. "Should I have jeopardised the peace for the sake of some Jew who may have been innocent?", she has Pilate asking. "Should I have defied a furious crowd, maybe butchered them, to save one life?"
Whatever the truth about the real Pontius Pilate, such dilemmas are what he has come to symbolise.
Anne Wroe makes the modern comparisons of Neville Chamberlain in 1938. Bill McSweeney, of the Irish School of Ecumenics suggests that "without the Pilates of Anglo-Irish politics, we might never have had the Good Friday Agreement".
Tony Blair has said of Pilate: "It is possible to view Pilate as the archetypal politician, caught on the horns of a dilemma."
Even if, in reality, the Jesus affair was nothing but a small side-show in the career of Pontius Pilate, it had monumental repercussions for his image.
His inclusion in the Christian creeds, in the words of Robert Runcie, "binds the eternal realms to the stumbling, messy chronology of earthly time and place".
BBC: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/1273594.stm

The Ethiopian Church recognized Pilate as a saint in the sixth century, based on the account in the Acts of Pilate

Although historians can pinpoint the exact date of death of many distinguished historical figures, the date of the crucifixion of Jesus Christ remains a matter of scholarly debate. Christ’s birth is most often dated between 7-5 BC (some scholars have suggested, however, His birth was as early as 20 BC). Christ’s Death and Resurrection is dated between 29-36 AD.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
1 commentsCleisthenes
PontiusPilate31BCHendin650.jpg
[18H650] Pontius Pilate prefect for Tiberius Prutah, 31 BC68 viewsPONTIUS PILATUS PRUTAH. Hendin 650, aVF, 14.3mm, 1.94 grams. Minted 31 C.E. FULL "LIH" Date, (H partially hidden behind pretty patina can be revealed.)

THE COINS OF PONTIUS PILATE
Jean-Philippe Fontanille

INTRODUCTION
They are not really beautiful, or truly rare, nor are they of very great monetary value. Yet these apparently modest coins carry in their weight an era and an act which would have immense consequence to the history of the world. Indeed, they are closely associated with three basic factors which saw the foundation of Christianity :
1 - The temporal proximity : Most modern experts agree in recognising that the year now designated 30 C.E. marked the trial and the death of Jesus. Given that time-frame, Pilate's coins were minted in 29, 30 and 31 C.E.
2 - The geographic proximity : The most credible hypothesis indicates that these particular coins where struck in Jerusalem, the city in which the significant events took place.
3 - The human proximity : Pontius Pilate himself designed and put the coins into circulation, and of course he was the man who conducted the trial and ordered the crucifixion of Jesus.

So it is that everyone, whether a believer or simply a lover of history or of numismatics, will find in these coins direct evidence of and witness to an episode the memory of which has survived 2000 years : A momentous event which has to a great extent fashioned the world we know.

Throughout this article we will also note the exceptional character of Pilate's coins: Exceptional in the nature of the images they bear, for the numerous variants they offer, for the presence of countermarks, and above all for the part their originator played in history. The putative appearance of these coins imprints on the Turin shroud has yet to be confirmed by more solid scientific proofs.

Pilate's coins are Roman coins, the words on them are Greek, they were circulated in Judea, and today they are to be found distributed among world-wide collectors after having spent 2000 years buried in the earth. They were minted and used during a period which produced an event destined to change the face of the world, and issued at the command of one of the principal actors in that event. An amazing and dramatic destiny for apparently such humble and unassuming little coins !

For 35 years Pilate's coins were passed from hand to hand every day. They knew the scent of spice-stalls, heard the merchants' ranting, smelled the sweat and dust of daily works. They were alive to the sounds of Hebrew, Aramaic, Greek and Latin voices ¬ now haggling over a price, now offering prayers to YHVH, Jesus or Jupiter.

Nobody prays to Jupiter any more [?], but Pilate's coins are surviving witnesses to a time when the first Christians were considered as a messianic sect among several others in the midst of Judaism in crisis. The absolute split between Judaism and Christianity took place from about 70 C.E, the year which marked the tragic ending of the first Jewish rebellion. It was from that time, too, that Pilate's money ceased to be used.

Like each one of us, who carries always a few small coins in the bottom of our pockets; there is no doubt that some of Pilate's coins resonated to the last words of the most famous of all supplicants. A very long story had its beginning...

2. MANUFACTURE AND CIRCULATION
LOCATION OF MINTS
Although the prefects had their residencies in Cesarea, the administrative capital of the province, it seems that their money was minted in Jerusalem. Indeed, a specimen dated year 31 has been found in this town in an incomplete state of manufacture.

DURATION OF USE
It would seem that Pilate's money was in current use for at least 35 years. Indeed, some of it has been discovered among other coins during the excavation of remains of dwellings destroyed by the Romans during the first Jewish revolt, which is evidence that they were still in use at that time.

AREA OF CIRCULATION
These coins circulated far beyond the frontiers of Judea. Some samples have been discovered as far away as Antioch in present-day Turkey, nearly 500 kilometres from Jerusalem where they were minted. Others have also been found in Jordan. These limits represent a circulation area of at least 100.000 square kilometres, that is five times larger than the size of the state of Israel. Taking into account that it was a time when distances were expressed in terms of days of march, one begins to see the important influence of these coins.

3. THE IMAGES AND THE TEXTS
THE SIMPULUM
A fairly frequent symbol from the Roman religion of the time, the simpulum was a utensil used by the priests during their religious ceremonies. This little ladle, provided with shaft and a handle, allowed the priests to taste the wine which they poured onto the head of an animal destined for sacrifice, after which the soothsayer was empowered to examine the animal's entrails for signs and portents sent to men by the Gods through the medium of the interpreter. As I pointed, none of this would have been obvious at first sight of the motif except perhaps to a Roman citizen. However, it throws some light on the theory put forward by F.A. Banks [Coins of the Bible Days].

This wasn't the first time that the simpulum appeared on Roman coins, but it is the first time it figured alone. This fact gives an additional specificity to Pilate's coins, not only in the context of Judea but also in comparison with all the other coins of the Empire.

THE THREE EARS OF BARLEY
The three ears or barley are featured on the opposing face of the simpulum. Unlike the simpulum, these ears of barley are not in contravention of the Jewish Law. The motif is nevertheless distinctive because it is the first time it appears on a Judean coin. The motif would reappear twelve years later on one of Herod Agrippa's coin, then on another, much rarer, of Agrippa II (ears of barley held in a hand). After that, the motif disappeared altogether from ancient Jewish coins.

THE LITUUS
The lituus was the wooden staff which the augurs held in the right hand; it symbolised their authority and their pastoral vocation. It was raised toward heavens while the priests invoked the Gods and made their predictions. Legend records that Romulus used it at the time of Rome's foundation in 753 B.C.E. It is interesting to note that the cross used in present times is the direct descendant of the lituus. As with the simpulum, Pilate's coinage is exceptional in that it alone displays the lituus as the sole object illustrated on the face.

THE WREATH
The laurel wreath is a symbol of power and victory, and figures on various ancient Greek and Roman coins. In Judea it can be found during the reign of John Hyrcanus I (134 to 104 B.C.E.). After that, Herod Antipas, speaker for Pilate, used it on all his coins. On Pilate's coins, the laurel wreath figures on the reverse side of the lituus, framing the date.

THE DATES
The notation of dates uses a code invented by the Greeks whereby each letter of the alphabet was assigned a number. This code would be used again in Judaism under the name of Guematria. The system is simple : the first ten letters of the alphabet are linked to units (1,2,3...), the following ten letters to tens (10,20,30...) and the four remaining letters to the first four hundreds. The "L" is an abbreviation meaning "year". Tiberius became emperor on September 17 of year 14 C.E, so we have :

LIS = Year 29 C.E. * LIZ = Year 30 C.E. * LIH = Year 31 C.E.

THE TEXTS
The legends on Pontius Pilate's coins are written in Greek. Judea, governed by the Ptolemy dynasty (301 to 198 B.C.E) then by the Syrians until 63 B.C.E, came under the same powerful influence of the Hellenic culture which touched the other territories of the ancient Persian Empire won by Alexander the Great. In spite of a certain amount of resistance, this Hellenistic heritage eventually crept into every aspect of daily life. Apart from the dates, the texts on Pilate's coinage consisted of only three different words : - TIBEPIOY KAICAPOC (Of Tiberius Emperor) on all three coins; - IOYLIA KAICAPOC (Empress Julia) added to the coin of year 29.
http://www.numismalink.com/fontanille1.html


Pontius Pilate
After the deposition of the eldest son of Herod, Archelaus (who had succeeded his father as ethnarch), Judea was placed under the rule of a Roman procurator. Pilate, who was the fifth, succeeding Valerius Gratus in A.D. 26, had greater authority than most procurators under the empire, for in addition to the ordinary duty of financial administration, he had supreme power judicially. His unusually long period of office (A.D. 26-36) covers the whole of the active ministry both of St. John the Baptist and of Jesus Christ.
As procurator Pilate was necessarily of equestrian rank, but beyond that we know little of his family or origin. Some have thought that he was only a freedman, deriving his name from pileus (the cap of freed slaves) but for this there seems to be no adequate evidence, and it is unlikely that a freedman would attain to a post of such importance. The Pontii were a Samnite gens. Pilate owed his appointment to the influence of Sejanus. The official residence of the procurators was the palace of Herod at Cæsarea; where there was a military force of about 3,000 soldiers. These soldiers came up to Jerusalem at the time of the feasts, when the city was full of strangers, and there was greater danger of disturbances, hence it was that Pilate had come to Jerusalem at the time of the Crucifixion. His name will be forever covered with infamy because of the part which he took in this matter, though at the time it appeared to him of small importance.
Pilate is a type of the worldly man, knowing the right and anxious to do it so far as it can be done without personal sacrifice of any kind, but yielding easily to pressure from those whose interest it is that he should act otherwise. He would gladly have acquitted Christ, and even made serious efforts in that direction, but gave way at once when his own position was threatened.
The other events of his rule are not of very great importance. Philo (Ad Gaium, 38) speaks of him as inflexible, merciless, and obstinate. The Jews hated him and his administration, for he was not only very severe, but showed little consideration for their susceptibilities. Some standards bearing the image of Tiberius, which had been set up by him in Jerusalem, caused an outbreak which would have ended in a massacre had not Pilate given way. At a later date Tiberius ordered him to remove certain gilt shields, which he had set up in Jerusalem in spite of the remonstrances of the people. The incident mentioned in St. Luke 13:1, of the Galilaeans whose blood Pilate mingled with the sacrifices, is not elsewhere referred to, but is quite in keeping with other authentic events of his rule. He was, therefore, anxious that no further hostile reports should be sent to the emperor concerning him.
The tendency, already discernible in the canonical Gospels, to lay stress on the efforts of Pilate to acquit Christ, and thus pass as lenient a judgment as possible upon his crime, goes further in the apocryphal Gospels and led in later years to the claim that he actually became a Christian. The Abyssinian Church reckons him as a saint, and assigns 25 June to him and to Claudia Procula, his wife. The belief that she became a Christian goes back to the second century, and may be found in Origen (Hom., in Mat., xxxv). The Greek Church assigns her a feast on 27 October. Tertullian and Justin Martyr both speak of a report on the Crucifixion (not extant) sent in by Pilate to Tiberius, from which idea a large amount of apocryphal literature originated. Some of these were Christian in origin (Gospel of Nicodemus), others came from the heathen, but these have all perished.
His rule was brought to an end through trouble which arose in Samaria. An imposter had given out that it was in his power to discover the sacred vessels which, as he alleged, had been hidden by Moses on Mount Gerizim, whither armed Samaritans came in large numbers. Pilate seems to have thought the whole affair was a blind, covering some other more important design, for he hurried forces to attack them, and many were slain. They appealed to Vitellius, who was at that time legate in Syria, saying that nothing political had been intended, and complaining of Pilate's whole administration. He was summoned to Rome to answer their charges, but before he could reach the city the Emperor Tiberius had died.
Catholic Encyclopedia: http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/12083c.htm

As the man who presided over the trial of Jesus, who found no fault with the defendant and washed his hands of the affair by referring it back to the Jewish mob, but who signed the final death warrant, Pontius Pilate represents almost a byword for ambivalence.
He appears in a poor light in all four Gospels and in a favourable light in the apocryphal Gospel of Peter where the Jews take all the blame for Jesus' death.
In the later Acts of Pilate, he is both cleared of responsibility for the Crucifixion and is said to have converted to Christianity.
In the drama of the Passion, Pilate is a ditherer who drifts towards pardoning Jesus, then drifts away again. He tries to pass the buck several times, makes the decision to save Jesus, then capitulates.
The former Archbishop of Canterbury, the late Robert Runcie once wrote, "It would have been better for the moral health of Christianity if the blame had stayed with Pilate."
In a poignant moment in the course of the trial, Pontius Pilate responds to an assertion by Jesus by asking "What is truth?"
The truth about Pilate is difficult to ascertain since records are few. Legends say he was a Spaniard or a German, but most likely he was a natural-born Roman citizen from central Italy.
But the fact that he was definitely the Procurator of Judea from 26 to 36 AD helps to establish Jesus as a real person and fixes him in time.
The official residence of the procurators was the palace of Herod at Caesarea, a mainly non-Jewish city where a force of some 3,000 Roman soldiers were based.
These would come to Jerusalem during the time of feasts when there was a greater danger of disturbances. This would explain Pilate's presence in the city during the time of the Crucifixion.
Pilate is recorded by several contemporary historians; his name is inscribed on Roman coins and on a stone dug up in Caesarea in the 1960s with the words, PONTIUS PILATUS PRAEFECTUS PROVINCIAE JUDAEAE.
The governorship of Judea was only a second-rate posting, though having the Jewish religious capital, Jerusalem, on its patch would have increased its importance.
Pilate ruled in conjunction with the Jewish authorities and was under orders from Emperor Tiberius, to respect their culture. He was a soldier rather than a diplomat.
The Jews relied on the Romans to keep their own rebellious factions under control. But they appeared to hate Pilate.
One contemporary Jewish historian Philo, describes him as a violent thug, fond of executions without trial. Another, Josephus, records that, at the start of his term, Pilate provoked the Jews by ordering the imperial standards to be carried into Jerusalem.
But he backed off from an all-out confrontation. On the other hand, later, he helped himself to Jewish revenues to build an aqueduct.
When, according to Josephus, bands of resistance fighters, supported by crowds of ordinary people, sabotaged the project by getting in the way of Pilate's workmen, he sent in his soldiers. Hundreds were massacred.
Anne Wroe, author of a recent book Pilate: the Biography of an Invented Man, says that for some modern scholars, given this propensity for violence when the occasion warranted, the idea of Pilate as a waverer is nonsense.
A Roman governor, they point out, would not have wasted two minutes thinking about a shabby Jewish villain, one among many. Wroe's depiction of Pilate, however, suggests he was something of a pragmatist.
His first duty was to keep the peace in Judea and to keep the revenues flowing back to Rome. "Should I have jeopardised the peace for the sake of some Jew who may have been innocent?", she has Pilate asking. "Should I have defied a furious crowd, maybe butchered them, to save one life?"
Whatever the truth about the real Pontius Pilate, such dilemmas are what he has come to symbolise.
Anne Wroe makes the modern comparisons of Neville Chamberlain in 1938. Bill McSweeney, of the Irish School of Ecumenics suggests that "without the Pilates of Anglo-Irish politics, we might never have had the Good Friday Agreement".
Tony Blair has said of Pilate: "It is possible to view Pilate as the archetypal politician, caught on the horns of a dilemma."
Even if, in reality, the Jesus affair was nothing but a small side-show in the career of Pontius Pilate, it had monumental repercussions for his image.
His inclusion in the Christian creeds, in the words of Robert Runcie, "binds the eternal realms to the stumbling, messy chronology of earthly time and place".
BBC: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/1273594.stm

The Ethiopian Church recognized Pilate as a saint in the sixth century, based on the account in the Acts of Pilate

Although historians can pinpoint the exact date of death of many distinguished historical figures, the date of the crucifixion of Jesus Christ remains a matter of scholarly debate. Christ’s birth is most often dated between 7-5 BC (some scholars have suggested, however, His birth was as early as 20 BC). Christ’s Death and Resurrection is dated between 29-36 AD.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
AttalosISNGvanAulock1358.jpg
[2402] Kingdom of Pergamon, Attalos I AR Tetradrachm. 241-197 BC.89 viewsAttalos I, AR Tetradrachm. SNG von Aulock 1358. 28mm - 16.8 grams. aVF. Obverse: Laureate & diademed head of Philetairos right; Reverse: FILETAIROU, Athena enthroned left, holding wreath in right hand, left elbow resting on shield set on ground behind, spear below; grape bunch to outer left, A to inner left, bow to outer right. Ex Nemesis.

Attalus I

Attalus I (in Greek Attalos) Soter (Greek: "Savior"; 269 BC – 197 BC) ruled Pergamon, a Greek polis in what is now Turkey, first as dynast, later as king, from 241 BC to 197 BC. He was the second cousin (some say the grand-nephew) and the adoptive son of Eumenes I, whom he succeeded, and was the first of the Attalid dynasty to assume the title of king in 238 BC. He was the son of Attalus (in Greek Attalos) and wife Antiochis, Princess of Syria.

Attalus won an important victory over the Galatians, newly arrived Celtic tribes from Thrace, who had been, for more than a generation, plundering and exacting tribute throughout most of Asia Minor without any serious check. This victory, celebrated by the triumphal monument at Pergamon, famous for its Dying Gaul, and the liberation from the Gallic "terror" which it represented, earned for Attalus the name of "Soter", and the title of "king."

A courageous and capable general and loyal ally of Rome, he played a significant role in the first and second Macedonian Wars, waged against Philip V of Macedon. He conducted numerous naval operations, harassing Macedonian interests throughout the Aegean, winning honors, collecting spoils, and gaining for Pergamon possession of the Greek islands of Aegina during the first war, and Andros during the second, twice narrowly escaping capture at the hands of Philip.

He died in 197 BC, shortly before the end of the second war, at the age of 72, having suffered an apparent stroke while addressing a Boeotian war council some months before. He enjoyed a famously happy domestic life, shared with his wife and four sons. He was succeeded as king by his son Eumenes II.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Attalus_I

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.






Cleisthenes
360 files on 1 page(s)